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Trsdo qiue pofcni. 





LATB m.LOW or TBiiriTT ooLUox, Am rsoraaoB or axatomt 
IK THC oirrrsiiaiTT or OAVBRriHix. 






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Ki ;iT^(o'^o (^^) 


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Ths first Edition of Professor Van dxr Hoeykn's manual 
was published in parts between the years 1827 and 1835. 
He undertook the labour, as he informs us, not with any 
desire to add one more to the numerous works with a 
similar title already in existence, which should be neither 
better nor worse than these. On the contrary, if he had 
found any one of them to be a sufficient guide for his 
public teaching, without great alterations, he would have 
abstained from his contemplated task. Accordingly, the 
plan of his work differed from that of most other manuals 
in beginning with the simpler forms of animals, and pro- 
ceeding upwards to the highest : and from that of all of 
ihem, in embodying a much larger amount of anatomical 
information. His work was received with marked appro- 
bation not confined to the limits of his own coimtry. 
During the lapse of nineteen years, which intervened 
between the first and second editions, the acquisitions 
both of Zoology and Zootomy had been greatly enlarged, 
so that in many departments the former science had 
assumed an entirely new aspect. Consequently the second 

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edition, similar in plan to the first but greatly different in 
its contents, was almost entirely re-written. This edition 
has, like the first, been published in parts between the 
years 1846 and 1855, inclusive. From the high terms in 
which it has already been alluded to firom time to time, 
in the writings of various active cultivators of different 
departments of Zoology on the continent, it is obvious 
that the general estimation of his work will still be such 
as might be expected in the case of an author of vast 
erudition, of appropriate tastes^ talents and genius, and 
whose office it has been for nearly thirty years, as Pro- 
fessor of Zoology in the University of Leyden, to bring 
the value and import of the new acquisitions of Ana- 
tomy and Zoology (many of them the result of his own 
labours) from time to time before his auditors. 

The University of Cambridge, a few years ago, directed 
in a more marked manner the attention of our students to 
the Moral and Natural Sciences, by proposing honorary 
distinctions to those who might excel in certain depart- 
ments of those sciences respectively; and by requiring 
proof of satisfactory attention to some one at least of such 
departments on the part of all candidates for the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts, who were not aspirants for Mathe- 
matical honours. Amongst the departments of Natural 
Science, Comparative Anatomy and Physiology were 
indicated, with special regard (as is presumed) to Zoology. 
It thus became a part of my office to place within reach 

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of our students the best assistance I could recommend for 
their studies in this direction. In fulfilment of it I ap- 
plied to Professor Van der Hoeven for his permission 
to translate his Work, in which I found all that could 
be required^ He had the kindness not only to grant this 
permission, but also to enrich the English translation with 
numerous references to works too recent for notice in his 
own second edition. It is to be much regretted that his 
other engagements did not allow him, as I requested, 
to weave the new matter in his own terse and pleasing 
style into his introductions to the classes and elsewhere. 
Consequently such additions, in this respect, as are in- 
cluded within square brackets are mine. 

The study of Zoology is now in such general favour 
with cultivated persons in this country, that I believe the 
present work, from its scientific value and the interest of 
its historical and other notices, as well as from the con- 
tinuous references to the works of the original discoverers, 
will secure for itself, beyond the walls of Universities, a 
reception not unworthy of its Author's great name. 

W. C. 

Cambbidox, July i, 1856. 

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Organic and Inorganic Bodies 3 — 4 

Flaots and Animals 4-* 7 

Zoology 7—8 

The 1188068 of Ammals 9—19 

The Vital FanctionB of Animals 19 — 34 

Derdopment of Animals 94 — 26 

On the Alt of dasBifying (ITaKifMMMfa) 36 — 36 

Glass I.— Infusobhs. {Infd99na). . . 37—59 

Spermaiogoii, Bo-caBed seminal animalcules 43 — 47 

Systematic Arrangement of Inlnsories 45 — ^59 

Older L Inftuoria nmplieisnma 4j 

7am. I. Vibrionida A. 

Order II. Hkkopoda 45— 50 

Fam. II. Amctbaa 46 

„ m. Aredlina 4^—6^ 

Order m. Airidia 50—51 

Fam. lY. Manadina 50 

„ ▼. (kypiamonadina A. 

„ Yl. Vohocina t&. 

„ Tn. Attatia 53 

„ Yin. Peripkryffoma f6. 

Order IV. EpUricka 53—59 

Fam. IX. Peridinaa 53 

„ X. Triekodina 53—55 

„ XI. Oxiftrickina 55 

„ xn. EupUfUk 55— 5<5 

„ xm. Voriicdlina *fi — 59 

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ClaBB II.— POLTPB. {Pdl^i.) .... 60—97 

Systematic Amngement of Polyps « 73~-^ 

Section I. Anihozoa 73 — 84 

Order L Mydtifonma 73—77 

Fam. I. Hydrina 73 — 74 

„ n. Seiivlcmna 75 — 77 

Order II. OcUuAinia 77—84 

Fam. m. Xenina 77 — 78 

„ IV. Haleyonina 78 — 80 

,y ▼. PennatfUina 80—81 

„ Ti. Tubiparina 8s 

„ VII. Cortieata 83 — 84 

Order III. PUyckdinia 84 — 93 

Fam. vni. Madrtporina 85 

IX. OcelUfia 86 

X. CfyroM 86—87 

XI. Funffina 87 — 89 

xn. ZoafUhina 89 — 90 

xm. AcHfUna 90—91 

Section n. Brywtoa 93—97 

Order rV. Bryotoa 93—97 

Fam. xrv. SUhntUopoda 93 — 96 

„ XV. Zophopoda 96 — 97 

ClasbIII. — Sba-Nbttlbb. (Acalephce.) . 98 — 136 

Systematic Arrangement of Sea-netUes 108 — 136 

Order I. Siphonoph4)r<B 108 — 119 

Fam. I. VeUUidm 108—111 

„ II. PhyttopkoridcB iii — 116 

,, ni. ffippopodida 116 

,, IV. IHpkyidm 116 — 119 

Order IL Ctenopkora 119 — i3i 

Fam. V. Btr<iKdea no — i3i 

Order III. DiicophonB 133 

Fam. VI. Qtryonida 133—133 

„ VII. JZAtzoitomtcZes 133 

„ vui. Medusidea 133 — 134 

„ IX. OcMnida 134 — 135 

„ X. jEquoridcB 135 — 136 

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Class IV.— Eohxhodhiib, (Sekinodtrmaia). . 197—163 

SyBtemuitic Amngement of Echinodenns. 143 — 16a 

Older I. Eekmodu iwufa pedieUlaia {PedkulaU Sekm,) 143—159 

Fam. I. OnmeSdm 143—146 

„ n. Atteridea 146 — 149 

„ lu. Sehinidea 150—156 

„ IV. HoUthuridea 156 — 159 

Order n. Apoda 159 — 161 

Fam. ▼. SynaptintB 159 — x6o 

„ Ti. SipuHculaeea 160—163 

Glass Y.— IifTisnirAL Wobmb. {EnUaoa). . 163 — 193 

Sjsiematio Arrangement of the Intestinal Worms 178 — 193 

Older I. Sterdminiha 178—188 

Fam. I. Cettwdea 178—184 

„ n. Aeanihocephala 184 

„ m. TrenuUoda 184—188 

Order II. Oodelmintka 18S— 193 

Fam. IT. NematoUUa 188—193 

Appendix to the Class of Intestinal Worms 193 — 194 

Class VI. — ^Whskl-Ahdcalculbs. {Rotatoria). 194—306 

Systematic Arrangement of Wheel-animalcmlBS 199 — 3o6 

Order sing^le. MUatoria 199—306 

Fam. I. Flotetdarke . 199 — 300 

„ n. Mdicertina 300—301 

„ IIL Braehioncea 30i — 303 

„ lY. Hydaiinoea 303 — 305 

„ ▼. PkUodinan 305 — 306 

Class VIL—RiXGiD Worms. (Annidata). . 307—346 

Systematic Arrangement of Binged- worms 319 — 346 

Order I. TurbeUaria 319 — 334 

Fam. I. Planariea 319 — 333 

„ II. Nemerttni 333 — 334 

Order IL SueUma 335—338 

Fam. m. Birudinea 335 — 338 

Order HI. SeUgera 338 

Fam. IT. LumMeini 338 — 333 

„ T. Maldama 333 — 334 

„ TI. AmphiirUa «34— «37 

„ Tu. ArmieoUg 337 

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Fam. vin. Ch£Btoptenna 437 — 438 

IX. Peripatina 938 

X. Aricia «38— «39 

XI. Nemda 139— 14a 

xn. EumceiB 34^ — ^43 

xm. AmphinomaeecB '243 — ^44 

XIV. ApkrodUaeeiB 344 — M^ 

Class Vm.—lK8B0T8. {Inteda), . «47— 555 

Systematic Anrangement of Insects 988 — ^555 

Order I. Myriapoda a88— 296 

Fam. I. Jidida «89— 193 

„ 11. Seolopendriiks 993 — 996 

Order II. Thysanwra 196—300 

Fam. m. Zepitmena ^97 — *9^ 

„ IV. PodurOla 198—300 

Order m. ParatiHea 300—303 

Fam. V. ffcemaiopina 300 — 301 

„ VI. MaUopkaga 301—303 

Order rV. Sudoria 303 — 305 

Fam. vn. PuUHcUb 303—305 

Order V. Shreptiptera 305—308 

Fam. vni. Sirepnplera 307 — 308 

Order VI. JHptera 308—346 

Fam. IX. Pupiparce Z^^—ZH 

„ X. Athericera 314— 3«8 

„ XI. TanysUmata 3^8—335 

„ xn. Notaeaniha 335—339 

„ xjn. Nemoeera 339 — 346 

Order VII. ffymenopiera 346—389 

Fam. XIV. Mdlifera 350— 359 

XV. DiplopUryga 359— 36« 

XVI. Ederogyna 363 — 367 

xvn. Fouora 367 — 371 

XVIII. ChrysidideB 37i— 37« 

XIX. (hyura 373—375 

XX. Cfhalcidia 375—378 

XXI. Ichneumontdes 378 — 383 

xxn. Cynip^ea 383—385 

xxm. Urocerata 385—386 

XXIV. TetUhredinda 387—389 

Order VIII. Lqddoptera 389—4" 

Fam. XXV. Noctuma 393— 404 

„ XXVI. Creptuctdaria 404 — 406 

,, XXVII. JHuma 407—411 

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Order IX« NetsropUra 413 — ^497 

Fam. zxnn. Pkrffffanidea 413—415 

99 xzix. PanarpaUB 415 — 416 

„ XXX. ffemerobmi 416 — ^410 

„ XXXI. LibeUmlimai 490—433 

„ xxxn. Bphewterina 433 — 435 

„ xxxm. Perlaria 435 

„ xxxiY. TerwMfUB 436—437 

Order X. JlewiipUra 437 — 448 

Fam. xxxv. Coccma 430 — 433 

„ XXXYI. Aphidii 439^435 

„ xxxvn. CieadainKB 435—439 

9, XXXVIII. Hydncorim ...... 439 — 441 

9, XXTTT. Oeoeoriw 443 — ^448 

Order XL Orthopiera 448—464 

Fam. XL. ChryiUdei 451—458 

„ xu. ManHdet 458—461 

„ xui. JBhUtaria 461—463 

„ xuii. Fot:fieultm€B 463 — ^464 

Appendix to the Orikoptera, Tkiftcmopfera, Qtrnxm Thript ... 464 

Order XII. CoitopUra ^^—553 

Fam. xuv. CoeemeUida 467—468 

,9 XLV. Fvmgkfi^ 468—469 

99 XLVi. CUvripdlpi 469—470 

„ XLvn. Oydica 471—474 

,y XLTiii. Eupoda 474 — 476 

,, xux. Maeroeerata ...... 476—480 

,9 ^ . Seo^fkuria 480—483 

„ u. Bhynckopkora 483—489 

„ m. Stendfira 49^—493 

„ un. Taaieomei 493—495 

9, uv. MeUuamata 495 — ^499 

„ LV. (kmiharidia 499—504 

„ LVL JkmdUeorma 504 — ^519 

y, LYiL XyUphaga 530—533 

9, Lvm. SerricofnUa 533 — ^537 

f> ux. Braehdytra 538—533 

,9 LX. Clavicomia 533 — 540 

„ LXL PalpicortUa 540 — 543 

„ LXn. Bjfdroeainiharma 543 — ^544 

„ Lxm. CarabicifM 545—555 

CLiJSS IX.— Abachnids. (AraehnoHdea). . . 556—597 

Systematic Arrangement of Aradmids 571 — 597 

Order I. Polysfonapoda 57i__573 

Fam. I. Pfcnoffonida 571 — ^573 

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Order II. Cdopoda 574—575 

Fam. 11. Arctiaca 574—575 

Ord^rlll. Acarina 575— 58^ 

Fam. in. Acarea 575— 57<5 

„ IV. Nolaapidea 57^5—577 

„ V. Ixodea 577 

VI. Ganuuea 577—579 

„ VII. ffydramchnidia 579 — 581 

„ vin. BdeUea . . . ' 581 

„ IX. TrombidifM 581 — 582 

Orderly. PhalanffUa 58a— 584 

Fam. X. PheUoMffita 582—584 

Order V, Pseudoacorpiones 584 

Fam. XI. Pteudoaeorpiones 584 

Older VI. Solifugm 584—585 

Fam. XII. CfaUodea 584 — 585 

Order VII. Pedipalpi 585—586 

Fam. xni. Phrynide* 585 — 586 

„ XIV. Scorpiona 586—587 

Order Vm. Aramddea . 588—597 

Fam. XV. ArcmMea 588 — 597 

Class X.-— Crustaobahs. {Orwitacea) . . 598 — 679 

Systematic Arrangement of Crustaceans 622 — 679 

Order I. Pcecihpoda 622—^24 

Fam. I. Xiphotwra 622 — 624 

Order II. lehihyopJUhira 624 — 631 

Fam. II. Lemaouxa 624 — 625 

„ III. Lemaopoda 625 — 627 

„ IV. JSrgatUina 627 — 629 

„ V. CaUffina 629 — 631 

„ VI. Argfdina 631 

Order III. Lophyropoda 631—^33 

Fam. vn. Copepoda 632—^33 

„ Vin. OOracoda 633 

Order IV. (Hrripedia 633 — 640 

Fam. IX. Bcdanoidea 636 — 637 

„ X. Ltpadicea 638—^40 

Order V. Cladoeera 640 — 641 

Fam. XI. Daphnidea 640^641 

Order VI. PhyUcpoda 641--646 

Fam. XII. JSranckiopoda 641 — 642 

„ xm. Atpidephora 642 — 644 

Trilobitee r. Paladades 644—646 

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Order VII. Iwpoda 646—655 

Fam. xiT. Bpieandm 646 — 647 

„ XT. CymMkoadea 647 — 649 

,» XTi. Sphwnmiida 649 

„ XYn. Praniddea 649 — 650 

„ XYin. Onitdda 650—659 

,y XIX. AadUfUk 65a — 654 

„ XX. Idoteidea 654—655 

Order VIII. Ampkijpoda 655—660 

Fam. XXI. Lomodipoda 655—657 

,, xxn. ffyperinaa, Uropiera 657 — 658 

„ xxin. Qatntnarina 658 — 660 

Order IX. SUmatopoda 660—664 

Fain.xxnr. UnipdkOa 660—661 

„ xxv. BipeUaia 661—661 

„ XXVI. Oariduadea «. SMupoda 662— 66$ 

Oumaeea (Funily of uncertMB pomiioD) 663 

Order X. Jkcapoda 664 — 679 

Fam. xxvn. Caridina 664 — 666 

„ xxvni. Aataeina 667 — 669 

,, XXIX. Iiorieala 669 — 670 

„ XXX. Anomwn 670—671 

„ XXXI. Noiapoda 679—673 

„ xxxn. Oxyttonusta 673—674 

y, xxxm. Majacea 674—^76 

„ xxxiy. Canerina 676—679 

On MoHubcs in general 680—690 

Clasb XI.— TuiriCATXS. (Tunieak^ . 691—696 

Systematic Anangemeot of Tanicatee 697 — 707 

Order I. ThaUaoea 697 — 700 

Fam. I. StJpma 697 — 700 

Order n. TdhfoMUa 701—707 

Fam. n. Lueia 709 

„ m. A$ciduB 709 — 707 

Class XII.— CknroHinats or Bivalvss. {Omckifera) . . 708—757 

Systematic Arrangement of Conchiferi 719 — 757 

Order I. Pattiobranekiata 719 — 793 

Fam. I. BraekUtpoda , 715^793 

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Order II. LamdlibranMUa 7^3^757 

Fam. II. Ottracea 7«5— 7^7 

in. PeeUnidea 7^7—718 

IV. MaUeacea 729 — 731 

V. Mytilaeea 731—733 

VI. Arcaeea 733—734 

vn. Trigwiiaeea 734 

VIII. NaXadea 734 — 737 

iz. CardUaeea 737 

X. Chamaoea 737—738 

Rudida 738—739 

ZI. Tridacnacea 739 — 740 

XII. Cardkicea 740—741 

xin. Veneraoea 741 — 743 

xnr. Oydadea 743—744 

XV, Lueinaoea 744 — 745 

XVI. Saxicavina 745 — 746 

xvn. TelUnacea 746 — 748 

xviu. Macfiraoea 748 — 750 

XIX. Myacea 750 — 751 

XX. PholadMiiyacta 753 — 753 

XXI. SoUnacea 753—754 

xxn. Phoiadacea 754— 75^ 

xxm. Tvbicola 75^—757 

Clabs XIII.— Molluscs. {MolluMa) 


SyBtematio Arrftngement of Molluscs 774 — 831 

Ordar I. Ptoropoda 77«— 77^ 

Fam. I. HyoiUacea 773—775 

„ II. CUo/idea 775— 77<> 

Order II. Oatiaropoda 776—817 

Fam. m. Meteropoda 776—778 

„ IV. Ikrmatobranchiata 778 — 784 

,, V. ffypobranehiaia 784 — 785 

„ VI. Pleurobranchiata 785—788 

„ vn. Oydobranckiala 788 — 791 

f, vin. Aipiddltranckiata 791 — 793 

„ IX. AuldbranchicUa 793 

„ X. Cten6hr€mchiaia 793 — 811 

„ XI. Pneumonioa 81 r — 817 

Order III. Cephaiopoda 817— 83T 

Fam. xn. NtnUilacea 835 — 828 

„ xin. Sepiacea 828 — 830 

„ XIV. OOopoda 830—831 

Explanation of Plates 833—844 

Index of Generic Names . 845 — 853 

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called yariettet. 

constitute varieties. 




now more usual. 


4 uToin Dottom 

oonseqnenoe of 

after the. 


5 from bottom 





Fungina Lam. 



'3, 14 

might periiaps, fte. 

seems to require new observations 






lafinm bottom 

take Bcaroely any 


note 9. 








8 from bottom 




13 from bottom 






JO from bottom 



Hie following, not considered distinct genera^ but divisions of the genus imme- 
diately above each respectively, ought to have been printed in the smaller type used : 

CMwmia Ehbbhb. . 


ChraUivm TjAU. 


ifetitea Lax. . 


/mLam. .... 


FuMgiaJiAU. . 



OphdiaSKy. . 








Awophda MxiG. . 



Apii Latb. 

. 35« 

MeUUwrgaloLrB. . 

. 356 

PofiltetLATB. . 

. 363 

Labidui JuBori . 

. 366 

Bethyhu Latb. . 

. 375 

BUopia TsBsrecBKB, 


£%elidia Ochbbkh. . 

• 399 

Phuia OOHSEMU. . 

• 399 

ffdceut JjAXR. . 

. 494 

. 651 

Trichonueut BRAinn 

. 651 

Orouwtu Rathu . 


The following distinct genus ought to have been printed in the laiger type : 
Sipkonaria Sow. p. 795. 

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We often hear the word Nature used in such a way that it is 
diffictdt to know what meaning is attached to it. Some denote 
thereby the system of all the forces to which matter is subjected, 
and thus distinguish between Nature and the Universe; under- 
standing by the last the entire complex of created bodie."*. 
But such a distinction is quite arbitrary. The word Nature, 
introduced into modem languages from the Latin, is derived from 
nasciy to be born, to come into being^. In this sense we call the 
aggregate of all that comes, or has come, into being, and is for us 
an object of observation either by external sense or internal percep- 
tion, Nature — the material world and the spiritual world — ^Nature 
in space and Nature in thought. Finally we oppose Nature to Art, 
understanding by the last whatever change the intellect of man has 
induced upon the products of Creation, in order to satisfy his wants, 
or to enhance his enjoyments. 

However different these and other meanings may be, we may 
admit that to be the most general which defines nature as the 
material world, the world of matter, all that is created or has being, 
together with the forces inherent in the matter, and the laws 
according to which they act. The knowledge of this whole, so 
stupendously vast, the ancients named jghysica : and considered to 
he a part of the philosophy which they termed a science of divine 
and himian things and of their causes. But though this science, like 
nature its object, be one, yet its great extent on the one hand and 
the narrowness of the human intellect on the other, has rendered 
the subdivision of it necessary. Yet the limits of the different 
natural sciences can scarcely, on account of their mutual relations, 

^ So the Greek ^(nnt from 4>^' 
VOL. I. 

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be defined with precision: and into whatever path we chance to 
strike, difficulties from the very nature of the case are unavoidable. 

The Natural Sciences relate either to Nature and her several 
products considered by themselves : or they teach us so to apply 
those products as to contribute to our service, or to satisfy our 
wants. The latter are called practical natural sciences, the former 
iheorettcaL To the practical natural sciences belong especially 
Agriculture and Technology: and they are founded upon the 
theoretical; of which the truths are applied only in a degree propor- 
tioned to the particular object that is had in view. They may 
therefore be called Applied Natural Sciences. Of the pure, or 
theoretical Natural Sciences there are several. To them belong^ 
Phaenomenal Doctrine, Chemistry, and Natural History. What 
characterises such sciences and distinguishes them from each other 
lies less in the objects which belong to the province of each, than 
in the manner of considering them, and in the different direction 
of the enquiry. Metals, salts, earths belong as much to the province 
of Chemistry as to that of Natural History : but the chemist, in 
all these things, investigates only the matter and its properties, its 
affinities and combinations : the mineralogist is busied with their 
form, their natural occurrence, their classification. The chemist, 
moreover, investigates those elements which occur in nature only 
in combination with other matters : such elementary substances are 
excluded from the province of Natural History. 

Whilst Physics investigate the common properties of bodies, and 
the motions by which a temporary change is effected in their 
condition. Chemistry enquires into their component parts, the 
special properties of each elementary substance, and its various 
combinations with other elementary substances. Natural History, 
finally, arranges the bodies occurring in Nature according to form. 
In a certain sense, therefore, it may be termed a special Phenomenal 
Doctrine : but its essence lies in describing and classifying. It is 
ordinarily limited to the bodies which occur upon the surface of 
our earth, or at small depths below and accessible by mining : but 
it is by no means necessary thus to limit it. It depends upon the 

* [Natur-lehre, The VMt body of observed facts throughout nature " bound together 
under the form of laws and principles." Vid. Whewkll'b History of the Inductive 
Science*, and his PkUoeophy ^ ike Inductive Seiencee, passim.] TV. 

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manner of treating it alone, to include within its province not only 
the planet which we inhabit, but even the whole visible universe ^ 
The certainty to which we can attain in this science is grounded 
upon the testimony of our own senses, on that of other observers, 
and upon conclusions, drawn from the combination of particular 
observations (Induction) : of which conclusions the security is 
increased in proportion to the number of observed phaBnomena 
which tend to their establishment ; for observation is the principal 
foundation upon which this science is raised. 

Organic and Inorganic Bodies. 

A primary division of the bodies of our earth is that according 
to which they are separated into organic {organtca), and inorganic 
{anorganica). Inorganic bodies can grow, or increase in bulk, only 
by external addition of homogeneous parts ; they possess no hetero- 
geneous parts, though they may be composed of several chemical 
elements. In their perfect condition they ordinarily present regular 
forms, which are bounded by planes and straight lines. The 
knowledge of them is the object of Mineralogy. 

The remaining bodies are called organic, because they consist 
of different parts, of fibres, vessels, cells, &c., the combination of 
which is called organisation. In these bodies there prevails that 
mutual dependence between all the parts, of which, in the inorganic, 
we recognise no trace. In these last, each of the parts exists for 
itself, and when separated from the whole does not cease to be the 
same that the whole was before. As to form, the boundaries which 
drcumscribe plants and animals are very generally round surfaces 
and carved lines, very rarely straight lines and planes. 

Organic beings present phaenomena which are called 'Vital 
Phenomena,' of which the most general consist in an incessant 
susception of new matters, in the formation of new parts and 
organs (Growth, Development, Reproduction), and in the production 
of similar beings (Propagation). The separation of those constitu- 
ents of food that are unfit for nutriment, and of matters that have 
been changed through the action of life, and are no longer fitted for 

Cotmograiphia, HiM/oria Mvndi. 


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its support, supplies the means hj which the peculiar chemical 
composition, characteristic of each individual being, is preserved; 
at death, on the cessation of this interchange of matter, the organic 
substance passes into solution or putrefaction. Instead of those 
complex combinations of elements, which form the proximate con- 
stituents of organic bodies, simpler combinations arise, which being 
taken up by the air or the earth, become anew the vital stimulants 
and the nutriment of that vegetable world, on whose existence the 
life of animals is dependent. Thus we perceive here an interchange 
of matter on a large scale, as we do in every organic being on a 
small one : and perishableness becomes the means whereby new life 
and fresh youth are efiFdsed over the whole of nature ^ 

Plants and Animals, 

The above may suffice to give a general notion of organised 
bodies. It scarcely requires notice that the term includes plants 
and animala. 

At first sight it seems easy to distinguish an animal from a 
plant: and even the most unskilled person thinks he has a clear 
notion of the difference. Yet it is just his want of knowledge that 
causes the difference to appear so prominent : whilst he overlooks 
the intermediate links, and thinks, for instance, of a dog and a 
peax-tree. There are two sorts of judgment with conviction. Such 
a judgment may arise either from want of knowledge, or from pro- 
found insight, the result of long and accurate investigation. Who- 
ever seeks after truth must learn to sacrifice the first, even though 
he may never attain to the second. 

Animals are usually considered as more composite and more 
perfect than plants. Yet when we compare the simple substance of 
which Inftisory Animals and Polypi are composed with the orderly 
and beautifril structure of the higher plants, we become satisfied 
that this proposition is far from having a general value. 

It is said, plants are rooted in the ground, and by this token 
are sufficiently distinguished from animals. But it is here over- 
looked, that there are free-swimming water-plants, just as there are 

* " Ut opui naturof perenni Jlore rideat.*' LiKNiiUS. 

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animals that live in water &st fixed to a given spot. Again, it was 
imagined that plants might be distinguished from animals by their 
possessing only at certain times the parts which serve for the main* 
tenance of the species. But all animals have not organs of propa- 
gation during the whole of their existence : insects acquire them 
only in the latest period of their lives, like plants that only flower 
once. It is true that Anatomy points out the rudiments of these 
future organs in the Larvae of Insects : but tliis does not prevent 
the Larv» of Insects from being termed, in a certain sense, sex-less. 
Moreover many plants and animals are propagated only by spon- 
taneous fission, or by buds, without possessing proper parts sub- 
servient to propagation. To me the difference of Nutrition appears 
of more importance. It has been observed that Plants live on inor- 
ganic matters, Animals, on the other hand, on organic. Some 
animals, it is true, seem to live on earth. Schwammebdam believes 
mud to be the nutrient matter of the worm or larva of the Ephemera^ 
and never found any other food in its intestinal canal. Pallas could 
find nothing but fine sand in the intestine of Uialassema echiurus. 
I might allege several other examples, but will only add that man 
himself sometimes lives upon earth. At least the celebrated Hum- 
boldt tells of a people on the banks of the Oronoco and Meia that, 
when the waters are low, live upon fish and turtle: but as soon 
as the streams begin to swell and fishing to become laborious, 
devour, during a season which lasts for two or three months, enor- 
mous quantities of earth. The earth which these people eat is a 
&t soft clay, which they knead into lumps and bum on the outside 
at a slow fire, and again moisten when required for use. This 
observation however, now that microscopic investigation has dis- 
covered in different deposits and kinds of earth entire strata of 
living or fossil organic beings, admits of another explanation ^ 
That earth may have contained organic constituents, as was the 
case with the earth that, mixed with meal and leaves of trees, was 
baked for bread on the failure of the crops in the year 1832 in the 
north of Skandinavia, and in which Ketzius discovered nineteen 
different forms of Infusories, or rather of the fossil remains of these 
animals. In the same way, the mud and sand, found in the intes- 

^ Gomp. Ehbevbero, Dm umiehtbar wrhende orgamische Leben. Leipzig, 1843. 
pp. 41, 42. 

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tinal canal of insects and worms, can scarcely be devoid of organic 
components. In general it cannot be contested that the vegetable 
kingdom prepares from inorganic nature those substances which 
serve for nutriment to the animal kingdom. Albumen and Fibrin, 
the principal constituents of the blood of animals, are already 
present in the parts of plants which they consume. But still, on the 
other hand, there are plants which grow on other plants, and thus 
apply to their own development the matters which have been pre- 
pared by those organic bodies. 

Scruples arising from such considerations must not mislead us 
to consider plants and animals as belonging to one and the same 
kingdom. Perhaps the following remarks may help to distinguish 
them from each other. 

If we consider the nutrition, we perceive that animals convey 
their food by one or more apertures into a common cavity, the 
stomach or intestinal canal, from which the prepared matters are 
absorbed and applied to the nutrition of the whole body. Thus the 
intestinal canal is for animals what the soil and air are for plants. 
The plant is consequently so constructed that its surface has the 
greatest possible extension : in the animal all is contrived for union 
round a center. Moreover the plant, which receives nutriment by 
means of its surface and the parts there situated, (pores, hairs, &c.) 
has no need to seek for food : it lives in the midst of its food : when 
this is deficient it cannot move and must consequently die. The 
animal, on the contrary, is destined to seek its food, which it must 
conduct into its intestinal canal : it moves therefore when nutriment 
is deficient. Let it not be here objected that plants move towards 
the light, and send larger roots towards the side where moisture is 
more abundant — ^for this would be to confound growth with motion. 
The stimulants (light, moisture, &c.) act upon the plant, and there- 
fore its growth is more vigorous in that direction. The animal has 
independent motion which is excited by internal stimuli. Hence 
sensation is ascribed to animals. In the higher animals it is known 
that the contraction of the muscles is under the influence of the 
nervous system : that the stimuli, of whatever kind, if they pro- 
duce motion, act upon the nerves and through these upon the 
muscles. Comparative Anatomy, it is true, has, in some animals, 
hitherto failed to demonstrate a nervous system ; but it does not 
therefore follow that these animals do not possess sensation, any 

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more than it followa that their want of muflcular fibre juBtifies us 
in denying to them yolnntaty motion, which the unprejudiced 
obseiver may recogniae even in the most simple animals. 

As to chemicid composition — ^Nitrogen, it is trae, is not ex- 
clusively an animal principle: but still it occurs as an ultimate 
constituent of animal organisation in much greater quantify than 
in plants. In plants, on the other hand, Carbon is predominant 

Not long ago, it was believed that a transition from Plant-Life 
to Animal-Life had been observed ^ L. G. Treyiranus had 
remarked that the spores of Confervas move like Lifusories^ A 
few years since Unger described this phenomenon in Vaucheria 
clavaiaj and thought that he had surprised plants at the very 
moment of their becoming animals'. These aporidia move 1^ 
means of dlia, but cannot on that account be considered animali'^. 
Rather ought we, from such instances, to conclude that cilia are no 
exclusive character of the animal kingdom. The same may be said 
of a similar motion which Grant observed in sponges, which, as 
little, on that accoimt, are animals. 

As we have already remarked above, the difference between 
plants and animals will always be more apparent as the organisa- 
tion becomes more perfect and more complicated: the difficulty 
occurs in the case of the most simple vegetable and animal forms; 
and here may be applied what Ovid says of the change of colour in 
the rainbow. 

Usque adeo quod tangit idem est, taraen ultima distant — 

Ma. vi. 67. 


There are three parts of Natural History, as there are three 
great divisions of the bodies which occur on our Earth. We sepa- 
rate Natural History into Mineralogy, Botany and Zoology, as we 

1 See the eadier obeervatioiis on this point in G. B. Tsxvibanub* Bidogie, oder 
PkOotopkie der Ubendm Natur. 8to. II. p. 344. 

» BeUrd^ mr PJUinMnphj^nologie, Gottingen, 181 1. Svo. pp. 78, 79. 
' Die JPJUmze im Mamente der Thierwerdung. Wien. 1843. Svo. 
* C. Bi SiEBOLD, Dies, de jMm nUer regMtm atUmaU ti vegeUMe conttkuendii, 
1844. 4to. 

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divide nature into three kingdoms, that of minerals, of plants, and 
of animals. 

As the history of mankind does not result from a collection of 
biographies, so Natural History is not formed by the description of 
animal species. Therefore Zoology describes not merely the sepa- 
rate animals {m(mograph%cally) according to external parts and 
internal structure, but it comprises the entire kingdom of animals, 
denotes their mutual relations, and assigns to each animal its rank 
and position. 

Zoology falls into different parts. First, it is divided into 
Description and History, Description of animals {zoographid) sup- 
plies precise descriptions of the separate internal and external parts 
of the animal body, and thus of the entire animal. In a narrower 
sense, it makes us acquainted with the external parts and the ex- 
ternal form of the animal, and with the distribution into classes 
and orders. When it makes us acquainted with the internal struc- 
ture of animals, as well in respect of form and position [structura) 
as of tissue {textura)^ it is called the Anatomy of Animals {Zootomia), 
which has been especially cultivated of late years, and is generally 
named Comparative Anatomy {Anatomia Comparata). But this ap- 
pellation has not exactly the same meaning as the first: it denotes, 
rather, a philosophical science, which, not content with the simple 
knowledge of the different forms, investigates, by comparison of the 
anatomy of all animals and also of the human body, the general 
laws of animal organisation and its unity. 

The History of Animals {Ristoria Animalium) comprehends a 
comparative history of the nature and intellect of animals : it illus- 
trates the phasnomena of life, and their obedience to law in the 
animal economy. It may be also termed General Physiology 
(Biology). The knowledge of the geographical and physical dis- 
tribution of animals over the surface of the earth, the knowledge 
of the series of forms which in earlier periods inhabited our planet, 
and of which the remains have been found in beds and strata of 
rocks deposited from water, also belong to the History of the Ani- 
mal Kingdom. 

These subdivisions cannot dispense with mutual assistance. 
Conjointly they form only one science which we term Zoology. 

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The TiMues of Animals. 

Nature, in the structme of animalB, has exhibited inconceivable 
resources of art. Not only is the body as a whole, not only are its 
grosser parts, but even tlie smallest parts of the organs are ma- 
chinery; and the knife of the anatomist exhibits to us, even to the 
simplest fibre, nothing but parts constructed for a purpose. The 
whole body consists of many members : the members themselves 
consist of muscles, vessels, and nerves; the muscles again of 
tissues, vessels, fibres, &c. Such a body may well be called 

In order to form an idea of the texture of animals, we must go 
to work as the chemist does. He divides the parts which compose 
bodies into proximate and ultimate constituents, and terms those 
constituents ultimate, or elements (elementa), which by his art he 
can separate no farther into heterogeneous parts. In the same way 
we find in the textures of animals proximate and ultimate con- 
stituents. Of the last, or the organic elements {elementa organica)^ 
we shall speak hereafter : the first question is — ^what are the proxi- 
mate constituents? {partes constituentes proxim^je). They are called 
Tissues {Teloe). 

BiCHAT was the foimder of the science of the organic tissues in 
man, and named it General Anatomy. In the investigation of the 
tissues he had recourse to chemical reagents, to maceration and 
partial decomposition in water. He described each tissue according 
to its physical and chemical properties, its physiological phseno- 
mena and its morbid changes. After him this science was ad- 
vanced by Meckel, Heusinqer, and BicLARD^ in the same spirit. 
Within the last ten years it has received a totally different direction 
through microscopic research. By means of it General Anatomy 
has become, for the most part, Microscopic Anatomy. Our immortal 
Leeuwenhoegk, about a century and a half ago, had collected 
much material which remained almost unused; until, in our day, 
with the improvement of the compound microscope, a more general 
interest in such enquiries has been excited, and the importance of 
the knowledge of the minutest organic constituents to accurate 

^ Here it may suffice to refer to the well-written aod suocinct manual of the last 
named author : EUmtM (TAnatomde giniraU (!■« Mit. Paris, 1827. 8vo.) 

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Physiology been gradually recognised. We cannot omit mention- 
ing the names of Erause, Valentin, Schwann, Henle in pre- 
ference to many others whom we could willingly refer to in this 
field of enquiry*. We must limit ourselves to a short survey, 
and will rather enumerate than describe the different Tissues. A 
complete description, however compressed, would demand more 
space than is consistent with the nature of this manual. 

I. Conjunctive Tissue {tela conjunctiva)^ ordinarily Cellular 
Membrane or Areolar Tissue^ called also by others Formative 
Tissue, occupies- almost everywhere the space between the 
different parts, and forms, according to Cuvier's well-selected 
comparison, a kind of sponge, which has the same shape as 
the whole body which it contributes to form. By long 
boiling it is dissolved into glue. It consists of bundles of 
threads, and has no resemblance to the cellular tissue of 
plants which consists of hexagonal cells. The threads are 
long, have a somewhat tortuous course and an extreme 
tenuity (about ^^3 millim.)*. 

II. Adipose Tissue {tela adiposa). Formerly this constituent 
was not distinguished from the former; it was considered 
to be cellular tissue containing fat. But it is quite neces- 
sary to distinguish between them. This tissue consists of 
vesicles or cells, which, compared with other elementary 
parts of the animal body, are pretty large (about S'-^n i^il" 
lim.). Fat is, with the exception of some constituents of 
milk in the class mammalia, the only non-azotized substance 
of the animal body and, like most vegetable constituents, 
rich in Carbon. Fat, except in situations where it occurs 
as a distinct membrane, forms in the combined state a con- 
stituent of different tissues and of many animal fluids. 

III. Vascular Tissue {tela vascularis). Vessels are hollow cylin- 
ders, which contain nutrient fluids that circulate through 
the body. To these belong the Lymphatics as well as the 
blood-vessels. The larger blood-vessels are composed of 

^ Here too it mAy suffice to refer to a single work of eminence. J. Hsrlb, Alff^- 
meine Anatomk, Lehre von der Miickun^s-und Formbettandtheilen des memcldichen 
K9rpen. Leipzig, 1841. Bvo. 

[> A millimeter is about half an English line, or the i4ih part of an inch.] 

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different layers : the finest vessels (called Capillaries) of a 
single uniform membrane, without fibres or other tissue, 
but in which lie round or oblong microscopic corpuscles 
(cell-nuclei). In the larger blood-vessels, and also in the 
lymphatics, the innermost coat is formed of cells, which, 
as in the Cuticle, lie side hj side, pavement-fashion. This 
coat is covered by others which present fibres partly longi- 
tudinal, partly circular. Then comes the most external 
layer of conjunctive tissue, which connects the vessels with 
the neighbouring parts. 

lY. Nervous Tissue (tela nervea). To this belongs in the higher 
animals, the brain, the spinal cord, the ganglia and the 
nerves: inferior animals have only nerves and ganglia, 
which last take the place of the central parts of the nervous 
system. The chemical constituents of this tissue are 
Albumen and a species of Fat containing Phosphorus. 
The nerve-stems and the bundles of which they consist, 
are suiroonded with coats of conjunctive tissue, called 
Neurilema: dilute muriatic acid dissolves the neurilema: 
alkaline solutions, on the contrary, cause the nervous 
medulla to disappear, the neurilema remaining alone. The 
nerves consist of fine threads, which neither subdivide, nor 
anastomose with each other. They are of very unequal 
thickness, ^ ^ millim. and less, especially in the 
nerves of sense. Besides these threads there are found 
corpuscles with nuclei: these present themselves in the 
ganglia and in the grey substance of the brain and spinal 
cord. These ganglion-corpuscles are very dissimilar in 
form and size, mostly ^...^ millim. 

V. Homy Tissue {tela cornea). The parts consisting of this 
tissue have neither blood-vessels nor nerves. Cuticle, nails, 
hair, feathers, horns and scales belong hereto. They lie on 
the surface of the body, whilst a covering {epithelium), resem- 
bling Cuticle, lines the inner surface of the mucous membranes 
(as of the stomach) and also of the internal closed cavities 
and sacs, as well as of the vessels (see above, lU. Vase. 
Tis,). The Cuticle, or Epidermis, consists of microscopic flat 
cells joimng on to each other like a pavement, and of which 
each contains a nucleus. Water swells up the epidermis. 

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boiling leaves it unchanged, by concentrated sulphuric acid 
it is dissolved gradually, by alkalis readily. Scales, nails, 
&c., which consist of this tissue, are secreted by a highly 
vascular bed {mainix) in layers. The Epithelium is formed 
in part, like the Epidermis, of flat cells : in other situations 
these cells are cylindrical, or conical, and stand perpen- 
dicularly, side by side, like fibres. In many situations (as 
the nasal cavities, the respiratory organs of mammalia, birds 
and reptiles, the gills of bivalve molluscs) these conical cells 
carry cilia, whose motions had been seen on the surface of 
the body of many of the lower animals by the earlier 
observers, but were distinctly recognised by Purkinje and 
Valentin as a very general phaenomenon of the animal 
kingdom only a few years ago. 
VI, Cartilaginous Tissu/e [tela cartilaginea) is semi-transparent, 
elastic, and mostly of a bluish-white colour. On section it 
presents a very smooth surface and looks like a substance of 
uniform density. But under the microscope, small, granular, 
round or oblong corpuscles are seen in the clearer trans- 
parent principal mass. The glue which is obtained fi:om 
cartilage by boiling differs in many lespects from the glue 
of bone, and was called by Mueller, who first called atten- 
tion to the difference, Chandrine {cartilage-glue). This glue 
is also obtained from the cornea of the eye, which is com- 
posed of many thin layers or plates formed of fibres that 
cross one another in all directions. Certain yellow highly 
flexible and elastic cartilages contain numerous fibres {carti- 
laginea fibro80B)i to this division belongs ex, gr. the cartilage 
of the external ear in man and mammalia. Cartilage con- 
tains two-thirds of its weight of water. In the ash are 
found carb. soda, sulph. soda, and carb. lime as the chief 
constituents. Here belongs : 

Osseous Tissue {tela ossea). The tissue of bone is hard 
and opaque, and of a laminated structure. The chief con- 
stituents are cartilage, which on boiling passes entirely into 
gelatin or common glue: and bone-earth, of which the 
quantity increases with the age. The last consists princi- 
pally of phosphate of lime, which has a great affinity with 
the colouring matter of madder, so that the bones of animals 

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fed on it acquire a red colour. Bone may be freed of its 
lime by acids (ex. gr. dilute muriatic acid). The cartilage 
which remains has in general the structare of permanent 
cartilage : the bones also, in the first period of life, corre- 
spond to cartilage, and previous to ossification (t. «. before 
the bone is hardened by the phosphate of lime) the glue 
which they contain is also Chondrine, which is precipitated 
by alum, acetic acid and the sulphate of alumina. In the 
bones are found small medullary canals communicating 
with one another (^...A millim.) which are connected with 
the medullary cavities, or the cellular spaces in the middle 
of the bone, and give to the bone a streaky or fibrous 
appearance visible to the naked eye. These canals are 
surrounded by several layers, which lie included between 
the other layers or plates that, in the flat bones, are arranged 
in the direction of their surface, and in the long bones in a 
circular form round their internal medullary cavity. These 
medullary canals contain fat and minute blood-vessels. 
Between the layers are found microscopically small oval 
corpuscles, resembling cartilage-corpuscles, and from which 
extremely fine tubules, partly branching, proceed. These 
parts, when treated with acids, become quite transparent, 
and their granular content is consequently bone-earth. 
Vll. MuscuhiT Tissue {tela muscularis). Muscles consist of 
bimdles of fibres : the primitive bundles, which consist of 
some hundreds of fibres, are by means of conjunctive tissue 
(cellular tissue) collected into larger bundles, and these again 
into still larger. Muscular tissue belongs to the albuminous 
substances. Flesh becomes harder by boiling : on cooling 
the decoction becomes gelatinous from the glue into which 
the cellular tissue has been changed. If finely-divided 
flesh be pressed, a red acid fluid is obtained, which contains 
albumen, the colouring matter of blood, lactic acid, salts, 
and ozmazom. The red colour of muscles (in animals that 
breathe by lungs) is heightened by exposure to light ; some 
ascribe this solely to the blood. It is not a common 
character of this tissue: in fishes the flesh is white: the 
muscles of many articulata are brownish, yellow, or light 
red. Muscles are distinguished into two kinds. There are 

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muscles with varioose stmctore of the primitive fibres, and 
fine transverse stripes of the primitive bnndles. This is 
the structure of the muscles of voluntary motion amongst 
vertebrate and articulate animals, and of the muscles of the 
heart. These fibres are very fine, ^o millim. and less, and 
are amongst the finest parts of the animal organism. Other 
muscles consist of coarser fibres !55...95o millim. which are 
not jointed or varicose, and which correspond to the primi- 
tive bundles of the former. In these therefore no transverse 
stripes are seen. To these belong the muscular fibres of the 
intestinal canal, also the red fibres of the muscular stomach 
of birds. Usually these muscles of organic life have a 
pale and somewhat yellow colour. Muscular tissue has the 
property of contracting, upon the application of a stimulus, 
in the direction of its fibres. This irritability [irrttabilitcLs) 
is a vital property, and is distinct from the elastic contrac- 
tility, which other parts of the body retain even after death. 

VIII. Elastic Tissue [tela elastica). This tissue has much resem- 
blance to conjunctive tissue, and holds, as it were, an inter- 
mediate position between it and muscular tissue. The fibres 
are of unequal size (ro'-sSo millim.) and have a serpentine 
course : they divide frequently and unite at many points with 
branches from other fibres, whence a reticulate distribution 
arises. The colour of this tissue is yellow: it retains its 
elasticity imaltered by keeping in spirit of wine, or by 
boiling for several days. After long boiling it gives a small 
quantity of a peculiar glue which in some points agrees with 
cartilage-glue. The cervical ligament of mammals is com- 
posed of this tissue : also in arteries a layer of elastic fibres 
lies between the circular fibrous coat and the external coat 
of cellular tissue : in large trunks this layer may be clearly 
distinguished as a continuous membrane. The yellow 
ligaments on the arches of the vertebrae, and the ligaments 
of the trachea, also consist of elastic tissue. But not merely 
as separate ligaments or membranes, but also mingled with 
other tissues, elastic fibres are met with in different situa- 
tions, as for instance, in serous membranes and in skin. 
We have here spoken only of those tissues which occur most 

generally. We have not noticed Dental Tissue because, whilst we 

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treat of the entire animal kingdom, it occurs only partially. Other 
tissaes, which ordinanlj leceiTe special notification, may be re- 
duced to one or other of the foregoing. Tendinous Tissue belongs 
to Conjunctive Tissue, as does that of Skin proper (cortum): to this 
also belongs in part Mucous Tissue (in the intestinal canal, &c.) 
The Serous Membranes merit a special mention. They serve to 
line cavities in the interior of the body, and ordinarily form sacs 
which are closed on every side. They, too, belong to Conjunctive 
Tissue, and are smooth only on their free surface, which is covered 
with an epithelium. This smooth surfEuse secretes a serous fluid. 
We cannot admit a proper Glandular Tissue {tda glandulasa), as 
most authors do. Under the term Gland Anatomists arrange very 
different parts, of which the consideration belongs to special and 
descriptive Anatomy. Lymph-glands {glanduhB fymphatica s. con^ 
globaice) which are found only in higher animals, are round or 
oblong bodies of different size, in which one or more lymphatics are 
distributed; these tortuous branches are again collected into larger 
vessels, which pass out on the opposite side of the gland, to pursue 
their course onward: numerous blood-vessels, whose fineness ex- 
ceeds that of the lymphatics, surround all these branches. Conse- 
quently lymph-glands are only vascular networks, and may be put 
on a level with the so-called Retia Mirabilia of the blood-vessels. 
In the dass of Glands, moreover, are reckoned different parts of 
the animal body which, apart fix>m their coverings, consist of con- 
junctive tissue, blood-vessels and nerves, and for the most part have 
an internal closed cavity which is filled with a granular fluid. 
Such are the Supra-renal Capsules, the Thyroid gland, the Spleen, 
the Thymus gland. These ate the parts which Heusinger com- 
prises under the name of parenchymatous tissue — under which, 
however, he also classes other parts, as the Lymphatics and the 
Ovaries. Other authors style these parts Blood-glands (ganglia 
sanguineo-va&culosa), comparing them with the lymph-glands {gan-- 
glia IgmphaHco-vasculosa) ; but since these parts are not distin- 
guished fix>m others by their blood-vessels, the comparison is arbi- 
trary. Finally, in a more special manner, the term gland is applied 
to those parts of the animal body which secrete a fluid that does not 
return into the current of the blood. These, in addition to lym- 
phatics blood-vessels nerves and conjunctive tissue, have an efferent 
canal {dttctus excretaritui) formed of mucous membrane, for the 

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passage of the secreted fluid, which is conveyed into the intestinal 
canal or to the surface of the body. This efferent canal receives, 
like an arterial trunk, the finer canals which effect the secretion, 
and which are covered with epithelium. To such belong the 
kidneys, the liver, the salivary glands, &c. 

From what has been said, it is obvious that we cannot adopt 
that division of the Tissues which an esteemed writer^ has pro- 
posed: into simple, constituent, and compound tissues. Doubtless 
eveiy muscle contains nerves and blood-vessels, but nerves and 
blood-vessels are not on that account constituents of muscular 
tissue. According to our view, every tissue is simple, but it may, 
either by itself, form special parts, or only in combination with 
other parts. The corneous tissue is the only one which comes 
under the first head : all other tissues form this or that part, only 
in combination with one another : nervous tissue, for instance, does 
not by itself form a nerve, but only in combination with conjunc- 
tive tissue and blood-vessels. Some of these compound tissues are 
distributed generally throughout the whole body, others are limited 
to certain parts. To the generally distributed belong conjunctive 
tissue, vascular tissue, and nervous tissue: the other tissues are 
appropriated to determinate parts of the body and have a greater 
self-subsistence, as cartilage tissue, muscular tissue, elastic tissue. 
This was the division formerly adopted by Bichat. Other di- 
visions of the tissues, founded on chemical research, as into gelati- 
nous and albuminous tissues, may have their use in Physiology, but 
are not to be considered as anatomical divisions. 

The above tissues, then, build up the proximate organic con- 
stituents of the animal body. Formerly, when less weight was 
allowed to microscopic enquiry in general anatomy, the ultimate 
organic constituents in these tissues were neglected : but now their 
description forms a part of the description of the tissues themselves. 
In this way we have learnt to recognise in conjunctive tissue, in 
nerves, in muscles, &c. fibres as the ultimate elements of microscopic 
analysis : in cartilage, round or oblong corpuscles : in corneous and 
adipose tissues, cells. It maybe asked, whether these organic elements 
can be deduced firom one another ; or, in other words, whether all the 

^ £. H. Wbbeb in the 4tli edition of F. Hildbbbandt'b ffandbuch der Anatomie 
des Mensckm revised by him. Braunschweig, 1830. 8. s. 169 — 178. 

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tissues proceed originally from homogeneous elements. Fontana, 
and afterwards Tkeyiranus, busied themselves with this enquiry ; 
Trevikanus belieTed that he was borne out in adopting a sameness 
of organic elements in all parts of the animal body, viz. globules 
and thin cylinders (elementary or primitive cylinders) ^. According 
to others, these cylinders were by no means primitive, but consisted 
of globules arranged in a row: so that only globules, or round 
vesicles, remained for the elementary particles out of which, in fine, 
all the animal tissues were composed and formed. Subsequent 
enquiries proved, as indeed had been already surmised, that these 
vesicles were due merely to optical illusion'. Every one, who in- 
vestigates the tissues with the excellent microscopes of the present 
time, will easily convince himself, that such parts no where exist 
as ultimate elements of organic animal matter. 

Within the last few years, since regard has been paid in the 
investigation of the tissues to their origin and to their development, 
the problem has received quite a different treatment. That the 
tissues consist of different elementary parts, fibres, granules, cells, 
is plain from what has been said above ; but it is another question 
whether these parts did not originally proceed from some common 
ftmdamental form, of which they are subsequent developments and 
modifications. Much had been already effected by scattered obser- 
vations, but to Schwann is the distinction due of having esta- 
blished the original cellular structure of the different tissues, and, at 
the same time, the great similarity between the microscopic struc- 
ture of Plants and Animals, of which Dutkochet and Baspail 
had already a general notion': our limits do not allow us to pro- 
pound his views, to which the name of CelJr Theory has been given, 
in detail. We will give an outline of them, in a few words, with 
a notice of the modifications which, from later researches, they 
would seem to require. 

The first elements of organic beings are cells. They have theit 

^ See Vermiachie Schrifien cmcUomi9ehen und phjftiologiachen InkaUs von G. R. und 
L. G. T&EVISAKUS. 4to. I. Gotfemgen, 1816. 8. 1x7 — 144. Ueber die organiacU Elenunie 
der tkiaretcken Kdrper, 

> MiLMB Edwabiml Stdkerchei nUeroBcopiqua iur la Mruetwre iiUime de9 tiaut 
orffoniqua de» Animavx, Annak$ dea Sc. natur. IX. 1826, p. 362 — 394. PL 50. 

> Mtkroakopiache Uhtertwhungm iiber die Uebereinstimmung in der StnUstur und 
<frm WackMkum der Thiere und Pjktmen wn Db Th. Sohwavn. Berlin, 1839. 8vo. 

VOL. I. 2 

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origin in a formless matter {Cytoblastema, germ-substance of cells); 
what afterwards remains of this substance may be distinguished as 
Intercellular substance (suistantia intercellularis). The cells are 
vesicles, and consist of a fine membrane which encloses a fluid often 
containing granules. For the most part these cells have a so-called 
nucleus, a small dark-coloured corpuscle, lying on the wall of the 
cell. In this nucleus a round spot has been distinguished and 
termed nucleolus. The formation of these cells seems to proceed not 
always in the same manner. According to Schwann a nucleolus 
arises first, round this a nucleus is formed as its enyelope, by the 
aggregation of granules in the fluid germ-substanoe : at a slight 
distance firom this nucleus there coagulates, as it were, a thin mem- 
brane, the Cell-wall, which at first is raised, like a watch-glass, on 
one side of the nucleus, and afterwards encloses it all round. On 
this account the nucleus is considered to be the germ of the cell 
{Gtftohlastus) ; when the cell is formed, the nucleus, according to 
Schwann, has discharged its office : it is detached and disappears. 
The researches of Henle* have shewn that such is not universally 
the case, but that in fibrous tissues formed from cells, the cell-- 
nucleus is changed into peculiar fibres. 

Cells when once formed are multiplied by fission, or by the 
formation of new cells within those already formed. The parts 
then of those tissues, with which we have become acquainted 
above, are either cells or fibres which have been formed fix>m cells. 
(1) In some tissues the cells, which have been plainly isolated, are 
present as elements at a later period, as in adipose tissue and 
cuticle ; (2) in other tissues the walls of the cells become thick- 
ened, and coalesce with one another and with the intercellular sub- 
stance, whilst the cavities remain separate, as in cartilage ; (3) in 
others, again, the cavities coalesce, whilst the walls of the cells 
that mutually touch, are destroyed or absorbed. Finally, other 
tissues, still, exhibit as elementary parts little plates without 
cavities, which may probably have existed at an earlier period. 
These either join one another in a plane, or range themselves 
lengthwise in a row, as in the fibres of organic muscles and of 
Conjunctive Tissue. Other fibres may, according to Henle, be con- 
sidered as compound cells, i.e. those whose nucleus was originally 

^ Hbxlv, AUgemeine AnaUnnie^ s. 188—9. 

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a cell that has become enclosed by a wall or envelope of later forma- 
tion. Muscles, according to Schwann, consist at first of nucleated 
cells which range themselves in a row ; the nuclei adhere to the wall, - 
and within the tube (of the primitive bundle) are formed the proper 
primitive fibres. According to Valentin and Henle, on the other 
hand, the primitive fibres are arranged around the row of cells 
which occupies the middle of the primitive bundle, and the external 
covering of this bundle is a sheath formed afterwards. But these 
and other diverging views we cannot here develope more minutely. 

If once the fundamental truth of Schwann's doctrine be ac- 
cepted, that cells are the original form of animal and vegetable 
tissues, then is it of subordinate importance whether this or that 
Wew in the case of particular tissues be adopted, and we may sup- 
pose, as, for example, in parts which are formed of plates in which 
there is no distinction of wall and cavity, that the cells have not 
been perfectly formed firom the amorphous blastema, but were 
joined together before they possessed a cavity ^ 

We must here add a-word concerning the blood-corpuscles« They 
are flat vesicles, filled with the colouring matter of the blood: 
having in mammalia a round, in birds, reptiles, and most fishes, an 
oval outline. In man, the mean diamet<sr is about ^ millim. In 
reptiles, especially in those without scales, they are larger. In the 
firog, for instance, they have the length of three and the breadth of 
two human blood-corpuscles. Here a nucleus is present, of wliich the 
existence in mammalia is doubted by some writers. The blood- 
corpuscles, therefore, are cells : and we may consider the fluid, so 
rich in albumen and fibrin, in which they swim and with which, 
during life, they circulate {liquor sangmnts)^ as a liquid intercellular 
substance of the blood-cells. 

The Vital Functions of Animals. 

In order to complete the general idea which we ought to form 
of the animal body^ we must not stop at the membranes, but must 
also look at the structure of the principal organs. We unite organs 

Henls, AUg, An4Mt. s. i88, 189. 


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and functions in our rapid sketch : and hasten to place before our 
readers a view of the whole. 

The functions performed by animals may be brought into two 
chief classes. One class comprises the yegetative, the other the 
animal functions. The first are so called because they occur 
equally in plants, and are also, on that account, called organic 
fanctions. The last are peculiar to animals, and therefore are 
called animal ftmctions. 

To the organic Actions belong Nutrition in the widest sense, 
and Propagation. To nutrition belong three systems : namely, that 
of Circulation, that of Assimilation, and that of Secretion. Respi- 
ration is a part of the system of secretion : for the object of respi- 
ration, like that of secretion, is the elimination of effete matter, its 
volatilization, or its separation in a more fixed form : and both, in 
this way, support that unceasing interchange of matter by which 
the circle of vital phsenomena is characterised. 

By means of these fdnctions, which together are comprehended 
by the name of Nutrition, the life of the individual is secured and 
provided for. Other fimctions have reference to the life of the 
species, and ensure its existence after the death of the individual. 
These functions constitute Propagation, of which a part are dis- 
charged by the male individual, viz. the secretion of the impreg^ 
nating fluid {semen) ^ and its conveyance to germs capable ot 
development. These germs are prepared and protected by the 
female individual, and on the union of these fdnctions depends the 
being of the Embryo, the development of which is the final purpose 
of propagation. 

To the animal functions also belong three systems: viz. the 
nervous system, that of the organs of sense, and that of the organs 
of motion. 

The food, when solid, is comminuted by means of the jaws and 
teeth, or, when fluid, is imbibed. It is then conveyed into the in- 
testinal canal, which ordinarily has an expansion called the stomach. 
Here and at other parts of the intestinal canal different solvent 
fluids are secreted for assisting the conversion of the food. The 
nutrient part of the food is thus separated firom the rest and taken 
up by the surface of the inner wall of the canal consisting of 
formative tissue : the remainder is rejected afl unfit for the support 
of the creature. 

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The tube in which this first process of nutrition is effected, is a 
continuation of the skin. In some very simple animals, where the 
whole bodj is composed of a homogeneous mass (ex. gr. in Polyps) 
there is properly no special intestinal canal. The body is simply 
excavated, and the internal surface has the same structure as the 
external. Such creatures may be turned inside out, like the finger 
of a glove, without dying in consequence : nutrition can proceed 
undisturbed. Such animals are entirely intestinal canal, independ- 
ently vital stomachs. The external skin also corresponds in func- 
tion with the surface of the canal. The skin has the function of 
Imbibition, which may be compared with absorption by the intesti- 
nal tube : and on the entire internal surface of the intestinal canal 
there is evaporation, which corresponds to that of the skin, and 
with the diminution of this increases. 

In some very simple kinds of animal there is in the intestinal 
canal only a single opening, which allows the food to enter and 
the refuse to escape. In the rest the two openings are separate. 

The Chyle, or nutrient juice which has been produced by 
digestion, is in many animals immediately poured into the forma- 
tive tissue of the entire body, and so serves for the nutrition of the 
different parts. In others it is mixed with a nutrient fluid of higher 
rank, the blood, which circulates in a system of vessels; this 
motion. is called Circulation. The vessels which carry the blood 
towards the parts are called Arteries : those which carry back the 
blood firom the parts towards the center of the circulation are called 
Veins. This motion is ordinarily assisted and regulated by one or 
more muscular organs, called Heart. But the chyle is not suflicient 
to renew the venous blood and render it fit for the nutrition of the 
parts. It must be brought in contact with atmospheric air, and so 
be submitted to change before passing into the arterial stream* 
This fimction is called Bespiration, and the mechanism for it is in 
different creatures so variously contrived, that it is oftien difficult to 
harmonise such variety with the poverty of our language, accus- 
tomed to include every form under GfiUs and Lungs. In the case 
of Lungs, the medium that serves for respiration, mostly air, pene- 
trates the cavities whose external surface is bathed with blood. In 
the case of GUIs, the medium, here mostly water, does not pene- 
trate within the tissue, but only bathes the surface on which the 
blood-vessels are spread out. Gills have very different forms, as of 

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Plates, Leaves, Threads, Twigs, &e. Many simple and imperfect 
animals breathe by means of the skin. Others, which have either 
no circulation, or none that is perceptible, have Air-Canals, i.e. 
such respiratory organs as convey the air through the entire body 
to the nutrient fluid. 

The nutrient fluid which has thus been separated from the food 
and changed by means of respiration, is now fit for the nutrition 
of the parts. How that nutrition is effected, so that every part 
receives from the common fluid that which is requisite for its 
support, is not known. Here we can only conjecture : and if any 
one chooses to call it a chemical affinity he is at liberty to do so, 
if he merely means that he is contemplating living creatures whose 
organism has a determinate chemical composition, and so does not 
forget that he has given a name to the process, but has not ex- 
plained it. 

Besides the glands which separate from the blood fluids for the 
internal economy, as the Liver, &c., there are others which separate 
constituents that must quit the blood in order that it may become 
more pure, or in order that the due proportion of its constituents 
may be preserved. Thus the kidneys secrete urine, the skin watery 
vapour, &c. Sometimes a secretion is a means of defence, as is the 
case with the Ink of the Cuttle-fish, and with the offensive exhala- 
tions of many animals, which thus repel their enemies or are avoided 
by them. Bightly to estimate all these secretions we must never 
forget that an animal is a whole, and that the secretion of this or 
that fluid, though it may be performed by an individual organ, is 
still under the control of all the other organs, and of life, which 
combines them all. 

Propagation, which also belongs to the vegetative life, has the 
following organs for its instruments : the ovary {ovarium), by which 
we imderstand the site and the coverings ^of the eggs and the eggs 
themselves, conjointly ; the oviduct (oviducfvs) or the tube, through 
which the eggs, that have been detached from the ovary, pass 
onwards : the tUerus, a residence for the eggs during their develop- 
ment, and the vagina along which they pass to leave the body of 
the mother. Li the case of two sexes, the male (by means of 
glands named teaticult) secretes the seed {sperma) which fertilizes 
the germs, and effdcts their development. Penis is the name of the 
part, which, in some animals, conducts the seed into the vagina of 
the female. 

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With respect to the animal life — a perfect sensation appears to 
be possible only through a Nenxms 8tf9tem. This nervous system, 
in the higher, or more perfect animals, consists principally of the 
brain and the spinal cord. The larger the mass of the brain is in 
proportion to the nerves, the more perfect appears to be the develop- 
ment of the intelligence and mental fecolties of the animal — a law 
that was first discovered by* the celebrated Scemmebino. In pro- 
portion as we descend to the lower animals, the nervons masses are 
more dispersed and removed from one another, and in the lowest 
femiUes of the animal kingdom no traces of a special nervous 
system remain. 

The Head is that part of the body which includes the brain and 
the chief organs of sense. There are five senses, of which Touch 
{taehut) appears to be the most widely difiused through the whole 
animal kingdom. The seat of touch is the skin, the general 
covering of the body, which is everywhere interwoven with nerves. 
The nerves of the skin are lost, with their little twigs, in its 
middlemost and very dense layer. The ends of the cuticular nerves 
are covered and protected by the cuticle, and in many places by 
other external insensible parts, as scales, hair, &c. In the ijrgan €f 
Taste, the twigs of the nerves of taste pass into the soft papill» of 
the tongue, and end there. The twigs of the Olfactory Nerve are 
spread out upon a mucous membrane (the membrana Schneideriana) : 
the continuation of the medulla of the Optic Nerve forms the Betina, 
which Physiologists determine to be the seat of vision. Lastly, the 
most simple form of the Auditory organ is that of a sac filled with 
fluid, in which there float, as it were, the soft and delicate termina- 
tions of the auditory nerve. From all this it appears, that the 
general form {fypus) of an organ of sense is to be sought for in a 
nerve whose terminations form a delicate mass suited to the recep- 
tion of external impressions. But in each particular organ of sense 
the proper nerve of sense is only capable of a determinate action* 
The auditory nerve is only susceptible of sound, or rather, every 
stimulus which affects it is perceived only as sound: the optic 
nerve recognises no other impressions than those of light Such, 
at least, is the case with man and the higher animals: and one 
o^an of sense can never 8iq>ply the proper office of another. Im- 
I»essions are conveyed, by means of the nerves, to the brain or any 
other nervons center. 

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24 iNTRODUcrnoN. 

Thus nerves are the messengers by which the mind receives 
information of the external world {nuntii rerum). 

But the nerves are equally the ministers of the will, which by 
their assistance is able to act upon the muscles. By Muscles are 
understood those active organs of motion {organa motua activa) 
which are fixed to other parts, as their point of resistance, and 
these last are called passive organs of motion {organa vnotus paasiva). 
The harder fibres, which serve for the insertion of muscles, form 
Tendons, of which the colour in animals with red fiesh, as in man, 
is white. In many animals the muscles are inserted into the skin, 
or into certain hard portions of the skin, as in Insects, whose hard 
and often homy coverings supply the place of a skeleton in that 
respect. A skeleton is, properly, a connected whole of internal 
passive organs of motion — cartilaginous or bony, and these serve 
not only for motion, but moreover, and indeed especially, for the 
protection of the most important parts of the nervous system, the 
Brain and Spinal Cord. The skull (for the protection of the Brain) 
and the Vertebral Colimm (which encloses the Spinal Cord) must 
therefore be considered as the principal parts of the skeleton, of 
which ribs and limbs are only appendages: in this simple condi- 
tion is the skeleton met with in the Larva, for example, of the 

Development of Animals. 

How the expression imperfect Animal is to be understood. 

We have attempted to give a general idea of the organs which 
compose the animal body. But these organs are by no means 
found in all animals. Only in the more perfect animals is the 
structure thus complicated. When from these we descend in the 
animal scale, we perceive in the long series one instrument after 
another gradually decrease in magnitude and development, and at 
last entirely disappear. In Polyps {hydrce) nothing remains but 
the Intestinal Canal. The entire animal forms a blind sac com- 
posed of a single tissue, and all the vital functions which it 
performs are effected through one and the same gelatinous mass. 
Finally, in some Infusories we no longer perceive even an intestinal 
canal — nothing remains but an homogeneous gelatinous body, whose 

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surface appears to discharge the fnnctions of absorption and nu- 

A gradual course of development, similar to that observed in 
the animal series, is also pursued by the embiyo of the more 
perfect animals. The whole Life is Metamorphosis ; and there are 
animals in which the change of form is so great and so remarkable, 
that it does not escape even the eye of the multitude. Thus, for 
instance, a Caterpillar is changed into a Butterfly : a creeping, dull, 
voracious creature into one that flies and runs, and scarcely takes 
any food. In the same way the metamorphoses of Frogs are 
notorious. But there are other animals whose metamorphoses do 
not occur in so striking a^ manner, but are principally limited to the 
earliest periods of life. Every animal is slowly developed, and 
becomes more perfect as new organs are added to those already 
present. But this idea must not be so apprehended as if a Mam* 
mal, for instance, had been at first an Infusoiy, then a Polyp, a 
Medusa, afterwards an Insect, a Fish, a Bird, &c., as some express 
themselves ^ This would be as extravagant as it is unfounded: 
but properly, as we conceive, many modems assume that all the 
organs in different periods of life do pass through a development 
and metamorphosis, and that the structure of a perfect animal, in 
its foetal state, is more simple, and corresponds with that of the 
lower animals of the same Type to which itself belongs. Thus the 
first rudiments of all vertebrate animals are similar, and the history 
of the development of the Chick may illustrate that of Mammals in 
the first periods. This is more than a phrase without proof: rather 
is it the result of very numerous observations — for instance, those 
on the Brain and the Heart in the human embryo — and we shall 
find it confirmed by firequent instances in the course of the present 

We have already on various occasions made use of the terms 
'imperfect' and 'perfect' animals, and shall have to use them 
often. But since every animal is perfect in its kind, the term 

^ How this gradual progress of the embryo iliroagh the diflforent gnwiatioiis of the 
animal kingdom is to be understood cannot here be further particolarized. Compare 
hereon C. F. Knuam, Ueber du VerhHUnUie der argamteken Krdfie wnter emander 
in der Baht dor venehiedenen Organiaationen. Tubingen, 1814. 8vo. s. 38. The differ- 
ent works of Cabub, Tisdemahit and J. F. Msokxl supply many examples of the 
apj^cation of this position. 

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requires some explanation. By perfect animals we understand those 
that, in the number and importance of their functions, and in the 
complicated structure of their organs, make an approach to Man : 
whilst those are called imperfect' whose simple organisation, and 
less numerous fanctions, remove them from that perfection of which 
Man supplies the pattern." In this sense, as I conceive, the expres- 
sion may be well defended. Aristotle says that in all other things 
we must proceed just as we do in the investigation of coins, com- 
paring them individually with those which are best known to us : 
but man is necessarily the best known to us of all animals^. Let it 
be added, that Man is in fact the center of organisation to which 
the animals, like rays, may be considered to converge — ^and so is the 
union of what is most perfect and most beautiful in them all'. 
Hence animals which have a resemblance to man are, not without 
reason, styled perfect. 

On the art of Classifyiry (Taxinomia). 

Such conceptions become still clearer by unfolding the art of 
Classifying. Classification and systematic division are indispensable 
in Natural History. How innumerable are the species of animals 
which are scattered over the surface of the earth ! Each of these 
species has its country, its determinate form, its peculiar properties. 
How shall we attain to all this knowledge: how shall we turn 
to account the observations of earlier writers, how learn to what 
species they refer? how can we, in fine, communicate our own 
observations to others, xmless we make use of a classification? 
Classifications then are as old as the study of Natural History, and 
their difference is to be sought in their more or less scientific found- 
ation and plan. — By means of its systematic arrangement the study 
of Natural History obtains a more extensive influence upon our 
entire scientific cultivation, and in this respect it cannot be suffi- 
ciently recommended to young persons, in order that they may 

* "Qawtp yiifi wofda-futra irfi6t t6 oAtois Hojttw yviapifuixrarw ^Ki/Jtdi'oua'tPf ovrw Hi 
Kol A» Totf dXXocf. '0 9* HarOpiinrot rtaif {ibiaif yinapifiuiyraTw iffup i^ d^ymft ^9rip, 

> See J. G. Hebdsb'8 Idem zarPhUonphie der OuekichU der Mentchen, Carliruhe, 
1794. 1 Tbl. B. 100 — 108. 

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accnsliiBi fimnMolYes to strict order in all their other branchea of 

The foundation of all Zoological division is the Species. By this 
is understood the assemblage of all the individuals which have more 
conformity to each other, than to other similar creatures; which, by 
means of mutual impregnation, can generate prolific individuals and 
propagate themselves by generation, so that it can be inferred from 
analogy that they all sprung from a single pair. By specific cha^ 
racier is understood the collection of all the characteristics which 
are shewn to be permanent. Those characteristics, on the other 
hand, by which different individuals of a species vary amongst 
themselves, and which are attributable to deviation from species, are 
called varieiies. 

The causes of varieties consist in the influence of external cir- 
cumstances, and in the mixture of other similar species. Differences 
from this last cause are called Hybrids. The form is here a com- 
bination of the two parents. 

Such Hybrids appear to be limited, £»bulous stories apart, to 
those species which have great mutual resemblance. They are in 
general not prolific — not able to continue their race. They occur 
therefore, beyond doubt, in a state of nature extremely rarely, and 
are rather the consequence of the constrained state of servitude in 
which our domestic animals exist. This cause therefore is not of a 
kind to disturb the regular course of nature and to endanger the pre- 
servation of the species. On. the other hand, varieties produced by 
the influence of external circumstances, by climate, difference of food 
and mode of life, are able to engender young that are prolific. But 
they do not suggest any doubt that we ought, perchance, to receive 
them for species. It must moreover be remarked, that those varieties 
of ordinary species which on account of the pliancy of their organi- 
sation and their tenaciousness of life are able to live in every climate, 
and appear, for the most part, to have followed man over the entire 
surface of the earth, are the most striking and the most numerous. 

By Genus is understood a second group formed by the xmion of 
like species, as the species was formed by that of like individuals. 
Species which in general have a striking resemblance in their orga- 
nisation, form a genus. The idea of genus is so natural that we 
meet with traces of it even in the language of children. Still all 
genera are not natural. Many of them have been formed upon some 

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resemblances of species in one or anotber characteristic arbitrarily 
selected in disregard of the general impression of the external form, 
and in neglect of the precept of the immortal Linnseus that ' Charac- 
ter does not make Genus ^' When a species deviates very much 
from all the others, even firom those most resembling it, then a sepa- 
rate genus must be made of it. Hence there are genera which con- 
tain only a single species. The characters of a genus must be 
common to all the species contained in it, and can only be drawn 
from a comparative study of all those species. 

This is the place to say a word concerning the Nomenclature of 
animals. LiNN-ffiUS was the first who gave to every object in 
nature a double name : thus the Lion, for instance, is termed Felis 
Leo, the Dog Cants famiUaris. The first of the two names (Jelis, 
cants) is that of the genus, and therefore common [nomen genericum) 
to all the species which belong to that genus. It must be a noun 
substantive. Different rules have been laid down for the formation 
of names: but to expound them would lead us too far away. Of late 
years, after the example of the Botanists, the names of persons have 
been adopted for the generic name, as BoneUia, BoUenia, Dorthesia, 
Desoria ; but this is much more usual in botany. The second name 
is the specific name, as Leo, jumiliaris ; it is either a substantive or 
an adjective, and in the latter case must agree in gender with the 
generic name. By itself it has no meaning, and indicates nothing 
until joined with the generic name^. This double name has thus 
an intimate connexion with the Idea of G«nus. 

Grenera again, after a similar manner, are grouped together and 
formed into Orders, and these again into Classes. We may 
reverse the proposition and say that the Animal Kingdom is first 
divided into Classes, then into Orders and Genera, which last 
contain the Species. 

We have now been taught to recognise the chief divisions. 
An arrangement which teaches us to find with ease the names of 
animals is called a System : which, according to Cuvier's apt com- 
parison, is a dictionary, but with this difference, that here the 

* "Character non £sMdt genus.** 

' It 18 the same with the family names and the prsenomens of persons. Hie first 
indicate a family, the last acquaints us with a particular suhject of the family ; only 
their order is reversed : i. e. the baptismal name is placed first, and after it the family 

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pioperties serve us for finding out the name, whereas in ordinary 
dictionaries the known name serves to acquaint us with the pro- 
perties. That a system may serve its purpose, and supply an easy 
means of finding the name, it must be artificial, i. e. it must be 
taken firom a single system of organs and their differences. The 
characters should be easy to find out, and be borrowed from ex- 
ternal parts. An example of such an artificial system is the 
sexual system of Linnseas. In the animal kingdom we have no 
such artificial system: most of the systems are mixed; neither 
entirely artificial nor entirely natural. 

For there is yet another kind of systems, called NoOural systems 
(Method): of which the chief object is, not so much to find the 
names readily, as to unite in an unconstrained manner those 
natural products which, in the greatest number of respects, corre- 
spond. They are founded, not on a single organ or system of 
organs, but on the whole structure. K an object be seen only on 
one side, on the north or south, east or west, just so many partial 
representations of it will be obtained as there are points of view : 
but he only who observes it in all directions is able to form a 
judgment of its nature and being. This is the advantage of a 
natural method over artificial systems : it does not forget the center 
in the circumference, but comprising all the parts and properties 
of animals in its estimate, it allots to them a place in the arrange- 
ment according to their structure and to the importance which 
belongs to them in the economy of nature, and so combines them 
in a great organic tohole^. 

A perfectly natural classification has not yet been discovered: 
but we must continue to search after it, and to collect its scattered 
firagments. It is, according to LiNNiEUS, the first object and the 
last of the hopes of the Botanist : it ought to be no less so of the 
Zoologist*. We please ourselves with the reflexion that we have 
approached nearer to this goal, now that men, especially in our 
century, have begun to investigate the internal structure of animals 
with the same curiosity and the same zeal with which, in the last 
century, after the example of Linnaeus chiefly, they studied the 

1 See J. Spix, Oeachiehte und BewiJmUmg aUer Sffttme in derZootoffie. Nttraberg, 
i8ir. 8vo. 8. 8 — II. 

* PkiUmophia hoUmira, § 77. 

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external fonn. Even Linn^us himself has declared that a natural 
classification of animals is indicated by their internal structured 
But if this natural system were quite perfect, it would not merely 
be a register of animals or a large lexicon, but a true image of the 
animal kingdom and a short survey of the entire science. The 
more nearly the science approaches this end, the greater will be its 

We must here, in few words, mention some of the systems 
which have been proposed in Zoology. 

Animals may be divided into Glasses in different ways, and the 
differences amongst individual zoological systems are very remark* 
able. Aristotle divided animals into those that liave blood 
(Imufia) and those that have not blood (jbuifui), and distributed these 
two chief divisions into lesser ones. Pliny founded his division 
upon the different elements in which animals reside, and distin- 
guished these as Terrestrialy Aquatic, and Volatile animals. It 
would carry us too far firom our object to enter more fiilly into 
these and other early attempts at classification. But we must not 
omit to notice the system of Linnaeus, who threw a new light on 
every department of Natural History^. 

In his primary division of animals LiNN-fius was a fol- 
lower of Aristotle : he named however those animals which 
Aristotle called bloodless, white-blooded : whilst of the rest the 
blood is red. The basis of his further division is taken firom the 
Circulation of the Blood. Here follows a sketch of his system. 

Heart with 2 ventricles and i yiviparoiis I. Mammalia. 

2 auricles ; warm, red blood I oviparous II. Birds, 

Heart with i ventricle and , with lungs III. Amphibia. 

I auricle ; cold, red blood ) with gills IV. Fitkes. 

Heart with i ventricle, no i with antennae .... V. Ifuects. 

auricle ; cold, white blood \ with tentacula . . . VI. Warms. 

1 "Divisio naturalis animalium ab interna structura indicatur.*' Systtm. Nalur. 
Tom. I. p. 19. Ed. XII. 

" Carolus Linn^ub, bom at Stenbrohult in Southern Sweden, 1707, died 1778. 
Comp. on his momentous life Riohaed Pultkney, A general view of the Writings of 
LinwEus, 2nd edit. London, 1781. D. H. Stoyrr^s Leben des Hitters Cari von JAnn£, 
2 Thle. 8. Hamburg, 1793. Egenhdndiga Anteekningar of Carl Link^db om ng 
Vdf, med anmerkningar och tOldg, Upsala, 1823. 4to. (this is transited into German: 
C. VON Ltnne iAer sick sfihnt, &c.) The first edition of his Systema Naturae appeaml 

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Thus LiNN^us adopts six classes, of which the differences, 
thongh founded on internal structure, have still reference to the 
function of a part which is hj no means common to all animals. 
The nnmber of LiNNJSUs' Insects and Worms that have no heart 
at all, is in fact at least as great as the number of those in which 
it is present. The so-called Zoophytes, and the Intestinal Worms, 
have no heart : in many animals vessels are already present before 
a heart can be found: insects which undergo metamorphosis have 
only a doubtful rudiment of a heart (the so-called dorsal vessel). 
The physiological importance of the heart is consequently not of 
that kind that it should be considered indispensable in the animal 
economy, as appears to be tacitly assumed in this arrangement. 
Moreover, in Amphibia the heart is provided not with one auricle 
only, but with two, and many of the Worms have not merely a 
ventricle, but also an auricle. Still the first four classes are so 
truly characterised and so firmly founded in nature, that we may 
well wonder that they were not in all times recognised, and not 
earlier formed. That clear smd accurate insight which charms 
every one, and that simplicity to which all flatter themselves they 
can attain in their own province, are the true characteristics of 
genius. Linnjsus was less happy in his two last classes, as we 
will shew more particularly. Moreover, it is not commendable 
that the division is founded upon a single organ or system of 
organs, as, for instance, those of circulation. In this way, indeed, 
artificial divisions may be obtained, but not a natural method. 
(See above, p. 29.) 

The arrangement of LiNN^us, in these last times, has under- 
gone various alterations, when men began, after the example of 
Camper, Pallas, Poli, and others, to investigate the internal struc- 
ture of animals : in which investigation Cuvier*, the first anato- 
mist of our age, by his incomparable achievements was especially 

at Leyden in large folio in 1 735 : it consists of three tables, each containing one of the 
three kingdoms of nature with some notices appended. He begins with the Mineral 
Kingdom and ends with the Animal Kingdom. 

^ George Leopold CHBiTiSK Fredsbio Daoobert Cuyieb, b. at Montb^ard 
14 Ang. 1769, d. at Paris 13 May 1832. See my biography of this celebrated contem- 
porary in the B^dragen tot de Natuurhundige Wdentchappeny vitgegeven door H. O. 
VAN Hall, W. Vbolick^ en G. J. Mulder, vn. 1832. p. -298 — 333. Very important 
for the history of CuYiEB's education are the letters addressed by him to C. H. Ppaff, 
the friend of his youth, lately published at Kiel by ProfesRor Behn. 

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distinguished. CuviER and Lamarck at first divided animals 
into two large primaiy classes: those which have an internal 
skeleton, and those without a skeleton. They called the first, in 
as much as the principal part of the skeleton is the Tertebral 
column (see above, p. 24), Vertebrate animala^ the last Invertebrnte 
ammah {Aninumx verUhris et animaux sans vertibres). Vertebrates 
have moreover red blood, whilst the division of Invertebrates have 
either no blood or blood that is white. This i&ct was known to Aris- 
totle, who ascribed a spine to all animals that have bloods Having 
made these great divisions, they adopted four classes of vertebrate 
animals, the same as those already established by Linn^us, except 
that they called his amphibia Reptiles^ or creeping animals, a worse 
appellation. But the number of classes of invertebrate animals has 
so greatly increased that instead of the two classes. Insects and 
Worms, first five*, and afterwards by Lamarck', twelve classes, 
were adopted. 

It would carry us too far away to discuss particularly all these 
divisions, and the modifications which were introduced into them. 
It is sufficient for our purpose to remark, that attention was now 
no longer directed to one organ, or one system of organs, but 
to the whole organisation. We propose to follow in our work 
Cuvier's last arrangement with some modifications, but in a 
reversed order: whilst he descends fi-om man to the less perfect 
animals, we, after the example of Lamarck and others, will begin 
with the least perfect animals, and ascending gradually to the 
more composite, will conclude with man. This course is the 
most advantageous for Physiology. If we would understand the 
physiological value of an organ, we must investigate its gradual 

CuviER, in his latest works, has followed a general division of 
the animal kingdom, which takes the place of the two great 
primaiy classes of Vertebrate and Invertebrate animals^. He per- 

^ Hirra t& Jim, &ra heufiA icrw, Ixci ^x^' ^ dorwji;, i^ ix9M6Coiii, ffitt. Anim, 
Lib. III. cap. 7. 

* See G. CuvnER, Tableau SUvMntaire de VHUUnre naturdle des Animanx, 8vo. 
Paris, an. 6 (1793). 

> Db Lamabok, Hid, Nat, de$ Animaux sant verUbr9$. 8vo. vn. Tom. Paris, 1815 

* Sur un nouveau ^rapprochmerU d itahUr Ub danu qui eompotetU U R^gne animal ; 

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ceived tiiat the invertebrate division had only negative charac- 
ters: these animals so greatly differ amongst themselves^ that in 
order to say any thing precise of their organisation, they mnst be 
spoken of specially as Soft Animals, Insects, or Zoophytes. He 
adopted, therefore, in the place of the division of invertebrate ani- 
mals three others, and thns divided the whole animal kingdom into 
fonr large gronps, whose characters we here snbjoin. 

I. Vertebrate Antmala {Antmalia vertebraia). The central parts 
of the nervons system, the Spinal cord and the brain, in these 
animals lie on the dorsal surface, in a bony or cartilaginous 
cavity formed by the vertebral column, of which the more 
developed anterior portion is called the skull. The limbs, 
when present, are never more than four in number. The 
muscles cover the bones, and are inserted into them. The 
mouth has two jaws placed horizontally. 
n. MoUuscs {Animalta moUusca). The central parts of the ner- 
vous system consist of ganglia, of which usually one, that 
from which the nerves of sense arise, lies above the oeso- 
phagus, whilst the rest are differently distributed on the 
abdominal surface. This nervous system lies in the same 
cavity with the viscera, enclosed by the soft skin into which 
the muscles are inserted. 

III. Arttculate8 {Animalia articulata). The central parts of the 
nervous system consist of ganglia, of which one lies in the 
head above the oesophagus : the rest in a row in the middle 
of the body, on the abdominal sur&ce, and are connected by 
two nervous cords. Tie covering of the body is divided 
into rings, and has different degrees of hardness : the muscles 
are placed within these rings, and are affbied to them. 
When limbs or feet are present, they are usually six, fre- 
quently more : when the mouth is armed with jaws, they are 
placed sideways, and arranged in pairs. 

rV. Badiatea {Antmalia radiata). A special nervous system is 
not always present : when found, it appears as a ring, near 
the mouth, surrounding the beginning of the intestine, 

Ann. du Museum xiz. iSis, p. 73—84. Afterwards in his classical work entitled, 
Le BigM animal ditlribuS d^aprU $on arganitaiion, iv. yoL 8yo^ Paris, 181 7, (and md 
edition v. roL Paris, 1839, 1830). 

VOL. I. 3 

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34 iNTRODUC?rroN. 

and from this ring the nerves proceed, like rays, to the 
periphery of the body. The entire body presents a radiant 
form, for the similar parts are not arranged, as in the Articu- 
lates, behind one another in rings, but beside one another in 
a plane. When muscles are present, they are attached to 
the external, sometimes calcareous, covering of the body. 

Let it not be imagined that this modification is insignificant : 
and that the invertebrate animals might very properly be opposed 
to the great division of vertebrate animals, and be afterwards split 
up into three sub-divisions. Such symmetrical separations are 
usually deceptive, and can only be of real service when the two 
groups are of equal rank, and are distinguished by positive charac- 
ters. Beyond doubt, all natural bodies, for instance, are either 
AnimalB or Non-^nimala : but who, on that account, would think 
of separating these bodies into an Animal Kingdom, and a Non- 
animal Kingdom? and the Nonranimals again into Plants and 
Minerals ? Of like value was, in my opinion, the separation of the 
Animal Kingdom into Vertebrate Animals and Invertebrate Ani- 
mals : the latter division meaning only " other than vertebrate 
animals;^' it is an indefinite appendage to a defined group, and 
contains no general idea that can be contrasted with another general 

But what is especially to be attended to in these four great 
divisions of the animal kingdom is this : that they are not so much 
distinguished by greater or less perfection of organisation, as by 
general form, and by the manner in which the parts respectively 
are related to one another. A great variety of tissues, of organs 
and of subordinate parts, makes the organisation more complicated 
or perfect ; but that must be distinguished from the general form, 
from the plan of the organisation. CuviER did not overlook this 
truth : and even the name of Fundamental Forms ( Tgpes)^ which he 
is careful to use for these four great divisions, indicates the guiding 
idea which led him to adopt them. In each type there is a gradual 
rise and fall of organisation : we descend, says Cuvier, in the type 
of the Molluscs, from the syna to the oyster, as in that of the verte- 
brates, from man to the fish. But it must not be overlooked, that 
Cuvier did not always sufficiently distinguish the two ideas (the 
Type and the Perfection of organisation), and to this it is to be 
ascribed that his division of radiates comprises many animals which 

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are not radiant, but are placed in this tjrpe on acoomt of the 
imperfection of their organisation alone. 

It is to Von Baer especially that we are indebted for a clear 
insight into this distinction ^ He considers the classes as sub- 
divisions of the fundamental form or type, which differ in respect of 
the higher or lower grade of organisation. We may conceive the 
matter differently, thus : that every animal class is determined by 
two factors, of which one is the type of organisation, the other the 
perfisctness of structure. The highest perfectness is in general 
linked to the type of the vertebrates : yet how imperfect, how poor 
(if I may use the term) the organisation may be, even in a verte^ 
brate animal, the anatomical investigation of amphioocua lanceolatua 
in recent times has taught us. That this little fish is in complexity 
of organisation far surpassed by many insects and molluscs, cannot, 
on unprejudiced examination, be denied. 

In the arrangement, therefore, of classes, we shall lay down as 
our basis this idea of type of organisation, and shall thus avoid 
separating that which is connected by natural transitions. We 
begin with the Badiata, because in this type organisation standis on 
the lowest grade, and even the most perfectly organised radiates 
are surpassed by a great, nay the greatest, number of Annulates 
and Molluscs in complexity of organisation, variety of functions, 
and multifarious enjoyment of life. Whether, after these, we pro- 
ceed with the Annulata or the MoUusca, is in a certain sense indif- 
ferent. Nature has not formed the creatures in a single ascending 
rank. Were this the case, then would a single type necessarily 
prevail in them all : yet even in the divisions (classes, orders and 
families) belonging to a single type, we are not able to discover 
such a simple ascent of organisation. The most perfect fish is not, 
by proximate aflSnity, joined on to the least perfect of the reptiles : 
nor the most composite bird to the most imperfect mammal. It 
was a pleasing dream of the amiable Bonnet^, that all creatures 

» BeUr&ffe zur Kentniu der niedem Thiere, von Dr. K. A, V. Ba«b, Nov. Act. Oce$. 
X. C. Nai. OurioB. Vol. ini. P. n. 1817. a. 513— J62, especially 8. 739—759; ^^^^^ 
JSa^nekdvngsgaeku^ie der Thiere. Beobachiung und RefiexUm. 40. i. KonigBberg, i8a8. 
0. 207 — 419. In France also similar ideas were afterwards advanced by MiLNX 
E^DWABiys. See ese. ^. his remarks in the new edition of Lamabok : ffiMoire NaL des 
Ani. a. veH. L Paris, 1835, PP* 335— 337> revised by him and Dbshatbs. 

s OontempUaicn de la Nature, (Euvm d^Hiat, NaturtUe et de PkOotophie de Ch. 
BovKET. Tome VII. Neufchatel, 1781, 8vo. pp. 51—55, and other places. 


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3d intkoduction. 

form an imbroken chain ; that without anj sudden leaps, all hang 
together by insensible transitions. But the breaks in the chain 
have not been filled up by later observation, rather have new and 
previously unrecognised deviations firom it been discovered. It is 
not a ladder with uniformly ascending rounds, but rather a net 
which may afford us a conception of the multifarious connexions 
and the various affinities according to which nature has arranged 
her products. 

We have already remarked that the vertebrate animals ascend 
to the highest grade of perfection of organisation : of them, there- 
fore, we may properly consider the different classes last. 

In treating of the Animal Kingdom we shall not make use of 
Cuvieb's distribution of it into four divisions, fiDu*ther than as a 
guiding idea. The Infiisories (exclusive of the Rotatories and 
others, which were joined to them on account of their minuteness 
alone) appear to form a distinct group, or at least do not indicate 
the radiating form by which Polyps and others of the lower animals 
are distinguished. We make, therefore, for these simplest animal 
existences a distinct Division, naming them, after the example of 
other authors. Protozoa. Their form is round or oblong, often not 
rigorously determined, but variable during life^. 

^ JFvrt great divisionB of the animal kingdom might be establiflhed, and named: 
Pr<i*<m<i, Aetinotoa, EeUnoeoa, Malaeoeoa, Spondi/loBoa, We are too indi£Eiarent to the 
introduction of new names to propose these except in a note. Under Sctinctoa (from 
iierebw, exlendo) we understand those animals in whose oiganisation the elongated type 
preYails: they nearly agree with the Artietdata. The other names have in part been 
used already, and require no further explanation. 

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These animals are called Injusorxea^^ becauae they are to be 
found in infiisions of every kind of organic matter, as well yegetable 
as animal. MoreoTer thej live in all stagnant marshy waters, and 
even in ronning waters, salt and fresh. 

These animals, which on acconnt of their minute size can only 
be discovered, or at all events examined, by means of magnifying 
glasses, were unknown to the ancients. Our Leeuwenhoeck iSrst 
saw them in infusions towards the end of the seventeenth century 
(1675). After Leeuwenhoeck, many species of these animals 
were observed and described in the last century by Roesel, Leder- 
MUELLES, VON Gleichen and others : but more especially O. F. 
Mueller, the Danish naturalist, in a work which appeared after 
his death, figured many species, and gave a systematic arrangement 
of the class. In the present century, Ehrenberg has contributed 
most largely to our knowledge of inftisories, and since 1828 has 
from time to time published his investigations in the Transactions 
of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, and more recently has collected 
them into a body in a large illustrated work. 

As the discoveries of astronomers allow us to cast a glance into 
the illiinitable extent of space of the universe, so the eye, artificially 
strengthened, affords conviction of the illimitable distribution of 

^ The chief works rdatmg to this class are : 

O. F. MuXLLiB, Ammtdcula inftuoria JluviatSia d ma/rwa, H«mife, 1786. 4to. 
nie Plates are copied in the BneydopSdie mitkodique, 

C. G. Ehbsnbibo, Die If^udontUUerchmg als voQkommene Organmnen, NebH einem 
Adas von 64 eolorirten Kupfertafdn, Leipzig, 1838 folio. (G. Yalihtin gave in his 
Beperiorwm fBr Anat, und Physiol, iv. Bd. Jahrgang, 1839, '^ detailed abstract of 
this work, containing the characters of all the genera and spedes. s. 136 — 18 f.) 

JSistoire naiurdle des ZoopkyUs, Ifrfusoires, eomprenasd la Physiologie d la Class\fi- 
eaUon de cea AnimoMx, par F. Dujabdik, Paris, 1841. 8yo. 

Die Inftuumdhiere auf ikre Enitoidediungsgesekdehte untenuehi wm Db Fbibdbich 
Snnjr, ndt 6 Kupfertafeln. Leipzig, 1854. 4to. 

> First by Lkdebhuxllxb, according to Ehbbnbbbo. 

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38 CLASS I. 

life in the direction of the smallest space. Tliere are infdsories 
(monads) having a mean diameter of iso'-isio of a line, which yet 
live so closely together, that the intervening space scarcely exceeds 
their diameter ; a single drop of water measuring a cubic line, if 
only one-fourth of its space were filled with such animals, would 
still contain 500 millions of them. 

This minuteness has misled some authors to designate infasories 
as microscopic animals. We cannot allow to this appellation a 
preference to that of infdsories : magnitude ought not to supply the 
character of a class of the animal kingdom, or a ground of division. 
By such an appellation, the union of diminutive species of higher 
classes of animals with infusories, often practised by older authors, 
would be justified. 

In determining what is to be understood by infusories, we must 
look to the whole of their organisation : it requires not many words 
to shew that the investigation of the organisation of creatures so 
minute has difficulties to contend with, which even the best optical 
expedients of our time have only partially removed. For, although 
every species of infusories be not so small as to escape the naked 
eye, yet even these are not bigger than two or three millimeters^. 
Of the minute animals that are usually comprehended under the 
term inAisories, Ehrenberg's investigations led him to distinguish 
two classes, which he named Polygastrica and Botatoria^. The 
incontestably greater complexity of structure in the last, the sym- 
metry of their form and their resemblance to the type of the Articur 
lata, suggested to us, as early as 1834, the propriety of separating 
them entirely firom the others — a proceeding now approved of by 
almost all. zoologists. 

Consequently, we comprise in the class which now occupies us 
only those animals which Ehrenberg calls Polygastrica^. We 
have not, however, adopted that name, for it rests on the opinion 
that the cavities observable in the interior of these animals are 
stomachs, which is doubted by many writers: but even if that were 
admitted, numbers remain in which no such stomachal cavities are 
to be seen. The class, thus limited, contains animalsof very simple 

1 A millimeter is about half a line, or ^ of an En^liBh inch. 
^ For the literature vid. Sibbold and Stahnidb, Leh/rb. der verffldck. AnaUmie, I. 
Abtheilung. Berlin. 1845. ^^o. 8. 7. 

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fltmcture. Some, in which no oral^ aperture can be found, must 
leoeive nntriment by means of absorption through the external 
surfiM^ alone. Others have a mouth, usually surrounded by alia, 
by the motion of which a current is produced in the water, carrying 
the food which it may contain to the mouth. The subsequent 
transmission of nutriment throughout the body is effected in spaces 
of a vesicular form — ^which contract again when their contents have 
been expelled : they are pushed on by others that hare more lately 
come into view, and have motions that cannot be reconciled with 
the notion that they possess proper walls. We must rather suppose 
therefore that these vesicular spaces are excavations in the gelatinous 
tissue of the body. The undigested portion of the food is, in many 
ci these creatures, cast off by another aperture* of the body : in 
others it escapes through the same opening by which it was received. 

Special organs of Respiration have not been recognised. The 
external surface of the body appears to be the seat of that fimction. 
Still less are there any blood-vessels : perhaps those spaces, which 
in many species are seen to contract and expand, and which are 
various in form and number, may serve for moving and transmitting 
the nutrient fluid which supplies the place of the blood'. 

Although no muscular fibres^ are present, these animals possess 
the power of motion in a great degree. Some move slowly, others 
very nimbly. As organs of motion the greater number have cilia. 
In some are produced by contraction all sorts of changes in the 

^ [Stbih coDfiiden all ciliated infuBories without a mouth to be larval or emhryotic 
forms of other creatures. IHe Infusitnuth, s. i8i.] 

' [According to Stkn there is no ready-formed anal opening in any infusory. In 
those families which do not reject their excrement by the mouth, it is forcibly pressed 
through the integument of a determinate r^on of the body, more or less extensive, and 
not sharply defined. After the exclusion, the rupture is completely dosed again. It 
is allowable, therefore, to speak of an anal region, not of an anal aperture. Die J^fu- 
tiontikiere. p. 34.] 

' EmtEKBBBa holds these contractile spaces, or vesicles (?), to be veiicukB temmaUt, 
The Uaiadut is with him a structure whose connexion with these vesicles he has not 
demonstrated, and which y. Sisbold regards as a nuofeus, whilst he compares the 
entire infusory to an organic celL 

^ In the hollow pedicle of Vorticdla, and other similar genera, there is a longitudinal 
musde which by its contraction effects the npiral retraction of this part. Ehsbitb. Die 
Infiuiontth. s. 270. [GzBBMAOK denies that the contractile streak in the canal of the 
stem is a muscle : see Sibbold and Kollikbb's Zeitschrtft fOr wieeenecht^Uiche Zooh- 
gie, IT. 443. Also see Stun, op. cU. p. 81.] 

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40 CLASS I. 

form of the bodj and of the short digitiform elongations, by means 
of which thej move : others again have filiform, branching append- 
ages, that can be drawn in and out. There is no doubt that these 
motions are to be ascribed to an internal power : they have alto- 
gether the character of volition, for the creatures sometimes retard 
their motions, or suddenly stop and again as suddenly swim quickly 
away. Infusories make no distinction of day and night : they are 
incessantly in motion, and no indication of sleep can be detected^. 

Coloured (red) spots have been supposed to be eyes, without 
any particular proof: but neither a nervous system nor any distinct 
organ of sense is to be found. 

The multiplication of these animals is by spontaneous fission of 
the body, generally in the direction of the length. In this way 
they can increase incredibly in a short time. In a very few multi- 
plication by buds has also been observed'. 

^ Ehbbnbbbg, Dm Itrfuriontthiereken, b. 539. 

*, ID. VarUcdla (early observed by Spallaitzani), we Ehbknb. op. cU. Tab, 
ZXV. fig. m. 3 ; in EpUtylia, kc. 

[Besides the multiplication of infusories by longitudinal and transverse fission, and 
that by external gems, other modes have been brought to light by the labours of CoHir 
and BiBiir. They are forms of the encytttng-procas, which SraiK sees reason to believe 
to be common to all true infusories. Cdpoda eucuUut does not undeigo fission, but 
becomes endosed in a cyst, which in all cases is the secretion of the animal's surface. 
Within this it multiplies by successive division, so that a progeny usually four in 
number, occasionally eight, arises. Each of these is a special cyst, with its own 
external membrane. The original cyst bursts, and the special cysts repeat the same 
process, often several times, until at length the content of each special cyst escapes 
through the ruptured external membrane as youug Oolpodas. Stsut, op. cU. pp. 15 — 
45. Tab. m. fig. i — ^31. 

In VorHcdUnei (besides the generation by buds or germs, and by longitudinal fission), 
the animal, becoming encysted, is changed into a spherical mass, in which none of the 
original oigans can be perceived except the ribbon-shaped nucleus, and a clear space, 
which, however, does not pulsate. Processes are sent through the thin covering at the 
upper exremity, and the form becomes some one of "EBXRVBVBkQ'BAcineUB, according to 
the different genera^ as Podophrya or AcHnophrya. The nucleus, or rather part of it, 
is then transformed into an internal embryo that rotates actively, and closely resembles 
the germ-progeny of a young Vorticelline of the same species. This process is frequently 
repeated in the same Acineta. The progeny may either encyst itself anew, and go 
through the same process, or may at once secrete a pedicle, and become an oidinaiy 
Vorticelline of the species. 

Such is the process in a young Vorticelline. In a full-grown large one it is different. 
Here the encysted lx)dy is transformed into a homogeneous mass, the nucleus falls down 
into a nimiber (more than thirty) of disci-form bodies, which derive nutriment from a 
portion of the liquefied substance of the mother-cyst : another portion of the maternal 

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INFUSOttlES. 41 

If these animalfl are not propagated by means of eggs, then 
neither can they have come into being firom eggs, and the general 
law that all that lives proceeds firom an egg {omne vwum ex ovo) 
does not apply in this case : a wider meaning, then, than the ordi- 
nary one, must be given to the word egg, which denotes ^ part 
that requires impregnation before it can be developed, and contains 
a yolk with a germ-veside smronnded by an external covering. 
To explain the origin of these creatures in infusions, if equivocal 
generation be denied, nothing remains but to suppose that the air 
conveys infnsories as it does minute particles of duBt, and that the 
organic matter, which served for the infusion, fitvoured merely as an 
abundant nutriment the multiplication of the creatures^. The 
advocates of equivocal generation have not been able to deny the 
possibility of this explanation: and that possibility destroys the 
force of all their proofs and argumentations : especially when it is 
remembered that no space can be so perfectly closed that air cannot 
penetrate it, and that even boiling does not destroy every kind of 
infusory : for their opponents themselves could not absolutely deny 
that infusories were found in boiled infusions which were stopped^ 
Indeed the constancy of form in the species, which had been over- 
looked by earlier observers in their experiments, or not understood, 
is irrecondleable with the view that these animal forms are produced 
by external forces as a mere sport of chance : but it is not by any 

sabstanoe MsomeB & gelatinoas fonn in which the embiyM swim, and by which thay 
are Bomninded when the cyst ifi buiBi. When this substMice has been diasolved in 
the soTTOunding water. they swim freely away, and change the monad fonn for the 
▼ortioeUine. Snnr, op. cU, pp. 50 — 64 and p. 146. Tab. in. fig. $2 — ^41. AJbo vid. GoHir, 
Ztkackrifi far Wi»$, ZooL m. b. 360—179. Tab. vn. fig. i^-ii.] 

^ [It ifl well known that Infoaoriee are oonveyed by the air : EHsnrBBBa fonnd them 
in the dnst borne by the trade-wind : Svxur disooyered cysts of Cfoipoda, of Pk3odina 
roaeota^ and of MacrMotm Hufdamdii, on the tenninal twigs of beech-trees that grow 
aooo feet aboTe the level of the sea. PkUodnui roseola is the rotifer which gives the red 
colour to snow. Yid. Stuh, op. cU. p. 35. He quotes Raohxkhob8T*8 assertion that 
if a slip of j^ass be moistened by the breath, and moved about in the confined space of 
an i^wrtment, infusories may be seen upon it. ScHMmr's/aAr-fttie^, 1850, Bd. Lxvni. 
B. 383.] 

> [The experiments of Sohwahn, PocK}Bin)OBrF*8 Annalm, Bd. xu. s. 184, and of 
HxLMHOLTX, MuBLUB's ArMv, 1843, B. 453, have satisfiustorily shown that an infusion 
boiled so long as to kill any germs previously existing in it> is never visited by infuso- 
ries if only such atmospheric air be allowed access as has passed through a red-hot tube, 
or sulphuric add, or caustic potass.] 

Digitized by 


42 CLASS I. 

means neeessaxy to coimect such a conception as this with the tenn 
equivocal generation. As long as it is not pretended bj this term 
to afford an explanation, but only to indicate that there are some 
animal and vegetable species that arise not firom eggs, but, in a 
way thai toe are unable to explain, firom the decomposition of organic 
matter, so long do we belieye that the expression cannot at present 
be dispensed with in Physiology^. The formation of Infusories is 
no primary production of organic matter*. Their immediate origin 
firom the organic matter of Infusions has never, as we believe, been 
observed at the very instant of its occurrence, and probably never 
will be. Even in the development firom the egg we never see the 
forming, but only the thing already formed. In the case of the 
intestinal worms' the same obscuri^ recurs, and the difficulty of 
applying the proposition that all living creatures come firom eggs is 
but too obvious firom the very constrained and improbable explana- 
tions which have been resorted to. The reason why organisable 
matter assumes those determinate forms that are distinguished as 
genera and species, is altogether unknown : and Physiology is, in 
the same degree, unable to explain how it is that in a complexly 
organised creature developed firom cells, in one part muscular fibre 
should arise, in another nerves, and cartilage in another. 

The knowledge which we possess of the geographical distribu- 
tion of Infiisories is due to the investigations of Ehrenberq. His 
travels in Asia and in Africa have taught us that in different coun- 
tries different species, nay different genera of these animals are 
found. The species which have the widest geographical distribu- 
tion in the northern hemisphere are Monas termo, UveUa glaucoina. 

^ Vide note a, iiage 40. 

» "Eagi^^ heine Erfakrung, diefiir eine EnUlehung Idtmder K&rper out Stoffa^ der 
kbham NatiMr tprdche." G. R. Tbeviranus, Biologie, u, s. a66. In this work may be 
found a full account of the earlier observations on this subject, to which the author has 
added many investigations of his own, s. 264—353. Although more than forty yean 
have since elapsed, the Ubours of Tbbvihanub on this point still retain a great value. 
Aa to the green matter of Pbiestlbt, in which transformations of infusories are sup- 
posed to occur, this is not exclusively of a vegetable nature, but consists, according to 
the exact investigations of later enquirers, of a collection of dead, and in part still living 
IirfvMorie»t Chlamidomat pulvUcvltu (Ehbenb. L. i. p. 64), Eugkna viridis (Ehkknb. 
p. 1 10), &c. 

' [The presence of Entogoa in situations where it was thought impossible they could 
be introduced from without is now explained : tfid, notes on that cUss.] 

Digitized by 



ParamoBcwm ehrymJdSy Colpoda cucuUm: &e last appean to occur 
evetywheie {Comnopolite). Ehsenberq found Monas termo both 
in stagnant water at the Bed Sea, and in spring-water on Mount 
Sinai. Colpoda cucuUus is one of the most constant animals in 
artificial In&sions, and was formerly observed hj Leeuwenhoeck 
in Infusions of pepper. 





Von Baeb first (1827) introduced the name Spermatozoa {Nov. 
Act. Acad. CcBs. Leop. Gar. Vol. ziii) : earlier names, as animalia 
spermatica, Ceroaria seminis^ &c. hare merely an historical value. 

The bodies, for the most part filiform, which have been observed 
in the fecundating fluid of animals of almost every class, have as 
microscopic creatures been ranked with Infusories: other writers 
class them with the Entozoa, a proceeding which can only be justi- 
fied in a degree by the locality where they occur ; while, on the 
other hand, it has introduced several wrong views. An independ- 
ent organisation, in virtue of which they might be considered as 
real animals^ has not been discovered. The cause of their motion 
is altogether enigmatical. 

Leeuwknhobck, the discoverer of the Infusoiies, was the first 
also who made obseryations upon these small corpuscles that in 
appearance perform voluntary motion in male spermatic fluid. 
Tlieir discovery is due to a medical student, named Hajc, who an- 
nounced them to Leeuwenhokck in August, 1677 {Phil. Trans. 
1678, Na 142 ; comp. Letter 113 in the Sevende Verfolgder Bri^ 
ven, 1702, p. 65 . . ., or in the Latin edition, CofUinuaUo Arccmomm 
NcUura, Operum Torno ui. p. 60 sqq.). Leeuwenhoeck named 
these bodies animals, and observed them consecutively in diflerent 

Digitized by 



species of various classes of animala It was his opinion that they 
foimed the embryo, and that the female's share in the work of pro- 
pagation was simply the reception and nutrition of the male pro- 
duct This view of Leeuwenhoeck's as to the office of spermar 
tozoa in propagation was afterwards entirely rejected : until, in our 
own century, Dumas maintained that they form in ftTiiTnft3a the 
foundation of the nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) : to 
which view he was led by a certain resemblance of the first rudi- 
ment of the embryo (the so-called primitive streak) to a spermato- 
zoon (picL Glassique (THistovre ruUtM-eUe, T. viL 1825. p. 221, 
article GSniraiion, Annalea des Sc not xii. 1827. p. 443-454). 
But it is not founded on observation, and is moreover sufficiently 
refuted by th^ fitct that some animab have spermatozoa closely 
resembling those of mammals, whilst their nervous system has a 
totally different form from theirs. 

According to Wagner's investigations, these active molecules are 
formed in cells, singly or in bundles : firom w^ch, on bursting of 
the cell-wall, they are set free. In insects they are found as fine 
threads without a head, or thicker portion: but in most other 
creatures they consist of a thicker part, the head, and a very fine 
thread, or tail The head is, in diffiarent animals, of a different 

[The spermatozoon of the Batrctchia has an extremely fine mem- 
brane attached to its tail in the direction of its axis and throughout 
its whole length by one of the sides, the other being firee and wavy. 
Thus a delicate undulating border is formed. It was discovered by 
Amigi and rightly described by him, and afterwards by Poulet. By 
others it was mistaken for a thread surrounding the tail with a loose 
spiral coiL Yid. J. N. Czerieak, ZeUsch. /, tmasenach. zooL R ii. 
350-355, also von Siebold, ifnd. pp. 356-364.] 

The different memoirs and treatisee upon this Bubject with whose history, aa 
Ehbenbbbg says, whole Tolumee might be filled, are not noticed by us 
that we may not incur a diffusenees unsuitable to the limits of this manual. 
B. Wagnbb's Lehrbuch dor tpeaeUm Zoohgie, 2^ Auflage, Leipsig, 1843, 
8vo, 8. 10—30 maybe consulted with advantage. It g^vee a full account of 
the most important discoyeries of the author and of other contemporary 
observers. [This work has been translated into English by Dr Willis. 
Comp. the later work of B. Waokeb and R Lsuckabt, Aride Semen in 
Todd's O^fdop, o/Anat. and PkysioL YoL iv. p. 849.] 

Digitized by 




MiCBOBOOPiC animalculea, often of mutable form, without 
nervous Efjstem and yessels, mostly with internal globose cavities, 
moving hj means of vibratile cilia, or exsertile processes, without 
tme articulated feet. 

From a definition all that is uncertain and hypothetical must be 
excluded as &r as possible^ Hence we do not call the internal cavities, 
which are seen in most Infosoiies, stomacha Our dass, limited 
as above, contains several of the Pclype9 gdat/moMx of Cuvisb, 
and agrees with the Pclygasirica of Ehbenbebo. Many genera^ as 
BiJbcXttafrukf NaniouJUk^ Clogterium, are omitted, because it is highly 
probable that th^ belong, as many writers have admitted, to the 
vegetable kingdont 

OsDEB L Simpltciaaima. 

Naked, extremelj minute, external organs none, form persistent. 

Family X VtbrionidcB. Body filiform. 

Vibrio MuELL. (exclusive of many species.) Gknera: Bcuieriumj 
Vibrio, Spirillum Ehrenb. 

Sp. Vibrio Uneola MuxLL., Ehbshb. (and M<ma$ termo Muill. t) Muxllbb, 
7i^. Tab. VI. fig. I ; Ehbsnbkbo, It^kuunuthierchm. Tab. v. fig. 4 ; in 
difierent infamons, fte. 

Ordeb II. Ehizcpoda DuJARD. {Pseudopoda Ehrenb. in part). 

Animalcules with mutable form, moving by means of multiform 
exsertile processes, without vibratile cilia or other external organs. 

Digitized by 


46 CLASS I. 

Family 11. AmoelxBa. Animalcules naked, emitting and retract* 
ing irregular, mutable lobes by continuous motion* 
Amceba Ehbenb. {Proteus MuELL.) 

Sp. Amaba cUfiuetu Ehbsnb., Volvox CkaoM It,, Proteut diffluens Muell. ; 
B0B6XL, Ina. iiL Tab. oi. fig. a— T ;i Muell., Infiu. Tab. n. fig. i . . . i« ; 
Ehbenb., Infuaioruih. Tab. viii. fig. zii. A gelatinouB mass, of rounded 
fonn, if the entire animal contracts itself on disturbance of the water ; 
when the water becomes quite at rest the body extends itself variously 
into lobes and processes, which are drawn in again. Bobsbl observed 
these parts to be even torn asunder by extension, so that there arose two 
anJTnalw (Prop^hgation by spontaneous division). The name Prateua had 
been previously given (by Laubenti) to a genus of Reptiles, and was on 
that account changed into AnUba* by BoBT, and into Anuj^ by Ehben- 
BEBQ. [Perhaps Afnoeba is a temporary state of other forms, as of the 
shelled Bhizopods, &c. Yid. LiEBERKUEHir, in Mubllbb's AriMv. 1854, 
B. 17, and Ck)HK in Sibbold and Eobllikeb's, ZeU$ckf. Wiatenaehtrft, Zool, 
Bd. IT. B. 262,] 

Family HI. Arcellina. Animalcules enclosed in a membranous 
lorica or calcareous test, partly exsertile from their coyering, and 
emitting processes sometimes filiform and branched. 

They are small calcareous forms (sheila) divided into cells, found 
in sea-sand and in a fossil state in tibe Chalk-formation, and espe- 
cially in the coarse tertiary limestone. These miscroscopic crea- 
tures occur in incredible numbers, 6000 of them having been 
counted in an ounce of sand from the Adriatic sea, whilst an 
ounce from the shore of the Antilles contains, by computation, near 
four millions. They were investigated at the end of the last cen- 
tury by 80LDANI, and in the present by Fichtel and Moll, and 
afterwards especially by D*Obbiont, who defined more than 1600 
species of them. Until within a few years these bodies were refer- 
red to the Molluscous Division, genus Na^iUtus L. {Cephalopoda, 
vid the first edition of this Manual, il pp. 107, 108). Beoent 
observations, however, consign these Folf/thalamia or Ctllulacea to 
a much lower position, near the genus Proteus of MueUer, Although 
D'Obbigky has been satisfied by the investigations of Dujabdin 
that these animals do not belong to the Molluscs, he still believes 
that they ought to be considered as a distinct class of the animal 
kingdom (standing between the Polyps and Echinoderms), and 
caUs them Fora/mm^feraj the same name under which he formerly 

^ BoBT DB St Yxkcent and Dujakdib refer these figures to another species, sup- 
posed to differ from Proteus diffhtens by its greater size. 
3 DicHonn. dass, d^Hitl, ncctur. i. 1821. p. 261. 

Digitized by 



described them as MoUiisc& From the end of the last cell of the 
shell by one or more openings, or from numerous pores on the sur- 
fiuse of the shell, thin contractile threads are extended which serve 
for motion. [On dissolving the calcareous matter from the shell of 
Hving species, there always remains an organic base of the exact 
fbim of the shell with all its pores and passages. This is a secre- 
tion effected by the contained animal mass. Sgsultze*.] Ehben- 
Biaio thinks that these aniTnals are allied to the Bryozoa (the so- 
called Polyps of Flustra, &c) ; his principal reasons against their 
arrangement in the class of the Infusories are, that they have no 
polygastric intestinal canal, and that there is no other instance of 
calcareous shells amongst Infiisories. 

On this division compare, amongst other works ; D'Orbioitt, TabUau 
methodiqiie de la Claate des Cephalopode», Afkn. det Sc. naL premUre SSrie, 
Tom. Vn. i8a6. p. «45— 315. PL 10—17. 

DuJABDiK, ObservaHoM nouveUet mr let CSphalopodet nUero$eopiquet. 
Ann. des Sci. not,, ieetmde S^rie. Tom. III. 1835. ZooUtgU, p. xo8, X09 ; and 
Beekerekee aur les Organiimee tj^^rieurs. 1. Sur la Oromia ovtformit H mtr 
let JRhkopodet m gininl. ibid. Tom. IV. Zoologia, p. 343 — 35a. PL 9. 

Ehbsnbbbo, UAer die BUdung derKreidrfebm u, detKreidemerfftit dmxK 
untichibare Otyanitmen, Ahhandl. der h&nigUek, Ahademie der Wittentek, 
tu Berlin, Aut dem Jahre 1838. s. 59—147. Also, Ueber nock tekr 
tahlreich Idtende Thierarten der Kreidebildung und den Organitmnt der 
Pokfikodamien, &c. Aut dem Jahre 1839. s. 81— 1 74, espedally s. xo6— i la 

A. D'OsBiGirr, Article Fonmimfiret, Didumnaire um v ert d tTSiet, not, 
parCR. D'OBBiomr, Tom.V. 1845, P* 661—671. 

Glabk, On recent PoramMfera, Ann, of Nai. Sid, Sec. Series, 1850. 
VoL V. p. 161 — 171. 

Cabfentkb, Microtcopie Structure 0/ NummuUna, &c. Journal cf the 
Qeot, Soc. tfLondony 1850. 

WmJAMBON, On the minute ttruOwre of ealoareout ^eUt, fto. Trant, 
Mierotc, Society of Zondon, YoL III. 185 1, and Quarierlp Joum. of 
Mierote. Science, 1853, No. TV. p. 87. 

Ehbeitbkbo, I>at wrhen det untiehUKuren Jddnen Lebent anf der Brde, 
1854, Tab. XIX— xxxn. Leipsig, 1854. 

Max. Sigmund Schultzs, U^)er den Orffonitmut der Polpthal. ftc. 
md 7 UUtminirten Tctfdn, foL Leipag, 1854. 

On NoctUuca miUarit, which appears to belong to this diyision, though 
it does not emit expansions esctemally but has a moveable appendage 
attached, see QuATBiYAais Ann, det tc. not, tit, Sirie Zoai. xre. p. ia6 — 
135 PL 5, Kbohn in Archiv f Naturgetch, 185a s. 77 — 81, Taf. 3, fig. «. 
It is a chief cause of the phosphorescence in se»-water. 

To this femily belong also some fresh-water species. 

^ SCHULTZE; op. cU. p. 7. 


Digitized by ^ 

48 CLASS I. 

A. Body simple {Monoategia D'Orb.) 

* Loriea membranoui ur homy. 

ArceUa Ehbenb. Loriea scutellate, globose, or hemispherical, 
sometimes angnlate, open beneath: the animal emitting processes 
variable, plane, obtuse, through the aperture. 

These anhnals Uve in fresh water. See Figores in Ehbbitbibo'b In- 
fimonHkienhen, Tab. ix. fig. v— Tm ; Dujard, Ii^m, PL ii. fig. 3—5. 

Dtffluffia Leclerc. Loriea globose or oval (sometimes sub- 
spiral ?), emitting from the terminal aperture processes of the animal 
variable, multifidous. 

LsoLEBO first discovered these fonns (1815) ; see Note aw la Diffugie, 
MSm.duMii$6fim, U. p. 474—478, PL 17. Bp.J>iffi.prote{fortni8, fig. 3. 3 ; 
Ehbbnb. If^uticntlh. Tab. re fig. i. The shell, according to Lbclebg, 
is spiral, what later observers did not perceive ; it is covered with minnte 
grains of sand. — JHjfl. gkbulota Ddja&dik, Ann. de$ Se. not., te Sirie. 
Tom. VII. 1837. Zodogie, p. 310, 313. PL ix. fig. i. 

Oromia DujARD. Loriea globose, membranous, emitting pro- 
cesses of the animal variable, slender, of great length, from a round 

8p. OronUa omfcrmu Dujabd. Ann. de» Se. nai. 2e Serie, Tom. IV. Zodogk, 
PL IX. fig. I. 1, in salt water, amongst marine plants ; — Oromia JUma- 
tiUt Dujabd. ibid. Tom. VIII. Zoologie PL 9. ig. « ;—Orwn. omfcrmU 
DuJ. SoHULTZB, op. cU. Tab. i. fig. i. 

** Test calcareous. 
Genera : Orhulina, Oclma and AmphorioM^ D'Osa* 

B. Body composed of several segments. Test calcareous, divided 
hy sqpta into cells. 

* Odlt imple, arranged on an aaie, etraigM, or MghOy curved. 


Genera : Nodosaria Lam. (Sp. Nodosaria IcmeUosa D'Obb.) Anr^ 
des Se. not 1826, Toul vn. Tab. z. fig. 4-6.— 6%z9u^tna D'Ob& 
(Sp. GlanduL ksvigata ib. fig. 1-^), Orthocerirui, Bmtalma D'Ona, 
Frondieularia Dsfr., LrngtUma, Eimulma, Vagmtdina, MwtgvnMr 
Una, (Jomdma, Pcbvonma, Webbina D*Oim. 

^ Since tliese small bodies are separated by D'Obbignt according to characters 
especially derired fi^m the shell, we baye thought it sufiBicient, for the sake of breyity, 
to indicate the names of the genera. 

Digitized by 



** CdU nmple, arranged in a apiral 

Genera: CriOeUa/ria Lax., Flabdlina, Robulina D'Orr (Sp. 
RolmUna orbicularis D*Obb. 1. 1. Tab. xy. fig. 8, 9), Fundina Fis- 
CHEB, Nonicnina, Ntimmvlina D*Orb. {NummvliUa and LenUculitea 
liAM. '), Assilina, SidercUna^ Hauerina, Operctdina (Sp. OperciU, 
eamplanata D'Orr L L Tab. xiv. fig. 7-10), Vertelfralma D'Orb., 
Polyatamella Lak. [Sp. PolyH, strigiUata D*Orbl Schultze op. cit 
Tab. IV. fig. 1], Peneroplis Lajl, Lendritina D'Orb. (Sp. Dendr, 
arbtiscula D'Orr L L Tab. xv. fig. 6, 7), Spirolina Lam., Cydolina 
D'Orr, Littwla Lajl, Orbicidina Lail (Sp. Orbic, numismcUis 
D'Orb. 1. 1. Tab. xvn. fig. 8-10), AlveoUna D'Orb. (Sp. Alved. 
Quoit D'Orr 1. L Tab. xvii. fig. 11-13), JRotalina [Sp. EotaL veneta, 
E. Freyeri Schultze op, cil. Tab. ui. fig. 1-7], GMngerina, PUmor- 
bulina, Truncatulinay Anomalifia D'Orb. (Sp. AnoTfk pwnctiulata 
D'Orr 1. L PL xv. fig. 1), Rosalhia D'Orb. (Sp. Roaal, gldfmUmM 
D'Obb. L L PL xni. ^. 1-4), Vahmiinay Vemeulina, Btdimina, 
Uvigerina D'Orb. (Sp. Uvig, pygmaa D'Orb. L L Tab. xii. fig. 8, 
9), PyruHna, Faujcuvna, Ccmdeina, Chrysalidina, Clavtdina D'Orb. 
(Sp. Clavul. angtdaris D'Orb. L L PL xil fig. 7), Gaydryna D'Orr 

*** CdU aUemoHng diipofed on two cuoef, and arranged in a tpire 

Genera: Eobertinay Asterigerina, Amphistegina, Heterostegina, 
Caasidulina D'Orb. (Sp. CassiduL Icevigata D'Ork L L Tab. xv. 
fig. 4. 5). 

**** CdU aUemating, diapoud in two or three rotes, not forming a spire 

Genera : Dimorphina, GvUvlina, PolymorjMnay Virgulina, Bige- 
nerina D'Orr (Sp. Bigen, nodosaria D'Orr L L Tab. xi. fig. 9 — 12), 
Gemmidina D'Orr, Textularia Defrance (Sp. Textvl. acicutata 
D'Orr L L Tab. xi. fig. 1 — 4), Vuhulina D'Orr (Sp. Vuhul. capre- 
olus D'Orr L L Tab. xi. fig. 5 — 8), Bolvvinay Sagria, Ctmeolina, 

^ PJutekeSy ZmtieuHtes or LeniH-sUmes. These petn&ctionfl are found in some 
loeaHties in such great abundance as to form eztensire deposits affording good 
bnilding-stoneB. In Egypt many monuments are constructed of them. Confer Blu- 
HBNBAOH, AhbUdwngen naturhist. Oegenstdnde, Ko. 40. According to Debhatks there 
is found in most of the stone of which Paris is built as much oiMiUola (vid. p. 46) as of 
sand-grains — and it may be said, without exaggeration, that Paris is built of MUioUe. 
Ehbxkbebg, Abhandl. der Ahad. zti Berlin, 1838, p. 65. 

VOL. I. 4 

Digitized by 


50 CLASS I. 

' CklU HmpUf dutUred round an aaeu, each tnahing Kaif a wpirt 

Genera: UwUoculma, BUaculina D'Osa (Sp. BUoeul, BvUoidet 
D'Obb. L 1. Tab. xvi. ^, 1—3), Fabulaaia Defbancb (Sp. FabuL 
discolithea D'Orb. L L Tab. rm. Fig. 14-17), JSpiroloculina, Trilo- 
eulvna D*Orr (Sp. TrUoc trigomda D'Orb. L L Tab. xvi. fig. 5-9), 
OnicUoculinOy ArtilociUina, Sphwroidina, QuinqvslocvUna D'ORa 
(Sp. QmnqwHoc. aaxorum D'Orb. L 1. Tab. xyl ^, 10-14), Addonna 

The last division coincides for the most part with the genus 
MUiola Lasc. Dujabdin has described and figured a living species 
of this genus with its capillaiy processes or extensions under the 
name oiMiliola wlgaaia; Infus, PL i. fig. 14. 

Order III. Atricha. 

Animalcules without a distinct mouth, fiimished with one or 
more flagelliform filaments for motion, form persistent or mutable. 

Family IV. Monadina, Body not loricated, gelatinous, pellucid. 

Monaa Muell. (exclusive of several species). Body oblong or 
round, with a single flagelliform filament. 

See figures in Ehbenb. Infia, Tth. L To ihiB genus belong animalcules 
of Tooo ^% hi which the highest magnifying power shews no oiganisation, 
and which even at the present day, with the assistance of the best 
microscopes, dannot be otherwise characterised than as punctiform bodies — 
the character given by MuBLLBB to his genus Mwuu. 

Uvellu BoRY, Ehrenb. [Monadines associated in clusters in 
form of a mulberry or of grapes revolving in all directions.] 

Cercomonas DuJARD., Bodo Ehrenb. (in part). Body caudate. 

Family V. On/ptomonadina. Body loricated, with a mem- 
branous flexible test. 

Cryptomonas Ehrenb. {Cryptoglena ejusd., with an eye- 

Family VI. Vohodna. Several animalcules contained in a com- 
mon envelope, or furnished each with its own envelope, which is 
confluent into one mass. 

Digitized by 



Pandcrina BoRT (in part), Ehrenb. Animal without eye-point 
and tail, famished with a vibrating fiagellmn, a simple niceolate 
lorica, bj spontaneous internal division resembling a mulbeny. 

Sp. Pandorina morum, Vcivox morum MuxLL. It^uB. Tab. m. fig. 14 — 16, 
Ehbxnb., IfrfkaiontUL Tab. IL fig. 33. 

Oontum MuELLu Animals without eye-point and tail, by spon- 
taneous division conjoined in a common quadrangular flat envelope. 

Sp. Oomum peetomU Muxll. Infut. Tab. xvi. fig. 9 — 11 ; Bh&ihb. Tab, 
ni. fig. I. 

[81/nura Ehrenb. (Tab. III. fig. 9.) an imcertain genus]. 

ChlamidomofMs Ehrenb.' Animal with eye-point and double 
flagellum, without tail, included in an urceolate envelope, either 
simple or multiple from spontaneous division within the common 

Sp. Chtmidomonat ptdvUculus, Mona» pnMMculus Mtjxll. Itrfvi. Tab. i. ^, 
5. 6; Ehbsnb. If^furiontth. Tab. iii. fig. x : represented by authors as in 
part the green matter of Pbixstlbt. These animalcules were long ago 
observed by LsxnwxNHOSOK ; see Sevende vervolg der Brieven, 1709. No. 
142, p. 403. 

Volvox L. (exclusive of several species) Animalcules with eye- 
point and single or double flagellum, included in the surCace of 
a globular envelope which rolls on its axis : there are often smaller 
globules {ffemnue) within the large one^. 

9p. Volvox globator L., Lebuwbnh. Sevende vervclg der Brieven, No. 122^ 
p. 156, fig. 9 ; BoKBKL, Int. in. Tab. d. fig. 1-3 ; Musll. Ir^u», Tab. m. 
fig. 11-13; I^HIUUB. Infttsunuth. Tab. IT. ^. i. DUJABDIK, I^f. PI. iv. 
fig. 30. OUbe-animalcule ; a small green globule, as much as J line in 
size, and henoe yisible to the naked eye as a fine grain of sand ; in 
marshy water. This form was first disooTered by LueuwKHHOlOK. On the 
surface of the globule minute warty points are seen ; these are the individual 
animalcules or monads of ~ line. Within the globule* smaller globules 
are devdoped, which occasionally rotate within the large one until it 
bursts and (ties away'.. 

> [See F.Ck>HN*8 paper in Siibold and Kobllikeb's ZeiU^riflfiir wUtenaehafdiche 
Zcdogie, Band lY. p. 77, ftc. for reasons why the VoU>ocina ought perhaps, as Von 
SiSBOLD and others believe, to be classed amongst Ahjm.'] 

[* For an account of the development and encysting of individual monads of the 
colony, of a size nearly as large as that of a young colony, see Stkik's I^futionsthiere, 
Ac pp. 45—46. When the full size has been attained the cyst thickens into regular 
oonical processes, giving the form which Ehrenberg has described as a distinct species, 
Vohox tttOattu, These large encysted volvoces are for the continuation of the species 
after the ordinary individuals of the colony have perished.] 


Digitized by 


52 CLASS I. 

Family VII. Astasice. Body not loricated, caudate or ecaudate, 
form mutable. 

Astasia Ehrenb. Animal free, caudate, without an eye-point 

Sp. See figoree in Ehbknbebg's Infutiondh. Tab. YU. fig. I.-IV. DuJABDnr 
Ir^, Tftb. ▼. fig. II. 

Euglena Ehrenb. (and Amblyophts ejusd.) Animal free, with 
an eye-point. 

* Body ecaudate. 

AmhlyophU Ehbbnb. 

•• Body caudate. 

Sp. Eugiena viriditf Cercaria viridii Muell. Jf\fitM, l^b. XIX. ^. 6-13; 
Ehbbkb. Infuticndh, Tab. vn. fig. iz ; Dujabd. Infui. PI ▼. ^. 9, 10. 

Thifl species also belongs to Prii8TLXT*8 green matter ; another species can 
occasionally by its red colour g^ye to water a blood-red appearance. 

Family VIII. Periphrygana (.E^Aa^ta Ehrenb. in part). Body 
orbicular, surrounded with setaceous tentacles, without vibratile 

Ehbenbebo ascribes an oral aperture to Actinophn/s, which Du- 
JARDIN could not perceive There are no cilia, but there are appen- 
dages or cvrrhu 

Actinophrys Ehrenb., Peritricha BoRT. Body rough with 
tentacles radiating in all directions. 

Sp. AitinophryB iol Ehbenb., Trichoda sol MnXLL. Infia. Tab. xxm. fig. 
43-45* Ehbenb. IfrfusUmtih. Tab. xxxi. fig. vi. Dujabd. It\fut, Tab. ni. 
fig. 3. in fresh water. 

Subgenus Podophrya Ehbenb. Body with a transparent appen- 
dage resembling a pedicle. 

Sp. Podophrya cotn^ta, TrichodafioM MuxLL. ^ 

Trichodiscus Ehrenb. Body radiating with tentacles at the margin 

17 The pedicle of Podophrya is very variable in length. In some of the forms it 
almost disappears, so as to render it difficult to determine whether an adimophryB or 
podophrya be under examination. Srsiir thinks there is no specific difierence between 
the two, certainly no generic. From his observations it appears, indeed, that both 
AdinopihiryB and Podophrya are Acinda — forms derived fnym encysted VortieeUa micro- 
itoma. Die Infugiotuihieref p. 138, &c.] 

Digitized by 



Order IV, B^nHcha. 

Animalcales moying by means of vibratile cilia. 
Section I. Aatoma^, 

Family IX. PeridmoBa. Loricated, with a coronet, or a trans- 
verse belt of cilia. 

Pendinium Ehrenb. (Species of Ceroarta Muell.) 

Sp. Peridintum tripos Ehbenb. {Cerearia tripot MuxLL., Ifrfui, Tab. xix. 
fig. 93 ; Ehbehb., Ii^uiiontth. Tab. xxn. fig. xyni. ; the lorica termmatea 
in three points ; two anterior cfonred backwards, and one posterior, 
which is straight. The aiumacule attauas a length of ^ line ; it is foond in 
the Baltic. 

MiCHAXLis obsenred a phosphoresoenoe in this and some other species of. 
this genns, and thus prored, what had been suspected before, tiiat Infu- 
sories contribute to the illiunination of the sea. Ueber da$ Lewihim der 
Odaee, Hamburg, 1830; oomp. Ehsznbebo, Dai Leuchien det Meeres. Ein 
in der K&iUgU Akademie der Wiiaeiuckti^ftem gehaltener Vorirag. Berlin, 
1835, 4to. 

To this genus also probably belong as fossil species some oiganio 
remains which Ehbimbibo disoorered in the ehalk-fiannatioii in fire- 

Dinophys%8 Ehrenb. {Ahhandl. d. Konigl. Akad. d^ Wiss. zu 
Berlin, a.d. Jahre 1839, s. 124.) 

Section II. Btomatoda. (Animalcules with mouth and oeso- 
phagus leading into the parenchjme of the body. One or more 
round, contractile cavities, pulsating rhythmically, situated beneath 
the integument at the surface of the body.) 

Family X. Trtchodina {Tracheltna and Colpodea Ehrenb.) 
Body oval, with vibratile dlia, without cirri or styli, not loricated, 

Trichoda MuELL. (in part, T}ri€hoda DUJARD. and Trachdiua 
ScHRANE, Ehrenb., Dujard.) An oblique row of large cilia at 
the mouth. 

Phiodma BoRT, Ehrenb. 

^ I consider this desoription as merely provinonal. As to the presence of a mouth 
in particular genera of Infusories much yarietj of opinion exists, and that the point 
is not easy to determine wiU be obvious to ereiy one who obserres for himselfl This 
character, then, in the present state of our knoiHedge, scaroelj deserves a promineut 
position* [Vid. note I, p. 39.] 

Digitized by 


54 CLASS I. 

Efnchdya MuELL. (exclusive of several species^), Aoomia 
DujARD., OastrochosUi ejnsd., AlyBcum ejnsd., Unmoma ejiiscL 

Btirsaria MuELL. (in paxt), DuJARD, {BursariaBxA Spirostomum 
Ehbekb. in part.) Body everywhere ciliated, often dilated pos- 
teriorly ; mouth oblique surrounded by cilia arranged spirally. 

Sp. BvTdaria truneatdla MuXLL.^ Ir^, Tth, zvn. figs. 1—4 ; EHfiBNB. 

Infusunuth. Tab. zxxiY. fig. 5. 
To this division Ehbxnbsbo refers the Opalina Manarum of Pubkin jb and 
Valbnttk, first discovered and figured by Lbxuwxnhoxok : OtUUdingm 
en Onidekkingm 1685, p. 13, fig. 3, A. Dujabdik and VOK Sibbold [and 
Stbin.] do not admit the presence of a mouth in this species, the first two 
retain the genus Opalina. [Stbht. suspects the Opalina to be larvie of 
worms. The different species have very different structure. Die It^fit- 
iiontth, s. 181 — 187.] 

Ophryoglena Ehbenb. Body rough with cilia disposed in lon- 
gitudinal rows, ovate, with eye-point black or red. 
See Fig. in Ehbbkb. Tab. XL. figs. 6-8. 

Spirostomum Eurexb. in part, Dujabd. 
Glaucoma Ehbenb. Body everywhere ciliated, mouth un- 
armed, with a tremulous valve like a longitudinal lip. 

Sp. Glaucoma icintUlam Ehbbnb., If^uiiontth. l^b. zxzvi. £g, v., Dujabd. 
J^fM. Tab. VL fig. 13. 

Chilodon Ehbenb. Body oval, with a lateral sinus forwards, 
cilia all over disposed in longitudinal rows, mouth inclosing a cylin- 
drical fisusciculus of little rods {teelJi), 

Sp. CkHodon cucuUvhu, Kolpoda eueuUvku Mubll., Ehbbztb. If^futioMih, 
Tab. xzxvi. ^, VI., Dujabd. Ifrfui. Tib. vi. ^. vi. [Sibih. Jf^uiioneth, 
Tib. HL 51.] 

Nassula Ehbenb. 

Lacrymaria Ehbenb. (and Trachelocerca ejusd.) 

Sp. Lacrymaria dor Ehbbnb., yibrio dor MuBLL., /t^. Tab. z. figs. I3-I5, 
Ehbbnb. Ii^vowmO^ Tab. xxxvm. %%. vn. 

Colpoda Ehbenb. (Species from the genus Colpoda Muell.) 
Body laterally emarginate or sinuous, reniform, with cilia disposed 
in rows, mouth lateral unarmed. 

Sp. Colpoda cucuUut MuBLL.| Ii^, Tib. ziv. figs. 7-14^ Ehbbnb. Tab. 
XXXIX. figs. V. &c. 

Paramecium Muell. (exclusive of species), Ehbenb* (in part)^ 

^ Nothing can be more ci^ricious than the use by modem writers of this generic 
name of Mubllbb. See DujabdiVi Mitt, not, det Infus, pp. 385, 386* 

Digitized by 



Amph%lqp(u8 Ehbenb. (Amphileptua and LoxaphyUum DuJASD.) 

Sp, AmfkU^pitu mdeagrii, Kolpoda mdeagru MuiLL., /i0it. Tab. ZIV. figs. 
I-6» ZV. figs. 1-5, EhBXBB. 1^. ZZZYXU. fig. 4.. 

Family XI. Oxytrichtna. Body mostly plane or depressed, 
armed with yibratile cilia and set», and hooks or styles not vibra- 
tile, not loricated. 

This fiunily agrees with the genus Kerona of Mueller. Besides 
the usual fine cilia^ the animals have other organs for creeping and 
for the support of the body in climbing, and which are distinguished 
by Ehbeetbebo as bristles («eto), styles {stylC) and hooks (tcnctm) ; 
Infudcmstk. & 338. 

Genera : Kerona Muell. in part^ Dujabb. {Stylonyehda and Kerona 
Ehsknbl, Ceraiidvum ejnsd) — Oxf/irieha Boby {Oxf^irieha and 
Urottyla Ehhenb) ; HtUteria Dujakd. 

Sp. Kenma mytOus (and Ker. hoMteOum) Mvill., I^fui. Tab. zzxiT. figs. 
1-4, Ehrenb. I^futiontth, Tab. XLI. fig. ix.^ Dujabd. Ii^fui, Tab. xm. 
figs. 7, 3 ; very oomznon in fresh water, size ^ to 1 line. If this form be 
oompared with monads, Vibriot and the animals of Volvox globatar, it will 
be seen that in respect of size there is as great a diffiBrence amongst Info- 
sories as amongst Mammalia. 

Family Xn. .E^2bto(.£^2oto and ^^tc2ik»na Ehrenb.) Body 
oval, depressed, loricated* Yibratile cilia around the month ; besides 
cilia, often styles and hooks for motion. 

Euphtes Ehrenb. {Phlascmia Bobt, Dujard.) Lorica oval or 
snborbicnlar, longitudinally ribbed or striated; body with styles 
and hooks. 

Sp. Euplota patdla, Kerona patella Mxjvll,, I^fue, Tab. xxxni. figs. 14-18, 
Ehbbnb. IftfuticndK, Tab. zin. fig. ul, Dujabd. Itrfue, Tab. vm. figs. 

Ghlamtdodan Ehbenb. Styles and hooks none. Slender rigid 

rods arranged in a cylindrical fascicnlus aronnd the mouth (teeth). 

Sp. ChUmUdodan mnemoeyne Ehbihb,, Irrfuaiontih, Tab. XLn. fig. Tnx ; in 
the Baltic. 

Dtcpkrys Dujard. 

ffimantophorus Ehrenb. 

Aspidiaca Ehrenb. Lorica produced beyond the body forwards, 
hyaline ; longitudinal flexible setss on the ventral side^ for stepping 
and creeping. 

Digitized by 


56 CLAfiS 1. 

Sp. Aipidiica l^neetu, Trickoda fyneeui Musll., /V«t. Tab. XXQL figs, i, i, 
Ehbeitb. Inftuiontth. Tab. XTXTX. ^. i. 

Loxodes DuJABD.y not Ehbenb. (jonng indiyidiials of Chilodon 
cucullulus with imperfectly developed infdndibulum. Stein. Iti/us. 
p. 131.] 

Ervilia DuJABD. (Species from the genus Euphtes Ehrenb.) 

Trochilia DUJASD. 

Family Xm. VorticelUna ( Vorticellina and Ophrydina Ehbenb.) 
Body campanulate or infimdibuliform, with large vibratile cilia at 
the margin of the aperture. Mouth and anus approximate, situated 
in a pit of the margin. 

Formerly these « were classed amongst the Polyps as BeU- 
Polypa, BastardrPclypSy dw. (See the first Dutch edition of this 
Hamdbooky l p. Q^,) It was belieyed that the infundibular or bell- 
shaped body is the cecal stomach, and the large opening the 
mouth. The true oral aperture, howeTer, is placed on the edge of 
the hollowed body. The food describes a circle in the parenchyme 
(according to Ehbenbkbo in a special intestinal canal* with several 
lateral dilatations) and is again ejected near the oral aperture (hence 
the names cydoccda and cmopisthia given by Ehbenbebg). The 
analogy with the molluscan type, even if an intestinal canal be not 
admitted, cannot be overlooked, and probably these aniTnals will be 
ranked by future writers, as imperfect forms, with the Bryazock 

The cilia on the edge of the bell-shaped body cause in the water 
an eddy which hurries onwards minute oorpucles whether dead or 
alive, and conveys them towards the cavity. If some early and 
also later observers (amongst others even Aoardh, Nov. Act, Acad, 
CcMo/r. Leop. Carol, Nalwr. CtMriosor. x. 1821, pp. 127 — 137, Tab. vn. 
iL) have seen in this a power of fiusdnation, the &ct must be ascribed 
to the circumstance, that they did not notice the cilia. 

Phalanx I. Body not pedunculated. 

A. Naked. 
Stentor Oken, Ehrenb. (Species of Varticella Muell.) 
Body conical, from its contractility polymorphous, everywhere 

^ See FoKKS's obserFatioziB on Stentor, wbich led him to doubt bo eariy the exist- 
enoe of a special intestinal canal. Okbh's Int, 1836. s. 785, 786. 

Digitized by 



covered with small cilia, besides a coronet of larger cilia, firee or 
temporarily sessile. 

SteiUor Mudieri Ehhxkb., Hydra ttenUma L., Bossn Int. m. Supfil, Tab. 
XdV. figB. 1, %, MUBLL. InfuM, Tab. zuii. figs. 6-13, Bhbxnb. InfvMtmMk. 
Tab. xxin. fig. i, Dujabd. Ii^ub, Tab. xv. fig. i ; on the ander suHaoe 
of Lemna. When swimmiog the animal has an OTal f<Mnn, and moyes in 
Berpentine and differently carred Unee ; when at rest or attached, it has an 
extended trumpet-Hke form. 

Urceolarta Lam. (in part), DuJARD. {Trickodina Ehrenb.) 
Bodj globose or nrceolate, not ciliated throughout 

Urceolariadeaina, Trichodinapedietdvs'RBXXSB., Oydtdium pedieuUuMvELL. 
and VorticeUa ttellina and discina ejiud., MUKLL. If^fiu. Tab. xxxvm. figs. 
3-5, Eebkhb. I^fui. Tab. xxiv. fig. iv. The ammalcole creeps on finedi- 
water polyps and other bodies by means of moveable hooks on the dofsal 
Bor&oe (or on the extremity opposite to the opening) ^ : in swimming it 
rotates rapidly. 

Urocentrum NiTZSCH, Ehrenb. 

B. Loricatedy or contained in a geUxtinous envelope. 

Ophrydium Ehrenb. {Ophrydia BoRT in part.) Aggregated 
animalcules, contained in a common gelatinous body {infusoror 
rium ?)•. 

8p. Opkiydimfk venaOle Ehbkhb., Ittfm. Tab. xxz. fig. i. Green globnlar 
mnssii! of i— 5 inch, in diameter, forming as it were the infnsory-stock or 
hiye of an animal whidi Mujillbb first described and figured as VorticeUa 
versaiUia. Earlier and later authors have taken this Polypaiy for a species 
of plant, and have described and figured it under the name of Ulva prufU" 
formis, Fvcu§ tubglobotus, CoceoeMoris atagtnna, &a The analogy of 
the Yortioellines with the JBryoeoa and Molluscs (compound Aaeidiof} 
slluded to aboTe, derives confirmation from this form also. 

Vagtnicola Lam. (in part) Ehrenb. Animal solitary with ur- 
ceolar lorica, body and lorica sessile. 

8p. Vaginieola cryslaUina Ehrsnb., /^tu. Tab. xxx. fig. v., Dujaed. 
It^, Tab. 16 bis, fig. 6 ; formerly observed by Lexuwskhosox ; they 
propagate by longitudinal fission within the transparent sheath. 

^ [For an elaborate description see Stun. JHe I^fus. s. 175.] 

' [The geUtinous infusoiy-stock or hive is a product of secretion from the base of 
the body of each animalottle, and so is the homologue of the pediceb in V orticelUnes. 
Vide SniH. op. eU» p. 946.] 

Digitized by 


58 CLABS I. 

Caihimiia Ehbekb. Animal solitary, Bessile, with niceolar 
loiica, pedimcolate. 

(According ta Dujabdht not raffioiently diatinct from the preceding genns.) 

Phalanx IL Body (in the first period of life) pediculated. 

A. Naked. 

VorttceUa Muell. (exclusiye of several species). Animal cam- 
panolate, with a flexible pedicle spirally contractile* 

These animals adhere to water-plants, water^insects, small Crustacea (C^dops), 
&0. At a certain period they part from the stem, and then, as freely 
moving forms, are provided with cilia near the posterior extremity by 
means of which they move forward, whilst the coronet of cilia at the edge 
of the opening is entirely retracted* 

a) wkh rimple pedioU, 

Vorticdla Ehbemb. Sp. Vorticdla cowoaUaria L., VcrUeeUa 7iAfd\fera 
Ehbenb., Robssl, /ns. m. Suppl, flgs. a, 4-7, Muzll. Iitftu, Tab. xlt. 
fig. I, Ehbsitb. Tab. zxt. fig. i. — A yeiy similar species occurs in artifidal 
infusions, which on contraction exhibits transrerse rings, and which 
Khrkntibrq distinguishes as VorUc. convaOariet, 

h) vUhbranMngpedick, 

CardMtm Ehbemb. Sp. VoHiceUa poli/pina L., Mubll. /i0tf. Tab. 
XLVi. figs. 7-9 ; Ehbekb. /«^. Tab. zxvi. ^g. 5 ; polypa d hovqwt 
Tbbhblbt ; resembles an umbeDifBrous shrub, of about one line in sixe^ in 
fiiesh and also in sea-water ; see Bi.8TBB, Naiviwrk. UiUpcoMtingtn i. Tab. 
m. fig. I, ; Slabber, Natunvrk, VerkuUgingfen 1778. TM>. ▼. fig. a. 

[ZoothamniuM^ Ehbemb. 
Sp. ZootkamniwH^ airhueula Ehbemb., Ifrfuiianilh. Tab. xxnr. Bg. «.] 

P The stem of spirally flexible Vorttcellines consists of a wall and an internal 
canal contuning a thread, or streak, which does not exactly fill it. "When a stem or 
branch divides, the structure of the divided parts is not exactly the same in Carekesium 
and Zoothamnium, In Carckerium the canal and streak of a branch have no connexion 
with the corresponding parts of the stem on which it stands. After each fission 
one only of the fission-progeny occupies the apex of the already existing stem, and 
continues to prolong it by secretion of new matter, the canal and the thread suffering 
no breach of continuity. The other individual secretes at first a short portion of stem 
which is quite solid, and is in connexion with the outer wall only of the stem pre- 
viously existing. It is after this commencement that a new canal and a new streak 
begin to be seen. The same occurs at every subsequent division : the individual at 
the apex has the canal and streak of its stem in continuity with the similar parts 

Digitized by 



I^fiatylis Ehbenb. (and Opercaloaria ejnsd.) The aniinal coni- 
cal or campanulate, with rigid pedicle, suDple, or branched from 
imperfect spontaneona diyision. 

Sp. Ejpiutiflu JUimeam»'Sbsaxsh.,Vo^^ xsu 

SmppL Tab. 0. ;— QpemilarHi ofiteufato Bbbivb., BoniLy ib. TU>. zcnrm. 
figB. 5, 6, &c. 

B. LortcatecL 
TmUnmus Ehbenb. 

Sp. I^MmMM Mijtttf mici, VagmMa mgpiU ma Lam. 

previooBly existing, whilst tlie other has the begiimmg of its stem solid, and afterwards 
a canal and streak not oontinaoiis with thoae prerionsly existing. 

In ZooCAamaifHM a continuoos canal nms throng the stem and all the hnnohes of 
the colony, and the streak also divides at every fork, so that all the streaks and canals 
are in oonneaion, Sixar* op. cd. pp. 8a — 84.] 

Digitized by 




Polyps are gelatinous, oblong or conical animals with a con- 
tractile body, an intestinal cavity and an oral aperture, which is 
surrounded by a circlet of arms or tentacles. 

Besides these arms there are no special organs of sense, at least 
in the greater number of Polyps, though all appear to be very sensi- 
ble of the stimulus of light. Propagation is effected partly by eggs, 
partly by germs or buds : in many instances the last are not de- 
tached firom the parent stem, and thus there arise compound animals^ 
different individuals being connected. 

Our Polyps were, for the most part, unknown to the ancients : 
and under this name entirely unknown. By it they understood 
naked molluscs of the form of sepia, especially that genus which 
is now called Octopus^ by Zoologists. From analogy, and from 
some resemblance of form, BiiAUMUR and JussiEU first gave the 

1 Of the numerovui woiiu on tliiB dan we tan content to qnote the following : 

A. TsEMBLiT, MinunreBpowr mvir d VHidoire d^une genre de Pclypet d^eau dauee, 
d hra$ en forme de eomet. Leide, 1744^ 4to. 

J. Ellis, An Eteay towards a Natural HulUiry ef tkt CbraOtnef os^d ffAer JIfarine 
Produetumi, &o. Lond. 1755, 4to, with plates. 

J. Ellis and D. Solahdbb, 7%e Natwral HiMory ef many eurunte and uneammmi 
Zoophytes, with 62 plates. London, 1786, 4to. 

P. S. Pallas^ Elenchue Zoophytontm. Hag« Oomitnm, 1766. 

F. Cavolini, Memorie per eervire alia ttoria cfe* PoUpi Marini. Kapoli, 1785, 4to. 
E. J. C. EsPBB, Die Pjlansenthiere in Ahlnldungen naek der Natwr. m. Thle. 

Nlimberg, 1761 — 1797 (with two Bupplements). 

W. Rapp, UAer diePolypen im AUgem/einen tmd dieAeUnien inebesondere. Weimar^ 
iSap, m. 3 color. Kupfertafeb, 4to. 

0. G. Ehbshbkbo, JDie CoraUetUhiere dee rothen Meeree, PhyeQeaUecKe Ahhand- 
lungen der KdnigL Ahad, der Wieeeneek^ften' tu Berlin aus dem Jahre 1833, s. 315 
— 380. (Also pnbliflhed separately, Berlin, 1834, 4to.) 

G. JoBHBTOV, Hidcry of BrUieA Zoophytes, Seeond edition, with numerous tSttf- 
irations on copper and vfood. 1 vob. 8to, 1847. 

' The French name Pouipe now giren to this animal is merely a oorraption of the 
ancient name Potypms, 

Digitized by 



name Polyp to those fresh-water animals that had been described 
bj Trembley, and which are provided with a circlet of arms. 

To this class belong many marine animals, which at first sight 
rather resemble plants than animals. Formerly these so-called 
SearPlants were, on accomit of the hardness of the calcareous sub- 
stance of which they consist, referred to the mineral kingdom : and 
Corals were compared to branching crystallisations {Arbor Dtanoe) 
and stalactites. Hence the name {Lithophytay Lithodendra) stone- 
plants. The ancients believed that Corals were soft whilst in the 
sea, and only became hard in air : 

Nunc ^[uoque euraUis eadem natwra remantit, 
Duritiem taeto capiant ui ab aere, qiiodque 
Vknen in cequore erat, pU tuprs cejuora muMim, 

Ovid, M^, iv. 750—752. 

Even amongst later authors traces may be found of the same 
opinion, founded on defective observation, or on conftision of soft 
species with similar hard ones. Up to the middle of the last cen- 
tury, it was the prevailing view that these Corals belonged to the 
vegetable kingdom. Mabsigli, in 1706, observed on* the shore of 
the Mediterranean some of these products {Alcyimium^ CoraRxwrn^ 
Aniipathesjy and found in their pores little bodies that contracted 
when the stem was removed from the water. Such bodies or buds 
he took to be flowers, and so believed that at length the view was 
definitively established which consigned these marine products to 
the vegetable kingdom. But still the animal odour, that was ob- 
served, opposed this view, as well as the chemical investigations 
of Geoffeoy, of Lemery, and of Marsigli himself, which demon- 
strated ammoniacal constituents in these supposed sea-plants, just 
as in animal substances. Peysonkel, a physician of Marseilles, 
observed at that place (1723) the Blood-Coral, and afterwards on 
the coast of Nortibem Africa examined different Madrepores and 
Millepores : the result was that he found Mab8IGLI*s Plants to be 
Animals, and named them Orttes Corallines. He imparted his dis- 
covery to K^UMUR : to whom the notion seemed so improbable, 
that in a short notice of it which he gave in the MSmoires of the 
Academy of Sciences at Paris 1727, he felt bound to suppress the 
discoverer's name. Shortly afterwards, when Peysonnel's dis- 
covery had been forgotten, Trembley found in our country the 
feesh-water Polyp, and communicated his observations to Keaumur, 

Digitized by 



In the two following years Bernard de Jussieu, the celebrated 
Botanist, investigated AJUyaniwn, {JLobtdaria)^ Flustra and Hdn^ 
laria on the coast of Normandy, and confirmed Peysonnel's dis- 
covery: whilst B^AUMUR also adopted his views, Linn^us, 
accordingly, transferred the Corals and stone-plants to the animal 
kingdom: and thus more than half a century was required to 
effect the adoption by Science, as a firm truth, of that view which 
Ferrante Imperato had announced at the beginning of the 
16th century ^ Ellis, Pallas, Cavolini and other authors, 
in the latter half of the past century, extended and multiplied our 
acquaintance with these interesting marine animals, of which the 
investigation still affords to S9avants of the present day a rich 
material for new and important discoveries. 

Polyps are either naked, or are provided with a body more or 
less hard, which they surround like a bark, or by which they are 
surrounded. To the naked Polyps belong the well-known Armed 
Polyp of fresh-water {HydraL.^ Polype ^eau dauoe, h bras ^n forme de 
cornea). The body of this animal is hollow within, and terminates 
in a little cylindrical stalk that is without any opening. There is 
a single row of tentacles round the mouth which can be extended 
like long rays, or be contracted into little conical swellings. 
These tentacles are not all formed at once, but at different times : 
their number is therefore indeterminate, and frequently varies in the 
same species. Grenerally there are not more than six tentacles 
present : rarely more than twelve. By their assistance the fi:esh- 
water Polyp can creep along upon water-plants or upon the bottom, 
overpower its prey, and convey it to the mouth. These Polyps are 
very voracious, and feed upon minute Crustaceans {Cypria^ Bcephnia^ 
Monocuhia, &c.), and upon worms {Stylaria pahidoaa Lam. NalSy 
Tuhifsx, &c.), which frequently surpass them in bulk. Accordingly 

^ To complete this oompressed hiBtorical reyiew, we refer to B. Dx Jusanu, Examen 
de qud^uea productiona marirtea, &c. MSm. de VAcad, rcyale des Sciencet, 1742. pp. 290 
— 302 ; Kbauhub, Mimaireg pour aervir d VHistoire de$ TnaecteSf Tom. vi. 1741. Pre- 
face, pp. 49 — 80 ; Pallas, Mench. Zoophytor. pp. 13 — 20; LAVOiaNON Malbshxrbss, 
ObaervoHont 9wr VHidtcire mUur. de Buffon et de Daubxbton. Paris, 1798, n. pp. 154 
— 206 ; Ehrsnbxbo, IHe Corallenthiere dee rcthen Meeres, pp. 4, 5 ; Milne Edwabds, 
Ann. det Sc. Nahir. sec. S^rie, Tom. vi. Zoohgie, 1836. pp. 5 — 9; Flourkns, Analyse 
<Pun auvroffe mantuerU intUulS, Tra^ du CoraU dx. par Ds Pbtbonnkl, Ann. dee Se. 
Nai. 8ec. S4r. Tom. ix. Zoaloffie, 1838, pp. 334 — 351. 

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their mouth admits of much expansion : and the body can be dis- 
tended. The food is moved to and firo in the cavity of the bodj, 
and in a short time (often within a quarter of an hour) is converted 
into a pap. The undigested residue is rejected through the mouth. 
Propagation is effected usually by buds. A minute swelling rises 
on the surface of the Polyp; it grows, loses its conical form, be- 
comes tubular, acquires tentacles, and is then a new Polyp. The 
yoimg animal continues to sit on the body of the parent, and thus 
receives the same nutrition in common. Upon this young one 
other young buds may be developed. Thus a branching arises. 
At length the young Polyp separates itself from the parent stem 
(in summer frequently after four days, in winter later), assumes an 
independent state, and new buds are formed, or those already 
present are multiplied. 

Thus these Polyps may form compound animals. Many indi- 
viduals of the same species are united so as to make up a single 
body. All the animals thus combined gain their nutrition in com- 
mon, — ^have a common life. It is not the animal kingdom only 
that affords us instances of compound living bodies : the vegetable 
kingdom presents many such^. By an individual, in the vegetable 
and animal kingdoms, may be understood a body that cannot be 
divided into two or more similar portions, without the idea of a whole 
being lost, and whose vital fimctions pass through a determinate 
cycle of periods*. The development of the fruit is the final function 
in vegetable life: when this is accomplished the plant may die. 
Many plants bear fruit only once — whether in one year, or in two 
or more years ; such plants die after fructifying, and are true indi- 
viduals. There are other plants again, which leave a determinate 
portion after the fructification, that continues to live, and, after a 
time, bears firuit anew. The portion that thus remains may con- 
sist of root alone, or of root and stem. Such plants are, in reality, 

A tree therefore is not an individual, not a single plani. The 
buds of the tree are new plants : they are developed, grow, possess 
an independent life, which is passed in determinate stages. Hence 

> See Lamabok, Ifisi, Nai, dn onm. mwm vtrt, I. p. 69, fta (and and edit. p. 65, 
Ac). CoimpaniKm da Ammawe eampoaSt atvec de$ vigitaux pttreilUment C9mpo§i9, 
3 See SoHLBiDBN in Mubllbr'b Arckiv, 1838. b. 168. 

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old trees may afford an emblem of pereimial youth : every spring 
they are covered again with leaves as fresh as those they had fifty 
years before. The stem alone is old, the leaves are still yoimg 

We might be able, from the branching of the fresh-water Polyps 
from their living stem, to explain the plant-like forms of Corals 
and other such marine products. When a Polyp does not consist 
of a single soft mass, but contains a harder substance, or is sur- 
rounded by a calcareous sheath, then from the union of many such 
a body may arise which resists decomposition, and as such after the 
death of the Polyps, may be preserved in our collections for a 
length of time, as for ages they have been preserved in the cal- 
careous strata of our mountains, formed at the bottom of the sea in 
a former epoch of the world. This common mass is named a PoZ^- 
pary or Polypstock {Polyparium) ^. After the Polyps had been dis- 
covered, these stone-plants, as they had been called, were supposed 
to be the work of the animals that dwelt in them, and were com- 
pared to the cells of bees. This view of the matter does not now 
require confdtation. That of Lamabgk and others agrees more 
closely with the true nature of the process; they consider the 
polypary to be a secretion upon the surface of the Polyps, and com- 
pare it with the shells of Molluscs (Snail or Mussel-shell). As 
there are Snails both naked and with shells, in like manner there 
are Polyps that are naked, and that are shut up in tubes : and the 
Polypstock is the union of the shells caused by the connexion of 
the Polyps that lived in them. Thus the Polypary would be, on 
this view, a dead substance, deposited in layers like a mussel-shell. 
Though this be nearer the truth than the earlier idea according 
to which the Polyps built their houses, still it does not entirely 
accord with the true nature of the process. Observation proves 
that this part, at least in many species, has a proper life, that it is 
nourished, grows, and is the seat of that gemmation whence new 

^ It appears that Rii&uicuB first invented this appellation, now in common use ; 
"AuroU-on pupr^wir. , . . que cet carpt qui tembloient avoir vigiU dam la mer, itment 
pour les poifpet ce que lea guipier* 9orU pour lea guipea; qu'on ne devoU plui leur lai8$er 
le nom depUmtea et que pour lew en imposer un qui exprUndt exactetaeiU ee qu'Ue soni, on 
devoU lee appeUer dee pciffpierst" Mim. pour eervir d Pffiet. dea Inaectea. Tom. vi. 
Preface, p. 69. 

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Polyps have their heing. It is a covering which, like a dermal 
skeleton ^ may become homy or calcareous. 

The hard, stone-like Polypstocka which form coral-banks, are 
particularly deserving of notice. But the part they play in altering 
the earth's surface has been much exaggerated by Forsteb, Peron, 
and other voyagers. The numerous coral islands of the southern 
Pacific having an annular form with banks steep on the outside 
and shelving gently down to the trough or the included water, are 
clearly of volcanic origin. They are covered with Corals, but do 
not consist of Corals. Poljrps cannot live at great depths, but the 
Corals rest on shallows or on mountain-ridges in the sea, similar to 
the rocks parallel to the coast of the Bed Sea. Hence Corals may 
contribute to the formation of islands, or may prevent the washing 
away of the shores of islands already formed, just as plants that 
grow on sandy coasts protect the hillocks from being blown away'. 

After these general remarks on Polyps and Polypstocks, we must 
dwell for a little on the particulars of structure of the different 
animals that belong to this class. It would be a defective and 
erroneous idea, to suppose that Tkembley's fiesh-water Polyps are 
to be considered as the Type of the class. That we drew the atten- 
tion of our readers, in the first instance, to the firesh-water Polyp, is 
merely to be attributed to the historic form which, in introducing 
this class, we thought useful fur the right understanding of it. The 
animals which live in Polyparies have in several respects a much 

^ See MnjTB EDWABDfly ObmrvatianM 9wr la natwre H U mode decroittanee det Poly- 
pien, Ann, des Sc. NcOnr. Seconde S^e, Tom. x. 1838. Zooloffie, pp. 321 — 334. 

Lamabck appears to me in some degree to contradict himself, when in one place he 
caOa the polypary a common hody possessing an independent life, and producing new 
indiyiduals upon its surfkoe, which die and are again replaced by new ones, and con- 
tinuing its Hfe afanost unobserved as long as it is surrounded by water alone {ITiM. Nat, 
des AfUm. earn Vert. i. p. 63^ new edition) ; and in another place denies to the poly- 
paiy aU Ufe, and compares it with the shells of molluscs, ibid, n. pp. 86—99. Before 
this, liiHHiBtTS, Pallas and others had recognised in the polypaiy a proper life, but of 
late yean this opinion, on the authority of Lakarck, has been almost generally 

' Comp. J. B. F0R8TSB, Bemerhtngen avf eeine Seiee um die Welt, Wien. 1787. 
Sto. b. ISO, 131 ; A. TON Kotzbbux, ErUdeekunge-reiee in die SikUee, iii. Weimar 182 r, 
B. 187 ; QuoT et Gaimabd, Mimmre twr VaecniaemenJt dee Polypee eoneidM gSdo- 
^qimemeni, Ann, dee 8e. Nat, vi, 1815. pp. 9^3 — 390 ; Ehbxnbkro, Ueber die Natur und 
Bildmngder OoraUenbanhe dee rotken Meeree, Phyeik. Ahhandlungen der Akad, der Wie- 
senscA. ru JBerUn, 1833. b. 381 — 438. 

VOL. I. 5 

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nearer alliance to SeorAnemonies {Actinics), which Chamisso and 
EiSENHARDT had properly classed with Polyps^, although Cuvier 
joined them to the Medusae {Acalephw), Lamarck and Schweioger 
to the Star-fishes {Eckinodermata). These Actintof have a tubular 
form, or resemble truncated cones. By their diacoidal base they 
adhere to rocks, marine shells, and other bodies; but are able to 
loosen their hold, and to consign themselves to the motions of the 
water. They can also creep by means of that base, as the belly-- 
footed molluscs {Gasteropoda) do by means of their ventral disc. 
But ordinarily the motions of these animals are restricted to a 
greater or less expansion of the oral aperture, and to a contraction 
of the hollow tentacles which surround the mouth in a variable 
number, but always greater than twelve. These Actiniae are naked 
Polyps, rather of a coriaceous than a gelatinous consistence ; they 
were not imknown to the ancients, and are noticed by Aristotle' 
as Acalephw^ and by Pliny* as Urticw. Such Polyps with Polyp- 
stocks are the genera Fungiay CaryophyUa^ Astrofa^ Mopandrina. 
The Polyps of other Polyparies, as Ins, Ahyonvum {Lobularia), 
Tuiijfora, &c. have eight tentacles, which are flat and notched on 
the edges or have lateral {»*olongations. In all these the intestinal 
canal is a blind sac. But there are other Polyps which, by their 
more perfect organisation, approach the Molluscs. Their intestinal 
canal is reflected upwards, and terminates by an opening close to 
the mouth. AuDOUiN and Milne Edwards observed this struc- 
ture (1828) in Polyps of the genus Flvstra^: at the same time 
Ehrenberq published his earlier observations to the same efiect, 
and gave to Polyps, with this organisation, the name of Bryozoa; 
which has been received into the systematic works of zoologists*, 

^ Nov. Act, Acad, Ccuar, Leop, Carol, Natur, Owiosor, x, p. 354, 355. 

' "E^Ti 8^ Kttl rd rOif dxaXi^^cai' yiifos (Stor ' irpocTi^M di rcut Tirpats, iStnrep hia 
tQv 6arpaKod4pfuav' dToKAerai 6' Mart, O^k ^ec 8^ 6<rTpaK0P, dXXd ffapKQ6€s t8p 
i^Ttp a^ov, jc.r.X. De Anim, Hid, r7. c. 6. These words, in my opinion, apply to 
Actiniie alone. 

' Hiat. Nai, Lib. ix. c. 68. But that Medutce also (our Actdephci) were by the 
ancients designated under this name, I will by no means deny. 

^ Raumi det recherehet nur lea Animaux 9an$ VerUbret faitei aux Ue$ Chaiuaey, Awn, 
dea Sc, not, Tom. XT. iSaS. pp. X9, 13. 

' Symhola phyaioa $eu Ieone$ ei De&eripiionet AtUmaUum everUbratorum ex itinere 
F. G. Hbmpbicfh et C. G. Ehbsnbkbo, Dea I. Berolini, 1828. folio. Polypi, p. 1. Also 

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and is now commonly used* Milne Edwabdb makes a separate 
class of these creatures, and places it amongst the Molluscs, after 
the naked Acephala^ or Tunicata, Their arms are heset with cilia, 
which however are also remarked in some other Poljps, and conse- 
quently are not a distinctive character of Bryozoa, as would seem 
to be implied by the namis Ciliobrachiata. To these Bryozoa belong 
the genera AlcyaneUa^ Eschara^ and Flustra. The remaining 
Polyps we shall name, with Ehrenbeisg, Antkozoa. 

The simple stomach of the Anthozoa is, for the most part, sepa- 
rated from the cavity of the body. In Actinia this space is divided 
into many prismatic cells by partitions that stretch perpendicularly 
from the outer surface of the stomach to the innermost surface of 
the covering of the body. Similar partitions are found in many 
Anthozoa, though in much smaller number. One or more openings 
conduct from the bottom of the stomach to the cavity of the body, 
or -to the general common cavity of the Polypstock^ In Hydra 
there is no special cavity of the body, but the cavity of the stomach 
is in immediate connexion with the walls of the body. It was 
formerly erroneously believed that the stomach of this animal is 
simply an excavation of its body, and that the structure of both 
surfaces is the same. The internal surface is coated with conical 
cells whose points are directed inwards^. The external sur&ce, on 
the contrary, is formed of flat cells, and contains oval vesicles, from 
which a long delicate thread can be projected, {AngeUcrgan of the 
Grermans'). Tremblet, amongst his many experiments on the 
reproductive power of the fresh-water Polyp, even turned the body 
inside out, like the reversed finger of a glove. Nevertheless, the 
creature continued to live, and took food. This may be explained 
by a change of structure, the consequence of the violence of the 
experiment. In Bryozoa, the intestinal canal is freely suspended in 
the cavity of the body: a longer or shorter oesophagus leads to a 
muscular stomach, lined, in some cases, with homy teeth, closely 

Graxt, 16 etfly as 1837, had obserFed the reverting inteetiiud cMial, and the vibrating 
dha on the arms oiFluaira, Edmb. New PkOoi, Jawm, in. pp. 107 — 337. 

^ LiSTKB, PkHoi, Trcmaae, 1834, p. 371, PI. vm. fig. 3 in SerUOa/ria, Milnb 
Edwasdb in the new illustrated edition of Cutub, lUgne Amm, Zooph. PL lxxz. in 
Jn»nobSi$t fta 

* See CoBDA, Nov. Act. Aead. OcBsar. Leap. Carol, Natwr. Curiotor. Tom. xym. 
Ann, daSe, natur. Tome vin. Zoologie, p. 363. 


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set in rhomboidal rows : then comes a second stomach ending below 
in a blind sac that is continued at the upper part into an intestine, 
which ascends by the side of the stomach and oesophagus, and 
near the mouth, or a little below it, terminates in the antis. 
Brown follicles cover the external wall of the stomach, and seem to 
represent the liver^. In some Polyps a circulating system has 
been observed, or at least vessels, which probably arise as branches 
from the intestinal tube, anastomose with one another in the Polyp- 
stock, and effect a communication between the different individuals'. 
In many, moreover, a stream of water is found, which penetrates 
by the mouth into the canals of the Polypary. It has been observed 
that the flow is caused by cilia on the walls of the canals. Probably 
this motion is in connexion with the fan(;tion of Bespiration. 
Lister saw in the stem of Plumularia pluma Lam. the stream in 
the same canal moving alternately in opposite directions'. 

We have seen above that propagation in Polyps is usually 
effected by buds. In Hydra^ after being developed, they are sepa- 
rated: in others they remain attached to the parent-stem. But 
besides this mode of propagation, a sexual generation has been 
observed in this class. In Hydra^ about winter-time, a periodical 
development of eggs on the inferior part of the body has been ob- 
served. The thin membrane, surrounding the egg as it projects 
from the body, bursts, and the egg attaches itself to some object or 
other in the water. In some species the yolk-membrane is covered 
with cloven ramiform processes, as if with spines. After two or 
three months the young one is visible. The conical excrescences 
which arise higher up on the body at the base of the arms, and 
which are perforated at the point, contain spermatozoa ; and may, to 
a certain extent, be considered to be external testes*. These genital 

^ See A. Fabbe, Obtervatioiu on the nUnute Mruelvre qf ike higher farmt of Polypi, 
PhU, Trana, 1837, pp. 387— 4«6. PI. xx— xxvn. 

> MUiNS Edwabds, Ann. dea Sc, not, sec. S^rie, iv. Zool. p. 338. 

• PkU. Trans. 1834, p. 369. 

^ The egg of Bydra was figured long ago by Bobsbl, Suppl. Tab. lxxxol fig. x a 
and fig. 9. See also the figures of EHBXiraxBa and £bdl in Waonbr, Icon. Zootom. 
Tab. xxziY. figs. 8 and 10, and of Laubbkt, Rackmikea 9wr VHydre et VEponge deau 
dowe, Paris (1844), PI. n. Here figs. 9—14 the exclusion from the egg^ is figured, 
which had also been observed by Pallas : " Ovtda avtumno generare Hydras 6baerwau'm 
etc.. . polypi compendium per kyemem dv/raturum conHnentia. — Hone par ovula propa- 
gationem bia meit oenlit petfeckm observan.** Mench. Zoophytor. p. iS. 

Digitized by 



organs may exist at the same time, and in variable number, in one 
and the same individual. And many other Polyps are also henna- 
phrodite. In others again the sexes are separate: whether both male 
and female individuals occur on one and the same stem {Monaeciaj 
a^ in Plants), or one Polypstock bears only males, another only 
females {DicBcid). The last is the case of VereUllum. In the 
Bryozoa^ Mancecia appears to prevail imiversally, yet so that (to 
judge from the investigations of Nordmann in Tendra zastericola^ 
and of Van Beneden in AlcyoneUa) the cells which contain Polyps 
with eggs are more numerous than those with spermatozoa. These 
l)eculiar constituents of the seed (vid. above, p. 43), of which the 
motions are so striking under the microscope, have, of late years, 
caused the important discovery of the sexual propagation of Polyps ; 
but for them, ovaries alone would now, as twenty years ago, be 
ascribed to this class, especially as the seed-secreting organs {(estea) 
are not to be distinguished in it, as to external appearance, from 
those that prepare the germs (o^?arta)^ In those Anthozoa that 
have, like ^e Actinue, a cavily of the body distinct from that of 
the stomach, they are situated between or upon the partitions that 
divide that cavity into cells (see above, p. 67). In Sertularia and 
Campanularia most of the Polyps are without sex, whilst cells with 
ova are developed in the axillae of the branches. 

Propagation by spontaneous division does not occur in most 
Polyps. In Caryophylla there is a complete longitudinal fission, 
occasioning the dichotomous form of the Polypary, since two Polyps 
come from one, four from two, &c. K the longitudinal fission be 
incomplete, cells of irregular form arise, as in Mceandrina. 

In most Polyps the power of reproduction is very great. Trem- 
blet's exj)eriments on the fresh-water Polyp are well known : he 
divided them longitudinally and transversely, and every piece 
formed a new animal'. Koesel found that even the tentacles or 

^ Sach 18 the cue also in MoUutea, nay eren in some fishes ; and in general the 
sexual oi^gans in the animal kingdom possess a similarity in the two sexes, which was 
observed by the ancients, and occasioned many fimciful appeUatiqns and comparisons. 

' Hence Livnjbus borrowed the name Hydra for this animal genus, from a com- 
parison with the ffydra of mythology ; 

. . »ab ipto 
DucU opes animumque ferro. 

HORAT. Od, IV. 6o. 

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arms, when separated, grew into new Polyps ; an experiment which 
did not succeed with Trehbley. The power of reproduction is 
in ActmioB just as great ; they regenerate parts that have been cut 
away, and admit of propagation by artificial division, as Dicquemake 
especially has shewn by his experiments. ^ 

Before leaving the propagation of Polyps, we must notice those 
late observations which indicate so close an affinity between MedtufCB 
and certain Polyps, that in time probably a great revolution will 
be made in the systematic arrangement of the animal kingdom. 
In Syncoryrhe, for instance, and Coryne {Clava), and certain Cam- 
panularim bell-shaped appendages or off-shoots have been noticed, 
which at length are separated from the stem, and resemble minute 
Medusas. Conversely, also, the observations of Sabs and of Yon 
Siebold have shewn that Medtisce come from the egg under an 
oblong form resembling that of infusories beset with cilia : these 
move freely, at first, then fix themselves, lose their cilia, become 
clavate, acquire arms, and perfectly resemble Hydra. These hydra^ 
like forms divide by transverse indentations, and separate into rings 
from which Medvsw arise. 

It is possible, therefore, that all Aydfra^form Polyps maybe only 
imperfect forms of Medtisce. And if so, those animals which 
K^AUMUB first named Polyps, would no longer belong to this class. 
But on this supposition it is wonderfdl that Spermatozoa should be 
observed in Hydra and Coryne : a fact that may cause us to hesitate 
before we conclude, with Dujardin, that the eggs, described above 
(p. 68), are BulbiUu At all events the perfect form of ^<2ra would 
then be unknown ^ 

^ We cannot detail these obflenratioiu more particularly, without being difiVue 
beyond our object. Let it suffice to refer the reader to LoTi^K Stoekk. Vetentk. A had. 
ffcmdl. 1836 ; Wibomank'b ArchivfOr Naiwrpetch, v. 1837, s. 219—161, s. 311—316; 
Ann, dea Se» not. tec. SSrie, Tom. XV. Zool. pp. 157 — 176. {Obaervationi mr le 
diviloppemtni et lea metamorpKotee dea ffenrea Campawulaire d Syncoryne,) 

Sabs, BeakrieveUer og JagtUtgdaer over nogle maerhdige eller n^je i ffavet ved der 
Bergenahe Kyai levende Dyr, Bei^^en, 1835. * 

C. Th. V. SiKBOLD, NmtetU Schrifien der natwf, Geadlaeh. in Daiaaig m. 1 Heft 
1839, s. 16—35. 

Sabs, Mim, aur le divfloppement de la Meduaa auritn et de la Oyanea eapiUaia. 
Ann, dea Sc. not. aec. Sfrie. Tom. XTi. Zodogie, pp. 311 — 348. 

Stssnstbup om Fortplantninff og l/dmkling gjennem vexUnde QeneratUmaraekker, 
Kjobenham, 1841. 40. (Translated by 6. Bubk for the Ray Soe, from the German 
Translat. 1845, On the Alternation of Oeneratuma.) 

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Of the nenroiiB system of Poljps little is known ; it has not 
been described as a conneeted whole, but different obsenrers have 
imagined that they had discovered ganglia or a neryons ring near 
the mouth. From analogy it is probable that the nervous system, 
where it exists, does form a ring ronnd the month ; and that the 
threads, which Spix described in the pedal disc of Actiniof as 
nerves, can on this acconnt scarcely be considered to be such* As 
organs of sense, four colonred spots at the edge of the disc have 
been observed in the Medusorform products of Byncoryne and Coryns 
frttiHana of Steenstrup, which entirely resemble the parts that 
Ehrenbesg considers to be eyes in Medusa. Still more distinct is 
this oi^an in a form described by Quatbefaqes, which he names 
EleuAeria dichotoma* Here this author found six eyes with a 
hemispherical lens, a granular pigment of a red colour, and a 
spherical projection of the integument closing the eye like a cornea^. 

In Bryozoa the muscular system is most largely developed, and 
serves principally to retract the animal within its cell. It protrudes 
itself partly by straightening the alimentary canal, partly by means 
of transverse muscular fibres which contract the diameter of the 
visceral cavity, and in that way elongate it*. Traces of a muscular 
system have also been met with in other Polyps. 

As to the geographic distribution of Polyps, we have only 
imperfect notices. Fresh-water Polyps, Hydra^ Alcytmellaj Phi'- 
mateHaj have, as far as I know, only been observed in Europe ; but 
from this to conclude that they do not occur in tropical regions, 
would probably be premature. Still Ehbenbebq found no Hydrw 
in Africa and Arabia. AcHnim are met with in all seas. The 
Polyps with polyparies, which are almost all inhabitants of the sea, 
are richest in species in warm regions; Fltutra, amongst the 
Bryozoay is it seems an exception to this : the European species of 
this genus are about as numerous as the foreign : these last come 
principally from New Holland; Oorgonia occurs in all seas, but 

Van BiKEDkN, MSm. mr le$ Campanulairet delaeUe tTOttende, Mim. de VAcad. 
Rofole de BrtuDdlet, xrn. 1845. ^»*>* ^ 3c, futtur., tee. Sirie, Tom. xx. Zool, pp. 

35<^— 375. 

DuJAKDiH, MhMire mr U dMhppement dee Midusee tt dee Polypee hfdrairee, Ann, 
dee. 8e, Nal, y SSrie, Tom. IV. 1845. Zooloffie, pp. ^57 — 281. PL xiv. XV. 

^ Ann. dee Sc. Naiur. eee. Sirie. Tome xviii. p. 180. PL vin. fig. 6. 

• MiDQtely detailed by Fabbk in BowerbafHsia, Phil, Traneact, 1837. pp. 393—39^- 

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nearly one-half of the numerous species is found in America. Of 
swimming polyparies (Penfiatulai)^ many species are found in the 
Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean and the North Sea, and the large 
UrnheUarta of Greenland, which attains a length of six feet, is 
remarkable. Of the stony polyparies, the greater number occur in 
the seas of hot countries, as ex. gr. Madrepora, especially Astrwa, 
Garyophylla, Fungia^ Mceandrina. Most of the species of the last 
genus are found in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific. The Bed 
Sea also has very many species from the division of these stony 
l>olyparies. More than one-fourth of the known species of this 
class were found there by Ehrexberg. Notwithstanding the 
proximity, it seems that the Bed Sea, with the exception of some 
species oi Actinia, has no species in common with the Mediterranean. 
laia nobilis {Gorallium rvirum) appears to occur in the Mediter- 
ranean alone. 

Of many genera numerous fossil species are found, especially of 
those whose species now live in hot regions. Thus the genus 
Astrxa numbers more fossil than living species : and these petrified 
remains belong principally to the Jura- and chalk-formations. Still 
more numerous are the fossil species, as compared with those now 
living, in the genus Turhirwlia. A genus which appears to connect 
Fwngia and TurhiTiolia, CyatAophyUum of GoLDFUSS, has quite died 
out, and occurs in' transition limestone. In the same way fossil 
species alone are found of the genera Cericpora, Favaaitis, Ptistu- 
lapora, Hetercpora, Catinipora and Aulcpora. The fossil Polyparies 
prove, like all other remains of an earlier vegetable and animal 
world, that the surface of our earth had in earlier times a higher 
mean temperature than it has now. 

Digitized by 



CLASS 11. 

AnimaL£I contractile, having an intestinal cavity, with distinct 
terminal mouth, surrounded bj tentacles or radiating lobes, seldom 
free, oftener affixed, aquatic ; UBuall j secreting a hard calcareous 
or homy body {j?olypary)y and adhering to it. 

Propagation is by eggs, gems, stolons. Usually compound ani- 
malB are formed of many individuals cohering. 

Section I. ^n/Aoisoa Ehrenb. 

Aperture of the nutrient canal single. Tentacles contractile, 
mostly without vibratile cilia. 

Order I. Hydriformta. 

Tentacles of variable number. Nutrient canal excavated in the 
parenchyme of the body, not surrounded by an abdominal cavity. 

Family I. Hydrtna. Naked, free, spontaneously affixed, with 
deciduous progeny. 

Hydra L. Body cylindrical, narrowed into a pedicle, simple or 
ramose from the progeny not having been detached. Mouth 
crowned with tentacles, round, contractile, in a single whorl. 

Armed-Polyp: Sp Hydra viridis, Tbemb. PI. i. fig.j Robs. InB, iii. 
Polyp, Tab. 88, 89. This green species was the first which Tbkkbley 
found ; it is rarer and smaller than the others. — H Gruea, Trehb. 
PL I. fig. 2 ; — H /tucay Tremb. PL i. fig. 3, 4, polype dt hngs bras. 

Digitized by 



BoES. InB. III. PdyjK Tab. 84, 85, 87 ; Tbemblbt performed most 
of his experiments on these hust two species. Oomp. what is said 
at pp. 67, 69. 

On this genua compare the work of Tbkmblet, noted in p. 6o, and of 
Laurent, p. 68. The first discoverer of the genus was Lxkuwsnhoick, who 
probably observed Hydra grUea. He announced this animal in a letter to 
the BoySd Society of London, of Dec. 35, 1701, observed its propagation 
by gemmation, figuring it with two young ones, and especially described 
the great contractility of the arms. PhU, Trans. No. ^83. VoL xxm. for 
the years 1701, 1703, pp. 1304 — 1311. This description, however, had 
been forgotten when Tbemblbt discovered the animal a second time. 

Clava Gmel. Coryne of authors, not of Gaebtn. Body cla- 
vate. Ten&cles scattered. 

These animals are marine, and adhere to different bodies. Propa- 
gation is effected by buds of a round or bell-shaped form, which 
contain ova or spermatozoa, and which occasionally detach them- 
selves from the stem on which they were developed, swim freely 
about, and resemble small Medusse. 

Sp. Clava parasitica Gm., Hydra mtdtieomiSf FobskIl, Icon. Rerum naiur, 
HawnicBf 1 776. Tab. xzvi. fig. b, B. Cor. squamata Mukll. Zoci. Dame. Tab. 
IV. about three lines, according to Ratheb, }inch long. Rathks dis- 
covered Spermatotoa in the swellings called ^Si^iiaiiMe by MuBLLUt; vid. 
Wiiomann'b and Erichson'b Arckiv. f. Naturgesck. 1844. s. 155—165 ; 
Awn. des 8c, Nat. ^^"^SSric n. 1844. ^^- PP> -^^ — ^'o; Waonbb found 
eggs in these swellings, Icon. ZooUm. Tab. xxxiv. fig. 16. Thus the sexes 
appear to be distinct. 

Eleutheria QuATREPAGES. Body hemispherical, hollow. Ten- 
tacles six, divided into two retractile branches, terminating in a 
round head. Six eyes placed at the base of the tentacles. 

Sp. SUmkeria dccAotomo, Da Quathstaois, MiiMre sur VSleuAme dieho- 
tome, Ann. des 8c, not, see, Sirie. Tom. xvn. 184a. Zoci. pp. 373 — 288, 
PI. VIII. Discovered in the Atlantic ocean, on the shore of the Islands 
ChoMsey, Dep. La Mameke, \ millim. in diameter. There were eggs in the 
posterior part of the body. This form is probably a free bud for the propa- 
gation of some species of drryne, Sertidaria or Tubtdaria. See Y. Bensdsh, 
Bulletin de VAcad. Roydle de BrtoDeUes, Tom. xi. No. 10. Quatrkfaoks, ib. 
Tom. xn. No. «. 

[Genus PedtceHarta MuELL. delendum^] 

^ Pediculated organs with three valves are found between the spines and tentacles, 
or suckers, of the sea-urchin, which MusLLSB took to be parasitic Polyps, and of which 
he formed the genus PediceUaria. 

Digitized by 



Family 11. Seriularina. P0I7P8 affixed hy a membranaceonB 
paUium secreting the PolTpary, or loiicated, induded in a tubnle 
or cell. 

Hydractinia Van Bened., Echinochorium HA8SALL, Dysmor-- 
phoaa Phiuppi, Synhydra Quatrefages. Polypfl of two sorts, 
sterile and fertile, set on an incrosting polyparj. Tentacles nnmer- 
ons. The fertile polyps without month. 

Sp. Hydradmea lactea, IHanwrphoaa eonchieolay Phiuppi, Sf/nkgdra paratUm 
QUATRIP. Ann, da 8c. mU. Me. SSrie. Zod, Tom. xx. PL Tm. ix., Hab- 
SALL^ Ann. and Mag. of Nat. ffitk VoL TiL PL x. ftg. $, PmuFF^ 
Whom. u. Ebiohs. Arekh, Tm. 1841. Ttl. i. fig. 5. Tiirbiii«te sheila are 
Offten found incnufted with a greyish-brown finn oovering, difficult to remove: 
this IB the common body to which the several polype, some miUimeten long, 
are attachedj which have of late years been/described by diflerent observers. 
QuATBSFAOKS foond his specimens on the shells of Turbo and Buocmumf in 
which the hermit-crab (Poffurui) had taken up his abode ; so aJso BAflTBB 
previously, natwurk. UiUp. I. Tab. in. fig. 5. According to Quatbsfaois, 
it is by no means established that all the above-mentioned names refer, as 
Yak Behkden determines, to the same animaL 

Coryne Gaertn., Stipula Sars, Syncoryna Ehrenb. Polyps 
with scattered tentacles, nodiferous or globose at the tip. Polypaiy 
papyraceous, suhramose, with polyps at the extremities of the 
tubes, not retractile within the tubes. 

The name Coryne of Gaebtneb, Pallas Spicileg. Z06L Fasc. x. 
1774, pp. 36, 40, 41, has by later writers been perversely given to 
other kinds, and the original typical species been named Syncoryne. 

Sp. Coryne punlla GtASBTv., Coryne ^nduio»a Pall. SpieU. Zool. x. Tab. 
rv. fig. 8, &c Compare on this genus Lovi^K, Konff. Vdauk. Akad. Sand- 
ling. 1835; Wdegm. Arckw, m. 1837. pp. 31 1—316, Ann. dea Se. Nat. 
a SMe. Zool. XV. p. 170, PL vni. JoBsmos, Bid. of Brit. Zoophytes, pp. 
3^-41, PL n. 

Tuhtdaria L. (in part). Polyps with a double coronet or whorl 
of tentacles, the upper surrounding the mouth. Polypary affixed 
by the base, tubular, gelatinous or membranaceous, with polyps 
terminal, not retractile. 

a) Simple TtdndarioL 

Sp. Tubularia indwi»a L., Tubvl. calamaris Pall., Jussdeu, M4m. deVAoad. 
Jtoyaie det Sc. 174a. p. 196. PL x. fig. 2. A, B; Ellis, CoraU. PL xvi. c ; 
LiSTKB, PhU. TroMoct. 1834. p. 166. PL vin. % i, &c. ; Johnston, Hist. 
Br. Zooph. p. 48. pL m. 

Digitized by 



h) Branched TubularuB, [Gemm ^wiendrium Kosl] 
Sp. TmtmL nmam L^ Kll Cbmff . FL m. fig. a. PL xm. a» A, fta 

Corymarpka Bams. 

Comp. 8aB8» Sakrimbe eg Jm^tLangdatr oter tugi^ m/mahdi^ dUr mije i 
Htmi ved der Bergentke KfM lemmde Dfr. 60)^01. 1855- PL i. fig. 3. 
FoBsn and GooDS^^ Om ike Coi y mo r pkm mmkm$, Amm. mmd Mag. nf NaL 
BiM. T. 1840. pp. 909—315 ; JoEnrov, B*M. Br. Zoapk, pp. 54— 5^- Pl- 
Tn. figa. 3—6. 

Pennaria GrOLDP. Polyps clayate, the club with scattered ten* 
tacles globose at the extremity, and with a whorl of longer tentacles 
at the base. Polypary ramose, with branches alternate polypi- 
ferons on one side (with Polyps second.) 

Sp. Pemmaria Cavolmm, SatmUmia pe tmmria Gatolivi, pp. 134—159. Tbb. v. 

Campamdana Lah. {SerhilaruB species L., Ehr.) Polyps fim- 
nel-shaped, with month situated at the extremity of a retractile 
conical tubercle. A whorl of tentacles, numerous, warty, with 
dart-cells at the base of the tubercle. The Polypaiy corneous, 
tubular, branched, with cells campanulated, pedunculate, the pedicle 
long, continuous with the stem. The terminal cells sterile, the 
axillary oviferous. 

Comp Lister, FhiL Trans. 1834, p 372 Ac. ; LovAf, Kong. 
Vetensk Akad. HandL, Wibgmanh's Arehiv, iil b. 249—262. Ann. 
des Sc. not 2e sericy Zod. xv. p 151 ; Yan Bbnedbn, Mem. swr les 
Campamdaires de la cdfe d'Ostende. Bmxelles, 1843, 4^ {Mem. de 
VAcad. de Bruaeelles, xm.), Ann, des Se, not. 2e serUy Zod. xx pp 350 
—369. PL 13 (Extract). 

Sp. Cam^aimilima diekoioma Lam., S&rUdaria geikiculeOa L., Elub, CoraU. 
PL xn. No. iS A, a. C, c. PL xxxym. fig. 5, fto. 

BerHilaria L. (exclusive of several species). Polyps funnel- 
shaped; tentacles hispid, numerous, arranged in a whorl at the 
base of the mouth. Polypary corneous, simple or ramose, with 
cup-shaped cells sessile, or subpedunculate, with short pedicle, 
distinct from the stalk. Polypiferous cells sterile ; others fertile, 
oviferous, scattered over the stalk and branches, situated usually 
near the base. 

The Polype of this genus do not differ from those of the former, 
but the cells are non-pediculate, or the very short pedicle is dis- 

Digitized by 



tinctly inaerted into an indent of the stenL The last fonn the 
genus Laomedea Laxoubouz. Those which have cells entirely 
without pedicle may be thus divided : 

a) with oeUs hifiurious or scattered {Serhtlaria Lax.) 

L., Ell. Corall, PL v. No. 8. fig. a, A, Liarra, PkU. Tntnt. 1834. PI. viii. 
fig. s» &C. JoHNBTON, JBr. Zoopk. p. 66, PL zi. figi. 3, 4, and p. 75, PL 
xin. fig. I. 

6) with cells yerticillate {Anlennularia Lax.) 
Sp. Sertttlaria animnina L., Bll. Corall. PL IZ a. 

c) with cells secund {Plumularia Lax.) 

Ftp. Sertularia plttma Ell. Corall, PL vii. fig. b, B, to, Jomxtnon, Br, 
Zoopk, p. 9«, PI. zzni. figs. 1—3.* 

Order IL OctacHnia. 

Tentacles eight, pinnate. Nutrient canal contained in a distinct 
abdominal cavity^ connected with it by interposed lamellae. 

Family III. Xenina. Common body, fleshy or membraneous, 
affixed by the base. Polyps not retractile, with pinnate tentacles. 

Xenta Sav. Common body growing upwards into stems divided 
at the top, branches short. Polyps &sciculate, collected at the 
extremities of the branches into globose heads, or umbels. 

Sp. Xenia umbdlala Saviont, D6$eripHon de VEgypte, Polypea, Tab. I. tig. 
3 ; ScHWSiGOKR*a Beobaehtungen a/af natwrhitt, Jteisen, Tab. y. fig. 48 ; in 
the Bed Sea. 

Anthelia Sav. Common body, membraneous, plane, spread over 
marine bodies, stoloniferous. Polyps standing out, erect, crowded, 
at the surface of the membrane. 

Sp. Anihdia glauea SATiaHT, I>S9cr. de VEgypte, Polypa, Tab. i. fig. 7. 

Note, C^nus RM/zooxnia Ehbenb. is founded on a figure of 
Zoamtha thalasacmtha of Lesson in the zoological plates of Du- 
perbt's voyage (Voyage mUov/r du Monde swr la Corvette la 
Coqttille, pendant lee annees 1822 — 1825). The common body is 

^ Many species which have been refened to SerhUaria, belong to the Bryotoa, 
Anumgat them an thoee which Lamabok has brought together under the genus Serio* 
huria. See Yak dkb Hoitbn's ffandb. der JHerkunde, first edition, i. p. 76. 

Digitized by 



made up of stolons, connecting tubes erect, ventricose, striated, each 
containing a Polyp. Wliether the Polyps ara retractile or not, does 
not appear. Oomp. genus Evagora Phiuppi (p. 79). 

Family IV. Hahyonina. Polypary fleshy, spongy, perforated 
by many canals, and crowded with microscopic calcareous spicula. 
The Polyps associated in the polypary, retractile, with tentacles 

This fiimily has its name from the genus Alcyoniwra L. called in 
Holland Zeeachmm or Zeekv/rk (sea^foam or sea-cork). Under the 
genus Ahyonivmh of Linn.£US were comprised species which, like 
Ahsyonium Schlosseri, belong to the Molluscs (Asddice), as Sa- 
VI6NY has shewn ; other species are Bryozoa {Alcycn. gdcUinosum), 
The genus Alcyonium of Lamarck contains plant-like forms without 
polyps. To these spongy plants belongs also the genus AlcyoneUiMn 
QuoY (EuplecteUa Owen). Consequently there remain for this 
family those species alone which Laicabck has united under the 
genus Lobvlarioy and probably it would be well, according to the 
suggestion of Schweigoeb, to reject the name Alcyonvum altogether, 
for the sake of avoiding confusion. 

On the sponges comp. SoHWSiaoKB, ffcmdb, der Naturg€8ck, d&r skeUttr 
loten ungegliederUn Thiere, s. 370^374, R. £. Obakt, in Edinb. PhUot. 
Joum. VoL xin. p. 333, H. F. Link, Ueber PJUtnzenthiere Uberhavpt und 
die dagu gere(^neten ChiodcKse bemmden. Phynk, Abhandl, der Ahad. der 
Wiseenech, eu Berlin a. d. Jahre 1830. s. 109 — 123. 

Ahyonidia Milne Edw. Polypary simple or ramose, with a 
basal portion coriaceous, a terminal polypiferous, soft, retractile by 
invagination within the former. Polyps with tentacles having 
pinnae, which are hollow, in a single row at the margin, retractile 

Sp. Alcyonidda elegane Milmb Edwabds, Ann, dee. 8c. not. w Sir, iv, 1835. 
pp. 333 — 333. PL f a, 13. la the Mediterranean at Algiers. 

Nephtoki Sav. (according to Ehrenb. to be written Nephthya). 
Polypary ramulose or shrubby, with Polyps retractile within warts 
armed with spicula. 

Sp. Nephtaa inMmUnaia Blaikv., Nephthifa Savignyii Ehbknb., AmmoihM 
Chabrolii AuDouiN, DUcr, de VEgypU, Polypes, PL n. fig. 5. To the flame 
genus belongs Spkongodee cdona LssBON, IlltutraHons de Zociogie, PL xxi. 
which seems scaroely different from Alcyonium pni/dfum Esfsb, Alcytm, 
Tab. xvi. 

Digitized by 



AmmoAea Say. Fcdjpmy ramnloee or shmbby, with Poljps 
retractile into unarmed warts, clustered on the last branchlets. 

Sp. Ammolhm viraceM Satight, l>^fer. de VBgypU^ Polypet, PL n. fig. 6. 

Sympodtum Ehrenb. Common bodj, membraneous, efiuse, with 
Polyps retractile into unarmed warts that project only slightly, 
without stem. 

Sp. Sifm/pod, fuUginotum Ehbinb., Anihelia species Audouih, Dfyer. de 
r^ypte. Polyp, PL L fig, 6. 

Some AiUkdia have retractile Polype. Thej cover ytaioxta marine bodies 
as an incrostatioiL One species of this genus was described by Pallab as 
the orost of a Oorffonia: Oorg. eoraUoidei, Blench, Zoophytor, p. 199, 
EflFSB Gorgon. Tah, xxzn. 

Evagora Philippi. Polypary incrusting, formed of stolons 
conjoining the several Polyps. Polyps with a basal portion harder, 
coriaceous, a terminal retractile, soft. 

%p, Evagora roeea Prilipfi, Wibomanh n. Ebichson Arekw f, Natwrgeeck, 
▼m. 1843, L s. 36. Taf. I, f. 2, c. — Zoawtha ihalastantha Lbssok (see above, 
p. 77) appears to be another laiger species of this genus. 

Alcyonium Cuv. Milne Edw. {Lobularta Lam. Alcyanii 
species L.) Body fleshy, turgid, usually inciso-lobate, covered with 
Polyps scattered. 

The separate polyps are entirely retractile within tiie common 
body, formed by the union or concretion of the external covering 
of the polyp& This is thick and spongy, and contains a great 
quantity of small irr^ular crystals of carbonate of lime. PropagSr 
tion is by eggs and buds (^emmce). The form and size may be very 
different in one and the same species, so that the distinction of 
some of the species proposed by authors is imcertain. 

Sp. AlcyoKtum lobaiwn Pall., Ale, digUattm L., Juasnu, Mim. de VAcad, 
des Parie, 1742. PL IX. f. i. A— J ; Ell. Corall. PL xxxin. fig. a, A; 
Sfix, Ann, du Mas, xm. 1809. PL xxxiu. fig. 8 (named Ale, exoi); La- 
MODBOUX, HieL dee Polj/piers JUxtbUa, PL xiz. fig. 4, PI. xm. PL xnr. 
^, I, Johnston, ffiet. Br. Zooph. 174. Pll. zzxnr. zxxiv*. This species, 
called by the Dutch fishennen, according to Pallas, dooden manehand or 
duimen (deadman's hand or thumb), occurs in the North Sea^ and attains a 
size of 0.14 — 0.1 miUim. ; the form is very irregular, which, as it seems to me, 
the name given to PaUas well indicates; the colour is brown-yellow. — Ale, 
palmaium Pall. Ale. eacoa L,, Bohadsch De quibued. anim. mar. Tab. ix. 
f. 6, 7. EsFBB Alcgon, Tab. n. &c. This species occurs in the Mediterra- 
nean ; it has the form of a little tree cr shrub, and tbe branches are coloured 

Digitized by 



red. It has been specially inveetigsted by Milkb Edwabdb^ mmI very 
beaatifbOy figured in his Obtervatiims sur U» Alcyon*. Ann, da 8e. not. le 
Sir. Tom. iv. Zool. pp. 333— J43- PL I4» '5- 

Family V. PennatuKna, Stem free, fleshy, containing inter- 
nally an axis stony or homy. Polyps naked, aggregated on the 
common stem, with tentacles pinnate or pennatifid. 

Sea-Feathers (Polypi naiarUes & PenncB marinm). The opinion, 
that these polypstocks swim about in the sea, appears to be un- 
fomided. The stem is fixed in the ooze at the bottom of the sea, 
or the polypary lies on the bottom ; it is only when the waves or 
the fishermen's nets have broken the Pewnahda loose, that it swims 
free in the water. Comp. W. Rapp Ueber Pclypen tc Actinien 
s. 8, 34. Costa in Fbobief^s neueyoHzeny Bd. xxl Feb. 1842, s. 154. 
Many species are phosphorescent: Pennahda phasj^uyrea, Pen. 
griaeoy Pen. rubra {P. granulosa Lail), VereHUum cynomorium finom 
the Mediterranean and Pen, argentea from the Indian sea. 

The genus EncrinuSy placed by Lamarck amongst the searfeathers, 
belongs to the Echinoderms, and is, as Ellis long ago remarked, a 
species of star-fish with a stem. Nai. Hist ofCoraiL 

A. Shaft pinnated in scales at the upper part, pinnae polypiferous. 

Pennaiula L. (exclusive of species). Shaft fleshy, at the lower 
part naked, at the upper pinnate, axis stony. Pinnae two-ranked, 
patent, plicate, dentate on the upper margin. 

Sp. Pennatula ffri$ea L., Pennaiula apinosa Lam., Albiki Annot. Acad, Lib. 
I. Tab. vi. figs. I, a, Bohadsgh i>e quHmtd. animalib. mar. Tab. ix. 
figs. I — 3, EsPBB PJUmeentk, Pennat, Tab. i. Pen. rvbra L., Pen, granu- 
loma Lam., Albih. L 1. figs. 3, 4, Esfkb PjUvngmOh. Pennat, Tab. n. both 
firom the MediierraQean. 

Virgularia Lam. Shaft elongate, slender, naked below, pin- 
nated above, with sub-stony axis. Pinnae small, unarmed. 

Sp. Virgularia mirahiUt, Pennat, mirahiUa MuiLL. (not L.) Zooil, Danie. 
Tab. XI. Cuv. M, Ant, Mi, Uludr,, Zoopkyt, PL xoi. fig. a. 

B. Shaft simple, with polypiferous warts or papillae at the upper part 

Funiculina Lam. {Pavonarta and Sdrparia Cuv.) Shaft elon- 
gate, filiform, with axis homy or sub-stony. Polyps arranged in 
series, secund or alternate. 

Digitized by 



a) Polyps secund {Pawmaria Cnv.) 

Sp. Funieu^inaamtemiiHa,PemiatiUaquadrai^^ 
L., B0HAD6CH De guOnud. Anim, mar. Tab, IX. fig. 4 ; iq the Meditem- 
nean, more tluin two feet long. [Found near Oban, Argyleshire, forty-eight 
inches in length, by Ptof. YoKBMB. Yid. JoHVBTON, HiM, Br, Zooph. p. 165, 

5) Polyps alternate {Scirparia Cur.) 
Sp. Pennatvia mirdlnlit h.^ 

C. Shaft simple, Polyps scattered, sessile. 

Veretilhim Cuv. Body cylindrical, fleshy, upwards polypife- 
rous, with large Polyps. Axis like a ligament or osseous, short. 

^. VtrMhim efMmarwm, PenntUula Cjfn/omorktm Pall. Mi»e, Zoei. Tab. 
zm. t 1—4, Raff, Nov. Act. Acad. Camur. Leop. Carol. Mrfur. Ourioi. 
xiT. 9. 1829. Tub. zxxvni. fig. i. Ebdl in Waonsb leon. ZooUm. Tab. 
xxziv. fig. I. Mediterranean, Ac. 

D. Shaft simple, polypiferous at the extremity only, polype grouped in 

an umbeL 

UmheUularta Lam. Body elongate, slender, with a long osseous 
axis. Polyps large, terminal. 

&p, UmbeUaria gnmdandieay PennahUa enermui Pall. ; Ell. CoraU, Tab. 
xxxvn. taken in very deep water at 79* N. L. 

K Shaft short, cylindrical, dilated into a flattened reniform expansion, 
which is polypiferous on one side, 

ReniUa Lam. 

%). RenMa americana Lam., Pennatula renfformis Pall., Schwbioobs JM. 
auf naturhut. Reiten. Tab. n. fig. 10 ; — BeniUa vkiacea Quot et GADf abd 
Voyage de VUranie, Zoologie. PI. Lxxxvi. fig. 5—7, Cuv. R. Anim. 4dU. 
iUuMr^e, Zoophfft. PI. xci. fig. 3. 

1 Scirparia or Seirpearia Ou/v. is said to be distinguished by Polyps plaoed alternate 
on the two sides. This genus is founded on Pcnnaiida mirdlnlu. Polypus mMubili$ 
Limr. Mui. Adolph. Prederici Regie, Hohnise, 1754. FoL Tab. xix. %g. 4. p. 96. It 
is very possible that Limr iEUS afterwards mistook a foreign species (from China, see 
AmaenU. Acad. iv. p. 157) for one from the North Sea {Fowna Sueciea, p. 543, "Aa5t- 
lot in oceano Norvegico**), and this last may be VirgtUaria mMubUie. To me the genus 
Seifparia appears very doubtful. The type which served for Linnaub' description, 
was not known at Stockholm, as my friend Prof. Sundbvall wrote to me (4 July, 

VOL. I. 6 

Digitized by 



Family VI. Tubiparina. Polypary calcareous, of parallel 
tabes, close set, conjoined by transverse partitions. Polyps tubular, 
the neck retractile, soft, the lower part indurated, forming the poly- 
pary. Tentacles in single or double row at the margin, retractile by 

Tviipora L. (exclusive of several species). 

Sp. Tubipora mutica L., Tubularia TouBNXr. Inttit. Bei het^ricB Tab. 343 
(the Polypary) ; for this animal and its organisation compare especially the 
beaatlAil plate in Fbbtoinbt, Voyage de VUranie^ Zool. PL 88. The 
Orffan-Ooral consiBts of cylindrical, hollow tubes, standing perpendicular 
with transverse partitions. These last arise from a horizontal expansion, 
which at the top of the tube surrounds its droumference radially. Hie 
expansions connect the tubes together, and become partitions when the 
tubes above them b^gin to grow. From this elongation of the tubes 
their jointed form arises, and when the growth ceases, they form a new 
transverse expansion round the wall of their aperture. Ehbekbbbo has 
distinguished the spedes of this genus more accurately : they are usually 
comprised under the collective name of Tubipara fMuica, The Polypary in 
all the species is purple-red ; in the Indian species which Peboh {Voyage 
avac terree AuatraUe I. p. 146), and QuoTand Gaimabd {Voyage de VUranie, 
Zoologie, pp. 634 — 641 and PL 88) observed, the Polyps are green, in others 
they are whitish or light red, as in those which Chahibso described (Nov. 
Ad, Acad. Leap. Carol, N. C. Tom. x. p. 370, Tab. xxzin. fig. 2), and in 
TMpora rubeola Quot {Voyage de FAstrolahe, Zool. TV. pp. 357 — 359), 
GusBiN Iconographie, Zooph. PI. xzn. fig. i, where the fin-like indents 
at the edge of the tetvUieula stand in a single row, as in Tubip. ffempriehii 
Ehbenb., whilst in Tubipora musica Ehbxnb. to which Fbetcihbt's plate 
quoted above refers, they form a double row. 

To Tubipora fossil Polyparies appear to belong, Catenipora {egcharoidea) 
and Syringopora Goldf. from the oldest limestone (mountain-lime). 

Family VII. Corticata. Polypary fixed, ramose, its bark soft, 
supplied with calcareous spicula or granules, polypiferous, its axis 
hardish stony or homy. Polyps retractile, with tentacles having 
a single row of small conical appendages at the margin, gemmi- 
parous and oviparous, conjoined by canals creeping through the 

The hofrhed^oraU (corticiftrei) of Lamabck form a division veiy 
nearly allied to Alct/onvum and FenncUulina. The polypary is here 
in its origin and mode of structure vety different from that of the 
TtMporina, but on the other hand resembles that of the Fefma- 
tulvna. The hard axis, which alone is usually preserved in collec- 
tions, may be compared with that of the FenruUtdina; they are, in 
a word, fixed FenruihUincB. 

Digitized by 



A. Axis Hany {Isidea Ehbenr) 

litis L. 

Corallium Lah. Shaft uniform, rigid, finely striated longi- 


Sp. CcToUium nidnuii Lam., /#» nobiUi L. Toubkbp. InatU. Bei herbarice. 
Tab. ooGZXziz. (Axis), Espbb, I^fUnuenth. Ind. Tab. yn, vm. ; CAVOLiiri 
PoUpi, pp. 33^47, Tab. n. Cutub R, Anim, 4dU, iOutirie, Zoofh, PL 
80. Blood-eoral; in the Mediterranean, espeoiaUy on the African coast. It 
is exported to the East Indies, and is aJso much used in Europe for neck- 
ornaments. It grows on all sorts of marine bodies, even on other oorab, 
and not only downwards, but in all direotioDS, incr e a s ing yery slowly ; it is 
seldom more than a foot long. Hie streaks risible on the unpolished aids 
are the impressions of vessels which run in the bark, and form a oommuni- 
cation between the different polype. 

MeKUea Lam. Shaft knotty, genicula tumid, ramiferoos. 

Sp. MdUoea oehracea, Itis oehraeea L., PaIiL., Natuurl. Hid, der plamidieren, 
door BoDDAXBT, Tab. vn. Mxuiv, Beite urn die Brde, m. Zool, Tab. zxxiz. 
in the Indian Ocean. 

Isis Lam. Shaft with jointed axis, nodes stony, striated, rami- 
feroos, intemodia homy. 

^. Isi$ kippwris L. ; EsPEB l^merOh, Ind, Tab. I— m. 

Mopsea Lamour., Ehrenb. Shaft with jointed axis, nodes 
homy, ramiferons, intemodia stony. 

Sp. Mopiea dkhoiama, Ins diekokma L. ; ESFKB PJlanun^, Ind. Tkb. v. 

Note. Here also belongs Ina donffoia, Espeb I^nzenth, Ind. Tab. vi, 
according to two specimens brought by the noble V. Sixbold firom Japan, 
which are preserved in the Leyden Museum, and agree with Espxb'b 
figure. Is the lame species also found in the Mediterranean, as Philippi 
supposes, who refers to it Moptea Mediterranea R188O ? See Wibomann 
u. Ebichsok'b Archiv. Tin. 1843. s. 38. 

B. Axis homy {Cerato-coraUia or Gorgoma Ehrenb.) 

Gorgonia L. (exclusive of species of Antipathes). Stem with 
axis homy, distinct: the crust polypiferous, fibroso-calcareoiis, per- 

Seorshrvh, HomrplarU. These horn-plants grow with stem and 
branches upwards ; the latter are usually situated in a plane, and 
often coalesca Many earlier and later writers have believed the 
stem to be a plant, on which Polyps had fixed themselves. (Ds 
naiwra vegetabiU Oorgoniofrum, auctore G. L. C. Gravenhobst, 
Obxh's Isis 1823. & 724. Beetle Aoademia delle scienze di Torino 


Digitized by 


84 CLASS .II. 

T. xxvL) The species are very numerous, and many might perhaps 
by closer investigation be better defined Laicoubotjx and Ehben- 
BEBG haye formed different genera, which by the last especially have 
been distinguished by the arrangement of the Polyps. 

Subgenera: Prymnoa Lamour., Ehrenb. Mwricea Lamour, 
Ehbenb. Etmicea Lamoub., Ehbenb. Plexaura Lahoub., Ehrekb., 
Gorgonia Lahoxtr., Ehrenb., Fterogorgia Ehrenb. — ^A new genus 
Bebryee Philippi appears to be distinguished by non-retractile 

Sp. ChrgoniaJUibdUim L., Ell. ChraU. PL zxvi. fig. A — O. Sea-fan, MermauTt 
fan, in different seas. 

AnttpcUhes Pall. {Oorgonice Spec. L.) Stem with axis homy, 
distinct, covered usually with minute spines, with bark polypiferous, 
gelatinous, deciduous. 

Sec^shrub, The bark which is gelatinous, not calcareous or 
fibrous, is missing in specimens taken from the sea : hence, when 
preserved in collections, they resemble branches of dead wood. 

EHRENBERa thiuks AfUipcUhes ought not to be joined to Gorgonia, 
and that it probably belongs to the Bryozoa. He refers to later 
communications, which have not yet, as &r as I know, been pub- 
lished {pie CoroMevUhiere dea rothen Meeres, s. 113 in a note.) 
Milne Edwards does not hold this opinion, Lamarck ffisL naL 
dea Am. s, v, ii. p. 684. According to Gray the Polyps of Anti- 
pathee, which he investigated in a specimen referred by him to 
ArU, dichotoma Pall, have six arms, but, with the exception of 
this strange anomaly, agree with those of Gorgonia, Proceedings of 
the ZooL Soc. of London. 1832. p. 41, 42. 

Sp. AnHpatket spiralU Pall., Esfsb PJlamenth, Antip. Tab. vni., Pallas 
Plantdieren by Boddaebt, Tab. vi. fig. s—Antipath. myriophyOa Pall., 
EsPiB L L Tab. z» GuimN Iconogr. Zoophyl. PI. xxin. fig. i. ftc. 

Order III. 

Polydctinia {ZoocoraUta polyactinia, PhytocoraUia polyactinta, 
and PhytocoraUia dodecactinia Ehrenberg). 

Polyps with twelve or more non-pinnate tentacles, simple or 
aggregate. Nutrient canal suspended in the cavity of the body, by 
means of lamellsB forming partitions. Aperture of the nutrient 
canal single, external, supplying the office of mouth and of anus. 

Digitized by 



Section I. 
Tentacles twelve. {PhytocoraUia dodecactinia Eurenb.) 

Family VIII. Madreporina {Madreporina and MiUeporina 
Ehrenb.) Polypary secreted by the Polyps, stony, supplied vdth 
polypiferous cells, usually ramose or expanded, lobate. Tentacles 

Madreporalt. (exclusive of many species), Lam. (Portia Ejusd. 
Eeterapora and Madrepora Ehrenb.) Polypary stony with cells 
circumscribed, lamellose, often prominent, with porous interstices. 

Sp. Madrepora palmaUt, Ifeteropora palmata Ehbinb., Madrepora mmieaia, 
w. EsFKB PfiameiUh. Madrtpor, Tab. u. On the animal of this ipeciea 
oomp. Lebubub, Mim. du Mm, vi. pp. 190, 191, PL ZYn. fig. 18. Madre- 
pora ahrotanoidei, Madrepora muricata Pall., Quot and Gaimabd Vo^offe 
de VUran, PL zcvi., GUBKIK Iconogr, Zooph. PL xzin. fig. io,^Madre- 
pora podEUfera Lam. &c. 

PodUipora Lam. Polypary stony, ramose, with cells of slight 
depth not lamellose, contiguous. 

Sp. PociOipora damkomdg Lam., Espsb P/aneenth., Madrtp. Tab. zlvi. 
and XLYi A. &o. 

Genus NvJlipwa Lail Syst^me des Ani. 8, vert^bres 1801. p. 374. 
{MiUepores with pores not evident Hist not des Anu s. verUbres IL 
p. 31 1) according to Ehsenberg is in port to be brought here. 

SeriaUypcra Lam. (in part). Polypary stony, ramose, with cells 
disposed in longitudinal rows, with margin slightly prominent. 
Polyps with the structure of the dodecactinia, destitute of tentacles. 

Sp. Seriatopora eubulata, MUUpora lineata h,, Espbb PJlameiUh, MiUep, 
Tab. ziz. 

MiUepara L. (exclusive of species) Polypary stony, ramose, with 
cells deep, obsoletely or not at all lamellose, separate, scattered. 

Sp. MUUpora alcieomii L., Espbb I^ntenth, MiUep. Tab. v, vn, xxvi, &a 
(Here also the Polyps appear not always to possess arms). Many species 
which were formerly placed amongst the MUUpora are now ranked in other 
genera. — MUlepora truneata, the genus Trunctdaria Wibomaitn {ffandb, 
der ZoU.), Myriopora Blaikv. belongs to the Bryozoa, Ehbxnb. Die Coral- 
lenihiere des rothen Mteree, ss. 126, 154, MiuvB Edwabds in and edition of 
Lahabck H'ui, Nai, des Am, s. v, p. 306. 

Digitized by 



Section II. 

Tentacles numerous, exceeding twelve. 

A. Polyps secreting a stony Polypaiy , by which they are 
affixed {PhytocoraUia polyacHnea Ehrenb.) 

Family IX. OceUina Ehrenb. (and Dcedalina ejusd. in part). 
Cells circumscribed. 

Genera: GcMryophyUia Lail, Oculina Lam., ExpUmcvria Lail, 
Cladocora Hempb. and ^EssESB,,AnthophyUum Schweiggeb, Ehbenr, 
AstroMb Gil {Astrea Lam.) 

Sp. CaryophyUia ramta Lak., Madrepora ramea L., OcuUna ramea Ehbsnb., 
TouBKBFOBT Inttit. BH kerbaricB, Tab. COOXL, Madrepora, EsPiB PJhn- 
zerah,, Madr^por. Tab. ix. x a., Milne Edwards in Cuvikb J2. AtU, id, 
lUutMe, ZoopK PI. Lxxxm. fig. i, i a, i b (with the animals). — Cwyopk. 
eaUcularis, Cladocora calyctda/ria Ehbknb., Cavolihi Polipi mairmL Tab. 
m, fig. I — 5, pp. 48—58, Milne Edwabds in Cuv. R, Ani. id. iUtaMe, 
PL Lxxxin. fig. 2, 

Hate, The too numerous genera in this ^mily, severed from the 
genus Madrepora Linn., might perhaps be properly referred to two 
genera, Oculina and Astrcea, Add Monomycea Ehrenb. with a 
solitary star. 

Family X. Oyroea {DcBdalina Ehrenb. in part). Cells con- 
fluent into sinuous furrows, on both sides lamellose. 

t Stars oonccbve. 

Moeandrina Lam. Mceandra Oken^ Ehrenb. Polypary 
stony, hemispherical, on the convex surface stars winding, con- 
tiguous, lamellose. 

Sp. M(Ba/ndrina eetdtriformM, ^anglicb Brain-tUme; — Mceandr, labyrintkwh 
Mut, Bederian, 1716. Tab. xxvi. fig. i, Madrepore, SAVioinr Dieer, de 
VEgypU, Zoopkyt, PI. y. fig. 4, ftc. In this Polypary the confluent stara or 
cells {ambulacra), with their transverse plates, resemble the monntain- 
chains as usually engraved on geographical maps. 

Agaricia Lam. Polypary foliaceo-lobate, on one side only fur- 
nished with furrows or stars in lamellas. 

Sp. Agaricia depkoMahte Ehbsnb., Esfbb PfioMmJtk, Madrep. Tab. zvm. 

Pavonia Lam. Polypary foliaceo-lobate, with leaves com- 
pressed, on both sides stelliferous. 

* Lehh, der NtAurtftaek, iii. i. s. 70. 18 15. 

Digitized by 



&p. Pavonia agturicUe$, Madttpon agtmeket L., JSenM PjUmamik,^ Madrep, 
Tab xz, CvY. Jl. Afd. 4dU. iOiutr,, Zoopk, PL LXZXiv. fig. i;— Pov. 
lactuca, Madrep, laehiea Tall,, Ebpkb lyUuumtk,, Madrep. Tab. xzxni. 
A, B^ QuoT et Gaim. Voyage de tAairolabe, PL xviu. fig, i, copied in Cur. 
IL Am, id. UlMtir,, Zoopk. PL Luuuv. ^. i. The aninuJ figured and 
deMribed by QnOT and Gaucasd has round the moath tnberolefl and no 
arms, is veiy flat^ and reaemblea an Aetima; Ebbxvbibo places this ipeeiea 
with Maandrina pectinaia, Meeandr, areotaia, and some others under a 
new genus Mameina, The singularly flat and thin leayes of this Polypary 
have given occasion to the name of Bndwe-Oorol (Zoctwea). 

ft Stars convex, 
Monticularia Lam. 

B. Polyps secreting internally a hard body (Polypary stony, 
not affixed). 

Family XI. Fungina Ehrenb. 

The stony polypary is here an internal induration of the animal, 
and is by Ehrekbebo compared with the calcareous plate of Cephalo- 
poda (the back-bone of the Sepia). 

Fungina Lam. Polypary free, orbiculate or oblong, hemi- 
spherical or conical, above convex and lamellose, with an oblong 
central lacuna or gap, below concave and ragged. Star single, 
occupying the upper surface with lameUe denticulate or rough on 
the margin. 

SecMnuskroom. The numerous plates, running from the center to 
the drcumferenoe, give this Polypary some resemblance to a mush- 
room, in which however the plates are situated beneath the cap. 
Some have an elongated form, and hence, in the names they bear, are 
compared to moles or slugs. 

The Fungioe lie in clefts of rocks and cavities of coral-reefis, 
surrounded by branched corals, so that the force of the current is 
broken whilst the access of eearwater is not precluded. The older 
specimens are quite free : but younger ones are seated on a stem, 
on rocks, or sometimes are fixed to the dead remains of other 
FwnguB ; in the pedunculate state they resemble the genus Caryo- 
phyHia Laic. The stem is at first hollow, and is afterwards filled 
with calcareous coral-substance; the disc becomes laiger, and at 
last the stem entirely disappears. S. Stutchbubt, An Account of 
the Mode of Growth of Yoimg CorcUs of the genue Fungia, Trane-^ 
aH. of the Linnean Society of London, voL xvi. 3. p. 493—498. 

Digitized by 



In most the entire Poljpary belongs to a single Polyp. In some 
species no tentacles or arms are distinguishable ; but in others there 
are numerous thick, conical arms, irregularly scattered; in the 
middle the large, transverse oral aperture is seen. The animal 
surrounds the Polypary as well beneath as above. See the figure 
of Ftmgia crassUentactUata QuoY and Gaihabd, Voyage de r Astro- 
labCy Zooph, PL xiv. £ 3, 4, also transferred into the illustrated 
edition of Cuvieb, R, Ani, ZoophyteSy PL lxxxii. ^g, 1. Guj^rin, 
Iconogr, Zoophytes^ PL xxiii. fig. 6. In other species, according to 
the observations of Eschscholtz, Quoy and Gaimabd and others, 
many animals are grown together ; the oral apertures, here without 
tentacles, lie partly in the oblong median depression of the Polypary, 
partly between the plates. These form the genus PclyphyUia Quoy 
and Gaimabd, and HerpolUha Esghsch. {fferpetolUha Leuck.), 
HaUgloBsa Hehpb. and Ehrenb. 

See on this genus F. S. Leuckabt, Obwroai, Zool. dt ZoopkytU Coral- 
liis, ttpeeioHm de genere Fungia. Cum TabuUs IV. ofri incias. Friboigi 
BiiBigavorum. 184 1. 4to. 

Sp. Fvngia agariciformis Lax., Madnpcra fungitea L., Mm, Bederum. 
Tab. XXVI. fig. 3. FoasK. Icon, Rer. natural. Tab. xlh., Esfib PJUm- 
zenih, MadATtp, Tab. I. Lbuokabt 1. 1. Tab. iv. fig. i — 3, round, with fine 
toothed laminsB ; the animal had been observed before by FobbkIl, and 
varies in colour ; QuoT and Gaiicabd have figured it entirely red, if indeed 
their figure refers (as Ehbbnbebo concludes) to this spedee. Voyage de VUror 
niCf Zool, PI. xovi. fig. I, 1. — Fungia limacina Lax., HaUgloua limebdna 
Ehuhb., Ebpsr PJUmzmtk, Madrep, Tab. Lxm. ;— Fungia talpa. Poly- 
phylUa talpa, kc, 

G«nus CydolUhda {Cydolites Lail) Polypary stony, orbiculate, 
with center sub-lacunose (monostoma), above lamellose, with dicho- 
tomous lamellae, beneath with plane surface, with concentric rings. 

Fossil species from the oolitic and chalk formations, allied to 
FungicB with which Goldfuss joins them. 

Sp. Cycl, h^mitphcerica Lam., Bbonn Unodtliche PJUtmenihiere 1825, foL 
Tab. V. fig. 11; Cycl. cancelUUa Lax., Faujab db Sadtt Fond, ffiet. not. 
de la mont. de Saint Pierre, PI. xxxvni. fig. 8, 9, ko, 

TurbmaUa {Turbtnolta Lam.) Ehrenb. Poljpary conical, with 
base acuininate, cell single, terminal, lamelloso-stellate. (Is this its 

Sp. Turbin. rubra QuoT and Gaix. Voyage de VAttrolahe, ZooL Tom. iv. 
p, 188, PI. XIV. fig. 5—9. GuEBiK, Iconogr, Zoophyt, PI. xxni. fig. 7, 
Cuv. R, Ani. id UluMr., Zooph. PI. Lxxxii. fig. 5. This species, drawn up at 
New Zealand from a depth of twenty-five fathoms, &8tened to a shell, has 

Digitized by 



an aniiiuJ mnch resembling an Actinia, wiih a large oval oral-i^)ertare 
BUTTOunded by nnmeroufl, yery large, transparent tuberoolated rays. Hie 
other speciee upon which Lamabok has founded this genus are only known 
in the fossil state. It was thought that they were not affixed, and oon- 
sequently they were referred to this fiunily ; the discovery, howeTer, of the 
voysgerB quoted above, shews that the species now Uving £u- rather belongs 
to the family of the OedUna, and probably ought to be joined to if ono- 
myeet Ehsbnb. It may be suspected, perhaps, from Stutohbubt's 
observations, that here younger forms of Fungia have crept in. 

To Thtrbinalia the genus JHploctenium GrOLDFUSS, FldbeUum Lbbbov 
may be added. See Flaibdlum pavofUiMim Lxss. IUutiration$ de Zool, 

J^ote, The genus Lithactinia Lesson related to the Fungue, might 
perhaps from recent inyestigations be established with propriety. 
Comp. Lesson lUustrcUiona de Zodogie, PL vi. 

C. Polyps with the whole body sofk or subcoriaceons. 

Family XII. Zoanthina. Polyps affixed, never detached 
spontaneously, rarely solitary, more frequently gregarious, gemmi- 
parous or oviparous, never dividing spontaneously. 

Zoanihus Cuv. Bodies fleshy, subcylindrical, below slender, at 
the top clavate, gregarious, adhering by filiform gemmiferous stolons 
of the base. Mouth terminal, crowned with tentacles filiform or 

Sp. Zwadhu ElUm, Actinia mciata Ellis, Phil. Trantad. 57, Tab. xix. 
fig. I, a. Encydop. nUth. PL LXX. fig. i, GuEBiw Iconogr., Zoopk, PL XX. 
fig. 4. Zoanih. Bertkdtdii Ehbskb., Po^eAoa -ScreAotow Audodih, Saviovt 
JHter. de VEgypU, Pobfpet, Tab. ii. fig. 3. Zoa/nthui CouckU JomrsTOK, 
BiM, Br, Zooph. p. 101. PL xxxv. fig. 9. 

MamiUtJera Lesueur, CavoUnia ScHWEiGG. Bodies cylindrical 
or clavate, gregarious, conjoined by a membranous base, not retrac- 

Sp. MammilHfera CavoUnii, Madrepora denudata CAYOLiNn, PoUpimarini, 
Tab. m. fig. 6-8, pp. 57, 58. 

Palythoa Lamoub., Ehrenb., Gorticifera Lesueur. Bodies 
gregarious, connate, dilated into a coriaceous expansion, with the 
little apertures slightly emergent. 

Sp. Palyth4)a ocdUUa, Aleyomum ocdUUum Ellis and Sol. 

Hughea Lamour., Ehrenb. Polyps solitary, oviparous, with- 
out any stolons. 

Digitized by 



8p. ffvffkM Sairignfi, Pal^tkoa Sturignyi AuDOUur, ZMmt. de VEffypU^ PUy- 
pa, Tab. n. ^, i. 

Family XIII* AcHnina. Polyps affixing themselves by the 
part opposite to the mouth, loosening spontaneously and creeping 
or swimming, solitary, oviparous or viviparous, never dividing 
spontaneously, rarely gemmiparous. 

Actinia L. Body conical or cylindrical, with mouth at the top 
simple, surrounded by tentacles numerous, cylindrical, radiant in 
one or several rows, with base discoidal. 

Sea Anemonies, Comp. on these ammaLs, Basteb Naiuwrhwndige 
uilapanningeThy L 1762, bL 138 — 142 ; Dicqueacase, Essay towards 
the dtusidaUng of the history of the SecnmemonieSy Fhilos. Transact, 
1773, p. 361, 1775, p. 207, 1777, p. 56 ; Rapp, Ueber die Folypen 
im Algemeinen Whd die Actinien insbesonckre, 1829 ; A. A. Bebt- 
HOLD, Zergliederung der see-anemonen tmd namentlich der Actinia 
coriacea in BeUrage zwr Anatonvie, Zootomie und Physiol, Gottingen, 
1831. 8vo. & 1 — 19 ; J. F. Bbandt, Prodronms JDeseriptionis Ani- 
maUttm ah H. Mebteksio in orbis terroflr. circumnavigatione observa- 
torum Fasc. i. Petropoli 1835, 4:to. pp. 9 — 17 Ac 

The Anemonies live on Crustaoeay conchifera &a, swallow even 
occasionally large mussels, reject the shell, when the fleshy part has 
been extracted and consumed, by the mouth, and evert for this 
purpose their body, which they do Ukewise whenever they feel 
hunger. Their reproductive power is almost as great as that of 
Hydra ; if they be divided transversely, new tentacles after a few 
weeks are seen on the inferior portion, and each half becomes a 
perfect creature ; thus they may be propagated by fission, but 
propagation by spontaneous fission does not appear to occur 
naturally amongst Actinice: usually it is effected by ova which get 
into the stomach from the ovaries and are there developed ; when 
the young ones come out of the egg they are rejected by the mouth. 
That the actinice are viviparous was formerly observed by Basteb. 
The young have at first fewer arms or tentacles than are after- 
wards present. 

These animals, with their coronet of tentacles, resemble com- 
pound or double flowers; at the same time many also attract by 
their lively colours. Most of them are very sensitive of the 
stimulus of Hght, and the brighter the day spread their tentacles 
the more. Of Actinea depressa Bapp observed that it immediately 
contracted when sun-light fell upon it. 

Digitized by 



The cylindrical body is formed of a thick skin of which the 
innennoBt layer consists of longitudinal and transverse mnsclesL 
The tentacles are hollow. The stomach is a folded blind sac. The 
space between the stomach and the skin is divided hy numerous 
partitions ; the ovaries^ whose efferent canals open into the base of 
the stomachy lie in the chambers thus formed'. 

ActimcB are marine animals; they occur in the temperate and 
torrid zonea Some specieB are brought to market by the Italians 
and are eaten. 

A. WUh UUeral pores {Cribrina Hempb. and Ehbkkb.) 

8p. AetkUa rfata L., Bastkb L Tab. ziv. fig. 3, Raff, L L Tab. n. fig. 4. — 
AeUmia coriaeea Cuv., AcUnia mMis L., Bastib 1. Tab. xni. fig. «. Bapt, 
L L Tsb. I. fig. 3, 4, Lnsov Ilkutr, de Zcologief PL uv. 

B. WUhout lateral pores {Actinia Ehbenr) 

Sp. Aetmia vmdU OtUSL., Priapiu viridii Fobsk. Icon. Rar, natural. Tab. 
xxvn. fig. B, b. Actinia Cerem Bapf, I 1. Tab. n. fig. 3; this species is 
eaten ia the soath of Franoe» and is known by the name OrCte or Ortiffue; — 
Actinia tapetum Hxmfb. and Ehbhtb. with short and numerous Uniaeida; 
this species in the contracted state occasioned the establishment of a new 
genus, supposed to be distinguished by the absence of tentadee : DiMcot(ma 
BuBFPKL and Lxucx., Neue wirbdUm Tkiere dea rathen Meeret, Frankf. a* 
Main. 1828, Tab. i. fig. i.* 

Actinodendron QuoY and Gaimabd. Tentacles ramose (or 
provided with vesicles lateral, fiEUM^iculate, Ehrenb.) 

ThalassiaMhus BuEPP. and Leuck., Epichdia EuRENB. Ten- 
tacles pectinate. 

Minyaa Cuv. Actinecta Less. Body free, globose, ribbed. 
Mouth snrronnded bj tentacles in many rows, which are sometimes 
lobate. Disc opposite the month supplied with aeriferous canals, 
serving to suspend the animal in water. 

1 Besides the works of Bbrthold and Raff referred to, that of Btmib Jokbs, 
General (hdUne of ike Animal Kingdom and Mamud of Oomfarative Anatomy, London, 
184 1, pp. 39 — 44, also contains a detailed anatomy of Actinia. 

* Comp. also the descriptions of sevenJ Mediterranean species of Actinia given by 
A. F. Grubs, Actinien, Echinodemien und Wilmur dee AdrioHschen und Mittdmeere, 
Kdnigsbeig, 1840, 4to. ; amongst the new species is one remarkable for its change of 
colour. Act. Chamaieon Qbubb. 

Digitized by 



Sp. Minyas cinerea Cuv. IL Ani, i^ edit. PI. zv. fig. 8, Lesson Centurie 
Zocl, PL LXli. fig. I, in the Atlantic Ooean. This genus is referred by 
CuYiEB to the EMnodermcBta apoda; Lbsukub, who has made known some 
other species of it, gives it a place near Actinia. An accidental, not a 
natural opening in the disc, opposite the mouth, was taken by Cuyieb for 
anus. See the md edition of Lamabok, HUt. not. da Anm, mhm veriibres 
ni. pp. 417—429. 

LiLcemarta MuELL. Body gelatinous, radiate, the rays tentap- 
culiferous at the tip, above flattish, with mouth central, fiinnel- 
shaped, protracted, below elongated into a pedicle disciform at 
the extremity. 

Sp. Lueemaria guadricomis ZoU. danic. Tab. TXXTX. Johnston, ffitt. Br. 
Zooph. pp. 244—151. fig. 3—7. 

Comp. on this genus Lauoubouz, M4m. du Museum, u. pp. 460 — 471. 
PI. xvi. Does it belong here t Lahabok refers this genus to the AoaUpha. 

Edwardsia QuATREF. Body firee, cylindrical, rounded behind. 
The middle portion of the body with thicker epidermis, opaque ; 
the anterior and posterior pellucid, retractile within the middle. 
Mouth furnished with tentacles, hollow, arranged in single or 
double row. 

Sp. Edwardna BtauiemptU Quatbbtaobb, Ann. det 8e. nOt. i« Sirk. Tom. 
xvni. Zod. PL I. fig. I, &». 

These remarkable animals, discovered by Quatbbfaobs, live on the sea- 
shore in the sand, like Sipunadiu and some Annulata. The tentacles are 
not perforate at the extremity, as little as they are so in Actinia, in which 
preceding authors (Raff, Rtxeb Jonbs and others) admit a reception of 
water through the presumed apertures. 

Order IV. Bryozoa. 

Nutrient canal supplied with double aperture (mouth and anus), 
replicate, the posterior portion ascending by the side of the anterior. 
Tentacles long, furnished with vibratile cilia, surrounding the 
mouth. The anterior part of the polyp soft, retractile within the 
posterior by inversion. 

Ehrentberg was the first to separate with precision these animals 
from the other forms of the Polyps — see the Introduction to this 
oiass. Milne Edwards makes of them, in company with the 
AcephcUa nuda^ a division of the type of the MoUuaca under the 
name of Mollvsc&ides. As in onr first order of Polyps we see a 
resemblance to AccUephas or Medusee, in the second recognise the 
proper type of the Polyps, and in the third perceive a transition to 

Digitized by 



the BMnodermaici, so in this last order we cannot mistake the 
affinity to the Mdkuoa; this affinity is even so close that we hold 
the nnion of it with the Molluscs to be almost the more natural 

Family XIY. Stelmatapoda nob. Tentacles disposed in a zone 
around the month. 

A.) Cell (the posterior harder portion of the animal) covered by 
a moveable operculum. (Tentacles numerous, 16 or more.) 

EBchara Lam. (Species of genus Eschara Pall., of MtUepora 
L.) Polypary of aggregate cells substcmy, foliaceous, ramose. 
Both surfaces of the polypary covered with opposed cells. 

Onui-Ooral. Sp. Eteham foUaeea Lam. (not Pall.) Ell. CoraU. xxz. fig. 
a, A, By C i—Eichara cervieomU Lax., Cuv. IL Ani. idU. iU., Zoopk, PI. 
96, kG. 

Gomp. on this genns Mn.NB Edwabds, Beck. amaUmiquei, phenol. H 
zooL 9ur Us Biekapet, Awud, da Se, nalL 7e Sirie. VI. 1836, ZooL pp. 5 — 
53, PI. I— V ; Obtervatitmi aur let p€hfpier$ fouU/u du genre Bsehairt, ibid, 
pp. 3«i — 345. PI. rx — ^xn. These fossils occur partly in the chmlk-fomia- 
tion, partly in the tertiaiy straU. M*COT, Jkecrip. Brit, PaUeoe. Foet. in the 
OeoL Jftcf. €fthe Umv, of Cambridge. Gamb. 185 1. 4to. Pt n. pp. 44 — 47. 
H. fig. 14—17. 

Mdvcerita Milne-Edwakds. Fossil genus. Comp. Ann. des Sc, 
not. 2e /SS^. vl Zod, pp. 345—347. 

Seiepora Lah. Polypary reticulato-ramose or perforated reticu- 

lately, calcareous. Cells of the Polyps situated on one side only of 

the polypary. 

Sp. Bdepora cdlvlota, MiOepora ceUtdoea L., Ell. CoraU. Tab. xzv. ^g. d, 
D, F ; EsFXB, PJlanssenth., MiOep. Tab. I. ; Gavoliki, PcUpi marini. Tab. 
m. fig. 12, 13. This polypaiy resembles a piece of fine lace, hence the 
firench name dentdle de mer or manchette de Neptune (/) 

Adeana Lamour., Lam. Polypary frondescent or fan-shaped, 
on l)oth surfaces celluliferous, calcareous, supported by a stem sub- 
articulate, not polypifeious. 

Sp. Adema foUifera Lam., Schwsigoeb Beob. auf naiurh. BeU. Tab. i; 
Cuv. B. AnL idU. UL Zooph. PI. 88, fig. i ;—Adeona erOmformU Lam., 
SoHWEiGaxB L L Tab. n. fig. 5, Cuv. L 1. ^. 1. In this species the stem 
bean a flattened expansion, perforated like a sieve or a net, from coalescence 
of the branches, and permanence of the intervening spaces. 

Of this genus the Polyps, as fiu* as I know, have not been observed, but 
it IB placed here from the agreement of the Polypary ; an idea may be 
formed of it by supposbg an Etchaira to be placed npon a jointed stem. 

Digitized by 


94 CLASS u. 

Flustra L. Polypary of aggregate cells, membranaceous, firon- 
descent, lobate or expanded into a crust, celluliferous on one or 
both sides. The cells are often aculeate on the anterior margin, 
their opening transverse, semicircular, or lunate. 

Sea-OrutiL Sp. FlttMra foUaeea L., Eichara fdiacta Pall., Dk Jussieu 
Mim, de VAoad, royale des Se, AdH^ 1741. PL ix. fig. 3 ; Ell. CoraU. PI. 
XXIX. fig. a. A, B, G, £ ; Guv. R, Ani. idit. UL PI. lxxviu. fig. i ; John- 
ston, ffitt. Br. Zooph, pp. 343, 343. PI. Lxn. fig. i, 1 ; — Fhutra comuta 
Mnjni Edw., Guy. R Ani, idU, iU, PL Lxxvin. L L fig. i, kc. 

Eucmtea Lahoub., (in part). Milnb Edw. Ann. dea Sa nai., 2e 
SertBy IX. Zoolog. pag. 204, PL viii. 

B.) Cell (the posterior harder part of the animal) without oper- 
culum; a setose collar or a crown of set» in the anterior part of the 
body in manj, or a muscular ring in others, in place of operculum. 

Tendra NoRDM. 

Sp. Tfniira zotterioola, CeUepora potUica EiOHW. 

TuiuUj>ora. Polypary calcareous made up of crowded tubular 
cells, parasitic or incrusting. Aperture of the cells orbicular. Ten- 
tacles 12. 

Sp. TubuUpora verrueoia MUiNB Edw., TubuUpora arbieului Lah. (syiio- 
nymee excluded); Guv. R, AtU, SdU, iUfutr., Zoophyt, PL LXX. fta 

Gomp. on this genus MUiNB Edwasds, Ann, des Sc. not. ie SSrie, vni. 
Zoologie 1837. pp. 311—338. PL xxn— xxiv. Johnston, Hist. Br. Zooph, 
pp. 165—174. PL XLVI. fig. 3, 4. 

Subgen. Diastopora Lail 

Cellularia Pall., Gellaria Lam. Polypary ramose, composed 
of cells arranged in a single or double row or verticillate, tubular, 
calcareous, with orbicular aperture. 

Sp. Cdlidairia e&unMo, Crisia ebwmen Lahoub., Seri^daria ebumea L., Ell. 
Oorail. XXI. fig. a, A ; Guy. R, Ani, idU. HI. Zoophyt, PL Lxxm. fig. 1 ; 
Van Bbnsdbn, Nouv, Mim. de VAcad. de Brvx, xvm. PL m. ^. 11— 
16, &c. 

Gomp. MiLNi Edwards, Mim, eur lea Orisi«$, lea Bomhta et pluaieura 
autrea peljfpea vivana <m foaaUea dont rorganiaation eat analogtie d edle dea 
Tubfdtporea, Ann, dea 8c. not, ie S6rie, Zoolog, Tom. IX. 1838. pp. 193 — 
138, PL VI— XVI ; Van Bxnedbn, Reckerehea awr lea Bryoaoairea, Now, 
Mim. de VAcad. de Brux. Tom. xvin. 1845. pp. 11 — 19. 

On the Polypary of this and some other genera shear-like organs 
are seen that have some resemblance to a bird's head ; they have jomts 

Digitized by 



which admit of motion like the jointed feet of afHeuhta; their motions 
persist even when the animal has been for some time dead. Their us? is 
not known. See figures in Ellis CoraU, PL xz. fig. 2 A. (of CeUidaria 
avieularia Lam. : of Fludra anguatUoba Lam.); oomp. Yam Bihkdir 
Beekatkes mr lu Bryoz. L I pp. 14—95, and NomDMAirv and KxOHN 
died by SiSBOLD LAfrb. der ver^^dch, Anai. i. p. 53 : also Dabwih Voyaget 
cf AdvetUwre and BtagU, voL m. pp. 359—61 quoted, with figures, by 
JoHKffiOK, Hkt, Br, Zoopk, pp. 319 — 331. 

VaUceria Fleming, Farre. 

Sp. Valheria euietUa, Sertularia eu$euta L. ; Ell. CforaU. PI. Ziv, C, C. 
Fabbb, PhiL Trana. 1837. PI. zxm. 

Vestcularia Thompson, Farre. 

Sp. Vetieularia apinota, Seriidaria apinata L. ; Ell. CforaU. PI. Xi. fig. 17 
b, B, C, D ; Fabbk, L L PI. xxn. 

Serialaria Lam. Polypary homy, ramose, composed of cells 
cylindrical, parallel, cohering in rows. 

Sp. Serialaria lendigera, Sertul. Undigera L. ; Ell. OoraU. PI. XV. No. 34 b, 
B; Catoliki, Polipi mar. PI. IX. fig. i, 1 ; the cells stand close together, 
as in a Pan*8-pipe. Johkston, L 1. p. 369. 

Angumaria Lam. Cells elongate, subclavate, perforated by a 
lateral aperture, set on a creeping fistulous stolon, erect, distant. 

Sp. AngtMmwria spalidata, Serivl. anguina L. ; Ell. Corall. PL xxii. fig. 
% c, G ; LiSTXB PhiL Trans. 1834. P^- ^^» %• 4 > Johnston, Hitt. Br. 
Zooph. p. 39a PL L. fig. 8, 9. 

Bawerbankia Fabre. 

Sp. BowerbanJna dema Fabbb, 1. 1. Tab. xxi. xxn. 

Lttgrmcula Yak Beneden, LageneUa Farre. 
Sp. Zaguncula rtpem Fabbb, L L Tab. xxiv. 

Note. According to A. S. Hassall Bowerbcmkia densa is a 
younger state of VcUkeria vmbricata ; Annals and Magaz. of noL 
Hist. vn. 1841, p. 363, 364. But in Valkeria and Veaicularia 
firom the observations of Farre and Yan Beneden there are 
8 tentacles not spinous; in Bowerhankia and Laguncula 10 — 12 
tentacles, besides vibratile cilia^ supplied with inunoveable setae or 
spines. — Lusia Milne Enw. (in a note to Lahaeck Hiat not. dea 
AnL a. vert. 2e ^ii. n. p. 72) is it Lagtmcula-f 

Digitized by 



Halodactylus Farrb. Polyparj fleshj, gelatinous, pellucid. 
Polyp with tentacles 12 — 16, often longer on one side. 

Sp. HalodaetyUu dtaphanut Fabbk, Alcycn, ffdaUfumm L., Ell. OairUl. 
PL xzzn. fig. d, EaPBB, J^metUh, Aleyon, Tab. zmi., Fabiui Phil. 
Tran», 1837. PL xxv, xxvi. ; Van BbnedxIt Beck, wwr let Bryozoairet 1. 1. 
PL V. fig. I, 2 ; ocean on our coast (Dutch), adhering to marine plants 
and sheik resembling a gelatinons, transparent, tabular, and irregularly 
branched sea-weed. 

Family XV. Lophopoda Dumortier s. Cristatellina. Tentacles 
set pectinately on two arms, numerous. 

Cristatella Cuv. Polypary free, disciform, polypiferous on tlie 

Sp. OritUUeUa muoedo Guy., CriMai, voffona Lax., Boss. ni. SuppL Tab. 
XOI ; in fresh water ; three, four, or more Polyps are seated in a freely- 
swimming Polypary. Gbbyais and Tubptn have figured the egg, which is 
provided with tubular spines terminating in two or more hooks ; it bursts 
into two yalves, when the young animal is bom. See Ann. det Sc. not. ze 
SSrie, VII. Zool, pp. 65 — 93. PL n. PL m. A. Johnston, HiM» Br, Zooph. 
p. 389. 

PlumcUella nob. Polypary affixed, tubular, with extremities of 
tubules retractile, polypiferous. 

Flume-Polyps {Polypes h pannaehe Tremr) Comp. Memovre sur 
rAnatamie et la Phydologie des Polypiers composes cTeau douce 
nommes Lophopodes, par B. C. Dumobtieb. Toumay 1836. 8vo. 
(publifihed in part at an earlier date in the BuUetin de VAcad des 
Sc de Bruxelles 1835, p. 422 <&a) Propagation occurs by eggs and 
buds. Tremblet also observed spontaneous fission of the Polypary 
in PlumcUella cristata, 

Plvmatella Laic. Naisa Lahoub. Stem branched or lobate. 

Sp. Plumatella critiakt Lam. ; Trsxb. Polyp. Tab. z. f. 8, 9 ; the body 
transparent, i'" long, the plume nearly of the same length ; about rixty 
tentacles ; it lives in fresh water beneath Lemna. 

Pltm. eampanulata Lam. Robs. Int. T. m. Suppl. Tab. 73—75. (Lin- 
NJBUS united this species with the former, under the name of Ttibularia 
campanulaia.) Probably Plumatella repent Lam., Sohasffes Armpo- 
lypen 1754 (and edit. 1763). Tab. i. fig. i, a, Eiohhobn Watte/iihiere, 
1 78 1. Tab. IT. p. 43 ((2er Polyp mU dem Federhutch), is only a yariety 
of this. According to Norbmann, the tube continues to grow for some 
time after the death of the Polyp. When full-grown it has up to sixty ten* 
tacles, but in young animals they are less numerous, shorter and tixicker. 

Digitized by 



FrederidUa Gebvais. 

Sp. PlumaieUa tuliana, Tnbularia tultana BLUnvB. ffandb. d, fMrf. Hid, 
PL I. fig. 9. 

Alcyondta Lail Polyparj incrusting, irregular, multiform, com- 
posed of tubules aggr^ate, cylindrical 

Sp. PlumateUa fungoM nob., AUyoneUa tiagnorum Lam., Encyd. mMkod, 
Vers, PL 472. fig. 3, a, b, c, d, Rabpail HiU, naiurelU de VAlcffomdief/vk- 
viaHle, M^moirea de la Soe. dPHiat. not. de Paris, it. i8a8. pp. 75 — 130, 
pL 12 — 16. To this species probably Bakxb'b figure belongs, Employ- 
ment for the oUeroteope, PL xu. fig. 13 — 22 {Bdl-Jlower animal). See 
Jossssov, Hi$t. Br. Zooph. pp. 391 — 395. 

Rabpail is of opinion that this animal is merely a form of PlamateUa 
eampanulata altered by age, from which he does not distinguish PUimat, 
erittata ; as soon as the animal breaks the egg, it moves freely about, and 
should then be described as CrisUUeUa, so that all of them belong to one and 
the same species at different periods of Hfe. But amongst other objections 
to the union with PlunuUdla eritUOa and eampanuUUa is the number of 
the tentacles which in Alcycnella is, according to R^lbpail, only forty-four 
(according to Ehbsnbxbo forty-two), whilst here, if it were an older state 
of PlumaieUa campanulata, the number might rather be expected to be 
greater. Also in CridateUa there are more tentacles. However, it is 
possible that OriaiaieUa may be a younger fonn of another spedee of 
PlumateUa, and so at some future time to be excluded from the list of 

Pallab, as it seems, first discovered the Alcyondla in our country in the 
well-known lake of Rockanje, in the island Voom, and described it by the 
name of Ihibularia fungoea, Nov. Oommentar. Acad. Seient. Pelropol. xii. 
1768. The name AlcyoneUa should be rejected, for it was borrowed from 
a supposed resemblance with Alq/onium, which on further investigation 
was found to be totally unfounded. 

Van Bkkeden has observed the sexes to be distinct in AlcgondUt, male 
and female individuals occurring in the same Polypary. Bullet, de VAcad. 
dee 8c. de Brux. Tom. vi. 1841. p. 2^6. 

FalttdiceUa Gebvais. 

Sp. AlcyoneUa aMnUata Ehbkitb. Symbol, f Comp. Yak Bkvidbn BuUet. ffe 
VAcad. deaScde BnuceUen vi. L 1. 

VOL. I. 

Digitized by 



Bt Sea-nettles are understood radiate animals of a gelatinous, 
transparent substance, which swim freely, and of which the organisa- 
tion in parts that axe frequently repeated usually indicates the number 
four or its double. They have no intestinal canal, but ordinarily a 
blind stomach from which numerous tubes, mostly divided into 
branches, run like rays to the circumference of the body (aquiferous 
vessels, respiratory organs?). Li some the sexes axe separate: 
others appear to be bi-sexual. Traces of a nervous system are 
present at least in some; yet organs of sense, except appendages 
which serve for feeling, are absent in many, whilst some have in 
addition parts which by certain writers are considered to be organs 
of hearing, by others organs of sight. 

Of the name Seornettlea, AcalephcB^ UrticcB marinoe^ we have 
treated above. With Lamarck they form an order of the class of 
radiate animals {Badiaires), under which this writer also groups 

1 On this olaas may be compared especially : 

F. EaoHBOHOLTZ, <^ttem derAcalephm, Mit i6 Kupfertafeln. Berlin, 1839, 4to. 

C. O. Ehbutbibo, JXe Acalephen des rothm Mwru unci der Organismtu der 
Jlfeduaen der Ostsee, Mit 8 colorirte Kupfertafeln. (Reprinted firom the Ph^fiihal. 
Abhandi. der Kdnigl. Ahad, der WieeenchafUnzu Berlin aiue dem Jahre 1835). 

Hittoire natureUe dea Zoophytes. AcaUphee par B. P. Lbbson, ay. pL Paris, 
1843, 8vo- 

J. G. Will, fforce TergetHma^ oder Beschreibung und Anatomie der m fferbste 1843 
hei Trieet heobachieten Ahalephen, Mit 1 Tafeln, Leipzig, 1844. 

£dw. Forbbs, a Monograph of the BriHeh Naked-eyed MedaetB^ miikfiguree of all 
the epeciee. London, printed for the Kay Society, 1848, fol. 

HnxLBT, On the afiiUHee of the MedMos, Phil. Traneact. London, 1849, Pt. il. 
p. 413 Ac. 

On the Siphonophora : 

A. KoELLiKBB, Die Sehmmmpdypen, oder Sipkonopkoren von Meuina, Mit 12 
Tafeln, Leipzig, 1853, ^1- 

B. LiuoKABT, Die Sipkonopkoren, eme Zooloyiecke Untereuehung, Giessen, 1853, 4to. 
B. Lbuokabt, Zur ndhem KerwUnite der Sipkonopkoren von Nima, Mit 3 Kupfertaf. 

Berlin, 1854, ^^o* 

0. YoaT, Sur lee Sipkonopkoree de la Mir de Nice. Gen^e, 1854. 

Digitized by 



those with a spiny skin {E(^tnoderm(Ua) as a second order ^ They 
were first described as a distinct class of animals bj CuviER in the 
first edition of the B^gne Animal^ under the name of AcalephcBK 

The name of gelatinous animals is more appropriate to this class 
than to some others of the Radiates of Cuyies. The kinds most 
generally known bear the name of Zeekwallen in Holland, [Quallen 
in Grermany, Sqnalders* or sea-jelly or sea-blubber in England.] 
When thrown by the sea upon the strand, they lie motionless 
during the ebb ; for they do not creep, but can only move in the 
water by contraction and expansion. 

The pungent and burning pain like that caused by stinging 
nettles, which many species inflict on being touched, was generally 
considered in former times to be the effect of a mucus secreted by 
the skin of these creatures. It is only since 1841, fix)m Wagner's 
microscopic investigations, that minute threads situated on the 
surface of the skin have been recognised as connected with this 
phsenomenon, since in Acalephes which cause no such pain (as in 
Camopea) they were not discovered. Each of these threads lies 
rolled up in a little oval vesicle or cell, firom which, on pressure or 
irritation of the skin, it is forced out by eversion ; they are readily 
detached with the vesicle to which they are fixed by a tubercle, 
and are always present in the secreted mucus that produces a bum- 
ing pain. Yet the cause of this ought not to be considered as 
entirely mechanical ; it is probable that some acrid fluid, secreted 
by the cells, adheres to the threads ^ Nevertheless an accomplished 

^ RadiaMr» moUatse$, Lamabok SjfU. denmim. «. verUhres, 1801, pp. 341, 359, and 
in his later works, Extrcut du C<nirs de ZodUgU sur let anim. 8. v. 18 12, and Hiit. Nat. 
daAnim, s. veri. 1815. 

* CuviEB in his TaUeau iUmentaire (179S) and in the tables at the end of the first 
part of his Lefon» tFAnat, eomp, had comprised all the animals, which he afterwards 
named radiated animals, in a single cIms, under the name of Zoophytes. Of this the 
Ortieg de Mer make the second order, which agrees with his later class of the Aealepho!, 
Here also he placed the AcUnicB, which however in the second edition of his lUgne 
Anaaal he separated from it again, in order to unite them, as had already been done 
by others, with the Polyps. 

* [Sm T. Bbowke's Works edited by WnKiNS, Vol. iv. p. 333, quoted by F0BBE8 
Brit. Staff, p. 87.] 

* B. Waonxb Hber mvOkmoMcke NtMehtymne der Medu$en, Wibohann u. Ebich- 
SOH Arekiv. f. Naturg. 1841, I. s. 38-;-43; ^efter den JBau der Pelagia nodUvca. 
Lexpdg, 1841, fclL Jam. Zoot. Tab. xxxin. — Subsequepily theoe parts were also inves- 
tigated by Ehbenbebo, Philuti, Will, Milnb Edwabd^ kc 


Digitized by 



observer, Dr F. Will, found these tlireads in Emharia (amongst 
the Beroecea) without perceiving any irritation on toucliing it 

In many there is only a single oral aperture, placed in the center 
on the inferior surface of the body. In others many suctorial tentacles 
are seen, or the arms have apertures conducting to tubes, which, 
like vessels, fall into larger stems and finally open into a common 
cavity, the stomach (Rhizoatoma Cuv.). From the stomach arise 
water-canals, which are provided internally with cilia. By some 
writers these have been regarded as blood-vessels : but far rather 
ought they to be considered as respiratory organs, since in part they 
open freely on rtie surface of the body. But, in addition, blood- 
vessels have been found, which, at least in Beroe^y lie round about 
the water-canals, surrounding them like a sheath. Here nucleated 
corpuscles have been observed (blood-corpuscles?) which however 
move only very slowly and irregularly. 

The sexual organs are distinct in the disciform Acalephes, but 
have in both sexes the same form. In jEquorea they lie in form of 
folded plates on each side of the water-canals which spring from the 
stomach, towards the inferior surface of the disc. In the eared 
Medusa (Aurelia or Medusa aurita) there are four cavities, opening 
below at the disc and which have been taken for respiratory cavi- 
ties, in which lies a folded organ, that is, an ovary or a testis, 
according as it contains ova or spermatozoa ; in most Acalephes the 
spermatozoa have the ordinary cercarial form. In other Acalephes, 
as Beroiy ovaries and testes are united in the same individual: 
here they lie along what are called the ribs, beneath the skin. 

The metamorphoses, of which we have already spoken above, 
are remarkable in young Meduece, The eggs, that pass from the 
ovaries along the canal of the arms to their folds, are collected here 
and carried about, for a time, by the mother in saccules which 
afterwards disappear*. The young animals quit these receptacles 
in the form of ciliated Infrisories resembling Leucophrys or Bursaria. 
These swim freely about, but after a short time (two or three days 
according to Siebold) become fixed by their thicker anterior ex- 
tremity which has a sucker. Next, the body becomes cylindrical, 
transparent, and at the free end, which thickens, an oral aperture is 

1 [The blood veaselB described by Will could not be seen by Fobbss, Hdzlit, 
Leuckabt, &C.] 

« See the figures of Ehukbebo Die AkaUphen &c. Tab. m. fig. i . i. Tab. vm. fig. i . 

Digitized by 



seen, round which at first two, then other two projections appear 
tliat become lengthened out into arms. Soon there grow out four 
other similar arms, and the animal has then the form of an eight- 
armed Polyp. These arms can shorten and lengthen themselves 
greatly. In this state the animal continues several months, and 
can multiply itself by buds and offsets. Subsequently there come 
into view transverse indentations, by which the animal is divided 
into several rings resting u|)on one another, round each of which 
eight rays arise. These rings are like young medusae piled on one 
another : they become separated from each other, from before back- 
ward ; and then swim freely away as young medusae ^ How long a 
period is requisite for their full growth is unknown. The genital 
organs could not be distinguished imtil they were more than an 
inch in size. Hence it is clearly an error when some ascribe to 
these creatures in general a very short duration of life and a rapid 
growth — or even name them annual animals. Their power of re- 
production seems to be very small. Some species are able to bear 
the loss of parts, but these when removed do not continue to grow. 
In the genus Ceatum^ however, Mertens was led to believe, from 
some observations which he was unable to complete, that propaga- 
tion by spontaneous division may be admitted. [And this has been 
lately confirmed by Koelliker*, in Stomobrachtum mtrabile, which 
he believes to be a larval form oiMesonema C€erule8cen8, a new species 
of Medusa discovered by him at Messina. The fission begins in the 
stomach — many individuals having been found with their round 
disc somewhat elongated and with two stomachs more or less com- 
pletely separate by constriction, but still lying side by side. Next, 
a meridional groove is seen on the outside of the disc between the 
stomachs: it deepens gradually until the acaleph is separated into 
two distinct individuals. The whole process may be completed in 
eight to twelve hours. The multiplication however is not yet 

^ Sabs BeskriveUer og Jagttagdaer &c. (extract from it in Wixomann's ArcUv, 
1836, 8. 197 &c.) ; and in Wiegm. Archiv. 1837, B. ii. s. 406 ; C. T. VoN SiEBOLD 
Bekroffe tur NcAurgeach, der fpvrbdtosm Tkiere, Dantzig, 1839, 4to. 8. 26—35. Sabs 
in WixoMAHir «nd Ebioh80M*b Archiv. 1841, 8. 9 — 34. MSvuoire 9wr U d^vdoppement 
de la Mediua aurita etdela Oyanaa eapiUata, Ann. dea »e. not. 8ec s^rie xvi. Zoclogie, 
pp. 311 — 348, PI. 15 A— 17. 1 84 1. J. Steenstrup Om Foriplanining og UdvUding 
gjainem vexlende GeneraiumtraJl^ker, Kjbbenhayn, 1841, 4to. 

' SiEBOLD and Koellikeb's Zeittckriftf. witsefitehcfi. Zod. iv. pp. 335, 327. 

Digitized by 



finished: the halves again divide in a direction perpendicular to 
the former line of division : but here the fission does not always 
begin in the stomach. How often the process may be repeated is 
not known. No trace of fission was observed in Mesonema^ though 
it was often seen to occur in the larval forms, even when ova were 
already distinctly visible on the vessels.] 

[The SipkancphorcB have been shewn, by the investigations of 
Huxley, Leuckart, Koelliker, Gegenbaueb and Vogt, to be 
compound animals, or colonies, connecting the hydroid polyps with 
the acalephs. They are named by Koelliker, in consequence. 
Swimming Polyps {polypi nechalei). They consist in general of a 
stem, usually cylindrical and long {Diphyes)^ sometimes shortened 
and sacciform (Physalia), sometimes disciform {Veldla), to which 
appendages are attached which diflfer remarkably in form and func- 
tion. Some of these are suctorial tubes or stomachs, others motive 
organs, others feelers and prehensile organs, others again protective 
laminae (bracts), and sexual capsules. Great differences prevail with 
respect to the number, arrangement, and development of these parts, 
in the different families : those which are constant in all siphono- 
phors are the stomachs, the prehensile apparatus, and the sexual 
capsules. The stem is muscular, and hollow — ^the interior forming a 
canal in which the nutrient fluid moves with rapidity. The swim- 
ming apparatus is either passive or active — ^when passive it is a 
hydrostatic apparatus consisting of a bladder filled with air which is 
always placed at the upper extremity of the common stem : when 
active it consists of swimming-bells, which are also placed at the 
upper extremity of the stem, and are variously grouped, and in 
variable number in different genera : the swimming-bells may exist 
conjointly with the air-sac or without it. These bells are, in 
general, formed on the plan of a Medusa, consisting of an elastic 
bell-shaped mantle, very various in form, with an internal mus- 
cular layer which surrounds the swimming-sac. On the outer sur- 
face of the latter, there is a system of four radiating vessels, which, 
at the circumference of the aperture, fall into a circular vessel, and 
at the summit of the bell arise fi-om a single vessel, which passes 
through the pedicle of the bell and falls into the cavity of the com- 
mon stem. All the other appendages of the stem have also a more 
or less perfect system of vessels, which communicate with the inter- 
nal cavity of the stem in a similar way. The only communications 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

8EA-NETTLE8. 103 

from without with the cavity of the stem are by the mouths of 
the digestive tubes, which answer to the bodies of polyps. The 
food digested by these stomachal polyps is conveyed from their 
extremity into the cavity of the stem, fix)m whence it is carried 
through the vessels of all the appendages, partly by the contractility 
of the walls of the stem, partly by the action of the cilia which 
line the vessels of the appendages. 

The polyps, or suctorial tubes, or stomachs, have no tentacles 
round the mouth. They consist of three portions; the external, 
very variable in form, the proboscis and mouth : the middle swollen 
portion, the digestive stomach, with dark streaks containing bile- 
cells : the terminal rounded portion, with thick cellular walls. At 
the base of the stomach, or sometimes immediately on the common 
stem, is the prehensile apparatus for the capture of prey. This 
usually consists, for each polyp, of a single long and thin thread 
with lateral subdivisions, which do not branch ; more rarely of sim- 
ple threads or shorter cylinders. This apparatus is always supplied 
with midtitudes of thread-cells, which in the case of lateral acces- 
sories are grouped in very regular and constant forms, and are con- 
spicuouB from their bright yellow colour. The sexual appendages 
have large swimming bells of the general medusan form. They 
consist of a bell-shaped mantle and vessels — and a nucleus, more or 
less conspicuous, which contains in its substance the sexual ele- 
ments, and is dependent from the vertex like the clapper of a bell. 
In some cases the medusan form of the mantle is in great measure 
suppressed, whilst in others it is quite complete, and here the sexual 
appendage is detached at an early period, as in certain hydroid 
polyps, and the sexual elements are developed afterwards; where 
the medusan form is not thus perfect, the contents of the sexual 
capsules, when detached, are found to be mature. The Diphyidm 
are, according to Leuckart, all uni-sexual, but the observations 
of Gegenbauer [Zeitachr. f. toissensch. Zool, V. p. 313) shew that 
some at least have the organs of different sexes on different groups 
of the same stem: the PhyBophoridce are all bi-sexual, in some 
{Stephmomia) the organs of the two sexes being on different pedi- 
cles, in others (Fhysalia) on the same pedicle. 

The organs of less general occurrence are the Bracts, Lamin» 
or Covers, and the Feelers. The Bracts or Covers, more solid 
than the other organs, are for their protection : they contribute little 

Digitized by 


104 CLASS in- 

to the motion of the colony, but sway gently to and fro with the 
contractions of the stem. The Feelers are cylindrical or vermiform 
structures having much resemblance to the polyps, but without an 
external opening. In some cases they are in constant motion, 
feeling about in all directions: in others they are more sluggish 
and are loaded with the general nutrient fluid. The latter fact 
would seem to suggest a respiratory function. Some writers have 
considered them to be receptacles for the fluid forced from the 
interior of the prehensile apparatus during its violent contractions : 
and hence the name, sometimes given to them, of fluid-holders. 
But it has been objected to this explanation, that the two sets of 
organs are often at great distances from each other, and that their 
alternate action has not been established. 

The composition of all the organs in the Siphonophors cor- 
responds to that of the other acalephs. As in these, the specific 
gravity of the mass diflfers little from that of sea-water. The shell 
found in some families, {veleUa, porptta) is the thickened and hard- 
ened wall of the air-sac*.] 

On the Nervous System of Acalephs, the observations are 
hitherto imperfect. In the Medusas Ehrenbebg observed, at the 
base of each of the eight marginal corpuscles which he takes to be 
eyes, a part which he considers to be a ganglion. Each of these 
ganglia is double, or consists of two limbs that diverge towards the 
marginal corpuscle. Besides these a row of ganglia lies near the 
tentacles at the margin of the disc ; every ganglion divides into two 
twigs, each of them for one of two adjoining tentacles: so that 
every tentacle receives two nervous twigs coming from diflerent 
ganglia. This ring of ganglia round the margin is interrupted by 
the larger double ganglia of the marginal corpuscles. Moreover, 
Ehrenbehg saw four groups of ganglia lying in the cavities for 
the four genital organs and in connexion with the tentacles of these 
cavities. Ehbenberg could not detect a nervous ring round the 
mouth, the usual form of the nervous system in Radials^. Some 
writers are of opinion that it by no means follows from these obser- 
vations that the parts so described are really nerves. Grant de- 
scribed in Cydippe pileus a nervous ring with eight ganglia, each 

* CJomp. ItEVCKAUT Zooloffiacke UrUersuchungen, 8. 3 — 41 ; Koellikkr in ZeU. f. 
Wissenaeh. Zool. iv. 8. 306 — 315. 

' Ehbbnbsbo DU Akalephen &e. 8. 25, 36. 

Digitized by 



giving off three nerves, of which the largest mn lengthwise between 
two bands of cilia* close to the external surface of the body; but a 
later observer, F. Will, was not so fortunate as to find this system 
of nerves. On the contrary he detected a conical ganglion above 
the fdnnel-shaped structure from whence the water-canals arise, 
consequently opposite to the mouth. From this ganglion many 
fine threads arise, to be distributed to the substance of the body 
and its different parts. In the same situation Milne Edwakds also 
saw a ganglion in the genus Lesueuria, from which numerous 
nerves, collected into four bundles, arose*. 

Ehrenbebg considers the eight prominent organs, situated in 
Medusw at the edge of the disc, to be eyes : they contain a sandy 
or stony concrement, a quantity of minute hexagonal prismatic 
ciystals composed of carbonate of lime. Such calcareous concre- 
ments are often found in the animal organism in the neighbourhood 
of nerves ; as for instance in Frogs by the sides of the vertebral 
column near the exit of the spinal nerves. A red pigment which 
moreover generally distinguishes these marginal corpuscles, (it is 
sometimes wanting,) caused Eurenberg to conjecture that they 
were eyes*. There is more probability in Koeluker's idea, that 
they are to be considered as auditory organs*. Even in vertebrates 
little stones or grit of carbonate of lime are found in the auditory 
sac or vestibule of the membranous Labyrinth. In Beroe and the 
allied genera only a single organ of the sort is found, a pedunculated 
vesicle with calcareous crystals at that end of the body which is 
opposite to the mouth*. 

The apparatus for motion consists of transparent muscular 
fibres, having sometimes a longitudinal, sometimes a circular 
course : they exhibit the same microscopic transverse stripes which 
are characteristic of the voluntary muscles of higher creatures*. 

Several of the Animals belonging to this Class are phospho- 
rescent. According to Ehrenberq the Arabians on the Red Sea 

1 Traru. of the Zooloff. Soc. London, i. 1833, P- 'O. 

* Attn. desK. not. le S^rie, Tom. xvi. Zoolog. p. 206. 

* Die Aiaiepken, b. 14. 

^ Fbobiep'8 Neue Nctken, xxv. Bd. (Januar. 1843) s. 81 — 84. 
< MiLXS Edwabds, 1. ]., Will, Sone Tergest. s. 45, 46. 

* Wagnkb Ban der Pdagia nodiluea; his Tab. Zoot. zxxiil. fig. 30 ; Will, 1. 1. 
■• 4^—49- 

Digitized by 



name the entire family of Medusae Seor Candles {Kandil el BaJir^). 
Bosc, and other writers after him, went too far when they main- 
tained that all Med%isw, nay all Acalephes (Eschscholtz) are 
phosphorescent. Still, not .Medusae alone, but other Acalephes also 
do possess this property: the phaenomenon has been observed in 
species of Berde ( Cydippe pileus^ Eucharis multicomis, '&c.) : Ste- 
phanomia also diffuses a lively light by night. This phosphorescence 
is a vital phaenomenon, and ceases on the death of the animals : 
though some of them, like other organic substances, are luminous 
even after death ; but that light is of a different nature from phos- 
phorescence during life. Thus Will, for instance, saw Beroe rw- 
fescens emit a light after death, which differed by its bluish-green 
colour from the yellowish-red irradiations of the living animal. 
Dead Acahphoe^ or mucus arising from decomposition of animal sub- 
stances, can contribute little or nothing to the gorgeous spectacle 
of the illumination of the sea, of which so many voyagers have 
given striking descriptions : the chief cause of the brilliant sparks 
resides in minute marine animals, especially Meduace^ like the 
species which SuRiRAY named Noctiluca miliartSy and which, being 
not larger than a pin's head, looks like a globule of mucus to the 
naked eye^. 

Acalephes are met with in all seas. A very large number of 
species occur in the Mediterranean belonging to the most different 
forms. In the seas of the cold and temperate zones scarcely any 
Siphonophotw are found, at least not in the northern hemisphere ; 
however the currents may occasionally bring with them southern 
forms from a distance, as is proved by the fact that Owen, on the 
south-west coast of England, observed Velella and Porpita, and 
Hyndman, on the coast of Ireland, Dtphyes^. Some species are 
widely diffused, asAurelia auriia, and Gyancea capiUata: the first was 

^ Ehbehbebo das Leuchten dea Meerea, a. 146. Comp. espedally on Uus subject 
Uie work already quoted p. 53, so instructiye as well from the author's own observa- 
tions as from the extensive use he has made of earlier works. 

* [Van Bbniden refers Noctiluca mUiaria not to the Acalephes but rather to 
the Bhizopoda; see note by Dr Sohleosl in the german translation of this work, 
p. 106.] 

' Owen Lecturei on the comp, Anat, of the invert^. Animals, tS4^, p. 101 ; Htnd- 
KAN Note on the occurrence of ike Oenus Diphya on the coast of Inland, Ann, qf Nat, 
Hist, vn. 184 1, p. 164. 

Digitized by 



found hj Ehrenberg in the Red Sea, and he could not discover 
any difference between it and that found in the northern and the 
Baltic seas. Oftentimes manj species of Medusae are collected in 
such quantities at certain places, that they form as it were banks 
in the sea, which it requires days to sail through \ In fine calm 
weather Mednaas come to the surface : during storms they seek the 
quieter waters of the depths. 

1 PiBOir 0( Lbsusub AnnaXu Sm. Mum, xiv. p. 221 ; rooh a bank of M0du9a aurita 
m the Baltic at the month of the Weichael was also described by V. Sibbold, Beitr. z, 
Naturge$eh. der wirbeUoten Thiere, s. 5. 

Digitized by 




Gelatinous animals, swimming freely. Stomach included in 
the parenchyme of the body, without an abdominal cavity ; canals 
arising from the stomach, filled with water. Ovaries and testes in 
one and the same individual or the sexes distinct without organs 
of copulation. Vestiges of a nervous system not always distinct. 
Arrangement of parts usually quatemarian. 

Order I. Siphonophorw. 

[Swimming Polyps without tentacles round the mouth, attached 
to a common stem of variable length, and moving freely by means 
of special swimming apparatus, with prehensile filaments, feelers, 
and protective covers or bracts, or some only of these organs, 
attached mediately or immediately to the same common stem.] 

This first order includes the Acdl^phea hydrostaUqties of Cuvier 
and a part of his AcaUphes sirnplea. 

Family I. VelelltdcB or Chondrophorce. Common body, sup- 
ported by a cartilaginous* lamina, which is cellular internally. 

The part of the body which faces upward is supported by a 
disc, which in Porpita is even in some degree calcareous, and con- 

\} The disc contains horay substance, not cartilage, according to Leuokart.] 

Digitized by 



tarns cells which are full of air. Above, this disc is covered by the 
integument alone; below, it sustains all the parts of which the 
[compound] animal consists. 

[The shell of Vddla with its horizontal and perpendicular plates 
consists of a single piece. The thicker horizontal portion is formed 
of two laminse connected by perpendicular concentric pieces, so that 
annular canals are formed which are filled with air. These canals 
communicate with each other in Velella, but not in Porpita : in both 
they open externally by many minute pores on the upper surfieu^e. 
The soil parts constitute a mantle which covers the sheU and projects 
beyond its edge by a free border. At the inferior excavated portion 
of the shell, the mantle has on its outside the attached polyps and 
appendages^ on the inside the large liver. 

The polyps are of two sorts, a single large and central polyp, and 
many small ones disposed around it in irregular rows. They have 
been designated " stomachs " and " suctorial tubes." But observers 
do not agree respecting their function. Lessok attributes to both sets 
a digestive power. Voyage de la CoquiUe, pp. 49 — 56^ and Acalip^iea 
p. 561 : whilst Y. Siebold Vergl. AruU. a 63^ note, thinks that the 
smaller polyps alone discharge the office of digestion, and consigns 
the large one to the respiratory Gfystem : and Hollaed Ann. des Sc. 
NcU, T. iiL 1845/ p. 250, says that the large central pouch is the 
stomach and the small ones canaiix aquiftres, Koelukeb however 
assures us "that he has found small Crustacea both in the large and 
the small tubes, and has seen the residue of digestion pass from 
them all indifferently. Consequently we conclude with him and 
others, that the VdeUidcB are colonies or compound animals. 

The liver m a large brownish mass placed above the central 
stomach : it fills the inferior cavity of the horizontal plate. It is a 
collection of fine canals formed of homogeneous membrane lined 
with brown cells. A certain number of the canals branch firom two 
openings in the base of the central polyp : they frequently anastomose 
and form a network on the surface of the liver frx>m which fine 
vessels pass to the perpendicular plate and to the margin of the 
horizontal plate {Velella). These vessels, then^ would seem to have 
received the nutriment which has passed from the central stomach 
into the liver^canals, for the purpose of redistribution to the soft 
parts when it has been modified by the biliary secretion. Of the 
smaller polype a few, which hang beneath that part of the liver which 
projects beyond the large polyp, open into liver-canals: but the 

Digitized by 



greater part of them have no oonnezion with these canals, or with 
the central polyp, but lateral branches of the Toeeb open into their 
pedicles, so that they at once give the product of digestioa to the 
vascular system. In Porjnta the lesser polyps open into liyer^janala 
and not into vessels. 

The generative organs are seated, as clusters of minute bodies, on 
the pedi<des of the smaller polyps. They become transparent and 
pyramidal, and having gradually assumed the mediisan form are 
detached. They were first noticed by DEiiLE Chiaje, Descriz, iv. 
p. 107, Tav. 146, fig. 10, 12. The sexual germs are formed on the 
wall of the radiating vessels. Huxley, Gegenbauer, L L 

Hie prehensive organs are placed around the lesser polyps on the 
horizontal margin of the mantle. They are hollow and open into a 
vessel like the lesser polyps. They have no special nettle-nodes, but 
numerous scattered thread-cells. 

The air-canals were discovered by Ksohn ; they are minute vessels 
which pass firom the innermost air-spaces of the horizontal cartilage, 
perforate the mass of the liver, and reach the walls of the polyps 
where they appear to terminate by closed extremities. They are 
most numerous in Porpvta. See Kokt.t.tkkr Die Siphonoph. pp. 46 — 

Velella Lam. A semi-orbicular crest, compressed, containing a 
cartilage within, placed obliquely above the disc. Marginal ten- 
tacles simple. 

Sp. Vddla »piran8, Meduia vdeUa L., Holoth. tpirana Fobsk. Icon. Ber, 
nalwr. Tab. xxvi. fig. k, ArmeiMtarium veUUa Costa Ann, da 8c. not, 
sec. adrie, Tom. xvl PI. 13, fig. 3, (figure of the vessels from the stomachs 
on the inferior surface of the cartilaginous disc), in the Mediterranean. 
Aooording to FobskXl the French sailors call the animal VaUeUe: they 
eat it fried with flour and batter. The name VeUUa appears to be derived 
from vdvm and from the crest^ which like a full-spread sail, adorns the 
upper sur£EU». The beautiful blue colour of the animal is impaited to the 
water in which it is examined, but disappears in spirit of wine. During 
life the creakure is not unattractive {**non tnvemuta eat quantum vemU 
Ueet," Fobsk. Deacr. Animal, p. 105) ; see the coloured figure of Lbsueub 
in TiBOV, Voyage attx terret auatr, PI. xxx. fig. 6. (This species is from the 
Tropical Seas, VeUUa ecapkidia PiboN). For the other species, not easily 
to be distinguished, of this genus, consult chiefly Esohboholtz Syat. der 
AcaUphen, s. 168 — 175. 

Subgen. JRcUaria Ebchsch. Crest membranous, placed longitudi- 
nally on the disa 

Digitized by 



NcU. If the figures in FobskJU, Tab. xxvl fig. k3, k4, k5, belong to 
a }f(mng VeleUa, aa appears from the explanation of the plate, this genus 
must be suppressed ; which is Blaikvillk*b opinion. 

Porpita Lam. The Lamina cartilaginous (?), circular, marked 
with concentric strias decussated radially. Marginal tentacles 

Sp. PorpUa medUerranea EaOHSOH., Porp. Fonkalii, Dx Bjlav, ffol, denu- 
data FoBBL Icon, Bar. waL Tab. xxvi. fig. L., in the Mediterranean ; — 
Porp, umbeUa Esghsgob., Porp. giffomUa PiBON, Voy. aux ferret auttr, 
PL zxxi. fig. 6, in the Tropical Seas ; Porp. ckryeocoma Liaa., GUJE&IN 
Iconogr.y Zoophytet, PL xviu. f. 2. — {Medusa PorpUa L. is merely the 
cartilaginous disc of some species of this genus.) 

Family II. PhyasophoridoB {Hydrostatica Cuv.) Body sus- 
pended in the water by means of a swim-bladder or of receptacles 
filled with air. 

Btadder-bearers. The opinion that these animals are able to 
expel the air from the air-hladder at will was rendered doubtful, as 
a general rule, by Olfebs, who could find no opening in the large 
bladder of Physalia. [Subsequent observations however have deter- 
mined that Physalia is the only one of the Physsophoridce whose 
bladder does really communicate with the external air. But^ though 
there be no such communication in the rest, Leuckart states that 
in many of them (and he believes it to be true of all) the air may 
be readily caused to pass from the cavity of the bladder into that of 
the common stem, by the expansion of the upper extremity of which 
the air-'bladder is in all cases surrounded. 

a) with short stem or axis without swimming bells. 

Physalia Lam. Swimming bladder very large, crested above, 
with an aperture at one extremity : the whole of the common stem 
expanded so as to form a receptacle for it: from the inferior surface 
of the eitpanded stem the polyps are suspended together with 
feelers and prehensile organs, of dififerent thickness and of great 

SeaMadder. The colony swims constantly on the sur&oe of the 
sea^ and for that purpose makes use of the crest on the top of the 
bladder as a saiL Hence its name, het bezaantje, the Partuffuese 
man of loor, la petite galh'e, &c If in the nomenclature we ought 
strictly to hold to priority, then this genus ought to be named 

Digitized by 



Salacia, for thus Lu7N.£UB annoonoed it in the earlier editions of his 
Syst N(U, ; in the tenth and following editions it is no longer met 
^ with, and Linn.£US afterwards arranged the species known to him 
under the genus HohthwrioL 

Yon Olfebs especially threw much light upon the organisation of 
this genus by the investigation of Phyacdia caravella Eschsch. {Phys, 
wreikusa Tiles.) A PhyaaUa has two bladders, the internal is 
filled with air, and was described by Olfebs as perfectly closed; the 
external has an aperture situated at one extremity and surrounded 
by a sphincter. 

[QuATREFAGES has desciibed the action of this sphincter muscle, 
and the connexion of both bladders with the aperture; he also 
caused the air contained in the interior bladder to be analysed, and 
found that it contained less of oxygen than atmospheric air by about 
3 per cent. : the animal appeared to be able to expel the air volunta- 
rily at intervals, and to distend the bladder again after a short time: 
it would therefore seem to be a respiratory organ for the colony : the 
air-bladder is surrounded on all sides by the external bladder or 
envelope, which is in fact the expanded stem of the colony : with the 
under surface of this the various appendages are connected, and into 
its cavity the cavities of them all open more or less directly : the 
bladder in Phyaalia did not appear to Quatrefages^ to be merely a 
passive organ, for besides the power of emptying and distending it 
the animal seemed to be able to direct the fluid contained in the 
cavity of the appendages into this or that bundle of them at will, 
and so to alter the position of the center of gravity of the bladder, 
and by thus bringing different regions of it to the surfiice to steer 
its course.] 

The larger and smaller tentacles are capable of extension and 
contraction, and serve probably for feeling and seizing. Small 
clumps of red corpuscles, which are situated between the larger 
tentacles, are, according to Olfebs, eggs : but the sexual organs of 
the Pkysaophoridce require further investigation. 

See V. Olfbbs in Physikal. Ahhandl, der KSnigl. Akademie der Wisaemck, 
zu BerUna, d, Jahre 1831, Berlin 1832, 8. 155 — aoo. 

Comp. also on iliis genus J. G. Van Hasselt in Algem. Kund. en LeUer- 
bode i8«8, No. 44, 45 ; F. W. Etsbkhardt, Nov. Act. Acad. Oca. Leap. 

^ Ann. det Sc. wiL %e S^rie, Tom. Ii. p. 115. 


Digitized by ' 


Ca/roL Tom. x. a. 410 — 416, Tab. xxxv. fig. 49 ; Esohboholtz in o. t. 
KoTZKBUB*s Entdeckwng9^ceiae m. 1821, a. 193, and Syti. der Acalephen, s. 
157—164. LsucKART in Zeiitchr. fOr Wieuentch, Zooloffie in. 1 89 — 2 1 3. 

AthoryUa EsCHSCH. {Rhodophyaa Blatnv.) [The motor organ 
of the colony a coronet of solid bracts, or covers, fixed to the stem 
immediately beneath the air-bladder. Polyps, feelers and prehen- 
sile filaments attached to the very short remainder of the stem. 

Sp. AthoT^fia rotaeea Esohbch. Koellikxb Die Siphonoph. Tab. vn. The 
Polyps are not nearly as numerous as the bracts. In large colonies Kokl- 
LIKXB could not count more than eight of them whilst the bracts numbered 
10 — 40. They are seated in t^e space covered by the bracts, and with their 
points project somewhat beyond them when the coronet opens, but lie entirely 
concealed when it closes. The feelers are more numerous than the polyps 
(11 — ?o), long and nearly filiform, and play between the bracts when they 
open. The lateral subdivisions of the prehennle organs terminate by two 

b) with short axis or stem and swimming bells. 

Physsophora FoBSK. Several swimming bells disposed verticil- 
lately roimd the common stem. The polyps with feelers and 
prehensile organs, but without bracts (Gegenbauer), attached to 
the remainder of the stem immediately below the swimming 

Phyasophora (fix)m (putra or ^ua-a-a), literally bladder-becMrer, wa« 
compared by Fobskael to the so-called Cartesian Imp {situs animalts 
hydrostdUictis mMaJtnis pulmone extra corpus, ad formamh machines 
quami Diaholwm GaHesicmwm appeUamms), Descr, Animal, p. 112. 

Sp. Pkys8ophora kydroatatica F0B8K. Icon. Rer, not.. Tab. zxxni. fig. E, in 
the Mediterranean ; Physaoph. muzonema Pkbon, Voy. aux terret ausfrtUe*, 
PI ^9, fig. 4; Lesson AeaJ^phen, PL 9, fig. 1, in the Atlantic, &c. 

The species are not sufficiently distinguished ; Fobskael figured an im- 
perfect specimen, which for the most part had lost the suctorial tubes and 
other appendages. The figure given by Phili^pi not long ago represents 
the animal in an uninjured state ; this writer supposes that the specimen 
found by him in the Mediterranean belongs to another species, which he 
names Phyuophora tOrtuticha. There are four rows of swimming bells, and 
in each row four. See his Memoir in Mukllxb's Archiv. 1843, <«. 58 — 67, 
Taf. v. [KoELLiKEB statos that thia.of Philifpi is identical with the Physto- 
phora rotacea of t)BLLA Chatja, */>flj<T. d^U anim. invertehr. TV. pag. 119, 
•Tav. 33, fig. ^f]'- ' ^ ^ 

VOL. T. 8 

Digitized by 



[See KOEiiLiKEB'8 description of a new species (1. 1 p. 19, Tab. t.) found by 
him at Messina, and which he calls Phyn. PkiUppi. The type of PhysBophara 
IB distinguished by the very small length of the axis below the swimming 
column. The column is as usual tenninated by a small bladder above the belln 
filled with air. Beneath it the polyps, feelers, prehensile and sexual organs 
are all compressed into a small space. The feelers surround the axis immedi- 
ately beneath the bells in a continuous coronet, like the calyx of a flower. 
They are described by Kosllikkr as exceedingly sensitive, in constant 
motion, and even laying hold of prey. Within the circlet of feelers arise 
the Polyps, each with its prehensile filament The nettle-node has an 
exceptional formation. There are no bracts or covers, their protective office 
being supplied by the near neighbourhood of the swimming column. The 
sexual organs are seated in bunches on the stem dose to the Polype, a pair 
of different sex at the base of every Polyp. 

c) with long axis without swimming bells. 

Rhizophysa P^RON. No swimming bells: the polyps with 
their prehensile organs lateral, usually secund : bracts and feelers 

Sp. Jthizophysa Percnii Esohsch. AeaL Ta£ xm. fig. 3. Rhizophysa JUifor- 
mia Lax., ZdUehriftfQ/r msaenach. Zoologie, v. s. 324—330. Taf. xvin. fig. 

d) with long axis or stem and swimming bells at the upper 
part of the common stem. 

Stephanomia P^KON, EsCHSCH. Swimming bells numerous, 
forming a conical column which surrounds the stem with many 
spiral turns. Polyps set on the stem by a long, slender, contractile 
pedicle. Feelers pediculate aflSxed to the stem, usually in threes 
between two successive Polyps. Bracts or covers not confined to 
the stem, but also surrounding the base of the Polyps as the calyx 
a flower. Prehensile filaments very long with lateral branches 
at regular intervals bearing a node and terminating in a single 
thread. Sexual organs in bunches close set on the feelers fi-om 
the stem. 

The Stephanomia uvaria of Lesueub does not, according to 
KoELLiKER, difiTer from Apolemia Esohsch. 

In a specimen of Stephanomia four feet in length Leuckart 
counted no less than 20 spiral turns in the swimming column, with 
10 — 12 bells in each turn. The three feelers from the stem are two 
on a common pedicle and one sessile. The male and female organs 

Digitized by 



are in dose proximity to each other at the base of the double feelers. 
The male are the least numerous^ the form oval, slightlj medusan, 
^the nucleus as it ripens passing from red to yellow : there are four 
radial canals and a circular canal, the mantle lying close to the 
nucleus and having an opening. The female appendages are smaller 
and round, but of similar structure, except that the central vessel of 
the nucleus is not developed, for each appendage contains only a 
single ^g. Ck)mpare the interesting observations and figures of 
Milne Edwabds Anru des Sc. NcU. 2e S6rie Tom. xvi. Zool. pp. 
217—229, PL 7—10. Also R. Anim. Cuv. ^d. iUustr. Zooph. PL 
59. See Leuckabt Zodog. Untersuch. Erster Heft. s. 38. 

Forskalia Koelliilbb. 

8p. FankcUia Bdwardtii Koell. This new genus and species differs little^ if 
at aD, from Stephanomia according to Liuokabt. See the description and 
beantifal figures in Koelltkkb Die Siphcnophoren v. Metsina, s. i — lo. 
Taf. I. II. 

Agalmopsis Sabs. Swimming colimm formed of two rows of 
bells alternating. Below it, the stem gives origin to single Polyps, 
feelers, prehensile filaments and sexual organs with numerous 
transparent bracts or covers. 

Sp. Agalmoptis degofOB Sabs, Fauna litter. Norvegia i. p. 36, Tab. v. fig. 7, 8. 
The prehensile filaments give off branches which again subdivide to terminate 
in two threads : a contractile bladder is seated below the point of last divi- 
sion, and immediately before this is a spiral nettle-node covered by a beU- 
shaped duplicature from the filament on which it is placed. AgalmoptU 
puneUUa Kosll., a new species, differs from the last i|i the branches of the 
prehensile organs having the node without a cover, and in terminating 
without further division: also the feelers have special prehensile organs 
which are knotted. 

Agalma EscHSCH. Swimming column with bells in two rows : 
feelers scattered. Polyps with bracts and prehensile organs of 
which the lateral branches are provided with a large nettle-node 
and subdivide to terminate in two threads having a contractile 
vesicle between them at the division.] 

Sp. Agalma OJceni Eschsoh. Itis xvi. 1825, Tab. 5, Sytt. der Acaleph. p. 151, 
Tkb. xin. fig. I. 

[ApolenUa EscHSCH. Swimming column composed of two rows 
of bells of quadrangular form with rounded angles. Feelers firom 
two to four set on the stem between successive pairs of bells. 


Digitized by 



Polyps numerous, sessile, prehensile organs with simply spiral 
nettle-nodes. Bracts claviform with special prehensile organs small, 
knotted. At regular distances below the swimming column a 
collection of polyps with all these appendages surround the stem. 

Note, — ^In no other genus of Phyiaophorida lune feelers met with on the 
part of the stem which supporta the swimming bells. 

Steplumomia twaria LX880N belongs to this genus : Kokllikss, Die 
Schmmmpolypen, s. i8. See Gboenbaubb's description of a complete 
specimen of it, and figure, ZeUechrift f&r vnssensch. Zool. v. s. 319 — 324. 
PL xvni. fig. I. 

Family III. HippopodidoB, Colonies of swimming Polyps, 
without swimming bladder, with short common stem, the swim- 
ming column not formed of bells. 

Hippopodius QuOY and Gaim. Eschsch. The swimming 
column formed of bracts in two rows, and covering one another 
imbricately, with filiform short stem, to which the polyps with 
their prehensive and sexual organs are attached. 

Sp. ffippop, Ivtens, Ann. dee Sc, not. x. 1827, s. 172, 173, PI. iv. A. 
GnxBiK leonogr., Zooph. PL xix. fig. 4. — ffippopod. neapolitanfie Kokll. 
Die Siphon, pp. 28 — 31. Tab. vi. figs, i — ^5. 

Vofftia KOELL. 

Sp. Vogtia pentacaniha Eobll. Die Siph, von Meesina, s. 31, 32. Tab. 

Family IV. DiphyidcB. Locomotive apparatus of the colony 
two distinct cartilagineo-gelatinous transparent pieces aflfixed to the 
upper part of a thin cylindrical common stem. The stem begin- 
ning in the substance of the anterior piece passes in a groove of the 
posterior between the two, and then gives attachment to groups 
consisting of a single polyp and its appendages.] 

This fiEumly includes certain marine animals, transparent as glass, 
which swim by means of the contraction of hollow organs filled 
with water ; it has the genus Diphyes for its type, which was first 
formed by Cuvieb in the first edition of his R^gne Animal, iv. p. 61. 
This genus rested on a species discovered by Bort be Sadtt- 
Vincent at the beginning of this century (1801), in the South 
Atlantic Ocean, and described mider the name of Salpa bipartita; 
see his Voycbge dans les qucUre principaUea ties des Mera dA/Hquej 

Digitized by 


ACALEFHiEl. 117 

I. 1804, p. 134, PL VL fig. 3, A, B, C. The two pieces provided with 
swimming cavities, nearly similar in form, were afterwards, by 
CuviEB {B^gne Anvm. sec, ed, iii. p. 288) and other writers, 
erroneously taken to be two animals which had become attached 
to each other, an opinion occasioned by observing that they 
were readily separated. This separation, or spontaneous detach- 
ment of different parts, has often been remarked in the entire 
order — as in Fhyssophora, Kkiaephyaay StephanomM. In fact, 
JXphyes is much more nearly allied to these genera than might 
be suspected from many, and sometimes very confused, descriptions 
of it. I may remark, that the part which, in our description, 
we have indicated as anterior, is called posterior by the first 
discoverer, Bory, and by many others after him. 

QuoY and Gaimabd, who discovered many new species of this 
family and formed new genera from them, {Ann, dee Sc not. 
Tom. X. 1827, p. 5 — 21,) determined subsequently to bring them 
all \mder the single genus Diphyes, {Voyage de dicouvertea de 
FAstrdahe, Zoolog. Tom. iv. 1833, p. 81). [But more accurate 
observations of late years have shewn that this proceeding is not 
advisable. In Praya the swimming beUs are similar in form, 
and are placed, more or less, side by side, and their cavities 
open on opposite sides of the stem. In Diphyes the beUs are 
placed behind one another and open backwards. 

The common stem b^ins within the substance of the anterior 
bell, or piece, in a more expanded portion, which is lined with 
large epithelial cells, and has very different form in different genera. 
This expanded portion often contains a globule of oily matter. 
Beneath it the stem gives origin to the canals of the swimming 
pieces, and then is prolonged to become the common axis of the 

The polyps with their different appendages are fixed to the stem 
at regular intervals. Those nearest to the swimming pieces are 
quite undeveloped and without appendages. Those at the other 
extremity of the stem are the oldest and most perfect, and have 
their appendages most complete. Each group consists of a Polyp, 
a set of prehensile organs, and the generative organ, which partakes 
more or less of the medusan form — ^the whole being covered by 
a protecting bract. Such a group either persists in adhering to the 
common stem, {Diphyes^ Praya), and then only certain parts are 
detached, as the medusiform capsules of the sexual organs ; or it is 

Digitized by 


118 CLASS II r. 

capable, to a certain degree, of independent existence, and when 
fully developed, separates itself from the stem of the colony {Ahf/lay 
In the Praytdas, the coTers are bounded by round sur&ces above, 
and have a cavity below, like a helmet, to receive the other members 
of the group : in Diphyea they surround the stem like a rolled leaf, 
(differing, however, in form in the different species) and adhere to 
it by the narrow part In Ahyla they cover the members of the 
group imperfectly, are almost solid, yet with a cavity in the interior 
which is in connexion with that of the stem, and which is lined by 
large cells. In all these groups the sexual buds are more or less 
medusiform, and may be developed into a swimming belL They 
sprout from the base of the Polyp.] 

Comp. on this family, besides the above work of QuoT and Gaikabd, 
especially Esohsoholtz, Syst, der AhaUphen, s. 172, 133, Lbuckart Zodlo- 
giache Untersuchungen, i. s. 41 — 49, Koelliksr Die Sckwimmpolyp. s. 36 — 
46 : also Will, nora TergestincR, s. 76 — 83, Gboenbaubb in Zeiitchr, f, 
wi88, zool, V. 8. 197 — 300. 

[Diphyes Cuv. The posterior swimming piece received into a 
cavity of the anterior : the groups on the common stem protected by 
a bract or cover in form of a rolled leaf. 

Sp. Dipkyes angustata EsoHSCH. Tab. xn. fig. 6 (the species of Bobt seems 
to belong here;) — IHph. campawdifira Esohsoh., Quot and Gaihabd 
Ann. dea Sc. not. x. 1827, PL I. ; IHph. gracUis Gbgkkbaueb ZeiUckr. far 
wiateMch. Zoologie, v. s. 309—315- Taf. xvi. fig. 5— 7.— />tpA. Siebddei 
KOELL. Die Siphon, v. Messina, s. 36 — ^41. Taf. xi. fig. i — 8. — Diph. gra- 
cUis Gegbnb. Zeitsehr. /. w. Zool. v. s. 313 — 315. Taf. xvi. fig. 5 — 7. — 
Diph. Kochii Will Hot, Tergest. Tab. 11. f. 21—16 ; figured without the 
posterior portion which Will did not meet with in any one of the six speci- 
mens examined by him^. 

Ahyla EsCHSCH. QuOY and Gaimard [Calpe of the same). 
The two swimming bells of very diflFerent size, the anterior mnch 
the smaller. The bracts cover the members of the groups imper- 
fectly, are massive, and have a cavity communicating with the 

Sp. Ahyla, pentagona Esohsch., Koellikbb Die Siph. v. Mess. s. 41 46, 

Tab. X. ; here the single polyps have no coTers : see a complete specimen 
described and figured in Lecokabt Zod. Untersuch., i. s. 56—61, Taf. nr. 
fig. I— 10. The bracts, or covers, which are not visible on the polyps at 

^ Compare also on this genus Lesson Centurie Zoologiqtte, 1830, p. 16 t — 183, 
1*1. 55—57. 

Digitized by 


ACALEPH^. 119 

the upper pari of ihe item, undeiigo remarkable metamorphooes after Uieir 
first appearance aa buds until they attiun the cubical form, when the group 
of which it fonnB a part exactly reaembles a young Eudana cvboidea, QuOT 
and Gaim. See also Geoinbaueb ZeUach. fur tns$. Zool. v. s. 191—195. 

Fratfa Lesson. The two swimming pieces of the colony nearly 
similar and equal, the covers of the developed groups bounded by 
rotmd surfaces above and concave beneath. 

Sp. Praya diphyea Lsss., Koellikeb Die Siphon, von Me$». s. 33— 3<5, Taf. 

a,—Pngya maaeUna Gegekb. Zeitach. f, wiaamich. ZooL v. a. 3o»— 309» Taf- 

xvn. fig. I — 6. 
The genera Endoxia, Ersasa, Agktisma Esohsch., which have 
only a single polyp, have been termed monogastric diphyida^ by 
Huxley j but it is almost certain that they are not independent 
genera. It has been noted above, when treating of Ahyla petUa- 
gona, that a single group of this compound diphyea exaxstly resem- 
bles Eudooda cuhoides; and here the groups have been seen to 
detach themselves from the colony both by Leuckabt and by Geqen- 
BAUEB — as indeed the same &ct had previously been observed by 
Sabs in his Diphyeg tnmccUa, Eudoxia campantUata is believed by 
Leuckabt to be a group of Diph. acuminata, a new species observed 
by him at Nice ; whilst he has found that Aglaisma pentag<mum is 
not a monogastric diphyea , but an imperfectly developed Ahyla pen- 
tagma, see Zoologiach, Unterauch. s. 54. Eracea is suspected by 
Leuckabt to be a detached group of Diphyea Koch, Wilu 

Evdoxia (&c.) consists of a cover or bract, a polyp with its pre- 
hensile organs, a swimming bell (sexual capsule), and usually a 
smaller bell sprouting firom the base of the polyp, which is destined 
to replace the larger when this has been detached. These ports 
are all connected by their canals to a portion of common stem.] 

Sp. EnoBa pyramidaUs Will, i. I fig. 27 > &c- ;— Comp. Leuckabt Zocl, 
Untenuch. 1, s. 43—61, Gegbnbaubb Zeiisch. f. mn, Zool. v. 185—296. 

Ordeb II. CtenophorcB, or Beroecea. 

Mouth simple, stomach situated in the axis of the body. Vibra- 
tile cilia disposed in rows on the surface of the body. Swimming 
bladders none. 

The Beroecious animals are Acalephs of very different form, 
which, however, are distinguished from the former order by the 
absence of swimming bladders [bells] and cartilaginous laminae, as 

Digitized by 



well ajB suctorial mouths : [they are single animals, in short, and not 
colonies.] The projecting edges, usually named ribs (coattB) which 
are beset with cilia, especially characterise this family : whence the 
German name BippenqtMUen. Whether these vibratile cilia, which 
occasionally are so arranged as to form vibrating laminse, do really 
cause the progression of these animals, as is usually assumed, is in 
consequence of the objections raised by Mertens and by Will 
{ITorcB Tergest b. 8 — 13) exceedingly doubtful. 

The name Beroe given by Beown {N<U. Hist of Jamaica) to the 
animal discovered by him in the middle of the last century, is 
borrowed from Mythology; it is that of one of the numerous 
daughters of Oceanua : 

CUoque a Beroi soror, OceaniUdei amho, — 

ViBOiL, Gtorgic, Lib. iv. 341. 

Comp. on this order : Bang, hablitaemaa de la FamUU des BSroidet et 
description de deux genres nouveaux qui lui appartiennerU ; MSinoires de la 
Soc. d'ffist, not, de Paris, Tom. iv. i8a8, pp. 166 — 173, PL 19, ao. 
Mebtenb Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen Uber die heroearligen Aca- 
lephen, MSm, de VAead, imp, des sc. de St. Petenixmrg, sc. physiq, Bixibme 
s^rie, Tom. 11. 1838, pp. 479—543, Taf. i. — im. (A copious extract may 
be found in Oken'b /<nf, 1836, b. 311 — 321.) Lesson, Mim, aur la 
famille des Biroides, Ann. des Sc. not. 1* s^rie, Tom. vi. Zool. 1836, 
PP- «3S— «^- 

Family V. Beroidea. (The characters of the order are those 
of the single family.) 

A) Stomach smalL 

Cesium Lesueur. Body transverse, elongate, gelatinous, with 
ciliated margins. 

Sp. Cestum Veneris Lesueub Nouv. BuUet. de la soc. philom. Join, 18 13, 
PI. V. (Recus. in Oken's Isis, 1817, s. 1505—1508, Tab. xn.) Gdi^bin, 
Iconogr. Zooph, PI. 18, fig. i. (after a drawing by LAUBHiLABD) in the 
Mediterranean. This girdle of Venus has the form of a band of more 
than fiv^ feet long, and full two inches high. In the thinner inferior edge 
is situated the oral aperture (opposite to the phbce assigned to it by 
Lesueur in the thicker superior edge). In Cestum Najadis Esohsoh. 
Acal. Tab. i. fig. i, from the South-Sea, near the Line, two long tentaeula 
beset with fine threads ore present, which in the species from the 
Mediterranean are often, and in Cestum Amphiirites Mebtenb (1. L Tab. i.) 
are (always ?) wanting. 

The genus Lemniscus QuoY and Gaim. is probably founded on a detached 
piece of Cestttm. 

Digitized by 


ACALEPH^. 121 

CaUtanira P^RON. Body lobate or supplied with lateral 

Subgenera : Eucharia Eschsch., Leucotkea Mebtens, Mnemia 
EscH. {Alcinoe Eang), Leaueuria Milne Ebw., Calymma Eschbch. 
{Ocyroe Rang), CaUianira Peron, Eschsch. 

In bringing these numerous genera together^ and giving greater 
extension to the name CcUlianiray than has been done by former 
writers, my sole object is to &cilitate the review, and at the 
same time to indicate the affinity of these animala Beyond doubt 
the genera are too numerous here. The genus Bucephalon of 
Lesson {CaUianira bucephalon Eeynaud, Less. Cenlwr, zool. PL 28) 
also belongs here, and probably does not differ from Calymma 

Sp. CaUianira heaoagona Eschbch., CaUian. SlahUri Db Haan, Natutir' 
hundige Bijd/ragen II. 1827, pp. 150 — 153; this species has been con- 
founded with Bero6 keaoagonus of BBUOUiaBBS (found at Madagascar). 
In the genus CaUianira proper, there are two filiform branched tentacles ; 
the other subgenera have mostly four conical or triangular ciliated 

Cydippe EsCHSCH. {Beroe Freminville, Mertens.) Body 
globose or ovate, with eight longitudinal, ciliated ribs. Tentacles 
two, retractile within two subcutaneous vesicles, 

Sp. Cifdippe pHeus, Bero€ piUus Muell., Volvox hicaudaltu L. ; L. Th. 
Gbonovius in UUgezocfUe Verhandelingen Amsterd. 1758, in. p. 464, 
PL 16, f. 1—5 ; Baster Natuwrh, UUsp. i. PI. xiv. fig. vi. vii. ; Cuv. R, 
Ani, id. iU.f Zoopk, PL 56, fig. a, &c. (Since the vesicles, in which the 
tentacles he, open towards that extremity of the body which is opposite to 
the mouth, the nervous ring (?) described by Grant, cannot surround the 
mouth, (see above, p. X04). The tentacles are able to lengthen themselves 
greatly ; why Eschbcholtz describes them as incUvisa, is not apparent ; at 
least in most species they are much divided. 

B) Stomach large A circle of vessels (aqueducts) round the oral 

Beroe EscHSCH. (spec, of the genus Beroe Gronov., Muell. and 
others) Idi/a Freminv., Oken, Mertens. Body oval, ribbed, 
with large circular aperture beneath. 

Sp. Bero€ ovata Browk, not. Hist, of Jamaica, PL xrv. fig. ^ ; (this animal 
was the first named Beroe ; LiNMiEUS named it in the tenth edit, of the 
Sytt, Nat., Medusa Berog, in the twelfth (1767) Volvox Beroe) ^—Beroi 
Forskalii, Medusa Beroe Forde., Milnb Edw. Ann. des sc. not. 0? s^rie, 
Tom. XVI. Zool. PL 5, 6 ; Cuv. B^gne Anim. id. iUustr., Zooph. PL 56, 
fig. I, &c. 

Digitized by 



Order III. Discophorce, 

Body disciform or campanulate, above naked, below usually- 
provided with arms or tentacles. 

The Meduacnda or SecMvhber. They have a gelatinous disc^ on 
the upper surface more or less spherical, which from its form has 
been compared to an umbrella or a hood ; the form has some re- 
semblance to toad-stools {agarici). These animals move themselves 
by expansion and contraction of the hood. The mouth, or the suc- 
torial organs which take the place of the mouth, are situated in the 
center of the inferior surface, sometimes elongated into a pedicle 
and provided with different tentacles. On this difference are 
foimded the numerous genera which modem writers have felt jus- 
tified in adopting. 

Compare on this order : P^bon et Lesusub, Tableau des earac- 
Ures ghiiriqiLes et specifiqtie3 de toutea lea eap^cea de Miduaea can- 
nueajuaqtCd, cejour. Annal. du Muaeum xiv. 1809, pp. 325 — 366. 

J. F. BRAinxr, Auafiih/rliche Beachreihung der van C. H. Mebtens 
aufaeiner WeUumaegdung heobdckteten SchirmquaUen ; mU 34 Tneist 
colorirten Tafeln. St Petersbui^, 1838, 4to (firom the Mem. de 
VAcad, dea Sc de SL Feterabua-Qy vi*. Serie, Tom. iv.) 

A) Many oscules. 

Family VI. Oeryonidce. A peduncle from the center of the 
inferior surface of the disciform body, with the free extremity 
lobate, or furnished with arms. The border of the body mostly 
tentaculate. {Genua Diancea Lam.) 

It is not so completely established that all the forms here brought 
together are really characterised by the absence of a simple mouth. 
Will at least, in the animals placed by him in the genus Geryonia, 
found a mouth surrounded by four lobes. In some the pedicle is 
supplied at its extremity with a folded appendage (Gerf/onia), in 
others at its base, or at its extremity, it is beset with threads : 
Favonia, Zi/mnorea, &c. 

Genera : Geryonia Pj^ron, Froboacidactyla Brandt, Diancea, 
Linuche EscHscH., Saphenia Eschsch., Eirene Eschsch., Limnorcea 
Peron, Fa/vonia Peron. 

Digitized by 


ACALEPHJi:. 123 

Bp, Oerffonia proboieidalii, Medtua proboicidalit FoBSK. lean. rer. not, TWb. 
56, fig. I ; GniBiir Iconogr,, Zooph. PL 16, fig. 9 ; CcviiBy Jt, Anim,, idU. 
Ukutr., Zooph,, PL 51, fig. 3. This species from the Mediiernuiean, with 
BIZ threads or tentacles at the margin of the disc, may be considered as 
the type of this divisioD. 

Family VII. Ehtzoatamidce. Anna ramose, with manj suc- 
torial oscules. Margin of the hody without tentacles* Disc with 
four avaria or testes, sometimes (in Cassiqpea) eight. 

Rhtzostoma CuY. Tentacles amongst the arms none; arms 
confluent into one pedicle inserted in the disc. 

Sp. Bhuottoma OuvierU, Rbauvub Mim. de VAcad. dei »e, de Paris, 17 10, 
PL XI. fig. 17, 18 ; CuviBB Journ, de Phynque Tom. XLIX. p. 436 ; Cuv. 
R. Anim, Sdit, HI. Zooph. PL 49. This species sometimes attains to 
a great size. The Jthizostoma has four pairs of suctorial anns, which are 
provided with absorbent vessels ; by these it receives its nutriment, which 
consequently consists of minute animalcules, or of animal matters in 
solution. These absorbent vessels and their branches coalesce into four 
stems, which run along the pedicle and end in the stomach. From the 
stomach run laterally vessels through the hood. Surrounding the stomach 
are four cavities, with very wide opening below, in which the organs 
of propagation are seated. The uppermost portion of the hood consists of 
a substance more firm than the rest of the body. See K. W. Etsbvhabdt, 
ZUr AntUomie und N'aturgeachichie der QucdUn, Nov. Ad, Acad, CctM^ 
Leop. Carol. Nat. Curios. T. X. pp. 375, &c. with figures. RKieoatama 
Aldrovandi Pi£bon, Guebin Iconoffr., Zooph. PL 15, fig. i, &o. 

Casswpea Peron. Tentacles amongst the arms none. Arms 
eight or ten, very much branched, not conjoined at the base into a 
peduncle, famished with yesicular appendages. 

Sp. Cassiopea frondosa, Mediua frondo$a Pall., Spic. Zool. X. Tab. n. ^, 
I — 3 ; Ccunopea horhonica Delle Chiaje, Mimorie wUa ttoria e notonUa 
degli Animali $ema vertdn^ del Regno di Napcli, I. 1823. Tab. m. ; Gu&iN 
Icon. Zooph., PL 15, fig. 1 ; Cuv. R. Anim. 4dU. HluttT., Zooph, PL 51, 
fig. 1, &c. (See other figures of Tilesiub Nov. Act. Acad. Cau. Leop, Car, 
Natur, Cwrios. Tom. XV. 2. 1831, pp. 247—288, Tab. 6g — 73. 

Cephea Peron. Large cirri amongst the arms. 

Sp. Cephea eyclophora P^bon. Meduta cephea Fobsx. Icon, rer. nai. Tab. 
XXIX. fig. (copied in Ccv. R. Anim. 6dU. ilhutr., Zooph. PL 51, fig. 4) &c. 

B) Mouth single central. 

Family VIII. Medustdea. Mouth teti-agonal central. Arms 
four, mostly very distinct, very rarely none. Four lateral cavities 
in the disc, open beneath, inclosing the genital organs. 

Digitized by 



This ^milj nearly coincides with the genus Cyancea Cut. The 
four openings beneath the disc, conducting to the cavities which 
contain the organs for propagation, were by Pebon and Lamarck 
incorrectly considered to be four mouths. 

Cyancea Cuv. (and species of the genus Pelagia ejusd.) 

Grenera : Stiienonia Eschsch., FhaceUophora Bb., Cyancsa 
EscHSCH., Aurdia Peron; Pelagia Peron, Chrysaora Peron, 
Ephyra Eschsch. {Buryale and Epkyra Peron.) 

Sp. Cyancea awrita, Medusa aurita L. ; Mubllbb Zoclog. danic. Tth. 76, 77 ; 
Ehbenb. Ahhandl. der AJcad. zu Berlin, phynk. Klasse 1835 ; CuY. R. 
Anim. 6dit, ill., ZoopK The four anns are considerably longer in old than 
in younger specimens ; these arms consist of two laminae crumpled at the 
edges, which during life face each other in such a way as to form a canal ; 
afler death they are flaccid and parted asunder. The disc is not quite 
circular, but in some degree divided by indentations of the margin into 
eight lobes. The four arms unite at the center of the body to form a 
circular aperture : this mouth leads to the stomach, which has four lateral 
cavities. From the stomach there run sixteen vessels to the margin of the 
duic, of which eight, divided into branches, alternate with eight others un- 
divided and open at the margin. In addition, there are eight corpuscles at 
the margin, which Ehbsnbebg considers to be eyes, and which were^ noticed 
above. This species is found in the North Sea and the Baltic. Comp. 
H. M. Gaedb Beitrdge zur Anatomie und Phynologie der Medtuen, mil 
2 Kupferiafdn, Berlin, 18 16, 8vo ; Baeb Ueber Medusa aurila, Mbckel*S 
Arckiv fiir die Physiol, vin. 1823, s. 369 — 391, with fig. ; F. Rosenthal 
Beitrag zwr ATtaJtonde der Quallcn, £eitschrift fiir Physiol., herausgegeben 
von F. TiEDEMANN, G. R. und L. C. Tbevibanus, i. 1, 1825, s. 318 — 330, 
with fig. 

Cyanaa capillaia, Medusa capillata, Basteb Natuurk. Uiisp. il.. Tab. v. 
fig. I. 

Pelagia noctUuca EsOHSOH., Medusa noctUuca F0B8K., Waqneb Bau der 
Pf^. noctUuca and Icon, Zool, Tab. xxxiii. ; in the Mediterranean, &c 

Ephyra EscHSOH., probably rests on young forms of Cyancea; comp. 
Will ffor, Tergest. Tab. n. fig. 10, and Sabs in Ebichson's Archiv, 1841, 
Tab. II. 

Family IX. Oceanidce, Disc without lateral cavities to in- 
close generative organs. Body campanulate. Mouth and oeso- 
phagus often elongated into a proboscis. Anna conspicuouB or 
lobes around the mouth. Canals proceeding from the stomach 

Digitized by 


ACALEPH^. 125 

Oceania Peron (with the addition of several species, and 
other genera). 

Subgenera: Ocecmia Peron, Circe Mebtbns, Cants Brandt, 
CcUlirhoe Peron, ThaujnanHas Eschsch., Tima £schsch., Mdicer- 
twn Oken, Cytasis Eschsch., Phorcynia P^bon. 

Sp. Oceania martupialis EscHSCH., Medtua manupialis L. ; Plano. de 
Conch, min. not. Tab. TV. fig. 5 ; MiLNB Edwabdb, Ann. de$ Sc. not. xxvni. 
1833, pp. 248 — 266, PI. II — 13, Mediterranean; — CaUirhoi Bcuteriana 
PfooN, Babtxb NcOuurh. ViUp. 11. Tab. v. fig. 2, 3, &c. 

Family X. JEquoridce, Disc without lateral cavities, inclosing 
organs of generation. Body depresso-campanulate or plane. Mouth 
and oesophagus not elongated into a proboscis. Arms none or 
little evolved. Stomach with sacculated appendages or canals 
radiating, elongate, numerous. 

JEquorea Peron, Cuv. 

Subgenera : jEqtiorea P^ron, Stomohrachium Brandt, Mesonema 
EscHSCH., Ev/ryhia Eschsch., FoLyxena Eschsch. 

Sp. Mqyorta PorgkaUrta Eschsoh., Medusa aquorea F0B8K. Icon. rer. not. 
Tab. xzxii. ;—jEquorea violacea MiLNB Edwabdb Ann. da Sc. not. le 
B^rie, Tom. xvi. Zool. pp. 193 — 199 ; Cuv. R. Ani. id. HI., Zooph. PL 71 ; 
the maigin has many conical cirri, the mouth Ls wide and round ; from 
the stomach proceed about eighty long undivided rays (water-<»mals), which 
run towards the mai^gin, and appear to open on a small conical point 
between two drri. The genital organs are situated below on the disc, on 
each side of every ray as folded borders, but they do not extend as far as 
the margin. (Esohboholtz divided the Diseophorce into Oryptocarpce and 
Phanerocarpce, Sytt. der Acal. p. 41 ; to the last, which have the sexual 
organs placed crucially in the disc and attracting observation by their 
colour, belong the JthieottomidcB and Medusidce ; to the first the Oeryonidce, 
Oceaaiidce and ^quoridcB ; in all of these the sexual oi^gans have not yet 
been detected, but they will probably be found at the under side of the 
disc, and since in uBquorea vidaeea, according to the observations of 
MiLNB Edwabds, they strike the eye on this surface, and are also dis- 
ting^hed by their violet colour, we cannot accept the name Crypto- 

[The Cryptocarpse of Esohscholtz include the naked-eyed Medutce of Fobbbs.] 

Note to the Diseophorce. There remain certain genera ofauthors, 
in which a mouth has not been found, namely Evdora and Berenice 
PisoN. (Sp. Berenice rosea, Cuvieria Perok Voyage attx terr, 
austr. PL 30, £ 2 ; Gu^rin Iconogr. Zooph. PI. 16, fig. 1.) These 

Digitized by 



genera, to which maj be added Stav/rophora Bbandt, form a family 
in the system of Eschscholtz^ to which he has given the name 
BerenicidoB, This fiunilj appears to me to be doubtfiil, as it does to 
Brandt and others ; we must leave the decision to time, I prefer 
to wait the resnlt of new observations, rather than to attribute to 
Acalephs nutrition by superficial absorption. 

For the rest, several genera of Acalephs are founded on figures of 
authors alone— and these sometimes imperfect and faulty. Hence 
no part of Zoology is more uncertain than this. 

Accordingly there are many genera which I have not recorded, 
and possibly more might have been omitted. For here excess of 
timidity is better than dearth of prudence. 

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The name Echinodermata was used by J. T. Klein rather 
more than a centuiy ago, to denote the shells of the sea-urchins, 
called Echini. *Extiw, with the Greeks, denoted both an urchin 
and a sea-urchin. Afterwards BruguiAres gave the name of 
Echinodermata to a division of the animal kingdom that comprised 
at once the sea-urchins and the star-fishes. Cuvier retained that 
name for this division, but added to it animals having a coriaceous 
skin without spines or quills. Although the name is no longer 
applicable to all the species of this class, yet the class itself must 
be looked upon as an extremely natural division of the Animal 
Kingdom. These animals are distinguished by an intestinal canal 
hanging firee in the cavity of the body by single threads or mem- 
branes, usually long and tortuous, or provided with lateral append- 
ages if it be short: blood vessels and respiratory organs are present; 
the genital organs, in both sexes of the same external form, are 
without any special apparatus for copulation ; the fertilisation being 

1 Consult on this class : 

L. Agassiz, Monoffraphdes d'Echinodermes vivans etfoasiUa. Neuch^atel, 1838 and 
foU. 4to. ^e ])«rt8 thus far have reference only to certain figures of Echmi. The 
fourth, pubHflhed in 1843, contains the anatomical description of Echinus Uvidus, by 

£. F0BBB8, A HUUynf of BrUUh Star-JUhes and other animaU of the doss Echino- 
denuMkt, lUuttraUd fty woodeuU. London, 184T, 8to. 

A capital work on the anatomy of this class is : 

F. TrgOKMAify, AnaionUe der Jt&hrm-ffolothurie, de$ pomeranz-farbigen Seettems 
und Stein-SeeigeU. Landshut, 18 16, folio; a prize Essay crowned by the French 
Institnt in i8i3. 

W. Shasfet, The article EchinodemuOa in Todd's Cydopadia of Anai. and Phy- 
Mog. n. pp. 30—46 (1836). 

J. MnsLLSB, Veber den aUgememe Plan der Entmckektng der Eckmodermen, Mit 8 
Kupfertaf, Berlin, 1853, 4to, and previous papers in the Ahh. d, Ahad. der Wisten- 
icke^. tu BerUn 1849, '^5^ 

Q. L. DuTXBNOT, M^, 8ur VAnalogie de CompotUicn d eur qvdguee poinU de 
TOrga$id$aHon dea Eehinoderms, Mim. de VAead. det Seienceij XX. Paris, 1848. 

Digitized by 


128 CLASS IV. 

eflFected by means of the sea-water in which these animals live. 
When parts are multiple, the number five prevails as remarkably 
in this class, as did the number four in the preceding: and the 
quintuple organisation is often obvious, as in star-fishes and sea- 
urchins, in the external form of the body. This is round or some- 
what pentagonal in the sea-urchins ; flat and spread out in rays in 
the star-fishes, with the mouth on the inferior surface. The Holo- 
ihurm haye, on the contrary, a cylindrical body. 

In the star-fishes, of which the body is flat, the mouth conducts 
to a wide stomach that fills the disc of the body. It was supposed 
formerly that this stomach was in all of them a blind sac, as 
TiEDEiiANN has described it in Asterias aurantiaca {Astropecten 
aurantiacus MuELL. and Tr.) Afterwards Meckel detected in 
Comatuke a second opening of the intestinal canal, that lies on the 
same surface of the body with the mouth \ Only lately it has 
become apparent from Mueller's investigations, that in most of 
the proper Asterioe an anvs exists, and that the structure in Ast. 
aurantidca is to be considered as the exception rather than the 
rule. But this second opening does not lie, as in the Camatuke, 
on the same surface as the mouth, but opposite to it, on the back 
of the disc. In the Ophturce and Euryale it is wanting: conse- 
quently these, with some star-fishes (the genera Astropecten, Cteno- 
dtscics, and Lutdia of the modems), and some Crinoids are the 
only Echinoderms in which the intestinal canal forms a blind sac, 
as in the Anthozoa. In the Astertce proper, the intestinal canal has 
csBcal appendages, which divide into branches, and fill the rays of 
the body ; in those species whose intestinal canal is a blind sac, 
the appendages proceed laterally firom the stomach, at whose base 
on the dorsal surface there are usually two caecal appendages in 
addition. In those Asteriee which have an anal opening, the 
stomach is divided by a circular fold firom a second compartment, 
to which the c«Bcal appendages of the rays are attached ; to this 
succeeds a third compartment, the rectum, a short straight tube, 
which has also caecal appendages ; sometimes they are placed round 
the intestine in rays, like the appendages of the rays, and fill up 

^ Archiv fUr die Physiologie vni. 1833. s. 470 — 477. The same observation was 
made by Leuokabt and HEtiBiNOKB ; see the not very clear description by the last- 
named in Mboksl's Archivf. Anat. u. Phynol. 1826. s. 317 — 324. 

Digitized by 



the spaces between the rays. In the disciform genus Guldtay the 
appendages of the rectum are greatly developed, five in number, 
each divided into two branches, and clustered ^ In Ophiura and 
Euryale the csdcal stomach has lateral recesses, or even branched 
blind appendages, mostly ten in number, which, however, do not 
penetrate the rays. In Comatula the intestinal canal is tubular, 
and winds round a spongy structure in the axis of the disc ; firom 
this an edge projects, that penetrates into the canal and forms a 
valve*. In the sea-urchins {Echinus) the intestinal canal is very 
long. The oesophagus is tortuous, narrow, and beset with numerous 
follicles. Where it passes into the much wider intestinal canal, 
there is a csecal appendage. The walls of the canal are very thin : 
its course is close to the shell in five afcs directed outwards ; when 
it has returned nearly to the point firom whence it began, it bends 
round and follows a similar route in an opposite direction, until at 
last, having become somewhat narrower, it mounts up to the anus 
(at the uppermost part of the shell). In the Holothurice the intes- 
tinal canal is nearly of the same width throughout. It proceeds 
firom the mouth along one side of the body to the lower extremity, 
thrai bends back to the anterior part, and finally descends along the 
other side to the cloaca, into which the respiratoiy organs also 
open. In Eckiurus the intestinal canal is, in like manner, much 
longer than the body, and makes many convolutions: it has numer- 
ous cystiform widenings, and very thin walls. In Sipunculus, 
where the anus is placed not at the end, but in the anterior half of 
the body, the intestinal canal, with its threefold bending, is nearly 
four times the length of the body. In Bynapta^ on the other hand, 
it is nearly straight, and about the length of the body, the anus 
being at the posterior extremity'. In the star-fishes probably the 
radiating appendages are to be considered as organs for preparing 
bile (liver) : they are filled in Ast. rvhem with a yellow turbid 

* J. MusLLEB und F. H. TROiCfHBLL^ Sydem der Aateriden. Braunschweig, 1842, 
4to, B. 131. Taf. zii. fig. T. 

* J.MiJVLLB&,Abhandl,derBerl. Akad. a, d. J, 1841, Phygik.Kl Tab. v. f. 7—10. 
' QUATBBFAGBS, Ann. de$ Se. not, sec. s^rie xvii., Zoologie, p. 51. 

* Other writers oonsider the blind appendages at the bottom of the stomach or at 
th6 rectom as a rudiment of Uver. Owen, Led, on the Camp. A not. of invertebr. 
AmmalB, 1843, P- 1 15- In these appendages a rudimentary form of kidney might also 
be repognised, an opinion, however, which does not rest on chemical investigation. 

VOL. I. 9 

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130 CLASS IV. 

Notwithstanding much careful investigation, there still exists 
great obscurity about the circulation of the blood in Echinoderma. 
TiEDEHANN and Delle Chiaje give very conflicting descriptions 
of the vascular system — ^the diflference being founded in the inter- 
pretation of the dermal vessels, which are connected with the 
organs of motion. The first of these authors considers the motion 
of fluid observed in these vessels to be altogether distinct from the 
circulation, whilst, according to the other, they are a part of the 
system of blood-vessels. In Aaterias Tiedemann found on the 
inner surface of the skin of the back, a vascular ring, which he 
considers to be venous. The vessels which run upon the surface 
of the visceral appendages of the rays open into this ring. From 
it a canal arises, which performs the office of a heart, lying near 
the so-called lime-canal which is found there. The canal runs 
into a vascular circle surrounding the mouth, which Tiedemann 
holds to be arterial, and from which branches proceed to the 
intestines. Besides these two vascular rings (one on the dorsal 
and one on the abdominal surface), there is a third ring of an 
orange-yellow colour found on the inferior surface beneath the skin. 
Tiedemann was not able to discover any conununication between 
this ring and the rest of the vascular system. In Echinus vascular 
rings occur, in like manner, round the mouth and the anus, on each 
surface two, of which one is to be considered arterial, the other 
venous. The heart is oblong, divided into many cells, and lying 
on the oesophagus\ In Hohthuria there is a circulating system 
without a heart, or rather the heart has the form of a contractile 
vessel, that runs at the outside on the surface of the intestine. 
At the anterior extremity of the intestinal canal this vessel forms a 
vascular circle, whence very fine branches arise; when near the 
anus it has become small, having given off a multitude of fine 
branches, which run on the surface of the intestine. There is a 
transverse vessel which connects the longitudinal trunk on the first 
loop of intestine with that on the second. Many intestinal veins, 
which seem at the same time to perform the part of absorbents or 

^ Comp. the descriptioiifl and figures of Yalkntik, AnatonUe du geiire JBchimu, 
pp. 89—96. Tab. vn. fig. 119, 115, 127. Tab. vm. fig. 144—159, &c. There U a 
figure also of Uie heart and part of the blood-vessels in Spaiangut in CuviBBll JUgne 
Anim. id. iUutlrie, ZoophyUt, PL f i bis. 

Digitized by 



lymphatics, run upon the mesentery to form a stem, having a 
carved course, firom which other vessels arise to run to the respira* 
toiy organ and so may be named pulmonary arteries. With these 
pulmonaiy arteries the pulmonary veins are in connexion, from 
whose union a longitudinal stem arises from which branches proceed 
to the arterial vessel with which we began our description *. 

Besides the blood-vessels already described there are other 
vessels which in Echinoderms provided with suckers or feet are in 
connexion with these organs of motion. The integument of the 
body is perforated by numerous pores arranged regularly in rows ; 
in the sea-urchins the rows have been called, on account of their 
regularity, Ambulacra, from a comparison with orderly rows of 
trees and garden-walks. Through these pores membraneous cylin- 
drical feelers (the feet) pass out, each terminating in a minute 
suctorial disc According to the investigations of Valentin these 
feelers are in Echini perforated at their extremity by a fine aperture. 
Within the integument there are vesicles in connexion with them. 
The feelers, hollow within, are filled with a fluid, usually sea- 
water, which the animal can press at will from the vesicles, or, by 
contraction of the former, can cause to flow back. In this way the 
animals move their body, the numerous feet contracting and elon- 
gating, and adhering by means of the suckers. There are vessels 
corresponding to the rows of feet or feelers, from which lateral 
branches proceed to the vesicles of the feelers. The ordinary 
number of these longitudinal vessels of the integument is five ; in 
the star-fishes their number corresponds with the number of the 
rays of the body. These lymphatics fall into an annular vessel 
surronnding the mouth. In Holothuria the appendages of the 
feelers which surrotrnd the mouth proceed from this annular vessel : 
and from it there arise also five other vessels that descend along the 
commeacement of the intestinal tube, where they terminate in 
another annular vessel from which one or two oblong csBcal vesicles 
depend {AmpuUa PoliaTui), that are in like manner filled with 
watery fluid*. 

The change of the blood from venous to arterial, the proper 

1 See T»D«MAKir, Anai. der HOhrm-ffotoOiftrk, s. 15—18, Tab. in. ; oomp. also 
CuvuB, lUgne Anim., €diU HI., Zoophytet, PI. 18. 
* See the figures in TniDiitAKN, Tab. in. fig. 4, 6. 


Digitized by 


132 CLASS IV. 

object of respiration, may be effected in any part of the animal 
organism, where the finest branches of the blood-vessels (the 
Capillaries) are bathed in the medium in which the animal lives. 
Hence it is easy to conceive that this function is not always neces- 
sarily connected with determinate parts. 

In almost all Echinoderma the sea-water penetrates into the 
cavity of the body, and bathes as well the internal surface of the 
integument as the outer surface of the intestines. Where no 
especial respiratory organ exists, the function of such an organ, the 
change of the blood, may be effected in the fine vessels which run 
on the surface of the intestinal tube. 

In the Star-fishes the sea-water penetrates to the cavity of the 
body by means of fine tubules in the integument, which are found 
in great numbers on the dorsal surface ^. In Ophiura there are on 
the abdominal surface in each of the five fields between two rays, 
two or four fissures leading into the cavity of the body. 

In the Echini it is not known with certainty in what way the 
water penetrates the cavity of the body. The ten branched organs 
round the mouth, which Tiedemann considers to be tubules to 
convey the water in and out, have, according to Valentin, no 
external apertures *. 

As little is known hitherto of the course which the water takes 
in most Holothurice to reach their cavity. In those which have no 
special respiratory organ, the genus Synapta has between the ten- 
tacles that surround the mouth four or five small papilliform 
eminences, having an opening at the apex and conducting to as 
many tubules that open between the muscles of the mouth. The 
openings are beset with cilia, like the tubules of the integument in 
Star-fishes*. In other JSolothuricBy as in those which Tiedemann 
investigated, there are special respiratory organs. From the Cloaca 
in which the intestinal canal terminates, there proceeds upwards 
a short tube, that soon divides into two very long principal branches 
which run as far as the anterior part of the intestinal canal. From 
these smaller tubes arise which subdivide into twigs which termi- 

^ [This is Tiedemakn'b opinion with respect to star-fishes, but the obsenrations of 
Shabfbt, Ehkenbbbo and Mdkllbb, are opposed to it ; they saw the streams of 
water from within turn bacl^ when they reached the extremity of the tabules.] 

* Valentin, op. cit. p. 83. 

* QUATBXFAOBS, Op. dt. p. 65. PI. 5, fig. f, /. 

Digitized by 



nate in csecal vesicles, or pulmonary cells. The right branch is 
intimately connected with the intestinal veins ; the left branch of 
the respiratory organ is connected, by means of muscular fibres, 
with the internal surface of the integument. The form of this 
respiratory organ agrees with that of Lung, although HolothurtoB 
breathe water and not air. These parts are very contractile : in 
a Holothuria that was opened alive they did not cease, as long as 
life lasted, to force the water in and out by alternate contraction and 
expansion. But in respiration it is not the contraction of the 
muscular membrane alone of these branches that acts, but the 
contractility of the common integument of the body also. This con- 
tractility of the skin is so great, that occasionally, when the creature 
is irritated, a portion of the intestines together with the right 
branch of the respiratory organ is forcibly ejected from the Cloaca. 

In the Sea-urchins Valentin considers the ten branched organs 
surrounding the mouth, first described by Tiedemann (and noticed 
above, vid. p. 132), to be external gills. As internal gills Krohn* 
and Valentin consider the foliated vesicles, which, in the interior 
of the shell, are in connexion with the ambulacral tubules : and 
which have a closely-woven vascular net-work. Valentin found, 
as has been stated, the ambulacral tubules perforated at the extre- 
mity in Sea-urchins. Through these openings the water penetrates 
into the vesicles, and the general opinion that the fluid is urged 
into the tubules from the vesicles and so distends them is not valid, 
according to Valentin, in the case of Sea-urchins*. In that of 
the Star-fishes and Hblothurtce, where the tubules appear to be im- 
perforate, it has not been satisfactorily made out to what extent, if 
at all, the attached vesicles contribute to the respiratory act. 

The organs for propagation are in difierent families of this class 
of a different form, but still, as was stated above, have, in the two 
sexes x)f the same species, exactly the same form. Hence, it 
appears that the discovery of the different sexes belongs exclusively 
to the latest scientific period, since formerly it was believed that all 
the individuals were of the same sex, either really bisexual or solely 
female '. 

^ MuELLKB^s Arehiv. 1S41, 8. 5, 6. 

* [This observation of Valentin is contradicted by Muelleb, Arehiv. 1850, p. i^B-] 
' Wagneb first discovered the difference of sex in HoUtihwria tubulota; then Petebs, 
1840, in EchxMU, Kathee in Opiwwra and Sea-stars, &o. 

Digitized by 


134 CLASS IV. 

Tet, without microscopic inyestigation, even the colour of the 
organs of propagation is sufficient to point out the difference of the 
sexes; the testes are distinguished by a milk-white, the avaria by 
a yellowish-brown or red colour. In ninety-eight specimens of 
Eckinua Petebs found that forty-three were males and fififcy-five 
females, so that the two sexes are nearly equal in numbers. In 
Comatula also, Muelleb found the sexes distinct ; the avaria and 
testes are here situated on the ptnnulce ^ In Ophiura, on the other 
hand, they lie in the disc, roimd the stomach as ten structures 
composed of lobes and blind pouches, that run into a pedicle; in 
the spaces between every two rays two such structures are placed 
close together so as to form five pairs '. In the Star-fishes they lie 
in the angles between the rays, and have the form of bunches of 
beaded strings: in some species they extend into the rays; their 
number is double that of the rays. On the dorsal surface, in some 
species, in each inter-radial space, two spots are found, which are 
perforated, sieve-like, by numerous closely arranged pores ; these 
openings allow the ova or the seed to escape. In other species the 
products of the genital organs, which have been poured into the 
cavity of the body are probably allowed to pass out by the respira- 
tory tubules on the back. In the Sea-urchins five ovaries or testes 
lie on the inner surface of the shell, and fill the spaces between the 
ambulacral plates. They are of an oblong flattened form, and con- 
sist of numerous csecal pouches, which open into an excretory duct 
running through the midst of the organ. The duct then runs finely 
like a footstalk, by which the testis or the ovary is attached to the 
upper surface of the shell where it opens. There are thus five such 
openings, in five pentagonal calcareous plates around the anus. In 
Holothurioe the ovary or testis is a bundle of branched tubes ; these 
hang by their blind extremities downwards, and open above into 
a single excretory duct, being fiuitened to it like a brush. The 
oviduct or the efferent vessel lies along the anterior portion of the 
intestinal canal, and terminates near the anterior extremity of the 
body by a distinct opening on the dorsal surface. Near this canal 

^ They are figured in the Ahh, der Bed, Akad. Bau des PeniaerifiUt, Taf. v. 
fig. 17. 18. 

* H. Bathkb BeUrdge sur vergL Anal, u, PhytioL,, BeiaenboMrkungen aut 
Shandinavien, Danzig, 1841, 4to, s. 116, 117. Tab. n. ^. 3 — 7. 

Digitized by 



are sitoated pear-shaped vesicles, collected in some species into 
bunches, which Tiedemann conceives to be male genital organs, 
an opinion which falls to the ground now that the sexes are known 
to be distinct Moreover they do not lead into this canal, but are 
in connexion with the oesophagus. It must be noted as a remark- 
able exception that in Synapta^ according to the investigations of 
QuATREFAGES, a complete hermaphroditism prevails. The genital 
organs have the form of long strings, whose internal sur&ce is beset 
with conical structures containing Bpennatozoa^ whilst the inner* 
most cavitj is filled with a pulpy substance in which the eggs are 
found. These eggs, as they grow, are pressed against the conical 
structures and so fertilized; and then the germ-spot, which was 
before visible, disappears. As the development of the eggs pro- 
ceeds, the testes which adhered to the inner wall of the string and 
surrounded the eggs, are so much compressed that they become 
atrophied and disappear. This periodical development is a very 
remarkable physiological phsenomenon ^. 

With the exception of some interesting observations of Sabs 
little was known respecting the development of Echinoderms until 
the last few years. [To the distinguished and unremitted labours of 
MuEU-ER we are principally indebted for nearly complete informa- 
tion respecting the very curious and unexpected processes which 
occur in different species. Very remarkable differences are observed 
according as more or less of the development is effected within the 
body of the parent, or according to the locality where the embryo 
is deposited on leaving the egg, or according to the different modes 
in which it is destined to acquire its food. As a general rule it 
may be stated that in littoral species when the embryo escapes at 
an early period from the egg the series of metamorphoses is less 
numerous: but that in pelagic species, where the embryo has to 
seek its food by swimming on the surface, the necessity for provi- 
sional organs of a complicated nature renders the changes very 

1 Awn, det 9e. wU., sec s^r. xvn. 1843. Zool. pp. ^, 73. A talented obsdrrer, whom 
we have already quoted when treating of Polyps, (p. 70.) SnxNSTBUP Las with miioh 
acuteness endeavonred to reject Hermaphrodititm altogether, and is of opinion, that 
even here Quatbxfaobs has taken oeUs of spermatozoa for eggs without the gennin»l 
spot. UndertoegeUer over Serma^radiHsmM TilvaereUe % Natwen, Kjdbenhayn, 
1845, 4^> PP* ^h ^4- (81BBOLD also surmises the same mistake of Quatbivagbs.) We 
shall perhaps recur subsequently to Stbbnstbtjf^b opinion. 

Digitized by 


136 CLASS IV. 

remarkable. Amongst the Oph%ur<By Ophiohpis gqtiamata is vivi- 
parous. The jovLng, about ten in number, are developed between 
the integument and the wall of the stomach of the parent, in the 
inter-radial spaces, each in its own compartment, formed hy mem- 
brane extended between the wall of the body and the stomach and 
suspended by a ligament attached near one of the angles of its disc. 
When fully formed it passes out by one of the genital fissures \] 
In Echtnaater sanffuinolerUvs the embryo according to the observa- 
tions of Sass^, on its escape from the egg is of an oval form and 
covered with cilia. Presently excrescences, club-shaped processes, 
arise at one extremity by which it adheres to the inferior surface of 
the disc of its parent, now converted by the infolding of the rays 
into a brooding cavity. When the arms begin to shoot forth these 
processes disappear, and feet or tentacles, few in number but pro- 
portionally vBry long, serve for the creeping and adhesion of the 
creature. The whole development occupies six or seven weeks. 
When the clavate processes are about to disappear they are near the 
edge of one of the inter-radial spaces of the disc of the Echinoderm. 
Of ComatvloB it had been discovered by Thompson* that during an 
early period of their life they are fixed to a stem and then resemble 
Pentacrinij in other words, that the form which in Pentacrini is 
permanent, is in them transitory. But their previous metamorphoses 
were unknown. [BusCH has observed these changes from the egg 
until the period when the embryo is about to be attached. The egg 
having passed from the parent by an aperture at the side of the 
pinnules, remains attached to the pinnula by an abundant mucus, 
from spherical becoming oval, and the embryo may be seen rotating 
within the egg by means of its general covering of cilia. When the 
egg falls from the pinnula the embryo escapes : its oval form is 
elongated, the straight sides assume a gently undulating contour: on 
the tops of the undulations transverse bands of larger cilia are seen 
in place of the general ciliated covering : the bands are at first three 
in number, afterwards four, surrounding the body in parallel circles: 
the longitudinal axis of the body now becomes gently curved, and a 
mouth is seen on the concave surface : the bands of cilia disappear 

1 Kbohn in MnxLLEB's Arc/Uv. 185 1, s. 338 — 343. 

* Sabs in Wibomann's Archiv. x. b. 169. 

» Thompson, Edinb, New Pkihs, Joumaly xx. p. 195. 

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and the creature having lost its apparatns for motion sinks to the 
bottom : tentacles in the meanwhile, five on each side of the mid* 
line, have been developed, and hooks are seen at the two extremities 
of the body which shew by their peculiar form that those extremities 
correspond to the ends of the arms : the embryo now cup-shaped 
from the increased convexity of its dorsal surface attaches itself to 
the bottom by this surface from which it secretes its pedicle. The 
absence of symmetry in the relation of the Echinoderm to its larva 
is indicated by the stem of the Echinoderm being placed at right 
angles to the axis of the larva, and the tentacles and mouth on the 
opposite 9ur£eicei. 

In by far the greater number of Echinoderms the embiyos pass 
gradually into forms which, however remarkably they may diiSer, 
are all laterally symmetrical. The axis becomes bent and on the 
ventral surface (that where the mouth opens) is a depression bounded 
above and below by transverse bands of cilia which are continuations 
of the lateral bands which bound the dorsal surface. They all have 
a complete digestive tube consisting of mouth, oesophagus, stomach, 
intestine and anus. This tube is placed in the median plane, the 
mouth in the ventral depression described above, and the tube 
curves from it to terminate beyond the transverse band of cilia 
above the mouth on the same ventral surface. Also they have all 
an aquiferous system, a tube terminating externally in a dorsal pore 
and internally in a sac. When Mueller observed the singular 
forms of the larvae of Ophturce and Echini with their long processes 
supported by slender rods of carbonate of lime he named them 
Pluteus from their general resemblance to a painter's easel with his 
work upon it. In AstericB and Hohthurvje the larvae have a more 
flattened form, like a coat of arms with its surrounding ornaments. 
The process of development in these^ different larval forms is two- 
fold. In the first case the body of the Echinoderm is formed by 
gemmation round the stomach of the larva, which continues to be 
its stomach, and when it is formed, all that remains of the larva, 
with the exception of certain structures in connexion with the aqui- 
ferous system is gradually ( Ophiura and Echinvs) or simultaneously 
[Bipinnaria asterigera) rejected. In the second case the symmetrical 

^ [Comp. Beobach. vber Anatomie u, Enttnchdung eintger wirbeUotm Sedhiere von 
I>B. W. BuscH. foL Berlin, 1851, s. 83—88.] 

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138 CLABS IV. 

larva with its bilateral ciliated band passes into the radial type, as 
in the larva of Gomatala: it has a cylindrical form with five trans- 
verse bands of cilia. From this pupa^-state the Echinoderm is 
developed without the rejection of any part of the pupa. It is either 
formed upon a part of the pupa, and the rest is absorbed by it 
{Tonnaria of certain Aaterioe), or the entire pupa is simultaneously 
metamorphosed into the Echinoderm {HolothuricB), In both these 
cases, but especially the first, the axis of the Echinoderm does not 
coincide with the axis of the larva, but crosses it at a large angle. 
Csecal processes are formed round the stomach of the larva in con- 
nexion with the vesicle of its aquiferous system: they are the 
rudiments of the water-canal around the mouth of the Echinoderm 
and of the vessels which proceed to the tentacles and feet. Where 
the afferent water-tube meets the surface of the Echinoderm the 
madrepore-plate is formed, and the portion of the tube within the 
body of the Echinoderm becomes its stone- or lime-canal. In OphiuriB 
the madrepore-plate has been discovered by Mueller*, its pores do 
not open externally being covered by a plate of the inferior surface 
of the disc. In Hohihurice it is within the abdominal cavity, in 
Asterice on the dorsal surface, in Echini it coincides with one of the 
genital plates. In all these cases a tube, whether it be hardened 
by carbonate of lime (stone-canal) or not, runs firom the madre- 
pore-sac or plate to the circular aquiferous canal surrounding the 

The power of reproduction in Echinoderms is very great. Star- 
fishes are firequently seen with one or more small arms or rays, that 
have been formed anew in consequence of the loss of the parts. 
GuETTARD and Bernard de Jtjssieu confirmed the reproduction 
by many experiments'. In Hblothurice even viscera may be lost 
and formed anew; and some species are propagated by spontaneous 

^ MvJOAXR Archiv, 1850, p. 121. 

* Comp. Mueller JHe larven u, mdamorphos. der Ophiwen u. Seetffd. Berlin, 1848, 
1849 and 1852. Mueller Uher die larven u. metamorph. der ffolothurien u, Asterien, 
Berlin, 185a Mueller l/eher den aUgemeinen Plan in der Enttoiehdung der RMnoder- 
men. Berlin, 1853. 

• BiAUMUR Mem. pour tervir d VHiet, dea Ins. VI. Preface, pp. 61, 62. 

4 According to the observations of Sir J. Qrahav Dalzbll, quoted by Forbes, 
Bid. of Britiah tStar-flshea, pp. 199, lOo. 

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The nervous system of EcliinodermB was first described and 
figured bj Tiedehann in Asteriaa auraniiaoa {AstropecUa) ^ There 
is fonnd around the month a nervons ring without ganglia, whence 
is giren off a fine thread for each raj, and running along it. On each 
side of this thread is another, which descends into the cavity of the 
body. In searurchins also and in star-fishes, in which Tiedehann 
could only detect obscure traces of a nervous system, Kbohn dis- 
covered a few years ago a distribution similar to that of AsteruB. In 
Echinus the ring surrounds the mouth within the apparatus usually 
named Aristotle's Lantern (see below in the systematic arrange- 
ment) : in Hohihuria in the calcareous ring to which the longitudinal 
muscles are attached. Five principal nervous stems run with the 
vessels that are in connexion with the ambulacral apparatus*. 

Little is known of special organs of sense in Echinoderms. In 
star-fishes Ehbenbeeg discovered at the point of the rays on the 
abdominal surface, a small red spot, surrounded by a ring of cal- 
careous tubercles, which he considers to be an eye. In specimens 
preserved in spirit the pigment disappears, and so the existence of 
the spots cannot be recognized. Moreover they are wanting in 
many species ^ Forbes discovered five similar spots in sea-urchins, 
on the upper surface, situated upon as many pentagonal plates that 
alternate with five larger plates on which the oviducts open. Both 
in the star-fish and sea-urchin each of the five principal nerves runs 
as far as one of these spots and ends beneath it^. But in neither of 
these animals has a lenticular transparent body been discovered. 
The ambidacral tubes and the feelers around the mouth may, as 
highly sensitive parts, be ranked amongst the organs of touch. 

To the motive apparatus of Echinoderms belong the little feet 
or tentacles, abready noticed, the ambulacral tubules by means of 
which the animals creep. They have muscular fibres on their walls. 
In Echmu8 Valentin found in them both transverse and longi- 
tudinal bundles, and radiating fibres in the suckers at their termina- 
tion. He conceives that the motions of the ambulacral tubes are 

^ In Mbckil'b Arehiv /. die PkyiioL i. 18x5, 8. 161, ftc. and in his often quoted 
prize essay. 

« Mueller's ilfc^tv. 184 1, pp. i— 13, Tab. i. 

* Die Ahalepken dee rothen Meeree, s. 39 — 34, Tab. Tin. fig. 11, 12, 

* Comp. YALSNTiir, op. dt. pp. xi, 100, Tab. n. fig. la, Tab. iz./. i8J3 — 190. 

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140 CLASS lY. 

effected hj means of tliese muscnlar fibres, and in no degree by 
forcing fluid into and out of them. To how great an extent these 
parts can be elongated may be judged by the length of the spines 
of the shell in sea-urchins: they must have the power of extending 
beyond the longest spines. Li specimens that have been kept in 
spirits these tubules are found to be short and mutually entangled. 
The teeth, and the curious apparatus that encloses them (Aristotle's 
Lantern) have a number of proper muscles. As to the general 
muscular system, that which mores the whole body, it is foxmd 
especially developed in HohthuruB, Here ten muscles run the whole 
lengtli of the body, beneath the skin: they are arranged in pairs, 
which are separated by spaces in which transverse circular fibres are 
found that cover the entire inner surface of the skin. By means of 
the longitudinal muscles the body can be shortened and bent: by 
the transverse fibres it is contracted transversely, and so attenuated 
and elongated. The longitudinal muscles are inserted into a cal- 
careous ring composed of five large and five smaller pieces, and 
surrounding the commencement of the intestinal canal. 

All these animals inhabit the sea. They are found in all parts 
of the world: yet, most of the species only in limited regions. Since 
we have only a partial acquaintance with foreign species, many 
more of which will doubtless be hereafter discovered, we are not in 
a condition to give a survey of the geographical distribution of the 
genera. Unlimited confidence is not to be reposed in the accounts 
given by some writers of the localities in which the species are 
native. Of the Asterice nearly one-third of the known species are 
found in the East-Indian seas, one-fifth in the seas of Europe. Of 
OphiuroB, on the other hand, the European and Afirican species 
are more numerous than the East-Indian. The western hemisphere 
has, on the whole, fewer star-fishes than the eastern : in America 
there are no species of Set/taster, as, for instance, of Culcita^ Astro-- 
gonium, Stellaster ; Echtnaster, on the other hand, is peculiarly 
American. The species of EuryaU are chiefly found in the Arctic 
and in the Indian seas. To the species which are very generally 
distributed belongs that which occurs on the coast of Holland, 
Asterias {Asteracanthion) ruietis. The Red sea so rich in species of 
the class of Polyps, has only a comparatively small number of star- 
fishes, and, in this respect is much behind the Mediterranean, which 
is especially rich in species oi Astropecten. The Baltic appears to be 

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avoided by Star-fishes ^ Of Sea-urchins about one-third of the 
known species are found in the East-Indian seas : here especially 
are found CidarUes and ScuteUa. Of Hohthurim more species 
appear to be met with in the southern Pacific than in other seas. 
The western hemisphere is as much behind the eastern in respect 
of Echini and HolothuritB as of Star-fishes. 

^ Gomp. MuELLKB u. Tbosohsll Ud)tr die geographiickt Verbreitwng der Atleridm 
in WiEOMAmr'B u. Ebichson's Arch./. Natwrgetch, x. 1843, 8. 113—130. We have 
borrowed the above short notices on the geographical distribution of the Eehi/nodemuxta 
from the Syttem der Atteriden of these writers, and from Lamabck Hid, not, de$ Arwn. 
iam vefUbret, (compared with the specimens in the Leydan Museum). 

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Animals with integument coriaceous, often calcareous; with 
distinct nutrient canal, freely suspended in an abdominal cavity. 
Organs of circulation and generation conspicuous; sexes nearly 
always distinct. Disposition of the organs most frequently quinary, 
with body mostly radiate or globose, in some cylindrical. Distinct 
vestiges of a nervous system, a ring for the most part surrounding 
the mouth and sending off nerves radially. 

Okder I. Pediculate Echinodenm. 

Tentacles numerous, membraneous, contractile, terminated by a 
suctorial disc, and issuing from minute apertures in the integument. 

Family I. Onnmdea. Integument calcareous (external skele- 
ton). Bays articulate, supplied with a central canal, absent in 
some. Mostly two apertures of the nutrient canal. 

The name Crindidea, given by Miller to this division of the ani- 
mal kingdom, is derived from Kpivov^ a lily. At the beginning of the 
last century the name seorlUi/, stone-lily was given to the Encrinus 
moniliformis, or liliiformis, a remarkable petrifistction of the Mvsckd- 
kaiUc Most of them are set upon a stem ; the non-pediculate {GovMir- 
ttUa Lail) in the young state, according to the observations of 
Thompson, are also fixed to a pedicle. The non-pediculate specieB 
known to Lnnr^sus were placed by him in the genus Asterias {Aste- 
ricu pectinata, Ast, muUiradiaia) ; the pediculate species in the 

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genua /m, oonfoimding the foflul Bnerintu and the FefUacrintu 
capui Medusa o£ the existing creation under the name of lets 
AaiericL This singular union of an Echinoderm with a genus of 
Polyps had doubtless an influence upon the later arrangement of 
LAMABGKy who placed Encrinus (see above, p. 80) amongst the sea- 
feathers. ScHWEiGGEB and CuYiEB restored it to the proper place, 
ahready assigned to it in the middle of the previous century by 
GuETTAKD, who first described Pentacrinus caput Medusae This 
whole fiunily belongs rather to the former period of the history of 
our globe, than to the present. The species now living in our seas 
are almost all non-pediculate, whilst geological investigation has made 
us acquainted with numerous forms of pediculate sea-lilies. What is 
now a youthful mutable form of life was then the prevalent and 
permanent. The same thing may be observed in other classes also 
with respect to the fossil representatives of genera that are living 
at the present time. 

The chief work on this fiunily is : 

J. S. MiLLEB, Natmral Hidory of the Orinaidea, Bristol, 1821, 4to.' 

A. Onnotds affixed, 
a) SeesUe. 
Holopus D'Obbigny. Calyx affixed, hollow, undivided, with 
scattered tubercles. Four calcareous pentagonal parts at the upper 
margin of the calyx, sustaining four pairs of articulate and pinnate 

Sp. BoUypui Rangii, D'OaBiairr, Gusbin Magatin de ZooL 1837, CL x. PL 3; 
firom the Caribbean Sea at Martinique. Both in the want of a stem and 
the number of the anna this genua differs from the other Grinolda. 

h) Pedtculata. An articulate column sustaining the calyx. 

* Tesselata. Calyx non-articulate. 

a) Kays or arms none. 

Grenera: Sphceranites HisiNGER, PefUatrematttes Say {PerUremites 
GrOLDF.), Echtnoaphcerttes Wahl., Hemicoemites Gray, Sycocy elites 

FoasO genera from the Transition- and Mountain-limestone. Comp. Bbonk, 
LdhoM ffeoffnottica 1835, Tab. IT. fig. i, &c, Anoording to the opinion of 
some these were pediculate Eddni. 

P) With rays. 

1 See also W. Bugklakd, Otology amd MmenHogg, London, 1835, pp. 416— 44*. 


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144 CLASS IV. 

Grenera : Caryocrinites Say, Plaiycrinites Mill., Actinocrinites 
Mill., Bhodocrinites Mill., Cyadiocrinites Mill., Poteriocrinites 
Mill., Melocrinites Goldf. 

For these fossil genera and others unnoticed we must for want 
of space refer to Miller's work already cited, to Goldfuss di^ 
Petrefacten DeutchUmda, and other geological works. Comp. also 
Goldfuss Ud>er foaaUe Crinoideen, Nov. Act. Acad. Cass. Nat 
Cv/rios. XIX. I. 1839, p. 329—352, and L. v. Buch on Ca/ryocrinvs 
orruUus in his work Ueher Gystideen, Berlin, 1845, 4:to. 

In these and the following pediculate Crinoids, the cup-like part 
at the extremity of the stem and base of the arms is named Calyx. 
The bottom of this part, which is pentangular, and composed of five, 
four, or sometimes three plates, is named by Miller pelvis ; Joh. 
Mueller names the plates haaaUa; at the margin of these plates 
are the basal-pieces of the arms, forming the uppermost part of the 
calyx; there are two or three rows, and the uppermost bears the 
arms. Miller gives to this part the name of scapula; the two 
pieces situated below are costm. Joh. Mueller names these pieces 
radiaUa (radiale primmny r. sectmdttm and r. aasUlare; his radiale 
axUUvre is the scapula of the English author). In those now 
named Orirmdea tesseUxta these parts are joined together without 
articulation. The fossil species of this division are found in the 
transition-limestone and the grey-wacke. 

* * ArtiGulaUi. The rays free directly from the pelvis of the 
calyx, the first radial conjoined to the second, and the second 
to the third by articulation. 

Apiocrtnites Mill. Column incrassated towards the calyx, 

Sp. Apiocrinites rotundua Mill. Tab. i— vn. Apiocrin. Parhintonii Bronn, 
LethoM Tab. xvn. fig. 15, (Millkb*8 figure) fossil from the oolite forma- 
tion, like other species of this genus. 

Encrinus GuETTARD (in part). Column round, not incrassated 
towards the top. 

Sp. jEncrinu* UUiformU Lam., EncrinUa monUiformU Milueb, pp. 37 — ^44, 
Tab. I— m. ; Ellis OoraU. Tab. 37, fig. k, &c. One of the most character- 
istic fossils of the MiuekeOsalk. The head, on account of the numerous 
articulations of the arms that lie side by side, resembles an ear of Turkish 
wheat {Zea Maps) ; the joints of the stem, sometimes found in inoradible 
numbers, changed into calcareous spar, arja named Troch4te$\ 

1 QUENSTBDT {Ud)er die Enkrimien des MutehdhaUcs, Wibomann's ^rdUv. 1835, "• 
s. 123—328, Taf. IV.) describes a specieB with different division of the arms, under the 

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PerUacrinus MiLLBB. Column not incrassated towal'ds the top^ 
pentagonal with joints having a pent^petalons mark. Cirri adher* 
ing to the column in whorls. 

The fossil species of this genus helong to the oolite period, as 
ex. gr, PevUacrinua hriaretu Miller, pp. 56 — 58, Tab. l il Guy. B. 
Anu ed. illiLgtr,, ZoopL PL 7, fig. 1, from the lias-schist 

The living species of this genus, FerUcuyrinua Capui MeduacB^ 
is found in the Caribbean Sea, and was first described by Guettabd 
Mem. deVAcad. Ray. des Se. 1755 (Paris, 1 761) pp. 224, Ac PI. &— 10 ; 
another, more mutilated specimen, foimd on the coast of Barbadoes, 
was described bjELUS in 1761, FhU. Transact. toL 52, p. 357, PL xiii. 
Specimens of this species are rare in Museums, seven only, as fiir 
as is known, existing in the different Cabinets. The most complete 
description was given not long ago by J. Mueller ( Ueber den Bau 
des Pentacrinus CapiU Medvsoi, Berlin, 1843, folio). The stem of 
Fentacrinus has no musdes, but is merely passively motile or flexible 
by means of fibrous bundles and an elastic tissue between the jointa 
The arms and pinntUce are moveable by muscles without transverse 
stripes ; these muscles are situated on the side corresponding to the 
mouth, and can only flex the parts : extension, or motion outwards, 
seems to be effected merely by the elasticity of the parts. The 
growth of the joints of the stem occurs in the part at the top 
nearest to the calyx, which corresponds to what is observed in the 
growth of the joints in worms and entozoct. 

B. Free Crinmda. 

a) Tesaelate. 

Marsupites Mantell. Marsupiocrinitea Blatnv, Calyx of 
parts calcareous pentagonal striated ; arms ? 

Sp. Marsup. omatut Mill. Crinoid p. 134, with figure, Bbonn, Lelh. Tab. 
XXiz. f. 13 ; (Tab. zxxrv. fig. 9, with oonjectaral restoration of the arms 
alter the figure of Mamtkll) ; fossil from the chalk-period. 

b) Articulate. 

Comatula Lam, {Aledo Leach, Muell. Cirri dorsal articu- 
late, around a pentagonal disc. Kadials mostly without basals 

name of Encrinita Schottheimu of which H. Y. Mbtbb has formed a new genus, 
Ckdoerinva. See the paper of the latter ; Tsocrimta und Chdocrinus, Zwei neue T^pen 
u. i, w., Mtaeum Senkenberffian., n. p. 249. 

VOL. I. 10 

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146 CLASS IV. 

composing the calyx. Bays pinnate ; pinnae sulcate, the farrows 
confluent with the longitudinal farrow of the rajs ; tentacula situ- 
ated in the furrows. Mouth and anus on the ventral side ; mouth 
central in the bottom of the calyx ; anus lateral, tabular. 

See J. MuELLEB, V^)eT die GaUungen tmd Arten der ConuUtden^ 
Emchson Archiv Jur NaJtwrgtscL 1841, a 139 — 148, and Nem 
BeUrdge zwr Kewntniaa der Arten der ComcUtUeny ibid. 1843, 
a 131—136. 

* Jtay$ of Calyx bifid {ten-raffed). 

8p. Comattda rosacea, AUdo ewropaa Lkaoh, Fobbxs Brit, Sta/rf. p. 5. To 
this species belong the obsenrations of Thompson spoken of above^ 
(ppu 136 and 143). Memoir on the PeiOacrinm eurojxgut, Cork, 1827. 
Oomat, eairiiuOa Lam., GuAb. Iconogr, Zooph. PL i. fig. a. 

* * Bays of Cfalyx mfUt\fid (mamy'Tayed). 

Sp. Comatula multifida Musll., Com. muUiradiata Lam. ftc 
The species, which like Pentacrinus have & pelvis, form the genus Comaster 
AoASS., MuELL. Here belongs Comattda mvUiradiata Gold, (not Lam.) 
Fossil species of this genus are foimd in lithographic stone. 

Family IL Astendea. Body depressed, free (not pediculate), 
multangular or radiate, with integument coriaceous or calcareous. 
Row of joints calcareous internal, running along the middle of 
the rays and taking their origin from the mouth. Mouth central, 
inferior ; anus dorsal or none. 

A capital work on this division was published some years back, 
System der Asteriden von J. Mueller und F. H. Tboschell, mit 12 
Kupfertafeln, Braunschweig, 1842, 4to. As plates for this and the 
preceding family may be recommended : J. H. Linckii De SteUis 
marinia Liber singtdariSy Lipsise, 1733, foL 

Phalanx I. Ophiurce. Disc distinct from the arms ; with arms 
non-sulcate. AnuJg none. 

Eurycde Lam. {Gorgonocephalus Leach). Arms prehensile, 
contortile towards the mouth, not scutate, sub-rotund, flattish be- 
neath. Disc tumid, sub-globose, with five obtuse angles. 

According to the division of the arms the species of this tribe 
are arranged in three different genera by Mueller and Teoschell. 
They are undivided in AsteronyXy divided dichotomoualy and only 
towards the end in Trichaster Agass., divided from the baae, first 

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dichotomously and afterwards into many branches, in Antrophyton 
LiKCK. To the last division belongs : 

Sp. EwryaU verrueosum Lam., Adentu Caput Medusa L. (in part) RuiCPHinSy 
Amb. JRarUeithamer Tab. XYI. Guy. R Ani., Sdit. iOus., Zooph. PL 5, from 
the Indian Sea ; a yery Bunilar species is found in the North Seas, and 
distinguished by MuiLLSB and Tboschsll as Attrophyton JAnekU; LnrcK 
de Stell. mar. Tab. 29, fig. 48. These Meduta-Keadt belong to the most 
singular and beautifid forms of radiate animals. Yid. FoRBis Br, Star- 
M^f pp. 67—70. 

Ophiura Lam. Arms five, undivided, serving for creeping, scu- 
tate, articulate. Disc plane, with two or four genital fissures in 
each interbrachial area on the ventral side. 

The name Ophiuray from o^ic, nrpent, and wpdy tail, denotes very 
appropriately the form of the arms by which these Seorskbrs are 
distinguished, and which are often so long as to exceed five or six 
times (nay in Ophinra longipeda even twenty times) the diameter 
of the disc. 

Sub-genera : Ophiocoma Agass., Ophiolepis, Ophia/rctchna, Ophior 
eantha, Ophiomastix, Ophvomyxa, 0phio8colex, OphiothriXy Ophio- 
cnemisy Ophioclerma, Muell. and Tbosch. 

Sp. Ophiura textwrata Lam., Atleriaa ophiura L. (in part), Ophiol^ni cUiala 
MuxLL. and Tsosoh., Lutck de Stdl. mar. Tab. 11. ^g, 4, Encydop. PL 113, 
fig. %, 3. FOBBXS Briti$h Starf. p. 2a, ftc. in the Mediterranean, the 
North Sea, Ac. 

Phalanx II. Aatence, Body depressed, angulate or stellate 
the angles being produced, with tentaculiferous furrows below, ex- 
tending as far as the point of the angles. Anus dorsal in most, 
surrounded by a mound of calcareous papillae. 

Asterta Lam. (Most are species firom the genus Astertas L.) 
The Seor-gtars, The form is very various, so that in some species 
the entire body seems to consist only of anns, ex^ Ophidicuter, 
in others only of a pentagonal disc. But the arms are never 
sharply separate from the disc as in the OphiwraSy but are an 
immediate continuation of it. In moat of the species there are ^yq 
rays, however in these sometimes four or six occur as exceptions ; 
six arms as the normal number are found in Astertas gdcUinoaa, in 
EchiruMier eridanellay six or seven in Asteriscua Diesingiiy seven to 
nine in the sub-genus Luidiay eight to ten, mostly nine, in Solaster 
endeca, eleven to fourteen, generally twelve, in Solaster papposus, 
twelve or thirteen in Astericts aster , fift,een in Agteriscus rasacetiSy 


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148 CLASS IV. 

fourteen to one-and-twenty in EcMnaster aaUmB; finally, in Aeteruu 
hdiaaUhv>8 the rays axe found up to thirty and more. The greater 
the number that any species possesses, the less is it constant. On the 
dorsal surQice is placed a calcareous star-formed plate between two 
rays of the disc (yerraca doraiy tubercyle madreparifarmef Mctdrepore- 
plate), which in Ophiwra is wanting, and in Eurycde lies on the 
oral surfaca Aoassiz who endeavours, with great acuteness, to prove 
a lateral symmetry in the Echinodemuxta, considers the ray that is 
opposite to this plate to be the first ray of the body. A tortuous 
tube proceeds from this dorsal plate downwards as &r as the mouth, 
and is filled internally with a calcareous matter (see above, p. 130). 

This tube wm named by TiSDSic akn {Anat. der SoehrenSoloth.f &c. 53, 
54) Stone-oamU or Sand-eanal; it terminatefl, becoming narrower, in the 
circular yeesel suirounding the mouth and filled with watery fluid ; see 
above, p. 131. Siebold has closely investigated the calcareous balk, 
consisting of several joints and internally hollow, which occupies this 
canal and described its complicated structure ; Muelleb*s Archiv. 1836, 
s. 291, &c. [Also Shabpkt, in Todd's Cydop. of Anat. arid Phyi. n. 
pp. 35, ^., describes in the interior of the jointed calcareous tube a lamina 
attached longitudinally, which passes inwardly a certain way and then 
separates into two which are rolled in opposite directions, something after 
the manner of the inferior turbinated bone of the ox.] 

The Sea-stars can bend their rays towards each other, which is 
serviceable in moving through narrow fissures and between stones. 
They do not swim, but creep by means of their tentacles with 
mouth downwards. They feed principally upon Molluscs. Though 
the genus Asteriaa of Lamabck, by the exclusion of Comatula^ 
Ophiwra and EwryaJlSy be much more narrowly limited than the 
same genus in the Sf/stema NaJtM/rcR of Linn^us, still the species are 
too numerous and the forms too various not to be regarded rather 
as a natural group which ought to be divided into several genera 
or 8ub-genera^ This has been done by Linck, and more lately 
especially by Aoassiz and Mueller and Tboschbll, to whose works 
we refer. The primary division of the group by Mueller and 
Troschell is founded on the Tentacles, which in most of them are 
placed in two rows in every furrow, but in others in four rows. 

A. Ventral fwrrowBy with two rows of tentacles. 

* Amis none. 

Astropecten LiNCK, {Aatropecten and Ctenodiacua Muell, and 
Trosoh.), Luidia Forbes. 

Digitized by 



8p. AMtnptdm attrmUiaeui, AtUriat aranciaea L., LurcK, dc SleU, mar. 
Tab. 5, fig. 6, Tah. 6, fig. 6, TiKDMiANir Anat. Tab. 5, 6, Forbu^. Starf. 
p. 130 ; in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean. 

** Antu ceniral, or wh-cenlral, dorsoL 

a) Body disciform, toith short rays. 

Asteropsis Mu£ll. and Tbobch., Stelkuter Grat, Ganiodiscus 
MuELL. and Tbosch., Astrogomu/m Muell. and Tbosch., Asieriscus 
MuELL. and Tbosch., Pteraster Muelu and Tbosch., Ctdeita 


^. Oulciia dtKofdea, Atterieu cUacoidea Lam., Sohmidsl in Naiiwrforsck. xyl 
1 781, Tab. I., BLAimr. A(tmol. Tab. 13, fl i ; Atteriscw palmUpea, Aderiat 
mmbranaeea BiTz, Gmu.., Likck, de StdL nuir. Tab. i, fig. ^, BLAOrv., 
AainoL Tab. 93, fig. 7, Forbes Brit. SUarf. pp. 116, &c. 

6) jB(xfy steUaUy unth rays distinct, surpassing the disc three 
times or more, 

Archaster Muell. and Tbosch., Oreaster Muell. and Tbosch., 
Scytaster Muell. and Trosch., Ophidiaster Aoass., Chcetaster 
Muell. and Trosch.^ Solaster Forbes, Schinaster Muell. and 
Trosch., (and Echinites in Erigh& Archiv, 1844). 

Sp. SdUuUr pappotus, Atteria$ pappota L., LlircK de SteU, mar. Tab. 39, 
^I^- S4f %• 54> FOBB. Brit. Starf. p. iii, in the Atlantic, on the 
coast of England and Scotland, &c. ; when fresh of a beautiful red colour 
above, of a yellowish brown below ; Echinatter aolaria, EchinUe* tolarit, 
AtUriou EehifUteB "Lam., Naturf orach. 3JCYII. 1793, Tab. i, u. from the East 
Indian Seas, 9ui. 

B. Ventral furrows with four rows of tentacles. Body with distinct 
rays, with integument coriaceous, aculeate. Anus dorsal, sub^ 

Asterias Gray, (species of the genus Asterias L., Asteracan" 
ihian Muell. and Trosch.) 

Sp. Aateritu rubens L., Linok de SteU. mar. Tab. 36, fig. 61, Bastbb 
Natuurk. Uitap. i. Tab. xii. fig. 1—4, Fobbbs Brit. SUtff. p. 83 : the com- 
mon Sea-star, Gross-fish; so common on some coasts as to be used for 
manuring the land in the neighbourhood. Aatericu hdda/nihu* Lax., 
Enqfdop. PL 108, 109, Blainy. AdinoL Tab. 23, fig. 5, in the Pacific and 
at Chili ; one of the most remarkable and most beautiful species, &c.^ 

^ For a knowledge of the numerous species of A^eridea comp. also J. E. Gbat, 
Sjfnopeit of the Genera and Species of the cUua Bypoetoma (Atteriae L.) in the Annate 

Digitized by 


150 CLASS IV. 

Family III, Echinidea. Body sub-globose or depressed with- 
out radiant lobes. Mouth and anus distinct. Mouth inferior. Inte- 
gument calcareous, beset with moveable spines. 

Seor Urchins. Compare on this family (besides the Monographiea 
dEcJdnodermes of Agassiz cited above) Jac. Theod. Klein Natvr 
rails dispositio EchmoderrnoUum cum tab. Gedani 1734, 4:to. Ordre 
naturel des Oursins de Mer et fossUes par M. Theodore Klein, 
Paris 1754, 8vo. av. ^g. (Many of Klein's figures are copied in the 
Encyclopedia metliodiqtie, Vers,) M Van Phelsum, Erie/ an C. 
NozEHAN over de gewelv-slekken ov Zee-^gelen. Met 3 pL, Rotter- 
dam, 1774, 8vo. Ch. Desmoulins, Etudes sv/r lea EchinideSy 
Bordeaux, 1835—1837, 8vo. 

The shell of these animals consists of an arrangement of plates 
having a pent- or hexangular form. They compose ten girdles, each 
made up of two row^ of such plate& Five of the girdles, commonly 
narrower than the others, have two rows of small apertures and 
alternate with thesa The rows of apertures are named artihvlaGra : 
they either entirely surroimd the periphery {ambuiUtcra perfecta), or 
are found only on the uppermost part, resembling in their arrange- 
ment a star or five-petalled flower {cmdyidacra circwmscriptcty By 
these apertures the tentacles or ambvlacrail tubes are exserted, 
of which we have treated above. The Sea-Urchins effect their 
movements by means of these tubes', they appear to have a 
great power of elongation, to be able to stretch fiirther than the 
extremities of the rigid spines, which in certain species are some 
inches in lengtL Around the anus are five larger apertures (in 
some genera only four) which are the outlets of the oviducts or 
efferent vessels; they are situated in as many pentagonal calcareous 
plates, with the point directed outwards, of which one, larger than 
the rest and of a different structure, corresponds to the calcareous 
plate {madrepore-plate) of the Searstars, as Basteb had previously 

of Natural Eittory vi. 1841, pp. 175 — 184, pp. 475—290. Want of space prevents 
our noticing the numerous generic names of Gbat ; some genera agree with those 
of Mueller and Tbobchxll, of which a more detailed notice by Agassiz may 
be found in the prefiuse to the second number of his Monographiei dCEchmodermes, 
pp. 5, 6. 

^ GANDOLraB QikdUi tatU leijambet dee Owrtmt t Mim. de VAoad. dee Se. de Parte 
pour 1709, ffietoire, p. 33. With his observations those of Bastsr, Tiedbmann and 
others completely agree ; AOASSiz, who at one time considered the spines to be organs 
of motion, and doubted that such was the office of the ambulacral tubes, has since 
renounced that opinion. 

Digitized by 



obserred'. Between these five genital piatea, lie five smaller (the 
octUa/r plaies), also pCTitagonal but with the point turned inwards, so 
that the plates are wedged into the spaces between the points of 
the first fiva There are still other smaller plates, variable in 
number, that lie within the ring formed by these ten, and immedi- 
ately surround the anus. 

The chemical composition of the calcareous shell is remarkable 
on account of the extremely small proportion of organic matter ; it 
consists almost entirely of carbonate of lime. The growth of the 
shell ia effected by enlaigement of the plates, and by addition to 
their number upwards ; hence younger individuals are flatter than 
older ones, and the form of itself alone becomes a deceptive criterion 
in determining speciea 

The moveable spines, of which the number increases with the 
age, have at their base a small cavity, by which, as by an articular 
surface, they are connected with the tubercle of the shelL These 
tubercles are placed in rows, like the apertures of the ambulacra, 
and are found both on the ambulacral and on the interambulacral 

The mouth is provided vrith five teeth, whose points are sharp 
and hard, and meet in a pentagon at the inferior aperture. These 
teeth are long rods, which become soft and transparent inwards. 
They perforate five triangular pyramids, which by their mutual 
arrangement form a conical apparatus with the broad base facing 
inwards, and to which base still other small calcareous pieces are 
united. This very complicated apparatus, with its provision of 
muscles, bears the singular name of Aristotle's l<miem\ 

Sea-urchins cannot swim, but only creep along the bottom of the 
sea. There are species that sometimes live in cavities which they 
have formed in the rocks'. 

The food of the Searurchin consists, according to the microscopic 
investigation of the excretions in JEehinus Iwidtu by Yalentik, 

^ Naluurik, UUsp, i. bL 132. 

* ThiB apparatus is described m detail by Cuvns Zepons cPAnai. wmpa/rie, Paris 
1805, m. pp. 3«9-~33S> »nd ae ^t. Paris 1837, vi. pp. 377— 382 ; oomp. also the 
woriLB of Tudbiiasn and Yalxntih abready cited, and B. Joins, OvUine of the Anim. 
Kingd. pp. 166 — 169. 

* Eehinns Utkophagui of Lxaoh, which does not appear to diflfer from B^inu* 
Umdm, is often thus found on the western coast of Irdaod ; E. T. Bxnkitt Litm, 
Tran$acfian9, xv. 1817. pp. 74 — 77. 

Pigitized by 


152 CLASS IV. 

principellj, if not exclusively, of marine plants (Ftid, Confervas) ; 
according to others it would seem to live on Molluscs, but the 
fragments of shell, often found with considerable quantity of sand 
in the intestinal canal, may have been contained in the sea-water 
swallowed, and need not by any means to be looked on as the 
remains of shell-fish that had been consumed. 

Petrified shells of Searurchins are found in great numbers in 
secondary strata, particularly in the chalk-formation, the interior 
being usually filled with silicious earth. 

* Arms eccefrUric superior or inferior, 
a) MofuJth eccentric, {Genital pores 4.) Sptxkmgoidea Agass. 

Spatangus Klein, Lam, Ambulacra circumscript, five or only 
four, the odd one (the anterior) being either little distinct or 
wanting. Test ovate or cordate, often at the fore-part famished 
with a furrow proceeding from the summit. 

Genera Holaster, Heinipneustes, Micraster, SpcOangus, Amphi- 

detus, Brissus, Schizdster Agassiz. 

Some species of this division are fossil, and occur especially 

in the chalk-formation, others in tertiary deposits. Amongst the 

species now living, which chiefly belong to the genus Brissus Agasb. 

we note : 

Spatang. verUricotxu, RUMPH. Amh, Jtariteitk. Tab. xiv. No. i ; this 
foreign species attains a very large size. To the proper genus SpcUanffug 
AoABS. belongs i^pat. purpureus, Blatmv., AcHnol. PI. xiv., Fobbbs Brit, 
Staff, p. 1 83, in the North Sea and Mediterranean. The form is heart- 
shaped. Of this species Milne Edwabds has ^ven an anatomical figure 
in CuvTEB R. Anim. 4d, iUustrie, Zoophytes, PL xi. bis. See also some 
notices on the Anatomy of Spatangus in SoHWBiaOBB^s Handh. der Natur- 
ffeschickie der skelelU. ungeglied, Tkiere, s. 538, 539. 

The mouth is in this genus without teeth. There are only four 
ovaria or testes present, as also only four pori gemtales. Philippi 
not long ago described three American species in which only three 
genital pores existed, and which he united under the name of 
Tripylvs, See Erichson's Archiv f, NaJtwrgescLy 1845, s. 344, 
&C. Tab. XI. 

Arumohytes Lam. (exclusive of some species), Agass. Ambu- 
lacra radiating and diverging from the vertex to the margin, not 
interrupted. Body irregular, oval or conoid ; test without a furrow 
to the anterior ambulacrum. 

Sp. Ananckytes ovata Guv. and Bbonon. Ltscr, gM, des environs de Paris in 
CuTiBB Reck, s. I ossem. foss, 11. 2 PI. v. fig. 7, Bbonn LeUL giogn. Tab. 29, 

Digitized by 



fig. 28. Ananck. hemupkofiiea Cur. and Bbovoit. 1. 1. fig. 8, Ac. All th« 
species of this genus are fossil and belong to the chalk-formation. Hie 
casts of the internal cayity in Fire-stone {nuclett$, numU inUriewt) shew 
minute eleyated points in place of the ambulacral pores ; such a moule is 
the AnoHchyUt puMidosa Lam* 

Dysaster Agajss. {CoUyrUes Desmoul. in part, species of Spa- 
tangus and Ananchytes Auctor.) Test rotund or cordate, with 
ambulacra not interrupted, mouth sometimes almost central not 
transverse. Ambulacra above radiating firom a double vertex, the 
three anterior confluent in the central part of the test above, the 
posterior ones above the anus. 

Sp. Ihpuuter eofiinabiu, Spatangtu earinatui Bbonn Letk. giogi^. Tab. ZTIL 
fig. 7, in the Jur»-foimation like most of the species of this ganns. Comp. 
DssoB in the 3d number of Aoasbiz Monogr. d'Echinoderm., who describes 
QO species, of which 17 are from the Jura-fonnation and 3 from the chalk- 
period. No species either of this genus or of Ananchyta has been 
discoyered belonging to the present animal world; AOASaiz places this 
genus in the following division, that of the Clypecutr&idea; its place cannot 
be determined with preosion, before it is known whether teeth be present ; 
still we are of opinion that it ought not to be separated frt>m Ananekj/tei, 
but forms the transition between that genus and the folloiiring division. 

b) Month central or stdhcentral. {Clypeastraidea Aqass.) 
Spines lUUe evolved^ sometimes very smcUl, resembling hairs. 

Galerites Lam. Body conoid or sub-oval, plane beneath. Am- 
bulacra in ten fiirrows in pairs from the vertex to the base, radiately 
inscribed, not interrupted. Anus in the margin, or beneath and 
near the margin. Genital pores four. 

Genera: Glypeus E1i£in, Agassiz, Discmdea EIlein, Agassiz, 
Galerites AxiABA. 

8p. GaleriteB albo-galeru$ "Lam., Guv. M. Ani., idit. tS. Zooph, PI. xiv. fig. 4, 
Bbonk Leih. ff^ogn. Tab. xux. fig. 18, Aoass. Monogr, i* Livr. Tab. i. 
f. 4 — II, Tab. xin. f. 7, &c. This genus consists of fossil species of the 
Jura and especially of the chalk-period. Comp. on this and some other 
genera DxsoB in the 3d number of AOAsaiz Monographiu d^Eehinod. 
already referred to, 

Pygaster Agass. Body depressed, with outline orbicular or 
sub-angular, beneath concave. Anus large, superior, situated in 
a broad furrow. Grenital pores four. 

All the species of this genua are fossil; most of them bebng to the 

Digitized by 


154 CLASS lY* 

NucUoUtes Lam. Body ovate or cordate, convex, sub-iiregolar. 
Ambulacra five, extending radially from the vertex to the base, not 
interrupted. Anus superior, near the margin. 

All the species are fossil, partly from the seoondaxy, partly frt>m the 
tertiary formation. 

Casstdulus Lam. Body irregular, elliptic, ovate, or subcordate. 
Ambulacra five, circumscript, resembling a pentapetalous flower. 
Anus superior, near the margin. 

This genus also consists of fossil species from different formations ; ex. 
gr. from the chalk formation is Ctusidulus lapu eaneri Lam., Fadjaa db 
St Foin>, Beach, van den St. Pidenberg, PL 30, fig. i ; Bbonh Ldkon 
giogn. Tab. xxix. fig. 10. 

Fibularia Lam. Echinoct/amus Leske. Body sub-globose, with 
outline oval or orbicular. Ambulacra five short, circumscript. Anus 
inferior near the mouth, or median between the mouth and the 
posterior margin. 

8p. Fibularia ovuLum Lam., GruiRnr Iconogr. Zooph. PL in. fig. 5, EcMnocy- 
amuapunllui Mukll., Fobbes Brit. Starf. pp. 175, &c. From the Atlantic 
Ocean, of the size of a pea. Amongst the foreign species, aooording to 
Yak Phelsuh, mostly American, ^we note Fibularia cranhlarii, V. 
Phblbum Gewehdekken Tab. i. f. 16 — 35. Also in the chalk-formation 
and in tertiary deposits species of this genns occur. 

Echirumeus Leske, Lam. Body sub-ovate or orbicular, sub- 
depressed. Ambulacra inscribed radially in ten fiirrows firom the 
summit to the base, not interrupted. Anus inferior, oblong, near 
the mouth. Genital pores four. 

Sp. Eckinoneut semilunarii Lam., QviR. Iconogr. Zoopk. PL m. fig. 2, Cuv. 
B. Anim. id. ill., Zoophgtes, PL xiv. fig. x, from the West Indian Sea, ftc. 
Of this genus no fossil species are known. 

Clypeaster Lam. Body oval or sub-angular. Ambulacra cir- 
cumscript radiating from the summit, resembling a pentapetalous 
flower. Anus inferior, near the margin, or in it. Grenital pores 
mostly five. 

Sp. ClgpeatUr rotaeeua, Echinua roioeeui, L. Klbin Diapot. Bckinod. Tah. 
xvn. fig. A, Tab. xviii. fig. B, BLAiKyn.LB AcUnol. PL xvn. ; from the 
Indian and Japan Seas. The shell is thick, and parted intemaUy by 
pillan; oomp. the figures in Klbik L L Tab. XXTOL ZZIZ. FoeaU 
species also from the tertiary formations are known. 

Digitized by 



EcMnoiampaM Okat, AoAsa Ambulacra cutnunacript, very wide 
at the summit^ nannower towards the margin, not oonjoined Duo 
submarginate forward& Genital pores four. 

^. Clypeatier eecenirieus, Echinolampaa Kleinii BsONV Leth. g^ogn. Tab. 
XXXYI. fig. lo : fossil from the tertiary formations, &c. 

Scutella Lah. Body flattened, with margin thin, sab-acute. 

Ambulacra short, circumscript, resembling a pentapetalous flower. 

Anus inferior between the mouth and the margin. Genital pores 

four or five. 

From this genus AoASSiz at first separated the sub-genus Echinr 
anrcuihnius {Prodrome cTune Monogr. des Radiarea, <!bc.,) afterwards 
he divided the genus ScuUUa of Lamarck into thirteen genera 
{Monogr, dEchinod,, 2e Livraie, lea Scutellea) ; RotvZa Klein, 
Agass., Runa Aoass., MellUa Kleik, Encope Agass., Lobophara 
Agass., Amphiope AoAsa, Scutella Agass., Echinarachmtu Y. 
Phel&, Arachnoides Kuoir, ScuUllina Agass., Lagannm Kleik, 
Echmocyamfue Y. Phels., MotUinia Agass. 

Sp. Scutdla teaforis Lam., MeUUa kexapara Agass., GirfRiK leonogr, Zooph, 
PL 3, fig. 4, Gov. R. Ant, €d, 01., ZoopK PL 15, fig. i. Aoabs. Monogr, 
Livr. a, PL iv. fig. 4—7, PL nr». fig. 11, i« ; from the shores of the Mo- 
lucca Islands, &c. — Scutdla denUUa Lam., Jtottda SumphU Kuuir, Agass., 
BuMFH. Amb. Sariiekk, Tab. ziv. fig. i, &c. (Linnjeus comprehended all 
the spedes known to him under the name of Sekinua orbictdarU), Except 
a very small number from the chalk-formation, all the fossil species of this 
genus are from the tertiary formations. 
** Atms superior centred, opposite to the mouth. Test regular, 
AmbuUusray perfect. Genital pores, Jive, {Cidaridea Gray, Agabs.) 

Echinus Lam. (spec, of genus Echinus L.) Ambulacra wider 
towards the middle of the test, divergent, contracted at the summit 
and towards the mouth. Spines placed upon imperforate tubercles, 
sometimes very long. 

Sp. Echinus Uvidua Lam. {Echin, sexaHlts Tiedxm. 1. L), YALEirriir in Agass. 
Monogr. SEchinod., Liv. 4, PL i, £abtbb Natuurh, Uitip. i. Tab. xi. 
fig. I — 8, F0BBS8 BrU. Starf. p. 167. In the Mediterranean and North 
Sea, ftc. For the synonomy of the European species of Echinus oomp. 
Agassiz in the preface to the fourth number of his Mcnograpkia. 

Arbacia Gray, Agass., Echinome^ra Bbmjts, Gka.t, Agass. 

Sp. Eehmui mamiOatui L., Eekinomdra mamSlata. Bumph. Anib. JRariteitk. 
Tab. xm. £g. x, 9, Cut. R, Ani, 4dU. iOuttr., Zooph, PL xin. fig. i, East 
Indian Sea, &c. 

Salenia Gray, Agass. {Goniopygus, PeUaster, Goniophorus Agass.) 
Gomp. Aoassiz, Monogr. cPEckmod, Livr. r. 

Digitized by 


156 CLASS IV. 

Cidaris Klein, Cidaritea Lam. {Gidarisy Biadema, Astropyga 
Grat, Agass.) Ambulacra parallel. Tubercles sustaining tibe 
spines not perforate, often remarkable for their size. 

Sp. Cidaris verticUlaia, Gu^B. Iconogr. Zooph. PL 3, fig. i ; in the Indian 
Sea, on the coasts of Timor, &c. Of this genus many fossil species also 
are known. 

Family IV. Holoihuridea, Body free, mostly cylindrical, 
covered with a coriaceous skin, furnished with calcareous particles 
scattered, reticulate. Mouth surrounded by retractile tentacles. 
Anus terminal, opposite to the mouth (Grenus Hblothuria L. exclu- 
sive of several species). 

Comp. on this family : 

G. J. Jaeger De ffolothv/riia, Dissertatio inaug, Turici, 1833, 4to. 
cum tab. J. F. Brandt Prodrorrvus descriptionis animalivm ah 
H. Mertensio in arhis terrarum circumnavigattone observaiorum^ 
Fasc. I. Petropoli, 1835, 4to. pp. 42 — 62, Grubb Actinien, Echino- 
dermen und Wurmer des Adriatiachen und MiUlemeers, Konigsb. 
1840, 4to. pp 33 — 42. There are many figures of European 
Uolothv/ncB in the Zoologia danica and of foreign species in Lesson 
Centurie Zoologique, Paris 1830, 8vo. 

We have spoken above (p. 140) of the caloareous ring which may 
be considered as a vestige of a skeleton, and which serves for the 
attachment of the longitudinal musdes. The pieces of which this 
ring consists are toothed above, but they do not discharge the office 
of teeth, the food, as far as it undergoes separation and mastication 
previous to deglutition, being thus effected by the callous skin 
surrounding the mouth alone. HoloUmrias feed upon conchifera and 
other marine animals ; Tiedemann frequently found shells entire and 
tmiujured in the intestinal canal of Holothwria tfubuloaay so that the 
molluscs appeared to have been dissolved in the shell and digested. 
The bits of shell and the other matters unfit for use and undigested 
are rejected from the doaca with the water in expiration. We 
have indicated above the chief particulars respecting the internal 

See, besides, Tudbmann 1. 1., also the beautiful engraving from a prepara- 
tion by HuiTFBB in Oataiogue of the Phytiolog, Series qf Qmpar. Anat, 
contained in the Museum of the Eoyol College of Surgeons, Vol. L London, 
1833, PL m. pp. «50~«54. 

The numerous species of this fiunily are separated according 
to the form of the Tentacles (Laicabck, Grube), the position of the 

Digitized by 



feet or ambulacral tubes (Cuvier), or the union of both these 
characters (Brandt) into many genera. The arrangement of 
Brandt is drcnmstantialy and here and there rather artificial than 
natural Regard ought also to be had to the Habitua, If the 
position of the Tentacles be made the chief point in the arrange- 
ment, animals will be separated which in their habitui are nearly 
allied. These tentacles are either branched like a tree, fingered, or 
shield-like, (jpeltaU), i. e. they consist of a pedicle with an expansion 
which is disdfonn, often indented or arborescent. Their number is 
usuaUy ten, or twice ten. Where eight tentacles seem to be present, 
sometimes on closer inspection two others, smaller and undeveloped, 
are fotind, (the sub-genera Anaperug and Colochirus of Troschell'). 
In some no special internal respiratory organs are found (the genus 
OncUdbes of Brandt ; in most the arborescent respiratory organ 
exists which we described above in ffoloihurta ttibulotcL 

Peniada GrOLDF. {Clcidodactyla, Dactyhta, Onctnolabes^ Aspido^ 
chir Brandt). Feet equal, disposed in five, or, more rarely, in six 
rows longitudinal, parallel. Body cylindrical or quinquelateral, 
attenuated at both ends. Tentacles mostly ten, sometimes twelve 
or fifteen. 

a) Tentades peltate, 

Aapidochir Bbakixp. A genua anknown to me. 8p. Aspidochir 
MertensU, in the island Sitcha (Tentacles la). 

b) TevOacUa ramose. 

Cladodactyla BRASvr (Tentacles lo). 

Sp. Pentada Pentaetet, ffoloth. pentadet Mdkll. Zool. dan. Tab. 31, fig. 8, 
FoBBBS BrU. Staff, p. 413 ; PerUacta frondosa, Hdloth. frondoM L., ffoloth. 
pentaetes Abildg. Zool. dan. Tab. 108, figs, i, 2, Tab. 114. Fobb. £r. Star/. 
p. 209 ; in the European seas. Pentada doliolum, Actinia doliolum Pall. 
Spie. Zool. Tab. xi. figs. 10— i a. Cur. JL Anim. id. ilL Zooph. PI. 20, 
fig. 4. These species are called^ from their external resemblance, iSSea- 

c) Teni€kde8 digiitUe or pinnate. 

Dadplota BBAinyi. 
Sp. Pentada pellueida, Boloth. pdlucida, Zool. dan. Tab. 135, fig. i. 

{Note. — ^Here also is to be referred the genus Ocnue Fobbks, Brit. Starf. 
P- ««9-) 

* Neue ffolathunengattungen in Ebichboh's Archiv f, Natwrgeach. 1846, s. 

Digitized by 


158 CLASS IV. 

Oncinolahea Bbandt. Body covered all over wiih reonrved 
booklets. (Differs from FerUacta hj defect of respiratory organs.) 

Thyone Oken, MuUeria Flem. (not Jaeg.) Feet equal, nume- 
rous, scattered through the whole body. Body cylindrical. 

a) Tentadea ramose, often unequal {PhyUoporus Gbubb, Anapenu 
Tboboh., OrcttZa Trosoh.) 
Sp. Thyone papiUoaa, Hoi. paptUoia, Zool. dan. Tab. xo8^ fig. 5, FoBB. BrU, 
Sta/rf, p. a'33 ; in the North Sea, &a 

h) Tentada pdUUe (Sporadipus Bbandt). 
8p. Sporadipue Ualanenni Bb. &c. 

Holothurta noK (Species of genus Holothurta L.) Feet of two- 
fold structure and figure, some cylindrical, dilated at the tip, 
usually occurring in the abdomen only, others situated on the back, 
not dilated at the tip, emerging from warts on the back. Body 
cylindrical, or flattened in the abdomen. 

a) TerUacUa peltate or umheUate usually 10 [Stickopttt Bb., Diploperi- 
derie Bb., ffohthuria Bb., Bohadechia Jabo., MuUeria Jabo., Tr^ang 

J ABO.) 

Sp. ffolotkuriatuhvlosa, Fietularia tvhidosa JjAU.; ffolothuria tremula Gmbl., 
Cuv., BoHADSCH de quibusd. Animal, marin, 1761, Tab. Yi., Tibdbmann 
Anai, Tab. i., Cuv. R, Ani, id. HI. Zooph. PL ao, fig. 3 ; one of the largest 
of the species in the Mediterranean. Twenty tentacles, placed alternately 
in two circles, surround the mouth. Jffoloth. argus, Bokadschia argue 
Jabgeb de ffoloth. Tab. n. fig. i, on the coasts of Celebes and Timor. 
Iloloth. edvXis, Trepang eduUe Jaeg., Less. Cent. Zocl, PI. 46, fig. 2, 
GuiBiN Iconogr, Zooph, PI. 4, fig. 7 ; this species lives on the cond-reefii of 
the Molucca, Philippine and Carolina islands, and is fished up in large 
quantities with other species under the name of Trq)ang, to be dried and 
smoked and prepared with condiments for the use of the Chinese and 
Malays, who consider it an exceedingly nutritive and stimula^g {aphro- 
dieiacum) article. 

I) Tentacles ramose. 
Genera : Cladolabes Brandt (tentacles 20), Cohchirus Trosch. 
(Tentacles ten, two smaller). 

Psolm Oken (in part). Feet equal, disposed on a ventral flat 
disc, on the back none. Tentacles ramose. 

Psoitis Jaeg., Br. Body attenuated backwards, covered with 
skin rugose or scaly. Three rows of feet in the ventral disa 

Sp. Psolus phaniapus, ffoloth. phantapus L., Zool. dan. Tab. in, FoBB. Br. 
Starf. p. 403, GUKR. Iconogr. Zooph. PI. iv. fig. i ; in the North Sea. 

Digitized by 



Ouvieria PisoN. Body often oon^ex, oovered vith calcareoiu 
imbricate^ scales, plane beneath, beset with nmnerons feet 

Psoiiu tquamaiui MuxLL. Zool. dame. Tah. X. &g. 1—3^ Gu^iK Jeonoffr. 
Zooph, PL 4, fig. 2, &c. 

Order n. Apoda. 

Bodj covered with a coriaceous, sometimes soft, skin, destitute 
of ambulacral feet. 

Family V. Synapttnce. Body cylindrical, elongate. A cal- 
careous ring around the oesophagus. Mouth crowned with tentacles. 

Most writers unite these animals with the HolothuricB. But 
beyond doubt they form a distinct family, of which, however, the 
structure has been made known to us only in a single genus by the 
investigations of Quatbefages. 

Ltosama Brandt. Tentacles peltate. Eespiratory organs 

Bp. Lioaoma SUchaente Bb. 

Chirodota EscHSCH. Tentacles digitate at the extremity. 
(Respiratory organs ?) Skin thickish. Body vermiform. 

Sp. Chirodota discolor, EscHSOH. Zooloffiaher Adas n. folio, Berlin, 1829, 
p. 12, Tab. X. fig. 2 ; CMrod. verrucosa Eschsch. ib. fig. 3, both from the 
North-west coast of America ; these animals live in the sand and under 
stones op the shore, in situations which are not quite dry at ebb-tide. 
Here belongs also Bohth. purpurea Less., CetUur. Zool, PL 52, fig. 2, and 
Jffolothuria digUata Moktaoit, Lkin, Transact, xi. Tab. iv. fig. 6. Accord- 
ing to Bbandt there are situated on the mesenteiy small cylindrical bodies 
divided at the extremity, which are subservient to respiration. 

Sjfnapta EsCHSCH., Tiedemannia Leuck. Tentacles pinnatifid. 
No arborescent respiratory organs. Skin very delicate, rough from 
booklets extremely minute, calcareous. 

Ebohboholtz named this genus (from tf-iWrrw, adoiteeto), on account of its 
adhering to the skin by means of small booklets, which he compares to the 
appendages of the calyx of the Burdock {Amtivm lappa). He found 
Sjfnapta mamtOosa on the coast of 0tah4nii, Zool, Ad, n. Tab. x. fig. i. 
To this genus belongs sJbaoHoloth, oceanica Lbss. Centur. Zool, PI. 35 ; HoUAh, 
radiosa, ibid, PL 15 ; Fistidaria vittata Forsk. Icon. Iter. Nat. Tab. xxxvn. 
tg. 2, Ac. QuATSBFAOBS discoYered a species in the sand at the Ghausey 
T«1a»^ which, in my opinion, has much resemblance to the last-named species 
of F0B8KAL, and gave a detailed description of it. M^moire sur le Synapte 

Digitized by 


160 CLASS IV. 

de Duvemoy {Synapta DuvemcBa), Ann. des Sc. Nat, ae S&ne xvn. Zool. 
pp. 19 — 93, PI. 2 — 5. Bespiration is effected in the abdominal cavity, 
into which the water passee by five apertures between the tentacles. The 
hooklets, shaped like anchors, one-tenth niillim. in length and less, are set 
on oval eminences of the skin, which are visible under the microscope alone. 
Other similar eminences are covered with cells which can evolve an 
extremely fine thread (nettle-organ?). These anfmals appear to endure 
wounding and extreme mutilation without being destroyed. 

Note. — Ought the genus Haplodactyla Grube to be placed here 1 
Tentacles cylindrical^ simpla The author of the genus says nothing 
about feet. Five respiratory organs, laciniate, sub-arboresoent Gbube 
IL p. 42. 

Molpadia Cuv. Body tending to cylindrical or sub-pentagonal, 
coriaceous, attenuated backwards. Tentacles short, cylindrical, 
simple. Mouth armed with an apparatus of calcareous particles. 

Sp. MoU>pctdia holothwrioldes Guy. ; Mciop. muscultu Bisso, Eitrop. tnSrid. 
Tom. y. figs. 31, 3a. Comp. Cuv. R. Am., m. p. 241, Blainv. Man. 
dPAcUnU. p. 651. 

Family VI. Sipunculacea. Body cylindrical, elongate. No 
calcareous ring around the oesophagus. Mouth provided with 
a retractile proboscis. 

Sipuncuhis L. Body round, elongate, annulate. A papillated 
retractile proboscis, with incised tentacular border or coronet of 
simple tentacles surrounding the mouth. Anus a lateral aperture 
of the body, situated towards the anterior part. 

Sp. SipunculvM nvdus L., Syrinx Bohadboh, de qwbutd. animal, marin. 
Tab. vn. fig. 6, 7, Fobbsb BrU. Stanf. p. 245, Leuokabt Brevet animalitm 
quorundam DeecripHoneef Heidelbergse, i8a8, 4to. fig. 3, and especially 
Gbube in Mubllbb*s Arehiv. 1837, Tab. x. fig. i ; in the seas of Europe, 
especially the Mediterranean. This animal can attain a length of more 
than one foot, exclusive of the proboscis, which is nsuaUy retracted. It is 
very contractile and sometimes shortens itself one-half. Longitudinal and 
circular bundles of muscle, visible through the skin, give it a latticed 
appearance. The intestinal canal is very long, making two bends back- 
wards and forwards ; the last ascending portion is wound spirally round the 
preceding piece. Two brown vesicles, connected with the propagation, 
terminate with fine apertoires before and by the side of the anus. The 
nervous system presents two rings round the oesophagus, and a cord 
running on the abdominal surface, that gives off numerous branches, and is 
surrounded by a blood-vessel as by an envelope ; see Kbohn in Mublleb's 
Arehiv. 1839, ^' 34^- From this species Lumineui phaUoidet Pall. 
SpieUeg. Zool. x. Tab. i. f. 8, seems not to differ. Sipunctdu* edulu, 
Lumbr. edulit Pall. ib. fig. 7, is a species eaten by the Chinese. 

Digitized by 



FoBBBS givM the name of Syrmx to the spedei which have a short 
proboacb with an indented tentacular fold around the mouth, like Sipune. 
tmdut. In other species the proboscis is longer, and there is a ring of 
simple lancet-shaped tentacles round the mouth. Of these he forms his 
genus SijnmeuluB, which appears to agree with PMaaeolommM LiuoK. 
Sp. PhaseoUmma granuUshim Lbvok. L 1. fig. 5, from the Mediterranean, 
probably not different from Ascomnna Blumenbaehii, Und. fig. 5 ; SipunculuB 
eapUahu Bathkb, JVbr. Ad, Aead, Leop. Car, xx. i, Tab. vi. fig. 20, 21 ; 
Sip, Bemhardut Fobb. Brit, Starf, p. 951 ; it Hves, like the Hermit Crab, 
in the empty shells of Molluscs (Stromhw pei pdeeani, LittoriuM, TurrOeUa, 
DaUaUum, Ac.) 

J^riaptUtui Lam. Bod^ (r^lindrical truncated posteriorly. Pro- 
boscis retractile; no tentacles around the mouth. A branched 
pyramidal appendage hanging from the posterior part. 

Sp. Priaptihu eaudatui, HdUtikima priapui L., Zool. damica, Tab. xcfvi. 
fig. I, and OZXXY. f^. 2, Fobbbb Brit. Starf, p. 156. Gu^BiN Iconogr, 
Zoaph. PL 5, fig. I. It is supposed that the bundle of threads at the 
extremity of the body serves for respiration. This singular animal fives in 
the North Sea. 

Banellta Rolando. Body oval, contractile, with a long pro- 
tensile proboscis, divided at the extremity into two lacinise. Anus 
posterior, terminal. 

See BOLAHDO in Jaum. de Phytique, de Chim., ^ffid, not, Ac. Tom. 
xcv. Juillet, 1813, pp. 49, 59, av. fig. (from the Mim, de TAead. de Turin, 
Tom. XXVI. pp. 357, Ac., Tab. XIV. xv.) The long proboscis was taken for 
a tail by this writer, the anus described as mouth ; near the aiMte two 
trussed organs are situated (salivaiy organs according to Bolabdo), which 
correspond to the arborescent respiratory organs of HoUdkuria, The 
intestinal canal is narrow and long, with two loops and many undulations. 
Sp. Bondlia viridii L L fig. i, Guj^bin leonogr, Zooph, PL 6, fig. i ; B<m, 
fuliginoea. Theaa two species were found by Kolaitdo on the shore of 

Thala88ema Cuv. Body cylindrical contractile. Proboscis short, 
with spoon-shaped appendage, or sulcated lacinia, undivided. Two 
shining uncinate setsB in the anterior part of the body, behind the 

* Body smooth posteriorly. Thalasiema Gaebtneil 

Sp. ThaUueema N^uni Gaibtn., Pall., Spicil. Zool, x. Tab. i. f. 6, GufBiv 
Iconogr. Zooph. PI. 6, ^, 2, FOBBSS Brit, Starf, p. 159. (Here also seems 
to belong the genus OcsMostoma Lbuok., Sp. OcKd. eryC^ro^nMimon, AULae 
zu der Reiee YoN Ed. BuFFXLli, Neue wirbeUoie Thdere dee rolken Meeree, 
1818, Tab. n. ^, 3, HoMh, eaouari Lxas. CenL Zool. and GuiB. Iconogr, 
Zooph. PL 4, fig. 6. 
VOL. I. 11 

Digitized by 


162 CLASS IV. 

** Body armed posteriorly with zones of homy setae. Echiurus 
Cuv. (Echiwwrua), 

Sp. Thcila89ema eehiurtu, Lumbricua echiuna Pall., Misc. Zool. x. Tab. i, 
fig. I — 5, FoBBES, Brit, 8t<vrf, p. 263, Gu^ Iconogr, Zooph, PL 6, fig. 3 ; 
on the coasts of the North Sea ; this species is used by the fishermen for 
bait; it is flesh-ooloured, here and there translucent blue and red; the 
spines are shining and yellow, as far as they project from the body. The 
orange-coloured intestinal canal is long, with many undulations and 
vesicular expansions. There are two long, brown, somewhat tortuous, 
csBcal tubes near the anus, and four white vesicles at the anterior part 
of the body, which belong to the procreative apparatus. The nervous 
system consists of a thread running along the intestinal cavity. The skin 
has much muscularity, sp that when wounded it spirts out the contained 
water like a fountain, and then the intestines are forced out. 

**• Body furnished anteriorly and posteriorly with zones of 
setae ; with belly in the middle plane and in front of the amvs 
sciUate, (Setae at the sides of the scute; anaJ tubule oonical, 
retraotila) Stemaspis Otto. 

Sp. Thakusema wuUxtua Rakzaiti, Skmaapit thalaaaenundes Otto, Nov, 
Act, Acad, Leop. Cwrd, Tom. x. Tab. 50, GuiBiN Iconogr, Zooph, PI. 6, 
fig. 4, from the Adriatic. Otto took the conical extremity incorrectiy for 
the mouth ; see the communication relative to the structure of this animal 
by Kboeet in Mublleb's Arclm. 1842, s. \i6, Rakzani, who described it 
before Otto, rightiy distinguished the two extremities of the body, and also 
figured the spoon-shaped prdbotcis, in which it resembles EcKiwrut. Op%i»GoU 
tcient^fiee i. Bologna, 18x7, 4to. pp. iia — 116, Tab. iv. f. 10, 11. 

Digitized by 



Bt Intestinal Worms are understood worms that live in other ani- 
mals, (not necessarily in their viscera). Though not more correctly 
in point of language, they might, perhaps, be better named Internal 
Worms, which would be a literal translation of the word Entozoa. 
This class is by no means natural, for the animals included in it not 
only differ remarkably from each other in external form, but also 
in internal structure. The efforts that have been made hitherto to dis- 
tribute the different orders and families of the Entozoa amongst the 
different classes of invertebrate animals have not been satisfactory. 
In this, as in so many other attempts to determine the affinities of 
animals, a certain external resemblance has been mistaken for 
correspondence of internal stmcture and of type of organisation, by 
which alone true affinities can be established. An unprejudiced 
inquirer will scarcely attach more value to a comparison of Echino- 
rhynchua with Sipunculua, of Cyaticercus with bladder-bearing 
Acalephs, &c. than to a comparison of bats with birds. Consequently 
we are compelled to retain the class Entozoa, however we acknow- 

^ Compaore on thiB class : 

C. A. RuDOLPHi^ Entozoorum sive Vermium irUesUnaUum ffistoria naturalu, m. 
Totm, c. tab. aen. Amstebedami, 1808 — ro, 8vo. 

C. A. KuDOLPHi, Enioeocrum SynoptU, eui cLccedunl Mantissa duplex et indices 
loevpleUssimif c. tab. m. ten. Berolioi, 1819, 8yo. 

Db. Brbmsbb, Ud>er lebende WUrtner im lebenden Mensehm, Mit iv. Ulum. Kupfeit. 
Wien, 1819, 4to. 

Bbzmssbi Icones Hdminthum. m. Fasciculi. Yiennse, 1823, folib. 

J. Cloqubt, Anatomie des Vers ifUesHna/ux Ascaride hmbrieoide et Eehinorynqus 
g€a^, Avec 8 pi. Paris, 1814, 4to. 

A. Yon Nobdhann, Afihrographische Beitrage zur NaturgeschicJUe der wirbeUosen 
Thieve, Istes Heft. Mit ro Kupfertaf. Berlin, 1832, 4to. 

F. DuJABDiN^ Histoire nalurdU des ffdminthes ou vers intestinavx. Avec 12 pi. 
Paris, 1845, 8to. 

Other important, more special works of Mbblis^ Cbbflut, Lbxtoeabt, G. Th. Yon 
SiBBOLD, will be indicated farther forward. See also the article Bntosoa of Owen in 
ToDD*B Oydcpadia n. pp. 110 — 144 (1837). 


Digitized by 


164 CLASS V. 

ledge it to be unnatural. Rudolphi, to whose investigation this 
part of Zoology is so greatly indebted, compares the class of the 
intestinal worms to a Fauna, a collection of animals that live in a 
certain region. Their country is the living body of other animals. 
Becent observations have, however, taught us that some species in 
the cycle of their developments, leave their country for a time. The 
radial type, which we observed in the former classes, particularly 
in the Polyps and Acalephs, is here wanting. All Entozoa approxi- 
mate to the elongated form of the articulate worms, although in 
some of them that form, on account of a bladder to which they are 
affixed by their extremity, is not at first sight apparent. Special 
respiratory organs are wanting. Some are entirely without sex, 
and are propagated by gemmation ; others are bisexual ; in others 
the sexes are distinct. 

We must premise something as to the division of the Entozoa, 
EuDOLPHi adopts five principal sections, which had been already 
distinguished by Goetze and Zeder before his time. The first is 
that of Cystic worms {Cystica firom rworw, a bladder). The body is 
compressed or cylindrical, the posterior part of it passing into a 
bladder ; sometimes many such enJtozoa are fixed on one bladder. 
The head has suckers, a circlet of hooks, or iom prdbosddes armed 
with hooks. No genital organs have been discovered; nor any 
intestinal canal. [These have been shewn to be imperfectly deve- 
loped Tcmice.] The second division contains the Tape-worms 
{Cestotdeay fix>m KtaT6t, a girdle, a band, ti^, form). They have an 
elongated, compressed or flat body that is mostly jointed. The head 
has suckers ; all the individuals are bisexual ; an intestinal canal is 
wanting. The third division is formed by the Suctorial Worms 
{Trematodes, rfnuAankbiiu perforate). The body is soft, compressed 
or roundish, and provided with one or more suctorial pores. The 
intestinal canal has in general only one opening, and is usually 
branched ; it lies in the tissue {parenchyma) of the body, not in a 
firee space. The genital organs of both sexes are united in the 
same individual. The fourth division is that of the Thorn-headed 
Worms {Acavihocephala, from oKovOa, a thorn, and xc^iy, head) ; 
they have a cylindrical, pouch-shaped body. The sexes are 
distinct ; an intestinal canal is wanting. The fifth division includes 
those intestinal worms which have an intestinal canal, with both 
mouth and anus, suspended fii-eely in the cavity of the body. The 

Digitized by 



body is cylindrical. The sexes are distinct. They are named Thread- 
worms or Bound'toarms {NemcUoidea, from i^fia, a thread, and ccdof). 
CuYiER makes a distinct order of this division, that of InUsttnaux 
caviiatres; all the remaining entozoa he unites in a second order 
nnder the name of Inteatinaux parenchymateux. OwEN has denoted 
these two principal divisions of CuviEB by the names Sterelminiha 
and C(ElelminlJia^. In onr compressed description of the structure 
of the intestinal worms we shall avail ourselves of the names 
which we have explained. 

In the cystic worms, the tape and thorn-headed worms, there 
is neither mouth nor intestinal canal; the nutriment is introduced 
by absorption of the skin. In the thorn-headed worms two parts 
are met with by the side of the sheath of the proboscis, usually of 
a flattened form, and very small anteriorly. These parts, called 
Lemmsciy are, according to Rudolphi, subservient to nutrition. 
They contain, according to the description of Yon Siebold, a finely 
granular parenchyma, and are very vascular. 

In the suctorial worms the intestinal canal commences with 
an cesaphagus^ more or less long, which, at its fore part {pharynx) 
is surrounded by muscular walls. In those that have a sucker at 
the anterior extremity of the body, the oral aperture is situated at 
its bottom. The intestinal canal divides, below the (xsophagus, into 
two branches, which have csecal terminations backwards. In many 
species these branches do not subdivide^; frequently they expand at 
their termination. In other species these principal branches give off 
other branches. This is especially the case in the Liver-fluke of 
sheep {Distoma hepaticum), where the branches divide to such a de- 
gree that the whole canal has an arborescent appearance. The oral 
aperture performs also the office of anus; at least the Distomes, 
which are taken alive from the liver, and exposed to air or placed 
in water, reject by the mouth, entirely or in part, the brown fluid 
with which the intestinal canal was filled*. The genus Pmtastoma 
or Lingtuttula^ differs from all the other suctorial worms in the 

1 Todd's Cjfdop<ed%a n. p. iii. 

* Ab in Ditkma perlatum Nobdmakk, h eii. Tab. iz., Dittoma ro$aeeum, ib. Tab. 
ym., IHfioBlomata foimd in the vitreone humour of the eye of the Perch, i6. 
Tab. n. nL, and in many others. See also BIaubb BeUr&ge sur AnaUmie der Entazoen, 
Bonn, 184T, 4to. 

* Comp. E. MzHLiB Ofmrv<Uume$ analomuxe de ZHttOTnaie hepoLico et lanceoUUo, 

Digitized by 


166 CLASS V. 

structcire of its intestinal canal as well as in other respects. On that 
account Cuvier and Owen have with propriety removed it from this 
division in which Rudolphi placed it. The intestinal canal lies in 
a free cavity of the body, though covered by the coik of the oviduct, 
and ends with a distinct anus ^ The position and form of the canal 
agrees with the same in the Roundrworms; only in the oesophagus 
is there some difference, since this tube in the NemaUndea runs 
from the mouth at the anterior extremity of the body backwards in 
the same plane with the intestinal canal, whilst in PentasUmia it 
ascends obliquely because the mouth is situated on the abdominal 
surface. In the NemaUndea the cesophagus is muscular, and in 
many species wider at its termination. The intestinal canal that 
succeeds it is straight, and its whole course continues nearly of the 
same width. In Aacaris lumbrtcotdes pedunculated pyriform vesicles 
axe foimd, which adhere to the internal surface of the integum^it, 
and occupy the space between the skin and the intestinal canal. 

A vascular system has been discovered in many entozoa. 
[Amongst the NemcUotdea Blanchard has described in Aacaris 
megalocepJuda Cloquet two longitudinal vessels lodged in each of 
the lateral canals within the integument, which extend from one 
extremity of the body to the other. At about the depth of one 
third of the oesophagus, the two, supposed to be arteries, leave their 
tubes to form an arch behind the oesophagus ; on the arch a small 
ampulla is seen which is supposed to supply the office of a heart. 
The two arteries descend in the tubes throughout the whole length 
of the body, and communicate with the two other longitudinal 
vessels supposed to be veins K In the tcenta the longitudinal canals, 
four or six in number, communicate by transverse branches, and 
open in the last joint into a pulsatile vesicle, which expels their 
contents in drops at intervals. In the suctorial worms the fine 
vascular network, hitherto considered to be a circulating system, 
has been shewn by Van Beneden to be an appendage of the 
tubular system, which terminates in a vesicle that opens externally 
by 9k foramen caudale. The apparatus in the last two families of 

1 See Owen Transact, ZaU. Soc. I. 1835, PL 41, fig. 12 ; DiEBiSQAnn, dea Wiener 
Museums, i. 1856, Tab. 11. fig. 2 ; comp. Tab. i. fig. 20, of PetUasloma proboseideum. 

• Blanchard Ann, des Sc, not. $e S^rie, Zool. Vol. xi. pp. 146, 147, and Cutixb 
R. Anim. idU. iUus, Zoaph. Fl. 26, fig. i c. 

Digitized by 



worms appears to be similar, and for the purpose of secretion; a 
renal secretion, as Van Beneden supposes \] In the thorn-headed 
worms there are two lateral canab situated beneath the skin that 
nm the whole l^igth of the body. 

We have already remarked that special respiratory organs are 
wanting. So far as any action occurs between the air of the 
medium in which these animals live and their nutrient fluid, it must 
be efiPected by means of the skin. But Entozoa live, for the most 
part, in situations where the atmosphere exists in a condition very 
impure and unfit for respiration ; or where no air at all can enter, 
as in the liver, brain, kidney, &c. It is therefore probable that 
they derive firom the fluids absorbed from the animals in which they 
live, the quantity of oxygen necessary for their life, and that they 
experience the influence of this gas only mediately through the 
animals in which they live *. 

With respect to propagation : no genital organs, as noticed 
above, have been detected in Cystic worms. What many writers 
have described as eggs in these worms are calcareous corpuscles 
beneath the skin, which also occur in Tape-worms. Their multi- 
plication is eflected by gemmation. In Ccenurus there arise on the 
bladder on which the worm, or that extremity of it that bears 
the head, is seated, little buds which again develop other buds ; in 
Echinococcus new bladders are formed within the parent bladder, 
like cells within cells, in which young Ediinococci are developed 
that continue hanging by a thread for a time, after the containing 
envelope is ruptured, and then fall into the cavity of the parent 
bladd^^ In Cysticercua the mode of propagation is yet unknown. 
In T^remaioda there is found on the abdominal surfsice, generally 
nearer to the anterior than the posterior extremity, an opening 
common to the organs of both sexes. From this a penis, usually 
named drnu*, can be evolved; near this part the vagina opens. 

1 Yah Bbnxdsn LeUre relative d Vlfist. de» ver§ cetlcides, Ann. des Se.nat, 30 S^rie, 
Zool, VoL XVII. pp. a I — 30. 

' Comp. OD the respiratioii of intestinai worms, BuDOLPHi Hid. not. £ntoxoor, i. 
pp. 139 — 944, uid Cloqubt An<tt» des vers vntetUn$, pp. 42 — ^44. 

' MuxLLSB in the Jahretbericht for 1835, Arckiv. s. ovn. OVIU. ; V. Sibbold in 
Buxdaob's Phynol, ite Aufiage n. s. 183—185. 

^ See the fig. of JOittoma hepaUcum in Mehlib, fige. 8, 9, 11. In fig. 8 is seen 
near the cirrua the opening of the vagina, thi-ough which a bristle has been passed to 
distinguish it. 

Digitized by 


168 CLASS V. 

The testes have mostly a rounded form ; in Amphistoma subtriqw- 
trurn and gigatUeumy thej are finger-shaped and branched^. From 
these testes, nsually two in ntunber, efferent vessels proceed to a 
seminal vesicle lying at the base of the penis in the Cirrus-sac 
{recq^tacidum Penis) ; firom which a canal arises that runs to the penis. 
But besides this, one of the testes gives still a third vas deferens to 
a seminal vesicle lying further behind [vesicula seminaUs interior) ^ 
and from which arises a short tube connected with the oviduct^. 
Here self-impregnation may be effected : in which case the second 
vesicula seminaUs and the external genital organs are difficult of 
explanation: unless we suppose that both self-impregnation and 
copulation are possible. In the female organs of the suctorial worms 
we would direct particular attention to that remarkable arrangement 
by which, according to V, Siebold, the yolk and the germ {vesicula 
germinaiiva) are not produced in the same organ: — ^that here we 
must consequently, instead of ovary, distinguish a germ-stock and a 
yolk-stock. The lateral parts, usually dendritic or botruoidal, which 
were formerly believed to be ovaries, are the yolk-stocks: the germ- 
stock is placed in the middle of the body, and has a roundish form. 
In the Tape-tDorms the two sexes are also united : and V. Siebold 
suspects that in this case, also, the germ and yolk-stocks are dis- 
tinct organs. In the jointed Tape-worms {Tomia, Bothriocq^hahis) 
the sexual organs are situated in every joint, only the anterior more 
recent joints do not yet indicate them, because they become more 
perfectly developed in proportion as the joints are more posterior. 
These animals, therefore, during their growth present us with a 
successive repetition of the same organisation. Some authors think 
that eveiy individual joint is to be considered as a suctorial worm, 
and the Tape-worm as a compound suctorial worm. The sexual 
openings are situated in every joint, either on the edge or in the 
middle. In Bothriocephalus lotus, for instance, on the abdominal 
surface of the body there is a fold of skin in the middle of each 

1 AmphiiUma triquHrum, Bojanub liit, 1B21, truuferred to Sohmalz TdlnU. 
Anatomiam JBrUoeoar. illuitr, Dresda, 185 1, Tab. Tm. figs. 7 — 9 ; AmpkuUma gigtm- 
teum, DiEsnra in Wiener AnntUen i. Tab. xxii. figs, g, 14, 15. 

* V. 81XBOLD found this arrangement in many apeeiei of JHiUma, and suspects that 
it oocun in all. See BuBXSiSTXB on Didotna ghbiporum in WnOM. Archiv, i. 1835, 
B. 187 ; V. SiXBOLD, ibid. n. 1836, s. 117, Tab. vi., and in Mubllbb's ArMv. 1836, 
B. S35 — 137, IHstoma noduloeum, Tab. z. fig. i. 

Digitized by 



joint, jet nearer the anterior edge, with two openings : through the 
anterior and larger the penis is evolyed; the posterior smaller 
is the female sexual opening: round both of them are minute 
white points which Eschbicht^ concluded, under high powers of 
the microscope, to be follicles (mucous crypts of the skin). The 
eggs of Boihriocephalu8 have a hard shell, as in the Distomes^ of a 
brown or brownish-yellow colour, and seem like them to spring 
open with a sort of hood. In the thorn-headed and round-worms 
the sexes are distinct, and may be often recognised externally 
by their different form and size. In the thorn-headed worms the 
sexual organs iill the greater part of the cavity of the body. From 
the sheath that surrounds the proboscis there runs backward in the 
axis of the body a band-like structure, which has been erroneously 
supposed to be a canal, but which lb for the support of the organs 
that prepare the germ or the seed {Ugamentum sutpeiwarium) ; YoN 
SiEBOLD supposes' that even the ovaries are developed in this organ. 
These ovaries are found free in the abdominal cavity, as masses of 
oblong-roimd eggs : the eggs become detached as they advance in 
development. The muscular oviduct terminates in a very small 
opening, scarcely visible at the posterior part of the body : it has at 
its anterior extremity an infundibular expansion which alternately 
widens and contracts, and takes up the eggs that were floating freely 
in the cavity of the body and moves them onwards* to the oviduct. 
This arrangement, in virtue of which the oviduct opens freely into 
the cavity of the abdomen and is not an immediate continuation of 
the ovary, is found in most vertebrates, with the exception of the 
osseous Fishes, but has not hitherto been observed in invertebrates 
except in Echinorhynclius. In male thorn-headed worms there are 
usually two testes lying one behind the other. The penis lies in a 
sac having a conical appendage that can be everted from the body 
in the form of a little bell* 

Amongst the Thread-worms the males are less frequent than the 
females : they are smaller and more slender, and may frequently be 

1 See EflomnoHT AnaU)mUck-pkiftioU>giK^ UiUermckungtn uAer die Btdhruh 
eepkalen; Act, Acad, Cam, Leap. Carol, Nat, Curia, Vol. ziz. Snpplem. n. 1840. 

* VoK SiSBOLD m Buboagh'b Physiologie, n. b. 197. See » figure in Buftow 
Bekinorhyncki itrumori Anatome, Diss. 2jOotom. Rogiomonti, 1836, 8yo. &g, ig. fig. 6 ; 
oomp. DujASDm op. cit. p. 494, PI. vn. fig. 7, D 5. {Bchinorhynehut anlhwrit, a species 
from the freshwater SaUinander). 

Digitized by 


170 CLASS V. 

recognised by their curved extremity or by the sexual organ exter- 
nally visible ; this penis is in most species double, in Triooc^Aalus 
and Trtchasoma single. The organ which prepares the germ or 
seed has the form of a slender convoluted canal. It is single in the 
males : in the females, with few exceptions, it is double. These 
canals are of great length: according to Cloquet, in the male 
Ascaris lumbrtootdes when quite unravelled it measures from 2^^ — 3 
feet, and in the female each of them measures 4 — 5 feet. The dif- 
ferent divisions of the canal may be considered to be ovary or testis, 
and vas deferens or oviduct with lUertis. The terminal portion in 
the female is distinguished as uterus by its greater circumference 
and its vigorous peristaltic motion. A very wide, longish sao- 
shaped structure at the termination of the canal in the male is to be 
considered as vesicula seminalis. The external sexual opening is, in 
the male, always situated at the posterior extremity of the body ; 
in the female ordinarily further forward, and in some species in the 
middle, or towards the anterior extremity ^ Non-sexual Nematoids 
are met with* ; Creplin gives it as a general rule that a Nematoid 
living in a perfectly closed cyst, or shut up on every side by a mem- 
brane, never has sexual organs. It has been suspected tibat these 
species are in an incomplete state, and can attain their perfect deve- 
lopment only in other localities*. 

We here approach what, until very recently, was one of the 
most obscujre problems in the economy of the Entozoa: and 
MiESCHEB was fiilly justified in his remark that many of the 
observations relating to their development are riddles of Natural 
History*. [With respect to the suctorial worms our information is 
in fact only fragmentary : yet since the observations refer to veiy 
different periods of their development in different Trematodes, we 
are able from analogy to collect a tolerably connected history of the 
whole process in any one of the class.] It is well known that the 

^ In Ascaris lumhric&idea, these parts are figured in the work of Gloquet already 
cited, PI. n. figs. 8— TO, PL rv. 

• Von Sibbold, Wibgm. Arekivf, Naturgtick, w. i. 1838, s. 301—311 ; GBXFLiir, 
ibid, s. 373. 

' M1B8OHEB, however, has observed OYaries in Fiiaria PiteiMm, Wisomakn's 
Archiv, 1 84 1, II. s. 301. 

* F. MiEBCHSB JSeachreibuny und Uniersuchung da MonoMoma h^ugum. Basel, 
1838, 4to. 8. 14. 

Digitized by 



Danish zoologist Muelles classed amongst his Infbsories minute 
worms with tails, to which he gave the generic name of Cercaria. 
The aocnrate observations of NrrzsCH taught us to define the genus 
more completely, and supplied a lively picture of the form and 
movements of a worm that to the naked eye seems like a moving 
point ^. He compared these animals to Distomes that have had a 
tail-like appendage attached to them, and their motions to those of 
a Vibrio: each of these structures, the body and the tail, had a 
separate motion : when the body moved on by creeping and sucking 
the tail was at rest; aad, conversely, when the tail tmdulated rapidly 
it forced along with it the body, which seemed now to have no 
independent motion of its own. NiTZSCH further saw that Cercarios 
cast thdr tail, and observed in Cercaria ephemera that it fixes 
itself, covers itself with a shell that presently hardens, and thus 
becomes, as it were, a pupa. Such pup« remain unchanged for 
months: what was to succeed remained m[iknown. Afterwards 
similar observations were made by others, particularly by VoN 
Si£BOLD. Steenstbup' shewed that the pupss change into Di- 
stomes after the lapse of several months. Cercarice live as parasites 
within the bodies of different Molluscs, as Lymnasus and Flanorbis. 
Bnt this does not terminate the surprising series of these changes. 
CercaricB, the larvsB of Distomes, do not arise immediately from the 
eggs of these last. Within the above-named Molluscs, and in some 
others, little bags of an oblong form {germ-pouches) are found, in 
which a peculiar organisation and motion may sometimes be traced, 
but which in other species are motionless, and contain CercaricB in 
a more or less advanced state of development. Considered as para- 
sites of the germ-pouches, these have been named parasites of the 
second order: yet they are not parasites, but the progeny of these 
vermiform germ-pouches*. How these last originate fix)m the young 
of Distomes has not been absolutely ascertained. The young animals. 

1 C. L. NrrzaoH BeUrag zur Ii^u»orienhmde, Halle, 1817, 8yo. 

' Stxbnbtbup AUenvUion of Oeneration, Translated by Bubk for Raj Soc. 

' BojAKUS, who diflcoyered such yermiform germ-sacs of a yellow colour in lAm- 
fUguM tUtgntUu, named them Kin^s ydlow leomu; Im, iSiS, s. 799. The celebrated 
y. Baeb published many similar obseryations in Nov. Act, Cass. L. C, Not, Cur. 
VoL xni. P. 2, pp. 605---659, Taf. xxxi. ; as also the €ftr-fiuned inyestigator of the 
lower animal forms V. Siebold in Bubdacr'b Phytiol, 2^ Ausgabe, s. 186, ftc. 

Digitized by 


172 CLASS V. 

that proceed from eggs of Distomes, move rapidlj hj means of 
cilia with which their body is covered like that of many Infusories, 
In such a young animal Yon Sieblod saw in Monostoma mtUabile 
a parasite lodged which agreed in form with that of the germ-pouch 
of Cercaria echinata, [He concludes that the germ-pouch is thus 
shewn to be the descendant of a Trematode. The Monostoma mutor 
bile is a parasite of water-birds and lives in cavities of their body 
which communicate with the external world. K a MonoaUyma mtU. 
has produced an embiyo, this can readily escape from the abode of 
its parent into the water, and may by means of its cilia find in- 
stinctively the animal suited to supply a fit residence for the further 
development of the germ-sac which it contains. It may pass into 
the interior of that animal by some one of the natural openings. 
Having now ftilfilled its office of a living envelope to the germ- 
pouch, the ciliated embryo will die, and the germ-pouch seeks by 
perforation that situation within the body of its host which is suited 
to its further growth, and to the supply of due nutriment for the 
Cercariar-brood which it contains. The greater number of suctorial 
worms are, when they have gained their sexual organs, parasites of 
the higher vertebrates. How then can Cercaria effect an entrance 
into the body of such vertebrates as never come near the waters in 
which they live? VoN Siebold has given a probable answer to 
this enigma. He very commonly found in the aquatic larvae of 
EphemeridcB, PhryganidoB, LtbeUultdce, &c., as well as in the perfect 
insects, encysted Cercartce which had divested themselves of their 
tail, and which in fact were larval trematodes. In order to effect a 
passive migration into the vertebrate in which their development is 
to be completed, they must wait until their temporary host is 
swallowed by some insectivorous land bird or mammal ^] Though 
there still remains an ample field for conjecture and fancy, thus 
much may be concluded from the observations hitherto made, that 
in these animals (as in Medusae, vid. pp. 100, 101) a succession of 
alternate generations occurs : that the first series does not resemble 
the parent, but that from it young ones proceed which return to the 
original form. The germ-pouches constitute the first series, the 
nurses (nutrices) ; they are the starting-point of animals to be bom as 

* Comp. Von Sibbold Die Band u, Bkuen-wOrmer, Leipeig, 8vo. 1854, pp. 21— 31. 

Digitized by 



larvse, CercaricB^ from the larval state to be changed into pnpsB, and 
from this finally to become Distomes^ 

Besides these changes of Distomes, of which the entire series, in 
its chief features at least, has been investigated, there are others 
relating to Tcenim which [until lately] were only observed firag- 
mentaxily. Such was that of Leblond, who found in the peritoneum 
of Murcena conger a worm enclosed in a cyst and containing a 
young Tetrarhynchtis. He described this larva of Tetrarhynchtia as a 
species of Amphistoma and the Tetrarhynchua as its parasite*. Mies- 
CHER also made similar observations. Sometimes the successions of 
development appear to be possible only on change of abode. The 
simple LigidoB of fishes are found, according to Budolphi, in birds 
that feed on fishes in their more perfect form and furnished with 
developed sexual organs: the worms of th& [supposed] genus 
Soolex, that live in Fleuronectce, are probably changed in the bodies 
of Kays and Sharks into Bothriocephalic and the Bothriocephalus 
9olidu8y that lives in Qasterosteua pungititiSy is changed, according to 
Abildgard* and Creplin, into the Bothriocephalus nodoaus of water- 
birds {Merfftts, Colymlms, &c.), which feed on that fish. That worms 
should thus continue to live in other animals becomes less surprising 
when we consider their tenaciousness of life; Liguloe have been 
found alive in under-cooked fish ; Rudolphi found individuals of 
Ascaris speculigera stiff and hard in the gullet and stomach of a 
Cormorant that had been kept for eleven days in spirit of wine 
which returned to life in warm water : and MiRAM saw individuals 
of Ascaris acus firom the Pike dry and sticking to a board revived 
by water, and in some instances moving a part which had imbibed 
the fluid whilst the rest continued shrivelled up and adhering im- 
moveably to the board*. 

These observations prove, by the way, that it is not necessary 
to have recourse to equivocal generation in all cases of Entozoa 
where their existence appears to be inexplicable by the ordinary 
mode of propagation. 

[Tape-worms attain their full development and mature sexual 

^ See SnsHSTBUF AUematum qf CfmeraHon, 

' Awn. de» 8c. nai. aec. S^rie. Tom. vi. Zool. pp. 289 — 195, pi. 16, f. x- 

* Rddolfhi SnUuoor. Hid. Nat. n. P. u. pp. 60, 61. 

* WnEOMAHs's ArrMvf. Noburgack. 1840, I. b. 35—37. 

Digitized by 


174 CLASS V. 

organs only in the intestinal canal of vertebrate animals: when 
found in other viscera of these animals, or in the interior of inferior 
creatures, they are always immature. The ova, however, of Tape- 
worms are never developed in the intestine of the animals which 
harbour the parent worm: still the embryo is so far advanced within 
the ovom contained in mature joints when discharged from the 
intestine that its form may be distinguished. In all instances the 
armature of the embryo is the same, however different it may be in 
the heads of fully developed worms of different species. Thus the 
embryos of Tcmia and of Bothriocephalus have both of them six 
booklets, though the head of a developed Tcmia is armed with a 
coronet of numerous booklets and that of Bothriocephalus is unarmed. 
These six booklets are not all of the same form : the pair in the 
middle are not curved at the extremity like the others, they are 
straight, very finely pointed, thinner throughout and also longer 
than the other four, which are also disposed in pairs. The middle 
pair are for penetrating soft tissues, and the rest for helping the 
embryo forward when it has once penetrated them. Stein* saw 
these embryos free within the intestinal canal of larvae of Tenebrio 
molitor and encysted on the outside of the canal, and justly con- 
cluded that the latter had perforated the canal from the interior, 
having entered by the mouth. The ftiture tape-worm does not 
appear to arise from the embryo by metamorphosis, but to be formed 
within it by gemmation, whilst the six teeth of the embryo are 
rejected when they have performed their oflSce and are found 
dispersed on its outer surface. A bud is seen within the embryo, 
which gradually assumes the special form of the head and neck of 
the ftiture Tape-worm. As the development proceeds the head and 
neck would be permanently enclosed within the embryo in which it 
is being formed, were it not that at the same time a canal from the 
exterior is formed around them, so far as to allow the head and 
neck to be produced when the larva is freed fix)m its cyst. It is 
then found that the neck of the larva is continuous with the body 
of the embryo, which forms a vesicle at its extremity. To this larva 
of a Toenia the name of Scolex, proposed by Van Beneden, is now 
appropriated by the common consent of Helminthologists. K now 

1 Stkin, in SiBBOLD and Koxllikeb's Zeiitehr. f. wittetachaft, ZooL iv. 1853, 
8. 407. 

Digitized by 



the Scolex can gain a passive migration into the intestinal canal of 
an animal suitable for its deyelopment, that development will 
proceed; the vesicle will be cast off: joints will be formed suc- 
cessively beneath the neck, and in these joints the genital organs 
will be developed, the joints first formed, or nearest the posterior 
extremity of the body, being the first to become mature. Thus the 
Scolex is changed into a Tape-worm. Many naturalists now con- 
sider the Taeniae to be compound animals, (which indeed was the 
opinion long ago of Yalisnieri and Coulet and afterwards of 
Blumenbaoh,) colonies, like certain Polyps: the head and neck 
corresponding to the Polyp-stock, and the joints, under the name of 
Proghttis, to the single Polyps. By such observations as these 
Von Siebold has been enabled to interpret justly those of Leblond 
and Miescher alluded to above. The Amphutoma of Leblond 
was the embryo of the Tape-worm, now the receptaculum Soolecis^ 
the Tetrarhynchus the Scolex of a Rhyruxibothrius. When the 
minuteness of these embryos is considered (they are not more in 
volume than the blood-disc of the firog) it is not difficult, as Van 
Benedbn ^ says, to comprehend that they may perforate the walls of 
the intestine to encyst themselves beneath the peritoneum, or to 
penetrate the vessels and distribute themselves with the blood in 
different viscera of the body, not excepting the brain itself, or the 
humours of the eye. Dr Haubner of Dresden caused six young 
lambs to swallow the living and mature joints of Tamta serraUu 
They all died of the peculiar vertiginous disease produced by 
Ocenurus cerebraUs. The Ckenm^/a vesicles were found in the brain, 
and the heart, lungs, and voluntary muscles abounded with encysted 
broods of TcBnia^. It would seem from this that the different forms 
of Ocenurm and Gysiicercus assumed by the larva depend upon the 
locality occupied by the embryos, and the quantity and nature of 
the nutriment which they obtain there. And this conclusion is 
confirmed by the previous and converse experiments of Von Sie- 
bold. On causing young dogs to swallow Oystic. jnstformts from 
the liver of the hare. Cist tenuicoUea from the mesentery of the 
sheep, Cist. ceUulosa from the muscles of the swine, Ccenurus cere- 
hralta fix)m the brain of the sheep, the same form of Tcenia^ viz. 

^ Vau Bbhxdbh Ann, de$ Se, tuUur. Sdrie m. Zooloff. Vol. xx. pp. 390, 331. 
' Von Sisbold Band u, BUuen-wOrmer, 8yo. Leipeig, 1854, p. 106. 

Digitized by 


176 CLASS V. 

Tomta serrataj which in its developed state resides in the small 
intestine of the dog, was found in all cases. The experiments were 
performed so frequently, and with such precautions as to render the 
results incontestable\ The cjst is a secretion of the infested animal, 
and derives its blood-vessels from it. 

There is reason to conclude that a nervous system exists in 
most Entozoa. In Bothriocephalus Blaxchard describes a small 
ganglion on each side of the head (probably connected by a trans- 
verse band), which sends a fine thread forwards and backwards ; but 
he was not able to detect the distribution of these*.] No nerves 
have been discovered in the incomplete cystic forms. In Distomes, 
and various other suctorial worms, two small ganglia have been 
seen near the mouth, which are united by a transverse band that 
runs over the oesophagus. From these two threads arise that have 
a parallel course through the body, become finer backwards, and 
give off some lateral branches'. In the thorn-headed worms there 
is, according to the investigations of Von Siebold, in different 
species of Ediinorhynchus^ a nervous mass at the base of the pro- 
boscis, from whence threads radiate in all directions, whose course 
is not easy to follow. In Pentastoma a large nervous ganglion lies 
beneath the oesophagus, from which a nervous ring arises that runs 
transversely above the oesophagus; small branches go from the 
ganglion to the muscles of the mouth and the surrounding parts, 
and two threads proceed longitudinally, one on each side, back- 
wards, giving off fine branches, and, at last, losing themselves in 
the muscular tissue^. In Stranffylus gigaa the nervous system forms 
a flattened ring round the commencement of the oesophagus, and a 
string running backwards in the middle of the abdominal surface, 
which ends in a ganglion close by the anus. From the string arise 
at short and nearly equal distances transverse nervous threads. 
Special organs of sense are not found in the intestinal worms, with 

^ See Band u. BUuen-w. b. 8o — 95. 

> Blanohabd Ann, de$ 8c. not. 30 S^rie, Zool. Vol. XI. pp. 113, 114^ Cuvieb 
^dU, iUiu. Zooph, pi. 36. fig. id. 

* MsHLis Ofmrvat. anat. de DiaUmate; DiSBiNO in AmpMitoma gigawtewn, Wiener 
Amuden i. p. 146, Tab. xxn. fig. 16, kc. 

* OwBN TranMct. of the Zool. Soc. i. pi. 41. fig. 13 ; Todd Cfytlop. 1. L p. 130, 
fig. 78 in PenUutama UenuMes; Dibbino Wiener AnnaL. i. Tab. il. figs. ^, 19, in 
PenUuL proboeeideum. 

Digitized by 



the exception of those of touch about the mouth in certain thread 
and suctorial worms, such as threads, papillae, or tentacles, which 
can he extended by eversion. 

A special muscnlar system is usually present, but the muscular 
fibres are not always united into bundles to form distinct muscles. 
In the suctorial worms the muscular fibres in their entire course are 
completely imited and interwoven with the rest of the mass of the 
body^. In the tape-worms fibres are visible beneath the skin 
running longitudinally. In the thread and thomheaded-worms two 
layers of muscular fibres may be distinguished beneath the skin, 
the one longitudinal, the other transverse. The proboscis of Echi- 
norhynchus has special muscles for its inversion and production. 

The Trematodes make use of their suckers, especially the pos- 
terior, for fixing themselves. Other intestinal worms have spines 
or hooks for that purpose, which are movable, and often possess 
considerable hardness. It is probable that these hooks cause by 
their irritation an increased afflux of fluids, whereby the nutrition 
of the worm within the animal that harbours it is £Eicilitated. 

Entozoa are inhabitants of very different classes of animals; the 
most numerous are the species which occur in birds and fishes. 
Amongst the tape-worms especially are genera, which are found 
exclusively or principally in fishes ; nearly all the species of the 
genus Bothriocephalus occur in fishes; of Tcsnia, on the other 
hand, more than half the numerous species occur in birds, very 
many in mammals, in fishes very few. Of the genera Distoma and 
EcJiinorhynchvs so rich in species, by far the most of these are found 
in fishes and birds. The genus Cysticercus appears to occur almost 
exclusively in mammals, as also Echinococcus and Ccenurus. Of 
the genus Ascarut all the classes of Vertebrates have many species; 
of Strongylus especially the mammals. The four genera, Distoma^ 
Tcemay Ascaris and Echinorhynchtis, contain the greatest number of 
the known species of intestinal worms, especially the three first. 
Entozoa live in all parts of the body, but mostly on mucous mem- 
branes, in the intestinal canal and the lungs. Even in the heart 
and the blood-vessels some species occur. 

^ See D1X8INO4 op. dt. Tab. xxi. figs. 4 — 8 in Amphittoma gigaiUeum, 
VOL. I. 12 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Animals mostly elongate, without peculiar organs of respira- 
tion, parasitic, occurring in various internal parts of other living 
animals, sometimes destitute of nervous system, or having a nervous 
ring surrounding the mouth and a single ventral or double lateral 

Order I. Sterehniniha s. Parenchymatasa, 

Intestinal canal wanting in some, vascular in others, surrounded 
hy the parenchyme of the body. 

Family !• CesUndea. Body elongate, depressed, soft, conti- 
nuous or articulate. Mouth none; head usually furnished with 
fossettes or suctorial oscules. All the individuals hermaphrodite. 

GaryophyUoBua Gmel., Caryophyllua Bloch. Body continuous 
(not divided into segments), depressed, with head dilate, lobate or 
laciniate, mutable. 

8p. Oatyoph, mulabtUs Rud., FrUozoor, HiM. nai. Tab. vm. figs. i6 — 18, 
BSEMBBB, Icon, Hdmimth. Tab. xi. figs, i— 8 ; this spedes liyes in fr«rii- 
water fishes (Cyprinui, CobitU), CaryopkyUceat is distinguished from the 
rest of the tape-worms by the oocurrenoe of the genital organs only once, 
whilst in the rest^ on the contrary, they occur repeatedly behind each other 
in the length of the body. 

Ltgula Bloch. Body continuous, depressed, extremely long, 
in the imperfect state with neither head nor genitals conspicuous, 
with a median or two lateral furrows nmning lengthwise ; in the 

Digitized by 



developed state with head fturnished on both sides with an ex- 
tremely simple fossette, and with single or double rows of ovaries. 

Sp. Liffula sifRpUcimfna Bbsmb., Icon. Hdminik, Tab. xn. fig. i ; in 
different species of fresh-water fishes in the abdominal cavity (Patciola 
iniesHnalis Jm, Der Jiiemenwilrm, Fiaekrieme^ Strap-worm, It is difficult 
in this state to distinguish the species: in Oifprinua carataiui, C&IPUN 
found a species with two longitudinal streaks, Ligvla digramma. The 
Ligvke met with in birds have one row or two of gemtal organs : Liffvla 
uniaerialit RuD., Entoeoor. Hid. not. Tab. ix. fig. i. [In £tct Lig. gimpli- 
eimma of fishes is the undeveloped state of Lig. sparta or Lig. terialit of 
water-fowls. VoK SiSBOLD Band u. Bkuen-wi^rmer, s. 41.] 

Bothrtocephalus EuD. Body elongate, depressed, articulate. 
Head somewhat tumid, oval or sub-quadrangular, with two or four 
opposite hoihria or fossettes. 

Ck>mp. F. 8. LxuCKAST, Zoologi$ehe Brudulttkke i. Hefanstadt> 18 19, 
4to. mit 1 Kupfert. D. F. Ebchsicht Anatomiiehrphgnolog, Untenueh' 
ungen fiber die Bolhrioc^Jialen, mit 3 Kupfer. 1840, 4to. (a reprint from 
the Act. Leop. Carol. Vol. xix. Supplem.) 
Sp. Bothriocephahu laiut {Tcmia lata of Authors). Brxmsxr Ueb, leb. 
W&rmer, Tib. n. f. i — la, the hroad Tape-worm; this species lives in the 
small intestines of man^ and attains sometimes a length of twenty feet ; it 
is especially met with in Russia and Switzerland, in Germany and Holland 
less frequently. Gomp. below, on T(mia tolium, 

Bothriocephal. punctatus Bud., Lsuckast, ZoqI, BnichdOche I. Tab. i. 
f. j6, Tab. n. fig. 40, Ebchb. 1. 1. Tab. m. figs. 18 — ^8 ; in the Turbot and 
other species of Pleuroneetet, and in other marine fishes, especially in 
Cottus Korpio. The several joints are multiplied by transverse partition, 
just as a multiplication of individuals takes place in Nait by growth. The 
transverse partition commences before the genital organs are developed. 
The young animals consist of a head and a small number only of joints. 
Probably each animal performs annually a determinate circuit of develop- 
ment. When it has cast off its joints mature and full of eggs in the 
sunmier or autumn, new joints begin to grow ; in winter no eggs are found, 
and even occasionally in large individuals no developed genitals. Probably 
a similar renewal of the animal occurs also in BothriocepJudus latut (and in 
Tmiia), when the new joints are developed in the part that succeeds the 
head, the so-called neck, which becomes marked off in joints. In this 
way may be explained what Esohbioht observed in a sufferer from Boikr. 
IcUuB, that amongst the pieces cast off, the subsequent piece did not fit on 
to that which had preceded, but on the contrary was similar to it ; narrower 
and more imperfect joints had in the meantime been developed into broader. 

Sub"gen. Schistocephahu Cbepl. Head triangular, obtuse, bifid at 
the extremity. 

Sp. Schidocephaliu dimorphus, Bothriocephaltu solidtis, Tania gasteroitei 
Abildgard, Shrirter of naturh. SeUkabd i. 1790, Tab. v. fig. I, Bbbmbkr, 


Digitized by 


180 CTASS V. 

lean, Hdm. Tab. xin. f. lo, x i ; Lbuokabt^ L I. Tab. n. fig. 17, (m the abdomi- 
nal cavity (not in, but on the outdde of the intestinal canal) in QoMerotUnu, 
In water-fowls this worm changes its form and is then named Bothrioceph. 
nodomu: [its joints and genital organs become gradually developed in the 
intestinal canal of its new host» which had swallowed and digested the 
fftuterotteut. See Yon Subold, Band «. Blatm^wQrmer, s. 40.] 

Sub-geiL TricBTiopluynis Bub. JointB sub-indistinct; head bila- 
biate, armed on both sides with two tricuspid hooks (rpiatpa, tridens). 
See figures in Leuck. L L Tab. 11. £ 34 — 36, Bbeicseb Icon. Helm. 
Tab.m, £4—16. 

Note, — Qenus Scolex Muell. appears to be founded on imperfect 
species of BtOhrwcephaU, The body is depressed, continuous as 
in Ligulch The head supplied with four fossettes. It is found in 
marine fishes, especially of the genus Plewronectes, 

Tcenia L. (exclusive of many species). Body elongate, de- 
pressed, articulate. Head with four suctorial oscules, and mostly 
with a Tostellum median, imperforate, retractile, armed most fre- 
quently with a coronet of booklets, especially in the young state. 

Sp. Tania aoliwm L. Qn part), Bremssb, Ueb. leb. WUrm. Tab. m. f. i— 14, 
GUIS., leonogr,, Zooph. PL 12, f. 2, Der Kv/rbmrtlrm, der KeltenwUrtn, 
Ver foUtotrs, U Tcenia d longB antneamx. It is a mistake, that in jthe same 
person only one worm of this species is invariably to be met with, as the 
French name ver solitaire indicates. This species Hycs in the small 
intestine, and is in Holland, Grermany, and England, the ordinary and 
perhaps the only species of this family which oocors in the hiunan body. 
Only very few cases are known where a person had both a Tcenia toliwn 
and a Sothrioc^phahis latius\ These two tape-worms are distinguished not 
by the head alone, but also by the greater or less breadth of the body. In 
Tcenia tolivm the middlemost joints are longer than they are broad ; 
in Bcthrioeephalue lotus the joints throughout the entire body have more 
breadth than length, and in the middle of each joint are two apertures of 
which the anterior is the larger and more readily perceptible ; from it the 
penis occasionally hangs everted ; in Tcenia solium the apertures are at the 
edge of the joints and alternate irregularly, i.e. they are situated sometimes 
on the left, sometimes on the right side, without determinate order of 
succession {foramina marginalia vagi altema). Since these worms are 
often rejected in fragments alone, the knowledge of these characters is for 
the Physician not without interest. 

^ A case of this kind, the only one known to him, is given by Rudolfhi Orundriss 
der Physiol, n. 1, s. 139, and another by W. VROLnt, Bijdragen tot de natwurh. 
Wetenseh. m. 1828. BoeUcbeschouving, bl. 292. 

Digitized by 



For the anrangement of the numerous species of this gentts, Rudolfbi 
Availed himself slso of the cfaarscter of the hookkts on the hesd, sad 
distingnished imtrma and orsMtfa. But sinoe this chsncter is inoonsCsnt^ 
and many of the mersief of Budolphi have hookkts in the joimger period 
of their life^, it cannot be reoommeDded fior this purpose. Among the 
species oocorring in our domestic animals Taema fUetia BOD., Tcmia 
tMgna Abildo., ZooL dam. Tab. no, fig. i, BuDfaiB, /eon. ffdtm. Tkb. 2Y. 
fig. I, deserves to be recorded for the great siae of its tetngonal head, which 
surpasses that of all other species. It Uves in the small intestine of the 

Ditkrydium Bud. Unoertain genua. Ckonp. Bimoi^Bi Entotooor. 
Synopa. p. 559, YAUorcisinrBS Ann. des Sc not de EKrie, n. ZooL 
1844, p. 24a [Von Siebold, ibid. YoL xt. p. 201, aaya it Ib ft larval 
form of a Tcmia without joints and sexual oi^gana.] 

[RuDOiiPHi's first fiunilj of Eniozoa is not included in the 
systematic arrangement of the daas in this edition of the Hand- 
book, because it has been satisfiMstorilj proved by YoK Siebold, 
Yak BjENEDBir, Dujabdih, Blanchasd, dkc., that it conaastB of 
larval forms of TcenioBy usually encysted in situations unfitted for 
their further development, and in which they become distended 
with fluid. But from the great interest that attaches to them on 
account of their occurrence in the human body as well as in that of 
other vertebrates, we subjoin the description of them, with a 
reference to the literature contained in the 2nd Edit of Yak deb 
HoEVE3f 8 Handbook.'] 

Cystica. Body depressed or roundish, terminating posteriorly in 
a vesicle fall of fluid and proper to individual entozoa, or common to 
several. Sexnal and digestive organs none. Head furnished with 
a coronet of booklets and four suctorial oscules. 

Comp. on cystic worms, Ad. Tbghudi, Die BUuen-wHrmer. Sin numO' 
graphiaeher Vertueh, Freibuig im Breisgau, 1837, 4to. mit 3 Kupfert. 

Echtnococ(m8 RuD* Vesicle either single or enclosed in an ex- 
ternal capsule formed by the organ in which it is contained. On 
the interior surface are set many entozoa, extremely minute, resem- 
bling a grain of sand, with body obovate. 

Worms in this state have been ordinarily named Hydatids^ a name 
which has also been extended to the rest of the cystic worms 
indiscriminately, as well as to serous vesicles, the consequence 
of a morbid nutrition, that contain no intestinal woi*ms. Laennec 

Digitized by 


182 CLASS V. 

named these pathological prodacte and BMnocoeeua also Acephalo- 

True echinococd propagate themselves hj means of cells or vesicles 
within the parent vesicle. This last consists of several concentric, 
thin, albuminous layers ; see Yon Siebold's figure in Yogel Icon, 
EistologicB paifiologicoB, Tab. xiL fig. 11. Frequently the worms die 
in the living body and the vesicles are changed into a gelatinous, 
yellow-green mass. 

Comp. Rendtobff de Hydatidihu$ in corpore humane, pneserHm in 
certbro repertia, Berolini, i%2i, 8to. ; Kuhk RecherekeB aur la AcSphaJUh 
cyateB, M6m. de la Soe, dPHist. not. de SlroAourg, i. 2, (1833) ; ^^ trans- 
ferred to the Ann, det Sc, not, Tom. xxix. pp. 173 — 300. (The Author 
distinguishes AcepluUocysUa endogena and A. exogena; some Echinococd 
appeared to multiply themselves by forming new yesicles on the outside of 
the parent vesicles ; such vesides, he says, occur, especially in the sheep, in 
the lungs and liver ; VoN SiBBOLD has not remarked this mode of propaga- 
tion ; WiBOM. and Ebiohsok's AnMv /. NalurgcMch, 1845, 2 Bd. s. 241.) 
Glugb Note 8wr la atructure nUcrotcopique de$ Hydatidea, BuUd. de 
VAcad. roycUe de JBnmeUea, 4 Nov. 1838, Ann. dea Se, naL ae S^rie, 
Tom. vm. Zool, pp. 314 — 317. 

Sp. Echinococctta erratieua mihi, Eehinoeoecua veterinorum Run., Hiat, not. 
Entoi. Tab. xi. fig. 4, Bbsksbb, Icon. Hdminih, Tab. xvm. figs. 3 — 13; 
in many domestic animals, especially in their liver. The Echinococeua 
hominia Run., is probably not a different spedes from this. It has been 
met with in the abdominal cavity, in the liver, in the heart, also in the 
voluntary musdes, and in the cavities of the brain {ventriaUi cerd>n), 

Ccenurus KuD. Vesicle single, on which are seated several 
worms, retractile, depressed, rugose. 

Sp. Comurua cerebrcUia Run., Bial. not. Eniozoor. Tab. xi. fig. 3, Bbemseb, 
Icon. Jffdminth. Tab. xvin. figs, i, 7. There is only one species known, 
which occurs in the brain and spinal cord of sheep, occasionally also in 
cattle, in a species of antelope, and according to Roubsbau in rabbits. 
The Vertigo of aheep (le toumia, daa Drehen) is a consequence of these 
worms ; the symptoms vary according to the situation occupied by the 
worms ; the general characters of the disease are, that the sheep at first are 
somnolent, then &11 into convulsions, run up and down and die of exhaus- 
tion. The vesicles, filled with water, by their expansion compress the 
brain and distend the ventricles, and this sometimes to such an extent, that 
the bones of the skull are affected and become extremely thin. 

Gyaticercua RuD. Worm solitary with depressed and roundish 
body passing into a caudal vesicle. Another vesicle external, in- 
cluding the worm. 

Sp. Cyaticercua edhdotcB Run.. Hydatia finna Blumenb. Abb. naturhiat. 
Oegenatdnde, Tab. 39 (copied in Gui^ Iconogr. Zooph. PL 13, fig. 5), 

Digitized by 



Brkmbsb Ueb, Ub, WUrm, Tab. iv. figs. i8 — 46. In man, in oxen, 
and espedally in domesticated swine, in which this worm sometimes occurs 
in great numbers, and even in the heart and eyes (SflUCMlBBUro found this 
species once in the anterior chamber of the eye in man : since then it has 
been met with a few times in the eo^juncUva) ; mostly in the muscles of 
▼olnntary motion, sometimes in the brain ^. 

Chfslicercus faaeiolaris RuD. EnUn. ffiat, nai. Tab. xi. fig. i, Bbbmbbs 
Icon. Tib. rvii. figs. 3 — 9 ; this species lives in the liver of rodents, 
especially of mice and rats. The jointed body is very long and the vesicle 
at its extremity small, so that the entire worm has the appearance of 
a Taenia. It has been surmised, that the Tania cramcMs of cats proceeds 
from the cffgtuxrctu /(uciolaris of rats. 

Note. — The body which Sulzeb described as an ErUozoon and 
named IHtrctchyceras rude (IHceras Rubolphi), preyiously placed 
amongst the cystica and then amongst the anthocephala, is nothing 
else than a carpel of Moras nigra, macerated and deprived of its 
colour by the action of digestion. 

Tetrarhynchus B.UD. ( Gymnorhynchtis ejosd. ; Anihocephalus 
ejusd. ; Flcricepa Cuv. ; Rhyncobothriua Blainv., Dujard.) Head 
bilobed, emitting four uncinate proboscides. 

a) With body articulate. (Species of BothriocephctltbS Bud., 
Bhyneobotkriua Dujard. 

Sp. Tdrarhynchut paleaeetu, Bcthrioc. iMcep% LsuoK. op. cit. Tab. i. fig. i ; 
Tdrarh. hicolor, Bcthrioc. bicolor KoBDM. Microgr. BeUr. i. Tab. vn. 
figs. 6—10, &c. 

h) With body continuous, elongate (Vymrwrhynchva RuD.) 

Sp. Tetrarhynchut reptans, ScciUx gigas CuY., Bbehs. Icon. Hdm. Tab. XI. 
figs. 10 — 13, Tab. xvn. figs, i, 1. 

c) With body short, clavate, supplied with two bipartite both/ria 
{Tetrarhynchus RuD.) 

Sp. Tararhynchtu megaeephalut Bud. Entoxoor, Syn. Tab. n. figs. 7, 8 ; 
TOrarh. diicophortu Bbbms. Icon. Hdminih. Tab. xi. figs. 14, 15, &c. 

d) With body terminated posteriorly by a bladder, and in- 
cluded in a cyst {ArUhocephaikLs RuD., Floriceps Cuv.) 

1^. Anithoceph. dongaku Our. R. Ani. {<6dit, I.) PI. xv. figs, i, 2, Bud. ErUO" 
zoor. Syn. Tab. ni. figs. 12 — 17, Bothrioeeph. pcOulua Lbuok. LI. Tab. 11. 
figs. 29, 30. Lives in the mesentery of AgathorUem mola. 

^ Comp. I. C. Stbdybuoh, De Tcenta hydatigena anomdla. Erlangie, 1801, 8. 

Digitized by 


184 CLASS V* 

[Note, — The different species of T^cvrhynchus are, according to 
Y. SiEBOLD, nothing else than imperfect and sexless forms of tape- 
worms, which in the perfect and developed condition belong to the 
genus RhyTicchothriua of Rudolphi. These last are found only in 
the intestinal canal of Bays and Sharks. The embryos of Bhynco- 
hothrii make use of the bodies of other marine animals on which 
Bays and Sharks feed, as a temporary residence, until they attain 
to the intestinal canal of the latter by being swallowed together 
with their host. Such animals are Flat-fish, the Turbot, Barbel, 
Haddock, Gurnard, Conger-eel, Sepia ; in all of which young Tetror 
rhynchi have been found. That in such situations they find only 
a temporary abode is proved by their being so frequently encysted, 
and by their restless state, for they perforate the flesh, the walls of 
the stomach, and the substance of the difierent organs, digging and 
boring with their four proboscides that can be forced in and out, 
and are covered with innumerable recurved booklets. Von Siebold 
Band und Blasen-tounner, pp. 43, 44.] 

Family II. Acanthocephala. Body utricular, roundish, marked 
with transverse rugae. Mouth none ; probosciB retractile, covered 
with recurved hooks. Sexes distinct. 

Uchinorhynckus MuELL,, EuD. 

Spiny-anouted worm. This genus (the only one of the family 
and of which the characters, therefore, coincide with those of the 
family) abounds in species which occur especially in the intestinal 
canal of vertebrate animals (mostly of birds and fishes). 

The largest species lives in the small intesiiiie of the wild and tame hog, 
Echinorh. gigaa Gloqubt AncBt, de$ vers inlestinavXf PL 5 — 8, Brimskb 
Icon. Hdm, Tab. vi. figs, i — 4. See for the anatomy Cloqubt's work ; 
comp. Busow Echinorkifnchi Hrumosi Anatome, Dm, Zootam, Begiomonti, 
1836, 8vo. This Echinorh, Btrwmotua lives in the small intestine of 
different species of Phoca, 

Family HI. Trematoda. Body depressed or roundish, soil. 
Suctorial pores. Mouth distinct; nutrient canal divided, mostly 
ramose. All the individuals hermaphrodite. 

Distoma Retz., Zed. {Fasciola L. in part). Body soft, depressed 
or roundish. Two suctorial acetabula ; one terminal anterior, with 
perforated base leading to the mouth, the other ventral, situated not 
far from the former, impervious. 

Digitized by 



Sp. DUloma kepaHatm, and DitUma laneeolatum MiHL. PoBciola k^paiiea L., 
Bbembeb Ud>. Ub, Wirmer, Tib. vr. figs. 1 1 — 14, Mbhub Obaervai. anat. 
de JHdomate hepatico H lameeolato, Gk>ttmg»y 1835, foL ; the Uver^worm, 
JUJx, la douve, Ltherwwrm, Sckac^fwurm, oocutb in the gall-bladder of 
man, but more frequently in ruminating animalB, the ox, the deer, and 
especially the aheep. (MsHUS has shewn that here two species have been 
confounded ; the worm figured by Brkmbbb, op. dt., is Dittama laneeolatum.) 

DuU, globiporum Bud. in different species of the genus Cfj/prinus. Gomp. 
H. BuBMBiSTEB in WaaMAJB[ii*6 Arckiv. 1835, n. s. 187 ; Y. Subold, ibid, 
1836, I. s. 917—133, T^b. Yl. ; Ditt. appendiculaium Rin>. EnUm. Hid, %ai. 
Tab. Y. f. I, 4 ; Matbb Bekr&ge zur AruU. der BtUoz. 1841, pp. 18, 19; in 
the intestines of Clupea aloaa, &c. 

Dutotna BerogsWihL, in Ebichson'b Arehiv. 1844, s. 343—345, Taf. 10, 
figs. 10—13. 

Dtplostomum NoRDM. Body soft, depressed, oval or roundish, 
elongate. Month anterior, elliptic ; suctorial acetabula two ventral, 
the anterior the smaller, situated nearly in the middle of the body. 
(Small animals living gregariously in the eye of fishes.) 

Sp. IHploat. voheru Nobdm . Mikrogr, BeUr, i. Tab. n. ; found by NosDM ANN 
in the vitreous humour and in the lens of different fresh-water fishes (Perea 
JluviatUis, Chidus hta, &c.) It may be the cause of a species of Cataract ; 
see the figures at Tab. i. figs, i, 1. 

lifote, — Genus Cercaria Muell. (comp. above, p. 171,) contains 
larvBB of DistomcUcb. Similar larvae of TremcUoda have caused the 
formation of other genera by authors. Here are to be referred 
Bucephaltis Y. Baeb, and LeucoMoriditim Cab. 

Amphigtoma RuD. {Sirigea Abildg.) Body soft, roundish. 

Single anterior and posterior pore. 

Comp. C. M. D1K8INO Monographie der Cfatkmgm Amphtdoma and 
Diplodiscus, Ann. da Wiener Mutetuns, I, 1836, pp. 435 — 260 ; also his 
Nachtrag zwr Monographie der AmphiBtomen, ibid. u. 1839, ^ ^35 — ^5^< 

Genera ffohstamum Nitzsoh, DipU>discu8 Dies. 

Sp. Amph. comtOwm RuD. JEnt. Hid. not. Tab. y. figs, i—y, (H<^odomum), 
in the intee^uea of Charadriuspluvialia; most of the species of Amphidoma, 
particularly of the sub-genus Holodonmm, live in birds ; Amph. tuhdavatum 
{Diplodiscut nibelamdus Dnss.), Bbehsbb Icon. Hdm. Tab. Yin. figs. 30, 31, 
Dn»iNG Wiener Awn. i. Tab. xxiv. f. 19—249 u fi^m the intestine of iZana 
and £ufo; Amph. conicum Muell. NcAwforacherXTLiL Tab. in. f. ii, DiE- 
SINO ]. 1. Tab. zxiii. figs. T — 4, is from the paunch of the ox and other rumi- 
nating animals ; comp. Lauser De Amphidomate conico, Gryphise, 1831. 

Monosioma Zed., Rud, {Festucaria Schrank, Cuv.) Body 
soft, roundish or depressed. Single anterior pore, aperture inferior 
or anterior. 

Digitized by 


186 CLASS V. 

Sp. MonoftomafaJba Sobmalz Tab, anatomiam eMtotiocr, iUudr. 1831, Tab. vi., 
M1E8OHIB Betekrab, und UrOermtch. der MonotUma hijugum, 1838, 4to. 
In some species of the genus Fringilla this Eniozoan has been found 
oocaaionally in membraneous sacs immediately beneath the skin, usuallj of 
the abdomen, back, or even of the thig^ and resembling round ebistic 
tum<mra of the size of a pea. In every sac lie two worms (of the length 
of I J or 2 Hues, and of the same breadth) in a little fluid. Monott. plieatum 
CssPLiH, Nov, Act, Acad, Ccu. Leap, Car, xiv. 9, 1839, Tab. 52, in the 
BaL roatrata, &c. 

Aspidogaater Y, Bazb. 

Tnstoma Cuv., KuD. {Capsala BOSC, Phyllim Oken, Nitzschia 
V. Baer). Body depressed. Mouth anterior between two acetabula 
simple, marginal ; third acetabulum posterior, large, circular, and 
marked internally with projecting lines ; these are disposed fre- 
quently in the form of a wheel or a star. 

Comp. D1E8IKG Nov, Act, Acad, Leop. Car, Tom. xvin. i. Tab. i. (and 
in French M&nographie du ffcnre Trittoma, Ann, det Sc, not. ie S^rie, ex. 
Zool. 1838, pp. 77 — 89, PL l) These worms live on the gills or on the 
skin of different fishes, and thus are not entozoa in the proper sense of the 
term, but rather external parasites. Sp. Tridoma coccineum Cuv; Jt, ArU, 
181 7, PI. xv. fig. 3, RuDOLPHi Entozoor. Synopt, Tab. i. figs. 7, 8, Bbbmssb 
Icon. Bdm. Tab.X. figs. 12, 13, on the gills of Ortha^oritcut mola and other 
fishes. Tritl, mactdatum RuD. Voyage de LA Pebouss 17. pp. 79, 80, 
PL 50, figs. 4, 5, on a species of Diodon of CaHfomia. — TrUioma kamaitum 
Rathkb, Hirvdo hippoglotii Mubll., Bast. Natuurk. UUtp. n. Tab. Yin. 
fkg. XI. p. 154, Zocl, danica, Tab. 54, figs, i — \ {ynfri^, G. Johnston Ann. 
of Nai, HiM. I. 1838, p. 431, PL xv. figs, i — 3, Rathkb Nov, Act. Acad. 
Leop, Car, IX, 1843, Beiirage tur Fauna Noneegen's, pp. a 38 — 24a, 
Tab. XII. figs. 9 — 1 1 ; on the Halibut, &o. 

Polystoma RuD. Body roundish or depressed, narrowed for- 
wards, with terminal mouth ; in the posterior dilated portion fur- 
nished with six acetabula muscular, supported by horny parts, 

Genera ffexaootyle De la Roche, ffeocabothrvum NoBDMAim. 

Sp. Polyttoma integerrimum Bjtd., Bbems. Icon, Hdminih, Tab. x. figs. 25, 
26 ; the urinary bladder of the frog, &c. 

Note. — Genus Diplobothrium Leuck. (Sp. Diplohothr, amuUum in 
the gills of Acipenaer stellatus) is said to differ from Polystoma by 
its six (mterioT acetabtUa; comp. Leuckabt Zoologische BruchetUcke 
III. Freiburg, 1842, 4to. pp. 13 — 18, Tab. i. fig. 6. Nordmann con- 
siders these acetabula to be posterior, and does not separate the 
species from the Polystomata, but calls it ffexacotyle elegans; La 
Marcr ffiat not. des ani a, v. 2e 6dit. iii. 1840, p. 600. 

Digitized by 



Octobotkrtum Leuck. {McLzocraes Herm., OctOBUma Kuhn). 
Body soft, elongate, depieBsed, fonushed posteriorly on each side 
with four bivalve acetabula. Mouth anterior, simple. (Mostly two 
anterior acetabula lateral, small.) 

Comp. HsBMANN Naturform^er xvn. 178a, pp. 180 — 181, Tab. iv. 
figs. 13 — 15 ; Leuckabt Brevet animal. Deter. Heidelb. 1828^ p. 18, Zool, 
BruehMUeke ni. 1842, pp. 18 — 33, Kuhn Deteripticn d*un nouveau genre 
de Vordre det Douvet, Mim. du MutSum xvm. 1829, pp. 357 — 362. PL 1 7 biB. 

These species live od the gills of fishes. The most commoa is the species 
that lives on the shad {Clupea alota L.) : Octobothrium lanceolatum Leuck., 
Brevet anim. Deter. Tib. i, fig. 7 a, 5, Kuhn Mim. da Mut. 1. 1. figs, i — 3, 
Matsb BeUr. zwr Anat. der Bnioz. pp. 19 — 25, Tab. ui. figs. i. — x. 

Diplozoon NoRDM. Body cruciate, as though formed of two 
worms adhering together. Posteriorly four prehensile organs (suc- 
torial acetabula) adhere to each limb on both sides, set upon a 
common disc. 

Sp. Diplotoon paradamtm NoBDif. Mikrogr. BeU. i. Tab. v. vi. (and Ann, 
det Se. not. Tom. xxx. PL 20). This singular animal was discovered by 
KoBOMANN on the gills of the Bream {Cyprinut Irama) ; it is 3 — 5 lines 
long, and presents a body as if two specimens of Octobothrium had grown 
together in the middle, like the Siamese twins. Other obseryers also have 
met with this animal on the gills of other species of the genus Oyprinut. 
DuJASDiN found very small entoeoa on the gills which resembled a half 
Diplozoon, and formed thereof the genus Diporpa; he leaves it undeter- 
mined whether they are young and separate individuals of Diplozoon. 
[This question has been determined in the affirmative by V. Sixbold. He 
discovered in the middle of the posterior portion of the body two slender 
booklets which had been overlooked by Dujardht in Diporpa and by 
NoBDMAKN in Diplozoon : they are bent back at an acute angle. Diporpa 
is without sex, and always much smaller than Diplozoon; it has, moreover, 
behind the middle of the body, at that part where the two bodies of 
Diplozoon coalesce, a sucker. The prehensile organs are much simpler in 
Diporpa than in Diplozoon; but SiXBOLD found instances of every inter- 
mediate stage of complexity in them in different pairs of Diporpa which 
had coalesced, so that in some the resemblance to Diplozoon was in aU 
respects exact. After this conjugation or copulation, the generative organs 
appear in the united individuals, and eggs are produced. See 0. Th. V. 
Sebbold Ueber die Conjugation det ZHplozoon paradoxum, nebtt Bemerhungen 
ud>er die Conjugatumt-Proeett der Protozoen, In Zeittch. fUr Wittenteh, 
Zoologie, in. 185 1, pp. 6a— 68.] 

The motion of fluid which Nobdm ANN thought he perceived in the 
vessels and their branches (in each half of the animal there are on each side 
two principal stems) is according to later investigations to be ascribed to 
vibratile dlia which exist on the inner surface of these vessels and produce 
the appearance of a very rapid current. (Ehbenbxbo, Wieghann's 
Arekiv. 1835, ii. s. 118, Mayer Beitr» z. Anat, der Entoz. s. 93, 14. 

Digitized by 


188 CLASS v. 

Note, — Doubtful genera: Gyrodactyhia Nobdil, Mikrogr. Beitr, 
I. p. 195, Hedocotyhia Cuv. Arm. dee So. not Tom. xtiil 1829, p. 
147, Tab. XL A, Fhcsnicu/nu Rud. {Vertunmtts Otto, Nov. Act, 
Acad. Leop. Car. xl 2, p. 294, Tab. xll fig. 1). Comp. Dujabdin 
Hist Nat des Hdminthes, pp. 480—482, and 640. 

Order II. CoRlelmtntha s. Utrtctdaria. 

Entozoa with nutrient canal suspended in a distinct abdominal 
cavity, supplied with mouth and anus. Sexes distinct. 

Family IV. Nematotdea. Body round, elastic, often attenuated, 

Phalanx I. Acanthotheca DiESiNG. Mouth inferior between 
two pores on each side which emit a single or double booklet. 
Body roundish or depressed, transyersely annulate. 

Pentastoma BuD., Linguatula Frcelich, Lam. 

The worms of this genus were arranged by Rudolphi with the 
TrerruUcda, but they differ from these by their internal structure ; 
in external form some species resemble the Geatoidea; they form a 
small group which ought to be separated from the pi*oper Nematoidea, 
but still belongs to the Codebnintha. Comp. on this genus G. M. 
DiESiNG VeraiLch einer Monographie der GaUung Fentaatom^jt, An- 
nalen des Wiener Museums l 1835, & 1 — 32, Tab. l — iv. 

Sp. PenUutoma tcmioldeB RuD., LinguaMa toenioldet tiAM., Cuv., OwsK, 
RUD. JSrUozoor. Hid. naJt. Tab. xii. figs. 8 — 1 1, Bbeksbb Icon. Hdm. T^b. z. 
figs. 14—16, DuESiNa L 1. Tab. m. figs. 1—5, Owsn Tra/M. of Zocl. 80c. i. 
4. 1835, pp. 3^5 — 330. PL 4, f. 10 — 16, MiRAM, Beilrag zu einer Anaiomie 
de$ Pent, keniotd. Nov. Act. Acad. Ocn. Leop. Car. Tom. xvn. 1835, pp. 
623 — 646, Tab. 46, Ann. dei Sc. nai. «• B^rie, Tom. vi. 1836, Zool. p. 135, 
PL 8 ; in the frontal Binus of the dog and the wolf, also in the laiynx of 
these animals, and, according to some observations, in the frontal sinuses 
of the horse and the ass; the male is four times smaller than the female, 
whicb attuns a length of three inches and more. 

PenUutoma monUiforme Diebino L 1. Tab. it. figs. 11 — 13 ; in the lungs 
of the Indian serpent (Python). 

The name Pentcutoma is to be rejected, because the four lateral openings 
near the mouth are not mouths, and because by its lesemblanoe to similar 
names of genera of Trematoda it may easily mislead to the idea of an 
union with this division. It is, however, so generally received, that it can 
scarcely be altered without needless confusion. The name LingucUtUa of 
Frcelich as the older would deserve the preference, but it applies properly 

Digitized by 



only to some species from MmnniJili^ wMch ha^e a flat tongue-like form, 
and especially to that found in the lungs of the hare by Fbouoh, and not 
since re-discovered, LrngtiaiuUt temia. See J. A. Frcbuch, BetckteOmng 
einiger neuer BinffewetdewHrmer, Natwffoneker zxnr. 1789. a. 148 — 150. 
Tab. IV. f. 14, 15. 

[T. D. ScHUBSBT (Letter to Y. Sisbold Zekickr./. vntMemtho^ zool, iy. 
1851. s. 117, 1x8) concludes from his observations on the development of 
Penioiloma in the egg that it ought to be placed amongst the Aearina or 
Jjemteacea. The embiyo has two booklets at the anterior part» or head, 
two pairs of lateral appendages or feet, each foot furnished with two daws, 
and a tail as long as the rest of the body, into which the intestinal canal 
is continued.] 

Phalanx 11. Strongyldidea nob. Mouth terminal, or sub-ter- 
minal anterior, not surrounded with retractile hooks. Body round, 
elongate, elastic. 

a) Mouth anl^or, not terminal. 
Rictuhria Froblich, Dujard. 

Comp. Fboeuch Naturfortcher xxix. 1803. s. 9. Tab. i. f. 1^3; Du- 
JABDur ffdminth. p. aSo. 

Ophiostoma BuD. 

Genera Bochmius, Dctcnilea Duj. 

b) Mouth anterior, terminaL 

CucuUanus MuELL. Body elongate, posteriorly attenuated. 
Head broad, with bivalve apparatus for manducation. Mouth a 
longitudinal, vertical fissure. 

Sp. CuevUanut eUffam Zedsb, Kud., EiUm. HiM. not. Tab. m. figs. 1—3, 
Bbbmsbb Icon. ffdm. Tab. n. figs. 10—14 ; in the intestinal canal, the 
stomach and the pyloric appendages of the perch and other fresh-water 
fishes ; almost all the other species of this genus live likewise in the intes- 
tinal canal of fishes. 

Eeierochetliu DiESlNG. 

Strongylus MuELL. Body round, sometimes filiform, very long, 
acuminated anteriorly. Mouth orbicular or triangular. Apex of 
the tail terminated in the male by a bursa emitting a double or 
single penis. 

Sp. ArmgyUu ffigat RuD. Bntozoor, ffiM. not. Tab. ii. figs, i — 4 ; Bbehsbb 
l^df, Ub. Wiirm. Tab. 3-— 5, in the kidneys of man and of different mam- 
malia ; this worm can attain the length of more than a foot, the female of 
three feet. The colour is red, as in many other species of this genus. 

Digitized by 


190 CLASS V. 

Genera FseudalifM Dujabd., Sderostoma Duj., Stenurus Dujabd. 

Sp. StrongyL i^fiexus, Stenunu injUxnu Duj. ; found by W. Vbouk in large 
numbers in the pulmonary arteries and veins of the Ddphiniu phocoena. 
See Bijdragm M de naiuurk. Wdentch, I. 1836. bl. 77—84. 

StepJianurua DiESlNG. 

Spiroptera RuD. (and Physahptera RuD.) Body attenuated an- 
teriorly or at both ends. Mouth orbicular, sometimes surrounded 
by papillae. Tail of male mostly rolled spirally or deflected, sup- 
plied with a lateral expansion or bladder inferior, not terminal ; tail 
of female conical, straight. 

Most of the species of this genus live in mammals and birds between 
the ooats of the oesophagus or of the stomach. Sp. Spiroptera Mrongylina 
Bud., Bbsmbsb lean. HdmirUk. Tab. n. figs. 15 — iS^in the wild and tame 
hog; — Spiropl. strumoaa, Ascaris ttrumota Fbcklich, Natv/rfortcher xxv. 
Tab. ni. fig. 15, C. L. Nitzboh Spiropteroe etrunOt, Detcriptio. Halee, 1819. 
4to, cum Tabula ; in the stomach of the mole, &c. 

DispJiarctgus Duj. (Species of Spiroptera Run.) Head terminated 
by two papillee surroimding the mouth. 

Sp. Spiropt. cytUdieola RuD., Cyttidicola G. Fischeb, Reil's Archiv. in. 
1799. s. 95 — 100. Tab. II. ; in the swim-bladder of trout. 

Odontobius EoussEL DE Vauzi&me. (Is this its place ?) 

Ascarts L. (in part), RuD. {Ascaria and Heterakis Duj.) Body 
acuminate at each extremity. Head trivalved. Male genital 
organ a double spiculimi. 

Most of the species live in the intestinal canal of vertebrate animals. 
Sp. Atcaria lumhricoidet h., A. Valisnisbi Opere finco-mediche, Venezia, 
*733» !• PP- *7i — «8^' Tab. 34, 35, Bbembeb Ueb. Ub. Wurmer, Tab. i. 
fig8. 13—17, Icon, ffdtn. Tab. iv. figs. 10, 11 ; round roorm, U lombriCf der 
Spid'Wwrm, &c. This spedes lives in the intestinal canal of man, and 
attains the length of 15 inches ; with this is ueually united a similar worm 
fix>m the horse, which, however, according to Cloqubt and GURLT, differs 
firom it {AtcarU megaloc^hala). Also the round* worm which occurs in the 
swine, is, according to Dujabdin, specifically different (Aaearis suilia Duj.) 
Comp. on the structure of the round- worm the work of Cloqubt indicated 

Oxyuria EuD., Bkems. Body cylindrical or fusiform, the pos- 
terior part in the female attenuate, subulate. Mouth orbicular or 
triangular. Penis vaginate simple, with a small posterior accessory 
part. (Small worms, the females much bigger than the males.) 

Digitized by 



Sp. OoBgwru vermietUarii, Atcarii vermicuktm L., Bexmbkr Ueb, leb. WUrm. 
Tab. I. figs. 6 — 13; Der Meutumrm, Sprinffwurm; it lives in the largo 
intestine of man (especially in children), and causes a very troublesome 
itching and occasionally various nenrous symptoms. The male was first 
discovered by B&kmbkb in 1815, in a specimen sent to him by SdmraBRPfQ, 
(see S. Th. v. SauooEBBuro's Leben u. Verhehr mU mnen Zeitgenosten von 
B. Waoksb. Leipsig, 1844- i- o- 340) previously the much larger female 
alone was known. 

Tricocephalus GrOEZE. Body filiform, elongate anteriorly capil- 
lary, passing, suddenly into the more ample posterior part. Male 
genital organ a simple spiculum, long, vaginate. 

Sp. TricocqphalmdUpar'RTn},, Bbxhsbb UA, leb. WUrtner. Tab. i. figs, i — 5 ; 
this species has frequently been met with in the intestinal canal of man, 
especially in the etecum, first by Mobgaoki, afterwards by BomsBBB, &c., 
in bodies of persons dying of typhus (Rokitakskt Handh. d. path. Anat.) ; 
frequently in cholera-subjects in Italy by Dellb Chiaje (Itis, 1843, 
p. 557). 

Trichosoma RuD. 

Gomp. Bud. Entozoor. Synopa. p. 13, Dujabdin Ann. de$ Se. not. le 
B^rie, XX. 1843, Zoologie, p. 333, pi. 14. 

Genera : Th4ym,inaCy JEucoleus, Calodium Dujasd. 

Filaria MuELL. Body very long, filiform, subequal. Mouth 
orbicular. Male genital organ a long spiculum with a contorted 
accessory part. 

Sp. FUaria medinensit, Oorditu medinemii It,, Bbembeb {7e&. M>. Wilrm, 
Tab. IV. fig. I. DracunctdfU, Vena medinentie, the Aatr-«wm, ffiunea-worm, 
le dragonneau, &c. This worm lives in man under the skin, in the cellular 
tissue, especially in the legs, and may attain a length of ten feet ; male 
individuals of this species do not seem to have been observed hitherto. 
Sometimes this worm occasions severe pain ; it is met with in hot countries 
especially of the old world, less frequently in America, except in the 
island of Cura9ao, where it is endemic, although the worm-sickness does 
not always prevul there with the same intensity. See the still interesting 
notices of B. Hussem in the Vekr. van M Zeeutpsch. OmooUch. n. 1771, 
443 — 464. The thread-worm is viviparous, and the young differ in form 
from the mother. See Jacx)BBON and Bb Blainvillk inAnn.du MuUum, 
nouvdU Sirie III. pp. 80 — 85. 

Liorhynchus EuD. Body round. Head without valve, with 
tubule of mouth emissile, smooth. (Doubtful genus.) 

Sp. Liorhynchiu denHeulatus Bud., Bbbmb. Icon. Hdm. Tab. v. figs. 19 — 32 ; 
in the stomach of Murcena angwUa. 

Cheiracanthus DiES. Body annulate, posteriorly attenuate, an- 
teriorly armed with palmate or dentate spinules, whicli in the middle 

Digitized by 


192 CLASS V, 

of the body are simple, in the posterior part evanescent. Head sub- 
globose, beset with simple spinules. Mouth bivalved naked. Tail 
of male spiral, with genital spiculum elongate, simple. 

Sp. CheiraeamJth, rcbuthu Doss. Ann. des Wien. Mm. n. 1840, Tab. xv. 
figs. I — 7 ; in the stomach of different species of Gat. This animal has 
four long sacs near the oesophagus which recal the Umniaci of the Acan- 
Ihocfephala. According to DiSBiNO the genus QncOhodoma Owen, {Pro- 
ceeding* of the Zool. Society iv. 1836, pp. 113—116), a worm found in the 
walls of the stomach of a tiger, is not distinguishable from this ; the mouth 
however is differently described by Owen. 

LecanocephaliLS DiESlNG. Body anteriorly obtuse, with head 
expanded in form of a platter, and mouth trilabiate. Simple 
spines surrounding the body in zones. Tail of male inflected, with 
double spiculum. 

Sp. Lecanoc, epinvlosm DiESiNO, Ann. des Wien. Mue. n. Tab. xiv. figs. 
12 — 20. 

AncyracarUhas DiESiNG. Body acuminate at both ends. Mouth 
orbicular, armed with four spinules pinnatifid, disposed in a cross. 
Tail of male inflected, with double spiculimi. 

Sp. Aneyr. pinnaHftdus Diesing, Ann. dea Wien. Mu9. n. Tab. r7. figs. 
31 — a 7 ; in the stomach and small intestine of South American tortoise. 
Here also there are four long caxud sacs near the ce3ophagus, as in Ckdra- 

Note. — ^To the NemaMidea are also referred some filiform eniozoa, included 
in a yeside. In the peritoneum of various fishes, between the coats of 
ibe intestines and elsewhere a white worm of this sort, convoluted spirally, 
is found, which Linnaus called Oordius marinus, Rddolphi FHaria 
pitcium. Comp. SiflBOLD in WiEOM. Archiv. iv. 1838, pp. 305, kc. 
Here also belongs a microscopic worm found by Owen in the muscles of 
man, and called Trichina apiraUs. See Transact, of the Zool. Soc. 1. 4to. 
1835, pp. 315 — 324, Tab. 41, figs. T — 9. Is it a Nematoid in an imperfect 
state, the rest of whose fortunes are unknown T [This is V. SiEBOLD*a 
opinion. The encysted Trichina is sexless and does not increase in size. 
Sometimes the liver of different marine fishes is beset with cysts containing 
round worms which have grown to an inch or more in length ; they have 
been named Aacaria capaularia, Filaria piaciwn, &c. Siebold could never 
discover in them sexual organs, but stiU they have so remarkable a 
resemblance to Aacaria ostnUata, apiculigera, angulata, &c., worms with 
developed sexual organs which live in the intestinal canal of the Seal, the 
Cormorant, the Diver, the Gull, and predaceous fishes, that they may be 
suspected to be rekted to them. Siebold believes that the encysted sexless 
worms only attain their perfect development in the intestine of the verte- 
brates which have swallowed their temporary hosts. VoN Siebold Band 
it. Bl<iaen-tcUrm. s. 31, 33. 

Digitized by 




These are certain worms which do not live in other animals, 
but reside in water, or in moist earth, or in vegetable substances 
undergoing acetous fermentation, and which, nevertheless, since in 
form and internal structure they correspond with Ascaria, Oxyurisy 
or Filaria, appear to belong to the order of thread-worms. Some 
of them were by former writers arranged amongst the Infusories, as 
species of the genus Vibrio. To these belong the minute animals 
which LiKN^US brought together under the name of Chaos redivi- 
vum, and which were described and figured by Mueller as varieties 
of one species. Vibrio anguiUula {Animalcula infusoria^ pp. 63-68), 
although he doubted whether they ought not to be regarded as 
different species of a genus for which he had altready proposed the 
name Anguilhilay by naming them AnguiUula aceti, Aug, ghuinisy 
Ang. Jiuviatilis, and Ang. marina. The genus Anguilhda was 
aftOTyards adopted by Ehbenbebg to distinguish these animals 
from Vibrio^. DuJABDiN named the same genus Bhahditia, but 
assigned to it somewhat different characters. 

AnguiUula Ehrexb. [Rhahditia Duj.) Body filiform, pellucid. 
Mouth round, terminal, naked. Anus before the posterior extre- 
mity, sub-terminal. The male with tail naked or amplified by a 
membrane (alate). External genital organ a double spiculum. 
Tail of the female conical, acute. 

Sp. AnguHMa aceU Gotzb Natwrfortcher xvni. Tab. m. figs. i«— 18; 
DnoKS Ann, cUsSc not. ix. 1836, PI. 47, fig. 2 ; from i — 1 miUim. in sue ; 
these aninialB maj be frozen without dying, whibit occaBionaUy on the other 
hand a slightly increased temperature affects them mortally. Another 
species, AnguiUula gluUnis, lives in sour paste (MuiLL. It^us, Tab. IX. 

1 SifmboUe phffticai, Pk^ftotoa, and OrganiioUon, tjfttematiJk und geoffrapkitckn 
VerMUmiM der If^fudomlhierehen, Berlin, 1830, s. 68, 105. Okkn in his Lekrb. der 
Nahtrgeach, in. 1, 181 5, s. 191, places these animals under the genus Oordius, yet 
in the index he keeps AnguiUula as the name of a genus, (see s. 847). 

VOL. I. 13 

Digitized by 


194 CLASS V. 

figs. I — 4) ; thii is killed by vinegar. A third species that lives in the 
grains of blighted ears of com may be revived, after lying dry for months 
and years, by moistening, (Needham and Baueb). 

Gomp. on these species Gceze Nocbirfoncher i. 1774, s. i — 53, ix. 1776, 
s. 177 — i8a, xvin. 1784, s. 36 — 65, Baueb PkUos. Trana, 1823, p. i, 
PL I, i, {Ann. det 8c. not. Tom. 11. 1824, pp. 154—167, PL 7, 8), Buaia 
Ann. des Sc. not. Tom. ix. i8a6, pp. 115—^51, PL 47, 48. 

Also in the intestinal canal of insects minute worms have been observed 
and conmionly considered to be Atcarides, which belong to this division^. 

In other species the mouth is provided internally with three 
unciform structures or jaws. They may be included in the genus 
JEnoplus DUJARD. {Enopltis, Oncholaimus DuJARD., Amhlyura 
Ehrenb.?) They live in fresh and salt water. 

Finally, certain small worms that live in water and in moist 
earth cannot well be placed otherwise than in the neighbourhood of 
the Nematotdea; they are included in the genus Oordius L. (the 
Filartce excepted). They are, however, distinguished from the 
Nematoids by their structure, and especially by the absence of 
a posterior aperture in the intestinal canal. Dujardin and V. SiE- 
BOLD have shewn that these animals in the early period of their 
life live parasitically in insects. 

Family Oordtacea. Body filiform, extremely slender, elastic. 
Anus none ; sexes distinct. 

G(yrd%u8 L. (in part). Head rotund, mouth none, or not distinct. 
Tail of male bifid, of female rounded. 

Sp. Qwdma aqyyaiicuA L., Bfnc^do^. Ven. PL 39, fig. i. Seven to ten inches 
long, scarcely half a line thick ; comp. Chabvet Nowf. Ann. du Mus. lu. 
1834, pp. 37 — 46 ; Bebthold Uib. den Ba/u des WcuBerkalbes, Gottingen, 
184a, 4to ; V. SiEBOLD Eniomol. ZeUwng, 1843, s. 77, Ebiohson's Archiv. 
1843, n. s. 30a— 308. 

Mermis Dujard. Mouth terminal. In female the vulva for- 
ward, transverse. 

Comp. Ann. des Sc. not. le S^rie, Tom. xvni. 184a, pp. 119, ftc., PL 6. 

^ Here, too, may be placed Oxyuria gryUo4alpce, L^K DuFOUB Ann. des Sc. not. 
2e B4sne, Tom. vni. Zool. PL I. fig. 2, and perhaps the genus AnguiRina of Hammbb- 
BOHiODT not described in detail {AnguiUina monUis in Aphodius conspurcatus), Okbk's 
Isis, 1838, p. 318, which however more probably belongs to Mermis Dujaedin. 

Digitized by 



We return from the consideration of different animals whose 
bodies amongst the Invertebrates may be styled large to that world, 
invisible to the naked eye, with which in the class of the Infosories 
we began to treat of the animal kingdom. And in the classes 
that follow, however some species may be found that are scarcely 
perceptible to the imassisted eye, no one of them consists entirely 
of creatures so small as Infusories and Wheel-animalcules. Wheel- 
animalcules, as a whole, surpass Infosories in size ; still they are 
very minute animal forms, mostly between \ — ^ millimeter. Leeu- 
WEKHOECK, who discovered the Infiisories, was also the first who 
observed some species of Wheel-animalcules. 

The name of Wheel-animalcules is borrowed from the vibratile 
cilia which at the anterior extremity of the body are set upon the 
margin of a disc capable of eversion and inversion. In species, 
where that margin is not divided or indented, an optical illusion is 
caused by the motion of the cilia, as though a toothed wheel were 
revolving with great velocity in a circle, and so Leeuwenhoeck 
thought such was really the case, who compared the rotatory organ 
with the wheel of a watch-work". Every one who has observed 
the phenomenon of vibrating cilia is aware that the deceptive 
appearance of a rapid motion or current in a given direction is pro- 
duced : if, then, vibrating cilia be met with on the smooth margin 
of a circular structure, the appearance of a rotating wheel will 
follow of course. It is to be remarked, however, that the motion is 

^ See on this dass the worka refeired to (p. ^7) at the dasa of InfuMria of 
MusLLBB, EHSENBKBa Bod DuJASDiN. Also may be compared O. Schmidt Veinu4:h 
emtr DardeUvng der Orgamsatian der Baderthierchen, in Ebiohson's Archiv /. Natur- 
yeaehiekle, 1S46, a. 67— St, Taf. m. 

' Send-brieven, 17 18, vn. Brief, bl. 67. Dutboghst haa attempted to exphun the 
phenomenon by mnscahur motion ; according to him the wheel ia merely a cmmlar, 
mnacnlar string, which by its contraction causes other parts of the gelatinona substance 
to project alternately in the form of conioal papille, whence a drcahir motion appears 
to arise. Awn, du Mut^um, zx. 18 13, pp. 469 — 473. 


Digitized by 


196 CLASS VI. 

subjected to the will of the animal, for otherwise the vibratile cilia 
would be in a constant motion, which ceases onlj on death. 

The Wheel-animalcnles are capable of contraction in a remark- 
able manner, many of them assuming thereby an oval form. This 
fiwjulty of contraction gave occasion to the name SystolideSy by 
which DUJABDIN wishes to distinguish this class of animals, but 
which probably will not supersede that of Botatorta. In some the 
integument is hard and rigid, so as to form a shield or a shell 
{BrachionuSf Anurcea, &c.). In most there is a caudiform appendage 
on the abdominal surface (Ehrenbebg names it processus ][>ediformi3 
or pseudopodium), which can be drawn in and out annularly like 
a telescope, and ends in a suctorial disc or in a forceps; by it the 
Rotatories fix the posterior extremity of the body, whenever, being 
at rest, they set the wheel-organ in motion. 

The intestinal canal is straight, in by far the greatest number 
of species, and the antis is found at the hinder end, at the base of 
the tail. At the commencement of the intestinal canal, behind the 
oral aperture, is a muscular organ of cylindrical form armed with two 
lateral homy jaws. Leeuwenhoeck, Baker and Fontana took 
this structure for a heart, and its motions of grasping and opening, 
as the first of these authors so aptly describes them^ for the con- 
traction and expansion of the heart; whereon FoNTANA expresses 
his surprise that such motions should be dependent upon the will 
of the animal. The lateral jaws indicate a similarity of form with 
articulate animals, the insects and cmstaceans, and some writers 
have even supposed that the Wheel-animalcules may be regarded 
as veiy simply organised crustaceans'. On the whole, by inserting 
these animals between the intestinal and the articulate worms, the 
nearest affinities and natural place of the class are not indicated; 
but in an arrangement that gives the classes in succession, there 
must always be much that is arbitrary, for the affinities cannot be 
represented by a single ascending series. 

The lateral jaws present themselves under two forms. In the 
greater number they consist of two pieces ; the posterior serves as 
a pedicle, for the attachment of the muscles of mastication; the 
anterior passes transversely inwards at a right or obtuse angle, and 

^ Sevende vervolg der Brievm, Delft, 1 70a, I448te Jftsnvtf, bl. 405. 

' Such WM the determination of NrrzBCH in 1844 on the genus Brachiomu, 

Digitized by 



ends in a single point, or in several teeth when the part becomes 
broad and indented in form of fingers. In other Rotatories the 
jaws have the form of two stirrups, with the bases turned towards 
each other, on which lie two or more teeth transverselj, which 
arise firom the outermost arch^. 

[Where the oesophagus opens into the stomach, or lower down, 
are two or more oral glandular pouches, which EHRENBEBa com- 
pared to the jMzncreas. The stomach is large and sacculated, and 
in the saccules are large nucleated cells, or coeca are appended to 
them. The cells and cceca are supposed to supplj the office of a 
liver. The intestine narrower, and of variable length, but generally 
short, opens into a cloaca, of which the outlet is on the dorsal sur- 
&ce at the extremity of the body. But sometimes the intestine 
and anal outlet are wanting, and then the residue of digestion is 
returned by the mouth^ The stomach and intestine are covered 
with fine vibratile cilia. 

This description applies only to the females; for, in the year 
1849, the veiy interesting discovery of the male of Notommata 
anglica was made by Brightwell* of Norwich, and in it the entire 
intestinal tract was absent ; there were neither pharynx, jaws, oeso- 
phagus, nor digestive tube, and the mouth was closed. 

There is no circulating system. The nutrient fluid fills the 
cavity of the body, and bathes all the contained organs. The re- 
spiratory organ is supposed to be represented by tortuous tubes, 
which are seen at each side of the body. A highly contractile 
transparent vesicle opens into the cloaca, and firom this vesicle the 
tubes in question arise. To the tube on each side, minute pedi- 
culated structures, various in number, with vibratile leaflets, are 

The female organs consist of an ovary situated under the diges^ 
tive tube, generally of an oval form, or like a horse-shoe, of which 
the efferent duct opens into the cloaca. 

The ova are of two different kinds, summer- and winter-eggs, thin- or thick-shelled. 
The summer-eggs are developed within the parent body, and the animal is then vivi- 
parous. The winter-eggs have been described by Ehuenbebo, by Huxlet, and by 
liKTDia, in many different species: their thicker external covering is granular, or 
tuberculated, or beset with hairs. The winter-eggs are always laid, or are attached 

1 See EHBBirBEBa Zur Erkenntnisa der OrgtmiaaUon in der Bicktung det Jdeiniten 

», Berfin, 183a, s. 46—51, Tab. iv. 
' [Daiathpu Jktcript. of on InfvMry Anim. aUUd to Notommata, PhU, Trans, 
x^49> P" 333*] * [iliMio;* of Nat. Bitt, Sept. 1848.] 


Digitized by 


198 CLASS VI. 

to ihe mother and carried about by her {Bradtiomu, &c.); and thus, in the cold Beaaon 
of the jear, these aaimala are oviparous. 

Beodes the male of Notommata anfflica, discovered by Bbtohtwill, that of N. 
Sieboldii has been observed by Lbtdio, who further gives reasons for believing that 
SiUeropUa hydoHna Ehb. is the male of Hydatina iewta, Notommata granularis the 
male of Ncftom. Brachionus, and DigUna granularis the male of Dig, catdHMa, 
GossE also has ascertuned that the sexes are distinct in many others^. The males 
are leas than the females, and also differ in form in most cases. The dioecious character 
of the class may thus be considered to be established. 

The generative organs of the males consist of a white and round 
bladder or testis, filled with spermatozoa, and an efferent duct 
{penis Dalrtmple) ciliated in the interior, which opens close to 
the outlet of the respiratory vesicle. All the males observed are 
entirely destitute of digestive tract; they possess the respiratory 
organs of their species, whose fimction seems to suffice for the 
maintenance of their short life, employed exclusively in impreg- 
nating the females.] 

The nervous system has been discovered by Ehrenberg in 
different genera, and he described, as central portion, different ganglia 
{ganglia cephalica seu cerebralia)^ situated close to the wheel-organ, 
from which distinct nerves arise. In Hydatina aenta, according to 
the investigations of the same observer, two threads also arise from 
them that run downwards on the abdominal surface, and unite to form 
a ganglion from which a single nervous string with many small 
ganglia or swellings arise*. As organs of sense, in most of them red 
eye-spots (generally two, sometimes one or three, seldom more than 
four) have been perceived; sometimes these exist in young individuals 
alone, and disappear on full growth, as in the genus Floscularia. 

Besides the muscles of the special parts, there are found in many species thin 
bundles of muscles running longitudinally, one oa the dorsal surface, one on the 
abdominal surface, and two lateral. 

With respect to the geographic distribution of Wheel-animalcules nothing deter- 
minate can yet be specified. Only do we know, from the observations and notices of 
EHBBNBEBa, that, besides Europe, they are found in northern and western Asia, in 
the north of Africa and in North America. Beyond doubt they occur in all quartera 
of the world. The physiological peculiarity of life suspended for a length of time, to 
be again awakened by the vital stimxdus of fluid, has given a special celebrity to these 
animals. On this subject we refer to what will be offered below when we notice 
lUxtrftT vitlgaris, in which this phenomenon has been chiefly observed. 

1 [GossB On Uu dioecious eharact, of the Rotifera, Proceedings of iks Soyal Soe. 
Vol. vra. pp. 66, 68.] 

* Die Infusionsthierchen, s. 416. Somewhat differently ordered is the nervous 
system jp Notommaia (s. 415) and in Diglena (s. 443), but in all there Ues a principal 
mass, as the coUection of nervous ganglia, on the dorsal surface of the anterior 
extremity of the body. 

Digitized by 




MiCBOSCOPiC animals, contractile, crowned with vibratile cilia at 
the anterior part of the body, which by their motion often resemble 
a wheel revolving rapidly. Intestine distinct, terminated at one 
extremity by a mouth, at the other by an anus ; generation ovipa- 
rous, sometimes (periodically) viviparous. 

Order Single. Botatoria. 

(The characters of the class are those of the single order.) 

Family I. Floscularice. Tentacles or lobes around the mouth 
(with rotatory organ deeply cloven Ehrenb.), furnished with cilia. 
Body affixed by a pedicle. 

The hairs of this wheel-animalcule are, according to Dujabdin, 
Peltier and other observers, not vibratile cilia, but are capable 
individually of expansion and contraction ; Ehrenberg, who admits 
that these hairs may for a long time continue at rest and be flaccid, 
still maintains that they occasionally vibrate, and refers to Eichhobn 
who perceived the same thing in his croton-polyp, Stephcmoceros 
{BeUrdge zwr NixbMrgeach, der Jdemsten Wasaerthiere, s. 21). 

Floscularia Oken, Ehrenb. Body clavate, or campanulate, 

anteriorly expanded, five or six lobes sustaining a fasciculus of long 

cilia. A vagina transparent, cylindrical, often covering the solitary 


Sp. FUwmlaria omata Ehbbkb., Ihr F&nger Eiohhorn 1. 1. Tab. m. figs. 
— L, p. 39 ; Ehbenb. Organisation in der Richt. des U, Raum. 3tf«r. Beitr, 
Tab. vm. fig. a ; InfimonHh, Tab. xlvi. f. a ; Dujard. Tnfutoir. PI. 19, 
figs. 7, &c. 

Digitized by 


200 CLASS VI. 

St^hanoceros Ehrenb. Body campanulate, surrounded by a 
transparent vagina. Tentacles five around the mouth, covered with 
cilia in whorls. 

Sp. Stephanoeeroi EUMomii Ehbxhb., Ikr Kron-Polffp Eiohh. 1. L Tab. i. 
fig. i; Ehbkitb. OrganU in d. Richl. d. Jd. Maum, ^fUr Beitrag, Tab. zi. 
fig. I, Infuiurndk. Tab. zly. fig. a. 

Family EL Melicerttna. Rotatory organ simple, with margin 
entire or lobate. Two stapediform maxillas, with teeth transversely 
incumbent. Body aflSxed by a pedicle. 

Ptygura DuJARD. (Ptygura^ (EcisteSy Canochirus Ehrexb.) 

Lactnularia Oken, Schweigg. [Megahtrocha Ehr. and Laci- 
lunaria ejusd.) Rotatory organ large, incised on one side, hence 
bilobed or reniform. Animals often social, and sometimes covered 
by a gelatinous envelope. 

Sp. Lacinvlaria sociaUi SoHWEioa., Hydra toeiaUs L., Brachianui gocialu 
Pall., VorticeUa tocialis Mubll., Iirftuor. Tab. XLm. figs. 13 — 15, (and 
Vortie, Jlotculosa Muxll. ibid, figs. 16 — io), IUbsbl, Ins. m. Supp. Tab. 
94, figs. I — 6; Ehbekb. Infusumtth. Tab. xliy. fig. 4. They form 
minute, white, conical bodies, which adhere to the roots of water-plants 
(Lemna, CeraiophyUum, Chora, ftc), and consist of fifty or more such 
wheel-animalcules, whose extremities are all directed to the centre. After 
a time the young ones separate themselves from this connexion, moye 
away and adhere to different plants, to form new colonies. Megahtrocka 
aJho-fiamcani Ehb., Koisel Im. ni. Suppl. Tab. 95, 96, {Megalotr, alba 
Ehrknb., Zur ErhenTiimsa d. Organi», in der Riekhing det Jdeinslen Raumea. 
Iter Beitroff, Tab. m. f. 15, intestinal canal), Ehb. Infitsitmslh. Tab. ZLiv. 
fig. 3, is distinguished from the former species by the absence of an 
envelope, though united with it by former writers. 

Tvbicolaria Lam. (in part), Ehrekb. Body clavate, with rota- 
tory organ four-lobed, and respiratory tube double, included in a 
gelatinous vagina. 

Sp. Tubicdaria nqjcu Ehbbnb., Rotifer dlbo-vettUut Dxttboohet, Ann. dw 
Mu8, Vol. xrz. PL 18, figs. 9, 10; Ehbskb. If^funontth. Tab. ZLV. fig. i. 

Melicerta Schrank, Oken. Body clavate, with rotatory organ 
four-lobed, and double respiratory tube, retractile within a vagina 
conico-tubular, granulose, opaque. Two ocelli in the younger age. 

Sp. MeUeeria ringent Sohbakk, Sabdla ringena L., 8y^, not. id, xn. Lexu- 
wximoxcK, PhU. Transact, 1704, Vol jltv. p. 1784, figs. 3, 4 ; Sendbrieven, 
Delft, 1 718, vii*. Brirf, bl. 6$, &c.; SoHuIFFEB Die Blumenpalypen der 
eOaaen Waeser. Mit 3 Kupfert. Begensbui^g, 1755, 4to; Rotifer guadrieir' 

Digitized by 



cmlarU Dutboohit Ann. du Mu$, Vol. zix.'PL i8, figs. 1—8; Ehbinb. 
Iirfuriondk, Tab. XLVi. fig. 3. Tliese animalculei seated in a cue that 
adheres to duck-'weed, belong to the forma which were first disooyered by 


idmntas ScHRANK, Ehrenb. Body clavate, with rotatory 
organ bilobed, and respiratory tubule none, solitary, retractile into 
an opaque envelope. Ocelli two. 

Sp. Xmnttu ceraiophffUi, Ehbsxb. Ifrfutiomth. Tab. zltl fig. 4. 

Family III. BrachiofUBa. Animals swimming freely, covered 
with a membraneous scute univalve or bivalve, furnished with rota- 
tory organ double or multiple {zygotrocha or polytrocha Ehrenb.) 

Pterodina Ehrenb. Shield orbicular or oblong. Botatory 
organ double. Two ocelliform points. Tail cylindrical, transversely 
rugose, terminated by a suctorial disc which is often ciliated. 

Sp. Pterodina patina Ehbenb., Brackiowui patina MuxLL., If^fuaor. Tab. 48, 
figs. 6 — 10, Ehbsnb. It^uaiomth. Tab. lxit. figs. 4, &c. 

Brachtanus HiLL, MuELL. (in part). Scute urceolar, open in 
front and behind, with anterior aperture or both denticulate. Rota- 
tory organs two. Madllss digitate. 

I. Tail aifieulate, forked at the paini. 

a) With ooelliform point above the maxille. (Genus BrachionuB 

Sp. Braehionus ureeolari$ Musll., Ii^u$ot. Tab. L. figs. 15 — -si. Ehbkkb. 
Organic, in d. Rieht. det Id, Raumet, ^/tter Btitrag, Tab. ix. fig. m., 
Iirftuiomth. Tab. LXin. figs. 3, &c. 

b) Without ooelliform point. (Genus Noteut Ehbxnb.) 
Sp. Noteui guadricomia Ehbxnb., InfuaUmdk, Tab. mi. fig. n. 

IL TaiU none, (Grenus Awwrcsa Ehbxnb.) 

Sp. Braehitmiu aquamtda Muxll., Anurcsa aquamula Ehbxnb., Muxll. 
Ii^fusor. Tab. 47, figs. 4—7, &c. 

Lepadella BoRT (spec, of Brochionus MuELL.) Scute oval, 
convex above, flattish beneath, open at both ends. Rotatory organ 
divided into several lobes. Tail triarticulate, forked at the extre- 
mity. Maxillae naked, terminated by a single point, or by two or 
three teeth. 

(Genera : Lepadella, Metopidia, Stephanops, and SquameUa Ehrenb. 

Sp. Lepaddla (Stephanope Ehbxnb.) lameUaria, Braekionui lamdlarit Muxll., 
Iftfut, Tab. 47, figs. 8— II ; Ehbxnb. Jtrfusiontth. Tab. ux. figs. 13, &c. 

Digitized by 


202 CLASS VI. 

Euohlania Ehrenb. (spec, of Cercaria MuELL.) 

Sp. Buchl. luna, Cercaria luna MusLL., Fureocerea luna Lam., Muell. 
Iirftuor. Tab. xx. figs. 8, 9 ; 'Eebxsb, Infu^ionsth, Tab. LXii. figs. 10, &c. 

Dinocharis Ehrenb. 

Salpina Ehrenb. 

Colurm Ehrenb. 

Monura Ehrenb. 

Rattulus Lam. [Mastigocerca and Monocerca Ehrenb.) Body 
oval, covered with a scute carinate, narrowed posteriorly. Botatory 
organ divided into several lobes. Tail styliform, long, rigid. 
Ocelliform point single. 

Sp. Ratttdus cariruUus Lam., Triehoda rattus MuKLL., EiOHHOBH Waiter 
thiere, Tab. ii. fig. 0, die WasaerraUe MuKLL., Ivfutor, Tab. xxix. figs. 
5 — 7. (Ehbenbebo distinguishes here two species and two genera: 
Mastigocerca carinata Muell. I. 1, fig. 7, Infuaumsthier. Tab. Lvn. fig. 7, 
which has a shell, and Monocerca rattus. Tab. XLvm. fig. y, to which 
Eichhobn'b drawing and the first two figures of Mueller 1. L belong, 
which wants the shell, whilst he however remarks, that both are very 
similar ; Dujabdik is of opinion that only one species should be adopted.) 

Rattulus Ehrenb. With two ocelliform points, and tail styli- 
form, inflected. (Animal naked? Is this its place?) 

Sp. JtatttUus lunaris, Trichoda htnaris Muell., I^fus, Tab. zxix. figs, i — 3, 
Ehbbnb. If^usiotuth, Tab. lti. fig. i. 

Polyarihra Ehrenb. 

Triarthra Ehrenb. 

Sp. Triarthra longiseta Ehbbnb., Eichhoen Wasserihiere, Tab. i. fig. 7, 
Ehbenb., Organisat, in d, Jiicht. des Id. Baumes, $ttcr Beitrag, Tab. vui. 
fig. I, Tnfiisionsth. Tab. LV. figs. 7, &c. 

Family IV. Uydatincea {Furcularina DujARD.) Animals swim- 
ming freely, naked, with integument contractile, flexible, often 
marked by parallel rugae. Tail forked. 

A. Rotatory organ single, continuous, not lobed at the margin. 
{IcJithydina Ehrenb. in part). 

Ichthydium Ehrenb. (species of Cercaria MuELL.) Body 

Sp. Ichihyd. podura Ehbenb., I^fusUmsth, Tab..XLin. fig. 3. 

Chcetonotus Ehrenb. (species of Trichoda Muell.) Body 


Sp. ChcBtcnotus larus, Trichoda larus Muell., Irrfusor. Tab. 31, figs. 5 — 7; 
Ehbenb. If\fusionsth. Tab. xliii. figs. 4, ftc. 

Digitized by 



[DuJARDiN {Injus. p. 268, 1841) gave reasons for the exclusion of 
ChcBtonotua and Ichthydium firom the Rotatoria^ and placed them 
provisionally in his order Infusoirea symitriques. Afterwards 
C. YoGT referred them to the Turbellaria. Sohultze discovered in 
the sea-sand at Guzhaven (1853) a new genus and species closely 
allied in anatomical structure to our Ichthydina, which he named 
Twrbanella hycdina. Neither in Ickthydivm nor Chcdtonottuf do the 
dlia form a true wheel-organ round the mouth capable of protrusion 
and retraction. In Ichthydium^ they are spread over the entire 
abdominal surface j in Chcetonotua over the whole of the anterior half 
of the abdomen, and at the margin of the posterior half form a band 
which surrounds the closely set, stiff hairs, which are much finer than 
the spines on the dorsal sur&ce and directed backwards to cover the 
non-ciliated portion of the abdomen. The tail is forked, but not 
jointed. The intestine is straight, the anal opening at the fork of 
the tail. Neither vessels, nerves, nor muscles can be seen, except 
that the oesophagus is muscular. The sexual organs are situated 
between the intestinal canal and the integument of the back, the 
testes consisting of a loose cluster of vesicles in front of the ovary. 
ScHULTZE concludes that the Ichthydina of Ehrenbebg (exclusive of 
his genera Ptygv/ra and Glenaphora which are true rotatories) must 
be excluded from the Botaloria, and that they belong more nearly 
to the TtcrbeUaria than to any other order of worms. There are 
however remarkable differences of structure between them and 
any &mily of TwrheUa/ria, For in those Turbellaria which have a 
straight intestine with anal opening, the sexes are distinct ; whilst 
in those which are hermaphrodite the intestine has no anal opening. 
ScHULTZE contends however that in worms the characteristic derived 
from the form of the intestinal canal is of greater systematic value 
than that derived from the formation of the sexual organs : and 
recommends that the Ichthydhia, limited as above, be placed pro- 
visionally amongst the Microstoma of the order Turbellaria, which 
will then require to be subdivided into the dioecious and the monoe- 
cioius (JchthydincC). See Schultze in Mueller's Archiv. 1853. 
s. 241-253. Ta£ vl] 

B. Rotatory organ multilobed or parted {Uydaiincea Ehrenb.) 

Oioglena Ehrenb; Maxillse none. Ocelliform points three, the 
middle one sessile, the two lateral pediculate. 

Enteroplea Ehrenb. Body oval, oblong, anteriorly truncate. 
Maxillad none. Ocelliform points none. 

Digitized by 


204 CLASS vr. 

Sp. EnieropUa hydcAina Ehbenb. Tab. XLvn. fig. i, Dujabd. Infvaoirea, 
PI. XIX. fig. a. 

Hydatina Ehrenb. Body oval, anteriorly truncate. Maxillse 
digitate at the extremity, terminated by teeth five in number, firee. 
Ocelliform points none. 

Sp. ffydatina mitct, VarticeUa tenia Muell., ImfuKT, Tab. xu. figs. 8 — 14 ; 
Ehbenb. Organiaation, Sygtematik, &c. 1830, Tab. viii. TnfusUmdh. XLVn. 
fig. 1 ; this is the animal in which Ehbxhbbbq first demonstrated the com- 
posite structure of the Rotatoria, 

Notommata Ehrenb. (in part). Body oval or oblong, posteriorly 
narrower, anteriorly truncate. Maxillse digitate, with several teeth 
at the extremity, Ocelliform point single, forward, dorsal, or 
several points clustered. 

Sp. NUommaia clavulata Ehbenb., OrffatUaation in der lUehtung d. Jd, 
Baumei, 2iUer Beitrag, Tab. x. fig. i, I^funcntthierchm, Tab. L. figs. 5, &c. 

OydogUna lupvs Ehbenb., /7^tuio9u<A. Tab. XYi. fig. 10, (the form of 
the maxilla* not yet accurately known). 

SyncJuBta Ehrenb. Body broad anteriorly. Rotatory organ 

armed with styles. Ocelliform point single, anterior, dorsal. 

Sp. SyvichoBta haltica Ehbenb., Infunoruth. Tab. uii. fig. 5 ; phosphorescent^ 
in the Baltic, &c. 

Furmdarta Lam. (in part), Dujard. Maxillas forcipate, with 
extremity usually imdivided and acuminate, or bidentate, protrac- 
tile as far as the margin of the rotatory organ. 

a) Ocelliform point none. Pleurotrocha Ehbenb. 
Sp. Pleurotrocha contLricta Ehbenb., Ififimbneth, Tab. XLVin. figs, i, fto* 

h) OceUiform point single. Furcfdaria and Scaridium Ehbenb. 
Sp. Fwrcvlariagibha'EwQXS-R,, InfutionOh, Tab. XLViii. figs. 3, ko,—Fwrcul, 
Umgicauda Lam., Trickoda longicauda Muell., Infiuor, Tab. xxxi. figs. 
8 — 10, Scandium lonfficaudum Ehbenb., InftitioTuth. Tab. liy. fig. i, 
with a hook in front on the wheel-organ and a very long tail, by which the 
animal progresses in the water by leaps. 

c) Ocelliform points two (JHgUna and JHtAemma Ehbenb. exclusive of 
Dtetemma marinum ejusd.) 

Sp. Furcularia forcip€Ua, Cercaria forcipata and vermicularii Muell., It^Vr 
$or. Tab. xx. figs. 18—23 ; Ehbenb. Infutiwuth. Tkb. lv. fig. i, Dekinia 
vermictdariB, Mobben Bijdragen tot de natmtrk. Wetensch. v. pp. 337, ftc. 

d) Ocelliform points three (Triopkthalmtu, Eosphora Ehbenb.) 

e) Ocelliform points numerous, disposed in two clusters (Theonu 

Digitized by 



Lindia DuJARD.? 

I^ote, — Genus AJbertia Dujard. is distrngoished by a shield in 
front of the rotatory oi^gan and by a tail which is conical, short, un- 
divided. Body cylindrical, elongate. It lives parasitically, in the 
intestinal tnbe of earth-worms and slugs. Comp. Ann. dea Sc not, 
2e s6rie, Tom. x. pi 175, Tab. ii. 

Family V. PMlodinoBa Ehrenb. {Rotifera Dujard.) Animala 
swimming freely or creeping (after the manner of geometric cater- 
pillars). Body elongate, fusiform, contractile into a ball. Rotatory 
organ double. Tail articulate, frimished posteriorly with little 
hom§ or styles. The stapediform maxillas with two parallel teeth, 
sometimes with three. 

Rotifar Cuv.i (The characters of the family.) 
o) Without proboscis. 

TyphUna Ehrenb (and Hydrias ejusd. Ocelliform points none). 
MonoUtbiM Ehrenb. Ocelliform points two. 
h) Anterior process retractile, proboscidean. 
*) Ocelliform points none. 
CaUadma Ehrenr 
**) Ocellifoim points two. 
Philodina. The ocelliform points situated behind the proboscis. 

Sp. PhUodina erythrophthalma Ehbsnb., OrganiaoHon, Syttemaiik, ke, 
Berlin, 1830, Tab. vu. fig. 2; Infiuioruih, Tab. LXi. fig. 4; by former 
writers confounded with Bottfer vulgarii, DuJABDUf names this species, 
with which he thinks some other species of Philodina Ehhshb. ought to 
be united. Rotifer inJUUua, Infusmres, PI. 17, fig. a. 

Rotifer Ehrenb. (and AcAinwrus ejusd). Ocelliform points situated 
at the anterior part of the proboscis. 

Bp. JZMi/er vulgaris Sohbank, Ehbsnb., Purctdaria rtdtviva Lam., VortictUa 
rotatoria Mubll., Infutor. Tab. xui. figs. 11 — 16; Eebbitb. Organimt,, 
Sytlematik, &c. 1830. Tab. vii. fig. i, Ittfunonith. Tab. LX. fig. 4; Dujab- 
MH, Ififutoiret, PL 17, fig. i. 

This Wheel-animalcule was first discribed and figured by Lbiuwbkhokok 
in 1701. {Sevmde vervolg der Brievm, i^iteMisBive,h\^^o^. He observed 

1 Tableau iUmentaire, 1798, p. 653. 

Digitized by 


206 CLASS VI. 

thAt this animal, which he had found in a leaden gutter of his house, after 
it had been dried with the sand and other matters that adhered to it, 
revived again, when after two days he poured water upon it, which, having 
been previously boiled, could contain no living animalcule. He afterwards 
found that the same phenomenon occurred after a lapse of five months 
(bl. 413). Different observers repeated these experiments. Font ana 
found Wheel-animalcules that had been dried for two years and a half 
revive on being moistened {TraitS aur U renin de la Vipdre I., Florence, 
1 781, 4to. pp. 90', 92), and Spallanzani saw the waking from slumber 
occur even after four years {Opuscules de Physique, traduits par J. Senebisb, 
Geneve, 1777, u. p. 310). The last-named observer saw the same pheno- 
menon many times in succession ; nay, even eleven times he saw alternately 
apparent death and life. A few minutes are often sufficient to revive the 
creatures ; but such alone as were surrounded with sand and other matter, 
not those which lying quite bare had been dried, were revived. Observations 
in the present century also are not wanting, by Dutroch£T, C. Sohultze 
(according to Ehbenbebo on Philodina), and others. 

This phenomenon does not stand quite alone. We have spoken above of 
Anguillula (p. 194), and Sfallamzani observed the same phenomenon in a 
microscopic aquatic animal, which he named Tardiffrcidef and which has 
been called Arctiscon by other writers. Dujardin brings this and other 
similar animals as well as the Wheel-animalcules into the same class of 
Systolides; but we are of opinion that they ought rather to be placed, as 
very imperfect forms of ArachnoHdea, with the Acari. It is on these iar- 
digrades that Dot^bb not long ago performed his very interesting experi- 
ments, and also, after most perfect desiccation of the animals when quite 
uncovered, succeeded in reviving them (Ann. des 8e. not. 2« s^rie, 1841. 
Tom. xviii. Zooloffie, pp. 5— 35)- 

To these observations no exception can well be taken ; the fitcts must 
ttther be stoutly denied or be accepted as we find them. Spallakzani 
asserted incorrectly that life was quite gone, and that a real revival 
occurred (1. 1, p. 3^1). Lkeuwenhoeck expressed himself more cautiously. 
Bonnet too speaks of a seeming death, and says that life is not quite 
extinguished (Consid. swr les corps organisis, (Euvres, Neuchatel, 1779, 
8vo. VI. p. 214, Contemplation de la nature, ibid. Tom. vin. p. 762), VoN 
Humboldt calls the state of apparent death in these animaLs one of sleep, 
or of suspended life {Versuche iiber die gereizte Muskd-und Nerver\faser, 
1797. 8vo. I. s. 196). In this desiccated state life is potentially present, 
but does not announce itself by actual phenomena. If ws choose to name 
this life latent, we must not call death itself a latent life; certainly these 
animals are not dead, but their life is brought to a stand by the want of 
one of the most common and most necessary of vital stimuli, by the want 
of water. 

Digitized by 



Linn JBUS placed (vid. p. 30) all animals that are destitute of a 
proper intemsd skeleton in two classes, that of Insects and that of 
Worms. In reviewing the principal modifications which subsequent 
writers have introduced into the general classification of the animal 
kingdom, we find that thej relate chiefly to the animals placed bj 
LiNNiEUS in the latter class. All those classes which we have 
hitherto treated of have been formed by separation from the LiN- 
N.£AN class of worms ; all the animals which we shall describe in 
the sequel as Molluscs formed collectively a portion of the same 
great division. Amongst creatures so numerous and of such variety 
of form, there are some which in type, or plan of organisation, 
approximate towards insects; they are, like insects, articulate 
animals, but differ firom them by the absence of articulate feet. As 
early as the end of the last century Cuvier made of these a distinct 
division of the animal kingdom under the name of Worms, and, at 

1 Compare on this class : — 

O. F. MuELLEB, Vermium. terrestrium et fiuviatilium teu AnimoUium infusoriorum, 
kdminthiGirum et tedaeeorum, non marinorum, wccincta HUtoria, Haunise et Lipeie, 
1773, 1774, n Volamina 4to. (This work describes the Worms of Liknaus, that is, 
Uie invertebrate inarticolate animals and the ringed Worms.) 

O. F. MuELLEBj NaturgtschichU einiger WurmarUn det tiUienundnlziffen Wauert, 
mit Knpf., Kopenhagen, I77i> 4to. (new edit. 1800). Descriptions and observations 
referring chiefly to the genera Nais, Nereis and Aphrodile. 

J. G. Satiokt, Sjfdlme dee Annelidet, DeteripUon de VEgypt€y Tom. xxvi. Paris, 
i8a6, (pp. 3^5—472). 

AUDOUIN et MiLNB Edwabds, Clataificaiion dee Anndides et Ikecription de eeUcn, 
qui kabUent lea cdtea de la Frajice, Annalet dee Sc. natur. Tom. xxvii. 1833, pp. 337 — 
447, Tom. xxvra. 1833, pp. 187—147, xxix. pp. 195—269, pp. 388—411, xxx. 

pp. 411— 4«5- 

MlLNS EDWABoa^ Anndida in Todd'b Oydapoedia I. 1835, pp. 164—173. 

A. S. Obbsied, Qrceidanda Anmdata doreibranchiata in Kongl. Daneke videneka- 
hemee SeUhahe NatwrvidenMbeliffe og mathematieke AfhandUnger t. 181 3, pp. 153— 
116, with figures. 

A. E. Gbubs, IHe FamUien der Anneliden, Bin S^ematierhea Venuch. Berlin, 

Digitized by 


208 CLASS VI. 

the same time, added to it the Entozaa^. Some jears afterwards 
CuYiER discovered, that manj of these animals have red-coloured 
blood, and thought that a name implying this was justifiable {vers 
h sang rouge), whilst Lamarck, on account of the rings into which 
their body is divided, named them Anndides. 

It was necessary to premise these historical notices in order to 
make it clear why we have given to this class of animals the name 
'^Binged Worms;" and, notwithstanding, include in it animals 
whose body is not divided into rings. The name may be defended 
by similar iostances from other classes of animals, where names do 
not always suit all the iadividuals in them*. But, further, we 
prefer this name to that of " Worms," because this last is too 
indeterminate, and, as has been alleged above, has a double meaning. 

One of the best writers on the Anrmlata is 0. F, Mueller, to 
whom the whole of Zoology is indebted for distinguished services. 
The immortal Pallas, also, described many ringed worms, and 
investigated them anatomically. In the present century they have 
been especially iuvestigated by Savignt, Milne Edwards, GtRUBE 
and Oersted. Ehrenbero has placed some of these worms, 
on accoimt of the vibratile cilia with which their integument is 
beset, in a separate class, under the name TurbeUaria. But, besides 
that we think too great a multiplicity of classes is to be avoided, 
some of these TurbeUaria approach far too nearly to other natural 
divisions of the Annulata to allow us to place them in a distinct 
class of the animal kingdom '. 

Cuvier and Lamarck placed the Annulata higher in the animal 
kingdom than the rest of the articulates ; above the Crustaceans. It 
is true that the last-named Zoologist considered the Crustaceans to be 
the more highly organised, but believing that the AnnuIcOa ought to 
stand above the Insects, and that it was inexpedient to break the con- 
nected series formed by the Insects, Arachnoids, and Crustaceans, 

^ Tableau OSmeiU. de VHitt. not. dea Anima/ux, 1798, p. 644 ; Le^. d^Anat. con^ 
parSe I. ivi^me Tableau, Lakabok adopted the same class in his Sjftt^me dee Anim, 
eane vertibree, i8or, p. 315. 

* The class of the Acalephce for instance, the order of the henUptera, a name which 
is properly applicable to the division of the heteroptera alone. 

* In the foUowing general yiew of the internal stmcture of this class we shaU 
especially fix our regards on those animals which indicate most clearly the articulate 
type; for the rest we refer to the special notices in the Systematic Arrangement. 

Digitized by 



by the AnmUatay he preferred to place these last at the top. We 
are quite as ready to acknowledge that Articulates with articulate feet 
form a single connected series^ and would not therefore separate 
them from each other; but we place the AnnuUUa below the Insects, 
not above the Crustaceans. This arrangement, formerly adopted by 
us when it was less common, appears now to be generally received; 
even by Frenchmen, as, for instance, Milne Edwards. 

The body of ringed-worms is generally much elongated and 
cylindrical; in some instances it is broader and oval. It is divided 
by transverse folds into rings or girdles, which, in most species, are 
very numerous, and in one and the same species may vary greatly 
in number, at least when that number is very great. The common 
Leech has abont 100 such, Eunice gigarUea above 400 ; in Phyllo- 
doce laminoaa Sav., Audouin and Milne Edwards found nearly 
500 rings, whilst in other individuals of the same species there 
were sometimes only 300. The integument is always soft, not 
corneous, but some of them live in sheaths or shells, sometimes 
compacted with bits of shell or grains of sand into a mosaic work- 
of considerable strength, and sometimes consisting of calcareous 
matter, as in the genus Serpula, 

In some the head is not distinct from the succeeding rings of 
the body. In others it is distinguished from the trunk by its 
different form, and is provided with eyes and even with threads, 
which many anthors name Antennse, after the so-named parts in 
Insects and Crustaceans; but they differ from these, and can be 
pushed in and out like the horns or feelers on the head of snails. 
The number of these feelers differs; there are rarely more than five, 
and some species have only a single thread of the kind. , 

On the rings of the body spines or hairs are usually set, which 
however may be entirely wanting in some, as in the leech. In 
most the hairs or spines are placed upon minute lateral tubercles, 
which may be considered as rudiments of feet. These rudimentary 
feet are, however, never jointed as in insects. They are usually 
divided into two parts, which may be named oars or fins; one on 
the dorsal surfja.ce, another on the ventral siuface {rame dorsale et 
rame venirale Savigny). On each of these two projections a 
bundle of hairs {aetcB) is set, of very different form; and, besides this, 
each projection has, as the rule, a conical spine that can be re- 
tracted into its sheath and is called needle (acus). Moreover, at the 
VOL. I. 14 

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base, or foot-piece of each of these oars there is usually placed 
a filiform appendage {cirrus). In the Dorsibranchiates there are 
found, in addition, on the dorsal surface towards the sides and near 
the oars, or upon them, the external respiratory organs, Oilis, of 
various forms ; sometimes divided like a comb, or branched like a 
tree, sometimes composed of simple filiform appendages resembling 
the cirri of the oars. In other ringed-worms the gills are situated 
at the most anterior part of the body. In the Leech, the Earth- 
worm, and allied genera, no respiratoiy organs are visible externally. 

In those ringed-worms that have not a distinct head, the mouth 
is usually found quite at the anterior extremity of the body ; in the 
rest it is situated on the inferior surfsu^, and usually a muscular 
proboscis can be everted (FhyUodoce Nereisy &c,). In'these, more- 
over, the mouth is ordinarily armed with homy jaws, placed late- 
rally, differing in number in the different genera. Occasionally the 
number is not the same on the two opposite sides. Thus the genera 
CEnone and Aglaura Sav. have four jaws on the right, five on the 
l^ft ; Lysidice and Leamce three on the right, and four on the left. 

The intestinal canal is, for the most part, straight, yet there are 
exceptions. In SabeUa ventilabrum the canal makes a great num- 
ber of transverse flexures, lying upon one another, and winding 
sometimes to the right^ sometimes to the left: the first portion 
alone, the oesophagus, is straight^; Grube observed the same dis- 
position in Cirratulus^, In Amphtctene (Amphitrite auricoma bel- 
gica Cuv.) the intestinal canal makes two flexures, as in Hohihurtay 
first proceeding backwards, then straight forwards, and then back- 
wards again with a narrower portion between the two others ^ In 
the remainder, where the canal is straight, there are usually lateral 
appendages, or it is as though divided into. cells by transverse 
constrictions. In the Earth-worm a short round stomach succeeds 
to the oesophagus, and then there is another muscular stomach. In 
Arentcola the middle wider portion of the intestinal canal has very 
thin walls, and is covered with very regular vascular reticulations 

1 Meckel, SyaUm der Vergl, Anal, iv. 1829, s. 71, R. Waoneb in Oken's his, 
i«3«, B. 657, Tab. X. fig. 13. 

' A. E. Gbube, Zw Anatomic und Physidifgie der Kiemenmirmcr, Konigsberg, 
1838, 4to. 8. 34. 

* Pallas, Misc. Zoolog. p. 129, Tab. ix. figs. 12, 13. 

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dividing it, as it were, into cells. Two conical yellow ccecal pouches 
are placed at the commencement of this portion of intestine : thej 
may probably be considered to be radiments of the liver. In 
the common Leech, the short oesophagus, of an oval form, wider 
towards the middle of its length, passes into a long stomach, which 
is divided by transverse walls into eleven portions: on each side are 
seen ten ccecal appendages to the stomach, the last of these being 
the longest ; the inferior opening of the stomach {Pyhrus) extends, 
like a funnel, into the intestine by a narrow opening. In other 
genera of Himdineay ex. gr. in HcBTnopsisy the intestinal canal is 
more simple, having only two cSecal appendages i. In Aphrodtta 
there succeeds to a very muscular cylindrical tube, which Pallas 
described as stomach, a thin intestinal canal of considerable width 
with about twenty coecal appendages on each side*. These append- 
ages are narrow at their insertion into the intestine, wider in their 
middle, where they are provided with branched lappets, and termi- 
nate in longish coecal sacs. This structure recalls the disposition 
of the intestinal canal in FlanaricB and DiatomcUa, and the blind 
branched appendages of the intestinal canal in Star-fishes may be 
compared with it. They are filled, as these are, with yellow fluid, 
and may be compared to rudiments of liver. In other animals again 
the liver appears as a protrusion of the intestinal canal. 

The system of Blood-vessels presents very many modifications 
in this class. As to the blood itself, we have seen above, that 
CuviER believed it to be red in all the ringed-worms. Such is 
really the case in by far the greater number, as Hvrudo^ Imnbricus^ 
Arenioola^ Nereisy TerebeUa, Serpulaf &c.: in others it is nearly 
colourless, sa in Aphrodite: yellow, as in PolyruoH^ and Phyllodoce, or 
even green, as Milne Edwards found it m a species of SabeUa. The 
general arrangement of the circulating apparatus is as follows: there 
are two main stems, one on the dorsal surface, the other on the 
ventral surface, which run in the midst through the whole length 
of the body, and as fiur as the course of the blood could be deter- 
mined in the living body — (for which investigation small indivi- 
duals are frequently more fitted than large ones, on account of their 

> See a figure in Brandt und KxTZKBURa, Medieinitehe Zoologie, ii. Bd. 1833, 
Tab. xzix. B. fig. is. 

■ Pallas, 1. 1. Tab. vn. fig. 10 d,d, fig. 11 <7,5r. G. B. Treviranus in Zeiiwhrift 
ftkr Phyai'oUigie Til. 1819, s. 159—161, Tab. xn. fig. 9. 


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212 CLASS Til. 

transparency), the blood moTes in llie dorsal vessel from l)ehind for- 
wards, in the abdominal vessel from before backwards^. In the Earth- 
worm {Lumbrtcua) the two trunks are united in the anterior part of 
the body by five or more (7 — ^9) arches widened like strings of 
pearls. (It is almost impossible not to recall here the vascular arches 
which in the embryos of mammals run along the branchial fissures.) 
In others the connexion forwards is effected by vascular plexuses 
{retia mirahilic^\ The dorsal vessel is usually considered to be 
arterial, the abdominal venous : and in most of the ringed-worms 
this opinion is not without ground, as might indeed have been con- 
cluded fr^m analogy with other aiticulates. Sometimes the anterior 
part of the dorsal vessel becomes wider, resembling a rudiment of a 
heart, which then is in most cases an arterial heart like that of 
spiders and crustaceans. The exception however observed by 
Milne Edwards must not be forgotten; in TerebeUa the heart 
drives the blood to the gills, and must therefore be considered to be 
a venous heart, analogous to that of fishes. 

Other less important modifications of the vascular system consist 
in the breaking up of the two main stems into several, which are 
sometimes quite separate from each other, though placed in proxi- 
mity (Nephthysy Eunice)^ or in the presence of lateral longitudinal 
stems. In Phiane carunculcOa there are as many as seven longitu- 
dinal stems: Jour on the ventral surface, of which the middle ones 
are small and lie at the sides of the nervous system, and the two 
outer which are larger and give twigs to the gills, and three on the 
dorsal surface, of which the two lateral receive the blood from the 
gills, and are connected by transverse branches with the third or 
median trunk '. In the Leech there are four principal stems, one 
dorsal, one abdominal, and two, larger than these, lateral. 

1 In ibis simple fundameDtal form the vascular system presents itself in NaU, 
where an arched vessel at the anterior extremity of the body unites the two longitudinal 
vessels. Gruithuisxn, Anai. der gegOngelim NiOde, Nov. Act. Acad. Cm, Leop. 
Tom. XI. p. 133. And Ueber die Nal$ diaphana, ibid. Tom. xiv. pp. 407, ftc 

' In Nereit : see H. Rathks, de Bopyro d Nereide €ommentaticne$ dua, 1837, 4to. 
who calls these parts orffona rdicuUOa. Milkb Edwabdb, Ann. dea Sc. nai. ae S^rie, 
Tom. X. Zocl. 1838, PI. 13, fig. I. Similar vascular plexuses exist also in PUione 
caTunculaia, see G. R. Tbeyibakub, Beobachtungm aut der Zool. u. Phytiol. Bremen, 
1839, ^ S4f ai^d A. £. Grubb, Jk Pleione cartmctUata Dm. ZooUm. Regiomonti 
Prussor. 1837, p. 19. 

' Gbubs, De PUione caruncuUUa, pp. 18, 19. On the circulation in the ringed- 
worms I. MUKLLKB in Bubdaoh's Phyaiologie nr. 1831, s. 143— 149, may be also 

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Bespiration is effected hj the skin, or hj external gills of very 
different form, or by vesicles on the sides of the bod j. In the Leech 
there are found about seventeen such vesicles on each side, which 
open on the abdominal sur&ce. The openings are extremelj minute, 
and between two of them on each side there are four rings or seg- 
ments of the bodj without such openings. A white convoluted 
structure is connected with these vesicles by means of a thin pedicle, 
and contains (according to DuGi^) a blood-vessel in its interior. 
That these vesicles secrete mucus, is no proof that they are not 
respiratory organs ; some writers think that it is their sole function 
to supply that secretion; and Brandt believes that respiration in 
the Leech is effected by the skin. At all events, though these 
vesicles receive and return blood-vessels, they have not a perfectly 
separate circulation of blood in them, and the respiratoiy organs 
would seem to receive in this case, as in that of Beptiles, a portion 
only of the venous blood. Li the Earth-worm there are more than a 
hundred such vesicles ; their openings are on the abdominal surface, 
according to Leo and DuG^, whilst Meckel and Morren think 
that they are connected with a single series of apertures on the 
dorsal surface, which Willis formerly described and compared to 
the spiracles of Insects*. 

The ringed-worms, until within the last few years, were sup- 
posed, almost universally, to be bisexual. It was only in the 
AphroditcB that a separation of the sexes was, with some hesitation, 
accepted, when Pallas had shewn that certain individuals were full 
of eggs at the same time that in others the cavity of the abdomen 
contained a tenacious milky fluid*. Afterwards Rathke also found 
a separation of the sexes in Amphitrite^^ and Quatrefages observed 
the same in a large number of marine ringed-worms {tubicoloB and 
erraniiay. The observations of Steenstrup on Lepidonote, Phylh- 
doce^ Nereis^ Nephthys, Terebella, and Serpula are to the same effect: 
in the last genus the sexual distinction may be recognised by the 

oonsoHedy and espedaUy Milni Edwards, Awn, dea Se, not, see. S^rie, Tom. z. 
pp. 193—941, Fi. 10, It. (These figures are also transferred to the new edition of 
GuTiBB, Riffne AnimtU, Anndidee, PI. i, Ac.) 

^ J)e Amma BrtUcrum, AmsteLodami, 1674, Svo. pp. 34, 35, Tab. iv. fig. 3. 

' Mi$e, ZoU, p. 90. 

■ BeUrage zwr vergl, Anat. u, Physiol, Danag, 184a, s. 66 — 68. 

* MiLHB Edwabds, Bajijpcrt tur une Sirie de Mimoires de M. A. DK Quatrk- 
rAOKSy Ann, de$ 8c, nak 3ibme S^rie i. p. 21. 

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colour shining through the skin, which is white in male individuals 
and reddish in female. Other differences of external appearance 
in the two sexes are not known, unless we except an observation of 
Oersted, which however is not altogether free from doubt, accord- 
ing to which in a new genus very nearly allied to SyUia^ which he 
names Exogone, the male individuals axe distinguished by longer 
hairs, as they are in the genus Nats^. There still remain the 
genera of the Hirudinea and Lumbricim, in which Steenstrup in- 
deed adopts separation of sex under similar external form of the 
parts : but this requires confirmation after accurate investigation, for 
it is in conflict with earlier observations, whilst by later it is in part 
contradicted*. On the whole, no common type can be assigned for 
the genital organs : for the most part, there are some pairs of vesicles 
{ovaria, testes) in the fore part of the body. In some Anmdata aetyera, 
apertures at the base of the foot-swellings have been seen, through 
which passes seed or eggs : but in many of them such an outlet is still 
unknown. For the most part, external genital organs are deficient : 
neither does copulation occur, except in Lumbricini and Hintdinea. 

The development of the egg has been investigated only in a 
few species. Here also that remarkable cleaving and successive 
division of the yelk has been observed, which RuscONi and VoN 
Baer first detected in the eggs of frogs and of fishes. The deve- 
lopment of the embiyo begins on the abdominal surfeuse, and the 
yelk lies on the dorsal surface, as in Crustaceans and Insects : two 
abdominal streaks are observed at the commencement of develop- 
ment, which recall the dorsal plates of vertebrate animals^. 

The most recent times have made us acquainted with some 
remarkable metamorphoses in the course of the development of 
ringed-worms. Loven found the first stage in a worm of the 
family of the Nereids (probably a species of PhyUodoce) to resemble 

^ Eriohson's Archivf, Naturgetch. 1845, i. b. 10—23. 

* See F. Mueller on the Hermaphroditism of the Hirudinea, in the German 
transhition of Steenstrup'b work cited above (p. 135) Untertuchungen ueber das 
Vorhcmmen det ffermaphrodititmus in der Natur, Greifswald, 1846, 8. no — 114. 

* Most of the observations refer to ffirvdinea. Such are the following works : — 
E. H. Weber, Ueb. die Entvnckdung dea medicin. BhUegda, Meckel's Arckiv. 1828, 
8. 366—418, Taf. X. zi. ; R. Waoner, BruchaMicke atu der ErUwickdung des gemeinm 
Mutegels, Hirudo vulgaris L., Nephdis ieasdaJta Sav. Oken*s Isis, 183a, s. 398 — 408, 
Taf. iv.; A. E. Geubb, Untersuchungen ueber die JSntwickdung der Cleptinen, Mit 3 
Kupfert. Konigsberg, 1844. We may expect several observations on marine amwlola 
from QuATREFAOES. See Arm, des Sc, not. ^ihm.B S6ne, Zoologie i..p. 3i. 

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a hemispherical or conical body of about ^ milllm. terminating in a 
ciliated disc on whose edge the mouth seemed to be placed. At 
the pole of the hemisphere was the anus. This conical body 
increased gradually in length and became divided into rings gra- 
dually more numerous, the last formed ring being that next the 
disc (just as in Esc^hricht's observations on Baihriocephalua the 
new rings were formed in the anterior part of the body). Each ring 
originally consisted of four pieces: an anterior and a posterior 
piece being larger, almost a semicircle, and a smaller piece on each 
side connecting them. The disc with its vibrating cilia diminished 
gradually and became changed into two fin-like appendages to the 
head, from which the feelers probably proceed^. Sars saw the 
incipient form of Polynbe cirrala as a short, oval, inarticulate body 
with a transverse circle of vibratUe cilia round the middle*. It 
may be confidently asserted therefore that there is a melamorplums; 
parts are present which afterwards disappear (the vibratile cilia), 
others are deficient which are afterwards developed, and the entire 
form is changed. 

The [Reproductive force is, in some animals of this class very 
great, in others small, although worms that have been cut through 
transversely continue to live for a long time, as has been observed 
in the leech, and by O. F. Mueller in Nereis vernoolor. Treh- 
bley's experiments on the Fresh-water Polyp induced Bonnet to 
repeat them on Fresh-water Worms (Naules), and he found that 
the pieces he had cut off grew into new worms^. Mueller also 
succeeded in similar experiments^. It has been thought also that 
they have succeeded in the Earth-worm, but here they have con- 
stantly failed with other experimenters. According, however, to 
the experiments of DuG^ a few rings at the anterior part of the 
body may be reproduced and gradually changed into a head^ 

' S. Loven, Zooloffiska Bidrag; MeUtmorpkoB hos en Anndid {Aftryck ur K, 
Voentk-Alcadtm, Handlingar, 1840) ; translated into most of the zoological journals : 
Ann, de$ Sc. not. 2e S^r. xvni. p. 288. 

■ 'EniCBBOTx'B Archiv. 1845, i. s. 11—19, Tab. i. 

' ObtervtUioTU mr qudquet e$pice» de Yen d'eau douce; (Ewvret (Aiit. 8vo.) pp. 167, 
Ac. Especially in LumMctu variegaius Muell. {Lumbricvlut variegalue Gbubb) is 
this reproductive power great, in which Bonnet saw the amputated head renewed eight 
times in two months. 

^ Von Wilmum dcs mtsen u. sakigcn WasterSf s. 43, Si, &c. 

• Ann. des Sc. not. XV. 1828, pp. 317, 318. 

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The Nervous System in the AnnuUxta proper consists, as in 
Insects, of ganglia connected bj two cords and placed behind each 
other in a series in the middle of the body on the abdominal sur- 
face. Originally each ganglion consists of two lateral portions, as 
is proved by the process of development : on the regeneration also 
of parts that have been cut away the nervous system appears to be 
formed of two lateral portions. A larger ganglion lies in the head, 
and is connected, by two nervous threads that form a ring around 
the oesophagus, with, the first ganglion of the abdominal chain. 
But the Nervous System presents much variety in different genera, 
as well in the number as in the greater or less development of the 
ganglia and in the nerves that spring from them ; whilst in the 
earth-worm, for instance, the numerous ganglia of the abdominal 
chain almost touch each other, in the leech they are only twenty- 
four or twenty-five in number, and are placed far asunder, especially 
in the middle. In Pleione carunculata the Nervous System con- 
sists, according to Grube, besides the middle chain, of two lateral 
cords, also with ganglia, which are connected with the former by 
transverse threads ^ In Eunice sanguinea Quatrefages found 
minute ganglia at the base of the rudimentary feet, which however 
were not connected, as a chain, by longitudinal filaments. In ad- 
dition to this nervous apparatus a special nervous system has been 
detected in many instances, agreeing with that portion of the 
nervous system in Insects which has been compared to the Nenms 
aympathicus of the higher animals : of which we shall treat more 
at large at the class of Insects. In Hirudo medtcinalis Brandt 
discovered three minute ganglia in the head, which are united by 
threads with the cerebral ganglion, and from which the maxillary 
nerves arise ; with the middlemost of the three ganglia a nerve is 
probably in connexion, which runs beneath the stomach in a longi- 
tudinal direction and finally divides into two branches ; but this 
nerve differs from the sympathetic of insects in respect of its 
position on the inferior surface. In Eunice sanguinea and some 

1 IH88. zootom. de Pleione carimc, p, 9, figs, x, 5. Stannius (/w, 1831) observed 
the same thing in another species of Pleione (Amphinome rostrcUa), It is as though there 
were a repetition of the form of the vascular system on the dorsal surface, which here 
consists of three stems; see above (p. an). Perhaps this arrangement occurs in 
several Annulata; at least Wagneb describes it also in PowUMdla fMiricata, Lekrb. 
der vergl, AncU. 1835, s- 38 r. 

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NereidiB QuATREFAQES fonnd this system to be composed of differ- 
ent ganglia, and named it, on account of its position on the pro- 
boscis, sysdme atisoBacphagien, or probasddten supirteur^. 

With respect to organs of sense, with the exception of tentacles 
and other appendages subservient to a finer sense of touch, for sight 
there are found in most species only coloured spots, usually black, 
of variable number, as special organs. According to I. Mueller's 
investigations in a Nereis, the eyes of ringed-worms contain no 
transparent parts, but are merely swellings of the visual nerves sur- 
rounded by black pigment. They are endowed with sensibility for 
light, and the worms can distinguish between light and darkness : 
but what is properly named aiffht, perception of the form of objects, 
such eyes cannot afford. In Alciopa lepidota Krohn however found 
a lens and a vitreous body. A special auditory organ has not been 
detected ; the first portion of the oesophagus is supposed to be the 
seat of taste. 

The organs of motion are in some more complicated than in 
others. In all muscular fibres are found beneath the skin, which 
may be separated more or less completely into layers : the external 
layer has a circular, the internal a longitudinal course. In some, as 
Aphrodite, these fibres are imited to form distinct bundles. By means 
of the layers or bundles the body can be moved, contracted, extended, 
bent. Besides this general muscular system, motion of the body 
in the Leech can be also effected by means of a suctorial disc at its 
posterior part, in which there are circular and radiating fibres. The 
proboscis, which is capable of eversion and retraction, has proper 
muscles for these purposes. Concerning the bristles and hairs, 
which are found on many, we have already spoken above. These 
parts, springing firom the sides, supply fixed points for the motions 
of the body, like the spines of the Echini: they are retracted, ex- 
tended or moved sideways by proper muscles. 

Many species of this class diffuse a phosphoric light. It is 

^ There lies also a small ganglion in firont of the brain {ffan^ion cervical Quatbs- 
FAGKs), and from the lateral parts of the brain a thread arises, which with that of the 
other side surrounds the mouth (Sydime mmHUOfhagien labial au prohoscidien 
infiriewr); this last portion of the nervous system may be compared with the arrange- 
ment in the MoUtuca gcuUntpoda, See on the nervous system of the Anndidt 
a memoir of Quatbefaobs illustrated with beautiful figures, Ann. def Sc. not. 3e S^rie, 
Tom. n. Zoologie, 1844, pp. 81 — 104, 

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asserted that this phenomenon has been occasionallj observed in 
the earth-worm {Lumbricus terrestris L.) It is quite certain that it 
has been seen to occur in very many marine Annelides: and hence 
these are creatures also which contribute to the illumination of the 
sea. NereidcB are especially noted in this respect : DuGiis observed 
the phenomenon in a Mediterranean species 4!' long, Syllis fidgun 
rans^. QuATREFAGES made the important discovery that, in certain 
minute marine Annelides (species of Syllis and Poli/noe), the seat of 
the phenomenon is at the base of the feet-tubercles — ^in fact in the 
muscles: it was only when the muscles contracted that the light 
appeared like an electric spark ^. 

Binged-worms are found in all countries and seas : but it is im- 
possible to present a view of the geographical distribution of the 
species hitherto known, for this class is perhaps more generally 
neglected by voyagers than any other, and we are acquainted with 
few marine annelides except those from the Atlantic ocean, the 
Mediterranean, and the Red sea. Of the genus Palmyra only one 
species is known, which was found at the Mauritius. From the 
Indian sea some large and beautiful species are known, as Laodicea 
gigantea; Serpula gigantea is from the West Indies : and, in general 
the large and beautifdl species are most numerous in warm regions. 
Some species appear to have a very wide geographical distribution, 
as Hestane splendtda, found by Savignt in the Red sea, and brought 
by Matthieu from the Island of Mauritius : and Pleione carunculata, 
which, according to Pallas and Savigny occurs in the American 
seas, according to Seba in the Indian sea, and was found by Grube 
in the Mediterranean at Sicily. The Hirudtnea and Lumlmcini 
have scarcely been investigated elsewhere than in Europe. 

^ Ann, dea Sc. not, Tom. xxix. p. iig. The NereU noctUuca L. is a Bmall animal- 
cule, probably the same species as Nereu cirrigera o{ Viviani. P6lyno€ ffd^rans, at 
most half a line long, was observed and figured by Ehbembbbo, Leuchten det Meera, 
Tab. I. fig. I. 

' Ann. des Sc. mU. sec. S^rie, xix, 1843, Zooloffie, pp. 183 — 192. 

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CLASS vn. 


Animals elongate, living in waters or moist earth, not parasiti- 
cally in other animals, mostly articulate, without jointed feet, but often 
in place of feet supplied with setse or setiferous tubercles which are 
retractile. Kespiration effected either by external branchiaa or in- 
ternal sacs or by the skin itself. Organs of circulation in most 
distinct ; contractile vessels instead of heart. The nervous system 
composed of a cephalic ganglion single or double, and most fre- 
quently of a double ventral cord with ganglia at intervals. 

Order I. Turhellaria. 

Body cylindrical or depressed, most frequently inarticulate, or 
ringed by transverse rugae, beset with vibratile cilia. 

Family I. PlanariecB. Nutrient canal with one distinct aperture 
alone, anus none. Body inarticulate. 

This &mily was originally formed from the genus Plcmaria of 
O. F. Mueller, which was divided by later writers into other genera, 
and round which in consequence of new discoveries other different 
genera were arranged. It appears to us to be inconsistent with the 
idea of a class, to raise this group to that rank, as Yok Siebold has 
done, who has formed his class of the Tttrbellaria of it alona The 
name TwheUaria was first, though in a more comprehensive sense, 
used by Ehbenbebg* (see above, p. 208). The phenomenon of 
rotatory motion in the water surrounding these animals, which gave 

> SymiMa phynae Anim. eveiiebraia exduiit ifUectia, i. Berolini, 183 1, fol. 

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ocoacdon to the name, was first, as it seems, observed by Ducds in 
FlcmcMrice, although he did not refer it to cilia (Ann. des Sc. tuU. 
Tom- XV. p. 165), whilst Von Baeb observed at the same time an- 
other phenomenon which could only be an effect of these cilia, 
that when a portion of these animals is cut off it continues to rotate 
circularly in the water {N'ov, Act, Acad. Cceaar. Leap. Carol. Tom- 
XIII. P. 2, p. 711> 

The internal structure of these creatures was first recognised with 
precision in this century, especially through the investigations of 
"DuGite, V. Baeb, Fokke, Oebsted, and Quatbefages; it presents 
important differences in different genera whilst the external habUua 
is similar. We must confine ourselves to the notice of a few general 

Besides the cilia on the external sur&ce, the external integument 
in many is distinguished by the presence of cells with nettle-threads, 
like as we stated in Acalephse. Beneath the integument there is 
a layer of transparent, homogeneous tissue, which, according to 
QuATKEFAOES, suppUes, as it seems, the place of muscle, and by its 
contraction effects the movement of the body. The motion occurs 
by swimming in the water, the lateral margins beating to and fro, 
by creeping with bending and straightening of the body, or by equably 
gliding, much as the gasteropod molluscs move with their so-named 

The oral aperture is sometimes more forward, sometimes more in 
the middle of the body on the ventral sur&ce. The intestinal canal 
is in some straight, and extends itself, when the mouth ia not placed 
quite forward, anteriorly as well as posteriorly, with blind terminar 
tions in both directions In others the intestinal canal is like a 
tree divided into branches ; in our fresh-water species one branch is 
seen to run forwards, on both sides provided with blind appendages, 
and two stems or main branches backwards at the sides of the body 
(in Pkmaria lactea the branches may be readily distinguished 
externally by their dark colour). In other species from sea-water 
the division of the branches is somewhat different ; sometimes quite 
retiform. In the cavity of the mouth is situated a part that can 
be extended by eversion, serving for the seizure of food, and various 
in form. It is able, when severed from the living creature, to move 
independently for some time whilst it swallows greedily sun"ounding 
substances which are seen to pass out by the posterior open ex- 
tremity as through a ^nnel. With respect to the vascular system 
little is known ; that which is described as such by some writers. 

Digitized by 



belongs probably to the nervous cfystem. In some species with 
straight intestinal canal, there have been observed at the sides two 
tortuous canals running longitudinally, which, without giving off 
lateral branches, bend round in a loop at the back part Respira- 
tion is probably effected by the skin itself and the water on the 
sur&ce is constantly renewed by the vibratory motion. 

As nervotis system in many a double nervous ganglion has been 
observed, which lies at the anterior end, and from which many 
branches arise. The eyes, which are in some instances very nume- 
rous, present in many a transparent body, corpus vitreum or lens 

The reproductive power is very great, and severed parts grow, as 
appears from the observations especially of Duoes and J. R Johnson, 
to new aniuLals. In some propagation occurs by spontaneous division. 
The sexual organs have one common or two separate openings behind 
the mouth; in the latter case the anterior opening belongs to the 
male organs of copulation. Two long tubes supply the office of 
testes, and end as vasa deferentia in a seminal vesicle, with which a 
penis of various form is connected. The spermatozoa have been 
observed by Quatrefages and Yon Siebold. A double oviduct 
leads to a spacious vagina, into which two special hollow bodies also 
opecL The ^gs lie dispersed in the parenchyme of the body, 
between the ooecal branches of the intestinal canal (Quatrefages), 
where probably they are contained in special ramified tubes 

Compare on this family : 

VoN Baeb, Ueber Plana/rien. Nov, AcL Acad, Cess, L, G, not 
cur, VoL XIII. P. 2, pp. 690—730. 

DuGis, Eecher<^es su/r Vorgamisat, et les moev/rs des Flanariees, 
Arm, des Sc, not xv. 1828, pp. 139 — 187 ; Observations rumv. siur 
les FUmaires, Und. xxi. 1830, pp. 72—92. 

A. S. Oersted, Erdwy/rf einer systematischen Eintheilung und 
speciellen BerschreU/trng der Plattmirmer. MU HoUz-schnUtenund 
3 Tafdn^ Copenhagen, 1844, 8vo. 

A. Db Quatrefages, Memovre sur qaelques FUmariees marines, 
Arm, des Sc. not. 3me S6rie, Tom. iv. 1845, Zodog, pp. 129—184. 
PL 3— 8. 

M. S. ScHULTZE, Beitrdge sur Natmgeschichte der TwrbelUm^n. 
Erste abtheUwng, Hit Kwpfertaf. Greifswald, 1851, 4to. also in 
Wibgicann*8 Ar<Mv, 1849. § 290. 

Digitized by 



Phalanx I. Ehabdocoela. Intestine simple, cylindrical, not ex- 
sertile from the mouth. Body elongate, roundish or depressed. 

Prostoma Oerst. (not DuGES), Oyrator Ehrenb. Oral aperture 
anterior terminal. 

Sp. ProtUma lineare Oebst., Oyrator hermaphrodUus Ehbskb., Ahhandl. 
der Ahad, der Wisaeruck, zu Berlin, 1835, l^b. I. fig. 2. 

Vortex Ehrenb. 

Sp. Vortex truneatus, Plancma truncatck, Zool, dcmie. Tab. 106, fig. i^ a, b, 
Ehbskb. 1. L figs. 3, &c. 

Deroatoma Oerst. (DuGieis in part). 

Mesostoma DuGES, Oerst. Body depressed, transparent; oral 
aperture annular, rotund, situated a little in front of or in the middle 
of the body. Eyes two anterior. 

Sp. MeBOttoma EhrmbergU, PUmmria tetragona Muxll., PatcioUi quadrangu- 
larU Pall., SpicU. Zool, x. Tab. L fig. 13; Zool. danic. Tab. 106, 
figs. I — 5 ; FOKKX, Aim.det Wiener Museume, L 1836, pp. 191 — 306, Tab. 
xym. Thia species has been elaborately inyestigated by the last-nained 
writer ; it undergoes various changes of form ; from the flat form a qua<f- 
rangular arises, as though the animal were about to divide itself in the 
length. Pallas had already observed this Planaria more than 70 years 
earlier at Sorgdiet, and it has lately been found again at Leyden by Hkbb 


Strongylosioma Oerst. 

Tj/phhplana Ehrenb. 

Mcuyrostoma Oerst. 

Microstoma Oerst. (Vid. Schultze quoted p. 203.) 

Convoluta Oerst. 

Phalanx II. Dendrocoela. Nutrient tube branched. Body 
depressed. {Dendrocoda and Gryptoccela Oerst.) 

a) Appendages nwmerouSy t/ubular or papiUce on 1M hack, 

Thysanozoon Grube, Eolidtceros Quatrep. Eyes sessile, nu- 
merous ; body excised anteriorly and cloven into two tentacles. 

Sp. Thytanozoon BroechU, Eclid. Brocckii Quatsbf. L 1. PI. 5, fig. i, (perhaps 
the same species as ThysanozMn Dietingii Gbube, Actimen, Echinodermen 
u, Wilrmer, fig. 9) ; in the Mediterranean. The intestinal canal has here a 
retiform division. 

Digitized by 



h) Body smoodi 

SttfhchuB Ehsenb. Eyes numerous, all or most of them sup- 
ported hj dorsal tentacles. 

Ijeptoplana Eh&enb. 

PUmaria Ehrenb. (Species of genus Planartd MuELL.) Fla- 

naria and Dendroccdum Oerst. Eyes two or a row of many eyes 

in the anterior margin of the body. Oral aperture in tlie middle of 

the body. 

Sp. PUinaria laetea MuxLL., Zool. dan. Tab. T09, figs, i, 1, Planaria torva 
MuKLL., ibid, figs. 5, 6 ; Planaria nigra Musll., fig«. 3, 4, all in freah- 

Polycelis Ehrenb. (and Prosthioatomum QuATREF.) 

Tetracdis Ehrenb. 

Tricdis Ehrenb. 

Monocelis Ehrenb. 

Note, — On these, and some other genera all of which are not yet 
sufficiently limited, consult Ehrenberg Symb. phya. AniTn, evertebr, 
exduais inaectia, i., and Oersted L 1. 

Family II. Nemertim, Nutrient tube simple, with double 
aperture, anus terminal. Body elongate, extremely contractile, 
roundish, or depressed, indistinctly annulate. 

It is not without hesitation that, after Oersted, we have given 
these characters of the fiunily of the Nemertini, whilst amongst the 
different writers, with respect to the true nature of the distinct 
partSy a remarkable variety of opinion prevails, so that it is un- 
certain whether the aperture, considered as cmua, really belongs to 
the intestinal canaL Beneath the skin in these worms muscular 
fibres are seen, of which the external layer runs longitudinally, the 
innermost annularly or transversely. A canal of uniform width, by 
many supposed to be the intestine, runs straight through the body 
(Delle Chiaje, Huschke, Kathke). On its dorsal surface lies a 
canal, which is closed at its termination backwards, becomes narrower 
forwards and ends in a long proboscis. This part is, according to 
QuATREFAGES, the proper intestinal canal, which consequently has 
no amis. Huschke supposed it to be an organ of propagation 
(testis f) and the proboscis an external copidative oigan ; hence the 

Digitized by 



name Notoapertnvs, which he gave to the worm examined by him. 
The Nemertini appear, according to Kathke and Quatbefaoes, to 
have the sexes distinct, and the organs of propagation (testes, ovaHa) 
consist of blind saccules, which lie beneath the integument longitu- 
dinallj, upon the wide canal already described. There are three 
blood-vessels running longitudinally, two on the sides and more 
towards the ventral surface, and one on the dorsal surface, which 
divides anteriorly into two branches which pass into the lateral 
vessels. The nervous system consists of two head-ganglia united by 
a transverse cord, from which (besides other nervous branches) two 
very notable nerves arise, which run longitudinally backwards, 
along the sides of the body. 

Compare for the anatomy of this family, besides Oersted and the other 
writers cited above, Delle Chiaje, Memorie n. pp. 406 — 409 and 427, 
(extract by R. Waoneb in Oken's Ina, 1832, s. 555, 556, 8.647—649) ; 
HuBOHKE, Okek*s Im, 1830, 8. 68 1— 683, Tab. vn. figB. i — 6 ; Rathke, 
Beitrdge zur vergL Anat. u. Physiol, Danzig, 1842, s. 93 — 104 ; Quatbe- 
faoes, VJnstUut, Journal universd, &c. No. 660, 1846, p. 286, and a figure 
in the new illustrated edition of Cuyieb, B^gn^ Animal, Zoophytes, PI. 34 
(and also a M^moire sur la famUle des Nimeriiens, Ann. des Sc. not. ^ihme 
S^rie, Tom. vi. Zool. pp. 173 — 303). 

Nemertes Cuv., Borlasia Oken. Several eyes (often indistinct). 
Two pits (respiratory?) at the sides of the head, surrounded with 
vibratile cilia. 

Sp. Nemertes Borlasii, Borlasia Angtias Oken, Borlabe, Nat, BisL, 0/ 
Cornwall, fol. 1758, PL xxvi. fig. xm. (cited by Cuvibb), Quatbefaoes in 
Cuv. B. Ani, idU, HI,, Zooph, PL 33 ; this worm becomes more than four 
feet long ; &c. 

Note, — Oersted cites as synonyms of this genus Notaspermus 
HuscHKE, Meckelia Leuck., Ophiocephaltu Quoy and Gaiil 

Oersted has given the name Borlasia to species with constricted 
head, without respiratory fissures, with indistinct eyes. Add several 
genera, of which the synonyms cannot be made out except by com- 
parison of the specimens : Cephalothrix Oerst., Astemma Oerst., 
Tetrastenvma Ehrenr, Polia Delle Chiaje, Polystemma, Omr 
TnatopUoy Amphiporus Ehrekk, Cerebrat^us Renieri, Amphiportis 
Oerst. (not Ehrekr), Serpentaria Goodsir*. 

^ Ikscriptions of some gigantic forms of invtrtebraie animals. Annals and Magazine 
of NaL Hid. VoL XV. 1845, P- 377, PL "• 

Digitized by 



Order II. Suctana. 

Body annnlate, without setae, terminated by a prehensile cavity 
posteriorly or at both extremities. External branchiee none. 

Family III. Hirudtnea. (The characters of the order are also 
those of the single family.) 

The &mily of the blood-suckers (leeches) is formed fix>m the genus 
Hvrudo L. These animals are able to convert the anterior extremity 
of the body into a suctorial cavity, or have there, as at the posterior 
extremity, a round suctorial disa They creep along the ground, by 
Affixing this sucking apparatus and by alternately contracting and 
extending the body They swim with a serpentine and sinuous 
bending of the body, which is effected with much velocity. 

Comp. on this funily MoQunr-TAirsov, Mimographie de» Bintdiniet, 
nouv. Sdit, av, pi, color. Paris, 1846, 8vo. 

A. Head made up of several segments of the body, slightly or 
not at all distinct &om the rest of the body, capable of change into 
a suctorial acetabulum by its own motions. 

Clqmne Sav. Body depressed. Mouth unarmed, furnished 
with a proboscis exsertile, tubular. Eyes 2 — 6 (sometimes eight?). 

Sp. Clepsine kyaUna, Eirudo hyalina L., Trkmblst, Polyp, PL vu. 6g. 7 ; 
Cleptme complanaia, &c. 

Tins animal lays its eggs on water-plants {StraUotet aiolda) andoontmues 
to sit thereon. The eggs also attain their deyelopment even when the mother 
is driven away, but are then frequently affected and spoilt by oonfervae. lliese 
^;g8 are thin-skinned vesicles in which numerous yelk-spheres, 15 to 30, 
are contained, and from which a corresponding number of young are 

Comp. on the species of this genus F. Mublleb, Jk ffirudinibui eirea 
Berolinvm httcuaque obtervatiSf Berolini, 1844, 8vo, and T. Budob, Cleptine 
hioculata. Mit 2 Taf. Bonn, 1849. 

Under this genus F. Mubllbb also places JSvrudo nuurffinata and Hir, 
ietwlata of O. F. Mxtblleb, though the last has eight eyes, whilst in 
Cleptine the number does not exceed six ; the arrangement of the eyes is 
in two rows longitudinally which meet forwards, just as in the six-eyed 
CUpaineB; the blood also is white. 

Nephelis Sav. Body elongate, posteriorly incrassated, obtuse, 
with acetabulum obliquely terminal. Mouth unarmed. Eyes eight, 
disposed in a series semicircular, transverse. 

VOL. I. 15 

Digitized by 


226 CLASS m. 

Sp. NtfUk w^gtriM, Bwmdo PrtifrfHi I^ £mrfd4^ aiA^h^ Ttn. FL51, 
fig*. 5—7; Smoi, iXnteU. A«m ti. 4 Heft; Jonnov, PAa7. IVm. 
1817, PL IT. (reprintod in bk FmriUr ObmnaL m, tke Lmk, 1825); thk 
species swallows HBafl wonniL 

Troeheta DcnocHn, Trotketia Lam. {GeobdeUa Blust. in put). 

Branckiobddla Odiek. Body somewhat depresaed, with laige 
rings, not nnmerons. Two homy jaws. Ejes none. 

8p. BramekiobdeUa adan, OmBB, Mimk. de Im Sk. ^BuL m(. d^ Pflrif I. 
i^^if PP- ^ — 7^9 PI- !▼• talreadyolmiiul and figured bj B«»bl» /at. IIL 
PL LOL figs, ig—^1^); Bmek, pflrsnCa, eomp. Hsm, Tcft. ii«e g i iff — y 
BranckiobddU, Mukllkr's ilfritr. 18^ s. 574, Jkc TwL xrr. 

Htrudo L. (exclnsiTe of several species). Bodj oblcmg, sub- 
depressed, with nnmerons rings. Three homj jaws. Eyes nsoallj 

Bdetta Say. Jaws not denticulate. Eyes eight. 
Sp. BddLoL nUcHca Sat., Guiani, lamoffr., Annil. PL 4, fig. to. 

HamopU Say. Maxillap? aimed with a double row of denticles not 
numeroua Eyes ten. 

Sp. Hamopu unguisorha, Hirmdo mmguimtga L., Emofdap, mitk., Ven. 
PL 51, figs. 3, 4, Uacky grey-green beneath; this speoes is larger than the 
common Leech. Conmionly two species haTe been here confounded, 
which MoQuur-TAjn)0!r pUuses in two different genera: AwUutoma {ffir. 
mnguituga MuKLL., Hir, (hUo BaAUV, SruaM, iXewtodU. Famna ti. 2) nnd 
Heemopu {Bit, mtmguiguga Bbbgic, L.) 

Scmguisuga Say. Jaws armed with a double row of denticles 
very slender and crowded Eyes ten. 

Sp. Htrudo medieinalit L., Hirudo vetuaeetor Brack, Sturm, DeuttekL 
Pavna Ti. a Heft ; BRAVnr u. RAnsBURO, Medu. Zool. 11. Taf. xxtiii. 
figs. 5, 4 ; GvtaiM, loonogr., AnmiL PL 10, fig. 3 ; aboTe, blackish-green, 
with six long stripes spotted reddish and black, beneath diTe-ooloured with 
many black spots (four to ^ye inches long). Another species, Hir, ojfcinalis 
Sat., is also used for medicinal porposes, which is yellowish beneath with 
a broad black edge, without spots, see Brandt n. Ratzxb. L L Taf. xxx. 
fig. I ; J. J. KnoLZ, Naturkui, Abkandl. ueber die Bluiegd, Wien, 1820, 

1 This genus must by no means be confounded with £ranchiobdeUion Run., Bran- 
cJidlion Satiqnt, which like Cleptine and NepkdU has no jaws, but only three project- 
ing points ; if the semicircular little plates on the same part of the body be really gills, 
as Sationt says, (Cutixr doubts and Moquin-Tandon denies it^) then it does not 
belong to this order. Latrullb places it near the genus Areaioaia. 

Digitized by 



8to. Tftb. I. fig. a ; aooording to Kholz it is thia specieB especiaUy which 
is used in Vienna and brought there from Hungary^. 

Hirudo medicinalis is the most useful species of Leech {ianfftue, leech, 
BhOeffd), which almost everywhere in Europe lives in fresh water, especially 
in ponds, marshes and canalsy and in winter, rolled up annularly, conceals 
itself in the mud. This animal lives on the blood of animalfl {verUinrale and 
uivertebnOe) exclusively ; the jaws serve to wound and to penetrate the skin . 
The first segment of the body, which also is occasionally parted by a trans- 
verse stripe, has a semilimar form and is not closed beneath. It can extend 
itself as an upper lip for feeling or bend itself downwards to cover the 
mouth. The ten black eye-spots are arranged in form of a horse-shoe on 
the back-side of the head ; the first on the first segment, the two next on 
the third, and the two last on the sixth ring of the body. The organs of 
propagation of the leech are by different writers determined very differently, 
whilst, however, the latest investigations (especially of H. Mecksl, 
Mubllkb's Archiv. 1844, s. 476 — 480) bring us back to the generally 
received opinion of former times. According to it, nine purs of round 
vesicles of a white colour are teslee, (Tbeyiranus thought they must be 
held to be ovaries, ZeiUchr. fUr Phytiol. rv. 2, 1832, s. 159—167). By 
means of short transverse tubules these vesicles are connected with a com- 
mon canal which runs at each side of the body ; this canal goes forward 
into a structure which is white and consists of many convolutions (the 
epididynUs or the seminal vesicle). From each of these two seminal 
vefddes arises a short vessel (vas ejcumlatorium), wMch runs to the spherically 
widened sheath of the penis : the penis can be everted outwards through 
an opening in the twenty-fourth ring of the body. In the fifth ring 
behind this is seen the second sexual opening, that of the female parts ; it 
leads to a wide vagina (uterus, according to BoJAirus) which, by means of 
a tube that divides forwards into two branches, is connected with two 
smaU ovaries or vesicles filled with granular bodies. These two ovaries lie 
between the seminal vesicles and the vagina. The impregnation in Leeches 
is mutual. The Leech lays eggs, or rather capsules, in which eggs 
are contained, 5 — 16 in number. These capsules or cocoons are three- 
fourths of an inch long, oval and surrounded with a spongy or fiiothy 
substance, and filled with a brown albuminous fluid. The germs appear as 
round discs; these minute yelks grow by means of the surrounding 
albumen, which w absorbed by a structure which closely resembles a funnel- 
shaped oesophagus, and is already visible on the germ when only half a line 
in size (E. H. Wkbeb in Mbckel'b Archiv, i8a8, s. 366—418, Muxllbb'b 
Archiv. 1846, s. 428 — ^434). 

Comp. on the Leech amongst others : JoHVSOV, TreaHae on the Medicinal 
Leech, London, 18x6, 8vo, and by the same. Further Obeervat, on the Med, 
Leech, With engravings. London, 1825, 8vo ; Kuntzmaitn, Anatomieche 
Physiol, UfUersuchungen liber den Blutegel, m. 5 Kupfert. ; Bojanub in 

^ Other species still, which have been discovered, may be used for drawing blood, 
as the large black species spotted with white which was discovered in Sweden some 
years ago by WAHLBK&a, and named Hirvdo albopunctata. 


Digitized by 



Okbn'8 ItU, 1817, 8. 881 (with fig.)> the Bame 18 18, b. ao8o; Knolz 
(seep. 116) ; BBAimr Mediz, Zool. n. 1833, s. 230 — 297 ; Moquik-Tavdok 
Monographic dct Hirudiniea, &c. 

Amongst the foreign species we note Jffirudo zeylaniect, found in the 
Island of Ceylon ; its poisonous bite is followed by very tedious uloen. 
Tttlsb, JSdi9ib. new PhUot. Joum. 1826, p. 375. 

B. Acetabulum of the mouth of a single segment, distinct 
from the rest of the body by stricture. 

HoBmocharis Sav., Pisdcola Blainv., Lam. Body cylindrical, 
attenuated forward, with few rings, little distinct. Anterior aceta- 
bulum slightly excavate, with mouth triangular, edentulous, placed 
in the bottom towards the inferior margin; posterior acetabulum 
large, obliquely terminal. 

Sp. Mcanocharis piaeium, Hirudo gwmttra "L., RossKL In», m. Tab. xxxn. ; 
Lxo, Ud>er einige attsgezeichneU anatomiscKe und phygiologiwhe VerhdUniam 
derPiscieola geometra, Mueller's Archiv, 1835, s. 419— 427, Taf. xi. This 
species lives in fresh-water and adheres very firmly to Carp, Tench, ftc. 
It moyes like a geometrical caterpillar ; on the back-side of the cephalic 
disc are four black eye-spots ; copulation occurs in the upright position, in 
which the ftntmnla Bupport themselves on the ventral disc and embrace in 
form of an X. They lay eggs of a yellow-brown colour, three-fifbhs of a 
line long. 

Piscicola respirani Tbobchxll, new species, Archiv f. Ntthtrgetch, xvi. 

PorUobdella Leach, Lam., Albiane Sav. Body cylindraceo- 
conical, attenuated forwards, with unequal rings. Acetabula very 
concave; mouth small unarmed, placed at the bottom of the anterior 
acetabulum ; posterior acetabulum exactly terminal. 

These animals live in the sea and adhere to different fishes, especially to 
Rays. Most of the species are beset with nodes or with warts on the 
rings, which are flatter in Pontdbd, verrucosa, Babtbb Natuwrh. Uiiapan- 
ningen i. Tab. x. fig. n., more pointed in Pontobd. muricata Lbach. In 
others these nodes are entirely absent, as in Pontobd. lubrica Gbubb ; eyes 
seem not to be present. 

Order III. Settgera. 

Body annulate, provided with setae or with setigerous rudiments 
of feet. External branchiae in most. 

A. No external organs of respiration {Abranchia). 

Family IV. Lumbridni. Branchiae none. Body provided with 
setae, without rudiments of feet. 

Digitized by 



ChoBtoffoster V. Ba£B. Eyea none. Fasciculi of setae ventral. 
Rings sliglitlj distinct. 

Sp. ChastoffOMter limnm V. Babb, Nw. AcL Acad. On, L. C, Nai. OwrioB, 
Tol. zm. PL 7, pp. 6ii — 615, IVb. xxix. fig. 43 ; Duais Ann, dn 8e. 
not. aec. S^. vni. Zocl, PI. i, f. 14. 

JEjolosoma Ehrenb. Eyes none. Body distinctly articulated- 
lateral fasciculi of setae in each joint. Mouth anterior inferior sur- 
mounted by a lip dilated, produced. 

Sp. ^do9oma ffemprichii EHBBirB. Symb, phy, Phytoaoa, Tah. T. fig. 7. 

Pristina Ehrenb. Eyes none. Upper lip produced into a soft 
bearded proboscis. Setae lateral. 

Sp. Priabma hmguda Ehbenb. Symb. phydc, eveiiAr, Dec. I. Ac. 

Nais MuELL. (exclus. sev. spec.) Eyes two. Setae lateral, long: 
fasciculi of short setae on the belly. 

Sub-gen. Stylaria Lail Pvohoscis frontal, stylifonu, soft. 

Sp. NalM prohoicidea, Nereis lacuetrie L., Tbemblbt Mim, rar Ua Potfyptf 
FL 6, fig. I, {MiUepied d dard) ; Robs. Ina, m. Tftb. 7S, figs. 15 a, 
x6, 17, 18, g, K i, i; Tab. 79, fig. i ; MuBLLEB Ntaurffcteh, emiger 
Wurmarien, b. 14 — 73, Tab. i; GRUiTHUiaBir Nov, Ad. Acad. Leap. Car. 
Naiur. Curioe. Tom. xi. pp. 233— 148, Tab. xxxv. 

Sub-gen. Ndis Lam. Proboscis none. 

Sp. NaU mrpentina Gmbl., B0B8. Ins. in. Tab. xon. ; Mubllbb Notwrgeeek. 
einiger Wwrmarten, b. 84, Tab. TV. &c 

On the propagation of iVaii Bee B. Lbuokabt UngeeckleMiehe Vermekmng 
hei NaU proboseidea, ArchivfOr Naturgeteh. 1851. Sohultzb on the same 
subject, ibid. 1852, a, 3 — 7. 

The genera noted above form a small natural group of vorms, for 
the most part living in fresh-water, the Ifaidina of Ehbebtbebo. 
Ck>mp. on these and some other genera P. Gebvais, JNote stir la 
disposition syst^maUqns des Arm^lides chHopodes de la /amiUe de 
NdU, BriUet, de VAcad, r. de Bruxelles, Tom. v. no. 1 y O. Schkibt 
BeUrdge zwr AruU. u. Physiol, der Ndiden; Mueller's ^rcAtt?. 1846, 
8. 406, <fea Besides the propagation by eggs, these fl.Tn'Tin^ ,| i^ are also 
multiplied by spontaneous division. The most complete observations 
on this point relate to Ndis proboseidea. In the last joint of a 
simple Nais (which Mueller calls Jung-/er Natd, Virgin Nais) a 
young Nais with eyenspots is gradually developed; it grows and 
remains connected with the mother : sometimes on this a second or 

Digitized by 



third daughter is found to be developed, which always arises more 
forward (the last is the oldest, that which first came into being), 
and ordinarily the first daughter already possesses the rudiment of 
a little daughter before she separates herself; the vessels, the in- 
testinal canal, the nervous cord run uninterruptedly through these 
united animals ; at length the united or compound animal is broken, 
and the eldest daughter (herself already a mother) separated herself, 
after the mothe]>nais has made frequent strokes to and fro with 
her tail On the eggs of the NdidcR see Duges Ann. des Sc, ncU. xv. 
pp. 322 — 324. Six or seven eggs are enclosed in a common capsule, 
a grey-coloured vesicle of j line in diameter. 

[From later observations, as those of Leuckabt and Sghultzb 
referred to above, the process of non-sexual multiplication does not 
appear to be quite so simple as here described. The first and all- 
important step is the development of a bud between two rings 
nearly in the middle of the length of the body ; so that this now 
consists of three portions, the anterior, the posterior, and the inter- 
vening bud. All the three become distinct individuals, the first, 
by developing its tail, the last its head, and the bud the head- 
segments and anal portion in the same order of succession as in 
development from the egg. Previous to the separation of these 
three worms a new bud is usually formed in front of the middle 
worm, and in front of it a third bud, &c., so that sometimes a chain 
of many connected individuals is met with which all receive nutri- 
ment (introduced by the mouth of the anterior member of the 
chain) frx>m the intestinal canal common to them all. This process 
appears to have been observed in other &milies also {AmphUrUcB, 
Nereides), but would seem in all to be limited to the period pre- 
ceding the sexual development] 

EfttchytrcBua Henle. Mouth inferior, sub-terminal. Sexual ori- 
fice in the eleventh ring of the body. Four fasciculi of usually three 
setae short and uncinate in each ring. Body round, anteriorly 
acuminate, posteriorly truncated. 

Sp. Enehytraus albidtu Henlb, Mublleb*s Arehiv. 1837, b. 74 — 90, Tab. vi ; 
a white worm two to six lines long, it lives in the earth and is especially 
found in flower-pots. 

Tubtfex Lam., Tvhilumhrictis Blainv. Body filiform, transpa^- 
rent, doubly aculeate, attenuated at both ends, inclosed in a tube 
composed of particles of mud and open at both ends. 

Digitized by 



Sp. Tubifex rimdonm, LumMeu$ tubifex MuiLL. ; Tbimblbt Polfpes, PL 7 ; 
fig. a ; Eneydop. nUth,, Veri. PI. 34, figs. 4—7 ; MuKLL. Zacl. dan. Tftb. 84, 
figs. I, 2. This reddiBh litUe worm Utm at the bottom of ponds taxd becks ; 
by the onion of many accnmnlated worms of this speeies red spots are 
caused at the bottom of the water, which, on being touched^ immediately 
vanish, for the wonns hide themselyes in the ground. 

Samurts HoFFMEiSTER. Upper lip exsert, spoon-flhaped, Cli- 
tellom little, distmct. Four fasciculi of five to eight Bet» in each 

Comp. HoFFioiBTKR De$ vernnUnu quUnudam ad gemu Lumbr ie omm 
yerUnentibut, 4to. BeroUni, 1841. 

Lumbricidus Grube. Body ronnd, with fonr rows of double 
aciculse. Mouth inferior; a lobule resembling an upper lip, not 
distinct from the following segment. Cingulum none. Segments 
of the body numerous. 

8p. LumbriculvM variegattu {LumMcui vari^atuB MuXLL.t) Gbubi in 
Ebiohbon's Archivf. natwrgtich, 1844, s. aoo— 307, Taf. Yii. fig. 1 ; about 
two inches in length ; through the transparent skin the motions of the 
dorsal vessel fall of red blood, and of its blind digitifonn lateral appendages 
which contract and expand in every segment, may be 1 

Sub-genus Euaaoea Grube {EhynchekrUa Hofeil). First segment 
(head) elongate, sometimes produced into a long thread 

Sp. Euaacea JUirodru Gbube, Ebiohbon's Archw. 1844, pp. S04— 307, Taf. 
yn. fig. I, in fresh-water like the former ; 3} inches long. Euaxet oUuri- 
rattrii Mbkqe, £bichson*s Archiv. 1845, l^* m. fig. i. 

Lumbricua L. (exclusive of species). Unterion and HypogcBon 
Say. Body cylindraceous, attenuated at both extremities, obtuse 
posteriorly. Mouth sub-terminal, under the exsert upper lip. 
Sets not retractile, disposed in longitudinal rows. Clitellum or 
cingulum, t. e, a tumid fleshy glandular zone mostly composed of a 
Tarioufi number of rings in the anterior part of the body (saddle or 

Of this genus there are different species in Europe which were 
formerly confounded under the name of Lumbricua terreHris. See 
Sayignt Anodyae dPun Mhn, sur lea Lambriea, Comptea rendua dea 
travaux de rinatiUut. 1820; Duges Ann. dea Sc. noL xv. 1828, 
pp 289 — 294,tWrf. sea sfer. Zool. vra. 1837, pp. 18 — 25; Fitzinokr, 
in Oxen's laia, 1833, pp. 549 — 553 ; Hoffmeisteb IHaa. de Vermibua 
quibvadam ad genua Iwmhricarum pertinenUhua. Berolini, 1842, 
(Ebighson's AriMv /. Nabwrgeach, 1843, p. 183) ; the same : Die 

Digitized by 



bekan/rUe aHen avs der Fa/miiie der EegenuHirmer, mii Zeicfmungen 
nach dem Leben, Braimscliweig, 1845, 4to. 

On the anatomy oompare MoirritoBE ObaervatUma swr les Lorn- 
hrica ou vera de terrey Menu du Museum, i. 1815, pp. 242 — ^248, PL 
12 j J. Leo De etfmctwrd Lumbrici terrestris, Regiomonti, 1820, 
4to, cum Tab, cen.; C. F. A. Mobben CkntimientcUio de strucbwra 
anaiomica et historia ncUmrcdi LtumJbrici vulgaris sive terrestris 
{A7inal. Acad. Ganda/vensis), Gandavi, 1829, cum talmlis, dec 

The setee are short and rigid, in every ring 8, on each side two 
pairs, so that eight rows run longitudinally on the body, four laterally, 
and four beneath; in Hypogoeon Say. there is moreover another 
row of single hairs in the middle of the back. The intestinal canal 
is straight, with a membraneous pyriform proventriculus and a round 
or spherical muscular stomach ; behind the stomach it is divided by 
many transverse folds into blind pouches, which further back are 
less developed, where also the intestinal canal becomes smaller 
though on the whole it is wide throughout. In the interior of the 
canal on the dorsal side is a band, which begins a little behind the 
stomach, at this antenor end, as also at the posterior, runs to a 
point, and consists of two membranes, of which the external is 
yellow, the internal white ; irUestinum in irUestino Willis, typhla- 
sole MoRBEN. This enigmatical part is probably a duplication of 
the membrane of the intestine, an internal mesentery (Morren) ; it 
may be compared with the valvular membrane of certain sharks ^ 
To the sexual organs belong in the first place three pairs of grey- 
yellow saccules which are situated in the anterior part of the body 
(in the common large earth-worm, LuTnhricus a^gricola Hoffmeisteb, 
in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth ring), and of which the 
posterior pair is the largest. These parts are usually considered to 
be ovaries, but Steekstrup, who here also denies Hermaphroditism, 
supposes them to be testes in which the seed is formed with the 
spermatozoa in cells, that may be readily mistaken for eggs. 
H. Meckel maintains that these organs are in all individuals testeSy 
and says, that the ovariay intimately conjoined with them, lie like 
a brown-yellow lobe on each of these saccules. Four small vetdcles, 
resembling barley-corns, placed more laterally (two on each side), 
contain in the pairing season a white fluid with spermatozoa free 
and developed : by most writers they have been signalised as the 

^ Perhaps also it is fumiflhed with a yessel (Vena iMsmteriea interior); see 
DuvKBirOT in the second edition of CaviSB, Zep. d'Anat, comp, Tom. V. 1817, p. 335. 

Digitized by 



testes; Stebnstbup <hi the contrary thinks that they ought not to be 
considered to be the parts where the seed is formed, but where it is 
collected (as seminal vesicles in the male subject, as bursa coptUatricee 
in the female). The efferent ducts of these vesicles open externally, 
according to Savigny ; but later writers have failed to discover the 
openings ; rather are they in connexion with the efferent ducts of 
the yellow saccules ; these ducts fidl at length into a common canal 
on each side backwards and end with two openings at the fifteenth 
or sixteenth ring of the body. ^ At the origin of these two canab lie 
two small irregular saccules, covered by a thin and gUstening mem- 
brane, which according to DuG^ and Steenstrup are filled with 
many convolutions of the efferent canal and form the passage of the 
yellow saccules to the straight part of the canal which runs back- 
wards \ Earth-worms are oviparous, not viviparous ; they pair 
during the whole Summer, especially by night, when they creep 
from the earth ; but how impregnation is effected, is not yet suffi- 
ciently explained, since the apertures of the sexual oigans are not 
brought immediately Together. The anterior portions of the two 
worms lie next each other, but with the heads in opposite directions 
(see in Morbek L 1. Tab. xxvu). Thus the part named by Willis 
CliteUtim (saddle) in each of the two worms lies towards the place 
where the sexual openings of the other worm are found. This di- 
tellum is a roimd swelling of the body which occupies from six to 
nine rings (in LwmJbrums agricola from the 29th to the 36th or from 
the 31st to the 38th ring), and which during the time of copulation 
is more strongly developed, and in young individuals ia entirely 

Sp. Lumbricus agricola Hoffm., LumbricuB ierrestris L. (in pftrt)i HoFF- 
MEIBTEB Die bekannte ArUn aus der Fam, der Regenw. fig. i ; the largest 
species in northern Europe, fix>m eight inches to more than a foot in 

Family V. Maldantce Say. Branchi» none. Mouth bilabiate, 
inferior. Rudiments of feet provided with setae ; the three anterior 
pairs without ventral pinna, the rest with a transverse tubercle, 
supplied with uncinate setse, in place of a ventral pinna. 

Ch/mene Sav. Body cylindrical, with few elongate segments, 

^ Hie best description and figure of the organs of propagation in Lumbricut were 
given by G. B. Tbbyibanus, ZtUtek. fOr PhytioL v. s. 154 — 166, Tab. m. ; see also 
GmxmavEXjr, JffermapkrodiHtmui TUvoerdte, pp. 35 — 40, Tab. i. figs. 3—7, and H. Mxo- 
KELin MiTBLLEB's ArehUfo, 1844, s. 480 — 483. 

Digitized by 



the posterior extremity infundiboliform with margin usually denti- 
culate. A membraneous tube covered with fragments of shells, open 
at both ends, including the animal. 

Sp. Clymene ampAueoma Sat. Dtter, deVEgypU, AnniL PI. i. fig. i; Gn^BiBr, 
lowogr., AnniL PL lo, fig. i, from the Bed Sea. See fig. of other species, 
Cuv. R. AnL H. iU., Annil. PL i«. 

B. External organs of respiration. 

* Tubulate. 

Note, — The CephdUhrcmtMaUy or tubiccloue £dw. Annxdata, are 
more imperfect than the roving or notobranchiate. It seems right 
therefore to introduce them here, although the affinity by which 
ArenvccHa is connected with the Lumbricmi points to a different 

Family VI. AmpkitritcB Sav. Head not distinct, eyes none, 
body usually encased in a tube. ^ 

A. Branchiae anterior, more or less composite, with one, two 
or three pairs. 

SiphonosUyma Otto. Two larger tentacles (branchisB ?) and seve- 
ral soft cirri around the mouth. Fasciculi of setae in double pairs 
in every segment; the setae in the anterior segments extremely long, 
directed forwards, glistening with gold. The worm not included in 
a tube. 

Sp. SipKonodofiva diploehaitut Otto Nov. Act, Acad, Naiur. Ourio§. Tom. x. 
i, I Si I, p. 62S, Tab. 5t, in the Mediterranean at Naples; other species 
have been described by KiLNX Eowabds, Gbubb and Rathkk ; see 
Rathks BeUr. zur Fauna Norwegem, Nov, Act. Acad. Nahir. Ouriot, 
Tom. XX. I, 1843, pp. 311— 219, Tab. xi. 

To the same division also appears to belong the worm described by 
Abildoabd in the Zoolog. domic. Tab. 90, as Afnpkitrite plumoaa, but 
which differs from AmphUr. plumota of O. Fabbioius (Fauna grcenL 
p. 188) ; Oksn formed from it the genus Pkertua^, (Lekrh. d, Zoolog. i. 
B. 377) : Siphonottoma phbmosum Rathkx JBeitr. zur vertfi^ Anal, u, Physiol. 
184a, p. 84, Tab. VI. figs. I — 7, BeiJtr, zur Fauna Norwegena, p. 3o8, Tab. 
XI. f. I, 1. 

^ The name Pheruaa was also given by Laxouboux to a genus of the class of 
Polyps, of which the polypaiy alone is known and to which FUutra tvJMoM belongs ; 
Hid. de$ Palypien JUxSble$, 18 16, p. 117 ; G. Johnston formed from Ampk, plumoM 
the genus Flemingia, from which his genus Trophonia does not difo-. An», qf NaL 
Hist. XYii. p. 394. 

Digitized by 



NaU, — Chlorcema Dujabd. Ann. des So. not. sec. S^. Tom. xi. 
1839, Zool. p. 288, Tab. 7, fig. 1, is a species of Siph<mo$toma beset 
with Tilli secreting mucus ; comp. Siphon. vUlonun Rathke Faun, 
Norweg, L L In SiphonoaUyma pltMnosum also the blood has a green 
colour, Rathks L L p. 211. 

Amphitrtte Cuv. (in part), Amphictene Sav. Mouth surrounded 
\>y numerous tentacles, and covered by a denticulate velum. Setae 
glistening with gold, in a double row in the anterior segment of the 
body. Branchiae on both sides, two in the third and fourth segment 
of the body, incurved, pectinate. The worm included in a thin 
oblongo-conical tube made of sand cemented together by gelatinous 

Sp. AmphUriie auriwma,^ SaMla granulaia L., Pectinaria Mgica Lam. ; 
Pallas MUc, ZoU. Tab. ix. figs. 3—5 ; Ratilu, Beitr, z. vergl, Anat, u, 
Pkytiol. Tab. y. : these worms, whose tube is known by fishermen under 
the name of Sand-guiver, is met with on our coast Amph, cegyptim Say. 
Ikaerip. de VEgypU, AnniL H, i, fig. 4, GulbuN Iconogr,, AnnH, PI. 1, 
figs. 3* &C. 

TerebeUa Cuv. (spec, of genus Terebella Gm.) Mouth bilabiate, 
transverse; upper lip produced, surrounded by numerous long tenta- 
cles. Budiments of feet with a double row of uncinate setae at the 
ventral pinna, except the first pair. Branchiae ramose in the anterior 
segments, which are without rudiments of feet. The worm included 
in a tube composed of sand and fragments of shell cemented together. 

8p. Terebdla conehUegaj Nereis conchiUga Pall., Mite, Zool, pp. 131 — 138, 
Tab. IX. figs. 14 — 22 ; very common on our coast, where whole heaps of 
the cases or bouses (generally empty) of these animals are met with. Tere- 
beUa medusa Sav., GuiSbik leonogr., AnnUl, PL 2, figs. 2, ftc. 

TerebeUidea Sabs. Four pectinate branchise. 

Sp. Terebdlides Straemii Sabs, JBeskrivdser og JagttageUer wer nye % Hav^ 
ved den Bergeneke hyet levende Dyr, 1835, Tab. 13, fig. 31. 

Sabella Cuv., Sav., Amphitrtte Lam. (sp. of SabeUa L.) Mouth 
transverse, not tentaculated, situated amongst the branchiae. Bran- 
chiae two flabellate, infimdibuliform or pectinate, spiral, large, with 
bearded laciniae and a soft cylindrical filament at the base in the 
iSrst segment of the body, which is without rudiments of feet. The 
anterior pediform tubercles with uncinate setae at the ventral pinna, 
with a fasciculus of subulate setae at the dorsal pinna; the posterior 

Digitized by 


236 CLASS vii. 

tubercles supplied with uncinate setse at the dorsal pinna, with a 
fasciculus of subulate setae at the ventral pinna. The worm included 
in a gelatinous tube covered with sand. 

Sp. SaheUa pavanina Say. ; AmphUriie peniciUut Lam., Babteb NcAuwrh. 
UUsp, I. p. 88, Tab. IX. fig. i ; Tubularia perUeiUuB, Zool. dan. Tab. 89, figs. 
I, 4, in the North Sea; Sabdla magnifica Sav. ; TvhuUuia magmfca Shaw 
lAnn. Transact, v. p. 128, Tab. IX. ; Sabdla {amphUrite) taurica Kathki 
Fauna der Krym, Mini, dea Sav. ttrangen de VAeaH. imp, de Saini-Petenb, 
Tom. m. 1837, p. 416, Tab. vni. figs. 8—15, fto. 

Serpula L. Mouth situated between the branchiae, not tentacu- 
late, transverse. Branchiae two, large, pectinate, flabellate, with 
bearded laciniae and a cylindrical filament at the base of different 
length in each branchia, the longer sustaining an orbicular disc or 
infundibuliform operculum. Feet as in the preceding genus. 
Calcareous tilbe procumbent, twisted or convoluted into a spire, 
including the animal. 

Sp. Serpula contortupliccUa L., Gufanr Iconogr., Annil. PL i, fig. i, (the 
animal) ; Ellis CoraUinet, Tab. 38, fig. 2 ; Serpula vermieularia L., ZoU. 
danie. Tab. 86, figs. 7 — 9, &o. 

Comp. on this genus, which is somewhat differently determined and into 
which SabeUa protula Guv. is also brought, A. Phiufpi in Ebiohson's 
Archiv, 1844, "• iS^ — 19^* 

Spworbia Lail 

Sp. Serpula epirorhie, Spirorhie nautilcides Lam., ZooL danie. Tab. 86, figs. 
I — 6 ; GuiBiN Iconogr., Annil. PL i. fig. 6. 

B. Branchiae dorsal numerous. 

Hermella Sav. {Ainphitrtte Cuv. in part), Sabellaria Lam. 
First segment of the bodj supplied on both sides with a triple series 
of very glistering tufts, the external very patent, the internal close. 
The rudiments of the feet, in addition to setae, supplied ¥rith a 
cirrus elongate, adhering above to the base, performing the office 
of branchiae. Animals living gregariously, included in tubules 
made of sand and fragments of shells, conjoined to form a common 
honey-combed mass. 

Sp. Ifermdlaaheolata, SabeUa alveolata L., Elus CoralUnee, Tab. xzxn. ; on 
the English and French coasts. Formerly the bundles of threads beneath 
the first segment were supposed to be gills. Milnx Rdwabds was the first 
who indicated the true gills, on account of which this animal belongs to the 

Digitized by 



AmUltdea donibrant^ of CuviSB, whUsty however, in a nfttunl anrange- 
ment it might better remam with the AmpkitritO!, Ann. de» Se. not, sec. 
S^. X. Zool, p. 108. 

•• Naked, roving. 

(Commonly NotobranchtcUe^ Dars^branches Cuv.) 

Family YII. Arentcoke {Teletktufm Say.) Rudiments of feet 
of a dorsal fasciculus of setss and a ventral transverse tubercle with 
setae veiy minute, plane, incurved. Branchiae arborescent in the 
middle of the body, with a double row at the sides of fasciculi of 
dorsal setae. Head not distinct; eyes and jaws none. 

Aremoola Lam. Body elongate, with segments subdivided by 
transverse folds, incrassated forwards, becoming smaller backwards, 
without setae or other appendages behind the last pair of branchin. 
Mouth terminal supplied ¥rith a proboscis retractile, papillose. 

Sp. Armieola pitcatorum, Lumbricus marinus L., NereitlumhrtcokUi, Pallab 
Nov, Aa, Petrop. IL 1788, p. 123, Tab. v. f. 19, 19*; Hon PkU. 
Transact. 1817, Pt. I. Tab. 3 ; Oksk, Isis, 181 7, p. 469, with fig. ; AuDOUiN 
and MiLNS Edwasdb, Ann. des 8c. not. Tom. 30, 1833, PI. 22, fig. 8. 
This specieB has thirteen pairs of gills. It lires in deep canals excavated in 
the sea-sand, which the worm forms with its head, whilst the sand is 
swallowed and passed through the intestinal canal; this worm is flesh- 
ooloored, sometimes blackish (Arenicola carhonaria Liach), and exndes a 
yellow fluid on being touched. Fishermen use it as bait to catch shell-fish 
with the hook. Arenieola branehiaHs AuD. and £dw. 1. 1. fig. 13, has nine- 
teen or twenty pairs of gills, and is smaller than the former. Arenieola 
BoBckii Rathkk, Favna Norweffens, p. 181, Tab. vin. f. 19 — 22, differs from 
the former species by the much more numerous gQHB and by the rings, 
which lie behind the last pair of gills, possessing bundles of hairs ; also the 
anterior part of the body is not incrassated like the former species. It 
seems, therefore, that this species should form a sub-^nus. 

It seems that the genus Scalibregma Rathke ought to be added 
to the Areuicolse : it has four pairs of arborescent branchisd (in the 
fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh segment) with a proboscis not warty; 
L L p. 182, Tab. ix. figs. 15—21. 

Family VIII. Ch<Btopterina. Anterior and posterior rudiments 
of feet with a fasciculus of dorsal setse, without uncinate setoB, the 
middle feet with a dorsal appendage, membraneous, large (bran- 
chial?). Head not distinct; maxillae none. 

Ckcetcpterus Cuv. (Worm elongate, included in a coriaceous 

Digitized by 



Sp. ChoBtopteruB pergamentacew Cut., Milni Edwards Ann, det Se. not, Tom. 
XXX. PL 22, fig. I, Cuv. JB. Ant. id. ill., Annil. PL ao, fig. a ; in the West 
Indian Sea. A species of this genus occurs also in the Mediterranean. 

Family IX. Peripaiina. The rudiments of feet are conical 
tubercles, supplied with a fasciculus of thinly set setaB at the point. 
Head distinct, provided with two cirri (antennaB) annulate, large, a 
short proboscis, and two jaws. 

Peripatus Lansdown Guilding. Body with few segments 
subdivided by annulate folds, obtuse at both extremities, gibbous 
above, plane beneath. 

Sp. Peripatus iulifomut Lajnsdown GuiLDiNa, Zool. Jowmal, ii. PL xiv. 
fig. I ; AuDOUiN and Milnb Edw. Ann. dea Sc. nal. Tom. XXX. pp. 41a — 
414, PI. 22, figs. 5 — 7 ; West Indies. This animal would seem, according 
to some, to he a myriapod insect ; the English author who first made it 
known, considered it to he a mollusc. Milnb Edwabds, on anatomical 
grounds, defends its reception into this class ; Ann. des Sc, not, sec. S^r. 
xvni. ZodUtg. pp. 126 — 128. Branchice are not present, if the conical 
rudiments of feet are not to he considered as respiratory organs. 

Family X. Aricice. Body cylindrical, attenuated at both ex- 
tremities, with head little distinct. Proboscis short, without jaws. 
Rudiments of feet with cirrus usually single; branchiae either none 
distinct or resembling cirri or lobes adhering to the base of the feet. 

This small group, regarded by Audouik and Miuns Edwards as 
a distinct &mily, contains imperfect ringed worms, which in part 
belong to the Nereids of former writer& Where no special gills are 
present, the cirri appear to serve for respiration. 

CirrcOulvs Lam. Body elongate, roimd, with few dorsal and 
ventral set® remote, and long dorsal cirri. The branchiae very long 
cirri in the antenor part of the body. 

Sp. Cirratvlua horealis, Lumbricva cirratua Mdell., O. FaBBIOH Fauna 
gronU. pp. 281 — 283, fig. 5, Encydop, milk.. Vert, Pi. 34, figs. 10 — 12 ; 
CirraL Lamarckii Am), and Edw. Ann. det Sc. naL xxvn. PL xr. figs. 
I — 4, XXIX. pp. 410, 411 ; Grubs Kiemenwiirmer, 1838, pp. 32, 33. 

Ammotrypana Bathke {Beitr, z. Fauna Norweg.) A genus 
related to the preceding: it differs by defect of the long cirri (bran- 
chiae) in the anterior part of the body. 

Sp. AfMuoirypana aulogoiter Bathkb, L L p. 188, Tab. X. figs, i — 3, kc 

Ophelia Sav. Comp. Edw. and AuD. Ann. dea 8c. not. xxix. 
pp. 403 — 407. According to Sars the animal is so described that 

Digitized by 



the dorsal surface is taken for the yentral, the anterior part for the 
posterior; the author, Ann. des 8c. not. sec. s^r. vii. Zoologte, p. 247, 
counts it amongst the Nereids. 

Aonis Sav. 

Gomp. AuD. and Edw. Arm. dei Se. nai, Tom. xxvii. pp. 400 — ^403, 
PL xvm. figs. 9 — 13. 

Artcia Sav. Body elongate, attenuated at both ends, with 
conical head. The ventral oar of the anterior feet with a transverse 
incised crest, of the posterior with a conical setiferous tubercle and 
small cirrus, with soft branchial appendage. Dorsal cirri triangular, 

Sp. Arieia Cuvierii AuD. and Eow. Ann, des Se. wU. xxix. p. 397, xzvir. 
PL 15, f.5— 13» *<5- 

Scolophs Blainv. 

Comp. Obbstid Chifnl. Annml, doraibr, p. 199. Here also Beems to 
belong the genua TravUia JoHHSTOir, Ann. of Nat. Hid. it. p. 373, PL xi. 
f. 11—18. 

Spto O. Fabr. Head ¥rith two very long antenniform tentacles. 
Mouth inferior or subterminal, little exsertile and without jaws. 
Body elongate, slender. Superior pinna with uncinate or capillary 
setae, inferior with capillary setae; branchiae ligulate, dorsal, in the 
anterior part of the body very large, in the posterior evanescent. 

Sp. Spio seticomU O. Fabr., Bastkb Nat. Uittp. n. pp. 149, 150, Tab. xn. 
fig. 3. 

O. Fabkiotus, van dem Spio-OeseMecht, Seriften der Berliner Oeedheh. 
naturf. Prmnde vi. p. 156. Kathkx, Beitr. zur Fauna der Krym, Tab. 
vm. figs. I — 6, p. 421 (Spio IcevieomiB), Osbstbd Qnad, Annul, pp. 
TOi, 103. 

The genua Malaeoeeroe QuATBSTAaBB is distinguished by the defect of 
eyes, Gviiaiv, Magae. de Zocl. 1843. 

Family XI. Nereidce. Body elongate, slender, with head 
distinct, supplied with tentacles (antennae) and eyes. Rudiments 
of feet similar throughout the whole body. Branchiae not distinct 
from the feet or small appendages of the feet, like lobes or tu- 
bercles. Proboscis large, often armed with two homy jaws. 

Goniada AuD. and Edw. Head conical ; with pinnae of segments 
remote, each of them supplied with an acns and setae with conical 
lobes or cirri. Proboscis large, famished beneath with a double row 

Digitized by 



of homy denticles, without maxillae or armed at the point with two 


Sp. Omiada etnerUa Aud. and Edw., Ann, des Sc. not, xxix. PL 15, figs. 

Ephesta Eathke. Head conical; with dorsal pinnae of the 
segments mammillate, setiferous, the ventral supplied with a fasci- 
culus of short setae. Proboscis large, clavate, smooth. 

Sp. JBphena gracilU Rathkb, BeiiT, zu/r Fauna Norwegent, pp. 174 — 176, 
Tab. vn. figs. 5—8. 

Olycera Sav. Head conical, at the extremity with four tentacles 
small, subulate, arranged in a cross. Dorsal and ventral pinnae 
approximate, inserted in a common tubercle, supplied with acus and 
a fasciculus of few setae. Cirrus at the base of each pinna; branchial 
appendage simple or bifid in every segment, except only the anterior 
and posterior. Proboscis large, usually with four jaws. 

Sp. Cflycera Meckelii Aud. and Edw., Ann. det Sc. n<U. xxix. p. 363, xxvii. 
PI. zrv. figs. I — 4 ; Glyeera albct, NereU alba Muellir, Zool. dan. Tab. 
LZii. fig. 6. (Comp. Johnston, Ann. of Not. Hid. zv. p. 148, Rathkk, 
Beiir. swr Fawna Narweg. p. 173.) 

Pollicita Johnston {Behryce Thompson). Comp. Ann, of Nal, 
Hist XVI. pp. 4 — 6. 

Nephthya Cuv. Head truncated anteriorly, supplied with four 
small tentacles. Dorsal and ventral pinnae remote, setiferous, in- 
creased by a membraneous lobe. Branchiae ligulate at the dorsal 
pinnae. Proboscis large, furnished with conical tentacles and two 
maxillae not exsert. Body linear, elongate, with terminal style. 

Sp. Nephthya Homhergii Cuv., Aud. and Edw., Ann. det Sc. not. zxix. PL 
XVII. figs. 1—6, Cuv. jB. Ani. id, ill., Ann€l. PL XV. fig. 1 ; Neph. UmgiMe- 
tota O1B8T. GromL Annul, p. 195, Tab. vi. figs. 75, 76, (perhaps the same 
as NepUi, cUiaJta Rathkb, Beitr. z. Fawna Norwegent, p. 1 70). 

PhyUodoce Sav. (Ranzani). Head small, supplied with two 
eyes, and four or five tentacles, the fifth unequal, very small, remote. 
Tentacular cirri in the anterior segments. Setigerous tubercles 
undivided, with dorsal and ventral appendage lamellose, branchial. 
Body terminated by two styles. Proboscis thick with small tentacles 
at the orifice, without jaws. 

Sp. PhyUodoce lanUnoaa Sav., Aud. and Edw. Ann. dee Sc, not. xxix. p. 344, 
PL 16, figs. I — 8; PkyOod. davigera, Nereis viridWMuELL.^SulaUaf Bav., 

Digitized by 



AuD. and Edw. L L p. 9484 PL 16, figs. 9—13 ; PkyUod. aaxicola Quatsb- 
rAOBB, GuiBDr Maga§. de Zod. 1843^ AniUl, p. i, PI. i, fto. 

Fsamathe Jobnst. 

I<nda JoHKST. 

Cknnp. JoHKSTON, ^nf». 0/ iVol. JTtif. iv. pp. ia<^— 131. 

Myricma Say. 

Alciopa AuD. and Edw. Eyee large, lateral Tubercles lobate 
(glandular) at the base of the pediform tubercle& Other characters 
a» m Fhyllodooe. 

Sp. Ale. ReynaudU AuD. and Edw. Ann. de$ Sc, fiat. xxix. pp. 136 — 338, 
T9h. TV, figs. 6— II ; Comp. A. EJtOHK, ZooL wnd amat. Semer^bmngm 
nAet die Aleiopm, EaiCHSOv's AtMv, 1845, 8. 171— 184, Tab. n. Bendea 
the deacsriptbn of aome new apedea thia memoir oontaina alao anatomical 
details, amongst which, especially those upon the eyes are worthy of notice 
(see above, p. 317). The glandular appendages of the rudimentary feet 
AuDOunr and Milkb Edwabdb consider to be gills. 

JBesione Say. Head broad, truncated, furnished with four lateral 
eyes and four small tentacles. Long tentacular cirri at the sides of 
the head. Setigerous tubercles of the segments undiYided, with 
dorsal and ventral cirrus filiform, the dorsal long. Body oblong, 
with segments not numerous. Proboscis large, without jaws. 

Sp. Metione tplendida Say. Dsmt. de VEffifpU, Annil. PI. in. fig. 3, Ou<B. 
Ictmogr. Annil. PI. 8, fig. 3. 

Nate. — Genus Halvmede Rathke is distinguished from Hedone 
by three branchiA (lobed appendages) at each of the pediform 
tubercles {BeUr. z. Fofuna Nww. pp. 166 — 169). 

SyUis Say. Head bUobed, anteriorly emarginate, with four 
eyes placed in transverse row, and three tentacles, thin, moniliform. 
Setigerous tubercles of the segments undivided, with dorsal cirrus 
long, moniliform. Probosds without jaws. Body elongate, slender, 
with numerous segments. 

Sp. Sfi,u nwMlane Sat. Deicr. de VEffyple, Awn4l. PL lY. fig. 3, Guia. 
Icanogr, Anna. PI. 8, fig. i ; SifU. Maeuloea Edw., Cuv. jB. Ani. id. iU., 
Annil. PI. 15, figs. I, &c. 

Nereis CuY. (spec, of gen. Nereis L., Lycoris Sav. and Lycastis 
Sav.) Head anteriorly attenuated, with four eyes arranged in two 
series and four short tentacles, the external larger,conical. Subulate 
VOL. I. 16 

Digitized by 


242 CLAas VII. 

tentacular cirri at the base of the head in the first segment of the 
body; two cirri in each segment. Proboscis thick, cylindrical, 
armed with two homy exserted jaws. Body elongate, with nume- 
rous segments. 

A. The dorsal pinna of the feet confluent with the ventral or 
not distinct, without branchial appendages. Lycaatia Sav., Aud. 
and Edw. 

B. The dorsal pinna distinct from the ventral, with aciculus 
and bundle of setsB at the extremity of each, and appendages or 
lacinias supplying the office of gills. Lycoris Sav., Nereis of 

Sp. Nereit wmtia, I/yeor, nwidia Say. Deter, de rigypte, AfmSl. FL iv. fig. 3, 
On^RiN leonogr.f AnnSL PI. 7, from the Bed Sea ; NereU peiagica L., 
Basteb Natuurk, Uitap, ii. Tab. ti. fig. 6, OERffriD OrcnU. Annul, p. T75, 
Tab. IV. figs. 53, &c. 

Heteronerda Oerst. 

Sp. Heierfmereu arcUca OxBST. L I. Tab. iv. fig. 51; NtreU gra/ndifolia 
Rathks, Beitr, z. Fawna Ncrweffma, pp. 155, &o. 

Family XII. BunicecB, Body elongate, with numerous seg- 
ments. Rudiments of feet supplied with a single pinna, a terminal 
setiferous tubercle, and two cirri. Proboscis armed with seven, 
eight or nine homy jaws. Branchiae in some none (cirri supplying 
the office of branchiae), in others above the dorsal cirrus adhering to 
many segments of the body, pectinate. 

A, BranchiaB not distinct £rom the cirri. 

• Head covered by the first segment of the body. Jaws nine. 
Genera Aglaura Sav., (Enone Sav. 
Comp. Gu^iN Iconogr, AmUl, PL 6. 

*♦ Head not covered by the first segment of the body. 

Lmnbrineru Blain., Aud. and Edw. Head obtusely oonical, 
with tentacles either none or two inserted into small tubercles at 
the posterior margin. Jaws eight. 

Sp. Lufnhrineri$ d*OHtygn{i Aud. and Edw. Ann. des Sc, not. Tom. xxyii. 
PI. 12, figs. 9 — 12 ; Lumbrineria pedinifera Quatbsf.^ GuilB. MiMffOM, de 
Zool. 1843, Annil. pp. 6—8, PI. n. figs. 3—8, &o. 

Lysidioe Sav. Head broad, small, with three short tentacles. 
Jaws seven. 

Digitized by 



Ck>mp. ArD. mod Edw. Ann. de$ Se, not, XTin. pp. 353—^57, Tom. 
xxvn. figs. I — 8. 

B. BrancliM distinct. Jaws seven. 

DiopcOra AuD. and Edw. Head small, with nine tentacles. 
Filameoda of branchisB nnmerotis, placed on a petiole twisted 

Sp. Diopatra am l o immm a Avd. and Edw. Ann, def ^. not. xxvin. pp. 329, 
330, PI. X. figs. 6—8. 

OnupAis AuD. and Edw. Head small, ftimislied with seven 
tentacles. The first two pairs of pinn« larger, directed forwards. 
Branchiae in every segment, except the first two, the anterior of a 
simple filament, the posterior pectinate. 

Sp. Onuphrii tremiia AuD. and Edw. Jim. dt$ So* not. zxnn. pp. 936, 
317, PI. X. figs. I — 5; OnuphrU Etchrichtii Oibst. OnmU. Annul, p. 173, 
Tab. ui. figs. 33 — 4I, fig. 45. These worms live in cases ; thejr are some- 
times ooTered with bits of shell, like that of TerAeUa, as in the last-named 
species, from which I suspect that Onuphria conchiUga Sabs, BeArivtUeTf 
1835, pp. 61 — 63, PI. X. fig. 38, does not differ. 

Eunice Cuv., AuD. and Edw. {Leodice Sav.) Head distinct, 
round or lobate, with five tentacles. Pectinate branchiss above the 
dorsal cirrus in most of the segments, or in the anterior part of the 

Sp. Eunice ffigantea. Nereis apkrodiiois, Pall. Nov, Act. Pehy>pol, Tom. ii. 
pp. 339, 330, Tab. ▼. figs. 1—7, Cut. jR. Ani. id, ill,, AnnSl, PL 10 ; this 
species becomes more than four feet long : — Eunice sanguinea, Nereii 
tanffiUnea Montagu Trane. of Linn, Soc, Tom. xr. pp. 30, 31, Tab. 3, 
figs. I — 3 ; Eunice cmtennaia Sav., Deecrip, de VEgypte, AnnSl, PI. y. fig. i, 
Gu&iN, Iconogr., Annil, PL y. figs, i, &c. 

Family XIII. Amphirwmacece, Body depressed, oblong. Head 
furnished with two or four eyes and mostly five tentacles. The 
pediform tubercles supplied with setae only, not with aciculae. 
Branchise arborescent or fasciculate in all the segments of the body, 
the three or four anterior excepted, placed at the sides of the back. 
Proboscis without jaws. 

Amphtnome BeuguiAre. (Spec, of Aphrodita Pall., of Terthella 

A. Pediform tubercles with undivided pinna and single drrus. 
Tentacles five in the head; caruncles behind the base of the middle 
tentacle none. Branchifle ramosa 


Digitized by 



ffipponoe AuD. and Edw. 

Sp. ffipponoi C/audichaudii AuD. and Edw. Ann. det Se, nai. Tom. xx. 1830, 
pp. 156—159, PL ni. figs. 1—5, Gn^BiH Iconoffr., AnnSl. PI. 4 bis. fig. 3, 
in New HoUand (Port Jackson). 

£. Pediform tubercles with double pinna, remote, each provided 
with a cirru& Caruncles behind the base of the intermediate tentacle 
at the dorsal surflEUse in the head and anterior part of the bodj. 

JEktphrosyne Sav. Head with single subulate tentacle, and two 
eyes. Branchise made of many branched appendages, arranged in 
a row between the dorsal and yentral pinna. 

Sp. Suphrotyne loMrtaia Sat. I>etcr. de VEgypU, Annil. PL n. fig. i, 
GuiBiK Iconogr., Annil. PL 4 bis. figs, i, &c. 

AmpMnome AuD. and Edw. Fleione Sav. Head with five 
short tentacles, and four eyes. Branchiss ramose, or fasciculate at 
the base of the dorsal pinnss. 

Sp. Am^pikinome nOtrata Tall. Miae. Zool. Tab. via. figs. 14 — 18, from the 
Indian Ocean; Ampkinome ca/nmeulata Pall. fig. 11 ; oomp. A. E. Gbubb, 
De Pleione eanmeulata Diss. Zoot. e¥m tab. cm. Begiomontani, 1837, 8to. 

Chloeia Sav. Head supplied with five tentacles and two eyes. 
Branchise like a tripinnatifid leaf, placed on the back, remote firom 
the base of the pinnse. Two terminal styles at the posterior part of 
the body. 

Sp. Amphinome capiUata, ApkrodUa Jlava Pall. MUe. Zool. Tab. Tin. figs. 
7 — II ; Guy. M. Ani. id. iU. Annil. PL 9 ; in the Indian Ooean, from 
Amhoyna, fta The bundles of aetce are yellow, the gills, which nearly 
resemble leaves of Fern, are pmple- coloured. 

Family XIV. Aphroditacece. Body in most depressed, oval. 
Head supplied with tentacles usually five (2 — 5) and with four eyes. 
Dorsal and ventral pinnae distinct, furnished with acus, a fascicle of 
setse and a ventral cirrus. Squamss {Elytra Sav.) in most, in place 
of cirri, placed on the dorsal pinnsB that alternate with dorsal pinn» 
supplied with a cirrus. Proboscis usually armed with four jaws. 

Palmyra Sav. Dorsal squamsB none. 

Sp. Palmyra awrifera Say., Aud. and Edw. Ann.duSe. fiat. Tom. xxyii. 
PP* 445i AA^t PL X. figs. I — 6, from the island ifoicri^tw. 

Genus Spinther Johxstok ; is it of this &mily ) Body oval, 
with back convex, abdomen plana Head indistinct Eljtra none. 

Digitized by 



Tubercles of the feet aunilar in all the segments^ supplied with 
a ventral cirrus only. 

€k>mp. JoHKBTOH, Awn, of Nat, Hi$t. xn, 1845, pp. ft— 10, Spmther 
imuooHdei, PL n. figs. 7 — 14. 

Sigalion AuD., Edw. Body depressed, elongate, with numerous 
segments. Dorsal squamss together with dorsal cirrus in most of 
the segments; the anterior segments that are without squams alter- 
nating with squamiferous segments. 

Sp. SigaUon Mathilda AuD. mod Edw. J mi. det Se. not. Tom. xxm, 
pp. 441—443, PI. IX. figs. I— 10 ; SigaUon boa JomrSTOV, Aim. nf Nai, 
Hiit. n. pp. 439 — ^441, PI. ZXin. figi. 6—15, (probably the SMne ipecies m 
SigaUon Iduna Rathke, BeUr, twr Fauna Norweg. pp. 150—155, Tab. n. 
figs. 1—8 ; Gomp. also Sigalion EtteUa Gu£b. Magat. de ZodL 1833, AnmU, 
PL 3). 

Aconites AuD. and Edw. Body elongate, with numerous seg- 
ments. Branchial tubercles at the base of the pediform tubercles 
in all of them, dorsal squam» large, the squamiferous segments, 
without dorsal cirrus, alternating with segments supplied with dorsal 
cirrus. A coriaceous tube longer than the bodj concealing the 

Sp. AcoiU$ Ploei AuD. and Edw. Jim. da Se. not, zzvn. p. 437, PI. x. 
figa.7— 14. 

Foh/odofUes Benieri, Aud. and Edw. {Phyllodoce Banzani). 
Head small, with three tentacles and two pedunculate eyes. Dorsal 
cirri in the segments destitute of elytra, which alternate with squa- 
miferous segments; ventral cirri short, subulate in all the segments; 
distinct branchiae none. Proboscis with two subulate cirri and warty 
margin, with four large denticulate jaws* 

PoljfodonUg JRanzanU, Phyllodoce maanllota Ranzaht, Opft$eoU $cieniiifiei, 
Bologna, 181 7, Tom. I. pp. 105 — 109, Tab. rr. figa. 4—9, MedhenraiMan. 

Polynoe Sav. Body in some oblong or oval, in others slender, 
elongate. Head with four eyes set on tubercles, and five, sometimes 
four, tentacles. Jaws large, homy. Branchiae and dorsal cirri 
in pediform tubercles destitute of squama, which alternate with 
squamiferous feet. 

Sp. Polynoi $gmmaia, AphrodUa squamaia L., BAsna, NakmHk. UUap. n. 
Tikb. TL fig. ▼. Pallas Miaeell. Zool. p. 91, Tab. vn. fig. 14 ; PUgnoi 
kgvie, Aud. and Edw. Ann. dee Se. naL xxvn. p. 491, PI. ix. figs. 11—19, 
GuiBiK, Iconogr. Annil. PL 9, figi. 4, Ac. 

Digitized by 



Aphrodtta L. (exclusive of some species), Halithea Sav. Head 
concealed under squamas or setae, furnished with two pedunculate 
eyes and three tentacles. Jaws small or none. Branchiae and 
dorsal cirri in feet destitute of squama, which alternate with squa- 
miferous feet. Body oval, depressed. 

* DoTBtd iqwima xakBA. 

Sp. AphfrodUa kyOrix, HalUkea kpOrw Say., Aud. and Edw., Ann. det Se, 
not. xxvn. PI. 7, figs, i — 9. . 

* * Dorsal iquama coTored by » stratum of vUlote deke, 

Sp. Aphrodita actUeata L., Basteb^ Naiuwk, Uittp. Tab. vi. figs, i, 3, Pall. 
Miic, Zool. pp. 77, &o. Tab. vii. figs, i— 13 ; Phytalus Swammebd. Bibl. 
not, Sea-Mouse, Ordinarily five or six inches long and an inch and a half 
broad. The hairs on the two sides of the body are glistering, green and 
red, or playing with all the colours of the rainbow ; the back is clothed 
with a felty coTering, that consists of interwoven hairs. When this 
covering is opened, five nearly circular plates {fqwm/a, dytra) are seen on 
each side, which partially cover each other, and of which the middlemost 
are the largest. If two consecutive plates be separated, there are seen on 
the ling that lies between them, small longitudinal nodes, which are parted 
by a pit, and are provided outwards and backwards with pectinated 
appendages as though torn at the margin (the gills). In the Atlantic 
Ocean, the Meditenranean, &c. 

Note. — The genus Sagitta Slabber, Quoy and Gaim., whose 
place is uncertain, seems to approximate closely to the Annvlata. 
Body not annulate, elongate, pointed at both extremities, supplied 
with lateral pinnae and a terminal truncated pinna; head distinct 
from the body by a neck, with two eyes, and homy teeth on both 
sides. All the individuals hermaphrodite. 

Comp. A. Kbohn Beobackhmffen ueber die Sagitta bipunckOa, Hamburg, 
1844, 4to; R. Wilms, ObeervoHonee de SagiUa, Berolini, 1846, 4to. 

Digitized by 


CLASS vni. 


LinnjEUS united all those invertebrate animals, whose body is 
divided into rings and which have feet consisting of different joints, 
into a single class, that of Insects. Together with the class of 
Ringed-Worms they make up one of the four principal groups into 

* There i« no class cyf aDtmals on which more hu been written than that of Insects ; 
comp. Latbullx, who has given a sketch of the history of Entomology (Mim. dM 
Muteum, Tin. 1823, pp. 461 — ^481, also J. N. Eisxlt, Oeaehiehte, Sydemaiik vmd 
lAUerohtr dtr Imedenkunde, Leipzig, 1836, 8yo, and J. PlBcaEOEiiOK, BtUiograpkie 
Enicmoloffiqu^f Paris, i^yj, 1 vols. 8to). As observers deserve to be named especially 
R^UMUB {M^moires powr tervir d mist. de$ Inaeetes, Paris, 1734 — 1749, 6 vols. 4to}, 
A. J. ROSSBL {Inteettn-Bdngtigving, Ntimberg, 1746 — 1761, 4 vols. 4to, with exceUent 
eolonred figwes) and G. Db Gbxb {Mim powr Mervir d VHist. det Inteetet, Stookhofan, 
1751 — 1778, 7 vols. 4to). The anatomy was excellently treated by our great country- 
maa, SwAMMKaDAM {Biblia naturte, Leiden, 1737, i vols. foL), and afterwards by 
P. Ltoket {Trail4 cmatomique de la Chenille qui ronge le baii de Saule, la Haye, 1769, 
4to). In this part also in the present century Ramdohb, Tbivibanus, ' Hmou), 
BBAimr, Jj£ov Dufoub, Stbaus, Dbuokhbih, Blahohabd, Nkwfobt, ko. have 
published many important investigations. Comp. the Articles, Inaeetet, by Audouin, 
in the JHdionnaire clcuaique d^Hiti, nai. Tom. vm. 1825, pp. 559 — 579, a^d /nMcto, 
in ToDD*B Cyclopcsdia of Anat. and Phynol, n. 1839, PP> ^73 — 994- 

As general works, introductions and systematic handbooks, the following, amongst 
ethcrrs, may be used with advantage : 

J. G. Fabbicii, PhUoaophia Enkmoloffica, Hambuigii et Kilonii, 1778, 8vo. 

Ejusd. EfUomologia SystemaHca, Hafniae, 1799, iv. Tom. (6 vols.) 8vo; Index 
alph/xbettcw, in J. C. Fabbicii, Erdomol. Syatam, Hafoise, 1796, 8vo. SupplemeiUwn 
BtUomei. SydemoHcaiy Hafisin, 1779, 8vo. 

P. A. Latbbillb, HiM. naiur des Cnutaeiet et dee Inaectei (suite anx CEuvres de 
BuFFON, par SoKNivi), Paris, i8oa, 1803, 14 vols. 8vo, avec fig. 

Ejusd. Genera Cnutaceorwn et Insectorum, Parifdis et Argentorati, 1806, 1807, 
IV. Tom. 8vo. 

W. KiBBT and W. Sfshos, Introduction to Enionudogy, 5th Edit. London, 1818, 
4 vols. 8vo. 

H. BuBiOEiBTBB, ffandbuck der Entomoloffie, i Bd., Alffemeine Entomologie, Mit 
16 Steindrflcken, 4to. Berlin, 1833, 8vo. 

J. O. Wkstwood, An Introduction to the modem Cflamjleation of Ineedi. Lon- 
daBf 1840, 1 vols. 8vo (with many woodcuts). 

As engravings we may, besides Roxbxl, especially notice the figures of the Icono- 
graphic du lUgne animal, by Gu^iK, and those of the Dictiomn. dee Sciences nalureUea, 
which are also to be found in A. M. G. Duk^il, Coneiderations ginSralea eur la Claue 
det Inaeetes, Paris, 1833, 8vo. 

Digitized by 


248 CLASS yiii. 

which Cuvier, as stated above (p. 33), divided the entire Animal 
Kingdom. We allude to the Type of Articulate Animals, which 
may be separated into two divisions.- The first division includes 
articulate animals without jointed feet {apoda, the AnmdaUi)^ the 
other articulate animals with feet {Gondyhpoda). Again, articulate 
animals with limbs (Insects of LiNNiBUs) are divided into three 
classes, of which the first, immediately to be treated of, retains the 
name of Insects; the two other classes, those of the Arachnids and 
of the Onistaceans, comprehend those animals which LiNNiEUS con- 
sidered as ¥ringless Insects. 

Insects (in the narrower meaning of modem sjstematic Zoology) 
are mostly provided with wings; but the presence of these organs 
of motion does not constitute the character of the class. That is to 
be sought for in the head distinct firom the trunk, to which two 
antennsB are attached, and in the Respiration by means of air-canals 
distributed internally through the body and generally divided into 
very fine branches. The first of these characters distinguishes the 
Insects firom the Arachnids in which the head and thorax form a 
single piece, and which have no antennae, the other distinguishes 
them firom the Crustaceans, whose respiratory organs are gills or 
other external appendages. 

The names Insecta, notched animals, and in Greek JWofia, have 
all the same meaning. From the last is derived the word Entomo- 
logy (Insect-Science). 

The species belonging to this class are very numerous: in this 
respect no other class can be compared with Insects. In treating 
therefore of this class we must keep within strict limits, that we may 
not too greatly extend our work in the estimation of those who take 
less interest in this special part. 

We will first describe the external structure of these creatures a 
little more precisely The body of the six-footed Insects, which 
make up by far the largest portion of this class, is separated into 
three parts : head^ trunk, and abdomen. On the head, besides the 
parts about the mouth, the antennae and eyes are distinguished. 

By Antennm are understood moveable jointed threads, which, 
unconnected with the oral organs, are attached to the head, usually 
close to the eyes. The number of joints is very difierent; in But- 
terflies, for instance, very large, in Beetles, mostly eleven, &c. All 
insects in the perfect condition or last period of life have two 

Digitized by 


IN8ECT8. 249 

antennsB. Their relative size is very different. Sometimes as in 
Locu8t€By they exceed the length of ttie body, in others again they 
are veiy short and almost concealed beneath the eyes. The fonn 
likewise is different : the antenn» are said to he^t/brm when they 
are thin and of the same thickness throughout: clavate when they 
baye a knob at the end formed of thicker joints, as in butterflies 
{Papiltones), &c. 

The eyes (oculi) are either simple or compound. The simple 
eyes are named eye-points {ocelli, atenmiata) : they look like smooth 
shining points placed usually in a triangle behind the larger eyes ; 
they are seen in Bees, Wasps, &c. The larger eyes are composed 
of numerous six-sided fa^ettes, and are occasionally of such magni- 
tude (as in Dipteraj LtbeUuloB), as to meet, the head seeming to 
consist almost entirely of these two eyes. In some instances the 
number of fa^ettes is surprisingly great: Leeuwenhoeck counted 
8000 in the eye of a fly, Straus nearly 8820 in that of a cockchafer ^ 

The oral apparatus {prgtma cibaruxy Trophi) consist of six 
principal parts, of which four are in pairs and move transversely, 
whilst two face each other above and below. Of these last the 
uppermost is the upper lip {labrum) : it is homy and fixed by a 
joint transversely to the most anterior part of the head. The part 
of the head to which the upper lip is fastened is named head^shidd 
{dypeas, in French chaperon). The undermost part, facing the other, 
is named the under lip {labium)', it closes the mouth below: is 
composed of two parts of which the inferior and more rigid is named 
diin {merUum), and the superior, generally membraneous, tongue 
{ligula). Sometimes the liguJu has two lateral lobes {paro/glossoB). 
The remaining four parts are known as upper and under jaws. The 
upper jaws {fnandibuke) are two, placed immediately beneath the 
upper lip: they move transversely from within outwards, and are 
often very hard. The under jaws {maxilloB) are ordinarily softer: 
are placed beneath the mandibles, and also move laterally, but are 
less serviceable for cutting the food small than for holding it in the 
mouth and conveying it to the gullet to be swallowed. In the 
Orthcptera there is a membraneous valve which is fastened to the 
maxilla. It is called the helmet {galea) of the lower jaw. 

In addition to these principal parts there are also fselers {palpi, 

^ See pUte XX. of Swammbbdam's B^id der natmir, where the nmple and com- 
jMimd eyei of a bee are figured. 

Digitized by 


250 CLA^ Vlll. 

aniennuhB)^ jointed threads, attached to the under lip {palpi labicUeSy 
s, posteriores)^ and to the nnder jaw {palpi maxiHares), The upper 
jaws in Insects are not provided with palps. 

In masticating Insects, as Beetles, Locusts, &c., the parts of the 
month, that haye been described, maj be best and most readily 
observed. In those which feed by sucking fluids the structure is in 
appearance very different; yet even here it may be observed that 
nature remains true to her plan, and that she has provided the 
suckers not with different but with modified oral parts. We are 
indebted to the illustrious Savigny for the knowledge of that plan^ 

The sucking Insects possess oral organs which are named Tanguet 
Beaky Sucker and Snout. 

The Butterflies {Oloseaia Fabr.) afford an example of what has 
been called tongue, or spiral tongue {lingua, lingua apiralia). It is 
a canal, occasionally of great length, composed of two laminss which 
are corneous or membraneous, on the inside excavated and round 
externally. When at rest it is rolled up and concealed between two 
palps. This was almost the entire amomit of what was known of 
the oral parts of Butterflies. But Savignt pointed out in addition 
two minute upper jaws, placed at some distance from each other, and 
little, if at all, adapted for motion or mastication. The upper lip is 
small and membraneous. The lamin» of the tongue, as Latreille' 
had already shewn, are in fact nothing else than greatly elongated 
and extended lower jaws. Their base is united to the head and upper 
lip, and bears a palp composed of two or three joints. The two larger 
palps which include the tongue and conceal it when at rest are 
seated upon a triangular homy under lip. 

The case is similar with the suctorial apparatus of the Hemiptera^ 
{Bugs, Gicadoe, &c.) named beak {rostrum). It consists of a homy 
sheath {vagivui) in which setae are contained {seUe rostelli), that at 
first sight appear to be three in number. The two lateral setae are 
elongated upper jaws: the hair in the middle is double, and consists 
of two similarly elongated and united under jaws: the under lip, 
usually jointed, forms the sheath. In the same way in Diptera 
{Flies, &c.) the under lip forms the snout {proboscis). In its interior 

^ J. C. SAVioifT, Mimoire9 9ur la Animaux mm verUhres, Paris, 1816, 8to. li^re 

* Latbbilli, ffitUfire tuUurdle det Onuku^ €t de$ In$ecle$, An. zn. 8to. T. ii. 
p. 140. 

Digitized by 


INSECT8. 261 

are aetsB, like as in the beak, which fona the sucker {haustdlum). 
A triangalar upper lip covers the basal piece of the beak in Hemt- 
ptera, as it does that of the snout in Dij^era. 

To the head succeeds the trunk or thorax. This part consists 
of three pieces, of which each bears a pair of feet. The first ring is 
namf d Prothorax, the second Mesotkorax, the third Metathorax. In 
four-winged Insects the anterior wings are placed on the middle 
piece, the posterior wings on the hinder piece. The wings of Di- 
piera are placed on the mesothorax. The inferior surface of the 
trunk is called breast {pectus), on which there is sometimes fixed a 
pointed elongated appendage, the breast-bane {sternum). The 
shield {scuteUum) is a part found on the upper part of the thorax 
behind (at the mesothorax) stretching between the wings ^ 

The feet are attached on the inferior surface of the body : in the 
hexapod Insects eyery ring of the thorax carries a pair. Between 
the sternum and epwieran is an articular cavity (acetabulum). The 
first joint is termed hip {coxa, eondylus) ; sometimes there is a small 
and yerj moveable piece between the epimeron and coxa {trochanr 
terium, trochafUin Audouin), but it is usually wanting or has coa- 
lesced with the coxa. The second joint is termed Trochanter, it is 
very small and mostly annular. Then comes the thigh {femur), the 
stoutest, and often also the longest joint of the leg. To it succeeds 
ihib shank {tibia) more slender, and in general flattened laterally. 
Last is the foot {tarsus), consisting of many joints placed in a line 
like the small bones of our fingers. The number of these joints is 
different in different families; occasionally, in certain coleopterous 

' The upper surface of the thorax {donum of AuDOUnr) may be named notum, the 
under sm-fiKK sternum, and juBt as the entire thorax is divided into three rings, so abo 
sk prono^tmKod prottemvm, metoncium and meMottenwm, metanotwn and meUutemum 
may be distinguished. Moreover, each ring of the thorax consists of definite special parts, 
which, however, are not distinctly seen in every ring, whilst some coalesce with others, 
or by the greater development of others are suppressed ; these parts aie a tiemum on 
the under surfaoe, on either side an epidemum as a chief part, and behind this an 
epimeron; and, finally, on the upper four pieces placed behind each other, to which 
AuBOUiK gives the names of prcescutwm, tcuivm, tcutdlwn and pott-sctOeUum; thus 
there are properly three seuUUa, but what is usually named tevleBum is a part of the 
memmatum; at the sides of the scutum the wings are attached. Gomp. on this interesting 
sulject AuBOunr, Rdi^erehe$ amatomiquei aur U ihcrax ites Antmatm oHictdSi, Ann, des 
8c. not, I. 1824, pp. 97— 135» 4i<5— 432, W. 8. Mao-Lkat, Comp, AntU. of thoraa in 
wnged InteeU, Zoolog, Journal, No. 18, or Ann, dea 8c, not. xxv. 1832, pp. 95 — 151, 
with remarks by AusouiK and Nbwfobt, Todd's Cfyclopeedta, n. pp. 911 — 924. 

Digitized by 



insects it is not the same in the first two pairs of feet and in the last 
pair, yet in most Insects' the number is five. In some coleopterous 
insects, the penultimate joint is extremely short, and was in conse- 
quence overlooked formerly. The last joint of the foot usually ends 
with two hooklets, or claws : in addition, its inferior surfiace is often 
covered with fine hair, to attach it to small inequalities which even 
the smoothest objects'present. Sometimes these hairs are set on 
two or three delicate membraneous appendages {cushions, jndviUi) 
which the Insects mould to the surfaces over which they run. In 
this way flies can move upwards on mirrors, or with head down- 
wards on smooth ceilings, as is seen daily ^. 

Besides the feet, wings also are placed on the thorax of volant 
insects : on the meso- and meta-thorax, as stated above, when there 
are four : when only two, on the meso-thorax. They are set on the 
dorsal surface, and may be compared with the elytra or squamos in 
Aphrodita : with the wings of vertebrate animals (Birds, Bats), which 
are only modifications of the anterior limbs, they have only similarity 
of use : they are not modified feet : they exist contemporaneously 
with feet and are independent of them*. Wings are membraneous, 
arid, usually transparent, composed of two laminae grown together 
at the edges ; these laminas are expansions of the skin like the 
parachute extended between the fingers of Bats and between the 
ribs of flying Lizards {Draco). Canals (improperly named Veins 
or Nerves) run between the laminse, and are more or less numerous, 
more or less branched. These veins are branches of the air-tubes, 
which lie between two wide homy semicanals of the upper and 
under laminae that compose the wing. In some species the males 
alone have wings. Bees, Wasps, Butterflies, &c. have four wings. 
In the Diptera, besides the wings there are two parts which may 
be considered as traces of hind-wings, called poisers {haUeres) ; 
they consist of a little button with a pedicle, and are often covered by 
a membraneous scale {squanM haUerum)\ The anterior wings are 

^ Blaokwbll, Semarht <m thepuMUi of InmcU, Trantad, of theLinn, 8oe. Vol. zvi. 

Pt. 3, pp. 487— 49«- 

' Oksv names the wings of insects gills; the djftra of Goleopten he oonsiden, less 
happily, to be giU-coven ; they must have the same anatomical interpretation, (Bodett- 
tung), as the under-wings. LehH>ueh der Naiimrphiilo9opkie, ni. 181 1, s« 971; tho 
same work entirely revised. 1843, "• 3'^- 

> See Aupouiir, Diet, dan. ^HiM, mtt, n. pp. 140—149, at the word JBoIoiicwrt, 
and Kkwfobt, 1. 1. p. 916. 

Digitized by 



in some insects harder, homy and opaque; thej are then called wing^ 
covers (elytra), and the nnder-wings, nsually larger, are when at 
jrest folded transversely beneath the covers and concealed (as in 
Beetles, Golecptera). In other instances the under wings disappear, 
and the wing-covers coalesce by their inner edges (elytra coadtt- 
nata), Hemdytra is the name given to the anterior wings, when 
homy or coriaceous at the base but membraneous towards the apex 
(in Hemtptera, as Water "SCorptOTia, Nepa cinerea, &c.) 

The hinder-body (abdomen) constitutes the third portion of the 
body of Insects, and usually consists of nine rings, of which 
however the last are in some instances so much concealed, and in 
others so small or so fused with the preceding, that they seem to 
be entirely wanting. As the organs of sense have their seat in 
the head, and those of motion in the thorax, so do the principal 
organs of vegetative or organic life reside in the abdomen. 

The digestive organs present differences according to the 
Orders and Families. Here the comparative length of the intes- 
tinal canal does not always depend, as in vertebrate animals, upon 
the nature of the food, and many species that live on animal 
substances have a longer and more convoluted canal than others 
which live on plants; in Grasshoppers for instance (Orylltj 
Locustce) it is almost straight, though these insects live exclusively 
on vegetable food. In those Insects whose body consists of 
unifom rings (as the myriapods) and in vermiform larvas of Insects 
with a complete Metamorphosis, the intestinal canal is straight, or 
makes only few and inconspicuous curves. The intestine has the 
greatest length in proportion to the body in certain Coleoptera and 
Hemtptera. In the last it is at least twice, often four or five times 
the length of the body (ex. gr. in LygcBue apterua Fabr.) ; in 
Guxida omt the intestinal canal is about ten times as long as the 
body*. Amongst Coleoptera the Scarabceidea, to which the common 
cockchafer belongs, are remarkable for their very long and tortuous 
intestinal canal, which in Copris lunaris measures ten or twelve 
times the length of the body. 

The membranes or coats of the intestinal canal are, first, a thin 
covering, which without sufficient reason has been compared with 

1 Uov DuFoxTB, JReeherehet antU. et jihyncl. tur let MlmipUrtt {Extrait du Mhn, 
de$ javant Hrangen, Tom. iv.) Paris, 1833, 4to. p. 99, Fl. vm. f^, 95. 

Digitized by 


254 uLAias VII r. 

tiie peritoneal covering of the intestines in y er tebra lg ndmab; 
next, a muscular coat of longitudinal and transverse fibres ; then s 
white, smooth membrane, a layer of areolar tissue probably corre- 
sponding to the tunica propria of the intestine in vertebrates, but 
which is often beset with minute glands in transverse rows : and 
lastly the innermost membrane, an Epithelium, that occasionally, as 
in the muscular stomach of the Orthoptera, is found hard and homy, 
forming the teeth or sharp plates with which the stomach is armed. 
In the intestinal canal of Insects several parts are to be 
distinguished : but it is much to be wished that writers in the 
names given to them had been careful to preserve greater uni- 
formity. The first part is the oesophagus, it has often an expan- 
sion named crop {inglumes) ; next follows a muscular stomach 
{veniriculus musculosuSy der Kaumagen^ le gSsier, the gizzard) ; it is 
found in the Orthoptera and amongst the Goleoptera in the genera 
Staphylinusy Dytiscus, and the family of the Carabid^, and is 
remarkable for the great development of the innermost coat, for 
the projecting plates, teeth or booklets of corneous tissue which 
serve for bruising the food ; it is usually folded and has a round, 
more or less spherical, form*. Then comes a long cylindrical 
stomach in which the proper digestion proceeds. Leon Dufour 
names it ventricule chylifiqijLe ; Ramdohu calls it simply the sto- 
mach, which name appears to me to be sufficient and preferable to 
the other. This organ is always present, and beneath its termina- 
tion the vasa urinaria (of which hereafter) are always inserted •. 
To this succeeds a longer or shorter, sometimes (as in the Hemi- 
ptera) a very short canal, the sm^ll intestine {intestinum tenue), 
which is continued into the short large intestine {infest crassum)y 
having occasionally a ca^ium or expanded portion when the con- 
nexion takes place obliquely and at the side*. 

^ Ll^N Dufour has ako discovered a muscalar stomach in Tomicui typographut. 
Ann. det Sc, not. iv. p. io8. 

' Raudohr names it FeUtenmagen (plicated $tomaeh, amatut), a very ill-ehosen name. 

* Mabokl BR SxRRRS considered the stomach to be duodenum ; in that case many 
insects must have no stomach at alL The name of Crop (fahot succeniurU) by whi<^ 
Straus denotes this part in the Cockchafer is not explicable. 

^ We are indebted to L^N Dufour for most of the investigations of the intes- 
tinal canal in Insects. They were preceded by those of Ramdohr, who published a 
work on the subject, (Ahhandhmgen Hher die Verdauungtwerheuge der Inaeden, mit 
30 Kupfertafeln, Halle, 181 1, 4to). 

Digitized by 



The intestinal canal of Insects is connected to the other parts 
of the body partly by a large quantity of fat (the adipose body, of 
which below), and partly by numerous branches of air-tdbes, aad 
so retained in its place. 

In veiy many Insects Scdivary Olands ate pieflent; they are 
placed at the commencement of the integtiaal canal. In CcleopUra^ 
for the most part, they are wanti]^; Ramdohb found them in 
Curculio {Cryptorhynchus) lapaiki, L^ON DuFOUR, besides in other 
Curctdumiday also in Bloft^ Diaperis, Mordella and some other 
Coleoptera; moreover in the other orders of Insects they are 
present in by far the greater number of Families, probably in all 
Orthoptera^ Hymenopteray Lepidopteray Dtptera and Myriapoda. 
Amongst the Neuropiera they are wanting in LibeUula and Ephe- 
meray amongst the Hemtptera in Aphides, It is veiy remarkable, 
and not easily explicable, that in Panorpa amongst the Neurcptera 
die female has no salivary glands, or more correctly only small 
rudiments of them, whilst the male has them largely developed^. 
They have here the form of long convoluted canals (three on each 
side), which towards the end are turned upwards, and becoming 
thinner terminate by blind extremities. This form of blind con- 
voluted canals occurs also in the salivary glands of some other 
insects, ex. gr. of the Lepidoptera; but it is by no means general, 
for in the Hymencptera and Orthoptera these organs appear commonly 
as blind sacs grouped in clusters. Microscopic investigation has 
demonstrated in these salivary vessels aad glands, as in other 
glands, a layer of epithelial cells with i\uclei^. 

Below the inferior orifice of the stomach in Insects very fine 
vessels are implanted, the so«called Malpighian vesselsy which in 
former times were generally looked upon as organs for the prepara- 
tion of bile {vasa h&patica) — an opinion still maintained by LiON 
DuFOUB, Owen' and other writers. It is, on the other hand, the 

^ Our meritorious countiyman BaAirrs first made this interesting obeerration, 
Ti^dschr. voor not. Oeaeh, en Physiol, vi. 1859, ^^* '73 — '9^- ^^ ^^ afterwards also 
made known by L^n Dufoub {Mimoirea prisenUa d VAcad. mydU de» Sc, yn. 1841, 
PP* S^^f 583, PI. II, fig. 1^9) who overlooked, however, the nidimentaiy salivaiy 
glands in the female. 

' See the beautiful investigations of H. Mkokxl, MvzLhKB^BArchiv. 1846, s. 7$ — 35. 

* [It is not to be inferred that OwKN holds this opinion now : his Lectures were 
published many years ago, and a new edition of them is now in the press.] 

Digitized by 


256 CLASS vin. 

opinion of most writers of the present day, that they correspond to 
the kidneys of the higher animals, whence the term nsed above 
p. 264, {vasa urinaria) for these vessels. Besides other grounds for 
this opinion, it is supported by chemical investigation^. These 
vessels appear to be present in all Insects, with the exception of 
Aphidii amongst the Hemipteray where it has not been possible to 
find a trace of them. Their number is very different, and seems 
to be on the whole inversely proportional to their length ; they are 
short and very numerous, more than twenty, in the Hymencptera and 
Orihoptera, and in LibeUula and Ephemera amongst the Neuroptera. 
Here they are arranged in a ring round the intestinal canal which 
they perforate, whilst at the free extremity they terminate coecally. 
In Ghyllotalpa said AchetaFABRAhey {all into a common canal before 
opening into the intestine. In the remaining Insects there are 
usually only four or two of them present {Diptera, Hemtptera, 
many Colecptera), or six, as in other Coleoptera (the Heteromerdtay 
Tetramerttta, and Trimerata), When there are only two, they 
form a loop on each side of the intestinal canal, which seems to 
arise from the fusion of two vessels ; and so open by four termi- 
nations into the canal. In those Coleoptera which have six, they 
are also attached to the inferior extremity of the intestinal canal 
(the Rectum) y but do not open into it there; they run upwards as 
very fine vessels between the coats of the intestine and terminate 

If we consider these organs as Kidneys it becomes uncertain 
whether Insects have a Livjer ; for the idea that these vessels may 
represent at once both Kidneys and Liver (whence it has been 
proposed to name them vasa urino-itliaria) is not, as appears to 
me, the result of comparative investigation either anatomical or 

1 See Bkhookb's Ph^ndogitche Untenuchunffen Uber dU thierische ffauakaUung der 
Imeden, Tubingen, 1817, 8vo. Gomp. Wubzeb, Chemische Unterauekung da Surffes, 
v)eieher nch in den aoffenanrUen Oallenffifdtten dea SehmeUerlifigt der Seidenrauste 
b^findet in Meckel's ^rc^tv. iv. 18 18, b. 113 — 915. Also Chbvbbul found in the 
matter of these vessels potass, ammonia and uric add; see Stbaub ContideratUmM 
gMralea eur VAnatonde dee Anim, orHctdie, auxqueUei on a Joint VAnat, detaipHve du 
MdoUnOha vfdgarie. Paris, 1818, 4to, p. 951. In a £«caiifw little stones have been 
found in these canals consisting of uric acid, AvDovnt Ann. dee 8c, not, le S^r. 
Tom. V. 1836, p. 199. 0. Vehlobbk found in lanrsB of Lq^idoptera {Sphinx Uguehri) 
no uric acid in these yessels, but hippwric acid, as he informed me by letter in 1843. 

' L^N DuFOUR, M6m, ewr lee vaieeeavec hiliairee dee Ineedee, Ann, dee 8e, not. 
ae S^rie, Tom. xix. 1843, PP- i45— >8i, PI. & — 9. 

Digitized by 



physiological, and would never have been entertained but for the 
attempt to reconcile two conflicting views, and which ought always 
to be distrusted when it interferes with more extended enquiij. 
But if we suppose an organ answering to the liver to be alto- 
gether wanting in insects, then it must be proved that the separa- 
tion of bile is more important in the animal economy than the 
excretion of urea, before an argument can be borrowed therefrom 
against the function ascribed to the Malpighian vessels* We do 
not forget that by respiration and the elaboration of bile the 
quantity of carbon in the living body is diminished, and that from 
the large development of the respiratoiy organs in insects the 
-excretory office of the liver is in a great measure dropped ^ 
Nevertheless it is still highly probable that parts, whose function 
agrees with that of a liver, are not altogether absent in Insects. 
In the first place we might here refer to the great quantity of 
fat — the adipose body — ^situated between the skin and the intea* 
tine, which invests every organ and is of very great extent, more 
especially in larvae whose respiration is less perfect ; the carbon 
and hydrogen which in other instances is combined with oxygen to 
quit ^e body by respiration, here forms that provision of com- 
bustible matter so necessary in the animal economy for the support 
of respiration, especially in the case of Insects, which as Nymphs 
take scarcely any food. Since then this production of fat exerts 
the same influence on the composition of the fluids as the separa- 
tion of bile, it is not to be considered as a proceeding entirely 
arbitrary if some recognise in the adipose body an analogon of 
the liver^« The adipose body consists of a multitude of minute 
sacs or vesicles bound together by air-tubes which spread them- 
selves as a fine network on their surface. In the second place, coecal 
appendages are seen below the muscular stomach in the Orthoptere 
(eight in ManttSy six in Qryllus^ two mAcheta) which involuntarily 
call to mind the appevidices pyhriccB of osseous fishes : they pro* 
bably secrete a fluid that performs the office of the bile in diges- 
tion^ In other insects, finally, as in the Carabici among the 

1 BUBHBI0TKB Momdb. der EwUmal. i. p. 403. 

> OuBN Ukrb, der NnlwjpkUinopkie, m. 181 1, n, 170 (atte Avfa^, a. 435). 
* ThatiheBe bUnd appendages ariae from an immodiate extension (protrusion) of the 
intestinal canal is no proof, as LioK DuForR suppose?, that they cannot be secretoiy 

VOL. T. 17 

Digitized by 


•258 CLASS Tin. 

Colscptera the entire stomach {ventrumlechylifique'DvFOJJB) is beset 
-with numberless conical or filiform saccules, giving a floccolent 
•aspect to its external surface. It may be, that these parts, whose 
office was formerly supposed erroneously to be the absorption of 
nutrient fluid from the intestine, prepare the bile : but it seems 
more probable that they serve to separate the gastric juiced 

The Heart of Insects has the form of a long vessel that 
terminates behind by a blind extremity and lies above the intesr 
tinal canal on the dorsal surface. This daraal vessel becomes 
narrower forwards, after it has curved slightly downwards. The 
smaller part may be considered to be an arteiy, whilst the wider 
posterior portion answers more closely to the heart of other crear 
tures. In this posterior part are different lateral openings, mostly 
eight or nine pairs : and in front of each opening is a valve formed 
by a duplicature inwards of the wall. In the diastole of the heart 
the blood flows into it between two sets of valves, of which the 
posterior pair come into apposition, whilst the anterior lie folded 
against the wall and so permit the onward moticm of the blood. 
Systole and diastole succeed each other alternately, moving along 
the length of the dorsal vessel from behind forwards. SwammeBt 
DAM long ago, and Straus in more recent times noticed irr the 
dorsal vessel longitudinal and transverse muscular fibres, the latter 
forming the innermost layer. Surrounding the heart is a space which 
some writers consider to be a sintts venostis; it is covered by lateral 
muscles, flat, and of triangular form, which have their broad base 
towards the heart and fix it in its position {les ailes du Omar of 
Ltonet). From behind, the blood flows through the lateral 
openings into the heart, and moves forwards ; from before, it flows 
from the aorta between the organs, especially along the course of 

orgsnfl. Mim. pri$enUt, vn. p. 302. In LeutoptU also unongst the Bymmojitra two 
•uch bHnd saccules are met with ; L^ir Dufour, ibid, p. 544. 

^ The great unoertainty which prevails concerning the interpretation of the 
secretoiy organs in the lower animals, Ib a necessary consequence of the fact that the 
selftame secretion, as we learn from comparative anatomy, may be e£Pected by very 
differently formed glands ; see J. Muxlleb's Handb, der Pkntujl., n. Buch, Ahaekn, % 
(i. Bd., s. 457, 3tte Aufi,) Chemical investigation alone can here afford light^ and 
a beginning of the enquiry has been made in invertebrate animals in these last yean. 
C. SoHXiDT*s Investigations: Zur vtrgUichendm PhyHologie der leirbeUoien Thiere, 
Braunschweig, 1835, deserve^ therefore, our thanks, and make us hope for further com- 

Digitized by 


die air-tabes, in regular streame backwards. These stzeams of 
blood on the outside of the heart were first observed by Cabus 
twenty years ago in the three fin-shaped caudal processes of the 
larva of Agrwn ; afterwards he observed a similar motion of fluid 
in the imperfect wings of the Nymphs ; the blood-globules (accord- 
ing to many, rather according to V^BLOREN, the fieit-globules), which 
swimming in a clear fluid indicate the direction of the current. 
The later observations of various authors, on transparent larve 
principally, have ascertained the phenomenon in Insects of every 
order — and it may therefore be ccwifidently accepted as general. A 
question which requires further investigation for its solution is 
this, whether the circulation is effected in vessels, as ex. gr. New- 
POBT and BowERBANK believe, or in free spaces between the 
organs, without special walls. The writers who maintain the 
latter opinion, allege that the Aorta has an open termination in 
the Head. In the Myruypoda^ besides the dorsal vessel, there are 
Btill others present; amongst which a trunk that lies upon the 
nervous cord in the abdomen, ought to be mentioned. In the 
Butterflies also Treveranus discovered on the ventral surface a 
vessel, lying on the nervous cord and running longitudinally, from 
which on each side numerous transverse branches arise ^. New- 
port found this vessel in the genus Sphinx^ and thinks that the 
blood flows in it backwards, as it does forwards in the aorta. This 
last author discovered in this same genus, and in certain Ccleoptera 
branches firom the aorta in the head, but was not able, on account 
of the delicacy of the parts, to follow their further course*. 

The Bespixatory organs of Insects are their air-canals {tracheeR)^ 

* ZeitBdvt, far Phenol, iv. «, iSs^, 8. i8i — 184, T»f. xiv. fig. 13. 

' Comp. on the donal voflsel and the dreulatioii of ioiectfl Ltokst, Trakl AwU. de 
la Chenille, pp. 413, Ac.; on the fluid contained in it, ihid, pp. 496, 437; Hxbold, 
Pkytiol. UnUrsuchungen iiher das JiUckengrfast der Insecten, Marburg, 1893, ^^o- i 
Stbaus Anal. camp, dee Anim, articuUa, pp. 345 — 358 ; J. Muklleb, Nov. Act, Acad, 
Ccee. Leop. Car. Tom. xn. 2^ 1835 (on a connexion between the dorsal vessel and tlie 
ovariev) ; C. G. Cabus, Enideckung eines eif^achen vom Jffenen ave hesehleunigten 
JShUkreisUntfeB in den Larven neUfiUglieher Imeden. Mit 3 Kupfert. Leipzig, 1897, 
4to ; Waoveb, BeolHtehlungen Hb, d. Kreielauf det BhUei «. d. Ban dee B&ehengrfdetee 
hei den Inteeten, Okxn's Iris, 1839, s. 310—331, Taf. n. ; Kkwpobt, Todd's Etkcydop, 
n. pp. 975-— 981. The tieatwe of our ezceUent M. C. Vbbloben, crowned by the 
Branels Academy of Scienoes in 1844 (1) is impatitntly waited for ; I have made wa 
of tho obsenrations he had the goodness to communicate to me when treating of the 
dorsal TSflseL 


Digitized by 


S60 CLASS vxtr. 

which are usually filled with air bj external openings {a^mata). 
These canals have three coats: an external, loose, transparent 
memhrane, in which fibres and scattered points (cell-nuclei) may 
be distinguished ; a middle, composed of a flat, homy, sometimes 
brown or yellow elastic thread rolled spirally : and an inner coat 
which is composed of chittne, a continuation of the exteraal skin, 
«nd is thrown off at every moult^. Through the elasticity of the 
spiral thread the air-canals are duly kept open : its turns lie close 
to each other, and so the appearance of rings is produced, as in the 
wind-pipe of mammals (this the representation of the trachesB of 
PediculiAs in Swammerdam, Bibl natur. Tab. I. fig. VII. resem- 
bles too closely) ; but the similarity is only in appearance ; there 
are no absolute rings, but only the turns of a single uninterrupted 
thread. Each branch, arising from a stem, has a new thread, 
whether the branch proceeds laterally firom the stem, or two branches 
arise at the end of the stem ; this thread is finer than that of the 
stem, and in the terminal branches is only visible when very 
highly magnified. From being full of air, the canals, when 
Insects are dissected under water, have a silvery splendour, and 
present on account of the extreme fineness of their branching a 
very beautiful appearance to the observer*. Usually the air-canals 
divide, like arteries, into continually finer branches. In some 
Insects however there spring firom a large stem on every side 
throughout a greater or less extent extremely fine and numerous 
branches (as ex. gr. according to Leon Dufour, in PtionuB^ firom 
the double stem which lies between the last atigma of the thorax, 
and the first of the abdomen). In Nepa and tUmaira saccules are 
seen in the cavity of the thorax, between which similar fine 
branches {j'eiia mirabtlia) of the air-canals lie, and which are sur- 
rounded by a muscular coat'. Care must be taken to distinguish 
these saccules from the sacculated dilatations of the air-canals them- 
selves, which are met with in flying Insects in the last period of 

^ It has not been uuide oat, tshr tsl know, whether the innermost membnuie of 
the MT-tubee is present in those insects also which have no stigmata^ bat gill-plateSy as 
the UrYVd of Ephemera, for instance. 

* M. MALPiam, who first made use of the names of tnu^^a and Migmata, sajs, 
^* TaaHa edfruatifiealio korvm vasonim, torn mira implicatianet ut nilpfdchriui ecmpiei 
'pomi." Jh BomJbyce, p. la. Opera am, Tom. ii. Londini^ 1687, fol. 

' JAov DUFODR, Reck, tur let Eimiptirte, p. 153, PL XTiii. 

Digitized by 



iSttm life, and which beyond doubt are of serrice in diminishing 
weight during flight These dilatations are oval or pear-shaped, and 
occasionally a tabular trachea proceeds anew from their further 
side. In the ApiaruB amongst the Hymenoptera^ the two lateral 
main trunks of the air-canals in the abdomen are in this way 
converted into large reservoirs of air. 

The stigmata are present in different numbers in the hexapod 
Insects, but it is rare to find more than nine pairs of them; in 
Ihftiscua amongst the Coleoptera and in Locusta amongst the 
Orthoptera there are ten pairs (Burmeisteb Handhuch der Ento- 
mologie I. p. 175). Also in Chryllotalpa I foimd ten pairs, three in 
the thorax and seven in the abdomen. These air-slits axe small^ 
generally oblong fissures (like button-holes), often surrounded by a 
homy ring (jperttrema) with a cavity behind them which again, by 
a second fissure whose posterior half can be retracted by muscles, 
leads to the air-canals. In other instances there is no peritrema^ 
but the stigma is formed by a fissure between two lips, whose 
edges are beset with hairs. Sometimes there are in the cavity of 
the st^ima special moveable homy plates {epiglottides Straus), 
which can close the entrance of the air-canal that proceeds fix>m it. 
By means of the oblique position of the lips, of which one often 
projects over the other, by means of the narrow opening, and of 
the hair or down on their edge, the entrance of dust or other 
small bodies into the stigmata is prevented, whilst the air alone ia 
admitted as through a sieve. From every air-slit, or its cavity 
(vestibule) there arises an air-canal {trtzchie cTorigine Stbaus). 
which divides into nxmierous branches (in Scolopendra), or proceeds 
transversely after having given off one or two lateral main-stems. 
These main-stems running along the length of the body, (in most 
Insects there is only one on each side,) receive all the canals that 
spring from the air-slits or fissures, and connect them together. 
They give off the numerous branches which spread through every 
part of the body. The distribution of the air-canals after the 
manner of vessels is interesting; by such a disposition of the 
respiratory organs in Insects, the atmospheric air has access in 
equal degree to every part of their body ^ But it is too much to 

' " In no^ a 6on^mUibu9 tangwmi hmmm pulmomt petit . .^mwaeeUi nen Ma 
mn^fmni$ m/oim in pubnonm eovifiuH, $ed invena vi^ jndmonet ip$i, VMorum Hto, 4n. 

Digitized by 


363 ciiASS vin. 

conclude from hence that the circulation of blood is unnecessary m 
Insects, and consequently does not exist. The circulation of blood 
has not respect to respiration alone, it is not merely for the con- 
version of venous blood into arterial ; it is necessary that arterial 
blood should circulate that it may serve for nutrition and secretion. 
Many Insects live in water : but of these the greater number 
breathe atmospheric air ; like whales amongst mammals some come 
to the surface of the water for that purpose. But usually there are 
special arrangements for conducting the air, so that the Insect can 
remain under water. This is seen ex. gr. in the larvae of Diptera^ 
which live under water; those of Cuhx have at the posterior 
part of the body a lateral canal with fine hairs at the orifice ; the 
larvas of Stratiomys have a canal at the end of the abdomen, whose 
orifice is fringed with a circlet of plumose hairs ; the genera N^>a 
and Ranaira have a tail composed of two filaments at whose base 
are two air-slits*. These water-insects die in a few hours if the air 
has no access to the water. Other Insects breathe in the water itself, 
that is, they breathe the air that is diffused through the water, as 
fishes do by their gills. Such Insects have no air-slits : the air 
must therefore penetrate the walls of the trachecB, which to that 
end are spread out either in filiform or capillary appendages (in the 
larvae of Chfrtnus, of Semblts, the nymphce of Chtrtmamus) or in 
leaf-like plates at one side of the body [Ephemera) y or at the 
extremity of the abdomen {Agrion). These parts have been termed 
Otlh*/ they are not found in perfect Insects. Gills of this sort, 
firom which blind air«tubes arise, occur in the rectum of the larva 
of LibeUula as five rows of plumose incised leaflets. From them 
arise six longitudinal stems, of which two, larger than the rest, 

univenum eorpvs ditperguntur, wic itf nngida partes o/eria particfdat per ptdmonet el 
eangtUnie pwiionei per arterioi recipicU,*' Malpiohi Anatome plmUearum, Op* om. t. 

p. *5. 

^ Figures of CkJem in Swaiocsbdaic, J^iiN. fuK. Tkb. xxzi. figs. 4, $; <iii SttvUamifB, 
ihid. Tab. zxxiz. ; of Nepa, in Dufoub, 1. L The abdomen of N^pa and Banatm 
has besides three pair of conspicuous, but dosed, auMilits, in which very large branches 
df air- tubes terminate with blind enda. 

* This nomendaiore is only in part oorrect The proper respiratory argxBM of 
Insects, the air-tubes, belong to the category of lungs, whether the air penetrates by 
external apertures (eUgmata), or the tubes be filled with air from endosmotic action. 
The air in iket is in the inside^ and the stream of blood (akmg the trachea) on the 
outside^ and this relation is just tBe reverse of that which preyaili in gills. 

Digitized by 


IK8ECT8. 368 

"beoonie aftenraids the main tnuikB ci the fexSdci Lisect which art 
in. connexion urith the air-«lits^. 

Obserrations have shewn that Respiration in Insects effects die 
same chemical changes of the air, as in higher creatores ; respijra- 
tion is more active, the need of air greater and the production of 
carbonic acid moie abundant in the perfect Insect than in the 
larva. In the perfect Insect, moreover, respiration is performed 
principally bj the air-slits of the thorax, which are larger than 
tliose of the abdomen, whilst in the larva that function is distri- 
buted more equally amongst all the stigmata. This fact is in 
connexion, with the development of tke thorax and with the 
mechanism for motion affixed there in the perfect Insect Accurate 
investigations have shewn that Insects, at least under certain cir« 
cumstances, have a proper toarmih, and that thej can raise the 
temperature of their body remarkably by motion, or by volimtary 
acceleration of respiration^ 

The sexes are distinct in all Insects, and the eggs are not 
fertilized, as in fishes, after they are laid, but union of the sexes 
must precede the laying of the eggs if they are to prove fruitful. 
A remarkable peculiarity has been observed in Plant liee {Aphide$)^ 

^ Comp. on the rospiratoiy organa of insects, besides MalfiohIi SWAmuBDAX, 
Ltokit, Stbaub and other writers already cited, C. Spbinokl CommenJUirivM dt 
parHbuM, fuibus Inteeta ipiriium ducuni, LipsiA, 1815, 4to. cum tdMi$; SuoEOW, 
JUtpit%Uiom> der Jnmdm, wtbesondtre Hber die Ihrwtrupiraiion der Ae$ckiw ffrandU, 
HxuanrosB'B Zeitsch. /. die organ, Phynk, 11. 1828, s. 44 — 29 ; BuBMiisns Eandh, 
der SnUnwd. i, s. 169 — 194 (a very careful reyision of the observations of others and of 
his own) and Newpobt, PhU, Tram, f 836, Pt «, pp. 519—566 (or in ToDD*B Oydop, 
n, pp. 984-— 990). We refer also to the beautiful figures in hiova TraiU an, deia 
CkmUUj PL XXI., and Straus AnaL des anim, artie. Fl. 7, in order to give an idea of 
the minute division of the air-tubes. Mabokl db Sibbxs has figured the trachee and 
alr^sacs in some Orlhopiera {TruxaUi, Mantis) in Mim, dm Mushtm, lY. PL 15, 16. 

' Already in 1793 Vauouklin had made experiments on the respiration of Insects 
(LoeuHa viridimima), Comp. also G. tt. Trsyibavub, Vmwehe Hber doe AikemhoUn 
derniedem Hkiere, Zeiieckr. f. Phenol, iv. 183 1, s. i— S9i and Nxwtobt, PhiL Trane, 
L 1.9 for the speeifio wanath, which was formerly denied by J. Davt, against whose 
observKtkms Nobili and Mbixohi had already advanoed objections (Ann, de Chim, ei 
de Phffwique, 1831, Octofare, pp. 307—910). All animals, LntBlft justly observes, are 
warm-Uooded, but only is sudli as b rsath e by lungs (better, in mammals and \Mb), is 
the specifie warmth entirely independent of the external temperature. IHe ifrgan, 
Ckemie in ikrer Anwendung amf Ph^friol, «. Pathol. 1849, s. so. Comp. also Bbbtbold, 
Neue V€r$nehe Hb. d. Temperatw der hkUMtige TKieirt, Oottingen, 1815* "- 35* 3^i 
s. 43. 

Digitized by 


264 CLASS vnt. 

where a single impregnation suffices for many families in sncoes* 
sion ; the males are not observed until the end of summer or in 
autumn ; they impregnate the last family, consisting of wingless 
females, which without copulation would be barren. Their eggs 
remain during the winter on branches of trees, and in spring 
produce only female plant-lice which without copulation are prolific 
and viviparous. Bonxet, to whom we owe this discovery, found 
that in the space of three months nine successive generations were 
produced without copulation^. 

Amongst the Myriapoda the Chilopods have only a single ovary, 
in form of a long sac situated beneath the intestine. In the 
remaining Insects there are two ovaries. Sometimes they have the 
same form of tubes or sacs {Forficulaj Ephemera^ Stratiomys) ; in 
some flies the sac is very long, rolled spirally like a watch-spring, 
and separated by many transverse partitions into cells^ In most 
Insects each ovary consists of a number of tubes {ffoinea evt^rea 
Leon Dufour). Sometimes these are situated around a sacciform 
dilatation from which the oviduct arises {ovaria bacoata), as in 
Melo^ L. and Lycua {colecpteray. Or these tubes are situated 
lengthwise along the origin of oviduct {ovaria ramaaa)^ as in 
Cicada^/ sometimes on one side only, like the teeth of a comb, as 
in Pha87na and TerUhredo {Atkalia). But in by fer the greatest 
number of cases, these tubes are situated at the beginning of the 
oviduct like the leaflets of a digitated leaf, at the end of a common 
stalk {ovaria digitaiay Jhadculata), Such ovaries are seen in the 
X^epidoptera, where each of them consists of four tubes. The 
number of these tabes is however very different, not only in the 
different orders, but even in the same order, and occasionally in the 
same natmral family ; whilst, ex. gr. Bombyx and Xylooopa {Hymen-- 
cptera) have four, in the Honey-Bee are more than one hundred*. In 

^ 0. BoinnR', TraUi iFIntedoloffie, i. Obaervatumi wr les Puemmi, Psaris^ 1845, 
lamo. G^wfret i. 1771, 8to. Buyau has obtained eren eleven suooesriye generations 
wtthoat oopnlaiion ; Ann, da Se, nat, v. 1835, p. 334. There are also some examples 
of the same phenomenon in insects of other orders. Bubmbistib, 1. L s. 336, 337. 

* IUauvub, Mhn. pour 9ervir A VSitt. da Int. iv. PL 49, f. 7 and 8. 

* Bbavdt and EAncBUBa, Medmn, Zoologie n. Tab. rm. fig. 1 k, Mdoe wrU- 
fftOui, Tth. zix. figs. II, 15, LyUa vetieaiana; L^v Dufoub, Aim, da. Se. noL vi. 
PL 18, ^. I, LffC¥$ rm/lpenmi. 

* LiSoB DuFOUB, ffimipUra, PI. 17, fig. 189. 

' LiOB DuFOUB, Mim, prSanUM, Tom. vit. p. 408. According to Swamkkrdam, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


many Hemy^tera heteroptera there are seyen, as also in many Carof 
hid ; the Cockchafer and other LamMicomia have six, the Stag* 
Beetle {Lucanua oervus) twelve, &c« The length of these tabes is 
different, but on the whole is more marked in proportion as the 
number is fewer, as in the Butterflies ; thej contain the eggs in a 
string ; the largest and most developed are at the lower end, the 
smaller above. Here the ovarial tubes run out into a fine thread 
which Leox Dufour terms Suspensory Ligament, whilst J« 
HuELLEB considers the parts to be vessels which connect the ovaries 
with the dorsal vessel. In most instances the threads unite on 
each side to form a cord; in others (in Phasma ex. gr.) they 
proceed separately to the dorsal vessel. 

From the inferior termination of the ovaries proceed two oviducts 
{tubiB)^ which coalesce to form a common tube beneath the rectum : 
it is ordinarily much shorter than the tuba; in the cockchafer, on the 
eontrary, it is longer than these. Different homy plates surround the 
dilated inferior termination of this common tube; it has a sphincter 
muflde to contract it, as well as several others^. Generally it falls, 
with the rectum, into a common cloaca^ or it opens beneath and 
IB fix>nt of the antu. Sometimes the external sexual organs of the 
female, generally seated in the ninth ring of the abdomen, which is 
included and hidden in the eighth, are prolonged into an appendage 
externally. Here belongs the tubular vagina of Flies {vagina tubi- 
JhrmiB)j in Chrysia, &c.', which is formed of the last abdominal 
rings that can be drawn within each other like an opera-glass. In 
others the vagina is Uoo-valved {vagina bivalvis)^ as in Locusts 
{Locu8Ub)j and projects beyond the last segment of the abdomen as 
an ensiform compressed prolongation. In others there is a per- 
forator borer {terebra) or a sting {aculeus); here, besides the bi- 
valved vagina, there is a sharp organ for puncturing, with serrated 
edges, and composed of one or of two homy threads ; when at rest 
the sting is concealed within the abdomen ; it is connected with a 

who hM gi^en a highly magnified figure of these |Mrto, each avariium oonsuts in tbe 
Honey-Bee of 150 tahes, BiU, natw, p. 471, Tab. zix. fig. 3. 

^ See Stbaub, Anai. dm anim. ant, p. 399, and the figures of the Oockehafer, 
tUd. PI. 5, figt. 4, 5 m, PI. 6, ^, 1 h, If. 

' Aleo in MffOenu cwetdMa amongst the CoUcfUrOf Ann. det Sc, not. Tom. tt. 
PI. 19. fig. 5. 

' Comp. here especially Burmbistib, Hdndh. der Brtiom. 1. 1. 109— 9i5» Taf. 11. 

Digitized by 


266 CLASS ym. 

Diffisrent appendages belong to the common oviduct, or to the 
ragina. Of these one is more constant than the rest, and opens into 
the common ovidnct, close to the uppermost part, where this is 
formed fifom the imion of the two tubes. Previous to copulation it 
is empty, but after that act is filled with a white fluid — ^which is the 
seed, as microscopic investigation has demonstrated beyond doubt, 
from the presence of the hair-like spermatozoa in motion. This part, 
g^[ierall7 single, may therefore be called receptaculum seminw. 
Frequently it has an appendage {glandula appendictdaria). In 
many insects there is another vesicle present which, during copula*- 
tion, receives the penis {bursa copuhtbrix^poche oopuUxtrice Audouin), 
and which in the cockchafer is a large bladder beneath the oviduct. 
In the Butterflies this organ opens externally, and not into the ovi- 
duct, so that there are two sexual orifices, whilst a canal leads from 
the bursa copulatrix to the oviduct, and conducts the seed into the 
receptaculum seminis situated above. There are other vesicles, or 
glands, generally in pairs and situated more behind for the purpose 
of covering the eggs with an adhesive fluid. In the Butterflies 
these are seen as two pyriform vesicles laid transversely with their 
broad bases opposed, which at the other end pass into a very long, 
contorted, blind canal. In a few Insects still other secretory organs 
have been observed, which probably secrete a peculiar odorous 
matter to attract the male^ 

Ob the borer (terebra) in the Cicada, see DoTiBi in Ann, de$ Se, not, le S^rie» vn. 
Zoologie, pp. 193 — 199, PI. 8, the middle brutle {U pdn^on Dotsbe) works liko 
a wedge. 

1 It 18 difSctilt to be brief on a subject which has inference to such an important 
difference of organisation, and which, on account of the various Tiews of observers, 
possesses an historical interest Malpiohi (de BcmJbyc^ long ago recognised the 
veticula eopuUUrix as the oiigan which receives the penis and gave it the name of 
ntervM; often the penis or a part of it is broken off, and remains here after copulation. 
The penis is figured in this part in Spkinx Itguttri from a preparation by HninsB in 
the Catalogfie of the Phytklogical Seriu of the Muteum of the Cottege rf Siu(rg0om», 
VoL V. London, 1S40, Pi. 67, fig. 8. It was with fluid from this vesicle that Huktxb 
impregnated artificially the eggs of other butterflies. Phil, Trant, 179a, p. 175 O^^ 
BomJtyi/x mari^ ; an experiment already devised by MALnoHi, but attempted without 
success. Spallamzahi, before Huhtxb had effected the artificial impregnation of the 
eggs of the silkworm, but with the seed taken directly from the male butterfly, so that 
his experiment does not belong to our present subject (Eic^»inence$ pour tervir d VHui, 
de la GSnfyr, Qen^e, 1785, 8. p. 313). AuDOUiir has the honour of having been the 
first in our century to direct attention to this subject, whilst previously all these 

Digitized by 


iKSBcnu 267 

The male indiTidnals amongst Insects have nsnallj two teHeSj 
tikough there be occasionally only one, jnst as in the female thore 
may be only one ovarium, Sfnch is the case with lAihchiua where 
the part has the form of a long tortuons canal. In the Scolcpendra 
proper {Seal, mcrsitans^ &c.) axe different oval testes, much extended 
in lengthy (described improperly by Kutoboa as epididymides) 
-which at each pointed extremity send off an efferent canal; all these 
canals coalesce to form a single canal which is very tortuous and 
widens into a sac below {testiculus Kutobga'). In Scutigera there 
are two rery tortuous canals {tesHculif) present, which begin with 
an oval sacciferm expansion, and then pass into a single fine tube, 
of great length and winding right and left with close curves ; this 
tube opens into a canal, which as an arc connects the two efferent 
canals each of which dilates twice into an oval vesicle '• In Julua 
there are two long blind tubes, which, connected by transverse 
canals, have the form of a ladder, and to which laterally blind sacs 
are appended ; these sacs may be considered to be testes and the two 
longitudinal canals to be va/sa deferential. 

In the hexapod Insects the parts which prepare the seed are 
always in pairs* There is found indeed in most Lepidcptera and in 
certain Cohqptera {ex. gr. in Ophonus and Harpalus, genera of the 
family of the Carabici) a single testis^ but since two efferent canals 
arise from its lower edge, it is obviously formed by the union of two 

appendages had bean confounded together as secreting organs, Ann, det 8c. not, n. 1834, 
p. 381. We owe to C. Th. Vov Sibbold the most complete investigation of this 
mbject; see his Femere Beobaehtungen Uber die Spermatozoa der wirheUoBen Tkiere, in 
MuslixbIb ArMo, 1837, s. 393—433. If* m Von Siibold assures ns, the verieula 
copulatrix only seldom contains Spermatozoa, and then usually dead ones, it is less to 
be wondered at that the experiments of MALPiaHi failed than that those of Huimni 
succeeded; they ought to be repeated with better success with the fluid from the 
reeqfUieulum aeminis, LioN DurovR still persists in considering all these i^pendages 
zm giandei $&fi/lqttei. 

^ S. Kutoboa, Scolopendrtz monUantu Anatome^ PetropoL', 1834, 4ta pp. 10, 11, 
Tab. n. figs. 3—5 ; Rtioib Joras in Todd^b Oj^dop. n. p. 413* Ag' ^i* 

* liios DuFOUB, who has giren a description and figure of tibese parts, considers 
the first pair of these Tesicalar expansions as tette$; the tortuouB canals as veiienkz 
mminale$f Ann, dez Se. nai, n. 18^4, p. 97* PL v. fig. 3. 

* See figures in ToDD*a Ojfdopad, in. p. 551, (article Myriapoda, by BnocB 
Joms) and by Smir in Mubllbb's Arekw, 1843, Ta£ xm. figs. 17, 18. 

^ L^9 Duvoub, Ann, da 8c, not, n. p. 133* Xab. Tl. fig. 8 of ffarpalif rm/feomie 
(copied in Wagvbb's Icon, PkynoL Tab. xxz. fig. 8). 

Digitized by 


268 CLASS nil. 

wliich were originally distinct, as at least in Butterflies is placed 
beyond all doubt by the history of deirelopment. In many Hymm-^ 
optera the two testes lie aide by side in a common covering {scrotum 
Dufour). Sometimes these organs, usually white, are distinguished 
by lively colours (deep red in Paptlio Irassicce^ and in some Hemir 
ptera^ yellow or orange-coloured in some GoUoptera) which depend 
upon the investing membrane. Moreover the structure of the tesieB 
is veiy manifold, and, as in glands generally, nature has here solved 
the problem, in a small given space to increase as much as possible 
the secretory surface, in very different ways. The simplest form is 
that of a single blind canal, which is sometimes veiy tortuous^. In 
other cases this blind canal has more the form of a sac, ex. gr. in 
Scutellera, Edessa. Yet they are not always constructed in this 
simple way, when they have externally the form of a single blind 
sac and have also been so described by some writers ; in Libellula^ 
for instance, this sac contains a number of small round vesicles'. In 
by far the greatest number of Insects each testis consists of a collec- 
tion of different, sometimes very numerous, vesicles, or cylindrical 
canals {capsules siminijiques L^ON Dufour) terminating blindly, 
which are united in form of a fan, of a star, of an umbel, or in 
bunches, and from which canals arise that afterwards tenninate in 
a single efferent canal'. This efferent canal forms sometimes at its 
commencement numerous tortuosities, to which the name of ept* 
didymis has been given (as in many Carabidy in Meloloniha^y in 
Nepa, &c.). The lowest part has often an expansion* to which the 
name of vesicula seminalis has been fitly given. Far less propriety 
is there in giving this name to different blind canals which are met 

^ In jyytueut marginalia the entire canal when unwound appean to saipass the 
length of the animal twenty times, Heoetsohwbilxb I>e Inaeetar. ffmiioL p. 19. 

• L^H DUFOUB, Mim. pr€$enU8, vii. p. 57a. 

> For a methodical review of all these forms an arrangement is requisite in which, 
at the same time, there are not too many divisions. Comp. JoH. Muillxb, J)e glan" 
dvlarum tecemaiUum ttrudura penitiori, 1850. fol p. 103 ; Bubicbistkb, Jfandb, der 
MtU^m, I. s. « 1 7— 119 ; Waonxr'8 Lekrb, der vergi, Anat, 1834, s. 319—331, and the 
flgures chiefly bonx>wed from htov Dufoub's nomoous investigations in Muxllsb, 
1. L Tab. XVI. figs. 1—19, and in Waobbb, /eonei Pkgnol. 1839^ ^<^^ 3^^* %*• i— «<$• 

^ Stbaub, 1. L Tab. vi. fig. 1, c, c, 

' For instance, in HydnpkHu$y in ApU mdUfioa, in Genu and Vdia (JL6om 
DUFOUB, JK0C&. «. I, ffimipt. Tab. XX. figsi 138, 139), in Coitui mmrginatu» (Liov 
PUFOUR, ih. Tab. X. fig. 1 27). 

Digitized by 



^ith in most Insects and which unite with the efferent canal. That 
these parts rather serve to effect special secretions and correspond 
with the fTostate and Cowper's glands in higher creatures is pro- 
bable even from their composite structure and great development. 
Hence in some Insects they have been even described as tesHculi 
and the true testes as glands of an unknown use, as for instance, by 
SwAHMEKDAM in Oryctes nasicomta^. In this and other LamMi- 
comxa {MdolorUh^ij Cetonia) these glands are two tortuous canals, 
which resemble the testicuU of the Carahici. In Hydrophihis pioeus 
these parts exceed the testes in circumference. Ordinarily there is 
one pair': often also there are two pairs of these accessory organs 
present; in some are found three or even more pairs. They are 
entirely absent only in few Insects {Oersisy Velia, Banaira). In 
lAbelhila they are also wanting'; yet I think it is nearer the 
trutii to say that here they are not connected with the testicuU 
and are present in an unusual situation, which is in agreement with 
the copulation of these animals^. From this also it is apparent that 
these organs are not vesiados seminales. 

For determining the purpose of the different parts connected 
with the organs of propagation microscopic investigation iu the 
recent state ia of great service. C. Th. Von Siebold has never 
met with spermcUozoa in the parts which we consider subservient to 
special secretions, which however they ought to contain if they 
were really seminal vesicles as Leon Dufoub and other writers 
suppose. The spermatozoa of Insects are like hairs, and are often 
found in the testes united in bundles and surrounded by a transpa- 
rent covering*. 

We must notice, in addition, that in many species of Insects a 
great similarity of form has been observed between the organs of 
propagation in the two sexes. We see this resemblance in certain 

^ B^bd der natmur. Tab. zxx. fig. 8, m m; these are the true tesU$. I oonld ahaost 
sappose that LifoN Dufour bo iDdelatigably laborioiis in the anatomy of Inaects and 
80 rich in experience, has made the same mistake in Pdoffonut; see the J2m4. 9ur tea 
ffimipt. PI. XI. fig. 137 A., where I consider the spiral organs i 6 to be tetiet, 

s As in the ffymenoptera, for instance. 

» LioK Dufoub, Mhn, priteniis, vii. p. 572. 

* See below, in the systematic arrangement, in the fiunily of the JAbeUvUna. 

' See Von Socbold, Ueb, dU Spermaiozoen der Onuiaeem, iMeeten, QatUropodm 
«. einiffer anderm mrbelloten Tkiere, Muxlleb'8 Archiv, 1836, s. 10—43, '^^^^ ^^* 

Digitized by 



beedes, but especiallj in seTend Hemtptera^ as well in the form of 
the accessory glands, as in that of the testes and ovariuy in the nam** 
ber of the oviducts in the last and of the spermatic ducts in the 
former, &c. We cannot however admit that this similarity has 
the value of a general rule; the Lepidoptera, for instance, not to 
speak of other losects, exhibit an entirely di£ferent type in the two 

The external sexual organs lie, as in the females, at the hind- 
most part of the abdomen^. The penis has a very different form 
and substance. Ordinarily it is surrounded by two homy plates, 
and encbsed in a membraneous sac in the retracted condition; in the 
Coleoptera the penis is covered by a homy case, and supported by 
two homy threads*. 

Amongst the malformations of Insects hermaphroditic individuals 
occasionally occur, in which one half of the body is male, the oth^ 
female, like the Androgynes in A£rica, of whom the ancients &bled, 
and who had a female breast on the left side, and a male on the 
right'. This lateral bisexualily is most frequently seen in Butter- 
flies, in which it strikes the eye more readily from the form of the 
antennsB or the colour of the wings ^; yet some instances of it are 
known in other orders also^. 

Before we turn from the consideration of the sexual organs of 
Insects we must shortly notice another peculiarity observed in bees 
and other Hymenoptera living \xl societies. Amongst these many 

^ The Chilognaiha (Jvlua) are an exception to this ; the partB, in both aexee, are 
here situated veiy far forward, at a short distance from the head. They are also 
double (two vulva, two penes), as in the enuiacea. 

' See the figures of Sthaus (op. dt.) in the Cockchafer, Fl. n. figs, ii, ^t, PI. vi. 
fig. I. Waonxr compares these horny threads with the astictUum perns, found in 
many mammals. On the sexual organs of insects, in addition to the works cited above, 
two monographs (both, however, of somewhat old date) may be consulted, viz. J. J. 
Hbgitsgewbiler, Diss, de Insedorum genitaltbus; cum Tab. Turici, 1830, 4to. and 
Oedechtsorgane der Inseden von Dr Svokow in HEVsnrosR'B Zeitsehr. f. organ, Pkystk, 
n. Eisenach, 1818, a. 331—764, and further, F. Srsur, Die weiUu^ (kseUeektsorgam 
der K&ftT, Hit ix. Kupfertaf, Berlin, 1847, 4to. 

" C. Pltnu, HiA, not. Lib. vii. cap. a. 

* For instance, in Bombyx dispar by Sorarffer, in BomJb, eraic^, by EsPRR 
{Seobachtungen an einer neu entdeekten ZuntterpkaUme, Erlangen, 1778, 4to.) in Vemessa . 
wiices, by Rapp (Orrk's Isis, 1833, s. 235), Ac. 

' As in SeoUa maenlata, by Rovand, Ann. des 8e, entomol. TV, 1835, P* I9<> ^ 
Zucanui cervus, figunxl in ASMUSS, Mot$siruosiiaUs ColeopUrer, Bigm, 1855, T^. z. 

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indlTidxials occur, which being incapable of propagating have been 
commonly considered to be sexless (the so-called neuters, working- 
bees, &c) Even the external form indicates that they resemble 
rather the female than the male individnals, as the same is also 
indicated by their mode of Ufe and their instinct directed to the care 
of the yonng ones. Anatomical investigation has confirmed this 
conclusion by demonstrating in^the working^bees imperfect oyaries^ 
These individuab thus remain imperfect females, nurses, foster- 

Observations are not wanting with respect to the development 
of Insects in the egg, although hitherto this subject has not been 
sufficiently investigated to allow a general representation of it to be 
offered. Li eggs that are just laid, nay in those which lie at the 
lowest part of the oviduct and are the most mature, the germinal 
vesicle has disappeared ; in eggs situated higher up in the oviduct 
it may be seen clearly with the germinal spot^. On the yelk is 
formed, from a union of cells, a layer as germinal membrane {bl<ut<h 
derma) which continues to grow so as to surround the entire yelk. 
The first rudiment of the embryo, the nota primitiva, lies on the 
ventral surface ; the yelk lies on the dorsal surface, and becomes 
enclosed by the constantly growiug ventral plates, without the for- 
mation of a special umbilical- or yelk-sac by constriction. The 
9tigm<Ua are developed only at a late period, and become open only 
shortly before the escape from the egg'. 

^ Madsm. Jubikb in Hubeb Nouv, ob»ervati<m$ tur le$AleSle9, ^e ^t. Pftrii et 
Gen^e, 8vo. n. Tab. xi. fig. i, figure copied by Ratzxburo in his enquiries on this 
nibject in JVov. Ad, Acad. Cm. Leop. Car. Vol. zvi. PI. n. Tab. 47. 

* Bee the microeoopio r^raeentation of an egg-tube from Agri9f^ by B. WAaNXB, 
Ahkand, der mathem. physic. Klaste der Ahademie in MUnchm, Bd. u. fig. i ; see 

8. 558. 

* On the development of insects in the egg there are some observations of SuoKOW, 
AnaUmuekrpkydoloffUehe Untenueikimgen dor Inseoten mnd Krtitimtkitre, Heidelbeig, 
1818, 4to. mit Kupf. s. 19, 33, 35 (eggs of BombjfX pini) ; also short, but interesting 
communications by Rathks, on Blatta ffermaniea in MxoKSL*s Arehiv. 1844, s. 37 — 
37, Taf. n. (here there is on each side of the abdomen in the embryo, behind the attach- 
ment of the third pair of feet, a pediculated disciform organ which is, perhaps, a tem- 
porary respiratoiy organ to be compared with the giUs of ]arv« of salamanders ; there 
are only four Malpigfaian vessels, which are increased in number after birth), and 
finally, by Kobllikkb (on CJdnmomut, SimuUa, Danacia) Obtervaiionet de prima 
InmOarum gmeH ZHu. ina/ug, Adjeota muU in. Tabid. Turid, 1844, 4to. The numerous 
plates of HiBOLD in his J>i9^iiitioit€$ dt AnimaUum verUMi curenUvm in 090 

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Most Insects quit the egg in a form entirely different from that 
which thej afterwards possess. An impregnated female butterfly, 
for instance, deposits eggs, from which caterpillars proceed, which 
present not the slightest external resemblance with the mother. 
Thej are vermiform creeping animals, provided with different pairs 
of feet, which eat enormously, grow rapidly, cast their skin often, 
and at the last casting change into quite another creature, with a 
very hard and homy skin, which has no Hmbs, does not move from 
its placed takes no food, and falls as into a death-sleep. There 
may however be generally discerned in the seemingly formless 
mass, on close observation, the external parts of the butterfly, 
which folded and rolled together are concealed beneath the homy 
shell, on whose surface they are traced out. After a longer or 
shorter time, sometimes only after many months, the perfect insect, 
the butterfly, quits its narrow cell. At first the wings are short, 
moist and imfit for flying, but soon unfold themselres, become dry, 
and then support the flapping Insect through the air, which soon 
ftilfils its new destiny, the propagation of its kind, and dies'. 

In these changes of form {metamorphoses) of Insects the first 
form or first state is called that of the vimsk or larva^ and the 
Insects are then named caterpillars, maggots, &c. The second state 
is that of nymph or pupa (in day-butterflies called also chrysalis). 
The third state is that of the perfect insect {insectum dedarojtum^ 

All Insects do not pass through this threefold state. The wing- 
less hexapod Insects, with few exceptions, leave the egg in the 
same form which they afterwards retain ; only the rings and the 
feet become more numerous in the Myriapoda. These Insects 
Latreille names Insects without metamorphosis. No winged 
Insect, on the other hand, comes from the egg with wings ; but 

evoiutione {De ffeneraiione Jnmdorum in cvo), Fnmcof. ad Moen. folio, FasdcuJi ii. (not 
completed), relate principally to Mu$ca tomiioria and some LepieUfptara, bat do not 
give 80 much information as might have been expected (rom the diligent and patient 
inTestigations of the author. 

^ If the pupa be however in such a situation that the perfect insect would not be 
able to come out of it (in the branch of a tree, for instance), then it changes its place 
towards the period of the last change, by pushing on its body by contraction, a motion 
assisted in many cases by little hooks on the rings of the abdomen. 

* Sometimes the perfect insect^ shortly after its coming forth, once more changes 
its ooat» as is commonly known of the Epkenura, 

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amongst the winged there are many, which undergo no other meta^ 
morphosis than that they obtain wings. Their larvm resemble the 
perfect Insect, but are quite without wings : the pup<B hare rudi*- 
ments of wings and move themselves : in the last moulting these 
wings become developed and perfect. These Insects undergo 
accordingly an imperfact metamcrphosis {demumetamorpho^e La- 
TBEILLE, metamorphosia incomplete^ ; this is the case, for instance, 
with the grasshoppers. Most winged Insects, lastly, are subject 
to a perfoct metamorphoais {metamorphosis completa), as we have 
described it in butterflies ; the pupa takes no food, and remains in 
a state of rest or slumber. The pupse of flies are entirely motion- 
less, surrounded by a hard shell, and shew no limbs of the perfect 
Insect concealed beneath it; this shell is formed by the dried 
integument of the larva. Such a pupa is named pupa ooarctcUa. 
In other dipterous Insects and in the Lepidcptera there is a hard 
elastic membrane, surrounding the enclosed compressed external 
parts of the Aiture perfect Insect, and so disposed that they can be 
distinguished through the covering. Such a pupa is named pupa 
obtecta; such pupsB move the rings of the abdomen. In still other 
instances the wings and feet are free, without being surrounded by 
a common covering, as in the pupsB of beetles and bees^. 

These changes are not confined to the external parts; in the 
internal structure also very remarkable changes occur. The intes- 
tinal canal is in most larvsd straight, and consists principally of a 
wide stomach. The oesophagus and the part of the intestinal canal 
behind the stomach are longer and narrower in the pupa and in 
the perfect Insect, since the stomach contracts and is more definitely 
separated firom the rest of the intestine. The nervous system becomes 

^ For pupce of the last kind the word nympha is someiiines specially used ; see 
SWAMifEBDAM, jBtU, ncU, pp. lo, i6; Bladh, FundamentaZoolofficBf in Link. AmosnitcU. 
Acad. Tom. vn. p. 151 ; Nswpobt in Todd's Oydop, 11. 879. 

ItisjSMJJB names a pupa complete (pupa compleUi), which moves itself, and in all 
respects resembles the perfect insect ; half-ccmpUte (temi-completa), that which is at rest 
and takes no nutriment. Sytt, nal. Ed. ii, i. p. 534. Fabbioius transferred tiiese 
names improperly fin>m the pupa to the metamorphoses, and thus named complete 
metamoiphoais (metaiMrpKona completa), that which, in fiust, is no metamorphosis, as 
in the myiiapods, the spiders, &c. The metamorphosts which Latbbillb names 
oomplete {ex. gr, that of butterflies, beetles) Fabbioiub names incomplete (tneomp^eto) ; 
the semi-metamorphosis bean with him the name of m/damorphotie iemi-completa. See 
Fabbioiub, PkUoe, Entom, p. 56. 

VOL. I. 18 

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tortaoQS in the pupa, and shorter in the perfect Insect ; the nervons 
ganglia become less numerous, from some of them first approxi* 
mating to each other and afi;erwards coalescing, whilst others 
entirely disappear ; the first ganglion especially, which is situated 
in the head, increases in amplitude. The sexual organs, of which 
the germs already existed in the larvsB, become developed as well 
in respect of complex structure as of size. In the pupa new organs 
also come to view, of which before there was no trace, such as the 
wings, which are seen folded and rolled together internally at the 
thorax. The dotsal vessel undergoes less change than most of the 
other organs. 

There is in larvss, moreover, a peculiar fatty mass present, of 
which we have already spoken above; the secretion of this taX 
constantly increases, the nearer the larva approaches the condition 
of pupa ; in this condition the &t is consumed again, and in that 
of the perfect Insect, when it also takes food, fat is no longer 

The fatty secretion is thus obviously necessary to supply nutri- 
ment to the pupa, and to afford the material for the development 
of the organs of the perfect Insect. Yet the pupae of Insects 
which undergo a complete metamorphosis, take, as stated above, 
no food, and are in connexion with the external world through 
respiration alone*. The condition of pupa therefore may be com- 
pared with that of hybemating animals, which are very fat in the 
autumn, during their sleep take nothing, and in the spring come 
out of their retreats in a very emaciated condition. The larvae of 
Insects eat more than is necessary for their own growth ; they are 
therefore usually inactive; deficient motion and superfluous food 
favour, as is known, the secretion of fat^. The reason why in 
perfect Insects no more fat is secreted, is found as well in the 
development of the sexual functions as in the greater activity of life 
and rapidity of motion, which are peculiar to them. 

^ On this aooount they lose in weight. Hub Iobb is, however, at first very smally 
and only becomes remarkable on the approach of the last change. See Nswfobt in 
Todd's Oydop, n. pp. 879, 880. 

* That this fiit is not necessary for the life of the larva, is shewn by the examples 
of caterpillars in which ichneumons have deposited their eggs ; the larvn from these 
consume the fat of the former, which die from the robbery of their stock of food only 
at the time they should change into pupn, or have changed. 

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We see therefore in the perfect Insect the manly period of their 
life : in the larva the childish period. Between the two nature has 
interposed a deep sleep of development. The marriageable period 
is deadly for many. There are also many difficulties to be over- 
come^. Some organs must for a time stand still, others (as for 
instance, the silk-secreting tubes of caterpillars) must entirely 
disappear. The development of the sexual organs is essential, 
and for that everything must wait awhile ; these remain during the 
larval state behind other organs ; now they repress in turn by their 
development the activity of other organs. Finally, the perfect 
Insect comes forth, in many respects a new creature. This is the 
true object of the phsenomena, of which the metamorphosis is 
composed, which is not so entirely unique in its kind, as might be 
at first supposed. The perfect Insect lives for propagation, and 
when it has attained that purpose of its being, it dies to make 
room for others, and serves for food to birds and other animals. 
Thus also an annual plant ceases to grow as soon as its bloom is 
developed, and dies when the seed is come to maturity*. 

^ Eyeiy casting of the skixi is oonnected with more or leas of danger; the moulting 
is also a distressing season for birds ; bat especially the last shedding, "when caterpillars 
are changed into pupae, is frequently fatal. Sometimes the casting is incomplete ; the 
head of the caterpillar remains attached to the pupa. In this way may be explained 
the occasional occurrence of butterflies with caterpillars' heads. See 0. F. Muellbb, 
Ikacripikn (fun papShn dUtede ChenUle, MSm. prUemUi d VAcad. dea Sc,de Paris, 
1774, VI. pp. 508, Ac, Natwrfonckery xvi. 1787, s. 203— « 13, Tab. iv. f. i, a ; Wes- 
UAXL, Ann, det Sc. nai, sec. S^e. Tom. vin. 1837, Zoologie, pp. 191, 192; Bbuinsma, 
huiUngewone afmjlnngen, wjuurfftnomen m de gedaantet^erwitseling det zijdeworma, 
TydKkr., voor natuwrl. Oesch. en Phynd. vn. 1840, pp. 257 — 170, PI. iv. and my 
Aanteekeninffen thereon, Hid. pp. 271 — 275. Somewhat different are other observations 
of Majoli in Bomhtfx mori, in which the moths, without having first become pupae, 
appear to have proceeded immediately from the caterpillars. 'M.eckki/b Archiv fOr die 
Ph^cL n. 1816, s. 542. 

* What is said here relates especially to the complete metamorphosis ; in the 
incomplete the changes are less important. Ck>mp. on this subject RBNoasB's PhytuA. 
UfOen. s. 49—87, and Hxboud's Bahnekdungaffeachiehie der Schmetterlinge, Casel 
u. Marburg, 18 15, 4to, (one of the most excellent works on Natural History which 
have been pubHshed in this century), in the numerous plates of which the development 
may be followed without a break in the whole and in aU its steps. Comp. further, on 
the changes which the intestinal canal undergoes on metamoiphosis, Dutboobxt, 
J<mnuU de PkyHque, Tom. Lzxxvi. 18 18, p. 130, &c., and in Msokbl, Archiv f. d, 
Pkyn/cl. IV. Bd. 1818, s. 285 — 293 ; and on the changes in the nervous system, New- 
POBT, PhUoi, Trans. 1832, n. pp. 383—398, PL xn. xin. 


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The reproductive power in Insects which undergo metamorphosis 
is wanting in their perfect state ; but if at an earlier period in 
the state of larva they have lost a foot, it grows out again at the 
next moulting, and is more or less perfectly restored. Also in the 
Myriapoda excised antennas grow again ^ 

The nervous system of Insects has for central part a row of 
ganglia of different number, which are usually connected with one 
another by two threads that are often very intimately united. This 
row of ganglia is situated on the ventral surface beneath the intes- 
tinal canal in the mid region of the body ; the first ganglion however 
lies in front of and above the oesophagus, and there arises, by reason 
of the two threads which connect it with the second ganglion, a 
ring which surrounds the oesophagus. The greatest number of 
ganglia is found in the Myriapoda, eighteen in Lithobius {Scolopendra 
foTJuxiJUi), twenty-three in Scolopendra morsttans. In the larvce of 
butterflies thirteen are counted, but ordinarily they are less numerous 
in the hexapod Insects. Large ganglia are situated in the thorax, 
and in some there are none in the abdomen, but two nervous strings 
alone, sometimes close together, sometimes separate from each other, 
as in Nepa and Cicada, From the ganglion above the oesophagus 
{ganglion cerebrale) arise the nerves of the eyes and antennse ; this 
ganglion lies transversely on the oesophagus, formed of two oval or 
somewhat conical lateral portions with their broad part turned to 
each other; the inferior surface is somewhat concave, the upper 
convex. The second ganglion, the first of those beneath the intestinal 
canal, is by some writers compared to the cerebellum, by others, on 
better grounds, with the medulla oblongata; the nerves that arise 
from it proceed to the oral parts, and perhaps correspond to the 
different branches of the fifth pair in vertebrate animals. Earlier 
writers, as Ackermann, Reil and Bichat, thought that the abdo- 
minal cord of Insects might be compared with the vermis sympa- 
ihicua of vertebrate animals ; Cuvier and Gall, on the contrary, 
have disowned and rejected this correspondence. It is necessary in 
this inquiry to determine in tlie first place what character is to be 
considered of sufficient value to distinguish the spinal cord from the 

^ Newpobt nuhde experiments on Ivlua, lAUidbim and caterpillars of butterflies. 
See Phil, TraiM, 1844, p. 183. In Phaama sometimes one foot is less than the rest, 
being a new growth. I found this onoe aJso in Reduviv* penonaiu*. 

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system of the great sympathetic nerve. It is impossible to recognise 
the position on the dorsal surface as such a character; for the reversed 
position of the heart in the invertebrate animals might lead ns rather 
to expect that that of the central nervoos system would be reversed 
also. The pecnliarity of the sympathetic system, amongst other things, 
consists in this, that it supplies nerves which are distributed to parts 
not subject to the will. But since from the ganglionic cord in Insects 
the nerves of the organs of sense and the nerves of the volimtary 
muscles arise, there is no reason for comparing it to the sympathetic 
nerve. The ganglia therefore of this cord are to be considered as 
an union of the ganglia of the spinal nerves of the two sides*. This 
view would seem to receive more support when we reflect, that the 
spinal ganglia belong to the uppermost (the posterior) or the sensi- 
tive roots of the spinal nerves, and that in Insects two strings have 
been discovered in each connecting band between the ganglia, of 
which the undermost alone is connected with the ganglia, whilst 
the uppermost merely passes with its fibres over the ganglion*. 
That here the uppermost and not the undermost string, as in the 
spinal cord of vertebrate animals, is related to motion, is to be 
explained by the reversed position of the nervous system. The 
similarity becomes obvious when we thus consider the matter, that 
in Insects as well as in vertebrate animals the motor strings are 
placed towards the interior, the sensorial nearest to the surface. It 
is, however, perhaps more prudent not to pursue this analogy too 
far. With these uppermost strings we must not confound the 
system of transverse nerves which Lyonet described long ago in the 
caterpillar of the Willow-hawk under the name of brides Sptnth'es\ 
These are situated a little in front of each ganglion, pass transversely 
over the straight muscles which lie lengthwise on the ventral 
surface, and are distributed by their branches to the muscles and 
especially to the air-tubes and the dorsal vessel. A longitudinal, 

1 G. B. Tbxvuianub, Bidogie, v. s. 33 1, 333 ; E. H. Webkb, Anat, comparata 
nervi tympathici, Lips. 18 17, p. 95. 

• This 'important discovery of Newport, who was incited to it by C. Bell, the 
celebrated discoverer of the distinction of the motor and sentient roots of the spinal 
nerves, may be seen, illustrated by figures, in PhU, Trans, 1834, Pt. 2, pp. 406 — 410. 

» TraiiS ancA, de la Ohm. pp. 98, 101, PI. IX. figs, i, 2, Newport has very 
accurately investigated this nerve in Sphinx Liyustri, PhU. Trans. 1836, Pt. n. 
pp. 544, 545, PI. xxxvn. (This figure is transferred to Todd's Cyclop. 11. p. 987.) 

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single nerve, lying above upon the strings of the ganglionic nervous 
system, connects each plexus with the following one. In perfect 
Insects this system is less distinctly visible, and often is completely 
combined with the rest of the nervous system ^ 

There is found in addition still another nervous system in Insects, 
destined especially for the organic life, which was made known in 
part by the investigations of Swammerdam and Ltonet in former 
times, and described by the last under the name of li/erf recurrerU^j 
and to which in our century JoH. Mueller has by his investiga- 
tions especially directed the attention of anatomists. It has been 
compared by him and by most modem writers to the sympathetic 
nerve of vertebrate animals, by others to the nervtta vagus. This 
system of nerves consists of a single middle portion and of two lateral 
portions. The single portion arises from one or more nervous 
ganglia situated in the head, which are connected with the most 
anterior part of the first (the cerebral) ganglion of the ganglionic 
cord. From this single portion whilst situated in the head nerves 
arise for the uppermost oral organs, and a thread which runs along 
the oesophagus on the dorsal surface to the stomach, and at its 
extremity terminates in a ganglion. In Pkasma firula Brandt 
saw numerous branches arising transversely, and running in arches 
over the oesophagus and stomach to form a fine nervous net. Per- 
haps a similar distribution may be suspected in other Insects, where 
the extreme delicacy of the nervous branches does not permit their 
determination. In most Insects the middle single portion is the 
most developed ; in Orylhtalpa and Oryllus, on the contrary, the 
lateral portions are more developed than the single and middlemost. 
The lateral portions consist ordinarily of two pair of ganglia that 
lie close together behind the cerebral ganglion, of which the 
anterior is connected with the cerebral ganglion by one or two fine 
nervous threads. From these ganglia delicate nervous branches 
arise which run to the oesophagus whilst they are also in connexion, 
by fine threads with the single middle nerve that runs over the 

^ Besides the authors cited comp. also especially an excellent paper on the nervous 
system of Beetles by E. Blanohard, Ann, des Sc, NcUvr,, si^me S^rie, Tom. v. 
Zooloffie, 1846, pp. 173— 379» PL 8— 15. 

■ TradtS anat, de la Cken, pp. 413, 578, &c. 

> Comp. JoH. Mueller, Uther tin eigenthMndUket dem Nervm vympatkicuM analog 

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Of the organs of sense of Insects the eyes are best known* 
We have already spoken above (p. 249) of the distinction between 
simple and compound eyes. The simple eyes have a crystalline 
lens and a vitreous hnmonr. The cornea, on which the crystalline 
lens lies, without being separated from it by an aqueous humour, is 
formed by the common homy integument of the body, which at 
that part is raised convexly and is more transparent. The vitreous 
humour is surrounded by a black pigment of the choroid. The 
compound eyes, always two in number, present a cornea which is 
divided into many fa9ettes, ordinarily hexangular. Each of these 
divisions has the form of a small, usually biconvex lens. Behind 
them lie an equal number of transparent pyramids or conical 
bodies which are turned by their base to the cornea and by their 
apices approach each other inwards*. Lastly, there is a nerve at 
the apex of every cone; the optic nerve in fact divides into as 
large a nimiber of branches as there are divisions of the cornea. 
A dark-coloured pigment, often violet or blackish brown, separates 
the nervous fibres and the transparent cones, especially at their 
pointed extremities, from each other. At the base of the cones, 
beneath the cornea, there is frequently a pigment of a different and 
more lively colour ; hence arises the metallic splendour of the eyes 
in some Insects, as in Hemerobiua and Chrysopsj which however 
disappears after death. No eyelids are present in Insects, but 
between the fa9ettes of the cornea there are found in certain 
Hymenoptera and Leptdoptera, here and there, some hairs, which 
ward off substances from the eyes and defend them. Surrounding 

Nenentydem der Eingeweide hei den Ituecten, Nov. Act. Acad. Oca. Zeop. Car, Tom. 
XIV. P. T, 1828, pp. 71—108, Tab. vn. ix., and J. F. Bbandt, BeiMrkungen ueber die 
Mvndmagen- oder Eingeweidnerven dcr Everiebraien, M6m. de VAcad, des Sc. de 
St. Patent, (vi. S^rie, Tom. in. 2, Sciencea not.) published separately, Leipaag, 1835, 
4to, with m. plates ; also in French in the Ann. des Sc. not. «e S^e, Tom. v. 183$, 
Zod. pp. 81, kc. and 138. 

^ Will considers these cones, which Muelleb compares to the yitreous hnmour, 
for the most part as crystalline lenses, and supposes that behind them there is still a 
▼itreoos body with concave anterior surface to be found. In Sphinx Atropot, where 
these cones are very large, (I found them one-seventeenth Par. lin. long,) I have 
several times observed the separation pointed out by Will at the posterior extremity 
of the cone. In other insects the cones are so short, that the separation, even if it be 
presenty cannot weU be perceived, whilst even on that account Tbevibakub thought 
there was reason to suppose that in some insects the cones in question were absent in 
their compound eyes. EneKeinungen u. Qttdze des orffan.Leb€n8 n. i, Bremen, 183a, s. 77. 

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the eyes are large air-sacs or wide air-tubes, from which fine 
branches arise, which in part run to the pigment and connect its 
granules, in part pass into blind cylindrical tubes situated between 
the nerve-threads of the vitreous cones*. 

De la Hire, who first discovered the simple eyes of Insects, 
thought he might conclude from their presence, that the larger 
(compound) eyes were not organs of vision. That they also serve 
for vision the experiments of Swammerdam, who smeared them in 
flies with black varnish, have proved. Reaumur also did the 
same with bees. It is more difficult to determine exactly in what 
respects the office of the compound and simple eyes differs, although 
the last probably serve principally for seeing near objects. The 
bees, in which Reaumur had smeared these eyes with a dark 
varnish, whilst their compound eyes remained imcovered, could not 
find their hives*; moreover all flying Insects are invariably pro- 
vided with compound eyes. There are Insects which have simple 
eyes alone, as the Myriapoda and Parasitica (also the larv® of the 
Lepidoptera) ; few Insects are entirely without eyes, like a parasitic 
Insect of bees {Br aula NiTZSCH*), and a new genus of the Garahici^ 
Anophthalmus of Schmidt^, and different Myricgpoda. In the 
diurnal butterflies and most Coleoptera, there are two compound 
eyes alone, without simple eyes ; simple eyes are also wanting in 
certain Diptera^ in Forficula^ BlaUa and other Orthoptera, in many 
Hemiptera ; where they occur in company with compound eyes, 
usually three are present, sometimes, as in Oastnia, Sesia, Noctua^ 
Chryliotalpa^ two*. 

* See on the compound eyes of insects amongst others Hooks, MicrograpKia, 
Londini, 1667, Tab. 34, Swamxebdam, B%bl, not, pp. 487 — 498, Tab. XX., J. Mublleb, 
Zur vergl. Phynol. dea OeaichUinnet, Leipzig, 1826, 8yo. s. 307 — 390 ; by the same, 
Fortffe8etzt€ anatomtsche Vhtermchunf/en tuAer den Bau der Augm hei den Inteden u. 
Cnutciceenf in Meckel's Archive 1819, s. 38 — 64, and Udyer die Augen de» Maihafen, 
ibid. s. 177 — 181 ; F. Will, Beitrdge zv/r Anal, der zusammengetetzten Augen, Leipzig, 
1840, if to; A. Bbaxtb on the air-tubes in the compound eyes of the AritcuiatOf Tyd- 
schrif, voor not, Oetch. en Phydol. xn. 1845. 

■ Mem. p. aervir d rffisi. des Ina, v. pp. aSj — 289. 

* Gebmab, Magazin der Eniomol. in. 18 18, s. 314. 

* See Jag. Stubm, DeuiacMand^a Inaecten xv. 1824, pp. 119 — 137, Taf. 303. Also 
a genus of the Xylophagi, Anommatua terricoUif Robbbt, Aaid. toy. de BrtixeUea, 1836. 

^ KLua, Ud>er daa VerhaUen der einf adie SUm vmd Sckeildaugen hei den Inteden 
mU zuaammengea Augen. PhyaiJxd-Abhandlungen der KdnigL Ahad. der Wiuena^ zu 
Berlin, aua den Jakre 1831, s. 301 — 312. 

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iNSEcrrs. 281 

' For touch, in some Insects the sucker serves as the organ ; in 
others the palps which belong to the organs of the mouth, in many 
the antennffi. Of taste, smell and hearing, little is known. Taste 
has its seat in the internal surface of the mouth. In some Insects 
there is a part present, which may be compared to a tongue^. 
Respecting smell different opinions are offered. On theoretical 
grounds, from presumed analogy with vertebrate animals in which 
the first pair of cerebral nerves always goes to the olfactory organ, 
Blainville has concluded, that the antennae, to which the* first 
nerves from the cerebral ganglion proceed, must be the organs of 
smell'. Baster, Beimarus, Dumi^ril and Straus place the 
sense of smell in the air-slits {st^makijy which admit the external 
air to the air-tubes. Treviranus however has with reason alleged 
against this opinion, that the stigmcUaj inasmuch as they are 
dispersed over the body, must be useless for determining the place 
from which the odorous matter proceeds ; also that in Insects, which 
have no stigmcUa and which respire by tracheal gills, it would be diffi- 
cult thus to account for the sense of smell. Bosenthal discovered 
in flesh-flies {Mu»ca camaria) a red-brown, folded membrane, which 
is situated in the head beneath the setting on of the antennae'. 
Treviranus thinks that in sucking Insects, which are especially 
distinguished by their acute sense of smell, the seat of this sense 
ought to be sought for in the sucking organ itself, or in the 
oBSophagus. K these animals suck in air, then they may smell 
with the same organ, by means of which, when they imbibe fluids, 

For the theory of visioii with compotmd eyes it is necessary that the partial images 
be erect; hence JOH. Muellkb (Zur vergl. Physiol, de$ Oetichiamnes) has concluded 
that insects see with their compound eyes not by refraction of the rays, but by keeping 
separate the rays of light that come from different points. Hence he denies to the 
fEM^ttes of the cornea, which are true lenses, a refractive power ; yet that vision in 
insects with compound eyes occurs by dioptric means, has been shewn by Dr. A. 
Brants, and established by means of an instrument constructed on the plan of the 
insect's eya TtQdtchr. vow naluurl. Qeschied, en PhytioL, XD., 1840, pp. 12 — $6, 
PL I. 

^ See this part figured and described in some hymenopterous insects by G. R. 
TBBvniAinjs, Verm, Schriften u. s. 135, 131—133, Tab. xin. fig. i, L, fig. 4, 7 ; Tab. 
!▼. fig.5, 7, 8> 9» I*' »"»d L. 

* See Duois, PAyno^. compar, I. 1833, PP* '57 — ^^h ^^o endeavoured to establish 
the same views by experiments, m also Lbfebvbe, Awn, de la Soc, entomol, de Ftnnce, 

» Reil'b Archivf, die Phyeiol. x. s. 427 — 439. 

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they taste. An observation of Huber respecting bees pleads for 
this opinion. Bees are very averse to oil of turpentine; these insects 
were not, however, repelled when Hubeb brought a pencil dipped 
in it to the air-slits and other parts of the body, but flew away as 
soon as he approached it to the mouth. Lesser had already 
noticed that flesh-flies, whose eyes had been smeared with oil of 
turpentine, still flew to tainted meat, but not so when their snout 
had been smeared with it^. In Insects that do not suck the seat 
of smell is probably at the beginning of the oesophagus also*. 

Just as uncertam are we respecting the auditory organ of 
Insects, although it was known to the ancients that they have 
hearing^ Of this sense also several writers, and lately Newport*, 
have sought the seat in the antennae. Yet the experiment that 
grasshoppers, when their antennae have been cut off, continue to 
hear, is even less favourable to this opinion, than is the presence of 
hearing in spiders that have, as is known, no antennae^. Bamdohr 
thinks that bees hear by means of their mandibles ; Treviranus 
thinks that he has discovered in BlaJtta orientalis*, in L^eUula and 
in bees, and Blainville in Cicadas, a special auditory organ'. 
When we remember that for an auditory organ in its simplest 
form nothing more is required than a nerve specifically receptive of 
undulations of sound and so expanded that such undulations may 
be conducted to it by means of the hard covering of the body, it is 

^ The secretion of Stapdiof, which resembles putrid flesh in smell, deceires flesh-flies 
into laying their eggs on the flowers (see Boebbl, Int, n. Musoar, et CHdic, Tab. ix.) ; 
a clear proof that the instinct of these animals is influenced more by smell than sight. 

■ G. R.TEKVIRANU8, Verm, Schr.u, s. 146 — 155, Biologie, vi. s. 307 — 318, Eradiein- 
ungen u. Qetetoe d, organ, Lth, n. s. 141. 

* See for instance, on bees, Mliaxii de Anitrndium not., L. v. c. 13. Of the 
modems Bbunelli amongst others has proved hearing in Crickets by interesting 
experiments ; Comm. Acad. Bononieiu, vn. 1791, pp. 199, aoo. 

* Todd's Ch/doped. n. pp. 891, 961. 

' M. G. 0. Lehxavn, JDe Antennia Intedorum DitaeiiaUo poaterior, Londini et 
Hamburgi, 1800, 8vo. pp. 45 — 47. 

^ In BlaUa oriemtalU there is on each side of the head, behind the base of the 
antennae, a white spot, formed by a round membrane, under which portions of the 
first nervous ganglion are immediately situated, TBXViBAinJs, Annd, der FFctteravucAm 
OtadUckafi, I. s. 169--171, Tnf. V. figs. 1—3. Bubmkistkb thinks these white spots 
are rudiments of simple eyes. 

' Comp. Tbsvibanus^ BMog, Ti. s. 358—360; BuoKYniLBy De torgamaatwm dea 
Anim, 1B22, 1, p. 565, ke. 

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INSECTS. w 283 

readily seen, that it is not veij possible in all cases to determine 
'by anatomical investigation the situation of this organ. Yon 
SiEBOLD not long ago thought he had discovered in Orthcptera an 
auditory organ which is not in the head. In Locusta there are on 
the tibia of the first pair of feet two oval apertures, covered by a 
tense membrane, which De Geer^ had already figured. Behind 
this there is a vesicular expansion of the air-tube of the fore-feet 
and at its anterior margin a nerve, which coming firom the first 
thoracic ganglion, spreads out into a band-like swelling in which 
oval, granular bodies, together with long pediculated, remarkable 
rods, are contained. In Acridium and Truxalis there is situated in 
the first segment of the abdomen, on each side above the third pair of 
feet, a tense membrane, behind which there is a vesicle filled with 
a clear fluid : this vesicle is surrounded by an air-sac, and to it 
there nms a nerve firom the third thoracic ganglion, which is also 
swollen, and in the swelling exhibits similar rod-like bodies to 
those which in Locusta occur in the nervous swelling of the fore- 

There still remains something to be said by us respecting the 
organs of motion in Insects. The antennae of insects are attached 
to the homy covering of the body, which forms an external firame- 
work, a dermal skeleton. This ought not on that account, as has 
sometimes happened in consequence of incorrect and confused notions, 
to be put on a par with the skeleton of higher animals ; for the bones 
or cartilages which form the fi-amework of vertebrate animals belong 
for the most part to the neural skeleton, that is, the most essential 
and central parts that compose the column of the vertebral skeleton 
protect the spinal cord and brain and separate them firom the 
rest of the body*. Yet there are parts present in Insects which 

^ For a more detfiled description I refer to the obsenratioiifl of VoN SiSBOLD him- 
Belf in £bioh80N*b ArchivfOr Naiurgesch, 1844, a. 53—81^ Ta£ i. With every con- 
sideration for Siebold'b great merita in the anatomy of the lower animals, I yenture to 
express modestly my doubts that in insects organs of sense can occur in such an 
unusual situation. The eyes on the margin of the mantle in Peeten and Spondylua 
afford little support to this -new, inasmuch as the type of the aeej^alous molluscs, haa 
just as little claim to the posaession of a head, aa that of the Acal^[>ha and Echinoder- 

' It ia a merit of Qaxo% well deaerving of acknowledgement^ that he recogniaed 
and clearly defined the difference between the dermal, the yiaceral and the nervous 

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284 «* CLASS YIII. 

may be looked on as the mdiments of a neural skeleton. There is 
in each division of the thorax a process, which often has the form of 
the letter Y, supports the nervous cord, and by the expansion of 
its two branches, which are directed upwards, partly covers it. 
To this process Audouin has given the name of Eniotharax; it is 
even found in the head and sometimes in the first abdominal ring. 
These are the same processes which Treviranus had ahready com- 
pared to vertebrae*. These vertebrsB, however, are not joined 
together to form a spine, but are separated from each other by 
certain spaces. The dermal skeleton of Insects consists of a pecu- 
liar substance to which Odier gave the name of Chitine, Lassaione 
that of Entomoline^j which occurs also in the integument of Arach'- 
fwtdea and Crustaceay and which is not soluble in caustic potass, 
neither is rendered yellow by nitric acid, like corneous tissue. It 
bums without fusion or intumescence. It forms different layers of 
which the most external is composed of irregular cells ^ 

The arrangement of the muscles is different in the different 
orders of Insects, nay, in the same insect in its different states, if it 
undergoes complete metamorphosis. The difference between the 
muscles of the thorax and of the abdomen, which in the per- 
fect insect is so marked, is absent in the vermiform elongated 
larva, for instance, in caterpillars. Along the dorsal and ventral 
surface riband-like muscles run longitudinally ; there are different 
oblique muscles in addition. The muscles present in their bundles 
transverse stripes, as in vertebrate animals^. They are usually 

skeletoii ; see especially his excellent work Von den Ur-Theilen des Knochen- und Scha- 
len-GertUt€8, Leipzig, 1826, folio. 

^ Verm. Schriften, IV. s. 229, 230. 

■ See Odibb, Mem, de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat, de Paris, i. 1823, pp. 29 — 42, and the 
later Investigations of G. Sobmidt, Zur ver^chenden Physiologie der Thiere, Braun- 
schweig, 8vo. 8. 33, 52. * 

> Comp. H. Fbby and R Leuokabt in the new edition of B. Wagneb, Lehrb, d&r 
Zootamie, revised by them, 1845, PP* 3 — 5 J also H. Mayeb in MusLLSB'ti Arckiv, 
1842, 8. 12 — 16. In the skin of the Silkworms and their pupae (and also in other pupae 
of lepidoptera) there are found tUUaU cells, which Plattnsb compares with the bone- 
corpuscles in the osseouB tissues of vertebrates, Mublleb's Archiv, 1844, b. 4&, 47. 

^ Since in every ring of the Larva't body the same arrangement of the muscles ia 
observable, the number of the muscles, when those of all the rings are counted together, 
is very great. Ltonnbt found in the larva of the Willow-hawk more than 4,000 

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INSECJTS, • 285 

white, sometimes pale red or brown-yellow, and are not snrroimded 
"by a fibrous membrane, so that, when detached from their inser- 
tions, thej may be spread out like a pencil. 

Many insects are distinguished bj special art-instincts, by their 
cunning in overpowering their prey, by the care for their eggs or 
young, by the construction of artificial habitations, &c Their 
field of observation is greatly extended by the high development of 
their visual organs. The fEMmlty of indicating beforehand changes 
of the weather by certain actions, by which some insects are dis- 
tinguished, rests probably on their finer sense of the difierent con- 
ditions of the atmosphere, since the air penetrates their whole body 
by the tracheae. In this respect, as in so many others, they resemble 
birds amongst vertebrate creatures, whose air-sacs and hollow bones 
are in connexion with the respiratory organs, and in which also 
a perfect correspondence between the external atmosphere and the 
internal parts of the body is thus maintained. 

Manifold is the damage which Insects occasion to us, as well 
by spoiling our luxuries, as by injuring or annihilatmg our pro- 
perty. On the other hand they procure for us many advantages, 
amongst which I need only name silk, wax and honey. But much 
more important still is the use they supply in the great economy of 
nature, and therefore indirectly to us*. The injury which Aey 
sometimes cause us, is not only more than counterbalanced by 
these benefits, but is for the most part only a consequence of the 
beneficent action itself. It is these small animals that nature em- 
ploys for her great purposes, and which effect by their numbers 
what the largest animals working separately are unable to perform. 
Hence they are less dependent on the will of man, which indeed 
here and there may be able to destroy a species, but is unable to 
exterminate it throughout entire districts, as it has annihilated 
different mammals in lands which they formerly inhabited. Insects 
maintain the due equilibrium in the vegetable kingdom, diminish 
putrefection, and lastly afford to many other animals, especially 
birds, an abundant and ever present nutriment. 

The geographical distribution of Insects opens a wide field for in- 
quiry, which however has only been lately entered. Many families, 

^ On the benefit and the injury cansed by Inseots, see in detail KJABT and 
Spbkob, IfOrodncUon to Eniamohgy, i. pp. 80—338. 

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nay, whole orders of insects, have been collected m other parts 
of the world with more or less of inadvertency by travellers and 
collectors, or at least not with such care as to allow us to deduce 
from the species yet known any general rules. Thus, for instance, 
if we compare the number of Diptera found out of Europe with the 
European, and thus form a measure of the proportion which sub- 
sists between exotic and European species, we shall arrive at a 
conclusion which will certainly vaiy much from the truth. Some 
genera are proper to the warm regions of the earth alone, and in 
Europe are represented either not at all or only by a few species 
from the southern part of our quarter of the earth, as the CicadcR 
{Tettiff anted Fabr.) and the genus Phasma. On the whole our 
knowledge of some orders of insects, especially of the Hemiptera 
and Orthoptera, would be very confined, were we to limit ourselves 
to European insects. The distribution of the same or very similar 
species in cotmtries widely distant from each other, the remarkable 
richness of the same natural group giving a special character to 
FauncB, often depends upon the same quality of the soil and a 
resemblance in the vegetation. Thus for instance the insects of the 
sandy regions of Asia near the Caspian Sea correspond to those of 
North Africa, nay even to those of the Colony at the Cape. A 
similar remark may be made in relation to the class of Mammalia, 
It is this remarkable abundance of certain forms which leads us 
at first sight, and even without having determined a single species, 
to distinguish a collection of insects from the Cape of Grood Hope, 
for instance, from one from the Indian Archipelago; Mtflabrisy 
Pimdia {Trcu^hi/notus, Sepidiurn)^ BracJiyceruSy Acrydtumy Mantisy 
&c. in the first, Phasmay PenUUomay numerous resplendently coloured 
Papilioma in the second, give to the two a totally difierent appear- 
ance. Some species of insects are confined within very narrow 
limits; others, as for instance, Papilio cardut, Pluaiagammay occur 
in a considerable portion of the old world, and also in North 
America ^ — The limits of vegetation on mountains, as well as near 

1 On the geographical distribution of Insects comp. Latbullb, Inibrod/vifitiM^ d la 
Olographic gSn^rale des Arachnides et des Imectea, Mim, du Mutium, iv. 1817, pp. 
37 — 67; the same in JXct. CUus. d^ffiat, Nat, vn. 18^5, pp. 290— 296, and especially 
Laoobdaibe, Jntrod. d VEniomol. n. 1833, pp. 528—619 (the best hitherto known on 
this subject). See also C. G. Reioh, BeUrag zur Lekre von der geographiichm Ver^rei- 


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the poles, are also osnallj those of the distribution of Insects ; some 
species live even on snow and ice, as a small black insect from the 
order Thysanura^ which some years ago (1839) was first discovered 
1)7 D^OR on the glacier of Monie Bosa, and after him is named 
Desoria glacialts. 

tung, der IntecUn, vMbewndere der Kitfer, Nov, Adt, Acad, Oca. Leop. Car, xn. i, 
pp. 805— S40. 

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Articulate animals, with articulate feet. Head distinct, fur- 
nished with two antennae. Heart situated in the back, similar to 
a longitudinal vessel. Organs of respiration tubular, branched, 
distributed throughout the whole body (troucheci). Sexes distinct. 

Section I. Apiropoda. 
With numerous feet With thorax not separate from abdomen. 

Order I. Myriapoda. 

Wingless. Feet numerous (24 or more), disposed according to 
the length of the body, terminated by a single claw. Two clusters 
of simple eyes, in various number ; in some no eyes. 

Myria/poda. Leach and other modem writers consider this order 
as a class, and wish the name of Insects to be restricted to six- 
footed articulate animals, of which the body consists of three prin- 
cipal parts : head, thorax, and abdomen. Here there is no separar 
tion between thorax and abdomen, but the whole body is parted 
into rings. The reason why we have placed these insects at the 
beginning of the class, is to be found in their resemblance to the 
ringed worms, to which they are related, Dot in their external form 
alone, but also in their internal structure ; for even the six-footed 
insects, which imdergo complete metamorphosis, often in the larval 
state approximate to the myriapods. We willingly admit, on the 
other hand, that the myriapods accord with certain Crustaceans, and 
even form an unconstrained transition to them. But this natural 
transition is in some degree broken by other insects, which on the 

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contrary pass through the order of the Parasites to the Arachnids. 
The Arachnids again condact us by another road (through the 
genus Scorpio to ZimuliLs) to the Crustaceans. Thus is the entire 
animal kingdom a net everywhere connected, and every attempt to 
arrange ftnimfl.1g in a single ascending series must necessarily fail of 

The oral organs consist in most of two mandibles, whidi are 
toothed at their broad extremity, and of a fbur-lobed underlip whose 
two lateral lobes represent the two low:er jaws (maxiUasy In some 
the second pair of feet forms, by coalescence of their basal pieces, 
a sort of second underlip, which covers the oral organs and the first 
pair of feet from beneath. In certain species the jaws and the lip 
are represented by pointed organs which coalesce to form a sucker; 
but by far the greater number are manducating insects. Myriapods 
in the first period of their life have fewer rings and only three 
pairs of feet ; as they grow new rings arise and the number of feet 
is augmented. In this respect also they resemble the ringed-worms, 
whilst in the metamorphosis of Insects the homologous parts, rings, 
segments, are not multiplied, but are developed unequally or are 
united, to form the different divisions of the body in the peifect 
Insect The number alBo of simple eyes increases during the 
development of myriapoda 

These Insects live in obscure places, under the bark of trees and 
on the ground under fallen leaves, stones, <&c. . 

Ck>mp. on this order amongst others : Leaoh, A tabvla/r View of the ex- 
ternal Chcaraden of four Classes of Animals which Linn^ arranged under 
Insecta, Transact, of the Lirm. Soe. xi. 1815, p. 306, &c. ^p. 376—386) ; 
P^ Gkbyais, Stvdes pour servir d rifist. not. des Myriapodes, Ann, des Sc, 
not. sec. ^rie, Tom. vn. 1837 ; Zool,, pp. 35 — 60 ; also, 30 S^rie,Tom. n. 
1844, Zool., pp. 51—80; J. F. BRAVJyr, ReeueU de MSmoires reUoifs d 
Vordre des Inaectes Myriapodes {extrait du BtUleUn publi^e par VAcad. des 
Se, de St. Peter^^ourg, Tom. V.— ix.) 1841, 8vo ; A. F. Waoa, Observaiions 
sur les Myriapodes, Bivue zool. publiiepar GufaiN, Mars 1839, pp. 76 — 90; 
G. NewpoHt, List of Myriapoda in the British Museum, Ann. of Nat. Hist, 
xm. 1844, pp. 94—101, pp. 363 — 270 ; 0. L. Koch, System der Myria- 
poden, Begensburg, 1847, 8vo min. 

Family I. Jultdce. {Chilognatha Latr.) Anterior feet not 
changed into organs of mandncation ; rest of the feet in most of the 
segments bigeminal, slender, short, of the two sides approximate, 
inserted nearly at the middle of the abdomen. Antennae short, 
filiform, with six or seven joints. Organs of copulation sitaated at 
the anterior part of the body. 

VOL. I. 19 

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292 CLASS Vlll. 

apertures, vhicli form a ix)w on each side of the body, to be air-slits 
{stigmata). The true air-slits lie quite beneath, near the insertion 
of the feet, (Savi op. cit. Tom. i. p. 334, Buemeioteb in Okek's 
IsiSy 1834, B. 134 — 138. Ta£ i.) These animals can roll themselves 
up spirally, with the head in the middle ; in which posture they 
pass the winter. In copulating they bring the anterior part of the 
body in which the sexual organs are situated (in tiie female in the 
fourth, in the male in the seventh ring), perpendicularly upwards ; 
the posterior part of the body rests tortuously on the ground In 
the spring the female deposits her eggs in masses of sixty or 
seventy in a hole excavated for the purpose under the groxmd; after 
three weeks or more the young make tiieir appearance, but still 
continue to adhere for some days by a string to the shell, which has 
burst longitudinally, without motion, and surrounded by a proper 
membrane; at that period they have no legs at all; as soon as 
they have got three pairs of feet, they separate themselves from the 
shell; they have now a great resemblance to the larvae of some 
Coleoptera; soon the number of rings and feet begins to be increased 
in that part of the body which is seated in front of the penultimate 

8p, JutuB iobuUmu L., Koch in Panzbb n. Hebbioh Schjeffb^ DeutsekL 
InB. Heft 163, No. 7. Some foreign species attain a length offive inches and 
more, as Spirotrepttu Javanieua BBAinoT, and Spirobolus apinoswDB'HjLAXr, 
Mm. Lugdan. &c. The last species, from New Zealand, is black, "with 
different rows of spines running longitudinally. 

Olomeris Latr. Body elongato-oval, gibbous above, plane or 
concave below, contractile into a ball, with the first segment made 
up of a small dorsp^l lamina, semicircular, the second broader than 
the rest, the last semicircular. Antennae thick, with the sixth joint 
the largest. 

A, Eyes on both sides eight ; seven disposed in a curved Hue, 
the eighth on the outside, out of rank. Joints of antennae seven, 
the penultimate including the last. Sub-genus Glomeria B&AifDT. 

Sp. Glomeria limbakt Latb., Ohm. marginata Leach, Bum^. Condd, 
ghi6r. PL 57, fig. 3, Oniscus gonatus Paiheeb, DeuttehZ. Int., Heft 9, 
No. 13, Bbandt u. Ratzebubo, Medizin. Zool. n. Tab. xin. figs. 7 — 10- 
These animals resemble in external form some of the Onucitiea {Onigetu, 
ArmadUla\ and are even met with ii^ apothecaries' shops, amongst the so- 
called MiUipedcB, mixed up with ArmadiUo qfficinarwn. Gomp. on the 
anatomy of this insect Brakdt in MvKLLNL*a Archiv, 1837, s. 320 — 327. 
Taf. XII., and ReeueU ieMhnoirea, pp. 152 — 158. 

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B. Two oval clusters of numerous eyes (50 and more), trans- 
verse^ situated in front of the antennse at the sides of the head 

Sub-genus SplhCBropoeus Brandt. Joints of antennse six^ the last 
large, truncated at the point. 

Sp. SphoBntpoBUM intignii Brandt, Zephr<inia ovalU Gbat ; a large species 
from JtkYA, figured in this ManuaL 

Sub-genus Sphxrotherium BRAiayr. Joints of antenns seven, the 
sixth oblong, the seventh the least. 

Most of the species of this sab-diviBion are from the Cape of Good Hope. 
The genera SpharopoevM and Spharothtrium are exotic, and seem to repre- 
sent Crlomeris in warm regions. 

Family II. Scohpendrtdce. {Chtlopoda Latr.) Second pair 
of feet cheliform, terminated by a strong hook, which is perforate, 
covering the first pair of feet and the organs of manducation 
beneath, joined at the base, dilated, as if forming a second labium. 
Body depressed, covered above and below with homy scutes, the 
sides membraneous. Feet lateral, mostly a single pair in each 
segment, the last longest, extended backwards. Antennae usually 
more slender towards the extremity, with numerous joints (14—40 
and more). Organs of copulation situated at the posterior extremity 
of the body. 

These animals live on animal food, insects, <&c. Their nippers 
(feet of the second pair) contain the excretory duct of a poison- 
gland, which secretes a fluid deadly to small animals, as De Geer^ 
and Latreille' observed in flies ; the bite of the large native 
species may cause great pain in man and violent inflammation and 
swelling I 

Gomp. on the fiunily G. Nbwpokt, Monogratph cf the Clou Myriapoda, 
Order Ghilopoda. Trantact, Linn. Soc, xix. p. 265. 

A. Tarsi long, slender, midtiarticulate. Antennae setaceous, as 
long as the body. 

^ InteeL vn. p. 557, on the bite of Lithobiut forficatm, 

' Hut da Cruet, et dee Ine. vil p. 88, on the bite of Scutigera araneoidee, 

' LXBDWEITHOECK fiist obserred and figured the perforated nipper, Vervdff, der 

Brieven &c pp. 138 — 140, fig. 10 (59th letter), and Sevende Vervotg. der Brievcn, 

pp. 184 — 186 ,(ii4th letter). 

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BctUtffera Lam. Cermatia Illig. Feet elongate, especially the 
last. Body behind the head covered with scutes above, the fourth 
longer than the rest. Eyes two, compound. 

Sp. ScuJtigera araneoides auctor. {Scolopendra coleoptrata L.?) DuM^. Cotu, 
g4n. PI. 58, fig. 6 ; Gu^bin Iconogr,, Insed, PI. I. fig. 7 : this animal hu 
15 pairs of long feet, which readily fall off as in gnats and harvest-spiders 
(Phalangia) ; it is found in Fnwce and other parts of Europe. L^N 
DuFOUB has communicated some anatomical details regarding it in Ann. 
det Sc. not. u. 1824, pp. 92 — 98. The compound eyes of Scutigera may 
be looked on as a special anomaly in this order; the cornea presents 
hexangular fafettes, as already figured by Savxgnt, Deacr. de rJEgtfpte, 
Myriapodes, PL i.* 

There are still some other species in the warm regions of the old and 
new world, but they appear to me to be not sufficiently determined. The 
figure of Pallas {Jvlua araneoldea in his Spicilegia ZooL ix. Tab. iv. fig. 
16), ordinarily considered as synonymous with Seutigera araneoides, is cer- 
tainly a different species. The figure of Panzer, Deutschl, Insect, Heft 
50, No. 12, under the name of Scolopendra coleoptrata, howeyw it be still 
referred to by later writers, has no relation to Seutigera, but appears to 
represent LUhobius forfica^ua. 

B. Tarsi short, uniarticulate. Autennse shoi-ter than the body. 

Liihohiua Leach. Superior scutes imbricate, unequal. Fifteen 
pairs of feet behind the chelifonn feet. AntennaB with numerous 
joints, in adults above 40. Two groups of eyes in the external 
margin of the head behind the antennas, the hindmost eye larger 
than the rest. 

Sp. Lithobiiu forficatiu, Scolopendra fatjicata L., Gu£bin Icon., Ins, PL h, 
fig. 6; Panzeb Deuttchl. Ins, Heft 50, No. 1$, Heft 190, No. 20; com- 
mon in dunghills, under flower-pots, &c. ; 10 lines long, i^ lines broad. 
See on its anatomy Tbevibanus, Verm. Schrifi, 11. 181 7, s. 18 — 33. Taf. 
IV — vii., LfoN DuFOUB, Ann, dts So, not. Ii. pp. 81—^1. It has seyen 
pairs of stigmata. Here also in young animals the number of rings of the 
body and of the feet is smaller ; the augmentation, as the animal grows, 
appears to occur in a manner different from that in Julus, so that new 
segments and new feet appear not behind, but between those already 
formed ; and thus it is explained that the smaller dorsal shields are between 
the larger. GsBVAis, Ann, des Sc, nat., sec S^rie^ Tom. vn. Zool. pp. 
57, 58. 

Sub-genus Henicopa Newp. 

^ In a species still unnamed firom Japan in the Leyden Museum, two Paris inches 
in length, (the European species attains a length of only 8 or 10 lines), I found these 
fa^ettes ^ miUim. in diameter. 

Digitized by 



Soohpefndra L. (exclusive of seyeral species). Superior scutes 
plane, in some subequal, the posterior gradually larger in others 
unequal, with larger and smaller almost alternate. More than 15 
pairs of feet (almost always 21), behind the cheliform feet. An- 
tennas with 17 — 20 joints. Eyes four on both sides, at the margin 
of the head behind the base of the antennas. 

To thifl genuB belong the largest species of this division. In these 
Myriapoda there are 9 pairs of air-slits present, in the membraneous part 
between the dorsal and ventral scutes (in the 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, iS, 
and so ring), above and behind the insertion of the feet, (see my observa- 
tions in the Tidtchr, voor not. Oach. en Pkynd. v. bl. 33a — 337. PI. vi.) 
Comp. for the Anatomy Gaedb in Wiedemann's Zool, Magazin, 1. 1817. 
B. 105 — 109 with fig., and Kutoboa, Seolopendra morntantis anaUme, 
Petropoli, 1834, 4to. The species investigated by this writer is Scolopendra 
cingtdarit Latb., which occurs in the south of Europe, in the Crimea and 
in Egypt. In north and central Europe no species of this genus occur. 
Formerly many species from different regions were confounded under the 
name of Scol. morsitans L. ; the species figured by Kollab under this 
name (BnmLitn*8 liuHge Insecten, Rate im innem v. BrcuUien von Db 
PoHL, Wien, 1831, 4to, fig. 4) ought apparently to be referred to Scolopenr 
dra tubspinipet Geby. 

Cryptops Leach. Twenty-one pairs of feet behind the cheliform 
feet. Eyes none. Antennae with 17 moniliform joints. 

Sp. Oryptopi Savignii Leach, Seol. germanica Panzsb u. Hebbich 
SoHiBPFEB, DetOtchl. Ins, Heft 143, No. a, &c. The species of this genus 
are distinguished^ besides the absence of eyes, also by their much smaller 
size from those of the former ^ 

Geophilus Leach. Pairs of feet numerous, 40 and more. Body 
linear. Eyes none, antennse with 14 joints. 

Add sub-genera MecUtocephaZuSj NecrophloBophagus, Gombreg- 
mctiua Newport, and some others formed by Koch, Si/sL der 
Myriapod. pp. 176—189. 

Gomp. on this genus also, Gebvais, Gu^bin Maga», de Zoclogk 1835 
(with a figure of a large species from France, QeopkUut WaUcencerii), and 
Nbwpobt, Proceedingt of the Zool, Soc. 1842, pp. 178 — 181. Sp. Scolo- 
pendra fiava Db Geeb^ Ine. vii. PL 35, figs. 1 7 — 30, GeophU, longicomU 
Lbaoh, PA27ZEB u. Hebbioh Sohjsffeb^ DetUschl. Jne, Heft 142, No. 5. 
Of thi» species Tbbvibakub has given an anatomy. Verm. Schr. u. s. 

^ Here also belongs the genus ScolopendroptU Bbandt, that appears to differ from 
Cryptopa only by having two segments more. 

Digitized by 


293 CLASS viir. 

The phosphoric light which some species diffuse {ScU. dectrica phog- 
phorea) is to he ascrihed to a fluid that passes upon the skin from open- 
ings similar to those in the JulidcB {Waga), Numerous ohservations are 
recorded that myriapods of this division, after having caused lingering 
head-ache, have heen sneezed forth by men from the nose (F. Tibdemank, 
Von lebenden WUrmem u, Jnsehten in den Gtruchsorganen des Menachenj 
Mannheim, i844i 8vo, s. ii — 17, to which examples many others may 
be added). To reject the observations, is certainly more easy than to 
explain the continued life of these insects in such an unusual situation. 

ScolopendreUa Gebv. Antennae with twenty joints, moniliform. 
Ocelli two. Segments of the body sixteen. Mouth not chelate, 
suctorial. Habit of Geophylus. 

Comp. Ann. des Sc, not, troisibme S^r. Zool. Tom. n. p. 79, 8yo, PL 5, 
figs. 15, 16. Is this its place 1 Are the sucking Scolopendnt to be com- 
pared with the SiphonizaaUia chUognatha BSANDT ? 

Section II. Hexapoda. 
Feet SIX. Thorax separate from the abdomen. 

Order II. Thysanura. 

Hexapod, apterous, not undergoing metamorphosis, not para- 
sitic. (Mouth with mandibles and maxillss. Two groups of simple 
eyes. Setae or a bifid tail in most at the end of the body). 

Gvadvovpot from Bitrapoif a frrngty a ttift, and ovpdf thus named 
from some species which have jointed threads at the posterior 
extremity ; in others there is a forked tail which in a state of rest 
is bent forwards beneath the body, and on extension gives a blow to 
the ground, which causes the body to spring upwards : hence they 
may be named spring-tails. In some however the posterior part of 
the body has only two small conical hairs (FodtiraJlmeUiria L.) or no 
appendage at all. The body ia generally elongate. Some are very 
small, and even the largest species are scarcely half an inch long. 
They love moisture, and live on the ground, imder stones, in mould 
or old fallen leaves, under the bark of trees, in dark corners of houses, 
Ac. They undergo no metamorphosis, but change their skin often. 

The intestinal canal is straight, the stomach wide. In Z^fnama 
there are two, in JSmyrUhtMtLS, according to I^icolei, three vessels for 
secreting urina The external sexual organs are placed at the 
posterior extremity of the abdomen* In the female of Zepisma a 
split tube or borer is found which serves for depositing the 6ggSL 

Digitized by 


IN8ECTA. 297 

The nervous system in SmyrUhurus presents only four ganglia, of 
vhich the first and second lie very close together, the first above, 
the second below the (esophagus (Nxoolet) ; in Lepiama Mccharina, 
on the other hand, Treviranus found twelve ganglia. The two 
eyes, which in most species are small, consist of a group of eight, 
sometimes six or seven, in Fodura Jimetaria of fourteen simple 
eyes (Nigolbt) ; in LepUma saccharina twelve simple eyes are 
counted on each aide. 

These Insects, however nearly alli<$d to the myriapods, approach 
still more nearly to the Orthoptera, and especially to the genus of the 
earwigs {Forficulas) ; see this Manual^ first edition, l 1828. pp. 204, 
205. But if, on account of tins affinity, any one would place Lepiama^ 
or even the whole order of Tkysanuraf amongst the Orthoptera, I 
think he would go too &r. Time, the touchstone of all things, 
would reject the union. If Latreillb had united the Thysannra 
with the Orthoptera in one order, zoologists of the present day 
would for certain have perceived long ago that these Insects were 
not in their place. 

Comp. on ihiB order: TBKViRAinjs Verm, Sekr. n. b. ii — 17. Tab. 11. 
ni. and iv. figs, i — 5 (on the anatomy of the genua Lepitma) ; Burmxistsb 
in Oksk's Jits, 1834, s. 137, 138 (on the respiratory organs and the 
digvMia of Lepisma, whose presence Trsvirakub had erroneously denied) ; 
Latbkillb, J}e rOrganitaiion extSriewre et eomparie des Insecte$ de Vordre 
det Thyaanourta, Nouv» Ann. du Mu$, i. 1832, pp. 161 — 187 ; B.Tbmfue- 
*0K, TKyaanura ffibemio, or Deaeriptuma of auch apeciea of apring-taited 
Inaeda, Podura and Lepisma, aa have been oBaerved in frdand, Tranaad. 
of the EnUmol, 80c. Londm, 1836, i. pp. 89 — 98, PI. zi. xii.); H. Nioolst 
Reeherchea pour aervir d VSiat, dea Podurellea, 88 pages et 9 planches 
{NeueDenka^r, der dUg. Schtoekeriache Oeaellachtfi fOr die geaamnU. Nalw 
wiaaenach, 3d, vi. Neucfaatel, 1841, 4to) ; Burmubtib, Handh, der Ento- 
mologie, ii. 2, 1838, s. 443 — 458 ; Gkbvaib in Walkxsaxr, Stat, dea Ina. 
apUrea (Suites h BurroN chez Bobbt), m. 1814, pp. S77—4S6, ko. 

Family III. Leptsmeme. Body elongate, mostly covered with 
minute scales. AntennaB setaceous, with joints numerous, very 
short. Palps four, elongate. Abdomen of nine or ten distinct 
^segments, besides other appendages supplied with three (or more 
rarely with two) long setss, articulated towards the extremity. 

Machilis Latr. Antennse inserted under large, contiguous 
(compoxmd ?) eyes. Maxillary palps, exsert, filiform, long. Body 
arcuate, with convex back, saltatory. Three setae at the extremity 
of the abdomen, the middlemost larger than the lateral. 

Digitized by 



Sub-genera Petrobhu^ Machilia Leach. 

Sp. MaekUu marUima Lath., M. polypoda Duifia. (not Latb.), Cons. gSn. 
PI. 54, fig. a, ftc. Besides the jointed threadB (two on most of the s^- 
ments of the abdomen), GufRiH has obaenred in MaekUu Teaides also on 
the same segments, which he compares to gills ; Ann. deg Se. not. sec. 
S^rie, Zool. V. pp. 374, 375, Iconogr., Int, PL n. ^. i t, These animals 
remind us of lanrse of Ephemera. 

Lepisma L. (in part). Antennae inserted amongst eyes, small, 
remote. Palps moderate. Body depressed, squamose, not saltatory, 
terminated by three subeqoal setae. 

Sp. Lepisma saceharina L., Gu^BiH Iconogr., Int. PL 1, fig. i ; GsonmOT 
Im. Pwr. U. PL XX. fig. 3 ; Hookb Micrographia 1667, Tab. 33, f. 3, 
pp. 108 — 110. It is said that this insect was imported into Europe from 
America^ where it lives in sugar: in Sweden it is rare, according to Db 
Gbbb ; it is not spotted, covered with silvery scales, which under the 
microscope are finely ribbed longitudinallj, and differ much in size and 
form. This insect runs very rapidly, and with us is usually found in 
clothes-chests, between damp books, &c. 

Sub-genus Lepismina Geky. is distinguished by the body plane, 
the thorax very broad 

Sp. Lepwna awea L^v Dutoub, Ann. det Se. nai. Tom. XXU. p. 419. Tab. 
xm. tg. I. 

jNf'ote. — Genus NicoleHa Gekvais is distinguished by defidct of 
eyes, and body not scaly ; Campodea Westwood, Ann. of NaL HiaL 
Tom. z. 1842, p. 71, by the same characters and by the tail com- 
posed of two setffi only. Is it Podwra cmbvlans L. % 

Family FV. Podurelke. Body in some elongate, in others globose, 
broad, covered usually with hairs, sometimes with scales also. 
Antennas with few joints, or with four longer joints at the base, at 
the apex only with short numerous joints. Palps inconspicuous. 
Abdomen composed of only six or fewer segments, mostly termi- 
nated by a forked tail, during rest bent forward beneath the 
abdomen, serving for springing. 

Podwra L. 

Spring4ail (properly foot-tail, since the tail is used like feet for 
motion). They are small insects, which live on trees, under bark, 
under stones, on moist earth, &c. Some are met with on the sur&oe 
of water. Since the tail, according to Waga, is at first wanting 
in young animals (Ann, de la Soo. JEniom. de France, xi. quoted by 

Digitized by 



Ebichson, JakreaheridU, ArcLf, N<Uwrge9ck. 1843, a 270), it is poe- 
aible that sometimes young specimens of Podura may be placed 
under the genus Lipura (Anurophorus Nicol^) ; but this entire 
genus is not on that account to be rejected, for it is very usual that a 
young form in a natural fiunilj should be represented by a per- 
manent generic form. The most remarkable deviation in this familj 
is that of the genus Anura Geryais (AchartUes Nicolet), where in 
place of jaws there is a suctorial mouth j see Nicolet op. dt. p. 33, 
PL IV. fig. 5. 

Sminthurua Latr. Thorax and abdomen conjoined into a 
globose body. AntennaB geniculate; terminal portion of antenna 
aetaoeons, mnlti-articnlate. 

Gu^DT, leonoffr, Ins. PL i, fig. 4. (Add sub-gen. Diq^rUma Boubuet). 

Podura Latb. Thorax separate from abdomen ; bodj elongate, 
with abdomen narrow, oblong. 

A. Mandibles and maxUlse none. Suctorial tube conicaL 

Anwra Gerv. (Achorutes Nicolet not Templ.) No forked taiL 
Abdomen rotundate behind. 

B. Mandibles and mazillse. 

a) AntennsB shorty with four or five joints. 

Lipura BuBiL {Anurophorus Nicolet). Body not scaly. Abdo- 
men, instead of a forked tail^ terminated bj two very small conical 
diverging tubercles. 

Sp. Podura jtmeUma L., Upwra ofmhulaiu GsBV. {ntU, Pod, amftuZoiM L.), 
Bk Gsbb, vn. p. 33. PL 3, figs. 5, 6. Nioolbt op. dt. PL 5, fig. 1, ooni- 
mon in gnrden-mould and in flower-bedsy ivoiy-white^ i lino long. 

Achorviea Tekpleton^ Hypoga,atrwru8 Boxtblet, Podura Nicoletf. 
Body not squamosa Tail forked, short 

Sp. Podura aquaiica L., Db Gbkb, Int. vii. PL n. figs. 11— 13, Nioolkt 
op. dt. PL 5, fig. 4 ; one line long, very common with us, forma large 
black spots on the water, near which other white spots are floating, fonned 
by the cast skins. 

5) Antenme longer than head. 

Genera Isotoma Boublet {Degeeria Nicolet, Desoria Nia), 
Heterotojna Bourlet, OrcJiesella Templeton, Lepidocyriua Boublet 

Digitized by 



{Cyphodeirus Nicolet), Tamocerus Nicolet {MacroU>ma Boub* 


Sp. Detoria s^acialu Nicolet, L L PL 5, fig. 10; first found in 1849 on 
Monte Soaa, afterwaixifl on the Unter-Aar spader; see AOASSIZ Geoloffitehe 
Alpenreuen von D^SOB, BeuUdi yon C. Vogt, Fnmkt ft. Main, 1844. Sto, 
8. 181, 182. 

Order III. Parasitica. 

Hexapod, apterous, not undergoing metamorphosis, parasitic. 
Two simple eyes, sometimes none. 

These animals, also named Epizoa (as opposed to Entozoa, our 
fifth class, see above), cannot well be otherwise defined than by the 
short account that we have given of them. The absence of a forked 
tail or of setsB on the abdomen*, distinguishes them indeed from 
most but not from all Insects of the former order. The flea and 
some wingless species of the order Diptera are distinguished from 
these parasites by their undergoing complete metamorphosis. 

Comp. on thia division C. L. NrrzscH, Die Familien und OaHungen dcr 
Tkieriniecten (insecta epizoica), in Gerxab u. Zutcksn, Magazin der Ea- 
tomologie, m. Halle 18 18, s. «6i — 316. Here however the parasitic Dtp- 
tera (Hippobotea, Nyderibia ftc.) are included in the same division. Netzsch 
arranged the rest according to their oral organs, those in which they are 
suctorial, amongst the ffemiplera, those in which they are manducatory, 
amongst the Orlhoptera; two orders in which the inclination to abortion 
of the wings is evident^ and which undergo an incomplete metamorphosis, 
which therefore in the wingless genera can shew itsdf as cbazige of skin alone. 

See also GuBLT U^>er die auf den ffata-Saiigetkiiren und Hwutvdgdn 
lebenden 8chmarotzer'In$ecten und ArcKkniden, Magaain fOr die geaamte 
ThierfieHkunde, viiL 1842. s. 411 — 433. Tab. iv. and iz. 1843. s. 1—24- 
Tab. X. Some figures are also found in Ltonbt, Recherchee tur differentee 
eapices d^Ineectes, (rnvrage paethume, Paris 1833, 4to ; DsinrT, Monographic 
Anoplurorum Britanniee, or An Etaay on tke Britith Speeiet of Paratitea, 
London, 1842 ; a work of detail which I received too late to make use of. 

Family V. Hcematopitia s. PedicuUna, Mouth anterior, com- 
posed of a rostellum, retractile, vaginate at the base. Tarsi uni- 
articulate, with single arciLate claw^. 

Pedicvlus L. (exclusiye of several species). AntennsB filiform, 
quinquearticulate. Vagina of the rostrum aculeate at the point. 

^ Hence the name Anoplwra Lsach. See his work On ike PamXlie$y Stirpee and 
Genera of ike Order Anoplura, Zoological MieceUany, in. 181 7, pp. 64 — 67. 
3 By some writers this hook is considered as the second joint of the tarsus. 

Digitized by 



The species of this genus occur only in man and some mammals, 
whose blood they suck. Their motion is sluggisL 

The louse of the human head has been investigated anatomically 
by our Swammebdam. The intestinal canal is straight, with a large 
stomach ; there are four vessels secreting urin& Each ovary con- 
sists of five tubes. The nervous system consists, besides the cere- 
bral ganglion, of three large ganglia in the thorax, so closely placed 
behind each other as to touch ; from these ganglia the nerves of the 
feet arise, and from the last ganglion arise in addition six nerves 
which are distributed through the cavity of the abdomen. 

See SWAMICSBDAV Bijbd der ntOuur. hi 63—^6. Tftb. I. u.^ 

Sub-genera Fhthirua, ffcBmatopinus, PediculuB Lsach. 

Sp. Pedieidus humamis capitis, PedictUtu eerviealia Lkach, Db Gkib ln», 
vn. Tab. i. fig. 6, DumI^il Cotiaid. gH. «. L In$. PI. 53, figs, i, a, 
Gu^BiN Icon, Im, PL a, fig. 5. (Comp. also Swammkbdam, and a gigaDtio 
figure twenty inches long by Hooks Micrograph. Tab. 35). The larger 
spedes, considered by LlNN^us as a variety, which lives upon the body 
and amongst the garments, differs by the less deep indsures in the side of 
the abdomen at each ring, by a thorax broader behind, and, as Guiaiir has 
remarked, by longer antennae. Pedicnhu humamu corparia Db Gbbb, 
Ins. L 1. fig. 5, {Pediculus humanus Lbaoh, Pedieulus vesUmenH Bubm.) 
As a third parasitic species of man may be added Pedicidis pubis L., 
Phihirusinguinalis Jj^Aon, HsDiExper. circa generaHonem Insectortmi, Am- 
stelodani, 1688, lamo. Tab. is, fig. superior, GnisiN op. dt. fig. 17. 

Family VI. Mallophaga. Mouth supplied with mandibles 
and maxillss. Tarsi biarticulate, with a single claw or with two. 

On Mammalia, and especially on Birds, different parasitic Insects 
are foimd, which wei-e placed by Linnjeus in the genus FedictUua, 
but which differ from it by the presence of jaws on the under 
surface of the head. De Geeb, who discovered this character, 
justly held it to be so important and essential, that he placed these 
animals in a distinct genus, to which he gave the name of Bicinua 

^ liBBUWENBOBCK investigated the male louse (which is rarer and was unknown 
to SwAMUBRDAM, op. cit. bl. 83) ; he found two testes on each side of the body. 
This and other remarkable peculiarities in Pedicukta hum. corporis are found in 
Lkeuwenhobck, sesde Vervolg. der Brieven, Delft, 1697, 988te Missive, pp. 187 — 217. 
See also Vierde Vervolg. der Brieven 1694, 77ste Missive, pp. 587 — 591, where the 
head is described and figured. The homy sheath of the penis L. described as a sting 
at the posterior part of the body. 

Digitized by 


302 CLASS viir. 

{Mim. pov/r servir d rffut. d'Ins. vii. p. 69). J. F. Hermanit 
changed this name, which had already been given to a genus of 
plants, toiVirmtA9^; Nitzsch, who adopted this name for a sub- 
genus alone, named these animals MaMophaga, from fjia\Xo^,Jleece, 
since they live on hair, on scales of the epidermis andv feathers, and 
not on blood. In birds there are no lice of the former family 
known — all the bird-lioe belong to the MaMophaga. In some are 
found small, moveable, oblong organs in front of the antenna, like 
a second pair of imperfect antenna, which Nitzsch names trahe- 
cvloB, The eyes are oflen difficult to distinguish : in some they are 
entirely wanting. 

A. Antennae filiform. Maxillary palps none, labial very short, 

Phihptems NiTZSCH. Antennee qninquearticulate. Claws of 
tarsi two. 

Sp. Ph&opterui haculut Nitzbch, Redi op. cit. Tab. n. Jigura wpericr, 
Ltonibt op. dt. p. 41, pi. 5, fig. 10, GUBLT Magae. /. d. ge$, ThierheOk. 
vm. Tab. IV. fig. 9, on Pigeons. All the species of this genos live upon 
birds. Here belong the sub-genera Ooniodes, LipeuruB, Nirmus and Doe(h 
phorue of NiTZSOH, together ^th Ooniocciea Buaic. and Omithobiut'DmwY. 

Trichodecies NiTZSCH. Antennae triarticulate. Tarsi with a 
single claw. 

The species of this genus live only on Mammalia. Sp. Triehod, latHi 
NiTZSCH, JtictHfu canU Db Gbbb^ Ins. vn. Tab. iv. fig. 16, Gublt op. dt. 
IX. Taf. I. fig. I. 

R Antennse clavate (four joints). Maxillary palps conspicuous. 

I/iotheum NiZTSCH. Tarsi biunguiculate. Labial palps biar- 
ticulate, short. 

The spedes of this genus keep to birds, often of the same spedes on 
which Phiiopteri also live*. Here belong the sub-genera Colpoe^ktUvm, Me- 
nopon {Menopon and Nitachia Dbknt), TrinoHtm, Bureum, Loanobotkrium, 
Phyaoatomum of Nitzsch. These insects move more quickly and creep 
more nimbly beneath the feathers than the PhUopteri, Sp. Liotheum tub- 
wqwde NiTZSCH, Ltoknbt 1. I, PI. 4, fig. 5, on crows, &o. 

* MSviunre Aptirologique, 1804, p. 11. 

■ Five different species of Mallophaga occur on fowls. Such names, therefore, as 
PedieuUu gaUina may readily introduce confusion. 

Digitized by 



Oyropua NiTZSCH. Tarsi uninnguiculate. Labial palps none. 

Of this genus only few species are known, wbich live on the Cavia and 
the Sloth (Bradyjput tridactylua) t. e. on American specieB of Mammalia^ 

Order IV. Suctoria s. Siphonaptera, 

Apterous, hexapod, undergoing perfect metamorphosis. Mouth 
suctorial; rostellum formed of two serrated laminse and a single 
more slender seta, included in a biyalye articulate sheath. 

Family VII. Pulictdce (characters of the order are those of the 
single family). 

Pulex L. [Characters of the order.] Body compressed. 
Antennae short, with three or four joints, the last large, flat, 
serrated, received in a small cavity and covered with a scale. 
Maxillary palps with four joints, porrect. Posterior feet saltatory. 
Tarsi with five joints. 

The order of sucking InsecU, which contains the genns Flea, 
agrees in the complete metamorphosis with the Diptera ; but the 
oral parts have little reBemblance. The flea is perfectly distin- 
guished from the hemipterous sucking Insects not only by the 
perfect metamorphosis, but also by the oral parts, by the presence 
of palps for instance. Duces first drew attention to four smaU round 
plates, which are situated on the last two segments of the thorax, 
and of which the posterior pair is the largest These plates, which 
in colour and substance do not differ fix>m the rest of the homy 
covering of the body, may be looked on as rudiments of wings. 
The resemblance with the metamorphosis of the Hymenoptera^ 
especially in the pupa^ together with the presence of these four 
rudimentary wings, may serve to explain in some degree why an 
inclination has prevailed to regard the suHoria as abortive hymen- 
opterous Insects. 

There are two simple eyes, which in Pvlex vespertUionis "Dvaia 
are wanting. The sucker is inclosed by the flat labial palps con- 
sisting of (three ?) joints, and is composed of two flat sete serrately 
toothed on the edge and ribbed longitudinally in the middle (scalpeUa 
KiBBT and Spence, mandibles), and a thin smooth thread of the 
same length {UgiUa Sav.) There is no upper lip present, unless it be 

Digitized by 



represented by this ligula\ The maxUlcB are two small plates at 
whose base are attached the feelers stretching forwards, and which 
were formerly regarded as antennae ; they have four oblong joints, 
of which the second and the fourth are the longest 

The intestinal canal of the Flea is short and straight ; its stomach 
is cylindrical^ the small intestine aa long aa the stomach, and rectum 
short There are four short and wide luinary tubes, which are 
implanted at the inferior orifice of the stomach. At both sides are 
two saliyary vessels in fonn of round vesicles, whose efferent ducts 
coalesce to form a canal on each side of the cesophagus^ which 
moimts tortuously to the mouth. 

See Ramdohb, Ahhandlwng Ob, d. Verdauungtwerkieuge der Ifueden, 
8. 203. Tab. ZXIU. fig. 3. 

Comp. on this £unily A. Duges, Becherches vwr les Caradh^ 
zodogiqvsa du genre Pulex, et 9ur la multiplicUe dea eep^ces qu'il 
ren/erme, Ann, dee Sc. not xxviL 1832, pp. 165 — 175, PL ivi, and 
P. F. BoucH^ Bemerhmgen iiber die GaUung Pulex, I^ov. Act 
Acad. Ccee. Leap, Car, Tom. xvii. 1835, p. 501—508 (this writer 
considers the parts indicated above aa mandibles to be lacinioe of 
the under-lip, and gives the maxillary palps five joints). 

Sp. Pulex irritam L. (in part), HoOKB Micrographia Tab. $4 (a lai^ 
fignre of full 15 Bhenish inches, or 4 decimeten in length), Duofts L L 
fig. I (both figures represent the female). Ordinarily this species is con- 
founded with others which occur on the dog and domestic cat, Pidex eanis 
Duofts, Pulex cams and PvXexfdit BouCHi. To the last-named refer the 
figures of EoBSBLy Ins, n. Muecar, atque Ctdicwn, Tab. n— IV. (Tab. m. 
fig. 10, representing a male, refers according to BoucRti to Ptdex irritans). 
Moreover these species can bear leaving then* natural habitat for a time, 
and thus Pulex irritans may pass on to dogs, Pulex canis on to man. A 
particular species also occurs on fowls, Pul, gaUinm, Schraitk, B0UOH& 
All the species of this genus are small insects ; the laziest hitherto known, 
Pulex gigas, has only a length of two lines, Fauna Bor, Americana of 
J. BiCHABDSON, YoL TV, 1837. The hip (coxa) of the feet is as Urge as 
the thigh {femur) and very thick ; the fore-feet are placed far forwards, 
almost under the head. The abdomen is large, on the upper surface in the 
male, concave ; in copulation the female is placed on the back of the little 
mal& The eggs are white, oblong; sticky. In the sunmier season the 
larvaa come forth after a lapse of six days, having no feet, and resembling 
small, white worms. Lebuwrnhobck brought them up on dead flies, 
BoBSBL on dead gnats and dried pigeon's blood. Blood that has fblloired 

^ DuoBS, Ann, des Se, nai, sec. S^rie. Tom. vi. 1836. Zool, p. rao. 

Digitized by 



the prick of fleM and has dried into bUck globules, is often found dis- 
persed by the flea near the eggs that are laid in the chinks of wooden floors, 
in furniture, &c., and these globules form, according to the observations of 
Db FiiANcn {Afui, dei Sc. not, i. 1814, pp. 440 — 443) the fayourite food of 
the larve. These larvae within eleven days are full grown, then spin them- 
selves up and change into pupee, from which after ten or eleven days the 
perfect insects appear ; in this way a new greneration arises after the lapse 
of only four weeks. Comp. Lkbuwbnhosck, Vierde Vervolg, van Brieven 
1694. bL 537 — 573, 76ste Mitaive, and Kobsel, Inaeclm-Bd^$Uffung, u. 
Mucken und Schnacken, s. 9—34. 

In America^ particularly in the Brazils, there is a small spedes of flea, 
whose proboscis is longer ; the fore-feet are not so far forward, and whilst 
the labial palps are wanting, the three threads of the sucker are not sur- 
rounded by a bivalved sheath. Consequently it has been proposed to 
make a distinct genus of this species {SarcoptyUa Wbstwood, Dermaio- 
phUui Gn^BDr). This species, which lives in the open air, and is often in 
great numbers in sandy places, is PuUx penetrana L., Dum^bil, Com, gen. 
9. lea Inaeda, PI. 53, figs. 4, 5 ; Gu^bin, Iconogr., InaecL PL a, fig. 9 ; 
KOLLAB, JBraaUien'a vorzUglich Idatige Inaecten, ^. 5, s. 8, 9. The Portu- 
guese call the animal Bicho, the Brazilians 7\tnga; it bears also the name 
of Pique, Nigua^, &c. and of Chigoe amongst the English residents. This 
insect penetrates beneath the skin of the feet, sometimes also of the hands 
of man, and of the feet of dogs and other ; the female, after she 
has penetrated beneath the skin, expands astonishingly, whence malignant 
ulcers arise, which sometimes occasion death. They infest principally newly- 
arrived Europeans : see Y. Humboldt's Beiae in die ^quinociial-Cfegenden 
dea neu/cn Continenta, TV, 1833, s. 90, J. J. VoN Tbohudi (who once had six 
tumours thus caused on his right foot) Peru, Reiaeahizzen, i. 1846, s. 310, 
311. A capuchin monk attempted to transplant a family of these insects 
from St Domingo to Europe, but his zeal remained unrewarded, for his foot 
in which he had harboiu^ the colony, was obliged to be amputated on thp 
voyage (Kibby and Spenob, Introd. to Fntomd. i. p. 102). Comp. on this 
little animal also Duais, who especially has illustrated the parts about the 
month, Ann. dea 8c. not. sec. S^rie, Tom. Yi. 1836. Zoologie, pp. 139 — 134. 
PL 7 b. a forked caudiform appendage, already figured by Catbsbt, and 
compared by Jasvmtjb with the tail of Podura, is probably a male organ of 
copulation (Gu^bik, Iconogr.); at least it does not occur in all individuals. 

Order V. Strepsiptera a. Bhipiptera. 

Heiapodal Insects ; (male) with four wings j anterior wings two 
small moveable bodies, inserted into the sides of the thorax ; pos- 
terior wings large, membranous, resembling a quadrant of a circle, 
folded longitudinally like a fan. (Females apterous, apodous). 

^ Nigua is the name also given to a species of Acarua (Ixodea americantu), which 
also penetrates beneath the skin, and must not be confounded with this flea. 

VOL. I. 20 

Digitized by 


306 CLASS Till. 

Metamorphosis complete. Mandibles two, forficate, narrow, sob- 
arcoate. Palps two biarticnlate, very distant, inserted nnder the head. 
(Lanrae and Pupae living paiasitically in differ^it Hymenopiera.) 

This order, first distiiiguished by KraBY, cannot well be miited 
with one of the othera^ and least of all with that of the Hemi- 
pteroQS Insects^ as some would desire. The natmvl affinity is 
difficult to determine; peihaps this order stands between the 
Orthopteray Neuroptera, and HymeTioptercL. In this uncertainty 
respecting the true place, we think we have some gnnmds for our 
choice, to place it after the flea, in the perfect metamorphosis as 
well as in the presence of four rudiments of wings in the genus 
Fulex, However small, moreover, the number of inaedss of this 
order may be, that can afford no sufficient reason either in an 
artificial or in a natural system for rejecting it 

The winged individuals, on which the characters of the order 
are founded, are, as Bxjbmeisteb had sagaciously surmised, and the 
complete investigations of the excellent 0. Th. von Siedold have 
demonstrated, all males. In these, two large compound eyes are 
present, which consLst of few fii^ ettes, separated from each other 
by a raised margin. Simple eyes are wanting; the antennse are 
composed of few joints, ordinarily split at the extremity into two 
parts, or as if branched with lappet-like appendages. In front of 
the wings are two small convoluted parts, named by Kibby Elytra, 
but which do not cover the wings. It was formerly thought that 
they were attached to the first ring of the thorax, and in that case 
they could not in any sense be looked on as imperfect wings or 
elytra; but more accurate investigation has proved that they belong 
to the metaihoraXy and, therefore, may keep the name given to 
them by Kirbt. They recal the short elytra of some PhaamatidiB. 
The middle piece of the thorax is prolonged into a shield over the 
abdomen. The tarsi have mostly four joints, in other species three 
or two, and no claws at the extremity. The wings (hind wings) 
are large, thin, whitish, opaque, and have some nervures which 
radiate towards the circumference. The oral organs are somewhat 
differently described by Savigny, whilst he regards as maanUce the 
parts described by Kirbt as palpi^. The under lip has no palpi 
(Westwood considers the palpi as belonging to the under lip, and 

^ Saviont's oommunioationB to Lbach were publuhed by the latter in his Zoologi- 
cal Mi»cdlany, m. 1817, p. 135. 

Digitized by 



the mandMes aa Tnaxiilas. According to this view the mandibles 
would be wanting.) These insects undergo complete metamorpho6i& 
At j5rst the larva has six feet and two threads at the abdomen^ 
(somewhat the form of Lepisma); afterwards these feet disappear, 
for the insect then lives in the abdomen of larvse of Hymenoptem, 
In these HymeTioptera, also, the parasite is changed into a pupa, 
which in the perfect Hymenoptera projects between the rings of the 
abdomen. The wingless female remains in this situation, and is 
impregnated there. It is viviparous. The six-footed larvie, which 
in the genus Xenos jump like PodureUas^ were described by Kluq 
and Westwood, and previously also by Yon Seebold, as parasites. 

Comp. on this order W. ElmBT, Strepaipteroy a new order of 
Insects, Linnasan Tramact. YoL zi. 1815. pp. 86—122, Tab. 8, 9 ; 
AddendiMTiy pp. 233, 234 ; Lsach on the Rhipiptera of Latbeillb, 
Zool. Miec UL pp. 133—136 ; W. R Pickerxng, ObeervcUions on 
the Economy of the Strepeiptera, TramscbcL of the Entomol» Soc 
London, i. 1836, pp. 163 — 172, PL xvii ; J. O. Westwood, Beecrip- 
Hon of a new Strepeipieroue Insect, ibid. pp. 173, 174, PL xvil 
fig. 15 ; C. Th. t. Siebold, Ueber Xenos Spheddarv/m und dessen 
Sehmaroiaer, Beiirdge zwr Naturgeschichte der Wvrhettosen Thiere, 
1839, B. 72—87, Tab. iii. figs. 62—74 ; by the same Ueber Strep- 
siptera, in Ebichbon'b Archwf NcOwrgesch, ix 1843, & 137 — 162. 
Tab. vn. 

Family VIII. Strepsiptera s. Siylopidce. [Characters of the 

* Tarsi with four joints. 

Xenos^ Rossi. Antennee bipartite, single at the base, triarticu- 
late, with first joint obconical, longer, with branches semi-round, 
acuminate, not articulate. 

Sp. Xenoi PedsU, Kzbbt, Lmn. Trant. Tib. 8, Tab. 9, fig. i, Kibbt and 
Sfbnos, Inirod. to SnUm, i. PL n. fig. i; the larva infests Polytte fucala 
(nor. Amer.) ; ftc. European species are Xenot Rouii and Xenoe Sphe- 
cidarum. They are all small insects whose body is only about li line 

Styhps KiBBY. Antennae bipartite with stem single, biarticu- 
late, upper branch triarticulate, (Antennae have six joints, the third 

^ ^ivot or ^611^0$, a guest ; because harboured by other insects. 


Digitized by 



joint fonning a produced, lanceolate branch, almost equal in length 
to the three last joints). 

Sp. StylapamditUe, ftc. Icones : Wistwood, Introduct. Frontisp. VoL i. fig. 6; 
Stylopt Speneii, Gn^. Iconoffr., Ins, PL 92, fig. i, %Z. Dalii, Lsaoh, 
Zod, Miae, ui. Tab. 149, StyL Kirbii. 

* * Tarsi with three or with two joints. 

Halictophagus Curtis. Tarsi with three joints. Antennae with 
seven joints, supplied externally with lamellae disposed pectinately. 

EhncJius Curtis. Tarsi with two joints. Antennae bipartite, 
with stem simple, biarticulate, and upper branch biarticulate, 
elongate, slender. 

Gomp. Curtis, BrUiah Entomology quoted by Westwood, Intro- 
ducUon II. pp. 287, ko. 

Order VI. Diptera. 

Hexapod Insects with two wings, and two poisers. Mouth 
suctorial, with labium not palpigerous produced into a proboscis, or 
a sheath, which receives and incloses in a groove above an haus- 
tellum formed of setae, various in number. Two palps (maxillary) 
at the base of the proboscis. Metamorphosis complete. 

Two-winged. Dvptera L., AntUa^ta Fabr. The principal works 
on this order are the following : — 

'J. 0. ScHELLEinBEBO, OoU/wngen der Fliegen, in 42 Kuj^erkifdn 
entworfen. Zurich, 1803. 8to (with german and fii^nch text). 

J. C. Fabricii, Systema AnUtcUorum. BrunsvigaB, 1805. 8vo. 

J. W. Meioen, Systemaiische Beschreibung der bekcmnten Euro- 
pdiachen zweijlugdigen Inaekten. Mit Kv^fertafehh. vii. TheUe, 8vo. 
Aachen und Hamm, 1818—1838. 

C. R. W. Wiedemann, Atisaerewopdische zwdfiUgdige Insekten. 
MU Steintafel/ru 11. TheUe, 8vo. Hamm, 1828, 1830. 

ffistoire ncOurelle dea Insectea JMpth'ea par Magquabt, av, pi, 
n. Tomes, 8vo. Paris, 1834, 1835. (The work of Fallen, Diptera 
Snecica, Lund 1814 — 1827, 2 vol., I hare not been able to inspect) 

The general covering is, on the whole, very thin. The body 
consists, as in the other hexapod Insects, of three principal parts : 

Digitized by 



the head, the trunk, and the ahdomen. On the head two compound 
eyes are usuallj seen, which are Y&ry large, especially in the male ; 
in the most, simple eyes or eyespots are also present, usually three, 
sometimes only two in number. The antennae are placed on the 
frons close to the eyes ; ordinarily they are, in comparison with 
those of other orders, short Some sub-divisions of the genus 
TiptUa L., make an exception to this, and the genera Mdcrocera 
Meiq. and Megistocera Wiedemaks are especially distinguished by 
their long antennae. The sucker consists of two, four, or six sharp 
threads, which in the last case represent the upper lip (labrtMn'), 
the tongue (ligula), the two upper and the two under jaws. At 
the imder jaws (maxiUce) or, when these are wanting, at the base 
of the sucker, two feelers are attached, which sometimes consist of 
five, sometimes only of two joints, or of a single joint. The under 
lip forms an imivalye sheath excavated above, in which the sharp 
threads or stings reside by means of which these insects woimd ; 
on this part there are no feelers. The first piece of the thorax is a 
small ring, forming a neck-ring, but the middle piece (mesothorax) 
is laige, and forms nearly the whole of the thorax. To this division 
of the thorax the wings are attached. These are veined, usually 
transparent as glass, and colourless, occasionally spotted ; they are 
without that little homy point at the anterior or external margin 
{punctum caUosu/m s. cubUale) which is seen on the anterior wings 
of the Hymenoptera. Behind the wings there is mostly found a 
small special appendage, a membranous scale (squaToa haUerwni), 
which may be regarded as a part of the wing. To the metathorax 
the poisers (haUeres) are attached, which consist of a thin pedicle 
and a button. These haUeres are also foimd in species that have 
no wings. They are to be considered as rudiments of hind-wings^. 
The abdomen is often imited to the trunk by a small part alone of 
the diameter of its base, and consists of from four to nine rings. 
In the female it generally runs to a point at the posterior ex- 
tremity ; if here fewer rings are foimd, it is because the last of 
them form an oviposUor or case consisting of rings that can be 
pushed in and out of each other, like a pocket telescope. The feet 
are in most long and slender, and terminate always with tarsi 

^ See above, p. 253 ; comp. aUo Wbstwood, Inlrod. to modem Clastific, 11. p. 500. 
Latbeille regarded these parts not as rudimentary hind-wings, for he thought they 
were attached to the abdomen. 

Digitized by 



oonsistiiig of five jointa. The last joint has two claws and two or 
three plane elevations or cushions (see above^ p. 252). 

The digestive organs of Diptera consist of a wide bent stomach 
of moderate length, a small intestine, and an oval oblong large 
intestina The salivary vessels vary in the different genera of this 
order. The oesophagus has a dilatation (itigliwies, crop, see above, 
p. 254); it is a bladder of various form, either simple, or pro- 
longed into two or more divisions, and communicating with the 
oesophagus by a long narrow tube (oflen with its lowest part close 
above the stomach). In larvas the tube is shorter and inserted into 
the oesophagus higher up. In by &r the greater number of Diptera 
this bladder is present ', in the family of the Fupiparw it is wanting 
(comp. Rahdohb, AbhamUung. vh, die Verdauungawerkzeuge d, Ins. 
Tab. xn. — ^xxi, and pp. 170 — 185). Tbeyirakus named this organ, 
which is also found in the HymeTioptera and Lepidaptera, sucking- 
bladder ; he attributed to it a power of expanding, in consequence 
of which the air in the oesophagus is rarified, whilst, to fill this 
partial vacuum, the fluid in which the extremity of the sucker is 
planted ascends as if pumped up, {Verm, Schr. n. & 110). The 
Hemiptera and the PtdicidcB do not possess this bag ; on the other 
hand, such a crop is present in the Orthoptera, which do not suck, 
and according to Lkon Dufour in (Edemera amongst the Coleoptera 
{Ann. des Sc. not. ul 1824, p. 484, PL 30, fig. 7). The name of 
food-bag, which was given by Ramdohb to this part in Diptera, is 
therefore more appropriate than that of sucking-bladder. When 
flies that have long fasted suck their full of milk, according to the 
investigations of HuiniER, milk penetrates into this bladder. By 
prcssiu:e of the abdomen, and apparently also by contraction of the 
muscular walls of the bladder itself, the food is afterwards brought 
back from this diverticulv/m or reservoir of nutriment to the sto- 

^ According to the anatomical investigatioDS of Schb<sdeb van deb Kolk it seema 
to be wanting in the larva of CEstrus; but at the same point where ordinarily the 
tube from the food-bag [the name given by Ramdohr to the sac] is inserted into the 
GBSophagus, two tortuous canals are seen, which divide at their other extremity into 
two branches, which are distributed to the adipose body. Minunre 8ur VAnaiomie 
et la Pkysiologis du Gagtnu eqtU. Amsterdam, 1845, pp. ig, 30. PI. ui. fig. i, b, s, b. 
Bamdohb has figured four such appendages above and near the stomach in the larva 
of Muica vomitoria, which would seem at their other extremity to be implanted into the 
salivary vessels, and in the perfect insect to disappear. Tab. XIX. fig. I. M, M, M, M« 
Do these vessels form, perhaps, a second apparatus for secreting saliva ? 

Digitized by 



mach ; (see CcUalogtie of the Physiol. Series qfComp. AnaL contamed 
in the Musevm of the Roy. Coll of ^/Surgeons, L 1833, pp. 189, 190). 
The Diptera live long in the larva-state, but ordinarily very 
briefly as perfect insects (flies however live long in this last state). 
Their larvas have no feet, but some of them have appendages which 
resemble them, or small hooks, which serve for motion or holding 
fast, as for instance, the larva of (Estras. All these Insects undergo 
complete metamorphosis. Some larvas cast their skin before chang- 
ing into pupae, and some in addition spin themselves up. Others, 
on the contrary, do not cast their skin, but this shrinks, hardens, 
and forms for the pupa^ that resembles an egg, a kind of shell or 
case {jpupa coarct€Ua, see above, p. 273). The internal parts separate 
themselves from this shell, and the change into pupa occurs within 
this integument, which at last is deserted by the perfect insect 
* when it breaks off the uppermost part in the form of a lid. 

Many of these animals are injurious to us by their puncture ; 
others suck the blood of our domestic animals ; some spoil our food 
by depositing their eggs on it, especially on flesh and cheese, where 
the larvae (maggots) are developed. There is, on the other hand, no 
single species of this order from which we immediately derive 
advantage. Yet so much the greater is the utility they afford 
us indirectly. Some limit the number of injurious caterpillars, 
in which they lay their eggs, and which are fed on by the pupae. 
Others free the air from pestilential exhalations by feeding on 
carrion and putrescent matters^. 

Family IX. Pupiparce, Haustellum of three unequal setae, 
exsertile from an aperture at the lower part of the head ; at the 
sides of the retractile haustellimi two laminae, inarticulate, pilose, 
porrect. Antennae veiy short, biarticulate, or with a single pilose 
joint. Head received behind in the emarginate thorax, or re- 
sembling a tubercle set upon the thorax. Feet short, strong, 
remote, furnished with two incurved claws. Wings divaricate, 
sometimes very short ; in some, together with the poisers, entirely 
wanting. Body depressed, covered with a hard and elastic skin. 

PupiparouB insects suck the blood of mammals and birds. The 
buccal organs pass as fine threads through a small opening (just like 

^ It is however somewhafc hyperbolical, wben Ioiidibus Bays of Muaca vomitoria : 
' Trt$ muscoe contunrnnl cadaver egtd, oeque cUo acleo.'* Syat. Natur. Ed. xii. i. p. 990. 

Digitized by 



a thread through the eye of a needle, Westwood). These threads 
are very long in MdophUa and Omithomi/ia, shorter in ffippobosccu 
Two oblong hairy plates project like a beak and cover the base of the 
threads when they are exserted. Are these parts to be r^arded as 
maxUkBf or as pcUpi maxUlares ? The mechanism of the sucker is 
much more conformable to that of certain AccMrina than to the 
proboscis of the rest of the Diptera. 

These flies lay no eggs, but are viviparous. That which seems to 
be an egg laid by these insects, and which is sometimes as big as the 
abdomen of the mother, ought rather to be regarded as a pupa; 
from it the perfect insect (imago) comes to view after an interval of 
time, dependent upon the temperature to which the pupa is ex- 

The intestinal canal of these insects is very long, and surpasses 
the length of the body eight or nine times. This length is caused 
principally by the stomach, or that part of the intestinal canal 
which precedes the insertion of the vasa urinaria, and which presents 
many tortuosities. The testes are two long and very tortuous 
canals; the ovaries, two oval sacs; near the oviducts are two 
secretory glands, consisting of very numerous branches, together 
with two more simple receptacula aeminisy of which the form varies 
in different species. The lowest part of the two ovaries opens into 
a wide sac {tUerus, matrice L]£oN Dupour), in which the embryo 
resides until it comes forth as a pupa. The nervous system has, 
besides the cerebral ganglion, only a single round ganglion in the 
thorax, from the posterior margin of which the nerves of the 
abdomen arise. 

Gomp. on the anatomy of this figunily, L^y Dufoub, Bech. anatomigues 
9ur VHippdbosque, Ann. des Sc. not. vi. 1815, pp. 299 — 322, PL 13 : ako 
his Etudes anatomiquea et physioloffiques tur lea Pupiparet, Ann. des Se, noL 
troisibme S^r. Zool. Tom. in. 1845, pp. 49 — 95. PI. 2, 3. 

Phalanx I. Nycteribiidce. Head small, placed at the upper 
part of the thorax like an obconical tubercle. Thorax semi- 
orbicular. Wings and poisers none. Feet long, with first joint 
of tarsus very long, and last supplied with two claws incurved, den- 
tigerous at the base, and with two oval appendages. 

Nycterthia Latr. 

Sp. Nycterthia vespertilitmis, Acarus vespertilumis L., Phthiridium vesperti- 
lionis Herm., M^m. apterol. PI. y. fig. i ; Nycteribia LatreiUii Wbstw., 

Digitized by 



Latbeillx SiH, wU, d, CruM, H des Iru. Tom. xiv. PL gi, f. 14, and other 
burger species on foreign bats. Aocording to L^N DuFOUB there are only 
two simple eyes, Ann. dea Se, not. Tom. zzii. p. 374 ; in foreign species 
two simple eyes occur on each side. NirzflCH has observed that these 
insects are true pttpiparas, like Mippobosca (Sohwbioobb's Jahrbueh der 
Cfhemie «. Phytii, Bd. xti. 1826, 4. s. 436). Comp. on this genus J. O. 
Webtwood, Trantact. of Zoolog. 80c, I. 1835, 4to, pp. 575—294. PI. 36. 
All the species of this genus liye on bats. 

Phalanx 13. Sippobosctdce {Cariacea Latr.) Head received in 
the emarginate thorax. Wings divaricate or incumbent, in some 
very small or none. Last joint of tarsus the longest of all. 

Braula NiTZSCH. Eyes and ocelli none. Wings none. 

Sp. Braula coeca Nitzsoh, Gibmab Magaz, der Entom, m. pp. 3x4, 315; 
Ahbbkb, Pawn, Ins. Etirop, Fasc vi. Tab. 35 ; RiAUM. M^m. y. PI. 38, 
figs. X — 4 ; this small insect liyes parasitically on bees ; the metamorphosis 
is unknown. Is this its place ? 

Melophila NiTZSCH, Melophagua Latr. Eyes small, ocelli none. 
Wings and poisers none. 

Sp. MdophUa ovina, fftppobosea ovina h,, Fbibch, Beschretb. von aUerl. Im, 
y. 8. 40. 4. Tab. 18; Panzeb, DeuUchl. Ina. Heft 51, 14; Gublt, M<»gax. 
f. d, ffesamnU. Thierheilk. 1843, l^- ^<^1^- ^> %• 15* The theep-louse is a 
wingless fly ; Rahdohb has given a description and figure of its digestive 
organs ; and LTONinrr in his posthumous works a careful and eUborate pic- 
ture of its structure, especially as concerns the external parts ; Recherchet 
aur VAnatomie et lea mOamorph. Ac. pp. i — 27, PI. i — 3. There are two 
small oblong eyes each consisting of a hundred round fa9ettes remote 
from each other, (groups of simple eyes t) 

Sub-genus Lipoptena Nitzsch., (Spec of Melophagu8 Latr., 
Meio.) differs from the preceding by very short rudiments of wings, 
by distinct poisers, by moderate eyes. 

Sp. PediciUua cervi L., Fabb., Panzeb, DeutacM. Ina, Heft 51, Tab. 15. 

Orniihomyia Latr., NiTZSCH. (Spec, of Hippobosca L., and 
Fabr.) Eyes distinct; ocelli usually three in vertex. Wings 
distinct. Tarsi with tridentate claws. 

Sub-genera: Anapera Meig. (Oxypterum Leach.) Eyes none, 
wings short, acuminate. 

Stenopteryx Leach, Meig. With three ocelli, wings very narrow, 
longer than the abdomen. 

Omithomyia Leach, Meig. With three ocelli, wings incumbent, 

Digitized by 


814 CLASS Tin. 

Sp. OmUhomyia MrundinU, ffippob. Mnmdinii L., BUnopi, hinmdinU 
Lbaoh, Msia., Gu^BiN leonogr., Insect, PI. 104, fig. 7 : on the oommon 
Swift, Cypsdus muraritu, 

StreUa Wiedemann. Eyes very small, triangular. Ocelli ? Wings 
inciunbent, rotundate, longer than the abdomen, with parallel 

Sp. Strata vetpetiUumis Wiedem., Auaaereurop, zweifiug, Ina. u. Tab. X. 
fig. 13 ; on a bat of South America. 

Hippohosca Latr. Nirmomyia NiTZSCH. (Species of Hippoboaca 
L.) Eyes distinct, large ; ocelli none. Wings parallel, incumbent, 
obtuse, multinervose. Tarsi with bidentate claws. 

Sp. Hippoboaea eq^na L., Cuv. R, Ani. id. iUuatr,, Ins, PI. 182, fig. x; 
Panzeb, Deutsckl. Ins, Faac 7, Tab. 13 ; OvRUS, Moffot, /. d. geaamnU. 
Thierheilk. n. Tab. i, figit. 13, 14; moucAc Bretonne, moueke d^Espagne, 
Pferde-laus, Forest-fy; thorax dark-brown, spotted with yellow ; abdomen 
brown-grey, hairy. This species sucks the blood of hones, and attaches 
itself especially to the belly and the inside of the hind legs. 

If we were told that a bird laid an egg that produced a young one as 
large as the mother, we should think the account fabulous and ridiculous ; 
the fabulous part would not be diminished were the bird ever so small or 
even a winged insect. Of this insect however the story is accurately true. 
Let the reader consult the beautiful and circumstantial natural histoiy of 
this fly which R^UMUR has recorded. Mfyn. pow servw d VHist, des Ins, 
VI. pp. 569—608. PI. 48. 

Sub-genus Ol/ersia Wikdem. {Feronia Leach.) 

Family X. Athertcera. Antennae with two joints or three, the 
last undivided, and presenting the form of a patella or capitulum, 
and in most supplied with a seta or spicate appendage. Proboscis 
retractile or slightly prominent, with haustellum composed mostly 
of two, sometimes of four seta ; in some the mouth is closed, with 
tubercles in place of proboscis. Pupa coarctate. 

The name Athertcera (from dSfjpy spiea, ctriata), aristeUe or owned 
cmt^ncBy expresses the character by which this family of IHptera is 
distinguished. The larva has in this and the following fiunily a sofl, 
ringed, somewhat conical, anteriorly pointed body. Progression is 
effected by extension and contraction of the body, whose form is 
very variable. On the whole the larva does not change its skin, and 
has no feet ; in that of HdophUua and Eristcdia alone are there 
seven pairs of membranous feet provided with small hooks, on the 
body beneath, which is the only example of such appendages in this 

Digitized by 



oider^. The moet have no proper head, but a Tery moveable mouth 
veil adapted for extension, and two homy hooks curved downwards. 
The skin of the larva when it changes to a pupa is not cast, but 
becomes hard, and is changed into the covering of the pupa ; the 
anterior extremity becomes thicker and rounder, and the whole 
recalls the form of an oval keg. The perfect insect, by moving its 
head, which is extended forward like a bladder, breaks this shell at 
its upper extremity, whilst a piece of it springs open like a lid. 

Few genera of this family are in the perfect state carnivorous, 
most of them living on flowers and plants. 

Phalanx I. Proboscifl in some very short, in others none, in 
place of proboscis and palps three tubercles [CEstrus L.) 

Larvae parasitic, some living beneath the skin, others in the 
frontal sinnses, or in the intestinal canal of mammalia. 

a) Proboscis small 

Genera: Cephenemyia Latb., CtUer^a Clask, Latb., Trypo- 
derma Wiedehanx. 

b) Proboscis none. 

Genera : ffypocierma Clark, {(Estrus Meio.), (Edemagena Clark, 
CephcUemyia Clark, Colax Wiedem., (Estrus Clark, {GasPnia 

Note, — ^AntennfiB triarticulate, with seta naked in most, in Gvle- 
rdyra plumose. Gasl/rus Meio. differs from (Estrtia Meig. by the 
naked poisers, and wings without a transverse nervure at the apex. 

Comp. Clask, Obaerv. on the gentu CEsinu, Trans, of the Linn, Sac. ni. 
1796, p. 2Sg, &c. ; the same, An Essay on the Bots of fforses, &c., London, 
1815, 4to, with fig. ; the same, On the Insects called OiBtros by the Ancients, 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xix. 2. 1843, PP« 81—94- 

A. NuMAN Waameminffen omtrent de horzdmaskers, welhe in de maag 
van hetpaard hvdsvesten, Amsterdam, 1834, 4to, mit pi. 

J. L. C. ScHB(EDEB VAN DES KoLK, Mimoirc 9ur VAnaUmie tt la Physiol, 
du Qastrus equi, Amaterdam, 1^45) &v. pL 

Sp. (Estrus equi Fabb., ^Oastrus equi Mno., Gu^aiK, Iconoffr., Ins. PI. loi, 
fig. 5, Glabk, Essay on the Bots, PL i. figs. 13, 14, (Liksmvb described 
this species under the name of (Estrus Bovis). About 5 lines long, body 

^ In these BouOH^ has frequently observed a moulting ; Beiir&ffe mr Insektenkunde, 
in Nov. Act. Acad. Cos. L. Oar. Tom. xviL i. 1835, p. 498. 

Digitized by 


316 CLASS Till. 

lieurj, jfBow, tboimx in tiie middle bhck, wings with m bfown-gicj, tnam- 
rene itripe in the middle and two nmilar qwts at the point ; the lemale 
has a long hiaek oripoeitor at the end of the abdomen, lliis lly htys her 
yellow eggs in varioas ntoations on the h^ of the hcne, to which they 
remain firmly attached by a glntinoas finid. Hie yoong larw come from 
the eggSy which sfiring open by a lid, as rery long and actire little worms, 
and are oonreyed by the lick of the horse's tongne into hii month and 
gnlkt (with respect to those eggs whidi lie beyond tfaereafdi of the tongue, 
we may soppoee, with NuXAir, that the larvae themsdres creep to other 
situations nearer the head). Sabsequently the lanrs Htc in the siomadi of 
the horse;, to which they hare become attarhed in rery great numbers 
(several hundreds at once). Here they remain several months, from spring 
tiP the beginning or middle of summer, then are detached, being expelled with 
the excronent^ and change into pnpe, frtan which, after about five weeks^ 
the perfect insect comes to view. This species is ibund in the hone and 
ass ; besides these, and sometimes simultaneously with them, larve also of 
other species {GaMrtu kcpwMrrkoidalu for instance) live in the ssme re s ult ; 
the larvK of this last species are smaller and deep led ; see XuXAJr, FL n. 
fig. I. 

(Etinu bcvis Fabb., Msig., Gu^bdi, Icono^., Jul F1 ioi, ^. 3, Clabk, 
L L PL n. figs. 8, 9, Cur. R. An., Id. iU., /ju. FL 176, fig. 1. The krva 
of this species lives under the sldn of the bullock ; that of Gatnu {OepMaU' 
myta) oru L., GuiBiH, lam. In*. PL loi, fig. 4, Mkioev, S^. Betekr. it. 
^ 3^f figy '^« Ix^es in the frontal sinuses of the sheep^ 

Phalanx II. Proboscis distinct. Two 8et» of haostellmn. 

A, MuscaruB (species from genus Musca L.) Proboscis distinct, 
membranous, retractile, bilabiate at the point. 

Though the FI7 genus {JfttMa), thus defined, be much smaller 
than that of LiXNiEUSy it is still a very extensive group, in which 
the modems distinguish many genera. Here maj be compared 
RoBiNEAU Debtoidt, Essai 8ur les Jfyodaires, Mem. prtserUes d 
rAcad. desScde VInstUtU de France, Tohl n. 1830, 4ta 

1 A species is spoken of in man : CEMtus kominu (Gmbl., i%ae. not. Ed. 13, L 
p. 1811) ; comp. KiBBT and Sfevcb, Introdw. to Enicmol. I. pp. 136, 137. Of later 
observations IsiD. Gboffbot SAurr-Hn.AniB has given an account in the Ann, de 
la Soc. Eniam. n. p. 518. That larvs of CEdrui bovu and of other Diptera may 
sometimes five under the skin of man is probable fix»m some observations ; a few years 
ago an insect was shewn me that had come out of a boil under the skin in a girl, 
it was the pupa of a dipterum, and agreed very well with that of (Estnii. A 
Uu-va which in many respects resembled that of a Tackina, but yet differed from all 
the species of larvae of Diftera yet known, was observed by Dr Smut ; this larva 
was pressed from a boil on the head of a giri 6^ yean old ; see J. J. Smrr and 
C. J. SUXDEVALL, VeterA. Akad. Mandlingar, Stockhohn, 1840, pp. 63—68. 

Digitized by 



*Palps external. Nervnres of wings longitudinal only, none 

Phora Latk., Meiq. (previously Trineura Meig.) Antennas 
inserted at the margin of the mouth, with elongate simple seta. 
Posterior feet elongate. Wings rotundate, ciliate, with two thick 
nervures at the outer margin, and three or four others nearly 
parallel, running obliquely from the second marginal nervure to 
the posterior margin of the wing. Foisers naked. 

Fig. Mbiosn, Europ, tweif. Int, vi. Tab. 63, figs, i — 13 ; GuiBiK, 
Iconogr,, Tru., PL 104, figs. 3, &c. 

Add sub-genera : Gymnophora Macm^- and Canicera Meig. 

**Palps inserted in the proboscis, retractile and capable of 
being concealed with it. Nervures of wings longitudinal and trans- 
verse. Antennse inserted in the frons. 

a) First posterior cellule of the wings open, transverse apical 
nervure nona 

* Poisers naked. 

1) SquamiB of the poisers small or nona Head elongato-globose 
or broad, transverae, with eyes remote. 

Teianocera DuMER., Latr., Meig. Antennsd longer than the 
head, with second joint longest. 

Sepedon Latb., Meig., Baccha Fabb. 

Thecomyia Pestt., Macq. 

Loxocera Meig., Latr. Antennse oblique, with third joint 
longest. Abdomen elongate, sexannulate. 

Sp. Loxocera ichneuftumea, Mutca ichneumonea L,, Panzeb, DeuUehl. In$ect., 
Heft 73, Tab. 24, SoHSLLENBKBO^ Tab. 7 &c. 

Sub-genus : Platystyla Macq. 

Condylura Fall., Meig., Latr. Antennse shorter than head. 
Abdomen sexannulate, in males clavate at the apex. 

a) Seta of antenxue plumose. 

Sub-genera: Lissa Meiq., Merodma Macq., Teta/nwra Valu, 
Chyliaa Fall, CordyUira Macq. 

Digitized by 


318 CLASS vin. 

(/S) Seta of auteniue umple (naked or pubeocent). 

Sub-genera: Gleigastra Maoq., Myopma Bobin., Maoq. (species 
from genus Gcmosia Meig.) 

Scatcphaga Meig., Latr., Scatomyza Fall. Antennae shorter 
than head. Head barbate beneath. Abdomen quinqueannulate. 
Wings incumbent, parallel, extending far beyond abdomen. 

Add sub-genera: Dryomyza Fall., Sapromyza Fall., Meig., 
Toaooneura Maoq., Sdomyza FaMmj Lucina Meig., Hdamyza Fall., 
BlepluMiptera Maoq., Heteromyza Faijl 

Sp. SccUophctga ttercoraria, Musca stercoraria L., CuYiES, R. Am, id. HL, Ins. 
PL 178 bifl, fig. 10, RiAUMUB, Bia, not. cUs Ins, TV. PI. 17, figs. 1—7 Ac 

Comp. J. W. Zbttkbbtedt, Monographia Soaicpkagarum Scandinavia, 
Ann. de la Soc. EnUmol. iv. 1835, pp. 175 — 189, Tab. iv. B. 

Psilcmyia Latr. {Psila Meig.) 

Add sub-genera: Oxygma Meig., Trigonometopus Macq., (species 
from genus Tetanocera Meig.,) Ewrina Meig., Tetanops Fall., 
Pyrgota Wiedem., OtUea Latb., Macq., Platycephala Fall., Dorycera 

Ortalia Fall., Meig. 

Sub-genera: Hermay Bobin., Macq. (Eichardia Robin., and 
Revdlia Robin.,) Geroxya Macq., Cleitamia Macq., Amethysa Macq., 
UTakuxtrUhina Maoq., Ropalomera Wiedeil, Eurypalpua Macq., 
PlcUystama Latb., Loxoneu/ra Maoq. 

Trypeta Meig., TephrUis Latr., Fabr. 

Add sub-genera: JEnsmay Aciniay Terellia and Uropkora Robin., 
PetcUophora, Senopterina and Leploxyda Macq., Bactrocera Gueb., 
Dacus Meig. 

Sp. Trypeta Arctii Meig., Db Gebb, Int. vi. Tab. 1, figs. 6—14, Panzer, 
Deutschl. Int., Heft 103, Tab. 22 ; yellow-green body with yellow-brown 
feet ; wings with four transverse brown stripes, which at the external or 
anterior margin of the wings are united two and two. The larva lives in 
the flowers and seeds of Arctium Lappa and other Synanthereoe ; each peri- 
carp holds only a single larva, which is placed in it head downwards. 
Other species live in excrescences (like those of gall-nuts) on thistles. The 
species of this genus are very numerous. The head is broad ; the abdomen 
has five segments, and ends in the female in an ovipositor extended to 
a point. The wings during life are mostly in a quivering motion and 
erect ; they are usually spotted or striped with darker bands. 

Digitized by 



Sepsis Fall., Meiq. {Cephalta Meio.) Antennffi shorter than 
head. Head elongate. Eyes rotund. Abdomen quadriannulate, 
narrow. Wings erect, vibrating. 

Sub-genera: Chelig<uter Maoq., Nemopoda Robin., Michogcuter 

Dtopsis L. Eyes very remote, the head being produced on both 
sides into a transverse petiole, oculiferons at its apex, and before the 
apex antenniferons. Antennse short, with three joints, the last 
Buborbicnlar with a long naked seta. Scntellum bispinose, two or 
four other spines at the sides of the thorax. 

Comp. A. Dahl, pneside C. Limrjn) Bigce Intectorum 1775, Amaniiatet 
Acad. vm. p. 303. PL vi. figa. i — 5 (reprinted in Fuebblt, Arehivei de 
VHitt. det Im, pp, 19, to, Tab. 6) ; Balhak, Aa. Holm, 18x7, AnaUct, 
ErUomoL No. i. (Okih'b liu iSio) ; J. O. Wbstwood, On Dioptia, Trara. 
Linn, 8oe. xym. 1835, pp. 983 — 3x3, pL See also fignres of two species 
0f this genus in Gu^Biir, Iconoffr., In$, pi. 103, figs. 8, 9. 

Lmnrjsus described only one species of Diopaii {DiopM, icKnewmmta), 
now about twenty are known. They are all exotic and from the old worid 
(west coast of Africa^ India, Java) ; JHopiia brevicomii Sat, Wibdev., a 
species from Pennsylvania^ seems not to belong to this genus. According 
to WxsTWOOD there are four sets in the sucker in JHopM SykesU, as in 
Syrphm, These small flies by their pediculated eyes remind us of Podophthal- 
mm Latb., amongst the Onutaeea, and of Zygcena, amongst the fishes. 

Calohata Meiq., Micropeza Late. 
Micrcpeza Fall., Calohata Latr. 

Tcmypeza Fall., Tcemaptera Macq., Ferius Fabr., Wiedeil 
LoTigina Wiedem. AntennsB longer than head, with first joint 


Thyreophora Latk., Meig. 

Adora Meig. 

Ccelopa Meig., {Psalidomyia Doumerc). 

Ck)mp. DOUMEBO, Mim. but U Psalydomyia fucicola, diptire vivanlt tur 
Ua herds de la rner, Ann, de la 80c, EnUm, n. 1833, pp. 89—93. The 
male has at the abdomen a forceps ahnost like that of the Porficvlmf but 
with obtuse and hairy points. 

UUdia Meig., MosiUua Latb. 

Gymnopoda Macq., Lipara Meig., Tvmia Meio. 

Digitized by 



Latacania Latr. 

Pachycerina Macq., Lonchasa Fall., Meig., Teremyia Maoq., 
FterochrUia G&at. 

Celyphvs Dalm. Antennse of the length of the head. Scutel- 
lum convex, entirely covering the abdomen. 

Nottphila Fall., Meig. 

Ochthera Latr., Dryxo Bobik., Dickceta Meig., HydreUia Robin., 
Discocerina Macq., Trimerina Macq., Diacomyza Meig., Ccenia 

Ptophila Fall., Meig. 

Trichomyza Macq., Epkydra Fall., Meig., ArUsophysa Macq., 
Ochthiphila Fall., Campichceta Macq., Oitona Meig., DroaophUa 
Fall., Stega/na Meig., Diastaia Meig., Leptopezina Macq., Opomyza 
Fall., Meig., {Geomyza Fall.,) Graphomyzina Macq. 

Sphcerocera Latr., Borhorus Meig. 

Geroptera Macq., Grumomyia Macq., ffeteroptera Macq., Limosina 
Macq., Apterina Macq., (wings none). 

Sp. Borboru8 pedettris Mbig. Surop. tweifi, Ins. vi. PL 63, fig. 21, two lines 
long, brilliant black, winglesB; this curious insect was discovered by 
V. Wnrrami near Hamburg. 

Oacinis Latr., Fabr., Ckloropa Meig. 

Diasevna Macq., Avlacigaster Macq., Leptomyza Macq., Lettcopis 
Meig., MUichia Meig., Gymnopa Fall., Meig., SiphoneUa !&Llcq., 
Homdlv/ra Meig., CneviMcamiha Meig., Heteronefwra 'Eajll., Meig., 
Therina Meig., Meramyza Meig., Chloropa Meig., Macq., Oscinis 
Latb., Macq., Lewmyza Macq., Agromyza Fall., Meig., PhyUomyza 
Fall., Aateia Meig., Elachiptera Macq., Myrmemorpha Dupoub. 

2) Squamffi of poisers small or moderate. Head sub-globose, 
with eyes in males (sometimes in both sexes) approximate. (Abdo- 
men quadriannulate). Seta of antennse inarticulate, often plumose 

Gcerwsia Meig. Eyes distant, especially in females. Abdomen 
of male clavate at apex. Wings incumbent. 

Digitized by 


IN8ECTA. 321 

Anthomyta Meiq. Eyes in each sex, or in males, approximate; 
in last more frequently contiguous. Wings divaricate or incum- 

Sp. Anthomyia pluviali$, Muaca plttvialii L., Gu^Biir leonogr, Iru. FL roa, 
figB. 9, Ac. A very numerous genus. 

Snb-genera: Aricia Bobin., SpUogaster Macq., ffydrophoria 
BoBiN., HyUmyia RoBiK., ChortophUa Macq., Atomognster Macq., 
Eriphia Meig. (with eyes contiguous in male). 

Drymeia Meig. lips of proboscis elongate, infLexed, forming a 
terminal hamate capitulum. 

Sp. Drymeia obtewra, Mmca hamata Pall., Mbo. Europ. Zwei/L Int. ▼. 
'Tab. 44, figs, xo — 13. 

•• Poisers obtect 

Lispe Meig. Wings incumbent. Abdomen quadriannulate, 
oval. Palps dilated at apex, cochleariform. (Habitus of ArUho' 
myia. Seta of antennae plumose. Eyes distant). 

6) Wings with a transverse apical nervure, closing the first 
posterior cellule completely or for the most part Poisers covered 
with large squamse. Seta of anteniuB with two joints or three 
(CreaphiUB Late.) 

Abdomen mostly quadrianntdate. Wings often divaricate. 

1) Seta of cmtermcR piluTnoae. 

Idia Meig., Wiedem. Head produced beneath into a rostrum 
above the proboscis. 

Achias Fabr. Head transverse, produced on both sides into a 
thick oculiferous peduncle. AntennsB short, inserted in the frons. 

Sp. Aehia9 ocuUUua Fabb., S^. antUator. p. 347, GuiSbin, Mctgas. de Zod. i. 
1831, Ins. PI. 7, CuviEB R. Ani, id, iU., Ins. PL 178, fig. 5, Java, and 
some other smaller species, on which oomp. G. B. G. Wikdemank, Achias, 
Dipterorum genus iHustratwn novisque specidnu auctum, com Tab. 1 
lithogr. Kili» HolBatorum, 1830, 8vo. This genus is distinguiflhed from 
Diopsis by many characters, by the position of the antenns, and by the 

Musca nob. (Spec, of genus Mvsca L.) Head globose, not 
produced either anteriorly or transversely. 

a) Fed moderate. Seta of a/nienno! plum^ose to the apex. 

Sub-genera; Cwrtonefwra Mac(j., Meaemhrvna Meig., FoUenia 
Maoq., {FoUenia Robin, and Nilellia Robin.), Mvsca Maoq., CaUi- 
VOL. I. 21 

Digitized by 


322 CLASS viir. 

pfu/ra Macq., {CaXUphora Bobin., Mufetia and Melinda Bobin.), 
Lucilia Maoq., (Lucilia Kobin., Fharmia and PyreUia Bobin.), 
Ochromyia Macq. 

h) Pett moderate. Seta of antennce naked at the apex. 

Sub-genera : Onesia Robin., Cynomyia Robin., Agria Robin., 
Macq. (Agrioy Gean^rla, Clyto Robin.), Sarcophaga Meig., PhriMO- 
podia Macq. 

c) Fed eUmgaie. 

Sub-genera: Deasia Meig., Prosena Saint-Fabgeau and Sery., 
Dinera Robin., ScoHptera Macq., RubUia Robin. 

To the diyision a) the common house-fly Mtuca domettica L., belongs, 
ScHBLLEN. Tab. I., J. C. Kellbb Getchichte der germeinem Stvhen-JUege, 
mit 4 Kupferiafdn. Nlirnberg, 1764, 4to. The larvae live especially in 
horse-dung, and these insects are only found in the neighbourhood of human 
habitations. In a month's time one generation succeeds another, for the 
larva is full grown in fourteen days ; the fly also after fourteen days comes 
from the pupa, and the ^g has only to lie a single day before the young 
maggot creeps out. Hence it is that they multiply so astonishingly, and that 
in warm summers, especially at the beginning of autumn, they may prove 
so numerous. In the open country and on the roads various species of fly 
are met with of the same size, which are usually confounded with them, as 
MuKa corvina Fabb., Panzjer Deuischl. Ins., Heft 60, Tab. 13, Mutca 
nigripea male. Heft 105, Tab. 13, Mueca ludifica fem. Also the unspotted, 
gold-green glistering Musca casaar L., the blue flesh-fly Mueca vomiloria, 
L., (CaUipkora ftUvibarbie Robin.), Roks. Ins. Ii. Mus. et Culic. Tabs. ix. 
X., Panzbr Deutscld. Ins. Heft x. Tab. 19, which has a shining blue 
abdomen with black stripes, the head black with red-brown palps. This 
fly has a fine sense of smell, and readily penetrates into houses in summer 
to lay its eggs on meat in kitchens and larders. The same applies to those 
belonging to the 

Division 6) Musca camaria L., {Sarcophaga eamaria Meig.,) R^auic. 
Ins. IV. Tab. 18, figs. 1, 8, Db Gebb Ins. vi. Tab. 3, figs. 5—18, Cuv. 
R. Ani. id. ill., Ins. PI. 178, fig. 2 ; still larger than the former, abdomen 
grey vdth black spots ; black antennae and palps. It has been estimated 
that the progeny of a single female of this species may in one summer 
amount to more than 500 millions of flies ^. 

2) Seta o/atUenncB downy or naked Meig. (Species of Thereva 

^ Mbiobm Sytlt. Besch, der Eur. ZvBmfivg. Ins. v. s. si, " Hatte die Natur also 

Keine nUichtigunrhenden OegenanstaUen zwr VeHUgung gebroffen so w&rde dieses 

fferr den Menschen woU wenig Fleisch Hbrig lassen, und die Fastentage wOrden steis an 
der T<igesordnung sein/** 

Digitized by 



I^asia Latr. Antennae short, the third joint a little longer 
than the second. Abdomen depressed, downy, qoinqueannulate. 
Wings divaricate, broad, often coloured, thickish. 

Fig. Schzllhtb. Tab. n. fig. a ; Guis. Iconogr. Im. PL loi, fig. 4. 

Sub-genera : Hyalomyia, Alophoray Elomyia Robin. 

THchopoda Latb. 

Xysta Meig. Antennae short, two last joints sub-equal. Abdo- 
men convex, oval with five rings or six, pubescent or sub-nude. 
Wings lanceolate, divaricate. 

Oymnowma Meig. Antennae moderate, with two last joints 
sub-equal. Abdomen quadriannulate, globose, sub-nude. 

Sub-genera : Cistogiuter Latb., Strongygaater Maoq. 

Ocyptera Latb. Antennae moderate, with third joint longer 
than second, linear, compressed. Abdomen elongate, subsetose, 

Fhania Meig. Antennae moderate^ third joint elongate, linear, 
compressed. Abdomen oval, subsetose, quadriannulate, inflexed 
towards the extremity. 

Lophosia Meig. Antennae moderate, third joint the largest, 
compressed, obtrigonaU Abdomen cylindrical, qnadriannulate, 

Curtocera Macq. 

Tachina Meig., Echinomyta Dumek. Antennae moderate or 
short, with second joint often long, sometimes exceeding the third ; 
triarticulate seta at the base of the third joint. Abdomen conical 
or oval, quadriannulate, setose. 

A numeroiis gentu, which beyond any other gives us an idea of the 
inexhaustible riches of nature in the fbnns and modifications of aidmal 
organisation. MsiosH oonnts more than three hundred species whioh are 
found in Europe, and of the foreign species, yet known so fragmentarily, 
still more than a hundred have been described. In some, as for instance in 
Tackina grtma, the second joint of the antennie is much larger than the 
last (see Ds Geeb /m. vi. F1. i. fig. 3) ; to such species Latrbille 
applies exclusively the name of JSIcAtnon^ui, to which accordingly TaMna 
larvamm does not belong, and which only answers to a small part of the 
Tachina of Mbtobn. 


Digitized by 


324 CLASS Tin. 

Tlie hrrm of these flies live paradticany in other insects, maoy spedes in 
caterpiUarSy and, with the ichnenmons, are the most serviceable in pre- 
serving a balance in the economy of nature, by restraining the excessive 
multiplication of noxious insects. Many are viviparous. Comp. G. Th. 
Voir SiKBOLD, U^ber die veihliche Getchleehisorgane der Tachinen, Wiso- 
MANi!r*8 Arekiv f, Natvrffetch. 1838, s. 191 — loi. Some larve leave the 
insect in which they Uve before changring into pups. 

Sp. Tachina fera, Muscaferalt., Taszkr Deultdd. Itu, Heft 70, Tab. x8, &c. 

Sub-genera: Echinomyia Dumer., Latb., Maoq., Micropalpus 
Macq., Thryptocera Macq., Trixa Meig., Nemorcea Robin., Magq., 
Senometopia Macq., Eurigaster Macq., Masicera Macq., Metopia 
(Meig. previously) Macq., LydeUa Robin., Macq., Tachina Macq. 
Ghrysosoma Macq., Clysia Robin., MycHAa Robin., Macq., {ffebia^ 
Mdia, Myobia Robin.), Zophomyia Macq., Cassidcemyia Macq., 
Sericocera Robin., Macq., PkUocera Robin., Melanophara (Meig. 
previously) Macq. 

Gonia Meig. Antennse with third joint elongate, surpassing the 
two preceding taken together. Seta of anteniue triarticulate, geni- 

MtUogramma Meig. Antennae with third joint elongate, sur- 
passing the two preceding taken together. Seta of antennie biarti- 
culate, straight. Abdomen oval or conical, in some not setose, 

To this genus the observations of O. Th. Voir SiSBOLD refer (Oftserv. 
gwed, entomolofficas de Oxybelo uniglum^ aique Miltogramma eonica. 
Erlangae, 1841, 4to); the female of Oxyhdus tmifflumis, a species of 
hymenopterum, digs for each of her ^;g8 a hole in sandy ground, and 
deposits near it some flies, her booty. In this work she is watched and 
foUowed by MUiogramma conica, which lurks near the entrance of the hole 
for an opportunity to sUp in with her as she enters, and to fix some young 
larvBB on the booty, which afterwards penetrate from it into the larva of 
Oxybdtu; the reason why the Oxybdat does not drag this MtUogramma 
itself into the hole as food for the larva of her egg, is readily explained by 
this dipterum being viviparous, for then she would have drawn in the 
Trojan horse ; and hence these Tachinaria are avoided. Lkpklstisb de 
Saikt-Fasoeau has made similar observations as well on Oxj^ui as on 
Cerceris; Hist. NcU, des Hymen, 184 1, 11. pp. 567, 568, 573. 

B,) GonopsaruB, Proboscis exsert, in most filiform, in some 
cylindrical or conical. 

• Wings imperfect, very short, unfit for flying: 

Camtu NiTZSCH. 

Digitized by 


IN8EGTA* 325 

Sp. Oamus kmapUra$ Nitssgh, Gibmab Magtm, der SmUmol, m. pp. 305^ 
307, E. F. GsRMAB Favn, Inaedor. Ewrop. Fsso. ix. Tab. 34, 35. An 
animalcale about the size of a flea ; it lives pararitically od StuimuM vulgariM, 
Abdomen ia broader in the female, and terminated by an exsert style. 

tt Wings adapted for flying. 

Stomoxys Geofpr., Fabr. Antennae shorter than head, tri- 

articulate, with third joint longer than rest, compressed, with 

dorsal seta. Proboscis exsert, geniculate. Abdomen oval, quadri- 
annulate. Wings divaricate. 

BuoenUs Latb., Siphona Meio. Seta of antenniB triarticulate, 
naked or downy at the apex. Proboscis geniculate at the base and 
the middle. 

Tlie lanrsB of this genus live, like those of the Tachins, parasitically, in 
caterpiUan; Bx Gbsb /iu. yi. pp. 38, 39; Mtmehe eoudie, PL 2, flga, 

Stomoxya Msia, Latb. Seta of antennte biarticulate, naked or 
plmnosa Proboscis horizontal, geniculate at the base alone. 

8p. Stotnoxys calfiUrans, Conopa caleitrans L,, GEorFBOT Jnt, ParU, n. Tah, 
zvni. fig. 2, ScHELLEKBBno, PL f 7, fig. I, Gu^RiK Iconogr. Itu., PL 10 1, 
fig. 8 ; grey, with abdomen spotted black. This fly fixes itself on the legs 
of cattle, and in rainy weather, especially at the end of summer, enters our 
houses and attacks our legs ; the uninitiated fancy that the house-flies are 
then pricking, and so confound this species with Mv$ea domaHca, 

Myopa Fabr. Antennae shorter than head, with second joint 
longer, or second and third sub-equal, the third ovate or globose, 
stjlate at the back. Proboscis exsert, geniculate. Abdomen 
elongate, inflected downwards. Wings parallel, incumbent. Ocelli 

Zodion Latb. Proboscis geniculate at the base alona 

Myapa Latb. Proboscis geniculate at the base and the middla 

Add sub-genera : Stachynia Macq. {Dalnumnia Robin.), Stylo- 
gctster Macq. 

Conopa L., (exclusive of species). Antenna porrect, of length 
of head, with first joint cylindrical, second and third forming a 
fusiform club. Style of antennae apical, biarticulate. Proboscis 
exsert, geniculate at the base. Abdomen elongate, sexannulate, 
inflected. Wings parallel, incumbent. Ocelli none. 

Digitized by 



Sp. Conopt JIavipei h., Dum^b. Contid, g4n. «. I, In$. PI. 46, fig. 4, Pakzkb 
DeuUchl, Im., Heft 73, Tabs. 21, 2^, &o. 

Phalanx III. Proboscis distinct, bilabiate at apex. Four 
setas of haustellum, an upper (labrum) fornicate, emarginate at the 
extremity, two lateral {maxtllw) linear, supplied with a palp 
incrassated towards the extremity. Sji/rphidce, 

These diptera, which for the most part were placed by Linnaeus 
in his genus Musca, form the genus Syrpkua Fabb., and numerous 
small genera of more modem writers. 

A. Antennffi of the length of the head, or longer than the head. 

t Antennse with apical style. 

Ceria Fabr. AntennsB inserted on a common frontal pedicle. 
Abdomen cylindrical. 

Callicera Meig., Latr. Antennas inserted on a common 
tubercle. Abdomen conical. 

tt Antennae with dorsal seta. 

Psarus Latr., Fabr., Meig. Antennas iifserted on a common 
frontal pedicle. 

Chrysotoxum Meig., Latr. Antennas inserted on a conical 
frontal tubercle. Scutellum unarmed. Wings divaricate. 

sp. ChrywtoaBum arewUwm, Mutca areuata L., Qit£rik Iconogr., In$. PI. 99, 
figs. 6, fto. 

Ceratophf/a Wiedeil 

Microdon Meig., Aphritts Latr. Antennas inserted on a small 
frontal tubercle, little distinct, with first joint elongate, cylindrical. 
Scutellum bidentate. 

Sp. Microd. apiformu, Mtuca aptformis De Gkeb, Gu&in leonogr. Im. 
PI. 100, fig. I ; Micr. mtUahilU, Musca mutabUis avctor. (in part) ; the 
UiT» of this species is, according to the investigations of SomiOTHAUSKB, the 
same animal which Von Sfix and Yon Heijdbn have described as a sing, 
under the name of ScutdUffera and Parmula, Oken's liu, 1S40, s. 993, 923. 

Paragua Latr., Meig. Antennas inserted on the frons, approxi- 
mate, of the length of the head. Abdomen elongato-quadrate, 
depressed. Wings parallel, incumbent. 

Sp. Paroffut bicdor, Syrphui htcolor Fabk., GuiRiN, Iconogr. Im. PI. 99, 
figs. 5, kc. 

Digitized by 


INfiECTA. 327 

B. Antenne shorter than head. 

t Proboscis moderate, 
a) Wings congraous, parallel, incambent. 

Milesia Latr., Fabr. Antennas with naked dorsal seta. Nasal 
tubercle none. Abdomen mostly elongate, narrow. 

Eumerua nob. (Eumtrua Meig., XyhOa ejusd., Aacia ejusd., 
Sphegina ejusd., Merodon ejusd.) Hinder thighs incrassated, spinose 

8p. MiUna (Xybta Msio.) pipiens, Mutea pipiem L., Pakub DeutaeJU. Im, 
Heft 32, No. 99, SCHXLLKNBSBO, Tftb. z. figs. 3, kc, 

Milesia Meig. (Fipiza, Fsil&ta ejusd.) Feet simple; posterior 
thighs little or not at all thicker than anterior. 

Triglj/phua LoEW. (Oxen's Ins, 1840, p. 565.) 

Syrphus Latr. Antennae with dorsal seta naked or downy* 
Nasal tubercle. 

* With abdomen eloDgate, atteniuite anterioriy, clubbed at the apez. 
Sub-genus : JBaccha Meig. 

* * With abdomen oval, depressed. 

Sub-genera : Chrysogasier Meig., and Syrphus ejusd. 

8p. Stfrphfu pyrattri, Muaea pyrattri L., DuMiaiL Ccm, gin, 9, 1. Im, PI. 50, 
fig. 10 ; Syrph. ribetii, Mtuea ribeaU L., Cur. B. Ani. id, HI,, Im. PL 174, 
figs. 6, fto. 

This pretty fiunily of flies, mostly adorned with yellow transyerse bands, 
ofken continue hovering in the air in the same place, moving their wings 
with very rapid vibrations, and producing a peculiar hum in a high 
note. Their larvae, conical and pointed forwards, feed on plant-lice. See 
GoBDiBBDT Metamorphosis naturalis, Mediobuigi, iimo, i. p. 99, Observ, 47, 
R£auhub Im, ni. PI. 30, &c. 

Note, — Sub-genus PhOyekevnu Sahtt-Fabo. and Sbby., with anterior tafsn 
dilated in the male. Comp. Stjcokb in Kbotsb's Nat/ufrhisi, Tidashr, vr, 
1843, P- 3«i- 

Sericomyia Meig. Antennas with plumed dorsal seta. Nasal 

6) Wings congruous, divaricate or deflected. 

Eelophilus Meig. (with the addition of several species of genus 
Enatalta ejusd. and MaUota ejusd.) Antennsa with dorsal seta 
naked or downy. Abdomen oval or conical. 

Digitized by 



Sp. HdaphUui Uncm, Musca Umax L., Pahkkb Deuiickl. Im,, Heft 14, Nos. 
33, 34, SoHSLLBNBEBO, Tab. g, fig. I ; common with us towards autumn, 
and often mistaken by the uninformed for bees or wasps. The larra leaves 
its biding place in August and September, to undergo its metamorphosis in 
chinks of walls. The body of the larva of this and of other species ends 
with a long tail ; hence the French name Vera d queue de rat; they live in 
cavities of stems of trees in which water is ooUected, in cesspools and 
necessaries, and breathe by this tail See Goedabdt Metam. Nat. i. Observ. 
7, p. 20, Tab. II. ; Swammbbdam Bijb, d. Natuur, pp. 644—646, Tab. 38, 
fig. 9; BiAUHUB Int. TV. PI. 20, &c. 

VoluceUa Geoffb. Syrphus Fabr. Antennae with dorsal seta 
plumed, mostly long. Abdomen oval or conical, thick, hirsute. 

Sp. VoluceUa intriearia, Syrphtu intricariu$ (and Syrph. bonUfffUfarmdi 
Fabb.), Miuea intricaria L., Panzsb Deutichl. In$,, Heft 59, Nos. ix, 
13, &c. 

The larva of one species, of which the metamorphosis is known, lives in 
the nests of Bombus, and feeds on its larvae ; this is VoluceUa zonaria, 
SyrphuB imam* Fabb., RiAUMUB In»ect. m. pp. 483 — ^485, PI. 33, figs. 
15 — 19. The body of this larva is pointed before, broad behind, with six 
rays disposed in a semicircle. They are also found in wasps' nests. 

Pelioocera HoFFMANNSEGG, Meig. Antennae with short dorsal 
seta, incrassate, triarticulate. 

c) Wings more than twice the length of the abdomen (incum- 
bent, parallel). 

Brachycpa HOFFMANNSEGG, Meig. 

ft Proboscis elongate (of the length of head and thorax). Head 
porrect beneath into a conical beak. 

Rhingia ScX)P., Fabr. Wings incumbent, parallel, 

Sp. Kkingia rottrata, Conopt rostraJUi L., Pakzsb Deuiachl, In$., Heft 87, 
No. 29, DUM^ C<ma. ff6n, t. I. Int, PL 47, fig. 7. 

Family XI. Tanystomata. Antenna mostly with three joints, 
the last setigerous. Proboscis exsert, containing an haustellum 
composed of four or six setae. 

Longbeaks. The larvse resemble oblong worms, and have no 
feet; they have ordinarily a homy and hard, others a soft head, 
but which is constantly provided with booklets or retractile append- 
ages, of which they make use in gnawing or sucking their food 
The most live undergrotmd. They moult before changing into 

Digitized by 


IK8ECTA. 329 

pupn ; the pupe8 are naked, and shew many parts of the perfect 
insect Latkeille, Cut. B. Ani, sea €d. y. p. 455. 

A. Setae of haustellum four. 

Phalanx I. Proboscis shorter, terminated by two large labia. 

Scencpintis Latr. Antennae triarticnlate, with third joint 
elongate, sub-cylindrical, truncate, no seta. Wings incumbent, 

Sp. Scenopimu feneatralit, Qviaxs Iconogr, Int. PL 96, figs. 8, &c. 
A genuB of unoertain place. The larva of Scenopinut uniUt which 
Bouoni described, linear, supplied with few hairs, acuminate at both ends 
like the larva of TherevOf and the naked nymph (not a coarctate pupa), 
sufEiciently prove the genus to differ from the division of the Mutcce. 
Naiurg. der /«. 1834, Tab. iv. figs, ai, 43. 

Pipunculus Latr. Antennae triarticulate, the first joint the 
least, the third ovate, compressed, with erect seta at the base. 
Head globose. Wings large, incumbent, parallel. 

Platypeza Meiq. Antennas triarticulate, with third joint ovate, 
compressed, and a terminal seta. Head globose, with eyes in male 
contiguous. Wings large, parallel, incumbent. Hind feet thicker. 

The larvsp live in Agarici, See the larva and pupa of Plat, holosericea 
figured by Lik>N DuFOUB, Ann. dea 8c. not. ^e S^rie, zni. PI. in. figs. 
14 — 76. 

GdUamyia Meio. 

Dolichapus Latr. Antennss with third joint triangular or ovate, 
and furnished with seta. Abdomen compressed, in males incurved 
at the apex. Wings incumbent, parallel. Feet long, slender. 
Sp. DoUchopua nobUUaius, &c. 

Sub-genera : Ammobates Stannitjs, Sybistroma Meio., Rkaphium 
Meio., Porphyrops Meio., Medeterus Fisch. 

Comp. H. Stankius Die Ewropditchen Arien der zweifiugler Q<Utung Dolicho- 
pus, Oeen's /«>, 1831, s. 28 — 68, 8. m — 144, s. 248 — 271 ; Stjbobb 
Dantke Dolichopoder, Kboteb's Tidsakr. iv. 1843, PP* i — ^44* 

Sub-genus: OrtochUe Latr. ProbosciB exsert, perpendicular, 
with palps acute, incumbent. 

Clinocera Meig. Antennae porrect, triarticulate, with terminal 
incurved seta. Wings incumbent, parallel. Tarsi with three 

Digitized by 


330 CLAB8 VIII. 

Oomp. Mkioev, SiftUm. B€$ekr. der aw. nte^. Im. n. p. ii^ Tab. i6, figs. 

Leptts Fabil Antennae ponect, with third joint setiferouB. 
Palps exsert Wings divaricate. Tarsi furnished with three pul- 
yilli. Abdomen conical, elongate. 

Sp. Leptu wedopaeea, Muaea aeolopacea L., Sghellivb. Tab. 31, Fig. i, 
DuMiB. Com, gin, t. /. In». PI. 48, figs, i, &c Hie hurra (BoucH^ 1. L 
p. 44, Tab. lY. fig. i) lives nnder ground, and is long and conical. That 
of another species from France and the Sooth of Europe, Leptu vermileo, 
Musea vermileo L., Schsllihb., 1. L fig. 2, digs, like the larva of the Lion- 
ant, fnnnel-shaped pits in the sand to catch the insects that fidl in. See 
RiAUMDB Mim, de VAead. royaU de$ Sc. de Paris, 1753, fig. 409, PL i ; 
Db Gkbb Ins. n, pp. 168—183, PL X ; Bomahd Ann. de la Soe. EnUmcl. 
n. 1833, pp. 498, 499, PI. 18 0. 

Sub^nera; Atherix Meig., Pdolina SriBG., Zettebst. 

Tkereva Latr., Meio. {Bibto Fabr.) Palps sheltered in the 
cavity of the mouth. Antennas porrect, of the length of the head, 
with third joint subulate or oblongo-conical, with a small biarticu- 
late terminal style. Wings divaricate. Abdomen conical, tomentose. 

Sp. Tkereva plebeia L., DuM&. C<mtid, gin, 1. 1 Ins. PL 48, fig. 4 ; l%er. 
anilis, Musca anilis L., Pavzbb Deutschl. Ins. Heft 5, Kos. 93, &c. 

PhUocephala Zettebst. 

Mydas Fabr. {Midas Wiedem.) Antenna longer than head, 
quinquearticulate, clavate. Wings incumbent. (Ocellus single, at 
least in some, frontal, transverse, situated between two exsert 


Sp. Midas JUata Fabb., Duic^b. Chns. gin. s, I. Ins. PL 48, fig. 8 ; Midas 
giganteus Wikdeh., Cuy. J2. Ani. id. iU, Ins. PL 173, fig. 1, bothfirom 
South America. The species, with the exception of a few from Portugal, 
are all exotic and very large. 

Comp. Wibdbmakk, Nov. Act. Acad. Cces. Leop. Carol, xv. 2, pp. 19 — 
$6, Tab. n. — iv, 183 1, Wbbtwood Arcana entomologica, i. 1841, p. 49, 
PL 13, 14. Respecting the place of this genus in the natural arrangement 
there are different opinions. According to the observations of Habbis, 
the larva and pupa agree with those of AsHus. 

Note. — Qenus Gephcdooera Latb., related to Mydas, differs from 
the other genera of the family by a long, porrect; slender proboseisy 
yet it ought not to be severed from Mydas. 

Digitized by 



Phalanx II. Proboscis exaert, tubulose. Labia at the end of 
the proboscis, sometimes scarcely discernible. 

t Wings incumbent. 

Astlus L. Proboscis straight, porrect. Antennae porrect, approxi- 
mate, triarticulate, with third joint elongate. Body elongate. 
Head transverse, above much broader than long, anteriorly barbate, 
posteriorly separate from the thorax by stricture. 

a) Tani without pulyilli. 

Qonypea Latb., Leptogaster Meiq. Abdomen elongate, narrow. 
Posterior feet elongate, with clavate tibiae. Antennie with biarti- 
culate pilose style at the point. 

Sp. Gonypet cylindrieut, Asilm tipuUadea Fabb., Schbllenb. Tub. xzx. 
fig. I. 

b) Tarsi with two pul villi. 

*) With apical aeta of antennae distinct. 

Ommaiivs Iluo., Wiedeic. Seta of antennsB plumose. 

AsUua Meio. Seta of antennse oaked^ biarticolate, sometimes 

Sp. AtiluB erabraniformia L., Schbllbnb. Tab. zxiz, figs, i, i, DdmIk. 
Cent. gSn. $. I. In*. PI. 46, figs. 10, &c. 

Add sab-genus : Mallophora Macq. 

* *) With style of antennn conical, short. 
Dcuypogon Meio. 

* * *) With style of antenne short, obtuse, biarticulate. Antenna 
larger than head. 

Sub-genera : CercUiurgus Wiedem., Dioctria Meio. 

* * • *) Without apical style of antenns. 
Laphria Meio. 

Add sub-genera : Rhopalogtuter^ Xiphocera and Megapoda Macq. 

Hyhos Meig. {Ocydromia HoFFMANNSEGG, Meig.) Antennae 
porrect, triarticulate, with the two inferior joints small, often con- 
joined, scarcely distinct. Proboscis horizontal, short. Head small, 
globose. Thorax oval, gibbons. Wings large, longer than the 
cylindrical abdomen. 

Digitized by 



Leptopeza Maoq. (spea of Ocydromia Meig.) 

On the gynonomy of oertain specieB oomp. STiBOEB in Kboteb'b Tida- 
akrifi, iv. pp. 93 — 101. 

(Edalea Meig. 

Empis L. Proboscis exsert, perpendicular, or inflected under 
the body. Last joint of antennae terminated by a seta or style. 
Head small, globose. 

a) With ftntennsB biuticulate (the two inferior being confluent). 

TcLchydromia Meig. {Si4su8 Latb.). Anterior thigbs incrassate. 

Add sub-genera : Hemerodromia Hoffmansegg, Drapetis Me- 
GERLE, PUUypalpus Maoq. (spec, of Tachydromia Meig.), Xiphi- 
dicera Macq., Ardoptera and Elaphropeza Macq. (sp. of Hemero- 

Cyrtoma Meig. Is tliis its place I 

b) With ftntennn triarticuUte. 

Empis Meig. (Empis, Pachymerina Macq.), Rhamnphomyia Meig., 
ffil<iria Meig., Brachystoma Meig., Gloma Meig., Microphorus 
Macq. {Trichina Meig.) 

Sp. Empi» teueUata Fabb., EmpU opaea Fabb., &c. 
ft Wings divaricate. 

Cyrtua Latr. Proboscis inflected xmder the body. Antennae 
approximate. Poisers small, covered by large squamae. Head 
small, globose. Thorax ' gibbous. Abdomen inflated, vesiculose. 
Tarsi with three pulvilli. 

a) Proboscis short (sometimes not diaoernible in the dried insect). 
*) With antennas biarticuUte, no style. 

Pterodontia Gray. 

* *) With antennjB biarticulate, and terminal style. 

Henaps Illig., Faer,, Ogcodes (Oncodes) Latr., {Henops Meig., 
Acrocera Meig.) 

Comp. Ebiohbon Archivf. Natwrgesch, 1846, p. 188. 

Sp. Henopt giJbbowm, Muaca yHboio, L., GuiaiN lamogr., Itu, PL 94, 
fig. 10. 

* * *) With antenns triartioul&te, no style. 

AstomeUa Dufour, Latr., Ocnea Erichs., Picdea Erichs. 

Digitized by 



Sp. At/UmuXla eurvherUrii Dur., Atlom. marginata Latr., L^H Dufoub, 
Ann. de$ Se. not. xxz. 1833, pp. 3io. 9TI, PI. 17 A, fig. i, antennA. 
Habitat Spain. 

h) Proboscis elongate. 

*) With antennflB biarticulate ; long terminal seta. 

Oyrttis Latr., Meiq., Acrocera Meig., Latr., Psilodera Griff., 
ThyUis Erichs., Philopota Wiedem. 

Sp. CyHtu ffibbtu Mbio., Cyrttu aeephahts Latb., Duk^b. Comid. gin. «. {. 
Jm,, pi 48, fig. 7, V1LLEB8 Entom, Linn., Tab. z. fig. 21. 

* *) With antennsB triarticulate, longer than the head, no style. 

ParMps Lam., Latb., Lasia Wiedem. 

Sp. PaMOp$ Baudini Lamabok, Ann, du Mum. m. 1804, pp. 963—^65, 
PL xzn. fig. 3, habit, in New HoUand ; Panopi oeeUtger Wibdbm., Gu^nr 
Iconogr., Ins. PL 94, fig. 9. 

Comp. on these genera of Diptera Ebichson Entomograpkia, 1840, 
pp. i35> *«• 

Bambylius L. Antennad porrect, approximate. Proboscis por- 
rect, slender, mostly elongate. Palps miiarticulate. Squama of 
poisers small, not covering the poisers. Trunk gibbous. Feet 
slender, elongate. 

a) Abdomen elongate, narrow. 

Phthiria Meio., Wiedebcann {Pkthiria and Megapalpvs Macq.), 
Geron Hoffmannsegg, Syatropus Wiedem., Amicttis Wiedem., Apc^ 
tomyza Wiedem., Thlipaomyza Wiedem., CyUenia Latb., Meig., 
Toxophora Wiedem., Xestoniyza Wiedem. 

Comp. Sytiropi generis Dipierorum Monographia, audore J. O. Wbbt- 
wooD, Gu^Biir Magas. de ZooL 1843 ; Sgstr. eumenoldes Wbstw., L 1. 
PL 90. 

Toxophora CarcelU Gu^iN, Magas. de Zod. L 1831, Jns. PL 16. 

5) Abdomen short. Body hinmte. 

Ploa8 Latk, Meig. Proboscis of the length of the head. First 
joint of antenn® longer than the rest, very thick. 

Usia Latb., Meig., Bomhylius Meig., Latr. Proboscis longer 
than the head (sometimes of the length of the body). Third joint 
of antennoB longer than the rest. 

Comp. J. C. MiKAN Monogrophia Bombyliorum Bohemia:, iconib. illustr. 
Prage, 1796, 8vo. 

Digitized by 


334 CLASS Till. 

Sp. BamhgUmB msiim» L., Bombyl. discolor, MiK., Mottoffr. Tab. n. fig. i ; 
Bombyl. tricolor Gvt^ lamogr. In». PL 95, fig. 4, from BeogaL 

In the proper genus Bomibffttm the body is woolly ; they hover over 
flowers, whilst they suck them, like hamming bees {Bowtbt). According to 
Macleat the larvss hve upon larvie of these bees ; the pape are found 
under ground. Wbstwood, Introduction, u. p. 543. 

Nemestrina Latr. AntennaB porrect, remote, triaxticulate, with 

style elongate, setiform, terminal. Proboscis very long, at rest 

inflected under the body. Thorax not gibbous. Tarsi with three 


Sp. Nemettrina longirottrit WiSDKiL, Atutereurop. zweifl. Im. Tab. IL fig. 5, 
GuiBiN Iconogr,, In». PI. 95, fig. 7 ; from the Cape of Good Hope. In 
this species, and in most of the remaining, the point of the wing is di- 
vided into many cells (retiform); this is not the ease in some others, 
which make up the genus FaUenia Msio. 

Anthrcuc ScoPOLi, Fabr. Antennae small, triarticulate, £ur- 
nished with terminal style, mostly remote. Proboscis mostly short, 
sometimes retracted. 

a) Tarsi with three pulviDL 

4% Hirmcneura Wdedeil, Meio. Proboscifl retracted Anterior 
ocelltui remote. 

5) Tarsi with two pulvilli, often little distinct. 
*) Proboscis longer than head. 

Genera : Mtdio Latb., Corsomyza Wiedex., Enica Macq. 
**) Proboscis shorty concealed or subezsert 

Genera: LonuUia Meio. (previoufily Stygia ejusd), Tcmomyza 
WiEDEiL with antennn approximate. 

Anthrax Meio., with antennae remote. 

Sp. AnSkrax morio, Mutca morio L. ; Antkr. temiatra Hoffmanhsioo, 
DuMi^B. Cons, gin. t. L Ins. PL 48, fig. 4 ; Cuv. R. AnL 4d. iU., Im. ¥L 
168, fig. 3. Most of the species are exotic Schjbffeb figures the larva 
and pupa of a species of dipterum that lives as a parasite in the nest of the 
mason-bee (Megachile). • Die Mawvrhiene, Begensburg, 1 764, 4to. Tab. ▼. 
figs. II, II. Webtwood quotes these figures under Anthrax. 

B. SetsB of Haustellum six (in females). 

Phalanx III. (To&anu Latr.) 

Tahafius L. Antennsd porrect, triarticulate, with last joint 
divided into several rings, without terminal seta or style. Wings 

Digitized by 


IN8ECTA 335 

divaricate in by far the most, in some parallel, deflected. Eyes 
very large, contiguous in males. Tarsi with three pulvilli. 

a) Proboscis of the length of the head or shorter thui the head, bila- 
biate at apex. 

*) AnteniuB longer than head. 

Sub-genera: ffexatama Meig., HcRVMntopata Meio. Wings de- 
flected, parallel Ocelli none. 

Sp. ffcenuUopota pUmaUt, TabanvM pluvialu L., Panzbb, J>e¥tdeKl. Int, 
Heft 13, no. 33; four lines long, blackish, thorax with white stripes, 
wings clouded grey ; the female pricks sharply, especially in warm rainy 
weather ; very common all oyer Europe. 

Sub-genera: Chrywpa Meig., SUviua Meio. Wings divaricate. 
Ocelli three. 

Sp. (Jkry9op9 ooeeutient, Taban. ecseuUmt L., DuhISb. Cons, gin. «. {. Ins. PL 
47, fig. 8. 
** Antenna of length of head, (ocelli none, wings divaricate). 

Subgenus : Tabantu Meio. 

Sp. Tahanus hovinus L., Pakzsb, DeuisckL Ins. Heft 3, no. w ; Cuv. J2. 
Ani. 4d, HI., Ins. PL lyt, fig. 3, &c. This spedes has naked eyes; in 
other species the eyes are haired. Gomp. Zellbb in Oksn'b Isis, 1841, s. 
8x3 — S33. The larvse live under ground : the pupa state lasts in Tdbanus 
bovinus about four weeks. Db Gebb Ins. VI. pp. 314 — 319, PL 13, 
figs. 6, 7. 

h) Proboscis elongate (of length of head and thorax), acuminate. (Ocelli 
mostly three, in some none.) 

Sub^nera: Pangonia Latb., Meio. (previoucdj Tanyglosaa 
Meig.), Rhinomyza Wiedem. 

Family XII. Notacantha s. Odontomyiidm. AntennaB with 
several joints, four or more being terminal, very often joined to 
form an annulate body cylindrical or conical. Set» of haustellum 
four. Palps small, clavate. Tarsi with three pulvilli. Scutellum 
in many armed with spines or teeth, whence the family name. 

Thomrhacks, armed Jlies, Beaumur gave to some species of this 
family the name of matiches cbrmes, which Geoffbot (Hist, des In- 
sectes qui se Prov/oerU aux environs de Paris, 11. 1762, p. 476) ren- 
dered by Straiiomys, to which name well-founded objections may be 
made (ZsLLEHy OEEifB Isis, 1842, p. 828), but since it was adopted 
by FABBidUS, it is now in too general use to permit its rejection 

Digitized by 



without occasioning much confusion. LaNSMUS referred these flies 
to the genus Mvsccl By their antennae they approach the last 
family of the diptera, the Nemocera, in which there is constantly 
found a great number of joints, whilst the rest of the families have 
ordinarily three alone. At the same time the majority of writers 
consider the antennae of the Notacantha to be three-jointed in like 
manner, in which view the last joints are merely noted as rings in 
the terminal joint. But there is much that is uncertain and arbi- 
trary here. That the seta of the Athericera may be counted as a 
joint of the antenna, and that it is not separated by any sharp 
boundary from a stylus, which is itself often jointed also, will be 
readily admitted by every one who has not studied nature from 
books alone. The true place of the NotacoffUha in a natural system 
cannot in any case be far from Tabanus, although some only agree 
with Tabani in the metamorphosis, the genus Fachystorrma for in- 
stance (Latreille Genera Crust et Ins, iv. pp. 286, 287), the properly 
so-named Xylophoffi, and perhaps Ccmomyia (see Westwood, IrUrod. 
to modem Chissif. of Insects, ii. p. 535). Most of the species, on the 
other hand, the species of all the genera which establish the essen- 
tial type of this family, do not cast their skin. Under the skin of 
the larva, which however does not, as occurs in AthericerOy contract 
itself to a ball, the pupa is formed. Some larvse live undergroimd, 
others in decayed wood, others in water. 

The antennae are mostly cylindrical or conical, sometimes club- 
shaped, and seldom longer than the head ; this last is a semi-round, 
of which the eyes in the male occupy almost the whole bulk; there 
are three ocelli. The body is flat ; the wings are long and cross 
one another, lying flat on the abdomen, and mostly leaving its sides 

A. Antennse mostly with ten joints, the last eight confluent into 
a single subulate body, style none. 

t Antennae not longer than head. 

Ccenomyia Latb. {Stcus Fabr.) Scutellum bidentate. 

Sp. Cbmomyta ferrugmea Msio., Furop, noei/L In$, n. Tab. X4 ; Vxncta 
Ooru, gSn, 1. 1. Int, PL 48, fig. 3. 

Xylophagus Meig. Scutellum unarmed. 

Xylophagus Westw. First joint of antennae elongate. 

Sp. Xylophagut tOer Mxio., Europ, zwe^. Ins, n. Tab. 17, ^, 14 ; Empis 
subuUOa pAirzBB, DeiOstM, Ins. Heft 54, no. 35. 

Digitized by 



The name Xylophagui is, aooording to the obserystions of "Dvkwbrv, 
unsuitable, for the lanre do not feed on wood, but suck those of Tiptda and 
Pyroehroa, which hare the same habitat (old trunks of trees). Ksotbr'r 
TUUshr, TV. p. 103. 

Note, — ^Here is to be referred genus Pachyitomus Late., with five 
joints of antennee, the last three conjoined. Latbeille CreTi, Grustac. 
et iTisector. iv. pp. 286, 287. 

SvJbvla Megerle, Webtw. (spea of Xylophagua Meiqen). First 
joint of antennae short 

(A genus differing from the preceding in the metamorphosis, aooording to 
the observations of Roseb, Hope and others ; oomp. Wbstwood ItUroduet 
n. p. 534). 

Beria Latr. Scutellnm armed with four, six or eight spines. 

8p. Berit clavipet Pahzbb, Deuttehl, Ins. Heft 9, no. 19, ftc. 
Acanthomera Weidem. 

Raphiorhyrhcifms Weedem. 

(This genus with Acanthomera is placed by Maoquabt amongst the 

ft Antennn longer than head. 

a) Antennae simple. 

Cyphomyia WiED. Scutellum bidentate. 

Sp. Cyphomia awnjUmma Wudbm., GufRnr Iconogr., In$. Fl. 98, fig. 5. 
Habit, in Brazil. All the species are American ; the habitus is that of 
Stratum^, from which genus they seem to differ by artificial character 

Hermetta Latr. Last joint of antennsB oval, elongate, set upon 
the constricted apex of the preceding. Scutellum unarmed. 
Species all exotic, mostly American. 
6) Antennae flabellate. 
PHlocera Wiedemann. 

Sp. PtQocera qtiodriderUata, StraHomys qttadridentata Fabb., Wisdim ank 
Au$ierewrop. eweijl. Ins, n. p. 59. Tab. vm. fig. 4. Habit, in islands 
Sumatra and Java. 

B. Antennae with joints not more than eight, with long seta 
terminal or near the apex. 

8argu8 Fabr., Meig. {Sargus and Ghrysomyia Macq.) Antennae 
with last joint orbicular or elliptic. Scutellum imarmed. Wings 
lanceolate, longer than abdomen. 

VOL. I. 22 

Digitized by 



Sp. Sarfftu evpraaitu, Mutea eupraria h., Dux^iL Cons, g4n, s, L Int. 
PI. 50, fig. 8 ; with tiB not rare, four lines long ; two white spots on the 
head at the base of the antenn», breast blue-green, abdomen oopper- 
coloured, towards the hinder part violet, glistening prettily. — Sargvafor- 
motm, Chryaomiaformosa Maoq., &c. 

Chryaochlora Latb. 

Sp. Sa/rgm amelhyttinut Fabs., Out. R, Ani, id. tS., Ins. PI. 173, fig. 6; 
on the island Maniitiiis. 

Dicrarwphora Meiq. Scutellum with very long appendage 
forked at the apex. 

Sp. IHcra/no]phorafvyreifera, Sargus fureifer, Wikdbx., Gutinnr Iconogr., Ins. 
PI. 98, fig. 12 ; from the Brazils. 

C. Antennae with six or seven joints, furnished with conical 
terminal style {Nemotelus Geoffr. in part). 

Foppo Latr., Fabr., Pachygaster Meig. 

t Proboscis long. 

Nemotehta Meig. (Spec, of genus Nemotehis Geoffr., Fabr.) 
Scutellum unarmed. 

Sp. Nemotdus pantherinus Msio., Panzsb Deuitschl. Ins. Heft 46, No. si, 
12. {Nemot. utiginosus and margtnattis). 

+t Proboscis short. 

JSphijijpium Latr., CUteUaria Meig. {Ephtppiumaxid. Oyclogaater 

Oxycera Meig. Antennae sexarticulate, cylindrical at apex, 
with style terminal or dorsal, biarticulate, slender. Scutellum 

Sp. Oxgcera trilineata Mbio., Musca panlhenna L. {sxeUu. syon.), Paitzbb 
Deuisehl. Ins. Heft I. n. 13 ; 3 lines long, yeUow-green, breast with three 
black longitudinal stripes, abdomen with black transverse bands on the 
dorsal surfStce, feet yeUow. 

D. Antennad septarticulate, of length of head or longer than 
head (with first joint elongate)^ no terminal seta. 

Stratiomys Geoffr., Fabr. (exclusive of species.) 

Note. — ^The genus Odaniomyia Mbigen, afterwards abolished by 
himself but preserved by Latbeilub, differs by the shorter antenn», 
acuminate at the apex. 

Digitized by 



Sp. JStraUomyt ekamadion Fabb., Mxio., ifttwa chamalBon L., Ecbsel Ivm. 
II. MuKar, et Oulie. Tab. v. Pankbb DeuUchL Ins, Heft 8, No. 24, 7 lines 
long ; the acutellum, the feet and under surface of the abdomen yellow, the 
upper surface of the abdomen black, with three yellow transverse stripes 
interrupted in the middle, and yellow point. Here are to be referred the 
observations and descriptions of Swamvebdam, ffiti, not. Ins, 1669, 
p. 151, Tab. IV. (under the name of Tabanus), and Bijhd der Nat, pp. 
649 — 694, Tab. 39 (under the name of AsiUu). The larva is elongate, 
pointed at both extremities, with a star-shaped ring of more than twenty 
feathered filaments at the end ; it moves very slowly on the surface of the 

Family XIII. Nemocera or TipularuB. Antennae filiform or 
setaceous, with numerous joints, mostly fourteen or sixteen, never 
fewer than six. Head small, globose, with large eyes. Proboscis 
exsert, in some short, terminated by two large labia, in some pro- 
duced into a rostrum. Palps two, external, inserted at the base of 
the proboscis, filiform or setaceous. 

Thorax large, gibbous. Wings oblong. Poisers naked, with 
inconspicuous squamae. Abdomen elongate, composed mostly of 
nine joints. 

Feet long, slender. Pupa incomplete {nympha). 

Tkrecul-^mtermcUe, Gnat4ike* Many, especially the smaller species, 
fly in great troops dancing through the air. The females lay their 
^gs on the wat^, some on plants, or on the ground. The larvae are 
long and yermiform ; their body has twelve rings, besides the clearly 
distinct homy head The head is provided with manducating oral 
organs {mcmdihlea and maaslla). The stigmata are in number and 
position yarioos. Tbese larvfB constantly cast their skin before 
changing to pupae. In the pupa the parts of the insect may be 
clearly recognised. Almost always these pupee lie uncovered in the 
water or under l^e ground; only in some are they enclosed in a 
case or web (Scia/ra, MycetophUa), Many of these pupee are pro- 
vided with spines or horns, by means of which, about the time of 
the last changing, they are able to work to the smr&oe of the earth. 

This fiunily consists of the Linnaean genera Tipida and Gvlex, 
If the genus of the flies of laNTHMun, the Athericera of the modems, 
with short antennae and tun-shaped pupae, be considered to be the 
proper type of the two-winged insects, then the insects before us 
deviate the most from that type, and make the transition to othw 
orders, to aome ^europtera {Phryganea) 9Xi6.Lepidoptera {PterophoruSy 


Digitized by 



Alucita), We begin, in eniunerating the geneira, with those that 
approximate most nearly to the flies. 

A. Proboscis short, thick, terminated by two large labia. Setse 
of haustellum in many only two. Palps with four joints, sometimes 
five, mostly incurved or uniarticulate, straight. Tipula L. {Tipu- 
laruB or Tipulidce of the modems). 

t Antennae scarcely longer than head (or at least shorter than 
head and thorax together), mostly with eleven joints, filiform, moni- 
liform or perfoliate. Wings broad, rounded at the apex. 

Aspistes HoFFMANNSEGO, Meig. Antennae octarticulate, clavate 
at the apex. Ocelli three. 

Sp. Atpistet herdinentis, Msio. Europ. ZweijL. Im. I. p. 3 19, Tab. zi.fig. 16; 
one line long, on the leaves of TuuUago petasUes and the flowers of Daucug 
earotta in North-Germany. 

Bibio Geoffr., Meig., {Hirtea Fabr.) Antennae novemarticu- 
late, perfoliate. Ocelli three. Tarsi with three pulvilli. Anterior 
tibiae armed with a spine. 

Sp. Bibio Ma/rci, SSpula Marci L., Ri^UMCB Ins. y. PI. ; Pakzeb, DeuisM, 
Iru. Heft 95, No. 20 ; known amongst ns by the name of bladk fy ; the 
lanra has ten pajrs of air-slits ; it liyes underground, and passes the winter; 
the pupa lies in an oblong round cavity of loosely compacted earth ; after 
three or four weeks, early in the spring (in the last half of April), the per- 
fect insect makes its appearance. Gomp. Ltonbt'b observations and 
figures, Recherehes, &c., Ouvrage poUhume, pp. 58 — J7, PI. 7. That these 
flies cause injury to the blossom of apple-trees is a common opinion, but 
entirely without proof; it is quite untrue, at least, that they lay their egga 
in the blossoms. The lary», which are found in apple-blossom, are those 
of a small rostrated beetle, Anthonomui pomorum ; see P. H. van Berok, 
VerhaTideUng over de zwarte vliegen, Haarlem, 1807, Svo. 

Dilophus Meig. Antennae undecimarticolate, perfoliate. Ocelli 
three. Thorax pectinate, with a doable row of denticles. 

Sp. JHlophua vulgarii, THpvlafibrUii L. ; Msiosir Europ. tweijl. Ins. i. Tab. 
XI. fig. I ; VUopk. coOarit QviB,, leonogr. Im. PL 93, fig. 7, South 
America, &c. 

Pleda H0FFMANN8EGG, Macq. 

PerUhretna Meig., Latb. Antennsa undecimarticulate, per- 
foliate. Ocelli three. Palps exsert, incurved, quadriarticulate. Feet 
unarmed, long. 

Digitized by 


IN8ECTA. 341 

Scatopse Geoffb., Meig., Fabr. Antennae nndecimarticulate, 
perfoliate. Ocelli three. Palps veiy small, with a single joint. 

Sp. Seatopse noUOa, Tiptda notaia It,, Mbtoen Eump. zvoe^, In$, i. Tab. x. 
fig. 13 ; Ds GsKB InB, VL Tab. 38, figs. 1—4, &c. 

Simulia Meig., Simultum Latk. Antennae undecimarticulate, 
moniliform, cylindrical or fusiform. Ocelli none. Palps quadri- 

Small, but reiy troublesome species, with oral organs developed as in the 
genus OuUx (according to the observations of Curtib, dted by Westwood, 
Introd. n. p. 558), but shorter. With these they prick, which the TipuUe, 
on the contrary, do not. In the south of Hungary, in the Banat, Simtdia 
nMcuUxta, Musca columhtiSchcMia Gmel., is sometimes, from the enormous 
numbers, very troublesome, and even dangerous. Here belongs also SimtUia 
periinax Kollas, Brcmliens IdsHge Inaecten, fig. 14, which, under the 
collective name of Musquitos {Motquitoa, Mauttigucs), is joined to the 
gnats (Oidicea). According to Humboldt, in all the Spanish colonies these 
last are not called Motquitoi, but Zancudoe. In North America it seems 
to be the Culices which are named Moaquitos, whilst the SimMoB are dis- 
tinguished firom them as 'black flies.' 

tf Antennse longer than head, mostly of the length of head and 
thorax together. Joints of antemisB yarious, mostly twelve or 

Geddomyta Meig. Antennae with 12 or more joints, filiform, 
porrect. Ocelli none. Wings incumbent. 

The larvae of many species live in excrescences of plants, like the gall* 
wasps. Here belong Cecydomia degtruetoTf the ffeanan Fly of the North 
Americans^ and Gecidomyia tritici Kibbt in Linn, Trans* iv. p. 932, v. 
p. 96, Tab. 4, fig. I. By such an insect, Cecidomyia aalicina, those ex- 
crescences also are caused, which are sometimes seen in the form of double 
roses on the top of willow-branches. Swamhbbdamm Bijbd der Natuw, 
PP- 749> 750> Tab. XLiv. fig. 16 ; Db Geeb Ins, vi. pp. 412 — a^6, PI. a6, 
figs. I — 7 ; Cecid. Pint. Comp. Ratzebubo Portit. Inseden, ni. 1844. Taf. 
X. fig. 14; EBiCHSON's-irc^ti;/. Naturgesch. 1841, s. 233 — 247.Tftf. xi, &c.; 
L&>N Dufx>UB HiaUiire des Metamorphoses des Oecidomies, &o. Ann. des 
8c. not., sec. S^r. Tom. xvi. 1841, p. 357. 

Psychoda Latr., Meig. (previously Trichoptera Meig.) Antennae 
porrect, moniliform, pilose, multiarticulate. Palps exsert, with 
four equal joints. Ocelli none. Wings broad, pilose, famished 
with many longitudinal nervures. 

Sp. Psychoda phalamoides, Tipula phaltenoides L., Db Geeb Ins. vi. p. 422. 
PI. 27, figs. 6—9 ; Maoquabt DypUr. i. PL 4, fig. 12. This small (ij line) 

Digitized by 



•oil-gray inseoty that reBembles a imall moth. Lb found on walls in moist 
situations ; it can torn itself about retry deyerly, and springs mors than 
it flies. The larva is dirty yeDow, with a black-brown head and awl-shaped 
homy tail, and lires in decaying vegetable matter. BouoH^ Natwyeteh, 
d, Ins. Taf. n. figs. 90| 9i ; Ptjfek. ptUu&hii Mua. Guis. leonogr. Ins^ 
PI 9«, f, 5, &C, 

Lasiqptera Meig. {Diomyza Meqerle.) 

Sub-genus: Lcuiopteryx Steph., Westw. (spea of L<uioptera 

Zygoneura Meig. 

Sub-genus : Lestremia Maoq. 

Mycetophila Meig. Antennae porrect, cjlindrical, sedecim- 
articulate. Palps incurved, quadriarticulate. Ocelli two or three, 
unequal, the middle one the least. Tibisd spurred at the apex, the 
posterior with spiny sides. 

Sub-genera : Leia Mmo., BoleUna St^sgeb, SdophUa Hoffxann- 
SBGO, Gnoriste "Roffmaxkb. 

Gomp. H. Staknius Semerkungm tuber Hnige Arten d&r zwdjUigUr 
QaUungm Macrocera, Platjfura, SciqphUa, Leia, und Mycetophila, Okxh's 
leis, 1830, pp. 752—758; Staobb, KnoiTSJBt'a Tidsthift, in. 1840, 
pp. «a8 — 188. 

Platyura Meig. (excl. PL tipuJmdes.) 
CeroplatuB Bosc, Fabr., Latr. 

Gomp. B08O Actee de la Soe, (fffid, not. de Pari$, Tom. l. p. 4a, ftc. ; 
L^N DuFOUR lUvinon et Monograpkie du genre Ceroplatus, Ann. det Se, 
not. see. S^rie. Tom. xi. 1839, ^^' PP* *93 — *i3» ^ 5- 

Gcrdyla Meig., Latr. Antennae duodecimarticulate, com- 
pressed, clavate. Ocelli none. 
Sciara Meig. (Molohrus Latr.) 
Campyhmyza Wiedem., Meig. 
Mycetdbia Meig. 

Macronefwra Macq. 
Asindulum Latr. 
Synapha Meig. 
Rhyphtis Latr. 

Macrocera Meiq. Antennae long, setaceous, with the two basi- 
lar joints thick, the rest indistinct. Ocelli three. Wings obtuse, 
parallel, incumbent. 

Digitized by 


INȣCTA. 343 

a) Antensa? longer than body. Ocelli three, disposed in a tri- 
angle, Miicrocera MExa 

h) Antennae shorter than body. Ocelli throe, placed in a trans- 
Terse line. BoUtophUa Hoffillnnsbgo, Msa. 

On the metftmorphosiB, comp. GuiBiN, Mimaire iw un Iraeele du genre 
BoUtkvphUe, Ann, dee Se. not, z. 1837^ pp. 399 — 411. PL XYin. 

Chionea Dalm. AntennsB setaceous, with ten joints. Palps 
with four sub-equal joints. Ocelli none. Body apterous, with 

Sp. Ckicn, artmeoides, Daulut KongL Venieiuk. Acad, ffa/ndb. 1816, loa ; 
Okjen's Isie, 1894, p. 419, Tab. Y.; OuiBor Icanogr., In§, PL 93, fig. 1 ; 
found in Sweden on the snow. 

Ardsomera Hoffmannsegg, Meig. (HeocaJt/oma ItATR^yNematocera 
Meig.) Antennas very long, setaceous, with first joint cylindrical, 
second short, cup-shaped, third elongate, filiform. Palps with four 
equal joints. Wings incumbent. 

Megistocera WiEDEM. 
Dixa Meig. 
Macropeza Meig. 
Trichocera Meig. 
Polymera WiEDEM. 

Limnobia Meig. Antennae setiform, joints 15 — 17; first joint 
cylindrical, second cup-shaped, rest oblong or globose. Palps with 
four equal joints. Ocelli none. Wings incumbent, parallel, with 
nervures naked or pilose {Eriopiera Meig.) 

Add sub-genera : Symplecta Meig., Cylindrotoma Macq. (antennae 
with thirteen cylindrical joints), LimnopkUa Macq., Idioptera 
Macq., Bhamphidia Meio., Macq. 

Sp. Limnobia picta, TiptUa picta Fabb., Sohillenbebo Tab. 38, fig. i ; 
Gu^bin Ictmogr., Ins. PL 92, fig. 9 (named Limnobia oceUaris), &c. Comp. 
T. E. SCHUUICSL, Besehreibung der in Schlesitn einheinUeehen Arten von 
Limnobia, BeOragezur EnUmologie I. BresUu, 1829, Svo, a. 97 — 201. Tab. 
I — 5 ; B. Staknius zur Verwandlungtgetch. der Limn, Xanthoptera, ibid, 8. 
v>2 — 206. 

Rhipidia Meig. 
Ozodtcera Macq. 

Digitized by 



Tijmla (Sp. of Tijmla L.) Antennsd filiform or setaceous, with 
13 joints, the first elongato-cylindrical, second cup-shaped, short, 
ihe rest cylindrical, pilose. Palps incurved, with last joint longer 
than the rest, cylindrical, annulate or nodose. Ocelli none. Wings 

Sub-genera : Fachyrhina Macq., Tipida ejusd 

Ctenophara Meig. (antennas pectinate in male). 

In this diyiaion are found the largest species of Nemocera, for instance, 
TiptUa prcepotens Wikdem. from the island of Java, whose body is i6 lines 
long, and the slightly smaller European Tipula gigantea Schrank, Schel- 
LXNBEBO, IHpt. Tab. 36, CuviEB B, Ani, id, UL, Int. PL 163, fig. 5 ; 
Tiptda deraeea h., De Geeb Ins. vi. PI. 18, figs. 13, 1$; Tipula crocata 
L.y YiLLSBS EnUmol. Linn. Tab. ix. fig. 2, dull black, with a yellow ring 
behind the head, yellow spots on the thorax, and three orange-coloured 
rings on the first part of the abdomen ; wings brownish, with a black spot 
at the margin ; feet dark brown. With this species is often confounded 
TipvlaJlaveokUa F., Clenopkora Jlaveolata Meio., R^umue Ins. v. Tab. i. 
figs. 14—16; CaviEB K Ani. id. iU., Ins. PI. 162, fig. 2, which is easily 
distinguishable by its thicker and yellow feet, by seren yellow rings on the 
abdomen, of which one is at the base, and by its shining black, whilst the 
male, moreover, has plumed antennae. Tlie larva of this species lives in 
hollow stems of trees. 

DicUnidia, Xiphtwa, Bbull^ Ann. de la Soc. Entam, de France, 1. pp. 
105 — 309, PI. V. Species of Ctenophora, 

Pedida Late. 
Nephrotama Meig. 

Ptychoptera Meio. Antennae with sixteen joints, the third joint 
long, cylindrical. Last joint of palps very long, setaceous. Ocelli 
none. Wings divaricate, folded on the posterior margin. 

Sp. Ptych. cmtaminata, Tipula contaminata L., Cuv. B. Ani, id. ill., Ins. 
PI. i6a, fig. 4. 

Chironomus Meig. (with addition of some genera), Fabr. 
Antennae plumose. Ocelli none. 

CercUopogon Meio. Antennae with thirteen joints in both sexes, 
pilose; the eight inferior joints in the male barbate outwards. 
Wings parallel, incumbent 

The larvie live under the moist bark of dead trees. The head excepted, 
every ring has on the upper part two very long hairs, with a round knob at 
the extremity, not transparent, which looks like a pearl. 

See Gu&iN Ann, de la Soc. EnUm. de France, n. pp. 161 — 167, PI. vm. 

Digitized by 



Corethra Meig. AnteniiK with fourteen joints in both sexes, 
with hairs verticillate, veiy long in male. Wings incumbent. 

Sp. Corethra pkmicamis MsiQ., Corethra lateralis Latb., Pakzeb DeuUcM, 

Im,, Heft 109, No. 16; Ouvdeb JZ. Ant, id. iU., Int. PL 161, fig. 4 ; the 

larva lives in fresh water, has forward on the head two curved hooklets, 

and is very voradous ; R^UMUB In$, v. PL 6, f. 4 — 15 ; Slabbsb Na- 

tuuri. VerkuHg. Tab. in. it.; Ltokxt, Owrage post. PL 17, figs. 14, 

15, 19- 

Chiranomus Meio., Tanypua ejusd. Wings deflected. Anterior 

feet remote from the rest, inserted almost beneath the head, very 

long (at rest porrect). Antennce filiform, with thirteen or fourteen 

joints in both sexes or in males alone, in females sexarticulate {Ghir 

ronomvs Meio.) 

Sp. Chvronomu» plumotus, Tipula plumota L., Guv. M. Ani. id. iU., Ins, 
PL 161, fig. 5. The larva is a blood-red worm, often met with in rain 
reservoirs ; see B^UMUB Ins. v. PL 5, figs, i — 5. On the head are two 
black eye* spots, and two short antennae consisting of one joint and two 
threads at the point (these are wanting in R^umub's figure). The head 
is alternately drawn into and pushed out of the next following joint by the 
larva. The eggs of Chironomus, oval or navicular and united in strings, 
were formerly taken for plants {Diatomacea:) : Gloinema Agabdh and 
Echindla; see the observations of Bebkelbt Ann. of Nat. Hist. vii. 184 1, 
pp. 449 — 451. PL xm. figs. I — 8 ; comp. Koellikxb Observ. de prima 
Insect, ffcnesi, 1842. 

B. Proboscis porrect, of the length of thorax, or longer than 
thorax, made up of seven setae. Palps quinquearticulate, porrect. 

Culex L. Antennae porrect, in male plumose, in female pilose. 
Wings squamate, incumbent. 

jEdes HoPFMANNSBGG. Palps in both sexes very short 

Sp. uEdes cinereus Hoffmakn., Cuv. R. Ani. 6d. iU., Ins. PL 161, fig. 3. 

Chdex Meig. Palps of male longer than proboscis, of female 
short, with first two joints very short. 

Sp. Culex pipiens L., ScHELLENBEBa Tab. 41, Cuv. R. Ani. id. ill., Ins. 
PL 161, fig. I ; everywhere very common, especially in the neighbourhood 
of turf-diggings, as in the province of Holland. The hum or song adds to 
the inconvenience. The females alone sting ; the males, known by their 
plumed antennse, little or not at alL Another species, with black-spotted 
wings and white-ringed feet, Culex annuUUus Fabb., has been often met 
with by me here in Leyden in vdnter and in the first days of spring, in 
mild weather, in dwellings. 

The gnat {Cousin, Schnacke, MUcke) is commonly known. The hirvae 
live in water, and hang on the surface to breathe, with head downwards. 

Digitized by 


346 CLAflS YIII. 

On Uie back, at the ninth ring of the abdomfln, then is » tabe for rmpn^ 
turn. Tbeae hrwm swim expeditiously, change their akin a few timea, and 
become pupfe, which alao move ainaotialy, but do not eai^ and advance in 
the water head npwarda, it being kept in thia position by two littie tabes 
or horns that stand above the thorax and serve for respiration. On 
the htfi metamorphosis the skin splits between the tnbes, and the perfect 
insect creeps into view throngh the opening thns effected. It drifti for 
a time npon the cast-off skin as on a little boat^ nntil the wings are strong 
enough, when the gnat leaves the water. These metamorphoses occur within 
a period of three or four weeks. See Swakkbbdam B^. d. Natuvr. pp. 
348 — 363. Tab. zxxi. xxxn. ; R^umub /m. iy. Tab. 43, 44 ; J. M. Bab- 
THn, Ik Ouliee Duaertatio, Batisbomue, 1737, 4t0f c Tab. Ac; 

Anopheles Meio. Palps in both sexes of the length of proboscis. 

Sp. Anophdet btfurctUui, Ctdex bifu/reoOu* L., 61161. Iconogr. Int, PL 93, 

Comp. on genus OuUx Bobivbau-Dbsvoidt, JSkaot sur la Tribu dm 
Oidicidet, Mim. de la 8oe. d^ffitt. not, de Paris, in. 1837. pp. 390 — ^413 
(new genera Sabaikei, Pnrophora, Megarhmtu). 

Order Vn. Hymenoptera. 

Hexapod Insects, with four membraneons wings, the inferior less 
and with fewer veins. Maxillse elongate, mostly slender, encasing 
the labium. Abdomen of females almost always terminated by a 
terebra or aculefas (borer, sting). Metamorphosis complete. 

HyTMnoptera L., Piezata Fabb. Amongst other works the fol- 
lowing treat of this order : 

J. L. Christ, Natu/rgeachichie, KlaanficaUon und Ifomendatw 
der Insekten vom Bienen^ Wespen und AmeisengeschleehL MU 60 
ausgemaUen Kupfert, Frankf. a Main, 1791, 4to. 

J. C. Fabbicii, Sy sterna Fiezatarttm. Bnmsvigae, 1804, 8ro. 

G. W. F. Panzer, ErUomologischer Versuch die Jurineschen Gal- 
twngen der Hymenoptem nach dem Fabriziueschen system sea priifen. 
Nlimberg, 1806, 8ya (also under the title of KrUische Revision der 
Insekten/auna DeutscJdands lies Bdndchen) 

(The work of Jurine, NouveUe MHhade de cUisser les Hymeruh 
pUres et les DipUres, av. fig. Tom. i. Gendre, 1807, T have not 
been able to meet with). 

C. Dahlbok, Clams novi ffymenopterorum systemaMs adjecta 
synopsi Lwrva/rwn Scandinav, cructformiwn. Cum Tab, liihog. 
color, Lundae, 1835, 4to. 

Digitized by 


IN8ECTA. 847 

£J)u8(L Synopmi HyfmenopUrologim SeandinOvioB, Land, 1840, 
4to. (Of this the firste part alone, which treats of the genus CrabOy is 
known to me). 

A. Lepelbtdsr db SAnravFABGEAU, ffiitoire NaUwrMt des Insectes 
EynienopUrea. Paris, 1836—1846, 8yo, av. PL, it. Vol (the last 
part by Brulli^). 

This order is distinguished by four naked, membranous wings. 
Geoffroy united the Nev/roptera with it ; LiNN.£ns, however, had 
already (in the sixth edition of the SyHema Natv/rcB, 1748) distin- 
guished this order ; and to the present day it has been preserved in 
systematic arrangements. The Newroptera have usually retiform 
wings, with numerous small cells; in the HymenopUra they are 
merely veined, and the under wings are commonly smaller than the 
upper. The lower jaws are mostly elongated, and form with the 
under lip a kind of proboscis by which fluids are conducted to the 
oesophagus. The under jaws serve not for manducation, but for the 
gnawing off matters with which these insects construct their nests, 
for the bearing of burdens, <kc There are three simple eyes pre- 
sent; the compound eyes are large, especially in the bee& The 
foot (Uvrsud) has constantly five joints. The abdomen of the 
female is almost always armed at the extremity with a sting, or 
with a borer for laying egg& Already had it been justly remarked 
by Aristotle*, that the two-winged insects are distinguished by a 
sting in front, and the four^winged by a sting behind ; the first 
wound in order to feed, the last to defend or to avenge themselves. 

In some species there are wingless individuals, of which more 
hereafter. The hind wings have at the anterior margin, nearly in 
the middle, a row of stiff hairs or booklets (hamvli), placed at equal 
distances, and only visible when magnified, by which they are 
fixed fast to the posterior or inner margin of the fore wings, and in 
flying lie in the same plane with these. It is especially in this 
order that in the determination of the genera use may be made of 
the veins and cells of the wings. Jxtrine has for this purpose 
devised a terminology, of which we must give a short account. His 
names have all a reference to the fore wing. The first vein of the up- 
per wing, that next to the anterior or outer margin, he names radi/usy 
the second, that lies more inwards, cvbUuB. These two terminate 

1 Terpdrrtpa . . . WureUe^pA trrf Btwrepa d* . . . i/ATp9tr$6Karrpa. AXon, Hid, Anim, 
L. I. cap. 5, med. 

Digitized by 



in a thickened point (j^wrustfum alee 8, carpus) in the middle of the 
outer margin of the wing. (It is, as may be readily supposed, without 
any intention of indicating an analogy with the bones of the fore- 
arm in vertebrate animals, that these names of rctditu, cubitus and 
carpus have been selected.) The following veins, or nervures, which 
like the radius and cubUtis arise from the base of the wing, he 
names nervi hrachiales. These veins form by their branching and 
mutual communication certain cells on the wing {ceUvloi s. areolaf). 
The outermost vein, which runs from the pv/nctum alas to the apex 
of the wing, is named nervus radialis, because it seems to be a con- 
tinuation of the radius ; between it and the outer margin lies the 
radial cell (cellula radialis). From the cubitus there arises the 
nertms^cubitalis, continued in like manner frx)m the pu/nctitm alas; 
the space which lies between this vein and the radial vein is named 
that of the cubital cells (cdluloB cuhitales). Finally, there arise frt)m 
the brachial veins nervi recu/rrentes, or such as form communications 
with each other or with the cubitus, and thus form other cells, the 
humeral cells (cellula humerales^). 

These insects imdei^ a perfect metamorphosis. The larve of most 
species are worms without feet ; in some species, however, the larvse 
have six horny feet ; still other larvae have membranous feet; 
the larger number of these feet (frt)m 12 to 16) distinguishes 
them frt)m the caterpillars or larvae of butterflies, which in other 
respects they resemble. The food of the larvae is various ; the per- 
fect insect feeds especially on the juices of plants, or swallows the 
^ ^ honey of flower& Many species also attack other insects, and thus 
-^ appear to live on prey ; this prey, however, does not serve for their 
own nutriment, but for that of the larvae ; they are the females 
that bear it to their nest The hymsfnoptera on the whole do not 
live longer than a year, from the egg to the last change. Many, as 
the arUs, wasps and bees, live socially together in large bodies, and 
form a regulated society. 

The intestinal canal of the hymenoptera begins with an oesopha- 
gus, narrow and ordinarily long, which runs straight through the 
thorax. In the abdominal cavity the oesophagus usually forms 
an oval expansion ; only in some {CrabrOy La/rray Trypoxylan) does 
this expansion form a lateral crop. The muscular stomach is little 

^ Compare the article A He dea Insectea, by Audooin in JHcUonn. dassique iJCHiA. 
not., Paris, i8a2, 8vo. I. pp. 176—185, and JSncyd. mitliadiqnu, Hist, not. Ins. Tom. x. 
1825, p. 264, or the article RadiaUy by Lspbletier de Saint-Fabobau and Sbbvillb. 

Digitized by 



deyeloped, and has above four membranous valves; below it is 
narrowed in shape of a funnel, and usually is introduced into the 
next stomach by invagination. This stomach is cylindrical, of vari- 
ous length, and ordinarily divided by transverse folds as though 
into rings. The small intestine (beneath the insertion of numerous 
v<i8a urinaria) is narrower than the stomach, ordinarily not longer, 
sometimes even shorter than it ; the rectum is wider again. The 
whole intestinal canal has no very considerable length ; in many it 
is little longer than the body. In the larvse of the wasps, according 
to Bamdohb, there is nothing but a large blind stomach present ; 
also in the pupse of the bees there is no amis; but these have an- 
terior to the stomach a narrow oesophagus, and behind the stomach 
an intestinal canal terminating blindly. 

The air-tubes present in most hymenopterous insects sacciform 
expansions. In the bees and wasps even the lateral primary stems 
in the abdomen are widened into large air-sinuses. The nervous 
system exhibits different modifications in the different fiunilies. 
The first nervous ganglion, the cephalic ganglion, is usually large, 
since the optic nerves especially are much developed. The second 
ganglion under the oesophagus lies very close to the first In the 
thorax there are ordinarily only two gangKa, of which, the posterior 
is large ; in Athalia centifolioB Newport found three. The abdomen 
has from four to seven gangKa, ordinarily, however, only five or 

This order does not contain any particularly large species, although 
in the mean they are somewhat larger than the Diptera, Only a 
few species are bright coloured ; the colours most frequently occur- 
ring are brown, black and yellow. The species are uncommonly 
numerous, so that in this respect the order of Hymenoptera is per- 
haps inferior to the Goleoptera alone. Most of them indicate a very 
remarkable instinct, and many construct their nests artfully. There 
is one species from which man derives a great and iihmediate advan- 
tage, and which he has transported with himself to different regions 
of the globe. We mean the honey-bee, of whose history we shall 
shortly treat in the sequel. 

In their metamorphosis these insects correspond with the beetles; 
in this respect they differ entirely from most of the Nefvmyptera, 
Some of them by their larvse approximate to the butterflies ; and 
some butterflies {Sesia) shew a great similarity with hymenopte- 
rous insects. However, beyond doubt, the ffymenoptera have the 
greatest affinity with the two-winged insects, and we believe that. 

Digitized by 



in a natural arrangement, thej can take no other place than in the 
immediate neighbourhood of thesa By inserting the Zepidotera 
between the two, aa is done by Latreille, the natural transition is 

Section I. Aculeata, Abdomen always petiolate, in females 
(and neuters) armed with a puncturing sting that conducts, in many 
at least, a poison, or containing glands that secrete and ejaculate an 
acrid humour. Antennae mostly with 12 joints (in femaUa) or 13 
(in males), Larvas apodous. 

Stmg-bearers. The wings are constantly yeined. The larva have 
a quantity of food sufficient for the entire state laid near the egg 
by the mother, or are provided with it daily by the sexless nurses. 
The latter is the case with those which live in society.* 

The sting here takes the place of the ovipositor of other insects ; 
it is connected with an apparatus for the secretion of poison, which, 
in the bee, consists of two long blind tortuous tubes, which coalesce 
at an acute angle to form a single tube that expands into an oval 
bladder. From this bladder a fluid passes into the sting, just as 
from the excretory duct of the poison-gland of the viper into the 
hollow tootL The sting consists of a pointed case grooved on the 
ventral sun&ce, in which groove two fine apicuUs drawn to a point 
are placed. At the extremity these spiculaa are provided with sharp 
teeth, having their points or barbs reverted, which are less power- 
fully developed in the female (amongst bees in the queen) than in 
the sexless individuals (the working bees) ; also in the former the 
sting is longer and turned upwards, hollow on the ventral sin*&ce. 
Certain homy plates cover the base of the sting. In the males 
these parts are wanting. Comp. Swakmebdam Bijbel d. NaL bL 
456 — i^Q, Tab, xviil figs, n — ^iv; Reaumur Ins, v. pp. 340 — 369, 
PL 29 ; KuKZMAiTN in HuFELAim's Jowmal d, FraMischen Heil- 
kunde, 1820, a 119 — 127. On the sexless individuals in the order 
of fff/menoptera we have treated above, p. 271. 

Family XIV. MeUifera s. Anthophila. All the individuals 
winged. Wings expanded. First or basilar joint of posterior tarsi 
{planta Kikby) large, compressed, elongato-quadrate or triangular. 
Maxillad elongate, membranous, forming with the labium the pro- 

The larvse live on the pollen and honey of flowers. Most of the 
species unite for a time, or for the duration of their life, to form a 
large commimity. When the society is for life, there are constantly 

Digitized by 



many Bexleas indiyiduals whoee buamees it is to oonstruot the nest, 
and to feed the laarvie nnintemiptedly^ 

Phalanx I. Aptarue. Median division of ligula filiform or 
setaceous, of the same length as mentum^ or longer than mentmn, 
inflected downwards, with the maxillae, quite firom the insertion of 
the maxillary palps. Two joints of labial palps mostly conjoined, 
forming a compressed homy seta or lateral lacinia of the ligula; 
two succeeding joints very small, set laterally upon the acuminate 
apex of former. Two short paraglosssd at the base of ligula. 

The proboscis of the bee has been investigated by Swahmebdam 
(JSiJb, d, Nat, bL 445 — 451), E£iuinjR (Jns, v. GOwie Mhnaire, 
pp. 304 — 326), G. R Treviiianus ( Verm. Schnften von G. R u. 
L. C. TREVIRANU& IL 1817 ; Ueber die Saugwerhzeuge der Insecten, 
8. 112 — 130), and other writers; and although by these researches 
we are able to learn its structure and its peculiarities even to 
minuteness, yet there stiU renudn obscurities and conflicting opi- 
nions, especially relating to the Auction of the parts. The maxillie 
form an external case {demi-etuis exterieu/ra RfAUMtm) ; the labial 
palps may be regarded as a second case, if the ligula alone be consi- 
dered to be the proper proboscis. Concerning this ligula, Swammebt 
DAM and TBEVi&AinTS adopted the opinion that it is perforated at 
the extremity by a fine aperture, and imbibes honey by its internal 
cavity. According to Trevibanus a canal runs firom the base of 
the proboscis to the oesophagus, though he could not trace the canal to 
it. In this case bees must have two mouths, which is contrary to all 
analogy. The proper mouth lies, as Reaumttb correctly observed 
(whilst Swamhebdak placed it in the supposed aperture of the pro- 
boscis), in the ordinary situation, behind the maxillae, and above 
the ligula; it is covered above by a little valve attached to the 
labrum {epipharynx or epiglossa of Savigny*). According to R£a.u- 
iftTB the bees lick honey with the proboscis, just as many mammals 
drink by licking with the tongue. It is probable however that honey 
is sucked up by the bee, and that the proboscis at the time, like the 
sucker of a pump, is moved up and down between the maxillae. See 
DvoiB Phyeiologie compar^ il pp. 317, 318, and especially the 

^ We possess on this division a Monograph by the Nestor of modern Entomologists, 
KiBBT Moncffraphia Apum Anglice, Ipswich, i8o9, Syo. 2 rols. 

* We hare noticed this little valve above at p. 381. This part, already recognised 
by R^UMUBy and consid6red by him to be the tongue, was also named by Trevibavus 
in bees Zunge (tongue), in wasps vordere Zwnge (anterior tongue). 

Digitized by 


352 CLASS vnr. 

Bijdrcf^ge tot de hennis der mondrdvlen van eenige Hymenopteray by 
our accurate and profound Brants, Tijdschrift voor ncU. Gesch. viii. 
1841, bL 71—126. 

a. Social, Males^ females and neuters or workers. Maxillary 
palps short, uniarticulate. Posterior tibiae in neuters dilated out- 
wardly towards the extremity. First joint of tarsi tomentose 
externally, or famished with brushes. 

1. Posterior tibiae with spurs either none or obsolete. 

Apis Fabr., nob. (spec, from genus apis L.) Mandibles with 
dorsum smooth. 

Comp. Latreille, Ann, du Mvs, iv. pp. 383 — ^394, PL 69, v. pp. 
161 — 171, PL 13 ; De Humboldt et BoNPLAin), ReaieU cTOhservor 
turns de Zoologie et d'Anai, comp, i. 1811, 4to. pp. 270 — 297. PL 19 — 
21 j Des AbeUles proprem&rU dites, et plus particuH^ement des insectes 
de la meme /amU-le qui sont propres d VAmeriqv/e meridionale ; par 

Metipona Illio., Latr., Trigona Jurike. Cubital cells two. 
First joint of posterior tarsi obtrigonaL 

Exotic species, almost all from South America, with mandibles dentica- 
lato (TrigoTia Latb.), or edentulous (Mdipona Latb.) Comp. Latbbillb 
LL ; M. Spinola, Obaervationa twr Us Apiaire$ Mdoponidea, Ann. da Sc. 
not. 2eB6ne, Tom. zin. 1840. Zaol, pp. 116 — 140. PL 3 ; Blavohard, 
l>ict. Univ. d^Hist, natwr. vin. 1847, PP- ^5 — 89, art. MdipoMia. 

Sting none, or rather rudiments alone of sting, not adapted for puncturing. 

Apis Latr, Cubital cells three. First joint of posterior tarsi 
elongato-quadrate, in neuters covered with hairs disposed in trans- 
verse rows, and produced anteriorly into an external tooth or 
auricula ^. 

Sp. Apu mdUfica L., Honey^tee, AbeOledomedtque, Mowhedmid, ffcLudnene, 
Jlonigbiene, Bee; Ann. du Mus. v. PI. 13, fig. i — 3 ; DuM^n. Connd. g^. 
8. 1. Ins. PL 2g, fig. 4; Brakdt u. Ratzkburg, Mediz. Zool. 11. Tab. 34 ; 
blackish, yet apparently of a lighter colour from greyish hair, especially 
on the thorax ; a transverse, woolly, gray stripe at the base of the third and 
following rings of the abdomen ; length of the body about half an inch, 
breadth of outspread wings ten lines ^ workers). This spedes is domes- 
ticated in Europe, and has been transported into America. All the species 
of the genus Apis Latb, belong originally to the Eastern hemisphere. 

In one hire there are commonly 15,000 or 10,000 working bees, 600 — 
800 males, named dnmes (the ancients named them ici70^f, fif^t ^nd 

1 Comp. Awnal, du Mas. iv. PL 69, fig. 5. 

Digitized by 


IN8ECTA. 353 

uMaally one female, the queen, (the king of the ancients). The working 
bees are smaller than the queen, which is also distinguished by a larger 
abdomen. The drones are as Urge as the queen, or lai^er, (the wings 
especially are larger) ; they have no sting, and the first joint of the tarsus 
of the posterior feet is neither invested with a woolly ooyeriug, nor length- 
ened into a point ; the eyes are Uiger and close together. 

The working bees are, as was first disoorered by ScHlRACH, nothing else 
than imperfectly developed females. If the larvse of workers in the first 
three days after leaving the egg receive a more abundant and more fluid 
nutriment, and be transferred to the larger royal cells, there proceed from 
these, according to observations, which have been often distrusted, but, as 
it seems, are not deceptive, fruitfdl females or queens. The instinct of the 
working bees is consequently the instinct of female animals ; they accomplish 
a part of the maternal duties and take care of the larvae, the progeny of 
their more highly preferred sister. Some of the working bees have the 
charge of collecting food and material for building ; others, apparently 
weaker, remain in the hive, care for the feeding of the larvae, and fulfil 
domestic duties. 

These insects live oxiginaUy in hollow stems of trees. Our domestic bees 
build in hives, to which different forms have been given. When a swarm 
of bees first comes into a hive, they cover it internally with an adhesive, 
resinous fluid, to keep out the cold air. This substance the ancients named 
propolit; the bees obtain it from the clammy buds and young leaves of 
willows, ehns, &c. Next they build with the wax (which was formerly 
thought to be prepared from the pollen of flowers, but is a true secretion 
from the honey ^) perpendicular flat cakes or combs, beginning from abova 
These cakes consist of hexagonal cells, placed horizontaDy on each side, and 
opposed to each other by their tops, which are formed of three rhombs that 
meet in a solid angle. Each of these cells has 5^ millimeters in mean diameter, 
and, the royal cells excepted, the rest are nearly of the same size. Between 
the cakes they leave spaces, which serve as passages, and in which two bees 
can creep at the same time. Some oeUs contain eggs, others larvse or 
pupCB, others again honey or pollen. The cell for the future queen is more 
spacious, almost cylindrical; its outer surface is rough, from impressed 
angular cavities, resembling imperfect cells. The number of these royal 

^ As early as the middle of the last century (1 774), a german priest (Hobkbobtbl), 
under the name of MiLiTTOFHiLnB Thbobebastus, published observations on the sepa- 
ration of wax, which however were rescued from oblivion by Trevibandb only twenty 
years ago. The observations of John Huntbb, PhU, Trane, 1793, p. 143, are better 
known. The secretion of wax occurs in very thin transparent little plates on the 
abdominal sur£EM» of the working bees, and is collected in the folds between the rings. 
See 6. R. T&svisanus in Fb. Tiedbmann, G. R. and L. G. Tbiyibakus ZeiUchr. /. 
Phfeiol. ni. 1839, 8. 63 — 71 ; comp. on the chendcal question of the production of 
wax, a note in Lixbio's Organ. Cfhem, s. 307—315, from W. F. Gukdlaoh's Natwr- 
geech, der Bienen, Oassel, 1843, and the observations of Dumas and Milnb Edwabds, 
supported by accurate weighing, conmiunicated to the Academy of Sciences at Paris, 
Arm, dee Se, not. 7e S^rie, XX. Zool. pp. 174 — x8i. 

VOL. I. 23 

Digitized by 


354 CLAjSS Yin. 

oellfl ifl from two to twenty^. They usually hang like stalactites at the 
margin of the honey-combe. Mach wax is bestowed on these cells, which 
sometimes weigh as much as 150 common cells. 

Copulation, concerning which there has been much of fahle, seems to 
occur duxing flight, and the lazy drones require to be excited to it by the 
queen. According to Hubsb the penis remains in the queen, and the jnale 
dies in consequence ; the rest of the males also, as well as the male laryie, 
are put to death at the end of the summer, and cast forth from the hive. 

The larysB leare the egg after three days. After five days they prepare for 
changing. They surround themselves with a fine web, on which they are, 
busied ij days, and three days afterwards change into pupse. From the 
pupa after seven or eight days the perfect insect comes to view. This 
metamorphosis requires a shorter time in the queen, and a longer in the 
drones than we have here given for the workers (Hubbb). Tke working 
bees, when the perfect insects make their appearance, purify the empty 
cells, that they may be ready for the reception of new ^gs. If the queen, 
as occasionally happens, should lay more than one egg in a cell, they carry 
out the supernumerary one. In the first b^^ning of spring (from 
February to April) no other eggs are laid by the queen than those which 
are to produce working bees ; the eggs of the drones are laid at a later 
period (April, May), and in succession ; shortly afterwards follow queen- 
bee eggs. In this way the society increases, and then sends colonies forth. 
The old queen is at the head of the colony, and leaves a daughter behind 
in the kingdom which she is leaving. This is called swarming. Bees 
swarm several times in the summer; sometimes three or four swarms 
proceed from one hive; but the last swarms are small and commonly perish. 
That a hive is about to swarm, may be known by a certain noise or song, 
and an unusual movement within it. The swarm leaves the hive on a 
&vourable day, and gathers on the branch of a tree, on which the bees 
hang like a large bunch of grapes. 

Respecting the age which bees attain, there is difference of opinion. 
It is probable, however, as the experiments of Hubeb shew, that they do 
not form an exception to other insects in this respect, and that, however a 
beehive may last five, ten, or even thirty years, there is no cause for 
believing that the bees themselves reach such an age as Abibtotlb sup- 
XM)sed, according to whom they may be six or seven years old. The 
queen lives longer than the working bees'. 

Bees have many enemies, especially amongst birds and insects ; we shall 
afterwards have occasion to mention some of them. They are also exposed 
to many diseases. 

Amongst the numerous works on bees we must limit ourselves to noting 
some. The two chief authors on Natural History amongst the ancients. 

^ Occasionally, even more numerous according to some observations (R^uhub once 
saw 40), but if ten be met with in a hive it must be considered to be a great nimiber. 

> F. G. Desbobouoh, On the durat. of Life in the Queen, Drone, and Worker of the 
Honey 'hee. Tram, of the Entomclog. Soe, of London. New Series, London, 1S53, '^* 
pp. 145— 17T. 

Digitized by 



Aristotlx and Plikt, must be used witli caution, (Abibt. Hid. Anim. v. 
21, «« ; PuNii Hitt, NeU, Lib. xi. cap. v— xx). 

Amongst the moderns our Swajimbbdaic made many observations on 
bees, and bestowed especially much care on tbeir anatomy, Bijbd de 
Natuur, bl. 369 — 550. The chief sources for knowledge of the economy of 
bees are : R^umub, Mim.pour terv, d rffiM. not, dm Int, Y. pp. 207 — 738 ; 
M. A. G. ScHiBAOH, ffiM, noL de la Beine deaAbeillet, la Haye, 1771, 8yo ; 
HuBBB, Ncuvdle$ ObservtUions 9ur laAheiUet, 2 vols. 8vo. Paris et Geneve, 

A review of the collected observationfl of different writers was given 
first by Ch. Bonmxt, Coniempl. d, I. Nai. onziifM pariU, chap. 26, 37, 
CSwora, Tom. ix. (M. 8vo. Neuchatel, 1781), pp. iii — 145, and afterwards 
by KiBBT and Spbhob, IrUrod. to Eatomol, u. pp. 119 — 3x4, Letten 19, 90. 
Seversl works are quoted and used with deep erudition in the extensive 
article on the honey-bee, contained in the excellent work of Bbakdt und 
Batzxbttbo, Median. Zooloffie, u. s. 177 — 305. 

2. Posterior tibiae armed with two spines at the inferior and 
inner part (Cubital cells three.) 

Eughssa Latk. Body smooth, shining. Proboscis elongate. 
Labnun qoadrate. 


Comp. Eiyeycl, method., ffist. Nat. ErUomol. Tom. x. 1835, p. 105. 
(These insects appear to be parasitic, and differ from BuffUma as genus 
Psithyrtu does from Bombui; see below.) 

Bombvs Latr. Body hirsute. Proboscis moderate. Labium 

HufMMng-btea, These insects construct their nest with mosses under 
the ground. Sp. Bombui ierrulris. Apis temttri$, L., B^UX. Mim. $. I. 
In$. T. Yi. PI. III. fig. I, Panzbb, DeuUchl. Int. Heft i. Tab. 16 ; black, 
with a yellow ring in front on the thorax and a yellow stripe at the base of 
the abdomen, of which the extremity is white. Bombut lapidariiu, Api$ 
lapidaria L., B£aum . Ins. T. vi. pi. i. fig. i — 4, Ohbist, Tvb. 7. fig. i^ 
black, the extremity of abdomen orange or reddish. The species of this 
genus are numerous. They live in small societies and in inartificial dwell- 
ings, which bear the same relation to the thickly inhabited artistic habita- 
tions of bees, that hamlets or villages do to large towns. Amongst the 
females two varieties are found, of which the smaller alone lays eggs that 
produce males ; so also in Apis meUifica workers are seen, that stand half 
way between common workers and the queen, and which appear to proceed 
from larv89 of workers, into whose cells some of the queen's food has 
casually frJlen. 

Some species have no neuters, and do not live in society, but parasiti- 
cally in the nest of other Bombi, They ought, therefore, according to the 
strict requirements of systematic division, to be arranged with the follow- 
ing. Here belongs Apis eampeslris Pahzbb, DetUschl. Ins. Heft 74, Tab. if. 
They form the genus : 

2»— 2 

Digitized by 



Piithyrua Lepel. de St. Fabg., Apaihua NEWMAin^. 

Gomp. Chb. Dbewsbh og J. SohioDTB, ForUgndae over Danake Arter of 
Slaagteme Bombui og PsUhyru$; Kb6jbr*8 Tidaakr. n. a. 1838, pp. 105— 
126. Tab. n. 

13. SolUarioB. Males and females alone, without neuters. 
Posterior feet with tibiae not excavated outwards, with first joint of 
posterior tarsi not tomentose internally. 

1. First joint of poeterior tarsi produced at the external angle 
of the apex or slightly prominent : second joint placed in the oppo- 
site or internal angle. Posterior feet often large, very hirsute. 

t Paraglossse shorter than labial palps. (Cubital cells three.) 

Epicharts Klug, Latr. Maxillaiy palps very short, with 
single joint. 

Aecmthopus Kluo. 
CerUria Fabr. (in part). Maxillary palps with four joints. 

Species exotic, American. Fig. GuisBiN, looitogr, Tn». PI. 74, fig. 6. 
Comp. on this genua LEPlLiTiXBy Encyd. m&hod,. Hid. Nat, Ina, Tom. x. 
p. 705. 

Ancyhscdia Latr. {Tetrapedia Kluo), Ftilotopua Exuo. 

Sarcpoda Latr. Maxillaiy palps with five joints. 

Anihophora Latiu Maxillary palps with six joints. 

8p. Antkopkora hAnuta Latb., Apiaplum^ Pall., Pallas, jS^. ZooL ix. 
Tab. I. fig. 14 ;— Anihophora pairidma Latb., Atmal. du Mut, m. 1804, 
pp. 351 — 259. TW). xxn. ^, I, A— D. 

MeUiturga Latr, 

ft ParaglosBse setaceous, of the length of labial palps or longer 
than these. (Cubital cells in some two, in others three.) 

Eucera ScoPOLi, Fabr., Latr. (and Macrocera Spinola). 

Comp. J. A. SoOFOLi Annua quartua hiatorico-natwraUa, Lipeue, 1770, 
Svo. Diaaert. da Apibua, pp. 8, 9. 
Sp. Eucera longieomia, Apia longicomia L., Swammbrdam Bibl. nai. Tab. 
XXVI. fig. 6; Panzbb, Deutaekl. Ina., Heft 64. Tab. 11. The antemue in 
the male are somewhat longer than the body. 

Afdiaaodes Latb. 

2. First joint of posterior tarsi nearly of the same breadth or 
narrowed gradually from base to apex, with external angle little 

Digitized by 



or not at all produoed; seoond joint inserted into the middle of 
apex of former. 

t Labial palps different in form fix>m maziUary, with two large 
basal joints compressed, dilated 

Nomada ScOPOLi, Fabr. Mandibles small, narrow, unidentate 
or edentulous. Cubital cells in some three, in others two. 

Sub-genera : Oxea ELlxto, Croeisa JuiinnE, Latr., Melecta Latk, 
Fasites Jvbinb, Epeclua Latb., PhilerwMu Latr., AmmohcOeB 

Sp. Nomada tuccinda Pakz., Deutichl, Im,, Heft 55, Tab. ai ; Nomada 
BoberjeoUana Takzksl, ibid. Heft 7a, Tkb. 19, Ac. 

Comp. Hebbioh Sohjefrb, Auaekiandenetgung der europ&i$ehen Atien 
tmigtr BienenffoUtmffm, in Gbbmab'b ZeUsckr. /. die StUomol. i. 3. 1839^ 
8. 367 — 388 ; the same in his continuation of Panzui'b DeuUehl, Im. 
Heft t66 and 176. 

Megachxle Latr. {A'n;Aophcra Fabr., PhyUoUma Dumer.) 
Labrum elongate, inflected, porrect below under the mandibles. 
Mandibles broad, dentate or narrow, porrect, bidentate at apex. 
Cubital cells mostly two. 

I. With two cMud cdU, 

a) With abdomen mnootk or only downy, not poOinifferouM. 

Sub-genera : Gcelioan/8 Latr, Stelis Panzer, Latr. 

b) With abdcmen in femalet provided beneath with long $eta forming 
brutheefor eoUecting poUen. 

* With abdomen oval or triangular, 

ArUhidium Fabr., Latr. Maxillary palps with single joint 

Comp. Latskllb, Mimoire eur U genre d'Anthidie : Annale» dn Mu- 
eium, xra. 1809, pp. ^9— 53 : pp. «o7--«34, PI. i. 

Sab-genera: Osmia Pakzer {Trctchusa Jurine, in part, Omnia 
and Anthocopa IsESiSLEt^^ LiUw/rgug Latr., Megachile Latr. {(Jhctlir 
codama Bepelet.) Maxilliary palps with two to four joints. 

Sp. Megachile eeniunculariSf Apis centunetdarie L., Duicfo. Oona, gin. s. I. 
Ine. PL 19, fig. 3, Gu^anr Iconogr. Jn». PL 73, i^. 7. These bees cut 
jneces off rose-leaves, which they stick together and fonn into cases rolled 
artfully together in form of thimbles, lliey arrange several of these cases 
behind one another in a row, and lay in each of them an egg and a supply 
of food for the larva. See R^umub, Int. yi. M4m. w.— Megachile mu- 
rarta, Xylocopa mwraria Fabb., RiAUM. %b. Mim. in. PI. 7, 8 ; G. C. 
SoosFTKB, die MemrtfUene, 1764. 

Digitized by 



* * WUk ahdomea eUmgate, ejfUmdneaL 
Sub-genera : fferiades Spikola, Latb., Chelagtoma Latr. 

4. WUh three evbiial edU, 
CeraUna Latr. Maxilliary palps with six joints. 

Sp. Ceratima aXbUabrU, ProeopU aUnlabriM Vabr., Gxrmab and Ahbeks, 
Fawn. Ine. Ewnp. Fate, ▼. Tab. 17, Cuv. IL Ani. id. ill., /fu. PL 126, 
fig. 5 ; in the aoath of Europe : on the economy of this insect oomp. the 
obaeryations of Sfhtola, Ann. dn Mue. x. 1807, pp. 936—348. 

tt Labial palps similar to maxillary. 

a) Cubital cells three. 

Xylocopa Latr. Labium very hard, homy, transverse, with 
anterior margin ciliate. Mandibles snlcate, with point bidentate. 
Abdomen depressed, broad, with sides hirsute. Feet very hirsute. 

Sp. Xylocopa violacea, Apt* viclaeta L., DuM^. Cone, gin. e. I. Ine. PI. 19, 
fig. I ; Cuv. R. Ani, id. iU., Ine. PL f 16, fig. 4, in southern Europe, Ac. 
Many Uige native species of remarkable size, with black or violet glister- 
ing wings, belong to this diYisioa, as also Xj^ooopa morio from Java^ Ac. 

Sub-genus : Mesoirichia Westw. 

Systropha iLLia. Antennas of males convoluted into a spire at 
the apex. 

h) Cubital cells two. 

Panurgua Panz., Latr., Eriopa Klug. Antennas clavate or 

Ccunptapceum Spikola 

Bophitea Spinola, Latr. 

Phalanx II. Andrenetas, Median portion of ligula shorter 
than mentum, lanceolate or cordate. Labial palps similar to maxil- 
lary, quadriarticulate. (G^nus Melitta Kirbt.) 

These bees are all solitaiy, and oonaist of male and female indivi- 
duals alone. The females oollect pollen, not only witlf the hind feet 
but with other haired parts of their body; they dig under ground 
and place by their egg a provision of pollen and honey. Others, 
not fonned for gathering pollen, lay their ^;gs in the nests of other 

Andrena Fabr. Median division of ligula acuminate at the 
apex, lanceolate or hastate (triangular, auriculate on each side). 

Digitized by 


INSECfTA. 359 

Sub-genera: Namia HalictUie, Spheeodea, Datypodoj Andrena 


HylfBus Latr. (not Fabr.), Proaopia Fabr., Jurine, Lepelet. 

Ligula dilated at apex, sub-emarginate. Cubital cells two. Body 


Sp. EyUxm ammilatvi, Apia anmUata lu, Sphex tignaia Pavzeb DeuUehl, 
I'M, Heft 53, Tab. a ; Guv. R, ami. td. ill,, Im, PL 145, fig. i &o. 

Colletes Latr. Ligula emarginate, with lobes divaricate (cor- 
date). Cubital cells three. Body hirsute. 

Sp. OoOsUsfodieni, Panzib, DeuUchl. Jna, Heft 105, Tab. ii, ii, ftc^ 

Family XV. Diplopteryga. All the individuals winged. 
Anterior wings longitudinally duplicate, the insect being at rest. 
First joint of posterior tarsi not dilated. Eyes emarginate (reni- 
form). Antennae filiform or thicker towards the apex. Prothorax 
produced laterally as far as the the origin of the posterior wings. 
Body smooth. Females and neuters armed with a strong poisonous 

Waaps, The inner edge of the upper wings is turned down bo 
that their upper surface lies on the under wings'; hence the name 
IHploptera (donhle-winged), which Kibbt, because the termination 
ptera denotes the names of orders of insects, changed into Dip- 
lopteryga (J. Bichabdson, Fcvuna Bareali-Amenocma, 17. 1837, 
p. 263). 

The wasps are mostly coloured yellow or red and black. The 
pupsB are vermiform, and without feet. They are inclosed in separ 
rate cells, where they find food placed by the mother with the egg 
she has laid, or are fed daily by the mother or by the sterile 

Phalanx I. Antenn» with only eight distinct joints, the rest 
conjoined to form an obtuse or rounded club. Ligula with two 
terminal laciniae, received in the tubular base. Cubital cells only 
two complete. 

1 Comp. Eniomologiea, anctore J. Imhoff, Okin's liii, 183s. s. 1198 — laoS; de- 
Bcriptions of speoiM of the genera OoUetet, HyUew and Andrena^ with remarks on the 

* The genoe Ceramiua eeems to be the only exception to thiB, which however is 
denied by LsFiLiTiKBy Hiit. not, da HjfnUnopUrrs, n. p. 590. 

Digitized by 


360 CLASS vni. 

Mamria Fabr. 

Masaria Latr. Antennss (of males) longer than head. Abdomen 

Celonitea Latb. Antenns in both sexes very short, terminated 
by a globose clab. Abdomen scarcely longer than thorax. 

Sp. OeUmitea a^formis, Pamzib, BetdsM. /«. Heft 76, Tab. 19 ; Dum^bil, 
CwM. gen, 9. 1, Int. PL 31, fig. 9 ; Cuv. R. ani. M, ill., Int. PI. IS3, fig. 9; 
in Bouthem Europe. 

Phalanx II. Antennae with all the joints distinct, 13 in males, 
12 in females, with second joint geniculate, thicker from third 
joint towards apex, acuminate at apex. 

a) SclUa/ry^. Mandibiles elongated-triangular, connivent, like 
a rostelluuL ligula narrow, elongate. Clypeus sub-oordiform or 
oyal, with anterior margin produced and truncated. 

t Cubital cells only two. 

Ceramiua Latb., Klug. Labial palps longer than maxillary. 

Sp, CbumtM Fonaoohmbii Latb., Gu£bin, Iconogr, Int. PL 73, fig. 4. 

ft Cubital cells three. 

Sjfnagris Latr., Fabr, Ligula produced into four very long 
sub-plumose setae. Maxillary palps short, with four joints. Man- 
dibles of males very large, porrect. 

Sp. Synagrit caUda, Vetpa calida L., Gu^iir, leonogr. Int. PL 73, fig. 3 ; — 
Synagr. camuta, Vetpa eomuta L., Bneyd. mkk., Int. PL 383, fig. la 
Ck>xQp. on this genus LsPELETiKB in Encgcl. mtth. Int. Tom. X. pp. 509, 510. 

Eumenes Latr,, Fabr. Ligula tripartite, with middle part 
deeply incised, bifid. Four glandular points at the apices of ligula, 
Maxillary palps with six joints. 

a) With abdomen oval or conical, thicher at the hate. 

Sub-genera : Pterochiku Klug (with labial palps plumose), Odf^- 
nenis Latr. {Ehynekium Spikola). 

Sp. Odynerut auctut, Vetpa aucta Fabb., Panzbb, Deuttehl. Int., Heft 81, 
Tab. 17 ; Odyn. tpinipit, (fern. Od. murariut), Panzbb, Deuttehl. Int. 
Heft 17, Tab. 18. (Here belong, according to Auoouur, the observations 
of BiAUMUB, Int. VL pp. as I— 268. PI. xxvi. figa. 1— 10.) 

^ H. F. DE Saussubb, Monographic det Guipet toliUUret, av. 11 pi. color. Paris et 
Geneve, 185a, Svo. 

Digitized by 



Gomp. on this genua Wbstmakl, Monogr. det OdyrUra de la Bdgiqiie, 
BnixelleB, 1833, 8yo, {Ann, des 8c, mU, xzx. 1833, PP* 4^^^ — 43^) ; Hkb- 
BiCH-ScHJEFFBB, DeuUckl. TfU. Heft 173, 176 ; L^n-Dufoub, Mim, pour 
mrvir d VHUt, de Vinduitrie el det vUtamorpkoaea det OdytUret, Ann, det, 
Sc. not, le S^rie, Tom. zi. 1809. Zool, pp. 85—103. (Odynerut rvhicola) ; 
AuDOUiF, Obtervationt tur let motwrt det Odfniret, ib. pp. 104 — 1 13. 

b) WUkfrtt twojokUt 0/ abdomen coarctated to form a petiole, ihefirU narrow 
cb-eonieal, the teoond tub-^ampantdaie. 

Sub-genus : Eumenes Latb. (Zethtis Fabr., DUccdiuB Latb.) 

Sp. Eumenet eoaretata, Vetpa coronata Panz., Gioffb. Int, n. PI. itl 
fig. 7; Panzxb, Deuttchl, Int,, Heft 64, Tab. 116, and Vetpa coarctaia 
Panz. ibid, 6$, Tab. 6; Vetpa pomtfomUt, Pamz. ib. 63, Tab. 7, fern. Ac. 

b) Social. Mandibles subquadrate, obliquely truncated and 
denticulate at apex. Lingula little elongate, tripartite, with middle 
part bifid. Four glandular points at apices of lingula. Labial 
palps quadriarticulate, maxillary sexarticulate. Cubital cells three. 

Vespa (Species firom genus Vespa L., Vespay PoUatea Latr.) 

In wasps the upper lip {lahrunC) is hidden behind the head-shield 
(dypeua) and upper jaws (hvntere Zu/nge, Tbevirakus, V&rm. Schr. 
IL Tab. XY. figs. 7, 8, 9, L'). Close under the upper-lip is found a 
valve, which Saviony names epiphari/nx or epiglossa (vordere 
Zunge Tbeviranits). The hypapharynx of Saviony {Klappe Tbb- 
vmANUS, L L 8. 134, Tab. xv. figs. 6 — 8, letter v.) is a valve closing 
a cavity which was discovered by BaAirrs, and named gluteT^-ccmty 
(see his work cited above, p 452, Tijdschr. voor, NaJL Oesek, vm. bL 
97) ; in this cavity, not unlike the buccal sacs of certain mAimrn^ ^ ^i^^ 
the wasps keep small pieces of wood for building their nests \ The 
wasp's nest consists of a kind of paper, prepared firom small pieces 
of old wood and bark of trees ; they gnaw off the pieces with their 
upper jaws ; the cakes are usually horizontal ; the uppermost are 
formed first and afterwards the lower ; they hang together by little 
pedicles, and the uppermost of all is fixed to the common covering; 
for most wasps form a common covering for their nests, whilst bees 
merely hide their waxen dwellings in hollow trees or under the 
groxmd. A wasp*s nest either hangs fireely in the air, or is formed 
under ground or in cavities of trees. The cells are hexangular, 
perpendicular, and generally with the opening facing downwards. 

1 On the undar-lip (UgtUa) and the other parts of the mouth in wasps, oomp. the Bg, 
in R^UMUB, Mfyn. 1. 1. Int, vi. PI. 16, fig. 2. 

Digitized by 



In bees we saw a monarchy with a queen at the head ; here the fonn of 
government is a republic, the members of which are supported less by their 
own industry than by rapine. Wasps are freebooters ; they are very eager 
for the juice of fruits; they suck the fluid that adheres to meat in 
slaughter-houses, cut pieces off, rob bees of their honey and murder them^ 
as well as other insects, not for their own use, but to feed their Uutsb with 
them. This robber-state, however numerous its dtizens may be, owes its 
origin to a single mother. She is fertilised in the autumn, and lives over 
the winter, whilst the neuters and nudes die, and in the spring conmiences 
the work alone. After a while she is assisted by sexless wasps which are 
her first-born children. In autumn males and females are bom. At that 
time some hundreds of the last are often found in a single nest, dwelling 
in uninterrupted peace, whilst amongst bees only two or three females 
are able to be of one mind together, for a short time. The working wasps 
are smaller than the rest ; they all die from the cold of winter. 

Gomp. B^UHUB, MSm. 8. 1, Ina, vi. M6m, vi. vn ; Boknkt, ConUmpla' 
Hon de la Nature, XI. partie, chaps. 13 — 35 ; (Euvres cPJffitt. Nat, et de 
Philos. Tom. IX. 8vo, pp. 99 — 100 ; Kibbt and Bfbkoe, IrUrod. to BrUo- 
mol. n. pp. 107 — III. 

Polistes Latr. Clypeus f)roduced anteriorly into a sharp tooth. 
Abdomen in some adhering to the thorax by a long petiole. 

Sp. Veapa nidnlans Fabb., Epipone chartaria Latb., ffiM. not. dea Onut. et 
de& Jna, xin. Tab. 102, £ 6 ; Gu^bin, leonogr. Int. PI. 7a, fig. 7. This 
South- American species makes very large nests, as though of pasteboard, 
hung to a branch of a tree, Uke long sacks with a conical lower end, with 
an opening in the middle. The cells are attached to different transverse 
partitions, which are perforated in the middle ; this is the Ou^pe carionniire 
of RliUMUB, InSi VI. M^. vn. p. 334, &c PI. 20 — 34, &c. To this division 
also belongs the honey-gathering wasp of the Bracils, named XeeA^^uona ; 
see Latbxillb, M^, du Mtuhtm, xi. pp. 313 — 320, and another spedes 
which A. White names Myropetra sctUellaris, whose nest differs from that 
of Vespa nidtdana by the conical knobs with which it is beset externally. 
Ann. of not. Hitt. vn. 1841, pp. 315 — 312. 

To the division Poliatea belong some European wasps whose nest has no 
common covering, the cells lying bare. Swammebdam, Bybd der NaL 
Tab. 16, fig. 15 ; Bobbbl, Im, n. Boinb. et Vesp. Tab. vn. 

Veapa Latb. Clypeus truncated anterioriy^ emarginate. 

Sp. Veapa crabro L., RiAUMUB, Ina. Yi. PL xvm.^ — Veapa vtdgaria L., 
R£&UM. ibid. PI. xiv. figs, r— 7, Panzeb, DeuUchl. Ina., Heft 49, Tab. 
19, &c. 

^ That this insect, the largest and most voracious wasp of Europe, may be to some 
extent tamed, and then is not to be feared, appears from the observations of P. W. J. 
MuELLEB ; see his amusingly written paper in Gebmab und hlJXCKBSf, Magadn 
der Entomohgie, ni. 1818, s. 56 — 68. 

Digitized by 



Family XYI. Heterogyna. Females (amongst the solitary) or 
neuters (amongst the social) apterous; males less than females. 
Wings not plicate, with cells often few, incomplete. First joint of 
posterior tarsi not dilated. Females and neuters in some furnished 
with a sting, in others with anal glands that secrete a peculiar 
acid. Ligula small, membranous, round, excavated or hooded. 
AntennsB geniculate. 

Phalanx I. Bodalia or Formicarim. Males females and neuters, 
or abortive females. Neuters apterous, without ocelli, with head 
very large, and labium large, descending under the mandibles. 
Mandibles strong, often denticulate. AntennsB filiform or subin- 
crassated towards the apex, with first joint very long, cylindrical 
or obconical. Petiole of abdomen formed of one or two globose 

Formica L. 

AfU9 {/(mrmia, Ameisen, mieren). The females have wings that 
easily fall off, or are stript off by themselves after copulation. The 
sexless individuals on the oofitniry are without wings, and without 
simple eyes {oceUi) also ; they are, like the working bees, imperfect 
females, as appears also from the observation of Hubeb, who fre- 
quently saw males copulate with them, but the act always caused 
the death of the neuters. The males and females are Ibund as per- 
fect insects in the nests for a short time only, for they desert them 
as soon as they have gotten their wings. The males are smaller 
than the females, and have also a smaller head and smaller upper 
jaws, but larger eyes. These ammals live together socially, construct 
for themselves nests of earth, leaves, straw ^, <&c., in which other insects 
and their larvie often reside, as those of Cetonia and other CoUoptera^ 
especially Brctchdytra, which in these last times has given occasion 
to much inquiry among entomologists'. Above the place where 
they dwell the ants raise small hillocks or round heaps of earth. 
Other species Uve in hollow stems of trees. Along straight roads 

^ Henoe there exists a species of vegetable manure and a high temperature in an 
ant's nest> which continues even after it has been deserted by its inhabitants. BOBSBT, 
Ann. da Se. not, sec. S^rie, XYm. Zool. 15S. 

■ On insects living in ants* nests, see amongst others : MANmSHsnr, BulUl, de la 
Soc, imp, de Moacou, rvi. 1843, pp. 70—78, Mmkjav, ibid. xix. 1846, pp. iS7— «87> 
and espedally Fb. Mabrksl in Gbbmab'b ZeiUehr.f. d. BiU^moL m. 184 1, pp. 20— 
22S,ibid, V. 1844, »• ^^93— »7i- 

Digitized by 



over the ground, often a hundred feet long, which all end like rays 
at the dwelling, the ants pass to and fro ; irregular and tortuous 
passages lead to the separate habitation of the future generation. 
All the labour of building, of nursing and feeding the larvse <kc. is 
discharged by the neuters. They live on fruits, insects and their 
larvs, on dead birds and small Tnammala. They are very fond of 
sugar, and follow the plant-lice in order to swallow the sweet sap (the 
honey-dew) that drops from their body. They lay up no provision 
for winter, as &r at least as relates to our native species, but pass 
the winter in a state of torpor, taking no food at all in the severest 
cold. The working ants bear the larv» and nymphs with the great- 
est care between their jaws to the surface when the sun shines on 
their dwelling, and down again when rain falls on the earth, and 
they defend with iucredible courage the commonwealth which has 
no other government but a true republic. The larvse and pupae are 
commonly taken for eggs by the uninformed, and serve for food for 
certain singing birds in cages : nightingales especially are fond of 
them. In the last days of summer (August), in warm clear weather, 
the winged males and female leave the nest in which they have 
been brought up, fly in swanns through the air, copulate, and die 
soon afterwards, being swallowed by birds, or drowned in water 
and made food for fishes. The females that are left divest them- 
selves with their feet of the wings that are now useless, and found 
a new colony ; working ants, in whose neighbourhood they chance 
to be, drag them to their nest to lay their eggs there; when that is 
accomplished they are driven without mercy from the nest 

Gomp. on Ants: 

QwAXMXKDAiifJB^bd der not. bL 187 — 299; Ge. di Gxsb,/9w. xvmi^me 
Jlitm. n. pp. 1042^-1 107 ; Boknbt, Ooniempl. de la Nature, Partie xi. 
chap. 27, (Euvr, compl. %yo, ix. pp. 89 — 98 ; EIibbt and Sfknok, Inhrod. 
to Entom, I. pp. 479 — ^484 ; n. pp. 45 — 106 ; Okek, AUffem, Natuiiyetek, 
Vol 2, 1835. pp. 895—945. 

Latbkills, ffui. nat, dea Fowrmu, i Vol. 8vo, av. fig. Paris, t8oi. 

P. HuBSR, Bechtrchet mr let nusun de» FcwnM» indiffineB, i Vol. 8yo, 
av. fig. Paris et Geneve, t8io. 

Lund, Sur Us habiludea de qudqun Fmurmii du BretU. Awn, da 8e, nat. 
xxm. 1831, pp. 113— 138. 

A. Petiole of abdomen composed of two distinct nodes. Females 
and neuters frimished with sting. 

Myrmica Latr. (with addition of other genera). 

Sub-genus : Atta Fabb., Latr., Maxillary palps short, with five 
joints or fewer. 

Digitized by 



Sp. Atta cephaiotet Tabr., Formica cephalotei L., Db Gkbb, Ina. ill. PI. 31, 
fig. II, Latb. Fowrmis, PL ix. fig. 57, Kollab, Branl, PoeOgL lad. Im. 
fig. 10. The neuteiB are five lines long with » very large head, heart- 
shaped, aimed behind with two sniall spinules, chestnut-brown all over. 
These ants can strip whole trees of their leaves in a few hours. In Suri- 
nam and Brazil^. 

Add sub-genera : Gryptocerua Latb.^ Stenamma Westw., Myrme- 
cina CuBns, Myrmecaria Saundebs, Ca/rehara Westw., Solenopna 
Westw., Pheidole Westw. 

Comp. J. O. Wbbtwood, Ducti^wm of ieveral exotic species cf Ants, 
Ann, of not, Bist. VI. pp. 86—89. 

Sub-genera Myrmica Latb. (and EcrUon ejusd.). Maxillary palps 
long; with six joints. 

Sp. Myrmita rubra, Formica rvbra L., Fabr., Swammbbdam, Bifid d. not. 
Tab. XVI. figs. I — 13. Latbbillb, Fourmis, PL x. f. 62. Gomp. on this 
ant, whose sting he has also figured, Lbbuwxnhobok, 58e, Missive von 9 Sept. 
1687, Yervolg der Brieven, bl. 97 — 107. 

B. Petiole of abdomen with a single joint. 
Fanera Latr. Females and neuters aculeate. 

Add sub-genera : OdoniOTJMchtia Latb. (Dacelon Pebtt does not 

differ from Odantamachus, on Westwood's authority), Condylodon 

Lund, TypJdopone Westw., Anamma Shuck. 

Gomp. Shuokabd, Ann, of Nat, HisL v. pp. 396 — 338 ; Wbstwood, 
ibid, VI. pp. 81 — 85. 

Formica Latr. (spec, from gen. Formica L.) Sting none. 
Add sub-genus : Polyergvs Latb. 

Sp. Formica rvfa L., Latb., Fourmis, PL v. fig. 18, AB, (fern. FomUea 
dorsata Panzbb, Deuischl, Ins, Heft 54, Tab. i). This species, without a 
sting, aflPords the formic acid {Acidum formiearum s. formicicum, ctcidefor- 
mique), a secretion from glands in the abdomen of the females and neuters. 
This add is constantly fluid, colourless, of a pungent smell and sharp 
taste. FouBOBOT and Vauqueun were of opinion that it consists of a 
mixture of acetic and malic acid; but the experiments of Gehlen and 
others have shewn that it is a peculiar acid. 

Formica rtrfescens Latb., Foturmis, p. 186, PI. vn. fig. 38 ; this species 
robs the nests of other species of ants of the larv» and pupn of neuters, 
and carries them to its nest, where they are brought up with the young of 
their robber by neuters which have proceeded from larvae and pupe stolen 

^ Ants are very numerous iu South- America, and, by removing dead animals and 
destroying other insects, perform the same office in the economy of nature with the 
Cardbid and I>erme8tes and other Clavicomes. The natives also eat ants. Smoked 
ants {Vachacos) are a favourite article of food with the Indians at the JUo-negro; 
y. Humboldt's Beise in die JBqmnoctial-Qtgtnden, iv. s. 315. 

Digitized by 



at an earlier period. These ani-nesta are thus inhabited by two different 
species, of which one alone works. They are the Amaztm-anU of HuBSB, 
whose observations have been confirmed by Lat&killb {Mimaira aur 
divert sujett, Paris, Svo, 1819, pp. 136 — 340), and by Hakhabt {WiMen- 
Khafttieker ZeUtekr, von Lekrem der Baader ffochseh/ule, cited by Okebt, 
Allg. Naturgeah, v. 2, s. 943 — 945). 

Phalanx II. SoUtaria s. MutiUaricB. Males and females alone. 
Males winged. Females apterous, without ocelli, furnished with 
sting. AntennsB filiform, with first and third joints elongate. 

BuBMEiSTER and Westwood place these insects in the neighhour- 
hood of Scolia in the following division. 

Dorylua Fabr., Latk. Antennae short, inserted near the mouth, 
above the forcipate mandibles. Head small. Abdomen elongate, 
cylindrical. Body, especially thorax, downy. 

Insects of which the nudes alone are known, perhaps parasitic in ants' 
nests. Sp. Borylm hdvolua, Mulilla hdvda L., DuM^. Cansid. gin, 9. 1, 
Ins, PI. 11, fig. I (below) ; Cuv. R, Ani. id. HI., Ina. PI. 118, fig. i (the 
feet are here badly depicted) ; habit. Cape of Good Hope. All the species 
are exotic, from the eastern hemisphere, particularly Africa. (There is in 
the Leyden Museum a species from Java and from Siberia f ) 

(Add sub-genera : Bhogrmu and JSnicttt4 Suuckard). 
Labidus JuRlNE, Latr. 

AH the species American. According to Shuokard, genus Typhlopone 
Wbstw. should belong here and contain the females of the Labidi, on 
which point see the opinion of Wsbtwood, Ann. of Nat, Hiat. vi. 

But on Dorylua comp. by all means Shuokabd, Monograph of the Dory- 
Udea, Awnala of Nat, Hiatory, v. 1840, pp. 188 — loi, pp. 258 — 271, pp. 

Mutilla L. (exclusive of Mut, helvola.) Antennse inserted above 
the anterior margin of the clypeus. Head transverse, broad. Abdo- 
men oval or conical. Feet of females strong, with tibise spinous 

A. Mutilla Latr. (spea of Mulilla L.) Thorax undivided. 

Sp. MuUUa rvfipea Fabb., MtOiUa aellata Pansbb, 6 or 7 millim. in size, 
thorax and feet red-brown, abdomen black with a white spot on the middle 
and a transverse band of white hairs at the posterior extremity. The male 
is Mulilla ephippium Fabb., Guy. R. Ani, id, iU., Ina, PI. 118, fig. 3. 

Add sub-genus: Apterogyna Latr., Dalh. Antennae long, in 
males almost of the length of body. Thoi-ax imdivided. Two 
anterior segments of abdomen narrower, discrete. 

Sp. Apterogyna Olivierii, IHctumn. rlaaa, d'Biat. not. Tab. 71, fig. 9, from 
Arabia and Egypt &c. 

Digitized by 



Pacmmotherma Latb. Antemue (of make) bapectmata 
Sp. Ptammothertna JldbeUaia, Guv. R, Ani, id, UL, Iiu. Fl. i iS, fig. 6. 

B. Thorax (in females) divided or nodose. Sub-genera: M&- 
thoca Latb. (male Tengyra Latb.), Myrmosa Latb., Myrtnecoda 
ejusd. (male Thyivnui, ScotcBna). 

Note, — That Tengyra \b the miJe of Mdhoca waa observed by Van dbb 
liUmmf, Ann. det 8c. natvr. xvi. 1829, pp. 48, 49 ; on the others, comp. 
Wbstwood, Introd. to Modem Clauif. 11. p. 215. 

Genns Sderoderma Klug. Is this its place % 

Family XVII. Foaaores s. Sphegina. Wings in both sexes 
obvious, expanded. Tarsus of posterior feet simple. Aculeate, soli- 
tary hymenoptera, {males 9Sidi females alone). 

Diggers. This fiunily consists principally of the genus Sphex 
(sand-wasp) of Linn.£U& The females of most of the species dig 
in the ground nests for their young, and lay in these holes near 
their eggs insects or larvee, sometimes spiders, as food for their larvae 
when they leave the egg. The larvie have no feet, resemble mag- 
gots, and spin themselves in, before changing into pupse. The per- 
fect insect is usually very lively, and sucks with avidity the honey- 
sap of flowers, on which (especially on the Umbelli/erce) it is 
frequently met witL In many the lower jaws and under-lip are 
prolonged and form a rostrum ; the ligula however is not filiform, 
but commonly has a broad termination. 

Grabro Fabr. Prothorax very short, linear, transverse, remiote 
from the origin of anterior wings. Feet short or of moderate length. 
Head large, quadrate above. Labrum concealed or scarcely exsert, 
transverse. Abdomen obovate, constricted or clavate at base, 
petiolate. Antennae often thicker towards the apex. 

Sub-genera : Cerceris Latb., PhiUvrUhus Fabb., Latb., Fsen Latb., 
Jtjb. (Mimesa Shuk.), Alyson Jubike, Mellintis Fabb., Pemphredon 
Latb., SHgmus Jubike, Crabro Fabb., Gorytes Latb., Trypoxylon 
Latb., Fabb. 

NoU. — Genus Crabro (In the stricter sense) is distinguished by antennss 
geniculate, mandibles bifid at apex, a single cubital cell alone complete, 
a radial cell appendiculate (another imperfect). Lbfelbtuib dk St. Fab- 
OEAU divided it into several genera, of which for the sake of brevity I omit 
the names. See his Hist. not. d. Hymin. ni. pp. 99, &c., and a critical 
revision by Hbbbioh SoH^yFKB, Deutsckl. Ine. Heft 179 — 18 x. Comp. 
also Dahlbom, Synope, HymenopUrol, Scandinav. i. 

Digitized by 



These insects are mostlj coloured black with yellow spots and 
stripea The anterior part of the head {dypeua) is beset with fine 
smooth hairs that often have a beautiful silvery or golden lustre. 
They lay their eggs in holes, which they excavate with their fore- 
feet, and place near them a provision of food (insects or spiders — 
every species appears to select by preference a definite kind), which 
they drag either with their jaws or their hind feet. Lefeletier 
DE St. Faroeau was of opinion that certain species whose fore-feet 
are not at all or only slightly haired, and hinder-feet without spines, 
are unfit for digging, and that they lay their eggs in the holes of 
other species, like the cuckoo in the class of birds. But later 
observations oppose this; see Webtwood, IrUrod, to Mod, Classif. il 
pp. 188—190. 

Sp. Orahro cribrarius, Sphex cribraria L., DumAb. Ckma, gin, a. I. Ins. PL 31, 
fig. 3; Panzkb, DeuUchl, Iw, Heft 15, Tab. 18,19 ; black ; a yellow traos- 
verse streak forward on tbe thorax, as also a small double spot on the 
middle of the thorax between the posterior wings and di£krent transrene 
stripes, of which the two middlemost are interrupted in the middle ; the 
tibioB and tarn of the same colour ; length 7 lines. The male of this, as of 
some other species, has on the tibis of the forefeet a disciform expansion, 
which on copulation serves to clasp the female. This disk has been taken 
for a sieve (from whence the specific name is borrowed), and the property 
of sifting the pollen of plants been recognised in the insect (Rolakdeb, 
Venienak. Akad. ffandlinffor, Stockholm, 1751). This strange opinion owes 
its origin to the erroneous notion that the light transparent points seen on 
the disc are apertures ; it was refuted by Db Gebb (Mim. «. lea Jna. ii. 
p. 818) and Goezb (Naiurrforacher n. 1774, s. 91 — 65). 

Nyason Latr. Antennas filiform. Abdomen conico-ovate or 
conical, broader at the base. Head moderate. The rest of the 
characters of the preceding genus. Mandibles entire. 

Sub-genera : Piaon Spinola, Latr., HUela Latr., Oxybdua Latr., 
JuRiKE, Nysaon Latr., Jurine, Astarte Latr. {JHmorpka Jurike.) 

Sp. Oxybelua unightmia, Ordbro ufUglumia Panz., DeuUehl, Ina, Heft 64, 
Tab. 44 ; Gu&nr, leonogr. Ins. PL 71, fig. 1, &c. 

Larra Fabr. Prothorax short, transverse, linear, not extended 
as far as the origin of anterior wings. Feet short or moderate. 
Labrum concealed. Mandibles at the base deeply emarginate on 
the outer side. Abdomen conical. 

Dinetua Jurine, Miacophua Jurine, La/rra Fabr. (in part), Latr., 
Lyropa Illig., Latr. {Li/ria Fabr.), Falarua Latr, DryudeiUa Spi- 
nola, Gaatroaericua ejusd. {Ann. de la Soc. entom. de France,') 

Digitized by 


INSE(TA. 369 

Sp. Larra ickneumoniformit Fabb., Panzeb, DeuUehl, Ins. Heft 76, Tab. 
18, &c. 

Bembex Fabr. Prothorax and feet as in the preceding genus. 
Labrum exsert, often triangular, inflected. Mandibles narrow, 
dentated on the internal side. Maxillae and labium often extremely 
elongate, inflected. Body elongate, abdomen ovato-conical. 

Sub-genus Bembex Latb., (and MonediUa ejusd.) Labrum trian- 
gular. MaxiUsB and labium veiy long, linear, inflected, forming the 

Sp. Bembex roatrata, Api$ rotircUa L., Panzbb, DeuUchl. Int, Heft i. Tab. 
10 ; DuiciB. Cons, g&n, s. I. Ins. PI. 30, fig. 10; Latb. Ann, duMus. xiv. 
PI. 26, figs. 9 — 13; black, felty, with yeUow feet, and tight greenish 
yellow transverse bands on the abdomen ; 9—10 lines long. The female 
digs holes in the sand, and lays in each of them an egg with a sufficient 
quantity of Diptera (especially EriMdUs tenax) for feeding the larva. Most 
of the remaining species are at home in warm regions ; but the species 
quoted occurs occasionally all over Europe, even in Sweden. 

Sub-genus Stizus Lath., Jusine. Labrum small, semicircular. 
MaxiUie and labium porrect, not inflected, nor elongato-linear. (In- 
termediate lacinia of labium elongato-cordate. Maxillary palps 
somewhat long, extended beyond the apex of maxilla.) 

Sp. Bembex rt^/icomis Fabb., Bnt. syst., Larra ruficomis ^jusd. Sytt. Piez., 
Cuv. R. Ani. 6d. ill.. Ins, PI. xai, fig. 3 ; habit, in south of Europe and 
Numidia, &c. 

Sphex Lin. (exclusive of many species). Pro thorax continued 
laterally as far as the anterior wings, narrowed forwards, resembling 
a joint or node. Labrum scarcely or not at all exsert. Three com- 
plete cubital cells. Antennae slender, with joints elongate, often, 
at least in females, convolute or arcuate. Posterior feet very long, 
with tibiae and tarsi spinose. Abdomen adhering to thorax by a 
long petiole. 

* With mandibles edentulous, 

Sub-genera : Felopoeus Latb., Fabr., Podium Fabr., {Trigonop- 
sis Perty), Fodium Latr. (not Fabr.), Ampulex Jur., Latr. 
{Chlorum Fabr. in part). 

* * With mandibles on inside dentate. 

Sub-genera : Dolichi/ma Latr., Trirogma Westw., Aphlelotoma 
VOL. 1. 24 

Digitized by 



Westw. *, Chlorion Latr. and Fabb. in part, Sphex Latb., Proncevs 
IulTBl, Ammophila Kibby*. 

Sp. Sphex iabulo$a L. {AmfnaphUa), Panzxb, Deutschl, In», Heft 65. Tab. 

Pompilus Fabr. Prothorax produced as far as anterior wings, 
subquadrate, not narrower forward. Abdomen with very short 
petiole. Posterior feet long, ciliated on the inner margin. Cubital 
cells three, or two, alone. Antennae as in the preceding genus. 

Sub-genera : Aporus Spinola, Flaniceps Latb., PompUtut Latb., 
Geropales Latb., Fabb., Pepsia Fabb. (in part), Latb. 

On these and other 8ub-genera oomp. Lkfelbt. Hymenop. in., and 
J. SoHioDTB de tpeciebtu P&mpiUdarum in Dania obviii, Kbotsb's Tidsdcr. 
I. 1837, pp. 313—354. Tab. IV. 
Sp. PompUua viatieua Fabb., Sphex futca L., Panzkb, DetUschl, Int. Heft 
65, Tab. 16; DiTX^ Com, gin, 9. 1 Int. PI. 33, fig. 3, ftc. 

Sapyga Latr., Hellua Fabr. Prothorax transverse, produced 
to anterior wings. Abdomen elongate, shortly petiolate. Labrum 
not or scarcely exsert. Mandibles strong. Eyes emarginate (lunate). 
Antennffi of length of head and thorax at the least, towards the 
apex thicker or sub-clavate. Feet short, slender, with smooth 

Sp. Sapyga quinquepwnctata Latb., Oener, Cruti, et Ins, Tab. xiii. fig. 9, 
(of which perhaps Sapyga ifaria, Encyd. tnHh. and Gu^BiN, Icanogr, Ins. 
PI. 69, fig. II, IB merely, aa Lefeletibb suppoees, a variety), habit, in 

Note. — Genus Polochrum Sfikola, unknown to me, dififers from Sapyga 
by its antennas filifonn. 

Here also were referred formerly genera Thynnus Fabb. (in part), Latb., 
and Scokena Latb. Partly at least they belong to the MutQlaria, and contain 
males of genus Myrmecoda. Comp. also genus Amblysoma Westw. and 
Anodontyra ejusd., Gu^bin, Magas. de Zocl. 184 1, Ins. PI. 80, 81; females 
are unknown. 

Scolia Fabr. Prothorax produced laterally as far as wings, as 
in the preceding genus. Eyes emarginate, reniform. Antennae 
thick, filiform, in males almost of the length of head and thorax, 

^ AwmIs and Magazine of nai. Hist. vn. 1841, p. 151. 

■ Transact, of the Linn. Soc, Vol. iv. 1798, p. 195. For some other sub-genera we 
may refer to Lbpeuetieb, Hymenop. m. 

Digitized by 


iNSEcrrA. 371 

in females shorter, arcuate. Labrum retracted. Mandibles strong, 
cruciate. Abdomen elongate, with short petiole; body hirsute. 

Sp. Scolia quadrimacuUUa ¥,, DuMiB. Connd. gen. s. L ln$, PI. 31, fig. 9, 
habit, in Korth America, Ac. Most of the species exotic, some very large. 
In the South of Europe occur Scolia hortorum Fabb., Scolia imubrica 
(Scolia ifUerrupla) Panzkb, DeuUchl. Ins, Heft 61, Tab. 14, &c. 

Note. — ^The males are distinguished by longer abdomen, trispinose at 
apex (anus tridentate), whence the name of the genus appears to be derived 
{(TKuiKos, tpina). Feet of females thicker, very hirsute. 

Add sub-genera Meria Illio., Latr., M^/zine Latr, Tiphia Fabb. 

Section II. Terebrantia, Abdomen in females furnished with 
a borer or ovipositor, sessile in many. Antennae various, usually 
with joints more or fewer than thirteen. Upper capitulum of femur 
mostly distinct, as though forming a second trochanter. 

Amongst these Hymenopteray which deviate more from the usual 
type, there are many species whose larvse are provided with six 
homy feet. Hartig first drew attention to the difTerence of articu- 
lation between the hip and the thigh, and named these hymenoptera, 
on that account, ditrocha, and those of the former division, on the 
other hand, numotrocha. Sundevall has given a better explanation 
of this disposition, which we have followed in our statement of 
characters; ArsberdUelse om nyare zoologiska Arbeten 1837 — 1840. 
Stockholm, 1841, pp. 324, 325, The genus Ckrysia according to 
this character ought to belong to the first division. 

A. Efntcmophaga {Pupivora Latr.) Abdomen petiolate. Larvae 
apodous, mostly living parasitically in other insects. 

Family XVIIL Chryaidides, Inferior wings with no cells, 
but only some longitudinal veins ; superior with radial cell long, 
single cubital cell imperfect. Antennae filiform, with thirteen joints 
in both sexes. Abdomen joined to thorax by narrow, very short 
petiole, below plane or vaulted, composed of only three or of four 
conspicuous segments, dentate posteriorly in many. Integuments 
of body hard, smooth. Borer of females inclosed in concealed 
terminal segments of abdomen, receiving one another by inva- 
gination, composed of three setse, the groove of one containing the 
two others. 

The golden^ujoaps. These insects wore thus named on account of 
the shining metallic colours in which they glitter (the abdomen is 


Digitized by 



mostly gold-green or purple-red, sometimes blue, just as the head 
and thorax usually are), and which have caused them to be compared 
with humming-birds. 

The first joint of the antennae is elongate ; at the second joint 
they are bent geniculately. The females lay their eggs in the nests 
of other hymenoptera, whose larvse are eaten by theirs. These 
insects are protected firom the sting of bees and other hymenoptera, 
their natural enemies, by their hard integument ; and besides this, 
they have the power of bending the abdomen under towards the 
thorax, and so, like the Armadillos amongst the mammalia, of 
contracting themselves into a balL They form the transition 
between the first and second divisions, and are joined to the first, 
that of the aculeata, by Hartio, because they are without the part 
which he considers to be a second trochanter. 

Comp. on this famOy Lbfeletieb, Mim, xwr qudquea apices nouv. cTin' 
aecU8 de la tection dea ffymenoplirta porl&4uyaux, ay. fig. col., Ann.du Mut. 
vn. 1806, pp. 115 — 129. 

The borer, improperly named a sting, is described and figured by Ds 
Gekb, if^. p. VHid, d, Ins. 11. pp. 834—836, PI. 28, f. 19— a i, PL 29, 
figs. I, 2. 

Pamopes Latr. Maxillaa and labium very long, linear, form- 
ing a kind of promuscis inflected beneath the thorax. Maxillary 
and labial palps very short, biarticulate. 

Sp. Pamopea eamea Latb., Duvia. (7o»«. gSn. 8. 1. Ins. PL 31, fig. 7 ; Ah- 
BXNS (Gkrmab) Faun. Ins, Eur. Fasc. 11. Tab. 10. This species has its 
habitat in the south of Europe, and ktys its eggs in the nest of Bembex ros- 
trata; see Latbbillb, Ann. du Mus. d^Hitt.nat. xiv. p. 415. 

Chrysis L. Labium not in form of a promuscis. Maxillary 
palps with five joints, labial triarticulate. 
a) Palps equal. 
Sub-genus StiUmm Spinola, {StUhum and JUtichrc^us Latr.) 
h) Maxillary palps longer than labiaL 

Sub-genera: Gleptes Latr., Clvryda Spinola, Elampua Spinola, 
Hedych/rwm Latr. 

Sp. Chrysis ignita L., Fbisch, Ins, ix. Tab. x. fig. i, Sulzeb, Die Kenm, der 
Ins. Tab. Xix. fig. xai, Cuv. R. Ani. Sd. ill., Ins. PL 1 16, fig. 6, glittering, 
with thorax green, and abdomen golden irom above of a fire-red play, 
and having at its extremity four denticles. Chrysis cyanea L., Panzkb, 
Deutschl. Ins. Heft 51. Tab. 10, ftc. 

Digitized by 



Family XIX. Oxyura s. Proctotrupii Latb. {Codrini Dalman, 
Nees von Essenbeck, with addition of other genera.) Inferior 
wings without nervures, superior either in like manner without any 
nervures, or with few and longitudinal only, destitute of cubital 
cell and often of humeral likewise. AntennsB with 8 — 15 joints 
(in most 10 — 12), filiform or thicker towards extremity, in males 
mostly longer, in females sometimes clavate. Borer or ovipositor 
at the extrQ^lity of abdomen, in some exsert, conical, in others re- 
tractile within the abdomen^ containing three setse. 

These taU-boring ichneumons are mostly very small, some only 
1 or I line in size, or even smaller (Jchnefwmon atamua L.), so 
that the investigation of the oral parts is rendered yeiy difficult, 
and the characters derived from them are often insecure. The head 
in most of them is broad, the thorax long, the abdomen oval or 
conical In some there are no wings, or very imperfect wings 
(especially in females) ; some have only four joints in the tarsus 
{Iphib-achdu8 Haliday, Mymar, kc\ which has also been observed 
in the fEuooily of the ChalddicB, a remarkable anomaly in the ffymen- 
optercL The economy of the greater part is unknown ; but we may 
conclude, from those whose metamorphosis is known, that their 
larvce live parasitically in other insects, like the true Ichnewimms, 
with which LiNifiEUS united the few species that were known to him. 
The larvsB of Platygaster live as parasites in those of the genus 
Ceddomyia {Diptera). Other species lay their eggs iu the eggs of 
other insects (especially of Lepidoptera and some Jffemiptera), To 
these belongs the Ichnevmum avulorum Ij., according to Haliday a 
species of Myma^y and also the genus Teleas, 

CkHnp. on this family C. G. Nbes von Essbkbieck, ffymenopUrorum Ich- 
newnonibtu affinium, MonograpkuB, StuttgartisB et Tubingse, 1834, Syo. u. 
pp. 31 1 — 397 ; and Wbstwood, Introd. to Modem (Muific. of Int. n. 
pp. 167 — 173; as also the works of Halidat there referred to, and other 
English entomologists. 

Mymar Haliday. (Palps none ?) Antennae 13 — 10 jointed in 
males, long, broken, 10 — 9 jointed, clavate in females. Wings 
narrow, often linear, anterior broader at the extremity (spatulate), 
ciliated on the margin. Abdomen iq some sessile, in others peti- 

Sp. Mywar pulcheUus Walkeb, Gu^in, Iconogr, liu, PL 68, fig. 6 ; Heb- 
BiCH-ScHJiFFBB, Deuitchl, Ins, Heft 184, Tab. 135, (fig. copied in Cubtis, 
BrU. ErUom. Tab. 411). 

Digitized by 


374 CLASS viir. 

Nixte. — Here belong yarious sub-genera constituted by Halidat, on 
which oomp. Wbbtwood, 1. 1. Omeric Synopsis, pp. 78, 79. 

PlatygcLster Latr. (with the addition of genera Scelio and Teleas 
ejnsd.) Palps short. Abdomen depressed, sessile or affixed by a 
short petiole. Antennae broken, with ten or twelve joints, in females 
incrassated towards the apex. 

Sp. Tdeas IcBviuactUuM Ratzbbubo, Ford-Intektm, m. Tab. Yin. fig. 8 ; the 
larva lives in the eggs of the Bombyx pint ; in those of Bomb, neuttria 
lives the larva of TeUas terdnmu Ratzbbubo, Tdecu owlorum BouoH^. 

Add genus Iphiirachdus Halid. (tarsi with four joints) ; other 
sub-genera of this author are enimierated in Westwood, Generic 
Synops, pp. 77, 78. 

Sparaston Latr. Abdomen depressed, sessile. Antennae in- 
serted below the frons, twelve-jointed. Maxillary palps long, 
filiform, five-jointed, labial three-jointed. Wings almost without 
nervures, with stigma distinct. 

Sp. Spar<uion frontale ItATTL., Oaraphron comutut JuBiNB, HynUn. PI. 13, 
fig* 44> CuviBB R. ani id. Uluttr., Ins. PL 116, fig. i. Hebbioh- 
SOHJBFFEB, DeiUsehl. Ins. Heft 184, Tab. 25. 

Ceraphron JuRlNE (in part). Abdomen subsessile, conico-acu- 
minate. Antennas broken, with eleven or twelve joints, the first 
elongate. Maxillary palps long, fonr-jointed, labial with two or 
three joints. Wings without nervures, in some none. 

Sub-genera : Megaapihis Westw., Micropa Haled., GaUiceras 


Sp. Ceraphron sulcatus Jubinb, HynUn, PL 14. 

Dryirma Latr., Gonatopua Klug., Dalm. Abdomen convex, 
subsessile. Antennae ten-jointed, porrect, mostly short or moderate. 
^ Mandibles somewhat prominent, acute, frequently dentate. Max- 
illary palps elongate, five- or six-jointed. Anterior wings with 
stigma pretty conspicuous, and radial cell incomplete, with two 
brachial cells; posterior wings increased by a lobe, in some no 

a) With anterior tarsi of females raptoriaL 

Sub-genera ; Dryinua Latr., ArUeon Latr., Ohehgynua Haltd., 
Gonatopus Ljung. 

Digitized by 



Sp. Dryinui cursor Haud., QjjtBJtf, Icanogr,, Ins, PI. 68, fig. i, Hebbioh- 
SoHJiFFSB, Deuischl, Ina, Heft 184, Tab. 31, (fig. oop. in CusTiB, Brit. 
EnUm.); — Dryin, formicarita Latb., Cfener. Orud, H Int. I. Tab. zn, 
fig. 5» &c. 

h) With anterior tarsi of females simple. 

Bethylus Latb., Omahis JuRiNE^ Nees. (Maxillarj palps sex- 

8p. Bethylus cmopterus, Tiphia cenoptera Panzkb, Btutsch. Ins, Heft 81, 
Tab. 14, kc. 

Add sub-genera Aphdapus Dalm., Nkss, Myrmeeomor]^us,'^EniboUMus, 
Epyris Westwood, 1. 1. p. 76, 

Prociotrupea Latr., Codrvs JuRlNE, Nees. Abdomen conico- 
petiolate, with anal segments attenuated to form a curred tubule 
sheathing the borer. Antennae inserted in middle of frons, thir- 
teen-jointed in both sexes, straight, porrect. Maxillary palps four- 
jointed, much longer than labial. Superior wings with longitudinal 
nervures and stigma distinct. 

Sp. Procotrupes ccmipanulator, Bassus campanulaior Fabb,, Gebhab, Faun, 
Ins. Burop. Faso. V. Tab. x6 ; Prodcirupes paUipes, Jubine, Bymin. PI. 
13, fig. 46, &o. 

Diapria Latb., Psiltis JuRiNE. Abdomen petiolate, campanu- 
late. Antennae inserted in frons, with 12 — 15 joints. Maxillary 
palps elongate, five-jointed. Wings often without nervures, and 
with stigma little distinct or none. 

Sp. Diapria verticiUata, Psilus degans, Jubinb, Hymin. PL 13, fig. 48; 
Diapria comuta, Panzxb, DeulschL Ins, Heft 83, Tab. 11, &c. 

Add sub-genera Helorus Lat&, Bdyia Latb. (Bdyta Jubine and 
Cinctua ejusd.), and several genera of recent authors, principally 
English, on which oomp. Westwood, L L pp. 75, 76. 

Family XX. Chalctdue «. Chahides. Posterior wings without 
nervures or with a single nervure submarginal, short ; anterior with 
only one cubital cell, imperfect, radial cell mostly wanting. An- 
tennae with joints various in number, not more than thirteen, with 
first joint elongate, almost always geniculate, often thicker towards 
the extremity. Head anteriorily bisulcate for receiving first joint 
of antennae. Palps very short. Borer originating from a chink of 
inferior surface of abdomen remote from apex^ mostly concealed or 
exsert at the termination alone. 

Digitized by 



The ChalcidicB are small Insects^ mostly shining with metallic 
lustre, many species of which are able to leap, though that is not 
always the case where the ability might be inferred from the thick- 
ness of the hind-feet. Their larvse live parasitically in those of 
other insects, especially of Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera^ and also 
in their eggs; they are small maggots without feet. The pupee 
are mostly not included in a web. The number of species of this 
division is extraordinarily great; in Great Britain alone nearly 
1200 species have been found 

Gomp. on this family amongst others^ Spinola, Estai cTune nowfdU 
Clas9\fication de$ I>iploUpaire8, Ann, du Mus: xvn. 1811, pp. 138 — 15a ; 
Nebs von Essbnbbok, ffymenopt, Ichneumonib. off, Monagr. n. pp. i — 310. 
(Monographia PteromcUinorum, amongst which some families are arranged 
that belong to the preceding family) ; the monographs of Dalman and 
BoHEMAN, in the Trans, of the Swedish Acad, at Stockholm, for 1820 and 
1833 ; BoTEB DE FoNSOOLOMBS, MonoffT. chalciditum, ftc., Ann. da Sc. 
ntOur, XXVI. 1833, pp. 473 — 307, and Walker, Descriptions of the British 
Ckalcidiies in Ann. 0/ Nat, ffisl. Vol. I— iv. 1838, 1839. 

A. Prothorax narrower than mesothorax, attenuated towards 
the head. Femora of posterior feet scarcely larger than the rest ; 
tibisB straight. 

Eulophus Geoffr., Latr., ErUodon Dalm. AntennsB with seven 
or eight joints, very rarely with nine, in males sometimes ramose 
(pectinate with three internal branches). Tarsi with four joints. 

Sp. Eulophus pectinicomis, Ichneumon pecUnicomis L., Gn&Dr, Iconogr, 
Int. PL 67, fig. 15, Ac. 

Add sub-genus CirropsUtia "Westw., and several more, on which 
comp. Westwood, Introd, to modem Ckusificaiion o/Ina, IL Generic 
Syriopsis, pp. 73 — 75. 

Encyrtus Latr. Antennae eleven- or twelve-jointed. Inter- 
mediate feet longer than rest, with tibiae terminated internally at 
the extremity by a strong spine. 

Species numerous ; here belongs a figure of Schellenbebo, Tab. xiv. of 
Mira mneora by name, placed wrongly amongst the Diptera. 

On several sub-genera, to be referred to Encyrtus, comp. Westwood, 
1. 1., pp. 73, 73* 

Pteromalua SwEDER. (in part),LATR4, (species oi DiplohpisyFABK.) 
Antennae eleven- to thirteen-jointed. Middle feet like the rest. 

Digitized by 


IN8ECTA. 377 

Sp. Pteromalut puparum, lehnetmon puparum L., Gocdjibdt, Metam, lutfur. 
I. Tab. 77, p. 144, BxBSKL, Int. n. BomJbylior. et Vespar, Tab. m. ftc. 

Add genera deonyrmu Latiu, FerUamptts ejusd. and nnmerous 
sub-genera of more reoent authors ; on which oomp. Westwoop, L L 
pp. 67—72. 

Does genus Eucha/ris Latr. also belong here ? Prothorax short, 
narrow, mesothorax gibbous, elevated Antennae moniliform, 
eleven- or twelv^jointed, straight. Abdomen with long petiola 
Feet slender, with posteiior femora not incrassated. 

Sp. EucharU adacendent, Oynipt adscendeiu Panzbb, DeuUchl, Int. Heft 88, 
Tab. 18, Ac. 

B. Prothorax transversely quadrate. 

1) Posterior feet not much differing from anterior, with tibiae 

EuryUyma Illig.^ Latr. Antennae eleven- to thirteen-jointed, 
in males longer, with joints distinct, nodose. 

Add genus SpaUmgia Latr., and other sub-genera; on which see 
Westwood, L L pp. 66, 67. 

ToTdcantha Latb. 

2) Posterior feet with femora veiy large, ovato-lenticnlar, with 
tibiae arcuate. 

Chalets Fabr., Latr. Prothorax much broader than long. 
Antennae eleven- or thirteen-jointed, thicker towards extremity. 
Borer concealed. 

Sp. Chalcia minuta Fabb., CJuUcis femorata Dalm., Panzxb, Deuiaehl, Ins, 
Heft 31, Tab. 6, DuM^. Cons, gin. $. I. Int. PL 34, ^. 1, &c. (Sub- 
genus Brachymeria, Wbstw.) 

Sub-genus Chi/rocera Latr (With antennas of males pectinate). 

Dvrhinua Dalm. 

Palmon Dalm. 

Cowwra SpnrOLA. (With abdomen conical, acuminate.) 

Sp. ConwrajUwieana Sfivola, Gu^rik, Magaxin de Zool. 1837, Int, PL 180 ; 
hab. in Braail. 

On aome other rab^enera oomp. Wbstwood, 1. 1. p. 66» 

Digitized by 



Leucospia Fabr. Thorax gibbous, prothorax transversely quad- 
rate. Upper wings doubled longitudinally. Antennas with twelve 
or fifteen joints, incrassated at apex. Borer reflected above the 

8p. Lew^oapU gigat Fabb., Kluo., Panzbb, Im. Heft 84, Tab. 17, 18, Cuv. 
R. ani. id. ill., Ins, PL if 6, fig. 6. Leucospis intermedia Illio., Leue. 
dortigera Panzeb, DeuUcU. Ins. Heft 15, Tab. 17, Dum^bil, Cans, gin, 
s. I. Ins. PL 34, fig. 1, &C. 

ThiB genus contains species of ^ inch and more, whilst the smallest 
species are still more than 3 lines in size, so that it may be considered 
gigantic in this family of dwar&. In Europe species of Leucosjns are 
found in the southern regions alone, principally in Italy. To the extrica- 
tion of the synonomy Illigbb, Kluo, and la^y Webtwood, have contri- 
buted : see the monograph of the last-named author, Entomol. Magas. n. 
p. 212, kc. 

Family XXI. Ichneumonides. Wings four, veined, the anterior 
always furnished with complete cells. Maxillary palps distinct^ 
elongate. Antennae mostly setaceous or filiform, long, with numer- 
ous joints. Body elongate, slender. Ovipositor straight, often 
exsert, bivalved, including a borer of three setse. 

Slip-uxupSy IchnetMnona. We unite in this family the Ichneu^ 
monidea and Evcmiales of the systematic entomologists of recent 
times. Of many species the economy is yet unknown, yet of all 
whose mode of life has been observed the larvs are found in other 
insects, and nearly always in the larvsB of these. They are especially 
caterpillars, the larvsd of Lepidaptera, in which Iclmeiimona lay 
their eggs j the laryee of Evania are parasites of the genus BlcUta, 
and probably live, according to an observation of Mac Leat (related 
by Wkstwood, Introd, to Tnod. Classif. of Ina. l. p. 422) in the 
membrane of their eggs. 

Comp. on this family amongst others: 

J. J. TsEKTBFOHL, Mevisio critica generis Ichneumonis, Okkn'b Isis, 
1816, pp. 55—87, pp. 293—308. 

J. L. C. Gbavxnhobst, lehneumonologia europcea. Vratislaviie, 1829, 
ni. Vol. 8vo. 

Nbes ab EssENBBCKj ffymenopteroTum Ichneumanib, affin. Monogrct- 
pkia. Volumen lum. 

J. T. 0. Batzebubo, Die lehneumonen der FonHnsdiien. Berlin, 
1844, 4to. 

Phalanx I. Ickneumones. Abdomen inserted between the two 
posterior feet. Antennce mostly setaceous or filiform, composed of 

Digitized by 



a great number of joints (sixteen, and many more*). Maxillary 
palps^ mostly five, articulate. 

A. Ickneumones adscitt, a. Braconides. A discoidal cell imder 
the first cubital cell extended to the margin of wing, not divided 
by a recurrent nervure. Second cubital cell firequently large, 

Aphidius Nees. Head transverse, with vertex broad. Abdo- 
men affixed by a short cylindrical petiole, incurvatile beneath the 
thorax; Borer not exsert. Antennse with joints very distinct, 
rather few (eleven to twenty-four). Maxillary palps shortish (five- 
or four-jointed). 

Sp. Ichneumon Aphidum L., Aphidiiu varius Neeb, Ds 6bbb, /rw. n. PL 
30, f. 12, 13. (The fig. of Panzsb, DeuUehl, Ins. Heft 95, Tab. 13, also 
belongs to this spedes according to NssB.) This smaU species lays its eggs 
in Plant-lice, in each one a single egg. The pupa of the Ichneumon lies 
curled up in the body of the Aphis. See Lbbuwekhobok, Sevende vervolg 
van Brieven, bl. 135 — 194, I34e MissiTe Tan 26 Oct. 1700, (and the fig. 
bl. 117 — 281), also Db Geer, L 1. pp. 866—875". 

Sub-genera: Trioxys Halid., MonocUmua ejusd, ^oaurea Westw. 
{Trionyx Haud.), Epheclrua Haud., Prcbon Haud. 

Alysia Latr. Head broad. Abdomen sessile. Borer exsert. 
Mandibles subquadrate, with apex tridentate, divaricate (even when 
drawn together, distant). Maxillary palps sexarticidate. Antenn® 
moderate or long, with more than twenty joints. 

8p. Alysia manducator, Ichn. manducalor, Pahzeb, JhuUchl. Ins, Heft 73, 
Tab. 4, Gu^RiK, Icofnogr. Int. PL 66. fig. 1 1, &c. The larva of many 
species of this genus live in the pup» of Diptera, others in the larvie of 

Sub-genera : Ccelinius Nees (comp. Herbich-Sch^ffer DeuUch. 
Ins. Heft 153, 154, 156), ChoErmsa, ChorebuSy Dacrvusa, (Enone, 
Ckasmodon Hauday, (Westwood, Generic Synopa. £ %S), Copiaura 


^ Some species of the genus Aphidiua Nees, of which Haudat fonns the genus 
JE^hedrus, make an exception to this, and have only eleven or twelve joints in the 

' These small parasites have their own in return : larvae of Oynip$, parMites of the 
second order. See Goezb, NaturforKher, xii. 1778, s. 197 — 320. 

Digitized by 



Bracan Fabb. (in part), Latr. Clypeua exscinded, a hiatus 
being left above the mandibles. Maxillary palps quihquearticulate. 
Head transverse or subglobose. 

Sp. Braccm impostor Nebs, Bracon denigrator Fabb. (exd. syn. L.)^ 
Panzsb, DeuUchl. Im. Hefb 45, Tab. 14, &c. 

Eogcu Nebs. (See Westwood, L L p. 64 for other sub-genera). 

8tgalj[)Ati8 JjATH. {Chelonus Jvm^E), Clypeus entire. Abdo- 
men fornicate beneath, triannulate above, or continuous, no vestige 
of incisures remaining, with all the segments united into one. 
Maxillaiy palps sexarticulate, labial shorter, quadriarticulate. 

Sp. Sigalphus irroratar, Cryptua irror<Uor Fabb., Db Gbeb, Ins, I. Tab. 36, 
fig. la ; Gn^iN, Icognogr., Int. PL 68, fig. 9 (in this figure the diviaion 
of the nervurea in the wings is incorrectly represented as though there 
were a second recurrent nerve, as in the Ichneumonei genuini) ; 4J lines 
long ; expanded wings 8 lines ; abdomen glistering at the extremity with 
brownish green from fine smooth hairs, wings brownish with blacker exter- 
nal margin and a white spot in the middle imder the radial cell. The 
larya> according to Ds GSEB, lives in the caterpillar of Nodua psi, 1. 1. 
p. 577. 

Helcon Nees. 

Microgaster Latb. 

Note, — For other genera and Bub-genera^ here omitted on account 
of our limited space, the works recommended above may be con- 

B. Ichneumones genuini. Recurrent nerves two, one dividing 
the area situated under the cubital cells. First cubital cell large, 
confluent with the first discoidal cell ; second cubital cell rhombic, 
pentagonal or trigonal, very small, in some none. Maxillary palps 
with five joints, labial palps with four joints. 

In this division no such small species occur as in the preceding 
(ex. gr. the genus Aphiduui). The larvse live principally in cater- 
pillars. Some species do not lay i^Jieir egga in the caterpillars, but 
fitsten the eggs, which are provided with a pedicle for the purpose, 
on the akin of the caterpillars. See Habtiq, Ueb. cL gestidten Eier 
der Schlupftoespen, Wiegmakk's Archiv, 1837. s. 151 — 158. Taf iv. 

Gbavxnhobst has described more than 1600 species of IchnenfMna gei^iUni ; 
a number which will be continually increased by fresh observers. 

Digitized by 



t Genuine Ichneumons, with abdomen convex or depressed, 
a) With abdomen petiolaie or tmh-pdiUaU. 

Ichneumon L, (exclusive of many species). Head narrower than 
thorax. Borer subexsert or concealed. Second cubital cell dis- 
tinct, mostly pentagonal. 

8p. Ichneumon aputaiar Fabb., Panzer, Deuikhl. Ins. Heft 19, Tab. 90; 
— Ichn, Troscheli Batzbb., in the caterpillar of Nodua piniperda. 

Tryphon Fall. Head narrower than thorax. Borer subexsert 
or concealed. Second cubital cell almost obsolete, triangular. 
Abdomen elongate. 

On this genus, Which contains yery numerous species, oomp. Gbayxn- 
BOB8T, Ichnewmol. ii. pp. i — 368. 

Add sub-genus PolyUaatua Habtig, Schiodte. 
Megastehis Schiodte. 

Trogits Panzer, Gravenh. Head transverse. Borer concealed. 
Second cubital cell triangular or quinquangular. Scutellum gib- 
bous, prominent. Abdomen distinctly petiolate, oblong. 

Tragus lutorius, Ichneum, ItOorius Fabr., Db Gebb, ii. PI. 19, fig. 9, 
p. 848 ; one of the largest native hymenoptera, 10 lines to 1 inch long ; 
thorax black, scutellum sulphur-yellow, feet and head yellow beneath, 
abomen red-brown, at the extremity blackish. The larva lives in the cater- 
pillar of Sphinx ocellcUa, Sph. pinaatri, &c. 

Alomya Panzer, Gravenh. 

Crypius Fabr. Head transverse. Abdomen oval, distinctly 
petiolate. Borer exsert. / 

Note, — Some species are distinguished by their small sisse, the defect of 
wings, or by rudiments alone of wings : sub-genus Pezamxichtis Gbavenh., 
Sp. Vrypt. niffTihcindiu, Ichn. pedicularius Panzsb, DeuUchl. Ins. Heft 
81, Tab. 13, &c. 

Add genus Cylloceria Schiodte, see Gu£BIN, Magcta. de ZooL 1839, 
Ins. PI. 9, 10. 

Xorides Latr. 
Accenittis Latr. 

t /9) W'dh abdomen sessile (extremely short petiole). 

Pimpla Fabr. Head transverse. Borer exsert, long. Antennae 
long, filiform, slender, with numerous joints. Mandibles bifid at 

Digitized by 



a) With Beoond cubital cell eyanesoent. 

Sub-genera : Glypta Gravenh., Folysphincta ejusd, Schizopyga 
ejusd., CUstopyga ejusd. 

h) With second cubital ceU distinct, mostly triangular. 

Sub-genera: Rhyasa Gray., Trachyderma ejusd, EphiaUes 
ScHBANK, Grav., Pimpla Grav., Lissonota Grav.* 

Sp. Pimpla (EpkiaUes) manifestator, Ichneumon manifestator L., Paitzkb, 
DetUachl. Int. Heft 19, Tab. 21, Duk&il, Cons, gin. b. I. In%. PL 32, 
fig. I. Cut. R, ami., H. HI., Ins. PI. 1 10, fig. 8, Ac. 

Metopius Panz., Gravenh., {Peltastes Illig.) 

Sp. Ichneumon necatorius Fabb., Ichn. vesp&ldes Panz., Deuischl. Ins. 
Heft 47, Tab. 19. 

Bassus Fabr., Grav. 

ft Cknuine Ichneumons with abdomen compressed. 

Banchus Fabr. Abdomen sessile, or with veiy short petiole. 

Ophion Fabr. Abdomen falcate, distinctly petiolate. Antennae 
slender, filiform. 

Sub-genera: Anomalon Jurine (in part), Gravenh., Ophion, 
Pani8cu8y ko. 

Sp. Ophion glaueopterus Fabb. ; — Ophion eircumJUxus, Ichneum. dreum- 
JUxus L., Batzbb. Forst. Ins, m. Tab. yi. fig. 2, &c. 

HeUwigia Gray. Abdomen petiolate. Antennae clavate. 

Gomp. Gbaybnhobst, Hdlwigia, novum inseetorum genus ; Nw. Ad. 
Acad. Cobs. Leop. Car. Natur. Cutiosor. xi. 1823, pp. 315 — 321, Tab. 43. 

Phalanx II. Uvaniales. Abdomen inserted into thorax above, 
before the origin of the two posterior feet. Antennae filiform 
or setaceous, with thirteen or fourteen joints. Anterior wings with 
distinct cells, posterior veined, destitute of cells. Maxillary palps 
longer, sexarticulate, labial quadriarticulate. Posterior feet with 
coxae long and strong, and femora often incrassate. 

^ Of what small value this second cubital cell or areola is as a character in PimpUe, 
appears from some species of Lissonota Gbaviekh., where it almost entirely disappears, 
or is sometimes present on the right wing and 'wanting on the left Gbavenhobst, 
1. 1. III. 

Digitized by 



A. Abdomen of moderate size or elongate. 

f Borer exsert 

Auhcaa JuRiNE. Abdomen compressed. Antennae setaceous. 

Sp. Atdaeus ttriatua, Jubins, ffymSn, Tab. 7i fig. 15: habit, on the moun- 
tainB of Switzerhmd. 

Fcenus Fabr. Abdomen elongate, clavate at apex, exceeding 
the length of head and thorax. Antennas filiform. 

Sp. Faentu JaetUator, IchneumoH jaculator L., B4A.UMnit, /iu. iv. PL 10, 
figs. 14, 15, Pahzeb, Veutschl. Ins. Heft 96, Tab. 16, DuviBiL, Cons, 
gSn. i, I. Ins. PI. 31, fig. i, ftc. 

ft Borer concealed 

Pelecinus Latr., Fabr. Inferior wings almost without ner- 
vures. Abdomen very long, filiform in females, moderate and 
clavate in males. 

Sp. Pdeciwiis polyeerator Latb., Gu^in, Iconoffr., Ins. PI. 65, habit, in 
North and South America. 

Comp. on this genus Lepeletieb and Sebville, Encyl. method., Ins. 
Tom. X. T825, pp. 39, 30 ; De Romand, Note su/r U genre Pelecinus, 
GuiBlN, Mag. de Zool., 1840, Ins. PI. 48, 49 ; ejusd. Notice s. I. genre 
Pelec.; ibid. 1842, PI. 86 ; Klug, die Arlen der OaUung, Pelec., GsB- 
mab's ZeUschr.f. d. Entom. m. 1841, s. 377 — 388, Tab. n. (A genus in 
the opinion of this author related to the Oxyura, the genus Monomachus 
Wbstw., forming the transition to the genus ProcMrupes.) 

B. Abdomen very short, oyato-triangular, compressed, abruptly 
petiolate, often inserted almost beneath the scutellum. 

Evania Fabr., Latr. 

Sp. Evania appendicigaster, E.IBBT and Spenob, Introd. to Entom. PI. iv. 
fig, 2, DDMiB. Cons. gin. s. I. Ins. PI. 31, fig. 3, &c. 

Sub-genera : Brachygaster Leaoh, Hyptia Illio. Gomp. on this genus 
and the allied sub-genera Sfinola, Gu^in, Revue Zoolog. 1840, pp. 244 — 
148, and Wbbtwood, Trans, of the Entom. Soc. of Lond. ill. 1843, 
p. 237, Ac. 

Family XXII. Cympsea 8, Gallicolw. Posterior wings with 
no nervure or one only, anterior with radial cell, and two or three 
cubital cells, the second triangular, third incomplete produced to 
apex of wing. Antennae of the same thickness, or gradually 
thicker towards the apex, with twelve to fifteen joints. Maxillary 

Digitized by 


384 CTJkss VIII. 

palps four- or five-jointed, labial with two or three joints. Thorax 
gibbous, with mesothorax very large. Abdomen compressed. 
Borer extremely slender, with three set», concealed^ rolled spirally, 
between a bivalve sheath, exsertile from the last ventral chan- 
nelled segment of abdomen. 

GaiUrwaapB. The females of this family pierce different parts of 
plants (leaves, leaf-^talks, buds, &c) and lay an egg in the wound 
The irritation thus produced causes the sap to flow in greater abun- 
dance to the wounded part, and thus different excrescences, often of 
very singular kinds, arise, which serve the larva both for food and 
habitation. The form of the excrescences is different for different 
species, and may serve for recognising and distinguishing them. 
The larviB, bent into a semicircle, lie as thick white maggots 
in the cavity of these excrescencea Some species undergo their 
metamorphosis in this situation ; others leave it before becoming 
nymphs, and change under ground It is true that species also of 
ChcUcidea are found in these excrescences, which were formerly 
placed with species of Gynips in one genus, and to which Gboffboy 
gave the name of Gynipa exclusively, which occasioned much 
confusion in the nomenclature : they are ichneumons which have 
taken the place of the natural inliabitant& 

Gall-wasps, although living upon vegetable food, have neverthe- 
less a great affinity with the Ichneumanides, and this is shewn more 
• distinctly by the fact that some species {Allotria Wkstw.) really 
live like ichneumons in insects {Aphides), without on that account 
differing from the rest of the Gynipides by natural characters or 
organisation (Westwood, Introd, to modem GlassificaL of Ins, u. 
p. 132, Ratzebubo, Die Forst-Insecten, nr. p. 54). 

To the excrescences, caused by gall-wasps, belong also the gall- 
nuts or gall-apples, of which those that come from the East (from 
Aleppo) are in most esteem. They consist, besides gallic acid, in 
great measure of tannin, and are consequently very astringent. Hence 
their use in medicine. Their property of forming a black pre- 
cipitate with salts of oxyde of iron, causes these gall-nuts to be 
employed in the preparation of writing-ink. 

Gomp. on this family : Malpiohius de Oallu, in Anatomea plantarum 
parte aUerd {Operum ed. Londin. i686, foL Tomo ii. pp. 17 — 38); 
OuviEB, Encycl. mtth^ Hist, not. de$ Int. v. 1790, pp. 771 — 792, 
Brakdt u. Batzeburo, Medkin. Zoolog. u. 8. 144—758; Botbb db 
F0N800LOMBX, Detcriptiim des In*, de la fam, dee Ih'plolSpairea qui «e 

Digitized by 


IN8ECTA. 385 

trowfoU aux mvirom tPAix, Ann. de$ Se, ntU. xxvi. 1833, pp. 184 — 
198 ; J. O. WxsTWOOD, Imaior. nonntUlor, e familia Cynipidarum 
de$enpUonei; QviBUX, Magas. de Zool. 1837, Ins. PL 179; Habtio, 
Ueb. die Familie der OaUwetpm; Girmab'b ZeiUchr. /. d. Bntom. n. 
1840. B. 176—109, ra. 1841. 8. 3«a— 358, IV. 1843, 8. 395— 4««- 

Cyntps L, (excluaive of some species), Diplolepis Geoffk. 

Sub-genera : AUatria Wbbt., (Xystm Habtio), AnaduM/ru Dalm. {Meg^k- 
pdm/ui Habtio), Leiopteron Pbbtt, Wxstw., Paras Westw., Figites Latb., 
Biorhyza WiSTW. (Apophjfius Habtio), Cynips Latb., Wbbtw., Ihalia 
Latb., and others; on which see WisrwooD, Oenerie Synops. pp. 55, 56, 
and Habtio, 1. 1. 

Sp. C^ips OaUce tindoria Olivixb, Voyage dans Vempirs Othoman, Paris an 
9, AUas, PL 15, Bbakdt u. Ratzbbubo, Mediz. Zool, n. Tab. xxi. fig. 
1 1 — 13 ; this species lives on Quercus infectoria in Asia Minor, Syria, &c. ; 
— Oynips QuercusfoUi L., Row. Ins. iii. SuppL Tab. 5 a, 53, f. 10, 11; — Oyn. 
jRosa L., R^UMUB, Ins. m. PL 46, fig. 5-7, PL 47, fig. 1-4. Blankaabt, 
StA^nibwrg, Tab. 16, fig. v-s, Bbabdt u. Ratzbbubo, L L Tab. xxi. fig. 
5-7, on the wild or garden-rose, in which it causes mossy excrescences 
named Dog-rose-sponge or Bedeguar. 

Note. — ^Abdomen in most extremely shoii-petiolated. Some are 
distdngiushed by their long petiole (sub-genera Anacharis, Leiop- 
teran, Ac) Males are distinguished from females by their small 
size, longer antenme^ mostly also by the third joint of their antennie 
being sinuated outwards. Of some species the females alone are 

Family XXIII. UrooercUa {Siricidm CuKTis). Abdomen sessile, 
continuoufl with thorax, covering the origin of posterior feet, cylin- 
drical or oblong. Mandibles short, thick. Wings both anterior 
and posterior with distinct cells. Tibia of first pair of feet with a 
single terminal spine. Borer of females in some exsert, straight, 
with three setse, received between two homy valves, in others 
capUlaiy, contorted at the base, contained in abdomen. Larvae 
furnished with six feet, phytophagous. 

The larvse of the chief genus of this division Svrex live in wood, 
especially fir and pine, some also in beech, poplar and birch. Of 
others the larvee are still unknown. Dahlbom suspects that the 
larva of Orysnu lives on gall-nuts. The opinion of Spikola and 
Lepeletisb that the larvsB live parasitically in those of wood- 
eating insects, like ichneimions, is an error, and rests on imperfect 

VOL. I. 25 

Digitized by 



Gomp. on this family : F. Klug, Mcnographia Siricwn Cfermania, Tab. 
SBD. Berolini, 1803, 4to^ and (on the following also) the exoellent work of 
Th. Habtio, I>ie Familien der BlaUtoeapen und Molewespm, Mit Abbild. 
Berlin, 1837, 8vo. 

Phalanx I. Oryssides. Borer capillary, incurved at base^ con- 
cealed. Radial cell one, cubital cells two. 

0rr/88ri8 Late. Antennae short, with ten to twelve joints, in- 
serted near the mouth. Maxillary palps long, five-jointed, labial 
triarticulate. Anterior tarsi of females with three joints only. 

Sp. Oryuus coroncUua Fabb., Panzbb, DetOschl, /tm. "tieft 59, Tab. 19 
{Sirex vespertUio), Dum^b. Com. gin, s, I, Iru, PI. 35, fig. 4 ; in Germany, 
France, &c. 

Phalanx II. Uroceridce. Borer straight, exsert. Badial cells 
two, cubital four. AntennsB with eighteen to twenty-five joints. 

a) Wi^ meuoSlary palpi Umg, 6- or s-joinied, 

Cephtis Latr., Fabb. Antennae incrassated towards the apex. 
Abdomen compressed. 

Sp. OepkuB tpinipei, Banehui ipi/nipa Pahzeb, Deuttchl, In$, Heft 73, Tab. 
17, Ac. 

(Speciee small. This genuB is placed in the foUowing family by La- 
tbbhiLB and Wbstwood). 

XipAydria Latr., Fabr. Antennae attenuated towards the apex, 

Sp. Xiphydria eamduSf Sirex eamdus h,, Duh&il, Chnt. gin, $. I. Int, 
PI* 3<^> fig* ^» Habtiq 1. L Tab. vm. tg, g, &c. 

h) WUk maaaUary paXpt extremely ekoH, with only one or twojoinie, 

Sirex L. (exclusive of species). Uroc&rua Geoppr. Antennae 
setaceous or filiform, long. Maxillae united at the base. 

. Sp. Svrex gigas !»., Ichneumon gigas, Sytt. not, Ed. x. fern. {Sirex marieeuM 
L. ma.), B(BBBL, Int. Bomb, el Veep. Tab. vm. tL,, DuMiBiL, Cone. gin. $. 
I. Int. PI. 36, fig. I, Batzkbubg, Forat-Int. m. Tab. iv. fig. 3F; head 
blacky with a large yellow spot on each side behind the eyes ; the male 
with stone-coloured abdomen, the last two rings black ; the female has the 
abdomen at the base and apex yellow, in the middle dull black. This 
insect is the largest native hymenoptenim ; the expanded wings measure 

. 1 in. 1 lin., the body i in. 3 lin., and the borer 4 lin. ; but much smaller 
specimens of the species are met with. The larva lives more, than a year 
in the wood before it changes into a nymph ; in summer the insect comes 
to view from the pupa after three weeks, but when the larva becomes 
a pupa towards winter, it con^ues thus throughout the winter. 

Digitized by 



Family XXIV. Tenthredineta b. Serrijera. Abdomen sessile, 
continuous with thorax, covering the origin of posterior feet, cylin- 
drical or oyato-oblong. Mandibles large, homj, acuminate, in* 
curved, mostly tridentate. Maxillary palps mostly sexarticulate, 
labials four-jointed or quadriarticulate. Labium cloven into three 
laciniss. Wings both anterior and posterior furnished with dis- 
tinct cells. Borer almost always occult, included in a bivalve 
sheath, compressed, cultrate, mostly serrate, composed usually of 
four setsB (the upper one of other hymenoptera being here cloven to 
the base). Tibise of anterior feet with two terminal spines. Larvffi 
(similar to caterpillars) with mostly twenty-two or twenty feet, 
feeding on leaves. 

Leaf'waapa. The larvse mostly eat leaves like caterpiilars, some 
live in gaU-exGrescences. These insects are often very destructive to 
trees, and the knowledge of them is therefore veiy important to the 
forester. Some also injure our potherbs. 

On this family, besides the Monograph of Habtig Doted above and the 
third part of the Fortt-Inncten of Batzebubo, may be oonsulted : Klug, 
Die BlaUtoeipen der Fabrmschen SamnUung; Whdexann's Zoologiichei 
Magazin, I. 3, 18 19, s. 84— 91, Tab. n., and by the same, Uebtrsickt der 
TenihredindCB der {Berliner) Sammlung, in his JahrbUeker der Ituektet^ 
hunde, I. Bd. 1834, Svo, s. 133—253, Taf. n. figs. 5 — 10 ; 6. Dahlbom, 
Clavia novi ffymenopterorum wytUmatia adjecta tynopti lairvaTum tocmdinoir 
viccur, ertiq/brmttim, Lundn, 1835. 

A. Borer exsert 

Xyela Dalmann, Mastigocera Klug. Antennas thirteen-jointed, 

with fourth joint longest (equalling or surpassing in length the 

nine terminad jomts taken together). Borer of females of the 
length of abdomen. 

B. Borer occidt. 

a) AntennsB with numerous joints^ (fifteen to thirty-six). 

Lyda Fabe., Hartig, Pamphilivs Latr. Antennae setaceous 
(nineteen- to thirty-six-jointed). Badial cells two, cubital four. 
Posterior tibiae with three lateral spmes. 

The larvn of this genus live together socially in a -web ; they have, 
besides the riz homy feet on the thorado segments, only two propellen 
directed outwards at the hind part of the body. Comp. Habtig 1.1. 
Tab. VII. figs. I— 16, and Ratzbbubg, Forst-Intekten, m. Tib. i. 


Digitized by 


388 CLASS vni. 

Tarpa Fabr., Hartiq^ MdgalodonJtes Latr. Antennas shortly 
pectinate on the inside (fifteen- to eighteen-jointed). lUdial cells 
two, cubital four. Posterior tibiae with two lateral spines. 

Comp. Kluo, EnUmol, Manogtriphien, Berlin 1824, 8yo, 8. 181 — 10. 

Lophyrus Latr. Antennse in males pectinate, in females ser- 
rate (seventeen- to thirty-jointed). KadiaJ cell single, cubital cells 

Sp. lophyrus Pini, Tentkredo Pini L., Batzebubo L I Tah. ii. fig. i ; 
Lophfr, rvfuB, ftc. The larvsa have 11 feet^. 

5) Antennae with mostly nine joints or fewer. 

Tenthedro L. (exclusive of many species), Latr., AUantus 
JURINE (with addition of some sub-genera). Antennae nine- to 
eleven-jointed, simple. Badial cells mostly two, cubital four. 
Labrum exsert. 

Sub-genera: Macrophya Dahlb., TeTUhedro Habtig, AUcmiius 
JuBiNE, Athalia Leach, SeUmdria Leach, Dmura Dahlb., Fhyl- 
lotoma Fallen, Fenusa Leach, Emphytus Kluo, FdnuUopua 
Hartio, Dclerua Jurine, Cryptocampiu Hartio, Nematua Jubine, 
Clctditis Illio., and others which are recorded in Westwood, 
Generic Synops. pp. 52 — 54. 

(Areokd of wings and antenn» are used for subdivisions). 

Sp. TefUkredo difarmit {Cladiua), Pakzxb, IkvUch. Ina, Heft 61, Tah, x. 
(male with antenxuB pectinftte in middle) ; Tenthredo cenHfolia {Athalia), 
Pakzbb, Deuisch. Ina. Heft 49, Tab. xvni.* ; TeiUhr, groaatdarice Dahlb., 
Blakkaabt, SchoubuiTff, Tab. n. figs. G — J ; Tenthredo gaUioola (Nematua) 
WxsTW., SWAIOOBDAK, £ib, Nat. Tab. xuv., Bobsel, Ina. IL, Bombyl. 
et Veap. Tib. x. figs, x— 4 {Ten^redo ffoUifex Haoxub. in MSa) fta The 
lame have twenty or twenty-two feet. 

Hylotoma Latr. (and Schtzocera ejusd.) Antennas triarticulate, 
with third joint elongate, in males of some species forked {Schizo- 

^ Comp. on thiB genus L. FumELMAKN, Zur Natwrgeaeh. einiger auf der KUftr 
lAender Lophyren ; Nov. Ad. Ocea. Loop. Oar., Tom. xix. P. i, 1839, PP- *45— «8o* 
Tab. XXY. 

* On this insect^ whose Larva may be very destructive to turnips by eating the 
young leaf, we have an excellent monograph by G. Nbwpobt, Obaerv. on the Anai. 
and Economy of Athalia eenHfolicB; Prise Saaay of the Fniomoi. Soc. With a plate. 
London, 1838, 8vo. 

Digitized by 



cera). Radial cell one, sometimes with accessory apical cell ; cubi- 
tal cells four or three {Plilia Lepelet.) 

&p, HylcUma rotarum Fabb. (not Tentkr,' ro§cB L.) BosiL, n. Bomb^ior, 
€t Veapar, Tab. n., DumjIbil, Cont. g^n, «. L Ins. PL 35, fig. 6, Ac. 
{Tenihr. rota L. is a speoies of Athalia.) 

Cimbex Oiiv. Antennre clavate, five- to seven-jointed. Badial 
cells two, cubital three. 

Sp. Cimbex variabilis Klvq, Tenthredo lutea L. (and Tenthr, ftmarata 
ejtud.), K(E8EL, Ins. u., Bomb, el Verp. Tab. zm., Batzebubo, Font-Ins. 
lu. Tab III. fig. 10, &c. These species are the largest of this iamily ; the 
larrn have twenty-two feet. The larva of Cimbex Uieorwn was not long 
ago described and figured by Skxllxn yah YoLLEKBOTiir, Tijdsckr. 
voor not. Gesch. 1. 1843. Tab. n. 

Sub-genera : Abia Leach, Perga Leach, and others of this 
author. Add sub-genus Pachylosticta S^UG, genus Syzygonia 
ejusd. differing from all other cimbices in the cells of the wings, 
but plainly resembling the Hyhtomam (Brazilian species.) 

Okdek Vni. Lepidoptera. 

Hexapod insects, with four membranous wings, covered with 
minute coloured scales. Mouth with involute spiral tongue, com- 
posed of protracted maxUlaa. Metamorphosis complete. 

BvUerflies {Lepidaptera L., firom XfirU scale, and irrepov, Glossata 
Fabr) The two chief works on the anatomy of this order, that of 
Ltonet and of Herold, have been already cited (see above, pp. 247 
and 275). To give a list approaching to completeness of the works 
which treat of the arrangement of butterflies, or illustrate their 
species by figures, would require too much space for our purpose. 
We satisfy ourselves therefore with indicating some of the prin- 
cipal sources for the knowledge of this order. 

J. C. Sepf, Beachouwing der toanderen Gods in de minst geachte 
Sch^Mden, of Nederlcmdsche Insekten, &c 4ta Amsterdam, 1765, and 
folL Of this work, which is still being continued, 6 parts, each of 
50 plates, have hitherto appeared. 

P. Cbaheb, UUlandsche Kapellen, iv. parts, and Stoll*s Aankcmg- 
sd, 4to. Amsterdam en Utrecht, 1779 — 1791. (With this may be 
usefully consulted the academic prize-treatise of H. Yebloben, 
CcUalogw systematicus ad CRAXERUMy Traj. ad Bhen. 1837, 8vo.) 

Digitized by 



SystemaHaches Verzeiehniss der SchmeUedmge der Wienergegend 
herausgegeb, von einigen Lehrem am K. K. Theresiantim, Wien. 
1776, 4to. (mit 3 col. Ta£) 

Jac. HtJBNEB, Sammdung ewropdischer Schmetterlinge, nebat Fori- 
aetzwng von C. Geter, gr. 4to. Augsburg, 1806 — 1841 ; — hj the 
same, Geschichte ewropdiacher Schmetterlinge (Rcmpen, Fwppefn u, 
FvMerpflcmzeTi)^. 4to. ibid. 1806 — 1841 ; — ^by the same, Sammhing 
exotiacher Schmetterlinge, nebat Fortaetxung van C. Geyer, ill Bde, 
gr. 4to. ibid. 1806 — 1841; and Zutrdge zwr •Samrrdung exotiacher 
Schmetterlinge, ibid. 1818 — 1837. (I have not been able to consult 
these comprehensive and costly works whilst preparing this order). 

F. OcHSENHEiMEB, Die Sclvmetterlinge von Ewropa,fortgeaetzt durcJ^ 
Fb. Tbeitschke, jl Bde, 8va Leipzig, 1807 — 1835. 

BoiSDUVAL, Speciea ghiercd dea Lepidopt^ea, Tom. i. av. pL Parisy 
1836, 8vo. This excellent work, which makes a part of the well- 
known SuUea dL Buffon, published by Bobet, appears to be discon- 
tinued, to the great injury of science. 

The scales, which cover the wings of these insects on both sides, 
appear to the naked eye as dust, but when seen through the 
microscope, are arranged in regular rows, like house-tiles ^ These 
scales are implanted, by means of little pedicles, in short conical 
tubules, whose openings are constantly directed to that margin 
of the wing which is opposite to its base. Each scale consists 
of two (or perhaps even of three) membranes or layer& On the 
uppermost membrane lie granules of colouring matter. Elon- 
gate, parallel stripes (ribs) run from the base to the free extremity, 
which has sometimes a smooth margin, and sometimes ends in 
certain points or lappets. The underside of the scale, which lies 
next the wing, often presents a play of various colours*. When 
the scales are removed, the wings are whitish and semi-transpa- 
rent ; some butterflies have constantly such patches on the wings 
where the scales are wanting ; in some the wings are almost quite 
naked, whether because the scales are wanting from the first, 

^ Numerous figures of this are to be seen in the works of microscopists, as 
in Leeowenhobok, Derde vervclg van JBrieven, ye Missive, 24 Junij, 1691, bL 409, 
fig. I ; see also Roiskl, Int. x. Tab. n. f. 5, 6, 7, Pap, PodaUriut, in. Tab. xuv., 
Pap. Iris, Ac. 

* Bebnabd-Dbschamps, Recherches Microacopiquea sur Vorganisation dea aiUs 
dans les LSpidopUres, An. dea tc. Nat., sec. s^rie iii. 1835. Zoologie, pp. iii — 137, 
PI. 3, 4. 

Digitized by 



or becaoBO beixig fixed very loosely, they are lost on the first flighty 
as has been obsenred in Sphiryx Jv4:ifor7M8. 

Amongst the oral organs (compare above^ p. 249) is seen a small 
upper-lip, often scarcely visible, which is of a triangular or conical 
form ; the mandibles are small, immoveable, and remote firom each 
other. These parts exist in a rudimentary state aJone. The prin* 
cipal part of the organa ciba/ria is the spind tongue, formed of two 
long threads (the maxiUai), which are excavated on the inside, else- 
where even, and run out to a fine extremity; when these two 
plates are laid towards each other, the two half canals form a com- 
plete canal in the axis of the tongue. At the base of the maxilLe 
are placed two very short paJps, consisting of one or two, at most of 
three, joints. The under-lip (IMam) is triangular and flat, and 
bears two large palps, which consist of three joints ; these palps are 
covered with hairs, and mount with their points turned upwards on 
both sides of the tongue, which rolled up in a spiral lies hidden 
between them, whenever it is not in usa In some nocturnal lepi- 
doptera the tongue is very short and not adapted for sucking. 

The antennse of these insects differ in form, but always consist of 
numerous joints. The two compound eyes are lai^e ; in many 
species there are in addition two simple eyes present. The three 
rings of the thorax are always connected immoveably with each 
other; the middle piece {mesotharax) is the largest. The wings 
are large and not folded ; in the females of some species they are 
reduced to small rudiments, or are entu*ely wanting. There are five 
joints in the tareua of all the feet. The abdomen consbts of six or 
seven rings, without sting or borer, as in the preceding order. 

The metamorphosis is complete. The larvse are called caterpUlara 
(eruccBy chenillesy Bcvupen, rupsen). The body of caterpillars con- 
sists of twelve rings exclusive of the head. There are on each side 
nine air-slits; for the second, third and last ring are without them. 
The normal number of feet in caterpillars is eight pairs ; the fourth, 
fifth, tenth and eleventh ring have no feet. On the first three rings 
three homy feet axe placed, which have a conical form, and consist 
of joints; the last joint has the form of a bent nail These 
six feet answer to those of the perfect insect. The remaining ten 
feet (some species have only eight, six, or four) are membranous 
and without joints ; they disappear in the perfect insect. On the 
underside they have a flat sur&ce, which the insect is able to expand 
and contract, and which is surrounded by a coronet of numerous 
small hooks. The head is homy, and has six simple eyes on each side; 

Digitized by 



moreover, there may be distinguished in it two short conical an- 
tennae, two strong mandibles, two maxill» with small palps, and an 
under-lip, which also has two small palps and terminates in a point, 
under which the efferent canal of the matter with which the cater- 
pillar prepares its web is situated. This substance is secreted as a 
fluid by two long, blind, convoluted vessels, which lie at the sides 
of the intestinal canaL Most caterpillars live on vegetable food, 
especially leaves, and many are limited to a single species of vege- 
tabla Others, however, eat leather, fur, fat, wax, &c., and these 
belong especially to the family of the moths. Caterpillars usually 
change the skin four or five times before turning into pupee. 

The pupae of scaly-winged insects axe quiescent, and move their 
abdomen alone when they are touched. They are oblong-ovate, and 
covered with a homy skin {pupcs obtec'as, see above, p. 273). The 
pupee of day-butterflies are usually not inclosed in a web, but merely 
attached by some threads at their posterior extremity, and hang 
freely with the head downward, or are fixed transversely to a branch, 
or other object, by a ti*ansverse band, as if in a hoop. The pupes 
of nocturnal butterflies either lie underground in a cavity that is 
smooth and even within, and lined with web, or they are inclosed 
in a cocoon (/oUiculus), which is fastened to a branch, or to a walL 
The web is frequently silken, sometimes very closely woven, some- 
times loosely ; sometimes it consists in part of finely gnawed fibres 
of wood interwoven with the threads of web, or of other foreign 
objects intermixed with the web, crumbs of earth, morsels of leaves, 
<fec. These pupee have commonly a brown or black colour. 

From the pupa of many species, especially of day-butterflies, the 
perfect insect proceeds after the lapse of a few da3rs. Of such 
species there are ordinarily two generations in a yeai*. Of other 
species, however, the caterpillar or the pupa remains through the 
winter, and then the perfect insect usually appears only once in the 
year, in spring or in summer. Eggs that are laid in autumn are 
mostly hatched in the following spring. 

The intestinal canal of caterpillars is straight, and consists in 
great measure of a wide cylindrical stomach. There are four very 
long vessels for secretion of urina The perfect insect has a narrow 
oesophagus with a lateral expansion or crop (the so-called sucking 
bladder, see above, p. 310) ; the stomach has become shorter, the 
rest of the intestinal canal longer. Lepidopterous insects in the 
perfect state of butterflies either take no food at all, or suck the 

Digitized by 



sap of flowers ; they lick this up by means of their maxillip, pro- 
longed into a tongua 

This order is ^eiy numerous in species. Amongst these are many 
which attract our eye by their brilliant colours, or the beautiful 
design of the spots or streaks on the wings. It is as though nature 
had given such large wings to butterflies in order to secure a wider 
space for her pencil 

Family XXV. Noctuma. Antennae setaceous or pectinate. 
Wings horizontal for the most part or deflected, guarded by a 
retinaculum, with few exceptions. Posterior tibise with double 
internal spine. 

NfxAivmal Lepidoptera, Moths, The species of this and of the 
following family are distinguished by the so-called retinaculwnf 
which they mostly possess. This part consists of a homy highly- 
elastic hair, or of a little bundle of two or more hairs, which arise 
on the anterior margin of the hind-wings close to their insertion. 
A little flat ling on the undernsurface of the fore-wing allows it a 
passage, and thus both wings are oonneeted, and similarly pressed 
forwards and backwards, and in flight form only a single sur&ce^ 
Almost all these moths fly by night alone, or after sunset. The 
females of some species are wingless, or have only minute rudiments 
of wings (as Phaltena brumata, Bomhyx arUiqua, &a) The form of 
the larva is various, and they have from 10 to 16 feet. Most of 
them make themselves a web, in which they change to pupse. 

This &mLly in the system of LiNViBUS forms only a single genus, 
which he names PhdliBna. 

Pterophorua Geofpr.. Fabr, Four wings or two posterior cloven, 
with fringed digitations. Antennae long, setaceous. Body slender. 
Feet elongate. 

Sub-genus Fterophorua Latb. Labial palps smalL 

Sp. Plavphortu peniadctctyhu, PhdUmia (AlueiUi) peniadadyla L. BcBSlL, 
Ifu, I. C1m8 17. Pap, noetwm. Tab. v. Ac. The caterpillars of this species 
have sixteen feet, are broad and hairy, and change without spinning them- 
selves in ; the pupee hang by threads, like those of day-butterflies. The 
perfect insect sits with outspread wings, and reminds us of TipuUt, 

^ I have treated specially of this part, and figured it in the Naiuurh Bijdragen, 
by H. C. Vak Hall, W. Vbolik and G. J. Muldeb, ii. 1817, bl. i73--«84. 

Digitized by 



Sab-genua Omeodea Latr. Labial palpB longer than head, with 
seoond joint very scaly, the last somewhat nakeii, erect. 

Sp. Pterophonu hexadactsfhu, Phakena {AlticUa) kexadadyla It., Bl&UMUB, 
Ins, I. PI. 19, figs. 19— « I, DuMiBiL, Cons, gin, s, I, Ins, PL 43, fig. 8. 
The sixteen-footed naked caterpillar feeds on the blossoms of KamperfoUa 
(Lonicera), and spins itself up when about to change into a pupa. The per- 
fect insect has each wing divided into six slips, and keeps the wings when 
at rest deflected. 

Tinea Fabe. (and Aludta ejnsd.) Anterior wings narrow^ or 
horizontal, incumbent, or convolute round the body or deflected and 
erect backwards. Labial palps erect, maxillaiy palps often distinct. 
Antennae setaceous. 

A. Labialpalps skoH, pilose. Antenna, especiaUy <;ff males, mtoeUf very 
long, approximale, Eges subeontiguous posteriorly. 

Sub-genus Ackla Latb. {AhusUa Ykbbl in part). 

Sp. Tinea Degeerella li,, Db Gksb, Ins.i. PL 3a, fig. 13; Gu^Riir, Iconogr. 
Ins, PL 91, fig. 7; FiB(msXi*a Ahifildungenzur Microl^idopierologie, 1854, 
Tab. 66, 67, figs, a — e; P. Ltonbt, Ouvrage posUiume, PI. 19, figs. 17 — 
95; wings gold brown with a yellow band on the fore-wing, which is 
margined with violet. Expanded wings about 8"', aatenntB of male 14'" 
long. In the pupa the antenna have special cases that project behind the 

B. Labial pcJps moderaU, very dMnct, EyesaandaadennartmUe. 
a) Tongtte disLinct, dongaie. 

Sub-genera (Ecophora Latb., Tponomeuia Latb., IlUkyia Latb., 
Omix Tbeitsohke. 

Sp. THnea evonymeUa L. (Tponomeuta evon,), Rgssbl, Itis. i. Pap, TMetum. 
Gl. TV. Tab. vin; the caterpillars live socially in a web, as do those of 
Yponomeuia cognateUa, R(BS. 1. 1. Tab. vii. Ssfp vi. Tab. xxvn, that live 
on thorn-bushes and fruit-trees, and also, what is often confounded with 
it, TSn. padella L., Ssfp y. Tab. zxxn. whose caterpillar lives on wil- 

6) Tongue very skorL {Cred on the head of Havre or scales,) 

Sub-genus Tinea Latb. 

Sp. Tinea pellioneUa L., Bobsbl, Ins. I. Pap, noctum, 01. TV. Tab. xyil the 
fur-moth; shining brown upper wings with a black spot ; it shews itself in 
the spring; according to TasiraoHKi there are two generations in a year; 
— Tinea grandla L., Hoebel, ibid. Tab. xu. &c. 

Crambm Fabr. Fore-wings narrow, much longer than broad. 
Maxillary or upper palps very distinct, porrect above the base of 

Digitized by 


IN8ECTA. 396 

labial palps, conpexed with scales oar hairs. AntemuB mostlj simple. 

(Caterpillars with sixteen feet). 

a) ToDgae veiy short, scarcely distinct. 

Sub-genus Phycia Fabr. {Phycis and Euplocoimus Latb., with 
antenniB of males pectinate). 
V) Tongue distinct. 

Sub-genera OnvmJbua {Chiio Sommeb), AlucUa Latb.^ GaUeria 

Sp. GaUeria certiUa, Tinea meUoneUa L., Bobsel, /tm. m. Pap, nod. CL TV, 
Tab. XLi. Sbfp y. Tab. zlyi; with grey wings, the upper wings more 
brownish, dark-spotted and excised on the outer margin in the male, in the 
female obtuse. The caterpillar of this species lives in the hives of bees, 
always protected and concealed under spun threads. The metamorphosis 
occurs within the hive. The moths come from the pupa in the spring. 
These enemies of bees were known to the ancients; YiBOiL calls them 
dirvm tinea genu* (Qtorgic, Lib. iv. 346; comp. Plinius, Hid. nai. Lib. 
XI. cap. xiz.) 

Botya Latr. (and Hydrocampe ejusd.) Fore-wings triangular, 
forming with the body a sub-horizontal triangle when the insect is 
at rest. Four exsert palps. Tongue conspicuous. Antennae seta- 

Sp. Buys verticalis, PhaUma {Pyralis) wrticalia L., BofiXL, Ini, X. Pap, 
nod, CI. IV. Tab. iv. Skpp v. Tab. xxiv. &c. 

Aglossa Latb. Tongue inconspicuoua Habit and characters of 
the preceding genus. (Species of genus Pyralis Tbeitschke, Cromr 

Sp. A^ana pinguinalis, PhdUma (Pyralia) pinguinalie L., De Gbsb, Im. 
u. PI. VI. figs. 4— n, Skpp v. Tab. xx, &c 

Ibrerw? Treitschke, Pyralis Fabr,, Latr. [Phalcena Tortrixlj.) 
Wing of insect at rest representing the form of a roof much flattened 
or subhorizontal, and with the body forming a triangle, short, broad, 
anteriorily arcuate outwards, the external margin of the fore-wings 
being produced to the base. Maxillary palps either none or short, 
not exsert; labial palps with second joint thick, hirsute, in some 
short, in others longer and in the anterior part of the head, pro- 
duced like a beak. (Caterpillars with sixteen feet.) 

Leaf-rollers. These have been thus named because the caterpillars 
of many species roU up and spin together the leaves on which they 
feed. Some tie up young buds and blossoms with their web; others 

Digitized by 



again live in fruits, as Tinea ponumdla L. (the genus Gao'pocapaa 

Sub-genera Cochylisy TeraSy Ca/rpaca/paa, ffcUiaay Pofdisca, Tbeit- 
SCHKE and others, on which see Schmetterlmge van JSwropa, Tom. 
VUL, and Westwood, Generic. Synopeis, pp. 106—110. 

Sp. Totirix dUorana L.^ (ffcdiat Tbkitbohkx) Dum^ Ommd. ff^. s, 2. In$. 
PI. 53, fig. 6, Skpp vl Tab. xin ; — Totirix vitana, Tortrix peUeriana, 
Sydem. Verz. d. SchmeU. d, Wienergeg, p. ia6, Pyrale de la Vigne Boso. 
This species, which causes great injuiy to vines, and so, in France especially, 
from time to time produces serious damage, is the chief sul^ect of an exten- 
sive and excellent work of Axtdouik, Sid, det Insectet nuinbUi d la Vigne, 
Paris, 1843, 4(0. 

Tortrix pomana, Tinea pomonella L., Rcbbkl, /fit. I. Pap, nod. CL iv. 
Tab. xui. Sepp yi. Tab. x. &c 

Herminia Latr., Hypena Schrank. Wings triangular, snb- 
horizontal, deflected, forming with the body a triangle when the 
insect is seated ; the anterior sub-falcate at the apex, with posterior 
margin convex. Labial palps longer than head, compressed, with 
last joint recurved. Ocelli two. Antennae of males ciliated or 
sub-pectinate. (Caterpillars with fourteen feet). 

Sp. Herminia proboeeidalie, Phalcena {PyraUe) proboteidaUa L., KuEEXANir, 
Beytragt eu B<esil's In$. Tab. xxxn. Skpp n. 5e Stuk, Tab. n. the 
brown snout-moth; on the sUnging-nettle; — fferm. rodralie, Phal. {Py- 
ralie) roetraUe L., Rcbbel, In». 1. Pap. nod. 01. iv. Tab. VL ; on the 
hop, also on stinging-nettles, &c. The caterpillars of these spedes have no 
feet on the sixth ring of the body ; when touched they let themselves fall 
to the ground, and leap like fishes drawn out of water. 

Note. — Genus HyhUea Fabr. is joined with Herminia by La- 
TREiLLE ; it contains exotic species, which whether they be all rightly 
placed here, appears to me very doubtfid. ffyhkea litwrata Fabr. 
from the Cape of Good Hope, Nabmforsch. xxix. Tab. iv. fig. 14, 
appears to agree entirely with Herminia ; here also are to be referred 
PJudcencR Servia and Sergilia Cram. 

On genus ffyhkea oomp. Esfkb in Natturfor§eher, xxix. i8o3, pp. 191 — 
ao6, Tab. ly. 

Pkalcena Fabr. {Phakena geometrce L.) Wings broad, mostly 
patent when the insect is at rest, with anterior only partly covering 
posterior, sometimes erect. Antennss elongate, towards the extre- 
mity attenuated, setaceous, or in males pectinate. Labial palps 
moderate. Ocelli none. Body attenuated. Most of the caterpillars 

Digitized by 



with only ten feet, the rest with twelve, always with anal feet. 
Pupa inclosed in a thin follicle. 

The genus Fhaicsna or Geametra is principally characterised by 
the caterpillars ; since these have no feet in the middle of the body 
they move in creeping, as leeches do, by flexion and extension of the 
body. Hence these caterpillai's are named swrveyora or sparircaler' 
pilkbrs {eruccR geometrical, chenilles wrperUeiueSy Spanner,) 

Comp. on this genus Tbhtbohki especially, JXe SehmeUerUngen von 
Europa, of which the entire sixth part (Leipz. 1827, 1818) is set apart for 
treating of the nomerous European species of this genus ; and further 
WaxLCB-BcHMFTSB,, U^bentckt der Spanner, in his continuation of Paitzkr, 
/«». Deutackl, Heft 165, 176, 179. 

LnmiBUS has made a subdivision according to the antennse ; where they 
are pectinate he gives to the specific name the termination -aria (as pini- 
aria), when they are setaceous that of -ata (as ffrotndariata^). The cha- 
racteristic of pectinate antennn, however, besides that it is proper to the 
male alone, occasionaUy separates naturally allied species. As little can 
the separation of these species, which have wingless females, of which 
liATBBniUB fonns his sub-genus Hybemia, be commended. 

a) CaterpiOars with twelve feet 

EUopia Tbeitschke. (Antenna in males pectinate.) 

Sp. PhaUma nuurfforitaria Fab., Pkakena fiuprgaritcia L. fern., Sbfp, Nederl, 
I'M, n. NaehtU, n. Bende i Gezin, Tab. m., Paitz. DevtteU. In$. Heft 41, 
Tab. 43, Heft 63, Tab. 13 ; %ht-green wings, the fore with two white 
bands, the hinder with one only, which is a continuation of the most 
external of the fore-wing. Amongst the Noet/WB also some species occur 
with twelve-footed caterpillars, which however are not spanners. 

h) CsterpiUars with ten feet. 

£nnamos, Actena, Geametra, AspilaUs, CrocaUis, Gnophos, Boar- 
mia, Amphidaeie, Psodos, Fidania, Cheeias, Cabera, Acidalia, 
Larentia, Cida/ria, Zerene, Minoe, Idcea Tbeitschke (a name to 
be rejected siace already given by Fabbioius to a genus of the 
Dinmals). Ck>mp. on other genera^ here omitted, Westwood, Generic. 
Sf/nops. pp. 98—104. 

[Note, — ^The numerous species of PhakenoB are distinguished by variety 
of form, and often present an analogy truly wonderful with other genera 

^ Here we have an instance of the happy mnemotechnie of which LiKK^us in all 
his writings made such rational use. The distinction however given by him is not in 
every instance well-founded; Phal. tatnlucaria, for example, ought properly to be 
etHikd iombueata. 

Digitized by 



of Lepidopttra, bo tha>t there may be obeenred, prinoipAlly amoDg the 
exotic genen^ some that recall the genus Pieria, others PapUionet (or 
Equites), not in habit alone, bat also in colour. Perhaps a parallel series 
is formed by the Phalamce, comparable with most of the genera of diurnal 
Lepidopiem. Other exotic Phakena approach more nearly to the genus 
Urania, but yet amongst European species Phakena tambucaria presents 
an analogy with it.] 
8p. PhaUma hdtdaria L., Amphidoiii hettdaria Tbeftsohki, Skfp ii. 4e 
Btuk, Tab. xxi. the hlaekiprinkled moth, Pakz. Ikutschl, Int. Heft 31, 
Tab. 14; with long, small, round wings, outspread, 1" broad, length of body 
usually 9"% the abdomen thicker and more unwieldy than in most species 
of this division ; wings and body yellowish- white, with many black spots 
and points ; — Phal. aanUmearia L., Aocena Mombucaria TaKxracHKE, Oum- 
pteryx Mombucaria Lkaoh, Romkl, In9, I. Pap. Nodum, CL m. Tab. Yi. 
Skfp, Nederl. Iru, i. 6e Stuk, Tab. i., one of the largest European species, 
but of a totally different form, with broad wings, the anterior falcate at 
the apex, the posterior excised at the margin with obtuse angles, of which 
angles the third is produced into a short tail ; the general colour pale 
sulphur-yellow, with two light brown bands on the fore-wings, and one 
similar on the hind-wings, which is a continuation of the innennost 
of the former. The eggs are prettily ribbed ; the caterpillar is a true 
spanner, of a brown colour, resembling a dead twig. Phal. drfoliaria L., 
Pidonia dtfoHa/ria Tbxitbohks, Bcbskl in. Tab. xir. (the metamor- 
phosis and the wingless female). Tab. XL. fig. 6 (the perfect male), SlFP, 
NedM. I'M. n. 6 Stuk, Tab. vi. Batzibubo, Pont-InM. ni. Tab. zi. 
fig. 5, Ac. 

Platypteryx Lespetbes, Ochsenh., Drepana SCHRANK. Wings, 
the insect at rest, patent, anterior broad, in some rotundate, in most 
falcate. Palps short. Antennss in males pectinate, in females 
setaceous or serrate or Tery shortly pectinate. Ocelli none. Cater- 
pillars with fourteen feet, terminated by apex acute, erect, the anal 
feet wanting. 

8p. Platypteryx faievla, Phal. {Oeomdra) falcataria L., Ltoitbt, Oumrage 
potth. PI. 35, figs. 6— 10 ; Plaiypt. hamtda, Phal. ftdeala Fabb., Skfp, 
Nederl. Int. n. 40 Stuk, Tab. xyl The one4aUed eaterpiUara resemble in 
some degree in miniature the two-tailed caterpillars {Bcmbyx vinula, 
fwrculaj) whence some writers have placed them with the Bombyees 
( VeneichniMt der Sehmdier. der Wiener gegend, p. 64, Hubkbb, Latbeillb) ; 
LnfVJBXTS and Fabbioius, giving their attention exclusively to the per- 
fect insect, placed the species known to them amongst the PhdUeiUB 
geomdrce, witii which indeed they have a greater affinity. The point in 
which the body of the caterpillar terminates behind forms a supemumeraiy 
segment (a thirteenth ring), which represents the two hind-feet that are 

Noctiia Fabb. Tongue distinct. Palps in most moderate, with 
third terminal joint more slender than the preceding or small. 

Digitized by 



Antennae mostly setaceous, in males of some species only pectinate 
or ciliate. Ocelli, with a few exceptions, two. Wings apt for flight, 
the anterior mostly triangular, deflected or incumbent. Thorax 
large, very often crested. Abdomen elongato-conical. Larvae 
solitary, mostly naked or seldom pilose, never without anal feet, 
most with sixteen, some with only twelve feet. Pupa inclosed 
in a follicle often lax. 

a) L€Ut joint ofpalpa shorter than Mecand, scaly, 
* CaterpxHoTS wiik twlvtfeet, 

Euclidia OcHSENH. Palps short. Head small. Body slender, 
with thorax not crested. (Anterior wings variegated with irregular 
brown markings.) 

Sp. Noctua Mi Im, Bspb, NederL Im. n. 50 Stuk^ Tkb. i., Ltonst, Ouvr. 
poethwne, PL 39, figs, xo — 17 ; the caterfMllar lives on different Bpecies of 
grass, on dover, &c,, and spins itself up between the leaves or in moss 
when about to change into a pupa. 

Plusia OCHSENH. Palps long. Thorax crested. (The fore- 
wings often with spots or marks that shine with metallic splendour.) 

Nochta gamma L., Basii^ Ins, 1., Pap, nodwm, CL m. Tab. T. Skfp, 
Nederl. Ins, i. 50 Stuk, Tab. i. f. i — 6 ; the ffamma-moth ; body grey, fore- 
wings reddish-grey with many stripes, in the middle and at the base dark- 
brown, with a yeUowiah shining spot re s em bling the Ghi^eek letter 7, the 
hind-wings yellowish-grey, with a blackish broad border ; length of the 
body 3"' ; breadth of npper wings expanded 15'". The caterpillar of 
this species sometimes occasions mnch damage to flax, hemp, cole-seed, 
peas, pnlse, and all sorts of potherbs ; a visitation which afflicted different 
districts of France in 1735, <^<^ ^^ province of Groningan in East- 
Prussia in 1843 : see J. Jaoobson de Phal, noetua gamma Diss, Be- 
giomonti, 1829, 8vo, and H. G. yait Hall, Oesch. van de verwoestingen 
door de rupsen in het jaar 1829 aangerigt, Groningen, 1899, 8vo. 

** CaterpiUarsmih sixteen feet. 

Sub-genera: Brephos Ochsekh.^ Catocala Schrakk, Ochsenh., 
Ophiusa OcBSEtra,, Anarta Ochsenh.^ GucuUia Schrans, Ochsenh. 

Noetua nob. 

(Xylvna, Cerastis, Cosmia Hubbn., Xanthia HiriBN., Oortyna, Non- 
agria, Leueania, Simyra, Caradrina, Orthoeia, Mythimna, Calpe, Thya- 
tifrcky Mamestra, Apamea, Trachea, PUia Oohbenh., Misdia Hubbk., 
OcHSBHH., Badena Sohbahk, Mama Tbbit8GHKB, Amphipyra, Tri- 
phono, Oraphipkora, Agrostis Ooebbith.) 

Digitized by 



JSpiaema Och8EKH.| Cymatophara Treitschke {Tethea Ochhemh.), 
BryophUa Tbeitschke {Fcecilia Schbank, Ochsenh.), Diphthera 
HuEBN.i OcHSSNH., AcTonycta Ochsenh. 

Comp. Eneyd, miih., Hui. not., Ins, Tom. viiL 1811, pp. 21% — 360 
(article NoctuelU), Tbkitsohkz, SchmeUeriinge von Europa, Yter Bd. 1825, 
1826, WssTWOODy Oeneric Synoptis, pp. 93 — 98, &c. 

Sp. Noetua nupia L., Sefp, Nedcrl, Ins, i. 46 Stuk, Tab. vn., Ltonbt 
Ouvr, podk, PI. 45 ; body i" %'*' long, points of fore- wings in flight 
distant 7," g"' or more from each other ; fore-wings above grey, passing 
into bluish-green, with dark-brown flamed stripes, beneath white, with 
three black bands; under-wings above carmine-red, with two broad 
black bands, which are present on the under-side also, but on a white 
ground, which towards the inner mai*gin passes into red. The cateipiUar 
lives on the willow. A still larger, and with us a rarer species, has on the 
under-wing a blue band on a bktck ground : Noctua fraxini L., B(B8EL, 
Int. IV. Tab. «8, fig. i, Sbpp, Nederl, Ins, i. 40 St. Tab. xvin— xx. 
— NoOua pronuba L., Triphama pronviba Tbbitbghke, Rcbsbl, Ins. iv. 
Tab. 3a, fig. 6, Vkbhubll in Sbfp, Nederl. Ins. vi. Tab. 34, figs. 7, 9 ; 
the upper-wings brown, dnnamon-coloured of di£Perent shades ; the under- 
wings yellow, with black band dose along the maigin ; breadth of wings in 
flight 7", length of body about 10'". A vezy common species, which in 
the middle of summer is often seen in houses, being attracted towards 
evening by the light. A lighter prothorax distinguishes it fitun Noftua 
(Triphana) inwuha Tbeitschke, where the thorax is of a single colour; 
this last has the fore-wings less flammate, often almost entirely of one 
colour, and ordinarily a light coffee-colour {ettfi au laU) ; Bcbsbl, ibid. 
figs- T> ^t 4> 5, Sepp Tab. 33, fig. 6, Tab. 34, figs. 8, 10. Livnjbub 
united both spedee under his Noctua pronuba, and perhaps they are only 
varieties. — Noctua piniperda, SVaehea piniperda Tbeitbohkb, Paitzeb, 
DeuUchL Ins. Heft 83, Tab. 94, {Bombyx sprda Fabb., and Noctua 
JUmmea, ^usd.,) Sepp, Nederl, Ins. in. Tab. 34, Batzebubo, Fortt-Ins, 
II. Tab. X. fig. 4 ; half an inch long, flight 15 to 16'" broad, upper- 
wings brown-red and grey, with two whitish spots in the middle, hind- 
wings dark-grey, under-side of wings single shade of grey, shining ; the 
oaterpiUar green and white striped longitudinally. This caterpillar occa- 
sionally causes great mischief in forests ; see L08OHOE, Natwrgesch. der 
ForUoder Kiifferravpe, Natufforseker, xxi. 1785, s. 27 — 65, Tab. m ; 
as in Holland (particularly in the province of Gelderland) in 1808, and 
especially in 1844 ; comp. hereon A. Bbahts in the Vaderl. Letierorfen* 
ingen, 1844, Mengelwerk, bL 535 — 536 ; and on the destruction in the 
pine-forests of the proviooe of Utrecht, H. Yeblobek in the Alg. Eunst-en 
Zetter-bode, 1846, Kos. 13, 15, and 1847, Ko. 9. 

5) Last Joint ef palps equal to second or longer than U, slender, sub* 

Erebus Latb. {Thyacmia Daijl) 

Sp. Nodma Strix L., Fabb., Noetua Agrippma Cbameb, UiU. h^. i. Tib. 
87, 88, fig. A ; CuviEB JJ. ani. id. iU., Ins. PI. 154, from Surinam. The 

Digitized by 



upper Bur&ce of wings white, with black lines forming many angles and 
curves, Uie under surface brown-grey with white spots. This species is 
one of the largest in this order ; the body is two inches long; but the fore- 
wings, which are yety long, surpass those of all the rest in breadth 
of flight, for the points are distant finom each other more than nine inches. 
Another species also from South America, Nodua odora Gsaxeb, n. Tab. 
169, f. A, B, was placed erroneously by LnrirjiUB amongst the AUaei 
(Bombyx) ; it is smaller, brown-coloured, and has an eye-shaped spot on 
the fore-wings. 

Ltthosta Fabr. Tongne distinct, long, spiral. Labial palps 
cylindrical, shorter than head, with third joint shorter than the 
preceding, or coalesced with the second. AntennsB moderate, seta- 
ceous, in males ciliated or subpectinate. Ocelli none. Anterior 
wings narrow, horizontally incumbent. Caterpillars solitaiy, with 
sixteen feet. 

Sp. Lithoria guadraf PhoUcena {Noctua) quadra L., RcssiL, Ira, I., Pap, 
noct, CL n. Tab. XVII. ; Skpp, NedeH. Ins, ra, 4e Stuk, Tab. VL ; 
Duif&iL, Cone, gin, ». I. Int. PI. 42, fig. i bis; wings outspread 2", 
yellow, the upper wings in the male grey-yellow, in the female yellow, 
with two steel-blue or black spots ; the feet blue. 

Sub-genus : NtidaHa Hawobth, Steph. (spec, of LUhoaia OcH- 
SENH., species of CaUvmorpha Latr.) 

Sp. Lithoe. mundana Oohsenh., Phakma mundana L., Hofficank. No- 
twfortcker, xxvra. 1799, Tab. i. figs, i— -5. 

Euprepia OcHSENH. {Arctta ScHRANK, Ckelonia GoDART, 
BoiSDUV.) Tongue distinct. Antennae in males ciliated or pecti- 
nate. Ocelli two. Wings deflected, variegated with colours often 
lively, anterior triangular, posterior famished with retinaculum. 
Larvae with sixteen feet, mostly hirsute with dense hairs. 

CaUimorpha Late, (in part). Tongue elongata Antemue simple, 
ciliated in males alone. 

(Sub-genera: Emydia, Euehdia, and CaUimorpha Boisduv., species 
of Euprepia and LUhosia Ochsenh.) 

8p. Euprepia Jacdbaxe, Phal, (N'oel.) JaeobcuB L., K(BfiBL, Ina. i.. Pap. noct, 
GL n. Tab. xliz. ; Sxpp, Nederl In$. 4e Stuk, Tab. xi; the upper wings 
dark-bluish grey with two carmiue-red stripes along the anterior and 
inner margin, and two round spots of the same colour ; the hind- wings 
carmine-red with a narrow black border. 

Arctia Sghrakk. Tongue short. Antennee, in males at least, 
bipectinate. Abdomen thick. 
VOL. I. 26 

Digitized by 



Sp. Bupr^pia eaja, PhaL (Bomhyx) caja L., RoSBL, Int, I., Pap. nod. 
GL n. Tkb. I.; Sepp, NederL Jn$. i. 40 Stuk, Tah. n ; winga outspread 
^l" — $" broad ; fore-wings brown marbled with white, hind-wings vermilion- 
red with blue-black round spots. Here belong many other species named 
by ItUfiSMua Bombyces nobiles, Syst, not, ed. xn. i. p. 819. 

Bsyche ScHRANK, Latr., Ochsenh. Tongue obsolete. AntennaB 
in males pectinate. Ocelli two in many. Wings rarely scaly, sub- 
pellucid, in females none. Caterpillars inclosed in a tube or sac of 
conglutinated fragments of leayes and stalks. 

Sub-genus : Oiketicus Guildino. 

See Linn, Trant, TV. 1817, pp. 371 — 377. The apterous female does 
not leave the follicle, and is there impregnated by the male. 

Limacodes Latr., Heterogema Knoch, Treitschke. Palps 
very short. Tongue obsolete. Antennae setaceous. Ocelli none. 
Wings opaque; females winged as well as males. Caterpillars 
broad, resembling slugs, creeping, with six homy feet very short, 
membranous feet none, tubercles of the skin supplying their place. 

Sp. LifMUiodet Teitudo, ffepialits Testudo Fabr., Sepp, Nedtrl. Int. n. 40 
Stuk, Tab. IV. on oaks ; ffderogenea aaellana Tbeitsohsb, fftpialvM tueUm 
Fabb., Knooh, BeUrdge zur Intectengetch. in. 1783, Tab. in. 

Sericarta Latr. {Ltparts, Pygoera^ Endromts OcHSENH., Orgyta 
Ochsenh., Latr.). Tongue short or obsolete. Antennae in males 
or in both sexes pectinate. Ocelli none. Wings opaque, deflected, 
posterior guarded by a retinaculum. Larvae with sixteen feet. 

Sp. Sericaria ditpa/r, Phal. (Bomhyx) dispar L., B(ESEL, Ins. i., Pap. noet, 
Gl. n. Tab. ni. ; Ratzbbubo, Font-Ins. n. Tab. ▼. fig. i. This species is 
rery common, and sometimes very injurious to trees. The brown cater- 
pillar with long bundles of hair has on each side of the body a row of 
eleven round spots, of which the first five are bluish-white, the following 
red. The female moths are a dirty white, with black bands on the upper 
wings, and very sluggish; the male, much smaller, has brown wings. 
In some species the females have merely short rudimentary wings {Orgyia 
O0H8BNH.), Sericaria antiqua, Phal. {Bomb.) antiqua L., Robsbl, Ins. i. 
Pap. noctum. CL n. Tab. xxxix. Tom. in. Tab. xm. &c. 

NotodofUa Ochsenh., Latr. 

Sp. Notodonta nczac, ^hal. {Bomb.) ziczac L., BcESBL, Ins. i., Pap. noctum. 
CI. n. Tab. XX. ; Sepp, Nederl. Ins. 1. 40 Stuk, Tab. xii. &c. 

Gerura ScHRANK, Latr., Harpyia Ochsenh. Tongue very 
short or obsolete. Antennae in males or in both sexes bipectinate, 

Digitized by 



with teeth deflected, hairy, towards the extremity of antenn® 
shorter or none. Ocelli none. Wings deflected, somewhat thin or 
sub-pelludd, heneath pilose, the posterior bridled by retinaculum. 
Body hirsute. Larv» smooth, with fourteen feet, and two conical 
elongate tubercles in place of anal feet. 

Sp. Cerwra mmda, Phal, {Bombifx) vinvla L., IUbsbl, Int. i,, Pap. noctwm. 
CL n. Tab. XIX. ; SxFP, Nederi. Int. i. 40 Stuk, Tab. Y. ; Ltonbt, Owr. 
potlh, PL 34, figs. I— 15. Putt Moth. 

Bombyx nob. {Bonibyx and Lasiocampa ScHRANE, Latr., Qdi- 
tropacha OcHSENH.) Tongue short or obsolete. Ocelli none. An- 
tennae in both sexes bipectinate. Wings deflected, reversed, the 
external margin of posterior produced beyond the margin of the 
anterior ; retinaculum none. Body thick. 

Sp. Bombyx mori, Phal. {Bombjfz) mori L., BassEL, Int. in. Tab. vn — 
EX. the tUh^oorm; the caterpillar ia whitifih-grey, smooth, and has a smaU 
horn at the hinder extremity on the back ; when fully grown, it reaches 
quite 3" in length, and feeds on mulberry-leaves ; the moth is dirty-white, 
and has on the fore-wings inconspicuous light brown stripes. The pupa is 
brown, elongate, oyal and obtuse ; it lies inclosed in a close web (cocoon) 
from which silk is procured. This species was first introduced into Europe 
in the time of the Emperor Justinianus. 

Bomhyx potatoria, Phal, (Bomb.) jwtatoria L., Bcbsbl, Int. 1., Pap. 
nocium. CI. n. Tab. n. ; Skpp, Nederi. Int. i. 40 Stuk, Tab. vra. Drinker 

Satumta ScHRANK, Latr. {Satumia and Aglia Ochsenh.) 
Tongue obsolete. Antennae in males doubly pectinate, with two 
teeth directed upwards and two downwards in every joint. Ocelli 
none. Tfings when at rest expanded, the inferior without reti- 
naculum, the disc adorned with ©cellar spot, which is most fre- 
quently naked in the middle, pellucid. 

Sp. Satumia carpini, Oohssnh., Phal. (Bomhyx) pawmia a) minor L., 
BcBSXL, I. Pap. nod. Gl. n. Tabs. iv. v. ; Skpp, Nederi. Int. i. 4e Stuk, 
Tab. X. XI. Amongst the exotic species may be noted the East Indian 
Salvmia atlcu (Gbaheb, UUl. Kap. i. Tab. 9, fig. a. Tab. 381, fig. c. Tab. 
38a, fig. A.) on account of its size and beauty. All the species of this 
genus are amongst the larger Lepidoptera. 

Co88ti8 Fabr. {C088U8 Latr., Zeuzera ejusd.) Tongue obsolete. 
Antennae denticulate or pectinate, in some towards the extremity 
setaceous, simple. Ocelli none. Head small, deflected. Thorax 
gibbous, large. Female with ovipositor exsert. Wings deflected, 


Digitized by 


404 CLASS VIIl. 

elongate, Totnndate, inferior furnished with retinaculum. Larvae 
smooth^ with sixteen feet, living in wood. 

Sp. Coutu ligniperda, Phal, (Bomhyx) Oomu L. ; Sbfp, Nederl. Int. III. Tab. 
XLni. XLiY ; DuMiaiL, Cons. gin. «. I. Ins. PI. 45, fig. 5 ; Ratzebubq, 
Forst-Ins. n. Tab. ni. fig. i. The expanded wings are more than 3" 
broad ; the colour of the wings is ash-grey, with black interrupted stripes 
that meet reticulately. The caterpillar reaches a length of three inches, 
and is red-brown on the back; it lives more than two years before changing 
into pupa, and infests not willows alone, but other trees also. It is this 
species which was investigated by Ltonbt in his unrivalled TraiU anat. 
de la Chenille, and is on that account so generally known. See also 
his Recharches swr VAnat. et les Metamorphoses des Insectea, edited by D£ 
Haah, pp. 369 — 546, PI. 39 — 54 (on this insect in the state of pupa and 

Zeuzera Latb. Antemifle in males pectinate at base, setaoeous at 
apex, in females serrate. 

Stf/ffia Dbapabn. (Species of Chimcera Ochsekh.) 

Ifepicdua Fabr., Heptolus Illig. Tongue obsolete. Antennas 
very short (shorter than thorax), filifoim or subserrate. Ocelli 
none. Wings deflected, lanceolate, posterior mostly without reti- 
naculum. Larvae smooth, with sixteen feet, subterranean, rhizo- 

Sp. Hepudvz humuli, Phal {Noetua) humuli L., Pakzeb, Deutschl. Ins. Heft 
70, Tab. 23, 24; — Hepud. lupulinw, Phal. (Noetua) lupuUna L. ; Panzer, 
Deutschl. Ins. Heft 94, Tkb. 1%, 14; Gu^in, Iconogr. Ins. PL 85, 
fig. I, Ac. 

Family XXVI. G^ejmacularia. Wings subhorizontal or de- 
flected, bridled in almost all, the posterior furnished with -retinacu- 
lum. Antennae prismatico-clavate or fusiform, simple or serrate, in 
few pectinate. Tongue distinct, in some very long. Posterior 
tibiae with double internal spine. Caterpillars with sixteen feet, 
sometimes naked, furnished posteriorly with dorsal horn, sometimes 
pilose or hirsute. Pupa smooth, in some foUiculated, in most 
buried beneath the earth. Flight of imago matutine and ves- 

Hvening-matha, Tmlight-moths, Grepuacuiaa' moths. This fiumly 
consists for the most part of the linnaean genus Sphinx, 

I. ATiierior wings elongate, naarow, posterior small, much smaller 
ikam anlerior. ^^ 

Digitized by 



Sesia Fabb. (exclusive of species). Wings subcjlinclrical, in- 

crassated before the apex, terminated by a fasciculns of rigid setffi. 

Ocelli two. Wings hyaline. 

Comp. J. B. Labpbtsbs, 8e»ia Furoptm ieonih. €t deacriptUmUmi iUui- 
irakB, Berolini, 1801, 4to. 

TAjfria Hoffmannsego. 

The larvse of these two genera five in the wood or the pith of plants. 

Zygcena Fabb., Anthrocera ScoPOLi. Antennn in both sexes 

simple, flexuoso-clayate, with smooth apex. Ocelli two. Tongue 

long, spiral. Wings deflected, liyely coloured, longer than body, 


Sp. Zygmafilaipmdvila, Sphinx flipmd/uki L., B<bsbl, In». 1., Pap. noetum, 
CI. IL Tab. Lvn. ; Sbfp, NederL Iru, i. 4e Stuk, Tab. xxii : the body and 
aDtennte are blackish-green, the upper wings dark-bluish green, shining, 
with six carmine-red spots ; the under-wings cannine-red with a bluish- 
black edge. The caterpillar lives on clover, &c. is yellow, thick, with 
short hairs, without horn on the back, and makes a compact but thin web 
on the stem of the plant when about to change into a pupa. Tliis genus 
approaches Supnpia in the preceding family. 

SynUonm Illio. 

Comp. BoiEfDUYAL, Earn tw une Monographie da Zyg^nidea, Paris 1829, 
8vo, av. pL color. 

Olaucopis Fabb. (and Procris ejusd.) AntennsB in males or in 
both sexes bipectinate. Ocelli two. 

a) Tongue obsolete. 
Aglaope Latb. (spec oi Atychia Ochsbnh.) 
h) Tongue distinct. 

Sub-genera : Glaucopia Fabb. (With antennse in both sexes bipec- 
tinate), Procris Fabb. (Ino Leach), Atychia HoFPKANNa, Latr. 

Sp. Sphinx Suaices L., Ssff, Nederl Ina, iv. Tkb. 40; Panzbb, DeuUehl. Ina, 
Heft 32, Tab. 34. 

Sphinx L. (in part). Antennae clavato-prismatic, incrassated 
before the apex, mostly with uncus or short seta, recurved and 
ciliated at the extremity. Labial palps broad, compressed, with 
third joint indistinct. Ocelli none. 

Smerinihua Latb. Tongue very short Antenn» serrated. An- 
terior wings angulate. 

Digitized by 



Sp. Sphinx TUuB L., I^hinx Populi K, Sphinx ocellata L. Comp. Sefp, 
Nederl. Ins. 

Sphinx Latb. Tongue distinct, sometimes very long. Anterior 
wings in some angulate, in others quite entire, rotundate. 

a) Tongue shorter, {Acheraniia Oohsenh., Brachyglossa BoiSDUV.) 
Sp. Sphinx Atropos, RoesKL, Ins. m. Tab. i. ii. ; Sxpf, Nederl, Ins, m. Tab. 
XXII— xxYin. ; Panzeb, Deutschl, Ins. Heft 8, Tab. i6. The outspread 
fore-wings have their tips more than 4" apart^ the body is 2" long. The 
upper-wings are brown, grey, flamed black and yellow-white, with a small 
whitish and round spot on the middle ; the hind- wings are yellow, with two 
pale-black bands. The loud noise which these animals make (on the cause 
of which there are many different opinions) has occasioned the superstitious 
dread which has sometimes surrounded this insect ; to the yellow spot with 
two black points, which is seen on the thorax, and which has some resem- 
blance to a skull, it owes the name of Death's-head moth. The cateipillar 
feeds on the leaf of the potato. 

h) Tongue dongate. 

Maeroglossa Oohsenh. {Macroglos^um Scop.) With eztrsmiiy of ab- 
domen bearded. Tongue very long. 
Sp. Sphinx stellatarum It,, B(ESKL, Ins. i., Pap. noelvm. CL i. Tab. vin. ; 
Sefp, Nederl, Ins. ii. 30 Stuk, Tab. i. the ffumming-hvrd hawk. 

Pterogon BoiSDUV. (Sp. ot Maeroglossa Oohbxnh.) 

Sphinx BoiSDUV., {Deilephila and Sphinx Oohsxkh.) Abdomen conical, 
with extremity not barbate. 
Sp. Sphinx Ligustri L., Bcesel, Ins. us. Tab. v. ; Sxpp, Nederl, Ins. i. 30 
Stuk, Tab. in. rv. : the flight is sometimes more than 4" broad, the body 
is 2" long ; upper-wings brown with white at the point and the posterior 
margin, hind-wings rose-red with grey-brown margin, and three black 
transverse stripes ; abdomen red above with a brown mid-stripe and black 
rings. The beautiful green smooth caterpillar, with oblique violet and 
white stripes, on the syringas and privets, is rare in Holland. 

II. Wings trtatiffular rotundate, the posterior congruous. 

Castnta Fabr. Palps distinctly triarticulate. AntennsB clavate, 

with club elongate, sub-fusiform, not bearded at the apex. 

Sp. Pap. Licus Cramer, UiU. Kap. Tab. a 23, t%. a; Ccutoia PalUma 
EsoHSOH. ; O. V. KoTZEBUB, Entdeckungs-Seise, ni. Tab. vx. fig. 47 ; — 
Caslnia acrceoldes BoisDUV. ; GujSein, Iconogr. Ins. PL 83, fig. 4, ftc. All 
the species hitherto known are from South America. 

Comp. on this division J. W. Dalhak, Prodromus Monographic! CatinicB, 
0. Tabula len. color. Holmse, 1815, 4to. These moths make the natural 
transition to the following family, and are in their habitus rery similar 
to some diurnal butterflies ; their wings however have a retinacalum. 

Add sub-genera: Coronis Latb., AgoHsta Lsach and Cocytia 
BoiSDUV. (Monogr. dea Zyghiides PI i. fig. 1.) 

Digitized by 



Family XXVII. Dtuma. Wings mostly erect when the in- 
sect is seated, neyer bridled by a retinaculum. Antennae in by far 
the most clavate, abruptly terminated by a capitulum, in a few 
filiform or subsetaceous, with apex more slender, uncinate. Ocelli 
none. The caterpillar always with sixteen feet. Chrysalis almost 
always naked, angulate, attached posteriorly by threads, or sus- 
pended vertically, or affixed by a transverse silken cord expanded • 
above the middle of the body. Flight of Imago diurnal. 

BuUer/liea (RhopcUocera BoiSDUV.) These insects have usually 
clubbed antennse, which is the case with all our domestic species ; 
when at rest they erect their wings, so that the upper surface of the 
wing is turned inwards. The genus Papilio of LnryiEUS corresponds 
to this &mily of later writers. 

Comp. on thifl fiimily, Godabt, article PapiUon, making the entire ix. 
part of the Hist, naiur., Inaectet, of the Encyclopidie nUthod. iBig, and E. 
DovBLKD AY, TluOenera of diumalLepidoptera, iUudnUtd with colour, jplaia, 
London, 1846 and foil. 4to. 

Phalanx I. Posterior tibiae, as in the preceding families, 
spinose not only at the extremity, but also on the inside before the 
extremity. (Caterpillar very often living among leaves that have 
been spun together. Chrysalis smooth, folliculate, or tied up by 
a transverse thread.) 

Urania Fabr. Antennae filif