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Felix Flugel 

Dr. FIOsil 







Oxford University Press Warehouse 
Amen Corner, E.G. 

A Hand -Book to the Land- 
Charters, and other Saxonic 



Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College 








This book has grown to something beyond its first 
design. A further text-book being required when 
the available things were exhausted, it was to have 
been just a few specimens of land-charters, so grouped 
as to exhibit roughly the contrast of genuine and 
spurious. On this principle the book was begun 
and so far proceeded with that the first sheets bear 
permanent traces of a plan which was afterwards 
enlarged. At an early stage of the work, when I 
was discouraged by some inceptive difficulties, I had 
the happiness to obtain the help of my friend the 
Rev. Charles Plummer, of Corpus Christi College in 
Oxford ; and this imported into the task an element 
of pleasure, which had an expansive effect. As any 
improvement suggested itself with the progress of 
the work, I adopted it without stopping to question 
what the effect would be on the symmetry of the 
whole. Accordingly, I have to confess that the First 
Part contains some pieces which would not have been 
there, if I had had from the beginning a matured 
prevision of the grouping of the Second Part. This 
is a defect in form which I thought it well to incur, 
rather than miss any possible gain in the way of 
critical discrimination. 



Upon a consistent plan, the First Part should have 
contained no documents from the Worcester Chartu- 
lary (Heming), which forms the basis of Group ii in 
the Second Part ; nor should there have been any from 
the Rochester Book but in Group iv. The gift of 
Osric to Bath should not stand where it is (p. 6) any 
more than that of Headdi to Glastonbury (p. 9). A 
good general indication of an original document (in 
the First Part) is the presence of contractions. This 
is due to the circumstance that many of the best docu- 
ments were printed straight off from the volumes of 
the British Museum Facsimiles. The student who has 
handled the Codex Diplomaticus will not find it 
strange that an abbreviated text should be a token of 
high quality. Where the documents could be com- 
pared either with the original manuscript or with a 
facsimile, they have for the most part been printed as 
they stand and the contractions have been kept. The 
want of uniformity, whereby contracted and expanded 
texts are intermixed, will not be without its advant- 
age. The unexpanded documents will afford exercise 
in reading contractions, for which the expanded texts 
will supply the key. 

In the Introduction I have ventured to emancipate 
myself from the authority of Kemble in two matters 
of great importance, one chronological and the other 
constitutional. As regards the former, I have only 
exercised a right of choice between his statement 
and another ; but as to the latter, I have taken upon 
myself to reject his view of the elementary scheme 


of English life, and I have offered an entirely new 
exposition of my own. If I am right in my opinion 
that the manorial system was part of the first plant- 
ation, it ought to approve itself by the luminous 
effect which new truth generally has in lighting up 
places that are dark. And I seem in my own mind 
to have found it so ; — for it has awakened most un- 
expectedly a new interest in the Donation of -^thel- 
wulf, a problem which I had long ago abandoned 
as hopeless. If I have now contributed anything 
towards the solution of this old and acknowledged 
difficulty, it has been wholly due to the light which 
a new elementary truth threw upon the general 
situation ; the explanation grew naturally out of the 
new conception of the functions of the lord of the 
manor, and if it should be approved, it will tend to 
confirm that view. This explanation did not present 
itself until after the Introduction was in type, so that 
it had to go into a footnote, where, though con- 
densed, I hope it will be intelligible ^. 

The study of these documents has its place as a 
natural antecedent to the study of Domesday Book, 
and the two studies are in fact two parts of one 
whole. The progress which has been made in the 
knowledge of the great taxing-book, as evidenced by 
the recent appearance of ' Domesday Studies,' seems 
to promise a new era of enquiry into our early his- 

^ See page Ixix. Lord Selbome's book, * Ancient Facts and Fictions 
concerning Churches and Tithes' (1888), in which a chapter is de- 
voted to the Donation of ^thelwulf, appeared too late for me to 
benefit by the use of it. 


tory. "We in our day enjoy a great advantage over 
the men of any former generation, in that we can 
have the very reflection of the original in our hands 
and read it at our ease, as light as a pamphlet, and 
almost as cheap. It is to the late Lieut.-General Sir 
Henry James, Director-General of the Ordnance Sur- 
vey, that we owe the facsimiles of Domesday, and 
with them also three volumes of facsimiles of land- 
charters, and other documents, which were edited 
and translated by Mr. W. Basevi Sanders. The 
example of printing facsimiles of these early charters 
was given by the authorities of the British Museum, 
the First Part of whose work is dated in 1873 5 ^^^ 
it was continued with results so much the more im- 
portant, as the original documents at their disposal 
exceed in value all other collections put together. 
The four volumes of British Museum Facsimiles were 
edited by Mr. Bond, who has since become the Principal 
Librarian. These invaluable publications are not 
merely the stimulants of historical curiosity ; — rather 
let us say that as they furnish those external criteria 
which are the true counterpart of the internal evidence, 
they complete the data upon which criticism is to 
work, and impart to historical studies a scientific 

The period in which we live will be characterised 
by and bye as the period in which great provincial 
Libraries were founded. Now is the time to store 
up some things which will ere long be inaccessible 
and beyond price, and among such I would reckon 


the three sets of Facsimiles above described. If any 
borough is so happy as to have a Library Committee 
which thinks that something should be acquired be- 
yond the standard of immediate demand, perhaps 
they might be disposed to look favourably upon 
these great national publications. For books like 
these tend to awaken local investigation and to illus- 
trate the land we live in, the land our forefathers 
1400 years ago took possession of, the land in which 
they have through toil and struggle and vicissitudes 
grown to be a mighty nation, the land they have 
made illustrious and classical ; and there is no kind 
of study so varied, so healthy, or so favourable to 
social geniality, as a study which has country for its 
object, and especially a country in which all men 
are interested. 

The time may perhaps come when the average aim 
of life will be somewhat modified, when a larger sphere 
will be accorded to the intellectual part, when com- 
merce will be relinquished for contentment as soon 
as a modest competence is assured, when men will 
cultivate a garden of their own, and will seek in 
books not merely anodyne from care and passive 
amusement, but materials and tools for the exercise 
of their mental energies. 

Then will rise a demand for such books as I have 
named, and I will name another of like national rank 
with them, the New Enghsh Dictionary, now issuing 
in Parts from the Clarendon Press — a work of unpre- 
cedented compass, a work which is a library in itself. 


a work which (apart from its design) affords, to an 
extent that is truly marvellous, a first introductory 
key to every kind of human knowledge. 

I close this Preface as I began it, with gi^ateful 
acknowledgments to Mr. Plummer, not only for his 
constant and valuable help, but even more for the 
solace of his companionship ; and at the same time I 
thank the Delegates of the Press for the readiness with 
which they promoted my wish for a coadjutor. 

March, i88 



Introduction xiii-cxi 

Part I. Primary Documents. 

(i) Genuine Records Datfid 3 

(2) Genuine Records Undated 249 

Part II. Secondary Documents. 

Group I (single sheets) . . . . . . .281 

Group 2 (Worcester Chartulary) 303 

Group 3 (Fabrications in the name of King Athelstan) . 320 

Group 4 (The Rochester Book) 330 

Group 5 (Documents of the Peter borough Chronicle type) 339 

Group 6 (The Saxon Renaissance) 348 

Group 7 (A Bath Book at Cambridge) .... 369 

Group 8 (The Chartularies of Abingdon) . . . 378 

Group 9 (A Book from St. Alban's) .... 395 

Group 10 (Abstracts made in the Thirteenth Century) . 407 

Group II (The Crediton Roll) 416 

Group 12 (A Chartulary of Glastonbury), 14th century . 425 
Group 13 (A fifteenth century Register of the Abbey of 

Shaftesbury) 427 

Group 14 (The Liber Albus at Wells) . . . • 430 

Group 15 (Rhyming Records) 434 

Appendix 441 

Additional Notes 453 

Glossarial Index 479 

General Index . . 510 


P. 20 1, 1. 19, add T. p. 206, S. ii 7 

„ 1. 21, for Sundbury read Sunbury 

P. 209, 1. 9, for 39 read 36 

P. 326, 1. 18 /or K37 reacZ K371 

P. 417, heading, for Group X read Group XI 
,, 1. 14, for mougeus read mongeus 


Among the less explored remains of Saxon antiquity 
are the numerous legal documents of which the largest 
and best-known collection is that by J. M. Kemble, in 
six octavo volumes, under the title of Codex Dijjlomaticus 
Aevi Saxonici. Some inconsiderable additions to this 
collection were made by Thorpe in his Dijolomatarmm 
Anglicum ; but what distinguishes this volume, and 
gives it a value peculiar to itself, is that all the Saxon 
portions are furnished with a translation in a parallel 
column. Thorpe neglected to indicate for the reader's 
convenience what were the new pieces in his volume, 
and hence it is not easy to sum up the total number 
of deeds when his are added to those of Kemble. But 
we are safe in saying that the total number would fall 
under 1400. Mr. de Gray Birch is now engaged in 
making a new collection, which is to be as comprehensive 
as possible, and we are told that it will embrace between 
two and three thousand documents. It is entitled Car- 
tularium Saxonicum^ and two volumes have already 
appeared. We must not expect to find that the sub- 
stantial addition to Kemble's material will be in pro- 
portion to the numerical increase of the documents. 
Kemble first reaped the field, and he left for his suc- 
cessors little more than gleanings. But there is this 
great advantage in a collection which is thoroughly 
exhaustive — that it improves to the full the chances of 
illustration by comparison, and such illustration may 
often rise from records of an inferior order, which have 
been hitherto neglected. In many a later and, perhaps, 


slovenly abstract, there may be sometbing" preserved 
which is not elsewhere to be found ^. 

But, though as yet imperfectly explored, these docu- 
ments are no longer so obscure that it is necessary for 
an editor to advocate the utility of them. The writings of 
historians and constitutionalists — such as Sir F. Palgrave, 
Dr. Stubbs, Mr. Freeman, J. R. Green, Professor Pollock 
in England, and Nasse, Konrad Maurer, Steenstrup, 
Gneist abroad — have abundantly demonstrated their 
importance, and even to some extent popularized the 
knowledge of them. For the rich and peculiar in- 
formation they contribute towards the early history of 
property, society, and institutions ; for the manifold 
light they cast upon the English language ; they are 
beginning to be almost famous : and if more were 
needed for their recommendation, it might be added 
that their very defects, confusions, and deformations, 
offer for the cultivation of the critical faculty such an 
admirable field of exercise as can hardly be found any- 
where else in the world. 

The matters which demand explanation in these 
documents are so numerous and so various, that it will 
hardly be possible for me to touch on them all in these 
preliminary pages. Perhaps the Notes and Indices at 
the end of the volume may serve in some respects as 
a supplement to the Introduction. But here I find 
it necessary to guard against the danger of being de- 
sultory by a definite selection, and the parts of this 

^ The increased bulk of the collection is not wholly due to the 
insertion of deeds that were unknown or disregarded by Mr. Kemble ; 
but further by the incorporation of pieces not of a strictly diplomatic 
character, such as professions of obedience by newly-elected bishops, 
papal correspondence, and other ecclesiastical documents ; in defence of 
which the editor pleads that they serve to illustrate the deeds by the 
side of which they stand. 


wide subject which I propose to keep before me are — 
First, The outline and structure of the Land-charter 
or public grant of land, including some notice of the 
marks of degeneracy ; Secondly, The relations between 
land-tenure and the elementary frame of English society ; 
and Lastly, The varying conditions of the two languages 
employed in the composition of these documents. 

The whole institution of written contracts is with 
our people an adopted practice, which they had learned 
from the Roman world. Still, there is a local character 
about our deeds, and if we compare the Frankish muni- 
ments, or their formula-books, we shall easily see that 
with a broad general likeness, there is a well-defined 
specific difference. 

The earliest documents are rather vague in outline, 
running sometimes into the address of an epistle (25 h), 
but at length the land-charter assumes a very definite 
form consisting of the following parts or members : — 
I. The Preamble. 2. The Grant. 3. The Sanction. 
4. The Description. 5. The Date. 6. The Signatures. 
Each of these parts will admit of a few observations. 

i. The Preamble is sometimes prefaced with an In- 
vocation, or it may be that the Invocation itself con- 
stitutes the Preamble, as in the Charter of Hlo'Sari a.d. 
679 (p. 8). When the Preamble is extended, it will 
contain either a pious reflection upon the transitory 
nature of earthly things, and the duty of making a good 
use of them ; or else a commendation of the practice of 
recording contracts and gifts by the use of written 
documents, 196 1. 

The theme of documentary contracts reminds us that 


our ancestors had but recently begun to make use of 
written conveyances, and that the practice was but im- 
perfectly established. Their ancestral usage had been 
to convey land by a symbolical act like that of cutting 
a sod and handing it to the new owner, in the presence 
of w^itnesses legally qualified ^. Thus the right, or at 
least the origin, of ownership depended for its evidence 
upon living testimony, which was liable to accidents and 
contingencies, and in no case could last beyond a certain 
term of years. When writings began to be usual, the 
ceremony of the sod was not dropped ; the old symbolism 
and the new record went on together. The veritable 
conveyance consisted in the performance of the symbolical 
act in the presence of the qualified witnesses : the written 
sheet was (or purported to be) but the record and memo- 
randum of this formal transaction. In a royal grant of 
the eighth century, the king is made to say to the 
grantee : — 

'But because there is need of care lest our grant 
of to-day be in the future disowned and called in 
question, I have thought fit to prepare this document 
(hanc paginam), and together with a turf of the fore- 
said land to deliver it to thee ; whereby I prevent not 
only my successors whether kings or princes, but also 
my own self, from dealing otherwise at any time with 
the said land than as it is now settled by me.' (p. 50 1)^ 

The documentary habit did not for many centuries 

* When land was given to a church the sod was laid upon the altar. 
Mr. Plummer says that in Irish f6d for altdir, fdd fri altoir (lit. 
sod upon, sod to, the altar) is a regular phrase for church lands. Four 
Masters, A. d. 645 (where O'Donovan's note is misleading) ; Chronicon 
Scotorum, Rolls Series, p. 90. 

2 Where a letter is added to the number of a page, it is to signify as 
follows : t = top J h = high j m = middle ; 1 = low ; b = bottom ; r =^ re- 
peatedly. For other abbreviations, see p. 479. 

I XVll 

extinguish the ceremony of personal giving and taking ; 
the old custom survived into the period when Norman- 
French became the language of law, and then it was 
called livery of Seisiriy and the feudal investitures were 
conducted with a solemn delivery of possession. A 
short paragraph from Stephen's Commentaries will 
bring this subject down to its present position. 

' This method (which is still capable of being used) is 
called a feoffment^ and the parties between whom it 
takes place are called a feoffor and the feoffee. By the 
common law, the donation with which the livery is ac- 
companied might be merely oral ; but, by the Statute 
of Frauds (29 Car. II. c. 3), some instrument in writing 
under the signature of the feoffor (or of his agent by 
writing legally authorized), was made essential.' 

The two prevailing topics of the Preamble bear a 
reasonable relation to the transaction itself and to the 
times in which it takes place ; but this does not hinder 
the frequent appearance of an extreme conventionality 
and unreality in this introductory member of a docu- 
ment. Conventionality has reached to the point of 
absurdity when, in the ninth century, we find ^Ethelwulf 
booking as private property to himself a portion of the 
public land with a preamble to the following effect: — 

'Whereas nothing of all his labour is secure to a 
man except what he has bestowed in good works, there- 
fore I have, with consent of my lords, ordered twenty 
manentes of land to be booked to me as private and 
heritable property ' (p. I20t). 

Such an incongruity can only be accounted for by the 
supposition which all the data seem to warrant, that 
there was no educated profession of notaries, and that 
the person who acted as notary or clerk for the occasion 



would help himself to a prologue out of a ready col- 
lection of such compositions, like the Frankish Formula- 
book of Marculphus. 

What I have called the Preamble, is divided by Kemble 
into two parts, the Invocation and the Proem, and he 
closes his examination of the Proem with five general 
rules which I here transcribe for the benefit of the 
critical student. 

1. 'That the early charters have generally a simple 

2. * That in the cases which are exceptions to this 
rule, it depends more upon the nature of the contents, 
than upon their amount or complication, whether the 
document is, or is not, to be received as genuine. 

3. ' That allusions to the approaching end of the 
world, are not to be taken as evidences of forgery ; such 
being found in Gregory's letters, and in Marculf 's and 
other formularies. 

4. ' That complicated proems^ filled with Greek words, 
such as cosmi, protoplastos^ soter and the like, are confined 
to the period subsequent to the commencement of the 
tenth century. If found in documents professing an 
earlier date, they are strong evidences of forgery. 

5. '-That narrative proems are suspicious, whatever be 
the supposed date of the instruments in which they are 

ii. The Grant, Here we must notice the persons 
between whom the transaction passes, the estate con- 
veyed, and the conditions attached to it. 

I. The names of the Grantor and Grantee are for the 
most part stated either in the formula Ego M dono tibi N 
(54 h) ; or Ego M dono cuidam comiti (ministro, abbati, 
episcopo) nomine N (96 1). 


A motive is often added, which is either of a religious 
nature ; e. g. for my souVs ease, and for hope of eternal 
reward^ 137 m ; pro redemptione animae meae^ 304 m ; or 
it intimates services performed ; e. g. daho ^delnodo pre- 
fecto meo fidelissimo^ Sfo,, 75 1 ; / ^ive and grant to my 
faithful tha7ie Ealdhere for his humble obedience and 
because to me he hath in all things been always a faithful 
servant, 1 24 1 ; cuidam meo fideli ministro nomine Eadulfo ; 
173m; Quapropter ego Eadredtis rex Anglorum cetera- 
Tumque gentium in circuitu persistentium gubernator et 
rector Cuidam mihi fidelissimo ministro Oswig nomine, de- 
votionis eius sollertia eiusdemque placatus obsequio dig- 
flatus sum impertire bis denas mansas, i8:jl; — 209 m, 
293 1\ Sometimes in this place a valuable considera- 
tion enters ; pro eius amabili pecunia, 157 b, 242 h. 

2. In the more important instances the effect of the 
Grant is to convey a manor with the village that is 
upon it, with seignorial rights and hereditary posses- 
sion. We find nothing about occupation tenures, 
nothing which involves any agricultural details. In a 
certain number of instances the estate is leased for 
a term of lives, after which it is to revert to the repre- 
sentative of the grantor. There are many documents of 
this kind by Oswald, Bishop of Worcester and his suc- 
cessors (e. g. 207 1, 234-242), and they are mostly for 

1 It is curious and interesting to see the same formula in Scotland 
down to the i6th century : — ' In the year 1504, the barony or manour 
of Auchinleck (pronounced Affleck) in Ayrshire, which belonged to a 
family of the same name with the lands, having fallen to the Crown by 
forfeiture, James the Fourth, King of Scotland, granted it to Thomas 
Boswell, a branch of an ancient family in the county of Hfe, stiling 
him in the charter dilecto familiari nostra; and assigning, as the 
cause of the grant, pro bono et fideli servitio nobis prcestito.' Boswell's 
Life of Johnson, anno 1776; in Dr. Birkbeck HilFs admirable edition, 
vol. ii, p. 413. 



three lives (sometimes for one life, 248 h), after which 
the land is to revert to the See. But these are not 
coordinate with the land-charters ; they form a class 
apart, as will appear in the next section. Usually 
'the free and entire fruition of the land with all its 
advantages, its woods, its waters, its birds and beasts 
and fishes, is made over to the grantee,' in full and un- 
restricted possession and with complete power of disposal. 
The great bulk of our documents imply royal grants 
of territory with perpetual and testamentary rights, and 
with all the privileges of superior tenure which establish 
lordship. The testamentary clause, usually unlimited — 
cuicumque post se voluerit heredi derelinquat — is in a few 
Mercian grants by Offa and Burgred, limited to 
grantee's descendants or kindred or even heirs male ^. 

The land which is granted is commonly characterized 
as ' terra juris mei,' an expression which is explained by 
Kemble as ' the King's common of pasture.' See note 
on p. 453. This seems to me unsatisfactory. I take it 
to mean ' land in my jurisdiction, in my right, of which 
I have the disposal.' In a Mercian deed of a.d. 811 
(87 1) there is an interesting variation of the phrase, 
' Coenuulf rex has terrulas sui propriae puplicae juris 
cum predicto concilii consensu,' i.e. lands of his own 
proper public right, which would seem to mean lands at 
his disposal in his public capacity. Kemble seems to 
have generalized from an accidental combination like 
* juris mei ad pascendum ' 35 1. 

This assertion of right we see combined with another 

by which it is limited, namely, ' cum consensu et licentia 

meorum optimatum,' and this phrase is so constant in 

the earlier centuries that the consent of the witan must 

* See Kemble, Cod. Dipl. vol. i, p. xxxii f. 


have been regarded as indispensable to the king's act of 
bestowal. Offa of Mercia denied the right of Ecgberht 
(a former king of Kent) to give land with hereditary 
right (83 b), presumably without consent of the witan. 
This consent is almost uniformly alleged in all grants 
before the middle of the ninth century, e. g. Ecgberht 
of Wessex 107m; ^thelwulf i2oh, 123b; ^thel- 
berht 125 b ; ^thelred 137 h ; but the phrase is omitted 
by ^thelberht (a.d. 863) 133, by Alfred 157, by 
iEthelstan 173 m, by Eadmund 175 b, by Eadwig 194 h, 
by ^thelred 209 m. The folcland thus appears to have 
become almost assimilated to royal demesne. 

3. In these grants, there is only one limit to plenary 
possession, and that limit is constant. It is that obli- 
gation which is known by the name of the trinoda 

The trinoda necessitas or threefold burden incident to 
all property in land, was also sometimes called communis 
lahor^ generalis incommoditas , onus inevitabile. The three 
burdens were — {\) fyrd^ military service; (2) hricg-bot, 
repair of bridges ; (3) burh-bSt, repair of fortresses. The 
Latin phrases for the specific burdens were subject to 
variations ; but the most prevalent terms were ' expeditio 
et pontis arcisque restauratio.' In 858 (p. 126b) it is 
' absque expeditione sola et pontium structura et arcium 
munitionibus.' In the vernacular it is ' butan wall 
geweorce and brycg geweorce and ferd socne^' (242 m). 

^ A difficulty has been made about the bridgebote; some have even 
proposed to understand roads, or embankments across low ground, by 
the word hricge or pons. Moritz Heyne, in his tractate TJeher die 
Lage und Construction der Halle Heorot, thought that the bridges 
meant in the trinoda necessitas were the draw-bridges crossing 
the moats of the burghs ! I cannot see what occasion there ever was 
for making a difficulty in the matter; I suppose it rose from an 


In ecclesiastical leases church-rate is sometimes added, 
e.g. 248 h. 

The duty of the trinoda necessitas is undefined as to 
quantity. Kemble cites two examples (Introd. p. lii) 
in which the grantee is to be required to send on Ex- 
peditw only so many men. Of these examples one 
is plainly post-Norman (K3I4)5 and the other may be 
seen below, p. 48 h. 

The Grantee receives his land in full ownership, with 
complete freedom of testamentary power and alienation. 
He has moreover no ' services ' to perform in return for 
the land, as the occupiers of folkland have. In the land- 
book, of which the Latin part is given in brief abstract 
below, p. 166, these clauses run as follows: — ut ille earn 
sinejugo exosa servitutis, cum pratis^pascuis^silvis, rivulis^ 
omnihusque ad earn utilitatibus^ rite pertinentibns^ liberaliter 
ac aternaliter, quamdiu vivat haheat ; et post generalem qui 
omnibus certus incertusque homunculis constat transitum, 
cuicunque successionis heredi voluerity imperpetuum dere- 
linquat. Variations of the same formula may be seen on 
p. 124 h, 133 n, 140 h, 142 1, T73I. 

Such a privileged estate is called in Latin libertas, 
liberty or franchise, and it is said to be held liberaliter^ 
196 h ; and in English the estate or the charter convey- 
ing it is called freols 197 1, or freols boc 231 1, and the 
restoration of this franchise where it had been inter- 
rupted is described by the verb geedfreolsian refran- 

cxaggerated notion of the barbarism of the Saxon era, as if there were 
at that time no bridges to speak of, and as if the rivers were only 
crossed by fords. But there were undoubtedly many good stone bridges, 
which had been built by the Romans, and of this we might be sure 
even if we had not the direct evidence of Beda. But he says in H. E, 
i. II, 'that the cities, bridges, and roads, to the south of the wall of 
Severus, bear testimony to the Eoman oocupatiou.' 


chise, 197 1. In a grant by Edward the Confessor it is 
thus expressed : aeterna liheralitate imjpertior K769. 

Towards the end of this period we find the jurisdiction 
attaching to such estates described as sacv, and socn, toll 
and team, infangenthef and flymenafyrmth, &c., formulae 
very familiar to all who have dipped into our legal an- 
tiquities, but nevertheless rather obscure. And this 
will seem only natural when we observe that though 
the terms themselves are pure Anglo-Saxon, yet the 
transmission of them has been mostly through Norman 
scribes, who did not understand what they wrote, and 
could not spell the words. Kemble says that sac and 
soc, &c., is not found in any genuine grant before the 
time of Edward the Confessor. I go a step further and 
add, that I do not know of any genuine grant of 
Eadweard's that has the sac and soc in it. I should be 
inclined to look very narrowly at any land-book purport- 
ing to be of the Saxon period which had sac and soc. 
But here I make a distinction between a land-charter 
and a deed of general confirmation where estates are 
enumerated in a land-roll. Such is K817, purporting 
to be of the year 1065, and having the Sac and Soc 
clause ; — here I leave the question of genuineness open. 
But if the clause is not found in Saxon land-books, it is 
found in writs, and as an example I would point to a 
writ of Cnut's, below p. 233 ; a document which seems 
to be quite above suspicion. 

When this formula appears in land-charters or even 
in confirmations of territorial possessions which purport 
to be older than the Norman Conquest, it is mostly 
an alteration which took place in a later redaction, 
under Norman rule (340 1) ; — but there is in general 
no reason for suspecting any misrepresentation in regard 


to the powers or rights claimed by the use of this formula 
as having been exercised during the Saxon period. This 
is one of the incidental lights which bring to our know- 
ledge the fact that the Saxon charters are very inexplicit, 
that they imply more than they express, that they indicate 
only by general phrases those territorial prerogatives 
which were sufficiently guaranteed by local tradition. 

There is no reason to doubt that these terms repre- 
sent incidents of the superior tenure, though it is hard 
to define the exact limits of the class to which they 
belonged. By tol was meant the right of a lord to 
have a tariff of his own within his domain ; to require 
of those who conveyed goods through his territory to 
pay something for the accommodation of the road or 
the water-way. By t^am was meant the legal recog- 
nizance of bargains and contracts, which primarily 
belonged to the Tything, but which upon certain 
manors could be held by the lord's agent. By infan- 
GENTHEF was meant the right to execute justice upon a 
thief taken within the domain. Sometimes utfan- 
GENTHEF is added, claiming the right to deal with the 
thief taken off the manor. By flymen afyrmth is meant 
a claim to appropriate the whole or a part of the fine 
exacted for harbouring proscribed persons. These are 
but branchlets of this memorable formula. The nucleus 
upon which they centre, and the term which is of the 
highest importance, is soCN. This is the common 
basis, the right of the lord generally, the prerogative of 
the manor, indeed the Saxon term which was super- 
seded by the Norman ' manerium.' This is a word of 
the earliest period of our history, and one that yet lives 
as Soke or Soken in many local names. It meant juris- 
diction, from the verb sacan discuss, contend. At the 


head of the file stands sacu litigation, an ordinary 
colloquial word prefixed to the formula for alliteration 
sake, and the sheen of its novelty is manifest by 
contrast with the mellow obscurity of the venerable 
terms in its suite. 

iii. The Sanction, i.e. 'the punishment attached to 
the violation of the premises ' (K). After the Grant 
comes the utterance of an imprecation, g-ood or bad, 
upon any who may promote or counteract the intention 
of the grantor. Rarely, as 14 m, it is only a benediction 
upon those who uphold the deed : ordinarily there is the 
darker counterpart of a malediction, and this member 
exhibits an expansive tendency. He who shall divert 
the grant is sometimes excommunicated (p. 8) ; some- 
times he is threatened with final doom (9 h, 242 1). A 
complete formula of this clause, and of a moderate type, 
may be seen in 236 h. It runs thus : ' The man that 
upholds this, God uphold him : and the man who diverts 
or diminishes it, God diminish his reward in the life 
to come ; unless he before his end make the deeper 
amends.' Sometimes this member was expanded with 
a grotesque luxuriance of malediction. 

The notion of employing curses in defence of property 
is very ancient. Maitland (' Church in the Catacombs,' 
p. 52) quotes a heathen epitaph saying ' olla eius si qui 
violarit ad inferos non recipiatur.' It was mostly applied 
to objects that were peculiarly exposed to depredation, 
such as graves, books, deeds. The various impreca- 
tions that are inscribed in old books are well known. 

Besides this spiritual sanction, there is in the Frankish 
muniments also a temporal sanction consisting of a 
money penalty, of stated amount, to be exacted by the 
fiscal authorities, in case of infringement. This kind 


of sanction is quite absent from our land- charters. 
The Frankish formulary may be seen in the Codex Dipl. 
vol. i, p. Ixiv. 

iv. The Description or Perambulation, The boundaries 
of the land are described, starting from such a point, 
or such an object, and passing through a series of 
stations, until the starting-point is reached again. As 
a general rule this part of the deed is in English ; 
sometimes however in Latin or a mixture of Latin and 
English. It must not however be imagined from the use 
of the vernacular in this part that this member is more 
native than the rest of the deed. It is just the con- 
tinuation of an old Roman usage, the formula of which 
maybe seen in the book of Hyginus, the land-surveyor^. 
It is the formula that was used by the agrimensores of 
the Empire, when they had to describe irregular ground, 
which did not well admit of their rectangular system of 
mensuration and allotment. 

Still, there is a true originality in the phraseology of 
the topographical description ; the expressions are in 
themselves very genuine, and they prove this quality 
by growing in depth and attractiveness to the patient 
student. It sometimes happens that a conversational 
remark, not alien to the business, is interjected in 
passing, which has an enlivening effect, like a human 
figure in a landscape. Thus, 197 f, ]7onne is seo meed 
gem8ene = by the way the meadow is common. 

These perambulations offer an attractive field for local 
investigation, as it is not improbable that some of them 
might still be verified with the aid of the maps of the 
Ordnance Survey, and a good knowledge of the local 

^ Hyginus, ed. Lachmann, p. 1 14, quoted by Mr. Seebohm, English 
Village Com. pp. 9, 375, 


names, including those of the fields, streams, paths, 
lanes, and any other landmarks. But here it must be 
admitted that little is known of the original accuracy 
of these descriptions. How far the landmarks were 
taken down from actual perambulation, how far the 
details were gathered from the memory of some old in- 
habitant, whether the bounds of any township being once 
in writing were ever revised, or whether they served for 
a common formula for deeds concerning that township 
for ever after, — these are points which might even yet 
be tested by actual survey, and with the further aid, 
where it may be had, of old manorial maps. Meanwhile, 
we may safely assume a general verity of outline in the 
better sort of documents, though the degree of accuracy 
remains untested ^. There are indeed occasional specimens 
which we cannot hesitate to pronounce worthless, having 
evidently been made up with some arbitrary variations 
from an earlier deed to which we can point. Thus 
the perambulation on p. 290, which is clear and well 
described, has evidently been the chief source from which 
the clumsy farrago in K1198 has been trumped up. 

From an examination of the Abingdon chart ulary 
Nasse argued that, in the smaller grants, the perambu- 
lations describe the bounds of the whole common field 
of the township, and not the particular piece or pieces 
which are dealt with in the conveyance. This seems 
probable ; but it is much to be wished that these bound- 
aries could be subjected to patient investigation by local 
field clubs. According to Mr. C. S. Taylor, the boundaries 
of manors as described in the Charters will generally be 

^ The facts being of a patent nature — his notissimis confiniis circum- 
cincta 51 b — juxta terminos videlicet antiques et indigenis certissimos. 


found to agree witli the parochial boundaries as marked 
on the Ordnance map^. 

But apart from the identification of the boundaries 
and the verification of the area of a given ancient trans- 
action, there are incidental points which are curious 
and worthy of investigation. For example : our docu- 
ments sometimes speak of an 'Avon ' which is not found 
in the Maps. It would be interesting if local enquiry 
could establish the fact that there have been more 
streams bearing that British name than there are now. 
Another point to be observed is the way in which the 
local names impinge upon Folk-lore and the old 
mythology. The more prominent points have been 
noticed by Kemble and others ; lately Mr. H. Bradley 
added a new and interesting surmise that ' Hodes ac/ 
446 m, may give the clue to the name of Robin 
Hood 2. 

V. The Date. In this member we have to notice an 
important documentary improvement, an improvement 
which originated among ourselves, and which other 
nations have copied from us. 

We take up the discussion at the point where it was left 
by Mr. Kemble. He urged that the use of the era Anno 
Domini must have been introduced into this country by 
Augustine and his fellow-missionaries ^, and he earnestly 
combated the idea of referring it to so late a date as 
that of Bede or his times. He relied upon the fact 
that the era was certainly known and used in com- 
putation before the mission of Augustine; — but the 

^ An Analysu of fhe Domesday Survey of Gloucestershire. By 
Charles S. Taylor, Vicar of S. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol (1887), p. 45. 

^ For other examples see Glossary vv. Bdowa, Eomer, Fitela, Grindel, 
Herm('>des J)orn, Hnaefl^ah, Scucca, Scylf , Teowes jjorn. 

^ Echoed by Thorpe ; Diplom. Pref. xx. 


question as it arises here is, not whether the era was 
already existent, hut whether it was made use of in 
the practical afiairs of life. The question here is — At 
what time was the era introduced into deeds of con- 
tract ? We shall see that it dates from Bede's time, and 
was largely due to Bede ; and that from England began 
a practice which has spread through Christendom. 

This enquiry must be kept altogether distinct from 
the scientific work of chronologists. The general rule 
of history is that chronological standards have come in 
late, and even then they have been little regarded by 
the general public and have been very limited in their 
field of application. The chronological standard of Greek 
literature is that of the Olympiads, but Thucydides did 
not reckon the years of his history by Olympiads ; his 
only constant era is measured by the duration of the war 
which he describes. In Xenophon's History, the date is 
only once stated by the Olympiad, and that in a passage 
which is suspected. And when the literary use of this 
era had become established, it did not obtain a universal 
application. Not a single Greek inscription has been 
found with the Olympiad upon it. 

The Roman era from the Building of the City (A.U.C.) 
is commonly found in Latin historians, but it was never 
used in ordinary life. Neither public acts nor private 
letters were dated by it, nor has a single inscription been 
found with the era A. U. C. upon it. Thus it appears 
that an era may be in existence, and yet so confined 
in area, that its general utility is unthought of. 

The Era of the Incarnation had been determined in 
the course of the enquiries which were made for the 
purpose of fixing the time of the Easter festival. The 
calculations originally took their start from the Cruci- 


fixion, and by a subsequent inference they arrived at the 
era of the Incarnation. It was in the year ^^2, that 
Dionysius Exiguus, a Roman abbot, put forth his scheme 
initiating" the chronolog'ical system which ultimately 
prevailed, and which is known to us by the familiar ex- 
pression Anno Domini. Mr. Kemble thought it safe 
not only to assume that these tables must have been 
brought to Britain by Augustine in 597, which is emi- 
nently probable, but also to infer that the use of this 
new era must have been at once appreciated and gener- 
ally adopted, an inference which is as contrary to the 
particular evidence as it is to the general analogy of 

About the same time that Augustine came hither, 
Gregory of Tours was engaged in writing his history, and 
though this was already three quarters of a century after 
the publication of the Easter Tables of Dionysius, yet 
he takes no notice whatever of the new era. Still more 
weighty is the negative argument from the voluminous 
writings of his contemporary Gregory the Great, who 
does not mention the Dionysian Era. It was the habit 
of that pontiflp to date his letters by the regnal years of 
the emperors ; and letters so dated may be seen inserted 
in Bede's Ecclesiastical History as they were copied 
from Roman archives. This is the more forcible as 
Gregory the Great was somewhat of a reformer in the 
matter of the Calendar. He initiated one improvement 
which though but feebly supported at the time and then 
long neglected, has since been universally adopted. For 
he discarded the old and obscure divisions of the month 
into Nones, Ides, Calends ; and he numbered the days 
serially from the beginning to the end of the month as 
we do now. Examples of this method are not common, 


but it may be seen in our documents, e.g. 8b: ' in 
mense maio in die septiraa ' ; and again 1 7 1 where the 
elder formula is added as an interpretation ' tertia de- 
cima die mensis Junii quod est Idus Junii '; and again 
7 1 1, ' xi* die. iiii* idus octobris.' 

The history of our modern habit of dating by Anno 
Domini was briefly this. Early in the sixth century 
Dionysius Exiguus was continuing the Easter calcula- 
tion of Cyril, which had extended to a period of 95 years 
and which was then expiring. He not only produced 
a continuation of another 95 years upon the lines of 
Cyril, but he prefaced his Tables with an argument 
(Epistola ad Petronium) which had the happy effect of 
removing- an old cause of strife and dissension between 
the East and the West. 

But while his method was the same as Cyril's, there 
was one highly important innovation. The Bishop of 
Alexandria had numbered his years by the Diocletian 
Era, as was usual in Egypt. Dionysius altered this, and 
substituted the Era of the Incarnation. His motive is 
best told in his own words : 

Quia S. Cyrillus primum cydum ah anno Diocletiani cen- 
tesimo quinquagesimo tertio coepit, et ultimum in ducente- 
simo quadragesimo sejotimo terminavit^ nos a ducentesimo 
quadragesimo octavo anno ejusdem tyranni potius quam 
principis inchoantes^ noluimus circulis nostris memoriam 
impii et persecutoris innectere, sed magis elegimus ah Incar- 
natione Domini nostri lesu Christi annorum tempora prae- 

So he, as he says, not choosing that his work should 
serve as the memorial of an impious and persecuting 
tyrant, framed his new Tables upon the Era of the 
Incarnation, and thus he introduced a change which 


slowly and gradually pervaded Christendom. The Easter 
Tables were subsequently continued by Isidore, Beda, and 
others, according to the era a.d., and this era from being 
the constant medium of the Easter Tables gradually be- 
came familiar. For a long time it was confined to the 
Calendar, then it passed into literature, and then into the 
Acts of Synods ; but it took centuries to bring it into 
civil use. Beda was the first to plant it in literature, 
as in his De Temporum Ratione^ cap. 45, entitled Be 
Annis Lominicae Incarnationis, and still more conspicu- 
ously in his History, which is chronologically framed 
upon it. Indeed this way of reckoning time holds so 
conspicuous a place in the structure of his History as to 
suggest the idea that the skeleton of his work was a 
series of annals arranged upon a scale of years Anno 
Domini, like the work of those English chroniclers 
who must be regarded as his successors in the 
historical office. Two hundred years before he finished 
his history, this era had been the basis of scientific 
computation in the study of a Roman abbot, and it 
had got so far as to be posted in annual notices upon 
church doors, but it required a further movement to 
bring it into literature and correspondence and the 
transaction of business. Bede, in his Be Batione Tem- 
porum, has recorded the following incident : — In the year 
701 some of his brethren — that is, brother-monks of 
Jarrow or Wearmouth — being in Rome at Christmas-tide, 
saw a notice posted up on the tablets of St. Mary's 
church, of which they made a copy there and then : — 
* From the Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ the years 
are 668.' The motive of this graphic little narrative is 
of a scientific nature — namely to settle the chronological 
interval between the Birth and the Death of Christy and 

I XXXI 11 

to claim the authority of the Eoman See for the state- 
ment that the years of that interval were ^^. 

Thus it appears, that the first literary use of the 
era now so universally established, is identified with 
the name of our native historian, the Venerable Bede. 
The chronological evidence of our early documents, so 
far as it goes, tends to the same conclusion. When 
Kemble says that the documents on which we can 
rely are too few to found a negative proof upon, this is 
indeed a perfectly true statement in itself ; but it does 
not forbid us to use their data in combination with other 
evidence. If we take a series of eight documents at the 
highest date where such a series can be formed with a 
certainty of their genuineness, they will be of the follow- 
ing years :— 679, 692, 697, 733, 734 |1 y^6, 740, 759. 
These eight documents have been selected as a true repre- 
sentative series of the first quality ; and of this series the 
first five, though all more or less dated, whether by the 
month or the regnal year, or the Indiction, or by all these 
at once, have not the year Anno Domini ^. On the other 
hand, the last three agree in using the era ^, and from this 
time the practice is continuous. In the intervening year 
which breaks this series into two parts, falls the death of 
Bede, a.d. 735, and this coincidence harmonizes with the 
rest of the evidence in associating this great practical im- 
provement with the Anglian historian and chronologist. 

An important contribution to this enquiry is afforded 
by the decree of a Council holden in 816, where it is 
ordained that the bishop shall put the Acts of the Synod 
into writing, and date them by the Era of the Incarna- 
tion. Such an order could have been enacted only in an 

^ See pp. 8 b, 14 1, 25 m, 28 h, 408 b. 
2 At pp. 30 1, 35 1, 46 t. 


interval of transition ; it bespeaks a time when ecclesi- 
astics knew the era well enough, but had not acquired 
the punctual habit of using it ; which is indeed very 
much the way in which the matter stands even now with 
a section of the letter- writing community at the present 
day. Here then we have a formal epoch, a point of 
time from which it became obligatory to attach the date 
Anno Domini to a particular class of documents. 

Thus it appears that the documentary usage of the 
Christian Era established itself in England between the 
death of Bede in 735, and the year 816, when the prac- 
tice was enjoined upon all bishops in regard to Synodal 
Acts. And we are justified in concluding that this now 
universal practice comes down to the modern world from 
the hand of the Venerable Bede, that it grew and pre- 
vailed first of all in England, that it passed from this 
to other countries, and that ultimately it was adopted 
at Rome itself, which in this particular was a tardy 
follower of Anglian practice ^, 

Under Charles the Great and his early successors the 
era was rarely used, and during some of the Karling 
reigns it was neglected altogether. So much was this 
the case that Charles the Eat (d. 888) has been credited 
with the introduction of the practice ; and although this 
is incorrect, yet so slow was the progress which it made 
on the continent that it did not become general in France 
and Germany until the tenth century. 

^ The materials of the above argument, except what these documents 
contribute, may be found in Ideler, but I am not aware that it has yet 
been presented in any English book. I must however add that I am 
indebted to my [lately departed] friend Mr. Dale of Balliol College for 
having called my attention to it, and that my ideas on the subject have 
been much enlarged by the conversation of another friend, Mr. Boase 
of Exeter College. 


It has been asserted that this era was established by 
the authority of the see of Rome ^. Such an assertion 
looks strange by the side of the fact that Mabillon found 
no papal document so dated before Leo IX in the middle 
of the eleventh century. And even after this time the 
era was sparingly and mistrustfully used in papal bulls, 
nor was it until the fifteenth century that it came to 
be systematically adopted in the city of Dionysius ; — 
the first Pope who so used it being Eugenius IV (1431- 


Another way of characterizing the year, is by the 
' Indiction,' which is often added in our documents. 
This term is not used to signify an era; it does not 
measure the present time by any fixed epoch in the 
past ; but it defines the year by its beginning and its 
end, and gives the place which such a year holds in one 
of the small cycles of fifteen years which followed one 
another continually. At first the use of this cycle was 
fiscal, being connected with the tribute due from public 
lands, which was newly assessed every fifteen years, and 
the new rate was announced by public Notice (indictio). 
This recurring event was naturally of great interest to 
farmers, and it generated a mode of popular chronology 
which was found to have qualities that fitted it for 
diplomatic use. The ideal epoch from which Indic- 
tions began to run, is B. c. 3, three years before our 
Era ; and it seems not improbable that in some partial 
sense they were actually in use from that epoch. But 
practically the Indiction, as a note of time, starts from 
A.D. 31 :^, the first year of Constan tine's undivided empire ; 

* And Kemble is under this impression all through. See his Intro- 
duction, p. 75. 

^ Ideler, Eandhuch der Chronologie, ii. 366 fE. 
C % 


and towards the end of the fourth century it is found 
entering into dates. Its advantage lay in the fact that 
it afforded a means of defi7iing any given year at a time 
vs^hen the ordinary means were failing : — the consular 
years being unsettled by the irregular appointment of 
the consuls, and there being no uniformity of practice 
as to when the year began. The formula of ' such a 
year of the Indiction ' (or briefly, ' such an Indiction ') 
indicated a well-defined and particular twelve months, 
beginning always with September i and ending with 
August 31. This was a welcome gain, and the Indiction 
won great repute. Duranti, writing in the thirteenth 
century, says : ' Tantse fuit auetoritatis indictio, ut 
nullus sine ea fieret contractus, nee privilegium, nee 
testamentum, nee alia scriptura sollennis : et etiam hodie 
eandem obtinet auctoritatem'^. 

Sometimes a charter is dated by the regnal year of 
the reigning king : according to Thorpe our earliest 
example of this is K175, a charter of Coenulf of Mercia, 
A.D. 798. Compare 295 b. 

vi. The Signatures. These are not autographs. The 
names appended to an Anglo-Saxon deed are not the 
manual subscription of the signataries : they are all 
scribe's work. And further, it is not the names them- 
selves that constitute the signatures. The essence of 
the signature consisted in making the ' sign ' of the 
Cross, which presumably may have been at the outset 
traced by the hand of each of the signataries. In a.d. 732 
it is explicitly said that king JEthilberht wrote the sign 
of the cross (25 1). But in general the appearances 
suggest that the crosses too were prepared by the scribe, 
and that each signer perhaps went over it with a dry 
^ Dictionary of Christian Antiquities v. Indiction. 


pen or laid a finger upon it ^. There is therefore nothing 
autographic in these lists of witnesses ; they are simply 
a written record of the fact that such persons assisted 
at the execution of the deed. 

The terras for the emblem of signature are in Latin 
signum, and its diminutive sigillum : — in English rode 
tacn^ 103 h ; mid cristes rode tacne^ iiom. The simplest 
formula recording the act is ' signum manus illius' e. g. 
9, 14, 26 1, 28 m, S5 1> 59 ni. '53'^ 1- 

The force of custom in such matters is very strong and 
lasting ; so that we cannot from the absence of manual 
subscription conclude anything about the general pro- 
gress of the art of writing, much less about the inability 
of individuals to write. In a genuine deed of the eighth 
century by Wihtred of Kent, the king says ' pro igno- 
rantia litterarum + signum sanctae crucis expressi ' 
(p. 333 note). The general inability to write at first 
would have set the custom which afterwards operated 
collectively ^. 

The ratification by such signatures is of two kinds. 
A person may sign either as a party to the transaction, or 
as a witness only (52 t). These two functions are pretty 
clearly distinguished, even where the generic phrase 
' signum manus ' runs throughout, as on p. 9, where the 

^ In K816* the king says : — in hac cartula coram subnotatis testibus 
manu propria dominicae crucis depingo signum. 

^ Mabillon quoted this instance, and added two parallels, one of the 
eighth century by Tassilo, duke of Bavaria, and one in the ninth century 
by Heribaud, comte du palais under Lewis II (a.d. 873); as if these 
proved general inability to write. The authors of the * Nouveau Trait^ 
de Diplomatique,' produced a fourth example in the case of Gui Guerra, 
count of Tuscany. But it was urged by Dr. Maitland, ' Dark Ages," 
p. 1 3, that the fact of a man's name being written for him by a scribe is 
no proof that he was unable to write, though no doubt such was often 
the fact. The very uniformity of the non-subscribing habit excludes 
all argument touching individuals. 


giver is distinguished as such in the attesting list which 
in other respects is uniform. Such a distinction seems 
to attach to those whose consent would naturally have 
been asked for the disposal of public land (p. 46, 59 m, 
303 t, 1 25). Sometimes the signatures seem to represent 
the deliberative council, as p. 108. 

Instead of ' signum ' the diminutive ' sigillum ' some- 
times occurs, as a mere variety of expression and without 
any distinctive meaning. The first sense of this diminu- 
tive became merged in its later sense of seal, and this 
misled Hickes, who condemned any charter wherein a 
'sigillum ' was said to be affixed. This error was corrected 
by Kemble. Hickes was however so far right in his 
general position, that the genuine documents of the Saxon 
period were not ratified with seals, at least not until the 
time of Edward the Confessor ^. Whether this negative 
assertion can be made absolutely concerning all the 
earlier reigns, is perhaps still open to question ; — but such 
is the general state of the case. This is the more re- 
markable, as Sir F. Madden observed long ago, inasmuch 
as the practice of sealing had prevailed among the Franks 
from the time of Clovis ^. 

Sealing was however something more than a national or 
local custom. The use of seals is one of the institutions of 
the elder world ; it is almost as old as the art of writing, 
and, being a rudiment of printing, it may be said to make 
the sister arts of writing and printing coeval with one 
another. The antiquity of seals is familiar to us in the Old 
Testament ; in Jeremiah xxxii. we see the seal associated 

^ A charter of Edward the CJonfessor, granting the manors of Cley- 
gate (Surrey) and Staines (Berks) to the Abbey of Westminster, is 
exhibited under glass in the Chapter House there. This charter has 
a seal appended on a self- strip of the vellum. 

^ Archaeological Journal, vol. xiii. p. 355. 


with a purchase-deed. In the earlier Christian centuries 
seals were ordinarily impressed on wax from rings often 
set with gems, but sometimes they were made in a simple 
metallic matrix, like that of Dagobert I (a.d. 628-38) 
which is extant, bearing the king's face, and the legend 
DAGOBERTVZ REX PRANCORUM ^. The importance of the 
seal in public transactions is represented by the titles of 
high officers to whom the several kinds of seals were con- 
fided : in the Holy Roman Empire the Elector of Mainz as 
Imperial Chancellor, was Keeper of the Seal of the Empire, 
and he wore it round his neck on high occasions of state. 
In England we have the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, 
who is the Lord Chancellor ; the Lord Keeper of the 
Privy Seal ; and another great official in Scotland is 
called the Keeper of the Signet 2. It is with reference 
to this official seal that a public notary in Scotland is 
called a Writer to the Signet, a circumstance which 
gains in historical interest from the fact that it was the 
profession of Sir Walter Scott's father. 

After the Conquest, the use of seals, at first confined 
to kings and great men, passed gradually into general 
use, and by the thirteenth century it was regarded as a 
necessary part of a deed, and from that time for some 
centuries every man who had important dealings had a 
seal of his own. The habit is now effete ; seals are only 
used by corporations ; in private transactions tlie figure 
of sealing is retained but the authentication depends 
solely upon duly witnessed subscription. 

The absence of seals from the transaction of public 
business in the Saxon period is further remarkable from 

' Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, v. Seal. 
^ The Earl of Glasgow is ' Lord Clerk Register and Keeper of the 
Signet ' — according to Whitaker for 1887, p. 301. 


the fact that eminent men had their own private rings 
and seals at that time, which they used for the authen- 
tication of notes and letters by sealing ; for so we must 
understand those passages where we read of the 'insegl' 
being sent as a credential, unless we suppose that the 
ring or seal itself was sent to give certainty to an order 
or message ^. 

The order of the signatures is available as historical 
evidence of rank and precedency, and so it has been used 
by Mr. Freeman in an instance quoted below, p. :Z27. 
We know that the sentiment was strong in the first 
century from Juvenal's Third Satire 8 1 , 'me prior ille 
signabit?' shall such as he sign before me? But it 
must be added, that there are examples of a disregard of 
strict precedency in favour of a fanciful order of signa- 
tures. In K118 (Heming) OflPa of Mercia signs first, 
his queen CyneSri'S last but one, and then, last of all, 
their son, ' Ecgfri^ filius amborum.' 

In the eleventh century we see the pretence of signing 
is sometimes abandoned, and a mere enumeration of 
witnesses inserted instead ; as with the goodly company 
342 b. 

A few more remarks upon the degeneracy of these 
documents, in addition to what has already been said 
incidentally. Their depravation is for the most part 
associated with progress of time and change of cir- 

' Two matrices of seals are preserved in the British Museum ; one of 
* Godwine, a Thane,' and another of 'MUric' The latter was erroneously 
quoted by Sir F. Madden as ' Leofric ' in Archaeological Journal, xiii. 
Also in the same case a leaden bulla of Coenulf, king of Mercia, 800- 
810, which Mr. Franks thinks was probably taken from a document of 
foreign transaction. It is only reasonable to suppose that in diplomatic 
intercourse with people who used the seal we should have done the same. 
Concerning a seal of Offa, king of Mercia, see Dictionary of Christian 
Antiquities (Smith and Cheetham), vol. ii. p. 1872 ; and BC259. 

I xli 

cumstance; — the suspicious writings, whether fabrica- 
tions or modified revisions, are generally products of the 
times subsequent to the Norman Conquest. Not that 
contemporary forgeries were wanting, but either they 
have not come down to us, or we are without evidence 
of their falsity. That there were many such, we gather 
from repeated allusions, e. g. 44 1. 

But for our enquiry it is practically the first question 
in the examination of a document : — What is the date of 
its present form ? When charters are arranged in the 
order of the dates which they purport to bear, as in 
Kemble, we have a series of writings apparently in 
order, but really in chronological chaos. And there- 
fore in the Second Part of this book, the later copies 
or compositions are grouped in a descending scale of 
gradation which (with this hint) will enable the student 
to make his own observations. It would require much 
space to illustrate each particular, but a few examples 
may be useful. 

The inconsistency of the professed date with the 
veritable age of the composition is sometimes betrayed 
by continental terms which were not in use with us 
before the Conquest : thus, in TL2,^6 grapJiio^ palefridis ; 
and in Kiooi, 1050, the title comes in the Norman 
sense. Another of these words is vasallus^ for which 
see the Glossary. 

One of the commonest indications of a later hand is 
recognised in explanatory bits of historical or anti- 
quarian lore : — e. g. unam villam quod nos Saxonice an 
haga dicimus, 336 1; quae patria Ungua hagan appellari 
solent, 403 1 ; a taxationibus quod dicimus witeredenne, 
K1063. And generally, any proffer of explanation is 
suspicious: e.g. when I went over sea to Rome, 337 h. 


Here however it must be added (and this fact makes it 
hard to lay down general rules), that there is hardly any 
feature in spurious deeds but something like it may be 
found in those which are genuine, e. g. 87 m. 

It is however a broad feature of spurious documents 
that they are industrious in explanation and allusion. 
They import historical events, as if to rivet themselves 
the more securely upon the time purported, and by the 
very effort they betray themselves^. Sometimes the 
documentary is merged in the narrative tone of the 
historian, as in BC620, partly given in this volume, p. 
290. Historical events so imported are often quite correct. 
It would be too much to rank such allusions as trust- 
worthy evidence which might safely be used as authority 
sole ; — but when other grounds, even by themselves im- 
perfect, exist for giving probability to such statements, 
they may be made available, not only in confirmation, but 
even in extension of our knowledge. A good example is 
K233. This document, purporting to be of a.d. 833, 
is manifestly spurious ; but it alludes to an assembly 
of the magnates of the realm convened by Ecgberht to 
take counsel about the Danish invasions, and there is 
every probability that such a meeting was held about 
that date^. But when in K731, Cnut is made to ad- 
dress his thanes as ' twelfhynde and twyhynde ' ; as we 
have no other example of ' twyhynde ' thanes, and as 
this document bears other suspicious marks, it is not 
available as historical material. In K8i6"^, Edward the 
Confessor says — ' manu propria dominicae crucis depingo 
signum, et meae imaginis adnecto sigillum.' This docu- 
ment being a manifest fabrication, we might have treated 

^ See Kemble, Introduction, p. 89. 
^ Steenstrup Vikinyetogene, p. 39. 

witli undeserved contempt the mention of the king's 
seal with his own image upon it, if we had not known 
from extant impressions that it is a fact. The Seal of 
this king is the first of the Great Seals of England 
which form an unbroken series down to our own day. 
It bears the full-faced figure of the king seated ; with 
this superscription : 


This section would not be complete without a few 
remarks upon the external and material form of these 
documents. The originals are upon parchment, and a 
few of the earliest are written in uncial or minuscule 
characters. A word that will frequently meet the 
student's eye is Chirographum, commonly spelt Cyro- 
graphum. This Greek word for a Hand- Writing, is 
sometimes blazoned out large on the upper margin or 
the under margin, or both ; e. g. :Z42, 243, 244, 2,47. 
It seems to apply particularly to Contracts, and the 
practical import was, that the agreement being written 
three times upon one skin, with this word stretched over 
the interval between the copies, the knife was then 
passed through the two interspaces and so through 
the middle of the letters of this word, leaving the upper 
apices on one copy and the lower relics of the same word 
upon another copy, in such a manner that the original 
oneness of any two of the copies could at sight and with- 
out perusal be verified, if not by comparison with one 
another, at least upon the production of the third. 
When the skin had been thus divided into three, one 
part was taken by each of the contracting parties, and 
the third deposited in a place of security. Examples 
216 h J 236 h, 344 1, 247 m. 


The systematic study of these documents was first 
entered upon by Dr. George Hickes, in Ms Dissertatio 
Epistolaris, 1705. Since his time the chief explorer in 
this field has been Mr. J. M. Kemble, whose results are 
seen in the Prefaces to his Codex Liplomaticus, and in 
his later work The Saxons in England, 

The enquiries of Hickes were limited to the techni- 
calities, such as the points of evidence of genuineness or 
the reverse ; but Kemble, after having made a careful 
technical analysis, proceeded to study the documents as 
materials for the illustration of our early constitution. 
His enquiries led him into a reconstruction of our 
unwritten insular history, and the lines which he laid 
down, though challenged here and there, still continue 
to fiimish us with the current tracings of our early 
institutions, and constitute the basis of the outstanding 

He availed himself freely of that Comparative Method 
which in his time was a new discovery ; and he drew 
material from the kindred nations to serve in rebuilding 
the early framework of EngKsh society. A remarkable 
completeness of outline was thus attained ; but the 
benefit must be accepted with caution. In order to use 
his work profitably the student must distinguish between 
those things for which we have domestic evidence in our 
own documents, and that which has been taken over from 
comparative analogies. The Comparative Method is a 
fine aid to reconstruction when cognate sources mutually 

II ' xlv 

supplement each other's flaws and defacements ; but 
when the entirety of any institution is guaranteed by 
foreign sources only, the improved method of enquiry is 
apt to become a snare. It is now generally admitted 
that something of this kind happened to Kemble in his 
picture of the ' Mark ' as the unit of our early social 

Kemble says : ' Among the Anglosaxons land so held 
in common was designated by the names Mark, and Ga 
or Shire ^.' The word mearc occurs repeatedly in the 
documents, but never in the sense of the area of occupa- 
tion, still less in the poKtical sense of the occupying 
community ^. What Kemble calls ' its restricted and 
proper sense of a boundary ' (KS. i. 43) is the only sense 
it bears in our records ^. Kemble imagined the Marks 
as primary units which were grouped into districts 
bearing the name of ' Ga.' This is entirely derived from 

^ Saorons in England, i. 36. The word shire scir has beeu much 
discussed ; it seems to me that the territorial sense is secondary, and 
that the primary sense is simply that of function or office. In the 
oldest glosses it represents procv/ratio, dispensatio, negotiatio. Sweet, 
Oldest English Texts, p. 624. This is the sense in all the three places 
which Kemble relied on in his chapter on the Shire, from the Laws 
of Ini, Sections 8, 36, 39 ; though in the third instance the thought of 
area is simultaneous. 

^ Saxons in England, i. 42, 53. 

^ The most manifest examples are such as in 200 b, to OswiSes 
mearce and Eadwoldes, to the dividing line between Oswith and 
Eadwold. The doubtful cases, if any, are few. The compound mearc- 
loud signifies, not the land of the community, but land on the border, 
outlying wild or forest land. Kemble's * mearc mdt ' occurs but once, 
in a poor document, stigmatized by himself, in the form merceviot 
K 568 ; and it may very well have meant a moot for the business of the 
moorland. For mearcbeorh, which he translates ' Markhill,' saying it is 
not at all of rare occurrence, I know but three places, as given in the 
Glossary. I see in the recent Number of the Bosworth-Toller 
Dictionary that this compound is explained (rightly as I think) — ' A 
hill which forms part of a boundary.' 


the comparative sources, and it is nothing less than the 
introduction of a word unknown to our insular literature. 
Kemble thought that he had recovered the term ' Ga ' 
as equivalent to German Gau district, and that its ex- 
istence and constitutional use was vouched for l»y the 
document printed below, p. 458 ; whereas the appear- 
ance was deceptive, and those names are but genitive 
plurals in -inga ; some of them ill written. 

An author is at liberty to borrow what terms he 
pleases from historical analogies if they will aid him as 
technical terms in the expression of his meaning ; but 
the student must be warned against accepting them as 
if they were based upon domestic evidence. In Kemble's 
reconstruction, Mark and Ga are not historical but 
theoretical terms. This being once understood, it will 
be recognised as an open question whether his Mark 
theory is justified by further examination. According 
to Kemble, each Mark was an agricultural community 
managing its own aflfairs with republican equality and 
simplicity, there being as yet no manorial lords. And 
although at the first moment of full historic light we 
find manorial rights everywhere, yet this he considered 
as a departure and a degeneracy from the local autonomy 
of the primitive settlement, and he traced it to some 
abuse of power. 

Mr. Kemble's sketch of the cradle of our institutions 
has by no means given general satisfaction, but it cannot 
be said that in the criticism it has undergone it has 
received any definite or substantial rectification. Little 
is gained by rejecting the terms he adopted if the sub- 
stance of his plan is retained ; — the real source of his 
weakness is in the defective nature of his elementary 
plan. That the conquerors did really establish some 

II xlvii 

such an agricultural system as the Mark, seems to be quite 
certain. Tacitus at one end, and the agricultural Re- 
ports at the other, establish the fact so well, that it must 
be taken as immoveable and axiomatic. 

' The Mark was a voluntary association of free men, who laid down 
for themselves, and strictly maintained, a system of cultivation by 
which the produce of the land on which they settled might be fairly 
and equally secured for their service and support ; and from parti- 
cipation in which they jealously excluded all who were not born, or 
adopted, into the association.' Saxons in England, i, 54. 

So far is common ground : — but when he goes on to 
develop the Mark-courts as at first quite independent of 
lords, and to tell us that ' even long after the downfall of 
the primaeval freedom, the lord himself had been only the 
first Markman ' — we are led by our data to part company 
with our guide. Our contention is not so much against 
what Kemble asserts, as against what he denies. We 
have not a word to say against Kemble's Mark as an 
agricultural system, except that the picture is mutilated 
in its social and political relations. It will be the aim 
of the following pages to show that from the first there 
was an authority over the Markmen, and that the lord 
of the manor is an essential member of the original 

The influence of Kemble's Mark theory has been very 
wide, and its consequences may be traced even where 
the theoiy itself is not accepted ; for there is a sort of 
tacit assumption that the beginnings were different in 
constitution from anything that history reveals, and 
that between the beginnings and the time when evi- 
dences become available an agrarian revolution had 
taken place. The lords of manors are thought to have 
attained to their position through usurpation of power 
by lucky members of the community who somehow had 


emerged from the primitive equality and had grown 
powerful over the rest. Besides the arbitrary nature of 
such a conjecture, entirely unevidenced, there is the a 
priori improbability that such a fortuitous evolution 
would have resulted in a net- work of little local dominions 
wherein a highly organized structure is combined with 
that broad identity of family likeness with which the 
manors, under all their minor diversities, are so con- 
spicuously stamped. 

In the study of these land-charters we are driven by 
very necessity to construct for ourselves a plan and a 
picture of the original land distribution of the country, 
and therewithal to form an elementary sketch of the whole 
social and political fabric ; for without some such a plan 
in the mind it is not possible to get any definite idea of 
the nature and bearings of the transactions represented 
in these writings. The large number of documents of 
one general type which time has spared us, is such as to 
suggest that as a body of writings they have a signifi- 
cance beyond that of a fortuitous aggregation of trans- 
fers, which may just shed some incidental light upon 
the page of history. The circumstance that a large 
proportion of them concern monastic lands has perhaps 
had a misleading effect. It has been thought sufficient 
to refer the whole collection to the religious enthusiasm 
of our simple forefathers in the days when Christianity 
was recent among them, and so to explain the Grants as 
so many offerings of piety or superstition. There is not 
a little in the documents themselves to flatter such a 
view of the case. And indeed it is true so far as 
it goes. But as an explanation it is* by no means com- 
mensurate with the facts to be explained. It may seem 
to cover a large part, but it manifestly does not cover 

II xlix 

the whole of the data ; and to say the least of it, we 
should require a separate explanation for the motive of 
those Grants which were made to lay hands. In these 
matters it is quite impossible to obtain a right point of 
view, unless we first have a definite notion of the rela- 
tion that subsisted between the distribution of the land 
and the general fabric and intercourse of society. Indeed, 
it is only from an orderly view of the latter that we can 
see the reason of the former ; and it will be (incidentally) 
an evidence that our view of the structure of society is 
right, if it carries with it a solution of the perplexities 
of the land-tenures. 

At the entrance of our fathers into this island (I 
am thinking particularly of the invasion by way of 
Hampton, which was the latest and therefore conducted, 
presumably, upon the most matured plan) they ad- 
vanced inland and occupied the ground in the face of 
the enemy without making any distinction at the mo- 
ment between a military occupation and a colonising 
settlement. Their banded forces were divided by hun- 
dreds, and by hundreds they spread over the face of the 
land, and under the exigencies of war with the guidance 
of their plan of campaign they shaped the first draft of 
the political map, such as in its most elementary ground- 
work it continues to this day. At this moment the 
Hundreds on our map represent the first permanent 
encampments of the invading hosts, and the military 
organization of the country was worked on that first 
outline for many centuries. The civil administration 
fell into the mould of the military, and at this moment 
the old common law remains, though now made statute - 
able, that the Hundred is the unit of our finance and 
police administration, where personal or corporate respon- 



sibility is not .otherwise provided for, as in the case of 
destruction by rioters, or by wreckers ^. 

It must be remembered that the military hundred 
contained twelve tens, and accordingly we find in the 
internal division of the Hundred there were twelve 
' Hyndens,' or, as they afterwards came to be called, 
Tithings. The two words mean the same thing, for the 
word HUND at first meant, not lOO but lo. In hynden 
we see a feminine abstract substantive derived from liund 
in its elder sense, with umlaut of the u. And this ex- 
plains the terms twelphynde and sixhynde as expres- 
sive of ranks of men. The former was originally ^ 
captain of 1 20, the latter of 60 men 2. 

The first internal work to be done by the Hundred, as 
soon as they had leisure to look about them, would be 
the land distribution. This would naturally be con- 
ducted upon traditional principles and according to 
national custom, except where the novelty of the cir- 
cumstances required some innovation in detail or led 
perhaps unconsciously to the creation of some new form 
of institution. 

The allotted land was of two distinct kinds. Certain 

^ When Nottingham Castle was burnt by the mob in 1832, the Hun- 
dred was sued, and the owners recovered damages to the amount of 
£21,000. Annual Begisterfor 1832 : — 'Leicester : The Duke of New- 
castle V. the Inhabitants of the Hundred of Broxtowe.' 

Within the last two or three years destruction of property at elec- 
tions has come upon the Hundred, and ratepayers have had occasion 
to learn that the Hundred is not dead. The Hundred is still alive as 
a financial division. My friend Mr. Alfred Hill writes me from 
Birmingham : * I am a Commissioner of Income Tax, Land Tax, and 
Inhabited House Duty for the Hundred of Hemlingford.' He adds 
that this Hundred was rated to pay for the Birmingham riots of 179 1 
and of 1839. 

^ The twelfhynde man's life-price was 1200 shillings, Ine 70; but 
this does not appear to me to contain the reason of the name — rather 
to be a consequence of it. 

II li 

land was given absolutely to every head of a family and 
indeed to every free man, for a perpetual inheritance in 
the family, and subject to no burdens but such as were 
elementary and essential as conditions of general security. 
Other lands were assigned, not to individuals, but to 
each township as a corporate body, every member of the 
township having his share in the use and enjoyment of 
it according to traditional custom. When all present 
demands were satisfied, there still remained land un- 
allotted, and this was the property of the nation, this 
was the folc land, or as it was also sometimes popularly 
called No man's land, Nanes mannes land ^ 

The historical word, which designated land allotted 
under the first of these conditions, was most likely edel ^. 
To this corresponds the Frankish alod^ not by any ety- 
mological affinity, but by a practical equivalency of sig- 
nification. The word alod ^, in its latinised form alodium 

* ' The village greens which still exist in many parts of the country, 
may fairly be regarded as a remnant of old unappropriated common 
land,' F. Pollock, Land Laws, p. 39. 

^ The word edel is of high antiquity, being found in every Teutonic 
dialect, and it had early passed to a secondary stage of signification in 
which it was expressive of nobility of descent. This divided sense may 
have been the cause which led to the continental invention of the term 
alod. At the time of the English colonization edel must have been 
already tinged with the secondary sense even in our dialect, but it was 
still serviceable in its original and proper sense as a designation of the 
family inheritance, and it seems to have been used as the general term 
for the patrimonial estate whether great or small. It is perhaps some 
evidence of this that with us edel became the general word for home or 
native country, and in Latin studies the recognised equivalent of patria. 

^ This term is resolved by Grimm into at and 6d (A.S. bad) i. e. 
whole or solid property. R. A. 493. This derivation was, I believe, 
new ; h\xt feodum had been derived long ago from/eo and od by Wachter, 
Glossarium Germanicum, quoted by Robertson, Charles V, vol i. note 8, 
' intimating that it was stipendiary, and granted as a recompense for 
service.' Both these derivations are sustained by the authority of 
Dr. Murray in the New Dictionary ; v. Alod. 



or allodium^ first entered this country wifch the Normans, 
and appears often in Domesday. Not only was the 
estate and residence of the noble called his i^del ; but 
also I imagine that each detached hut in the village or 
in the fields, with its breadth of curtilage about it, 
and a few acres of croft or paddock around, was the edel 
or private estate of the commoner ^. 

To the second class of allotted land belongs the 
much-questioned term Hide hId, higid. What was 
the relation of this word to the former as a question 
of terminology? Was it another word for the same 
thing, a mere equivalent of Ethel ? This seems to have 
been Kemble's view, as he puts the two words upon a 
level, but he is not very explicit upon the point. 
Certainly the same natural title was at the base of 
both kinds of property ; but heir-land and common 
land must have had their several designations, and we 
will suppose (at least provisionally) that these two 
terms were thus distributed. This at least appears 
certain, that the term hId is as old as the time of 
the very first settlement. The universality of its use 
and the obscurity of its definition are two threads of 
evidence which seem to converge upon the cradle. On 
the other hand, there is no indication of a higher 
antiquity than the time of the colonization ; the word 
is not found in any of the sister dialects, and is dis- 
tinctly an insular term. As to the portion of the soil 

* Modern authorities call this ^del either 'family land,' as Mr. H. 
Cabot Lodge in his 'Anglo-Saxon Land Law' {Essays in Anglo-Saxon 
Law, Boston, U.S. and London 1876) ; or * heir-land,' as Professor 
Pollock in his Land Laws, p. 191. The latter phrase is supported by 
the term erfes, 149I. This is the terra salica of the Franks ; Grimm, 
JR. A. 493. In 327m there is a remarkable expression * Edfer^es eald 
land/ which seems to indicate land of this nature. 

II liii 

which it designated, I think Kemble's view must be 
preferred, that it applied particularly to the arable land ; 
— including perhaps the rights of pasture which were 
appended to the arable. 

Beyond the village of the commoners and its circuit 
of Ethel-land lay the common arable field with its en- 
vironment of meadow and pasture. These lands were 
enjoyed in common by rules of ancient custom which 
were administered by officers annually chosen. Each 
household had its share in all the various parts and sorts 
of land according to the working of agricultural custom. 
Each household had a household's portion, called in 
Latin casatus, manens^ mansa^ &c., and these Latin words 
represent the vernacular hid. 

When the work of distribution was finished, there re- 
mained wide tracts of unappropriated land, and such sur- 
plus land was the property of the nation, and was called 
FOLC LAND ; in Latin terra communis^ 394^- I^ was com- 
pletely analogous to the jmblicus ager which occupies a 
prominent place in Roman history. This was the great 
reserve fund of the nation, by which the public service 
was provided for, and from which were made those 
grants and laens which we shall come to by and bye. 
In the meantime it will be useful to take a general view 
of the situation. 

But first, there is one little remark to be added about 
the folk-land. Apparently not all folk-land was held by 
the nation at large, it was not all king's folk-land, ' terra 
juris mei.' We find mention of Tithing-land TEG'S ung 
LOND 164b; and it seems reasonable to infer that the 
Hundred held land ^. Indeed, as there must have been 

^ I do not understand K. Maurer's reasoning in Ueberschau, i. 69, 
where he concludes that in England the Hundreds had no common land. 


expenses attending the business of the Hundred, it is 
not clear how these were to be otherwise met. The 
Hundred and the Tithing were the first elementary 
centres of administration, one of which has kept up a 
continuous function even to our day, while the other had 
a broken and patched career^. 

The system was originally military, and out of the 
military grew the civil administration. It is sometimes 
difficult to follow Kemble so as to verify the consistency 
of his views about the first organisation of English 
society. In particular, I cannot reconcile his democratic 
Mark with a sentence like the following, a sentence 
which rivets attention by its intrinsic probability, and 
which I perceive also has had a strong attraction for 
Dr. Stubbs, who recurs to the idea more than once. 
Kemble's words are — ' there can be no doubt that some 
kind of military organisation preceded the peaceful 
settlement, and in many respects determined its mode 
and character' (Saxons, i. p. 125). This fruitful idea 
has had no organising eflfect upon Kemble's treatment, 

He shows from Nordstrom, that in Sweden, besides common fields of 
the village (bys-almanningar), and national lands (lands-almanningar), 
there were also lands of the Herad, a division like our Hundred 
(haraths-almanningar), and the parallel is more forcible than any- 
thing suggested against it. See Stubbs, Const. Mist., c. v. p. 97 note. 
As to the Shires, however, which have been coupled with the Hun- 
dreds in this question, I do not think that in early times they did hold 
public land. 

^ The later institution of the frib borh or Frani Pledge, plegium 
de stando ad rectum, which ran in personal groups of ten, Jidejusno 
decennalis, must be carefully distinguished from the territorial area of 
the original Tithing. But there is also a sense in which the two 
institutions must be associated; for the later institution seems to 
have been a substitute for the original Tithing which had become 

II Iv 

nor, so far as I have observed, upon that of subsequent 
constitutional historians. Nothing can be much further 
from the idea, of military organisation than Kemble's 
idyllic sketch of the self-government of the ceorls. 

Of all principles of military regiment there is none so 
necessary or so elementary as this, that all men must 
be under a captain, and such a captain as is able to 
command prompt and willing obedience. We have 
abundant experience that this was recognised as the 
most elementary principle in Anglo-Saxon politics, 
Upon this military principle I conceive the English 
settlements were originally founded, that each several 
settlement was under a military leader, and that this 
military leader is the ancestor of the lord of the manor. 

There appears in our early history an order of men 
who are manifestly in a position of superiority but of 
an intermediate and subordinate kind ; they are called 
GESiDAS. They are distinctly recognised in the early 
Laws as constituting one of the divisions of society, but 
are no more heard of after the eighth century. The 
term fades away as that of ]7EGN comes into prominence ; 
and I venture to suggest that this order of men, for 
whom no local habitation has yet been found, are the 
commissioned officers of the invading bands and the first 
incumbents of our manorial lordships. 

Kemble has indeed assigned to the gesi'Sas a sphere, 
and in his famous chapter on ' The Noble by Service' he 
has made the development of our most prominent insti- 
tutions to turn upon the agency of this order of men. 
But whatever the merits of his argument as an explana- 
tion of the growth of feudal nobility, it seems to me 
quite wide of the mark as concerns the nature of the 
lord of the manor. 


The gesi'Sas being identical with the comites sur- 
rounding a jorinceps in the description of Tacitus, he 
traces their growth into a little standing army about the 
king, a band much admired by the simple ceorl, who 
only sees in the institution a troop of volunteers ready 
to take the military duty off his hands, little suspecting 
the danger with which his own order is threatened. 
These gesi'Sas are (we are told) men who have abandoned 
their freedom to live in military insolence under a lord, 
being all the while in their own personal rights nothing 
but menials ' the unfree chattels of a prince ■^.' Gradually 
the freemen are overawed, and rights of lordship are 
established over them, and in this overbearing usurpation 
we are invited to recognise the origin and growth of a 
new nobiKty upon the ruins of the ancient orders eorlisc 
and ceorlisc alike, and this new growth gives also the 
development of the manorial lordship ; — for what took 
place about the person of the king took place also (we 
are told) in the several communities, and so the manor 
is represented as a deductive result from the comitatus 
or military institute of the royal eoui-t. 

There is no direct evidence for this representation, but 
Kemble, having committed himself to the assertion that 
the first colonists lived in Marks which were so many 
autonomous little republics, found it necessary to recon- 
cile this theory with the fact that when the open day- 
light of history succeeds to the obscure dawn of the 
Mark, all village communities are found to be living 
under lords. This transformation had to be explained, 

^ Professor Pollock {Land Laws, p. 29) says : * Kemble's opinion 
tliat this relation [that of the geslS] involved the loss of freedom can 
only be called the eccentricity of a man of genius. It is disposed of 
by Konrad Maurer, Kritische Ueberschau, ii. 391 sqq.' 

II Ivii 

and the above is Kemble's explanation. So he started 
with a misconception of the gesithas, which, though bnt 
a film from the truth at first, diverged with progress, 
and was incapable of rectification in his hands, because 
he was interested in the error. 

Kemble's argument appeared as a counter-statement 
to that view of our agrarian constitution which had long 
ruled the law-books, and which is thus formulated in the 
oft-quoted words of Blackstone : — 

' Villeins in process of time gained considerable ground 
on their lords, and in particular strengthened the tenure 
of their estates to that degree, that they came to have 
in them an interest in many places full as good, in 
others better than their lords. For the good-nature and 
benevolence of many lords of manors having, time out of 
mind, permitted their villeins and their children to enjoy 
their possessions without interruption in a regular course 
of descent, the Common Law, of which custom is the life, 
now gave them title to prescribe against their lords, and 
on performance of the same services to hold their lands, 
in spite of any determination of the lord's will. . . . Thus 
it appears that copyholders are in truth no other but 
villeins, who by a long series of immemorial encroach- 
ments on the lord, have at last established a customary 
right to those estates which before were held absolutely 
at the lord's will.' 

The doctrine which Kemble laid down is the reverse 
of the above ; he held that the rights of the lord of the 
manor have grown by encroachment upon the original 
common ownership of the free and independent mark- 
men^. He seems throughout his argument to confuse two 

^ I say ' doctrine laid down ' — but the fact is Kemble never fairly 
faced the problem of the manor at all ; he had in the background a pre- 


things, which sprung out of the same elements and 
have a natural similarity, but which need on this very 
ground the more carefully to be distinguished, namely, 
the manorial system and the feudal system. These two 
systems are from one nest, and that nest the comitatus, 
the band of companions in arms who follow chieftain 
or king ; and springing from this common parentage, 
they have a family likeness apt to deceive ; for, much 
as they have in common, they belong to different times 
and circumstances, and even the character of the 
comitatus itself differed at the birth of the two. The 
manor sprang from the comitatus of the chieftain, the 
adventurer ; the feudal system from the comitatus of the 
long-established king. The manor is far older than 
the feudal system and has over-lived it ; the manor has 
seen the feudal system come and go, and yet there is 
life in the manor. 

Upon the origin of manorial rights there are two 
chief theories, and Mr. Scrutton has aided the discussion 
by providing these rival theories with technical names, 
calling the elder of the two, that authorized by Black- 
stone, the legal theory; and the modem one, which 
has sprung out of later economic and historic enquiries, 
the historical theory. According to the legal theory, 
the lord of the manor is the absolute owner of the soil, 
and whatever rights or benefits the community enjoy, 
they owe to his concession and clemency. According 
to the historical theory, on the contrary, the Manor is 
a degenerate transformation of the Free community, 
through the aggrandisement and usurped powers of one 

conceived opinion, which he referred to when convenient, like any 
axiom. Thus : — * in Manors, where the territorial jurisdiction of a lord 
has usurped the place of the old Markmoot, &c.' KS i. 54. 

n lix 

of its members : — the Freemen of the Township having 
sunk down into the Villeins of the Manor ^. 

Mr. Scrutton thinks that there is room for both these 
theories, inasmuch as the historical theory may well 
represent the state of things in England before the 
Norman Conquest, while yet the legal theory may 
furnish a correct legal statement of manorial relations 
for the period which followed after William's grant or 
regrant of almost all the land of England -. 

Athwart these rival theories comes Mr. Seebohm's 
ingenious argument as if to effect a compromise be- 
tween them, or rather to blend them together in one 
continuity of historical development. He urges that 
the Saxon invader found in Britain a system of agri- 
culture which is the true antecedent of the manor. 
Upon his view of the case the legal theory triumphs ; 
not, however, to the exclusion of the historical theory, 
but rather by its subordination and absorption. The 
original type is the Roman villa with its gang of 
slaves, and from this the manorial system has been 
developed through the wise and humane policy of the 
lords. This theory assigns to the whole community on a 
Saxon estate a servile origin, and whatever its defect-s, 
it does at least affoi-d adequate explanation for the in- 

* The Law Qtuirterly Review, October, 1S87. I have to thank 
Mr. Whittuck, of Oriel College, for putting this Article into my hand, 

and for other good suggestions. 

^ My impression is, that the so-called historical theory (as usually 
stated' does not represent a state of things that ever existed at all. 
I do not deny that encroachment took place ; there always is en- 
croachment by every order of men when in a position to encroach. 
It seems to me that there was a growing tendency on the dominical 
side of the Soken to absorb the commoners, and to assimilate them 
to the condition of the customary tenantry. But I contend that we 
cannot find in such encroachment an adequate cause for the origination 
of manorial lordship. 


cidents of servile tenures, which are not so well provided 
for in the historical theory. 

The objection which has been raised against Mr. 
Seebohm's view is that it leaves no place for those free 
proprietors, who (it is well known) were necessary to the 
constitution of a manor. This objection may be put in 
another way. It may be asked— Where then are all 
the rank and file of the conquering Saxon host ? They 
could not every one of them step into the place of a 
wealthy Romano-British proprietor, and become the 
progenitor of a race of manorial landlords. These cer- 
tainly became allodial owners, and they must be ac- 
counted for in any theory that purports to be complete. 
What favours Mr. Seebohm's view is the strange paucity 
of free tenants in Domesday. But here we must bear 
in mind that in the course of 600 years many causes of 
decline might occur, which would press heavier on the 
small proprietor than on the man of liberal estate ^. 

If Mr. Seebohm's explanation cannot be accepted as 
satisfactory and final, I believe that he has considerably 
advanced the discussion, and has brought the problem 

^ One such cause we see in operation below, 275 m. But I think 
there is another matter to be considered. Is it certain that we rightly 
understand the ' liberi homines ' of Domesday ? The earlier sense of 
Latin liher and English free, with their derivatives, may sometimes 
escape observation. The following quotation presents the case with 
double-barrelled authority : — 

*And how keen and true is this criticism on the changed sense 
of the word "liberty": — "A great many words have changed their 
meaning. The word liberty, for example, had at bottom among the 
ancients the same meaning as the word dominion. I would he free 
meant, in the mouth of the ancient, / would take part in governing 
or administering the State; in the mouth of a modern it means, / 
would he independent. The word liberty has with us a moral sense ; 
with them its sense was purely political." ' Matthew Arnold, Essays 
in Criticism, ' Joubert.* 

II Ixi 

much nearer to solution than it was before. The Roman 
Villa does seem to supply with a remarkable fitness 
that dominical element in the Manor, which is alien 
to the free agricultural Community, and which cannot be 
derived from it but by a violent and arbitrary hypothesis 
of aggrandisement and usurpation. 

But, on the other hand, the idea that a co-tillage 
Community was developed out of the servile household 
of a Villa, is surrounded with an atmosphere of im- 
probability. The process may not be inconceivable 
in itself, but what are its relative probabilities when 
compared with that obvious explanation which is already 
in possession of the field, namely, that the conquering 
Saxons when they settled upon their new territory 
continued those habits of agriculture in which they had 
been reared ? If we accept at Mr. Seebohm's hands 
the dominical side of the manorial constitution, we 
must on the other hand continue to derive the Common 
Fields from those free ancestral customs for which our 
text is Tacitus^. 

^ It is recorded of Aristotle that he advised the conqueror of Asia to 
govern his Greek subjects as a president, but the conquered races as a 
master. This wise counsel aptly represents what took place at the 
English Conquest of Britain. The course which Alexander did not take;, 
though advised by the greatest of political philosophers, our forefathers 
were led to take by their political instinct in following the lead of 
circumstances. The conquerors found a system of agriculture worked 
by families of slaves in Eoman villas ; they kept what they found, only 
putting an English lord into the place of a Romano-British dominus, 
and so without further change they founded the ' domain ' or ' vill ' 
of the English manor. The gesi^, who was a lord to the conquered 
people, was but a captain and president to his own kindred. This 
striking parallel is from Grote, History of Greece, c. 94. He quotes 
Plutarch, Fortun. Alex. M. p. 329 ; ov yap, ws 'hpiaroTeK-qs avve^ov- 
\€V€V avT^, Tois fxev "EW-qffiv ^ye^ioviKus rots Se fiap^apois SeairoTiKuis 
Xpoj/ievov, . . . dWa koivos tjkhv OcoOev dp/ioCT^s Kal SiaXXaKT^s tuv 

o\(tiV VOfU^OJVy K.T.\. 


When the ceorlas received their land, they proceeded 
to divide and administer it according to traditional rules, 
subject however to this additional circumstance that 
they were planted as an army corps, and transacted all 
their aflPairs under the ruling hand of a commander, 
that is to say, under the presidency of a commissioned 
officer. The military character of that officer continued 
for centuries, and even outlived the Norman Conquest ; 
but a civil character was engrafted upon the military 
character, as this officer was held responsible for legality 
and local order towards his superior driJiten, the hundredes 

That which has occasioned the difficulty in the 
history of the manor is its composite nature, but this 
difficulty exists only on the assumption of perfect 
simplicity and equality at the outset ; — the difficulty 
vanishes if the manor had a composite origin. The 
military officer settled with a suitable provision by 
the side of his company is the lord by the side of 
free owners. We have not to resort to any theory of 
encroachment on the part of some overgrown ceorl, 
as the votaries of the historical theory have found it 
necessary to do ; nor need we make the lord the generous 
source of free rights as in the legal theory ; nor thirdly, 
we are not driven to base the growth of a common 
agriculture upon the sagacious ingenuity of landlords 
as Mr. Seebohm does. All the essential parts and 
members of the manor are found in the germ of the 
original institution. 

This view is quite compatible with the acceptance 
of almost all that recent authors have said about com- 
munity of land and rotation of tenure ; all that system 
which we now understand by the ' Village Community.' 

If Ixiii 

That system has been abundantly evidenced by modern 
agricultural Reports, which have directed public atten- 
tion to the remaining traces of common-field cultivation 
in association with manors. The time is hardly beyond 
the reach of living memory when this system was still 
prevalent in some parts of the country. The recon- 
structed picture of the life of our first colonists on the 
' Village Community ' plan is true so far as it goes, 
but it is not the whole truth. By the side of, and in 
a kind of presidential authority over, this agricultural 
republic was seated a lord, who had his own separate 
domain and an establishment of slaves and of tenants 
in various degrees of servitude or of personal dependence 
upon his will. 

In later times, when tenures are described by legists, 
we find the manor in possession of two courts, the 
court baron and the customary court of the copyholders. 
This duality of administration within the manor is the 
natural and mature outcome of a duality that was 
stamped upon the primal settlement. The court baron 
is the original court of the free settlers under a presi- 
dent ; the second court is a development, and this 
development consists wholly in the growth and expan- 
sion of new rights to the limitation of that absolute 
power which the lord enjoyed at the outset ^. 

The modern manor with its two courts and two 
systems of agriculture existing and working along side 
by side is but the faithful conservation of the original 

^ My subject does not require me to speak of the Court Leet, "because 
it was not inseparably incident to a Manor of common right, as the 
Court Baron was. I gladly pass it by, because I can find no light 
upon its history. Dr. Stubbs can only say that the grant of sac and 
80C is probably the basis of the Court Leet. Const. Hist,, i. 85. 


type. These two courts are tlie organs of the two 
groups of population, which may perhaps at one time 
have been discriminated by the two terms which are 
now used synonymously, namely, township and vill. The 
township is the settlement of the free men, the rank and 
file of the conquering nation ; the vill is (I apprehend) 
the seat of their captain, as a territorial lord. And what 
the lord was in his village or his batch of villages that 
the king was over the nation. Both are of the same 
moment and of the same motive. Much of the enquiry 
into the Growth of the Royal Prerogative might have 
been spared, if it had been seen that the royal office 
was military in its inception, and hence we might expect 
to see it elevated and imperial in its nature, even at the 
earliest date at which evidence begins to be available ^. 
The royal character is a natural development from that 
of a chieftain with his council of war around him ^. 

Most surely Kemble's instinct led him right, when he 
fixed upon the gesi^as as an order of men around whom 
the problem revolved. These are the words in which he 

1 yEthelberht's Laws, cap. 8, 15. Stubbs, Const. History, § 71. 
Gneist has a note on the clever monograph of Allen, * Inquiry into the 
rise and growth of the Royal Prerogative in England ' (1830), in which 
he says : 'In the background one can perceive in this author the idea 
of usurpation and a continual dislike of monarchy ; everything that is 
immature and anomalous in the development of kingly power he ac- 
cordingly places in the foreground.' The History of the English 
Constitution, tr. Ashworth, vol. i. p. 17. The same kind of prejudice 
is only too perceptible in Kemble. It sometimes leads him into extra- 
vagant errors (as it seems to me) of interpretation, or at least helps to 
content and confirm him in them ; e. g. Cod. Pipl. Introduction, pp. 

53, 56. 

^ The history of the Council after the Norman Conquest is developed 
in the Arnold Prize Essay of i860 by Mr. Dicey; entitled The Privy 
Council, Eepublished 1887 (MacmiUan). 

II Ixv 

introduces us to the gesi^. 'As the proper name for 
the freeman is ceorl, and that for the born noble eorl, 
so is the true word for the comes or comrade, gesid.' 
As much as to say, that gesi^ is a term of such sig- 
nificance as claims to rank third by the side of those 
two words which represent the most radical and ex- 
haustive distinction in the early composition of free 
society ^. 

This is a profound observation, and one that was by 
no means self-evident ; but the statement is not matured 
to that aphoristic lucidity which renders exposition 
superfluous. Consequently, some explanation is needed 
to bring out its meaning and application, and to win 
for it due estimation as a guiding historic sentence. 
For it is not plain on every aspect of the case that 
gesi'S has a claim to be brought near to eorl and ceorl, 
those matchless patriarchal designations. Indeed at the 
first glimpse we are rather struck by a glaring disparity 
of condition between this third term and the elder two. 
Each of these absolutely covers its own field, and there 
is no synonym for either ; whereas gesi^ is by no means 
singular as a word for comes. On the contrary, the group 

^ ' The origin of the distinction it is in vain to search after ; the 
difference of the Eorl and the Ceorl is a primary fact from which we 
start ; it is as old as the earliest notices of Teutonic institutions ; and 
the only attempt at its explanation is to be found in an ingenious 
mythical story in a Northern Saga.' Freeman, N. C, i. 88. The 
story referred to is the Rlgsm^l, for which see Vigfusson and Powell, 
Corpus Poeticum Boreale, vol. i. p. 234 ff. It should be observed that 

* eorl ' here is not a title of nobility, but the common designation of an 
upper class, a superior order in free society ; this word does not appear 
in England as a title until the eleventh century, and then it is an 
adaptation of the Scandinavian ' Jarl.' Still more important is it to 
keep the Saxon comes distinct from the Comes of the Normans, which 
still stands for the Latin equivalent of the titular ' Earl.' The so-called 

* Asser ' has this Comes ; and it is ominous. 



of words importing companion is so numerous as to ob- 
scure the fact that amidst such a vocabulary of comrade- 
ship there was one word and one only which represented 
comes in the Tacitean sense, and in the sense which 
interests the constitutional historian. It was Alfred's 
employment of the word to translate the titular comes 
of Beda that led Kemble to the discovery which he has 
embodied in the above dictum. 

The most ordinary word for companion is gefera, 
from fara7i to go. Etymologically, this is the most 
exact representative of comes. It is obliquely repre- 
sented in the German Gefahrte. In 42I we have the 
signature of a ' cinges gefera.' 

In the poetic literature we have gestealla, one who 
shares the same place {steal) ; eaxl gestealla, companion 
at a prince's shoulder ; fyrd gestealla, marching comrade ; 
hand gestealla, close companion ; lind gestealla, shield- 
fellow ; will gestealla, Q^o^en Q0Tc\Y2i^e. 

A rarer poetic word is gesella, dweller in the same 
hall {sal) ; whence hand gesella in the Beowulf. Current 
as an ordinary word in German Geselle. 

An uncommon word is ge)70fta, of obscure etymology, 
which is glossed colihertus, contubernalis, cliens. 

A word of great importance is geneat, which is 
extinct in modem English, but lives in Dutch gen 00 1- 
schap, and German Genosse companion, Genos- 
senschaft society. It is connected with neotan enjoy, 
and it rests upon the idea of fellowship in domestic 
accommodations, especially the common fire and the 
common board. The phrases are beod gen:^at table- 
companion, eald GENiifeAT old comradc, heokd gen^iat 
hearth-fellow ; the first and third in Beowulf, the other 
in Maldon. 

II Ixvii 

But of all this set of words the one which has had 
the longest and most prominent career is geri^fa, still 
extant in English reeve^ and the second part of sheriff 
sciE GEREFA, a word which Giimm's derivation [Rechts- 
alterthumer, 753) based upon the shelter of a common 
roof and rafter. If phonetic laws exclude this etymo- 
logy, the derivation from an adj. EOF excellent, seems 
contrary to analogy ^. In the Parker Glossary (8th cen- 
tury) occurs the entry ' Proceres^ geroefan^.' It seems 
to be generally agreed that any connection of this word 
with the Prankish graj^hio and the German title of 
nobility Graf must be abandoned, and that these words 
are to be traced back to the Greek ypdcf)€Lv write^. 

We come now to the term which alone is capable of 
ranking with eorl and ceorl, namely gesid. In Moeso- 
Gothic it appears as gasintha, from sinthan to travel ; 
— the n, which in our word is merged, retains its place 
in the modem German Gesinde and its diminutive 
Ge sin del. The present signification of these words in 
current German takes a humble range, but this is 
perhaps due to degeneracy, as the figure which the 
word makes in the Lombard laws implies a certain 
dignity, not unHke that of the English gesid*. 

^ Kemble himself, who is the author of this derivation, did not like 
the adjective for a source, and therefore he feigned a substantive rdf 
clamor. Saxons, ii. 154. His two arguments against Grimm's deriva- 
tion seem to me unsatisfactory, both of them. 

^ At an early date this word became so official that we seldom find 
it in its first sense of companion. It is, however, sometimes inter- 
mixed and confused with gefera in the MSS., and in particular may 
be mentioned the Law of Ine, 63, where his gebefan is in the Latin 
version rendered socios suos. 

^ Weigand, v. Graf; Skeat, v. Meeve. 

* In a Table of Wergilds : — ' Gasindius maximus .ccc. solidi. Ga- 
sindius minimus .cc. solidi.' See Robertson, Scotland's Early Kings, 
ii. 2 78.. 

e % 


In Middle High German the Gesinde is a military 
companion or man-at-arms, and this is apparently the 
sense which the word had commonly borne at the de- 
parture of the Saxons from their mother country. It 
was natural that this word should rise in value and get 
intensified through the organisation and struggle of the 
invasion, where I apprehend the general term for the 
well-born officers was gesid. Of all the titles of com- 
panionship hitherto enumerated none but gesid seems 
to have been capable of the most familiar and affec- 
tionate epithet — 'swaese gesi'Sas,' as it is in Beowulf. 
But what particularly justifies the aphorism of Kemble, 
is the fact that this term actually supplanted the term 
EORL as a designation of the noble in contradistinction 
to the commoner. I do not know that a clear instance 
of EORL in this original sense can be found after the 
Laws of Aethelberht, though there are many passages 
where it might seem so to the unwary reader. 

In the early laws, the GEsi'S appears as the local police 
officer. In the Laws of Ine (before a. d. 694) it is assumed 
and implied that there is in every township a gesi'S. 
This is a universal institution ; the local administration 
of public order rests everywhere upon the gesi"Sas. 

One of the most important functions that devolved 
upon the gesiS was the outlook against banished men, 
a duty which implied the cognizance of strangers in 
general. The harbouring of such outlaws was called 
flyme7ia fyrmd^ and this is a crime of which we learn 
the importance by the numerous and emphatic repetition 
of the sanctions. The penalties were at first ruinous, 
but they appear to have grown more lenient with the 
progress of society and the growth of security. What 
demands our attention at this point is the remarkable 

II Ixix 

fact that the penalty fell not only upon the actual 
offender, but likewise, and with equal weight too, upon 
the gesidman. Thus it is laid down Ine 30 : ' If a man 
of ceorl's degree be charged with harbouring a fugitive, 
let him clear himself on penalty of his wergild. If he 
cannot clear himself, let him redeem himself with his 
own wergild, and the gesi'Sman do likewise with his 
wergild.' The meaning of this is plain. The gesi^ 
ought to be so vigilant as to know what is going on ; 
and if the law is infringed without his knowledge, such 
ignorance in a chief official makes him partner in the 

N(5r is this the only text which evidences the strin- 
gency of the gesi^man's obligations as a guardian of the 
public peace. In Ine 50 we read : ' If a gesi'Scund man 
makes peace with the king or the king's alderman for 
members of his community, or if it be with his lord that 
he makes peace for unfree or free, he, the gesi-S, takes 
no share of the fine in such a case, because he did not 
choose to keep people out of mischief at home,' Here 
we see that the gesi'S had ordinarily his share of fines 
arising from the administration of justice in his district, 
and this is in itself a magisterial privilege. We learn 
moreover from Ine 2^, that the gesi^ shared escheats 
with the king himself. ' If a foreigner is slain, the king 
has two-thirds of his wergild ; the other third goes to 
his son or relations. If he has no relations, the king 
has half, and the gesi^ half.' 

Who then were these gesidas who constituted an 
order of such national importance, whose ranks supplied 
the entire staff of the primary local magistracy; and 
how came this title to import so much more in English 
than in any cognate dialect? My surmise (already 


implied) is, that they are the original captains and 
officers of the Conquest of Wessex, men of eorlisc birth, 
the co-adventurers who organised and led the invasion, 
and who obtained a share of the conquered soil duly 
proportionate to their services or contributions to the 
successful venture ^. 

All we know of the gesi^ is in perfect keeping with 
the character of a military officer, who had naturally 
developed into a local prefect of police. But while the 
ordinary duties of the gesi'S in time of peace were of 
a police nature, this does not alter the fact that his 
function is primarily and essentially military. He is a 
military officer to whom in the relaxation or rather 
intermission of military duties a district of police ad- 
ministration has been assigned. I say intermission, 
because I imagine that garrisons were still kept up in 
every Hundred or small group of Hundreds, and that 
every village was required to march out its contingent 
when the season of the year came round. On such 
occasions of muster the same band of men would 
supply the garrison as soldiers (fierd), and work at 
repairs of forts and bridges in the district around, and 
thus the obligations of their tenure as described in the 
trinoda necessitas would be discharged^. 

We saw above that Kemble had joined the term GEsi'S 

^ It is not without force as a parallel, that the warrior kings of 
Macedonia conferred upon their choice and favourite troops, the heavy 
cavalry, composed wholly or chiefly of native Macedonians, the hono- 
rary designation of The Companions. Grote, History of Greece, 
c. 92. 

^ We catch a glimpse of the local military administration in Sax. 
Chr. 894 (p. 92m of my ed.) where the king's thanes are seen ' at 
home/ that is to say, posted in their several garrisons (set ham set ])aem 
geweorcum). Compare also * of ))am niehstum burgum.' Chr. 921 
(p. 1 06b). These 'works' and 'burghs' I apprehend to be no other 
than the green earthworks so familiar to our eye all over the country. 

II Ixxi 

comes^ on to the two terms eorl and ceorl, whicli ex- 
pressed tlie first simple di^dsion of free society. It has a 
vital relation to those terms. For the gesidas were an 
order of men who sprang out of the eorlisc ranks but 
gained a new distinction by special service. Presently 
we see the term eorl drops out of use, and remains 
only as a word in Epic poetry^. Widely different the 
fortunes of these two cardinal terms eorl and ceorl, for 
while the latter kept its place all through, the former 
was supplanted in life by a series of substitutes. Already 
in Wihtraed 5, we see the gesidcund man and the ciorlisc 
divide society: the same in Ine 51, 54. From the time of 
Ine the gesi^ disappears from our laws, and after lingering 
a moment in the Alfredian literature is lost altogether ^. 
The term which steps into its place is ]?egen, and in 
229 h we may see all free society comprised in J;egenas 
and ceorlas. After the Saxon period we see another 
term figuring as the antithesis of ceorl, namely knight ; 
in the thirteenth century everybody was either of 
knightly or of churlish blood. This term had its growth 
and character impressed on it in the Saxon period, 
though it does not yet make a prominent figure. See 
Glossarial Index, v. Cniht. In the thousand years from 
the fifth to the fifteenth century we see a train of words 
succeeding one another in the same oflice, and if they 
fail to be absolute equivalents, it is because of changes 
in the times, and not in the relative social incidence 
of the terms. These words are, eorl, gesith, thane, 
knight, squire, gentleman. The last two run abreast. 

^ It should be noticed that with Cnut came in a secondary use of 
EORL, its titular use, which though written in Saxon form is really the 
Scandinavian ' JarL' See 229 1. 

^ With one remarkable exception, to be noticed below. See p. Ixxvii. 


The functions of this order of men were rather in- 
definite, and upon this quality their peculiar usefulness 
hinged. The gesi'S had not much, if any, routine ad- 
ministration, hut a general responsibility that things 
should go right. Others called out the Fierd, others 
witnessed bargains or fined trespassers, others parcelled 
out the fencing or gave the ploughs their daily task ; — 
but the Gesi^ meanwhile took account of the military 
duty and of the administration of the law, and of the fair 
conduct of the co-tillage. If any dispute arose, he was 
looked to as the arbiter ; if a question of law, he was the 
interpreter. While minor officials administered the rigid 
letter of the law, he was there to supply the element of 
elasticity when occasion arose. In later days when 
the manorial courts were presided over by the steward, 
the lord still retained the prerogative of equity ; he was 
chancellor in his dominion ^. 

The bearings and influence of such an order extended 
upwards and downwards. To them the people looked 
up as to their natural leaders, through them opened the 
vista from the plough to the throne, and the sense of 
national unity was cultivated or sustained. Much of 
the spirit of this office has in later centuries passed into 
the ranks of the parochial clergy, who in some sense 
were instituted by, and who for some purposes now are 
the genuine representatives of, the early gesi'Sas. For 
it is to such an instrumentality that we must trace 
the hitherto imperfectly explained establishment of our 
parishes. The parish priest was at first a priest engaged 
by the gesi'S and his people for the regular administration 
among them of the word and sacraments. In this, which 

' Scriven, On Copyholds, p. 339 ; and Index v. Court Baron. 

II Ixxiii 

seems to me the only possible explanation, lies also the 
histoiy and the reason of lay patronage ^. 

An expressive memorial of this relation is often seen 
in the contiguity of the manor house to the church. In 

^ A signal light upon this early relation between squire and parson 
is afforded by the Donation of ^thelwulf. Kemble is altogether in 
confusion about the meaning of that act ; though in sweeping away the 
notion, prevalent since Selden, that it was somehow the establishment 
of tithes, he did good service. Moreover, we thankfully acknowledge 
his excellent catalogue of the materials, Saxons ii. 480 flf. Besides 
the notices in historians, he refers to eleven documents in Cod. Dipl., 
viz. 270, 271, 275, 276, 1048, 1050, 1051, 1052, 1053, 1054, 1057. 
To these eleven we may now add four more from Mr. Birch's Car- 
tularium Saavmcum, namely, Numbers 471,474, 483, 485 ; so that we 
have fifteen diplomatic writings touching the Donation of ^thelwulf. 
A comparative study divides these into three classes, viz. (i) K 270, 
271, 1050, 1054, and BC 471, 474; (2) K 275, 1048, and BC 483,485 ; 
(3) K 276 (p. 336), 1051, 1052, 1053, 1057 (P- 349)- (Only two of 
these are among the texts printed in this book ; in fact, I did not 
know what to make of them, and the light I now have has come to 
me in the course of the work.) The third class consists of late fabri- 
cations, which just avail themselves of the Donation of vEthelwulf for 
colour's sake. In these we may catch a phrase or two that reflect 
a genuine source, like pro decimatione agrorum quam cceteris ministris 
meis facere decreri, 336 1. The second class is united in itself and 
distinguished from the rest, by the rare word witerceden in the clause 
of exemption from services ; as also by a Preamble of more than com- 
mon reality, which may indeed have stood at the opening of the original 
Donation ; and further, they agree in a general characterisation of the 
act, consilium salubre ac remedium uniforme affirmavi. Of the first 
class it will be enough to say that they all contain the following lines 
with almost exact agreement: — consilium salubre cum episcopis comi- 
tihus et cunctis optimatihus meis perfeci, ut decimam partem terrarum 
per regnum nostrum non solum Sanctis ecclesiis darem verum etiam et 
ministris nostris in eodem [v.l. eisdem'] conMtutis. These, combined 
with other scattered indications, all in Kemble as above referred to, 
point to the following conclusion. The king granted to each local 
and residentiary squire a tenth part of the spare and available lands 
in his district, part for himself and part for religious purposes, namely, 
the maintenance of the clergy, the sustentation of the fabric, and the 
relief of the poor ; and if there be any parishes which possess lands 
traditionally devoted to any of these purposes, their history being un- 
known, it is possible they may date from vEthelwulf's Donation. (PS. A 


recently formed parishes the parsonage is, if possible, 
placed next the church ; but in those ancient parishes 
which grew by nature and without design, the grouping 
of the church with the manor house is the typical 
arrangement. This manor house may be taken in bulk 
to represent the seat of the gesith or thane ; and there 
are places where, the manor house having changed site, 
the earthworks of the Saxon mansion are still extant. 
Local archaeologists will do well to form a habit of 
looking over the church-yard wall. The most remark- 
able instance known to me is that of Laughton in the 
West Riding. Earls Barton in Northamptonshire, the 
place with the remarkable Saxon tower, has a mound 
and ditch which tell the same story. Such a Saxon 
mansion was often the successor of a Roman villa. In 
Mr. Seebohm's map of Wymondley, in Hertfordshire, we 
see, as it seems to me, the banks of a Saxon fortified house 
outside the church-yard wall, on a site richly stored with 
Roman remains. 

The admirable cementing of society which was thus 
achieved was probably due to no one man's policy, but 
to the half-conscious wisdom of national instinct. Per- 
haps it may have been partly a continuation, partly an 
improvement upon a like distribution of eorl and ceorl 
in the old country. It is dangerous for the state when 
two widely differing conditions of men live side by side 
without constitutional provision for their sound mutual 
relations and their healthy influence upon one another : 

gixteenth instance of ^thelwulfs Donation is preserved in the Register 
of Sherborne Abbey, now in the Phillips Library at Cheltenham. It 
is neither in Kemble nor Birch ; but it is (minus the preamble) in 
Hearne's Collections, now being edited by Mr. Doble for the Oxford 
Historical Society; vol. iii. p. 450; with a sight of which I have been 
kindly favoured.) 

II Ixxv 

— as in the France of last century and the Ireland of 

It may surprise the reader to learn, that the gesi^ 
whose traces have been so carefully followed, does not 
appear by that name so much as once in all our land- 
charters. This, however, is only because the grants are 
expressed in Latin, for the grantee is sometimes styled 
comes, which is the equivalent of gesiS, and sometimes 
he is styled minister, i. e. J^egen, a title which, as we saw, 
succeeded to gesi'S. For all purposes of constitutional 
argument the comes and the minister are identical. 
Whether under the one or the other title, these grants 
are directed towards the endowment of a local squire- 
archy, as a guarantee of legality and order, and as a 
means of embracing in a body politic all the parts of a 
scattered population. If we have in our hands fewer 
grants made to comes or minister than of those which 
were made in favour of religious houses, this is not 
because the latter were historically the more numerous, 
but because they have had better chances of preserva- 
tion. The monastic grants are not the types, but they 
are rather to be considered as an imitation and a variety 
of those which were made to lay hands. The whole 
must be looked upon as a general movement and as the 
expression of a policy for which a demand was felt, and 
perhaps a demand that was always still in advance and 
never quite overtaken by the progress of endowments ^. 

In the generations next after the first Conquest, the 
primary settlements sent off* new swarms. It is in 

^ In confirmation of the general view here taken of the order of 
society, I may point to a remarkable passage in 37 b, 40 h, where 
comes, presbyter, diaconus, clericus, monachus, stand in that order, as 
a list of persons removable from office. 


these, planted without circumstance of war, that we 
must look for the reproduction of the simple Mark, the 
lordless village Community. That there were townships 
in the country without squires we can see by Domesday, 
where we read from time to time of an estate held as a 
Manor by two, or five, or nine freemen ^ ! When we 
come upon such a case we seem to see a settlement upon 
the simplest plan, without a gesiS, as in Kemble's Mark. 
But the recognized policy was, to follow the type which 
war had initiated, and to plant a royally commissioned 
officer by the side of each rural community. 

The real difficulty of our problem is to reconcile this 
manorial jurisdiction with the functions of the Hundred. 
The gesi'S was plainly subordinated to the Hundredes 
ealdor, and that functionary was his immediate ealdor- 
man. But the incidence of subordination is obscure, and 
especially the relation of the Manor to the Hynden or 
original Tithing. 

The area of the Hundred framed witbin itself a 
complete system of magistracy and local authority both 
military and civil. With no clerks, no writers to speak 
of, all transactions were in community. Not a head of 
cattle could change hands, but the tithing-man and wit- 
nesses must take account of it. The business of one was 
the business of all. All life was communal, and the 
ranks were interwoven. With the king's representative 
always in view, and yet the daily administration of so 
popular a kind that it was shared in turn by all ' true ' 
men, there grew up that full and neighbourly under- 
standing which constitutes mutual confidence and makes 
a nation compact. 

It is to this consolidating internal policy that I would 
^ Only here again, have we caught the true sense of * liberi homines ''? 

II Ixxvii 

attribute the ultimate supremacy of Wessex. When 
everything else was dissolved, Wessex alone proved 
equal to check the Danes in the maturing stages of a 
victorious career. The subsequent union of the country 
made the system of Wessex the system of the whole : 
and this has been the making of England, and the basis 
of national sturdiness. 

And as strength lay in the native policy of combina- 
tion, so Cnut's subdivision into provinces proved when 
his strong hand was withdrawn to be a mere disruption 
which gave the next invader an easy victory. 

Our national solidity was however to prove its mettle 
in the ordeal of the Norman Conquest and its sequel. 
In the Saxon period the nation had made that healthy 
and robust growth which enabled it, when apparently 
overwhelmed by the invader, to assimilate what it liked 
of the foreign element, and not to be assimilated by it. 

The provision made for the gesith forwards us another 
step in the history of the land-settlement. So far as 
the Ethel and the Hide, there is no appearance of the 
instrumentality of written records. All facts affecting 
property were so patent, the habits of life were so inter- 
dependent among the members of the community that 
the common memory was a sufficient archive. Our people 
in the old country had used no writings for the transac- 
tion of business, whether conveyancing, testamentary, or 
otherwise. But, now, having become masters of this 
island, they had come within the pale of Roman civiliza- 
tion, and here it becomes a question of great curiosity 
and interest whether we should say that they gradually 
adopted the legal usages which they found esta- 
blished in their new country, or whether we should 
rather say that the usage of the Roman world was 


first brought home to them along with other Roman 
influences at the Conversion. In either case we here 
encounter a new institution, and one of which it is 
hardly possible to exaggerate the importance. Here- 
ditary estates, having all the desirable attributes of 
Ethelland, were created by government charter. 

When the king and his witan made such a grant 
from the folkland, the concession was written on a 
sheet of parchment, and that sheet, in Latin pagina, 
lihellus, scriptura, documentum, cartida^ was in the ver- 
nacular called Boc a book ; and the nature of the tenure 
so created is expressed by the name of boc land. These 
grants carry with them the general purport of being 
made in consideration of services of a superior kind, and 
they are given with seigneurial rights (liberaliter), and 
with exemption from a variety of services which we 
shall have to consider presently. These land-grants 
are something more than conveyances, they are the 
creation of a parliamentary title, and the approved 
parallel is a private Act of Parliament^. 

There is one attribute which we must particularly 
notice as an eminent distinction of bookland, namely 
this, that it carried with it the power of testamentary 
disposition which Ethelland did not. Every land-book 
has a clause of this type — ita ut cuicumque voluerit post se 
heredi derelinquat — ^o that he may leave it to what heir 
he will after his day. Examples I24h, 133 m, 140 h, 
142 1, I ']2, !• This attribute differentiates bookland from 
the conditions of feudal tenancy. In both cases the 
owner is an oflBcer settled on land, and the circumstances 
have enough in common to account for the difficulty 
which some writers have experienced in discriminating 

^ Kemble, Saxong, i. 305. Pollock, Land Laws (ed. i), p. 191. 

IT Ixxix 

them. But this testamentary freedom of bookland, 
which implies a power of alienation, is an incident of 
fall ownership which was denied to the feudal tenant. 

Besides its direct information, the clause just quoted 
has also an indirect and collateral value ; it not only 
tells us of the rights of bookland, but it implies (by 
the fact of its careful insertion) that there were tenures 
with different conditions. And this difference is further 
emphasized by the word immunis which enters into this 
clause in the course of the tenth century : — et post se 
cuicumque sibi placuerit heredi immunem derelinqnat, and 
after his time he may leave it to what heir he will 
un-subject to payment, 209 1, 293 h. Here we perceive 
that there were lands which if devised by testament were 
subject to a payment. These were the loan-lands, and 
this payment is seen in the Wills, and it is that which 
became the Relevium. 

This grant of full ownership is followed by a sepa- 
rate clause (sometimes distinguished by a Cross of its 
own, e.g. 133 1) of exemption from all services ex- 
cept the inevitable and universal three. Examples 173 1, 
181 h, 194 m, 209 1. This clause again conveys to us 
not only direct, but also indirect information. It not 
only describes a privilege of bookland, but it also re- 
flects a side-light upon the tenure of those who had 
laens on the folkland, a tenure which is here the tacit 
object of comparison. 

The general aim was to establish the nation accord- 
ing to its immemorial traditions in the two classes of 
eorl and ceorl, gentle and simple, that the whole popu- 
lation might be always in presence of a superior, that a 
gradation of ranks might be provided, as a guarantee 
of legality and social order. The inherited distinction 


between noble and freeman was not only perpetuated, 
but was probably systematized as it never had been 
before, and this as an immediate consequence of the 
logic of events. To convert an army into a civil society 
is an undertaking" that calls for the maintenance of 
discipline, and this discipline was carried out by the 
gesi-Sas. In the Laws of Ine, § 51, we see two classes 
of these officers, one landowning (landagende) and the 
other not landowners (unlandagende). I understand by 
the latter such gesi'Sas as had no family estate, whether 
ethel or bookland ; but were provided for in the common 
field. I conjecture that such a gesi'S w^ould have a 
double portion, namely two Hides. 

The gesi^as were at first only so many military and 
police officers stationed at the villages over the land ; 
and some, perhaps the bulk of them, remained to the 
end of the period, with little change in their condition. 
Even these however acquired the prevalent title of 
Thanes (J^egenas), and gained some degree of political 
ascendency over the ceorlas beyond what was native to 
the original constitution. The advance which was gained 
by this more stationary section of the gesi^as was so 
much taken away from the powers of the original 
Hynden or Tithing, a sub-division which was the first 
to fall into desuetude. But the more favoured section 
of the gesi'Sas acquired a jurisdiction which supplanted 
the original functions of the Hundred itself ; and these 
may perhaps represent the estates which in modern 
times have been called Honours, by a translation of the 
Saxon term ar or land ab. And in this connection we 
find the term gesi'S not quite extinct in the twelfth 
century, for it crops up in the so-called Laws of Henry I 
(vi, i) in the compound siffes-socn (as if gesi^es somi). 

It Ixxxi 

There we read : — Ipsi vero comitatus in centurias et sij7es- 
socna distinguuntur ; centurice vel hunclreta in decanias vel 
decimas et in dominorum plegios. i.e. The shii*es are divided 
into Hundreds and Sith-Sokens ; the Hundreds into 
Tithings and dominical wards ^. And this may account for 
the fact that there were seven Hundreds in Worcester- 
shire, which the king's sheriff had nothing to do with^. 
It was a view of policy to endow the eorlas as an 
upper class of locally resident gentry, not suddenly by 
one enactment, but progressively as townships grew in 
importance, and as public servants gave proof of ability 
or merit. Of the way in which the folc land — which 
did not become bog laxd, but remained folc land — 
was dealt with, our texts give us no direct information. 
These transactions were not written, and our knowledge 
is to be gathered from incidental notices ^. Our chief 

^ I might claim that this compound sipes socna, in this context, 
imports the whole doctrine of the identity of the Manor with the 
Soken of the Gesith. But the text lies under some disadvantages of 
transmission, which may for a time retard its complete recognition. 
In the first place the Code in which it occurs is not authoritative, 
nor is it contemporary with Henry I, but it is a later and a private 
compilation, the credit of which must depend upon the criticism of its 
contents. Next, the writing of the MS. is sipessocna, from which 
si/>es socna is an emendation. But these objections are met by observ- 
ing, First, that the Leges Henrici I are judged to be no later than the 
middle of the 1 2th century, and that the paragraph in question bears 
every mark of validity ; Secondly, that the confusion between/ and p 
is so usual as to count for little or nothing ; and Thirdly, that the har- 
mony of the passage with our best evidences, and the flood of light 
which it lets in upon our local institutions, are such as to dissipate any 
remainder of uncertainty. 

^ Stubbs, C. H., § 47 ; quoting Domesday, i. 172, 

' There is no extant deed which deals with, folc land as such ; it is 
only mentioned incidentally in deeds of bdc land. A chief text is that 
of A.D. 858 where the king exchanges land with a thane ; the land he 
gives is to be discharged 'ab omni servitute regali operis,' as had already 
happened to the land he receives. Both estates were manifestly taken 
from folc land, one at the actual date, the other previously. 



text is printed below (pp. 1 49-1 51, and note), and we 
gather from it that it could not be held by a woman, 
and was not hereditary, and could not be testamentarily 
devised, but that the continuation of it in the family 
depended on the will of the king. Such a tenure 
was called a u^ i. e. loan, and the word was used in 
the same sense in German Lehen, which has not become 
obsolete, but still survives both in the simple form and 
in a multitude of compounds redolent of old feudal 

The leading characteristic of Igen land was this, that 
the lender never finally divested himself of his original 
right, and the land was always liable in certain con- 
tingencies to revert to the original owner or his repre- 
sentative. In the bulk of instances the owner was the 
State, and we see it reverting to the State in p. 149, 
where it seems to be in the power of the king (naturally 
in gemot) to decree its continuance in the family. 
There is no reason to think that the succession was 
ordinarily disturbed ; but the holder of loan-land had 
not a legal right of testamentary bequest. 

When folc land became ISn land it seems to have 
remained liable to certain burdens peculiar to itself, and 
which are in keeping with its nature ^. Being essen- 
tially national property it might be used when required 
by the king and his chief officers ; it was bound to help 
when a house had to be built for the king's service ; 
and we see special remission of such obligations e. g. 
p. 100 1, II 2 m, 140 h, 397 1. It is a like class of burdens 
from which the land is exempted that -^thelwulf got 

* The affinity between the liabilities and the nature of the property 
seems to have suggested the expression in K 118, 'tributum publica- 
lium rerum.' 


II Ixxxiii 

booked to himself (p. 1 20 m) ; but here we gather that 
one of the burdens incident to such land was to aid in 
the execution of justice, as in the pursuit and capture of 
a thief. To be exempted from such liabilities Eadulf, 
bishop of Crediton, gave to Athelstan in the year 933 
sixty pounds of silver (p. 1 70 h). 

Our evidences justify us in saying that it was a re- 
cognised principle that this land, being public, must be 
employed in the public behoof, whether as reward of 
public services done in the past, or as a retainer and 
guarantee for the future discharge of such services. 
That such a principle was acted upon can be sufficiently 
demonstrated. The largest recorded grant of folkland 
is found in the Chronicle under a.d. 648, where we read 
that Cenwalh gave to his relative Cuthred ' iij ]?usendo 
londes be ^sces dune.' The name of Ashdown still 
survives on the Berkshire hills to the south of Didcot, 
and the grant probably represents a large part of that 
county. It seems clear that there was a military obli- 
gation attached to the grant ; that this territory was 
the bastion of Wessex against the dreaded power of 
Mercia, and that the corollary of Cuthred's possession 
was the defence of that border, and a constant posture of 
vigilance against invasion. Presently, in 661, Wulfhere, 
the king of Mercia, did invade the territory and harried 
it, but got no further than Ashdown. Again, in 871, 
we find the Danes arrested in their westward course at 
Ashdown, and they have to fight a great battle there. 

A less conspicuous instance of the same principle is 
that where, in a. d. 997, a grant of bookland in Corn- 
wall is made subject to coast-guard duties, which 
obligation is incorporated in the trinoda necessitas 
clause, 295 1. These are extraordinary cases, but they 

f 2 


seem to furnish evidence of the principle which was 
understood to rule all dealing's with the public land. 

Our chief source of information as to the kind of 
duties which were ordinarily and normally attached to the 
enjoyment of a Isen on the folkland is found in the 
clauses of exemption for those privileged beneficiaries 
who received their lands subject to duties of a higher 
order. The ordinary beneficiary was liable to be called 
upon to entertain the king and those in authority under 
him, and to furnish such persons with a house of call 
when they were upon their journeys in the public 
service. Inter alia, they had to provide for the ' fsesting 
men,' perhaps the relays of men who garrisoned the 
forts and acted as a rural police; then they owed 
to their chief patron the king some gratifications as if 
he were their private landlord, such as the fostering of 
dogs and falcons ; and generally they would seem to 
have been at his service in all that concerned the 
appliances of sport. So even to our own day has it 
been no uncommon thing for a tenant-farmer to have 
about him a couple or so of young foxhounds which he 
keeps and rears for his landlord's use. In those days 
the sitter on a Isen not only kept the dogs but the dog- 
keepers too. A more important and onerous duty was 
laid on the holders of these lands. They were bound to 
aid the executive in the prosecution of justice against 
criminals, even if we may not almost say that they 
largely constituted the executive of the criminal law. 
This part of their duty was called wite e^den, in Latin 
res penales criminal concerns. It seems they had to 
pursue and capture a malefactor and presumably to 
undertake his custody until he could be brought to 

II Ixxxv 

A good illustration of these liabilities may be seen 
(tooI) where the king says : — ' Moreover I will free the 
aforesaid land from all subjection in worldly matters, 
from entertaining the king, bishops, lords, aldormen, 
bailiffs, keepers of hounds, horses, hawks ; from board- 
ing and lodging all those who are called "fsesting men," 
from all services works burdens or inconveniences — what 
more or less shall I enumerate or say? — from all lia- 
bilities greater and less, known and unknown, let the 
land remain in all respects free for evermore, excepting 
these four things which now I will name : expedition 
against pagan enemies, bridge-building, fort-making 
or removing.' 

Again, 1 26 1, the king grants exemption in the following 
terms : ' in such a manner that from all over-lordship of 
royal tributes and compulsory works and criminal con- 
cerns and thief-capturing and every worldly burden, 
saving alone fyrd and bridge-building and burg-making, 
it is to remain secure and exempt, &c.' 

In K1063 the exemption is thus worded: — 'liberam 
ab omnibus terrenis difficultatibus omnium gravitudinum, 
sive a pastu regis, principis, exactoris, et ab omni aedi- 
ficiorum opere, tributo, a parvaredis, a taxationibus 
quod dicimus witeredenne, omnium rerum secularium 
perpetualiter libera sit, excepta expeditione et pontis 
aedificatione,' etc. That is: the land to be free from 
every burden in the nature of a land-tax, from enter- 
taining king, prince, reeve, and from all building work, 
tribute, post-horses, from the liabilities called wite r^den, 
etc. The obligation to pay ' gafol ' in kind for the pro- 
visioning of the king's villas is sometimes given in 
detail, e.g. 311 b^. 

^ What relation this has (if any) with the tenure now known as 


The tenant of such a Isen on the folkland, if his farm 
was near the chief routes, must have had to keep open 
house perpetually, and this was probably one of the 
means of forming our good old-fashioned country inns 
which of late years have become so rare. In K 261 we 
see the English word for this indefinite obligation, 
namely cumfeoem, which in K ^^58 is thus expressed in 
Latin, ' ab hospitorum [i. e. hospitum] refectione,' from 
providing refreshment for callers, presumably only 
callers who are on the road in the public service ^. 

It resulted from this state of things that fiscal diffi- 
culties were unknown ; there was no annual revenue to 
be raised. All things were consumed where they arose ; 
there was no system of collecting provision to a centre, 
or of dispensing it from a centre. The king and his 
court made their stated progresses from one royal vill to 
another, and enjoyed the fruits of the earth where they 
had grown. All expenses of government and adminis- 
tration were met by the proceeds of land on the ground 
where they were incui-red, first of all by the system of 
the trinoda necessitas, and next by the obligations of the 
sitters on the Isen lands. As all holders of land were 
bound to a yearly term of military service, and as they 
actually did serve even in peace, there was always a 
ready means of bringing an army into the field. Even 
the navy was supplied by local means. Every county 
had to produce its contingent of ships according to its 
hidage, and the minor details of arming and outfitting 
were conducted on the same footing. We find no in- 
stance of general taxation eai'lier than a.d. 991, when 

Gavelkind, J will not here enquire ; — I will only point to an uncommon 
passage in 334 b, which may possibly have some bearing upon it. 
^ For more examples 133 b, 140 h. 

II Ixxxvii 

ten thousand pounds were collected to buy off the Danes ; 
this happened during the reign of ^Ethelred five times 
altogether, and these are the only instances of public 
imposts in money which we meet with in the Anglo- 
Saxon period. So completely did the land-system pro- 
vide for all the branches of public expenditure ^, 

Such was the general plan of the distribution of the 
land in the Saxon period. So far as I can judge, it was 
politic and economical ; — calculated to favour industry 
and good neighbourhood, and likewise to promote the 
moral and religious improvement of the people. That 
it was well adapted to educate a nation politically, and 
that it did so educate them, needs hardly be said. The 
History of England is the sufficient vindication of the 
wisdom of our early institutions. 

I do not forget that there were abuses, and that the 
abuses had serious consequences. We know that in course 
of time some families possessed an altogether dispropor- 
tionate share of land (22:jh), and it is not difficult to 
imagine the sort of arts by which influential men might 
accumulate grants of bookland or laenland. It was in- 
deed this, joined to the excessive development of private 
jurisdictions, which made the richer nobles too powerful, 
and reduced the king to isolation and impotence. It 
was this that caused the wretchedness of the later reigns, 
this that gave William his opportunity, and it was just 
this that his policy rectified, by reinstating the king in 
a position from which he might not only reign but also 

^ On this subject, how much was done without the medium of 
money, see Freeman, N. C, i. 369, on the assessment for raising a fleet 
in 1008. If the method was clumsier, the risk of malversation was 
less. A useful outline of the heads of public expenditure in the 
fifteenth century may be read in Sir John Fortescue's fifteenth century 
English in his Governance of England, c. 6 ; ed. Plummet (1885), p. 1 20. 


But now to bring the whole argument to a point at 
its bearing upon our land-charters. Diverse as are the 
aspects which the tenures assumed, there is a uniformity 
of principle underlying all the varieties which restores 
simplicity. The land was assigned for public services. 
This is repeatedly declared in the grants, especially 
those which are made to a gesi'S or a thane, comiti or 
ministro meo^ and these are grants of lordship, i. e. of 
manors. These were not merely social positions, but 
were offices of trust and jurisdiction, and upon them 
reposed the good order of the country generally. The 
lords of the manor presided over the administration of 
justice, the military organization including the roads 
and bridges as well as the forts, and also over the 
agricultural economy. They were not the agents of 
daily administration, but they were general surveyors. 
The lands booked to them for these services are the 
same as our manors, and the principle on which they 
were booked is the same principle as that on which 
Icens were granted though the terms are very different. 

The real state of the case is obscured by the fact that 
so large a proportion of our land-charters are in favour 
of monastic institutions. This is supposed to be some- 
thing different in principle from the grants to gesi^ or 
thane ; but it is not so. In both cases alike, the broad 
and general principle of the concession was public 
utility ; the best means for ensuring legality and public 
security and good neighbourhood, and the general wel- 
fare moral and religious. Here it is that the leases of 
the bishop of Worcester, already noticed in the previous 
Section ^, afford a most acceptable light. These are the 
instruments by which the house gave to the estate a 
^ See p. XV f . 

n Ixxxii 

layman for a lord, and it is among these lessees that 
we must recognize the character of the 'biscopes )7egn' 
[Sax. Chron. A looi). 

In monastic or ecclesiastical grants the terms are the 
same as in lay grants, the grantees have no exemptions 
from the burdens commonly incident to the possession 
of bookland. They have to fulfil their share of military 
service, and of public works on fortresses and bridges. 
The motives which led kings to make these liberal 
grants to the monks were not exclusively religious, 
or as some historians call it superstitious ; they were 
chiefly influenced by considerations of social and political 
utility. The monks were for many centuries the best 
landlords; they took a more personal interest in the 
welfare of their tenants than did the average lay pro- 
prietor ; they had more cultivated minds, more know- 
ledge of agriculture and every branch of good husbandry, 
and they kept up a correspondence with the most civilised 
countries. "VVe may be quite sure that life upon a 
monastic estate was more quiet and more orderly, and 
that the monastic tenantry presented to the observer a 
manifest superiority in manners and in comfort. Their 
military duties they discharged by forming a corps of 
military men, who were supported by pro rata con- 
tributions from all the tenants on the estate ; thus 
making the military art a separate profession, and 
securing for the bulk of their population more leisure 
for the arts of peace ^. 

* In ttis connection the first chapter of Sir W. Scott's Monastery 
will be found very good reading. The great romancer was endowed 
with a rare historic sense. — In Waverley, the Clan of Fergus Mac Ivor 
is the best description anywhere to be found of a comitatus in its 
rudimentary and less disciplined form, somewhat perhaps as it worked 
in Germany in the time of Tacitus. This remark was, I believe, first 
made by Sir H. Maine. 


There had been a time in the beginnings of our 
Christianity when lands granted to religious houses 
were absolutely exempt from public burdens, and we 
see this roundly expressed as a fundamental principle in 
the first captel of the laws of Wihtred, a. d. 699. But 
we know that this worked badly and led to dangerous 
abuses, of which Bede complained in his epistle to 
Archbishop Ecgberht ; and although the peculiar mode 
of tenure called Jus ecclesiasticum does not appear to 
have been quite discontinued, yet the general rule in 
charters granted to religious houses in and after the 
eighth century was to subject them to the same burdens 
with laymen ^. 

The time indeed came round again when all tenures 
underwent a new change, and then the original im- 
munity was restored to the lands of the Church, which 
were held subject only to divine service, exactly as in 
the old law of Wihtred. This was the change which 
followed the Norman Conquest, when ecclesiastical lands 
were again held free of military service m frank almoigne 
as it was called, that is to say, in free alms ^. 

After the Norman Conquest all the varieties of tenure 
were assimilated to laen-land. Every other kind of tenure 
was obliterated, and all the land of the country was 
made to assume the character of Loanland, whereof the 
king was held to represent the original owner ^. The 

* This is the meaning of the exclamation of Boniface, that in no 
part of the world was such servitude imposed on the church as among 
the English. Hallam, Middle Ages, chap. vii. Part i; vol. ii. p. 141 
(ed. 1856). 

^ Some of the lands of ecclesiastical corporations to this day are 
ancient bookland, which has been held without a break from the 
original Saxon charter. See Professor Pollock, Land Laws, p. 35. 

^ Mr. Freeman {Norman Conquest, vol. iv. p. 25 note) was the first 
to point out the connection between a sentence in the Chronicle 1066 

II xei 

Loanland was the nearest approach made in the Saxon 
period to the nature of that feudal tenure, which was 
rapidly matured after the Norman Conquest. One of the 
consequences of this tenure was the general suspension 
for centuries of the devising of land by testamentary 
bequest. In Saxon times, as we have seen, this pri- 
vilege attached to one form of tenure only, namely 
Bookland. It was a well-understood rule of Saxon 
law, that every species of property was stamped with its 
own principle of succession. This was determined by 
the nature of the original acquisition. The e^el land 
was hereditary according to ancient custom ; it went its 
own way, there was no place for a Will. How the Hide 
land passed is not plain, but when we consider the in- 
terests of the community in the co-tillage, we cannot 
suppose that it could be broken up at the discretion of a 
testator. Most likely it attached to a house, the house of 
an e^el, and remained undivided ; — or, if divided, there 
were limits set to the process of sub-division^. It is very- 
tempting to see in the transmission of the Hide the 
natural and proper occasion for the incidence of Borough 
English. Where the house rather than any particular 

and syddan heora land holitan, and an incidental notice in Domesday, 
ii. 360 : Hanc terram habet abbas in vadimonio pro xi. marcis auri, 
concessu Engelrici, quando redimebant Anglici terras suas. If this 
does not necessarily carry with it any alteration in the character of 
the tenure, if it is only an extraordinary event which like the ordinary 
and periodical Relief taxes the tenant but does not disturb the tenure ; 
yet, in practical working, it afforded the starting-point for a new 
assumption in the legal doctrine of tenures, and it introduced the ideal 
principle that all land is held of the sovereign. 

^ On this point very telling are Mr. Seebohm's data from the 
Middlesex Domesday, of holdings in the definite grades of hides, 
half-hides, virgates, and half-virgates. English Village Community, 
p. 92. Compare also p. 77 ; where however I do not agree with him 
as to * the reason underlying.' 


member of it was the unit of the community, there 
seems a fitness in pitching* upon the youngest member 
to personate it, for in him generations are stretched to 
the longest and transfer of hands is made rarest ; he is the 
one longest tied at home, and surest to be found when a 
corporate duty is to be claimed of the house ; he is at 
once the most insignificant and the most serviceable, 
and his elder brothers have had their nurture before him, 
and have had time to move away and better themselves. 
So long" as the word of Tacitus held good — super est ager^ 
there is always more land ; so long the natural right of 
the youngest to take the homestead and its belongings 
is very easy to understand, and this arrangement seems 
to fit well with the tenure of e^el and Md in the early 
times ^. 

Of Isen-land we know that it did not give the holder 
the right of testamentary disposal, and yet nevertheless 
it was as a matter of fact bequeathed by Will. The king 
could give permission, with the approval of his council 
(227 m), and we see Wills which acknowledge the ne- 
cessity of the royal consent and some which even pro- 
vide for the contingency of its being withheld. On 
p. 217 may be seen a formal permission by the king 
in Council (not without onerous conditions) that a 

* On the subject of Borough English, see Elton, Origins of English 
History, c. 8. Of the various ways in which junior-right has been 
explained, he treats on p. 198 ff. Some have thought the custom 
merely perverse ; such was the opinion of N. Bacon, Laws of England^ 
1739: — 'The custom was catched we know not how, and by the 
name may seem to have been brought in by some whimsical odd Angle 
that meant to cross the world.' Sir H. Maine associated it with the 
prerogative oi the paterfamilias', the unemancipated son being preferred 
in the inheritance. But when we consider the wide and various 
distribution of ultimogeniture as described by Mr. Elton, a doubt 
may rise whether any one explanation, however plausible, will avail 
to cover all the instances. 

II XClll 

certain Will may stand. Here we have a sufficient 
explanation of the petitionary preamble which appears 
in many of the Wills ^. The prayer was accompanied 
with a valuable present, which gradually assumed the 
character of a payment for the continuance of the 
property in the family. Under the matured feudal 
system this was the Relevium, the relief, recovery, 
payment made for the retaking up of the estate. The 
further determination of the heir according to the rule 
of primogeniture for the military convenience of the 
lord made Wills superfluous, and they in fact ceased as 
instruments for the succession to land until the end of 
the feudal period 2. 

The tenancy of the dominical side of the manor has 
been unnoticed in the above ; it makes little figure in 
our documents, though it has filled a large space in 
modern legislation. The domain was farmed first by the 
lord himself in the home farm (in land 376 m, BC609) ; 
next, by gebukas who paid him rent in labour and in 
produce and in money, 276f, 376f; and thirdly, by cot- 
tiers who cleared the wild land of the domain, and 
occupied the essarts : 385 b, 388 t & h, 394 m. These 
are the hordarii and cotarii of Domesday. They are 
the INWAEE and tjtwaee of 1'^^ b. These two classes of 
dominical tenants are apparently the ancestors of the 
modern copyholders. 

^ Kemble made out of this an argument to prove the servile status 
of the gesiSas ; so hardly bestead was he to maintain his theory. 

^ * Complete freedom of dealing with land by Will was a result of 
the abolition of military tenures, an event which may be taken as 
marking the full close of the mediaeval stage of the law. . . . The 
Act of the first Parliament of Charles II for abolishing the military 
tenures and their incidents was passed in 1660.' Pollock, Land Laws, 
p. I24f. 



The subject of this Third Section is the two languag'es 
which are employed in these documents, namely, the 
Latin and the English, in both of which the variations 
of form are numerous and interesting. 

I . Of the Latin in these documents. The transactions 
which these writings purport to record are spread over 
a range of time from the seventh century to the 
eleventh, and the genuine originals are comprehended 
within that limit. But, inasmuch as they have been 
the subject of transcription, revision, reconstruction, and 
the most varied manipulation, down to the sixteenth 
century, the result is that we have here to deal in 
one part or another of our field with variations of 
language ranging over the nine centuries from the 
seventh to the sixteenth. 

At first the deeds were wholly in Latin, or with an 
occasional word in English, then the languages were 
sometimes mixed, 87 m ; especially in the description of 
the bounds, 142m; and at length the bounds were 
expressed wholly in English. 

In the seventh and eighth centuries the Latin is in 
itself a distinct feature of interest. It is so rude as to 
suggest a doubt whether the school-Latin of the scribe 
did not retain some mixture of the vernacular Latin of 
the Roman province^. Gradually it becomes more 

^ H. C. Coote, Bomans of Britain, p. 465, considered that we have in 
the Latin of the earlier documents the native forms of current or 
traditional Latin which from the Roman period long continued to 
survive in this island. Especially he cited the expression ' trinoda 
necessitas,' as a form of words that does not exist either in Gaul or 
Spain, though the burdens to which it refers were as usual in those 
countries as in Britain, and he therefore thought that it was a phi'ase 

Ill xcv 

grammatical and literary; in tlie tenth century it is 
rhetorical and turgid ; in the secondary period when 
imitation has set in, we get the earlier varieties curiously 
alternating, now strong grandiloquent Latin, now 
feeble and barbarous ; — the most curious of all is where 
the good Latin scholar of the thirteenth century sets 
himself to make a deed of the eighth, and accordingly 
tries to be barbarous, but some subtle bit of Latin 
culture {e.g.^ a nice use of the subjunctive) slips into 
his fabrication, he little suspecting what a tale it will 
tell some future day. It will be convenient to follow 
the order of time, and notice first the Latin of the 
earliest documents. 

It would be a mistake to suppose that this ' infima 
Latinitas ' were a thing to be scorned as destitute of 
interest. On the contrary, it is rich in relations which 
are interesting and curious in a high degree. 

(i) First among these points of interest must be 
accounted any ray of light they may seem to afford as 
to the relics of current Roman speech in this island 
after the date of the English Conquest. 

(2) Its peculiarities sometimes illustrate the dis- 
turbances which have happened in the transmission of 
Latin classics, and which have tended to introduce 
some of their various readings. 

(3) Sometimes we catch glimpses of the history of 
forms or significations of words which characterize the 
early stages of the modern Romanesque languages. The 
same may be said as to transitions of idiom or of 

(4) It is not uninteresting to observe sometimes that 

which had been invented by the Komans of Britain and inherited by 
the Saxons. 


the Latin catches the influence of the living English 
of its time. 

By attention to these points we shall see how very 
unsatisfactory it is to blend all the Latin writings of 
the Dark and Middle Ages under the one indiscriminate 
designation of ' Monastic Latin.' The Latin we have 
to consider is not ' monastic ' until we come to the 
later stages of its career. 

Orthography. The most conspicuous divergencies 
from the received orthography are those which concern 
the labial series P, B, F, V. 

1. B for V; impleherint (impleverint) 35 m; silha 
(silva) loih; exarrabi (exaravi) 1:21 1; conhertere 
(convertere) 124I; bicissitudo (vicissitudo) I26t; 
Mibentium (viventium) 137b; cibitate (civitate) 138 h ; 
m^m^«(caveata) i86t; 06'^«56> (octavo) 284m; debotissimo 
(devotissimo) 288 1; bica (vica=vico) 288 h. 

In verbs of the first and second conjugations this 
change tends to confuse the tenses, as the difference of 
B or V is often the whole difference of form between 
a Preterite and a Future verb. The context generally 
determines the tense, e.g. memorabitnus (memoravimus) 
9 1, and I am not aware of an instance in which it has 
been the cause of ambiguity in these documents, as it 
has been in classical authors. 

2. U (V) for B : these are fewer, siui (sibi) 93 h ; 
liuenti (libenti) 1 26 1 ; liuerabo (liberabo) 1 26 h ; liuertas 
(libertas) 126 1. In the Vespasian Psalter the future 
-abit is written -avit (Sweet, Oldest English Texts, 
p. 185). This mixture of B and V has been a source 
of various readings in the texts of the classics, and of 
disputed meaning; thus Juvenal Sat. iii. 168, negavit 
and negabit ; ix. 80, servabit and servavit. 

Ill xcvu 

3. B also stands for P; blebi (plehi) 198 1; ohtimates 
(optimates) 395 1 ; and vice versa P for B ; puplica 
(publica) 132 h, but this is rare and perhaps derivable 
from archaic Latin ; apsit (absit) BC396 is affectation. 

4. F for V ; as cBfum (sevum) loob. 

A few other substitutions, though of less importance, 
may be added : 

K for C ; karorum (carorum) 100 m. 

T for D ; set (sed) often ; aliut (aliud) 1 24 1 ; and D 
for T ; deliquid (deliquit) 293 m ; velud (velut) 300 m ; 
inquid (inquit), 322 h. 

Under this head it only remains to notice the ab- 
normal presence or absence of a G or an H. Abnormal 
absence of G: eliens (eligens) 169b; aio (hagio) 312 b. 
These instances happen between vowels, and they seem 
due to the national pronunciation which gave little 
consonantal value to g in such a situation, as witnessed 
by the frequency of such orthographical duplicates as 
LUi'iGE, LuriE, I love. Abnormal presence of G by sub- 
stitution for I ; juris meg (mei) BC370. 

Abnormal presence of H at the beginning of a word 
or of a syllable ; hei (ei) 124 1, 133 m ; hubi (ubi) 133 m ; 
histius (istius) 152b; honeris (oneris) 196 h; hoboedi- 
entia (obedientia) 133 1; — coherceret (coerceret) 88 h ; 
saxhonica (saxonica) i34h ; — especially curious those 
before 5; hsabaoth (Sabaoth) 133 h; Jisi (si) I34r; 
hsatis (satis) 134 1. 

Abnormal absence of H : is (his) 100 b; ostes (hostes) 
loi t ; auendum (habendum) i24h: abuerat (habuerat) 
1 26 h ; abet (habet) 1 26 m. 

Flexion. The reader must not be very dependent 
upon the grammatical accidence of the Latin, but must 
catch the sense over the heads of words that do not 


always display the approved tokens of concord in 
Gender, Number, and Case. For example, I2i m, Si 
quis autem huius^ &c. A few particulars may be added 
in detail : — 

as to Gender : in ipsa antememorato die 8 b ; «^ imaginem 
suum ly ^ h ', prisco relatione 176 1; other examples on 
loi f. In documents purporting to be by Offa ; nohile 
thesaurum 396 h ; tale thesaurum 398 m. 

as to Number : ah omni gravitatibus 100 b. 

as to Case : hos omnes consenserunt 132 b. 

There are some Case-endings to be noted ; e. g. vires 
(viri) 48 h ; but the most peculiar is an ablative singular 
in -ae, generally of the first Declension, but not always : 
seriae (serie) ; ignorantiae avaritiaeve 61 1 ; cum ignor- 
antiae et insipientiae 62 1; canitiae (canitie) 316 1. A 
singular instance is servitu (a cunto sit immunis servitu) 
194 m. 

These examples will suffice to show that the reader 
of the earlier documents must pass lightly over the 
flexional terminations, although the confusion here is 
far less than that which is seen in the Merovingian 
writings, and especially in the formulae of Marculfus. 
In fact, we find ourselves at the great turning-point in 
the history of the Latin language, between the ancient 
and the modem, between the vernacular and the scholastic. 
Flexion being no longer understood, and being written 
only by dint of blind traditional habit, the principle of 
coherence is transferred to the collocation ; and the only 
way to read such Latin is to shut one's eyes to the 
grammar of flexion, looking only at the stems of the 
words and reading it as if it were a modern language. 
On the one hand, flexion had fallen away from the living 
parlance, or if retained it had no syntactic value; on the 


other hand, elementar}^ education was in decay (of this 
fact Gregory of Tours is the witness and the example), 
perhaps less so in Britain than in Gaul ; — when accidence 
is recalled to Latin composition, it is due to the 
scholastic revival, the Renascence of the seventh and 
eighth centuries, of which the seat was at first Anglia, 
and then Frankland. 

In this connection it will be interesting to trace a 
few indications of the aflSnity of our specimens to that 
colloquial vernacular Latin which generated the Modem 
Romanesque languages. Both in the signification and 
in the symbolism of words, as well as in one conspicuous 
verbal flexion, we may see the modem usage anticipated 
in the old literary speech, or what represented it. 

As to Signification : parens relative 13 b; caum thing, 
affair 48 h ; pietas mercy, ' pity,' 10 1. 

As to Symbolism : illut monasterium 1 1 1 b, has little 
of the demonstrative pronoun about it, and is nearly if 
not quite equivalent to ' the monastery ; ' so also ilia 
congregatio 1 1 8 1. This is already a Definite Article. 

Perhaps this wiU be the right place for a peculiar 
use of the Conjunction qtiafimis = m order that, 176 t, 
406 m ; and see sive, seu in the Glossary. 

Of peculiar interest is the pluperfect subjunctive, 
when put where classic Latinity used the imperfect or 
perfect subjunctive. Thus curavi ut facilius potuissent 
(possent) 83 h; si quis scire desiderat quare ham donam 
dedisserti (dederim) loi m ; rogaverunt domiimm ahbatem 
ut dedisset (daret) 406 1. The interest of such examples 
is enhanced by the fact that this pluperfect subjunctive 
was the selected one of several forms of preterital sub- 
junctive which survived through the transition and was 
continued in the younger vernaculars ; thus in the verb 


esse, the French subjunctive of the past tense is not 
from esset oT/uerit, but from, fuisset, i. e.fut ^. 

In matter of Syntax our early period is characterized 
by an Accusative Absolute: manentem hanc dotiationis 
chartulavi in sua nihilominus firmitate 81, 14 h, ^'^ m. 

To the early period belongs also a tendency to intro- 
duce poetic cadences : super ethera regnans in sedihus 
altis ima et alta omnia sua dicione guhernans 133 h ; or 
heroic collocations : inlesus atque vitalis spiritus in cor- 
ruptihili came inhereat 176 1 ; to which we may add the 
elaborate rhyming colophon, 283 1. 

Yet, mingled with all this antique or rustic oddity, 
we see the little beginnings and crude efforts of the 
Renascence which reaches not to maturity, nor covers 
the whole composition, until late in the tenth century, 
and hardly even then. Among such I suppose we 
must reckon those prepositional compounds in which 
the prefix is studiously reclaimed (Tacitus-like) from the 
obscurity of assimilation; conruens (corruens) 175b; 
inriguis (irriguis) 176m, i8im; inmmiem (immunem) 


With the progress of the Latin revival is mixed 
also an ambition of Greek, and we witness some rather 
grotesque affectations in the strain after erudition : — 
thus fastidiosam melancolice nausiam abominando . . . 
peripsema quisquiliarum ahjiciens 169b; cosmi sother 189I; 
nniversis sophio; studium intento mentis conamine sedulo 
rimantihus 309 h. 

Here we fix the beginning of that period in which 
the Latin may with propriety be called 'monastic' 
The Latin of the time before the tenth century and 

^ Cornwall Lewis, B.omance Languages, pp. 188, 191. 

Ill CI 

even much within that century is to be distinguished 
from monastic Latin ; it may perhaps be rig-htly styled 
' ecclesiastical,' but not ' monastic' The latter term is 
fully applicable only to the age which comes after this. 

The Secondary Latin. The Latin of the Secondary 
documents so far as it differs from that of the primary, 
is a result of tampering with the old deeds, in the way 
either of improvement, alteration, or pure fabrication. 

Fabrication does not always condescend to imitation 
of diction ; but when it does, it mostly exposes itself by 
its excess. Of the two forms of early Latin delineated 
above, it sometimes chooses the magniloquent strain of 
the tenth century, and sometimes the faltering Latinity 
of the more primitive specimens. In both varieties we 
are able to trace a distinction between the real and 
the counterfeit. There is, on the one hand, the 
elaborate style which is natural to a period of reviving 
scholarship, displaying a simple honest pride in the 
new-found magniloquence ; and then there is, on the 
other side, an insatiable accumulation of pretentious 
words by the fabricator who, though he is stimulated 
by a tenth century pattern and thinks to imitate it, 
yet produces quite another effect. 

And equally when the fabricator tries to imitate the 
rude Latin of the earlier documents, his proceeding is 
for the most part very transparent. There is no cir- 
cumstance more suspicious than when archaism or 
barbarism is overdone, as p. 288, dehotissimo . . . linera 
. . . serbitia . . . is testibus . . . carrahas linguorum ; and 
then bica^ not found elsewhere. Other examples of 
affected bad Latin are K 1064 ; BC296, which contains 
the abnormal variation terra juris nostri ; BC536, si quis 
autem obserbare boluerit serbetur . . . serbet, &c. 


On this ground sucli an incongruous phrase as con- 
demnaturum fore 407 m, might suggest suspicion, but in 
that place it seems probable that it is an honest blunder. 

Sometimes the Latin is expressed with an English 
syntax, as : cum his testibus qui eorum nomina infra 
scripta liquescunt 6i\\ sexaginta solidorum argenti 315 1; 
alicnius personis homo (where personis stands for a 
genitive case, and the original pattern is ceniges hades 
man) 132m, 3i4h; a new turn is given to the phrase, 
318 1; and to these we may add the familiar bene- 
dictory phrase, haheat et hene utatur 319m; feliciterque 
in diebus eorum peTfruendum 132 m. Cf. Beow. 1045, 2812. 

2. Of the English in these documents. 

The general rule is that the conveying portion is 
in Latin, while the description of the boundaries is 
in English. But with the progress of time there 
is an increase in the proportion of Saxon to Latin. 
The oldest deeds are indeed all in Latin, or have 
just a name and perhaps two or three peculiar words 
in English ; towards the end of the period we get 
entire deeds in English. And, as to the form of the 
native language, if we confine ourselves to genuine 
originals, or to transcripts made within the Saxon 
period, we find two chief types of the old vernacular 
English. These are the Kentish and the West Saxon. 
The early Mercian specimens are in Kentish, as being 
the standard dialect of the time. We find nothing that 
can be called Northumbrian. Almost all the trans- 
actions belong to the south, and rarely have any relation 
to land north of the Humber. There is indeed K25, 
in which Ecgfrid of Northumbria endows Cuthberht 
and his successors with Crayke and Carlisle ; but this 
piece is an ill-disguised adaptation of a paragraph in 

HI cm 

Beda H. E. IV. 38, with the help of some other authority 
which is reflected in Simeon of Dm-ham. i. 9. 

The northern archives were exposed to two destruc- 
tive epochs, first, the Danish ravages of the ninth 
century, and then the harrying of the North by William 
in the eleventh. The only relics, or rather traces, that 
have yet been recovered, of northern diplomacy, must 
be sought in that low stage of degeneracy which is 
represented by our Group XV. 

On page 10:2 and following pages may be seen three 
writings in the Kentish dialect, the first of which is 
furnished with a translation. I here add a translation 
of the sanction which is appended to the third, 106 1 : — 

' I, Luba, the humble handmaid of God, appoint and 
establish these foresaid benefactions and alms from my 
heritable land at Mundlingham to the brethren at 
Christ Church ; and I entreat, and in the name of the 
living God I command, the man who may have this 
land and this inheritance at Mundlingham, that he 
continue these benefactions to the world's end. The 
man who will keep and discharge this that I have 
commanded in this writing, to him be given and kept 
the heavenly blessing ; he who hinders or neglects it, 
to him be given and kept the punishment of hell, 
unless he will repent with full amends to God and to 
men. Fare ye well.' 

We may recognize traces of Kentish as late as a.d. 
934 (171 f), in the io and leh for leak. 

The West Saxon prose falls into two periods, repre- 
sented by the names of Alfred and JElfric. The Alfredian 
prose is the natural link between the old Epic language 
and the most mature development that prose attained 
before the abrupt termination of its growth by the 


Norman Conquest A few characteristics of the Alfre- 
dian stage of English will be useful here. The later 
and better known language is assumed to be most 
convenient as a standard of comparison. 

I. In Case-endings a for e, as, minas lafordas 240 1 ; 
mid dda (a-Se) 164 h. 

%. In the termination of the Plural Preterite -an for 
-on, as, we ridan . . . we gehyrdan . . . we cwcedan i64t; 
{\n!^ forgeafan 164 b. 

3. Adjective or Participle in concord with Noun 
Feminine, ends in -u : Jiwonne hi^ engu spcec geendedu 
gif=.^ffh.ell is any cause ended if &c., i64h. The same 
form characterizes the Neuter Plural ; manegu yrfe 
gefiitu, many dispute about succession 145 m. 

4. The combination s^ for st,sbS,wes3^an i88m ; wesde- 
weard 188 b. 

5. The peculiar construction whereby a dual Pronoun 
of the First Person is joined with a Proper Name to 
express ' I and N,' or * mine and N's ' ; as, Jiealf micer 
£rentinges =}ialf mine and Brenting's, 179 m ; 144 mN. 

6. There is one more peculiarity which I cannot 
omit. This is an old construction in which verbs of 
deprival take a double government, namely the Dative 
of the person deprived and the genitive to express the 
privation ; a construction made famous by Beowulf 5, 
and occurring in prose literature, so far as my observa- 
tion goes, only in Alfred's translations. This construction 
is to be seen below, 2i!Zh; qfteah JSlfrice Ms hreder 
landes and dhta — he deprived ^Ifric his brother of 
land and possessions. 

These details are not only of general philological 
interest; they have a practical value in documentary 
criticism, especially in cases where we have to do with 

Ill cv 

later transcripts, pui-porting to represent documents of 
the Alfredian age. There is one particular document of 
pre-eminent interest, to which this applies. Alfred's 
Will, 144 ff, is not extant in the original nor in a copy 
of his day ; we must allow that there is a wide interval 
between the original and our oldest extant copy. 
It is indeed a writing of such pith and force, that its 
very presence is evidential, and no ultimate doubt could 
overshadow its genuineness, even if the copy had 
suffered in transmission more than it has. But never- 
theless, in a document of such high interest we must 
welcome every subsidiary proof which tends to make 
our confidence complete. Hardly anything can be more 
perfectly convincing than the traces of Alfredian 
English which cling to it, being of such a kind as 
either would not provoke imitation, or, if imitated, 
would surely betray the imitator. 

In our copy the later orthography mostly prevails, 
the orthography of the copyer's time, as forgeafon 
144 m, gedfjeldon 144 1, gecwadon 145 t, hegeaton 145 h, 
hygerehton 145 1 ; we hmfdon 148 m ; mixed however 
with an occasional relic of the elder spelling, as, (we) 
odfcestan 144 m, hymihtan 145 1. But then there is 
wyt jEdered^ I and ^thelred 144 m ; manegu yrfe gejiitu, 
many litigations about succession 145 m ; and if we 
needed evidence that the piece was no artifice of a 
later time, these alone would go far to assure us. 

We may observe in these documents a certain con- 
servatism of phraseology by which antique expressions 
are found later than in the general page of literature. 
It would be easy to explain this as an instance of the 
affinity of law for old and quaint diction ; in other 
words, as the natural conservatism of a professional order 


of men. But it may be due to a different and indeed 
an opposite cause. It may be that the very absence of 
professional influence, of everything that can be called 
routine, would favour this vitality of old words and 
phrases. Some of the examples of Alfredian English 
given above are collected from documents many years 
later than the time of Alfred. Occasionally they 
appear in the midst of good English of the ripest prse- 
Norman development. This is part and parcel of the 
native character of these writings. This occasional 
archaism is pure simplicity and rusticity ; it is a proof 
that although a new style had sprung up since the 
fresh revival of Latin studies, yet the conversation and 
correspondence of the country still retained much of the 
complexion of an earlier stage. And these writings 
have this peculiarity, that they are un-bookish, that 
they are full of the tone of conversation or free cor- 
respondence, in short, quite easy and unconstrained. 
In particular the Wills have a domestic homely simpli- 
city and sincerity which is cheering and refreshing. 
There is nothing formal in them, but such as one 
patriarchal friend might write to another describing 
how he intended to dispose of his goods, and using the 
living words that came to hand. Examples 215 ff. 

In the documents which have been transcribed, or in 
whatever sense re- written, or even originally composed, 
after the Norman Conquest, there is found a great 
variety of sorts of Anglo-Saxon, we might almost say 
a grotesque variety. 

The first general movement which draws our atten- 
tion is the formation of Chartularies or Registers. These 
were books into which the separate muniments of a 
religious house were transcribed and so collected together. 

Ill evil 

Of these collections the earliest now extant, and possibly 
the earliest that ever was made, is the Worcester 
Chartulary, written in the generation of the Norman 
Conquest, from which specimens are taken to form our 
Group II of Secondary documents. 

With this we may class a book which was put 
together in the following generation, the Rochester 
Chartulary, which forms the subject of Group IV. 
It was compiled under Ernulf, bishop of Rochester, 
1115-1135. The general character of these early 
Chartularies is honest transcription, and they are the 
best of their kind. 

Of the stimulus given to the art of fabrication by 
the changed conditions of life after the Norman Con- 
quest, Group III affords a curious example. 

The twelfth century offers some remarkable features. 
Of the documents which were copied or compiled during 
this century, we observe two kinds. In the first sort 
the English is left free to its natural change in the 
process of deflexionization ; and it is with such speci- 
mens that Group V is occupied. Here we come upon 
the overlapping of English and Latin ; Latin texts, as 
most affected by Norman lawyers, seem to engross 
attention ; old writings now appear in duplicate, English 
and Latin, and it is not always easy to say which of 
the two is the original, or whether both alike are 
products of scholastic ingenuity. The twelfth century 
was in our documentary history a bilingual age, an age 
of Latin and English ^. 

1 When the old native language fell into contempt, Latin translations 
were made of English deeds, and then the originals would sometimes 
be neglected and left to perish. The following is from Chronicon 
A bhatice Rameseiensis, edited by the Eev. W. D. Macray in the Rolls 


Priority of attention to Latin, with a growing neglect 
of the mother tongue, was the prevailing tendency 
in the first half of the twelfth century ; but then 
came a reaction, perhaps only partial and local, of which 
our best specimens are in a book from Winchester. 
This movement is the subject of Group VI. 

Here we see that the studious reviser and compiler 
of the old native muniments has become awake to the 
significance and characterizing value of the ancient 
grammar, and he has become a student of Old English 
composition, which he pursues as diligently as ever he 
strove to compose sentences in Latin. Consequently 
we observe all the tokens of a Renaissance of the 
Mother tongue. Just that* mixture of crudity and 
scrappy splendour which characterizes the Latin com- 
position of the tyro is here displayed in vernacular 
efforts. This school has not indeed abandoned the 
study of Latin documents, but their first attention is 
engaged by the English. It may perhaps be that 
they seek not so much to be intelligible as to be im- 
posing ; — but quite apart from the desire to produce an 
efiect upon the inspector, the study has manifestly 
engendered a real taste for the royal stjde of the old 
language and a sincere passion to master the charm of 
it. Moved though we sometimes are to smile at the 

Series, 1886. The unknown author speaks much of his labours of 
translation: — donaria ... universa fere Anglice scripta invenimus, 
inventa in Latinum idioma transferri curavimus, p. 65 ; — litteris 
Anglicis quas nos in Latinum transtulimus, p. 1 1 1 ; — alia dona in 
figuris Anglicis neglecta remanserunt, p. 1 1 2 ; — quam de Anglico con- 
vertimus in Latinum, p. 151 ; — de Anglico in Latinum ad posterorura 
notitiam curavimus transmutare, p. 161 ; — universis itaque cartis quae 
in archivis nostris Anglica barbaric exarata invenimus, non sine 
difficultate et tsedio in Latinas apices transmutatis, p. 1 76. For these 
references I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Macray. 

Ill CIX 

imagined strength and learned security of this school, 
there is nevertheless an aesthetic grasp and a conscious 
magnificence about it which compels admiration. But 
this recondite scholarship brings with it the ability 
and the temptation of imposture, and we see on p. 349 
a bold and would be cunning fabrication, of which 
Kemble said — ' it bears marks of forgery in every line, 
and seems to have been made up out of some history 
of ^thelwulf s sojourn in Rome.' Saxons ii. 487. 

The reader who has taken the trouble to acquire an 
exact grammatical knowledge of the old mother tongue, 
will find a curious interest in the genuine early forms 
that here and there peep out through the scholastic 
text, proving that the elaborator had really originals 
before him. The Dative case in -a for example, cefter 
pcere IcRna 353 t. 

A good bilingual example is that on pp. ^iSS-?^^^ which, 
like most of Group VI, is from the Codex Wintoniensis. 
Another is K 1053 from the same book. This Chartu- 
lary is our chief monument of the products of this 
Revival, but it must not be supposed that the proof of 
such a revival rests upon the sole evidence of a single 
book. The same influence is seen, at least so far as 
orthography is concerned, in a Harley Charter, p. 
3645*; and for another example of the same school 
contributed by another manuscript, I would instance 
K715, a fine specimen of an artificial bilingual writing 
from the manuscript Cotton Claudius A. III. 

In the next two Groups, VII and VIII, the standard 
of the old language is kept up and bears marks of 
Renaissance ; — and this brings us to the end of the 
twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century. 
After passing two Latin Groups, when we next touch 


the mother tongue, it has gone far in degeneracy. 
Group XI and the following groups exhibit this 
decadence in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
under varying aspects. 

It will be readily perceived that a great character 
of these texts is their diversity, and the variety of 
materials they offer for increased knowledge of English. 
Some words not heretofore recognised will be found in 
the Glossary ; particularly I would mention rod a 
clearing in the forest, related to the Dutch roding 
stubbing ; see Weigand vv. Rod, Roden, Reuten. Here 
we have the source of our peculiarly English word for 
highway road, a word which awaited explanation. Be- 
sides this new and hitherto unnoticed noun, we find 
also the transitival verb therefrom, viz. redan to clear 
ground \ Another word not previously understood, is 
lam a running stream, the source of the west country 
lake in the same sense, and of our local terminations in 
-lake, as in Shiplake. 

Some of the obscurer words suggest interesting 
queries. Thus, is snoc the older form of our nook ? 

^ The verb to reed for to clear out a stable, is still current in Devon- 
shire. They also talk of reeding out a dreng (drain). In an Ordnance 
of the Commission of Sewers for the Fens (a.d, i6i6) it is ordered that 
the Old Ea " shall be roaded and cleansed to the old bottome and 
an tient breadth." Wells' Sistort/ of the Bedford Level, ii. ^s,. I now 
understand this 'roaded,' which I did not before. Upon this Mr. 
Plummer writes : * To me as a Northerner the word " to red " (so we 
pronounce it) is perfectly familiar : — " Shall I red up the hearth ? 
Shall I red up the room?" Where a Southerner would say " do up " 
or " clean up."' — It has been argued that the Saxons were not road- 
makers, on the ground that they took the Eoman name for a road, 
street. But so far as language affords evidence, they were road-makers, 
because they enriched the family tongue with a new word thereanent, 
namely, road itself ; not found in German, which has only the Roman 
street ^^Strasse) and the native way (weg). 



Here I had intended to collect the relics of the 
British dialects which are sprinkled in parts of these 
texts, but by the length to which this Introduction has 
already run, I am deterred from opening a new theme. 

To assist the student in reading the abbreviated 
words I here reprint Kemble's list of contractions : 







and, et. 






per, prae, pro. 





id est. 




qui, quae, quod. 


OS 7 sub 
Qsens 7 s 
dm. di. d< 

ub . 



consensi et subscripsi. 
consensi et subscripsi. 
deum, dei, deo. 

diis. dno. etc. . 

dominus, domino, etc. 

a. u. 

am. urn. 

pr. prs. pbr. . 

presbyter, (princeps). 



sb diac . 


arc diac . 



epi. € 

pise . 













K lis 

at 3 

86 is 

at 34 

162* is 

at 396 

235 is 

at 108 

328 is 

at 162 

„12 . 

.. 6 

87 . 

. 36 

164 . 

. 63 

237 .. 

. HI 

330 .. 

. 159 

»16 . 

.. 8 


. 304 

166 . 

. 311 

239 .. 

. 287 


. 319 

,,18 . 

.. 281 

90 . 

. 40 

170 . 

• 64 

240 .. 

• 113 

353 .. 

. 166 

„19 . 

.. 9 

95 . 

. 41 

183 . 

. 68 

243 .. 

, 122 

356 .. 

. 369 

„ 20*. 

• 425 

99 . 

. 42 

185 .. 

. 70 


. 312 


. 436 

„27 . 

. 10 

100 . 

. 283 

189 .. 

. 78 

260 .. 

. 119 


• 433 

„32 . 

. 12 


. 305 

190 .. 

. 284 

269 .. 

. 123 


• 437 

„35 . 

.. 13 

105 .. 

• 45 

191 .. 

. 75 


• 336 

362 .. 

. 169 

„43 . 

. 407 


. 331 

195 .. 

. 82 


. 315 

364 .. 

■ 171 

»47 . 

. 17 


. 334 

196 .. 

. 86 

281 .. 

• 125 

369 .. 

. 322 

„48 . 

. 15 

114 . 

• 49 

199 .. 

. 89 

282 .. 

. 130 

370 .. 

. 323 

„52 . 

. 15 

116 .. 

. 46 

200 .. 

. 92 

287 .. 

. 288 

371 .. 

. 326 

„ 55* . 

. 310 

121 . 

• 51 

204 .. 

. 94 

288 .. 

. 133 

373 .. 

. 329 

„67 . 

. 19 

124 . 

• 52 

205 .. 

. 98 

293 .. 

. 132 

377 .. 

. 173 

„69 . 

. 20 


. 308 

207 .. 

. 96 

294 .. 

. 137 

385 .. 

. 175 

„71 . 

. 21 

132 .. 

. 53 

216 .. 

. 100 

296 .. 

. 139 

399 .. 

. 178 

„75 . 

. 23 

143 .. 

. 55 

219 .. 

. 285 

307 .. 

. 141 

407 .. 

. 180 

„77 . 

. 24 


. 332 

226 .. 

. 79 


. 338 

413 .. 

. 182 

„78 . 

• 27 

149 Introd. 

228 .. 

. 102 

314 .. 

• 144 

421 .. 

. 184 

„79 . 

. 26 

152 . 

• 59 

229 .. 

. 104 


. 316 

424 .. 

. 370 

„80 . 

. 29 

156 .. 

. 61 

231 .. 

. 105 

317 .. 


425 .. 

. 185 

„82 . 

. 31 

160 .. 

• 57 

234 .. 

• 107 

324 .. 

. 157 

427 .. 

. 189 

„85 . 

. 32 

161* . 

.. 395 










430 is 

at 373 

696 is 

at 401 

945 is 

at 404 

1159 is 

at 380 

435 . 

.. 426 

699 . 

. 215 

981 . 

.. 271 

1160 . 

. 413 

437 . 

.. 291 

704 . 

. 216 


.. 408 

1171 . 

.. 381 

441 . 

.. 374 

716 . 

. 222 

1000 . 

.. 22 

1172 . 

. 383 

445 . 

.. 193 

722 . 

. 224 

1004* . 

.. 408 

1173 . 

.. 360 

450 . 

. 194 

732 . 

. 228 

1005 . 

.. 409 

1208 . 

. 385 

452 . 

• 375 

751 . 

. 393 

1013 . 

. 409 

1216 . 

.. 384 

453 . 

. 192 

758 . 

• 297 

1014 . 

. 410 

1218 . 

. 386 

481 . 

. 195 

759 . 

. 240 

1019 . 

. 65 

1221 . 

. 387 

487 . 

. 197 

773 . 

. 243 

1024 . 

. 72 

1238 . 

. 388 

488 . 

. 199 

781 . 

. 246 

1025 . 

. 411 

1252 . 

. 389 

490 . 

. 200 

789 . 

. 247 

1043 . 

. 411 

1276* . 

. 389 

505 . 

. 426 

792 .. 

. 394 

1047 . 

. 412 

1288 . 

. 211 


• 413 

800 .. 

• 394 

1057 . 

. 349 

1289 . 

- 390 

52-2 . 

. 427 

803 .. 

. 236 

1058 . 

. 128 

1291 . 

. 364 

526 . 

. 294 

822 .. 

• 377 

1072 . 

. 412 

1296 . 

. 391 

570* . 

• 441 

829 .. 

. 340 

1073 . 

. 154 

1298 . 

. 218 

641 . 

. 428 

837 . 

. 341 

1077 . 

• 350 

1305 . 

. 392 

652* . 

. 361 

840 .. 

. 342 

1086 . 

• 352 

1310 .. 

. 393 

657 .. 

. 209 

853 .. 

. 343 

1098 . 

. 412 

1323 .. 

. 237 

658 .. 

. 363 

925 .. 

• 275 

1102 .. 

. 353 

1325 .. 

• 237 


. 399 

933-7 .. 

. 268 

1110 .. 

• 355 

1351 ,. 

. 269 

685 .. 

. 364 

940 .. 

. 249 

1151 .. 

. 379 

1354 .. 

• 275 





Textus Boffensis 119. 28 April, 604. 

Kemble 1. 


king ; his Donation to the church at Rochester. Mr. Kemble 
saw no reason to doubt its authenticity. The register in 
which it stands was made by Bp. Ernulf and has a high 
character among registers ; but we can hardly expect a 
twelfth-century copy to preserve a deed of the seventh with 
absolute fidelity. Of this very copy, however, Hickes spoke 
in the highest terms : — ' Extant verb [chartae] quae vii se- 
culo inito et deinceps confectae erant, vetustissimae. Scilicet 
charta ^Ethelberti I regis Cantwarorum, omnium antiquissi- 
ma ; cujus apographum extat in Textus Roffensis folio 119a; 
. . . quae omnimodam veritatis speciem prae se fert.' Diss. 
Ep. p. 79. 

»J< Regnante in perpetuum domino nostro lesu 
Christo saluatore! Mense Aprilio, sub die iiii kl. 
Maias, indictione vii. Ego Aethilberhtus rex filio meo 
Eadbaldo admonitionem catholicae fidei optabilem. 
Nobis est aptum semper inquirere qualiter per loca 
sanctorum, pro animae remedio uel stabilitate salutis 
nostrae, aliquid de portione terrae nostrae in subsi- 
diis seruorum dei, deuotissima uoluntate, debeamus 
ofierre. Ideoque tibi sancte Andrea, tuaeque ecclesiae 
quae est constituta in ciuitate Hrofibreui, ubi praeesse 
uidetur Justus episcopus, trado aliquantulum telluris 
mei. Hie est terminus mei doni : fram su^geate west, 

B 2 


andlanges wealles, o^ nor'Slanan to streete; ^ swa east 
fram strsete o^ doddinghyrnan, ongean bradgeat. Siquis 
uero augere uoluerit hanc ipsam donacionem, augeat 
illi dominus dies bonos. Et si praesumpserit minu- 
ere aut contradicere, in conspectu dei sit damnatus et 
sanctorum eius, bic et in aeterna saecula, nisi emen- 
dauerit ante eius transitum quod inique gessit contra 
cbristianitatem nostram. Hoc, cum consilio Laurencii 
episcopi et omnium principum meorum, signo sanctae 
crucis confirmaui, eosque iussi ut mecum idem facerent. 

Addit. Chart. 19, 788. A.D. 674? 

B. iv. 1. 


king of the Mercians, conveys to Berhferth a relative 5 
Manentes in perpetuity, at Dilingtun. He had received for 
the land thirty mancuses of pure gold. The date ncxxnii 
being inapplicable, I have adopted Mr. Bond's correction, 
which by supplying one letter makes dclxxiiii the last 
year but one of Wulfhere's reign. 

^ K/EGNANTE in pcrpctuum Domino Deo uiuo et uero 
sine fine uUo in aeternum, cuncta tempora labentis 
eeculi in uelocitate deficiunt adque ad instar umbre 
meridiano tranando decidant, et cotidie uolendo nolen- 
doque de hoc seculo labimur. Ideo magnopere cogi- 
tandum est ut cum caducis et temporalibus rebus aeterna 
premia comparare ualeamus in coelis; memor illius ex- 
empli de quo Dominus dixit : Sicut aqua extinguit 
ignem ita elemosina extinguit peccatum. Ob quam 
causam ego Wulfhere rex Mercentium gentis pro amore 
omnipotentis Dei et illius fidelis ministri beati Petri 


apostoli, et quia in euangelio dictum est Dilige proxi- 
mum tuum tamquam temet ipsum, et reliqua : ideo cum 
consensu et licentia amicorum meorum et optimatum 
meorum dabo Berhfer^e propinqus mens aliquam partem 
agri in hereditatem perpetuam, id est . v . manentes, 
ubi ruricoli nominantur Dilingtun, cum campis et siluis 
et omnibus utensilibus rebus ad isto agro pertinente ; 
aeternaliter ac perseuerabiliter possideat abendi vel dandi 
cuicumque eligere uoluerit. Hoc agrum liberatum est 
cum XXX mancusis cocti auri, et semper liber permaneat 
omnibus habentibus, ab omnibus duris secularibus notis 
et ignotis, praeter arcem atque pontem ac uulgare mili- 
tiam. Si quis uero quod non obtamus [hoc in aliquo] 
frangere uel minuere temptauerit . sciat se anathematum 

ab omnipotenti orum nisi hie cum satisfacione 

digne Deo et hominibus emenda[verit] [ha]nc 

meam donationem signo crucis XPi perscribere iussi . . . 

ege suisque ptipientibus perscripsi. >J< Wita ep. 

>J< Totta ep. »J< Ofa princeps. >{< Eadbriht princeps. 
>J< Tepra prin. >J< Cynred prin. >J< Eadbald miii 
>J< Hearnbriht min i^ Eada >{« Eoppa i^ Ofa >{< Acta 
est autem haec donat' an ab incarnat' Dni . Dcxxiiii. 

Haec sunt confinia istius ruris : — aerest andlong dihng 
broces ^ hi ... n ... to leofnes ... "p be su'San ]7a broce 

XXX acera "p eft to )?a broce andlong broces p on 

andlong broces to ]?am ealdan strsete up andlong 

straete be halh p west on pone feld up 

rihte wiS prim gemaerum andlong heges to aid 

.... Ihe rifflan . be fif acerum in ^a lacu andlong paere 

lace norpmestan fennes in brocces broc . p 

eft in dili[ng broc] 

^Endorsed in a hand of the loth cent. ' dillingtun/ B. 


C. C. C. Camb. cxi. 59. 6 Nov. 676. 



king of the Hwiccas, gives land beside Bath for a monastery 
of nuns. The place had been distinguished as a seat of 
heathen idolatry, and therefore the more to be selected for 
a Christian foundation. Osric had been converted by Oftfor 
(Beda iv. 23), and had founded the See of "Worcester. 
, This document is only preserved in a Register book ; but 
Mr. Kemble passed it without challenge. Mr. Thorpe (Dipl. 
p. xx) spoke of it as a charter 'the genuineness of which 
there appears no reason to question'; and as perhaps the 
earliest undeniable instance of reckoning by the year Anno 
Domini. The deed of Wulfhere (above) was unknown to 
Mr. Thorpe. 

JBe ♦ c ♦ faints qui Eitacmt dmtditi 93atfjae. 

>J« Regnante ac gubernante regimonia regni Osrici 
regis, anno recapitulationis Dionisii, id est ab Incar- 
natione domini nostri lesu Christi, sexcentesimo sep- 
tuagesimo sexto, indictione quarta, mense Nouembrio, 
vi[i°. idus nouembris. Cum nobis euangelica et apos- 
tolica dogmata post baptismi sacramentum, dec sufFra- 
gante, fuissent delata, et omnia simulachrorum figmenta 
ridiculosa funditus diruta, tum primitus ad augmen- 
tum catholic^ et orthodoxy fidei pontificalem dumtaxat 
eathedram erigentes, iuxta sinodalia decreta construere 
censuimus. At uero nunc cum gratia superna longe 
lateque profusius enitesceret, c^nobialia etiam loca 
sparsim uirorum sparsimque uirginum deo famulantium, 
erigenda statuimus, ut ubi truculentus et nefandus prius 
draco errorum deceptionibus seruiebat, Nunc uersa nice 
ecclesiasticus ordo in clero conuersantium domino patro- 



cinante gaudens tripudiet : Quamobrem ego supradictus 
Osricus rex, pro remedio anim^ me§ et indulgentia pia- 
culorum meorum, hoc priuilegiura impendere ad laudem 
nominis domini nostri decreueram : Id est Bertan§ 
abbatiss§, qu^ pro Christiana deuotione et pro spe 
etern^ beatitudinis dei famulam se profitetur. Centum 
manentes, qui adiacent ciuitati qu§ uocatur Hat Bathu,^ 
tribuens ad construendum monasterium sanctarum uir- 
ginum. Igitur subnixis precibus imploro, ut nuUus, 
post obitum meum, de ea cespitis conditione toUere uel 
auferre quippiam, contra canonic^ auctoritatis inter- 
dictum, pertinaciter p'sumat. Si quis uero, quod absit, 
succedentium episcoporum seu regum contra banc nos- 
trae diflfinitionis cartulam, propria temeritate, p'sumere 
temptauerit, sit sequestratus a communione corporis 
domini nostri lesu Christi, et a consortio omnium 
sanctorum in ^uum priuatus. 

Signum manus Osrici regis, qui banc cartam dona- 
tionis fieri rogaui.>J< Ego iE^elredus rex consensi et 
subscripsi.>I« Ego Theodorus, gratia dei archiepiscopus, 
testis subscripsi. >i< Ego Leutherius, acsi indignus, epi- 
scopus subscripsi.>I< Ego Wilfridus episcopus consensi 
et subscripsi. »I« Ego Hedda episcopus consensi et 
subscripsi. >I< Ego Ergnualdus episcopus consensi et 
subscripsi. >I* Ego Saxuulfus episcopus consensi et 
subscripsi. >I< Signum Baldredi. Osuualdi. Gadfridi. 

*5jc* ' But the charter is questionable as to the indiction, and is signed 
by both Leutherius and Hedda, successive bishops of the West Saxons. 
If it is genuine, it only shews that the arrangements may have occupied 
some years.* H & S. iii. 1 29. 

^ It is not necessary to suppose that this form of the name of Bath is 
as old as a.d. 676. 


Cott. Aug. ii. 2. May, 679. 

K16. B. i. 1. 


king of Cantware, grants to Bercuald, abbot, land in Thanet, 
and in Sturry. Has Sturry Court, the remains of which are 
near Sturry church, had any historical connection with this 
property ? The diction is an illiterate Latin ; not as if learnt 
by grammar and at school. Besides internal evidence, the 
originality of the document is attested by the uncial and 
doubtless contemporary penmanship. A rigorous criticism 
might consider this as the earliest of our genuine charters. 
But at this rate we should have to give up all the charters 
of the Seventh century, except this and one other. For there 
are but two of them that are absolute Originals. 

>I< In n d nostri saluatoris ihu xpi . ego hlotharius 
rex cantuariorum pro remedium animae meae dono ter- 
rain . in tenid . qu§ appellatur uuestan ae tibi bercuald. 
tuoque monasterio cum omnib: ad se pertinentibus campis 
pascuis meriscis siluis modicis fonnis piscaris omnibus 
ut dictum est ad eandem terram pertinentia . sicuti nunc 
usq: possessa est . iuxta notissimos terminos a me demon- 
stratus et proacuratoribus meis . eodem modo tibi tuoque 
monasterio conferimus . teneas possideas tu . posterique 
tui in perpetuum defendant a nuUo contradicitur . cum 
consensu archiepiscopi theodori et ^drico . filium fratris 
mei nee non et omnium principum . sicuti tibi donata 
est ita tene et posteri tui : — quisquis contra banc dona- 
tione uenire temptauerit sit ab omni xpianitata separatus 
et a corpore et sanguini dni nostri ihu xpi suspensus . 
manentem banc donationis cbartulam in sua nihilominus 
firmitate et pro confirmatiorie eius manu propria signum 
see crucis expraessi et testes ut subscriberent rogaui, 
actum in ciuitate recuulf. in mense maio in d septima : 
In ipsa antememorato die adiunxi ^liam terram in sturia 
iuxta notissimos terminos a me demonstratus et pro- 


acuratoribus meis cum campis et siluis et pratis sicuti 
ante memorabimus supradictam terrain, ita ista sit a 
me donata eodem modo cum omnibus ad se pertinentia 
in potestate abb' sit . in perpetuum . a me donata . a 
nullo contradicitur quod absit . neque a me neque a 
parentibus meis neque ab aliis. si aliquis aliter fecerit 
a do se damnatum sciat , et in die iudicii rationem 
j-eddet do in anima sua : — 

gnum manus blothari regis donatoris. 

o^num manus o-umbercti. 

gnum manus g^bredi. 

gnum manus osfridi. 

gnum manus irminredi. 

gnum manus aedilmaeri. 

gnum manus hagani. 

gnum manus aeldredi. 

gnum manus aldhodi. 

gnum manus gudhardi. 

gnum manus bernhardi. 

gnum manus uelhisci. 

*** Tn Beda v. 8 we read that Berctuald who was Abbot of Reculver 
succeeded Theodorus as Abp. Cant, in 693 ; and Smith identifies him 
with the Bercuald of this deed. 

























Bodl. Wood. i. 149 (collated). 


6 July, 680. 

bishop of "Winchester, grants land to Hengils abbot of Glas- 
tonbury. Kemble admits this charter to be substantially 
genuine, notwithstanding an error of the indiction, which is 
not of much account in a modern copy. Haddan and Stubbs 
regard this as the new or Saxon foundation of the abbey of 
Glastonbury, the territory of which had recently been taken 


from the Britons. The first name in the roll of Glastonbury 
abbots was Hengils or Hemgils. H&S. iii. 164. 

E-EGNANTE ac gubernante nos domino nostro lesu 
Christo ! mense lulio, pridie nonas, Indictione quinta, 
anno incarnationis eiusdem dclxxx. Nichil intulimus 
in hunc mundum, uerum nee auferre possumus ; ideo 
terrenis eelestia et cadueis eterna comparanda sunt. 
Qua propter ego Eddi episcopus terram que dicitur 
Lantoeal, tres cassatos, Hegliseo abbati libenter largior : 
necnon terram in alio loco, duas manentes, hoc est in 
insula qui girum cingitur hinc atque illinc pallude, cuius 
uocabulum est Ferramere. Denique solerter peto, ut 
nullus post obitum nostrum hoc donatiuum in irritum 
facere presumat. Siquis uero id temptauerit, sciat se 
Christo rationem redditurum. 

»J« Ego Eddi episcopus subscripsi. 

Axil. Trin. f. 38. June, 686. 

(Harl. 686. f. 132.) 



king of Cantware, grants for an adequate price, namely ten 
pounds of silver, certain land of his right to the monastery 
of St. Peter at Canterbury (St. Augustine's). The grant is 
witnessed by Abp. Theodore. 

In nomine saluatoris, cuius pietate^ regimen assequti 
sumus, quo eciam gubernante regnamus, et omnia quae 
habere cognoscimur ipso largiente habita possidemus! 
Pro qua re ego Eadricus rex Cantuariorum, a praesenti 
die et tempore, terram iuris mei, quamuis praetium com- 
petens acceperim, hoc est argenti libras decem, in 
monasterio beati Petri apostolorum principis quod situm 
est iuxta ciuitatem Dorouernis, una cum consensu me- 


orum patrieiorum, in perpetuum donaui et dono : quae 
supradicta terra eoniuncta est terre quam sancte 
memorie Lotharius, quondam rex, beato Petro, pro 
remedio anime sue, donasse cognoscitur; que terra 
determinatur,, ex una parte habet uadum quod appellatur 
Ford streta publica indireetum, et a parte alia flumen 
quod nominatur Stur ; omnes terras sationales, cum 
pratis, campis, siluis, fontanis uel mariscum quod appel- 
latur Stodmersctij^ cum omnibus ad supradictam terram 
aratrorum trium pertinentia, beato Petro, eiusque fami- 
liae in qua nunc praeesse Adrianus abbas dinoscitur, 
tradidi possidendam, et quicquid exinde facere uoluerint, 
utpote dominij liberam habeant potestatem. Sicut dona- 
tum est manere decerno ; nunquam me haeredesque 
meos uel successores contra banc donacionis mee cartu- 
1am, uUo tempore, esse venturos: quod si aliquis pre- 
sumpserit, sit separatus a participacione corporis et 
sanguinis domini nostri lesu Christi, manente bac cartula 
nibilominus in sua firmitate. De quibus omnibus supra- 
dictis ac a me definitis, ut ne aliquis in posterum sit 
aduersitas, propria manu signum sancte crucis ex- 
pressi, et sanctissimum atque reuerentissimum Tbeo- 
dorum archiepiscopum nostrum ut subscriberet rogaui, 
et alios testes similiter. Actum in mense lunio, Indic- 
tione XIII. 

Ego Aedricus rex in banc donatio nis mee cartulam 
signum sancte crucis expressi.>J< Ego Theodorus, 
archiepiscopus gratia Dei, subscripsi.>I< 

^ This is a vernacular use of the word. See Glossary. 

^ This form betrays the lateness of the copy. The date of the 
Trinity Hall manuscript (our best authority here) is about 1400, as 
I am informed by Professor Skeat, who has collated it for me. 


Harl. 4660, fol. 1. A.D. 691 or 692. 


.ZEthelred of Mercia 

grants 30 cassati at Henbury and Aust to the church at 
Worcester. For the probable identity of cet Austin with the 
AugustincBS dc of Beda ii. 2, see Haddan and Stubbs, vol. iii. 
p. 40, note b. 

>J< Apostolus Paulus de extremo iudicio manifestis- 
sime loquens ita dixit omnes enim stabimus ante tri- 
bunal xpi ut recipiat unusquisque prout gessit sine bonu 
sine malu . etiam ipse dus in euang suo manifestat 
dieens Ibunt impii in suppliciu aeternum iusti autem in 
uita aeternam. Hoc sane tremendu et terribile di omni- 
potentis iudiciu omnibus est nobis perhorrescendii. Qua- 
propter ego iEthelred xpo donante rex Mercensiu pro 
absolutione criminu meoru et pro amore di uiuentis 
terram qui uetusto uocabulo nuncupatur Heanburg et in 
alio loco set Austin hoc est circiter in illis duob' locis 
XXX. cassatorum Oftforo meo uenerabili episc. in propriam 
possessionem tradidi ad ilia ecctia beati Petri principis 
apost. quae sita est in Uueogoma ciuitate cu antiquis 
confiniis et captura pisciii et cum omnib' utilitatib' 
campo \ in silua i* in flumine ad se rite pertinentib' illi 

pfruantur in aeuu ; similiter etiam ab secu- 

laribus omnibus seruitutib' leuis sint in 

ppetuum liberati nisi tantu et expeditione 

contra hostes n si seruantibus minuentibus 

uero ^ con sempiterna. amen. 

}^ Ego aethilred rex ppria donatione corroborans, 
titulo scae crucis subscripsi. 

>{< Ego headda epTs consen. 7 su'bs. 

i^t Ego oftfor epTsc donatione quam a rege [accepi] 
propria manu connotaui. 


>J< Ego torhtuuald consen. 7 sut>. 

►J. Ego eaduuald consen. 7 suh. 

>J< Ego cille consen. 7 sut). 

>I< Ego OS frith consen. 7 sut). 

>I< Ego ecgfrith consen. 7 sul3. 

>J< Ego tuddul consen. 7 sut). 

►{< Ego guthlac consen. 7 sut). 

>I< Ego sigiuuald consen. 7 sut>. 

>J< [Ego folchere] consen. 7 sut>. 

»I< [Ego berhttred] consen. 7 su'b. 

MS. Cott. Aug. ii. 29. March, 692 or 693. 

MS. Cott. Vesp. A. ix. 141. 
K35. B.i. 2. 


a relative of Sebbi king of the East Saxons, grants land on 
the north bank of the Thames to Ethilburg, abbess of Bed- 
danham. This is from an Original in uncials, and a specimen 
of the writing was given by Kemble. Besides king Sebbi and 
the donor, it is signed by Erconwald bp. London, Wilfrid bp. 
York, and Haedde bp. Winchester, This is the other of the 
two absolute Originals spoken of under May 679. 

1^ In nomine dni. n. Ihu. xpi. saluatoris. Quotiens 
scis ac uenerabilib: locis uestris Aliquid ofiPerre uidemur 
Uestra nobis reddimus non nostra largimur. Qua- 
propter ego Ho[di]lredus parens sebbi prouincia East- 
sexanorum . Cum ipsius consensu propria uoluntate 
Sana mente integroq: consilio Tibi hedilburge abbatissae 
Ad augmentum monasterii tui quae dicitur beddanhaam . 
perpetualiter trado et de meo iure in tuo transscribo 
terram Quae appellatur ricingahaam budinhaam d^ccan- 
haam angenlabeshaam Et campo in silua quae dicitur 
uuidmundesfelt Quae simul sunt coniuncta . xl. manen- 


tium usq: ad terminos quae ad eum pertinent Cum 
omnib: ad se pertinentib: Cum campis siluis pratis et 
marisco Ut tarn tu quam poster! tui teneatis possideatis 
Et quaecumq : uolueris de eadem facere terra liberam 
habeatis potestatem Actum mense martio et testes 
conpetenti numero ut subscriberent rogaui Si quis contra 
banc donationis kartulam uenire temptauerit aut cor- 
rumpere Ante omnipotentem dm et ihm xpm filium 
eius et spm scm Id est inseparabilem trinitatem Sciat 
se condemnatum et separatum ab omni societate xpiana 
M[anentem] banc kartulam donationis in sua nibil- 
ominus firmitate . et ut firma et inconcussum sit donum 
termini sunt autem isti huius taerre cum quib: accingi'B 
ab oriente writolaburna ab aquilone c^ntinces triovv and 
bancbemstede ab australe fiumen tamisa Si quis autem 
banc donationem augere uoluerit augeat ds bona sua in 
regione uiuorum cum scis suis sine fine amen .*. 

>^ Ego sebbi rex eastsax pro confirmatione subscripsi. 
Ego oedelraedus donator subscripsi. i^ Ego ercnuual- 
dus epi Scopus consensi et subscripsi. Ego uuilfridus 
epis consens et subsp. i^ Ego baedde epTs consn et sb. 
Ego guda pr et abbas consentiens subs. i^ Ego egc- 
baldus pr et ab consen et subsp. 

>^ Ego bagona pr et abb cons et subsp. 

»J< Ego booc pr et abb cons et subsp. 

Sig>I«num manus sebbi regis. 

Sig>J<num manus sigiheardi regis. 

Sigi^num manus suebredi regis. 

*5it* Endorsed in contemporaneous hands, *De terra qua donauit 
Odilredus/ * XL. manentium i^.' ; ' karta de con . . .' ; and in a later 
but early hand, ' ])is is seo boc to bercingon. — Thefollowing memoranda 
also occur, ' Exhit) ap Ber^ cor J. de Colet iiij nofl Marcii Anno dfii 
M^cccvi*".* * Regestu in regio regestr aft dni 1535. J. Rhesen Regests. B. 



MS. Lansd. 417, f. 3. A.D. 701. 

K 48. 


king of the Saxons, grants to abbot Aldhelm 45 Cassati in 
places near Malmesbury, which have well preserved their 
names ; — Garsdon, Corston, and Rodbome. This is the 
earliest genuine record of a grant to Malmesbury Abbey. 
The older ones are all spurious. H & S. iii. 124. 

>^ In nomine domini Ihesu Christi saluatoris nostri ! 
ego Ini regnante domino rex Saxonum cogitans vitae 
eternae praemium, verens poenas inferni perpetuas, pro 
remedio animae meae et relaxatione criminum meorum 
aliquam terrae particulam donare decreui uenerabili 
Aldhelmo abbati, ad augmentum monasterii sui quod 
Meldunensburg uocatur ; id est XLV. cassatos in locis ab 
accolis infra nominatis. Id est v. manentes in loco qui 
dicitur Gersdune ; et ubi riuulus qui uocatur Corsaburna 
oritur xx ; et in alio loco iuxta eundem riuulum x ; et 
iuxta laticem qui uocatur Reodburna x. Et hoc actum 
est anno ab incarnatione Christi dcci. Indixione xiiii*. 

>J< Signum manus Ini regis. >J< Signum manus 
Oshelmi. >I< Ego Haddi episcopus huic donacioni con- 
sensi et subscripsi. ^ Ego XJuynberchtus banc dona- 
cionem dictans subscripsi. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 82. 13 June, 704. 

K52. B.i.3. 


king of East Saxons, grants to Waldhere, bp. London, land at 
Twickenham in the Middlesaxon province. Essex was now 


under Mercian supremacy, and the licence of JEdelred is 
obtained. But it is Coenred (not JEdelred) who signs as 
overlord. This seeming incongruity led "Wanley, p. 262, 
§ 77, to condemn this document as ' Carta ut videtur fictitia, 
etsi valde antiqua ' : but the suspicion turns to confirmation 
when we consider Beda v. 24, where we read that JEdilred, 
after ruling for thirty-one years, became a monk in 704, and 
gave the kingdom to Coenred. 

»i< In nomine dni nri ihu xpi saluatoris Quamuis 
solus sermo sufficeret ad testimonium attamen p cautella 
futurorum temporum ne quis forte posterum fraudulen- 
tam ignorantiae piaculum perperam incurrat idcirco 
scedulis saltim uilib: ^ ampliore firmitatis supplimento 
necessarium reor adnectere Quapropter ego sueabraed 
rex eastsaxonoru et ego pseogthath cum licentia oedel- 
redi regis comis aliquantulum agri partem pro remedio 
animarum nrarum uualdhario episc in dominio donare 
decreuimus id -r . xxx. cassatorum in loco qui dicitur 
tuican hom in puincia quae nuncupatur middelseaxan 
Hsec autem terra his locorum limitib: designatur ab 
oriente et austro flumine tamisae terminata a septem- 
trione plaga torrente Cuius uocabulum -r fiscesburna 
Possessionem autem huius terrse taliter ut supradiximus 
Cum campis sationalib: pascualib: pratis palludib: pis- 
cuariis fluminib: Clusuris omnib: quae ad eam perti- 
nentibus in dominio supra dicti epsc possidendam 
ppetuale iure tradidimus et libera habeat potestatem 
agendi quodcumq: uoluerit porro ut firmior huius dona- 
tionis largitio iugiter seruaretur etiam testes adiunximus 
quorum nomina subter tenentur inserta Si quis uero 
successorum nrorum banc donationis nras munificentia 
augere et amplificare maluerit auget dns partem eius 
in libro uitae Si quis e diuerso quod absit tyrannica 
potestate fretus infringere temptauerit sciat se ante tri- 


bunal xpi tremibundum rationem redditurum Maneatq: 
nilhominus in sua firmitate hsec kartala scripta Anno ab 
incarnatione dni nri dcc.iiii. idic ii. tertia decima die 
mensis iunii quod -r id iunii. 

>I< Ego coenredus rex mere banc terram waldbario 
epsc pro remedio anime mese in dominio donare decreui 
in loco qui dicitur tuiccanbam et libenti animo ppria 
manu cruce infixi. 

>J< ego ciolred mere banc donationem quam ante 
donauit ppinquus meus coenrsedus rex 7 ego confirmaui 
in loco arcencale et sTg see crucis expressi. 

>J< ego beadda eps consensi et subscripsi 

>I< ego cotta at) con. et sub 

»I< ego suebrsedus rex eastsaxonu propria m. 

^ ego peobtbat sTg ma inposui 

>J< ego friodored sTg m 

»J< coenbeard sig m 

>^ cudraed sig m 

>^ uilloc sig m >{< selric sig m ►}< sceftwine sig 

>I< eadred sig >{< lulla sig m >J< wulfbat sig 

>I< cymmi sig >i< cynric sig m >I< tuduna sig 

»I< pagara sig >{« eadberbt sig 

*^* ^Endorsed ly a contemporaneous hand^ ' Tuicanham ; * and hy a 
hand of the izth century, * Suebred Rex dedit tuickenham Waldhario 
episcopo. Latine.' B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 88. July, 700 or 715. 

K47. B.i.4. 


king of Cantware, grants land to tbe churcb (basilica) at 
Lyminge, Kent. Tbe donor signs with the cross because of his 
ignorance of letters. The alternative dates are Mr. Kemble's : 
Mr. Bond follows him, but with the remark, that in Gervase 


of Canterbury the grant is referred to 693. All these years 
fall within the reign of Wihtred. 

►J< In nomine dni di nostri ihu xpi. Eg-o uuihtredus 
rex cantuariorum prouidens mihi in futuro decreui dare 
aliquid omnia mihi donanti et consilio accepto bonum 
uisuta est conferre basilicae beatae mariae genetricis di 
quae sita est in loco qui dicitur limingae terram iiii 
aratrorum quae dicitur pleghelmestun . cum omnib: ad 
eandem terram pertinentib: iuxta notissimos terminos 
id est bereueg" . et meguuines paed et stretleg . terrulae 
quoq: partem eiusdem di genetrici beatae mariae simi- 
liter in perpetuum possidendam perdono . cuius uocabu- 
lum est ruminingseta . ad pastum uidelicet ouium tre- 
centorum . ad australe quippe fluminis quae appellatur 
liminaea . terminos uero huius terrulae ideo non ponimus 
quoniam ab accolis undiq: certi sunt. Quam donationem 
meam nolo firmam esse [in] perpetuum ut nee ego seu 
heredes mei aliquid inminuere praesumant. Quod si alitor 
temptatum fuerit a qualibet persona sub anathematis 
interdictione sciat se praeuaricari ad cuius confirma- 
tionem pro ignorantia litterarum >J< signum scae crueis 
expressi et testes idoneos ut subscriberent rogaui id est 
berhtuualdum archiepisc. uirum uenerabile. 

1^ Ego berhtuualdus episc rogat[us] consensi et sub- 

>i< Signum manus uuihtredi regis »J« Signum ma- 
nus aethilburgae reginae 

)^ Signum manus enfridi. >^ Signum manus aedil- 
fridi. >{« Signum manus hagana 

>i< Signum manus botta. >i< Signum manus bern- 
haerdi >J< Signum manus theabul 

>J< Signum manus frodi ' >{< Signum manus aehcha 
>I< Signum manus aesica. 


^ Signum manus adda >{< Signum manus egis- 
berhti. Actum in mense iulio indictione xiiima. 

. *5|c* indorsed in an ancient hand : — * rumening seta inn to limining 
mynster'; and in a hand of the 12th century: — ' Wictredus rex can- 
tuarie contulit ecclesie sancte marie de limminge iiii. aratra plegelmes- 
tun et rumingsete ad pastum ouium ccc/ B. 

Heming 193. A.D. 716. 



king of the Mercians, makes an exchange of saltworks on the 
Salwarp with the monastery at Worcester : he giving them 
on the south side of the river land for three sheds and six 
furnaces; and receiving as an equivalent six furnaces in two 
sheds on the north side of the same river. Archdeacon Hale 
says that this is the earliest notice of the Monastery of Wor- 
cester possessing property in Droitwich, and that at the time 
of the Domesday Survey (vol. ii. p. 174) the Monastery had 
eight Salinae in Droitwich. He also notes the conventionality 
of the profession, 'pro redemptione animae meae,' in a contract 
avowedly based upon mutual convenience. Begister of Wor- 
cester Priory, p. Ixxxiii. Camden Society, 1865. 

'^ In nomine domini Ihesu ! Ego Aetliilbald, ex 
diuina dispensatione Mercensium rex^ rogatus a saneta 
familia Christi consistenti in loco cui nomen Uigran- 
ceastre, aliquam agelli partem in qua sal confici solet, 
ad meridianam plagam fluminis quod dicunt Saluuerpe, 
in loco qui dicitur Lootuuic et Coolbeorg, ad constru- 
endos tres casulos et sex caminos, pro redemptione 
animae meae, in uoluntariam possidendi libertatem, con- 
cedens donabo ; sex alios a supradicta Christi familia 
caminos, in duobus casulis, in quibus similiter sal con- 
ficitur, uicarios accipiens, ad aquilonalem uidelicet partem 
fluminis memorati cui uocabulum est Saluuerpe. Hanc 
autem mutuam uicissitudinem idcirco fecisse nos constat, 
quia utrisque nobis magis aptum esse uisum est. 

c 3 


1^ Hanc autem libertatem ego Aethelbaldus, rex 
Merciorum, signo sanctae crucis confirmabo. >^ Ego 
Eguuinus episcopus. >i< Ego Uuilfridus dux. >J< Ego 
Aetheluuard dux. >{< Ego Stronglic dux. >J< Ego Sig- 
berbtus minister. ►$< Ego Eadberht minister, t^ Ego 
Oba minister. >i< Ego Eaduulf minister. 

Heming 31. A.D. 718. 



king of the Mercians, grants to Begia six cassati of land for 
a monastery at Daylesford in Worcestersbire. 

>J< Ego Aethelbald, diuina dispensante gratia Mer- 
censium rex, terram sex cassatorum,, iuxta fluuium, cui 
nomen est Bladaen, prope uadum, cui uoeabulura est 
Daeglesford, pro redemptione animae meae, seruo dei, 
quern uocant Begia, in possessionem iuris ecclesiastici 
libertatisque tradidi ; ita ut in ea monasterium con- 
strueretur et seruorum dei habitaculum fieret ; ea tamen 
conditione in omnibus rebus donabo illi noti et ignotis ^ 
regis sine principis, libera permaneat in sempiternum. 
Si quis autem banc donationem meam uiolare tempta- 
uerit, sciat se in tremendo extremi iudicii dei examine 
rationem deo redditurum. 

>i< Ego Aethelbaldus rex propriam meam donationem 
consensi et subscripsi. >J< Ego Uuilfrithus episcopus 
consensi. >J< Ego Eadberht consensi. >{< Ego Aethelrie 
consensi. >J< Ego Cyneric consensi. i^t Ego Aelfraed 
consensi. >J< Ego Sigebed consensi. t^t Ego Osraed 

Acta est autem hec donatio, anno Incarnationis Christi 
Dccxviii. Indictione . x. 

^ Mr. Kemble proposed to correct thus : * Ea tamen conditione donabo 
illi, ut in omnibus rebus, notis et ignotis, &c.* 


Bodl. Wood. i. 201 (collated). 20 July, 723. 



king of the Saxons, gives ten cassati of land to abbot Hemgisl. 
Kemble observes that this charter cannot be of the inscribed 
date 663, but may well be of 723. 'It bears marks of 
authenticity, but the year of the Incarnation has been inter- 
polated, and falsely calculated from the Indiction.' 

>J4 In nomine dei patris omnipotentis ! Anno incar- 
nationis saluatoris humani generis dclxiii. Indictione 
sexta XIII °. kalendas Augusti . scripta est haec pagina 
priiiilegii. Ego Ini rex Saxonum, pro remedio anime 
mee aliquam partem terre donans impendo, id est 
decem cassatos, Hengisli abbati, cum pontificis nostri 
consilio, consentiente Baldredo qui banc terram do- 
nauit ei per petitionem Sergheris per me donatio hec 
imperpetuii sit confirmata ut nullus infringere audeat. 
Terra autem hec sita est in monte et circa montem 
qui dicitur Brente ; habens ab occidente Sabrina^ ab 
aquilonem Axam, ab oriente Termic, ab austro Siger. 
Siquis uero cupiditate inlectus uoluerit irritam facere 
banc donationem, sciat se rationem domino redditurum. 
>I< Ego Heddi episcopus consentiens propriis manibus 

Hec enim sunt nomina testium subrogatorum pos- 
terioris temporis, pro maioris munimine firmamenti. 
>^ Ego Baldredus rex. »J< Ego Athelbaldus rex. 
>^ Ego Hereuualdus speculator eeclie dei, cum multis 
aliis. Isti prefati, ne sequentiu rapacitas praece- 
dentium irrumperet instituta, hiis uerbis inhibitionem 
indidisse uidentur. Siquis autem quouis deinceps tem- 
pore hoc infringere, tot nobilitatis gradibus robo- 
ratum, psumeret ius, sit a consortio bene merentiu 


anathema, rapaciumqj collegio adplicitus temeritatis sue 
commissa luat, sub diris dentibus salamandri, cerberiq^ 
rictibus reatum exsoluat proprium sine fine semper 
moerens. Siquis uero beniuola intentione potius prae- 
dutus haec exacta decernit, possideat bona sempiterna 
cum bene merentibus. 

*** Ruhricated, ' Carta Regis Ine de Brente/ — The margin has 
BRENTE in large illuminated capitals. 

Chart. Dec. & Cap. Cicestr. A.D. 725. 

Reg. B. xviii. 5. ibid. 
K 1000. 


king of the South Saxons, grants land to Eadberht (the first 
bp. Selsey, Beda v. i8) : — stated as 20 tributarii in the body 
of the deed, but in the endorsement 20 hides. Kemble's text, 
here reproduced, was made from a mutilated original at 
Chichester, the lacunae being partly supplied from Bishop 
Beed's Begister there. 

[>I< Begnante perennitus dec ac domino n]ro ihu xpo 
simulq : spiu see par[aclit]o in trib : psonis una deitas 
sine fin[e permansura. Qua de re unicuique cogitandum 
quantum sibi suf]ficiat possessio ut cu reb : transitoriis 
labentibusq : sibi seterna pre[paret praemia quod huius 
uitae praesentis quibusque nolentibus] i uolentib : adppin- 
quat terminus. Quamobrem ego nunna rex a[ustralium 
Saxonum aliquas telluris partes pro amore dei et coeles]tis 
patriae uenerando epio eadberhto in suu et in di seruitiu 
liberate [assensu saeculari aeternaliter conscribo et fir- 
miter ad] episcopale sedem adtingens cu totis ad ea 
ptinentib : in campis in siluis [montanis pascuis piscariis 
terra quae uoeitatur] hugabeorgii et set dene .xx. tribu- 
taries libenti animo attribuo. Si quis au[tem success- 
orum meorum quod absit banc donationem] mea in 


modico t in magno minuere t inuadere temptauerit Sciat 
se in treme[ndo examine coram Christo rationem red- 
dere nisi ante satisfactio]ne emendauerit. >I< Istis ter- 

minib : circugirata esse uidentur : g dices on 

^Seodweg nor^ ofer )?one weg lauingtunes dices 

east ende . of ^sere die nor'S 

e 7 )7anan east to freccehlince of ]>a, hlince to halignesse 

beorge of J>a beorge east to stse am 

garan of )?a garan to J^am byrgelsan of ]78em byrgelsan 

to billingabyrig 7 swa andlang Isese. 

7 "Sa dsenn serest ]7ser scealces burna 7 bollanea hi gega- 

deria'S on nor'Shealfe pses br 

7 bulan hoi . 7 isenan sewylm . 7 Saengelpicos 7 feale 

beag . tibbanhol. [Scripta est autem haec cartula 

anno] ab incarna? dni .dcclxxv. Indic[tione .11.] 

Testiu ergo et csentientiu huic donat[ioni signa aeterna 


>^ Ego Nunna rex primus] crucis xpi signo munio. 

»I< Ego u[uattus rex ]c[onsensi et subscripsi]. 

>^ Ego [Coenredus] rex w[estsaxonum roboraui.] 

[>i< Ego Eadbirht episcopus mihi terram] tributam 

confirmo signo crucis xpi. 
[>I« Ego Ine consensi et] propria manu scripsi. 

Dorso. ]?is is seo landboc ]?e nunna cyng gebocade 
eadberhte b into hugabeorgu .xx. hida. 

Cott. Vesp. B. xxiv. 35. A.D. 727. 



king of the Mercians, grants land of three manentes to Buca 
for a perpetual habitation of the servants of God. 

>J< In nomine dei summi ! Reuerentissimus rex 
Mercensium, ego Aethilbold, pro redemptione animae 


meae largitus sum terram quae dicitur Aactune, trium 
manentium^ Bucan comiti meo ; firmiter possidendum 
benignissime trado, contra eius pecuniam. Ita largitus 
sum terram lianc prefato comiti meo, ut perpetuum sit 
habitaculum seruorum dei, diuina suffragante gratia, 
soUicite in eo seruetur. Hanc autem donationem si 
quis tirannica potestate infringere uoluerit, sciat ilium 
in examine deo rationem redditurum. 

>J< Ego Aethilbald rex Mercensium propria manu 
signum crucis impressi. »I< ego Uuor episcopus con- 
sensi. >J< ego Torthere episcopus consensi. >J< ego 
Tida consensi. i^ ego Osfrid consensi. >{< ego Aethil- 
mod consensi. >I< ego Puda consensi. >J< ego Uuil- 
broth consensi. >J< ego Eadberht consensi. >{< ego 
Uuilfrat consensi. i^ ego Qua consensi. ►{< ego Tu- 
nualud consensi. »i< ego Peot consensi. >J< ego Teol 
consensi. >i< ego Theodor consensi. 

Actum autem hoc meae concessionis donum anno 
dominicae incarnationis Dccxvii ^. indictionis x. 

* * The date 717 is erroneous, and is not only refuted by the Indiction, 
but by the date of Uuor, one of the witnesses. On the other hand, 727 
agrees with the Indiction, and is consistent with the dates of Uuor and 
Torchere/ K. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 91. 20 Feb. 732. 

K 77. B. i. 6. 


king of Kent, the second of that name, grants to the abbot 
Dun land used for salt-works near the Limen. The form 
is almost that of an epistle addressed by the grantor to the 
grantee. A specimen of the writing is given in the Codex 
Diplomaticus, and the whole piece is facsimiled in the British 
Museum Series. 

>i< In nomine dni di saluatoris ni Ihu xpi. Est ter- 
rula quaedam id -;- quarta pars aratri unius iuxta limi- 


naee sali coquendo accommoda quam ego aethilberhtus 
rex cantuariorum dudum praestiteram antecessori tuo 
hymoran . et tu o abba praesbyter dun . iam per 
tempora plura me annuente eadem usus es praesta- 
tione. Hanc ipsam ego nunc terrulam iuris mei non 
p pecunia aliqua saeculari sed p remedio tantum ani- 
mae meae tibi et ecclesiae beatae mariae cui tua prae- 
est sollicitudo . ita tribuo et dono ut a praesenti die et 
tempore uestrae sit potestatis earn semper habere ac 
possidere qualiter uobis placuerit. Et ius regium in 
ea deinceps nullum repperiatur omnino . Excepto dum- 
taxat tale quale generale est in uniuersis ecclesiasticis 
terris quae in hac cantia esse noscuntur. Et ut iugiter 
firmitate suam haec ipsa mea donatio habeat . subter 
hie signum scae crucis ex[praessi] testesq: illius ut 
subscribant petam. 

[Actum est] die uicesima februarii mensis . anno 
regni nostri septimo. Indic[tione qjuinta decima 
dorouerni : — 

Et insuper ego aethilberhtus rex addidi huic dona- 
tioni quam p remedio animae meae dedi in omni anno 
centum^ plaustra onusta de lignis ad coquendum sal. 
Item dedi ei centum iugera eiusdem ruris . in loco qui 
dicitur . sandtun . termini uero terrae illius hec sunt . 
ab oriente terra regis . ab austro fluuius qui dicitur 
limenaee . ab occidente et in septentrione hudan fleot. 

li^t signum scae crucis qd scripsit aethilberhtus rex 
atq: donator. 

>^ Ego tatuuinus episc ad petitione aethilberhti 
regis subscripsi. 

>^ Ego albinus abbas iubente piissimo rege aethil- 
berhto subscripsi. 

>i< signum manus balthhaeardi. 


»i< signum manus bynnan. 
>J< signum manus aeanberhti. 
lit signum manus aethiliaeardi. 

*i^* Endorsed in an early hand, ' Sand tunes hoc ' ; and in a later 
hand, 'Viile: B. 

Cott. Nero E. i. 388. 24 Nov. 723 or 728 or 734\ 7. 



king of the Mercians, grants to Cyneburh 6 cassati at Bradan- 
laeh (Maiden Bradley, Somerset. K). 

^ DoNANTE domino nostro Ihesu Christo ! Ego 
Aethilbaldus rex Merciorum terram iuris mei vi. 
cassatorum, cui uocabulum est Bradanlaeh, pro redemp- 
tione animae meae Cyneburge trado ; ut fiat eius pos- 
sessio in perpetuum ; et cuicumque uoluerit tradere, uel 
in uita illius uel post obitum eius, [potestatem] habeat 
tradendi. Si quis temptauerit banc donationem fraudare, 
sciat se reddere rationem in die iudicii. Huie donationi 
optimates mei testes sunt quorum nomina infra expressa 

^ Ego Aethilbaldus rex Merciorum confirmationem 
banc confirmaui propria manu. >J< Ego Uuor episcopus. 
>J< Ego OflPa confirmaui. ^ Ego Eadberht confirmaui. 
^ Ego Uualdhere confirmaui. ^ Ego Uuilfrid episco- 
pus. >J< Ego Aldberht confirmaui. ►!< Ego Ontuuini 

Hanc cartam composui in iiii. feria viii. kal. decemb. 
passio sancti Chrisogoni martyris. 

^ The 24th of November fell on a Wednesday in the years 7i7» 723» 
728, 734, 745, 751, and 756, between 716 and 757- But as Uuor became 
bishop in 721, and died in 737, while Uuilfrith died in 743, we must 
exclude 717, 745, 751, and 756. Kemble i. 95 and ii. p. xi. 


Chart. Cotton, xvii. 1. A.D. 734. 

(Text. Roff. 120.) 
K 78. B. ii. 1. 

jasthilbald of Mercia 

grants to Aldulf, bp. of Rochester, the toll of one ship in the 
port of London. Written in very rude disjointed Latin. 
Appended is a Confirmation of the grant by Berhtulf of 
Mercia, about 840. 

>J< In nomine dni di saluatoris nri . ihu . xpi, Si ea 
quae quisq : p recipienda a do mercede hominib: uerbo 
sue largitur et donat stabilia iugiter potuissent durare 
supuacaneu uideretur ut litteris narrarentur ac firma- 
rentur, Sed dum ad pbanda donata ad conuincenduq: 
uolentem infringere nihil prorsus robustius ee uideretur 
quam donationis manit) auctoru ac testiu roborate 
non inmerito plurimi petunt, ut quae eis conlata 
dinoscuntur paginaliter confirmentur . quorum pos- 
tulationib: tanto libentius tantoq: promptius consensus 
pbendus -?- quanto et illis quae pcatores s? utilior res 
secundu hoc uisibile sctm nunc inpertitur, et illis 
qui concessores existunt p inpertito opere pietatis ube- 
rior fructus secundu inuisibile postmodum tribuetur, 
quamobrem ego . ethilbaldus rex mere psentib: litteris 
indico me dedisse p anima mea alduulfo episc eccle- 
siseq: beati andrese apost quam gubernat unius nauis 
sine ilia proprie ipsius siue cuiuslibet alterius hominis 
sit incessum id h- uectigal . mihi et antecessorib: meis 
iure regie in portu lundonise usque hactenus conpeten- 
tem quemammodii mansuetudinem nram rogauit, quae 
donatio ut in perpetuum firma et stabilis sit ita ut 
nullus eam regu t optimatum t teloniarioru t etiam 
iunioru quilibet ipsorii in parte aut in toto [in irrijtum 


psumat aut possit adducere manu ^prio signum see 
crucis subter in hac pa[g'ina faciam testesque] ut sub- 
scribant petam, quisquis ig id q^ pro anima mea donaui 
aut [donatu]m -h inlibatura permanere pmiserit habeat 
communionem beatam cum psente xpi ecclesia atq^ futura, 
si quis autem non permiserit separetur a societate [non 
solum] scorum hominu sed etiam angeloru . manente hac 
donatione nra nihilominus in sua firmitate, 

actum mense septembrio die indie ,ii, anno regni nri 


>J< ego aethilbald rex subscripsi 

>I< ego danihel episc scripsi 

>J< signum manus oba, 

»J< signum manus sigibed 


>I< hoc etiam iterum confirmatu -4- a beorhtuulfo regi 
mereioru in uico regali uuerburgeuuic ; 

>^ Ego berhtuulf rex mere banc meam donationem 
et pdecessoris mei ethilbaldi regis cum signo see crucis 
x^i confirmaui, his testib : consentientib : et quoru nomina 
hie continent ad indulgentia delictorum meoru atq^ 
|)cessoris mei ae^elbaldi regis. Si quis autem successoru 

meoru regu aut pncipu \ theloniarioru banc donatione 
nram infringere \ minuere uoluerit sciat se separatu a 
congregatione omniu scoru in tremendo die iudicii, nisi 
prius digne emendauerit, 

>}< ego berhtuulf rex mere >{< ego tatnoth epis 
>J< ego ceolnoth arcepis >J< ego hunberht dux 

^ ego sse^ry^ regina >}< ego mucel dux 

>J< ego ceolred epis >J< ego hunstan dux 

*^* JEndorsed in a hand of the 10th century, * Anes ceoles ryne (?) 
on[lo]nden ethibald rex merciorum sancte an[d]ree apostoli duro. (?) et 
beom . . . episcopo in hereditatem.' B. 


Cott. Aug. ii. 3. A.D. 736. 

K 80. B. i. 7. 


king of the Mercians and of all the South Anglian provinces, 
grants land of lo cassati to Cyniberht, to build a coenubium 
in the district of Husmera by the river Stur. This is the 
Stour of Staffordshire and Worcestershire, on which is Stour- 
bridge, and which joins the Severn at Stourport. The name 
of Cynibre lives on in Kinver alias Kinfore ; and probably 
Moerheb is not unconnected with Eymore Wood. Is this 
the germ of Kidderminster] This fine document is coeval 
and is one of our three uncial writings, and it was selected 
by Mr. Kemble for one of his small facsimile specimens. 

>I< Ego Aethibalt dno donante rex non solum mar- 
cersium sed et omnium prouinciarum quae generate 
nomine sutangli dicuntur pro remedio animae meae et 
relaxatione piaculorum meorum aliquam terrae parti- 
culam id est .x. cassatorum uenerando comite meo 
cyniberhtte ad construendum coenubium in prouincia 
cui ab antiquis nomen inditum est busmerae iuxta 
fluuium uocabulo stur, cum omnibus necessariis ad eam 
pertinentib. cum capis siluisq. cum piscariis pratisq. in 
possessionem ^cclesiasticam benigne largiendo trade. 
Ita ut quadiu uixerit potestatem habeat tenendi ac possi- 
dendi cuicumq. uoluerit uel eo uiuo uel certe post 
obitum suum relinquendi . est autem supradictus ager in 
circuitu ex utraq. parte supranominati fiuminis habens 
ex aquilone plaga siluam quam nominant cynibre ex 
occidentale uero aliam cui nomen est . moerheb. quarum 
pars maxima ad praefatum pertinet agrum . si quis autem 
banc donationem uiolare temptauerit sciat se in tre- 
mendo examine tyrannidis ac praesumptionis suae do 
rationem terribiliter redditurum. 

scriptum est autem baec cartula anno ab incarnatione 


dni iii ihu xpi septincentissimo tricessimo . ui indictlone 

>J< ego aetdilbalt rex britanniae propriam donationem 
confirmans subscripsi. 

»J< ego uuor episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

^ ego uuilfridus episc. iubente aethilbaldo rege 

>^ ego aethilric subregulus atq. comes gloriosis- 
simi principis ^thilbal[di] huic donatione consensi et 

>I< ego ibe ac si indignus abbas consensi et sub- 

>I< ego heardberbt frater atq. dux pr^fati regis con- 
sensi et subscripsi. 

>I< ego ebbella consensum meum acomodans sub- 

>^ ego onoe comes subscripsi. 

>^ ego oba consensi et subscripsi. 

»I4 ego sigibed consensi et subscripsi 

>J< ego bercol consensi et subscripsi 

>i< ego ealduuft consensi et subscripsi 

»I< ego cusa consensi et subscripsi 

>J< ego pede consensi et subscripsi 

Est autem agrum in memorata silua moreb cui uoca- 
bulum est brochyl quern ego edilbalt rex suutanglorum 
fidele duce atque comite meo cyniberhtt^ in ius ecclesias- 
ticam cum supradicto agro largiendo donaui. 

*j|c* Endorsed hy a hand of the loth century, *Nort$ stur/ and 
again hy a later handy of the iith century, *Nor5 stur. (Ethelbad 
rex/ B. 


Heming 25. A.D. 736-737. 

K 82. 


abp. Canterbury, in synod, orders the restoration of a monastic 
land-book to Hrotwari, who claims to be abbess. Here we 
see a monastery disposed of as a private estate ; and it is, as 
pointed out by Haddan and Stubbs, iii. 338, a practical 
illustration of Beda's complaints (Epistola ad Ecgbertum, 
§ 6, 7) as to the abuse of monastic privileges. The monastery 
was Withington (Griou.), and when it fell to "Worcester in 
due course it was again leased by Mildred the bp. at the 
time. See below, a.d. 774. 

>I< Gloriosissimus Mercensium rex Aethelred, cum 
comite suo, subregulo Huuicciorum Oshero, rogatus ab 
eo, terrain .xx. cassatorum iuxta fluuium, cui uocabulum 
est Tillath, duabus sanctiraonialibus, Dunnan uidelicet 
et eius filiae Bucgan, ad construendum in ea monaste- 
rium, in ius ecclesiasticum sub libera potestate, pro 
uenia facinorum suorum condonauit, propriaeque manus 
subscriptione banc eorum donationem firmauit. Prae- 
fata autem dei famula Dunne, constructum in praedicto 
agello monasterium, cum agris suis necnon et cartulam 
descriptionis agri, cui tunc sola ipsa praeerat, filiae 
nimirum filiae suae, in possessionem, ad dominum mi- 
gratura largita est. Sed quia haec in paruula adhuc 
aetate erat posita, cartulam conscripti agri, necnon et 
omnem monasterii procurationem, quoad usque ilia ad 
maturiorem peruenisset aetatem, matri illius maritatae 
conseruandam iniunxit. Quae cum cartulam reddi 
poposcisset, ilia reddere nolens, furtu hanc sublatam 
respondit. Quo tandem omni negotio ad sanctam sacer- 
dotalis concilii synodum perlato, decreuit omne uenera- 
bile concilium, cum reuerentissimo archiepiscopo No- 
thelmo, hanc cartulam donationis, uel regum uel 


supradictae dei famulae Dunnan, manifestissime describi, 
praefataeque abbatissae Hrotuuari reddi, eiusque posses- 
sionem monasterii firmissimam esse; damnato nimirum 
eo, atque anathematizato synodi saeratissimae decreto, 
qui cartam illam subscriptionis agri primitiuam vel per 
furta, uel quolibet modo fraudulenter auferendo subripere 
praesumpserit. Atque hoc decernit sacra synodus, ut 
post obitum eius, sicut ante statutum fuit a senioribus 
eius, ad episcopalem sedem castrum Uueogernensis liber 
hie, cum terra, reddatur. 

»J< Ego Nothelmus, gratia dei archiepiscopus, ca- 
nonice subscripsi. i^ Ego Daniel episcopus subscripsi. 
>J< Ego Uuor episcopus subscripsi. >J< Ego Incguuald 
episcopus subscripsi. >I< Ego Uuilfrith episcopus sub- 
scripsi. 1^ Ego Alduuulf episcopus subscripsi. i^ Ego 
Aluuine episcopus subscripsi. i^ Ego Forthere episco- 
pus subscripsi. »J< Ego Cuthberht episcopus subscripsi. 
>J< Ego Hereuuald episcopus subscripsi. 

^extus RofiF. 119. April, 738. 

K 85. 


king of Kent, gives land to the bishopric of Kochester. 
After the signature of the grantor, several other signataries 
follow, who use the same royal style in that they make their 
comites to confirm and subscribe. Mr. Kemble has dwelt on 
this deed as conclusive evidence of the plurality of kings in 
Kent at this date. Saxons i. 149. 

»^ In nomine domini dei nostri Ihesu Christi ! Ego 
Eadberht, rex Cantuariorum, donaui aliquam partem 
terrae pro remedio animae meae atque indulgentia delic- 
torum meorum, episcopatui beati Andreae apostoli, ac 
uenerabile uiro Ealdulfo, eius ecclesiae antistiti, in re- 


gione quae uocatur Hohg*, in loco qui dicitur Andscohes- 
ham, id est decern aratrorum, iuxta aestimationem 
prouinciae eiusdera. Huius uero terrae possessionem 
ita praedicto episcopo largitns sum, cum omnibus ad 
earn pertinentibus, id est campis, siluis, pratis, piscariis, 
salsilagene, atque omnibus utensilibus eius, iuxta notos 
terminos constitutos. Hoc quoque praecipimus ut nullus 
praesumat propinquorum [m]eorum uel successorum 
[mjeorum banc donationem meam minuere infringere 
quoquomodo. Si quis uero, quod non credimus, contra 
praeceptum meum huic donatione meae malibolo animo 
contrarie temptauerit, sciat se in die iudicii rationem 
deo redditurum, manentem tamen banc cartulam 
nihilominus in sua firmitate. Si quis uero magis de- 
fendere augere uoluerit, addat deus bona eius in terra 

>I< Hanc quoque donationem meam ego Eadberht rex 
cantuariorum propria manu confirmaui et signum sanc- 
tae crucis infixi ; testes quoque idoneos commites meos 
confirmari et subscribere feci. >^ Ergo Uuilbaldus 
commites meos confirmari et subscribere feci. >I< Ego 
Dimheabac commites meos confirmari et scribere feci. 
>J< Ego Hosberth commites meos confirmari et scribere 
feci. »J< Ego Notbbaltb commites meos confirmari et 
scribere feci. >{< Ego Banta commites meos confirmari 
et scribere feci, i^ Ego Ruta commites meos confir- 
mari et scribere feci. >I< Ego Tidbalth commites meos 
confirm are et scribere feci. 

►!< In nomine domini dei summi. Ego Alduulfus epi- 
scopus inprimis penitus ignoraui quod a Dorouernensis 
ecclesiae praesuli et rege hac kartula confirmata esse de- 
buisset, postea agnoui, et tam diligenter postulaui ab 
archiepiscopo Nothelmo et rege Aethilberhto, praesi- 


dente meo largitore Eadberhto, ut ipsi manu sua banc 
donationem corroborassent : et sic in metropolitano urbe 
perfecte compleuerunt. Actum mense April, indie, vi. 
Anno ab incarn. Christi Dccxxxviii. 

>i< Ego Notbelmus gratia dei archiepiscopus testis 
consentiens subscripsi kanonice. >}< Ego Aethilbertus 
rex praefatam donationem signo sanctae crucis confirmavi. 
>I< Ego Beornbeard testis subscripsi. >J< Signum ma- 
nus Tunan. >{< Signum manus Balthardi. »I< Signum 
manus Eanberbti. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 101. A.D. 740. 

K 86. B. i. 8. 


king of the Centware, had granted land and right of fishing 
to the abbot of Liminge, who was at the time of granting 
Cuthberht, now Archbishop. This document is above sus- 
picion, though the year and the Indiction do not agree. Mr. 
Kemble proposed a.d. 740, the date of Cuthberht's consecra- 
tion, a year of which the Indiction is viii, for which iii would 
be a likely error. 

>J< In nomine dni di saluatoris m itiu xpi. Pro- 
uabilib ; desideriis et petitionib : piis assensum semp' 
praebere gloriosu constat esse et rectii et tum maxime 
cum eadem desideria et petitiones ad dilatandum et au- 
gendam uitam xpi sacerdotum eiusq : seruorum respi- 
ciunt . qua de re ego aethilberht rex cantuarioru pro 
remedio animae meae capturam pisciii quod est in ostio 
fluminis cuius nomen -f- limin aea et partem agri in qua 
situm -^ oratoriu sci martini cum edib: piscatoru et 
extra eam quartam parte aratri circa eunde locum et 


altera partem iuris mei ad pascendum . cl . iumentoru 
iuxta marisco qui dicitur biscopes uuic usq : ad silbam 
qui appellatur ripp et at terminos suthsaxoniae sicut 
olim habuit romanus pr ad ecclesiam beatissimi birginis 
mariae quod est in limin iaeae libenter donaui atq : dono 
regimen habente eiusdem monasterii domno cuthberhto 
archiepiscopo tunc temporis abbati. Uerum quia cauen- 
dum est ne hodiernam donationem nostram futuri tem- 
poris abnegare ualeat et in ambiguum deuocare pre- 
sumptio, Plaeuit mihi banc paginem condere per quam 
non solum omnib : meis sueeessoribus atq : heredibus 
set etiam mihimet ipsi interdico ne aliter quam a me 
constitutum est ullo tempore quippiam agere audeant 
quod si qui forte obseruare neglexerint et absque digna 
satisfactione presentis uitae impleberint dies . sciat se 
omnipotentis di ira incurrere et a socitate scorum om- 
nium segregatum. Quoniam scissimam beatissimae 
uirginis mariae locum deonestare conatus est. Qui 
uero haec augenda custodierint nihilq : inrogarent 
aduersi . auribus percipiant uocem clementissimi iu- 
dicis inquientis ad pios . Uenite benedicti patris mei 
percipite regnum quod nobis paratum est ab origine 

Actum in loco qui dicitur limin iaee Anno dominicae 
incarnationis . dccxli. Indictione iii. . 

>J< Ego aethilberhtus rex cantiae banc donatione a 
me factam propria manu signo scae crucis roboraui. 

^ Ego cuthberbtus gratia di archiepisc banc piam 
donatione predicti regis consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< signum manus balthbardi 

>J< signu man aedelbuni 

»J< signia man dunuualhi pincerni 

>I< sig man duanuuallan 



1^ sig man aldberhti prefect! 
1^ sig man aethelnothi 

*5ie* Endorsed hy a hand of the C)th century, * Limenea boec/ and 
other words now illegible; and hy one of the 12th century, * Ethel- 
bertns Rex dedit piscationem in limene et alia quedam ad ecclesiam 
sancte Marie de limenea.' * Latine.' B. 

Canterbury Charters M. 363. A.D. 742. 

Cott. Claud. D. ii. 30. 
Lambeth 1212, f. 308. 
K 87. T. 26. S. i. 1. 


king of the Mercians, in synod at Clovesho, heard the Privilege 
of Wihtred recited, and with the approbation of all present 
he confirmed it. — Besides the three MSS. above given, the 
document is also found nearly whole in the Saxon Chronicle F 
(Cott. Domitian A. viii. 2). Kemble printed it from Cott. 
Claud., taking the signatures from the Canterbury MS. : 
Thorpe followed Kemble's text, adding at the foot some 
variations from Cott. Domitian. The text here printed is 
from the Ordnance Survey Facsimile of what Wilkins called 
* a faulty MS. at Canterbury' (H & S. iii. 342). It is faulty, 
and it is very rude in grammar ; but I apprehend it is nearest 
to the original, and that all the others are improved copies. 
For comparison the Lambeth copy is appended. 

>J< Regnante in perpetuum dec et domino nostro 
ihesu christo anno uero dominie^ incamationis dccxlii. 
Indictione . x. et regni ae^elbaldi regis Mereiorum . 
xxvij. synodus congregatum fuerat in loco ce[leb]ri 
ubi nominatur clofeshos . de diuersis eecle[sia]rum 
dei. Et hutilitatibus pr^sitente autem eodera synodo 
ae^elbaldus rex cum suis optimatibus necnon cutberhtus 
uenerabiles archiepiscopus . ceterisque episcopis . s[imul] 
necessaria diligenter examinantes de statu 


tlus christianitatis uel de symbolo ex antique sanc- 
torum patrum institutionibus traditam esse uel qualiter 
in primordia nascentis ecclesi^ . iubebatur habere aut 
ubi honor cenubiarum secundum normam equitatis 
seruaretur : h^c et is similia anctie inquirentes undique 
antiquas priuilegias recitantes . tandundem peruenit ex 
rogatu ae^elberhti regis Canti§ coram omnibus legatur 
libertas ecclesiarum dei. Et institutio uel preceptum 
wihtredi regris . de electione dominarum cenubiarum in 
regno cantuariorum : quomodo uel qualiter secundum 
imperium et electioni archiepiscopi fieri stare precipitur. 
Post eo hoc priuilegium lecta et inter se examinata ante 
regis et episcoporum presentia fuisset : placuit itaque 
omnibus pariterque condixerunt nee ullam aliam ; tarn 
nobilem tamque prudent er constitutum inuenire potu- 
issent : secundum ecclesiasticam disciplinam. Et hoc 
adnuentes stare seu ab ,omnibus firmare rectum esse 
sancserunt : Ideo que pro hac re Ego ae^elbald rex 
merciorum pro salute anime mee et pro stabilitati regni 
mei nee non ex petitioni : ae^elberhti regis canti§ seu 
. . . pro reuerentiae cutberhti archiepiscopi hoc idem 
munifiea manu propria mea subscribe ut per omnia 
h[onor] et auctoritas et securitas christi ecclesi§ citra 
humbrensis flufio [a nulla persona] denegatur . . . 
omnium cenubiarum in terra canti^ . . . tam in liber- 
tate a secularium seruiciis quam etiam in omnibus causis 
maioris minorisque secura permanet et sicut supradictus 
. . . pro se suos que constituit ad seruandum .... per 
omnia irrefragabilis et immutabilis usque ad terminus 
seculi perdurare precipimus si quis autem regum suc- 
cessorum nostrorum seu epis[coporum] uel princlpum 
hoc salubre decretum inf[ringere temptauerit, reddat] 
rationem deo omnipotenti in die tremendo : si comes 


uel presbyter diaconus clericus aut moniales huic insti- 
tutioni restiterit sit sui gradai priuatus et a partici- 
patione corporis et sanguinis cliristi : separatus et alienus 
a regna dei, nisi ante ea satisfactione emendauerit quot 
sui malo superbi^ iniqui egessit . quia in euangelio 
dictum est : quicumque ligaueritis super terram : erit 
ligatum : et in celis. Et quecumque solueritis super 
terram erit solatum et in celis. 

>^ Ego e^elbald rex : diuino suffragio fultus ; gentis 
Merciorum regens imperium ; signum sancte crucis sub- 

>I< Ego cu^berhtus archiepiscopus propria manu 

>J< Ego uuita episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

1^ Ego torbthelm episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

1^ Ego willfredi episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

»i< Ego cu^berbt episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

►!< Ego huetlac episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< Ego eanfri^ episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

>^ Ego ecglaf episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

>J« Ego aluuig episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

>^ Ego hunwald episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

1^ Ego daniel episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

►!< Ego aldwulf episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< Ego e'Selfri^ episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

>I« Ego herewald episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

»J< Ego sigcga episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

>^ Ego redwulf episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

»J< Ego ofa patricius consensi et subscripsi. 

>I» Ego aldwulf dux consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< Ego ae'Selmod indolis merci^ consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< Ego heardberht dux consensi et subscripsi. 

>^ Ego eadbald dux consensi et subscripsi. 


>I< Ego bercul dux consensi et subscripsi. 
►!< Ego cyneberht consensi et subscripsi. 
►!< Ego freo'Sorne consensi et subscripsi. 
*it Ego wermund abbas consensi et subscripsi. 
>J< Ego cu'Sred abbas consensi et subscripsi. 
^ Ego buna abbas consensi et subscripsi. 

*».* Endorsed in a hand nearly coeval : ' Libertas eclesie Christi Ej)el- 
baldi regis mercie et cu])berti archiepiscopi.' In a hand of the nth 
century : ' Decretum Athelbaldi regis et Cuthberti archiepiscopi de 
libertate ecclesiarum , latine/ S. 

Tke Lambeth Copy. 

>J< Anno Dominicae Incarnationis dccxlii. congregaturn 
est magnum Concilium apud Clovesho, praesidente eodem 
Concilio Athelbaldo Rege Merciorum, cum Cuthberto Archi- 
episcopo Doroberniae caeterisque episcopis simul assidenti- 
bus, diligenter examinantes circa necessaria totius religionis, 
et de symbolo ex antiquis sanctorum patrum institutionibus 
tradita, studioseque perquirentes qualiter in primordio nas- 
centis Ecclesiae hie in Anglia jubebatur habere, aut ubi honor 
cenubiorum secundum normam aequitatis. 

Haec et hiis similia anxie inquirentes antiquaque privi- 
legia recitantes, tandem pervenit ad manus libertas Eccle- 
siarum, institutio vel praeceptum Wihtredi gloriosi Regis, 
de electione et auctoritate coenobiorum in Regno Cantiae, 
quoraodo et qualiter secundum imperium et electionem Can- 
tuariensis Metropolitan! fieri [et] stare praecipitur. Ex 
praecepto itaque Regis Adelbaldi, lectum est coram omnibus 
privilegium praefati Wilitredi gloriosi Regis, et placuit 
cunctis hoc audientibus, pariterque dixerunt : Nullum aliud 
tam nobile, tamque prudenter constitutum decretum invenire 
potui&se secundum Ecclesiasticam disciplinam, et ideo hoc 
ab omnibus firmare sanxerunt. 

Igitur ego Athelbaldus Rex Merciorum, pro salute animae 
meae, et pro stabilitate regni mei, proque venerabilis Archi- 
episcopi Cuthberti reverentia, propria manu mea munitica 


subscribens confirmo : ut per omnia libertas, honor, aueto- 
ritas, et securitas Christi Ecclesiae a nulla persona denegetur, 
sed sit libera ab omnibus secularibus servitiis, et omnes 
terrae ad illam pertinentes, exceptis expeditione, pontis et 
arcis constructione. Et sicut ipse praefatus Kex Wihtredus, 
pro se suisque constituit servandum, ita per omnia irrefra- 
gabiliter et immutabiliter perdurare praecipimus. Si quis 
autem Regum successorum nostrorum, seu episcoporum, vel 
principum hoc salubre decretum infringere temptaverit, reddet 
rationem Deo omnipotent! in die tremendo. Si autem 
comes, presbyter, diaconus, clericus vel monachus huic in- 
stitution! restiter!t, sit suo gradu privatus, et a participatione 
Corporis et Sanguinis Domini separatus, et alienus a Regno 
Dei, nisi ante placita satisfactione emendaverit, quod malo 
superbiae inique gessit. Scriptum est enim : * Quaecunque 
ligaveritis super terram, erunt ligata et in caelo : et quae 
solveritis super terram, erunt soluta et in caelo.' 

Heming 26 (collated). A.D. 716-743. 

K 90. 


king of the Mercians, grants land at Aston and Notgrove 
(Glou.) to Osred, a scion of the royal race of Hwiccia, free 
of tribute; so he pay his ecclesiastical dues. — This grant 
afterwards passed into the possession of the Church at 

>I< Sit nomen domini benedictum in secula! Ego 
Aethelbaldus, dec dispensante rex Mercensium, terram 
XX. cassatorum, id est x. et viii. in loco quern dicunt aet 
Eastune et ad Natangrafum ministro meo ualde fideli, 
qui est de stirpe non ignobil! prosapia regali gentis 
liuicciorum, Osredo, in possessionem iuris aecclesiastici, 
pro redemptione anime meae, largiens concedo ; qua- 
tinus eo uiuente possideat et regat, et post se cuicumque 
yoluerit hominum possidendum, liberum arbitrium 



habens, derelinquat ; et ut ab omni tribute uectigalium 
operum onerumque saecularium sit libera in perpetuum, 
pro mercede aeterne retributionis, regali potestate de- 
cernens statuo ; tantum ut deo omnipotenti ex eodem 
agello aecclesiastice seruitutis famulatum inpendat. 
Haec autem testamenti traditio perpetualiter postea 
tradita est sancte Mariae Uueogeruensis monasterii 
pro ipsius regis salute. 

>I< Ego Aethelbald rex Mercensium, banc donationem 
meam subscribe . 

^ Ego Uuilfrithus episcopus. i^ Ego Huita epis- 
copus. 1^ Ego Torhtbelm episcopus. 

»I< Ego Cuthberht episcopus. »I< Ego Albuig epis- 
copus. »I< Ego Sigebed episcopus. 

This synd ]>a. land gemaera set Eastune )7e ^tbelbald 
cyning myrcna gebocade Utele bisceope into see marian. 
-^rest of Turcanwyllas heafde andlang straete on Cynel- 
messtan on Mylenweg ]?onne andlang hrycges on Heort- 
ford ];anen andlang streames on Biiruhford on foron ]?a 
spelstowe J^onan on Turcandene on Seofenwyllas mid- 
deweardan of ]?am wyllan to Balesbeorge su^an J?onne 
on Cealcweallas ]?onan eft on Turcandene andlang eft on 
Turcanwyllas heafod. Dis waes gedon \}y geare )7e waes 
agaen from Cristes flaescnesse dccxliii. on ]?ani cynebame 
J7e is gecyged Bearuwe. 

Heming 20 (coUated). A.D. 743-745. 

K 95. 


king of the Mercians, remits to Milred, bishop of Worcester, 
the port-dues on two ships at Londontown hythe. An 
interesting specimen of eighth century English; and our 
earliest example of a genuine Charter wholly in Saxon. 

>I< In usses drybtnes noman haelendes cristes ic 


ae^elbald myrcna cincg waes beden from ]7aem arfullan 
bisceope milrede J^aeti ic him alefde and his J7aem hale- 
gan hirede alle nedbade tuegra sceopa ]>e ]7aert6 limpende 
beo^ )7eti ic him forgefe ]>a ]?aem eadgan petre apostola 
aldormen in ]?aem mynstre )7e6vvia^ )7aet is geseted in 
huicca maeg^e in }?aere stowe pe mon hate^S weogerna- 
cester |7aere bene swjrSe arfulre ge^afunge ic waes syl- 
lende for minre savvle laecedome to "Son ]?aeti for minum 
synnum hi heo geea^medden |7aette heo waeren gelom- 
lice fingeras wi'S drihten swy^e lustfullice pa, forgeofende 
ic him alyfde alle nedbade tuegra sceopa ]7a J?e J?aer 
abaedde bee's from ]?aem nedbaderum in lundentunes 
hy^e ond naefre ic ne mine lastweardas ne "Sa nedbaderas ^ 
gcSristlaecen )7at heo hit onwenden o^^e )7on wi^gaen . 
gif heo )7at nyllen syn heo |7onne amansumade from dael- 
neomencge liceman and blodes usses drihtnes haelendes 
cristes and from aire neweste geleafulra syn heo ascea- 
dene and asyndrade nym^e heo hit her mid J)ingonge 
bote gebete. 

>J< Ic Aethelbald cincg mine agene sylene trymmende 
ic heo wrat. >i< Milred bisceop )>are halegan rode 
tacen he heron gefaestnode. >{< Inguwald bisceop ge- 
'Safiende he hit wrat. >J< Wilfrid bisceop he hit wrat. 
1^1 Alda cinges gefera he hit wrat. 

^ nedba'Seras MS. 

Spelman's Concilia i. 256. (MS. Beg. 13. D. 2, f. 21.) A.D. 749. 
K 99. T. 33. 


Iving of the Mercians, grants to monasteries and clmrclies the 
privilege that their lands shall be exempt from royal and 
public burdens, with the exception of bridge building and 
the defence of the country. 

^ Plerunque contingere solet pro iucerta futurorum 


temporum uicissitudine, ut ea, quae prius multarum fide- 
lium personarum testimonio consilioque roborata fuerunt, 
ut fraudulenter per contumaciam plurimorum, et machi- 
namenta simulationis, sine ulla consideratione rationis 
periculose dissipentur, nisi auctoritate literarum, et tes- 
tamento cyrographorum aeternae memoriae inserta sint. 
Quapropter ego Aethilbaldus rex Merciorum, pro amore 
coelestis patriae et pro remedio animae meae, hoc 
maxime agendum esse praeuidi, ut eam bonis operibus 
liberam efficerem ab omnibus uinculis piaculorum. Dum 
enim mihi omnipotens deus per misericordiam clemen- 
tiae, absque uUo antecedente merito, sceptra regiminis 
honorifice largitus est^ ideo ei libenter et uoluntarie ex 
eo quod aceepi iterum retribuo. Huius rei gratia banc 
donationem, deo teste^ me uiuente concedo, ut monasteria 
et ecclesiae a publicis uectigalibus et ab omnibus operi- 
bus oneribusque, auctore deo, seruientes absoluti ma- 
neant; nisi sola quae commimiter fruenda sint, omnique 
populo, edicto regis, facienda iubentur, id est instruc- 
tionibus pontium, uel necessariis defensionibus arcium 
contra bostes, non sunt renuenda. Sed nee hoc prae- 
termittendum est, cum necessarium constat ecclesiis 
del, quia Aethelbaldus rex, pro expiatione delictorum 
suorum et retributione mercedis aeterni, famulis dei 
propriam libertatem in fructibus siluarum agrorumque, 
sine in caeteris utilitatibus fluminum uel raptura pis- 
cium, habere donauit ; et ut munuscula ab aecclesiis in 
saeculare conuiuium regis uel principum a subditis 
minime exigantur, nisi amore et uoluntate praebentur : 
sed cunctas tribulationes quae nocere uel impedire pos- 
sunt in domo dei, omnibus principibus sub eius potestate 
degentibus demittere et auferre praecipit ; quatenus sub- 
limitas regni eius prosperis successibus polleat in terris, 


et meritorum manipuU multipliciter maturescunt in 
coelis. Qui uero haec benig-na mentis intentione atque 
inlaesa cogitatione custodierit, aeterna claritate, coro- 
netur, ornetur, glorificetur. Si quis hoc, quod absit, 
cuiuslibet personae, tyrannica cupiditate instinctus, contra 
banc donationis cartulam, saeciilari potentia fretus, 
uenire nititur, sit sub anathemate ludae, proditoris 
domini nostri Ihesu Christi. Ad confirmandum uero 
hoc nostrae benificentiae munus, hii testes adfuerunt, et 
nostri magistratus optimates et duces fidelissimique 
amici consenserunt et scripserunt. 

>J< Ego Aethelbald divino *.• fultus suffragiis, hiis sta- 
tutis consentiens, confirmandoque signum crucis araui. 
»I< Ego Huita Mercensis ecclesiae humilis episcopus 
subscripsi. >^ Ego Torhthelm gratia dei episcopus 
signum crucis infixi. >{< Ego Headberbt primatum 
tenens subscripsi. i^ Ego Eada his statutis consentiens 
subscripsi. ^ Ego Cyneberht his gestis consentiens 
subscripsi. >j^ Ego Bercul patricius his donis consen- 
tiens subscripsi. t^* Ego Friothuric consentiens sub- 
scripsi. >J< Ego Eopa his statutis consentiens subscripsi. 
>i< Ego Eadbald subscripsi. ►J* Ego Byrnbelm sub- 
scripsi. 1^ Ego Mocca subscripsi. >J< Ego Aldceorl 
subscripsi. >{< Ego Alhmund subscripsi. 

Huius scedulae scriptio dominicae incarnationis an 

DCCXLViiii. indictione secunda in loco celebre cuius 

uocabulum est Godmundeslaech . xxxiii. anno Aedel- 

baldi regis peracta est. 

*** This text is slightly conflate : basing upon Spelman's first form, 
K took something from the second. The MS. reference given by K 
(and T) represents (as now corrected "i Spelman's second form. — There 
are several privileges of this kind in existence, as may be seen in 
H & S. iii. 238 ff. The oldest, and that which has stood for the type 
of its class, is the Privilege of Wihtred to the foundation in Kent, 
606-716 : though extant only in a late copy, it seems to retain genuine 
features of the original. 


Addit Chart. 19, 789. A.D. 759. 

K 105 (from Heming 24). 
B. ii. 2. 

Three Brothers 
Eanberht, Uhctred, Aldred, 

everyone of them a regulus, and apparently of the province of 
the Hwiccas, give to abbot Headda for pious uses, ten cassati 
aet Onnanforda. The place is unknown. 

f^ In nomine dni nri ihu xpi saluat[oris] nihil in- 
tulimus in hunc mundum uerum nee auferre quid pos- 
sumus idcireo terrenis ac caducis aeterna et caelestis 
patriae praemia mercanda sunt, quapropter: cum li- 
centia et pmissione piissimi regis offan merciorum. 
nos tres germani uno patre editi. eanberht atque 
uhctred necnon et aldred praetio redemptionis animae 
nostrae n ignorantes in futuro prodesse si quid xpi 
membris libenter impendiraus donauiraus tibi . headda 
a^. terram iuris nostri decern cassatorum. aet onnan- 
forda confiniae tamen eiusdem terrae : ab australi plaga 
uuisleag. ab occidente rindburna^ a septemtrionale meos- 
gelegeo, ab orient uero onnandun cum campis siluis pratis 
pascuis cum omnib : ad se ptinentibus. ut quidquid exinde 
agere uolueris liberam habeas arbitrium donandi in tuo 
sit potestate. numquam nos heredesque nostros ullo tem- 
pore : contra banc donationem ee uenturos quod si quis 
praesumserit in magno uel in modico inrumpere, sit se- 
paratus ab omni societate xptianorum et in examine : dis- 
tricti iustiq : iudicis praesumtionis suae poenam incurrat. 
ad cuius cumulum nihilominus firmitatis testes co- 

petente numero ut subscriberent rogauimus. et ipsi 
signum scae cruel s inpraeserunt. peracta est autem haee 


donatio in mense febr indictione xii*. anno uero ab in- 
carnatione xpi dcc''l° uiii[i]. et isti testes consenserunt : 

►J* ego offa rex mere huic donationi consensi et sub- 

>J< ego eanberht regulus osensi et sub. 

\^ ego uhctred regulus osensi et sub. 

>I< ego aldred regulus osensi et sub. 

\^ ego milred episcop osensi et sub. 

>J< ego tilhere abbas osensi et sub. 

>J< ego cusa abbas osensi et sub. 

»J< sig manus . . acan 

»J< sig manus dilran 

>J< sig manus bobban 

>J< sig manus bynnan 

>J< sig manus berhtuuald 

»J< sig manus tilberbti abb ; 

*** Written in round characters of the semi-uncial Irish type. B. 

In the Codex Dipl. this record is printed from Heming*s Chartulary, 
which was compiled in the eleventh century : but since Mr. Kemble's 
time the original has been found, and, notwithstanding two or three 
discrepancies, it affords a valuable testimony to the accuracy of Heming. 
Heming's most important defect is that he does not give all the 
signatures j and these, in the present case, throw light on the persons 
of the grantors. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 26, 27. A.D. 764. 

K:116. B.i. 9. 


king of the Mercians, made an exchange of lands with abbot 
Stidberht. This is dated 764. At the close of the century 
this deed was owned by Pilheard, and he exhibited it before 
kingCoenulf in synod atCealchythe, and it was there confirmed. 
The handwriting of the first deed is very Irish : — that of the 
second, though rather more Saxon, has strong Irish features. 


Both are among the facsimiles of Kemble. Here we see 
Saxon words in the midst of the Latin. 

In nomine trino diuino. 

Regnante in perpetuum dfio nostro. Ego offa . 
diuina gubernante gratia rex mercior. Stidberhtae 
uenerabili uiro atq: abbatis cura praedito . terram . xxx . 
manentium in middil saexum . bituih . gumeninga 
hergae end liddinge . et est vi . manentiii et habitatio 
ab oriente torrentis . lidding . libentissime concedens 
donabo. et iste praefatus stidberht mihi terram totidem 
manentium id est . xxx . in eiltinne . in loco ubi dr 
wichama in uicem commutationis p'donauit. Si quis 
autem q absit banc nram commutationem infringere 
pertemtet sciat se coram xpo et angelis eius rationem 

Dominicae autem incarnationis . an . dcc.lxiiit . Indict. 
V. haec donationis datio et muneris mutatio peracta est . 
his testibus consentientib . et scribentibus quorum nomina 
infra karaxata .... nentur. 

>I< Ego . offa rex merciorum subscrib. 

1^ Ego . gengberht gratia dei archiepis 

}^ Ego . eadberht eps 

>i< [Ego .] cuutfert eps 

Endorsed hy Pilkeard, 799 — 802. 

Has igitur cartulas donationu uel commutationu pno- 
minatoru reguu aethelbaldi uidelicet atqu offani cum 
ad me usq: peruenerunt. Ego pilheardus misellus comis 
regis mercioru coenuulfi iustissime adquirens accipi, 
easq: in synodali conciliabulo iuxta locum qui dicitur 
caelichyth . coram rege ia nominate mercioru et psulib: 
ecclesiaru di necnon et ducibus seu principib; produxi 


et per pecunia a piissimo iam tu domino meo rege mere 
libertatem terraru illaru consecutus su . id est . cc . 
solidis . et ut postea in dieb: meis uel successoru meorii 
omni anno . xxx . 7 ut ab omniu fisealiu redituu operu 
oneruque sen etia popularium concilioru uindictis nisi 
tantum . praetiii p ptio liberse sint in ppetuu. Trium 
tamen causarum pupliea^ ratio reddatur hoc h- instruetio 
pontuu et arcis . ueru etiam in expeditionis necessitatem 
uires . v . tantum modo mittantur. Huius rei gest§ hi 
fideles testes aderant quos haec cartula ophendit. 

At nc ego Coenuulfus do dispensante rex mere 
propriae donationis me^ libertatem signo scse crucis 
libentissime Subscribo ►!< . 

^ ego sethelheardus do largiente arc epis sig uene- 
randse crucis inpssi. 
»J< ego unuuona epis osen >J< ego uuigberht epTs osens 
>I< ego aldulf epTs osen >l4 ego alhheard epis 
»I< ego utol epis osen >J< ego ti'Sfer^ epis 

»I< ego eadulf epis osen >J< ego uuihthun ab 
>I< ego deneberht epis oseS >I< ego beonna ab 
}^ ego ha^oberht epis osen >i< ego fol^red ab 
►!< ego cyneberht epTs osen 
>I< ego coenuulf di dono rex mere osentiendo sub- 










>h ego 






ego wigga 

^ ego 


>h ego 






>J< ego beornno^ 
>J< ego cynhelm 

*:)c* On the face of the Charter is the following inscription ly a 
hand of the 12th century : — 'Offa Rex dedit Stidberhto abbati ten-am 
in Middelsexe/ B. 

^ Calichyth'] The identification of this name, which is more commonly 
written CalchyS or Cealchythe, with Chelsea, is the subject of a detailed 
note in Haddan and Stubbs, iii. 445 ; where it is said that the form 
Chelsey appears first in a.d. 1554. 

Text. Roff. 125. A.D. 759-765. 

K 114. 


king of half Kent, gives land to Earduulf bishop of Roches- 
ter. The conveyance is made by writing and by the delivery 
of a sod. At first the writing was only a memorandum of 
the performance of the symbolical act, but it came in process 
of time to be regarded as the very conveyance itself, and then 
it superseded the ancient ceremony. Palgrave, Engl. Com- 
monwealth, i. 142. 

^ In nomine domini dei saluatoris nostri Ihesu 
Christi ! Quamuis parua et exigua sint, quae pro 
amissis offerimus, tamen pins omnipotens deus non 
quantitatem muneris, sed deuotionem offerentium sem- 
per inquirit. Qua de re Ego Sigeredus, rex dimidiae 
partis prouinciae Cantuariorum, tam pro animae meae 
remedio, quam pro amore omnipotentis dei, terram ara- 
trorum xx. quae appellatur Aeslingaham, tibi reueren- 
tissimo episcopo Earduulfo sanctae Hrofensis ecclesiae, 
cum uniuersis ad se pertinentibus campis, siluis^ pratis, 
pascuis, paludibus et aquis, et cum omni tributo quod 
regibus inde dabatur, in potestatem, cum consilio et 
consensu principum meorum, libenter in perpetuum per- 
dono; ut possidendi uel habendi sine uendendi, uel 
etiam tradendi cuicunque uoluerit, liberam per omnia 



habeat potestatem. Sane quia cauenHum est, ne hodier- 
nam donationem nostram futuri temporis abnegare 
ualeat et in ambiguum deuocare praesumptio, placuit 
mihi banc paginam condere, et una cum cespite terrae 
praedictae tradere tibi ; per quam non solum omnibus 
meis successoribus regum sine principum, sed etiam mihi 
ipsi penitus interdico, ne aliter quam nunc a me consti- 
tutum est, ullo tempore de eadem terra quippiam agere 
audeant. Quod si qui forte obseruare neglexerint, et 
absque digna satisfactione praesentis uitae impleuerint 
infelices dies, audiant uocem aeterni iudicis sub fine 
mundi dicentis ad impios: Discedite a me, maledicti^ 
in ignem aeternum, qui praeparatus est diabolo et angelis 
eius. Qui uero curauerint custodire nihilque inrogarint 
aduersi, audiant uocem clementissimi arbitri, inquientis 
ad pios : Uenite, benedicti patris mei, percipite regnum 
quod nobis paratum est ab origine mundi. Adiectis iiii. 
daenberis in commune saltu, hoc est Uueald se uuestra, 
Billincgden, Cealcbyras, Meosden, Rindigsel. 

>J< Ego Sigeredus rex banc donationem a me factam, 
signum sanctae crucis propria manu scribendo, firmaui 
coram Bregouuino Archiepiscopo. i^ Ego Bregouuinus 
Archiepiscopus, ad petitionem donatoris ante praedicti, 
consensi et subscripsi. i^ Signum manus Hereberhti 
Abbatis. i^ Signum manus Baere Abbatis. >J« Sig- 
num manus Bruno Abbatis. »i< Signum manus Aes- 
cuualdi presbyteri. >J< Signum manus Eegbaldi comitis 
atque praefecti. >J< Signum manus Ealdhuuni. i^ Sig- 
num manus Esne. >I< Signum manus Badohardi. 
»I« Signum manus Aethelnothi. 

»J< Ego Eanmundus rex banc piam donationem su- 
prascriptam propria manu roborandam hoc signaculo 
sanctae crucis expressi, in loco cuius uocabulum est 


Godgeocesham ; praesente uenerabili archiepiscopo Bre- 
gouuino et consentiente, consilio quippe atque consensu 
omnium optimatum et principum gentis Cantuariorum. 
>J< Ego laenberhtus abbas consentiens testis affui et 
subscripsi. >{< Ego Huuaetred abbas consensi et sub- 
scripsi. >{< Signum manus Egesnothi. >{< Signum 
manus Balthhardi. i^ Signum manus Aldhuni. 
>J< Signum manus Uda. »{< Signum manus Puda. 

Aug. ii. 99. A.D. 774. 


B. iv. 4. 

Of fa 

king of the Angles, grants land at Higham (Kent) to abp. 
laenberht. The deed is attested by Offa and his queen 
Cynethrith, by the archbishop, three bishops, live abbots, 
two principes, one dux, one praefectus, and seven others 
without designation. It is considered by Haddan and 
Stubbs, iii. 435, that this probably represents a Witenagemot 
of Mercia, before the great extension of the kingdom under 

>I< In nomine ihu xpi saluatoris mundi qui est et qui 
erat et qui uenturus est . per quem reges regunt et 
diuidunt regna terrarum. Sicut dispensator uniuers§ 
terr§ mihi distribuit secundu mensura su§ ppri§ uolun- 
tatis ita eiusdem gratia eoncedente . ego offa rex angloru 
dabo et concede iaenberhto archiepo aliquam parte terr§ 
in loco qui dicitur bebham et buius terrae estimatio . v . 
aratrorum esse uidetur bis notissimis confiniis circum- 
cincta . a circio msed ham . bine per confinia ac leage . et 
SIC iuxta wseterlea . debinc ad colling . sic per uiam 
quae ducit ad eohinga burb in terram sci andre^ . et sic 
per confinia mersc tunes . bine tendi? ad bulan bam . et 

E Z 


sic in mere fleot. et hoc predictu donu ad cumulii maioris 

firmitatis signo sc§ crucis xpi anno dnicse incarnationis 

. DCC.LXXiiii . perstrinximus . cum sacerdotibus et se- 

nioribus populi more testiu subscribendo. 

>J< Signu manus offae regis suprascripta confirmantis. 

>J< Signu manus iaenberhti arcliiepi. i^ Signu manus 

cynethrythe reginse. i^ Signu manus eadberhti epi. 

>I< Signu manus aldberhti at)t>. >J< Signu manus bror- 

dan principis. >$< Signu manus berhtuuoldi princip. 

>J< Signum man eadbaldi ducis. >^ Signu man bror- 

dani pfecti. i^ Signu man folcberhti abt). >i< Signu 

man byrhthuni epi. i^ Sign man ceolulfi epi. t^ 

Sign man botuuini a'bb. >I* Sign man setheluuoldi ablj. 

>i< Sign man eadberhti a'b'h. Sign man esni. >J< Sign 

man eadberhti. Sign man boban. >J< Sign man bado- 

hardi. >J< Sign man uuigheardi. >{< Sign man ciani. 

>I< Sign man hearedi. >I< Sign man suithuni. 

*** indorsed in a hand of the nth century *boc to heh ham' : — in 
one of the 12th century, ' Offa Rex dedit heah ham lanberto archiepis- 
copo. latine. *; and in one of the \}yth cew^wry, * Archiepiscopi.' B. 

Heming 25. A.D. 774. 



bp. Worcester, disposes of the monastery of "Withington in 
Gloucestershire, which had belonged to successive abbesses 
Dunne and Hrotavari, but had fallen in to Worcester Cathe- 
dral. It is now granted to Ae'Selburg for her life, and then 
it is to come back to the church at Worcester. See above, 
A.D. 736-737. 

>J< Domino et saluatore nostro perpetualiter regnanti ! 
Ego Milredus Christi tribuente gratia humilis Huiccio- 
rum episcopus, terram monasterii quod nominatur Uui- 
diandun, quod situm est in occidentali parte fluuii qui 
dicitur Tillno'S. xxi . manentia, quam uidelicet terram 


Oshere subregulus Huicciorum Dunnan famulae dei ut 
esset iuris ecclesiastici tradidit, consentiente Aethelredo 
regi Marcionum. Ilia autem praefatam terram post se 
reliquit possidendam filiae suae, Hro'Suuare scilicet ab- 
batissae, cum conscientia atque licentia Egcuuini reue- 
rentissimi episcopi ; at ilia praedicta Hro^uuara abba- 
tissa mihi in ius propriae libertatis atque possessionis 
largita est. Nunc ergo cum licentia seruorum dei, qui 
sub meo regimine dei prouidentia constituuntur, libenter 
Ae^elburge honorabili abbatissae, filiae Aelfredi, eam 
trado ; ita tamen ut ipsa uiuente habeat et possideat, et 
post obitum eius ad aecclesiam beati Petri principis 
apostolorum quae sita est in Uueogerna ciuitate, ubi et 
pontificalis cathedra Huicciorum constituitur pro aeterna 
redemptione animae meae iterum reddat. Haec cartula 
scripta est anno ab incarnatione Christi . dcc.lxx.itii. 
indictione xii. his testibus confirmantibus. 

>I< Ego Milred episcopus banc meam donationem 
signo crucis confirmabo, ea conditione ut ilia Ae)7el- 
burh illud monasterium aet Uueogernacestre ^ cum om- 
nibus bonis quae ibi sunt post diem eius ad Uueoger- 
nensem quoque reddat aecclesiam, sicut praeceptum erat 
patris eius Aelfredi. 

* ? aet Uuidiandun. 

Chart. Cott. viii. 34. A.D. 778. 

(Text. Roff. 129.) 
K 132. B. ii. 4. 


king of Kent, grants to Diora bishop of Rochester, half a 
plough-land, and a marsh. The grantee is addressed in the 
Second Person : as below a.d. 785. 

This is a test document for the Textus Roffensis. It is 
found in that Register, and was thence copied by Mr. 


Kemble : it is now known to be extant in coeval writing, 
which has been facsimiled in the British Museum series. 
The comparison results in a testimony of the highest kind 
to the Rochester chartulary. 

>i< In nomine dni ni ifeu xpi. pietatis beneficium 
quod quisq : fidelium pro xpi reuerentia seruo di fideliter 
dfio seruienti misericorditer contulerit xpo hoc conferre 
dinoscitur. nam ipse in fine mundi ad electos suos 
loquens dicturus est. cum uni ex minimis meis fecistis 
mihi fecistis. idcirco ego egcberhtus rex cant, banc 
dominicam sententiam memoriter retinens et piis ope- 
ribus do instigante adimplere curabo tibi dioran hro- 
fensis ecclesiae antistiti aliquam partem terrae iuris mei 
libenter concedo id est dimidiam unius aratri partem 
ubi nominatur bromgeheg simul et mariscem uocabulo 
scaga et ut per omne ab hac die et deinceps subsequens 
tempus cum notissimis terminis omnibusq : utilitatibus 
ad eam rite pertinentibus tuo proprio iuri aeternaliter 
habendam possidendam tradendamq : cuicumq : homi- 
num uolueris hilari concedo animo huius autem marisci 
terminus est aqua pene undiq : circumperfusa. Si quis 
ergo heredum successorumq : meorum contra banc piam 
donationem meam uenire fuerit ausus et temerare eam 
inuido maliuoloq : temtauerit animo sit anathema mara- 
natha. manente hac chartula in sua nihilominus stabili- 
tate quam roborare propria manu curaui et alios idoneos 
religiososq : testes ^ut' id ipsum agerent adhibui quorum 
nomina infra caraxata continentur. Actum anno dnicae 
incarn .dcclxxviii. in ciuitate dorouerni. 

>i< ego egcberhtus rex cant banc donationem meam 
signo crucis xpi roboraui. 

>I< ego iaenberhtus archiepisc testis consentiens sub- 

»^ s 

1^ s 

>J< s 

>I< s 

>J< s 

1^ s 

►!< s 

»^ s 


ign manus escuuald pt>r 

ign manus uban 

ign man boban 

ign man uualhard 

ign man ubban 

ign man aldhun 

ign man sigired 

ign man esni 
>J< eaniardi 

•.• huic u° trre adiacent prate ubi dr hreodha. in 
iiii^"^. locis. in uno loco .xvii"^. agros. on eastan clifwara 
gemaere. 7 on suSan tucincgnaes. 7 on waestan culin- 
gagemaere. 7 on noriSan; et in alio loco. xii™. agros. 
on eastan is culingagemaere. 7 on su^an clifwarage- 
meere. 7 on westan. 7 on nor^an ; et in ?tio loco. vii™. 
agros. be eas'tan'. is mearcfleot. 7 be su^an. 7 be westan 
7 be nor^an is clifvvaragemere ; et in quarto loco, sex 
agros. be eastan is clifwaragemaere. 7 be su"San is 
culingagemaere. 7 be westan is 7 be nor'San clifwarage- 
maere ; 

*^* Endorsed in a hand of the loth century, * + brom gehaeges 
boc./ and in a hand of the le^th century, ' Egcbertus rex.' B. 

Homing 106. A.D. 781. 



bishop of "Worcester, consents to Offa's views about the title 
deeds of the church at Worcester, insomuch that, in synod 
at Brentford, Offa recovers from HeatSored the monastery of 
Bath, and 30 cassati on the south of the Avon ; as a re- 
compense for which, he confirms to the family in Worcester 
the remainder of their possessions. 

>J< In nomine dei summi! Tempora temporibus 
subeunt, et uicissitudinum spatiis euenit, ut prisca iam 


dicta inrita fiant nisi scriptis confirmemur. Quare ego 
Hea^oredus, deo dispensante supplex Huieciorum epis- 
copus, insimul etiam cum consensu et consilio totius 
familiae meae quae est in Uuegerna ciuitate constitute, 
diligentissime scrutans cogitaui atque de pace uel statu 
aecclesiastica rimatus sum. Equidem de aliquibus 
agellis conflictationis quaerulam cum Offano, rege Mer- 
ciorum, dominoque dilectissimo nostro habuimus. Aiebat 
enim nos, sine iure haereditario propinqui eius, Ae^el- 
baldi scilicet regis, haereditatem sub dominio iniusto 
habere ; id est, in loco qui dicitur aet Beathum . xc . 
manentium, et in aliis multis locis; hoc est, aet Stretforda 
XXX. cassatos : aet Sture . xxxviii. Simili etiam uoca- 
bulo aet Sture in Usmerum^ . xiiii . manentium, aet 
Breodune . xii . in Homtune xvii . cassatorum. Haec 
autem praefata contentionis causa in sinodali concilia- 
bulo demissa in loco qui dicitur aet Bregentforda. 
Beddidimus quoque illo iam nominato regi Offan, mo- 
nasterium illud celeberrimum aet Ba)7um, sine ullo con- 
tradictionis obstaculo, ad habendum, uel etiam, cui 
dignum duxisset, ad tribuendum ; semperque perfruen- 
dum, iustis eius haeredibus libentissime concessimus ; et 
in australe parte fluminis ibi iuxta quod dicitur Eafen . 
XXX . cassatos addidimus, quam terram mercati sumus 
digno praetio a Cyneuulfo rege Uuestsaexna. Qua- 
propter idem ille praefatus rex OfFa, ad reconpensationis 
satisfactionem, et pro unanimitate firmissimae pacis, 
praefata loca aet Stretforda, aet Sture, aet Breodune, in 
Homtune, aet Sture in Usmerum, extra omni contro- 
uersionis et ammonitionis causa, ea libertate ad supra- 
dictam aecclesiam nostram, id est in Uuegerna ciuitate, 
libertas concessit, ut nullo maiore cessu alicuius rei 
essent subiectae, quam praememorata sedis episcopalis. 


Nec non et trium annorum ad se pertinentes pastiones, 
id est, VI. conuiuia libenter concedendo largitiis est. 
Nunc ergo ego OflPa dei gratia rex praescriptam liber- 
tatem terrarum, pro remedio animae meae concessam, in 
synodo aet Bregentforda, una mecum consedente lam- 
berhto archiepiscopo, nee non omnes episcopi, abbates et 
principes consenserunt et subscripserunt. Propria manu 
signum sacratissimae crucis Christi pro firmitatis stabi- 
limento conscripsi. Conscripta est haec eartula aet 
Bregentforda, anno ab incarnatione Christi . dcc.lxxxi. 
Indictione iiii. 

>J< Offa, rex Merciorum. i^ laenberbt arcbiepiscopus. 

>i* Brorda princeps. i^ Eadberbt episcopus. 

>I< Berbtuuald princeps. >J< Hygeberbt episcopus. 

>^ Eadbald princeps. >J< Ae|7elmod episcopus. 

>I< Esne princeps. ►!< Ecgbald episcopus. 

»i< Eadbald princeps. >J< Ceoluulf episcopus. 

»^ Eadberbt princeps. i^ Heathoredus episcopus. 

>J< Diera episcopus. >I< Gislhere episcopus. 

>I< Aetheluulf episcopus. i^ Eadberbt episcopus. 

>J< Heardred episcopus. ►J* Aldberbt episcopus. 

^ aet Sfure in Usmerum.'] On the Stour in Worcestershire. See 
above, a.d. 736 (K 80). 

Text. Roff. 127. Before 785. 



king of Kent, grants land to Diora bp. Eochester (765-785), 
who is addressed in the second person. 

1^ In nomine domini saluatoris nostri Ihesu Christi ! 
Omnem igitur hominem, sicut frequenter coelesti magis- 
terio adhortante didicimus, qui sub christiana religione 
uitae coelestis praemia consequi desiderat, necesse est ut 
in praesenti pietatis insistat operibus, et terrenis rebus 


atque transitoriis,, in quantum deo largiente sufficiat, 
sibimet aeterna mercatur bona, suasque pieces ad diui- 
nam peruenire clementiam cotidie citius per hoc faciat, 
quod ipse aliorum in suis necessitatibus libenter exau- 
diat ; attentius reminiscens, quod quibusque religiosis pos- 
tulationibus tan to libentius tantoque promptius consensus 
praebendus est, quanto et illis qui precatores sunt, utilior 
res secundum hoc uisibile saeculum nunc impertitur, et 
illis qui concessores existunt, pro impertito opere pietatis 
uberior merces secundum inuisibile postmodum tribuetur. 
Quamobrem ego Egberht, rex Cantiae, tibi dilectissimo 
episcopo Dioran, atque tuae aecclesiae quae in honore 
sancti Andreae apostoli consecrata est, pro remedio ani- 
mae meae, cum consensu meorum optimatum atque prin- 
cipum, terram iuris mei decem aratrorum, in loco ubi 
nominatur Hallingas, cum omnibus scilicet ad cam per- 
tinentibus rebus, iuxta terminos indigenis certissimos, 
cum campis, siluis, pratis, paludibus, piscationibus, uena- 
tionibus, aucupationibus, libenter tenendam possidendam- 
que concedo. Ita ut quicquid de ea agere uolueris, 
liberam per omnia in perpetuo potestatem teneas. 
Quisquis igitur haeredum successorumque meorum banc 
donationem meam augere atque amplificare uoluerit, 
habeat beatam communionem in praesenti cum diligen- 
tibus deum, et in futuro perpetuam cum omnibus Sanctis. 
Quisquis autem maliuola mente de ilia immutare aut 
inminuere temptauerit, separetur a societate non solum 
aeternae felicitatis omnium sanctorum, set etiam in 
aeterna poena cum scelerum suorum crudelibus compar- 
ticipibus sit condempnatus. At uero ut banc donationem 
meam quilibet hominum aliquando non possit irritam 
facere, manu propria signum sanctae crucis subtus in 
hac pagina facere curaui, testesque religiosos ut idipsum 


facerent adhibeo. Adiectis denberis in commune saltu, 
Bixle, Speldhirst, Meredaen_, "Saer be eastan, "^ Ruste- 
uuellae "3 Teppan hyse. 

Sunt autem termini. A loco qui uocatur Hrofesbreta 
usque in arborem quae uocatur Cuturs ac ; et inde uia 
recta per medium campum qui appellatur Hiuetin 
hamstedi usque in locum qui dicitur Halles meri ; et 
inde circumit per locum qui uocatur Heort leagu ; usque 
in flumen Medeuusege. 

>J< Ego Egcberhtus rex banc donationem a me fac- 
tam signo sanctae crucis roboraui. >i< Ego Heaberhtus 
rex signo sanctae crucis roboraui et subscripsi. >I< Ego 
laenberhtus arcbiepiscopus gratia dei consensi et sub- 
scripsi. >J< Signum manus Eangisli. >{< Signum ma- 
nus Udan. >J< Signum manus Baltbardi. 1^ Signum 
manus Egesnothi. ^ Signum manus Uban. >{< Sig- 
num manus Tyccan. *^ Signum manus Heardraedi. 
)^ Signum manus Uuiobtnothi. >{< Signum manus 

^ A great obscurity hangs over the personality of this king Ecgberht. 
Kentish royalty was now in its latter stage : the subjugating blow had 
been given by Offa in 773. Only in Henry of Huntingdon's list of 
Kentish kings does a name occur at all like this. He says, with manifest 
hesitation, ' Egfert regnum idem xxxiv annis, ut conjicere possumus ex 
scriptis, tenuit.' These 34 years would be 761-795. But partly in the 
same years falls the time of Ecgfri^, son of Offa, who in 785 was asso- 
ciated with his father in the kingship of Mercia, and who may very 
conceivably have been previously made king of Kent. At any rate the 
election of Eadberht Praen as king of Kent synchronizes with the death 
of this Ecgfri'S. But then there is another obscui-e king in this piece. 
Who is Heaberhtus rex ? In all this, we feel what an eclipse has 
come over English history since the close of the work of Beda ! 

Text. Roff. 131. A.D. 788. 

K 152. 


king of the Mercians, gives land to St. Andrew's, Rochester. 


Among the signatures is Ecgfri^ the son of Offa, who be- 
came fellow-king with his father in 785, and Higeberht the 
Mercian archbishop, whose elevation took place at the same 
time. Sax. Chron. 785 : H&S. iii. 446 d. 

>J< In nomine dei summi et saluatoris nostri Ihesu 
Christi, ipsoque in perpetuo regnante disponenteque 
suauiter omnia, terrena quoque sceptra et regalia iura 
temporaliter distribuente. Unde et ego Offa, rex Mer- 
ciorum, aliquam terram pro remedio et salute animae 
meae tradam, id est, sex aratrorum, ubi nominatnr 
Trottesclib,- ad aecclesiam beati Andreae apostoli et ad 
episcopium castelli quod nominatur Hrofescester, ubi 
beatus Paulinus pausat^ quam etiam episcopalem sedem 
modo in praesenti rite regit Uuaermundus religiosus 
antistes. Hanc itaque supradictam terram ad banc con- 
ditionem perpetualiter habendam et possidendam con- 
cedo, cum omnibus ad eam rite pertinentibus rebus, 
cum campis, siluis, pascuis, pratis, pastinationibus, et 
cum propriis terminis. Huius autem terrae termini 
sunt isti ; ab oriente et a meridie Boerlingas, ab occi- 
dente Uurotaham, ab aquilone Meapaham. 

Ad hanc quoque terram pertinent in diuersis locis 
porcorum pastus_, id est uuealdbaera, ubi dicitur Holens- 
pic bi su^an ee, Eppan hrycg, non longe ab eo loco 
Langan hrycg. Quisquis uero contra hanc donationis 
cartulam callido malignoque tractatu contraire prae- 
sumpserit, nouerit se, quisquis ille fuerit, in discrete 
dei iudicio sinistrae partis socium fore, et a Christi et 
dei corpore sanguineque segregandum. Manente hac 
cartula in sua nihilominus firmitate ; propria manu sig- 
naculo crucis Christi roborare curaui, et testes religiosos 
et consentientes, id ipsum agentes adhibui, quorum 
nomina cum propriis cruciculis infra adnotentur. Actum 
anno dominicae incarnationis dcclxxxviii. 


>J< Eg-o Offa rex Merciorum^ hanc snpraseriptam do- 
nationem meam hoc signum crucis impress!. >J< Ego 
Ecgfri^ rex Merciorum, testis consentiens subseripsi. 
*in Ego Cyne'Sry^ regina consensi et subseripsi. >I< Ego 
laenberhtus, gratia dei archiepiscopus, signum crucis 
Christi impressi. i^ Ego Hygeberht archiepiscopus 
subseripsi. >{< Ego Ceoluulf episcopus subseripsi. >J< 
Signum manus Brordani praefecti. >J« Signum manus 
Berhtuualdi. >J< Signum manus Eadbaldi. ►{< Signum 
manus Ceolmundi. 

Harl. 4660, f. 7. A.D. 789. 

Heming 7. 
Nero E. i. 388. 


bp. "Worcester, versus Wulfheard son of Cussa, before the 
council at Celchy'5, touching the inheritance of Hemele and 
Duda. The decision was in the bishop's favour. See again 
below A.D. 803. 

*i< Saeculi namque labentis tempora uelocius uento 
aerem tranant. ideoque omnes firmas statutiones seriae 
litterarum adnotamus ne forte in posterum aliquis ig- 
norantiae auaritiaeue ea decreta infringere praesumat 
quae uenerabilium uirorum fiunt uerbis confirmata. 
Anno dominici incarnationis dcc^lxxx^viiii*'. indictione 
uero XII*. qui est annus xxxi. regni offan strenuissimi 
Merc regis factum est pontificale conciliabulum in loco 
famosa qui dicitur celchy^ praesidentib: duob; arcepis 
lamberhto scilicet et Hygberhto mediante quoq: offan 
rege cum tmiuersis principibus suis ; ibi inter alia plura 
aliqua contentio facta est inter heathoredum epis et 
wulfheardum filium Cussan de haeriditate hemeles et 


dudae quod post obitu suoru nominarent ad weogorna- 
caestre, hoc est intanbeorgas et bradanlege . uoluisset 
ergo uulfheardus^ ilium agellulum auertere ab ecclesia 
praefata in weogornacaest cum ignorantiae et insipientiae 
[si potuisset. Tunc ille episcopus] ilium refutabat cum 
bis testibus qui eorum nomina infra scripta liquescunt 
coram synodali testimonio. Et aiebat quod ei rectum 
non fieret ulli alio post se trader e praeter et [antedijcta 
ciuitatem hoc est weogrinacaestor. Et propter eorum 
prece et amore qui illam terram [adqui]sierunt 7 ad 
ecclesiam prefatam dedissent illi senatores familiae con- 
sentientes fuerunt ut illud custodiret et haberet diem 
suum. Tune arc episc simul cum uniuersis prouinciali- 
bus episc ita finem composuerunt et reconciliauerunt.. ut 
wulfheardus terram possideret tamdiu uiueret 7 post- 
quam uiam patrum incederet sine aliqua contradictione 
[illuc ad] weogornense ec[clesiae] terras atq: libellus 
cum semetipso redderet [ubi corpora requiescunt hemeles 
et dudae.] ^ 

>J< Ego offa rex mere, osentiendo imposui. 

>J< Ego iamberht di gratia arc. ep . osens. et subs. 

>I< Ego hygeberht simit arc . ep . osen. 7 subs. 

►J< Ego ceolwulf ep. os 7 sub. 

>^ Ego heardred . ep os 7 sub. 

>J< Ego unuuona ep os. 

>^ Ego hea^ored . ep. Os. 

►!< Ego ceolmund ep. 

>J< Ego aeSelmod ep. 

>J« Ego cyneberht ep. 

>J< Ego wermund ep. 

>I« Ego boduine ab. 

4* Ego utel ab. 

>ii Ego fordred. 


»I< Ego uulfheard simul subs 7 ofirmaui. 

>J< berht . . . pr >i< Sig ceolmundi p. 

>J< . . mundi p >J< Sig ae^elhardi p. 

>I« Sig alhinuiidi p. »I« Sig bynnan. 

* MS. 3 reads as follows : ' Wlf heardus ergo uoluit illas a weogoma 
ciuitate atiertere, cum insipientia, si potuisset ; sed episcopus ilium uicit 
cum testibus quorum nomina infra notantur, coram uniuersa sinodo j et 
aiebat quod rectum non esset, ulli alii post se tradere, nisi ad weogernam 
ciuitatem, et praeter eorum prece et amore qui illam terram adquieserunt 
et ad praefatam aecclesiam dederunt. Tunc archiepiscopus,' etc. K. 

^ The interpolations are from MS. 2. K. 

Heming 54. A.D. 794. 


Of fa 

confirms by his signature what had been decided in 793 at a 
synod in Clofes hoas, that the 5 manentes at Austan, formerly 
given to the see of Worcester by King AetSelbald but sub- 
sequently seized by Bynna, should be restored to the bishop. 
In this deed it is worthy of observation that Hygeberht the 
archbishop of Lichfield, signs before AeSelheard the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury^. 

>J< Omnis itaque huius uitae prosperitas deo miserante 
existit, etiam et futurae uitae beatitudo eo largiente 
perueniet. Contigit autem in diebus Ofiani regis Mer- 
ciorum quod Bynna, comes regis, sustulit sine recto 
banc terram aet Austan . v . manentes, quod Ae^elbald 
rex ante liberauit, et hoc recte pertinebat ad sedem epis- 
copalem in Uuegrin ciuitate. Tunc fuit synodus in 
loco, qui dicitur Clofes boas, anno [ab] incarnatione 
Christi . dcc.xc.iiii. regni Ofiani . xxxvii . anno. Tunc 
episcopus Hea^oredus, cum conscientia totius synodalis 
concilii referebat, et fiducialiter incunctanterque confir- 
mauit cum testimonio scripturarum illarum quae Ae^el- 
bald rex ante in aetemam libertatem suis processoribus 
praescripsit. Et tunc rex cum omni consilio sancti con- 


cilii consentiebat, quod episcopus praefatus salua manu 
accipiebat in contenditum suam propriam praenomina- 
tam terrain, et hoc cum confirmatione sanctae crucis 
Christi omnes munierunt, ut firma et infracta permaneat 
in aeuum. 

»J< Ego OfFa rex Merciorum, signo sanctae crucis 
confirmaui. i^i Ego Ecgfer^ filius regis, consensi et 
subscripsi. >^ Signum Hygeberhti arcbiepiscopi. 
1^ Signum Ae'Selheardi archiepiscopi. >^ Signum 
Ceoluulfi episcopi. >J< Hea^Sored episcopi. >J< Cyne- 
berhti episcopi. i^n Denefer^ episcopi. >I< Wigmund 
abbas. i^ Brorda dux. >J< Alhmund dux. ►J* Bynna 
dux. >^ Wigberbt dux. >J< Heardberht dux. >^ 
Uoba dux. 

^ Compare p. 62 ; Ego hygeberht similiter arc. 

Cott. Nero E. i. 387. A.D. 796. 

K 170. 


king of Mercia, grants 3 cassati aet Huntenatun to Aet5el- 
mund ; and the deed is dated at Bath. The signature 
'Eadulf electus' is that of the elect bp. of Lindsey, who 
ruled that diocese forty years until a.d. 836. H&S. iii. 

1^ Saeculi namque labentis tempora sicut umbrae 
fugientes sic uelociter tranant, uarieque euentuum status 
in cogitationes hominum conscendunt. Quapropter ego 
Ecgfridus rex Merciorum concedo meo fideli principi 
AeJ^elmundo in. cassatos aet Huntenatun liberaliter ad 
possidendum, pro ereptione peccaminum meorum^ sicut 
antea Uhtred et Aldred Beornhardo concesserunt. Et 
hoc gestum est in celebri uico qui Saxonice uocatur aet 
Ba'Sum, his testibus consentientibus. 


>J< Ego Ecgfridus rex hanc meam donationem confir- 
maui. >i« Ego Brihtricus rex. ►!< Ego Ae]?elhardus 
archiepiscopus. i^ Ego Hea'Sored episcopus. >{< Ego 
Eadulf electus. >I« Ego ForSred abbas. >I< Ego 
Brorda princeps. »I« Ego Ae)?elmund. >J< Ego Ead- 

MS. Lambeth 1212, p. 312. A.D. 798. 



abp. Cant, in synod at Clovesho, recovered an equivalent in 
Kent for the monastic estate of Cookham, of the acquisition 
and loss of which by Christ Church, Canterbury, an eventful 
story is told. 

>J< Regnante imperpetuum deo et domino nostro 
Ibesu Christo ! Ego Ae'Selhardus larga omnipotentis 
del gratia annuente Dorobemensis aecclesiae metro- 
politanus, cum praestantissimo rege nostro Cenulfo, 
conuocans uniuersos prouinciales episcopos nostros, duces 
et abbates et cuiuscunque dignitatis uiros, ad synodale 
concilium in locum qui nominatur Clouesho, ibi sollicito 
ab eis scrutinio quaesiuimus qualiter apud eos fides 
catholica haberetur, et quomodo Christiana religio exer- 
ceretur. Hiis ita exquisitis, una omnium uoce ita 
responsum est : Notum sit paternitati tuae, quia sicut 
primitus a sancta Romana et apostolica sede, beatissimo 
papa Gregorio dirigente, exarata est, ita credimus ; et 
quod credimus absque ambiguitate, quantum possumus 
exercere satagimus. Postquam autem super hiis uberius 
tractatum est, ita exorsi sumus : Necessarium est, fratres 
charissimi, aecclesias dei et uenerabiles uiros qui iam 
multo tempore terrarum dispendio et absumptione ciro- 



graphorum miserabiliter laborauerant, corrigere. Hiis 
dictis, prolatae sunt inscriptiones monasterii quod uoca- 
tur Coccham in medium, terrarumque sibi adiacentium ; 
quod uidelicet monasterium, cum omnibus ad illud per- 
tinentibus terris, rex inclytus Merciorum Ae'Selbaldus 
aecclesiae saluatoris quae sita est in ciuitate Dorobernia 
dedit ; utque illius donatio perseuerantior fieret, ex 
eadem terra cespitem et cunctos libellos praememorati 
coenobii, per uenerabilem uirum Cu^bertum archi- 
episcopum misit, et super altare saluatoris pro perpetua 
sua salute, poni praeeepit. Sed post mortem praefati 
pontifieis, easdem inscriptiones Daeibeah* et Osbertus, 
quos idem pontifex alumnos nutriuit, maligno acti 
spiritu furati sunt, et Cenulfo regi Occidentalium 
Saxonum detulerunt ; at ille, accipiens statim testimonia 
litterarum, praedictum coenobium cum omnibus ad illud 
rite pertinentibus suis usibus coaptauit, neglectis prae- 
nominati arcbiepiscopi Cu^berti dictis et factis. Item, 
Eregwinus et lanbertus arcbiepiscopi per singulas 
synodus suas, questi sunt de iniuria aecclesiae saluatoris 
illata ; et apud Cenulfum regem Occidentalium Saxonum, 
et apud Offam regem Merciorum qui uidelicet saepe- 
memoratum coenobium Coccbam et alias urbes quam- 
plurimas Cenulfo rege abstulit, et imperio Merciorum 
subegit. Tandem Cenulfus rex sera ductus poenitentia, 
telligraphia, id est, libellos quos a supradictis hominibus 
Daeiheb et Osberto iniuste perceperat, cum magna 
pecunia, aecclesiae Cbristi in Doroberniam remisit, 
bumillime rog^ns ne sub tantae autboritatis anatbemate 
periclitaretur. Uerum rex Offa praememoratum coeno- 
bium Coccbam, sicut sine litteris accepit, ita quanto 
tempore uixit, detinuit, et absque litterarum testimonia 
suis post se haeredibus reliquit. Secundo autem anno- 


regni Cenulfi facta est synodus sicut supra est praeli- 
batum apud Clouesho ; at ego Ae^elhardus gratia dei 
Dorobernensis archiepiscopus, et Cuba primicherius me- 
cum, et multi alii ex ilia aecclesia Christi sapientes, 
libellos praefati coenobii Coecbam, in concilium detu- 
limus ; cumque coram synodo relicti ^ fuissent, omnium 
uoce decretum est iustum esse ut metropolis aecclesia 
saepepraefatum coenobium Coccbam, cuius inscriptiones 
in suo gremio habebat, perciperet, quo sub tanto tem- 
pore tam iniuste spoliata fuerat. Tunc autem placuit 
mihi Ae'Selbardo dei gratia arcbisacerdoti et Cyne'Sry'Sae 
abbatissae quae eodem tempore saepedicto coenobio prae- 
fuit, ac senioribus ex utralibet parte, Cantia scilicet et 
Bedeforde, ad boc ibidem congregatis, quatenus ipsa 
CyneSri"Sa in regione Cantia daret mihi pro commu- 
tatione saepe praefati coenobii, terram centum et decem 
manentium, sexaginta cassatorum uidelicet in loco qui 
dicitur Fleote, et triginta in loco qui dicitur Teneham, 
in tertio quoque loco ubi dicitur Creges aewylma, 
uiginti. Quas scilicet terras olim rex Offa sibi uiuenti 
conscribere fecit, suisque haeredibus post eum ; et post 
eorum cursum uitae, aecclesiae quae sita est apud 
Beodeford consignari praecepit. Hoc etiam coram omni 
synodo elegimus ; ut ipsa abbatissa a me percipiet saepe- 
nominatum coenobium cum suis inscriptionibus ; et ego 
terras et libellos terrarum illarum quas mihi in Cantia 
reddit, ab ea acciperem, quatenus nulla imposterum inter 
nos baeredesque nostros et Offae regis surgat contro- 
uersia, sed quod sub tam nobilis synodi testimonio inter 
nos confirmatum est indirupto foedere seruetur imper- 
petuum. Ego quoque Ae'Selhardus archiepiscopus con- 
cedo Cyni^ri'Sae abbatissae monasterium quod situm est 
in loco qui dicitur Pectanege ad habendum, quod mihi 

F 2, 


rex pius Eg-fridus haereditario iure possidendum donauit 
atque conscripsit. 

^ i.e. relecti. 

Cott. Nero E. i. Part 2. 388. \ 6 Oct. 803. 

(Harl. 4660 f. 7.) I collated. 

Heming 8. ) 

K183. T. p. 46. 


bp. Worcester, ia Council at Clovesho, records the settlement 
of the dispute between the See of Worcester and Wulfheard 
son of Cussa. See above, a.d. 789. 

Jntanbcorge Sr 93ratianlca|b. 

1^ In nomine dni . nri . itiu . xpi. Ea quae secun- 
dum ecclesiasticam disciplinam ac synodali decreto 
salubriter definiuntur quamuis solus sermo sufficeret 
tamen pro euitanda futuri temporis ambiguitate fide- 
lissimis scripturis et documentis sint comendata, Qua- 
propter ego deneberbtus epus fui memor pristinae 
locutionis antecessoris mei heatboredi . et wulfheardi 
epis circa terras illas aet intebeorgas ^ et aet bra- 
danlaehe tunc wulfheardus iterum coram sinodali testi- 
monio confirmauit cum sig-no crucis xpi deneberhto epo . 
et eius familiae in weogorna ciuitate ut ille noluisset 
umquam auertere ab ecclesia prenominata nisi ut 
ante ueraciter ac firmiter definitum habuit ut hoc per 
omnia firmum et fixum inter eos ppetuo maneret. Haec 
comemoratio facta est in loco qui dicitur clofesho . 
an . incarna? . domnic . dccc*'. iii° Indie xi. pridie nona- 
rum octobrium his adstipulantibus. 


>J« ego a'Selheard arci eps. >J< ego werenberht eps. 

>}< ego aldwulf eps. >{< ego denebriht eps. 

>J< ego eadulf eps. >{< ego wibriht eps. 

►J< ego wulfheard eps. >J« ego alhheard eps. 

>J< ego alhmund eps. »J< ego osmund eps. 

>J< ego tidfer^ eps. >J< ego wihthun eps. 

>^ ego wermund eps. 

>I< ego koenulf rex mere. >J< ego aldred princeps. 

osensi 7 subs. >J< ego heaberht princeps. 

>i< ego beorno'S princeps. >i< ego ceolwald princ. 

>J< ego cynehelm prin. >J< ego wicga princ. 

*i* ego wiglieard prin. 1^ ego byrnwald princ. 

Indorsed: 821 — 823. 
►i< Ceolulf rex wilnade tSaes landes set bremesgrafan to 
heaberhte be "3 to his hirede 3 tSa sende be his aerendwreocan 
to wulfhearde to intanbeorgum 3 heht 'Sset he cuome to him 3 
to (Seem higum cSa dyde he swse t5a heo him to spraecon se 
bisceop 3 his weotan ymb cSset land ^aet he, his him geu'Se 'Saet 
heo maehten Sone freodom begeotan j t5a wses he ea'Smodlice 
ondeta 'Sset he swa walde •] to him wilniende waes Saette heo 
him funden swylce londare swylce he mid arum on beon 
mehte . j his wic "Saer on byrig beon mihte on his life. 
Sa sende he monn to Saem sercebisceope ■] to eadberhte 3 to 
dynne 3 him heht saecgan 6aet he wilnade 'Saes londes aet 
intanbeorgan. Sa se aercebisceop -j eadberht hit waeran ern- 
diende to cyninge. "Sa cuom dynne to gelaerde tSone cyning 
"Saet he his no gef)8ef waes. (Sa waes higen j hlaforde lond 
unbefliten eghuaes ^ seotS'San a oS his daga ende. 

*^* Kemble appears to have printed this deed from the Harleian 
transcript, which is inferior to Heming, as Heming is to Cott. Nero. I 
have corrected it by Cott. Nero, so far as that authority goes, viz, to 
©a sende in the endorsement, and then by Heming. 

^ intanbergan Heming : intanbergum Harl. 


Cott. Aug. ii. 61. 12 Oct. 803. 

K185. B. ii. 6. 


abp. Canterbury, in Council at Clovesho, establishes the 
primacy of the See of Canterbury, and abolishes the metro- 
politan dignity which Offa had instituted at Lichfield. This 
important record, which disposes for ever of the archbishopric 
of Lichfield, is preserved in its original form, to be seen in the 
British Museum, and it is among the facsimiles edited by 
Mr. Bond. 

GLORIA in excelsis do et in terra pax homini'bs bonae 

^ Scimus autem quod multis in dm fideliter con- 
fidentibus no turn et manifestum est . et nihil tarn en illis 
placabile in eo uisum est . qui in gentibus anglorum 
commorantur quod offa rex mercio in diebus iaenberhti 
arcepis cum maxima fraude honorem et unitatem sedis 
sci agustini patris nostri in dorouernensi ciuitate diuidere 
et discindere praesumsit . et quomodo post obitum prse- 
dicti pontificis ae^elheardus arcepis di gratia dona^n'ti 
illius successor post curricula annorum erga plurima di 
ecclesiarum iura limina apostolorum et apostolicae sedis 
beatissimum papam leonem uisitare contigit . inter alias 
necessarias legationes etiam discissionem iniuste factam 
archiepiscopalis sedis narrauit . et ipse apostolicus papa 
ut audiuit et intellexit quod iniuste fuisset factum statim 
sui priuilegii auctoritatis prseceptum posuit et in brittan- 
niam misit et praecipit ut honor sci agustini sedis cum 
omnibus suis parrohhiis integerrime redintegraretur iuxta 
quod scs gregorius nrse gentis apostolus et magister con- 
posuit et honorabili arcepiseopo ae'Selheardo in patriam 
peruenienti per omnia redderetur et coenuulfus rex pi us 
mercioru ita compleuit cum senatoribus suis . anno uero 


dominie^ incarnationis . dccc°iii°. indictione . xi*. die . 
iiii*. idus octobris . ego ae^elheardus arcepisc cum omni- 
bus . XII. episco SCO sede beati agustini subiectis per 
apostolica praecepta domni papae leonis in synodo qui 
factus est in loco celebri qui uocatur clofeshoas unianimo 
consilio totius sci synodo . in nomine di omnipotentis 
prsecipientes et omnium scoru illius et per eius tremen- 
dum iudicium . ut numquam reges neque episcopi neque 
principes neque ullius tyrannicae potestatis homines 
honorem sci agustini et suae sc§ sedis diminuere uel 
in aliquantula particula diuidere prsesumerint . sed in eo 
per omnia dignitatis bonore plenissime semper per- 
maneat quo utique in constitutione beati gregorii et 
in priuilegiis apostolicorum suorum successorum habea- 
tur nee non etiam et in scoru canonum rectum baberi 
sanctionibus uideatur. Nunc etiam do cooperanti et 
domno apostolico papae leoni ego ae"Selheardus arcepis 
et alii coepiscopi nostri et nobiscum omnes dignitates 
iiostri synodi cum uexillis crucis xpi unianimiter prima- 
tum scse sedis firmantes . hoc quoque praecipientes et 
signo scse crucis scribentes ut arcepiscopalis sedes in 
liccidfeldensi monasterio ^n'umquam habeatur ex hoc 
tempore neque in alio loco aliquo nisi tantum modo 
in dorobernensi ciuitate . ubi xpi ecclesia est et ubi 
primus in hac insula catholica fides penituit et a sco 
agustino sacrum baptismum celeb retur. insuper etiam 
cartan a romana sede misam per hadrianum papam de 
palleo et de archiepiscopatua sede in liccedfeldensi monas- 
terio cum consensu et licentia domni apostolici leonis 
papae praescribimus aliquid ualere. quia per subrepti- 
tionem et male blandam suggessionem adipiscebatur. et 
idcirco manifestissimis signis caelestis regis primatum 
monarchiae archiprincipatus permanere canonicis et apos- 


tolicis munitioni'bs statuimus ubi scm enangelium xpi 
per beatum patrem agustinum in prouincia anglorum 
prlmii pr^dicatur . et deinde per gratiam sci sps late 
diffusum est. Si quis uero contra apostolicus praeceptis 
et nostrorii omnium ausus sit tunica xpi scindere et 
unitate see di ecclesiae diuidere . Sciat se nisi digne 
emendauerit quod inique contra sacras canones fecit 
aeternaliter esse damnatum . . 7 

Hie st nomina scoru episcoporu et abbatum qui prae- 
scriptum cyrograpbi cartula in synodo qui factus est set 
clofeshoum. anno aduentus dni . dccciii cum signo scae 
crucis xpi firmauerunt . . 7 

>I< ae'Selheardus arcepis. 

^ deneberbtus epis. 

>J< alduulfus epis. 

>J< uuibthunus epis. 

>J« uuerenberhtus epis. 

»J< tidfri-Sus epis. 

>I< aleheardus epis. 

>I< uulf beard us epis. 

»J< uuigberhtus epis. 

>i< alhmundus prs ab. 

>^ alhmundus epis. 

>I< beonna prs ab. 

>}< osmundus epis. 

>I< f o'r^red prs ab. 

►I* eaduulfus epis. 

»J< uuigmundus prs ab, 

%* Endorsed in a contemporary Jiand, ' Epistulas . . . ' ; and in a 
hand of the 12th century, 'Scriptum quomodo adnichilatum sit per 
^thelardum archiepiscopum archiepiscopatus Licisfeldensis quod fieri 
debuit contra gcclesiam cantuariensem. per ofiam regem.' 'latine.' B. 

Canterbury Charters, C. 195. 12 Oct. 803. 

T. p. 50. 
S. i. 4. 


Abp. Cant, in synod at Clovesho, and under mandate from 
Leo III, decrees that secular persons are not to be elected as 
lords of monasteries. The signatures are peculiarly interest- 


ing, as giving an idea of the composition of the ecclesiastical 
council of the time. See H & S. iii. 547 b for further details 
and identifications. 

>I< Ego Ae^elheardus gratia del humilis sanctae doro- 
bernensis ecclesiae archiepiscopus unianimo consilio totius 
sancti synodi . congregationibus omnium monasteriorum 
quae dim a fidelibus christo domino perpetuam in liber- 
tatem dedita fuerunt. In nomine dei omnipotent] s . et 
per eius tremendum indicium praecipio . Sicut et ego 
mandatum a domno apostolieo Leone papa percepi . Ut 
ex hoc tempore numquam temerario ausu super heredi- 
tatem domini laicos et saeculares sibi praesumant domi- 
nos eligere . Sed sicut in priuilegiis ab apostolica sede 
datis habetur . seu etiam ab apostolicis uiris in initio 
nascentis ecclesiae traditum est per sanctos canones vel 
etiam a propriis possessoribus monasteriorum constitu- 
tum . ea regula et obseruantia discipline sua monastica 
iura studeant obseruare. Si ergo quod absit ipsi hoc 
nostrum mandatum . et domni apostolici papae spreuerint 
et pro nihilo ducunt . Sciant se ante tribunal christi 
nisi ante emendari uoluerint, rationem reddituros . Haec 
sunt nomina sanctorum episcoporum et uenerabilium 
abbatum et pr^sbyterorum et diaconum qui cum totius 
sancti synodi consensu pro confirmatione predictae rei . 
signum sanctae crucis subscripserunt. 

>J< Ego Ae^elheardus gratia dei archiepiscopus doro- 
bernensis ciuitatis . signum sanctae crucis subscripsi. 

>^ ae^elheah abbas 1^ Uulfheard presbiter »J« be- 
ornmod presbiter 

►J< feologeld presbiter abbas 1^ werno'S presbiter >{< 
Uulfred archidiaconus 

t^ Ego aldulfus liccedfeldensis ecclesiae episcopus sig- 
num crucis subscripsi. 


>i< hygberht abbas >J< monn presbiter ^ eadhere 

>I< lulla presbiter »J< wigfer'S presbiter i^ cu'Sberbt 

►J< Ego werenberbt legorensis ciuitatis episcopus sig- 
num crueis subscripsi. 

>J< alhmtind presbiter abbas »{< for^red presbiter ab- 
bas >J< eadberht presbiter >I< eadred presbiter >^ eanred 

>^ beonna presbiter abbas i^ uuigmund presbiter 
abbas >J< berhthae'S presbiter >J< aej^elhaeb presbiter >J< 
mon presbiter 

>^ Ego eadwulf syddensis ciuitatis episcopus signum 
crueis subscripsi. 

>I< eadred presbiter abbas >J« plegberht presbiter ^ 
hereberbt presbiter 

>I< daeghelm presbiter abbas i^ eaduulf presbiter ^ 
hea'Sored presbiter 

>I< Ego deneberht wegoranensis ciuitatis episcopus 
signum crueis subscripsi. 

k^ byseberht abbas >I« paega abbas \^ coenfer^ pres- 

>J< 'Singcfer'S abbas >I< freo'Somund abbas >J« seler^d 

>^ Ego wulfheard herefordensis ecclesiae episcopus 
signum crueis subscripsi. 

>J« cu'Sred abbas ►{< dycga presbiter >J< hea^obald 

>J« strygel presbiter >J< monn presbiter »{< werfer^ 

>J< Ego wigberbt sciraburnensis ecclesiae episcopus 
signum crueis subscripsi. 

»J« muca abbas >{< berbtmund abbas 

^ eadberht abbas 


k^ 'Ego ealhmund wintanae ciuitatis episcopus signum 
crucis subscripsi. 

>I< cu^berht abbas t^t marcus abbas >J< notheard 

>I« cufa abbas >I< lulla abbas »J< wig'Segn pres- 

>i< Ego alhheard elmbamis ecclesiae episcopus signum 
crucis subscripsi. 

»I< folcberlit presbiter »{< eadberbt presbiter i^ hun- 
fri'S diaconus 

1^ freo^uberbt presbiter >{< wulfluf presbiter i^ be- 
ornhelm diaconus. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 100. A. D. 805 ? 

K191. B. ii. 7. 


king of Cantware, with consent of Coenuulf king of Mercia, 
conveys to JEtSelno?5 three ploughlands aet HsegycSe J)orne 
(1 Eythorne, Kent — B) for 3000 denarii : in hereditary right 
and free of services. 

>J< In nomine altithroni qui solus regat ac gubernat 
omnia omnipotenter in seuum ego cu^redus rex cantuua- 
riorum cum consensu coenuulfi regis mere et his testiBus 
quorum infra nomina tenentur adscripta . dabo se'Selno^o 
pfecto meo fidelissimo in puincia cantise terram trium 
aratrorum in loco qui dr set h^gy^e "Some pro conpetenti 
pecunia id -r . iii^. milia denariorii . nunc itaq : pdicta 
terra in potestate illius sit donata cum rectis terminib : 
et iure hereditario firmiter fixa pmaneat . seu etia ab omni 
uit sseculariii seruitiis intus uel foras libera pseuerat sine 
aliquo grauidine et lesione maiorum minoriiue causarum . 


ut habeat libertatem commutandi uel donandi in uita sua 
et post eius obitum teneat facultatem relinquendi cui- 
cumq : uolueris . nullus regum 'aut 'episcoporum uel 
principum psentium uel futurorum ista sit contemnere 
ausus . sin autem redat ratione cora do et coram angelis 
eius in die reuelationis djai nri itiu xpi amen : — 

>J< ego coenuulf rex mere banc donationem consen- 
siendo sub, 

*i< ego cu'Sred rex cantise banc donatione mea signo 
sc2e crucis xpi firmabo 7 subscribo 

»J« ego wulfredus gratia di arcbiepis cons 7 sub 

>J< ego coenwald consensi 7 subscripsi, 

►!< ego osuulf cons 7 sub 

►!< ego ealdberht cons 7 sub 

►!< ego wealb cons 7 sub 

►I* ego se'Selieard cons 7 sub 

1^ ego berbtno'S cons 7 sub 

>J< ego ceolno'S cons 7 ^s'ub 

i^t wulfred arcepis 

1^ alduulfepis 

»J< uuerenberht epis >J< beor n'mod epis 

»J< deneberbt epis ►!< wigberht epis 

>J< tidfer^ epis . ►$< alhmund epis 

1^ albbeard epis 1^ wiohtbun epis 

'1^ eaduulf epis 1^ wigmund jjr ab 

1^ wulf beard epis 1^ beonna pr ab' 

*^* Endorsed in a hand of the loth century, 'hegy^e ^orn . fSreo 
salunga,' and in a hand of the 12th century, ' Cudred rex cantiae edelnoSo 
praefecto' 'latine'. B. 


Endorsed by Aethelnoth and Gaenhurh, 805 — 831 ^. 

>J« Aethelnoth se gerefa to eastorege and gaenburg his wif 
araeddan hiora erfe beforan Wulfrede arcebiscope and aethel- 
hune his masseprioste and esne cyninges thegne suae huether 
hiora suae leng lifes were foe to londe and to aire sehte gif 
hio beam hebbe thonne foe [tSJaet ofer hiora boega dagas to 
londe and to sehte. gif hio thonne beam nsebbe and wulfred 
archibiscop lifes sie thonne foe he to thaem londe and hit . 
forgelde and thaet . wiorth gedaele fore hiora gastas suae 
aelmeslice and suae rehtlice suae he him seolfa on his wis- 
dome geleornie. and this [s]prece naenig mon uferran dogor 
on naenge othre halfe oneaerrende sie nimne suae Jjis gewrit . 

»J< Uulfred arcepis. >J< Aethelnoth. 

»J< Feol[o]geld pr ab. >J« Gaenburg. 

>J< Aethelhun pi^. 1^ Esne. 

>J< Cuthberht pr. 
jjisses londes aran thrie sulong aet haegethe thorne. and 
gif hiora othru oththe baem siith forgelimpe biscop that lond 
gebycge suae hif^ thonne geweorthe. 

Translation: — Aethelnoth, reeve of East Kent, and Gaenburg, his 
wife, declared their succession before Abp, Wulfred and Aethelhun his 
chaplain, and Esne, a thane of the king's. Whichever of the two should 
survive should take to the land and to all the property : if they have a 
child, it is to take, after both their days, to the land and property : if 
they have no child and Abp. Wulfred be alive, then he is to take to the 
land, and pay for it, and distribute the worth for their souls in the way 
of alms, and as justly as he in his wisdom may learn. And this bequest 
let no man in time to come divert in any other direction than as this 
writing containeth. — Of this land are three sulungs at Haegethe thome ; 
and in case of the prior decease of one or both, the bishop is to buy the 
land as it then stands. 

1 This endorsement by the purchaser and his wife is after Kemble 
from the Stowe MSS. For language and for contents it is remarkable. 
Notice gastas for the usual sawla. 

^ hie K. 


Cott. Aug. ii. 55. A. D. 805. 

Lamb. 1212. f. 314. 
K189. B, i. 13. 


abp. Canterbury, by synodal decree, restores to the brethren 
of Christchurch land formerly given them by Aldhun, of 
which, by the rapacity of some king, they had been unjustly 
deprived. The penmanship is remarkable, and it was selected 
by Kemble as one of his few specimens. 

^ Ego aedilheardus metropolitanae ciuitatis in doro- 
bernia arc epis pro amore dni m ibu xpi et pro absolu- 
tione meoru criminii terrain quattuor aratror nomine aet 
buman in occidentali parte beorahames scae familiae 
eeclesiae xpi in propria possessionem donabo et obsecro 
in nomine dni omnes pontifiees nros successores . ut 
omne bonum quod in ilia terra lucrificetur fratres sibi 
singulariter ad mensam suam babeant et ad alteram 
necessitate faciant qua illis bona et spontanea uoluntate 
maxime utile uideatur. Hanc pnominatam terram quidam 
homo bonus nomine aldhun qui in hac regali uilla in 
buus' ciuitatis praefectus fuit pro intuitu aeternae 
mercedis fratribus nris ad mensam tradidit . sed sea 
ecclesia xpi sine norma iustitiae cum rapacitate cuius- 
dam regis de sua terra priuata est . et nos auxiliante 
dno iterum illam iusto et synodali iudicio restituere huic 
scae familiae curauimus . rogamus etiam amicos nros id 
est reges et pontifiees et omnes qui potestatem in hac 
prouincia habeant. ut semper augere his fratrib. et n 
minuere suum bonum dignentur . et certe credimus 
eo magis dm omnipotentem illis augere aeterna bona 
in cselestibus regnis. 

actu fuit Dcccv. anno incarna? xpi xiii. indictione 

testiu nomina hie infra caraxata sunt 


\^ Ego aedillieard arc epi cum uexillo crucis xpi 

>I< ego biornmod epi subscripsi. >J< eanred ppos. 
>I< biornhard ppo. 

>J< monn a' pr. >{< cuba p. »{< uulfhard p. >{< ciol- 
stan p. >J< osuulf p. ^ paul p 

►i< heamund p >J< heremod p >$« uulfred arc dia 
>I< gu'Smund. >J< eadred dia 

>I« goda subdia >{< wine 

»J< ego eu^red rex cantie consensi et subscripsi 

>J< ego cudaman ab osensi et sub 

>i< ego feologeld ab. et subscr. i^ aldberht sub 

>i< osuulf dux subscri >J< esne subscri 

>i< berhtno'S subscrip >I< beahfir'S sub 

1^ sigebard subscrip. 

*,(.* Endorsed hy a hand of the 12th century, 'Scrip. V.' 'iiii aratra.' 
E^elardus archiepiscopus buman ecclesie Christi recuperavit et ad men- 
sam suam quam haldun prefectus civitatis prius ei contulit ' * V .' B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 79. A. D. 805-810. 

K226. B. i. 15. 

Osuulf and Beorn'Sry^ 

an Alderman and his Lady, gave to diristcburcli (Canterbury) 
an estate at Stanstead (Kent), humbly petitioning that their 
anniversary might be kept with a solemnity equal to that of the 
governors and benefactors of that church. Then Abp. "Wul- 
fred, speaking in the First Person, engages that their request 
shall be granted, and that they shall have a yearly-day, which 
shall be kept with a special sei'vice and almsgiving, and a 
College Gaude ; the provision and preparation for which are 
hereby directed, as well as the Eubric for the commemorative 
services. — An early and striking example of Fraternization, 
of which we have a later example about 1050 (K945). This 
private anniversary is much the same as that which in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries came to be called a yearly 


Mynde. — The deed is further interesting as an early example 
of one wholly in Saxon ; and it is worthy of remark that it 
contains no f)orn, that sound being throughout represented 
by 'S. A specimen is facsimiled in Cod. DipL, and the whole 
by Mr. Bond, who describes the writing as ' rounded minus- 
cules, partly following the Irish type.' Mr. Kemble dated 
this piece 805 — 831, but Haddan and Stubbs have shewn that 
it cannot be later than 810. Dialect Kentish. 

>J< Ic osuulf Aldormonn mid godes gsefe ond beorn- 
"SryS min gemecca sella^ to cantuarabyrg to cristes 
cirican "Saet lend set stanham stede. xx. swuluncga gode 
allmehtgum 7 ^ere halgon gesomnunegse fore hyhte 7 
fore aedleane daes aecan 7 daes towardon lifes, 7 fore 
uncerra saula hela 7 iincerra bearna. Ond mid micelre 
eadmodnisse bidda^ dset wit moten bion on dam gema- 
non de "Saer godes diowas siondan 7 da menn da 'Saer 
hlafordas wseron 7 dara monna de hiora lond to ^aere 
cirican saldon. Ond dsettse mon unee tide ymb tuself- 
monad mon geuueordise on godcundum godum 7 sec 
on aelmessan suae mon hiora doed, 

Ic donne uulfred mid godes gaefe arc epis das forecuae- 
denan uuord fulliae 7 bebeode dset mon ymb tuselfmonad 
hiora tid boega dus geuueor^iae to anes daeges to 
osuulfes tide ge mid godcundum godum ge mid ael- 
messan ge aec mid higna suesendum, donne bebeode ic 
daet mon das ding selle ymb tuselfmonad of liminum de 
dis forecuaede^ne' lond to limped of daem ilcan londe set 
stanham stede. cxx. huaetenra hlafa. 7 xxx. denra. 7 an 
hrider dugunde. 7. iii. sc^p. 7 tua flicca. 7. u. goes. 7. x. 
hennfuglas. 7. x. pund caeses gif hit fuguldaeg sie, Gif 
hit donne festen dseg sie. selle mon uu^ge csesa 7 fisces 7 
butran 7 aegera dsetmon begeotan maege. 7 xxx. ombra 
godes uuelesces alod dset limped to xu. mittum. 7 mittan 
fulne huniges. odda tu^gen uuines. su§ hwaeder suae 


mon donne begeotan maege Ond of higna gem^nu godii 
daer aet ham mon geselle. cxx. gesuflra hlafa to ael- 
messan for hiora saula. suae mon aet hlaforda tidii doed. 
Ond das forecu^denan su^senda all agefe mon d§m 
reogolwarde 7 lie brytni^ swae higu maest red sie 7 
daem sawlu soelest. aec mon daet weax agsefe to ciricican 
7 hiora sawlum nytt gedoe de hit man fore doed. aec ie 
bebeode minnm aefterfylgendu de daet lond h^bben aet 
human daet hiae simle ymb. xii. monad foran to ^sere 
tide gegeorwien ten hund hlafa 7 swae feola sufla 7 d^t 
mon gedele to aelmessan aet dere tide, fore mine sawle 7 
osuulfes 7 beorndryde ^aet cristes eirican' 7 him se reo- 
golweord on byrg gebeode foran to hwonne sio tid sie. 
aec ic bidde higon dette hie das godcundan god gedon 
aet dere tide fore hiora sawlii. daet ^ghwilc messepriost 
ffesinffe fore osuulfes sawle twa messan twa fore beorn- 

a o 

dryde sawle. 7 aeghwilc diacon arede twa passione fore 
his sawle twa fore hire Ond ^ghwilc godes diow gesinge 
twa fiftig fore his sawle twa fore hire, daette ge fore 
uueorolde sien geblitsade mid dem weoroldcundum godum 
7 hiora saula mid dem godcundum godum. aec ic biddo 
higon daet ge me gemynen aet dere tide mid suilce god- 
cunde gode suilce iow cynlic dynce. Ic de das gesett- 
nesse sette ge hueder ge for higna lufon ge deara saula 
de haer beforan hiora namon auuritene siondon. 


*5ic* Endorsed, hy a nearly contemporaneous hand ' f is is gesetnes osulf 
ond biarndryde;' and hy one of the 12th century, with the exception of 
the date, ichich is added later, ' Anno dcccvi Osulfus alderman dedit 
Stanhamstede ecclesie christi t^ipore Wlfredi archiepiscopi. An- 
glice.' B. 


Cott. Aug. ii. 47. 21 April 811. 

K195. B. ii. 11. 


abp. Canterbury, who was a considerable landowner in Kent, 
exchanges land with Christ Church. H&S. vol. iii. p. 557- 

>I< In nomine altithroni di summi regis aeterni. Ego 
uulfred dni inspirante gratia xpi ecclesiae antistes p 
reuerentia dni nri ihu xpi. ac p deuotissimo sincerae 
caritatis affectu, et p expiatione piaculorum meorum . seu 
etiam p mutua commoda uicissitudinis agellorum nrorum 
quorundam . hoc -r- uerbi gratia g. familiae xpi ecclesiae 
id -H pprie nris frib; in perpetuae hereditatis facultate 
tribuens donabo terram trium aratrum meae ppri^ iuris 
in regione easterege quae inibi ab incolis folcuuining 
lond uocatur atq: iterum etiam in eade regione eosterege 
meae pprie hereditatis ruriculii unius aratri illis trib; 
adherens pdictis nfae fraternitati on byrg ad possidendii 
reddo. Haec quattuor qq po's's'es'siones aratra ita mihi 
in ppriam jftinerunt condicione . ilia ig tria aratra id -?- 
■Saet folcwining lond on eosterge 7 unum aratrii ibi in 
nrae terrae medio et liminum coenuulf rex mihi cum suis 
primis dignitatum gradib: cum ceteris agellis donauerit. 
pro illius agelli conparatione on magonsetum set geard- 
cylle terra decim manentium quem k cyne^ry^ae adqui- 
rere 7 conparare curaui . Sed illud aratrum unu on 
liminii de quo pdiximus id e "Saet wynnhearding lond 7 
babbing lond 7 an iocled on uppan ufre quam terram 
id -;- aratrum illud set liminii ad xpi ecclesia ^ tribuam 
p agello illius aratri q ffib: nris sicut pdixi tradidi on 
eosterge . et illud iam dudum etiam xpi ecclesiae pprium 
fuit, Insuper etiam addidi on eostorege quintum aratrum 
frib: nris concedendam q a reacoluensae ecclesiae prius 


transmotauera qd dun waling lond dr. hoc eg ea con- 
dicione addens dabo ut quanto eoru humilitas atq: 
oboedientia circa nos deuotior fuerit . tanto ig illis semjf 
largiores in cunctis bonis dno miserante existere curamus . 
Has itaq: terrulas ideo coUegere et simul ita in unii 
coniungere eximiae caritatis industria curaui . ut facilius 
elaborare ac desudare sua propria in illis potuissent quasi 
adunate unius termini intra septa conclusi . atq: illas 
etiam meae ppriae arbitrio in dno nris frib: jfpetue dono 
cum omnib: bonis ad se rite undecumq: jftinentib: cum 
siluis pascuis pratibiq: 7 cum omni eximia libertatis 
honore eis tribuam exceptis trib: tantum debitis . id e 
expeditions 7 arcis munitione 7 pontis instructione ad- 
uersus paganos . ut nra familia uidelicet fi's nri feliciter 
et jTpetualiter salua iure illis . iuxta suae necessitatis 
pprietatem jf omnia ut illis placuerit in dno fruerentur . 
huius eg reconciliationis nrae uicissitudinem beniuola 
mente adnuendo consentiendo crucis xpi uexillo roborabo, 
Hac tn uera interposita rationis condicione tam clementer 
hoc agens q mihi 7 meis heredib: tam stabile 7 immune 7 
j^etu^ inmobile fixum in dno in ^uum jfduret ilia uerbi 
gratia uicissitudinis transmotatio qua mihi familia nri frs 
uidelicet ex suo pprio iuris arbitrio unanimo desiderio 7 
consono mentis consensu cunctorii seniorum iuniorumque 
^pria uoluntate tradidert terram utiq: ubi ab incolis 
regionis set burnan uocabulum dr . quattuor aratrii quam 
terram to tam iam dudum aldhun quid am comes uenera- 
biles ppinquus domni iaemberhti arcepis familiae 7 ppriae 
singulariterq: frib: p aeterna familiaritate ac p animae 
suae redemptione iure jfpetua liberaq: ad possidendri illis 
donauerut . illamq: terram ecgberht rex aldhuno con- 
scribendo dederat . Sed p* eo rex offa pdictam terram a 
nra familia abstulit uidelicet quasi non liceret ecgberhto 

G % 


agros hereditario iure scribere . Sed post ea beatae 
memoriae ae"Selheard arcepis a rege ofia adquirere studuit 
ilia terram cu integra libertate ad xpi eeclesia . Sed 7 
ipse ae^elheard arcepis nr paulo ante obitum suu cum 
jTsuassione amicorii frib: nf is illam terram cum ilia liber- 
tate 7 cunctis reb: rite ad eam jftinentib: restituere 
demandauit . ut illi terr§ fructib: utilitatisq: usib: frs p 
redemtione anim^ illius jfpetu^ secundu suum placitii 
tantum in dno fruerentur . quamobrem frs ac familia nra 
ilia quattuor aratra ipsius terr§ set burnan jfpri^ illorum 
iuris hereditate mihi in ius ppri^ ac jfpetu^ hereditatis 
arbitrium tradidert ad trans motationis uicissitudine illius 
terr^ on easterege quam pdiximus, mihi qq tam liberam 7 
securam jf omnia habendam fruendamq: jfpetu^ 7 ad tra- 
hendam secundum meae uoluntatis placitum arbitriumq: 
in aeuu dederunt 7 consentientib: animis cunctorumq: 
manib: crucis signaculo libenter subscribentib: atq: hoc 
etiam difinfui'mus 7 firmiter reconciliantes coram idoneis 
testib: roborauimus ut tota ilia terra quam ipsi tradi- 
derunt mihi set burnan tam immunis absq: alicuius con- 
tradictionis obstacula jipetu^ fieri posset sicut ilia terra 
on eostorege quam illis dederam eis jfpetu^ inuiolabilem 
ee desiderio. 

Si H" q absit aliquis maliuola audacia banc nfam 
uicissitudine jT tyrannide inuadere i infringere tem- 
tauerit nouerit se ante tribunal summi 7 tremendi 
iudicis xpi ee ratione redditurum . nisi illud prius 
digna satisfactione emendauerit . et si qualibet nrae 
partis condicio innocens 7 incontaminata reperta ipsius 
rei fuerit seu forte utraq: suae |)priae iuris possessio 
salua 7 integra ratione ad pristin^ hereditatis gremium 
reuertetur . pars M" ilia qu^ rea 7 deprauata fuerit suae 
ppriae partis rea priuetur et iustum arbitrorum iudicium. 


subire cogetur ibiq: iuste districtiones accipiat sentiatq: 

>^ ego uulfred gratia di arcepis huius reconciliationis 
nrae nicissitudine signo scae crucis xpi confirmabo 7 

>J< ego beommodus epis osens 7 subs 

>J< ego werno"S pr 7 ab osens 7 sub . 

>i< ego beornwine pr 7 ab osens 7 sub 

»J< ego feologeld pr 7 ab osens 7 sub , 

►J< ae^elhun pr osens 7 sub . 

1^ ceolstan pr osens 7 sub . 

»I< beamund pr osens 7 sub . 

1^ osuulf pr osens 7 sub . 

»J< heremod pr osens 7 sub . 

>J< tudda pf . osens 7 sub . 

»I< deorno'S pr osens 7 sub . 

»I< abba pr osens 7 sub . 

>J< gu^mund pr osens 7 sub . 

1^ badaheard pr osens 7 sub . 

>i« cu'Sric pr osens 7 sub . 

»J< bunfer^ pr osens 7 sub . 

>{< uuilno^ pr osens 7 sub . 

»I< drybtno^ pr osens 7 sub . 

>J< eangeard pr osens 7 sub . 

»J< ae^elheah pr osens 7 sub . 

>I< ealhun pr osens 7 sub . 

>I< deneberbt dia . consens 7 sub . 

^ coenbere dia . osens 7 sub . 

^ tilred dia osens 7 sub . 

»{4 billbeard dia osens p sub . 

►i< dudd dia osens 7 sub . 

>I< goda dia osens 7 subs . 


1^ brunheard dia osens 7 suIj . 
1^ uulf heard osens 7 su15 . 
1^ Osmund osens 7 su'b . 

Actum -r- M* hoe anno dominie^ incarn .dccc.xi. indic- 
tione -|-|- .iiii*. imperii H* coenuulfi regis .xv. anno, pr^su- 
latus H* wulfredi arcepis anno .vi. die If undecimo ^1 mai . 
in loco pclara in ciuitate dorouernia . regnante dno sine 
fine, amen : — 

*:)(* Endorsed in a hand of the 12th century, ' .VI. Commutatio qua- 
rundam terrarum inter archiepiscopura Wlfredum "j fratres ecclesie 
Christi id est folquiningland .iii. aratra an eastreie. ~} .i. aratrum in loco 
qui dicitur biri. ^ .1. in loco qui dicitur dunwalingland . pro bume .iiii. 
aratrorum .' *. latine . bonum.' B. 

^ It appears on the facsimile as if ecclesiae had first been written, and 
then corrected to ecclesia. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 10. 1 Aug. 811. 

K196. B. i. 14. 

Coenuulf of Mercia 

grants to abp. Wulfred two and a half ' hagan ' in Canter- 
bury. This was done at a council held in London. The 
ceremonious formality of the deed is remarkable. We see 
that land in a borougti was subject to the trinoda necessitas 
no less than in the open country. 

>J< In nomine di summi regis aeterni. Anno at 
mcarnationis eiusdem dni saluatoris mundi ihu xpi. 
Dccc**.xi'*. indictione uero. iiii\ Porro qq imperii piis- 
simi regis merciorii coenuu'lfi^ anno. xv**. praesulatus 
etia uulfredi archipontificis anno. vi**. prama kalendarii 
die augustaru in loco pclaro oppidoq: regali lundaniae 
uicu conciliii pergrande collectii habebatur. in quo uide- 
licet ipse rex coen u'ulf atq: uulfred arc episc cum 


coepiscopis illius duob: uerbi gratia, deneberht hu u'ic- 
ciorii epis. Ae'Seluulf episcop australiu saxonu. cum 
principib: ducibusq: et maiores natu. quoru nomina infra 
craxantur. inter alias qq diuersarum rem causas in illo 
habentes concilio interpraetatas. Plaeuit pio regi coe- 
nuulfo cum consilio et consensu totius concilii illius id e 
episcoporu principu ducu iudicumue maiorumq: natu. 
Pro honore di omnipotentis ac pro expiatione piaculoru 
eius. atq: pro reuerentissima dilectione uulfredi arcepisci. 
seu etiam pro eius larga pecuniarii remuneratione. hoe e 
centum et uiginti. vi. mancosas pro his reb: in occiden- 
tale cantiae in regione suburbanaq: regis oppido ibi ab 
incolis roeginga ham nuncupato Terra duoru aratruum 
qd appincg lond illic nominatur. et rursii in alio loco et 
in regione suburbana ad oppidii regis quod ab incolis ibi 
fefres ham appellatur. Terra qq duorii aratruii in locis 
nominatis illic 'Saet sui^hunincg lond aetgrafon aea atq: 
iterii in ciuitate dorouernia in australe parte ecclesiae 
saluatoris^ duas possessiunculas et tertia dimedia id e in 
nra loquella ^ridda half haga et prata duo ad eas prius 
et modo pertinentia in orientale parte sture fluminis sita 
Coenuulf rex has terrulas sui propriae puplicae iuris cum 
praedicto concilii consensu, ac pro cunctis antedictis 
causis uulfredo suo archipontifici donare ac conscribere in 
propria atq: in perenne hereditatem habendii fruendumq: 
et ad tractandum cum campis pascuis pratib: siluis saltib: 
piscuosis ac maritimis fretib: paludib: uallibusq: dulcis 
salsuginesque salisq: stationib: coctionesq: et cum cunctis 
fructib: interius exteriusq: uel aliunde usquam ad eas 
rite uel umqua pertinentia in talem sibi usum quale 
semet ipsi utillimum optimumue fore uideretur firm iter 
pleniterq: deiudicauit. Integrum qq libertate his terrulis 
atq: ruriculis rex coenuulf cum auctoritate supra dicti 


concilii deereuerat. Ut perpetue sint liberate ab omnib: 
puplicis tributis et a cunctis regaliu rem uel operum de- 
bitis. siue principu seu ducu uel procuratoru aut etiam 
ab omni saeeulariu causaru rerumue grauidine exceptis 
Lis debitis. id e pontis instruetione. et contra paganos 
expeditione. atq: arcis munitione distructionemue Cum 
tamen hoe uniuerso populo oportunitas summa poposeerit 
et neeessitas eximia boo agendu cunetos undicumq: eo- 
hereeret. tunc et illi rite sua reddent,, 

1^ Ego coenuulf dni miserieordia rex mercior huius 
nrae dationis ac libertatis remuneratione mente consona 
propriisq: manib: crucis xpi signo confirmare roborareque 

>J< aelfJ^ryS regina consentiens subscripsit. 

»I< sigred rex subscripsit. 

>^ uulfred archi epis xpi gratia consentiens subscripsit. 

>i< deneberht epis subscripsit. 

1^ beornmod epis subscrip. 

»J< ae'Seluulf epis subscrip. 

>i< heardberht princ subscrip. 

>i< beornno'S princ subscrip. 

1^ cynehelm princ subscrip. 

1^ eadberbt dux cons subscrip. 

>J< ecguulf dux cons subscrip. 

^ eanberht dux cons subs. 

1^ beahfer'S dux cons subs. 

>J< cyneberht ppin eius sub. 

1^ coenwald ppin eius sub. 

>I< acSelheah pedes sessor sub. 

>I« cuuoenburg abba sub. 

>J< seleburg abb subscripsit. 

>J< cuSred pr subscripsit. 

*iti* Endorsed in an ancient hand, 'grafen ea;' in a hand of the 


loth century, 'swi^huning land,' and 'grauanea;* and in a hand of 
the 1 2th century, ' Concilium cenulfi regis in quo dedit sui^ hunigland 
et grauenea Wlfredo archiepiscopo.' * Latine.' B. 

^ The scribe wrote coenulfi, and a correcting hand has intimated 
another u over the line. This occurs three times in the early part of 
the deed, and after that the uu is duly written in its place. 

^ At Canterbury Augustine heard of an old church of the Boman 
period, and by the king's help he recovered it, and consecrated it ' in 
nomine sancti Salvatoris.' Beda, E. H. i. 33. Afterwards it came to be 
called Christ Church. That is Canterbury Cathedral. 

Chart. Ant. Cantuar. C. 1278. A. D. 812. 

K109. S. i. 6. 


king of the Mercians, exchanges land in the eastern parts of 
Kent with Abp. Wulfred, who was a private landowner. 

»i< In nomine dei summi regis aeterni. Anno quoque 
incarnationis dei et saluatoris mundi . Dccc° . xii° . 
indictione. v. Regni quoque gloriosissimi merciorum 
regis coenuulfi Anno . xvi° Praesulatus etiam anno 
uulfredi archiepiscopi . vii°. INter alios quoque deo 
adnuente bonarum rerum euentos uerbi gratia placuit 
itaque regi coenuulfo atque uulfredo archiepiscopo quo- 
rundam commutation es agellorum ambobus conpetentius 
in orientalibus cantiae partibus sapientibus eorum eon- 
sentientibus ^ firmiter peragere. Ita quoque priraitus 
uulfred archiepiscopus hac interposita ratione aliquam 
terrae partiunculam . hoc est duarum manentium in 
loco ubi sueordhlincas uoeitantur iuxta distributionem 
suarum utique terrarum ritu cantiae an sulung dictum 
Seu in alio loco mediam partem unius mansiunculae id 
est an ioclet ab incolis ibi ecgheanglond appellatur. 
Quam terram uidelicet Uulfred archiepiscopus plenario 


ac digno comparauerat praetio ab uulfhardo praesbytero 
iam dudum Ae^elheardi bonae memoriae archiepiscopi 
sibi ad possidendum atque fruendum per omne modum 
Sea etiam cum libertate sicut et ipse illam terram con- 
paiare et possedere optenuit . Id est ut iure bereditario 
perpetuae possederet et ab uniuersis etiam terrenis diffi- 
cultatum notis et ignotis condicionibus ac tributis siue 
ab omni opere puplico aedificiorum aut in quolibet du- 
catu perenniter libera frueretur et sua sic utilitate quale- 
cumque sibi dei dono praeuideret terram derelinqueret 
illam. UNde igitur cbristi gratia uulfred arcbiepiscopus 
eandem terram sibi tam propriam et quam liberam ha- 
bendam fruendamque in suum proprie arljitrium conpa- 
rare pleniter ut praediximus pracurabit. Atque etiam 
insuper sic regi coenuulfo dare atque ad rei puplic . . . . e 
condicionis donare decreuerat ubi uel cuicumque utilitati 
sibi fore uideretur. Pro agellorum Transmutatione 
Uerbi gratia istorum qui in partibus suburbanis regis 
oppidulo fefresham dicto fieri uidebantur . Hoc est terrae 
particula duarum manentium id est an sulung ubi ab 
incolis grafoneab uocitatur. Ab aquilone habens termi- 
num suuealuue fluminis . A plaga oriente sui'Sbuning 
lond . A parte occidentali ealhfleot . Ab austro sigheard- 
ingmeduue ond eac suitbbuning lond. Atque rursum 
in partibus australi in regione on liminum et in loco Ubi 
ab indegenis ab occidente kasingburnan appellatur de- 
mediam partem unius mansiunculae id est an ioclet . ad 
id insuper addito illo litore foris maritimo cum pristinis 
terminibus cunctis ad cam usquam rite pertinentibus . 
Dei gratia quoque rex Coenuulf has praedictas terrulas 
uerbi gratia aet grafon aea atque iterum aet casingbur- 
nan litoreque illo cum omnibus . undecumque legitimis 
limitibus campis salsuges pascuis siluis pratibus paludibus 


litoribus piscuosis seu cunctis aliunde usibus quisquilibet 
maritimisque fructibus Pro illis praedictis agellorum 
uicissitudinibus aet sueordhlincum et ecgheanglond Uul- 
fredo archiepiscopo ueraciter et firmiter in propriae 
condieionis ac in perpetue possessionis hereditatem cum 
uniuersae integritatis libertate perpetualiter in domino 
concedens donabo sibi ipsi habendum ac perpetue fruen- 
dum ac sic ad trahendum Ut semet ipso utillimum esse 
uideretur . Cum uniuersae libertatis praedictae discretio- 
nem per omnia inmobiliter secundum quod terram prae- 
dictam Uulfred archiepiscopus conparauerat haberet. 
Atque hac condicione regi Coenuulfo Transmutare et in 
domino don are diiudicauerat Sicut superius ratum ac 
delibratum et infra crucis uexillo et sub idoneis testibus 
roboratum habetur,*- INsuper additur hoc Si huius uicis- 
situdinis persona quilibet ex utralibet parte banc com- 
mutationem aliter transmutare aut uiolare temptauerit 
quam difinitum fieri uidetur . salua iure intemerata pos- 
sessiuncula cum praedicta libertate absque obstaculo ali- 
cuius quaestionis ad proprie hereditatis gremium redeat. 

Aut etiam quilibet dominorum Seu summo saeculi dig- 
nitatum gradu ditatus huius uicissitudinis reconciliati- 
onem tyrannico fraude fretus ex his utralibus partibus 
quod Tam firmiter reconciliaretur banc mutare vel frau- 
dare iniqui temptauerit. Nouerit se anathematum esse 
et ante tribunal summi iudicis Xpi rationem redditurum. 
Nisi prius digna satisfactione emendauerit. 

>^ Ego coenuulf xpi gratia rex merciorum huius nrae 
uicissitudinis munificentiam larga manu donabo atq; 
crucis uexillo roborabo. 

>i< Ego Uulfred gratia di arc episc huius nostrae re- 
conciliationis munificentiam adnuendo consentiens et 
signo crucis xpi roborabo. 


»J< Ego eaduulf epTsc consentiens subscripsi. 

>I< Signum manus cu'Sredi pr. 

>J< Sign man ploesa ducis. 

»i< Sign man cyneberhti reg ppinq. 

»i« Sign man ae^elheah ped sec. 

*** Endorsed in a hand of the nth century 'grauan ea : ' — in a hand of 
the 12th century ' Commutatio terrarum inter Kenulfum regem et Wulu- 
red archiepiscopum pro suerdling et ecgingland . grauenea et casinbume 
. latine : ' — and in a hand of the i ^th century * Carta Ceonulphi Regis de 
Suordlinge q' dedit Wulfredo archiepiscopo.' 

^ sapientibus eorum consentientibus. As if the archbishop too had 
his witenagemot. See above, p. 69, * se bisceop and his weotan.' So 
Thurstan abp. York, in his charter to Beverley, says, *et consilio meorum 
baronum,* Stubbs, Select Charters, part iii. 

Somner's Ant. Battely. App. p. 35. A. D. 813. 



abp. Cant, having rebuilt his monastery ordains that the 
members of his familia may have and use the houses they 
have built, and may also give or bequeath them ; but only to 
members of the congregation. This is granted as a favour on 
condition of their greater devotion to their duties and con- 
stant attendance at prayers. They are also required to use 
the common refectory and dormitory. 

>J< In nomine sanctae saluatoris dei et domini nostri 
Ibesu Christi. anno ab incarnatione eiusdem dei et re- 
demptionis mundi Dccc.xiii. Indict, vi. praesidente 
Christi gratia archipontifice Uulfredo metropolitano 
sedem ecclesiae Christi quae sita est in dorouernia ciui- 
tate anno Yii. episcopatus eiusdem archiepiscopi diuina 
ac fraterna pietate ductus amore deo auxiliante reno- 
uando et restaurando pro honore et amore dei sanctum 
monasterium dorouernensis ecclesiae reaedificando refici 
auxiliantibus eiusdem ecclesiae presbiteris et diaconibus 


cunctoque clero domino deo seruientium simul. Ego 
Uulfredus misericordia dei archisacerdos pro intimo cor- 
dis affectu dabo et concedo familia Christi habere ei> 
perfruere domos quas siui proprio labore eonstruxerunt 
iure perpetuo hereditatis munificentia illis uiuentibus 
seu decedentibus cuicumque relinquere uel don are uolu- 
erint unusquisque liberam habeant facultatem in eodem 
monasterio donaudi sed nee alicui foras extra congrega- 
tioni. Ita etiam in Christi caritate obseerans precipio 
omnibus successoribus meis banc praedictam donationem 
inconcussam et inuiolatam salua ratione seruaudam sed 
sine semper in euum. hac tamen conditione ut deo 
humiliores et gratiores omnium beneficlorum dei semper 
existant seduloque frequentatione canonicis horis eccle- 
siam Christi uisitent orantes ac deprecantes pro seipsis 
propriis piaculis et pro aliorum remissione peecatorum 
misericordiam domini implorent. Necnon domum re- 
fectionis et dormitorium communiter frequentent iuxta 
regulam monasterialis disciplinae uitae obseruant. Ut 
in omnibus honorificetur deus et uita nostra et bona 
conuersatio nobis nostrisque proficiat in bonum. Si 
quis illorum per audaciam suae malae uohintatis banc 
praedictam constitutionem inritam habere et in obli- 
uionem deducere et congregare conuiuias ad uescendum 
et bibendum seu etiam dormiendum in propriis cellulis 
sciat se quisquis ille sit reatum se esse propriae domi et 
in potestate archiepiscopi ad habendum et cuicumque ei 
placuerit donandum Ik manentem itaque banc kaitulam 
in sua nihilominus firmitate. 

►J* Ego Uulfred gratia dei archiepisc signo sanctae 
crucis Christi firmans subscripsi. 

>J« Ego uuernoth pr at) con 7 subscripsi. 

>I« Ego wulfheard pr con 7 sub. 


>i« Ego heamund pr con 7 suli. 

1^ Ego osuulf pr con 7 su^b. 

>i« Ego ceolstan pr con 7 sub. 

>J< Ego tudda pr con 7 su16. . 

>i< Ego diornoth pr con 7su'b. 

>J< Ego guthmund pr con 7 sulS. 

>i< Ego cuthberht pr con 7 suIj. 

»J< Ego coenhere con 7 sut>. 

>J< Ego brunheard con 7 su15. 

>J< Ego haehferth con 7 sub. 

*:,£* While the form is that of an extension of liberty, it seems plainly 
a politic concession of rights which had been already usurped, with a 
view to arrest the progress of encroachment and restore some elements 
of discipline. The limit here put on right of property within the pre- 
cinct, was necessary to prevent the acquirement of absolute possession. 
The appropriation of houses with limited freedom of testamentary dis- 
position is the very utmost that could have been conceded, without 
dissolution of cenobitic life. We may gather from this how secularized 
the monasteries had become, and how deeply rooted were those de- 
generate customs which Dunstan's reformation at length plucked up. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 77. A. D. 814. 

K204. B. ii 12. 


king of Mercia, grants land of ten ploughs at Bexley to Abp. 
Wulfred. A very interesting deed, with much in it to 
stimulate local research ; as for example : — Is there an Avon 
in Kent 1 

»J< In nomine sci saluatoris di et dni nri i^u xpi. 
Regnante ac gubernante eodem dno itiu . Simulq: spu sco 
gubernacula in imis et in arduis disponendo ubique regit , 
licet sermo Sapientium consiliumq: pradentium stabilis 
jTmaneat . tamen ob incertitudine temporalium rerum 
diuinis numinibus muniendo . jTscrutando p ignotis et 
incertis euentis stabilienda roborandaque in do uiuo et 


uero sunt . Quapropt ego coenuulfus gratia di rex mer- 
ciorii . uiro uenerando mihique in xpi caritate summo 
pontificalis apice decorate . uulfredo arcsepis dabo et 
concedo aliquam partem terr§ iuris mei quae mihi lar- 
gitor omnium bonoru ds donare dignatus est p intimo 
caritatis affectu ut apis ait . hilarem enim datorem dili- 
git ds . et hoc . est in loco qui dicitur byxlea .x. aratrorii 
in jfpetuam possession^ . et haec terra libera jTmaneat . 
pter arcem . et expeditionem pontisq: constructione . 
Quod si quisq: huic largitioni contradixerit . contradicat 
ei ds . et deneget ingressum cselestis uitse . et his limi- 
tibus haec pars telluris circumgyrari uidetur . aerest up of 
craegean on fulan ri^e . ylang ri'Se o'S }7one faestendic . 
ylang dices of> fact gebyhte . of ]7am gebyhte ylang 
hagan o'S cyninges healh . ]7anon ylang hagan ut on 
craegean . ylang craegean o|? ^one hagan . ylang hagan 
0^ pae^feld . ]?anon ylang hagan o'S aescburnan . of "Sam 
human ylang hagan on casincgstraet . east ylang straete 
on scoffoces sae . }?anon nor'S ylang straete o^ lytlanlea . 
|?anon east ylang mearce o^ enede mere su^ rihte of 
"Sam mere to burnes stede . ]7anon ylang hagan o]? ca- 
singstraet . ylang straete on )7one calewan telgan . ]7anon 
ut on craegean . swa eft on fulan ri'Se. Haec sunt nomina 
pastuum porcorum . helfre^ingdenn . hunbealdinghola . 
frumesingleah . burnes stedes denn . heanyfre . faes ge- 
maere is on east healfe spachrycg . on su^an plumweard- 
ing pearrocas . on westan lind cylne . on norjjan auene . 
Actum -^ hoc anno dnice incarnationis .dccc°. xiiij°. in- 
dict .ui*. his testibus consentientibus atq: confirmantib: 
quorii infra nomina nota sunt. 

>^ ego coenuulf gratia di'rex merciorii banc dona- 
tionis confirmatione signo see crucis xpi roboraui . 

>i< ego uulfred arceps cons y sub . 


►!♦ ego denebyrht eps cons 7 snla 
»J< ego uulf hard eps cons 7 sutv 
►J< signum manus eadberhti ducis . 
>J< signum manus ealhheardi ducis . 
»J« signum manus ceoluulfi ducis. 

*5i:* Endorsed in a hand of the 10th century ' to byxlea,' and in a 
hand of the 12th century, 'Kenulfus rex Wluredo archiepiscopo bixle 
.X. aratrorum.' ' latine.' B. 

Harley Charter 83. A 1. A. D. 814. 


B. ii. 14. 


grants to Sui'SnocS ' comes ' land free for himself and his heirs. 
This document was thus described by Kemble in 1839 : ' An 
original of Coenuulf of Mercia, now in a case for the inspection 
of visitors.' Cod. Dipl. VI. xvii. But Mr. Bond pronounces 
it to be ' late ninth century.' Vol. iv. p. 7. 

►!< In nomine di summi. Igitur anno dnce incar- 
nationis dcccxiiii regni uero nri a do concessi xuiii. 
Ego coenwulf rex mere sui^no^e meo comite terram 
. I . aratrorum in propriam possessionem et libertatem 
sibimet uel suis heredibus in ppetuum fruere pdonabo 
Scilicet iuxta silua quae dicitur caert cum campis cum 
siluis cum pascuis cum pratis . xv . carra de feno capi- 
entia cum uno molina 7 waldbera wiolhtringden 7 
'Sorningabyra 7 beardingaleag 7 focgingabyra 7 speld- 
gisella 7 hege^onhyrs 7 hri^den 7 cunden 7 begcgebyra 
7 sponleoge 7 "Set firhde bituihn longanieag 7 ^em 
su^tune 7 ^a snadas illuc ptinentia cum antiquis ter- 
minibus liberabo pdictam terram a notis causis 7 ig- 
notis a magnis uel modicis aetiam nomina testium infra 
adscribuntur pro cautella futuri ambiguitatis augentis 


banc donatlonem meam a misericordissimo dno aeter- 
nam benedietionem consequantur : — Si quis uero regum 
uel principum seu pfectum hunc libertatem meam in- 
fringere aut minuere uoluerit Sciat se separatum ee in 
die iudicii a consortio scorii nisi digne emendauerit ante 
reatum suum : — 

>^ Ego coenwulf gratia di rex mere banc dona- 
tionem meam cum signo see erucis confirm 7 subscr. 

>J< Ego aelf^rySa regina mere osen 7 subscr. 

^ Ego uulfred arcepi os 7 subscr. 

►J* Ego alduulf epi os 7 subscr. 

^ Ego werenbert epi os 7 subscr. 

>I< Ego denebierbt epi os 7 subscr. , 

>J< Ego eadwulf epi os 7 subscr. 

»J< Ego wulfhard epi os 7 subscr. 

►J< Ego tidferd epis os 7 subscr. 

h^ Ego sibba epi os 7 subscr. 

>I« Ego beornmod epi os 7 subscr. 

ij< Ego ae^elno^ epi os 7 subscr. 

>I« Ego wigberbt epi os 7 subscr. 

>I* Ego wig^eng epi os 7 subscr. 

»J« Ego wilheard pr abb os 7 subscr. 

►{< Ego wigmund pr ab os 7 subscr. 

►J* Ego re^hun pr ab os 7 subscr. 

»{< Ego piot pr ab os 7 subscr. 

>J« Ego tidbald pr ab os 7 subscr. 

^ Ego wulfhard pr ab os 7 subscr. 

>I« Ego cu^wulf pr ab os 7 subscr. 

>J« Ego heardberht dux os 7 subscr. 

»{4 Ego biornno^ dux os. 

>I< Ego dynne dux os. 

>^ Ego ^'Selheah dux os. 

^ Ego mucel dux os. 



►J< Ego sigered dux os. 

1^ Ego ae^elmod dux os. 

>J< Ego wigheard dux os. 

>J< Ego eatfer^ dux os. 

1^ Ego wulfred dux os. 

1^ Ego eadberht dux os. 

>^ Ego ealhhard dux os. 

>}< Ego ciolhard dux os. 

>J« Ego biornhard dux os. 

>I< Ego bofa dux OS. 

>I< Ego ecgwulf dux os. 

1^ Ego cudred os. 

»J« Ego wulfred os. 

p^ Ego wighard os. 

►!< Ego eadwulf os. 

*5it* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, ' >J< be cert suitJno^es boec ; 
and in a later hand ' tunes boec' B. 

Somner*s Ant. Battely. App. p. 12. A. D. 814. 



king of Mercia, grants to Abp. Wulfred, a piece of land in 
his right, about thirty jugera, at a place called Binnanea, 
situate between two rivi gremiales of the river Stur. 

»i« In nomine sancti saluatoris dei et domini nostri 
Ihesu Christi, regnante ac gubernante eodem domino 
Ihesu simulque spiritu sancto gubernacula in imis et in 
arduis disponendo ubique regit! Licet sermo sapien- 
tium consiliumque prudentium stabilis permaneat, tamen 
ob incertitudine tempo ralium rerum, diuinis numinibus 
muniendo, perscrutando, pro ignotis et incertis euentis, 
stabilienda roborandaque in deo uiuo et uero sunt. 


Quapropter ego Coenulfus gratia dei rex Merciorum, 
uiro uenerando in Christi charitate summo pontificalis 
apice decorato, Uulfredo archiepiscopo dabo et concedo 
aliquam partem terrae iuris mei, quae mihi largitor 
omnium bonorum deus donare dignatus est, pro intimo 
caritatis affectu, ut apostolus ait, hilarem enim datorem 
diligit deus. Et hoc est in loco qui dicitur Binnanea, 
circiter xxx. iugera, inter duos riuos gremiales fluminis 
quod dicitur Stur. Et haec terra libera permaneat in 
perpetuam possessionem aecclesiae Christi. Quod si 
quisque huic largitioni contradixerit, contradicat ei deus, 
et denegat ingressum coelestis uitae. Actum est hoc 
anno dominicae incarnationis dccc.xiiii^. Indict, vi. his 
testibus consentientibus atque confirmantibus, quorum 
nomina nota sunt. 

1^ Ego Coenuulf gratia dei rex Merciorum banc 
donationis confirmationem signo crucis Christi ro- 

1^ Ego Uulfred archiepiscopus consensi et sub- 

^ Ego Denebyrht episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< Ego Uulfhard episcopus consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< Signum manus Eadberhti ducis. 

>J< Signum manus Ealhheardi ducis. 

>}< Signum manus Ceoluulfi ducis. 

*:(.* Kemble does not verify Binnanea, but he does identify Stur 
with the Stour of Kent. I am not sure whether rivi gremiales are two 
streams confluent to form a river, or two streams branching out of one 
river-bed to make their divergent ways to the sea. In the former case, 
Binnanea must be sought near Ashford ; in the latter case (which seems 
the likelier) at the S.W. angle of Thanet. However this be, the fact 
of the Latin description being a translation of the name, gives an in- 
terest to this deed : and binnan, it may be added, is not so frequent, 
but what a clear case of its entrance into a local name is a fact deserv- 
ing of attention. 

H 2 . 


Cott. Aug. ii. 93. 17 Sept. 822. 

K216. B. ii. 15. 


king of the Mercians and Kentish men, grants to Abp. "Wul- 
fred land in the province of Kent called Mylentun (Milton). 
The exemptions are remarkably described, and so are also 
the necessary obligations. Several considerations are alleged 
for the grant, the concluding one being a gold ring of seventy- 
five mancuses. *The deed is a good example of ungrammatical 
half-vernacularized Latin. 

>J< In nomine itu xpi . saluatoris mundi qui est et 
qui erat . et qui uenturus est . per quern reges regunt et 
diuidunt regna terrarum . sicut dispensatur uniuers^ 
terre distribuit secundum mensuram sui propriae uolun- 
tatis . ita iedem di gratia concedente . ego eeolwulf rex 
merciorum uel etiam contwariorum . dabo et concedo 
uulfredo uenerabile arcepis . aliquam partem terre iuris 
meg . id est .u. aratro . in prouincio cauti^ ubi nominatur 
mylentu n' in propria potestatem . ad abendum possi- 
dendum commutandumq: uel etiam post se relinquendam 
cuicumq: ei karorum placuerit . cum omnibus usis ad 
earn rite pertinentibus . cum campis . silbis . pratis . 
pascuis . aquis . molinis . piscationibus . aucupationibus . 
uenationibus . et quicquit in se abentibus , insuper 
etiam banc pdictam terram liberabo, ab omni seruitute 
secularium rerum a pastu regis episcopis principum . 
seu prefectum exactorum . ducorum . canorum . uel 
^quorum seu accipitrum ab refctione et habitu illorum 
omnium qui dieuntur fsestingmen ab omnibus laboribus 
operibus . et oneribus . siue difficultatibus . quit plus 
minusue numerabo uel dico . ab omni grauitatibus magi- 
oribus minoriis . notis ignotis undiq: liberata permaneat 
in §fum nisi is quattuor causis que nunc nominabo . ex- 


peditione contra paganos ostes . et pontes constructione 
seu arcis munitione uel destructione in eodem gente et 
singulare pretium foras reddat . secundum ritum gentes 
illius . et tarn en nuUam penam foras alicui persoluat set 
semper sine aliqua . ui . uUius caus§ . in integritate liber 
et secura perseueret, uulfredo episcopi et eredibus eius in 
posterum cum certissimis terminis suis . ab oriente cyme- 
sine . in austral e se hole welle . et occidente diorente . 
ab aquilone scorham silba similitur qui dicitur cert ab 
occidente . et aquilone greotan edesces lond in oriente 
cyme singes cert et in austra ondred . item in ondrede 
pastum et pascua porcorum . et armentum seu caprorum 
suis locis . in hyrst sc i'ofing den . snad hyrst . et si quis 
scire desideral . quare banc donam tarn deuotissime de- 
dissem uel liberassim . sciat illi recitatur quod inprimis 
pro amore di omnispotentis et pro uenerabili gradui . 
preticti pontificis . seu etiam consecrationis mesB quam 
ab eo eodem die . per di gratia accepi . nee non pro eius 
placabili pecunia . id est anulus aureus abens .lxx.u . 
mancusas . ut ab eo accepi -r- 

Actum est anno dominice incati .dcccxxii. indicti .xu. 
die uero .xu. kl octot) . in loco regale qui dicitur bydie 
tun is testis consentientibus et scribentibus . quorum 
nomina infra abentur . 

>J< ego ceolwulf rex merciorum banc meam donationem 
proprio manu subscribo . 

>J< ego wulfred arhcepis consensiens subscribo . 

>^ ego ^'Selwald epis osensi 7 subscribo . 

>J< ego re^hun epis osensi 7 subscribo . 

t^t ego wulfheard epis osensi 7 subscribo . 

»J< ego lieaberht epis osensi 7 sub . 

»J< ego sigered dux osensi 7 sut) . 

>I» ego eadberht dux osensi 7 sub . 


>I< ego wulfred dux osensi 7 sut> . 

»i4 ego muca dux osensi 7 sut> . 

^ ego eatfer'S dux osensi 7 sut> . 

>J< ego bofa dux osens 7 suli . 

^ ego piot prs osens 7 su'b . 

►J< ego eadbald . 

1^ ego cyneberht . 

^ ego wighelm . 

1^ ego beadheard . >I< ego tunred . 

*:ic* Endorsed in a hand of the loth century, 'mylentun,' and in a 
hand of the 1 2th century, ' Celulfus rex merciorum dedit Wluredo archi- 
episcopo mylentun.' * latine.' B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 19. A.D. 831. 


T. p. 465. B. ii. 19. 

Eadwald and Cyne«ry« 

with the advice of their friends, settle the succession to the 
land at Chart (Kent). A genuine contemporary specimen of 
the Kentish dialect, that is to say, of the English of the 
South in the earlier stages of its culture. 

>^ Dis is ge'Singe eadwaldes osheringes 7 cyneSry^e 
e'Selmodes lafe aldormonnes ymbe 'Set lond et cert 'Se 
hire e'Selmod hire hlabard salde wes hit becueden osbearte 
his bro'Sar suna gif he eyne'Sry^e oferlifde 7 si'SSan 
neniggra meihanda ma 'Ses cynnes ac hia hit atuge yfter 
hira dege swe hit him boem rehtlicast 7 elmestlicast were 
•Sonne hebfa^ eadwald 7 cyne^ "Sas wisan 'Sus fundene 
mid hira friandum gib eadweald leng lifige "Sonne 
cyne^ryS geselle et 'Sem londe et cert .x. 'Susenda gif 
he gewite er ^onne hia his barn a sue hwelc sue lifes sie 
agefe "Set feob ond atee ^ sue hit soelest sie for^a hit bege- 


tan nis e^elmode enig meghond neor 'Ses cynnes 'Sanne 
eadwald his modar his bro^ar dohtar mest cyn "Set he 
^et iond hebbe 7 his beorn yfter him 7 sue ateon sue 
him nytlicas "Synce for "Sa 'Se hit mid reohte begetan 

►!< ego ceolno^ mid godes gefe ercebisc )>is mid xps 
rode tacne festnie 7 write 

>i< ego ^elwald episc os 

>I< ego whelm episc os 

►J< ego Osmund pr os 

>J< ego e^elwald pr os 

>J< ego biarnhelm pf os 

>I< ego biarnheah pr os 

>I< ego eardulf pr os 

»I< ego eSelmund pr abb os 

fcj< ego sefre^ pr os 

f^ ego biarnhelm pr os 

►t* ego eadgar pr abb os 

»I< ego elfstan pr os 

>I< ego sigefre^ pr os 

1^ ego sigefre^ ardc os 

^ ego ealhstan afdc os 
>I< ego biarnnoS ardc os 

>J< ego biarnhelm pr ab os 

tit ego cialbarht pb ^ dc os 

>J« ego weald helm sbdc os 

»I< ego tirwald sbdc os 

>I< ego oba mi os 

»I< ego sigemund pr os 


>i< ego herefre'S pr cs 

>I< ego wynhelm arcd os 

>J< ego wunbeald os 

>i« ego wermund os 

Translation : — ^This is the agreement of Eadwald the son of Oshere 
and Cynethryth the relict of Ethelmod the aldormon, about the land at 
Chart which Ethelmod her lord gave her. It was bequeathed to Osbert 
his nephew if he had overlived Cynethryth, and after him no more of 
the relatives of that kin ; but she was to dispose of it after their time in 
such a manner as should be most right and pious for them both (i. e. for 
Ethelmod and Cynethryth). Accordingly Eadwald and Cynethryth 
with their friends have devised the following arrangement : — If Eadwald 
live longer than Cynethryth he is to give on account of the land at 
Chart ten thousand : if he die before her, then whichever of his children 
is then alive is to pay that money, and devise the estate as may be best 
for those who acquired it. There is no relative nearer of kin to Ethel- 
mod than Eadwald, whose mother is his niece ; and therefore it is most 
natural that he should have the land, and his children after him, and so 
devise as to them may seem most expedient for those who lawfully 
acquired it. 

* Cyne['5ri'S] Thorpe, as if rectifying a scribal error, but I apprehend 
this was a recognised form of speech, though it appears but rarely in the 
literary remains. See my Sax. Chron. a.d. 590 (A), and p. xxii, note. 

^ oniatee K. & B. : I follow Thorpe's reading of the manuscript. 

3 So MS.; butsbK. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 52. About A.D. 831. 


T. p. 468. B. ii. 21. 

Ealhburg and Eadweald 

their bequests from the land at Burne to Christ Church, 
Canterbury. — Also the bequest of Ealhhere to the same, from 
the land at Denglesham. In contemporary Kentish, like the 
previous number. 

>^ Dis sindan ge'Singa ealhburge 7 eadwealdes et 
"Sem lande et burnan hwet man elce gere ob ^em lande 
to cristes cirican -Sem hiwum agiaban seel for ealhburge 
7 for ealdred 7 fore eadweald 7 ealawynne .xl. ambra 


mealtes 7 xl. 7 cc. hlaba .i. wege cesa . i . wege speces 
. i . eald briber . iiii . we^ras . x . goes .xx henfugla 
.iiii. fo'Sra weada 7 ic ealhburg bebiade eadwealde minem 
mege an godes naman 7 an ealra his haligra ^et he 
•Sis wel healde his dei 7 si^^an for^ bebeode his erbum 
to healdenne 'Sa hwile "Se hit cristen se>J<7suelc mon se 
■Set lond hebbe eghwylce sunnan dege xx gesuflra hlafa 
to ^are cirican for ealdredes saule 7 for ealhburge 1^ 
Dis is sia elmesse Se ealhhere behead ealawynne his 
doehter et "Senglesham et .iii. sulungum elce gere . c . 
pen to cristes cirican "Sem higum 7 suelc man se "Sisses 
landes bruce agebe 'Sis fiah an godes gewitnesse 7 an 
ealra his haligra 7 suilc man sue hit awege Sonne se hit 
on his sawale nas on "Ses "Se hit don bet 

*,ic* Endorsed in a hand of the 1 2th century, ' donum ealhbrege quod 
instituit donari de burne . familie ecclesie Christi,* 'Item donum ealh- 
bere ad opus familie ecclesie Christi de terra de Senglesham . anglice.' B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 92. A.D. 832. 


T. p. 474. B. ii. 22. 


her bequest for her soul's need to the brotherhood at Christ 
Church, Canterbury. In Kentish Saxon ^. 

>^ Ic lufa mid godes gefe ancilla di wes soecende 7 
smeagende ymb mine saul 'Searfe mid ceolno'Ses serce- 
biscopes ge'Seahte 7 "Sara hiona et cristes cirican willa ic 
gesellan of "Sem serfe 'Se me god forgef 7 mine friond to 
gefultemedan §lce gere .Ix. ambra maltes 7 .cl. hlafa .1. 
hwite hlafa .cxx. elmes hlafes .^ an hri^'er an suin .iiii. 
we^ras .ii. w^ga spices 7 ceses "Sem higum to cristes 
circcan for mine saule 7 minra frionda 7 mega ^e me to 
gode gefultemedan and S§t sie simle to adsumsio scse 


marie ymb .xii. mona^ end sue eihwelc mon swe "Sis lond 
hebbe minra serbenumena "Sis agefe 7 mittan fulne 
hunig-es .x. goes .xx. henfuglas. 

>i< Ic ceolnoS mid godes gefe ercebisc mid cristes rode 
tacne ^is festnie 7 write 

>I< beagmund pr ge^afie 7 mid write 

>J< beornfri^ pr ge^afie 7 mid write 

>I« wealhhere pr 

>I< Osmund pr 

iij< deimund pr 

>I< se^elwald diac 

>J< werbald diac 

>I« sifre^ diac 

»Ji swi^berht diac 

>I< beornbeah diac 

>I< SB-Selmund diac 

>J< wigbelm diac 

»i< lubo 

1^ Ic luba ea'Smod godes -Siwen "Sas forecwedenan 
god 7 ^as elmessan gesette 7 gefestnie ob minem erfe- 
lande et mundlingbam ^em hiium to cristes cirican 7 ic 
bidde 7 an godes libgendes naman bebiade "Saem men "Se 
^is land 7 "Sis erbe bebbe et mundlingbam "Set be "Sas 
god for"Sleste o'S wiaralde ende se man se "Sis bealdan 
wille 7 lestan ^et ic beboden bebbe an 'Sisem gewrite se 
him seaPd' 7 gebealden sia biabenlice Kl'edsung se his 
ferwerne o^^e hit agele se him seald 7 gehealden belle 
wite bute he to fulre bote gecerran wille gode 7 mannum 
uene ualete 

*** indorsed in a contemporary hand, ' »J< luf e pincg gewrit,' and 
in hands of the 12th century, 'luue mulier quedam dedit ecclesie 
Christi munlingham tempore celno^ archiepiscopi,' and *ix anno 


dccc®xxxii<'. luue mulier dedit familie ecclesie Christi cantuariensi mun- 
lingham tempore chelnothi archiepiscopi/ B. 

^ This piece is given in Thorpe's Analecta as a specimen of East 
Anglian ; but Kemble remarked that Mundlingham is in Kent. 

^ The words .cxx. elmes hlafes . are written in the eleventh line of the 
charter with the reference mark ti corresponding with iS at the place of 
insertion. B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 102. A.D. 833. 

K234. B.i.l6. 


king of Kent grants land to abbot Dunne and his brethren, 
and I20 loads of fuel from Andred for salt-boiling. 

1^ E/EGNANTE in perpetuum dno nro ihii xpo. Cum 
cuncta cotidie fugitiue uitae tempera prosperis et aduersis 
causis consistere cernimus. rapidissimoq: cursu annorum 
spatia regnorumq: ubiq: gaudia. finita esse manifes- 
tissimis signis declaratum est. 

Quapropter ego ecgberhtus rex cantie necnon et aliaria 
gentium, cum consensu ac licentia meorum optimatum 
non p pecunia sed p remedio animae meae et pro expiatione 
scelerum meorum. aliquantulam partem terrae iuris mei 
id est centum quinquaginta iugera libenter donans im- 
pendo. ad aecclesiam beatae genetricis di et dni nri ihii 
xpi 7 dunne at)t> suisq: sociis in loco qui dicitur sand tun. 
et in eodem loco sali coquenda iuxta limenae. et in silua 
ubi dicitur andred centum uiginti plaustra ad coquendum 
sal. Et his limitibus haec telluris particula circiigyrari 
uidetur. ab oriente terra regis, ab austro fluuius qui df 
liminaee. ab occasu et in septemtrione hudanfleot. si quis 
autem aliquando pulsatus aut iudicatus fuerit aut heredis 
mens hoc neglexerit cii iuda traditore dampnatus in in- 
ferno inferiore. Scripta est haec cartula anno ab incar- 
natione dni nri ihii xpi .d.cclxxiii.^ his testibus 
consentientibus quorii nomina inferius annotari uidentur. 


>J« Ego ecgberlit rex banc meam donatione signu 
crucis xpi inpressi. 

>J< Ego.cialnoth gratia di arch eps banc pdicta dona- 
tione oil signo scae crucis xpi roboraui 7 subscripsi. 

>J< Ego beornmod eps cons et subsc. 

»J< Ego alhstan eps cons 7 subsc. 

>I< Ego coenred eps cons 7 subsc. 

>i< Ego osmod dux cons 7 subsc. 

>J< Ego uulf hard dux cons 7 subs. 

»J< Ego eanuulf dux cons 7 subs. 

>J< Ego bofa dux cons 7 subs. 

lit Ego drihtnoth abb cons 7 subs 

»J< Ego freodoric abb cons 7 subs 

1^ Ego heaberht diac cons 7 sub 

>i< Ego beornmod m cons 7 subs. 

>^ Ego heanoth m cons 7 subs. 

1^ Ego oshere m cons 7 subs 

»J< Ego alhhere m cons 7 subs 

»i< Ego lulla m cons 7 sub 

*#* On the hack of the Charter is written hy a hand of the loth oentury, 
* Sand tunes hoc ; ' and hy a later hand, ' Egbertus Rex dedit c.l. iugera 
ad ecclesiam sancte Marie de Sandtun.' ' Latine.' B. 

* Kemble corrected the false date from the witnesses' names: and 
Mr. Bond observes that the corrected date is more consistent with the 
handwriting of the deed. B. i, p. vi. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 64. A.D. 835. 


T. p. 469. B. ii. 23. 


a Reeve, his will — which has something about it suggestive of 
a marriage settlement. 

>J« Ic abba geroefa cySe 7 vvritan hate hu min willa 
is ]?3et mon ymb min serfe gedoe sefter minii dsage . serest 


ymb min lond J>e ic hsebbe 7 me god lali 7 ic set minu 
hlafordu begset, Is min willa gif me god bearnes unnan 
wille ^set hit foe to londe sefter me 7 his brace mid minu 
gemeccan 7 sio^^an swae for^ mia cynn ^a hwile ]?e god 
wille "Sset "Seara senig sie )7e londes weor^e sie 7 land ge- 
haldan cunne, gif me ^onne gife^e sie 'Sset ic beam be- 
geotan ne mege |7onne is min willa ]7set hit hsebbe min 
wiif 'Sa hwile "Se hia hit mid clennisse gehaldan wile 7 
min bro^ar alchhere hire fultume 7 J^set lond hire nytt 
gedoe . 7 him man s^lle an half swulung an ciollan dene 
to habbanne 7 to brucanne wi'S^an "Se he 'Sy geornliocar 
hire Searfa bega 7 bewiotige . 7 mon selle him to 'Sem 
londe .iiii. oxan . 7 .ii . cy, 7 .1. sc^pa 7 senne horn, gif 
min wiif 'Sonne hia nylle mid clennisse swae gehaldan 
7 hire liofre sie o'Ser hemed to niomanne 'Sonne foen 
mine megas to 'Sem londe 7 hire agefen hire agen . gif 
hire "Sonne liofre sie an mynster to ganganne o^'Sa su'S to 
faranne 'Sonne agefen hie twsegen mine m^gas alchhere 
7 se^elwold hire . twa 'Susenda 7 fon him to "Sem londe, 
7 agefe mon to liminge .1. eawa, 7 .v. cy, fore hie . 7 
mon selle to folcanstane in mid minii lice .x. oxan . 7 .x. 
cy. 7 .c. eawa .7 .c. swina . 7 higum ansundran .d. 
pend . wi^^an 'Se min wiif J^aer be nuge innganges swae 
mid minii lice swae sio^^an yferran dogre swae hwaeder 
swae hire liofre sie, gif higan "Sonne o'S^e hlaford J^aet 
nylle hire mynster lifes geunnan . o^^a hia siolf nylle 
7 hire o'Ser 'Sing liofre sie, ]7onne agefe mon ten hund 
pend inn mid minii lice me wi^ legerstowe 7 higum an- 
sundran fif hund pend . fore mine sawle, 7 ic bidde 7 
bebeode swaelc monn se ^aet min lond hebbe "Saet he aelce 
gere agefe 'Sem higum aet folcanstane .1. ambra maltes 
7 . vi. ambra gruta . 7 . iii. wega spices 7 ceses 7 .cccc. 
hlafa 7 an hri'Sr . 7 .vi. seep 7 swselc monn se'Se to 


minum serfe foe ^onne gedele he selcum messepreoste 
binnan cent mancus goldes 7 selcum godes "Siowe pend^ 7 
to see petre min wsergeld twa Susenda 7 freo'Somund foe 
to minu sweorde 7 agefe ^er set feower ^usenda 7 him mon 
forgefe ^er an 'Sreotenehund pending 7 gif mine bro'Sar 
serfeweard gestrionen ^e londes weor'Se sie )?onne ann ic 
■Sem londes, gif hie ne gestrionen o'S^a him sylfu selles 
hwaet s^le sefter hiora dege ann ic his freo^omunde gif 
he 'Sonne lifes bi'S, Gif him elles hwaet seeled 'Sonne ann 
ic his minra swaestar suna swselcum se hit ge^ian wile 7 
him gife^e bi'S, 7 gif Ipset gesele Ipsdt min cynn to ^an 
clane gewite "Saet 'Ser ^eara nan ne sie "Se londes weor^e 
sie |?onne foe se hlaford to 7 'Sa higon set kristes cirican 
7 hit minum gaste nytt gedoen, an "Sas redenne ic hit 
Sider selle "Se se monn seSe kristes cirican hlaford sie 
^se' min 7 minra erfewearda forespreoca 7 mundbora 7 
an his hlaford dome ^we' bian moten, 

>J< ic ciolno'S mid godes gefe sercebiscop "Sis write 7 
■Seafie 7 mid cristes rode tacne hit festnise, 

>J< ic beagmund pr 'Sis ^eafie 7 write 

»J< ic wserhard pr ab ^is 'Seafie 7 write 

»J< ic abba geroefa 'Sis write 7 festnie mid kristes rode 

>J< ic ae'Selhun pr ^is "Seafie 7 write 

>J< ic abba pr 'Sis j^eafie 7 write 

ij« ic wigmund pr Sis write 7 'Seafie 

»J« ic iof pr "Sis 'Seafie 7 write 

\^ ic osmund pr ^is Seafie 7 write 

>J< ic wealhhere diac "Sis write 7 'Seafie 

>i< ic badano'S diac "Sis write 7 'Seafie 

>J< ic heaberht diac 'Sis write 7 J^eafie 

>i< ic no'Swulf subdiac "Sis write 7 Seafie 

^ ic wealhhere subdiac "Sis write 7 "Seafie 


>I< ic ciolwulf subdiac ^is write 7 'Seafie 
>I< heregyS hafa^ "Sas wisan binemned ofer hire deg- 
7 ofer abban ^aem higum et cristes cirican of ^sem londe 
et cealflocan . 'Saet is ^onne -Sritig ombra ala^ . 7 ^reo 
hund hlafa "Seara bi^ fiftig hwite hlafa, an weg spices 7 
eeses . an aid hri'Sr . feower we^ras, an suin o'S^e sex 
we^ras,, sex gos fuglas . ten henn fuglas . "Sritig teapera 
gif hit wintres deg sie . sester fulne huniges . sester fulne 
butran . sester fulne saltes, 7 heregy^ bibeade^ ^em 
mannii ^e efter hire to londe foen . on godes noman ^set 
hie fulgere witen "Saet hie "Siss gel^sten "Se on "Sissem 
ge write binemned is ^ em higum to cristes cirican, ^7 
■Sset sie simle to higna blodlese^ ymb twelf monaiS agefen', 
7 se mann se to londe foe agefe hire erfe honda xiii . 
pund pendinga . 7 hio forgife^ fiftene pund for ^j ^e 
mon 'Sas feorme 'Sy soel gelseste , , 

*:K* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, * abban geroefan arfe gedal 
his geSinga to kristes cirican,* and in a hand of the 12th century, 
* Testaraentum abbe . cuius uxor henhith dedit cheafloke . conuentui . 
tempore chelnothi . anglice,' and in a hand of the i^th century, 'Anno 
dccco.xxxoyo.' B. 

* to higum beodlese K. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 9. A.D. 836. 

£237. B. ii. 24. 


king of Mercia, grants to the monastery in Heanbyrg (Han- 
bury, Wore.) freedom from all but rampart and bridge con- 

>I< Regnum di querendum -4- sup uniuersa lucra ter- 
rena paulo testante apostolo quae enim uidentur tempo- 
ralia sunt sed que non uidentur aeterna sunt quid prod-^ 
homini totum mundii lucrare si anima eius detrimentum 
patietur, Quapropter ego uuiglaf rex mercioru cum meis 
episcopis et ducib; et magistratibs illut monasteriii^ in 


heanbyrg in circuitu cii silua ad earn ptinentem et cum 
campis et pratis 7 cum omnib; utenssilibs et cum putheis 
salis et fornacibus plumbis 7 uillis et omnia illuc ptinen- 
tia in cselestem culmen generaliter p totum gentem mer- 
ciorum et pro absolutione criminum nrorum liberaliter 
liberamus a modicis et a magnis causis a notis et ig- 
notis praeter uallis et pontes constructionem , Factum 
-r- haec donatio in craeft anno dominicae incarnationis 
.dccco. xxxo. uio, indie uero . xiiii^ regni H" nri a do con- 
cessi .uiio. p redemptione animae meae placabile atque 
dilectabile mente praedicta loca liberabo cum uniuersis 
casallis q; ipsis locis uniuersis st subditi ho^c' modo p 
aeuum liberabo a pastu regis 7 principu 7 ab omni ostruc- 
tione regalis uille et a difficultate ilia qua nos saxonice 
faestingmenn dicimus haec omnia mente concedo spon- 
taneo , Scitote ergo uos q^ banc labens regnii p't me 
obtineatis q^re hoc munus 7 hanc libertatem scripsi 7 
scribere pcipi q in dm meii desidero et in 3 ineffabilem 
misericordia ofido ut dns nr ihs xps meas iniqHates quas 
p ignorantiam feci ds delere faciat Credo p hoc bonum 
a cunctis me emundare dignet' q scriptii -j- peccatii ibi 
emenda ubi nascitur modo posteros meos p gloriosii 7 |f 
mirabile nomen dni ni itiu xpi humilit supplico ut ele- 
mosina qua in altitudine caeli culminis in manus dni 
data habeo communis p me 7 p totii gentem merciorii 
ta benigni? stare demittetis 7 multiplicare dignemini — 

>^ ego uuiglaf rex mere >J< cyne^ry]? regina 

»{< ceolno'S archiepi >J< cynefer'S epi ►{< raej?hun 
epi >J« eaduulf epT >{< heaberht ^epi' 

>I< eaduulf epi ►!< alhstan epT >I< beormod 

epi >J« husa epi >J« cunda epi 

>I< ceolberht epT >J< cynred epi >{« ean- 

mund ab >{< uueohtred ab 1^ beorn- 


helm at) >J< ego sigred dux: banc donationem gigno 

crucis xpi ofirmaui , 

►!< mucoel dux >J< tiduulf dux >J< aej^el- 

hard dux >J* cyneberht dux ►J* ae)7eluulf 

dux >J< alhhelm dux >J4 humberht dux 

>J< aelfstan dux t^i mucoel dux »J< wiega 

>Jii aldred >i< aldberht >J< aelfred »I< hwithyse 
>J< werenberlit. 

>J< wulfred >I< wiglaf i^ eanuulf ►$< alh- 

mund »I< berhtuulf ►!< eegbard 

>J4 '(Ses friodom waes bigeten aet wiglafe cyninge mid 
^aem tuentiffum bida aet iddes bale end "Saes londes 
friodom aet haeccabam mid ^y ten bida londe aet felda 
bi weoduman , end mucele esninge 'Saet ten bida lond 
aet croglea , bsebbf n beora dgeg 7 sefter beora daege 
agefe mon 'Saet land into daere balgan stowe into 
weogurnacestre : — 

*** Endorsed in contemporary hands ' ^ "Sis is heanbirige friodom se 
waes bigeten mid tSy londe aet iddeshale ■) aet heanbyrig ten hi(Ja Saes 
londes "j aet felda ten hida on beansetum.' '~} biscop gesalde sigrede 
aldormenn sex hund scillinga on golde.' ' i mucele aldormenn ten hida 
lond aet crog lea. ; ' and in a fourth hand, ' wiglaf cinig.' B. 

^ The expression * illut monasterium ' simply means * the monastery.' 
So in a Mercian deed of 840, recently discovered, we find ' ilia congre- 
gatio ' for ' the congregation.' See below, Cu'Suulf 840. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 20, 21, 37. A.D. 838. 


B. i. 17 ; ii. 26, 27. 


king of Wessex and his son ^felwulf, witb abp. Ceolnoth, 
held a Council at Kingston in Surrey, and there they made 



a Reconciliation or Concordat between the Royal House of 
AVessex and the Metropolitan See. 

>J< Regnante in perpetuum dno do nro sabaoth. Con- 
gregatii est uenerabile concilium in ilia famosa loco quae 
appellatur cyninges tun in regione sudregi^. Pr^sidente 
If huic eadem do deuote congregatione ceolnotho arc episc 
ceterisq. perplurimis episc. nee non excel lentissimis 
regibus nris ecgberhto et setheluulfo cum omnibus 
gentis su§ optimatibus. Omnesq. in unum consona 
mente. ac sincerissima cordis intentione spiritaliii saecu- 
lariuq. rerii necessitatib; inter semet ipsos commune 
consilio scrutantibus. quomodo pax et unianimitas eccle- 
siarum di totiusq. populi xpiani eorum seculari dicioni 
per di omptis gratiam subiecti firmissimi dilectionis 
uinculo seruari potuisset. Inter ea u° a pr^fato uenerabili 
arc episc ceolnotho flagitatum h- quod a regib; prenomi- 
natis ecgberhto et setheluulfo illis in sempiternam aelemo- 
synam ilium agrum aet mallingum ad ecclesiam xpi quae 
sita est in dorouernia ciuitate reddidissent. quod ante a 
baldredo rege ad eandem ecclesiam perdonata est. sed a 
quibusdam dictum est quia cum recto libertate facta non 
esset. quia in fugatu eius conscripta et concessa fuisset. 
Tunc u° pro intima caritatis affectu pr^eibus episc 
adnuentes cum consilio ac licentia omniii sapientii eorum 
spiritalium s^culariiiq. graduu qui inibi congregati 
fuissent. hoc pr^fatum agrum set mallingum pro sempi- 
terna salute animarum suarum ac spe remunerationis 
setern^ ad pr^nominatam ecclesiam xpi in perpetuam 
hereditatem cum omni libertate beniuola mente tradi- 
dissent. Hac u° condicione interposita haec pr^nominata 
donatio firma permaneat. quod nos ipsi nriq heredes 
semper in posterii firmam inconcussamq. amicitiam ab 
illo arc episc ceolnotho eiusdem congregatione ecclesie 


xpi habeamus et ab omnib; successorib; eius hoc idem 
patrociniu ac protectionem illius sedis nos et hereditas 
nra nriq. heredes quicumq. di uoluntatis fuerit quod illi 
sint in omnib; necessitatib; nris absq. omni dubitatione 
spontaneura paratuq. amicali amore semper inueniant. 
sen etiam famili^ liberorii monasterioru qui antiquitus 
sub iure dominioq. abbatum abbatissaruq. constituti 
fuerint qui me meumq. patrem ecgberlitu regem pro 
suis propriis ac maximis necessitatib; sibi ad protectionem 
et ad dominiu elegerunt spiritalesq. dominos id -=- episc 
mecum constituti propria uoluntate mecum habuerunt ut 
in omnib; libertas et regula monasterialis uit^ rite ac 
recte ab omnib; illis seruetur. sed et post dies meos sue 
libertatis electione absq. omni obstaculo cuicumq. per- 
sonis digni habeantur. Insuper etiam pro hac nra 
susceptione electioneq. nequaquam a cuicuq. potestatis 
homine siue regi 1 episc mai[ori]s minorisue personis 
accussati caluraniantur neq. libertas eorii semper in 
posterum in aliqua frangatur. Nullaq. altercatio alicuius 
questionis inter nos nrosq. heredes et hereditatem nram 
et iUum arc episcpu successoresq. eius et ecelesiam xpi et 
familiam eius ex hac die et deinceps inimicaliter exorta 
sit. sed pax nra conglutinata amore uigere florere cres- 
cereq. inter nos nrosq. carissimos amicos perpetualiter 
ualeat. Duasq. scripturas per omnia consimiles^ huius 
reconciliationis conseribere statuimus. alteram habeat 
arc episc cum telligraphis ecclesise xpi. alteram ecgberht 
et aetheluulf reges cum hereditatis eorum scripturis. 
Actum -r- H* anno dominie^ incarnati Dcccxxiviii. In- 
dictione. f. die. iiii. feria. his testib; eonsentientib; qui 
hanc nfam reconciliationem cum signo sc§ crucis xpi con- 
firmantes subscripserunt. 

>J< Ego ceolnotht gratia di arc episc hanc reconcllia- 
1 2 


tionem et istam confirmaH cum signo see cruci[s] xpi 
rot) 7 sut). 

>J< Ego bsegmund pr ab cons j sut>. 
Ego uuerhard pr aH) cons 7 sut). 

>J« Ego brunhard pr cons 7 su'b 

»J< Ego hysenoth pr cons 7 sut) 

>i< Ego hunred pr cons 7 sut) 

>I< Ego wigmund pr cons 7 su1& 

>J< Ego beornno^ pr cons 7 su15 

>J< Ego Osmund pr cons 7 sut) 

>I< Ego heaberht diac cons 7 sut) 

>^ Ego badano'S diac cons 7 sub 

»i< Ego uuealhhere diac cons 7 sub 

>I* Ego no^wulf s diac cons 7 sub 

>J« Ego ceolwulf s diac cons 7 sub 

Pro ampliore itaq: confirmatione iterii adducta h- hsec 
scedula cora aetbeluulfu rege et optimates eius in uilla 
regali qui appellatur uuiltun his testib: consentientib: et 
subscribentib: quorii nomina subter praenotata st. 

>I< Ego se'Seluulf rex cons et sub. 

1^ Ego alhstan episc cons 7 sub 

1^ Ego eadhun episc cons 7 sub 

»J< Signii ma wulf hardi prin 

>I< Sig ma se'Seluulfi prin 

»i« Sig ma eanwulfi prin 

►I* Sig ma eadberhti diac 

>J« Sig ma 8e"Selheardi minis 

1^ Sig ma ecgberhti minis 

pff Sig ma alhstani minis 

^ Sig ma osmundi minis 

»I< Sig ma hudan minis 

>i< Sig ma osrici ministri 


>i. Sig ma ceolrsedi minis 
>I< Sig ma uulflafi minis 

►J< Anno ab incarnatio xpi Dccc.xxxuiiii. indictione. 
II. primo uidelicet anno regni e'Seluulfi regis post obitum 
patris sui factum est uenerabile conciliabulum omnium 
episcoporii qui eru n't in australe parte fluminis humbrf 
in loco quae dicitur set astran ibique pro firma stabilitate 
hec eadem scedula adducta est. et cum sig crucis xpi ab 
hiis testibus roborata quorum nomina subter pra)notat[a] 
cernentibus clare patescunt. 

^ Ego ceolno^ gratia di donante dno archi epi banc 
reconciliationem iterato nice confirmens signum sc§ crucis 
exaraui et in nomine see trinitatis omnib: fidelib: obser- 
uandum pcipio. . 

»I< Sig ma alhstani epi. 

►Ji Sig ma helmstani epi 

►Ji Sig ma bumberhti epi 

1^ Sig ma cyrredi^ epi 

>I< Sig ma cynefer^i epi 

>i« Sig ma rse^huni epi 

>J< Sig ma heaberhti epi 

1^ Sig ma ceolberbti epi 

>!• Sig ma beorhtredi epi 


>I« Sig ma uuillredi epi 
>I< Sig ma cu'Suulfi epi 

*:,c* ^Indorsed hy a hand of the 12th century, 'Egbertus et a^ulfus 
^filius ejus' reges celDo"So archiepiscopo ad opus ecclesie Christi prius a 
bald redo rege datam et postea ablatam rediderunt mellinges. simul cum 
conditione firms pacis inter illos et ipsum et successores eorum.' 
*Latine.' B. 

* Two writings in all respects similar were to be made of this 
Eeconciliation, one for each of the high contracting parties. It is a 
remarkable fact that three copies of this Reconciliation are preserved in 
the Cotton Library ; and that two of them are in tlie same character 
and style, but the third is very different. They are all facsimiled as 
above indicated. I was curious to form an opinion about their age ; 
and I am glad to be able to say that I had judged them all three to be 
contemporaneous before I had seen that Mr. Bond had come to the 
same conclusion in the Preface to his second volume. The above is 
printed from B. i, 17. 

* cynredi K. corr. 

MS. Lee- Warner. A.D. 840. 

Arch. Journal, 1873. 


bishop of Hereford, and the congregation of his church, 
grants to JElfstan dux, four manentes for three lives, sub- 
ject to a rent charge, with reversion to the monastery of 
Bromyard, which is not otherwise known. The manor of 
Bromyard belonged to the church of Hereford at the Domes- 
day Survey. 

^ In nomine arci poli conditoris. Ego cu'Suulf 
divina dispensatione xpi ecclesiae antestis, necnon 
et ilia congregatio^ scae ecclesiae herefordensis cum 
consensu et licentia Berhtwulfi Mercioru regis, damus 
aelfstano duce terram .iiii. manentiu in uilla qui juxta 
flumine q' dr from situm est, ut habeat beneq: perfruat 
in diem trium homiuum. et postea sine ullo obstaculo 
intus tota reddatur ista terra ad monasterio qui dr 
bromgeard. et qui agrii habeat semel semper in anno 
ad Bromgearde de agro isto reddat .xv. medics de pura 


celia hoc -r- buttam plena, uasque plenv mellis, t eius 
ptiu in liquore . . . . s cocto, alter dulcatu, uniimq: ar- 
mentii cu .c. panibus uniiq: ouem cum uno suillo .... 
nasterii q: ^tinent ad bromgearde foras^ nullo modo 

concedamus id -h jugerorv xxv banc terra supra- 

dicta liberalit liberabo aelfstano duce omnib:q: ea ha- 
bentibus .... ecunio id -r- in uno anulo .xv. mane, nisi 
pontum faciat et arce et expeditione solacium .... ad 
adpoena foras nihil persoluat. testes namq: huius dona- 
tionis sunt .... atq: libertatis quorum infra nomina 

.... banc mea donatione atq: libertate simul cii signo 
crucis xpi confirmaui .... si 7 subscripsi. ►{< Ego 
cu'Swulf epi OS 7 svb. >I< aelfstan dux os 7 svb. >J< mucel 

dvx OS 7 sub ^ no's ^s 7 sub. >I< aldred cons 

7 sub. >I< eadgar os 7 sub. >I< wiglaf os 7 sub. 

*:^* For the history, description, and facsimile of this beautiful frag- 
ment, which belongs to the Rev. Henry James Lee- Warner of Thorp- 
land, Norfolk ; see the Journal of the Archaeological Institute for the 
year 1873. 

* 'lUa congregatio' means 'the congregation': see above, Wiglaf 

^ This may refer to the outlying district in the neighbourhood of 
Bromyard called ' The Foreign,' Arch. Journal. 

' The gaps are all of uniform length, and nearly equal to half of one 
of our lines. 

Chart. Cotton, viii. 36. 26 Dec. 847. 

K260. B. ii. 30. 


king of the West Saxons, with consent and licence of his 
bishops and princes, books to himself twenty manentes of 
land in heredity. 

^ REGNANTE dno uro ihu xpo in ppetuum, Siquidem 
sacris insertum . . . orum pclaris satisq: salutarib: co- 


tidie instruimur oraculis . hoc solum supesse homini in 
omni labore suo quod laborat sub sole et in cunctis quae 
possidet dieb: uanitatis suse Si quid in elemoxsinarii lar- 
gitate piis intentus operib: expenderet proximoruq: com- 
municanda necessitatib: p possibilitate uirium faciat sibi 
secundii saluatoris pceptum amicos de mamona iniqui- 
tatis qui eum recipiant in seterna tabernacula . qua de 
re ego setbeluulf do auxiliante occiden? saxon rex cum 
consensu ac licentia episcoporu et principium meorii 
aliquantulam ruris partem uiginti manentiii . mihi in 
hereditatem ppriam describere iusi . id -r- me ad habendii 
et ad pfruendii cum pratis et pascuis cum campis et siluis 
cum aquis currentiii et incurrentiii . et iterii qualicumq: 
put me placabilis sit seternaliter relinquendum^ . Terra H* 
pdicta liber et securus omniii rerum pmaneat . id ^- 
regaliii et principaliii tributum et ui exactorum operii 
sine poenaliii causaru furisq: conphensione et omni 
sseculari grauidine sine expeditione et pontis instruc- 
tione . Scripta h- H* huius donationis pagina anno do- 
minici incarnationis .dccc^xluii^. indie? .x^*. Territoria 
uero ista sunt orum uigintorum cassatorum qui sethel- 
uulfe regi om homme^ senatores eius concedissent . IN 
illo loco qui nuncupater dornuuarana ceaster secunda die 
natalis dni coram idoneis testib: quorii nomina infra 
aspicientium oculis caraxata liquescunt ^^rest on merce 
cumb "Sonne on grenan pytt ^onne on "Sone torr set 
mercecumbes sewielme Sonne on dene waldes stan "Sonne 
on -Sone die "Sser esne "Sone weg fordealf Sonon of dune 
on Sses wselles heafod "Sonne "Sser of dune on broc cS 
tiddesford "Sonne up on broc o"S heottes die to "Ssere 
flodan from "Ssere flodan of dune "Saer fyxan die to broce 
g8e"S 7 "Sonne of dune on broc o^ sse . "Sonne from "Syre- 
l^n stane up on broc o'S smalan cumb fram smalan 


cumbes heafde to graewan stane ^onon wi^ufan ^aes 
waelles heafod on odencolc "Sonon on 'Sone heal dan weg 
wi^ huitan stanes "Son on to 'Seem beorge 'Se mon hate^ 
set 'Saem holne 'Sonon an haran stan ^onon on secgwaelles 
heafod 'Sonon on "Sa burg eastewearde Sonon on '5a ly tlan 
burg westewearde "Sonon to strsete "Sonan benio'San wuda 
on gerjhte ut on hreodpol "Sonne up on afene o'S^set 5e 
se alda suinliaga utsciote'S to afene 5onne be ^aem hagan 
on anne beorg "Sonne on sueordleage wselle "Sonon on 
wulfwselles heafod 5onon on wealweg on "Sone stan set 
"Saere flodan from 'Ssem stane for'S on -Sone herepa'S on 
5one die "Sonon of dune o5 weal denes ford "Sonon on "Sone 
holan weg "Sonon of dune on broc on hunburgefleot 7 
^aer to sae. 

Si quis If huius munificentia conlationem quouis tem- 
pore qualibet occasione cuiuslibet etiam dignitates uel 
pfessiones uel gradus puertere . uel in irritum dedueere 
sacrilega psumptione temptauerit . sit a consortio xpi 
ecclesise et a collegio scorii hie et in futuro dispartitus 
parsq: eius cum auaris et rapacibiq: ponatur et communi- 
onem habeat cum iudas scarioth qui tradidit dnm . si 
quis H" pia intentione potius pditus haec roborare hac de- 
fendere curauerit amplificet ds portione eius in hereditate 
iustoru et cum omnibus . . . sine fine gaudeat, 

^ ego aetheluulf rex ad confirmanda banc donatione 
uenerabiliter trophei signii scse crucis exarrabi 

►!< sig ma ae"Selbaldi fil reg >^ sig ma osrici prin ►$< 
sig ma osmundi min >{< sig ma ecgheard mini, 

>I« sig ma lulling min 1^ uulflafi abb >^ sig ma 
ecguulfi min >J« sig ma lulluc ministri, 

>^ ego alhstan episc cons et sub . >Ii sig ma ceorli prin 
>I< sig ma . . . . 


»I< sig ma uulfrsed mm . sig ma alhstan min »J< sig 
ma milrsed min 

%*■ Endorsed in a hand of the loth century, 'to haiiime.' B. 

^ Mr. Kemble in Cod. Dipl. vol. ii. p. ix, has called particular 
attention to this deed as illustrating the nature of folcland. Cf. ^thel- 
berht, a.d. 858. 

^ Blunder for on homme. 

Chart. Cantuar. C. 1280. A.D. 848. 

K243. S. i. 8. 


king of Mercia grants to his thane Forthred nine hides of 
land in perpetuity. 

:P In nomine domini. Ego berchtwulf . cyning sile 
for'Srede minum "Segne . nigen higida ^ lond . in wudo- 
tune . in ece erfe him to hiobbanne 7 to siollanne . 
"Saem 'Se hit wille mi^ ea'Smodre hernisse him to geeor- 
nigan . ofer his daeg . cisse'Sebeorg . feower treovve hyl . 
7 eanburge mere . tihhanhyl . 7 ut bigeht . tu higida 
lond in erfe . ece. 7 he salde to lond ceape . xxx . man- 
cessan . 7 nigen bund scillinga. wi'S "Saem londe . him in 
ece erfe. Ic berhtwulf . rex . "Sas mine gesaldnisse 
trymme 7 faestna in cristes rode tacne 7 in his 'Saere 
haligran^ 7 in his wotona gewitnisse . aerist . sae^ry^ 
regina . cynefer^ episcopus . alchhun . episcopus . 
berchtred . episcopus . deorlaf . episcopus . ceored . 
episcopus . wichred . abbas . aldred . abbas . mucel . 
dux . hunbercht . dux . burgred . dux . aefstan . 
cyneberht . dux . sigred . dux . alberht . dux . aldred . 
dux . mucel . dux . hunstan . dux . eadwulf . beornoS . 
wulfred . mucel . aldred . wicga . eadgar . baldred . weren- 
berht . eadred . ae'Selwulf presbiter . heaberht presbiter . 
ecghun . ecgheard . beornhae'S . aldred. 


7 we aec alle bibeoda'S . "Se aet "Sisse gewitnesse werun . 
on cristes noman . 7 on his 'Saere haligran gif aenig 
monn . "Sas ure gewitnesse incerre . on owihte . "Saet he 
aebbe 'Saes aelmaehtgan godes unhlis^ . . 7 his 'Saere 
haligran unlu 

^ This document is remarkable for the form higid, which with a col- 
lateral hiwisc, tends to identify Md with the idea on which are based 
such terms as familiatus, casatus, for quantities of land. See Kemble, 
Saxons in England, vol. i, c. 4, p. 91 sq. It is however doubtful whether 
a single instance of the form higid will bear so great a weight as is thus 
put upon it. Especially as the letter G plays in Anglo-Saxon a semi- 
vocalic part, as a mere consonantal film to keep two vowels distinct, so 
that the g might have just the same value as a modem diaeresis ; thus 
higid = hiid. 

* haligrana, K ; haligranna, S : — but two subsequent instances seem 
to justify haligran, and the added -a or-na looks rather like the attempt 
of a SiopOcorrjs to fill in a gap left by the scribe. Even in the two cases 
of haligran below, unless the manuscript is clearer than the facsimile, a 
doubt remains. In the genitive plural of adjectives after the article, 
the Kentish dialect seems to have had this peculiarity, that only the 
strong form was used. The phenomenon before us looks like a blending 
or confusion of this peculiarity with the more familiar syntax. See 
Rudolf Zeuner, Die Sprache des Kentischen Psalters (1882), § 65. 

3 unhli . K. 

Cott. Aug. 11. 71. A.D. 853. 

K269. B. 11. 31. 


king of Wessex and Kent grants one ploughland at Ulaham to 
Ealdhere with hereditary right, and exemption from all services 
but the inevitable three. The bounds are described in Latin. 
One of the sons of the king, EtSelbearht, signs as rex ; and 
from this it is concluded by Stubbs (Constitut. Hist. c. vi. p. 
142 n.) that he reigned as king of Kent, as his brother 
Ethelstan had reigned with his father until a.d. 850. Re- 
markable as a piece of chancery Latin. The document is 
dated 855, which Kemble corrected. 

>I< EEGNANTE in perpetuum dno do nro omnipotenti 

ego e'Selwulf rex occidentalium saxonum nee non et can- 

tuariorum cum consensu ac licentia meorum optimatum 


seu ^ expiatione piaculorum meorum et obsolutione crimi- 
num ^m'eorum dabo et concede meo fideli ministro eald- 
here p eius humili oboedTentia et q^a mihi in omnibus 
rebus semper fidelis minister extitit dono hei aliquam 
partem terre iuris mei in puincia cantuarioru hoc -r- 
unum aratrum ubi ulaham nominal siui auendum et 
possidendii feliciterq: in dies eius perfruendum et post 
dies eius cuicumq: bei eredi placuerit derelinquendum 
liberam per omnia abeat potestatem cum ' campis siluis 
pratis pascuis aquis uenationib: et cum omnib: utilitatibus 
rite ac recte ad eandem terram pertinentib: banc If terram 
supranominatam et ulabam . ego e^elwulf rex ab omni 
seruitute regali operis intus et foris magnis ac modicis 
notis et ignotis perenni desiderauo ^ nisi his tan turn trib: 
eausis hoc -r- expeditione et arcis munitione pontisq: 
constructione h§c terra suprascripta §t ulaham his notis- 
simis terminib: undiq: circumcincta est ab occidente ho- 
dowori^a ab aq^lone winterbur na' ab oriente prata ilia to 
iiminge . ameritie bromteag hsi quis uero heredu succes- 
soruq: meorii ban c' meam donationem i liuertatem seruare 
uoluerit seruef ei desujf benedictio sempiterna hsi H' 
alfquis q absit diabolica temeritate instigatus surrexerit 
q^ banc liuertatem t munificentiam infringere t minuere 
aut in aliut conbertere quam a nobis constitutum est 
temptauerit sciat se coram xpo iudice et celesti exercitu 
ratione redditurum esse nisi prius digna satisq: placauili 
factione do et hominib: emendare uoluerit 
hactum est H* anno dominie^ incarnationis 
indictio . i . his testib: consentientibus et signo see crucis 
xpi confirmantib: quoru hie noraina infra ac in scedula 
karaxata atnotant' 

1^ ego e'Selwulf rex banc meam donationem cu signo 
see crucis xpi ro'b 7 subsc 


>J< ego cialno'Sus gratia di arcepis banc donationem 
consensi 7 sut)s 

>J< ego ej7elbearht rex banc donationem cum signo 
see crucis xpi rot> 7 subs 

>J< ego luUede dux os 7 sbscr 

^ ego e^elmod dux os 7 sbscr 

>i< ego eadred dux os 7 sbscr 

>J< ego elfred fili regis os 7 sb 

►i< ego cSeric dux os 7 sbscr ^ 

>J< ego duduc m os 7 sb 

»i< ego cyneheard m os 7 sb 

>^ ego wiohtgar m os 7 sb 

►J< ego cialmund m 

»J« ego milred m 

►J< ego lulla m 

»I< ego wullaf m 

1^ ego e'Selred m 

*:,.* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, '^ 'Sis sindan ?Jes landes 
bee et uluham ealdheres landes'; in a later hand 'uleam'; and in a 
hand of the \2th century, *Rex ethelwlf dedit vleham haldene ?. 
latine.' B. 

^ Sic MS. : It perennitir liberauo K. 

^ haldene is what the Norman scribe had made of the name Ealdhere ; 
having misread the Saxon p as n. Kemble, Cod. Dip. vol.i. p. xliii, has 
given some curious instances of similar errors. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 66. A.D. 858. 

K281. T. p. 119. B.ii.33. 


king (of Kent) makes an exchange of land with his thane 

>J< EEGNANTE in pcrpctuum dfio do nro omm'potenti 
sabaot ego e^elbearht rex cum consensu ac licentia 


meoru secularium optimatu diuinorumq: jTsonarii liuenti 
animo dabo et concedo meo fideli ministro wullafe ali- 
quam partem terre iuris mei hoc h- .u. aratra in ilia loco 
ubi wasngwelle nominal in bicissitudinem alterius terre 
hoc -r- et mersaham banc terram supranominatam et 
wassingwellan ego e'Selbearht ab omni seruitute regali 
operis eternaliter liuerabo sicut ante fuerat ilia prenomi- 
nata terra et mersaham hec sunt etenim marisci q: ad 
eandem terram rite ac recte jftinent q 'h'ega ante abuerat 
id est an wiwarawic q ante subiecta erat to wii 7 to 
leanaham 7 et febresham .i. sealtern 7 .ii. wena gang mid 
cyninges wenii to blean "Sem wiada 7 .iiii. oxnum gers 
mid cyninges oxnum an wiwarawic .xxx. statera kasei et 
item .X. statera in alia wiwarawic 7 .xx. lamba 7 .xx. 
fehta hec H" terra suprascripta et wassingwellan his no- 
tissimis terminib: antiq^tus circii iacentibus ab occidente 
cyninges folcland ^ q abet wighelm 7 wulflaf ab aq%ne 
cu'Srices dun herege^eland ab oriente wighelmes land a 
meritie biscepes land to cert .ii. q: molina ad illam ean- 
dem terram jTtinentia una an wassingwellan alia an 
hwiteceldan hec sunt pascua porcorum quot nostra lingua 
denbera nominamus hoc -i- lamburnanden orricesden 
teligden stanehtandenn et ilia silua sandhyrst nominal 
q: jftinet to wassingwellan hancq: liuertatem huic eodem 
ageri'ulo illo q: wullafe similiter et wassingwellan cum 
consensu ac licentia meoru optimatum liuenter largitus 
sum ut omnium regalium tributum et ui exactorum 
operum et penalium reru principali dominatione furisq: 
conprehensione 2 et cuncta seculari grauidine absq: expe- 
ditione sola et pontium structura et arcium munitionib : 
secura et inmunis jTmaneat si If aliq^s q absit diabolika 
fraude deceptus et mundana cupiditatsB inlectus hoc in- 
fringere i irritum facere conauerit sciat se a consortione 


katholicoru segregatum et in die magni sexaminis quando 
celu et terra mouent coram xpo et exercitu celesti nisi 
ante emendauerit rationem redditurum esse hactum est 
If anno domiic incarnationis .dcccluiii. indictione ui his 
testib: consentientibus ac conscribentibus qoru hie nomina 
infra karaxant 

hec sunt prata to wassingwellan stocmed healf be 
nor'San hegforde be sturemeda sue ^er to limpa^ 

►!< ego e^elbearht rex banc meam donationem cum 
signo see crucis xpi rouorauo et subscribe 

>J< ego e^elmod dux os 7 sbscr 

1^ ego eastmund pedesecus os 7 sbscr 

>i« ego wullaf os 7 sbscr 

>^ ego e'Sered os 7 sbscr 

>{< ego sigenoth os 7 sbscr 

>J< ego beagmund os 7 sl>scr 

>J< ego ese os 7 sbscr 

^ ego dun os 7 sbscr 

>I< ego oslac os 7 sbscr 

>J< ego dudda oss 7 sbscr 

»}< ego mucel os 7 sb. 

>I< ego burgno'S os 

1^ ego e^elweald os 

>J< ego eadweald os 

>}< ego luUa OS 

>J< ego acka os 

1^ ego cynelaf os 

>I< ego e^elhere os 

►J< ego wighelm os 

>I< ego noSmund os 

»J< sigemund os 

>I< hunfre^ os 

>Ji "Sis siondan ^es landes boec et wassingwellan "Set 


e^elbearht cyning wullafe sealde his ^egne wiS o^rum 
sue miclu lande et mersaha se cyning sealde 7 gebocade 
wullafe fif sulung landes et wassingwellan wi^ 'Sem fif 
sulungum et mersaham 7 se cyning dyde "Set land et 
mersaham him to folclande 'Sa hie ^em landii iehwerfed 
hefdan butan "Sem merscum 7 butan 'Sem sealtern et 
fefresham 7 butan -Sem wioda ^e to -Sem sealtern 

*5f:* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, * ^ ?yis siondan ^es landes 
boc et wassingwellan/ and in a hand of the 12th century, 'commu- 
tatio terrarum inter etSelbeartum regem ^ wuUafum . latine.' B. 

^ This deed is remarkable as being one of three on which we de- 
pend for our knowledge of the nature of Folcland. See above, ^thel- 
wulf, Dec. 26, 847: Schmid, Gesetze, p. 577: and a deed bearing the 
name of OflFa in the Textus Roffensis, given below among the Secondary 

^ Kemble identified the formula 'principali dominatione furisque 
comprehensione' with the jurisdiction of infangenthef and utfangenthef 
which has not been found before the time of Edward the Confessor in 
any other document that is above suspicion. Cod. Dipl. vol, i, p. xlvii. 
But after all, I think it is here meant as an immunity and not as a 

Cod. Winton. 112. A.B. 858. 



grants Fearnham to AetSelbald, bis king, for life, and Aet5el- 
bald grants it after his time to the bishop and church at 
Winchester for evermore. 

>J« Regnante inperpetuum domino nostro Ihesu 
Christo summo et ineffabili rerum creatore ac modera- 
tore, omnium tempora qui sua multimoda disponens 
potentia, temporibus ut uoluerit fiiiem imponet ; iccirco 
cunctis agendum est ut hie, bonis actibus, futurae bea- 
titudinis foelicitatem adipisci mereantur. Quapropter 
ego Swi'Sun, diuina prouidente gratia, Wentanae aeccle- 
siae episcopusj cum consensu et licentia eiusdem aeccle- 



siae congregationis, hoc est presbyteris, diaconibus, et 
omni clero consentientibus, dedi atque concessi dilectis- 
simo domino meo et reuerentissimo Occidentalium Sax- 
onum regi ^^elbaldo, terrain .LX. cassatorum in loco 
qui dicitur Fearnham, ita ut babeat atque possideat 
praefatam terram quamdiu in hac uita praesente uixerit, 
sine uUa nostrorum successorum contradictione uel con- 
tentione, cum omnibus ad se pertinentibus, hoe est, 
campis, siluis, pascuis, pratis, piscariis, atque omnia in 
omnibus ad eandem terram pertinentibus. Ego autem 
^Selbald, dei gratia, Occidentalium Saxonum rex, dono 
atque concedo pro dei amore atque animae meae remedio 
et parentum meorum, hoc est aui mei ^gelberhti regis 
et genitoris mei A^ulfi regis, post obitum meum ab hac ♦ 
praesenti uita ipsam terram, hoc est .lx. cassatorum in 
loco prsenominato set Fearnaham, episcopo et omni con- 
gregationi Wentanae aecclesiae ; et tam rato ac stabili 
tenore quilibet episcopus et ilia sancta congregatio ean- 
dem terram teneat atque possideat propria potestate ac 
uoluntate sibimet ad habendam, et nullus iam licentiam 
ulterius habeat Christi neque sancti Petri illam terram 
praedictam alicui dandi neque abstrahendi de illo loco, 
similiter nullus licentiam Christi neque sancti Petri 
neque ausus sit ulterius illam terram praedictam rogandi 
in beneficium ; terra autem iamdicta sit inperpetuum 
libera ab omni regali seruitio et omnium saecularium, 
quamdiu fides et Christiana religio in Anglorum gente 
inconcussa permaneat, praeter expeditionem, et pontium 
constructionem, et arcium munitionem. Si quis autem 
banc nostrae satisfactionis donationem augere uel ampli- 
ficare uoluerit, augeat omnipotens deus dies eius pros- 
peros. Si uero quis infringere uel mutare praesumpserit, 
noscat se ante tribunal Christi redditurum rationem, 



nisi prius satisfactione emendauerit. Seripta est autem 
haec cartula anno dominicae incarnationis .dccc.lviii. in 
loco qui dicitur Amberesburg, testibus his consentienti- 
bus quorum nomina infra seripta esse uidentur. 

>^ ^'Selbald rex. >J< ludi'S regina. >J< Svvi^un 
episcopus. 1^ Osric dux. >J< Cynewulf dux. 

>J< Beer's vvald abbas. i^ Beornred abbas. >{< Os- 

mund minister. »J< Beor'Shelm minister. >J< Dud- 
da minister. i^ Wlfhere minister. i^ iE^elred 

*:(.* Where judgment is difficult, I am glad to rest on the authority 
of Prof. R. Pauli, Alfred, p. 80, note: 'Ungemein merkwiirdig ist die 
von keiner Seite her zu bezweifelnde Urkunde bei Kemble C. D. 1058.' 

Cott. Aug. ii. 16. • A.D. 859. 

K282. B. ii. 34 


bought of ^Selmod (dux) land whereof part belonged to 
Wilburge wella, an interesting name as shewing the natural- 
ized form of the Latin villa, of which the ordinary Saxon 
equivalent was haga. 

>J< In nomine almo trino diuino an^no' dominice in- 
carnationis .dcccluiiii. indictione septem ego plegred 
aliquam terre unculam emi ^et'^ e^elmode duci sex- 
centis denariis hoc est an healf tun que ante pertinebat 
to wilburgewellan 'Set land healf 7 healfne tun hiis 
terminibus circumcincta ab oriente cyniges heiweg a 
meritie stret to scufeling forde ab occidente stur ab 
aquilone cyninges land 7 halfne weruna prata on burg- 
wara medum su^eweardum 7 an nor^evveardum burg- 
waramedum healfmed 7 meahselog an cyninges strete 
hanc casam supranominatam ego e'Selmod plegrede 
donabo sibi abendum et possidendum feliciterque in 
dies eius perfruendum et post dies eius cuicumque ei 


eredi plaeuerit derelinquendum liueram per omnia abeat 
potestatem si If contingaH' q^ aliquis posterum meorum 
banc meam donationem infringere i minnere temptauerit 
sciat se coram xpo iudice rationem esse redditurum com- 
muni uia per unam portam perfruendum intra uillulam 
et extra uillulam 

>I< ego e'Selwulf rex banc meam donationem cum 
bexillo see crucis xpi rouorauo 7 st>scr 

>J< ego eanulf dux os 7 sbscr 

>I< ego eSelwulf dux os 7 sbscr 

>I< ego e^elmod dux os 7 sbscr 

►i< ego bun red os 7 st) 

>I< ego cSelbeald fili regis os 7 s'bscf 

>i< ego eyerie dux os 7 sbscr 

»I< ego dudda os 7 sbscr 

>I< ego wimund os et sbscr 

>J< ego ceolmund os 

>i< ego werenbearbt os 

>J< ego lulling os 

>i< ego eadweald os 

>I< ego wulfred os 7 sbscr 

»I< ego deimund pr at) os 7 sbscr 

*^ ego sebearbt pr os 7 sbscr 

>J< ego diar os 7 st> 

>J< ego biarnbelra pr os 7 st) 

>}< ego byse pf os 7 st) ^ ego osulf os 7 st) 

>J< ego dunincg arcdc os 7 st) >}< ego e'S'erno^ os 7 st) 

*;jj* indorsed in a hand of the 12th century, *pleired dedit e^elmod 
duci terram at wilburgewel . latine.' B. 

^ This ^et' is so marked (after B) because it is in the margin and 
looks like a correction ; but with the same ink and hand. It is the 
Anglosaxon set = at ; and the sense is • I have bought of Ethebnod.* 
This ' et ' is not rare. 

K % 


Chart. Cantuar. M. 369. A.D. 860-863. 


T. p. 127. S. i. 9. 


conveys land which he has sold. A mutilated but interesting 
piece. Alfred is among the signataries. Mr. Sanders 
edited this document more completely than Kemble or 
Thorpe had done, and we benefit thereby. 

>J< In nomine domini ego ealhhere dabo et eoncedo 

oswig-e et weahtrse'Se aliquem partem terre 

uirgas in latitudine contra eius pecunia que accepi ab eo 

hoc est cc. et Ixx. denarios . ex his 

land in miridie winesland in occidente tucenan land et in 

aquilone puplica semita hereditatem 

illis habendum et possidendum feliciterque in diebus 

eorum perfruendum derelinquendum 

liberam per omnia habeant potestates et si quis banc 

meam donationem ser benedictio si 

autem absit quod non optamus ut alicuius personis homo 

cum diabolica t infringere aut 

minuere temtauerit sciat se ante tribunal christi ratcio- 

nem et hominibus emendare u . . . . t 

his testibus consenticientibus et conscribentibus quorum 

no ego ^^elbearht rex banc mea 

nem cum uexillo sancte crucis christi roborabo et sub- 

scribo ego ego cialno^ archiepiscopus con- 

sensi .... ryhtwald dux ego mucel minister ego east- 

mund minister ego ealh ego ^Ifred 

filius regis . hos omnes consenserunt et signo sancte 

crucis conscripserunt ego ^^elwine minister 

ego ^Selstan et ingan burgware ego ^'Selhelm et 

cniahta geoldan ^ . ego herewine et herre^ . Ego 

* K. and T. gealdan ; S. gegildan = guildsmen ; hat this rests on a pro- 
cess of expansion. ^^ 


Chart. Ant. Cantuar. M. 14. A. D. 863. 

T. p. 121. 
S. i. 10. 


king of the West Saxons and also of the Cantware, grants to 
his thane Ethelred land at Mersaham. The bounds are in 
mixed Saxon and Latin. 

>^ In nomine trino diuino regi regnanti in perpetuum 
domino dec hsabaoth cui patent cuncta penetralia cordis 
et corporis terrestria simul et celestia necnon super ethera 
regnans in sedibus altis ima et alta omnia sua dicione 
gubernans cuius amore et eternis premiis >{< ego cSel- 
bearht rex occidentalium saxonum nee non et cantuario- 
rum dabo et concedo meo fideli ministro et principi meo 
e'Selredo aliquam partem terre iuris mei hoc est viiii. 
aratra in ilia loco hubi nominatur mersaham in sempi- 
ternum hereditatem sibi abendum et possidendum felici- 
terque in dies eius perfruendum et post dies eius cui- 
cumque hei heredi placuerit derelinquendum liberam per 
omnia habeat potestatem cum campis siluis pratis pas- 
cuis aquis uenationibus pascuis porcorum simulque ma- 
riscis et cum omnibus utilitatibus rite ac recte ad 
eandem terram pertinentibus hoc feci pro eius humili 
hoboedientia simulque pro eius placauili atque conpe- 
tenti pecunia quam ab eo accepi hoe est cccc.tos. maii- 
cusas auri purissimi banc autem terram supranominatam 
et mersaham >J« ego e'Selbearht rex ab omni seruitute 
regali operis intus et foris magnis ac modicis notis et 
ignotis perenniter liuerauo nisi his tantum tribus causis 
hoc est expeditione et arcis munitione pontisque con- 
structione et illud foras reddat quot siui intus faciendi 
appetat hec autem terra prenominata his notissimis ter- 


minibus circumcingitur a meritie et ab occidente stur 
usque blacanri^e ab aquilone et ab oriente eadwealdes 
bocland to bradeburnan estque una semis aratra ab 
oriente sture quae iacet at confinium usque garulfi regis 
ministri to mersaham 7 meda be eastan ee sue 'Ser mid 
riahte to ^em lande limpa^ unamque salis coquinariam 
hoc est . I . sealternsteall 7 "Ser cota to in ilia loco ubi 
nominatur herewic et . iiii . carris transductionem in 
silba regis sex ebdomades a die pentecosten hubi alteri 
homines silbam cedunt hoc est in regis communione hec 
sunt pascua porcorum que nostra lingua saxhonica den- 
bera nominamus hoc est husneah efreSing- 

denn herbedingdenn pafingdenn widefingdenn 

bleccingdenn nee non . xx . statera casei 

of mersce ad mersaham reddatur et XL agnos et xl 
uellera ouium et duorum dierum refectio uel xxx. 
argenteis hoc est semi cum libra redimatur hsi quis uero 
heredum successorumque meorum regum principum 
ducum optimatum siue exactorum banc meam dona- 
tionem seruare uoluerit seruetur ei desuper benedictio 
sempiterna hsi autem absit quod non optamus alicuius 
personis homo diabolica temeritate instigatus surrexerit 
qui banc meam donationem uel liuertatem infringere uel 
minuere aut in aliut conbertere quam a nobis constitutum 
est temptauerit sciat se ante tribunal summi et eterni 
iudicis rationem esse redditurum nisi ante digna hsatis- 
que placabili factione deo et hominibus emendare stu- 
duerit hacta est autem hec eadem donatio uel liuertas in 
ilia loco que uocitatur birenefeld anno dominice incar- 
nationis dccclxiii indictione xi his testibus consen- 
tientibus et signo sancte crucis christi confirmantibus 
quorum hie nomina infra ac in scedula patefacta li- 


>J< ego e^elbearht rex banc meam donationem uel 
liuertatem cum uexillo sancte crucis christi roborabo et 

>^ ego e'Sered dux consensi et snbscripsi. 

tin ego e'Sered filius regis consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< ego dryhtweald dux consensi et subscripsi. 

>^ ego mucel minister consensi et subscripsi, 

>I< ego heabmund presbiter consensi et subscripsi. 

►J< ego beremod presbiter consensi et subscripsi. 

»^ ego garulf minister consensi et subscripsi. 

►{< ego eastmund minister consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< ego uulfred minister consensi et subscripsi. 

>^ ego wigstan minister consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< ego ecgfer^ minister consensi et subscripsi. 

1^ ealdred minister consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< ego sigeno'S minister. 

1^ ego elfstan minister. 

>I< ego wigbelm minister. 

>I« ego piabtred minister. 

1^ Item at stabilitatem huius suprascripte donationis 
uel liuertatis >i< ego ciolno'S gratia dei archiepiscopus mea 
propria manu signum sanctae crucis christi inpressi. 

>I« ego deimund presbiter abbas consensi et sub- 

1^ ego biarnulf presbiter abbas consensi et subscripsi. 

»}< ego cSelweald presbiter consensi et subscripsi. 

»J< ego no'Sbeard presbiter consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< ego Osmund presbiter consensi et subscripsi. 

>J* ego iab presbiter consensi et subscripsi. 

1^ ego wigbelm presbiter consensi et subscripsi. 

t^ ego tida presbiter consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< ego biarnheab arcbidiaconus consensi et subscripsi. 


>J< ego osulf archidiaconus consensi et subscripsi. 

lit ego ealhstan consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< ego sigefre'S arcbidiaconus consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< ego diarweald subdiaconus consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< ego sefre^ subdiaconus consensi et subscripsi. 

>^ ego Osmund consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< ego dudda consensi et subscripsi. 

»J< ego beagmund consensi et subscripsi. 

1^ ego osweald consensi et subscripsi. 

»i< ego luUa consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< ego oba consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< ego lulla consensi et subscripsi. 

>J< ego bunfre'S consensi et subscripsi. ] 

»i< ego lulla consensi et subscripsi. 

1^ ego eadulf consensi et subscripsi. 

>I< ego osbearbt consensi et subscripsi. 

»i< ego wealdhelm consensi et subscripsi. 

»J< ego ealdhere consensi et subscripsi. 

»J< ego diara consensi et subscripsi. 

^ ego garulf consensi et subscripsi. 

^ ego elric consensi et subscripsi. 

1^ ego dudda consensi et subscripsi. 

>i< ego e'Selwulf consensi et subscripsi. 

Ic eadwald sello 7 forgeofu J^is lond et wifeles berge 

agustines bigum into hiora beode minre sawle to are 7 

to leedome^ 7 iow fer godes lufe bidde 'pet ge bit minre 

sawle nyt gedeo 7 me hit for gode leanie eow to elmessum 


*** Endorsed in a hand of the 11th century, 'merse ham:' — and in 
one of the 1 2th century : * Rex ethelbertus dedit merseham ethelredo 
miDistro suo. latine.' 

* And two cots there. T. But ? ' and there cots too ' = * and likewise 
the cots there.* 
' So MS. Thorpe has lecdome, which he translates medicament. 


Cott. Aug. ii. 95. AD. 867. 

K294. B. ii. 37. 


king of the W. Saxons and the Cantware grants in perpetuity 
to Wighelm a priest, in a place called St. Martin's Church, a 
spot of land with a little homestead upon it. 

>J< In nomine di summi regis eterni ego e'Selred rex 
occidentalium saxonum . non et eantvyariorum cum con- 
sensu ac licentia meorum optimatum dabo et conce^do' 
meo fideli amico wighelme prs unam sedem in loco q: 
dicitur sci martini ecclesia mihhi ad elemosynam et 
Vnam modicam uillulam at eandem sedem cum recte 
pertinet hec sunt termina . circumgacentia . ab aquilone 
puplica strata ab occidente bina meteren a meritie bina 
gemene weg ab oriente terra at scm agustinum banc 
pdictam dotionem pro remedio anime mee proq; spe 
remunerationis eterne in sempiterna ereditatem conce- 
dendo donabo sibi abendu et possidu feliciterq: in dies 
eius pfruendum et post dies eius cuicuq: ei eredi placuerit 
derelinquendum libera per omnia abeat potestatem et ab 
omni seruitute regaliu seculariuq: difficultatu intus et 
foras magnis ac modicis penniter liberabo supplicabo 
q°q: ego e^elred rex y in alme trinitatis nomine firmit 
pcipio omnib: successorib: meis quicuque sint reges 7 
episcopos i principes i modo uibentib: i qui post illos 
futuri sunt p fidem sci martini confessoris xpi ut num- 
quam aliquis banc nram munificentiam infringere psumat 
sjquis u° quod non optamus alicuius perssonis homo dia- 
bolica temeritate* instigatus surrex^erit' ^ quod banc mea 
munificentiam mutare aut minuere temptet minuatur 
pars eius de terra uibentiii ipseq» reus ante tribunal 
terribili particeps existat illor q^ filiu di et uendiderunt , 


et crucifixert nisi ante digno satisfactione do et ominib' 
emundare uoluerit: Hanc libertatem prescripta cu bis 
testib' ifra naminatis firmiter T ihu xpo cu signaculo see 
crucis ofirmantes roborauimus . Aetii -f- H* anno ab icar- 
natione dni .dccclxvii. indictione .xv. T dorobernia 

>I< ego e'Selred . rex anc mea donatione cii signo see 
crucis xpi roborabo 7 sbscr16 

>I< ego eastmund . dux os 7 st>scr 

>I< egV ealhheard . at) os 7 st)scr 

tji ego heremod pb os 7 sbscr 

>J< ego mucel mi os 7 sbscr 

>J< ego beorhtno'S mi os 7 st)scr 

>J< ego for'Sred mi os 7 sbscr 

>I< ego e^elwulf mi os 7 sbscr 

^ ego e^elred mi os 7 st)scr 

1^ ego acca mi os 7 s"bscr 

►J< ego biarbtwulf mi os 7 sbscr 

»J< ego mannel mi os 7 sbscr 

1^ In nomine dni eodem regi regnante ego cialnoS 
gratia di areps banc donationem cSeredi regis cu signa 
see crucis xpi roboro 7 ofirmabo 

1^ ego biarnhelm pr at) os 7 st)scr 

>I< ^ego' no^heard pr os 7 sljscr 

>J< ^ego" biarnfre^ pr os 7 sbscr 

1^ ego osmund pf os 7 sbscr 

>J< ego wighelm pr os 7 s'bscr 

>J< ego e^elweald pr os 7 st)scr 

>I« ego eardulf pr os 7 sbscr ♦ 

>i< ego biarnhelm pr os 7 sbscr 

>^ ego tidweald pr os 7 sbscr 

>i< ego beornred pr os 7 st)scr 


>^ ego sefre'5 pr os 7 s15scr 
>J< ego beornheah pr os 7 sl3scr 
>J< ego sigefre"S pr os 7 st)scr 
>i< ego sebearlit pr os 7 sbscr 
>J< ego sigemund pr os 7 sbscr 
>i< ego torhthelm pr os 7 sbscr 
>J< ego herefre'S pr os 7 sbscr 
►I* ego beornweald pr os 7 sbser 
>J< ego wealdhere pr os 7 sbscr 
>I< ego elfstan pr os 7 sbscr 
»i< ego aldred pr os 7 sbscr 
>J< ego bearnulf pr os 7 sbscr 
>I< ego sigefred arc os 7 sbscr 
>J« ego bearno'S arc os 7 sbscr 
>J< ego herefre'S arc os 7 sbscr 
>I< ego ealhheard sub os 7 sbscr 
>I< ego cialbearht sub os 7 sbscr 
►!< ego wealdhelm sub os 7 sbscr 
»I< ego tirweald sub os 7 sbscr 

*5ic* Endorsed in a contemporary hand • an setl set see martine ; ' 
above which are traces of another short endorsement. B. 

^ With the marks of reference, ^ and tf. B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 17. A.D. 868. 

K296. B. ii. 38. 


conveys to his friend and relative Eanmund property in 
Canterbury. The date was corrected by Kemble. 

>J« In nomine dni ego cialulf anno ab incarnatione dni 
nri ihu xpi . dccclxxxviii. dabo et concedo eanmunde 
amico meo et cognito^ aliquam partem terre iuris mei 
hoc est in dorobernia ciuitate i^ -j- in longitudo .vi. 


uirgis et in latitude .iii. haec sunt terminib: in oriente 
^"Selmund pr in meredie deibearht in Occident ciolulf in 
aquilone hemma haec omnia dabo eanmunde , pro conpe- 
tenti pecuniam quam ab eo accipio i^ —- cxx. denarios 
argenteis in sempiternam hereditatem sibi habendum et 
possidendum feliciterq: in dies eius perfruendum et post 
dies eius cuicumq: ei herede placuerit ad derelinqu^ndum 
liberam ab omni seruitute regali subgectione liberrima 
quando xpiana fides in terra seruatur ^ternaliter per- 
maneat hoc ipsumq: omnib: successorib; nris in nomine 
omnipotentis di obseruare precipimus 7 si quis hoc 
seruare uoluerit seruet eum omnipotens ds si quis uero jT 
tyrannicam potestatem fringe aut minuere uoluerit sciat 
se anathematum coram xpo et angelis eius nisi ante 
digna satisfactione ^mendare uoluerit do 7 hominib: 
manente hac cartula in sua nihilhominum firmitate 
roborata his testib: consentientib: ac scribentib: quorum 
hie nomina infra scripta sunt 

»i< ego §^ered rex banc meam donationem cum uexillo 
see crucis xpi roborabo et subscribe , , , 
1^ ego ciolno^ gratia di archepisc os 7 sb 
>i< ego heahmund ^lec? episc os 7 sb 
1^ ego ^'Selvvulf dux os 7 sb 
>J< ego dryhtweald dux os 7 sb 
»J< ego eastmund dux os 7 sb 
>J< ego garulf in os 7 sb 

ego ecgbearht m os 7 sb 

ego ecgfer^ m os 7 sb 

ego acca m os 7 sb 

ego wynsige m os 7 sb 
>I< ego ^^ered m os 7 sb 
>i< ego dudda m os 7 sb 
>i< ego lulla m os 7 sb 


1^ ego ^^elweald m os 7 st> 

>i< ego ^'Selmund m os 7 s1& 

►J< ego eacca m os 7 st) , 

>I< ego ^Sel weald m os 7 st> , 

>^ ego ^^elweald pr os 7 st> , 

►I* ego osmund pr os 7 st> , 

>I< ego ciolulf fh OS 7 st) , 

*:(c* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, * >J< ciolulf sealde eanmunde 
his mege Sisne tuun betwix eura wi'S cxx* in gc grbe gSeredes cyninges 
friols T his bandseten ") sglen ; ' a«c? in a somewhat later hand, 

' »J< aeSelerae gebohte et cialulfe ^a strgtg sitJ'San hae ^is land haefde 
Sae haer be aeften stent 'vii' fan • fgt an brsede Se to Sissum lande be- 
limpe^ sutJ innan ^et land an Sara wistrsete an lucaenan gewitnesse • •) 
hyldefriSes "j an cu'Sulfgs • ^ an hymman "j an eadulfgs • '] an biarhth- 
lafgs • • T Saer ne ggbyre^ an Sam landg an folcaes folcryht to lefsennae 
runiaes butan twigen fy t to yfaes drypae • ' ^ 

and in a hand of the 12th century, 'latine.' B. 

* cognato. See the first endorsement. 

^ The memorandum in the endorsement about a right of two feet 
as easement for the eavesdrop as against the public way, is highly 
curious. Mr. Coote says: 'The easement thus referred to is the jus 
stillicidium vertendi in tectum vel aream vicini, Dig. 8. 2, 2 ; ' The 
Romans in Britain, p. 362. 

Kemble, Saxons in England, cap. ii, p. 45, treated this as a restraint 
upon the owner who is bound to leave this margin upon his possession, 
and not build to the verge, lest a neighbour or the public should be 
annoyed thereby. And this suits the text best. He refers to Plutarch, 
Solon 23, for analogous rules of the Athenian legislator, whereby the 
cultivator must leave a margin of five feet uncultivated, and may not 
plant a fig or olive tree nearer to his bounds than nine feet. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 89. A.D. 875. 

K 307. B. ii. 40. 


grants to his friend Wighelm a piece of land at Ham, with 
all the rights conveyed to himself by Alfred, king of the West 
Saxons and Cant ware. 

In nomine dni regnantis per omnia ac disponentis 


ubique omnia cuius melliflua largitate ditatus ego eard- 
dulfus dabo ac concedo amico meo wighelmo aliqua parte 
terra iuris mei 'Sset is an swulung 7 an iocleta in illo 
loco ubi ab incolis dictii est set bame cii eade libertate 
qua selfredus rex occidentaliu saxonu necnon set cantwa- 
rioru mihi in ius propriu cu multorii fideliii testimonio 
donauit hec facio pro eius conpetenti atque mibi placabili 
pecunia qua ab eo accepi id est .c. uiginti mancusas auri 
purissimi ista setenim terra pr^fata ^hls terminibus 
undiq: cireucincta -r- in oriente ha fleot in occidente 
puplica strata in aquilone hi redes seota to presta tune 7 se 
mersc se to "Sam ilcan lande belimp^ qu^ selfredus rex 
ad augmentii predicte donationis tradidit set in meridie 
puplica strata o^ "Sane ford isti sunt termini huius pr§- 
nominati marisci in oriente hiredes mersc to presta tune 
in occidente heferfleot in aquilone ha fleot in tneridie ilia 
ipsa terra set hame 7 an cinges bocholte ^ fif wena gang 
fra lacii o^ sumermessan . h^c omnia dabo ei in sempi- 
terna h^reditate sibi habendu set possidendii feliciterq: in 
dies eius perfruendii set post dies eius cuicumq: ei herede 
placuerit derelinquendu libera per omnia habeat potestate 
intus set foris magnis ac modicis notis atq: ignotis cii 
capis siluis pratis pascuis piscationibus omnibusq: ad ea 
rite hac recte pertinentibus hoc ipsumq: omnib: succes- 
sorib: nris in nomine omnipotentis di obseruare praecipi- 
mus utquadiu cristiana fides in terra seruetur libera abomni 
regali seruitute seternaliter permaneat nisi his tantu trib: 
causis id -4- expedicione set arcis munitione pontisq: con- 
structione si quis If hoc seruare uoluerit seruetur ei 
eterna benedictio in celis si If absit quot non obtamus ut 
alicuius personis homo diabolica temeritate instigatus 
surrexerit qui banc donatione infringere uel minuere 
temptauerit sciat se ratione esse redditurii set a do et 


angelis eius in die iudicii separatu nisi antea digna satis- 
factione do et horainib: hoc emendare uoluerit actii est 
M* hec donatio anno dominice incamationis decclxxv°. 
indict .v°. viii. his testib: consentientib: hac conscri- 
bentib; quom ic nomina infra hac in scedula caraxsant'. 

ego selfred gratia di rex banc libertate donationis 
meae consensi manuq : mea propria roboraui et sub- 

ego se^eredus archieps . consensi . et subscripsi . 

ego oswealdus filius regis . o.s. 7 sb . 

ego selfstan dux . o.s. 7 st) . 

ego beorhtulf dux . o.s 7 st) . 

ego.sigulf . m . regis . o.s. 7 sb . 

ego sighelm . m . regis . o.s 7 sb . 

ego odda . m . o.s 7 sb . 

ego mired . m . o.s 7 sb . 

ego oswulf . in . o.s 7 sb . 

ego wulfstan . m . o.s. 7 sb . 

ego heahulf . m . o.s. 7 sb . 

ego cenweald .m . o.s. 7 sb . 

ego ceolmund . m . o.s. 7 sb . 

ego hereweald . m . o.s. 7 sb . 

ego eadmund . m . o.s. 7 sb . 

ego osweald . m. o.s. 7 sb . 

ego eanulf . m . o.s. 7 sb . 

ego wulfhere . prb 7 ab . o.s 7 sb . 

Ite ad stabilitate eiusde donationis ego plegmundus 
misericordia di archieps o.sensi et subscripsi . 

ego beornhelm prb 7 ab o.s . 

ego beornheah ctr 7 ab o.s . 

ego beahstan . prt> . o.s . 

ego wynhelm , prt) . o.s . 

*#* Endorsed in a hand of the loth century, 'hammes boc,' and in a 


hand of the 1 2th century, ' Eardulfus dedit hamme amico suo Wigelmo 
quam dederat ei elfredus Rex . latine.' B. 

* In vielen Urkunden ertheilen die Konige Weide-, Mast-, und Holz- 
berechtigungen auf uncultivirtem Lande undbesonders in Waldem, die 
mitunter Walder des Konigs [K 307], mitunter auch gemeine Walder 
[K 96] genannt werden. Erwin Nasse, Ueber die, mittelalterliche Feldge- 
meinschaft, Bonn, 1869, p. 21. 

MS. Stowe, ed. Manning. A.D. 880-885. 


T. p. 484. 

Alfred's Will. 

»i« Ic iElfred cingc, mid godes gife 7 mid gej^eaht- 
unge ^Seredes ercebisceopes 7 ealra Westseaxena 
witena gewitnesse, smeade ymbe minre sawle J^earfe, 
7 ymbe min yrfe ^aet me god 7 mine yldran forgeafon, 
7 ymbe "Sset yrfe 'Sset A'Sulf cingc, min fseder, us J^rim 
gebro^rum becwse^, A^elbolde 7 ^^erede 7 me, 7 swylc 
ure swylce lengest ware, "Sset se fenge to eallum. Ac 
hit gel amp "Saet ^^elbold gefor, 7 wyt iE^ered, mid 
ealra Westseaxena witena gewitnesse, uncerne dsel oS- 
fsestan ^^elbyrhte cincge, uncrum msege ; on "Sa ge- 
rffidene "Se he hit eft gedyde unc swa gewylde swa hit "Sa 
wses, "Sa wit hit him c^fsestan, 7 he ^a swa dyde, ge "Sset 
yrfe^ ge ^set he mid uncre^ gemanan begeat, 7 "Saet he sylf 
gestrynde. Da hit swa gelamp "Sset iE^ered to feng, 
■Sa bsed ic hine, beforan urum witum eallum, "Saet wyt 
^set yrfe gedaeldon, 7 he me ageafe minne d«l. f)a saede 
he me, "Sset he naht ea^e ne mihte todgelan, for'Son he 
hsefde ful oft ser ongefangen : 7 he cwse^ ^ses ^e he on 
uncrum gemanan gebruce 7 gestrynde, sefter his dsege 
he nanum menn sel ne u^e "Sonne me : 7 ic "Saes tSa 
wses wel gej^afa. Ac hit gelamp ^xt we ealle on hse- 


•Senum folce gebrocude wseron; 'Sa sprsece wyt ymbe 
uncre beariij "Saet hf sumre are be}7orftan^ sselde unc on 
"Sam brocum swa unc sselde : 'Sa wseron we on gemote 
set Swinbeorgum ; "Sa gecwsedon wit on Westseaxena 
witena gewitnesse, 'Sset swa'Ser uncer leng wsere, ^aet 
he geii'Se o^res bearnum ^ara landa 'Se wyt sylfe be- 
geaton, 7 'Sara landa "Se unc A^ulf cingc forgeaf be 
^^elbolde lifiendum, butan "Sam ^e he us |7rim gebro- 
'Srum gecwse^ : 7 "Sees uncor segtJer oSrum his wedd 
sealde, swa^er uncer leng lifede, 'Sset se fenge seg^er 
ge to lande ge to madmum 7 to eallum his sehtum, 
butan 'Sam dsele 'Se uncer gehwee^er his bearnum be- 
cwse^. Ac hit gelamp 'Sset -^E^ered cingc gefor ; 'Sa ne 
cy^de me nan mann nan yrfe-gewrit, ne nane gewit- 
nesse, ■Sset hit senig o'Ser wsere butan swa wit on gewit- 
nesse ser gecwsedon. Da gehyrde we nu manegu yrfe- 
gefiitu : nu 'Sa Isedde ic AiSulfes cinges yrfe-gewrit on 
ure gemot set Langandene, 7 hit man arsedde beforan 
eallum Westseaxena witum. Da hit arsed wses, "Sa 
bsed ic hy ealle, for minre lufan, 7 him min wedd bead 
"Sset ic hyra nsefre neenne ne oncutSe forSon 'Se hy on riht 
sprsecon, 7 'Sset hyra nan ne wandode ne for minan 
lufan ne for minum ege, 'Sset hy 'Sset folcriht arehton ; 
'Sylses senig man cwe'Se, ^set ic mine msegcild, o^'Se 
yldran, o'S^e gingran, mid wo fordemde . 7 hy ^a ealle 
to rihte gerehton 7 cwsedon, 'Sset hy nan rihtre riht ge- 
)7encan ne mihtan, ne on "Sam yrfe-ge write gehyran: 
" nu hit call agan is on "Sseron o'S ^ne hand : 'Sonne 'Su 
hit becwe^e 7 sylle swa gesibre handa swa fremdre, 
swa^er ^e leofre sy :" 7 hi ealle me "Sses hyra wedd 
sealdon 7 hyra handsetene, i^set be hyra life hit n^nig 
man nsefre ne onwende on nane oSre wisan, butan swa 
swa ic hit sylf gecweSe set 'Sam nyhstan dsege. 


Ic Alfred Westseaxena cingc, mid g-odes gife 7 mid 
■Sisse gewitnesse, gecwe^e hu ic ymbe min yrfe wille 
sefter minum daege. jErest ic an Eadwearde minum 
yldran suna, ^ses landes set Strtetneat on Triconscire,^ 
7 Heortingtunes, 7 "Sa bocland ealle "Se Leof heah hylt, 
7 ^set land set Carumtune, 7 set Cylfantune, 7 set Burn- 
hamme, 7 set Wedmor ; 7 ic eom fyrmdig to ^am hiwum 
set Ceodre 'Sset hy hine ceosan ^ on "Sa gerad "Se we ser 
gecweden hsefdon, mid Sam lande set Ciwtune 7 "Sam 
^e "Sserto hyra^ ; 7 ic him an 'Sses landes set Cantuctune, 
7 set Bedewindan, 7 set Pefesigge, 7 Hysseburnan, 7 set 
Suttune, 7 set Leodridan, 7 set Aweltune. And ealle 
•Sa bocland 'Se ic on Cent hsebbe, 7 set "Sam nytSeran 
Hysseburnan, 7 set Cyseldene, agyfe man into Win- 
tan ceastre, on -Sa gerad 'Se hit min fseder £er geewse^, 
7 -Sset min sundorfeoh "Sset ic Ecgulfe oSfseste on "Sam 
neoSeran Hysseburnan . 7 ^am gingran minan suna 
"Sset land set Eaderingtune, 7 "Sset set Dene, 7 ^set set 
Meone, 7 'Sset set Ambresbyrig, 7 set Deone, 7 set Stu- 
reminster, 7 set Gifle, 7 set Crusern, 7 set Hwitancyrican, 
7 set Axanmu^an, 7 set Branecescumbe, 7 set Columtune, 
7 set Twyfyrde, 7 set Mylenburnan, 7 set Exanmynster, 
7 set Su^eswyr^e, 7 set Liwtune, 7 'Sa land "Se 'Sser to 
hyran, ^set synd ealle ^e ic on Wealcynne hsebbe butan 
Triconscire. And minre yldstan dehter "Ssene ham set 
Welewe; 7 'Seere medemestan, set Clearan, 7 set Cen- 
defer; 7 ^sere gingestan tSone ham set Welig, 7 set 
JEsctune, 7 set Cippenhamme ; 7 ^^elme, mines broker 
suna, "Sone ham set Ealdingburnan, 7 set Cumtune, 7 set 
Crundellan, 7 set Beadingum, 7 set Beadingahamme, 7 
set Burnham, 7 set Dunresfelda, 7 set -^scengum ; 7 
-^"Selwolde, mines bro'Sor suna, 'Sone ham set Godel- 
mingum, 7 set Gyldeforda, 7 set Stseningum; 7 Os- 


fer'Se minum msege, ^one ham set Beccanlea, 7 set 
HrySeranfelda, 7 set Dicceling-um, 7 set Su^tune, 7 set 
LuUingmynster, 7 set Angemseringtun, 7 set Felhhamme, 
7 -Sa land "Se ^ser to hyran ; 7 Ealhswi^e ^one ham set 
Lambburnan, 7 set Waneting, 7 set E'Sandune ; 7 minum 
twam sunum an ]7usend punda, ag^rum fif hund 
punda ; 7 minre yldstan dehter, 7 ^sere medemestan, 
7 ^£ere gingstran, 7 Ealhsvvi^e, him feowriim, feower 
hund punda, gelcum an hund punda ; 7 minra ealdor- 
manna selcum an hund mangcusa, 7 ^^elme, 7 iE^el- 
wolde, 7 Osfer^e, eac swa ; 7 ^'Serede ealdormenn an 
sweord on hundteontigum mancusum ; 7 'Sam mannum 
"Se me folgia'S, ^e ic nu on eastertidum feoh sealde, twa 
hund punda agyfe man him, 7 dsele man him betweoh, 
£elcum swa him to gebyrian wille, sef'ter "Ssere wisan tSe 
ic him nu dselde ; 7 Sam ercebisceope .c. mancusa, 7 
Esne bisceope, 7 Wserfer'Se bisceope, 7 "Sam set Scire- 
burnan. Eac swa gedale for me 7 for minne fseder, 
7 for "Sa frynd "Se he fore )7ingode 7 ic fore J^ingie, twa 
hund punda, fiftig maessepreostum ofer eall mln rice, 
fiftig earmum godes J^eowum, fiftig earmum J7earfum, 
fiftig to 'Ssere cyrican Se ic set reste; 7 ic nat naht 
gewislice hwse^er 'Sses feos swa micel is, ne ic nat ^eah 
his mare sy ; butan swa ic wene. Gif hit mare sy, beo 
hit him eallum gemsene "Se ic feoh beeweden hsebbe ; 
7 ic wille 'Sset mine ealdormenn 7 mine J^enigmenn 'Sser 
ealle mid syndan, 7 "Sis Sus gedselan. Donne hsefde ic 
£er on oSre wisan awriten ymbe min yrfe, Sa ic hsefde 
mare feoh 7 ma maga, 7 hsefde monegum mannum Sa 
gewritu oSfsest, 7 on 'Sas ylcan gewitnesse hy waeron 
awritene ; Sonne hsebbe ic nu forbserned "Sa ealdan "Se 
ic geahsian mihte. Gif hyra hwylc funden bi^, ne for- 
stent ^set naht ; for^am ic wille ^set hit nu ^us sy mid 

L 2 


godes fultume. And ic wille "Sa menn "Se "Sa land 
habba'S, "Sa word gelaestan ^e on mines fseder yrfe- 
gewrite standa'S, swa swa by fyrmest magon: 7 ic 
wille gif ic senigum menn senig feob unleanod haebbe, 
"Sset mine magas "Sset burn geleanian. And ic wille "Sa 
menn "Se ic mine bocland becweden hsebbe, ^set by hit 
ne asyllan of minum cynne ofer beora dseg ; ac ic wille 
[ofer] byra dseg "Sset hit gange on ^a nyhstan hand me, 
butan byra hwylc beam bssbbe ; "Sonne is me leofast 
•Sset bit gange on 'Sset stryned on Sa wsepned bealfe, Sa 
bwile ^e genig dses wyr'Se sy. Min yldra feeder baefde 
gecweden bis land on "Sa sperebealfe, nses on "Sa spinl- 
bealfe; "Sonne, gif ic gesealde senigre wifbanda ^ait be 
gestrynde, ^onne forgyldan mine magas, 7 gif by bit 
be "San libbendan habban wyllan; gif bit elles sy, 
gange bit ofer byra daeg swa swa we ser gecweden 
bsefdon : for^on ic cwe'Se, "Saet hi bit gyldan, forSon by 
fo^S to minum "Se ic syllan mot swa wifbanda swa wsep- 
nedhanda swa'Ser ic wylle. And ic bidde on godes 
nam an 7 on his baligra "Sset minra maga nan ne yrfe- 
wearda, ne geswence nan nsenig cyrelif "Sara "Se ic fore- 
geald, 7 me Westseaxena witan to rihte gerehton, ^set 
ic hi mot Isetan swa freo swa )7e6we, swaSer ic wille ; ac 
ic, for godes lufan 7 for minre sawle ]7earfe, wylle "Sset 
by syn beora freolses wyr^e 7 byra eyres ; 7 ic on godes 
lifiendes naman beode "Sset by nan man ne brocie, ne 
mid feos manunge, ne mid nsenigum ]?ingum, "Sset by ne 
motan ceosan swylcne mann swylce by wyllan. And ic 
wylle "Sset man agyfe "Sam biwum set Domrabamme 
byra landbec 7 byra freols, swylce hand to ceosenne 
swylce him leofast sy, for me 7 for ^Iflaede, 7 for "Sa 
frynd "Se beo fore j7ingode 7 ic fore )?ingie. And sec 
■man ^ac on cwicum ceape ymbe minre sawle ];earfe, swa 


hit beon msege^ 7 swa hit eac gerysne sy, 7 swa ge me 
forgyfan wyllan. 

' uncrum Thorpe ; who translates, 'that which he with our common 
property had acquired.' 

^ 'At Stratton in Cornwall.' T. See Stubbs, Constit. Hist. i. p. 100. 

^ As there are charters of Eadwig, Eadgar, and Eadmund, which are 
dated from a royal home at Cheddar, Mr. Thorpe understands by the 
hiwan either the king's vassals or else the members of a religious house 
there, having a legal right to choose their loixi. The latter seems most 
favoured by the singular term 'cyrelif * below, and the light aflForded by 
the context there. See Bosworth, ed. Toller, v. Cyrelif. 

MS. Stowe. Lye, App. Diet. A.D. 871-889. 


T. p. 480. 

Elfred dux 

his will, addressed to king Alfred and others concemeii. 

1^ Xp. Ic Elfred dux hatu writan 7 cySan an "Sis- 
sum gewrite . Elfrede regi 7 eallum his weotum 7 ge- 
weotan . 7 ec swylce minum megum 7 minum gefeorum . 
^a men "Se ic mines erfes 7 mines boclondes seolest onn . 
■Sset is 'Sonne Werburg min wif 7 uncer gemene beam . 
^aet is ^onne set serestan an Sonderstede 7 on Selesdune 
XXXII hida . 7 on Westarham xx hida . 7 on Cloppaham 
XXX hida . 7 on Leangafelda vii hida . 7 on Horsalege 
X hida . 7 on Netelamstyde ^/u hida. Ic Elfred dux 
sello Werburge 7 Alh^ry^e uncum gemenum bearne . 
sefter minum dege . "Sas lond mid cwice erfe . 7 mid 
ear'Se . 7 raid allum J>ingum 'Se to londum belimpa^ . 
7 twa J7usendu swina ic heom sello mid "Sem londum . 
gif hit hio gehalde'S mid "Sare clsennisse "Se uncer word 
gecwaedu seondan . 7 hio gebrenge set sancte Petre min 
twa wergeld gif 'Set godes wille seo ^aet heo "Sset fsereld 


age ; Ond sefter Werburge dsege seo AUi'Sry^e -Sa lond 
unbefliten on Sonderstyde . 7 on Selesdune . 7 on Lean- 
gafelda. Ond gif heo beam hsebbe . feo 'Sset beam to 
■Ssem londum sefter hire . gif heo beam nsebbe . feo 
^onne an hire rehtfsederen sio neste bond to ^em londe . 
ond to 'Sem erfe . 7 swa hwylc minra fsedrenmega swa 
^set sio "Sset bine to ^an gehagige . "Sset he 'Sa o'Soro 
lond begeotan msege . 7 wille . 'Sonne gebyege he ^a 
lond set hire mid halfe weor'Se. Ond swe hwylc mon 
swa ^set sio ^set Ses londes bruce ofer minne dseg on 
Cloppaham ^anne geselle he cc peninga eghwylee gere 
to Ceortesege for Elfredes sawle . to feormfultume. 
Ond ic sello ^^elwalde minum suna in hida hoc 
londes . 11 hida on Hwaetedune . anes hides an Ga- 
tatune . 7 him sello ^serto c swina . 7 gif se cyning him 
geunnan wille ^es folclondes to 'Ssem boclonde . Sonne 
habbe 7 bruce . gif hit "Sset ne sio . Sonne selle hio him 
swa hwaSer swa hio wille . swa Set lond on Horsalege . 
swa Set an Leangafelda; Ond ic sello Berhtsige minum 
mege an hide boclondes on Lsencanfelda . 7 Sserto c. 
swina . 7 geselle hio c. swina to Cristes cirican for me . 
7 for mine sawle . 7 c to Ceortesege . 7 Sone oferecan 
mon gedsele gind mynsterhamas to godes ciricum in 
SuSregum . 7 in Cent . Sa hwile Se hio lestan willen ; 
Ond ic sello Sigewulfe minum mege . ofer Werburge 
dseg . Sset lond an Netelhamstyde. Ond Sigulf geselle 
of Sem londe . c peninga to Cristes cirican. Ond eg- 
hwylc Sara erfewearda Se seffcer him to Ssem londe foe . 
Sonne ageofen hio Sa ilcan elmessan to Cristes cirican 
for iElfredes sawle . Sa hwile Se fulwiht sio . 7 hit man 
on Ssem lande begeotan msege ; Ond ic sello Eadrede 
minum mege Set lond on Fearnlege sefter iESelredes 
daege . gif he hit to him geearnian wile . 7 he geselle 


of ^em londe xxx [sestra] cornes seghwelce gere to 
Hrofescestre. Ond sic Sis lond gewriten 7 unbefliten 
sefter Eadredes dsege in -^Ifredes reht meodrencynn ^sl 
hwile ^e fulwihte sio on Angelcynnes ealonde. ©eos 
foresprec . 7 ^as gewriotu . ^e her beufan awreotene 
stonda'S . ic iElfred willio . 7 wille ^set hio sion scS- 
faestlice foi-Sweard getrymed me 7 minum serfeweardum. 
Gif 'Sset 'Sonne god allmsehtig geteod habbe . ond me 
"Saet on Isene geli^ "Saet gesibbra serfeweard for'Scyme^ 
wepnedhades . 7 acenned weor'Se^ . ^anne ann ic ^sem 
ofer minne daeg alles mines erfes to brucanne . swa him 
leofust sio ; And swa hwylc mon swa 'Sas god . 7 "Sas 
geofe . 7 ^as gewrioto . 7 "Sas word . mid rehte haldan 
wille . ond gelestan . gehalde hine heofones cyning in 
"Sissum life ondwardum . 7 eac swa in "Ssem towardan 
life ; Ond swa hwylc mon swa hio wome . 7 breoce . 
gewome him God almahtig his weorldare ond eac swa 
his sawle are ; 

Her syndon "Saera manna naman awritene ^e "Seosse 
wisan geweotan sindon. 

>I« Ic ^^ered ar.bisc. mid ^sere halgan Cristes rode 
tacne ^as word 7 'Sas wisan fsestnie 7 write. >^ Alfred 
dux. >i< Beorhtuulf dux. >^ Beornhelm abb. >I< Ear- 
duulf abb. ►$« Werburg. >J< Sigfred pr. >J< Beon- 
heah pr. >^ Beagstan pr. >i< Wulfheah. >^ ^Sel- 
wulf pr. 1^ Earduulf pf. >{« Beorno^ diac. >{« WeaJd- 
helm diac. >I< Wine sb diac. >{« Ssefre^. ►{< Ceolmund 
m. >J< Eadmund in. 1^ Eadwald in. >^ Siguulf m, 

*:(.* This Will is a chief text for the definition of folcland. See 
Schmid v. Folcland. The testator bequeaths to Werburg his wife large 
estates which are spoken of as hereditary and as bocland ; and he also 
bequeaths three hides of like tenure to his son ^Selwald — ' and if the 
king will grant him the folcland in addition to the bocland, then let him 
have it and enjoy it : but if that be not so, then, she (Werburg) is to 


give him one or the other, which she pleases, of two estates above given 
to her, of which the one was seven the other ten hides.' From this we 
learn an important difference between bocland and folcland, that the 
former could, the latter could not, be willed. And we gather that folc- 
land could not go to a woman. 

Moreover, in this will, we catch a glimpse of the large herds of swine 
which the Saxon landowners kept. 

This Elfred the testator was the person who gave to Christ Church 
that book which is known as the Golden Gospels, and which is now at 
Stockholm. It is &csimiled in Kask's Grammar, and by Prof. West- 
wood, 1868. 

Canterbury Archives. A.D. 889. 

S. i. 11. 


bp. of Rochester, with the brotherhood there, grants land to 
Biorhtwulf a priest. This was first published in the Fac- 
similes of the Ordnance Survey. 

►J< Regnante in perpetuum domino nostro ihesu 
christo Omnia regna huius labentis uitae regnorumque 
dispensatores ab initio histius sseculi cum uelocitate 
deficientes ceciderunt . Ideo fugitiuis ex mortalibus rebus 
aeterna gaudia promerenda sunt, qua propter ego swi^u- 
ulf episcopus 7 'Sa higan set hrofes cestre, dabunt 
biorhtuulfo presbitero aliquam partem terre in pro- 
uincio can tie in regione que uocatur haddun id est 
dimidium unius aratri pro eius placabili pecunio in 
hereditatem sempiternam iure hereditorio tibi ad haben- 
dum set possidendum feliciter perfruendum in dies tuos . 
set post dies tuos cuicumque herede tibi placuerit . dere- 
linquendum liberam per omnia habeas potestatem. Hsec 
sunt set enim termini histius predicti agelli circumia- 
centia biscopes mearc annor'San east be hunesbiorge o'S 
ciolmundes mearce 7 ^es landes in erefwe su^ ober 
haddune middewearde 7 ober "Sane ealdan tunsteall 0^ 


cinges mearce 7 su'S be cinges mearce o^ 'Sane myclan 
del nor^an 7 west be cinges mearce 0^ ciolmundes wioda 
7 west be % wioda andlanges 'Sare rode o^ ^ane pyt 7 
east fram "Sy pytte Surh "Sane wioda wi^ su'San hunes- 
biorge 7 wen weg 'Sy lande ober ciolmundes land to 
ealdan strete, haec sunt prata que ad illam terram 

.1. Et bioccan lea . 7 an su'S healfe strodes an cyninges 
medum ^a ^e ^serto belimpa'S. 

Anni domini nostri ihesu christi dccclxxxviiii scripta 
est hec cartula his testibus consentientibus set subscri- 
uentibus quorum hie nomina tenentur ad scripta 

^ Ego suui^ulf episcopus banc donationem signo 
sancte crucis christi confirmavi, 

>J< Ego sigehelm dux consensi et subscripsi 
>i< Ego ealhhere minister consensi et subscripsi 
1^ Ego dioruulf presbyter consensi et subscripsi 
1^ Ego earduulf presbyter consensi et subscripsi 
»i< Ego sigebearht presbyter consensi et subscripsi 
^ Ego ciolmund archidiaconus consensi et subscripsi 
tit Ego ealhstan diaconus consensi et subscripsi 

*:(.* Endorsed : — >J< Eadgar cynincg of his agenre handa sealde ]}a& boc 

leofrice on J)ara gewitnesse ]>e her benij)aii standa]). dunstan . archiepis- 

copus »J< athelwold episcopus. oswald episcopus. aelf here . dux. selfwine 

frater eius. >J< wulstan . minister, osgar abbas, ealdred minister. 

eadehn . minister, wulfheh minister, leofstan minister, aelfheh minister. 

wulfsige minister, byrhtric minister, wulfsige minister, leofric minister. 

SuiJ)ulfus episcopus rofFensis . et conuentus 

dederunt biortuulfo diniidium aratri at haddun 

» . latine . 

Haddune booc. 


Cott. Vesp. A. V. 169. A.D. 896. 


T. p. 139, from Heming. 

iEJSelred of Mercia 

held a great council for revision of government, and it was 
at this Witenagemot that WerfertS bishop of Worcester re- 
covered from one iESelwald the woodland of Woodchester 
(Gloucester), which had been given to his see by king iESel- 
bald. This woodland had been appropriated to the conter- 
minous estates of Bisley, Avening, Thornbury, &c., for all 
which annexations a single man is answerable, named ^ESel- 
wald. He does not pretend to dispute the bishop's claim, but 
petitions the enjoyment on lease for his own time and that of 
his son Alhmund. 

>^ RixiENDUM ussum dryhtene "Ssem hselendan Crist! 
^fter ^on 'Se segan wses ehta hund wintra and syx and 
bund nigontig efter his acennednesse and % feower- 
teo^an gebonngere, "Sa ^y gere gebeon ^E^elred ealder- 
man selle Mercna weotan tosomne to Gleaweceastre 
bisceopas, and aldermen, and alle his dugu^e, and "Sset 
dyde be jiElfredes cyninges gewitnesse and leafe; and 
heo 'Sa 'Seer smeadan hii heo rihtlicost heora J^eodscip 
seg^er ge for Gode ge for weorlde gehealdan mehton, 
and ec monige men ryhtan ge godcundra hada ge 
weorldcundra, ge on londum ge on ma ^ara J?inga 'Se 
heo on forhaldne weran. Da cy^de Werfer^ bisceop 
"Sam weotum "Sset him wsere forneh eall "Sset wudulond 
on gereafad "Se to Wuduceastre belomp 'SaBt -^'Selbald 
cyning gesealde to Weogornaeeastre him to eere 
selmessan, Wilfer'Se t) to msestlonde and to wudu- 
londe ; and "Saet ssede 'Sset hit wsere sume genumen to 
Bislege, sum to ^feningum, sum to Scorranstane, sume 
to Dornbyrig "Ssbs "Se he wende; ^a cw£edon eall "Sa 


weotan ^set mon u^e 'Ssere cyrcan rihtes swa well 
swa 6'Serre, and 'Sa sona wses ^^elwald 'Sees wordes 
■^set he no "Ses rihtes wi^sacan wolde, and ssede 'Saet 
Aldberht and Alhhiin bisceop wseron ser ymb 'Sset 
ylce and cwaeiS ^aet he selcre cireaen aa his d^la rihtes 
u^e ; and hit swa swiSe mildlice ageaf 'Sam bisceop and 
heht his geneat, Ecglaf hatte, ridan mid ceastersetna 
preoste, Wulf hun hatte, and he hine ^a, gelsedde ealle 
^a gemgeru swa he him of ^am aldan bocum raedde 
hu hit ser ^^elbald cyning gemserude and gesalde. 
Da wilnede ^Selwald swa 'Seh to ^am % and to 
'Sam higen "Sset heo him mildemode alefdan f he his 
moste bruean "Sa hwile 'Se he wsere and heo Alhmund 
his sunu ; and heo hit woldon habban on his Isene and 
hina, and he nsefre ne heora nowSer hine bereafian 
wolde ^^ere maestreddene 'Se he him aleafed hsefde 
on Longan hryege ^am tldum 'Se hine God him salde ; 
ond he ^a ^^elwald Saet word gecwse^ ^set hit aa 
haefde ofer Godes est 'Se hit hsefde butan 'Sare cyrcan 
hlaforde ^e he hit to ageaf butan Alhmunde, and ^set 
'Sonne on ^a gearan^ "Se he heolde "Sa ylcan freonde- 
reddene ^e he heold wi^ ^one bisceop ; gif hit 'Sonne 
gebirie 'Saet Alhmund swa 'Sa freondreddene healdan 
nolde o^^e hine mon oferricte ^set he ne most landes 
wyr^e beon, o^^e J^ridda wend gif him ser his ende 
geselde, 'Sset 'Sonne 'Sgere cyrcan hlaford fenge to his 
londe swa hit MsBrena weotan on 'Sa gemote gerahton 
and him Sa bee wisedon 'Sses londes. And ^is wses 
gedon on ^'Selredes gewitnesse aldormonnes, and on 
^^elflaede and ^Sulfes aldormonnes, and iE'Selfer'Ses 
aldormonnes, and Alhhelmes aldormannes, and Ead- 
no^es, and ^Ifrsedes, and VVerfer'Ses, and ^^elwaldes, 
msessepreostees, and his agenra maga iE^elstanes and 


-^"Selhunnes and eac Alhmundes his agenes sunu : and 
^us se ceastersetna preost hit gerad and se JE^el- 
waldes geneat mid hine, £erost on Ginne^l^ege^ and 
"Sanon on Roddanbeorg sylfne, 'Sanon on Smececumb 
"Sanon on Sengetlege, "Sanon on Heardanlege ^sere is 
o^er noma Dryganleg, 'Sset swa on "Sa Isessan Naegles- 
lege, and swa to iE'Selfer'Ses londe. Bus him gewisede 
se ^^elwaldes mo[n] 'Sa gemseru swa him "Sa aldan bee 
ryhtan and wisedon. 

^ Thorpe suggests gerad. 
2 GemySlege T. 

Translation : — ^ Under the government of our Lord and Saviour 
Christ ! When there was gone 896 years after his birth, and in the 
fourteenth Indiction, in that year summoned alderman ^thelred all the 
Mercian councilmen together to Gloucester ; bishops, and aldermen, and 
all his nobility ; and that he did by king Alfred's knowledge and leave ; 
and they then there deliberated how they could rightliest order their 
people as well before God as before the world, and likewise to right 
many men both of the spiritual and of the temporal orders in respect of 
lands and other things besides, wherein they had been injured. Then 
did bishop WerferS declare to the councilmen that he had been dis- 
possessed of well-nigh all the woodland belonging to Woodchester, which 
king jE'Selbald had given to Worcester for a perpetual alms on his own 
account, and for mastland and woodland to bishop WilferS : and that 
he said had been partly taken to Bisley, part to Avening, part to 
Scorranstan, part to Thornbury, as he supposed. Then said all the 
councilmen that justice should be accorded to that church as well as to 
any other ; and immediately upon that JEthelwald expressed himself as 
having no wish to dispute the right, and he said that bishop Aldberht 
and Aldhun had been formerly about the same business, and he said 
that he had always for his part been disposed to render full right to 
every church : and so he mildly yielded it up to the bishop, and ordered 
his yeoman, Ecglaf by name, to ride with the citizens' chaplain who 
was called Wulfhun, and he, shewed him all the bounds as he read to 
him out of the old books, according as king ^Selbald had originally 
defined and granted it. Then did ^'Selwald however make request to 
the bishop and to the society that they would graciously allow him to 
enjoy it for his lifetime and that of Alhmund his son ; and how that 
they would hold it on loan from him and the society, and he would 
never, nor would either of them, deprive him of the swine-pasture that 
he had let him have on Long Ridge for such times as God should give 


it him ; and he then ^thelwald spake the word that whoever held it, 
except the lord of that church to whom he had restored it, would always 
hold it under God's displeasure, with the exception of Alhmund, and 
that exception made upon the understanding that he was to maintain 
the same friendship with the bishop as he (-(Ethelwald) had done. If 
however it should come to pass that Alhmund refused to maintain that 
friendship, or if he should be convicted of a crime which would make him 
incapable of holding land, or, a third case, if his end should happen first, 
that then the lord of that church should take to his land, as the Mercian 
councilmen at that Gem6t had settled it, and as the deeds of the land 
directed them. And this was done with the witness of -^thelred alder- 
man, and of -^thelflsRd, and of ^thulf alderman, and ^thelferS 
alderman, and Alhhelm alderman, and Eadnoth, and ^Ifraed, and Wer- 
fer'S and^thelwald priest, and his own kinsmen ^^elstan and^Selhun 
and likewise Alhmund his own son ; and thus the citizens' priest rode 
the bounds and -^^elwald's yeoman with him, first at GinneSleah, and 
thence on to Rodborough itself, thence to Smececumb, thence to Senget- 
leah, thence to Heardanleah, otherwise called Dryganleah, and so on to 
the lesser Naeglesleah, and so to ^SelferS's land. Thus did ^thel- 
wald's man guide him over the bounds as the old deeds directed and 

Chart. Ant. Cantuar. F. 150. A.D. 898. 

K 324. S. i. 12. 


Saxonum rex, grants in perpetuity to aldorman Sighelm one 
manens at Fearnleag (Farleigh on the Medway above Maid- 
stone) and one large ' wisce ' to go with the land. This may- 
be a * wash ' or marish ; and Mr. Sanders cites Domesday 
for eel fisheries at Farleigh. He also notes that Eadweard 
the heir to the throne is styled * rex ' in his father's lifetime. 

>J< In nomine domine ego selfrsedus gratia dei saxonum 
rex . meo fideli duce sigilmo^ concede in perpetuam 
possessionem terram iuris mei uniusque manentis in loco 
qui dicitur fearnleag et an myclan wisce vi. seceres 
msede into "Sam lande an nor^eweardre wi^ eadweald 
sibirhtigne^ pro eius amabilii pecunia ut abeat et posse- 
deat quam diu uiuat . postque suum ab ac uita decessum 


liberam abeat potestatem dandi cuicumque placuerit acta 
est autem hsec donatio anno ab incarnatione cbristi . 
Dcccxcviii. in loco qui dicitur wulfamere . biis testi- 
bus consentientibus quorum nomina infra karaxata esse 

»J< ego selfred rex saxonum banc meam donationem 
signo sancte crucis confirmo. 

i^ eadweard rex . banc regis donationem stabilito 

>J< ordlaf dux. ^ beorbtsige minister, t^ eadweald 
minister. »J< ecgfer^S minister. 

>J< sigulf dux. ^ osfer'S minister. f^ se^elstan 
sacerdos. i^t eadhelm minister. 

f^ wullaf dux. »J< wulfhere minister. i^ cu^ulf 

}^ Ista autem prsefata terra hiis terminibus circum- 
cincta esse uidetur. 

►I* serest easte weard "Saet ealde bocland to fearnleage 
li^ "Sonne is "Saet su'S land gemaere 'Sses cinges west and- 
lang "Sees fyrb'Ses o'S "Sone bradan weg "Se uppan scet to 
fealcnes forda "Sonne belt mede wsege "Sset nor^ land 
gem sere : ^ 

*5|.* Endorsed : — aelfredus Kex dedit sigilmo terrain in farnlege 
. feamleg . latine fernleah 

* Under the year 905 the Saxon Chronicle preserves a circumstantial 
record of the death of Sighelni aldorman of Kent, who is almost cer- 
tainly the grantee of this deed ; joining with him another Kentish 
aldorman Sigulf who here appears among the signataries: and with 
these two is immediately joined the name of ' Eadwald cynges J)egn,' 
whom we may identify, if with less certainty, yet with little doubt, as 
the same person with the * Eadweald minister,' who is a signatary, and 
the Eadweald Sigbrihting, who was a conterminous landlord. 

' For Sibirhtingne, a strong adjectival accusative of the patronymic. 

^ The bounds are brief but rich in material. Eastward was the old 
book-land at Farleigh ; and this old book -land we take to be East Far- 
leigh, while the estate here conveyed is perhaps West Farleigh, or the 
germ thereof. And though the southern meer blends somewhat vaguely 


with the western, we cannot avoid identifying the singular term * "Saes 
fyrhSes * with the * Fright Wood ' in the Ordnance Map, nearly though 
not quite in the situation corresponding to the description. Perhaps 
the present Fright Wood is but a remnant of that long stretch of wood- 
land which the terms of the deed require. 

Cotton Charter viii. 27. A.D. 901. 

KSSO. B. iii. 1. 

^^ered and -ffiJ^elfled 

joint rulers of the Mercians, grant land to Wenlock abbey, in 
compensation for other land that had been alienated therefrom 
for the royal domain. They also give to the same church a 
golden chalice weighing 30 mancuses. 

►!< Regnante rege reguum qui in tribus . psonis sue . 

>I« sc^ diuinitatis consistit qui angelos . necnon et . 

>i< animas c^lum terramque . sine materia creauit . 

»I< corpora namque de . iiii . id est ex aere et aqua et . 

>I< de terra . igneue . p ipsius excelsi regis nutu . 

»^ transiet tempus psens et qua lis dies fugiunt . 

>J< et ut sapiens Salomon ait generatio uenit generatio . 

»J< recedit . et quos uidi non uideo et quos uideo non . 

>J< uidebo et semp omnia ad finem festinant . ideo atra- . 

>J< mento litteras chartulis comendamus ut qu^ cupira . 

>I« .... possint ad euitandam supuenientium scandalorum . 

>J< periculosam contentionem . ne a posteris labentur . 

>J< sine memoria priscorum procerum statuta . His . 

1^ itaque . pdictis ad memoriam reuocemus . quod . 

»i< severed sepelfledquje opitulante gratuita di gratia 

1^ monarchiam . merceorum tenentes honorificeque . 

>J< gubernantes et defendentes . insu^ eorum congre- . 

1^ gatio wininicensis eclesi^ consentiens consentit il . . 

>{< rum dominie terram . manentium . viii . in east . 

>I< hope . iii . in peatting tune . v . in hereditatem . 


>J< ppetuam habendi possidendique . pro comutatione 
>J< illius terr^ in stan tune .* x cassatarum qu§ prius 
>J< erat foras concessa in dominium regalem . pro 
>j^ libertate illius monasterii sed nos iterum cum 
i^ licentia et testimonio pantorum pcerum merceorum 
»J< comodauimus ea condicione ut sit sub dominio 
>J< senioris illius ecl§si§ et .... ad mensam sed et 
>I< terram . iii . manentium qu^ dicitur cahing Iseg ad 
>J< mensam illius congregationis ppetualiter dona- 
>I< uimus qu^ antea in trium hominuminum diem 
>i< foras concessa fuerat , ista a . . . e supradicta terra 
>i< id est in east hope et in peating tune . libera scripta 
►!< constat ab omnium psonarum iugo seruitutis . Nos 
>i< etiam condonauimus . kalicem aureum pensans 
►J< . XXX . mancusos ad istam . . . . n di amore hono- 
>5< req; uirginis . uenerabile . . . mildburge . abbatiss^ 
>^ ut securius possimus pfrui huius terre possesionem 
»J« ea condicione ut pmaneat indesinenter . semp in 

»i< ista §clesia quamdiu cussa pmaueat . 

^ nisi sub iurem istius §clesi§ ad illorum 

>J< mensam si necessitas euenerit . acta . est If ista 

>^ chartula anno dominice incarn . dcccc°i° .in 

»^ in ciuitate scrobbensis trina magestas 

1^ conseruet conseruantes . condemnet ledentes . hii 
»^ sunt testes . buius . cbartul§ . 

>I< ego severed 

ij« ego se'Selfled . c 






wired . 

selfric . 

cu^ulf . 

wulfsig . 

[tjidelm . 

aldred . 

wigburg . 


8e"Selswi^ . 

wulfsig . 


culfre . 

cineburg . 

At {he "bottom of the charter are the upper portion of the letters 

ME . CEVCI8 . >J< . 

*#* 'Endorsed, *east hop.'; and in a hand of the i^th century, 
' donum effredi Vegis' de esthop scilicet stowell . patteneia.* B. 

Addit. Chart. 19, 791. A. D. 904. 

B.iii. 2. 


bp. Worcester, grants to Wulfsige his reeve one hide in 
East tun. 


RixiENDUM on ecnisse ussum drihtne hselende 
criste se-oe all "Sing gemetega'S ge on heofenum ge 
on eor'San J^aes inflsescnisse 'Sy gere J^e agen waes 
dcccc wintra 7 iiii winter 7 ^y uii . gebon gere . ic 
uuerfrid biseo'p' mid mines arweor^an heorodes ge'Sa- 
ftmega 7 leafe on weogerna ceastre sylle wulfsige minum 
gerefan wi'S bis holdum msegene 7 eadmodre bernesse 
anes bides lond on easttune swa swa berred bit bsefde 
on "Sreora monna dseg 7 all "Sset inn lond belige'S an die 
utane 7 )7onne ofer "Sreora monna d§g agefe monn eft 


'Saet lond butan elcon wi'Sercwide inn to weogerna 
ceastre 7 "Sis seondan 'Sara monna noman ^e "Sset ge^a- 
fedon 7 mid cristes rode tacne gefaestnedon >I< uuerfri'S 
biscop >^ cynebelm abb >I< uuerfri'S prs >J< eadmund prs 
»J< berhtmund prs >J< tidbald prs >J< hildefri^ prs >J« ecfri-S 
prs i^ eaduulf prs 1^ wiglaf prs >I< oslac diacon 1^ cyna'S 
diacon >J< berhthelm >J< wigheard 1^ monn >J< earduulf >J< 
uullaf >I< berhthelm >{< heahred ►$< cynelaf >J< uulfred >J< 
cynehelm 1^ uulfric 1^ cenfri'S >J< hwituc 1^ cynelaf >^ 
ceolhelm 1^ uullaf >J< ealhmund >J< earduulf 1^ uulfgar. 

*5ie* Endorsed, 'unlfsiges lond boc'; and in later hands, 'heast- 
unesboc * ' and * Eadward senior.' B. 

Chart. Ant. Cantuar. C. 1282. About 007. 

T. p. 169. 
S. i. 13. 

Anonymous Memorial 

or petition, in form of a letter, addressed to the king, who 
can be no other than Eadweard the son of Alfred. The 
petitioner informs the king how he has dealt with five hides 
of land at Fonthill (Wilts), which became his in the manner 
described, and he prays the king that what has been done 
may stand. The result appears on the back ^. 

>J« Leof ic "Se cy^e hu hit wses ymb "Saet lond set 
funtial "Sa fif hida "Se se'Selm higa ymb spyc^ "Sa helm- 
stan "Sa undaede gedyde 'Sset he se'Seredes belt forstsel . 
"Sa ongon higa him specan sona on mid o'Sran onspe- 
cendan 7 wolde him o^flitan "Sset lond "Sa sohte he me 7 
bsed me "Sset ic him wsere forespeca for^on ic his hsefde 
ser onfongen set biscopes honda ser he "Sa undsede gedyde . 
•Sa spaec ic him fore 7 "Singade him to selfrede cinge 


•Sa god forgelde his saule 'Sa lyfde he 'Sset he moste 
beon ryhtes wyr^e for mire forspsece 7 ryht race wi'S 
se'Selm ymb ^aet lond ^Sa het he hie seman "Sa wees ic 
^ara monna sum "Se 'Sser to genemned wseran 7 wihtbord 
7 selfric wses ^a hrsel ^en 7 byrhthelm 7 wulf hun *Ses 
blaca set sumortune 7 strica 7 ubba 7 ma monna "Sonne 
ic nu genemnan maege 'Sa reahte heora seg^er his spell 
•Sa "Suhte us eallan "Sset helmstan moste gan for^ mid 
"Son bocon 7 geagnigean him "Sset lond ^set he hit hsefde 
swa se^eldry^ hit osulfe on seht gesealde wi'S gemedan 
feo 7 heo cwse'S to osulfe "Sset heo hit ahte him wel to 
syllanne for 'Son hit wses hire morgengifu "Sa heo aest^ 
to a^ulfe com 7 helmstan "Sis eal on 'Son a'Se befeng 7 
selfred cing "Sa osulfe his hondsetene sealde ^a he Saet 
lond set se^eldry^e bohte ^set hit swa stondan moste 7 
eadweard his 7 se^elna^ his 7 deormod his 7 selces 'Sara 
monna 'Se mon "Sa habban wolde "Sa we hie set weardoran 
nu semdan 'Sa bser mon "Sa boc for'S 7 rsedde hie "Sa stod 
seo hondseten eal "Sseron 6a "Suhte us eallan "Se set 'Ssere 
some wseran ^et helmstan wsere a^e 'Sses "Se near ^a nses 
se^elm na fullice ge^afa ser we eodan into cinge 7 rsedan 
call hu we hit reahtan 7 be hwy we hit reahfcan 7 se^elm 
stod self 'Sser inne mid 7 cing stod Swoh his honda set 
weardoran innan "Son bure 'Sa he Sset gedon haefde "Sa 
ascade he se^elm hwy hit him ryht ne 'Suhte ^set we him 
gereaht hsefdan cvvse'S 'Sset he nan ryhtre ge^encan ne 
meahte "Sonne he -Sone a^ agifan moste gif he meahte 
"Sa cwse^ ic "Sset he wolde cunnigan 7 bsed ^one cing "Sset 
he hit andagade 7 he 'Sa swa dyde 7 he gelsedde Sa to 
"Son andagan ^Sone a'S be fullan 7 bsed me "Sset ic him 
fultemade 7 cwse'S "Sset him wsere leofre "Sset he pset land 
me se] aide "Sonne se a^ forburste o^S^e hit sef [re] . . . 
. . . sede ^a cwse'S ic "Sset ic him wolde fylstan to ryhte 

M 2 


7 nsefre to nanan wo on 'Sa gerada ^e he his me u^e 7 
he me "Sset on wedde gesealde 7 we ridan "Sa to "Son 
andagan ic 7 wihtbord rad mid me 7 byrhthelm rad "Sider 
mid sB^elme 7 we gehyrdan ealle 'Sset he 'Sone a'S be 
fulan ageaf 'Sa we cwsedan ealle "Sset hit wsere geendodu 
spsec ^a se dom wses gefylled 7 leof hwonne bi^ engu 
spsec geendedu gif mon ne mseg now^er ne mid feo ne 
mid a'Sa geendigan o^^e gif mon selcne dom wile on- 
wendan 'Se selfred cing gesette hwonne habbe we "Sonne 
gemotad 7 he me "Sa hoc "Sa ageaf swa he me on 'Son 
wedde ser geseald haefde sona swa se a'S agifen was 7 ic 
him gehet "Sset he moste 'Ses londes brucan 'Sa hwile 
■Se he lifde gif he hine wolde butan bysmore gehealdan 
•Sa on ufan 'Sset ymb an o^er healf gear nat ic hwe'Ser 
"Se ymb tua ^a forstsel he ^a unlsedan oxan set funtial 
"Se he mid ealle fore forweai"S 7 draf to cytlid 7 hine 
mon SsBrset aparade 7 his speremon ahredde "Sa spor 
wreclas "Sa he fleah 'Sa torypte hine an breber ^ ofer "Sset 
nebb 'Sa he setsacan wolde "Sa ssede him mon "Saet to 
tacne "Sa swaf eanulf penearding on wses gerefa "Sa genom 
eal "Sset yrfe him on "Saet he ahte to tyssebyrig * 'Sa ascade 
ic hine hwy he swa dyde 'Sa cwse^ he 'Sset he wsere ^eof 
7 mon gerehte ^set yrfe cinge for^on he wses cinges 
mon 7 ordlaf feng to his londe for^on hit wses his Isen 
^set he on sset he ne meahte na his forwyrcan 7 tu hine 
hete ^a flyman -Sa gesahte he ^ines fseder lie 7 brohte 
insigle to me 7 ic wses set cippanhomme mit te "Sa ageaf 
Tc ^set insigle "Se 7 ^u him forgeafe his card 7 ^a are 
"Se he get on gebogen hsefS 7 ic feng to minan londe 7 
sealde hit ^on biscope "Sa on 'Sine gewitnesse 7 ^inra 
weotena "Sa fif hida wi"S "Son londe set lidgeard wi^ fif 
hidan 7 biscop 7 eal hiwan forgeafan me "Sa feower 7 an 
was teo'Sing lond ^onne leof is me micel neod^earf ^set 


hit mote stondan swa hit nu gedon is -j gefyrn wses gif 
hit elleshwset bi^ 'Sonne sceal ic 7 wylle beon gehealden 
on -Son "Se "Se to selmessan ryht "SincS. 

In dorso: — >J< 7 se'Selm higa eode of -Sam geflite 'Sa 
cing wses set worgemynster • on ordlafes gewitnesse 7 on 
osfer^Ses 7 on oddan 7 on wihtbordes 7 on selfstanes "Sys 
blerian 7 on se^elno'Ses. 

^ Heltnstan being convicted of theft, a claimant to Helmstan's 
land, named ^'Selm Higa, thought it a good time to push his claim. 
The petitioner had stood godfather to Helmstan at his confirmation, and 
Helmstan resorted to him in his trouble. So he took up his godson's 
cause, and spoke for him to the king, who was then Alfred. The king 
thought it should be referred : — and petitioner was one of the referees. 
Helmstan produced his title ; and at Wardour (Wilts), where the king 
then was, the referees met to decide. All were agreed that Helmstan 
might bring his oath, but M^qIvo. demurred ; and so they went before 
the king. They found the king in his bower washing his hands. They 
told him what conclusion they had come to, and why : — and ^Selm stood 
with them in the chamber. When Alfred had done washing, he asked 
iESelm why he was not satisfied ; adding, that he could not think of 
anything fairer than that Helmstan should vouch it by oath if he could. 
The petitioner then sjwke, and said that Helmstan would see what he 
could do : — and so the king named a day. Now it was not an easy 
matter for Helmstan to muster the requisite number of co- jurors, and 
so he once more sought the petitioner's aid. This was granted on 
condition that the reversion of the land should be his. The oath suc- 
ceeded, and Helmstan was again in quiet possession. But in less than 
two years he stole oxen, and they were tracked, and he had to run for 
it ; and in his flight he got a great bramble-scratch across the nose, 
which made part of the evidence against him. The sheriff was dowoi 
upon him, and seized his land in the king's name : those of whom he 
held laen-land reentered : and the present king pronounced his banish- 
ment. Still Helmstan found means to propitiate the king, acting through 
petitioner, who was then with the king at Chippenham. He revoked 
Helmstan's outlawry, allowed him a place to live on, and consented to 
let the land go in its appointed course. So the petitioner became pos- 
sessed of the land, and he had since dealt with it, and he hopes the 
king will allow the arrangement to stand — A postscript on the back 
records how ^^elm Higa yielded the dispute (the king being at War- 
minster) in the presence of witnesses. 

^ = aerest. 

^ = brember. 

* Tisbury, 3 m. from FonthilL Wardour is close by. 


Chart. Cott. viii. 16. 12 Nov. 931. 

K 353. 
B. iii. 3. 


premising that the things below are peripsema quisquiliarum, 
while the things above are ad instar pretiosonira monilium, 
grants to his trusty thane Wulfgar g cassatae aet Hamme 
(Ham, Wilts) liberaliter ac eternaliter. In the Saxon there 
are two words, beowa and grendel, that recall the Beowulf. 
The date is elaborate; and the place is in uilla omnibus 
Ukotissima qu^ leowtun nuncupatur. 

Appended is grantee's Will, in writing of another type, 
but apparently coeval. The provisions are calculated (if 
known) to ensure the good conduct of the relatives during 
the testator's lifetime. The land at -^scmere is reserved for 
disposal by a nuncupative Will. 

>J< Pr^.dicta siquidem tellus . his termini s . circum- 
cincta clarescit; serast on eastewardan . on lin leage 
geat . 7 ^onne on lin leage middewearde . 7 'Sonon 
su"Srihte wi'S 'Sara stan ceastla ., 7 "Sonne of 'Ssem stan 
eeastlum to pyddes geate . 'Sonon to oswaldes berghe . 
"Sonon ondlong herpo'Ses . on burghardes anstigo . "Sonne 
for'S to bares anstigon . 'Sonon on heardan leage midde- 
wearde . "Sonne su^ on gerihte . ondlong henna dene . 
o'S hit cime'S to "Ssere die . ^onne west ut ^urh henna 
leah . o'S hit cime'S to "Ssere efese . "Sonne a nor^ be wyrt 
walan tSaet on efen Sone greatan aesc ; "Sonne nor^ ondlong 
"Sses ^h'linces . "Sset on bofan hangran ; "Sonne ondlong 
hagan . on wifiling falod westeweardne ; Son nor"S ofer 
dune . on meos ^h'linc westeweardne ; -Sonne a dune on 
^a yfre . on beowan hamraes hecgan . on bremeles 
sceagan easteweardne ; "Sonne on "Sa blacan grsefan . "Son 
nor^ be ^em 7 heafdan . to "Ssere scortan die . butan anan 
secre ; "Son to fugel mere to ^an wege ; ondlong weges . 
to ottes forda ; ^onon to wudu mere ; "Son to "Saere 


ruwan hecgan ; ^set on langan hangran ; "Sod. on 
grendles mere ; 'Sonon on dyrnan geat ; ^on eft on 
lin leage geat ., 

Si autem quod absit . aliquis diabolico in flatus spu . 
banc meq copositionis ae confirmationis breuiculam . in- 
fringere uel elidere temptauerit \ sciat se nouissima ac 
magna examinationis die . stridula clangente archangeli 
salpice . bustis sponte debiscentibus . somata iam redi- 
uiua relinquentibus . elementis omnib; pauefactis . cum 
iuda pditore . qui a satoris pio sato . filius perditionis 
dicitur . ^terna confusione ..^edacibus ineffabilium tor- 
mentorum flamis periturum ., huius namque a do dnoque 
itu xpo . inspirat^ . atq; inuent^ uoluntatis scedula . 
anno dominie^ incarnationis . dcecc° . xxx°i° . regni uero 
gratis mibi commissi . uii^ . indictione . iiii* . epacta nulla . 
concurrente . u° . ii . idus . nouebris . luna . xx* . uiiii* . 
in uilla omnib; notissima . qu§ leowtun . nuncupatur . 
episcopis . abbatibus . ducib; . patr i'^ procuratoribus . 
regia . dapsilitate ouantib; perscripta est ; cuius etiam 
inconcuss^ . firmitatis auctoritas \ his testibus roborata 
constat . quoru nomina subtus . caracteribus depicta'l' 

R : — ^(5elstanus florentis brytani^ monarcliia pr§ditus rex. 
Abp : — "Wulfhelmus dorobernensis eclesig Wulfstanus ebora- 

censis eclesi^. 
Subreg : — Howsel. lu'Swal. 
Epsc; — Aelfwine. Eadulf. Cunan. Aelfbeah. Sigelm. Cen- 

wald. Beornstan. Oda. "Wynsige. Wulfhun. Deoderd. 

CynefercS. Tidelm. Cynsige. Eadward. Aescberht. 

Dux: — Aelfwald. Osfer'5. Aldred. Uhtred. Aescberht. 

Aelfstan. Uhterd. Urm. Gu'Srum. Haward. Gunner. 

DurfercS. Aelferd. Hadd. Scule. 


A'bb: — Aelfric. Eadwine. AecSelnocS. Biorhtsige. Seaxhelm. 

m: — Odda. Wulfgar. Ae'Selstan. Aelfheh. Ae'Selfer'S. Aelf- 
here. AeSelwold. Eadric. Aelfwald. Buga. Aelfric. 
Ealhelm. AeSelstan. Beorhtulf. Hefa. Aelfric. Aelf- 
sige. Sigeric. AetSeric. Aelfheh. Swi(Sulf. WuUaf. 
AefSelm. Eadric. AetSelweard. AetSelmund. Ealhhelm. 
Ae'SelnocS. Wulfsige. Wynsige. Aelfhelm. Aelfric. 
Aelfstan. "Wulfric. AecSelmund. Burherd. Wulfsige. 
Beorhtric. AetSelstan. Aet5elm. Wulfno^. Wulfmser. 
"Wulfbold. Wulfsige. Wihtgar. Aelferd. Wulfric. Ael- 
fric. AetSelweard. Eadulf. AetJelsige. Wifer'5. Wulf- 
helm. Cyred. Aefelstan. Aelfno'S. Aelfsige. AecSelstan. 

*5is* ^Indorsed in a contemporary hand, '))is is })8es landes boc set 
hamme '; in one of the 12th century, ' Donum hamme latine et anglice ' ; 
in one of the i^th, 'Adelstani Eegis*; and in one of the i6th, 'this is 
the landes booke of hame in y® Saxon Charater ' * Wolstan Rex '. B. 

>i< Ic wulfgar an Jjses landes get collinga burnan ofer minne 
daeg seffan hiere dseg 7 heo tilige uncer begea sawla ]?earfe 
gemsenelice "Sger on . 7 feormige jjrie dagas fa godes f>eowas 
fger min lie reste'on pone gemynd dseg'' 7 selle f)am maesse- 
preoste fif peningas 7 J>ara of)ra selcum twegen 7 ofer hiere 
daeg to winte ceastre fam niwan hierede for mine sawle to 
habbenne 7 to brucenne 7 na of f>am mynstre to sellanne . 7 
ic an f)ses landes set inge penne ofer minne dseg seffan to 
brucenne 7 to bewitanne 7 J^set heo hsebbe selce gere to fam 
tune ealra gearwsestma pa, J?rie dselas 7 f>one feorf>an to 
cynetan byrig )?am godes J^eowum for mine sawle 7 for mines 
fseder 7 for mines ieldran fseder . J?onne ofer hiere dseg in to 
cynetan byrig to fsere halgan stowe for wulfgares sawle J^e ic 
hit in selle 7 for wulfrices 7 for wulf heres pe hit serest begeat 
to habbenne 7 to brucenne 7 naefre ut to sellanne ^ fonne an 
ic pads landes set crseft ofer minne dseg wynsige 7 selfsige 7 
ealles {)ses pe ic jjser on begite 7 ic an )?ses landes set denforda 
ofer minne dseg se}3elstane 7 cynestane gif hie me o]? f on 
ryht gehieraf ^ 7 ic an fses landes set buter mere ^ ofer minne 


dseg byrhtsige twegea hida 7 ceolstanes sunum anes gif hie 
me oS t58et on ryht gehieraf) ^ j \q cwef>e on wordum be 
sescmere on minum geongti magum swelce me betst ge- 
hieraj? ^ 

7 ic wille f aeffe feormige of J^sem f>rim dselum set inge penne 
]?a godes Jjeowas set cynetan byrig f)rie dagas on twelf mon]?um 
senne dseg for me oj^erne for minne fseder )?riddan for minne 
ieldran fseder . 7 ic an J^ses landes set hamme sefifan ofer minne 
dseg 7 heo tilige )?8er on uncer begea sawla fearfe 7 feormige 
J^rie dagas )?a godes fieowas jjser min lie reste on eastron 7 
ofer liiere dseg in to w'i'nte ceastre to fisem ealdan hierede 
to see trinitate . to hsebbenne 7 to brucenne 7 nsefre ut to 
sellanne v^ ^ 

*:(.* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, ' Her swutelaj) ^ wulfgar 
geujje hamme in to ealdan mynstre aefter aeffan dsege hys wifes.' B. 

* Buttermere, 2 m. S, E. of Ham. 

^ This Will is translated by Thorpe, Biplomatarium, p. 495. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 31. A.D. 933. 


B. iii. 4. 


sells a charter of immunity to the bishopric of Crediton. 

^ Flebilia forti? detestanda totillantis scii piacula 
diris obscen^ horrend^que mortalitatis circumsepta latra- 
tibus non nos patria indept§ pacis sec[u]ros sed quasi 
fetid§ corruptel^ in uoraginem casuros prouocando am- 
monent ut ea toto mentis conamine cum casibus suis non 
solum despiciendo sed etia[m] uelut fastidiosam melan- 
coli§ nausiam abominando fugiamus tendentes ad illud 
euangelicum date et dabitur nobis . Qua de re infima . 
quasi peripsema q[uis]quiliarum abiciens superna ad 
instar pretiosorum monilium eliens animum sempiternis 


in gaudiis fieus ad nanciscendam melliflu§ dulcedinis 
inisericordia[m] perfruendamq: infinity letitise iocundi- 
tatem ego 8ej7elstanus per omipatrantis dex?ain apice 
totius albionis sublimatus eircumquaq: basilicas in honore 
d[i] scorumq: eius dedicatas prout potero ab antique ritu 
uectigalium redimam quod sibi mei antecessores usur- 
patiue decreuerunt habere . nunc uero pro di omnipo- 
tentis amore et beat§ di genetricis rnari^ ueneratione 
scorumq: ofhium auctorifcate necnon pro uenerabilis epi 
eadulfi placabilis pecuni§ dation[e] idn-. Ix . librarum 
argenti tantam libertate episcopatui cridiensis ecclesi^ 
perdonare diiudicaui . ut sit perpetualiter tutus atq: 
munitus ab omnibus secularib3 seruitutib5 fiscis regalib^ 
tributis maiorib5 et minorib^ atq : expeditionalib^ uide- 
licet taxationib^ omniumq: rerum nisi sola expeditione 
et arcis m[u]nitione * Si quis autem post hoc subdola 
cauillatione deceptus nostrum non perhorrescat machinari 
decretum sciat se nouissima ac magna examinationis die 
classica archangeli clangente salpice bustis sponte paten- 
tibj somata iam rediuiua propellentib^ cum iuda prodi- 
tore infaustoq: pecuniarum compilatore suisq: impiissimis 
fautorib3 sub setern^ maledictionis anathemate edacibj 
innumerabilium tormentorum flammis sine defectu peri- 
turum . Acta est haec pfat§ libertatis munificentia . 
. dcccc . xxxiii . dominie^ incarnationis anno . indictione 
. vi . his testib5 eonsentientibj signumq: crucis xpi ad- 
ponentib3 quorum nomina infra caraxata esse monstrant'^ . 
>I< Ego 8e]?elstanus gratia di largiente totius brittannie 
rex pfatam libertatem cum sigillo see crucis confirmaui . 
^ Ego wulfhelm dorobornensis ecclesi^ archieps 
eiusdem regis largitatem cum tropheo see crucis con- 
signaui . 


1^ Ego selfheah wintaniensis eclesi^ eps triumphalem 
agi§ crucis tropheum impress! . 

>i< Ego ]7eodred lundoniensis eclesi^ eps consignaui . 

>J4 Ego coenwald eps consensi . 

>J< Ego oda eps confirmaui . 

►J< Ego wulf hun eps roboraui . 
>J< Ego self here dux >^ Ego wulfsige minister . 

►J< Ego wulfgar dux >J< Ego wulmser minister . 

>J< Ego uhtryd dux >J< Ego aelfsige minister . 

>J< Ego odda minist \^ Ego eadric minister . 

>i< Ego eadmund minister . »J< Ego eallihelm minister . 

*5^* JEndorsed in a contemporary hand, ' libertas totius cridiensis 
seclesig episcopatus • '; in a hand of the 13^^ century, ' Libertas totius 
cridianensis episcopatus concessa eaddulfo episcopo ab Adelstano rege 
pro sexaginta libris pecunie • Anno domini dceec • ^nongentesimo' 
tri[cesimo tercio] *; in one of the beginning of the \/^th century, 'Carta 
adelstani Regis ecclesie Creditonensi Anno domini Nongentesimo tri- 
cesimo tercio :• Bene conseruetur \ quia fide digna in perpetuum :•'; and 
in one of the 16th century, *Ista Carta concessa fuit ante conquestum 
cxxxiij • Antiquitas eius dclxxv . ad hunc annnm mdeviij / B. 

Cott Aug. ii. 65. 28 May, 934. 


B. iii. 5. 


grants to his trusty thane Aelfwald 12 cassatae near Christ 
Church, Canterbury; in loco quem solicolse . set derantune . 

^ Predicta siquidem tellus ^h'is terminis circum- 
cincta clarescit; serast on sescwoldes hlaw . "Sonne on 
gemot biorh^ . "Sonne on setl "Sorn . "Sonne on lytlan 
biorh . ^onne on gat ham . "Sonne on ae^elgi'Se deno . 
"Sonne on widan leh . "Sonan on wulfa biorh . "Sonne be- 


tweonan twsem biorgum . 'Sonon on paebbeles hoi . ^onon 
on mearc biorh . "Sonon on pis berh ; 7 'Sis synt ^Sa den- 
bsera "Se to Sissum londe mid rihte belimpa^ . hlos 
dionu . swana dionu . gehsBg holt . prentsan hlaw . ruwan 
biorg . ecgwealdes cumb . wseter "Sorn . eofor sol . 'Syrran 
mere . bioh^h'an dun . wi'Sig wic . garunga leah . hude- 
linga scydd . scealces hom , broc hyrst . byring falod . 
fsestan falod . hsecinga hleah. 

Elaborately dated, in ciuitate opinatissima . quae winte 
ceaster nuncupatur . tota populi generalitate . sub alis regiae 
dapsilitatis ouanti . perscripta est ; cuius etiam . inconcuss^ 
firmitatis auctoritas . 'h'is testibus roborata constat . quorum 
nomina subtus . caracteribus depicta ] annotantur ; 
R : — AeJ?elstanus singularis priuilegii ierarchia preditus rex. 
Abp : — Wulfhelmus dorobernensis. Wulfstanus eboracensis. 
Subreg: — Howael. lutSwal. Teowdor. (and a fourth whose 
name is illegible.) 

Ep : — Aelfwine. Eadulf. Cenwald. Biornstan. Diodred. 
"Wulfhun. "Wynsige. Aelfred. Tidhelm. Burhric. Ael- 
fred. Conan. Wulfhelm. Cynsige. Wired. Ssexelm. 
A'bb: — Aelfric. Eadwine. Ae'SelnotS. Biorhtsige. 
Dux : — Aelfwald. Osferc5. AeSelstan. Urm. Inhwser. Half- 
dene. Osulf. Uhtred. Aescberht. Aelfstan. Scule. Hadd. 
m: — Ordheh. Aelfgar. ^Selelm. AetSelwold. Eadstan. 
AeSered. Wulfheh. Wullaf. Wulfgar. Wulfmser. Wulf- 
not5. Odda. Wulfgar. Ae"Selstan. Aelfhseh. Wulfsige. 
Wihtgar. ^Elfhere. Eadric. AecSelwold. Eadwald. Ael- 
fric. Eadmund. Wulfric. Hun. ^(5elberht. Wynsige. 
Aet^elfercS. Aelfstan. ^cSelmund. ^tSelnotS. EadnocS. 
AtSulf. HsetSred. Sigered. Eadwald. Sigefer?5. Ead- 
weard. M^ehige. iElfstan. Wulfric. iBlfsige. Biorhstan. 
^Ifsige. Biorhtelm. Eadsige. Tiobcon. Wulfsige. Eal- 
helm. Wulfstan. Berhtric. 

^ gemotbiorh. Kemble thought this might be the meeting-place of 


the Shiremoot; and that the mearcbiorh ( = markhill) must be the place 
where the markmen were wont to meet. Saxons in England , Book i, 
c. 2, p. 56. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 23. A.D. 939. 


B. iii. 9. 


grants to his faithfiil thane Eadulf 12 mansse at Meapham. 

^ Regnante in perpetuum dno nro ihu xpo . omnia 
de summo caeli apice uisibilia et inuisibilia ordinabiliter 
gubernante presentisque uitse semper curriculo cotidie 
decreseente ac nobis mortalibus temporalia gaza necnon 
et lucra possessionum inaniter fruentibus facescunt ac 
defluunt . Quapropter ego . ^J^elstanus . diuina mihi 
adridente gratia rex anglorum et curagulus totius bryt- 
tannise aliquam partem terr§ iuris mei perpetuali dona- 
tione libenter concede . cuidam fideli meo ministro . 
nomine . eadulfo . xii . mansas in illo loco cui ruricol^ 
apellatiuo usu ludibundisque uocabulis nomen indi- 
derunt . set meap ham . quatinus ille bene perfruatur ac 
perpetualiter possideat quamdiu . istius caducis scti uitam 
tenere presumet . et post se cuicumque uoluerit ceu 
corroborauimus perhenniter heredi derelinquat in seter- 
nam hereditate . Sit autem predictum rus liberu ab 
omni mundiali obstacnlo cum omnibus ad se rite perti- 
nentibus . campis . pascuis . pratis . siluis . exceptis istis 
tribus expeditione pontis arcisue constructione . Si quis 
autem quod non optamus banc nram difinitionem elationis 
habitu incedens infringere temptauerit perpessus sit 
gelidis glaciarum flatibus et pennino exercitu malig- 
norum spirituum . nisi prius inriguis psenitentiae gemi- 


tibus et pura emendatione emendauerit . Istis terminibus 
predicta terra circugyrata esse uidetur . pis synt ]7a land 
gemaero to meap ham on su]7an 7 on westeweard setl ]7on 
nor]? fram setle to netles stede to J^aere hane )7onan nor]? 
on gerihte andlang hrycges o]? hredles stede ]?8et for]? 
]?onan to fearn leage geate )?on nor]? ]?onan to cobba 
hammes mearce ]?onan east on gerihte to heorot felda 
geate fram ]?am geate east 7 su]? on hludes beorh of ]?am 
beorge for]? be ]?9ere mearce o]? ]?one calewan stoc ]?onan 
su)? to blacan meres geate ]?8et su]? ]?onan on ]?one oran 
foran wi]? eastan ecgulfes setl west be J>am oran eft 
toweard setle . ]?is synt ]?a den bsera on wealda ]?e ]?8erto 
gebyria^ be su]?an ea stanihtan hyrst . 7 ceolan hyrst 7 
be nor]7an ea gelecan camp 7 gumbrihting hyrst 7 
ceorla den 

Acta est haec prefata donatio . Anno ab incarnatione dni 
nri ihu xpi . dccccxxxix . Indictione . xii . 

>J< Ego 8e]?elstanus rex totius bryttanniae prefatam do- 
nationem cum sigillo see crucis confirmaui . 

>^ Ego wulf helm dorobonensis secct^ archiepis eiusdem 
regis donationem cum tropheo agie crucis consignaui . 

>^ Ego selfheah wintaniensis secct^ eps triumphalem 
tropheum agie crucis inpressi . 

»i< Ego ]?eodred lundoniensis secct^ eps consignaui . 

>J« Ego cenwald eps predictum donum consensi . 

>J« Ego wulf hun eps consensi . 

►J* Ego oda eps confirmaui . 

p^ Ego wulf helm eps consignaui . 

^ Ego burhric eps consensi . 

»^ Ego 8ej7elgar eps roboraui , 

>J« selfhere . dux . 1^ se]?elwold . mi . 

^ wulfgar . dux . <^ aelfred . mi . 


»J< 8e]7elstan . dux . >{< wulfmser . mi . 

>J< uhtred . dux . >^ wulfgar . mi . 

»J« odda . mis . i^ selfsige * mi . 

f^ selfric . mi . >J< ordeah . mi . 

>J< eadmund . mi . >J< sigulf . mi . 

>J< wulfsige . mi . f^ eadric . mi . 

>}< wihtgar . mi . >I< ealhhelm . mi . 

1^ selfsige . mi . >I« wulf helm . mi . 

>J< 8ej7ered . mi . i^ wuUaf . mi . 

>J< 8e)7elmund . mi . i^ 

*5ic* ^Endorsed in a contemporary hand, * ^ J)is is meap hames land 
boc Jje • aejjelstan cing gebocode • ealdulfe his ])egne on ece yrfe .'; and 
in one of the 12th century, ' Ethelstanus Rex dedit . xii . mansas apud 
meapham . ealdulfo ministro suo .' * latine/ B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 62. A.D. 940. 

K 385. B. iii. 10. 


grants to a * religious' lady AetSelswi]? 10 hides at Oswald- 

»I4 Regnante inperpetuum dno nro iftu xpo . Dum 
conditoris nfi prouidentia omnis creatura ualde bona in 
principio formata formoseque creata atque speciose plas- 
mata est supra et infra caelos tarn in angtis quam etiam 
in hominibus ac in multimodis ac diuersis speciebus 
iumentorii animalium piscium uolucru . Sicque ab initio 
mundi usque ad finem statuta precepta conditoris sui 
iure custodiunt nisi homo solus qui ad imaginem suri 
creatus et omnibus prelatus ereaturis propter pr^uari- 
cationem conruens in mortem . Quapropter ego .ead- 
MUNDVS . rex angloru cselestis patrie exardens cuidam 


religiose see monialis femine uocitate . -aE^ELSWibE . x . 

mansas largiendo condonaui illic ubi uulgus prisco 

relatione uocitat . mt oswalding uillam . Quatinns ilia 

bene perfruatur ac perpetualiter possideat dum buius 

labentis eui cursu transeat inlesus atque uitalis sps in 

corruptibili carne inbereat . et post se cuicumque uoluerit 

perenniter beredi derelinquat ceu supra diximus in seter- 

nam bereditate . Sit autem predictum rus liber ab omni 

mundiali obstaculo cum omnibus ad se rite pertinentibus . 

campis . pascuis . pratis . siluis . siluaruque nemoribus . 

excepto istis tribus expeditione pontis arcisue cosedifi- 

catione . Si quis H" quod non optamus banc nram difi- 

nitionem elationis habitu ineedens infringere temptauerit 

perpessus sit gelidis glaciaru flatibus et pennino exercitu 

malignoru spirituii . nisi prius inriguis poenitentiae 

gemitibus et pura emendatione emendauerit . Istis ter- 

minibus predicta terra circumgyrata esse uidetur . pis 

synt ]7a land gemsero to oswalding tune . sorest selfgySe 

mearc on eastan o'S teting ford |7on ]7onan west o]> done 

j7onne ]7onan op eadgife mearce j7onne ]?onan to ]73es 

biseopes mearce to cirringe of cirringe nor]? }7onan to 

emecing mere . to oswalding tune bier]? . holen byrst . 7 

byrbt tring den . 7 eoreding den . 7 liccing den . 7 bere- 

fer]?es lea . 7 dynning den . 7 cyr]7ring hyrst . 7 trip 

hjrrst 7 insnadis into oswalding tune . 7 seo msed aet 

brunes forda 7 seo msed set beo broce bier]? into oswalding 

tune . Acta est b^c prefata donatio . Anno ab incar- 

natione dni nri ihu xpi . dccccxl . Indictione xiii . 

>J< Ego eadmundus rex anglorum pr^fatam donationem 

cum sigillo see crucis confirmaui . 

>J< Ego wulfbelm dorobonensis seccfe arcbieps eiusden 

. + . . . 

regis donationem cu tropbeo agi§ crucis consignaui . 

»i< Ego eadred eiusdem regis frater consignaui , 



>I< Ego ]7eodred lundoniensis seecte eps consignaui . 
►J* Ego self heah wintaniensis seccte eps triumphalem 
tropheu agi^ crucis inpressi . 

>J< Ego cenwald eps predictu donum consensi . 

>Ii Ego oda eps confirmaui . 

>I< Ego selfric eps consignaui . 

>^ Ego wulfhun eps consensi . 

1^ Ego wulf helm eps consignaui . 

1^ Ego burgric eps consensi . 

>J< Ego 8e]7elgar eps roboraui . 

self here . dux . 
wulfgar. dux. 
sethelstan . dux . 
uhtred . dux . 
odda . mi . 
selfric . mi . 
eadmund . mi . 
wulfsige . mi . 
wullaf . mi . 
wihtgar. mi. 
sejjelwold . mi . 
aelfred . mi . 
wulfgar . mi . 
selfsige. mi. 

»J< ordeah. mi. 
>I< eadric. mi. 
>i< ealhhelm . mi . 
»Ji selfsige. mi. 
>J< 88 Jeered . mi . 

a)7elmund. mi. 

wulf helm . mi . 

wulf heah . mi . 

wulfsige . mi . 
wulfho^ . mi . 
aeSelstan . mi . 
se^elsige . mi . 
eanulf. mi. 

*:):* Endorsed in a contemporary/ hand, ' »^ })is is oswalding tunes 
boc J)e eadmund cing gebocade 8e])elswi])e [on] ece yrf e ', and in a hand 
of the 12th century, ' Eex edmundus dedit oswalding tun cuidam 
femine nomine e]jelsui|je * . latine/ B. 


Cott. Aug. ii. 63. A.D. 944. 

£399. B. iii. 11. 


grants to Aelfric, bishop (probably of Eamsbury) 30 mansas 
in illo loco ubi iam dudum solicol^ illius regionis n[omen] 
inposuerunt set baddan byrig 7 to doddan forda 7 to efer 
dune (Badby, Dodford, and Everdon, S. of Daventry, North- 
ants). The boundaries are rich in descriptive terms and make 
mention of Watling Street. 

1^ Dis sint )7a land gemsera 7 se embegang ]7ara 
landa to baddan byrig 7 to doddan forda 7 to efer dune . 
"Sset is }7on serest set baddan byrg westeweardre 7 nor^e- 
weardre set }7am lytlan toclofenan beorge . ]7on on 
gerihte of "Sam beorge nor'S to wearge dune . betweox 
J7a lytlan twegen beorgas . J^set ]?3er nor^ ylang ^sere 
lytlan die set J^ses grafes ende 0^ "Sa smalan 'Somas . 
"Son of "Sam J?ornum up on 'Sa lytlan dune midde- 
weardre . j7on of "Ssere dune east on fox hylle easte- 
weardre . Jjon geu'Se ic selfvvine 7 beorhtulfe Jjaes leas 7 
|58es hammes be nor^an }78ere lytlan die . -Son li'S "Sset 
gemsere on gerihte of fox hylle nor^eweardre on })one 
holan weg SBt hinde hlypan . ]?on of hinde hlypan on 
j7one wylle 83t )?am lea ufeweardan . of 'Sam wylle on 
•Sset heorot sol . of "Sam heorot sole nor'S on gerihte on 
"Sone beorg . j7on of ^am beorge on gerihte to 'Sam lea . 
f fori5 be lea on wi^igwylles heafud . of 'Sam wylle 
BOP'S on gerihte on 'Sa 'Sornehtan dune to emnes J;am 
geate set J^aere ealdan byrg . ]78et fram "Sam geate on 
gerihte east to mser pytte . )7on of "Sam pytte on gerihte 
to ^am stane set J?am wylle wi^ nor^an mseres dsel . 
)7on su^ on gerihte 7lang wseclinga strset on )7one weg 
to weoduninga gemsere . }?on west 7lang weges on 'Sone 
lytlan beorg . ^ser se stoe stod . "Sset ]?onan su'Srihte on 


^one ealdan mylier J^ser ]7a welegas standa^ . ^set west 
ylang burnan o'S hit cym^ )78er bli^e utscyt • )73et ylang 
bli^an o^ "Sa stan bricgge . f east of 'Ssere bricgge . 
ylang die o^ ^one hsej^enan byrgels . of J^am byrgelse 
for^S iior"S be wj^rttruman o^ fes lieges ende be weo- 
duninga gemsere . f ]?onan ylang gemaeres on gerihte 
to "Sam stocee on easteweardan J;am lea . of ^am stocce 
su'Srihte on )?8ere straet . ylang street to )78ere fyrh "Se 
seyt su^rihte to J^sere miclan straet set ]78es wylles heafde 
aet snoces cumbes genciaere . f west ylang straet on "Sone 
aesc . ]78et fram "Sam aesce ylang straet betweox ]?a twegen 
leas on "Sa ealdan sealt straet o^ "Sone steort . fram J7am 
steorte ylang ]?aes fulan broces o'S bli^an . 'Son is f land 
aet snoces cumbe healf ]7aes cinges healf ^uncer' bren- 
tinges . buton me god geunne y min hlaford J^aet he his 
me geunnan wille . )7on gse-S sio mearc for^ ylang 
bli^an west o^ "Saet seo lacu utscyt on bli^an wi^ ufan 
stan bricgge . f nor^ ylaog lace . o'S "Sa die ^oii ylang 
die o'S "Sone weg ]7e scyt to fealuwes lea on ]?am slade . 
]78et on fealuwes lea J^aer aelfric biscep redan het to )7aere 
ealdan die . ylang die to "Sam wege )?e scyt up to ^am 
hricgge . ylang hricgges to J7am wege ]>e scyt fram 
fealuwes lea to baddan by ane lytle hwile . 'pon of ^aere 
apuldre ]>& stent wi'S westan J^am wege ]?urh ]7one lea to 
)7am miclan haesl wride . of ]?am haesl wride adun on )7a 
blacan rixa . of J?am rixun on J^a lytlan hecggan aet ]7am 
wege ]7e scyt fram baddan by to cear wyllun . ylang 
weges o'S "Sone broc ]7e scyt to fealuwes lea to ]>a> forda 
"Saet west aefre ylang broces o'S 'Sone weg "pe scyt to 
staefer tune wi^ suiSan pa. ealdan burh aet baddan byrg 
f west ylang weges o^ to emnes J^aere micelan die o^ 
westewearde pa. burh . ylang "Saere die y be j^aere byrg 
westeweardre nor^ o^ ^one tobrocenan beorg . "Se J^aer is 

N 2, 


toclofen on nor^weardre 7 on westeweardre baddan hyrg 
Acta est hsec prsefacta donatio . Anno ab incarnatione 
dni nri itiu xpi . dccccxliiii . indictione . ii . 

E, : — Eadmundus rex anglorum. Eadred eiusdem regis frater. 

Eadgifu eiusdem regis mater. 
Archieps : — Oda dorobonensis ecctg archieps. "Wulfstan 

Eps : — Deodred lundoniensis eccte eps. Aelfheah Winta- 

niensis ecJc§ eps. Cenwald. Aelfred. Ae})elgar. "Wulf- 

sie. Wulfhelm. 
Dux: — Aejjelstan. Aefelwold. Aef>elstan. Ealhhelm. AtSel- 

Mis: — Wulfgar. Eadmund. Aelfsie. Aelfstan. Wulfric. Aelf- 

sie. Aejjelgeard. Wulfric. Wihtgar. Aelfred. Aepered. 

*^* JEndorsed in a hand of the 12th century, 'Badebi'; and in one 
of the iith, ' Baddebi.' B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 73. A.D. 946. 

K407. B. iii. 12. 


grants to Ordhelm and Aelfwold, two brothers, a piece of his 
own inherited land in perpetuity. The notice of a Kentish 
term is interesting. 

»J< In nomine scae teinitatis . Imminentibus uit^ 
caducis terminis qua in nos sceleris licefc onere pressi 
nutu diuino statuti . Tamen dominica prosequentes 
monita prout quimus scdm illud euangelii . ubi dicitur . 
date et dabitur nobis . Quapropter ego . eadmvndvs . rex 
anglorii ceterarumque gentium in circuitu persistentium 
gubernator et rector . quibusdam meis hominibus id est 
duobus fratribus . ordhelmo . et alfwoldo . aliqua por- 
tionem hereditatis mef in aeterna possessionem concedo . 


quod cantigene scdm suam propria linguam dicunt . an 
ivclaete et insuper . x . segetes . vbi ruricoli appellatiuo 
usu ludibundisque uocabulis nomen indiderunt . ^t 
GAMELANWYK©E . eatenus ut hoc diebus suis possideant 
tramitibusque uit^ su§ . et post se cuicumque sibi pla- 
cuerit post hoc tradant hereditario seternaliter ceu pr§- 
dixi illis . Maneatque prout iam pr^dixeram donu istud 
ab omni sctari seruitio exinanitum cum omnibus ad se 
rite pertinentibus campis . pascuis . pratis . siluis . ex- 
cepto istis tribus . expeditione . pontis . arcisue con- 
structione . Si quis autem quod non optamus banc nram 
diffinitione elationis habitu incedens infringere tempta- 
uerit perpessus sit gelidis glaciarum flatibus et pennino 
exercitu malignorii spituum . Nisi prius inriguis peni- 
tenti^ gemitibus et pura emendatione emendauerit ^ . 
Istis terminibus pr^dicta terra circumgyrata esse ui- 
detur . 

pis synt "pa, land gemsero to gamelan wyr)7e . su]? 
fealcing rip o]? sse . widan fleot mearc on west hand set 
]7ara hina lande to folces stane 7 ]7onne faes biscopes 
mearc on norj? healfe 7 on east healfe ut to saB . 

Acta est hsec pr^fata donatio . Anno ab incarnatione 
dni nri itiu xpi • dccccxlvi . indictione . iiii . 

>I« Ego eadmundus rex anglorum pr^fatam donatio- 
nem cum sigillo sc^ crucis confirmaui . 

>I< Ego oda dorobonensis secct^ archieps eiusdem 
regis donationem cum sigillo sc§ crucis conclusi . 

>{< Ego selfheah wintaniensis seccif eps triumphalem 
tropheum agie crucis inpressi . 

>J< Ego burgric episcopus consensi . 

>J< Ego selfred episcopus confirmaui. 

1^ sej^elwold dux . 

>I« 8e]?elstan dux 



eadmund mis . 


wulfric mis 

>I< SBlfsige mis . 


selfstan mis . 


selfwold mis . 

►!< selfgar mis . 


selfwold mis . 

>J« beorhtsige mis . 


8e]7elsige mis . 


selfric mis . 

*:^* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, ' >J< Jiis is ])8es landes boc set 
gamelan wyrj)e ' ; and in one of the \ith century, ' Rex edmundus dedit 
gameling wjrthe . ordelmo et alf woldo ' ' ' latine * ' B. 

^ ' Si quis . . . emendauerit.' Verbally identical with the corresponding 
clause in 940 above. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 83. A.D. 947. 

K413. B. iii. 13. 


grants to Oswig a thane for his devotion, bis denas mansas . 
quod anglice dicitur . twentig hida . in illo loco ubi iam 
dudum solicole illius regionis nomen inposuerunt . ^et 
MEABS^T HAM. The rhetoric of the Sanction is remarkable. 

>J« IsTis terminibus pr§[dic]ta terra circugyrata esse 
uidetur . ]?is synt ]7a land gemsero to mearssetham on )7one 
)7orn be nor)7an eadrices stane ]?onon up to bean stede 
betwib );am twam hammu . of bean stede swa for)? on 
]?a ruwan apuldre , ]7onon on esnes ham . of esnes 
ham me on cusesstede beorh of J^a beorge on tunles 
weor]? easteweardne . ]7onon );urh J^a ige on )7one fulan 
broc . of ]7a broce ylang streames on J?one blaec pol . of 
)?am pole ut to fa beorgum )78et j7onon on becces ham 


westewear d'ne J^onon for]? to bade woldes hagan weste- 
weardne of )7a hagan on todan camp of todan campe 
on ceomman treow ]7onon on scynes weorj? westeweardne 
of scynes weorj7e on j7one hundes J^yfel . of hundes 
J^yfele for]? be wyrtwalan on }>one ]?orn be nor^an 
eadrices stane . ]?is synt )?a den to mearsaetham . pedan 
hrycg 7 set lace ]?8et forraepe on ]?unres feld nor]?an an 

Acta est haec pr^fata donatio . Anno ab incarnatione 
dni nri ihu xpi . dccccxlvii . indictione . v . 

R : — Eadredus rex anglonim. Eadgifu eiusdem regis mater. 
Abp : — Odadorobernensis secci^ archieps. Wulfstanus archons 

diuin^ seruitatis ofiBcio mancipatus eborac^ ciuitatis 

Bp : — peodred lundoniensis secctf eps. Aelfheah wintaniensis 

secctg eps. Cenwald. Aelfric. Ae]?elgar. Aelfred. Wulf- 

Dux : — Aef>elstan. Eadric. AeJ?elstan. Wulfgar. Ealhhelm. 

Af)elmund. Aelfgar. Scule. 
Mis : — Eadmund. Aelfstan. Wulfric. Aelfsige. Wulfric. 

Wulfsige. MpelgesLrd. Beorhtsige. iEf>elnol?. 

t^ Certis uero causis et in certis temporibus uni- 
cuique pr^cauendum est ut tutella defensionis pr^ponat 
antequa machinatores retinacula fraudulenter insidia- 
tionis muscipula ilium defraudauerint a fastigio recte et 
iust^ tramitis studio quia iniquitatis adquisitores alienu 
lucrii sibi usurpatiue cu ambitione iniquitatis uendicare 
satagunt . Sed torpentes auariti^ omni modo interdico . 
Ita ut meum donum corroboratii sit cum signaculo sc§ 
crucis . etiam si quis aliu antiquu librii in propatulo 
protulerit nee sibi nee aliis proficiat . Sed in sempiterno 
graphio deleatur et cu iustis non scribatur nee audiatur. 

*** Endorsed in a contemporary hand, ' >J« J)is is J)ara twentiga hida 


boc set mearssetham \>e eadred cing gebocode oswige his J^egne on ece 
yrfe • ' ; and in one of the 12th century, ' Rex eadredus dedit duas mansas 
id est duas hidas apud mericham oswic ministro suo . latine.' B. 

Chart. Cott. viii. 11. A.D. 948. 

K421. B. iii. 14. 


basileus angloru ceterarumq : gentiu in circuitu persistentiu 
gubemator et rector restores to the church in "Winchester 
100 mansae in Duntun and Eblesburne which had been 
granted by Cynewalh in the early days of Christianity (in 
exordio xpiane religionis) and confirmed by Cynewulf and 
Ecgbriht, but subsequently reoccupied by later kings. The 
original deed is defective ; but a copy in the Winchester 
Register helps us to make out the terrier \ 

[Dis synd "Sa land gemere to duntune . erest of crawan 
crundu]! on were'San hylle . on fyrdinges lea . on ebles 
burnan to afene . on pysere . on "Sa su^an lace . on 
earnes beorh . on die . set beoredes [treowe . on ^one 
herepa^ . to headdan grafe . }7onne on "Sone ha]gan to 
pytan wyr'Se . on dyre broc . on welewe . on "Sa die set 
hieeles wyriSe . J^onne ofer 'Sone feld on hagan ut ]7urh 
brember wudu [on "Sone stenenan stapul . andlang here- 
pa^es to fobban wylle .] anlang herepa^es to "Saes hagan 
^nde to fseger hylde forda . on "Sone hagan on ceorles 
[hljaewe . on crawan crundul . 'Sonne on ^a [yferan ge- 
mere on eblesburnan . on stret ford ^ . on hrofjan hric . 
anlang weges on "Sa die to bymera eumbe . 7 ^aer 
•Swyres ofer ^reo crundelas . ofer 'Sa straet . Swyres ofer 
"Sa dune to wudu [beorch hylle ofer berigan cumb . on 
yblesburnan . on beord]une . on "Sees hlinees sende . on 
"Sone smalan weg . ofer big eumb . on ^sem smalan 
wege . on "Ssene stan . on ^set hse^ westeweard . on ^one 


beorli [to 'Sem rig- wege . "Sonne east andlang hrig 
weges to brytforjdingea land sceare . f su^ on strset- 
ford :-^Acta est hsec pfata donat . ann ab incarfi dni . 
dccccxlviii . indict . via . 

*** Endorsed in a contemporary hand, ' J)is is 'Sees landes boc set 
duntune . ©e eadred cyngc ednywon gebocade scae trinitate . and scae 
petre . and paule ing to ealdan mynstre : -^ '; in one of the 1 3^A century, 
'[djtjntun' *confirmatio Eegis'; and in one of the i6th century, 

'...., Alredus in manerio de Dunton in eblesburnam xlv 

mansas.* B. 

^ This copy is printed in full by Mr. Bond, vol. iv, Pref . p. 6. But it 
is not exact to call it a perfect copy of the Cotton Charter ; nor has it 
been altogether overlooked by Kemble, who used it in his vol. iii, p. 427. 

^ This is Stratford Tony on the Ebele (here called yblesbume) a 
stream which runs into the Wiltshire Avon. On this stream is Ebbes- 
bourne (our eblesbume), and on the other side of the Avon is Downton. 
The boundaries of this grant touched on those of the Brytf ording com- 
munity, for which there is now Britford outside Sarum. 

Canterbury Charters, R. 14. A.D. 949. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 57. 


B. iii. 15 (= Cott.). 

S. i. 15 (=Cant.). 


grants the monastery of Reculver to Christ Church, Canter- 
bury. Mr. Kemble (C. D. ii. p. viij) called this a 'very im- 
portant charter,' It asserts that it was drawn by the hand 
of Dunstan. 

[>I«] MuLTis itaque uitiorum pstrigiis mantes humanas 
incentor fraudulentus piugulando [deludit .] nunc inqua 
promissis quasi prolixioris uitae studiis decipit^ nunc 
rebus migrantibus puicaciter q*si necessariis inlicitJ 
intea etiam stigia inferni supplicia tamq^m leuia et 


transitoria suggerit 1 quatinus miserorum corda in cupi- 
ditate lasciuiaque eneruit dissoluat^ secumque cabeata 
ad tartara ducat ; Sed sci uiri psago spu bestiales pcog- 
noscentes insidias scuto bonae uoluntatis coronati quic- 
quid in semetipsis terrenu sentiunt . indesinenter atque 
nauit opib; scis exhauriunt unde disscoriatis cora xpo 
ihu meritis rutilantes simillima titan^i fulgoris luce 
psentenf^ ; De quorum pconio tuba scse script urse re- 
bohans inter alia testimonia ppensius intellegenda nris 
hsec gemina auribus resultando pfudit ) Beati quorum 
uestimenta alba sunt in conspectu dni ; Et alibi . lusti 
fulgebunt sicut sol in regno patris eorii; Huius ergo 
dnici conspectus et paM amore regni ^fusus . unde 
nobis uictus restat sine dubio certus . de quo ^ dns dixit . 
beatus qui manducabit panem in regno di ; [Ego eadred 
EEX diuina gratia totius albionis] monarcbus et primi- 
cerius . xpo regi meo in tbrono regni pennis ppetualiter 
subtbronizato ) e concessis mihi ab eodem labilium gazis 
rerum [accepti tirocinii quarto mei terrestris regni] anno 
ad templu sue inconphensibili dedicatum nfhi . in urbe 
dorobernia . odone arcbiepiscopo metropolitanam catbe- 
dram psidente et regni c^lestis sup arua brittannica 
[c]laues [pporjtantei monastium raculfense bis denis 
senisque ^stimatum cassatis . intius ex?riusq; [cum] 
omnibus ad boc rebus rite ptinentibus . sine litorum siue 
camporum agrorum saltuumue . sicut inferius territoria 
pmulgantur . bumillime atque deuotissime sincero corde 
in ppetuum ius quamdiu xpianitas uigeat p meis ab- 
luendis excessibus indeterminabiliter inpendo; Si quis 
autem c|^ absit tirrannica fretus potestate . regalis . §pis- 
copalis . siue homo alieuius dignitatis . hoc decretum a 
do mihi conlatum infringere temptauerit ^. siue huiusc§ 
donationis a pfata ^cclesia uel passum pedis segregauerit . 


ni prius hoc inorme scelus poenitendo deterserit^ se 
sacrile[gii] culpam [incurrisse et a dno] i'hu xpo in 
ppetuum sine ullo subtractionis refocilatu dampnaturum 
psentiat ; [Haec enim singrapha] anni . dnicse incarna- 
tionis . dccccxlixj orthodoxor[um scripta -h unajnimo 
consensu uirorum quorum inferius nma litteraria quali- 
tate distingui uidentur . 

[Ego e]adred rex . diuina protegente gratia albionis 
summam psidens agisB crucis banc cartulam notamine 
|>strinxi . >J< 

Ego odo arcbiepisc . metropolitana psidens guberna- 
mina hoc donum regia concessum munificentiae signo 
crucis fixi . »J< 

Ego wulfstan arcbiepisc. metropolici honoris fastigio 
eboracensi ciuitate suffultus buic largitati crucem as- 
scripsi . 1^ 

Ego selfheah episc. uuintaniensis ^cclesie hoc donum 
signo crucis confirmaui . ^ 

Ego aethelgar cridienensis ^cclesise psul banc largi- 
tatem corroboraui . ij* 

Ego aelfric episc. buius donationis constipulator signu 
crucis depinxi . >J< 

Ego wulfsige episc. buius largiflui muneris donum 
signo salubri adnotaui . ►$< 

Ego theodr^d episc. ^digam banc inpensione patibuli 
confirmatu addidi . t^i 

Ego selfred episc. hoc do instigante donu crucis xpi 
constipulatu muniui . >J< 

Ego beorbtsige episc. buiuscf donationis corrobora- 
tionem contuli . >J< 

Ego cenuuald episc. consensii adibui . >{< 

Ego cynesige episc. unamitatem pbui . >Ii 


Ego uulfhelm episc. permissione pfudi . >J< 
Ego eadhelm abbas deuotus in hoc pstiti . >I< 
Ego osulf dux consensi et humiliter asstiti . >J< 
Ego eadmund dux libens consilio aderam . >{< 
Ego se^elstan dux prompto animo consensi 
Ego eadgifu regis genetrix pfati animo banc pfatam 
letabundo in xpo largitionem ob optabilem remunera- 
tione concessam signi corroboratione salutiferi humillime 
consignaui . >{< 

Ego dunstan indignus abbas rege eadredo impante 
banc domino meo bereditariam kartulam [dictitando] 
conposui. et propriis digitorum articulis pscripsi ^ . >J< 

1^ His inquam limitibus bee telluris particula cir- 
cumgirari uidetur . ^rest on nor'S healfe 7 on wes^an 
of yfinga bo ut on sse . [se^elfer^es londe] ^ swa for^ be 
sande o^ noriS mu}7an from nor^ mu"San to macan broce 
J?onan to serne wege . Of serne wege to eanflaede mu^an 
of eanflaede mu'San on mearc fleotes mu^an of mearc 
fleotes mu'San eft on eanflaede mu'San . ponne on east 
healfe to mylen fleotes mu^an o'S su^ tun of Su'S tune 
andlang broces to ha^e maeringe "Sonne on su'S healfe of 
haiSe maeringe to stoccum of stoccum andlong straete o^ 
see agustines mearc [fro see agustines mearce] oS broc 
andlang broces o'S stan brycg su'5 from stan brycge oS 
wifelinge to criste[s c]iricean gemaere fro c[ristes cirican 
gemaere] oS ealdan hege . on west healfe of ealdan hege . 
to feaxum . "Sonne west from feaxu to celdan to cinges 
gemaere . from cinges gemaere oS gata gehaegge wes'Se- 
weard . )7anon on yfinga ho . 7 swa ut on sse . * ponne 
siendan feower sulung^ binnan ea Saes landes )?e gebyreS 
inn to raculfe on t^net . iiii . sulung ond an laes on warn 
"Se gebyreiS innto raculfe . "Sonne is ealles ]7aes landes 


XXV . sulunga 7 an sulung on c[eolul]fing tune su"S be 
wealda l?8ere cirican to bote .* 

*:).* 'Endorsed, * Rex eadredus dedit monasterium de recnlf ad eccle- 
siam Christi •' * • latine • ' 

^ Instead of die (^o, Cott. Aa* def uictoq ; — which becomes intelligible 
tvhen we find that Cant, has s. uictu written over de quo as a gloss. 
Mr. Bond inferred that Cant, is the original from which Cott. was 
copied, but the other divergencies do not fully bear this out. It seems, 
however, that Cant, does in the main represent that original, and it has 
been used here (as it was by K.) for the basis of the text ; the deficiencies 
being supplied from the better preserved Cotton. 

Those who study emendation of manuscripts will find this an in- 
teresting case. The ignorant scribe has shewn the fidelity of his craft ; 
in his * def uictoque ' he has altered some letters, but he has not lost a 
single one. It should be remembered that the Saxon s has much in 
common with the Saxon f . 

^ These words, which in Cott. and Cant, are inserted here, are in Cant, 
also written in Gothic Capitals round the margin of the document. 

3 Sere Cant, has not the words seSelfertJes londe ; or if it ever had 
them, they have disappeared in the damaged margin. The same re- 
mark applies to the words fro See agustines mearce, below. 

* In Cant, the words down to sae are written above the line, and this 
seems the intended place of insertion. 

^ swulung Cott., and so in every recurrence of the word. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 44. A.D. 949. 

K427. B. iii. 16. 


grants to his intimate friend Wulfric 18 mansse at Welford 
(Berks) in exchange for other land in Cornwall. 

^ In ^teknitate perenni cosmi sother oma iura 
regnoru ab alto Cfli culmine gubernans ac disponens 
qui quidem scienti§ dona monstrando indeficienter con- 
spicitur c§lum ae terra camposque liquentes lucentem- 
que globii lun§ titaniaque astra^ sua ineffabili gratia 
retinens ac custodiens . Quapropter ego eadredvs . di- 
uina indulgente dementia rex anglorum . cuidam mihi 


intimo pr^cordialis affectu amoris fideli . immo et priui- 
legio dilectionis in omnibus mihi caro uocitato nomine . 
VYVLFRico . XVIII . mansas dedi . in illo loco ubi iamdudu 
solicole illius regionis nomen inposuerunt .* mt welig- 
FOEDA . pro commutatione alterius terr§ qu^ sita'e'in 
cornubio narratur . ubi ruricole illius pagi barbarico 
nomine appellant . pendyfig . quatenus habeat ac possi- 
deat quamdiu uiuat . et post se cuicumque sibi libuerit 
superstiti derelinquat in seternam hereditatem . Sit au- 
tem pr^dictu rus liber ab omni mundiali obstaculo cum 
omnibus ad se rite pertinentibus . campis . pascuis . 
pratis . siluis . excepto communi labore expeditione . 
pontis . arcisue cosedificatione . Si quis uero hominum 
banc meam donationem cum stultiti^ temeritate iaeti- 
tando infringere certauerit . sit ipse grauibus per colla 
depressus catenis inter flamiuomas tetrorum demonum 
cateruas . nisi prius hie ad satisfactionem uenire ma- 
luerit . 

Istis terminibus pr^dicta terra circumgyrata esse ui- 
detur . pis synt ]>a land gemasro to weligforda . serest 
of wines treowe ylang dene J^set up on J?one weg ]7onon 
on bradan leage norj7eweardre on anne ham 7 j7on J^urh 
ut ]7one lea on anne ham su)?eweardne on f'a ealdan hege 
raewe in on wopig hangran of ]?a hangran on scilling 
hangran J^onon on bradan ham westeweardne on ]>a 
hamme on cardan hlaew on ]7a hlsewe on lamburnan 
]7onon up on deoran treowe of J7a treowe on ]7one ele- 
beam styb ]7onon on ceolbaldes wylle of J^a wylle on 
cyta sihtes ford of J^a forda to wulfrices gemsere )?onon 
to hord hlince ufewea^r'dum of J^a hlince on sihtre msede 
nor)?eweardre swa forj? on cenelmes st^n of J^a stane on 
)7one grenan weg on )7a wege to rige hamme ]7onon ut 
x)n J7a Um pyttas on )7ane crundel of "Sa crundele on )?one 


sesc J^onon for]? ofer burnan ylang mylen pajjes on |7a 
]7rie ]7ornas 7 swa for]? ylang hlinces on cardan ham of 
J7am hamme iit J7urh f>one lea on grenan beorh of J^a 
beorge on ecgunes treow of )?a treowe on mearc weg 
J?onon on ]7a dene 7 swa for]? to J^am J^rim gemserura of 
]7am gemserum eft on wines treow . 

Acta est hsec pr^fata donatio . Anno ab incarnatione 
dni nri i^u xpi . dccccxlix . Indictione . vii . 

>J< Ego eadredus rex anglorum pr^fatam donatione 
sub sigillo sc§ crucis indeclinabiliter consensi atque ro- 
boraui . 

>J< Ego eadgifu eiusdem ^ regis' mater cum sigillo sc^ 
crucis confirm aui . 

►J* Ego oda dorobornensis secct^ archieps eiusdem 
regis principatum et beniuolentia sub sigillo sc§ crucis 
conclusi . 

►J< Ego wulfstanus archons diuin^ seruitutis officio 
mancipatus eborac§ ciuitatis archieps sigillum sc§ crucis 
impressi . 

1^ Ego ]7eodred lundoniensis aecct^ eps corroboraui 

1^ Ego aelfheah wintaniensis aecct^ eps testudinem 
sc§ crucis subscripsi et confirmaui . 

1^ Ego wulfsige episcopus consensum pr^bui figens 
crucem . 

1^ Ego selfric episcopus donum regis confirmaui . 

»I< Ego 8e]?elgar episcopus crucis uexillo corroboraui . 

>J< Ego selfred episcopus crucis modum depinxi . 

>i« eadmund dux . >J< selfric mis . 

»I< ealhhelm dux . >J< 8e]?elsige mis . 

>J< a]7elmund dux . >J< 8e]7elgeard . mis . 

»J« selfgar dux . >J< aelfheah . mis . 

>I< wulfric mis . >I< sej^eric . mis . 


>I< aelfsige mis . >J« selfred . mis . 

>J< wulfric mis . >{< osfer]? . mis . 

*i^* Endorsed ly a contemporary hand, • ^ ])is is |)ara . xviii . hida boc 
set welig forda J)e eadred cing gebocode wulfrice his f egne on ece yrfe . 
wi]> )58es landes gewrixle })e on wealu is setpendyfig .*', hy one of the 12 fh 
century, 'carta de Weliford . '; by one of the i^th, 'prima .' ; and 
by one of the i^th, 'Iste Rex concessit istam terram cuidam amico suo 
carissimo/ B. 

^ iSneid vi. 724, 725. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 43. A.D. 956. 

K453. B. iii. 19. 


rex et primicerius totius Albionis grants to a thane Brihtric 
5 cassati in loco qui dicitur TademaDr tun in hereditatem per- 

Dis syndon "Sa land gemsero set tademsertune ^ara .v. 
hida . serest of eadwardes mylne f on "Sa ealdan die 
of ^sere die on mser broc of mserbroee on f eastre sic of 
"Sam sice on maer stan of mser stane on "Sane ealdan 
garan of 'San garan a be heafdan a be heafdan f on "Sone 
broc of "Sam broce ongean stream ^ on ^ riscbed of "Sam 
riscbedde ^ on "Sone weg f su^ ylang weges ^ on ^ 
slsed f of "San slaede up on "pa, ecge f ylang ecge on 
heort wyllan of heort wyllan on 'Sa ealdan styge f ylang 
styge on "Sone mser pyt of 'Sam pytte on wilbaldes ecge 
of wilbaldes ecge f eft on eadwardes mylne • 

Acta est autem hsec donatio anno ab incarnatione 
dnica .dcccclvi. indie? .xiiii. regni autem mei primo anno ; 

B, : — Eadwig rex Anglorum. Eadgar frater eiusdem regis. 

Abp :— Oda. 

Bp :— JElfsige. Osulf. Brihtelm. Wulfsige. Daniel. 


Dux : — ^tSelstan. ^t5elsige. ^Ifhere. Eadmund. M^el- 

wold. ^(Selmund. 
fit:— ^Ifgar. ByrhtfertJ. iElfheah. iEtSelgeard. ^Ifryd. 


*^* indorsed in a contemporary hand, ' Sis Hs' 'Sara ^V' hida boc set 
tademaer tune "Se eadwig c^riing gebocajj brihtrice on ece yrfe.'j and 
in one of the I2tli century y 'carta de tademertona/ 'iii.' B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 45. A.D. 956. 

K445. B. iii. 20. 


egregius Angulsaxonum basileus caeterarumque plebium hinc 
inde habitantium grants to Eadmund one of his nobles i6 
cassati with all rights and legal immunities. 

pis sint )7a land gemaero to anninga d[u]ne aerest on 
)?a deopan ri]?e be eastan bremre swa west ofer bremre 
to cumb hsema gemsBro swa be cumb hsema gemsera to 
den tunninga gemsere of den tunninga gemsere swa to 
suntinga gemsere swa be suntinga gemsere to bidelinga 
gemaere swa J?[on]ne for|? east be bidelinga gemsere oj^er 
to . . . bremre . ]7is sint )7a den stowa broc hyrst 7 bead- 
dan syla 7 set fyrnj^an 7 hlij? wic 7 strod wic. 

R : — ^Eadwig gra di totius brittannic? telluris rex. Eadgar 

eiusdem regis fr. 
Abp : — Oda dorouernensis aecclse archipsul. 
[Bp] :— Oscytel. Osulf. Bjrhtelm. Aj^ulf. 

Dux: — ^f»elstan. ByrhtfertS. iEf)elstan. JEfielsige. 
Mis :— ^Ifsige. Wulfric. iE}>elgeard. ^Elfheah. JElfgar. 
Byrhtfert5. Af>elwold. Wulfgar. Alfwold. ^Ifsige. 

*:ie* indorsed in a contemporary hand, ' >J< |)is is J)ara 'Xvi hida bdc 
set anninga dnne ])e eadwig cing gebocode eadmunde ealdormen on ece 
yrfe-'; and in one of the i^th century, 'Concessit istam terram cuidam 
optimati suo.' B. 


Chart. Cott. viii. 12. A.D. 956. 

K460. B. iii. 21. 


grants to Wulfric (princjeps) 7 cassati in perpetuity with all 
legal immunities. 

^ Anno herdic§ incarnationis dcccclvi . indictione 
.xiiii. Eadwig numine cselesti gentis geuuisoru ^ orienta- 
liiiq : nee non occidentaliu simul etia aquilonaliii saxonii 
archons cuida meoru principii que nonnulli uocitant 
noto uocamine . wvlfric .vii. cassatos perpetualiter trado . 
11 lie ubi uulgariter dieitur . set Melebroce . quandiu hie 
corpus animatii habere uidebitur nri doni priuilegiii sibi 
uendicet et postero denique suo quemciique elegerit 
perenniter impertiat cii campis . paseuis . pratis . siluis . 
Hsee tellus a euncto sit immunis seruitu nisi pontis . et 
arcis . ae expeditionis iuuamine . Si quis ante infringere 
temptauerit quod absit . seiat s6 ratione reddituru eora 
do et angelis eius . nisi prius hie digna satisfaetione 
emendare satagerit . 

Istis terminis ambif^ prsedieta tellus . fis synt )7a 
land gemsero to melebroee . serest of hreodbrycge ylang 
st'r'sete on fearninga broce ylang mearce on melebroces 
ford east ylang mearce on ]7unres lea norj^eweardne J^onon 
ylang weges on cinges die ]7onon ylang mearce on holan 
weg of ]7a wege on ]>si ea 0)7 midne stream ylang 
streames on hreodbrycge . y se haga an ham tune )7e 
)78erto gebyret . 

»J« Ego eadwig rex anglorii indeclinabiliter coneessi 
»I< Ego eadgar eiusdem regis fr consensi 
»i< Ego oda arehieps cu signo sc^ crucis roboraui 
>i< Ego selfsinus presul sigillu agi§ crucis impressi . 


>J< Ego oscytel eps consignaui 
>I< Ego osulf eps adquieui 
»I< Ego wulfsige eps subscripsi 
p^i Ego byrhthelm eps conclusi 

>{< selfsige mis . 

»I< wulfric mis . 

>J< se]?elgeard mis . 
>J« sej^elstan dux >I« selfheah mis . 

>i< eadmund dux ►}< selfgar mis . 

>I< byrhtferj? dux >J< byrhtf'er]? mis . 

>J< selfhere dux pI< selfred mis . 

*;^* indorsed in a contemporary hand, ' »^ ])is is ])ara 'vii' hida bdc 
aet melebroce ])e eadwig cing gebocode wulfrice Ms ]>egne on ece yrfe '; 
and in one of late i^th century, * vii hyda in mylbrooke. saxon/ B. 

^ The antiquated name of Gewissi is strange, as Mr. Freeman has 
observed, N. C. i. 602 ; but the strangeness is eclipsed by other parts of 
the title which are still more unusual. If we had found these afPecta- 
tions in a Chartulary, we should have been mistrustful, but the writing 
is coeval. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 40. A.D. 960. 

E:481. B. iii. 22. 


restores to his thane Wulfric certain lands which for some 
offence had been * interdicted.' The said thane gave the king 
120 mancuses of the purest gold. 

J Quamuis enim regalium dignitatum decreta et 
saluberrima regnorum consilia manente imunitatis sin- 
grafa iugiter fixa jBrmaque perseuerent . adtamen quia 
non umqua tempestates et mundi turbines fragilem uite 
cursum humane pulsantes contra diuina supernae affirma- 
tionis ac legitima iura illidunt . Idcirco ordine littera- 



rum ac cartarum scednlis sunt roboranda ne fortuitu 
casu suceessorum progenies posterorum ignorato preee- 
dentium patrum cirographo inextricabilem horendorum 
barathrorum uoraginem incurrat . Quapropter ego . ead- 
GAR . totius brittannise gubernator et rector cuidam 
ministro qui a peritis . wulfric . appella[tu]r uocabulo 
rura que ei ob cuiusda offensaculi causa interdicta fue- 
rant perpetualiter restituo seternam libertatem concedens 
quatinus [ipse quandiu in hoc mortali deguerit sec[u]lo 
sine alieuius honeris grauitate liberali? possideat et post 
su§ uit§ obitum quibuscumq* sibi placuerit heredibus 
incontaminata derelinquat . hec etenim sunt terrarum 
illarum nomina que rex prefatus wulfrico seternalit libe- 
rauit . sescesburuh . 7 deniceswyr^ . garanford . cifanlea . 
stanmere . ceadelanwyr'S . boxoran . bennanham . wyr- 
tingas . ticceburnan . steddanham . tuUingtun . psecein- 
gas . puningas . nitimbre . Si quis denique quod non 
optamus hane nram libertatem cupiditatis liuore depressi 
uiolare satagerint agminib; tetr§ caliginis lapsi uocem 
audiant examinationis die arbitris sibi dicentis . discedite 
a me maledicti in ignem seternum ubi cum demonibus 
ferreis sartaginib; crudeli torqueantur in poena si non 
ante mortem digna hoc emendauerint poenitentia . Dedit 
enim predictus minister regi prefato centu .xx. mancusas 
auri probatissimi causa huius libertatis . Scri[p}ta .e. 
namq* huius libertatis cartula anno dominicae incarna- 
tionis .dcccc.lx. his testibus consentientibus quorum in- 
ferius nomina secundum uniuscuiusque dignitatem 
carax[antu]r . 

>^ Ego eadgar rex banc libertatem >^ Ego osweard m 

eoncessi ^ Ego osulf m 

>i< Ego dunstan archieps cfirmaui »I« Ego uulfgar m 



lii Ego oscytel archieps robomui 

►J< Ego osulf eps csolidaui 

>I< Ego byrhthelm eps corroboraui 

>I< Ego a)?ulf eps concessi 

>J< Ego alfwold eps consensi 

>I« Ego aJ>elwold abb depinxi 

►!< Ego aelf here dux 

»}< Ego selfheah dux 

^ Ego 8e]7elstan dux 

►J< Ego a]?elwold dux 

>J< Ego byrbtno'S dux 

>I< Ego eadmund dux 

>i< Ego 8ej7elmund dux 

>J< Ego selfgar mis 

►I* Ego selfwine fh 

»I< Ego byrbtfer^ m 

►i< Ego 8eJ7elsige m 

>^ Ego eadric m 

>i< Ego osweard fh 

>i« Ego 
►I* Ego 
►I* Ego 
.J. Ego 
»I< Ego 
»i< Ego 
♦J« Ego 
►!< Ego 

osulf m 
uulfgar m 
wulf here m 
8e]7elsige m 
SBlfsige m 
wulf helm m 
se]7elsige m 
aBlfred m 
ealdred m 
8e)7elsige m. 
self heah m 
selfwine m 
8eJ7elwine m 
ealdred m 
leuincg m 
aelfwig m 
selfwine m 
8e]?elweard m 
sej^elfer^ m 

*^* indorsed hy the same hand, ' »^ f>is is ealra })ara landa freols \e 
eadgar cyning geedf reolsade wulf rice his Jjegene on ece yrfe ' ; and in a 
hand of the i^th century, * Concessit istas terras Hnfrascriptas' cuidam 
seculari/ B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 39. AD. 961. 

K487. B. iii. 23. 


totius Brittannise gubernator et rector, grants 2 2 cassati, loco 
qui eelebri Kimecuda ^ nuncupatur onomate, to the Church at 

His metis pfatii rus bine inde girat^ Dis synd )?a 

land gemsera to rimecuda . of J^sere br ea ylaug- 

ea on biccan pol of ]?am pole on dyrnan ford f onne is 


seo msed gemsene of )?am forda on lucan beorh of ]?am 
beorge on pisteles sec of J^sem acum on broclea ford of 
J?3em forda on |7a stigele of ]?8ere stigele on cuttes msed 
of )7sere msede on afene up on wudeburge hlinc of ]7am 
hlince on lind ford of J?8em forda on )?one see troh of ]78em 
troge on }7one h8e]?enan byrgels of ]?am byrgelse up to wind 
geate of wind geate on spon ford of J^sem forda on )7one 
fulan ford of ]7am forda on mules cumb of mules cumbe 
on ]7one herepa^ ylang herepa]?es on l7iofa cumb of ]7ara 
cumbe on blype burnan of J7am burnan on leofan mearce 
on ]?SL die of J^sere die on |?a brembel j^yrnan of |78ere 
]?yrnan on burhrydineg ford on }>a msed lace of ]78ere lace 
on ]7one haran wi^ig . |7onne is seo msed gemsene of ]?am 
wijjige on afene up on sandford of J?am forda on a^el- 
woldes mearce of his mearce on undernbeorh of ]78em 
beorge on |?one haran wij^ig of ]?8em wi|?ige eft on ]>a. 
bricge . 7 ]?isses landes is ealles xxii hida 

Anno dominicae incarnationis .dcccclxi. scripta est 
haec carta his testibus consentientibus quorum inferius 
nomina caraxantur . 

E. : — Eadgar britannise anglorum monarchus. 

Abp : — Dunstan dorobernensis seclesise archiepus. Oscytel 

seboracensis basilicse priamas insegnis. 
Bp : — Osulf presul. Byrhtelm blebi di famulus. Afulf pon- 

tifex. ^Ifstan antistes. Oswold legis di catascopus. 
Atib : — Ajpelwold. 

Dux :—iElf here. ^Ifheah. ^]5elstan. Afelwold. Byrhno'S. 
Eadmund. iE)?elmund. 

in: — ^Ifgar. ^Ifwine. B3rrhtfert5. iEf>elsige. iE)?elwine. 
Osweard. JEJ?elsige. Osulf. Uulfgar. ^f)elsige. JElf- 
sige. Wulfhelm. iElfsige. Alfred. Ealdred. Alfwold. 

*:ic* Endorsed in hands of the 12th and i^th centuries, ' Carta regis 


eadgari de Rimecuda/ the later of the two inscriptions heing followed 
hy * id est le Rye,* in another hand. B. 

* Rimecuda according to K. is in Berks : but B. says Wilts : where 
also K. put the Rimucwudu of K 436. 

Harley Charter 43, c. 21. A.D. 961. 

K488. B. iv. 11. 


di omnipotentis nutu rex totius albionis insula, grants to 
Cenulf for his service and fidelity 4 mansse, ubi anglica 
apellatione dicitur . set Wi)?iglea. 

Hsec sunt confinia supradict^ terre * 

^ pis synt ]7a land gemaero to wi]7ilea . aerest on 
ucing ford . of J^am forda on gerihte to )7ani smalan 
wege . for'S on j7one weg to poddan beorge . of )?am 
beorge to wij^ig slsede . of ]7am slsede on gerihte to broce- 
nan beorge . of J^am beorge to wudu forda . of J?am forda 
on gerihte to lulles beorge . of J7am beorge for'S ylang 
herpo]7es to cynulfes treowe . of ]?a treowe on gerihte to 
msegen stanes dene . of ]?8ere dene on ]7one weg to wiJ7ilea 
gate . of )7a gate for'S be j^aere die eft to ucing forda . 

Haec cartula scripta -r- anno dnic§ icar . deccc . Ixi . 
indie . iiii . 

R : — Eadgar rex anglorum. 

Abp : — Dunstan archieps. 

Bp :— Byrhtelm. Osulf. Alfwold. Byrhtelm. ^Ifstan. 

Dux :— ^Ifhere. ^Ifheah. ^f»estan. Afelwold. Ead- 

mund. Ajjelmund. Byrhtno'S. 
m: — iElfgar. ByrhfertS. Oswerd. Osulf. Eadwig. ^Ifwine. 

Alfwold. iEfelsige. ^)?elwine. ^Ifhelm. iElfric. 



aet wi])iglea "pe eadgar cing haef S gebocod centdfe on ^ce yrf e. ; ' in a 
hand of the 12th cent., ' wijiiglea', above which has been written in a 
hand of the i6th cent., *Donum Edgari regis factum Cenulf de terris 
vocatis — ;' and in another hand of the i6th cent., ' 961 Carta Edgari 
Regis de Phiphide continente quatuor Mansas cum omnibus pratis silvis 
pascuis campisque, sit ab omni regali servicio libera, exceptis tribus 
rebus arcis munitione, pontis constructione, et hepidicione/ B. 

Translation : — These are the landmeers to Witbiglea : First at 
Ucingford, from the ford straight to the small way, along on the 
way to Pod's hill, from that hill to withy slade, from the slade straight 
to broken hill [? landslip], from the hill to Woodford, from the ford 
straight to Lull's hill, from that hill forth along the highway to 
Cynulf's tree, from the tree straight to Mainstone hollow, from the 
hollow along the way to Withilea gate, from the gate along by the 
dyke and so back to Ucingford. 

Harley Charter 43, c. 3. A.D. 962. 

K400. B.iii. 25. 


totius brittannise gubernator et rector uni matrone cui uo- 
cabulum certa astipulatione j)fertr ^}3ELFljed, grants 7 mansse, 
illo m loco ubi a ruricolis uulgariter ceoeleswtede . pro- 
latum est cum omnibus, &c. ^ 

His metis rus hoc giratur . 

Dis syndon )7a land gemaero to ceorles wyr'Se . Of 
caforda ylang cwyrnburnan f hit cym^S to mannan 
mearce j7onne J?anon ylang wealc hyrste forS be anan 
burnan f hit cym^ eft on mannan mearce 7 on asan 
|?onne )7anon ylang heges f hit cym^ to anre dene 
]7onne svva for'S f hit cym^ on )?one burnan J7e scyt to 
culan fenne J^onne swa for'S ylang Jjaes burnan ^ hit 
cym^S to oswi^es mearce y eadwoldes . fonne for'S ylang 
heges J7e scyt of fam burnan f hit cym^ to strsete swa 
for'S ylang strete f hit cym'S inn on mearcellan . )7onne 
forS ylang mearcellan f hit cym^S )?8er cwyrnburna y 


mearcella sceota^ togsedere )7onne for^ ylang cwyrn- 
burnan f hit cynics eft in on caford. 

Anno dominicae incarnationis dcccclxii . scripta est 
haec carta his testibus consentientibus quorii inferius 
nomina notanf. 

R : — Eadgar rex anglorum. 

Abp : — Dunstan archieps. Oscytel arcbieps. 

Bp:— Osulf. Byrbtelm. 

At)b : — Afelwold. 

Dux :— iElfhere. ^Elfheah. JEpeht&n. Afelwold. 

m:— ^Ifgar. JElfwine. Byrhtfer?5. Wulfhelm. iEfelwine. 

*:ic* JEndorsed in a hand of the early 12th century, 'Carta ^dgari 
regis de cherlesworde cuidam ^ffleade.' continued in a later hand, 
'que per istam et per propriain cartam reddidit manerium sancto 
aedmundo'; and in one of the i^th century, 'Carta Edgar de Chrles- 
worde/ B. 

* Below, under 991, we shall see this property the subject of bequest 
in the Will of ^Jjelflsed. 

Archseologieal Journal, 1857. After 962. 


was king when the lands at Send and Sundbury were bought 
by Dunstan in the manner related. 

Se fruma waes "Saet mon forstsel senne wimman set 
Iceeslea JElfsige Byrhsiges suna : Durwif hatte se 
wimman. Da befeng ^Ifsige 'Sone mann set Wulfstane 
Wulfgares fader. Da tymde Wulfstan bine to jE^el- 
stane set Sunnanbyrg. Da cende he tem. let "Sone 
forberstan . forbeh 'Sone andagen. jEfter "Sam bsed 
-^Ifsige aegiftes his mannes . and he bine agif ^ and for- 
geald him mid twam pundum. Da bsed Byrhfer^ eald- 


ormann ^}?elstan hys wer for -Sam tembyrste. Da 
cwse-S ^)?elstan ^set he nsefde him to syllane. Da 
cleopode Eadweard ^]?elstanes bro'Sor, and cwse^, ic 
hsebbe Sunnanb urges boc "Se uncre yldran me Is^fdon, 
laet me ^set land to handa ic agife ]7inne wer )?am 
cynge. Da cwse^ ^^elstan "Sset him leofre wsere "Sset 
hit to fyre o^^e flode gewurde. 'Sonne he hit sefre 
gebide: "S^ cwseS Eadweard hit is wyrse "Sset uncer 
na^or hit nsebbe : ^a wses ^a swa. and forbead Byrh- 
fer^ "Sset land ^E^elstane. and he offerde and geb6h 
under Wulfgare set Nor^ healum. Binnan ^^m wendun 
gewyrda. and gewat Eadred cyng : and feng Eadwig to 
rice, and wende j^E'Selstan hine eft into Sunnanbyrg. 
ungebetra ]?inga. Da geahsode 'Saet Eadwig cyng and 
gesealde "Saet land Byrnrice. and he feng to and wearf 
^^elstan ut. gemang ^am getidde ^set Myrce gecuran 
Eadgar to cynge. and him anweald gesealdan ealra 
cynerihta. 'Sa gesohte ^"Selstan Eadgar cyng and bsed 
domes. 'Sa setdemdon him Myrcna witan land buton 
he his wer agulde "Sam cynge swa he o^ram ser sceolde. 
^a nsefde he hwanon. ne he hit Eadwearde his brewer 
ge^afian nolde. -Sa gesealde se cyng. and gebecte 'Sset 
land j^^elstane ealdormenn. to hsebbenne, and to syl- 
lanne for life and for legere "Sam him leofost wsere. sefter 
"Sam getidde 'Saet Ecgfer^ gebohte boo and land set 
iE^elstane ealdormenn. on cynges gewitnesse and his 
witena swa his gemedo waeron. hsefde and breac o^ his 
ende. "Sa betsehte Ecgfer^ on halre tungan. land and 
boc on cynges gewitnesse Dunstane arcebisceope to 
mundgenne his lafe and his bearne. Dd he geendod 
wses ^a rad se bisceop to ^am cynge. myngude ^sere 
munde and his gewitnesse. ^a cwse^ se cyng him to 
andsvvare. mine witan habba^ setree^ ^ Ecgfer^e ealle 


his are. furh ^set swyrd ^e him on hype hangode ^a 
he adrane. nam ^a se cyng ^a are 'Se he ahte. xx. hyda 
set Sendan. x. set Sunnanbyrg. and forgef ^Ifhege 
earldormenn. Da bead se bisceop his wer 'Sam cynge. 
^a cwse'S se cyng. ^set mihte beon geboden him wi'S 
clsenum legere. ac ic hsebbe ealle ^a spsece to -^Ifhege 
Iseten. ^ses on syxtan gere gebohte se arcebisceop set 
^Ifheofe ealdormenn. "Sset land set Sendan. mid xc. 
pundum. and set Sunnanbyrg mid cc. mancussan goldes 
unbecwedene. and unforbodene. wi^ selcne mann to 
^sdve ^segtide and he him swa 'Sa land geagnian derr\ 
swa him se sealde ^e to syllene ahte. and hi ^am se 
cyng sealde. swa he^ him his witan gerehton. 

^ sic K, 'hi legendum. 

as a contribution from Mr. Kemble, But he died before the proofs 
were revised, and I have been unable to trace the source. I have 
enquired at Westminster without success. Under these circumstances 
I simply append his preface and translation. 

' The very remarkable document which I here print with a transla- 
tion, is one of the title deeds of Westminster. It relates how certain 
lands at Send and Sunbury, in Middlesex, came into the hands of Arch- 
bishop Diinstan, and by what series of events their ancient owners 
became divested of their property. The light which it incidentally 
throws upon the Anglo-Saxon forms of law, and the state of society, is 
very great ; and it may be considered one of the most instructive monu- 
ments which we possess. As it is written in a rather barbarous way, 
though not by any means a confused one, our readers may possibly like 
to see a compendious account of the transactions described. It appears 
that a female serf, named Thurwif , was stolen from ^Lfsige : he de- 
tected his property in the hands of Wulfsige, who teamed it over to 
^^elstan, in Sudbury, i. e., vouched him as the person from whom he 
acquired it. It was now iE'Selst^n's business to produce his voucher, 
which he undertook to do ; but when the term came, he did not hold it, 
and consequently admitted the wrongful possession. -^Ifsige now 
claimed, and got back his property, and two pounds damages. But 
there was a public consideration besides the private one ; the sheriff in 
the king's name demanded iESelstdn's wergyld, which he had forfeited 


to the king by not vouching his warranty as he undertook to do. ^8'el- 
st^n having no means, his brother, EMweard, who possessed the charter 
of Sunbury, although ^Selstan held the land, proposed to pay the fine 
for him, if he would give up the land to him. This ^Selstan refused, 
and consequently both lost it. The sheriff turned ^^elst^n out of it, 
and seized it no doubt to the king's hand, the old proprietor taking 
refuge as a tenant upon WuLfg^r's land. But Eadred dying, ^Selstan 
took advantage, probably of a change of sherifB, to return to his land, 
**ungebetra Ipinga.," without having mended matters, — without having 
made amends. But E^dwig learning this, granted the land to Beornrie, 
who turned JESelst^n out and took possession. In the mean while the 
revolution in Mercia took place, and E^dgar was elected king in the 
coimtries north of the Thames. iESelst^n now seems to have had some 
hope that he might find some favour with the new king, and brought 
his case before him. But the law was clear enough ; E^dgar's witan 
decided as E^wig's had done, and iESelst^n was condemned to pay his 
wergyld for the Te^mbyrst, or forfeit his land. On this occasion, as 
before, he had not wherewithal to pay, and obstinately refused to let 
his brother do it, and consequently again both lost it. The king now 
granted it to MfSelstdn, one of his ealdormen, and gave him a book or 
charter, on which occasion it is certain that the old charter, in Ead- 
ward's possession, was annulled. From this time, the old owners, MfSel- 
st^n and EjCdweard, vanish altogether, the property is in ^^elst^n the 
ealdorman, and his devisees. It now appears that one EcgferS bought 
the land of him in full and entire property, and enjoyed it till his 
death. He made it over in trust to Archbishop Diinst^n, as it appears, 
to the use of his widow and child. This act he is described to have 
executed "h^lre tungan,*' with a whole tongue, i.e. with a sound, un- 
impeached right to bequeath; but after this he appears to have died 
under circumstances of suspicion, and the witan believing him to have 
been felo de se, confiscated all his property, and delivered it as a a 
escheat to the king. He gave it now to iSlf he^h, the ealdorman. And 
when Ddnst^n, on behalf of the widow and child, claimed the land of 
EMgar, he received for answer, that the man was a suicide, and that 
the estates were escheated. Diinst^n now offered to redeem the escheat 
by payment of EcgferS's wergyld; but the king rejoined, that if he 
paid that, Ecgf erS might perhaps be allowed to lie in a clean grave, i. e., 
in consecrated ground, but, for the rest, that the whole matter was 
handed over to JElfhe^h. Under these circumstances the Archbishop 
made up his mind to pay a large sum for the two estates, amounting 
in all to thirty hides, or nearly looo acres, and ^Ifhe^h made him a 
clear title, upon the warranty of the king's grant, and the authorisation 
of the witan thereto. I may mention, that in addition to several in- 
teresting examples of what may be called the symbolism of the Anglo- 
Saxon law, this charter contains the only evidence we have of escheat 
for suicide, in the Anglo-Saxon period.' 


*The beginning was that some one stole away a woman at Icceslea 
from ^If sig, Byrbtsige's son : tbe woman's name was Tburwif . Tben 
iElf sige detected the person in the possession of Wulf st^n, Wulfg^r's 
father. And WulfstiCn teamed her to M^e\%t^n at Sunbury. Then he 
gave notice of Team, but let it go by default, and did not appear at the 
term. After that ^Ifsige claimed his property, and he gave it up, and 
paid him damages with two pounds. Then ByrhtferS the ealdorman 
sued ^Selstan for his wergyld, for making default of team. Then 
said ^Selstan that he had no means to pay with. Then called out 
E^dweard, iESelst^n's brother, and said : " I have the charter of Sun- 
bury, which my ancestors ^ left me j give me the possession of the land 
into my hand, and I will pay the king your wergyld." Then said 
^Selstan that he would rather it should all sink in fire or flood, than 
that he should ever abide that. Then said EcCdweard, " It would be 
worse, that neither of us should have it." Then w^as it so, and Byrht- 
ferS forbade iESelstiln the land, and he decamped, and took service 
under Wulfg^r at Northhale. Meanwhile fortune changed, and king 
Eadred died, and Eadwig succeeded to his kingdom, and M^eXstin re- 
turned to Sunbury, without having mended the matter. Then Eddwig 
the king discovered that, and gave the land to Beorm'ic, and he took 
possession and cast ^Selstan out. Meanwhile it happened that the 
Mercians elected EMgar king, and gave him the power to exercise all 
the rights of royalty. Then ^Selstan sought king Eadgar, and de- 
manded judgment : and the witan of Mercia condemned him to foi-feit 
the land, unless he paid his wergyld to the king, as he should have done 
to the other, before. Then had he no means, nor would he allow his 
brother Eadweard to do it. Then the king gave and booked the land 
to ^^elst^n the ealdorman, to have and to give, in life and in death, to 
whom he best pleased. After that it befell that EcgferS bought the 
charter and land from ^^elst^n the ealdorman, by witness of the king 
and his witan, as his covenants were, he had and enjoyed it to his end. 
Then did EcgferS with a whole tongue bequeath land and book to Arch- 
bishop Dunst^n, by witness of the king, in trust for his widow and 
child. And when he was dead, the bishop rode to the king and put him 
in mind of the trust and of his testimony ; then did the king give him 
this answer, " My witan have deprived Ecgfer'S of all his estate, by the 
sword that hung on his hip when he was drowned." Then the king 
took all the estate he had, twenty hides at Send, ten at Sunbury, and 
gave them to ^Ifhe^h the ealdorman. Then did the bishop tender his 
wergyld to the king ; then said the king, that that might be offered 
him, in consideration of a grave in consecrated ground : but he had 
given over the whole discussion to ^Ifheah. In the sixth year after 
this, the archbishop bought the land at Send of ^Ifheah the ealdorman, 
for ninety pounds, and that at Sunbury for two hundred mancusses of 
gold, unbeclaimed and unforbid, against every man soever up to that 
date, and he warranted him the land[s] as his property, even as he had 


given it him that had it to give, and as the king had granted them to 
him, even as his witan had adjudged [them]/ 

* our parents, yoxu's and mine. 

Addit. Chart. 19, 793. A.D. 969. 

B. iii. 29. 


grants 15 cassati at ^pslea to his faithful thane Alfwold *. 

His metis prsefatum . rus hinc inde giratur ; Dis synt 
J7a land gemsera to aepslea . of hysse burnan on wendles 
dune eastewearde of wendles dune on flitanhyll J^anon 
on f)one hwitan mor . 7 si)7)7an be fenne on )7one heafod 
secer oj? J^one lytlan hlaw fonon to )?8ere apuldre J^ser ]?a 
J>reo land gemseru togsedere ga)? . woburninga 7 wafan- 
duninga . 7 sepsleainga . fram J7am deorg^te ofer J^one 
haej? to ]7am cumbe ]7onon ymbe westlea . of ]7am lea on 
}7one heafod secer se is on sepsleainga gemaere 7 on 
wafanduninga . )7onon . 7lang J^aere ealdan strate on dun- 
nes hlaw . J^onon on 'pone ealda'n' ford on psds fennes 
heafod andlang fennes up on J^sere dune to psere blacan 
J7yrnan to J^am ealdan stapole . of )?am stapole eall on- 
butan fotes eige of fotes eige in on ]?one blundan ford 
7lang streames . of ]7am streame on crangfeldinga die . 
of ]?8ere die on j7one ealdan coll pytt J?8er J7a )7reo gemseru 
togaedere gaj? . crancfeldinga . 7 mercstuninga . 7 hola- 
cotan . of )?am J?reom gemseron on ]?one ealdan mapuldre . 
of ]?am mapuldre . on ]7one sidan healh . of )?am sidan 
heale a be J^am heh hylte in on ]?one langan )76rn . of 
J^am }76rne eft in on hysseburnan . of hysseburnan . eft 
in easteweardere wsendles dune ; Anno ab incarnatione 
dni nri ihu xpi . dcccc . Ixuiiii . Scripta est . huius dona- 


tionis singrapha his testibus consentientibus quoru in- 
ferius nomina caraxantur. 

R : — Eadgar rex anglorum. 

Abp : — Dunstan archieps dorouernensis ecclesig xpi. Oscytel 

Bp : — JElfstan. iE]?elwold. Osulf. Wynsige. Oswold. 

aBb:— iEscwig. Osgar. ^Ifstan. JEpelg&r. ^Elfric. Cyne- 


dux :— iElfere. jElfeh. Ordgar. JEpehtan. Byrhtnoj?. 
m: Byrhtfer)?. ^Ifwine. Wulfstan. ^felweard. Eanulf. 

Osulf. "Wulfstan. Leofwine. ^Ifweard. ^Ej^elmund. 

Osweard. Leofwine. 

*j|c* Endorsed, ' >J< Dis is J)ara 'XV- hida land boc • set ^pslea • ])e 
EADGAE cyning • gebocade selfwolde his leofan • getreowan J)egne a on 
^ce yrfe ' ; and ' Eadgar rex/ 

^ Kemble has only an imperfect copy of this deed, namely, K 1267: 
for which the assigned sources are, Cott. Vitell. C. ix. 1 26 : and Heming's 
Chartulary by Hearne, p. 559. 

Addit. Chart. 19, 794. A.D. 984. 

B. iii. 32. 


Abp. York, leases 2 J mansse set Caldingcotan for three lives 
with reversion to the bishop of Worcester. 


CP Anno dominie^ incarnationis . dcecclxxxiiii . Ego 
osuuoLD . superni rectoris fultus iuuamine archipr^sul 
cum licentia ^]7ELIiedi . regis anglorum ac iELFRiCE . 
ducis merciorum cuidam ministro meo qui a gnosticis 
nota . CYNELM . nuncupatur uocabulo ob eius fidele ob- 


sequium quandam ruris particulam . ii et dimidium uide- 
licet mansas quod solito uocitaf^ nomine set caldinccotan . 
cum omnibus ad se rite pertinentibus liberaliter con- 
cessi ut ipse uita comite fideliter perfruatur et post uit§ 
su§ terminum duobus quibus uoluerit cleronomis dere- 
linquat . quibus etiam ex hac uita migratis rus predictum 
cum omnibus utensilibus ad usum primatis ecclesi^ di in 
weogerne ceastre restituatur immunis . j7onne is Ipses 
londes |7ridde half hid J^e oswold arcebisceop sel-S eynelme 
his ]7egne to boc londe swa he hit him ser hsefde tofor- 
laeten to Isen londe 8eg]?8er ge on eariS londe ge on hom 
londe . 

1J4 Ego oswold archiepis >J< Ego godingc diac 

►J< Ego wynsige prbt 1^ Ego leofstan diac 

►J< Ego sej^elstan prbt ►J* Ego wulfhun ct 

►i< Ego selfsige prbt >J< Ego cyne)7egn ct 

»J# Ego eadgar prbt ►J* Ego wulfgar cl 

»fi Ego wistan prbt >J< Ego leofwine ct 

>i< Ego eadward prbt »J< Ego ufuc ct 

1^ Ego sef'elsige prbt >J< Ego selfno^ ct 

»J< Ego wulfward diac >^ Ego aj^elwold ct 

1^ Ego se]7ric diac >}< Ego wulfno-S ct 

*5ic* ^Endorsed, ' >J< ])is syndon ])a lond giemsera into caldingc cotan "p 
is aerest on ruhwsellan o£ ruliwaellan *]long sices on ))one weg of Jjsem 
wege anbutan J)one garan eft on ])one weg of J)8em wege a be J)8em 
heafod londe "f eft in 'p oJ)er heafod lond ane liwile J)8enne in J)a f urh 1p 
andlong fyrh anbutan f heafod lond f swa on cyne burge lond gemsere 
•^ andlong gemseres on t* beafod lond of 3)8em heafod londe eft on ])one 
weg of J)8em wege on hlydan andlong hlydan on ]jone heafod weg of Jjsem 
wege on ])one hyll of l^aem hylle on J)a die set crawan Jjome of Jjsere die 
on caerent f andlong cserent on Ipa, mylen die on J^sere die on pa, dene ^ 
andlong dene on Jjone grenan weg of ]>seja wege on })a furh of jjsere f jrh 
a be J)8em heafdan to breoduninga gemsere to })sere fyrh ))8es bisceopes 
at londes p andlong fyrh to Jjsem heafdon of j^aem heafdon to J)8em 
heafod londe swa anbutan "p heafod lond p innan j)a furh ^ andlong 


f yrh on suS brdc Ipset andlong broces J^set eft in rugan waellan . ; ' and 
in later hands, ' ^])elredi regis.' and 'caldicoto: ii . hidse et dimi- 
dium,' B. 

Chart. Cott. viii. 14. A.D. 987. 

K657. B. iii. 33. 


grants lo ploughlands at Bromley to his thane ^(5elsige. 
The same estate appears a.d. 862 to have been conveyed by 
king ^thelberht to his thane Dryhtweald : K 287 ; B. ii. 39. 

>^ Altithrono in aeternum regnante . uniuersis sophise 
studiu itento mtis conamine sedulo rimantib; liquido 
patescit . quod huius uitse periculis nimio ingruentib; 
terrore recidiui terminus cosmi appropinquare dinos- 
cuntur . ut ueridica xpi promulgat sententia qua dicit . 
surget gens contra gentem et regnum aduersus regnum 
et reliqua . Quapropter ego se^elrsedus fauente supno 
numine basileos industrius angloru c^teraruque gentium 
in circuitu persistentium quanda telluris particula id est 
. X . aratrorii illo in loco ubi a ruricolis . bromleg dicif^ . 
cuidam mihi oppido fideli ministro qui a notis noto 
ae^elsige nuncupatur onomate in perpetua possession^ 
donando donaui . ut habeat et possideat quadiu uiuat in 
seterna . hereditate . et post se cuicumq; sibi placuerit 
heredi inmune derelinquat . Sit ante predictum rus liberu 
ab omni mundiali obstaculo cum omib; ad se rite perti- 
nentib5 capis . pascuis . pratis . siluis . excepto istis tribus 
expeditione uidelicet . pontis . arcisue munitione . Si 
quis igit'' banc nram donatione in aliud quam consti- 
tuimus transferr^ uoluerit priua^ consortio scse di ecctse 
seternis barathri incendiis lugubris iugiter cum iuda xpi 
proditore eiusq; complicib; puniaf si non satisfactione 
emendauerit congrua quod contra nrum deliquit decretu . 



Istis terminib; pr^dicta terra circumcincta clarescit . 
serest an nor'San fram ceddan leage to langan leage 
bromleaginga mearc 7 leofsnhaema . ]?anne fram langan 
leage to "Sam won stocce . Jeanne fram 'Sam w6n stocce 
be modinga hsema mearce to cinta stigole |janne fram 
cintan stigole be modinga hsema mearce to earnes beame . 
"Sanne fram earnes beame crseg ssetena haga on east- 
healfe seed hit to leowsan dene "Sanne fram leowsan 
dene to swelgende . "Sanne fram swelgende erseg setena 
haga to siox slihtre . ^anne fram seox slihtre to fearn 
beorhginga mearce fearn beorginga mearc hit seed to 
cystaninga mearce cystaninga mearc hit seed su^an to 
weard setle . ^anne fram weard setle cystaninga mearc 
to wichaema mearce . "Sanne seo west mearc be wichsema 
mearce ut to bipple styde . )7onne fram bipple styde to 
acustyde to beohhsema mearce . fram acustede to ceddan- 
leage . -Sonne belimpa^ |?8er to ^am lande . fif denn . an 
on ut wealda broccesh[a]m 'Sses dennes nama . 7 )?8es 
©"Sres dennes nama ssenget hryc . billan ora is ]?3es |?rid- 
dan nama . j7onne twa denn an glaeppan felda . Anno ab 
incarnatione dni nri . dcccclxxxvii . indictione . xv . his 
testib; consentientib; quorum nomina infra scripta sunt 
scripta est aute hsec cartula . 7 

►J< ego se^elraed rex anglorum huius donationis liber- 
tatem regni totius fastigiii tenens libenter concessi . 

^ ego dunstan archieps doruernensis ecclesise cum 
signo scse crucis confirmaui . 

>^ ego oswold eborac§ ciuitatis archipr^sul crucis 
taumate adnotaui . 

>I< ego selfstan eps consensi . 

►!< ego self heah eps adquieui . 

>J< ego se]7elsige eps consolidaui . 



>i< ego 8e]?elgar eps non rennui . 

>J< ego sescwig eps impress! . 

»J< ego sigeric eps consignaui . 

»J< ego sigegar eps subscripsi 

►!< ego a'Sulf eps conclusi . 

>J< ego se'Selwine dux i^ 

»J« ego byrhtnoS dux >J< 

f^i ego 8e)7elwerd dux >J< 

>J< ego aelfric dux <^ 

>J4 ego ordbryht abba >{< 

»J^ ego leofric abba »J« 

»i< ego seluere abba »{< 

»J< ego leofric abba >^ 

>J< ego selfsige mst »J< 

►J< ego selfgar mst >{< 

>J< ego wulfsige mst >J< 

»i< ego se^elsige mst >J< 

»i< ego selfric mst >J< 

>i< ego leofric mst »J< 

ego wulfric mst 
ego leofric mst 
ego ordulf mst 
ego ae^elmaer mst 
oswerd mst 
wulfgeat mst 
leofric mst 
wulfsige mst 
se'Selric mst 
leofstan mst 
godwine mst 
leofwine mst 
leofsige mst 
setSelnoiS mst . 

*^* Endorsed in a hand of the 1 2,th century, ' Bromleg Edelredus 
Rex dedit sancto Andree et Ethelsitho Episcopo/ B. 

Cott. Chart, viii. 20. Before A.D. 988. 

Harl. 311 f. 22. 
Text. Roff. 147. 
K 1288. T. p. 271. 
B. iii. 34. 

Abstract of Title 

how the land at Wouldham came to Rochester. A family 

►J< pus wseron 'Sa seox sulung set wulda ham see an- 
drea geseald into hrofes ceastre. se^elbryht cine hit 

P 2, 


gebocode ]>a apte on ece yrfe . 7 betsehte hit "Sa biscope 
eardulfe to bewitenne . 7 his seftergsencan . ^a betweonan 
J^am wearS hit ute . 7 hsefdon hit cynegas 0^ eadmund 
cine . "Sa gebohte hit selfstan heahstaninc set 'Ssem cince 
mid hund twelftigan mancesan goldes . 7 ^rittigan 
pundan . 7 ^aet him sealde msest eal selfeh his sunii . 
sefter eadmunde cincge 'Sa gebocode hit eadred cine 
aelfstane on ece yrfe . )?a sefter a^lfstanes dsege wses selfeh 
his sunu his yrfe wserd 7 ^ he beleac^ on halre tungon . 
7 ofteah aelfrice his brewer landes 7 sehta butan he hwset 
set him geearnode . 'Sa for ^sere bro^or sibbe geu^e he 
him . earhi^es . 7 ersegan . 7 senes fordes . 7 wulda hames 
his dseg . 'Sa oferbad selfeh 'Ssene bro^or 7 feng to his 
Isene . J?a hsefde selfric suna eadric hatte 7 selfeh 
nsenne . 'Sa geu^e selfeh ]?a eadrice . earhi'Ses . 7 crsegan . 
7 wulda hames . 7 hsefde him sylf senes ford . 'pa gewat 
eadric ser selfeh ewideleas . 7 selfeh feng to his Isene . ^a 
hsefde eadric lafe 7 nan beam . ]>a, geujje selfeh hire hire 
morgen gife . set crsegan . 7 stod earhi'S . 7 wulda ha . 
7 lytlan broc on his Isene . ^a hi eft ge^uhte ^a na he 
his feorme on wulda ha . 7 on ^am o)7ran wolde ac hine 
geyflade . 7 he "Sa ssende to "Sam arcebiscope dunstane . 
7 he CO to scylfe to him . 7 he cwse)? his cwide beforan 
him . 7 he sette senne cwide to cristes cyrican . 7 o'Serne 
to see andrea . 7 "San "Sriddan sealde his lafe . 'Sa brsec 
sy'S'San leofsunu Surh f wif 'Se he na eadrices lafe 'Ssene 
cwide . 7 herewade J>ses arcebiscopes gewitnesse . rad 'Sa 
innon "Sa land mid J7am wife butan witena dome . ]?a 
man f 'Sa biscope cy'Sde . 'Sa gelsedde se biscop ahnunga 
ealles selfehes cwides to earhi^e on gewitnesse selfstanes 
biscopes on lundene . 7 ealles J>ses hiredes 7 ^ses set 
cristes cyrican . 7 "Sses biscopes selfstanes an hrofes 
ceastre . 7 wulfsies pre'o'stes J7ses scirig mannes . 7 bryht- 


waldes on msere weorSe . 7 ealra east cantwarena . 7 west 
cantwarena 7 hit wa?s g-ecnsewe on su}? seaxan . 7 on 
west seaxan . 7 on middel seaxan . 7 on east seaxan . f 
se arcebiscop mid his selfes a'Se geahnode gode '. 7 see 
andrea mid \>a. bocan on cristes rode ^a land J7e leofsunu 
hi toteah 7 ^sene a]? na wulfsige se seirig man -Sa he 
nolde to 'Saes cinges handa . 7 )?8er waes god eaca ten 
hundan mannan ^e J7ane a^ sealdan . 

*:^* indorsed in contemporary hands, 'uuldeam/ 'sal sapientiae.' B. 
' leac K. and T. They seem not to have used the Cotton Charter. 

IDEM latine\ 

Isto tali ordine fuerunt illae vi. sulingae, quae vocantur Uuldeham, 
primum venditae ecclesiae Sancti Andreae apostoli de Hrofecestra, et 
postea extractae, et iterum emptae ipsi ecclesiae, ac tandem, per beatum 
Dunstanum archiepiscopum, juramento mille virorum eidem ecclesiae 
acquisitse, et jure hereditario in aeternum relictae. 

>J< Rex iEthelberhtus primum heredita,verat de Uuldeham apostolum 
Sanctum Andream, et ecclesiam suam in Hrofecestra aeterno jure, et 
commisit illud manerium Eardulfo episcopo Hrofensi ad custodiendum, 
et ejus successoribus. Igitur in manibus successorum ablatum est 
iterum apostolo et ecclesiae suae in manibus regum, ita quod plures 
reges, unus post alteram habuerunt illud postea, usque ad tempus regis 
Eadmundi. Tunc quidam probus homo nomine ^If stanus Heahstaninc 
emit illud a rege Eadmundo, et dedit ei pro illo centum duodecim 
mancas auri, et xxx. libras denariorum. Hujus pecuniae majorem 
partem dedit postea ipsi regi ^Ifegus filius ipsius ^Ifstani. Postea, 
mortuo rege Eadmundo, Eadredus rex hereditavit inde praedictum ^If- 
stanum in aeternam hereditatem, Itaque post mortem hujus ^Ifstani, 
praefatus iElfegus, qui regi Eadmundo dederat majorem partem pecuniae 
pro patre suo propter Uuldeham, successit huic ^Ifstano in heredita- 
tem. Qui statim conclusit, et omnino confirmavit totum quod pater 
suus in vita sua fecerat. Hie autem fratri suo ^Ifrico et terras atque 
pecunias patris sui ita plene subtraxit, quod ipse ^Ifricus nichil 
omnino inde poterat habere nisi servitio illud ab eo promeruisset, quem- 
admodum quilibet exti-aneus. Tamen praecogitatus tandem ^Ifegus, 
propter consanguinitatis fraternitatem, concessit illi Earhetham, et 
Craeiam, et.iEinesfordam, et Uuldeham, in diebus vitae suae tantum in 

^ The Latin is evidently of much later date than the Saxon, but of 
which it is a useful paraphrase, elucidating some passages where the 
Saxon seems obscure. T. 


praestito solummodo. Itaque mortuo ^Ifrico ^Ifegus statim omnia 
praestita sua, quae fratri suo viventi praestiterat [resumpsit]. ^Ifricus 
autem habuit filium nomine Eadricum, iElfegus vero non habuit. Et 
ideo iElfegus concessit illi Eadrico Earhetham, et Crseiam, et Uul- 
deham, et retinuit in manu sua iEinesford- Mortuus autem ipse 
Eadricus absque commendatione vel distributione rerum suarum, tunc 
iterum ^Ifegus accepit praestita sua omnia. Habebat etiam ipse 
Eadricus uxorem, et non liberos. Hac de causa concessit ^If egus illi 
viduae donum dotis suae tantum quod ei dederat Eadricus, quando earn 
primum accepit uxorem in Craeia. Et tunc remansit Litelbroc et 
Uuldeham in praestito suo. Postea, quando ei visum placitum fuit, 
accepit firmam suam in Uuldeham, et in aliis volebat similiter f acere ; 
sed iterum infirmatus est. Et quia infirmatus valde, misit ilico ad 
archiepiscopum Dunstanum ut veniret ad eum, et locutus est ei in loco 
illo qui vocatur Scelfa. Ibi coram archiepiscopo fecit ^Ifegus com- 
mendationem sive distributionem omnium rerum suarum, et constituit 
unam partem ecclesiae Christi Cantuariae, et alteram partem ecclesiae 
Andreae, et terciam partem uxori suae, Postea fuit quidam Leofsunu, 
qui uxorem Eadi'ici nepotis iElf egi relictam accepit sibi in uxorem ; et 
per ipsam mulierem incepit f rangere constitutiones ^Ifegi, quas f ecerat 
coram archiepiscopo, et vituperare archiepiscopum, et testimonium ejus 
irritum f acere. Tandem, multa stimulatus cupidine, cum ilia muliere 
sua, quasi quadam securitate illius uxoris suae inductus, intravit in 
terras illas, absque consilio et judicio sapientum virorum. Quod ubi 
archiepiscopus audivit, sine omni mora induxit statim calumniam pro- 
prietatis in omnem distributionem ^Elfegi, cui ipsemet affuit, et quae 
per eum facta fuerat. Diem ergo placiti hujus rei constituit archiepi- 
scopus apud Erhetham, per testimonium ^Ifstani episcopi Lundoniae, 
et ^Ifstani episcopi Hrofecestrae, et totius conventus ecclesiae Christi 
Cantuariae, et omnium orientalium et occidentalium Cantiae, et Wulfsii 
presbyteri, qui tunc vocatus scirman, id est, judex comitatus, et Briht- 
uualdi de Maerewurtha. Ad ultimum ita notificatum in Suthseaxa, et 
in Westseaxa, et in Middelseaxa, et in Eastseaxa, quod archiepiscopus 
Dunstanus, cum libris ecclesiastici juris, et signo crucis Christi, quam 
suis manibus tenebat, sui solius juramento, acquisivit aeternam heredi- 
tatem Deo et Sancto Andreae apostolo omnes terras illas, quas Leofsunu 
sibi usurpabat, Ipsum vero juramentum archiepiscopi accepit Uulfsi 
scirman, id est, judex provinciae ad opus regis, quandoquidem ipse 
Leofsunu illud suscipere nolebat, Insuper ad hoc perficiendum fuit 
hoc quoque maximum adjumentum, temporibusque futuris maximum 
securitatis probamentum, quod decies centum vm electissimi ex omni- 
bus illis supradictis comitatibus juraverunt post archiepiscopum in 
ipsa cruce Christi ratum, et aeternae memoriae stabile fore sacramentum 
quod archiepiscopus juraverat. 


Canterbury Charters, B. 2. A.D. 997. 

K699. T. p. 516^ 
S. i. 16. 


his Will. First his lord's heriot, then he leaves all to his 
wife Leofwyn for her day. After her day, the land at Book- 
ing (Essex) is to go to Christ Church, Canterbury : — all but 
one hide, which is to go to the priest of the village church. 
Among other dispositions of remainder, is a bequest to JSlf- 
stan (bp. Elmham) who is named as guardian to the widow 
as well as ultimate executor, should he survive. The date 
997 is taken from a late endorsement; it corresponds to the 
episcopate of bp. JElfstan (995-1001), and Mr. Thorpe's date 
970 seems obscure. 

>I< Her cy^ 8e]?eric on j^issum gewrite hwam he geann 
ofor his dseig ]78era sehta ]>e him god alsened hsef^ . J?8et 
is serest sona minum hlaforde . syxti mancusa goldes . 7 
mines swyrdes mid fetele . 7 ]>ar to twa hors . 7 twa 
targan . 7 twegen francan. and ic geann leof wynne minan 
wife ealles ]>ses 'pe ic Isefe hire daeig . 7 ofor hire dseg . 
gange J^set land on boccinge into cristes cireean )?am 
hirede for uncera saule 7 for mines faeder ]}e hit aer 
begeat eall baton anre hide ic gean into }78ere cyrcean 
)?am preoste J7e ]7ar gode J^eowa]?. and ic geann J78es landes 
set raegene be westan . into sanct paule ]>am bisceope to 
to geleohtenne . 7 )7ar on godes folce cristendom to 
daelenne. 7 ic geann J^ar to twegra hida Jjc eadric gafelaj? 
selce geare mid healfum punde . 7 mid anre garan . and 
ic geann be eastan straete 8eig]?er ge wudas ge feldas 
aelfstane bisceope into coppanforde . 7 pses heges on 
glaesne . and ic geann J^aes landes set nor^ ho . healf 
into sanct gregorie on suj? byrig. 7 healf into sanct 
eadmunde on bederices wyr)7e. Nu bidde ic ]?one bisceop 
aelfstan . ]7aet he amundige mine lafe 7 J^a J^incg ]?e ic 


hyre Isefe. 7 gif him god lifes geunne leneg J?onne unc 
]7e lie gefultumige f selc J7ara J^inga stande J^e ic 
gecweden hsebbe : 

*:u* JEndorsed in a hand of the 12th century 'to boccinge; ' and in 
a hand of i ■^th century, ' Eajjeric dedit bockinge ecclesise christi . Anno 
dcccc**. xcvii".' 

^ Thorpe adds also a later version from B. P, Cant. Ff. 2. 33 : — 
►J< Her ki'SeS A'Seric on ])is write hwam he an ouer his day ])e ahte 
J)e him God alent haued. pat is sone erst . mine louerd syxti markes 
goldes T mine suerdes mid fetele . ~] ]?erto tueye hors i tueye targen ^ tue 
frangen. And ic an Lefwine mine wife al ])at ic leue hire day . and 
oner hire day go ])at lond at Bockinge into Cristes kirke })en hirde for 
unker bo^ere soule . T for mine fader ]>& it her begat . al buten an hide 
ic an into pe kirke \& prest J)e J)er God ])ewe^. "j ic an J)at lond at 
Begene be westen strete into Seynte Paule . })e bisscop to lihten . and 
])eron Godes folke cristendom to delen. And ic an J)erto J)e tueye hide 
])e Edric gaueli'S ilke iher mid half pund t mid acre garen. And ic an 
be esten strete . bu5e wudes '] feldes Alfstane bisscop into Coppingforde. 
T fe heges on Glesene. And ic an ))at lond at NorShoo half into Seynte 
Gregorie on Subyr. and half into Seynt Eadmunde on BidricheswrS. 
Nu bidde ic J)ene bisscop Alfstan })at he amunigie mine laue. T j^at 
ping ])at ic her leue . and gif him God Hues unne leng ))an unc . J)at 
he f ultume ]5at alle Jjinge stonde );e ic queSen habbe. 

Canterbury Charters, B. 1. A.B. 997. 

K704. T. p. 539. 
S. i. 17. 


allows the Will of JEtlieric set Boccinge to stand. The 
widow was in danger of losing her estate, because of an old 
charge of connivance with the invader, which had been 
brought long ago against her husband, and was never quitted. 
When she came to the king at Cookham with the heriot, 
the question was revived. Her advocates were Abp. ^Ifric 
and ^'Selmser; and the king allowed the Will to stand, 
under condition that she gave her Morning-gift to Christ- 
church, Canterbury, for the king and all his people. This 
is a Cyrographum (see Introduction) : and the halvings of 


that word both above and below this gewrit, show that this 
copy was the middle one of three, confirming the statement 
at the close. It is endorsed with the date 997 ; in a late 
hand, it is true ; but this date suits the names. The deed 
cannot be later than 999, for in that year Lyfing, who here 
signs as Abbot (of Chertsey), became bishop of Wells. It 
could not have been before 995, when ^ifric became arch- 
bishop, and Godwine bishop. 

>J< Her swutela^ on ]?ison g-e write hu se^elred kyning 
geu'Se )78et sej^erices ewyde set boccinge standan moste . 
hit wses manegon earon aer se^eric for^ferde )78et ^am 
kincge wses gessed J^aet he wsere on )7ara unrsede ]7set man 
sceolde on east sexon swegen underfon ^a he serest J7yder 
mid flotan com . 7 se cincg hit on mycele gewitnysse 
sigerice areebisceope cySde )7e his forespeca J?a wses for 
"Sses landes J^ingon set boccinge 'Se he into cristes cyrcean 
becweden hsefde . |7a wses he ]7isse spsece segj^er ge on life . 
ge sefter ungeladod ge ungebett o^ his laf his hergeatu 
(7am cincge to cocham brohte J^ser he his witan widan 
gesomnod hsefde . ]>a, wolde se cing 'Sa spaece beforan 
eallon his witan up hebban . 7 cwse^ |7set leofsige ealdor- 
man . 7 msenige men J^sere spsece gecnsewe wseron . ]>a 
bsed see wuduwe selfric arcebisceop 'Se hire forespeca wses . 
7 se^elmser ]>set big |7one cincg bsedon J78et heo moste 
gesyllan hire morgengyfe into cristes cyrcean for 'Sone 
cincg . 7 ealne his leodscype wi-S ^am "Se se cing Sa 
egeslican on spsece alete . 7 his cwyde standan moste )?set 
is swa hit her beforan cwy^ . J;3et land set boccinge into 
cristes cyrcean . 7 his o^re land are into o'Sran halgan 
stowan swa his cwyde swutela'S . ]7a god forgylde J7am 
cincge getiSode he ^ses for cristes lufan . 7 sancta marian . 
7 sancte dunstanes . 7 ealra J^sera haligra Se set cristes 
cyrcean resta^ . )7aes costes ^e heo ]7is gelseste . 7 his 
cwyde fseste stode . )7eosswutelung W8es]?serrihte gewriten . 


7 beforan )?am cincg^ 7 ]7am witon gersedd ; J?is syndon 
"Ssera manna naman 'Se 'Sises to gevvittnesse wseron . selfric 
arcebisceop . 7 selfheh bisceop on wintaceastre . 7 wulfsige 
bisceop on dorsseton . 7 godwine bisceop on hrofeceastre . 
7 leofsige ealdorman . 7 leofwine ealdorman . 7 selfsige 
abbod . 7 wulfgar abbod . 7 byrhtelm abbod . 7 lyfincg 
abbod . 7 alfwold abbod . 7 se^elmser . 7 ordulf . 7 wulfget . 
7 frsena . 7 wulfric wulfrune sunu : 7 ealle 'Sa 'Segnas "Se 
|?sBr widan gegsederode wseron seg'Ser . ge of west sexan . 
ge of myrcean . ge of denon . ge of englon^. ]7issa gewrita 
syndon -^reo . an* is set crystes cyrcean . o^er set J^aes 
cinges haligdome . ^ridde hsef^ seo wuduvve. 

*j|t* Endorsed in an iith century hand, 'E^Jelred cing u'Se ae'Serices 
qSe 1 his lafe ito xps circe . Set his boccig. Tep iEluric ar epi . 
scrip ; ' in a hand of the 12th century, ' anglice ; ' and in a hand of the 
i^th century, * ESelred' rex cofirmauit testaintu Edrici qui no^ legauit 
Bockinge Anno dccce" xcvij**.' 

^ aegSer ge of West Sexan ge of &c. 

This gives an excellent view of the chief political divisions of the 
country, which Cnut afterwards more definitely organized and formed 
into four distinct governments. Freeman, N. C. i. 448. 

Reg. de Burton (penes W. Paget). A.D. 1002. 

K:1298. T. p. 543. 

Will of Wulfric 

The founder of Burton Abbey '^. 

>I< In nomine domini! Her swutela^ Wulfric his 
leofan hlaforde his cwide and eallon his freondon. Dset 
is 'Sset ic geann mxnum hlaforde twa hund mancessa 
goldes, and twa seolfor hilted sweord, and feower hors 
twa gesadelod and twa ungesadelode, and 'Sa wsepna ^a 
"Sfierto gebyria^; and ic geann selcum bisceope .v. man- 


cessa goldes ; and 'Sam twam arcebisceopan heora seg^ron 
tyn mancusas goldes ; and ic geann into selcum munuc- 
regole .i. pund ; and aelcon abbode and selcon ^ abba- 
tissan .v. mancusas goldes; and ic geann ^Ifrice arce- 
bisceope 'Sses landes aet Dumeltan for^ mid ^on o'Sran 
for mine sawle, wi^ 'Son 'Se he freond and fultum ^e 
betere sy into 'Ssere stowe "Se ic geworht hsebbe ; and ic 
geann jElfhelme and Wulfage "Ssera landa betwux 
E,ibbel and Mserse^ and on Wirhalum, "Saefc heo big dselan 
him betvveonan swa hig efnost magon, biitan heora 
£eg"Ser his agen habben wille, on 'Sset gerad^ "Sonne 
sceaddgenge sy, "Sset heora aeg^er sylle .iii. J^usend 
sceadda into 'Seere stowe aet Byrtune ; and ic geann 
JElf helm Rolfestun and Heorelfestun ; and ic geann 
Wulfage "Sses landes set Beorelfestune and set Mercham- 
tune ; and ic geann ^If helme "Saes landes aet Cunuges- 
burh wi'S 'Son ^e he do "Saet ^a munucas habben aelce 
geare J?riddan dsel "Saes fisces and he ^a twa dael ; and ic 
gean Wulfage ^aes landes aet Alewaldestune ; and ic 
gean Ufegeate "Saes landes aet Nor^tune on "Saet gerad 
'Saet he freond and fultum "Se betere sy into ^xre stowe ; 
and ic gean minre earman dehter "Saes landes aet Elle- 
forde and Saes aet Aclea mid eallon "Sam "Se "Sar nu 
tohyr^ Sa hwile 'Se hire daeg biS, and ofer hire daeg ga 
"Saet land into 'Saere stowe aet Byrtune ; and heo hit nage 
mid nanon J^inge to forwyrcenne, ac haebbe heo "Sone 
bryce "Sa hwile "Se heo hit geearnian cann, and ga hit 
sy^'San into "Saere stowe aet Byrtune for'SonSe hit waes 
mines godfaeder gyfu ; and ic wile 'Saet ^If helm * sy hire 
mund and ^aes landes ; and "Saet set Tomwur'Sin hire to 
nanon )7e6wd6me ne nanon geborenan men, butan ^aet 
heo "Sone ealdordom hebbe; and ic geann Wulfgare 
minan cnihte Saes landes aet Baltry^eleage ealswa his 


faeder hit him begeat ; and ic becwe'Se Morcare 'Sset 
land set Walesho, and ^set set Deogende^orpe, and -Sset 
set Hwitewille, and ^set set Clune, and fet set Barle- 
burhj and "Sset set Ducemannestune, and ^set set Mores- 
burh, and ^set set Eccingtune, and 'Sset set Bectune, and 
^set set Donecestre and set Morligtune ; and ic geann 
his wife Aldulfestreo ealswa hit nu stont mid mete and 
mid mannum ; and ic geann -^If helme minan meage 
•Sses landes on Paltertune and ^ses ^e Sseg^ me becwse'S ; 
and ic geann ^fJelrice ^set land set Wibbetofte, and 'Sset 
set Twongan, his dseg, and ofer his dseg ga "Sset land^ for 
mine sawle and for his moder and for his into Byrtone ; 
and ^is sind "Sa land "Se ic geann into Byrtone, 'Sset is 
merest Byrton^ 'Se "Sset mynstre on stent, and Strseton, 
and Bromleage, and Bedintun, and Gageleage, and 
Witestun, and Laganford, and Styrcleage, and Niwantun 
set "Ssere wic, and Waededun, and "Sset little land ^e ic ah 
on o'Ser Niwantune, and Wyneshylle, and Suttun, and 
Ticenheale, and set Scenctune, and set Wicgestane, and 
set Haleii, and set Remesleage, and ^set set Sciplea, and 
"Sset set Su^tune, and -Sset sot Actune twegra manna 
dseg, ealswa ^a foreword spreca^, and Deorlafestun, and 
'Sset "S^rto here's, 'Sset is Rudegard, and min litle land 
on Cotewaltune, and Lege mid eallon "Sam ^set -Sserto 
here^, Acofre mid Sam ^e "Sgerto haereS, "Sset is Hilum, 
and Celfdum, and Csetes^urne, and "Sset heregeatland 
set Siittune, and Morlege, and Brsegeshale, Mortun and 
eal seo socna "Se "Sserto here's, and 'Sset land "Siderinn set 
Wyllesleage, and Oggodestun, and Winnefeld, and Sno- 
deswic into Mortune, and "Sset set Ta^awyllan, and 'Sset 
land set ^ppelby 'Se ic gebohte mid minum feo, and set 
Westune, and Burhtun, and seo hid set Scearnforda into 
Wiggestane, and ^set set Hereburge byrig, and Ealdes- 


wur^e, and ^Ifredingtune, and Eccleshale, and set Wad- 
dune, and an hida set Sceon; and ic geann "Son liirede 
in Tamwurdin ^aet land set Langandune ealswa hi hit 
me ser toleton, and habban hi 'Sone bryce healfne and 
healfne ^a munecas into Byrtune ge on mete, ge on 
mannon, ge on yrfe, ge on selcon j7ingon ; and se bisceop 
fo to his lande set Bubandune ; and fon "Sa munucas into 
Byrtune to ^an ^e on ^am land is, ge on mannon, ge 
on eallon J7ingon, and "Sset land "Sam bisceope set Ssere 
syle. And ic wille 'Sset se cyng beo hlaford 'Sses myn- 
stres 'Se ic getimbrede and ^sera landara "Se ic %derinn 
becweden hsebbe, Gode to lofe and to wurdmynte, for 
minan hlaforde and for minre sawlan ; and ^Ifric arce- 
bisceop and jElfhelm mm bro^or "Sset hig ben mund 
and freond"^ and forespreocan into "S^re stowe wi"S gelcne 
geborenne man, heom to nanre agenre sehta butan into 
sanctus Benedictus regole ; and ic geann minre god- 
dohtor Morcares and EaldgySe^ "Sset land set Strsettune 
and Sone bule ^e wses hire ealdermoder ; and into "San 
mynstre set Byrtune an hundred^ wildra horsa and .xvi. 
tame hencgestas and 'S^erto eall "Sset ic hsebbe on lib- 
bandan and on licgendan, butan 'San "Se ic becweden 
hsebbe. And God selmihtig hine awende of eallum 
Godes dreame and of eabe cristenra gemanan se "Se ^is 
4wende, butan_ hit mln ane cynehlaford sy ; and ic 
hopige to him swa godan and swa mildheortan 'Sset he^ 
hit nylle sylf don ne eac nanum o^rum ge'Safian. Ualete 
in Christo. 

Rubric. Dis is seo freolsboc to "San mynstre set Byr- 
tune "Se j^^elred cyng sefre eceHee gefreode Gode to lofe 
and eallon his halgan to weor^unge, swa swa hit Wul- 
fric gesta^elode for hine and for his yldrena sawle, and 
hit mid munecon gesette Sset tSser sefre inne 'S^s hades 


menn under heora abbude Gode ]?e6wiau sefter sanctus 
Benedictus tseciDge. 

^ Mr. Coote has cited this Will in proof of the vast estates of the 
Saxon aristocracy. *A king's thegn devises eighty estates — whole 
townships lying in the counties of Gloucester, Lancaster, Worcester, 
York, Warwick, Kent, Surrey, Derhy.' The Romans of Britain, p. 467. 
He might have added Cheshire. Peculiarly interesting is the notice of 
wild and tame horses. See Freeman, vol. i. p. 379. 

^ sealcon K. The transcript from which K printed is late, and a few 
errors have been corrected ; specimens only are recorded. 

^ This is the ancient name for the district now the County of Lan- 
caster. *0f the Northumbrian kingdom,* Yorkshire is the only one of 
the existing subdivisions which dates as a shire before the Conquest; 
Lancashire is a modern denomination for the country between Ribble 
and Mersey, which in Domesday is reckoned to the West Riding.* 
Stubbs, Const. Hist. i. 109. In the following 'on Wirhalum' we see 
Wirrall in Cheshire. 

* ^Ifhelme K. s lande K. 

® zereste Byrtone K. ' freont K. 

8 to my god daughter [the daughter] of Morcar and Ealdgyth. T. 

^ hundra K. 

Cott. Claudius B. vi. 103. C. ix. 125. A.D. 1006. 
K 716. T. p. 549. 

The Will of .ffilfric, archbishop 
of Canterbury^ 

>J< Her sutela'S bu -^Ifric arcebisceop his cwyde 
gedihte. Dset is serest bim to saulsceate be becwae'S 
into Xpes cyrcan "Sset land set Wyllan, and set Burnan, 
and Risenbeorgas ; and be becwa^ his laford bis beste 
scip, and ^a segelgerseda ^arto, and .lx. healma, and 
.LX. beornena ; and be wilnode gif bit bis lafordes willa 
wsere 'Saet be gefsestnode into sancte Albane -Sset land 
set Cyngesbjrig, and fenge sylf wiiS "Sam eft to Eadul- 
fingtune ; and be becwse^ "Saet land set Dumeltun into 


Abbandune, and JElfno^e 'Sarof .iii. hida his dseg and 
si^^an to 'San o^arau to Abbandune ; and .x. oxan and 
.II. men he him becwse^ and filgan hi Sam lafordscype 
"Se 'Sset land to hyre ; and he cwse^ "Saet land set Weal- 
ingaforda 'Se he gebohte Celewserde ; and hofer his dseg 
into Ceolesige ; and he becwse^ into sancte Albane 'Sset 
land set Tiwan *, and standan ^a forword betweonan ^an 
abbode and Ceolrice ^e ser wi^ 'Ssene arcebiscop gefor- 
wjrd wseran, "Sset is ^set Ceolric habbe ^sene deel "Sses 
landes ^e he hsef^ his dseg, and eac 'Ssene dsel "Se se 
areebisceop for his sceatte him tolet, "Sset wses ehto^e 
healf hid wi'S .v. pundun and .l. mancusum goldes, and 
ga hit ofer his dseg eall togsedere into sancte Albsene ; 
and heora forewyrd wseron iSset Osanig sefter Ceolriees 
dsege gange eac J^yder in ; and "Sset land on Lundene, "Se 
he mid his feo gebohte, he becwse'S into sancte Albsene 
and his bee ealle he cwse^ eac J7yder in and his geteld. 
And he becwse^ "Sset man fenge on "Se feoh "Se man 
hsefde and serest selcne borh agulde, and si'S^an tilode 
to his hergeatwsen "Sses 'Se man habban sceolde. And 
anes scipes he geu^e "Sam folce to Cent and o^res to 
Wiltunescire and elles on o^rum J^ingum gif "Sses hwset 
w^re, he bsed "Sset Uulfstan bisceop, and Leofric abbud 
dihton swa heom best J>uhte. And "Se land be westan 
set Fittingtune and set Niwantune he becwse^ his sweos- 
trun and heora beornun; and ^Ifheages land Esnes 
suna ga a on his cyn ; and he becwse'S Uulfstane serce- 
biscope ane sweor rode, and anne ring, and anne psaltere ; 
and -^If heage biscope ane ^ rode. And he forgeaf on 
Godes est Centingan 'Ssene borh ^Se hy him sceoldan, 
and Middel-Sexon and Su^rion 'Sset feoh ^set heom fore 
sceat. , And he wyle "Sset man freoge sefter his dsege 
selcne witefsestne man "Se on his timan forgylt vvsere. 


Gif hwa 'Sis awende, hsebbe him wiS God gem^ne. 

' ^Ifric died on the i6th of November 1006, and was buried at 
Abingdon. That monastery was remembered in his will, and the will 
is found in the Abingdon Register. It is translated in Dean Hook's 
Lives of the Archbishops, voL i. p. 452 : where an interesting note of 
explanation is appended. Stubbs, Constitutional History, i. 116. Of 
peculiar interest are his bequests of ships. He gives the king his best 
ship, with rigging, and military equipments. But a still more re- 
markable and valuable record is that of the ships bequeathed to two 
shires. It appears that inland shires as well as those on the sea- 
board had to provide ships for the navy. This proved the high an- 
tiquity of ship-money. See Sax. Chron, 1018 and my note there; also 
Freeman, Norm. Conq. i. 370. 

2 Ripan K. *at Tewin' T. tr.: but ? Great Tew. 

3 anne K. T. 

Canterbury Charters. A.D. 1015. 

K722. T. p. 557. 
S.i. 18. 

-^^elstan se^eling 

his "Will. He was one * of the six sons of King ^thelred by 
his first wife -^Ifleed. Another of the six was Eadmund the 
famous Ironside who is mentioned in this Will. The Will is 
rich in terms descriptive of horses, and armour, and articles 
of English workmanship. 

>i< On godes selmihtiges naman . Ic se)7estan 8e|7eling 
gesutelige on ]?ysan gewrite . hu ic mine are and mine 
sehta . geunnen hsebbe . gode to lofe and to minre sawle 
alysednesse . and mines fseder 8e]?elredes cynges j^e ic hit 
set geearnode . )78et is serest J^set ic geann }73et man ge- 
freoge selcne wifce fsestne man ]?e ic on spsece ahte . and 
ic geann in mid me J78er ic me reste Criste and Sancte 
petre )>8es landes set eadburgebyrig . )7e ic gebohte set 
minan fseder mid twam hund mancusan goldes be ge- 
wihte . and mid fif pundan seolfres . and ]>sit land set 


merelafan J^e ic gebohte set minan feeder mid |?ridde 
healf hund mancusan goldes . and j^set land set mordune 
]?e min fseder me tolet ic geann into J78ere stowe for uncra 
begra sawle . and ic hine )7ses bidde for godes lufan and 
for sancta marian and for sancte petres . J^set hit standan 
mote . and ]?ses swyrdes mid J^am seolfrenan hiltan Jje 
wulfric worbte . and ]7one gyldenan fetels . and ]7one beh 
]>e wulfric worbte . and |?one drenc horn )?e ic aer set ]7am 
hired e bohte set ealdan mynstre . and ic wille )78et man 
nime J^set feoh 'pe sej^elwoldes laf me ah to gyldanne J>e ic 
for hire are gescoten hsebbe and betsece selfsige bisceope 
into ealdan mynstre for mine sawle ]78et synd .XII. pund 
be getale . and ic geann into Cristes cyrican on cantwara- 
bj^rig }7ses landes set holungaburnan and |/ses J^e ]?erto hyr'S 
butan }?sere anre sulunge ]>e ic sifyr^e geunnen hsebbe , 
and J?3es landes set garwaldingtune . and ic ge[ann] 
J^ses landes set hrySerafelda into nunnena mynstre sancta 
marian }>ances . and senne seolfrenne mele on .V. pun- 
dan . and into niwan mynstre senne seolfrenne hwer on 
fif pundan . On J^sere halgan J?rynnesse naman ]?e seo 
stow ys forehalig and ic geann to scseftenesbyrig to |73ere 
halgan rode and to sancte eadwearde )7ara .VI. punda J>e 
ic eadmunde minan bre'Ser gewissod hsebbe . and ic 
geann minan fseder sej^elrsede cynge ]?3es landes set cealc- 
tune butan ]7am ehta hidan ]>e ic selmsere minan cnihte 
geunnen hsebbe . and |?ses landes set nor]7tune . and }7ses 
landes set mollintune . and )7ses seolferhiltan swyrdes ^e 
ulfcytel ahte . and |7sere byrnan ]?e mid morcere ys . and 
}7ses horses "Se J^urbrand me geaf . and )7ses hwitan horses 
]7e leowine me geaf . and ic geann eadmunde minan 
bre'Ser J^ses swyrdes 'pe offa cyng ahte . and Jjses swyrdes 
mid |7am pyttedan hiltan . and anes brandes . and anes 
seolforhammenes blaed homes . and ]7ara landa ]>e ic 



ahte on east englan . and J>8es landes set peacesdele . and 
ic wylle )78et man gelseste selce geare ane daegfeorme J^am 
hirede into elig of )7ysse are on sancte 8e]7eldry^e mses- 
sedseg . and gesylle )?8er to mynstre an hund penega . 
and gefede J^ser on J^sene dseg an hund J^earfena . and sy 
sefre seo selmesse gelsest gear hwamlice age land se ]>e 
age . )7a hwile ]>e cristendom stande . and gif )7a nella^ 
J?as selmessan gefor'Sian ]?e "Sa land habbaj? gange seo ar 
into sancte sej^eldry^e . and hie geann eadwige minan 
brej?er anes sylfer hiltes svvyrdes . and ic geann selfsige 
bisceope }>8ere gyldenan rode ]>e is mid eadrice wynflaede 
suna . and anes blacan stedan . and ic geann selmsere 
]?ses landes set hamelan dene J?e he ser ahte . and ic bidde 
minne feeder for godes selmihtiges lufan and for minan, 
}73et he J?aes geunne J?e ic him geunnen haebbe . and ic 
geann god wine wulfno^es suna {^ses landes set cumtune ]>e 
his fseder ser ahte . and ic geann 3elfswy}7e minre fostor 
medor for hire miclan earnung^n J^ses landes set westtune 
J7e ic gebohte set minan fseder mid J^ridde helf hund 
mancusa goldes be gewihte . and ic geann selfwine minan 
maessepreoste J^aes landes aet heorulfestune . and J^aes 
malswyrdes ]>e wi^ar ahte . and mines horses mid minan 
gersedan .and ic geann selmsere minan disc J^ene J^ara 
ehta hida aet catringatune and anes fagan stedan . and 
mines targan . and ]78es sceardan swyrdes . and ic geann 
sifyr^e ]78es landes set hocgganclife . and anes swyrdes 
and anes horses . and mines bohscyldes . and ic geann 
sej^elwerde stameran and lyfinge )7aes landes set ty wingan . 
and ic gean leofstane leowines bre'Ser cwattes |7aere Ian- 
dare ]>e ic ser of his brewer nam . and ic geann leom- 
msere set bigrafan J^ses landes J?e ic him ser of nam . and 
ic geann godwine drefelan )?ara ]>reora hida set lutegares 
beale . and ic geann eadrice wynflaede suna |7aes swyrdes 

> .*■ 


\q seo hand ys on gemearcod . and ic geann segelwine 
minan cnihte J78es swyrdes J?e he me ser sealde . and ic 
gean selfnoi5e minan swjrrdhwitan j^ses sceardan mal- 
swyrdes . and minan headeor huntan }73es stodes )7e is on 
colungahryege . and gehealde man of minan golde selfric 
set bertune and godwine drefelan set swa micelan swa ead- 
mund min bro^or wat J^e ic heom mid rihte to gyldanne 
ah. Nu ]7ancige ic minan feeder mid ealre eadmodnesse 
on godes selmihtiges naman ]?8ere andsware \q he me 
sende on frige dseg sefter middan sumeres msesse dsege 
be alfgare seffan suna . )?8et wses }?8et he me cydde mines 
faeder worde ]78et ic moste be godes leafe and be his geun- 
nan minre are and minra sehta swa me msest raed )7uhte 
segj^er ge for gode ge for worulde . and )7ysse andsware 
is to gewitnesse eadmund min bro'Sor and selfsige bis- 
ceop . and byrhtmser abbod . and aelmaer selfrices sunn. 
Nu bidde ic ealle ]7a witan )7e minne cwide gehyron raedan 
8eg]?er ge gehadode ge laewede ]?8et hi beon on fultume 
]?8et min cwide standan mote swa mines faeder leaf ys and 
on minan cwide stent. Nu cySe ic fset ealle )7a "Sincg \^ 
ic to gode into godes cyrican and godes )7eowan geunnen 
hsebbe . J^set sy gedon for mines leofan faeder sawle aegel- 
redes cynges and for mine . and for 8elf)7ry^e minre 
ealde modor J7e me afedde . and for ealra J^ara ]?e me to 
J7ysan godan gefylstan . and se )7e "Sysne cwide )?urh 
senig )7incg awende . habb^ him wi^ god aelmihtigne 
ge maene . and wiiS sancta marian . and wi^ sancte peter . 
and wi'S ealle J^a ]?e godes naman heria]? ; 

*** ^Indorsed, * Testamentum ^^elstani qui fuit filius ^jyelredi 
regis. Hie dedit holingebume ecclesiae christi . anglice . Anno m° . xv . 
Scriptum .XV.* 

* Florenee and Brompton rank ^Selstan third; but Mr. Freeman 
(Norm. Conq. i. 409) thinks he was the eldest, because the order of 

Q 2 


their signing in several documents is as follows : — iE^elstan, Ecgbriht, 
Eadmund, Eadred, Eadwig, Eadgar. There is also a deed (K. 1304) 
in which ^Selstan signs for himself and brothers. 

The Canterbury text here printed is superior to that of the Winton 
Register, which K. followed. I have adopted the date in the endorse- 
ment though written in the 13th century, because it is quite in keeping. 

Are. C. C. Cantuar. A. D. 1016-1020. 

K 732. T. p. 312. 


his marriage contract, made with Byrhtric, whose daughter 
he ' wooed '. This Godwine appears to be a Kentish thane, 
of whom nothing farther is known. Mr. Thorpe took it to 
be a record of the second marriage of the famous Earl God- 
wine ; a notion which Mr. Freeman corrected in Norm. Conq. 
i. 467. 

1^ Her swutela^ on "Sysan gewrite "Sa fore ward -Se 
Godwine worhte wi^ Byrhtric ^a he his dohter awo- 
gode. Dset is serest "Sset he gsef hire anes pundes ge- 
wihta goldes, wi^ "Son^ c5e heo his spsece underfenge, 
and he geu^e hire "Sses landes set Str^ete mid eallan 'Son 
"Se ^serto her'S, and on Burwaramersce o^er healf hund 
secera, and 'Sserto J7rittig oxna and twentig cuna, and 
tyn hors, and tyn J>e6wmen. Dis wses gespecen set 
Cincgestune beforan Cnute cincge on Lyfinges aree- 
biscopes gewitnesse, and on ^ses hiredes set Cristes cir- 
can, and ^Ifmeres abbodes and 'Sees hiredes set sancte 
Augustine, and iE^elwines scire gerefan and Siredes 
ealdan, and Godwines Wulfeages sunu, and iElfsige cild, 
and Eadmer set Burham and Godwine Wulfstanes sunu^ 
and Kar[l] "Sses cincges cniht. And "Sa man "Sset msedan 
fette set Byrhtlingan^ "Sa code "Syses ealles on borh^ iElf- 
gar Syredes sunu, and Tier's preost on Folcestane, and 


of Doferan Leofwine preost, and Wulfsige preost, and 
Eadrsed Eadelmes sunuj and Leofwine Wserelmes sunn, 
and Cenwold Rust, and Leofwine Godwines sunu set 
Hortune, and Leofwine se reade, and Godwine Eadgeofe 
sunu, and Leofsunu his broker. And swa hwse'Ser heora 
Iseng libbe fo to eallan 8e[h]tan ge on 'Sam lande "Se ic 
heom gsef, ge o[n] selcon J7ingan. Dyssa ]?inga is ge- 
cnsewe selc dohtig man on Ksent and on Sud-Sexan, on 
J7egenan and on ceorlan ; and "Syssa gewrita synd J^reo, 
an is set Cristes cyrcan, o^er set sancte Augustine, and 
J^ridde hsef^S Byrhtric self. 

1 «one K. and T. 

2 on horh. Eleven names are given as security for the fulfilment of 
the contract, making, with their principal, the normal tale of twelve- 

Gospel Book at York. A.D. 1020. 


his manifesto of polity in England. 

Cnut cyning gret his arceb. 7 his leodbiscopas, 7 
purcyl eorl, 7 ealle his eorlas, 7 ealne his leodscype, 
twelfhynde 7 twyhynde, gehadode 7 Isewede, on Engla- 
lande freondlice ; 7 Ic cySe eow ^ ic wylle beon hold 
hlaford 7 unswicende to Godes gerihtum 7 to rihtre 
worold lage ; Ic nam me to gemynde )7a gewritu 7 )?a 
word \q se arceb. Lyfing me fram J?am papan brohte of 
Rome, ^ ic scolde seghwaer Godes lof upp araeran, 7 
unriht alecgan, 7 full fri^ wyrcean, be "Saere mihte )?e 
me God syllan wolde; Nu ne wandode ic na minum 
sceattum ]7a hwile \q eow unfri^ on handa stod ; Nu 
ic mid Godes fultume *p totwsemde mid minum scat- 


tum^ ]7a cydde man me f us mara hearm to fundode 
J>on us wel licode, 7 J?a for ic m6 sylf mid J^am man- 
num J?e me mid foron into Denmearcon |7e eow msest 
hearm of com, 7 f hsebbe mid Godes fultume forene 
forfangen, f eow nsefre heononfor^ }?anon nan unfri'S 
to ne cym^ J^a hwile 'pe ge me rihtlice healda^ 7 min 
lif by^ ; Nu ^ancige ic Gode ^Imihtigum his fultumes, 
7 his mildheortnesse, f ic ]7a myclan hearmas ]>e us 
tofundedon swa gelogod hsebbe, ^ we ne ]7urfon J^anon 
nenes hearmes us asittan ; ac us to fullan fultume 7 to 
ahreddingge gyf us neod byiS. Nu wylle ic ^ we 
ealle eadmodlice Gode j^lmihtigum J7ancian )78ere mild- 
heortnesse J?e he us to fultume gedon hsef^ ; Nu bidde 
ic mine arceb. 7 ealle mine leodb. f hy ealle neodfulle 
beon ymbe Godes gerihta selc on his ende )?e heom 
betseht is ; 7 eac minum ealdormannum ic beode f 
hy fylstan ]7am biscopum to Godes gerihtum 7 to 
minum kynescype, 7 to ealles folces J7earfe ; Gif hwa 
swa dyrstig sy, gehadod o^^e Isewede, Denisc cSSe 
Englisc, ^ ongean Godes lage ga, 7 ongean minne 
cynescype, cS^e ongean worold riht, 7 nelle betan 7 
geswican sefter minra b tsecinge, |?6n bidde ic ]7urcyl 
eorl 7 eac beode f he 'Ssene unrihtwisan to rihte 
gebige gyf he msege ; Gyf he ne msege, J?on wille ic 
mid uneer begra craefte f he hine on earde adwsesce, 
o^ 6e ut of earde adrsefe, sy he betera sy he wy rsa ; 7 
eac ic beode eallum minum gerefum be minum freond- 
scype, 7 be eallum )7am Ipe hi agon, 7 be heora agenum 
life, f hy seghwser min folc rihtlice healdan, 7 rihte 
domas deman be ^sere scira b gewitnesse, 7 swylce 
mildheortnesse ]?8eron don swylce ]?8ere scire b riht 
Jjince, 7 se man acuman msege 7 gyf hwa J^eof fri'Sige 
o^^e forena forlicge sy he emscyldig wi^ me fa 


^e }?eof scold e, buton he hine mid fulre lade wi^ me 
g-eclaensian msege ; 7 ic wylle f eal )7eodscype, gehadode 
7 laewede, fsestlice Eadgares lage healde, \>e ealle men 
habba'S gecoren, 7 to gesworen on Oxenaforda, for "Sam 
J7e ealle b secga'S f hit swyj7e deop [sy] wi^ God 
to betanne, f man a^as, o'S^e wedd tobrece, 7 eac hy 
us fur-Sor Isera'S f we sceolon eallan magene 7 eallon 
myhton )7one ecan mildan God inlice secan lufian 7 
weor^ian, 7 selc unriht ascunian ; "Saet synd msegslagan, 
7 mor^slagan, 7 mansworan, 7 wiccean, 7 wselcyrian, 7 
aebrecan, 7 syblegeru, 7 eac 'Se beoda^ on Godes MU 
mihtiges naman, 7 on ealra his haligra, f nan man 
swa dyrstig ne sy, f on gehadodre nunnan o"S^e on 
mynecenan gewifige, 7 gyf hit hwa gedon hsebbe, beo 
he utlah wi^ God 7 amansumod fram eallum Cristen- 
dome, 7 wi^ ]?one cyning scyldig ealles ])ses )7e he age, 
buton he 5e ra'Sor geswice, 7 ]7e deopplicor gebete wi^ 
God ; 7 gyt we fur^or mania^, f man sunnan dseges 
freols mid eallum msegene healde 7 weor^ige, fram 
Sseternes dseges none o^ Monan dseges lyhtinge, 7 nan 
man swa dyrstig ne sy, f he aSor o^^e cypinge 
wyrce, o'SSe senig mot gesece, J?a halgan dsege; 7 
ealle men, earme 7 eadige, heora cyrcan secean 7 for 
heora synnum ]7ingian, 7 selc beboden faestan geornlice 
healdan, 7 fa, halgan georne weor'Sian, ]>e us msesse 
preostas beodan sceolan, f we magan 7 moton ealle 
samod J^urh j^ses ecean Godes mildheortnesse, 7 his hal- 
gena Jjingrsedene to heofena rices myrh^e becuman; 7 
mid him wunian, ]>e leofa^ 7 rihxa^ a butan ende: 

%* This interesting document has not yet appeared in any collection, 
but it was printed some years ago on a separate sheet by Professor 
Stubbs * in usum amicorum/ He also gave a translation of it in his 


* Select Charters/ p. 75. To him I am indebted for a copy of the text, 
and to Canon Raine for a minute collation. 

The date is almost limited by internal evidence to 1020, the year in 
which Cnut returned from Denmark. It must be after 1018, the year 
in which the two races agreed in Oxford to live together under Edgar's 
law (Sax. Chron. 1018). On the other hand, Thurcyl, who is here ad- 
dressed, was outlawed in 102 1. 

Mac Durnan Gospels, Lambeth. A.D. 1020. 


abp. York, notifies Cnut the king and JElfgyfu the lady, of 
the consecration of JGthelnoth ; and asks on his behalf that 
he may be worthy of the possessions which had been enjoyed 
by his predecessors. 

►{< Wulfstan arcet) gret cnut cyning his hlaford . 7 
selfgife ]>a hlsefdian eadmodlice . 7 ic cy}>e inc leof f we 
habba'S gedon swa swa us swuteling fram eow com set 
"pa b se)7elno)?e . ^ we habba'S bine nu gebletsod . nu 
bidde ic for godes lufon . 7 for eallan godes halgan f ge 
witan on gode ]7a m8e]?e 7 on ]7am halgan hade . f he 
mote been J^sere ]?inga wyr];e ]?e o)?re beforan wseron. 
Dunstan ])e god wses 7 maenig o)?er f ]7es mote beon 
eall swa rihta 7 gerysna wyr'Se . f inc by^ bam J7earflic 
for gode . 7 eac gerysenlic for worolde. 

Mae Durnan Gospels, Lambeth. A.D. 1020. 

Arch. Journal, 1857. 


his Writ, to ensure -^thelnoth a peaceable entry into the 
temporalities of the archbishopric ^. The text is followed by 
Mr. Kemble's translation and note. 

»J< Cnut cyncg gret ealle mine b 7 mine eorlas, 7 mine 
gerefan on selcere scire^ J7e iE]7elnoiS arceb 7 se hired set 


Cristes cyrcean land inne habba^ freondlice . 7 ic cy^e 
eow f ic bsebbe ge unnen hi f he beo his saca 7 socne 
wyr^e . 7 gri"S bryces 7 ha socne 7 forstealles 7 infan- 
genes ]?eofes, 7 flymena fyrm^e ofer his agene menn 
binnan by rig 7 butan 7 ofer Cristes cyrcean 7 ofer 
swa feala J^egna swa ic hi tolsetan haebbe . 7 ic nelle f 
senig mann aht J^ser on teo buton he 7 his wicneras for 
]>a ic haebbe Criste ]?as gerihta forgyfen minre sawle to 
ecere alysendnesse 7 ic nelle f sefre senig mann ]>{s 
abrece be minum freondscipe. 

Translation. — ' >{« I, Canute, the king, greet all my bishops, and my 
earls, and my reeves, in each shire, in which Archishop iEthelnoth and 
the brotherhood at Christchurch have land, friendly. And I do you to 
know that I have granted him his privilege of Sac and Sdcn, and Grith- 
bryce and Hamsdcn, and Forstall, and Infangthief , and Flymenafirmth, 
in town and out of town, and over Christchurch, and as many thanes as 
I have allowed him. And I will not that any man shall meddle in 
aught therein, save himself and his stewards : seeing that I have 
granted these rights unto Christ, for the eternal salvation of my soul ; 
and it is my will that no man break this, — on my friendship : (i.e. on 
pain of losing it).' 

*** ' The foregoing writ of Cnut is probably the earliest we possess, 
of this form. It is possible that they were in use at all periods of the 
Anglo-Saxon rule, but till the time of Cnut, we have no instance of 
them. Under Eadweard the Confessor they became common. I look 
upon these instruments as the natural consequence of, and as the public 
announcement of the investiture in the temporalities of the see. Upon 
the election of a prelate and confirmation by the crown, he no doubt 
made suit for all the seignorial and other privileges attached to his 
barony, and this I presume is the patent by which his jurisdictions, &c., 
are secured to him. It is addressed to the usual administrative officers, 
and it removes their jurisdiction from all the bishop's lands and tene- 
ments. He is to have his own Sac and Sdcn, i. e., right to hold plea, 
and his infangenne J)e<5f, or thief taken on his manors, i. e,, the criminal 
jurisdiction. As ^SelnoS became Archbishop in a.d. 1020, and these 
letters patent must have been issued very shortly after the event, we 
have a tolerable certainty as to the date of the document. The formulary 
continued to be repeated in the charters of the Norman kings long after 
its meaning was entirely forgotten.' 

* This Writ was prepared by Mr. Kemble for the Archaeological 


Journal in 1857, but it has not yet been included in any collection. 
Professor Westwood discovered it in the Evangeliary of Mac Durnan 
at Lambeth; and he gave a facsimile of it in his * Palaeographia 
Sacra.' He thinks it is written in the same hand as the two grants in 
Cot. Tiberius, B. iv. namely, K 1323 and K 1325: — below, a.d. 1035. 
This would almost imply that the present writing is not strictly con- 
temporary with the event. See Smith's Dictionary of Christian An- 
tiquities, V. Investiture. 

Addit. Chart. 19,795. A. D. 1003—1023. 

B. iv. 13. 


abp. York and bp. Worcester, grants to Wulgyfu half a 
hyde at the Pear-tree, for her time and two heirs : after 
whom it is to revert to the church of Worcester. A Chiro- 
graph, and a noble original. 


^ NatursB rerum uarie et labens seculu istis succe- 
dunt teporib; ita iit quis quauis sub uero testimonio 
constitut^ sit aliquando fraudulenter aut aliquando obli- 
uiosam ducit mente ideo quicquid huiusscemodi rei 
facim^ in scedulis scribendo adnotam^ . Nunc ego 
wulfstan^ dno puidente archipontifex quandam telluris 
particulu id est mansam dimidiam in loco q^ uocat'^ 
pyriae cuidam matron^ cuius uocabulu est wulgyuu ob 
huius erga me beniuolentia in ius ^priu condone ut 
duob; quib;cuque post se uoluerit derelinquat heredib; 
et post wiogornensi eccl^ reddaf^ inmunis . Sit aute 
h^c tellus a mundiali seruitio libera exceptis trib; ex- 
peditione pontis urbisue restauratione . His eteni metis 
pr^fata tellus circugyratur 

Dis syndan J78ere halfre hide lond gemaeru up set J^aere 
pirian "p is serest fornongean ]7sere cyrcan ollung j^sere 
hegreawe on seglardes mersc ollung ]7aere hegreawe inne 


)7a strete ollung J78ere strete j^set upp on l^sene hyl of 
|7am hylle dun in ]7aet dsell "p oUung 'pses dseles f up on 
j7one hyll be henon lipperd ofer midne graf f in )7one 
midlestan holan weg f innan {7a hegreawe ollung ]7a 
hegreawe innan J7one readan weg ollung }78es readan 
weges ^ innan ]>a, hecce ollung ]>a. hecce ^ innan ]>a> 
hecce fornigean )?aere cyrcan . 7 ^ land )78erto ]>e 8e}7el- 
no]? ahte up set tan ofran 7 )78ene hagan J7e eadwerd ahte 
7 )78ene msed secer ]?e }78erto hyr^ 

ego wulfstan archipsul ego wulfwar'S ct 

ego eadric prt) ego leofric ct 

ego wulfwine prt> ego 8e]7elwine ct 

ego 8ej7elrie diac ego eadric mii 

ego selfgar diac ego byrhtwine mil 

ego |7urrer^ diac ego leofric mit 

Addit. Chart. 19,796. A. D. 1017-1023. 

B. iv. 15. 


abbot of Evesham, and his Society, leased to ^thelmaer land 
at Norton for three lives, after which it was to revert to the 
Minster, stocked with i man, 6 oxen, 20 sheep, and 20 acres 
sown to corn. The MS. is the nethermost slip of a triple 


f)is syndon )7a foreword 'pe selfwerd abt> 7 se hired on 
eoues hame worhtan wi^ se^elmser J^a "Sa hi hi f land 
sealdon set nor^ tune . wij? . iii . pundon ]7reora manna 
dseg . f syndon . iii . hida to in ware . 7 o^er healf to 
utware swa swa he hit gebohte pa. 'Sa hit weste Iseg . 
set hacune 7 set leofrice . 7 set ealre scire . ^ is ^ we hit 
unnon hi on godes est . 7 on Sea marian . 7 on ]7ses 


halgan weres S[cs EJgwines . J7e hit into ]>a mynstre 
beget . 7 gange seg^er ge cyricsceat ge teo'Sunge into 
]>a halgan mynstre swa he mycele ]?earfe ah . ^ hi don . 
7 toll 7 team sy agifen into ]?a mynstre hutan he hit 
geearnian maege to )7a ^e J^sen ah mynstres geweald . 
7 sef t j7reora manna dsege gange f land in mid . i . men . 
7 mid . vi . oxan . 7 mid . xx . sceapii . 7 mid . xx . secerii 
gesawenes cornes . 

7 J^yssa gewrita synd . iii . an li^ on wigra cestre set 
Sea marian mynstre . 7 o'Ser li^ on eofes hame . 7 
J^ridde haef^ se'Selmer . Se ]>e ]7is gehealde gehealde 
hine god . 7 se 'Se hit awende o'SSe gelytlige . gelytlige 
god his mede on ]?a toweardu life . butan he hit ser his 
ende ]}e deoppor gebete . 7 J?is wses gedon be J^yssa 
witena gewytnessse ]>e herwi^ ny^an awritene standa^ . 
f is serest aelfgeofu seo hlsefdie 'pe J^ses mynstres wait . 
7 wulfstan arcebiscop . 

7 leofsige biscop . 7 hacun eorl . 

7 byrhtwold biscop . 7 eglaf eorl . 

7 selfsige abb . 7 leofwine ealdorman . 

7 selfwerd abb . 7 leofric . 7 eadwine . 

7 leofsige abb . 7 byrhtteg munuc . 

7 afa abb . 7 byrhtwine . ^7 selfsige in . 

Hickes Diss. Ep. p. 11. A.D. 1020-1026. 


T. 373. 


had fully exculpated himself from a charge which Bishop 
Leofgar had brought against him ; and it was done at Lich- 

Her swutela'S an [^issum gewrite] ^set Godwine Ear- 


wiges sunu LaefS gelsed fuUe lade set 'San unrihtwife "Se 

Leofgar bisceop hyne tiht ; and "Sset wses Ised set Licit- 


*** Kemble dated this memorandum 'before 1056 ' because he thought 
of Leofgar, for a brief space bishop of Hereford, as related in Sax. 
Chron. C. 1056. It seems more in accordance with the text to connect 
the transaction with a bishop of Lichfield of the same name. Hickes 
says the original is in the famous Book of the Gospels known as the 
Gospels of St. Chad at Lichfield. 

Cott. Tib. B. iv. 86 b. A.D. 1035. 

K 1323. 


by his Writ protects Abp. ^EtSelnoS from the Sheriff's attempt 
to reassess the archiepiscopal estates. 

>I< Cnut cyngc gret Eadsige bisceop, and ^Elfstan 
abbod, and ^gelric, and ealle mine |7egnas on Cent 
freondlice ; and ic cy^e eow "Saet ic wylle "Sset ^E^elno^ 
arcebisceop werige his landare into his bisceoprice nu 
ealswa he dyde ser iEgelric wsere gerefa, and siS^an he 
gerefa wses Tor's o^ ^is. And ic nelle na geSafian "Sset 
man "Sam bisceope genige unlage beode, beo gerefa se "Se 

Cott. Tib. B. iv. 86. A.D. 1035. 



his Writ for restoring to the archbishop an estate that had 
been wrongly alienated. 

►!< Cnut cyngc gret Eadsige bisceop, and -^elfstan 
abbot, and iEgelric, and ealle mine J^egenas on Cent 
freondlice; and ic cy'Se eow "Sset ic hsebbe geunnen 


^■Selno^e arcebiscope ealre "Sare landare 'Se -^^Elfmeer 
hsefde and mid rihte into Cristes cyricean gebyra'S, bin- 
nan birig and butan, on wuda and on felda, swa full and 
swa for^ swa -^Ifric arcebisceop hyre weold o'S^e senig 
his forgengena. 

^ If the iElmser here dispossessed is that ^Imser Dyrling whose name 
is coupled ad. ioi6 in the Abingdon Chronicle with that of the traitor 
Eadric, as aiding the invaders, it might follow that Cnut was not re- 
strained from doing justice by his sense of obligation to disloyal aid. 

Addit. Chart. 19,797. A.D. 1033-1038. 

B. iv. 19. 


bp. Worcester, grants to Wulmser two hides of land in Easton 
for three lives, and then to revert to S. Mary's at Worcester. 


>i< In nomine dni . Ic byrhteh . 1j . mid godes ge- 
"Seahte 7 J78es arwyr^an hiredes on wigerna ceastre . 7 
on ealra fsera 'Segena gewitnysse into glseawe ceastre 
scire ic cy)7e f ic gean wulmsere minum cnihte twegra 
hida landes in east tune for his godra gearnunge swa 
ful 7 swa for'S swa he hit hsefde under leofsige . b . 7 
under me sy^j^an hsebbe he 7 wel bruce ]?reora manna 
dseg to rihtere geyrsumnysse . into "Saere halgan stowe 
to wigerna ceastre butan he hit forwyrce . Dees is to 
gewitnysse se hired on wigraceastre 7 on glseawe- 
ceastre . 7 on eofeshom . 7 on prese oran . 


Addit. Chart. 19,798. A.D. 1038. 

B. iv. 22. 


bp. Worcester, grants two cassati in loco qui ab incolis noto 
TAPEN TTAT.Aisr uocitatur appellamine, to his faithful eaecytel, 
for three lives ; after which the land with all its stock is to 
revert to the bishop of Worcester. 

Dis synd ]?a land gemsero into tapen halan . ^ is 
serest of brada forda east in ^a begreavve . sefter ]72ere 
heghreawe f cym^ innan "Sa ealdan die . sef t J^sere die 
f to "Sam bolan wege . ofer J?one weg west ribt to J^sere 
ealdan die . aefter ]78ere die to J^aere bradan strset . of 
]?iere bradan straet be ]>am grafe innan -Sa port street . 
sefter strjete innan dillameres die . of ]73ere diee ende . 
innan J^a wsellan . of )78ere wsellan . in "pa, sandihte 
strset . sefter strsete nor'S on biseeopes scirlett . ofer . 
b . scirlett in lin aceran wege ]7a innmsestan . of lin 
aceran innan "Sone hege . sef? )7am hege on brocc boles 
weg . of broce boles wege innan j7one eroft . of )>a 
crofte be )7a gearde innan leofesunes croft . of ]>am 
crofte . innan salewearpan . sefter salewearpan in oter 
burnan , sefter oter burnan . ^ cym^ eft in salewearpan . 
7 twegen bagan binnan porte : — Hii sunt testes et con- 
sentientes huius donationis : — 

1^ Ego lyfingus eps xpi largitione caracterem salui- 
ficae crueis inpressi : — 

1^ Ego selfweard^ . eps . confirmaui . 

>i< Ego se]?elstanus . eps . consolidaui . 

►I* Ego leofrie dux . >^ Ego sej^elwine prlj . 

>!• Ego selfstan diac . i^ Ego wistan prb . 

^ Ego odda mit . >I< Ego ]7urkel et . 

>^ Ego eadwine mit . ^J* Ego eatstan . prb . 


»J< Ego earni . ►$< Ego wilstan . prij . 

»^ Ego earnwi ci . >J< Ego wulstan . prt> . 

>J< Ego leofric minist . >^ Ego berhtmser ci: — 

>J4 Ego berhtwine prb ; — 
1^ Ego wulfward prb: — 
»I< Ego eadwig diacon : — 


*,(.* Endorsed in contemporary Tiands^ *'earkyteles b<5c to tapan 
halan : — " and " Harold senior/' B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 85. A. D. (?) 1038. 

B. iv. 21. 
T. p. 567. 

Bishop ^Ifric 

his Will.. 

>J< Her swytela^ on ]7issii gewrite hu selfric "b wille 
his are beteon |7e he under gode geernode 7 under cnute 
kyncge his leofue laforde 7 si|?]7an hsefS rihtlice ge- 
healdan under haralde cyncge ; ^ is J^onne serest ^ ic 
gean ^ land et wilrincga wer];a into see eadmunde for 
mira saule 7 for minas lafordas . swa ful 7 swa for'S swa 
he hit me to handa let . 7 ic gean ^ land set hunstanes 
tune be sestan broke 7 mid )?an lande et holme into see 
eadmunde . 7 ic wille ^ )?a munecas on byrig sellan 
syxtig punde for ]7an lande et tices welle 7 et doccyncge 
•] ic gean "J f J^erto gehera^ . 7 ic gean leofstane daecane J^set 
f mylne land et grimas tune swa ful 7 swa forS swa ic hit 
ahte . 7 ic gean min^ cyne laforde haralde • ii . marc 
gol . 7 ic gean mire hlefdigen 

an marc gol . 7 geleeste man 


segelrice . iiii . pund mire fat fylre . 7 sela man mina 
cnihtas )7a mina stiwardas witan . xxxx . punda 7 fif 
pund into elig . 7 fif pund into holm . and fif pund 
wulfwarde muneke minne msege . 7 fif pund selffbeli e' 
min ssemestre ^ . 7 ic wille f man sella f land et wal- 

a man ^ feoh 

singa ham swa man derast mege . 7 gelesta mid ]?an feo 
swa ic gewissod hsebbe . 7 ic wille f man selle f land 


et fersa feld swa man derast msege . 7 recna man iunga 
brun an marc gol . 7 mid ]7an laue scytte man mina 
borgas . 7 ic gean selfwine minan preoste et walsinga 
ham . XXX . akera et egge me^e'ra . 7 uui prouast habba 
j7one ofar secan . 7 Mo gean' sedwine muneke ]?a mylne 
et gseyssete ^e ringware ahte . 7 ic gean aelfwig preoste . 
f land et ryge dune ]>e ic bohte to leofwenne . 7 ic 
gean f myln ]>e wulno'S ahte into see eadmunde . 7 ic 
gean sibriht f land ]?e ic gebohte on mulan tune . 7 
ic gean f fen )7e J7urlac me sealde into selm ham ]?a 
preostas to foddan; 7 ic gean into hoxne . ]?a preostas . 
an ]7usend wer^ fen . 7 ic gean f fen ]>e selfric me 
sealde into holme . 7 ic gean J^on hage binnon nor^ 
wic for mire saule 7 for ealra ]>e hit me geu'Son into see 
eadmunde . 7 ic gean J7an hage into see petre binnon 
lunden . 7 ic gean iungre brun f healfe ]7usend fen . 

%* Endorsed in a hand of the 12th cent., *iEl£ricus episcopus 
Walinguuorda . Hunstanestun . Grimestxin . *Westle' . Molendinum 
Wulnotlii . Masuram apud Northwicum.* B. 

*:).* The scene is in East Anglia, and the bishop is probably one of 
the two iElfrics who successively filled the See of Elmham, and of 
whom only one date is known, namely, 1038, the year in which the first 
died and the second succeeded. Stubbs, 'Registrum Sacrum Angli- 
canum/ p. 169. The language has a tinge of the Anglian dialect. 

* Originally written sesaemestre. 


Addit. Chart. 19,799. A.D. 1042. 

B.iv. 23. 


bp. Worcester, with permission of King Harthacnut, grants 
to iEgelric, two hydes of land, with all legal freedom, for 
three lives. 

>J< In ures drihtnes naman hselendes cristes ic leofinc 
bisceop mid J7afunge 7 leafe heard acnutes cynges 7 ]?8es 
arwur]?an hiredes set wigornaceastre ge iunges ge ealdes 
gebocige sumne dsel landes minan holdan 7 getreowan 
fegene ]7am is ^gelric nama . ii . ^hida' set eadmunddes 
cotan hsebbe he 7 wel bruce ^ . for his eadmodre geher- 
sumnysse 7 for his licwur'San sceatte . ]?3et is )?8et he hit 
hsebbe 7 well bruce his dseg . 7 sefter his dsege twam 
erfewardum J?an "Se him leofest sy . 7 him betst to 
geearnian wylle . 7 he hit hsebbe to freon selces J^inges 
butan wall geweorce 7 brygc geweorce 7 ferd socne . 
God selmihtig fone gehealde . ]>e )7as ure sylena 7 ure 
gersednyssa healdan wylle on selce healfe . gif senig 
}7onne sy uppahofen 7 inblawen on ]7a ofer hyda J^sere 
gesettredan deofles lare . 7 wylle fas ure sylena gewem- 
man o^S^e gewonian on senigum J^ingum . wite he hine 
amansumadne mid annaniam 7 saphiram on ece for- 
wyrd . butan he hit her ser wur'Slice gebete gode 7 
mannum . Dis wses gedon "py geare ]>e wses agan fram 
cristes gebyrtide an j^usend wintra 7 twa 7 xlii . wintra . 
Dis is seo gewitnes . f is hear)?acnut cyng 7 selfgeofu 
his modor . 7 lyfing . b . 7 eall se hired on wigra- 
ceastre . 7 selfward . b . 7 se hired on eofeshomme . 7 
godwine abbod 7 se hired on wincelcumbe . 7 leofric . 
eorl . 7 ealle J^a ]?egenas on wigraceastre scire . ge 
englisce ge denisce . 



*:jc* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, ' To J)am . ii . hidan . set 

* wel bruce. A benedictory phrase which is repeated. Compare 
Beowulf, 1046, 1217, 2163, 2813. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 70. A.D. 1044. 

K773. T. p. 354. 
B. iv. 27. 


his agreement with Abp. Eadsige about land at Chart, county 


>{« Her swutela^ on ]?isum gewrite embe J?a forewyrd 
fe segelric worbte wi'S eadsige arcebiseeop set J;am lande 
set cert . J^e ceolno'S arcebiseeop gebohte set bselej^an ]7a 
]7egene mid his agenan seeatte . 7 aj^elulf cing hit ge- 
bocode ceolnoj^e arcebisceope on ece yrfe . ]?is synd 
]7senne )7a forewyrd f segelric hsebbe f land set cert his 
dseg . 7 sefter his dsege ga Jjsenne f land }7am arcebis- 
ceope eadsige on hand . swa gegodod swa heom bam 
gerisan mage . 7 sy'S^an heora begra dseg agan si . 
segelrices 7 ]?8es arcebisceopes eadsiges . ]73enne ga J^is 
foresprecene land into xpes cyricean mid mete 7 mid 
mannan eal swa hit stande . for segelrices sawle . 7 for 
eadsiges arcebisceopes . j^am godes J>eowan to fostre . 
7 to scrude . ]?e J^serinne godes lof dreogan sceolan dseges 
7 nihtes . 7 segelric gif^ ]7a land boc ]?e ]?serto gebyre'S 
on his life criste . 7 J;am hired hi to ecere selmessan . 
7 bruce segelric . 7 esbearn his sunu )7ara o^ra landa 
heora twegra dseg to J?a ilcan forewyrdan ]7e gegelno'S 
arcebiseeop 7 segelric ser geworhtan . f is stuting . 7 

B 2 


melentun . 7 se haga binnan port ]>e segelric him sylfan 
getimbrod hsefde . 7 sefter heora twegra dsege fo se 
arcebisceop eadsige ]?serto . gyf he leng libbe ]78enne hi . 
o^^e loc hwa his sefter gencga )?8enne beo . butan sum 
heora freonda )7a land furj^or on }78es arcebisceopes ge- 
mede ofgan mage . to rihtan gafole . o'S^e to o}?ran 
forewyrdan . swa hit man J^senne findan mage wi'S ]7one 
arcebisceop J?e Jeanne libbe . 7 ]7ises is to gewitnesse 
eadweard cyncg . 7 selfgyfu seo hlsefdige . 7 selfwine b . 
7 stigand b . 7 godwine b . 7 godric decanus . 7 eal se 
hired set cristes cyricean . 7 wulfric abbud . 7 eal se 
hired set see augustine . 7 selfwine abbud . 7 siweard 
abbud . 7 wulfno^ abb . 7 godwine eorl . 7 leofric eorl . 
7 atsur roda . 7 selfstan steallsere . 7 eadmser set burh- 
ham . 7 godric set human . 7 selfwine se reada . 7 
msenig man ]?8er to eacan ge gehadude ge Isewede . bin- 
nan burgan 7 butan . 7 gif senig man on uferan dagan 
gehadud o^^e Isewede J^isne cwyde wille awendan . 
awende hine god selmihtig hrsedlice of fisan Isenan life 
into helle wite . 7 J^ser a wunige mid eallan ]7a deoflan 
]?e seo la'Slice wunung betseht is . buton he fe deoppor 
hit gebete ser his ende . wi'S crist sylfne 7 wi'S |7one 
hired . Nu synd )7issa gewrita J^reo . an is innan cristes 
cyricean . 7 o];er set see augustine . 7 ^ J^ridde hsef^ 
segelric mid him sylfan . 


%* JEndorsed in Tiands of the 12th cent., 'Eielric big . Tempore 
eduardi regis et eadsi archiepiscopi de cert . de stuting et meletun .'; 
* Eilric bigge dedit cert et stuting et meletun . tempore eadwardi regis 
et eadsi archiepiscopi et ecclesie Christi fratribus ad uictum et uesti- 
tum .*; 'Anglice:' and in hands of the i^th cent, *xvii* ; 'Anno .M<*. 
xliiij . scripta .' B. 

To this document both K, and T. have added a later transcript or 


version, which K. calls 'an English translation made in the 13th 
century,' and T. calls *a later copy of the above in the Kentish Dialect/ 
The manuscript reference is Reg. C. C. Cantuar. C. v. 11. I print from 


Hyer soutelet on J)isen ywrite embe J)0 uorewarde 8e ESelrich wrogte 
wis Edsige archebiscop at San londe at Chert ^e Chelno'S archebiscop 
bogte at Hele^en J)an J)eyne mid his ogene sheatte . -j E'Seluf king hit 
ybokode Ceolno'S archebiscope on eche yrue. Dis sind Jeanne fe uore- 
werde- Set ESelrich habbe 'Set land at Chert his dey- and aef ter his dage 
go J)et land San archebiscope Eadsige an hand, suo ygoded suo hem 
bam yrisen mage, and si^tSen hire beyre day agon sy. ESelrices and 
^as archebiscopes Edsiges- Jeanne go J)is uorespekene land into Cristes 
chereche* mid mete and mid mannen al suo hit stondet- uor EtSelriches 
saule- and for Edsiges archebiscopes. "San Godes Jjeuwen to uostre and 
to shrudc' ]>e ^erinne Godes lof Jjreugen shuUe dages and nigtes. And 
ESelrich geft "So landboc Se Serto yberS on his Hue Criste and ^an 
hirde him to echSes elmesse. And brake ESelrich and Esbarn his sime 
Sare oSre land here tueyre dey to J)an yleke uorewerde J)e EtJelnoS 
archebiscop and ESelric er ywrogten. Dat is Stutinge and Meletune- "j 
se hage binne port "Se ESelrich him self ytimbred hauede- and efter 
hire tueyre dage uo se archebiscop Edsige "SertO' gef he leng libbe 
})anne hy- oSer hwo his eftergengle tSanne by- bute sum of hyre frende 
Set lond furSer on J)as archebiscopes ymede ofgon mage to rigten 
gauellc' olSre to oSre uorewarde suo hit man "Sanne uinden mage wiS 
"Sane archebiscop 'Set ])an libbe. And 'Sisses is to yw^itnesse Edward 
king- and Elfgiue sy leuedi- and Elfwine biscop- and Stigand biscop- 
and God wine biscop' ~} Godrich decan- and al se hired at Cristes cherche- 
and WolfriS abot- and al se hired at Seynt Austines- [i manie abottes 
and hierles.] -j manie oSre men yhodede and lewede- binne burg and 
bute. And gef eny man on ure dagen- yhoded oSer lewed- "Sisne quyde 
wille awendc' awende hine God almigti raSlice of Sis [lene] line into 
helle wite- and Ser a wonie mid alle 'San deulen "Se se lodliche woninge 
his bitagt- bute he ])e diepper hit ybete er his ende wiS Crist selfne- 
and wi'S J)an hird. Nu send "Sis ywrite "Srie. On is at Cristes chereche- 
otSer at Seynt Austine- and Sat J)ridde hauet ESelrich mid him selue. 


Cott. Ch. viii. 9. A.D. 1045. 


B. iv. 31. 


kiDg of the English and of all Albion grants 7 cassati at 
Melebroc to ^lfwine\ bp. Winchester, with all legal im- 
munity. The boundaries and date are as follows. 

IsTis namque terminis ] ambitur predicta tellus ; f)is 

synd J7a landgemsera to myle broce aerest of hreo[d 

bricjge on tserstan stream . andlang streames on hnut 

scyllinga mearce . 7 swa andlang mearce on )7one holan 

weg . of J>an holan wege ylang mearce on fearninga 

broc . and swa ylang mearce on myle broces ford . 7 

swa east andlang [m]earce on |7unres lea nor^eweardne . 

)7anan ylang weges on cynges die . and swa 7lang 

mearce on ]?one o^eme holan weg . of ]7am wege on 'Sa 

ea 7 se wer stede be su^an hreod bricge ut J>urh )7one 

stream on |78es cynges stse^ and swa 7lang streames eft 

on hreod bricge 7 se haga on hamtune ]>e J^serto ge- 

byra^ . Anno dominicse incarnationis . Milt . quadra- 

gessimo quinto . in[d]ictione . xiii . et nullis epactis 

atq: uno concurrente rotantibus J haec regalis concessio 

atque donatio facta est . sub astipulatione primatum 

quorum nomina hie caraxata sunt. 

Translation : — These are the bounds at Milbrook. First from 
Reed-bridge to Taerstan stream, along the stream to the border of the 
Nutshalling folk, and so along the border to the hollow way, from the 
hollow way along the border to the brook of the Fearning folk ; and 
so along the border to Milbrook ford, and so east along the boi-der to 
Thunor's leigh at its north end, thence along the way to king's dyke, 
and so along the border to the other hollow way, from that way on to 
the water, (and the weir-stead to the south of Reed-bridge) out through 
the stream to the king's stathe, and so along the stream back again to 
Reed-bridge. — And the residence in Hamton that thereto pertaineth. 

^ Codex Wintoniensis fol. 76 b, has this deed with the name of Earl 
Godwine for bishop ^Ifwine. K. 


Cott. Aug. ii. 35. A. D. 1044-1048. 


B. iv. 28. 

Godric set Burnan 

his declaration; how he became possessed of the land at 

>^ Her swutela^ on ];isii gewrite hu godric set 
burnan begeat f land at ofiaham f is -Sonne f he 
sealde eadgyuan his sweostor an marc goldes 7 xiii . pd . 
7 Ixiii . pen . on geceapodne ceap to gyfanne 7 to syl- 
lanne on dsege 7 sefter dsege fam )7e him leofust sy . ])es 
ceap wses geceapod on wii set foran ealra scyre . J^ises is 
to gewitnesse eadsige arcet> . 7 siward \) . 7 godric 
decanus . 7 call se hired set cristes cyricean . 7 wulfric 
abt> 7 se hired set see augustine . 7 segelric bygga . 7 
)7urgar selfgares sunu . 7 eadric selfrices sunu . 7 osweard 
set hergeardes ham . 7 leofwine preost 7 godric port 
gerefa . 7 wulfsige ]?aes cynges gerefa . 7 manig god 
mann ]?arto . Nu synd ]7issa gewrita ]7reo an is set 
cristes cyricean . 7 oJ?er set see augustine . 7 }>ridde 
hsefS godric mid him . 


*,,£* Endorsed in a hand of the 12th cent., 'Quomodo Godricus emit 
terrain de ofEeham . anglice.' B. 

Addit. Chart. 19,801. A.D. 1058. 

B. iv. 38. 


bp. "Worcester, grants land at NortS tun to Dodda for his life. 

^ Anno dnice ab incarnatione dni nri iftu xpi . 
Millessimo Iviii . Sc§ uuigornensis aecclesi^ . 

Ego ealdredus eps . cum licentia ac consensu familif 



monasterialis quandam ruris particulam ii . quoq: man- 
sas . et unam pticam . qui a gnotis uoeitatur nomine 
NOR© TUN . quadam meo ministro qui nuncupatur 
Dodda . Cum omnibus ad se rite ptinentibus . Campis . 
pascuis . pratis . siluis . liberaliter concedo ut ipse 
babeat et possideat quamdiu uiuat . et post uitam suam 
ad episcopalem sedem . sine contradictione restituatur . 
Sit aut terra ista libera preter pontis arcisue restaura- 
tione . et communi expeditione necnon et aecclesiastice 
census . Dis is "Ssere twegra bida boc 7 anre gyrde set 
nor'S tune 7 'Sa feower seceras "Sserto of ^sere styfycunge 
into ^am twam bidan 7 "Sa msode . 7 "Sone graf ^e ]78erto 
mid ribte tolige^ . 7 'Sa "Sry seceras maede on afan 
bamme . J?e see oswold geaf bercstane into "Sam lande . 
7 "Siss synd ]>a land gemsero into ^am grafe . serost of 
'Saere dune andlang J^sere rode o^ bit cym^ beneo'San 
stancnoUe ]?anon on geribte to ewenn hofoton . of 
cwenn bofoton . be nor^on ]?am mere ]?anon on geribte 
eft up on 'Sa dune . 

1^ Ego Eaduueard rex anglorum banc prefatam do- 
nationem concessi . 

\^ Ego Ealdredus EPS Donaui . 
>i< Ego iEgelwig abb Ego bribtric min . 

1^ Ego Godric abb Ego segelric min 

>J< Ego Eadmund abb Ego godric min 

f^ Ego wulstan sac Ego ceolmser min 

>i« Ego wulfwig sac Ego atser min 

»J< Ego wylstan sac Ego sestan min 

ij< Ego selfstan sac Ego eadric min 

>J< Ego godric sac Ego bribtwine min 

>i< Ego godric diac Ego nor"Sman min 

>I< Ego godwine diac Ego arngeat min . 

*** indorsed in contemporary hands, *to nor'Stune'; and *Ead- 
wardi iunioris.* B. 


MS. Bodl. Auct. D. 2. 16. f.l. 

Codex Exoniensis. 

Harl. 258. f. 125. 


T. p. 428. 


the first bishop of Exeter; his benefactions to his new 

►J< Her swutela^S on "Sissere xpes bee hwset Leofric 
. h . hsef^ ge don inn to See Petres minstre on exan- 
ceastre . |78er his biseeop stol is . ^ is ^ he haefS 
ge innod ^ ser ge utod wses ]7urh Godes fultu 7 )7urh 
his fore sprsece . 7 ]?urli his gsersuma . f is aerost "p 
land set culm stoke . 7 f land aet brances cumbe . 7 set 
sealt cumbe . 7 f land set see maria circean . 7 f land 
set stofordtune. 7 set spearcan wille . 7 f land set mor- 
ces hille . 7 sidefullan hiwisc . 7 f land set brihtrices 
stane . ^7 ^ land set toppeshame ]?eah 'pe harold hit 
mid unlage utnam' . 7 f land set stoce . 7 ^ land set 
sydebirig . 7 f land set niwan tune . 7 set nor^tune . '7 
^ land set clist ]?e wid hsefde.' Donne ys J?is se eaca 
on landu ^e he beef's of his agenu ^ mynster mid 
gegodod . for his hlaforda sawlum 7 for his agenre . 
)7a Godes J^eowu to bigleofan ]?e for heora sawlum 


J^ingian sceolon . f ys serost f land set bem tune . 7 
set est tune . 7 set ceommenige . 7 f land set doflisc . 7 
set holacumbe . 7 set su]? wuda . 7 he ne funde )7a he to 
fa mynstre feng nan mare landes ]?e Sider ynn ge wylde 
wsere . j7onne twa hida landes set ide . 7 ]78er on nses 
orf kynnes nan mare buton .vii . hru'Seru. Donne ys 
J^is seo oncnawennis |?e he hsefS god mid ge cnawen 7 
sdm petrum in to J^am halgan mynstre . on circlicu 
madmum . ^ is 'p he hsef^ ]?ider ynn ge don . 11 . .b 
roda . 7 .11. mycele gebonede roda . butan o'Sru ^litlu' 
silfrenu swurrodu . 7 .11. mycele xpes bee gebonede^ . 
7 .III. ge bonede serin . 7 .1. ge boned altare . 7 .v. silfrene 
caliceas . 7 .iiii. corporales . 7 .1. silfren pipe . 7 .v. fuUe 
msessereaf . 7 .11. dalmatica . 7 .111. pistel roccas . 7 .iiii. 
subdM'acones hand lin . 7 .111. canter kseppa . 7 jit. canter 
stafas . 7 V. psellene weofod sceatas . 7 vii. of brsedelsas . 
7 .IT. tseppedu .^7 .111. berascin . 7 vii. setlhrsegel . 7 iii. 
ricgrsegel . 7 .11. wahreft . 7 .vi. msesene sceala . 7 .11. ge 
bonede hnseppas . 7 .iiii. hornas . 7 .11. mycele ge bonede 
candel sticcan . 7 .vi. Isessan candel sticcan ge bonede . 
7 .1. silfren stor cylle mid silfrenii stor sticcan . 7 .viii. 
Iseflas. 7 .11. gu^fana . 7 .^i'. mere . 7 .vi. midreca . 7 .1. fird 
wsen . 7 J. cyste . 7 J^ser nseron ser buton .vii. upp hangene 
bella . 7 nu J?3er sind . xvi. upp hangene . 7 xii. hand 
bella . 7 .11. fuUe msessebec^ . 7 .1. collectaneii . 7 .11. 
pistel bee . 7 .11. fulle sang bee . 7 .1. niht sang . 7 .1. ad 
te leuaui . 7 .1. trope . 7 .11. salteras . 7 se)7ridda^ saltere 
swa man sing^S on rome . 7 .11. ymneras . 7 .1. deorwyr^e 
bletsing hoc . 7 .111. o^re . 7 .1. englisc xpes boc . 
7 II. sumer rseding bee . 7 .1. winter rseding boc . 7 regula 
canonicorii . 7 martyrlogium * . 7 .1. canon on leden . 7 
.1. scriftboe on englisc^ . 7 .1. full spell boc wintres 7 
Bumres^ . 7 boeties boc on englisc . 7 .1. mycel englisc 


boc be gehwilcum |7ingum on lee's wisan geworbt"^ . 7 
he ne funde on ]?am mynstre fa he to feng boca na ma 
buton ane capitularie . 7 .1. for ealdodne niht sang . 7 .1. 
pistel boc . 7 II. for ealdode rseding bee swi^e wake . 7 
.1. wac msessereaf . 

7 )?us fela leden boca he beget inn to J^am mynstre . 
liber pastoralis . 7 liber dialogorii . 7 libri .iiii. pphetaru . 
7 liber boetii de consolatione . 7 isagoge porphirii [de 
dialectical .] 7 .1. passionalis . 7 liber pspi . 7 liber 
prudentii psicomachie . 7 liber prudentii ymnorum . 
7 liber prudentii de martyrib: 7 lib ezechielis pphet^ . 
7 cantica canticorum . 7 lib isaie pp1i§ on sundron . 
7 liber isidori ethimologiarum . 7 passiones apto^ . 7 
expositio bede sup euuangtiri luc§ . 7 expositio bede 
sup apocalipsin . 7 expositio bede super vii. eptas 
canonicas . 7 lib isidori de nouo & ueteri testamto . 
7 lib isidori de miraculis xpi . 7 lib oserii • 7 lib ma- 
chabeoru . 7 lib psii . 7 sedulies boc . 7 liber aratoris . 
7 diadema monacho^ . 7 glose statii . 7 lib officialis 
amalarii . 

7 ofer his dseg he ann his capella ]?ider binnan for'S 
mid him silfu on eallu )7am "Singu J7e he silf dide 
mid godes ^eninge . on f gerad "p |7a godes j7eowas J7e 
]78er binnan beo^ sefre his sawle gemunon mid heora 
ge bedii . 7 msesse sangum to xpe . 7 to see petre . 
7 to eallu )7am halgu ]?e f halige minster is fore ge 
halgod . f his sawle beo gode ]>e an fengre . j se]>e "Sas 
gyfu 7 )?isne unnan wille gode 7 see petre set bredan . 
si him heofena rice setbroden . 7 si he ecelice geni^e- 
rod in to helle wite. 

*** Eemarkable not only for the catalogue of estates, but more for the 
inventory of ritual ornaments and f urnitm*e, and most of all for the list 
of books. There are about sixty books, of which the English half is cata- 


logued first ; and among these the translation (presumably Alfred's) of 
Boetius de Consolatione, and the famous volume of Anglo-Saxon poems 
which to this day remains still unremoved from the sacred place. A 
memorandum of this sort might be made either before or after the 
death of the benefactor : it would probably be not at any wide interval 
on either side of that event, which happened in 1072. Among the 
Exeter deeds is one by William a.d. 1069 granting to Leofric most of 
the lands named in this memorandum as Leofric's own benefaction. 
The text is that of the Oxford Codex, which being a Gospel Book given 
by Leofric to Exeter probably contains what was considered as the 
original document. On f ol. 6 verso of the MS. is this entry : — 

*Hunc textum dedit leofricus eps gcctg sci petri apli in exonia ad 
utilitatem successoru suoru . Si quis ilium abstulerit . gtng subiaceat 
maledictioni . fiat . fiat . fiat / 

* Das cristes hoc gef leofric b sco petro . t eallum his seftergengum 
into exancestre gode mid to Jjenienne . T gif hig senig man utabrede . 
hsebbe he godes curs . t wrseSISe ealra halgena.' 

From Mr. Thorpe's preface to his edition of the Codex Exoniensis 
it appears that there is a triplicate of this document in another Leofric 
MS. preserved at C.C.C., Cambridge. 

* The very book from which this document is now printed is not im- 
possibly one of these * mickle Gospel Books.* 

* .11. fuUe msesse bee] One of these may be the well-known Leofric 
Missal, now Bodl. 579, from which some Manumissions are given below. 

3 ])riddan MSS. 

* martyrlogium.] [?] now at C. C. C, Cambridge; vide Nasmith's 
Catalogue of the Parker MSS,, No. 196. 

^ serif t hoc on englisc] Proved by the inscription to be No. 190 of 
the same catalogue. The same number contains ' capitula de canonibus,' 
which may be the preceding ' canon on leden.' Though this may also 
be No. 191, Canones Lat® et Sax® olim Exon. eccl. peculium. 

^ .1. full spell hoc wintres and sumres.] Wanley, p. 240^ identified 
this with the Martyrologium, No. 196 in Nasmith's Catalogue. But it 
seems more natural to identify the latter with the 'Martyrologium' of 
Leofric's list ; and to understand this * spell boc ' (with Thorpe) as a 
yearly cycle of Homilies. 

^ The book which is known as the Codex Exoniensis. 

* These words are in the Cod. Exon. in a somewhat later hand; but not 
in the Oxford Codex, which presents an erasure that has been left blank. 


MS. Bodl. 579 (coUated). 
Fol. la. -n -i. • 


in the Leofric Missal, in the Bodleian Library. In Mr. 
Warren's complete edition of this Missal (1883) these texts 
are given with translations. 

Hunc missalem LEOFRICUS eps dat §ccl-§ see petri 
apH in exonia ad utilitatem successor u suorii. Siquis 
illu inde abstulerit . ^fn^ subiaceat maledictioni . 
FIAT . FIAT. Confirma hoc ds qd opatus es in nob'. 

Das boc leofric bisceop gef sco petro . 7 eallu his 
seftergengum into exancestre . gode mid to j^enienne . 
7 gif 'hig' senig man ut abrede . hsebbe he godes curs 
and wrae^^e ealra halgena. 

(5) Halwun hoce on excestre freode hsegelflaede hire 
wiman ]>{ hy bocte 7 tilde for hire sawuale . crist 7 see 
peter 7 ialle cristes halga hi wur'Se wra^ ]>e hi haefre ge 
jjywie . am^. 

(4) Her kjrS on ]?isse bee f seilgyuu gode alysde hig 7 
dunna 7 heora ofspring . set mangode to .xiii. mancson . 
7 seignulf port gerefa . and Godric gupa namon f toll . 
on manlefes gewittnisse . 7 on leowerdes healta . 7 on 
leowines his bro^or . 7 on aelfrices map happes . 7 on 
sweignis scyldwirhta . 7 hsebbe he godes curs . J^e J^is 
sefre un do . a on ecnysse . Amen . 

Fol. 1 b. 

(i) Her ky^ on 'Syssere bee f god wine blaca bohte 
hine sylfne 7 his wyf 7 his ofspring set willelme hosethe 
mid .XV. scitt . on edmseres gwittnis p. 7 on selwies 7 
on dunninges 7 on ssemseres 7 on selmseres 7 on ealles 
}78es hund redes on cuic lande . 7 selfric hasl na J^set toll 
for )7ses kynges hand 7 hsebbe he godes curs fe hit sefre 
un do . am . 


(3) Her ky^ on -Sysse bee f edwy beorneges sunu lysde 
hyne and his wif and bis cyld on edwerdes dsege cynges 
set bunewine bega suna ut of toppesbam lande . akyn- 
stanes ge wittnisse pr. and a leofsuna ge wittnisse a wun- 
forda 7 an selfrices bwita 7 on wycinges batswegenes 7 
on ssewines lufa sunu 7 on leofsies 7 on selfsies . 

(2) Her kyS on ]7issere bee f ediuuu sseuugeles laf 
bobte gladu set colewine wy^ bealfe punde to eepe 7 to 
telle . 7 selword port ge refa na f toll . 7 J^ser to was ge 
witniss leowine leowordes bro'Sor 7 selwi blaea 7 selwine 
se cyng 7 land byriht 7 Alca . 7 Ssewerd . 7 bsebbe 
he godes curs ]>e J^is sefre un do on ecnisse . Am. 

^ This Entry has been slipped in at a comparatively late time be- 
tween the benefactor's Title, and the Entry which had taken possession 
of the foot of the Title-page. It occupies this place simply because it 
was the only remaining blank. The following Entry, that which oc- 
cupies the foot of Title-page, came to be there by a similar necessity. 
For not until the back of the leaf was full did any one intrude private 
business on the page of the benefactor. Both the private Entries on 
fol. I a are later than all those on fol. i b. And further, if we examine 
the three on fol. i b, we quickly see the order in which they have been 
entered. The first spot taken up was the top of fol. i b, the next was 
the foot of the same page : the third took the space between the former 
two. When fol. i b was full, then the foot of fol. i a was occupied, 
and last of all that which now stands first and crowds up close to 
Leofric's sanction. I have indicated the order by figures. 

Pol. 8 a. 

. . . freode buna set ocmund tune on mides sumeres 
messe seuen for ]>otl ... 7 for ]?a ... on feower wegas 
on brunes gewitnesse ^messe' preostes 7 on ealra )?3era 

1^ birbtric freode broda set curi tune on sunna dsege 

ofer pentecostenes messe daig on . . . ]? preosta 

ealra J^ara by red preosta 7 on ... p 


Fol. 8 b. 

The contents of this remarkable page were long overlooked ; 
and these Manumissions have never yet been included in any 
collection. The oversight was discovered by James B. David- 
son, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, and these entries were first printed 
by him in the Transactions of the Devonshire Association 
{1876), vol. viii. p. 417. 

^ J?ys sint J^ara manna naman ^e man freode for 
ord'gar^ set bradan stane "Sa be laeg on adle. f ys 
cynsie fram liwtune 7 godcild of lamburnan ^7 leofric of 
swuran tune dola wines sunu' 7 eadsige of cyric forda 7 
selfgyj? of boc lande 7 smala of ocmund tupe 7 w if man of 
brada stane 7 byrhflsed of tref meu tune 7 selflaed of 
clymes tune on wynstanes gewytnysse msesse preostses 7 
on wulfsies set lamburnan 7 on eallra )7ara hired preosta . 7 
selfgy^ of swuran tune 7 ]?8er his to gewitnysse cynsie p . 
7 goda p . 7 selfric . p . 'Se ]?is ge wryt wrat . )7is was 
set borslea gedon for ordgar 

>I< eadgifu gefreode selfgi^e birhsies dobtor hlaf 
bryttan set borslea on feower wegas . on wynstanes 
gewittnesse maesse p . 7 on goda . p . 7 on eynstanes goda 
suna . 7 on afan . birhtric gefreode seffan set curritune 
on brunes gewitnesse maesse p . 7 on wynstanes p . 7 
on ealra }7sera hyred p . »I< eadgyfu gefreode leofrune 
set curritune for ordgar on brunes gewittnesse messe 
preostes 7 on ealra J^sera hyred preosta . ^ byrhtric 
gefreode ribrost 7 hwite on middes wintres msesse 
dseg set tiwarhel on prudes gewitnysse msesse preost. 
>^ eadgyfu gefreode wulfric on feower wegas J7rim ucan 
ser middansumera . on gewittnesse byrhstanes msesse 
preostes . 7 on eynstanes 7 on clerices "pe J^is gewrat. 

>J< eadgyfu gefreode wulfwunne on middes sumeres 


msesse dseg on wulfno];es ge witnysse msesse preostes 7 
on ealra ]78era hired preosta. 

>i< eadgyfu gefreode sej^elgyfe wuncildes wif on feower 
wegas on middes sumeres msesse SBfen set brseg . on 
brunes gewittnisse maesse p . 7 on wulfho'Ses msesse p . 7 
on eallra J78era hyred preosta. 

^ Mr. Davidson suggested that this Ordgar may have been the 
famous ealdorman of Devon, who died in 971. He lived at Tavistock; 
and the places here mentioned are near that place. Mr. Warren com- 
pleted Mr. Davidson's idea with the suggestion that perhaps Eadgifu 
was the wife of Ordgar. This would assign the contents of f ol. 8 b to 
the tenth century. Any hesitation on this point may be relieved by 
noting that this page is not (as our other Leofric pieces are) first-hand. 
The last two entries may possibly be original ; but all the upper part 
of the page looks like a continuous transcript or register made from 
older records. 

Pol. 11 b. 

Dis synt }?a men 'pe synt anburge betwinon ead- 
gyfe abbedysse 7 leofrice abbode set J^a lande . set sto^c'- 
tune wulfsige edwig . 7 cytel . 7 denisc . 7 godwine . 7 
hunwine . 7 sweta . 7 edwig boga . 7 brun p. . "p se abbod . 
hit h^bbe his dseg 7 sef t his dseg into mynstre. 

Pol. 377 b. 

Her cyS on J7isse bee f brihtmser set holacumbe hsefS 
geboht hine 7 selfgifu his wif 7 hira cild . 7 hira ofspring 
set roegere derindig to twa pundu sefre to freolse . on 
dudemannes gewitnisse preostes on exancestre 7 on 
leofwines pr on hwita stane 7 on selfgseres portgerefa 7 
selfwserdes portgerefa )?e ^ toll namon for ]?8es cynges 
hand 7 leofwserdes his bro'Sor 7 edwines leofede suna 7 
oteres dyrlinges suna . 7 selfgseres selfrices suna . 7 
blakemanes 7 leofrices ssewines suna 7 dunstanes sae- 
wines suna . 7 randolfes . 7 alboldes . 7 smewines on 
holacumbe . 7 segilwserdes selfsies suna . 7 selfmser cynges 



suna . 7 selfsiges mid ]7a berde 7 edwine leofrices siina 7 
edwine edmseres suna . 7 edric on hrena hricge 7 on 
ealles |?8es hundrides gewitnisse on holacumbe . 7 hsebbe 
he cristes curs 7 sea marian 7 scs petr' ]>e )?is sefre undo . 
7 on ealles )78es hundrides gewitnisse on exan cestre. 

Codex Exoniensis. 

Quittances and Manumissions 

from the Exeter Book (collated). These are not in Kemble. 
They are in Thorpe, but dispersed. Here they are given in the 
order of the manuscript, with subjoined references to Thorpe. 

Fol. 4 a. 

Her kyS on J^issere becc J) Rotberd apoldraham cwse'S 
saccles Willelm his broker sune of poldraham lande 7 of 
elcre craurigge . Dar to is iwitnis Reinald preost . 7 


. 7 Dalfin . 

7 Seuara . 7 Sewi . 

7 Girard . 7 


a cuic 

wig sculdur 



. 7 Ricard . 

7 Wulfricc . 7 Rau . 

7 Ricard . 7 

inna busc se webba 

se webba 


. 7 Segar 

. 7 Alger . 7 Alger 

. 7 Willelm . 

se stiwerd 



Rogere . 

7 Rotberd , 

. 7 Ricard osanna {' . 

7 Semer . 7 

uppa eote 

edwies meg 

lohel . 7 

Aseetill . 7 

Rotberd . Se ^e j^iss 

cure un do . 

habbe he Godes curs . 7 sea Maria . 7 ealle Cristes ge 
corena . a butan ende . Amen. (T. p. 645.) 

Her ky'S on ]7issere boc f Oter 7 his cild cwede 
saccles Aluric ]7ane Reda 7 his ofspring. 7 ]7ar to is 
iwitnis Alword ps. . 7 Alured p. . 7 Waltere se can. . 7 
Theodbald . 7 Semer Cipspones sune . 7 Waltere se 
Flemig ^ . 7 Gesfrei Hoel . 7 Randolf se cordewan . 7 
Alwine Modi . 7 Alwi Kya . and Alger Oxawamb . 7 


Ailwerd . 7 lordan . 7 Martin . 7 Osbern Hauoc . 7 
Willemot Quikeuot. 7 Ricard se Flemig nam feor 
penegas to tolle. Se |?e JjIss mare undo . habbe he 
Godes curs . 7 Sea Maria . and ealle Cristes gecorena . 
a butan ende. Amen. (T. p. 646.) 

Her ki^ on ]7issere becc f Gesfrei Foliot cwe^S saccles 
Semer Aluredes mseg 7 eall his ofsprig^. 7 'par to ys 

de i' odin 

iwitnis Ricard se portreua . 7 Ran Theodb . 7 Waltere . 

pafard spalla sadelhack 

7 Willelm . 7 Willelm . 7 Ailwerd . 7 Seuara . 7 Edmer 
Burwolles f ' . Se^e )7is un do . habbe he Godes curs . 7 
see Marie . 7 ealle Cristes halgena . a butan ende . 
Amen. (T. p. 648.) 

Her kyS on ]7issere becc f A^elice Ricardes swuster 
scirreua cwse^ Hrodolf Sewies sune an Alfintune saccles 
of elere crauigge ^. Dar to is iwitnis Ricard se portreua . 
7 Willelm Lambf. . Dunnig . Eorlawine. Reiner . 
Aluric Spoe . Rotberd Puddig . Wiggere . Dalfin . Got- 
selin gorpittel , Leggefot . lohan . Osbern Ceaca . 
Rotbern Sceanca . JBrihtric . Ailword Algar f ' . Ricard 
Trencard . lordan se prb. . Ricard . 7 eall f hundred of 
Alfin^. Se 'pe ]?is un do . habbe he Godes curs . 7 See 
Marie . 7 ealle Cristes halgena . a butan ende. Amen. 
(T. p. 645.) 

^ ig = ing occurs repeatedly in these entries. 

Fol. 4 b. 

Her ky^ on ]?issere bee f Waltere Wulwordes sune 
ureode A];eluue inna Sees Petres minstre ouer his faeder 
lie . his feder saule to alisednisse 7 his . on Viuienes ge 
witnisse . 7 mestre Odo . 7 mestre Leowines . 7 God- 


wines p. 7 Edwakeres . 7 his sune . 7 a5ealra 'para hade- 
da 7 leweda ];e J^ar igge were. 7 se pe ]7iss un do habbe 
he Godes curs 7 ]7ere hlefdia See Marie . 7 Sees Petres 
7 5ealle Cristes halga . a butan ende. Amen. (T. p. 

Her ky^ on ]?issere bee f Gesfrseg Feala sune gebohte 
Gidip Edwiges docter at Alpsta on Wunforda . 7 at 
Nesele Pynceune . to x. scift freoh 7 sacles . ut of Wun- 
forda . 7 Gyldeberd portgerefa nam f toll far J7as kinges 
hand. 7 "Sys ys seo gewitnisse Gedmaer on Cuike . 7 
Saeger p. on Hefatriwe . 7 Randolf de Hage . 7 Roggere 
on Pynnoc . 7 Morin at Gestgete . Riceard Alpstanes 
sune . 7 Wlfword hys broker . Godwine Leowines sune 
7 Goda his broker . 7 Geda . 7 Ssegser . Riceard Kyke- 
beauw . 7 Edmaer Nor^man sun. 7 se |7e )7iss un do . 
hsebbe he Godes curs . 7 Sea Maria . 7 Scs Petres . 7 
ealle Xpes halgena a butan ende. Amen. (T. p. 631.) 

Her kjp on ]7issere bee f Huberd on Clist crsefede 
anne wifman pe Edit hatte Liuegeres wif mid un rihte . 
for ]7am Liueger hig alisde ut at Gosfreige bisceope 
ealswa man sceolde freohne wifman . 7 ealswa hit hriht 
waes on J^am dagum a^lcne freohne man . wij? xxx. p. 7 
Huberd wses leosende ]78ere wifmanne for his unriht 
crsefinge ]?a 7 sefre mo . hig 7 eal hire of spring. 7 J^aer 
to is gewittnis Willm de Buhuz . 7 Ruold se cniht . 7 
Osbern Fad era . 7 Unfreig de Tettaborna . 7 Alword 
portgereua . 7 lohan se cniht . 7 Rau Folcard. 7 ]7eos 
spsec wses innan Wilimes bure de Buhuz on Excestre ge 
spsece. (T. p. 6^^.) 

Her ky^ on |?issere bee f Willelm de la Brugere cwse^ 
saccles Wulwserd ^ane webba . inna tune and ut of tune 

s 2, 


. of elce crafigge . 7 J7ar to is iwitnis . Rau Teodb. sune . 
7 Teodt). his sune . 7 Atsun se hwita . HroSulf Alca s'. 
cuta kig pagenes s' alka s' hoel 

Hemeri . Philippe . Ricard . Geffrei . HerbS . 7 Gollein . 

faber uidic 

Ailwerd 7 his br . Rau de Salcei . Herlawine . Brihtmer . 

Se ]7e ]?is mare un do habbe he Cristes curs . 7 see Maria . 
7 ealle Cristes halgena a butan ende. Amen. (T. p. 648.) 

Pol. 5 a. 


Wita ^a J7e nu beo^ . 7 ^a te cumene sy . ]7at ye 
Osbern Execestre biscop^ gef leaua "Sam munche on 
Sancte Nicholaus minstre to hringinde hyre tyde be 
dage 7 be nihte . hwanne hi efre willat . swa swa be- 
limp-S to hire andebernisse . bute an Cristes masseniht . 
7 jiester sunneue . 7 Sancte Petres and Paules massedeg. 
And ]?eos leaua ]?urh hyre abbed Henri . 7 to foran him 
7 his munchun . 7 to foran eallum mynum canunche 
innan minum capitule . of myne 7 hyre eallre helf swa 
fastlice ys ysett . ]7at non man after }7ys 'Sas ysettinge 
undon ne mage. And for "pyse leaua . twy^ys elce gere . 
Ipat is an Palmsunnendeg . 7 Cristes upstigan deg . to 
processiun mid j^am canunche hy gan sceule. (T. p. 437.) 

*5ic* Below this is a fragment of an entry j the effective portion is 

* Osbern, Bp. 1072-1103. 

Pol. 5 b. 

Her kyS on j^issere becc ]> Willelm^ bisceop of Execes- 
tre cwse^ Wulfric Pig freoh 7 saccles of };a lande a Teig- 
tune a J7ane dseg ]?e ma dide Osbern bisceop . 7 Leofric 


bisceop of }?a jealla minstre inna f niwe . 7 hine freode 
for Godes luue . 7 Scse Marise . 7 ealle Cristes halgena . 
7 for )7ara bisceopa saule . 7 for his saule to alisednesse. 
Dar to is iwitniss . Algar se bisceop of Constance^ .7 se prior 
of Plimtune . 7 se prior of Tantune . 7 se prior of Sees 
Nichol' minster . 7 se prior of Sees Andreas. 7 Leowine se 
canon . 7 Waltere p. . 7 Willelm p. . 7 Rodberd se Blund. 
7 Aluric p . 7 Osbern se kapei . Witim 7 Osbern . WiH'm 7 

ou oc 

Barthol . Odo . 7 Hugo . 7 Hugo . Wittm Edw' s'. Alger 

kmahtille s' dan 

Liffi s\ 7 lordan his s'. Randolf 7 Rau . Waltere . Os- 
iiauoc jalewa s' Theodt» 

bern . Ascetil buta port . Seuara . Dunnig . Rau . 
selewies s' 
Teodbald . Wittm . 7 fela o'Sra ]?e ma nemna ne meg. 

Se J7e ]7is efre un do . habbe he Godes curs . 7 Sea Maria . 
7 ealle Cristes gecorena . a butan ende. Amen. (T. 
r p. 646.) 

* William Warelwast, Bp. 1 107-1 136. 

^ Algarus, Bp. of Coutances 11 32-1 150, Gams, Series Episcoporum, 
p. 542. Freeman, Norm, Conq., vol. v. p. 362, points out that he was 
probably an Englishman (^If gar) : a supposition which is strengthened 
by this occurrence of his name in an English document. 

Pol. 6 a. 

Her cyS on ]7issere bee f Bruning Cola sunu gebohte 
Roting aet Colewyne 7 set Leofa . freoh 7 sacleas ut of 
Sceft beara . on Sserla ge wytnisse )?3es portgereua . 7 on 
Huberdes . 7 on ^Iwerdes . 7 on ^Igares Paiardes . 7 
on Wyllelmes his suna . 7 on Godwynes Colwynes suna . 
7 on Esbernes ^Iwerdes suna. 7 hebbe he Godes curs 
)?e ]>is sefre undo . Amen. (T. p. 6^^.) 

Her kyS on J>issere bee f Teolling gebohte iElword 


Stamera 7 Edwine his bro'Sor set Coluwine to vii. manc- 
son to cepe 7 to tolle . 7 ^Iword port ge refa nam f toll. 
7 her to is ge witnesse . Ui^el set Culumtune . 7 Sse- 
wulf . 7 Uitula . 7 Eadmund p. . 7 Snelling Tullinges 
sunu . 7 Leowine Leowerdes bro^or . 7 jElfgar Helle bula. 
7 hsebbe he Godes curs ]>e j^is sefre un do a on ecnisse. 
Amen. (T. p. 6^^,) 

Her ky^ on ];issere bee "p Leowine Lundenisca 7 
laldgi^ his wif gebohton ^Ifilde set Touie to feower 7 
sixtuge penegon . 7 -^Ifric Hals nam f toll innan Touies 
bure for ]>2ds kynges hand. 7 her to is ge witnesse 
Ro'Ssalin p. . 7 Ailword diacon . 7 Alwine deacon . 7 
Dunstan Peoning. (T. p. 6^1^.) 

Her kyS on J7issere bee f Wulward bohte Leouede set 
Hierdinge Eadno^es sune wi'S v. scili. to cepe 7 to tolle . 
7 f toll nam Gar wise gerefa to Toppes hamme . on 
Smecwines ge witnesse preostes . 7 on Alwines pr. . 7 
on Ailwordes set Oteri . 7 on Dunninges Tailiferes ^ . 7 on 
Ailwordes Luunges sunu . 7 on Dune wines . 7 on God- 
wines set Hina tune . 7 on Hierdinges . 7 on Brihtmares 
Alfgares suna. 7 se ]>e J^iss un do habbe he Godes curs a 
butan ende. Amen. (T. p. 648.) 

Her ki^ on J^issere bee ]? "Regenere bohte Alfri'Se at 
Regenolde ]?am muneke at Cuicu wi'S v. sciit. freoh 7 
sacles uppan Cuiclande to beonde on fridome . on Ed- 
mseres gewitnesse p. . 7 on Edwines J>as gereua . 7 on 
Rodberdes . 7 on Agel rices at Stanlince . 7 on ealles ]7as 
hundredes on Cuicu. 7 Alfric Hals nam f toll. 7 habbe 
Godes curs ]7e hit sefre un do. Amen. (T. p. 6^^.) 

Her ki'S on )?issere bee f Sewine Pinca bohte hine 



silfne to x. sciii. at Willelme . on Edmseres gewitnisse 
pr. . 7 on Ed wines . 7 on Tailiferes ^ . 7 on Rod15. . 7 on 
ealles ]?as hundredes on Cuicu. 7 Alfric Hals nam f 
toll. 7 habbe he Godes curs ]7e hit sefre un do. Amen. 
(T. p. 632.) 

Her cyS on fisse bee J?a Osbern b. halgode Sea Maria 
portic . J7a freode Folcard ]78er Agelwine his man 7 his of 
spring . Criste to lofe 7 Sea Maria . 7 his sawle alised- 
nisse . 7 let him ceosa hlaford loc hwaer hig wolde. 7 
hsebbe he Godes curs 7 ealra halgena ]>e J^is aefre un do. 
Amen. (T. p. 634.) 

Her ki^ on ]?issere bee f Liueger se bacestere on 
Excestre alysde an wifman EdiJ? hatte . Godrices dohter 
Cocraca ut of Clist lande at Gosfreige bisceope . to xxx. 
p. sefre ma freoh 7 saccles . heo 7 eal hire ofspring. 7 
Gesfreig bisceop wses hlaferd ofer Clist land on {^am 
dagum. 7 j78erto is gewitnis Colswein . 7 Roger on 
Buin . 7 Hereberd on Clist . 7 Edric se cipa. 7 se J?e 
J7is un do hsebbe he Godes wrse^e a butan ende. Amen. 
(T. p. 637.) 

* The name of the Conqueror's warlike minstrel who sang a song of 
Koland at Senlac. 

Fol. 6 b. 

Her cy^ on J^issere bee f Huscarl lisde hine silfne 
wi'S Ealuwb . . . mid XL. p. on Godwines gewitnesse p. 
7 on Alwordis portirefa . 7 on Ealdrides his suna . 7 on 
Osb. 7 on Walteres his bro'Sra . 7 on Ssemseris . 7 God- 
wine p. 7 Swegn. 7 Wulfet namon f toll for 'pas cinges 
hand . 7 for S series ]?e J^a was portigerefa. Godes curs 
he habbe fe hit sefre undo. Amen. (T. p. 6^^,) 


Her cy^ on j^issere bee f Leowine Feala sunu bohte 
hine silfne 7 his ofspring set Wulfworde Alfrices sunu at 
lacobes cyrca to healfe punde . on Willelmes gewitnesse 
preostes . 7 on God wines pr. 7 on Arnoldes pr. 7 on Edvvines 
pr. 7 on Bartholomeus Floheres suna . on Floheres . 7 on 
Algares Pagardes . 7 on Cona . 7 Algares Leoflsede suna . 
7 Haim . 7 Oter Dirlinges sunu . Edwacer . Agelword 
Ofstanes sunu . Osber . Alwordes sunu . Alfsta on 
Wunforda . Edwi . Nobol . Ocing . Agelword Pudding 
diac. 7 on ealles ]7a[s hun]dredes on Excestre . to ceo- 
sende him hlaford 7 his ofspring swa hwser swa hig 
woldon. 7 Alword portgerefa 7 Alwine Dirlinges a]7um 
fangon to )7am tolle for )?8es cynges hand. 7 habbe he 
Godes curs 7 ealra halgena fe ]?is sefre undo. (T. p. 6^6.) 

Her cy"S on J)issere bee f Edi]? Leofrices docter Locoes 
bohte hi silue 7 hire ofspring at Hul .... to iiii. 7 xx. 
p. on Willelmes gewittnisse stiwerdes . 7 on Agilwerdes 
Wudinges . 7 on Edmeres preostes . 7 on Edwies Hreawa 
sun . 7 on Huscarles . 7 on Algeres pr . . cge God wines 
preost. . 7 on Leowines Lundeniscea. 7 habbe he Godes 
curs 7 ealra halgena Ipe hit sefre undo. (T. p. 6^6.) 

Cod. Exon. 7 a. 
T. p. 608. 


at "Woodbury and other places ; associated with the Canons 
of Exeter. 

On Cristes naman . 7 Scs Petrus apostolus . an gild- 
scipe is gegaderod on Wudeburg lande .7 se b. Osbern ^ 
7 J7a canonicas innan Scs Petrus minstre on Excestre 
haba^ underfangen j7one ilcan geferscipe on bro^orrae- 


denne gemsenelice for'S mid o'Srum gebro^rum. Nu do^ 
hig" set selcum heor'Se to gecnawnisse ]?am canonicon 
anne penig to Eastron selce geare . 7 ealswa set aelcum 
for^farenum gildan set selcum heor^e aenne penig to 
sawul sceote . se hit bonda se hit wif . J^e on ]7am gild- 
scipe sindon. 7 ]7at sawul gesceot sceulon ]7a canonicas 
habban . 7'swilce ]7enisce don for hig swilce hig agon to 
done. 7 J7is sindon heora naraa ]>e beo^ on J^am gildscipe. 
Brihtwi . Wilno'S . Ealdwine . Leofric . Brihtmaer . 
Alfric . Eadmser . Ed wine . Algar . Edwi . Wlword . 
Alword . Edwine . Godwi . Osgod . A^eleoue . Brihtmser . 

On Wudeburge lande is eac an o^er gildscipe gega- 
derod Criste 7 See Petre . 7 hig do^S to Martinus msessan 
of selcum heor'Se anne penig into Scs Petrus minstre )7am 
canonicon . and selc sawul gesceot ealswa . set selcum 
heor^e anne penig. And j^is sind ]7sera manna nama . 
Kytel . Deoderic . 8cc.^ 

Of Clistunes gildscipe Isaac p. . Almser . Godwine . 

Of Colatunes gildscipe . Or-Sric p. . Aimer . Ail wine . &c. 

Of Alwines gildscipe on Wudebirig . Alstan . Leawine . 
Ailwine . &c. 

Of Bridafordes gildscipe . Edwine . Wlfric . Ssewine . 

Of Clistwike . Waltere p. . Eadmser . Leowine . &c. 

Of ]7am gildscipe on Lege . Ailwi p. . Tyrri p. .Wittra. 

Of Hnutwille . Godric . Alwine . Edwine . &c. 

Of Colatune . Alwine Treddasunu . Godric . Ailric . &c. 

Of Sidemu'Sa . Algar . Ailric . Wlwine . &c. 

Of Halsforda . Ilberd p. . Edwine . Alwine . &c. 


Of Hwita stane . Edzi . Godric . Edwine . &c. 
Of Examu^a . Godgi^ . Esgar . Edrid . &c. 

^ Osbem, bp. Exon 107 2-1 103, was the successor of Leofric. 
^ Here follow more names ; and so also in the other groups. 

Dean and Chapter, Exeter. 
S. ii. Exon. 15. 


on Dartmoor. Not in Wanley's list. Published first by Mr. 
Davidson, in 1876 in the Transactions of the Devon Associa- 
tion, viii. 396; and again in 1883 in the Journal of the 
Archaeological Association, xxxix. 301: quoted below. 

pis is peading tunes landscaro ]78er sescburne ut scyt . 
on dertan stream cS wede burne ut scyt .up an wede 
burnan of wi^imor . of wi^i more on cealfa dune midde 
wearde of cealfa dune op] sufonstanas . of sufonstanii on 
hyfan treow . of hyfan treowe on hord burh . of hord- 
byrg on deor ford . of deor forda on langa stan . of langa 
stane on eofede tor . of eofede torre on hean dune fore 
wearde . of hean dune on |?one blindan wille . of "Sam 
wille on writelan stan . of ]7a stane on ruwa beorh . of 
ruwan beorge on fyrs penn . of fyrs penne on wyrt cumes 
heafod . of wyrt cumes heafde on rammeshorn . of rammes 
home on lulca stile . of lulca stile on wice cumes heafod . 
on lymen stream o]> wogga will lacu ut scyt . on ]7a lace 
o^S wocga willes hafod . of wocg^a willes heafde on ]7one 
weg o^ ]>SL greatan die of ]?8ere die on ]7one wille on )78es 
mores heafod . on ]?a lace to J^sere sweliende . of 'Saere 
sweliende on yederes^ beorh . of yederes beorge on 
stan dun ^ [ni'Se] wearde o]> )7a gretan linde . of j78Bre 
linde on dyra snsed midde wear[d]ne . of dyra snsede on 


hwita ford . of hwita forda on fulanford . of fulanforda 
on hildes ford . of hildes forda on hildes lege norSewearde 
o]f sole get . of sole gete to brynes cnolle suSe weardu on 
puneceswurSi . of puneces wur]?ige on hremues cumes 
heafod . of hremnes cumbe on )7a ri'Se o'S sescburnan . 
J^anon on stream to dertan. 

*** Mr. Davidson's local knowledge, and his affection for his native 
county, add weight to his comments. He says : " The Ashburn is a 
rivulet falling into the river Dart, just opposite to Buckfastleigh 
church. On it, about two miles above the outfall, was founded at the 
original settlement of Saxons in the county, a 'tun' or town, in con- 
formity with universal Devonshire practice, where every river has its 
' tun/ The name of this town, Ashburntim, became Ashburton. The 
boundary begins at the point where the Ashburn falls into the Dart, 
and follows that river upwards, to the infall of the Withiburn brook, 
now called the East Webber. This it follows upwards to a manor called 
Dunstone, in the parish of Withicomb-in-the-Moor, thence to Hamilton's 
Down, and so to Langston in Manaton parish, thence to Lus^leigh 
Cleave ; and so by Ramshorn Down and the Ogwell river, back to the 
Ashburn rivulet. The area comprised is about ten miles long from 
south to north, and about six from west to east, having Heytor Rock 
and Rippon Tor in its centre. The parishes included are, Ashburton, 
Buckland-in-the-Moor, and the whole or parts of Withicomb-in-the- 
Moor, Manaton, Lustleigh, Bovey Tracy, Ilsington, Bickington, West 
Ogwell, Woodland, and Staverton." 

Mr. Davidson takes *'Peadingtun" as a man's name, in which I am 
not able to follow him : yet I will not withhold the remarkable informa- 
tion which he gives in connection with this. 

*'John Padyngton was the name of the steward, in about 1310, of 
Bishop Stapledon, a great benefactor to Ashburton, then part of the 
possessions of the see. Padyngton was, indeed, slain by his master's 
side, when Stapledon was murdered in Cheapside on the 1 5th of October, 
1326. It may possibly be that this John Padyngton was a descendant 
of Peadingtun of the boundary. The document itself, one supposes, 
must be centuries older than 1310 ; nor did this tract of land, or any- 
thing like it, belong to the Bishop of Exeter at any date after the 
Conquest. In 1086 {Domesday does not state who held the lands 
T. R. E ), the only parts of this area belonging to the see were Ash- 
burton and Staverton. It is possible that at some date prior to the 
Conquest, this area belonged to Exeter ; but this could not have been 
the case at King Ead ward's death, and there is no proof of the fact 
known to the writer ; and no evidence, beyond the existence of an 
ancient boundary stone in a lane in Lustleigh parish, standing on this 


actual boundary, which is traditionally stated to have had carved upon 
it the arms of the see of Exeter. As bishops, before the Conquest, 
certainly did not bear arms in the modern sense, it is clear that the 
tradition does not preserve a literal fact. It serves only to show some 
connection between the stone and the bishops of Exeter." 

^ ye"Seres S. 

^ Stan dun [ni^e]. Mr. Davidson's reading of a much defaced part, 
which Mr. Sanders leaves almost blank. 

C. C. C. Cantab. 111. 
K 933-937. 
T. p. 640. 


now in a Eegister of Bath Abbey. Obviously this is not 
their original place, and Wanley (p. 149) thought the leaf 
had been taken from the Gospel Book to be mentioned next. 

(i) >i< Her swutela'S on J^isse cristes bee f leofeno^ 
segelncSes sunu set korstune beef's geboht hine 7 his 
ofspring ut set selfsige abb.^ 7 aet eallon hirede on ba^on . 
mid fif oran 7 mid .xii. heafdon sceapa. on kascilles^ ge- 
witnesse portgerefan 7 on ealre J>sere burhware on ba^on. 
crist hine ablende 'pe ]7is sefre awende. 

(2) >I< Her swutela^ on ]?isse cristes bee f segelsige 
set linncume hsef^S geboht wilsige his sunu ut set self- 
sige abb. on ba'Son 7 set eallon hirede . to ecean freote. 

(3) >Ii Her swutela^ on ]?isse cristes bee f segelsige 
byttices sunu hsef^ geboht hildesige his sunu ut set 
selsige abb. on ba^on 7 set eallon hirede mid syxtigon 
penegon to ecean freote. 

(4) >I« Her swutela"S on ]?isse cristes bee f godwig se 
bucca hsef^ geboht leofgife )?a dsegean set nor^stoke 7 
hyre ofspring mid healfan punde set selsige abbod to 
ecan freote on ealles )7ses hiredes gewitnesse on ba'Son. 
crist hine ablende ^e ]?is sefre awende. 


(5) >J« Her swutela'S on J^isse cristes bee f aslsige at)t>. 
hsef^ gefreod godwine bace set stantune . for hine 7 for 
ealne )7one hired on ba^an . on ssemannes gewitnesse 
7 wulwiges set prisctune . 7 selfrices cermes. 

*^* Professor Skeat writes that this leaf, now in MS. iii, has un- 
doubtedly been removed from MS. 140. It was the outside leaf of 
MS. 1 40 ; and that which is now the first leaf in this book was once 
the second. 

' iElfsige (abbot) died 1087. Dugdale, Monasticon ii. 257 (ed. 1846). 
» Hascilles T. 

C. C. C. Cambridge 140. 
K1351. ^ ^ . 


in the Benet manuscript of the Saxon Gospels, the book to 
which also belonged the five previous entries. The two sets 
of entries are united by a community of place aud of persons. 
The place is the Abbey of Bath, and the chief persons are 
abbots, or bishop, or prior. The entries are here ranged in the 
order of the manuscript, but this is not necessarily the order 
of time ; and the figures to each entry are an attempt (pro- 
visionally) to indicate the relative dates of the transactions. 

(6) >J< Her swutela^ on 'Sissere cristes bee f selfwig 
se red hsef'S geboht hine sylfne ut set selfsige abbod 7 
eallon hirede mid anon punde. par is to gewitnes eall se 
hired on ba^an. crist hine ablende J^e j?is gewrit awende. 

(7) >J< Her swutela^ on ]?issere cristes bee f edric 
set fordan hsef^ geboht segyfu his dohtor set selfsige 
abbod and set );am hirede on ba'San to ecum freote . 7 
eall hire ofspring. 

(11) >I< Her swutela'S on Jjisse cristes bee f aelfric scot 
7 segelric scot synd gefreod for selsiges abbodes sawle to 
ecan freote. pis is gedon on ealles hiredes gewitnesse. 

(13) >i< Her swutela^ on J^issere cristes bee fast si wine 
leofwies sunu set lincumbe hafaj? geboht sydeflsede ut 


mid fif scyllingum 7 penegan set iohanne )7am 

biscope^ 7 set eallon ]7am hirede on ba]?on . to ecum 
freote . 7 herto is gewittnesse godric ladda . 7 ssewold 
. 7 his twegen sunan . scirewold 7 brihtwold. 

(14) >J< Her swutela"S on J^isse cristes bee "p iohann 
hsef'S geboht gunnilde ]7urkilles dobter set gode leofen- 
a^Ses lafe to bealfan punde . on ealles hiredes gewitnysse. 
crist hine ablende J^e J^is gewrit awende. 7 be haef^S bi 
betaebt criste 7 see petre for bis moder sawle. 

(s) »J< Her swutela]? on ]7yssere cristes bee f saewi 
bagg set widecume bsef]? gedon ut bis twegen sunu sett 
selfsige abbude . on ealles biredes gewitnesse. 

(15) »I< Her swutela^ on J7isse cristes bee f lifgi^ set 
forda is gefreod 7 hire twa cild . for ]?one biscop iohann 
7 for ealne J?one hired on ba'Son . on selfredes gewitnesse 

(16) >I< Her swutela]? on ]?isse cristes boc "pa fore- 
wordan ]>e j^e prior ^ on ba]?an 7 ealle ]7a gebro);ran babba)? 
gemaked wi'S ssewi 7 wij? jfeodgjiu bis wif. ^ is ^ we 
habba]? beom geunnen . of godes healf . 7 of s. mar. . 7 
of see petres . 7 of ure . ]7a bro|7errseddene 7 ]?a bedrsed- 
dene for life 7 for de]?e . 7 gelsend beom f land of )7sere 
street ]}e ure wses . beore bus on to rymende . ]?a bwile J^e 
hi libbe]?. 7 bi us ]?ar togenes gifej? ^ bi us byrsumien 
wylle]? 7 holde beon . mid eallan ]7am ]?e hi magan 7 
cunnen . 7 seffcer beore tweire dseie . ssewies 7 Seodgyfe . 
hi gyfej? beore bus 7 beore land 7 ure criste 7 see 
petre . to ]?am f me bi fsegere underfo . 7 holdlice for 
beore sawla beo. her is to gewitnesse . osward preost . 
7 will. "Se clerec . 7 hugo ye portgerefe . 7 beoring . 7 
leoffric . 7 hea]7ewulf . 7 burehhard . 7 wylwi . 7 
geosfrsei . 7 selfword J7e smi]? . 7 edwi scredes sune . 7 
ro^^. }7e frenccisce. (T. p. 436.) 


(12) >J< Her swutela^ on J;issere cristes bee f segyl- 
mser bolite S8e]?ry)7e set sewolde abbude^ mid iii. maxan . 
on ealles hiredes gewitn3^sse . 7 ofer his dseg 7 his wifes 
dseg" beo se man freoh. crist hine ablende )7e j^is gewrit 

(9) »J< Her swutela'S on J^issere cristes bee *p wulwine 
hareberd bohte set aelfsige abbude selfgyj>e mid healfan 
punde . on ealles hiredes gewitnysse. 7 crist hine 
ablende J^e )7is gewrit awende. 

(10) >I< Her swutelaS on J^issere cristes bee ^ segyl- 
sige bohte wynric set selfsige abbude mid anon yre 
goldes. ]7ysses ys to gewitnysse selfryd portgereua 7 
eal se hired on baj7on. crist hine ablende ]fe ];is gewrit 

* John de Villula, Bp. Bath and Wells, 1088-1123. 

' In 1 106 John de Villula appointed the monastery of St. Peter, Bath, 
to be governed by a Prior instead of an Abbot. Dugdale 1. c 

3 Collinson (Hist. Somerset, i.55) makes Sewold abbot under Edward 
the Confessor ; but he gives no authority, and these entries suggest that 
he came after -^Ifsige. 

Mus. Brit. Add. MSS. 9381. 

Oliver, Monasticon Dioe. Exon. p. 431. 

K 981. T. p. 623. 


in the Bodmin Gospels. These entries, forty-six in number, 
are mostly in Latin, but a few are in Saxon. Some speci- 
mens are here given of each. There is some Cornish-Latin, 
as prespifer; and some Cornish-Saxon, as Codgivo (Godgifu). 
Dr. Oliver's numbering is kept, as useful for reference. 

PoL 1 a. 

1. Hsec sunt nomina illorum hominum. huna. et soror 
illius dolo. quos [lib]eravit byrhtflsed pro redemptione 


animse suse super altare sancti petroci coram istis testi- 
bus. leofric prespiter. budda prespiter. morhay]7o pres- 
piter. deui prespiter. hresmen diaconus. custentini laicus. 
wurlowen^ layeus. ut libertatem habeant cum semine 
suo sine fine, et maledictus sit qui fregerit banc liber- 

9. )?es ys )78es mannes nama "Se byrbsie gefreode et 
petrocys stowe . bybstan hate^ bluntan sunu on 8e]7elhide 
giwitnyse hys agen wyf 7 on byrhisiys msese preostes 
7 on riol 7 myrmen 7 wunsie morbaeJ^J^o 7 cynsie priost. 

*;ic* In the Bevue Celtique i. 332 ff. these manumissions were printed 
from the MS. by Mr. Whitley Stokes ; and he analysed the Cornish 
names. The reader will be glad of a few illustrations from his hand. 

^ custentin, " borrowed from Constantinus. Note the loss of the n 
in the first syllable and the umlaut of the a in the second." 

"^ wurlowen, "lowen = Welsh leguen (leguenid Isetitia) now llawen 
joyful," The prefix wur- is explained a few lines lower down. 

* = hatte, was called, is called. 

Fol. 7 b. 

23. wuenumon 7 hire team moruiw hire swuster 7 
hire team 7 wurgustel ^ 7 his team, wuarun gefreod her 
on tune, for eadryde cynige. 7 for se'Selgar^ biscop an 
thas hirydes gewitnesse "Se her on tune syndun. 

24. Hoc est nomen illius hominis quem liberavit 
perem. pro anima sua. gurient.^ super altare sancti 
petroci coram istis testibus. adelces presbiter. morhaedo 
diaconus. gusedret. dericus. vale vive in Xpo. 

* wurgustel. *' ffustelis Welsh gwystl hostage; O.H.G. ^wa/." 
=» iE0elge[ard] W. S. 

' " Gurient = Wur gent. In this and [other examples] the gur-, wur- 
is the intensive prefix = Gaulish ver-, Old Welsh guor-, gur- : Old 
Breton uuor-, guor-. (Grammatica Celtica, ed. 2 ; 895, 896.)" 

Fol. 8 a. 

26. >J< Marh gefreode leSelt 7 ealle hire team for 


eadwig cyninge on his agen reliquias ^ . 7 he hie het 
Isedan hider to mynstere 7 her gefreogian on petrocys 
reliquias on thses hirydes gewitnesse. 

27. Her ky^ on ]?issere bee f seilsig bohte anne 
wifmann ongyne)7el hatte 7 hire sunu gySiccael. set 
]7urcilde mid healfe punde set ]?8ere cirican dura on 
bodmine 7 sealde seilsige portgereua et maccosse hun- 
dredes mann. iiii. pengas to tolle. J^a ferde seilsig to pe 
)7a menn bohte 7 nam hig 7 freode uppan petrocys 
weofede sefre sacles. On gewittnesse J>issa godera 
manna f waes isaac messe preost. 7 ble'Scuf ^ m. p. 7 wun- 
ning m.p. 7 wulfger m. p. 7 grifiuiS ^ m.p. 7 noe ih.p. 
7 wur)?ici"S m. p. 7 selsig diacon. 7 maccos. 7 te'Sion 
modredis^ sunu. 7 kynilm. 7 beorlaf. 7 dirling . 7 gratcant. 
7 talan. 7 gif hwa ]>as freot abrece hebbe him wi'S 
criste gemene. amen. 

28. Hoc est nomen illius mulieris codgiuo quae 
liberata fuit pro anima maccosi centurionis super altare 
sancti petroci in vigilia adventus domini istis testibus 
videntibus . boia decanus. godricus pr. sewinus pr. eli 
diaconus. wulgarus diaconus. godricus diaconus. elwine 
diaconus. edricus clericus. elwinus. elwerdus. sicteicus. 
waso . wulwerdus. et alii quamplurimi de bonis homi- 
nibus. Si quis tam temerarius sit qui banc libertatem 
fregerit anathema sit a deo et ab angelis ejus, amen fiat. 

^ I, e. relics which were the private property of the master. (Oliver.) 

^ bletJcuf . " Better Bley^cuf 1 29 b. Here we have a compound of 
hledh=W. hlaidd, Br. hleiz, wolf. In the Cornish vocabulary the 
word is written hleit, leg. hleith. The Old Breton names Bledic, Bleid- 
lara, Fou-hleid contain this word ; so in Liber Landavensis (Old Welsh) 
Bledud, Bledris, Bledlui, Bledgur, Arth-hleid" 

3 griiiutS. " The common Welsh name Griffud, Gruffud, anglicised 

* modredis. Saxon genitive of Cornish " Modred, Old Breton Mo* 


Pol. 8 b. 

30. Her ky^ on }>issere bee ^ aslfric selfwines sunu 
wolde ]7eowian putraele him to nyd J^eowetlinge . ]7a 
cam putrael to boia j bed his fore spece to aelfriee his 
bre'Sere. ]?a sette boia }7as spece wi'S aelfriee. f wes f 
putrael sealde selfrice viii oxa set ]?ere cirican dura set 
bodmine. 7 gef boia sixtig penga for J?ere forspsece. 
7 dide hine sylfne 7 his ofspreng sefre freols 7 saccles 
fram }7am dsege wi'S selfrice 7 wi'S boia 7 wi'S ealle 
selfwines cyld 7 heora ofspreng. on ]?issere gewitfcnisse. 
isaac messepreost 7 wunning p. 7 sewulf p. 7 godric 
diacon. 7 cufure prauost. 7 wincuf. 7 wulfwerd. 7 gestin 
thes bisceopes stiwerd. 7 artaca . 7 kinilm. 7 godric map. 
7 wulfger. 7 ma godra manna. 

Pol. 129 b. 

34. Hser cyS on ]7ison bee ^ selwold gefreode hwatu 
far hys sawle a psetrocysstow a degye 7 sefter degye. an 
selger ys gewittnisse 7 gotric 7 wallo'S 7 gryfyi^ 7 
bleyScuf 7 salaman. 7 hebbe he godes curs 7 scs. petro- 
cus 7 sealle welkynes seas. J^e f brece "Sse ydon ys. 

Pol. 137 a. 

36. Wulfsie episcopus liberavit aedoc filiam catgustel . 
pro anima sua et eadgari regis super altare sancti pe- 
troci . cyngelt . et magnus . et sulmea]? ^. et iustus . et 
rumun . et wengor . et luncen . et fuandrec . et wen- 
deer n 2. et wuriSylic ^. et cengor . et inisian . et brenci . 
et onwean . et rinduran . et lywci. 

* " The sul here and in [other Cornish names in these entries] con- 
stantly occurs in Old Breton names [examples given]. It probably 
means 'sun* (Welsh, Cornish, and Breton sul borrowed from Latin 
soiy* I do not see why borrowed. 



^ "-wendeeTn — wen teern = JAsh tigerne dominus : compare Middle 
Welsh Edern, Edyrn, Mabinogion. A woman's name ? = alba domina." 

^ WurSylic = valde dilecta : "Sylic in Wurdylic, Ourdylyc, is borrowed 
from dilectus.^^ 

Cott. Dom. A. vii. 43. 
K 925. 
T. p. 621. 


her manumissions. This entry (in a Gospel book which is 
perhaps of the eighth century, K) affords a glimpse of the 
fall from freedom to bondage in bad times. 

Geatfled ageaf freols . for Godes lufa 7 for heora sawla 
J7earfe . f is Ecceard smi'S . 7 ^Elstan 7 his wif . 7 eall * 
heora ofsprinc . boren 7 unboren . 7 Arcil . 7 Cole . 7 
Ecfer^ Aldhunes dohter . 7 ealle J^a men ]>e heo nam heora 
heafod^ for hyra mete on J^am yflum dagum. Swa hwa 
swa )7is awende 7 hyre sawla )7ises bereafie . bereafige 
hine God selmihtig J^ises Rfes 7 heofona rices . 7 sy he 
awyrged dead 7 cwic aa on ecnysse. 7 eac heo hafa^ 
gefreod }7a men "pe heo ]?igede set Cwjespatrike . "p is 
iElfwald . 7 Colbrand . ^Isie . 7 Gamal his sune . 
E^red . Tredewude . 7 Uhtred his stepsun[e] . Aeulf . 7 
purkyl . 7 ^Isige. Hwa J?e heom J?ises bereafie . God 
selmihtig sie heom wraS 7 See CuSberht. 

* "AH the men whose persons (literally heads, as of cattle) she 
took for their food in the evil days." T. 

Cott. Tib. B. V. 76. 
K 1354. 
T. p. 649. 


on the Hatfield estate (Herts) : their relationships, their 

T 2 


settlements on other estates, and their intermarriages with 
gehuras of other manors ^. 

»J« Dudda wses gebur into Hse'Sfelda . 7 he hasfde ]?reo 
dohtor . an hatte Deorwyn . o'Ser Deorswy^ . J^ridde 
Golde . 7 WuUaf on Hse^felda hsef ^ Deorwynne to wife . 
7 -^Ifstan set Tseccingawyr^e haef "5 DeorswySe to wife . 
7 Ealhstan iElfstanes bro^ar beef's Goldan to wife. 
Hwita hatte waes beoeere into HseSfelda . 7 Tate hatte 
his dohtor wses Wulfsiges modor scyttan . 7 LuUe hatte 
Wulfsiges sweostar Hehstan beef's to wife on Wealadene. 
Wifus 7 Dunne 7 Seoloce syndan inbyrde to Hse'Sfelda. 
Duding hatte Wifuse sunu sit on Wealadene . 7 Ceol- 
mund hatte Dunnan sunu sit eac on Wealadene. 7 
^'Seleah hatte Seolecan sunu sit eac on Wealadene . 7 
Tate hatte Cenwaldes sweostor Meeg bsef^ to wife on 
Weligun . 7 Ealdelm Here'Sry^e sunu hsef^ Tatan 
dohtor to wife. Wserlaf hatte Wserstanes feeder waes 
riht seht to Hse'Sfelda . heold 'Sa greegan swyn. 

»J< Brada hatte wees gebur to Hee'Sfelda . 7 Hwite 
hatte ]?8es Bradan wif wees gebures dohtor to Hee]?felda . 
seo Hwite wees Weerstanes 7 Weer'Sry'Se 7 Wynburge 
]?ridde modor. 7 se Weerstan sit eet Wad tune . heefS 
Winnes sweostor to wife . 7 Wine heef^ Weer'SrySe to 
wife. 7 Dunne saet on Wadtune wees inbyrde to Hee^felda . 
7 Deorwyn hatte hire dohtor beef's Cynewald on Mund- 
dene to wife . 7 Deorna^ hatte hire bro^ar bi'S mid 
Cynewalde. 7 Dudde hatte Wifuse dohtor sit eet 
Wilmundeslea. Cynelm hatte Cenwaldes feeder wees 
gebur into Hee'Sfelda . 7 Manna hatte Cenwaldes sunu 
sit eet Wadtune under Eadwolde. 

1^ Buhe hatte wees Dryhtlafes moddrige . wees afaren 
ut of Hee'Sfelda into Eslingadene . 7 iE}7elwyn 7 Eadugu 
7 iE)7elgyS heo weeran ^reo gesweostra . 7 Tilewine 7 


Duda wseron ealle ysere Buge beam . 7 Ealhstan Tile- 
wine sunu . 7 Wulfsige Eaduge sunu . 7 Ceolem,^)?elgy Se 
sunu . 7 Ceolstan . 7 Man wine, pis cyn com of Felda . 
Deorulf Cyneburhe sunu 7 his twa sweostar . 7 Cynric 
set Clsefring heora earn, pas men synd Tatan magas set 
Hse'Sfelda -Sses gebures. 

* These gebdras "boors" were the agricultural population of the 
manor, who tilled it and paid rent in produce, in money, and in work. 
They were serfs, adscripti fflebce, and the lord had a proprietary interest 
in them, which gives the motive of this record. The Hatfield serfs 
had relations at Datchworth, Walden, Welwyn, Watton, Munden, 
Wymondley, Essenden. The memorandum appears to be of the nth 
century. Mr. Seebohm identifies these gebiiras (as a class) with the 
villani of the same places in Domesday. English Village Community, 
p. 139. He adds that on some manors the pedigrees of villani or nativi 
were kept even after the Black Death. 



This Group comprises documents which are preserved in 
single parchments as the primary records are ; but which, 
unlike those, are not contemporaneous with the date assigned 
to the transaction ; and yet, on the other hand, probably 
not later than the eleventh century. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 86. A. D. 680. 


B. iv. 2. 


king of Wessex, granting land to bp. Wilfrid at Pecganham 
and places adjacent : — one of the signataries being Aldhelm, 
who had the charge of drafting and getting the document 

>i< In nomine saluatoris nri ihu xpi . Nihil intulimus 
in hunc mundum uerum nee anferre quid poterimus . 
idcirco terrenis et caducis seterna et cselestia supernse 
patriae prenaia mercanda sunt . Quapropter ego csedualla 
disponente dno rex rogatns a uenerando uuilfrido sepis- 
copo ut sibi aliquantulam terram ad suffragium uitae suae 
frmque suorum qui secum conuersarentur et in diuino 
seruitio huius peregrinationis qua uir uenerandus diutius 
peregit pro relaxatione criminii et perpetui premii re- 
ceptaculo largiri dignarer . cuius precibus annuens 
terrenam sibi possessiunculam de qua sugerere uidebatur 
pro remedio anim^ meae libenter inpendi . et banc liber- 
tate sub estimatione . Ixx . tributariorum taxauimus in 
illo loco qui dicitur pecgan ham . aliisque locis circum- 
quaque adiacentibus hoc est scrippan eg . ceorla tun . 
bucgan ora . beorgan stede . north beorgan stede . crymes 


ham se northra mundan ham . other mundan ham . et 
haec omnia uenerabili uiro uuilfrido cum consensu et 
deuota confirmatione ecgualdi subreguli in potestatem 
propri^ dominationis pro su§ nimi^ scitatis conuersa- 
tione . et nro^ peccatorum relaxatione redigimus . in- 
super addidimus fribus suis do seruientibus ad ^cclesiam 
sci andre§ super ripam positam orientale portus qui 
dicitur uedring mutha . ?ram qu8B dicitur, tang mere . 
X . tributariorum . ut eis quamdiu fides catholica regnet 
hinc necessaria corporalis usus specialiter prebeantur . 
Si quis uero quod absit contra hsec decreta firmiter 
statuta contraire et ea soluere conatus fuerit nouerit se 
ante tribunal examinis xpi rationem redditurum et 
habere partem cum iuda traditore dni nri ihu xpi . in 
inferno inferiore . Haec sunt territoria ad pecgan ham 
pertinentia primit^ ab occidente uedring mutha . per 
ilium portum ad locum qui dicitur holan horan fleot et 
sic ducitur in lang port . inde ad aquilonem to unning 
lande . sic ad orientem on fleot super illud quod dicitur 
inufes ford . inde in locum qui dicitur cynges uuic . et 
sic ad locum qui dr langan ersc . inde on loxan leage . 
et SIC in locum qui dr bebbes ham . inde in pontem thel 
brycg . et sic ad aquilonem iuxta palustria loca . super 
haec ad locum qui dr hylsan seohtra et sic ad orientem in 
uusermundes hamm . hinc in uuadan hlseu . ab illo loco 
in fisc mere . et sic in brynes fleot . sicque dirigitur in 
mare . Sed et hi sunt termini pertinentes ad tang mere . 
primitus of hleap mere per uiam puplicam ad terram 
heantunensem ad angulii circianum . ide in locum horsa 
gehaeg . et sic ubi dr hean ersc . hinc ad aelrithe . ab 
ipso riuo ad fraxinu unum . et sic ad locum cealc mere . 
hinc ad headan scrsef . ab illo loco . to lulan treouue . et 
sic in tatan ham . sic ad rise mere . ab illo loco to hleap 


mere . et sunt pascua ouiu in meos dune pertinentia ad 
tang mere . Anno dominicse incarnationis . dclxxx . Ego 
cseduualla rex a prefato rogatus ^po hanc donationis me§ 
cartulam scribere iussi . et absque trimoda necessitate 
totius xpiani populi id est arcis munitione . pontis 
emendatione . exercitii congestione liberam perstrinxi . 
Ego ecguuald subregulus mente deuota consensi et sub- 
scripsi >J< Ego sethelredus domino prestante rex pro 
remedio anirn^ mese hanc donatione corroboraui . >^ Ego 
hseddi eps consensi et subscr . »I< Ego ercenuualdus eps 
cons et subscr . >J< Ego aldhelmus scolasticus archiepi 
theodori hanc cartulam dictitans prout regis maiorumque 
inperia statuerunt scribere iussi . illisque sancientibus 
constitutum est . ut beato uiro uuilfrido liberum rema- 
neret arbitrium in uita sua de hac ruris possessiuncula • 
et post obitum cuicumque uoluerit in seternam posses- 
sionem iure hereditario derelinqueret . Pax cunctis le- 
gentibus . consensiiq; prebentibus . sitque laus utentibus . 
luxque perpes credentibus . uirtus uita fauentibus . rite 
constet senatibus anglorum atque cetibus qui dona 
firment nutibus. 

*j^* Endorsed in hands of the loth century, *kj^ pacgan hamm;' 
and ' t^ uuilfridus gpiscopus cartulam hanc • multimodasque et humilli- 
mas theodoro archiepiscopo in christo salutes : • ' ; and in a hand of the 
12th century, ' Rex Ceduuala dedit paggeham sancto Wilfrido episcopo • 
latine.' B. 

Cotton Charter viii. 3. A.D. 755-757. 


B. iv. 3. 

^thilbald of Mercia 

grants lo cassati to abbot Eanberht. Mr. Bond assigns the 
writing to the 9th century. It is a fragment, of which the 
effective portion is complete : — 

[QuAPRo]pTER ego aethilbald rex non solum mercen- 


sium . sed etiam in circuitu populorum quibus me diuina 
dispensatio sine meritorum suffragio pr^esse uoluit 
uenerabili seruo di eanberhttae abbati agrum .x. cassa- 
torum in dominium xpi ^eclesiae pro redemptione animae 
meae . et pro expiatione facinorum meorum libenter 
concedens largior . est autem terra ilia iuxta siluam 
quam dicunt toccan sceaga . habens in proximo tumulum 
qui habet nomen reada beorg. 
*;jc* Endorsed, ' reada beorg/ B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 87. 26 July, 805. 

K190. B. ii. 8. 


king of Kent, with licence of Cenulf king of Mercia, conveys 
land to Abp. Wulfred. Mr. Bond says the writing is 'rather 
later, and retouched.' 

>J< Anno ab incarnatione dni nri ihu xpi dccc**u° in- 
dictione xiii . ego cu^red rex cantiae cum licentia coen- 
ulfi regis merciae octabo anno regni mei a do ocessi 
wulfredo sedenti in archiepiscopatus solio . duorum ara- 
trorum terrae in jfpetuum donabo . est itaq: terra ilia con- 
posita in occidentali parte xu . manentium quae dicuntur 
bocholt hec duo aratra supra pdicta a quibidam campus 
armentorum id est hriSra leah appellantur hoc H* modo 
quasi pro conparatione in ptio xxx mancusarum illi banc 
pnominatam terram tradere curabo ut communem silbam 
secundum antiquam consuetudinem cum ceteris homini- 
bus abeat potestas quoq: ipsi datur ut in libertate terram 
habeat quamdiu uiuat j postea cuicumq: hominum 
uoluerit in aeternam libertatem derelinqu^ si quis banc 
largit'i'onem illi augeat augeatur illi a do uita si quis 
deminVerit quod absid deminuetur sibi gloria in xpo 
nisi satisfacsione emendauerit . 


huius confirmationis signa in celeberrimo loco haeleah 
nominato exponuntur in uii-*^* kas agustus die sabbati 
quo transfiguratus est xps . 

^ ego coenuulf rex mere consensi et subseri ^ ald- 
uulf epis f^ werenberht epis >}< deneberht epis 
>J< eaduulf epis »J< vvulf hard epis ►!< alhheard epis 
>I< tidfer'S epis tJn osmund epis »J< wiohthun epis 
1^ wig[be]rht epis >J« alhmund epis >{< bernmod 

epis >I< abh i^ . . . . Sib i^ werno'S ab 

>J« dudan ab >}< feolageld ab >i< ego cu'Sred Vex' 
cantiae os 7 sub , 1^ heaberht dux >{< beornno'S dux 
}^ cynehelm dux >J< tiduulf dux >J< wicgga dux 
>J< ceolward dux »J< ceolberht dux >^ dynne dux 
»I< wighard dux 1^ bjrnwald dux 1^ heardberht 
comes >I< cu'Sred pr. 

*5it* Endorsed in a hand of the loth century, ' hryj)eraleh,' to which 
is added in a hand of the 12th century, 'duonim aratrorum • CntJred 
rex • cantisB Wluredo archiepiscopo pro xxx marcis auri.' * latine.' B. 

Smith's Beda, p. 768. A.D. 825. 

Hickes Diss. Ep. p. 80. 
K219. T. p. 70. 


king of the Mercians, sate in council at Clovesho. There was 
a very great suit concerning the swine-pasture at Sutton. It 
appears to have been an action in the nature of an appeal, as 
the American legist has observed. The Bishop of Worcester 
appeals from a decision of the Swdngerefan, who were Com- 
missioners of "Woods and Forests, on the ground that they 
had disregarded the old established rights of his convent. 
The Witan allowed him and his chapter to take the oath, 
which was administered at Worcester, and of which Hama 
the Swdngerefa of Sutton was an eye-witness ; and so the 


bishop's claim was established. A bad copy of a rare piece. 
Nothing seems now to be known of the original, which 
Hickes described as *charta autographa Somersiana.' 

»i< In nomine trino diuino qui est deus benedictus in 
saecula. Amen, "py gere 'Se wes from cristes gebyrde 
ag£en eahta bund wintra and xxv and sio sefterre in- 
dictio waes in rime and wses biornwulfes rice mercna 
cyninges "Sa wses sioncSlic gemot on "Ssere meran stowe 
^e men hate's clofeshoas and 'Saer se siolfa cyning biorn- 
wulf end his biseopas end his aldormenn end alle "Sa 
wioton "Sisse "Siode "Sser gesomnade wseron "Sa wses tiolo 
micel spree ymb wuduleswe to sii'Stune ongsegum west 
on scyrhylte^ waldon -Sa swangerefan "Sa Iseswe for'Sur 
gedrifan end "Sone wudu ge)?iogan ^ "Son hit aldgeryhto 
weron ^on cuae^ se biscop and -Sara hina wiotan "Set bio 
him neren maran ondeta "Son bit arseded wses on Ae'Sel- 
baldes dsege "Srim bunde swina msest ond se biscop 'Sa 
tugen^ ahten twsede "Sses wuda ond "Sses msestes. "Sa 
gersehte uulfred arcebiscop ond alle ^a wiotan "Set se 
biscop ond 'Sa bigen mosten mid aSe gecySan ^et hit 
sua wsere arseden on Ae'Selbaldes dsege ond bim mare to 
ne sohte ond he "Sa sona se biscop beweddade eadwulfe 
"Ssem aldormen "Sses a^Sses biforan allum Ssem wiotum 
ond him mon ^Sone gelsedde ymb xxx nsehta to "Ssem 
biscopstole et wiogoerna ceastre in ^a tiid wses hama 
suangerefa to su'Stune ond he rad 'Sset he wses et ceastre 
and 'Sone aa'S gesseh ond gesceawade sua bine his aldor- 
mon heht eadwulf ond he bine hwe^re ne grette. Hii 
sunt nomina et uocabula qui in synodali concilio fuerunt 

»I< Signum manus Biornwulfi regis Merciorum. >J< 
Wulfred archiepiscopus consensi banc conditionem. 
>J< Oe'Selwald episcopus consensi. »i< Hrse'Shun episco- 


pus consensi. >{< Heaberht episeopus consensi. i^ 
Bionna episeopus eonsensi. >{* Eadwulf episeopus con- 
sensi. >J< Wilred episeopus consensi. >J< Wig'Segn 
episeopus consensi. >J< Alhstan episeopus consensi. 
>I< Humberht episeopus. ►!< Ceolberht episeopus 
»J< Cynred episeopus. >{< Torlithelm prior. >J< Ean- 
mund abbas. >I< Wihtred abbas. >J< Cu^wulf abbas. 
^ Eanmund abbas. >^ Eadberht dux. i^ Biornno'S 
dux. >I< Sigered dux. >J< CuSred dux. >{< Eadwulf 
dux. >I< Mucel dux. >I< Uhtred dux. >J< Alhheard 
dux. >J< Bolam. }^ Aldran. »{< Bynna. >ii Wig- 
helm. 1^ Heabert. f^ Eadgar presbiter. >{< Wig- 
berht presbiter. i^ Heabstsef presbiter. >{< Brada 
presbiter. >J< Cu'Sbald presbiter. >J< Regengar pres- 
biter. >J< Cu'Sbert presbiter. i^ Ecgmund presbiter. 
>I< Heabferh^ diaconus. >i< Wighelm diaeonus. i^t 
Cyneberht diaconus. mid allra ©"Serra priosta butan 
"Sissum msesse-priostum efen Ix. 

* ongsegum west on scyrhylte. Thorpe translates, ' towards the west 
in Shireholt ' : but perhaps the text is corrupt. 

'^ ge])icgan T. 

^ Sa tugen. Hickes reads 'and tSa higen,' which must be the true 
reading. It is tacitly adopted by Thorpe in his translation * the bishop 
and the convent held two parts of the wood and the mast.' 

Chart. Cott. viii. 30. A. D. 838. 

(Text. Roff. 138.) 
B. iv. 8. 


with consent of his son ^thewulf king, grants to bp. Beorn- 
mod four ploughlands. The Chronicle gives Ecgberht's death 
in 836, but there are reasons for thinking that chronology 
wrong by two years. Mr. Bond says the writing is a ' later 

>^ In nomin§ dni nfi iRu xpi saluatoris mundi . anno 


dominie^ incarnation is .dcccxxx . uiii. indictione .i. Ego . 
ecgbearhtus rex cum consensu dil^ctissimi filii nri ^'S^l- 
wulfi regis dabo debotissimo episcopo meo . beornmodo . 
aliquam terre partem iuris mei . quattuor aratrorum . in 
loco que dicitur snodding land 7 §t holan beorge ut 
habeat et possideat et cuicumque uoluerit relinquat ita 
ut predicta terra sit liuera ab omni regali serbitia. 

»J< scripta est h§c cartula in bica regali . que dicitur 
fr^ric burna is testibus consentientibus et subscribentibus 
quorum infra nomina t^nentur . et unam molinam in 
torrente qui dicitur holan beorges burna . et in monte 
regis quYnquaginta carrabas lingnorum . adiectis . quat- 
tuor denberis . hw^ton stede . heah d§n . bese . helman 

>I< Egcberht rex. >J< ^^eluulf rex. 1^ Cialno^ . 
arhi . epc . >I< beornmod . epsc. >I<ealhstan . epsc. 
»J< eadhun . epsc. >^ Cynred epsc. 1^ Ceolbeorbt . 
epsc . >^ uulf heard . dux . »{< ^'Seluulf dux . 1^ eanulf 
dux . ^ herebearht dux. t^ ^^eluulf dux . >J< e'Sel- 
heard . 

. et in oriente ciuitatis hroui uuum uiculum. 

*** Endorsed in a hand of the 10th century, ' >J< snodinglandes boc • 
iiii • aratrorum •'; and in a hand of the i-^th century, ' Rex Ethelbrich 
dedit beormodo Episcopo snodiland et Holeberg/ B. 

Cotton Charter viii. 32. A. D. 862. 


B. ii. 36. 


rex occidentaliii sax' seu cant' — to his thane Dryhtwald ten 
ploughlands at Bromley with exemption from all but the 
three inevitable burdens. Mr. Bond characterizes the writing 


as a ' later imitation.' See above, Primary Documents, 
A.D. 987 ; ,p. 209, perhaps the true document after which 
this has been fabricated. 

. . . H^c sunt et -j-[- termini pdicti agelli circu iacentia 
An nor^an fra ceddan leage to langan leage bromleag- 
inga mearc 7 liofshema "Sanne fram langan leage to 
^am won stocce^ "Sanne fram 'Sam won stocee be modinga 
hema mearce to cinta stiogole "Sanne fram cinta stiogole 
be modinga hema mearce to earnes beame ^anne fram 
earnes beame cregsetna haga an easthalfe seed hit to 
liowsan dene "Sanne fram liowsan dene to swelgende 
"Sanne fram swelgende cregsetna haga to sioxslihtre 
■Sanne fram sioxslihtre to fearnbiorginga mearce fearn- 
biorginga mearc hit seed to eystaninga mearc^ eystaninga 
mearc hit seed suSan toweard setle 'Sanne framweard 
setle eystaninga mearc to wichsema mearc^ 'Sanne sio 
west mearc be wichema meare^ ut to bipplestydse 'Sanne 
fram bipplestyd^, to acustyd^ to biohaVhema mearc§ 
fram acustyde to ceddanleage -^ 

"Sanne belimpo'S ^er to 'Sam londe fif denn an an ut 
walda . broccesham "Ses dennes nama . ^es o^res dennes 
nama t ssenget hryg ) billan ora . is i5es -Sriddan nama . 
'Sanne twa denn an gleppan felda; actum -r- hec mea 
donatio anno pscripta in loco que dr willherestrio coram 
his testib: qui hsec osentientes subscripserunt quorii hie 
nomina infra tenentr adscripta : — anno dominice incarnal 

*** Endorsed in a hand of the is^ih century, 'bromlegh Ethelberth 
rex.' B. 

^ W(5nstocce. The wdnstoc Mr. Kemble had ' no hesitation in trans- 
lating Woden's post.' Saxons, bk. i, c. 2, p. 52, note. 


Harley Charter 43 C. 1. A.J). 909. 

B. iv. 10. 

Eadweard the Elder 

praising written records, and saying that at the time of his 
division of the diocese of "Winchester he was asked by bp. 
FritSestan to renew the title-deeds of the church for the 
lands given by successive kings ; and especially that privilege 
whereby the land about the city, estimated at lOO mansse or 
more, was to be assessed as one Mansa only. The lands that 
bp. Denewulf so freely leased out are to return to the church, 
but the king may retain for his day those which Denewulf 
leased to him. This piece is of a type repeatedly occurring 
in Cod. Winton; such are K 1090, 1092, 1093, 1094, 1095, 

.... HiEC cartula scripta ert anno donQinc incarna? . 
dccccviiii . indie? . xii . his limitib: hoc rus undiq: cir- 
cudatur . et intra ambitum suii multas uillas complec- 
titur . quarii nomina incolis . liquido clarescurit . hnut 
scillinc tamen et ceolbolding tun . quae du§ uillae con- 
tiguse non sunt . c . manentiii quantitatem pficientes 
indumentis cleri deseruientes . non his limitib; set ppriis 
et ratis terminis ambiuntur . 

>{< ^rest on icenan set brombrigce up ylang weges to 
hlidgeate . ]7anon ylang slades to beanstede . f be hagan 
to searnaegles forda . ^ up be swse'Selinge to sugebroce . 
'Sset for'S be mearce to cules felda . Tor's be gehrihtu ge- 
maere to stodleage . swa to ticnes felda . f to mearcdene . 
swa to tseppeleage . swa forS to scipleage . f to bradan 
ersce . swa to J^sere ealdan cwealmstowe . f for^S be 
deopan delle . ^ be craweleainga mearce to bacegeate . 
for^S be mearce to 'Saem ealdan falde . swa nor"S 7 east to 
hearpa'Se . a be hearpaSe to heafod stoccu . swa be hide 
burninga gemsere on icenan . 'p up be streame . f swa 
w'rb easton wordige J^onan be rihtre mearce to -Ssem 


gemser ^ornan . f to "Ssere readan rode . swa for"S be 
ealdormonnes mearce . a be mearce . f hit cim"S on 
icenan . up be streame to aires forda . )7onon on ticce- 
burnan . up ylang burnan . to hearpa^e swa to tyrngeate 
wi^iniian "Sa aefisc to sceap wiean . f be riht gemaere to 
ellenforda . swa to bradan dene . f to meoluc cumbe , 
swa to meolsen beorge . ylang wages to wealthseminga 
mearce . be rihton gemaere to bige leage . ^ to clsenefelda . 
swa on are dene for^ be hagan on sceatte leage . f for^ 
on icenan be nor^an stanforde . swa mid streame ^a^t 
hit cym^ eft on brom bricge. 

*;)t* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, * Cyltan cumbes boc • ', 
subsequently added, 'Edweardi regis senior'; in various hands from 
the 1 2 th to the itth century, 'Hee sunt de Chiltecombe •* and ' De 
Cliiltecombe ' ; ' Hec est nobilis Carta de Cbiltecumba ' ; ' Custodiatur 
bene ' ; and * Eduueardus Angul Saxonum Eex/ B. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 33. A.D. 966. 


B. iii. 17. 


industris anglorum rex . . cuidam comiti . . nomine ^Ifhere 
. . XX mansos perpetualiter impendo. penes ilium locu qui 
assertione multoru hominum pfertur ita . aet [c]uj>enes dune . 

pis syndon J>a land gemseru to cuj^enes dune .xx. 
hida . [of] hry)7era forda on holan ford . of holan forde 
on lahhan mere ylang rij^iges on bradan maedwa . ]?set 
swa nor^ 7^ang fura on set ]7orn . of set j7orne on fulan 
ripig on anne pyt . of J7a pytte ylang rij^iges on J7a3t 
heafod lond . of )?a heafodon ylang fura . on pric ]7orn 
on foreweardne eanfer]7es hlau . of eanfer]7es hlawe ylang 
fure . faat on an rij^ig . yl ang ri]?iges . ylang rij^iges ^ 

U 2, 


on ane die . jlang* dices on dryg-ean broc . Jjset swa 
ylang dices on mserwelle broc . ylang broces on maer- 
welle . of mserwelle . on ]78et heafod long* on gerihte to 
straet . ]7onne east ylang strsete . o]? |78era strseta gelaeto . 
]7[on]an rihte nor]? ondlong weges op ]?a heafdo "p on mser 
weg . ylong mser weges f onbutan ceorla graf . on fost 
broc . of fost broce on ]7one hli^ weg . ylong weges on 
bina gemaero . ylong bina gemseres on ]:;a blydan . f of 
)78er blydan on ]7a stan bricge . ylong heallitunes ge- 
mseres on rise dene . Ipast of rise dene on gerihte on ]?8et 
J^riex . of ]>a ]7riexe on J^a straet . ylong straet e on holan 
broc . ylong broces on herpaj^ ford on tame ylong tame 
•p eft on bry]7era ford . Haec carta scripta e . anno dnice 
incarnationis dcccclvi . indictione xiiii. 

*:ic* Endorsed in a contemporary hand, ' J)is is seo lanboc to cu])enes 
dune to ])an twentigan hidan J)e Eadwig cync gebocede selfhere his 
ealdormen on ece yrfe*'; and in one of the \2th century, 'eduii' 
' carta de codesdona.' B. 

D. and C. Westm. A. D. 962. 

S. ii. 6. 


granting land at Sunbury to his kinsman ^Elfheh. Mr. 
Sanders says it is not in K. nor T., nor mentioned by 
Wanley. Compare p. 203 above. 

P Altithrono in aeternum regnante uniuersis sopbiae 
studium intento mentis conamine sedulo rimantibus 
liquido patescit quod buius uitae perieulis nimio ingru- 
entibus terrore recidiui terminus cosmi appropinquare 
dinoscitur ut ueridica cbristi promulgat sententia qua 
dicit. Surget gens contra gentem et regnum aduersus 
rfignum et reliqua. Quam ob rem ego Eadgar totius 


brittanniae basileus quandam ruris particulam . decern 
uidelicet cassatos loco qui celebri set Sunnanbyrig . nun- 
cupatur uocabulo propinquo meo mihi oppido fideli qui 
ab Luiusce patriae gnosticis ^lfheh appellatur uocabulo . 
pro obsequio eius deuotissimo perpetua largitus sum 
hereditate ut ipse uita comite cum omnibus utensilibus 
pratis uidelicet pascuis siluis uoti compos habeat et post 
uitae suae terminum quibuscumque uoluerit cleronomis 
inmunem derelinquat. Sit autem predictum rus omni 
terren^ seruitutis iugo liberum tribus exceptis rata uide- 
licet expedition e pontis arcisue restauratione. Siquis 
igitur banc nostram donationem in aliud quam consti- 
tuimus transferre uoluerit priuatus consortio sanctae dei 
ecclesiae aeternis barathri incendiis lugubris iugiter cum 
iuda cbristi proditore eiusque complicibus puuiatur . si 
non satisfactione emendauerit congrua quod contra 
nostrum deliquid decretum. His metis prefatum rus 
hinc inde giratur. 

Dis sindon ]?a land gemsero to sunnanbyrig. ^rest 
on sunnan byg ^ j^anon andlang streames on crudan scyp- 
steal |7anon ofer "Sa maede on eclesbroc ylang broces on 
"Sa mearcdic ylang dices on liwaete dene nor^eweardre of 
bwaete dene on ]7a o^re mearcdic ylang dices on cottes 
byrste westewearde of cottes byrste on riscmere of rise- 
mere on eadbryhtes hlaew of ]7am hlaewe on ]?one ellen 
stub "Sonon on mearcwill of mearcwille on duddes byre of 
duddes byre on J;one clofenan beorb of ]?am beorbge on 
sunnan byg^ . 7 ber byr'S to tynn gyrda of J?8ere ma3de 
to balgan forde 7 aelce geare into sunnanbyrig of burh- 
wuda fiftig fo'Sra wudes 7 fiftig swina maesten. 

Anno dominic§ incarnationis . dcccclxii . scripta est . 
baec carta bis testibus consentientibus quorum inferius 
nomina notantur. 


»I< Ego eadgar rex anglorum coDcessi. i^i Ego 
dunstan archiepiscopus corroboraui. >J< Ego oscytel 
archiepiscopns eonfirmaui. >J< Ego osulf episcopus con- 
solidaui. >^ Ego byrhtelm episcopus acquieui. >J< Ego 
oswold episcopus eonfirmaui. >J< Ego a)?elwold abbas. 
>I< Ego self here dux. >{< Ego selfheah dux. t^i Ego 
8e)7elstan dux. >{< Ego a]7elpold dux. >{< Ego beorht- 
no'S dux. ►!< Ego byrhtfer^ minister. >^ Ego sellwine 
minister. ^ Ego 8e]7elsige minister. >I« Ego wulf helm 
minister. ►$< Ego se]>elwine minister. ^ Ego selfsige 

^ Qu. error for hyrg ? 

Harley Charter 43 C. 5. A. D. 966. 

B. iii. 27. 


grants lo cassati at Niwanham to a noble matron of his own 
kin que ab istius patriae gnosticis eleganti . jelfgipv . apella- 
tur uocamine. 

pis sint )7a gemseru to niwanhamme Cattan ege into 
niwanham of ]?am hajj^nan birigelsan up ylang die innan 
mser wege up ylang mser wege j^set up on wearddune 
]78er )78et cristel msel stod of J?an up on ]7a readan slo o]> 
]78ere ealdan byrig of ]78ere readan slo on J?8et crundel ]>dsr 
se haga utlige]?. Of ]7an crundelle innan mid slaede 
ylang midslsedes on J?a grsegan hane of J78ere graegan 
hane ylang hearpdene on cealfa leage neoj7ewearde of 
cealfa leage a be hagen 7 be ]?an ealdan wege in on f 
bee si)7)7an ylang beces on tsemese ylang ea on cattan 

*5^* Endorsed in large letters, ' ^ pis is Sara • x • hida land boc set 
niwanham pe eadgar cyning gebocode aelf gife his magan on ece yrfe.' B. 


D. and C. Exon. A.D. 977. 

S. ii. Ex. 14 dorso. 


meo fideli comiti nomine ee'Selweard granting land in Corn- 
wall. Manifestly a later copy, as it is endorsed on a deed 
(below p. 300) dated 1059 which has relation to the same 
manor. It is not in K. or T. Deeds of this Eadweard are rare. 

>J< Regnante inperpetuum domino nostro ihesu christo. 
Cunctis sophi^ studium ferme rimantibus stabili notum 
constat ratione . quod presentis esenti^ periculis incum- 
bantibus et curis euanescentium rerum inopinate cre- 
brescentibus Hnmana mortalium rerum cognitio quasi 
ros minuendo elabitur et obliuioni tantundem traditur . 
nisi aliqua certa ratione prenotetur . quia non sunt 
aeterna qu^ hie conspiciuntur sed terrena . ut imbutus 
sermone tonantis apostolus inquit. Nunc uelut umbra 
cite sic corpore ^ fugiunt res. Sed decus seternum hoc 
uisu stat certius omni. Quapropter ego eadward annu- 
ente gratia dei rex anglorum ceterarumque circumqua- 
que nationum cum consilio atque consensu episcoporum 
obtimatumque meorum quasdam ruris particulas in 
diuersis locis possitus id est trefwurabo aet trefwaloc 
trefgrued set trefdewig. In perpetuam hereditatem ad- 
modum libenter concede meo fideli comiti nomine ae^el- 
weard cum omnibus ad se rite pertinentibus . campis 
siluis pratis piscariisque libere ab omni regali censu 
excepta expeditione arcisue munimine et uigiliis marinis 
et postquam uiam uniuersitatis adierit cuicumque uolu- 
erit prefatam terram libenter dereliuqnat. Acta est 
autem h^c donatio anno . dcccclxxvii . ab incarnatione 
domini . indietione uero . v** . vi . concnrrentes epact^ 
. XXVIII . xvii° anno cicli decenouelis meique imperii . 
II . anno. His testibus consentientibus quorum nomina 


infra caraxata fore uiclentur. Dis ys seo landscaru to 
trefwurabo serest set pollicerr J^senne be Jsere die and 
lang weges )7onne of ]7am wege )7onne on ]7a lytlan die on 
east healfe weges to poll hsescen adune be ]?am broce to 
ryt cendeurion j7oniie be ]>am. broce to earn ni'S bran to 
deumsen coruan . |7anon ylang weges to cruedrsenoc . 
'|?anon to carrecwynn 7 eft J^anon to pollicerr. Dis is seo 
landscaru to trefualoc serest to J^sere die )7onne fram dice 
adun to J?am broce of ]7am broce to crouswrach ylang 
weges on )?a die ]?anon to mayn bi]? to cruc mur . ]7anon 
to earn wlicet ylang Ipssre to ]7am broce . ]7anon ylang 
stremes o'S tuow wseter eft be fsere die. ©is is seo land- 
scaru to crucwse'S serest set nant buor'Stel ylang stremes 
o'S lenbrunn ]?anan to cestel merit j?anon west to wucou 
genidor west andlang die o"S broc ]?anon to fonton 
morgeonec J^anon adune to broce ]?8er hit set fruman 
wses. Dis .... landgemsero to trefdewig serest set 
pennhal meglar su'S to ]7am wege j7anon to ]7am forda 
ongerihte to erliwet ]?anon for^ J^^^S stremes to lyn- 
cenin j7anon up to penhal meglar. 

>J< Ego eadweard rex anglorum hoc donum cum 
triumpho agi§ sancte crucis. >J< Ego dunstanus archi- 
presul confirmaui. >{< Ego se'Selwoldus episcopus con- 
testor. Ego selfstanus episcopus annui. Ego wulfsige 
episcopus condictaui et subscripsi. ►J* Ego selffere dux. 

>J< Ego se'Selwyne dux. Ego bryhtno'S 

dux. Ego leofwine dux. Ego selfweard minister tester. 
Ego selfsige minister tester. Ego leofwynne minister 
tester. Ego bryhtmser minister tester. Ego selfgar 
minister tester. 

Quisquis igitur hoc nostrum donum conseruare imo 
augere inhianter desiderauerit . ampliuicetur dies illius 
et post obitum transire mereatur feliciter ad regna 


polorum. Sin autem quod absit . et deum et semetip- 
suni obliuiscendo aliquis motare temptauerit . anathema 
sit et dies illius non dimidiauertt et gloriam dei cum 
choris angelorum nequaquam uideat in terra uiuentium. 
^ Eead corporecB. These three hexameters occur again K1297. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 90. A.D. 1039. 

K758. T. p. 338. 
B. iv. 20. 


surnamed Harefoot, lay grievously sick in Oxford, not ex- 
pecting to live, and bishop Lyfing from Devonshire was with 
him. A deputation arrived from Christchurch (Canterbury), 
to represent to the king that certain dues at Sandwich had 
been seized in the king's name and kept two years from the 
brotherhood. On hearing this, the king changed colour, and 
swore that it was not his doing : and so it came to light that 
the whole thing was a plot between ^Ifstan the abbot of 
St. Augustine's and those who acted for the king. 

The narrative is well told, and the manuscript is good; 
but not contemporaneous. 

On the date Mr. Freeman says : — ' Mr. Kemble dates the 
document in 1038, but it is clear that it must, as Sir Henry 
Ellis says, belong to 1039, ^^ perhaps to the beginning of 
1040.' Norman Conquest, i. 563, note. 

Her kyJ7 on j^ison gewrite "p harold king* . let beridan 
sandwic of xpes cyrcean him sylfan to handa . 7 haefde 
hit him wel neh twelf mona^ . 7 twegen hseriVgc 
timan . swa ];eah fullice . eall ongean godes willan . 
7 agen ealra J^ara halgena ]?e Testa's innon xpes cyrcean 
swa swa hit him sy^-San sorhlice |73er8efter agiode . 
7 amanc }?isan si}7au siSe ^ wearS selfstan abt) . set see A . 
7 begeat mid his smeh wrencan . 7 mid his golde 7 
seolfre eall dyrnunVga ajt steorran J^e J^a wses ]?8es 


kinges raedes mann f hi gewear^ se ]7ridda penig of 
]78ere tolne on sandwic ]7a geraedde eadsige arcet) )7a he 
]?is wiste . 7 eall se hired set xpes cyrc betweonan heom 
^ man sende aelfgar munuc of xpes cyrc to harolde 
kingce . 7 wses se king ]7a binnan oxana forde swy]7e 
geseocled . swa "p he Iseg orwene his lifes . 'pa. wees 
lyfingc t) of defenan scire . mid ]7am kincge . 7 }7ancred 
munuc mid him . ]?a com cristes cyrc sand to )7a 'b . 
7 he for'S ]7a to ]7am kincge . 7 aelfgar munuc mid hi . 
7 oswerd set hergerdes ha . 7 )?ancred . 7 ssedon ]?a kinge . 
f he hsefde swy^e agylt wi'S crist f he sefre sceolde 
niman senig j^ing . of xpes cyrc j^e his foragengceon 
dydon ]7ider inn . ssedon pa kinge pa embe sandwic f 
hit wses hi to handa geriden . ]7a Iseg se king 7 aswear- 
tode eall . mid J^are sage . 7 swor sy]7)7an under god 
selmihtine 7 under ealle halgan )?arto f hit naefre nses . 
na his rsed na his dsed . f man sceolde sefre sandwic don 
ut of xpes cyrc . |?a wses so^lice gesyne . f hit wses o^ra 
manna g)7eaht nses na haroldes kinges . 7 so^lice self-, 
stanes abbodes rsed wses mid )?a mannan pe hit of xpes 
cyrc ut gerseddon . J^a sende harold king selfgar munuc 
agen to }>a arcet> eadsige . 7 to eallon xpes cyrc munecan . 
7 grette hig ealle godes gretincge 7 his . 7 het ^f^ hig 
sceoldan habban sandwic into xpes cyrc . swa full . 7 
swa for^ swa hig hit sefre hsefdon on senies kinges dsege . 
ge on gafole . ge on streame . ge on strande . ge on 
witun . ge on eallon ]?a J;ingan J^e hit sefre senig king 
fyrWest hsefde set foran hi . ]7a selfstan abb . ]?is of 
axode ]7a com he to eadsige arceb . 7 bsed hine fultumes 
to )?a hirode embe )7one j^riddan penig . 7 hi begen pa 
to eallon gebro)?ran 7 bsedon J^one hired f selfstan abb 
moste beon )7ses )7riddan peniges wur'Se of J^sere tolne . 
7 gyfan fa hirede . x . pd . ac hy forwyrndon heom 


ealle togaedere endemes . f he hit na sceolde nsefre ge- 
bidan . 7 wses J7eah eadsige arcet) swi^or his fultum ])on 
]78es hiredes . 7 )7a he ne mihte na for-S her mid ]>sl 
gy rnde he ^ he moste macian fornangen mildryj;e seker 
senne hwerf wi'S bone wodan^ to werianne . ac eall se 
hired him for wy rnde J^ass for'S ut mid ealle . 7 se arceb 
eadsige let hit eall to heora agene rsede . ]?a gewear-S se 
abt) selfstan set . mid micelan fultume . 7 let delfon set 
hyppeles fleote an mycel gedelf . 7 wolde f seip ryne 
sceolde }78erinne licgean eall swa hig dydon on sandwic . 
ac hi na speow nan J^ingc ]73eron . for Jjam he swing^ 
eall on idel pe swincS ongean xpes willan . 7 se abt) let 
hit eall )?us . 7 se hired fengc to heora agenan . on godes 
gewitnesse 7 sea marian 7 ealra J>ara halgena J7e resta^S 
innan xpes cyrcean . 7 set see augustine . J?is is eall BO'S 
gelyfe se )?e wylle . na gebad selfstan abb nsefre on nanan 
o]7re wisan )7one J^riddan penig of sandwic . Godes blet- 
sung si mid us eallon a on ecnysse . amen. 

*:,.* Endorsed in a hand of the 12th century, 'Altercatio de Sandwic 
intei' conuentum ecclesie Christi et Elfstanum abbatem sancti Augustini, 
tempore Eadsigi archiepiscopi . anglice . 'j and in a hand of the i^th 
century, 'Anno M° xxx" viij".' B. 

^ The MS. has amane pisan sij)an si^e : with the word pisan under- 
lined, which means that the reviser had his misgivings about it, 
Kemble printed amanc J)isan si^e ; Thorpe amanc ])isan si))an, which 
he translated 'during this time/ I suppose the original had simply 
' amang J)isum ' = meanwhile. 

^ wis jjone wodan. 'That he might make a wharf over against 
Mildred's field, as a protection against the ford' Thorpe, who acknow- 
ledges his translation doubtful. Leo, A. S. Glossar 13 : ein Damm (Kai) 
gegen den Sturm. 


D. and C. Exon. A.D. 1059. 

S. ii. Ex. 14. 


granting to bp. Aldred land in Cornwall. Not in K. or T. 
See above p. 295. 

>J< Cum diuin^ maiestatis potentia . secundum uelle 
crearet omnia . hominisque speciem . ad suam crearet 
imaginem . inuidus omnium bonorum succinctus fraude 
malorum . ipsius hominis esse . su^ malignitatis penitus 
deprauauit posse. Sed misericors condolens fragilitati . 
se ipsum subegit bumanitati . quatenus futurorum pre- 
scius liberaret per semetipsum . quod ipse omnium ma- 
lorum radix illexit ad interitum. Huius rei memores . 
nos nostrique consimiles . ei persoluamus gratias . ut 
oportet perpetuas . qui nos libertati . dedit et saluti. 
Unde dignum ducimus de bonis temporalibus qu§ con- 
cessit dominus . uit^ sufFragari . ueniamque mereri . sic 
diuidentes transitoria . ut dum defecerimus recipiamur 
in ^terna tabernacula . quum velud umbra qu§ mode 
uidentur transibunt omnia. Qua propter ego . eadweaed 
rex anglorum . eorumque confinium . nutu dei con- 
punctus . totiusque regni monarcbia functus . optima- 
tum consilio . cuidam fideli meo episcopo nomine aldredo 
quandam partem telluris trado . id est . trefwurabo . et 
trefualoc . trefgrue'S . et trefdewig . cum omnibus ad se 
rite pertinentibus campis . siluis . pratis . piscariisque 
liberam ab omni regali censu . excepta expeditione . 
arcisue munimine . eo tenore . ut perpetua possideat 
hereditate . dumque uniuers^ carnis uiam intrauerit . 
cuicumque libeat . perpetuo possidendam relinquat. 
Acta est autem h^c donatio . anno millesimo . Iviiii . ab 
incarnatione domini . indictione . xii . epacte . xv . his 


testibus consentientibus quorum nomina infra sunt pre- 
notata . )7is is seo landscaru to trefwurabo . serest set 
pollcerr . "Senne be J^sere die ylang* wages . )7onne of j^am 
wege on -Sa lytlan die . on easthalfe weges to poll hseseen 
. adune be ]7am broce to ryt cendeurion . )7onne be "Sam 
broce to earn ny}?bran . to deumsen coruan ]?anon ylang 
weges to cruedrsenoc . J^anon to carrec wynn . 7 eft 'Sanon 
to pollcerr. pis se landscaru to trefualoc . serest to J^sere 
die . )7onne fram dice adune to "Sam broce of "Sam broce 
to crouswrach . ylang weges on ^a die . ]?anon to main 
biw . to crucmur . )7anon to earnwlicet . ylang "Ssere to 
'San broce . "Sanon ylang stremes oS tuow weter eft be 
Saere die. pis is seo land scaru to crucwaej? serest set 
nant buor'Stel ylang stremes o'S lenbrun . ]?anon to 
cestel merit . ]7anon west to wucow geniSor west ylang 
die o"S broc . Jjanon to fonton morgeonec . j^anon 
adune to broce . Sser hit set fruman wses. pis is seo 
landscaru to trefdsewig . serest set penheal meglar suS to 
]7am wege J>anon to Sam forda ongerihte to erliwet . 
);anon for^ y^^-ng stremes to lyncenin . 'Sanon up to 
penhal meglar. 

>J< Ego EADWEAED rex anglorum banc donationem 
cum triumpho agi^ crucis impressi. Ego Stigandus 
archiepiseopus ebristi ^cclesi^ confortaui. Ego Kyn- 
sinus archiepiseopus eboracensis ^cclesi^ eonsensi. Ego 
Leofricus episcopus exoniensis ^cclesi^ confirmaui et 
subscripsi. Ego Dodica episcopus assensum prebui. 
Ego Alfwoldus episcopus testis fui. Ego ^Ifwinus abbas 
consolidaui. Ego ^gelnoSus abbas corroboraui. Ego 
Haraldus dux. Ego iElfgar dux. Ego Tostig dux. 
Ego Leofwine dux. Ego GerS dux. Ego Byrhtricus 
nobilis. Ego dodda minister. Ego ordulf minister. 
Ego selfric minister. Ego seglward minister. Ego 


Leofno^ minister. Ego Wulfno^ minister. Ego Leof- 
wine minister. Ego Eadmser minister. 

Huius uero predii donationem optamus et uolumus 
esse perpetuam . et omni contradictione securam . neque 
christianum se fateatur . qui earn infringere conatur . et 
si quis in hoc consenserit . quod absit . penarum ultio- 
nibus sit ab istis testibus tamdiu addictus . quo adusque 
per ignem urentem . debiti huius persoluat nouissimum 

*** The Latin of this deed is in a sort of rude rhymes. 

D. and C. Westm. A.D. 1051-1065. 

S ii. Westm. 10. 


his writ to William bp. London, &c. confirming to St. Peter's, 
Westm. the estate of Staines, and a vill in London named 
after the said estate. 

1^ Eadward kincg grett Willelm biscop 7 Harold eorl 
7 Esgar steal re . 7 ealle mine J^egnas 7 mine holde freond 
on middelsexan^ freondlice. Ic ky]7e eow f ice wille . 
7 ice ann f See Peter 7 ]>sl gebro^ra on westmynstre 
habben to heora bileofan f cotlif stana . mid ]7am lande 
stseninga haga wi^ innon lundone . 7 fif 7 j^rittig hida 
sokne ]fsdv to . mid eallu ]7am ber wican J pe icc habbe for 
minre sawle alesednysse in to ]?3ere halgan stowwe 
gegyfan . 7 selce )?8ere ]7inga "pe J78er to mid rihte ge 
byra'S on cyrcan 7 on mylnan . on wuda 7 on feldan . 
on Iffise 7 on hse^e . on msedu 7 on eitii . on wajterii 7 
on weru . 7 on eallii J7ingu swa full 7 swa for^ swa hy 
on ealdu timan in to stana sokne geled waBron . o'S^e 
me selfan fyrmest on handa stodan. And icc ann heom 


eft ealswa f hy habben |?8er to saka . 7 sokne . toll 7 
team . infangene^eof . 7 flemenefyrm'Se . gri^bryce . 7 
ham sokne . forsteall . 7 miskaenninge . 7 ealle o)7re 
gerihtu on eallii j^ingu f>e ]7aer upp a springa^ . inne tid 
. 7 ut of tide . binnan burh . 7 butan burhge . on strsete 
. 7 of strsete . For }>an icc nelle nateshwon gej^afian . 
f senig man aetbrede o^^Se geutige mine gyfe 7 mine 
selmesse swa mycel f sy an seker landes . J^aes 'pe on 
seniges mannes dsegge in to ]7a cotlifan gebyrede . o'S^e 
p ]7aer senig man senigne on styng habbe on senigu J^ingii. 
o'S^e on aenige timan . be strande ne be lande . buton 
se abbod 7 )?a gebroiSra to J^as mynstres neode ; 7 ice 
wille . 7 fsestlice bebeode . f j^eos mundbyrdnesse beo 
Strang . 7 staj7elf8est in to |78ere balgan stow we . a on ece 
erfeweardnesse. Amen. God eow ealle gehealda. 

*^* K855 is the same deed in a more debased form, and taken from 
a much later transcript, in Faustina, A iii. f. 104. 


The Second Group is based on the Worcester Chartulary 
(Cott. Tiberius A. xiii), which was compiled by Heming, a 
monk of Worcester, under guidance of Wulfstan (bishop 
1062-1095). This book was edited by Hearne in 1723 
under the title 'Hemingi Chartularium Ecclesige Wigorni- 
ensis.' In his Preface he is almost rapturous as he describes 
his first impressions : — ' Codicem . . nactus avidissime per- 
legi, omnia in eodem maximi facienda esse illico cernens. 
Immo, perinde ac si cuncta in lapidibus veteribus exscul- 
perentur atque celebrarentur, aestimanda duxi.' He corro- 
borates his own opinion by that of others, especially Hickes 
(who was then recently dead) : — ' Ceterum, ne quid putes 
me dixisse ex nescio qua vana opinione, contraque senten- 


tiam judicum prsestantissimorum, id velim scias, clarissimum 
Hickesium Chartularium hoc inter pretiosissima regni monu- 
menta numerasse.' For some few of the deeds in this 
Kegister we have an older authority, namely, Cott. Nero 
E. I, which Kemble assigns to a.d. iooo. In these Registers 
of the nth century the vast bulk is genuine, and some speci- 
mens have been admitted into Part I. But artificial fabri- 
cation is already at work ; and these early collections, being 
of known dates, afford us some valuable indications for 
diplomatic criticism. 

Cott. Tib. A. xiii. ff. 15 and 167. A.D. 717-743. 

Cott. Nero E. 1. f. 391. 



granting 8 cassati to bp. Wilfrid, whose episcopate affords the 
most limited assignable date for this piece. 

>i< Ego Aetbilbald diuina inspirante gratia rex Suth- 
anglorum terrain viii. cassatorum quae nomen habet aet 
Baecceshoran, pro redemptione animae meae, ut sit 
iuris aecclesiastici, reuerentissimo episeopo Uuilfrido 
libenter largitus sum ; notis haec terra limitibus ab 
aliis litem discernit agris, mentis ad meridiem uersus 
baud paruam obtinet partem, ad orientem uia regia 
septa ab aquilone fluuialibus cingitur undis^ paludibus 
dyssis certis determinat illam. 

»I< Ego Aetbilbald rex meam donationem pro domino 
factam signaculo sacratissimae crucis confirmo. >I« Ego 
Uualhstod episcopus subscripsi. >I< Ego Uuilfrith sub- 
scripsi. >I< Ego Oba subscripsi. >^ Ego Aethilric 
subscripsi. >J< Ego Sigebed subscripsi. 

%* There are three copies, two in Tiberius, and one in Nero ; with 
unimportant variations. 


Cott. Tib. A. xiii. f. 16. 

Cott. Nero E. i. f. 339. A.D. 757. 

K102*. Birch 183. 

Eanberht of the Hwiccas 

and his two brothers, granting to Milred, bp. Worcester, 30 
cassati at Tredingtun, co. Worcester. 

>J< Regnante inperpetuum domino deo Sabaoth! 
^Dum certum constat omnibus orthodoxis ac catholicis 
uiris, quod istius uolubilis uitae transitoria uidelicet 
tempora momentaneis cursibus termino adpropinquare, 
et inreuocabiles esse iam praeteriti dies, nee non an- 
norum curricula cum suis mensibus in priorem statum 
nunquam reuerti a nuUo credentium dubitatur ; et cae- 
tera quae restant subsequentia nullam facere moram 
festinando ad finem pro certo noscuntur. Idcirco ego 
Eanberhtus, deo praedestinante' ^ regulus propriae gentis 
Huicciorum simulque germani mei mecum, Uhtredus 
uidelicet et Aldredus, eadem uocabuli dignitate et im- 
perio fungentes, ^his ante dictis manifestissimis causis 
instruct!, quatinus cum istis saecularibus rebus quae 
citius transire constant, aeterna paradisi praemia quae 
sempiterna esse scimus lucrire ualeamus'^, aliquam agelli 
portionem, pro remedio animae nostrae, Milredo uene- 
rando antistiti, ad sedem pontificalem et ad aecclesiam 
beatissimi apostolorum principis Sancti Petri, ubi cor- 
pora parentum nostrorum quiescunt, quae in Uueger- 
nensi ciuitate fundata est, ter denos cassatos, id est, 
uicum qui nuncupatur Tredingtun, in duobus loeis, in 
altero quater senos, in altero bis ternos, iuxta fluuium 
qui dicitur Stuur, iisdem terminibus adiacentibus quibus 
Tyrdda comes antea tenebat, libentissime in commune 



largiti sumus ; ut semper seu nobis uiuentibus seu in 
Christo dormientibus, digna remuneratio in sanctarum 
orationum, cum missarum sacris celebrationibus, ab 
eadem aecelesia die noctuque, deo patrocinante, fideliter 
reddatur. Si quis vero, quod absit^ banc munificentiam 
nostram, pro deo omnipotenti concessam, plurimorumque 
consilio corroboratam, quorum infra nomina ponuntur, 
auaritiae aestibus succensus et diabolica praesumptione 
incitatus, infeliciter inritam facere praesumat, sciat se 
ab aeterna requie separatum, et cum luda impio traditore 
aeternis dampnationum legibus mancipatum. Si quis 
uero augendo multiplicare uoluerit^ Christi instinctus 
amore ^, augeat deus partem illius in remuneratione 
iustorum, ubi animae sanctorum fulgent in gloria. His 
hinc inde subscriptis ter minis praefata certissime circum- 
giratur tellus. 

Dis syndan "Sa landgem^ru to Tredingctune. Of 
Sture on ^a stan scale ; "Sonne be "San heafdan ; "Sset on 
^a dunes ende ; endlong dunes "Sset on scire mere ; of 
sciran mere ^set on Brocnanbyrh; of Broenanbyrh on 
•Sset ri"Sig ; ondlong ri'Siges on morseaS ; of morseaSe 
on Si'Sry Se wellan ; of Si^SrySe wellan on rydmsedwan 
ufewarde ; of reodm^dwan on haran stan ; of haran 
stane on "Sa langan die ; ondlong dice "Saet on "Sone py t ; 
of "Sam pytte "Sset on reodwellan ; of reod wellan "Sset on 
"Sone ofer ; ondlong ofres ^set on Stanford ; of Stanforda 
ondlonges "Ssere lace ; of ^^re lace su^ be tJam heafdon 
"Sset on rah weg ; ^aet ondlong raliweges on rahdene ; 
"Sset "Sonne on Wadbeorgas ; of Wadbeorgan "Sset on 
"Sone rycweg ; of rycwege on hwsete dune ; of hwsete 
dune on 'Sone stapol ; of ^sem stapole on "Sa mserdic ; 
ondlong dices "Sset on Stures stream. 

»i< Ego Eanberht banc nostram communem dona- 


tionem pro ampliori firmitate signum sanctissimae crucis 
libens araui. >J< Ego Uhtred ante praescriptam dona- 
tionem nostram confirmans subscribo, et uexillum crucis 
praetitulaui. >{< Ego Aldred, maiorum meorum conro- 
boratus exemplis, almae crucis uexillum inposui. >J< Ego 
Milred gratia dei episcopus, bis praedictis rebus canonice 
consensi et signum uenerabile impressi. >{< Ego Offa, 
nondum regno Mercionum a domino accepto, puer indolis 
in prouincia Huicciorum coustitutus, huic donationi eo- 
rum consensi et signum honorabile beatae crucis con- 
scripsi*. >I< Ego Totta, dei diffinitione antistes, hauc 
praenotatam munificentiam consensi et subscripsi. 
lit Ego Hemele, dei gratia praesul, aecclesiastice con- 
sensi, et signum salutiferae crucis praenotaui. >{< Sig- 
num manus Heardberhti praefecti. >i< Signum manus 
Aldberbti praefecti. >I< Signum manus Tiluuini abbatis. 
>J< Signum manus Cusan abbatis. >I< Signum manus 
Headdan presbyteri. i^t Signum Ealdbaldi praefecti. 
>J< Signum Eatan p.^ ^ Signum Cecces. >J< Signum 
Dunnes. »J< Signum Brogan. >J< Signum Pendheres. 
>i< Signum Uuales p."^ »I< Signum Beornhardus prae- 

*#* A comparison of the two copies suggests that the elder (Cott. N.) 
is an attempt at the composition of an ancient charter, which was thrown 
aside unfinished ; and that the latter one (Cott. T.), which is here printed, 
was considered satisfactory. 

^ ^Dum . . . prsedestinante' — for all this Cott. N. has only 'cuius 
concedente dementia, ego Eanberht.' 

2 Not in Cott. N. 

^ Here Cott. N. breaks off. 

* I Offa, before I was king of the Mercians, being placed for educa- 
tion (?) in the province of the Hwiccas, signed this. 

^ praefecti K. 

X 2 


Cott. Tib. A. xiii. f. 34. A.D. 757-775. 

K126*. Birch 219. 

Of fa 

granting "Wick on the west of Severn to Milred, bp. Worcester. 
We have the bounds in two forms, of which the unmixed 
Saxon is manifestly the original. 

>J< Omnibus patet fidelibus quod hie non habemus 
manentem ciuitatem, iuxta gloriosi doetoris gentium 
Pauli uocem, quoniam per momentanea succedentium 
temporum curricula et carnis fragilitatem, omnia labentis 
uitae subsistentia festinare uidentur ad finem. Prop- 
terea ego Offa, rex Merciorum diuinae misericordia 
gratiae, pro adquirenda deificae remunerationis requie, 
animaeque meae remedio et salute, et meorum facinorum 
releuatione, terram cum finibus suis, quae pertinet ad 
uillam quae uocatur Wican, sitam in occidentali parte 
Sseferne, regio utens potestate, done libertati, et Mildrede 
pontifici perpetua haereditate trado in possessionem iuris 
aecclesiastici^ ad laudem et gloriam et honorem altissimi 
dei, omniumque sanctorum nuhc et omni tempore sae- 
culi. Si quis ergo banc nostrae donationis elemosinam 
minuere uoluerit et delere, auferatur et deleatur memoria 
eius de libro uitae, et cum luda Christi traditore cre- 
matur aeterna combustione ; et Annania et Saphira 
sentiat iram ultionis diuinae, nisi in praesenti uita 
emendauerit condigna satisfactione. 

Haec enim sunt nomina finium terrarum ad supra- 
dictam uillam adiacentium. Primus de Tamede mu^an 
recto cursu in os wjnna bgece ; deinde in Wuda mor ; 
sic extenditur in "Wsetansic; sic statim in locum quae 
dicuntur bakas ; proinde in ueterem uallem ; de ilia 
ualle usque in Secmseres oran; sic recto cursu in pulles 


camp ; sic in longum usque ad )7orn brycge ; inde quoque 
in Kaderapull ; de Caderapulle in Becha brycge ; de 
hoc ad introitum hypes mor ; de ipsa more in Coforet 
broc ; in illam hagan ; post illud ad tumulum uocitatum 
kett ; ex kette usque ad monticulos ; ex inde uero in 
Lawern ; sic usque ad atsice ; post usque ad quercum 
quae nuncupatur scip ac ; inde autem ad locum dictum 
greatan aespan ; et ex eo loco ad hreadan sloh ; deinde 
uero ad alios monticulos ; postea uero ad uiam quae 
dicitur Fif ac ; recto itinere ad easdem fif ac ; proinde 
autem ad ]?reom gemjeran ; et ex illo loco recta occidentis 
semita in illam die ; sicque protenditur in kyllan hrygc ; 
deinde in Syllweg ; sic extenditur in hse^ihtan leahge ; 
et ita in fulan sloh ; post hinc supra Buttingc graf in 
locum dictum Eclesbroc, qui terminus adiacet in Doferic, 
usque ad Sseferne ; quod transit in ore Temede. 

Dis synd "Sa landgemaera into Wican. ^rest of 
Temede gemy^an ; andlang Temede in wynna bseces 
gemy^an ; of wynna bsece in wuda mor ; of wuda more 
in wsBtan sice ; of "Sam waetan sice in ^a bakas ; and of 
^am bakan in ^a ealdan die ; of 'Sgere ealdan die in 
secges mere ; and of secges mere in "Ses pulles heafod 
andlong to J>ornbrycge ; of )7ornbryccge in kadera pull ; 
of kadera puUe in beka brycge; of becha brycge in 
forewardan hipes mor ; of ^am more innon Gofer's broc ; 
of "Sam broke innon "Sone hagan ; aefter ^am hagan 
innon kett ; of kette in ^a hlawas ; of "Sam hlawan in 
Lawern ; of Lawerne in "Saet atsic ; and sefter "Sam sice 
innon -Sa scip ac ; and of "Seere scip ac in "Sa gratan 
aespan ; and swa in f hreade sloh ; of 'Sam slo innon 
'Sa hlawas ; and of "Sam hlawan in fif acana weg ; and 
sefter "Sam wege innon ^a fif £ecc ; of "Sam acan innon 
J?rim gemseran ; of ]7rim gemseran in lacge human ; of 


'Saere buman to mlla stane ; of "Sam stane on ^a haran 
apeltreo; of "Ssere apeltreo innon Doferic ; sefter Doferice 
ill Sseferne ; and andlang Sseferne in Temede mu^an. 

*** The former importance of the villa of Wick is testified by many 
names on the west side of the river. The Latin version occasionally 
adds something to the Saxon ; e. g. ad tumulum vocitatum kett. 

Cott. Nero E. 1. f. 390. A.D. 757-795. 

Cott. Tib. A. xiii. f. 107 {bis). 
K55*. Birch 123. 

Off a 

granting 33 cassati to the church at Worcester. 

>J< Regnante in perpetuum domino, uniuersitatis 
creatore! Ego Offa rex Merciorunij aliquam partem 
terrarum, id est xxxni. cassatonim, in ius aecclesiasticae 
libertatis Uuigornensis largior, aet Scottari^ ; quern 
tamen agrum fluuio, quem dicunt Afen, constat interlui ; 
is demum subregulus iii. postea cassatos ruris siluatici 
largiendo addidit, aet Hnuthyrste. Istis terminis prae- 
fatum rus cingitur, in primis Balgandun, Billeslseh, 
Westgraf, Heofentill, Baddandun, hoc est in occiden- 
tali parte fluminis ; in orientali plaga Wudanbergas, 
Rugganbroc, Bromhiinces dene ; inde on Sture ; ond- 
longes Sture usque in Afene. 

Addidit etiam praedictus Offa iii. cassatos in alio loco 
siluatici ruris, usitato nomine Hellerelege, pro remedio 
suae animae in ciuitate Wegornensi : his terminis cin- 
gitur : ^rest on Leontan "Sset cume on blacan mere ; 
'Sonon ^set cume in 'Sa geapan linde ; "Sonon 'Sset cume 
on lindwyr'Se ; swa "Saet cume on Ciondan ; of Ceondan 
'Saet cume on Reodmore ; "Sonon "Saet cume on ^a greatan 
ac ; ^onon "Sset cume in ^a readan sole ; ^onon 'Saet 


cume on csers pytt; swa "Saet cume in Usanmere; of 
Usanmere "Sget cume eft on Leontan. 

*:^* Kemble assies this piece not to the gi'eat formidolosus Offa 
(757-795), but to Offa of Essex, who became a monk in 709: Beda, 
V. 19 ; apparently in order to reconcile the expression * subregulus.' But 
then, how about 'rex Merciorum*? The fact is, no accommodation will 
make this piece anything but a crude attempt to consti'uct the early 
history of benefactions. This is from Nero E. i . The Heming copy 
has considerable variations, and K. has printed both in full. Heming 
moreover repeats the document with further but slight variation. 

Cott. Tib. A. xiii. f. 48. A.D. 791-797. 

Cott. Nero E. 1. f. 387. 
K166. T. p. 39. 
Birch 272, 273. 


conveying land at Westbury, co. Grioucester, and at Hanbury, 
CO. Worcester. 

>{< In nomine Domini nostri Ihesu Christi ^ qui 
cuncta regit secula^'' Ego Offa trado illam terram ast 
Westbyrig cum omnibus ad se rite pertinentibus, id 
est sexaginta manentium, et in alio loco set Heanbyrig 
XX. manentium to Weogerna cestre, pro remedio animae 
meae ae paventum meorum, post obitum meum et filii 
mei Egcfri'Si, et eadem libertatis dicione in omnibus 
rebus jure permanendam qua earn ante jEJ^elbaldus rex, 
avo meo Eanulfo conscripserat ; id est, ut sit libera tarn 
in terrarum donatione seu in omnibus causis parvis vel 
magnis inconcussa permaneat usque in sseculum, tamdiu 
fides Christiana apud Anglos in Brittannia maneat. 
^ Soluta sit ab omni vi regum et principum et subdi- 
torum ipsorum, in summo Dei nomine prsecipimus, praeter 
his vectigalibus, hoc est, )7ses gafoles ast Westbyrig Iwa 
tunnan fulle hlutres alo^. 7 cumb fulne li"Ses aloS. 7 
cumb fulne "Welisces alo^. 7 vii. hri^ru. 7 six we^eras. 


7 XL. cysa. 7 vi. lang |7ero. 7 pritig ombra rues comes, 
feower ambru meolwes, ad regalem vicum '^^ Hoc itaque 
cum consensu et consilio pontificum et senatorum meorum 
firma foedere dejudicaverunt. Nulla ^ regalis vel princi- 
palis aut aliqua-^'ssecularis dignitas de nostra hereditate 
plus his in modico vel in magno appetendo, per vim 
aut petitionem aliquid exigerit, ^ absque hoc tantum 
quod haec prsesens cartula continet ^/ Hi sunt testes : 
>J< Ego Offa gratia Dei rex hoc regi singulis annis 

statum censum manus meae proprise signo con- 

firmo. >I< Ego Ecgfer'S ejusdem regis filius consensi et 
subscripsi. >{< Ego ^j?elheard archiepiscopus consensi 
et subscripsi. >{< Ego Hea'Sored episcopus consensi et 
subscripsi. »{< Ego Unuuona episcopus consensi et 
subscripsi. >J< Signum Brordani patricii. >J< Signum 
Beonnani abbatis. >J< Signum Alhmundi abbatis. 
►J< Signum Wigmundi abbatis. >J< Signum For'Sredi 
abbatis. >J< Signum Bynna principis. ►!< Signum 
Esne ducis. >J< Signum ^j^elmund ducis. >J< Signum 
Alhmund ducis. >I< Signum Wigberht ducis. >J< Sig- 
num Wigcgan ducis. >J< Signum Eadgar ducis. 
li* Signum Alhmund ducis. 
^ Not in MS. Nero. 

Cott. Tib. A. xiii. f. 13. 25 Dec. 841, 

Cott. Nero E. 1. f. 106, 
K 248*. 
T. p. 02. 


king of the Mercians granting to Bredon abbey exemption 
from the burden of ' festingmen/ for a valuable consideration. 

^ Aio^ et alto domino deo Zabaoth regnanti in 


aeuum^. Siquidem humani generis prosapia de primo 
patre et matre oriundus in hoc saeculum uenit, et sic 
per longa uaga temporum spatia diuersis nationibus 
dirimuntur, ut ianitor coelestis bibliothecae et uas elec- 
tionis, praedicator egregius, apostolus Paulus dixit, 
praeteriit enim iigura huius mundi, quomodo uelocitate 
dies et anni deficiunt : et iterum sagax sophista, qui 
quondam Solymis diues regnauit in aruis^, katalectico 
uersu cecinit dicens, Non semper licet gaudere : Fugifc 
hora qua iacemur. Et ideo sunt omnes nostrae serise 
literarum apicibus confirmandas *, ne posteris ex memoria 
labere possit quicquid facta praecedentium patrum ac 
regum firmiter statuerunt. Qua de re, ego Berhtuulf, 
domino disponente rex Merciorum, mihi et omnibus 
Merciis in aeternam elemosinam, donans donabo Ean- 
mundo uenerabili abbate et eius familie on Breodune, 
cum licentia et testimonia obtimatum gentis Merciorum, 
banc libertatis gratiam, id est, ut sit liberatum et ob- 
solutum illud monasterium in aeternitatem ab illis in- 
commodis quae nos Saxonica lingua festingmen dicimus, 
Christo domino teste et omnibus Sanctis in celis tam 
diu fides catholica et baptism um Christi in Britannia 
seruetur. Ob huius rei gratia, ipse uero supradictus 
Eanmund abbas et illius sancta congregatio Breodunensis 
monasterii dederunt mihi et omnibus Mercis regaliter 
perfruendum et possedendum, in famoso uico in Tome- 
wor'SiCj magnum discum argenteiim ualde bene opera- 
tum ac faleratum in magno pretio, et c.xc. mancusas in 
auro puro : similiter etiam decantauerunt duodecim 
uicibus c. psalteries, et c.xx. missas^ pro Berhtwlfum 
regem, et pro illius caros amicos, et pro omnem gentem 
Merciorum, ut eorum libertas firmior ac stabilior per- 
maneat in evum, et ut illius regis memoria et amicorum 


eius, qui hanc pietatem in elemosinam sempiternam 
omnibus Mercis ille congregatione on Breodune dona- 
uerat, in eorum sacris orationibtis iugiter permaneat 
usque in evum. Insuper, in dei omnipotentis nomine, 
et nouem ordinibus angelorum, et omnium electorum 
Christi, praeceptum ponimus, ut riullus unquam regum 
uel principum, aut alicuius personis homo^ magnis sine 
modicis, in aliquo tempore banc praescriptam libertatis 
gratiam infringere ausus sit, sed semper stabilis et in- 
discussa firmiterque firmata ille congregatione on Breo- 
dune coram deo et bominibus iugiter permaneat in evum. 
Haec autem cartula caraxata est anno dominice incar- 
iiationis dccc^xli. Indictione iiii. in die natalis domini, 
in celebre uico on Tomewor^ie, bis testibus consenti- 
entibus, et signum crucis Christi scribentibus, quorum 
subter nomina notata sunt. 

>^ Ego Berhtuulf, largiflua dei munificentia rex 
Merciorum, banc meam libertatis gratiam ac omnium 
Merciorum cum signo sancte crucis firmiter consignabo. 
►J< Ego Sse'Sry^ regina consensi et subscripsi. >I< Ego 
Cynefer'S episcopus consensi. >I< Ego Aldred episcopus 
consensi. >J< Ego Berebtred episcopus consensi. >I< Ego 
Heaberht episcopus consensi. >i* Ego Cu^uulf episcopus 
consensi. i^ Ego Eanmund abbas consensi. >^ Ego 
Wihtred abbas consensi. ►{< Ego Ceolred abbas consensi. 

*** Heame has passed over this document with the most meagre 
notice. Was he ashamed of it? Thorpe called it 'A choice specimen 
of monastic Latin in the 9th century.' 

^ Agio N" (Hearne, p. 28). ^ honor N adds. 

^ hexameter. * confirmandse K. 


Cott. Tib. A. xiii. f. 19 (collated). Easter, 857. 


T. p. 118. 


the last king of Mercia, granting to bp. Alhun a villa in 

>I< In nomine domini dei excelsi, qui est spes omnium 
finium terrae et in mare longe ! Ego autem Burhredus, 
omnipotentissimo dec concedente, rex Merciorum, do- 
nabo ac trado Alhuno^ episcopo meo, pro remedio animae 
meae, aliquam paruam portionem libertatis, cum con- 
sensu consiliatorum meorum, gaziferi age! lull in uico 
lundonioe ; hoc est, ubi nominatur Ceolmundingc haga, 
qui est non longe from westgetum positus, sibi epis 
in propriam libertatem ad habendum, uel ad uueogerna 
ciuitate pertinentem, cum omnibus rebus que ad se recte 
pertinent, modicis et magnis ; hoc est, quod habeat 
intus liberaliter modium et pondera et mensura, sicut 
in porto mos est ad fruendum. Hec libertas huius agri 
comparata est a rege cum sexaginta solidorum argenti, 
et ante empta cum tanto pecunia uno libra et ceolmunde 
pr^fecto. Pax et securitas sit omnibus seruantibus banc 
libertatem; contradicentes uero et renuentibus aeterni 
regis ultio sibi incumbat, si non digne emendauerint deo 
et hominibus. Gesta sunt haec anno dominici incarna- 
tione DCCCLVii. Indictione uero v. in loco famoso qui 
dicitur Tomanwor^ig, in sancta pascha domini. Ad 
censum uero regi reddatur in anno de agriunculo illo 
XII. denarios. Hii fuerunt testes quorum nomina hie 

>i» Ego Burgred rex Merciorum, banc libertatem 


quam episcopo donaui, signo crucis Christi munio et 
confirmo. >J< Ego -^thelswyS regina banc donationem 
regis consensi et subscripsi. k^ Ego Tumberht epi- 
scopus. >J< Ego Ceorred episcopus. »{< Ego Albun 
episcopus. >J< Ego Byrbtred episcopus. >J< Ego Cu^- 
uulf episcopus. »J< Ego Hunberbt dux. >J< Ego 
Beorbtno^ dux. >J< Ego Ealdberbt dux. >^ Ego 
Mucel dux. >J< Ego A'Sulf dux. >J< Ego Beornbard 
dux. >|< Ego Eadred dux. 

*** Whether genuine or the product of a later age, this document 
may contain good material for the history of London. The * Westgate ' 
here is, according to J. R. Green, Conquest, p. 457, the 'Newgate' 
of later days. 

Cott. Tib. A. xiii. f. 18. A.D. 889. 


T. p. 135, 


and ^tbelred of Mercia granting a mansion or court in 
London to Werfritb, bp. Worcester, with market dues. 

>J< Sedule namque nonnuUis, et maxime per instantis 
uitae turbidam discordise rabiem, in bac decrepita finis 
mundialis canitise^ contingere solet, quod simplicem 
memorabilis praecordii oculum turbines obliuiosae ob- 
scenitatis quatientes reuerberant, seu nebulae negle- 
gentiarum nubiferis deprauationum fuscationibus a recte 
possessionis iure radiantem iustitiae Pboebum obnu- 
bilant ; quapropter necesse cuilibet homini est, ut Htera- 
toriis apicibus omnia atquisita seu possessa, ob praesen- 
tium siue suceedentium cautelam, quae a catbolicis uel 
heroicis uiris cuiuslibet personae maioris minorisue 
potestatis, deo ei usque Sanctis per celorum celsitudinem 
tradita sunt, etiam testimonio et roboratione ipsorum 


firme rationis serie firmentur, rectoque earaxantis stilo 
in scedulis notentur. Anno igitur postquam almifica 
celestini luminis gemma, per agriim uirginalis pudicitiae 
humano generi desiderabilis mistici spiraminis specimine 
enituit, octingentesimo octuagesimo nono, indictione .vii. 
cuius denique splendoris et gratiae nobis iubare radian te, 
ego Alfred rex Anglorum et Saxonum, et ^-Selred sub- 
regulus et patricius Merciorum, cum testimonio et li- 
centia seu consensu senatorura, episcoporum seu dueum 
utriusque gentis, pro releuatione facinorum nostrorum, 
et pro adquirenda deifice remunerationis requiae^, Uuser- 
fri"So, eximio Huicciorum antistiti, ad aecelesiam Uueo- 
gernensem,, in Lundonia unara curtem quae uerbotenus 
ad antiquum petrosum aedificium, id est, aet Hwaet- 
mundes stane a ciuibus appellatur, a strata publica 
usque in murum eiusdem eiuitatis, cuius longitudo est 
perticarum xxvi. et latitudo in superiori parte perticarum 
XIII. et pedum vii. et in inferiori loco perticarum xi. et 
VI. pedum, ad plenam libertatem infra totius rei sempi- 
ternaliter possidendum, in ecclesiasticum ius conscribi- 
mus, et concedentes donamus ; et intro urnam et trutinam 
ad mensurandum in emendo sine uendendo ad usum, 
sine ad necessitatem propriam et liberam omnimodis 
habeat; et totius debiti uel pene fiscalis, uel publice 
rei, nisi ad dominium episcopi ecclesie Uueogernensis 
quae intus contingat, absoluta persistat. Si autem foris 
uel in strata publica seu in ripa emtorali quislibet 
suorum mercauerit, iuxta quod rectum sit, tbelon ad 
manum regis subeat ; quod si intus in curte praedicta 
quislibet emerit uel uendiderit, tbelon debitum ad ma- 
num episcopi supra memorati reddatur; ct semper 
quamdiu unda sacri baptismatis populi Anglorum sine 
Saxonum per fidem Christianae religionis aspergentur, 


seu ipsorum auctoritatis dominio urbs Londonia habilis 
subiaceat, ad Uueogernensem ciuitatem subdita persistat. 
Contestamur et obsecramus unius cuiusque personas 
hominum, praesentium siue subsequentium, ut hoc 
nostrum donum inuiolatum et integrum, sicut presens 
pagina testatur, permaneat. Si qui uero^ ut non opta- 
mus, serpentine suggestionis demonicse toxico inflati, 
buius tramitis seriem in aliquo temptauerint foedare, 
nouerint se cum Anna et Zapbira berebica aeterne 
anatbematis macbera perforandos, nisi prius digna satis- 
factione emendare maluerint. Haec autem sunt nomina 
illorum qui buic nostrae donationi testes et consentientes 
fuerunt, et tropbico sancte crucis uexillo roborantes 
propriis manibus subscripserunt. 

>J< Ego -Alfred rex Anglorum et Saxonum, banc 
donationem confirmans, signo crucis subscribo. >J< Ego 
^^elred subregulus et patricius Merciorum banc dona- 
tionem signo crucis subscripsi. i^ Ego jEj^elflaed 
consensi. »J< Ego Uulfred episcopus consensi. >^ Ego 
Albard episcopus consensi. ►!< Ego Uuserfred episcopus 
consensi. >{* Ego Deneuulf episcopus consensi. i^ Ego 
Uulfsige episcopus consensi. 

*:((* Apparently a later writing than purported: it has the inflation 
of the time of Eadgar, or perhaps that inflation imitated and exaggerated. 
But it has good material in it. The Curtis or Court in London here 
conveyed was called ' Mt hwsetmundes stane,' and this Mr. Kerslake 
(Antiquary, July, 1880) interprets by means of the sculptured stone in 
Pannier Alley, Newgate Street. On this stone, which has been often 
engraved, e.g. Hone's Every Day BooJc, ii. 1 135, is the figure of a man 
sitting upon a pannier, with the date 1688. Now 'maund' is a well- 
known provincial word for basket or pannier or hamper : and Mr. 
Kerslake justly asserts that in Devonshire a large basket is hardly 
known by any other name. See also Halliwell, v. Maund. The pure 
form was 'mand*; Epinal Gloss. * Cofinus, mand.' If now the mund 
in hwcBtmund might be this mand ; then hwcet-mundes stan would be 
the stone of the wheat-maund, and the antiquum petrosum sedificium 


may have been the block of masonry that was once the platform or 
basis of a market cross, which had become the usual pitching place of 
cereal produce. Cf . Leo, Glossar v. Mand : Fromp. Parv. 330. 
^ CB for e ablative. 

Cott. Tib. A. xiii. f. 17. A.D. 907. 



bp. "Worcester, granting land to abbot Cynelm with licence 
of king Alfred, six years after that king's death. 

>J< In nomine dni. Ego uuserfer'S episc cum consensu 
et licentia selfredi regis et 8ej7elredi necnon et sej^elflaede 
ducis mercio^ et cum licentia uenerabilis famili^ in 
uueogerna cestre donaui cynelmo abbati ppinquo meo 
parte agri prope fluuium auen in loco qui dicitur benningc- 
uuyr^ sub quantitate ,x. manentium ut habeat et bene 
utatur dieb: uite sue . et post se derelinquat duob: 
heredib: quib: uoluerit . et decursis illorii terminib: 
iterii reddatur ad sedem episcopalem supradicta terra 
sine ulla contradictione . nisi heredes illius tempus plixius 
a pontifice sedis illius adipisci poterint. Et sciat quiciiq: 
banc terram teneat cotidie elemosinam faciendam p anima 
burhredi regis et alhuni episcopi qui banc terra dona- 
uerunt deo et see mariae ad ecclesiam in uueogerna 
cestre. Et hoc donii factum . e . anno donice incarna- 
tionis .Dcccc.vii. Consentientib: hiis quorum nomina 
inferius conscribi uidentur. 

►J< ealhmund . presb. >J< ecgberht . presb. »J< uulf- 
hard . presbiter. >J< ceolberht . presb. ^ putta pre- 
positus. ^ eadberht diacon. >I< baldred diacon. >J« fri- 
•Sulf diacon. 



The Third Group consists of six deeds ; the first a genuine 
one, the others later reconstructions. All of them are alike 
in the name of king Athelstan; but the latter five bear 
the meaningless date of 'dclxx indictione xi'; and while 
all the five are nearly uniform with one another, they are 
unlike the first or any known deed of Athelstan. 

The eccentricity of the date (i. e. as regards the Anno 
Domini — for the Indiction suits with a.d. 938, a year of 
Athelstan's reign) is such as to suggest a close relationship 
between these writings. It is not supposable that a blunder 
so senseless should have occurred repeatedly and indepen- 
dently. The fact that four of the five concern one house 
strengthens the likelihood of their literary affinity. 

Of these five deeds, three are preserved at Exeter ; one is 
in the British Museum ; and one is in the "William Salt 
Library at Stafford. The three at Exeter grant lands in 
Newton, Culmstock, and ' Hrocastoc ' ; these may be symbo- 
lized by the initials N, C, H. The one in the British 
Museum grants land at Monkton and may be called M ; the 
remaining deed grants land at Topsham and may be called T. 

The enquiry into the real date of these pieces is helped 
forward by the fact that Mr. Bond has given an independent 
opinion upon one of them, based solely on the evidence of pen- 
manship. He has assigned M to the 1 1 th century (B. iv. Pref.). 

But it is from N that we seem to get most light. This is 
a Bodmin instrument. It purports to be a grant by king 
Athelstan to the monastery of St. Petrock, and Mr. Davidson 
(who had the originals in hand and could see more than fac- 
similes show) was struck with the closeness of its resem- 
blance to T, * not only in the character of the writing, but 
also in the direction of the lines, which are entered along the 
breadth instead of the length of the parchment.' 


This N is a very stately piece of work, and superior in 
style of execution to all the others of the batch. It looks 
like the type and model, direct or indirect, of the whole '670' 
series. It is isolated, not only by a distinction of air, but 
also by the place of its original home. These characteristics 
seem to suggest that with N originated the error of date, and 
that when the Exeter monks wanted to reconstruct their 
muniments, they borrowed this writing for a pattern. And 
we have an intimation that they might want to reconstruct 
their titles. In K729 (not a first-rate authority, but pro- 
bably right in this) it is said that the charters of the church 
at Exeter had perished in the Danish troubles. For the 
Domesday commissioners they would naturally like to have 
their titles in good presentable form. 

Such fabrications were rather a formal imposture than an 
act of dishonesty — to judge by the lights and habits of those 
times. It was a restoration of lost evidence to support a 
real and existing right. All we otherwise know is in favour 
of a good construction, as to the substance of these fabrica- 
tions. The head-piece to this group appears to be a genuine 
deed of Athelstan, and if so, it establishes the rightfulness of 
T, and suggests a like inference for the others. TKis argu- 
ment was advanced by Kemble (C. D. ii. p. vij.) against the 
condemnation of Hickes. In his Dissertatio Epistolaris, p. 6, 
Hickes had pronounced H and C to be egregia doli et impos- 
turae exempla ; but Kemble, pointing out that TC is a war- 
rant for the substantial veracity of T, a deed labouring under 
the same chief ground of charge as H and C, claimed a gentle 
construction which would shield the whole batch ejusdem 
furfuris, in Hickes's contemptuous phrase. This genuine deed 
will further serve to show how far this * 670' group is from 
the native form of Athelstan s deeds. I call it TC, because 
it concerns Topsham, and lies at Canterbury. 


Canterbury Charters, E. 206. A.D. 937. (TC.) 


S. i. 14. 


grants to St. Peter's afc Exeter land at Topsham, which is 
described first as a ' mansa ' and afterwards as a ' hyde/ 

>i< In xpi nomine atq: uirtute sagaci intuendo pspectu 
casus lapsusq: condicionis human§ de qua aecctsiastes . 
Uanitas uanitatii inquid at omia uanitas . et ido mer- 
canda st se^na caducis . dicente ueritate . Thesaurizate 
nobis thesauros in c^lo . et ceta. Qua ppt ego se^el- 
stanus rex monarchus totius bryttanni^ insule flante do . 
aliqua ruris particula id -r- unam mansam ubi ignostiei 
uocitant toppesham . liben? concedo ad monasteriu sci 
petri apli exoniensis aeccte p remedio anime me^ in 
seternam libertate habendi quadiu fides xpiana pmaneat. 
Inmunis amodo iste ager pmaneat ab omi censu regali 
excepta communi labore quod notu -h oiiiib: Si q^s 
amodo hanc nram donatione ammouerit . sciat se do 
contra ituru ire non mihi . quia ab illo potestate accepi. 
Territoria ante istius agri hec st. ^rest fram toppes 
oran up on exan on ]7one nearan team pol . }7anon up on 
exan . ]7onne of exa on J7a smala lace . of ]7sere lace eft 
on exa . J^anon up andlang exa on J^one uferan team pol . 
]?anon up on exan stream o'S pole . upp of pole on j7one 
ealdan herpa'S to dyran treowe . J^anon su'S on wynford 
up on strea on wyndeles cumb middeweardne up on ]>a, 
pyrian . ))anon andlang die on ]7one weig . east andlang 
weiges on ]?8ere dice hirnan andlang die ut on clyst . 
andlang streames eft on toppes oran . ]7is synd {^aere anre 
gyrde landgemsero aet seschyrste ]>e gebyra'S into Jjsere 
hyde aet toppes hamme . aerest fram seschyrste . to aesc 


wylles lace . |7anon up to herpa'Se . 7 fram )7am herpa^e 
su^rihte oS hit cym^ to gyrde hricges forda . fram 
gyrde hricges forda adun on stream to wungyfe fordan . 
)7anon west on J70ne herpa'S 0^ f hit cymS to aesc willes 
lace heafdon. 

Acta -i- h^c donatio anno dominie^ incarnationis 


k^ Ego se^elstanus rex totius bryttanni^ hoc donum 
cum signo sc^ crucis confirmaui. »{< Ego eadmund 
indolis clito^ consensi. >I< Ego wulfhelm subscripsi. 
>I< Ego selfheah adquieui. >^ Ego ae^elgar conclusi. 
>I< Ego howel regulus. >i< Ego wulgaj dux. >i< self- 
here dux. >J< se^elstan dux. ►!< ae'Selwold min. »{< 
aelfric min. >J< wulfsige mi. >I< odda mi. 

' This description of the king's brother runs through this whole 
series, and appears to be quite peculiar to it. 

Salt Library. A.D. *670.' (T.) 


S. ii. ad flnem. 


granting to the monastery at Exeter land at Topsham. For 
substance it might be called an abstract of the preceding 
(and that is why I place it here), but in form it harmonizes 
with the following. 

>J< Anno dominie^ incarnationis dclxx . indie tione xi. 
Ego -^^elstan rex totius bryttanni^ insul^ . dabo pro 
^terna retributione et pro expiatione anim^ me§ unum 
cassatum in loco ubi ab incolis uocitatur Toppesham deo 
et sanct^ mari§ ad monasterium quod a solicolis nomina- 
tur exaceaster ut habeat quamdiu fides catholica in gente 
anglorum permaneat . Precipimus et obsecramus in dei 

Y a 


omnipotentis nomine et in sanct^ trinitatis honore . ut 
nullus hominum in aliquo tempore umquam ausus fuerit 
hanc nostram donationem minuere aut frangere in ali- 
quo sed semper stabilis et inconcussa permaneat tarn deo 
quam et hominibus usque in ^ternum tempus. Si quis 
autem hoe munus in aliquo frangere uel minuere tempta- 
uerit . sciat se coram deo et sanct^ mari^ rationem 
reddere . nisi hie prius celeriter emendet coram idoneis 
testibus. Huius agelluli temini^ h^c sunt, -^rest fram 
toppes boran up an exan on ]7one nearan teampol j^anon 
up on exan ]7aenne of exan on ]?a smalan lace eft an exan 
]78enne up anlang exan on j7one uferan teampol ]7anon up 
on exan stream o^ pole up of pole on }7one ealdan berpo'S 
to dyran streowe ^ J?anan su^ on wynford up on stream on 
wyndeles cumb middeweardne up on J?a pyrian Jjanon 
anlang dice on j7one weg east anlang weges on ]73ere dice 
hyrnan anlang dice ut on clyst anlang streames eft to 
toppes boran. 

^ Ego se'Selstan rex anglorum banc nostram dona- 
tionem cum signo crucis impressi. i^ Ego eadmund 
indolis clito consilium dedi. »J< Ego wulf belm archie- 
piscopus consolidaui. >I< Ego )7eodred episcopus sub- 
scripsi. »I< Ego selfheab episcopus adquieui. ►{< Ego 
bribtelm episcopus consensi. i^ Ego eadelm episcopus 
faui. >Ji Ego fle^elgar episcopus conclusi. »J< ae^elstan 
dux. >^ self here dux. >{< eadmund dux. >J< 8e]7elsige 
dux. >^ odda minister. >J< wibtmund minister. >I< 
ae^elmod minister. >{< deormod minister. »J< wulfgar 
minister. i^ osulf minister. 


' Sic. 


Dean and Chapter, Exeter. A.D. * 670.' (N.) 

S. ii. Exon. 3. 


grants to the monastery of St. Petrock one cassatus at 
Newton. This deed is not mentioned by Hickes or Kemble, 
and it has never been printed in any Collection. This 
seems, upon our present data, to be the piece after which the 
* 670' series took form. 

>I< Anno dominie^ incarnationis dclxx. Indictione . 
XI. Ego se^elstan rex totius bryttanni^ insul§ dabo pro 
^terna retributione et pro expiatione animae ine§ unum 
cassatum in loco ubi ab incolis uocitatur set nywantune 
dec et sancto confessori petroco . ad monasterium eius- 
dem sancti . ut habeat quamdiu fides catholica in gente 
anglorum permaneat. Precipimus et obsecramus in dei 
omnipotentis nomine et in sanctae trinitatis honore . iit 
nullus hominum in aliquo tempore umquam ausus fuerit 
banc nostram donationem minuere aut frangere in ali- 
quo . sed semper stabilis et inconcussa permaneat . tarn 
dec quam hominibus usque in seternum tempus. Si quis 
autem hoc munus in aliquo frangere uel minuere temp- 
tauerit . sciat se coram dec et Sanctis eius ration em 
redditurum . nisi hie prius celeriter emendet coram 
idoneis testibus. Huius agelluli termini hi sunt, pis 
sind ]7a landgemsero to nywantune. (Erest on wudu 
ford . )7onne upp on stream 0^ ]7one lyttlan broc . |7onne 
andlang broces o^ hreodmores heafod . J7onne on gerihte 
su^ ofer dune to loddan broces sewylman . ]7onne adune 
on loddan broces stream o^ toric . )?onne upp on toric 
stream eft to wuduforda. 

>I< Ego se^elstan rex anglorum banc nostram dona- 
tionem signo crucis impressi. 1^ Ego eadmund indolis 


clito consilium dedi. >J< Ego wulfhelm archiepiscopus 
consolidaui. >J< Ego ]7eodred episcopus subscripsi. 
>I< Ego selfheah episcopus adquieui. >J< Ego brihthelm 
episcopus consensi. >J< Ego eadhelm episcopus favi. 
>J< Ego S8pelg2LV episcopus conclusi. >J< seSelstan dux. 
>I< selfhere dux. jji eadmund dux. >I< e'Selsie dux. 
>I< odda minister. >J< wihtmund minister. >{< se'Selmod 
minister. >^ deormod minister. >J< wulfgar minister. 
»}< osulf minister. 

*** Mr. Davidson says that this deed represents, almost undoubtedly, 
a genuine grant, in the year 938, by Athelstan, to St. Petrock's, Bodmin, 
of the land which is now Newton Petrock, on the east bank of Torridge, 
North Devon. The boundaries are easy to trace. Torie = Tomdge, is 
especially noticeable. In Domesday, Newton is held by the priests of 
Bodmin, and assessed as one hide. Journal of Brit. Arch. Association, 
vol. xxxix. part iii. 

Dean and Chapter, Exeter. A.D. * 670.' (H.) 

K 37. 

S. ii. Exon. 1. 


granting six perches of land at Hrocastoc to the monastery 
at Exeter. 

t^ Anno dominie^ incarnationis dclxx. indictione xi. 
Ego se'Selstan rex anglorum dabo pro §terna remunera- 
tione et pro expiatione anim§ me§ sex perticas ubi 
incolis uocit' hrocastoc deo et sanct§ mari§ ad monas- 
terium quod incolis uocitatur exa ceaster . ut habeat 
quamdiu Christiana fides in gente anglorum maneat . 
precipimus quoque et obsecramus in dei omnipotentis 
nomine et in trinitatis honore . ut nullus hominum in 
aliquo tempore ausus sit frangere uel minuere. Sed 
stabilis et inconcussa permaneat. Si autem aliquis hoc 


in aliquo frangere temptauerit . sciat se in eterna damp- 
natione p^nitere nisi hie celeriter emendat. Huius 
agelluli termini h^c sunt, ^rest of sulforda east an- 
lang" herpo'Ses on culum ]7anon east rihte to lang-an forda 
J?anon su^ anlang streames o'S culum lace anlang- lace 
of ]78ere lace up to ]73ere ealdan die anlang ]>3sve dice on 
ceaggan cumb J^anon on cinges sloh )7anon anlang weges 
to ))8Bm msegen stane )7anon su^ ]7ger 'Sa wegas to licga^ 
j^anon on ]7one nor'S mystan hryc weg anlang hrycges to 
^aere eor^burh middeweardre ]7anon on brydenawyll 
]7anon ut on exan up anlang exan o^ scrsewan leges lace 
7 scriewan*leg J^serto fsenne fram se'Selstanes hammes 
forda on sulforda 7 feoper seceras bewestan exan forn 
agean edfer'Ses eald lande. 

>i< Ego se^elstan rex anglorum meum donum cum 
sigillo sanct^ crucis conclusi. >{< Ego eadmund indolis 
clito consolidaui. \^ Ego wulfhelm archiepiscopus ad- 
quieui. »J< Ego J^eodred episcopus coadunaui. >{< Ego 
brihtelm episcopus subscripsi. »I< Ego selfheab episco- 
pus faui. >J< Ego se^elgar episcopus consolidaui. 1^ 
ae^elstan dux. >^ selfhere dux. >J< eadmund dux. 
>^ odda minister. >I< wihtbord minister. >{< heremod 
minister. >^ wihtlaf minister. »J< selfhere minister. 

*** ' The locality bears the curious name of Hrocastoc, that is, 
Rookstoek. The prefix derived from a rookery has wholly disappeared ; 
but the boundaries sufficiently identify the place as Stoke Canon, in the 
fork of the rivers Culm and Exe, four miles north-east of Exeter.' 
James B. Davidson, Journal of British Archaeological Association, vol. 
xxxix. part iii. And the simpler name appears even in the (contem- 
porary) endorsement : ' six gyrda hoc to stoc tune/ 


Dean and Chapter, Exeter. A.D. *670.* (C.) 


S. ii. Exon. 2. 


giving five cassati at Culmstock (Devon) to the monastery of 

»J« Anno ab incarnatione dominie^ dclxx. indictione 
XI. Ego asSelstan rex anglorum dabo pro ^terna retri- 
butione et pro expiatione anim^ me§ quinque cassatos 
ubi incol§ uocitant culumstocc . deo et sanct^ mari^ 
necnon et sancto petro principi apostolorum *ad monas- 
terium quod ab incolis nominatur exanceaster . ut 
habeat quamdiu fides catholica in gente anglorum ma- 
neat . precipimus quoque . et obsecramus in dei omni- 
potentis nomine et in sanct§ trinitatis honore . ut nuUus 
homo in aliquo tempore . umquam banc nostram dona- 
tionem infringere ausus sit. Sed stabilis sit coram deo 
et hominibus usque in seculum. Si quis autem hoc in 
aliquo frangere vel minuere temptauerit . sciat se in 
^terna dampnatione puniri . nisi hie celeriter emendet. 
Huius agri termini h§c sunt. jErest on hacapenn fore- 
weard adun on secgwyll )7anon on craducc Ipon anlang 
streames on culumford of ]?8em forde to ]?orn wylle J^anon to 
bryd wylle ]?anon to ]78ere senlipan sec )7anon anlang her- 
po"Ses on heanhangran middeweardre Jjanon on hwitan 
beorh ]7anon on gerihtne on fengel ]?anon on gerihtne to 
^am ealdan geweorce )7anon on byrichangran j7on up on 
gyran torr |7anon on ]7one hwyrfel J^anon on |7one )7orn 
]?anon on peonmynet easteweard j7anon ongerihte on J^a 
lace adun on culum up of culum on "Sa ealdan lace on 
burhgeardes wor'Sig J?anon o gerihtne to rancumb }?anon 
west on gerihtne be ecge on hacapenn foreweardne. 


»I< Ego se^elstan rex anglorum hanc meam donationem 
cum sigillo sanct^ crucis impressi. >J< Ego eadmund 
indolis clito . consensi. >J< Ego wulf helm archiepiscopus 
dictaui. »{< Ego self heah episcopus adquieui. >^ Ego 
se^elgar episcopus notaui. >J< Ego brihtelm episcopus 
faui. >J< Ego wynsige episcopus conclusi. >J< wulfgar 
dux. ^ aelfhere dux. >i« se'Selstan dux. >J< odda 
minister. >J< wulfhelm minister. >J< aelfheah minister. 
1^ ffi^elfer^ minister. i^ wihtgar minister. 

*:).* This deed is linked to M, not only by the common error, but also 
by a peculiar grammatical confusion in the first line. 

Add. Chart. 19,516. A.D. < 670.' (M.) 

B. iii. 7. 


granting one mansa at Muneca tun to the monastery at 
Exeter. Mr. Bond has judged this writing to be of the 
I ith century. B. iv, p. 7. 

1^ Anno ab incarnatione dominie^ dclxx . indie? xi. 
Ego se^elstan rex anglo^ dabo p e^na retributione et p 
expiatione anim§ me^ unam mansam ubi incol§ uocitant 
muneca tun . do et sc§ mari§ nee non et sco petro p^cipi 
aplo^ ad monasteriu qd ab incolis nominaf^ exan ceaster . 
ut habeat qua diu fides catholica in gente anglorum 
maneat p^cipim^ q°q . et obsecram^ in di omiptis noie et 
in see trinitatis honore . ut nulP homo in aliq^ tepore . 
umqua hanc nram donatione infringere ausus sit . set 
stabilis sit cora do et hominibu^ usq . in sctm . Si q^s 
aut hoc in aliq° frangere t minuere teptauerit . sciat se 
in §tna dapnatione puniri . n^ hie celeri? emdet . huius 
agri ?mini h^c st . aerest of sceoca broces forda upp on 


stream o)? "Sser seo die onfeh'S . swa andlang j^sere die of 
]78ere dice hyrnan . swa adun on }^>one cumb on ]7a lace . 
adun on ]?a lace on ceacga broc . adun on ceacga broc on 
]?8ere dice ende . swa east on Ipa die of J78ere dice hyrnan . 
swa su'S on 'pa die on pone J^eod herpa'S west on herpa'S 
eft to seeoca broces forda 

>I< Ego se'Selstan rex anglo^ bane meam donatione 
cum sigillo scf erucis impssi . >J4 Ego eadmund indolis 
clito . consensi . i^ Ego wulf helm arehieps dietaui . 
>^ Ego self heah eps adquieui . »I< Ego sej^elgar eps . 
notaui . >J< Ego brihtelm eps . faui . »I< Ego wynsige 
eps . eonelusi . >i< wulfgar dux . >J< self here dux . 
>I< se'Selstan dux . >J< odda mi . >J< wulf helm mi . 
>J< self heah mi . i^ se^fer'S mi . >J< wihtgar mi. 

*** Endorsed in hands contemporary with the writing of the charter, 
' Munecatunes boc • ' and ' to muneca tune ^ ; in a hand of the early 
part of the I ^th century, ' Regis aedelstani de munecatiin .'; and in hands 
of the early i^th century, 'Carta Adelstani Regis . super manso quod 
oljfh vocabatur moneketon . modo tamen Exchestre pro fundacione 
Ecclesie.' * Carta Adthelstani Regis coneessa Beato Petro de manso 
quod antiquitus uocabatur moneketon ^ad monasterium' quod nunc nun- 
cupatur exechestre . [ad fundandum monasterium*] et diuise mansi 
sunt hee . primo de scokebroc forde . sursum per riuum etc. ut infra 
patet,' * Deuon.* B. 

* Erased. 


This Group is taken from the famous Book at Rochester 
("Textus Roffensis," edited by Hearne, 1723), which con- 
tains Laws and Charters, and which is said to have been 
compiled from the original documents by Ernulf, who was 
Bishop of Rochester, 1115-1124. Kemble took thirty-three 
documents from this Codex, and marked only five as spurious. 
These five are the constituents of our present Group. 


Text. Roff. f. 122. A.D. 762. 



king of Kent, granting land to bishop Eardulf. 

>J< In nomine domini nostri Ihesu Christi ! Omnem 
hominem qui secundum deum uiuit et remunerari a deo 
sperat et optat, oportet ut piis precibus assensum hila- 
riter ex animo praebeat. Quoniam certum est, tanto 
facilius ea quae quisque a deo poposcerit consequi posse, 
quanto et ipse libentius hominibus recte postulata con- 
cesserit. Quocirca ego Sigiraed, rex Cantiae, tibi uener- 
abili Earduulfo episcopo, ut diligenter postulasti, aliquam 
partieulam terrae iuris mei, id est quasi unius et semis 
iugeri in ciuitate Hrofi, ad augmentum monasterii tui, 
aeternaliter possidendam concedo ac describo, cum omni- 
bus scilicet ad eam pertinentibus rebus. Haec autem 
terrula ab aquilonali portae monasterii tui iacet, et per- 
tingit usque ad septentrionalem murum praefatae ciui- 
tatis, intra terras uidelicet quas antea ab oriente et 
occidente possedisti, et ideo haec tibi satis accommoda 
quia in medio iacebat. Siquis autem contra banc do- 
nationem meam aliquando uenire inuido maliuoloque 
animo temptauerit, sit in praesenti separatus a commu- 
nione sanctae aecclesiae Christi, et in future a societate 
sanctorum omnium segregatus. Manentem banc kar- 
tulam in sua semper firmitate signo dominicae crucis 
roboraui, et idoneos testes ut et idipsum facerent, ad- 
hibui. Actum indict, xv. anno dominicae incarnationis 


>J< Ego Sigiraed rex Cantiae banc donationem meam 
signo sanctae crucis roboraui. >{< Ego Eadbehrt rex 
Cantiae consentiens propria manu confirmaui. i^ Ego 


Bregouuine archiepiscopus consensi et subscripsi. 
1^ Ego Aldhuun abbas subscripsi. »J< Signum manus 
Suuithuun. >{< Signum manus Aethilhuun. >J< Sig- 
num manus Esni. >J« Signum manus Egbaldi. i^ Sig- 
num manus Uuigbaad. i^ Signum manus Bunan. 
>J< Signum manus Heabeorhti. »{< Signum manus 

Text. RoflF. f. 130. A.D. 761. 


Birch 242. 

Ethelberht II 

king of Kent, granting land to Diora, bp. Rochester. 

>i< In nomine dni nri ihu xpi cui patent cuncta 
penetralia cordis et corporis Ego etbelberht rex^ 
cantuarioru concedo hrofensis aeclesiae antistiti deoran 
aliquantulu terre iuris mei intra menia supradicte 
ciuitatis in parte aquilonali . id est fram doddinc 
hyrnan o'S "Sa bradan gatan east be wealle 7 swa eft 
su^ o^ "Saet east geat 7 swa west be strete o^ doddinc 
hyrnan. 7 ^reo hagan be eastan porte butan wealle 7 
"Sar to feower aeceras maede be westan ee . hoc in 
aucmentii monasterii tibi ccessi sci andree Ut mea 
donatio inmobilis permaneat semp. Et si quis banc 
mea donatione augere uoluerit . augeat dns ei uita. 
Si quis la tunc minuere presiiserit sit separatus a con- 
spectu dni in die iudicii nisi prius emendauerit ante 
eius transitii qd nequiter gessit. 


Actii dominice incarnationis . dcclxi. ►{< Ego ethel- 
berhtus rex banc mea donatione signo see crucis cfirmaui. 
^ Ego geanberht archieps corroboraui. >I« Ego deora 


eps consignaui. >J< signu manus uualhard. >J< sig 
manus uban. >J< sig manus udan. »J< sig manus 
ealhere. i^ sig manus dudec. >{< sig manus wuUaf. 

*;(:* The original parchment is extant in the British Museum, Cott. 
Chart, vi. 4; facsimile B. iv. 5. The hand is imitative of early writing, 
but Mr. Bond judges it to be "probably of the eleventh century." It is 
full of historical .mistakes. The date 761 (altered to 781 by a cor- 
rector) is not much amiss, though the Chronicle puts the death of 
jEthelberht in 760 ; we must aUow a little for the unsettled state of 
the chronology of that time. But it was years after his death when 
Diora became bishop of Rochester, and lanbryht archbishop of Can- 
terbury. Moreover, the original parchment styles Ethelberht king of 
Wessex and of Kent, thus confounding the history of the eighth 
century with that of the ninth. This error was rectified by Ernulf or 
his learned assistant, whose transcript is in other respects faithful. 
That the fabricator had his eye upon patterns of the eighth century we 
may see from the following which is a genuine deed of Wihtred the 
father of ethelberht of Kent. It is K43, Birch 97; and the original 
is in the Ashburnham Collection. 

>J< In nomine dni di nostri ihu xpi Ego uihtredus rex cantuariorum 
prouidens mihi in f uturo decreui dare aliquid omnia mihi donanti et 
consilio accepto bonum uisum est conferre bassilicae beatae mariae 
genitricis dT quae sita est in loco qui dicitur limingae terram .nil. 
aratrorum quae dicitur Uuieghelmes . tun . cum omnibus ad eandem 
terram pertinentibus iuxta notissimos terminos id est bereueg et me- 
guines paed et stretleg . quam donationem mea nolo firmam esse in 
perpetuum ut nee ego seu heredes mei aliquid minuere praesumant. 
Quod si aliter temptatum fuerit a qualibet persona sub anathematis 
interdictione sciat se praeuaricari ad cuius confirmationem pro igno- 
rantia litterarum >J< signii scae crucis expressi et testes idoneos ut 
subscriberent rogaui id est berichtualdum archiepiscopu uiru uenerabile. 

>J< Ego berichtualdus episc rogatus consensi et subscribsi. >J< >J< Sig- 
num manus uihtredi regis. >J< Signum manus aedilburgae reginae. 
>^ Signum manus enfridi. >j^ Signum manus aedilfridi. Signum 
manus hagana. >J< Signum manus botta. »^ Signum manus bemhaerdi. 
1^ Signum manus theabul. >J« Signum manus frodi. >J< Signum 
manus aehcha. Signum manus aessica. »J< Signum manus adda. 
^ Signum manus egisberichti. actum in mense iulio indictione . xma. 

Endorsed: — ^ses landes boc set Berdelhames wicum, nunc Wig- 
elmignetun, and }?ichtredus rex Ca'. ad ecclesiam de Liming pielme- 
stun. nil. arat*. 

^ Here the original fabrication adds the words " occidentalium saxonu 
necnon," which Ernulf omitted. 


Text. Roff. f. 123. A.D. 764. 

K 111*. 
Birch 195. 


granting land to Eardulf, bp. Rochester. That which makes 
this spurious deed valuable is the formula: — "sicut olim 
habuerunt comites et principes regum Cantise, et cum omni 
tributo quod regibus jure competit :" — and again, " cum con- 
sensu . . . principum " — formulae which seem to be borrowed 
from genuine records, and to illustrate the nature of folc land. 
Schmid, Gesetze, p. 577. There is a primary record which 
mentions folc land, of a.d. 858 (K 281). 

>I< Regnante in perpetuiim domino nostro Ihesu 
Christo ac cuncta mundi iura iusto moderamine regenti ! 
Ego Ofia rex Merciorum, regali prosapia Mercioram 
oriundus, atque omnipotentis dei dispensatione eiusdem 
constitutus in regem, considerans et recolens quod uas 
electionis ueracissimis innotuit uerbis, quod istis tem- 
poribus instarent tempora periculosa : iccirco unus- 
quisque de semet ipso plenius poterit agnoscere, quod 
quanto quis in hoc terreno habitaculo longiorem pro- 
traxerit uitam, tanto ueraciora esse omnia quae olim 
antiqui uates implenda esse praedixerunt. Iccirco ne- 
cessarium duxi ut pro intercessionibus plurimorum, 
pro uenia meorum delictorum, et requie perpetua adi- 
piscenda animae meae, aliquid ex his quae mihi largitor 
bonorum omnium Christus dominus donare dignatus 
est, id est, terram aratrorum uiginti in loco cuius uoca- 
bulum est Aeslingaham, quae etiam iacet ad occiden- 
talem partem fluminis Meduuuaeian, contigua ipso 
fluuio, cum uniuersis terminis suis ad cam rite com- 
petentibus, cum campis, siluis, pratis, pascuis, palu- 
dibus et aquis, sicut olim habuerunt comites et prin- 
cipes regum Cantiae, et cum omni tributo quod regibus 


iure competit, tibi uenerabili Earduulfo, sanctae Hro- 
fensis aecclesiae episcopo, libenter in perpetuum perdono. 
Et hoc cum consensu et licentia archiepiscopi nostri 
Bregouuini atque Heaberhti regis Cantiae, et principum 
nostrorum, ut possidendi uel uendendi, uel etiam tra- 
dendi cuicunque uoluerit liberam per omnia habeat 
potestatem. • Et quia pro ipsius terrae recompensatione 
aliquam partem pecuniae nobis fideliter, libenter optulit, 
ad promerendam non solum specialiter mihi a domino 
pietatem, sed indulgentiam delictorum totius gentis 
nostrae, humiliter dominicam exorantes clementiam, ut 
liberet nos a malignis spiritibus et importunis et malis 
hominibus. Terminos uero huius terrae ideo latins non 
scribimus quia undique ab incolis absque ullo dubita- 
tionis scrupulo certi sunt. Quicunque uero sequentium 
regum aut principum, aut aliquis saeculari fretus po- 
testate, haec nostrae definitionis scripta irrita facere, 
quod absitj nisus fuerit, sciat se in praesenti uita domini 
benedictione esse priuatum, et in nouissima maledictione 
subiacere, ut a consortio sit separatus sanctorum, et cum 
impiis et peccatoribus flam mis ultricibus esse damp- 
nandura, excepto si digna satisfactione emendare cura- 
uerint quod iniqua temeritate deprauarunt. Manente 
hac cartula in sua nihilominus firmitate, quam propria 
manu sacro signaculo roborare curaui et testes ut 
subscriberent rogaui, quorum infra nomina asscripta 
tenentur. Scripta est autem haec cartula in ciuitate 
Dorouerni, anno dominicae incarnationis dcclxiiit. ind.ii. 
►J< Ego Offa, rex Merciorum, supra scriptam dona- 
tionem atque emptionem signo sanctae crucis roboraui. 
>J< Ego Bregouuinus archiepiscopus, iuxta petitionem 
clementissimi regis ante praedicti, consensi et scripsi. 
>^ Ego Heaberhtus rex consensi et subscripsi. 


Cohaerent iiero huit3 terrae in commune saltu denberi 
III. Holanspic et Lindhrycg et Paedanhriecg-. ^ Ego 
Botuuini humilis abbas consensi et subscripsi. >i« Sig- 
num manus Esne. i^ Signum manus Uhtredi. >J< Sig- 
num manus Broerda. >i< Signum manus Eadbaldi. 
►}< Signum manus Berhtualdi. ^ Signum manus Bobba. 
p^ Signum manus Cec. >{< Signum manus Huuithyse. 
t^ Signum manus Esne fratris eius. >I< Signum manus 
Badoheardi. ►$< Signum manus Egbaldi. i^ Signum 
manus Suithhuni. >J< Signum manus Eangesli. 

Text. Boff. f. 139. A.D. 855. 

K 276*. 


king of the "West Saxons, granting to Dunn a villa in 
B-ochester, which is called castellum Hrobi ; and the remark 
is made that the "Saxon" equivalent for "una villa" is "an 
haga." By a codicil in English, Dunn bequeaths the 
property to St. Andrew's, subject to his wife's life interest. 

1^ In nomine trine diuino ! Ego Etheluuf rex Ocei- 
dentalium Saxonum nee non et Cantuariorum, pro de- 
cimatione agrorum, quam dec donante, caeteris minis- 
tris meis facere decreui, tibi Dunne ministro meo, dabo 
unam uillam, quod nos Saxoniee an haga dicimus, in 
meridie castelli Hrobi, et x. iugera a meridiano plaga 
uilluli illius adiacentia, necnon et duo iugera prati et x. 
carros cum siluo honestos in monte regis, et communio- 
nem marisci quae ad illam uillam antiquitus cum recto 
pertinebat. Et hoc ipsum tibi ad habendam et possi- 
dendam concedendo donamus, et post dies tuos cui- 


cunque haerede tibi placuerit derelinquendam, cum 
plena libertate habeas potestatem. Hanc praedictam 
donationem et libertatem ego Etheluulf rex deo do- 
nante, perfeci anno dncae incarnation! s dccclv. in- 
dictione iii. hoc est, diuina gratia largiente, quando 
ultra mare Romam perrexi, coram his testibus qui hoc 
mecum consentiendo subscripserunt. 

>I« Ego Ae^eluulf rex hanc meam donationem et li- 
bertatem cum signo sanctae crucis Christi roboraui et 
subscripsi. >J< Ego Ceolno^ archiepiscopus consensi et 
subscripsi. >J< Ego Ae^elberht rex consensi et sub- 
scripsi. >I< Ego Lullede dux consensi et subscripsi. 
1^ Ego Ae'Selmod dux consensi et subscripsi. >i< Ego 
Aelfred filius regis consensi et subscripsi. >I< Ego 
Eadred dux consensi et subscripsi. i^ Ego Ae'Selric 
dux consensi et subscripsi. >J< Ego Cineheh miles 
consensi et subscripsi. >^ Ego Milred miles consensi 
et subscripsi. >J« Ego Ceolmund miles consensi et 
subscripsi. >J< Ego Lulla miles consensi et subscripsi. 
>J< Ego Ae^elred miles consensi et subscripsi. i^ Ego 
Uulflaf miles consensi et subscripsi. i^ Ego Ae^elred 
miles consensi et subscripsi. ^ Ego Uuaehtgar miles 
consensi et subscripsi. i^t Ego Duduc miles consensi 
et subscripsi. >J< Ego Osberht miles consensi et sub- 
scripsi. >I< Ego Sigeno^ miles consensi et subscripsi. 

>I« In nomine domini! Dunn hafa'S "Sas boc gesald 
his wife, 7 "Sset land "Se 'Ssef' an gewriten is, an godes 
est ; "Sset hio hsebbe hire dseg 7 his bruce ; 7 efter hire 
dsege geselle hit on 'Sees halgan apostoles naman sancte 
Andreas -Sam hirode in, mid unnan godes and his 
halgena, for unc butu 7 ealle uncre eldran ; butan hi 
hit mit unnan hiredes ofgan to rihtan gafole^ swa swa 
hyt his gepmgmn magan, butan selcen brsede o^^e 



beswice ; 7 his ^onne se hired hit geearnian mid heora 
godcundnaesse ofer twelf mono^ . 7 stande simle mid 
cwide seo hoc on ^aes hiredes handa. 

Text. Roff. f. 141. A.D. " 880." 

K 312*. 


granting land to the church of St. Andrew at Rochester. 

>Ji Regnante in perpetuum domino nostro Ihesu 
Christo! Ego Ae^elulf, rex Saxonum, dabo pro re- 
medio animae meae terram ad aecclesiam sancti Andreae 
apostoli Christi et Suui^uulfo episcopo aliquam partem 
in illo loco quae dicitur Cucolanstan atque aecclesiam 
sancti Michaelis archangeli. Hi sunt termini trium 
aratrum circumiacentes. In oriente, Miodowaege ; in 
meridie, Heallingwara mearc up wi'S halles meres ; 
in occidente, Briogening "Sara mearc o'S nor^dune 
nor'San ; in aquilone, east andlanges dune 0^ cinges 
mearc ; and ut fram cinges merce o^ "Sa aldan strset ; 
east be "Sare aldan strsete o"S hli"S ; and "Sanan ut be 
■San hli^e oS ^a ea Medewegan. ut habeat et pos- 
sideat et cuicunque uoluerit illo uiuente sen moriente 
derelinquat, et post se tradendum concedamus liueram 
ab omni seruitute cum omnibus ad se rite pertinen- 
tibus, cum furis comprehengione, et cum omnibus rebus 
quae ad aecclesiam sancti Andreae pertinent, cum 
campis, siluis, pratis, pascuis, paludibus, in minimis et 
in maximis, notis et ignotis. Si quis uero, quod absit, 
haeredum successorumque nostrorum donationem immu- 
tare aliter uel minuere studeat, sciat se imprimis omnipo- 
tentis dei iram incurrere, et uiuentem in hac uita 


benedictione carere, et in nouissimo maledictione subia- 
cere. Qui uero haec augenda custodierit, nihilque 
inrogarit aduersi, sit benedictus in saecula saeculorum. 
Amen. Scripta est haec cartula anno dominicae incar- 
nationis domini nostri Ihesu Christi dccclxxx. indictione 
XIII his testibus consentientibus et subscribentibus, 
quorum hie nomina infra tenentur ascripta. 

»I< Ego Ae^elred archiepiseopus cum signo sanctae 
crucis confirmaui. >^ Ego Suui'Suulf episcopus consensi 
et subscripsi. >J< Ego Ae'Seluuald dux consensi et sub- 
scripsi. 1^ Ego Beornuulf dux consensi et subscripsi. 
>J« Ego Ealhmund miles consensi et subscripsi. >{< Ego 
Beornuulf miles consensi et subscripsi. >^ Ego Beorht- 
uulf miles consensi et subscripsi. >I< Ego Deoruulf 
miles consensi et subscripsi. >J< Ego Ceolbald miles 
consensi et subscripsi, >{< Ego Ealhhere miles con- 
sensi et subscripsi. >J< Ego Deoring miles consensi et 
subscripsi. >i< Ego Beornhelm minister regis consensi 
et subscripsi. >J< Ego Osraund minister regis consensi 
et subscripsi. >{< Ego Beorhtred minister regis con- 
sensi et subscripsi. >J< Ego Noi5helm minister regis 
consensi et subscripsi. 

Haec sunt prata set Co'Sam duos agros set Scite Cocce, 
o^er healf secer msede. 


As the twelfth century advanced, deeds were sometimes 
copied with little attention to the English of the originals 
or of the time purported. A scholastic attention to the lost 
grammar was not yet awake. Such documents are often in 
duplicate, Saxon and Latin. To this class belong the docu- 
ments embodied in the Peterborough Chronicle. 

Z 2 


Cott. Faust. A. iii. f. 109. A.D. 1066. 



his grant of Pershore and Deerhurst to St. Peter's, West- 

>i« Eadward king- gret Ealdred ercebisceop and 
Wlstan bisceop and Wlfwi and alle mine heuedmen 
and mine ]7egnes and mine sirrefan and alle mine 
holde freond on Wigercestresire and on Glowcestre- 
sire and on Oxnefordscire freondlic. Ice ki^e eow 
•Sat ic wille and Sat ice an ^at sainte Petre and "Sa 
gebroSere on Westminstre habben to here bilefan ^a 
cotlife Perscore and Dorhurste mid alien "San^landen 
and mid alle ^an ^erewican "Se ice habbe for minre 
saule alesednesse into "Sare halagen stowe gegifan, and 
ale 'Sare fnge Se ^arto mid rihte gebirad, mid kirkan 
and mid milnen, mid vvode and mid felde, mid lase 
and mid ha^e, mid mseden and mid eyten, mid wateren 
and mid weren and mid alien )?ngen, swa full and 
swa for 5 swa hio on elden dagen into "Sare socne 
geleyd waren o^e meselfen firmest on hande stodan. 
And ice an heom eft alswa "Sat hi habben ^arto sace 
and socne, toll and team, infangene'Sef and flemenes- 
ferm^, gri^briche and hamsocne, forestal and mis- 
kenninge, and alle o^ere rihte on alien J^ngen 'Se 
•Sar upaspringa'Sj inne tid and ut of tid, binnen burh 
and buten burh, on strate and of strate ; for-San ic 
nolle na^eswon ge'Safian "Sat any man atbrede o^^e 
geu^e mine gife and min almesse swa mikel "Sat si an 
aker landes "Sas "Se on anyes mannes dages into ^an 
cotlifen gebired, ne eft ^at 'Sar any man any ousting 
habbe on any fngen o^e on any timen be strande ne 


bi lande buton se abbod and -Sa gebro^ere into 'San 
minstre. And ice wille and fastlice bebeodde ^at "Sar 
freodom and "Ser mundbirdnesse beo Strang and sta^- 
elfast into ^are balagen stowe, God to lufe and sainte 
Petre to wrdminte and to gewealde, a on ece erfwerd- 
nesse. Amen. God eow alle gehealde. Amen. 

MS. Harl. 6968. f. 6. 


granting Wedmore to St. Andrews at Wells. 

>I< Eadwakd king gret Harold erl, and Ailnod 
abbot, and Touid schire reue, and alle mine ]7eines on 
Sumerseten frendliche ; and ich ky^e eow 'Saet ich 
habbe gegefen Giso biscope "Saet land at Weodraore 
and jelcli ^jere ]7inga "Sses "Se "Sserinne mid richte to- 
byre^, inne to his clerken bilseua set sancte Andrea aet 
Willan, mid saca and mid socna, swo full and swo 
for^ swo hit me syluen on hande stod, mid eallon iSa 
forwyrhtan ^e me oSer minon seftergengan to honda 
bogen wyllon on eallen ]?ingan for mine sawle and for 
mines fader and for allra minra yldrena sawlan ^e 
'Sone bisceopstol gesta'Selo'Son. And gif anig man sig 
^at mine gife awendan wyllen, awende hine God al- 
mihti fram his ansyne and fram selre cristenne manna. 
And ich wille "Sset se bisceop j^ichte priuilegium 'Saerto 
bi minon fullan gelifan. 

►I* Eadwardus rex Haroldo comiti, Ealnodo abbati, 
et omnibus balliuis suis Sumersetae, salutem ! Sciatis 
me dedisse Gisoni episcopo ad sustentationem cleri, 
aecclesiam beati Andreae in Wellis terram de Wed- 
more, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, adeo plene et 


libere sicut unquam plenius mihi manu stetit aut alicui 
praedecessorum meorum per omnia, pro anima patris 
mei et animabus antecessorum meorum qui dictam 
sedem episcopi statuerunt. Si quis autem banc meam 
donationem praesumpserit euertere, auertat eum domi- 
nus a conspectu suo et a conspectu omnium fidelium. 
Uolo etiam quod idem episcopus isto gaudeat priuilegio, 
et uos amici mei ipsius sitis coadiutores. 

Claud. B. vi. 114. 
Claud. C. ix. 130. 


his writ to the authorities and thanes in Berkshire, that 
Abingdon minster should exercise free and independent 
jurisdiction in Hornemere Hundred, and that no royal or 
local officer should act without the authority of the Abbot. 
Stubbs, Constitutional History, i. 107. 

>^ Eadwabd cyningc gret Hereman bisceop, and 
Harold eorl, and Godric, and ealle bis ]7egenas on 
Bearrucscyre freondlic ; and ic cy^e eow "Sset Ordric 
abbud and eal "Sset hired on Abbendunes mynstre be 
minre unne and gife frigelice habban and wealdan 
Hornemeres bunred on hyre agenre andwealde on 
ecere worulde, and swa ^set nan scyrgerefe o'S^e mot- 
gerefe "Sar habban seni socne o^^e gemot buton "Ses 
abbudes agen hsese and unne. 

»I< Eadvvardus rex salutat Hermannum episcopum 
et Haroldum comitem, et Godricum, et omnes suos 
barones ^ de Bearrucscira amicabiliter ; et ego ostendo 
uobis quod Ordricus abbas et omnis congregatio Ab- 
bendonensis monasterii meo concessu et dono libere 


habeant et possideant hundredum de Hornemere in 
sua propria potestate in sempiterna saecula, et sic ut 
nullus uicecomes uei praepositus ibi habeant aliquam 
appropriationem seu placitum sine abbatis proprio iussu 
et concessu. 

^ This harones seems to indicate that these Latin versions were 
made after the Conquest, for the use of Norman abbots, and others 
who knew Latin better than English. 

Cott. Otho B. xiv. f. 257. 
K 853. 


his writ of privileges to the Abbey of Ramsey, co. Hunt- 

►!< Eadward cyng gret Stigand ercebiscop, and 
^gelmser biscop, and Gyr'5 eorl, and Toli scirreue, 
and ealle his J^eines inne Nor^folce and inne Suffolce 
and ealle his o^ra witen ofer eall ^nglande hadede 
and leawede freondlice ; and ic cy^e eow "Saet ic habbe 
gegeofen Criste and sancte Marie and sancte Benedicte 
and -^Ifwine abbod into Ramesege saca and soena, 
tol and team, and infaugen'Seof, fihtwite and ferdwite, 
forestall and hamsocne, gri^bryce and scipbryce, and 
"Sa S8d upwarp on eallan }7ingen set Bramesestre and 
aet Ringstyde, swa wel and swa freolice swa ic hit 
meseolf betst habbe bi 'Sa sse rune ahwser in Engelande, 
and ealle 'Sa gerihte "Sa ic meseolf eer ahte. And ic 
wylle "Sset seo socne wi^innen Bichamdic ligce into 
Ramesege to sancte Benedicte on eallen )7ingen swa 
full and swa for^ swa ic heo meseolf ahte, and ealle 
"Sa gerihte ^a seni kinge msei ahen, and ealle ^a men 
^a beon motwur^i ^, fer^wur'Se and faldwur"^i in "Saet 


o^er halfe hundred swa hwilc man swa 'Sa men ahe 
sancte Marie and sanctus Benedictus and se abbod 
and "Sa gebro^ra into Ramesege habben 'Sa socne on 
eallen J7ingen ofer heom and 'Sat market aet Dunham 
hi wsetere and bi lande, mid inlade and mid utlade, 
and mid eallen t5an gerihte "Se "Sserto hered, swa wel 
and swa freolice swa ie hit meself betst ahte. And ic 
nelle ge^afien "Sset ani man "Sis gelytlige mid aenige 
J^inge. And in selcer scire "Sser sanctus Benedictus hafS 
land inne his saca and his socne, tol and team, and 
infangeniSeof, wi'Sinne burhe and wi^uten and on selce 
styde, be lande and be strande^ be wude and be felde, 
swa hwylc man swa 'Sa socne ahe sanctus Benedictus 
habbe his freodom on eallen ]7ingen swa wel and swa 
freolice swa ic hit meseolf betst ahe ahwser in Enge- 
lande ; and ealle "Sa gyltes ^a belimpe'S to mine kine- 
helme inne lol and inne Easterne and inne ^a hali 
wuca set Gangdagas on ealle J^ingan al swa ic heo 
meseolf ahe, and tolfreo ofer ealle Engleland, wi'Sinne 
burhe and wi^utan, set gares cepinge and on sefrice 
styde, be wsetere and be lande. And ic forbeode 
Godes forbode and min 'Sat nan man ^is geofe ne 
lytlige ne awende. And gif seni man hit awunige mid 
sefrsenige )?inge of "San ^e ic habbe her geunnen on 
^eosen ge write, si he gesyndred fram Criste and fram 
eallen his halgan. Amen. Dis writ wses gemaced 
set Windlesoren on feor^e Easter dseg on Eadgi'Se ge- 
witnysse ^sere cwene and God wines eorles and Haroldes 

>I< Eadwardus rex Anglorum Stigando archiepiscopo^ 
Ailmaro episcopo, Gir'S comiti, Toli uicecomiti, et omni- 
bus ministris suis de Nor^folke et Su^folke et uniuersis 


aliis fidelibus suis per totam Ang-liam constitutis tarn 
clericis quam laicis, salutem ! Notifico uobis me con- 
cessisse deo et sanetae Mariae et sancto Benedicto efc 
JElfwino abbati de Ramesia sacam et soeam, tol et 
team, et infangene^ef, fihtwite et ferdwite, forestall, 
et hamsokne, gri'Sbriche, et scbipbriche, et se up warp, 
in omnibus rebus apud Brameestre et apud Ringstede 
ita bene et libere sicut ipse ea melius et liberius habeo 
in littore marino alicubi in Anglia, omnesque recti- 
tudines et iura quae ibi ego ipse unquam habui ; uolo 
etiam ut soca quae est infra Bichamdich in omnibus 
ad sanctum Benedictum Ramesiensem pertineat ita 
plene et perfecte sicut eam ipse babui, et omnes recti- 
tudines quas rex ibi potest habere ; uolo praeterea ut 
sancta Maria et sanctus Benedictus et abbas et fratres 
Ramesiae habeant socam in omnibus super omnes 
homines qui sunt motwr'Si, ferdwr'Si, et faldwr^i in 
illo hundredo et dimidio, cuiaseunque homines sint. 
Concedo eis etiam mercatum de Dunham per aquam 
et terram, cum inductione et eductione, et cum omnibus 
rectitudinibus quae ad illud pertinent, ita bene et libere 
sicut illud ipse unquam melius habui ; et nolo pati ut 
aliquis hoc in aliquo imminuat. In omni quoque co- 
mitatu ubi sanctus Benedictus habet terram concedo eis 
sacam et socam suam, tol et team, et infangene'Sef, 
infra burgum uel ciuitatem et extra, ubique in terra 
et aqua, in bosco et piano, cuiuscunque fuerit soca, 
habeat sanctus Benedictus libertatem suam in omnibus 
ita bene et plene sicut ego ipse alicubi habeo in tota 
Anglia ; habeant et omnes forisfacturas quae pertinent 
ad regiam coronam meam in natali dominico, in pascha, 
et in sancta ebdomada rogationum, in omnibus rebus 
sicut ipse habeo, et per totam Angliam infra ciuitatem 


et extra, in omni foro et annuls nundinis et in omnibus 
omnino locis per aquam et terram, ab omni telonii 
exactione liberi sint. Prohibeo itaque dei prohibitione 
et mea ne aliquis banc concessionem meam mutet aut 
minuat. Si quis uero aliquid horum quae in hoc scripto 
continentur temerare praesumpserit, segregatus sit ille a 
Christo et ab omni sanctorum eius consortio. Haec 
carta facta fuit apud Windleshoram in .iv. die ebdo- 
madae pascbalis sub testimonio Eadgi'Sae reginae, God- 
wini et Haroldi comitum. 

^ A remarkable expression, like " have the franchise." Of the Brehon 
Law we are told that " The primary local tribunal was a quasi court 
baron, called the Airecht, composed of freemen of a certain status. The 
inferior classes were 6coma airecMa, that is, imjpares curia" Ency- 
clopcedia Britannica, v. Brehon Law. 

Harley Charter, 111. B. 49. A.D. 1155. 

Henry II 

'his grant of temporalities to Theobald, archbishop of Canter- 

H. ]?URH godes gefu sengle landes king gret ealle 
mine bissceopas 7 ealle mine eorlas 7 ealle mine scire- 
reuan 7 ealle mine j^einas frencisce 7 englisce . on ]7an 
sciran \q Teobalt erceli 7 se hiret set xpes chyrchen 
on Cantuarabirg habbad land inne freondlice 7 ic kej^e 
eow ^ ic hebbe heom geunnon ^ hi beon ajlc j^are 
lande wurj^a )7e hi eafdon en Edwardes kinges dege . 7 
on Willelmes kinges mines fur)7er ealdefader . 7 on 
Henrices kinges mines ealdefader . 7 saca 7 socne . on 
stronde 7 on streame . on wudan . 7 on feldan . tolles 
7 theames . grithbriches . 7 hamsocne . 7 forstalles . 
7 ifangenes thiafes . 7 fleamene frimtha . ofer heore 
agene men . binna Burgan 7 butan . swa ful 7 swa 


ford swa mine agene Wicneres . hit sechan scolden . 7 
ofer swa fele ]7einas swa ich^ heom to leten habban . And 
ic nelle f eni man enig 'ping per on theo . butan 
hi 7 heara wicneras . ]?e hi hit betechan willa'S . ne 
frenciscne ne englisce . for ]7an Jjingan^ )?e ich habbe 
criste )7as gerichtan forgifan minre Saule to eche alis- 
endnesse 7 ic nelle ge)?auian "p enig man ]?is abrece 
bi minan fullen frenscipan. God geau gehealde. 

Henricus . Rex Angi et Dux Norm et Aqui? et 
Comes And . Episcopis . Comitibus . Baronibus . Jus- 
ticiariis . Vicecomitibus. Ceterisque suis fidelibus fran- 
eis et Anglis in Omnibus Comitatibus in quibus 
Teobaldus Archiepiscopus et monachi ecclesie xpi Can- 
tuarie terras habent ? Amicabiliter . salutem. Notum 
vobis facio me concessisse Teobaldo Archiepiseopo et 
monaehis Cantuarie omnes terras quas tempore Regis . 
Edwardi et Regis Willelmi proavi mei et Regis . Hen- 
rici . avi mei habuerunt et Sacha et Socne . On strande 
et stream e . On wude et felde . tolnes et theames . et 
grithbreches . et hamsocne . et forstalles . infangenes 
thiofes . et flemene frimtha . super suos homines infra 
Burgos et extra . in tantum et tam pleniter sicut 
proprii ministri mei exquirere . deberent . et etiam 
super tot theines? quot eis concessit Rex Willelmus^ 
proavus mens . Et nolo ut aliquis hominum se intro- 
mittat nisi ipsi et ministri eorum ? quibus ipsi com- 
mittere voluerint nee francus . nee x\nglus . propterea 
quia ego concessi xpo et ecclesie Cantuarie et archiepi- 
seopo et monaehis suis has libertates et consuetudines 
pro redemptione anime mee et pro animabus ante- 
cessorum meorum . Et nolo pati ? ut aliquis eas in- 
fringat ' si non vult perdere amiciciam meam. Testibus 


Philippo episeopo Baiocensi . et Arnulpho Episcopo 

Lexoviensi . et Theo. ^ Cancellario et Reginaldo Comite 

Cornubie . et Roberto . Comite Legrecestrensi et H. 

de Essexa Constabulario * . Apud Eboracum. 

Endorsed :—*' Carta Regis Henrici .ii. de sacha et socne." 

*** This was first printed by Mr. de Gray Birch in the Transactions 
of the Royal Society of Literature, vol. xi. New Series, p. 312; and 
since by Mr. Furnivall in " Anglia/' 1884. We may consider this as a 
genuine original deed of 1155, and as such it is useful for testing 
the date of copies made in the twelfth century. 

* Compare the other version. 

^ ])amgan MS. (Birch) — ])imgan (Furnivall). 

* Apparently for Tho. i. e. Thomas Beket, Chancellor ii 54-1 162. 

* Henry of Essex was disgraced in 1157; and the only time that 
Henry II. Avas at York before that date was in February 11 55 (Eyton, 
Itinerary of Henry II.) So this record, if genuine, is fixed to a month. 


The Sixth Group is chiefly from a singular and remark- 
able book in the British Museum (Add. MSS. 15,350), 
commonly known as Codex Wintoniensis. From this fine 
manuscript Kemble took 185 documents. It belongs to the 
latter end of the 12th century. Though varying much in 
quality, it may be characterized generally as exhibiting 
a scholastic attention to the ancient forms of the language. 
The study of old models is sometimes overdone ; there are 
features in the orthography that can only have been derived 
from examples older even than the originals themselves. 
Especially is this to be observed in the frequent substitution 
of ce for plain e ; as if the compilers were anxious to be as 
archaic as possible, and as if they had old Kentish speci- 
mens before them. The whole effect of this book is to 
impress us with the idea (which other writings support) of 
an Anglosaxon Renaissance at the close of the twelfth 


Cod. Winton. f. 115 b (collated). A.D. 856-858. 
K 1057. T. p. 115. 

-ffiSelwulf of Wessex 

confirming to the church at Winchester the privilege of 
Ciltacurab, to be assessed as one hide, because Kinegils gave 
it to Birinus, and subsequent kings had confirmed it ; because 
God's land ought to be freer than secular holdings ; because 
when he was in Rome he had promised this to Leo ; and in 
this act his son Alfred who travelled with him had also 
engaged, and had pledged his children (should he have 
any) to the same obligation. Moreover, the king engages 
to pay tithe of all his landed estates. 

On ])3es naman "Se on eces lifes bee on heofonan ]>a 
awrit "Se her on life wel gecwema^. ic a^ulf kyning-c 
on "Sysum ge write geswutelie be Ciltacumbes freulse "Sone 
"Se kynegyls kyningc ]>e serest kininga cristen gewear)? on 
west sexan his fuUuht faeder see birine biscope ge u]>e. 
7 si]?]7an asle ]78era kyninga ])e sefter o^ran on west 
sexan wseron gefri^odon 7 gefyr'Sredon, peah )7e he^ ser 
on gewrite ne stode o^ hit to me com J^e nu se nygo)7a 
kyningc com. Eac ic her geswutelie }78et ic ]7isne freols 
set foran see petre on rome 7 J?am halgan papan leone 
swa gefaestnode swa swa me 7 eallan "Seod scype gewear]? 
on englaland ser ic to rome fore, f wses ]78et mon selles 
•Sises freolses are sefre for ane hide werian scolde 2. for 
j?am ]>e godes ar sefre freogre beon sceal ]?onne aenig 
woruld ar. 7 min sune eac selfred ]>e mid me for . 
7 ]78er to kyninge gehalgod wses. ]7an papan on hand 
gesealde J^set he "Sisne freols sefre gefyrj?rian wolde. 7 
his beam . gif hi God senigra geuj7e. to )7am ylcan 
sprittan wolde. Ic eac . be foran ]?am ylcan papan . 
ealle J?a land are ^e ic on angla |?eode haefde. 
gode into halgan stowon. for me 7 for ealle j7eode 


g'eteo'Sode. 7 on Rome, be )?es papan fyrpTunge 7 
leaue. mynster ge worhte. Gode to loue . 7 sea marian 
his halgan meder to wyr]7mynte. 7 J?8er englisce scole 
gesette . ]?e sefre nihtes 7 dseges for ure ]7eode Gode 
)7ywian scolde. 7 [7a |?a ic on eard com. ic oncy^de 
ealle folce hwset ic on rome gedon hsefde. J^a J^ancodan 
hy }?yses gode 7 me swj'pe georne. 7 heom eall ]7is 
swy)7e wel licode. 7 cwsedon ]7at heora )7ances )7is on 
ecnesse stande. " Nu halsie ic ]?urh ]7a halgan J?rimnisse 
7 scs petrus 7 ealne J^ane haligdom J7e ic on rome for 
me 7 for ealne J^eod scype gesohte. ]?et nsefre ne 
kyningc . ne 3e]7elingc . ne biscop . ne ealdorman . ne 
fegen . ne gerefa. hine silfne swa earme for wyrce J7set he 
J?isne freols gelyttlie ]>e be swylcre gewittnesse gefestnod 
is. buton tweonan se ]7e hit de^ . he abilh-S gode 7 see 
petre 7 eallan J?am halgan ]>e on romes eyrcean restaj?. 
7 him seluan ece helle wite ungesseiiglice getila]?. Eac 
se halga forsseda papa leo godes curs 7 see petres 7 
ealra halgena 7 his on Jjsene gesette ^e yis sefre undo. 
7 eac eall J7es ]7eodscype ge on gehadodan ge on Isewedan 
f ylce dyde . ]>a, ic on gean com 7 him )7is cyj7de. 

*** This piece is written in a hand which is distinct not only from 
that of the body of the book, but also from any of the additional 
entries, of which this is one, near the end of the volume. 

* Namely, se freols. the privilege. 

^ This is the original form of the Latin phrase in Domesday, 
** Defendit se pro una hida." 

Cod. Winton. f. 69 (coUated). A.D. 900. 

£1077. T.p. 143. 

Eadweard of Wessex 

records that in the days of his grandfather ^thelwulf and 
his father Alfred, it was settled that Alfred should have the 


land at Ceolselden (Chiseldon, "Wilts), and at Sweores holt 
(? Sparsholt) on condition that Alfred at his death should 
leave it to the venerable family at Winchester. But I 
Eadweard became possessed of these lands by exchange for 
lo hides at Stoke by Hisseburne including all the men who 
were on that estate when Alfred went the way of all flesh. 
Then follows: 

Haec sunt territoria utriusque terrae. Her synd 
gewriten ]7a gerihta ]?8e "Sa ceorlas sculan don to 
Hysseburnan. -^rest set hilcan hiwisce feowerti penega 
to herfestes emnihte. 7 vi. ciric mittan eala^. 7 iii. 
ses'Slar hlaf hwetes. 7 iii. seceras, ge erian on heora 
agenre hwile 7 mid heora agenan sseda gesawan. 7 on 
hyra agenre hwile on bserene gebringan. 7 J^reo pund 
gauol bseres. 7 healfne secer gauol msede on hiora 
agienre hwile. 7 ^set on hreace gebringan. 7 iiii. fo'Sera 
aclofenas gauol wyda to scid hrsece. on hiora agenre 
hwile. 7 XVI. gyrda gauol tininga eac on hiora agenre 
hwile. 7 to Eastran two ewe mid twam lamban. 7 
we [tala^] ^ two geong sceap to eald sceapan. 7 hi 
sculan waxan sceap 7 sciran on hiora agenre hwile. 
7 selce wucan wircen "Saet hi man hate butan 'Srim. an 
to middanwintra. o^eru to Eas[t]ran. 'Sridde to gand- 

©is synd J7a landgemero. ^rest of twufyrde andlang 
weges to fearnhlince. J7anan andlang weges to aeses 
beorge. "Sanan on gerihte to J^sere pirigan. )7onne 7lang 
weges on ceardices beorg. "Sonne on wi'Sig grafe. 
}?onne on "Sone weg J^e scyt ofer "Sa die. j7onne andlang 
weges on J^a coppedan ac. ^anan andlang weges o'S he 
to wuda li'S. ]7onne on gerihte on stodleage su)7ewearde. 
]?onne andlang mearc weges. utt wi'S feld beorga. j7onne 
andlang mearc weges to |7an hagan be suj^an fearn leage. 
andlang hagan utt to Ubban leage stigele. ]7onne and- 


lang hagan to wocces geate. 'Sanan andlang hagan on 

tyrwenes sledes heafad. |?onne andlang hagan utt to 

bitan ^ cnolle on ^one lit hagan. andlang ]78ere j7orn 

grsefan J^wyres ofer hysseburnan on gosdaene. J^onne 

andlang J78es weges 'pe li^ andlang gosdaene J^wyres 

ofer in waldes weg. l?onne andlang weges on J?one 

beorg set wsecces treowe. "Sanan on butan hig dune 

]7ornes to brunes hamme. }7onne andlang hagan to J^am 

grundeliesan pytte. "Sanan on gerihte andlang hagan 

to hremmes dene, f andlang hagan on "Ssere ealdan 

mapolder be su^an tutan msere. |7onne andlang hagan 

on sot ceorles secer . *Sanan ofer 'Sa dsene upp be wyrt 

walan. ]7onne on butan ]7one garan on ]7one piwin^lan. 

"Sonne on butan "Sone garan on "Sone biwindlan "Sonne 

andlang mearcweges to wifan stocce. Sanan andlang 

•Sses ealdan weges to bradan lea. "Sonne an weste weard 

geapan garan. Sanan to )7sere haran apoldre. |7onne 

ylang die utt on terstan on ]7one syjperan ste'S. )?onne 

ylang ste}7es. ^ be neoSan beamw^er on ]7one nor]?ere 

ste}?. andlang staSes seft on twyfyrde. 

*;i5* This deed is rare and valuable for the record of services due 
from the peasants ; among which occurs the duty of making enclosures 
at the proper season of the year. Each is bound to fence sixteen 
yards in his own time. Cited by Nasse, Community, tr. Ouvry, p. i8; 
and by Mr. Seebohm, Mnglish Village Com., p. 162, as an instance 
of servile tenure on an English manor. 

^ Conj. K. ^ Mean K. 

Cod. Winton. f. 59 (coUated). A.D. 879-909. 

KlOSe. T.p. 147. 


and the Society at Winchester granting Isen-land to king 
Alfred ; after his day to return to St. Peter. 

»J< Denewulf bisceop 7 "Sa hywan on Wintanceastre 


sen Isena'S ^Ifrede his deg XL. hida landes set Alresforda. 
sefter }78ere Isena ]7e Tunbryht bisceop ser alende his 
yldran. 7 agan wes on 'Sset gerad 'pet he gesylle selce 
geare to hserfestes emnihte Dreo pund to gafole 7 cyre- 
sceattas 7 cyresceat weorc. 7 J^enne )?8es neod ^ bi'S his 
menbeon gearuwe ge to ripe ge to hunto'Se. 7 efter his 
dege gange seo ar^ unbe^flitan into See Petre. 

^is synt ]?ara witena handsetena 7 "Sere hina * "Se on 
l^sere ge^afunge weron. Dset is Denewulf bisceop. and 
Tata ^ bisceop. and Byrnstan bisceop. and Wighelm dia- 
conus. and -^]?elstan clericus. and Eadwulf clericus. and 
^Ifstan clericus. and Wulfstan clericus. and Wulfric 
clericus. and Winsige clericus. and Wulfred clericus. and 
Beorhtsige clericus. and -^Ifsige clericus. and Wulfhelm 
clericus. and Wulfsige clericus. and Wiglaf clericus. 
and ^"Selm clericus. and Cynestan clericus. and A'Seric 
clericus. and Dru^gar clericus. and Wulfred minister, 
and Beornulf minister, and Winstan minister, and 
A'Sulf minister. 

^ nu^MS. ^"SarMS. ^ umleMS. * "inmates" T. 

' According to Stubbs, Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum, there is no 
bishop of the name of Tata at this period j nor any Byrnstan, except 
Beornstan, who was Denewulf 's next successor but one. 

MS. Cod. Winton. f. 32. 23 March, 931. 

K 1102. 


rex Anglorum, &e., granting to Abbot iElfric land at Clere, 
N. Hants. The bounds are as follows. 

Praedicta siquidem tellus his terminis circumcincta 
clarescit. JErest on east healfe J^ser Ecelesburna scyt 
on aleburnan ; and swa su)?weard up andlang Eceles- 
burnon to J>am mearcbroce ; andlang ]?ere ealdan die to 
Ceotan stapole ; and of Cseotan stapole to j7on crundele ]>e 

A a 


se igj; onstent ; and of ]7am crundele on J7aet lange grauet ; 
of* )7am lange grafette su)7eweardon to j7on hnottan seale 
on Searleage stent ; of ]7am seale to j7on ipse]fe ; up andlang 
pa)7es to }78ere apoldre, and be eastan Bunteles pyte for}? to 
)?am ealdan adfini ; of J>am finie up to ]7am ealdan elebeame ; 
of J7am elebeame to ]7am hricgwege ongean |7one haran 
]7orn ; west andlang weges to ]78ere easteran die ; suj; 
andlang die on )7one lytlan pa]? ; of ]7am paj^e on gerichte 
to secges geate ; of secges geate andlang paj^es to 
hamleas sceagan ; and swa andlang pa]7es on hremres 
wyr)7e; )?onne utt on )7one herpaj?; j7onne andlang 
herpa|7es to J^ere ealdan stret on suj7evveardon and on 
easteweardon ]>ani lande ; and swa west andlang stret 
to bradan hamme middeweardon ; of bradan hamme 
up to witan hamme ; of witan hamme on J^one miclan 
hseslwri)? wij? neo]7on )?8et grafet ; of ]7am hseslwrij^e 
on gerihte wij? )?8es lytlan stanbeorges up on hseslhille ; 
of ]?am stanbeorge ofer )7a dene be su]?an hilgrafon 
to )7on lytlan stanbeorge ; of )?am stanbeorge to ]7on 
oJ?erum lytlan stanbeorge be eastan hulgrafum ; swa 
andlang J^aes lytlan hricges be J7ere westmearce op 
];one miclan hlinc ; andlang hlinces o]> ]?one lytlan 
eastlangan hlinc set nor)7eweardon pam miclan hlince; 
andlang J78es lytlan hlynces )73et ofer |?a dene on J^es 
hlinces heafod ; up an gemanan hylle ; swa on gerihte 
norj^east ofer gemanan hylle; to pam herepaj7e J^e scyt 
to meres byrig ; east andlang herpa)7es to holan wege ; 
and ny]?er andlang holan weges ; )7onne lij? be westan 
wege .X. eceras to )?on easteran lande; for]? nor]? and- 
lang weges to ]?on herepa]?e J?e scyt to ]?3ere byrig to 
west Clerau ; west andlang herpa]?es to J?ere miclan 
flodan aet Eadrices coton ; of }?8ere flodan nor}?west 
to )?8ere miclan apoldre ; west on gerihte wij? su]?an J?a 


mede ]78et it stica]? to emnes )7am wi);ig }7yfelum be 
westan fucges flodan ; and ]>er nor]? ofer }7a mede ; 
and went "per eastweard ; and swa be nor)7an fucges 
flodan to rugan hlince ; and swa nor)? be rugan hlince ; 
of rugan hlince nor]?eweardne ; and J^er east hwon to 
fere broc rife ; )?8et nor]? andlang broces to J?ere ri]7e )7e 
scyt east andlang dene be nor)7e beorh dune o]? to emnes 
]>es hlinces heafde ; and }?er up ]78et nor)? andlang 
iE|7eles wyr]7e on gerihte to ealdan wyrj7e su]7eweardne 
to ]?on j7ornum ; nor]? on gerihte wi]? westan ealdan 
wyr)7e to ]?on lytlan grafette up on wuncges dune ; and 
)7er west hwon to ]?on nor]?langan grafette ; fast nor)? 
to ]?ere lytlan die set ]?am crundelum ; swa nor)7east to 
)?8ere lytlan ri)?e ; of )?ere ri)>e nor)?eweardre on riht 
to gosleage wege to wuda ; andlang weges to Cleran 
finie ; )?8et to ]?8ere gemearcodan sefsan ; of )?ere gemear- 
codan sefsan to J?on readan slo ; of )?am slo to )?on rihte 
treowe set gosleage wicum westeweardon ; of )?am 
treowe to )?ere wican set ]?am boxe ; of ]?am boxe to 
J?sere gemearcodan sec set alerburnan ; set )?am lytlan 
egilande set westeweardon and set nor]?eweardon )?sere 
landmearce ; and swa be nor]?an )7am lande east andlang 
alerburnan ]?set hit stica)? set Eclesburnan on easte- 
weardon and on nor)?eweardon )>8ere mearce )7isses 
forecwe)?enan landes. 

*** Euhric. Dis is seo landboc .x. hydse to Clearan )je -^EJdelstan 
cing bocodae -^Ifricae biscope on ece yrf se. 

Cod. Winton f. 92 (collated). 16 Dec. 934. 



to the church of the Holy Trinity in Winchester. 

>I« Regnante et moderante domino nostro Ihesu 
A a :2 


Christo ! Ego iE^elstanus rex et rector totius huius 
Britanniae insulaej largiente domino et omnibus eius 
Sanctis, has terras dono aeternaliter familiae aecclesiae 
sanctae trinitatis quae est in Wintonia ciuitate, intus 
ad refectorium fratribus et ad uestimenta; sed et qui- 
cunque episcopus qui tunc superfuerit illiusque aecclesiae 
regimen teneat, eos de suis propriis episcopalibus uillis 
pleniter pascat, sicut ab antiquis temporibus illi honora- 
bili familiae a uenerabilibus patribus constitutum fuit. 
Haec autem sunt nomina uillarum huius meae dona- 
tionis ; hoc est in monasterio quod ab incolis Enedford 
nuncupatur .xxx. cassatas et in uilla quae uocitatur 
Ceolbaldinctun .X. mansas, itemquein uilla quae dicitur 
^scmeres weor]? .x. cassatos. Et praecipio in nomine 
sanctae et indiuiduae trinitatis ut hae supranominatae 
terrae sint aeternaliter liberae ab omni iugo terrenae 
seruitutis, excepto expeditione, et arcis pontisque con- 
structione. Necnon et hoc praecipio in nomine omni- 
potentis dei, quod nullus rex aut episcopus, uel aliquis 
alius potens, sit tarn audax ut huius meae donationis 
condictum commouere seu confringere praesumat. Uolo 
itaque ut haec supradicta familia semetipsam pro me 
tribus diebus in anno pascat, hoc est in festiuitate 
Omnium sanctorum, et quamdiu ehristianitas perman- 
serit in hac insula sint illi mei intercessores ad dominum. 
Si quis uero banc meam donationem adaugera uoluerit, 
adaugeat deus praemium eius in regno coelorum. Si 
quis autem instituerit minuere, minuatur merces eius 
in regno dei, nisi prius cum satisfactione emendauerit. 
Necnon et praecipio ut omnes eorum terrae quas mei 
consanguinei seu aliqui fideles illis dederunt in hac 
eadem libertate sint. Hoc uero constitutum fuit in 
regali uilla quae ab omnibus From nuncupatur, anno 


dominicae incarnationis .dcccc.xxxiiii. indictione .vii. 
.XVII* kalendas lanuarii, cum eorum testimonio quorum 
nomina infra conscripta uidentur. ^is syndon J^ara 
.XXX. hida gemsera to Enedforda. ^rest of afenan 
east staj78e upp on )7a die to ]7am weallum ; of ]?am 
weallon andlang hserpa]78es into lortan hlsewe ; Of lortan 
hlsewse east andlang furh on ceaster herpa]? ; of J?am 
haerpa)78e andlang furh on dolh crundsel : of dolh crun- 
dsele for J; andlang wseges on ]7one 8e)?enan byrigsels ; 
of )7am byrigelsse to 'psere readan lianse ; Of ]?8ere readan 
hanse andlang strset on igean sea)? ; of igean sea]73e on 
]7one greatan hling ; of ]7am hlince andlang drafse on 
]?on8e hlinc set wad dsense ; Of wat dsene andlang furh on 
]7on8e rugan beorg ; of ]>am rugam beorge andlang furh 
toamwican; ofamwican toblacandsenae ; of blacan dsense 
andlang street on j7one ford ; Of ]>am forda 7 lane streames 
on J7on8e bradan igeo}? ; of ]7am igeoj^e andlang streames 
to )78ere ealdan die set hrisc steorte ; of ];am hrise 
steorte on ]7one greatan hlinc ; Of J?am greatan hlincse. 
andlang fyrh on J^onse ruge sled ; of ]7am rugan slede 
on )7one flit garan ; of ]?am flit garan on fitelan sladses 
crundsel ; Of ]?am crundsele ylang ]?8es smalan weges on 
];a rugan hylle, set jjsere ealdan furh ; andlang furh to 
);am ealdan lagan ; of )7am ealdan lagan to sescdsene ; 
of sesedsene andlang ]?ses smalan weges to rodmundes 
dsene ; on ]78es hlinces heafod ; Of ]7ses hlinces heafdae 
ylang )78es smalan weges on J^onse flit garan ; of "pam 
garan ylang J^sere ealdan die on ]7on8e wide geat ; Of 
]?am widan geate forj? to ]7am heafod stocean ; )7anon 
ylang die on Randa ford. 

•I* Ego ^j^elstanus Angul-Saxonum neenon et totius 
Brittanniae rex, gratia dei regni solio sublimatus, 
signo sanctae crucis hoc corroboraui et confirmaui. 


►I* Ego Huwal subregulus. »J<Ego Wulfhelm archi- 
episcopus. >I< Ego Wulfstan archiepiscopus. >J< Ego 
Deodred episcopus. >J< Ego Wulfhun episcopus. ►$< 
Ego ^Ifheah episcopus. >J< Ego Oda episcopus. >^ 
Ego Alfred episcopus. i^ Ego ^Ifheah episcopus. 
»I< Ego ^Jjselgar episcopus. ►{< Ego Burgric episcopus. 
1^ Ego Cenwald episcopus. >{< Ego ^Ila episcopus. 
t^t Ego Wynsige episcopus. t^t Ego Tidhelm episcopus. 
>J< Ego Cynesige episcopus. ►{< Ego Wulfhelm epis- 
copus. »J« Ego Alfred episcopus. >{< Ego ^Ifwald 
dux. >I< Ego -^J?8elstan minister. >J« Ego Odda 
minister. >^ Ego ^)78elstan minister. >J< Ego Wulf- 
helm minister. >J« Ego ^Ifhere minister. >^ Ego 
-^Ifheah minister. »J< Ego Wulfsige minister. >^ 
Ego Wulfgar minister. >{< Ego iE]?elmund minister. 
>i. Ego Wulfgar minister. ►!< Ego Wulflaf minister. 
►Ji Ego Wulfmer minister. >J< Ego ^Ifheah minister. 
>J« Ego ^Ifric minister. >i« Ego Wulfno); minister. 
>{« Ego iE)?elstan minister. >I< Ego Eadric minister. 

*** Rubric. f>is is )5ara .xxx. hida boc to Enedforda, and })ara .x. 
set Ceolboldincgtune and )>ara .x. set ^scmaeres wyrjje. I)onum M}pe\- 
stani regis. 

The same in Saxon. 

Mid Godses gifse ! le ^j^elstan Ongol-Saxna cyning 
and. brytsenwalda eallses Jjyses iglandaes, )7urh Godses 
saslene and ealra his halegra, )7as land secelice saelle 
into sanctse trinitatan ]7am hiwum to hira beodlandae 
and to hregltalae ; ]78et is J^onnae set Enedforda .xxx. hida, 
and set Ceolbaldinctuna .x. hidae, and set ^scmseres 
weor)78e .x. hida. And ic wulla J^set )7as land ]?urhwunien 
on secelecum freodomse from seghwelcum eorj^lecum 
J^eowdomse, butan firdse and fsestsengewaeorcae, and 


biycggewseorce ; and ic bebeodge on Godses selmilitiges 
naman )7aet nau]?8er nse sie to j7on gedurstig-, ne cyning-, 
nae bisceop, ne nanes hades man, ^set ]7as minse gife 
onwsendae o^psd gewanie ; and ic wille J^et J7a hiwan 
selce gere gefermien for mse hie selfse )7rie dagas to 
Omnium sanctorum, and ahwilse )?8e Cristendom sie 
fullicse mid hira godcundnessae for me sien. And gif 
hwa )7as minse gife ecan vvillse, iecse God his on hsefaena 
rice ; and gif hit hwa )7onne wanige J^set he hit nsefre 
nse gebaete ser aetforan Cristes J^rymsetlse, nymj?ae he hit 
mid weor)7elicre dedbote gebaete. And ic wille J^aet 
ealra hira beodland ]7ae mine magas J^ydaer seal don beon 
on J7am ylcan freodomse, and se ]78et sae bisceop a )7aB 
|7aer j^onne sie him do hira fullan fostaer butan hira 
beodlandum of his bisceop hamum. pis waes gesaet on 
Jjara cynelicun hamae aet Fromae, on .xvii. kalendas 
lanuarii, indictione .vii. J7u gere ye waes agangen from 
Cristes acennednesse .dcccc.xxxiiii. wintra, on ]7yssae 
gewitnessae J78e hira naman haeron awritenae sint. 

»^ ^]7elstan Ongol-Saxna cyning and brytenwalda 
ealles ]7yses iglandaes J7urh Godaes gifae ]7is gesaette 
and gefaestnedae mid Cristaes rodae tacnae. >I< Huwal 
undercyning. >J< Wulfhelm arcebisceop. >J< Wulf- 
stan arcebisceop. >{< peodred bisceop. >J< Wulfhun 
bisceop. 1^ ^Ifheah bisceop. >I< Oda bisceop. i^ 
Alfred bisceop. >J< iElfheah bisceop. >{< MpelgSLT 
bisceop. >J< Burhric bisceop. t^ Cenwald bisceop. 
►i« ^lla bisceop. >J< Wunsige bisceop. >I< Tidhelm 
bisceop. 1^ Cynaesige bisceop. >^ Wulfhelm bisceop. 
>I< ^Ifraed bisceop. >{« ^Ifwald ealdorman. >J< ^J^el- 
stan minister. »{< Odda minister. >J< iE]7elstan min- 
ister. 1^ Wulfhelm minister. >{< iElfhaere minister. 
►!< ^Ifheah minister. >J< Wulfsige minister. >{< Wulf- 


gar minister. >J< jE)?elmund minister. >J< Wulfgar 
minister, t^t Wulflaf minister. >J< Wulfmser minister. 
>J« iElfheah minister, i^t iElfrie minister. >J« Wulfrie 
minister. >{< WulfnoJ? minister. >I< ^)>elstan minister. 
>I« Eadric minister. >}< ^Ej^elwald minister. >{< Wigar 
minister. >{< Wulfrie minister. >{< ^Ifsige minister. 
>I« iElfsige minister. i^ iElfhaere minister. »J< ^f el- 
gerd minister. 

*** A fine example of the An^lo- Saxon studies kept up at Win- 
chester in the twelfth century. The translation of rector totius huius 
Britannise insulse into brytsenwalda eallses "Syses iglandaes is happily 
characterised by Mr. J. R. Green as "an instance of the literary 
archaism and affectation of the time" {The Conquest of England 
(1883), p. 241), a remark which is equally applicable, though with a dif- 
ference, both to the time of the purported date, that is the tenth 
century ; and to the time of the manuscript, that is the latter part 
of the twelfth century. 

Cod. Winton. f. 85a (collated). A.D. 946-955. 

K1173. T.p. 499. 

M^g\wo\6. ealdorman 

his will. The writing contains only a portion of the Will ; 
the rest being nuncupatory. It is noticeable that laen-lands 
are treated as hereditary and testamentary. 

Her geswutelad ]7aet Eadred cing geu)7e )78et land set 
Wilig. })a twelf hida. to scrud fultume ^ J^am hirede into 
Ealdan mynstre. 

Leof ^ JE)7ELW0LD ealdarman cy)? his leofan cyne 
hlaforde Eadred cynge hu ic vville ymbe )7a landare )?e 
ic aet mine hlaforde geearnode. ^rest Gode 7 ]78ere 
halgan stowe set )7am bisceop stole set Wintanceastre 
J>am bisceope 7 J^am hiwum J^set land set Wilig. ]7a twelf 
hida. to scrud fultume. )78et hi me on heora gebedd . 
redenne hsebben. swa swa ic him to gelyfe. 7 )7am 


cinge minne hseregeatwa.^ feower sweord. y feower 
spsera. 7 feower scyldas. 7 feower beagas. twegen on 
hund twelftigum mancosun. 7 twegen on hund eahta- 
tigum. 7 feower hors. 7 twa sylfrene fata. 7 minum 
Lre^er eadrice ]>2et land set Oceburnan. 7 set secseesdune. 
7 set cegham. 7 set wessinga tune.* 7 -^]7elsfcane minae 
brewer yet land set bradan wsetere. 7 ]>et set Niwan tune. 
7 ^Ifsige mine bre'Ser suna J?et land set carcel. 7 
^Ifstanes suna mines broj7or ]78et land set Cleran. 7 eall 
Jjset yrfe )?se ic hsebbe on Isene lendum. ponne wylle ic 
J7set Jjset sie gedeled for mine sawle swa swa ic nu j^am 
freondum ssede )7se ic to sprsec. 

^ Compare the allowances for livery in the mediaeval college statutes ; 
they were continued in some colleges almost if not quite down to our 
times. Stubbs, Const. Hist. iii. 531. 

^ Mr. Thorpe takes Leof as a prenomen j I take it as an epistolary 
address to the king = Sire, My lord. 

^ Here Mr. Thorpe remarks that had Mr. Hallam known this and 
other like texts, he would not in his "Middle Ages" have put the 
earliest trace of the heriot in the reign of Canute. The heriot was only 
defined by Canute. 

* Is Wessingatun the same as Wassingtun granted by Eadred to 
Eadric A.d, 947 ? Or, if Wassingtun is Washington by Steyning (Suss.) 
— is Wiston, close by there, possibly our Wessingatun ? 

Cod. Winton. f. 111b. A.D. 985. 



granting his faithful friend iElferd 11 mansse set Micla- 
mersce (Michelmarsh near Eomsey, Hants). 

»{« MuNDUS iste transibit et qui eum diligit, qui 
dominum diligit manebit in aeternum ! Sic diligendus 
est mundus ut nullus abutatur eo ; male utitur mun- 
do ille qui philargyriam retinet in clauso uiscere tan- 
quam heram principalem, quia mundana retinendo 


minuiintur, tribuendo multiplicantur, intonante apo- 
stolica fone, ' Quid habes, quod non accepisti ? ' Si acce- 
pisti, quid inde gloriaris quasi non acceperis ? ' Adeo 
deeantante psalmigrapho, 'Domini est terra et pleni- 
tudo eius, orbis terrarum et uniuersi qui habitant in 
eo.' Quamobrem ego ^}7elredus rex Anglorum prae- 
noscens quorsum praedicta tendant, scilicet ad dili- 
gendos homines bonis moribus adornatos, concedo cui- 
dam meo amico fideli nomine JElferd quandam telluris 
particulam, id est .xi. mansas in loco uulgari uocita- 
mine set Mielamersce, quatinus uita comite habeat 
ac perenniter possideat ; cum autem interitum com- 
munem aduenire cognouerit, cuicunque sibi libuerit 
haeredi post se commendet in propriam haereditatem. 
Sit autem praedicta tellus libera ab omni saeculari 
offendiculo, cum omnibus quae ad ipsa loca pertinere 
dinoscuntur, tam in magnis quam in modicis rebus, 
campis, pascuis, pratis, siluis, exceptis istis tribus, 
expeditione, pontis arcisue coaedificatione, anathema- 
tis antiquis cartulis, ita ut nichil ualeant ultra, etiam 
si iterum emergant. Hanc uero meam donationem 
cupientes minuere uel mutare uel frangere habeant 
portionem cum illis quibus dicitur, 'Diseedite a me 
operarii iniquitatis in flammas ignium.' nisi prius poe- 
nitentiae digna satisfactione emendent. Est autem 
praedictum rus talibus circumdatum terminis. -^rest 
of Terstan upp on Iww cumb ; of Iwwa cumbe on waen- 
hyrste ; of wseuhyrste on ]?one ealde iw ; J^onone of 
)?on iwe to Lullan setle ; of Lull an setle to beocera 
gente ; of beocera gente to horsweges heale ; of hors- 
weages heale to seppen lega ; of hseppen lege to Hig- 
solon ; of Higsolon on fsestan ao ; of fsestan ac on 
feora burnan aewylman ; of feora bur nan to ceomman 


briege ; of ceomman bricge to wyrtwalun ; up be 
wyrtwalun oj? Cerswyll ; of Cseorswylle up to )?am 
ellene ; of )?am ellene to popul finige ; of popul finige 
to Lambhyrste ; of Lambhyrste to huntan wican ; 
j7onone eft on Terstan. Anno dominicae incarnationis. 
.DCCCC.LXXXV. his testibus consentientibus quorum inferius 
nomina caraxantur. 

►J< Ego iE]?elredus rex Anglorum huius donationis 
libertatem regni totius fastigium tenens libeuter con- 
cessi. >I< Ego Dunstanus Doruernensis aecclesiae 
archiepiscopus cum signo sanctae crucis roboraui. 
>J< Ego Oswoldus Eboracensis aecclesiae archiepiscopus 
crucis taumate adnotaui. >{< Ego ^Ifegus Wintoni- 
ensis praesul confirmaui. >J« Ego ^Ifstanus Lundoni- 
ensis praesul corroboraui. ►!< Ego ^J?elwine dux. ►{< 
Ego BryhtnoJ? dux. >J* Ego ^J?elweard dux. >J< Ego 
jElfric dux. 

Cod. Winton. f. 104. A.D. 987. 



king of the English, grants to his huntsman Leofwine portions 
of land at Westwood and Farleigh (Hants). In the bound- 
aries mention is made of Common land. 

pis syndon ]7a landgsemaero to Westwuda and to 
Cissanhammse. ^rest on Stanford ; of Stanforda 
andlang streamaes on Igford ; of Igforda on bserse 
haehgae ; andlang haegses on Afonae ; up bae straBamae on 
Windaerlaeh maed ; of J^aerae maed east onbutan cading 
laegae on hramaes hangran ; of )7am hangran sup to )7aere 
straet on )7a streatan hly wan ; of ]7aere hlywan suj? 
onbutan faers scagan on ]7a die ]?aet hit cymj? to ]?aere 
rodae ; J?anon on crawan ac ; of ]7aere aec aeft on Stanford ; 


I^onnae licgeaj? J7a )7reo gyrda on ofsere haealfse fromae set 
Ffearnlseagse on gaemsenum landse. 

*** Rubric. — Dis is ^ara .iii. hida land hoc vet Westwuda and Sara 
.111. gyrda set Fearnlege Se iESelred cing gebocode Leofwine his huntan 
on ece yrfe. 

Cod. Winton. f. 4b. A.D. 996. 

K 1291. 


basileus Anglorura adjudges to the church of SS. Peter 
and Paul at Winchester, at the request of Bp. -^Ifheah, 
a certain ' haga ' which a lady of the name of ^IfswytS had 
granted for that service, but her intention had been fraudu- 
lently defeated. The boundaries are interesting for the 
names of streets in Winchester. 

Dis is ]7es bagan embegang J>e ^]7elred cing geuj7e 
into Ealdan mynstre, ofer Wulfsiges dseg preostes. 
iErest fram Leofan bagan west andlang cypstrsete oj? 
hit cymj? to fl8es[c]mangere strsete ; andlang flsesc- 
mangara strsete ]?et it cymj? to scyldwyrhtana strsete ; 
andlang scyldwyrhtana strsete east eft }73et hit cym)? to 
Leofan bagan. 

*^* Rubric : — J>is is ^aes hagan boo on Winceastre and ^es healfan 
weres aet Braegentforda and ^ses aecersplottes Se Saerto US, fSe JESelred 
cyning geuSe God elmihtigum and his halgan apostolan Petre and Paule 
into Ealdan mynstre on ece inhymesse. 

Harley Charter 43 C. 4. Before 991 ^ 

Bibl. Publ. Camb. Ff. 2. 33. 
K685. T. p. 519. 
B. iii. 35. 

her Will. Begins by reciting that of ^f>elfl8ed, the second 


queen of Eadmund. In Sax. Chron. D. 946, she Is called 
'JEj^elflsed of Domerham,' and that estate comes first in the 
dispositions of this Will. The estate of Charlesworth was 
conveyed to iEJ^elflsed in 962. Above, p. 200. The ortho- 
graphy reminds us of Cod. Winton. 

pis is sej^elflsed'e' cwyde "p is gsrest f ic gean minii 
hlaforde ]7es landes set lamburnan 7 J^aes aet ceolsige 7 
set readingan . 7 feower beagas on twam hund mancys 
goldes . 7 . iiii . pellas . 7 . iiii . cuppan . 7 . iiii . bleda . 
7 . iiii . hors . 7 ic bidde minne leonan hlaford for godes 
lufan . f min cwyde standan mote . 7 ic nan o^er nebbe 
geworht on godes gewitnesse . 7 ic gean J78es landes aet 
domar hame into glestinga byrig , for sedmundes cinges 
sawle . 7 for aeadgares cinges . 7 for mire sawle . 7 ic 
gean ]7es landes set hamme into cristas cyrcan . aet cant- 
warebyrig for eadmundaes cinges sawle . 7 for mire 


sawle . 7 ic gean ]>es landes . aet wude ham baeorhtno'Se . 

aealdormen . 7 mire swustaer hyre daeg . 7 ofor hire deg 

into sea marian cyrcan . aet byorcingan . 7 ic gean )7eV 
landes . aet bed ham baeorhtno^ae ealdormen . 7 mire 
swuster haeora daeg . 7 aefter haeora daege into paulus 
byrig aet lundaenae . to bisceop hamae . 7 ic gean J^aes 
landaes . aet dictunae into ylig to scae ae}7ael(5ry^ . 7 to 
hire geswustran . 7 ic gean |?ara twegra landa aet coh- 
hanfeldaea 7 aet caeorles vveorj^e baeorhtno^ae aealdormen . 
7 mirae swus? hire daeg . 7 ofer hire daeg into scae ead- 
mundes stowe to byderices wyr^e 7 ic ^ge'an ]?aes landes 
set fingringaho baeorhtno^e aealdermen 7 mire swust 
hirae deg 7 ofer hire daeg into scae paetres cyrcan aet 
myres igae . 7 ic gaean J^aes landes aet polstede baeorht- 
no'Se aealdormaen . 7 mire swus? hire deg . 7 ofor hira 
daeg into stocy . 7 ic gaean ]7aes landaes aet hwifersce into 


stocy ofer minnae deg* 7 ic gsBan bseorhtno'Sge sealdermen . 
7 mire svvus? j^ses landes set street forda hire dseg" . 7 ofer 
hire dseg . ic his gsean into stocy . 7 ic willae f lauan 
ham ga into stoce ofser ]7es aealdermannes daeg . 7 mire 
svvust . 7 ic gean j^ses landes set byliges dynse into stocy 
ofer )78es sealdermanes dseg . 7 mire swus? . 7 ic gean 

]7ara landa set peltendune . 7 et my res ige . 7 set gren- 

stede into stocy ofer minnse dseg . 7 ofer bseorhtno^es 
aealdormannses . 7 ofser mire swust . 7 ic gean J^es landes 
set ylmesseton beorhtno^e sealdormen . 7 mire swust hira 
dseg . 7 ofair hira dseg . ic his gsean seadmundse . 7 ic an 
]78erse . arse hide set )?orp8e into hedlsege . for mire sawle . 
7 for mira eldrena ofer [minne dseg] 7 ic gean 'Ssera .x. 
hida set wicforda sibrihte minii msegse ofer minne dseg . 
7 ic gean segwinae minii gersefan . )7ara . uii . hida set hed 
ham ofer minne ^ deg . swa hit on seald dagu gestod . 
7 ic gaean brihtwolde minii cnihtse ]7ara twegra hida . on 
dunninc lande ofer minnse dseg . 7 ic an alfwolde minii 
preoste twsegra hida on dunning lande ofer minne dseg . 
7 ic gean aejjselmaere minii prseoste twsegra hida on 
dunning landse ofser ^ minne dseg . 7 ic gsean selfgseate 
minii megse . twegra hida on dunning lande ofar minnse 
daeg . ic gsean "Sses landses set wsealdinga fselda crawa 
mira magan ouser minnse dseg . 7 ic wille f man frigse 
haealue mine men on elcii tune for mine sawlse . 7 f 
man dele seal healf f yrue f ic hsebbse on selcu tune for 
naire sawle. 

iElflsed gseswytela]? on ]7is gewrite hu hseo wile 
habban gefadad hirse sehta for gode . 7 for worldse . serest 
f ic an minu hlaforde J7ara . viii . landa sef t minii dege 
f is erest set douorcortae . 7 set fulanpettse . 7 set seles- 
forda . 7 set stanwa^gun . 7 set byrsetune . 7 set Isexadyne . 


7 set ylmessetun . 7 set bucyshealse . 7 twsegra bselia on 
twera punda gewihte . 7 twa sop cuppan . 7 an sseolfran 
fset; 7 J78e leof seadmodlice bidde for godes luuan . 7 for 
mines hlafordaes sawle lufan . 7 for minrse swystor sawlae 
lufan ^ ]>\i amundie J7a halgan stovvae et stocae ]78e mine 

yldran on resta}? . 7 ]>a are ]>3d hi fider insseaden a to 

freogon godses rihte ; f is ]7onne f ie gean aealswa mine 
yldran his 'er' gsdupsm f is ]7onne f land set stoce into 
]7erse halagan stowse . 7 seal f f ]78er to tunse gsehyr^ . 
7 ]7onse wuda set hsej^fselda ]78e min swystar g8eu]7se . 7 
mine yldran . ]7onn synd J^is J7a land ]78e minse yldran 
}78erto bsecwaedon ofser minre swystor dseg . 7 ofser minne . 
f is "Sonne stredfordse . 7 fresantun . 7 wiswyj7etun . 
7 lauanham . 7 byliesdyne . 7 polstyde . 7 wifaermyrsc . 
7 grsenstydae . 7 peltandune . 7 myrsesegse . 7 ^ wudse- 
land set totha ]7se min fseder geiifise into myresise . 7 
colne . 7 tigan ; ]?onn synd )7is J^a land ]7e minse yldran 
becwsedon into oj^rii halgii stowii . f is j7onfi into cant- 
warabyrig to cristses circan J?an hired to brece |7es landes 
set illanlege 7 into paules mynstre into lundene . }?es 
lan^des' set hedha to biscop hame . 7 )?es landes set tid- 
woldingtune )7an hirede to brece into paules mynstre . 
7 into beorcingan |7a hirede to brece |7es landes set 
babbing j^yrnan . 7 ic gean selfJ^VseSe minses hlauordses 
medder wuduhamses seftser minu dsege . 7 set? hirse dege 
gange hit into sea marian stowse into beorcingan sealswa 
hit stsent mid msete . 7 mid mannu ; 7 ic gsean into see 
aeadmunde . ]7ara twegra landa cseorles weor]7ae . 7 co- 
chanfelde fam hirsede to brece sealswa mine yldran his 
er geu]?an 7 J^ses landes set ^h'nyddinge seftser crawan 
degse mirse magan . 7 ic gsean into myresie . seft minii 
degse ealswa mm hlaford . 7 min swes? geu)?an . *p is 


fingringaho . 7 )7ara six hida 'pse f mynstser onstent ; 
7 ic gsean eflaer crawan dege 'pes landes set wealdinga 
felda into su^byrig to scse gregoriae ealswa min swestar 
hit er foraewyrde ; 7 ic gean into selig scse petre . 7 scse 
8e|78eldry)7e . 7 see wihtburhe . 7 scse sexburhe . 7 see 
seormenhilde per mines hlafordes lichoma rest )7ara j7reo 
landa pe wit buta geheotan gode . 7 his halga^ . ^ is set 
rettendune pe wes min morgangyfu . 7 set ssegha . 7 set 
dietune ealswa min hlaford . 7 min swsestar his er 
geupan . 7 J7ar8e anre hide set cseafle pe min swystar 
begeat . 7 ]?es bseahges gemacan pe man ssealde minii 
hlaforde to sawle seseatte . 7 ic gean se^Selmsere sealdorm 
J7es landes set lellinge ofer mine deg mid mete . 7 mid 
mannii sealswa hit stent on ]7et gerad f he beo on minu 
life min fulla freond ^ . 7 forespreca . 7 mira manna . 7 
efter minii dege beo J^ara halgan stowe . 7 |7erse are ful- 
freond ^ 7 forespeca set stocse pe mine yldran onrestaj? . 7 
ic gean }?es landes set lissingtune e'Selmere mines hlafordes 
mege mid mete . 7 mid mannii ealswa hit stent . 7 hine 
eadmodlice biM'de ^ he min fulla freond ^ . 7 mundiend 
beo on minii dege . 7 ef? minii dege gefelste f min cwide 
7 mira yldran standan mote ; ]7is sind ]?a land mearca to 
byligesdyne . of ^a human set humelcyrre . fra humel- 

cyrre to heregeres heafode . fra heregeres 

heafode sef ? 'Sa ealdan hege to "Sare grene sec . ]7on forS 
f hit cym^ to jjare stan strsete . of ]7are stan strsete 
7lang sorybbe f hit cym^ to acantune fra acyntune f 
hit cymS to rigendune fra rigindune seft to |?ara burn an . 
7 ];ser is . landes fif hida . pis sind pa. land gemsera to 
hwifer mirsce 7 to polestede . of loppandyne to scelfleage 
fra leage to mercyl 7lang mercyle into sture . 7lang 
sture to leofmannes gemsere 7lang leofmannes gsemsere 
to amalburnan fra amalburnan to nor'Sfelda . ^oii for^ 


to bind hsecce . fra bind hsecce to dudan hsecce . fra 

tudan hsecce to giddincgforda fra giddingforda to hniit- 

stede fra hunt stede to hwitincgho fra hwitingho to 

wudemannes tune . fra wudemannes tune to caeresige 

gaemaere . fra cseresige gemaere to haedleage gemaere . fra 

haedleage gaemaere to bligba gemaere . fra hligha gemaere 

eft to loppandyne . to hwifraemera . . landes 7 . . . g . 

^e sex 

*** Endorsed in a 12th century hand, ^^Iflaed CeorlesworS'e and 
Cokefelde.' B. 

^ This will is by T. dated* circa 972'; by B. 'after 991.' But if 
the Byrhtno'S so often named is the hero of Maldon, then the date 
must be before or in 991, unless we take 993 as the date of that battle. 

'^ miminne MS. ^ of(2 MS. * The -n final is dropped. 

» fwUafreod MS. ^ fulfreod MS. 


This group is from a Manuscript in the Parker Library 
at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge : No. cxi. described by 
Wanley, p. 149 ; the contents of which are as Kennett 
says 'principally matters appertaining to the Monastery of 
Bath.' I add some particulars for which I am indebted to 
Professor Skeat. The book is in good eaily writing to p. 
129, of which the earliest part is pp. 55-129; at p. 116 
(back) is the date 1136. On p. 131 is the date 1258. At 
the end are some paper leaves which go to the 15th century. 

C. C. C. Camb. cxi. 139. About 938. 



granting to ^Ifheah his faithful thane land, ubi ab incolis 
nominatur Feornbeorgan, of which the bounds are as follows. 

Dis sindan ^a landgemsero "Se to Fearnbeorgan 

B b 


gebyriaS. Of Fearnbeorge west on 'Sone weg to 'Sam 
stanum ; of 'Sam stanum suS on "Sone weg o'S "Sa and- 
heafda ; of Sam andheafdum on "Sa hlincrsewe up to 
•Ssere die be nor'San stodfaldon; Sonne forS on "Sa die 
to m^erflodan be eastan lillinglea; Sonne foi"S andlang 
'Sees suSeran weges o'S 'Sset lang trew ; Sonne forS 
west on Sone weg ofer Beoeumb to 'Sam stancrundle ; 
^onne nor^ on Sone smalan weg wiS eastan brocenan 
beorg to "Sam wege ^ser east ligS ; "Sonne forS on 
"Sone weg to cytelflodan be westan mules cumbe ^£er 
■Sa wegas twisliga'S ; Sonne for'S to Scyldmere ; "Sonne 
for'S on Sa furh to fureumbe ; andlanges furcumbes 
middeweardes to "S^ere dene ; Sonne forS on "Sa denu 
to Ssera wega gemySan ; "Sonne for'S to "Sam hwitan 
wege to "Sam baran ]7orne ; of Sam hwitan wege on 
Fearnbeorg, and se leag be eastan catmere "Se Sserto 
gebyre"S ; "Sset is on "Sone wege "Se liS to Stanleage ; 
Sonne forS si'S^an su^ on 'Sone stanihtan weg ; of 
Stanmeringa gemsere ; Sonne forS on Sone smalan weg 
to Sam fulan wege se hatte stific weg ; Sset is Cat- 
mseringa gemsere and 'Sses landes to Fearnbeorgan ; 
"Sonne forS andlang Sses weges ut on Sone felde ; and 
"Sonne ealle Sa hangran betweonan "Sam wege and 
■Sam ^e to Stanleage ligS gebyria'S ealle to Fearne- 

C. C. C. Camb. cxi. 143. A.D. 949. 

K424 (App. vol. vi.) 


his confirmation of land granted to iEJ^elmser. This docu- 
ment has much that is curious and suspicious ; e. g. the 
signature, "Osulf ad Bebbanburh heahgerefa " (Freeman, 


Norman Conquest, i. p. 292): the name of Csedmon, which 
occurs in one other record, viz. K4 1 1 . 

>J< Perpetuae prosperitatis priuilegium quod constat 
coelesti paradiso sublimatum sanctae Trinitatis dei mo- 
narchia gubernat magnopere : quae quoque deitatis 
essentia terrenae haereditatis patrimonium cunctis prae- 
stat, prout uult, promerentibus. Hoc apparet procul- 
dubio in rege Anglorum gloriosissimo beato dei opere 
praetio Eadredo ; quern Noi-Shymbra paganorumque seu 
caeterarum sceptre prouinciarum rex regum omnipotens 
sublimauit, quique praefatus imperator semper dec 
grates dignissimas larga manu subministrat. Cuius 
regis largitatem ^|?elm8erus praeses iam prouulgat de 
perenni usurpatione terrarum, quern denique honorifice 
locupletat, sibi suisque haeredibus liberaliter largiendo, 
praeter urbis atque pontis constructionem expedition - 
isque obsequio. Ast sequitur terminatio uiginti ma- 
nentium ad Cetwuda 7 aet Hildes dune hoc modo. 
Dis seond 'Sa londgemseru "Sses londes get Cetwuda and 
ffit Hildesdune. ^rest on "Sa halgan sec ; swa ollonc 
"Sses gemserheges to "Sgem slo set "Ssem more ufewerdan ; 
of 'Sam more on dunes pyt ; "Sonon ]7urh Wippan hoh ; 
'Sset swa be 'Ssem gretan wyrtruman on 'Sone holan weg ; 
on "Sone 6'Serne weg to "Sam rugan hlawe ; 'Sonan on 
gerihte on "Saet lytle ri'Sig ; "Sset swa on Offan pol ; up 
ollonc streames on bylian pol ; "Sonan up ofer 'Sa msed 
"Sset swa be "Sara andheafdan on 'Sset sic ; iip of "Ssem 
sice to Cufanlea, on "Sa die to "Sam readan slo ; "Saet swa 
on "Sane lytlan die ; "Sonon on "Sone 6'Serne die ; "Sset 
swa ollonc "Saes gemsere heges onbutan Hreodlege ; "Sset 
swa on •Sone mserhege ^e sceot to 'Ssere halgan see. Jjis 
lond aelfstan said 3e]7elflede wi'S )78em. Huius certe 
codicis conscriptio peracta est anno dominicae incarna- 
B b 2 


tionis DCCCC.XLViiii et tertio praefati regis anniculo, tali 

optimatum stabilitate conscribentium. 

>J« Eadred rex et rector. >J< Oda aercabis. >J< Wulf- 

stan archiepiscopus. ►J* Deodred pontifex. ►J* ^Ifheh 

praesul. t^ ^Ifric et Wulfsige episcopi. >J< Alfred 

antistes. i^ ^}?elgar pontifex. ^ Koenwald monachus. 

^ Wulfhelm bis. >J« Cynsige consul. >^ Aldred epi- 

scopus. >J< ^J?elwald praesul pontificale cum augusto 

eulogiam cum iubilando dogmatizaui o Ead- 

geofu felix. t^ Howel regt. >{< Morcant 

>J« Cadmon. >I« Osulf ad bebb. hebgr. >J< ^)?elstan 

dux. 1^ Urm eorl. atque Coll.^ ►!< Alhbelm comes. 

»{« Ubtred eorl. 7 grim. >^ -^J;elmund alderman. 

>I« Eadric princeps. >{< Scule eorl. >{< ^Elfgar comes. 

uElfstan miles 7 Eadmund J?egn. ^Ifsige miles 7 

Wulfric fegn . BerhferS miles regis. Wigstan abbud 7 

Aldredus . Dunstan abbud. >J< Eadhelmus 7 ^Ej^elgeard. 

Berhtsige miles. >J< ^'E]7elm8er praeses . ^Ifheah miles 

7 Eadsige. Hi porro praefati primates regale prae- 

rogatiuum scribendo consignabant cum triumphali uex- 

illo solidantes. Omnes sancti dei beatificent hoc bene- 

ficium stabiliter conseruantes. Si qui uero fraudulenter 

banc regalem libertatem minuendo denihilent, ad ni- 

hilum redigantur, nisi digne coram deo satis et satis 

faciant, emendantes in melius quod necligenter de- 

liquerant. Adtendat unusquisque fidelium quod im- 

perat auctor Christus, Date et dabitur uobis : amen. 

Contulit nempe hie mas en^ magno regi 11° cornua auro 

argentoque decorata ut eo liberius hoc praerogatiuum 


*** JEndorsed. Lond aet Cendeles f untan t eft Eadred cin^ hit ageaf 
^J)elmere witS jjsem ilcan land 4 on ece yrfe Jjsem J)e him leofast seon. 

^ T Coll. Error of the copyist for the proper name Andcol. (K.) 
» Sic in MS. (K.) 



C. C. C. Camb. cxi. 155. A.D. 951. 



grants seternaliter to "Wulfric his faithful thane 25 mansae in 
a place called aet Cifanlea (Chieveley 4 m. N". of Newbury, 
Berks) with pasture quae in quodam monte habetur, for his 
life and with power to will it. It is perpetually free of all 
but the three burthens. 

IsTis terminis praedicta terra circumgyrata esse 
iiidetur. £)is sint "Sa landgemara to Cifanlea. jErest 
of catbeorge andlang wages on ^'Selunes ]?orn ; 'Sonon 
andlang weges on sealhangran eastewarde ; "Sonon and- 
lang weges on "Sa byrgelsas ; -fionon andlang Byden- 
bsema gemseres on *ba haran apoldre ; 'Sonon on Orhaema 
gemsere ; andlang "Sses gemseres on Ciltewudes gemsere, 
to 'San stane ; Sonon west andlang weges to ^an haecce ; 
iSonon andlang gemseres to "San crundele ; 'Sonon and- 
lang gemseres to "San oSrum crundele ; 'Sonon to "San 
wonstocce ; and "S er to wuda ; "Sonon on "Sa syrfan ; 
^onon ofer hean hrycg ; ^onon on "Sses cinges hagan ; 
"Sonne ^aev west andlang hagan on Hnsefleage suSe- 
wearde ; "Sonon andlang hagan to "Sam b^ece ; of "Sam 
baece ^£er norS ut an "Sone lytlan hse'Sfeld ; "Sonon and- 
lang weges be Winterburninga gemsere be westan "Ssere 
ealdan byrig on "Sone stanihtan weg ; of San wege to 
"San stancystlun ; Sonon on "Sa andheafda ; Sonne Sser 
west on "Ssene burnan biitan .vi. secrun ; "Sonne "S^er norS 
an furlang ; Sonne "Sser west ofer "Sa twegen beorgas to 
San bearpa'Se ; norS andlang herpaSes on bradan ford ; 
Saer west andlang burnstowe to Ibban stane ; "Sonne Sar 
est andlang weges on standene ; "Sonon west to "San 
wurtwalan ; Sonon norS on sceap hammas ; Sonon on 
gerihta Saer tunwegas utscettaS ; Sonon on gerihta to 


"Saere haran apoldre ; of ^sdve haran apoldre }7urli 'Sone 
tun to 'San ruvvan crundele ; "Sonon andlang gem^res on 
•Sone lytlan beorh up on mules dune ; of 'San beorge 
andlang gemgeres on hiycgweg ; andlang hrycgweges 
o'S catmeres gem^re ; "Sonne "Sser est andlang gem^eres 
on Puttan pyt ; of "San pytte andlang gemseres eft on 

*j(c* These bounds, which are printed in K vi. 234, are from another 
MS., namely Cott. Claud. B. vi. 39 : and they seem full of promise 
for an enterprising club like that which has its headquarters at 

C. C. C. Camb. cxi. 147 and 153. A.D. 956. 



to abbot ^'Selwald and the monastery at Abingdon * restores ' 
with the consent of his nobles twenty mansiunculse of which 
the bounds are such as to encourage local investigation. It 
is near Oxford, and the names of Bagley and Sunningwell 
are conspicuous. 

Et his limitibus haec telluris particula circumgyrari 
uidetur. j3Srest on Temese be su^an fordwere ^sere 
up on "Sa die on Eoccenes gserstun su'Sweardne ; "Sonne 
ondlang die to Eoceen ; ondlong Eoeeenes to abbodes 
die ; ondlong die to cealdanwylle ; of cealdanwylle on 
"Sset rise slsed middeweard o^ Beorhtwoldes mor ; "Sset 
'Sser on 'Sa die ; ondlang die to meareforda ; "Sonne up 
ondlang broces o'S hyt cym^ to emnes "Ssem ealdan 
laeghrycge ; "Sonne on gerihte betweoh Potteles treow 
on "Soiie ellenstyb ; "Sset "Sser on wuduford on Sunninga 
wylles broe ; ondlang broees to dunnanforda ; ^aet "Sser 
on "Sset wi^igbed ; "Sonne on "Sone healfan secer nor'Se- 
weardne ; "Sonne andlang fyrh to 'Son heafdon ; "Saet 
:S8er su^ ofer "Sone healfan secer; ^set "Seer east on ^a 


furh ; "Sset to "Sam sceortan lond ; "S^r on "Sone hse'Se- 
nan byrgels ; 'Sonne "Seer on "Sa seofon seceras west- 
wearde ; "Sset ^sdv nor^ to lippan die ; ondlang die to 
sueg-an graf; "Sset oh Sone ellenstyb; 'Sonne on Sa 
brembel )7yrDan on 'Sa die ; andlang die to horspytte ; 
Sonne }>urh Madoces leah on 'Sa ealdan die ; Sonne on 
'Sa aeeerdie ; 'Sonne on hseseldie ; of hseseldic on -Sonne 
gemserweg on bsegan wyrSe ^ ; andlang* weges to hig- 
wege ; ondlang hiweges to Eeguuines wyrSe ; 'Sonne 
on bacgan leah ; "Sset a be wyrtwalan ; 'Sset on bacgan 
broc ; of bacgan broc on hafoces oran ; ondlang Saes 
gem«rhagan Saet ut on rigewyrSe westeweardne on "Sa 
ealdan die ; "Sonne ondlang die to Ser hangran ; Sonne 
on Wulfrices broc ; "Sonne on gerihte ofer hyrd yige ^ 
to Sam greatan welige ; Sset Saer ut on Temese ; "Sonne 
ondlong Temese "Saet eft on occenes gserstundic suSe- 
weardne. Dis syndon Saes londes gemaero to Abban- 
dune "Se Eadwig cyning syleS Gode to lofe into Sam 
mynster and himsylfum to ecere are. 

^ There is Bayworth a hamlet of Sunningwell. 
^ There is Herd Eyot below Sandford. 

C. C. C. Camb. cxi. 57. A.D. 956. 



granting land set Dyddenhame (Tidenham) ad monasterium 
Sci Petri quod situm est in Bathonia, ubi tbermse amoenge 
calidis e fontibus deriuantur, xxx mansas in haereditate 
tribuo perhenne, ex quibus meo videlicet sacerdote Wulf- 
garo qui praeest supradicto monasterio, pro eius fideli 
obsequio et deuotione, tres tantum cassatos perpetuum 
inipertio, etc. 

IsTis terminis praedicta terra circumgyrata esse 
uidetur. f)is synd Sa landgem^ra to Dyddanhame. 


Of W8egemu"San to iwes heafdan ; of iwes heafdan on 
stanrsewe ; of stanrsewe on hwitan heal ; of hwitan 
heale on iwdene ; of iwdene on bradan mor ; of bradan 
more on Twyfyrd ; of Twyfyrde on sestege pul ^ ut 
innan Ssefern. 

*** Translation of tJie Boundaries : — These are the land-meers at 
Tydenham. From Wye-mouth to Yew's head, from Yew's head to 
Stone-row, from Stone-row to White heel, from White heel to Yewden, 
from Yewden to Broad moor, from Broad moor to Twyfyrd, from Twy- 
fyrd to Astey pool out in Severn. 

^ Mr. Seehohm, ^. V. C, p. 150, identifies ^stegepul with Ashwell 
Grange Pitt, which is now the northern limit of Tidenham. 

Diuisiones et consuetudines in Dyddanbamme ^. 

On Dyddanbamme synd .xxx. bida .ix. inlandes and 
.XXI. bida gesettes landes. To Street synd .xii. bida 
.XXVII. gyrda gafollandes; and on Sseuerne .xxx. cyt- 
weras ; to Middeltune .v. bida .xiiii. gyrda gafol- 
landes .xiiii. cytweras on Sseuerne : and .11. bsecweras 
on waege ; to Cinges tune .v. bida sind .xiii. gyrda 
gafollandes and .1. bida bufan die 'Sset is nu eac gafol- 
land, and "Sset utan bamme is gyt sum inland, sum 
bit is "San seipwealan to gafole gesett ; to Cynges 
tune on Saeuerne .xxi. cytwera, and on wsege .xii. to 
Biscopes tune synd .111. bida, and .xv. cytweras on 
waege ; on Landcawet synd .111. bida. and .11. baec- 
weras on waege. and .ix. cytweras. Ofer call ^aet 
land gebyra'S aet gyrde .xii. paenegas, and .1111. aelmes 
penegas, aet aelcum were Se binnan "Sam .xxx. bidan 
is gebyre^ aefre se o^er fisc 'Sam land blaforde, and 
aelc seldsynde fisc Se weor"Slic by*S, styria, and mere- 
swyn, healic o"Ser saefisc ; and nab man naenne fisc 
wis feo to syllanne ^onne blaford on land byS aer 
man bine bim gecySe. Of Dyddanbamme gebyreS 


micel weorcraeden. Se g-eneat sceal wyrcan swa on 
lande, swa of lande, hwe'Ser swa him man byt, and 
ridan, and auerian, and lade Isedan, drafe drifan, and 
fela o'Sra J7inga don. Se gebur sceal his riht don, 
he sceal erian healfne seeer to wiceworce, and raecan 
sylf 'Sset seed on hlafordes berne gehalne to cyrcscette 
sa hwe'Sere of his agenum berne to werbolde .xl. 
maera o^^e an fo'Ser gyrda ; o^'Se .viii. geocu byld 
.III. ebban tyne, secertyninge .xv. gyrda, o'S^e diche 
fiftyne ; and dicie .i. gyrde burhheges, ripe o^er healfne 
secer, mawe healfne ; on oSran weorcan wyrce, a be 
weorces mse^e. Sylle .vi. penegas ofer estre, healfne 
sester hunies to Hlafmsessan .vi. systres mealtes to 
Martines msesse an cliwen godes nettgernes. On "Sam 
sylfum lande stent se'Se .vii. swyn hsebbe "Sset he sylle 
.III. and swa for^ a ^set teo^e, and 'Sses na'Sulaes msesten- 
raedene 'Sonne mjesten beo. 

^ This seems the natural place for this Memorandum; which is 
printed in K vol. iii. p. 450, referring to the MS. C. C. C. Camb. cxi. 71. 

C. C. C. Camb. cxi. 74. A.D. 1061-1065. 



abbot of Bath lets to Stigand 30 hydes of land at Tidenham 
(see above K452) for rent in money and six porpoises 
and 30,000 herrings. — K's date 1060-1066 is not exact; 
Aldred did not become archbishop, nor Gisa bishop until 
1061 ; Tostig was banished in 1065. 

»I* Her swutela^ on "Sisum gewrite "Sset ^Ifwig 
abbud, and call seo geferraeden on Ba^an, hsef^ gelset- 
en to Stigande archebiseeop .xxx. hyda landes set 
Dyddenhamme his daege wi'5 .x. marcan goldes and 
wi'S .XX. pundon seolfres ; and sefter his dsege ga hyt 


eft into ^am halegan mynstre mid mete and mid 
mannum, swa full and swa fori5 swa hit ^senne by^ ; 
and .1. marc goldes to eaean and .vi. merswin and 
.XXX. ]7usenda hseryngys selce eare. Dis ys to ge- 
wittnysse, Eadweard cinineg, and Eadgy^ seo hlsef- 
dige, and Ealdryd archebiseeop, and Hereman bisceop,, 
and Gisa bisceop, and Harold eorl, and Tosstig eorl, 
and ^-Selno^ abbod, and ^gelwig abbod, and ^gyl- 
sige abbodj and Ordric abbod, and Esegar steallere, 
and K/Oulf steallere, and Bondig steallere, and manega 
o'Sre gode menn "Se beora naman her awritene ne 
syndon. And gyf aenig mann si swa dyrstig ^xt 
wylle ^is awendan, si he amansumod fram Criste and 
fram sancta Marian and fram sancte Petre 'Sam halegan 
apostle and fram eallum Cristes halegum sefre on 
aecnysse buton he hyt eft ^e ra"Sor gebete. 

*+* Mr. Seebohm, JS. V. C, p. 154, suggests that this was an 
arrangement for mutual convenience whereby the Abbot of Bath got 
herrings from the east, and the Archbishop got salmon from the west. 
The porpoises are seen in the western no less than in the eastern sea ; 
but they do not now, and probably never did, come up the Severn 
estuary as they do up the Thames. My friend Mr. Mayhew was in 
a school of porpoises in the Thames as high as the Medway. As 
I write this (Dec. 1884) the papers tell us of a porpoise getting up the 
river to Westminster, where he was shot and landed. The cured 
porpoise and herrings would travel down west on the cattle that was to 
bring back the salmon. For porpoise as an article of food, see Hawker, 
" Footsteps in Far Cornwall." 


The eighth group (which largely concerns Berkshire) is 
from the Chartularies of Abingdon, namely Cott. Claud. B. 
vi. of the latter part of the twelfth century, and Cott. Claud. 
C. ix., of the thirteenth. Still some feeble tokens of that 
scholarly taste which we noticed in the sixth group. Such 


form at this date affects us somewhat as when we first 
learn that the staircase to the Hall in Christ Church is a 
work of the seventeenth centurj\ 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 29. A.D. 944. 



Angligenarum rex granting to Bp. JElfric, presumably of 
Ramsbury, loo mansse at Blewbury in Berkshire. The 
boundaries are interesting and include mention of the Icenild 
way. But they are suspiciously fluent, not to say poetical. 

f)is sindon "Sa landgemsero to Bleobyrig. ^rest on 
easteweardum "Sam lande set Amman uuelle ; "Sast swa 
su^ on gerihte on vvseterslsedes die ; "Saet andlang die 
o'S -Sone sii"S ende on 'Sset riht landgemgere ; ^aet up to 
'Sam miclan beorge beneo^an Hrames lea ; -Saet of ^am 
beorge up andlang stanweges to ^am langan cyrstel 
m^eleset hafuc^orne ; 'Sonne of hafucSorne to ^an langan 
]7orne set Ichenilde wege ; "Sset swa to ^an ]?riddan 
forne set wirhangran; of ^am |7orne to 'Sam feor^an 
]7orne on wrangan hylle foreweardre stent; "Sset swa 
for^ to 'Sam f iftan ]?orne ^ ; to ^am elebeame ; "Sset west 
andlang 'Saes lytlan wages up to "Son ]?orne ; up to 
teonan hylle ; "Sset swa west on 'Sone ruwan hlync ; 
andlang ^ses rowan linces to "Son hse^enum byrgelsum 
set ^sere ealdun die ; -Sset andlang o^ "Sset treow steall ; 
Sonnon of 'San treow stealle on gerihte to ^on bradan 
beorge be eastan wrocena stybbe ; ^set swa to wrocena 
stybbe ; 'Sonne of wrocena stybbe on meoces dune on 
■Sone byrgeles ; of 'Sam byrgelse to ^gere flodan set 
swm weges slo set "Sare wegegelseton ; "Sset up to "Sam 
eor'S geberste to foxes beorge ; of "Sam beorge west 
andlang drsegeles bseces o^ 'Sone hricgweg ; andlang 


weges o'S Sa readan hane ; of ^are hane HOT'S andlang 
Saes smalan weges to Totancumbe ; set Sam beorge ; 
Saet swa norS on gerihte andlang Sees smalan weges 
to "Son herepa^e ; Saet to Saes linees ende ; "Sset swa 
forS norS andlang weges oS Ordstanes die ; "Sset andlang 
die ; of Saere die wi'S nor^an 'Saet yrSland ; Sonne bi 
Sam yrSlande to 'Ssere lace 'Se liS on Stocwelle ; "Sonne 
of Stocwylle nor"S andlang broces to 'Ssere die Saere 
se ae^eling meareode; Saet andlang die to 'Saere sceap 
wsescan on haccan broc ; "Sonne andlang haccan broces 
to huddes ige ; Sset swa forS nor"S andlang broces wi"S 
westan hunddes ig ; Saet up andlang Ssera andheafda to 
Sffire lytlan dice ende, and Sam norS andlang Sara and- 
heafda to San laiigan cyrstel msele set hae^dune ; "Sset swa 
norS andlang Sses smalan paSes on "Sa die sticc ea to 
"Son stodfalde ; Sset swa ea^ andlang "S^ere ealdan die o"S 
^•Selstanes treow steal to Ssere dice byge ; Sset swa 
suSeast andlang die be Byrgwylla gem^re ; ^at swa 
suSest ofer "Sone mor to Mseringes ]?orne ; of Mseringes 
)7orne to sulgeate ; of sulgeate be wyrtwalan to "Son 
readleafan mapuldre ; of "Sam mapuldre on "Sa lace ; 
Sset on gerihte on Westwylle ; Sen on o^re naman 
hte^ aet Ammanwylle. 

^ These five thorns with their numerical designations remind Mr. 
Plummer of an old grass road in his father's neighbourhood (Stratford 
Tony, Wilts), on which the miles are marked by trees. In K 554 the 
boundaries contain a similar series of five stones. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 37. A.D. 947. 



rex Anglorum, &c., cuidam mihi fidelissimo comitique 
dilecto nomine Eadrico, granting bis denas mansas, quod 
Anglice dicitur twentig hida, in a place called set Wassinga- 


tune. The grant is in perpetuity, and free of all but the 
inevitable burdens. 

The bounds are so rich in bold terms that if the place is 
Washinorton near Steyning in Sussex, it ought to be capable 
of identijfication by local enquiry. 

Is this the same, or a conterminous property, with that 
which Edgar grants to bishop iE(5elwold in 963, K1250? 

Dis syndon "Sa landgemEere to Wasingatune. jErest 
on duhan lea ; of duhan lea on readan wylle ; of readdan 
wille to Lydgeardes broge ; of Lidgeardes beorge to 
Tatmonnes apoldre ; of Tatmonnes apoldre to Dene- 
burge hleawe ; of Deneburge hleawe to stanbeorge ; 
of stanbeorge to Ha^eburge hleawe ; of "Sam hlsevve 
to heregrafe ; of heregrafe to twam beorgum ; of twam 
beorgum to hremnes dune ; of heremnes dune to bidan 
holte ; of bidan holte 'Sset to wigan campe ; of wigan 
campe to bennan beorge ; of 'Sam beorge to blseccan 
pole ; of "Sam pole to 'Ssere apuldre ; 'Sonne to dunan 
heafde ; ^set to Hunes cnolle ; ^onne eft on duhan lea. 
f)is synt (Sa den ^e "S^rto gebyrigea'S ; Wynburgespser, 
and )7re6 crochyrsta, and Horsham, and Yffeles leah, 
and Hseslwic, and Gatawic, and Ridanfald, and Scacal 
wic, and Hundssedingfald. 

Claudius B. vi. 33. A.D. 955. 

K 1171. 


restoring to the monastery at Abingdon the vill of Abingdon 
which had been lost to the monastery in the troublous times 
of his grandfather Alfred, tempore quo archipiratsB totam 
banc insulam devastantes pervagati sunt. Also lands at 
Cumnor and other places, of which however the king is to 
have a lease for his life. The bounds are as follows. 

-^REST on Eoccenforda; up andlang Eoecenes to 


abbes die ; "Sset to eealdan vvulle ; "Sset to mearcforda ; 
andlang broces o^ ^ene grenen weig ; andlang weiges 
to broce ; "Saet to Wuduforda ; 'Sset adune be broce o^ 
Pippelri^iges utscyte ; "Saet ]?urh "Sset deiiemor a be 
ri-Sige to guman graue ; 'Sset to Pippelbricge ; "Sset on 
Sene sic set "Ssere fulan sec; 'Sset to hseglea on 'Ssene 
bradan mere ; "Sset a be wyrtwalan to bromcumbes hea- 
fod; 'Sget on gerihtum to Abbendune to "Ssere port- 
strete ; "Sset andlang stret on hiwege ; ^38t to Ecgunes 
wyr^e ; 'Senne on baegan leah ; "Saet on scseceling secer ; 
"Sset ut on Stanford ; 'Sset to Mseg^e forda andlang lace 
ut on Temese; 'Sset on for^ mid streame wiS ufan 
miclan ige on Cearewyllan ; eft wi'S neo^an berige on 
Temese ; "Set -Ser up be streame ; "Sset on baegan broc ; 
"Saet on heafces oran ; ^set on holan dene ; ^set on 
Tidewaldes wylle ; andlang broces ut on Temese ; "Sset 
for^ mid streme o^ geafling lace; andlang lace eft ut 
on Temese ; -Sset up be streame on Occenes grestundic ; 
"Set a be die on Eccen ; ^set 'Ser up eft on Eccenforda. 
^"Seleainguude, Colmanora^ and Geatescumbe byren 
into ^ys twentigum hidura, "Sa ic sylf stundum gerad 
stundum gereow, and rumodlice gescarode me sylfum 
and minum foregengum and eftyrgengum to ecum 
rymete, for Gode and for worulde. Gyf hwa J7urh 
deofles lare genyrwe "Sset ic Gode and sancta Marian 
meaglum mode on ece yrfe geseald hsebbe, drihten his 
andweald geny^rige her and on ecnesse, nym'Se he 
mid fulre dsedbote geinnige "Sset he on urum drihtne 


MS. Cott. Claud. B. vi. 40. A.D. 955. 

K 1172. 


to his thane and relative, JElfheh 8 cassati at Cumton by 
Ashdown. Among the landmarks are the Icenhild way 
and Weland's smithy. 

»J< Anno ab incarnatione domini nostri Ihesu Christi Ego Eadred, diuina gratia fauente, rex et 

primicerius totius Albionis, aliquantulam ruris parti- 

culam j^Elfheho ministro meo, mihi propinquitate con- 

iuncto, sub aestimatione .viii. cassatorum in loco qui 

dicitur set Cumtune, iuxta montem qui uocatur iEs- 

cesdune, libenter admodum concessi, eo tenore huius 

munificentiae donum perstringens, ut post obitum suum 

in perpetuum ius cuicumque uoluerit haeredi derelinquat. 

Quod si quisque, quod non optamus, huiusce donationis 

cartnlam infringere temptauerit, ni prius in hoc saeculo 

digne castigetur, in futuro perenni cruciatu prematur. 

Et his limitibus haec telluris particula circumgyrari 

uidetur. Dis sint -Sses landes gem^ere set Cumtune. 

^Erest of hricgwege on ^aet wide geat ; of "San widan 

geate on ^E^elmes hlinc ; on forwerde dune of ^ESelmes 

hlince on Icenhilde weg; of Icenhilde wege on bican 

die ; of bican dice inon swynbroc ; of swynbroce on 

"Sone bradan )7orn be westan mere; of ^an |7orne on 

"Sa readan die ; andlang 'S^ere die on Hildes hlsew ; of 

Hildes hlffiwe on blsecpyt ; of blsecpytte andlanges "Ssere 

westran riscrgewe innan swynbroc; of swynbroce on 

read ; of rsede on Hwittuces hl^we ; on Icenhilde weg ; 

of Icenhilde wege on m seres crundel ; of mseres crun- 

delle on dinra beorh ; of dinra beorge on hricweg ; of 

hricgwege on fearnhylles slsed; of fearnhylles slade to 

hseslhylle su^eweardre; of hseslhylle west on iSone 


grenan weg* ; andlang weges to ^£ere gedrifouan fyrh ; 
andlang fyrh o^ hit cym^ on "Sset wide geat be eastaii 
Welandes smi'S^aii. Huius doni constipulatorum no- 
mina inferius notata uidentur. 

>I< Ego Oda archiepiscopus eonsensi. t^t Ego Wulf- 
stan archiepiscopus roboraui. ►J* Ego ^Elfsige epis- 
copus roboraui. >i< Ego ^Ifwold episcopus corroboraui. 
»I« Ego Wulfsige episcopus suppressi. ►J^ Ego Osulf 
episcopus annui. >}« Ego Byrhtelm episcopus constitui. 
>J< Ego Cenwold episcopus conspexi. >I< Ego Cynsige 
episcopus subscripsi. >J< Ego Leofwine episcopus eon- 
sensi. »J< Ego iE^elstan dux. *^ Ego Eadmund dux. 
>I< Ego ^Ifsige minister. >^ Ego ^"Selsige minister. 
1^ Ego ^Ifno'S minister. >J< Ego ^Ifgar minister. 
1^ Ego Byrhtfer^ minister. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 45. A.D. 955-6. 

Cott. Claud. C. ix. 110. 



granting to ^Selvvold abbot of Abingdon 20 cassates at 
three places, whereof two bear the familiar names of Hinksey 
and "Wytham, but the third is called SeofocanwyrtS^. 

IsTis terminis circumgyrata asseritur ante, scilicet, 
supra dicta terra. Dis sindon ^a landgem^ro "Sseses 
burlandes to Abbendune, "Sset is gadertang on J^reo 
genamod, ^aet is Hengestes ig and Seofocanwyr'S and 
Wihtham. ^rest on Meag'Se ford ; ^aet mid streame 
on Stanford ; for^ mid streame wi'Sutan Cytanigge 
on "Sa landlace ; of "Sere lace on scaecyling aecer ; ^aet on 
hiwege to yfemestan leage ; 'Saet on preosta leage ; 
'Sset to Catleage ; "Saet to cybban stane ; of "Ssem stane 


on "Sa )?ri6 gemteru ; -Saet innan ruwan leage to brogan 
gete ; -Saefc to sundran edisce on 'Sone greatan ]?orn ; 
of ^San ]7orne on cotan healas ; ^98t on Tiddancumb ; of 
^sen cumbe on Tetanhylle ; of Tytanhylle to -Ssen hea- 
fodwege ; ondlong cumbes to "Sgem hecce ; of Sam 
haeece to pa'Se stocce ; "Sset to plum leage ; 'Saet on 
Fri'Sela byrig ; Sset to ydyr leage ; of ydyr leage to 
"Sam stane ; "Sset on Temese set Eanfl^de gelade Sse 
amid streame 'Sset hit cym^S eft on Mseg'Sa ford. His 
autem uocabulis diuulgari uidentur termini agrorum, 
iiidelieet, praedietorum. 

*^* The date of this document, if genuine, is fixed to a few months. 
For Eadred died 23 Nov. 955; and Dunstan (who signs^ went into 
exile early in 956. Stubbs' Dunstan, pp. Ixxxvi, Ixxxix. The bishops' 
signatures are in agreement. 

^ I am informed by Mr. Mowat of Pembroke College that there is 
near Botley a farm now bearing the name of Seacourt, and that this is 
apparently a disguised form of Seckworth, the name (according to Pro- 
fessor Hussey) of a lost Saxon village, which can only be our Seofo- 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 46. 13 Feb. 956. 

Cott. Claud. C. ix. 111. 



ruler of all Albion, grants abbot ^EcSelwold a wood at 
Pangbourne of somewhat over 60 acres, to build the church 
of St. Mary at Abingdon. The bounds are as follows — 

yErest on Panganburnan ; tSaet on "Sa die ; "Saet a be 
die on •Ssene hagan ; "Sset on cristelmselbeam ; -Sset 
andlang hagan on ^a }>ornihtan leage; 'Sset forS on 
Brygford ; 'Sset a be hagan on stanwege ; of stanwege 
a be weortwalan on 'Sa flexsecyras ; 'Sset a be weortvvalan 
on masan mere ; of "Sam mere on Cu^ulfes cot stowe ; 

c c 


of 'Sam cot stowum on Panganburnan ; "Sset up mid 
streame eft on 'Sa die. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 75. A.D. 958. 

K 1218. 


rex et primicerius Merciorum grants to Eanulf a thane 14 
mansiunculse at Duclingtun. 

Dis sindon ^a landgemaero to Duclingtune .xiiii. 
hida and ^a ealdan cyricean set ^stlea and "S^rto .xl. 
^cera and Byrnan lea eal into Duclingtune. iErest of 
Duclingtune on wenrie ; andlang wenrices on 'Sone byge ; 
of 'Sam byge on ^a ealdan lace ; andlang lace on 
•Sa nor^ea ; andlang streames on Folgorhyrste neo'Se- 
wearde ; "Sonon on "Sa ealdan die ; andlang die ^set su^ 
eft on wsenric ; up ongean stream on 'Sone ealdan ford ; 
of "Sone forda up on 'Sa ri^e an furlang wr6 su^an "Sa 
cyrican ; andlang ri'Se on "Sa wurtwalan ; 'Sset ut J^urh 
'Sone hagan on burhdie ufeuuearde ; of 'Ssere die on "Sa 
ealdan rode ; of ^seve rode on Seottes healh ^ ; of ^am 
heale on Uuenburge byrgge ; of ^^ere brucge on "Sa die ; 
andlang dices on Easthsema gemsere; on -Sone bige; 
to "San heafdan ; on gatej^yrnan ; of 'Ssere )?yrnan on 
blace ]?yrnan ; on 'Sa die; of 'Ssere )?yrnan to uurtwalan. 
to ^an furan ; andlang fura on "Sa ealdan die to ^an 
ellene ; andlang dices to 'San o^ern ellene ; of ^an 
ellene to "Ssere apoldre ; "Sanon to ^glesuullan broce ; 
up ongean stream on Stanford ; of "San forda on fugel 
slsed ; of 'Sam slsede on eoluullan broe ; andlang broces 
on swyllan healas ; of 'San healain on Hastinges lace ; 
andlang lace on "Sone ea stream : and twegen hammas 
set Loppede^orne hyra^ into Duclingtune. 


* Scottes healh. An old Irish chapel ? and at a short distance an old- 
fasldoned Irish cross ? 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 63. A.D. 959. 



gives to St. Mary's, Abingdon, a charter of restitution for 
certain lands. 

Dis sind "Sa landgemsera to Gaing. ^Erest of Lilian 
Isewes crundle middewaerdan to Lodderebeorge ; ^onon 
to grenan lince westewardan ; of 'San lince to earnes 
dune westewserde ; ^onon to holan die eastwaerde ; 
andlang Ssere die twa furlang nor^weard ; "Sonne east 
be heafdan twa furlang andlang fura on "Sone lytlan 
wyl ; andlang wylles on Laeing broc ; andlang broees 
eft on Gseing broc ; andlang broees on "Sa sewylma ; 
"Sonne andlang hearpa'Ses on Frigedaeges treow ; of ^an 
treowe andliang weterdene west to Ssere deopan dene; 
of "Saere dene to "San readan stane ; of "Ssen stane eft on 
Lilian l^wes crundele. Dis sind ^a landgemaera to 
Gosige. ^rest on "Sa meerdic estwaerde ; 'Saet innan 
Tealeburnan ; andlang Tealeburnan "Saet innan Eccen ; 
andlang Eoccen "Saet innan "Sa maerdic ; of "Sa maerdlc 
•Saet innan Sa furh ; of "Sa furh 'Saet innan ^aet ri^Sig ; 
of ^am ri^ige "Saet innan landbroc ; andlang landbroces 
for^ onbuten "Sone ham ; eft on -Sa merdic estewearde. 
Dis sind 'Sa landgemaere to Wyr'Se. ^Erest of Eoccen 
on ^a gemaerlace ; andlang lace be westan Cearna graf 
be -San andheafdan to Eadulfes pytte ; ^onne andlang 
slaedes to 'San heafodaecere nor'Seweardon ; ^onon ond- 
lang aeceres to "San andheafdan ; ^aet to "San hge'San 
byrgeles on "Sa ealdan die ; andlang die to "Saen port- 
wege ; "Sonne on "Sa deopan furh ; "Sonne on ^a stan- 

C C 2 


bricge on Temese ; ondlang Temese to ^an )7ornstybbe 
set Cingtuninga gemsere ; 'Sonne to ^an hea'San byrg- 
elese; "Sonne on 'Sa meardic be eastan ^^Ifsiges cotan; 
andlang die a to ^an pse^e ; "Sonne ofer "Sone mor on 
^a heafda ; fet on "Sone wsenweg ; andlang weges to 
■S^m )7ornstybbe wi'S "Sone weg ; "Sonne on Eoccen on 
"Sset morsl^de estwserde ; andlong Eoccen "Sset eft on 
^a mserlace. Dis sind Sa landgemsera to Earmundes 
lea. iErest of Sandforda on "Sa fulen lace; andlang 
■Sses gemserhagan ut to "San eoten ; "Sonan andlang 
gemseres on heaseldic, andlang strsete ut on styrian pol ; 
andlang ^sere die east to Wasan ; Sonon on Hrocan- 
leage noi"Sew8erde, andlang die on ufewearde h^egdune ; 
"Sset up on Snoddes bylle ufewearde to "San haran stane ; 
•Sonon to "Ssen ealdan wulfhagan; "Sonne andlang 
slsedes "Saet to Iseces forda; "Sonne andlang Luccinges 
eft on Sandford. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 75. A.D. 962. 

K 1238. 


to his faithful thane Eadwine 20 mansse aet Mordune in 
perpetuity and utmost freedom. The bounds would probably 
afford good entertainment to the archaeologists of Bridge- 
north. It was Mr. Oswald Cockayne who first pointed out 
(Shrine, p. 161) the true locality, which Kemble had mis- 
taken. This terrier is repeated with variations, below, 
^t5elred, a.d. 1008. 

Dis sind "Sa landgemsero to Mordune. ^rest on 
higford ; of bigforda andlang Hreodburnan on Uuorf ; 
andlang stremes on Purtanige uuestwerdne ; on Puv- 
tanige nor"Seuuerdan eft ut on Worfe stream ; andlang 
streames on wudebricge ; ^anon ut on sesclace "Sser aesclace 


fyl'S ut on Wuorf; up ongean stream on "Saes langan 
furlanges eastende ; "Sanne east on "Sa ealdan die ; of 
"Ssere ealdan die on Grindewylles lace an furlang ; 'Sanon 
on j^tden psen on "Sone ellenstyb; "Sanon a be ecge 
on 'Sa medemunga ; of ^aere medemunge ni^er on ^one 
ealdan uui^ig on ^ttan pennes Isece ; "Sonon on hortan 
ford ; of "Son forde on filican slsed ; andlang slsedes on 
^one ealdan wylle ; -Sonne ut on lieaddan dune sized ; 
andlang slsedes o^ bradan weg ; of bradan wege and- 
lang" sl^edes ut on hagrford. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 70. A.D. 964. 



gentis Anglorum et barbarorum atque gentilium rex ac 
prgedux grants to his queen ^IfSryS land at Easton in or 
near Blewbury, Berks. 

Dis sind ^a landgemsera to Easttune. -^rest of hacce 
broce on rugan die ; ^onne andlang weges on -Sone 
fulan forda ; of ^an fulan ford on Eanulfing }7orn ; of 
^an )7orne on "Sone hwitan holan weg ; of "San hwitan 
wege andlang langan dune ^set eft on 'Sone stanihtan 
weg ; of ^an wege on "Sone crundel ; 'Sonon on gerihta 
on brochylle sl^d ; of ^an slade on hiccan ]7orn ; ^onon 
ofer Bleobyrigdune on haecceleas die ; ^onne andlang 
Saere die "Sset eft on haecce broc. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 86. About 977. 



giving to ^Ifstan (fidelis antistes) 13 mansae at Kingston 
Bagpuze on the Ock near Abingdon. The Si quis clause is 


even more than usually anathematic, and recalls the Inferno 
of Csedmon. 

f)is sind "Sa landgemsero to Cyng-estiine secer onder 
aBcere. -^rest of Eoccene on merej^orn ; of msdrepoYjie 
on "Sa heafodseceras ; -Sannon on Swanesig on ^one 
ealdan garan middewearde ; of ^an ealdan garan and- 
lang riht gemseres on j^lfre[de]s beorh; "Sset andlang 
riht gemseres innan Cyngestun ; andlang riht geri^ on 
■Sone pyt beneoSan Cyngestun ; swa andlang riht ge- 
mseres on 'Sone jjorn ; ut on Temese ; andlang Temese 
on 'Se ealda gemsera ; up andlang gemseres on iElf^ry'Se 
stan ; of "Sane stane andlang dice ; of "Ssere die andlang 
riht gemseres ; 'Sset eft on Eoccene. 

Translation : — These are the bounds at Kingston, field by field. 
First from Ock to meer-thom : from meer-tborn to headacres : thence 
to Swansey in the middle of the old gore : from the old gore right along 
the meer to Alfred's baiTow : so along the meer into Kingston : right 
along the brook to the pit below Kingston : so right along the meer to 
the thorn : out on Thames : along Thames to the old meers : up along 
the meer to iElfthrith her stone : from the stone along the dyke : from 
the dyke right along the meer, and so back again to Ock. 

*:it* The same bounds are given in another grant of land at Kingston, 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 96. A.D. 995. 

K 1289. 


grants to ^Selwig 5 mansi in Eardulfes lea, that had come 
into his hands by forfeit. The story is told in the deed of 
gift. There were three brothers living together, and a man 
of theirs stole a bridle ; the owners of the bridle captured 
the thief and found it upon him, and being assaulted by the 
masters of the thief (the three brothers), they fought, and two 
of the brothers were slain ; the third brother with the thief 
escaped and got into the church of St. Helen \ iEthelwig 
the sheriflf of Buckingham and Winsige the sheriff of Oxford 
allowed the slain men to have Christian burial, but Leofsige 
the ealdorman went to the king about it, and charged the 


sheriffs with miscarriage of justice. Ego autem nolens con- 
tristari JS^^elwig, quia mihi erat carus et preeciosus, una 
simul et sepultos cum christianis requiescere permisi, et 
praedictam terram eidem in hsereditatem concessi pei-petuam. 

Dis sindon "Sara f if hida landgemsera set Eardulfes 
lea. ^rest of 'Sare greatan die ^aet to -^^eluuoldes lea 
to "San landgemsere ; of ^an gemgere swa sefter dene in 
sexig broc ; of sexig broce "Saet into Uffewylle broce ; 
of "San broce ^iet on 'Sa grenan die; of ^sere die be 
su^an "Ssere eor^byrg ^set on Cwieelmes hlsew ; of 
^an hlavve "Sset on "Sa portstrsete ; of 'Ssere portstrsete "Sset 
wi^ lytle Ciltene an secer brsede ; "Sset on "Ssene grenan 
weg ''^ "Se seyt to hegforda ; sefter "San grenan wege 'Sset 
foran ongen Cynewynne wylle ; of 'Ssere wylle 'Sset into 
"SsJere greatan die ; andlang "Ssere d le -Sset into bunon ; 
andlang bunan 'Saet to 'San ealdan forda ; of "San forda 
fet into Eardulfes lea ; of 'San lea "Sset eft to ^are 
greatan die. 

^ Sanctse Helense. Probably the church at Abingdon. 

2 on Saene grenan weg. " Still called by the neighbours ' the Green 
Way ' ; being a part of what is called the Drover's Road, by which, 
until outdone by the rail, cattle from the west were driven, for many 
miles, turnpike free, and with peripatetic grazing" T. Kerslake, 
Vestiges of the Supremacy/ of Mercia, p. 55. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 100. A.D. 1002. 



basileus Anglorum granting 10 mansae called 'Hseseleia 
set tSan nytSeran tune,' to a faithful thane named Godwine, 
with all uses and rights and liberties, save the threefold 

Dis sind 'Sa landgemsera to 'San .x. hidan set Hsesellea 
to ^an ny^ran tune, ^rest on roppan forda ; 'Sset and- 
lang wiegan d ic ^set hit sticaS on wearra ford ; swa 


andlang mores o'S 'Sene bradan herepa-S ; 'Saet on -Ssera 
gecera heafada -Sset hit stica^ on Humbra ; andlang 
Humbra "Sset on roppan broc foron ongean stangedelf ; 
andlang ropan broces on hafocgelad ; eft andlang roppan 
broces "Sset hit cim^ on roppan ford ^ser hit ser onfeng. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 92. A.D. 1008. 


restores to the monastery of Abingdon an estate at Mordun 
which iElfgar his agent had wrested from that society for the 
king ; and he moreover adds thereto the gift of a homestead 
at Crocgelad. See above, Eadgar, a.d. 962. 

Dis sind ^a landgemaeru to Mordune. iErest on 
higford ; of higforda andlang Hreodburnan on Worf ; 
andlang streames on wurtanige westeweardne ; of wur- 
tanige nor^Seweardan eft ut on Worfe stream ; andlang 
streames on Wudebricge ; 'Sanon ut on sesclace ^ser 
easclacu fyl'S ut on Worf; up ongean stream on "Sies 
langan furlanges east ende ; -Sanon east on 'Sa ealdan 
die ; of ^£ere ealdan die on Grindewylles lace an fur- 
lang ; "Sanon on setten pen, on "Sone ellenstub ; "Sanon a 
be ecge on 'Sa medemunga ; of ^£ere medemungse ni^er 
on "Sone ealdan vvi^ig on setten pennes Isece ; "Sanon 
on hnottanford ; of "San forda on filican sljed ; andlang 
slsedes on "Sone ealdan wylle ; Sonon ut on headdandune 
slffid ; andlang slsedes o^ bradan weg ; of -San bradan 
wege andlang slades ut on higford, and senne hagan on 
Crocgelade ^e se cyncg ^£ert6 forgifen hsef'S. 


Cott. Claud. B. vi. 105. A.D. 1015. 

K 1310. 

grants to the bishop of Sherborne, episcopo qui ab ipsis suse 
cunabulis infantiae Bearhtuuold nuneupatur vocitamine, some 
land at Cildatun (Chilton, Berks) which had been forfeited 
by AVulfgeat, a thane. For the career of this man see 
Freeman, N. C. i. 355. 

Hits nam confiniis prsedicta cingitur terra, ^rest 
of Waddune andlang weges to 'San grestune ; swa and- 
lang ^8es grestunes die to "San wege on eastanwyr^e 
fene tun ; swa andlang weges to ^sere dice hyrnan ; 
swa andlang die innon "Ssene aesc ; of 'Sane sesce innon 
^ane ealdan msere ; of "Sane ealdan msere innon 'Sa braece ; 
of "San brsece andlang beces innon rodstubban ; swa of 
rodstybban to loddere j7orne ; swa of loddere J7orne to 
flecge stane ; of flecge stane to "San ferngaren ; of ^au 
ferngaran eft on Waddune to 'San ealdan bece. And 
•Sis sind "Ssere wudubaere landgemaru set Dseclege ^e 
herto hyra^. .^rest of "Sam haecce to Dudemaeres 
hele ; of Dudemeeres hele to merclege ; of merclege on 
stanlege ; of stanlege to ^2ere dunlege ; of ^ar dunlege 
swa eft innon ^ane hsecc. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 107. A.D. 1033. 



rex et primicerius tocius Albionis, grants to abbot Siward 
and his brethren at Abingdon, aliquantulam ruris particulam 
tribus comparatam cassatis in a place called Mytun (Mitton, 
Wore. K.) with all legal exemptions. 

His metis prsefatum rus hinc inde gyratur. Dis sind 
•Sara .111. hida landgemaera aet Mytune. iErest on 


leomenan a be healfon streame ; swa of leomanan on 
doddan Isew ; of 'Sam Isewe on "Sone haran ]?orn ; of 
"Sam ]7orne on "Sone bradan mere ; of 'Sam mere on 
tseceles broc ; a be healfon streame on Auene ; andlang 
Auene a be healfon streame eft on leomene. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 110. A.D. 1050. 



rex et primicerius totius Albionis regni, grants to the church 
at Abingdon eight mansse near the river Kennet, which 
Eadric quidam rusticus once had. See Coote, Romans of 
Britain y p. 372 sqq. 

IsTis terminis prsedicta terra circumgyrata esse ui- 
detur. iErest on Cynetan set Sceolles ealdeotan; "Saet 
up andlang stremes oS Eadgife gemsre ; swa nor'S in- 
nan Hyddene ; 'Sanon nor'S on lamburninga mserce ; 
swa est andlang mearce o^ ^Ifwiges m«re ; sw^a suS 
andlang gem^res on Hyddene ; swa suS be gemsere 
"Saet eft innan Cynetan strem. 

Cott. Claud. B. vi. 115. A.D. 1054. 

Cott. Claud. C. ix. 130. 



granting 3 mansse at Sandford to St. Mary of Abingdon; 
' in communi terra/ a Latin term for folc land (F. Pollock, 
Land Laws, p. 194); here rendered in corrupt Saxon by 
' on Sam gemannan lande.' 

Dis sind Sa landgemsera to Sandforda on -Sam ge- 
mannan lande. -^rest of stubbucwere ; swa norS aefter 
'Ssere Temese be healfan streme into Sandfordes laece; 
swa andlang "Sffire lace into Sandforda ; of Sandforda 


east andlang "Ssere lace up to fernniges lieafdon ; [of 
ferniges heafdon] up J7urh -Sone mor east into "Ssere 
strset ; and swa su^ andlang ^iere street into bealdan 
hema gemsere ; and swa west andlang gemaeres into 
niwanli^ma gemsere ; and swa andlang gemseres on 
suSewearde hochylle ; of hoehylle swa west on gerihte 
eft on stubbucwere. 


The ninth group is from the Cotton manuscript Nero, 
D. i. ; a book of well-defined date. It was written at St. 
Alban's, most of it under the direction of Matthew Paris 
the historian, who died in 1259, and it has corrections by his 
hand. We learn from Mr. Luard (Matthew Paris, Chronica 
Majora, Rolls Series, vol. vi.) that this book contains the 
Lives of the two OfFas in its earlier part, and that the re- 
maining part was used by the historian for the insertion of 
any document, so that the volume became a kind of common- 
place book, and continued to be so used in the monastery 
after the historian's death, even down to the 15th century. 
His own title for the book was Liber Additamentorum. 
Kemble took 15 documents from it; they are all in Latin, 
mostly with a strong family likeness in certain features; 
particularly they are apt to be narrative and explanatory.. 
As to their form, they are transparent fabrications ; but it is 
a separate question, how far the claims which they advance 
are sound. 

Cott. Nero. D. i. f. 148. May 792. 

K 161*. Birch 264. 

Of fa 

granting to St. Alban's land in divers places. After exalting 
the merits of the saint, he proceeds : — 

Unde ego Offa gratia dei rex Merciorum^ cum filio 


raeo Ecgfrido, pro amore omnipotentis dei et huius 
saiieti intercessione, terrain xxx. manensium in locis 
quorum subinferuntur nomina, domino meo Ihesu 
Christo ad aecclesiam sancti Albani, ubi ipse tyro pri- 
mus in passione uictima effectus est, iure perpetuo 
perdonabo. Eoque delectabilius banc donationem per- 
ficio, quia superna proteccio tarn nobile temporibus nos- 
tris thesauram quod diu fuit clausum et huius terrae 
indigenis abditum, reuelare dignata est. Haec itaque 
sunt supradictarum uocabula terrarum, aet Uuines- 
hauue xii. manensium cum terminis suis ; et Scelfdune, 
sine Baldinigcotum, trium manensium ; quorum scilicet 
trium manensium terminati sunt bee, Suanaburna, Heort- 
mere, Stretuuealebroc. Item uero x. manensium ubi di- 
citur Scuccanhlau, uel Fenntuun cum silua quae cogno- 
minatur Horwudu, cum terminis suis ; ^t Lygetune, V. 
manensium; quam uidelicet terram Alhmundus abbas, 
expeditionem subterfugiens, mihi reconciliationis gratia 
dabat . . . 

Perscripta est autem huius donationis cartula anno 
dominicae incarnacionis Dccxcv. indictione v. et regni 
Offanis xxxv. sub iiii. nonas Maias, in loco qui dicitur 
^t beranforda. 

Cott. Nero. D. 1. 148. A.D. 793. 

K162*. Birch 267. 

Of fa 

founding the Abbey of St. Alban's. 

>I« Regnante domino nostro Ihesu Christo in perpe- 
tuum ! Decet igitur ut regal is benignitas omnipotentis 
dei et sanctorum martyrum quantum ualeat honori 
preuideat. Quia honor dei, et pia in Sanctis eius 


deuotio, stabilitas est regni terreni, et prosperitas lon- 
g-aeuae uitae et indubitata aeternae mercedis retributio. 
Unde ego Offa rex Merciorum, cum Egfrido filio meo, 
et omni consensu synodali, pro remedio et salute ani- 
marum uostrarum, terrain quinquaglnta mansionum in 
locis infra dictis, id est, ubi dicitur aet Caegesbo, man- 
siones xxxiiii., on daet Heanhamstede, vi. mansiones 
et Stanmere .x. mansiones, cum segitibus, pratis, paseuis 
et siluis, et omnibus rebus mobilibus uel fixis, ad ea 
prenominata loca rite pertinentibus, domino meo Ihesu 
et sancto Albano martyri, cuius reliquias, in spem 
prosperitatis praesentis et futurae beatitudinis diuina 
ostendit nobis gratia, in ius monasteriale tradens donabo ; 
quatinus perpetuo iure prefata terra, saneti martyris 
Albani ecclesiae deseruiat. Et per magnum omnipo- 
tentis dei nomen et terribile eius iudicium adiuro, immo 
et impero, quod nullus superuenientibus temporibus, seu 
rex seu episcopus aut aliqua magna uel parua persona, 
aliquid de his meis donis quae deo et sancto martyri eius 
dedicauero, immutare, seu auferre, seu imminuere prae- 
sumptuose audeat ; ne aliquam molestiam aut ecclesiae 
aut siluis ad cam pertinentibus inferre presumat, sed 
sit libera omnino ab omni tributo, et necessitate, seu 
regis, seu episcopi, ducis, iudicum, comitum, exactorum 
etiam, et operum quae indici solent, necnon et expedi- 
tion is et omni edicto publico, perpetuo cam libertate 
donabo. Sed obsecro quatinus studeant superuenientes 
reges auxiliare, defendere, et curam illius ecclesiae 
habere in omni bonitate, sicut et ego habeo : ut sit illis 
et regno eorum benediccio et proteccio a domino deo et 
sancto eius martyre in perpetuum. Si autem quisquam 
loci huius curam non habuerit uel eum malitiose tracta- 
uerit, sciat et sentiat saneti martyris seipsum benedic- 


tione priuari et rationem ante tribunal Christi reddl- 
turum. Hoc uero monasterium cum his prefatis tern's 
Willigoda presbiter habeat et regat dies suos, et mona- 
chicam in eo uitam vivat doceat, et quantum ualeat 
erigat. Post dies autem illius, eligant sibi fratres 
cum consilio illius episcopi^ qui super eos erit, si habent 
dignum et monachicae uitae eruditum, ex semet ipsis 
quern uoluerint. Si autem, quod non opto, acciderit 
quod ibi dignus nequeat inueniri, preuideat ille episco- 
pus, cum consilio fratrum, qui illud monasterium digne 
secundum regulam monacbicae uitae gubernare sciat et 

lam iamque, iterum iterumque, in nomine domini pre- 
cipio et adiuro, quatinus in eo loco regula sancta Bene- 
dicti abbatis doceatur et exerceatur, quantum possibile 
est, perpetuo iure. Etsi ipsa elemosina oret ad dominum 
pro faciente, tamen obsecro ut assiduae intercessiones 
pro anima mea, et amicorum meorum, canonicis horis 
semper in ea ammoneantur ecclesia : quatinus omnipo- 
tentis dei dementia, quae tale thesaurum temporibus 
meis, gentibus et populis Anglorum aperire dignata est, 
mihi quoque aeternum coelis thesaurum cum Sanctis suis 
donare dignetur. Scripta est haec cartula anno domi- 
nicae incarnationis Dccxciii. indictione iii. anno uero 
OflPani regis Merciorum xxxvi. in loco celebri qui dicitur 
Celchythj praesente synodali conuentu, testibusque infra 
nominatis confirmata. Data die regnante domino nostro 
in perpetuum. 

>i< Ego Offa hanc donationem meam signo crucis 
Christo confirmo. >J< Ego Ecfridus similiter consentio 
et subscribo. ►{< Ego Ceoluulfus rex ad ipsum con- 
sentio. >I< Ego Cenuulfus rex consentio. >J< Ego 
Beornulfus rex. >I« Ego Ludecha rex. >it Ego 


Uuilaf rex. >I« Ego Ecgbirhtus rex. >J< Ego Beor- 
tulfus rex. >J< Ego Burhredus rex. *^ Ego Aelfredus 
rex. >J< Ego Higberctus arehiepiseopus consensi et 
subscripsi. t^t Signum Ae)7elheardi archiepiscopi. 
>I< Signum Ceolwulfi episcopi. >i< Signum Hunwone 
episcopi. >J< Signum Ceolmundi episcopi. »J< Signum 
Ealcheardi episcopi. »I< Signum Aelfhuni episcopi. 
>I* Signum Heaberti episcopi. ^ Signum Heathoredi 
episcopi. ^ Signum Cyneheardi episcopi. >J< Signum 
Deneferdi episcopi. >^ Signum Cenwalchi episcopi. 
>J< Signum Wermundi episcopi. >I< Signum Wiht- 
liuni episcopi. >J< Signum Wynberhti episcopi. 
>^ Ego Wicga dux. >J< Ego Ae)7emundus dux. 
»J< Hearbertus dux. »{« Brorda dux. >J< Binna dux. 
>^ Esne dux. t^ Heaberht dux. >J< Cudberht dux. 
>J< Ceol. >^ Aemund dux. ►$< Ceolweordus dux. 

^ The measure of respect and submission here accorded to the bishop 
may be a clue to the date of the composition. 

Cott. Nero. D. 1. 153. A.D. 1006. 

K 672*. 


conveying land to St. Alban' s. This is a specimen of his- 
torical argument, with an archeeological tinge. I omit the 
preamble which is formulated upon the approaching end of 
the world, and only give the body of the piece. 

QuAPROPTER ego ^'Selredus, sceptrigera ditione An- 
glis, caeterisque sistentibus in circuitu gentibus, uoce 
habitu morumque uarietate distantibus rex subthroni- 
zatus, ob meae remedium animulae et ob stabilimen- 
tum regni coelitus mihimet concessi, atque etiam ob 
maximae pecuniae pretium mihimet pro hoc ipso col- 


lato, condono ad sancti et eximii huius patriae pro- 
tomartyris Albani coenobium, quandam iuris mei 
portiunculam, cassatas equidem senas, binis in locis 
semotas, unam scilicet, ubi ab accob's usitato nomine 
dicitur Fleam stede, et quinque ubi noto uocitamine 
ob olim castellum iam pene dirutum Ausonica lingua 
dicebatur Uerulamium, quod nos uulgariter dicimus 
Waetlingaceaster, ubi et ipse sanctissimus Christi 
agonista uaria pro fide Christi sustulit tormentorum 
cruciamenta. Hoc sagaciter meo reuoluens animo 
iustius fore multo, locum in quo passus est, suo aeterna- 
liter mancipari coenobio almifico, quam diutius fisco 
regali uel cuilibet terreno audacter subiacere negotio. 
Decens est enim ut locus quem suo sacratissimo ago- 
nizans pro Christo aspersit et sacrauit cruore, ad ipsum 
perpetual! ter reuertatur locum, ubi et ipse martyrio 
expleto, capite truncato, brauium coeleste et immar- 
cessibilis uitae meruit coronam. Hoc nempe meae 
dapsilitatis emolumentum libens sub aeternali libertate 
liberum concedo, sicut abauus praedecessor mens Offa, 
scilicet, rex inclitus, omnia quae ipse ad ipsum coe- 
nobium contulit libertate ditauit. Eadem inquam 
libertate non solum banc possessiunculam libera m libens 
statuo, sed etiam quicquid a meipso uel a qualibet per- 
sona maiori sine minori ab heri et nudiustertius, et exin 
usque ad terminum istius transitorii regni, uitaeque 
labantis extrema datum fuerit ad supradicti martyris 
tumbam, sub hac libertatis et renouationis cartula 
aeternali libertate permaneat liberum. Et ne forte quis 
praesentium uel magis futurorum ambiget quae sit ilia 
libertas, qua ipsum coenobium rex beneuolus Offa 
ditauit, et egomet nunc confirmando renouaui, dicam 
plane, quod omnimodis cuncta illius monasterii pos- 


sessio nuUis est obnoxia fiscis, scilicet, nee expeditionis, 
nee pontis et arcis aedificamine, nee iuris reg-alis frag- 
mine, nee furis apprehensione, et ut omnia simul com- 
prehendam, nil debet exsolui, uel regis praeposito, uel 
episcopi, uel ducis, uel uUius hominis, sed omne debitum 
exsoluant iugiter, qui in ipsa possessione faerint, ad 
praedicti martyris mausoleum, secundum quod ordinau- 
erit abbas, qui ipso praefuerit coenobio. Notum etiam 
uobis cupio fore quantum pretium pro hoc ipso abbas 
ipsius coenobii nomine Leofricus mihimet contulit, 
quando illud graue uectigal Danis exsoluebamus ; prae- 
stitit nempe mihi ducentas libras auri et argenti, ex 
appensione Danorum, et pro foenore ipsius pretii accepit 
a me uillam quae dicitur Eadulfinctun, quinquaginta 
quinque mansas habens, et has etiam sex mansas. Et 
nunc gratanter ipse mihimet mente beneuola reddit prae- 
dfctas quinquaginta quinque mansas, et contentus est in 
ipsis sex mansis, pro ducentis libris ; ideoque hanclibertatis 
et renouationis scedulam facilius adeptus est. Permaneat 
itaque praedicta possessio, cum omnibus utensilibus ad 
se rite pertinentibus, sub praedictae liber tatis chirogra- 
pho uoti compos. Et quisquis nostrae hoc liberali tatis 
donum augmentare mente maluerit iocunda, sentiet se 
donis per hoc locupletari diuinis. Si autem, quod absit, 
uspiam quis laruarico attactus instinctu mente hoc sub- 
dola machinatus fuerit adnullare, uel quippiam in peius 
quam constituimus transuertere, sua pro audacia a coetu 
in hac uita anathematizetur fidelium, et m tremendo dei 
examine astantibus coelorum agminibus hominumque 
turmis, necnon et horrendis Erebi uernulis palam 
cunctis damnetur cum haedis, auerni cruciamenta sine 
fine luiturus, ni ante obitum condigne emendauerit. 
Scripta est autem huius libertatis cartula decursis annis 



ab incarnatione Christi .Dcccc.xc. iiouenis terque binis 
in cursu millenario equidem sexto, his testibus fauenti- 
bus quorum hie dignitates cum onomate contemplari 

Cott. Nero D. i. f. 148b. A.D. 996. 

Cott. Nero D. i. f. 152b. 


^^el red 

king of all Albion, &c., reendows the monastery of St. 
Alban's and appeals to an old charter given by Offa. 

^ Omnipotentta diuinae maiestatis inefFabiliter 
uniuersa gubernante ! Licet regalium dignitatum de- 
creta, et antiqua priorum temporum priuilegia, per- 
manente integritatis signaculo fixa iugiter ac firma 
perseuerent ; attamen quia plerumque tempestates et 
turbines saeculi fragilem humanae uitae cursum puls- 
antes contra superna dominicae sanctionis iura illidunt, 
iccirco stili officio renouanda et cartarum suffragiis sunt 
roboranda, ne forte successura posterorum progenies, 
ignorato praecedentium patrum chirographo, inextrica- 
bilem horrendi barathri uoraginem incurrat ; nee inde 
libera exire queat, donee iuxta ueritatis sententiam 
cuncta usque ad nouissimum quadrantem debita plenis- 
sime reddat. Quapropter ego -^"Selredus, totius 
Albionis caeterarumque gentium in circuitu persisten- 
tium, munificente superno largitore basileus, incertum 
futurorum temporum considerans euentum, cunctisque 
succedentibus desiderans esse consultum, et ut ipse in 
tremendo magni iudicii die, sanctorum patrociniis 
suffragan ti bus haereditatis supernae cohaeres effici merear, 
dec omnipotenti, et sancto Albano gentis Anglorum 


profcomartyri, Christoque seruienti monachorum familiae 
celebri in loco qui solito set Uueatlingaceastre nuncu- 
patur uocabulo, octo mansarum portionem, duobus in 
locis aeqna dimensione sitam, .1111°'. uidelicet set Byrstane, 
similiter et .nii°'. aet Uuincelfelda, cum nouem praefatae 
ciuitatis habitaculis, quae patria lingua Hagan appellari 
Solent, octoque iugeribus set Westuuican, ad idem 
monasterium aeque pertinentibus, deuota mente secun- 
dum pristinum renouando restituo, et restituendo in 
nomine domini nostri Ihesu Christi praecipio, ut nullius 
altioris aut inferioris dignitatis persona, aut in nostris 
sine successorum nostrorum temporibus, banc quam 
praefatus sum portionem de praedicta sancti martyris 
aecclesia auferre uel minuere qualibet occasione prae- 
sumat ; sed hoc meae renouationis inuiolabili iugiter 
permanente, et contra omnia aemulorum machinamenta 
praeualente chirograpbo, praedictum monasterium ab 
omni mundanae seruitutis iugo, sicut continetur in 
ueteri cartula quam Offa rex Merciorum dictitando con- 
posuit, et fecit esse priuilegium ob monimentum omnium 
succedentium regum de omnibus rebus quas deo tradidit 
et sancto martyri Albano pro remedio animae suae. 
Iccirco, ego tali prouocatus exemplo, renouare cupiens, 
statuo ut quaecumque praedictus rex decreuit, inconcussa 
et firma perpetualiter perdurent ; et nostra auctoritate, 
omnia a nobis tradita, una cum omnibus quae ad sanctum 
ipsum locum pertinere dignoscuntur, campis, pascuis, 
pratis, siluis, eatenus sint libera, eadem libertate qua 
praediximus, ut inibi deo famulantes, tam pro meis 
quam pro omnium praedecessorum meorum deliquiis, 
sine ulla terreni potentatus molestia, cotidie saluberrima 
missarum solennia omnipotenti deo celebrent, et dul- 
cissimas psalmorum modulationes ore et corde decant- 

V d 2, 


antes, armis spiritualibus contra uisibiles et inuisibiles 
hostes, pro nobis et pro omni populo cbristiano dimicare 
non cessent, quatenus eiusdem beati martyris inter- 
cedentibus meritis, sine in praesenti, sine in futura, sine 
in utraque uita, Christo pro nobis uirtutem faciente, 
uictoriam quandoque de inimicis nostris, uoti compotes 
adipisci mereamur. Si quis autem, maligno spiritu 
instigante, huic decreto repugnare temptauerit, sciat se 
alienum esse a consortio sanctae dei aecclesiae, et partici- 
patione sacrosancti corporis et sanguinis domini nostri 
Ihesu Christi ; et in nouissimo tremendi iudicii die, 
nouerit se in inferno inferiori, et in aeterna damnatione 
mergendum, et per auctoritatem praefati martyris, sciat 
se absque uUo termino sine fine cruciandum, nisi digna et 
congrua satisfactione citius emendauerit quod contra 
deum et sanctum martyrem eius delinquere non timuit. 
Anno dominicae incarnationis .dcccc.xcvi, indictione 
.VIII. scriptum et renouatum est huius libertatis chiro- 
graphum, his testibus consentientibus quorum inferius 
nomina secundum uniuscuiusque dignitatem ordinata 

»J« Ego ^^elredus Anglorum basiieus banc reno- 
uationis et libertatis cartam scribere iussi. >J< Ego 
^Ifricus Dorouernensis aecclesiae archiepiscopus huic 
scedulae signaculum sanctae crucis imposui. >^ Ego 
Ealdulfus Eboracensis aecclesiae archiepiscopus huic 
diffinitioni consentaneus extiti. >J< Ego -^Ifheah Uuin- 
toniensis aecclesiae episcopus huic chirographo similiter 
assensum praebui. >I< Ego Uulfstan episcopus consensi. 
>J< Ego ^Ifheah episcopus corroboraui. »J< Ego A'Sulf 
episcopus consignaui. >{< Ego Wulfsige episcopus con- 
solidaui. >i< Ego Ordbriht episcopus consigillaui. >J< 
Ego Goduuinus episcopus confirmaui. >J< Ego Ealdred 


episcopus conclusi. >^ Ego ^IfSryS regina. >J< Ego 
jElfuueard abbas. >I< Ego ^Ifsige abbas. >J< Ego 
Uulfgar abbas. >J< Ego Leofric abbas. >J< Ego 
^Ifhere abbas. »J< Ego iElfuuold abbas. >J< Ego 
ErihtncS abbas. >J< Ego Kenulf abbas. >{< Ego iE-Sel- 
weard dux. Ego ^Ifric >J< dux. Ego -^Iflielm >^ dux. 
Ego Leofsige >J< dux. Ego ^^elmaer >I< minister. 
Ego Ordulf 1^ minister. Ego Wulfricus >{< minister. 
Ego Wulfgeat >i< minister. Ego Wulfheah >I< minister. 
Ego Brihtmser >{< minister. Ego Leofwine >J< minister. 
Ego ^'Selweard >{< minister. 

*:ic* If this is a genuine document, or the representative of such, it 
is probably the source from which the two preceding have been derived. 

Cott. Nero D. i. f. 150 b. T.B.E. 

K 945. 

Oswulf and M^elgy^ 

arrange to enter into fraternity with abbot Leofstan and the 
monks of St. Alban s. This is one of those charters of fra- 
ternity which by the fourteenth century had become a 
mark for the satirist. See Piers P. (C) iv. 67 and Skeat's 
note. A much older example than this may be seen in 
K 226. The arrangement is that the estate is to be vested 
at once in the abbey, but the donors are to enjoy it for their 
time, paying a yearly acknowledgment to the abbey, which 
has it entirely after their death. As a seal of this covenant 
planted on the soil of the place, a church under the name of 
St. Alban is to be built in the village, and the abbot is to 
grant the timber for the structure. The witnesses are nob 
only certain persons by name, but also the whole congrega- 
tion that assembled to the dedication of this church and 
said Amen to the conveyance. 

>^ Haec est cartula quae demonstrat conuentionem 


illam quam fecerunt Oswulfus et ^^ili'Sa uxor sua cum 

domino abbate Leofstano et monacbis aecclesiae sancti 

Albani, quando introierunt in fraternitatem illorum. 

Dederunt autem inprimis Oswulfus et JE'Seli^a uxor 

sua domino abbati Leofstano et monacbis aecclesiae 

sancti Albani ad introitum fraternitatis eorumdem 

propter caritatem .xx*\ solidos, obtuleruntque deo ac 

sancto eius martyri Albano cum magna deuotione illam 

terram quae dicitur set Stodbam sicuti ipsi illam ea die 

melius possiderent. Idque factum est cum consensu ac 

licentia regis Eadweardi atque reginae EadgySae, scilicet 

ut et ipsi participes essent istius doni et retributionis 

eiusdem consortes in regno coelorum. Ipsi autem, 

scilicet Oswulfus et j^'Seli'Sa, boc donum deo et sancto 

fecerunt Albano pro animabus eorum cunctorumque 

consanguineorum suorum, quatinus in futuro iudicio 

ueniam mereantur percipere peccatorum ; specialius 

tamen ilia nobi[li]s matrona, uidelicet ^'Seli'Sa, banc 

donationem fieri obtinuit a praesente domino suo, boc 

est Oswulfo, pro anima prioris domini sui Ulfi qui 

sibi illam tribuit uillam. Postea autem rogauerunt 

ambo dominum abbatem Leofstanum ut dedisset eis 

ligna ad aedificandam in eadem uilla aecclesiam in 

honore domini nostri Ihesu Christi et sancti Albani, ut 

et baec aecclesia sibi in specialissimum fieret proprietatis 

signum, et ut ex ilia die ob nullius euentum causae 

eam uUo modo amplius sanctus perdere posse Albanus ; 

ea tamen conditione, ut quamdiu illi uiuerent terram 

illam in suum usum haberent, cum licentia domini 

abbatis Leofstani simul et monacborum ; et hoc tali 

pacto, quod ob istius rei agnitionem unoquoque anno ad 

uictum proprie monacborum .xx. solidos darent quamdiu 

superstites ipsi fuissent. Huius rei testes sunt, 


Wulfwius episcopus, Bondius stabulator, Burhredus, 
Eadwinus eiusdera filins, Godricus tribunus, ^Ifstanus 
uicecomes, Leofwinus de Cadendune, caeteraque innu- 
merabilis multitudo utriusque sexus ac diuersae aetatis 
qui ad dedicationem supradictae aecclesiae fuerunt, 
coram quibus omnibus utique dixerunt : ' Notum uobis 
cunctis omnibusque hominibus esse uolumus quod nos 
hodie, uidelicet ego Oswulfus et iE'Seli'Sa uxor mea, deo 
sane toque eius martyri Albano istam terram uidelicet 
Stodham, damus in perpetuam haereditatem, in prae- 
sentia domini Wulfwii episcopi et fratrum aecclesiae 
sancti Albani qui hie assunt modo nobiscum.' Ad 
quorum uocem, imposito silentio, coram omni populo 
episcopus Wulfwius alta uoce respondens dixit, * Qui- 
cunque hoc dono sanctum priuauerit Albanum sciat se 
in futuro dei iudicio cum luda saluatoris nostri proditore 
perpetualiter condemnaturum fore ; nosque ilium tamen 
tamque praesumptuosum ex auctoritate dei omnipotentis, 
patris et filii et spiritus sancti, et sanctorum canonum 
et nostri ministerii excommunicamus et a consortio 
tocius christianitatis et a liminibus sanctae aecclesiae 
sequestramus, donee terram sancto martyri reddat 
Albano.' Cui cuncti qui aderant ^ Amen ' responderunt. 


This group is from MS. Lambeth 1212, which is 
described by Kemble as 'an ancient Abstract from the 
registers of Christ Church, Canterbury.' It is in writing of 
the time of Edward I., perhaps near the close of the 13th 
century." With this group is joined (provisionally) a docu- 
ment on a separate sheet, Cott. Aug. ii. 67. 


MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 305. A.D. 687. 


Ceadwala of Wessex 

grants land to Christ Church at Canterbury. 

>J< Anno dominicae incarnationis .dc.lxxxvii. Ego 
Ceodwala rex cum coniuge mea Kenedri^a concedimus 
tibi pastor Theodore archiepiscope et familiae aecclesiae 
Christi in Dorobernia terram iuris nostri nomine 
Geddingge et Uudetun, scilicet terram iiii. aratrorum 
pro spe salutis aeternae, liberam ab omni saeculari 
seruitio, exceptis expeditione, pontis et arcis constructione. 
Si quis eas a iure praedictae aecclesiae auferre conatus 
fuerit, nisi deo et hominibus satisfaciat, perpetuo anathe- 
mate feriatur ; ad cumulum autem confirmationis ego 
Cenuualh cespitem praedictae terrae super sanctum 
altare saluatoris posui, et propria manu, pro ignorantia 
litterarum, signum sanctae crucis expressi et subscripsi. 

Ashburnham (Stowe), No. 1. July 697. 

MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 305. 
K43. Birch 97. 


king of the Cantware, grants land to the church of St. Mary 
at Lyminge. The ancient deed exists as above. 

>i< In nomine dni di nostri ihu xpi Ego uihtredus 
rex cantuariorum prouidens mihi in futuro decreui dare 
aliquid omnia mihi donanti et consilio accepto bonum 
uisum est conferre bassilicae beatae mariae genitricis di 
quae sita est in loco qui dicitur limingae terram .iiii. 
aratrorum quae dicitur Uuieghelmes . tun . cum ohmibus 
ad eandem terram pertinentibus iuxta notissimos termi- 


nos id est bereueg et meguines paed et stretleg- . quam 
donationem mea uolo firmam esse in perpetuum ut nee 
ego sen heredes mei aliquid minuere praesumant. Quod 
si aliter temptatum fuerit a qualibet persona sub anatbe- 
matis interdictione sciat se praeuaricari ad cuius con- 
firmationem pro ignorantia litterarum »{< signu scae 
crucis expressi et testes idoneos ut subscriberent rogaui 
id est berichtualdum arcbiepiseopu uirii uenerabile. 

>I< Ego berichtualdus episc rogatus consensi et sub- 
scribsi. >J< Signum manus uibtredi regis. >{< Signum 
manus aedilburgae reginae. >{< Signum manus enfridi. 
>I< Signum manus aedilfridi. i^ Signum manus hagana, 
>i« Signum manus botta. »{< Signum manus bern- 
haerdi. >}< Signum manus tbeabul. >I< Signum manus 
frodi. >}< Signum manus aebcha. >J< Signum manus 
aessica. >J< Signum manus adda. >I« Signum manus 
egisberichti. actum in mense iulio indictione . x ma. 

Endorsed : — " Daes landes boc set berdelhames wicum nunc wigel- 
mignctun/' and " Wichtredus rex Ca'. ad ecclesiam de Liming Wiel- 
mestun .iiii. arat'." Birch. 

MS. Lamb. 1212. p. 310. A.D. 747. 

K 1004*. Birch 173. 


king of Kent granting to the abbot of Reculver the dues of 
one ship at Fordwich. 

>J< Anno dominicae incarnationis .dcc.xlvii. ego 
Eadbertus rex Cantiae cum consensu optimatum meo- 
rum, Bregowini arcbiepiscopi et caeterorum principum 
meorum, concedo aecclesiae quae est apud E-aculfe, et 
tibi Deneheah abba tuaeque familiae, pro salute ani- 
mae meae, uectigal et tributum unius nauis in portu 


ac uilla quae dicitur Forduuic, ad opus, ut praefatus 
sum, familiae sanctae Mariae quae in iamnominata 
aecclesia deo seruiunt. Simulque praecipio in nomine 
omnipotentis dei praefectis, praepositis, et actionariis, 
et omnibus fidelibus qui in illo porfcu habent uel habituri 
sunt aliquam potestatem, ut haee mea donatio sit stabilis 
et firma imperpetuum. Quod si aliquis, quod absit, 
hoc meum donum uiolare praesumpserit_, a deo et Sanctis 
eius separatus, diabolo et angelis eius sit coniunctus. 
Quod si una nauis praedictae familiae perierit collisione, 
fractione, aut uetustate, iterum restituant aliam, et 
eadem conditione habeant, et sic in perpetuum. 

MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 323. About 747. 

K1005. Birch 176. 


king of Kent to Eadbert, abbot of Keculver, granting land 
at Perhamstede. 

»J< Ego Eardulfus rex Cantiae tibi uenerabilis Ead- 
berte abba, tuaequae familiae consistenti in loco qui 
dicitur Raculf, concedo terram unius aratri in loco 
qui nominatur Perhamstede, cum omnibus ad eam 
pertinentibus, liberam ab omnibus saecularibus ser- 

MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 310. A.D. 784. 

K1013. Birch 243. 


king of Kent to Wetred, abbot of Reculver, land at Scildwic. 

i^t Anno dominicae incarnationis .dcc.lxxxiiii. Eg-o 
Ealhmund us rex Cantiae do tibi Wetrede honorabili 
abbati tuaeque familiae degenti in loco qui dicitur 


Raculfcestre terrain duodecim aratrorum quae dicitur 
Seildwic, cum uniuersis ad earn rite pertinentibus, libe- 
ram ab omni saeculari seruitio et ab omni regali tribu- 
te, exceptis expeditione, pontis et arcis constructione. 
Si quis, quod absit, contra hoc donum meum facere 
temptauerit iram omnipotentis dei incurrat, et cum 
impiis et peccatoribus fiammis ultricibus sine fine damp- 

1^ Ego lambertus archiepiscopus Canciae banc regis 
donationem et excommunicationem consentiens et sub- 
scribens confirmo. 

MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 310. A.D. 791. 

K 1014. Birch 263. 


granting to Christ Church land of his right in the province 
of Kent. 

^ Anno dominicae incarnationis .dcc.xci. Ego Ofia 
rex concedo aecclesiae Christi Cantuariae terram iuris 
mei quindecim aratrorum in prouincia Cantiae, in hiis 
postnominatis locis, id est, Socham, Perhamstede, Ro- 
cinga, et in saltu qui dicitur Andred ad pascua porcorum 
in hiis locis Dinuualingden, Sandhyrste, Suui'Selmingden, 
et in siluis quae dicuntur Bocholt et Blean Heanhric, 
et aliud inter torrentem nomine Nor'Sburnan et Hagena- 
treou, et pastum unius gregis iuxta Deningden, et .l. 
porcorum binnan Snsede. Hanc praedictam donationem 
uobis concedo, cum omnibus ad eam rite pertinentibus, 
quamdiu tibi uita comes fuerit, liberara ab omni regali 
tributo ; et post obitum cuicumque placuerit danda cum 
praedicta libertate. Si quis uero hoc donum meum 
infringere temptauerit^ perpetuo anathemate feriatur. 


MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 315. A.D. 809. 

K1025. Birch 329. 

Cenulf of Mercia 

conveying to Abp. "Wulfred land for a sum of money weighed ; 
and other land for the church. 

>J< Anno dominicae incarnationis .dccc.ix. Ego 
Cenulfus rex Cantiae concede Wlfredo archiepiscopo 
dilecto mihi terram iuris mei septem aratrorum quae 
dicitur Bereham, pro eius competenti pecunia, id est 
triginta libris denariorum. Item in alio loco in Cantia 
dedi eidem uenerabili uiro ad opus praefatae Christi 
aecclesiae et monachorum ibidem deo seruientium 
terram uiginti quinque iugerum nomine Ibbinetun 
liberas ab omnibus saecularibus anxietatibus, exceptis 
communi expeditione, pontis et arcis constructione. 

MS. Lamb. 1212. p. 320. A.D. 835. 

K 1043. Birch 414. 

Abbess Cyneuuara 

grants to Hunbert land at Wirksworth, for which he is to 
pay a yearly rent in lead for the church at Canterbury. 

>J< Anno dominicae incarnationis .dccc.xxxv. ego 
Cyneuuara abbatissa concede Hunberto duci terram 
iuris mei nomine Wyrcesuur"Se, ea conditione ut omni 
anno det aecclesiae Christi in Dorobernia pro gablo 
plumbum trecentorum solidorum ad opus aecclesiae 
eiusdem archiepiscopo Ceolno^o et successoribus eius. 
Hoc donum meum de praedicta uilla praefata aecclesia 
in perpetuum omni anno habeat. Si quis banc meam 
donationem Christi aecclesiae in Dorobernia abstulerit, 
perpetuo anathemate percussus, diabolus eum possideat 
in societate suorum. 


MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 320. A.D. 844. 

K 1047. Birch 446. 


confirming a grant of land by Osulf to Christ Church. 

»I< Anno dominicae incarnationis .dccc.xliiii. prae- 
sente ^'Seluulfo rege et ^^elstano filio eius, Ceolono'So 
quoque archiepiscopo, et Tatno^o presbytero tunc quidem 
electo ad episcopatum Dorobreui, id est ciuitas Rofi, 
confirmatura est donum Osuulfi ducis quod dedit aeccle- 
siae Christi in Dorobernia, hoc est Estre Stanhamstede, 
quam terram praefatus rex iE-Seluulfus proclamauit 
liberam ab omni saccular! seruitio, exceptis expeditione, 
pontis et arcis constructione. 

MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 321. A.D. 895. 

K 1072. Birch 572. 


the archbishop, granting land to Christ Church. 

»J< Anno dominicae incarnationis .Dccc.xcv. Ego 
Plegomundus, gratia dei, archiepiscopus concedo aec- 
clesiae Christi terram quae uocatur Wefingemerse, iuxta 
flumen quod uocatur Rumenea, liberam ab omni 
saeculari grauitate, exceptis expeditione, pontis et arcis 

MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 321. A.D. 023. 

K1098. Birch 637. 


archbishop ; his purchases of land. 

>I< Anno dominicae incarnationis .dcocc.xxiii. "Wlfel- 
mus archiepiscopus comparauit undecim agros mille 


denariis puri argenti iuxta stratam quae dicitur Ealdan- 
strate, in occidente Haeuuiningland, in aqnilone Cingesdic. 
Item comparaui quosdam agros qui ab incolis nomi- 
nantur Wadland, et Wlfre^ingland, iuxta locum qui 
nominatur Ri'Serceap. Hiis terminis circumdatur prae- 
nominata terra. In oriente, publica strata ; in australi 
parte, terra Brihtulfi ; in occidente, ciuitas Doroberniae ; 
in acquilone, Burhuuare bocaceras. 

MS. Lamb. 1212, p. 323. A.D. 948. 

K 1160. 


grants to the Metropolitan Church the manor of Twickenham, 

>^ Anno dominicae incarnationis .dcccc.xlviii. Ego 
Eadredus rex, pro amore dei, ad profectum animae meae, 
oflPero munusculum sanctae metropolitanae aecclesiae in 
Dorobernia ciuitate, uillam scilicet nomine Tuuicaham, 
in prouincia Midlesaxonum, super fluuium Tamisiam 
sitam, cum omnibus ad earn rite pertinentibus, liberam 
ab omni saeculari grauitate et fiscali tributo, exceptis 
expeditione, pontis et arcis constructione. Si quis 
cuiuslibet sexus, ordinis, uel dignitatis, hoc memoriale 
meum corrumpere temptauerit, deleatur memoria eius 
de libro uitae, et robur eius sine refrigerio aeternaliter 

Cott. Aug. ii. 67. Pentecost, 966. 

Canterbury Chart. C. 207. 
T. p. 218. 


granting to the monks of Canterbury the vill of Sandwich 
with all its liberties and royalties. This is a forgery, and 
yet it claims no more than actual right. Here we see the 


studious insertion of scraps of history which the artist had 
got up for the occasion. He had learnt that Acemanceaster 
had a famous Pentecost in the days of Eadgar ; and that 
Eadgar had been waited upon by subject kings at Chester ; 
and accordingly he brings in Kenneth king of Scots ; Maccus 
king of the Isle of Man and the Hebrides ; Dufnal king of 
Strathclyde ; and lukil king of Westmoreland : and he dates 
his composition, Whitsuntide, Bath. He has managed to 
avoid mistakes in the signatures of the bishops. 

»i< In nomine sanctae et indiuiduae Trinitatis ! Ego 
Eadgarus rex et basileus totius Angliae diuino instinc- 
tus admonitu, et sanctae Dorobernensis aecclesiae an- 
tistitis Dunstani precibus saepius exhortatus, reddo et 
concedo sanctae Dorobernensi aecclesiae et monachis 
ibi seruientibus deo, in puram elemosinam, portum et 
uillam de Sanduuic, eisdem monachis olim ablatam, 
cum omnibus libertatibus et consuetudinibus regiis ad 
Sanduuic pertinentibus, quae ego aliquando habui, uel 
aliquis antecessorum meorum, ex utraque parte aquae 
cuiuscumque terra hinc uel inde fuerit. Praeterea con- 
firmo eis omnes mansiones quas habent in uilla de 
Sanduuic, quae eis collatae sunt in puram elemosinam 
a fidelibus. Unde uolo quod nullus ibidem habeat 
aliquod ius nisi tantum monachi nostri de Dorobernia. 
Quicunque autem banc meam largifluam munificentiam 
interrumpere aut uiolare praesumpserit, indignationem 
domini nostri et sanctae Mariae et sanctorum omnium, 
qui in Dorobernensi aecclesia requiescunt, sentiant, nisi 
ante mortem emendati fuerint. 

Ego Eadgarus rex totius Angliae huic codicello meo 
signum sanctae crucis propria manu apposui >J<. Ego 
Kinath rex Scotorum subscripsi »^. Ego Maccus rex 
insularum uidi >J<. Ego Dunstanus Dorobernensis ar- 
chiepiscopus subscripsi >{<. Ego ^^elwoldus Uuin- 


toniensis antistes consensi >I<. Ego Malcolm rex 
Cumbrorum subscripsi )^. Ego Dufnal uidi ►$<. Ego 
Oskitellus Eboracensis archiepiscopus subscripsi >^. 
Ego Osuualdus Uuigorniensis episcopus consensi i^. 
Ego Kineuuardus abbas Mideltunensis subscripsi >!<• 
Ego lacob subregulus signum apposui >J<. Ego lukil 
subregulus signum apposui i^. Ego Siferch subregulus 
signum sanctae crucis apposui in festo Pentecostes in 
ciuitate Acamanni >{<. dcccclxvi. 


This group is from a roll in the British Museum, marked 
Cotton Eoll ii. ii ; it is nearly five feet long, and contains 
twenty-one documents, all relating to Crediton. The writing 
indicates the close of the thirteenth century, and the docu- 
ments here printed are the first five upon the roll. They 
are not in Kemble or Thorpe ; but the whole roll was com- 
mented upon in the Journal of the Archaeological Associa- 
tion, vol. xviii ; and later Mr. Davidson made these five the 
subject of a study in the Transactions of the Devonshire 
Association for 1878. It is from his pages that the text, 
translations, and notes are here reproduced, with alterations. 


A.D. 938-9. 

A declaration by JE'^elgar, the second bishop of Crediton 
(934-953) ; of the pardons or indulgences which he had 
obtained for all benefactors of Crediton minster. The man- 
ner of his procuring them was remarkable ; and it happened 
in the days of king Athelstan (as so many other apocryphal 
benefactions did) ; and he was much assisted by pope Leo. 
There were two popes of that name during the reign of 

Hich^ egger bischob be bude^ alle mine afther co- 
mende to cridintones ministre . ]?at |7e geuenisse ^ ]>at 


hich be het * afther J7at J^at hich for soc samte marie 
ministre for mire pride and to rome hy wende ^ . and 
]?ar hich hontromede*^ sove yer and more an thar me 
bifore hylomp . ]>e reue quene on heuene marie . ad ne- 
dede me to scrifte go . to ]?an holiapopa leon and be his 
lore do. And he me radde anbidia ones similissamuis "^ 
on rome . and behithe ^ to giuenisse to bote mire mere 
leuedie ^ and to mire cherche. And "par hich be geth ^^ 
of souentine archebischobes to J^ousent dages to giuenesse 
of hure sinna . alle )?ane ministre criditones aginn^as 
an godieras of bute hende heuereche day to comde . and 
the worke bitrende and for ad)?elston synge ^^. And of 
o)7er bischopes on estende romes burg and on westende 
of ]7as mountes mougeus ^^ feour J?ousent dages , and 
Sonne dages . ? . of ho]7er archebischopes . l . bissopes on 
J^isser side J^as mountes on wale londes ]?e ich alle hi 
sogte ho]7er bi wise sende . so mi scrift was . J^ru ]7ousend 
dage . t . souene. Of "pvn archebischopes on bruthude . 
I . of hyre onderbischopes . on J;ousent dages . t . sixsti 
dages. Of feour archebischopes of hirlonde . t of hire 
ondersetele bischopes nunhenne honderd dages . ? .tin 
dages. And ]70 hich com hom to J^an gete on J^an 
cherchay . hich silf sinfol hi astahelede J^ar on hondred 
dage in helf |?an gete euemore wo so bith ^^ for wrecche 
edger. And )70 hich halgede 'pane cherichay at hechere ^* 
hurne at hondreid dage. And eft hich bus]7ide ^^ to rome 
for mire lacthere^^ to bote . ? . se holiapopa lion pay 
geuenisse iuasnede^"^ . "t morede hit mid on fousend dage . 
? a wirgede alle J^aye J^e hit asj7ide . I . ]?ane ministr of 
cridiantone wi]? sette. Siima die^ xu cccc. Ixxx. 

Translation : — I, Egger (^thelgar), bishop, declare to all my suc- 
cessors at Crediton minster concerning the indulgence which 1 obtained 
after that I quitted St. Mary's minster {i. e. Crediton) for my pride. 


and went to Rome. And there I fell sick seven years and more, and 
there there appeared before me the compassionate queen in heaven, 
Mary, and bade me go to shrift to the holy Pope Leo, and act according 
to his direction. And he told me to continue one half year at Rome, 
and obtain indulgence for the mending of my great sickness and for 
my church. And there I obtained from seventeen archbishops two 
thousand days* indulgence of their sins for all the founders and bene- 
factors without end of Crediton minster, who should day by day come 
and aid the work ; and for King Athelstan. And from other bishops 
on the east of the city of Rome, and on the west of Mons Jovis, four 
thousand and seven days. And from other archbishops and bishops on 
this side of the mountains in foreign lands, whom I soiaght, or to whom 
I otherwise sent— so my shrift was — three thousand and seven days. 
From three archbishops in Bruttia (?), and from their under-bishops. 
one thousand and sixty days. From four archbishops of Ireland, and 
from their under-bishops, nine hundred and ten days. And when I 
came home to the gate of the church enclosure, I, my sinful self, 
established thei'e one hundred days for the benefit for evermore of 
him whosoever shall pray for the wretch (exile) Edger. And when I 
consecrated the church enclosure — at each corner, one hundred days. 
And again I journeyed to Rome for amends of my guilt; and the 
holy Pope Leo confirmed the indulgence, and increased it by one 
thousand days ; and cursed all those who should reject it, and oppose 
the church of Crediton. Total of the days, 12,480. 

*,(.* That this document is a forgery in its details, as in dating the 
indulgences from the time of Athelstan, there is no room to doubt ; but 
it does not follow that the minster had no title to the indulgences 
enumerated. Migne, Nouvelle Encyclopedie Theologique, vol. xxvii, 
gives A.D. ioo5 as the date of the first authentic document conveying 
indulgences as an endowment to a church. These were all partial, and 
limited in time, as in our documents ; the first plenary indulgence is 
that of Pope Urban to promote the first Crusade in 1095. 

^ Ic. ^ bebeode. ' forgifennes. * begeat. 

* gewende. ^ untrumode. '' semissis annus ? * begitan. 

» PlefeSe. ^« begeat. ^» cynge. 

*^ mougeus. The Alps where Hannibal crossed are in Alfred's 
Orosius (in MS. Lauderdale only) called *Munt Jof,' and there is 
nothing answering to this in the original text. JE^elweard says that 
iElfgifu, daughter of King Athelstan, was married to a king *juxta 
Jupitereos montes,' i.e. near the Alps, 

^2 bit. ^* aelcere. ^^ besi'Sode. ** leahtere. 

*' afsestuode. 



After 1049. 

Grants of indulgence by nine bishops who are named. 
The last name seems to mean Lifing, who was bishop of 
Crediton 1027— 1046 ; and the confirming pope, Leo IX, who 
was elected in 1049. ^^ ^^^ document must be supposed 
later than 1049. 


Hondret bischoc gief on hondred dage. Porte bischop 
on hondreid dage . t bi het J^rou hondreit dage. Leueger 
bischop bi het to hondreit dage. Eadb bischop bi get 
frou hondreit dage . and tin dage. Eansb bischop bi 
get Sonne hondreit dage. Ealnod bischop bi get and 
hondreit dage. Alger bischop bi het J7ru hondreit 
dage . I . souenti and )7ru dages. Eadluf bischop bi get 
sixsti dage. Luhing bischop to hondreit dage . and on 
o]7er leon popa hit ivasnede on echenisse ant aywilday. 
Siima die^. 11. d. xl. iij. 

Translation: — Bishop Hondret gave one hundi'ed days. Bishop 
Porte one hundi-ed days, and procured three hundi-ed days. Bishop 
Leveger procured two hundred days. Bishop Eadberht procured four 
hundred and ten days. Bishop Eansherht procured seven hundred days. 
Bishop Ealnod procured one hundred days. Bishop Alger procured 
three hundred and seventy- three days. Bishop Eadulf procured sixty 
days. Bishop Living two hundred days. And another Pope Leo con- 
firmed it for ever and aye. Total of the days, 2,543. 

*4.* Mr. Davidson said : — * The list reads like a random compilation, 
with the names of Eadulf and Lifing, the first and last bishops of 
Crediton, thrown in at the end to give an air of probability to the 
whole.' Of the previous names, the only identification he could suggest, 
was that of Leofgar, consecrated to Lichfield in 1020. It would be 
favourable to the bona fides of the document if the names had less of an 
English air, for people went to foreign bishops not uncommonly, when 
they wanted indulgences for churches. 

Lifing appears in this document as leaving Crediton for 
Exeter, and solacing the bereaved minster by confirmation of 
old and addition of new indulgences. As we know nothing 

B e 2, 


of Lifing's quitting Crediton, and as the see was not trans- 
ferred until after Lifing's death, this document seems to 
approach very near to the character of a mere false invention. 

Her kied on J^ise iwrite ]7at hich luuig^ bischop at 

mine fuyrsi]7e ^ wram cditon hi ministre to ]7are cherche 

of examehestre for mine leue bro|?eren to h wreyrighe at 

mine out ganhes iuasnede J^ay geuenisse ]7at egger ]>e 

luf minetheude bischop bi tende into cdiam tones ministre 

and beg }?at alle o]7ere bischopes sidj^e of mine dages 

were igeue and bi gite ^ of o)?er bischopes hek * hich 

habbe out igadere ^ of bokes fale ^ . ? . ido "^ in on o])e 

masse boc at sainte marie ^ weuede to gadre hi broght ^ 

J7ar ma hit schel i su ^^. And in on o)?er boke ]7at hatte 

penitencialis bodde ^^ to hourde and ich hit itrimde mid 

on hondreit dages of bute ende and ich on cursie }7at hit 

o)?eruise isette . l . hek alle )?are churcha yvo. Summa 

tosci' venie xli ann' cc. dies . t . xvi dies. Et f>l hoc dns 

W Exon eps dedit ad colibj ^^ altare ecce xiii dies in re- 

missione pcco^. 

Translation : — Here is made known by this writing that I, Living, 
at my exit from Crediton minister to the church of Exeter, feeling at 
my departure compassion for my dear brethren, confirmed the indulgence 
which Egger (^thelgar), the bishop dear to my people, bestowed upon 
Crediton minster, and also (the indulgences) which were given by other 
bishops since, (and) of my day, and which were procured by other 
bishops ; also I have gathered out of many books, and have done (copied) 
into the mass book at St. Mary's altar, brought together, where it may 
be seen. And in another book that is called Penitentialis book. . . . 
And I confirmed it with one hundred days without end. And I invoke 
curses on those who shall otherwise appoint, and also on all the Church's 

Total of the whole indulgence, forty-one years, two hundred and six- 
teen days. 

*^* Concerning the above three documents Mr, Davidson wrote as 
follows in 1878 :— 'The first question which arises is this : Irrespective 
of the subject-matter of these declarations, inasmuch as, if genuine, 
they must be renderings of real compositions of the dates ascertained, 
is it possible to believe that there ever existed Anglo-Saxon originals, 


whicli by repeated copying, or by having been written from dictation, 
could have become distorted into the singular forms which appear here ? 
This is a question upon which only experts are qualified to speak. Some 
have suggested that the peculiarities of this composition are due to a 
Devonshire dialect of Anglo-Saxon, or to the west-country mode of 
pronouncing the Old English tongue. Again, it has been noticed, and 
must be admitted, that some of the expressions which seem the strangest 
are not the most unaccountable. Nothing is at first sight more mon- 
strous than the phrase, " To than holiapopa leori." Yet this is not very 
far off in sound from the words. " Td tham halgan papan Leon." Worse 
distortions of spelling than this occur in the names in Domesday. 
•' Ad])elstan synge " again may have been written from the dictation of 
some one who, seeing '*cyng" in the charter, read it with a soft c, as 
we pronounce " cincture." Still, when every allowance has been made, 
the verdict is on the whole unfavourable. Professor Earle, though de- 
siring not to speak confidently on a matter of such obscurity, thinks it 
impossible there ever could have been genuine originals of which these 
sentences can have become perversions. This judgment, however, does 
not extend to the fourth — the land charter — which, in Mr. Earle's 
opinion, does show traces of having been derived from a genuine 
source.' Mr. Davidson has passed away (1885) since our last sheet was 
printed, and I cannot recall on what data my then opinion was founded. 
But now, after careful examination, I think it possible that they all 
(excepting perhaps No. 3) represent older writings. 
^ Lining. ^ fortJsiSe. ^ begiten. * e^c. ^ utgegadrod. 

* feala. "^ geddn. 

* The dedication saint of Crediton minster was B. V. Mary, as may 
be seen above, p. 1 70, in a genuine charter. 

^ gebroht. ^^ ])8er man hit sceal geseon. 

" 'bodde to hourde.' I cannot translate this, and I have not thought 
Mr. Davidson's translation probable enough to reprint. But one thing 
strikes me upon the manuscript view of bodde. The letters dd are not 
in the scribe's natural hand ; they look like half -imitation, as if the 
scribe was halting between the two notions, of either expressing some 
half -caught sense, or of drawing the characters after his obscure copy. 
It seems to me probable that what he had before his eyes was hoc, com- 
pleting the description of the book as ' Penitencialis hoc' For the rest 
I have nothing to suggest. This is important as bearing on the 
question of the original composition of these strangely corrupt pieces. 

^^ adcolentibus. ? 

^" A.D. 1018. 

Eadnoth, bp. Crediton (whose signature is found in deeds, 
A.D. 10 1 2-1 01 9), borrowed money of Beorhtnoth, and pledged 
to him certain land by the river Greedy. 


In noTe dni nri ihu xpisti. Ich eadnod bischob kife 
on y\s writon ]?at ihc onborgede .xxx. marca goldes be 
lead wigte ^ to minre lond reddinge at beorhtno'Se . and 
ich ge sealde him ane gurde londes to underwedde bi 
cridia to ]?an foreword pat he habbe his deis . ou' his dels 
be que]7e }?ane . schuch Ipa, l^e him luuest bu ^ . J^e in ]7an 
londe stent . J^is his sint ]7alondes imeara . ]7are gurd bi 
cridia. Erest on schokebrokes ford . Jeanne east on J^an 
■paipe . on ]?a litel gore . estward suS . on J7a dede lake on 
c'dia. Opon gen strem . on J7an elpenian aker ^ . |7anne 
est on pa. h'pa)7e eft on schokebroces ford . J^is her is 
towitnesse cnut ching wolstan archebischop . ? . luwing 
archebisehop . ? . britgloj? bischop, and gednod bischop, 
and burthlo]? bischop . ad ad]7elwine bischop and bris- 
tyne* bischop . and ad]?elword elj7erneman . and ad]?elwold 
abbot . and pat hyred of exancestre . and ]7at hired of 
cdihamton . and J?is i]?idde pe bischop J^ane borg ton to 
examcestre and to tottenesse . and to lidauorde . and to 
beardestaple. Pax sit hoc s'uantib^ . t . infii sit hoc 
frangentib^. And ]?isses iwrites idoua is on cridiamtone . 
mid hure elder boken. 

Translation : — In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

I, Eadno??, hishop, make known by this writing that I borrowed 
thirty marks of gold, of public weight, for the management of my 
land, from BeorhtnoS ; and I delivered to him a tenement of land by the 
Greedy in pledge, on the understanding that he should have it for his 
day, (and) after his day bequeath it to whomsoever might be dearest to 
him so far as stands in the land. These are the boundaries of the 
land — of the tenement by the Greedy. First at Schokebrook ford; 
then east along the road to the little gore ; eastward south to the still 
lake on the Greedy ; up against the stream to the solitary oak ; thence 
east to the high road that (leads) back to Schokebrook ford. There 
are to witness : Gnut, king; Wolfstan, archbishop; Living, archbishop; 
Brihtwold, bishop ; EadnotJ, bishop ; Burhwold, bishop ; ^S'elwine, 
bishop ; Brihtwine, bishop ; ^Selweard, ealdorman ; and iE?Jelwold, 
abbot ; and the household (monastery) at Exeter ; and the household 
(monastery) at Grediton, And of this the bishop sent notice to the 


city of Exeter and to Totnes, and to Lidford and to Barnstaple. Peace 
be to those who maintain this, and hell be to those who break it. And 
of this writing there is a copy at Crediton amongst their old charters. 

*** A corrupt form of a genuine document ; the bounds are traced 
and illustrated with a map by Mr. Davidson in the Transactions of 
the Devonshire Association, 1878. 

^ Be leodgewihte; i.e. by national or common-law, as opposed to 
customary, weight. In a charter of Cnut, K745, mention is made of 
silver marks measured by ' hustings ' weight. 

^ ])im ]}e him leofost beo. ^ aenlipigan sec. ? 

* bristyne = Brihtwine, bp. Sherborne. All these names occur, with 
others, in K728. 


21 Dec. 1236. 

Here we emerge into full historic light ; we have before 
us an unaltered original, of which the date is only about fifty 
years older than the manuscript ftom which we take it. It 
is a copy of a deed of confirmation, executed at Crediton, 
by William Brewer, bishop of Exeter, confirming to the 
church of Crediton the indulgences (presumably those of our 
Nos. 1-3) which, as is carefully stated, the bishop saw with 
his own eyes and caused to be read before him ; and which 
were transcribed upon the original parchment of this deed. 

Universis sanctae matris ecclesise filiis banc prsesentem 
paginam visuris vel audituris, Willelmus Briwer, misera- 
tione divina Exoniensis episcopus, seternam in Domino 
salutem. Noverit universitas uestra quod nos, divine 
caritatis intuitu, indulgentias suprascriptas per diligen- 
tiam prsedecessorum nostrorum episcoporum Credito- 
nensium et Exoniensium diversis temporibus ecclesise 
sanctae crucis et ipsius crucifixi genetricis semper 
virginis Marise de Crediton, ad piam et perpetuam 
consolationem fidelium adquisitas, quas oeulis pro- 
priis inspeximus, atque coram nobis reeitari fecimus, 
et sicut ex antiquis dictse ecclesise instrumentis veraciter 
suscepimus, ipsas a summis pontificibus misericorditer 
fuisse confirmatas, dictorum praedecessorum nostrorum 


facta per omnia in hac parte illsesa conservare volentes, 
et perpetua permanente auctoritate nobis a Domino cre- 
dita, dictas indulgentias, necnon et sententiam quam 
memorati prsedeeessores nostri in perturbatores sen 
violatores earundem provide tulerunt — confirmavimus. 
Nos itaque, de Dei omnipotentis misericordia, et omnium 
sanctorum meritis confisi, gratiam gratise adcumulare 
cupientes, omnibus dictse ecclesise benefacfcoribus, sive 
pise devotionis causa illam quocunque tempore visitanti- 
bus, de injuncta sibi poenitentia quadraginta dies miseri- 
corditer relaxamus. Et, ne istud futuris temporibus 
aliquibus vertatur in dubium, prsesentem paginam, se- 
cundum consuetudinem temporis moderni, sigilli nostri 
impressione duximus roborandam. — Datum Criditonse, 
anno gratise m°cc°°xxx°vi°. xij°. kal. Januarii, scilicet die 
sancti Thomse apostoli. 


C. C. C. Oxf. No. 449. 2 June 1194. 

The following bull of Celestine Til supplies a good his- 
torical illustration to this section. It is here printed for the 
first time by the kind permission of the President and 
Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, from their manu- 
script Cartulary of St. Frideswide ; and I am indebted for 
my acquaintance with it to the Eev. S. R. Wigram, who is en- 
gaged in editing that book for the Oxford Historical Society. 

Celestinus Episcopus servus servorum Dei universis 
Dei fidelibus per totam Angliam constitutis salutem et 
apostolicam benedictionem. Quoniam ut ait apostolus 
omnes stabimus ante tribunal Christi recepturi prout 
gessimus in corpore sive bonum sive malum oportet nos 
diem messionis extreme misericordie operibus prevenire 


et etemorum intuitu semiuare in terris quod reddente ^ 
Domino cum multiplicato fructu recolligere valeamus in 
coelis;certam spem fiduciamque tenentes quoniam qui parce 
seminat parce et metet et qui seminat in benedictionibus 
de benedictionibus metet vitam eternam. Cum itaque 
dilecti filii nostri Canonici sancti Frideswide de Oxen- 
fordia Ecclesiam domos et oflScinalia necnon et orna- 
menta ecclesie vehementis ignis incendio combusta ^ in- 
ceperint reparare et ad consumraacionem ejusdem operis 
eis non proprie suppetant facultates universitatem ves- 
tram rogamus et exortamur in Domino et in remissionem 
vobis injungimus omnium peccatorum quatinus divini 
amoris intuitu et vestre salutis obtentu eisdem Canonicis 
vel eorum nunciis pias elemosinas conferatis ita ut ipsi 
vestra et aliorum fidelium subvencione adjuti inceptum 
opus feliciter consummare valeant vosque per bee et alia 
bona que feceritis Domino inspirante ad eterne felicitatis 
gaudia mereamini pervenire. Nos vero de Dei miseri- 
cordia confidentes omnibus elemosinam eis et ecclesie sue 
tribuentibus vere confessis et penitentibus de injuncta 
eis penitencia xx dies condonamus. Datum Laterano 
iiij Non. Junii pontificatus nostri anno quarto. 

•^ i. e. redeunte. 

^ MCXC. Combusta est ecclesia sanctae Frideswidae cum maxim^ 
parte civitatis Oxenfordiae. Chronicon Thomce Wylces. Ann. Monast, 
Rolls Series, vol. iv. p. 43. 


This small group of boundaries is offered as a specimen 
of a chartulary of the fourteenth century, Bodl. Wood i, 
a chartulary of Glastonbury, written about 1350, The 
terriers have all been collated, and the peculiarities of the 
writing (normalized by Kemble) have been studiously kept. 


Such are mis-spellings, and mis-joinings of words, which show 
that the scribe did not understand what he was copying. 

Bodl. Wood i. fol. 183. A.D. 681. 

K 20*. Birch 61. 


granting to abbot Hamgisl land at Pennard (Somerset). 

Of Obanleighe up end Lang brokes to catanLeighe 

)?aneii est endlang S lades of }7an slade on ]?on bourne so 

to collamburi and est to standelue ]7anen north endlang 

weies to J^ere stanene brugge on J7en olden pil and soa 

endlang mores out on bru. 

*5it* In S. ii, there is a facsimile of an older form of this deed on a 
single parchment, the property of the Marquis of Bath. It is a writing 
of (or, in imitation of) the early part of the ninth century. The boun- 
daries are thus given:— Of eobbanlege up anlang broces to totanlege . 
thonon east andlang slides , of tha slgde on thone burnan . sua to 
cullanbyrig . -} east to stangedelfe . thonon north anlang uueges to 
there stgnenan brycge . on thone aldan pyll . ~} sua andlang mores ut 
on briuu. 

Bodl. Wood 1. fol. 191. A.D. 725. 


Birch 143. 


granting to Glastonbury Abbey xii manentes at Souuig 
(Sowey), Somerset. 

Erest of Wilbrittispathe on midde pedredistrem a doun 
endlangestremes on Bridweres mere |7anen northri^t 
endelang midmores on kari ]7anen up endlangkari on 
hamelondes mere on poholfce j^anen south bi line endlang- 
midward mores est on Wilbrithes pathes mores. 

*** F. H. Dickinson Esq. (of Kingweston, Somerset), says that this 
Sowey is a tract of land once surrounded with water, and comprising 
the modern parishes of Middlezoy, Weston Zoyland, and Othery. 


Bodl. Wood i. fol. 191 b. A.D. 963. 



granting to Wulfhelm land at Otheri. 

pis beth ]?e landmere Erest of ]7an welle ]7ar on Othere 
endlangstremes on pe rede cliue northward )7are op on 
ameput of ]?an putte on an withi of ]?an withi on 
austonberwe of J;an berwe est up on Ipe rigge on hothurne 
stanberwe ]7anen to J>an herpowe endelang herpothes on 
'pe stanbrugge "pav up on landseherlake on holangcombe 
heued ]7anen up on dieli J7anen on midde pe doune 
endlangdonne on iffingknap medeward J^anen on iffeng- 
berlake of per lake on J>e dich of ]?an diche on ]>e if re 
northward eft on J>e welle endlangrewe ]?are eft on Otheri. 

%*■ In the manuscript this deed follows the previous one, and seems 
to be associated with it by the name Otheri. In the Marquis of Bath's 
Chartulary of Glastonbury, at Longleat, the two documents are like- 
wise in the same order. It is pretty clear that the Glastonbury archivist 
regarded this deed as one that concerned their property in Somerset- 
shire. But Mr. Dickinson points out that the bounds apply to 
Gittisham (Devon) by the river Otter, where Glastonbury abbey had 
never any land. 


This group is from a manuscript written early in the 
fifteenth century, which Kemble describes as 'a very ill- 
executed register of the Abbey of Shaftesbury.' The speci- 
mens of this text have been collated with the manuscript by the 
kindness of Mr. Walter de Gray Birch of the British Museum. 

MS. Harl. 61. fol. 12 b, 16 b. A.D. 955. 

K 435. 


grants land to his thane Wihtsige, quodam in loco priscorum 
uocabulo set Corf and aet Blechenhamwelle. There are two 
descriptions of the boundaries ; the briefer is here given. 


Dis sand pa land i mare to Corf and to blechenenwelle 
pare .vii. hide. Arest of wikenforde. anlang- wiken of 
seylenford. of Scylenforde ] on richt wege. of panne 
weie on olle discan. panen: on blechene of panne 
welle. on pane hlinc. anlang hlinkes on anne dich ; 
panen one po ealde rode, onlang rode J onne po aide 
stodfald. of panen faldej on anne dich. suth anlang 
die on pare herepap ; of panne herepap suth anlang 
sawendune on anne dich onlang dich ] ope clif. panen ut 
on se. panen sant pis pat westrene landimare of se one 
pe stod die panen for'S be wertrumen on anne stanweal . 
of panne walle ]?weres ouer smalencumbe of pa }?orne 
upvvarde panen for'S be euisc one pat Northene stod 
dich. of pare dich ] on anne stanen wal nord on lang 
walles ] on stan wege ; an lang weies ] on anne die. pan 
norp anlang dich of pare diche ] on Wicean. of Wichen? 
on anne ]7orn 7 panen ^ on anne diche. of pare diche ^. 
on anne ]7orne ; 7 panen north on iricht wege. of pane 
i wege i on alfstanes pa^. pane for^ be eficlif on aueres 
broc ^ adune anlang brakes I op pane bige. of pane bige ? 
on anne j7orn. panne suth on irichte on anne mor 
a dune, anlang mores, on wicean. up anlang wicean ] 
eft on WichenforS i, 

^ of = o]> ; or perhaps on, throuffh intermediate ou. 

^ aueres broc. The other terrier contains, though not with identical 
connection, the expression 'on Auenes brdc' and perhaps we should 
correct * aueres ' to ' auenes/ 

MS. Harl. 61. fol. 13 b. A.D. 966. 

K 522. 


grants to the nunnery of Shaftesbury certain land which his 
grandmother "Winfled had given long ago, but the deed of con- 
veyance had been lost, and therefore this new one is written. 


Dis sanden pe landimaren at uppidele. of pidelen 

streamed on hlosstedes crundles sup ecgel of pane crundle 

on pat mere sled, of pat mere slede on "Seo herepape. 

anlang herepapes ? on mearhhilde mere, of mearhhilde 

mere I on pane hapene berielese on midde pane punfald. 

of panne punfalde I on pidelenstream. of pidelenstreme 

anlang burnstowe on greten linkes. suth ecge of pane 

gretenlinke on chellenberghe f f eft on pidelen streame. 

and se made be frome pat to panne tune ibereth. 

*:^* The place Uppidele is one of the numerous places on the Piddle 
in Dorset, which are named after that river. It would be interesting 
to verify the spot more nearly, if only for the light which this deed 
might throw on the term ' crundel/ in case it signifies any permanent 

MS. HarL 61. fol. 2 b. A.D. 984. 



assures to the convent of nuns at Schaftesburi certain lands 
at Tissebiri (Tisbury, near Hindon, Wilts) which his pre- 
decessors had granted in ancient days, but which had been 
resumed by his grandfather Eadmund. He had given to the 
convent Bucticanlea (Butleigh, Somerset) in place of it, and 
then dowered his queen JEIfgifu with Tisbury. ^Ifgifu 
wanted to leave Tisbuiy also to the convent for her own part, 
but after the death of Aelfgifu king Eadwig 'jus mutavit, 
hoc ipsum sibi uidelicet Bucticanlea accipieiis, sanctoque 
coenobio prefatam terram set Tisseburi perpetualiter at- 

Rus uero praefatum hiis metis in circo rotatur. Dis 
sant pa landimare. pare twen tiwe hi we at tissebiri. 
arest pe cigel marc scheth on nodre andlang stremes 
od gofesdene. pannen i to pere twiehenen i of pere 
twicheneJ on Wilburge imare.* on pane grene wei on 
Wermundes trew. of Wermundes tre i a dun richt inne 
pe imade. of pane mipon f anlang stremes on pane ealde 


Wdeforde ? on pare grene wei onne pe heued stokes, of 
panne heued stocken I forp be twelf aceron pat it comet to 
wealwege. panen I to hig wege. pannea I to Wdesfioda ; 
pannen i to suthames forde. Anlange hege reawe pat it 
comet to nodre. an lang Nodre, On semene. Anlang 
semene to rodelee. panen? on pere hwiten meres, pan- 
nen ? on mapeldere hille pannen I on pa stigele. pannen I 
on sapcumbe. pannen forder west on cures rigt. panne 
cyrder it north on poles leage ; pannen I on mane broc. 
panen i on wipig broch. panen ? on sidinic mor pannen 
for^S on cnugel lege and on hiclesham. "Saniien J on mearc 
wei of pane wege anlang hrigces to inpedeforde. an 
lang weges pat it cumet to fiint geal on pone herpo'S. 
pannen I to gificancumbe. an lang cumbe to stanweie. 
Anlang hryggesJ to "Sere litdenlege. pannen on leo- 
friches imare. forp be gemare I eft on funt al of f intes 
brigce. anlang hrigces to alfgares imare forder be his 
imare of heued stoccas panen I to cigel mere broke, an 
lang strcmes eft on nodre. 

*:ic* A neighbourhood of old celebrity, that of Wardour Castle. In 
the terrier we recognize Chilmark (cigel marc), and the river Nadder 
(nodre), and a stream that runs into it called by a name (semene) that 
accounts for Semley and Semwick. Another historical place, Fonthill 
Abbey, is also here (funt geal), and probably the local perambulator 
would make out a great deal more. 


This group, which is represented by one important docu- 
ment, is from the Liber Albus ii. of the Dean and Chapter 
of Wells. The codex contains documents of a date as low as 
1493, besides transcripts of ancient things. It has been well 
explored by F. H. Dickinson, Esq., of Kingweston, Somerset ; 
and our text is printed from his article in the 1877 Pro- 
ceedings of the Somersetshire Arch geological and Natural 


History Society ; vol. xxiii (New Series, vol. iii). The proof 
has been collated with the manuscript by the kindness of my 
friend Canon Church. 

Liber Albus ii. WeU. fol. 246 b. A.D. 1068. 

William tlie Conqueror 

confirms Banwell, and some other lands in Somerset, to Giso, 
bishop of Wells. 

Dis is dsere xxx hyda boc set Banawelle ]?e Willhelm 
cyng gebocade Sancto Andrea apostolo in to ]?am bis- 
coprice set welle a on ece yrfe. 

>I< Regnante imperpetuum domino nostro Jesu Christo 
Ego Willelmus dei gracia tocius Brittanie monarches 
antecessorum meorum catholice et apostoUce fidei inte- 
gritatem colencium imitatus vestigia earum rerum que 
in hac convalle lacrimarum possidere videor datorem 
meum Jesum Christum participem facere proposui et ex 
terrenis atque temporalibus celestia et eterna ab eo com- 
mutare. Pulsatus quoque piis precibus Gisonis episcopi 
xxx mansas in loco qui a solicolis Banawelle dicitur 
quos antecessor ejus Dodoco episcopus pro anima sua 
Deo contulerat. Haroldus vero rex cupiditate infiam- 
matus abstulerat. Sancto Andree Apostolo ad augendum 
ecclesiastice dignitatis commodum in proprium dominium 
episcopalis sedis et in sustentacionem fratrum Wellensis 
ecclesie in perpetuam libertatem restituo cum omnibus 
ad se pertinentibus id est silvis campis pratis piscuariis 
pro me et pro anima patris mei et pro antecessoris mei 
Edwardi Regis et pro omnibus mihi fideliter adheren- 
tibus. Hoc vero largitatis mee munus ab omni fiscali 
vectigalique jure absolvo tribus tantum exceptis expe- 
dicione pontis et arcis edificacione. Si quis hoc custodire 


et augere volnerit augeat ei Dens presencia bona et 
celestia gaudia consequatur. Siquis vero quod non 
op to instigante Diabolo hoe frangere vel minuere ausus 
fuerit dispereat de terra memoria ejus et nomen ejus 
deleatur de libro vivencium. 

Termini vero predicte terre hi sunt. 

>J< Dis syndan ]7a land gemsero set Banawelle. 
iErest set hylsbrokes ea willme east on ]?one cumb eall 
abutan losa leh swa west on )7one cumb & swa west of 
dam cumbe to bibricge. of bibricge into ture broc. of 
ture broke into locxs of loxs into bridewell to pantes 
hyd ford, to fule welle ut on j7one msere of dam maere 
on ealden wrinn into catt widige up ford be cyng roda 
aest in fone wrinnsest streame ford. ]?at hyt cymd in 
J?one hyls broc up ]7at hyt cymd sest inne ]?a eaa willme. 

>I< Dis syndan ]?a land gemseru into Cumbtune ^rest 
on hryges torr of hrygestorre east on ]?one smalen weg 
&lang wseges on ealmes feald eastwearde swa &lang 
wseges on Jjone scyte swa on 'pone nordernna weg on 
pa. stygela & swa &lang weges on cearce rode of ]?8ere 
rode on ufe wearde calewen swa rihte nyder on pa. sand 
sea)7as J^one rihte on j7one holan weg &lang wseges on 
ceolc broc &lang broces ut on -reod rsewe on axa to 
wsede wser swa &lang eaa to wiht hyrste of dsere hyrste 
on ]:>a blindan ea. swa sest on axa &lang streames 6n 
loxan & lang loxan up on cyrces gemsero & on bertunes 
gemseru swa up ofer duna est on hricges torr. 

And set hiwisc ]?8era v hida c secere msede be sudan 
heawican & et ceoddor mynster viiii heordas & f gemena 
land uf bufen melc wsege & eall seo wyrd on sundran 
& se wudu of dam forde up andlang ceodder cumbes on 
hean nsess. of dam nsese on pa, gemser ac on eadbrihtes 
cumbe andlang cumbes sest f hyt cymd ut on ]7one feld. 


Ut autem que agimus per posteritates sibi suc- 
cedentes rata et inviolata queant esse Anno dominice 
Incarnacionis Mill. Ix. vii. Indict, vi hac privilegii con- 
firmamus kartula que apocrifas quaslibet vel anteriores 
si que huie forte non consenserint irritas faciat esse et 
multorum testium quorum consilio hec sunt diffinita 
subter annectimus nomina. Si quis hoc mee parvitatis 
dono Deum sanctumque Andream spoliaverit inreme- 
diabili percussus anathemate eterne dampnacioni sub- 
jaceat >J< Ego Willhelmus rex Anglorum crucis titulo 
meam confirrao donacionem ►J* Ego Mathyld regina 
eodem signo adhibeo confirmaeionem >J< Ego Stigandus 
archiepiscopus consensi et subscripsi 
1^ Ego Aldrsedus archiepiscopus confirmavi 
►!< Ego Odo episcopus frater Regis conroboravi 
>I< Ego Hugo episcopus consoHdavi 
>J< Ego GofFrid episcopus consignavi 
►J* Ego Heremannus episcopus consensi 
►J< Ego Leofricus episcopus non renui 
►!< Ego Gilmser episcopus annui 
>I< Ego Willlielmus episcopus laudavi 
>I< Ego Egeh'icus episcopus confirmo 
>I< Ego Walterus episcopus favi 
>J< Ego Wulfsig episcopus confirmavi 
►I* Ego Remigius episcopus consignavi 
>I< Ego ^j7ehiod abbas >J< Ego Leofweard abbas ^ Ego 
Wulfwold abbas ►!< Ego Wulfgeat abbas >J< Ego Will- 
helmus dux >i< Ego Wal}7eof dux »J< Ego Eadwine dux 
►!< Ego Rotbertus frater regis >J< Ego Rotgerus prin- 
ceps >I< Ego Walterus Gefeheard ►!< Ego Hugo De 
muntforz >J< Ego Willhelm de curcello >I< Ego Serlo 
de burca >I< Ego Rotgerus Derundel >{< Ego Richard 
filius regis ►!« Ego Waldtere fleminc >I< Ego Rambriht 



flaeminc >J< Ego J^urstan >J< Ego Balduinus de warten 
beige i^ Ego Othelheard >{< Ego Heimericus >J< Ego 
Toug minister »J< Ego Dinni >^ Ego jEifge arde thorne 
►J< Ego Willhelmde Walvile >J< Ego Bundi stallere >J< Ego 
Rotbert stallere i^ Ego Rotbert de ylie #J< Ego Rogerus 
pincerna i^i Ego Wulfweardus >J< Ego Herding >J< Ego 
Adzor »J< Ego Brixi >I< Ego Brihtric. 

*** In the Article already referred to may be seen Mr. Dickinson's 
tmnslation of the boundaries, together with his comments which are 
full of local knowledge. 

Mr. Freeman examined the signatures and came to the conclusion 
that the persons could all have met at one and only one particular time. 
* The meeting of these bishops and these earls, together with the Queen, 
is perfectly possible in the summer of 1068 ; it is not possible earlier or 
later/ The date given in the deed is right according to the Indiction, 
but wrong Anno Domini, and Mr. Freeman attributes this to an error of 
transcription. He finds traces of an English scribe in the title ' dux ' 
where a Norman would have used 'comes,' in the absence of a title from 
Kobert of Mortain who was a Count in Normandy, and in the descrip- 
tion of Robert of Montgomery as 'princeps.' Tofig, the sheriff of the 
shire concerned, signs as minister, i.e. ]>egn. The name of Walter Gifford 
is spelt in a very English way Gefeheard. The only suspicious expres- 
sion is * rex ' applied to Harold, who is so carefully described as ' comes ' 
by the compilers of Domesday ; yet even these have once let slip the 
word * regnavit ' of him. Or may this ' rex ' be due to the transcriber ? 
This piece represents the Court of William as being as yet more 
English than Norman. No English Earl or Bishop has yet been 
removed from his post. A crowd of Englishmen are still called to the 
Assembly and sign its acts. {Proceedings of Somerset. Arch, and Nat. 
Hist. Soc. vol. 23, part 2, pp. 49 sqq.) 


In this group we have three specimens of that last stage 
in the descent of Saxon documents, in which they were cast 
into popular rhyme. 


MS. Lansd. 269. fol. 213. 
N. Mon. ii. p. 129. 
T. p. 180. 

Carta Adelstani Regis Sancto Johanni Beuerlaci data anno 
domini dcccc. xxv. de Privilegiis. 

That witen alle that ever been, 
That this charter heren and seen, 
That I the king Adelstan 
Has yaten and given to seint lohn 
Of Beverlike, that sai I yow ; 
Tol and theam, that wit ye now, 
Sok and sake over al that land 
That es given into his hand. 
On ever ilke kinges dai, 
Be it all free than and ay ; 
Be it almousend, be all free 
Wit ilke man and eeke wit mie. 
That wil i (be him that me scop) 
Bot til an ercebiscop, 
And til the seuen minstre prestes 
That serves God ther saint John restes. 
That give i God and seint John 
Her befor you ever ilkan. 
All my herst corn ineldeeP 
To uphald his ministre weell : 
Tha fourj^reve (be heven kinge) 
Of ilka plough of estriding. 
If it swa betid, or swa gaas. 
That ani man her again taas^ 
Be he baron, be he erle, 
Clark, prest, parson or cherel; 
Ff ij 


Na be he ne that ilk Gome, 
I will forsaye that he come, 
(That wit ye weol or and or) 
Til saint John mynstre dor; 
And thar i will (swo Crist me red) 
That he bet his misded, 
Or he be cursed son on on 
Wit al that servis saint John. 
Yif 'hit swa betid and swa es, 
That the man in mansing es : ^ 
I sai yow ouer fourti daghes, 
(Swilke* than be sain John laghes) 
That the chapitel of Beverlike 
Til the scirif of Everwike 
Send thair writ son onan, 
That this mansedman^ be tan. 
The scirref than say i ye, 
Witouten any writ one me 
Sal nimen him (swo Crist me red) 
And into my prison lede, 
And hald him (that is my wilt) 
' Til he bet his misgilt. 
If men reises newe laghes 
In any other kinges daghes, 
Be thay fromed, be thay yemed 
Wit yham of the mynstre demed, 
The mercy of ye misdeed, 
Gif i saint John, swo Crist me red. 
Yif man be cald of limes or lif 
Or men chalenges land in strif 
Wit my bodlaik/ wit writ of right, 
Y wil saint John have J?e might. 
That man tharfor noght fight in feeld, 
Nowther wit staf no wit sheeld : 


Bot twelve men wil i that it telle 
Swo sal it be swo heer ibelle. "^ 
And he that him swo werne may 
Overcomen be he ever and ay, 
Als he in feld war overcomen, 
The cravantise of him be nomen. 
That yat^ i God and saint John 
Her befor iow and ever ilkon. 
If man be founden slan idrunkend, ^ 
Sterved on sain John rike, ^^ 
His aghen men withouten swike 
His aghen bailiffs make ye sight, 
Nan other coroner have the might : 
Swa mikel fredom give i ye, 
Swa hert may think or eghe s^e. 
That have i thought and forbiseen, 
I will that ther euer been 
Samening and mynstre lif 
Last foUike'^ witouten strif, 
God help alle thas ilk men 
That helpes to the thowen. Amen. 

*** Printed after Kemble, who followed the Monasticon. The 
variations are those of the Lansdowne manuscript, a paper transcript 
of the 17th or i8th century. This I learn from Mr, de Gray Birch, 
who has kindly lent me his unpublished proofs of this and the two 
next pieces. The dialect is northern, but not so strong in this as 
in No. 3, where note especially the use of at as a conjunction Dr. 
Murray in the New English Dictionary regards this as ''at, a worn-down 
form of that; saying that it was very common in 14th- 15th c, that it is 
rare even in Scottish writers after 1500 ; but still in regular use in 
northern dialect speech, as, * I sed *at 1 wad, and I did.* 

^ MS. best come and meldrel. ^ MS. saes. 

^ MS. that the mansings is. * MS. whilke. 

' MS. his manserman. ® MS. god lake. 

^ MS. swa here well. « MS. hat. 

» MS. founden dronken. " MS. St. Johns rike. 
" MS. for euer. ^ 



N. Mon. ii. p. 133. 


T. p. 179. 


confirming to the Chapter of Kipon their liberties and 

>I< In nomine sanctae et individuae i-rinitatis! Adel- 
STANUS rex dei gratia regni Angliae omnibus hominibus 
suis Eboraci, et per totam Angliam, salutem. Sciatis 
quod ego confirmo ecclesiae et capitulo Riponensi paeem 
suam ^, et omnes libertates et consuetudines suas, et con- 
cedo eis curiam suam de omnibus quaerelis et in omnibus 
curiis de hominibus S. Wilfridi, pro ipsis et homini- 
bus suis, vel contra ipsos, vel inter se ad invicem, vel 

quae fieri p et judicium suum pro Frodmortell ; 

et quod homines sint credendi per suum ya, et per suum 
na ; et omnes suas terras habitas et habendas, et homines 
suos ita liberos, quod nee rex Angliae, nee ministri eius, 
aliquid faciant vel habeant quod est ad terras suas vel 
ad socam capituli. Testibus G. archiepiscopo Eboracensi, 
et P. praeposito Beverlaci. 

^ pacem suam. This seems to mean their right of sanctuary. Com- 
pare the next piece. Cf. Ducange v. Tax. 

N. Mon. ii. p. 133. 
K 360*. 
T. p. 182. 

A popular version of the foregoing. 
Wyt all that es and es gan 
That ik King Adelstan 
As gyven als frelich as I may 
And to the capitell of seint Wilfrai, 


Of my fr^e devotion, 

Thair pees at Rippon 

On ilke side the kyrke a mile, 

For all ill deedes and ylke agyle. 

And within thair kirke yate 

At the stan that Grith stole hate ; 

Within the kirke dore and the quare 

Thair have pees for les and mare. 

Ilkan of this stedes sal have pees 

Of frodmortell and il deedes 

That thair don is, tol [and] tem, 

With iren and with water deme ; 

And that the land of seint Wilfrai 

Of alkyn geld fre sal be ay. 

At na man at langes me to 

In thair Herpsac sal have at do; 

And for ik will at tha be save 

I will at thai alkyn freedom have; 

And in al thinges be als free 

As hert may thynke or eygh may se. 

At te power of a kinge 

Masts make free any thynge. 

And my seale have I sett therto, 

For I will at na man it undo. 

*^* Although these specimens are from writings which are (I 
imagine) no older than the sixteenth century ; yet the diction savours 
of a much higher antiquity, and I would not venture to assume that 
rhyming records were a very late invention. 


The following quaint record concerning Forests in Essex 
was communicated by Mr. Alfred Wallis to the periodical 
' Long Ago.' I am not clear whether he meant to say that 
he found it among Judge Hale's collections in Lincoln's Lm. 

Nota, Edward le Confessor graunt a un Raflfe Peper- 


king I'office de garder de son Forest de hundred de Chelmer 
et Dauncing in Com. Essex in taile appiert per Record in 
Lescheker escrie modo sequente : — 

Iche Edward King 

Haue yeven of my Forest the keeping 

Of the hundred of Chelmer and Dauncing 

To Randolph Peperking, and to his kynlyng, 

With Hart & Hynde, Doe and Bucke, 

Hare & Foxe, Catt & Brocke, 

Wyldfowle with his flocke, 

Partrige, Fezant Hen, & Fezant Cocke. 

With greene & wilde stub and stocke 

To keepen^ & two yeomen by all their might, 

Both by day and eke by night. 

And Hounds for to hould 

Good, swift and bould. 

Four Greyhoundes, and sixe raches 

For Hare and Foxe & wylde Cattes: 

And therefore yche made him my booke — 

Wit n esse the Bishop of Wol stone 

And booke ylerned many one 

And Sweyne of Essex our brother 

And tekyn him many other. 

And our Steward Howelyne, 

That besought me for him. 
*»* Far as these records are removed from any genuine documentary 
form, they do in all probability preserve (as J. R. Green, Conquest of 
£ngland, p. 222 has said) the memory of actual grants. These rhymes 
can only have had vogue with the peasantry, and therefore they suggest 
a strong sense of attachment to the monastery under which they held 
their lands. I do not know whether it is possible that such rhymes 
could ever have had any sort of value as legal evidence in this country, 
tliough such a state of things is recorded of Ireland. Among the kinds 
of evidence admitted by the Brehon Law in disputes about land was 
* laidh (cantus) or history in the form of a poem publicly recited.' 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9. v. Brehon Law. A discussion about 
rhyming records took place in Notes and Queries about October 1885. 


After mucli hesitation as to whether K570 should 
be included in our selection or not, it was put aside. 
Had it been admitted, it would have been placed in the 
First Group of the Secondary Documents. Kemble stig- 
matized it, but Mr. Bond has passed it without remark ; 
and Mr. Macray, who kindly examined it at my request, 
saw nothing suspicious in the handwriting. It was the 
difficulty of classing it (added to its great length) that 
kept it out ; in the other scale were its many peculiar- 
ities, and its singular wealth of words. This last con- 
sideration has now prevailed. Much of Kemble's short 
Glossary was got from this one piece, and as we have 
embodied his words, we found in the revision of our 
Glossary that it would be better to print this piece than 
to make repeated references to a document which was not 
in the reader's hands. 

Cott. Aug. ii. 6. A.D. 972. 

N. Mon. ii. p. 416. 
K670*. B. iii. 30. 


granting to the monks of Pershore perpetual freedom in the 
choice of their abbot. To this is appended a terrier of the 
monastic lands, and the sanction. After which follows, in a 
much smaller hand, a series of boundaries ; the larger hand 
is again resumed for the date and signatures. 

T Orthodoxorum uigoris aeclesiastici monitu creber- 

^ rime instruimur . ut illi oppido subiecti suppedi- 

tantes famulemur . qui totius mundi fabricam miro in- 


efFabiliq • serie disponens micocrosmum adam uidelicet 
tandem quadriformi plasmatum materia . almo ad sui 
similitudinem instinctum spiramine . uniuersis qu^ in 
infimis formauerat uno proband [i] causa exeepto uetitoq • 
pr^ficiens . paradisiacae amo^e'nitatis ioeunditate conla- 
terana seua scilicet comite decentissime collocauit . larua- 
rica pro dolor seductus cauillatione . uersipellis suasibilisq • 
tergiuersatione uiraginis pellectus . anatbematis alogia 
ambro pomum momordit uetitum . et sibi ac posteris in 
hoc aerumnoso deiectus sseculo loetum promeruit per- 
petuum . Vaticinantibus siquidem profetis "^ et 

cselitus superni regis diuturna clandestino presagia dog- 
mate promentibus nitide orthodoxis . eulogium ex su- 
pernis deferens . non ut iudseorum seditiosa elingue 
fatetur loquacitas . sed priscorum atq • modernorum 
lepidissimam ambiens facundiam . arrianas sabellianasq • 
proterendo nenias anagogico infrustrans famine nosq * ab 
obtunsi cificitate umbraminis ad supernorum alacrimoniam 
patrimoniorum aduocans angelus supernis elapsus limi- 
nibus in aurem intemeratae uirginis ut euangelica pro- 
mulgant famina . Stupenda cecinisse uidetur carmina . 
Cui seclesia tota catbolica consona uoce altibobando 
proclamat . Beata es uirgo maria que credidisti per- 
ficientur in te quae dicta sunt tibi a dno . Mirum dictu 
incarnatur uerbum et incorporatur scilicet illud . de quo 
euangelista supereminens uniuersorum altitudine sen- 
suum inquit . In principio erat uerbum et uerbum erat 
apud deum et ds erat uerbum . et rt . Qua uidelicet 
sumpta de uirgine incarnatione antiquse uirginis facinus 
demitur et cunctis mulieribus nitidis prsecluens tauma- 
tibus decus irrogatur . Intacta igitur redolente xpi 
diuinitate passaq* ipsius humanitate libertas addictis 
clementer contigit seruulis . Hinc ego eadgar altithrono 


aminiculante anglorum ceteraruq* gentium in circuitu 
triuiatim persistentium basileus . ut huius libertatis 
altithroni moderatoris dementia merear optinere con- 
sortium . coenobio loco celebri qui ab huius prosapi^ 
sob'colis PEES^c'oEAN nobili nuncupatur uocabulo situm . 
genetriciq . dni nri semper uirgini marise . necnon beato 
petro apostolorum principi . eiusq* coapostolo paulo 
dedicatum habetur monachis regulariter degentibus 
monastici aeternam priuilegii concedo libertatem . qua- 
tenus post decessum poldbeihti abbatis egregii cuius 
temporibus hsec libertatis restauratio xpo suffragante 
concessa est . quem sibi universa prsefati coenobii con- 
gregatio apto elegerit consilio secundum regularia beati 
benedicti instituta abbate iuste ex eodem fratrum cuneo 
eligens constituat . Huius priuilegii libertas deinceps 
usu perpetuo a cunctis teneatur eatholicis . nee extra- 
neorum quispiam tyrannica fretus contumacia in prse- 
dicto monasterio ius arripiens exerceat potestatis . sed 
eiusdem coenobii collegium perpetuse ut prsedixi libertatis 
glorietur priuilegio . Sit autem prefatum monasterium 
omni terrsene seruitutis eodem tenore liberum quo a 
pr^cessore nro a rege uidelicet coenulfo orthodoxy fidei 
strenuissimo fuerat uti uetusto continetur priuilegio 
BEOENOTHO ducc optincnte solutum . agri equidem qui ad 
usus monacborum diio nro ihu xpo eiusq * genitrici mari^ 
priscis modernisq* [t]emporibus a regibus et religiosis 
utriusq * sexus bominibus et a me ipso restituendo iure 

uidelicet "^ mansi 


mansi . in pedneshamme . v . mansi . in eccyncgtune 
. xvi . mansi . in byelingahamme . x . mansi . in deo- 
PANFOEDA . X . mansi . in strengesho . x . in bettesfoeda 
. x . in CEOMBAN . ^ . in stoce . x . in pyritune 


. X . in UUADBEORHAN . iiii . in ciuincgtune . iii . in beoc- 
[tune] . iii . in piplincgtune . x . in snoddesbyri . x . in 
NiuuANTUNE . vii . in eadbrihtincgtune . iiii . in uuiht- 
lafestune . V . in f^l'^perth . v . in graftune . v . in 
deormodes ealdtune . V . in husanteeo . 7 on meretune 
. V . in BROCTUNE . iii . into ^h'leobyri . ii . [into] lang- 
andune . XXX . in poincguuic . vii . in beornothes leahe 
. iii . in actune . iii . in suthstoce . 7 on hil^l'eahe 7 on 


dydimeretune . 7 badimyncgtun . 7 TJPTUN .xl. in 

DEORHAM . X . in LONGANEGE . V . On LIDANEGE . vi . in 

uuiGUUENNAN . X . et ad usum conficiendi salis duobus in 
locis . xviii . doliorum situs on middelvvic . x . 7 on 
neodemestan wic . viii . et duarum fornacium statio on 
uuiCTUNE et uas quod dieitur westrinege cum uno 
manso et dimidium mansi in loco qui dieitur hortun 
eiusdem perpetualiter sint libertatis "^ 

Tempore siquidem quo rura quae dno deuoto concessi 
animo iniuste a sea di aeclesia ablata fuerant . perfidi 
quiq • nouas sibi hereditarias kartas usurpantes ediderunt* 
sed in patris et filii et sps sci nomine precipimus . ut 
catholicorum nemo easdem recipiat . sed a cunctis 
repudiate fidelibus in anathemate deputentur . ueteri 
iugiter uigente priuilegio . Si quis uero tam epilempticus 
phylargiri^ seductus amentia quod non optamus banc 
nrae munificentiae dapsilitatem ausu temerario infringere 
temptauerit . sit ipse alienatus a consortio scse di seclesi^ 
necnon et a [par]ticipatione sacrosci corporis et sanguinis 
ihu xpi filii di per quem totus terrarum orbis ab antique 
humani generis inimico liberatus est . et cum iuda xpi 
proditore sinistra in p[ar]te deputatus . ni prius hie 


digna satisfactione humilis penituerit quod contra scam 
di seclesiam rebellis agere pr^sumpsit . nee in uita hac 
practica ueniam nee in theorica requiem apostata ob- 
tineat ullam . sed seternis barathri incendiis trusus cu 
anania et saphyra iugiter miserrimus crucietur . 

Dis sindon pa lend gemsera {jsera tun londa pe into per- 
scoran belimpatS serest of piriforda on pa die andlang die on 
)?a pyrigan of J^sere pyrigan on f)one loiigan apuldre of f>ara 
apuldre on deap (?) morno (?) wyllan of (5aere [wyllan] to J^am 
hlsewe (?) [b]e 'Ssere h .... to baenineg[es byrig] of bsenin^c'ges 
byrig to wealh geate of wealh geate to mser cnolle of mser 
cnolle on lind hoh of lind ho on elottes mor of clottes more 
on mser pul on'd^'long pulles on afene of afene on caldan 
wyllan of caldan wyllan on wyrtS hlinc of w}T(5 hlinc [on lior] 

pyt of hor pytte on culfran mere of Jjsem mere on hag 

broc hrycg of broc hrycge on f>a ealdan die of tSsere 

die on swyne of swyne on reod die of Ssere die on weorces 
mere of J^sere mere on })a twycene of j^sere twycenan on pa 
liaesel rsewe endlong streames on hor wyllan of hor wyllan 
ondlong die on cymman leahe of "Saere leahe on seefern 
ondlong ssefern to ham stede of ham stede on ropleah geat of 
Jjsem geate ondlong die f on east mor f)8er on pa. rode of 
tSsere rode on heacSeburhe weortSyg of "Saem wor(5ige ondlong 
hrycges to bysceopes swyn hege ondlong heges on beartan 
weg of beartan wege on calfan leahe f ondlong die to haetS 
halan of haetS halan on pst ealdan die ondlang die on piddes 
meres weg of })3em wege on pa ealdan die of "Sasre die on 
wad beorgas of wad beorgan to f>a hlyp geate of "Saem geate 
on sealtan mere of fam mere on suS maeduan of (Ssere moede 
ondlong sices f on yrse ondlong yrse on hwitan dune of 
hwitan dune on lus(5or of lusSorne on fulan pyt of pa pytte 
on beomwynne dene ondlong dene f on hymel broc set wudu 
forda andlang broces on oxan ers andlang sices to ])an stan 
gedelfe of t5am stan gedelfe on J?a die ondlong die on hunig 
human 7lang burnan f on hymel broc ondlang broces to 


beccan leahe on ]?a ealdan die /lang maer weges on ceafor 
leahe of J?sere leahe on Ipa, heg stowe of tSsere heg stowe on 
hennuc a[ndl]ong hennuc f on f)a Sorn rsewe eastrihte f hit 
cyme to Ipan rah hege sefter ^J?a' hege a be J?am ofre f eft on 
fa die f on pidelan stream /lang streames on afene andlang 
afene f eft on piri ford . pis sind J?ara feower tuna lond 
gemsera wihtlafes tun 7 eadbrihtincg tun 7 niwan tun 7 
aelflgede tun serest of pidelan on J^a ealdan die of J?9ere die 
/lang wura on J?a heafda to winter burnan of winter burnan 
on hina gemseran on ]:»one ealdan weg of J^an wege on tittan 
dune of tittan dune on byligan fen of byligan fenne on 
wdxena broc ondlang broces on pidelan /lang pidelan f eft on 
wihtlafes gemsera . Dis sind J?a lond ge[m8e]ra into flefertS 
serest of pa, ealdan slsede on winter burnan of faere burnan 
on J^ane swyn hege /lang heges on eomeres maeduan of Jja 
mseduan on hodes do of J^aere sec /lang heges to )?8em wege 
/lang weges on winter burnan /lang burnan on herefert5es 
maduan f>onan in f sic of f)8em sice in }?8ene cumb of J^a 
cumbe on pn ealdan die /lang dice in pidelan /lang pidelan 
to bradan hame abutan bradan hame eft in pidelan /lang 
pidelan eft to psem slaede. pis sind f)a lond gemsera to 
husan treo serest of J^sere strset /long die to bradan forde 
/lang burnan ^on^ scale weorpan ondlang scale weorpan to col 
forda of col forda /lang ]?sere miclan die on air broc /lang 
broces on Seornan mor of pa, more /lang die on feower 
gemsera of f>se gemseron to f)orn lehe of ]?orn lehe /lang die 
eft on pa. strset . Dis sind Jjses londes gemsera into langan 
dune serest of ssefern on wiferSes mseduan hege of })a he'ge' 
on Jjone hricg of f)a hricge on f)one wulf hagan midne of pa. 
wulf hagan to f>a tSr3Tn gem^ran . of pBem tSrym gemseran to 
pis brece of pis brece to tidbrihticg hame of J?an hame on 
pyrt broc /lang broces to pyrtan heale of peartan heal [to 
hajgan geate of hagan geate to twy forde of twy fyrde to luf 
beee of luf beee betweonan dune of f>sere dune on Vwitan 
cumb of )?a cumbe on swyn geat of swyn geate /lang ecge f 
on hsetS hricg of hsetJ ricge on senet ricg of senet ricge on sec 


mor of secg more on air of aire on orices pul of orices pulle 
eft on saefern . Dis sindan J^a lond gemsera into ceatewes 
leahe 7 to yldres felda 7 to stan tune 7 to wynburhe edisce 
serest of an burnan to cumbran weor'Se of cubran weorj^e to 
Ipsdre mseran aec of tJsere sec to stan hlincan of stan ^I/lincan to 
reade burnan of reade burnan to hValre mere of healre mere 
to })3ere sec of J^aere sec to hagan leabe of J^sere leahe on secg 
broc of secg broce to Ipsm hean dore of J^an dore to bryd broce 
7lang broces f in glencincg 7lang glencincg f in ledene 7lang 
ledene to mser broce of mser broce to brycg geleagan of brycg 
geleagan on bradan ford on glencincg 7lang glencincg to 
blacan mores forda of blacan mores forda to ]?an halgan geate 
of psm halgan geate to rise heale of hrisc heale to psun. ho of 
fa ho 4 be wuda to J?a sesc of ]?am sesce to J?sere ecge of ... . 
to bradan leahe of bradan leahe to fseles grsefe of fseles grsefe 
to cram pulle to J>a mser hege of 'Ssem hege on ssefern of 
ssefern eft on in burnan . pis sindon )?a lond gemsera into 
poincg wican serest up of ssefern on beornwoldes ssetan of 
beorwoldes ssetan on hagan geat of hagan geate on secg lages 
strod of secg lahes strode on troh hrycg of troh hrycge on 
tecles mor of ]?§, more on baldan rycg of baldan rycge on 
flotan rycg of flotan rycgV on f)a smeSan ac of 'Ssere sec on 
lind rycg of lind rycge on abbandunes wican of abbandunes 
wican in baldan geat of baldan geate on cust leahe of cust 
leahe in eadwoldincg leahe middewearde of eadwolding leahe 
on steapan leahe of steapan leahe in tSa greatan lindan of 
tSsere lindan on cardan stigele of f sere stigele in wearman 
dene to hreod broc geate of fia geate on wsecSe burnan 7lang 
wsec5e burnan f witSutan f>one snsed hege f to scirhylt geate 
of scirhylt geate on codran ford ondlang codran on croma f 
to cSsere ealdan strset ondlong 'Ssere strset to maw pul 7lang 
pulles on temedan 7lang temedan eft in sse[fern .] Dis sind 
fa land gemsera into beornoSes leahe serest of eadwoldincg 

leahe dn secer of fsem sece hege 7long mer ... on 

sceanp[a]n hyl [of sceanjpan hylle on wsetSe burnan of fsere 
burnan on gundenling rycg of j?a rycge on codran of codran 


to syl beame of syl beame to crome of crome to hwitari 
wyllan of fsere wyllan to hagan geate of hagan geate to J^sere 
blacan sec of tSsere sec on f>a sand sea'Sas of ^a seatSan in 

temedel of temedel on J?a lytlan becas J^anan e of 

grindles bece swa f gemsere ligt5 in temedan of temedan 
onbutan eldres ege f eft in temedan andlang temedan f eft 
in maw pul . pis sind J>a lond gemsera into ac tune serest on 
horsa broc of horsa broce in heafoc rycg of heafoc rycge on 
bilincg broV of byling broce in at leahe geat of at leabe 
geate in pa, hlydan of J?8ere hlydan in bycera fald of bycera 
falde on sand ford of sand forda in scotta psetS of scottan 
pse'Se in gyslan ford of gislan forda on sond burnan of sond 
burnan on scead wsellan of scead wellan in lam sea}?an of lam 
seatJan in ledene of ledene in lin leahe of lin leahe in saltera 
weg of sealtera wege in hean ofer of hean ofre in su"5 broc of 
su^ broce in west broc of west broce in clseg wyllan of clseg 
wyllan in setSelstanes graf of seSelstanes graue on hengestes 
healh of hengestes heale eft in horsa broc . Dis sind fjara 
. vii . land gemsera into suS stoce serest of mseddene weste- 
weardre on beaduc hyl /lang dene on badan pyt of pa pytte 
on sesc wyllan broc /lang broces on afene /lang afene on 
broc hardes ford of J)am forda on swyn burnan of swyn 
burnan on funtnes burnan of funtnes burnan on bremer leah 
of bremer lea /lang dene on stan leah of stan lea on seonecan 
dene /lang dene on ehan feldes geat J^onne on gate wyllan of 
gate wyllan on cyncges crundlu of cyncges crundlan /lang 
dene on rise mere of rise mere on sesc dene of sesc dene 
on hord dene of hord dene on f>one holan weg on luliinc 
wudu on file's leahe of filet leahe on seSelan wyllan of p& 
wyllan adune on stream /lang streames up on hyrde wyllan 
of hyrde wyllan on cyninga crundel of cyninga crundele on 
rycg weg /lang weges on J?one stapol of ]?a stapole on f)a 
hlydan of f»3ere lilydan up andlang streames of Ssem streVme 
be heafdan f on mihan lea easteweardne on J^one garan up 
/lang weges of J?a wege be heafdan f eft on msed beorh . pia 
sind ]?a land gemsera into deor hame serest of sulan forda on 

APPEin)ix. 449 

loddra wellan ^onon on bydyncel bi abban grafe to bryde 
wyllan f swa on eccan treo f)onon on miclan msedua f on byd 
■Sonne on hygeredin c'g seceras 7 swa bi clop secere ufa in 
sulig cumb Jponon on mus beorh f swa to secSeredes wellan 
tSonon on clseg weg be ciric stede f swa bi sadol hongran on 
fearn beorh .... wuda on gemser broc f eft on sulan broc . 
>J< Dis sind pa, land gemsera into beo leabe serest of beo 
leahe on cundincg seceras of cundincg seceran on fearn healas 
of fearn healan on burh leahe of burh leahe on geahes ofer of 
geahes ofre on stan geat of stan geate on wulferes wyllan of 
jjaere wyllan on deawes broc of psem. broce on mapoldren 
geat of f)8em geate on beardyncg ford of bearding forda eft on 
beo leahe . pis sind 'Sa land gemsera into gyrd lea serest of 
gyrd lea on coUe of coUe on mser die of mser dice on blacan 
mearcan of blacan mearcan on f)one hse(5 garan on dagarding 
weg of dagarding wege on ac wyllan of ac wyllan on bradan 
apoldre of tSsere apoldre on mseres tSorn of tSan tSorne on 
smalan broc of smalan broce on cinctunes bro'c' of f>sem 
broce on dyrnan ford of dyrnan forda on brom balas of brom 
halan on hwitan leahe of hwitan leahe on leommannincg weg 
(Sonan on coUe of colle on meos mor of meos more on ciondan 
of ciondan on spel broc c5onan on bulan wyllan of bulan 
wyllan on J)a langan sec of tSsere langan sec [to] mundes dene 
of mundes dene on colle of colle eft on gyr d' leahe . Dis 
sind f^a land gemsera fses londes pe lymp'tS' to sture f is 
tSonne set serestan denewaldincg hommes ende scyt on sture 
]?onne scyt se die f hit cym(5 foran to byrnan scylfe f>onne 
ponan /lang f)sere ealdan strsete f hit cym'S on mser broc 
/lang mser broces f hit cymcS to langan dune ende f>onon f 
hit cymt5 to pos hliwan f)onne of pos hliwan to sealt mere . 
of sealt mere on fugel mere of fugel mere on steapan hlinc of 
steapan hlince on bara broc of bara broce ymb wydan cumb 
of widan curabe to hset5 hylle f>onon on stan hlinces ende 
f>onon on rum beorgas f>onne tSonan to cealc sea(5an of cealc 
sea'San to tilt5egnes triowan ]?onan to meox beorhym f)onan 
to pehtunes triowan fra pehtunes triowan to pioles clifan f 


7lai]g pioles clifes middeweardes to clop hyrste f»onne of clop 
hyrste on f)a die pe ligcS on sture . pis sind Jja land gemgera 
to bradan wege serest of mser ende on pes broc f)onon on J^a 
heafda set west mseduwan of west medwan on pa, heaf [dan] f 
on J)istel mere of fee mere /lang slsedes in pincan dene of 
pincan dene f up on f>eorna dune ufewearde J)onon on pone 
stapol of tSsem stapole ofer f)one ealdan feld f on fugel hlaew 
of f)8em blsewe on egsan mor of "San more up andlang dune f 
on bseddes wellan of bseddes wellan on brer hlaew of J^sem 
hlaewe on norS ham onbutan norcS ham /lang J^aere ealdan 
die f on sand broc of sand broce on bord ri'Sig of bord ri'Sig 
on hor pyttes ri})ig of hor pytte /lang fura f on cadan 
mynster f)onon on pa, ecge f on pa, sealt street /lang strset on 
pa ealdan die set nanes mannes lande of "Ssere die on asan 
wyllan of asan wyllan on J?ristlinga dene of Sristlinga dene 
ufeweardne f on fa ealdan die set wad beorhe /lang die eft o 
mser cumbe 

Anno dominicse incarnationis . dcccc . Ixxii . scripta 
est huius munificentise singrapha ^h'is testibus consen- 
tientibus quoru inferius nomina scdm uniuscuiusq . 
dignitatem utriusq . ordinis decusatim dno disponente 
caraxantur . 

Ego eadgar brittanni^ anglorii monarchus hoc tau- 
mate donii agie crucis roboraui 

Ego dunstan dorobernensis seclesie archieps eiusdem 
re^g'is beniuolentiam confirmaui 

Ego oswold eboracensis basilicaj primas huic regali 
done adsensum prebui 

Ego a'Selwold wintoniensis presul edis canonica sub- 
soriptione manu ppria depinxi 

Ego selfstan lundoniensis cathedre pontifex signum 
scse crucis Isetus impressi 

Ego alfwold scireburnensis cathedre antistes hoc in- 
tepidus donum corroboraui 



Ego brihtelm plebi di famulus huius regis dapsilitati 
Isetabundus aplausi 

Ego alfwold legis di catascopus testudinem agie crucis 
iussu regis impressi 

crucis agie 

hilaris imposui 

Ego eadelm commissarum plebium speculator hoc 
eulogium gaudens firmaui 

Ego kynsige di allubescente gratia spiritalis ouilis 
opilio banc largitione consolidaui 

Ego a^ulf dno codr . . amminiculante boc donum 
tropbeo see crucis confirmaui 

Ego alf^ryS prsefati regis conlaterana boc sintabma 
cum sigillo see crucis subscripsi 

Ego selfric abb subs Ego selfweard in 

Ego aescwig abb cons Ego selfsige m 

Ego osgar abb diet Ego SB'Selsige in 

Ego se'Selgar abb impr Ego wulfrie mi 

Ego cineweard abb dep 
Ego foldbriht abb desc 
Ego selfseh abb coni 
Ego sideman abb corr 


Ego brihteah abb imp 
Ego god wine abb cons 
Ego bribtncS abb ass 
Ego germ anus abb firih 
Ego selfere dux 
Ego oslac dux 
Ego se'Selwine dux 
Ego brihtno'S dux 
Ego se^elweard m 
Ego wulfstan in 

Ego self wine m 
Ego wulfgeat in 
Ego wulfstan in 
Ego ae^elmaer in 
Ego eanulf in 
Ego eadwine in 
Ego se^elweard in 
Ego selfric in 
Ego a^elwold m 
Ego alfwold in 
Ego wulfmser in 
Ego selfweard in 
Ego selfelm in 
Ego selfric in 
Ego leofwine m 
Gg 2 



Ego leofric m 
Ego aelfelm m 
Ego leofsige m 
Ego wulfric m 
Ego godwine m 
Ego selfric m 
Ego ealdred m 

Ego aelfeah m 
Ego leofstan fii 
Ego selfric m 
Ego se^elweard m 
Ego brihtric m 
Ego leofa m 
Ego brihtric m 

Prefata quo^q*' .... bis trium iugerorum quantitas 
et duo predia in famosa urbe quae ab accolis dicitur 
wygorne ceastre accidunt . quae sub eiusdem condicione 
libertatis perpetualiter in nomine dni nfi ihu xpi haberi 
precipio . 

* Erasures in the Charter. 


28in. UUERBURGEUUIC. This royal residence of the Mercian kings 
is mentioned again in K 2 1 7 thus : in uillo regali qui dicitiir wer- 
hurging wic. Both forms mean the same, the town of St. Werburg. 
Mr. Kerslake has maintained with great force that this place is ' Hoo 
St. Werburgh ' on the estuary of the Med way, and this identification 
contributes something considerable to a more important contention of 
his, that Clovesho is Cliffe at Hoo. Supremacy of Mercia, pp. 47, 53. 
Werburg was the daughter of Wulfhere, king of Mercia. 

35t. JURIS MEI. This formula occurs again 133m, aliquam partem 
terre juris mei; and 41 il, and often. Kemble, Saxons, Book i.e. 11 
explains it as * the king's common of pasture ' ; a right of common 
enjoyed by the king, ealdorman and gerefa in nearly every part of 
England ; which right they could alienate to others, p. 293. 

36b. IN LOCO CELEBRi UBi NOMINATOR Clofeshos. In the synod of 
Hertford, which was presided over by Theodore in the year 670, as re- 
lated by Beda, H. E. iv. 5, it was ordained : 

Septimum, Ut his in anno synodus congregetur ; sed quia diverscn 
causes impediunt, placuit omnibus in commune, ut Kalendis Augusiis 
in loco qui appellatur Clofeshoch, semel in anno congregemur. 

Where this once famous place was, which is written Clofeshocli, 
Clofeshos, Clofeshoas, has been much questioned. The similarity of 
the name has led to its identification with Cliffe at Hooe in the angle 
between the Medway and the Thames, and this opinion has lately been 
revived and strenuously maintained by Mr. Kerslake in his pamphlet 
on The Supremacy of Mercia. His point is that a road out of the 
centre of England came to the north bank of the Thames opposite 
Cliffe, that the river was there crossed by a ferry, that it was a high- 
way out of Mercia to Canterbury, and hence the eligibility of the 
situation for a synod. After the two great synods under Theodore at 
Hertford and Hatfield, the synods were provincial and mostly under 
Mercian princes, and when not at Clovesho, were at CealchyS, which 
is generally supposed to be Chelsea, though Sunning has also been 
suggested (Hefele, Eccles. Councils). Thus it seems necessary to find 

454 NOTES. 

Clovesho in Mercia, or somewhere convenient for Mercian kings. 
Somner suggested Abingdon, because Sheovesham was said to be the 
older name of that place, and he thought Sheovesham might be 
identified with Clovesho, c being put for s. But the time when c and 
s thus changed places was centuries later. However, Gibson adopted 
this view, in which the central position of Abingdon was perhaps of 
more weight than the etymology. Kemble said : ' I entertain little 
doubt that Cloveshoas was in the county of Gloucester and hundred 
of Westminster,' Saxons, ii. 15. In another place he suggests that it 
was not far from Deerhurst, Tewkesbury, and Bishop's Cleeve : per- 
haps at Tewkesbury itself, ii. 191. Stubbs says: 'Clovesho, a now 
forgotten place in the Mercian kingdom, probably near London,' 
Const. Sist. i. 231. 

38I. EGO OFA PATRicius. This is an interesting signature, because 
of the obscurity and curiosity which attends on the antecedents of the 
great king of Mercia. Lappenberg, i. 223, 


on the south side Sigheard's meadow and also Suithun's land. Here the 
simple and first meaning of the termination -ing is plainly seen; it 
signifies not only son of, but anything of. The patronymic usage, as in 
Alfred ^Selwulfing, Alfred son of Ethelwulf, is only one special ap- 
plication of a form that differs little in its original sense from a 
genitive case. As a patronymic it occurs on p. 102, Eadwald Oshering, 
Eadwald son of Oshere. 

95I. ])ANON EAST ANDLANG MEARCE, &c. : thetice eastwards along 
the bounds to duck pool. Here the mearc is plainly a line ; and so 
again 1 79m, })0NNE g^d sio mearc ford andlang bliban : now the 
boundary proceeds along the Blithe stream. 

Mearc (f.) signifies very much the same as our word marTc at present ; 
a sign, a line of division. Thus we have a verb mearcian, to make a 
mark, and from this an oak with some well-known marks upon it was 
called (355I) seo gemearcode d,c set Alerburnan=the marked oak at 
Alerbourne. Just above in the same context we find seo gemearcode 
aefse = the eaves of the wood where the mark is. 

The word signified a line of boundary, and also the belt of wild land 
around the cultivated area of a village, and thus it sometimes appears 
as if for a * march ' or width of neutral land between two communities. 
In this sense we have (21 oh), Bromleaginga mearc and Leofsnhsema 
= the march of the Bromley folk and the Lewisham folk. In this 
sense we have the compound mearc-lond, for the land lying in such a 

NOTES. 455 

But that the word mearc ever signified the area of an organised 
community, and further the community itself, as Kemble represents 
{Saxons, i. c. 2), there appears to be no adequate evidence; and on 
this point I must agree with Schmid, Gesetze, Glos. v. mearc. Kemble 
calls the community a Mark, each competent member a Markman, and 
the place of meeting a Markcourt. He lays great stress upon the 
word mearcmdf, ' which can only mean the place where such a meet- 
ing was held.' The only place he refers to is K 568*, a document of 
very inferior character, which bears his stigma, and in which the word 
is written mereemdt. Another word is mearcheorh, which he renders 
Mark-hill, and considers too special a name to express some hill or 
other which happened to lie in the boundary, and accordingly he ex- 
plains it as the hill or mound which was the site of the Markcourt. 
Now these evidences are the whole (apart from continental analogies) 
that he produces of a documentary kind; and they are hardly 'ade- 
quate to justify his conclusions. 

For had the word Mark so widely signified the community and 
its territory, should we not have had evidences of the fact in some 
names of places compounded with -mark ? There are no names even 
on the continent in which marie bears this sense ; even ' Denmark ' 
originally signified only the frontier of the Danes. 

Mr. Kemble supports his theory of the Mark by a long list of local 
names containing the element -ing, a form used in patronymics, and 
so an evidence of the patriarchal organisation and family compact of 
the Marks. Had the existence of the Marks as organised communities 
been first demonstrated, this collection of names would have made a 
very striking and effective illustration of their tribal nature. But as 
the matter stands, the utmost they can be held to convey is this ; that 
fellow-tribesmen who had been neighbours in the old country grouped 
together in the new. Csesar says that the Germans occupied their 
lands secundum cognationes gentesque (B. G. vi. 22); and Tacitus 
says that they acted in war by familicB propinquifatesgue (Germ. vii.). 
Thus all inherited custom would tend to keep kinsfolk together ; and 
that this deep-seated characteristic is represented by many of our 
-ing place names, seems highly probable. 

Of such names Mr. Kemble reckoned up 1329, and he further ob- 
served that out of this number there were 190 which stood simply in 
the nominative plural, like Hasting as (Hastings, Suss.), Puningas 
(Poynings, Suss.), without addition of wic, ham, hurh, or any such 
termination. Of this 190, he found 140 on the eastern and southern 
coasts, and 22 more in parts accessible through navigable streams. 

456 NOTES. 

therefore he thought the -ingas witnessed to the original seats of the 
Marks, while names in -ingaham, -ingaMn, &c. were due to filial settle- 
ments or colonies from the -ingas. These derivations have a substantial 
value of their own quite independent of the Mark-theory, and I am the 
more inclined to believe them real because they commend themselves 
to the historical judgment of my friend Mr. Boase of Exeter College. 

i03t. Nis Edelmode enig meghond neor bes cynnes danne Ead- 
WALD : — Ethelmod has not any natural heir nearer of kin than Eadwald, 
The term meghond has been written meiJiond just before. The first 
part is mceg (pi. magas) relation, and the second is simply the word 
* bond ' in that technical sense in which the Latin manus was used ; 
Maine, Ancient Law, p. 317. We have the word hand used by itself 
as an abstract term for party inheriting, as I48h, ' ac ic wille ofer hyra 
dseg Sset hit gange on Sa nyhstan hand me ' = but I will that after their 
day it go to the competent party who is nearest of kin to me. And 
lower on the same page we have hand for the patron and protector of 
a monastery. The Society at Domerham is to choose its own protector, 
swylce hand td cedsenne swylce him ledfast sy. 

On p. mm we read 'and se mann se to londe foe agefe hire 
erfe honda xiii pund pendinga ' = and the man who takes to the land 
is to give her natural successor 13 pound of pennies — in compensation, 
as I suppose, for what that heir loses through this bequest to the 
monastery. I imagine that this compound erfe honda (which Thorpe 
did not understand) is constructed on the same principle as meghond 
above. In Alfred's Will we have the compound wifhand : ' gif ic 
gesealde senigre wlfhanda ^set he gestrynde ' = if I have given to any 
female inheritor property which he acquired (148m). 


my friends and relatives who helped me in to the property; as also 
gefultemedan just above. 

io9h. ))E londes weorbe sie and land gehaldan cunne = as long 
as there is any one of ray family who is qualified and legally able to 
hold land. 

109m. SUB TO faranne = to travel south ; i. e. go abroad, perhaps 
to Rome. See Vigfusson's Diet. v. Su'^r. 


&c. = if they (my brothers) do not beget heir or somewhat else happen 
to him when he is there ; i. e. or if they do beget heir who should die 
within a certain time. 

II 2 1. FORNACiBus PLUMBis. Anything to do with Chaucer's ' fomeys 
of a leed,' Prologue, 202 ? 

NOTES. 457 

113111. Kemble thinks it probable that all estates of folcland were 
chargeable with payments to the ealdorman, and that these gifts to 
Sigred and Mucel were by way of indemnity for rights diminished by 
the privilege granted to Hanbury. Saxons, ii. 140. 

122m. NIGEN HIGIDA LOND. Throughout the whole Saxon period 
the chief expression of quantity in land is hid, and yet the greatest 
diversity of statement is found in regard to the measure of the Hide, 
not only in the writings of modern scholars, but also in the ancient 
authorities. Some of the difficulties will disappear of themselves if we 
follow the subject in historical order. 

The word hid is purely insular ; it is not found in any of the kindred 
dialects. But the dialects offer a word which is a very close equivalent 
in sense, and perhaps near of kin too : — OHG. huoba, huopa, hdba, 
OS. hova ; German has the two forms. High Dutch huhe and Low 
Dutch hufe. This word signifies a lot of land equal to 30 acres, and 
Weigand connects it with hahen have, possess. A kindred idea lies 
at the root of our higid or hid, if it is related to hiw family, whence 
hiwisc adj. for a family, a family's lot of land, the G representing the 
W, as in the doublet forms hiwan, higan, the members of a fraternity. 
Perhaps hiw and hufe are but two forms of one word, and the Latin 
civ-is another cognate : — it has the rule-right Lautverschiebung. It 
may be some confirmation that in the Shaftesbury Eegister (Group 
xiii) the xx mansae at Tisbury are called the ' twentiwe hiwe.' 

Bede afibrds strong evidence for the connection of Md with hiw, 
insomuch as he uses familia in the same statistical manner in which 
Md is used, and Bede's familia was afterwards rendered Md, hiwscipe, 
hiwisc, by Alfred in all but a few of the instances. Thus in E. H. 
iii. 25 singulae (xii) possessiones decern erant familiarum = wses ]j3es 
landes ealles cxx hlda ; . . . possessio decern familiarum = tyn hlda 
landes; — iv. 13 donavit terram octoginta septem familiarum = sealde 
seafon and hundeahtig hlda landes ; — iv. 23 accepit locum unius fami- 
lise = onfeng anes hiwscipes stowe ; — v. 20 donavit terram decem famili- 
arum = sealde tyn hiwisca [v. 1. hlda] landes ; — . . . monasterium 
triginta familiarum = mynster xxx hiwisca [v.l. hlda]. He does also 
(exceptionally) use the word folc for familia ; iii. 24, speaking of the 
North Mercian kingdom, he says ; — qui sunt, ut dicunt, familiarum 
quinque millium = fif ])(isendo folces; — and of the South Mercians, 
quorum terra est familiarum septem millium = J>ara landa is seofon 
jjAsendo folces. When he in this form gives us the extent of entire 
districts by families, it is manifest that his numbers are not like those 
of a house to house census, but rather a statistical estimate based 

458 NOTES. 

upon the land-tenure. Thus of Thanet in i. 25 : Tanatos insula non 
modica, id est, magnitudinis juxta consuetudinem sestimationis Anglo- 
rum, familiarum sexcentarum : and of the Isle of Wight in iv. 16 est 
autem mensura ejusdem insulse, juxta aestimationem Anglorum, mille 
ducentarum familiarum. 

"BesideB familia there are many Latin words which during the Saxon 
period represent Md, and all of the same aspect; such are casaius 
(from casa house) mostly written cassatus, mansa (seldom mansus), 
mansio, mansiuncula, manens, terra unius aratri. The expression terra 
tributarii, has been sometimes identified with the Md, as by Schmid v. 
Hid, but I think it belongs to a different species of tenure. 

There is extant a memorandum of the hidage of districts, in the 
form of a brief and so to say tabular statement in 34 items. There 
are five several copies of it, one in Saxon and four in Latin. They 
are all published by Mr. de Gray Birch in the Proceedings of the 
British Archseological Association, 1884. The Saxon copy is not only 
the oldest of the five, being of the loth or nth century, but it contains 
traces of archaism which suggest a much higher antiquity. 

I Myrcna landes is ])rittig j)usend hyda J)ser mon aerest myrcna haet. 
2 Wocen SEetna is syfan J)usend hida. 3 Westerna eac swa. 4 Pec- 
saetna twelf hund hyda. 5 Elmed saetna syx hund hyda. 6 Lindes 
farona syfan })usend hyda mid haej)feldlande. 7 Sut" gyrwa syx hund 
hyda. 8 Nor^ gyrwa syx hund hyda. 9 East wixna ])riu hund hyda. 
10 West wixna syx hund hyda. 1 1 Spalda syx hund hyda. 1 2 Wi- 
gesta nygan hund hyda. 13 Herefinna twelf hund hyda. 14 Sweord 
ora Jjryu hund hyda. 15 Gifla ])ryu hund hyda. 16 Hicca ])ry hund 
hyda. 17 Wihtgara syx hund hyda. 18 Noxgaga fif J)usend hyda. 
19 Ohtgaga twa Jjusend hyda. J?aet is syx T syxtig J)usend hyda i an 
hund hyda. 20 Hwinca syfan ])usend hyda. 2 1 Ciltern saetna feower 
jjusend hyda. 22 Hendrica J>ryu J>usend hyda "j fif hund hyda. 23 
Unecungga twelf hund hyda. 24 Avo saetna syx hund hyda. 25 
Faerjjinga ])reo hund hyda ... is in middelenglu Ferjjinga. 26 Bilmiga ^ 
syx hund hyda. 27 Widerigga eacswa. 28 Eastwilla syx hund hyda. 
29 Westwilla syx hund hyda. 30 East engle ])rittig ])usend hida. 31. 
East sexena syofon ]?usend hyda. 32 Cantwarena fiftene Jjusend hyda. 
33 Su]) sexena syufan Jjusend hyda. 34 West sexena hund ])usend 

D is ealles twa hund )jusend ^ twa ^ feowertig Jjusend hyda "j syuan 
hund hyda. 

^ Or perhaps Bilunga (Birch). 

NOTES. 459 

We have nothing to do with the numerous questions suggested by 
this most interesting document : but one remark is of importance here. 
The list consists partly of those great divisions which constitute the 
geography of history, and partly of a number of utterly obscure, and, 
so far as research has yet gone (we must say, even after reading Mr. 
Birch's dissertation), altogether untraceable names. This suggests 
that the core of the piece is of very high antiquity. Since all this 
was in type, I have received from Mr. Kerslake his pamphlet on 
Gifla (15), which he has in a masterly manner identified with the 
valley of the Yeo, conquered by the West Saxons in 658. The Gifle 
of Alfred's Will is the same. 

Under 1008 the Peterborough chronicle has a brief and unsatis- 
factory but still a most valuable notice of a great national effort at 
shipbuilding and arming, and the burden was distributed according to 
the Hidage. 

In the Domesday record (1086) the land is throughout described by 
a duplicate description. It is stated in hides, and it is stated in caru- 
cates and other terms which indicate present value. The hidage is 
matter of record only ; the carucates express the measurement of the 
time. Now for the first time the Md appears as an archaism. 

Hitherto we get no definition of the Md : it is spoken of as the best 
known thing in the world, too well known for anyone to think of 
explaining it. All the light we get from authorities of the Saxon 
period is incidental and undesigned. But now we draw near to a time 
when authors hardly mention the hide, without thinking an explana- 
tion necessary. Thus Henry of Huntingdon (the Latin historian of 
the 12 th century who had an archaeological turn) could not compile the 
history of 1008 already mentioned, without giving a definition of the 
Hide : Hida autem Anglice vocatur terra unius aratri culturae sufficiens 
per annum. This can hardly mean anything else but land enough for 
the yearly sustenance of a household. 

And if the explanations vary, we must not be astonished, nor too 
much perplexed thereby. If we had the most incompatible statements 
from different authors and we had reason to suppose that they all knew 
perfectly what they were discoursing of, it would be hopelessly per- 
plexing. But if we regard all the statements that we shall find as 
only so many efforts, more or less enlightened, to solve an antiquarian 
problem, the discrepancies will not disturb us. We may look for the 
cause why one man estimates the hide at a greater, and another at a 
smaller extent, and regard all the authorities as so many speakers in 
a discussion. 

460 NOTES. 

In the second part of the 1 2th century, the Dialogus de Scaccario 
says concerning the Hide : Euricolse melius hoc norunt ; verum sicut 
ab ipsis accepimus, hida a primitiva iustitutione ex centum acris con- 
stat. Stubbs, Select Charters, p. 200. Spelman v. hida, quotes a 
Malmesbury codex which says : virgata terrae continet xxiv acras, et iv 
virgatae constituunt unam hidam, et v hidae constituunt feodum mili- 
tare. According to this the hide would be 96 acres, but this is peculiar, 
and the authority is not clear. The most prevalent statement in 
medieval writers makes the hide 120 acres. The conflicting statements 
led to the inference (expressed by Selden) that the hide was never a 
definite superficial area at all, but an estimate, varying with places 
and circumstances, of land enough for the subsistence of a family, or 
suitable to be the unit of taxation. Against this however Kemble 
set himself to prove that it was a definite quantity, which he fixed at 
30-33 acres. He accounted for the great diversity of statement, by 
the supposition of a large and a small acre. 

Mr. Eyton (Dorset Domesday) has arrived at the conclusion that 
the average Hide in Dorset was between 200 and 300 statute acres. 
In certain instances where it is manifest that the Hide varied widely 
either way from this average, he treats it as anomalous and due to 
disturbing causes. He finds that in places where the land was more 
valuable or more desirable by reason of local advantages, such as 
water privileges or accessibility, a less quantity of land was assessed 
as a Hide, and this he calls superhidation, overstatement of hidage. 
The opposite extreme was when by royal favour towards an owner 
the extent of the land was rated at a nominal figure, which Mr. 
Eyton calls beneficial hidation, because it carried with it a relatively 
smaller taxation. Thus he quotes an instance in which the Domesday 
Hide is now represented by at least 4000 statute acres, and another in 
which it is represented by as little as 84 acres. Between these 
extremes there are great inequalities, but the area of the county 
yields a quotient of about 230 acres for the equivalent of the Hide 
in Domesday. 

These conclusions are not so incompatible as at first appears, because 
Kemble proceeded on the theory that the ' hide ' was only the arable, 
and that indefinite additions of pasture and wood were implied. Mr. 
Eyton on the other hand reckoned the whole area of the county, and 
divided it by the number of hides recorded in Domesday. 

Other ways of explaining hid have been and still are current. 
Kennet, followed by Ellis, associated it with hut, and the verb h^dan 
hide, shelter. Mr. de Gray Birch adheres to this derivation. This 

NOTES. 461 

changes the root of the word but not the essential idea of the thing. 
It implies a form h-^d (not huV) and so does another derivation, that of 
Grimm, who referred the origin of the word to a different association 
of thought. He derived it from h^d corium, beast's hide ; on the 
ground that the land was meted out with leathern thongs. This 
derivation is approved by Mr. Seebohm, who finds further confirmation 
of this idea in the historical fact that the Frisians paid to the Franks 
a tribute in hides. 

142m, AN ciNGES BOCHOLTE = in the king's heechwood. There are 
other places in which the beech is mentioned, e.g. 284I. As to 
Caesar's statement that there was no beech in Britain, see below, 
p. 473. It is remarkable that Dr. Daubeny in Trees of the Ancients, 
1865, p. 7, thought that the beech ' was not known in Holland nor 
probably in England or Ireland at the time of the Norman Conquest ' ; 
an opinion which Caesar had probably helped to form, and which is 
corrected by our documents. The Welsh name for the beech is ffa, a, 
word apparently borrowed irorafagus, and dating from the time of the 
Koman occupation. ' Dwellers on or near the chalk districts of England 
are too familiar with the conspicuous and beautiful seedlings of the 
beech not to feel considerable doubt as to the acciiracy of Julius Caesar's 
statement that the tree, though present in Gaul, was wanting in 
Britain.' George Kolleston, Scientific Fapers, cf-c, edited by Dr. Turner, 
1884; p. 324. 

144m. WYT jEdeeed. An old idiom for ' I and -(^thelred ' ; literally 
< we-two ^thelred.' 


NiiNiG CTEELIF, &c. We may here notice as an interesting point in 
Grammar that the negatives are multiplied with a profusion hardly 
anywhere equalled except in Greek at the most perfect period of its 
prose. Moreover, what is rather a rarity, in ne geswenee nan we see 
the adverbial pronoun which enforces the negation written in all its 
natural fulness, and not yet reduced to nd. The whole passage is so 
remarkable as to demand translation. 

* And I pray in the name of God and his saints that no one of my 
kinsfolk or heirs disturb any eyre lif of those which I paid for, and the 
witan of Wessex warranted my right to leave them either free or unfree 
at my will ; but I, for God's love and my soul's need will that they be 
worthy of their freedom and their choice ; and I command in the name 
of the living God that no man molest them, neither in the way of 
property claim, nor in any way, so as to prevent their choosing what 
man soever they will.' 

462 NOTES. 

Kemble says ' Cyrelif is a person who has a right of choice, or who 
has exercised a choice : these must have been poor men, free or unfree, 
who had attached themselves personally to Alfred, voluntarily or not.' 
He sees in their permission to choose what protector they will, a con- 
firmation of his view that the manumitted serf did not become fully 
free, but was obliged to find himself a lord. 

But 1 doubt about eyre lif being a person ; I think it must be a 
condition of life. The compound mynster lif, which ,in the tenth 
century meant simply a monastery in its concrete form (as in 
Danish munMiv) had earlier meant ' monastic life ' as we see it p. 109I, 
where hire mynster lifes geunnan means ' grant her admittance into 
the society and life of the minster.' So I think eyre lif here expresses 
the institution of a set of conditions, devised perhaps by Alfred himself 
(as the word occurs only here) whereby freedom should be either pro- 
moted or protected against the encroachments of powerful men. 

148b. ON cwicuM CEAPE, lit. in live cattle ; which must mean in actual 
earnings, the year's produce, current income, as opposed to testamentary 
bequest, and corporate benefactions, which came afterwards to be 
called the dead hand. » 


&c. : till it Cometh to the edge of the wood, and then continuously north 
hy the root-stumps till you come abreast of the great ash. We meet 
with wyrtwala repeatedly in the boundaries. It signifies not a single 
object, but a continuous bank of old tree-roots (often much exposed) 
along the edge of the wood. It is often a conspicuous feature dividing 
the wood from the open field. They who perambulate or botanize 
or go out to hear the birds, or in any way love the country, know 
it very well. 

The word is a compound of the rare word wal = Tod, stick, staff, 
which occurs once in Ulfilas, Lk 9, 3 in ace. pi. waluns from nom. 
waZtts = stafl*) with the well-known wyrt, a generic word for tree or 
plant. In Friesic the rare word occurs in a compound walubera = 
staffbearer, i.e. pilgrim. In the poetic fragment 'The Euin ' weall- 
walan are the upright tree-stocks in a timbern house. The same 
word indicates horizontally built timbers in a ship's gunwale. In 
S.E. Somerset there is a district in which the name ' Wales ' is very 
frequent as a designation of hamlets and obscure spots ; thus Castle 
Wales, HicknoU Wales, Shelf Wales, occur in the parish of S. Cad- 
bury. The name recurs in this way through many adjoining parishes 
in a district that may be defined as lying between Bruton and 
Milbome Port; and in the same district the word wales is also a 

NOTES. 463 

common name for lynches, those natural terraces which appear in an 
oolite hill-side ; also the ridge of raked hay is called iveal or wheel. 
In Lydford the term tvhale (pron. wheel) means an irregular strip of 
ground. I am indebted for this local information to the Rev. James 
Arthur Bennett, rector of South Cadbury. In Beowulf 1031 in the 
description of the helmet is a most vexed place, commonly edited 
thus * walan utan heold ' ; where I would divide thus : * wal an 
utan ' = a rod or bar (of metal) on the outside. 

This sort of edge to a wood is not inaptly termed an eaves (efese), 
the eaves of the wood. The word occurs in this usage in the Saxon 
Chronicle A in a very conspicuous place, A.D. 894. In 166I we are 
led to the eaves of a wood, and continue along the wyrtwala. In 
375h we pass along the wyrtwala of Bagley Wood. In 386I the 
line runs from a thorn-batch to the wyrtwala at the fir-trees. In 
38 2h the path lies between a broad mere and the wyrtwala, where 
we should often be 'under an oak, whose antique root peeps out.' 

1 73m. CUBAGULUS TOTius Bryttanni^. ' The oddest titles of all 
are Primicerius and Curagulus or Coregulus. Probably Curagulus 
meant caretaker, but with the idea of 7'ex or regulus floating in the 
mind of the scribe.' Freeman, N. C. i. 552. Primicerius seems to 
have originally meant chief legatee in a Will, heres in prima tabula 
scriptus ; prima cera being equivalent to prima tabula ; also prcecipua 
cera — 'praecipuam in tabulis ceram,' Juvenal iv. 19, and Heinrich's 
note. The phrase outlived the use of waxen tablets, and became 
generalised to any priority in any list or catalogue upon whatever 
writing material. 

178b. ON ))ONE LYTLAN BEORG })^R SE STOC STOD. That Stoc meant 

the stock of a tree, is certain. The Word Lists give us * Truncus 
stoc ' repeatedly, and again ' Stipes stok.' And this sense will satisfy 
some of the places where the word occurs in the documents, as ' oj) J)one 
calewan stoc' to the bald stock, i74h. In 385h ' paSe stoc' looks 
like a guide-post. Here also perhaps we may add ' w6n stoc.' 

But there are places where the word evidently bears a developed 
sense, such as may perhaps guide us to find its meaning in local names. 
Thus in the text ' on to the little barrow (or hill) where the stock 
stood,' I apprehend the stock here was the basis of an old cross. 
See 294I, Note, In 290b a be hearpa'Se to heafod stoccum = continually 
along the high road to the head stocks ; farm-buildings seem likely. 
In K383 (vi. 230) occurs the late form heuedstoch, and this is now 
Headstock, a hamlet in the parish of Batcombe (Somerset). 

In these latter instances the word seems to mean a superior house, 

464 NOTES. 

and one that is built on an artificial elevation, such as that which may- 
still be seen in the Castle Field west of the churchyard at Laughton- 
en-le-Morthen, Yorkshire. At first the word would designate only 
the timbern edifice, then the whole elevation would bear the honourable 
appellation of a stock. How honourable this name was is attested 
by the number of Stokes to which great family names became after- 
wards attached, as Stoke Courcy, Stoke Damerell (d' Albemarle), 
Stoke Gilford, Stoke Lacy, Stoke Mandeville. In Alfred's translation 
of Gregory's Dialogues, Casinum as the parent house of the Benedictines 
is called the 'stoc wic' Anglo-Saxon Literature, by J. Earle (1884) 
p. 200. In K 1053 the bounds come innan ]>a, heafodstoccas. 

This word as a name element had that privilege which ham had, 
but which tUn never attained, of being a prefix as well as a suflB.x ; 
thus we have not only Basingstoke, Halstock, Plymstock, Tavistock, 
Woodstock, but also Stockbury, Stockwell ; and Stockton is almost as 
frequent as Hamton. The Saxons adopted the word villa, and popu- 
larized it into wella, and so we have wella and ham as interchangeable 
terms. I think that stoc made a third, and that it is combined with 
wella in the name Stocwella (sBoh). 

Forstemann, whom I looked into after writing the above, gives the 
following illustration, and I may say confirmation. ' Ahd. stoch, nhd. 
stock truncus geht zwar moistens auf die stehen gebliebenen Wurzel- 
stocke gefallter Baume, doch ist in anderen Fallen, namentlich wo 
das Wort als Grundwort und im Singularis erscheint, eher an die 
Bedeutung von Berg zu denken (vgl. unter Gebirgstock).' From this 
it results, that I need not have been so careful to explain how a 
mound should be called a stoc, for it seems this figurative use was 
already established in the old homes before our people moved. These 
two views might easily be blended together, but I prefer to leave 
the investigation as it was written. I will only add the example of a 
stock of bees. I prefer to derive this from the figure of a house 
pitched on an elevation, rather than to adopt Weigand's explanation 
V. Blenenstock (mhd. binestock) ' urspr. hohler Holzklotz zur Aufnahme 
eines Bienenschwarmes, dann bevolkerter Bienenkorb.' 

And I must further add that in the Blickling Homilies, Simon 
Magus contending with SS. Peter and Paul before Nero, proves his 
divine mission by flying off a tower, but he falls * on ])one stocc be 
]?8ere staenenan straete J)e is h^ten Sacra uia ' = on the stock by the 
stony street called Via sacra. ' Da genamon men eft J)one stoc on 
weg, and feower syllice stanas on Jjsere ilcan stowe alegdon ' = After- 
wards men took away the stock, and placed four huge stones on the 

IfOTES. 465 

spot. Here the editor, Dr, Morris, translates stoc by ' scaffolding, ' 
but I do not see what this means. I cannot think of any individual 
structure by the side of the road that could be called * the stock ' ; 
and I suspect it must be the bonding masonry which held the road 
together, and of which our * curb-stones ' are a smaller example. 

Since all this was in type I have seen the following passage in the 
Chapter on Construction of Eoads in Mr. Middleton's Ancient Rome 
(1885) p. 478. 'The lava paving was bordered by a massive curb, 
usually of tufa, peperino, or travertine. The latter was used in the 
Forum Magnum along the Via Sacra.' 

In K569 occurs a feminine stoccen which Kemble glossed 'perhaps 
a place full of stocks or logs.' The passage runs th