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J ^T" J 





GeRiMan Grammar 





Associate Professor of German, University College, Toronto. 

W. H. ERASER, B.A., 

Associate Professor of Italian and Spanish, University of Toronto. 

^TxihQxiztb bj2 the department of (Ebucatiou for (Duturio 




Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the jear one thousand eight 
hundred and eighty-eight, by Thb Copp, Clark Company, Limited, in the Office o 
the Minister of Agriculture. 


In this edition, the portion forming Part III. of the 
old edition has been replaced by additional exercises on 
the lessons of Part I., and the selections prescribed b\' the 
University for Junior Matriculation have been added as 
a Reader, followed by exercises in Composition, based 
on the text of these selections. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Ontario Council of University Libraries 



Preface , . iii 

Introduction. — Alphabet i 

" Examples of Pronunciation .... 6 

" General Remarks on Pronunciation ... 8 

" Quantity of Vowels 9 

" Accentuation lo 

" Orthography ii 

** German Script ....... 13 

PART 1. 





Present Indicative of j^adcit, to have 

Use of Cases. — Definite Article . 

liefer Model. — Imperf. Indie, of f^afitn, to 


IV. SJlcin Model. — Indef. Article. — Present and 

Imperf. Indie, of fcilt, to be 
V. Declension of Substantives : — Scaler Model 

or -\, -m, -n, -X Stems 
VI. Present and Imperfect of toertien, to become 
,^^^ — Construction of Principal Sentences 
VIL-^Declension of Substantives: — So|tt Model 
— Question Order .... 
Conjugation of Jj^aBcit^ to have. — Place of 

Participle and Infinitive 

Weak Conjugation : loficn. ~ Dependent Sen 

tences. — Prepositions with Accusative only 

X. Weak Verbs (continued). — Declension of 

Substantives : — ^otf Model, or Plural in-et 














8-1 5 


19, 20 






















l^ersonal Pronouns .... 

Possessive Adjectives. — Use of Articles 

Construction of Sentences : — Place of Ob- 
jects, Adverbs, etc. — Prepositions with Da- 
tive only 

Additional Remarks on Personal Pronouns 
and Prepositions 

Conjugation of fein, to be. — Declension of 
Substantives : —Weak or-n Stems: ^nadc 

Mixed Declension. — Double Plurals. — Pre- 
positions governing Dative or Accusative . 

Anomalies of Declension .... 

Declension of Substantives : Recapitulation. 

— Proper Names. — Prepositions with Gen- 

Proper Names. — Foreign Substantives . 

Gender of Substantives. — Interrogative Pro- 
nouns and Adjectives. — Indirect State- 
ments and Questions 

Gender of Substantives (concluded). — Gen- 
eral Remarks. — Double Gender 

Relative Pronouns. — Irregular Weak Verbs 

Declension of Attributive Adjectives : Strong 
Form. — Conjugation of Strong Verbs 

Passive Voice 

Declension of Adjectives : Weak and Mixed. 

— Strong Verbs: Bei^Cn Model . 
Possessive Pronouns.— Strong Verbs: Mct^ett 


Declension of Adjectives (concluded) : Table, 

General Remarks. — Strong Verbs: ft^iefecit 

and fet^tcn Models 

Comparison of Adjectives. — Strong Verbs: 

frtcrcn Model 

Demonstrative Pronouns. — Strong Verbs : 

finnen Model 

Indefinite Pronouns. — Strong Verbs: f|)itt= 
ncn and Idclfcn Models .... 

On Certain Adjectives and Pronouns 

PAGE §§ 

52. 38-42 



64. 45, 46 

70. 47-51 

1^- 52-59 

80. 60 65 

^T. 66 69 

89. 70-75 
95. 76-78 

97. 79-88 

105. 89-91 

III. 92-99 

118. lOO-III 

126. 112-114 

134. 1 1 5-1 18 

142. 119,120 

147. 121-124 

154- 125-131 

162. 132-144 

171. 145-159 

178. 160 162 



XXVIII. Numerals : — Cardinals and Ordinals. — 
Strong Verbs: fprc(^:n Model 
XXIX. Indefinite Numerals. — Strong Verbs : effcu 


XXX. Derivative Numerals. — Time, Measure, 
Date. — Strong Verbs: fj^logcn Model 
XXXI. Adverbs. — Strong Verbs : fallen Model 
XXXII. Adverbs (continued' : Formation and Com 
parison. — Table of Strong Verbs and 
General Remarks on the same 

XXXIII. Adverbs (continued): Idioms. — Irregular 

Strong Verbs .... 

XXXIV. Modal Auxiliaries . . . , 
XXXV. Modal Auxiliaries (continued) : Idiom 

XXXVI. Compound Verbs 

E. On Certain Prefixes 
XXXVII. Reflexive and Impersonal Verbs . 

XXXVIII. Prepositions governing the Genitive 

XXXIX. Prepositions (continued) : — Idioms 

XL. Conjunctions. — Interjections 

F. Conjunctions. — Additional Remarks 

iSo. 163-16 

1S9. 16S-1S 

196. 1S2-1S* 

204. 1S7, i8£ 

210. 189-19^; 





195, 19^ 






XLI. Syntax of the Cases. — Nominative and 


XLII. Syntax of the Cases. — Dative and Accusa- 

XLIII. Indicative Mood : Syntax of its Tenses 
XLIV. Subjunctive and Conditional Moods . 
XLV. Imperative and Infinitive Moods. 
XLVI. Infinitive Mood (continued) 

XLVII. The Participles 

XLVIII. Concord and Apposition 
XLIX. Apposition (continued): Appositive Ad 
jectives. — Syntax of the Preposition 
L. Word-Order . . . • . 
G. Complex Sentence —Clause-Order . 

2S6. 242-24; 





290, 291 


Supplementary Exercises 





9?Dt!appd^en (©eBviiber ©rimm) . . . 415 


aSie'g ber 5nte mad)! (5(nbevieu) 



^a§ neue ^leib .. 



3>eueb ig n 






®er 23ar 



.5immet§ici)ruffel ((Sxtl) . 



Xa§ eiferne Jlveuj (trommel) . 



Dcicotiana (33aiimbad)) 

. 438 


^er ©olbljaum (33aumbad)) 

. 442 


Soreki (^eine) 

. 448 


3^u Mft rate eine 33Iume (Qt'uu)) 

. 449 


(Sd)dfer§ <Somttag5(ieb (U^lanb) 



S^as Sd)IoB am 3D^eere m 

. 450 


Xa^ ^d)(og SoncDurt (^^mtffo) 



5^ie (itevne (GlaubiuS) . 



Ter 9^ieie ©oUat^ (etaubiiis) 



DJZignon (©oetlje) . 



Grlfouig u ... 



^er (icinger (@oetl)e) 



Tev Siingling am 33ad)e ((Sd)iUer) 


Composition Exercises 


Abbreviations .... 


r German-En orlish 
ULARY: -^i ^ ,. I r^ 

t bnglish-Gernian 









(For Referenxe only.) 





Observe the dif- 
ference between 

^ a 

^ f 



tsay , 




like a in father; never as in 
b^ll, h^/, Cizre. 

as in Eng., except at end of 
word or syll., when pron. 

before d, e, i, and ^, like ts ; 
otherwise like k; in words 
from French, before e and i, 
like ss, 

as in Eng., except at end of word 
or syll., when pron. like t. 

long, like a in g^me ; short, 
like e in p^-n ; when final or 
in unaccented prefixes, like 
short a in Louis^. 

as in English. 

always hard, before all vowels 
and before I, m, n, x, like g 
in ^ive ; at end of words and 
sylls., or before other con- 
sonants, like Germ. cf> ; in 
words from French, before e 
and i, like s in pleaiiire. 

21 and U. 

33 and 35; 

b, J^, i) and 

6 and @; 
c and e. 

2) and D. 

e and g; 
e and c. 

f and f. 
© and e 





Observe the dif- 
ference between 

§ 1) 


always aspirated before vowels, 
as in //at ; silent before con- 
sonants, after t, between 
vowels, and when final. 

h, ^, D and 

3 i 


long, like e in he ; short, like / 
in skm. 

3 i 


like y in jet ; in words from 
French, like s in pleaj-ure. 

St f 



9, and ^. 

8 r 


Wi m 
SB n 


■as in English. 

m and it). 
9Z and 3t. 

? P 


c n 


m r 


like Eng. r with strong guttural 
roll ; formed by making the 
tongue convex, and check- 
ing the breath by gently 
pressing the middle of the 
tongue against the roof of 
the mouth. 

9i and ^: 
r and £. 

® f8 


before vowels, like z in 2:one, 
or s in dai^-y ; before conson- 
ants, and when final, like s in 
yej-/ but see fd;, ft, f^, below. 
c> is used at the end of words, 
otherwise f. 

f and f . 





Observe the dif- 
ference between 

2 t 


as in Eng. ; tl^ also like /; ti in 
foreign words, preceding an- 
other vowel, like tse. 

n u 


long, like oo in \iOo\. ; short, like 

00 in ioo\.. 

U and 21. 

SB ti 


like Eng. /in Germ, words; in 
foreign words, like Eng. v. 

33 and S; 
i), &. ^, V. 

SB m 

vay - 

like Eng. v, except after fd^ and 
3, when pron. like Eng. w. 

S I 


like ks^ even when initial. 

£ and r. 

?» t, 


like the Germ, vowel i ; or 
like ii. 

S i 


like t$. 




b (Oc) a 

U(Uc) ii 

like the Germ, vowel e. (The forms 2le, etc., 
are replaced by 2(, etc., in modern ortho- 

about like u in mz/rder ; nearly like French eu, 
but with lips rounded and nearly closed. 

nearly like French ?^/ there is no corresponding 
sound in Eng. Pronounced with lips rounded 
and pointed, as for whistling. 






like long a (a in f^rm). 



" " C (a " c^re). 



" " (never like Eng. oo). 






^u(SCcu) ou 
@u eu 


like I in f/re. 
like ou in hotn, 

like oy in j^j. 

like ?V in f^Vld (not found at the beginning of 
words); in the unaccented sylls. of foreign 
words, i and e are pronounced separately. 





after a, o, u, au, like c/i in Scotch lor/^/ 
softer after d, e, i, o, ii, du, eu ; it does 
n^t occur at the beginning, except in for- 
eign words, where it is pronounced like ^ 
before a, o, u, and like final d) before e, i. 
In French words it has the sound of s/tj 
as in French ; d;§ when in one syll. = x. 















like Eng. r/^/ when divided between two 
lines, is written !-! ; not found at begin- 

pronounce both ^ and f distinctly. 

as in Eng. ; in foreign words only. 

like s/i in Eng. ; but when the s is in a 
distinct syll., pron. separately. 

like soft s/ip in Eng. at the beginning ; other- 
v/ise like sp. 

like soft s/if in Eng. at the beginning ; other- 
wise like st 

like ss; ^ replaces ff after long vowels in the 
middle of a word, and always when final. 
Hence gu§ (long u), gen. gu§e§ ; but glufj 
(short u), gen. glu^e§ ; and beigen, Bi§, ge= 
Biffen. Diphthongs are always followed by 
^. Not found at the beginning. 

like fs. It stands for gg. 

Not found at the 



Simple Vowels. 

91 long : gar, hat, !am ; short : fait, Tlam, ^amm. 

@ long : l^cr, ben, bcm ; short : §crr, benn, 93ett. 

In formative sylls. foil, by a consonant shorter still:. 
genfter, ^aben, (^fel. 

In final syll. not foil, by a consonant, like a in Louisa : 
Gnbc, §abc, &aht. Also in prefixes, as in the first sylL 
of gcl^angen, gcfallen, ©cbanfen, befallen, bcbenfen. 

3 long : mir, bir, 9)line ; short : ftiU, mit, bitten. 

O long: ^on, luben, ^olen; short: Xonne, fummen, foil. 

U long : §ut, bu, ^Iute§ ; short : Aflutter, bumm, unter. 

^ long : ^^nami't, ^ol^^ ; short : gji^rte, 6^fte'm. 

Double Vowels (all long). 

«a : §aar, 5(al, ©taat. | ($e : ^Ice, leer, SBeet. 

Co : S3oot, g}loo§, 2oo§. 

Modified Vowels (Umlauts). 

ft long : S5ar, fame, pragen ; short : ^atit, ^amme, fiittt. 
6 long : 01, Stiine, ©trome ; short : fonnte, ©otter, offnen. 
U long : §ute, filr, Ubel ; short : §tttte, fttHen, miiffen. 

Diphthongs (all long) 

«i : Tlai, §otn, Wlain. 

(§\ : mcin, lieiter, blciben. 

SI I : §aut, 5(ue, blau. 

ftii t igaute, SBaume, Iciuten. 

^u : ^eute, neu, ?eute. 

3e : bie, ^tt, ticf (in some 
foreign words, pron 
i-e: gamilie, ©^anien 


Simple Consonants. 

6 final (=/),..... ab, ©rai, od. 

t soft {= ts) .,.,.. Safar, G^eremonie, (Sicero. 

Ji final ij^t) . . . . , . 9^ab, Slob, Sieb. 

J (= ^ in ^ve) %ihix\, beginnen, ^age§. 

%\\=£^) ^ag. feog, giitig, ^magb. 

t (= 2r>^ in French words) . ©ertie, ©age, $age. 

r §o^e, So^e, ^rd^e, fii^ren, 

\ mute •< faj, Sa^n, 2:§ure, 2:^aler, 

( 'iRciiifi), g}Zut(§). 

. f (= 7) jeber, jemanb, ,^a!ob. 

1 ( (= 2/i in French words) . . 3^^^^^!*^^/ Soumat. 

I rebe, murren, $aat, (Stern, 

1 drbe, ^rebiger. 

{ initial and medial (= s in 

daij^') (Sonne, btefer, (Sattel, §dufer. 

g fnal (= J- in ye-f) .... §au§, bie§, eg, Safter, legbar. 

t in foreign words before i 

(== is) national, patient. 

3' in Germ, words (=/) . . tJon, SSater, ©etter. 

( in foreign words(= z^) . . ^^^otiemBer, bitiibteren,2lbtio!at. 

( (= Eng. z) toenn, toer, too, toie. 

1 (after fcb and 3 = Eng. w) . Sc^tnefter, f cottier, jttiei, 3ttJec!. 

t initial {= ks) Xerje§, Xeno^^on. 

I {=ts) gterbe, 3U, jtoan^ig, 3om. 

Remark. — In the above list, only those consonants are 
given, which differ in pronunciation from their equivalents 
in English. Below are given also certain consonantal com:* 
binations, most of which do not occur in English. 


Consonantal Digraphs and Trigraphs. 
' initial {= k) (S^Jaracter, di^ox, G^^rtfi 

" (=c^ guttural) . . (S^^iru'rg, 6^§emie'. 

medial and final (guttural) \ ^«^' ^'^'^' ^^«' ^"*' ^^^* 

<- blei(^, ii^, £o(^er, SSiiiger. 

in French words (=-= j-//) . (E^arlatan, G^^icane. 

(in same syll. = x) . . ^a^§, Dl5§, 2ar^§, Sl^fc. 

|if ^ferb, pfennig, ]f)u|jfen. 

^St^af, Stance, (S^tff; but 
pron. g separately when 

W ("= •^^) \ ^^ belongs to a different 

syll, as: §du§s^en, ©dn§s 
fl initial (= J"/// softened) . . ®tanb,fte^en, Stengel, (&tube. 
j^ initial (= j-/^/ softened) . . f^iiiren, (S^iriid^e, S|Jorn. 
f[ (preceding vowel short) . . miiffen, !uffen, laffen, 9Jleffe. 
medial (preceding vowel long) grower, fto^en, fragen. 
I final (preceding vowel long) ^a§, gro§, gu§ (gen. S'uge^). 

final rnrecedino- vowel shorts \ ^^^ ^^^"' ^^f^^^' ^'^^ ^^^''• 
final(precedmgvo^^elshort) | ^offe^), glufe (gen. giuffe^). 


1. The acquisition of a correct and pure pronunciation of 
the vowels is the most important point to be attended to; 
especially that of the vowel a, which must never have a shade 
of the sound of the Eng. a in hat, haW, or c^rne. Look after 
your Towels, and the consonants will look after themselyes. 

2. The most difficult vowel-sounds are the Umlauts, or 
modified voiuels^ especially ii and ii, which must be learned 
from the teacher. 


3. The only difficult consonant-sounds are : 

r, with strong guttural roll. 

f, initial, and medial before vowels, which is like s in 

daijy, or z in zone. 
5 final = ss in English. 
^ (and g final), which must be learned from the 


4. The pronunciation of the following consonants, though 
^ot difficult, differs from the English pronunciation : 

b final =/. 

c before d, e, t == fs, 

h final = /. 

g never like g in gesture. 

g final see above. 

j = ^ in jet. 

ti =/in Germ, words. 

tti = z', except after fc^ and )• 

5. There are no silent letters in German, except ^ before 

consonants, after t (see below), and between vowels ; thus c 
is never silent. Hence (5nb-e, @ab-C are dissylls. ; and g, ! 
in ©nabe, ^nabe must be heard. 


Long: Double vowels and diphthongs are always long. 

Simple vowels are long before a single consonant ; before a 
consonant preceded by ^ ; when not followed by a consonant; 
also before and after t§. 

Exceptions : Articles, pronouns, prepositions, and other unaccented 
monosyils., also unaccented prefixes, and inflexional sylls. in t and i, have 
the vowel short before a single consonant. 

Short : Vowels followed by a double consonant (but see 
note 2 below), or by more than one consonant, vowels of un- 
accented words and prefixes, and of formative and terminal 
sylls., are short ; also most vowels before (i), and all vowels 
before jr§. 


Exceptions: Long vowels before several consonants: 5tb(er, eagle, 
erfl, 'first'; ©cbiirt, 'birth'; §erb, 'hearth'; 5)cvbe, 'herd'; ipufteii, 
♦cough'; ^(ofter, 'convent'; ^reb«, *crab'; 2Jfagb, 'maid'; 2JJonb, 
'moon*; ncbft, 'besides'; Cbft, 'fruit*; ^ft, 'east*; Oftern, 'Easter*; 
fap\t, 'pope'; '^]n-h, 'horse'; ^>robft, 'prebendary'; @cf)ufter, ' shoe- 
maker'; ®d)aiert, 'sword'; ftetv, 'continually*; tobt, 'dead* (now 
spelt tot); Sroft; 'consolation'; S>ogt, 'governor '; 23u[tc, 'desert*; also 
>2tabt, 'town,' which has the vowel short in the sing., lengthens it in the 
plur. Stdbte. Long vowels before t^ : fludjcu, *to curse'; f)od), 'high' 
(but short in §od)^eit, wedding); @d)mad), 'disgrace'; Spradje, 'speech.' 

Notes.— I. Long radical vowels remain long even before two or more 
consonants; thus: (obeii, (bii) lob-ft, (er) lob-t, ge-Iob-t, all with long 
vowel, according to the quantity of the stem. 

2. Before ft all vowels are short; before | medial, long; before ft 
final, a, 0, U are sometimes long, sometimes short ; c and i always short 

3. The vowel a is always long before r. 

Exercise in Quantity of Vowels. 

(Accent on first syll. of dissylls.) 

^aaxt, ?trt, cffen, loben, lobt, 5Irt, ^(ec, 33ier, t^un, biimm, 3Jloos, 
9'ZebeI, Cfcit, C\n\, obe, oftev, nett, iia{)t, Umx, lo§, ^a^n, iBIcittcr, ci^nlid), 
?iebe, iiber, burnt, 2)une, $?oo^?, banit, 2)diie, C^x, geraorben, U{)r, Seere, 
iraljrenb, mebr, ber, bQ«, e§, benn, .<!ent, gerue, munter, @tabt, etdbte, 
@tQtt, ©taat, ^ett, Seet, miiffen, ^ii^e, gliiffe, l^oren, ^e^r, ^er, §eer, 
^amme, fame. 


The principal accent is on the radical syll. in simple Germ, 
words, whether primitive or derived. 

Exceptions:— I. Substantives in -ei have the principal accent on the 

2. The following adjectives are accented on the last syll. but one: 
lebcnbig, ira^rfjaftig, baliamijd), Iutl)erifd); also verbs in -iercit. 

3. iNlost foreign substantives which have undergone a change of form 
are accented on the last syll., unless they end in -c, -cl, ~tt, -OX, when 
they are generally accented on the last syll. but one. Those in -it are 
accented on the last syll., except those which, like <^nmili-e, 2ragobi-C 
^omobi-e, 2iui-e, are directly from the Latin, the i-e being pron. sep^ 


Notes. — i. With these few exceptions, formative sylls. are always 

2. In compound substantives, adjectives and verbs, the first component 
generally has the principal accent ; in other compounds (prepositions, ad- 
verbial conjunctions, etc.), generally the last component. 

3. The following prefixes are never accented: tt-, tV-, tUlp", cut-, 

9C-, btv-, itt-. 

Exercises in Accentuation. 

1. Simple words : ^einigung, Q\)vV\6)k[t, Gjef, ^infierni?, gutig, fpar=' 
]am, ©pnrfamfeit, §eimat, Sxeic^tum, reinlicf), 9^einlid)feit, Xugenb, tugenb* 
I)Qft, Str^nei. 

2. Compound words : 5tuggang, auffte^en, Slugenblicf, entge^en, 2(uf= 
ent^alt, aiifbe()altcn, ^>crb{enft, (Sefelle, Gifen^ammer, mertiuiirbig, I)crau«, 
l)ineingef)cn, Sd^roarsitialb, ba^er, anfangtic^, iBettelflob, 2)Zontag, a}?it(eib, 

3. Foreign: ©tubent, ^rofeffor, ^rofefforen, SD^elobte, f^amilie, 3nftni. 
ment, 2t(tar, ^arbinat, 9Zatton, national, Uutoerfitdt, @o(bat, marjdjieren, 
religioS, 2)Zonument, monumental. 


Use of Capitals. The following words are written with 
capital letters : 

1. Words beginning a paragraph or sentence (after a 
period), and the first word of each line in poetry. 

2. All substantives and words used as such, as : ber 2Seife, 
* the wise man ' ; ba§ SterBcn, * dying,' etc. 

Note. — Substantives used as adverbs are not written with capitals, 
as: morgen§, abcnb^?. 

3. The personal pronoun and possessive adjective of the 
third plur. when used in address. 

Note. — The pronouns of the second person (sing, and plur.) are often 
written with a capital, and must be so in writing to persons. 

4. Ordinal numera!3 and pronouns in titles, as: griebrid^ 
ber ©rofee, * Frederick the Great ' ; ^axi ber giinfte, * Charles 


the Fifth*; giu'C !Dlajeftat, 'Her Majesty*; ©eine ^urd^s 
laudU, ' His Serene Highness.' 

5. Adjectives from names of persons, as : bie ©oetJ^efd^en 
©ebi(f»te, * Goethe's poems.' 

NoiES. — I. Adjectives, with the above exceptions, are never written 
with capitals, as: |jvciiJ3ijdl, ' Prussian '; eugliirf)/ ' English.' 

2. The numeral ein, 'one,' is sometimes spelt with a capital, to 
distinguish it from the indef. art. ein, *a,' 'an.' 


These changes relate chiefly to the rejection of lengthening 
1^ after i, which takes place : • 

1. in derivative sylls. : .^onicjhim, llngetiim, etc. 

2. after t medial and final : 3Itein, dlat, ret, tuert, etc. 

3. before diphthongs : Xier, teuer, 2^ei(, etc. 

4. before short vowels : 2^uvm, etc. 

Note. — In the majority of text-books, the pupil will still meet with 
the old orthography; but in the High School German Reader, and in 
the present senior author's editions of texts, the | is invariably rejected 
after t. 


1. The use of Italics being unknown in German print, an 
emphasized word is printed with larger spaces between the 
letters, as: \6 IjaU nur ein en <So^n, *I have but one son.' 

2. The double vowels never take Umlaut- hence: ^flOt, 
plur. Q3otc. 

3. The modified vowels as capitals aro ilways written 5C, 
6, U, not (as formerly) ^c, Oc, Uc. 




/^^^ i 








2^ J 






^ .-^^ 













// // /^ 

^K^C- u^^ ^^ 


t/ti^y^^'/y6^ J^^///^' cJty.^tHy 



yt^/^ -/-^ .^^/^ .y/^J^ 


(Jy/y>^^/y/^ Oi-/^^/^^^^/^ f^-^^^M/^ 




Observe carefully the Difference between 






•» and ♦ • -M. and -*-*-• -r-, and -r^^ • -^^^ and -t. . -sisc. and -)» 



^/^... 2. C£-^ ^//J:y/^ J:L^y^ 



;. <^Z 

-v- -j>--rit- 




<i— ^«--r«t-«--» 


:;.^.^^ ,.^, 

'. 7. ^Z.- 

' These sentences, with the exception of the last two, are identic*' 
with those of Ex. IV , A. 





-*-*'-*--X-^^^ ^«-^J»«. 

^_. (2^1^^^ 




Remarks. — i. Observe the angularity of the small letters. 

2. Observe the manner in which the letters are joined to 
each other. 

3. The strokes connecting the different letters should be 
made longer than those connecting the different parts of the 
same letter. This is particularly necessary where several 
^y^ 's or ^//^'^ follow each other. 

4. Never omit the hook ov^x^//^ , which alone distin- 
guishes it from ^/^ . 

5. The most difficult letters to make neatly are 

^ /^ ^"^ ^ y'^ /' / 




1. Present Indicative of ^ttBcn, to have. 
Sing, id) ^Oi^t, I have Ejabe td^, have I ? 

bu ^ajl, thou hast l^aft bu, hast thou 

er ^at, he has Ijai er, has he 

jie ^oX, she has l^at fie, has she 

e|_^at, it has l^at e§, has it 

/Vz^r. h)ir ^, we have l^aben \mx, have we 

'^i: l^abt, ye have l^abt i^r, have ye 

tie (^aben, they have l^aben fie, have they 

2. Rule i. The verb agrees with its subject in number 
and person, as : ic^ fiabc, I have ; er ^at, he has ; fie l^abcit, they 

2. Words used in a partitive sense, i. e., indicating only a 
part, not the whole, of anything, have no article before them 
in German, and the English some or any remains untrans- 
lated, as : 

Has he {any) bread ? I have {some) gold. 

^at er 33rot? 3d^ \jo!o^ ©olb. 


bread, JBrot 

silver, ©ilber 

also, auc^ 

meat, ^leifd^ 

water, SBaffer 

what, n)a^? 

gold, ©olb 

wine, SBein 

but, aber 

flour, g^ei^l 

and, unb 

yes, ja 

milk, m\\6:) 

or, ober 

no, neitt 
not, nic^t 

1 8 LESSON tl. [§§3- 


A. 1. §at er Srot? 2. 3a, er f)at 33rot, aber h)ir Fjaben 
gleifc^. 3. §aben fie 93iilc^ ? 4. gZcin, aber fie f^aben m^^, 
5. §at fie ©olb? 6. ©ie bat ©olb unb fie f)at aud^ ©ilber. 
7. ©r bat Staffer, aber id; ^aU 2Bein. 

^. 1. Have we any bread? 2. No, but she has some 
bread. 3. Have they any gold or silver? 4. They have 
some silver. 5. Has he water and wine ? 6. He has only 
wine ; he has not water. 7. I have milk and flour, but I have 
not meat. 


(The pupils will supply the answer to each question, with books closed.) 

1. Was hater? 2. Was haben wir ? 3. Washabensie? 
4. Was hat sie ? 



3. Use of the Cases. — Every declinable word in 
German has two numbers, the Singular and the Plural^ 
and in each number four cases, viz. : Nominative, Genitive, 
Dative, and Accusative. 

The N'o7ninative is the same as the English Nominative, or 
Subjective, and answers the question whol or what? as: 
Who (or what) is there ? The boy (the book). 

The Genitive corresponds to the English Possessive, or 
Objective with of, and answers to the question whose? of 
whom ? or of what ? as : Whose book ? The boy's book, the 
book of the boy. 

The Dative corresponds to the Indirect Object in English, 
and answers the question to whoifi ? 2is: To whom does he 
give the book ? He gives you (dat.) the book, he gives the 
boy (dat.) the book, he gives it to the boy (dat.). 


The Accusative corresponds to the Direct Object in Eng 
lish, and answers the question whom 9 or what ? as : Whon. 
{what) do you see? I see the man (the house). 

4. Declension of the Definite Article. 









• bie- 


bie, the 





ber, of ^the . 

. Dat. 

bem ^ 

bem- - 

ben, (to, for) the 





bie, the 

5. Rule i. The Definite Article, like every determinative 
word, agrees with its substantive in Gender, Number, and 
Case, as: tier DJiann, * the man' (masc); blc grau, 'the 
woman ' (fem.) ; bag J!inb, ' the child ' (neuter). 

2. Articles and other determinative words should be re- 
peated before each substantive in the singular, as : ®er 
3}^ann unb bie grau ; ber Se^re.r unb ber 6c^uter. 


(N. B. Always learn the definite article with each German substantive.) 

dog, ber §unb flower, bie 33lume 

boy, ber ^nabe horse, ba§ ^ferb \ 

teacher, ber 2ef;rer book, ba§ 33uc]^ 

teachers, bic Se{;rer girl, ba§ 9J]db^en 

scholar, pupil, ber ©rf)uler girls, bie 3Jlabd^en 

scholars, pupils, bie ©chiller knife, bag 9Jiefjer 

stick, ber Stoc! knives, bie 5!}{efjer 

mother, btc DJZutter who, lr>er ? 

pen, feather, bie geber only, nur 

* The article is omitted in the English portions of all Vocabularies, 
being indeclinable. 

20 LESSON III. [§§6- 


A. 1. §at fie ba§ ^ud() ober bie gcber? 2. 2Bir ^aben ba§ 
Sud^, aber fie ^at bie ^eber. 3. !Der 2ef;rer l^at bie 9}lefjer ber 
©dfjiilcr. 4. ®em Secret ber 9J?dbcf)en. 5. ^ie ©cf)uler ^aben 
ben .Ipunb, aber fie l^aben nic^t ba§ $ferb. 6. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 
©todf, ba§ 33uci^ unb bie geber ; aber ber ^nabe l^at nur bag 33uc^ 
unb bie geber. 

B, 1. Have we not the book of the mother? 2. We have 
the book of the mother. 3. Have the pupils the dog and the 
horsCj or have they only the horse ? 4. They liave the horse, 
but they have not the dog. 5. Has the mother of the girls 
the flower ? 6. She has not the flower, but she has the book 
of the girls, and they have the pen. 7. To the mother and 
to the teacher. 


1. Was hat der Hund? 2. Wer hat den Hund? 3. Wer 
hat Schiller ? 4. Was haben die Lehrer t 5. Was hat das 
Madchen ? 6. Hat er den Stock \ 


2>icfer MODEL. -IMPERFECT INDICATIVE OF ^nBCtt, to have 
6. Declension of btcfi^r, this, that. 

Singular. Plural, 


Nom. biefcr biefc biefcg, this biefc, these 

Gen. biefcS biefcr biefcg, of this biefcr, of these 

Dat. biefcm biefcr biefcm,(to,for)this biefcit, (to, f <^r) these 

Ace. biefcn biefc biefc§, this biefc, these 

In the same way decline jenlr, that; jeber, every; 
h)elcf)er, which ? y 

7] IMPERFECT OF ^abCH. 21 

Rem/.rk. — The accusative of declinable words differs 
in form from the nominative in the masculine singular only. 

7. Imperfect Indicative of ^a6en, to have. 

S»/^d^ ^attc, I had l^atte ic^, had I ? 

bu fjattefl, thou hadst \^oXi^\i bu, hadst thou 

er {;attc, he had l^atte er, had he 

— fie f^atte, she had l^atte fte, had she 

e§ ^attc, it had l^atte e§, had it 

Plur. \X)\x fatten, we had l^atlen totr, had we 

i^r l^attct, ye had \jQ^X^i i^r, had ye 

fie batten, they had \}^\Xz\k fie, had they 


brother, bcr Sruber woman, bic %x<x\x 

garden, ber ©artcn sister, bie (Scf»h)efter 

gardens, bic ©ttrten daughter, bie %^6>\tx 

bone, ber ^nocf)en -jp. daughters, bie ^iicBter 

bones, bie ^nod^en newspaper, bie 3^^^^"S 

reader, ber Sefer house, bttS §au§ 

readers, bie Sefer two, girei 

man, ber 53tann three, brei 

son, ber (go^n four, bier 
father, ber 3Sater 


A. 1. gd^ ^attebiefe^^ttung. 2. 2)iefer §imb l^atte ^nod^en. 
3. liefer 2ef)rer Fiat bier ©cottier, aber jener Secret l^at nur 
brei. 4. ®er 33ruber biefer grau ^atte jene§ §au§, imb er F)atte 
auc^ jene ©drten. 5.j3ebel Sud) ^at Sefer. 6. 2BeIc^e» 33uc^ 
fatten biefe ^dbc^en ? 7. ^er ©c^ttjefter itnb bem 33ruber. 

B. 1. Which newspaper had the father of these girls? 
2. The dog had these bones, but he had not this stick. 3. 
W' ich stick has this man ? 4. Which man has this stick ? 
5 This father had three daughters, but that woman had only 




two. 6. The son of that woman had this dog and horse. 7. We 
had the book of those pupils. 8. To the brother of those girls. 


1. Welches Madchen hatte die Zeitung? 2. Welches Buch 
hatten die Madchen ? 3. Wer hatte das Buch dieser Schiiler .? 
4. Welche Feder hatte dieser Knabe ? 5. Welchen Hund 
hatte jener Mann } 6. Was hat dieser Lehrer ? 


8. Declension of mcilt, my. 



















memc, my 
meirter, of my 
meinen, (to, for) my 
meinc, my 






9. The following words are declined like mein: !ein, ' no ' ; 
f ein, ' his, its ' ; iBr, ' her, its, their ' ; unf er, * our.' J:^ 

The indefinite article ein, eine, cin is also declined in the 
same way, but has no plural, thus : 


Nom. ein " eine 

Gen. eine§ einer 

Dat. einem einer 

Ace. einen eine 

Remark. — This model differs from the biefer model only 

in having no distinctive ending in the nom. sing. masc. and 

neuter, or in the ace. neuter. Thus, while we say biefcr 


cin *"• 




Tlanw, but biefcg 53udi, we say ein (fein, mein, etc.) Wann, 
and also cm (fein, etc.) 33urf). 

(O. Present and Imperfect Indicative of fein, to be. 
Prese7it. Imperfect. 

Sing, id; bin, I am ic^ iuar, I was 

bu bift, thou art bu tt)arft, thou wast 

er ift, he is er h)ar, he was 

fie i[t, she is fie ^^ox, she was 

e§ ift, it is el iDar, it was 

Plur. \o\x finb, we are h)ir traren, we were 

\\)x feib, ye are \\)x iuaret, ye were 

fie finb, they are fie toaren, they were 

bin \i^, am I ? etc. iDar icb, was I ? etc. 

11. Time before Place. Rule. — In German sen- 
tences, expressions of time always precede those oiplace^ as : 

This man was here to-day. 
liefer 2}lann itmr ^cute f)ier. 

12. Place of the Negative nit^t. Rule. — The nega- 
tive nit^t precedes that member of the sentence which it 
negatives. Hence : 

@r \X)<xx geftem nit^t ^ier, he was not here yesterday. 

13. Agreement of Pronouns. Rule. — Pronouns 
agree in gender, number and person with the substantive 
to which they refer, as : 

^cr §ut (masc.) ift nic^t gro§, cr ift flein, 

the hat is not large, if is small ; but 

bic 3^i^""9 (fem.) ift nirf)t gro§, fie ift flein, 
the newspaper is not large, // is small. 
The English pronoun // must therefore be rendered by er 

when it refers to a masc. substantive, by fie when it refers to 

a fem., and by e§ when it refers to a neuter. 

24 LESSON IV. [§§ 14^ 

14. Observe : In the sentence ' the boy is good,' good'is 
?i predicative adjective. 

Rule. — Predicative Adjectives are not declined. 

15. A substantive following the verb to be is of course 
subject, not object, and must therefore be put in the ?iominative, 
and not in the accusative, as : Sr ift cin (not einen) 2Jiann, he 
is a man. 


friend, bct Jreunb pretty, ^iibfc^ 

gentleman, ber §err cold, fait 

bird, ber ^ogel small, little, flein 

carriage, K,, jg tired, miibe 

wagon, ) beautiful, fine, fc^on 

carriages, bic 2Bagen strong, ftar! ^^ 

city, bic (Stabt idle, trdge 

^'^''' I bag ^leib '^^'^''' ^^'"'. 

garment, ) windy, irinbig 

weather, bag SSetter very, very much, fel^r 

old, alt yesterday, ge'ftern 

pleasant, agreeable, angenebm to-day, beute 

great, large, big, tall, gro^ still, yet, noc^ (referring to time) 


for, benn 


A. 1. @in 33ater unb fein ^inb finb je^t Her. 2. @tne "^vdiix 
unb tfjr ^inb ir>aren geftern bier. 3. 5Rein 33ruber f)at fein Suc^, 
aber er bat ein 9}hffer. 4. Urtfer Jreunb ir>ar ber Sefirer biefer 
(Sc^iiler. 5. 3)iefe grau ift meine ©d^trefter, unb [ie ift aud^ bie 
3Kutter biefer ^dbc^en. 6. 23ir finb flein, aber fie finb grog. 
7. Unfer 2ehr^ ift miibe, benn feine (Scf>uler tparen fefjr trdge. 8. 
Unfere.:8tabt iff fcfar fdpn, aber fie ift nid^t fef^r grog. 9. 9)?einem 
SSater unb meiner DJlutter. 

17] DECLENSION : ^<x\^X MODEL. 25 

B. 1. I am the sister of those girls. 2. Where are my 
books and newspaper ? 3. Our brother and his dog are big 
and strong, but our sister and her bird are small and pretty. 
4. Which gentleman was here yesterday ? 5. The friend of 
our brothers was here to-day, but he was not here yesterday. 
6. My sister had her book, but she had not her pen. 7. Our 
father and mother have still their carriage, but they have 
no horse. 8. The weather was cold and windy, but it is 
now warm and pleasant. 9. To my brother and sister. 


1, Wo ist unsere Mutter? 2. Wann war sie hier? 3. Wer 
war gestern hier ? 4. Was ist sein Vater ? 5. Wer ist die 
Mutter dieser Schiiler? 6. Wer sind diese Madchen.^ 


OR -I -m, -II, -X STEMS. 

16. Declension of bcr SKoIer, the painter. 

Singular. Flural. 

Nom. ber 5RaIer, the painter bie 9J?a(er, the painters 

Gen. be§ 5Raler§, the painter's, ber 5RaIer, the painters', 

of the painter of the painters 

Dat. bem 3}^aler, (to, for) the ben "Il^alei-n, (to, for; the 

painter painters 

Ace. ben 2RaIcr, the painter bie 2)?aler, the painters 

Observe : The only changes are additional -§ in the gen. 
sing., and -n in the dat. pi. 

17. In the same way are declined : 


26 LESSON V. [§§ 17- 

^i. Masc. and neuter substantives ending in -e(, -cm, -Cll, 
-cr, and diminutives in -i|cn and-ltiu (these last being 
always neuter). 

^2. Neuters beginning with @c- and ending in -c, as : ba^ 
©cmdlbe, the painting. 

1 3. Two feminines : bie 2Rutter, the mother, and bie 2^od)ter, 
the daughter. 

-^ 4. ©er ^dfe, the cheese. 

(a) But many masculines with 0, 0, U in the root, the two 
feminines 9)?utter and ^0(f)ter, and one neuter, ba^ ^lofter, 
' the convent,' take also Umlaut (modified vowel) in the 
plural, as : — 

Sing. N. D. A. 53ruber, g. S3ruber8 ; I'/ur. n. g. a. ^riiber, 
D. 33riibem. 

(d) Substantives in -n do not add n in the dat. plur., as : 

Sing. N. D. A. 9J^dbcf)eu, g. 9}idbc^enS ; J^/ur. n. g. d. a. 

(c) In feminine substantives all cases are alike in the sing. 
Hence, 5[Rutter and ^ocf)ter are thus declined : 

Sing. N. G. D.A. 5D?utter; 7^/wr. n. g. a. 9Mtter, d. ^iittem. 
Si7ig. N. G. D. A. ^od)ter ; P/ur. n. g. a. "^^iid^ter, d. ^bd^tern. 

Further examples : 

^er 53ogeI, the bird : Sing. n. d. a. SSogel, g. 3Sogel8 ; F/ur. 
N. g.a. 33ogeI, D. 3Sogeln. 

^er 2Bagen, the carriage : Sing. n. d. a. 2Bagen, g. SBageng ; 
P/ur. N. G. D. A. SBagen. 

^a§ genfter, the window : Sing. n. d. a. 5^n[ter, g. Jenfterg; 
J^/ur. N. G. A. genfter, d. genftern. 

^a^ ©emdibe, the painting: Sing. n. d. a. ©emdlbe, g. 
QJemdIbeg ; I'/ur. n, g. a. ©emdlbe, d. ©emdlben. 

i8] declension: — 'DJialer model. 27 

Decline with Umlaut : ber 3Sater, the father; ber (Sc^itJager, 
the brother-in-law ; ber 2IpfeI, the apple ; ber @arten, the 
garden ; ber 5JtanteI, the cloak. 

Note. — For a complete list of Substantives of this declension that 
take Umlaut in the plur., see App. A. U 

Decline without U?nlaut: bcr Sithxtx, the teacher; ber 
(^c^iiler, the scholar ; bcr SIbter, the eagle ; bag 5Reffer, the 
knife ; ber ©ommer, the summer ; ber SSinter, the winter ; 
ber £)nfel, the uncle. 

A— 'Note. — The preposition in is contracted with the dat. sing. masc. 
v^'and neut. of the def. art., when not emphasized, thus : in bem := tm ; in 
"Y bew ©arten, contr. tm ©arten ; in bem SSaffer, contr. im SSaffer. 

-^ — 18. Rule of Construction. — If the verb is in a simple 
tense, the predicate adjective comes at the end. 


tree, ber 33aum ripe, retf 

fire, ba§ Jcuer weak, fc^trad^ 

spring, ber griiBIin^ satisfied, ) .yfj-^g^g^ 

autumn, ber ^erbft contented, » 

stove, ber Cfen quickly, f(f)net( 
diligent, industrious, \ii\^ not at all, gar nic^t 

poor, arm not yet, nocf) nid^t 

^Tot, bei^ with, mit (gov. dat.) 

.. - — 1^7 !ran! in, in (gov. dat.) 

rich, xd<i) "^ whose, hjeffen ? 


A. 1. ^ie 53dter biefer 93^db(f)en njaren miibe. 2. 6§ n^ar 
geftern !alt, aber tt?ir Batten fein geiier im £fen. 3. 3}ie Gks 
mdlbe biefes 5)taler§ finb gar nic^t fc^on. 4. Unfere ©drten finb 
fcfion, benn ba^ ^Better ift tparm. o. 3^ie ^hitter biefer 3rf)iiler 
hjar arm. 6. 2J^it ben glugein biefer 33oge(. 7. 2)ie Sc^iiler 

28 LESSON VI. ^,(;, ■ [§§19 

biefc^o Sc^rcr^ ir>aren !ranf. 8. ^ie ?[Rdntel meiner S^od^ter finb 
alt. 9. ^ie ©drten in biefer Stabt finb febr fc^on. 

B. 1. The father of this girl was my teacher. 2. Our 
father and mother are old and weak. 3. The gardens of my 
brother-in-law are very beautiful, but his carriages are not at 
all beautiful. 4. My uncle is not at all satisfied with his 
daughters. 5. These apples are not yet ripe. 6. The 
teacher of these pupils was not very rich. 7. With the wings 
of this bird. 8. The weather is hot in the summer, but it is 
cold in the winter. 9. The eagle is a bird. 


1. \\'ann ist das Wetter kalt ? 2. Mit welchen Schiilern 
sind die Lehrer zufrieden ? 3. In wessen Haus sind die 
Briider dieses Madchens ? 4. Wo waren sie im Herbst ? 5. 
Sind diese Madchen trage oder fleiszig ? 6. Ist die Blume 
schon ? 


PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF ttJCrbcit, to become. -CON- 


19. Present and Imperfect of ttjetbcn, to become. 

Present Indicative. Present Subjufictiv^. 

Sing, ic^ njerbc, I become id^ trerbe 

bu h)irfl, thou becomest bu tDcrbcft 

er it)irb, he becomes er lr»crbc 

Plur. h)ir ti?crbcn, we become h)ir toerben 

ibr trerbct, ye become il^r hjerbet 

fte iperbcn, they become fie tperben 


If?ipe?'fcct Lidicative. hnperfcct Sicbjunctive, 

Sifig. ic^ tr»urbe or ii>orb, I became id) limrbe 
bu iDurbcp or tuarbft, thou becamest bu tDiirbeft 

er h)urbc or tDorb, he became er it>urbe 

Plur. \X)\x tDurben, we became h)ir ipiirbcn 

if)r it)urbet, ye became ifjr iT:)urbet 

fie it)urben, they became fie iDiirben 

Observe : i. the persistent e in the subjunctive endings ; 

2. the Umlaut in the imperfect subjunctive ; 

3. the second form (toarb, etc.) in the singular only of the 
imperfect indicative. 

20. Construction of Principal Sentences. — Place 
OF Verb and Subject. 

Rule. — In principal sentences containing a statement, the 
verb is the second idea in the sent^lice, as : 


%i) Mn bier. Gr ift fran!. 

I am here. He is ill. 

Observe: i. The verb is the second idea, not necessarily 
the second W07'd, in the sentence. Thus the subject with its 
attributes and enlargements constitutes but one idea, as : 

1 2 3 


^er ^ater biefe^ 2e()rer» mar fjier. 

2. The subject (or subjects) with attributes and enlarge- 
ments may come either in the first or in the third place, as : 


34 ^"^ ^^^^ *) o^ • §^^^ ^^"^ it^' 

3. Th.^ predicate adjective is placed last, when the verb is in 
a simple tense, as : 

30 LESSON VI. [§20 

I am satisfied with my daughters. 

gd; bin mil mcincu 2:o6tcrn ^ufricbett. 

Remarks. — t. Any other member of the sentence maj 
occupy the first place, but in that case the subject is thrown 
after the verb, which still occupies the second place. Thus ■ 


3m gruf)Iing finb bic ©tirtcn fcf»on. 

2. In English, on the contrary, the subject precedes the 
verb, which is, in such cases, in the third place, as : 


In the spring the gardens are beautiful. 

3. This Jixed position of the w^vh as the second idea in every 
Ger??ian principal setitence should never be forgotten. 

4. The conjunctions unb, aBer, ober, bcnn do not count as 
members of the sentence. 


sleigh, ber S(f)Iitten dissatisfied, im^ufrieben 

thunder-storm, ba§ ©etritter after, tiad) (with dat.) 

attentive, aufmerffam therefore, on that account, 
green, griin ri be^Balb 

new, neu never, nie 

young, jung so, fo 

inattentive, unaufmerffam why, iDarum ? 

unpleasant U^ <^,,, again, toieker 

disagreeable, ) well, ID09I 


A. 1. ^<x6:) bem ©etpttter iDurbe ba§ SSetter fdBiJn unb tr>arm. 
2. ©eftern tDurben meine 93tutter unb i^re 6(f)iDefter !ran!, aber 
je^t finb fie iDof)l. 3. ©ein 3Sater l^at ein ^o^w^ unb einen 
©arten unb er ^at auc^ SBagcn unb ©d^Iitten. 4. Da§ Setter 



trarb geftern un^ngenehm unb iwinbtg ; aber e§ ift Unt^ iricber 
gang fc^on unb \mxm. 5. ^er Sehrer h)irb unjufrieben, benn 
feine (Sdnilcr n)erben unaufmerffam. 6. 29arum ioirb imfer 
^^^^Nater j[e:^t fo frf>iua6? 7. Gr iuirb febr alt, unb ioirb begbalb 
'^'"^^dud^ fc^tDiic^. 8. Uufere 9}^utter ift mrf)t jung, aber fie ift tio^ 
fdBon. 9. 2Saren bie 33vuber biefer Sef^rer in Berlin ober in 
Hamburg ? 10. ©ie Ujaren in §amburg, aber fie tDaren nie in 

B, 1. The brother of these pupils became our teacher. 2. 
Teachers often become dissatisfied with their pupils. 3. In 
the spring our garden becomes beautiful. 4. Our brothers- 
in-law were in Paris ; they are now in London. 5. This tree 
becomes green very quickly. 6. The pupils of this teacher 
became very attentive. 7. My daughters are not contented 
with their cloaks. 8. In the autumn (the)''^ apples become ripe, 
9. The father of these girls becomes old and weak. 10. With / 
the feathers of an eagle, 11. We became rich, but he became 
poor. 12. The eagle is a bird; it is large and strong. 13. 
The cloaks of those girls were new, but now they are getting 
(say : become) old. 


1. Wer ist in dem Schlitten ? 2. Wer hat das jMesser 
ihres Onkels ? 3. Wann waren seine Briider in Hamburg ? 
4. Wann werden die Apfel reif ? 5. Wird der Baum im 
Sommer griin ? 6. Wann wird das Wetter kalt ? 

* Words in ( ) are omitted in English, but not in German ; words in [ ] 
are omitted in German, but not in English. 


32 LESSON VII. [§§2i- 



21. Declension OF P^^ ^^5"' t^^^^"' 

( ber §unb, the dog. 

(a) With Umlaut in the plural : 

Singular. Phi7'al. 

Nom. ber ©o^n, the son bte ©5f)ne, the sons 

Gen. be§ So{jn(c)0, the son's, ber ®bf?nc, the sons', of the 

of the son sons 

Dat. bem (Sobn(c2, (to, for) ben (Eiif^nen, (to, for) the sons 

the son 
Ace. ben Sof)n, the son bte ©of)ne, the sons 

Observe : i. The -c^ of the gen., and -c of dat. sing. 

2. The Umlaut and -c of the plur. 

3. The additional -u of the dat. plur. 

4. The -c may be dropped in the dat. sing., and (except 
after sibilants) in the gen sing., but is usually retained in 

{b) Without Umlaut : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber §unb, the dog bte §iinbe, the dogs 

Gen. be» ,'punb(c)8, the dog's, ber §unbc, the dogs', of the 

of the dog dogs 

Dat. bem §unb(c), to the dog ben §unbcn, (to, for) the dogs 

Ace. ben §unb, the dog bie §unbc, the dogs 

22. In this way are declined : 

I. Most mas culine monos yllables : generally add Umlaut 
(see App. B.) 


"^ 2. Masculines in -at, -if^, -ig, -ing, -ling: never add 

3. Many feminine monosyllables with a, U, or au in the 

root : always add Umlaut (for list, see App. C.) 

4. Substantives in -ni^ and -fal : never add Umlaut. 

5. Many neuter monosyllables (aU^ t^p^sg m_-r) : never 
add Umlaut, except g-lo^, GBor, Soot (53ote or S3oote) App. E. 

{^6. Foreign masculines, with accent on last syll., in -al, 
-on, -ar: generally without Umlaut; in -aft, with Umlaut; 
in -icr, -on, -or, and foreign neuters in -at : never with Um- 
laut (for exceptions, see App. D.) 
''^Further examples : 

®ie §anb, the hand : Sing. n. g. d. a. §anb ; Plur. n. g. a 
giinbe, d. §ttnben. 

(Observe again : Feminines have all cases of the sing, alike.) 

^a§ 33egrd6m§, the burial, funeral: Sing. n. a. Segrd6m§, 

G. 33egrdbnif jcs, d. Segrdbni|*(fe) ; Flur. n. g. a. 33egrdbmfje, 

D. 33egrd6mffen. ^ 

(Observe the doubling of the final -g when a termination is added.) 

Xix 3Jlonat, the month : Sing. n. a. 9Jionat, g. 93^onat(c)0, 
D. 5Ronat(c) ; Plur. n. g. a. 5)lonatc, d. 9Jionatcn. 

^a§ '^o^x, the year : Si?ig. n. a. ^a^x, G. 3a^i(c)5, d. 3ii'^r(e) ; 
Plur. n.g. a. 3af)rc, d. Jafjrcn. 

2^er Sl^felbaum, the apple-tree: Sing. n.a. 2(^fel6aum, g. 
2r^felbaum(e)§, d. 2(pfel6aum(c) ; Plur. n. g. a. 2(pfe(bdume, d. 

(Observe that in compounds only the last component is varied, and is 
declined as when standing alone). 


Examples : 
12 1 2 

I. Has the dog meat? 2. Which man is old? 
§at ber§unb gleifc^? 2BeId;er 2)?ami ift alt? 

34 LESSON VII. [§23 

12 12 8 

3. Who is in the garden? 5. What has the teacher ? 
SSer ift inbem@arten? ^:^a^ hat ber Scorer? 

12 3 12 8 

4. Where is my father ? 6. When was the pupil here ? 
2Bo ift meinSSater? !Sann iuar ber ©d)uler ^ier? 

Observe from these examples : 

1. That the construction of Direct Interrogative Sentences 
is exactly the same in German as in English, as far as the 
position of Verb and Subject is concerned. 

2. That in both languages the question-word always begins 
the sentence. 


(An Asterisk (*) after a word signifies that the plural has Umlaut.) 

Tuesday, ^ten^'tag marsh, swamp, bet ©urn^f * 

enemy, bcr geinb day, ber ^ag-^o-si . f 

finger, ber Jtrtger carpet, ber ^e^^td^O' 

Friday, Jrei'tag curtain, ber 3]or'fHing * U 

foot, ber gu^ * week, bie 3Bo(f)e 

general, ber ©eneral' room, ba§ 3^^^^^ 
young man, youth, ber giing^lincj thirty, bret^ig 

emperor, ber ^aifer five, fiutf 

acquirements, bie ^enntniffe long, lang 

king, ber ^onig new, neu 

Wednesday, ber Wl'xWWo^ magnificent, prdd^tig 

Monday, ber 9JZon'tag red, rot 

officer (military) ber Dffi^ier' seven, fieben 

town, city, bic Stabt* white, lt)et§ 

Sunday, ber Sonn'tag where, \vo ? 

Saturday, I ^^^ <2onn'abenb, twelve, ^molf 
' ( or ©am^'taa 



A. 1. ©in '^a^x ^at gtuolf 5[Ronale unb in jebem ^IRonat finb 
breifeic3 ^Ta^e. 2. ^ie §dnbe biefcr ?D^dbd;cn finb flein. 3. 2)ie 
©drten m biefen Stdbten tourben jm griibling fc^on. 4. ^ie 
^^age finb im Sommer lang, aber im 2Sinter luerben fie !ur§ unb 
fait. 5. ^ie 93lutter meine^ greunbe§ toar geftern in ber Stabt. 
6. $Die ^enntniffebe^ Se^rergfinb gro§. 7. 2)ie 53orf)dnge biefe^S 
3immer§ finb tueig, aber bie 2^e^^id^e finb rot. 8. ®ie 6cbtodger 
biefer Dffijiere finb ©enerale. 

B. 1. The horses and dogs of this young man are hand- 
some. 2. We have two feet and two hands, and each hand 
has five fingers. 3. The emperor and the king were enemies, 
but now they are friends. 4. These trees are old, but they 
are still beautiful. 5. The curtains and carpets in this room 
are new and magnificent. 6. Every week has seven days: 
Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, 
Saturday. 7. The sons are tall, but the father is not quite 
so tall. 8. The funeral of the king was magnificent. 9. My 
father has two apple-trees in his garden. 10. Where are the 
frogs ? In the spring they are in the marshes. 


1. Wo waren die Briider seiner Mutter gestern ? 2. Sind 
die Vorhange weisz oder rot ? 3. Was hat sein Vater im 
Garien ? 4. Wer war gestern in der Stadt ? 5. Wessen 
»Schwager sind Ofiiziere ? 6. Welche sind die Tage dei 
Wbche ? 





CONJUGATION OF l^oku, to have. - PLACE OF 

24. Paradigm of l^oBctt, to have. 

Principal Parts. 
Pres. Infin. Babcn Impf. Indic. ^atit Past Part. gcl^aBt 




{^ f)aBc, I have 

ic^ f)Qbc, I (may) have, etc. 

bu I;aft, thou hast 

bu Ifiabcfl 

er l^at, he has 

er Eiabc 

h)tr ^aBcn, we have 

mir baben 

i^r l^abt, ye have 

if)r ^abct 

fie l^abcn, they have 

fie F)abctt 


iii) i)atk, I had 

id) ^iittc, I had (might have), 

bu ^attcft, thou hadst bu ^dtteft [etc. 

er fjatte, he had 

er ^atte 

h)ir F)atten, we had 

mx hatUn 

if)r ^atlct, ye had 

i^r ^attet 

fie fatten, they had 

fie biitten 



of f)aben + P. Part.) 

I have had, etc. 

I (may) have had, etc. 

ic^ ^abe 

ic^ f?abe 

bu f)aft 

bu Fiabeft 

er l^at 
h)ir f)a6en 

^ gc^aBt 

er IjaU 
h)ir baben 


i^r l^abt 

t^r \)ahit 

fie f^aben , 

fie \}ahm , 







(Imperf. of ^abeu + P. Part.) 


I had had, etc. 
ic^ hatU 
bu Batteft 
er hatU 
'mix flatten 
i^r ^attet 
fie fatten 

I had (might have) had, etc. 


ic^ (idtte 
bu bdtteft 
er Bdtte 
h)ir f)dtten 
i^r l^dtlet 
fte batten 
(Pres. of tocrUcn -|- Infin. of I)aben.) 
I shall have, etc. I shall have, etc. 


\d) hjcrbe 
bu iDCrbcft 
er ircrbc 
xbx ir»erbet 
fie iuerben 

Future Perfect. 
(Future of t)abcn + P. Part.) 
I shall have had, etc 
ic^ toerbe 
bu njirft 

id^ tticrbc 

bu it?irft 
er h?irb 
if)r tt^erbet 
fiehjerben ^ 


er itiirb 
\v\v tDerben 
i^r toerbet 
fie iDerben 

I shall have had, etc. 
ic^ toerbe 

gc^aBt f^ahtn 

bu it?erbcft 
er iDcrbc 
njtr irerben 
\hx toerbet 
fie iperben 

gc^ttfit ^nhtn 

(Impf. Subj. of rtjerben -f Infin. 
of f)aben.) 
I should have, etc. 
id) miirbe ) 


buipilrbeft > 


(Simple Cond. of ^oben 
I should have had, etc. 
ic^ iDiirbe ) 
bu ipiirbeft ) 


gc^abt §Q6en 

3o LESSON VIII. [§§25- 

er toiirbe ] er ttjiirbe l 

i^r iDiirbct j ^ i^r iDiirbet j ^ ^ ^ 

fte iDurben J fte irurben J 

Imperative. Infinitive. 

haht (buX have (thou) (gu) ^aben, (to) have 

l^abt (ibr), have (ye) QCl^ttbt (^u) baben, (to) have 

PRES. babcnb, having Past, gc^abt, had. 

25. Use of Auxiliaries of Tense. — i. ^aBcn forms 
the perfect tenses of all transitive and most intransitive 
verbs precisely as above. 

In any verb not conjugated with fetn (see 4, below) : 

The Present of baben + P. Part, of any verb form the 
Perfect of that verb. 

The Imperfect of {jaben + P. Part, of any verb form the 
Pluperfect of that verb. 

2. 99Bcrbm forms the Future and Simple Conditional 

^** The Present of it)erben-f-Infin. of any verb form the 

— The Imperf. Subj. of trcrben + Infin. of any verb form 

the Simple Conditional. 

3. The Future of ^aben + P. Part, of any verb (not con- 
jugated with fcin) form the Future Perfect. 

The Simple Conditional of baben + P. Part, of any 
verb (not conjugated with fein) form the Compound Con- 

4. 3cin replaces habzn in the Perfect Tenses of many 
Intransitive Verbs. (See § 53.) Compare the English 'He 


26. Construction of Compound Tenses. — Place 
OF Participle and Infinitive. 

Rule of Co7istructio7i. — In every principal sentence the 
Participle and Infinitive come at the end ; but if both be 
present, the Participle precedes the Infinitive, which is always 
last, as : 


2 3 4 



{Engl.) My teacher 

has had money. 


2 3 4 



{Ger7?i.) Wixxi Se^rcr 

f)at G3elb gc^Bt. 

1 2 

3 4 



{Eng/.) We shall 

have a storm. 

1 2 

3 4 



{Ger?n.) 23 ir toerben 

einen 3turm ^Bcn. 


2 345 



{Engl.) The beggars 

would have had no shoes. 


2 3 4 5 


{Germ) ^ie Settler h)iirben feine Scf^uBe gc§tt6t ^tt6cn. 

Remember : In compound tenses, the auxiliary is the 
verb, and occupies the second place in a principal sen- 
tence (see § 20, Rule i, above). 


evening, ber 2l'6enb money, ba§ ©elb 

beggar, ber Settler guest, ber ©aft* 

holiday, ber gei'ertag harbour, ber §afen* 

fish, ber Jifc^ glove, ber ^anb'fcf'u^ '^^^ 

fruit, bie ^nicf^t* basket, ber ^orb* 

fox, ber 5ucf)g * nut, bie 9tu6 


40 LESSON VIII. [§§26^ 

to be right, dlcd)t \)aUn out of, au^o (gov. dat.) 

sailing-ship, ha<% ^Se'gclf^njf to become of, cin^.. . toerben 

chair, bcr Stut^I * poor, arm 

storm, bcr ©turm * bad, fdBIed^t 

stocking, ber Strum^f* to-morrow, morgen 

shoe, ber Bd}\ii) _, the day after to-morrow, u'bers 

table, bcr 2\\d),J morgen 

animal, ba§ ^ier much, Diel 

to be wrong, lln'vcd^t F)aben already, fd^on 

pleasure, ba^5 S^ergnitgcn when, Wann ? 

wolf, ber SSoIf * 


A. 1. '^d) ^abe met G)elb Q^i)aht, aber je^t bin \d) arm. 2. 
®ie griidite iuerben im §erb[t reif. 3. 2Birb bcr ^nabe einen 
2\]d) unb 3tu^lc in feincm 3i"i^"^i^ hahiw ? 4. gfjre §anbfd)ut»e 
iDurbcn fcblccf)t> bcnn fie traren fc^on alt. 5. (5§ iff angcnebm, 
greunbe ju ^aben. 6. 3Ba§ itmrbe au§ bem (gof^ne be§ 2el)rcr§? 
©r iDuvbc and) 2cf>rcr. 7. 3d) tt>crbe ^cinbe unb md) grcunbe 'i)ahtn. 
8. ^ie ©dftc in unfercr ®tabt njurbcn iniibe, benn bag SSctter 
luar fe^r l)ei|. 9. 2Bcrbcn n)tr Stc|)^id)e unb 35orl)dnge in unfcrm 
gimmcrbabcn? 10. ©r Batte grcunbe gebabt. 11. ®ie U^crben 
in bicfem Saf^re bid 33crgnugen gc!)abt I;abcn. 12. 3)ie 6of)ne 
bc§ ^5nig§ F)aben ^fcrbe unb Sagen, aber bie 2:oc^tcr be§ 33ctt= 
Icr§ baben feine (gd^u^c unb feine Strum^fe. 13. 2Bir l^attcn 
9ftcd>t gcbabt, aber cr E)atte Unred^t Qt'i^aht. 14. Wat meinen 
grcunben ^aU \d) bid 3>crgnugen gel)abt. 15. Unfere greunbe 
tbcrben gcftern bid ^ergniigen gcl^abt ^aben, benn ba§ SBettertbar 
fd^on unb ibarm. 

B. 1. The sailing-ships are in the harbour. 2. We had 
thirty fishes in our baskets. 3. He would have friends. 4. 
The evening was fine, but the weather became cold. 5. We 
have had two storms. 6. Where are our guests ? They became 
tired and are now in the garden. 7. To-morrow we shall have 

3l] PARADIGM OF lobcU. 4I 

a holiday, for it is Saturday. 8. We were in the garden 
yesterday, and the trees are already green. 9. What has he 
had? He has had apples and nuts. 10. Dogs, wolves, and 
foxes are animals. 


1. Wer hatte Recht und wer hatte Unrecht ? 2. Wann 
vverden wir einen Feiertag haben ? 3. Wo sind die Segel- 
schiffe? 4. Wessen Sohne haben Wagen und Pferde? 5. 
Warum wurden die Gaste miide ? 6. Welche Gemaide sind 



27. The stem of a verb is what is left when the termina- 
tion of the Present Infinitive (-cit or -n) is dropped, as : 
bab-cn, stem ^ab ; Io6-en, stem [06. 

28. The Principal Parts of a verb are the Present In- 
finitive, Imperfect Indicative, and Past Participle. 

29. Any verb, when these principal parts are given, may 
be conjugated throughout, by using the auxiliaries, precisely 
as in the paradigm of hahtn in Less. VIII. 

30. Weak verbs are those which form the Imperfect 
by adding -it, and the Past Participle by prefixing gc- and 
adding -t to the stem, as: lob-ert, to praise (stem (06), 
Imperfect loMc, P. Part. gc-Iob-t ; tabel-it, to blame (stem 
tabcf), Imperf. tabcl-te, P. Part, gc-tabel-t. 

Note. — Weak verbs are also called Regular or Modern. 

31. Paradigm of (o6cn, to praise. 

Principal Parts. 
pRES. Infin. lobcn Impf. Ixdic. lobtc Past Part, gelobt 

42 LESSON IX. t§3^ 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


id} lobe, I praise (am praising, \<i) lobe, I (may) praist 

do praise) 

bu (ob ve)P, thou praisest, etc. bu lobefl, thou (mayest) praise 

cr Iob(e)t, he praises er lobe, he (may) praise 

it)ir lobcn, we praise \v\x (oben, we (may) praise 

ibr Iob(e)t, ye praise t^r lobet, ye (may) praise 

fxe loben, they praise fie loben, they (may) praise 


(Same form for both moods.) 

tcf) lobte, 1 praised (was praising, etc.) 

bu lobtefl, thou praisedst 

er lobte, he praised 

W\x lobten, we praised 

il^r lobtct, ye praised 

fie lobten, they praised 

(Pres. of t)abeu + P. Part of loben.) 
ic^ \)aU gelobt, I have praised (been \^ l)aU gelolt 

bu ^aft gelobt, thou hast praised, etc. bu l^abeft gelobt^ K. 

(Imperf. of I)abcn + P. Part. loben.) 

td^ f)atte gelobt, I had praised (been id^ ^'dtit gelo^t, K. 
praising), etc. 

(Present of tuerlJen 4- infin. of loben.) 
ic^ hjerbe loben, 1 shall praise (be id) h)erbe loben 

bu toirft loben, thou wilt praise, etc. bu toerbeft loben, JC. 

§ 3i] PARADIGM OF loben. 43 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Future Perfect. 

(Future of ^obeit + P- Part, of loben.) 

ic^ trerbe gelobt bahcn, I shall have ic^ iDerbe gelobt Fjaben 


bu icirft gelobt baben, thou wilt have bu U)erbeft gelobt 

praised, etc. ^aben, 2C. 

Simple. Compound. 

(Impf. Subj. of merben + Infin. (Simple Cond. of ^aben + P. Part, 

of (oben.) of lobeu.) 

id^ tDiirbe iohtn, I should ic^ iuiirbe getofit l^aben, I should 
praise(be praising) etc. have praised, etc. 

Imperative. Infinitive. 

Icbe (bu), praise (thou) (§u) lobcn, (to) praise, 

lobe er, let him praise Qclofit (^u) ^aben, (to) have 

loben mir, let us praise praised 

lobt (ibr), praise (ye) 
loben fie, let them praise 

Fres. tobenb, praising I^asf. gclobt, praised 

Remarks. — i. c is sometimes found in the terminations of 
the following parts : Pres. Ind. bu Iob(c)ft, er lob(c)t, ibr (ob(e)t ; 
Impf. (Ind. and Subj.) icb (ob(e)te, etc. ; P. Part. getob(e)t, etc. ; 
and is always retained in certain verbs. (See § 35, Rem. 2, 

2. Note again the persistent e of the Pres. Subj. 

3. English periphrastic forms of the verb are to be avoided 
in German ; thus : 

I praise \ (praise I ?) \ 

I am praising >- td^ lobe am I praising ? > (obe ic^ ? 

I do praise • ) do I praise ? ) 

44 LESSON IX. [§§31- 


(he praised not) ^ ^^ j^^^^ (praised he not?) ^ ^^^^^ 

he was not praising V ..^ was he not praising? > 

he did not praise J did he not praise ? J ^ * 

I have been praising, etc., x6) ^aU gelobt, etc. 

Had I been praising? l^atte id) ^eloH? 

4. The only true Imperative forms are those of the 2. sing. 

and 2. plur., Iol>e, lebt. For the other persons, the pres. subj. 

is used, as : loBe er, let him praise ; Icben iinr, let us praise ; 

loBcn fie, let them praise ; — the verb preceding the pronoun. 

Construction of Dependent Sentences. 

32. The Verb in a Dependent Sentence comes /asf^ as: 

3^ Qlanbe, baf er (Selb §at^ 
I believe that he has money. 

Remember : that the auxiliary is the verb in compound 

33. In compound tenses the Participle and Infinitive 
immediately precede the verb ; if both be present, the Parti- 
ciple precedes, as in principal sentences, thus : 

3c^ glaube, ba^ er (l)elb ge^aBt 1^at, 

I believe, that he has kad money. 

3c^ gtauk, bag er ®elb f^ahtn tt?trb, 

I believe that he will /lave money. 

3(^ glauBe, bag er ®e(b gel^obt ^aBeit ti?trb, 

I believe that he will have /lad money. 

Note. — The place of the Subject, in a Dependent Sentence, is 
usually the same as in English. 

34. Preposiiions governing the Accusative only. 

©i§, Wr^, fiir, 0^9^"^ ^^^^^^ ^wt^ lt)ibcr» 

BiS^ (i) till, until (time), as: I shall not come until to- 
morrow (Ms morgen). 



(2) up to, as far as {place), as : He travelled with us 
as far as (M0) Montreal. 

bur^/ through ; as : He rode through the forest (iJUtJ^ 
ben 2Balb). 

filr, for; as: That is for my friend (fixr metnen greunb); 
the scissors are not a toy for children (fur ^inber). 

QCgcn^ towards, against (not necessarily denoting hos- 
tility), as: The enemy advanced towards (or 
against) the bridge (gcgcn bie 53riic!e). 

Ol^nc, without ; as : We cannot travel without money (ol^ne 

urn, (i) around, about; as: We drove around the town 
(um bie 6tabt). 

(2) at, about (time)^ as : He came at four o'clock 
(um bier U^r); it happened at (or about) 
Christmas (um 23ei^rta(f»ten). 
toibcr, against {opposition, hostility), as : He swam against 

the stream i^toiber ben 2trom>; the soldiers were fighting 

against the enemy (ttJlbct ben geinb). 

* Remark. — ^iircb, fiir, and um are generally contracted 
-»-th the Neuter of the unemphasized Definite Article, thus: 

burd^ bag = burt§0 (burc^'g) 

fiir ba§ = fiirg (fiir'g) 

um ba§ = um§ (um'§) 


believe, glauben love, Iteben 

hope, fjoffen make, do, vaa^^n 

buy, faufen say, fagen 

laugh, lac^en send, fdBiifen 

live, leben play, fpielen 

learn, lemen sell, berfaufen 

46 LESSON IX. [§§34- 

vveep, cry, hjeincn place, square, ber ^la^ "^ 

bishop, bcr 33i'idiof * ring, ber Dting 

German, ^cutfd) walk, ber ©^agier'gang * 

servant, ber Wiener time, bie ^dt 

industry, diligence, ber glei^ good, kind, gut 

young lady. Miss, ba§ Jrdulein merry, merrily, lufttg 

cardinal, bcr ^arbinal sad, trauricj 

noise, ber Sarm that (conj.), ba^ 

Latin, ba§ Satein because, meil 

palace, bcr ^ala'ft* if, iuenn 

pope, ber "^apft * why, h)arum' ? 

Idiom: to take a walk, eintn Spajtcrgang ma^tn. 

Note. — A past tense after Xmnn ('if') is put in the subj. mood. 


A, 1. 'J)te ^arbinale unb ^^i)cf)5fe iuaren geftern im $alaflc 
bc§ ^a^fteg. 2. ®a§ ^rdulein Knrb biefe 9iinge faufen, benn fie 
finb fc^on. 3. 3;^er ^JlaUv iDurbe bicfe^ ©emcilbe tiic^t ijerfaufen. 
4. 3c^ iviirbe biefen D^irtg faufen, toenn icf) veicf) irdre. 5. §at er 
e§ gegtaubt ? @r f^at e§ geglaubt, hjctl fein ^^ater e§ gefagt bat. 
6. Dk BMUx haUn mel Sdrm gcmacf^t. 7. 9Sir loben ben 
Siingling, toeil er flei^ig ift. 8. S^er ^onig ivirb feine ©ene^ 
rale gegen ben getnb fd^icfen. 9. ^eine ©c^hjefter it)irb ^anbs 
f^ul)e faufen, benn ibre §anbfdBuf)e finb fd^Ietl^t. 10. SBir tDiirben. 
ijeute eincn ©^agiergang bur^) bie (Slabt mcd)en, tuenn ba§ Setter 
fct^on njdre. 11. Ste toiirben audB cinen ©^ajiergang gemac^t 
baben, tpenn fie ^txt ge^abt F)dtten. 12. ©ie imrb fagen, bag id; 
9iecbt t)abe. 13. -3d) ^abe immcr gef;offt, baJ3 er lernen iuiirbe. 
14. ©ie Uebt if)ren Skater unb tbre 9Jlutter, benn fie finb gut. 15. 
Gr hjiirbe ba§ ©emalbe ntcbt gelobt baben, benn e§ irar nic^t fd^on. 

B. 1. What were they doing yesterday ? They were playing 
in the garden. 2. This gentleman will praise his servants, 
for they are industrious. 3. We have taken a walk about 




the town. 4. The squares in those cities are very fine. 5. 
Where were the daughters of the officers ? They were living 
in a convent. 6. Without industry we shall not learn much. 
7. The boy was playing with the dog. 8. The gentleman has 
sold his horses and carriages. 9. What are the young ladies 
doing now? 10. Why was she cr^ung.'* She was crying 
because she was sad. 11. They are laughing because they 
are merry."" 12. We shall have learned much in a week. 13. 
I am laughing because the child is playing so merrily. 14. 
To-day we are learning German, to-morrow we shall learn 
Latin. 15. We have bought shoes and stockings for the 


1. Weshalb hat sie gelacht? 2. Wer machte so viel Larm?- 
3. Wo haben die Fraulein einen Spaziergang gemacht .'' 4. 
Was hat die Frau gekauft ? 5. Weshalb hat seine Schwester 
Handschuhe gekauft ? 6. Was werden wir morgen machen ? 


— 3)orf MODEL, OR PLURAL IN -Ct. 

35. Endings of Weak Verbs in Simple Tenses. 






Ind. andSubj. 

Sing. 2. — C 

Sin£^. 1. — c 

— c 


/"/ur. 2. — (e)t 

2. -(C)ft 




3. -(e)t 

— e 



p/ur. I. —en 

— en 

— (e)tcn 


2. -(e)t 

— et 


Pres. — enb 

3. —en 



/"ast. ge-(e)t 

48 LESSON X. [§§35- 

Remarks. — i. Observe the following endings : 

(a) Final -t of the 3. sing, occurs on/y in the Pres. Indic. 

(b) The 2. sing, has -ft except in the Imperative. 
{c) The 2. plur. has -t throughout. 

2. Verb-Stems in -b or-t (t^), or in -m or -n preceded by 
another consonant, retain -c throughout after the stem, as : 

reben, to speak. 
Pres. Ind. Imperfect. Imperatr^e. 

Sing. 2. bu rebcft Sing. 1. id) rebcte Plur. 2. rebct (i^r) 

3. er rebct 2. bu rebcteft 

/^/ur. 2. t(;r rebct etc. 

Thus : arbetten, to wcyk : id) arbeitete ; atmen, to breathe : 
bu almcft ; rcgnen, to rain : e§ regnct. 

3. Verb-Stems in a sibilant (5, ft^, §, y, 3) retain -t in the 
2. sing. Pres. Ind. and Subj. only, as : 

tauten, to dance : bu tanjcft ; reifen, to travel : bu reifeft. 

4. Verb-Stems in -el and -cr drop c of the stem before 
terminations in -c (i. e. in i. sing. Pres. Ind., i. and 3. sing. 
Pres. Subj., and 2. sing. Imper.), and, except in the Subjunc- 
tive^ never insert c after \ or n, as : 

tttbcln, to blame. 

Pres. Ind. Pres. Subj. Imperfect. 

id) table table \6) tabelte, etc. 

bu tabelft tableft Imperative. 

er tabelt table table 

\o\x tabeln tablen tabelt 

x^i tabelt tablet P. Part. 

fie tabeln tablen getabelt 

5. Foreign verbs in -iereit (-irett) do not take the prefi< 
ge- in the P. Part., as : ftub-icrcn, to study : P. Part, ftubied 


37] - DECLENSION : ^CVf MODEL. 49 

(not ge-ftubiert; ; bombarbieren, to bombard : P. Part, bom: 

6. Verbs with the prefixes ht-, er-, cm^-, cnt-, gc-, tier-, 

jcr- also omit the prefix £C- in the P. Part., as : ht^ahUn, 
^TPart. bcjablt; tJerfcbtt>enben, licrfcbirenbet. 

36. Declension of tas ^BXJ, the village. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ba§ ^orf, the village bie ^iirfet, the villages 

Gen. bes u^orfre)^5, of the bcr ^iirfer, of the villages 

village ^— 

Dat. bem 2^crf(e), (to, for) ben ^brfetn, (to, for; the 

the village villages 

Ace. bas ^orf, the village bie ^iirfcr, the villages 

Remarks. — i. The Singular is formed precisely as in the 
So^n model, (See § 21.) 

2. Observe -cr of the Plural, with the additional -n of the 

3. All Substantives of this Declension with a, 0, u or au 
in the stem take Umlaut. 

37. In this way are declined : 

1. Most neuter mo nosylla bles (exceptions in App.E.). 

2. Substantives ending in -t(^)um. 

3. Five neuters with prefix (5)e-, viz. : 

ba§ ©emacb, the apartment ba^3 ©efpenft, the spectre 

ba§ Q5emut, the temper, dis- ba§ (^ctranb, the garment 

position (also ©efic^t ; see § 64) 
ba^ C^efcblecbt, the sex 

4. Two foreign neuters, viz. : bae 9?egiment, the regiment; 
bas §ofpitaI (or Spital;, the hospital. 

50 LESSON X. I§37 

5. The following 7iine masculines : 

ber 53Dl\ncid^t, the villain beu 5?aub, the edge, margin 

bcr ©eift, the spirit ber 33ormunb, the guardian 

ber ©Ptt, the God ber JS? alb, the forest 

ber Seib, the body ^er Surm, the worm 

ber 9)iann, the man, (also Tern, Crt; see App. 

husband (Lat. 7//-) E.) 

Further examples (Sing, like 3of)ri) : 

SDa§ ®cf|lo§, the castle, palace: Plur. x. g.a. Srf)lbffcr. 
D, Sd^loffcnt. 

^a§ ^^ud\ the book : Plur. x. g.a. 53ucf)er, d. 53ucf)ern. 

®er 9Ji.ann, the man, husband : Plur, n. g. a. ^Riinner, d 

^a§ ^tnb, the child : Phir. x. g.a. ^inbcr, d. ^inbent. 

^a§ ijautt, the house : Plur. x. g. a. §ttufcr, d. §dufem. 


to row, rubem . child, ba€^nb 

shake, fd)iitte(n dress, ba^5 ^leib ^ 

waste, t)erlc^h:enben clothes, pi. of ^(eib 

exercise, task, bie Slufgabe song, bog gieb 

leaf, ba§ 33Ialt courage, spirit, ber 5Rut 

^^g, bas (fi woman, wife, ba g 3Beib 

possession, property, ba§ yellow, geI6 

(rigentum enough, genug 

earth, bie (Erbe \vell (adv.), gut 

gardener, ber ©drtner a long while, lange 

fowl, bag §uf;n too, ju 


A. 1. 5m §erbft itjerben bie flatter gelb, benn bag ^Better iji 
!alt. 2. %^ table biefe 3)ldbAen, \m\\ fie ifjre Slufgabe nic^t 
ftubiert \j^^xi. 3. 3m ©inter ftubierten bie g unglin ^e ; im 

§ 37] DECLENSION : ^Orf MODEL. 5 I 

(Sommer arbeiteten fte. 4. „®u ruberft rticbt frfineH genug, mein 
33ruber," Jagte ic^. 5. :l)iefe -DJMnner lieben i^re 3Bei6er unb 
^inber. 6, ^er Sel^rer fagte, ba§ bie ^inber gu i)iel Sdrm mac^ten. 

7. ^er ^onig rebete mit ben ©eneralen, unb lobte ben Tint i^rer 
Diegimenter. 8. ^ie SSormiinber biefer ^inber finb 33ofeh?t(^ter, 
benn fie ^aben ba§ ©igentum ber ^inber t>erfc^h?enbet. 9. 2)ie 
2Bunner leben in ber (Srbe, aber bie i^i^d)^ leben im 2Bafjer. 10. 
2Bo ftnb bie @ier ber §u^ner ? ©ie finb in unferen ^orben. 11. 
gd^ tDerbe mube, Wdl id) gegen ben ©trom rubre. 12. ®er ^aifer 
^at bie ©enerale getabelt, aber if>re S^tegimenter {)at er gelobt. 

B. 1. The general has bombarded the town. 2. The 
woman was buying books and clothes for her children. 3. 
The gardener is shaking the apple-tree. 4. The children 
were learning songs. 5. The boy is industrious; he has 
studied well. 6. The apartments of the palaces are magni- 
ficent. 7. It rained yesterday, but it will not rain to-day. 

8. We have rowed a long while against the stream. 9. These 
men travelled through towns and villages. 10. The hospitals 
in London are large and fine. 11. The leaves of these trees 
are large and beautiful. 12. This gentleman would buy my 
houses, if he had money enough. 


1. Weshalb werden die Blatter gelb? 2. Wessen Regi- 
menter hat der Konig getadelt ? 3. Was sagte der Lehrer ? 
4. Wo leben die Wiirmer ? 5. Was lernten die Kinder.'* 6. 
Wiirde dieser Herr das Haus kaufen ? 





38. Declension of Personal 


First Person. 

Second Person. 

Si?ig. N. ic^, I 

bu, thou 

G. meiner (mein), of me 

beiner (bein), of thee 

D. mir, (to, for) me 

bir, (to, for) thee 

A. mic^, me 

bid), thee 

Plur. N. toir, we 

t^r, ye, you 

G. unfer (unfrer), of us 

euer (eurer), of you 

D. un§, (to, for) us 

cud^, (to, for) you 

A. un^, us 

^\x6:), you 

Third Person. 






N. er, he 

fie, she 

e§, it 

(ALL genders). 

G. femer(fein). 

i^rer (i^r). 

feiner (fein. 

of him 

of her 

e§), of it 

D. if)mXto,for) 

\hx, (to, for) 

i^mXto, for ) 

fic^, (to, for) himself, 




herself, itself 

A. i(;n, him 

fie, her 

e§, it 

fic^, himself, herself, 


N. fte, they 
G. i^rer (i^r), of them 
D. i^nen, (to, for) 



A. fie, them J 

Remarks.— i. The forms mein, bein, fein, \^x, unfrer, eurer 
are poetical or archaic. 

2 The form e§ of the 3. sing. gen. neuter is only used in cer- 
tain phrases, as : gcf^ bin eg miibe, I am tired of it. 

fic^, (to, for) them- 
fid), themselves 

39] IDOMATIC USES OF e§. 53 

3. The gen. and dat. of the 3. sing, neuter do not occur, 
except when referring to persons (e. g. 5[Rdbd^en, Jrdulein). 

4. The Pronouns of the 3. sing, must agree in gender with 
the substantive to which they refer, as : 

§aft bu ben §ut ? 3a, id) ^abe i§n. 

Hast thou the hat ? Yes, I have it. 

§aft bu bic ^(ume? 92ein, ic^ Babe ftc md^t. 

Hast thou the flower ? No, I have it not. 

So ift ba§ 931dbc^en? ®0 ift im ©arten. 
Where is the girl ? She is in the garden. 

.^ 5. The Pronouns of the 3. person are 7iot us ed after F repo- 
sitions, ivhen referring to inanimate objects^ but are replaced 
by the adverb btt(r), there, before the Preposition, the x being 
inserted if the Preposition begins with a vowel, as : 

53ift bu mtt biefcm ©U(§c sufrieben? %<\, tc^ bin bamtt 

gufrieben. Art thou satisfied with this book ? Yes, I 

am satisfied with it {therewith). 
How much did you pay for this hat ? I paid two dollars 

for it, bofiir {therefor). 
What have you in your purse ? I have money in it 

(barin, there'm), 

39. Idiomatic Uses of c§. 

I. Before the verb, representing the real subj ect, which 
follows the verb, and with which the verb agrees, as : 

Who is it ? It is my cousin ; it is my cousins. 
2Ber ift ti ? (^6 ift mein ^Setter ; Cy finb meine "^^iiitm. 
\% leuc^tct bie ©onne, the sun shines, i. e., it is the sun 
that shines. 

@^ leuc^tcn bie Sterne, (it is) the stars (that) shine. 

54 LESSON XI. [§§39 

Remark. — @§ in this construction is often rendered by 
* there ' in English, as : 

There is a bird in this cage. 
(f0 ift ein 3SogeI in biefem 33auer. 
There are three books on this table. 
(?0 finb brei Sucf)er auf biefem ^ifc^. 
(See also e§ giebt. Less. XXXVII.) 

2. When the real subject represented by c§ is a personal 
pronoun, with the verb to be, ec^ follows the verb, which 
agrees with the real subject in person and number, as *. 

It is I, 

3c^ Bin eg. 

c ^u Jifi e§. 

It is you, 

-] 3F)r fcib e§.— 

( ©ie finb e§.^ 

It is we, _ 

— ft)ir finb e§. 

It is they. 

fie finb e§. - 

Is it you ? 

finb (Ste e§?— 

3. After the verb, representing a predicate or a clause, 
and corresponding to the English 'one' or 'so,' as: 

Is your father a soldier ? Yes, he is one (e0). 
We are free, and you shall be so (cS) too. 

40. Use of Pronouns in Address. 

I. ^n is used only in addressing persons with whom we 
are very intimate, or towards whom we use no ceremony: 
also in addressing the Supreme Being, as ; 

So bift btt, lieber ?3^rcunb? 
Where are you, dear friend? 

SSag marf)ft bu, mein ^inb? 
What are you doing, my child? 

2Bir loben ^ij^, ©ott ! We praise Thee, o God ! 

(A/ coo. •C-.-tA^ »-- " ' >' '~''iA-^>ya-e.^i^^ 

/^ h' / 




2. 3^r (plur. of bu) is used in addressing a number of per- 
sons, each of whom we should address by bu, as : 

2Ba§ macf)t i^r, ^inber? 

What are you doing, children? 

3. In all other cases we use for 'youj in German, whether 
sing, or plur., the pronoun of the ThirdJPlural : Sie, 3^rcr, 
3§ncn, Sie, distinguished by a capital letter, (See also 
§ 43.) ^ 

41. Paradigm of (oBcn with Reflexive Pronouns. 

Present Indicative. 

Sing. 1. ic^ lobe mir§, I praise myself 

2. bu lobft bil^, thou praise St thyself 

3. er ) he ) ( himself 
fte Mobt ftt^, 'she upraises ■< herself 
e§ ) .it 3 ( itself 

Plur, 1. itiir loSen lin§, we praise ourselves 

2. x^x lobt cud^, ye praise yourselves 

3. fie loben fi^, they praise themselves 
So throughout the verb, as: 

Perfect : 3c^ ^^^ "tic^ gelobt, bu l^aft btc^ gelobt^ er ^at fid^ 
gelobt, etc. 

42. Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns — fel6jl. 

1. The Pronouns of the First and Second Persons express 
reflexive action without a special form, as shown by the above 
paradigm, but those of the Third Person have the form ft(^. 

2. These pronouns are also used in the Plural to express 
reciprocal action, as : 

^Ve met each other ; they will see each other again, 
2Bir begeguetcn uitfi ; . fie tcerben fii§ toieberfe^en. 

56 LESSON XI. [§4a 

But when, to prevent ambiguity, it is necessary to dis- 
tinguish reciprocal from reflexive action, we use einanbet as 
the reciprocal pronoun for all persons, thus : 

We love each other (one another), 2Bir Iteben etnattber. 
(2Bir licbcn un§ might mean ' we love ourselves.^) 

3. To emphasize and strengthen the reflexive pronouns, 
and give them an exclusive sense, as well as further to distin- 
guish them from reciprocal pronouns, the indeclinable word 
\t\\s\i (or jc(6er) is used, as: 

Know yourselves, ©rfennet eud^ felbfl. 
(©rfennet eU(^ might mean ' know one another.^) 
He has injured himself, 6r \jOX fief) fc(6ft befdj^^^is^* 

Remark. — This word fcIBfi is in apposition to the subject 

(or object, as the case may be), as : 

^er ^omg felBfl tft nid^t immer gliidflid^. 
The king himself is not always happy. 

It is also used adverbially (= Eng. ' even '), as 
Even the king is not always happy. 
Selift ber ^onig ift nic^t immer gliidflic^. 


behave one's self properly (of seat one's self (sit down), jtd^ 

children), articj jein fe^en 

meet, begegnen (dat.) punish, ftrafen 

visit, befudf)en work, labour, bie Slrbeit 

pay, be3af)Ien parents, bie ©Item (no sing.) 

have finished (with), fertig patience, bie ©ebulb 

fein mit gentleman, master, Mr., ber 

belong (to), gefjoren (dat.) hat, bonnet, ber §ut* [§eri 

be ashamed of, fic^ fcf)dmen John, 3of)ann 

(gen.) Charles, ^arl 


artist, ber ^iinftler away, gone, fort 

Mary, 3}?arie here, f)ter 

uncle, ber D'kim ever, at any time, je, jemal^ 

dollar, ber %'i)aUx never, nie, niemal^ 


A. 1. ©ei artig ^arl, bu mac^ft gu mel Sdrm. 2. -3ene 3J?dnner 
finb fef)r reicf), benn biefe §dufer ge^oren il^nen. 3. ©e^ort ba§ 
55ferb "^^mn ? ^^^ein, e§ gefjort mir md)t, e^ ge^ort bent Dffijier. 
4. Unfer D^eim bat un§ Siid^er gefauft. 5. §abt ©ebulb, ^in* 
ber, idf) iuerbe euc^ morgen S^fel unb 9Zufje faufen. 6. ^c^ tt>erbe 
morgen einen ©pajtergang mtt 53^nen mac^en. 7. @r glaubt, bag ic^ 
mir ba§ $ferb gefauft ^db^. 8. SJ^orgen toerben toir einen geiers 
tag ^aben, unb toir irerben unfre ©Item befud^en. 9. 3<^ tr>erbe il^r 
fagen, bag i^re 3Jtutter fort ift. 10. SBaren ©ie jemalg in biefer 
^irc^e? 3d; toar nie barin. 11. ^arl unb ^o^ann begegneten 
fic^ geftem im Salbe. 12. 5ft 3E)r 3Sater no^ Iran!? 9Zein, 
mein 3Sater ift je^t \oobl. 13. 50^arie, liebft bu beine (SItern? 3«, 
unb fie lieben micb auc^. 14. ^d) hJutbe einen S^ajiergang mit 
3()nen macbcn, toenn ic^ ^^\t ^dtte. 15. ^at ber Sel^rer Tlaxk 
getabelt? '^a, er l)at fie getabelt. 16. ®ie Sc^iiter loben fid^ 
felbft, tt)eil fie ifire Slufgabe fo fc^netl gemarf)t baben. 17. Wxx 
iuiirben un§ felbft aud^ loben, ioenn toir unfre SCufgabe gemac^t 
fatten. 18. @r ioiirbe fid^ fd^dmen, )[vznn er mit feiner 5Iufgabe 
nid^t fertig njdre. 19. 2Be§f)aIb loben biefe ^iinftler einanber? 
®ie loben einanber, ttteil if)re ©emdlbe fc^on finb. 20. ©inb 6ie 
mit meiner Strbeit §uf rieben ? 5Zein, i(^ bin nid^t bamit gufrieben. 

B. 1. Is the table large? No, it is small. 2. Her father 
has bought her a ring. 3. Were the fishes in your basket? 
Yes, they were in it. 4. Who has told it [to] her ? 5. John, 
have you my shoes ? No, I have them not. 6. We sit down 
because we are tired. 7. Even the beggars of this city have 
shoes and stockings. 8. Who has bought this hat ? 9. I 
bought it myself in the city, and paid four dollars for it. 10. 

5 ^ 

$8 LESSON XII. [§§43 

Charles and his teacher love each other very much. 11. 
Mother, have you bought me apples or nuts? 12. Mr. A., 
here is a chair for you ; sit down. 13. Has the teacher blamed 
him? Yes, he had not done his exercise. 14. Do you believe 
that this milk is good ? Yes, it is very good. 15. The teacher 
is ashamed of her, because she has not finished (with) her work. 


1. Wiirden sie einen Spaziergang mit mir machen ? 2. 
Weshalb loben Sie sich so viel ? 3. Was sagten Sie mir ? 
4. Sind Sie mit meiner Arbeit zufrieden ? 5. Was werden 
wir morgan machen ? 6. Werden Sie morgan Ihre Eltern 


43. Possessive Adjectives. 

First Person. Second Person. 

6'/>/^. mcin, my bcin, thy 

I'/ur. unfcr, our cucr, your 

Third Person. 


Sing, fctll, his (its) i^r, her (its) fcitt, its I'/ur. i^r, their 
Poss. Adj. of Polite Address : 3§r. 
Remarks. — i. The Possessive Adjectives are the Genitive 
Cases of the respective Personal Pronouns, declined after the 
mcin Model. (SeeTs, above.) 

2. Unfer and euer may drop e of the stem wh^n inflected; 
or they may drop c of the termination, unless the terminaKon 
is -c or -cr, as : unfcre or unfrc ; unfcree, unfrc§ or unfcrg. 

3. Observe the coTrelatives of the Pronouns of Address: 

bu — bcin 
i^r — cuer 
Sic— 5§r 


Thus we say : 

bu baft ticine 5tufga6e gelemt, ) i , ^ 

., ; ' V o ft yQ^ h2i\t learnt your 

i^r ^c^ht eure „ „ ,^^ ^^^^^^ 

^ic baben ^i^xt „ „ ) 

XoTE, — The last example shows the use of the Pars. Pron. and Poss. 
Adj. of Third Plural as Pronoun of Address. 

4. Obser\-e also the correlatives of the Third Person : 
Referring to subst. ?nast. sing. jcilt /whether animate 

" " " fc?n. " i^r ) or inanimate 

*< " " muter " fcin 

" tosubsts. plur.' all genders) i^T 
Thus we say : 

^cr §unb bat fcincn .^nocben terloren (lost) 
^ie 'Slume „ i^re ^Slatter „ 
^05 iBucb „ fcine „ 

5. The possessive adjectives agree in gen der with both the 
possessor and the thing possessed. The ter ?ninai ion will 
depend on the gender (number and case) of the substantive 
they qualify (the thing possessed) ; the stem (as abo\^eJ^n the 
gender of the substantive to which they refer (the possessor). 

Note. — Feminine diminutives, such as: S^aDcften, girl, ^vaulein, young 
lady, generally take the possessive adjective referring to them in the 
feminine, agreeing with the sex rather than the gender, as : 
S)a? 2?ldbc^eu licbt i^rc 2i^iitter. 
The girl loves her mother. 

For Possessive Pronouns, see Less XXIII. 

44. Use of the Articles, 

The Definite Article is required in German, co ntrary to 
English usage, in the following cases : 

I. Before all substantives used in the full extent of 
their signification (i. e. in a 'general as well as in 2i par- 
ticular sense); hence : 

6o LESSON XII. [§44 

{a) Before nouns (sing, or plur.) denoting a whole class, 

^cr 9Jlenfcf> ift fterblidf). Mart is mortal; ^ ^. 
2)ic 3Sogel i^aben 3^efter, Birds have nests. 

{b) Before names of materials, abstract nouns, etc., 
ased in their wilimited sense, not partitively, as : 

2)0§ ©Ia§ ift burd)fic^tig. 

Glass is transparent; 

^tt0 ©olb ift iDcrtuoHer al§ bo§ Silber, 

Gold is more valuable than silver ; but : 

®o(b unb Silver ^abe icf> nid^t 

Gold and silver I have not (have none of). 

2)tc 9Zot ift bie Gutter ber ©rfinbung. 
Necessity is the mother of invention; 

^ic ^ufi! ift eine ^unft. 
Music is an art ; but : 

©r ftubiert iHJufif, 

He studies music (limited sense). 

Note. — In Proverbs and Enumerations this article is omitted, as: 

gijot tcnnt !eiu ©ebot, 

Necessity knows no law; 

2Ruflf unb gjlttlcrci fiUb fd)one tunjle, 

Music and painting are fine arts. 

2. Before names of mountains, lakes, seas, rivers, 
forests, streets, seasons, months and days of the week, 

Set 3^efui), Mount Vesuvius. 

2)er Ontario, Lake Ontario. 

^ie ^f^emfe, the Thames. 

^er ©peffart, the (forest of) Spessart. 

$)ie griebric^ftra^e, Frederick Street. 


3m griiMtng, in spring. 

^cr 3fl"uar ift fait, January is cold 

^m WontaQ, on Monday. 

Also before §iminel, 6rbe, §oIIe, as : 

3m §immel, in heaven ; l^,^ 
gur Grbe, to earth ; 
and before places of public resort, as : 

Qur 6^Ie ge^en, to go to school. _J-- 
3c^ itJar in bcr ^ircf^e, I was at church. 

3. Before names of countries when not neuter, or when 
pre ceded by an adjeciiye, as : 

2)ic (Sd)tt)et3, Switzerland. 

2)o§ fd^one granfreic^, fair France. 

Note. — Further information on the article with Proper Names is 
given in §§ 72^ 74, 76. 

4. The English Indefinite Article is replaced by the Definite 
Article in German when used distributively (= each), as : 

3tt)eimal bes 3^?^i^^^/ twice a year. 

2;rei 3:^aler bie ©He, three dollars a yard. 

5. The Indefinite Article is omitted before the unqualified 
predicate after fein or iuerben, as : 

(5r ift (hjurbe) Solbat, he is (became) a soldier ; , 

@r ift ein tapferer ©olbat, he is a brave soldier. 

6. (^) The Definite Article replaces the Possessive 
Adjective when no ambiguity would result as to the pos- 
sessor, as : 

@r ftedfte btc §anb in bic %^\^t, 
He put his hand into his pocket; 
Gr fc^uttelt ben ^o^f, ' 
He shakes his head. 

62 LESSON XII. [§44 

(^ihin (Sic mir bic §anb. Give me your hand. 
{b) With parts of the gersgn, cl othin g, etc., the D ativ e of 
the Personal Pronoun -|- Definite Article replace the Pos- 
sessive Adjective, as : 

Gin ©tein fiel i^m auf ben ^opf, 
A stone fell on his head ; 

©in 9^agel ^at mir ben Diodf jerriffen, 
A nail has torn my coat. 

Note. — If the subject is the possessor, the r eflexi ve pronoun is 
used, as : ' 

(Sr l)at ft(i^ in beii finger gefd)tutten, He has cut his finger. 


to cost, foften master, ber SJieifter 

hurt, wound, berlc^en Mont Blanc, ber SJiont Slanc 

cry, weep, ioeinen music, bie 3)^ufif 

draw, ^eid^nen coat, ber 9^od * 

doctor, physician, ber Sirjt * Schiller-street, bie ©emitters 

axe, bie 2lrt* ftrage 

mountain, hill, ber Serg tailor, ber 6(f)neiber 

lead-pencil, ber ^leiftift cloth, ba§ 2:ud) 

iron, ba§ ©ifen exercise, practice, bie llbung 

window, bas genfter hot, bci^ 

wing, ber J'liigel light, Ieid)t 

purse, ber ©elbbeutel dear, teuer 

hope, bie §offnung as, when, al§ 

merchant, ber ^aufmann often, oft 

farewell, (ba§) Sebeit)o(;l 


A. 1. llbung macf)t ben 5Jkifter. 2. ®ie 9}iufi! unb bie 9)?alerei 
finb ^iinfte. 3. ^inber, ^abt i^r eure Slufgaben gemad^t? %(x, 
h)ir ^o!ot\\ fie gemacbt. 4. 3)er 93iont ^(anc ift ein 33erg in ber 
ec^toeij. 5. 3ft biefeg %\xi) teuer ? 3a, eg foftet brei 2:f)aler 

§44] USE OF ARTICLES. 6?, 

bie @ae. 6. ^ie TlntUx fc^icft if)re ^inber sur Sc^ule. 7. ijabcn 
(5ie ©olb in 3brem ©elbbeutel ? 3c^ ^abe fein ©olb, aber id) 
l^abe Silber. 8. ©a§ lernt ba§ l^cdbc^en? 3ie lernt ibre 2luf= 
gabe. 9. Xer 'Bater fdnittclte feincm Sobne bie ijanb imb fagte 
if)m Sebehjobl. 10. 2)ie gliigel ber 3SogeI finb fef^r (eic^t imb 
ftar!. 11. §at ber Scbneiber S^^^n Df^ocf nacb ^aufe gefdncft? 
12. Diein, er bat ibn nocb nicbt cjefcbidt, aber er ir>irb if)n morgen 
fcbicfen. 13. Unfere ©Item reiften in ^^eutfc^Ianb unb in ber 
(Scbn^ei^. 14. gm ^uli ift ba^5 ©etter oft febr beij. 15. Xa^ 
©ifen h)irb rot, luenn e§ ^ei§ h)irb. 16. ©(auben Sie, bag ic^ 
^ecbtf)abe? 17. i^arl i^erle^te ficb bie ijanb, al» er mit einer 
2Irt arbeitete. 18. ^dj itiiirbe 3olbat icerben, toenn ic^ alt genug 
hjdre. 19. 2Bir toiirben greunbe ge^abt fiaben, h)enn tr»ir reic^ 
gehjefen iodren. 

B. 1. Gold is yellow, but silver is white. 2. Mar)' is 
studying music and painting. 3. Are your parents still 
living in Frederick-Street ? 4. Xo, they are now living in 
Schiller-Street. 5. Mont Blanc is a mountain in Switzerland. 
6. The girl is crying; she has hurt her hand. 7. Is your 
father a doctor ? Xo, he is a merchant. 8. Glass is trans- 
parent, and we make windows of it . 9. What are you doing 
with your lead-pencil .'' I am drawing a flower with it. 10. 
The emperor is satisfied wdth his generals. 11. I blame you, 
because you are not industrious. 1'2. What are you drawing 
now? I am drawing a bird. 13. Why are you crying, my 
child? 14. The doctor shook his head, for he had no hope. 
15. Would you buy a horse, if you were rich ? 16. Miss B. 
has sent her mother a present. 17. The girl will visit her 


1. 1st das Gold weisz ? 2. Weshalb weint das Madchen? 
3. Werden Sie sich ein Haus kaufen ? 4. Sind Sie Soldat? 5. 
Wo wohnen Sie jetzt ? 6. Was machen Sie mit Ihrem Gelde ? 


64 LESSON XIII. [§§45- 





45. Rules for Position of Objects, Adverbs, etc. 

Rule i. (a) Pronouns first of all, unless governed by 
a preposition, when they come after all other objects, ad- 
verbs, etc. 

(d) Adverbs or Adverbial Expressions of Xime precede 
everything except Pron ouns without Prepositions, thus : 

i ^2 3 4 5 

(Germ.) ^d) fd^icfte if^m gcftern (bicfc 2Bof^e) einen Srief, 

12 3 4 5 

{Engl^ I sent him a letter yesterday (this week); 


12 3 4 5 

{Germ?} ^cf) fc^ic!te gcftcm einen 53rief nn i^n, 

12 3 4 5 

{E?igl.) I sent a letter to him yesterday; 

12 3 4 5 6 

{Germ.) ^cf) ):fohi C0 |eutc meiner 6cf)it)efter gef(f)idt, 

12 3 4 5 6 

{Efigl.) I have sent it to my sister to-day. 

Rule 2. Of NqunSr- persons (unless governed by pre- 
positions) before things, as : 

12 3 4 5 

{Germ?) gcf) frf)ic!te geftern meincm 95otcr einen ©rief, 

12 3 4 5 

{Engl?) I sent my father a letter yesterday; 

12 3 4 5 

{Germ?) Jcf) fcf)ic!te geftern einen ©rief an meinen 35ater, 

12 3 4 5 

{Efigl.) I sent a letter to my father yesterday. 


Rule 3. Of Pronouns, Per sonal before all other Pro- 
nouns, as : 

^ f)aBe i^m ba0 (Demonstr. Pron.) gegeben, 
I have given him that. 
Rule 4. Of Personal Pronouns, Direct Object before 
Indirect Object, as : 

12 3 4 6 

{Germ.) ^c^ ^a6e e§ i§m gegeben, 

12 3 4 6 

{Engl.) I have given it to him. 
Rule 5. Adverbs of place, cause and ??ianner follow ob-^ 
jects in the order named, as : 

^""^ 12 3 4 5 6 7 

{Germ.) @r ^cl\ ba§ ©ut§ 3U §ttufe jc^r flcigig ftubtert, 

12 3 4 5 6 

{Engl.) He has studied the book very diligently 
at home. 

Remember : i. That in compound tenses all these objects, 
adverbs, etc., come between the auxiliary and the participle or 

2. That any of these members of a sentence may occupy the 
first place instead of the subject, especially an adverb of time, 
etc., and that the subject (see § 20, Obs. 2) is then thrown 
after the verb, as : 

1 2 3 4 

(^eftcrn fc^icfte \^ i^m einen 33rief. 

1 2 3 4 5 

2)iefe SSBoi^c fi^itfte ic^ einen 33rief an ibn. 

46. Prepositions governing the Dative only. 

^-^^'/»»^^f' i?-^' '"^^^ [govern the Dative Case. 

0U§, (i) out of {motion), as : He came out of the house (auS 
bem §aufe). 

66 LESSON XIII. [§46 

(2) of {moiii: of), as : This house is built of wood ({iVi^ 


(3) from {prigiii)^ as : He comes from England (ail0 
-— - d'uglanb) ; from the town (au6 bcr (Stabt). 

(4) from {cause) ^ as : I did it from fear (ou^ ^^rd^t). 

au§er^ (i) outside of {rest), as : The table is standing out- 
side of the room (au^cr ^t\Xi "^xmy^tx). 
(2) except, besides, but, as: I had nothing except 
(besides, but) my stick (ou^cr meincni Stocfc). 

bei, (i) (near) by, as : The chair stands (near) by the table 
(bei bem or beim %\\6)i). 

(2) at (the house, etc., of, = Fr. chez), with, as : He 

lives at the house of (or : with) his uncle (or : 
at his uncle's), er itjof^nt Bci feincm Dn!el. 

(3) about (one's person), with, as : I have no money 

about (with) me (bcimir). 

VXXi, with, as : He is coming \vith (along with) his friend 
(mit feinem greunbc) ; he struck the dog with a 
stick (mit eincm ©toc!c). 

natft, (i) after {time ^ or der), as: He arrived after his brother 
(noi^ feincm 53ruber). 

(2) to (with names oi places), as : He is going to Quebec 

(nar^ Quebec) ; to England (nar§ ©nglanb) ; home- 
(wards) (noi^ §aufe). 

(3) according to (often follows its case in this sense), 

as : This is wrong according to my opinion (nttr§ 
meincr ?[Reinung, or meincr ^Jieinuncj ntt(^) . 

^]eit, since, as : He has not been here since the war (feit bcm 
^riegc) ; jcit lj)un bert ga^ cn, for the last hundred 



Hon, (i) from, as : He has just come from dinner {pon bcm, 
tiam ^DHttagseffen). 

(2) of, as : We were speaking of our mother (tJon unferer 


(3) t>y (with personal agent after the passive voice), as : 

Children are loved by their parents (tJOn i^ren 
JU, (i) to {persons), as : He went to his friend, or to his 
friend's (ju feincm greunbc) ; he spoke to me (3U 

(2) to (^places, if not proper names ; see narf», above), as: 

He was going to the town (3U bcr, or jut Stabt). 

(3) at (with proper_j iames o ijowns only), as : He lives 

at Ottawa (ju Dttatra) ; at home (3U §aufe). 

C Remarks. — i. 33ei, ben and j^u (and sometimes au^er) are 
ontracted with the Dative Sing. Masc. and Neuter of the 
unemphasizedT)Q,^m\.Q. Article, thus : bet bem= beim, bon bem = 
\)Otn, ju bem = §um ; ju is al^o contracted with the Dat. Sing. 
Fern., thus : ju ber = gur. J 

2. The -c of the Dat. Sing, is never used when a preposi- 
tion (except 311) stands before a substantive without an article, 
pronoun or adjective preceding, as : au5 ^olj, of wood ; mit 
Jlei^, on purpose ; but niK§ §aufc, home ; ju §aufe, at home. 

3. Observe the following : 
{Germ.) Xer 'Srief meinci Dn!el§, 

{Engl.) The letter of my uncle = My uncle's letter. 

{Germ.) Zix ^Brief tJon meincm Cnfel, 
{Engl.) The letter from my uncle. 

(I The English preposition of with a substantive must gen 
erally be rendered in German by a Genitive case without a 
preposition, whenever it can be turned' into the English Posses- 
sive case, as above ; otherwise by i)on, as ^-r 

68 LESSON XIII. [§46 

He was speaking of his mother (tioit feiner 3Jlutter). 
4. Observe also the following : 

(Engl.) Show the book to me = Show me the book, 
{Germ.) ^ixo^^XK Sie mir "^a^:^ Sudf) fDat. without Preposition). 
The English preposition to with a substantive must be 
rendered in German by the Dative without a preposition when- 
ever the subst. can be turned into the English Indirect Objec- 
tive, as above ; otherwise (generally) by the preposition ju, as: 
He spoke to me (ju mir). 


to answer, autti^orten dinner, ba§ 5iJitt'tag§ef)en 

honour, e^ren journey, bie S^ieife 

show, jcigert Roman, ber Corner 

picture, \^o.^ IBilb aunt, bie %<x\\it 

letter, ber 33rtef thankful, grateful, banfbar 

Germany, ^cutfrf^Ianb (gov. dat.) 

present, ba§ @ef4)en! ready, finished, ferttg 

glass, ba§ ©Ia§ quiet, still, ftitl 

war, ber ^rieg there, ba 

Idiom : It is I, 3d) ^\n ed. 

A. 1. (geit bem ^riec3e finb meine Sc^toager fel^r arm. 2. 
2Bir babcn im^ jtDei §du[er in ber 3tabt gefauft. 3. 2Bo ift beine 
5tufga6e ? §ier ift fie. 4. 2Bir macfiten nadf» bem ^Jlittag^effcn 
eirten Spasiergang mit unferen ©dftcn. 5. DJ^ein $ater hcLi mir 
ein ©efcben! gefcf^icft unb icf) 6in if)m bafiir febr banfbar. 6. Sift 
bu mit beiner Strbeit ferlig ? 3f?ein, tc^ bin noc^ nicfjt bamit f ertig. 
7. 3Sir trerben mpr.3en mit S^nen nad» l^contreal reifen. 8. ^arl 
lernt fe[t bier ^^Zonalen ^eutfcf). 9. „Se|t euc^ unb feib ftitt/' fagte 
bie ^Zutter ^u \^u\\ Xocbtern. 10. 33iirben Sie biel fiir blefe 
Siid^er bejaf^len ? ^6:) ioiirbe fitnf 2:^aler bafiir be^af^len. 11. 


(Sinb bie 2)?db(^en ju igaufe ? 3a, i^)re 2)?utter fc^icfte fie um fiinf 
U^r nac^ §au]e. 12. ©fjre beinen S3ater unb beine 2)lutter. 13. 
S Bet meine m Dnfel rebe^en tvir tmmer biel ijom ^rtege. 14. Stnb 
©ic e§, §err iS^mibt ? 3^/ ^^ ^^^ ^^- 15- §aben Ste in 
£)eut)c^lanb met 55ergnugen Qtl)aht'^ ®ie fagen ni(^t met 
t)on 3^i^<^r 9^eife. 16. 33ei gbnen f^aben h)ir immer mel 53cr= 
gniigen. 17. liefer 93Zann lobt fic^ ju biel. 18, 3}^eine Xante 
ift je^t bet mir ; id) merbe ibr bie Stabt jetgen. 19. 9}tein 'Sruber 
unb meine Sc^irefter finb ]n §aufe. 20. 25>a§ tDiirben Sie fiir 
biefe ©Idfer bega^Ien? ^d) tDiirbe nicbt biel bafiir be§af)Ien. 

jB, 1. Here is my uncle's letter. 2. Is he for me or against 
me ? 3. Our servant is from Germany. 4. ' Buy me an 
apple,' said the child to its mother. 5. Have you sold your 
horses ? 6. The teacher speaks of the gods of the Romans. 
7. Charles, you have answered well, sit down. 8. My son 
always sends me the newspaper from Chicago. 9. My friend 
showed me his pictures. 10. Buy me this ring ; it is mag- 
nificent. 11. Who is in the garden ? It is she. 12. I be- 
lieve that Charles has bought himself a hat. 13. Here is the 
letter from my uncle. 14. I am ashamed of you, because you 
are not industrious. 15. My father would send me to the 
city, if I were old enough. 


1. Weshalb schamen Sie sich meiner ? 2. 1st es Karl oder 
sein Bruder .? 3. Seit wann lernen Sie Deutsch } 4. Wer hat 
mir diese Zeitung gescliickt? 5. Was machte ich nach dem 
Mittagsessen ? 6. Wo hat mein Vater dieses Buch gekauf t ? 




47. Pronouns in Address. 

1. The pronouns 1)U and il^t are the usual pronouns of address m 
poetry and the drama, il)V being used for one person or more, as : 

2)cr iBed)cr ift bcin, 

Unb bicfeii 9iing nocf) bepimm' id) Mr, 

The goblet is thine, 

And this ring too I'll keep for thee. 

(Schiller, „3)er 2;aud^cr.") 

?QBt, 35atcr, genug fein "^Oi^ graufame @piet. 

6r t)at cu^ beftonben, idq§ feiner beftet)t, 

Unb fount i^r be9 ^erjenS ©eUifteu nict)t .i^ci^men, u. j. tt)., 

Enough, father, of this cruel sport. 

He has ventured for you what none will venture, 

And if you cannot subdue the desire of your heart, etc. {Ibid.) 

2. 6r and Sic (3. sing.) were formerly regularly used as pronouns of 
address towards inferiors, with the verb agreeing in 3. sing., and they 
are often found so used in the classics, being spelt with a capital. 
Their use may imply contempt; so Faust says to his servant Wagner, 
who is otherwise addressed as „i^r" : 

@ci (5r fein fd)etlentanter 2f)or, 
Don't be a jingling fool. (Gohthe, ^ffauft.") 

3. (Er and @ie, also i'^r, are still used in complimentary address, correspon- 
ding to the polite use of @ie (3. plur.), by people of the lower orders. 

48. The forms meine^glci^eit, beineSglei^cn, etc., = ' a person, or 
persons, like me, you,' etc. (vulg. 'the like of me '), are used as indeclinable 
substantives, either as object or as predicate, as : 

SBir roerben fcincSgleic^cn nie mieber fel)en, 
We ne'er shall look upon his like again. 

S)u bifi ni(i)t mcineSglcit^en, 
You are not (a person) like me (my equal). 
(For the use of be^gleic^en, bergleid^cn, see §§97> i39-) 

49. In addressing persons of rank, the proper title, as : 3^rc ®naben, 
*Your Honour*; (Sure (abbrev. (Siu.) (Sycellen;;, 'Your Excellency*; (Sure 


2)urc^lQUcf}t, * Your Serene Highness ' ; (Sure SD^ajeftat, * Your Majesty,' 
etc., is used, also without the poss. adj., and with the verb in the plur. 
It was this plur, use of complimentary titles that gave rise to the use of 
<&ie as the pronoun of polite addresa. The old forms 3^ro, 2)ero, are 
now obsolete. 

50. Prepositions with Accusative. 

I. The preposition foiillcr takes the accusative, but is of rare occurrence. 

^(.2. ®egen has an obsolete form gen, now used only in certain phrases, 
as : gen §iinmel, heavenwards ; gen S^orben, northwards, etc. 

3. OI)ne has a dative in the phrase O^ne^fjn, * at any rate.' 

-w-^. 53i§ may be followed by another preposition, indicating motion or 
direction to (nacf), :;ii, an, aiif, etc.) ; if this preposition is one governing 
dat. or ace, it will always^ake the accusative when combined with bi§, as : 
Sr ging Bis on'S Xl}OV, he went as far as the gate. 

51. Prepositions with Dative. 

The following additional prepositions take the Dative only : 

I. Sinnen, within (of time), as: 33inneu ^trei S^ogen, within two days. 

Notes. — i. 33tnnen sometimes governs the £'enii/7/e. 

2. SBinnen is used of time only; innerl^alb (see § ) of s/ace and time. 

^ 2. (gntge'gcn [contrary to as:/^^^"^^ 9?eigung cntgegen (junjiber), 

3. 3utDi'llCr ) t contrary to my inclination. 

4- (Scgcniiber, opposite (to), follows the case, as: I "^ 

^fm 2;^oregcgenuber, opposite the gate. <^>^-^ 

Note. — The case is sometimes placed between the two parts «f the preposition, as: 
gegen bem Xf)ort iibcr ; but this is not to be imitated. 

j^, - 5. @enta§, according to, agreeably to, precedes or follows its case as: 
@eincm SSunirfie gemo^ (or gema§ feinem 2BunfcI)e), 
Agreeably to his desire. 

^..r— 6. ®Ietd), like, precedes or follows its case, as: 

<Sie tdcf)elte g(cid) eincm Gngel (einem @ngel gleic^), 
She smiled like an angel. 

^" r^ !:i^J C next to (i) oiproximitv (= neben), as : 

^unaiqft ' 

72 LESSON XIV. [§§51 

Qt ]a% nad)fl mir (or mir gundc^jl), 
He sat next to me. 
(2) of succession, as : 

gfJdrfift iicm Men liebt er bie G^vc, 
Next to life he loves honour. 

Note. — 3""'J>-'ftlt usually follows its case; n a cf) ft is the commoner of the two as pre- 
position, especially in the senses under (2). 

^ ' r together with, along \vith,as : 

3)er §err tarn nebft fetncm ^rcimbe, 

The gentleman came along with his friend. 

S)er ^ater famt jeincn ^iiibcvn, 
The father together with his children. 
Note i. Distinguish nebft, along with, and nebcn (alongside of, near). 
2. 2amt is used of objects naturally belonging together, as above. 
10. C& is poetical and obsolete for iibcr, and denotes : 

(i) above {oi position), as: 'i^Q bcitt 5I(tare, above the altar. 
(2) about, concernmg, as: Qntriiftet ob biefcm S'^CtJel, indignan' 
about (at) this outrage. 
Note. — In the la Jter sense it also takes a genitive. 




52. Paradigm of fcitt, to be. 

Principal Parts. 

Pres. Infin. fein Impf. Indic. ttiar Past Part, getucfctl 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


icft Bin, I am ic^ fei, I (may) be, etc. 

bu 6i[t, thou art bu feieft 

er ift, he is er fet 

hJtr finb, we are n)ir feien 

if)r feib, ye are iF>r fciet 

fie finb, they are fie feicn 





{^ ttJOr, I was 

bu iDarft, thou wast 
er \vax, he was 
tr)ir itjaren, we were 
il^r it>aret, ye were 
fie ttjaren, they were 


td^toare, (if) I were (might 

be), etc. 
bu hjcreft, thou wert 
cr tDrire, he were 
h)ir w'dx^n, we were 
i^r it)avet, ye were 
fie hjciren, they were 


(Pres. of fctn + P. Part.) 

I have been, etc. 
id) Mn 

bu bift 
er ift 
h)ir finb 
i^r feib 
fie finb 

I (may) have been, etc 
x^ fei 



I had been, etc. 

\6) mar 

bu iiHirft 

er h?ar 

ioir tuaren 

if)r ir>aret 

fte iraren 

bu feieft 

er fei 

h)ir fei en 

if^r feiet 

fie feien 

(Imperf. of icitt + P. Part.) 

I had (might have) been, 

> gctticfcn 

ic^ tuiire 
bu iPtireft 
er lr>are 
tr»ir it)dren 
i^r tptiret 
fie hJttren 


> gcttjcfcn 

(Pres. of tserDen + Infin. of fein.) 
I shall be, etc. I shall be, etc, 

id) ii>evbe ) • . icf) irerbe 

bu ioirft 1 * bu iDerbeft 




[§S 52- 

er U)irb 
h)ir toerberi 
i^r lr>erbet 
fte hjerben 



er hjerbe 
tr>ir tt>erben 
t^r iDerbet 
fie irerben 

Future Perfect. 

(Future of fcin + P. Part.) 

I shall have been, etc. 
ic^ iDerbe 

bu h)irft 
er mxh 
h)tr toerben 
\i)x tt)er^et 
fie merben 

I shall have been, etc. 
id^ toerbe 

gcttJCKit fcin 

gettiefen fein 


Impf. Subj. of merben + Infin. 
of fein.) 

I should be 
id^ itjiirbe ^ 
bu tDiirbeft 
er iriirbe 
h?ir tDiirben 
i()r triirbet 



bu it)erbeft 

er tr>erbe 

tt)ir tt^erben 

if^r it»erbet 

fie it)erben 



(Simple Cond. of fcin 4- Past 


I should have been, etc. 

i(f) h)urbe 

bu toiirbeft 

er tt)urbe 

tt)ir it)iirben 

il^r h)urbet 

fie toiirben 

gcttiefcn fcin 

fei (bu), be (thou) 
feib (i^r), be (ye) 

(3u) fein, (to) be 
gctocfcn (^u) fein, to bive been. 

Pres. feicnb, being Fast, getticfcn, be^^n 

Remarks. — i. Observe the absence of the SubjmiO^-ive -c 
in the i. and 3. sing. Pres. 

53] USE OF jein as auxiliary of tense. 75 

2. The above paradigm shows the use of feitt in forming 
its own perfect tenses, in precisely the same way as babtn is 
used with most verbs. 3ein is used in the same way with the 
verbs mentioned in the following Section. 

53. Use of fein as Auxiliary of Tense. 

Sein replaces babcn as auxiliar)^ of the perfect tenses with 
the following neuter verbs : 

(a) With those expressing a change of condition, as : 

fterSen, die wad}U^, grow 

genefen, recover (from illness) ti^erben, become. 

(//; With neuter verbs of motion when a change of 
place is specified or implied, as : 

fa^ren, drive, go (in a conveyance) fommen, come 

gef>en, go, walk jieBen, move, go, proceed. 

(r) ^citt, to be; bleibcn, to remain: be^e^nen, to meet; 
folgen, to follow. 

(d) The impersonal verbs : gelingen, gliicfen, to succeed; 
gefd)ef)en, to happen. 

Remarks. — i. The proper auxiliary to use with such 
verbs is always given in the dictionary. 

2. Other verbs of this sort only take fein when the change 
of place is specified. 

3. Most of them (except fommen) take babcn when they 
denote an actiofi merely, and not a specific change of place, as : 

(rr bat \>\t\ gereift, he has travelled a great deal. 

4. Compounds do not necessarily take the same auxiliary 
as the simple verb. Thus, Bcgcbeii; being transitive, takes 
^aben, the prefix changing the nature of the verb. 






Declension of bcr ^nobc, the boy. 

bie ^naben, the boys 
ber ^naben, the boys', of 

the boys 
ben i^naben, (to, for) the 

bie ^nabeii, the boys 

— ^ Nom. ber ^nabe, the boy . 

Gen. be§ ^naben, the boy's, of 

the boy 
Dat. bem ^naben, (to, for) the 

Ace. ben ^naben, the boy 

Observe: i. All cases end in -n, except Nom. Sing. 

2. No Umlaut added in Plural. 

3. The only change is the addition of -n. 

Remark. — The Plural ox-en is a remnant of the -n declen- 
sion in English. 

55. Substantives ending in a consonant add -ctl, as : 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber ©raf, the count bie ©rafen, the counts 

Gen. be§ ©rafctt, of the count ber ©rafcn, of the counts 
Dat. bem ©rafcn, (to, for) the 

Ace. ben ©rafen, the count 

ben ©rafcn, (to, for) the 

bie ©rafcn, the counts 

56. Feminines do not vary in the singular, as 

Nom. bie ^lume, the flower 
Gen. ber Slumc, of the flower 
Dat. ber 53lume, (to, for) the 

Ace. bie 33Iumc, the flower 

57. In this way are declined 
I. All masculines endine: in 

bie 93Iumen, the flowers 
ber 33(umen, of the flowers 
ben Slumen, (to, for) the 

bie 33(umen, the flowers. 

except ber ^dfe, cheese (see 

§ 17), and the doubtful ones in § 61. 




2. Certain masculines which have dropped the final -e, as: 

ber §elb, hero 

ber §err, gentleman, master 

ber §trt(e), herdsman, shep- 

ber 5Renfc^, man (human be- 
ing = Lat. homo) 

ber 33ar, bear 

ber Sauer, peasant 

ber (lf)rift, christian 

ber G5e[eII(e), fellow, companion, 

ber ©raf, count 

A full List of these Substantives is given in App. F. 

3. All feminines, except 9)hitter, 5rocf)ter (§ 17, 3), the 

monosyllables under § 22, 3, and those in -niS and -jo( 
(22, 4). '^^^ "^ 

4. No Neuters (but see §§ 62, 63). 

5. Foreign jMasculines accented on the last syllable, except 
those in -al, -^Xi, -ttr, etc. (§22, 6). 

Further Examples : 

Like ^nabe : 
JJ. ber 33ote, messenger o. d. a. Soten 

ber §afe, hare 
ber 9iiefe, giant 
ber S^uffc, Russian 


N. G. D. A. 33oten 


G. D. A. Sarett n. g. d. a. 53arcn 

gurftcn gurften 

§elbcn §elben 

gKen[rf>en gjJenfd^ett 

©tubentcn Stubentcn 

©olbatcn ©olbaten 

Remark i. Xer §err, gentleman, master, lord, adds-n only 
in the sing., but -en in plur. 

^?. ber 53dr, bear 
ber g-iirft, prince 
ber §elb, hero 
ber 9Jtenfc^, man 
ber ©tubent', student 
ber ©olbaf, soldier 

7^ LESSON XIV. [§§57- 

Like 58Iume : 
Singular. Plural. 

N. G. D. A. illume N. G. D. A. ^Blumeit 

©ci^5nf)eit @c^)onl)eiten 

SBiffenfc^aft 3Stffenfcf)aften 

Remark 2. Feminines in -e(, -cr add -n only in the Plur., as. 
Sing, bie geber, pen /Yz/;^. gebern 

bie ©abcl, fork ©abetn 

bie Sc^iDcftcr, sister ©cBtoeftern 

Remark 3. Feminines in -in double the n in the plur., as : 
Sing, bie ©rdfin, countess Flur. ©rdfinneti 


admire, 6eh?unbem monarch, ber ^I^onard^' 

hasten, eilen news, bie 9kcf)ricf)t 

hunt, jagen nephew, ber 9Zeffe 

dwell, reside, live, tt)D!)nen planet, ber ^(anef 

astrologer, ber 2(ftroIog' Prussian, ber ^^sreu^e 

lady, bie ^ame raven, ber DiaBe 

influence, ber @in'flu|* valley, ba§ %%oX 

heathen, ber §eibe happy, cjlucflid^ 

comet, ber ^omef when, al§, \ii^\KXi 

landscape, bie Sanbfcf^aft when? trami ? 

58. When = tucnil always with Present, Perfect and 
Future ; and also with Imperfect and Pluperfect, of a 
habitual or repeated occurrence (= whenever), as : 

I always rose, "when (i. e. whenever, ttjcnn) the sun rose. 
When = tt(§ with Imperfect and Pluperfect otily^ of a 
siftgle, definite occurrence, as : 

I xosQ yesterday, when (o(§) the sun rose. 

59] DECLENSION : — ^XiaU MODEL. 79 

When? interrogative = to ttntl? as : 

When was your father here? 
aSann U)ar 3f)r 3Sater f)ter ? 
Note. — Remember that inenn also = "if." 

59. When a conditional or "if" sentence precedes the 
principal sentence on which it depenTs, the principal sentence 
is usually introduced by the particle fo, which is not to be 
translated into English, or counted as a member of the sent. 

Note. — A principal sentence preceded by a subordinate clause has 
the subject after the verb, the subord. clause being reckoned as a single 
idea (see § 20), as : SSenn id) ®elb f)dtte, fo itiiirbe tc^ greunbe ^aben. 


A, 1. 2Sir iperben morgen §u unferer ^Tante in DttaiDa reifen. 
2. 2)ie 33oten be§ 5[Ronarc^en finb mit ber 9iac^rid^t m<i) ^arig 
geeilt. 3. ^ie Slrtne etne§ dik\zn finb febr long unb ftar!. 4. 
^ie Sdume in biefen 3BdIbern finb fef^r fd^on gen^efen, aber je^t 
finb bie 53(dtter geI6 geh?orben. 5. 3)er 33ater ift in ber ©tabt 
geiDefen unb ^at feinen ^naben Siicfcer gefauft. 6. '^d) behjunbre 
bie ©c^on^eit biefer Sanbfc^aflen. 7. I^ie Sc^iiler unb i^r 2ef)rer 
rebeten mel toon ben %^aUn ber §e(ben. 8. ^ie ©d^uler h)erben 
gliicflic^ fein, tuenn fie mit ibrer 5(rbeit fertig finb. 9. ©inb bie 
9?uffen §eiben? dlt'm, fie finb g^riften. 10. 9J^ein 9^effe mar 
lange in Berlin gemefen unb ^atte bort bie SSiffenfcf)aften ftubiert. 
11. ^eine ecf)h)efter h)ar mit if)rer SIrbeit nic^t fertig, aU id) 
geftem bet if)r Wax. 12. ®ie Slftrologen rebeten biel bom ginflufe 
ber ^ometen unb ^laneten. 13. Xer 2ef)rer lobte feine Sc^uler 
unb fagte ju i^nen : „3^r feib fleigig getoefen." 14. 2Benn ic^ 
narf) ^eutfcblanb reife, tuerbe ic^ meine D^eime unb meine 3:anten 
befucf^en. 15. '^k ^naben ^attin biel 33ergnugen, aU fie bie 
§afen unb giic^fe burc^ 3SdIberunb ^^dler jagten. 16. ^ie 
©rdfinnen toaren fe^r glttcfticb, aU fte bie 5^ac^ric^t bon ibrem 
SSater ^orten. 17. ^iefe §erren tDerben arm toerben, tt)enn fte i^r 

80 LESSON XV. [§§6o- 

©elb fo berfdj'^^^"^^"- ^^- Unferc 9?cffcn finb langc hd un^ 

B. 1. The castles of the count are magnificent. 2. The 
churches of this city are large and beautiful. 3. When will 
your brother be at home ? 4. Are these soldiers Prussians.? 
No, they are Russians. 5. The bears live in the forests. 
6. The boys have two ravens and three hares. 7. The 
ladies have been in the church, but they are now at home. 
8. Who was right? 9. For a boy of (bon) five years he is 
very large. 10. I should be happy, if I were rich. 11. He 
has not been at home to-day. 12. When she was in the city 
she lived at her aunt's. 13. Would the girl be contented, if 
she were with her mother ? 14. The students became tired, 
because they had studied too much. 


1. Was hat Ihr NefTe in Berlin gemacht? 2. Hatte ich 
Recht ? 3. Wer eilte mit der Xachricht nach Paris ? 4. 
Haben Sie jemals Hasen oder Fiichse gejagt? 5. Wann 
wird mein Bruder zu Hause sein ? 6. Wiirde ich gliicklich 
sein, wenn ich reich ware ? 



60. Declension of ber Dlome, the name. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber ^fZamc, the name bie DZameii, the names 
Gen. be§ Stamens, of the name ber 5tamen, of the names 

Dat. bem 9iamen, (to, for) the ben 'Duinien, (to, for) the 

name names 

Ace. ben 3^amen, the name bie D^amen, the names 

63] declension: — 9Zame model. 81 

Observe: i. -c in the Nom. Sing, and -CU6 in Gen. Sing. 

2. -en all other cases. 

3. No Umlaut, except in 3cf)abe (see below). 
Note. — The Xom. Sing, sometimes has -n. 

61. In this way are declined the following masculines : 

ber Sud^ftabe, letter ( of the Al- ' ber ©ebanfe, thought, idea 

phabet) ber §aufe, heap 

ber ^riebe, peace ber (Same, seed 

ber ?Jun!e, spark ber Sdmbe, harm, injury 

ber ©laube, faith, belief, [pi. Scbiiben] 

creed ber '©iHe, will 
Also one neuter : bae §er§, the heart (Ace. Sing. §er§). 

62. Some masculine and neuter substantives follow the 
model of 9Ka(cr (§ 16; or So^tt (§ 21) in the singular, and 
that of ,^.naht (§ 54) or @rttf (§ 55) in the plural, as : 

®er D?acbbar, the neighbour : Swg. n. d a. 9?acf)bar, g. 9tacf)= 
bars ; J^/ur. 9tacbbarn. 

Xa^ €br, the ear: Smg. n. a. Cbr, G. £)hx(t)^, d. £)f)r(f) ; 
P/ur. D^ren. 

63. In this way decline also : 

1. Certain masculines, as: 

ber Staal, state ber 3Setter, (male) cousin 

ber StrabI, beam, ray 

2. Certain neuters, as : 

ba-3 2(uge, eye ba§ (5nbe, end 

ba^5 33ett, bed 
(A full List of these substantives will be found in App. G.) 

3. Foreign (Latin) masculines in unaccented -OX, as : 

ber 'iprofef'for, the professor : g. '^^rofefiorg ; P/ur. ^rof effo'ren. 
ber Softer, the doctor : g. Xo!torl ; F/ur. XoUo'xtn. 

82 LESSON XV. [§§64- 

64. Substantives with Dounr e Pj.ural. 

The following have double forms of the Plural, with a 
different meaning for each : 

Singular. Fh<raL 

ba§ 33anb, ribbon ^linbcv 

bay 33anb, tie, bond ' S3anbc 

(bet '^anb, volume Siinbe) 

bie 33an!, bank (commercial) 33an!en 

bie 33an!, bench 33ttn!e 

ba§ (Bcfi(f)t, face, countenance @efid)tct 

ba§ ©e]id)t, vision ©eftd^te 

ber Saben, shop Siiben 

ber Saben, shutter Sttben 

ba^ Sanb, land, country ^iinbct 

ba§ 2anb, province Sanbc 

( 'Sorter, words considered separately 
' \ 2Sortc, words considered connectedly 

( (as making sense) 

Remark. — The plural Sanbc is also used in poetical lan- 
guage ; and in the compound bie 9iieberlanbc, the Netherlands 
(= Lower Provinces). 

65. Prepositions governing the Dative or 

The following nine prepositions govern the Dative when 
they indicate locality merely, or answer the question 
' where ? ' or 'in what place ? ' ; the Accusative when 
they imply motion, direction or tendency (figurative mction) 
towards, or answer the question 'whither?' or 'to wh?/ 
place or person ? ' : 

r tttt, auf, l^itttcr, in, nebcn, 

< iibcr, unter, uor and 5tt}ifc!()cno 



an, I. (of place): 

(a) With DAT., on, upon (adjacent to), as : 

The picture hangs on the wall (an 
bcr ^anb). 

(b) With ACC, to, towards, on, as : 

I hang the picture on the wall (on 
Mc 3Sanb). 

2. (of time, date) with dat. only, on, upon, as : 

I was born on the eighteenth of August (om 

adbt^efjnten SCuguft). 
He will arrive on Monday (am 5[Rontag). 
Observe : that in this use the Prep, and Article are always 

onf, {oi place): 

(a) With DAT., on, upon {on top of)^ as : 
The book lies on the table (ttuf 

bcm 3:ifc^). 

{p) W^ith ACC, to, towards, on, as : 

I lay the book on the table (ouf 


Winter, behind : 

{a) With DAT., as : The dog lies behind the stove 
(§inter bcm Cfen). 

ip) With ACC, as : The dog goes behind the stove 
(^intcr ben Dfen). 

fn, I. {pi place) \ 

{a) With DAT., in, as : The gardener is in the garden 

(im ©arten). 
{b) With ACC, into, as : The gardener goes into the 

garden (in bcn ©arten). 


84 LESSON XV. [§65 

2. (of time) in (with dat. only), as : God made the 
world in six days (in fec^0 ^^^n). 

neBen^ near, alongside of, by : 

{a) With DAT., as : The chair stands near (by) the 

table (neb en bcm 2:ifd)c). 
{b) With ACC, as : I place the chair near the table 

(ncbcn ben ^ifc^)). 

U'6er, I. (of place) over, above : 

(a) With DAT., as : The bridge is over the river (iifter 

bem gluffe). 
if) With ACC, as : I ^^ over the river (iiber ben glu^). 

2. (of ^jc<r^j-i") over, above (with acc. only), as : He 

remained over (more than) two days (ilfier girei 

3. about, concerning (with Ace. only), as: He spoke 

with me about his journey (iibcr feine 3^eife). 
unter, i. {pi place) ^ under, beneath, below: 

{a) With DAT., as : The cat lies under the chair (nntet 

bem Shif)Ie). 
(^) With ACC, as : The cat creeps under the chair 

(nuter ben Stuf)l). 

2. {oi niwiber) among: 

(a) With DAT., as : The wolf is among the sheep 

(nnter ben ©deafen). 
{b) With ACC, as : The wolf mingles among the 

sheep (unter bie ©d^afc). 

tior, I. (of place) before, in front of : 

(a) With DAT., as : The chair stands before the win- 
dow (tior bem genfter). 


{b) With ACC, as : Place the chair before the window 
(tior§ ^-enfter). 

2. (of order) before (with dat. only), as: He came 

before me (tior mtr). 

3. (of time) before, ago (with dat. only^, as : 

He came before two o'clock fHor ^^Dei Uf^r). 
He came two hours ago (bor Jtrei Stunben). 
)ttlif(i^Cn; between Tof two objects : 

{a) With DAT., as : The chair stands between the 
door and the window (3tt)ii(§cn bcr ^f)ure unb 
bcm ?^enfter). 
{b) With ACC, as : Fict the chair between the door 
and the wdndow (3ttj{f(|cn "tixt %^\xxt unb ba§ 
Remark. — Observe the following contractions with the 
uneraphasized Definite Article : 

an bem = am in bem = tm 

<x\\ ba§ = Qn§ in ba§ = in§ 

auf bag = auf§ 
Also the following, which are of less frequent occurrence : 
fainter bem = f)interm unter bem = unterm 

jointer bas = ^jinterg unter ba§ = unterm 

iiber bem = iiberm tjor bem = t)orm 

liber bag = iiberg bor bag = i?org 

Vocabulary. ^ 

please, lit., (I) beg, (I) pray, lay, (egen 

(id)) bitte put, place, set (down), fe^en 

hang (trans.), I^dngen put, place, set (upright), 
fetch, bring, get, f)olen fteKen 

hear, boren seek, look for, fuc^en 

hunt, chase, pursue, jagen kill, toten 

S6 LESSON XV. [§§65- 

wait (for), it)arten (auf + ace.) open, offen 

strawberry, bie ©rbbeere heavy, hard, fcf)tt)er 

fire, ba§ ^euer ten, gebn 

Netherlands, bie 9^ieberlanbe thereupon, on it, etc., barauf 

philosophy, bie ^^iIofo^f)ie' first, not before, erft 

stove, ber Ofcn* if you please, gefdUtgft 

school, bie ©d^ule no longer (lit., not more), 

door, bie ^f)ur(e) nic^t me^r. 

difference, ber Unterfrf)teb where, tt)o 

university, bie Unii^erfitdt in order to, urn (foil, by infin. 

dictionary, ba§ SSiJrterbud^ with ju at end of clause) 


A. 1. ^ener Wann fe^te fidj) gegen meinen 2Bi(len auf bie 
^anf. 2. ^er 9^effe bc§ $rofeffor§ wax lange ©tubent, aber er 
ift je^t 3^o!tor ber $f)ilDfo^f)ie. 3. SSarum 'i:)aUn meine SSettern 
liber (at) mic^ gelarfit ? 4. 9Jiein S5ater tt)irb un§ am ?[Rontag 
obcr (am) 2)ien§tag in bie ®d{)ule fc^icfen. 5. ^er (gofin unb 
bie ^od^ter unfer(e)§ 9^ac!^bar§ fu4)ten Slumen unb ©rbbeeren im 
3SaIbe. 6. 3}^ein ^ater unb meine 5iKutter finb feit brei 3So^en 
auf bem Sanbe. 7. Xk 33an!en iuerben erft morgen um gefjnU^r 
offen fein. 8. Segen (2te gefdEigft biefe i^dnbe neben mid{) auf 
bie 53an!. 9. 2)er ^onig ber 9^ieberlanbe reifte burrf) feine 
Staaten unter bem 3^amen eine§ ©rafen. 10. ®er griebe be§ 
§crrn fei mit euc^. 11. 3)er (^raf fc^idfte feinen (Sofjn oufjjie 
Unit)erjttdt. 12. ®a§ ^inb ift fe{)r Iran! unb bie SJIutter ^at 
§it)ei ^oftoren gel^olt. 13. "^S^z^^aih toarten ©ie fo lange toor ber 
^f)ure ? 14. ^i4§erren jagten ben 33dren (winter ben SSalb, Wo 
fie t^n toteten. 15. gm SSinter fe^en \im un§ oft Oor ba§ geueu 
unb betounbern bie gun!en. 16. Unfere §ergen toerben tmmer 
traurig, toenn tt)ir 5f?acf)ric^t bom ^riege ]f)oren. 17. 2Sa§ ift ber 
Unterfcf)ieb 5n)ifcf)en ben 3Sortern 33an!en unbSdn!e? 18. ^ic 
2lugen be§ ©tubenten finb fd;ir)acf), tt)eil er gu biel ftubiert ^at 
19. (Se^en ®ie fic^ auf biefen ©tuf)I, benn <Sie finb miibe. 20. 


33itte, fteHen ®ie mir biefen (Btuf^l Jointer ben Of en. 21. ^ie 
©tubenten (ernen bom ^rofeffor bie Xiamen ber ©otter ber Sftomer. 
y .^.^1. Tl)e children were playing before the house. 2. 
?^ WTiat is the name of this professor ? His name is Schmidt. 
3. Hang the picture of my father over the door. 4. Every 
human being has two eyes and two ears. 5. Why do the 
professors praise their students ? 6. The professors praise the 
diHgence of their students. 7. The difference between my 
brother and me is not great. 8. I laid the pens upon the 
table, but they are no longer there. 9. Our neighbours sent 
their children into the wood to search for flowers. 10. Our 
cousin lived happy and in peace with his neighbours. 11. 
The pupils would look for the words in a dictionary, if they 
had time. 12. Your eyes are tired, because you have studied 
too much. 13. These words are hard to learn, for every 
word has ten letters. 14. Place this chair, if you please, be- 
hind the stove for me. 15. If Charles is not ready, we shall 
go (reifen) without him to Germany. 


1. Wann wird Ihr Vater Sie auf die Universitat schicken ? 
2. Weshalb hat die Mutter die Doktoren geholt? 3. Was 
lernten die Studenten von den Professoren .'' 4. W^erden Sie 
ohne mich nach Chicago reisen } 5. Wo reiste der Konig 
der Niederlande ? 6. Wann werden die Kirchen offen sein ? 

66. Substantives without Plural. 

The following classes of substantives are used in the singular only : 
I. Proper names, unless they denote a .class (as : bic ^lafaelc, painters 
hie Raphael), or several individuals of the same name (as ; bie t)ier erften 
^dnxidft, the first four Henries, i. e., kings of that name). 


2. Names of materials, etc., unless they denote different h'nds of the 
same material (as : ©riijcr, ^aljc, different i^/ftds of grass, salt), or when 
they have a special meaning (as : ©elbcr, sums of money ; ^apiere, docu- 

3. Abstract Substantives, unless they have a concrete {particular) 
meaning, as: Jiigcnbeil, virtues; @d)on^citeu, beauties, etc. 

Note. — Many nouns of this sort, when used in a concrete sense, use the plurals of 
otlier words, generally compound, as: bcr 2^ob, death ; bie ^^obe^fdHe, deaths (i. e. casea 
of death). 

A list of these is given in App. H. 

For the plural of nouns of measure, etc., see Less. XXX. 

67. Substantives without Singular. 

The following classes of substantives are used in the plural only: 

1. Names of certain diseases: 2)ie 331attern, the small-pox; bie SRajeru 
or 9toteIn, the measles. 

2. The following names of festivals, etc.: SBei^nad^ten, Christmas, 
goftcn, Lent; Cftcrit, Easter; 'i|3ftnc!ften, Pentecost (Whitsuntide). 

3. Those plural by meaning, viz. : 5ltpcn, Alps ; ^Bcinf (eiber, trou- 
sers; SSrieffc^aften, documents; (Sinfiinfte, income, revenue; (Sltrvu, 
parents; g^^^'i^"^ holidays; ©liebma^en, limbs; ^cfcn, dregs, yeast; 
Soften, Unfoften, expenses ; £cutc, people ; 3JJol!cn, curds. 

68. Irregular Compounds, i. Substantives having -monn as the 
last component form the plural: 

(a) Regularly, when denoting 7?tale individuals or occupations, as : 

Gl)cmdnricr, husbands; G^renmanncv, men of honour; ©taat^miinnfr, 

{b) By changing -mantt into -IcutC, when used collectively or in a 
general sense, or to include both sexes, as: "Jtrbeit'^Icutc, working-people; 
G{)cIcutC, married people ; §anbcl^lcutc, trades - people ; ?nnblcutf , 
country-people ; $?anbA!cute, people of the same country ; SJfletgltutC, 
lodgers (male and female). 

Notes. — i. With words of common occurrence, such as fiaufmaim, merchant, .^ofs 
mann, courtier, the plur. with -leute only is used. 

2. The form with -leute is the plur. of the fern, compound with -frau (e. g. ©^efrttU, 
married woman), as well as of that with -mann. 

2. !J)ie iD[)nmad)t, the fainting-fit, and bie 3>oUina(l)t, the power-of- 
attorney (from 3)iac^t, pi. Wi6)Xt), have the pi. -mad)ten ; bie 2lnttt)ort, 
the answer (from bQ§ SSort, pi. SSortC and $BbrtCt), has pi. -Clt. 




G9, Special Cases, i. A few substantives in -m, viz.: 5ltem, 
Obem, 33robem, breath; iBrofam, crumb; Stbam, son-in-law, follow the 
3)Ja(er model (§ 16) m the sing. The plur., if it occurs, ends in t (§unfe 
model, § 21, <^, no Umlaut), except iBrofam, which is more commonly 
wgak in the plur. (-cn). 

2. Weak feminines are often found with the old weak gen. and dat. in 
-tn, especially when used without article after a preposition, as : auf 
©rbcn, on earth (but aiif t\CX Grbc, on the earth) ; gu S^ren, in honour of; 
in ©naben, in mercy, etc. 



70. Summary of Declension of Substantives. 

The following tables show the endings of the various forms 
of Substantive Declension : 

A. Strong Declension. 

I. maUx Model. 
(Contracted Form. 





II. ©o^n Model. 
(Primary Form.) 


III. ^orf Model. 

(Enlarged Form.) 



— cr 


— er 


— em 

— cr 

Remarks. — i. The term ' Strong Declension ' is applicable 
to all the three forms given above. 

2. The 2Dbn iModel is sometimes called the Primary 
Form of the Strong Declension, and shows the -g of Gen. 
Sing, and -c of the Plur. From this are derived the other two 
forms, viz. : 

90 LESSON XVI. [§§70~ 

3. By contraction (dropping -e of the termination), the 
5RaIer Model, hence called also the Contracted Form of 
the Strong Declension ; and 

4. By enlargement (adding -r in the Plur., the Sing, remain- 
ing the same), the ^orf Model, hence also called the En= 
larged Form of the Strong Declension. 

5. Feminines remain unchanged in the Sing. 

6. The Umlaut may occur in any of these forms, viz. : 
generally in masc. monosyllables, regularly in feminines and 
in Enlarged Form ; never in neuter monosyllables of Primary 
Form. (See Lists, App. A., B., C, E.) 

B. Weak Declension. 

^nabe, ©raf, Slume Model. 
Sing. Nom. (e) Plur. (e)tt 

Gen. (e)n (c)n 

Dat. (c)n (c)n 

Ace. (e)n -(e)rt 

Observe: i. The persistent -11. 2. The absence of Um 
laut. 3. Uniformity of Cases. 4. Feminines unchanged in 

C. Mixed Declension. 

I. 9^ame Model. 
Sing. N. — C Plur. — n 

G. — ng — n 

D. — n — n 

A. — n — It 

II. 9^arf)bar, Dfjr Model. 
Sing. Plur. — (c)n 

-(c)8 -(c)n 
-(e) -(e)tt 

Remarks. — i. All three follow the ^nabe Model in the Plur. 

<?. The 9^ame Model is a Mixture of the 5Jlaler and ^nabe 
models in the Sing., usually taking -| in the Gen., sometimes 
-n in the Nom. 


3. The 9f?acf)bar Model follows the 5D^ater Model in the 

4. The Cf)r Model follows the (So(;n Model in the Sing. 

71. The Essential Parts for the Declension of a Sub 
stantive are : 

The Nominative Singular, 
The Genitive Singular, and 
The Nominative Plural. 
These being given, the remaining cases of the noun can be 
formed from the above Tables, with the assistance of the 
following : 

Remarks. — i. All Feminines are unchanged in the Sing. 

2. The Nom. and Ace. Sing, are always alike, except in 
the Weak Declension (^na6e, ©raf and Jla\m models). 

3. The Gen. Sing, ends in -g in Masculines (except in 
the Weak Declension) and in a// Neuters. 

4. The Nom., Gen. and Ace. Plur. are always alike. 

5. The Dat. Plur. always ends in -n. 

Decline the following substantives throughout : 
S)ae 53ud), bie 2cf)on{)eit, ber Sturm, bie 2;od)ter, ber Sc^mager, ber 
33etter, ba« JHegimeut, bie Stabt, \iQi^i> 2luge, ber 2}knn, ber iDZenfcf), ber 
^Hilaft', ber 'T^lanet', ber Spajiergang, ba§ Sd)af, bie (^rou, '^^% graulein, 
ber geiertag, bie 2d)tt)efter, ber ®(aube. 

Declension of Proper Names. 

72. Geographical Proper Names: 

1. If never used without an article, etc. (see § 44, 2, 3), are 
declined like common nouns, as : ber 9f^f)ein, g. be§ W><tm{z)%, 
D. bem 9iBein(c); bie Scbroei^, g. ber ScBtuei^, d. ber @cf»tr)ei5, etc. 

2. If 7iot generally used with an article, etc., they take no 
ending except -g in the Gen. Sing, (unless they end in a 

92 LESSON XVI. [§§72- 

sibilant), as: ^cutfrf^Ianb, Germany, g. ^eutfdfitanbS ; granfs 
reid^, France, g. gran!rcirf^§ ; 9?om, Rome, g. 9?om§. 

3. If they end in a sibilant {%, fd^, 3, ^, f), the Gen. is 
replaced by the preposition tiOlt, as : ;5^ie Sefeftigungen ticn 
^avic>', the fortifications of Paris. 

4. S5oit may replace the Gen. with other names also, and 
is always used after titles, as : ^ie ^i3mgin tJOU ©nglanb, the 
Queen of England ; ber ^iirgermeifter tJOn Toronto, the Mayor 
of Toronto. 

5. When the Name of a Place is preceded by a common 
noun, they are in apposition to each other, but the proper 
name is not inflected, as : ^ie ©tabt Soubon (not tJOtt 2on= 
bon), the City of London, g. bcr ©tabtSonbon. ®a§ ^bnigreid^ 
^reu^cit, the Kingdom of Prussia, G. be§ ^onigreidbg ^reufien. 

6. Proper Names of Places are not used in the Plural. 

73. Proper Names of Persons are now inflected in the 
Gen. Sing, only, as follows : 

1. If preceded by an article, etc. (which shows the case) 
they remain unchanged, as : The letters of Cicero, bie 53nefe 
bc6 ©iccro. 

2. If not preceded by an article showing case, etc., those 
ending in a sibilant, and Feminines in -c, add -(c)n§ in the 
Gen. ; all others add -§ only, as : ^aj, G. 3J^a£Cn§ ; Souifc, g. 
Souifcns ; tarl, g. ^arls. 

Remark. — Surnames and classical names in a sibilanJ 
now commonly take an apostrophe instead of -Clt^, as : 
D^i^' SKerfe, Opitz's works. 

74. Family Names are used in the Plural with added -§, 
as in English, but without article, as : the Schmidts, 3cf)mibt^5 
(meaning the members of the Schmidt family). 

Further Remarks on the Declension of Proper Names and of Foreign 
Substantives will be found in Supp. Less. C, below. 


75, Prepositions Governing the Genitive. 

y^i>^t^(\l, on account of, on behalf of, for the sake of 
(sometimes follows its case), as : I remained at home on 
account of (for the sake of) my child, (ttJcgett meincS 

Note. — 3Segen always foU<nvs the Gen. of the Pers. Prons., which 
are then written in one word with the preposition, and have special forms 
ending in -t as : meiuetlf cgen, for my sake; ilircttuegcii, for her (their) 
sake; unfcrtiucgeu, for our sake, etc.; also with the Relative and 
Demonstr. bcr ; bere(n)ttV)egen (Sing. Fem. and Plur. ='for the sake of 
whom, which, that,' etc.). 

""---^2. SBti^renb, during, as : We went out walking during the 
rain (ma^rcub bc0 9^egcn5). 

3. (Sttttt, or onfiott, instead of, as : He will come instead 
of his friend (ftctt, or anfttttt feinc§ g^reunbce). 

The other preps, with gen. will be found in Lesson 


• give, present, make a present Henry, §etnrtci^ 

of (foil, by dat. of person Ireland, (bae) -3rlanb 

and ace. of thing), fc^enfen Margaret, SJlargarete 

library, bie 53ibItotkf speech, oration, bie Sf^ebe 

bookseller, ber SucB'^dnbler St. Lawrence, ber ©t. (©anct) 
cousin (fem.), bie Sou[ine So'renj 

Elizabeth, (Elifabet^ Sarah, (2ara 

Europe, (Juro'^a Scotchman, ber (5cf)otte 

festivity, bie geftUcf)feit street, bie ©tra^e 

Frederick, ^^riebric^ Thames, bie %\)^X(y\^ 

Fred, Freddy, gri^ work, ba§ SBer! 

poem, bcv3 (15ebid;t William, 2BiIf^elm 

George, G5eorg broad, wide, breit 

Greece, (ba§) Oriec^enlanb high, bod^ 

capital (city), bie §au^tftabt* clear, !(ar 

94 LESSON XVI. [§§75- 

turbid, muddy (of water), soon, balb 

triibc everywhere, iiberaH' 

Idioms: to be on a visit at (any one's), auf ^efudi (ein bet ; as a birth- 
day present, jum @eburtdtag. 


^ A. I. ^er ^aijcr toon Xeutfc^Iaub \\i aud; ^onitj toon ^^reu^en. 
2. ®ie ^erge ©ncjtanb^ unb S^"^^*^,"^^. f^-i'^ ^}^}^ ^^^f ^^^"^ ^i^ 
93eri3e bcr(26tDeiJ finb hi>6> imb i^rcic^^tig. 3. SSir ftubiercn bie 
Sriefe bes (Siccro. 4. 3ara^ doufine inar bei \{)X auf 33efucl^, 
aber je^t ift fie fort. 5. gjiutterS iDarcn gefteru bei un§, aber 
Vo\x iparen mcf)t ju §aufe. 6. 3Bay ift ber J)Zame be§ ^Siirger- 
mciftcre "om 2onbon? 7. SJlein 3Sater ^at mir Seffingg ^Serfe 
'' unb 5>^i^^^ 2ieber gum dJeb'urtstag ]j(efci^en!t. 8. 2(uf meiner 
9f?eife befucbte icb bie ©tdbte Sonbon; ^^ari§, S3erlin unb 3fiom. 
9. 4^ie gliiffe Ganaba^ finb gro^, aber bie gluffe G)ried)enlanb§ 
finb ficin unb furj. 10. 2Sir ioerben bie Slumen fiiu So^^ie auf 
ben 2:ifcf) ft^a;n. 11. griebri^g 3}hitter fd^enlt \^m I(o^ftoc!€ 
2l>cr!e, benn b'eute ift fein ©eburlc^tag. 12. ^a§ Staffer be§ 
Sanct Sorenj ift !tar, aber \}<x^o 2Baffer ber ^f)emfe ift triibe. 13. ^ 
Souife, bole (So^bie unb ©lifabet^ unb ioir toerben einen (S^agier^ 
gang im SBalbe nuii^cn. 14. ©iefer vgc^otte rebet ^ijiel toon ^ 
33urn§' ©ebid^ten. 15. ijeinrid^g greunbe iperbcn Ealo nad^ 
©nglanb reifen, unb fie iDcri^en^auc^ gj:an!reid; befud;en. 16. 3)ie 
3tra|en /^Torontog h?aren -iDa^rehb ber geftlic^^^iten felfjr fd)on. 
n. ^fe'e^si^at^ ftubieren Sie bie 9^eben bc§ 2)emoftf)ene§ ? ^8^ 
2(m ^reitag ober (Sonnabenb trerbcn \mx nac^ ^ingfton rfifeir 
urn Souife unb ^Jlargarete §u befud^en. 19. ©eorg ift je^t bei 
feinem 3]etter gri^ auf Sefucf). 20. 3Int Sonntag loaren ioir 
megen bes 3turme§ ju §aufe. 21. ^c^ )cja.hi in ber 2d;it>ei5 nid^t 
t)iel 3/ergnugen ge^abt, meil idE) auf ber S^leife !ran! loar. 

B. 1. Charles, bring Freddy and Max, and we shall play 
in the garden. 2. We have looked for William's book every- 
where. 3. The streets of Paris are wide and beautiful. 4. 



Who has bought these gloves for Emma ? 5. The city of 
Ottawa is the capital of Canada. G. We live in Canada, but 
our parents live in Germany. 7. We have presented flowers 
to Elizabeth and ^lary. 8. You have Goethe's works in 
your library. 9. I bought Schiller's William Tell at (6ei) a 
bookseller's in Hamilton. 10. We learn in this book the 
names of the gods of the Romans. 11. The Schmidts visited 
us yesterday. 12. What is the capital of Switzerland? 13. 
My father sent me instead of Max, because Max was too tired. 
14. The city of Berlin is the capital of the kingdom of 
Prussia. 15. Would you be happy, if you were rich 1 


1. Wer ist Konig von Preussen ? 2. Wo war Saras Cou- 
sine t 3. Was hat Ihr Vater Ihnen zum Geburtstag ge- 
schenkt ? 4. Sind die Strassen Torontos immer schon ? 5. 
Weshalb waren wir am Sonntag zu Hause, ? 6. Was ist die 
Hauptstadt Canadas ? 


76. Further Remarks on Declension of Proper Names. 

1. Proper names of towns, governed by a preposition in the genitive, 
do not take -%, as : inureit .^amburg, not far from Hamburg. 

2. Names of persons, even if preceded by an article, etc., take -g in 
the genitive before a governing noun, as: be§ ffeinen ^orl^ 5Bud)cr (but 
bie Sud)eu bc§ tlcinen ^arl). 

3. Feminine names frequently take -(e)n in the dat. and ace, especially 
if they end in -t, as : ^^ouife, D. A. l^uifeii. 

4. Family names (and even Christian names) formerly added -(e)n in 
the dat. and ace, and are usually so found in the classics, as : 

®oetl)e, D. A. ©oet^en 
©chiller, " @(^iUertt 

^arl, ■" tarin 
^eiftng, " ^effingen 

Note. — This inflection is now obsolete and not to be imitated! 


5. In the case of proper names in the genitive, preceded by a common 
noun as title : 

{a) If the governing word follows, the proper name takes the genitive 
ending, the title remaining undeclined and having no article, as : itijuig 
ipeinvid)§ (So^ne, King Henry's sons. 

{b) If the governing word precedes, the title has the article and the 
genitive ending, the proper name remaining undeclined, as : bie ©otjllC 
bc§ .^bnigg §ciitrtd). 

Note. — The title ^err takes -n in the genitive in both these cases, as: ^errtt 
©c^mibtS ^au§, or ba§ ^w.% be§ §errn ©cfitnibt. 

6. In the case of a Christian name without article, connected with a 
family name preceded by lion (indicating noble rank) : 

(a) When the governing word follows, the family name only is de- 
clined, as : ^riebric^ t)on @cf)iller8 @cbtd)te. 

{b) When the governing word precedes, only the Christian name is 
declined, as : Sie ©ebid^te ^riebrid)g t)on ^d^iller. 

7. The names of the Saviour, 3efu§ (5;t)riftu^, usually both follow the 
Latin declension, thus : n. 3efu8 (It)rifttt§, G. 3efu S^riftt, D. 3eftt Stirifto, 
A. Sefum dlji-iftum, Voc. 3efu (Stjrifte. 

Note. — Other biblical names, if without article, also follow the Latin inflection, espe- 
cially in the gen., as : 5)a§ enangeliutn St. 5Dlatt^di, the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

77. Declension of Foreign Substantives. 

1. Most foreign substantives follow one or other of the regular forma 
of declension, all feminines being weak. 

2. Most masculines and neuters from the Latin, ending in -u§, have 
the classical plural, but with no case-inflection in either number, as : 
ber iDiobu^, the mood: n.g. D. A. 6>«^. SDZobuS, Pliir. SOflobi ; ber dafug, 
the case : N. g. D. a. Sing. (S;aju§, Phir. (5afu§ ; '^^^ ^^cmpuS, the tense : 
N. G. D. a. Sing. XempuS, Plur. 2;em^ota. 

Notes. — I. Others change -uS to -en in the plur., as: ©lobu5, Plur. ©loben (such 
forms as ©lobuffe should be avoided as barbarous). 

2. 35er 21tla§ has pi. bie 3Itlanten. 

3. The Hebrew words E^erub and Serapl^ have the Hebr. PI. in -ittl and take -§ in 
the gen. sing. 

3. Neuters in -0 from the Greek, and in -um from the I>atin, take -% 
in the gen. sing., and change -a or -unt into -cn in the plur., as : ba6 
Sramo, the drama, g. Sing. 3)ramag, Plur. S)rameu ; "^^^ X^cmtt, the 


theme, Plur. Xt)Cmcn ; '^O,^ 3nbiDibuum, the individual, g. Sifig. Cmbioi^ 
biium«, Plur. 3nbiDibucn ; '^Qi^ 3?cibum, the verb, Plur. bie 5?ei-beit. 

Note. — ItOA ^[ima, the climate, has pi. iJHmata or ^limaten. 
4. Neuters from Latin Substantives with plur. in -ia add-S in the gen. 
sing., often dropping the Latin sing, termination, and form the plur. in 
-ten, as: bas '^(buerb(tum), the adverb, g. Sijtg. ?Ibt»evb(ium)^, Plur. OIb= 
berbicn; ba§ 'i>nrticip{ium), the participle, g. Sing. ^;parricip(iumii', Plur. 
^articipicn; ba? j^ofiir, the fossil, Plur. goffilicn; ba§ iD^.nevar, the 
mineral, Plur. 5J?ineraIicn. 

Notes. — i. These words formerly followed the full forms of Latin declension, grain- 
maiica/ terms (e, g. 33erbum, etc.) retaining these forms longest. 

2. The German word ba^^teinob, the jewel, has Plur. .Qteinobiftt as well as the regular 
Plur. Bleinobe. 

5. Masculines and neuters of recent introduction from juodern lan- 
guages take -3 in the gen. sing., and add -§ to form the plur., as : ?orb^, 
(IUib§, Sofag, ^anquier^, ^^ortrait^, 2oIo§, etc. 

Note. — ItaUan words are also found %\-ith their proper foreign plur., as Soil, Gonti. 

78. The Article with Names of Persons. 

Besides the cases specified in § ']i, i, above, the article is used with 
names of persons : 

1. Colloquially zxi<\ familiarly, as: JJCt ^(XXi, J)ic Ooilife. 

2. When they denote a class, as: eill ©etliiigton, a (manlike) Wel- 

3. Before names of paintings, etc., named from a pers., etc, as : clu 
!Rafae(, a (painting by) Rafael; llic 35enu§ Don W\[o, the [statue of) 
Venus of Milo. 



79. The Gender of Substantives is determined in German ■ 

I. by Meaning ; or 
II. by Form (Ending, etc.). 

80. I. Gender as determined ey Meaning. 
I. Masculine are names of : 

ia) Males, as : ber lO^ann, the man ; bct §etb, the hero. 

98 LESSON XVII. [§§80- 

Remark: But diminutives in -r^cu and-lcitt are neuter, as: 
ba» iDidnnlein or i).)tdnnd;eu. 

(b) Seasons, months and days, as: ber ^txh\i, the autumn; 
ber 3^"ii<^^^/ Januar)^ ; bcr OJHtttoodB, Wednesday. 

(c) Points of the compass, as: bcr 9^orb(en), the north. 

(d) Precioics stories and inountains, as : bcr ^iamant, the 
diamond ; bcr 53roc!en, the J3rocken. 

2. Feminine are names of: 

(^7) Females, as : bie 5^au, the woman ; bic ^oc^ter, the 

Remark : But btt§ 2i}ei6, the woman, is neuter ; also diminu- 
tives in -i^cn and -(etu, as : btt§ ^od)terc^en, the little 
daughter ; bal 93idbc^en, the girl ; bttS grdulein, the young 

ib) Trees, plants, fruits 2ir\<l flowers generally, as : bic GidBe, 
the oak ; bic 9tcf]el, the nettle ; bie S3irne, the pear (but bcr 
2(^fel, the apple) ; bie 9?ofe, the rose. 

{c) Cardijial Numerals used as substantives, as : bie @in§, 
the (number or figure) one ; bie (Bed>g, the six ut dice, etc.). 

3. Neuter are names of : 

{a) Metals almost always, as : btt§ Slei, lead; ba§ ©ifen, iron. 

Note. — ^cr 2ta^(, steel, is Masc. 

(J?) Collectives almost always, as : ba$ 3>oI!, the people ; baS 
§eer, the army ; especially when beginning with %t-, as : bag 
Giebirge, the mountain-chain. 

(c) Cou?itries 2ind provinces 2i\most always, as : (^[i^) (Suro^a, 
Europe ; (bos) Ganaba ; islands, cities, towns, villages, etc., 
always, as : (bn§) §amburc3 ; (btt§) 9^om, Rome. 

Remarks. — i. Names of countries and provinces in -et, 
-au and -3 are feminine, as: bie S^iirfci, Turkey; \sxt 6c^tDei}, 
Switzerland. ■ ""^ 


2. Names of countries, etc., when not neuter, always have 
the definite article (see § 44, 3). 

{tl) Infinitives, letters of the alphabet, and other parts of 
speech (except Adjectives used of persons, and Cardinal 
Numerals; see 2, c, above), used as Substantives, as: ba0 
Sadden, the (act of) laughing; bo8 %, the (letter) A; bo0 %^, 
the I; bttg 3Senn imb "^^a^ %Ux, (the) 'if and (the) 'but.' 

Give tlie gender of the following Substantives, assigning the rule in 
each case: '^Ipril, ®o(b, (Srbbecre, Xorf)ter, ©uropa, ^ifc^of, bonbon, 3ura, 
9tubiu (ruby), SBaUorfiei (Wallachia), Unrecf)t, ©iiben (South), @elb, 
^aufen, @onimer. 

81. Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives. 
The Interrogative Pronouns are : 

1. ttic(r§cr? which? — Definite. 

2. tticr? who? 

3. ttiag? what? 

82. 9!BcIt§cr? is declined after the biefer Model, but, as 
Profwun, lacks the Gen., thus : 

Singular. Plural. 


Nom. hjeld^cr n?elc^c U)elc^eS treld^e, which 

Dat. iuelc^cm tt)elcf)er toelc^em iDelc^cn, (to, for) which 
Ace. ioelc^en h)el(f)c irelcfieg ir>el(f)c, which 

Remarks. — i. 2BeIc^er ? asks 'which of a number?' of 
persons or things, and agrees in gender with the noun follow- 
ing it, as : 

iBelcf)er toon biefen 9Jldnnern ift f)ier gemefen? 
Which of these men has been here .? 

3BeIrf)c§ toon biefen ©iir^crn l^aben ©ie ge^obt ? 
Which of these books have you had ? 


2. The neuter sing. luc((^rd is used before the verb *to be,' 
irrespectively of the gender or number of the subject (com- 
pare the similar use of e^3, § 39, i), as : 

Which is your sister (brother)? 

2C^cId)c6 ift Sbre ©cbiuefter (Jbr Sruber) ? 

Which are the children of the count ? 

2Belcf*c$ finb bie ^inbeu bc§ @rafcn ? 

83. 9Bcr ? and mas ? are used in the Sing, only, and are 
declined as follows : 


Nom. tucr, who? h)a§, what? 

Gen. UH'fj'cn (or iiH'§), whose, of ir>e]'fen (or n)e»), of 
whom what 

Dat. ir>em, (to, for) whom 

Ace. iuen, whom tt>a^, what 

Remarks. — i. SBcr is used of persons only, for all gen- 
ders and both numbers, as : 
Sing. M. 23cr ift biefcr OJIttttn? f. jene IJrttU? n. biefe§ ^inb? 
Fliir. 2Ber finlJ biefe DJIdnncr ? etc. 

2. SBtlS is not used of persons. 

3. llBag is never used in the Dative. In the Dat. or Ace. 
with prepositions, tuao is replaced by mo (ir>or before vowels), 
placed before the preposition (compare § 38, Rem. 5, for 
similar use of ba), as : 

SBorauf fi^ert Ste? On what (whereon) are you sitting? 
SBoi^on fprecf)en 2ie ? Of what (whereof) are you speaking ? 
Note. — SSttrunt? = for what, wherefore, why? not ItiOnim. 

4. With prepositions governing the Gen., ttJcS is used before 
the preposition, as: tUC§f)aI6, ttJC8tt)ec3en '? on what account, 
wherefore, why ? 

5. The neute?- Gen. ir)ef]en? is rarely used, except as above. 


6. Jfi^QS is sometimes used as interrog. adv.) for trarum, why? 
(For the use of Sras for ^i\ooA, see under ettua^, § 149, i.) 

84. The Interrogative Adjectives are : 

1. tticlt^er, ttelt^e, ludt^CS? which? v^hat ? — Definite. 

2. tiittS fiir ein, tuas fiir cine, mag fiir cin ? \ what kind of .'' 

Plur. teas fiir ? ( — Indefinite. 

85. SBcIf^cr, as Interrogative Adjective, follows the 
biefer Model throughout, as : 












iretd^e, which 





it)eld;er, of which 





tr>elrf^en, (to, for which) 





toelc^e, which 

Examples : 
Which man was here ? 
HBeliJcr -i^iaun h?vir bier? 
What books have you "i 
SBcIi^e 33iicber Baben 3ie? 
Remarks. — i. Selcber is also used in exclamatory sen 
fences (=what!), sometimes without termination, as: 
2Bc(l§(c6) 33ergniii3en I What pleasure ! 

2. The stem Irelcf* is also followed by etn, and is unin 
fleeted, as : 

SBcIi^ ein Stumt I ^^'hat a storm ! 

86. In declining tt)a§ fiir ein, mas remains unchanged 
while tin agrees with the substantive, as : 
N. M. Sae fiir ein §ut ? a. ^a% fiir einen §ut? What kind 

of (a) hat.? D. 3Ba§ fiir cinem §ut? To what kind 

of a hat ? 

I02 LESSON XVII, [§§86^ 

G. F. 9Ba§ fiir etncr 33lume ? Of what kind of (a) flower, etc. 
In the Plur. tUO§ fiir is used without article, as : 
N. A. 2Btt§ fiir ^inber ? What kind (sort) of children ? 
D. !2Bo§ fiir Rinbern ? To what kind of children ? 

The tin is also omitted before names of materials and 
other words used partitively, as : 

mas fiir §0!^ ? 2Ba§ fiir ^Better ? 

What kind of wood ? What sort of weather ? 

87. Indirect Statements. 

Direct Statement or Quotation : 
He said:'! am tired.' 

Indirect Statement or Quotation : 

He said (that) he was tired. 

1. An Indirect Statement is always a subordi7iate clause, 

2. In Indirect Statements, the Verb is usually in the Sub- 
junctive (especially if the verb of the principal clause be in 
the Impf.), and has the same te7ise which it would have, if 
statement were made di7'ectly\ as : 

®ie fagten, bag e§ maf)r fci (i. e., fie fagten : „@§ ifl Ujabr/' 
pres.), They said that it was true. 

@r anttrortete, bag er geftern ange!ommen fci (i. e., er antit»Dr= 
tete : „3<^ ^i^ geftern angefommen/'/^r/".), He answered, 
that he had arrived yesterday. 

Note. — In English, on the other hand, a past tense is always fol- 
lowed by a past tense, as in the above examples. 

3. The conjunction btt§ may be omitted in such clauses, 
which then have the construction of a principal sentence 
(i. e., verb in second Tg\dice), as : 

©r fagte, cr fci geftern angefommen. 


88. Indirect Questions. 

Direct Question : 
Who is there ? 

Indirect Question : 
He asked who was there ? 

1. In Indirect (or Dependent) Questions the con- 
struction is that oi^d^^^jidsjUxAsdise. (verb last). 

2. If the verb of the principal sentence be in the Impf., 
that of the question will be in the subjunctive, and have the 
same toise which it would have in the direct question, as : 

3agen Sie mir gefddigft, loo jener §err tr»ohnt (Dir. Qu. : 

21^0 iro^nt jener § err? /r^j.), Tell me, if you please, 

where that gentleman lives ? 

@r fragte mid^, Icelcf^er t>on bieien .'perren meiu i^ruber fei. He 

asked me which of those gentlemen was my brother (Dir. 

Qu. : Selcber, etc., ifl ^Br 33ruber ? pres.) 


*^^* The article will be supplied by the pupil, according to preceding 
rules, where not given. 

to use, brau(f)en buying, b— .^aufen 

march, marfc^ieren life, b — Si^^xi 

save, rettcn learning fact of), b — Berrien 

answering, b — 2lnttr>orten lily, b — Sitie 

paying, b — ::Be§ai^Ien market, ber 5Rar!t 

jewel, precious stone, b — morning, ber 93torgen 

©belftein afternoon, ber D^a^mittag 

asking (of questions), b — plum, b — ^ftaume 

/^ragen emerald, b— ©maragb' 

Italy, 3talien winter-month, ber SBintermo'- 

fire-place, b — ^amin' nat 

elm, b — Ulme -valuable, precious, IrertUoU 

blue, Blau generally, usually, geh)c»f)nlidi 

light, easy, leic^t ' etc., u.f.iD. (= unb fo meiter, 

useful, nii^lic^ . i. e. " and so further ") 

I04 LESSON XVII. [§§ 88-- 

Genitive with ) in the morning, iiiorgen§ or bc§ 93?orcjen§ 
^ force.^ ) ill the afternoon, nadnnittagS or be§ 9Mc^mittag§ 
The Cardinal Points of the Compass (= bie i)ier §immcl§= 

gcc3cnbcn) : North, (bcr) 'DZovben ; South, (ber) ©iiben ; East, 

(bcr) Dftcn ; West, (ber) 33eften. 
Names of the Months : ber ganuar, ber gebruar, ber Max^, 

ber 2Ipril', ber Wax, ber Su'ni, ber gu'It, ber SUiguft', ber ©e^= 

tember, ber Dftober, ber 9^obember, ber 3^e5emBer. 

Idiom: I saved his life, lit. I saved to or for him the life, 

3cl) rettete ihm tai ficbcn. See § 44, 6 (^). j ^--irC' 


A. 1. 2Ber t)at ba§ Silb t)on meinem 9Zeffen iiber ba§ ^amtn 
gct)diu3t? 2. Sa§ fiir einen Jifc^ ^at ^oBann auf bem 9JJar!le 
gefauft? 3. 2(uf iuclc^e San! luerben ioir un§ fe^en? 4. SSels 
d^em ^uabeu gel^ort bicf c§ ^efjer ? ©§ ge^ort SBil^elm. 5. 3ene§ 
93Mb(f>en auf ber Strafe ift ba§ Jod^tercf^en unfere§ 9Zaci^bar§. 

6. 233a§ macben 3ie gelpcf)nlicb, iremi (Sie einen geiertag baben? 

7. ®e§ 53iorgeu5 ftubiere tcb, imb be§ 9^acf»mtttag§ rubre id^ auf 
bem gluffe. 8. 2BeId>ey finb bie 9Zamen ber fieben ^^age ber 
2i>od)e? 93iontag, u. f. tu. 9. 3Bem fc^icfen 2ie biefen SBrief? 
10. 36 fcbic!e t^n bem 33ucbt)dnbler. 11. 2Soriiber l^aben bie 
§errerLge(a(f't ? 12. 3Ser t[t bie g-rau neben meiner ^Tante auf 
ber 5?an! ? 13. '^.a^ fiir plugen l^at ber Stube^nt ? Seine 5(ugen 
finb blau. 14. Si>orau§fmadBen luir 3$tffe?' ©ir tnacben fie 
au^5 ©ifen un> St&f^L .i^. ^arl ift mit bent Semen feiner 2(uf= 
gabe nirftt fe^i'g." 16. 3Sorauf ^ahixx bie (Sd^iiler fid; gefe^t? 
2ie F^aben ficb auf bie S3riide gefe^t. IT. 2Sa§ fiir ©belfteine 
h<{h^\\ 3ie ba ? 18. 3cf> f^*iB^ ^i^i*^" X)iamant(cn), einen 9f?ubin, 
unb einen ©maragb. 19. ^a§ §eer ift bon t^ranfreid^ nad^ 
Stalien marfdf>iert. 20. 5^appIeon fdBidfte bem ©rafen einen SDia= 
mant(cn), tueil bcr Graf ibm bay S!.thz\\ gerettet ho.\ii. 

B. 1. Which of your sisters are learning German.? 2. For 
whom is this diamond ? It is for the countess. 3. Which 


are your pens ? 4. The asking of questions is vety easy, but 
the answering is very difficult. 5. The north, the south, the 
east, and the west are the four cardinal points of the compass. 
6. Which of these students is Mr. Braun ? 7. The boy buys 
himself pears and plums in the market. 8. My uncle has 
three children — a girl and two boys. 9. June, July, and 
August are ver}^ hot in Canada. 10. Buying is pleasant, but 
paying is verr disagreeable. 11. Iron and steel are very 
useful. 12. The rose and the lily are flowers, but the oak 
and the elm are trees. 13. I blame Mar)' because she wastes 
her money. 14. What would you do with your money, if you 
were rich ? 15. We always hoped that William would learn 


1 . Wo hangt das Bild von Ihrem Xeffen } 2. Wer ist das 
M^dchen vor unserm Hause ? 3. Weshalb schickte der 
Konig dem Biirgermeister einen Diaraant(en)? 4. Was fiir 
Augen hat der Student ? 5. Ist das Fragen leicht ? 6. Was 
wiirden Sie machen, wenn Sie einen Feiertag hatten } 



89. Gender of Substantives as determined by Form. 

I. Masculine are : 

(a) Substantives in -ir§, -ig, -lltg, -lit, almost always^ 
as : bcr ^ranit^, the crane ; bcr §omg, the honey ; 
bcr trembling, the stranger ; bcr 5{tem, the breath. 

(J)) Those in -cl, -cn (not infinitives), -cr, generally 
(names of agents in -cr always) , as : ber Soffcl, 

I06 LESSON XVIII. [§§8g- 

the spoon ; htx ©arteit, the garden ; ber ©artnet^ 

the gardener. 

(c) Monosyllables — generally (but with many except 
tions), as : bcr ^rieg, the war; bcr 2:ag, the day, 

2. Feminine are : 

{a) Substantives in -ft, -^cit, -feit, -f^aft, -ttttg, -in, 

j^w^, as : bie 8c^meic^elci, flattery ; btc Scions 

"^tr~beauty; bic ^anfbarfcit, gratitude; bie 

greunbf(|nft, friendship ; btc §offnttng, hope; bic 

®rdfin, the countess ; bie greunbin, the (female) 


Note. — The termination -in is used to form feminine names from 
masculines, usually with Umlaut, always so in monosyllables. 

{b) Those in -t (especially after a consonant), -eitb, 
gefierally, as: bie 9,xa\i, strength; bie ^l^toft, 
the future ; bie 2^ugenb, virtue. 

(c) Those in -e, ge?terally (but with many exceptions), 

as : bie §of)e, height ; bie ©ro^e, size. 

(d) Some in -ni§ (see also under neuters), as: bie 

3SiIbni§, the wilderness. 

(e) Foreign Substantives in -age, -ie (French); -if 

(Greek) ; -en^, -tot, -(t)ion, -ur (Lat.), always 
as : bie Sourttge, courage ; bie 3Jlelobie', the melody; 
bie SJlufif, music; bie Slubieitj', the audience; 
bie Unitjerfittif , the university ; bie Station', the 
nation ; bie "^aiViX' , nature. 

3. Neuter are : 

(a) Substantives in -i^en and -leitt (diminutives), al- 
ways (without regard to sex), as : ba0 5DlttnnIein^ 

bc0 grttuUin, btt0 5!Jlabi^en. 


(^) Those in -turn, a/mosf a/ways, as : ba§ S^riftentum, 
Christendom, Christianity. 

(c) Those in -niS^ -f ttl, -|c(, generally, as : bag ©reigttiS, 
the event; bo§ 8cf)ic!fal, fate, destiny; ba§ Sidts 
fel, the riddle. 

(i/) Those beginning with the prefix @c-, unless other- 
wise determined by meaning, termination, or 
derivation, as ; bas ©cmdlbe, the painting ; bas 
©emacf), the apartment ; but: bcr @et>attcr, the 
godfather; bie ©ebatteritt, the godmother; bic 
©efeEft^aft, the company ; bcr ©ebtttuc^, the 
usage (from bct Sraud^, masc. monosyll.). 

Give the gender of the following substantives, assigning the rule in 
each case: i8eild)eit, §ut, ^ird^e, ^ilnfttcr, ?anbid)aft, Gjfig (vinegar), 
S3(ume, @e|cf)en!, ^ndblein, iBegrabniS, ^urcfjt, ^afen, ©eiritter, ginger, 
apfel, ^orb, Unit)erfttat', Stftrolog, €eppl4 ^^f)tIofopf)ie. ^ 

90. General Remarks on Gender. 

1. Gender agrees, as in English, with sex, except in ba§ 
2©eib, in Diminutives in -(^en and -(cin, and in certain 
compounds (see below). 

2. Inanimate objects, which in English are all alike neu 
ter, may be of any gender in German, as determined by 
Meaning or Form, as : bcr §ut, bie 33(ume, btt0 33uc^. 

3. Each substantive of which the gender is not determined 
by the rules should be learnt with the Definite Article as 
the sign of its gender. 

4. Compounds are of the gender of the last component 
(hence ba§ ^^^^w^^J^Wtmer, the woman, is neuter), except 

bet 2(bf(^CU, disgust, from bic Sc^eu. 
— bic Stntttjort, the answer, from bag S^l'ort. 
bet ^itttUOdJ, Wednesday, from bic SSoc^e. 

I08 LESSON XVIII. [§§90 

Also certain compounds of 9)iut, which are given in Ap- 
pendix I. 

5. The exceptions to the foregoing lists will be found in 
Appendix I. 

91. Double Gender. 

The gender of the following substantives (with others 
given in App. J.), varies with their meaning : 



bet 33anb, volume 

^, , ( ribbon 
»«« »«"^' 1 bond, tie 

^(inbe \ 

S3dnber > See § 64, above, 

Sonbe ) 

ber 33aiier, peasant 
bas 53auer, bird-cage 


ber §eibe, heathen ) 
bic §eibe, heath 1 
bcr 3d6ilb, shield 
ba§ (5c6i(b, sign (of an inn, 




bcr See, lake | 
bic See, sea ) 


bcr Tbor, fool, g. be§ ^^orcn 
ba§ ^^or, gate, g. be§ ^f)orc§ 



(The pupil will supply the article in German where not given.) 

to visit, study (at a univer- relate, tell, ergdfjlen^ "^ 

sity), befurfKn (+ Ace.) paint, rnalen 

collect, gather, fammein (female) neighbour, b^^^Zad^s 
peasant, country-man, b^- barin 

^auer orator, b — S^ebner — -^ 

bee, b— 33tene bedroom, iP^^Sd^lofaimmer 


boat, baC^ 5Boot little son, h^^^b^nd^zn 

friendship, b^greunbf^aft sun, D^^ 3onne 

inn, b^^*^(Saft6aug city-gate, town-gate, b-^ 

district, locality, b^^-^^e'genb Stabtt^or _^ 

history, story, b — ©efcf)ic^te ingratitude, b^-^Unban!bar!eit 

waiter, b^^^eUner way, road, b^^^-^^eg 

piano, ba§ Alabier' wind, b — 23inb 

vice, ba§ Rafter . rage, iury, bie 23ut 

lesson, b'^^eftion' sign, bas Qt\d>tr\ 

people, bie ^ieute fpl.) terrible, terribly, fiircfiterltc6 

love, h-^^kbt strong (heavily, of rain, etc.), 

mathematics, b — WHaih^matii ftar! 

(sing.) willingly, with pleasure, gem 
so, fo 

Idioms: Is I like to learn German, ^d) lerne gcrn ^cutfd) 

2. A week ago to-<lay, ''oeute r a di t l^agcn iDat.). 

3. A week from to-day, ^cute ii b e r adyt Jage '^Acc). 


A. 1. Cbne (bie) greuuM'cf^aft, (tie) c^cffnung unb Tbie) Siebe 
n)iirbe bas Seben I'c^r traurig fein. 2. Unfere ^^ettern traren beute 
t)or acbt ^agen bei im«. 3. (Xie) 2c^metcbe(ei ift !ein ^^\d)tn ber 
greunbfcbaft. 4. 2i}i(belm, leme beine 2eftion. 5. 23a6 fiir 
Sdnbe finb auf bem ^ifd^e in ^brer 53ibUotbe!? 6. (55 finb fiinf 
33anbe bon Scbiders 2i>er!en. 7. Xie 23ut be^ Stumxe^ ift 
,furcbterlicb, aber bae Scbiff ift icbort im §afen. 8. 2ernt ^^x 
©ruber gem 93ktbemati! ? DZein, aber er lemt gem Xeutfc^. 
9. Sejrf^m DJIdbcbe n geboren biefe D^inge/ ber 93iane ober ber 
(Sara ? 10. Xie Xanfbarfeit ift eine 4:iig'ertb,*'aBer bie Unban!bar= 
feit ift ein Safter. 11. ^art ScbmiM befucbt im ©inter bie Unis 
berfttdt, aber im Sommer tpobnt er bei feinen Gttern auf bem 
Sanbe. 12. 3^"^^ grdutein bat-ibrer greunbin em Sanb jum 
©eburtv^tag gefcbenft, unb ibre greunbin ift bamit febr gufrieben. 
13. Xiefe §anbfcbu^e geboren nicbt mir, fte geboren meinem 

no LESSON XVIII. V / [§§9X- 

8ditt»aiier. 14. ^cr 93ialcr hat ein (Schilb fiir ba§ ©aftbau^ bor. 
bem 2l)ov cjemalt. 15. 'D3knc, baft bu bie i^dnber fur being 
^[Ruttcr gefauft ? 9Zem, aber id) U^erbe fie morgen ober am 5)?itts 
tDccf) faufen. 16. ^etlner, bolen Sie mir gefdfligft ein ^^Jteffer 
unb eincn Soffel. 17. 6r bat mir feine 2Cntir)ort auf meinen 
33rief gefd)ic!t. 18. 2Ba§ fiir eine 9JieIobie f^ielt ba§ Xod^tercben 
unfcrer SBirtin auf bem plainer? 19. 2Bemt icb G5elb F)dtte, fo 
toiirbe id) eincn Xeppic^ unb 5?orbdnge fiir mein Sc^Iafjimmer 
faufen. 20. "^txm 9J^arie ifjre Seftion nid^t lernt, fo toirb fie in 
ber (Sd)ule nid)t gut anttoorten. 

B. 1. This country-man lives on a heath near the lake. 
2. The tempest is terrible, but the ship is already in the 
harbour. 3. The stranger praises this locality on account of 
the beauty of the landscape. 4. What kind of a flower is it ? 
It is a violet. 5. We met a stranger on the way to the uni- 
versit}'. 6. Your aunt is my neighbour. 7. Who are these 
people ? They are the parents of my cousin. 8. The mother 
relates to her little son the story of the little man in the 
wood.^ 9. Have you heard the words of the orator? 10. 
During the tempest the wind shook the house. 11. The girl 
hangs the bird-cage before the window in the sun (ace). 12. 
The bees gather honey from the flowers upon the heath, and 
the peasant sells it in the town. 13. When we hastened 
home yesterday, it was raining heavily. 14. I shall not wait 
for George, because I have no time. 15. When I resided at 
(6ei) my uncle's, I was always at home at ten o'clock in the 


1. Wer war heute vor acht Tagen bei Ihnen ? 2. Was fiir 
Biicher haben Sie auf Ihrem Tische ? 3. Lernen Sie gern 
Mathematik? 4. Was macht Karl Schmidt im Winter? 
5. Wer spielt jetzt auf dem Klavier? 6. Was werden Sie 
heute iiber acht Tage machen .'' 

^1 f 'KE.'Lh.nV'E. PRONOUNS. Ill 



92. Relative Pronouns. 
The Relative Pronouns are : 

1. bcr, bie, bo§, > who (of persons), which (of 

2. toclt^er, ttJelt^e, XsstX^t^, ) Mz>?^j) — Definite. 

%. ttJCt. who (= he who, whoever) ) 

o 1- ./ .1-^. L- u 1, . .[• — Indefinite. 
4. tua§, what (= that which, whatever) ) 

\' ^ \ ^ r the like of whom or which — Indeclinable. 
6. bcrglcii^en, > 

93. ^er, bie, bag, as Relative Pronoun, is declined as 

follows : 

Singular, Plural, 


Nom. ber bie ba§ bie, who, which, that 

Gen. beffcn bereit befjen ber en whose, of which 

Dat. bem ber bem ^enen, (to, for) whom, which 

Ace. ben bie ba^ bie, whom, which, that 

Observe. — These forms are the same as those of the Defi- 
nite Article, except the added -en of the Gen. Sing., Gen. 
Plur., and Dat. Plur. 

94. S3[BeIr^er, as Relative Pronoun, is declined after the 
btefer Model, but, like the Interrogative toelc^er, l acks the 


112 LESSON XIX. [§§ OS- 

OS. Remarks on bcr and ttJclt^cr. 

1. ^cr and toell^Cr refer alike to both persons and things, 
and are interchangeable, except that : 

(a) In the gen., beffen, beren, beffen,//. beren (not tt)el^e§^ 
etc.), are always used (see § 82, above). 

(^) ^cr is used when the antecedent is of the First or 
Second Person, the relative being, in that case, always fol- 
lowed by the Personal Pronoun, as : 

I, who am your friend, 
3dE», bcr i^ 3br greunb bin, 
(or : 3^ bic t(^ 3^re greunbin Bin). 

O God, (thou) who art in Heaven, 
D ©ott, bet btt im §immel bift. 

2. ^tt and mel^er, referring to inanimate objects, are usu- 
ally replaced by tUO (\vox- before a vowel) de/ore a preposition 
(compare § 83, 3, above, for similar use of Wo for tt)a§), as : 

The table, on which (w/iereon) the book is, 
^er X\\<i), auf irelc^em, or : niorauf ba§ 33ud^ ift. 

3. The Gen. beffen, etc., always precedes its case, as : 

A tree, the leaves of which are green, 
©in ^aum, beffcn Slditcr griin finb. 

96. Remarks on totx and tna§. 

1. fJS^tt and ttJtt§ are declined like the Interrogative Pro- 
nouns irer? and \va^? 

2. 93Bft is used of persons only, for all genders and both 
numbers; ttiaS never of persons. 


^ REMARKS ON tDCr AND tva^. II3 

3. HBcr and ttJa§, as relatives, are indefinite and compound 
in meaning, and include the antecedent, as : 
2Ber mcf)t Boren h)tll, mu^ fiiMen, 
(He) who will not hear, must feel. 
29Ba§ \i) %\miXK ge|cf)idft babe, ift nic^t biel. 
What (= that which) I have sent you, is not much. 

J^ 4. gBe r never has, anjjitecexient, since it includes the ante- 
cedent itself ; therefore 

never say : ^eu 9}^ann, tticr ^ier tear, 
but: ®er 5Rann, tucIiJ^er l^ter tr>ar, 
(The man who was here). 

5. 9QSa§ never has an antecedent, unless the antecedent be 
a neuter_adiective or pronoun, such as nid^tg, nothing ; ti\^c,%, 
something; alle§, everything ; or a phrase, in which cases tcaS 
always replaces bttf, as : 

Nothing (that) I say, etc., gf^id^tg, toa§ \^ fage, etc. 
All (that) I have, etc., 3Itrc§, tlia§ ic^ ^a6e, etc. 
The best (that) I have, etc., ®a§ ^efte, toa§ \^ \^<x\)^, etc. 
He does not learn his lessons, which (i. e. * the not 
. learning ') is a great pity, ^r lernt feine 2e!ttonen nic^t, 
t5)tt§ fef)r fcbabe ift. 

6. Ever = out^ or tmmer after it)er or h)a§, as : 

3Ser e§ au(§ (immcr) gefagt ^at, Whoever has said it. 

7. The Relative h)tt6, like the Interrogative, is not used 
after prepositions in the Dative or Accusative, but is re- 
placed in the same way by ttJi)(r); with prepositions governing 
the Genitive, ttic§ is used (see § 83, 3, above^. 

Observe. — The rel ative must never /^/> ^^7////'// ^n^riprmnn 
as it so frequently is m English, hence : 
(E?igl.) The man I met, 
{Germ.) ^er Wi(inxi, ttjclt^em (bem) ic^ begegnete. 

114 LESSON XIX. [§§97- 

^e§glci(^cn and bcrg(ci(^cn are indeclinable words, 
the former referring to a masc. or neuter noun in the sing., 
the latter to fern, or plural nouns, as : 

©in Mann, begcjlcid^i (dat.) i^^ nie Becjegnete, 

A man, the like of whom I never met. 

§a6en (2ie jemaly be^i^Icid^en cjefjort? 

Have you ever heard the like of that ? 

©ine^rciu, bcrgleidBen, etc., A woman, the like of whom, etc. 

^inber, bergleicf)en, etc., Children, the like of whom, etc. 

98. Construction of Relative Sentences. 

1. Every relative sentence is of course a dependent sen* 
tence, and as such must have the verb at the end, as : 

The wine, which I have sent you, is very good, 
^er 2i>cin, ben \6> %hnz\\ gcfr^irft IjaBe, ift fef)r gut. 

2. The Relative must immediately follow its antecedent, 
when the latter (whether subject or not) precedes the verb of 
a principal sentence, or when the separation from the ante- 
cedent would cause any ambiguity, as : 

!Der iOZann a^e((^er geftern ^xtx it?ar, ift mein Cn!el. The 
man who was here yesterday is my uncle. 

!^a^ 8uc^, tvel(^ei$ Sie mir fc{>tcften, ()abe i^ nic^t gebraud)t, 
I have not used the book you sent me, but : 3<^ \^t 
t)a0 Su^ ni(^t gebraud)t, xatX^ti u. i. ». 

3. In sentences with toer or tt)a§, the relative clause will be 
counted as the first member of the principal sentence, which 
will therefore begin with the verb, e. g. : 

93Ber ntcBt boren it)itr, mufe fiifjlen, 
He who will not hear, must feel. 
Note. — In German, every dependent sentence or clause is separated 
from the sentence on which it" depends by a comma. The relatives 
tt)eld]er and ber must therefore always be preceded by a comma. 




99. Irregular Weak Verbs. 

I. A Few Weak Verbs, besides adding the termination -te 
to form the Impf., and -t to form the P. Part., also change 
the Stem Vowel in the Impf. Indicative and P. Part., but 
fiot in the Impf. Subjunctive. They are : 

Infinitive. Impf. Ind. 

Impf. Subj 

. p. Part. 

brennen (intr.), to burn, be Brannte 



consumed with fire 

fcnnen, to know, be ac- - fannte 



quainted with 

nciinen, to name nannle 



rennen, to run (at full speed) rannte 



fcnben^send {J^-^^ 


1 gefttnbt 
1 gefenbet 

hjcnben, to turn \ ^ . ^ 


1 gebanbt 
( geiDcnbct 

Observe: i. The double forms of the last two verbs, of 
which the shorter are in more general use. 

2. The three following verbs have also a consonaiit change, 
with Umlaut in the Impf. Subj. : 

Infinitive. Impf. Ind. 

bringen, to bring brcdjte 

benftnrfs*-rtiink ba|t^e 

biinfen, to seem (impers.) \ 7 
(beuc^ten, bduct)ten) ^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

Remarks. — i. Compare the English 
think, thought. 

2. The forms bdud^te, gebdud^t, are as yet more common 
than beucbtc, gebeucbt, but the latter are according to the new 
official orthography. 

Impf. Subj. 

P. Part. 











ish : bring 

, brought; 

Il6 LESSON XIX. [§99 

3. Besides the Inf. beuci[)ten, there is also a Pres. Ind. 
3. sing, bcuc^t. 

Note. — The German Perfect often replaces the English Past or 
Imperfect (see also Less. XLIIL), as : 

I sent you the book yesterday, 
^d) l^obc 3I)ncn gcftern ba^ ^ud) gcft^itft. 
I was working yesterday the whole day, 
3cf) ^ok geftern ben ganjen Za^ gearbeitct. 


consider, bcbenfen (trans.) acquaintance, bie53efanntfcl^aft 

order, bespeak, Befteden postman, ber ^oftbote 

think of, benfen an (+ ace.) title, ber ^itel 

or ben!en (+ gen.) all, everything, 2IIIe§ 

rec ognize, c rfennen unhappy, unfortunate, nn- 
like to hear, gern fjoren ^ gliidlicf) 

divide, share, teilen improbable, untt)af)rfc^einUcl^ 

burn, consume with fire just now, eben, foebeu 

(trans.), i)crbrcimen diligently, industriously, flei^ig 

wish, iDiinfc^en easily, re_adily, leid^t 

apply to, ftdB tDenben an really, tptrflic^ 

(+ ace.) 

Idiom: It is a pity, &i ift fdjabc (adj.). 

A. 1. T)^v ^aifer fanbte etnen 93oten mil ber 9^ad^rtc^t nad^ 
53ernn. 2. Ser nidit fur micf) ift, ift loiber mid;. 3. ^ie Seute, 
bet benen id^ auf 33efud^ cjetoefen bin, finb (SdBotten. 4. ^at ber 
^eUncr Slde^ gebrad^t, \ya§> h)tr braud^en? 5. ^er ^oftbote ^at 
mir bie Dtac^ric^t gebrad^t, it)orauf id) iuartete. 6. gc^ erfannte 
toirflic^ ben §errn nicbt, ber geftern mit meinem 3i^er in ber 
^irdfie Wax. 7. 2)ag $ferb bey ©eneral§ ranute urn ben $rei§. 
8. '3)er Jr^-'^'^IinS/ beffen ^efanntfc^aft icb §u madien iuiinfcbe, 
njirb morgen ^ierfein. 9. ®a§ geuer brannte im Dfen unb Ders 


brannte ba§ ^olj. 10. 2Benn er ungliicflid^ loar, iDanbte er fid^ 
immer q<\\ micf», ber ic^ fein grcunb tnar. 11. 5cf) bac^te f^eute an 
bie ©efc^icbte, bie (Sie mir geftern er5dMten, unb id^ f>abe fe^r 
barilber tgelacbt. 12. *oat bcr !j)iener bie ^iicber nac^ §aufe 
gebracbt, bie id; beimSucBBdnbler gefauft ^abe? 13. 93tenfrf), F)aft 
bu je kbact>t, ir»a§ bu bift ? 14. 25ir l^aben bag §oI^ f c^on ber* 
brannt, ba§ it)ir t»or acbt ^Tagen gefauft l^aben. 15. 3^iefe§ ^inb 
er^dljlt immer 511 §aufe, ii^as c^s in ber Sd^ute f)ort. IG. 2ltlc§, 
n)a§ er l^at, teilt er mit mir, ber id^ fein greunb bin. 17. @Iauben 
(5ie bie @efrf)id^te, bie Ajerr 33raun un§ erjdblt fjat? 18. ^ie 
grau, beren ^^od^terc^en bei un§ nuf Sefuc^ ift, ti;)irb morgen nad^ 
§aufe reifen. 19. 2Ba§ 'Sie in ber Stabt gebcrt Fjaben, ift fe^r 
unit)af)rfc^einlic^. 20. @§ regnete geftern, it)a§ febr fc^abe icar, 
ba tr>ir auf bem 2anbe tcaren, 

B. 1. Do you hear what I say to you? 2. My father al- 
ways burnt the letters which were no longer useful. 3. He 
has not told me what he wishes. N 4. The man, in whose 
house we lived, is the brother of our neighbour. "^ 5. Here is 
the meat which you have ordered^ 6. The honey which the 
countryman brought us yesterday is not good. 7. Do you 
know the artist who has painted this picture? 8. People 
v/ho are not industrious do not become rich. 9. We readily 
believe what we hope and wish for. 10. What were you 
thinking of when you met me yesterday? 11. Have you all 
you need? 12. I believe that I know the man who is in 
front of the house. 13. I always burn the newspapers I do 
not need. 14. The students to whom these books belong do 
not study them diligently, which is a pity. 15. I do not 
know the song, the title of which you have just named. 16. 
What was burning ? The gardener was burning leaves. 


1 . Was machen Sie gewohalich mit den Zeitungen, die Sie 
nicht inehr brauchen? 2. Wer hat Ihnen diese Nachricht 


Il8 LESSON XX. [§§ioo 

gebracht ? 3. Woran denken Sie ? 4. Was machen Sie, 
wenn Sie einen Feiertag haben ? 5. Glauben Sie jede Ge- 
schichte, die Sie horen? 6. Was erzahlt das Kind? 



100. Declension of Attributive Adjectives. 

Predicative Adjective. 
Attributive " 

The boy is good 
The good boy 

Remember: That Adjectives used as Predicates are not 
varied (see § 14). 

101. Every Attributive Adjective either is or is 7tot 
preceded by a determinative word (i. e., article or pronominal 
adjective), which shows gender, number and case by distinc- 
tive endings. 

102. First Form. — If not preceded by any such deter- 
minative word, the Attributive Adjective follows the Strong 
Declension, which is the same as the biefer Model through' 
out, thus : 

Strong Declension of gut, good. 

Singular. Plural. 


























Substantives with Adjectfv^es. 


good wine good soup good glass 

Norn, gutcr 2Bein gutc Su^^e gutes ©tag 

Gen. guteS (en) 2Sein(e)§ guter Su^^e gutc§(en)©Iafc^^ 

Dat. gutcm 2Bein(e) gutcr (Su^^e gutem G)Ia[(e) 

Ace. gutcn 35}ein gute ®u^^e gutcg ©Ia§ 


Nom. gutc 25)etne, Su^pen, ©Idfer 
Gen. gutcr SBeine, Su^^en, ©Idfer 
Dat. gutcn 2Bemen, Su^pen, ©Idfem 
Ace. gutc 2Setne, (Su^pen, ©Idfer 

Observe : In this form, where there is no other word to 
show the gender, etc., of the noun, this work must be done 
by the adjective, which therefore has as full a set of end- 
ings as possible. 

Remarks. — i. The Gen. Sing. Masc. and Neut^ generally 
has -en instead of -c§ before strong substantives, as : gutcn 
2Beine§, gutcn Srotc§. 

2. Adjectives in -c drop the -c of the stem in declension, 
as : miibc, tired : miib-cr, miib-c, mub-c§, etc. 

3. If several Adjectives precede the same substantive, 
all follow the same form, as : 

gutcr, alter, rotcr ©ein, etc., 
good, old, red wine. 

Decline throughout in German: sick child, high tree, long lesson, 
beautiful broad stream, young woman, lazy horse, tired boy. 

I20 LESSON XX. [§§103- 

103. Conjugation of Strong Verbs. 

Verbs in German are either Strong or Weak. The Weak 
Verbs, which indicate change of tense by the addition of a 
termination (usually 7uithout change of vowef), as: loS-en, 
lobtc, gelob-t, have been treated in Lessons IX, X. 

104. The Strong Verbs, on the other hand, indicate the 
change of tense by a change of the Root Vowel with- 
out adding a termination, as : fing-en, to sing, Impf. fang; 
Blciben, to remain, Impf. blicb. 

105. The Past Participle in Strong Verbs ends in -ctt 
(not -et), usually also with change of Vowel, as: fing-en, P. 
Part, ge-fung-cn ; biciben, P. Part, ge-blicb-en ; but geben, P. 
Part, ge-gebeu. 

Remark. — This change of Root-Vowel is called ' Ablaut, 
and is common to English and German. Compare Eng. sing, 
sang, sung ; give, gave, giv-en. 

106. Paradigm of Simple Tenses of fiiigcn, to sing. 

Principal Parts. 

Infin. fing-en Impf. fong P. Part, ge-fung-eil 

Indi^tive. Subjunctive. 


idf) fingc, I sing tdf) fingc, I (may) sing, etc. 

bu ftng(e)ft, thou sing-est bu ftngcfi 

er ftngf;e)t, he sing-s er fingc 

h)tr fin gen, we sing 'voxx ftngctt 

tbr ftng(e)t, ye sing i^r finget 

fie ftngctt, they sing fie fmgctt 


(Ind. Stem with Umlaut, where possible.) 

td^ fang, I sang id} fdngc 

bu fong(e)ft, thou sangst bu fiingcft 




Indicative. Subjunctive, 

er foncj, he sang er fringe 

h)ir fangeit, we sang wxx fiingett 

i^r fant3(e)t ye sang i^x fiingct 

fie fangcn, they sang fie fdngcn 


fing(e) [bu], sing [thou] 
fingc er, let him sing 
fingcn toir, let us sing 
fing(e)t [i6r], sing [ye] 
fingen fie, let them sing 

Observe : The Person endings are the same throughout as 
in the paradigm of Io6en, in which -it of the Impf. is a 
Tense ending (see Lessons IX, X) ; this is shown by the 
following : 

107. Table of Endings of Strong Verbs in 
Simple Tenses. 



— c 
— m 

— en 

The changed Vowel of the Imperfect, and ab- 
sence of person endings in i. and 3. sing. 

The Umlaut of the Imperfect Subjunctive. 

The persistent -e of the Subjunctive (Imperf. 
as well as Pres.) 


Imperfect. [| 





Sing. 1.— e 

— e 

-e n 

2. -(C)fl 




3. -(C)t 

— e 






2. -(e)t 



— ct 

3. —en 




122 LESSON XX. [§§107- 

Remarks. — I. The -c of the termination in the 2. Sing. 
,of the Pres. and Impf. Ind. is only retained in Strong Verbs 
after b, t, or a sibilant, as : icf) rett-e, bu reit-eft ; ic^ ^reif-e, 
bu preif-eft ; and in the 3. Sing. Pres. Ind., and 2. Plur. Pres. 
and Impf. Ind. after b, t, as : er reit-et, if)r reit-ct, ibr ritt-ct ; 
but er ^reif-t, i^r ^reif-t, i^r ^rief-t* 

2. The compound tenses of a Strong Verb are formed pre* 
cisely Hke those of a Weak Verb, some being conjugated 
with baben, others with fein ; hence it is only necessary to 
know the Inf., Impf. and P. Part., and in some cases the 
2. Sing. Imper.jin order to conjugate a Strong Verb throughout. 

108. Paradigm of Compound Tenses of fitlgClt, to 
sing (with ^aben) ; fatten, to fall (with fein). 

Indicative. Subjunctive* 


i^ l^abe gefungcn, I have sung id^ i)aU gefungen 

bu l(>aft gefungen, thou hast sung, etc. bu babeft genmgen, etc. 
id^Btn gefatten, I have (am) fallen, etc. irf) fei gefatlen, etc. 
S Pluperfect. 

id) batte gefungen, I had sung, etc. id) bdtte gefungen, etc. 
ic^ max gefatten, I had (was) fallen, etc. icb todxt gefaUen, etc. 

(Pres. of iDcrben + Infin. of | .^ l J 

id) hjerbe fingen (fallen), I shall sing id^ ii^erbe ftngen (fatten) 


bu totrft fingen (fatten), thou wilt sing bu ioerbeft fingen (fatten), 

(fall), etc, etc. 

no] COMPOUND TENSES OF ftngen, faQen. 123 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Future Perfect. 

(Future of I?""" I + p. Part, of] fy I ^ 

( lent > I ]a{im ) J 

\ci) hjerbe gefungen ^aSen, I shall have id} irerbe gefungen l^aBcn 


bu it>trft gefungen baben, thou wilt bu irerbeft gefungen 

have sung, etc. baben, etc. 

ic^ tt)erbe gefallen fein, I shall have tc^ tperbe gefaEen \tin, 

(be) fallen, etc. etc. 

Conditional. Compound, 

^^^^^^^' .o- 10^ .i^aben) , 

(Impf. Subj. of merbcn + Infin. (Simple Cond. of j .^.^ ^ "h 

of ftngen, faaeii) P. p^rt. of ftngen, fallen) 

ic^ h)urbe ftngen (fallen), I id) hjiirbe gefungen baben, 

should sing (fall), etc. etc. 

tc^ toiirbe gefaden fein, etc. 
Infin. Peri. 

(P. Part, of \ fif'" \ + Pres. Infin. of | !'"*^" \ ) 
* i rallen ) ( lem ) ^ 

gefungen (gu) Ijahtn, to have sung 
gefaKeu ju fein, to have (be) fallen 

109. Compound Verbs. — Compound Verbs are con- 
jugated like the simple verbs from which they are derived; 
those having one of the inseparable particles ht-, cr-, txnp-, 
ent- ge- ber-, ^cr-, do not take the prefix ge- in the P. Part,, 
as : 0c-fingen, P. Part. Bc-fungen (compare ie-gablen, P. Part, 
bc-jablt, § 35, Rem. 6), and in the Inf. take ju before the 
prefix ; other compounds take the prefix ge- and the particle 
§u between the prefix and the verb (Part, or Inf. respectively). 

110. The Strong Verbs are divided into classes, according 
to the 'Ablaut, ' or Vowel-changes, of the root (see § 105, Rem., 
above). These classes, with the verbs belonging to each, are 
given in the following Lessons (XXII-XXXI). 




111. Shorter Forms of the Conditional. 

The Impf. and Plupf. Subj. are frequently used in all 
Verbs instead of the Simple and Compound Conditional 
respectively, thus: 

icf^ ^'aiit='\d) it)iirbe ^aUn] id) fan9e = tc^ iuiirbe fingcn; 

ic^ ^iitte QC^ttBt = icf) ir»iirbc Qc\)aht ^aben ; id) ^dik gcfungcn = 

id) Unu-be gcfungcn IJjaBen. 

Note. — These shorter forms are always to be preferred in the Passive 
Voice (Less. XXI), and in the INIodal Auxiliaries (Less. XXXIV). 


help (serve) one's self, \\d) 

acknowledge, confess, be!en= 

catch cold, fidf) erfditen 
nominate, appoint, ernenncn 
fill, fiiaen 

spread out, ficf> l^erbreiten 
bough, branch, bcr 2lft* 
ink, bie Xinte or 2^inte 
company, bie ©cfcUfcbaft 
governor, bcr ©oubcrneu/ 
concert, ba§ ^onjcrt' 
queen, bie ^cnitgin 
paper, ba§ ^^a^ncr' 
advice, counsel, ber 'iRat 

singer, ber ©anger, bie (Ban* 

liberal, generous, frei^geji^ 
friendly, kind, freu^lid^ 
fresh, frifcf; 
glad, fro^ 
hard, F)art 
hoarse, fjeifer 
bad, fc^Iec^t 
black, fcbmarj 
brave, valiant, ta^fer 
true, faithful, trcu 
weighty, important, t^^td^tg 
at last, finally, cnblic^ 
yes (emphatic), yes indeed, 

ja Jr)0^l 

Idioms: To appoint (as) governor, ^ixm ©ouocrneur ernenncn; cheer- 
fully, frolicii 5!5Jutcd (geDitive vrith adverbial force); good morning, guten fSStov 
Qcti (i. e., 5d) wun\d)t ^\)iitn cinen gutcn SfJlorgen). 


A. 1. 9Jlein 9)ief]er ift Don gutem, (partem ©ta^Ie. 2. §obe 
58dume \)ahtn geh)o^nIic^ gro^e Sfte. 3. 553a§ fiir ^ferbe l^aben 


Sie gefautt ? 3^ ^^^^ \(i)\vaxl^ unb tcei^e ^sfcrbe gefauft. 4. 

y giiircn Sie gejogigit mcin ©(a§ mtt frifd^em 9Baf]er. 5. ^a^fere 

^'^..-Te^SoIbatcn eilcn frozen |93tuteg in bte (Sc^Ia^t. 6. g^^^^t glMIidBe 

S-^/ 9}ienfcf)eu ti:)Df)ncn in jenem §aufe. 7. ^^'^^^ ®^^ etbag 3^eue§ 

'/J^ -'^in ber (Slabt geBort? 3^ ^c>^^/ ^^^^ 9?eue§, aBer nid)t§ Snte* 

reffanteg. 8. §ier ift guter ^dfe unb fcif^.eg 53rob; Htte, 

bebienen Sie fic6. 9. SSer bu bift ^eigt bein'e"@efellfdbaft. 10. 

©uten 5Dbrgen, §err SBraun, id^ l^offe/' t)'ag W\x ()eute fd^one^ 

^Better l^aben berben. 11. gn toeld^em '^a^xt ernannte bie 

^onigin ben ©rafen "oon Tufferin gum ©outjerneur bon ©anaba? 

12 3<i) ^*^^^ S"te§ $a^ier, aber meine ^yeber ift fc^Iecbt. 13. ®ie 

^inber liebten meinen Dnfel, ireil er nie miibe tourbe, i()nen fc^one 

©efc^id^ten ju er^d^Ien. 14. Sie f)aben enblid^ befannt, ba^ ®ie 

Unrecbt ^ahiw. 15. 3<^ babe micf) erfdltet; toenn ic^ je^t fdnge, 

i:)urbe ic^ beifer berben. 16. 3^ ^^^^ ff^on oft bag Sieb 

gebort, it)elcbc§ bie (Sdngerin im ^onjert g,efungen ]f)at. 17. 

©ute Siicber finb treue g^reunbe, bie immer ^at fiir un§ f)aben. 

18. 3Benn toir fteifeig finb, fo toerben unfere Setter un^ 


B, 1. Have you black ink or red? I have black. 2. Rich 

people are not always generous, and generous people are not 

,^ always rich. 3. What kind^of neighbours have you ? We 

5 have friendly neighbours. 4. Please fill my glass with pure 

X fresh water. 5. High mountains and beautiful valleys spread 

out before our eyes. 6. I have something important to say 

to you. 7. New friends are not always good friends. 8. 

This mother buys- her children something useful. 9. Have 

you white paper or. blue ? I have white, but my brother has 

blue. 10. I like to hear the singer, who sang at (in) the 

concert yesterday. 11. My sister did not sing at the concert, 

because she was hoarse. 12. If she had not been hoarse, 

she would have sung. 




1. Weshalb liebten die Kinder meinen Onkel ? 2. Wer 
wohnt in jenem Hause ? 3. Was hat die Mutter ihren Kin- 
dern gekauft ? 4. Was fiir Papier haben Sie fiir mich 
gekauft ? 5. Warum sangen Sie nicht? 6. Womit haben Sie 
mein Glas gefiillt ? 



112. The Passive Voice is formed by means of the various 
tenses of the auxiliary verb ttierbcn, to become (see § 19) -|- 
the Past Participle of the Verb to be conjugated, as in 
the Paradigm below. 

Principal Parts of ttierbm : 
Infin. ttJCrtien Impf. tonxtt (tDarb) Past Part. gettlOtbcit 

Note. — The perfect tenses of tt)erben are formed with fein (see 
§ 53, c), Perf. 3c^ bin gciuorben; Plupf. id) tuar gemorbenp etc For the 
formation of the future and conditional, see fein (§ 52). 

Paradigm of the Passive Voice of lohtn, to praise. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


(Pres. of iticrben -f P- Part, of loben.) 
I am (being) praised, etc. I (may) be praised, f*.to 

icf) tx>erbe 
bu W\x\i 
er tt>trb 
h)ir tDerben 
if)r it>erbet 
fie n?erben 


ic^ tuerbe 
bu iDerbeft 
er toerbe 
tr)ir merben 
i^r tDerbet 
fie it>erben 





-V- '"^- L>i-^ iTCa ' 



Indicative. Subjunctive. 


(Imperf. of merbeit + P. Part, of loben.) 
I was (being) praised, etc. I might be (being) praised, 

tc^ it>urbe (trarb) 
bu tDurbeft (toarbft) 
er ipurbe (tcarb) 
\d\x itjurben 
il^r U)urbet 
fie ii:)urben 


td^ h)itrbe 
bu iuiirbeft 
er h)iirbe 
\d\x itJiirben 
\\jX hjiirbet 
fie hjiirben 


> %t\M 


(Perfect of irerben + P. Part, of loben.) 

(Part, of trerben omits qc-) 

I have been praised, etc. 

irf) bin 

bu bift 

er ift 

tt)ir finb 

il^r f eib 

fte finb 

I (may) have been praised, 

geloBt tt)orben 

id^ fei 
bu feieft 
er fei 
ix)ir feien 
i^r feiet 
fie feien 


gcloftt h)orben 

(Plupf. of itierben + P. Part, of (oben.) 

I had been praised, etc. I might have been praised, 

irf) irar geloBt ir)orben id^ ti:)dre gcIoBt ix>orben [etc. 

bu iDarft gelobt tDorben, etc. bu tuareft gelobt iporben, etc. 

(Future of irerben -|- P. Part, of (oben.) 

I shall be praised, etc. 
ic^ irerbe gelobt loerben 
bu tt>irft gelobt tDerben, etc. 

i shall be praised, etc. 
id^ toerbe gcloBt tcerben 
bu trerbeft gelobt toerben, etc. 


aJir<3py.^y^ ^ ^ 

128 LESSON XXI. [§"2 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Future Perfect. 

(Fut. Perf. of lucrbeii + P. Part, of (oben.) 
I shall have been praised, etc. I shall have been praised, etc. 
id) iDcrbe gc(o6t tuorben fein ic^ i:)erbe gcIoBt iDorben fein 

bu ipirft gelobt morben fein, etc. bu iDerbeft gelobt tcorben fein 


(Cond. of roerbeu + P. Part, of loben.) 

Simple. Compound. 

I should be praised, etc. I should have been praised 

id) ir>urbe gelobt tDerben id) iDiirbe gcIoBt iDorben fein 

bu toiirbeft gelobt tDerben, etc. bu lr)iirbeft gelobt hjorben fein 


Infinitive. Participles. 

(Infin, of icerben + P- Part (Part, of trerbeu + P. Part 

oflobeit.) of loben.) 

J^res. to be praised I'res. being praised 

geloBt (^u) njerben gelobt toerbenb 

Perf. to have been praised Past been praised 

gelobt icorben (ju) fein gelobt ioorben 

(Imper. of rt)erben + P. Part, of loben.) 

be praised, etc. 
n)erbe gelobt 
ttjerbe er gelobt 
tDerben toir gelobt 
toerbet gelobt 
h)erben fie gelobt 

Remarks. — i. The shorter forms, i. e. Impf. and Plupf. 
Subj. (see § iii, and Note), are commonly used for the 
longer forms with iriirbe in the conditional. 

§ 112] PASSIVE VOICE. 129 

2. Observe the omission of the gc- in the P. Part, of toerben 
(ttJOrben for ge-iuorben) when used as auxiliary of the passive 

3. The personal agent with the passive voice (which is 
the subject of the active verb) is denoted by the preposition 
tion (Engl, by), as ; 

®er unarttc3e ^x\.dSi^ hjtrb tJon feinem SeBrer Beftraft, 
The naughty boy is being punished by his teacher. 

4. The auxiliary participle ircrben is omitted whenever the 
state of the subject may be regarded as still continuing, thus: 

®a§ ^^w^ i|l: gebaut. 

The hous^ has been (is) built (and is still standing). 

5. The Engl. 'I am,' 'I was,' etc., as part of the passive 
^iuxiliary 'to be,' must be rendered into German as follows: 

{a) By the proper tense of toerben when they are equivalent 
*o *I am being,' ' I was being,' etc., as : 

The child is (i. e., is being) punished by its parents, 
3^a^ Ainb UJiri) "o^w feinen ©Item beftraft ; 
The dinner was being served, when we arrived, 
^Q.% 9J?ittag§effen ttJurbe fert)iert, al§ trir anfamen ; 

Of when the verb, being turned into the active voice, is in the 
Jpresent or imperf. tense respectively, as : 

The boy is (was) always punished by the teacher, 
-, . ^ when he is (wasj naughty, 

3)er i^nabe toirb (ttJurbc) immer t)om Se^rer Bes 
ftraft, h)enn sr unartig tft (hjar) ; 

Adive : 

The teacher always punishes (pres.) or punished 
(impf.) the boy, when he is (was) naughty, 

$Der 2eF)rer bcflraft (Bcjlrottc) immer ben ^naBen, 
hjenn er unartig tft (tt>ar). 

I30 LESSON XXi. [§§ii2- 

(b) By the proper tense of fchl (with or without hjorben, see 
last Remark), when they are equivalent to * I have been, 
' I had been,' etc., or when the verb, being turned into the 
active, would be perf. or pluperf. respectively, as : 
„ • , . I I ^^ (= have been) invited to the party, 

* 1 3cf; Bin jur ©efeflfc^aft eingclaben (morben) ; 
. . ( They have invited (perf.) me to the party, 
( W,oxi l^ttf mid^ 3ur (Befettfc!)aft eingelabcn. 
( The dinner was (=« had been) served, when we 
Passive: < arrived, 

( ^a§ 9}iittag§effen luar fcrtiiert, alg iDir anfamen; 
. . ( They had served (plupf.) the dinner, etc., 
( "^(^XK ^atte ba§ ^Jtittaggeffcn fcrtiiert, u. f. tt). 

The following examples will serve to show more clearly the 
proper use of the various forms of the passive : 

' (a) !Die Saben tticrbcn je^t gefd)loffen. The shops are 

being shut now {present), 
{b) 3)te Sctben finb biefe Sod^^e frii^er gefd^Ioffen tuarbcn, 

The shops have been shut earlier this week 

(c) ^te Sdben finb je|t gefd^roffen. The shops are (and 

remain) shut (past state, continuing in the 


(a) 2)er (Solbat ttJnrbe Don einer ^ugel tierttinnbct. The 
soldier was wounded by a ball (a ball wounded 
him, if?ipf.), 

(b) ®er Solbat ttiar bon einer ^ugel i)erit)unbet morben. 
The soldier had been wounded by a ball 

(c) :j)er 3olbat tuor fc^h?er t)erh?unbet. The soldier was 
severely wounded (and still suffered from his 
wound : past state, contitiuing in the/dtj-/). 



(a) Xiefe 53rurfe tourbc im ^e^n Sal^ren gebaut. This 
bridge "was built ten years ago (they built it 
then, that is the date of its being built, imp/.) 

(^) ^iefe iBriirfe tear Dor je^n 3^^^^" geSaut, This 
bridge was built ten years ago (and is still 
standing: pasf state, continumg in X^^ present), 

• Exercise on the Preceding Rules. 

A. Turn the following sentences into German: 1. This house was 
built by my father. 2. My window is broken fgebrorfjen). 3. The child 
is washed (gclt)aid)en). 4. This man is esteemed by everybody (jebennann). 
5. The garden must be sold. 6. The enemy was beaten (gejd^Iagen). 

B. Turn the following sentences into the passive: 1, 2Boraii§ nincf)en 
tt)ir aJZeffer? 2. Slobert ©tctieufon ^at tie 33ictoria-53rucfe bei iOZoutreal 
gebaut. 3. SJJein S3vuber f)at mir biefe U§r gcfd)enft. 4. Sic ^eiiibe bom= 
barbterten bie Stabt. 5. %tx £c^rer ^atte ben ^naben beftraft, h?eil ber 
^nabe fetn 53uc^ t)er(oren (lost) ^atte. 6. 2)ein ^ater irirb bid^ (oberu 

113. Limitations of the Passive Voice. 

I. Only the direct object of a transitive verb can be- 
come the subject of the passive verb ; thus we say in the 

Active : 5[Rein 23ater liebt mii^ ; and in the 
Passive : Jt^ tperbe l?on meinem 33ater geliebt. 

But the sentence : 

* I have been promised help by him ' = 
§ii(fc ift mir toon i^m berf^roc^en (promised) it)orben, 
since in the 

Active : @r \)0X mir §ulfe berf^roc^en (promised), 

§ixlfc is the direct, but mir the indirect object. Hence it fol- 
lows, that 

2. Intransitive verbs can only be used impersonally in the 
passive, thus : 

132 LESSON XXI. IS§ "d 

I am allowed = ^g tuirb mlv crlailBt (Lat. mihi per- 

He has been helped = (i§ ift if)m cjebolfen iDorben. 
This impersonal passive is also used in expressing an action 
jvithout specifying any agent, as : 

(?6 luuvbc gcfteru 2lBcnb inel gctttti^t, 

There was a great deal of dancing yesterday evening. 

Note. — The pron. c§ in these constructions is omitted if any other 
member of the sentence precedes the verb, as : 

2)Hr toiri) eriaubt ; @e|icrn 9tDcni) ttjuvtic, etc. 

114. Substitutes for the Passive Voice. 

T!ie passive voice is much less frequently used in German 
than in English, particularly in the longer forms. It is often 
replaced, especially with intransitive verbs : 

{a) By the indefinite pronoun man (Fr. on, see Less. XXVII), 
with the verb in the active voice, as : 

SJlan glaufit if)m nidit. He is not believed ; 

9Jlan !ann t^m nid^t troucn. He cannot be trusted. 

(J?) By a reflexive verb, as : 

©cr 3cf)Iuffel iuirb {ii^ finben. The key will be tound; 
and particularly with laffen, as : 

Xa§ lii^t f{i§ Iet(f)t madden. That can easily be done 


to conquer, overcome, ero'bern mill, bie 2Ruf)le 

believe, glauben (intr., -\- dat. beef, ba§ D^inbfleifd^ 

of person) courage, bie ^a^ferfeit 

wait (for), it>arten(auf -4-acc.) untruth, falsehood, bie Un'i 
workman, bcr 2(r'beitcr luabrf^eit 

visit, visitors, ber ^efuc^ as, al§ 


once, ein'mal carefully, forg'fdltig 

this eveningj ^ite Whenb severely, ftreng 

as soon as, fcBalb' little, hjenig 

Idioms: As a child, when (I etc. -was) ai»child, ali ^in^; This house 
is for sale (lit., to sell, to be sold\ tie\e$ -Saud tft }U ocrfaufcr. ; to have 
visitors, Sefud) fjabcn. 


A. 1. ^iefe§ 53i(b iinirbe bon meiner 3cf^iref:er gemalt, unb e^ ift 
\)iet gelobt toorben. 2. ^ieStabtifttomQcueralbcmBar^iertunbevs 
"•^^^bbertfeorben. 3. 23ir toerben beftraft tuerben, toenn irir unfere Sefs 
tionnicf)t forgfditig lernen. 4. ^ieSdben ftnb gefcbloffen, bcnn bcute 
ift (ein) geiertacj. 5. Jft ba§ §au§ nebcn ber 33tuf)te t^erfauft? 
6. gatooM, e^ trurbe geftem t)cn gbrem D^effen gefauft. 7. 53on 
h?em trurbe bad ^inb gerettet, aU 'i^a§' ^aud Brannte? 8. 6§ 
ipurbe l^on einem 5(rbeiter gereiiet, iijetif er iregen fcincr ^aj^ferfeit 
^on ben Seutcn gelcbt tourbe. 9. SSdre bcr ^nabe nacb §aufe 
gefcbicft irorben, trenn er mcbtunarlig getoefen irdre? K». '^l^Un 
bem .^aufe unfered -3lacbbar§ ixnrb v'ine ^ircbe gebaut. 11. Q^ 
ipurbe gcftern SIbenb bie( bei un5 gcfungen imb gef^ielt, benn irtr 
fatten ^efucb. 12. gft bad 9^inbflcii'cb gefcbicft ;rorben, trelc^ee 
ic^ beftetft babe? 13. ^er Setter fagte, bag er mit meiner SIrbeit 
^ufrieben fei. 14. ^ac^ Silb i^dre ten ben .^iinftlern nicbt gelobt 
icorben, toenn cd nicbt febr fcbcn getDefen ir>dre.— -15. 21(5 ^inb 
tourbe tc§ immer toon meinenr SSater ftreng beftraft, irenn icf^ eine 
Unh?abrbeit fagte. 16. 32irb ed une erfaubt fein, iinfcre 5(ufgaben 
gu berbrennen, tr>enn tmr bamit fertig finb? 17. (rd ioirb ^eute 
biel gef^ielt, aber benig ftubiert, toeit \vix m£>rgen feine 3cbu(e 
§aben. 18. G§ ift mir nicbtd babon gefagt borben. 19. 23ir 
tourben nic^t gelobt, ii^eil ioir nicbt flcigig iuaren. 20. 3o0alb bie 
Seftionen gelernt finb, toerben it)ir einen S^agiergang macbcn. 

j9. 1. Our parents love us. 2. We are loved by our parents 
3. By whom was this letter brought..? 4. It was brought bj 
a messenger. b. Our house is built, and we are already 
Hving in it. 6. Is the dinner sensed .? No, it is being served 

134 LESSON XXII. [§115 

now. 7. Was the soldier in the hospital wounded, or was he 
ill ? 8. He had been wounded by a bullet. 9. The carriages 
of the count will be sold to-day. 10. His horses are already 
sold. 11. Why is this boy not believed? 12. He is not 
believed because he once told an untruth. 13. It is agreeable 
to be praised. 14. My sister is learning the song, which was 
sung at (in) the concert yesterday. 


1. Wer hat dieses Rindfleisch gebracht? 2. Wann wird 
uns erlaubt werden, im Garten zu spielen ? 3. 1st das Haus 
neben der Kirche verkauft ? 4. Wird heute Abend viel stu- 
diert werden? 5. Von wem wurde der Knabe nach Hausa 
geschickt? 6. 1st dieses Bild zu verkaufen? 



VERBS: Beigcn model. 

115. Declension of Adjectives: Second Form. 

If preceded by the Definite Article or by any deter- 
minative word of the bicfer Model, the Attributive Adjective 
follows the Weak Declension, and takes -cm the Nomi- 
native Sing.^or ini Genders, and in the Accusative 
Sing. Feminine and Neuter; otherwise -en throughout 


Weak Declension of gut, good. 

Singular. Plural. 




ALL gend: 






















Substantives with Adjectives. 


the good man the good woman the good child 

Nom. ber gutc 9Jtanu bie gutc grau bag gutc ^tnb 

Gen. be§ gutcti ^Dkttnes ber gutcn g^rau be§ (^\x\vx ^inbea 

Dat. bem cjutcn 93tanne ber guten ^frau bem gutcn ^inbe 

Ace. \iZXK gutcn 50knn bie gute grau ba§ gutc ^inb 



Nom. bie gutcn 5)fldnner, J^^^^^^^r ^inber 
Gen. ber gutcn ^QUnner, grauen, ^inber 
Dat. ben gutcn 5DZdnnern, grauen, ^inbern 
Ace. bie gutcn 93^dnner, grauen, ^inber 
Observe : Words of the bicfcr Model having (as far as pos- 
sible) a full set of endings showing gender, etc., the adjective 
has as few of such distinctive endings as possible. 
Further examples : 

bicjcr gutc 5Rann, this good man 
biefeg gutcn 53ianne§, of this good man, etc. 
jcnc gutc grau, that good woman 
jener gutcn grau, of that good woman, etc. 
tt)Clt^C§ gutc ^inb, which good child 
toelcBes gutcn ^inbc§, of which good child, etc. 
Remark. — Two or more adjectives qualifying the same 
substantive follow the same form (compare § 102, Remark 3, 
above), as : 

ber gutc, altc, rote 3Bein, 
gutcr, alter, roter 2Seiu. 

Decline throughout in German : the sick child; that high tree ; which 
long lesson ; this beautiful, broad stream ; that young woman ; this lazy 
\orse; which tired boy. 




1 16. Third Form. — If preceded by the Indefinite Ar- 
ticle or by any determinative word of the inci|t Model, the 
Attributive Adjective follows the bicferModel in the Nom- 
inative and Accusative Sing. oTktl Genders ; otherwise, 
it takes -cu (i. e., follows the Weak Declension) through- 
out, thus : 

Mixed Declexsion of gut, good. 

Singular, Plural. 
























a good man 

a good woman 
Nom. ein gutcr iDMnn eine gutc grau 
Gen. etne^5 guten 93ianne^ einer guten grau 
Dat. einem guten 53^anne einer guten grau 
Ace. etnen guten 9}?ann eine gutc %x<x\x 


a good child 
ein gute§ ^inb 
eineg guten ^inbe* 
einem guten ^inbc 
ein gute§ ^inb 

Observe : This form diflers from the weak form only in the 
Nom. Sing. Masc, and Nom. and Ace. Sing. Neut., 
where words of the mcin Model have no distinctive endings. 
The adjective must consequently have the missing sign of 
gender and case. 

The Plural of this form is the same as that of the Weak 
Declension, but, as ein has no Plur., the full declension of 
Substantives with mein is given here : 





my good brother 
iV. mein gutcr Sruber 
G. meineg guten 

D. memem guten 



my good child 
mein gute§ ^inb 
meine§ guten 

meinem guten 

mein gutc§ £inb 



my good sister 
lueine gute Sc^iDefter 
meiner guten 
meiner guten 
A. meinen guten 33ruber meine gute (Bcfjnjefter 



Nom. meine guten 33ruber, Sd^tueftern, 5linber 
Gen. meiner guten Sriiber, 3cf>iiKftern, .^inber 
Dat. meinen guten ^riibern, Sdnueftern, .^inbern 
Ace. meine guten 33ruber, Sc^toeftem, ^inber 

117. Compound Verbs with Separable Prefix. 

1. The prefixes 6c-, tx-, etc, (see § 35, Rem. 6), hence 
called Inseparable Prefixes, are never separated from the 
verb ; other prefixes (chiefly the Prepositions) are Separable, 
but only in Principal Sentences with Simple Tense, 
as : 

^er ^onig ft^irfte ^toei 33oten aug. 
The king sent out two messengers. 

5)iein Sruber rcift morgen a6. 

My brother sets out (= departs ; to-morrow. 

Note. — These Prefixes contain an idea distinct from that of the verb, 
and hence, if retained before the Verb in the cases above, would throw 
the verb out of its place as Second Idea of the Principal Sentence. 

2. The gc- of the P. Part, and ^u in the Infin. follow the 
prefix, making together but one word, as : 

"Die 'Scten bee ^onig^S finb abgereift. 

The messengers of the king have departed. 


138 LESSON XXII. [§§117- 

^ein 3?ater n)unfcf»t morgen ab^urcifcn. 
My father wishes to depart to-morrow. 

3. The principal accent is on the Ve?'b when the Prefix is 
Inseparable ; on the Prefix when Separable, as : bcfu'c^en, bers 
fau'fen ; but aue'fc^iden, ab'reifen. 

4. The principal parts of Separable Compound Verbs 
should therefore be given as in the following examples : 

Infin. Impf. p. Part. 

an'greifen, to attack griff ... an angegriffen 
ab'fcf»neiben, to cut off fcbmtt .. .(xh abgefd^nilten 

118. Strong Verbs: bct^cn Model. 

Infin. Impf. P. Part. 

Germ. Model : bei^en bife gebiffcn 

Engl. Analogy : bite bit bitten 

Ablaut: ci i i 


Notes. — i. Compounds are only given in the Lists when the slmpU 
Verb is not found in the strong form. 

2. R. = Reflexive; N. = Neuter, i. e., conjugated with feill only, 
N. A. = Neuter and Active, i. e., with feiit or ^abcit; W. indicates that 
the Weak form is also used without difference of meaning. 

-J. bei^en, bite 



(er)bleic^en (\V. N.), turn pale 



(be)flei^en fR.), apply one's self 



gleicf)en, resemble, be equal to 



, gleiten (N.), glide 



\ greifen, grasp, seize 



!neifen, pinch 



-r leiben, suffer 




























^feifen, whistle 
^t,. reifeen, tear 
A reiten (N. A.\ ride 

fd^Ieic^en (N.), sneak 

fc^Ieifen, grind 

fcf)meifecn, fling 
-X- fd^neiben, cut 

fc^reiten (N.), stride 
.^ ftreirf)en, stroke 
„--- ftreiten, contend 

iDeid^en, yield 

Remarks. — i. The root vowel being shortened in the Impf., 
the following consonant, if single, is doubled ; and stems 
in -b (fdBnciben, leiben) change b into it. 

2. Those whose stem ends in -^ change § into ff in the 
Impf. (unless final) and P. Part., as : 6ei§en, id) bt§, it)ir bifjen, 

3. The following Verbs are weak when they have a different 
meaning, as below : 

bleid^en (trans.), bleach bleic^te gebleic^t 

fc^Ieifen, drag ; raze (to the ground) fd)leifte gef(f)leift 

itjeicben, soften, soak iretcbte geit>et(^t 

4. 33egleiten, to accompany, is no compound of gletten, to 
glide, but of leiten, to lead (weak, = be-ge-Ieiten) ; berleiben, 
to make disagreeable, spoil (not from leiben, but Seib) is 


>/ to set out, depart, ab'reifen slip, slide, aus'gteiten 

Y^ut off, ab'fcbnciben comprehend, understand, ht- 
paint (not pictures), an's greifcn 

ftreicben seize, crc^rcifen 




fear, fid) f iirc^ten (i)or + dat.) 
tear (to pieces), jerreifecn 
pass (time, etc.), ju'bringen 
Cinderella, 2(frf)cnputtel 
barber, ber ^arbier' 
idea, notion, ber Segriff 
steamer, steam-boat, ba^ 

thief, ber ^ieb 
grass, ba§ @ra§ 
hair, ba§ §aar 
hay, ba§ §eu 

huntsman, hunter, ber ^'d^cx 
illness, bie 5lran!J?ett 
fever, ba§ ^-ieber 
slipper, ber ^antoffel 
rain, ber dia^m 
y^y^^. rheumatism, ber 3ftf)eumati§inu§ 

piece, bag ©tiid 
little piece, ba§ Stiidd)en 
traveller, ber 2Sanberer 
tooth, ber ^al)n'* 
toothache, ba§ 3^^"^^^ 
evil, angry, cross, bofe 
joyous, merry, frof)lid; 
smooth, slippery, glatt 
golden, of gold, golbert 
violent, heavy (of rain), f)eftig 
naughty, ill-behaved (of 

children), un'artig 
true, Wa^x 
furious, tt)ii'tenb 
on that account, be§it)egen 
of it, baDon 
the day before yesterday, Dor's 


Idioms : To be on the point of (be aboutto), im Scgriffc fcin. You are 
tired, are you not? Zie finb mixte, nid)t rooftr? So are we, 3Btr ftnb c» 
aud). George has torn my coat, (Beorg hat mix ten 3?odP ;}crriffen. 


f A. \, X)er ©enerat ?0i. ritt auf einem fc^irarjen ^sferbe burd) 
bie 6tra^en ^oronto^ (t)on Toronto) . 2. 2i>ie fjaben ©ie bie ^eit 
auf bcm Sanbe jug^brad^t? 3. 2lta tt)a§ fiir etner ^ranfbeit \}<xX 
3^r 3>atci* fo (ange gelitten? 4. 3ie finb miibe, nidit iuabr ? 
3Sir finb e§ aud^. 5. %\^ mein ^:8ruber jung \o<xx, ^atte er fd)Ied)te 
3dbne uub (itt febr an 3abmt)cb. 6. %tx fcbh^ar^e §unb un= 
fer(e)6 ^iad^barc^ ift bofe ; er bat Dorgeftern ein !(eine§ ^inb ge* 
biffen. 7. Unf(e)re alien 9Zad)barn begleiteten un§ nacb bem 
<Oafen, al^ \X)\x abrciften. 8. ®o tDof)nt bev ^arbier, ber 3^nen 
bac^ -t^aar gefcbnitten bat ? 9. ^DJein alte§ ^Jieffer fdjneibet je^t 
gut, benn ber "Wiener bat e^ geftern gefcbtiffen. 10. 5li€ id) k)or 

7 '^AjC < *yi/<U4 

§ ii8] STRONG verbs: Set^eu model. 141 

ber ©cf»u(c uber bie glatte Strafe fc^ritt, glitt icf) aug unb jeiri^ 

mir ben neuen 9^ocf. 11. 5n§ ber XieBVim 33ei3rtffe tear, in§ 

§au^ §u fc^Ieirf)en, ergriff if>n ber 2)iener. 12. llnfer alter 9?a(f)s 

bar litt lange an (am) 9^Beumati§mu§, unb tDar be^tregen immer ju 

§aufe. 13. ^er ©eneral ritt mit feinen Dffi§teren iiber bie Sriiif e. 

14. ®er bofe ^nabe auf bem Sl^felbaum ri§ bie reifen S^fel 

bom 33aume unb fc^mi^ fie auf bie ©rbe. 15. 50^ein junvjer 9Zeffe, 

Aer auf ber llniberfitdt tuar, ^fOX am gieber gelitten, abcr or ift 

^ je^t irieber tooM. 16. 2(fcben:puttel§ Sd5»h)efter fcbnitt firf) (dat.) 

y ein Stiidf bom guge ab, ibeil er ju gro^ fiir ben golbenen ^Nantoffel 

* tbar. 17. 3c^ bin fcbnett nad) §aufe geritten, meil ic^ mid; bor 

bem tDiitenben (Sturme fiird^tete. 18. ^er ^anberer f rf^ritt (froben 

y (%iteS.^burcb ben grunen 2BaIb unb ^fiff ein froblicbe^ Sieb. 

^^^''^^ 19. ^iefe§ 53^ctier ift nid^t fcbarf; tvann iburbe es gefcbliffen? 

20. ^arls fd^oner, neuer SfJod h)urbe bom §unbe ^erriffen. / 

B. 1. Where is the old knife that you ground? 2. When 
Mary was young she resembled her mother. 3. The bears 
sneaked (perf.) into the wood, but the hunters followed (perf.) 
them. 4. Where does the painter live who painted (perf.) 
our house 1 5. The industrious countryman cut (perf.) the 
grass yesterday, and is making hay to-day. (). Why are you 
crying, Charles? I am crying because George pinched (perf.) 
me. 7. The rain spoiled my (dat. -|- def. art.) journey to the 
country. 8. The steamer has whistled already. Now I shall say 
farewell. 9. Little Charles is a naughty child ; he has torn 
his (dat. of refl. pron. -f- art.) new dress. 10. Old people 
often suffer from rheumatism. ,11. Have you understood 
what he said ? 12. The gardener was burning the boughs, 
which he had cut from the trees. 13. I have quarrelled with 
my old friend, because he was wrong. 14. This blue ribbon 
is too long, please cut a little of it off for me. 15. Why is 
Charles crj'ing ? He has been bitten by a dog. 





1. Was fiir einen Hund hat Ihr Nachbar? 2. Wie wiirden 
Sie die Zeit zubringen, wenn Sie reich waren ? 3. Was 
machte der Wanderer, als er durch den Wald schritt? 4. Wo 
wohnen Sie jetzt ? 5. Wann werden Sie Heu machen? 
6. Weshalb sind Sie so schnell nach Hause geritten ? 


119. Possessive Pronouns. 

1. The Possessive Pronouns are used when no substantive 
is expressed, as : 

The hat is mine {Pronou7i) ; but : 
It is my hat {Adjective). 

2. They are formed from the stems of the corresponding 
Possessive Adjectives by adding certain endings, as follows : 

{a) Endings of biefer Model (without article), as : 






Nom. meincr meinc 


meinc, mine 

Gen. meine0 meincr 


meincr, of mine 

Dat. meincm meincr 


meincn, (to, for) mine 

Ace. meincn meinc 


meinc, mine 

Observe : In the Nom. and Ace. Neuter, -c of the ending 

may be omitted. 

So for the other persons : 




Sing, beincr 


beincS, thine 



feinc^, his, its 



i^tcg, hers (its) 







Plur. unf(e)rer 


unf(e)rc§, ours 



eu(e)re§, yours 



i^rc§, theirs 



%\)Xt^, yours) 

I (/>) Preceded by the Definite Article, and hence with end- 
ings of Weak Adjective, thus"?\ 

Singular. Plural. 


N. ber meinc bie meine ba§ meinc bte meiuen, niine 

G. be^meinen bermeincn be^meincn ber meineii, of mine 

D. bem meincn bermeinen bemmetncn benmeincu,(to,for)mine 

A. benmeinen bie meine ba^5 meine bie meineit, mine 

So : ber, bie, ba^ beine, thine ber, bie, ba§ eu(e)re, yours 

ber, bie, ba§ feine, his, its ber, bie, ba§ iF)re, theirs 

ber, bie, ba§ ibre, hers, fits) (ber, bie, ba§ S'^^^/ yours) 
ber, bie, ba§ unf(e)rc, ours 

(c) Preceded by Definite Article, with ending -ig -|~ Weak 
terminations, thus : 



Norn, ber meinige bie meintge bas meintge 

Gen. beg meinigen, etc. ber meinigen, etc. beg meinigen, etc. 



Nom. bie meinigen, mine 

Gen. ber meinigen, of mine, etc. 

So : ber, bie, bag beinige, thine 
ber, bie, bag feinige, his, its 
and so on for the other persons. 

Note.— i. In unfrtge and eurige the -e of the stem is always omitted. 




Remark. — i. These forms are interchangeable, without 
difference in meaning, as : 

I have my book, but I have not yours, 

( 3^t(e)§ 
3d) haU mein 33ucb, abcv icf) hab^ nicbt < btt§ S^ftre 

His letter is here, but ours is not here, 

( uni(e)rcr \ 
Scin ^^rief ift bier, aber-< Dcr unf(c)rc Mft nicbt bier. 

( iJcr un|vigc ) 

2. When a Possessive Pronoun is used as predicate^ it may 
be replaced by the Possessive Adjective without ending, as : 

This book is mine, ®iefe§ 33ud> ift mcin. 

3. Observe the following idiomatic uses of the Poss, Prons. : 

{a) 3(f) ioerbe tia§ 93kinigc (neuter sing.) tl;un. 
Is shall do my part, my utmost. 

{b) ^ic 9}ieinii3en, bie 3einigen (Plur.), 
]\Iy, his friends, family. 

{c) A friend of mine = (vincr tioit meinen Ji^eunben. 
This friend of mine = ^'icfcr mcitt ^reunb. 


Strong Verbs : Mctben Model. 



P. Part. 

Ger7n. Model : b lei ben 



E7ig. Analogy : wanting 

Ablaut: n 




bleiben (N.), stay, remain 
(ge)beiben (N. ), thrive 
IciE^en, lend, borrow 

lie^ . 






metben, avoid 

^reifen, praise -^ 

reiben, rub 
^^^ fc^eiben (N. A.), part (intr. and trans, 
v^^-fd^cinen, shine ; seem, appear 
fcbreiben, write 

fc^reien, scream, shout 
{(i^njeigeu, be silent 

f^eien, spit * 

fteigen (N.), mount, ascend 

treiben, drive 

ft)eifen, show, point out 

jjet^en, accuse 




























to copy, ab'fd)reiben 
hang up, auf bdngen 
ascend, befteigen (trans.) 
prove, demonstrate, be* 

appear, erfcbeinen 
shine, glitter, gidnjen : 

descend, f^erab'fteigen 
guard, keep, biiten 
rule, reign, govern, regieren 
write (to), fc^reiben (dat. or 

an+ ace.) 
climb, fteigen (auf + ^cc.) 
pardon, excuse, berjeiben 
remain behind, guriicfbleiben 
^cold, bie (Srfdltung 
family, bie gamilie 
herd, flock, bie $)erbe 

heat, bie ^i|e 

last, ber Seiften — 

pepper, ber '^feffer 

shepherd, ber 3cbdfer 

shoemaker, cobbler, ber 

- (Bcbufter 

silence (act of keeping s.), 

ba§ (Scf)rt)eigen 
peaking (act of), bae 3precben 
throne, ber ^brou 
pasture, pasturage, bie ^Iii>eibe 
fifty, funfjig, fiinfgig 
bright, brightly, f)ell 
loud, loudly, laut 
correct, ricbtig 
round, runb 
bad, fcblimm 
strong, severe, ftar! 

Idiom: Up to the present time, still, noc^ tmmer. 

146 'JCy^^*^'-'^^ I LETSSON XXIII. [§§120 


A. 1. e^ ift mrf)t Mcc^ C^olb, ma|, sl^i"5t- 2. ©prec^en ift 
©ilber, ®rf»tucigcn ift (^olb. 3. 3cf)ufter, bleib' bei beinem Seiften. 

^ 4. 3^^it ad)t %(x<\,i\\ bin id) njig^a einer ftarfen ©rfoltung §u §aufe 

^ ■ tjeblieben. 5. Sine t>on meinen Goufinen ift je^t bei un§ auf 33efuc^, 
aber fie bleibt ni(f)t lancje. 6. Sa§ fiir 3:iere finb in jenem 
3SaIbe?^, p;finbi,Saren. 7. ^ie gjtutter unb ifjre ^Toc^ter 

:;i:^] u^inten ^eftig, aU fie bon einanber fc^ieben. 8. ?oiein D^eim 

'' blieb ipegen ber gro^en §i^e mit feiner ^amilie auf 'bem Sanbe. 

9. ^arl hoX Q<\K feinen 3Sater gefc^rieben, unb ic^ bin im Segriffe ^ ' 

an ben meinigen ju fcbreiben. 10. ^er ^i)nig f(f)ir>ieg unb fc^ien 

trauvig 5U fein, al^ er bie fc^Iimme 9MdBpcbt ^orte. 11. 33itte, 

;ve^'*t)ergeiF)en ©ie mir, ba^ id^ ^hxK^w. nod^ nid^t, gefdfirieben ^joSit. 

12. SSo \j<ik>z\\ ®ie Sbren §ut aufgebdngt? 3^ ^<^^^ ^^'^ n^ll" rvt - ■ 
ben St^i^is^^ 9^f'^i^9t. 13. 2(t§ iuir auf ben ^erg fttegen, fd^ien 1 

bie Sonne fd^on ^eU. 14. 3SeIcbe t)on biefen SiidBern it)unfdE)en'VH/^ 
@ie? 3^) h^iinfcbe bie meinen. 15. SSir h)urben auf bemSanbe 
geblieben fein, iDenn unfere greunbe aucf) geblieben iodren. 16. ®ie 
§erben tourben auf bie 3Beibe getrieben, ;al§ toir t)om 33erg 
berabftiegen. 17. ®§ ift un§ be^tefen ' tcorben, ba§ bie ©rbe 

rCf/tr ^^"^ ^f^- 1^- ^Jl^ f""fS^S 3^^i^*^i^ beftieg bie ^onigin 53ictoria 

n^ ben 2:bron, -unb fie regiert nod) immer. 19. SSiirben ®ie nac^ 

(Suro^a reifen, ttjenn ic^ ^uiudbliebe, urn 3§r §au§ ju f^iiten? 

20. ^ie ^naben ^fiffen unb fc^rieen, al§ fie auf ben Serg ftiegen. 

B. 1. George has black ink, but mine is red. 2. Mary's 
sister and mine are learning German. 3. We have looked 
for William's books and ours everywhere. 4. Your exercise 
is not correct, copy it. 5. Whose gloves have you ? I have 
mine and yours. 6. Why did the boy shout so loud? 7. To 
whom were you writing the long letter yesterday ?;^ 8. I have 
black eyes, but yours are blue. 9. In what year did Goethe's 
'Faust' appear? 10. Waiter, please bring me the vinegar 
and the pepper. 11. This lead-pencil is mine, where is 



yours? 12. Your aunt and mine are neighbours. 13. The. 
professor saemed not to be at home, for his windows and 
shutters were not open. 14. I should write to him, if he 
wrote to me. 15. I was writing to my mother and Charles 
was writing to his when the postman brought us the letters. 


1. Seit wann sind Sie schon zu Hause geblieben ? 2. Was 
machten die Schafer, als wir vom Berge herabstiegen ? 3. 
Wann bestieg die Konigin Victoria den Thron ? 4. Was 
Kir Tinte haben Sie ? 0. Fiir wen ist dieser lange Brief .<* 
6. Welches sind die Namen der Monate ? 




Table of Adjective Endings. 

I. Strong. 

II. Weak. 



Singular. 1 




M. F. N. 




— er 

— e 

— e§ 

— e 

— e 

— e 

— e 

—eg (en) 

— er 

-e§ (en) 

— er 





— er 







— e 


— f ' 


— e 

— e 


Observe: -en for -eg in Gen. Sing. 
Masc. and Neuter before strong substs. 


M. F. N. 

— cn 

Observe: Persistent -n, 
except Nom. Sing, of all 
genders, and Ace. Sing. 
Fern, and Neuter. 











M. F. N. 

Noni. — cr 

— e 



Gen. — cu 



— en 

Dat. — en 

— en 

— en 


Ace. — en 

— c 

— e0 


[§§ 121- 

Observe: Same as Weak (11), except Nom. Sing. Masc. and Nonx 
Ace. Sing. Neuter. 


General Remarks on Adjectives. 

1. Participles used attributively are employed and declined 
as Adjectives, as : cjeliebtet 'Ivitcr, beloved father ; bae unnncnbc 
^inb, the weeping child ; meine gcehrte 93tutter, my honoured 

2. Adjectives and Participles used as Substantives vary 
their declension according to the rules for Adjective Declen- 
sion, but are spelt with capital letters, as : "^tx Mranfe, the 
sick man, patient ; Fem. Jlic i^ranfe, the sick woman; Plur. bie 
^ranfen; ein .^ranfer, a sick man, patient; pi. ,^ranfe, sick 
people, patients. 

Rerl\rks. — I. Many words, the English equivalents of which 
are Substantives only, are Adjectives in German, as : ber 
^rembe, the stranger, foreigner, PI. bic J-remben, but ein 5rem= 
ber, PI. grembe ; ber 9ietfenbe, the traveller, ein ^)?ei)enber, etc. 
These Adjective-Substantives, when Masc. and preceded by 
the Definite Article, have the same inflection as the Weak 

2. Names of languages from Adjectives are not declined 
when used without the article, as : 

^Ba^ ift bie§ auf ^entjc^ ? What is this in German ? 


3, Adjectives of colour used substantively are indeclinable, 
or add -0 in the Gen. Sing., as: bae ©run, bee G5run(e). 

4. If the Substantive is not expressed, the Adjective 
shows by its ending the gender, number and case, as : 

Gin fleiner 'DMnn unt^ ein grower, 
A little man and a tall one. 

Note. — The English ' one ' is in these cases not to be translated 
into German. 

, 5. If a Substantive is preceded by a succession of Adjec- 
^tives, they all follow the same form, as: gutcr, alter, roter 
29ein ; ber gutc, utte, rote 35etn ; einee guten, rotcn 2Seine§. 

6. Adjectives whose stem ends in -c(, -en, -er, as : ebel, 
noble ; gclben, golden ; ^eifcr, hoarse, drop -e of the stem 
when inflected; those in -el^-er may drop -c of the teniwia- 
tioji instead, unless the termination is -e, -er, or -e6, as : 
ba§ gotbne '^aiier ; ber eblen or ebetn ^-rau ; bcm beifren or 
beifem Sanger. 

7. The Adjective ^oc6, high, drops c when inflected, as: 
ber bpbe_^aum, the high tree. 

8. Adjectives can generally be used without change as ad- 
verbs, as : (uftig, merr\% merrily ; angenef^m, agreeable, agree- 
ably ; gut, good, well. 

9. Adjectives (so-called; in -er from names of places are 
indeclinable, as : bie ionbcner 3^itung/ the London newspaper; 
.V>amburger 3cf>iffe, Hamburg ships; ein ^^.^arifer §anbfc6u^, 
a Paris glove. 

Note. — These adjectives correspond to the English use of the 
jjroper names without inflection. They. are really substantives in the 
Gen. Plur., thus: bic ?onboncr 3fituufl is strictly bie ^eitiin^ iJcr SonDoncr, 
the newspaper of the Londoners. Hence they are spelt with a capital 





I o. After personal pronouns, the Adjective follows the strong 
declension except in the Dat. Sing, and Nom. (and some- 
times Ace.) Plur,, as : 

(for) me, poor man ; you good people ; us little children, 
mir armen 'D3ianne ; if)r gutcn Seute ; un^ f leine(n) .^inber. 

11. The Indefinite Pronouns (see Less. XXVII) t\.\Q^^, 
nicf»t§, toiel, are Substantives, and therefore not determinative 
words, and the following adjective has the strong declension, 
as : ett pgg @u teg, something good ; m(f)t§ 2(ngenelbmc§, nothing 

Observe : The Adjective is here used as substantive, and 
therefore spelt with a capital. 

12. After the Indefinite Numerals in the Plural (see 
Less. XXIX) alle, all; einige (ctli(f)e), some; manege, many; 
mebrere, several ; foldBc, such ; uieic, many ; Irenige, few, the 
Adjective may have either the weak or the strong ending. 

13. After the interrogative ir)el(f^e in the plural, the strong 
declension is also found in the adjective ; and the exclama- 
tory tiKl(f» is generally uninfiected before an adjective, which 
then always has the strong form, as : 

2Cc(t§ grp^C§ 33ergnugen ! What (a) great pleasure ! 


Strong Verbs : jt^ic^cn ModeL 

In FIN. 


P. Part. 

Germ. Model : 
Engl. Analogy: 







(bcr)brie§en, vex 
fliei5en (N.), flow 
gie^en, pour 








glimmen, glow 
flimmen (W.N, A.), climb 
friecBeu (N.), creep 
genie^en, enjoy 
riecf^en, smell (tr. and intr. • 
(er)fd;atlen (W.N.), sound, resoun: 
Joufert, drink (of beasts) 
frf»ie§en, shoot 
'f(^(ie|en, lock, shut 
fieben (W.), boil (intr.) 
fpriejen (N.), sprout 
triefen (N.), drip 

Remarks. — i. Observe, as under the beigen Model (§ 118, 
Rem. I, 2) the doubling of consonants and the interchange 
of ^ and fj : also the change of b into it (as in leiben, fc^neis 
ben, i7\ Rem., i -. 

2. 9?dc^en, 'to avenge,' is weak but has also P. Part, gerflrf^en. 

3. Saufeu has also ftiufft, fduft in the Pres. Indie. 2. 3. Sing. 

4. The simple verb fcfiaden is usually weak (fcbattte, ge? 

5. In fieben the weak P. Part, (gefiebet) is rare. 


























Strong Verbs : fcc^tcn Model. 


2. 3. S. Pr. Ind. 
2. S. Imper. 

Germ, Model: fcrf»ten . fi(f)tft ficf)t fidit 

Engl. Analogy : wanting 

Ablaut : t t 

Impf. p. Part. 
foc^t gefocf)ten 


fet^ten, fight fic^tft, ficf^t, ficbt fodt gefocf»ten 

fled^ten, weave, twine flic^tft, flic^t, f(id»t f(od>t gefIod>ten 

152 LESSON XXIV. [§xa4 

(er)lo)d)en (N.), be- (eriifcfjeft) erlifc^t eriofrf) erlofd^en 

come extinguished (evlifdb) 

mcUcn (W.), milk (milfft, milft, mil!) mol! gemolfcn 

qucllcn, gush forth (qui(tft,qui((t quelle) quoU gequollen 

fd^melsen (N.\ melt (fcfitniljeft) fdbmiljt fc^molj gefcBmoIgen 

(intr.) (f^nnilj) 

)cf)t»et(en (N.), swell (frf)n)iEft) fc^hjidt fcbiDolI ge)cf)it)DtIen 

Remarks. — i. Rare forms are enclosed in ( ). 

2. The simple verb lofdu'n, 'to extinguish' (ti.), is weak 
(lofcflte, i3eli3fc{}t), as are also its separable compounds, e. g., 

3. 3dBmel5en (intr.) has also the forms (fd^meljeft), frf^meljt 

4. ©cbmeljen, ' to smelt ' and fd)it)ellen, ' to cause to swell ' 
(trans.), are weak. 


extinguish, put out, auv'Iofc^en snow, ber 3rf)nee 

water (flowers, etc.), begie^en eight, acfit 

prescribe, l)erfd)rei6en celebrated, famous, beriif^mt 

flow past, l^orii'Serfiie^en blind, blinb 

close, shut, ju'fcbliejen healthy, healthful, gejimfc 

exhibition, bie Slue'fteKuni^ dear, lieb 

health, bie (^efimbbeit Limburg (adj. ), Simbiirger 

drink, beverage, ba§ ©etrdn! dead, tot 

cow, bie 'kwV^- Toronto (adj.), ^orontoer 

maid, maid-servant,bie lOiagb * thereon, baran 

mid-day, noon, ber ?[Rittag past, by, Doriiber 

pain, ber Sd^merj 

Ttlioms : 1. To go past the house, am ©aufe ooriibergebeti. 
'4. In (ierinan, lUit Tcutfd) or im X^cutfcljen, 

§i24J strong: verbs ferfiten model. 153 


A. 1. :Sie tolirben 3ie biefe iC^ortcr auf X^eutfc^ fc^retben? 
UX2. 3c^ ^^^^ meinen Srief gefcfiloffcn unb ioerbe thn je^t nacf) ber 
^r^ ^oft brincjen. 3. ®e§ 5Rorgcn^3 ftcigen bte fleincn 3>oge( jum §im= 
' mel auf unb fingen lu^g. 4. 2A>eIrf) grofje^ ^ergniigen, gute ©e= 
funbbeit 5u gcniegen ! 5. (2tn !(einer Strom f(o§ luftig an unferem 
.^aufe l?oiuber. 6. Xer ^w^ be§ *»iran!en ift gefcf^tDoUen unb er 
leibet febr baran. 7. Unfcr gee^rter ^rofeffor ift fett acf)t gabren 
tot. 8. ^er Toftor ^at bem ^ranfen guten, alten, roten 33etn 
toerfd^rieben. 9. ^ie g^itungen erjableu mel bou ber ^^orontcer 
STueftellung. 10. 3^er S^egen quott bom §immel unb Ibfcbte ba§ 
v^glimmenbe geiier au§. 11. Unfere Solbaten fdf)Ioffen bie ©tabts 
tfjore unb fo($len ta^fer gegen ben getnb. 12. ©ie '?J?dgbe f^aben 
bie ^ii]f)e gemolfen unb je^t begie^en fie bie 53Iumen, 13. 33itte, 
fcbh)eigt, if^r guten Seute, benn bie ^ranfen leiben je|t gro^e 
Sdfimerjen. 14. SSiirbe berSebrcr bofe inerben, h:)enn ber3rf>uler 
feine Slufgabe gerriffe? 15. Ter Scbdfer bat bem 9^eifenben ben 
®eg nacb ber (Stabt geiuiefen. 16. SSiirbe e*^ 3bnen bie S^eife 
t>er(eiben, toenn ic^ guriidfbliebe?/^ 17. .*5aben (Sie bie ^yjatjjtttgpn 
Stumen gefeben, bie U)ir bem ^ranfen fc^icfen? 18. ^er Sd^nee 
fc^moI§ unb ba§ Gaffer troff toon ben ^dufern, al§ bie Sonne 
gegen 9}Zittag toarm fcf)ien. 19. ®er ^linbe, ber neben yxn^ 
irobnt, ftoc^t git)ei ^orbe fiir meine 9}?utter. 20. Ter junge unb 
ber alte grembe, bie im 3^i]albe jagten, hah^w tJtele ^ogel ge* 
fc^offen. 21. 2^on it)em finb bie ^lumen begoffen toorben? 
©ie finb bom ©drtner begoffen trorben. 

JB. 1. The golden slipper was too small for Cinderella's 
sisters. 2. Paris gloves and Limburg cheese are famous every- 
where. 3. The huntsman shot a hare and brought it home. , 
4. Our neighbours are not at home, _for^heir doors and CXJ^ 
windows are closed. 5. 1 do not believe^very story I hear. 
6. Please, dear mother, tell us little children something new 
and prettyji 7. If Charles tears his new book, his mother 

154 LESSON XXV. [§§124- 

will be very angry. 8. He seemed not to hear what I said 
to him. 9. These flowers are for the patients in the hospitals. 

10. (The) green is agreeable for those who have weak eyes. 

11. The horse is drinking the water which we have brought 
him. 12. Pure fresh water is a healthful beverage. 13. A 
week ago I was at (in) a concert, where this singer {/.) sang. 
14. When the weather becomes cold, the dogs like to creep 
behind the stove. 15. The travellers enjoyed the beauty of 
the landscape, when they were ascending the high mountain. 
16. Please tell me how this word is written in German. 


1. Haben Sie Ihren Brief schon geschlossen? 2. Wie 
lange ist Ihr geehrter Professor schon tot 1 3. Was hat der 
Doktor der Kranken verschrieben ? 4. Weshalb wurde der 
Lehrer bose ? 5. Wer hat diese Vogel geschossen ? 6. Was 
hat der Jager mit dem Hasen gemacht, welchen er im Walde 
geschossen hat ? * 



tricrcn model. 
125. Comparison of Adjectives. 

In German, as in English, the degrees of comparison are 
formed by adding to the Positive : 

-Cr to form the Comparative, and 
-(e)p " " " Superlative, as : 
neu, new neucr, newer neu(e)fl, newest 

reirf), rich reid^cr, richer retd^ft, richest 

angenei^m, agreeable angenefjmer, more agreeable 
angene^mft, most agreeable 


Remarks. — i. Monosyllabic adjectives with 0, 0, U (not 
ttu) generally take Umlaut (but with many exceptions, given 
in App. K.), as: 

lang liinger liingft 

furg filrjer !iir§eft 

2. The syllables -cr, (c)fl are added to every adjective, 
without regard to its length, as in the case of angene^m (given 
above, but see § 161, note). 

3. Adjectives used attributively in the Comparative or 
Superlative degree are declined, and add the usual endings 
fifter the syllables -er, -efi respectively, as : 

ber reic^erc SRann eiu reic^ercr 5Jlann 

mein dlteftc§ ^leib liebftcr greunb 

4. Participles are compared like adjectives, as : 

geliebt, beloved geliebter geliebteft 

5. -e of the Superlative ending is retained only after b, f 
or a sibilant (f, \^, j, ^, j), as : alt, Superl. altefl ; but gro^ 
always has Superl. gro^t. 

5. Adjectives in -c, -cl, -eit, -cr drop c of the stem in the 
Comparative, as : trdge, trdger, trdgft ; ebel, ebler, ebelft. 

126. The Comparative. 

1. 'Than' = 0(0 after the Comparative. 

2. The compound form with mef)r (Engl, 'more') is never 
(except mth the adjectives given in § 161) used in German 
(as it is in Engl, with polysyllabic adjectives), unless when two 
adjectives (i. e., two qualities of the same object) are being 
compared, as : 

©r ift mc|r fc^tt)ac^ al^ Iran!, 

He is more (i. e., rather) weak than ill. 

156 ,^ OJ-^' LESSON XXV. / [§§126- 

3. Comparison of equality : 

I am (just) as rich as he, 
X^ 3d^ bin (eben) jo reic§ hiic er. 

4. ' The . . . the ' before comparatives = jc, b^^ or um 
fo — JC (b^ or um fo), as : 

The longer the nights, the shorter the days, 

5c (bcfto) Idnger bie 9Mcf)te, jc (bcfto) fiirjer bie 2:age. 

5. When the comparative is declined, the omission of c of 
the stem takes place just as in Adjectives in -cr, as : 

ben reid)er(c)n ^Zann, etc. 

Note. — The syllable -cr may occur three times successively at the 
end of the same adjective, viz. : i ° as part of the stem, e. g., ^eijct, hoarse; 
2° as inflection of comparison, e. g., ]^eif(e)rcr, hoarser; 3° as ending of 
Ltrong adjective declension, e. g., ein ^cif(e)rerer ©anger, a hoarser 

127. The Superlative. 

I. The Superlative is not used, even as Predicate^ in the 
undeclined form, but : 

{a) If the substantive is expressed, or if the substantive of 
the preceding clause can be supplied, the (weak) adjective 
form with definite article is used, as : 

This river is the broadest in America (i. e., the broad- 
est river), ©tefer glu^ tft bcr brciteftc in 2tmeri!a (ber 

The days in June are the longest (days) in the whole 
■ year, SDie ^age im Sum finb bie Idngftcn (2:age, under- 
stood) im ganjen S^^i^^- 
This earthquake was the most severe that we have 
had, ^iefeg ©rbbeben iff ba0 ^ef^igftc, tDelc^e^ n?ir 
ge^abt i^aben. 


(>) If no substantive can be supplied, the adverbial form 
pr ceded by nm is used, as : . 

The lake is broader than the river, but the sea is the 
broadest (observe not 'the broadest lake, river or 
sea'), 2)er ©ee ift breiter aU ber JIu^, aber bie ©ee ift am 

The days are longest (i. e., ^ at the longest,' not 'the 
longest days') in June, 3m guni finb bie Stage am 

The earthquake was most severe on Monday, 5tm 
l)ioutac3 luar ba^ ©rbbeben om l^eftigften (not 'the 
severest earthquake '). 

Note. — The superlative may be strengthened by prefixing ttflft-, 
as: bQv? oIIcrf)eftigfte, am ttUcr()cfttgften. 

2. In the preceding examples, the superlative ascribes a 
quality to the object in the highest degree ifi co7fipariso7i 
(expressed or implied) with, or relatively to, a number of 
other objects, and is hence called the Relative Superlative. 
But the English superlative with most often merely ascribes 
the quality in an e?ninently high degree, without instituting 
any comparison. When so used, it is called the Absolute 
Superlative, as: 

Your father was most kind (i. e. = 'exceedingly kind,' 
not = 'kind^j-/') 

The Absolute Superlative is rendered in German by an ad- 
verb of eminence, such as f ebr, very ; l^oc^ft, du^erft, exceed- 
ingly, prefixed to the adjective in the positive, as : 

3^r Skater mar {c^r (l^oijfi au|crft) gutit3. 
Your father was rnost (very, exceedingly, extremely) 




3. The superlative is commonly used in German of two ob- 
jects (which is not admissible in Engl.), as : 

5) or (i3rp^crc or) grii^te ^on biefen jluci .^naben. 
The taller of these two boys. 


Comparison of Adverbs, 

Adverbs are compared like adjectives, the superlative forn» 
being that with am, as : 

angene^m, agreeably angenebmcr, more agreeably 
am angenebmfiten, most agreeably 

129. Irregular Comparison. 

gut, good Beffer Bcft (different root) 

hod), high f)o|£i* V^^^\^ (drops c in Compar.) 

nab(c), near ndbev nd^ft (nearest, next; in- 

serts c in Super/.) 
t>icl, much mc^p: jnct[t_ ( different root) 

tvcnig, little (of quantity) minbcr millbeft (different root) 

Notes. — i. 9JJel)r is used as adverb of quantity only. For the Subst. 
mel)rcrc§, PL meljrerc 'some, several,' see §§ 152, 175. 
2. il'ciiig also has the regular forms lt>eniger, inenigfl. 


Defective Comparison. 

The following Comparatives and Superlatives are formed 
from adverbs, etc. (some of which are obsolete) : 

du|5crft, outermost 
utmost, extreme 
( cbeft, soonest 
' i erft, first 
f)intcrft, hindmost 
innerft, innermost 

(aufjcn, without, difi\) duj^cr, outer 

(ehe, before, fonj.) (cbcr, sooner, aif7 

(^inten, behind, adc'.) Muter, hinder 

(iunen, within, i7(hf.) inner, inner 




{la^, late, obsolete) 
(mittcl, middle) 
(nib, below, obsolete) 
(oben, above, adv.) 
(unten, below, adv.) 

(born, before, adv.) 


mittkr, middle 
nieber, lower 
obcr, upper 
imter, lower 

t)orbcr. fore 

le^t, latest, last 
mittclft, middle 
niebei'ft, lowest 
oberft, uppermost 
unterft, lowest, 

t>orberft, foremost 

Strong Verbs : fricrcn Model. 

Infin. Lmpf. p. Part. 

Germ. Model : frteren fror gcfroren 

Engl. Analogy: freeze froze frozen 

Ablaut : ic, etc. 

Note. — The long is what distinguishes this jNIodel from the fc^iefecu 
Model (§123). 


A. (Infin. ic, ii.) 
biegen, bend 
bieten, bid, offer 
fliei3cu (N.), fly (on wings) 
flicbcn (N.), flee (escape) 
friercn (N. A.), freeze, be cold 
^eben, lift, raise 
(er)!iefeu, (er fiircn, choose 
liigen, lie (tell a falsehood) 
(t>er)liercn, lose 
4rf)ieben, shove, push 
fc^iijoren, swear 
-(be)triigcn, deceive, cheat 
tt)iegen, weigh, have weight (intr.) 
jie^en (N. A.), pull (tr. ) ; move > intr.) 509 

Remarks. — i. ^Biegen, bieten, fliegen, flieben, jie^en, have 
also the forms (now used only in poetry) with cu for ie in the 











f;ob, ^ub 










fcbtt)or, fcbiinir 











2. and 3. Sing. Pres. Ind. and 2. Sing. Imper., as: beugft, 
bcui3t, bcuG ; flcud^ft flcud> ; 5curf>ft, §rucf). 

2. 2!3iec5en, to rock, is weak (tDtegte, geiriegt). 

3. Observe the change of {) into i^ in gie^en, 509, Qejogen. 

B. (Infin. c, ii.) 

fd>eren, shear frfjor gefc^oren 

h)eben (W.), weave iuob geiwoben 

iDcigen, weigh (trans.) tppg geiDogen 

(be)iuegen, induce, persuade betoog betoogen 

Remark. — '^eh^egcn, 'to move (set in motion)' is weak 
(betwegte, beiDcgt). 


metal, 't)a§ mztaU' 
red (subst.), bag dxOt 

to offer, an'bietcn 

abolish, annul, cancel, auf'= 

put off, delay, postpone, auf ; 

remove (neut.), auz^'ikh^n 
prefer, toor'jicbcn (dat. of pers.) 
fly away, tpcg'fliegen 
roof, bag Tad) 
colour, bie garbe 
hunger, ber §unger • 

cook, ber ^ocb * 

Idioms : 1. I prefer gold to silver, 3cl) \icl)e iai (Solb bcm Stlber OOr. 
2. I like the winter in Canada, 3d) lj«bc ten SBinter in 
(Sanata gem. 


A. 1. Gin (Sterling in ber §anb iff beffer aU gtoet auf bem 
^ad)e. 2. Maxk iff jiinger alg Souife, aber fie ift boc^ grower. 

sparrow, ber Sterling 
part, portion, ber ^eil 
shore, bank, bag Ufer 
on that account, therefore, 

yet, still (in spite of all), bod^ 
straight, gq^g^e (adj.) 
exactly, just, gerabe (adv.) 
as soon as, fobalb 

§i3i] STRONG verbs: friercu model. i6i 

\ Jv3. §unger ift ber befte ^D(!b. 4. ^er junge ©eneral 33. ift ein 
1^ tapfrerer §elb a(§ fein S^Tater. 5. Xie ^eifenben frf^oben baH 
33cot bom lifer unb ruberten iiber ^m Jvlufv (6. ^lufgefdioben ift 
ntc^t aufgebobeu J 7. 3Belcf)e§ toon biefen 9J?dbien ift ba§ gro^te ? 
(8. 3^ Bober ein ^ogel fliegt, je fleiner fcbeint cr 3U trcrben. * 9. ®er 
^' grembe bat mir mebr flir mein ^aib^ angeboten ale Sie, aber ic^ 
(jH glaube nid)t, ba§ er fo gut bejoblcn iriivbe. Ki. Je flei^iger toir 
ftnb, befto mebr lernen iDir. 11. ^m 3ommer haht icb ba§ 2anb 
gatij gem, abcr im ©inter gief)e id) bie 2tabt i)or. 12. 5)?ir Un= 
gliidlirf^en ift ber gufe erfroren, al§ icb nacb §aufe ritt. 13. ®o= 
balb tt)ir unfer §au§ berfauft hatUn, ^ogen Imr au§. 14. 2ll0 idfi 
auf bem Sanbe h)ar, iuog icb mebr alc> icb je^t iriege. 15. Q,^ ift 
toa^r, ba^ bie reicbften $?eute nicbt immer bie glucflid^ften finb. 
16. ^er 9?egen, ti>elcf)er un§ bie Dieife berleibet l)at, Wax mebr 
nii^Iic^ al§ angenebm. 17. ®ie 'D3tutter bob bie (Stucfe toon bem 
©Ia§ auf, Celebes ibr unartigee ^inb auf bie (Srbe gefcf)miffen 
batte. 18. liefer ^nabe i)at feine ©Item betrogen, unb besljalb 
ift er unglijcflic^. 19. g-rieren ©ie, §err ^<rofeffor? 3e|t 
nic^t, aber icb fror, al^ icb auf ber Strafe 'ti^ar. 20. ^er '^d^^x 
^at ben 3SogeI gefc^offen, gerabe aU er auf ben Saum flog. 
21. 5Son iuem tcurbe '^i)x §au§ gefauft? 22. 3Son etnem 
?Vremben, ber fe^ mer^e^n ^flftgn bei meinem ^^etter auf 53e= 
fucb ift. 

JB. 1: Lead is a heavy metal, but gold is the heaviest. 
2. This painter is not so famous as his father, but his pictures 
are just as fine. 8. George lost his parents when he was , ^ 
still very young. 4. Those students have lost! a great deal^o^'^-''"^'^ j 
time, but now they are studying more industrrously-yis. The 
bird flew away, just as the huntsman was on the point of 
shooting it. 6. When is the weather coldjest in Canada .? In 
the month of January it is coldesr.' 7, Which bird flies 
fastest ? 8. The useful is better than the beautiful. 9. What 
kind of a dog has the huntsman lost ? 10. Iron is heavy, lead 

•- <^ 

l62 LESSON XXVI. [§§I3a- 

is heavier, but gold is heaviest of all. 11. Green is a more 
agreeable colour for the eyes than red. 12. If the stick is 
too long, cut a piece of it off. 13. The upper part of the 
city of Quebec is much finer than the lower. 14. The 
weather seems to be warmer to-day, but it froze (perf.) yester- 
day. 15. When I was younger, I weighed more than my 
brother, but now he weighs more than I. 16. The upper 
part of the city of Quebec was built earlier than the lower 


1. 1st der junge General ein tapferer Mann? 2. Ziehen 
Sie das Land der Stadt vor ? 3. Weshalb ist der Knabe so 
traurig? 4. Wann hat der Jager den Vogel geschossen.? 
5. Welche Studenten lernen am meisten .'* 6. Welches ist 
besser, reich und ungliicklich oder arm und gliicklich (zu) 



(ingen model. 

132. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

The Demonstrative Pronouns are : 

1. bcr, bic, bag, that 

2. bie|cr, biefc, bic[e^, this, that 

3. jcncr, jcne, jcncs, that, yonder 

4. berjentgc, bicjcnigc, basjenigc, that 

5 ber ndmlii^e, bie ndmlit^e, bos namltf^c, the same 
6. bcrfe(6(i9)e, bic)cl6(i9)e, baHjclbdgc), the same 


7. fol(§(er), jolr^Ce), ioIi§(e8j, such, such a 

8. be^glcit^cn, bcrgfcit^en, of that kind (of those kinds; 
Remark. — These may all be used either as Substantive 

or Adjective Pronouns, except be^gleid^en (see § 139, i, 

133. I. ^er, bie, btt§, used adjectively (i. e., before a 
substantive), is declined like the Definite Article (which is 
merely the demonstrative adjective weakened and un- 
emphasized), as : 

2)cr' 9}lann, that man. Xtx SJlann', the man'. 
2. When used substantively it is declined thus : 

Singular. Plural. 











bcrer (beren) 











Note. — The form bctfn (Gen. PI.) is only used as = *of them,' as : 
How many children have you ? I have seven of them. 
2Bie Diele ^tnber t)aben (gie ? 3c^ ^abe tJcrctt fieben. 

134. liefer and jcitct both follow the biefer Model (see 
§ 6), but biC6 is used for biefee in the Neuter Nom. and Ace. 
Sing, when used substantively, as : 

^ie§ ift mein 35uc6, (Er batte bic§ nic^t ge^ort. 
This is my book. He had not heard this. 
bicjcr = this (the nearer of two objects, hence also =) 
the latter, as: 

jenet = that, yonder (the more remote of two objects, 
Sence also =) the former"; 
^icjer 33aum ift gro§, aber jener ift grower, 
This tree is large, but that (one) is larger. 

164 • LESSON XXVI. [§§134- 

Scncr 33aum, yonder tree (pointed out as remote). 
^arl unb ilUlbelm finb Sriiber; biefcr ift \\i\%\%, jcncr ift 

trage, Charles and William are brothers ; the latter 

is diligent, the former is idle. 

135. I. ^cvjcuigc is declined in both parts, like the Defi- 
nite Article followed by the adjective form jenig with weak 
endings, thus : 

Singular. Plural. 


Nom. bcrjenige biejenigc boSjenige biejenigcn 
Gen. bcgjenigen berjemgcn be^jenigen berjenigcn 
etc. etc. etc. etc. 

2. 2)er or bcrjcnige is used : 

id) before a genitive case, as : 

%6) \)o!o^ 3f)ren §ut unb bcnljcnigen) S^rcS SrubT^g. 
I have your hat and that of your brother (youi 

Note. — The demonstrative may also be omitted in this constructfonj 
as in English ; or the simple ber may be used. 

{b) before a relative clause, as : 

^cr(ienigc), tiiclr^cr gufrieben ift, ift gludflid^^ 
He who is contented, is happy. 

^ic(jcmgc) ^rau ift am frf^onften, tued^c gut ift. 
That woman is most beautiful, who is good. 

3br §au§ unb ba^dctttgc), hjoriu iDir toohnen, 
Your house and that in which we live. 

Note. — In sentences like the first, .where ber(ienigc) is used substantively, 
the demonstrative and relative together may be replaced by the compound 
relative tDer, thus : 

2Ber ijufrieben ift, ift gtiicflic^. 


136. ^crfe(6e (berfelbige) == 'the same,' as: the same 
hat, tscr)cl(JC ^ut ; and is declined like berjenige, in two parts, 
written as one word, thus : 

Smgu/ar. Plural. 


Norn, bcrfclbc bicfelbc basfelbc biefelben 
Gen. bc§|eI6cn berfelbcn bc§fel6cn berfelBcu 
etc. etc. etc. etc. 

(For examples of its use see § 143, 2-4, below). 
Note. — <2e(big is sometimes used without article, with strong end- 
ings: fe(bigcr, -e, -c§. 

137. ^cr namlii^e sometimes replaces berfelbe. 

138. I. Solt^, when used alone, follows thebiefer Model, 
as : foic^er SSetn, such wine; fcIcbeS ^rot, such bread. 

2. After ein, it follows the mixed declension of adjectives, 
as : 

Nom. cin \tA&}tx 2i>ein, such a wine 

Gen. eine^ folcbcn SBeines, of such a wine, etc. 

3. Before ein, folt^ is always, and before an adjective, gen- 
erally, uninflected, as : 

Sol(^ cin Sein ; folt^ gutcr ^Bein, or folcber gutc 2Bein. 

Note. — The adjective has the strong &xv^\xig=> when jo(d) is uninflected, 
otherwise it has the weak endings, except in the plur., where it some- 
times has the strong. 

2. Solc^ with cin is often replaced by fo, as: 

So eiit 23eiii ; ein fo guter SSeiiu 

139. I. ^c^gleicfjen is used as an indeclinable neuter sub- 
stantive ("never as adjective), thus: 

gc^ batte be?gleidben nie t3ebort/ 

I had never heard that sort of thing (anything of 
that kind). 

l66 LESSON XXVI. [§§ 139- 

Note. — 2)e§glci(f)en is also used adverbially, = 'in the same way, 

2. ^erglcidbeu is used both substantively (referring to a 
fern, or plur. noun) and adjectively. In the latter case it is 
invariable, standing before substantives of any gender and 
number, as : 

^crgleirf^en Sein, ^crgleirf^en SSeine, 

Wine of that sort. Wines of that sort. 

Note. — The phrase: unb bergletc^en mcl)r (abbrev. u. bgt. m.) is used 
forunb fo inciter (11. f. tt).) = et ccztera. 

General Remarks on Demonstrative Pronouns. 

140. The English ' that ' is rendered in German : 

1. As Demonstrative Pronoun : 

{a) Most generally by bet or btcfcr, when there is no 
contrast with any other object, thus : 
That man, bcr' 93iann or bicfcr ?Dknn. 
{h) By bcr or bcrjeitige before a genitive case or a 

relative clause (see § 135, 2, above). 
{c) By jencr, when the object is distinctly pointed out 
as reviote (= yon, yonder), or as more remote 
than another, thus : 

Setter S3autn, That tree (over yonder). 
Tiefeg ^^vA unb jcttes. This house and that one. 

2. As Relative by ber or tuelt^er (see § 95), thus : 

The book that I have, ^a§ ^ucf), bo§ (ttie(r^eg) id) ^(x\i^, 

3. As Conjunction by ba^, thus ; 

I shall tell your father that you are diligent, 
3cf» ir>erbe beincm Ssatev facjen, btt§ bu fleigig bift. 

141. The neuter pronouns \s^^, bicf(el), jeiteS are used 
(like iif see § 39, i, and ttiel^ed^ § 82, Rem. 2) before the verb 


'to be,' representing the real subject, which follows the verb, 
and with which the verb agrees, as : 

^00 ift mein ^niber. That is my brother. 

^icf(e§) ift ^f^re Sc^ipefter, This is your sister. 

3fnc5 ftnb feine 33ucf)er, Those are his books. 

142. ^cr and jcttCr, when referring to inanimate objects 
are often replaced by the adverb btt(r), 'there,' before pre 
positions (compare § ^S, Rem. 5) and biefer by ^ier, as : 

gcf) babe nicbls bamit 511 tbun, 
I have nothing to do with that (/>^r<?with). 
§icrmit ntu^ ic^ fcfiUe^en, 
With this {/lerewith) I must close. 
Note. — This substitution is not made before a relative, as : 
3cf) bacf)te an lia§ i'^ot baran), toa^ '2ie fagten, 
I was thinking of that which (what) you were saying. 

143. Use of Demonstratives to replace 

Personal Pronouns. 

1. The neuter gen. bef(cn replaces that of the neuter pers. 
pron. (feiner) referring to things, as : 

'^(S) ertnnre mic6 bcfjcn nicfit, 

T do not recollect it (feiner = him, of him). 

2. The genitive of bet and that of berjclbe are frequently 
used to replace the possessive adjective of the 3. person, in 
order to avoid ambiguity, as : 

2)er ©raf toar mit fcinem (be§ ©rafen) ^ager unb bcffcn 
(be§ 3«9^^^) §unben (or mit ben §uuben bc6ieI6cn) auf 
bcr 3*^9^/ T^^ Count was at the hunt with his (the 
Count's) huntsman and his (the huntsman's) dogs. 
Note. — 5D?it fcittcn ^3unben would mean 'with the Count's dogs.' 

3. ^erjclbe is used in other cases also to prevent ambiguity 
(also bicfet in the same way), as : 

1 68 


[§§ 143 

5D?em 53ruber ift 6ei meincm greunbe, unb berjclbc (or bicfcr) 
acMct i^n fcBr ; or : ev (mein ^^ruber) ac^tet benfelBcn fe^r, 
My brother is at my friend's, and he (the latter, the 
friend) esteems him (my brother) very much ; or : he 
(my brother) esteems him (my friend) very much. 
4. ^crfclftc also replaces the personal pronouns, to pi-event 
repetitions like i6n — 3^"^"/ '^^^ — 1^^/ ^^^ ' ^^ • 

^^iefer '®cin t[t gut, icf) faun 3^"^" iJcnfcIBcn (for i^n 
3^ticn) em^feMen, This wir a is good, I can recommend 
it to you. 

144. Strong Verbs : jingcn Model 




P. Part. 

Genn. Model : 




E?igl. Analogy: 









Mnben, bind 



bringcn (N.), press 



finben, find 



flingen, ring, sound 



(ge)ltni3en (N.), succeed 




with dat. of pers.) 

ringen, wring (the hands, 

, etc.) 



fd^ltngen, twine ; swallow 



jdBtDtnben (N.), vanish 



fcf)it)ingen, swing 



fmgen, sing 



fin!en, sink 



jprtngen(N. A.), spring 

, leap 



trinfen, drink (of human beings) 



n)inben, wind 



itoinden, force 



i44] STRONG VERBS : fingcn model. 169 


to press in, penetrate, ein's on board, am 33Drb 

escape, entflief^en [bringen grammar, bie ©ramma'tt! 

invent, erfinben dealer, ber §dnbler 

remember,j'i(f)erinnern(-[-gen. lion, ber Soit>e 

of thing) diver, ber ^aud^er 

drown, be drowned, ertrinfen telephone, ba§ ^ele^^on' 

spring upon, lo^yf^rtngen (auf clever, gef(f)ic!t 

+ ace.) prudent, cautious, bor'ficbtig 

mean, suppose, meinen unfortunately, leiber 

oblige, berbinben below, unterbalb (+ gen.) 

vanish, berfcbioinben never yet, noc^ nie 


A, 1. ^ie§ ift mein ^^etter au^ ?D^ontreaI ; fennen ©ie tl^n? ^ 
2. 3^^^'^^'^/ biefcn fenne ic^ gang gut, aber nic^t ben, ber mir geftern 
ben 58rief gebracbt bat. 3. (Sin bofer ^nabe fcbicang fic^ auf ben 
5(^felbaum im ©arten feine^S 9Zacbbar§ unb fcbmig bie S^fel auf 
bie (Erbe. 4. ^w biefem gelbe hahiw bie 33auern f($on bag @ra§ 
gefcf^nitten, aber in jenem tt)erben fie e§ erft morgen fd^neiben. 
5. „?tebet bie, bie eud^ f)affen." 6. 3^"^^ f^nb meine §unbe, aber 
bies finb biejenigen, ir>elcbe ber 3^9^^^ i>Dr ac^t ^agen t)erIoren 'tjai, 
unb bie id^ gefunben ^o,hi. 7. ©rinnern (Sie fic^ beffen, h)a§ ic^ 
3bnen i)cm alten 2c^lo^ am Ufer be§ 3ee§ erjdMt ho.hi ? 8. ® e m 
h)iirbe ic^ leinen ^§a(er lei^en ; b e r miirbe nie bejafjien. 9. ^ie 
©deafer triebeh i^re ^erben iiber benfelben 33erg auf treld^en toir 
ftiegen. 10. Ter D^eifeube ftieg bom ^ferbe unb banb baefelbe an 
einen fleinen 53aum. 11. ^a§ S(f»iff ftie^ aw einen S^^f^"/ bag 
^Baffer brang ein, unb ba§ (2rf)iff fan!. 12. gc^ babe mic^ be= 
fUffen, Satein ju (ernen, aber eg jft mirni c^t geluncjjen. 13. ®er 
£oh)e tr»ar gerabc im ^^egriffe auf ben ^eifenben (og3uf^ringen, alg 
ber S^ger \^w fd^oJ3. 14. fennen (gie Qtxxw ^e(I ? 2BetdfKn §errn 
33ett meinen Sie? 15. ^enjenigen, ber bag ^ele^^on erfunben 

I/O LESSON XXVI. [§§144- 

F^at. 16. 2Ba^ ift au§ metner b^utfc^en ©rammatt! gehJorbenV 
©ie fd^eint ganj i:)erfd;it)unben gu fein. 17. ^a§ finb fc^one 
©rbbeeren ; \m IjaUn 6ie biefclben gefauft? 18. ©ie finb fd^bn, 
md)tWa\)x? ©old^ |)rdc(^ttge Seeren finben ©ie nid}t bei jebem 
§dnbler. 19. ®o fjeij^e^ 2Better l^aben tv'xx nod^ nid^t ge^abt. 
20. aSa^ tt)urbe bir geanttoortet, al§ bu nad; bem ^ranfen frag= .. 
teft? 21. SJtan fagte mir, er fei ein tt)enig bcffer. ' ''^ 

j5. 1. The patient is just as weak to-day as he was yester- 
day. 2. Such happy days I have never yet passed ! 3. Where 
do you generally pass the winter ? 4. Where is my pen ? 
Have you found it ? 5. This is my neighbour of whom you 
have already heard so much. 6. The ship has sunk, and 
the people who were on board have been drowned. 7. I 
was looking for my coat, but found my father's. •'8. I should 
be very much obliged to you, if you sang me a beautiful sorig^/ 
9. Which is poorer, he who has no money, or he who has no 
friends? 10. How should we escape if the boat sank.? 
11. Charles has already finished (the) learning (of) his lesson ; 
he is cleverer than I thought. 12. The diver that jumped 
from the bridge has unfortunately been drowned. 13. It 
will have been a good lesson for us, if it makes us more 
prudent in future, 14. Is that a new song? No, it is the 
same that I sang a week ago at your house, 'io. The St. 
Lawrence River is the broadest in Canada ; below the city of 
Quebec it is broadest. 16. The patient is better to-day; he 
will be allowed to go out to-morrow. 


1. Was ist aus dem Taucher geworden ? 2. 1st Karl ge- 
schickter als Johann ? 3. Was hat der bose Knabe gemacht ? 
4. Ist der Reisende dem Lowen entflohen ? 5. Ist es Ihnen 
gelungen, Latein zu lernen ? 6. Wessen Hunde sind das ? 





^Clfen MODELS. 

145. Indefinite Pronouns. 

The Indefinite Pronouns are : 

(a) Substa7itive : 

1. man (indecl.), one, they, people (Fr. o?i) 

2. jebcrmonn, everybody, everyone 

3. jemanb. 

somebody, anybody 
some one, any one 

( not anybody, etc. 

5. ettiJttS, something, anything 

6. ni(^t§^ nothing, not anything 

7. cincr, one, some one 

8. feiner, no one, none 

(^) Adjective (also used substantively) : 
1. einigc, etUt^C (plur.), some, a few, 

of persons 

of things 

(biefer Mod- 
el) persons 
and things 


2. ieb(tt)Cb)cr (jeglit^er), each (one), every 

one (biefer Mod- 

3. mantlet, many (a one) J. el) persons 

4. me^rcre (pi.), several and things 

5. tiicl, much, pi. diele, many 

6. ttienig, little, pi. ttjentgc, few 

7. tticlrjcr, some 

Remark. — The Indefinite Pronominal Adjectives are also 
used as Indefinite Numeral Adjectives (see Less. XXIX). 

172 LESSON XXVII. [§§146- 

146. ^an (spelt with small letter and one n, to distinguish 
it from ber ?[Rann, the man, from which it is derived) is the 
Indefinite Personal Pronoun, and is used to make a state- 
ment without specifying any particular person. It is equivalent 
to Engl. ' one, they, we, you (indef.), people,' etc., (French on)^ 
or to the impersonal use of the passive voice, as : 

SWan fagt. One says ; they, people say ; or it is said. 

Tlan tann Dl unb SSafjer nic^t gufammen mtfc^en. 
One ("we, you) cannot mix oil and water. 

Remarks. — i. One's self (refl.) = fi^ ; one's = fcin 
(poss. adj.), as : 

Sflttn fdfiamt fi^ fcincr ?^e{)ler. 
One is ashamed of one's faults. 

2. Wan cannot be replaced by any other pronoun, as : 

9}?an tt)irb miibe, toenn man (not er) §u lange arbeitet, 
A man (one) gets tired, when he works too long. 

147. 3cbctmann is used in the Sing, only; it takes -8 in 
Gen., but is otherwise uninflected, as : 

3cbcrtnttnn0 6acf)e ift memanbe§ (Ba(i)c, 
Everybody's business is nobody's business. 

5Die 33tbel ift ein Suc^ fiir jebermttntt (ace), 
The Bible is a book for everybody. 

148. Scmanb and its negative niemattb are used in the 
Sing, only, and are declined thus : 

Nom. jemanb niemanb 

Gen. jemanbcS niemanbcS 

( jemanbcm ( niemanbem 

" ( jemanb(cn) ( memanb(cn) 
Ace. iemanb(en) memanb(en) 


Note. — The uninflected forms are preferable for the Dat. and Ace, as : 
SSir Ijabeii niemanti (ace.) getabelt, We have blamed nobody. 
SSerben >Sie eg jemanb (dat.) fagen ? Shall you tell it to anybody? 

149. I. ^tttJttS is sometimes abbreviated to hiag, as : 
3c^ hJtII bir ttitti fagen, I will tell you something. 

2. After ettt)0§ and ni(^t§^ an adjective has the strong 
neuter ending -e§ (see § 122, Rem. 11, above). 

3. ^tttiO§ and itir^t0 are also used as Indefinite Numerals 
(see Less. XXIX, § i68). 

1 50. fitter (bief er Model), ' one, some one, any one,' is used : 

1. In the Nom. Sing. Masc. = man. 

2. To supply the missing cases of man^ as : 

@§ tf^ut etnem (dat.) leib, bon feinen greunben gu fc^eiben. 
One is sorry to part from one's friends. 

3. Before a substantive, as : 

^incr meiner ^reunbe (bon meinen greunben), 

One of my friends. 

^m(c)0 Don bief en 53uc^ern, One of these books. 

4. To represent a preceding substantive, as : 

^ahixx ©ie ein 33uc^ ? 3^/ ic^ ^^^^ cm(c)§. 
Have you a book ? Yes, I have one. 
Note. — The c may be dropped in the ending of the Nom. and Ace. Neut. 

151. Reiner (biefer Model) is the negative of einer, and 
is used : 

1. As equivalent to niemanb. 

2. Before a substantive, as : 

Reiner t)on meinen greunben. 
None (not one) of my friends. 

3. To represent a preceding substantive, as : 
§aben Sie ein 33uc^ ? 3^ein, id^ \)ahi !ein(c)8. 

Note. — Like einer, it may drop c in the Nom. and Ace. Neuter. 

174 LESSON XXVII. I§§i5a- 

162. Crintgc (ftlir^e), mc^rerc, = ' some, a few, several,' as : 
dinigc bon mcinen greunben. Some (a few) of my friends. 
9Wc^rcrc biefer 33uci&er, Several of these books. 

153. ^tttv, jebhjeber, jegUcf)er (biefer Model) or tin jeber, 
etc. (def. art. + adj. with mixed declension) are used, 
especially in the Masc, for jebermann, as : 
^ie 33i6el ift ein 33uc^ fiir jebcn. 
(din) jcbcr ift feine^ G)Iuc!e§ 3c^mteb, 
Every man (one) is the architect (lit. smith) of his owp 
164. SDIttlt^er, * many a one, many a peison ' (biefer Model), 
is used to express indefinite plurality, as : 

93Jttni§cr benft. Many a one (person) thinks. 

166. SBcli^cr (biefer Model) is used for ' some,' referring 
to a preceding substantive, as : 

§aben Sie Srot ? 3^/ '^^ ^^^^ toeli^cg. 

166. For titel and ttjenig see Less. XXIX, § 176. 

167. When the Engl, 'anybody, anyone, anything,* = 
'anybody, etc., at alV (indefinite and general), they are 
rendered by irgenb jemanb, irgcnb einer, irgcnb etit)a», as : 

Anybody (at all) will tell you, where I live, 

3rgcnb jemanb (or einer) luirb ^\jmx\, fagen, tDO ic^ too^nc. 

%&j bin mit irgenb et\t)a§ jufrieben, 

I am contented with anything (at all). 

168. Strong Verbs : f^iinncn Model. 

Infin. Impf. p. Part. 

Germ. Model : fpinnen f^onn gef^onnen 

Efigl. Analogy: spin span (spun) 


Ablaut: \ 5 

X59] STRONG VERBS : fpinneix MODEL. 175 


(Note. — The Impf. Subj. is also given, on account of variations 

(be)ginnen, begin begann begiinne begonnen 

rinnen (N.), flow rann ranne geronnen 

fd^iDtmmen (N. A.), swim fc^toamm | jxj^-"^"^^ gefc^toommen 

finnen, think fann fdnne gefonnen 

\pmmn, spin fpann j ^^^^^ geronnen 

' (ge)h)mnen, win, gain gett)ann -j ^ » gehjonnen 

Note. — Observe the subjunctive forms with vowel of P. Part. -|- Um- 
laut, instead of vowel of Impf. Ind. 

159, Strong Verbs: l^elfcti Model. 

Pr. Ind. 2.3. Sing. ) ^ ^ ^ ^ 

iNFiN. -3 T- t:- MMPF. SuBj. P. Part. 

Pr. Imper.2.Sing. \ 

Germ. Model: E)elfen fjilfft, ^iflft, ^ilf l^olf ifiulfe ge^olfen 
Engl. Afialogy : wanting. 

Ablaut: t \ H ii, oorii 



(Note. — The 2. 3. sing. Pres. Ind., 2. sing. Imper., and Impf. Subj. are 
also given.) 

Bergen, hide birgft, birgt, birg barg bdrge geborgen 
MtenJN.), (HrMUirfUirft) Barft ^^ fleBorften 

(toer)berben(N.), ijerbirbft, etc. ijerbarb berbiirbe berborben 

spoil (intr.) 

brefc^en, thrash brifc^eft, etc. |^^^|* ^^51^^ | Q^^^^ofc^en 

gelten, be worth giltft, gilt, gilt gait gdlte gegotten 




^clfcu, help J)ilf[t, etc. 

fcfjeltcn, scold f c^iltft, fd)ilt, fc^ilt 

fterben, (N.), die ftirbft, etc. 

ioerben, woo \imh\t, etc. 

hjerben (N.), be- ^. ., . . ^ . 

^ iDirit, Wixh, toerbe 

ipirfft, etc. 


lt)erfen, throw 

I tvavb 
1 iDurbe 







Remarks. — i. Most of these verbs have b or il in the 
Impf. Subj. instead of ti, which cannot be distinguished in 
sound from the c of the Pres. Ind. ; thus fterbe and ftdrbe 
would sound alike. 

2. SSerberben, when trans., is both strong and weak (t)er= 
berbte, t)erberbt). 

3. SSerben has ioarb or it)urbe in the sing. ; tourben only in 
the plur. (see § 19). 

4. The Imperative never has the final -c in these verbs, 
except iDcrbe. 

5. Observe the omission of (e)t of 3. sing. Pres. Ind. in 
the verbs with stem in -t, -b. 


to be or do (of health), fid) 

reflect, deliberate, fic^ be= 

accomplish, leiften 
remain over, be left, ii'brig 

hide, conceal, ijerbergen 
requite, reward, bergelten 
complete, finish, i)otIen'ben 
throw away, l:)eg'ir>erfen 

run away, vanish, ^errtnnen 
the conduct, 'i^a^ 33etragen 
poet, ber ^ic^ter 
barley, bie ©erfte 
oats, ber §afer 
sailor, ber ?[Ratrofe 
musician, ber ?Oiufi!er 
need, necessity, bie 9Zot* 
dove, pigeon, bie Zauhc 
plate, ber teller 
loss, ber SSertuff * 

§ I59l STRONG VERBS : {jelfeu MODEL. I77 

embarrassment, perplexity, thereto, ba^u' 

bie ^Scrlc'genBeit no longer, nic^t mel^r 

wheat, ber SSeijen as, \vk 
evil, bofe 

Idiom; I like the country, ^(^ 6in eiit 5««til> tJOtn gttttJe. 

A. 1. SSer ju biel rebet, leiftet iDenig. 2. ©erjenige, tueld^er 
5U biel rebet, leiftet h?emg. 3. ®ie^ finb meine Scf)ube, aber jene^ 
finb (bie) 3Bre(n). 4. ^er jebermanng greunb ift, ift niemanbeg 
greunb. 5. (?in guter (5f)rift bergilt 33ofe§ mit ©utem. 6. ©§ 
ift fo eben jemanb Her getoefen. 7. SSeIcbe§ bon biefen 33dns 
bem jief)eu 3ie t)or, ba§ rote ober bag Maue? 8. 23en fuc^ft 
bu? ^c^ fuc^e bie arme gamilie, beren 3Sater geftorben ift. 
9. §aben 3ie fcbon 3f>ren ©eigen gebrofd^en ? Wan brifc^t beute 
belt §afer unb bie ©erfte, aber man trirb erft morgen ben SSBei^en 
brefd)en. 10. @§ ift ein 3Sertuft fiir ba§ gan^e 2anb, toenn ein 
grower unb guter Tlann ftirbt. 11. Ter gro^e ^nabe fc^dmt fic^ 
feinee Setragen§ unb besbalb i^erbirgt er fein ©cfic^t. 12. „2Bie 
getoonnen, fo gerronnen," bae ift, man berliert leid^t, tt)a§ man 
Teic^t geiDinnt. 13. ^ie Grbbeeren, it>elcbe icb geftern faufte, finb 
berborben. 14. 93Ian bilft gern einem, ber ficb felbft bilft. 15. 
§iermit fd^icfe tc^ '^^mn ba§ @elb, iuelc^eg <Sie fo freunblic^ 
getoefen finb, mir §u lei^en. 16. 3inb (Sie ein greunb i:)om 
8cbh)immen? 3^^* nicbt me^r, aber id) fcfjUjamm gcrn, aU id) 
jiinger toar. 17. ^er Ungludlicbe befann fic^ lange, fd^ritt 
aber enblic^ an ben Sf^anb be§ 53oDte§ unb f^rang in§ Staffer. 
18. 3ft cr ertrunfen? 9^ein, er tDurbe toon ben 'Dtatrofen gerettet. 

\ / B. 1. Good morning, Mr. Bell, how are you to-day? 2. 
Have you any money .'' Yes, to be sure, I have some, but not 
enough for my journey. 3. Where is the tree to which the 
traveller tied his horse .? 4. People take cold easily when they 
are tired. 5. Schiller and Beethoven were Germans, the 


latter was a great musician, the former a great poet. 6. Mr. 
A. is a lazy man ; he would not work at all, if necessity 
did not force him to it. 7. We found the money we lost a 
week ago. 8. Many a one begins what he will never finish. 
9. Mary, my child, throw that apple away; it is spoilt. ,10. ' ^ 
Have you shot many pigeons ? We have shot only a few. ^ 
11. Except my brother §in^ me nobody is at home. 1:?. The A 
/ j^.JcJjZmother is scolding, because her naughty child has thrown a \ 
plate upon the ground. 13. Where is the River St. Lawrence 
broadest.^ 14. When the children had drunk, the cat drank 
the milk which remained over (was left). 15. The women 
on (an) the shore screamed and wrung their hands, when the 
boat sank in which their husbands were. 16. Has the money 
which was lost been found ? 


1. Wann wird man den Hafer dreschen ? 2. Warum ver- 
birgt der bose Knabe sein Gesicht ? 3. Wem hilft man gem ? 
4. Sind Sie ein Freund vom Jagen ? 5. Was fiir ein Mann 
ist Herr Bell ? 6. Weshalb schilt die Frau > 


160. Adjectives used as Attributes only. 

The following classes of adjectives are not used as predicates: 

1. Derivatives in -Cil, -Cm (denoting material), as; golbcn, of gold, 
golden; fttbcrn, of silver. These are replaced in the predicate by the 
substantive with t)on, as : 

Sicfe ll^r ift tJOn Silbev, This watch is of silver. 

2. Many in -if^ and -li^, as : biebiic^, thievish; tierijcf), bestial; l)eud|= 
lerifd), hypocritical; tdglidi, daily; |a[]r(ic^, annual; tt)ir!(id), actual, real 

3. Those in -ig from adverbs of time and place, as: l^euttg, of to-day 
^icfig, of this place. 


161. Adjectives used as Predicates only. 

The following classes of adjectives are not used as attributes : 

1. Those that are really nouns (though spelt with a small letter), such 
as: angft, afraid; fcinb, hostile; freunb, friendly; leib, sorry; not, needful; 
nii^e, useful ; fc^ulb, guilty. 

2. The following among others : 

bereit, ready getroft, confident 

eiugebenf, mindful geroabr, aware 

gar, cooked, done (of food) gvam, averse 

gang unb gabe, current (of money,etc.) irre, astray, wrong 
tei([)aft, partaking 
Note. — Both these classes of adjectives are incapable of comparison in the ordinary 
way, and form the comparative and superlative by prefixing mc^r and am mctften respec- 
tively, as : 

@r rourbe metnem 9?ruber itnmer ntc^r grnnt, He grew more and more averse to my 

S)a§ t^Ot mtr am meijieu leiH, I was most sorry for that {relative superl.). 

162. Remarks on certain Pronouns. 

1. The pronouns lucr, trag are frequently followed by the demonstrative 
iier in the after clause, and always so when the latter (the seeming ante- 
cedent) is in a different case from that of the relative, as : 

2Scr t)at, tient trirb gegeben, To him that hath shall be (is) given. 

2. The neuter pronouns e^, ba?, tliQ§, jebe§, oSkti are often used in the 
Nom. and Ace. Sing, in reference to a number of persons or things, espe- 
cially if of different gender, as : 

3Jiauner, SSeiber, ^inber, atle^ icf)rie um §ilfe, fo taut eg fonnte, 
Men, women, children, all cried for help as loud as they could; 
%xVi\) iibt firf), tDttg ein iO^cifier tnert'en iniU, 
Those practice early, who would become masters. 
Note. — Observe that the verb is singular. 

3. 2Sa§ is sometimes used for iriarum ? ('why.?'), as: 
2Bo8 ireinft bu? Why dost thou weep ? 

4. The relative adverb lote ('as ') after fold) ein or fo ein ('such a') is 
usually followed by a personal pronoun, agreeing in gender and number 
with the antecedent, as : 

@olrf) (io) ein 9J?aiin, (or ein aJZann) mie rair i^n nie gefannt fatten, 
Such a man as we had never known. 
Notb. — The demonstrative folc^orfo is often omitted, as indicated in the above example. 





f^rCt^Cn MODEL. 


163. Cardinals. 

1. eins ; ein(cr), -e, -(el) 

2. jtDei 

3. brei 

4. t)ier 

5. fiinf 

6. fecfȤ 

7. fieben 

8. acf)t 

9. neun 

10. 5e^n 

11. elf 

12. ^tpblf 

13. bret3c5n 

14. bter§e!f)n 

15. fiinf 5ef)n or funfje^jn 

16. fct^je^n 

17. ficBje^n 

18. ac^tjef^n 

19. neun^el^n 

20. ^ttion^ig 

21. cin unb jtDanjig 

22. jttjei unb jUjanjig 
30. breifeig 

40. bier^ig 

50. funfjig or funfjig 

164. Ordinals. 

1st. ber crfic 

2nd. „ p)t\it 

3rd. „ britte 

4th. „ bierte 

5th. „ fiinftc 

6th. „ fed^Ste 

7th. „ fiebente 

8th. „ aii)tt 

9th. „ neunte 

10th. „ ge^nte 

nth. „ elfte 

12th. „ 5it)orfte 

13th. „ breije()nte 

14th. „ bier^etjnte 

loth. „ funf= or fiinf jel^nt^' 

16th. „ fec^^efjnte 

17th. „ fiebjel^nte 

18th. „ ac^tge^nte 

19th. „ neun^el^nte 

20th. ,, gican^tgfte 

21st. ,, eitt unb gn^an^igfte 

22nd. „ gtoei unb ^toanjigfte 

30th. „ breigigfte 

40th. „ t)ier§igfte 

50th. „ funfjigfte or fiinf = 



60. fe#g 

60th. ber fec^jiafte 

70. fieb(en)stg 

70th. , fieb(en)aigfte 

80. ac^t5ig 

80th. „ adE>t^igfte 

90. neutijig 

90th. „ neungigfte 

100. l^unbert 

100th. „ ^unbertfte 

101. I^unbert (unb) ctn^ 

101st. „ ^unbert unb erfie 

123. ^unbert (unb) brei unb 

123rd. „ ^unbert (unb) brei 


unb jtoangigfte 


200. ghjei ^unbert 

300. brei ^unbert 

1000. taufenb 

1001. taufenb unb ctn3 

1036. taufenb (unb) fed^g unb breigtg 

1887 1 ^^"f ^"^ ^""^) ^^^ l^irnbert (unb) fieben unb ad^tjig 
* 1 or aci^t3ef)n^unbert fieben unb ad^tjig 

10,000. jebn taufenb 

100,000. ^unbert taufenb 

1,000,000. eine gjiittion' 

2,567,849. §it)ei gj^iKionen, fiinf ^unbert (unb) fieben unb 

fec^jig taufenb, ad)t ^unbert (unb) neun unb 


Interrogative Ordinal : ber ttitcbielfic ? which (in order) ? 
what day of the month? (See § i66, 3, Note 2). 

165. Remarks on the Cardinal Numerals. 
I. @in only is declined throughout, thus : 

(a) Before a substantive after the niein Model (§ 8), like 
the Indefinite Article, which is the same word un- 
emphasized, as : 

©in' 3)Zann, one man ; ein 5!Jlann', a man. 

1 82 LESSON XXVIII. [§165 

Note. — The numeral ein is sometimes printed with a capital, or spaced 

out (= Engl, italics) to distinguish it from the Article, as : 
2Bir l^aben (^'in' (C t n) 33itcf), We have one book. 
SSir ^abcn ein ^uc^', We have a book. 

(d) Used substantively (see also § 150, above) without 
article, after btefer Model (§ 6), as : 

@incr i)on meinen greunben. One of my friends. 
Unfer eincr. One of us {of our sort). 

(c) After an article or other determinative word, like an 
adjective, as : 

SDer eine Sruber, The one brother. 

5Rein eincr SdBuf), (The) one of my shoes. 

Note. — With the definite article it may be used substantively 
also, as : 

Ser einc unb ber anbere, (The) one and the other 
and even in the plural (= some, one party), as." 

^ic eincn iQiiteu bie?v bie anbern jcnc?, 

Some (the one party) said this, others (the other party) that. 

(d) QXm is the form used in counting. 

2. ^met and brci may have -er in the Gen. and -cil in the 
Dat. when not accompanied by any article, etc., as • 

2(u§ 5it)eicr ober breicr 3^^3^" !)J^unb fommt bie 2Ba^r!)ett, 
Out of the mouth of two or three witnesses cometh 
the truth. 

?0^an !ann nicf>t ghjeien §erren btenen. 
One cannot serve two masters. 

Note. — The Gen. -er is necessary to show the case, but maybe re- 
placed by t)OU; but the Dat. -en before a substantive is rare, the -Xt of 
the substantive sufficiently showing the case. 

3. 35cibc ^ 'both,' refers to two objects taken together, 
and is declined like an adjective in the Plur. ; N. beibc, 
G. beibcr, etc. ; bie beibcn ; meine beibcn ^riibcr. It often 


replaces jh^ei after determinative words, as in the last example. 
The neuter sing, form beibe0 is also found, as : 
S3eibe§ iji tr>a r, Both (things) are true. 

Notes.— I. Both c / us = irir beibe(n) (we two). 

2. ' Both ' as conjunction = fotro^I, etc. (See Less. XL.) 

4. Other cardinals are not declined unless used substan- 
tively (see next section). 

5. The numberj Tom 13 to 19 are formed by adding -je^tl 
(Engl, -teen) to t,ie units (but fecf^jebn drops -§). 

6. The multiples of ten (20 — 90) add -jig to the units, 
jtoonjig, brei^ig being irregular, and fecBjig dropping -§. 

7. The tmits always precede the tens in compound numbers 
from 21 upwards, both being joined by the conjunction unb 
'and ' ; hence 25 = fiinf uub giranjig (Engl. ' five and twenty '); 
156 = ^unbert fec^§ unb funf^tg, etc. 

8. §unbert and XaufCttb are generally used without ein be- 
fore them, and the conjunction unb may be omitted after 

9. 'One by one, two by two,' etc. = je eincr, jc Jitjei (or 
jc jtoei unb §h)ei), etc. 

10. The Cardinals may be used as substantives : 

{a) With a substantive understood (as sifuple numbers 
only), with -e in Nom. Ace, -cu in Dat., as : 

SlUe toterc. All fours. 

W\i fecf^fcn. With [a coach and] six [horses]. 

ip) As feminine substantives, of the spots on dice, etc., 
or of the figures i, 2, 3, etc., see § 80, 2, (^), with 
plur. in -en, as : 

2)ie @ing, the one-spot, figure one, plur. ©infcn. 

1 84 LESSON XXVIII. [§§165- 

(c) §unbert and ^aufenb are used as collective sub 
stantives, declined after the §unb Model, § 21, (<^), 
as : 

Sm erften guitbctf, In the first hundred. 
Xaufenbe t>on 9)?enfd)en, Thousands of men, 
(^) ^JtiHion is a fern, subst. of the weak declension. 

166. Remarks on Ordinal Numerals. 

1. The Ordinals are formed from the Cardinals by adding: 

(a) Up to 19, -it, except ber erftc, britte, ad)tt. 

(b) From 20 upwards, -ftc, which in compound numbers 
is added to the last component only. 

Note. — 3)cr onlJCtC is the older ordinal for 'second.' 

2. The ordinals after proper names (of sovereigns, etc.) are 
spelt with a capital letter, and must (with the article) be de- 
clined throughout, the proper name being undecHned, as : 

^arl bcr (^rftc, Charles the First. 

©eorg bcS 3Sicrtcn, (9/* George the Fourth, etc. 

Note. — The Roman Numerals I., II., etc., after names of sovereigns 
must always be read as def. art. -j- ord. num. in the proper case. Thus: 
^ciurirf) IV. = §ciurid) bcr 95terte (Nom.) ; or §einrid) ben %\txitn 
(Ace. ) ; but : ber %\)XQ\\ §einrid) IV. = ber Z'^xow i^euirid) beg ^iertcii 
(Gen.); initcr C'^cinrtd) IV. = imter §eiurid) Ijcm ICicrten. 

3. The ordinals are used adjectively before the names of 
the months, as : 

3)er arfjtgel^nte Sluguft', The i8th [of] August. 

2lm ghjei unb gtoanjigften Sunt, On the 2 2d [of] June. 

Notes. — i. The figures i, 2, etc., before the months are to be read 
as ordinals, thus : 

%m 1. 3anuar = am erften 3anuor. 

Soronto, (b.) 25.(ftcu) 3IpriI = 2:oronto, ben (ace. of time, see 
§ 184, i) fuuf unb giuoujigflcnStpril. 


STRONG verbs: fpred^'^^ model. 

2. * What day ofthejnonthjs it ? * 

3)er tuicdiclfic ifl ^eute ? or: ten mieoielflctt l^abcn njir ^cute ? 

* It is the fifth,' 
» (S8 ifl ^eute iicr funftc, or: 2Bir ^aben f)cutc icn fiinftett 

167. Strong Verbs: f|irec^Ctt Model. 

Pr. IND.2.3. Sing. 1 _. _, _ 

Infin. ,, ^ "^ ,, \ Impf. p. Part. 

" Imper. 2. " J 

I f^rc^en f^nc^ft, f^ric^t, f^n4) f^m^ gef^roc^en 
Iffc^Ien ftrc^lft, ftief)It, ftic^I P^l geftof^Ien 

Engl. Analogy : speak wanting 

spake spoken 

Ablaut: c Ir K 


LIST ^. a a, 


6red5)en (N. A.), break bnrf)ft etc. 



ne^men, take nimmft, etc. 



(er)fcf>reifen (N.), be erfcf)ritfft, etc. 




f^rcc^KH, speak f^r^ft/ etc. 



ftcc^en, sting (trans.) ftid^ft, etc. 



treff en, hit Irfff ft, trifft, triff 



Remarks. — i . @rf d^red^en, to frighten (trans.), is weak (er= 
fd^redfte, erfd;rec!t). 

2. Observe the dropping of "^ and doubling of m in nc^men, 
and the single consonant in the Imperfect of erfdf)redfen 
and treffen. 

LIST JB. (ic, a, 0.) 

(The Imperf. Subj. is also given.) 

(ge)baren, bear, gebierft, etc. gebar gebare geborcn 

bring forth 
(be)fef^Ien, com- befief^lft, etc. befalj^l befb^le befof^Ien 



1 86 



(em^^)feMcti, re- 

empfie^Ift, etc. 
ftie^lft, etc. 

em^fa^I em^fii^Ie em^fo^Ien 

r, r. (ftdf)le 

:^^'^' {Sutonlh^^""^ ^^"^ ^^"^^ 3e!o 

mm en 

fteblcn, steal 



Remarks. — i. The simple verb fef)Ien, to be wanting, to 
make a mistake, is weak (fef)Ite, gefeljit). 

2. Common drops one m in Impf. 

3. All verbs of this 2^1odel (A. and B.) drop the final -c of 
the 2. sing. Imper. 


to add, abbteren 

arrive (at), an'fommen (in -|- 

obtain, get, Sefommen 
divide, btt)ibteren 
celebrate, feiern 
multiply, multi^ticieren 
subtract, fubtrabicvcn 
happen upon, meet with, 

care, attention, bie 2(cbt 
railway-station, ber Saf^n^of * 
holidays, bie gerien (pi.) 
fishing, ba§ 5if($en 
prison, ba§ C^efdngni^ 

hunting, ba§ 3^9^" 

James, ^atoh 

mile (German), league, bie 

minute, bie ?3iinute 
government, reign, bie S^tes 

Reformation, bie ^Reformation' 
second (of time), bie <3e!unbc 
voyage, bie 6eereife 
far, n>ett 
about, ungefdl^r 
twice, ^ipetmal 
as far as, bi§ §u (dat.) 

Idioms: 1. He -was born twenty-five years ago, (?r ffi oor funf unb 
jroanjig 3iibren gcborcn. 

2. Please take another apple (i.e., yet one more), 35ittc, nc^» 
men 2ie iioA) cinen Slpfel. 

3. Take care, fftef)mm ®te ffd) in %^U 

§167] STRONG verbs: f^rcc^cn model. 187 


A. 1. 3Bie alt ftnb 3ie ? 3^ ^^" ^^ meinem neun unb gmans 
jigften ^abre. 2. ^iefe§ -3a^r befamen toir am acbt unb 3tt>an5 
gigften gum gerien. 3. geber 93?cnat auger bem gebruar \:iai 
enttreber breigig ober ein unb breigig ^age. 4. ^en bier unb 
jiranjigften DJiai tear icf) bet meinem 3Sater auf S3e|uci^, benn an 
biefem S'age feiern h)ir ben ©eburtetag ber ^onigin. 5. ^ar[ ber 
Grfte "omx ©nglanb mar ber ^^aler ^arl II. unb 3a!ob II. 6. ^as 
h)ar eine fd^Iec^te 9?acbricbt, nic^t h?a^r ? Unfere 3}^utter erfcbraf, 
als Sie biefelbe bcrte. 7. ^en fiinf unb jmanjigften trafenii^ir 
§errn 33etl auf bem 33abnbofe, gerabe al^5 er im S3egriffe h)ar abs 
jureifen. 8. 3n ber igtabt Sonbon jinb mefjr al§ brei SJliEionen 
GintUD^ner. 9. ^ie einen em^fablen ibm §u bleiben, bie anbern 
ab5urei|en. 10. 2Sie h?eit ift e^3 t)cn bier bi§ jum ndcbften ^orfe? 
Ungefabr fiinf unb jVpanjig englifcbe 9JZei(en. 11. (rr nabm bie 
gifcbe je gtrei au§ bem ^crbe unb legte biefelben auf ben 2"ifc^. 
12. Ta§ (^i§ bricbt, nebmen 3ie ficb in 5{cbt. 13. §unberte bon 
5Jienfd^cn baben irdbrenb bee (rrbbeben^^ bas Sith^w bertoren. 14. 
Unter ber 9?egierung §einric^ VIII. begann bie ^Reformation in 
Gnglanb. 15. SJteine beiben 33ruber reiften am fiinf unb §it)ans 
jigften Juni bon 2ii?er^ooI ah unb !amen erft am acbt5ef)nten ^\x\\ 
in £luebec an. 16. 23ann fommt Jbr ©eburtetag? ^m ein 
unb ghjangigften ^^obember. 17. ^ie D^egierung §einricf) VIII. 
toar eine ber beriibmteften in ber ©efdncbte (?nglanb§. 18. 2{I§ 
h)ir einen Spajiergang macbten, baben ioir mebrere unferer greunbe 
angetroffen. 19. 5^on toem ift gbnen geraten tDorben, eine 3ee= 
reife ju mac^en? G^ ift mir bon mebreren Sr^ten geraten tworben. 

B, 1. One general commands thousands (dat.) of soldiers. 
2. Mary has broken her pen, but she has taken Louisa's. 3. 
The ice is breaking ; take care, Fred. 4. This is my lead- 
pencil, not William's. 5. You have taken only one apple, please 
take another. (3. When do we celebrate the Queen's Birthday.? 
On the 24th of May. 7. What day of the month is it to-day? 


1 88 LESSON XXVIII. [§§167- 

To-day is the 31st of March. 8. The thief was thrown into 
(the) prison, because he had stolen five hundred dollars. 
9. Which do you prefer, (the) hunting or (the) fishing? 
I Hke both. 10. A bee stings, but a dog or a cat bites. 
11. The days are longest in the month of June, and shortest 
towards Christmas. 12. When our neighbours were at church, 
a thief went (fommen) into the house and stole several hundred 
dollars. 13. In the year eighteen hundred and eighty-seven 
Queen Victoria celebrated the fiftieth year of her reign. 14. 
The eldest son of the Queen of England was born the ninth of 
November one thousand eight hundred and forty-one. T5. Tell 
me how much thirty-two and eighty-eight make. 16. There 
are sixty seconds in a minute, sixty minutes in an hour, 
twenty-four hours in a day, seven days in a week, four weeks 
in a month, and twelve months in a year. 17. Would you make 
a voyage to Europe if you were advised to do so ? 18. Yes, 
I should like very much to make a voyage to Europe. 

Read in German: 2 mat 11 iff 22, 3 mal 12 iff 36, 4 mat 8 ifl 32, 5 mal 
9 ifl 45, 6 mat 7 iff 42, 7X10 ift 70, 8X11 iff 88, 9X12 ifl 108, 10X10 ifl 
100, 11X11 ift 121, 12X12 ifl 144. Slbbtert 2,342, 25,891 unb 989,346. 
©ubtra^iert 27,763 oon 31,551. SD^uItipUciert 591 mit 478. 2)ioibiert 
2,581,640 mit 61. 


1. Wie weit ist es von Hamilton nach Toronto ? 2. Wann 
sind die Tage am kiirzesten ? 3. Wie viel macht das, wenn 
man 337 mit 2 multipliciert ? 4. Wie viele Tage sind in einem 
Jahre ? 5. Wann bekommt ihr Ferien ? 6. Wessen Bleistift 
haben Sie? 

d. - t 




168. Indefinite Numerals. 
The Indefinite Numerals are : 

1. 0(1, all 

2. 901x3, whole, all 

3. jcbcr, •) 

4. jcbttjcber, [ each (biejer Model) 

5. jcglii^cr, 3 

6. fein, none, not one 

7. eimqc, ) . 

o xr*^ " some, a few 

8. cthi^c,) 

9. mantle, many 

10. me^rerc, several 

11. tiiel, much (pi. many) 

12. toenig, Httle (pi. few) 

13. ctttiO0, some \ 

14. genug, enough y (indeclinable) 

15. me§r, more ) 

Remark. — All these, except all and gang, are used as In- 
definite Pronouns (see Less. XXVII). 

169. I. ^tt expresses nionber as well as quantit}^ and 
denotes that every individual part of a whole is present. 

2. When declined, it follows the biefer Model, whether 
used with or without a substantive, as : 

allcr Adfe ; a(Ic 2(r6eit irar i^ergeSIic^ ; atlcs ^Brot ; 

all [the] cheese ; all labour was useless ; all [the] bread. 

3. Unless used su bstantively , it always prj^cedjs\\\t deter- 
minative word, and then generally remains uninflected in the 
sing., and often in the plur,, as : 

190 LESSON XXIX. [§§169- 

$1(1 inein G^elb, All my money. 
5ni(c) mcine 5^^^""^^% A-11 my friends. 

4. When used substantively and preceded by a determin- 
ative word, it still follows the stro?ig declension, as : 

•3)iefe§ (bae) adce, All this (that). 
33et bem aUtm, With all that. 

5. It is not (as in English) followed by the definite article, 
but may be followed by the de??ionstrative ber, bie, ba§, as : 

2lKe§ ©elb, All [the] money. 
Wi{t%) b al ©elb. All that money. 
2iac 93Zcnfc^en, All [the] men. 
SIKe bit 93tenfcf^en, All those men. 

170. I. (^an3 expresses qua?2tify, not number, and repre- 
sents an object as co^nplete and undivided^ without reference 
to its parts. When therefore the Engl. ' all' = ' whole ' it 
must be rendered by gan3, not by ad, as : 

I have been working all (the whole) day long, 
gcf^ Kibe ben ganjcn ^ag gearbeitet. 

2. (^ttltj is declined like an adjective, and always frvllows 
the determinative word, as : 

5)er gan5C ^ag, The whole day. 

9)iein gan3e5 Gigentum, [The] whole [of] my pioperty. 

3. Before names of countries and places it may remai:i un- 
inflected, if unaccompanied by an article, etc., as : 

All (the whole of) America does not belong to the 
United States, (^ottj (or ba§ gan^c) SImerifa gtl^ort 
nicbt 511 ben 3?ereimgten 3taaten. — But : 

^ic gan^c Sdnoetj, All Switzerland. 

171. I. ^ebcr (biefer Model) is used to denote eacK ^^du 
vidual belonging to a whole, as : 

Scber 53aum ^at Sfte, Every tree has branches. 


2. It is sometimes preceded by etn, and then follows the 

^/:r<?^ adjective declension. 3^'^^^^^^^^ ^^^ jeglic^er are less 
common forms, used in the same way. 

172. ^cin is the negative of ein. 

173. I. ^intgc (plur., biefer Model) = *some, a fe}v,' 
denotes a s?na// number taken collectively^ and is~used with- 
out article, as : 

^imt \e S^oa iJ^ !onneu_mc^t pngert^ Some birds cannot 

35or einigen 3^^^^"/ ^ f^w years ago. 

2. It is used in the sing, only before name> of materials to 
denote a limited quantity ^ as : 

3cf) f)aBe einigcg ©elb, I have some money (but 7iot 

3. ©tUl^C is a less usual word with the same meaning and 

Note. — ®in |lQOt * a pair, couple ' (with small ))) is also used in the 
sense of ' a few,' the eill being then indeclinable, as : • 

3JJit cin |lttttr X^atern, With a few dollars. 

174. 9Jkn(^cr (biefer Model), ' many(a),' denotes indefinite 
plurality^ alT 

9Kant^cr S^ogel !ann nic^t fingen, 
Many a bird cannot sing. 

3cf) (kibe mantles II1U3IM (x^thoSii, 
I have had many a misfortune. 
9!}?an(^c Scute glauben, Many people believe. 
It may remain uninfiected, especially before an adj., as : 
'?3ian6cr gutc, or manc^ gutcr 'DJZann. 

175. SJle^rcre =' several, a few,' taken individually, as: 
9Wc§rcrc Seute murben Iran!, Sf;veral people became ill. 

192 LESSON XXIX. [§§176- 

176. $>icl and mcnig, in the sing., are inflected (biefer 
Model) when they denote number, and uninflected when they 
denote quantify, as : 

2erne ntcf)t inele§, fonbern bid, Do not learn many 
(a great nu7?iber of) things, but much (a large 
quantity) . 

They are usually, though not always, declined in the plural. 

Note. — The Engl. ' little ' = * small ' is rendered by f (ein. 

177. C^tma§ is used before names of material, etc., in 
the sing., like einige^ (see § 173, 2, above), of a s??iall quan 
tity, as; 

@tttia§ 33rot, Some bread (but not much). 

178. ©Cttug may precede or follow its substantive, as; 
©elb genug, or genug ©clb, money enough. 

Note. — As adverb, it z\^2l-)-s, follows its adjective, as : 

. 3)a§ SBonb ift tlic^t lang gCnug, The ribbon is not long enougl^ 

179. SUlc^t is the comparative of t)iel, and is inde 
clinable, as : 

Sc^ baBe me^r greunbe al§ er, 
I have more friends than he. 

180. The Engl, 'some, any' are generally omitted be, 
fore substantives, unless a small quantity {some, but 7iot much\ 
is denoted (see §157, above). In answer to a question, without 
a substantive, they are rendered by etntgeg (sing.), etnige 
(plur.) or \-od&) (sing, or plur.), not by etit)a§ (which = ' some- 
thing '), as: 

§a6en ®te ©elb? 3cf> l^abe eintge§ (h:)eld^e§). 
^aUx\ 6ie greunbe? 3<^ ^^^^ einige (iuelc^e). 

iSi] STRONG verbs: effCH MODEL. 

181, Strong Verbs: cffcn Model. 

T Pres. Ind. 2. 3. Sing. ) ^ 

Infin. ^ ^. ^ > Impf. 

Germ. Model: 

Engl. Analogy, 





Imper. 2. Sing. 




P. Part. 



bitten, beg, ask bitteft, bittel, Bttte '^oX 

effen, eat (of man) iffeft, \%i, \% ag 

freffen,eat(of beasts) friffeft, frigt, fri^ fra^ 

9^(0^1% 0i(O&t, gi(e)6 gab 
t)crgiffeft, bergigt, Ders bergag 

Uefeft, Iteft, Iie§ lag 

liegft, liegt, liegn (ag 

mtffeft, mijt, mi§ mag 

genefeft, geneft, genefe gena§ 


gebeu, give 

(ber) geff en, forget 

lefen, gather ; read 
Itcgen, lie down 
meffen, measure 
(ge)nefen (N.), re- 
cover (from illness) 
(ge)fc6cl)en (N.), 

happen (impers.) 
fef)en, see ftebft, ftef)t, fie^ faf) 

fi^en,sit fi^eft, fi^t, fi^e) fa§ 

treten (N. A.), tread trittft, tritt, Iritt trat 

(trefen^N., obsolete), — — — toar 

to be 

Observe. — i. The changes from ff to ^ ; also 
the Impf. is retained through that whole tense, the 
ing long, as : k>ir a^en, td^ d§e. 

2. That gene) en does not change c into ie. 




gefcbaf) gefd^efjen 


that g of 
vowel be- 

194 LESSON XXIX. [§l8i 

3. The change in fi^en of ^ into ^ and ff. 

4. That the long e of the root is changed into ic, the short 
C into short i. 

5. The inserted g in the P. Part, of effen (gegeffen). 

6. The doubling of t in 2. sing., etc., of treten, and omission 
of final -t in 3. sing, (tritt). 


to experience, feel, em^finben telegraph, ber ^elegra^!^' 

intend, contemplate, bor'; misfortune, ba^ UnglM 

^ah^n world, bie 2SeIt 

absence, bie 2(biDefenf)eit pardon, bie 3Ser§et^ung 

Francis, g^rang thin, biinn 

century, ba§ ga^jr^un'bert almost, nearly, 16einaf)e, faft 

cherry, bie ^trfd;e immediately, (fo)glei(f) 

province, bie ^rot>iri^' lately, not long ago, neulicf) 

romance, novel, ber Sfloman' late, f^cit 

swallow, bie Srf)tr)aIBe while, tod{)renb q.A^'^-^ 

Idioms: 1. There is, there was, etc. (general statement), cd gtebt> ed gob^ 
etc. (obj. in ace. see Less. XXXVII). 
8. To cut one's hand, fid) in tie ^atii fd)netten (lit., to cut 
one's self into the hand). 

3. To beg pardon, um 55erjctl)ung bitten. 

4. To speak to (with), fpred)cn + ace. of person. 


A. 1. ^a§ ganje Sanb em^finbet ben '^erluft eine§ guten unb 
gro^ en 9}^ arnica. 2. 6§ giebt frf)one 3]5gel, tDeI(f)e gar ntc6t fingen, 
3. 33itte, Q^hm 3ie mir noc^^men ^baler ; id; ^ahc md)t ©elb 
genug. 4. ^^t ©eorg ben 5(^fel, ben er gefauft bat, ober ben= 
jenigen, h)eld)en id) if)m gegeben hahc'^ 5. ®er grembe trat mir 
anf ben j'^u^/ aber gleid) bat er mid) nm ^Serjeibung."; 6. 2Sdbrenb 
^f^rer 2(bir>efenl;eit finb mef)rere 2n\U gefommen, um ©ie gu 

§i8ij STRONG verbs: cffen model. 195 

f^d^en. 7. ©eorg fagte miv nculicf», ba§ er ^"yri^ ijor einicjen 
2Boc^en gefebeii l^abe. 8. gf^imm bid; in Slc^t, ba§ 6i§, ittorauf 
bu Irittft, ift fe^r biinn. 9, ^^6 Bitte urn ^Serjeibung, bag td^ fo 
Ijot c3efcmmen bin. 10. 2i}enn bu meinen Cnfel fie^ft, fo fage 
if)m, bitte, bag icb borbabe, i§n ju befucbcn. 11. ©^ liegt ein 
Df^oman ^on ®ir SSalter Scott auf bem ^ifcbe ; lefen 3ie ben= 
felben? 12. 2Saf ift gefcbeben? 93^eine Heine Scbmefter ift auf 
©las getreten unb hat ficb in ben ^n^ gefcbnitten. 13. ^iefe» 
Ungliid gefcbab in ben J^erien, uni> fie gena^S fef)r (angfam, h)eil 
ba§23etter fo beig Wax. 14. (Sine (Scbhjalbe macbtfeinen 3om- 
mer. 15. (rin ^ier frigt unb fduft, aber ein 93^enfcb igt unb 
trinft. 16. Xurcb h^n 2:clegra^^f)en bort faft bie gan5e 23elt in 
bier unb ^timn^ig Stunben t>on bem, h)a§ in irgenb einem Sanbe 
gefdbiebt. 17. SlI^ ein 9\eicber aus feinem §aufe tarn, hat ibn 
ein firmer urn ein iuenig ©elb, aber er gab bem 5(rmen feine. 
18. ^a§ $ferb be^ Df^eifenben frag ein toenig §eu unb §afer, 
iDabrenb fein §err ba§ ?[Ttittagveffen im ©aftbaufe ag. 19. Xa§ 
^inb bat fd]on allee 33rob unb ^Uiid) gegeffen, e^ hat aucb ade 
5[RiIcb getrunfen, bie im ©lafe hjar. 20. Ginem Siigner ivirb 
nic^t geglaubt, felbft toenn er bie SBa^rbeit f^ric^t. 
vf • '- 
B. 1. The whole of England is not so large as the Pro- 
vince of Manitoba. 2. Henry VIII. of England, Francis I. 
of France, and Charles V. of Germany were the greatest 
monarchs of the i6th centur}^ 3. Where did you find the 
money ? It lay in the grass. 4. Every summer the birds 
eat the cherries in our garden. 5. The sick man lay seven 
weeks in the hospital, but he has now recovered. 6. The 
rich (man) gave the poor (man ), who sat before the house, some 
money. 7. This youth has read all the books in the library 
of his father, but unfortunately he forgets just as fast as 
he reads. 8. Napoleon I. died on the 5th May 182 1 ; he jwas 
52 years old. 9. Have you forgotten what I told you two 
months ago? 10. During the rain we sat under a tree and 

196 LESSON XXX. [§§i82« 

told stories. 1 1 . One forgets easily what one reads too quickly. 
12. If you have more paper than you need, please give me 
some. 13. Nineteen hundred years ago the Romans pos- 
sessed almost the whole world. 14. Many young people 
read hundreds of novels, and forget after some time almost 
all they have read. 15. Twenty-five years ago our neighbour 
possessed only a few hundred dollars, but now he is one of 
the richest men in the city. 16. Speak the truth, whether you 
are believed or not. 


1. Giebt es in Amerika Vogel, die nicht singen? 2. 1st 
jemand wahrend meiner Abwesenheit gekommen ? 3. Was 
haben Sie meinem Onkel gesagt, als er hier war ? 4. Was 
sagen Sie vom Lesen der Romane ? 5. Welchen Apfel iszt 
Georg? 6. 1st das Telephon eine neue Erfindung? 


VERBS: f^lttgcn MODEL. 

182. Derivative Numerals. 

From the Cardinal and Indefinite Numerals are formed the 
following Derivative Numerals : 

(a) By adding -ma(^ adverbs denoting ' so many times,' 
as; einmttl, once; biermal, four times; etnunb= 
jU)an5igmttl, twenty-one times; manc^mal, many a 

Notes. — i. 9JtaI is neuter, hence jebcSmal, each time ; and wJU» 
Indef . Numerals sometimes adds -g, as : Dielmol(0), tnef)rinalS. 


2. (Sin'mal = ' on one (single) occasion,* as : 

3c^ f)a6e t()n nur cinmal gefe^en, I have seen him only once, 
©inmor (ein^mal§, einf!) = 'once upon a tipie,' as: 
(58 ttjar cinmor ein ^onig, etc. (Grimm.) 

3. yiid)t ein'mat, *not once,' as: 

(Sr ift nid^t cin'mal f)ier getrefen, He has not been here once. 
^idjt einmol' (or nic^t maV)r 'not even,' as: 

(Sr ifi nic^t (ein)mar ^ier gettjefen, He has not even been here. 

(^) By adding -fai^ or \dii\%, adjectives denoting 'so 
many fold,' as : einftt^, simple ; jiretfoj^ (jtinefac^), 
twofold, double ; i)ierftt(^ (sfiiltig), quadruple ; biels 
ftt^, mannii^fadb, manifold. 

Note. — ©infdltig = 'foolish, silly.' 

{c) By adding -lei to the gen. fem. sing, or plur., indecli- 
nable adjectives denoting 'of so many kinds,' as: 
eincrici, of one kind ; breierlci, of three kinds ; 
bielerlci, manc^crlci, of many kinds, etc. 

Note. — (S^ ifl mir einerlci = 'It is (all) the same to me.' 

183. From the Ordinals are formed : 

{a) By adding -(, the fractional Numerals, as : ein ^rits 
tel = i; ba§ 35iertel, the quarter; brei ^^^^ns^sft^l 
= ^/2o, etc. 

Notes. — i. These are substantives formed from the ordinal -f~ Xei( 
[=^ part), and are therefore neuter, thus : 

S)a8 S)rittet = ba^ britte Xetl, *the third part,' etc. 

2^ ' Half* as substantive = bit ^tilftc ; as adjective or adverb ^1^ a If*, 
which is declined like ganj (see § 170, 2), as: 

3cf) ^aht i>ic §dlftc meines (SigentumS oerloren, 
I have lost half (of) my property. 
3)er .^nabe mar l^alb tot, Qt« man i^n foitb, 
The boy was half dead when he was found. 

igS LESSON XXX. [§§183- 

§ol6 3Saff)ington, or ^a§ ^olbe 3Saff)ington, 
(The) half (of) Washington. 

^ol6 or ba§ ^albc j^ranfreid), half France; but 
^iC Iialbc @d)irei'v half Switzerland. 
(^) By adding -§ttlB, Mixed Nmnbers with the Fraction 
'half,' as: brittc§aI6 =2' ; merte^alb ^eilcn, three 
miles and a half; funfte^ttlB (^Ilen, four and a half 

Remarks. — i. Observe that the ordinal is one higher than 
the cardinal of the Engl, idiom ; thus ' two and-a-half ' is a 
number consisting of three parts, of which the first and second 
parts are wholes, but the third is only a half, hence brittcs 

2. \\ = aitbcd^alS (not jttJCitcbalb ; see § 166, i, Note), as; 

$(nbcrtbaI6 J-IafdBeu (pi.), A bottle and a half. 

3. These are invariable adjectives. 

(c) By adding -cul, ordinal adverbs denoting in what 
place or order, as : 
crftcn§, firstly; gtoeitcng, secondly; brittenS, thirdly, 

184. Expressions of Time. 

1. Both point and duration of time are expressed by the 
Accusative without a preposition, as : 

2)en erften ^anuar, (On) the first of January. 

©r lam le^ten 5D?ontag an. He arrived last Monday. 

Scf) toar le^tc 3Sod^e !ran!, I was ill last week. 

gc^ icar einc gansc 3SodE)e Iran!, I was ill (for) a whole 

2. Point of time is also expressed : 


(a) By the preposition an with the Dat. (always contracted 
with the article), of date, as : 

Km erften ^^^war. On the first of January. 
Urn Sonntag, On Sunday. 

%m 9JZorgen bie)e§ 2:age§, On the morning of this 

(b) By the Genitive case, with %^%, days of the week, or 
divisions of the day, when denoting indefinite time 
or habitual action, as : 

^C§ ^^agcs. In the day time, by day. 
(Sonntags, On Sundays. 
(^C0) 2(6enb5, In the evening. 

2- The Time of Day is thus expressed : 

(fl) The quarters of the hour, with reference to the 
following hour (not the past hour, as partly in 
English), thus : 

It is a quarter past twelve = (?§ ift (ein) 2]tertel auf 
eins (i. e., one quarter towards, or o?i the ivay to, 

It is half past twelve = (?» ift ^tt(6 cin0 (i. e., half 

It is a quarter to one = (r§ ift brei SSiertel ttuf ein§ (i. e., 

three quarters towards one). 

<p) The m inutes past \i^Lm ^, as : G€ ift s^anjig 3}?inuten 
ttttri^tDei, It is twenty minutes past two. 
The minute s to by bor^ as : 3^^n SJhnuten tJOr brei, ten 
minutes to three. 

(/) at =- urn ; o'clock = Vi\fc, as : 
Urn ein UJr, At one o'clock. 

200 LESSON XXX. [§§ 184^ 

Urn cin SSiertel auf fiinf U^r, At a quarter past four 

e§ ift brci S3iertel auf fiinf (Vii)t), It is a quarter to five 


©§ l^at f Ci5§ (Uf)r) gcf^logcn. It has struck six (o'clock). 

Note. — The impersonal Verb 'to be,' in expressing the time of the 
day, is always singular^ as in English. 

185. Expressions of Quantity. 

1. A substantive expressing Quantity (Measure, Weight 
or Number), if Masculine or Neuter, retains the form of 
the singular, as : 

^ier unb gttjanjtg Sott madden ^hjei gufi, 24 inches make 

two feet. 
3h)et ipfunb. Two pounds. 
STaufenb SWann, A thousand men. — But ; 
3toei glafd;cn (fem.). Two bottles. 
3h)oIf ©dctt (fern.). Twelve yards. 

2. The substantive, the quantity of which is expressed, is 
generally put in apposition with that expressing the quan- 
tity, as : 

3h)ei ^\x^ ^O^JlCt, Two quires of paper. 

S)reitaufenb 3}^ann Snftttttcric, Three thousand infantry 

giinf ©lag S5icr, Five glasses of beer. 
W\i JtDei $aar (5c]^uf)cn (dat.), With two pairs of shoes. 

3. But if a determinative word precedes the substantive 
measured, etc., use the Gen. case, or bon with Dat., as : 

gc^ \:)<xU fecf)§ $funb btefcS guten 3wc!erS (or : Hon biefcm 
guten ^wdzx) gefauft. 




4. The measure (of weight, distance, etc.) is put in the 

accusative, as : 

liefer 53Ietftift ift nur eincn 3oCt t«n3/ 
This lead-pencil is only an inch long. 

3c^ ^a6e einc ganjc ^et(e (ace.) marfrfitcrt^ 
I have been marching a whole mile. 

3)iefe§ ^a!et' Wko^t ein halhH $funb (ace), 
This parcel weighs half-a-pound. 

186. Strong Verbs: f(^(agcn 



Pr.Ind. 2.3.sing. Impf. 

P. Part. 

Germ. Model : fc^togen fcBIagft, fc^Idgt fc^Iug 


Engl, A7ialogy : slay 





Ablaut: a 





baifen(W.N.A.), bake 

bdcfft, bddft 



fal}ren (N.A.), ride (in 

fdBrft, fd^rt 



a conveyance), drive 

graben, dig 

grdbft, grdbt 



Iaben(W.), invite; load 

Idbft, Idbt 



fd)affen, create 

fcbaffft, fcbafft 



)(f)Ia^en, strike 

fc^Idgft, fd)Idgt 



tragen, carry 

trdgft, trdgt 



inaiiifen (N.), grow 

tDddbfeft, tt)d(f»ft 



trafdien, wash 

it)dfc^eft, it)dfcf)t 



Also the irregular : 

ftejen, stand 

fte^ft, fte^t 

(ftonb > 


and the usually weak 


'»«--' „ IS;S 

fragte J 





Remarks. — i. 33ac!en is usually weak in the Impf. (bacfte), 
but strong in the P. Part, (gebaden). Observe also the single 
f in Impf. 

2. g-abrcn is conjugated with fcin when intr., with f^aben 
when trans. 

3. Sdbaffen 'to w^ork ' and (l^er)frf)affen 'to procure' are 
weak. Observe the single f in the Impf. 


to set out, depart, leave, db's 

rise, aufftef)en 
invite, ein'Iaben 
understand, t)erftef)en 
dine, gu 9]tittag effen 
go for a drive, f^^ajieren fa^ren 
absence, bie Slb'trefen^ett 
little tree, ba§ Sdumd^en 
dozen, ba§ ^u^'enb 
yard, bie ©He 
multiplication-table, ba^ ©in= 

thread, ber gaben* 
driving, ba§ (^Q^ren 
driver, coachman, ber ^utfd^er 
hole, bae 2od) 
night, bie ^a<i)t* 

minute-hand, ber 9)^inuten= 

pound, 'i>a§> ^funb 
post-office, bie ^oft 
riding, ba§ S^eiten 
sentence, ber (2a^ * 
hour-hand, ber (Stunben^eiger 
cup, bie Xaffe 
tea, ber 3:f)ee 
clock, watch, bie U^r 
train, ber QuQ * 
two weeks, a fortnight, biers 

5ef)n 3:age- 
then, bann 
early, frii^ 

slow, slowly, langfam 
at least, toenig[ten§ 
first, first of all, guerft 

Idioms: 1. The Boston train, :t>er 3ug | „(,(j, aSoftoii. 

2. What tinae (o'clock) is it ? SSBic oicl Utyc i^i » 


^. 1. ©in breifacf)er ^^aben bvic^t nicht leid^t. 2. ^^r ^utfc^et 
fd()rt fo langfam, bag it>ir rticf^t bor brei 33iertel auf ^toolf arts 
lommen h?erben. 3. gn ber einen §dlfte ber 3Selt i[t ^^ ^^ag, 

§ i86] STRONG VERBS : fc^lagCU MODEL. 203 

babrenb e§ in ber anbern §dlfte 9^acf)t ift. 4. 2Ba§ giebt es 6eute 
5Reueg? 5. SBe^balb baben 6ie mien geftern nic^t befurf)t? 
@rften§ tueil e§ regnete, unb ^toeitenS iveil ic^ felbft ^efud^ ^atte. 
6. ®u ^afl gut gelejen, Iie§ nocb einen ©a^. 7. 28ie biel triegen 
. Sie? 3cb ipiege ungefd^r Bunbert imb fiinfjig $funb. 8. ^er 

K^ S"S tommt urn brei 3>iertel auf neun an unb fd^rt urn fieben 
^inuten na^ jebn ab. 9. §aben (Sie 3^re Ubr bet fic^? 3a, 
aber bie g^eber ift gebrcc^en. 10. ^cf) babe jirei ^u^enb ©tdfer 
beftellt, aber fie finb nocb mcf)t angefommen. 11. 23ir baben 
unfere 3]ettern eingelaben, todf)renb ber gerien merjef)n 2::age bei 
un§ jujubringen. 12. 2Sir effen im ©ommer urn l^alb ghjei ju 
3Kittag. 13. ^cb tt)urbe gem mit S^nen fpajieren fa^ren, irenn 
8ie mid^ einliiben. 14. ^er §unb berbarg ben ^noc^en in ein 

^ 2od^, iDeldf^eg er Winter bem Slpfelbaum grub. 15. ®ie 9}lagb 
ftef)t friib (be§) '^orgen§ auf, tcdfc^t bie ^leiber unb bdcft 33rot. 
16. go^ann ift ein febr einfditiger ^nahc ; er l)at noc^ nid)t ba§ 
(Einmalein§ gelernt. 17. 2Sie mel U^r iuar e§, al§ ber 5[Rinuten^ 
geiger auf fecb§ unb ber ©tunbenjeiger gtoifd^en brei unb bier 
ftanb? 18. 5:er 53auer frug ben Sf^eifenben, \vk biel Ubr e§ fei 
(irdre), unb biefer gog feine Uf)r au§ ber ^afc^e unb fagte i^m, e€ 
fei ^alb ein§. 19. 2(bbiere brei SSiertd, bier 3iebentel, neun 
!Drei§ebnteIunbeIf 3^an5igftel; trie t>iel ift (mac^t) bae? 20. 3^er 
§unb tDiirbe ben ^naben gleid) bei^en, irenn berfelbe i^n fc^Iiige. 
21. ©e^en ©ie §ur ©efeKfc^aft ber grau S.? 22. 3c^ bin nic^t 
eingelaben ; mein ^ruber ix^urbe eingelaben, aber ic^ nic^t. 

B. 1. In six days God created Heaven and earth. 2. The 
patient drank two glasses of wine and three cups of tea yester- 
day.'*/' 3. This silly boy has not even understood what I said 
to him. 4. Here is good, strong cloth ; it costs two and a 
half dollars a (the) yard. 5. This tree grows quickly ; it is 
at least four times as high as it was three years ago. 6. This 
exercise is very easy; we shall have finished (with) it in half 
an hour. 7. The dealer showed us many kinds of ribbon, 




red, blue, yellow, etc. 8. Which do you prefer, (the) riding 
or (the) driving ? It is all the same to me. 9. Please tell 
me what time it is ? It is exactly thirteen minutes after eleven. 
10. It is nine o'clock, for the hour-hand is (stands) at(auf) nine 
and the minute-hand at twelve. 11. These three school-boys 
bought themselves a melon, which weighed almost five 
pounds. 12. The coachman drove first to the post-office 
and then to the bank. 13. Between April and September 
the little tree grew a foot and a half. 14. Precisely at five 
o'clock the Boston train left, and at 9.45 we arrived. 15. 
Was this house built before you came here ? 16. Add ^74(h 
%, and '%. 


1. Wie viel macht drittehalb, fiinftehalb und neuntehalb ? 
2. Um wie viel Uhr kommt der Zug von Boston an ? 3. Was 
sagte der Reisende, als der Bauer ihn fragte, wie viel Uhr es 
sei? 4. Wie viel Uhr ist es nach IhrerUhr? 5. Wie viele 
Satze hast du schon gelesen ? 6. Ist jemand wahrend meiner 
Abwesenheit gekommen ? 


187. Adverbs. 

Adverbs may be arranged according to their meaning as 
follows, with examples of the simpler and more commonly oc- 
curing ones under each class : 

I. Time. 

(a) Past: neuUd^l, the other day, lately 

bamaU, at that time bor'geftern, the day betor© 

ebcn, just, just now yesterday 

ge'ftern, yesterday tJOr^er', before 




(b) Present: 
^eute, to-day 

nun, ) 

(c) Future: 

balb, soon 
l^enmdb', afterwards 
morgen, to-morrow 
nacBf)er', afterwards 
nimmer, nevermore 
u'bermorgen, the day after to- 

{d) Interrogative: 
n)ann? when? 

(<?) General: 
bann, then (past or fut.) 
etnft, once upon a time (past) ; 

some day (fut.) 
enblicf^, at last 
erft, only (not sooner than) 
(fc)g[ei(f^, at once, directly 

inbefjen | i^ the meanwhile 

unterbef^en, 3 

tmmer, always, at all times 

je(male), ever, at any time 

me(mal5), never, at no time 

nodb, still, yet 

oft (male), often 

fc^on, already 

fetten, seldom, rarely 

n. Place and Direction. 

there, in that place 

(«) De^nonstrative 
ba, ) 

bafelbft, ) 
(ba)f)in, thither, to that place 
bort, there, in that place 
(ba)ber, thence, from that 

\)\tx, here, in this place 
t^ie(r)Ber, hither, to this place 

(J?) Negative: 
ntrgenbg, nowhere 

if) Interrogative and 
Relative : 
ti)0, where, in what place 
'voohxn, whither, to what place 
tDobcr, whence, /ro?n what 


(d) General: 
ir'genbico, anywhere 
iiberall', everywhere 

III. Measure and Degree. 

o,ud}, also, ever 
ettua, about, nearly 


- nearly, almost 

206 LESSON XXXI. [§§187 

^.. ^' . h wholly, altogether . ' 
gan^ltcf), ) ^' & feh*, very 

gar, at all, very fo, so 

genug, enough ungefd()r, about 

gerabe, just, exactly iiber^au^^', generally 

!aum, hardly, scarcely, no \vk? how? 

sooner gu, too 

nod), still, more ^iemlid;, tolerably 

IV. Affirmation. 

\a, yes ; to be sure 9Cit)iJ3, certainly 

jatDobl, certainly natur'Iicb, of course 

freiltdi, to be sure, indeed iDirfUcf*, to be sure, indeed 

fiirtDaf^r, truly, really gtt)ar, it is true, certainly 

V. Negation, 
netn, no nid^t, not 

VI. Possibility. 
eth)a, > , t:)af)rfdHnnIid>, probably 

^ I perhap 

i)ielleic^t, | ^ ^ . tt)of)l, perhaps 

VII. Necessity. 
aHerbing^, certainly burd^auS, absolutely, entirely 

VIII. Cause. 

baBer, ) iDarum, ) wherefore, why 

), I (ii 

barum, > therefore m^^alh, ) (interrog. or rel.) 

bes^alb, ) 

Note. — These last, as well as many of the others, are also used as 
Conjunctions. See Less. XL. 




188. Strong Verbs: fallen Model. 

Infin. Pr. Ind. 2.3. Sing. Impf. P. Part. 

(same as Inf.) 

Germ. Model : fatten fottft, fiillt fid gef alien 

E?igl. A?ialogy : fall wanting fell fallen 

Ablaut: a a ic 

(Note. — This is only a seeming Ablaut ; see § 192, Rem. 4.) 


blafen, blow 

bldfeft, bldft 



braten, roast (tr. and inti 

•.) brdtft, brdt 



fallen (N.), fall 

fdllft, fdat 



fangen, catch 

fdngft, fdngt 



l^alten, hold 

l^dltft, f)dlt 



bangen, hang 

()dngft, bdngt 



^auen, hew 

^aueft, ^aut 



^ci^en, bid ; be called 

^eifeeft, ^et|t 



laffen, let 

Idffcft, Idfet 



laufen (N. A.), run 

Idufft, Iduft 



raten, advise (gov. dat. 

,) rdtft, rat 



rufen, call 

rufft, ruft 



fcf)lafen, sleep 

frfildfft, fcf)ldft 



ftofeen, push 

ftofeeft, ftofet 



Also the irregular : 

ge^en (N.), go 

ge^eft, ge^t 



Remarks. — i. Observe in braten, ^alten, raten the con- 
tracted forms of the 3. sing. Pres. Ind. 

2. §angen is the strong verb (bicng, gebangen) and is proper- 
ly intr. (= 'to be suspended'); lijingen is weak (Ijdngtc, 
gebdngt) and trans., but the distinction is not strictly ob- 

208 LESSON XXXI. [§ i88 

3. Observe that fjci^eu and fto^en, having the root vowel 
long, retain § throughout ; whereas laffen varies according to 
rule, thus : id) lafje, gclaffen, but er Id§t, Ue§, tr>ir lie§en. 


to begin, commence, an'fartgen man-of-all-work, (farm-) ser- 
receive, get, erfjalten vant, ber ^nec^t 

please, gefalLen beef, ba^ 3^inbf(eifc^ 

leave, leave behind, Tafjen skate, ber (5(f)Utt'fd)uF) 

skate, <Bd}litt'id}nl) ian^\cn skating, ba§®rf)(itt'fcf)U^lauf en 

kick, strike, bump, fto^en bacon, ber @^ec! 

cut down, um'^auen language, bie Sprac^e 

butter, bie Sutter study, ba§ Stubium 

play-mate, ber ©efpiele last, preceding, i)orig 
mouse, bie ?[Rau^ * 

Idioms : 1. What is the name of? 3Bic I)ct^t? 

2. What is your name? SBic I)et^en <Siel 
J 3. My name is Henry, 3cJ) ftetRC J^cinrtd). 

4. I think liiglily of him (i. e., esteem, value him highly), 

3ft) l)alte Did oon \\)m. 
6. How do you do ? (How are you?) SS^ie gebt ed 3I)nen ? 
6. He has not been here for a long time, @r ifl langc ntcl)t 
t)ter geioefen (@r if) ntcl)t (ange I)ier geroefen = He has not 
been here long). 


A. 1. ^it Sped fdnc3t man 9J^dufe. 2. ®er ^nabe fiel, al^ 
er '3c^Iittfcf)u(; lief, unb ftieg fic^ "^tw ^opf auf§ (!i§. 3. ©in 
fd)Iafenber gud)§ fdngt fein §ul)n. 4. gm §erBft bldft ber 2Sinb 
fait, unb pfeift burcf) ben "^oWi, 5. Gffen, trinfen unb fd^Iafen^ 
l;ei^t (ift) bas (eben ! 6. %m SBinter fcf)Idft man geii^ij^nlicf) (dngen 
als im Sommer. 7. 9JIan Id^t je^t bie genfter offen, benn ba§ 
2Better ift tDarm geirorben. 8. gd^ laufe nid^t gem Sd^littfd^u^, 
aber meine ©efpielen finb gro^e greunbe babon. 9. ®ie 5Ragb 
ging gum 2abeu unb faufte brei ^funb ^^ee, jtDei ^^funb S3utter, 


§ i88] STRONG VERBS : faffcu MODEL. 2O9 

yCcjW ^fuub '$;\x^^x unb jioei Jlafc^en Sier. 10. ^ovt ftanb ber 
53aum, ben bcr ^nc(f)t neulid; umge()auen I)at. 11. ©agen Sie 
mir, iDO^in ©ie borgeftern ginc3en, al§ id^ ©ie in ber ^onigSftra^e 
traf. 12. 2)er ©dbiilcr Ue^ feme ^urf)er §u §aufe, aber er ift 
gleic^ nad) §aufe gclaufen unb bat biefelben gef)oIt. 13. ^orige 
SSoc^e er^ielt meine ©d;tDefter einen 33rief t)on ibrer greunbin ; 
faft jebe 2Borf)e erf)dlt fie einen. 14. ©iefelbe fd^rieb, ba^ fie ben 
ganjen ^Sinter in Lofton §ubringen tDiirbe, tuenn e§ ibr bafelbft 
gefiele. 15. !Der 5Binb blie§ b e n ^Tag fo ^eftig, ba§ ©eorg§ ^ater 
if)m riet, nicf)t auf§ Staffer gu gef)en. 16. ^c^ bitte urn 3]er= 
gei^ung, ba^ ic^ ©ie fo lange attein getaffen ^o!o^. 17. 3)a^ 
franfe ^inb ipiirbe beffer gefcf)Iafen ^aben, hjenn bie anbern ^inber 
ipeniger Sdrm gemad)t flatten. 18. 3Sor strangig gafjren f)ing ba§ 
33ilb meine§ 3Sater§ an ber 2Banb iiber bem ^amin, unb e§ ^dngt 
nod^ immer ba. 19. SSenn "eFnic^t fo frii^ gegangen irdre, fo 
\:}'QXi^ ic^ if)n gum 3}Zittagseffen eingelaben. 20. ©uten 9}?orgen, 
grau 33ell ; tt)ie ge^t e§ S^nen? 21. (S§ ge^t mir gang gut ; h)ie 
gef)t e§ gbrer Jamilie? 22. griebric^ II. toon ^reu^en iDurbe 
griebric^ ber ©ro^e genannt. , , , / ~ 

B. 1. My father speaks German almost as well as English. 
2. Good evening, my little friend ; how do you do ? 3. I have 
not seen you for a long time. 4. A cold, cutting wind blew 
through the open window. 5. When I w^as young, I liked 
to skate. 6. Do you like (to eat) beef ? 7. It was a quarter 
past eight when the concert began. 8. That horse kicks; 
take care. 9. At what o'clock will you be at home } I shall 
not be at home before half past ten. 10. When we were 
going home, we met our friends, who were coming out of 
church. 11. What is the name of the long street, which runs 
from King Street towards (nad)) the north? /^2. My friend, of 
whom I thought so highly, died in his nineteenth year. 13. In 
September we began to learn German, and the study of that 
language pleases us very much. 14. A lost child was crying 


upon the street, and calling after its mother. 15. Some one 
asked it what its name was. IG. The poor child answered 
that its name was William, and that it lived in Frederick- 
Street. 17. I wrote to my cousin a month ago, but I think 
he is angry, for the letter has not yet been answered. 


1. Was ist geschehen, wahrend die Knaben Schlittschuh 
liefen ? 2. Weshalb sind diese Fenster offen gelassen worden? 
3. Was kaufte die Magd auf dem Markte ? 4. Weshalb ist 
der Schuler so schnell nach Hause gelaufen ? 5. Wann haben 
Sie Nachricht von Ihrem Bruder erhalten ? 6. Sprechen 
Sie Deutsch ? 





189. Formation of Adverbs. 

I. From Adjectives (including most adverbs of manner): 
(<i) Most adjectives may be used without change as 
adverbs, as : 

@r Iduft fd^nell^ He runs quickly. 

{b) By adding -lii^ (Engl, -ly), sometimes with Una- 
laut, as : 
freiUd^, of course, to be sure neuliij, lately, the other day 
giin^lit^, entirely fd^toerlicj, hardly, scarcely 

!iir5lij^, recently 

Also to participles, as : 
^offentUtl^ it is to be hoped tDiffcntltc^^ knowingly 


(^) By adding -lingS, as : 

blinbUnQS, blindly 

(d) By adding -§, -tn%, as : 

anberl, otherwise linfs, to (on) the left 

bereitg, already rec^tl^ to (on) the right 

befonber§, especially ubrigen^, moreover 

Also to participles, as : 

eilenbs, hastily 

2. From Substantives, by the use of the genitive case 
(sometimes with article), to express : 

(a) Time, as : 

abenb§ (or bc6 2lbenb§)^ in the nac^t§ (or bc§ 5Za(^t§), by 
evening night (anomalous, 9iac^t 

tnorijens (or bc^ 2Rorgen§), in being fern.) 

the morning anfangg, in the beginning 

(fi) Manner y as: 
flug§, in haste teil§^ in part 

3. From Prepositions, by adding -en, sometimes with b(a)r- 
prefixed, as; 

au^cn, > outside, out of toorn(e), before 

^ . ' Y wiLiuii, iu-uuur2> t ..r 1 

bnnncn, ) bruben, over there 

brau^en, ) doors oben, above 

'"«"' > within, inKloors ""*"•- ^elow 

^intcn, behind 

Note. — Prepositions in composition, with verbs are really adverbs 
(also the particles nb, eiii, empor, uiecj, ^uviicf). 

4. By combination. For these see Part III. 


190. Comparison of Adverbs. 

I. Some adverbs are compared, as: 


' i soon ef^er am ef)eften 

oft, often ofter am iiftei'ten 

gem, willingly lifter am Ucbften {differeiit root) 

^^' I well Iieficr am bcflcn ( " " ) 

2. Adjectives are used as adverbs in the comparative, as 
in the positive, without change, as : 

©r Iduft ft^ncllcf al§ fein 33rubcr, 

He runs more quickly than his brother. 

3. In the superlative degree, the form with am is used foi 
the relative superlative (see §§ 127, 2, and 128), as: 

©r lauft am f^ncUften toon alien. 
He runs most quickly of all. 

4. The absolute superlative (see § 127, 2) is usually formed 
by prefixing an adverb of eminence (such as fe^r, l^iJc^ft, 
ciujserft, etc.), as: 

©r fc^reibt dugetft fc^on. 

He writes most (i. e., very) beautifully. 

5. Adverbs from adjectives in -\% -Xx^, -fam use the un- 
inflected form for the superlative absolute, as : 

©r Id^t freunblit^ft gniilen. 

He desires to be most kindly remembered. 

Also a few monosyllables, as : Idngft, long ago ; ^oc^fl, 
most highly. 

6. The superlative absolute may also be expressed by auf 
bo8 (aufe) prefixed to the superlative adjective, to express 
the highest possible degree, as : 




@r beforgt feine ©cfrf^dfte auf ba§ (auf§) ©enjiffenbaftefle. 
He attends to his business in the most conscientious 
manner (possible). 

7. A few superlative adverbs end in -en§, with special 
meanings, as : 

f)Dd>fteng, at most 
mciftcn§, for the most part 
t-Demt3ftcn§, at least 
ndd^ftcns, shortly 
Also the ordinal adverbs, crften§, etc., see § 183, (c). 


Position of Adverbs. 

Adverbs generally precede the word they modify (except 
Q^nuQ, see § 178, Note). ^ '' 

For further particulars as to their position in the sentence, 
see § 45, Rule 5. 

192. Table of Classification of Strong Verbs. 










p. Part. 

2. 3. sing. 
2.S. Imp. 









~ j XXII. 













if, etc. 









































C, etc. 







t, etc. 



I, te 

















same as 




214 LESSON XXXII. [§§192- 

Remarks. — I. The Umlaut of classes VI., VII. does not 
occur in the Imperative. 

2. The varying vowels of the Imperf. Subj. are given in 
the lists, where necessary. 

3. The English Analogies printed in Italics are incomplete. 

4. The vowel-change of class VII. is not an Ablaut, 
but the result of reduplication. 

5. The lists of the various classes contain only the verbs of 
common occurrence ; all others will be found in App. L. 

193. Distinguish between the verbs of the following 
groups : 

/- bitten, beg, ask bttt gebelcn 

{a) } Bcten, pray (intr.) 6elctc gebctct 

( bieten, bid, offer hot gebolen 

r licgen, lie (be recumbent, intr.) lag gclegcn 

(d) •< Icgen, lay (trans.) legtc gclegt 

( liigen, lie, tell a falsehood log gelogen 

/ gieFjen, pull (trans.), move (intr.) ^og ge^Ogen 

(c) } jeiF)en, accuse §ief) gegicben 

( jcigen, show geigte ge^eigt 

194. Remember the irregularities of : 

effen (P. Part, gegeffcn) fte^en, ftanb (or ftunb), ges 

fjantn (Impf. ^kh) ftanbcn 

ge^en, ging, gegangen ^te^en, jog, gejogcn 

Also the double forms in the Impf. of : 
^eben ((?ub, Ijoh) fcfn^oren (fc^iour, \6)'tt)0x) 

Note. — There are a few strong P. Parts, from verbs now otherwise 
weak, as: gcnint)Icn, from nial)Icii, to grind (Impf. mQl)(tc) ; ficfa(',cn, 
from fal'^cn, to salt (Impf. fnl^tc); flcipaltcn, from fpaltrn, to split (Imp£ 
fpaltctc) ; also some strong participles used only as adjectives, viz.: 




crljaben (from er^eben), exalted, sublime 
bejd)ciben ( " bejd)eibcn), modest 
JjerttJorren ( " Deririrreu), confused 


to wind up (a clock, etc.), 

pass (an examination), 6e= 

greet, salute, grii^en 
go (or be) too slow (of a 

clock, etc.), nacB^geben 
run after, nacf)'Iaufen (+ dat.) 
cr)', rufen 
go (or be) too fast (of a 

clock, etc.), bor'geben 
command, ber 33efef)I 
visit, visitors, ber SefudB 

examination, ba§ Sramen 

kitchen, bie ^iid^e 

place, spot, bie SteKe 

employed, busy, befc^dftigt 

then (conj.), benn 

hungry, f^ungrig 

left, lin! 

right, recbt 

salt (adj.), gefalgen 

in spite of, tro| (+gen.) 

improbable, unirat^rfc^einlic^ 

like, luie 

Idioms: 1. I saw your friend to-day ; he wishes to be remembered 
to you, 3* habe heute 3I)rcn Jreunb gcfcl)cn; cr Id^t 3fc 
2. How do yon like Boston ? 3Bie gcfdOt c§ Sbncn in 33ofion 1 


A.^yl, ©e^t3^reUf)r bor, ober gebt fie nad)? ^2. ©ie ge^t 
gang rtrf)tig. 3. §aben Sie ^hxt Uf^r aufgegogen? 4. ©in 
!Ietne§ ?D^dbd)en fragte, h)te biel UFjr e§ fei. 5. (5in §err ^og 
feine UF)r aus ber 2:afc6e imb ^eigte fie bem ^inbe mit ben 
SSorten: „<2age bu mir felbft, n)ie biel llbx es ift." 6. ST^o finb 
beine (Sc^tDeftern ? 3Karie ift oben in ber 53iBliotf)e! unb ©o^^ie 
ift unten in ber ^iicbe. 7. 2Infang§ irobnten trir nic^t gem in 
biefer ©trage, a6er je^t gefdUt un^ biefelbe ganj gut. 8. 3<^ 
glaube, imr hjerben einen ^ei^en Sommer ^aben; Wa§> meinen 
^ie? 9. ^ie meiften geute effen lieber frifcbeS Jleifcf) aU ge= 


216 LESSON XXXII. [§§194- 

faljcneg. 10. %xoi^ be^ Sefcf^l^ be§ ^onig^ bctcte Daniel jeben 
^ag brehnal. 11. DJIeine Xante, bie in 33erUn h)o^nt unb beren 
Sruber ©ie !ennen, ift fef)r !ran!. 12. ©riigen ©te freunblic^ft 
3()re eitcrn fiir mtrf», irenn 6ie nad^ §aufe fommen. 13. §Dffent= 
lic^ tr»irb gri^ fein ©jamen gut beftekn, benn er (jat auf§ getriffens 
F)aftefte ftubicrt. 14. ©r toirb e§ fcfitDerlid) beftefjen, ba er erft 
fcit gtuet '^a\)x^n in ber (5d)ule ift. 15. ®er liigt, ttjeld^er 
unffentlid^ eine Unhjabr^eit fagt. 16. '^d) effe gem gebratene€ 
DHnbfleifcf), befonber§ toenn ic^ terf)t ^)ungrig bin. 17. 9f?ed^tg 
t?on ber ©cbule ftefjt eine ^irrf)e, lin!§ fte^t ber Tiaxlt 18. 2Bir 
baben lieber abenb§ 33efuciE> ^^^ morgeng, benn morgen§ finb h)ir 
geh)o^nlid) befc^dftigt. 19. ®iefe§ ^inb mirb ndd)ften§ franf 
trerben, benn e§ bat feit brei Xagen faft gar nicf)t^ gegeffen. 20. 
©§ ftanb fru{)er eine ^irc^e auf ber ©telle h)o n)ir je^t finb, ahzv 
fte ift fdE>0" ^^"Sf^ t)erfcbtt)unben. 21. 3Son tt»em tourbe bic 
^ird^e gebaut, toobon ©ie f^re^ien? 22. Sd^ iveife e§ nic^t, e§ ift 
mir nie gefagt iDorben. 

B. 1. Please show me the way to the post-office. 2. If 
George is up-stairs, tell him that I am down-stairs. 3. 1 do not 
like London ; I prefer to live in a smaller city. 4. The pen 
still lies on the book upon which I laid it. 5. Please tell me 
who lives over the way. 6. This boy has been stung by a 
bee. 7. Of all animals the horse runs quickest. 8. Give 
me what you have in your (the) left hand. 9. Lessing died 
on the fifteenth of February 1781. 10. The soldiers ran 
blindly into the battle and fought like lions. 11. The train 
for (nad)) Montreal leaves (ab'faF^ren) at twelve o'clock at 
night, and arrives in Montreal at ten o'clock in the morning. 
12. A little beggar ran after a gentleman, and asked him for 
some money. 13. ' My father is dead,' cried he, *my mother 
is dead, and all her children are dead I * 14. ' Who are you 
then?' asked the gentleman. 15. What answer was given to 
the beggar by the gentleman, when hq was asked for money? 

a MY' -^ y 



1. Was wiirden Sie sagen, wenn ich Sie fragte, wie viel 
Uhr es sei ? 2. Gefallt Ihnen die Strasze, worin Sie jetzt 
wohnen ? 3. Hat Fritz sein Examen gut bestanden ? 4. Wo 
ist meine Feder? 5. Was fiir Sprachen haben Sie studiert? 
6. Glauben Sie, dasz der Herr dem Bettler etvvas ge- 
geben hat ? 


195. Idiomatic Uses of Certain Adverbs. 
1. nun, well. 
9lim, e§ ift mir einerlet. 
Well (why), it is all the same to me. 

Note. — ISRun is here really an interjection, and hence does not throw 
tfie subject after the verb. 

2, cben, just, exactly. 
®a§ ift efien berfelbe ^Jiann, 
That is the very (exactly the) same man. 
9Sir finb (fo)cficn angefommen. We have just arrived. 
3)a§ fann man eBcn nid^t fagen, One cannot exactly say 

^' gcttt, Ucjict/ am lic^ften. 
gd^ effe gem gifrf), I am fond of (eating) fish. 

3c^ effe Ucbcr gifc^ al^ S^^ifc^/ I prefer (eating) fish lo 

Gr tDiirbe e§ gem t^un. He would be glad to do it 

would do it with pleasure. 

SSeld^e ®^^rad;e fiirejften ©ie am Heb(len ? 
Which language do you prefer (speaking)? 


2l8 LESSON XXXIII. [§ 195 

4. crft, first, only, not before, etc 

iJJlan muj5 erfi benfen, bann f^redBen, 
One must think first and then speak. 

5!)?eiu '^ruber iinrb crfi mcrgcn fommen, 

M y brother will not come before to-morrow. 

21>ir flatten erjl jiuei i)3ici(en marfif iert, 

We had only marched two miles. 

Wltin Sruber ift erft ghjei ga^re alt. 

My brother is only (not more than) two years old. 

5. juetft, first of all; for the first time. 

^tefe§ 3cbiff ift ^uerjl (uor aEen anbern) im §afcn angcs 

fommen. This ship arrived in the harbour first 

(i. e., before any other). 
^d) it)erbe jucrji (or crft^ gum Sc^neiber, bann jum ^Buc^s 

F)dnbler geben, I shall go first (of all) to the tailor's, 

then to the bookseller's. 

3rf) babi \bn geftcrn ^ucrft (jum erften Wlal) gefefjen. I 
saw him for the first time yesterday. 

Note. — ^W^^ft refers to time only, as above; crfteil£( = * firstly, in the 
first place,' refers to o?-der only, as in enumerations, thus : 

3d) foiiute iuct)t fommen, cx\itn§, toeil e§ regnete, jtoeitcnS, ireil 
id) fvanf inar, I could not come, first (in the first place) be- 
cause it rained, secondly, because I was ill, 

6. i6)on, already, as early as, etc. 
(5inb (Sie jt^on^ba? Are you there already?. 
3ft ^bx ^rubcr ft^on in granfreid^ c^eirefen ? 
Has your brother ever been in France .? 

gdE) bin fj^on brei ^ag^c in ber Stabt, 

I have been in the city for the last three days. 

^ae Sd^iff ift fr^on geftcrn angefommen. 

The ship arrived (as early as) yesterday. * 


6r h)trb fr^on fommen, He will be sure to come (he 
will come, no doubt). 

Note. — iScf)on is often, as in the fourth of the above sentences, to he 
left untranslated in English. 

7. noc^, yet, still, more. 

(a) Of Time : 

Sinb 3ie not§ f)ier? Are you still here? 
%6) bin not^ nie in ^eutfcblanb getrefen, 
"^ I have never yet been in Germany. 

Gr U)ar itotf) i?or einer Btunbe f)ier. 

He was here only an hour ago. 

91oi§ beute. Even to-day (while it is yet to-day, not 
later than to-day). » 

Note. — Observe that w^i) precedes the negatives nie, nicf)t, etc. 
(^) Of A^tunber : 

^^^ eine ^affe ^bee, Another cup of tea. 

9Io(^ pii\, Two more. 

9]ot^ (ein)ma( fo i)iel. As much again. 

8. boc^, yet, after all. 

{a) Adversative : 

Gr hjirb borf)' fommen, He will come after all (em- 
phasis on bocb). 

Gr it>irb bot^ fcmmen', He will come, I hope (emphasis 
on fommen). 

§abe icb e§ Jbnen bo(^ gefagt ! I told you so (did I not 
tell you so.?). 

Note. — Observe that in the last example the verb is at the beginning 
of the principal sentence. 

ib) With Imperatives : 

fommen Sie bO(^ herein. Pray come in (urgent^. 

220 LESSON XXXIII. [§§ 195- 

{c) In answer to a negative question or statement: 

§aben (Sie \^xi itit^t c^efeJjen? (ga), bot^. 
Have you not seen him? Yes, I have. 

3dB f)ak e§ nii!^t getfjan. ©te fjaben e§ ba^ get^an. 
I did not do it. Yes, you did. 

(For bod^ and nod^ as Conjunctions, see Less. XL.) 

Note. — S)od) gives an affirmative answer, where a negative one is 

9. aucfi, also, even, etc, 

§(u^ fetn SSater hjar gegen i^n. Even his father was 
against him. 

^Dlein 33ruber tt)ar nid^t miibe, unb \^ trar quj^ nt^t miibe. 
My brother was not tired, and I was not tired either. 

§aBen Sie ou^ Bebacf)t', ii^a§ ©ie fagen. Are you sure 
you have considered, what you say ? (emphasis on 

10. ttiol^I, indeed, etc. 

®r leugnet e§ rtJO^I, abet e§ tft boc^ ira^r. He denies it 
indeed (to be sure) but yet it is true. 

(5te finb rtJO'^f ein grember ? I suppose (presume) you 
are a stranger (no doubt you are, etc.). 

Nope. — @ut/ not lDOt)I, is the adv. of the adj. gut, good, when modi- 
fying a transitive verb. 

11. \a, yes, to be sure, etc. 
%^\xn ©ie e§ jtt'. Be sure to do it, do it by all means 

(emphasis on ja). 
(^r tft ja mcin Skater', He is my father, you know (em- 
phasis on Skater). 

12. ttur. 

(With the Imperative.) 

^ommenSieimrbcrein, Just come in (reassuringly). 





Irregular Strong Verbs. 

I. %\)m, to do, Impf. t^ttt, P. Part. getF)ttn. 

X^ai, like Engl, 'did/ is a relic of the old Impf. by re 
duplication, the old form being tc-ttt, i. e., the stem ta- with 
reduplicating syll. it- prefixed, then U-k, itt, t^at ^hin 
rejects c of the termination throughout, except in i. Sing. 
Pres. Ind., and in the Pres. Subj. 

II. Imperfect-Present Verbs. 


. Ind. 




I. Sing. 





P. Part. 

tDtffen, know 







biirfen, dare 







!Bnnen, can 







miigen, may 







miiflen, must 







fotten, shall 






gefoat - 

III. S^alfen, will, Pres. Ind. i. Sing. hJifl, i. Plur. WoUtn, 
Pres. Subj. <sr)oIle, Impf. Ind. WoUk, Subj. WoUk, P. Part. 

Remarks. — i. Observe the following peculiarities in the 
verbs un^er II. and III. i 

^) All have the same vowel (mostly with Umlaut) in 
the Inf. and the J^/ur. of the Pres. Ind. ; but (except 
foUen) a different vowel in the Si?ig, of the same 

{p) The Impf, Ind, and P, Part, have the weak endings 
-tc, -t, but the vowel is without Umlaut; tt)i]fen 
changes i to u; mogen changes g into iS^, 

{/) The Impf, Subj, has Umlaut, except in foUen and 

222 LESSON XXXIII. [§196 

(//) The Sing, of the Pres. Ind. of these Verbs is as 
follows, the Plural being regular: 

{ id) tueife r ic^ barf r i^ fann 

tDiflen ■< bu tocifet biirfen < bu barfft fonnen -j bu fannft 
( er h>ci6 ( er bttrf ( er fann 

/ id) mog r ic^ mu§ r tc^ foff 

ntotjen ■< bu magft mufjen < bu mufet fotten ■< bu foUft 
( er mag ( er mu§ ( er foU 

h)oiren-| bu tDiKft 
( er it)tff 

Observe here the different vowel of the Inf. and Indie, (except 
foil); also the want of the person-endwg in the i. and 3. Sing, 
(tcf), er h)et§, barf, fann, etc., not tuci^-t, barf-t, !ann-t ; com- 
pare Engl, can, may, etc., not can-s, may-s, etc.). 

2. The forms of the Present in the verbs under II. were 
originally Stro?ig I??iperfects (hence their want of person-end- 
ings), which came to be used with a Preseiit meaning; the 
new (weak) Imperfects were formed from these, with vowel- 

3. The Present of hjollen was originally a Pres. Subj., used 
as Indie, and therefore also without full person-endings. 

4. The Imperative is wanting in all under II., except 
n^iffen, Imper. tt)i))e. 

Notes. — i. 2Siffcn (= Fr. savoir) is used of knowledge, and of things 
only ; fennen (=: Fr. connaitre) of acquaintance, oi persons «'«(/ things, thus: 
Stiffen 2ic ben SScg? Do you know the road? (i. e., do you 

know which is the right road ?)' 
fennen ®ie ben 2Beg? Are you acquainted (familiar) with the 

road ? 
ftennen @ie meincu S3ruber ? Do you know my brother } 

SBiffen 8ie, road er gefogt ^ot? Do you know what he said? 


2. All these verbs, except tt)iffcn, govern another Verb in the Infin. 
without ju (see Less. XLV), as : 

3c^ barf gel^cn, I am permitted to ga 


to put on (a hat), aiiffe^en watch-key, ber H^rfd^Iiiffel 

expression, ber Hus'brudf * dwelling-house, ba§ SBobns 
French (language), granp'f^f <^ ^«w^ 

building, ba§ ©ebdube clear(ly), distinct(ly), beutlirf) 

commandment, ba§ ©ebof although, obgleid^' 

Idioms : 1. Will you be so kind as to lend me your pen ? SBoden 3{< 
\o gut fcin unfc mir 3l)rc ^cfccr Icifjen? (lit., will you be so 
kind and, etc. ) 

8. I am sorry (I regret), (Sd t^Ut mir lefb (leib to be treated 
as a separable particle). 

8. What is that in German ? 2Btc Ijctftt ta« auf iDcutfd) ? 

4. [ do not need to go to school to-day, 3d) hvaudyt ^eute nid^t 
jur <ad)ulc ju gcfjcn. 

5. He knows French, (?r fann $ran)6ftf(^. 


.^. 1.3^ ^^"" ^^<^ ^^^^^ berfte^en ; fpridj) bod^ beutlid^er. 
2. ^rmmen Sie nur f)eretn, it)enu @ie iDoKen. 3. gft e§ 3^^^^" 
fc^on gelungen, granjofifcf) ^u (eruen? 4. ^ci^ ioerbe noc^ f?eute 
biefe Seftton lernen miiffen, unb e§ ift \6:!d-a brei 3]iertel auf jef^n. 
5. 9^Dc^ t)or Dierjebn 3:agen liefen tr»ir <2c^Iitlfrf)ub, unb ^eute ift 
ba§ et§ gefc^molgen. 6. ®a§ erfte ©ebot Fieifet (is) : r,®u fottft 
feine anbern ©otter neben mir baben." 7. @§ tf)ut mir leib, ba§ 
h)ir erft morgen abreifen ; ic^ trare lieber beute abgereift. 8. 
^f^ut e§ 3^)nen nicbt auc^ leib, ba^ 6ie bi^ morgen bleiben miiffen? 
9. 2Bie ^)ei§t ber englifcfje Slusbrud ' Do you know my friend ? ' 
auf ®eutfcf> ? „^ennen Sie meinen greunb ?" 10. 5Jiein Cnfel \xx(ii 
meine ^ante finb fcbon geftern angefommen, aber meine 33ettern unb 
goufinen iperben erft iibermorgen fommen fonnen. 11. 3Set|t 
bu, ba^ beine 9Jhitter angefommen ift? 12. ^^ tuill biefen §ut 
nic^t auffe^en, toeil er mir gu fleiu ift. 13. §eute barf id^ langer 

224 LESSON XXXIII. [§§196- 

l)'m bleibcn ; tcf) brands e nicf^t bor jc^n U^r ^u §aufe ^u fein. 
14. 2i]o[(en 3ic fid^ nic^t fe^en? 15. 3d) hjcrbe mcf)r ©elii 
^aben muffen ; icb babe nicbt gcnug jur D^cife. 16. ge melfir man 
^at, befto mef^r miH man. 17. Diefc^ unartige ^inb ireife nic^t, 
hja§ e§ trill. 18. ^c^ ^^^^ ^^^^ G^^ort, ba^ meine Gutter fran! 
ift, aberidi irerbe fie nicbt bor morgen befucben fonnen. 19. SBotten 
3ie 9efdttic3ft mcinen Sricf jur ^^oft bringen? 20. 2BiIE)eIm 
vjirb ben ganjen 2:ag 511 §au}e bleiben mufjen, ii^il cr fxcf) erfaltet 
^at 21. Tli'in 53ruber fprid^t gut ©eutfd^, obgleic^ er erft in 
in feinem fiebjebnten '^ahxz ba§ 6tubium biefer (Spracbe ange^ 
fangen \)at 22. SoIIen (3ie fo gut fein unb mir fagen (mir gu 
fagen), trie biel U^r e§ ift ? 

^. 1. A stranger wants to speak to (f^rec^en + ace.) you. 
2. That building was first a bank, then a shop, but it is now 
a dwelling-house. 3. How do you know that? I know it be- 
cause I have heard it from my fatherc 4. What shall I do? 
I have lost all my money. 5. Do you know who has torn 
this book ? 6. No, I do not know who has torn it. 7. Can 
you write the name of that stranger? 8. Do you know 
German? No, but I know French. 9. Do you know the 
difference between the words ' fennen ' and *ixiiffen'? 10. I 
had already put on my hat, and was just on the point of going 
out, when the rain began. 11. These two ships set sail (ah^ 
fa^ren) at the same time, but the smaller arrived first. 12. 1 
could not wind up my watch yesterday evening ; I had no 
watch-key about me. 13. I cannot remain now any longer; 
I must be at home at ten o'clock. 14. I know this street, but 
I do not know the name of it (say : how it is called). 15. A 
brave man is esteemed by everybody. 16. Of what is bread 


1. Wie heiszt *I am sorry' auf Deutsch? 2. Weshalb 
bleiben Sie heute nicht langer? 3. Konnen Sie Deutsch? 




4. Sollte man gegen jedermann freundlich sein ? 5. Wie ge- 
fallt Ihnen Paris? (i. Wie viel Uhr ist es, wenn der Stunden- 
zeiger zwischen vier und fiinf und der Minutenzeiger auf zehn 
steht ? 



197. The Verbs biirfctt, fiinncn, miigcn, miiffcn, foffen, 
motten (see last Lesson), with the Verb (aflcit (Class VII, 
Less. XXXI) are called Modal Auxiliaries, or Auxiliary 
Verbs of Mood, since they are used to form combinations 
equivalent to various Moods. Thus: (affct un€ geBen, Met 
us go,' is really equivalent to an Imperative Mood i. PI, of 
geF)en ; ic^ latin ge^en, ' I can go,' to a Pote)itial Mood, etc. 

198. These Modal Auxiliaries differ from the English 
Auxiliaries can, viay, must, shall, will, in having an Infinitive 
and a Past Participle, and in the consequent ability to form 
a complete set of compound tenses, which are wanting in 
the P>nglish Verbs, and must therefore be supplied in that 
language by equivalent phrases, as shown in the following 
partial paradigms (see also Less. XXXV). 

burfen, to be per- 

i(^ barf, I am per- 
mitted, may 

fiinncn, to be able 

Present Indicative. 
ic^ fann, I can, am icf» mag, 
able may 

Present Subjunctive. 

miigen, to like, be 
allowed (may) 

I like, 

i(^ biirfe, I (may) 
be permitted, 

\6> fonne, I 
be able 


ic^ moge, I 



\d) burfte, I was per- 

lesson xxxiv. 

Imperfect Indicative. 

icf) fonntc, I could, 
was able 


\d) mod)U, I liked, 

Imperfect Subjunctive. 

ic^ burfte, I might 
be permitted 

id^ fonntc, I could, 
miaht be able 

xd) tnod^te, I might 

t(^ ^ah^ geburft, 
I have been per- 

Perfect Indicative. 

ic^ l^abe gefonnt, 
I have been able 

td^ ^abe gemod^t, 
I have liked 

td^ \:)aU geburft, 
I (may) have been 

Perfect Subjunctive. 

i^ fjabe gefonnt, 
I (may) have been 

id^ \)aU gemod^t, 
I (may) have liked 

Pluperfect Indicative. 

\6 Ijatte geburft, 
I had been per- 

id^ f)atte gefonnt, 
I had been able 

id; batte gemod^t, 
I had liked 

Pluperfect Subjunctive. 

ic^ {)dtte geburft, 
I might have been 

ic^ l^dtte gefonnt, 
I might have been 

id^ ^dtte gemod^t, 
I might have liked 

Future Indicative and Subjunctive. 

td^ trerbe biirfen, 
I shall be permitted 

ic^ tDerbe fonnen, 
I shall be able 

id) hjerbe mogen, 
I shall like 


the modal auxiliaries. 
Future Perfect. 


tcf> trerbe geburft f)a= 
ben, I shall have 
been permitted 

id) njerbe gefonnt 
baben, I shall 
have been able 

i(f) tDiirbe biirfen, I 
should be per- 

Simple Conditional. 

icb hjiirbe fonnen, I 
should be able 

icb n)erbe gemocbt 
baben, I shall 
have liked 

icb ttJiirbe mogen, I 
should like 

Compound Conditional. 

ben,I should have 
been permitted 

ic^ iriirbe gefonnt 
baben, I should 
have been able 

ic^ UJiirbe gemoc^t 
baben, I should 
have liked 

miifjcn, to be com- 
pelled (must) 

id) mu§, I am com- 
pelled, must' 

jcdcn, to be obliged 

Present Indicative. 

icb foil, bu foKft, 
I am (obliged) to, 
thou shalt 

ttJottcn, to be willing 


icf) \v\U, I will, in- 
tend to, am about 

id) miiffe, I (may) be 

ic^ muf^te, I was 

Present Subjunctive. 

icb foKe, I (may) be 

Imperfect Indicative. 

id} tDode, I (may' 
be willing 

icb fodte, I was 
(obliged) to, 

\d} njoflte, I was 



[§§ 198- 

Imperfect Subjunctive. 

icf) miij^te, I might 
be compelled 

\d} follte, I might 
be obliged 

Perfect Indicative 

id; n)olIte, I might 
be willing, would 

i(f» haU gemu^t, 
I have been com- 

icb babe gefodt, 
I have been 

ic^ i)aU geiDoUt, 
I have been wil 

Perfect Subjunctive. 

idB ^a6e gemugt, 
I (may) have been 

id) haU gcfoKt, 
I (may) have been 

ic^ ^aU getDoUt, 
I (may) have beer, 

Pluperfect Indicative. 

ic^ ):}atU gemu^t, 
I had been com- 

icb hatU gefcHt, 
I had been obliged 

icb haiU getrodt, 
I had been willing 




tc^ bdtte gemu^t, 
I might have been 

id; bdtte gefoUt, 

I might have been 

obliged, ought 

to have 

id) ^dtte getcoUt, 
I might have been 


Indicative and Sub. 


ic^ tDerbe miifjen, 
I shall be com- 

icb iDerbe foKen, 
I shall be obliged 

Future Perfect. 

id; iDerbe irollen, 
I shall be willing 

ic^ njerbc gemuf^t 
^aben, I shall 
have been com- 

ic^ ioerbe gefofft ^a= 
ben, I shall have 
been obliged 

ic^ tcerbc gebollt 
baben, I shall 
have been wil 




Simple Conditional, 

id) iDiirbe miiffcn, 

id) iDiirbe fotlen, 

id) iDurbe Woiim, 

I should be con> 

I should be 

I should be wil- 




Compound Conditional. 

(d^ iTjurbe gemu^t 

icf) tDiirbe gefoKt f)a5 

ic^ hjiirbe gemoflt 

^aben, I should 

beii; I should have 

F)a6en, I should 

have been com- 

been obliged 

have been wil- 



199. Further Peculiarities of Modal Auxiliaries. 

1. They govern an Infinitive without 311, as : 

©r mug ge^ctt, He must ?o. 

2. In the compound tenses, when a governed Infin. occurs, 
the weak P. Part, is replaced by the Infinitive (really the old 
strong P. Part, without prefix gc-/ which coincides in form 
with the Infin.), as : 

^d) '{jaht gcmugt, I have been obliged ; — but 

gc^ ^abe e§ t^un miiffen, I have been obliged to do it. 

3. In subordinate sentences, their aux iliary of tense does 
not come last, but precedes both the governed infinitive and 
the participle of the Modal Auxiliary, as : 

©r fagte, bag er e§ ^abt t^un miiffen. He said, that he 
had been obliged to do it. 

Note. — The foregoing peculiarities are all shared by the verbs fjeifien, 
fjelfcn, ()6ren, laffen, mad)cn, jefjen ; for other verbs governing an Infin. 
without 511, see Less. XLV. 

4. The shorter (and older) forms of the Conditional (viz. : 
Impf. and Plupf. Subj., see §111) are preferred to the longer 
Qnes ('vith tuiirbe), thus : 



[1 199 

Simple Conditional. 
t^ biirfte = I should be permitted 

icf> foiiutc =1 " '' able 

\6) miii^te =1 " like 
id) miij^tc =1 " be compelled 
ic^ fofltc =1 " " obliged 
id^ ttJoOtc = 1 " " willing 

Compound Conditional. 

' geburft, biirfen 
gefonnt, fonnen 
gemo^t, mogen j ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

gemugt, ntulfen 
gefoKt, fcaen 
, getoollt, iDotlen 

'been permitted 

" able 
been compelled 

" obliged 
^ " willing 

tdj) ^dtte 

Remarks. — i. The Engl, auxiliaries also use by prefer- 
ence shorter forms of the Comp. Condit., but differently 
constructed thus : 


f fmincn ^ 

I miigen I 

-\ miiffcn )> 

j foHcn I 

[ iDottcn J 






> have done it 

Observe that the Engl. Verbs have the Modal Auxiliary 
('could,' 'might/ etc.) in the Si77iple Tense (Impf.), and the 
governed verb (' have done ') in the Compoimd Tense (Perf . 
Inf.); whereas the Germ. Verbs have the Modal Auxiliary 
(f)dtte . . .fonnen, etc.) in the Co??ipound Tqhsq (Plupf. Subj.), 
and the gover?ied verb (thm) in the Simple Tense (Pres. Inf.). 

2. Distinguish carefully between 'could,' Indie. {= ^JV3.s 
able, fonnte) and 'could,' Conditiofial (= "wouid be able, 
fonnte) ; and so with the other verbs, thus : 


@r fonnte e§ ntc^t t^un == He could not (was not able 

to) do it {Indie). 
©r fiinnte e§ t^un, hjenn er tDoIIte = He could (would 

be able to) do it, if he were willing {Condii.). 


to remain up ,sit up, auf 'bleiSen fellow-creature, neighbour, 
go out, au§'gef)en ber 3^dc^fte 

thank, bartfen (+ dat.) disaster, ba§ Un'gludf 

bow to, greet, griigen (trans.) untruth, falsehood, bie Un's 
depend, rely (upon), fic^ ber* tua^r^eit 

laffen (auf + ace.) over again, noc^ (ein)mar 

moment, ber Slu'genblic! whether, if, 06 

railway, bie (^i'fenba^n else, otherwise, fonft 

Idioms : 1. Will you have a cup of tea? No, thank you, aSoflen ®te 
eine Saffe 'Zhee 1 3d) fcanfe (3t)ncu). 

2. Infine weather, Set fdjoncm 9Bctter. 

3. I have heard (it) said, etc., Sd) ^abe fagcn ^oren, lu f. to. 


A, 1, ^ ^aft beine SlufgaBe fef)r \d)k^t gemad^t; bu hjirft 
fie geh)i§ noc^ (etn)mal' mac^en miijfen. 2. ^arf ic^ einen Slugens 
hlxd 3§ren S3Ieiftift kaud^en? 3<^ ^^'^^ ^^^ metncn Derloren. 3. 
2Bir muffen gtctcfi gur (Bd^ule ge^en, fonft fommen it>ir gu fpdt. 
4. ^an fclltc feinen 9Mcf)ften lie&en, ioie fic^ felSft. 5. 33Drige 
SSod^e ^dtte mein SSater fein §au§ berfaufen fonnen, aber er l^at 
c8 nic^t gehjollt. 6. g^^t modf)te er e§ gem toerfaufen, aber mes 
manb WxU e§. 7. ©eine 23ettern (affen btc^ freunblicbft gru^en. 

8. SSiffen Sie, h)ie ber §err Ij^ei^t, ber mic^ foeben gegrii^t f^at? 

9. 2)u foEft 5u beinem SSater ge^en ; er \m\l bid) f^recben. 10. 
^er ^nabe mag fagen, \va^ er \v\ii ; id) \vz\% bag er eine Xtn- 
it>a!^rf;eit gefagt ^at. 11. ^Jioc^ten.Sie nicf)t bei btcfem fc^onen 
^Better f^jagieren faF)ren? 12. §afl bu ben 3"g ^^^^ 33uffaIo an* 
!ommen fe^en? 13. ga tr)of)I, ic^ i^aht \i)n anfommen fe^en, aber 
e* tear niemanb barauf, ben id) fannte. 14. @r Ij^at geburft, aber 

232" LESSON XXXIV. ^ ] ,, f [§§ igg- 

cr bat nic^^t gctroHt. 15. %i^ '^<^t in ber ©tabt fagen f^oren, ba§ 
ein gro^c^ Ungliic! auf ber @i)enbaf)n gef(f)e{)en ift. 16. (^r fott 
toon biefem 33aum gefprungen feiu, aber id) !ann e§ !aum glauben. 
17. 34^ ^*ii^f "^^^ f"^ fP^^ aufbleiben al§ mein diterer 33ruber ; id^ 
mu^ jebcn SIbenb urn jebn Ubr gu ^ette gef)en. 18. gc^ mill 
tf)un, tpaS icf) faun; barauf fonnen (Sie fic^ i)erlaffen. 19. 3Son 
iDcm iDurbe ba§ Suc^ gefcbrieben, ba§ ©ie foeben lafen? 20. ©§ 
l^ut mir Icib, ba^ ©ie fo lange auf mid) l^aben toarten miiffen ; 
id^ fonntc 111 cine §anbfd)uf)e nic^t finben. 

B. 1. By whom was this picture painted? 2. I should 
like to know what time it is. 3. May you go out, if you 
want to ? No, we are obliged to stay at home the whole day. 
4. I do not like (I like no) tea ; I prefer (the) coffee. 5. Could 
you help me with my lesson ? 6. I should certainly help you 
with it, if I could. 7. He may say, what he will ; it is 
all the same to me. 8. My father could have sold his house 
last year, but now it is impossible, for nobody wants to buy it. 
9. Charles has beaten his dog with a stick ; he should not 
have done that. 10. May I offer you a piece of meat? No, 
thank you. 11. Have (let) the messenger wait, till I write 
an answer. 12. I should like to read this F'rench book, but 
I do not know any French. 13. I am sorry that I have not 
been able to come sooner. 14. He will be obliged to study 
another year, if he does not pass his examination. 15. Sophia 
should not have gone for a walk, since the weather is so 
cold. 1 (). The horse I v/anted to buy was already sold. 


1. Wie heiszt das erste Gebot.? 2. Wissen Sie, ob wii 
morgen zur Schule gehen miissen ? 3. Darf ich Ihnen eine 
Tasse Thee anbieten ? 4. Weshalb haben Sie mir mit meiner 
Aufgabe nicht helfen wollen? 5. Wie lange werden wir auf 
Fritz warten miissen ? 6. Sollte man seinen Niichsten lieben,? 




SOO. The following are the most important of the various 
meanings of the Modal Auxiliaries : 

I Surfeit denotes permission, as: 

l^arf i(^ fragen ? May I ask. 

(Bit biirfcn je^t nac^ ^aufe gef)en, You may go home 

dx i)at nic&t^ fagen biirfcn, He has not been permitted 

(allowed) to say anything. 

2. ^ijnneil denotes: 

(a) ability {pi persons), as : 
gr fonntc f(i)ott fd^reibcit, He could (was able to, 

knew how to) write beautifully. 
3c^ )sjiiit nic^t fommctt fonnen, I could not have (would 
not have been able to) come. 
{b) possibility (of eve?ifs), as : 
di> fann fein, It may be (so), it is possible. 

3. SWiigctt denotes : 

{a) preference, liking {pi pe-^sons), as : 

3c() mag biefe^ ®ebic^t nic^t, I do not like (care for) 

this poem. 
(£r tno^te nic^t ar^eitett, He did not like to work. 
3c^ f^atte "^^xtxi 23ruber fef)Crt mbgeit, I should have 

liked to sea your brother. 

Note. — This is the usual meaning in the first perso7i ; also in the 
Impf. (Indie, and Condit.} throughout. 

{b) concession, possibility '(in 2. and 3. person only), 
as : 


234 LESSON XXXV. [§ 200 

@r mag G<^^^"/ ^^ may go (as far as I am concerned), 
or : Let him go. 

^a^ mag fein, That may be (for all I know). 
Note. — The Engl. ' may ' denoting permission must be rendered by 
l)Urfcn in the first person, as : 

May I accompany you? ^orf icf) ®ie begteiteit? 

(c) Observe this idiom : 

3dB hjerbe morgen auSgekn, mag e§ rcgnen obcr nid^t, I 
shall go out to-morrow, whether it rains or not. 

4. 9)Juffcn denotes necessity, as : 

Sllle 93lenfcf)en miifjcn fterben. All men must die. 

(g^ mufe geftem gefd^e^en fein, It must have happened 

3Bir toerben au^qeben miiffcn, We shall be compelled 
(or ' obliged,' or * shall have ') to go. 
Note. — '' To be obliged, compelled ' after a negative is rendered by 
l)raud)en, as : 

I am not obliged to go, 3(i) 6raurf)e ni(f)t ^u gef)en. 

5. iSoUcn denotes duty or obligation, imposed on the 
subject by the will of another. 

(a) Imposed by the speaker, as : 

®u fottft x(\6^i fte^len, Thou shalt not steal. 
(J?) Imposed by some person other than, but recognised 
by, the speaker, as : 

Sc^ fctt gehen, I am to go. 

dr bdtte geben foflcii. He ought to have gone. 

355a§ foK gefc6el^en ? What is to be done ? 

Sa§ fotite idi tBun? What was I to do ? 
(/) It also denotes a statement on the part of ar>other 
as to the subject, as : 

(Jr fott fe ^r reic^ fein. He is said to .be very rich. 


6. fiSSoHen denotes 

{a) the exertion of the will on the part of the subject, as : 
@r toitt nidfit ge^orc^en. He will not (refuses to) obey. 

{F) intention or impending action, as : 
(Sr tuill morgen abretfen, He intends (means) to depart. 
!j)a§ ©i§ ttJtII Srec^en, The ice is about to break 
(threatens to break). 

©r ttJottte cben gefjen (^: bar eben tm Segriff §u ge^en), 
He was just on the point of going. 

(c) a statement or claim on the part of the subject, as : 

(Sr ttitt in -Snbien getrefen fein, He asserts that he has 
been (pretends to have been) in India. 

7. Safjen is used 

(a) as auxiliary of the Imperative Mood, as : 

Cttffen @te ung Her bleiben. Let us remain here. 

{b) to express permission, etc., as : 

3J?an ^at ben ^ieb entf^ringen Ittffcn, The thief has been 
allowed to escape. 

(c) to express the agency of another, as : 

^er Cffij^ier lic§ ben ©olbaten kfhafen. The officer 
ordered the soldier to be punished. 

5(fcbenputtely ^ater Itc§ ben Saum um^ttuen, Cinderella's 
father had the tree cut down. 

Note. — The infin. in the former of these examples is rendered by 
tht passive infinitive in English, the object of the verb laffetl being under- 
stood. Supply the ellipsis as follows : 

2)er Cffi^ier ^at jemant) (obj, of (affen), ben ® olbaten (obj. of 
beftrafcn), beftrafen loffcn, The officer has ordered somebody to 
punish the soldier. 

(^) reflexively, as: 

236 LESSON XXXV. [§§200- 

@r lic§ firj Ietcf)t betriigen. He suffered himself to be 
deceived easily. 

grf) lie^ e§ mir gefaHen, I submitted to it. 

©^ lofet fi(i^ mcf)t leugnen. It cannot be denied. 

201. How to render shall and will. 

1. The Engl. ' shall ' and ' will ' must both be rendered by 
ttJCrben when they express mere futurity, as : 

I shall be drowned and nobody will save me, 
Sd^ ttierbc ertrinfen unb niemanb mirb micB retten. 

2. But if they express more than mere futurity (e. g., 
obligation or determinatio?i)^ they must be rendered by fottctt 
and ttiottcn respectively, as : 

I will be drowned and nobody shall save me, 
%&) toil! ertrinfen unb niemanb foil mtd^ retten. 

202. Observe the following parallel idioms : 

(gr l^ot eg nicf)t t|un fiinncn, He has not been able 

to do it. 
@r fonn e§ nicf)t gct^an §o6cn. He cannot (possibl)'"* 

have done it. 



Gr §ttt e§ mdE)t t^un miigen, He did not like to 

do it. 
@r mog e§ get^an ^oben. He may (possibly) have 

done it. 

Gr ^ot eg t§un miiffen. He has been obliged to 
if) \ do it. 

@r mu§ eg gct^ott ^abctt. He must have done it. 

r ©r ^ttt eg t^un fotten, He should (ought to) have 
) done it. 

1 @r fott c? gct^ttit ^aBcn, He is said to have 
I done it. 


Gr §at e€ t§un ttJoHen, He intended to have 
... done it. 

I (Sr toiU e§ get^ttit ^aben. He pretends (claims) 
I to have done it. 

to put on, draw on (coat, etc.) Englishman, ber ©ngldnber 

anjieben naught, cipher ; zero, bie D^uK 

expect, ertt»artcn shoemaker, ber 3(fuf^mac6er 

chat, talk, ^(aubem proverb, ba» Spricf)iPort 

reap, fc^neiben studying, bag Stubieren 

disturb, interrupt, ftoren lesson, bie Slunbe 

try, berfucBen bunch of grapes, bie 2:raube 

last, continue, Jx)af)ren thermometer, ber or ba§ 2:^ers 

American, ber ^Tmerifaner mome'ter 

physician, doctor, ber 2(rjt* overcoat, ber USergieber 
beggar-woman, bie Settlerin as far as, bt§ nad) 
steam-engine, bie ^ampf; dangerous(ly), gefdbrlic^ 

mafcf^ine sour, fauer 

Idioms: 1. A doctor has been sent for, SXan hat einen Jlrjt holtn 

2. Every other day (every alternate day), (Sinen Jag um 
ten anbcrn. 

3. Every week, ^ttle ad^t Jogc. 

4. I should think so! "^ai \ottte id) metnen! 

5. In the right way, 51uf tie rtd)ttge ^eife (ace). 


A. I. ^er2:elegrapb foil i?on einem ^^Imertlaner erfunben trorben 
lein. 2. ,/^^er,im Sommer nirf*t mag fcf]neiben, mu^ im ilBinter 
§unger leiben/' kifet ein beutfrf>ec> Spricf^trcrt. 3. ©oKe nur, 
hjae bu fannft, fo it)irft bu fonnen, \va^ bu billft. 4. 9?d(f»fte 2£'oc^e 
fotlen h?ir einen J^i^ttag haben, h)enn 6i5 Honnabenb flei^ig ftubiert 
toirb. 5. 33larie tPcKte ibre Seftion in einer balben Stunbe lernen, 
aber fie ijat ee nicbt gefonnt. 6. Sir ipiirben aHe gliicflicber (eben, 
toenn toir immer Ibdten, tva^ W'n tbun fottten. 7. 3c^ toerbc bie 

238 LESSON XXXV. I§§a02- 

2e!tion nie Icvncn fonncn. 8. ^u ^uitft fie lernen fonncn, \v>inn 
'i>n c§ nur auf bic ricf^jt^uje 3^eifitoerfucfift. 9'. Wlan barf uid^t in bcr 
©df)ule plaubcrn; ba§ ftort ben Se^rcr unb bie ©driller. 10. 2Se§= 
()alb bat 2lfdBcn^,utteI§ 33ater ben Saum umbauen laffen? 11. 
(BoUU §err ^. t^af^renb meiner 2(Btt)efen()eit lommen, fo laffen 
<Bk \^n auf mic^ iDarten. 12. 3c^ modjte nur iniffen, toarum 
©eorg auf ft^i WaxUn Id^t! 13. gd^ m5d;te (Ste nic^t ftoren, 
aber fac3en <Bk mir gefdlligft, tt»ie biefer (2a^ auf ©ngltfd^ fjei^t. 
14. @eorg§ 33ater fott gefdbrlirf) Iran! fetn ; man f)at gtoei Str^te 
l^olen laffen. 15. ®er 35ogel njoUte eben t»om Saume fitegen, aU 
ber Sdger if^n fd)o^. 16. ©uten_gioraen^ §err 53raun, mein 
iBater Id^t 3^nen fagen, ba§ er ©ie l^eute Slbenb erhjartet. 17. 
§abe id} ©ie fagen ^oren, ba^ ©ie jeben 3:ag eine beutfd^e ©tunbe 
ne^men? 18. 3^ein, id) nel^me einen ^_^um_ben^cinbern eine 
©tunbe. 19. 2Sa§ ntid^ betrifft, fo mo^te i^ lieber aUe bret ^age 
meine ©tunben ne^men. 20. ®a§ foKte xd) meinen, benn ©ie 
njiirben mef)r 3^^^ h^^ ©lubieren ()aben. 21. ©^rlid^ ird^rt am 
Idngften, unb Unred(it fc^ldgt feinen eigenen §errn. ^>tt-^L 

^. 1. Let us take a walk ; I cannot work any longer. 2. 
The beggar-woman, who has just asked us for money, says 
that she is (claims to be) a hundred years old. 3. She is not 
quite so old, but she is said to be at least above (iiber -|- ace.) 
ninety years old. 4. The fox said : ' The grapes are sour ; I 
do not like them.' 5. The fox said the grapes were sour, 
and that he did not like them. 6. Might I ask you how far 
you are going ? As far as Montreal 7. Should I put on my 
overcoat? 8. I should think so ! The thermometer is (stands) 
below zero. 9. Is it true that this traveller knows three 
languages? It may be [so], but I do not believe it. 10. If 
you should see little Freddy up-stairs, let him come to me. 
11. By which shoemaker do you have your shoes made ? 12. 
The steam-engine is said to have been invented by an Eng- 
lishman. 13. Lazy boys learn only because they are obliged 


to learn. 14. He must have been very ill, as (ba) he is still 
so weak. 15. This house is said to have cost four thousand 
dollars, but I should not like to give two thousand for it. 16. 
He has not been able to come on account of the storm, 
otherwise he would be here already. 


1. Mochten Sie nicht eine Reise nach Europa machen ? 
2. Gehen Sie alle Tage nach der Stadt, oder nur alle zwei 
Tage .? 3. Was machen Sie, wenn Sie nicht mehr studieren 
konnen ? 4. Wer soil das Telephon erfunden haben ? 5. Hat 
man einen Arzt holen lassen ? 6. Haben Sie das Geld be- 
zahlen miissen } 



203. The Prefixes of Compound Verbs may be either 
Inseparable or Separable. 

204. A. Inseparable Prefixes. 
Remember : The omission of gc- in the P. Part. 

The prefixes fie-, er-, em|i-, eitt- gc- Uer-, ^er-, mi\i- 
mibcr- are always mseparable and ufiaccented, the principal 
accent falling on the verb. 

Remarks. — i. The particle mtjj- varies in usage, as shown 
in the Supplementary Lesson E., § 209, i, below. 

2. Remarks on the force and meaning of these particles 
are given in Part III. 

205. B. Separable Prefixes. 
Remember: i. The Prefix is separated from the Verb 

only in Si mple Tenses and Principal (including Direct 
Interrogative and Inaperative) Sentences. 

240 LESSON XXXVI. [§§ 205- 

2. The gc- of the P. Part, and ju of the Infin. come between 
prefix and verb. 

3. The principal accent is on the prefix. 
206. The Separable Prefixes are : 

1. The simple prepositional and other adverbs, nh-, 
on-, ouf-, OU0-, etc. ; ba(r)-, fort-, tmpov-, ^er- ^in-, etc. 

2. The compound adverbs, such as: bobon-, boju-, etc. ; 
boron-, boron§-, etc. ; cntgcgcn-, ent^mci-, ]iivud-, etc. 

Notes. — i. Observe that these compound adverbs are all accented 
on the second syllable. 

2. The use of the compound prefixes with ^cr- and l||tn- is defined 
in the Supplementary Lesson E., § 210, below. 

Examples of Verbs with Prefixes. 

{a) Simple [b) Inseparable {c) Separable 

Verbs. Compounds. Compounds. 

9C^en, go berge^en, pass av^ay j ^ngse^en, go out 

( 3urnrfgef)en, go back 
rci^en, tear jerrei^en, tear to pieces 
fommen, bcfommen, obtain cntgegcnfommen, come 

come to meet 

finbcn, find crfinben, invent onSfinben, find out 

Other Separable Prefixes are : 

3. Substantives, forming one idea with the verb, 
{a) as objects of the verb, as : 

OJ^tgeben, pay attention (attend); bonffagen, return 
thanks (thank); ftottfinbcn, take place (occur); 
teUne^men, take part (interest one's self). 

Note. — The substantives in these combinations are usually spelt 
with a small letter, and written in one word with the verb when they pre- 
cede it. 

ib) with prepositions (= adverbial phrases)^ as : 


fi c^ in %d\i nef)men (refl.), take care (be careful; ; 
3U 8cibc tf)un, injure, hurt; ^u_^tttnbe_bnugen, 
complete; iju ^tatlbe fommen, be completed ; im 
(Stttttbc fein, be able ; ^um Soritjcitt fommen, make 
one's appearance (appear) ; 511 Mutt fein, feel. 
Remark. — These substantives occupy the same position 
in the sentence as separable prefixes, thus : 
3cf) babe auf fcin ^Setragen ot^tgegeben, 
I have observed his conduct. 
^d) fagte if)m fiir feine greunblicf^fett ban!, 
I thanked him for his kindness. 
Note. — Observe that in the above sentences the simple objects with- 
out preposition (ad)t, ban!) foUo^u the prepositional phrases (ailf jetn '^t-- 
tragen, fiir jetne greunblid)feit), contrar}- to rule, on account of their 
character as separable prefixes. 

4. Adjectives as prefixes are usually sepa?'abk, as : 

freitafjen, set free (liberate) ; feftbalten, hold fast (de- 
tain) ; ftc^ (osfagen (refl.), renounce. 
But many are inseparable, of which fuller particulars are 
given in the Supplementary Lesson E., § 212. 
For tloK- as prefix see § 208, below. 

207. C. Double Prefixes. 

1. Separable -|- Separable prefix; these are compound 
adverbs, and both separable (^see § 206, 2, above). 

2. Separable -j- Inseparable ; the former alone is se- 
parated, as : 

on'crfennen, acknowledge, icb erfenne an \h\ii see Suppl. 
Less. E., § 213). 

3. Inseparable-}- Separable; both inseparable, as: 

bcttuf'tragen, authorize, irf) beauf tragte i^n, I authorized 
him ; tJCrttltftalten, arrange, ic^ Ueranftaltete bieg, I ar- 
ranged this. 


Jx^J-^^A.^tA^^.^d'^^^^ .^^h^JL^ 



NoTE. — These are really not compound but derivative verbs, from 
compound nouns (^^liif'trag, 2ln^ftalt) ; hence also the verb (as in the 
former example) is always weak, not strong -7- beauftmgtc, beauftragt. 

208. D. Prefixes Separable and Inseparable. 

The prefixes but^-, ^iutcr-, iikr-, unter-, iim-, batt- are 

sometimes separable, sometimes inseparable. They are : 

{a) Separable as long as both prefix and verb retain 

more or less of their literal or concrete meaning ; 
(J)) Inseparable when both have lost this meaning, and 
form together one new idea. A compound of the 
same verb and prefix may therefore be both sepa- 
rable and inseparable according to its meaning, 
as in the following examples : 

{a) Separable and Literal. 
(Accent on Prefix, Trans, and Intr.) 

tiur^'reifen, pass (travel) 
through, as : 

6r ift geftern ^ier bur^'gereift. 
He passed through here 

|tn'tcrgeF)en, go behind 

u'krfe^en(tr. or intr.), cross ; 

jump over, f err)^ across, as : 
@r fe^tc mit eiiiem ©grunge 

iibcr. He jumped over at 
a bound, 
gdf^rmami, bitte, f c^en ^ie mic^ 

iiber, Ferryman,please ferry 

me across. 

{h) Inseparable and Figurative. 
(Accent on Verb, always Trans.) 

burd^ret'fcn, traverse, travel 
over, as : 

@r ^at ba§ gan^e Sanb burdfis 
rciff, He has traversed 
(travelled over) the whole 

Winter gc'lj en, deceive, as: 
@r f^intcrgiitg' feinen greunb. 
He deceived his friend. 

iiberfc^'en, translate, as : 

3d) iiberfe^'e eiu beutf(f)e»^ud^, 
I am translating a Ger- 
man book. 




untcrji^rci'6cn, sign, as -. 

Scf^ bah< t^en 33ricf nod; nicf)! 
unterff^ric'Bcn, I have not 
yet signed the letter. 

umgc'^eiir evade, as : 
Man umging' bae ©efe^. The) 
evaded the law. 

botten'tJen, complete, as : 

3c^ f)i[h^ meine 2(rbeit 'ooii- 

cn'bet, I have completed 

'■ my work. 

Notes. — i. These separable prepositional prefixes are only rarely 

used with the verbs given above, except as prepositions proper, governing 

a case, as : 

(Sr ging Winter ben Cfen (urn "iio^^ §aue), 

He went behind the stove (around the house). 

2. The adverb totetier is separable, except in tDtCt)Cri)0'len, repeat (but 
ti)ic'l)Crl)olen, fetch again). 

3. Many conn pounds with these prefixes are used as inseparable com- 
pounds only ; others ac separable only. 

un'terf(f)reiben, write under, 

subscribe, as : 
Si^reibcn (Sie 3^ren 3flamen 

^ter untcr. Subscribe your 

name here. 

Hin'ge^en, go round, as : 
©ie miiffen um'geben. You must 
go round. 

tJOfl'gie^en, pour full, as : 
Gr go§ ba§ ©lac^ Uofl, He 
poured the glass full. 


to meet with, an'treffen 
give up, auf geben 
cease, stop, auf boren 
open, auf mac^en 
leave out, omit, au^yiaffen 
pronounce, au^^fprecf^en 
assist, aid, 6ci'ftcf>en 
go away, fort'geben 
come out, ^eraue'fommen 
come in, ^erein'fommen 

set (of the sun, etc. 1, un'ters 

read to, l^ot'Iefen (+ dat. of 
leave, i^erlafjen [pers.j 

promise, ijerfprec^en 
present', introduce, iJor'fteEen 

.(+ ace. and dat.) 
go past, pass by, tjorbei'ge^eu 
close, shut, ju'macben 
come back, juriicf'fommen 

244 LESSON XXXVI. [§ 3o8 

collide, jufam'mcnfto^cn marriage (-ceremony), bic 

send to, ju'fdbidcn (+ dat.) ^rauung 

coffee, bcr .^affcc pale, blcidf) 
Northern Railway, bie 9]orb's by heart, aue'toenbtg 

eifenbabn since, feitbem' (adv. and conj.) 

slave, bcr 3!Iat>e closed, shut (predicate), gu 

even if, it)enn . . . and) 

Idioms: 1. What is the matter with him? 36ag ^at er? 

2. He feels ill, ^ifm tft {i^Ui^t ]u 9Rute; or: Qi ift iHm fi|lei^t ]U 

3. To translate into German, 3n§ ^eutfi^e ii6tr|f^m. 

4. In fine weather, Set ji^onem JHJetter. 

5. If yon please, SBenn ii^ bitten barf (lit-, If I may ask). 


A. 1. ^ergt§ nirf)t, bas genfter ju^mac^en, it)enn bu ba§ 
gimmer i)erld^t./2. 2Sa^ man auffd^iebt, fommt feltengu ©tanbe. 
3. ^onnen 3ie mir fagen, iuie biefeS SSort auf ^eutfdf) auC^ge= 
f^jrod^en irirb? 4. 5[Reine (Sd^iDeftem famen mir entgegen, aber 
letber Ejaben fie mic^ ni^t angetroffen. 5. 3SieIe hahcn berfprocben, 
une beijufteben, aber nur toenige E)aben un§ irirfliif) beigeftanben. 
6. ©ir finb jc|t mit bem erften 3:eile be§ 33ucf)e§ beina^)e fertig ; 
ndcbfte 2i>ocbe fangen tx»tr an, ben gtreiten ^i^eil ju iiberfe^en. 7. 
^\vd 3nge ftnb auf ber ^^orbeifenbabn ^ufammengefto^en. 8. gd^ 
borte auf ju fingen, Jueil icb Bieifer tuurbe. 9. 93?etn 3Sater mad^te 
ben ^rief auf unb Ia§ benfelben ber gamilie "oox. 10. 3Ber etn= 
mal liigt, bem glaubt man nic^^l, unb toenn er aud^ bie SKa^r^eit 
f^rirf)t. 11. ^ahtn Sie bie 3^^t""9 befommen, bie id) ^hmn au§ 
ber ©tabt jugefcbidft haU? 12. ©ffen Sie getpobniicf) in ber Stabt 
5u 3}Iittag? 13. Ja irobi, idf) gebe jeben ^ag urn neun Xlf)r fort 
unb fomme erft um fed^§ Ubr guriicf. 14. 5iJian(^er ^at angefangen, 
Waz^ er nicbt i^offenbet bat. /l5. Unfere 9Zacbbarn miiffen it)of)l 
fort fein, benn atle Saben finb bei if)nen ju. 16. ^ommen (Sie 
bod) l^erein ; ic^ it)ill Sie §errn Sraun borfteHen. 17. ^c^ 
banfe tielmale, aber id(i bin if^m fc^on borgefteUt h)orben. 18. 8ei 

§2o8] COMPOUND VERBS. 245 

fc^onem ^Setter gef>en h)ir unfertn SSater entgegen, hjenn er nad^ 
§aufe fommt. 19. ginbet bte 2^rauung ^l)xz^ 3Seller€ morgen 
ober ubertnorgen ftatt ? 20. SSoKen ©ie eine Xafje ^^ee? ©eben 
Sie mir lieBer etnc !Xaffe ^affec. 

jB. 1. The Reformation took place in the sixteenth century. 
2. Have you closed all the doors and windows ? 3. What is 
the matter with you ? You look so pale. 4. I do not know ; 
since I have come back, I do not feel at all well. 5. In the 
year 1865 all slaves in the United States were set free. 6. 
Have you opened the letters which have just arrived ? 7. The 
sun sets earlier now, and the weather begins to grow colder. 
8. Mary is learning a poem by heart ; she has already repeated 
it ten times. 9. Have you found out at what o'clock the 
meeting takes place } 10. Do you know the gentleman who 
has just gone past ? 11. When we were going past the church, 
the people were just coming out. 12. Pay attention to your 
work ; you always leave out words, when you are copying. 
13. Why have you closed the window ? I was beginning to 
catch cold. 14. I have tried to learn this poem, but it is 
too hard for me, and I have given it up at last. 15. Goethe's 
' Faust ' has been translated into English by Bayard Taylor. 
16. The marriage of my brother takes place to-morrow at 
eleven o'clock. 


1. In welchem Jahre wurden die Sklaven in den Ver- 
einigten Staaten freigelassen ? 2. Lernst du gern Gedichte 
auswendig ? 3. Glauben Sie, dass unsere Nachbarn fort sind ? 
4. Kennen Sie den Mann, der am Hause vorbeigeht ? 5. Wer 
hat diesen Brief aufgemacht ? 6. Wie sprechen Sie das Wort 
G-o-e-t-h-e aus ? 





209. The Inseparable Prefix mi§-. 
The particle Wti^- is inseparable, but : 

{a) With certain verbs it takes the gc- of the P. Part, and JU of the 
Infin. after it, as : 

mi^'^anbeln, act amiss mi^'gc^anbelt mife'ju^Qitbfln 
With other verbs tttt^- either ; 
(b) Has ge- before it, as : 

mi^^an'beln, ill-treat P. Part, gcmife'^anbett — or: 
{c) Drops gc- altogether, as : 

iniBf'aClcn, displease P. Part. miBfanen 

Note. — Obsen'e that the principal accent: 
under {a) is on the prefix throughout ; 

" {b) is on the prefix in the P. Part, only, otherwise on the verb', 
" (c) is on the verb throughout. 

210. Use of the Prefixes \tx- and ^in-. 

1. The particles j^ct C hither ') and l^tn ('hence ') are prefixed * ^ verbs, 
both simple and compound, to indicate the direction towards or from 
the speaker respectively, as : 

■^ ilommen Sie ^cr, Come here (hither, to me). 
■>- ©C^cn Sie ^in, Go (there) thither (hence, from me). 
Hence, a person standing up-stairs would say to one below : 
^ommcn @ie ^Crauf, Come up here (up-stairs) ; 
but to one up-stairs : 

@e[)en •Sie ^inunter, Go down there (down-stairs). 

2. The simple prepositional adverbs afi-, fltl-, Qttf-, flU§-, Cllt-, ?t>**bCf-, 
iibcr-, Untcr-, Um-, dor- are only used with verbs of motion, when the 
compound verb denotes motion in a general way, without specified 
direction, or when it has lost the idea of motion altogether. 




3. {a) When, with QU§-andbor-, also with a6-in the sense of 'down,* 

the place from which the motion proceeds is implied, but not 
specified, the direction to or from the speaker is further indic- 
ated by prefixing ^cr- and fjin- respectively. 
(3) When, with the remaining prefixes (ttll-, ttuf-, etc.), the place to 
which the motion is directed is implied, but not specified, ^er- 
or §{n- is sunilarly prefixed. 

4. The following examples will serve to show more clearly the differ- 
ence between verbs with the simple prefixes and those with ^cr- or f^itl-l 

{d) With §cr-or {)in-: 

^inau§gel)en, go out (from the 

^croorjict^eii, draw forth 

Icrabfteigen, descend 

^cranfommcn, come up to, ap- 

^inubergef)en, go over, across 

^iniinterge[)en, go dovsm {stairs,etc.) 

(a) With Simple Prefix : 

OUSgetien, go out (for a walk, on 

business, etc.) 
tiorjie^en, prefer 
objleigen, dismount 
cnfommen, arrive 

ttberge^en, desert [perish 

untergefjen, set (of the sun) ; sink ; 

5. When the place from or to which respectively is specified, these words 
are used as prepositions proper, governing a substantive, but may be re- 
peated as adverbial prefixes with ^er or ^in, as : 

Gr ging au§ bem Stnimer (^inauS). 

Gr ^og ben 3?nef ttu3 ber toS^i (:^eraug). 

Notes. — i. 2lb-, meaning ' off, away,' does not require these prefixes, as : 

abrcifcn, abge^en, to depart, go off; — but: Ijtuabge^cn, to go down. 

2. (Sin- is replaced, when the place to which is specified, by the preposition in with the 
accusative, as : 

©r ritt in bie Stabt fjinein. 

3. Sometimes other prepositions are used to iidicate the place from or to which, in which 
case the compound prefix is used, as : 

3ci^ tnerbe nad) (rurora Ijiniibcrgeben, I shall go over to Euroi)e. 
6r ift 00m 2;a(^e I)crabgefaEen, He has fallen down from the roof. 

Other Prefixes. 
211. Verbs derived from compound substantives are treated as 
simple Verbs, as : 

Xas grutj'ftiict , the breakfast, friilj'ftucf en, to breakfast ; ic^ frii|'= 
pcfte, 0efru^'ftii(ft, 


S)ie ^anb1)Qbe, the handle, tjQnb'^Qben, to handle; l^ftttB'^QBtC, 

!J)er 9tat'f(i)(ag, the counsel, rat'fd)tagen, to take counsel ; rat'^ 
frf)Iagtc, gcrat'fd)lajjt. 

NoTB. — Observe that all such verbs are weak, as in the case of the last two of the 
above verbs, which are not compounds of l^abcn or fd^lagcn respectively. 

212. Adjective Prefixes are frequently inseparable, but retain the 
principal accent and require gc- before them in the P. Part., as : 

ttJci^latjcn, to prophesy, hjctfe'fagtc, gctneiBfagt ; rcj^ffertigen. 
to justify, rc^ffertigtc, gcvedit'fertigt ; licb'fofen, to caress, lic6'= 
foftc, gelteb^foft ; 
also the substantive compound : 

lufi'njanbeln, to walk for pleasure, gctuftauanbelt. 

213. Some verbs with Separable -|- Inseparable Prefix are used 
only in constructions which do not require the separation of the former 
particle from the verb ; thus we may say : 

dfjriftU^? ift OUfcrftanben, Christ is risen from the dead, — or: 
SUg (II)nftu§ auferftanb, — but instead of : 
(Sr crftonb ouf, — we say : (gr flanb Don ben l^oten auf. 
Similarly with ouSetleien, UorCttt^alten, and a few others. 


1. Have you answered all the letters ? I have answered all except this 
one. 2. I have asked my sister, if (whether) she is ready, but she has 
not answered. 3. She has gone up-stairs ; perhaps she has not heard. 
4. Let her come down, for I cannot wait for her any longer. 5. I should 
like to speak to your father ; is he at home ? 6. Yes, he is up-stairs in his 
study ; please go up. 7. Some one is shouting in the street ; go out and 
see what is the matter. 8. Are you going out to-day ? I am going out, as 
soon as I have breakfasted. 9. George, go out of the room ; you have 
been behaving badly. 10. Many people say that Mr. B. has acted amiss 
in this affair, but he has justified himself. 11. We started so early yes- 
terday morning that we had no time to breakfast. 12. Several people were 
standing on (ouf ) the street before a burning house, and were looking up. 
13. A poor woman with her child was on the point of jumping down. 14. At 
last a fireman went up and saved both [of them]. 15. The boy has abused 
his dog, and therefore he was punished by his father. 16. The dog was 
howling in the street, but some one went out and brought him in. 



Reflexive Verbs. 

214. I. All Reflexive Verbs are conjugated with ^a6en. 
For an example of their conjugation see § 41, and observe 
the use of fi^ as special reflexive of the third person for all 
genders and both numbers. 

2. The reflexive pronoun is introduced as near to the 
beginning of the sentence as possible, sometimes even before 
the subject, when the latter follows the verb and is not a 
pronoun, and especially if the subject has adjuncts, as : 

©eftern ^at fit^ metn IteBer, alter 33ater befd;abtcjt, 
My dear old father injured himself yesterday. 

215. T. Any transitive verb may be used reflexively, when 
the action of the verb is on the subject ; but Reflexive Verbs 
proper are : 

(a) Those which are used only reflexively, especially such 
as indicate a state of mind ox feelings as : 

fid; kfleigeu (gen.), ) apply ftd^ gramen (gen., or iiber + 
„ beftei^igen, j one's self ace), grieve 

„ begrtiigen (mit), be con- „ fcbdmen (gen., or iiber-f- 

tented ace), be ashamed 

„ befinnen (gen.), recollect „ fe^nen (nac^), long (for), 
„ erbarmen (gen.), take pity, yearn 

have mercy „ iDunbern (iiber -f ace), be 
„ erfcilten, catch cold astonished 

((^) Those which, though used also as transitive verbs, 
have a special ?n€aning as reflexives, as : 
fwucn (impers.), rejoice (tr.), fij^ freuen (gen., or iiber + ace), 
make glad rejoice (intr.), be glad 


250 LESSON XXXVII. [§§215- 

fiiri^tcn, fear f^ fiirdBten (bor + dat.), be 

l^iiten, protect „ {)uten(t)or4-dat.), beware 

fteffcii, place „ ftellen, pretend 

Dcrlofjcn, leave „ t)erlaffen (auf + ace.), 

rely (upon) 
^Utrogen, carry (to) „ gutragen (impers.) hap- 

pen, occur 

2. Transitive verbs are often used in English with the direct 
(personal) object unexpressed, e. g., 'change, turn, open, 
spread,' etc. ; such verbs have the object expressed in German 
as the reflexive pronoun, e. g. : 

The weather has changed, ©a§2Setter ^atfit^ gednbert. 
The wind is turning to the east, ®er SBinb bre^t fi^ 

nacf) Cften. 
The door opened, Xie ^Imx offnete fidj. 
The disease was spreading over the whole town, !5)ie 

^ran!f)eit berbreitele fit^ iiber bie gan^e ©tabt. 

3. For the use of Reflexive Verbs for the Passive Voice, 
see § 114, {^). 

4. From what has been said above, it will be evident that 
Reflexive Verbs are used to a much greater extent in German 
than in English, which indeed has no Reflexive Verbs in the 
strict sense defined above. 

216. Government of Reflexive Verbs. 

I. All /rz^^ reflexives take the reflexive (persona/) object 
in the accusative ; the remote object (the thing) is in the 
genitive, or is governed by a preposition, as shown in the 
examples given in § 215, i, above, thus : 


^6 frf^dme mtt^ meinee 53etragen6, I am ashamed of 

my behaviour. 
(Srinnerft bu btt§ befjcnnid^t? Do you not remember it? 
SSir fe^nten ung nat^ unferer !)]iutter, We longed for 

our mother. 
5rf> erbarmte mii^ feincr, I had pity upon him. 
2. Some spurious reflexives have the reflexive i[perso?ial) 
object in the dative, and the thing in the accusative, as : 
Jcf) fann mtr bae benfcn, I can imagine that. 
3rf) bilbete mir biee nur ein, I only imagined this. 
Note. — 2icf) icf)meirf)e(n takes the dative of the person with a clause 
as direct object, thus : 

3t^ fcf)meic^elte mir, tOB id) ^^ tfiun fonnte, I flattered myself, 
that I could do it. 

217. Impersonal Verbs. 

Impersonal Verbs Proper are those used only in the 
third person sing., with the neuter pronoun C6 as subject. 

1. Those expressing Natural phenomena, as : 

t^ fc^nett, it snows C5 bli^t, it lightens -^ ^ 

eS regnet, it rains C5 bonnert, it thunders, etc. 1 

also with the verbs fein or iperben, as : 

j (?l ift (mirb) fait, marm, bunfel, etc., It is grows) cold. 
<. warm, dark, etc. 
I ©5 ift (fcfilagl) fiinf. It is (strikes) Ave. 

2. i^se expressing bodily or mental affections 
(a) with accusative of person. 

(|» friert mi(§, I am (feel) cold. 

@§ berlangt mid^ (nacb), I am (feel) desirous. 

S^eut mi^, I am glad (it rejoices me). 

©^ tounbert micb, I wonder (it makes me wonder). 


©^ jammert tnirf» (gen.), I pity (it moves me to pity). 

©§ reut mid^ (gen.), I repent (it rues me), etc. 
(b) with Dative of person. 

e§ biinft (beudBt) mir, Methinks. 

©€^ gclingt mir, I succeed, etc. 
{c) with fcin or h)erben {Dative of person), as : 

(g§ ift (iDirb) mir iibel, iDoH (ju g}^ute), I feel ill, well 
(it is ill, well to or with me in spirit). 

Ge ift mir lieb, leib, I am glad, sorry (it is dear, sad 
to me). 

Note. — In this class of verbs the subject C§ is omitted when the per- 
sonal object precedes the verb, as: mic^ munbcrt, etc. 

3. Verbs used impersonally with a special sense, as : 

3Sie jtejt'6 mit 3^"^'^ ? How fares it with you } 
®§ 9C$t C|m gut, He is prospering. 
2Sa§ giebt'^? What is the matter? 
303ag fc^Il Sfjnen? What ails you? 
Also fein and irerben, as under i and 2, (/■), above. 

4. For the impersonal use of the passive voice, see § 113. 

Note. — Of the above classes, those alone are strictly impersonal 
which admit only of e§ as subject; others, which are used with other sub- 
jects, but only in the third person (sometimes plur. as well as sing.) are 
properly called unipersonal. 


1. Impersonal Verbs form their various tenses, moods, etc., 
in precisely the same way as other verbs, but are used only 
in the third person singular. 

2. Some are weak, others strong, as : 

frieren, to freeze, Impf. e§ fror, gefraren ; fd^*"^^^"/ to 
snow, Impf. ce fcf)neitc^ P. Part, gefd^neit. 


3. Most of them are conjugated with (^aben, as : 
@e 5at gefd^neit, gefroren, etc. ; 

but some take fetn, e. g., gelingen, g(u(f en, to succeed ; gefcfjef^en, 
to happen ^compare § 53), as ; 

6§ ifi gefc^e^en. It has happened. 

219. Government of Impersonal Verbs. 

1. Impersonal Verbs expressing bodily or mental affections, 
etc., take the immediate (personal) object (= Engl, subj.) in 
the Dative or Accusative (see § 217, 2, 3, above). 

2. Those under § 217, 2, {a), denoting a mental affection 
may be used 

(a) impersonally, with the thing {cause of emotion) 
in the genitive, as : 

e§ jammert mit^ jciner, I pity him (it moves me to 

pity of him). 
©§ reuet m\^ meincr Siinben, I repent (it makes me 

repent) of my sins. 

(b) personally, with the thing (cause of emotion) as 
subject, as: 

(gr jammert mir^, I pity him (he moves me to pity). 
33ieinc ©iinben reuen (pi.) mi(^, I repent of my sins 
(my sins move me to repentance). 

Remark. — Observe that the English subject is object 

in German, the verb remaining always in the third person, 


^__JSjg freut mit^, I am glad. 

@0 freut bir§. Thou art glad. 

[I freut i^n. He is glad. 

®$ freut unS, We are glad, etc. 

254 LESSON XXXVII. [§220 

220. There is, there are, etc. 

1. The English there is, there are {7oas, 7aere, has been^ 
will be, etc.) must be rendered in German by e^ gicbt {o^o^h, 
Kit . . . gegcbcn, trirb . . . geben, etc.), when an in defifiite_ ex- 
istence is expressed, or in general assertions, as : 

) 0^6gab frii^er mele Si^vX^, iDeld^e glaubten, etc., There 
/^ were formerly many people who believed, etc. 

(i§ ttJirb biefe^5 %<x\iX t)iele ^sffaumen 0eBen, There will 

be a great many plums this year. 

Remarks. — i. The English subject is object of giebt in 
German, and is in the accusative, as : 

(S§ giebt einen Sf^oman (ace) bon 3^tc!en§, JDe((fier ,,9^t!oIa§ 
9?icf(eb^" beif3t. There is a novel (nom.) by Dickens, 
called ' Nicholas Nickleby.' 

2. The verb {<^<thtxC) is always in the singular in German, 
being a true impersonal ; and ee is never omitted, as : 

®tefe§ Sa^r giebt eg, etc. 

2. There is, etc., must be rendered into German by c8 tfl, 
e§ fittb (e§ ipar, etc.), when definite existence is expressed, or 
in particular assertions, as : 

^§ ifl ein 35oge( in biefem 93auer, There is a bird in 
this cage. 

C?g ftnb giDei 3.^ogel auf biefem Saume, There are two 
birds on this tree. 

Remarks. — i. The English subject is also subject {nomi- 
native) in German, as : 

©^ ift citi iHoman (nom.) bon ^idfen§ auf bem %\\^, 
There is a novel (nom.) by Dickens on the table. 

2. The verb (fein) agrees in number with the r^^/ subject, 
and e^ is omitted, unless it begins the sentence, as : 

§220] THERE IS, THERE ARE. 255 

Gin 3SogeI ifi in biefem SBauer, There is a bird, etc. 
Note. — This shows that e§ is the indefinite ti, replacing the real sub- 
ject (see § 39, r), and not the impersonal e?. 


to dress (trans.), an'fteiben lightning, ber 3311^ 

dress (intr.), ]\d) anfleiben thirst, ber ^urft 

resolve, decide, fic^entfc^Iie^en lemonade, bie Simonabe 

explain, erffdren caterpillar, bie Staupe 

be mistaken, firf) trren sleighing, bie S(f>litten6af)n 

turn around (intr.), fief) um'= way, mode, bie SS^eife 

breben successful(ly), g(ucflicf) 

get married, marry (intr.), fid) no\v-a-days, beutjutage 

berbei'raten long (adv.), Idngft 

marry (trans.), ki'raten past, iiorSei 

hurt (wound), berle^en in all ages, ^u alien ^ext^n 

Idioms .-l^ feel well, Wtir tfl n)oI)l 5U ?Olute. 

2. He has married the daughter of the doctor, (Sv Ijat ftc^ 
mit tcr 5od)ter bed ^oftord oerheivatet. 

3. In this way, 5luf tie\e 3Betfe (ace). 

""■*" T. I was hungry (thirsty), 3d) l)attc JSungcr (J)urfl). 


A. 1. ©§ bonnert, unb id) fiircf»te, ee ir»irb balb regnen. 2. Urn 
it)ie ijiel Ubr h)irb bet 3bnen ju 5DZittag gegeffen? 3. Q^ l)at 
tr»d^renb ber 9^acbt gefroren unb beute tuerben li^ir Scbtittfcbul) 
laufen fonnen. 4. SSesbalb bonnert es, ioenn e§ bli^t? ^a§ 
Id^t fic^ nirfjt leicbt erfldren. 5. 3<^ ^^^^ meinen beften §unb 
ij^rloren ; fo ein -lounb finbet [ic^ nicbt leicbt h?ieber. 6. g# freut 
un§ fef)r, ba§ §einricf) fein (rramen gliidlic^ beftanben hat. 7. ^c^ 
fiirc^te, e§ h)irb biefes 3abr nur tuenige ^lipfel geben ; bie SfJau^en 
[)ah^n faft alk 33ldtter ben ben 53dumen gefreffen. 8. ©uten 
9]Rorgen, .§err Sraun; giebt'^ beute etnjas D^eues? 9. 5Rein 
ditefter 33ruber bat ficb uerfjeiratet. 10. 93?it tt)em f)at er fic^ bers 
^eiratet? 11. ^it bev ^od)ter bee Xottox 33. ; erinnem 3ie ftc^ 

256 LESSON XXXVII. [§§220- 

nid^tibrcr? 12. ©cfimeid^elu 5ic fid;, bajj e^5 3l;ncn auf bicfe 
3Scifc gelingen toirb? <Sie babeu nid^t ©elb genug. 13. gd) 
^abc mcl mcbr ©elb aU \d} braucbe ; id> h?urbe midB mit bcr §dlfte 
bcgniigt baben. 14. ©§ ipiirbe micb gar nid>t iuunbcrn, tuenn tmv 
nocb beute D^egen be!dmen. 15. 2ll§ ic^ an bem §aufe boriiber= 
ging, offncle fic^ bie 2:bur, unb cin alter §err !am l^erau§. 
16. ^^xd) friert; bu foKteft beineu Uberjicbcr anjieben. 17. @§ 
ittaren nod^ bwie Seute auf ber ©trage, al^5 id; nac^ §aufe !am. 
18. @§ h?irb bid^ balb beineS SetragenS rcuen, tucnn ic^ ntid^ nic^t 
irrc ; bu folTteft bid) fcbamen. 19. ©§ giebt beutjutage ^boren, 
unb leiber 'i)at e§ §u atten S^\Un%hoxin gegeben. 20. Sie fonnen 
fid) benfen, ba^ e§ mid^ irunberte, aU id) mid) umbrebte unb 
meinen tdngft berlorneu greunb t»or mir fab. 

B. 1. Are you afraid when it lightens? 2. Yes, I am always 
afraid of the lightning. 3. What is the matter with you ? 
You do not look at all well. 4. I do not know what ails me ; 
I do not feel well, perhaps I have caught cold. 5. It has been 
snowing the whole night, and to-day we have fine sleighing. 

6. Have you hurt yourself ? Yes, I have cut my finger. 

7. There are two gentlemen at the door ; do you know them ? 

8. I know one of them, but I cannot remember his name. 

9. I must dress immediately^ or else I shall not be ready at 
seven o'clock. 10. If you do not dress more warmly, you will 
catch cold. 11. I am thirsty; please give me a glass of 
lemonade. 12. I am glad that the thunder-storm is past; the 
lightning is dangerous. 13. Do you remember whether he 
was here on the 15th or on the i6th of January ? 14. Have you 
decided to leave (the) town, and to pass the summer in the 
countr}'? 15. I hear somebody shouting in the street; what 
is the matter? 


1. Sollte man sich vor dem Donner fiirchten ? 2. Wie 
lange wohnen Sie schon in dieser Strasze? 3. Stehen Sic 


gewohnlich friih des Morgans auf ? 4. Weshalb hast du die 
Fenster zugemacht ? o. Wie gefallt es Ihnen in diesem 
Hause ? 6. Wird es dieses Jahr'viele Ptiaumen geben ? 



221. The Prepositions with the Dative only have been 
given in §§46, 51 ; those with the Accusative only in 
§§ 34> 50; those with Dative or Accusative in § 65. 

Prepositions with the Genitive. 

222. The Prepositions governing the Genitive are chiefly 
'nouns used adverbially. The following lines contain the 
principal ones, and will aid the memory : 

Untocit, mittelft, Irafl unb ma^renb, 
Caut, bermbgc, ungeat^let, 
C6cr^a(b unb unter|a(6, 
Snncr^ttlb unb au§er^a(6, 
^icgjcit, jcnfcit, ^alBen, megen, 
<Biatir and) (iings, jufolge, Iro^ 
©tef^en mit bem (^cnititi ; 
'iljod) ift Her nid^t ju bcrcjeffen, 
Xa^ bei biefen le^ten bret 
Stucfi ber ^tttiti ric^tig fei. 

223. The meanings of these prepositions are as follows : 

1. ^olKen), balber, >. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ 

2, ttiegen, ) 

Remarks. — i. §alb''en), balber, always follows the case; 
toegen may follow or precede a noun, but always follows 
a persotial pronoun. 

258 LESSON XXXVIII. [§223 

2. §al6 is used only in ticsbalb and ttic8bal6 ; f^albeit after 
the personal pronoufis or substantives with a determinative 
or attributive word ; ^albcr after a substantive used alone, as : 

^C5 grieben§ BalBcn, For the sake of peace. 
Seif^iel§ Kilbcr, For the sake of example. 

3. The personal pronouns have a special form ending in -i 
before ^alben and tt)egen, thus : 

meinetbalben, for my sake 
im]erttr>ecjen, on our account, etc. 

3. auger^alfi, (on the) outside 5. o6er^aI6, above 
of 6. untcr^alB, below 

4. inuer^^ttlB, (on the) inside of 

Examples : 

Unfer ©arten ift aufier^alfi (tnner^ttlfi) ber ©tabt. 
Our garden is outside (inside) of the town. 

^Jiontreal licgt unter^ttlb beg Dntario=3ee§, 
Montreal lies below Lake Ontario. 

Remark. — 3^^^^'^'^'^^ ^^ expressions of time may be fol- 
lowed by the dative of a substantive without article, as : 
3nnerf)al6 5it)ei 3:agen, Within two days. 

7. frttft, by virtue of 9. (tier)mitte(fl, I by means 

8. (ttUt, in accordance with 10. Uermogc, \ of 

1 1 . juf olgc, in consequence of 

Remark. — 3iif'^'f3^ governs the genitive when it precedes 
its case, but the dative when it follows, as : 

©r tbal bie§ gufolge meincg 33efeM$, or meinem Sefe()Ie 
jufolge, He did this in consequence of my order. 

12. btelfcit, on this side 13. jcttfcit, on that ''the other) 



Remark, — ^^iegfeit and jenjeit are prepositions (governing a 
noun); bieefeitS and jenfeitg adverbs (without a case), as : 

3ci^ tDol^ne biegjcit, er jcnfcit be§ i^Iufjee, I live on this, 

he on that (the other) side of the river, — but : 
SSir h)obnen beibe naf)e am gtuffe ; icf) bie§feit§, er jen= 
f eit§. We both live near the river ; I on this, he on 
the other side. 

14. (latt, anfttttt, instead of 

Remark. — Stnftatt is sometimes divided, thus : 

$(nfiati metne§ Sruberg, Instead of my brother, — or: 
S(n meine§ 33ruber§ (Sttttt, (In my brother's stead). 

15. ungeat^tct, notwithstand- 16. tro^, in spite of 

Remarks. — i. Ungeacbtet may precede or follow its case. 

2. ^ro^ governs the dative m the phrase tro^bcm, 'in spite 
of that,' and with the meaning of ' as well as,' as : 

Xiefer ^nabe reitet tro^ eincm 5)lanne, This boy rides 
as well as a man. 
17. ttitt^renb, during 18. Itingg, ) ^^ 

19. cntltttig, ) ^ 
Remarks. — i. Sang^ also governs the dative, and always 
precedes its case, as : 

2dng§ bc0 Ufer§, or bem Ufer, Along the shore. 
2. Gntlartg governs the ge?iitive when it precedes its case; 
but it more commonly follows its case, and governs the accu- 
sative, as : 

©r ging ben %\\x^ cntlang. He went along the river. 
To'these may be added : 

20. ongeficftts, in presence of 22. um . . . ttlillcn, for the sake 

21. inmittcn, in the midst of of 

26o LESSON XXXVIII. [§§223- 

Remarks. — I. Urn . . . tDtKen takes the case between um and 
ivillen, as : 

Um mcineS 95ttter8 h)itten, For my father's sake. 
2. The. persoTial pronotms have the same forms with um . . . 
h)iEen as with l^alben and tt)egen, thus : 
um feinettDtllen, for his sake 
um ^^rettoitten, for your sake, etc. 

23. unfern, K^t far from 

24. unttiett, ) 

224. General Remarks on Prepositions. 

1. An Adverb of direction is frequently placed after ait 
accusative, like a preposition after its case, as : 

^cn 33erg ^inouf. Up the mountain. 

2. (a) Some prepositions may govern a substantive clause 

with bo§, as : 

(S^re 3]ater unb 9Hutter, auf ba§ e§ bir h)o^I gelje. 
Honour father and mother, that it may go well with thee. 

Notes. — i. Such are auf, au^er (also used with ttJCnil), biS, ot)ne, 
(an)ftatt, ungead)tet, tua^renb. 

2. 53i§, imgead^tet, traijrenb are also used as cojijunctions without bo^. 

(^) Um, of)ne, and (an)ftatt may govern an infinitive 
with 5u, as : 

@r !am geftern, yxxa bid) ju Befujjcn, 

He came yesterday (in order) to visit you. 

%i) !anu nie baran benfen, o^nc 3U (or^eti, 

I can never think of that without laughing. 

liefer 9}iann foUte arbeiten, anftatt ju Bettcln, 
This man ought to work, instead of begging. 
Remark. — But if the subject of the infinitive clause is 

different from that of the sentence on which it depends, ba§ 

must be used, as : 


3(f» fonnte ntd^t borBetgefjen, o^ne btt§ er mid) faj (not 
obne mtc^ 511 feben), I could not pass by without his 
seeing me. 

3. Prepositions may govern adverbs, as: nac^ o6en, up- 
ward ; nad) l)\nUn, to the rear ; auf immer, forever ; ijon fern, 
from afar ; and the compounds with ba(r)- and it)C>(r)- (se«- 
§ sS, Rem. 5 ; Ss, 3; 96, 7)- 

4. A substantive governed by a preposition may be followed 
by an adverb, for nearer definition, as : 

9la^ einer ^^irf^tung §in. In one direction. 
S50n alien Setten §cr, From all sides. 
(^r ritt Winter bem geinbe ^er. He rode in pursuit of 
the foe. 

Urn bag §aug §crum. Round (about) the house. 
9Son nun on. From henceforth. 
ajon gugenb auf. From youth up. 


to observe, remark, bemerfen (the) little Red (Riding) 
elect, erit)a^Un (+5u) Hood, ba§ 3?otfd^^cf)en 

permit, allow, eriauben umbrella, ber 9tegen]c^irm 

inquire (about), jic^ erfunbigen drop, ber ^ro^fen 

(+ narf)) drunkard, ber 3:run!enboIb 

go about, around, fjerum'geben will, testament, bag Jeftament' 

ring (a small bell), flingeln stairs, staircase, bie 2^re^^e 

go for a walk, fpajieren ge^en deceased, ber (bie) SSerftorbene 

divide, teilen warning, bie SSarnung 

let (of houses, etc.), bermieten hving, leben'big 

go away, tueggeben loose, slack, log 

the opposite, bag ©e'genteil in^time, punctually, red^f s 
custom, habit, bie @ett)obnf)eit jeitig 

microscope, bag 3Jii!rof!o^' except that, auger bag 



Idioms: 1. For all I care, 9JiCtncttoCflett. 

2. This house is for sale, !£tcfeg §auS ift )tt tierfoufett (Ut, to be 

8. He was elected mayor, 6r tourbe 3um Siirgemteipcr tttoifiU (lit., 
to or for a, etc., — jum = 311 einem). 

4. I have been here for a week, 31^ 6in fett adft Xuflen ^ter. 

5. To laugh (at), make sport (of), *t(^ lujJig moiftcn (iibcr + acc). 

6. What is the matter? SBog ijit U>41 

7. There is a ring (at the door, etc.), 6« flinoclt. 


A. 1. ^ae §auy, IrteldBee gu berfaufcn ift, ftent au^erBalb ber 
(Stabt, mcf^t tr>eit bom See. 2. 2i>enn ec> nur inner^alb ber Stabt 
ftiinbe, fo iciirbe icb gem taufenb XhaUx mel^r bafiir geben. 3. 
©efdfit ee Jbnen beffer bieefeit be§ ^'^^ff^-' 5" toobnen, ober jenfett§? 

4. Xro^ be§ Sturmes lam bae 3cbiff recbtjeititg in Dteit? Jjor! an. 

5. 2)iefer ^runfenbolb f^at urn fetner gamilie ii^iden ba§ ^rinfen 
aufgecjeben. 6. ©r fiirdbtete, ba§ feine Scbne bte fcblecbte ©etoobns 
beit (ernen mccbten. 7. ^er bungrige 2£>oIf gtng mebrmal§ urn ba§ 
§au§ unb fucbte D^otfd^^cben. 8. 5>enntttelft femes gro^en Ginfluffe§ 
bei ben 9ietcben \)ai fidf» §err 2t. jum -Surgevmeifter ertodMen laffen. 

9. Sett irann tr>obnen Sie in biefer 3tra^e? Seit brei ^^bren. 

10. Xlm mcinetlr»irien \v\ii er nicbt mit mtr ge^en ; biedeirf^t hjiirbe 
er urn ^^rettinllen geben. 11. Sf^ (^eorg oben? ^a, er iftfoeben 
bie ^re^^e binaufgegangen. 12. ?affen 2ie un§ lieber nad) oben 
geben ; ee irirb une beffer gefaflen cben ju fi^en ale imten. 13. ©^ 
]J)at t^cr einigen 'Diinuten geftingelt ; trer trar ba? 14. (?6 toar 
jemanb, ber fic^ erfunbigen it>oKte, ob biefee §au6 ^u bermieten 
fei. 15. I^em ^eftamente jufolge tourbe ba§ (Eigentum unter bic 
beiben 8of)ne be§ 3]erftorbenen geteilt. 16. 93ieinetU)egen mag 
er gel^en, fobalb e§ if^m gefddt. 17. ^(uger ba^ @eorg ein irenig 
grof^er ift, bemerft man gar feinen Unterfcbieb ?|tDifcben ben beiben 
Sriibern. 18. §err ^. ift einer meiner beften ^reunbe; er gebt 
faft nie am §aufe boriiber of)ne fjercinjufommen. 19. Untoeit ber 
Stabt S. fte^t bag §au§, tt)Drin icb geboren bin. 

§224] PREPOSITIONS. 263 

-^. 1. I shall take my stick instead of my umbrella; I am 
not afraid of the rain. 2. Have you been taking a walk 
along the shore ? Yes, in spite of the bad road. 3. Not far 
from the school I let my new knife fall into the snow, and 
could not find it again. 4. Do you know what was the 
matter ? I heard a great noise down-stairs. 5. I do not know 
(it), but I shall inquire. 6. Were you allowed 'perf.) to stay? 
No, we had (perf.) on the contrary to go away again immedi- 
ately. 7. We have been here since yesterday, and we must wait 
three days more for the ship. 8. One part of the city lies on 
this side, the other on that side of a broad river. 9. I do 
not think much of this gentleman ; he would do anything for 
money. 10. By means of a microscope living animals can be 
seen in a drop of water. 11. In^consequence of this bad 
news we must be back inside of a week. 12. Should we make 
sport of other people? 13. No, that is a bad habit. 
14. Yonder is the river: on this side stands my house, on 
that side his. 15. Notwithstanding the warning of his father 
the youth often went on the water in bad weather. 16. In- 
stead of taking the large boat he always took the small one. 


1. Weshalb hat der Trunkenbold das Trinken aufgegeben? 
2. Auf welche Weise hat sich Herr B, zum Biirgermeister 
erwahlen lassen ? 3. Haben Sie klingeln horen ? Wer war 
da .'' 4. Wo sind Sie geboren, und in welchem Jahre ? 
5. Fiirchten Sie, es konnte regnen ? 6. Kannst du mir sagen, 
was auf der Strasze los war ? 

264 LESSON XXXIX. [§§225 



225. Prepositions vary more, perhaps, as to idiomatic usage 
ui different languages than any other part of speech. Their 
proper use must be acquired chiefly by practice and memory, 
but below are given the German equivalents, in various 
idioms, of the most commonly occurring English Prepositions, 
more particularly in cases where the usage of the two lan- 
guages differs. 

226. About. 

(a) In the sense of ' around ' = um, as : 

©ie i)erfamme(ten ftd^ urn il^n. They assembled about 
{b) Of time = Ultgefd^t um (iim alone = ' at ' ; see § 227, 
ip) I, below), as : 

„ Unqcfd^r um ^cbn lUr, About ten o'clock. 
• Ungefd^r um S>eif)nacfiteu, About Christmas. 
{c) In the sense of ' nearly ' (of number) = etloa, UUgCs 
fd^r (adverbs), as : 

gr bat ctttJtt (ungcfd^r t taufcnb ^Tbaler iibrtg. He has 
about a thousand dollars left. 
(,/) In the sense of ' with,' ' about ' (the person) = bet, as : 
3d) f)a6e !ein ©elb M mir, I have no m.oney with 
me, about me. 

227. At. 
(a) Of locality : 

I. == in, when the action, etc., is within a building, etc., 
as : 

3tt ber Scf)ule, in ber ^ircfie, im ^f^eater, im ^ongert. 
At school, at church, at the theatre, at the concert. 


2. = an, when the action, etc., is adjacent to the object 
of the preposition, as : 

^m Jenfter, an ber %\>\\x, om 2;tfcf)e, At the window, at 
the door, at the table (but ^t\ Xtft^e, at table). 
J. s= ttuj^ when the action is on the surface, or on an 
X^' elevation, as : 

STuf bem 93tar!te, auf bem ^a^it-, ouf ber %o\i, auf ber 
Uniberfitdt, ttuf bem 3c6Ipffe, At market, at the ball, 
at the post-office, at the university, at the castle. 
A = jll or JtLjyith proper names of towns (also with 
§au6, 'home '), etc., as : 
Su (m)J}]ari§, At Paris. 
3u §aufe. At home. 

(b) Of time: 

1. = utn (most usually), as: 

Um baI6 i?ier Ubr, At half past 3 o'clock. 
Um Dftern, At Easter. 

2. =311, with 3^it and Stunbe, as : 

5ur_red^teru3^'-t/ At the right time. 
3tt biefer (Stunbe, At this hour. 

Note. — Um with the ace. is also admissible with these words. 

3. = Bci, as : 

93ci 3:agecHin&rud\ At day-break. 
(^r) Of price = ^u, as : 

liefer ^udix icirb ^u itvd ^baUxn bac^ ^fimb tterfauft, 
This sugar is sold at two dollars a pound. 

228. By. 

(a) 'Expressing the persona/ agerit after the passive voice = 
Imn, as : 

^ ^a§ ^inb tmrb bon fcincn G(tern geliebt. The child is 
loved by its parents. 

266 LESSON XXXIX. [§§2*8- 

(d) Of a part of the body, etc. = bci, as : 

@r nabm ba§ ^inb bci ber §anb, He took the child by 
the hand. 

(c) Unclassified : 

©ci 2id)t, By candle-light. 
,,..*-. ©ci 9Zad;t, By night. 
ma ©etvalt. By force. 
yjlii ber StfenBaBn, By the railway. 
8u Sanb, 3U 2Safjer, By land, by water. 

229. For. 

Rendered usually by fiir, but : 

(a) Of purpose = 311 {never fiir), as : 

®te§ ift fcf>one§ SSetter jum ©^ajierenge^en. This is fine 
weather for taking a walk. 

Qx reift jum 3]ergnugen, He travels for pleasure. 

(d) Of time : 

1. J^asf = fcit, as: 

^^^.,00^t\i einem 5[Rottate, For a month ipast). 

2. Future = auf -j- ace, as : 

gcf) h^erbe ouf eintgc ^agc berreifen, I shall go away for 
a few days. 

3. Duration = ace. without preposition, as : 

, Gr it)ar einen gangcn 5)^onat Her, He was here for a 

whole month. 

(<f) Of catise = au8, as : 

^^^^©r t^at e§ OUS gurcf)t. He did it for fear. 

{d) Unclassified : 

ffiir'g (Sr[te, For the present. 

gum erften (gtDeiten, etc.) ^al, For the first (second, 
etc.) time. 


^ m (55eBurt§lage, ^u SSethnac^ten, For (as) a birth- 
day-present, for a Christmas-present. 

230. In. 

Rendered usually by in, but : 
(a) = auf, as : 

In the street, 5(uf ber Strafe. 

In the country, $(uf bem 2anbe. 

In this manner, ^uf biefe SS^eifc (ace). 

In German, 5(uf Xeutfcf). 
{b) = unter, as : 

Unter ©lifabet^g Sfiegierung, In Elizabeth's reign. 
if) = 3U, as : 

^tt SBag en, In a carriage. 

231. Of. 

(a) By the genitive without preposition, to express the 
relation of the possessive case, as : 

2)er 2i>iIIe unferg 2>aters, The will of our father (i. e., 
our father's will). 
{b) = tJOn : 

1. After 7'erbs, etc., as: 

^6 fprecbe t)On ibm, I speak of him. 

2. Between titles and names of places, as : 

3)ie ^onigin trnn ©nglanb. The Queen of England. 

3. After nu7?ierals and other partitives, as : 
Giner bun meinen greunben. One of my friends. 

2)er ditefte bon meinen 5^nibein, The eldest of my 

4. Replacing a genitive plural without article, as : 

(5r ift ber "^(xUx tion t)ier l^naben, He is the father of 

four bovs. 

268 LESSON XXXIX. [§§231- 

5. To avoid a succession of several genitives, as : 
®ie grau i)om 2]etter meine§ Dn!el§, The wife of my 
uncle's cousin, 
(r) Of cause, when the cause is a disease = an, as: 
(rr ftavb an bcr dbolera, He died of the cholera. 
iji') Oi place, with names of battles : 

1. = Jci^ if named after a town, village, etc., as : 
2)te Sd^Iac^t bci Sei^jig, The battle of Leipzig. 

2. = an, if named after a river, as : 

^ie 3dBIac6t an ber Sllma, The battle of the Alma. 
(<?) Unclassified : 

93t angel an @elb. Want of money. 
£iebe jnm ©elbe. Love of money. 
2Sa§ foH an§ mir toerben ? What is to become of me ? 

232. On. 

Rendered usually by anf, but : 

{a) Of ti7ne or date = Acc. without preposition, or = an 
4- Dat., as : 

2^en (or am) jicolften gcmuar. On the twelfth of January. 

{b) Of modes of progression = jn, as : 

Qu ^^ferbc, On horseback. 

Sn ^ufee. On foot. 
(e) Of situation, on a river, sea, etc. : 

1. When it means on the water = auf, as : 

5BieIe ©cf^iffe fabren anf bcm §ubfon. Many ships ply on 
the Hudson ; — but : 

2. When it means on the shore = an, as : 

Hamilton liegt om OntariosSee, Hamilton lies on Lake 


{d) Unclassified: 

W\i glei§, On purpose. 

83ei biefer ©cle^en^eit. On this occasion. 

Unter (or mit) biefer Sebingung, On this condition. 

3tn Segriffe, On the point of. 

233. To. 

{a) When replacing the indirect object = Dative without 
preposition, as : 

%^ ^abe meiner ©cf^tDefter ein Suc^ gegeben, I have given 
a book to my sister (i. e., my sister a book). 

(^) Of motion or direction to persons = ju, as : 

%i) tDttt JU meinem 3Sater gef^en, I will go to my father. 

(r) Of motion to places : 

1. With proper names of countries, towns, etc. = tttt^, as : 
3d) ge^e tttti^ %(xx\^, na(^ 2)eutf(f)lanb, I am going to 

Paris, to Germany. 

2. With common nouns (i) = in, on, or auf respectively, 
with the Accusative, in various idioms, where these 
prepositions with the Dative = ' at ' (see § 227, 
{a), above), as : 

3n bic 2c6ule, ^irrf^e, tn§ Skater, ^onjert u. f. h?. gefjen. 
To go to school, church, the theatre, concert, etc. 

ling ^enfter, on "^xt 2f)iir get^en, 

To go to the window, door. 

5(uf ben gJZarft, Sad, ouf bic ^^^oft, Umt>erfttdt geben. 

To go to market,^to the ball, post-office, university. 

(ii) Frequently = 3U, \yhich may usually replace the 
prepositions in the above idioms also, as : 

@r ift jur (Stabt, jur ^ircBe u. f. tr>. gegangen. 
He has gone to town, church, etc. 

2/0 LESSON XXXIX. [§234 

234. With. 

Observe the following Idioms : 

95on gan^em §erjen, With all my heart. 

©r gittert tior ^dlte, He trembles with cold {cause). 

®a§ ift bet un§ nid)t ©itte. That is not the custom with 

(= ainong) us. 
3n biefer 2l6fid)t, With this intention. 

Remark. — For the proper use of prepositions after panic- 
ular adjectives and verbs, see Less. XLIX. 


to intend, gebenfen account, bill, bie Sftec^mmg 

be^enough, suffice, {^inreicf»en dressing-gown, ber®cf»Iafroc!* 

bring with (one), mit'bringen evil, ba§ Ubel 

sign, unterjeidB'nen relaiixe, ber 33erit)anbte 

bring back, §urii(!6rtngen treaty, ber 33ertrag* 

excursion, pleasure-trip, ber root, bie SSur^el 

2iuU(u9 * this evening, \)t\\\t 2(6enb 

harvesting, bay ©rnteu thorough(-ly), grunblidf) 

favour, ber ©efatten fortunately, gliicflicfiertceife 

Louis, Lewis, gubVoig possible, moglic^ 

measles, bie ^afern (f. pi.) absenr(on a journey), t)erreift 

Idioms : 1. To be accustomed, 2xc ®chiof)n^cit ftobcii (+ infin. \vith ju). 

2. In the middle of summer, bitten im Soutmer. 

3. To take a pleasure-trip (excursion), @inen 9tudfiug mai^tn, 

4. It looks like rain, 6d ft^^t na(tf tRegen nuS. 
0. Two or three, ^toti big bret. 

6. He sprang out of the window, Qv fprong ]um gfenfter l^inouS 
(point of ingress or exit denoted by 3U -}- dat.). 

Note : It is customary, in referring to the relatives of the person addressed, to prefix 
§err, "^vau or (\rauletn, as the case may be, but this is not done in speaking of one's own 
relatives, thus: 

2Bie ge^t e§ ^^tm §tmi SSater? — But : TOtIn 95ater tft gana roo^l. 

§234] PREPOSITIONS. 2^1 


A. 1. 2luf h)elc^e 2Beife hahin 3ie bie franjofifc^e ©^rac^e fo 
gut gelemt ? 2. gd) ^abe juerft bie ©rammatif griinblic^ ftubiert, 
unb bann ^abe ic^ anbertfjalb ^ahxi in granfreid^ ^ugebrac^t, 
3. 2Sie lange bleibt 3(;r §err 33ater noc^ fort? @r fommt erft 
ubermorc3en nac^ §aufe. 4. 2Ba§ gebenfft bu ^eute 5lbenb gu 
t^un? Sd^ it)ei^ eg nic^t ; fur'§ ©rfte mug ic^ meine 2(uf gaben 
madden. 5. 2Bo f)aft bu ben biibfc^en (Sdf)Iafroc! befommen? 3d^ 
^abei^ngum ©eburtgtage befommen, unb jie^e if)n ^eute ^um erften 
^D^lale an. 6. @g !lingelt ; tt)er ift an ber ^^ur? @§ ift jemanb, 
ber ben §errn fprec^en tt)iE, aber er ift bei 3:ifcbe unb Idgt fic^ 
nic^t ftoren. 7. ^u fi^eft am genfter; fie^ boc^ einmal gum 
genfter f^inaul, unb bu tx)irft \ty\ bielleid^t fe^en fonnen. 8. 3" 
toelc^er g'^it lebte ^Uloliere ? @r lebte unter ber Sf^egierung Subit)ig 
XIV. i)on %xax\ix^\6^. 9. 3ft e§ moglid^, §u berfelben 3^it i)on 
einer ©ac^e gu fpreifien unb an eine anberegu benfen? 10. 2)ie 
Siebe gum ©elbe ift bie SSurgel afe Ube(§. 11. Unfer §au§ 
fte^t am St. Sorenj^gluB, unb i)on ben genftern fief)t man bie 
^ampffcf)iffe toorbeige^en. 12. 2Si(Ift bu mir beine ©rammatif 
(eifjen? 3a tr»of)I, mit ber ^ebingung, bag bu biefelbe ijor 
morgen 5uru(fbringft. 13. 3 ft § err 33. gu §aufe? D^ein, er ift 
auf brei SBoc^en berreift. 14. 33ei ^age^anbruc^ fingen bie 
35ogel am fcf)onften. 15. Side genfter unb 3:f)uren it)erben be§ 
S^ac^tg au§ gurc^t bor 2)ieben bei un§ gugefc^loffen. 16. 2Be§^alb 
finb bie ^inber nic^t gur Sdjule gegangen? 17. ©§ finb mefjrere 
^inber in ber ©d^ule, bie an ben 5)kfern gelitten f^aben, unb bie 
^D'lutter fiirc^tet fic^ t)or biefer ^ranf^eit. 18. D^teifen ©ie lieber 
gu Sanb ober §u 33affer ? 3"^ ©ommer gie^e ic^ e§ bor, §u ^a\\tx Aj^-^ 
gu reifen. 19. 3}^ein ^ater ^atte bie ©etoo^nfjeit, un§ ^inber urn 
fidj) gu berfammeln unb un§ (^efc^ic^ten gu ergdfjien. 20. ^Jlitten 
im 6ommer, unb bann h)ieber urn 23eif)nac^ten, gef^e ic^ auf§ 
2anb, um meine S3erh)anbten §u befud;en. 21. 25origen ©ommer 
blieb ic^ me^r alg merge^n ^age bei benfelben. 

2/2 LESSON XXXIX. [§§234- 

B. 1. Good morning ; you have come just at the right time ; 
I was on the point of going to your house (say : going to 
you). 2. There is a ring at the door ; go to the door and see 
who is there. 3. When you go to the market, do not forget 
to go to the post also. 4. Do you intend to take a pleasure- 
trip this summer ? Yes, I intend to leave the town for three 
or four weeks. 5. Last summer we stayed away only a week. 
6. Does it not look like rain ? 7. Yes, I am afraid it might 
rain, but fortunately I have brought my umbrella with [me]. 
8. Have you any money about you ? I should like to pay 
this bill, and have left my purse at home. 9. I have about 
seven dollars and a half with me ; would that be enough (suf- 
fice) ? 10. Would you do me the favour to lend me the half 
of it (bat) on) for two or three days? 11. What magnificent 
weather for harvesting ; it has not rained for two weeks 
[past]. 12. Is the servant going to (the) market ? No, she 
was at (the) market (already) two hours ago. 13. The battle 
of Waterloo took place on the i8th of June in the year 1815. 

14. Some months afterwards the treaty of Paris was signed. 

15. When (at what time) and in what war did the battle of 
the Alma take place ? 16. It took place in the year 1855, 
during the war between England and Russia. 


1. Wann gedenken Sie die Stadt zu verlassen .? 2. Wo 
steht das Haus Ihres Herrn Vaters 1 3. Auf welche Weise 
gedenken Sie diesen Sommer zuzubringen ? 4. Wollen Sie 
einmal' zu mir kommen und den Nachmittag bei mir 
zubringen ? 5. Es hat geklingelt ; wer ist d* ^ 6. Was fiir 
Wetter bekommen wir heute Abend ? 




235. Conjunctions are either : 

A. Coordinating, or those which connect sentences of 
the same rank or order (principal with principal, or dependent 
with dependent), or : 

B. Subordinating, or those which connect one sentence 
with another, on which it depends, or to which it is sub- 

A. Coordinating Conjunctions. 

236. I. Conjunctions Proper. — The Coordinating 
Conjunctions proper merely connect sentences without affect- 
ing their structure. They are : ^ ^ 

UnD, and {general cofinective) aKettt ! 

Ober, or {general disjunctive) ^y^^^ ' \ ^^t (adversative) 

bcmt, for {causative) fonbctu, J 

Remarks. — i . <Sonbern is used after negative seniefices only, 
and introduces a sentence correcting or contradicti?ig the state- 
ment contained in the preceding sentence, in whole or in 
part, as : 

%^ bin ntt^t Iran!, font em gan^ gefunb, 

I am not ill but (on the contrary; quite well. 

But if there is no inconsistency or contradiction between 
the two statements, aBer is used, as : 

©r (>at e§ nic^t getban, o6cr er irirb e§ tf)un. 
He has not yet done it, but he will do it. 

2. $(bcr does not necessarily begin the sentence and often 
comes after the verb. When tt6cr does not begin the sen- 
tence, it has rather the sense of ' however,' as : 




^a? hb\t ©cib abn ging Dor ben Spiegel, 

The wicked woman, however, went to the mirror. 

Note. — When there is any other conjunction present, aber seldom 
begins the sentence. 

237. II. Adverbial Conjunctions. — Many adverbs and 
adverbial phrases have the function of conjunctions, when 
they are used to express the relation between sentences, 
rather than to modify any particular member of the sentence 
in which they occur. 

The principal coordinating adverbial conjunctions are : 

aui^, also, too ] 

OU^Crbcm, besides I 

bttnn, then 
fogor, even 

boj^, [ still 
jcboc^, J 

ttnn, unless 

bcffcnungeoc^tet, | 

lu^tibeftotDenigcr, \ 
inbcffcit; however 
fonft, else, otherwise 
ttJO^I, indeed 
Jtonr, it is true, to be sure 

co?mective (related to utlb) 



(related lo 


)- therefore 

beSttJcgctt, ^ 

foiglit^, [>■ accordingly 

causative (related to betttt) 


fo, SO 

ttlfo, so, thus 
ebcnfo, just as 


, I ' . ,' \ inasmuch as, as far as — restrictive 

untcrbeffen, ) , ., 

, . . ' \- meanwhile 

mbcfjen, ) 

barauf, afterwards 
fcitbcm, since then 

> time 

Remarks. — i. Unlike the conjunctions proper, these adver- 
bial conjunctions, if they introduce a sentence, throw the 
subject after the verb ; but they may also follow the verb, 
thus : 

@r ift !ran! ; bcffenungcat^tet rcirb er fommen (or : er 
roirb befienungcat^tct fommen), He is ill; neverthe- 
less he will come. 

6§ regnete, barum (baf)er, be§n)egen) fonnte v^ (or: i(| 
fonnte borum, etc.) nid^t au§ge()en. 

\2. 5lut^ and fogcr, when they refer specially to the subject 
or any other member of the clause preceding the verb, do 
not throw the subject after the verb, as : 

tlu^ fein 3Sater ttiar gugegen. His father, too, was 

Sogar feinen geinben §ot er bergeben, He has pardoned 

even his enemies. 

3. The verb often comes first in a sentence with bodf), to 
express a strong affirmation, as : 

gobe \i) e^ bo(^ gefagl. Did I not say so ? 

2 76 LESSON XL. [§§238- 

238. III. Correlative Conjunctions. These are : 

entttJcbcr . . . ober, either ... or) ... 

ttJCfccr . . . not^, neither ... nor ) 

xCv^i tiur . . . fonbcrn aur^, ) not only . . . > 

fOttJO^I . . . oB OUf^, j but also ) ^^^^^^ ^^'^ 

tltt^t fottJO^I . . . ttig, not so much ... as 

balb . . . Balb, now . . . now (again), at one time . . . 

at another 
teilg . . . in\%, partly . . . partly 
cinerfeitS . . . anbcrfdt§, on the one hand ... on the 


Remark. — The last three are adverbial conjunctions, and 
either follow the verb, or throw the subject after it, unless 
they modify a particular member of the sentence (compare 
§ 237, Remarks i, 2, above). 

239. B. Subordinating Conjunctions. 

1. Sentences introduced by subordinating conjunctions 
are always dependent, and therefore have the verb last (see 
§ 32). 

2. Some of these also are adverbial, but, as this distinction 
does not aifect the construction, they are not separately 

3. The principal subordinating conjunctions are as follows 
{a) Introducing substantive clause : 

bttfe, that 

ob, if, whether 

ij)) Introducing adverbial clause : 
aU, ^ \ 6ig (btt^), until \ 

ba, [ when V- ti7ne c^c (bttg), | \^^{q^^ \ ^^^^ 




y while, whilst 

totifjrcnb (iJoj^), 

fcit(bcm), since 
foBalb'^ as soon as 
fo langc, as long as 
(fo)tllie, as soon as 
tnic, how — manner 

benn, than 

tuie, I '^;^"' ^^ 

tnttJicfern , inasmuch as 
JC naii^bcm', according as 
ba, since 
bag, that 
tocil, because 
btt§, that 

> time 



1/ i 

order that 


as if 


in case 

urn bag 

bttmif, in order that 

ttienn, if 
alg o(, 
ol§ tocnn 

oBfc^on, ttJcnn ftjon, 
ob au(^, mcntt au(^, 

ungeaj^tet (bag), 

menn . . . nit^t, if not, unless 



> although 

)■ concessive 

2/8 LESSON XL. [§§ *39- 

Remarks. — I. SBcnn and 06 take the subjunctive when 
the verb of the principal clause is in the impf., plupf., oi 
conditional, as : 

%6> ttJiirbe fommen, Ji?enn ic^ tt)of)l genug todre, I should 
come, if I were well enough. 

gcf) ttJU^tc nid^t, d6 er gefommen ludrc (fci), I did not 
know, whether he had come. 

2. 2Bcnn may be omitted in conditional sentences ; the 
verb then /^^^/>/j- the clause, as in the question order (compare 
§ 59). This construction is much more common than in 
English, and is generally used when the dependent clause, 
containing the condition., precedes the principal clause, con- 
taining the consequence, as : 

|)dttc ii^ @e(b, fo iDiirbe id^ greunbe f)aben, If I had 
(had I) money, I should have friends. 

Note. — The particle fo should not be omitted in the latter clause 
when the former is without inenu. 

3. In the compound conjunctions o6gIeit^, o6f(^(in, oBttlO^I^ 
etc., the two parts may be separated, and the latter part 
placed after the subject, as : 

Obglcit^ (obf^on, etc.) er Iran! iuar, etc. ; or : 
06 er gleif§ fran! U^ar, Although he was ill. 

Note.— With luenn the particles glcid), etc., always follow the subject. 

4. The 06 or menu may also be omitted in these conjunc- 
tions and in n(§ oB, ols iDCUn C as if ') ; the verb then begins 
the sentence, or immediately follows ale, as : 

3fi cr gleii^ franf. Although 'he is ill. 

@§ fd)eint mir, alg ob (trenn) id; 6ie irgenbtDo gefel^en 

\joMt ; or : al^ ^ttttc \^, etc., It seems to me, as if 

I had seen you somewhere. 


240. Interjections. 

1. Interjections proper are not, strictly speaking, mem- 
bers of the sentence, and consist of sounds expressing 
either : 

{a) Independent outbursts of natural feeling, as : o, 0^, 
of various emotions ; tt^, ^ci, §eiJ0, JUCJ^C (hurrah), 
joy; ci, l^tt, ^0^, surprise; ttdj, au, pain-, ^fui (he), 
disgust ; 6tt^, contempt ; or 

{b) Intimations of will, as: ^ft, ft^ (hush), enjoining 
silence; ^e, ^eba', §0, ^tttto^, ^otttt^, to call attention. 

2. Various parts of speech, and even whole phrases, are 
employed interjectionally, as : f>eil, hail ; h)ef), woe (subst.) 
^ocf», hurrah ; Brat), bravo ; leiber, alas ; fort, h)eg, away 
(adverbs) ; gottlob, thank God; also in oaths and adjurations. 

3. Akin to Interjections are imitations of natural sounds, 
as: Jul, §UJr^, whizz; ^iff, ^off, |JUff, shot; Bauj, fall; 
Ijlum^g, splash. 

4. (a) The Interjections o, tt(^, ^fwi, are sometimes fol- 

lowed by a genitive, as : 
O ! (acf> ! ^fui !) bcr ^(^ttttbe I Oh ! (ah 1 fie \) what 
disgrace ; 
or by iiber + accusative, as : 

^fui ! iiber bic^ S^igsn ! Fie on thee for a coward ! 

(Jb) The substantives used interjectionally, as under 2. 
above, are sometimes followed by a dative, as : 
ffOe^ mir ! Woe's me ! 
§eU bem ^bnige ! Hail to the king ! 


to call for, abf^olen wear ( intr.), fic^ tragen 

go in, ^ineinge^en prepare, t)or'bereiten 

280 LESSON XL. [§240 

lay up, lay by, juriidflegen to be to blame (for), fcf)ulb 

old age, ba§ Sllter (adj.) fein (an -f- dat.) 

joy, delight, bie greube cheap, btEig 

Lord, bev §err certainly, in any case, jebens 

price, ber $rei§ fatt§ 

tortoise, bie (2(f>ilb!rote in vain, tjergeben^ 

guilt, debt, bie ©dBulb even if, although, toenn axid) 

Idioms : 1. I am studying (preparing) for an examination, ^d^ Bereite tnii^ 
ttuf fin grttmen (ace.) uor. 
2. Do yoa consider that good? ^alten €ie tag fiir gut? 
8. To make calls, Sefud^e marten. 
4. In the ^orld, 9(uf ttt SDelt. 


A, 1. 2Sir foUten alle SKenfc^en lieben, toenn fte un§ aud^ 

f^affen. 2. ©ie t>erfpracf)en, mi(f) abjul^olen; attein id) tDaitete 
t»ergeben€, benn 6ie famen nid)t. 3. 2Senn ic^ an 3f)rem §aufe 
boriibergei^e, fo gel^e id) gehjo^nlid^ l^inein. 4. 2ll§ id} aber geftern 
?Ibenb boriiberging, fal> ic^ fein 2tdE)t unb baber bin id) nid)t 
f)ineingegangen. 5. ^^ ^^^^ i^^^^ lernen, befto me^r finb trir im 
©tanbe ^u lernen. 6. 3)ie ©c^iiler befommen morgen gerien, 
barum f^ringenunb fingen jie bor greube. 7. 2Bie fefjr ic^ mid) and) 
bemiibe, e§ gelingt mir leiber hod) r\id)t, alle 5d|e bief-er Slufgabe 
ricbtig §u f(f)reiben. 8. ®u tabelft mic^, al§ ob ic^ fd^ulb baran 
tDcire. 9. ©n borfirf)ttger Wann legt in feiner S^genb ©elb 
juriidE, auf bag er in feinem Siller nid)t 93iangel leibe. 10. Sluger 
h)enn ic^ Iran! ober feE)r befrf)dftigt bin, gef)e id) jeben ^ag f^agie* 
ten. 11. (Er ift nirf)t nur reid;, fonbern auc^ freigebig, unb be§s 
balb i)at er fo biele greunbe geh)onnen. 12. §dtten it)ir gehjugt, 
bag (Sie beute 33efud) ^ahcn, fo it)dren it)ir erft morgen gefommen. 
13. 2SoIIen Sie fid) erfunbigen, ob grau ©. nod^ in bemfelben 
§aufe tDobnt ? 14. (E§ giebt nod^ biele 2eute auf ber SSelt, bie 
tt)eber lefen nod) fdbreiben !onnen. 15. (3ie fatten mir l^elfen 
fonnen, toenn 8ie e§ get^oUt fatten, aEein 6ie tooKten e§ nid^t. 

9240] INTERJECTIONS. 28 1 

16. gall§ Sie be§ 9k(f»mittag§ ntc^t fommen fonncn, fo fommen 
(Sie bocf) be§ Slbenbg. 17. CSgleicf) ^arl fdBon gebn Sabre alt ift, 
iann er ireber cjut lefen noc^ gut fcfireiben. 18. Xit <Scf>iIb!rote 
Kef, inbem ber §afe fc^Iief, be§^aI6 ift fie and) ^uerft angefoms 
men. 19. §dtte ber §a[e nicbt gefd)Iafen, fo ir»dre er jebenfafts 
juerft angefommen. 20. Xn follft beinert 3>ater imb beine 93iutter 
efjren, auf bag bu lartge lebeft im Sanbe, ba§ bir ber §err bein 
©ott giebt. 

B. 1. We shall come, even if it rains. 2. Before I leave 
the town, I must make some calls. 3. Shall we go without 
him, or shall we wait till he comes back } 4. Whilst we were 
away, a thief came and stole the money. 5. Do you sit up 
late when you are studying? 6. Not generally; however, 
when I was preparing for my last examination I used to sit 
up late. 7. Do you consider this cloth dear ? The price is 
not high to be sure, but it will not wear well. 8. Here is 
cloth, which is dear, but I believe that it is good. 9. I do 
not, on the contrary, consider it dear, but cheap, since it is 
good cloth. 10. Since I have been ill, I am allowed neither 
to read much nor to write much. 11. It seems to me that it is 
colder to-day than yesterday. 12. It is_all_the same to^me, 
whether I travel by the steamer or by the railway. 13. [If] 
I had thought of^that, I should have gone to meet you. 
14. The hare slept, and in^the_meanwhile the tortoise ar- 
rived. 15. If the hare had not slept he would have arrived 


1. Die Fenster sind alle auf, wer ist daran schuld ? 2. Legen 
Sie viel Geld zuriick ? 3. Weshalb haben Sie mich nicht 
abgeholt ? 4. Konnen Sie mir sagen, in welcher Richtung 
von hier der Fluss liegt ? 5. Hast du dein letztes Examen 
bestanden .? (J. Halten Sie diesen Hut fur teuer.? 




241. I. 9(Uein follows and limits, or corrects, affirmative statements, 
as )o^^crll cioes negative, thus : 

(Sr ift rei(^, ttUcin er i[t nic^t gtiicflicf), He is rich, but he is not 

2. ^efio or um fo (but not je) may be used with a single compara- 
tive, as : 

Silen @ie, bamit @ie Ijeflo (um 10) frut)er an!ommen, Make haste, 
so that you may arrive all the sooner. 

3- ^ttp is the most general in meaning of all the conjunctions. It may 
be omitted when it introduces a substantive clause, as in indirect state- 
ments. The sentence then has the construction of a principal clause 
(verb second ; see §87, 3). But ba^ cannot be omitted when it expresses 
purpose or consequence. 

4. The Engl, if must be rendered by ob (not h)enn) when it = 
whether, as : 

I asked hkn if he could come, 3d) frngtc i^n, ob er fommeu !i3nne. 

5. For the distinction between al€, irenn (as conjunctions of time) and 
wann, see § 58. 

6. • Than ' should be rendered by oI§ after an adjective in the com- 
parative degree, not by trie. 

7. Xcnn = ' than ' is obsolete, except when used to prevent the re- 
petition of al^, as : 

(Sr ift grower alg '2)id)tcr; Ijcnn atg SD^cnjd^, He is greater as a poet, 
than as a man. 

8. In comparisons of equality, as ... as = (e6en)fo . . • toic, or q\&, tDtC 
being more common, as: 

He is as tall as I, (Sr ift (cben)fo grog tote id^. 

After a negative, eben is omitted, as : 
(Er ift nidit fo grofe iuic id). 

9. So . . . fo are used with correlative clauses, containing adjectives 
compared together in the positive degree (compare the use of je or befto 
with the compar. degree, § 126. 4), as ; 


So gro§ er i% fo feige ijl cr oud}, He is as cowardly as he is 
big; or: 'equally big and cowardly'; lit.: Big as he is, he 
is just as cowardly. 

Note. — In the first clause of the above example f is subordinating ; in the second 
coordinating, but does not throw the subject after the verb. 

Observe also the following construction, where the clauses cannot be 
rendered as correlative in English : 

So gem icf) 3l)nen (aud}) I)elfen modite, fo unmbglid) ift e§ mir, 
However glad I should be to help you, it is quite impossible 
for me (or : Glad as I should be, etc.). 

la As, when denoting cause (= * since ') must be rendered by 
Da, as: 

I could not come, as I was not well, ^6) fonnte nid^t fommcn, Da 

id) nid)t raof)l war. 

11. As, in the sense of * while '= inbeffeit, as: 

He fell asleep, as I was reading to him, (Sr Id^Iief tm, ttltieffcn id^ 
it)m oodaS. 

12. Distinguish carefully between the following uses of Engl. since: 

(a) Since diS prepositiofi = fcit (not fettbem), as : 
Since last Tuesday, Scit le^tem 5^tenftag. 

(b) Since as adverb or coordinating adverbial conjunction = 
fcitDcm (not leit), as: 

He was here the day before yesterday, but I have not seen him 
since, 3?orgeftern mar er l)icr, feitlicm ^be ic^ i^n aber nirf)t 
(f) Since as subordinating conjunction of time = fettl)(tn or 
feit, as: 

I have not seen him since he recovered from his illness, ^6) l)abc 
i^n nicf)t geie^en, fcit(tlem) er gcncfen ift. 
{d) Since as conjunction of cause ■= bo, as : 

Since I have no money, I cannot pay you, ^tt ic^ !ein ®elb f)abc, 
faun id) 2ie uic^t bc5al)len. 

13. After c^e, bctJOr and lOO^tenl), JJJTB may be omitted. 

14- ScbOr expresses time only, e^C may also express preference (=■ 
'rather'), as: 

6^e icf) t>(k^ tl)ue, miU tc^ fterben, Rather than do that, I will die. 


15. Observe that the adverbial conjunctions tttiieffen, tttttetlJCffcn are 

coordiuating when they = ' meanwhile ' (the "pronoun befieu being 
demonstrative), but subordinating vAi^xi they = 'whilst, while* (the pron. 
being relative), as: 

®ie jprac^en mit einauber; inbeffen (unterbeffen) ging t^ Quf uub 
ob, They were speaking to each other; (in the) meanwhile I 
was walking up and down ; but : 
®ie jpradien mit einonbcr, inbeffen (unterbeffen) icf) anf nnb ab 
ging, They were speaking to each other, while I was walking 
up and down. 
In the sense of 'however,* inbeffen is coordinating only. 

16. ^nilcnt is subordinating only, and denotes cause as well as time, as : 

Sd) brand)e met)r @elb, intern id) oiele ed)n{ben ^n be^a^lcn \\aht, 
I need more money, since I have many debts to pay (having 

many debts to pay). 
Snticm er niir bie §anb gab, (d(i)elte er, As he gave me his hand 

(giving me his hand), he smiled. 

17. SBctl must be used (not ^^a) in answer to the question why? or 
wherefore ? as : 

SSorum famen Sie nid)t? SBcil id) fvauf mar. 
Why did you not come ? Because I was ill. . 
iS. ' Unless' is rendered by tUCnit . • • ni^t {if - . . not), or by iientt 
{coordinating -Si^v . conj.), as: 

SSir mcrben nid)t au§gef)en !onnen, ttJcnu fief) ba^ Setter nic^t 
dnbert. We shall not be able to go out, unless the weather 

3rf) laffc bic^ nid)t, bu fegneft mid) ticnn, I will not let thee go, 
except (unless) thou bless me. 
Note. — Jenu in this sense always follows the verb. 

19. ' But ' after a negative = oI§, as : 

3d) ^atte nid)t^ a!0 Ungliicf anf nieiner $Reife, I had nothing but 
misfortune on my journey. 
Note. — iKic^tS roeniger al§ = ' anything but ' (not ' nothing less than '), as: 
©r ift nid^ts tocniger ol^ reic^, He is anything but rich. 

20. Distinguish between : 

(<z) ^0 = * there ' : adverb of place, as : 
St^ triar tia, I was there. 


(fi) ^a = ' then ' : adverb of ftme, as : 

"S^er !I)tcb fd)lid) in§ ^au§ ; ba cvgriff id) i^n, The thief sneaked 
into the house ; then I seized him. 

(c) ^0 = 'since,' *as ': subordinating conjunction, as: 

3cf) fonnte nid)t tommeu, tia id) fvant war, I could not come, 
since (as) I was ill. 

21. Distinguish between Jjeffenuiigcad^tet, ^nevertheless' [coord, adv. 
;onj.) and UUgeQd)tet, * although,'' ^ notwithstanding that^ [subord. conj.). 


1. Our neighbour has failed, but he is only the richer on that account, 
since he has not paid his creditors. 2. The hare was sleeping, whilst the 
tortoise crept slowly towards the goal. 3. Rather than accept your con- 
ditions, I will give up my position. 4. He has not been here since last 
week, and I have not seen him since. 5. Since you have not seen him, 
I must either go and see him (say : go to him), or write to him. 6. I con- 
sider him an ignorant man ; he is anything but learned. 7. Have you 
been at the railway-station ? Yes, I was there as the train arrived. 
8. We shall not go out this afternoon, because it looks like rain. 9. We 
shall not go out to-morrow either (aud)), if the weather does not change. 
10. The whole family was absent yesterday from eight o'clock till twelve 
o'clock at night ; meanwhile the house took (fangeil )fire. 




242. Nominative. 

1. The Nominative is the case of the subject, or of a 
word in apposition to the subject, or of a predicate noun quali- 
fying it. The nominative is also used in address, there being 
no special form for the vocative. 

2. Neuter verbs indicating a state or transition, such as 
fetu, to be ; hJerben, to become ; bleiben, to remain ; fc^einen, 
to seem, appear ; ^ei^en, to be called, take a predicate nomi- 
native, as : 

(£r ift Solbot gemorben (geblieben). He has become (re- 
mained) a soldier. 

3. Verbs of calling take a predicate nominative, verbs of 
considering a nominative with al§, in the passive, as : 

^aifer §einrirf> I. tourbe ber 3]DgIer genannt. Emperor 

Henry was called the Fowler. 
3Jlein 3Saier hjurbe immer t)on mir ol8 mein beftcr greunb 
betrad^tet. My father was always regarded by me (as) 
my best friend. 
Note. — Verbs of choosing generally take the preposition ju instead 
of the English nominative. 


§ 2441 GENITIVE. 2^/ 

, 243. Genitive. 

The Genitive is used chiefly as the complement of sub- 
stantives, its use in this respect being much the same as the 
English objective with *of,' and also covering that of the 
possessive. Thus we have : 

1. The Genitive of Origin, as : 

^ie griic^te ilC0 '5auinc§, The fruits of the tree. 

2. The Subjective Genitive, indicating the agent or 
cause^ as : 

^er @Iau6e eine§ (5f)riften, The faith of a Christian. 

3. The Objective Genitive, indicating the thing affected, as : 

^ie Gntbecfung STmerifas, The discovery of America. 

4. The Possessive Genitive, as : 

^er ©arten bcs Aonigs, The garden of the king (the 
king's garden). 

5. The Genitive of Quality, as : 

3tt?ei ^inber eincs filters. Two children of one age. 
Note. — This genitive is frequently replaced by Don, as : 
Gin iDZaim tjon ^of)em filter, A man of great age. 

6. The Partitive Genitive, as : 

©iner meiner greunbe, One of my friends. 

!Der jiingfte meiner Sriiber, The youngest of my brothers. 

Note. — This genitive is commonly replaced by Don after numerals 
and other partitives. 

244. Genitive after Adjectives. 

Adjectives denoting posssession and interest, plenty, knou>- 
ledge, desire, guiit, or their opposites, govern the genitive, as : 
beburftic3, needing, in need beiru^t, conscious 

begierig (also -}- nacb), de- eirtgebenf, mindful 

sirous f^f)i9 {-aXso -f ^u), capable 




frob, glad 

geiinfe, certain 

geiDobnt (also -j- an with ace), 

leer, empty 
lo§ (also + ace), rid 
iniibe (also -j- ace), tired 
fatt (also + ace), satisfied 

fd^ulbig, guilty 
ficf)er, certain 
ii'berbrufftg, weary 
berbdcbttg, suspected 
DotI (also -f ace, or H- Don), 

hjert (also -f- ace), worth 
iDiirbig, worthy 

Remarks. — i. The neuter pronoun ' it ' after most of these 
adjectives may have the form e^, which is the old gefiitive^ 
and is the origin of the later use of the accusative, first with 
the pronouns ^a^, \oa^, and then, by analogy, with substan- 
tives, as : 

%i^ bin e6 (bag) miibe, I am tired of it (that). 

2. With lo5, miibe, ipert the Accusative is more usual than 
the genitive. 

245. Genitive after Verbs. 

I. Verbs of meanings similar to those of the adjectives under 
the previous section take a genitive of the nearer object, as: 
acbten (also + auf with ace), benfen (generally -|- <xxk with 

pay attention 

acej, think 

bebiirfert, need 

gebenfen, mention 

bege^ren, desire 

genie^en (generally + ace). 

braucben, want 

(also -f 


entbebren, miss, 

bergeffen (generally -f ace). 

do without 


erit)dbncn,mention ^ 

Also the following : 

barren (also + auf with ace) 

(acben, laugh at 


fpotten, mock 

toarten (also + ace), tend, 

fc^onen (also -f ace), spare 



2. Transitive Verbs of accusitig, condemning, acquittal, 
deprivation^ emotion^ take a genitive of the remoter ob- 
ject, as: 

anflagen, accuse losf^recf^en, acquit 

berauben, rob iiberfiib'ren, convict 

befcbulbigen, accuse iiberjeu'gen (also -f- bon), con- 

entbinben (also + oon), re- vince 

lieve berftcbem, assure 

entlleiben (also -f bon), dis- tDiirbigen, deem worthy 

robe jeiben, accuse 

3. Also many reflexive and impersonal verbs (see §§ 215, 
216, 219). 

246. Adverbial GEXixrv'E. 

For the use of the genitive in forming adverbs from sub- 
stantives, see § 189, 2. The adverbial genitive may express 
place, time or manner, as : 

Sinfer £)anb, On the left hand. 

(Seiner ©ege geben. To go one's way, 

%\t\tx Xage, During these (last) days. 

2(benb&, In the evening. 

5Rorgeng, In the morning, etc. 

SltfeS (Srnfteg, In all seriousness. 

^rocfncn gu^Cg, Dry-shod. 

And particularly with 2\^etfe, 'manner,' after an adjec- 
tive, as : 

©lucfUcf^cr QSeife, — or: l Fortunately < lit., in a fortunate 
(^liicflicbertDeife, ) manner) 

247. For Interjections followed by a genitive, see 
§ 240, 4, {a). 

For the genitive after prepositions, see §§ 222, 223. 

290 LESSON XU. [§§247- 


A. 1. Guten Morgen, Karl; was hast du fiir Eile, mein 
Junge ? 2. Guten Morgen, Herr B. ; es ist bald neun Uhr 
und ich gehe jetzt in die Schule. 3. So, hast du noch wait 
zu gehen ? 4. Bis nach der Friedrichstrasze ; Herr G., 
urtser Lehrer, besteht sehr auf Piinktlichkeit. 5. Steige nur 
ein, du kannst mit mir fahren, da mein Weg durch die 
Friedrichstrasze fiihrt. 6. Ich bin Ihnen sehr dankbar ; das ist 
sehr freundlich von Ihnen. 7. Sitzt du da bequem ? 8. Ja, 
aber sind meine Biicher Ihnen nicht im Wege ? 9. Nicht im 
geringsten, aber was fiir eine Menge Biicher hast du da ! Du 
hast gewiss viel zu studieren. 10. Ich arbeite jetzt sehr 
fleissig, da das Examen nachstens stattfindet. II. Auf 
welches Examen bereitest du dich vor .-^ 12. Auf das Ein- 
trittsexamen der Universitat. 13. Was fiir Sprachen stu» 
dierst du ? 1-4. Ich studiere Englisch, Latein, Deutsch und 
Franzosisch. 15. Natiirlich studierst du auch die Mathe- 
matik? 16. Wir miissen Rechnen, Algebra und Geometric 
lernen. 17. Bist du ein Freund von der Mathematik, oder 
ziehst du die Sprachen vor ? 18. Ich lerne sehr gern Ma- 
thematik, besonders Algebra; mein Lehrer glaubt, ich 
habe nicht viel Sprachtalent. 19. Deshalb soUtest du desto 
fleissiger die Sprachen studieren, (auf) dass deine Bildung 
nicht einseitig werde. 20. Mein Vater ist auch derselben 
Meinung. 21. Hoffentlich wirst du dein Examen gliicklich 
bestehen ; da sind wir aber schon bei der Schule. 22. Ich 
danke Ihnen vielmals fiir den freundlichen Wunsch, wie auch 
fiir die Fahrt. 

B. 1. " An honest man is the noblest work of God." 2. A 
pound of iron is about as large as two pounds of silver. 
3. Mr. Cleveland was elected president of the United States 
in the 3^ear 1884. 4. I was to have taken (made) a journey- 
to Europe this summer, but my father needs me in his busi- 

248] DATIVE. 291 

ness and I shall be obliged to remain at home. 5. I have 
been offered five thousand dollars for my house, and I shall sell 
it, for I am glad of the opportunity of getting (to get) rid of it. 

6. The Duke of Wellington, a great English general t'J-elbs 
f)crr), was called the " Iron Duke," as Prince Bismarck, the 
great German statesman, is called the "' Iron Chancellor.'' 

7. He (the former) has deserved that title not only as a soldier 
but as a man. 8. My neighbour, the merchant, has been 
accused of forgery, but I do not believe that he is capable 
of such a crime. 9. He was in^need of money, and is 
said to have done it on that account. 10. I hope that he 
will be acquitted of this accusation, for I am convinced of 
his innocence. 11. The discovery of America by (burcB) 
Columbus was perhaps the greatest undertaking of any man 
or of any age (3eita(ter). 12. Columbus was a man of great 
bodily as well as mental power. 13. His whole fleet con- 
sisted of three small ships, of which two were very old. 14. 
Have you seen your brother the lav.yer ? 15. Excuse [me] ; 
my brother is not a lawyer, but a doctor. I have not seen 
him since Christmas. 16. As a student he always used (pflecjen) 
to say he meant^to be (iDcrben) a lawyer. 17. We are tired 
of studying ; let us go out. 18. Shall I send for (nad)) a 
carriage? 19. No, it is not worth while (ber 9Mbe h)ert), I 
would rather walk. 20. Unfortunately it has rained and the 
roads are bad. 21. We can try (the) walking, and if we get 
tired of it, we can take the street-cars (^$ferbe6af)n, sing.). 



248. Dative. • 

The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object. 

The Dative is used to denote the person for whose advan- 
tage or disadvantage a thing is or is done, as : 

292 LESSON XLII. [§§248- 

(Sr hai mir tin 53ucf) gefauft. He has bought me a 

249. The Dative is very freely used in German to denote 
the person who has some interest in an action or thing. This 
is called the ethical dative or dative of interest, and must 
usually be left untranslated in English, in which language its 
use is obsolete, thus : 

3cf> ^,Q^^ mir bie <Sacif»e angefekrt, I have considered the 
thing (for my own satisfaction). 

5^f)U mir ba§ ntd^t n?ieber. Don't do that again (I tell 
For the possessive dative replacing, with the definite ar- 
ticle, a genitive case or (with pronouns) a possessive adjective, 
see § 44, 6. 

250. Dative after Verbs. 

1. The Dative stands as the Indirect Object of transitii'e 
verbs, as : 

(Sr gtebt mir ba§ 33udb, He gives me the book (the book 
to me). 

2. It stands as the sote object after verbs which expr©*^ a 
/<?rj"^;/^/ relation only, such as verbs of: 

{a) Approach or removal, etc., as : 
begegnen, meet gleid^en, resemble 

entgeben, escape nadf>gef)en, follow 

entfprcdBcn, correspond to na(f)ftef)en, be inferior 

feblen, be wanting nal^en, approach 

folgen, follow Bufef)en, watch 

(J?) Pleasure or displeasure, as : 
bef)agen, please brof^en, threaten 

banfen, thank fluc^en, curse 


gefatlen, please mi|farien, displease 

geniigen, suffice fc^meicf»e(n, flatter 

grollen, be angry ftef)en, suit, become 

(c) Advantage or disadvantage , as : 

beifte^en, assist mangein, be wanting 

bienen, serve nii^en, be useful 

^elfen, help fc^aben, harm 

(d) Co7nmand, resistance and their opposites^ as : 
befef)Ien, command tro^en, defy 
gebieten, order tr>eirf}en, yield 
ge^orcf^en, obey iDiberfte'Ben, oppose 
tierbteten, forbid ii;)iberftre'ben, resist 

{e) After verbs expressing possession, trust, and various 
other persojial relations, as : 
antlDorten, answer glauben, believe 

beiftimmen, agree with f(f)einen, seem 

erU)ibern, reply traucn, trust 

gef^oren, belong gureben, encourage 

Also with fein and tuerben, expressing a state of feeling 
(with 511 93tute expressed or understood), as : 
2Bie tft S^ncn ? How do you feel ? 
Observe also the idiom : 3Benn bem fo tft, * If that is the 
case,' in which bcm is dat. neut. 

(/) After many verbs expressing similar relations, com- 
pounded with the inseparable prefixes cr-, Cltt-, 
tier-, tuibcr ; with the separable prefixes an-, auf-, 
bei-, cntgegen- nai^-, bor-, ju-, etc, and with 
adjectives, nouns or adverbial phrases, such as : 

(eib \kj\xxK, be sorry gu %'i\\ it)erben, fall to one's 

tDOf^IlDotten, be well-disposed share 

^u ©tatten fomtnen, be of use ba§ 3Sort reben, defend 

294 LESSON XLII. [§§ 25«>- 

Remarks. — I. The great majority of these verbs have 
become transitive in English, on account of the loss of dis- 
tinction between the dative and accusative ; their construc- 
tion in German should be carefully observed. 

2. Many of the verbs under (^/), {e) above take a direc/ 
object,particularly in the shape of a clause or of a neuter 
pronoun, as : 

@r hat inir l^erboten ^u QC^ett, He has forbidden me 

to go. 
3d6 ermibertc, ba^ it§ fommen tuotlc, I replied that I 

would come. 
Mtxn Skater bat c§ mir befof^Ien, My father has ordered 
me (to do) it. 
For the Dative with J^e^exi've Verbs, see §§ 215, 216; with 
Impersona/ Verbs, see §§ 217, 219. 

251. Dative after Adjectives. 

The Dative stands after adjectives similar in meaning to 
the Verbs given in the foregoing section, such as : 

(a) Approach, etc. : 
d^nlicf), similar ungleicb, unequal, unlike 

fremb, strange nabe (also -f Bei), near 

gleidv equal, like bericanbt, related 

(^) Pleasure, etc.: 
angenebm, pleasant Iteb, dear 

gndbig, gracious it)iIIfommen^ welcome 

(r) Advantage, etc. : 
f)eil]am, wholesome treu^ faithful 

fc^ulbig, indebted 

{d) Co??imand, etc. : 
folgfam, 1 u h* f ungel^orfam, disobedient 


ge^orfam, j toibrig, repulsive 

253] ACCUSATIVE. 295 

(<?) Possession, etc. : 
etgen, belonging gemetn(fam), common 

Note. — Almost any adjective modified by Jil or gemig may take a 
dative, as : 

2)iefe ^anbfd)u^e ftiib mir ju gro§ (gro§ gcnug), These gloves are 
too large (large enough) for me. 

For the Dative after Prepositions, see §§ 46, 51. 

262. Accusative. 

The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object, Time 
and Measure. 

All transitive verbs take the direct object in the accusative. 

Remark. — Many verbs that are transitive in English are in- 
transitive in German (see § 250, Rem. i, above), zxvA vice versa. 

253. Double Accusative. 

The verb lefjren, ' to teach,' governs two accusatives, one of 
the person and the other of the thing ; the verb fragen, ' to 
ask,' takes the latter accusative only when it is a neuter pro- 
noun, as : 

$3(^ iuerbe bii§ bic bcutft^c S^rai^e lebren, I shall teach 

you the German language, 
^d^ hjollte bit^ gerne ctttJae fragen, I should like to ask 
you something. 
Verbs of calling, etc., have a second accusative as facti- 
tive predicate, as : 

Jd; nannte i^n ciitcn 9Zarrcn, I called him a fool. 
Of Verbs of considering, etc., some, such as : betrac^ten, ' to 
regard ' ; anfekn, ' to look upon ' ; barfteffen, ' to represent,' 
take 2l factitive accusative with ali^, as : 

%&j fef)e ben 9iegen all eine 2BoMt^at an, I regard the 
rain as a benefit. 

296 LESSON XLII. [§§253- 

Other verbs of considering, with those of choosing, etc., 
which take a second accusative of this sort in English, are 
followed by a preposition (fiir, ju) in German (see Less. XLIX) 

254. Accusative after Intransitive Verbs. 

1. Intransitive Verbs may sometimes be followed by an 
accusative of a meaning akin to their own, called the cognate 
accusative, as : 

%^ babe etnen fcbbnen ^rttum gettiiumt, I have dreamt 
a beautiful dream. 

2. Intransitive Verbs may take an accusative of that which 
is effected or produced by the action they express, as : 

$etru§ ttieintc bitterc 3^§rancn, Peter wept bitter tears. 

3. Intransitive Verbs may take an accusative followed by 
an adjective, etc., as factitive predicate, as : 

3c^ \:|(^\i^ mit^ fntt gegeffen, I have eaten enough (lit., 

have eaten myself satisfied). 
^a§ ^inb tt»einte fiJ^ in ben <Stftlttf, The child has cried 
itself to sleep. 
Remark. — The Accusative in all these constructions, ex- 
cept the last, which is not used in the passive, becomes a no7n- 
inative in the passive construction ; that of the thing after 
Ief)ren remains accusative ; with fragen and bitten, the ace. of 
the thing is not used in the passive. 

For the accusative after J^ejlexive Yexhs, see § 216; after 
Impersonal Verbs, see § 219 ; after Frepositio7is, see §§ 34, 50 ; 
after some Adjectives, it replaces the Genitive (see § 245, 
and Remarks). 

265. Adverbial Accusative. 

I. The Accusative is used adverbially to express time (see 
§ 184, I ) and measure (see § 185, 4) ; also dista?ice and way after 
verbs of motion, as : 

255] ACCUSATIVE. 29/ 

gd-- Hu fct^g gute 9Wci(cn C5efaf)ren, I have driven six 
full miles. 

23el(f>cn SBcg hjerben ©ie ge^ert ? Which way will you 
The Accusative is used also in absolute constructions, 
especially with participles, as : 

Qv fam 5u mir, ben ^nt in ber §anb. He came to me 
hat in hand. 

@r ftanb ba, bic STugen in bie §o^e gcrit^tcl. He stood 
there [with] eyes uplifted. 


A. 1. Also, Sie haben sich entschlossen, uns morgen friih zu 
verlassen? 2. Ich muss wohl, da meine Geschaftsangelegen- 
heiten mir keinen langeren Aufenthalt erlauben. 3. Sie reisen 
natiirlich mit dem zweiten Zug ab ? 4. Wissen Sie, um wie viel 
Uhr derselbe in B. ankommt ? 5. Ich kann es Ihnen nicht ganz 
genau sagen, aber er kommt gegen vier Uhr (des) Nachmittags 
an. 6. Das ist mir viel zu spat. Man erwartet mich schon urn 
halb zwolf auf meinem Bureau. 7. In dem Falle miissen Sie 
wohl den Schnellzug nehmen, der schon um drei Viertel auf 
sieben abfahrt. 8. Es lasst sich nicht andern. 9. Gut, ich 
werde Sie Punkt sechs Uhr wecken lassen. 10. Ich danke 
Ihnen ; das wird durchaus nicht notig sein, da ich meine Weck- 
uhr bei mir habe. 11. Wie viel Zeit brauchen Sie, sich anzu- 
kleiden? Ti. Zwanzig bis fiinfundzwanzig Minuten ; aber ich 
werde noch mehreres einzupacken haben. 13. Dann ware es 
jedenfalls besser, die \\'eckuhr auf halb sechs zu stellen. 14. 
Bitte, sagen Sie mir genau, wie viel Uhr es jetzt ist ; ich fiirchte, 
meine Uhr geht nach. 15. Es ist gerade neun Minuten vor elf. 
16. Ist es moglich ! Dann geht meine Uhr ja vor, anstatt nach. 
Sind Sie gewss, dass Ihre Uhr richtig geht ? 17. Jawohl ; ich 
habe sie heute nach der Stadtuhr gestellt. 18. Es wird spat ; 

2gS LESSON XLII. [§§255- 

ich muss mich schlafen legen, um morgen friih aufstehen zu 
konnen. 19. Also macheii wir es auf diese Weise : Sie stehen 
um halb sechs auf, um fiinf Minuten nach sechs friihstucken Sie, 
um fiinfundzwanzig Minuten nach sechs wird der \\'agen vor- 
fahren und in zehn Minuten sind Sie auf dem Bahnhofe. Dann 
haben Sie noch zehn ^linuten librig, um Ihr Billet' zu losen 
und Ihr Gepack einschreiben zu lassen. Jetzt, gute Nacht ! 
20. Gute Nacht, schlafen Sie wohl ! 

B. 1. Do not trust those who flatter you. 2. Do not be- 
lieve them, for flatterers are liars. 8. I always considered my 
father as my truest friend. 4. The general commands the sol- 
diers : the soldiers obey the general, 5. What is^the^name 
of the gentleman whom we have just met ? His name has 
escaped me. 6. You should never forget to thank those who 
help you. 7. How does this hat, which I bought myself yester- 
day, please you ? 8. It does not become you very well ; it is 
too large for you. 9. When I was going to the railway-station, 
a boy met me and gave me a telegram. 10. May I ask you if 
Mr. H. is related to you? 11. He resembles me very much, 
but he is not related to me. 12. I\lr. B. has been ordered, on 
account of iil-health, to go to a warmer climate. He has been 
forbidden to pass the winter in the North. 13. How long does 
he remain absent? 14. He is to remain absent at least four 
months. 15. Last week I ordered (myself) an overcoat at the 
tailor's, which he was to bring me to-day. 16. The Niagara Falls 
are considered (one considers, etc.) as one of the greatest 
wonders^of^the^world. 17. People say of one who sleeps 
very soundly that he sleeps the sleep of the righteous. 18. 
May I ask you to assist me, or at least to advise me ? 19. I 
should be very glad to be able to help you. 20 I am in need 
of money, and should not like to ask any one else for it. 

«57l THE PRESENT. 299 



256. The Indicative is the mood of reality and direct 
statement. As the tenses are used with reference to time 
in the Indicative only, their proper use is given here. 

257. The Present. 

The Present Tense answers to all the English forms of 
that tense (e. g., id) (oBe = I praise, am praising, do praise), 
and is used : 

1. To denote action new going on, as : 

^ae ^inb fj^Idft, The child is sleeping (now). 

2. To state a general fact or custom, as : 

3^er 3c^nee ifl: lrei§, The snow is white, 
^er Cd>fe fri§t Gra-S, The ox eats grass. 

3. For the imperfect in historical narrative, to give greater 
vividness, as : 

@e](f»ti:)ttxb ^ebt er einen 3tein auf unb toirft benfelben bem 
§unbe, ber ibn bei^en toitt, an ben .Uo^f, Quickly he 
picks up a stone, and throws it at the dog, who is 
about to attack him. 

4. For the English perfect (as in French), when the action 
or state continues in the prese7it, the past being inferred and 
the present alone expressed, as : 

2Sie lange ifl er fcf^on fran!? How long has he been 

ill .? (N. B. — He is still ill.) 
3c^ gc^e feit acf»t ^ac3en tineber jur 3cfnde, I have been 

going to school again for the last week (and am still 

Note. — This construction is very common with leit. 

3CX) LESSON XIJII. [§§257- 

5. For the future very commonly, where no ambiguity 
would arise, particularly to replace the English form ' am 
going to,' as : 

3cB fi^rciBc tnorgen cirten 33rief an meinen 3Sater, I am 
going to write a letter to my father to-morrow. 

258. The Imperfect. 
The Imperfect is used : 

1. As the historical {narrative) preterite, when an event 
is told in connection with others, as : 

3m Slnfang f^uf ©ott §immel unb @rbe, unb 2lIIe§ mar 
h)iifte unb leer u. f. it).. And in the beginning God cre- 
ated heaven and earth, and all "was waste and 
void, etc. 

2. To denote customary, continued or contempo- 
raneous action, replacing the English forms * was doing,' 
'used to do,' as : 

@r gtng jeben ^ag urn bier U^r au§. He used to go out 
every day at four o'clock. 

SSir fu^ren (xv. ber ^irrf)e i?orbei, aly bte llbr elf fr^Iug, 
We were driving past the church, as the clock 
struck eleven. 

259. The Perfect. 

1. The Perfect indicates a past event as complete and 
no longer continuing, thus : 

Sd^ ^'^Bc gclc6t unb gcUebct, I have lived and loved 
(and both my life and my love are ended). 

2. The Perfect is used of an event as a separate and 
independent fact, simply asserted as true without reference 
to any other, as : 

©Ott ^t bie SSelt erft^affen, God created the world ; 


but in the sentence : 

©ott fi^uf bie 3SeIt in fed^§ %a^tn unb ru^tc am 
fiebenten, God created the world in six days, and 
rested on the seventh, 
the imperfect is used, because the two events are connected. 

3. The Perfect is used (apart from historical narrative), in 
preference to the Imperfect, of an event which has not been 
witnessed or participated in by the speaker, as : 

©eftern ift ein ^inb ertrunfen {-Per/.), A child was 

drowned yesterday ; — but : 
©eftern crtran! {Imp/.) ein ^inb, al^ icf) am Ufer ftonb, 
A child was drowned yesterday, when I was stand- 
ing on the shore. 
Remark. — This distinction between the use of the Perfect 
and Imperfect is not accurately observed, but it is always 
better to render the EngHsh forms ' was doing,' 'used to do,' 
by the Imperfect. 

4. The Perfect replaces the Future-Perfect, as the Present 
does the Future, as : 

gd^ h?erbe fommen, foBalb ic6 meine ©efd^dfte abgcmac^t 
|a6e, I shall come, as soon as I have (i. e., shall 
have) finished my business. 

260. The Pluperfect. 

The Pluperfect is used, as in English, of a past action 
•^mpleted before another was begun, thus : 

Gr ^attc feine Slufgabe tJottcnbet, e^e ©ie famen. He had 
finished his exercise, before you came. 

261. The Future. 
The Future is used : 

X. Of an action about to take place, as : 

Unfer SSater toirll un§ (often, Our father will praise us. 

302 LESSON XLIII. [§§261- 

2. To denote probability or supposition, as : 

Ci'g ttiirb mcin 53rubev fcin, bcr angefommen ift. It is 
probably my brother who has arrived. 

262. The Future-Perfect. 

The Future-Perfect is the Perfect in the Future, and 
expresses probability even more frequently than the simple 
Future, as : 

^er ^rief mirb fdBon geftern gefommen fcin. The letter 
probably arrived yesterday. 


A. 1. Diese Hitze ist unertraglich ; ich glaube, nie einen so 
heissen Sommer erlebt zu haben. 2. Und wie schwiil es ist ! 
Sieht es nicht sehr nach Regen aus ? 3. Richtig, da sind 
schon die ersten Regentropfen, und ich meine, vor einigen 
Minuten Donner in der Feme gehort zu haben. 4. Das macht 
mir einen Stri<:h durch die Rechnung. Bei diesem Wetter 
kann ich unmoglich zur Stadt gehen. 5. Fiir's Erste allerdings 
nicht, aber das Gewitter wird nicht lange anhalten. 6. Das ist 
ein wahrer Platzregen ; so ein Regen ist dem Lande sehr notig. 
7. Ja, wir haben diesen Sommer iiberhaupt sehr wenig Regen 
gehabt, aber vorigen Winter desto mehr Schnee. 8. Horen 
Sie, das war ein Kna)l ! 9. Ja, und wie schnell der Donner 
auf den Blitz folgte ! Fiirchten Sie sich vor dem Blitze? 10. 
Seitdem es voriges Jah* in unserer Nahe eingeschJagen hat, bin 
ich ein wenig angstlich. ^ 1. Das glaube ich schon, aber sehen 
Sie doch, jetzt hagelt es noch sogar! 12. Das braucht das 
Land gewiss nicht, aber die Hagelkorner sind nicht grosz 
genug, um viel Schaden anzurichten. 13. Es fangt schon an, 
sich aufzuhellen ; das schlimmste ist vorbei. 14. Wie sich die 
Luft abgekiihlt hat ! 15. Und wie schnell ! Das ist oft der 
Fall hier zu Lande. 16. Jawohl; ^^linAeri? Sif* si^h ni<:ht des 


wechselhaften Wetters, das wir vorigen Friihling gehabt haben ? 
17. Besonders im Marz und Anfang April. 18. Einen Tag 
thaute es, den nachsten fror es, und am dritten Tage regnete 
Oder schneite es gar. 19. Dann gab es wieder eine Hitze 
wie mitten im Sommer; schon im April hatten wir fast 
achtzig Grad Fahrenheit. 20. Da scheint die Sonne wieder ; 
ich sagte Ihnen ja, dass das Gewitter nicht lange anhalten 
wiirde. 21. Da haben Sie Recht ; jetzt muss ich mich auf den 
Weg machen. 

B. 1. A misfortune seldom comes alone. 2. Schlegel trans- 
lated Shakespeare's works into German. 3. Is your father at 
home ? No, he has been away for three weeks, but he is (prob- 
ably) coming back to-morrow morning. 4. As soon as I have 
news of his arrival, I shall come again. 5. During my illness 
I used to go for a drive two hours every day. 6. Are you 
going (to go) to the concert this evening ? I do not think I 
shall go. 7. Have you an engagement elsewhere ? No, but I 
am going to bed immediately, as I start for Boston to-morrow 
morning at seven o'clock. 8. People (man) are often con- 
scious of bad habits, which they cannot get rid of. 9. Have 
you been long in America? I have been here since my fifteenth 
year. 10. This is probably a letter from my mother, for that is 
her hand- writing. 11. We had hardly been at home half an 
hour, when it began to rain. 12. Shakespeare is considered 
the greatest poet of the English nation. 13. He was born at 
Stratford-on-Avon, and passed his youth in that place. 14. As 
a young man he went to London, became celebrated there, and 
died in the year 16 16 in his native^town. 15. The sun was 
setting, and the long [and] desperate combat was not yet 
decided. 16. For the third time our brave soldiers throw 
themselves upon the batteries of the enemy. 17. Nothing 
could resist this attack ; the enemy wavers, and the victory is 
ours. 18. But what a dearly-bought victory ! 19. He, who 

304 LESSON XLIV. [§§263 

led the soldiers into the combat, comes not backwith them. 
20. Yonder he Hes cold and silent, and our triumph becomes 
bitter mourning. 



263. The Conditional. 

1. The Conditional tenses are, in form, subjunctive pc^A 
tenses, answering to the Future as a present. 

2. They indicate possible futurity^ and coincide with the 
Impf. and Plupf. Subj. in their use in conditional clauses, and 
will therefore be treated conjointly with them (see § 267, 

Note. — ^The Tenses of the Conditional are a new formation; the 
Impf. and Plupf. Subj. having, in the older stages of the language, per- 
formed the function of the Conditional. 

264. The Subjunctive Mood is used much more fre- 
quently in German than in English, the distinction between 
Indicative and Subjunctive being almost entirely obliterated 
in the latter language. 

265. The Subjunctive in Indirect Statements. 

The Subjunctive is used in Indirect Statements or 
Quotations (see also § 87), i. e., when the words used are 
quoted in substance only, and not as they were spoken, espe- 
cially after a verb in the principal clause signifying : 

(a) Imparti?ig of i?ifonnation (statement, report, con- 
fession, reminding, etc.), as: 
antlDorten, answer er^d^Ien, relate 

6ef)au^ten, assert geftebcn, confess 

beric^tcn, report JciQcn, say 


(3) Appvt'hefision, as : 
benfen, think meincn, be of opinion 

erinnern (refl.), remember merfen, observe 

fiiMen, feel fd^Iie^en, conclude 

l^orert, hear tctffen, know 

{c) Contemplation with various emotions, as : 
fiird^ten, fear tt>unbern (refl.), wonder 

freuen (refl.), rejoice luiinfcben, wish 

glauben, believe gtoeifein, doubt 

l^offen, hope 

id) Request, command^ advice, etc., as : 
bcfe^Ien, command raten, advise 

bitten, ask • berlangen, demand 
erma^nen, admonish 

266. The Tense in Indirect Statements. 

The verb of the Indirect Statement is, as a rule, in the 
same tense as it would have, if the statement were made 
directly (see § 87, 2), i. e., the tense of the Indirect Statement 
is the same as that of the Direct. 

Remarks. — i. An Indirect Statement is always a subordi- 
nate clause. 

2. The conjunction ba§ may be omitted in such clauses, 
which will then have the construction of a principal sentence 
(i. e., verb second ; see § 87, 3). 

3. The Indicative may replace the Subjunctive in Indirect 
Statements, when the speaker wishes to represent his own 
belief in the correctness of the statement, as : 

3cf) Fjabe gebort, ba^ mein Sruber Iran! ifl, I have 
heard that my brother is ill (and he is ill). 

©ie ttjufete, ba^ ber S^^iegel feine Uniuabrbcit f)jror^, unb 
merftc, ba^ ber %'do^ix fie betrogen ^attc, etc. (Grimm, 

306 LESSON XLIV. f§§ 266- 

Snetivittchcn, p. 52, 1. 1), She knew that the 
mirror did not tell a lie, and saw that the huntsman 
had deceived her {and /le /i ad deceived her). 
But the Subjunctive is used, when the truth of the state- 
ment is not vouched for, or when any doubt is cast upon 
it, as : 

2)a§ hd^hci.\i^ 23ei6 a>^ fie auf unb meintc, fie ^titie 
(5neetr)ittdBen§ Suiu3e unb Seber gegeffen {ibid., p. 49, 
1. 8\ The malicious woman devoured them, and 
thought she had eaten Sneewittchen's lung and 
liver (whereas she had not eaten them). 

4. The tense of the Indirect Statement does not depend on 
that of the principal clause, and the seguefice of te?ises which is 
observed in English is not found in German, as : 

{Engl.) He said he -was not ill. 
{Germ.) @r fttgtc, er fci md)t Iran!. 

Notes. — i. The Subiunctive is unusual after the verbs under (b) and 
(c) in the previous section (except prcii), if the principal clause has a 
present tense. 

2. The rule as to tense is not always strictly observed, the tense used 
being sometimes determined by the want of distinctive subjunctive forms. 
Thus in the following sentence two different tenses are used : 

5lud) jd^lofe cv, e-3 niiijfe tie Sage t>om @(a§mannteiu Ttid)t fe^r 
befannt fciu, unb "iitw ^Sprud) miJBten nur irenige anffcn (Hauff, 
Das kalte Herz, p. 8, 1. 7), Further, he concluded that the 
legend of the Glass-manikin could not be very well known, and 
only a few people could know the verse. 

3. After an Impf. in the principal clause, the Subjunctive is usual in 
the Indirect Statement, except as in the second example under Remark 3; 

4. The verb of the principal sentence sometimes remains unexpressed, 
or is replaced by a noun of kindred meaning, as : 

gr Ue^ mid) abmciien, mcil er fran! fci, He refused to see me. 
because {as he asserted) he was ill. 


3d) (ief fo icf)neU mie moglirf), aui gwti^t, icf] mb(^tc su fpdt tom-- 
mei!, I rap as quickly as possible, from fear that I might come 
too late. 
Sac ^iittC ic^ gefagt? (Do you mean to say that) I said that? 
This last construction is very frequent in German, to express empha- 
tically a doubt as to the truth of a statement. 

267. The Subjunctive and Conditjonal in 
Hypothetical Periods. 

Example of a Hypothetical Period: 

If I had followed your advice, I should have been 

1. The above sentence consists of two parts. Of these the 
one expresses a co7idition^ conceived, in this instance, as unreal 
or impossible, viz. : 

If I had followed your advice {which I did not') \ 
the other expresses a result, also unreal or unrealized, which 
would have ioV^Q\^Q.di, had the condition been realized, viz. : 

I should have been happy {which I am not). 

2. In both parts of the above period (in the condition and 
in the result), the verb is in a past tense (Impf. or Plupf.) 
of the Subjunctive Mood, as : 

3Benn id) Jbren "^^i bcfclgt ^dttc (Plupf. Subj.), fo mxt 
icf) glucflicb gcttJcfen (Plupf. Subj.). 

Remarks. — i. Either of the two clauses may stand first; 
thus, the sentence given above may have the form : 

gc^ trdre gliicflic^ getcefen, toenn u. f. it). 

2. The conjunction trenn may be omitted, especially when 
the condition precedes the result, in which case the verb will 
begin the sentence, as : 

§tttte it^ S^ren 'iRai befolgt, fo iucire id^ gliicflic^. 

308 LESSON XLIV. [§§267 

3. If the result clause follows the conditional clause, it is 
usually introduced by the particle fo, and ahvays when toeitll 
is omitted in the preceding conditional clause (see § 59, and 

4. The conditional tenses may repiace the Impf. and Plupf. 
Subj. in the apodosis, result or conclusion only, as : 

3Senn ic^ %^xi\K 9^at befolgt f)atte, fo miirbc id^ gliicflic^ 
gettjcfcn fctn. 

5. If the condition is stated without its unreality being 
implied, the verb is in the Pres., Perf., or Fut. Indicative^ as : 

3Benn er fommt fo toerbe id) fortge^en. If he comes, I 
shall go away. 

6. A condition may be introduced by oI§ tuetltt or ttl§ oB, 
* as if,' thus : 

(^r fte^t au§, cl§ tocnn (oB) er fran! teiare. He looks as 
if he were ill. 

Note. — In clauses of this kind, tDenu or ob may be omitted, and the 
construction is then inverted accordingly (see § 239, 4), as : 

©r fte^t au«, al§ to arc er tronf. 

268. Other Uses of the Subjunctive. 

1. The Pres. Subjunctive replaces the missing persons 
(i. and 3.) of the hjiperative Mood, the subject being then 
put after the verb, except in the 3. person, where it may also 
precede, unless the pron. 3ie is used for the 2. person, as : 

(^c^c er (or er gebe) nac^ §^"f^/ ^^t him go home. • 

2. The Impf. and Plupf. Subjunctive are used to express 
a wish, as : 

5Bdre \i) bet 3^nen ! Would that I were with you ! 
Note. — This is really an elliptical coftditional clause, with the result 
unexpressed; the full form may be supplied thus: 
SDBdre ic^ bei 3^nen, (fo njare ic^ gliirfltc^). 


3. The Subjunctive is used in clauses expressing purpose, 
with the conjunctions ba^, auf "tio^^, bamit, as : 

(Sr eilte, ba§ (auf bag, bamit) er ^iir recf^ten ^t\\ ttnliimc, 
He hastened, (in order) that he might arrive in 
good time. 

4. It is also used after a negative or an indefinite relative, as : 

§ier ift niemcnb^ ber micf) nicf^t fennte, There is nobody 
here, who does not know me. 

Sd^ toerbe e§ t^un, tuaS ttui^ bation fommen miige, I shall 
do it, no matter what may come of it. 
Note. — The Indicative is also admissible in these constructions. 

5. The Impf. Subjunctive is sometimes used to express 
possibility, as : 

^a§ gittBC luobl. That might (possibly) do. 
%i) bat^tc, ba§ toiirc gut, I should think that might 
be good ; 

and especially with the Modal Auxiliaries, as : 

2^a§ miif^tc (fiinntc, biirfte) tt)abr fein. That may (pos- 
sibly) be true. 

6. Observe the following idiom : 

2Bie bcm au6 fei. However that may be. 


A. 1. Ich habe gehort, dass Sie Ihr Haus verkauft haben ; 
istdaswahr? 2. Ja, meine alte Wohnung gefiel mir nicht 
mehr. 3. Wie kommt das ? Ihr Haus schien mir immer eine 
sehr elegante und bequeme Wohnung zu sein. 4. Ein besse- 
res lasst sich nicht leicht finden; allein, seit(dem) die vielen 
Fabriken in der Nahe gebaut worden sind, gefallt mir die 
Umge'bung nicht mehr. 5. Das kann ich mir schon denken. 
Der Ranch von den Fabriken muss sehr unangenehm sein. 
6. Das ist nicht das Schlimmste ; das fortwahrende Gerausch 

3IO LESSON XLIV. [§§268- 

bringt einen oft zum Verzweifeln. 7. Haben Sie ein anderes 
Haus gekauft ? 8. Nein, vorlaufig habe ich mir ein Haus in 
der Schillerstrasze gemietet, sobald ich aber einen passenden 
Bauplatz hnden kann, werde ich bauen. 9. Haben Sie sich 
schon nacii einem Bauplatz umgesehen ? 10. Ich habe die 
ganze Stadt durchsucht, aber ohne Erfolg. 11. Sie miissen 
sehr schwer zu befriedigen sein. 12. Das gerade nicht, nur 
bestehe ich auf drei Bedingungen : Frische Luft, eine ruhige 
Strasze und eine schone Aussicht. 13. Warum bauen 
Sie nicht auf der Anhohe in der Vorstadt, jenseit des 
Flusses ? 14. Daran habe ich schon gedacht, nur sind mir 
die Preise ein wenig zu hoch. 15. Das wiirde 7nich nicht 
abhalten, so lange ich nur bekame, was ich wiinschte. 16. Es 
wird mir wohl nichts iibrig bleiben, als mich dort anzukaufen. 
17. Beabsichtigen Sie, mit Backstein oder mit Quaderstein zu 
bauen ? 18. Ich muss das erst mit meinem Architekten 
besprechen. 19. Welchen Architekten haben Sie gewahlt.'' 
20. Herrn Kalk, der den Plan meines alten Hauses ent- 
worfen hat. 21. Dann bekommen Sie jedenfalls ein gutes 
Haus. Ich wiinsche Ihnen Gllick zu Ihrem Unternehmen. 
22. Danke vielmals. 

B. 1. An old beggar-man said: "When I was young, I 
could have worked if I had wished (iuotten), and now I should 
be glad to work, if I could, but I cannot. Alas ! had I only 
been more industrious." 2. A certain French king is said to 
have died of hunger, for fear that he might be poisoned. 3. I 
wish my house were not so far from yours. 4. I too ; if the 
way were not so long, we could visit each other oftener. 
5. We were astonished to see Mr. B. on the street this 
morning, as we thought he was still in England. 6. They 
say he intended to remain three months longer in England, 
but that he was obliged to come home on account of business 
matters. 7. What did the gentleman whom we just met ask 


you ? He asked me how far it was to the town-hall. 8. The 
messenger asserted that he could not wait longer because 
he had no time, but I believe it was for (au^ -j- dat.) 
another reason. 9. A certain gentleman wanted to set his 
watch, and asked his servant what o'clock it was. 10. The 
servant answered that he had no watch, but that he had 
seen a sun-dial in the neighbour's garden. 11. To^this 
the gentleman replied absent-mindedly : " Go immediately 
and ask him for permission to bring it up here." 12. 
Do you believe that the German language is as difficult 
as the French ? 13. When I began to study German, I 
thought it was not so difficult as French, but now I believe 
otherwise. 14. I should be very sorry, if the news were true 
which I heard this morning. 15. The boys must not skate 
to-day ; the ice is too thin, and they might break through 
and be drowned. 16. Please tell me who translated Shake- 
speare's works into German. 17. Would it be worth while to 
take a carriage to drive to the bank ? No, I do not think so. 

18. He said that of us ! I should never have believed it. 

19. I asked the bookseller: "Have you Schiller's works?" 
He answered : " I have not^a single copy of them left. 

20. I asked the bookseller if he had Schiller's works, and he 
answered that he had not_a single copy of them left. 




The Imperative expresses a coftwiand and corresponds 
precisely to the English Imperative. The Imperative proper 
occurs only in the 2. person, the other persons being supplied 
by the Pres. Subjunctive (see § 268, i, above). 

312 LESSON XLV. [§§269- 

Remarks. — I. The pronoun of the 2. Pers. is only ex- 
pressed for the sake of emphasis or contrast, as : 

©inge bu. Do you sing. 

©e^)t t^r, tt)tr toerben bleiben. You go, we shall remain. 
Note. — The pronoun, if expressed, always follows the verb, as above. 

2. Where no definite person is addressed (e. g., when an 
author is addressing his readers), matt should be used with 
the Pres. Subj., as : 

9Watt ben!e fidf) meinen (Sc^rec!en, Imagine my fright. 

3. The Modal Auxiliaries follen, tniiffen, lafjcn are used with 
imperative force, as : 

2)u follft ntdn toten. Thou shalt not k 

(Sr tnil^ fc^ireiBen, He must write. 

8tt§ (la^t, laffen 3ic) un§ gef)en. Let us go. 

4. The Present and Future Indicative are sometimes used 
with emphatic imperative force, as : 

^u Mei6ft Her ! You are to stay here ! 

(2te tucrbctt bie ©iite §o6ett, morcjen frii^er 511 fommen. 
You will have the goodness to come earlier to-morrow. 

5. The Past Participle and Infinitive are also used in ex- 
clamatory clauses with the force of an Imperative, as : 

Qtigcfa^rctt, ^ulfrf)er! Drive on, coachman! 
eiill ftc^Ctl ! Stand still ! 
d tltftcigett ! All aboard ! 

6. In elliptical and exclamatory clauses a command is fre- 
quently expressed by an adverbial prefix or prepositional 
phrase, without a verb, as : 

^riic^atif! i^amerabcn, oufg ^ferb ! aufi ^ferb ! 

Up ! comrades, to horse ! to horse ! (Schiller.) 

®rauf unb bran ! Up and at them ! 

$cr 5U mir ! (Come) hither to me! (Goethe, Faust.) 


270. The Infinitive as Substantive. 

The Infinitive is a verbal substantive, and any infinitive 
may be used as a substantive of the neuter gender, declined 
after the maUx Model (§ i6). 

Remarks. — i. The Infin. as Subst. indicates action, 2^^. 
2)a^5 2e)en, * (the act of) reading,' — but: gute Sectiire, 'good 
reading, good literature.' 

2. Some Infinitives have become substantives entirely, as : 
ba§ Scbcn, life ; ba§ (Sntfe^en, horror. 

3. The Infinitive, either with or without 311, is often used as 
subject of a verb, and as such may have an object by virtue 
of its verbal character, as : 

(Bute greunbe (ju) ^ttben ift beffer al§ reid^ (p) fein. 

2 71. The Infinitive without ju. 

The Infinitive without ^u follows : 

{a) The Modal Auxiliaries (see Lesson XXXIV) ; also 
toerben in the formation of the future tense. 

(h) The following verbs : 

bleiben, remain IalKn, let, allow, permit 

finben, find lef)ren, teach 

l^eiBert, order, bid lernen, learn 

Ijelfen, help madden, make 

l^oren, hear fe^en, see 

and, in certain phrases, baben, as : 

gcb ho^t nicbt biel @elb auf ber 33an! (iegett, I have not 
much money lying in the bank. 
(c) After ijcbcn and other verbs of motion in such phrases 
as f^ajicren gcf^en, reiten, faf^ren, ' to go for a walk, ride, drive ' ; 

314 LESSON XLV. r§§27i- 

fcf)Iafen gefjen, 'to go to bed' (not == 'go to sleep,' which is 
einfd^Iafen), etc. 

(d) As predicative subject, with f^ei^en, and as object with 
nennen, Fiei^en, as : 

®a§ f>ei^t fdBnell fal^ren. That is quick driving. 
SDa§ nenne (f^ei^e) ic^^ frf^Ied^t ttltfangcn, I call that be- 
ginning badly. 
Note. — The Past Participle is also admissible in this construction; 
see § 281, 6, below. 

Remarks. — i. After haben, bleiben, finben, boren, fef)ert, 
gef^en, in the constructions given above, the German Infin. 
corresponds to a Present Participle in English, as : 
(?r blieb fie^cn, He remained standing, etc. 

2. The verbs under {b), except bleiben and bei^en, also 
admit of a iln§ clause after them, as : 

3(f) babe gebort (gefeben), ba§ er angefommen fet, I have 
heard that he is come. 

3. The verbs fjelfen, lebren, lernen also take an Infin. with 
JU after them, as : 

-3(f) l^abe gelernt, gu gebord^en, I have learnt to obey. 

4. For the use of the Infin. for the P. Part, with these 
verbs, see § 199. 

Note. — The verbs t)elfeu, le^rcn, lernen do not substitute the Infin. for 
the P. Part, when followed by an Infin. with ju (see Rem. 3, above, and 

5. For the Infin. with passive sense after laffen, see § 200. 
7 W, Note. 

272. The Infinitive with ^u. 

The Infinitive with ju is used after other verbs, such as : 
{a) Those implying something to be attained, done or left 
undone^ as : 


anfangen,) fucften | 

begmnen, ) ^ t)er]ucpen, j '' 

befeMen, command unterneb'men, undertake 

bitten^ beg Derbieten, forbid 

eriauben, allow tragen, venture 

fiircbten, fear ioarnen, warn 

l^DJfen, hope h)un]cben, wish 
xaUn, advise 

(d) Those implying a suspension of judgment^ as : 
befcf)utbigeu, accuse f(f einen, seem 

embilben, (refl.), imagine f^meid^eln (refl.), flatter one's 

glauben, believe self. 

Icugnen, deny 

{c) Those indicating various states of mind, as : 
bereuen, repent lieb fein, be acceptable (be 

freuen (impers.), | .^i^^ glad) 

freuen (refl.), j leib fein (tf)un), be unaccept- 

able (be sorry) 

Remarks. — i. With most of these verbs the Infinitive may 
be replaced by a ilttj clause, and must be so replaced unless 
the subject of the action in the dependent clause is either 
subject or direct object of the principal clause, as : 

Gr glaubt, \ihx gefc^icft 3U fein, He believes himself to 
be very clever ; — or : 

Gr glaubt, titt§ er febr gefd^icft ift. 

(?r bcffte, 3U fommcit. He hoped to come ; — but : 

Gr f^offte, ba§ fein 3Sater fommen n?erbe, (see § 265, c\ 

He hoped that his father would come. 
@§ t^at mtr leib, (3ie nicbt gefe^en ^u ^obcn, I was sorry 

not to have seen you ; — or : 
(S§ t^at mir leib, ba§ ic^ Sie nicf)! gefe^en \:}aiU ; — but : 

3l6 LESSON XLV. [§272 

(S^ ift mir licb, bo§ 3ie gefommen finb, I am glad that 
you have come. 
2. The Infinitive clause as direct object is often represented 
in the principal clause by the neut. pron. c^ (with prepositions 
by ba, see § 277, below), as : 

36 iiHii3C C6 nidBt, aHein 511 fommen, I do not venture to 
come alone. 
Observe the idiomatic use of the Infinitive with ^u after 
l^aben, fein, ftef)en, in the following examples : 

gd^ ^ttBc ibm eincn Srief 311 iibergeBen, I have a letter 

to deliver to him. 
©^3 ift (fteM) ju eriDartcn, It is to be expected. 

Note. — In the latter example, the infin. has a passive signification. 

A. 1. Guten Morgan, alter Freund ; nichts konnte mir gele- 
gener sein, als dich anzutreffen. 2. Ich freue mich herzlich, 
dich zu sehen ; ich habe schon lange einen Besuch von dir 
erwartet. 3. Du solltest doch wissen, dass man wenig Zeit 
hat, Besuche zu machen, wenn man sich auf ein Examen vor- 
bereitet. 4. Das ist wahr, aber lass dir gratulieren ; du hast ja 
ein glanzendes Examen bestanden. 5. Es ist mir freilich viel 
besser gelungen, als ich erwartete. 6. Was gedenkst du jetzt 
zu thun, da du promoviert hast ? 7. Gerade das wollte ich mit 
dir besprechen ; du kannst mir vielleicht mit gutem Rate bei- 
stehen. 8. Ich habe mich entschlossen, auf ein Jahr nach 
Europa zu gehen ; ware es nicht auch fiir dich sehr vorteilhaft, 
ein Jahr dort zuzubringen ? 9. Sehr vorteilhaft, besonders 
wegen meines Sprachstudiums, aber ich fiirchte meine Verhalt- 
nisse erlauben es mir nicht. 10. Das sehe ich nicht ein, es 
wird nur wenig mehr kosten dort zu leben als hier. 11. Bist 
du deiner Sache gewiss ? 12. Ja wohl, weisst du, ein Vetter von 
mir ist ktirzlich von Europa zuriickgekommen, und ich habe 


mich bei ihm genau nach Allem erkundigt. 13. ^^'o hat er die 
Zeit zugebracht ? 14. Teils in England, teils in Frankreich 
(und ) teils in Deutschland, und er behauptet, dass man in Eu- 
ropa wenigstens ebenso billig leben kann wie in Amerika. 15. 
Aber du hast die Reisekosten nicht mit eingerechnet. 16. Na- 
tiirlich nicht, aber man reist jetzt viel billiger als man friiher 
reiste. 17. Hast du dein Billet schon gelost? IS. Noch nicht, 
aber ich habe mich damach erkundigt und finde, dass man fiir 
hundert Thaler oder weniger liber New York nach Liverpool 
reisen kann. 19. Zweite Klasse natiirlich. 20. O nein, erste 
Klasse, und mit einer sehr guten Dampferhnie. 21. 1st es mog- 
lich ? Du hast mich fast iiberredet, die Reise zu untemehmen. 
22. Komm nur heute Abend zu mir und wir werden die Sache 
weiter besprechen. 23. Gut ; also bis Abend. 

B. 1. Have the goodness to read this letter for me ; I have 
left my spectacles up-stairs, and cannot see very well. 2. Please 
read pretty loud, for my hearing is bad. 3. Help me to do my 
work, and I will help you to learn your lessons. 4. When you 
(man) do not know what to say (what you shall say), say nothing. 
5. You will now close your books ; we have read enough for 
the present. 6. ''To err is human; to forgive, divine," is a 
verse from a poem by the English poet Pope. 7. I have so 
much work to do that I do not know where to begin. 8. Show 
the child how it is to learn its lesson. 9. I am tired of read- 
ing, and must now retire to rest. 10. " Eat, little^bird, eat," 
said a child to her bird. 11. " Thou shalt not steal " is (called) 
the eighth commandment. 12. The habit of rising early is of 
great importance when one has a^reat^deal^of work to do. 

13. If one wants to rise early, one should go to bed early. 

14. An old, well-known proverb says : " Man does not live to 
eat, but eats to live." 15. Another proverb says : " Speaking 
is silver; silence is gold.' Ki. \\'hen I arrived at the railway- 
station I found that I had no money with me ; imagine my 

3l8 LESSON XLVI. [§§273- 

embarrassment. 17. The art of making glass was already 
known to the ancients. 18. Are there any houses to sell or to 
rent in your neighbourhood? 19. I wish to speak to Mr. 
Bell. 20. Have (laffen) John black my shoes, for I am in a 
hurry. -^1. I have heard say that tlie celebrated bishop of G. 
is coming ; would you not like to hear him preach } 22. Yes, 
I should like very much to hear him preach ; when is (follen) 
he to come here.'' 23. We have had the good^fortune to 
shoot three hares. 24. Some people would rather die than beg. 


273. Infinitive of Purpose. 

The Infinitive with ju is used to express purpose^ as : 

5Rein g-rcunb !am, mic^ 3U ttiarneit. My friend came to 
warn me. 

Remarks. — i. The Infin. expressing purpose is generally 
governed by the preposition um (see § 276, i, below), which 
begins the clause, as : 

^c^ fomme, um ©ie nad^ §aufe gu bringen, I come to fetch 
you home. 

2. An Infin. clause with ju is always preceded by a comma 
in German. 

3. This Infin. is also used, with or without yx, after adjec 
tives preceded by ju, ' too,' or QCnug, ' enough,' as : 

%6> iDar 3U mube, (um) au^geben ju IHuucu, I was too 
tired to be able to go out. 

@r \\i reid^ gcuug, (um) bide !J)iener l^alten ju fbnuen, 
He is rich enough to keep many servants. 


Note. — After an adjective with ju, a clause introduced by ol^ *Jn^ 
may be used, as : 

3cf) tvax 5U miibe, oB ba^ ic^ au8gel}en fonnte, I was too tired to 
be able to go out. 

274. The Infinitive after Substantives, 

The Infinitive with 3U is used after substantives, nouns and 
adjectives, akin to the verbs in § 272, to express purpose, 
etc., as : 

3c^ BaSe Sup, einett S^ajiercjang 3U mtti^en, I have a 
mind to take a walk. 

%^ balle feine Qcit nucf> nac^ tf)m umjufe^cn, I had no 
time to look after him. 

©r ift ftet^ ficrett, ben 2(rmen ju ^clfcn. He is always 
ready to help the poor. 

275. The Accusative with the Infinitive. 

The Accusative with the Infinitive is inadmissible in 
modern German ; hence verbs denoting statement, know- 
ledge, perception, etc., must be followed by a tia§ clause, as : 
{Engi.) I know him to be a good man, 
{Germ.) ^6> tiunj, ba^ cr ein guter 5)iann ifl. 
(Engl) I perceived her to be inattentive, 
{Germ.) ^d; merfte, ba§ fie unaufmerffam tuar. 

Remarks. — i. In such sentences as those in the examples 
given in the above section, the passive construction with the 
Infin. is also inadmissible in German except impersonally, as : 

{Engl.) He is known to be a good man, 
{Germ.) M^w. ttJci^, ba§ ct cin gutcr 9Jicnf6 ifl; — or : 
^4 \]i befannt, btt§ cr u. f. ir>. 

2. Observe the different relations of the accusatives in the 
followino: sentences : 

320 LESSON XLVI. [§§275" 

{Engl.) I begged him (obj. of ' begged ') to come, 

{Gen?i.) 3c^ hai i^n 5U fommen. 

{Engl.) I wish to see him {obJ. of ' see'), 

{Germ.) ^c^ hjunfc^e, i^n 3U fefjen. 

{Efigl.) I wish him (j-/^^^/ of 'come') to come, 

{Genn.) 3d) timnfd^e, bafe er fommc. 

3. After cjlauben, the Infin. is admissible in German, but 
not in English, when the subject of the action is the same in 
both clauses, as : 

{Germ.) ^jd^ glaubte, red^t gef)ort ju fiaben, 
{E?igi.) I believed that I had heard aright. 

When, on the contrary, the subjects are different, the Infin. 
(with accus.) is admissible in English, but not in German, as: 
{E?igL) I believe him to be an honest man, 
{Germ.) 3d) glaube, ba§ er ein efjrlic^er ?D^enfc^ ifi. 

4. The English Infin. in objective indirect questions is 
unusual in German, and should be replaced by a finite 
clause, as : 

{Engl.) He did not know where to go, 
{Germ.) (Er tou^te nicbt, it)of)tn er geben follte. 
{Engl.) He told me what to do, 
{Germ.) (gr fagte mir, h)ag ic^ tf)un fottte. 

276. The Infinitive governed by Prepositions. 

I. Only three prepositions can govern an infinitive (with gu) 
directly, viz. : um, * in order,' o^ttC, ' without,' and (ttn)fictt 
'instead of,' as : 

©r !am, um mid) t)on biefem UnfaE ^u Benttt^rit^tigcti, 
He came, in order to i?iform me of this accident. 

Sdjl fonnte ifjn nid^t anfefjen, o^nc (^erglic^ ju lac^en, 
I could not look at him, without laughm^ heartily. 


Snfttttt m\d) gebulbig anju^oren, unterbracf) er mic^ 
be[tdnbig, Instead of listen/;/^ to me patiently, he 
kept constantly interrupting me. 

Remarks. — i. Observe that in each of these examples the 
preposition stands at the beginning of the clause, the Infini- 
tive at the end^ with the words dependent on the Infinitive 

2. The Infinitive after cBne and (an)ftatt may be replaced 
by a ba^ clause. This is always the case when the subject of 
the action is different in the two clauses (compare § 224, 
2, ^, Rem.). Thus we may say : 

%i) fuddle t>orbet3u!ommen, of)ne gefefien 311 itierben (or : 
oBne ba^ id) gefe^en tourbe), I tried to go past without 
being seen ; 
but we must say : 

gc^ fuc^te iJorSeijufommen, o^ne bo§ man micf> jtt§, I tried 
to go past without any one's seeing me, 
because the subjects of the two clauses are different. 

277. With other prepositions, the Infinitive or baJ5 clause 
is represented in the principal clause by the adverb bll pre- 
fixed to the preposition, as : 

^c^ bec^niigte micf^ bttmit, \h\\ meine llnjufrieben^eit merfen 
JU laffcn, I was contented with showing him my 

SSir t)er(afien un^ barauf, baft Sie fommen. We rely on 
your coming. 

Sc^ fonnte ibnnicbt bttran berHnbern, aus^ugc^cn, I could 
not prevent him from, going out (or: his going 

Sr iDar eiferfiicf)tig barauf, btt^ \v\x eingefaben trorbcn 
hjaren, He was jealous of our having been invited. 

322 LESSON XLVI. [§§277' 

2Bir fcl}uen un§ bauai^, 6ie micbcr^ufe^en. We long to 

see you again. 
®r finbet 3>ergnugen boran, tinber ju nerfcn. He finds 

pleasure in teasing children. 
6ie art3erte fic^ barxl6er, btt§ roir fo f^dt tamen, She was 

angry at our coming so late. 

Remarks. — i. The preposition 'of is often omitted, as: 
SDie ^ad)x\(i)t, bafe ber griebe unterjetd^net tt)orben \t)ax, 
The news of the peace being (having been) signed. 

2. The Infin. clause is only admissible when the subject of 
the action is the same as in the principal clause (compare 
§ 276, Rem. 2, above). 

3. The English Infinitive in -ing, or Gerund, must be 
carefully distinguished from the Present Participle, with 
which it has no connection. 

4. The genitive or possessive adjective in English before 
this Gerund will become the subject of the ba§ clause in 
German, as : 

She was angry at our coming late, ©ie \0<xx bofe 

bariiber, ba|3 tt)tr 5U fpdt famcn. 
He insisted on his sister's learning Latin, (Er beftanb 

barauf, ba^ {cine StJttJcftcr Satein lernte (ternen foUte). 

5. In an indirect question, oB takes the place of ba^, as : 

@§ ge^t mid) ni(f)t§ an, ob er fommt ober md)t It does 
not concern me, whether he comes or not. 

6. When the Gerund expresses an adverbial relation (time, 
cause, etc.), it must be expanded into an adverbial clause, as : 

Before concluding, I shall make one more obser- 
vation, (B^c \^ it^licfee, njerbe ic^ no4) eine ^emer!un(j. 


On seeing me, he held out his hand to me, $((§ cr 

mii§ fa§, bielt er mir bie ^anh bin. 
In persuading others we persuade ourselves, 3nbem 

toir anbere iiBerrebcn, iiSerreben wix uns felbft. 

278. The Infinitive in Elliptical Constructions. 

1. The Infinitive is used, as in English, in various elliptical 
constructions, without being dependent on any other word, as : 

SSarum micb tpecfen? Why waken me ? 

^a^ feinem ^(usfe^en gu urteilen. To judge from his 

2. For the Infinitive with the force of an Imperative, see 
§ 269, Rem. 5, above. 


A. 1. Nicht wax.r, Fraulein B., Sie waren gestern Abend im 
Konzert ? 2. Ja, waren Sie auch dort ? Ich habe Sie nicht 
gesehen. 3. Das ist gem mogHch ; unter so vielen Menschen 
findet man sich nicht leicht. 4. Der Saal war gedrangt voll, 
wahrscheinhch well das Konzert zum Besten des neuen Waisen- 
hauses gegeben wurde. 5. Nicht allein das, sondern auch well 
die neue Sangerin, Fraulein M., zum ersten Male auftrat. 
6. Das Publikum schien von ihr ganz entziickt zu sein, und die 
Zeitungen sind heute Morgen voll ihres Ruhmes. 7. Ich habe 
nie eine so klare und starke Stimme gehort. 8. In der Arie 
aus Lohengrin hat sie sich besonders ausgezeichnet. 9. Das 
Lied von Schubert mit Harfen-Begleitung gefiel mir am besten. 
10. Frau S. sang auch sehr gut^ aber Sie schien ein wenig 
heiser zu sein. 11. Trotz dem, was die Kritiker sagen, gefiel 
mir ihr Gesang besser a'ls der von Frl. M. 12. Ich finde auch, 
dass sie mit mehr Gefiihl singt und dass ihre Stimme geschulter 
ist. 13. Was halten Sie vom Geigenspiel des Herrn K. ? 14. Es 
muss sehr gut sein, dem Beifall nach zu urteilen, aber ich ver- 

324 LESSON XLVI. [§§378 

stehe mich nicht auf die Geige. 15. Ich ziehe die Geige jedem 
andern Instrumente vor. 16. Spielt Ihr altester Bnider nicht 
die Geige ? 17. Nein, aber er spielt die Flote und begleitet 
mich oft, wenn ich auf dem Klavier spiele. 18. Ihre Familie 
ist iiberhaupt sehr musikalisch. 19. Ja v/ohl, wir spielen fast 
alle mehr oder weniger. ;20. Selbst Ihre kleinen Gesch\vister .? 
■2 1 . Ja, Marie spielt die Guitarre, Anna die Geige und Frie- 
drich nimmt seit einigen Monaten Stunden auf dem Violoncell. 
2"2. Wissen Sie, ob viel fiir das Waisenhaus iibrig bleibt, nach- 
dem alle Kosten bestritten sind? 23. Etwa fiinf hundert 
Thaler, doch beabsichtigt man, ein zweites Konzert im Laufe 
des \Mnters flir denselben Zweck zu geben. 

B. 1. Let us (indef.) not return evil for evil. 2. Do what 
is right, let it cost what it may. 3. The eighth command- 
ment says that we are not to steal. 4. He was punished for 
having neglected his duty. 5. The teacher told us we should 
close our books, we had read enough for the present. 
6. Freddy, do you stand, and give your little brother your 
chair. 7. In German they say of one who buys anything 
without seeing it that he buys a cat in a bag. 8. Do you 
care to go for a drive with us ? 9. No, thank you. Do you ride 
(fa(n-en); I prefer to walk. 10. Who has left these books lying 
on the table .-* 11. John ; and he says he forgot to take them up. 
12. Bid him carry them up immediately into the study, and 
then let him come down here. 13. Every one thought Mr. 
N. to be a rich man, but he failed (perf.) lately. 14. I have not 
a single pen fit to write with, and I have a dozen letters to 
write. 1 5. Do not allow yourself to be disturbed by my com- 
ing ; do not stop writing. 1 6. The beggar, of whom we were 
speaking in another exercise, passed his youth in idling 
instead of working. 17. Little Frederick had the misfortune 
to break an arm while skating, and he was obliged to remain 
lying in bed a week. 18. Alfred the Great divided the day 


into three parts : one part was devoted to business, the 
second to reading, praying and studying, and the third to 
eating, sleeping and pleasure. 19. We wished our friends to 
come in, but they had no time. 20. I am glad to have made 
your acquaintance. 21. If you go hunting without your father 
knowing it, he will be very much displeased. 22. Our teacher 
used to insist on our writing a German exercise every day, 
and it was impossible for us to neglect this duty without his 
knowing it. 23. Before going home we must go to visit your 
old friend L. If you went away without his seeing you, he 
would be very sorry. 24. We heard some one coming behind 
us on the street, and we remained standing at the corner to 
see who it was. 25. Our old neighbour has three sons, but 
instead of th^r supporting him, he is obliged to support them, 
[s he not very much to be pitied } 



279. The Participles are properly Verbal Adjectives, and 
their uses and constructions are those of Adjectives. There 
are three Participles, the Present, the Past and the Future- 
Passive or Gerundive. The English compound Perfect Par- 
ticiple (e. g., ' having praised ' has no corresponding form 
in German, and must be rendered by a clause (see § 2S4, 

280. The Present PARTiaPLE. 

The Present Participle has active force, and, like the 
Present Indie, marks a present or continuiiig state or action, 
the substantive which it qualifies being the subject of the 
action, as : 

326 LESSON XLVII. [§§280 

!Da§ fl^Iafenbe ^inb, The sleeping child (= 'the child 

that sleeps '). 
@tne baarftraubenbc ©efc^icf)te, A story that makes 

one's hair stand on end. 

The Present Participle is for the most part used only 
attributively^ as in the above examples. It is used predica- 
tively only : 

{a) When it is a true adjective in function, without any idea 
of time, as : 

(Seine ^ranl^eit \\i nid^t Bebeutcnb, His illness is not 

®te ©rf)onf)eit biefer Sanbfd^aft ift entjilifenb. The beauty 
of this landscape is enchanting (i. e^, delightful). 

(J)) In apposition with the subject (sometimes also with 
the direct object) of the sentence in which it occurs, when 
the action of the Participle is simultaneous with that of the 
principal verb, as : 

©td^ fdmcK nac^ mir umttJcnbenb, \oh er mir in§ ©efid^t, 
Turning quickly around, he looked into my face. 

(SrrBtenb fcf)Iug fie bie Slugen nieber. Blushing she 
dropped her eyes. 

^rcifcnb mit biel fcfionen 9fteben 

SFjrer Sdnber 9Bert unb ^oikji, 

©a^en biele beutfcf>e giirften 

6inft 511 25orm§ ttn .^aiferfaal. (Kerner.) 

Praising with many fine speeches the worth and num- 
ber of their territories, many German princes were 
sitting one day in the Imperial Hall at Worms. 

Remarks. — i. This construction is more usual in poetic 
or exalted diction than in ordinary language, where it is gen 
erally replaced by an adverbial clause (see § 284, below). 


2. The Present Participle is not used in German, as it is 
m English, with the auxiliary ' to be ' (see § 31, Rem. 3). 

281. The Past Participle, 

The Past Participle of a tra?isittve verb has passive 
force, not necessarily with any distinct reference to past 
time, as : 

©a§ gelicBtc ^inb, The beloved child (i. e., the child 
that 2S or was beloved). 
But when the participle indicates a single action, it has 
perfect force, as : 

®a§ gcjio^lcnc $ferb, The horse which has been 

The Past Participle of an intransitive verb has active 
force, as : 

2)xe 3)Zufi! %<x\ aufge^iirt. The music has ceased. 

Remarks. — i. The Past Participle of transitive verbs may 
be used attributively as well as predicatively, as in the first 
two examples above. 

2. The Past Participle of intransitive verbs conjugated 
with fein is sometimes used attributively and denotes a state 
produced by the action of the verb, as : 

1)ag UJCggelaufene $ferb, The horse which had run 
away; but not: ^a§ ge(aufcne ^ferb. 

3. The Past Participle, like the Present (compare § 280 b, 
above), may be used predicatively in appositio7i to the sub- 
ject (or sometimes to the direct object) of the sentence in 
which it occurs, as : 

®a§ 3SoI!, bom ^^urften unterbriirft, em^orte ficb gegen 
ibn, Tlie people, oppressed by the prince, revolted 
against him. 

328 LESSON XLVII. [§§281- 

4. For the Past Participle with Imperative force, see §269, 5. 

5. The Past Participle replaces the English Fresent Parti- 
ciple after fommcn to specify the manner of the motion, as : 

Q,x !am gcgangcn, gclaufcn u. f. to., He came walking, 
running, etc. 

6. After verbs of calling, it is used for the Infinitive, as : 

3^a§ ki^t (nenne W) fiir bie 3"toft gejorgt, That is (I 
call that) caring for the future. 

7. It also replaces an Infinitive in such phrases as the 
following : 

gc^ mu§ fort I Sieber bier Silled im Sltcbe gelaffcn ! I 
must go ! Rather (would I) leave everything in the 
lurch here. (Lessixg.) 

8. It is used in a few absolute constructions, with or with- 
out a substantive, which is usually in the accusative when 
present, as : 

Sugegeben, ba^ bies \oo^x ift. Granted that this is true. 
SReinen Q3ruber ttusgcnommen, toaren alle jugegen, Ex- 
cept my brother, all were present. 

282. The Future Passive Participle. 

This Participle, also called the Gerundive, has the form 
of the Present Part, preceded by 311. It is formed from transi- 
tive verbs only, and is only used attributively, being replaced 
in the predicate by an infinitive with ju, as : 

Sine 3u (obcnbe §anblung, An act to be praised ; but 
6ine §anb(ung, h)elcf>e ju (obcn ift. 

283. General Remarks on the Participles. 

I. Many words with the form of Participles have the value of 
adjectives. Some occur as adjectives only (see also § 194, 
Note), others with a special meaning, as : gelebrt, learned ; 
befannt, acquainted; toerfc^iebcn, different; beja^rt, aged, etc. 


2. All Participles (except the Past Part, of some intransitive 
verbs, see §281, Rem. 2, above; may be used as pure adjec- 
tives, and as such may be compared or used as adjectival 
substantives (see § 122 i, frequently with concrete meaning, 
as : bcr Sieifenbe, the traveller ; ber Sefenbe, the man who 
reads ; ber 5>orfi^enbe, the chairman ; )^o.^ ©elefene, what one 
has read. 

3. Participles, unless they have become pure adjectives, are 
used sparingly as adverbs ; but the Participle in appositioti 
(see §§ 280, /'; 281, 3, above,) may sometimes be construed as 
an adverb, e. g. : 

St^njcigcnb briicfte er mir bie $)anb. Silently (in 
silence) he pressed my hand. 
Remark. — This participial adverb of manner may be 
replaced by an adverbial clause with inbem. 

4. The Participle, when used attributively, always follows all 
words qualifying or modifying it, and immediately precedes 
its substantive : as predicate, it sometimes, especially in 
poetry, precedes them (see § 280 b, above i, but generally 
and more correctly follows, as : 

2)a5 toon feinen (?Item innig gelicbtc ^inb. The child, 
dearly beloved by its parents. 

W\x ber einen §anb fi^itjimmenD, mtt ber anbem ba^ 
^inb iiber bem i'i>afier em^or^altend u. f. ir.. Swim- 
ming with one hand, with the other holding the 
child above water, etc. 

2)ae 3.^clf, t)om ^^-iirfteu untcrbriitft u. j. to., The people, 
oppressed by the prince, etc. 

28-4. English Participial' Constructions'. 

I. The Present Participle is never used in German, as it so 
frequently is in English, to express adverbial relations of time 

330 LESSON XLVII. [§284 

or cause, and must be replaced, where so used, by a regular 
adverbial clause, introduced by the proper adverb or con- 
junction, as follows : 

(a) To express time, the conjunctions ba, ol8, *when,* 

tnbcm, todfircnb, 'while,' must be used, as : 

Seeing him turn pale, I hastened to his assistance; 

^a (aU) \d) i^n crBKndKn )ai}, ciltc id) if)m jur §ilfe l^erbet. 

Recovering himself, the orator continued, 3tt^Ctti 

er ft(f) fammelte. fufjr ber 9^ebner fort. 

Remarks. — i . The English Perfect Participle is replaced 
by a clause with nttt^bcm (or ol§\ with the Pluperfect, as : 

Having examined his papers, they let him go, 9iar^s 

bem man feine ^a^iere unterfuc^t ^aiit, Iie§ man xi}n 


2. The clause with tnbcm, indicating simultaneous action, 

may be replaced by a participial clause in the case specified in 

§ 280, d, above. 

(p) To express cause, the conjunctions ba, tnbcm, *as,' 
'since,' or tueil, 'because,' must be used, as : 
Being an honest man, he may be trusted, 23Bcil er ein 

e{)rlic6er 53iann tft, fo fann man i^m trauen. 
Hoping to see you soon, I remain ever yours, ^nbcitt 
ic^ ^offe, ®ie Balb gu felfjen, t)erblei6e tc^ ftet§ ber S^^^S^* 
Not having found h'im at home, I went away, ^a 
id) \hn nicbt ju §au[e gefnnbcn Ijnttc, ging ic^ fort. 

2. The Present Participle qualifying a preceding sub 
stantive or pronoun is changed : 

{a) Into a, regular relative clause with finite verb, as : 
A loaf was found at Herculaneum, still retaining 
its -form, gin 33rot unube 5U §erculanum gefunben, 
tpdt^cg noc^ bie gorm beik^icW, 


The ship, having come straii^ht towards us, showed 
the black flag, Xa^S 3cf)iff, inclines gerabe auf ung 
3ugcfommcn mar, jcigte bie fc^^narge glagge. 

Note. — The tense of the verb in the adverbial clause will correspond 
with that of the principal verb, as shov/n above, the Pluperfect, however, 
generally replacing the English Perfect Participles. 

(/^) Into an attributive participial clause, in which the 
Participle will immediately precede the substantive 
(see § 283, 4, above), as : 
A man passing on the street, ©n auf ber (Strage tior* 
ficigc^cnbcr 53tann. 
3. A Participle preceded by an adverbial conjunction is 
replaced by a finite clause with the corresponding conjunc- 
tion, as : 

While travelling in Europe, we met a great many 
Americans, VH(§ ii>ir in ©uro^ni reiften, trafeu \d\x mit 
t>telen 'taerifanern gufammen. 
For the Infinitive in -ing, or Gerund, and its German equi- 
valents, see § 276, above. 


A. 1. Haben Sie Ihr Billet schon gelost? 2. Nein, noch 
nicht. 3. Dann miissen wir uns beeilen ; wir sollten erst etwas 
geniessen, ehe wir abreisen. 4. Hier ist der Schalter ; soil ich 
auch ein Billet fiir Sie nehmen ? 5. Danke, ich habe meins 
schon gdost. G. Jetzt bin ich fertig, aber wir haben kaum drei 
Viertelstunden Zeit, bis der Zug abfahrt. 7. Dann mussen wir 
nach der ersten besten Restauration gehen. 8. Dort driiben ist 
eine. 9. Das trifft sich gut; gehen wir gleich hinein. 10. 
Kellner, wir haben es sehr eilig. 11. Nehmen Sie Platz, meine 
Herren ; ich werde Sie sofort bedienen ; hier ist die Speise- 
karte. 12. Geben Sie mir gefalligst einen Teller Suppe. 
13. Und Sie, mein Herr? 14. Bringen Sie mir zuerst eine 
Serviette. 15. Entschuldigen Sie, hier ist sie. 16. Ich nehrae 

532 LESSON XLVII. [§284 

eine Forelle. 17. Bedaure, es ist keine mehr da. 18. Nun, 
dann bringen Sie mir ein Stiick Lachs. 19. Hier ist die Wein- 
karte; trinken die Herren Wein? 20. Bringen Sie eine 
Flasche Rotwein und Glaser". 21. Wie schmeckt Ihnen der 
Fisch? 22. Ausgezeichnet. 23. Diese Suppe schmeckt mir 
gar nicht. 24. Lassen Sie sich doch Fisch kommen. 25. Ich 
mache mir nichts aus Fisch ; — Kellner ! 26. Zu Befehl. 27. 
Eine Portion Entenbraten mit griinen Erbsen. 28. Wiinschen 
Sie keine Kartoffeln ? 29. Jawohl, gebratene Kartoffeln. Brin- 
gen Sie auch Brot. 30. Noch etwas ? 31. Nein. Was wiinschen 
Sie, Herr B. ? 32. Bitte, reichen Sie mir die Speisekarte. Ich 
bestelle mir Kalbskoteletten mit Kartoffeln und gelben Riiben. 
33. Sonst noch Gemiise ? 34. Etwas Blumenkohl. 35. Erinnem 
Sie sich schon friiher hier gespeist zu haben, Herr B. ? 36. Nicht 
dass ich wiisste ; die Restauration scheint neu zu sein. 37. Des- 
halb wird man vielleicht so gut bedient. 38, Ist den Herren etwas 
gefalHg ? 39. Bringen Sie mir eine Portion Eis und eine Tasse 
Kaffee. 40. Und mir eine Tasse Chocolade und eine Portion 
Erdbeeren mit Sahne, und schreiben Sie alles auf meine Rech- 
nung. 41. Hier ist die Rechnung, mein Herr. 42. Wie viel 
betragt sie ? 43. Sieben Mark fiinfzig Pfennig. 44. Hier 
sind acht Mark; das Ubrige ist Ihr Trinkgeld. 45. Jetzt 
miissen wir fort ; es hat soeben auf dem Bahnhofe zura ersten 
Male gelautet. 

B. 1. A sleeping fox catches no chicken. 2. ^Sleeping 
dogs do not bite. 3. The past cannot be helped (changed) ; 
let us rather think of what is to come. 4. It is much better 
to think without speaking than to speak without thinking. 
5. Man is a speaking animal, a fire-using animial, a laughing 
animal : these are some of the definitions which have been 
proposed by philosophers. 6. W^e learn to speak German in 
speaking German. 7. Well hit (tveffen) ! I call that well 
played ! 8. I wanted to show you an article in yesterday's 


paper, but it is nowhere to be found. 9. Let me know when 
you think of coming to town. 10, The skill of ants in the 
building of their nests is astonishing. 11. Smiling, he began 
to read the letter, but before having read the half of it, he 
threw it furiously on the floor. 12. A hussar came galloping 
down the street and said the battle was beginning. 13. The 
Paradise Lost of Milton is one of the most important works 
of English literature ; it was written in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, but this does not prevent its being still much read. 
14. After having been so well received by us, I wonder that 
he is not ashamed to speak evil of us. 15. The morning was 
cool and charming, but towards noon the heat became 
oppressive, and we saw great clouds rising in the west. 
16. He says the matter is perfectly clear, but his saying so 
does not make any difference. 17. He went away complain- 
ing that there was no use talking to people who did not want 
to understand. 18. That was because he was angry, and 
because he had not succeeded in making himself understood 
(berftdnblirf^). 19. Make no mistakes in copying your exercise, 
or else a second copying will be your punishment. 20. Besides 
making mistakes the last time, you wrote very badly. 21. " The 
danger to be avoided," said he, "is not yet past." 22. Going 
(^tngeben) to visit our friends in Schiller-street this afternoon, 
we met them coming to visit us. 23. His being rich is no excuse 
for his being lazy ; we do not need to be idle merely because 
we are not forced to earn our bread. 24. A certain man, just 
before dying, called his sons to him, and told them there was 
a treasure lying hidden somewhere in his field. 25. Believing 
they would find it, they began digging everywhere, but 
without finding the wished-for (erit)iinfd>t) treasure. 26. One 
of them, wiser than the others, finally guessed what his father 
had meant by having told them this. 27. This son said that 
since digging the ground the crop had been much better, and 
that this was the treasure the father meant. 

334 LESSON XLVIII. [§285 


285. Concord of Subject and Verb, 

1. The predicate verb {Xh^ finite part, or that containing 
the copula^ agrees with its subject in number and person. 

2. Two or more subjects require the verb in the plural, as : 

93ietn S?ater unb nteine ^Jiutter finb f^ier geiDefen, My 
father and mother have been here. 

Remarks. — i. If the subject nearest to the verb be singu- 
lar, the verb is sometiir-es in the singular, especially if the 
subjects follow the verb, as : 

(Seine §abfucf)t, fcine u^V^ige 2eben§art, fein bod^fabrenbeg 
SSefen ^rcj^tc t-ie ©rbittcrung gegen \\)\\ aufy f)0(f)fte. 
His avarice, his luxurious mode of living, his arro- 
gant behaviour, excited the animosity against him 
to the highes- point. (Schiller, Egmonfs Lebefi 
und Tod.') 

Dbcn bei bem STbrone lag ber ^onig unb bie ^onigin, 
Above near the throne lay the King and Queen. 

(Grimm, Dornroschen.) 

Note. — This is especially the case when the subjects, indicating 
things or abstract ideas, are regarded as forming together one idea, or 
are more less synonymous, e. g. : 

§0U3 unU §of ifi Dcrfailft, House and home are sold. 

®Cli) Unti ®\\i ma^t nid)t gliicfiid), Money and property (= wealth) 
do not make [one] happy ; 
or when particular attention is called to the last (as forming a 
climax), e. g. : 

Mdn 33ermogpn, meiu 3?uf, mc in liebcn ficJjt nid)t auf bem ©pick. 
My property, my reputation, my life (the most important of all), 
are not at stake. 


2. If the subjects be of different persons, the verb agrees 
in person with the first rather than the second or third, and 
with the second rather than the third, the plural pronoun of 
the proper person being usually (always with the second per- 
son) expressed before the verb, as : 

^u unb \6> (mein 3?ruber unb icf>), toir gingen au§. You 

and I (my brother and I) went out. 
$Du unb beine 3cf>mei"ter, i^r feiti ausgegangen. You and 

your sister went out, 

3. With titles of rank and compliment the verb is usually 
in the plural ('see also § 49), as : 

Seine DJtajeftdt ^aBcn gerubt u. \. tt>.. His Majesty has 
been pleased, etc. 

4. Collectives, if singular, take a verb in the singular, unless 
followed by a plural substantive in apposition or in the geni- 
tive, as : 

(5ine grofee ^O^enfcf^enmenge ttJttr jugegen ; — but : 
Gine gro^e SJtenge 9jlenfcf>en ttjoren jugegen, A great 
number of people were present. 
Notes. — i. The singular may also be used in such cases as that 
given in the second example above, unless the collective is considered 
with reference to its component parts individually. 

2. With nouns of Number in the sing, (see § 185, i) the verb is used 
in the plur. only when an indefifiite quantity is meant, as : 

Gin |)aar (= cinige) Xage toorcn oergangcn, A few days had 

passed ; — but: 
Gin ^aar (gtiefet fofiet jteben Sljatcr, A pair of shoes costs seven 

5. When the real (logical; subject is represented by e§, or 
some other neut. sing. pron.. before the verb (see §§ 39 ; 82, 
Rem. 2 ; 141), the verb agrees with the logical, not with the 
grammatical subject, as : 

Gs finb meine SBriiber, It is my brothers. 

336 Lf^so:^ xi.rni. [§§285- 

NoTE. — With ?i personal pronoun as subject, tki. t3 follows the verb 
(see § 39, 2). 

6. If the subjects be separated by a disjunctive conjunc- 
tion or conjunctions, the verb regularly agrees with the last 
only, but this rule is by no means so strictly observed as in 
English, even by the best writers, e. g. : 

IBBcbcr bie Union no^ bie Stgue mi(^tcn fid) in biefen 
©treit. Neither the Union nor the league took part 
in this dispute. 
SottJO^t bie Sage aB bie 33efefti9ung biefer Stabt fdjiencn 
jebem SCngriffe ^ro^ 5U bielcn. The situation, as well 
as the fortification, of this city seemed to defy 
every attack. (Schiller, T^ojdhriger Krieg.) 
Notes. — i. Constructions like the following: 

(Snttt)eber bu obcr id^ Bill taub, Either you or I am deaf, 
are in German, as in English, felt to be awkward, and are therefore 
avoided by substituting some other construction, e. g. : 

(SntWebcr irf) bin taub, ober bu bift e§, Either I am deaf, or you are. 
2. The sing, is used after expressions of the time of day, and in the 
multiplication-table, as : 

e« ifi ge^n Ul)r, It is ten o'clock. 

3e{)n mat etf ifi (mad)t) t)uubert unb jet)n, Ten times eleven is one 
hundred and ten. 

286. Repetition of Subject. 

When several connected sentences have a common subject, 
the subject must be repeated (as pronoun) when the order of 
the words is changed, as : 

Xer 3w9 fommt urn neun Ufjr an, unb fdbrt urn f>aI6 je^n 
tDieber o!o, The train arrives at nine o'clock, and 
leaves again at half-past nine; — but: 
^er 3^9 fommt urn neun Hf)r an, unb urn balb ^e^n fdbrt 
cr hjieber oki, The train arrives at 1 ine o'clock, and 
at half-past nine it leaves again. 


287. Omission of Predicative Verb. 

§a6en and fein, as auxiliaries of tense, may be omitted in a 
subordinate sentence, as : 

DZarf^bem fie ben Srief gclcfen, njeinte fie. After she had 
read the letter, she wept. 

288. Other Concords. 

1. The Attributive (or Determinative) Adjective agrees 
with the substantives it qualifies in gender, number and case 
(for inflections see Less. XX, XXII, XXIV) ; the Predica- 
tive Adjective has no inflection (see § 14). 

2. For the concord of Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives 
with their antecedent (in gender, number and person) see 
§§ 38, Rem. 4; 39 ; 43. Rem. 3, 4; 82, Rem. i, 2; ^i, Rem. 
I ; 86; 95, I ib); 162, 2. 

Note. — A Relative Pronoun referring to an antecedent of the first 
or second person takes the verb in the third person, unless the relative is 
followed by the personal pronoun, as stated in § 95, i ((5), e. g. : 

53tft bu ecv ber 10 ^ittcrtV — or : igift bu e#, "^tx iJu fo gitterfl? 

Is it you that tremble ? 

289. The Appositive Substantive. 

1. A substantive or pronoun may have another substantive 
attached to it attributively, giving a further description or 
definition of the person or thing spoken of. This latter sub- 
stantive is said to be in apposition to the former, as : 

?[Rein g-reunb, bcr Center, trug feinc ein^ige 2Baffe, cincn 
bilfcn Stotf, in ber ^panb, My friend, the teacher, 
carried his only weapon, a thick stick, in his hand. 

2. A substantive or pronoun may also be placed in appo- 
sition to a sentence or clause, as : 

(Ir fagte, ba§ er n^ieber ganj gefunb fei, einc $e^au|itung, 
tt)elc6e icf> bejbeifelte, or : ttJttS icf^ Sejiueifelte, He said he 
was quite well again, a statement which I doubted. 

333 LESSON XLVIII. [§§289 

3. The appositive substantive is in the same case as the 
substantive which it defines, thus : 

^arl (Norn.), niciit jiingftcr 33ruber, ift !ran!, Charles, 
my youngest brother, is ill. 

2)ie iU-aufbcit ^arl§ (Gen.), meinc0 jiingften 33ruberg, The 
illness of Charles, my youngest brother. 

(Sine i3cfdhrli6c ilranfbeit brobte (intr.) Rati (Dat.), mets 
ncm iunc3ften 33ruber ; or : bebrobte (trans, i Slaxi (Ace), 
mcincn jiutijftcn Sruber, A dangerous illness threat- 
ened Charles, my youngest brother. 

Notes. — i. A substantive in apposition to a sentence is put in the 
Nominative, as in the example under 2, above. 

2. An appositive genitive without a determinative word before it, 
especially when governing another genitive, is uninflected, as : 

S)ie ilvan!i)eit bc§ ^voiiprinseu, 3o^n bc^ bcutid)eu ^{atferS, The 
illness of the Cro^^^l -Prince, son of the German Emperor ; but : 
2)ie ^ran!t]eit bc§ ^roupnir,en, tit§ dltcftcrt @o{)ne^ it. f. lu., The 
illness of the Crown-Prince, the eldest son, etc. 

4. The appositive substantive generally agrees also in 
number with the word it defines, except in the case of abstract 
substantives and collectives, as : 

(Ecrnelieuy Hinber, thr Stof^ unb ibre grtube, Cornelia's 

children, her pride and joy. 
©a lebten bie •^irten, ein ()armIo» dltit^fct^t, There lived 

the shepherds, a harmless race. (Schiller.) 

5. The appositive substantive agrees in gender when there 
is a special form for the feminine, as : 

©ie ©rabitation ift bie Senfcrin ber 5.^abnen atler §im= 
melsfovpcr, Gravitation is the director of the courses 
of all heavenly bodies. 

6. These rules are also applicable to an apposition intro- 
duced by ale, ' as,' e. g. : 


gc^ fannte ibn aU i\nabc ( Nom.), I knew him as (when) 
a boy (i. e., when / was a boy) ; — but : 

3cf> fannte ibn ale RnaBcn, I knew him when {/le was) a 


A. 1. Konnen Sie mir eine gute Buchhandlung empfehlen ? 
2. Was fiir Biicher woUen Sie kaufen ? 3. Ich mochte rair die 
Werke einiger von den besten deutschen Schriftstellern an- 
schaffen. 4. Sie sollten zu Herrn Braun gehen ; er hat einen 
sehr groszen Vorrat, besonders von den deutschen KLissikem. 
5. Wo ist das Geschaft? 6. Nur einige Schritt(e) von hier, 
Nummer fiinf, um die Ecke ; ich werde Sie begleiten. 7. Das 
ware mir sehr angenehm. 8. Sie scheinen ein groszer Biicher- 
freund zu sein. 0. Ja, das ist eine Schwache, die mich \'iel Geld 
kostet, aber mir auch viel Vergniigen macht. 10. Hier ist der 
Laden ; ich erwarte Sie auf meinem Bureau, wenn Sie fertig 
sind. 11. Ich danke vielmals fiir Ihre Aufmerksamkeit. Also, 
auf Wiedersehen. 1:2. Zeigen Sie mir gefalligst einige Exem- 
plare von Schillers Werken. 13. Gebiinden oder ungebunden ? 
14. Zeigen Sie mir beides. 15. Aus wie vielen Banden besteht 
dieses Exemplar.^ 16. Aus zwolf, und ich mochte Sie auf den 
ausgezeichneten Druck aufmerksam machen. 17. Der Druck 
ist sehr klar ; haben Sie noch sonstige ( andere; Ausgaben } 1 8. 
Wir haben Ausgaben in groszerem Format', aber nur gebunden. 
Hier sind sie. 19. Das Format gefallt mir besser, aber ich 
mag den Einband nicht. 20. Dem ist leicht abzuhelfen. Ich 
bestelle Ihnen ein Exemplar und lasse es nach Ihrem Ge- 
schmack einbinden. 21. Gut, ich mochte es in braunem Leder 
mit Titel gebunden haben ; aber wie viel soil ich Ihnen dafur 
bezahlen? 22. Die Ausgabe kostet zehn Thaler, der Ein- 
band fiinf. 23. Bekomme ich Rabatt' ? 24. Ja, zehn Prozent 
gegen bare Bezahlung. 25. Ich bezahle bar; das macht zwei 
und vierzig Mark. 20. Wiinschen Sie noch etwas ? 27. Ich 

340 LESSON XLVIII. [§§289- 

mochte aiich Goethes sammtliche Werke in demselben Format 
und Einband haben. 28. Es thut mir leid, dass wir keine mehr 
haben, aber ich kann sie bestellen und gleich mit der anderen 
Ausgabe einbinden lassen. 29. Zum selben Preise? 30. 
Nein, es wird mit Einband achtzehn Thaler netto betragen. 

31. Dann besorgen Sie es gefalligst, und schicken Sie mir die 
Werke nebst Rechnung an diese Adresse ; bier ist meine Karte. 

32. Ich besorge alles aufs Sorgfaltigste ; binnen acht Tagen 
sollen Sie die Biicher haben. 

B. 1. "Books," said Alfonso the Wise of Spain, "are 
my most honest councillors : neither fear nor hope prevents 
them telling me what my duty is." 2. "It is not my courtiers," 
said this king, " who tell me most honestly what my duty is , 
it is my books." 3. "No courtier dares to say to a king: 
' Your ]\Iajesty is wrong,' but my books tell me so every day." 
4. I asked a gentleman standing near me, if he knew what 
time it was, and he answered me that it was exactly twelve 
o'clock. 5. More than two hours have passed since then, so 
it must now be between two and three o'clock. 6. Was it 
you that came to see me yesterday, when I was away from 
home ? 7. Yes, my brother and I wanted to visit you, and 
we were sorry not to find you at home. 8. Margaret; the 
eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England, married James 
IV. of Scotland. 9. These were the grand-parents of Mary 
Stuart, Queen of Scotland. 10. To do what^is^right, and 
to be happy, is one and the same, for virtue is its own reward. 
11. Dear father and mother, do you remain sitting here until 
I go for a carriage to drive you home, for I know you are too 
tired to walk. 12. Twelve and twelve make twenty-four, and 
twelve times twelve is one hundred and forty-four. 18. 
After having seen London and Paris, we had not much desire 
to see other cities. 14. I wrote to K., inviting him to pass 
his holidays with us, and by return of post received a letter. 


saying we might expect him in a fortnight. 15. I asked you 
first as my oldest friend to assist me in this embarrassment. 
16. I know we should avoid asking our friends for help until 
we have done our utmost to help ourselves. 17. The hunts- 
man whistled, and his dogs came running from the wood. 
18. Our teacher was^in^the^habit^of telling us we should 
do what was right, let it cost what it would. 19. Is your 
teacher still living ? Yes, he is still living, but he is getting 
very old now. 20. Goethe and Schiller are the two greatest 
poets of Germany -. it is difficult to say which of the two is 
most beloved by the German people. :J1. If you think we 
are right, give us some sign of approval : a word, a smile, a 
glance will suffice. 22. All the rest of our party arrived at 
the top of the mountain before sunset, but my friend and I 
arrived only at nine in the evening. 23. Expect us on Thurs- 
day next, health and weather permitting. 24. The gentleman 
coming out of that shop is Dr. B., and the lady accompanying 
him is his niece, Miss L. 25. Did you ever see the Emperor 
\\'illiam ? I have never seen him as Emperor of Germany, 
but I saw him many years ago as King of Prussia. 



290. The Appositive Adjective. 

I. Attributive Adjectives and participles are said to be 
'jsed appositively when they are separated from their substan- 
tive, as : 

2)er $acje, jung, ^ilbfi^ unb gcijlteir^, tt)ar bev Siebltng 
be^S §auf^3. The page, young, handsome and 
clever, was the favourite of the house. 




3n bcv <B^lad)t fcurig unb furt§t(o§, Wax ?(JlonmoutB 
fonft libcraK iueidilid; unb imfcbluffig, Ardent and 
intrepid in battle, Monmouth was everywhere else 
effeminate and irresolute. 
2. This appositive adjective or participle is, like the pre- 
dicate adjective, uninflected, and is placed at the end of its 
clause. It is used much more sparingly in German than in 
English, and is almost wholly confined to apposition with the 
subject of the sentence (sometimes also with the direct object^. 
In English the attributive adjective or participle is generally 
'Used appositively when it has more than one modifier, and 
always when it has a complement (as in the second example 
above). In German on the contrary the attributive adjective 
is freely used in all such cases before a substantive. All such 
appositive adjectives or participles, unless referring to the 
subject (or direct object) of the sentence, must be rendered 
in German either by an attributive or by a relative clause. The 
following examples will serve to illustrate to what extent the 
appositive adjective can be used in German, and to show how 
it is to be replaced in German in various connections. 

{a) English Appositive == German Appositive (see also the 
examples under i, above) : 

(Engl.) Beleaguered with present distresses and 
the most horrible forebodings on every side, 
roused to the highest pitch of indignation, yet 
forced to keep silence and wear the face of 
patience, Schiller could endure this constraint no 
longer. (Carlyle, Life of Schiller.) 

{Ger7n.) 3Son gegenit>drtigen 9Zoten unb ben fd^redfltc^ften 
Sl^nungen t)on aflen 3eiteu ^eimgcjiir^t, h\§> auf ben 
(;od>ften ©rab cntriiftct, gcjtuungcu jebocf;, ftiffgus 
fc^meigen imb bie 5i}la§!e bev ©ebulb gu Ivagen, fonnte 
(Sd^jiHer biefcn ^hJ^ng nic^t Idnger erbulben. 






Note. — In this example, as in those under i. above, the adjectives 
(participles) beleaguered, etc., are in apposition to the subject ' Schiller.' 

{b) English Appositive Adjective = German Attributive 
Adjective or Relative Clause : 
{Efigl.) To judge from the quantity of light emitted 

from the brightest stars, there is ('one has) reason 

to suppose that some of them are much greater 

than the sun, 
{Germ.) 3iad; ber iion ben f)e((ften Sternen ttU5gcftra^l= 

ten Sic^tmaffe 311 urteilen, ha\ man ©ruub anjunebmcn, 

ba6 einige batton biel cjrof^er finb aU bie Sonne ; or : 

nad) ber 2i(f tmai'fe 311 urteilen, toelt^c u. f. iu. au6gc= 

fh-a^It tuirb u. f. \x>. 
{E?igl.) In the Isle of ]Man vast trees are found 

standing firm on their roots. 
{Germ.) 2(uf ber ^\\]d "D.^ian finbet man mdcbtige ^dume, 

tueli^c auf ben ii}ur5cln fcftfte^en ; or : mdc6tige, auf 

ben Surgeln fcftftc^cnbe 33dume. 

Notes. — i. The participles in these examples are in apposition to the 
objects 'quantity (of light)' and 'tree' respectively. 

2. Observe the position of the Germ, attributive adj. immediately before 
the mbstantive. 

{c) English Appositive Adjective = German Attributive 
Adjective : 

{Engl.) Bruce caused his men to He down to take 
some sleep at a place about half a mile distant 
from the river. 
{Germ.) ^ruce lie^ feine Seute \\6> an einer ungefdf)r 
cine ^albe 5[RetIe bom Jtufjc entfcrnlcn Stelle nieber= 
legen, urn ein irenig 3U fc{»Iafen. 

Note. — An attributive clause is preferable here, since a relative 
clause would separate the clause of purpose (iim, etc.) from the infin. 
(nicberlcgen) on which it depends. 


344 LESSON XLIX. [§§ajo- 


' (Engl.) During the eruption of the volcano, the dark- 
ness occasioned by the ashes was so profound, 
that nothing like it was ever experienced. 
(Germ.) SSdbrenb be§ 2lu§6rud)e§ be§ ^ul!an§ toar bie 
burrf) bie Slfd^e bcrurjtti^te ginfternig fo lief, njte man 
nie etn)a§ ^h\\X\6>^^ ir>abrgenommen ha.iH. 

Note. — Although the participle 'occasioned' is here in apposition to 
the subject 'darkness,' yet the position of the subject after the verb for- 
bids the use of the appositive construction in German, as also in the 
following sentence : 

.... ( {Engl.) It was a place advantageous for defence. 
\ {Germ.) (E# ti^ar eine ^ur 'Iserteibigung 'gunfitigc Stelle. 
(jl) English Appositive Adjective = German Relative 
Clause : 

(Engl?) This plant has changed into two distinct 
vegetables, as unlike each other as is each of 
. them to the parent-plant. 

^ {Germ?) ^tefe -^jflanje f^at fief) in §h>ei berfcf^iebene ©es 
nmfeayten ijertuanbelt, tueld^c einanber fo und^nHi^ 
finb, tote jebe berfelben ber ^DZutter^flanje ift. 

Note. — Here the attributive construction is inadmissible on account 
of the subsequent clause iDie jebe u. f . ir. 

291. Syntax of the Prepositions. 

The cases governed by the various Prepositions are fully 
treated of in Lessons IX, XIII, A, and XXXVIII, and their 
idiomatic use is further defined in Less. XXXIX. 

The object of many verbs, as well as that of substantives and 
adjectives corresponding With them in signification, is ex- 
pressed by prepositions. The proper use of prepositions 
after verbs, etc., must be learnt from practice and from the 
dictionary ; but below is given, for convenient reference, the 
regimen of particular classes of verbs, etc., which differ most 
widely from their English equivalents. 


I. at, of = iifier + Acc, of sorrow, joy ^ wo?ider, etc.. 
as : 

Verbs. Substantives. 

fief) drgern, be vexed Srger, vexation 

erroten, blush (Srrotung, blush 

erftaunert, be astonished Grftaunen, astonishment 

fid^ freuen, rejoice greube, joy (also an -f Dat.) 

fic^ grdmen, grieve ©ram, grief 

flagen, complain ^lage, complaint 

lad^en, laugh ©eldcf^ter, laughter 

fid^ f(f)dmen, be ashamed 3c^am, Sefcftdmuntg, shame 

f^otlen, mock Spctt, mockery 

fic^ (i)er)tr)unbern, wonder 'iscrtDunberung, surprise 

Also the Adjectives drgerlicf), vexed : bofe, angry (at things)-^ 
empfinbli^, sensitive ; froK luftig, merry. 

Note. — ^oie takes auf + Ace. when referring to persons. 

2. for = auf + Acc, of expectation, etc., as : gefa^t, pre- 
pared ; boffen, §offnung, hope ; ir»arten, wait. 

3. for = nai^, of longing, inquiring, etc., as : 
Verbs. Substafitives. 

biirften, thirst ®urft, thirst 

forfcfien, inquire gor]c6ung, inquiry 

^ungern, hunger §unger, hunger 

jagen, hunt S^gb, chase 

fuc^en, search Suft, | ^^^.^^ 

fid) febnen, long 3SerIangen, ) 
bertangen, desire 

Also the Adjectives burftig, thirsty ; e^rgeijig, ambitious ; gie^ 
rig, greedy ; bungrig, hungry. 

4. for = urn, of entreaty, etc., as : bitten, ask ; bublen, court ; 
fle^en, beg ; ficb fiimmern, concern one's self. 

346 LESSON XLIX. [§291 

5. from = bur -|- Dat., of protection, etc., as : beica^ren, 
preserve ; biitcn, protect ; retten, save. 

6. in = an + Dat., of plenty, want, etc., as : arm, poor -, 
frud^tbar, fruitful ; reidi, rich ; fcblDad), weak ; ftar!, strong. 

7. in or on = auf + Ace, of conjidence, etc., as : 

Verbs. Substaiitives. 

ftd^ briiften, boast "Stolj, pride 

ficb berlaffen, rely 3^erla|, reliance 

bertrauen, trust 3Sertrauen, confidence 

8. of = ttU 4- Dat., of ple?ity, want, doubt, etc., as : 

Verbs. Substantives. 

feblen (impers.), ) , . '3}^anqeL want 

r .. ^ be wantins: ^ . . 
mangeln " ) * 9^etc^tum, wealth 

jttJeifeln, doubt llberflu^, superfluity 

berghjeifeln, despair 3^^^f^^/ doubt 

Also the Adjectives !ran!, sick ; leer, empty. 

9. of = an 4- Ace, of remembrance, etc., as : 

Verbs. Substantives, 

benfen, think ©ebanfe, thought 

erinnern, remind (Srinnerung, recollection 
fic^ erinnern, recollect 

Note. — These verbs also govern the Genitive. See § 245. 

10. of = ouf -f- Acc. of suspicion, envy, pride, etc., as^ 

6" ubstantives. Adjectives. 

2Ccbt ( geben), (pay) attention acbtfam, ] 

r\t . V • . r -i-r c attentive 

Slrg^DOtjn, suspicion aufmerifam, j 

Gifcrfud^t, jealousy arghjol^nifd^, suspicious 

5Reib, envy eiferfiicf)ttg, jealous 

eitel, vain 

neibifcb, envious 

ftolg, proud 


11. of = tJOr + Dat, oi fear^ etc., as : 

Verbs. Substantives. 

fid^ furcf)ten, be afraid 5"^^^/ ^^^^ 

„ erf(f)rec!en, be terrified ©cbredf, terror 

„ grauen, dread ©rauen, dread 

Also the adjectives bange, afraid ; fi(f)er, certain, sure. 

12. to = an + Ace, of address^ etc., as: abreffieren, ad- 
dress ; fc^reibcn, write ; fic^ riditen, turn ; fid^ irenben, apply. 

13. to = gcgctt, after Adjectives signifying an affection of 
the mifid, as : barmberjig, merciful ; feinblicb, hostile ; freunbs 
lic^, friendly; gcrec^t, just; gleid^giltig, indifferent; gnabig, 
gracious ; graufam, cruel ; nacbfid^tig, indulgent. 

1. My sister is vexed at not receiving an invitation to 
the party. 2. I am tired of waiting for Charles; let us go 
without him. 3. Oh no, do not let us go yet ; he will be angry 
at us, if we do not wait for him. 4. Charles has many good 
qualities, but you cannot rely upon him. 5. The boy is proud 
of the watch given to him by his father. 6. If you lose your 
way in a city, it is always safest to apply to a policeman. 7. 
I have no doubt that this is good advice. 8. Mary is angry 
at Sarah, because Sarah has made sport of her. 9. Our 
neighbour has been ill for some days ; he complains of rheuma- 
tism, and says be has caught cold. 10. I am less vexed at 
his not coming than at his not sending us word. 11. The war 
had already lasted more than four years, and people were long- 
ing for peace. 12. Diogenes is said to have gone once in day- 
light through the streets of the city, carrying at the same time 
a lantern. 13. People began to laugh at him and mock him, 
asking him what he was looking for. 1-1. He replied that he 
was looking for an honest man. 15. The general postponed 
attacking the enemy, because his army was weak in artillery. 

34^ LESSON L. r§§292- 

16. Mr. Kalk, the architect, promised that my house should be 
finished before the 1st July, but I doubt it. 17. The Province 
of Ontario is rich in iron, but is wanting in coal^to smelt it. 
18. We have been thinking for some time of selling our house, 
but we cannot find anyone who is willing to buy it. 19. Be 
good enough to remind me to buy some postage-stamps, when 
we go past the post-office. 20. We may learn as much by pay- 
ing attention to what we see and hear as we can learn from 
books. 21. The horses, frightened by a passing train, shied, 
and were on the point of running away. 22. The first settlers 
in this country had much to endure : they lived for the most 
part in houses built of [the] trunks^of^trees and covered in 
many cases with bark. 23. (Just) as many people lost their 
lives (the life) by the famine occasioned by the earth- 
quake, as by the earthquake itself. 24. The bad news re- 
ceived yesterday has prevented our going to town to-day. 
25. There are men who grow richer by giving than others 
[do] by receiving. 



292. The Essential Parts of a Sentence. 

I. Every sentence contains three essential parts, viz : the 
Subject, or that of which something is asserted, the Predi- 
cate, or that which is said of the Subject, and, thirdly, the 
Verb or Copula, the word which makes the assertion, and 
which may include the Predicate (as in the simple tenses of 
a verb), but does not necessarily do so. Thus, in the sen- 
tence : ' He sings,' ' he ' is the Subject, while 'sings ' contains 
both the Verb or Copula and the Predicate, i. e., it not only 
asserts something of the Subject, but also says what that 
something is, being equivalent to ' is singing.' In the sen- 


tence : ' He has sung,' on the other hand, ' has ' is the Verb 
(or Copula), ' sung ' is what is asserted, or the Predicate. 

2. The Verb (or Copula) is in German the member of the 
sentence, the position of which is most absolutely fixed ; it is 
the cardijial poi?it or hiiige on which the sentence turns. 

293. Normal Position of the Verb. 

In German, there are three normal positions for the Verb, 
according to the nature of the sentence. 

(^) The Verb stands first : 

1. In Interrogative Sentences expecting the answer * yes ' 
or ' no ' (i. e., when the verb is the question-word, see 
§ 23, 2), as : 

3fl %^x 33ruber h?of)I? Is your brother well } 
IBBirb er fommen? Will he come ? 
§ci§cn Sie ^arl? Is your name Charles t 

2. In sentences expressing a cofHma?id or 7vish, as : 

33eiU(^en 2ie mic^ morgen, Come_and_see me to- 

JEBdre \6> ju ^Oi\x\t ! Were I (would that I were) at 

home ! 

Note. — The verb may either follow or precede the subject in the 
3. Sing. Subj. used as Imperative (see § 268, i), as: 

@ott bef)Ute bid) ! or: ^^ef)Ute bicf) @Ott! God preserve thee ! 

3. In Conditional clauses, wli^n the conjunction iuenn is 
omitted (compare § 59}, as . 

HBdre ba§ better fcf»i)n, fo miirbe icf^ au^gefiert, If the 
weather were fine, I should go out. 

{h) The Verb comes second (is the second idea) in all 
principal assertive sentences ("compare § 20), as: 
^er ^enfcf) ifi fterblicf), Man is mortal. 

35^ LESSON L. [§293 

^er jiingerc i^rubci* meincs 3.^ater^> hjctd^f^r fo !ranf Wax, 
ifi tot, ]My father's younger brotber, who was so ill, 
is dead, 
©eftern 3(bcnb ftorb bcr 33ruber metne§ 2Sate;§, Yesterday 

evening my father's brother died. 
®oir>of)l (nicfit nur) mein Skater, \vk (fonbern ai\6) mcin 
lumber toor 3ugec3en, Both (not only) my father, and 
(but also) my brother ^vere (was) present. 
Remarks. — i. As in the last three examples above, the 
first member of the sentence may be complex, with several 
attributes, complements, etc. ; the verb is still the second 

2. The coordinating conjunctions proper (§ 236) do not 
count as members of the sentence (see the last example above), 
but adverbial conjunctions throw the subject after the verb. 

Note. — Certain adverbial phrases, of a more or less interjectional 

nature, such as: freiltd), true; jn, yes; ja tt)ot)(, to be sure; nein, no; 

!ur^, in short ; iiiit eilicm 2Bort, in a word; gilt, well, are not regarded as 

part of the sentence, and do not throw the subject after the verb, thus : 

^reilic^, id) ^abe es nid)t jelbft gefeljen, True, I did not see it 


^urj (mit cincm SSort), id) glaubc e^ itid)t, In short (in a word), 

' I do not believe it. 

@ut, id) ttierl)C tommen, Well, I shaH'come. 

3. In assertive sentences of an e77iphatic or exclamatory 
character, the verb sometimes comes first, especially when 
the particle bocf) is present, as : 

3flt bae ein ^Better I (= 2Ba§ fur ein ^Setter ift ba§!) 

What weather ! 
§a6e icf)'g bir bu(^ '?A^^^ ! I told you so ! 

4. If a dependent clause or a quotation precede the prin- 
cipal sentence (compare § 294, b^ Rem. 2, below), such clause 
or quotation is regarded as a single member of the sentence, 
and requires the verb immediately after it, as : 


2)a id) felbft md^t fommcn fonnte, fi^iifle ic^ meinen (Bo^n, 

As I could not come myself, I sent my son. 
2ll§ \<i) aniam, tOttt e§ fd)on nac^ 10 U§r, When I arrived, 

it was after lo o'clock. 
SSenn cr lommen fodtc, mcrbe tc^ gu §aufe fein. If he 

should come, I shall be at home. 
„3<^ i^iK meirte Slufgabe n\d}t lernen/' f(|rie ber unartige 

iTnabe, " I will not learn my lesson," cried the naughty 


Notes. — i. After dependent conditional and adverbial clauses (except 
those of time) the particle fo usually introduces the principal sentence, as : 
!Da i(^ nic!)t felbft fommcn fonnte, fo fc^idte id) meinen @o^n. 
SSenn er fommcn joUte, fo mcrbe id) ju §aufe fein. 

2. This particle fo should always be inserted after a conditional clause 
with toentt omitted ; in colloquial usage, however, the principal sentence 
sometimes has the subject before the verb, fo being omitted, as: 

33are er frii^er gefommen, fo t)otte er mid^ gefe^en ; 
or (colloquially) : 

SSare er frii^er getommen, er pttc mid^ gefe^en. 
This latter construction, however, should not be imitated. 

3. \xv proportional clauses introduced by jc, l)eflo, or Utnfo, the depen- 
dent clause comes first, and the verb is preceded by the word expres- 
sing the comparison, as well as by the particle jf, etc., as : 

3e Icingcr tie 9'?ac^te fmb, Ijcflo fiirjcr fini) bie 2age, The longer 
the nights are, the shorter are the days. 

if) The Verb is last in dependent sentences and ques- 
tions (compare §§ 32 ; 88), as : 

gcf) iDei^, bttfe ber 9)Zenfc^ fterblic^ ift, I know that man 

is mortal. 
(Sin 5Rann, tticl^er geflern ^ier tuot, A man, who was 

here yesterday, 
gcf) gebe, mcil e§ fd^on f^at ifl, I go because it is late, 
gc^ \x>(\% nicf)t, ttjer f^ter getoefen ifl, I do not know who 

has been here {dep. question). 

352 LESSON L. [§§293 

Remarks. — i. Indirect statements with baf3 omitted 
have the construction of prijicipal sentences (verb second ; 
see §§ 20; 87, 3), as : 

(Sr facjte, er ^aBc e§ i^ergeflen, He said he had forgotten it. 

2. Conditional clauses with tpenn omitted follow the 
questw?i-o?'der (verb first ; compare § 59), as : 

IBBrire ba§ 2i>cttcr fcf>c»n, fo trurbe id) aiiegekn, If the 
weather were fine, I should go out. 

3. The Verb precedes two infinitives (or infinitive and 
part.; see § 199, 3), as in the compound tenses of Modal 
Auxiliaries, thus : 

©r fagte, ba^ er nicf^t ^abe fommcn ttJoflcn, He said that 
he had not intended to come. 

4. Clauses with bcun (==' unless,' § 241, 18), having ;/t;§^^//V'<? 
force, follow the construction of a principal sentence (verb 
seco?id), as : 

3c6 lafle ^icf) nid^t, 3^u fegncft mirf) benn, I will not let 

Thee go, unless Thou bless me. 
3(f) iDcrbe nid^t fommen, eg fci bcnn, btt§ ba§ Setter fc^on 

Icerbe, I shall not come, unless (it be thaO the 

weather should become fine. 

5. §a6en and fein, as auxiliaries of tense, are frequently- 
omitted at the end of a dependent clause, as : 

Gr leugnete, ba^ cr "^a^ %txi\itx gerbv*od^<Ta (^ttic under^ 
stood). He denied that he had broken the window. 

3d) fragte \hn, cb er jur rcd^tcn ^(i'xi angcft-mmcn (jel 
understood), I asked him if he had arrived in good 

294. Position of the Subject. 

The Subject is placed : 

(a) In Direct Questions, if it be the question-word, at 
the beginning ; otherwise immediately after the Verb, as; 


JlDcr ift bier gehjefen? Who has been here ? 
5ft cr Her getuefen? Has he been here ? 
)Bann fcmmt 3§rc St^ttJCftcr ? When does your sister 
come ? 
(^) In Principal Assertive Sentences, the normal po- 
sition of the Subject \s first ; but if any other word precede 
the Verb, the Subject wimediately follows the Verb, as : 
^(^ iDerbe morgen nid^t auegeben ; or : 
3Korgen it>erbe i(^ nid^t au»gef)en, I shall not go out to- 

Remarks. — i. In point of fact it may be said that, in a 
principal sentence, the Subject follows the Verb quite as often 
as it precedes it. 

2. A preceding dependent clause, or a quotation, always 
throws the subject after the verb, except when, after a con- 
ditional clause with lucttn omitted, the principal sentence is 
not introduced by the particle fo (compare § 293, 4, Note 2, 

3. When the real (logical) subject is represented by c0 
before the verb as grammatical subject, the logical subject 
immediately follows the verb, as : 

©5 ift mcine (St^ttieftcr gettjefen. It was my sister. 

{c) In Dependent Sentences, the Subject, if a relative 
pronoun, begins the sentence, otherwise the Subject imme- 
diately follows the connecting word, as : 

^er 93Iann, ttJelt^er geftern bier h?ar. The man who was 
here yesterday. 

^er 3Rann, ben i(^ geftern \(x^, The man, whom I saw- 

3cb fagte ibr, bafe x^ !ommen toerbe, I told her that I 
should come. 

354 LESSON L. t§§294- 

Note. — Personal Pronouns, and especially the reflective fi^, some- 
times precede the Subject, both in principal sentences with the Subject 
after the Verb, and in dependent clauses, as : 

i)iorncu luill (id) mein 33rubcr Der^ciraten, My brother is going to 

get married to-morrow, 
©r fagte, ha\^ i^n biejev d)ltn\df beleibigt t)abe, He said that this 
fellow had insulted him. 

295. Position of the Predicate. 

1. The Predicate, if not included in the Verb (see § 292, 
I, above), may consist of a participle or infinitive (as in the 
compound tenses of the verb); or it may be a substantive, an 
adjective, or the separable prefix of a compound verb. 

2. The Predicate is placed last in Principal Sentences 
and in Direct Questions; in Dependent Sentences it 

immediately precedes the Verb. 

3. If the Predicate is compound, consisting of two or more 
of the elements under i, above, they will occur in the follow- 
ing order : I. Predicative adjective (or substantive) ; 2. Sep- 
arable prefix; 3. Participle; 4. Infinitive; thus: 

Pred. Adj. 
(gr foK ftet^ gegen feinen armen ©ruber fe^r freigeBig 

Part. Inf. 

gClDCfcn fein. He is said to have always been very 
liberal to his poor brother. 

Pref. Part. Inf. 

©ie Mrbe \d)or\ geftern ah - gcreift fcin. She would have 
departed yesterday. 

Remark. — Any one of these elements of the Predicate 
may, for emphasis, occupy the normal position of the subject 
in Xkio. first place {before the Verb), as : 

^^m ift ba§ ^Setter I^eute nicf)t. The weather is not (at 
all) fine to-day (i. e., it isfarfro^n fine). 


Solbat ift mciu 33ruber, nic^t DDZatrofc, My brother is a 

soldier, not a sailor. 
Singcn iritl irf) iuof)!, aber nid^t f^ielen, I will sing, but 

not play. 

Note. — The Separable Prefix and the Participle are, however, rarely 
placed in this position, except in elevated or poetic diction, or for con- 
trast, as: 

9Iiel)Cr ftetg' id) ^^iim @efed)te, I descend (down I go) to the nght. 

3uruifc Bteibt ber ^^nappen Xxo% The retinue of squires remains 
behind {ibid.). 

(Bntfd)loffEn ift er aIfoba(b, He is resolved at once {ibid.). 
©Cgcben I)a[ie id) i{)m ba« iBuc^ nicfit, fonbern nur gelie^eii, I did 
not give him the book, I only lent it to him. 

296. Position of Objects and Cases. 

1. Objects (not governed by a preposition) precede adjects 
(objects governed by a preposition), as : 

3di F)a6e einen 'Srief an i§n (vin meinen ^^ater) gefdyrieben, 
I have written a letter to him (to my father). 

2. Pronouns (unless governed by prepositions; precede 
substantives, as : 

3(f) hohi i^m einen S3rief gefd^rieben, I have wTitten him 
a letter. 

3. Of Pronouns, Personal before other Pronouns, as : 

S^ babe i§iu bag {tiVoa^) gegeben, I have given him 
that ^something): 

4. Of the cases of Personal Pronouns, the Accusative precedes 
the Dative, and both precede the Genitive ; but the reflexive 
fid^ usually precedes all others, as : 

(Sr ^<xi fic^ (Dat.) e§ gemerft. He has taken^a^note^of 
it (for himself). 

356 LESSON L. [§§296^ 

5. Of Substantives, the Person (unless governed by a pre- 
position) precedes the thing; the Ifidirect precedes the Direct 
Object, and the Remoter Object (in the Genitive) follows 
both, as : 

gd) f)abe 3^tcr (S^ttieftcr bas Sucf) gelieben, I have lent 
your sister the book. 

6r ^(xi bicfcn -KRann be§ ©iebftal^Ig befc^ulbigt, He has 
accused this man of theft. 

6. 'Vci^ personal {ox subjective) Genitive (compare § 243, 2) 
may either precede or follow the substantive which governs it, 

9Keine§ S5oter§ §au§. My father's house ; or : 
!;Da§ §au§ mcine§ S5ater§. 

7. The Hmiti7ig Genitive (see §243,3) follows, except in 
elevated or poetic diction, as : 

3)a§ @nbe bc§ ^ricgcg, The end of the war. 

8. Cases governed by adjectives precede the adjective, but 
a substantive with a preposition may follow the predicative ad ■ 
jective, as : 

^^ bin i^m banfbar fiit fcine ©cmii^ungen, I am grate- 
ful to him for his exertion. 

297. Position of Adverbs and Adverbial Expressions. 

1. In general, adverbs precede the word they modify, as : 

■3c^ bin fc^r miibe geir»orben, I have become very tired, 
©r \:j<x\ ba§ 33ucb ni^t gelefen. He has not read the book. 

2. Adverbs of Time precede objects (except pronouns) and 
all other Adverbs or Adverbial expressions, as : 

Time. Object. Place. Manner. 
@r ^at geftern bag 53urf) gu §aufc fefjr flei^ig ftubiert, 
He studied the book very diligently at home yesterday. 


3. Adverbs of place precede those of manner, and both 
follow objects, as in the above example. 

4. Of several Adverbs of like kind, the more general precede 
the special, as : 

9Worgcn um ^^ebn llbx, At ten o'clock to-morrow. 

Remarks. — i. Any object, adject, adverb or adverbial 
phrase may occupy the normal position of the subject at the 
head of a principal sentence before the verb, compare § 29;, 
Rem., above"), as : 

SJlcincn iBater babe icb nicbt .jefehen, I did not see my 

©eftcrn fam ic6 5U fpdt, I came too late yesterday. 

2. The relative position of objects, abverbs, etc., is the same 
in principal and subordinate sentences. 

298. Position of other Members of the Sentence. 

1. Attributive Adjectives and Participles immediately 
precede the substantive they modif}\ as : 

Gin 5ur 5>crteitii3un3 febr giinftigcr Crt, A place ver\' 
favourable for defence. 

Xac- auf bem ^iigel ftc^enDeiJau^, The house standing 
on the hill. 

2. Prepositions precede their case, vr\l\\ the exceptions 
given in the lists 1 see §§ 46 : 51 ; 2231. 

3. Conjunctions come between the words or clauses they 
connect, as : 

iDUin ij?ruber uttb ^'eine J^"^^^^^ 1^"^ ^^^1^/ ^^y brother 
and his family are here. 

3cf^ ireiB, Uo§ 3ie nic^t fommen trerben, I know that 
you will not come. 

35^ LESSON L. [§§298- 

Note. — In dependent clauses that precede the sentence on which 
they depend the conjunction is first, as: 

3BciI idi fraiit Wav, fomite ic^ nid)t !ommen, Because I was ill, I 
could not come. 

299. Construction of Incomplete Clauses. 

The Word-order of Incomplete or Elliptical Clauses is the 
same as that of Complete Clauses, there being no Verb in the 
former. In Infinitive Clauses the Infinitive comes last ; and in 
Appositive Clauses, the Adjective or Participle comes last, thus : 

®ute greunbe (311) (jaBen ift etn groge^ (BIM, To have 

good friends is a great blessing. 
®ie ^unft in DI 311 malcit. The art of painting in oil. 
gch icerbe micf) freuen, Sie morgen pi fe^en, I shall be 

glad to see you to-morrow. 

^ie§ aKc^5 Bet mir bcnfcnb, fd)Iief ic^ etn. Thinking all 
this to myself, I fell asleep. 

3]on bent £drin aufgcft^retft, frrang er an§> betn 33ette, 
Aroused by the noise, he jumped out of bed. 

300. Interrogative Sentences. 

1. Direct Questions always l?egm with the questio7i-word, the 
other members of the sentence occupying the same relative 
position as in principal sentences. For the position of the 
Verb and Subject, see §§ 293, 294, above. 

2. Questions in German very frequently have the form of a 
principal assertive sentence, the question being marked only 
by the rising inflexion of the voice, as : 

3^u ^aft bcinc Seftion nic^t gelcrnt? You have not 
learnt your lesson 1 

Notes. — i. This construction often occurs with a 2)0(^ in the sen- 
tence, as : 


3)U irirjl t)0^ fommcn? You will be sure to come (will you 

@r ift bOI^ nid^t fraii! ? He is not ill (is he ? I hope not). 

2. Exclamatory sentences frequently have the construction of depen- 
dent questions, but may also have that of direct questions, as : 

Sev mitge^eit tiirfte ! (Happy he) who might go with you ! 
SBie id taQ SBetter fdf)i3ii ! How beautiful is the weather! 

301. General Remarks on German Construction. 

The following are the principal points in which German 
differs from English Construction : 

1. The Verb (containing the Copula) is the hinge on 
which the sentence turns, and has its position most absolutely 

2. The Subject does not, as in English, necessarily precede 
the Verb in Principal Sentences ; but if any other member of 
the sentence precede the Verb, an mversion of the subject 
takes place, and it is thrown after the verb. 

Notes. — i. The terms invcrsio7i, inverted sentence, often used by 
grammarians, refer to the Subject only, not to the Verb. 

2. This inversion of the Subject is also found in Interrogative and 
Imperative Sentences (see §§ 293 ; 294 ; 300, above). 

3. The relative rank of sentences is marked by the varying position of 
the Verb, which is last in Dependent Sentences. 

4. All the other parts of the sentence, except what precedes the Verb, 
are included or bracketed between the Verb and the Predicate. 

5. Dependent Sentences (including Infinitive and Appositive Clauses; 
see § 299, above) are marked off from the sentences on which they depend 
by commas. 



302. Compound and Complex Sentences. 

1. A sentence is compound \\\itn it contains more than one c'oordinatt 
clause ; complex when it contains a subordmate clause, thus : 

Compound: 3c^ ging an il)m oorbei, fannte i^n aber nicf)t, 
I went past him, but did not know him. 

Complex : (Sr iagte miv, ba^ er fommen inerbe, 
He told me that he would come. 

2. Any subordinate clause may itself be complex, having another clause 
dependent upon it, as : 

3ci) erruartete i^n geftern, hJcil er mir gefc^rteben ^atte, tia^ ietne 

@eid)afte ba(b beenbigt fein miirben, I expected him yesterday, 

because he had written me, that his business would soon be 


Note. — In the above example, the clause ix»eil er, etc., depends on the principcd 

clause preceding it; whereas the clause ba§ feine ®efd)dfte, etc., depends on the clause 

roeil er, etc., which is itself subordinate. 

Remark. — In the following observations as to the relative position 
or order of clauses, the term " principal sentence " includes all sentences, 
though themselves subordinate, which occupy the relation of a principal 
or governing sentence to the clauses dependent upon them. 

303. I. In Complex Sentences, the position of the various depen 
dent clauses is regulated by the following general principle : 

Finish the principal sentence before introducing the sub- 
ordinate clause. 

2. Thus, in the example in § 302, 2, above, it would be wrong to insert 
the last clause (ba^ . . . tniirben) wHthin the preceding clause on which 
it depends, thus : 

Sell er mir, ba^ feine ®ef(i)dfte beenbigt fein murben, ge^c^rieben 

3. Similarly the following construction would make the complex sen- 
tence quite unintelligible : 

Xie @en)ol)n^eit mu§ bie ^^ertigtett eine @ad[)e o^ne iibev bie 9iegcl 
\\\ benten jtt t^utt iJCrlei^en. 
The observance of the above rule will require the clauses of this sen- 
tence to be arranged as follows : 


2)ie @ett)oI]nt)elt muc tie ^ertigfeit dcrlci^cn, eine (2acf]e ju t^un, 

o^nc iiber bic 9iegel nad)',ubenfcn, Habit (practice) must bestow 

the readiness of doing a thing without reflecting upon the rule. 

4. In the following sentence, again, the isolation of the separable prefix 

is very objectionable : 

fetter ging bie Sonne an jenem 9D^orgen, an bem ft>ir abreiftcn, ttuf, 
The sun rose cheerfully on that morning on which we set out. 
The prefix Quf should be inserted after 2J?orgen. 

304. Appositive Clauses, must, however, stand immediately after 
the particular part of the sentence to which they refer, as : 

S)ie ^riefterin, bon i^rcr ©otttn fclbjl gchJii^Iet uitb ge^cili^t, 

jpricf)t 511 btr, The priestess, chosen and consecrated by the 

goddess herself, speaks to thee. 
SSa§ !onnen mv, cin fc^ttJO^eg 3}ott tier ^ivUn, gegen 5ltbrecf)t3 

§eere ? What can we, a weak people of herdsmen, [do] against 

Albert's hosts ? 
Sc^ ^abe il)m biefen ^e^ler, tia^ tx jctic ^^antilung mt^tieute, jcf)on 

oft tiorgenjorfcn, I have often reproached him with this mis- 
take of misinterpreting every action. 
Sd) fonnte bie gragc, 06 ttiir fdmen, nicf)t beantirorten, I could 

not answer the question, whether we were coming. 

305. Relative Clauses must immediately follow the antecedent : 
(a) When the latter (whether subject or not) precedes the verb of a 

principal sentence, as : 

Ser Tlanu, totli^tv gcjictn |ier ttJor, ift ^ente njiebergefommen, 
The man who was here yesterday came again to-day. 

2)en 'Sflann, tucld^'Cr gcj^ern ^icr toor, I)abe id) nid)t gefannt, I did 
not know the man, who was here yesterday. 

Note. — If the antecedent does not precede the verb, the relative is introduced after 
the conclusion of the principal sentence, except as under (d), below, thus: 
^eute ift ber Tlann rciebergefomrnen, toelc^er u. f. it). 
3c§ l)abe. ben ifJann nic^t gefattnt, tcelc^er u. f. to. 

{d) When their separation from the antecedent would cause ambi- 
guity, as: 

©eftern ^abe ic^ meinen greunb, ben ic^ lange nid)t geiebcn, hti 
meinem 53ruber getroffcn, Yesterday I met at my brother's my 
friend, whom I had not seen for^a^long^time. 

Note. — If the relative clause were placed after the conclusion of the principal sentence, 
the relative ben might refer to Srubet. 


306. A Subordinate or Dependent Clause (with the exceptions 
specified in Remarks 3, 4, below) may also, whether subjective, objective 
or adverbial, f recede the principal clause, in which case it throws the 
Subject after the Verb, as: 

Z^ id) fommcn fonn [subjective clause), ijl 3tt)eifelf)aft, It is 

doubtful whether I can come. 
SScr gor ?u bid bcticnft [subjective clause), njtrb ttjcnig leiften, He 
who considers too much, will accomplish little. 

%^% cr mir nit^t gei'diriefien {subjective clause\v^o,^i mirSorgen, 

[The fact] that he has not written to me, causes me anxiety. 
Cb id) tDcrtic fommcn fbnncn {objective clause), jretB id) uid)t, 

I do not know, whether I shall be able to come. 
^OB tx ftttnf ifl [objective clause), '^abe icf) geftern gel^ort, I heard 

yesterday, that he was ill. 
^tt id) frcnf tuttr [adverbial clatise^, foimte id) nid^t fommen, As 
I was sick, I could not come. 
Remarks. — i. Such a clause takes the place of a subject, object or 
predicate, as the case may be, before the verb (compare §§ 293, b, 
Rem. 4; 294, Rem. 2; 295, Rem.). 

2. Adverbial clauses in this way bring expressions of time, place, etc., 
but more especially those of cause, nearer to the verb, which is the part 
of the sentence they modify. 

3. Oxi\\' subjective relative clauses with the compound relative trer, rt)a§, 
can stand at the head of a sentence, as in the second example above. 

Note. — The relative ber is sometimes used instead of roer as compound relative 
(including both relative and antecedent), especially in the plural, as : 

®ic fic^ ju f)art rergangen fatten, flofien oxiA bem Sanbe. (Schiller) ; i. e., 
^teicnigcn, n)eld)c u. 1*. 10. ; or: 2Ser \\6) \\\ l)art rergangen batte (sing.), 
flof) u. f. n>., Those who had committed too great offences, fled from the 

4. Clauses which modify not the whole sentence but a particular 
member, cannot stand at the head of the sentence, but stand either 
immediately after the word to which they refer, or after the conclusion 
of the sentence (compare § 297, above). This remark applies especially 
to relative clauses (but see Rem. 3, above, and Note), and to comparative 
clauses with qB, as : 

©ein Unglud roar griJBer, olS cr crtrogcn fonntc (or : ju grog, 
0l§ iJafe er e3 u. f. xo.), His misfortune was greater than he 
could bear. 


Note. — Comparative clauses with rote may precede, as : 
5GBte tm 2aub ber SSogel ftngt, 
3Jiag fid) jeber giitlic^ t^un, 
As the bird sings amid the boughs, let every one enjoy himself. (Schiller). 


1. It seems impossible, says a great botanist, to give, in the present 
state of our knowledge, a complete definition of what (= that which) is to 
be considered as an animal, in contradistinction to what one must regard 
as a plant. 2. The good king Robert Bruce, who was always watchful 
and prudent, had received information (.^lunbe) of (OOli) the intention of 
these men to attack him suddenly. 3. Bruce caused his men to Ue down 
to take some sleep at a place about half a mile distant from the river 
(see § 290, c, i), while he himself, with two attendants, went down to watch 
the ford through which the enemy must pass, before they came to the 
place where king Robert's men were lying. 4. "If I go back," thought 
the king, "to call my men to (the) arms, these men will get (fommeu) 
through the ford unhindered ; and that would be [a] pity, since it is a 
place so advantageous for defence." 5. In the confusion, five or six of 
the enemy were slain, or, having been borne down by the stream, [were] 
drowned. 6. With the natural feeling of a young author (-id)riftfteller), 
he had ventured (it) to go (ftc^ aufmad]enj secretly and witness (betiro{)nen 
+ dat.) the first representation of his tragedy at Mannheim. 7. He 
resolved to be free, at whatever risk (auf jetie (^efa^r l)in); to abandon 
(^z:give up) advantages which he could not buy (erfaufcil) at such a price ; 
toquithisstepdame (ftiefmiitterlic^, adj.) home, and go forth (fortraanbern), 
though friendless and alone, to seek his fortune in the great market 
(3af)rmarft) of life. 8. Having well examined the place (Crt), the soldier 
reported his discovery to Marius, and urgently (bringeiib) advised 
(anraten 4- dat.) him, to make an attack upon the fort from that side 
where he had climbed up, offering (ficf) erbietcii) to lead (=show) the way. 
9. He ordered his men to advance against the wall with their shields held 
together in the manner which the Romans named ' testudo ' or tortoise 
(Sd^tlbfrote). 10. His mother was present on (bci) this joyous occasion, 
and she produced (^ showed) a paper of (= with) poison, which, as she 
said, she meant to have given her son in his liquor (CSetrduf, ace.) rather 
than that he should submit (himself) to personal disgrace. 




Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand 
nine hundred, by The Copp, Clark Company, Limited, Toronto, Ontario, in the 
OflBce of the Minister of Agriculture. 


[The references at the head of the exercises are to the sections 
in the Grammar on which the exercises are based.] 

EXERCISE I, a. (§§ 1-2.) 

A. Continue the following, conjugating the verb throughout 
the singular and plural : 1. 3^ ^^^^ ®olb unb ©ilBer, bu !§aft 
@olb unb (BiiUx, 2c. 2. 2Sa§ ^ahc id) ?, it)a§ ^aft hu ?, 2c. 
3. S^ahc ic^ 33rDt unb SJlild) ?, ^a]t bu 33rot unb TOl^ ?, 2c. 

^. Supply the proper form of the present indicative of 
IjttBen in the blank spaces: 1. Qo^iinn (John) — Srot. 2. 
er — 58rDt. 3. SOZarie (Mary) — 9J^tl^. 4. (2ie — a}^ird). 

5. 2Sa§ — er ? 6. 2Ba§ — fie ? 7. Soljann unb maxk — 33rot 
unb mild), 8. @ie — SBrot unb 3J^i(d). 9. 35>a§ — id) ? 
10. 3)u — gleifdi. 11. 33a§ — roir ? 12. 2Sir — @olb 
unb (Silber. 

C. 1. John has milk. 2. Mary has some bread. 3. He has 
some milk. 4. She has bread. 5. They have bread and milk. 

6. Wliat have we ? 7. We have water and wine. 8. Have 
I gold or silver 1 No. 9. Hast thou also bread and milk 1 Yes, 
I have bread and milk. 1 0. What have they ? 11. They have 
some meat, some bread, some ^'ine and some w^ater. 1 2. Ye 
have silver, but we have gold. 

EXERCISE II, a. (§§3-5.) 

A. Continue the following, as in Exercise I, a. above : 1. 
3c^ f)abe ba§ S3u(^ unb bie g-eber, bu ^aft, 2c. 2. ^abt id) ben 
(Btod ?, I;aft bu ?, 2c. 3. ®a§ Ijabt id) ?, wa§ ^a]t bu ?, 2c. 

B. Supply the proper form of the definite article in the 
blank spaces : 1. S'^abt id) — 33ud; ? 2. Sr^aft bu — geber ? 



3. .r^at Waxk — 23(ume ? 4. ib}er ^at — 30k[fer (sing.)? 5. 
^aben luir — 3)ieifer (plur.)? 6. §abt il)r^ ^nevb ? 7. §aben 
fie — §unb ? 8. — ^unb ^at ^leijdj. 9. — Ser)rer f)at — 
©tod. 10. — £'e^rer i)abcn ^djukx. 11. — ecEjuIer fjaben 
Se^rer. 12. — ^nabe ^at — (Btocf. 13. — lOMbc^eix ^at — 
33lume. 14. — Wdhdfm I^aben Se^rer. 

C. (Oral Exercise — questions to be answered in German 
by the pupil.) 1. Was hat der Knabe ? 2. Was hat er ? 
3. Was hat Marie ? 4. Was hat sie ? 5. Wer hat die Messer ? 
6. Wer hat das Buch 1 7. Was haben die Lehrer ? 8. Was 
haben die Schiiler ? 9. Wer hat die Feder der Mutter ? 
10. Wer hat die Messer der Lehrer? 11. Was hat die Mutter 
der Madchen ? 12. Wer hat den Stock? 13. Hast du das 
Buch oder die Feder ? 

i>. 1. I have the book. 2. Thou hast the pen. 3. Mary 
has the flower. 4. We have pupils. 5. The teachers have 
pupils. 6. They have teachers. 7. Who has gold and silver ? 
8. The girl's mother has gold and silver. 9. The mother of 
the girls has bread and meat. 10. To the teacher, to the 
mother, to the girl, to the girls. 11. John has the stick and 
the knives. 12. The girl has the pen. 

EXERCISE III, a. (§§ 6-7.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. 3<^ ^attt biefe 3^^^"^^3/ ^^^ 
l^atteft biefe 3situng, 2c. 2. .gatte id) ben (itocf ?, ^atttft hu ?, 
:c. 3. ,!pabe id) biefe§ 33uc^ ?, I;aft ^u ?, :c. 4. ^d) Ijabc jraei 
(Bd)ukx, bu §aft, 2c. 

B. Supply the proper form of biefer in the blank spaces: 
1. ^d)^atk — <Btod. 2. 3^u ^atteft — geitung. 3. — iltxabe 
^at — Sud). 4. — grau l^atte — 33Iume. 5. So^ann unb id) 
l^atten — ^J^eijer (plur.). 6. — Se^rer flatten 3d;iiler. 7. Xex 
33ruber — grau i)at ^xvti Xod)ter. 8. 5^er Sruber — i[Rdbd)en 


(plur.) Ijat ha^ '^iid), 9. ^d) gcbe (give) — ^djiilev, — 
grau, — 9JZabd)en, — 9J^abd;eu (plur.) bie 3citimg. 

C. (Oral.) 1. WelcherKnabehatte den Stock? 2. Welchen 
Stock hatte er ? 3. Welche Frau hatte die Zeitung? 4. 
"VVelche Zeitung hatte sie 1 5. Welches Madchen hatte die 
Blume ? 6. Welche Blume hatte sie ? 7. Welcher Lehrer 
hatte dieses Buch ? 8, Welches Buch hatte er ? 9. Welchem 
Schiller giebt er {Joes he give) die Feder ? 10. Welcher Frau 
giebt er das Brot ? 11. Welchem Madchen giebt er die Blume ? 
12. AVelchen Madchen giebt er die Zeitung 1 

D. 1. Which boy had this stick ? 2. Which stick had this 
boy ? 3. This woman has two daughters. 4. This girl has 
the flower. 5. These teachers have pupils. 6. The father 
of these girls had this house. 7. Who had these gardens'? 
8. To which father, to which mother, to which girl, to which 
girls, does he give gold ? 9. He gives this father (this mother, 
etc.), gold. 10. Who had this newspaper? 11. Which news- 
paper had John ? 12. Which book had he? 

EXERCISE IV, a. (§§ 8-15.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. ^d^ Bin miibe, \i\i bift miibe, 
2C. 2. 33in id) fd)bn ?, bift bu \6^oxi ?, k. 3. ^d^ xoax '^tvdt 
f)ter, "iiVi tuarft, 2c. 4. 2Sar id) geftern nid)t \\tx ?, xoax\i bu ?, 
2C. 5. ^&) l^abe einen greunb, \)\i ^a]i, iz, 6. 3"^ 'i)0.iit eine 
5B(ume, bu f)atteft, 2c. 7. §atte id) ein 33ud) ?, f)atteft 't>Vi ?, 2c. 

5. Supply the proper form of mein and ein in the blank 
spaces: 1. W, — ^ater ^ai e — greunb. 2. W — 3D^utter ^ai 
e_ 23lume. 3. ^^tefeS 3D2dbd)en l)ai e— Jlletb. 4. 3}^— ^t^xtx 
^aben e — SSagen. 5. 3d) gebe m — 33ater e — 3^^^^^9- 6- 3<^) 
gebe m — DJ^utter e — 33ud). 7. 3d) gebe e — .^tnbe m — gebev. 
8. 3c^ gebe m— ^inbe e— .Out. 9. G— Jlinb ^t m— ^ut, 
10. 3ja6 ®ud) m — ©c§n)efter ift md)t Ijiev. 


C. (Oral.) 1. 1st sein Haus klein oder groas ? 2. War 
das Wetter gestern warm oder kalt % 3. Sind diese Madchen 
reich oder arm ? 4. Waren die Madchen hier ? 5. Waren 
sie gestern hier ? 6. Hat dein Yater einen Wagen % 7. Sind 
sein Bruder und seine Sch wester hier % 8. 1st unser Lehrer 
miide ? 9. Sind seine Schiiler trage oder fleissigl 10. Wo 
ist die Feder meiner Schwester ? 11. Wer hat meinen Stock % 

12. Hat Marie kein Buch ? 13. Hat sie auch keine Feder? 
14. Hat sie ihre Feder % 

D. 1. The weather is cold to-day. 2. It was warm yester- 
day. 3. I was tired, he was tired, we were tired, they were 
tired. 4. ]My brother and sister are not idle. 5. My sister's 
dress is pretty. 6. Is her dress pretty ? 7. Ko, it is not 
pretty. 8. Our friend and his brother are here. 9. Our 
teachers are tired. 10. The pupils are not tired. 11. Has 
Mary no pen? 12. She has a book, but she has no pen. 

13. Who has my stick ? 1-1. Has John a friend ? 15. I give 
(gebc) my friend my book and pen. 

EXERCISE V, a. (§§ 16-18.) 

A. Decline the following throughout : biefer DJ^aler, btefe 
MvLittx, biei'es Dl^dbdicn, btefe Xo&\xtx, mein 23ruber, metn ^Ipfel, 
fein DJlantel, i^r ©emdlbe, unfer iSagen, ber Waitx, bie -loc^ter, 
\iix^ genfter. 

B. Give the genitive singular and the nominative plural of : 
Ofen, 35ogeI, ©arten, Cnfel, 3Xbler, Mt\\tx, ^^Ipfef, Z^iiitx, 
Server, Sdjiuager, 9JJutter, ^Dd)ter, ^dfe, SSagen. 

C. 1. ^ieSpfet fmb frf)on. 2. Xte genfter [inb flein. 3. 3^ie 
2)lutter bte]'er DJ^dbd)eu tft arm. 4. ^^xt Xorfiter finb franf. 
5. ^ie 3:oc^ter meine§ S3ruber5 iuar geftern fraut. 6. "Zk 
£e^rer finb fleiBtg. 7. ^tefe ©c^iiler fmb md)t trdge. 8. 3)ie 
giiigel bie[er ^^oget finb gro§. 9. Qm ©ontmer fmb bie @drten 
]e()r jdjon. 10. 5^ie ©drten fmb griin. 11. Unfere iiyi\d i\n\i 


icM rcif. \-. Xkic ^^}ntitx waxen mit i()reu ^i3d)tevu t^av iud)t 
Uifiis^cn. 13. ^sd) Ijabe groei ^riiber. 14. 9JZem ©ruber ^t 
jicei 2;i3d;ter. 

J). (Oral.) 1. Wann sind die Apfel reif ? 2. "Wann sind 
die Garten griin ? 3. AVer hat meinen Mantel ? 4. Wo sind 
unsere Briider ] 5. Sind diese Maler reich oder arm ? 6. 
Sind ilire Gemalde gut (good) oder schlecht ? 7. Haben diese 
Madclien zwei Briider oder drei 1 8. Hat dein Yater einen 
Wagen ] 9. Sind die Fliigel des Adlers klein oder gross 1 
10. "Waren die Miitter mit ihren Tochtern zufrieden ? 11. 
Wo sind die Madchen ? 12. Wer hat deine Messer ? 13. Hat 
dein Yater zwei Garten ? 14. Sind seine Garten in der Stadt? 
15. Wo sind die Garten deines Yaters ? 

F. 1. Tliese apples are very large. 2. The apples in our 
garden are ripe. 3. I give the apples to these girls. 4. These 
l^aintings are beautiful. 5. My brother has three daughters. 
6. His daughters are very industrious. 7. He is satisfied with 
his daughters. 8. The gardens are beautiful in summer. 
9. The trees in this garden are very large. 10. My brothers 
were here yesterday. 11. These painters are poor. 12. Their 
paintings are not good. 13. A bird has wings. 14. These 
\s'indows are very small. 15. In (the) spring, in summer, in 
autumn, in winter. 

EXERCISE VI, a. (§§ 19-20.) 

A. Continue the following : 1. ^d) raerbe !aU, bii, k. 
2. 2Bevbe tc^ iniibe?, mirft hn, 2c. 3. 3d) hin mit nieinem 
33ruber jufrieben, hn, 2c. 4. ©eftern wax id} 5U Jpaufe (at 
home), — iDarft bu, 2C. 5. ^m 33}iuter Bin id) ju J^aufe, — 
btft hu, 2C. 6. ^m (Sommer inerbe ic^ immer txaxit, — wix]t bu, 2c. 

B. 1. liefer (2d)ii(er tnirb jet^t fleiBtg. 2. Qm SStnter tear 
er trdge. 3. 3m (gommer roerbe tc^ oft txant. 4. ^irft bu im 
cjerbfte roieber ido1^( ? 5. 3^/ ^^^ ^erbfte raerbe id) raieber woiji. 


6. 2Biv luerben xc'idj, ahtx fie inevbcn arm. 7. ^er DJiafer waxh 
arm. 8. (Seine ©emcilbe murbeii fd)(ed)t. 9. ^ir luurben mit 
feinen ©emcilben un^ufrieben. 10. ^m .gerbfte merben bie Slpfet 
reif. 11. 3m (Sommer murben bie ©drten \d)X fdjon. 12. 
^te ©drten merben je^t griin. 13. ^cntc njirb ba§ SS>etter fe'^r 
unangenef)m. 14. ©efterti luar ber 33ruber biefer 93tab(^en l^ier. 

15. ^er 33ater un]ere§ :^e(;rer§ ift je^t ]§ier. 16. §ier tft er. 
17. 2Bir finb l^ier ; ^ier finb rair. 18. ^ie l^e^rer finb mtt ifjren 
®(j§u(ern oft unjufrieben. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Wirst du miide ? 2. Wer ^vird miide ? 3. 
Wer ward gestern krank 1 4. Wirst du im Herbste oft krank ? 
5. Wirst du im Winter wieder wohl 1 6. Werden wir reich 
oderarra? 7. Wurden unsere Briider auch arm ? 8. Werden 
die Schiller jetzt fleissig? 9. Wann wurden sie trage? 10. 
Warm werden die Garten griin ? 11. Wann werden die Apfel 
reif? 12. Wurden die Apfel im Friihling reif? 13. Wer 
ist unzufrieden? 14. Wird dein Yater jetzt schwach? 15. 1st 
er sehr alt? 16. Wann war der Bruder des Malers hier? 
17. Waren seine Tochter gestern auch hier? 18. Sind wir 
mit den Gemalden dieses Malers zufrieden ? 

D. 1. I am tired. 2. I am getting (I become) tired. 3. In 
summer I often got tired. 4. We often fall (become) ill in 
summer. 5. In autumn we get well again. 6. My father fell 
ill in the winter. 7. In spring he got well again. 8. The 
weather is getting fine again. 9. He will get well. 10. You 
(2 sing.) are getting large and strong. 11. My father and 
mother are getting old. 12. You (2 plur.) are getting old. 
13. In spring the garden became beautiful again. 14. In 
sunmier the leaves were green, and the apples were getting 
large. 15. We were idJe, but now we are becoming attentive. 

16. When were the brothers of these girls here? 17. They 
were here yesterday. 18. They are here now. 19. Here they 
are. 20. Are they getting tired ? 


EXERCISE VII, a. (§§ 21-23). 

A. Decline the following tlii^oughout ; ber (Eoljn, niein 
i^unb, bie ^a-nh, bie[er 9}Zonat, ein 3al;r, n)eld)er SlpfelBaum, 
fein geinb, unfer £onig, U)x ^eppid), fetn SiingUng. 

B. Give the genitive singular and the nominative plural 
of : gveunb, geinb, gug, ©eneral, 3ii'"9^ing, Cffijier, (Btaht, 
^ox^ang,, ^aum, §anb, 3^"^^^^!*/ gtnger. 

C. 1. ^ie ^age ber 3Sod)e finb ©onntag, 2c. 2. ©ine 
3Sod^e I;at fiekn ^age. 3. Si^ret 3al}re. 4. (Sieben 9}Zonate. 
5. ^^ir !f)aben jiuei .g)^^^^ wnb jiuet giiBe. 6. 3^^^ .^anb l^at 
fiinf gmger. 7. ^ie ,g)unbc ^aben cter gi'iBe. 8. S)te gii^e 
ber S'^nnhc finb Hetn. 9. 2Sir ^aben brei ^IpfelMume in unferem 
©arten. 10. Sie 51pfelbdume unfereS @arten§ finb grog. 11. 
^o^ann I;at feine geinbe. 12. 93teme greunbe maren geftern 
nidit ju t^aufe. 13. ^ie ^riiber meine§ greunbe§ finb je^t l^ier. 
14. Xk ©enerale be§ ^aiferS finb je^t in btejer ^Bta^t 15. ^ie 
(£i3^ne meines (id)raager§ finb je^t grog. 16. ^ie 3Sor^dnge 
metne§ 3^^^^^^^ f^^^ ^o^- l''^- 3*^) '^^^^ ^^"^" ^epptcf) in metnem 
3immer. 18. ^ieje ^eppid)e unb 3]orIjdnge finb fef)r fd)on. 

Z). (Oral.) 1 . Wie ^.dele (how many) Tage hat eine Woche 1 
2. Wie viele Monate hat ein Jain*? 3. Wie viele Hande 
haben wir'? 4. Wie ^dele Fiisse haben die Hunde? 5. Sind 
die Ftisse der Hunde gross ? 6. Hat dein Vater Apfelbaume 
in seinem Garten? 7. Sind seine Apfelbaume gross? 8. Wie 
viele Sohne hat der Kaiser ? 9. Haben die Hunde Fleisch ? 
10. Was haben sie? 11. Wo sind die Generale ? 12. Wann 
waren die Offiziere in dieser Stadt ? 13. Haben sie viele 
Freunde hier ? 14. Hat Johann ^dele Feinde ? 

-£'. 1. A week has seven days. 2. The days of the week 
are Sunday, etc. 3. A year has twelve months. 4. I have 
two hands and two feet. 5. A dog has four feet. 6. My 
father has apple-trees in his garden. 7. His apples are getting 


ripe now. 8. The king has three sons and two daughters. 
9. The officers are in the city. 10. "Where is the general's 
son? 11. He is in the city too. 12. Have you many friends? 
13. I have many friends and no enemies. 14. My Avindows 
have curtains. 15. The carpet of my room is red. 16. These 
carpets are red. 17. Kings have generals. 18. Generals 
have officers. 

EXERCISE VIII, a. (§§ 24-26.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. ^c^ l^aBe '^cdjt o^tijaht, bu 
(jaft, K. 2. ^aht id} 9tec§t geljabt ?, l^aft bu, k. 3. ^d) 
l^atte ben (Btod nid}t ^d)aU, bu, jc. 4. ^atit id) hen <Btod 
nid)t ^t^aht ?, jc. 5. ^d) werbe t)te( @elb f)abcn, hn, k. 

6. 2l>erbe id) ctel @elb l^aben ?, jc. 7. 3^ tuevbe met 3}erg; 
niigen ^z^aht l^aBen, hn, jc. 8. 3*^ raiirbe fern 33ergniigen 
ge^6t l^aBeu, bu, jc. 

B. 1. S^er ^nabe l^at etnen 5lpfe( ge^abt. 2. liefer .l^err 
^tte ctel @elb ge^abt. 3. ^ie 33ettler {)aBen fetne (Bd)u^t 
geljoBt. 4. 23 tr rcevben Ifieute ein ©eiuitter tjahen. 5. ^ie 
^djiiter icevben morgeit einen geiertag 'i)ahtn. 6. ?Bivft bu 
movgen bein 5Bud) ^beu ? 7. ^er ^aifer luiirbe Dtele ©enerale 
^aben. 8. liefer Server roiirbe ctete (Sd^iUer l^aben. 9. Tlcin 
greunb rcirb in ber (Stabt Dtel 33evguiigen gef)a6t l^aben. 10. 
3c^ 'i)abt in biefer (^tabt ctele gveuube ge§abt. 11. ^iefe 
3)^abd)en raerben morgen ^anbi"c{)u§e ^a6en. 12. ©ir l^atten 
9ied)t ge^abt. 13. S^a]t bu 9^ed)t ge^abt ? 14. 31>urbe ic^ 
iRed)t Ijabcn ober Uuredjt ? 15. 5^u raiirbeft llured)t l^aBen. 
16. 3d; raerbe morgen einen getertag ^aben, benn id) bin miibe. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Wer hat mein Buch gehabt ? 2. Wer hat 
den Stock meines Bruders gehabt ? 3. Was hast du gehabt ? 
4. W^as haben Johann und Marie gehabt ? 5. Habe ich deine 
Feder gehabt? 6. Haben wir gestern ein Ge witter gehabt? 

7. Werden wir morgen ein Ge^ritter haben ? 8. Wann werden 
die Schiller einen Feiertag haben ? 9. Warum hatten sie 


einen Feiertag gehabt ? 10. Wird deine Schwester morgen 
ihre Handschuhe haben ? 11. Werden wir morgen Geld 
haben ? 12. Wie viele Hunde wiiide Johann haben? 13. 
Wirst du viel Yergniigen in der Stadt gehabt haben? 14. 
Hatte ich Recht gehabt? 15. Wer hatte Unrecht gehabt? 
16. Wiirden wir Recht oder Unrecht haben ? 

D. 1. The girl has her book. 2. The girl has had her book. 
3. "We have had many friends. 4. They have had gold and 
silver. 5. The beggars have had no money. 6. Had they had 
bread ? 7. They had had no bread. 8. My friends had had 
much pleasure in the city. 9. Will they have much pleasure 
to-morrow ? 10. I shall have money to-morrow. 11. We 
shall have a holiday to-morrow. 12. Will our friends have 
had much money ? 13. The emperor will have had generals 
and officers. 14. We shall have had friends and enemies. 
15. I should be right. 16. I should have been right. 17. 
You would be wrong. 18. You would have been wrong. 

EXERCISE IX, a. (§§ 27-34.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. 3d) loBe meinen greunb, bu, 
K. 2. 9}^ac§e tc^ einen ©pa^tergang ?, mac^ft bu, jc. 3. ^d) I;aBe 
etn ,g)au§ gefauft, bn, jc. 4. ^&) raerbe morgen einen ©palter; 
gang mad)en, 'hu, k. 5. 3d) raiirbe fpielen, raenn id^ ^t\i \<xiit, 
bu, K. 6. 25>enn id) '^txi gehabt \&iit, raenn \iu, jc. 7. ^c^ 
]§atte Diel gelernt, \>Vi, jc. 8. 34) gl^^ube, \)Ci^ er @elb ^ai, 
bu, K. 

B. 1. ^tx Secret lobt ben ©d)iiler. 2. ^ie Sef)rer loBen W 
(Sd)iiler. 3. 23ir (oben unfere @d)ii(er. 4. 3Btr ^Ben unfeve 
:2e^rer getobt. 5. 5^er ^aifer rairb feine ©enerale loben. 6. 3jie 
@enerale raerben i^re Offijteve loben. 7. 2Btr fpielten geftern 
tm @arten. 8. 2Bir l^aBen md gelac^t. 9. 3)er ^na6e [pielte 
mit fetnem §unbe. 10. SSivft bu morgen einen ©pa^iergang 
mad)enV 11. ^d^ mac^e einen ©pa^iergang buvd) ben ^olVd, 


12. 3*^ mad)te geftern einen (Epa^tergaug. 13. ^d) raiirbe einen 
©pa^iergang inad)en, roenn id) ^tit {)dtte. 14. 3d) glaube mcf)t, 
bag i(^ ^cit ^beii ircrbe. 15. t^eute lenten rotr ^eutfd^. 
16. SD^orgen n)erben tuir £'atein (enten. 17. SBir icerben oiet 
gerernt l^aBen. 18. Xie 9Xcutter I;atte ^Jaubfdju^e filr i^re ^lod); 
ter gefauft. 

* C. (Oral.) 1 . Lernst du heute Deutsch oder Latein ? 2. Was 
wii'st dit morgen lernen ? 3. Was haben wir gestern gelernt 1 
■1. Hat Johann Deutsch gelernt 1 5. Wird er aiich Latein 
lernen ? 6. Wird er in einem Jalire \4el gelernt haben 1 
7. Spielten die Madchen gestern im Garten ? 8. Haben sie 
viel gelacht ? 9. Werden wir morgen einen Spaziergang 
machen ? 1 0: Wiirden wir einen Spaziergang machen, wenn 
^vir Zeit hatten? 11. Wurde der Kaiser seine Generale loben? 
12. Was hat die Mutter fiir ihre Tochter gekaufti 13. Was 
hatte unser Yater fiir den Bettler gekauft ? 14. Hat der 
Bettler Geld? 15. Glaubt dieser Herr, dass er Geld hat? 
16. Glaubt der Lehi-er, dass wir Larm machen ? 

D. 1. The pupil is praising his teacher. 2. The teachers 
are praising their pupils. 3. I was praising my brother because 
he was industrious, -l. I have bought shoes for the beggar. 
5. We should buy a house if we had money. 6. We are 
studying (lernen) Latin to-day. 7. We shall study German 
to-morrow. 8. We were studying German yesterday. 9. We 
shall have learnt much in a year. 10. To-morrow I shall take 
a walk through the to^^'n. 1 1 . Yesterday I was taking a walk 
in the garden. 12. Why was your brother laughing ? 13. He 
was laughing because he was merry. 14. Will he laugh if he 
is merry ? 15. Shall we laugh if we are merry ? 16. Do we 
laugh if we are merry? 17. We shall cry if we are sad. 
18. We have cried because we were sad. 


EXERCISE X, a. (§§ 35-37.) 

A. Continue the following : 1. 3d) arbcitete 311 mcl, bu, :c. 
2. Zan^c id; ju oiel ?, tan^eft bu, jc. 3. 3<i) tf^^^^c ^^e ^inbev 
nid^t, bu, JC. 4. 3(^ lf)abe in ber ^tabt ftubievt, bu, jc. 

5. 3<^ ^^^^ wtciii ©^'^^ Der[d)nieubet, bu, jc. 

-6. Decline the following throughout : biefeS STorf, ba§ 
Okgtmeut, metn £feib, fein ^iub, t(jv ^u(^, uufer i^^^itS/ ^^^i* 
3]tauu, eiu t5)u(;n, u)e(d;er SSalb ? 

(7. 1. ^er ©artner fdjiittelt hen Hpfelbaum. 2. ®er ©turrn 
l^at bte ©(fitter Don hen ©ciumen gefdjiittelt. 3. ^er Seljvev 
tabelt bie Jltnber. 4. 31>ir tabeht btefen Offi^ier, lueit er bao 
@elb nidjt Beja^lte. 5. SSarum l^at er ba§ @elb nid^t bejal^lt ? 

6. 2l>ei( er fetu @elb I)atte. 7. (Sr l^at fein (Jigentum cer; 
fdjiuenbet. 8. ^ie £tnber rebeten ^u t)ieL 9. ^er :^el)rer tahdtt 
bte ^inber, weil fie ^u Diet rebeten. 10. ^er ^onig ^at feine 
©enerale getabelt. 11. ®iefe 9^Zdnner ^aben Jlleiber fiir il^re 
2Beiber unb ilinber get'auft. 12. Mcin 2>ater ^at jrcei t^fi^M"^^* 
gefauft. 13. ^c^ rubre gegen ben ©trom. 14. ^d) geBe meiner 
©d)niefter bie ©iidier. 15. ^ie (Sier biefer ^iU^ner finb gro^. 
16. Sie 33latter biefer ©aume finb ge(B. 17. ^k .gofpitater 
in biefer (Stabt ftnb grog unb fdjon. 18. 3^er ^aifer Ijat jwei 
(£d)(Dffer in biefer v^tabt. 

B. (Oral.) 1. AVo sind die Kinder? 2. Fiir wen (whom) 
kauft der Mann Kleider ? 3. Sind die Blatter der Baume 
griin oder gelb 1 4. Warum sind sie gelb ? 5. Wie viele 
Haiiser hat dieser Herr gekauft ? 6. Warum tadelt der Lehrer 
die Kinder ? 7. Wie viele Schlosser hat der Kaiser in dieser 
Stadt ? 8. Hat der Offizier das Geld bezahlt ? 9. Warum 
hat er das Geld nicht bezahlt? 10. Hat deine Mutter die 
Eier verkauft ? 11. Hat sie auch die Hiihner verkauft ? 12. 
Arbeitete Johann gestern 1 13. Sind diese Manner reich oder 
arm ? 14. Studierten die Jiinglinge im Winter oder im 
Sommer 1 15. Wer hat die Regimenter gelobt ? 


E. 1. The teacher blames the children. 2. The mothers 
did not blame their daughters. 3. I blamed this man because 
he had wasted his money. 4. I am rowing against the stream. 

5. We were rowing against the stream. 6. The gardener was 
working in the garden. 7. My father has paid the gardener. 
8. These books are very fine. 9. I am gi\'ing these books to 
the children. 10. These men were buying clothes for their 
children. 11. My mother has sold the eggs. 12. She has 
not sold the fowls. 13. The men in the village were working 
yesterday. 14. These young men have studied a long while. 
15, The hospitals in London are very large. 16. The emperor 
has two regiments in these villages. 17. (The) birds live in the 
forests. 18. (The) worms live in the earth. 

EXERCISE XI, a. (§§ 38-42.) 

A. Continue the following : 1. ®te[e§ 33u(^ gel^ovt mh\ bte[e§ 
S3ud) ge^iirt btr, jc. 2. §a6e tc^ mid) gelobt ?, ^ft bu btc^, 
jc. 3. ^d) bin bamtt gufrieben, \iu, k. 

B. 1. ®ie]'e it'^tx ge^rt mir. 2. 3)te[e 33iid)er ge^oren 
meiner ©c^raefter. 3. 3)a§ S^OiU^ ge{)ort un§, aber bev ©arten 
ge^ort 3^nen. 4. ®ie SJlutter fauft t^ren Xod^tern ^(eiber ; 
fie !auft t^nen ^(etber. 5. (g§ ift etn Suc^ auf bem 3:t[^e. 

6. 3^ gebe e§ bem ^tnbe. 7. 3d) gebe e§ il;m. 8. §abeii ©ie 
meinen §ut ge{)abt ? 9. 3d^ ^abe i^it mc^t geljabt. 10. 2Ber 
l^at un[ere §anb[c^u!§e gefjabt ? 11. SD^arie ^t fie gel^abt. 12. 
3d) bin mit meinev 3lufgabe fertig ; id^ bin bamit fertig. 13. 
@inb ©ie mit meiner 5Infgabe ^ufrieben ? 14. 3^^ J^in bamit 
jnfrieben. 15. 3)iefer ©djiiler fdjcimt fid), meit er feine ^lufgabe 
nid)t gemac^t \)Cii, 16. 3)er Sel^ver fdiamt fic^ feiner. 

C. (Oral: use pronouns in answering.) 1. 'Wem {to ivhom) . 
gehort dieses Buch ? 2. Gehort dir diese Feder 1 3. Gehort 
Ihnen diose Feder ? 4. Gehoren diese Handschuhe Marie ? 
5. V/er hat meine Feder gehabt 1 6. Wer hat mein Buch 


gehabt ? 7. Wo ist das Buch 1 8. Wem gebe ich das Buch ? 
9. Wo haben Sie die Biicher gekauft 1 10. Wie viel haben 
Sie daf iir bezahlt ? 11. Haben Sie zwei Thaler dafiir bezahlt 1 

12. Wo ist das Madchen ? 13. Wo sind die Madchen ? 
14. Haben sie ihre Arbeit gemachf? 15. Ist der Lehrer mit 
ihrer Arbeit zufrieden 1 16. Lobt sich dieser Jiingling zu viell 

J). 1. This knife belongs to me; it belongs to me. 2. These 
crloves belong to Mary ; they belong to her. 3. This house 
belongs to us. 4. The carriage belongs to you. 5. The teacher 
has blamed the pupil ; he has blamed him. 6. The teachers 
have praised them. 7. My father has bought two houses ; he 
has bought them. 8. How much did he pay for them ? 9. This 
young man praises himself too much. 10. I am ashamed of 
him. 11. Who has had my hat? 12. John has had it. 

13. We shall visit our parents to-morrow. 14. We shall visit 
them if the weather is fine. 1 5. It will ba fine to-morrow. 

EXERCISE XII, a. (§§ 43-44.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. ^d) ma'd)e metne 3Iufgabe, 
bu mad)]t betne ^lufgaBe, 2c. 2. 3QZein 2d)xcx l§at midi) gelobt, 
bein ^el}rer lf)at bid) geloBt, k. 3. 3d) iDurbe ©olbat, bu raurbeft 
3olbat, K. 4. ^d) ftedte bie Qanh in bie 3:afd)e, hn, :c. 5. 
3d) fdjiittelte i^m bie .ganb, hn, 2C, 6. ^d) cerle^te mir bie 
§anb, bu certet^teft bir, 2c. 

B. 1. 3JZein 33ater IkU mi^. 2. ^^eitt ^atex lieBt bic^. 3. 
(£ein sBater liebt ifjn, 4. 3^re SQ^utter liebt fie. 5. Unfere 
(^Itern lieben un??. 6. (Sure (5ttern liekn eud). 7. 3^re (^h 
tern lieben fie. .8. 3f)re (Sttern lieben (Eie. 9. ^a§ Mahd^tn 
ikht if)xc Mntttx. 10. ^d) mad)c meine 5(ufgabe. 11. 9Sann 
luirft bu beine Stufgabe mad)en ? 12. Jlarl ma d)t fetne Stufgabe; 
er mad)t jie je^t. 13. ^ie Jlinber finb in ber (Ediule. 14. ©ie 
niad)en i§re Stufgaben. 15. @te raaren geftern in ber ^trdje. 
16. ^a§ 8ilbev iff raeig, ho.§ @olb iff gelb. 17. ^ie QSogel 


l^aBen gtiigel. 18. ^^xt gtiigel fmb leic^t unb ftarf. 19. Ztx 
5?ater biefeS ^i^^S^^^S^ ^ft ^taufmann. 20. (5r retft oft in ber 
(Sc^roetj unb in ^ eut jd)taub. 21. (5r u)D!§nt in ber (S critter; 
fti-aBe. 22. ^er ^Ir^t l'd)utte(te ben ^opf. 23. (Jr Ijatte feme 
^offnung. 24=. £arl (jat [id) bie t^anb eeriest. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Wer liebt ims 1 2. Lieben die Eltern ihre 
Kinder? 3. Liebt die Mutter ihre Tochter. 4. Lieben sie 
ihre Mutter ? 5. Liebt das Madchen ihre Mutter ? 6. Hast 
du deine Aufgabe gemacht 1 7. Haben sie ilire Aufgaben 
gemacht ? 8. Wann machten die Madchen ihre Aufgaben ? 
9. "Wo sind die Kinder heute ? 10. "Wo waren sie gestern ? 
11. 1st sein Vater Arzt oder Kaufmann ? 12. Wohnt er 
noch in der Schillerstrasse ? 13. Wo reist er im Sommer? 
14. 1st das Silber weiss oder gelb ? 15. Haben die Wiirmer 
Fliigel? 16. Wo le ben die Wiirmer ? 17. Warum weint das 
Madchen ? 18. Warum schiittelte der Arzt den Kopf ? 
19. Sind Sie jetzt mit Ihrer Arbeit fertig ? 20. 1st der 
Lehrer mit der Arbeit zufrieden ? 

D. 1. My parents love me. 2. Our parents love us. 3. 
The mother loves her daughters. 4. Her daughters love her. 
5. They love one another. 6. The girl loves her mother. 
7. The girls love their mother. 8. Do you Q)lur.) love yom- 
parents? 9. Parents love their children. 10. Parents send their 
children to school. 11. Birds have ^dngs. 12. The ^s^ings of 
birds are light and strong. 13. Is your father a merchant? 
14. No, he is a doctor. 15. He is travelling in Switzerland 
now. 16. In summer he often travels in Germany. 17. We 
are living in Schiller-street. 18. Why are you crying, Charles? 
19. I am crying because I have hurt my hand. 20. I hurt 
it as I was workina: ^^'ith an axe. 


EXERCISE XIII, a. (§§ 45-46.) 

A. Continue the following : 1. 3d) \d)\dtc geftevn bem 2ti)Xtx 
tin ^ud), hn, ic, 2. 3^ f^idte t^m geftern bte ^iidjer, bu, jc. 

3. 3d^ ]§abe t^m l^eute bte 33iid)er gefd){dt, bu, jc. 4. 3c^ l^abe 
fie t^m ge[(^tdt, bu, jc. 5. QtnU f)abe ic^ il^m bte 33iid)er 
gefd^tdt, l^eute l)aft bu, k. 

^. Supply the proper form of the definite article in the 
blanks: 1. 3u — ^tnbe. 2. 33et — genfter. 3. Urn — 
^aum. 4. 5tu§ — @tabt. 5. SStber — getnbe. 6. SJ^tt — 
geber. 7. ®urd) — ©trom. 8. giir — SSJ^dttner. 9. ©eit 
— 5tagc. 10. 5nad) — aJ^utter. 11. ©egett — ^atfer. 12. 
O^ite — ^anbf^u^e. 13. ^luger — ^o^ter. 14. 35on — 

C 1. 2Btr traren geftern bei meiner ^ante. 2. ©te irof)nt in 
ber @tabt. 3. ©tc rool^nt feit brei Qal^ren in ber ©tabt. 4. 
'>Rad) bem 3[Rittag§effen mad)ten xvix mit ii)r einen ©pajtevgang. 
5. Unfere ^aitte l^atte etne Dteife nad) ^eutfdilaitb gemad)t. 6. 
©ie er^ci^lte (told) un§ t)tel oon t^rer ^teife. 7. Utn Dtev l l£r 
fd)icfte fie un§ nac^ .I^aufe. 8. Uin fiinf Ul^r raaren mx imeber ' 
ju §aufe. 9. 3Sir roaren ntit unferem 3?efud)e (visit) fel^r ^u\xkifr}!^zJ^- 
ben. 10. 3Kir roaren ber ^ante fel;r banfbar. 11. Tldnc Xante "''-' ^^ 
faufte mir geftern ein ©efc^en!. 12. @te faufte e§ coin ^auf; 
mattn in ber ©(^iHerftra^e. 13. ©ie 'i)at e§ mir l^eute ge[d)idt. 
14. ©eftern !aufte id) meiner ©c^raefter ein @efd)en!. 15. ,geute 
\)aht id) e§ i^r ge[d)idt. 16. ©ie ift mir fel^r banfbar bcifur. 
17. 2Sa§ [agte fte (^u) S^nen V 18. ©ie fagte : ,,3d) Bin bir 
fe^r ^anfb ax," 

Z>. (Oral.) 1. Wo wohnt Ihre Tante 1 2. In welcher 
Strasse wohnt sie ? 3. Seit wann wohnt sie in dieser Strassel 

4. Wann besuchten Sie Ihre Tante ? 5. Waren Sie gestern 
bei ilir ? 6. Machte Ihre Tante einen Spaziergang mit Ihnen 1 
7. Wann machten Sie einen Spaziergang 1 8. Was erzahlte 


Ihnen Ihre Xante ? 9. Sind Sie mit Ihrem Besuche zufrieden ? 

10. Haben Sie jemals eine Reise nach Deutschland gemacht ? 

1 1 . Wann haben Sie Ihrer Schwester das Geschenk gekauf t ? 

12. Von wem {whom) haben Sie es gekauf t ? 13. Wo 
wohnt dieser Kaufmann ? 14. War Ihre Schwester fiir das 
Geschenk dankbar 1 15. Was hat sie (zu) Ihnen gesagt ? 

E. 1. Yesterday I bought my brother a present. 2. I 
bought it from a merchant in the city. 3. I shall send it to 
my brother to-morrow. 4. He is at my aunt's now. 5, He 
has been at her house for three months. 6. We often visit my 
aunt in the town. 7. After dinner we take a walk with her 
through the town. 8. Yesterday she took a walk with us. 

9. She told us a-great-deal (oiet) about her journey to Germany. 

10. She often travels in Germany. 11. Have you ever taken 
a journey to Germany ] 12. When did you send your mother 
a letter? 13. Have you sent her a letter to-day? 14. To- 
morrow I shall send her a letter. 15. She sent me a letter 
yesterday. 16. I am very thankful to her for her letters. 
17. I sent a letter home to-day. 

EXERCISE XIV, a. {§§ 52-59). 

A. Decline the following throughout : ber ^nabe, btefer 

^[Jlenfd), biefer §err, feine jtante, !etn (Sotbat, tl^re ©d^raefter, 
meine 3Btume, etn ^reuge, \>k ©rafin, btefer (gtubent. 

B. Continue the following: 1. 3*^ ^^n (Solbat genjorben, 
bu, 2c. 2. 3Bin tc^ nac^ ^eutid)lanb geretft ? Bift \iVL, 2c. 3. ^c^ 
bin nad) §au[e geeilt, bu, k. 4. 3"^ '^in biefem §erm ^eute 
begeguet, bu, :c. 

C. 1. 3Jiarie ift nad^ Dttaroa geretft. 2. 3Jlarte l^at tl^re Xanitn 
m ^iiaxoa be]'ud)t. 3. ^\t ift 6ei t^ren Xanten in Ottarca 
geroefen. 4. %i^ fie bei t^ven 3^anten xoax, ^aiit fie md 
3Sergniigen. 5. 3JJetn D^effe ift (Eolbat geraorben. 6. DJ^eine' 


9leffeu [iub ^olbaten gciuovbeu. 7. ^er dlc^\c be§ ©rafen ift 
(Stubent. 8. ®te i^tumeu im @arten btefer ®ame finb fc^on* 
9. ^ie ^(umen biefer 'I^amen finb fei)r fd)on. 10. ®te 33aren 
iinb .^afeu lebeu im 2Balbe. 11. ^er (Bo^n bie]e§ .gierrn ift arm 
geraorben ; er ^at fein ©igentum oerfdimenbet. 12. 3)er ^reuge 
ift ein .Ipelb. 13. ®ie ^^reugen finb .^elben, 14. 2Bir reben 
uiel Don ben 3^^aten ber .Ipelben. 15. ®er 33ater meine§ 9^effen 
ift mein 33ruber. 16. ^ie (Si3^ne meiner ©dimefter finb meine 
9^effen. 17. tgeute finb mir bem @rafen begegnet. 18. ^iefe 
®amen finb in ber ^iri^e geraefen. 19. ^ie 30lefjer unb ©aBeln 
finb anf bem ^ifc^e. 20. .gaben ©ie bie gebern be§ £naben 
ober be§ 9Jldbd)en§ ? 

B. (Oral.) 1. Wo sind die Federn dieses Knaben ? 2. Wo 
sind die Messer und Gabeln ? 3. War die Tochter dieser 
Dame in der Kirche ? 4. Sind die Grafinnen in Berlin 
gewesen*? 5. Hat der Sohn des Grafen die Wissenschaften 
studiert 1 6. Wo hat Ihr Neffe die Wissenschaften studiert 1 
7. Wem sind Sie heute begegnet ? 8. Wo wohnt Ihr Neffe ? 

9. Wo wohnen Ihre Neffen ? 10. 1st der Sohn dieses Herrn 
reich oder arm ? 11. Wo leben die Baren und Hasen ? 
12. Wohin (to where) ist Marie gereist ? 13. Wen hat sie 
dabesucht? 14. Ist sie bei ihrer Tante gewesen ? 15. Wann 
ist sie nach Hause gereist ? 

U. 1. My sisters have been in Berlin. 2. They have 
visited their aunts in Berlin. 3. They have been at their 
aunt's in Berlin. 4. The nephew of the count has become a 
student. 5. He has studied the sciences in Berlin. 6. I met 
him on the street when I was in Berlin. 7. This s^entle- 
man's son was rich, but he became poor. 8. Do you admire 
this flower? 9. Do you admire the flowers of this garden? 

10. Who has had this boy's pens? 11. Have you had the 
books and pens of the student? 12. The son of my brother 
or of my sister is my nephew. 13. My nephews are the sons 


of my brothers or my sisters. 14. We speak much of the 
deeds of the Prussians. 15. These soldiers are heroes. 16. 
We admire and praise the deeds of heroes. 

EXERCISE XV, a. (§§ 60-65.) 

A. Decline together throughout : ber ©ebanfe, mein ^ad)^ 
tax, biefer ©uc^ftaBe, fein 33etter, i§r 3(uge, fein ^untt, unfer 
^vofeffor, raetdier 3taat? 

B. Supply the definite article in the blanks: 1. ^6) 
i(i)[dtc — 33iic^er an — £'ef)ver (plur.). 2. (vr ko^tc — ge^ern au] 

— ^tfc§. 3. @eorg jagte — .g)"i^^ ^^"^^^^ — Cfen. 4. — Xa- 
men gel^en (go) nad) §au|e. 5. — §erren ]inh in — 3Salbe. 
6. — 33t(b ^cingt iiber — genfter. 7. ^d) ftetle — Ztiiijie. neBen 

— Xiid). 8. Q3"or — ilird;e fte^t (stands) — iBaum. 9. (Sr 
eilte iiber — gtuB. 10. — Mabd)cn ftellte — 33(umen uor — 

C. 1. (Sr fc§rei6t (writes) im DZamen bee ^atfero. 2. S^iefe 
£naben (ernen Xie D^amen ber ©otter ber eRomer. 3. llnfere 
3Settern finb je^t bei uns. 4. Xte ^^^utter metnes QJetters ift 
metne ^ante. 5. ^er D^effe bes Xottox^ ift ^otbat gemorben. 
6. 3)ie (So^ne unferes 9cad)6ar5 n)oI)nen jefet in ber 2taht. 7. 
2Bir raerben morgen unfere ^lad)baxn befudjen. 8. Xk '^(ugen 
meine§ ^rofefjors finb je§r fd)n)arf). 9. 59ir (egten bte Siidjer 
ber ^rofefforen auf ben ^ifd). 10. 3inb fie nod) auf bem ^i|d)e ? 
11. 2Btr lernen oie( oon unferem ^rofeffor. 12. 3(m 9}bntag 
gef)en njtr ^ur Sd)ule. 13. (?5 ftef)en ^tcei sBdume cor unferer 
X^iir. 14. 3n^U<^sn ben Saumen ftef)en ixDti ^dnfe. 15. 33}ir 
ftetlten bie 33dnfe ^trifd)en bie ^dume. 16. Xk ^Banten finb 
noc^ nid)t offen. 17. Xa§ 58t(b Don meiner 93^utter fjdngt an ber 
23anb neben bem genfter. 18. iEirleben im grieben mit unferen 

I>. (Oral.) 1. In wessen Kamen schreibt er ? 2. Hat 
dieses Kind schon die Xamen der Buchstaben <]relernt ? 3. Wo 


wohnt jetzt der Vetter des Doktors ? 4. AVo wohnen die 
Vettern Ihrer Nachbarn 1 5. Lebt dieser Mann im Frieden 
mit seinen Nachbarn ? 6. Besuchen Sie oftmals Ihre Nachbar- 
innen ? 7. AVarum sind die Augen des Professors schwach? 
8. Wohin haben Sie die Biicher der Professoren gelegt ? 9. 
Wo stehen die Banke ? 10. Wohin haben Sie die Banke 
gestellt? 11. Sind die Banken am Sonntag offen 1 12. Wo 
hangt das Bild von unseren El tern 1 13. Haben diese Worter 
\dele Buchstaben ? 14. Wo arbeitet der Gartner ? 15. Geht 
er in den Garten, um zu arbeiten ? 

^. 1. I speak in the name of the emperor. 2. Mary has 
learned the names of the letters. 3. Our neighbours visited 
us yesterday. 4. Our neighbour's daughters will visit us 
to-morrow. 5. My cousins are at our house now. 6. The 
father of my cousins is my uncle. 7. I have learnt a great 
deal from my professors. 8. My eyes are weak because I have 
studied too much. 9. Are my books on the table? 10. No, 
I have laid them on the bench near the door. 11. I shaU 
hang this picture on the wall. 12. The banks will not be 
open on Monday. 13. The gardener goes into the garden to 
work. 14. He is working in the garden now. 15. The garden 
is in front of the house. 

EXERCISE XVI, a. (§§ 70-75.) 

A. Give, with the definite article, the nom. sing., the gen. 
sing., and the nom. plur. of : 33ruber, Slume, 2Balb, 5lpfeb 
baum, 3Bagen, §anb, ^orf, 9Zad)bar, ©olbat, ^Budjftabe. 

Refer each of the above to its corresponding model. 

B. 1. SSal^renb meiner D^etfe befudjte id) bte Stdbte Berlin uiib 
$art§. 2. ^ie (Btaht Berlin ift bte tgjauptftabt ^euifdjlanb^. 
3. 9JZeine (Sltern rao^nen in 33er(tn. 4. 2)er ^ijcin ift ein glui^ 
(Juropas. 5. Wix beiDunbern bte ©(^onljetten be§ 9t()eine§. 6. 
SDie 33erge bev ^diraeij finb aud) [el)r \d)on. 7. RaxU ^riibev 


unb ^outfens Sdjiueftern ffnb je^t 6ei ineinem 33etter 'D?car aiif 
^ei'uc§. 8. DJ^iiUers tDaren aud) gcuern bei i^m, 9. Souife (;at 
(SUfabet^ 33Iumen ^um ©eburtetag gejd)icft. 10. (Sie ^at i^r 
SStumen ftatt 3?uc^er gei'rf)icft. 11. iE>egen bes Oiegens §at fie 
(Slifabet^ md)t befudjt. 12. ^c^ ^aBe ec^illers ili}erfe unb iBurno' 
©ebic^te in meiner ^ibiioti^tt. 13. ^ie ^ijnigin von Gngtanb 
l^eiBt (the name of the Queen of England is) 3}ictoria (nom.). 
14. 5^er Jiaiier von 3^eut[d)(anb fjei^t ©ilfielm. 15. 2ie 3rraKen 
jtorontog finb id)bn unb 6reit. 16. iJSir benjunbern audi "ok 
^tra^en Don ^^art§. 17. 3d) (efe ^eute bie ©riefe bes dicero 
anftatt ber Oieben bes Xemoftfienee. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Wo wohnen Ihre Eltern ? 2. TVie heisst 
(c/l 13 and IJf ohove) die Hauptstadt Deutschlands ? 3. Haben 
Sie jemals Berlin und Paris besucht ? 4. Haben Sie aueh die 
Stadt London besucht? 5. Wann haben Sie die Stadte Berlin 
und Paris besucht ? 6. Wo ist der Rhein ? 7. Haben Sie 
die Schonheit des Bheines be^"undert ? 8. Was sagen Sie 
von den Bergen der Schweiz ? 9. Wo sind Karls Briider ? 
10. Sind Louisens Schwestern auch bei Ihrem Yetter Max 
auf Besuch ? 11. Wer hat Louise Blumen zum Geburtstag 
geschickt? 12. Weshalb hat Elisabeth Louise heute nicht 
besucht? 13. Wer hat Ihnen Schillers Werke geschenkt ? 
14. Wie heisst der Kaiser von Deutschland ? 15. Wie heisst 
die Konigin von England? 16. Wie heisst die Hauptstadt 
Frankreichs ? 

D. 1. The capital of Germany is Berlin. 2. The capital of 
France is Paris. 3. I have visited the cities of Paris and 
Berlin. 4. My parents live in Berlin. 5. The Rhine is very 
beautiful. 6. Do you not admii-e the beauty of the Rhine ? 

7. Yes, and I admire also the mountains of Switzerland. 

8. Charles' sister is now in S^^^tzerland. 9. The Miillers are 
travelling in France. 10. What is the name of Louisa's 
brother ? 11. What is the name of the emperor of Germany ? 


12. What is the name of the queen of England? 13. The 
capital of France is called Paris. 14. The streets of Paris 
are wide and beautiful. 15. The streets of Toronto are wide 
too. 16. On account of the rain we shall not visit our friends 
to-day. 17. We shall not take a walk during the rain. 18, 
My father will send Fred to-day instead of George. 

EXERCISE XVII, a. (§§ 79-88.) 

A. Continue the following : 1. 2i>a§ fiir einen S^ut ^abe icf) ?, 
— l^aft bu, 2C. 2. 2Bet(i)e§ finb meine .ganbfdjulje ?, n)e(d)e§ finb 
beine, 2c. 3. ^d) fagte, ha^ er fxant fet, bu, jc. 4. ^d) fagte 
er fei fxant, bu, jc. 5. ^6) fragte, ob (whether) er hanf fet, 
bu, K. 

B. 1. 2Ber ift biefe ^ame ? ,2. SBeffen Xod,ttx tft fie? 3. 
2Sem ge()oren biefe (Vebeuu ? 4."-2Sa§ Ijahtn ©te ju mir gefagt ? 
5. SBorauf fet^en fid) bie ^inber in bev @d;u(e ? 6. (Bit fe^en 
fid) auf ©tiil^le ober 35anfe. 7. 2Beld)er ^^err wax geftern bei 
3^nen ? 8. 3Seld)er dou biefen ^erren tft kaxi^ 33ruber ? 9. 
2Beld)e geber I^at i!arl ? 10. 2SeId)e uon tneiiten gebern l)at er ? 
11. aBelc^em 9}^abd)en fd)idt ^axk 33(unten ? 12. SBel^em 
Don biefen SJ^cibc^en fd)idt fie 33 lumen ? 13. 2Be(dien greunb 
befud)en (Sie l^eute ? 14. 2Se(d)en ddu unferen greunben 16efu; 
d^en n)ir tieute ? 15. iIBe(d;e§ 33u(^ ]§at ber Sel^rer ge^abt ? 
16. 3S^el^e§ uon biefen 23iic^evn ]§at er gel;aBt ? 17. 2Belc^e§ 
ift S^i-e (id;n)efter ? 18. 2Serd)e§ finb Sljre eoufinen ? 
19. SBogJitr , einen ^ut ^t ^o^ann gerauft ? 20. 3Sa§ fiir 
§anbfd)u^e !^at er gefauft ? 21. 3Sa§ fiir eine 33(ume ift bie 
£'i(ie ? 22. 3S^a§ fiir ^Better raerben wix morgen I)aBen ? 23. 
3Sag fiir ^inbern geben roir @efd)en!e ? 24. (5r fagte : ,, SJZein 
3Sater ift nid)t fe^r njD()(." 25. (Sr fagte, ha^ fein 33ater ntd)t 
mo^ fei. 26. (?r fagte, fein 35ater fei nic^t tuol)(. 27. ^d) 
fragte nteinen greunb, oh fein i^ater nic^t raofjl fei. 28. (5r 
fagte, fein 5)ater fei feit brei 3lagen txant, 

^ , f) ^ . /., . 


C. 1. Whose daiiijhter is this girl ? 2. AYho are her 
parents ? 3, Which stick belongs to Charles ? 4. Which of 
these sticks belongs to him 1 5. Which friends shall we visit 
to-day ? 6. Which (^phir.) of our friends shall we visit to-day 1 
7. To whom shall we send these flowers ? 8. What did the 
pupils say to their teacher 1 9. About what are the pupils 
reading in school to-day? 10. W'hich books has your father 
bought you ? 11. Which of these books has he bought you ? 
12. Which is my pen ? 13. Which are my pens ? 14. What 
kind of a carpet have you bought for your room ? 15. What 
kind of curtains have you bought? 16. What kind of pupils 
does the teacher praise? 17. What kind of weather shall we 
have to-day ? 18. What kind of a man is Mr. Miiller ? 
19. Our neighbour's father is ill. 20. Our neighbour said 
(that) his father was ill. 21. He said : " My father has been 
ill." 22. We asked him if his mother was ill too. 23. He 
answered that she had been ill. ' 24. He said that she was 
well now. 

EXERCISE XVIII, a. (§§ 89-91.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. ^d) (erne gevn ^eut]"c§, hu, 
jc. 2. ^d) mad;e gern be§ 90^orgen§ einen ^pa^iergang, bu, 2c. 

3. Jpeute Dor ad)t ^agen wax id) in ^ranfreic^, hu, k. 

4. Jpeute iiber ad)t ^tage raerbe ic^ bet meinen @(tern fetn, 

bu Bei beineu, k. 

B. State the rule for the gender of: ber Qanh]d)ui), ha§ 
@e|d)euf, bie Untr»erjitat, bie Sc^on^eit, bie S3(ume, ba§ (Sigentum, 
ha^ ^xixukin, ber ©avten, ha^ O^ubern, ber ^anb, ber i^inger, 
bie Xugenb, bie DJtelobie, bie dladjhaxin, bie ^raft. 

C. 1. ®er ©arten meiner Dkc^Barin ift fc^on. 2. 2Bir 6e; 

iDunbern hit Sd)on^eit i^xc§ @arten§. 3. "^J^arte mad)t gem 
einen ^pa^iergang mit bem ^od)terd)en unferer D^adi6arin. 4. 
2Bili)elm (ernt gern Xeutfd). 5. (Sr (ernt je^t feine l^eftion. 


6. v^ciiie i^eftion tft |d)iucr, ahcx er icvnt [ic (3eru. 7. SJ^ein 
®d)n)efterd)en fpielt eine DJklobie auf bem ^(auier. 8. Jjd) !§ore 
gern biefe SJlelobie. 9. ^ie[er S^an^l^l) geljort ineinem (Sdjuicj; 
terdjen. 10. dlc'm, er geljovt jenem grdulein. 11. S^ag ^anb 
auf bem .gut bie|e§ grdnleinS ift ntd^t fi^on. 12. 3^ ^^9^^ 
eiueu '^anh von @oet^e§ 2i>er!en auf ben ^ifc^. 13. ^te ^vaft 
bcr ^oune ift tm ^ommer fe(;r gvo^\ 14. ^cutt vox a6)t ^agen 
faufte id) eiueu ^eppid) fiir mciu ©dytafjimmer. 15. .Igeute 
iiber ad)t $age reifen w\v nad) .gaufe. 16. S^iefe Seute l^aBeu 
it}r (^igentum t)erjd)n)eubet. 17. S^a§ D^ubern tft l^eute fein 
^ergniigen, hcnn ber 2Siub ift fe^r ftar!. 

D. (Oral.) 1. Lernst du jetzt deine Lektion ? 2. Lernst 
du sie gern 1 3. 1st sie heute leicht oder schwer ? 4. Wer 
spielt auf dem Klavier ? 5. Was spielt sie auf dem Klavier ? 
6. Horen Sie gern diese Melodie 1 7. Gehort dieser Handschuh 
dem Tocliterchen unserer Nachbarin ? 8. Wem gehort er 1 
9. Bewundern Sie nicht die Schonheit dieses Frauleins ? 10. 
Wo hat Ihr Schwesterchen dieses Band gekauf 1 1 11. Welchen 
Band legten Sie auf den Tisch? 12. Wann ist die Ki^aft der 
Sonne sehr gross? 13. Wann kauften Sie diesen Teppich ? 
14. Wofiir kauften Sie ihn 1 15. Hat Ihre Tante ihr 
Eigentum nicht verkauft *? 16. Warum ist das Rudern heute 
kein Vergniigen ? 17. Wo v/erden wir heute iiber acht Tage 
sein ? 

£J. 1. Our lesson is easy to-day. 2. A week ago to-day it 
was very hard. 3. We like to learn our lesson when it is 
easy. 4. My little sister is learning German in school. 5. 
After school she often takes a walk with our neighbour's little 
daughter. 6. This young lady is very beautiful. 7. Do you 
not admire the beauty of this young lady ? 8. I admire the 
ribbon on her hat, but I do not admire her. 9. The power of 
the sun is not great in v^dnter. 10. I do not like to hear this 
tune. 11. This young lady is always playing it on the piano. 


12. My uncle has sold his property. 13. This carpet is very 
fine; I shall buy it. 14. I hke to row on the river. 15. 
Rowing is a pleasure. 16. A veek from to-day we shall be at 
our uncle's. 

EXERCISE XIX, a. (§§ 92-99.) 

A. Complete the follo^\^ng : 1. ^d) erfannte biefen ^txvn 
nid^t, hu, jc. 2. §aBe id) iijm ha^ @elb nid)t gefanbt, i)a\t hu, 
2c. 3. ^d) ^ahc bie 9krf)rtd)t gebradjt, bu, k. 

B. Complete the following by supplying suitable relative 
pronoun forms : 1. ^er SJ^ann, — l^ter wax, 2. ^ie %xan, — 
bei un§ tft. 3. ^er .g)err, — ©o^n f)kx raoijnt. 4. S^er greunb, 

— id) ein @e[d)enf fcfitde. 5. S^ie greunbe, — rair @efd)eufe 
jdjicfen. 6. ^er (Sd)iUer, — ber Sefirer lobt. 7. ®er Server, 

— ben ©driller loht 8. ®er ©drtner, — meinen 3Sater (obt. 
9. ^ie Tame, — lutr bie 33Iumen fd^tdten. 10. i^ie ^ante, — 
a^kvie Beiud)te. 11. STie Xante, — 33i(b ha ^angt. 12. Tag 
lM(b, — ha ^angt. 13. Ta§ ^nd), — ber :2e^rer Braudjt. 
14. Tie 33t(ber, — ha ^ngen. 15. Tie ^ud)cx, — ber :2e!^rer 
bxand)t 16. 5llle§, — id) [agte. 

C. 1. .I^ier ift ein ^Brief, ben mein On!e( miv gcfanbt Ijat, 

2. Tie 9^adinc^t, bie bartn fte^t, ift traurig. 3. Tie iseber, bie /; 
id) Ijattc, ift anf bem Tifd^e. 4. Tie Tome, beren 3;;Dd;ter bei -^^^ 
un§ war, ift je^t in (Sngtanb. 5. Ter ,gerr, beffen ®o^n wix 
be[nd)ten, ift fe^r reic^. 6. Ter ^aufmann ^at ben 3:eppic^ nic^t 
gejc^idt, wtid)tn id) befteUte. 7. ^ennen (gie ben §errn, ber 
geftcrn l^ier raar ? 8. ^sd) erfannte bie Tamen nid)t, bie nno 
begegneten. 9. Ter c^err, bem mir begegneten, l)at im§ nid)t 
erfannt. 10. ^ir erfannten bie ^erren nid)t, benen luir begegnct 
finb. 11^ Ter Tiener l^at atte§ gebrac^t, roag ratr beftetlt (;aben. 
12. Tag 53i(b, n)e(d)e§ ber SJ^afer gebradjt Ijat, fjdngt an ber 
2l>anb. 13. ':^a^ 53i(b, bag an ber 2Qanb I)dngt, Ijat ber 9}k[er 
geftern gebiad)t. 14. Ter ©raf bnt fein (Jigentum oerfd)n)en= 


■ ( 

^iti, luaS fe^r fd)abe tft. 15. ^er ^oftbote ^^i ben 33rtef ge; 
brad)t, tuorauf mx rcarteten. 16. 3Ser feine greunbe l^at, ift fe^r 
ungliicflid) (unfortunate). 

B. (Oral.) 1. Kennen Sie den Mann, dem wir begegnet 
sind % 2. 1st er nicht der Bruder der Dame, die gestern bei 
Ihnen war % 3. Wer hat das Buch, das der Lehrer braucht % 
4. Haben Sie die Biicher, die ich brauche ? 5. Wie heisst der 
Herr, dessen Sohn bei Ilinen auf Besuch ist ? 6. Wie heisst 
die Dame, deren Bild an der Wand hangt % 7. Wie heisst 
der Maler, welcher das Bild gemalt hat ? 8. Wer hat den 
Brief gebracht, worauf wir warteten % 9. Wo wohnen die 
Freundinnen, denen Marie die Blumen gesandt hat ? 10. Hat 
der Kaufmann alles gesandt, was wir bestellten % 

E. 1. The gentleman who was here is a doctor. 2. The 
lady who was with him is his sister. 3. Did you recognize the 
gentleman whom we met % 4. No, but I recognized the lady 
whom we have just met. 5. The ladies whom we have just 
met did not recognize us. 6. Where is the letter which the 
postman brought % 7. My little sister has the books which I 
need. 8. Who painted the picture which hangs near the 
window % 9. Where is the picture hanging which the painter 
brought yesterday % 10. The friend whose property we have 
bought is now in Germany. 1 1 . The lady whose beauty we 
have admired is a countess. 12. She has wasted her property, 
which is a pity. 

EXERCISE XX, a. (§§ lOO-iii.) 

A, Continue the following: 1. ^d) fang f(i)one Sieber, bu, 
jc. 2. ^a6e trf) fd)Dne :2ieber gefnngen ?, l^aft bu, k. 3. 3(^ 
bin auf bie @rbe gefallen, bu, jc. 4. Qd^ roerbe ftngen unb iOiXi-^ 
jen, bu, K. 5. @inge etn fd)i3ne§ Sieb, finge ev, jc. 

Give the past participle of : befennen, ernennen, bebcnfen, 
ucrbvennen, beftellen. 


• B. 1. ^ax'xt ^ai fc^one 3? lumen. 2. 35^ir !f)a6en gute§ 23rot 
unb fvi[d)e D.^iild;. 3. 3<^ ["^^^ *^^§ ®t^5 mit frifdiem ^Baffer. 
4. fyjcx W\i\itx oerfaiift guten a (ten SSein. 5. @eorg ^t 
[d;raeve 5(itfgakn gemad;t. 6. SStr ^ben gute 92ac^Barn. 7. 
t^eute ]§aben unr fdjoneS 2i>etter. 8. ^tefe ed)u(er ]^a6eu gute 
gebern aber fd)(ed)te§ papier. 9. 3d) l^abe guten ^dfe unb 
gutes gleifd). 10. ^er ^ote 6rad)te un§ fdjlei^te 9^adjrtd)t. 
11. ^xthtx (dear) 3]ater, Bitte, faufe mir bte[e ^(umen. 12. 
Stebe W.uiitx, faufe mir fc^one ^letber. 13. @uten 9J^orgen, 
liebe greunbe. 1-1. ^a§ ilinb tft auf etnen etein gefaUen, unb 
\)ai fic^ bie t^anb rerCel^t. 15. 3c§ roiirbe gefungen l;aBen, roenn 
id^ ntd^t franf geroefen mdre. 

C. (Oral.) l.Was fiir Blumen hat Ihr Schwesterchen ? 2. 
Hatfen die Kinder gute frische Milch ? 3. Haben sie audi 
gutes Brot ? 4. Was fiir Lektionen haben die Schiiler heute 
gehabt ? 5. Was fiir Wetter werden wir morgen haben ? 
6. Haben Sie gutes Papier, mein Herr % 7. Was fiir Tinte 
haben Sie ? 8. Was fiir Kase verkauft Herr Miiller ? 9. Was 
fiir Kleider hat dir deine Mutter gekauft ? 10. Hat der 
Brief gute oder schlechte Nachricht gebracht ? 11. Sind neue 
Freunde inuner gute Freunde ? 12. Hat der Redner etwas 
Wiehtiges gesagt ? 13. Lieber Bruder, was hast du mir 
gebracht ? 14. Wie hat sich das Kind die Hand verletzt ? 

D. 1. My little sister has pretty flowers. 2. The children 
have good milk and fresh bread. 3. Please fill my glass with 
fresh water. 4. We have had hard exercises to-day. 5. They 
will not be so hard to-morrow. 6. Our teachers have indus- 
trious pupils. 7. Large trees do not always have good fruit. 
8. Mr. Braun sells good cheese. 9. Dear mother, have you 
brought me good news ? 10. The orator said a great deal, 
but he said nothing important. 1 1 . Good old wine is always 
dear. 12. If I had good paper and good ink, I should do my 
exercise now. 13. Good morning, dear father. 14. Do you 


think we shall have fine weather to-day 1 15. George's sister 
has fallen on a stone, and has hurt her head. 

EXERCISE XXI, a. (§§ 112-114.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. ^d) roerbe Beftraft, bu, k. 
2. ^d) bin r)on bem 2cf)xex beftraft luorben, bu, jc. 3. ^d) raerbe 
inimer Dom Sel;rer beftraft, hu, 2c. 4, @§ rairb iittr eriaubt, etnen 
^pa^iergang ^u madien, eg rcirb bir, 2c. 5. 30^an glaubt mtr ntd;t, 
man glanbt btv md)t, 2c. 6. 9}Zetne 5lrbett tft fd)on gemad)t, 
beine, 2c. 

- B. 1. ®a§ £tnb rairb gelobt, njetl e§ arttg ift. 2. ®te ^tnber 

inerben com Se{)rer gelobt. 3. ^ie (Sc^iiler finb con ben 2ci)xexn 
bcftraft njorben. 4. ^nr merben beftraft merben, menn miv tvage -^^ 
finb. 5. 3Sir muvben tmmev con nnferen ©Item gelobt, wtrm ratr ,^ 
flei^itg loaren. 6. ®a§ Jpaug, mortn n)tr n)Dl§nten, ift oerfauft c;^ 
luorben. 7. ^a§ ^au§ meiner ^ante mirb uerfauft merben. 
8. Unfere Sefttonen finb fd)on gemadjt. 9. @te raerben immer 
y^y^v-^ for bem ^ittaggeffen gemadjt. 10. @§ murbe nai^ einem 3lrjte 
gefdjicft. 11. (S§ ift un§ gejagt uiorben, ba§ ©ie hant feien. 
12. @§ mirb mir nii^t geglaubt. 13. Tlan glanbt biefem 
i^naben nid)t. 14. (£inb bie Sdben fcfjon gefdjlofjen (closed) ? 
15. 9^ein, aber fie ruerben focben geid)(of(en. 16. ®iefe§ Silb 
luurbe uon meiner ©dimefter gemalt. 17. ®ie 33ilbev, bie von 
biefem iliinftler gemalt morben finb, fmb fdjon cerfanft. 18. 
Tiefe ll^r wuxhc mir con meinem 33ater ge|d)enft. 19. ©ie 
iinirbe mir geftcrn ge]d)idt. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Wer lobt das Kind ? 2. Von wem wird 
das Kind gelobt ? 3. Warum ist das Kind gelobt worden ? 
4. Wird deine Schwester gelobt werden ? 5. Yon wem wird 
sie gelobt werden ? 6. Warum wurden die Schiiler bestraft ? 
7. Warum sind sie bestraft worden 1 8. Ist dieses Haus 
verkauft 1 9. Wann wurde es verkauft ? 10. Wird das 
Haus Ihrer Taiite morgen verkauft werden? 11. Wann 


werden Ihre Lektionen gelernt ? 12. Sind sie schon gelernt ? 
13. TVarum glaubt man diesem Madchen nicht ? 14. Von 
wem ist Ihnen gesagt worden, dasz ich nicht zii Hause 
sei? 15. Yon wem wurde Ihnen diese Uhr geschenkt? 
16. Wann ist sie Ihnen geschickt worden ? 17. Wird heute 
viel studiert? 

Note. — When the participle is clearly a Predicate Adjective, 
translate "to be" (the copula) by "sein," otherwise by "werden," 
e.g., The soldier is wounded, Der Soldat ist verwundet. The house 
was (being) built, Das Haus wurde gebaut. 

/ D. 1. The father praises the child. 2. The child is praised 
by its father. 3. The pupils are punished by their teacher. 
4. This pupil has been punished by his teacher. 5. He ^^\\ 
be punished if he is lazy. 6. They ^\-ill be punished if they 
are not industrious. 7. They were always punished when 
they did not do their exercises. 8. Their exercises are done 
already. 9. Our lessons are always learnt before dinner. 
10. My uncle's house has been sold. 11. These houses ^viU 
be sold. 12. I think they are sold ah-eady. 13. By whom 
were they bought? 14. The shops are closed already. 15. 
This man is never beheved; he never teUs the truth. 16. By 
whom was this watch given to you? 17. When was it sent 
to you? 18. By whom was it brought? 19. A doctor will 
be sent for. 20. We were told yesterday that your father 
was ill. 

EXERCISE XXII, a. (§§ 115-118). 

A. Continue the following : 1. 3d) Bin auf ber (Strafe 
auogeglitten, \in, ic. 2. ^"^ ^^^^ fvii^er md an 3fi^nn}e§, 'an, :c. 
3. 3<^ ^^^ ^^^ 9^^^^ iBanb a6gefd)nitten, bit, k. 4. ^^ ritt 
burc§ bte fd)i)ne, gvo^e ^iciiit, bu, k. 5. 3"^ M^^ ^^^^ Qdu^ 
angeftrtdjen, bu ^ft bein, :c. 

B. 1. (Sin bofer S^mxii ^ai ba§ fleine ^inb gebiffen. 2. ^tx 
bbfe ,!punb ^at ein fteines .^inb gebiffen. 3. Xie bbfen ^unbe 



\)abcn bie fleinen ilinber gebiffen. 4. ^a§ ffeine ^inb ddu biefev 
armeu gvau luurbe »on emem bo[en S^nn'o gebtffen. 5. ST'aS 
'9[Rdbd}cn fd;uitt ein (Stiicf uom gelben 53anbe a6. 6. ®er ©ol;u 
biejeo armeu 93knueo tft tranf. 7. ©eftern IfiaBen rotr nteinen 
On!el in ber etabt be|ud)t. 8. 9}leiue gro^en 23ruber finb auf 
bev Uniuevfitdt. 9. 93krte I)at t!^r fd)one§ neue§ ^leib ^errtffen. 
10. eie ift ein unartigeS ^inb. 11. ^(i) Ijaht mtr I)eute eine 
gute, ncue gebev gefauft. 12. ^ie 5IufgaBen btefer ftetgigen 
(SdjiUer finb fe()v gut gemad)t. 13. ^er gute alte 2t^xtx lobt 
feiue fleiBtgeu ^cf)uler. 14. ^er 3}ater giebt feiuen flet^igen 
^tubevu ein tjiiJ6j^e§ ©efdjeuL 15. ^iefe reidie ^ame rooljut in 
eiuem fd)ouen, gvofieu ^aufe. 16. ©eftern l^at fie il)rev ^od^ter 
etue prdditige, golbene geber gefdienft. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Wen hat der bose Hund gebissen? 2. Es war 
ein boser Hund, nicht wahr ? 3. War es ein kleines Kind, das 
gebissen ^vurde ? 4. Was fiir Hunde haben die kleinen Eander 
gebissen ? 5. War es der Hund der alten Frau, von dem das 
kleine Kind gebissen wurde? 6. Die Tochter dieser armen 
Frau ist krank, nicht wahr ? 7. War die Tochter Ihrer armen 
Xachbarin nicht krank ? 8. Wer hat ein Stuck vom gelben 
Bande abgeschnitten ? 9. Wann haben Sie Ihren guten alten 
Onkel besucht ? 10. Wohnt dieser gute Onkel nicht jetzt auf 
demLande? 11. Wo sind jetzt Ihre grossen Schwestern? 12. 
Ist die kleine Marie nicht ein unartiges Kind ? 13. Weshalb 
sagen Sie, dass sie ein unartiges Kind ist? 14. Wo ist die 
gute, neue Feder, die Sie sich gekauft haben? 15. Sind Sie 
mit den Aufgaben dieser fleissigen Schiiler zufrieden 1 16. Wo 
wohnt diese reiche Dame? 17. Was fur eine Feder hat sie 
ihrer jungen Tochter gekauft? 18. In was fiir einem Hause 
wohnt Ihre Nachbarin ? 

D. 1. This (bie§) is a cross dog. 2. He has bitten- a little 
girl. 3. The little girl has been bitten by a cross dog. 4. The 
cross dogs will bite us if we tease (neden) them. 5. The Uttle 


daughter of tliis rich lady was bitten by a cross dog in (auf) 
the street. 6. Wa,s your neighbour's little daughter not ill ? 
7. Where does your good old uncle live now ? 8. He lives in 
a large city in Germany. 9. Little Mary is a naughty child. 

10. She has torn her new dress. 11. Where is your new pen? 
12. I laid it on the large table in the library. 13. Are you 
satisfied ^vith the work of these industrious pupils ] 1-i. Who 
lives in this fine, large house? 15. A rich lady from (am) 
Grermany and her daughter live in it. 16. She has given 
her nephew a fine gold watch. 17. Where are your young 
nephews now ? 18. They are in a good school in Berlin. 

EXERCISE XXIII, a. (§§ 119-120.) 

A. Supply suitable possessive pronoun forms in the blanks : 
1. ^(i) mac^e meine 5Iufgabe ; 3^^^i^i^ mac^t — ; D?krie mac^t 
— ; fte madjen — . 2. ^ytaxk ^at i^r iBuc^ ; So^ann 'i)at — ; tc§ 
i)abe. — ; 3te fjabeit — . 3. 3cf) fage e§ 5U meinem greunbe ; 
bu fagft es ^u — ; fte jagt e§ ^u — . i. ^c^ (oBte meine 
<B6)\xkx ; er loBte — ; fie fobtcn — ; (iie ichtm — ; mix 
lobten — . 

^ B. I. ^d) fd)rte6 geftern an meinen 33arer, unb @eorg fdirieb 
an feinen. 2. OJ^ein ii^ater ift je^t in ^ario, a6er ber jeinige ift 
in 33erltn. 3. @eorg fyxt gutes 'papier, a6er meine t[t fe^r 
fd^Iec^t. 4. ^Seine Jinte ift rot, unb bie metnige ift fd^roarj. 
5. liefer ^^nt ift meiner ; n)o ift ber ^Ijrige ? 6. Sei^en 2ie 
mtr 3§ve 28iid)er, unb id) raerbe 3^tien bie meinigen and) lei^en. 
7. ji^ie 5lpfel unfeves D^ac§bar§ finb reif, a6er bie unfrigen finb 
^o4,_Bi4^ ^sif. 8. ^it ^tjxii^tn fmb and) retf, nid)t uja^r ? 
9. 3Qleine U^r ift aus @olb; jeine ift auo 3i(6er. 10. DJ^arieng 
^ante unb bie meinige mac^en eineOteife ^ufammen nad) ^art^. 

11. 2)^eine Xante ift fc^on ha gemefen, aber bie tl;rige nid^t. 

12. 2Bir (oben unj'eren Server, unb siie (oben ben ^fl^^G^n. 

13. ^ie ^eutjc^en lieben i§v ^aterlanb, unb voix lieben ha'^ 





unfere. l-t. ^sd) bin mit ineiner 5(rl6ett fertig ; ^axl ift mit 
fetner au6) ferttg, aber Souife ^at bte il^rtge nod) nid)t gemadjt. 

C. (Oral.) 1. SindSie mit Ihrer Arbeit fertig^ 2. 1st 
Louise mit der ihrigen fertig ? 3. 1st Karl mit der seinigen 
aiich fertig ? 4. Wanu wirst du an deinen Yater schreiben ? 

5. Wann hat dein Freund an den seinigen geschrieben ? 

6. Sind diese Handschuhe die Ihrigen 1 7. Wo sind die 
meinigen ? 8. Hat Georg aiich die seinigen ? 9. Hat Marie 
auch die ihrigen ? 10. Meine Tinte ist schwarz ; ist die Ihrige 
schwarz oder rot 1 11. Wessen Buch haben Sie? 12. Wessen 
Biicher hat Louise? 13. Sind die meinigen auf dem Tische 
in der Bibliothek 1 14. Wo sind die meinigen ? 

D. I. 1 have written to my parents. 2. George has written 
to his. 3. They have written to theii^s. 4. Your teacher is 
young, but mine is old. 5. This hat is yours ; where is mine? 
6. These gloves are yours ; where are mine 1 7. If they lend 
us their books, we shall lend them ours. 8. Charles has 
learnt his lesson. 9. I have learnt mine too. 10. Louisa 
hasn't learnt hers yet. 11. Your aunt has been in Paris, but 
mine has not been there yet. 12. My aunt and yours took a 
journey to Germany together. 13. My book is on the bench. 
14. Has George his? 15. We haven't ours yet. 16. Ours 
are on the table in the library. 17. I have lent mine to my 
brother George. 18. I lend my books to him, and he lends his 
to me. 19. What sort of paper do you want, blue or white? 

EXERCISE XXIV, a. (§§ 121-124.) 

A. Decline throughout: ber £ran!e, ein ^SHnber, bte ^ran!e, 
ber berii^mte ^iinftler, ha^ fdjone Mane 5luge, ber fdjone fjol^e 
58aum, ein 9tei[enber, ber Xcnt\d}c, 

B. Continue the following: 1. 3<^ Qo^ 'iiOi<o 2[Ba[]er an?>, 
\)\x, K. 2. 3d) rod) bie fc^bne ^ofe, bn, k. 3. 3^ \it^tt eiuen 


^ranj au§ Sf^ofen, bit, 2c. 4. ^d) BegoB "ok Shimeit im @arten, 
bu, 2c. 5. 3*^ ^^^ ^^^ 5(benb§ bie ^ii^e gemotfen, ^n, jc. 

C. 1. ®iefe QuU SDame befurfit bie itranfen im .gofpitaL 
2. ®ie bvingt ben ^ranfen jeben Sag 33(umen. 3. Unter ben 
£vaufen ift ein armer ^linber. 4. (5r ift ber guten ^ame fe(;r 
ban!Bar, imb l^at il^r bef^lB einen fd)onen fkinen ^ovB 
geflod)ten. 5. Gin Berii^mter ^iinftler iDo^nt neBen un§. 
6. SBtr fennen biej'en Berii^mten Wann gan^ gut. 7. 6r ift ein 
®eut[d)er. 8. 33ie(e S)eut|'d)e l^aBen B(aue 3Iugen. 9. Unfer 
9^ad)Bar ^t and) fd)one, Blaue 2Iugen unb lange§, Blonbes ^aax, 
10. (Sein J^au§ ift je^t gef(^(offen, benn ev Befuc^t bie ^arifer 
3Iu§fte(Iung. 11. S^er iReifenbe, ber geftern Bei un§ raar, luirb 
ttuc^ bie 5(u5fte(Iung Be[ud)en. 12. 3n unferem ©arten ftelEit ein 
fd^oner, ^oijcx StpietBaum. 13. (S§ finb Diete reife Spfel barauf. 

14. 5n§ ic§ auf bem Sanbe roar, l^aBe ic!^ oft bie jilii^e gemolfen, 
unb bie ^(umen Begoffen. 

D. (Oral.) 1. Warum ist das Haus Ihres Nachbars 
geschlossen 1 2. Wohin ist er gereist 1 3. Welche Ausstellung 
besucht er ? 4. Ist Ihr Nachbar nicht ein deutscher Kiinstler 1 
5. Ist er nicht ein beriihmter Mann ? 6. Was fiir Augen hat 
er ? 7. Was fiir Haar hat er 1 8. Haben die Deutschen oft 
grosse, blaue Augen ? 9. Heisst dieser Reisende nicht MiiUer ? 
1 0. Besucht er auch die Pariser Ausstellung 1 11. Wie heisst 
der arme Blinde, der uns soeben begegnet ist ? 12. Sind viele 
Kranke in diesem Hospital 1 13. Besucht deine Mutter die 
Kranken im Hospital 1 14. Bringt sie den Kranken Blumen? 

1 5. Wie heisst der Blinde, der ihr den Korb geflochten hat 1 

16. Haben Sie den schonen Apfelbaum bemerkt ? 17. Ist das 
grosse Gebaude in dieser Strasse nicht eine Kirche ? 18. Wer 
begiesst die Blumenl 19. Wer hat sie gestern begossen ? 

£. 1. This artist is a celebrated man. 2. I think he is a 
German. 3. He has large blue eyes and long blond hair. 


I. He lives in a large house beside ours. 5. In rront of his V* , 
house stands a tall tree. 6. He is not at home now and his 
house is closed. 7. He is in Paris. 8. He is visiting the 
Paris exposition. 9. His \viie (Jvau) is a kind lady. 10. She 
visits the sick, and brings them bread and wine. 11. A 
patient in the hospital has woven a pretty little basket for 
her. 12. He is a blind man. 13. The blind often weave 
baskets. 14. The gardener was watering the flowers. 15. The 
maid was milking the cows. 16. Are the cows milked 1 
17. Ai'e the flowers watered ? 18. Yes, the gardener has 
watered them. 19. He always waters them in the evening. 
20. ^Tien I was at my uncle's I used to water the garden 
every evening. 

EXERCISE XXV, a. (§§ 125-131.) 

A. Supply comparative and superlative forms in the blanks : 

I. ^er reic^e SDZaun, ber — 93^amx, ber — DJ^ann. 2. @in 
alte§ £teib, etn — ^(eib, ein — ^leib. 3. 3d; Bin gro§, hn 
bift — , er ift — . 4. S^tefer 33aum tft l^oc^, jeuer ift — , ber 
33aum vox bem §aufe \]t' — . 5. Wlavk tft ftarf, ^^outfe ift — , 
®op!f)ie ift - — . 6. ^d) lerne met, bii lernft — , er lernt — . 

/ B. 1. Xte Xa^c finb Icinger im grii^Ung al§ tm ^Sinter, aBer 
tm (Sommer finb fte ant Idngften. 2. 3m (Sommer ^jabtn mx 
bte Idngften ^age unh tm SS inter bie fiir^eften. 3. Ta§ ^Better 
ift im Sommer am toarmften, nttb im ^Sinter ant fdlteften. 
4. ^ie (?(6e ift ein Bretterer gtug al§ ber di^t'in. 5. 3<i) §^^2 
meine Bcfte geber oertoren. 6. 3*^ ^)^^^ ^^^ geber oerloren, bie 
am Beften ]d;rieB. 7. 9[)Zein altefter ©ruber Be[ud)t je^t bte 
-Uniuerfitdt. 8. 9^etne jiingfte (Ed)iuefter ift in 33er(in auf ber 
ed)u(e. 9. ttnfer ^au§ fte^t ber ^ird)e nd^er a(§ ha^ S^i^'W- 
10. Unfere 5(ufgaBen fiitb ijeute fd)iuerer, aU fie geftern tcaren. 

II. 3^ glauBe, fie finb I^eute eBen [0 idd)t al§ geftern. 12. 2Sir 
f)aBen immer am greitag bie (eidjteften 5tufgaBen. 13. Xa^ 

^y^fVX- ^^A^ 

/ . -- EXERCISE XXV. 397 

iStfen {ft nii^nd^cr ttl§ \i(x^:> @oIb ; e§ ift \iOi% nii^tic^fte ^^J^etaK. 
14. S)ag Oiul^Udie ift beffer als \iQ^^ (Sd)one. 15. 2Btr jogen 
unfere loarmften ^leiber an, raett \iQi% ^Better dugerft loM irar. 
16. ®er ^ranfe oerliert jeben ^ag 5lraft ; er ift ^eute fi^raadjer 
a Is geftern. . „ 

C. (Oral.) 1. Wann ist das Wetter ani_:warm3ten % 2. 
Sind die Tage langer im Winter als im Sommer ? 3. In 
welcher Jahreszeit (season) haben wir die kiirzesten Tage ? 
4. In welcher Jahreszeit sind sie amjiingsten ? 5. Ist der 
Sankt Lorenz langer als die Elbe ? 6. Ist er auch breiter ? 
7. Ist er der breiteste Fluss Amerikas ? 8 Wo ist jetzt Karls 
jiingster Bruder ? 9. Wo ist seine alteste Schwester 1 10. 
Welche von Ihren Federn haben Sie verloren 1 11. Welches 
ist das niitzlichste Metall? 12. Welches ist am schwersten, 
das Blei oder das Gold ? 13. Sind Ihre Aufgaben eben so 
schwer im Sommer als im Winter? 14. Warum ziehen die 
Leute heute ihre warmsten Kleider an ? 15. Weshalb hat 
Georg seine Handschuhe ausgezogen 1 16. Ist dieser Apfelbaum 
hoher als jener 1 17. Giebt der hochste Baum immer die besten 

D. 1. The tallest trees do not always bear the best apples. 
2. This is a tall tree. 3. The apples on it are extremely 
small. 4. The days are longer now than they were in winter. 
5. .The weather too is warmer. 6. The nights are longest 
in winter, and the days coldest. 7. My best gloves are 
lost. 8. I put them on yesterday. 9. I took them off in the 
garden, and lost them in the grass. 10. Iron is the most 
useful of the metals. 11. It is not so valuable (mcxtvoU) as 
gold, but it is more useful. 12. Mr. Miiller is a richer man 
than Mr. Braun. 13. My youngest brother is as tall as I am, 
but he does not weigh as much. 14. He weighed more two 
years ago. 1 5. The largest people are not always the strongest. 


EXERCISE XXVI, a. (§§ 132-144.) 

A. 1. ^a§ ift mciiie ^cbev. 2. ^Je§ finb meine bcften gebern. 
3. ^ao ift berfelbe .ftevr, ber un^ geftern begegnete. 4. ^a§ finb 
biefelbeu Seamen, hk geftern %hmh im ^onjert gefungen ^ben. 
5. ®ie§ ift bie grau eine§ beriil^mten ^iinftler§, unb ba§ ift bie 
grau eineS reid)en £aufmanne§. 6. (Bold) gute ©dngerinnen 
i)aht id) nie geljbrt. 7. ^erjenige, VDdd)tv xdd) ift, ift nidjt immer 
gufrteben. 8. 2Ber arm ift, ift nid)t immer uugliicflid^. 9. Unfcr 
t^aus ift uerfauft iDorben, luie and) baSjenige, iDorin roir uor jraei 
^a^ven iDofjitten. 10. ^iejer 9ting ift tuertuoUer, al§ bevjenige 
meiner (gdjiuefter. 11. ^ergleidjen D^tinge finbet man nid;t in 
ben !(einen Saben. 12. 3Bir l^aben unfere ^iid)er, raie and) 
biejenigen ber anbern ©d^iiler, auf bem %iid)c gefunben. 13. 2)er 
^err, ber ertrunfen ift, ift berfelBe, mit bem ii^ nad) ^eutfd)lanb 
reifte. 14. (Sicero unb Vergil maren beriil;mte 9^omer ; biefer 
mar ®id)ter, jener mar D^ebner. 15. ^d) erinnere (mid^ 
beffen), ma§ unfer alter Sefjrer Don iljnen erja^lte. 16. 3Sir 
l^aben nie fo einen guten Sel^rer ge^^abt, al§ ben. 17. ^erjenige, 
ben mir je^t fjahm, gi6t un§ immer fdjiuere ^hifgaben, unb ift 
babei and) \t1)x ftreng. 

B. (Oral.) 1. Wer waren Cicero und Yergil ? 2. Was war 
dieser? 3. Waswarjener? 4. Wer hat Ihnen von denselben 
erzalilt? 5. Erinnern Sie (sich dessen) noch, was er von 
denselben erzahlte? 6. War er ein guter Lehrer? 7. 1st 
derjenige, den Sie jetzt haben, nicht besser ? 8. Der Lehrer, 
den Sie jetzt haben, ist derselbe, den Sie seit einem Jahr haben, 
nicht wahr? 9. Ist der nicht sehr streng? 10. Haben Sie 
jemals einen so prachtigen Ring gesehen? 11. Ist er nicht 
wertvoller, als der der Frau Miillerl 12. Haben arme Leute 
solche Ringe? 13. Sind das meine Biicher auf dem Tische ? 
14. Wohin hat Georg mein Buch und dasjenige meiner 
Schwester gelegt ? 15. Ist der, der arm ist, immer ungliickHch ? 
16. War das deine Tante, die uns auf der Strasse begegnete*? 


17. 1st dies nicht raeine Feder ? 18. 1st jene Dame nicht die 
Frau eines beriihmten Kiinstlers ? 
v/ C. 1 . Cicero and Vergil were Romans ; the latter was a 
poet, and the former an orator. 2. I remember what I learnt 
about them in school. 3. Do you not admii-e this ring ? 
4. Yes, I have never seen so fine a ring. 5. Is it finer than 
your aunt's ? 6. Only very rich people have such rings. 7. Who 
is the lady whom we just met ? 8. That is the lady who sang 
such a beautiful song at the (tm) concert. 9. I do not think 
that is the same lady. 10. I found your book on the table, 
and your brother's on a bench. 11. This is not my pen ; it is 
my sister's. 12. He who is rich is often unhappy. 13. Those 
who are poor are often happier than the rich. 14. Which 
Mr. IVIiiller did you know ? 15.1 knew the one who was 
drowned last year, when he was travelling in Switzerland. 

EXERCISE XXVII, a. (§§ 145-159.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. Qc^ !§abe jemanb gel^olfen, 'iiVi, 
K. 2. ^&) ^aht mrf)to meggeraorfen, bu, k. 3. 3d) luarf tixda^ 
auf \)txi Sifd;, bu, jc. 4. 3^^er"^^J^i^ fobte mid), — (oljte bid), 
K. 5. 3c^ miirbe ntemanb ]§e(fen, bu, jc. 6. ^d) uevlor fein§ 
uon meinen ^iic^ern, \i\i, k. 

B. 1. 3^^2i^"^<ittn ^ai biefen jungen .Iperrtt gern. 2. Wan 
fagt t)iel ®\iit^ t)on i^m. 3. DZtemanb fagt etiuaS gegen i^n. 
4. Wan Iei§t if;m gern @e[b, xotnxi er fein§ ^ai, 5. ©r l^ttft 
auc^ benjenigen gern, bie nid)t5 fiaben. 6. ^ebermann rairb 
3i^en basfetbe oon ifjm fagen. 7. W.ti)xzxt uou meinen greunben 
i)aben mir @efd)enfe ^um Oeburtotag gefd)tdt. 8. Sintge bauon 
finb [e^r raertuoU. 9. Wan [agt, 'ha^ man fid) am (eidjtefteu 
erfdttet, menn man mi'ibe ift. 10. Wan6:)tx i:)ai eine 5(r6eit 
6egonnen, bie er nid)t uodenbet ^ai, 11. (Siner Don biefen 
Spfetn ift oerborben ; id) luerbe i^n raegmerfen. 12. 3<^ §^^^ 
jdjon mef)rere bauon meggeiuorfen. 13. ii>erfen Sie feine weg, 


bic nod; gut [iiib. 14. Dhiv lucnigc $cnic I)abcn biefeii ©ommer 
^ari^ befuc^t. 15. ^ie ^aufleute Ijabcn beol;alb niiv lueiiig @e(b 
emgenommen. 16. SS^enig tft beffer a(§ gar ntd)t§. 17. ^eber; 
mann loht hk ©d;iUer, bie flei^ig finb. 18. 9^iemanb xvixh 
gelobt, bev feiue 2lufgaben nic^t ridjtig mad)t, 

C. (Oral.) 1. Sagt man A^el Gutes von den fleissigen 
Schiilern ? 2. Werden sie von jedermann gelobt 1 3. Wird 
jemand gelobt, der nicht gut arbeitet ? 4. Sagt man etwas 
Gutes von den tragen Schiilern 1 5. Von wem sagt man 
nichts Gutes ? 6. Jedermann hat Herrn Miiller gern, nicht 
wahr ? 7. Hilft er gern jedermann ? 8. Leiht er einem gern 
Geld, wenn man keins hat 1 9. Hat irgend jemand diese 
schwere Aufgabe rich tig gemacht 1 10. Wurde irgend jemand 
gestern vom Lehrer gelobt "? 11. Sind einige von diesen Apf eln 
verdorben ? 12. Sie haben mehrere Freunde in Paris, nicht 
wahr ? 13. Hat Karl eins von seinen Biichern verloren 1 
14. Wann erkaltet man sich am leichtesten ? 15. Hat dieser 
General nicht manche Schlacht gewonnen ? 16. Haben Sie 
etwas verloren, mein Herr ? 

D. 1. Nobody likes this young man. 2. People (man) say 
a great deal of bad about him. 3. Everybody says something 
against him. 4. Nobody says any good of him. 5. He helps 
nobody. 6. He has never helped anybody. 7. He gives 
nothing to the poor. 8. My sister received (ex^alttn) several 
presents on her birthday. 9. Some of them were very pretty. 
10. One of George's books is spoilt. 11. Somebody found it 
in the grass under a tree. 12. One takes cold easily when one 
is tired. 13. We have taken (mad)en) many a journey to 
Switzerland. 14. That lady has lost something, and she is 
looking for it. 15. The maid is helping her to look for it. 
16. Nobody has helped us to do our exercises. 17. We have 
been promised help. 


EXERCISE XXVIII, a. (§§ 163-167.) 

A. Continue the follow-ing : 1. %^ fprecf)e Dom bcut|d)en 
^aifer, bit, 2c. 2. ^cf) ^tiw tmmer beS movgenS an, bu, 2c. 

3. %i) l^abe ein 9[Re[[er gebroc^en, \iQ.^ fiinf 9Jlar! raert roar, \iVi, 
2C. 4. J^aBe id) ben jungen 3D^ann empfo^len ?, l^aft "tiv., 2c. 

^. 1. (Sine 3}^inute ^t fedi^ig (Eefunben. 2. (?ine Stunbe 
f)at fedi^ig DJ^inuten. 3. (Sin ^^ag fjat uier unb jroan^tg (itunben. 

4. (Sine 3Sod)e l^at fieBen Xage. 5. ^va SOZonat l^at geiDo^nlid) 
breigig ^age. 6. ^er 9)lDnat gebruar ^o^i entroeber Oi6:)i nnb 
jioan^ig ober nenn imb jroan^ig Xage. 7. 3^^ einem ^d)a(tjaf)re 
(leap year) l^at er nenn nnb ^roan^ig Xage. 8. QSier oon '^tx[. 
3[JJonaten l^aben nnr breinig Xage. 9. ^\\\ ^/DoHar" oon nnferem 
@elbe ^(xi ^unbert ,,(Sentg." 10. SSir .^dfjlen nad) (by) 
,,^ortar§" nnb ,,(Sentg." 11. 3n ^^enti'd^Ianb- .^a^It man 
ba§ (55e(b na^ 9}Zarfen nnb ^fennigen. 12. 3n einer ^OJ^ar! finb 
l^unbert ^fennige. 13. (Sine 9J^arf ift nngefdl^r fo uiet roert, a(g 
fiinf unb jroan^ig ,, (SentS " uon nnferem (SJelbe. 14. Urn 
,, dollars " in SlJ^arfen ^n roei^fetn, mnltipiciert man mit uier. 
15. Urn 93krfen in ,, dollars" jn med)]"e(n biuibtert man im 
dJegenteil mit cier. 16. '^\xvci 33eifpiel, M. 7,20 Betragt 
(amounts to) in nnferem (^e(be einen ,,Sor(ar" adjt^ig ,,(Sent§. " 
17. 9?tein 33ater ^t [ein .ganS fiir je^n tanfenb brei ^nnbert 
nnb fiinf^ig 9Jkrf oerfanft. 18. 25^ie oiel mad)t ba§ in 
'^merifanifd)em (^elbe ? 

C (Oral.) 1. Count in German up to 30. 2. Repeat in 
German: 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 1000. 3. Wie 
zahlt man das Geld in Deutschland % 4. Wie viele Pfenniore 
hat eine Mark % 5. Wie viele Pfennige sind in drei Marken ? 
6. Wie viele Marken sind vier *' Dollars " wert % 7. Wie 
wechselt man Marken in " Dollars " ? 8. Wie wechselt man 
" Dollars " in Marken ? 9. Wie viel von unserem Gelde sind 
M. 8,60 wert ? 10. Wie viel haben Sie fiir dieses Buch 


bezahlt ? 11. Wie viel hat das Haus Ihi'es Nachbars gekostet 1 
12. Wie viel Geld hat der Dieb gestohlen ? 13. Wie viel war 
das Fenster wert, das gebrochen wurde ? 14. Spricht der 
Lehrer vom deutschen Gelde oder vom kanadischen ? 15. 
Welche Monate haben nur dreissig Tage 1 16. Wann hat der 
Monat Februar neun und zwanzig Tage? 17. Wie viele 
Minuten sind in sechs Stunden 1 

B. Give the value in German money of : 1. One cent. 
2." Five cents. 3. Eight cents. 4. Eleven cents. 5. Eighteen 
cents. 6. Twenty cents. 7. Thirty cents. 8. Seventy-five 
cents. 9. Ninety dollars. 10. One hundred and four dollars. 

E. 1. The month of February has usually 28 days. 2. In 
a leap year it has 29 days. 3. The months [of] September and 
October have together 61 days. 4. There are 86,400 seconds 
in a day. 5. How much did the book cost which was stolen 
from your library ? 6. He who steals is a thief. 

EXERCISE XXIX, a. (§§ 168-181.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. 3"^ ^iT^ ^^^^ 3^etfd^ Qcnug, 
bu, 2C. 2. ^di) hie faft bie Qan^c 3^^^/ '^^f ^c- 3- 3"^ ^^^9 ^^^''^ 
2Sod)en tm ^ofpttal, bu, 2c. 4. ©nblirf) Bin tc^ genefeu, eubltc^ 
bift bu, K. 5. ^d) Ijaho. beit gremben urn Q]er5eir)img gebeten, 

B. 1. 3lIIe Sc^iiler fmb fd^on gefommen. 2. (Stntge ft^en in 
ber @(i)ule nnb bie anberen fpielen uor ber X^iir. 3. 5U§ id) 
l^eute 5ur 3d)u(e fam, fagein Settler an ber ©trage. 4. ^eben 
3}Jorgen finbe tc^ tf)n "^0., nnb er er^a^tt atten biefelBe @e[d)i(i)te. 
5. (5v [agt, 'lia)^ er ben gan^en 25>inter tm ,!^D[p{taI gelegen l^ak, 
nnb f)a6e jel^t nidjt genug jn effen. 6. 9^nr juenige Sente glauben 
i^m. 7. @g gtebt Sente, raeldie betteln, bie nidjt icirflid^ arm 
ftnb. 8. ^ie[er Bat mid), if)m ein paar ^fennigeober etmaS 33rot 
5n geBen. 9. 2[5enn id) meinen @e(bBeutel nidjt uerge[]en ):)(xiit, fo 
I)dtte id) i^m etiua^ ©elb gegeBen. 10. 3d; gab ifjm aBev ein 


tDenig iBrot unb etrt paar ^tr[(^en, bie i^ bei mtr ^attt. 11. (5v 
^at alleS iBrot gegefjen, benn er iDar fe§r fiuugrig. 12. Gr fagte, 
er miirbe metne ©iite nid^t Dergefjen. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Haben Sie den Bettler gesehen ? 2. Wo 
sitzt er 1 3. 1st er krank gewesen ? 4. Wie lange hat er im 
Hospital gelegen ? 5. 1st er nicht endlich genesen 1 6. Hat 
er jetzt nicht genug zu essen? 7. Um was bittet er alle, die 
er sieht ? 8. Sass er gestern an der Strasse ? 9. Sitzt er 
jeden Tag da? 10. Sitzt er die ganze Zeit an der Strasse? 
11. Haben Sie Ihm etwas gegeben ? 12. Weshalb haben Sie 
ihm kein Geld gegeben ? 13. Hat ten Sie keins bei sich 
{imth you)l 14. Wie viele Kirschen haben Sie ihm gegeben? 
15. Hat er alle Kai^schen gleich gegessen ? 16. Hat er auch 
alles Brot gegessen ? 

J). 1. There are people who beg who are not poor. 2. Not 
all the people who beg are poor. 3. Some people have not 
enough to eat, but they do not beg. 4. The beggar of whom 
this school-boy tells was really poor. 5. He had lain in the 
hospital a whole year. 6. At last he had got weU. 7. He 
sat in front of the school, and asked the people for something 
to eat. 8. Many people went past, and gave him nothing. 

9. Some believed his story, and gave him a little money. 

10. The school-boy saw that he was weak and hungiy. 11. He 
gave the poor sick-man a few cherries. 12. It was not much, 
but it was all he had with him. 13. He had forgotten his 
purse. 14. All his money was in his purse at home. 15. All 
this happened yesterday. 16. The poor-man does not always 
forget the kindness of the rich. 

EXERCISE XXX, a. (§§ 182-186.) 

A. 1. 3d^ f)a6e einen ©rief an meineu ^ruber 5U fd)rei6en. 
2. 3<^ fcf)rei6e t^m bveimat ber ©od)e, um i^m :iu er^ci^fen, ma^ 
x6) jeben Xag mac^e. 3. Jpeute bin ic^ nad) ber 3tabt gefaljren. 


4. $un!t ncun Vi^x ftaub ber SSagen vox ber ^^iire. 5. ^d^ 
ftieg ein, unb ber iUUfd^er fu^r ab. 6. ^te ©tabtul^r fd)lug 
r)aI6 jelju, al§ idiv anfamen. 7. ^c^ blieb eine 3Siertel[tunbe 
beim Sd;ueiber, urn meiuen neuen ^tn^ug (suit) an^^uprobieven 
(try on). 8. (Sr n)irb M. 75,00 foften. 9. Urn ^e^n 9J^muten 
vox jclju wax id) betm §utmad)er. 10. 33et il^m ]f)abe id; mir 
eiiien ,g)ut beftedt, ber M. 9,50 f often luirb. 11. Urn ein 3]iertel 
auf elf befud^te id) jum ^lueiten mal ben 2h*jt. 12. 3d) '^atte 
itjn fd)on uor ad;t ^agen ^um erften mal bei'ud)t. 13. Urn ein 
^iertel auf ein§ Ijabe ic^ §u 'DJZittag gegef jen. 14. 3)ie 9ted)nung 
betrug M. 3,75, mit 25 ^^^fennig ^rinfgelb. 15. Dlac^ bent 
(^ffen bin id) im $arf fpa^ieren gefal^ren, unb urn 25 93^inuten 
vox fed)§ raar id) tuieber ju ,g)aufe. 16. S)ann l^abe i^ eine 
^affe X^ee getrunfen, unb jei^t tuerbe id; meinen 33rief fd^veiben. 

B. (Oral.) 1. Heute haben wir den zehnten, nicht wahr ? 
2. Wie viel Uhr ist es nach Ihrer Uhr ? 3. Sind Sie heute 
nacli der Stadt gefahren 1 4. Um wie viel Uhr sind Sie 
abgefahren? 5. Um Avie viel Uhr sind Sie angekommen? 
6. Bei wem sind Sie zuerst gewesen ? 7. Wie lange sind Sie 
beim Hutmacher geblieben 1 8. Wie viel kostet Ihr neuer 
Anzug ? 9. Um wie viel Uhr sind Sie beim Schneider 
angekommen ? 10. Wo waren Sie um ein Yiertel auf elf? 
11. Um wie viel Uhr essen Sie gewohnlich zu Mittag ? 12. Um 
wie viel Uhr haben Sie heute zu Mittag gegessen ? 13. Wie 
viel Trinkgeld haben Sie dem Kellner gegeben 1 14. Was 
haben Sie nach dem Essen gemacht ? 15. Waren Sie vor sechs 
Uhr zu Hause 1 16. Haben Sie heute Abend zwei Tassen 
Thee getrunken 1 17. Weshalb schreiben Sie an Ihren Bruder 1 

C. 1. My brother writes to me twice a week. 2. He tells 
me what he does every day. 3. The day before yesterday he 
drove to the city. 4. The clock was striking ten when he set 
out. 5. He visited his tailor and his hatter. 6. He remained 
only a quarter of an hour at the hatter's. 7. At the tailor's 


he ordered a suit which will cost eighty-five marks. 8. His 
new hat will cost him twelve marks and a half. 9. He dined 
at a quarter to one. 10. The bill amounted to five marks and 
forty-five pfennigs. 11. He gave the waiter thirty or (bi§) forty 
pfennigs. 12. After dinner he visited the doctor. 13. He 
will visit him for the third time a week from to-day. 14. At 
ten minutes to four he went for a drive in the park. 15. In 
an hour and a half he was at home again. 16. Then he drank 
two cups of tea, and wrote a few letters. 17. All that is 
interesting (tntereffant) (for) him, perhaps, but it is not interest- 
ing (for) me. 

EXERCISE XXXI, a. (§§ 187-188.) 

A. (Sin (Jbelmann (nobleman) ging raal^renb groger ©onnen^ 
l^i^e (heat of the sun) in feinem @arten fpajteren imb fal^ ben 
©(irtner, ber btefen ©e[u^ nic^t ertDartet ^attc, unter etnem 
23aume fd)lafen. S^tntg ging er auf tl^n lo§ (go at, attack) 
unb rief : ,, ®d)elm bu Itegft l;ter, anftatt ju arbetten ; bit cerbtenft 
nt(i)t, ha^ hid) bie @onne befdjeint. " ®er ©civtner antoortete : 
,, ©erabe hc^aib f)ahe id) mid) in hen ©rf)atten gelegt." 

B. Continue the following: 1. ^d) ging tm ©arten fpajteren, 
hu, K. 2. ^d) \d)la\c unter einem 33aume, hn, jc. 3. ^d) 
fdiltef unter einem Saume tm ©arten, bu, jc. 4. Sd) ging auf 
hm ©artner lo§, bu, k. 5. ^d) liege l^ter anftatt ^u arbeiten, 
bu, jc. 6. Give the principal parts (§ 28) of \a^, Hegft, 

C. (Oral.) 1. Von wem erzahlt man diese Geschichte ? 
2. Wo ging der Edelmann einst spazieren ? 3. War das 
Wetter selir heiss 1 4. Wen sah der Edelmann ? 5. Was 
machte der Gartner ? 6. Erwartete er wohl diesen Besuch ? 

7. Gefiel dem Herrn das Betragen (conduct) des Gartners ? 

8. Auf wen ging der Herr los ? 9. Was rief er dem Gartner 
zu? 10. Arbeitete der Gartner? 11. Was that er, anstatt 


zu arbeiten ? 12. Wohin hatte er sich gelegt ? 13. Wo lag 
er ? 1 4. Beschien ihn die Sonne 1 15. Legte er sich in den 
Schatten, auf dass die Sonne ihn nicht bescheine 1 

D. 1. How are you to-day^ 2. Have you gone for a walk? 

3. "We went for a walk in the garden. 4. I shall go for a 
drive. 5. The gardener is sleeping. 6. The gentleman calls 
his gardener. 7. He does not let him sleep (infin). 8. The 
gardener runs to him. 9. He attacks the gardener. 10. He 
calls to him : " You are lying in the shade j you were sleeping 
instead of working ; this does not please me ; why did you 
lie down (fid) legen) under a tree (acc.)V^ 11. The gardener 
begins to speak, and answers thus : "I am in the wrong ; 
I do not deserve that the sun should shine-on me ; therefore 
I lay down in the shade." 

^. 1. A lazy gardener was working in the garden of a 
nobleman. 2. He had cut down (um^uen) a tree, and was 
tilled. 3. He lay down under a tree, and was sleeping. 

4. His master went for a walk in the garden. 5. He found the 
man lying (injiii.) in the shade. 6. He went at him angrily, 
and called to him. 7. " Rascal, why are you lying here ? 
8. You were sleeping instead of working. 9. Such people 
don't deserve that the sun should shine-on them." 10. The 
gardener began to speak, and said. 11. "You are right; I 
was lying in the shade, because I did not deserve that the 
sun should shine-on me, and therefore I lay down under a tree." 

EXERCISE XXXII, a. (§§189-194.) 

A. Continue the following: 1. 3cf) bitte urn (Sntfd^utbtgung 
(pardon), bu, K. 2. ^d) bot bent airmen etn ©tiid 33rDt, \iu, jc. 
3. 3'^ '^cte tmmer morgen§ uixb abenb§, ^m, k. 4. Qd) Bat urn 
(5nt[(^ulbigung, 'i)\x, k. 5. 3d) ^be ju @ott o^t^titi, 'tiU, k. 
G, 3<i) ^^^ iintev etnem biden 33aume, bu, jc. 7. 3d) '^aht anbevt; 
l^alb ©tunbeu ha gelegeu, 'hu, jc. 8. 3<^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 53ud) auf ben 


^tfd^, \)u, K. 9. 3(^ lege mid) iim ^tf)n Itl^r 511 ^ette, bu (egft 
bid), K. 10. 3dj ^og bie lU;r au§ ber 3^a]d)e, bu, jc. 11. 3d) 
jeigte i§m ben ©eg nad) ber (Stabt, bu, jc. 12. ^d) ]§a6e meine 
,g)anbfd)u^e auSgejogen, bu :^aft beiue, jc. 13. 3d) jie^e meine 
,g>anbfd)u{je au§, bu — beine, jc. 14. ^d) ^ahe nie in meinem 
Seben gelogen, bu — in beinem, k. 15. 3^^ ^^^^ einen biden 
33aum um, bu, jc. 

B. 1. We offered the poor-man bread, but he begged us for 
money. 2. Daniel was a pious (fromm) youth, and prayed 
every day, in the morning, at noon and in the evening. 
3. Our neighbour's gardener lay under a tree the-other-day and 
slept. 4. He lay down there (ba!^in) because he was lazy. 5. More- 
over, he was tired, for he had cut down a thick tree. 6. He 
had already been sleeping for two hours, when his master w^ent 
into the garden. 7. The latter drew his watch from his 
pocket, showed it to him., and asked him how long he had 
slept. 8. The gardener lied and said he had slept only a 
quarter of an hour. 9. There lies the tree which the gardener 
cut down yesterday. 10. My books are lying up -stairs 
in my bed-room. 11. Your books are lying down-stairs in 
the school-room (<£d)u(ftuBe) ; I laid them there myself. 12. 
The boys were playing outside, whilst the girls sat in-doors 
and studied. 13. Our house is built partly of stone and partly 
of brick. 14. To the right of our house stands a church, and 
to the left a school. 15. I like to drink tea better than coffee, 
especially in the evening. 16. In the beginning I found the 
German language very dilBicult. 17. I like to learn French 
best of all the languages. 18. Our cousins will visit us shortly. 
19. They will remain with us at least three weeks. 20. It-is- 
to-be-hoped (^offentUd)) they will come this week. 21. They 
will hardly arrive before (vox) the 20th. 22. What this man 
said seemed extremely improbable. 23. I do not think that 
he would knowingly tell an untruth. 


EXERCISE XXXIII, a. (§§ 195-196, 200-201., 

A. Observe the following: 1. 3<^ ^"^^6 i^^i"^ Seftton, I 
know my lesson. 2. 3<^ Itwnz biejen ,g)errn ni(i)t, I do not 
know this gentleman. 3. 3d) !amt metne Seftton nid)t lernen, 
I cannot learn my lesson. 4. 3d) mug meine Seftton lernen, I 
must (am compelled to, have to) learn my lesson. 5. ^d^ mag 
'^\t\t Section nid^t, I do not like this lesson. 6. 3^ ^^^9 f^^ 
nid;t lernen, I do not like to learn it. 7. @r barf fpajteren 
gel^en, He may (is allowed to, permitted to) go for a walk. 

8. SDarf \6) fragen mo v^ie maren ? May I ask where you were? 

9. 3d) foU bie[e Seftion lernen, I am to (ought to, am told to) 
learn this lesson. 10. ^^) mill meine Seltion lernen, I will 
(wish to, intend to) learn my lesson. 11. 3c§ merbe fie uor 
jel)n Uljr lernen, I shall learn it before ten o'clock. 

B. Continue the following: 1. 3d) mei§ mo biefer §err 
mol^nt, \i\\, K. 2. 3cl) ^enne \iQi^ S^o^m^, morin er mol^nt, \iVi, k. 
3. 3^) ^<Ji1 Ifjewlc "^t auSge^en, "^m, k. 4. 3^ ^^^^^ btefen ©a^ 
nid)t oerfteljen, bu, k. 5. %6) mag gent beg morgenS fpa^ieren 
gel^en, bu, k. 6. 3"^) "^^9 btefen ^errn nid)t, bu, 2c. 7. 3*^ 
mug t)or fiinf ll^r ju ^aufe fein, bu, jc. 8. 3<^ foil ben ganjen 
^ag gu tgaufe bleiBen, "t^yx, 20. 9. 3*^ ^^^ '^^"Is ^^<^^ P^ife^S 
arbeiten, bu, 2c. 10. 3<^ merbe morgen ober iibermorgen 
abretfen, bu, 2c. 

C. 1. I must now write a letter to my father. 2. I am to 
write this letter before (the) tea (5lbenbeffen). 3. I cannot find 
my pens. 4. Will you lend me a pen? Charles will not lend me 
his. 5. With pleasure (33ergniigen), but you must not lose it. 
6. I do not like this pen ; it is too soft (metd)). 7. Nobody 
likes to write with a bad pen. 8. We know this lady, but we 
do not know where she lives. 9. Can you tell me where she 
lives? 10. Mary cannot learn this hard lesson./ 11. Are we 
to study the whole evening ? 12. No, you may go for a walk 
after dinner ((Sffen). 13. May I go out when I have written my 


exercise? 14. You may go out now if you wish. 15. I do 
not wish to go out yet. 16. Do you like to take a walk in the 
morning? 17. Can you {2 sing.) not take a walk with me, 
George ? 18. We must not remain [any] longer ; we must go 
now. 19. When will you {2 sing.) learn your lesson, Louisa? 
20. You must know it to-morrow. 21. Louisa must know her 
lesson before six o'clock, or she will not be allowed to go to the 
(tn§) concert. 22. Thou shalt not steal. 23. Charles is not to 
lend his books to the other boys. 24. We will not lend you 
{2 plnr.) our books. 25. We do not like to lend our books, 
26. Do you know where (iUDf)in) I laid my gloves? I cannot 
find them. 27. Does Maiy know where they are? 28. I 
know not what I shall do. 29. May I ask you to lend me 
some money? 30. I do not know you, and therefore I do 
not know how I can lend you money. 

EXERCISE XXXIV, a. (§§ 197-202.) 

A. Observe the follo^dng : 1. 5((§ ic^ jung roar, fonnte td^ 
fel^r gut fc^roimmen, ^Mien I was young I could s^\-im very well. 
2. 3<^ fonnte befjer jc^reiben, raenn ic^ eine gute geber l^atte, I 
could write Better if I had a good pen. 3. 3rf) ^^^^ nie gut 
jd;retben fonnen, I have never been able to write well. 4. 3c^ 
^dtte tn§ ^on^ert gefien fonnen, luenn ic^ gerooUt ^Citit, I could 
have gone to the concert if I had wished. 5. ^(^ roerbe morgen 
nid)t in§ ilon^ert ge^en fbnnen, I shall not be able to go to the 
concert to-morrow, 6. 3((§ ^tnb mugte tc^ frii^ ju ^tiit ge§en, 
When I was a child I had to go to bed early, 7. 3d; mii^te 
IVL S)(iViit bteiben, icenn id) meine ^(iifgabe nid;t mad)te, I should 
have to stay at home if I did not do my exercise, 8. 3^ ^dht 
meine ^^(ufgabe abfdireiben mi'iffen, I have been obliged to copy 
my exercise. 9. '^d) l^dtte ^u §au]'e b(eiben miiffen, roenn ic§ 
meine 5(ufga6e nid)t gemadjt I)(itte, I should have had to remain 
at home if I had not done my exercise, 10. 3*^ merbe nod) 

aJ^ /^^-^^ :^s-a c^ cJUtd. 


§it)ei (Stunben arSeiten miiffen, I shall have to work two hours 
more. 11. j(lg_5liii^ mod)te id) nid)t jur ©d)ule gel)en, aBer id) 
mugte, As a child I did not like to go to school, but I had to. 
12. %^) mod;te ^avi§ 6e|'ud)en, rcenn id) @elb geniig ^tte, I 
should like to visit Paris if I had enough money. 13. 3(^ 
l)abe l^eute nid)t auSgel^en mbgen, I have not cared to go out to- 
day. 14. 3<^ \^iit '^0.^ fel^en mogen, I should like to have seen 

B. Continue the following: 1. Qd) !onnte ntd)t frii^er 
fommen, \i\x, k. 2. 3c^ l)aBe ntd)t frii^er fommen fijnnen, "t^yx, ic. 
3. 3^ fbimte ntd)t fo etne '^lufgabe mad)en, \i\x, u. 4. 3d) l^dtte 
fo eine ^lufgaBe ntd)t maiden fbnnen, 'ti\x, k. 5. 3d) u)erbe biefe 
2UifgaBe nie mad)en fbnnen, bu, :c. 

C. 1. I was unable to come, because I was ill. 2. I have not 
been able to go out this week. 3. Mary would not be able to 
do such an exercise. 4. She could have done it if she had 
taken pains (ft(^ 9J^iil§e gebeu). 5. We shall never be able to 
learn all these words. 6. I could write better two years ago 
than [I can] now. 7. We could write better if we had better 
pens. 8. I could have bought that house for 5000 marks if I 
had wished. 9. I could not buy it now for twice-as-much 
i^<x^ ^oppelte). 10. We shall not be able to go to school to- 
morrow. 1 1 . Charles has been obliged to copy his exercise. 

12. We should have to copy our exercises if we did them badly. 

13. We always had to copy our exercises when we did them 
badly. 14. These exercises are badly written ; we shall have 
to copy them. 1 5. We have been obliged to write every exercise 
twice. 16. We did not wish to do it, but we have been obliged 
to doit. 17. If the weather had been cold, we should have 
had to stay at home. 18. We had to stay at home, because the 
wcatlier was so cold. 19. We must stay at home. 20. We are 
not allowed to go out in the evening. 21. As [a] child George 
was lazy, and did not like to study. 22. I should like to take 


a walk after dinner if the weather is fine. 23. Should you like 
to go with me? 2-1. I do not care to go for a walk when it is 
dark. 25. I should have liked to visit Berlin when I was in 
Germany. 26.1 had to come home earlier than I liked (gefaden). 
27. Could you lend me a good pen ; I should like to write to 
my father. 28. You might write with this [one]. 29. I have 
tried to write with it, but I have not been able to do it. 30. 
Do you think you will be able to do this exercise without 
mistakes ? 

EXERCISE XXXV, a. (§§ 197-202.) 

A. Observe the following: 1. -^aS ^inb burfte nie fpdt 
aufbtetben, The child was never allowed to stay up late, 2. (5§ 
biirfte auf6(et6en, luenn e§ troUte, It might (would be permitted 
to) stay up if it wished. 3. 3"^ ^^^ feine D^iomane lefen biirfen, 
I was not (have not been) allowed to read any novels. 4. 3^ 
^tte fie gelefen, raenn id) geburft \)'oXit, I should have read them 
if I had been allowed. 5. %^ iijerbe !§eute abenb au§ge[)en 
biirfen, I shall be allowed to go out this evening. 6. S^er 
Sel^rer fagte, id) fotte feine D^^omane lefen, The teacher said 
I should not read any novels. 7. S)ie]"er O^ing foil l^unbert 
3Jlarf gefoftet ^Ben, This ring is said to have cost a hundred 
marks. 8. S)u !§dtteft betnem ©ruber l^elfen foden, You ought 
to have helped your brother. 9. 3(^ rootlte t^m !^e(fen, aber ic^ 
fonnte e§ nid)t, I wanted to help him, but I could not. 10. @r 
follte mir fein "^v^^ lei^en, aber er l§at md)t geraoUt, He was to 
lend me his book, but he would not. 11. S^iefer 5Dknn :ut(I 
ber ®of)n eine§ ©rafen fein, aBer niemanb gfaubt i§m, This man 
asserts that he is the son of a count, but nobody believes him. 
12. Saffen ®ie mi(^ 3^r neue§ SDieffer fe^en, Let me see your 
new knife. 13. Saffen (Eie e§ ja nid)t auf ben 33oben fallen, Be 
sure you don't let it fall on the floor. 14. 3<i) %^^^ ^"i^* ^^"^" 
neuen ^(njug mad)en laffen, I have had a new suit made for me. 


15. 28o ift bev ^tu^ug, ^m ^ie fid) Ijabcu mnd)cu InfjcuV V/here 
is the suit you have had made (for yourself) ? 

B. Continue the following: 1. 3c^ biirfte biefen S^oman 
lefen, menu id) looUte, bu, 2C. 2. ^d) l)atk e§ if)m gletd) fagen 
joUen, bu, 2c. 3. ^d) 1:)ahc e§ nidjt geiuotlt, lueil id) e§ ntd)t 
geiuoUt I)abe, bu, 2c. 4. ^d) Ijattt tl^n ba§ nid)t t^un laffen, bu, 
2c. 5. t^ier ift ha§ S^av3, Jt)eld)e§ ic^ mir Ijahc Bauen laffeu, {)ier 
ift — , iueld)eo bu bir, :c. 

C. 1. We were only allowed to read novels in the holidays. 

2. I should (iDitrbe) read this novel if I were allow^ed (subj.) 

3. I should have read it if I had been allowed. 4. I shall 
be allowed to read it in the holidays. 5. I might (would be 
permitted to) read it if I wished. 6. I should (u)iirbe) read 
it if I were allowed [to do] it. 7. The teacher said that I might 
(biirfen) read it. 8. Are you allowed to read novels when 
you should be writing (infin.) your exercises. 9. You should 
not read novels when you have something else to do. 10. We 
should not sit up late to read novels. 11. If everybody 
did what he should, the world would be much better. 12. You 
should not have sat up so late to read novels. 13. My brother 
should have helped me to do my exercises, but he would 
not [do] it. 14. He was to help me; he promised to (es). 
15. I told him that he should have helped me, but he only 
laughed. 16. This lady is said to be the daughter of a 
countess, but I do not believe it. 17. She is said to have 
been six years in America. 18. Her relatives (^ern)anbte) 
are said to have been very rich. 19. The child wished to sit 
up late, but it was not allowed to. 20. George wished to 
get (ijahm) thirty marks from me, but I did not want to lend 
him so much. 21. We did not go for a w^alk ; George could 
not, and I would not {^perf^. 22. I wouldn't, because I wouldn't; 
that is all. 23. This man asserts that he has learnt German, 
but he knows nothing about it. 24. He pretends to have 

EXERCISES xxxy-xxxvi. 413 

been two years in Germany. 25. Are you having a house built 
in this street ? 26. Where is the house which the count ha.s 
had built for himself? 27. Let me see the present your father 
gave you. 28. Let us take a walk through the city. 29. If 
you let my pen fall, I shall not let (erlauben) you use it again. 


Note. — The following continuous passages are intended to serve as a 
transition to the Reader, and may be advantageously' used for practice 
in grammar, translation, oral work, and composition. A few words not 
included in the general Vocabulary are indicated by numerals, and are 
explained at the foot of p. 414. 

A. ©in 33iid)of fragte ein Rinh con neun 3a§ven : „Wdn 
fletner gveunb, {age mir, rao ©ott tcoI)nt, unb id) merbe btr eine 
^Ipfelfinei geben." — ,,@ndbtger- ^txx~," antroortete ha§ ^inb, 
„raemx (iie mir aBer fagen, rco (Sott nid)t ift, fo raerbe id) 3§neu 
groei geben. " 

B. (Sin QSater erma^nte^ feinen (io^, friif) aufjuftel^en, imb 
er^ci^lte il^m bie @efc^id)te uon einer ^\evi'on, lueld^e fvii!^ morgeuG 
eine Sijrfe^ mit ©clb gefunbcn f)abe. — „3a," fagte ber ^nabc, 
„bte ^erfon, tcelc^e ha^ ©elb cerloren ^t, ift aber bod; nod) 
friif)er aufgeftanben. " 

C. Sefjing tarn eine§ 5I6enb§ nad) ^aufe unb flopfte an feine 
^^iire. jT^er S3ebiente fal; aue bent genfter, erfannte feinen tOerrn 
im ^nnfeln nidjt unb rief : „Xer ^idjter ift nid;t ju .^aufe. " — 
„(Bdi)a'i)ct'^ nid)t5^/' ontmortete ^effing, „id) raerbe ein anbermal 
jDteber f ommen, " unb ging ru^ig fort. 

D. Unter bem gro^en Dtupaume'^ Bei ber ©dieune^ unfre§ 
3^ad)bar§ fanben ^\vd ^naben eine 9^ug. „(Sie gel^ort mir," rief 
ber eine, „benn \6) f)aht fie ^uerft gefeben." „9lein, fie gel^ijrt 
mir," fc^rie ber anbre, „benn id; ^labe fie anfge^obcn." ^eibe 
gerieten in einen ^eftigen (Streit.^ „3d) mill bem ^treit ein 
©nbe mad)en," fagte ein grij^erer Snnge, ber eben ba^u^ fam.^ 
@r ftellte fid) 5n)ifd)en bie ^mei ilnaben, fnadte^*^ bie 9tug unb 
fprad) : „3^ie eine ^d;ale^i gef)brt bem, ber bie D^ug ^nerft fa^ ; 


bie anbve ^tjole gcI;ort bcm, bcv fie juevft aufl^ob ; bcu ^ern^^ 
aber belfjalteis id)— fiir ben UrteU§fprud) ^i " 

E. Ein Knabe, der von seinen Eltern auf einen Jahrmarkt 
gesandt war, um verschiedene^^ Artikel zu verkaufen, wurde 
auf dem Heimweg^*^ von einjem Rauber^^ zu Pferd angehalten. 
Der Knabe lief^^ da von ^s, so schnell ihn seine Fiisse tragen 
konnten, wurde aber bald eingeholt^^. Der Rauber stieg^^ 
ab^'^ und forderte^i das Geld des Knaben. Da zog dieser 
seinen Geldbeutel heraus und streute den Inhalt^^ desselben 
auf dem Boden umher. Wahrend das Geld nun von dem 
Rauber aufgelesen^s wurde, sprang der Knabe blitzschnell auf 
das Pferd und galoppierte davon. Zu Hause angekommen, 
wurde das Pferd in dem Stall angebunden ; darauf wurden die 
Satteltaschen-^ untersucht^^ und es fand sich ausser zwei gela- 
denen Pistolen eine bedeutende^*^ Summe bares Geld darin. 

F. Du Bachlein^^, silberhell-^ und klar, 
Du eilst voriiber immerdar^^. 

Am Ufer steh' ich, sinn'^^ und sinn' : 
Wo kommst du her, wo gehst du hin? 

Ich komm' aus dunkler Felsen Schooss; 
Mein Lauf geht iiber Blum' und Moos ; 
Auf meinem Spiegel schwebt so mild 
Des blauen Himmels freundlich Bild. 

D' rum hab' ich frohen^^ Kindersinn^i; 
Es treibt^^ mich fort ^2, weiss nicht wohin. 
Der mich gerufen aus dem Stein, 
Der, denk' ich, wird mein Fiihrer^^ sein. 

^orange, ^my lord, ^exhort, ^purse. ^it doesn't matter, ^walnut- 
tree, ■'barn, ^quarrel, ^come up, come along. ^^ crack open, ^^shell. 
^^kernel. ^^keep. ^■^sent^nce, judgment, ^^different, various, ^^way 
home, ^■^robber. ^^run away, ^^overtake. ^'^dismount. ^ijemand. 
22contents. ^Sg^^^j^gj. ^p 24 saddle-bag. ^s^gj^j.^]^ 26(jQjjgj(jgj.a,ble. 
^brooklet, streamlet. ^silvery bright. ^forever. 3" think, muse. 
^Hhe happy spirit of a child. ^ drive onward, ^guide. / 




a^ trar einmal einc ffeine fii^^e Xirne, tie f?atte jctcrmann Itc&, 
bcr fte nur anfalv am aUerliebfteu vitrei* iln-e ©rogmuttcr, tie iint§te 
gar nid)t, tt>av fte atle^ bcm ^inbe ge6en fedte. Sinmal fd)cnfte fie 
i^m tin c^apprf^en i?ou rotem (gammet, itnb Jveif iSm tvto fo roc^I 
fknb, unb ey nic^ti? anbevw me(^r tro^eu ivodte, I)iep eg nur tvi5 5 
diottappd^tn. Sine;? Jacje^ fpt-ac^ feine 9?tutter 311 i(Mn „fomm, 
3flotfdpp6en, ba ^aft bu ein (Stiiii ^iic^en iinb eine ^lafd^e 3Bein, 
bring' bag ber (Brogmutter ()inaug ; fie tft franf nnb \dmad) unb 
n?irb ftc^ barvtn laBen. '^ad)'' bic^ auf 6ei^cr eg ktg irirb, unb 
wenn bu ^inaugfcmmft, fo gel) ^iibfc^ fittfam unb lauf ni^t ijomio 
2Ce0 db, fonp fattjl bu unb ^erbric^ft bag 63fag unb bie ©ro^mutter 
\)at md)tg. Unb ivenn bu in i()re <Btuht fommft, fo i?ergig nic^t 
guten ?S}^or9en ^u fagen unb gudf' ni(^t erft in a((e Sden krum." 

„3c^ it?ill fd)on aUeg gut mac^en/' fagte 3flctfappc{}en jur ?l}?utter, 
unb gab i()r bie ^anb barauf. Xu ©rof mutter aber au>f)ntei5 
braufen im SCalb, eine haibt (gtunbe vom Xorf. ©ie nun iRoU 
fappi^en'in ben SSalb fam, begegnete ibm ber SQolf. ^lotfdppd^en 
aber )(^U nic^t, wag bag fiir ein bofeg Xier wav, unb fiirt^tete fic^ 
ni(^t ^or i()m. „®uten Jag, S^totfappcben/' fprac^^ er. „(Ed)onen 
Xanf, 2Bo(f." „3Bo t)inaug fo fru§, ^ot!appd)cn?" „3ur a)rD§-2o 
mutter." „^a^ trdgjl bu unter ber ©c^iirje?" „^ud)en unb 
SBein: gejlern l^ahtn \v\x gebaden,ba foil fic^ bie franfe unb fc^trad^e 
®ro§mutter ettvag ju gut t^un, unb fic^ bamit ftdrfen." „9^ot= 
fdpp(^en, mo wo^nt beine ©ro^mutter ?" „5^oc^ eine gute 
5SierteIftunbe meiter im S3alb, unter ben bvei gro^en (5if^bjiumen,25 

415 .-T^/l- 

416 91utfd|j|jf^eiu 

ba ftcbt i()r ^r^auv?, untcu ftnb t'ie 9hig()eifen,bai5 luirftbu ja unffen/' 
fa^te 9^otfappitcn. Xer ^Bolf t)ad)te bei fic^ „ba5 junge jarte 
Dtttij, baiJ ifl ein fetter 33ijyen, ber iinvb noc^ 'Beifer fc^meden al<5 
tie 5lttc : bu mupt e^ liflivi anfani^en, banitt bu Beibe erfc^nappft." 

3o2)a cjing er ein SSeilc^en nel>en 9UUfap|?d)en, bann fprad) er „9flot^ 
!a))pd)ert, fte^ einmal bie fc^onen 35Iuttien, bie rin^^ itm^er fle()en, 
jvarum gudfl bu bid) ni(^t iini ? ic^ gfau^be bu ()5rft gar nic^t, mie 
bie 33ogIeiit fo lictlid) ftngeu ? bu gel)ft ja fiir bid) 1)in aU tveun 
bu 3ur <Bd}uh gingft, uub ift fo luftig ()au§en in bem 2BaIb." 

35 9^ot!appd)en fd)tug bie 5lugen auf, unb aU e^ fa^ tx>ie bie ©onnen^^ 
flraMen bur^ bie 33aume I)in unb ^er taujten, unb alle^ i^oU fd}oner 
SBIumen ftanb, bad)te e5 „jvenn id) ber ©ropmutter einen frifd)en 
@trauj mitbringe, ber iinrb i()r auc^ greube mad)en ; e^ ift fo frii^ 
am Za^, bag i(^ boc^ gu reciter 3^^^: anfomme," lief i^om 2Bege aB 

■10 in ben SBalb l)inein unb fud)te 33(umen. Unb ti?enn eg eine 
geBrod)en ^atte, meinte eg, weiter ()inaug ftdnbe tint f(^onere, unb 
lief barnac^, unb geriet immer tiefer in ben SBalb l)inein. 2^er 
SBoIf aBer ging gerabe^megg nad^ bem ^cin^ ber ©rogmutter, unb 
llopfte an bie 3:()iire. „5Ger ift braufen?" ^S^totfappi^en, bag 

45Bringt ,^uc^en unb 2Bein, mac^^ auf." „1)riid' nur auf bie 
,^Iin!e/' rief bie ©rogmutter, „id) Bin ^u fd)tt)ad) unb !ann nid)t 
auffte^en." 3^er SBoIf briidte auf bie ^linfe, bie 3^t)iire fprang 
auf unb er ging, o^ne ein SBort ju fpred}en, gerabe ^um 53ett ber 
©rogmutter unb »crfd)^(udte fie^ !Dann tl)at er i^re .^leiber an, 

5ofe^te it)re JpauBe auf, legte fid) in i^r 53ett unb gog bie 55orl)ange 

9^otfappc^en aBer mar na^ ben 33(umen ^^rumgelaufen, unb alg 
eg fo ^iel gufammen l)atte, baf eg feine mef)r tragen fonnte, ^ i^m 
bie ©rogmutter itiieber ein unb eg mad)te fic^ auf ben 2Beg ju i^r. 

55 (Sg tt)unberte fic^, baf bie %t}uvt aufjtanb, unb trie eg in bip^tuBe 
trat, fo fam eg i^m fo feltfam barin ijor, bag eg ba.(^te^„ei, n?ie 

. angftlic^ anrb mirg i)eute gu ^ut, unb Bin fonft fo gerne Bei bev 


aiotfii^^^en. 417 

®ro§mutter \"^ (Si? rief „9utcn ?}torgen \" befam aber feine ^nt^ 
wort. 2^arauf ging t^ jum Sett uvCd 309 bie 55or^ange 3urucf: 
ba kg bie G3regmutter, itnb ^atte tie ^au^t tief in^ ©efi(^t gefe^teo 
unb fa() fo ivunberlirf) auc. „Si, ®ro§mutter, wa^ :^aft bu fiir 
groje D^ren!" ,,'ra^ id) bi(^ Seffer t)oren fann." „(£t, @rcg^ 
mutter, n?a5 ()aj^ bu fiir gref^e 2(ugenl" „Xap ic^ bic^ beffer 
fe^en fann." „(Si, ®rof mutter, xoai :^a|l bu fiir grofe ^dnbe!" 
„Ta§ ic^ bic^ kjfer ^aden) faun." „5l6er, Orogmutter, iva^ 6aft65 
IXL fiir ein entfe^Ii^ gro^e^ 5?caul I" „Xvif ic^ bic^ 6e[fer freffen 
fann." ,^aum ^atte ber 2Bo(f ba^ gefagt, fo i^Cii er einen @a^ 
au^ bem 33ette unb yerfc^(ang ba^ vume D^otfappdjen. 

JSie ber 2BoIf feiu ©eliiften gejliUt ^atte, tegte er fid) aneber in^ 
33ett,ffd^(ief>^in unb fing aw iiberiaut ju fc^nard>en. Xer^dgerTo 
gtng e6en aw bem Jpau^ !:? ^rbei unb badjte „nne tie a(te f^^au 
f(^nard)t, bu mu^t boc^ fe()eu c6 i^r ettraa fe()(t." ^Ta trat er in 
bie (Stube, unb ane er ijor ba^ 53ett fam, fo faf) er ba§ ber 23o(f 
barin fag. „5inbe ic^ bi(^ I)ier, bu alter <2unber/' fagte er, „i(^ 
^abe bid) lange gefud)[." (^\iw aodte er feine 33iid)fe anlegen, bars 
fiel i|m ein, ber 2QoIf fonnte bie ©ropmutter gefreffen ^^aben^unb 
fte trdre nod) ju retten^ fcfeog nic^t, fonbern na^m eine (3d)eerc 
untrffing^an bem f(^[afenben 2So(f ben 33auc^ aufjufc^neiben. 2Bie 
er ein |)aar (Sd)nitte get^an ^atte, ba fa^ er ba-:? rote ^dppd^en 
leud)ten, unb nod) ein paar Sd)nitte, ba fprang ba^ ?[)7dbd)enso 
^erau^ unb rief „a6) xo'xt war icb erfc^roden, njie n?aru fo bunfel in 
bem 2Bo(f feinem SeiB \" Unb banu fam bie alte ®ro§mutter 
and) noc^ leOenbig ^erau^ unb fonnte faum atmen. S^otfdppc^en ' 
aber ^olte gef(^n?inb gro^e (Steine, bamit fiittten fte bem 2Bc(f ben 
2eib, unb ane er aufmad)te, tuottte er fortfpringen, a6cr bie.Steiness 
traren fo fd)njer, ba^ er gieic^ nieberfanf unb fid) tot ftel. 

I^a n?aren atte brei ^ergniigt; ber 3dger 3og bem S3olf ben ^el3 
ab unb ging bamit ^eim, bie ©rof mutter ag ben ^uc^en unb tranf 

418 9iot!a^|idjcm 

ten ^I?cin, ten 9UU!appd)en gebrac^t ^atte, nn'D ert)oUc ftd) iuieber, 
90 9ietfapvd)en aber bac^tc „t)u njittjl t>ein Sebta^ ni^t iuieber atlein 
i^om SSe^e ah in ben SBalb taufen, ti?enn bir^ bie 5)^utter i?erboten 

S5 wirb auc^ eqa^It, bag einmal, a(5 ^lotfappc^en ber alten 
©rofmutter tuieber ©ebacfene^ brad)te, ein anberer SBoIf i|m 

gsjugefpvo^cn unb eo »om SBege l)a6e aMeiten tt?o(Ien. S^otlappd^en 
aUx ^iitete fic^ unb ging gerabe fort feine^ 2Beg^ unb fagte ber 
®rogmutter, bap e^ bem SBoIf begegnet a^are, ber i^m guten Slag 
getviinfc^t, akr fo bo^ axi^ ben Slugen gegudt ^atte: ^iuenn^ 
ni^t auf ojner ©trafe geiuefen mare, er t^'dttt mi^ gefreffen.'y 

loo^^omm/' fagte bie ©ropmutter, „irir ii^otlen bie 3;§iire ijerf^liepen, 
bap er nic^t I)erein !ann." 33alb barnac^ flopfte ber SSoIf an unb 
rief „ma^' auf, ©ropmutter, ic^ bin bag S^otfappc^en, i^ bring' 

. bir ^thadent^J' (Sie fc^miegen aber ftitl unb ma(^tett bie 2;^iire 
ni(^t auf: ba f(|nc§ ber ©raulopf etUcbe Wal urn bag ^an^, 

losfprang enbli(^ aufg 2)ac^ unb troEte tt?arten big 9totfappcben 
abenbg na(^ ^aug ginge, bann mollte er i§m nad)f^(eic^en unb 
ujolltg in ber !I^un!et^eit frejfen. 5Iber bie ©ropmutter merfte, 
wai er im (Sinn l)atte. ^Zun ftanb ^or bem ^aug tin grower 
Steintrog, ba fprac^ [te ju bem ^inb ^,nimm ben (Simer,/ S^lot^ 

iio!app(^en, geftern ^aV t(^ SBiirfte gefoc^t, ba trag bag SSajfer, worin 
fie ge!oc^t finb, in ben Jrog." 3^ot!appd)en trug fo lange, big ber 
grope grope 2^rog ganj i?otI njar. 1:a ftieg ber ®eru^ won ben 
SCiirften bem SKolf in bie 5Rafe, er fc^nupperte unb gucfte ^inab, 
enblid) mac^te er ben ^alg fo lang, bap er ftc^ nic^t mel)r ^batten 

iisfonnte. unb anfing gu rutfcben: fo rutfd)te er !oom '^ad) Ijtxah, 
gerabe in ben gropen 3^rog ^inein unb ertran!, 3'tot!dppd)en aber 
ging fro^lic^ nad^ ^au€, unb t|at i^m niemanb ettvag ^u 8eib. 


IDte's ber 2llte madjt, iff s immer redjt 

Sine ®efd)i(^te merbe ic^ bir er^a^len, bie ic^ ()orte, aU id) nod) 
tin ^int> mar ; jebecittal trenn i^ an tie ®ef(^ic^te bai^te, !am e^ 
mir t>or, aU ob fie immer fc^oner a^erbe; tenn e^ ge§t mit ®e= 
fd^ic^ten, mie mit »ielen 2}Zenfc§en, fie trerben mit june^menbem 
5((ter fi^oner. 5 

5luf tern Sanbe 6ijl t>u gen?if fi^on genjefett; bu wirft mo()l au($ 
fo ein rec^t alte^ 33auernt)auc mit einem @trof)bac^ gefe^en ^aben. 
50^000 unb ^rauter n?ac^fen i?on felbft auf bem ^ac^e; ein (2torc^* 
neft beftnbet ft(^ aud^ auf bem ©ipfel be^5fet6en, ber @tor(^ iji 
unentbe^rli^ I 2)ie Si^dnbe be3 .^aufe^ finb f^ief; bie genfterio 
niebrig unb nur dn ein3ige^ f^enfter i\t fo eingeric^tet, bag e^ 
geoffnct werben fann; ber 33adofen ragt an^ ber 2Banb ^erijor; 
ber glieberbaum l^dngt iiber ben S^^^t^ f^inan^ unb unter feinen 
3n)eigen am ?5Ǥe be^ 3^wne^ ifi ein Zdd), in'meldem einige - '^^' 
(Snten Hegen. Sin alter J^unb, ber atle unb jeben anbtlit, iftis 
au(^ ba. 

©erabe fo ein 53auernbau5 ftanb braufen auf bem ?anbe unb in 
biefem ^aufe mo^nten ein ^aar atte Seute, ein Saner unb feine 
gran, (feie n^enig fie au6:) fatten) ein Stiid n^ar bod) barunter, 
bad ent&e^rlic^ njar— ein ^ferb, ta^ \i^ »on bem ©rafe nd^rte,2o 
n>eld)ea cd an ber Sanbftra§e fanb. ^er a\tt 33auer ritt ^ur 
(2tabt auf biefem ^ferbe, oft (ie^en e^ auc^ )dnc ^adjhaxn »on 
i^m unb emiefen ben alten Seuten- manc^en anbern S^ienft bafiir. 
Mtin am »ernunftigften miirbe e^ mo^t fein, tt?enn fie bad ^ferb 
i?er!auften, obcr cd gegen etmad anbered i?eftaufd}ten wad i^nen25 
met)r nii^en fonnte. ^ber \va^ fonnte bad ii?o()l fein? 


420 2Bie'§ ber %iit mai^t, ift'S immct xt^t 

„Va^ \vix\i bu -2((ter am teften JviiJen/' filiate i^m tie grau, 
„^eute ift ^erabe 3aln-marft, reite ^ur ©tabt, giefe ba^ ^ferb fiir 
@elt> ^in, obcr mac^e etnen guten 2:aufc^ ; ii^ie bu e^ auc^ mac^jl, 
30 mir ift'^ rec^t." 

(Bit fniipfte i^m fein Jpal^tud^ urn, benn ba^ ^erflanb ftc bejfer 

al^ er; )te Iniipfte e5 i()m mit einer Doppelfc^Ieife urn; ba^ war 

fe^r ^uh\ii) I ®ie ftric^ feinen ^ut glatt mit i^rer flad)en ^anb 

ttnb 9a6 ibm bann einen ^u§ ^um 5l6f(^teb. !Darauf ritt er fort 

35 auf bem ^ferbe, welci)e^ 5?erfauft ober i?ertaufd)t werben foUte. 

S)ie (Sonne Brannte ^eig, feine 5BoIfe h>ar am Jpimmel g« fe^en. 
5luf bem 2Bege a^ar e^ fe^r flauMg, »iele Seute, bie ben 3a^rmar!t 
befu(^en n?otIten, fuf)ren, ritten ober gingen ^u ?5ug. 5^{rgenb^ 
gab e5 (S(^atten gcgen bie <Sonne. 

40 Unter anbern ging an6:) einer be^ SBcge^ ba^in, ber eine ^lif) ^u 
^axttt trieb. X)ie ,^u^ war fo f(^on wie eine ,^u^ nur fein fann. 
„1)ie giebt getrig auc^ gute 5}Zi((^/' bac^te ber Sauer, „bag ware 
ein ganj guter laufc^, bie ^u^ fiir ba^ ^ferb." 

„^eba, bu ba mit ber ^u^!" fagte er, „wei|t bu wa^? Sin 
45 ^ferb, fotlte i^ meinen, foj^et me^r aU eine ^u^, aber mir ijl bag 
gleicbgiltig, ic^ ^abe met)r ^n^tn von ber ^u^ ; ^aft bu 2ufl, fo 
taufd)en wir." 

„^rei(i(^ wiU ic^' baV' f^^fite ber ^mn mit ber ^u^, unb bann 
tan fcb ten [te. 

50 f 2)ag war alfo abgemad^t unb ber SBauer ^atte nun um!el)ren 
fonnen, benn er l)atte nun bag g^t^an, n>a^ er t§un fottte; adein 
ba er \id) einmal auf ben S^^brmarft bereitet ^atte, fo wotlte er and:) 
^in, hio^ um i()n anjufe^eu, unb beg^alb ging er mit feiner ^u^ 
na(^ ber ©tabt. y 

55 Vk J^u() fiibreub jTlbritt er rafd) ju, unb nad) hirjer 3^it warcn 

aSBie'S bcr 5llte maH^i, ift'B immer rcr^t» 421 

jic dnem 'Mcinm ^nv (gette, ber cin (Sc^af trieb. S^ war eiu gute-:? 
@c^af, fett, iinb ^atte gute SBoUe. 

„X)ag mod)te id) l)abm/' bac^te unfer 33vnier, „e5 miirbe an 
urtferem B^^inie gettug (3va^ ftnben unb ma^renb be^ 2Binter5 
fonnten wiv e^3 bei un5 in ber ©tube I)aben. (SigentHd) wan t^eo 
angemeffener, ein (Sc^af aly eine ^u() gu ht\i^m," 

,;2Botten n?{r taufd}ert ?" fprac^ er ju bent ^anne nttt bent ©c^afe. 
2)a3U trar ber Wcinn fogteic^ bereit unb ber Zau^d) fanb ftatt. 
Unfer 53auer ging nun ntit bent (5d)afe auf ber Saitbftra^e itjeiter. 

S3alb fa^ cr abermal3 einen ^ann, ber 'odin gelbe auf biees 
Sanbftra§e trat unb eine groge ®an^ unter bent 2(rme trug. 

„Va^ ift ein fc^mere^ 2)i«g/ ba^ bu ba :^aft; e^ 1^at ^ebern unb 
gett, bag eo eine Sufi ift ; bie ttjiirbe fic^ fe^r gut au^ne^men, luenn 
fie bei nn^ bal)eim an einer ^dm am Staffer ginge. (\^a^ ivdre 
toa^ fiir meine 5(lte)^ mie oft ^at fte ni(^t gefagt: jt?enn it>ir nur7o 
eine ®am fatten. 3e|it tann [le i)te(Iei(^t eine befommen — uitb 
ge^t'^, foti fte fie ijahtn. — 23o(Ien wiv tauf(^en? 3^ gebe bir ba5 
(Sc^af fiir bie ®an5 unb fd)5nen T)ant baju." X)agegen I)atte ber 
anbere m^^ ein^umenben unb fo taufc^ten fie, unb ber Saner befam 
bie (3an^. 75 

3e^t tt?ar er fc^on na^c bei ber ®tabt; ba^ ©ebrcingc auf ber 
Sanbjlrage na§m immer ^u ; ^enfc^en unb 53ie^ brcingten fic^ ; fte 
gingen auf ber (gtrafe unb Idng^ ber B^une, ja, fie gingen fogar 
in cine^ 33auer^ ^artoffelfelb Mnein, »vo tin ein3ige^ ^u^n an einer 
(5(^nur ging, bamit e^ iiber ba^ ©ebrdnge nic^t erf(^reden unb fid) so 
nic^t ijerlaufcn follte. "^a^ ^ui^n ^atte einen furgen (Sc^ttjanj, e5 
blin^elte mit einem 5Iuge unb fa^ fe^r !Iug au^. „^(ucf, find ! " 
fagte ba5 ^nijn. 2Ba^ e5 fid) babei bac^te meig ic^ nid)t 3U fagen, 
aber aU unfer 33auer e5 fab, bac^te er fogleid) : „1)a^ i|l ba^ 
fd)5nfte ^ui)n, ba«3 ic^ je gefe^en Ijatt, e5 ift fogar f^oncr aU be^85 

422 mit'i^ bcr 5l(tc ma^i, ijl'0 immcr rc^t* 

^forrero .^"^cnne. Va^ .^u(m mo(^te tc^ :^akn ! Sin ^u^n pnbet 

immcr .Corner, c5 faun fid) faft fclbft ernii()ren; ic^ glauBe, eg 

iviivte ein filter S^aufc^ fein, tvcnn ic^ c5 fiir bie ®an^ Belommen 

foitntc. — ^H^Uen mx taufcben?" fra^te er. „Jauf(^cn?" fragte 

9ober antere, „j;a, bvi5 wave gar nicl)t iikt." Hub fo taufc^ten fie. 

2)ag n?ar fel)r ^ie(, iim^ er nuf ber S^eife jur ©tabt abgemac^t 

t)atte; {)ei§ ivar eg auc^ unb er wax miibe. (Sin Jrun! wnb etnjag 

^^^'^mn (£]Jen\t()atcn i()m 9lot ;'j balb befanb er fi(^ am 2Birtgl)aufe. Sr 

tt?oUte eben l)incingel>en, algber ^ned)t I)eranfam, unb fit begegneten 

95fic^ in ber 2:^iire. 3^er ^nec^t trug einen gefiiUten ©acf. 

. „5Bag (mft bu in bcm (gade ?" fragte ber Sauer. 

„5>er!riippelte ^ipfel/' anta^ortete ber ^nec^t, ^einen gan3en ©acf 

vcK, genng fiir bie (Bd^tveine." ., ^-o r,r>A--' ^ 

„T^ag ift bo(^ eine ^u gro^e 33erf(^menbung. SCenn mtr meine 

loo^Ute bal)eim bag fc()en !onnte. 5Sorigeg ^a^x trug ber alte "^^aviv^ 

am (Stall nur einen einjigen 2(pfel; ber anirbe aufgel)o&en unb 

ftflnb auf bem (g^ranfe Big er ganj i?erbarB unb jerftel. ^a^ ift 

boc6 immer 2I?cMftanb, fagte meine ^Ite, :^ier ^Tonnte fie akr erft 

SBcblftanb fe()en, einen gan^en ©aii i?olI ! SBeld) eine greube 

105 iviirbe fie Beim 51nblic! l)aben !'*j 

„2Cag iviirbct i§r fitr ben (5acf »otl gekn?" fragte ber ^nec^t. 
„5Bag ic^ gebe? 3c^ 9^^^ i^^itt ^w^xi in ben 3:aufc^/' unb er 
gab bag ^u6n in ben 3:aufc^, kfam bie 3ipfel unb trat mit biefen 
in bag 2Birtgt)aug. 2)en (Sad Icbnte er bet)utfam an ben Dfen, er 
no [elbjl trat an einen 3:if(^. X)er Dfen irar aber ^t\S^, baran l)atte er 
ni(^t gebacbt. @g ivaren »iele ©cifte ana^efenb; ^ferbe^anbler, 
Cd>fentreiber unb %wn Snglanber, bie jvaren fo reicb, baf i:^re 
3:afci^en »on ©clbftiicfen ftro^ten unb fajl pla^ten. 

^ggg! ging eg am Tfen ; bie 5ipfel ftngen an ju bratcn. 
115 fl^ai ift bcnn bag?" fragte einer. 

r/3vi/ wijfen Sle/' fagte unfer 33auer; — unb nun er3at)lte er bie 

2Bie'0 ber 3llte mai^t, ip'§ immcr xt^t. 423 

ganje ®cfc^ic^te 'oon tent ^fcrbe, fca^ er gegen eine ^u^ t>crtaufc^t 
unb fo meiter ()erunter bi^ ju ben Sipfeln. 

„3a, ba irirb beine 'Mtt bic^ tiic^tici au^fc^elten, tueun bu nac^ 
^aufe fommft/' fagten bie Snglanber. 120 

„2Bag? ^^u^fdjeften?" fagte ber 2I(te, ^fiiff^n mirb fte mic^ xtnb 
fagen : 2Bie'^ ber ^Hte macbt, tft'^ immer xtd)t." 

„2Co(Ien mir metten ?" fasten bie (Snglanber. „^unbert ^funb 
ober eine Xonne gemiinjten ©olbec, ttjenn Sie njoUen." 

„(iin (Bd)tfjti geniigt fcfeon/' entgegnete berJBauer, „i(^ !ann nuri25 
ben (Sc6effe( 5ipfel bagegen fe^en, unb micb fetbft unb meine altc 
Orau ba3u ; bao, bac^te id), ware boc^ auc^ gute^ ^D^ag." 

„(3ntl Slngenommen!" fagten bie Snglanber unb bie 3Bette mar 
gemacfet cL-ia-^^ 

2^er SBagen be^ 5Qirtg fu^r 'oox unb bie Sngldnber unb beriso 
S3auer ftiegen ein ; ^ormdrt^ ging e^ unb Balb ^ielten fie toor bem 
^du^d^en be^ 33auer^ an, 

„®uten 5Ibenb, m'kJ' / ^, 

„©uten 2(6enb, filter." LA^^ 

„2^er laufd) iftfc^on gemac^t." /r^''^ 136 

„3^, bu »erfte^jl beine ©a^el" fagte bie i^xan \i)n umarmenb, 
unb beac^tete n?eber ben @ad n^ bie fremben ®dfte. 

„3c^ ^*ibe ba^ ^ferb gegen tint ^u^ getaufc^t." 

„®ott fei Tant ! J^ie gute 5IZi(c^ bie wir nun 6a6en merben, 
unb an6^ 53utter unb ^dfe auf bem Xif^e! X;a^ mar ein ^errlid^er uo 
Zan\6) !" 

„3a, aber bie ^u^ taufc^te ic^ njieber gegen ein Sc^af." 

„5ld), bao ift urn fo beiJer!" enviberte bie ^van, „bu benfft immer 
an aiit^; fiir tin ©c^af ^abcn wir SlBeibe genug; wotlene <3trumpfc 
unb irotlene Jpanbfc^u^e ! Dad giebt bie ^u^ nic^t ! 2Q ie bu boc^ 145 
an ailed benfft." ^ 

424 aBic'S bcr %Ut ma^t, iff § immer xt^t 

„^htx ba^ <Sc^af t^abt i(^ irieber gcgen eine ®an^ ^ertaufc^t" 

„2I(fo biefev? 3aln* irevben irir irirfH^ ©anfekatc^ ^abert, nietn 
lieber 5IIter ! 2)u benfft immer baran, mtr eine ^reubf gu mac^cn. 
i5o2Bie ^errlic^ ijl ba^ ! 2)ie ®an^ fann man an einer Seine ge^en 
unb ftc nod^ fetter werben lajfen, beoor tt?ir fie Braten." 

„%Uv bie ®an^ haU id^ gegen ein ^u^n ttertaufc^t/' fagte bcr 

„Sitt ^u|n! ba^ n?ar ein guter Jauf^!" entgegnete bic ?5^au. 
i65„1^a^ ^uBn legt Sier, bie briitet ei? au^, Jinr friegen ^iicfclein, irir 
friegen einen ganjen ^u()ner^of ! M), 'tm_ ^abiJ^iJim.,ix^u^ 
gewiinf^tl'' J -^ -.^V~T^^ o^^^-^.. 

„3a, aber ba^ ^ufcn gab i(^ n^ieber fiir einen (Bad V)o(I 'otx^ 

hiippelter ^tpfel ^in." 
160 „2Bag ? 3e^t mug i(^ bi(^ erft red)t fiiflTen!" \?erfe^te bie ?^rau. 

^^Jiein liebc^, guteiJ Wdnnd^tnl 3^) n?erbe bir etn?ag er^dbien. 

Sie^ft bu, aU bu fort tt?arft :^.eute movgen, bac^te ic^ bariiber nacb, 

tt?ie i6 bir beute abenb etmag red^t ®ute^ gu ^fen mac^en lonnte. 

(Sped unb (Sier mit 3tt?tebeln, bac^te ic^ bann. /S)ie Sier f)atte ic^ 
165 unb ben (Sped and% nur bie 3^^^^^^^ fe^tlen'mir. @o ging id) 

benn ju be^ (Sc^ulmeifter^ }^xan, fie ^at 3^^?^^^^^"^ ^<i^ *^f^f if^/ 

aber fte ift geijig. 3^^ bat fie, mir ein paar 3^^^^^^!^ S" leifjen. 

2eif)en? gab fie mir ^ur 5lntttJort. ^\6^t^, gar nic^t^ njdc^f^ in 

unferem ®arten, ni^t einmal ein i^erfriippelter 5lpfel ; nid^t einmal 
170 einen folt^en lawn id) 3^"^" lei'^en, liebe grau. ^ti?,t !ann ic^ 

aber i h r je^n, ja, einen ganjen (Bad tiott lei^en. 2)a^ freut mid^ 

^u fe^r ; i^ fonnte mi^ ^u 3^ob lad^en!" unb fte fiigte i^tt miebcr 

„I^ag gefdUt un^!" riefen bie Sngldnber. „^mmcx alter unb 
175 immer tuftig. X;ag ijl fc^on ba^ ®elb Wert!" Unb nun aa^^lten 

fie einen (2d)effel ©olbmiinjen an ben 33auer, ber nic^t aw^gefdfeoUcn^ 

(onbern gefiif t n?urbe. 

3a, ba^ Io_tnt firf) immer, ircnn tie grau ev einric|t.,unb ee^ auA 
immcr fa^t, ta§ ber W^iwxi ber fliigftc unb fein t^\xxL immer red^t 
fei. ISO 


Das neue Kleib. 

^orc n>ai? ber 3}Zonb mir erja^It : 3(^ ^a6c ben ^abcttcn 
Dffi^ier n?erbett wnb ftc^ jum erften nml in feine prdi^ttgc Uitiform 
fleiben ff()en : ic^ ^Ci,\^t ba^ jungc ?Olabd^en in i^rem Srautftaate 
gefei^en unb be^ i^iirfien junge 33raut gliicflic^ in i^rem 53raut* 
an^uge ; aber nie ^a6e ic^ eine ©eligfeit erMicft, a^n(i(^ ber eine^ 5 
Heinen i^ierja^ri^en 3}?ab(i)ett^, treld^e^ id) ^eutc 2(6enb 6co6a^tete. 
<Sie ^atte tm neue^ blaue^ ^leib er^alten unb einen neuen 3flofa* 
^ut ; ber (Staat tvar eben an^Iegt unb atte riefen na^ Sic^t, benn 
be^ ^onbeg (5tra§(en, bie bur(^ ba^ ^^enjler brangen, n?aren ni^t 
l^ett genug, gan^ anbcre Sid^ter nitfften angebrannt njcrbcn. 1)aio 
(lanb ba^ !feine ^ab^en jleif n?ie eine ^'•uppe, bie 2(rme angftlic^ 
i)on bem ^(eibe ab au^ftredenb, bie g-inger n?cit au^einanber 
gefprei]!. D ivelc^e ©etigfeit ftral)lte auo i^ren 5lugen, o^yxi i^rem 
ganjen ©efti^t! „^orgen fottft bu in bem ^(cibe an^ge^cn, " 
fagte bie 5)^utter, unb bie v^feine bticfte auf ju ibrem Jput unb 15 
wieber nieber gu i^rem ^(eibe unb lacbelte felig. „5}Zutter!" rief 
jte, „ira^ werben wo^I bie !(einen Jpiinb^en benfen, wenii jie mic^ 
in biefem (Staate erHidfen?" — " 


„3c^ babe/' fagte ber ^JZonb, „bir oon ^ompeji, biefer Seiche 
ciner ®tabt, in ber 3*tei^e ber (ebenbigen ©tdbte au^cftedt, erjdf^lt; 
i(^ fenne eine anbere nocb (£ltfamere, jte ift feine Seiche, aber bad 
©efpenjl einer @tabt. Uberall, roo bie (Straiten ber Spring* 

426 aJcncbig, 

sbrunnen in 9)larmorBe(fen pKitfc^ern, fommt e^ mtr.ttor/al^ '^orte 
tc^ bai? ^iarc^en i^cn ber fd)n?tmmenbeu ©tabt. (3a, ber Strait' 
beg SBajTcrg mag i^on i^r er3d^(en,bie SBeflenbe^ ©tranbe^ mogcn 
»on i^r ftngen.) Ubcr ber glac^e beS ?0?eereg tu()t oft ein 9leBcI, 
bag {ft i^T SGitwenfc^Ieier ; ber ^rcijiiigam beg ^JZeereg ift tot, fein 

io(5cbIo§ unb feine ®tabt ift fein 5SJtaufoIeum. ^ennft bu biefe 
(Stabt? 9Zte :^orte fie bag 3flotIen ber 9^aber ober ben ^uffc^Iag 
beg ^ferbeg in i^ren ©traf en, bort fc^njimmt nur ber %\\6) ^ernm, 
unb seipenftcr^oft fliegt bie fitwar^e ©onbel iiber bag griine 
SBajfer. 3<^ J^itl," fagte ber ^?onb, .„bir bag gorum ber (gtabt, 

15 ben grojten ^la^ berfelBen, jeigen, unb bu it^irft b{(^ in bie (Stabt 
ber 5)Zdrd)cn »er[e|t glauBen. T)Cl^ ®rag n^u^ert ^toifc^en ben 
breiten ^^iefen, unb in ber ^orgenbdmmerung flattern Jaufenbe 
»on Jauben urn ben freijle^enben, ^o6en S^urm :^erum. 5luf brei 
(Seiten bift bu tton ^Sogengdngen umgeBen. Ujikr i^nenjt^t ftill 

20 ber 2^iir!e mit feiner langen ^feife, ber f(^one ®ried)en!naljc le^nt 
(i^ an bie ©dule unb betrac^tet bie aufgerid^t'eten %x^)p\atn, \)\t 
l^o^en 5Raften, 5lnbenfen an bie i^erfc6n?unbene ?!)ca(^t. !S)ie 
^laggen ^dngen gleic^ 3:rauerfIor ^erab. @in ^O^dbc^en ru:^t bort 
aug, bie fc^ireren SiAer, mit SBajfer gefittit, :§at fie ^ingefe^t, bag 

25 3ocb, cin h^elAem fte biefelBen getragen ^t, ru^t auf einer i:^rer 
(gc^uttern, fie le^nt fic^ an ben ©iegegmaft. Sg ift fein ^cenfc^tof, 
fonbern eine ^ir^e, bie bu »or bir erblidft, bie ^ergolbeten ^uppeln,' 
bie gldn^enben ^ugeln ringgum gldn^en in meinem Si(^te: bie 
prd(^tigen e^ernen 3floffe bort oben M^iXi 3fteifen 'gemad)t, xoxt bag 

30 e^erne JJ.fcrb im ^JJdrc^en, fie finb erft ^ier^er, bann fori; ,!i?.on K)ier 

unb nJieber^cr^er gereif^. ©iejft bu bie' buntrf>rac^t ber iJ^oitern 

^ unb ber ^enfter ? Sg ^at bag 5lnfe^en, alg o6 bag ©enie ben 

Saunen eineg ^inbeg nac^gegeben ^dtte, inbem eg biefen feltfamen 

Xempel fcbmiicfte. \ ©ie^ft bu auf ber (Sdule ben gepgelten Son?en? 

85 Xag ®o(b gidnjt nod), bie ^^tiigel aber finb gebunben, ber Sowe ift 
tot, benn ber ^ijnig beg ^eereg ift tot, bie grojen JpaCen fte^en 

mot^fj^tlb. 427 

*}erobet, unb tt?o fritber tie f^errHcf>ften Q^emalte praitgten, fc^eint 
je^t t)te nacfte ^JJaucr turc^. !Eer Saj^arcne frf>Iaft unter tern 
^ogengange, beffen Ow^oben friif^er nur ber 5crnet)mfte 5(bel 
betreten burftc. 5(u^ bent tiefen ^Brunnen ober auc^ »ieCei^t au» 40 
ben ©efiittoiniiyen bei ber (ieuf^erbritcfe tijut 3vimmer, n?ie gu ber 
3ett, al^ bai? lambourin anc- t)tn bunten ®oute(n erfcfeod, a(3 ter 
33rautring »on bem glanjenben 33ucentoro jur 5(bria :^inunterflog, 
]nx 5lbria, ber ^^enigin ber '^eere. 3lbrial JpiiUe bic^ in 5Reben 
Sag ben ilBitmenfc^Ieter beinen 53ufeit oerbiiden, hhxQt i^n iiber45 
ba0 ^aufoleum beinee ^rauttgams : baiS marmorne gefpenftige 



„3d^ mid bit ein 33itb au0 ^^i^anffurt tiefern/' fagte ber ?i)Zonb. 
„33efonberi5 ein ®ebaube belrad^tete i(^ bort, e^ voax ntcbt ®oetbe'^ 
©eburtebviuc, nid)t ba^ alte S^latbaue, burc^ beiJen gegitterte g^nfter 
bie gebcrnten (Sd^dbel ber Cc^fen noc^ :§crt)orragen, (bie bet ber 
^aiferfrcrtung gebraten unb ^rei^gegeben n?urben ; nein, e^ tt?ar 5 
ein biirgerlic^e^ Jpaus, griin angeftrid)en unb einfa(i), nabe an ber 
fc^malen 3u^fi^g4^|Tf^ e^ n?ar ^to t^fdjilb'^ Jpau^. 

3c^ blicfte buri^ bie gei?ffnete J§iir, bie Ireppe war belt erleucbtet, 
33ebiente mit brennenben ^er^en auf fcbweren filbernen Seucbtern 
jlanben ba unb neigten ficb tief 5?or ber alten ^rau, bie auf einem 10 
Iragfejfet bie 3:reppe l)inunter gebradjt irurbe. Der Sefi^er tec^ 
Jpaufe^ ftanb mit entblo^tem ^opfe unb briicfte e^rerbietig einen 
^uj auf bie ^anb ber 5tlten. (So n>ar feine Gutter, [ie nicfte ibm 
unb ben Sebienten freunblic^ ju, unb jte fiit^rten fie in tie enge 
bun!(e ®ajfe in ein fleine^ ipau^ ; e3 n?ar ibre S3cbnung; bierio 
^atte fie ibre j^inber geboren, ^on bier au^ mar if)r ®Iiic! aufge^ 
blii^t; moUte fie bie oeracbtete ©ajfe unb M^ Heine ^au^ »erlajfen, 

428 ^^r^^^^" »ct»«r. 

fo tviirt'e ta^ &[M au(^ fie tterlaffcn ! Va^ war nun \i)x ©laube." 
20 — 1)er ?9?ont> eqii^Ite roeitcr nicbt^; gar gu furg wax fein 33efuc^ 
^cutc 2(bcnt) ; id) abcr bad)tc an bie alte ^xau in ter engen, t>erac^* 
tcten ®a[fe; nur ein 3Bort, unb i^r glan^enbe^ Jpau^ ftanbe an 
ber J^emfe; nur ein 3Bort unb ibve ^iUa lage am ®olf »on 
25 „2Benn ic^ ba^ 9.^nnge ^m^ »erHefe/^au5 bem ba^ ®Iiic! 
meiner @ot)ne emporbIii^te,)ba jviirbe ba^ ®(iicf ftc oerlaffen ! '' 
— S^ ift ein ^Iberglaube; aber »on bcr 5lrt, bag, wenn man bie 
®ef(^ic^te fennt unb bag 35ilb erblidt, givei SBorte aU Unterfc^rift 
geniigen, um eg gu ^erfte^en : „(S i n e SO^i u 1 1 e r." 

Der 3dr. 

(£g ttjar in einem ^roi?in3iaIftabtd)en, fagte ber 5i}Zonb, ^xjiM> 
wax eg im ^ergangenen ^aljxt, aber bag t^ut nic^tg gur ©ad^e, ic^ 
fa^ eg fe^r beutlic^ ; ^eute 5(6enb lag ic^ in ben S^itungen baoon, 
aber ba war eg (ange nic^t fo beutli^ : 3« ^f^ ©aftftube fag ber 

5 53arenfiit)rer unb af fein 5Ibenbbrot ; ber 33ar ftanb braugen ()inter 
bem ^oljftoge angebunben, ber arme ^e^, ber niemanb etwag gu 
(eibe t^at. obwof)! er grimmig genug augfa^. Dben in ber ^ac^= 
fammer fpielten in meinen (Stra^^Ien brei Heine ^inber; bag altefte, 
moc^te [ec^g 3fl^re ait fein, bag iiingfte nic^t me()r aU gwei. 

lo^latfc^, flatfc^ ! tarn eg bie 2^reppe t)inauf; n?er fonnte bag wo^l 
fein? 5}ie Z^ux fprang auf — eg war ber ^e^, ber grope gottige'- 
33ar! (ix ^atte 2angewei(e ge^abt unten im ^ofe unb f^attt nun 
ben 2Beg gur Zxtppi l)inauf gefunben ; i^ ijaht alle^ gcfe^en, 
fagte ber ^J^onb. T)ie ^inber erfil^rafen fe^r iiber bag groge 

15 jottigc 3:ier ; jebeg froc^ in feincn SBinfel, er entbedte fie aber alle 
brei unb befc^niijfelte ffe, tijat i^nen aber nic^tg gu leibe. ,,'Dag 
ift gewig ein groger ^unb," ^ad)tm fie, unb bann flreic^elten fte 

$immel0f(^luffel« 429 

tbtt; er tegte ficb auf ten guPotcn, ber ficinfte 3ungc Hetterte auf 
i^n ()mauf unt) )>te(te mit feinem golblecftgen ^opfc^en 5?erftecfen 
in tern bic^ten fc^margen ^elg. 3e0t na^m ter dltefte ^nabe feine2o 
3:rommeI unb f^lug barauf, ba^ e^ bro^nte; ber 33ar erbob ficb 
auf ben ^interfugen wnb pnci an ju tangen; e^ war allerliebft 
an^ufe^en. 3fber ^nabe na^m je^t fein #ett)e^r, auc^ ber 33ar 
mu^te ein^ f)a6en, unb er t)ielt e^ re(^t orbentlicb feft ; e^ mar ein 
prdc^tiger ^amerab, ben fie gefunben batten, unb bann marfdnerten 25 
jtc: „Sin0, jmei, (Sin», jweil" — 

2)a griff jemanb an bic 3^^iir, ftc gtng auf, eg war bie 3}Zutter 
ber ^inber. Du ^dtteft fte feben follen, i^ren tautlofen ©c^recf 
feben, bag freiben^eife ©eftc^t, ben :^aIbgeoffnetett 9)^unb, bie ftieren 
^ugen. 2(ber ber fleinfte 3unge nicftc feelentjergniigt unb rief gang 30 
laut in feiner @pra(^e : „2Bir fpielen nur ©olbaten!" — Unb 
bann tarn ber ^drenfii^rer ! 



©er ^etltge ^etrug ^atte einmal augwdrtg gu t^un, barum fleUte 
er ben S^erub mit bem grofen ^(ammenfc^mert ang Jpimmelgt^or 
unb fprad^ : „Sa§ niemanb herein, a(g n^er einen Sc^Iiiffel mitbringt 
unb felbft auffc^Iieft; benn alien Wm}dc)tn, bie ^eute fterben fotlen 
unb in ben ^immel ge^oren, njerbe ic^ einen ^immeUfcbtiiffel 5 
fenben. Unb njer feinen (gcfelitjfel bat, ge^ort nic^t in ben ^immel." 
5^a'c^bem er bag gefagt batte, ging er fort. 

(Sg Icbten nun auf ber (Srbe ein alter Sotfe nameng Sut'gen unb 
fein 2Beib, bie njo^nten in einem fteinen, blanfen Jpdugc^en, tt?o 
man auf bie Xiine binaugfa^ unb bag Wax branben ^orte. ©ortio 
fatten fie ficb gur 9lut)e gefe^t unb fc^auten auf ein langeg it^en 
inxM, bag fe^r gliicflic^ war, benn fie liebten fid) innig, fatten 

430 §immclgf(^IuffeU 

immcr ?eit unt ^rciitc jufammen getra^cn unt> emanber nfe tin 
bofe^ SDort gefagt. Unb fe alter f!e wurbcn, tiefto innigcr Hcbten 

15 fie ftd) imtt befto melu' bingen |k am Seben. 

©erate an tern lage, ta t>er ^eilige ^etru^ ni^t im Jpimmel 
war, fiiblte ber alte 3urflen, t^af cr fterben miiffe, unt) eg n?urbe 
ibm febr f^n^er, jvie eft er auc^ jwifc^en ben SBeEen bem 2;ob in^ 
2luge gefci)aiit ^atte. „?eB' n)ot)I, Itebeg JliGeib/' fagte e-- traurig, 

%„kb' n?oM unb auf 2GieberfeI)en I" Tann t>evIor er bag 53enju§tfein. 
9la(^ einer 3Beile offuete er nod) einntal bte Slugen unb fprad^ mit 
fd^ttjac^er (Stimme : „1)u I . . . brinci mir bag grofe 9lefi ^er, bag i- 'ti*^ 
n?iU id^ mitne()men, benn cinen Sotfen brau^en fie im ^tmmel 
tttd^t; aber jvenn ber liebe ®ott l)ort, bag i^ mic^ auc^ aufg 

25t5ifd)en tterfte^e, »ern?eubet er mic^ ijietlei^t alg ^immelgftfc^er, 
benn ^D^iipiggang giebt'g tm ^tmmel nic^t." X)ann feufjte er dn 
le^teg Wal unb ftarb. 

2l(g er geftorben raar unb fi^ eben au^ ben 2Beg nac^ bem 
Jpimmel mac^en ivcUte, !am ein (Sngletn gef(ogen, brac^te einen 

sogoltenen ^cbliiffel unb fagte: „(Sinen f(^i?nen ®rug i?om ^eiligcn 

^etrug, unb er ^atte gerabe beute augmartg ju t()un; barum 

mocbtet i^r nur felbft bag Jpimmelgt^or auffc^tiegen unb o^ne 

Umftanbe eintreten." 

I^er alte 3iirgen banfte unb ftecfte ben ^immelgfc^Iujfel in fein 

35 2Bamg, bann lub er bag fcbmere 9^e^ auf bte ©c^ultern unb begann 
bie breite ©olfenftrage binauf^ufteigen. Sluf bem SBege f(^aute er 
immer um unb fpracb hn fi(^ : „'5Reine Wtt iinrb gen?i§ balb 
nad)fommen, benn fie iiberlebt meinen %ot) nic^t (ange." ,.(£r 
gelangte aber boc^ U^ ang grofe Jpimmelgtbor, obm bag t^m 

iojemanb nac^gefommen ware, unb ba eine ^oljerne ^anf battor 
ftanb, marf er bag 5^e^ auf ben 33oben, fe^te ft^ nieber unb 
wartete/ Xenn er woflte nic^t ot)ne fein 2Beib in ben ^immel 
einge^en unb bac^te: „5C^enn fie ^erauffommt unb fie^t bag prac^tigc 
J^or, getraut fie ftc^ »iellei(^t nicbt aufjufc^Iiegen." 

§immel§frf)luffcL 431 

@^ baucrte nic^t lange, fo fa(> cr jcmanb, bcr [tc^ mu()fam t»ie45 
©trage berauffc^leppte ; e^ wax inbe^ nidU fcin S3eil\ [onbern tin 
©oltat, eiu noc^ junge^, frifd)e0 ^(ut, a6er mitten burt^ t»ie 33rujl 
gefd^offen. (Sr ftii^te ft^ auf feinen @abe( unt* fto()nte bei jebem 
(gc^ritt, benn t)ie 2Bunbe kannte tvie geuer. TO er ansJ 
Jpimmel^t^or gelangte, !oimtc er niAt l)tnein, njeil er feinen 50 
^immel^f(i)(iiffel ^atte. 2)a le^^nte' er ft^ an5 2:i)or, fcl)(og t)ie 
Slugen unb jitterte am ganjen Seibe, benn e^ war fel)r tait, unb 
ba^ gieber fitiittelte i^n. 

Dem alten Siti^gen t^at ba^ J^erj we^, trie er i^n fa(), unb er 
bac^te: „(5anft ^etru5 ^at gewig ^^ergeiJen, ba§ ber fo fc^netl fterbenss 
n?iirbe, fonft ()dtte er i^m einen ^immc(cf6(iiffe( gefanbt. Denn 
tin e^rlid)er ©olbat, ber im offenen ^ampfe fddt, ge|ort boc^ in 
Xitn ^immeU''— Unb_ilJifir]^t|i4^U(^.i»irf(i(^ f : bem ^im*''^.^a^^ 
mel^pfortner tt?ar e5 ganj unb gar entfatten, bap ber bra^e ^riegg= 
mann ^eute fterben iviirbe; er ()at au^ immer gar fo »ie( gu benfeneo 
unb gu forgen ! 

,,3c^ tt)itt einmat bem ^eiligen ^etru^ ing ^anbwer! greifen/' 
bac^te ber gutmiitige 3iirgen unb ert)ob fic^, gab bem ©olbaten 
feinen eigenen (Sc^Hiffet unb fprac^ : „®e^t nur :^inein, i^r ^abt'^ 
^nijtiger a(i^ i(^, xm\> laft eurf) "oon ben (Jngein JpimmeUbalfam auf 65 
bie SBunbe trdufein!'/ 

Der (Solbat banfte unb f^Iog auf; auf ber ©c^wette aber wanbte 
er flc^ um unb fagte : „2SoIIt il)r nic^t auc^ g(eic^ mitfommen?" 

^a rtef ber (Sngel mit bem ^lammenfi^wert, ber ^^inter bem 
3:^ore ftanb: „^uv rvtv einen ©(^(iiffel I)at, barf herein!" unb 70 
feeing bag 2;^or gu, bag eg frac^te. 

9lac^bem ber atte 3iirgfn wieber e.ine 2Dei(e geanirtet ^atte, fa^ 
er roirflic^ ein alteg, gebiicfteg ?Oliitterc^en bie 2Bolfenftra§e l^erauf* 
jleigen unb erfannte, bag eg fein SBeib wax, X)a (ief er i^r 
entgegen, fo fc^nett feine alten 33eine i^n tragen njoEtcn, unb 75 
umarmte fie, unb beibe freuten ficb febr. 

•i32 ^immclsft§luf]d» 

^ f,®tiy 9lcic^ Mucin!" fa^te er, aU er ibr c^anj ^^inaufge^olfen 
^atte, „tcnn ci? ift !alt unt) unwirf^ l)ier aufen." 3:a fie aber 
|orte, ta§ cr feineit (Scbliiffel ijerfd^enft Katte, tvoUte fie nicbt 
80 ^inein^eben, fonbent hat i(m, ben xinigm gu ne^men. /(gie ttjare 
^^^-^ o^ne^ miibe unb miifte sorter ein n^enig au^ru:^cn, fa^te fie. 
Sr nabm aber ibren .^immeli?fcbluf[c( nid)t, unb fo btieben fte beibc 
au^H^t, fe^ten jlc^ ne6en eiuanber auf bie ()o(3erne 53an! unb 
ivarteten. .^Vb^^ ' 

S5 Ta faben fie ein ^inb ^erfommen, bag ^atte blonbe £o(fen unb 
^rc^e, Maue Slugen unb gin^ im (2terbebemb6en. 5}Ztt bem S^PK^ 
bei? ^emtc^eno trocfnete ec bie Jfircinen, bie i^m u6er bie 33a(!en 

„5trmeg ^inb, n^eebalb n?einft bu fo febr?" fragte bie 2llte. 
90 „5Beil ic^ i^on meinem SJJiitterc^en babe fort miiffen/' ertriberte 
bag ^inb. 

„f)er liebe ©ctt bat eg fo getrotit/' fagte bie 5llte, unb er n?trb 
]6>cn njiffen, n^arum. „5^eg^alb »eine nit^t nte^r, mtin ^inb! 
36 tt?in bir auc^ eine ?D(utter fein, big beine nnrtlid^e 5}Zutter nadb^ 
95 fommt. @eb' nur ^leic^ in 'ttn ^immel i^inein, bann befommft bu 
ein ^aar fd)one, tt?eif e gliigel unb tt)irfl ein @nge(etn. — £)u l^afl 
boc^ beinen Jpimmelgf^liiffel nic^t »erIoren?" , 

„Sr ift mir an^ ber ^anb gefatlen, unb {(^ babe tbn m(j^t me^r 
finben fonuen," fagte bag ^inb unb begann tt?ieber ju tt>einen. 
100 5IIg bie 5irte bag prte, na^m fie i^ren eignen (Sc^Iiipl, fc^Iog 
bie %i}ux auf; unb bag ^inb ging in ben J^immel ein. 

Ta fafen fie nun, bie beiben Stlten, neben eiuanber auf ber 

^anl, unb feineg ()atte einen JpimmelgfcbliiffeL Sg wurbe aber 

^iac^t unb n?ar jo pnfter, bag fie fic^ furc^teten. I^ann famen bie 

105 Sterne gerotit unb poltertcn in ibren ^abnen. Unb bie guten, 

alten Seute t?erIoren ganj ben Sliut unb begannen leife gu njeinen. 

§immcI§fc§lufjeU 433 

5lfter t^er Iie6c (53ctt bcrte auf feinem J^ronc ba^ SCeinen unb 
f|jrac^ : „(S6erii6, irer iveint m^r bent ^immeIk^t()ore?" 

!Da erjaMte if)m t»er GberuB \va^ gefc^ef^eu wax, tenn er ^atte 
ade^ burii)^ Si^luiJedoi^ mit augefeBen. %U bcr lieBe ©ott ba^ no 
ijernaf)m, ftieg er fc^nell »on feinem Il)rone, tarn fe(6ft an^ ^im* 
ntel^t^or unb ^ieg bie beiben 5llten etntreten. 

Unb Sw'^Gftt n?urbe n?irf(ic^ ipimmel^ftfc^er, benn er Batte fein 

9le^ nic6t »erge|Jen, [onbern in \^tn Jpimmel mit |ereingencmmen. 

^^a mufte er bie feurigen K^rcinen beiJ ()ei(igen ?aurenti:io, bie al^ns 

>^^ternf(^nuppen im ^immelc^raum um^erfc^roimmen, mit feinem 

grojen ^^le^e pfc^en, bamit niif t all5U »ie(e auf bie Srbe l^inunter* 

regneten. ) 

5^ac^ einer ^tit bemerfte aber ber lieBe ®ott, ba§ biefe ^xhtit 
fiir ben alten Wann ju ^art unt^ miifee^oU a>ar; bec()aI6 rief errzo 
i^n ju ftc^ in bie ^cbar ber ^(iioera^aMten^inb erfauHe it)m, einem 
»on ben (Englein, bi? 5U Suf^^t ^^^-^ gottlic^en Xbrene^ muftgieren, 
ben gro§en Srummba§ 3U ijaittn ; unb ba^ (Engfein fpielte noc^ 
oie( fi^cner aiv »or^er, benn e^ fonnte nun ben giebelbogen mit 
beiben .*panben fii^ren nne eine ®age. 2^a tarn [i^ ber alte 125 
3urgen gar roic^tig 'oox unb fprad) oftmali? 3U feinem 2Beibe: 
n^cibt ic^ bir'5 nic^t immer gefagt? 5Jliipiggang giebf^ im 
^immel nicf)tl" — 

X)er goibene ^immel^fc^Iiijfel aber, ben bac arme v^inb t>erIoren 
^atte, njar bur6 bie 23e(fen auf eine griine SBiefe ^inabgefaUen.i3o^^^,^^L^ 
Dort »eriranbelte er fic^ in eine f(eine, gelbe 33lume, bie iiberall 
blii^t, n?o gute 5J^enfd)en wobnen. Unb n^er bie 331ume fie^t, 
»ergi§t fiir einen ^ugenblic! a^a^ ibn bebriicft, unb traumt »on 
ciner fc^oneren 3"fw"ff- 

434 SttS cifcrnc ^reuj» 


Das etferne Kreu3. 

Stira ein ^al)r nac^ 33eent)igmig te^ beutf(^*fran3o[iWen ^riegee 
ftcl)t einmat eiu pommerfcl)er ©ut^^err an einem ^O^orgen untft 
[einen Strbeitern au(^ einen berben Za^dohmx, ber ba^ eiferne 
^reua auf ber Sruft :^atte. 5I(^ geierftimbe wax, ruft er i^n ; unb 
sbamit ber maulfaule ^onimer an^ Sfleben fommt, giebt er i^m ^uerft 
etwa^ Drbent(i(^e0 in ben ^J^a^en, benn bann fangt bie '^ix^t an 
ju laufen. 

T>a fragte er i^n benn, tt?ie er jum eifernen ^reuj gefommen fei. 

„3a/' meinte ber ^ommer, ,,ba^ ift eine lange ©efc^ic^te — benn 
10 1(^ §abe e0 t)om ^onig SBil^elm felber gefriegt unb jwar fiir^ 

^arauf t^ut ber ^^ommer einen @(^IudE au^ bent ^ruge unb 
crjd^lt bann meiter : 

a^ wax nac^ ber ©d^Iac^t »on (J^amptgn^, in ber bie SBiirt- 

i5temberger fic^ fo bratt unb tapfer Qtijalttn fatten unb nur tton 

ber Ubermac^t guritcfgebrangt n?urben. 3Da mirb bet un^ gum 

2l»ancieren geblafen. ^O^^eine ^ompagnie mufte au^f(|ti?armen, 

unt) ic^ fudjte mir 2)e(fung, bag tc^ bequem fd)iegen fonnte. „3f^t 

gilt% 3ungeno/' fagte unfer Jpauptmann, aU bie grangofen 

2oimmer me^r ^erau^famen, „bie miiffen aufge§alten werben, U^ 

bie ^ameraben ^eran \in't), s^c^iegt in, xoa^ ba^ S^n^^W^^^ 

n?ill." 3c^ [c^ittte meine ^atronen »or mic^ ()in, atte re^t^, baf id) 

nur fo jugreifen brauc^e unb fcfeiege (o^. 2)a fontmen aber immer 

me^r ^ranjofen berau^; bent Dberft tt)trb bie (Bad^t bebenfHcb, 

26 unb er Idft gum SnxndQii)tn blafen. 3c^ i)orc bag — benfe 

aber: „(5inpacfen bie ^atronen all' ift nic^t angene^m, unb liegen 

lajfen bag IWbt ^ut fannft bu auc^ nic^t— alfo bu la^t "otn Mtxl 


. p ^a§ ciferne ^rcuj^ /, 435 

blafert unb Bfeibfl ^ier unb i?erfc6ie§e(l beinc ^atroncn, bann !annft 
bu bi(^ tmmer no6 auf^b{e_^qcfen,ma4-en."^ 3c^ ^tn [o f&^n rec^t 
im (Sc^ie§en, ba fommt unfer 5Ibiutant ^er^efprengt unb fc^reittso 
,,^erk% guriicf, ^abt 36r benn feine Cf)ren?" „2tc^ it?a^/' fag' ic^ 
unb brebe mic^ fo ^albrec^t^ ()crum, „id) n?i(I nur erft bie ^atronen 
oerfc^iejen." Unb fort trar ber ^tbjutant, unb ni^tg me6r ^u 
fc^cn. 3ii^f^t^ ^i" '"^^ 9^^"3 atlein geirefen unb ^or mir atle^ ret 
»on ^ranjofen, faum ^mangig (Sc^ritt mcit. SBic i(^ bie (e^tess 
^atrone lHn•fcf^offen, ba benfe icfe : ,^\x\\ a6er ift'^ f^o^e 3^^^ ^*if 
bu bic^ iregmac^ft." 3cl) ne()me alfo bie ^acfen unter bie 53eine 
unb fpringe n?ie ein ^irfd) Mnter bent 0tegimente ^er. %\t 
, tJr^n^ofen fcbojfen mir w\^, ba^ n^ar ein Jpage(tretter, aber aOe^ ju 
■' '^oc^, unb ic^ fomme gan^ niunter beim ^^egimente an. SBie \^ 40 
eintreten n?itt, fe^' i(^ ben 2Ib|utanten mit bem OBerften parlicren 
unb mit ber ^anb auf mi^ beuten. Ta benf \^ : ,I^^Oi — je^t 
giebf^ wa^ in bie ^reibe »cn tregen bem ^lii^tparieren." 

Unfer Cberft amr ein froijbra^er ^ann, ber fommt auf mid) 
jugeritten unb lacfet itber ba^ ganje ®eft(^t unb fagt: „^erl, ftnb45 
beine ^noc^en no A ade bei einanber?" -nj 

" ' ,,3u ^efeM, ^err Cberft !" fage id). 

^a lac^t er mieber unb fagt : „^0i, ^erl, ba fannp bu mc^r aU 

3c^ benfe: „^a — bie^mat ifl bie ^<x<fc>z gtatt aBgelaufen unbso 
bem 5(bjutantett feine .^[aufc^erei ^at bod) nic^t^ genii^t." 

1)a ^eigt'^ am fplgenben 3;ag pfo^licl : ,,©einc '^o\t^ii ber 
^onig fommt."^?^a — bag mar fo t\x\.t greubc, aU ber alte ^crr 
{am. Sr fubr Sorbei, unb ic^ ^atte mir fd)on ein paar ^artoffeln 
»ern)a{)rt, benn ic^ batte einen ^eibenmd§igen hunger. £!a fommtss 
p(o0lic^ unfer ^Ibjutant auf mi(^ ^erangefprengt unb fagt, ic^ fotte zAxhM 
v^uf ber Stede gu ^Seiner ^ajeftdt fommen. 

9la, i(^ b.enfe, ber ©c^lag foU mic^ rii^ren, aber ic^ fammie 

436 ^og cifcrnc trcuj* p\ 

mid) tricbcr unb fage : ,,3" 53efe^I ! 3c^ ^<i'E>e ia ni(^t« S3ofc6 Be- 

T)tv ^Ibjutant^^^rinftc aber fo mit bem ®efi;^te, aU trollte cr 
fagcn: „3!Barte, ^erl, nun I)abe id) bi(^ gefricgt fiir ba^ 9^i(^t* 

pariercn, bu foUfi boi^ nic^t fo (cid)t tvegfommcn." 3(^ ^^^^/J 
■■■^'■'■^ftig nic^t gcba(^t, ba^ ein iOtenfc^ fo ()intert)altig feitt !ann. ^^ 


35 5I(fo mir ftnb bte 33eine tvadtliQ, uitb ic^ irerbe Co in ein ^au^ 
gefii^rt unb bann in eincn (Sad, ba l^af^ gero(^en,l)a5 einem ba^ 
2Ba|Jer im 'Maul 3ufammcnc|claufett ift, fo gut. 

3(^ benfe eBen : „^a, ti?er ba miteffen fonnte," ba mu§ id^ fd^on . 
in^ 5fleBen3immer. 3f^t !ommt ber MnxQ auf ntic^ ^u unb ift fo 
rofreurtb(i(^ ane bie lieBc ©onne unb fagt: „Sffltin (So^n, wic ii?ar 
benn bie ©efc^ic^te geftern mit ben ^atronen^? (ix^aijU mir einmal 
atte^ njag bu meigt, ganj genau-^yyV-A^^w^ 

„3u 33efe^I, ?i}Za{cjlat/' fage ici), unb er3a()Ie fo aUeg gerabe 
tt>ie'^ gen?efen ift, unb bag t(^ ba^ (Signal n?o^I ge^ort, a'ber ba^ 
75lieBe ®ut nt^t ^atte liegen laffen njollen, unb tuie ber 5lbiutant 
getommen unb gefi^rieen f^'dttt: „3uruii, ^erl^!" — ba !^attc,j6 
atlerbing^ geglaubt, bag !eine 3cit ^um ^omplimentmac^en fei, unb 
^atte fo gefagt: „5tc^ \va^ — i(^ ^erfc^iege erji meine ^atronen. 
Dag ifl bag ©anje gewefen, ^err ^onig, tveiter ^ah' ic^ nic^tg 
sotterbrod^en." .^■^J^- 

X)a (ad)te ber ^onig iiber bag ganje ©eftd^t unb fagte: „T)ag 

^afl bu bratt gemac^t, mein (So^n." 3<^ benfe: „^a — nun iffg 

gut, nun mag ber ^Ibjutant fagen, n^ag er mti." T)a fragt mid^ 

(Bdm ^ajeftat: „^aft bu fd)on ju ^O^ittag gegefj'en, mein (So^^n?" /) 

85 „3« Sefe^t, Sure ^ajeftdt !" fag' id), „t(^ Bin nod^ ftodfniid^tern." 

„Du ^ajl ttJO^I tii^ttgen hunger?" fagte (Seine ?[Raiejtdt weiter. 

„3a," fag' ic^, „unb ber Durft ift and) nid)t fc^red)t." 

Da lad^te ber ^onig mieber iiberg ganje ©eftc^t unb fagte, td^ 
foUc miteffen* 

^tt0 dfentc ^reuj, 437 

3^ fe^e nticb benn an ben [(^oneit, gro^en 2:if(^ mit all^ ben 90 
^o^en ^erren unb ©eneral^. 2)a tvar (guppe, Srl^fenfuppe, aber 
nic^t oon ber Berliner @rbi?anirft. S^ n?ar aber ber Speller nur 
l^alb ijoti, ba§ tc^ ba(^te: „2Benn 'iw nnr me^r »on ber @uppe 
^aben fonnteft" -if}' 

5((^ t(^ faft fertig mar, rief ber ^onig ^eriiBer : ,,^ocbfejl bu 95 
ttO(^ ehvag (Suppe ^aben, mein 3o()n?" 
l^^^^'^z/Sw 53efe^I, @uer Waxt\iai," fage {(^, „n?enn noc^ ein bigd^en 

ba ijl." I ' 

!Da lac^ten bie ^erren, nnb einer ihmi ben ^ammerbienern 
brac^te mir nod) fo einen 2^etler yoU. ^err, bie Suppe fd)mecft mirioo 
l^eute no^ gut tm ^alfe ! -CtWr«t< 

3)a fommt 'lawn Siner herein unb brtngt einen Salbcbraten, 
^^ fafl fo gyo^.ane ein C(Meni?ierte(, nnb ein anberer nintnit [0 ein 
grof e^ ^JKeflW'nnb f^ej^r^erunter immer ein Stitdf anf bag anbere 
auf einen gro§en Jetler. j^ ^ ^^ 105 

„9la/' bente i(^ — „ber »erfte()t'g fcbon beffer a(g ber mit ber 
@uppe." ^fJUl 

2)er groge teller fommt o.\x mi(^ juerft, nnb id) nebme \[)\\ i?or 
mic^ unb bann and) fo ein 3lfftettd)en mit ^artojfeln ba^u. ^6) 
ben!e 3»ar: „S5 ift ein bi§(^en i^iel, aber bu barfft bic^ ^ier nid^tiio 
lumpen lajfen," unb effe ^u. ©ic ^etlen 3^ropfen ffnb mir auf ber 
©time geftanben, Big bie Jpappc^en alle gegcffen maren. 23ie tcb 
benn nun fertig tt?ar, unb ber Jperr neben mir fd)enlte immer tapfer 
tin, baf i^'g gut ()erunterfriegte, fragt mic^ (Seine 'rlJZaleftdt ber 
^onig: „23ie ift'^, mein ®obn, moc^teft bu noc^ me^r ^^aben?" 115 

3^ fagc : ,,3" ^efebf, *3}^ajeftat, menu no(^ ein bifcfcen ba ift." 
2)a la(^ten afle J^erren aw^ ijoUem ^aife, unb auc^ Seine "Hkjeftat 
i^ielt jic^ bie Seiten. "^ '^6) ani§te ni^t anirum. 5lber ber ^onig 
fagte : ^^'lein, e^ ift gut fiir beute, mein ^obn, \zi^\, foil ein antereo 
©eric^t fommen." 120 

438 '^hJlXZ<'' 9licutiona* 

5f?a, ic^ irar frof^, ba§ eo mit bem c^al^i?braten atle irar, iinb 
rcnfc: „2Ca^ iinrt nun !ouinicn?" — ta tritt ein ^oI)er Offt3ier mit 
©c^niiren auf ben ©c^ultern o^xi mid) l)cran unt) ^angt mtr tae 
ctferne ^reug an. 

125 SBie i^ ancber bei meinem ^iegimcntc anfomme, t>a lad^te ter 
5Ibiutant trieber iiber^ gan^e ©efic^t unb t)rel)te feinen ©c^nau^bart 
bcrnm unb gab mir bie ^anb. 3d) freute mic^, bag er tt?ieber gut 
ivar, unb feine ^Mauf^rei bei ^^ajeftat i()m bod^ nid)t^ genu|;t unb 
i^ fiiri? (Sinbauen ^v. ber 2;afel au6 no(^ bac eiferne ^reug ijon 

130 Reiner SJ^ajeftiit felBft gelriegri^atte. 

@o ift e^ gefommen unb nit^t anberg. — 



Xie bide SJirtin.flanb, mit einer fc^neeireipen ©course anget^an, 
\?er ber J^itr ber 2GaIb[d^en!e. Xie Sinfe f)atte fie in bie (Seite 
gefiemmt, au^ ber 3fted)tett aber ma^te fie ein Tac^Iein fiir bie 
5lugen, au^ benen fie f^arf au^Ingte, ob nid)t ©afte c^yxi ber Sf'i^t^,^ 

sim ^tnji^ge [ejen.. 5l6er auf bem SBeg, ber fid) burd) S3ogen 
reifenber 5if)ren ben ^ugel l^eraufaog, tuar feine iDZenfc^enjeelc 
gu entbeden. (5^ n?ar ein fd)ti>uler ©ommernac^mittag, unb bie 
(gtabtleute fiirc^teten tro^t bie fc^marjblauen 2BoI!en, bie fic^ iiber 
ben beivafbeten ^iigeln nne ein mad^tige^ ©ebirge aufgetiirmt 

10 fatten. 

(vben ivedte bie migmutige Si^irtin in ba^ 3»«eTf ^f^ ^aufc^ 
3urudfe()ren, al^ ^wifc^en ben ^crnfelbern eine Heine ©eftalt ft^tbar 
njurbe, njelt^e auf bie (g^enfe 3ufd)ritt. 2^er 2tn!ommUng tuar ein 
junge^ 33iirf^c^en »on ^od)ften^ ijier^e^n 3a^ren. (Sr trug eine 

i5bunte Wdx^t auf bcni bvaunen ^rau^fopf unb fd)n?ang einen 
fnotigen Stod in ber ^ied)ten. Sfeiirbe^oU griif'enb %\t\i er feinen 

fi^K/'^ 9licottcna. 439 

' " ' ■ ' '''^ "^^-^.z (^ 

Stn^ug, fu^te f!d) im ©^rtcn :^inter bent J^au^ eincti fc^attiflictt 

^(a^ unb t efteatc S3ier. ^-^ i- 

X;ie SBirtin brad^te ba^ SScrtangtc unb fa^ lad^clnb 3U,'tt?{e ber 
®aft mit grower Umjtanb(i(^!cit cine lange 3^a6af^pfeife 3ufam=2o 
'^^ mrnfcfcrauBte unb fte ftopfte. 2)ie ^feife war mit bunten Quaftcn ' 
ge^iert unb auf bem ^^''cr^eUanfopf n?ar ber ^onig ®am6rinu6 
abgemalt. 2)ie SSirtin fe^te "i^txi f^aumenben 33ierfru9 auf ben 
lifc^, fagte : „^eb( _be!omm'i?/' unb lie^ bann ^zxi 53ur[c^en bei ^"'^^-^ 
^feife unb ^Otajfrug adein; ba^^ n?ar i()m eben re($t. (£r t^at25' 
einen tii^tigen ^Sc^lucf, bann ftemmte er ben (gtlbogen auf beit 
X\\^ unb quatmte mie ein 6(^rot. Unb n?ie er fo bafag unb ftc^ 
) i liber bie S^aud^wolfen freute, bie emponrirbelten unb in blaulic^ea 
^' (Streifen fi(^ i^erjogen, fam ft(^ ber ^nirip^ (o^ er^aben »or, njie 
3ett^ auf feinem SColfentbron. ^--— --r. - ^^ 

3e^t entjlieg bem ^feifenfopf ein muuberfc^oner bjauer 3lingeL 

g^v*-^-' 5lber er ^erfle§ nid)t tt?ie \:<:Li fonft 3U gefc^e^en pflegt," fonbern er 

/c/*rv 'Vcrbi(^tete fid) ju einem ^^le^Ifuaul unb tt)urbe grower unb immer 

grof er ; bann .teitte fi(^ bie 2QoI!e n^ie ein ^^enfteroor^ang, unb ttor 

bem erftauhten ^naben ftanb eine jierlid^e ^dtc^engeflalt, etmass 

eine Slle bccb. 

3)ie ^(eine trug ein ^a^anafarbene^ ^ocfd)en unb in ben brau^ 
ncn 2oden ein ^iabem"sjon 33ernftein, o^x\. ben >Sc^uItern l)atte fte 
ein ^aar ?5IiigeI o^w^ Sigarettenpapier unb in ber ^anb ^ielt fie 
eine bliibenbe ^^baf^pfianje. • - ^ 40 

2)a« nicbiid)e ^3J?ab(^en fnirte, unb ber 53urf(^e gog ^ijflicb '\t\m 
Wix%t. T^ann tbat bie ^(eine ibren 5)'Zunb auf unb furad) : 

„3<^ ^itt ^i^ Xabafelfe 9^icotiana. SJZein ^err unb ®ebieter, -^ 
^onig ^nafter ber ®e(be, fenbet mi^ gu euc^. 3br ^abt ibm 
^eute 3um erften ^a( ein Sranbopfer gebrac^t,, unb ber 3'^aud)45 
cure^ ?i}^unbe^ ifl \i\^ %yx ibm gebrungen. @r entbietet euc^ 
i^ ] feinen ®ru^ unb labt euc^ ein, t>or feinem 2:bron gu erfc^einen. 
®eib i^r geitjillf, mir gu folgen, fo mitl '\6s eu(^ gu Jpofe geieiten." 

440 IRicotiona, 

Tcr ^na6e trar etn ht^tx^ttx 33urf(^e, unb t>as 5(^cttteuer war 
5ogan3 nac^ feinem (Sinn, tarum fpra^ ero^ne ^''fl^^" //S^/' tranf 
fcin ^icr au^ xuxt) txti'dxtt ftc^ fiir reifcfertig. „^aht i^x i)iellei(3^t 
einen l^radjeinvagen ^ur ^anb, graulein 9^icottana?" fragte er. 
- /vvv'-, „9lein, ben Brauitf^ n{d)t/' ertriberte bie SIfe. „3^ |ak, tt)tc 
^^ '^ 3^r febt, ^glitgel, unb ti?af eu(^ anbetrifft, fo ift auc^ Ie{(^t ge^ol'* 
55 fen. (Se^t end) nur .rittling^ auf @uer ^feifenrol}r unb faf t bie 
Cuaften tt>ie bie 3^9^^ fi«^^ ^ferbe^. (So ift'^ red)t. 9Zun Qtbt 
acbt unb ^eriiert nicbt ba^ ®(eic^gett)ic^t. ©i^t i^r fejl?" 
f/3a, ?5i^dulein 5'Iicotiana/' • _ ^^r2_ ...^ ai'/ 
^ie (SIfe fc^njang ibren ^littenfiengel itnb fang : 
60 „^er (Sc^uI6ub\ jum 9^au(^en noc^ nic^t reif, 

(Stie^It feinem 55ater bie 3:aBaf^pfeif' 
Unb ergo^t fi^ fe^r 

Winter ber ^Stabtmauer . k/v?* ** 

. '^ '' S3ei einer ^feif ZaUV (jj^'n^ 

66 T;er (gpott ijerbrof ben iungen. 33urfc^ett,y unb, er ptte ont 
liebften auf bag 2l6enteuer gang 23erji(^t geleijlet, ai6er ber @nt* 
fc^lug fam 3u f^at. 2Bie eine auffliegenbe ^ra^e er^ob fi(^ bie 
2:aba!gpfeife, auf n^elAer er rittling^ \a^, unb fort ging'g bur(^ bie 
Cuft tttie SCinbe^faufen. I^ie SIfe flog tregtt?eifenb tooran. ^ 
70 5lnfangg l^ielt fic^ ber S^eitcr tapfer, (lU er akr ^on ungefal^r 
auf bie Srbc Mnabfc^autc unb fa^, trie SBalber unb SBiefen, ©tabte 
unb ^orfer unter t:^m "^inglitten, bd Begann e^ i^m fc^minbelig gu 
ft^erben, unb frampf^aft umflammerte er bie ©pi^e feiner ^feife.— 
O bu ^eririinfc^teg 5I6enteuer ! 
75 2l?eiter ging bie tcUe Suftfabrt, immer UJeiter unb immer l^o^cr. 
3e^t famen fie an eine 2BolfenfAtd)t, unb gtrar traren e^ Slaba!^- 
ttjolten, bag fpiirte man am ®eruc^. 

„53atb finb trir gur etetle/' fpra* bie (glfc, „nur mviiV' Unb 
bamit ging^g in ben Qualm, bag unfer 2l6enteurer gu 
socrjiicfen ijermeinte. 3itternb unb bebenb fc^loj er bie 5(ugen, 


5licottona« 441 

^a rtef tie ^^u^rertn: „^o\i\" unb mt ein gcfc^ulte^ JHoJ Hicb 
bic iabaf^pfeife mit i^rem 3f^eiter fte^en. 

'Ter 5Irme offnete tie 'iilugen. 58or i^m faf auf einer riefigert 
Jabaf^rotlc ^onig ^nafter. <Sein 2lntH0 roar gebraunt tvie ange* 
rau(^tcr 'lOieerfc^aum, gelb trar fein 5)?antel, auf bem Jpaupte triici er 86 
cine ^rone au^ ^arfunfelfteinen, trie (e6enbtge ^oMen an^ufd^auen, 
utit) jmifcfeen ten 3^'i^tt^i^ W^^ ^"^ ^i«^ mdc^tige iaSafepfeife, teren 
^opf mie ein.^o^ofen glii^te. 

„(Sei gegrii^t^" jjjrac^ ter ,^onig ju tern 21nfcmmltng, ter jiA 
»or (S^ittbet unb ^Jjigfl faum ncc^ auf ben ^etnen ^alten founte. 90 
„X)ein ttjartet §o^e S^re. ^^ ^ak bi^ gu meinem 5)feifenftopfer 
erforen." ' .,X 

^\t biefen 2i}orten ergrtff ^nafter ber ®e(k ben jitternben 
3ungen beim (^c^bpf unb ^ielt i^n fd^trebenb. itber feinen ^uaU -j^-^ 
menben ^Jeifenfopf. J^eV ©epeinigte ttjollte ^'^reien, abcr 3flaucb 95 
unb ^i^e fd)tojfen ibm ben 5Runb; er meinte, fein le^ite^ Stiinblein 
fci gefcmmen. 

2)a auf einmat brang gu feiner 5^afc ein Ueblic^er Xuft trie 'i^\[, 
frifc^ gebranntem ^affee. 5tuc^ ^cntg ^nafter fcfcien ben ®erucb 
^-^iia^r^une^men, benn er Hep tie ^anb, tt?e(cbe ben ^V'eifenftorfer 100 
^telt, fmfen unb trantte fein ©efi^t nac^ ber iHic^tung, oon n?elc&er 
ter Xuft (iromte. .^ j^^, .^..^.i^T''^'^ 

„?0^eine geinbin, "txt %tt iD^offa \" miirmelte er ingrimmig. -ivu^' 

Sine blaulic^e 2©oIfe, bie ftarfenben 233olI^erucb i?erbreitetc,^^"^ 
ttjattte beran, unb auf ber iE}o(fe fa§ eine fcbone, fcbn?ar3gefleibete 105^^ 
^rau mit fanft bficfenben 2Iugen. 3n ber Jpanb trug fie einen 
gro§en, filbernen ^affeeloffel. 

„JpaIt ein!" rie|^b;e ^ute ^ee. „^aft ein, graufamer ^onig 
^naj^er ! . Xeut Cpfer ftebt unter meinem (2c^u^." 

Sie beriibrtc ben 5(rm bei? ^onig5 mit bem ^ilberli^ffel ; bie 110 
gaujl; bie ben (Scbepf be*? Surfd^en gebalten batte, offnete ficb, unb 

442 $cr (Solbftnum. ^ ' A 

fo^fiiber, fopfunicr [tur3te biefcr in bte fd)it)inbelnb"c 3:iefc, bag i'^m 
.^cren imb ©eben i?erging. ' 
@r fftlug^^art ,auf, aU er ttnten anfam, ^wnb^ ba^ka^te tbn 

115 aneber 311 53e[innung^ %^xiX einem gtucftid^crt 3wf^tl ivar er an 
tcrfclten Stetfe niebergeftiirjt, i>on n?eld)er er mit ber Slfe 5^ico* 
tiana aufciefloiTen tvar. 5(1^ er um ful) blidte, fanb er- fic^ uuter 
tern Jifcb, viu bent cr eine 35iertelftiinbe gui^or trinfenb unb 
rauc^cnb ciefeffen %^\Xt, neben iBm auf bent 33cben Iac| bte jer* 

i2oIn-od)ene ^feife. (Er !rod) unter bem %\\^ ^er»or unb ric^tete ficfe - 
auf. 3trme unb 33eine tvaren |ieU, a^er unfagli^^. xo^ njar ti\^^\^ 
bem armen Sunken gu W\xi. i&^iU)fet{g f(^feppte er fid) big ju 
bem niidften 33aum, ^xi beffen (gtamm er feine mit ^Ingftfc^iueif 
iibergcjjene <8tirn (ef)nte. 

125 3n ber :^()ur ber J®albfd^en!e aber erfd)ien bie bide SSirtin, 
eine rau(^enbe 8d)ale in ber Jpanb Baltcnb. „^m, junger ^err/' 
[prac^ fte mitjeibig, „^aie jd) '^^mn eine 3:affe fc^ivarjen ^affee 
gelci^t. 3<^ ^^^ »^i^'^ gtetc^'geb'aS)t, bag bie ®ef(^id)te ein fo((^e^ ' 
(Enbe ne^men njitrbe." 

130 Unb milb Idd>c[nb flogte fie bem ^tx\\\\x\^\txi ben fc^wargen 
^ran! ber ^eru()i|3un9 ii6er bie Meid)en Sippen. 



X. :-^ 

Dcr (Bolbbaum. 

Das Gemach, in welchem unsre Geschichte beginnt, sah 
sehr einfacli unci niiclitern aus. Ail den geweissten Wanden. 
deren einzigen Schmiick ein paar vergilbte Landkarten bilde- 
ten, standen zwei schmale Betten, ein Biiclierbrett und ein 
Kleiderschrank, a\tf welchera eine Erdkugel Pl atz ^ efunden 
hatte. Die Mitte des Zimmers nahm ein langer, mit vielen 

Tintenklexen gezierter Tisch ein, luid an clem Tisch sassen aiif 
harten Holzstiihlen zwei Knaben von etwa zwolf Jahren. 

Der Blonde briitete liber einer schwierigen Stelle des Cor- 
nelius Nepos und walzte seufzend das schwere Lexikon; derio 
Braune aber miihte sich, aus einer neunstelligen Zahl die 
Kubikwurzel zu ziehen. Der Philologe hiess Hans, der 
Mathematiker Heinz. 

Zuweilen hoben die Knaben ihre Kopfe in die Hohe und 
blickten sehnsiichtig nach dem geoffiieten Fenster, durchis 
welches die Fliegen summend ein- und ausflogen. Im Garten 
lag goldener Sonnenschein auf Baumen und Hecken, und wie 
zum Hohn blickte ein blUhender Hollerzweig in das Studier- 
zimmer der beiden Hoffnungsvollen. Noch eine Stunde 
mussten die Armen sitzen und schwitzen, bevor sie in's Freie20 
durften, und die ^linuten schlichen dahin wie die Schnecken 
an den Staehelbeerbiischen draussen im Garten. An eine 
eigenmachtige Abkiirzung der Arbeitszeit war auch nicht zu 
denken, denn im Nebenzimmer sass am Schreibtisch der 
Doktor Schlagentzwei, dem die Knaben zur Zucht und Lehre 25 
iiberantwortet waren, und die Yerbindungsthiir stand offen, so 
dass der Doktor sich zu jeder Zeit von der Anwesenheit seiner 
Schutzbefohlenen iiberzeugen und ihr Treiben liberwachen 

,, Hannibal hatte auch was gescheiteres thun konnen als 30 
iiber die A'lpen zu ziehen," knirschte Hans, und „neunmal 
einundachtzig ist siebenhundertneunundzwanzig, " murmelte 
Heinz mit dumpfer Stimme. Dann blickten sie beide von 
ihrer Arbeit empor, schauten sich an und gahnten. v ..- ^- 

Plotzlich vernahmen sie ein lautes Summen. Ein Gold- 35 
kafer, der draussen auf dem Hollerbaum gesessen haben 
mochte_, hatte sich in's Zimmer veriri't. Dreimal schwenkte 


444 - /Ser ©olbliattm. 

er sich im Kreis um die Kopfe der Knaben, und dann — 
plums — lag er im Tintenfass. 

40 ,,Eigentlicli geschieht es ihm ganz recht," sagte Heinz, 
,,warum bleibt er nicht, wo es ihm gut geht. Aber in Tinte 
ersaufen, das ist doch ein zu elender;-Tod. Wart', Kamerad, 
ich werde dich retten." ' • 

Er woUte dem zappelnden Kafer mit dem Stahlfederhalter 

45aus der Tinte helfen, aber schneller vollbrachte Hans das 

Rettungswerk mit dem Finger. Und dann trockneten die 

Knaben den armen Schelm sauberlich mit dem Loschblatt 

ab und sahen zu, wie er sich mit den Vorderfiissen putzte. f^-^^ 

„Er hat einen roten Spiegel auf dem Brustschild 

sound schwarze Horner," sagte Hans, indem er seinen tinten- 
geschwarzten Finger am Haupthaar abwischte, ,,es ist der 
Goldkaferkonig. Er wohnt in einem Schloss, das ist aus 
Jasminbliithen gebaut und mit Rosenblattern gedeckt. Gril- 
len und Heimchen sind seine Musikanten und Johanniswiirm- 

55 chen seine Fackeltrager.'* '*^^^ -^^'>-\^i- 
,,Du bist ein Faselhans," sprach Heinz. 
„Und wer dem Goldkaferkonig begegnet," fuhr Hans fort, 
„der ist ein Gliickskind. Gieb acht, Heinz, uns steht etwas .^/ 
bevor, ein Abenteuer oder sonst etwas Absonderliches, und 

60 heute ist noch dazu der erste Mai, da geschieht mehr als ein 
Wunder. Sieh, wie er uns mit den Fiihlhornern winkt und 
die Fliigeldecken hebt. Jetzt wird er sich gleich verwandeln 
und vor uns stehen als Elfe mit einem Konigsmantel angethan 
und einem Goldhelm auf dem Kopf." 

65 „Fortfliegen wird er," sprach Heinz und lachte. „Schnurr 
— da hast du's. "^ \X 

Die Knaben traten an's Fenster und sahen dem Kafer ' 
nach. In weitem Bogen durchschnitt das blitzende Kleinod ^ 

2)er Oolbbttum, 445 

die Luft und verschwand jenseits der Gartenmauer. Jetzt 
wurde im Nebenzimmer ein Rauspern vernehmbar, und dierTO 
beiden Schiiler kehrten eilig zu ihren Biichern zuruck.(^j-<}U>v^ 

,,Da haben wir das Wunder," fliisterte Hans seinem Kame- 
raden zu und zeigte auf das Tintenfass. 

Aus dem Tintenfass heraus ragte ein griines Reis, das^^J^ 
wuchs zusehends und stieg zur Decke hinan. 75 

,,Wir traumen," sagte Heinz und rieb sich die Augen. 

„Nein, das ist ein Marchen," jubelte Hans, ,,ein lebendiges 
Marchen, und wir spielen mit." ^ , 

Und das Reis wurde starker und trieb Aeste und Zweige mit 
Blattern und Bliiten, Die Decke des Zimmers verschwand, go ' 
die Wande wichen, und eine dammemde Waldhalle umfing 
die staunenden Knaben, 

„Yorwarts!" rief Hans und zog den widerstrebenden Heinz 
mit sich fort. „ Jetzt kommt das Abenteuer." 

Die blyhenden Gestrauche thaten sich von selbst aus- 85 
einander und offneten den Knaben einen Pfad. Gebrochen 
blinkte das Sonnenlicht durch das Gitterdach der Waldbaume 
und malte tausend goldene Augen auf das Moos, und aus 
dem Moos stiegen Sternblumen von brennenden Farben, und 
griines, krauses' Geranke schlang sich um die bemoostengo 
Stamme. Droben aber in den Zweigen flatterten singende 
Vogel in schimmernden Federkleidern, und Hirsche, Rehe 
und andere Waldthiere sprangen lustig durch die Biische. 

Jetzt lichtete sich der Wald, zwischen den Stammen bUnkte 
es wie Feuerschein, und Hans raunte seinem Gefahrten zu : 95 
,, Jetzt kommt's." 

Sie betraten eine Waldwiese, in deren Mitte ein einzelner 
Baum stand. Aber das war kein gewohnhcher Baum ; das 
war der Wunderbaum, von dem Hans so oft gehort hatte, der 

446 ^cr ©olbboum, 

100 Baum iiiit den goldenen Blattern. Die Knabeii standen starr 
vor Stauiien. 

Da trat hinter dem Stamm eiii Zwerg hervor, nicht grosser 
aJs ein dreijilhriges Kind, aber nicht dickkopfig und platt- 
fiissig, Tvie gemeiniglich die Zwerge sind, sondern schlank und 

105 zierlich gewachsen. Er trug einen griinen Mantel und einen 
Goldhelm, und die beiden Knaben wussten, wen sie vor sich 

Der Zwerg trat ein paar Schritte vor und verneigte sich. 
,,Die verzauberte Prinzessin harrt auf ihren Erloser," sprach 

iioer, jjWer von euch beiden will das Wagestiick unternehmen?" 
jjich," sprach Hans mit freudiger Stimme. Und alsbald 
fiihrte der Zwerg ein Rosislein heran, das war milchweiss und 
biss in einen goldenen Ziifrel. ^ji/^ 

5,Thu's nicht, Hans !'' mahnte Heinz angstlich, aber Hans 

iissass bereits im Sattel. "Wiehernd stieg das Zauberpferd in 
die Hohe, dann warf es den Kopf zuriick und rannte mit 
fliegender Mahne in den Wald hinein. Ein leuchtender Gold- 
kafer aber flog als Wegweiser voraus. Noch einmal wandte 
Hans den Kopf zuriick und sah seinen Kameraden unter dem 

i20Goldbaum stehen dann verlor er Baum und Freund aus dem 

^ Das war ein lustiger Ritt. Hans sass so sicher und fest im 
Sattel, als ob er statt eines Rosses die gewohnte Schulbank 
unter sich gehabt hatte. Wenn er daran dachte, dass er 

i25noch vor einer Stunde beim Cornelius Nepos geseufzt und 
vor dem Doktor Schlagentzwei gezittert habe, musste er 
lachen. Der kleine Schulknabe in dem kurzen Jackchen 
war zum stuttlichen Reitersmann geworden mit Koller und 
Mantel, Schwert und Goldsporen. So flog er hin durch den 

130 Zauberwald. 

5:er ©olbboum, 447 

Jetzt erhob sein Rosslein eiii frohliches Gewieher. Der 
Wald wurde licht. Noch ein paar Spriinge, und Ross uiid 
Reiter hielten vor einem ,scliimmernden Schloss. Bunte 
Fahnen wehten von den Thiirmenp Horner und Trompeten 
schallten, und auf dem Soller stand die Prinzessin und liess i35 
ein weisses Tuch jvehqn. Sie sah fast aus wie Xaclibars 
Lenchen, mit der Ritter Hans gespielt hatte, als er noch ein 
Knabe war und in die Schule ging, nur war sie grosser und 
tausendmal schoneii J^ ^ J'TtuA^^ v-^~^ 

Hans sprang aus dem Sattel und eilte mit klirrenden ^poren i40 
die Marmortreppe hinan. In dem geoffneten Schlossthor -^ 
stand ein Mann, veruinthlich der Hofmarschall der Prinzessin, 
der kam unserm Hans selir bekannt vor. 

Und der Hofmarschall streckte seine Hand aus, fasste 
Ritter Hansen am Ohr und rief : 145 

jjEingeschlafen ist der Schlirfgel. Wart' ich will dicli 1" 

Da war der Zauber zu Ende. Hans sass wieder an dem 
tintenbeklexten Tisch, vor ihm lag der Cornelius Xepos und 
das lateinische Lexikon, ihm gegeniiber sass Heinz und 
schrieb, dass die Feder knirschte, und neben ihm stand der 150 
Doktor Schlagentzwei und blickte durch seine Brillenglaser 
den Traumer unheimlich an. 

Als endlich die Stunde der Freiheit geschlagen hatte und 
die beiden Knaben draussen im Garten unter dem Hollerbaum 
ihr Vesperbrot verzehrten, theilte Hans seinem Freund mit, 155 
was er getraumt hatte. . 

,,Das ist wunderbar," sagte Heinz, als Hans geemligt hatte, 
,,hochst wunderbar. Den gleichen Traum habe auch ich 
gehabt. J^ur der Schluss ist anders ; ein Zauberschloss 
kommt in meinem Traum nicht vor." i^*^ 

„Erzahle ! " drangte Hans. 

448 fiorelet, 

„Bis zum Goldbaum stimmt mein Traum genau mit dem 
deinigen iiberein. Du stiegst auf das weisse Pferd und fittest 
fort um die Prinzessin zu erlosen. Ich aber — " 
165 ,,Nun ?" fragte Hans gespannt. •>>\^ c/d-<xxv^ 

„Ich blieb zuriick, schiittelte den Baum und steckte mir 

alle Taschen voll goldene Blatter. Dann weckte mich der 

dumrne Doktor, und da war es mit der Herrlichkeit vorbei." 

,, Heinz," sprach Hans feierlich, und fasste den Freund bei 

170 der Hand. ,,Wenn zwei einen und denselben Traum haben, 

so geht er bestimmt . in ErfiillyjQg. Der Traum war ein 

iprophetischer. Denk' du an mich." ' """ ,Aw\^ i i ^r^j^ 

Dann assen die Knaben die Reate ihres Vesperbrotes auf 

und wandten sich dem Ballspiel zu. J^--^- / 

175 Gingen die Traume der Knaben in Erfiillung ] Ja. Hans 

wurde ein Dichter und liess sein Rosslein durch den griinen 

Marchenwald traben. Heinz aber, der im Traum den Gold- 

baum geschiittelt hatte, wurde sein Verleger. / ^.-ue f - ; - ^-. 



3(^ weij ntc^t, wag fott eg bebeuten, 
!Daf ic^ fo traurig bin ; 
6in 3Jidr(^en au^ altett B^if^tt, 
S)ag fommt mir n\6>i au^ bem (5tnn. 

T>\t Suft tft fii^t unt) eg bunfelt,- 
..vv Unt) ru^ij^ flte§t ber !H^ein; 
'Der (JMyfel beg 33ergeg funfelt 
3m ^benbfonnenfd)ein. 


^tt M8t mie einc ©(ume* 449 

Die fc^onfte 3«ngfrau ft^et 
X)ort oben tuunberbar, w 

3^r golbne^ ©efc^meibe Btt^et, 
©ie fdmmt i§r golbene^ ^aar. 

©ie fammt e^ mit golbenem ^amme, 
Uttb fingt ein Siet) babei, 

!Da^ ^at eine munberfame 15 

©etualtige Wltio'ttx. 

X;en (Sc^iffer tm fleinen ©(^iffe 
Srgretft e^ mit trilbem 2Be^ ; 
gr fc^aut nic^t bie gelfenriffe, 
(Sr f(^aut nur ^inauf in bie ^o§\ 2c 

3c^ gtaube, bie SBetlen ^erfc^Ungen 
2Im (5nbe (5d)iffer unb ^a^n, 
Unb bag ^at mit i§rem (Bingen 
2)ie Corelei get^an. 


Du bist wk eine Slume* 

S)u bift mie eine S3tume 
(So ^olb unb f(^on unb vein; 
3(^ fd)au' bi(^ an, unb ^e^mut 
(2d)Iei(^t mir in^ .^erj ^inein. 

?!J?tr ifl, atg ob i(^ btc ^dnbc 
5Iufg ^au^t bir legen fo(It\ 
S3etenb, ba§ ®ott bic^ er^alte 
(Bo rein unb fc^on unb ^olb. 

450 ^ttg <B6)\o^ am 9Kecre» 

De5 Sdjdfers Sonntagslieb, 

2)a^ ifl ter Xag be^ ^errn ! 

3c^ Tf'itt allein auf tueitcr glur ; 

5^0(^ eine MoxQtnQiode nux, 

5^un 8tille na() unb fern. 

2lnBetenb fnie' icfc ^ier. 

£) fiifed ®rautt, gebetnte^ SCe^n ! 

2tl^ fnieten 35iele uitgefe^n 

Unt) Ibeteten mit mir. 

^er ^immel na^ unb fern, /? 
@r tfl fo tlax xuxt! feterltrf^, • ' ' * 
®o Qani, ai^ rooUV er ejfnen fi(^. 
©a^ ift ber %aQ be^ ^errn. 



Pas 5d)Io§ am ZITeere. 

^aft bu ba^ <Sc^(og gefe^en, 
2)ag :^o§e <S^to§ am ^}J?eer ? 
©olben unb rofig tre^en 
SDtc 3Bol!en briiber ^er. 

(E0 moc^te fi(^ nteber neigen 
3n fpiegelftare ^lut, 
@^ moi^te ftreben unb fteigen 
3n ber ^beubivolfen ®lut. 

2)tt8 S(^(o^ am Wttxt. 451 

„^o^ ^aV i6^ eg gefe^en, 

T)ai ^o^e ©c^Iog am ?!)Zecr, lo 

Unb ben 9)?ottb bariiber (le^en 

Uttb 9Zebe( rt?ett um^er." 

!Der 2Binb unb be^ ?S)Zeereg 3Ba((en, 

®a6en fte frifc^en ^(ang? 

3Serna^mft bu am ^o§en fatten is 

©aiten unb ^eftcjefang ? 

„X)ie 3Btnbe, bie SBogen alle 

^aQtn in tiefer 3flu^\ 

(Etnem ^(agelieb au^ ber ^afle 

^orf ic^ mit 2;f)rdnen ^u." 20 

©q^eft bu oben gcften 
X;en ^onig unb fein ©ema^I, 
Xer roten Mantel 2Be:^en, 
X;er golbnen .kronen ©tra^I ? 

gii^rten fte ntc^t mit SConne 25 

Sine f(^6ne 3unc|frau bar, 
i^errlic^ wie bie (Sonne, 
©tra^tenb im golbenen ^aar ? 

„2Bo^l fa^ t(^ bie Sltern beibe, 

D^ne ber kronen Sid^t, so 

3m frf^trar^en ^^rauerHeibe; 

5)ie 3ungfrau fa^ ic^nic^t" 

452 5)00 Sr^lofe ©jJticoutt^ 


Das Sdjlo^ Boncourt 

3c^ trdum' aU ^tnb mtcb juriicfe 
Unt [(^little mein greife^ ^aupt : 
2Cie fud^t i^r mic^ ^eim, i^r 53ttt)cr, 
Die lang' id^ ^ergeffen gegtauBt? 

5 ^0(^ ragt au^ f^att'gen ®e()egen 

Sin fc^tmmernbee ^cfclog ^er»or, 
3(^ fenne bie Zuxmt, bie 3itttten, 
Die jieinerne 33riicfe, ba^ X^or* 

S^ fc^auen »om SSappenfc^tlbe 
10 Die Somen fo trauHc^ mic^ att, 

3d^ grii§e bie atten ^Befannten 
Unb eile ben ^nrg^of i)inan. 

Dort liegt bie (Sp^inr am 3?runnen, 
Dort gritnt ber geigenbanm, 
15 Dort Winter biefen ^enftern 

SSertraumt' i(^ ben erften 2^raum. • 

3c^ tref in bie 33nrgfapetle 
Unb [uc^e be^ 2^()n^errn ©ra6; 
Dort ift^^, bort ^cingt com ^feiler 
20 Da^ altc ®ett>affen ^erab. 

9loc^ (efen nmflort bie ^nqm 
[ Die Siigf ber 3nfd)rift nic^t, 
2Bie t)t{l bunt bie bunten (gc^eikn ; 
Da(3 Sid^t bariiber and) bric^t. >^^'^-e/2^^''-'^2-- 

^ie Sterne* 453 

(Bo l^e^ft t)u, <2rf)(of meiner 55ater, 25 

Wx treu unb feft in bent Sinn, 
Unb Mfi ijon ber Srbe tterfc^ttjunben, 
£!cr ^flng ge§t iiber bi(^ ^in. 

^^-^^rud^tbar, teurer ^oben, . ^jj; ^ c/jZ<zL 

Unb fegn' i^n jwiefai^, n?er immer 
2)en ^flug nun iiber bic^ fii^rt. 

3(^ afeer will auf mi(^ rofeit, 

5JZein Saitenfpiel in ber Jpanb, 

^ie S5eiten ber (Srbe burcbf^meifcn 36 

Unb ftngen i?on Sanb ju Sanb. 


Die Sterne* 

3c^ fe§e oft urn 5)Zitternac^t, 
SBcnn ic^ mein SBcrf get^an, 
Unb niemanb me^r im Jpaufe wac^t, 
^ie Stern' am Jpimmel an. 

(Sie ge^n ba, ^in unb ^er jerfheut, 
SBie Sdmmer auf ber glur, 
3n Sf^ubeln auc^ unb aufgerei^t 
2Bie ^erlen an ber Sc^nur ; 

Unb fun!eln alle treit unb breit 

Unb funtein rein unb fc^on ; 

3c^ feV bie grope ^errlicbfelt A\m. 

Unb fann mic^ fatt ni^t fe^n. ' 


454 ^ '^'^^ $)er fRicfc ©oliat^* 

2)ann fagct unter'm ^immetSgclt 
SJleitt ^eq mir in ter 33rufl : 
15 „(£g giBt wag 93eff*re0 in ber SBelt 

3c^ werf tttid^ auf ntein Sager ^in 
Hub liege laitge macb, 
Unb fud)e e^ in meinem (Sinn 
20 Unb fel)ne mi^ banad). 


Der Hiefc (Boltatl?, 

SCar eittft ein 'tK\t\t ®oUat^, 
®ar ein gefa^r(id) 9}?ann ; 
(5r ^atte Zxt^tn an bem ^ut 
Unb etnen ^(unfer bran, 
5 Unb einen !Rocf »on ©otbe fd^wer, 

2Ber 3a()(t bie I^inge ade ()er ? 

5In feinen ©(^nurrbart fa^ man nur 
?[Rit ®rafen unb mit ®raug, 
Unb babei/joi^/'er »on 5^atur 
10 ®ar njilb unb grimmig^u^,\ 

(5ein ©arra^ a^ar, man glauBt e^ faum, 
(3o gro§ f(^ier al^ ein iCeberbaum. 

Sr ^atte ^nod^en mt ein ®aul 
Unb cine freeze Stirn, 
15 Unb ein entfeMid> groge^ ^aul, 

Tcc^ nur ein fleine^ ^irn ; 


1^,- 2)er 0liefe ©uliot^* 455 

^dh 3ebem etnen 3flippenflog 
Uttb flunferte unb |)ra^Ite grog. 

@o tarn er atle Siage ^tx /^ 

Unb i£xa4 Sftael ^o^n x^^-^--^'^ ^i" 20 

„2Ber ijl ber 3Hann, wer n?agt'g mit mir? 

©ei'g 35ater ober (Bc1^n I A^-wj 

Sr fomme ^er, ber !2umpen^unb, -^ />0-'^ 

3^ werf, i|n nieber auf ben (5)rnnb." 

X)a !am in feinem ©c^afcrrod 25 

Sin 3w«9litt9 S<t^t unb fein ; 

(Er §atte nt^tg al^ etnen ©tod, 

2)te (Sc^Ieuber unb ben Stein, 

Unb fprad) : „^u l^aft i)iel @toI^ unb Sg^^r, 

3c^ !omm^ im 5^amen ©otte^ l^er." 30 

Unb bamit fc^Ieubert, er auf i^n 

~-;>^^ Unb traf bie ©time gar ; 

^a gel ber gro^e @fe£^in, 

©0 lang unb bid er n^ar ; 

Unb X)at>ib f^ant in guter fRnl^ ss 

3^)1" ttun ben .^opf no(^ aB ba^u. 

%xau nii^t auf beinen 3:reffen:^ut, 

5^oc^ auf ben ^(unfer b'ran ; 

(Sin grofeg Wlan\ e^ auc^ nid)t t^ut, 

T)a^ tern' t)om langen 5[Rann, 40 

Unb i?on bem fleinen lerne tro'^I, « . 

2Cie man mit S§ren fe_^tenJoU. > Ly<y^ 

456 SWignon^ 


ilennjl bu ta^ Sanb, wo tie Sitronen U^n, 
J o V- 3»tt tunfein Saub bie ©olborangen glit^n, 
Sin fanfter SGinb t>om Blauen Jpintmel n?e^t, 
T)ie gn^rte fiiE unb ^od^ ber Sorker fle^t? 
5 ^ennfl bu eg wo^I? 

!Da:^ttt ! T)a^m ! 
Wo^V i(^ mtt bir, o mein ©elieBter, gie^n. 

^ettttfl bu bag ^aug ? 5luf ©auten ruf)t fetn £)a(^; 
@0 glanjt ber ^aa\, eg fc^immert bag ©emac^, 
10 Unb ^O'^armorBtlber fie^n itnb fe^n ntt(^ an : 

„2Bag ^at man btr, bu armeg ^inb, get^an?" 
^ennft bu eg mo^I ? 

3)a^in! i:)a^ln! . .AjI^MaL 
W^^i'' \6) mit btr, o metn SSefc^n^er, gie^n. 

16 ^ennjl bu ben 33erg unb feinen SQoItenjleg ? 

^ag ?0^aultier fuc^t im ^f^ebel fetnen SBeg ; 

3n Jp6§(en n?o:^nt ber 2)rac^ett atte 53rut; ^A^-rtn^t 
i eg fturjt ber getg unb it^er i^n bie glut '-^^^T^^^y^ 

^ennjlbueg wo^t? 
20 !Da:^in ! ^a^in ! 

®e^t unfer 2Beg ! o S3ater, lag ung ^ie^n I 

^cr drlfonig* 457 

Der €rIfomg. 

2Ber reitet fo fpcit tur^ ^acht unb SBinb? 

(Se tft ber 3Sater mit fcinem .^inb ; 

(Sr ^at ben ^nabert h)o^( in bem 5lrm, 
/ (Sr faft i^n ft(^er, er ^dlt il)n warm. /J 

/^■' . ^A^^i^f- 

„5}Zettt (So^^n, mag Mrgft bu fo (^ang betn ©eftrfit?" — ,.6 

„(Sie()ft, 33ater, bu ben Sr(!onig ni^t? 

2Den (Svlenfonig mit ^ron' unb (Sc^tveif ?" — 

^SJJein @o^n, eg ift ein 5^eklflreif." 

„„^u IteBeg ,^inb,^!pmm, ge^^ mit mir! 

®ar fd)one ©pieje fpieP ic^ mit bir, lo 

5}lan(^' buntc S3I«men ftnb an bem (Stranb, 

5)Zeine 3)?utter l^at mand) giilben ®en?anb."" — 

„?J?e{n 5>atev, mein 3Sater, unb :^oreft bu nid>t, 
SBag ®rIen!ontg mir leife ^erfpric^t?" 
„(Bti ru^ig, 'bkiht ru^ig, mein ^inb ! is 

. 3n bitrren Slattern faufett ber SBinb." — 

„ „33}{((ft, feiner ,^naBe, bu mit mir ge^nt, 

^eine 3:od>ter foUen jDic^ trarten fd)cn ; 

?[Reine 3:5d)ter ful)ren ben nac^tlic^en 9^ei^u, 

Unb tviegen unb tanjen unb ftngen bi^ ein." " 20 

„?0?ein 25ater, mein 5>atejr, nnb fie^ft bu nid)t bort 
(Erlfonigo 3:od)ter am biifieven Trt?" — 
„5)Zein ®Dt)n, mein (2e()n, ic^ fe()' eg genau; 
@g fc^einen bie alten S3eibcn fo grau." — 

458 ^tv Sanger, 

25 „ „3d^ ttebe 'Old), mic^ rei^t beine fc^one ®eftalt, 

„??tcin 53ater, ntein ^atcr, je^t faf t n: mtc^ an ! 
livlfonig l^ot mir tin Ceib^ get^^anl" — 

X)em 3Sater graufef v, er rcitet gcfc^ivinb, 
30 (Ex 1^'dlt im 2lrme ba^ ac^jenbe .^inb/ 

erreic^t ben ^cf mit mixiy unb 9Zot ; 
3n fetnen 5(rmen ba^ ^inb toax tot. 


Dcr Sanger. 

„5Ba5 ^or' i(^ braugen ^or bem J^or, 
2Ba^ auf ber ^xMt fc^allen ? 
Sag ben ©efang »or unferm £){)r 
3m @aale it^ieber^atfen!" 
5 !Der ^onig fpra(^% ber ^age ticf ; 

T)tx ^naU tarn, ber ^onig rief : 
„2aft mir :^eretn ben Sllten!" 

"^ ' j „®egruf et fe ib mir, eble ^errn, 
^vv^^ ©egriigt i§r, fc^one Damen! 

10 2Ce((^ reic^er .^immel ! (Stern ki (Stern 

SBer fennet it)re S'^amen ? 
3m (Saal t>otI ^ra(^t unb ^errlic^leit 
(Bc^IieJt, 5lu9en, euc^ ; |ier ifl nic^t 3fit, 
(Sic^ fiaunenb ju ergo^en." 


^er Sdnger* 459 

^er (Sanger triidt, tie 5lugen ein 15 

Unt) fc^lug in t>olfen Zomn ; 
J^Q^,^^. 3^ie 3^itter fftauten mut()ig trein, 
Unb in ben Sc^cof tie Sc^onen. 
3::er ^onig, bem ba5 2ieb geftef, ' * . ^ 

Sie^, i^n 311 ef^ren fiir ba5 <SpieI, ' ^L*-^ 

Sine qofbne ^ette reicfeen. 

„D{e golbne ^ette gi6 mtr nic^t, 

l:ie ^ette gib ben 3flittern, 

3Sor beren fii^nem ^ngejlc^t 

Xer geinbe Sanjen fpHttern; 25 

®i6 jie bem ^an3(er, ben bu %<x\i, 

Unb Ia§ i^n noc^ bie golbne 2aft 

3u anbern Saften tragcn. 

3c^ finge, trie ber 53oge( ftngt, 

Der in ben 3tt?ftgen n^o^net; so 

!Dae^ 2ieb, ba3 auc ber ^e^Ie bringt, 

3ft So§n, ber reicblii^ lo§net. 

2)0(^ barf i^ bitten, bitt, ic& eing : 

Sajt mir ben beflen ^ecber 2Bein5 

3n purem ©olbe reic^en." 35 

. ^>!^.^ ( Sr fe^t' i^n an, er tran! i^n an5 ; 

h^liy^ //^ 3:ranl ^otl fiif er Sabe ! 

' ' D wo^t bem ^^oc^begtiidten ^auo, 

2Bo bag ifl Heine ®abe! 

(Ergebf ^^ euc^ wo^I, fo benft an mid), *o 

Unb ban!et ®ott fo warm, aU i^ 

giir biefen Xrunf euc^ banfc." 

460 ^cr gungling am ©oi^c* 


Der 3u^9ltng am Badje. 

5ln ber £}ue(Ic faf ber ^nabe, 

33Iumcn n^anb er fic^ ^um ^rati^, 
Unb er \al) fte fortgeriffen, 

ZxtiUn in ber SCetlen 2;an3.-'^^<:t.>t^ '^ - ' 
Unb fo flie^en meine Zdc^t, 

SCie bie £}uetfe, raftlo^ ijin ! 
Unb fo bleic^et meine 3w9fnb, 

2Bte bie ^ranje fc^neK i?erHu^n. 

^raget nic^t, marum ic^ traurc 

3tt be^ £e6en^ ^Sliiten^eit ! 
5ttle^ freuet ftc^ unb I)cffet, 

SBenn ber ^^^u^fing fic^ erneut -''^^'" 
5Iber biefe taufenb ©timmen 

S)er ertt>a(^enben 9latur 
SBecfen in bem tiefen 33ufen 

^?ir ben fc^meren Summer nur. 

2Cn^ foil mir bie ^reube frommen, 

X)ie ber f^one £en^ niir kut? 
dim nur ift^^, bie id) fuc^e,' 

@ie ifl na^ unb emig iveit 
©e^nenb Breif id) meine 5lrme 

SRat^ bem teuren (Sd)attetiBi(b, 
5lc^, ic^ fann e^ nic^t erretd^en,^" 

Unb ba^ ^erj Hei^t ungeftitft! 

^et 3wit9^i«0 ^ttt ©oi§e« 461 

^omm bexab, bu fc^ijnc ^olbe, 25 

Unb ^erlaf bein ftoljes (2c^(of ! 
S3(umen, bie ber Senj ge&oren, ^ 

(Streu^ id) bir in beinen Si^oof . L G/y^ 
^orc^, ber ^ain erfc^attt i?on Ciebern, 

Unb bie Quelle riefelt llax ! so 

3^aum ift in ber fleinften ^iitte 

^nx ein ^liidlic^ lieknb ^aar. 




Note, — Words in [ ] are to be omitted in German ; those in ( ) are to 
be inserted in German ; words connected by hyphens are to be 
rendered by a single word in German. 


(Wie's der Alte macht, ist's immer recht, pp. 419-425.) 

In an old cottage with crooked walls and low windows, 
where an elder-bush hung over the hedge, and ducks swam in 
a little pond, [there] lived an aged couple, a peasant and his 
wife, who were quite contented and happy, although they 
possessed very little indeed. 

There was one thing, however, which they thought they 
could do-without {enthehren) ; this was a horse, which lived 
on {yon) the grass on the side of the high-road, and they deter- 
mined {beschliessen) to sell it for money, or exchange it for 
something more useful. 

So the wife said to her old [man] one day : " Take the horse 
to (the) town, for to-day is fair [day], and sell the horse, or 
exchange him for something else ; no matter what you do, I 
shall be satisfied," and kissed him good-bye. 

It was very hot and dusty, and [there] were many people 
riding, driving and walking to the fair. Among others he saw 
a man driving a cow to market, and thought it would be a 
very good bargain {Handel, m.) to exchange bis horse for this 
cow. So he proposed {yorschlagen) this exchange [to] the man, 



who of course was very glad to make so profitable (vorteilhaft) 
a bargain, and the peasant thought it would be very nice to 
have the fresh milk from the cow, even though the horse was 
worth more. 

This being settled, the peasant thought he would like to go 
and have-a-look-at the fair, and so he drove his cow along to the 

After a short time he met a man driving a sheep. Then he 
said [to] himself, that perhaps a sheep would be even (noch) 
better than a cow ; for it could find grass enough by their 
hedge, and in the winter they could take it into the house. 
So he asked the man if he would exchange. Of course the latter 
was quite (gem) ready to do this ; so the exchange was made, 
and the peasant went on with the sheep. 

Presently, however, he overtook (einholen) another man, 
carrjring a fat goose under his arm. " Aha ! " he cried-to 
(zurufen) the man, "what a fine fat goose you {ihr) have under 
your arm ! My old [woman] has long wished-for a goose (for- 
herself), and she shall have one, if you will exchange the goose 
for this sheep." The other had no objections to this, and so the 
peasant got his goose. 

As he trudged {schreiten) along with the heavy goose under 
his arm, our good peasant saw in a potato-field a fowl tied to 
a string, so that it could not run away. It had a short tail, and 
looked very wise, and he thought he had never seen so fine a 
fowl in his life. So he asked the owner (^Eigentilmer) of the 
fowl if he was willing to exchange it for his goose. The latter 
said he had no objections, so they exchanged. 

Our old [man] had now done a good deal of business, and, 
ijeing very hot and tired, he was very glad to see the tavern ; 
for he had a good appetite, and a mighty thirst too. As he 
was just going to enter, he met the hostler (Knecht) in the 
door, carrying a sack. The peasant asked him wl:^at was in 

EXERCISE 1. 465 

the sack, and the other replied that it was withered apples for 
the pigs. The peasant considered this a great waste. " Why 
(ei)," he cried, "our old tree at home only bore a single apple 
last year, which we kept carefully until it was quite decayed. 
What would my old [woman] say, if she saw a whole sack-full ! 
How delighted she would be, to be sure ! " Then the hostler 
asked him what he would give for the sack-full ; whereupon 
the old peasant replied that he would gladly give him his fowl. 

Having concluded (schliessen) the bargain he went into the 
tavern, and set his sack against the stove. There were many 
guests present, and among them two Englishmen, who of 
course were, as usual with Englishmen, so rich that they 
didn't know what to do {anfangen) with- their money. 

Now, the stove being very hot, the apples in the sack soon 
began to roast and sizzle (zischen). 

"Why (na), what in all the world is that noise ? " asked one 
of the Englishmen. 

"Those are my apples," said our peasant; and then he told 
them the whole story of all the business {Handel) he had done 
{imichen) during the day, from the horse down to the fowl. 

"Well (na)," said the Englishmen, laughing, "we will bet 
[with] you a hundred pounds in gold, or whatever you like, 
that you'll get [a] jolly-good {tilchtig) scolding (Schelte, f.) 
from your old [woman] when you get home." 

" Scolding ! " cried our friend, " not in the least ! I'll bet 
my peck of apples against a peck of your gold, and myself and 
my old wife into-the-bargain, that she will kiss me instead of 
scolding me, and say : ' Whatever the old [man] does, is always 

" Done ! " said the Englishmen, and the bet was made. 

So the old peasant got into the carriage with the English- 
men and drove back to his cottasje. 


When they arrived there, the old people bade (bieten) each 
other good evening, and the peasant told his wife that the 
exchange had been effected. His wife said she was quite cer- 
tain that he had done what was best, and embraced and kissed 
him without looking at either the strange guests or the sack. 

When the old [man] told his wife he had exchanged the horse 
for a cow, she rejoiced at the good milk, butter and cheese 
they would now have. Then he confessed {hekennen) that he 
had exchanged the cow for a sheep. " So much the better," 
replied his wife, adding that he always thought of everything, 
and that they could now have woollen stockings and gloves. 

''Yes, but I gave the sheep for a goose." 

"Well {ei), well!" said the old [woman], "how splendid! 
Who would have thought of that but you ! Now we can have 
[a] real roast-goose, and the feathers into the bargain ! I will 
make a pillow (Kopfkissen, n.) [for] you of them, so that you 
may sleep better than on the hard pillow of straw." 

" I'm afraid I shall have to sleep on the old hard pillow, for 
I changed the goose for a fowl." 

"Why, {ja) that was an excellent bargain," rejoined his 
wife, " for a hen will lay (lays) eggs and hatch (hatches) them, 
and then we shall have chickens, and a whole poultry-yard. 
I have been wanting that for years (jahrelang). 

"Yes, but I gave the fowl for a sack of withered apples. 
What do you say to that, old [woman] V 

"What do I say to it? Come here, and let me give you a 
good kiss, my dear, good husband ! Do you know, after you 
had gone this morning, I thought to (bei) myself: 'How I 
should like to make something really nice for my old [man] to 
eat when he comes home this evening, bacon and eggs with 
onions.' But alas ! I had no onions. So I went to the 
schoolmaster's wife, for I know that she has onions, and 
asked her to lend me a few. But she is very stingy, and 


declared that she hadn't even a withered apple in her garden. 
And now I can lend her a whole sack full ! Oh, I'm so 
glad," and she kissed her husband again heartily. 

" Why that is splendid I " cried the Englishmen, and 
cheerfully paid a peck of gold-pieces to the peasant. 

Most stories contain (enthalten) a moral {Lehre, f.) ; this 
one contains several : 

First, that we should never bet ; for (the) betting is a 
dangerous game, at which (the) one party {Teil, m.) must 
always lose ; and it is always uncertain who will gain the 
wager. jMoreover, betting is an attempt to get something 
for nothing ; which is always wrong. 

Secondly, if man and wife were always as willing to trust 
each other as these two simple but good old people, many 
marriages {Ehe, f.) would be happier than they are. 

And lastly (endlich) the old [people] lost nothing after all : 
for the peck of gold was worth a great deal more than the 
horse which the peasant had traded-off for the cow, and so 

But I am afraid that this last remark contradicts the first 
moral which I drew from the story ; and the moral of that is : 
Never draw a moral, unless you are sure it will fit. 

(Yenedig, pp. 425-427.) 

The city [of] Venice is very different (verschieden) from all 
other cities in the world. It is actually (ivirklich) in the 
water, for it is built on a number {Menge, f.) of small islands in 
the Adriatic Sea (3Ieer, n.). The city originated (entsiehen) in 
the 5th century before Christ, the founders {Grunder) having 
taken refuge {Znjlucht) there, in order to escape from the Huns 
(Ilunne, pi. -n), who under Attila were ravaging {verheeren) the 


north of Italy at that time. The first officer (Beamte, adj. 
subst.) of tlie new state was called the Doge or Duke. During 
the Middle- Ages (Mittelalte7\ n. sing.), Venice became one of 
the most powerful states in Europe, and occupied (einnehmen) 
the same position [Stellung) which England occupies in our 
own age {Zeitalter^ n.) as mistress (Beherrscherin) of the sea 
(Meer). This supremacy [Herrschaft) began, just as that of 
England [did], with the extension {Aushreiiung) of its commerce 
{Hanifel, m.). In the 12th and 13th century this supremacy 
attained (erreichen) its greatest height (Ilohe, f.). In [the year] 
1177 Pope Alexander III. bestowed-upon {verleiJten + dat.) 
the Doge a precious {kosthar) ring, with which he {dieser) 
annually celebrated {feiern) the nuptials {Hochzeit, f. sing.) of 
Venice with the ocean. This ceremon}^ [Feier, f. ) was attended 
by {verhimlen mil) great splendour and pomp (fferrlichkeit). 
The Doge, accompanied by a retinue {Gefolge, n.) of Senators 
{Senator), went ifahren) out on the high sea in a magnificent 
ship called the Bucentaur, and threw a precious ring made 
(verfertigen) for the purpose into the ocean, as [a] symbol 
( Vorhild, n. ) of the rule of the republic over the waves. 

In 1204 the Doge Dandolo waged ifilhren) a victorious war 
against the East-Roman (ostromisch) or Byzantine (byzantinisch) 
empire {Reich, n. ), at the conclusion {Beendigung) of which a large 
portion of that [empire], including {umfa'ssen) the Peloponnesus 
or Morea and the island of Candia or Crete {Kreta) was annexed 
(annektiert) to the republic. It was in this war that the famous 
bronze {broiicen) horses, which still stand above the portals 
{Thor) of (the) St.-Mark's-church {Markus-Kirche) were brought 
to Venice. Napoleon took {filhrte) them off to Paris in 1797, 
but they were brought back and placed in (an + ace.) their 
former position {SUitte) again in 1815 by the Emperor Francis 
II. of Austria. Venice was a republic, or rather {vielmehr) its 
form-of-government was that of an oligarchy. This is a Greek 
word signifying {hedeuten) the rule {Herrschaft) of a small 


(geri7ig) number [Anzahl, f.) of citizens. The Doge was elected 
by {durch) the votes (Stmime, f.) of the Nobles (Adel, m. sing.) 
alone ; in later times the real power was in the hands of a 
body called the Council of Ten. Life and property (Gut, n.) be- 
came very insecure, as anybody might be denounced (angeheii) 
to this council in secret by unknown persons, Venice was 
annexed by Austria in 1796 by {durch) the treaty of Campo 
Formio, and incorporated [with] (einverleiben + dat.) the 
Kingdom of Italy in 1866. 

The commerce of the republic had been declining (sinken), 
ever {schoii) since the discovery of a new route ( Weg^ m.) to India 
round the Cape of Good Hope by Yasco de Gama in 1497, and 
the loss of her mastery of the seas, and Venice now possesses 
but the memory of its past glory, and is, as Hans Andersen 
says, only the ghost of a city. There remain, however, many 
beautiful edifices which bear-witness of her former magnifi- 
cence; for instance, the Palace-of-the-Doges, with its grand 
staircase and splendid halls. This palace is connected with a 
dreadful prison by a bridge, called the Bridge of Sighs, because 
over this bridge, it is said, prisoners who had been condemned 
(verdammt) to (the) death were led to hear their sentence 
{Urteil, n.), and then led back to be executed (hinrichten). 

The church of St. Mark, the patron saint of Venice, whose 
body is said to rest in its walls, is one of the most beautiful 
and gorgeous churches in the world, and has been described 
by the celebrated English critic {Kritiker), the late {verstorben) 
John Ruskin, in his [well] known work, "The Stones of 
Venice." In front of it rise up {emj)orragen) two immensely 
high masts, erected {errichten) to . celebrate the conquests 
(Eroberung) acquired (erringen) by Venice in the beginning of 
the 13th century. On the so-called Piazzetta, which leads 
from this church past the palace to the Grand Canal, there is 
a column, on which stands the winjred lion of St. Mark. 


The streets of Venice are perhaps (wold) the most remark- 
able [thing] in this wonderful city. The paved (gepjlastert) 
streets are for pedestrians {Fuszg anger) only. All others are 
water-streets, or canals (Kanal, m., pi. "-e). The only horses 
in Venice are the bronze [ones] already mentioned (nennen), 
and a few of these animals which are kept in the public 
gardens as curiosities {M erktviirdigkeit), just as lions, elephants 
and other foreign animals are kept in the zoological gardens of 
London, New York and other cities. All the traffic ( Verkehr, 
m.) of Venice is carried-on (beforder^n) by-means-of boats. 
These boats, which are called gondolas, are painted black, and 
have a sort [of] cage in which the passengers {Passagier, m., 
pi. -e) sit. Larger vessels (Fahrzeug, n.) are used for the trans- 
port-of -merchandise {Gilter transport, m.). [It is] only a few 
years ago [that] small steamboats have been introduced, which 
traverse the larger canals. 


(Rothschild, pp. 427-428.) 

There are two cities with the name [of] Frankfort — one 
on the Main, the other on the Oder [f.]. The former is better 
known than the latter. An ancient story tells how [the] 
Emperor Charles the Great, king of the Franks {Franke, pi. -n) 
was once pursued by the Saxons (Sachse, pi. -n), and escaped 
(entkommen) over the Main at this spot. The king prayed to 
God in the night to deliver him from the hand of his enemies, 
and the ford {Furt, f.) was discovered by-means-of (durch) a 
hind (Ilindin), which some of his men (Leute) saw crossing 
the river. The grateful monarch called the place Frankfort, 
or the Ford (Furt, f.) of the Franks, and erected a chapel 
here in commemoration of (zutu Andenken an -face.) his 
deliverance {Rettung). He subsequently (spdter) built a 
palace here, and occasionally resided in this town. 


From the time of the emperor Charles TV. [down] to the 
end of the 18th century, the election of the emperor and the 
imperial-coronation were always held at Frankfort. Here, on 
the 28th of August, 1749, was born the greatest German 
poet, and one of the greatest poets of the world — Johaun 
^Yolfgang Goethe. The house in which he was born, and in 
which he lived until his twenty-sixth year, is kept just as it 
was when the poet lived in it, and is perhaps the most 
interesting place in the city. 

The central {mittler) part of Frankfort still retains {hei- 
hehalten) all [the] principal-features {Hauptzug, m.) of a 
mediaeval (miUeluIterlich) town — narrow, dark, crooked streets 
and old-fashioned {altmodisch) houses. But the narrowest and 
darkest of these streets has disappeared, though only in this 
nineteenth century, before the progress {Fortschritt) of civil- 
ization (Kultur) and religious toleration (Toleranz). I mean 
the Jews'-street, in which all Jews without distinction, 
whether rich or poor, were compelled until this century to 
live. This street was closed (gesperrt) at both ends by gates, 
which were locked on Sundays and holidays, and at sunset 
on every week-day, and any Jew who was found beyond 
(auszerhalb) these bounds at such times was punished. In 
Italy this Jews'-street was called ghetto. 

From this narrow street in Frankfort originated the greatest 
banking-house {Bankhaus) of this age. This was the family 
[of] Rothschild, concerning the founder of which Hans Ander- 
sen tells this touching story of maternal love. 


(Himmelsschlussel, pp. 429-433.) 

It is a very old tradition (Sage, f.) that St. Peter is the 
keeper (P/drtner) of the gate-of-heaven, and that no one is 
allowed to enter there without his permission (Erlanhnis, f.). 


This charming story by Ertl refers {sich heziehen) to (auf+ ace. ) 
this tradition, and tells how one day Peter had so much 
business (pi.) to do (yerrichten) elsewhere, that he had to 
send every person who died that day a key, and ordered the 
angel at the gate to admit nobody wdio had not such a key. 

Now it happened that on this day an old pilot called 
Jiirgen felt that he was dying; so he bade farewell to his wife, 
whom he loved dearly {innig), until they should meet again 
in heaven. 

Immediately after his death an angel came flying down 
from heaven with a golden key, bringing a greeting from 
St. Peter, and told him that he must open the gate with 
this key himself. 

On his road up to the gate-of -heaven, Jiirgen kept looking 
round to see wdiether his dear old wife w^as not following him, 
for he was sure that she would not survive him long. When 
he arrived at the gate without her appearing, he sat down on 
a wooden bench in front of it to wait for her ; for he thought 
perhaps she might be afraid to enter alone, the gate being so 
splendid, and guarded moreover by an angel with a flaming- 

It was not long before he saw some one dragging him- 
self up the road-to-heaven with difficulty, leaning on a sword, 
and groaning at each step. This was a brave young soldier 
who had fallen on the battle-field for his native country so 
suddenly that Peter had not had time to send him a key. 

The old pilot was sorry for him (leid thun), for his wound 
burned like fire, and he trembled violently. So Jiirgen gave 
the soldier his own key, and told him to (that he should) go 
in and get the angels to drop balm on his wound. The soldier 
accepted the offer {Anerhieten, n.) with thanks, and asked his 
benefactor ( Wohlthdter) to come in with him ; but the angel 


shut the door in his face, crying that no one was allowed [to 
come] in who had not a key. 

So the old man sat down again on the bench to wait for his 
wife ; and it was not long before he saw her coming up. As 
soon as he caught-sight-of (erblicken) her, he ran to meet her, 
and they were both very glad. 

But when he wanted (wollen) her to (that she should) go in 
alone, because he had given his key to the soldier, she refused 
to go in without him. She said she would rather rest awhile, 
as she was very tired, and begged him to take hers. But he 
would not do this, and so they both sat down on the bench 

Presently a little blue-eyed child with golden curls came 
along the road-to-heaven, walking in its little-shroud, and 
weeping bitterly. The old woman wiped away the tears that 
were running down the poor child's cheeks, and asked it why 
it wept. " Because I had to leave my darling mother," 
answered the child. Then the old woman tried to console the 
little one, and promised to be a mother [to] it, until its own 
mother should follow. 

Then the child took the key and entered in at the gate, and 
the angel with the flaming-sword shut the gate again. 

Now the two old [people] were-left {hleihen) alone outside, 
for the angel would not let them in without [a] key. Then 
the night came on, and it grew very dark and cold, and the 
poor old fisherman and his wife felt {zu Mute sein) very 
miserable, and at last they began to be very [much] afraid, 
and to weep. 

Presently, however, St. Peter came back, and saw the old 
couple sitting on the bench and weeping. Then he asked them 
how it came that they were sitting outside in the dark, cold 
night, instead of going into heaven ; for he was quite sure that 
he had sent both of them a key-to-heaven. 


As soon as the ol I [people] had told him their story, how 
the fisherman had given away his key to the soldier, who had 
died so suddenly on the battle-field, and his good old wife had 
given hers to the poor little child that had lost its own on the 
way-to-heaven, the heavenly-porter unlocked the gate for them, 
and let them in ; and a specially good place was given them 
among the Elect. 

But the key the child had dropped (let fall) on its way up 
to the gate-of -heaven turned into a beautiful flower, properly 
(eigentlich) called primrose (Primel) ; but its popular-name 
(Volksname) in Germany is [the] Key-to-heaven. 


(Das eiserne Kreiiz, pp. 434-438.) 

The Iron Cross is a military {militdrisch) distinction {Aus- 
zeichming), which is given in the German ?iYV[iy {Armee, f.), as [a] 
reward (Belohnuiig) for brave deeds performed (ausgefiihrt) on 
the battlefield. It is of iron, not of gold or silver, like (the) most 
war-medals {KriegsmedaiUe, f.), to indicate that it is a mark- 
of -honour (Fhrenzeichen, n.), the value {Wert, m.) of which does 
not depend {ahhdngen) on {von) the value of the metal of {aus) 
which it consists {hestehen). It corresponds to (entsprechen + 
dat.) the Victoria Cross, which is so [much] coveted {begehren) 
a distinction in the British army. Many stories are told of the 
brave deeds for which the latter distinction has been bestowed 
{erteilen). In the last Boer- war {Burenkrieg) in South- Africa 
it was bestowed, among others, on (dat. without prep.) the 
only son of [the] Field-Marshal Lord Roberts, who sacrificed 
(aufopfern) his young life in an attempt ( Versuch) to save the 
British guns {Geschiitz, n.) at the disastrous {ungliicklich) 
battle of Colenso, under General Buller, on the 15th of 
December, 1899. 

This story, by Dr. Emil Fronnnel, the famous court-preacher 
{Hofjyrediger) at Berlin, shows how brave deeds are sometimes 


done without the doers knowing that they are doing anything 
else but their duty (PJlicht, f., unci Schuldiykeit). 

During an engagement {Treffen, n.) in the great war which 
was waged between France and Germany in the years 1870 to 
1871, a Pomeranian regiment had been sent out by its Colonel 
with the orders {Befehl, m. sing.) to hold a certain post {Posten, 
m.) against the French, until their comrades had come up. The 
French troops {Trupj^e^ f.), however, advanced {vorrilcken) in 
such great numbers (Anzahl, f. sing.), that the commanding 
{kommandieren) officer at length commanded his adjutant to 
give the men {Leute) the order to retire. One soldier, however, 
refused {sich weigern) to obey this order, because [he said] he 
had no time to pack up his cartridges, which he had spread 
out in front of him (sich) for convenience' (Bequemlichkeit) 
sake, and did not want to let the king's property fall into the 
hands of the enemy. So he first shot off {cihschieszen) all [the] 
cartridges, and then ran back to the regiment as fast as his 
legs could carry him. Although the Frenchmen shot at {nach) 
him, [so] that the bullets flew in a regular (ordenilich) hail- 
storm, they shot too high, and he reached his regiment 
unharmed. As he came up, he saw the Adjutant talking to 
the Colonel, and at the same time pointing to him with his 
finger. Our hero thought that the Adjutant w^as reporting 
{anzeigen) him to (hei) the Colonel for (icegen) disobedience 
{Ungehorsam, m.), and was much relieved (erleichtert) when the 
latter received him kindly, for it had never occurred to the 
Pomeranian that his action had been particularly brave. 

On the following day it was suddenly reported that the 
King of Prussia, who afterwards became the first German 
Emperor, was coming. To the great surprise ( Vericuiiderung) 
of our hero, he (dieser) received the order from the Adjutant 
to come instantly to the King. He still (iioch immer) sup- 
posed that the Adjutant was determined {entschlossen) that he 
should be punished for his disobedience, and was ver}'- [much] 


frightened, and at the same time angry at (?'<7>f!r 4-acc.) the 
Adjutant for (^iveyen) his supposed (vermelnt) malice (Bosheit). 
There was, however, no help for it (es Hess sich aher dahei 
nichts machen), so with [a] lieav}^ heart the soldier went to the 
house in which his Majesty was quartered. Here he was 
taken {filhren) into a large room {Saal, m.), where King 
William received {emjijangen) him with a kind smile, and 
ordered him to relate the whole story of the cartridges, just as 
it had taken place. So the Pomeranian told the whole story, 
adding : " It is true, your Majesty, that I spoke rudely to the 
Adjutant when he ordered me to retire {sich zurilckziehen)^ 
and said that I wanted to shoot off (verschieszen) all the car- 
tridges first; but that is the only crime {Verhrechen) that I am 
guilty of." 

To this {hierauf) the king replied, smiling, that the soldier 
had done well, and enquired whether he was hungry. " Yes, 
your Majesty," replied our hero, "and I have a fine thirst 
too." At this reply his Majesty laughed very heartily, and 
invited the soldier to dine with him and the officers of his staff 
{Generalstah, m.). So this private {gemein) soldier had the 
honour of sitting at the same table with the King of Prussia 
and his {(lessen) most distinguished generals and officers. He 
thought, however, that the man who brought him the soup 
was ver}" stingy, as the plate was not half full ; and when the 
King asked him if he would like some more, he replied, 
"Please, [your] Majesty, if there is any left." At this the 
King and the other gentlemen laughed again, though the 
Pomeranian did not understand why. 

Presently a man came in with a mighty roast-of-veal, which 
was set-down {hinsetzen) on the side-board {Buffett, n.), where- 
upon another man took a huge knife and began to carve-off 
{(ibschneiden) one slice {Stiick, n.) after the other on to a large 
plate, and our hero thought this man understood [his] business 
{es) better than the one with the soup. 


Now Gernican customs at table are different in many points 
(Stiick) from ours. At a large dinner-party (Tischgeseilschaft), 
the host, or [else] a servant carves off at one time {avf einmal) 
enough slices for six or seven guests, and lays them upon a 
plate, and from this plate, which is passed around (hernmrei- 
chen), each guest takes as many pieces as he wishes, and lays 
them on his own plate. 

The Pomeranian had of course never before {noch nie) been 
at a great dinner-party in his life, and therefore supposed that 
the whole pile of meat was for him alone. He therefore took 
the plate to himself. Although he thought it was rather much, 
still he considered himself as in honour bound (verpjlichtet) 
to eat it all, and was resolved not to be beaten in such distin- 
guished (yornehm) company. The exertion {Anstrengung) was 
so great, that the perspiration [Schzueiss, m.) stood in great 
beads on his brow, but with great difficulty he finished (voU- 
hringen) the heavy task [Arbeit). 

Then the King asked him once more if he would like some 
more, to which the soldier again replied, " Yes, please, your 
Majesty, if there is any left." At this the King laughed 
loudly, holding his sides, and all the other gentlemen laughed 
with [him]. But our hero did not know what they were 
laughing at. 

" No, my son," said his Majesty, " I think (glauben) you 
have had enough of that ; now you shall have something 
else." Then an officer of high rank {Rang, m ) stepped up 
to the Pomeranian hero, and hung the Iron Cross on him. 

It sounds hardly credible (gJauhlich). but this man always 
believed that this distinction had been conferred on {zuerteilen 
+ dat.) him on account of his pegging-away at table, and had 
not the remotest idea (Ahnung) that it had been given him for 
his bravery in the battlefield. 


(Das Scliloss Boncourt, pp. 452-453.) 

This ballad [Ballade, f.) was composed {dichten) by Adelbert 
von Chamisso, and describes his recollections of the pleasant 
chateau of Boncourt in France where he was born ; for 
Chamisso, though a German poet and author {Schriftsteller), 
was [a] Frenchman by birth. His paternal castle had been 
destroyed {zerstoreyi) in the horrors {Schrecken) of the great 
French Revolution, and his parents had been obliged to flee ; 
they emigrated (auswandern) to Germany, and their son was 
brought-up {erziehen) as {a] German. 

In a dream the old-man (Greis) seems to see once more the 
gleaming walls of the castle, the towers and battlements of 
which still seem so familiar. In his dream he crosses (gehen) 
over the stone bridge, and passes-through (durchschreiten) the 
great gate, over which is carved (geschnitzt) his ancestral 
(ahnherrlich) coat-of-arms ; the lions in this coat-of-arms look 
down upon him like old acquaintances, and with a hearty 
greeting he hastens on, and walks up the castle-yard. Here 
he finds more old friends : the figure of the sphinx at the 
well, and the fig-tree, which is still flourishing. What, 
however, seems to interest the dreamer most is the chapel 
with its coloured windows. Here his ancestors were buried ; 
and from the pillar above the grave the armour which the old 
knight wore on the battlefield and in (bei) the tournament 
[Turnier, n.) hangs down. 

The dreamer's eyes are bedimmed (truben) with tears, so 
that he cannot read the inscription on the monument (Denk- 
mal, n.). Alas ! all these glories have disappeared from [the 
face of] the earth. But the poet, in the goodness-of-his-heart 
{Her zensg lite), bears-no-malice {grollt nicht) against {mit) the 
destiny (Geschick, n.) which has befallen him, and closes his 
poem with the kindly {froimn) prayer that the peasant who 


now guides the plough over the still dear spot (Statte), where 
once the castle of his fathers stood, may be happy, and that 
the soil may be fruitful and bring its owner, whoever he may 
be, not a curse {Fluch, m.) but a blessing {Segen, m.). 

Chamisso is the author ( Verfasser) of a curious and delight- 
ful novel, " Peter Schlemihl," the hero of which has sold his 
shadow to the Evil [One], and in-consequence {foJglich) knows 
happiness no longer ; for nobody will have anything to do 
with a person who has lost his shadow. 

(Der Riese Goliath, p. 4o4-4oo. ) 

The story of the great fight {Kampf, m.) between David, 
who was afterwards King of Israel, and Goliath, the giant of 
Gath, is to be found in the seventeenth chapter of the first 
Book of Samuel, about as follows : 

The Philistines {Philister), a heathen people {Volk, n.), who 
were always making war on {gegeu) the people [of] Israel, 
were gathered [together] at Schochoh in Judah, and Saul and 
the men of Israel had their camp in the valley [of] Elah. 

And there went a giant out of the camp of the Philistines, 
named Goliath, of Gath, who was over six cubits {Elle) high 
(Jang). And he had an helmet (^Helm, m.) upon his head, and 
was clad with a coat of mail (Panzer). And the staff 
(Schaft, m.) of his spear [Spiess, m.) was like a weaver's beam. 

The poet, Matthias Claudius, who treats (behandeln) the 
story from the comic side, adds (hinzufilgen) that this giant 
had a moustache, at the sight {Anhlich) of which every one 
was terrified. He swaggered and bragged, and told the 
Israelites to choose a man for themselves, to fight with him. 
And he defied (Hohn sjyrechen -j- dat.) the army {Ueer, n.) of 


But the Israelites were all iimcli fi-iglitened at this big man, 
and not one of them had the courage to accept his challange 
( Herausjorderung). 

Now a certain young lad, David by name, who had been 
sent by his father Jesse (Isai), from the Httle town of Beth- 
lehem with corn, bread, and other provisions ( Vorrclte), for 
his elder brethren, who were serving {dienen) with Saul's army 
against the Philistines, heard the bragging of this giant, and 
wondered that the men of Israel fled before him. And David 
asked who this Philistine was, that he defied the army of the 
living God. 

Then King Saul sent for {holen lassen) David. And David 
said to Saul : " Let no man be afraid of this Philistine, 
no matter how loudly he brags ; for thy servant (^Knecht) will 
go up and fight {kilmpfen) with him in the name of the Lord. 

And Saul said unto David : " Thou art not able to go up 
to fight against this giant ; for thou art but a boy, and he is a 
warrior {Krieger) from [his] youth up." 

Then David told Saul how he had slain a lion and a bear 
that had taken a lamb out of his flock, and David said : " The 
Lord who delivered {erretten) me from the lion and the bear 
will deliver me from the hand of this Philistine." And Saul 
said unto David : " Go, and the Lord be with thee." Then 
Saul ofiered David his armour {Riistung), also a helmet, and a 
coat of mail. But David refused to accept these, because he 
was not used to them, and took his staff (*S'<«6, m.) in his hand, 
and chose five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them 
in a shepherd's bag {Tas-'he^ f.), and his sling was in his hand. 

Now when the big Philistine beheld David he despised him, 
and cried : " Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves 
{Stecken) /" And the giant cursed (fluchen) David by his gods, 
and said unto him : " Come hither to me, and I will give thy 
flesh unto the birds under heaven, and the beasts on the field." 


Then said David to the Philistine : " Thou comest to me with 
swoid and spear and shield ; but I come to thee in the name 
ot the Lord [of] hosts (Zebaoth), the God of the army of 
Israel, whom thou hast defied. This day the Lord will give 
thee into mine hand ; and I will smite thee, that all the earth 
may know that there is a God in Israel." 

And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, 
and hurled it against the giant, and smote him in the forehead, 
that the stone entered (fahren) into his forehead ; and the big 
man fell upon his face to the ground. 

So David prevailed {siegen) over the wicked Philistine, who 
had blasphemed {Idstern) against the God of Israel, and slew 
(erschlagen) him, but David had no sword. 

Therefore David ran up, and took (the) giant's sword, and 
cut (hauen) his head off therewith. 

But when the Philistines saw their champion (Kdmpe) was 
dead, they fled. And the men of Israel pursued (ve/folgen) 
them, and slew thousands of them. 

(Mignon, p. 456.) 

This beautiful poem {Gedicht, n.) occurs (vorkommen) in 
Goethe's novel "Wilhelm Meister." While Wilhelm, the 
hero of the novel, was travelling about with a company of 
actors (Schauspieler), he saw one day in a strolling (Jahrend) 
company of jugglers {GaukUr) a young girl of about (etwa) 
twelve years, dancing a so-called egg-dance (^Eiertanz). A 
number (Anzahl) [of] eggs had been laid on a rug {Tejyjnch) 
spread on the floor. Between these eggs the child had to step 
{treten) very cautiously in (beim) dancing, and to take care 
that she did not step on the eggs and break them (to pieces). 
One day ^[ignon stubbornly {eigcusinniy) refused (sich weigern) 


to perform {auffiihrrn) this dance, and the leader of the com- 
pany began to beat her cruelly, whereupon Wilhelm took her 
part (sich annehmen -f- gen. of pers.), and bought her from 
(ahkaufen + dnt. of pers.) the man. Wilhelm took the poor 
child to himself, and treated her with great kindness, as 
though she were his own daughter. 

It turned out {sich ergehen) afterwards that she had been 
stolen {I'auben) by gypsies {Zigeuner) from her parents, who 
were very aristocratic people, and lived in a beautiful castle in 
Italy. These robbers had carried her off {entfuhren) over the 
Alps to the North, where she had been purchased from them 
by the leader of the troupe (7'r'wp;:)e)-of -jugglers, with {hei) 
which Wilhelm had discovered her. In this troupe there was 
also a strange (eigeri^rtig) old-man (Greis), a harper (Ilar/ner), 
with long white hair and beard, half insane (wahnsinnig), who 
had committed without knowing it some mysterious (geheini- 
nisvoll) crime {Verhrechen, n.). The thought of this crime 
embittered (verbiftern) his life, and drove him to [the] despair 
(Verzweijlung) and [to the] suicide {Selhstmorcl, m.). It is he 
who sings the beautiful ballad, "The Minstrel," also contained 
in this selection {Auswahl, f.). 

The ballad of Mignon describes in beautiful language the un- 
happy girl's dim recollections of (a7i + ace.) the lovely country 
of her birth — Italy, the land of beauty and of art, as well as 
(zvie auch) of the splendid house in which she lived with loving 
parents, surrounded by every luxury (Luxus, m.) which wealth 
can give, and of the cloud-capped-path over the high mountains, 
over which her captors (Entfuhrer) had brought her. Each 
stanza {Strophe^ f.) concludes with the touching appeal (Bitte) 
to {an -hacc.) her kind new master {Herr), whom she calls her 
beloved, her protector, and her father, to take {filhren) her 
back to that beautiful country, where she had passed such a 
happy childhood. 


But the poem expresses at-the-same-time the yearning 
(Sehnen, n.) of the author (Dichter) himself for (nach) that 
land, the home (Hemistdtte) of art and beauty, which he had 
so long desired to see with his own eyes. A few years later 
Goethe at-last (endlich) had the opportunity to spend a year 
or more in that lovely country, and to observe the beauties of 
art and nature there. This was a great advantage ( Vorteil, m.) 
for his poetry ; and here he completed three of his finest dramas 
(Schauspiel, n.). 


that is. 

I German: 

2Inm. = ^Inmerfung, note. 

21. a;. = 2(lte§ Seftament, Old Testament. 

a. a. C. = am angefii^rten Drte, in the 
place referred to. 

bgl., bcrgl. = bevgleic^en, the like. 

b. = any case of the definite article, 
b. I&. = ba§ I)et6t, 
b. i. = ba§ ift, 
b. S.= biefe§ Sa^reS, of this year. 

b. 2Ji. = biefe§ Tlonat^, of this month. 

Tr.= 2:oftor, Doctor. 

<SXo., Gror. = ©uer, (Sure, ©urer (in titles). 

fl. = ©ulben, florin. 

gr. = grau, Mrs. 

^r^r.= 7?reif)err, Baron. 

^rl. = i^raulein, Miss. 

geb.= geboren, born. 

geft. = geftorben, died. 

@r.= ©rofd^en (a coin). 

i)., J^eil. = ^eilig, holy, saint. 

§r., §rn. = 5iivx, .^errn, Mr. 

i. % = im 3af)re, in the year. 

j^ap. = ^apitel, chapter. 

Six. = j^rcujer (a coin). 

I.= liel, read. 

iK., 3J2f., M. = 5KarI (money). 

•0lffr.= 2}Januffript, manuscript. 

91., 3i. 91. = SRamc, name. 

n. Gf)r. = nad^ Gfirifto, after Christ. 

9?. S. = 9Iad)fdE)rift, postscript. 
9^. 2. = 9leue§ Xeftament, New Testa- 
spf., ^fb. = «Pfunb, pound. 
5pf. = ^Pfennig, penny, 
pp. = unb fo loeiter, and so forth. 
Sc, Sr. = ©eine, ©einer, his (in titles) 
S.= Seitc, page. 
St., gft.= ©anlt. Saint. 
f. = fie{)e, see. 
f. 0. = fie^e oben, see above, 
f. u. = fie^e unten, ) 

f. IT), u. = ftefie rceitcr unten, ) 
a;., 2:^., 2:^1.= Seil, Sr^eil, part. 
Xi)lv. = I^aler (money), 
u. 0. m. = unb anbere mei)V, "j 

u. bgl. m.= unb bergleic^en me^r, | 
u. f. f . = unb fo fort, 
u. f. in. = unb fo rocitcr, J 

58.= 33er§, verse. 

0. (S^r. = nor S^rifto, before Christ. 
nergl., ngl. = Derglei(^e, compare, 
t). 0.= non oben, from tlie top. 
0. u. = Don unten, from the bottom. 
j. 93. = jum Seifpiel, for example. 

see below. 


ajlaj. = SKajeftat, Majesty. 

II. Latin (in addition to others which are used in English also) : 

A. C. = Anno Christz, in the year of Our Lord (Christ). 

a. c. = anni currentis, of the current year. 

S. T. = Salvo Tituio, without prejudice to the title (used in addresses where the proper 
title of the person addressed is uncertain). 



Explanations. — 1. The numerals refer to the s 

2. All verbs are Aveak and regular, unless referred to a § ; 
the conjugation of others will be found under the § indicated. 

3. A — indicates that the word in question is to be supplied ; 
under masc. and neuter substantives, the terminations of the 
gen. sing, and nom. plur. are given ; thus : SBagen ( — $? ; — ) 
means that the gen. sing, of SBagen is SBagett^, and the nom. 
plur. the same as the nom. sing. The sign - indicates Umlaut 
in the pL, e.g.: ©iivten, (-5; ") means that the gen. sing, of 
this word is ©arteui:, and the nom. pi. ©arten ; @o^u {-ti ; "t) 
means: gen. sing. @o^ne5, ©o§ne ; under fem. substs. 
the pi. only is given. 

4. With adjectives, -er indicates Umlaut in the compar. and 

5. Proper names are not given when they are the same in 
German as in English. 


m, off, from. 

SJ'benb, m. {-zi ; -e), evening ; 
^tVitt — , this evening. 

2tbenbBrot, n, {-ii ; -e), supper. 

abenb^, in the evening. 

2lbenttfonnen[d)cin, m. {-t^), 
evening sunshine. 

^I'benteuer, n. (-^ ; — ), ad- 

^rbenteurer, m, (-^ ; — ), ad- 

aber, but ; however. 

5l'bcrg(aube, m. (-n and -m), 

a'bermal^, again, a second time, 
once more. 

abfa^ren (186; fcin), to set off, 
depart, go ; set sail. 

aB^alten (188), to hinder, deter. 

ab()auen (188), to hew off, cut 

abklfen (159), to help, re- 
medy; tern tfl Iei(^t ah^nhd' 
fen, that is easily remedied. 

a 61)0 ten, to call for. 

aHii()len (ftA), to (get) cool. 

^tbfiiqunc?, /. (-en), abbrevia- 
tion, curtailment. 

aBIanfen (188; fein), to run 
off; come off, turn out, end. 

ilMcitcn, to lead away, lead off. 

atnnaeten, to finish, dispose of, 




aBmalcn, to portray. 

abreifcu (fein), to set out, start, 

5lbfd)ict^, m. (-C(?), farewell. 

at>fcf)neibeu (118), to cut off. 

abfo'nberlic^, peculiar, special. 

aMrecfncu, to dry. 

a(Minfd)cii, to wipe off. 

ab3iel)en(l 31), to pull off, takeoff 

a6), ah ! oh ! alas ! — \va^ ! 
pooh ! nonsense ! 

a^t, eight ; — ^^age, a week. 

2((^t,/, attention, care; firf) in 
— nc 1)111 en, to be careful, 
take care ; — get en, to pay 

cic^^en, to moan. 

abbieren, to add. 

Slbel, m. {-^), nobility. 

5lt>juta'nt, m. (-en; -en), adju- 

5It)reffe,/ (-n), address. 

^2lt)ria,/, Adriatic (sea). 

aW, aha ! ho ! ho ! 

5l()n^err, m. (-n; -en), ancestor. 

abnlid), like, similar ( + dat.) 

W)xt,f. (-n), ear (of grain). 

Wo^thxa,/.^ algebra. 

allein', adj.j alone, only; conj., 
but, only. 

a(((er, e, t^), all, (the) whole; 
alle %a^t, every day; atle 
fein, to be at an end, be all 
gone (vulgar). 

5l(le^, n. sing., all, everything. 

flUertinc^^', adv., certainly, of 

allcrlie'bft, dearest of all ; most 

a'U^ut»ieIe, too many altogether. 

^fpen {pi. only), Alps. 

a(k?, than, as ; as a ; when ; 
aU ob, as if. 

atybalb, immediately, at once. 

a(fc, thus, so; so then, ac- 

vilt (''er), old, ancient. 

filter, n. (-0), age, old age. 

5(inerifaner, m. (-g, — ), Ameri- 

<\\i {dat. or ace, 65), on, at 
(227), to, towards, in, by, 
near, of (231). 

anbellen, to bark at. 

anbctrejfen (167), to regard, 

anbieten (131), to offer. 

anHnben (144), to tieup, fasten. 

%M\d, m. (-e^; -e), sight, pros- 
pect, view. 

anMicfen, to look at. 

an6rennen(99),to kindle, light. 

3(nbenfen,n. (-g; — ), memorial, 

ant>er,other; nic^t^ — i?, nothing 

vinbern, to alter, change; eg 
ln§t firf) ni(^t — , it cannot 
be helped. 

anber^, otherwise. 

anbert^alb, one and a half. 

5lnfanp, m. (^e^; -e), commence- 
ment, beginning. 

anfangen (188), to begin, com- 
mence ; to go about a thing, 

anfangg, in the beginning, at 

anfaffen, to seize, take hold of, 

ancjemeffen, appropriate, suit- 



angenc^m, pleasant, agreeable. 

^Ingeficbt, n. (-e^ ; -er), face, 

an9Ct(}an, clad, dressed. 

^»9ft// ("e), fright, terror, fear, 

augftltc^, frightened, timid, 

2tngftfc^ivei§, m. (-ec), sweat of 
terror, chill of dread. 

anbalten (188), to continue: 
to stop. 

an^iingen, to suspend, hang 

%\\m)t,f. (-n), hill. 

anfaufen {\\6>), to settle, buy 
up property. 

an!leit>en (jut), to dress. 

anflopfen, to knock at the 

anfommeu (167; fein), to ar- 

5lnfcmmltng, m. (-Cy ; -e), ar- 

anlegen, to lay on, put on 
(clothes); tie Siiife — , to 
take aim with a gun. 

annel)men (167), to accept. 

anraiuten, to colour (a pipe). 


anfd)af|cn, to provide, procure. 
-^ ") to look at, re- 

anfe^en (181), ^ ^^«^y^'^ 

2lnfet)en, n. (-c), appearance, 

respect, influence, 
anfe^en, to put (a cup, etc.), 

to (the lips), 
anftreicben (118), to colour, 

paint (a house, wall, etc.). 

5Int(it^, n. (-t$ ; -e), face, coun- 

antreffen (167), to meet with, 

5(utirort,/ (-en), answer, reply. 

aiitworten {daL), to answer, 

a'lnvefenb, present. 

5l'nn?efen()eit,_/l, presence. 

an3ieben (131), to draw on; 
put on (clothes). 

Qlnjug, m. (-ei?, -'e), suit (of 
clothes) ; approach ; im — 
fein, to be approaching, to 
threaten (of a storm). 

2(pfel, 712. (-€- ; -), apple. 

5Ipfef6aiim, m. (-e^ ; -e), apple- 

^pxiV, m. (-a), April. 

5lr'6eit,/ (-en), work; labour; 

arbeiten, to work. 

5Irkiter, m. (-» ; — ), workman. 

21r6eitt'3eit, /. (-en), time for 
work, working hours. 

3iv(^iteft',m. (-en; -en), architect. 

5{rie (trisyll.)/. (-n), air, song. 

arm (-er), poor. 

%xm, m. {-i^i ; -e), arm. 

^rt,/ (-en), kind, sort, species. 

rtrtioi, well behaved ; — fein, to 
behave one's self properly 
(of children). 

5JvU, rn. (ev5; -e), physician, 

5^fd)enputtel,'?i. (-e), Cinderella. 

5if)iettcben, n. (-i? ; — ), small 
plate or dish. 

%\i,m. (-ec-; -e), bough, branch. 

^^ftvolog', m. (-en ; -en), astro- 



atmen, to breathe. 

aucfe, also, too, even ; tt»er — , 
whoever; wix ftnb e^ — , so 
are we. 

rtuf, (dat. or ace.) on, upon (65); 
for; in (230); at (227, 3); 
to; open; — brei 23oc^eu,for 
three weeks (fut, 229, b, 2); 
— ba^, inorder that; — bent 
?anbe, in the country. 

nufbleiben (120), to stay up, 
sit up, remain up. 

aufbticfen, to look up. 

auf Mii()eu (fein), to begin flour- 

2lufentt)aU,m. (-e^; -e), sojourn, 
stay ; delay. 

aufeffen (181), to eat up, con- 

auffltegen (131, fein), to fly 

5lufgate, / (-n), task, lesson, 

aufgeben (181), to give up. 

aufge()ett (188, fein), to open; 
to rise (of the sun, etc.) 

auf()arten (188), to stop, delay, 

auf^angen, to hang up. 

auf^eku (131), to raise up, 
lift up, pick up ; abolish, 
annul, cancel ; keep, pre- 

auf^oren, to cease, stop. 

aufnuid)cn, to open; ftc^ — , to 
set out, start. 

aufnievffam, attentive ; einen 
auf ctiua^ — mad>en, to call 
the attention of anyone to 

2lufmer!famfeit,/. (-en), atten- 
tion ; kindness. 

aufraffen (fid)), to rise, rouse 
one's self. 

aufrei^en, to string (on a cord). 

aufri(^ten,to raise, erect; fic^ — , 
to rise. 

auffd^icben (131), to put off, 
postpone, delay. 

auffd)Iagen (186), to strike up- 
wards ; bie 3tugen — , to raise 
the eyes ; (fein), to strike 
the ground (in falling). 

auff(^lie§en (123), to unlock, 

auf[d)neiben \IIS), to cut open. 

anffe^en, to put up, set up; 
put on (of a hat). 

auf|>ringen(144; fein), to jump 
up; to fly open, open sud- 

auffte^en (186; fein), to rise, 
get up; to stand open. 

anffieigen (120; fein), to rise, 
ascend, mount. 

auftreteu (181 ; fein), to appear. 

auftl)un (196), to open. 

anftiirmen, to pile up, heap. 

aufjr»«dKn (fein), to wake up, 

aufjieBen (131), to wind up (of 
a time-piece). 

^luge, n. (-i? ; -n), eye; spot. 

5(n(^enMid, 7ii. (-e^; -e),moment, 

au» {dat., 46), out of; from, of; 

an^Briiten, to hatch out. 

5(u^brurf,m.(-ci3;-e), expression. 

an^einanber, apart, asunder; 
fi(^ — t^un,tospread,openup. 



au^ertrciMcn, to choose, select; 

ttie — ten, the Elect, the Saints 
au^fliegen (131 ; ^ein), to fly 

out, fly abroad. 
5(ui?f{u^, m. {-t^ ; "e), excursion, 

pleasure-trip ; eineit — ma= 

d)en; to take a pleasure-trip. 
Slu^gvlbe,/ (-n), edition, 
aui^^e^ett (188; fein), to go out. 
auv^ge^ei'c^net, excellent. 
auv?oi(eiten (118; fein), to slide, 

auelajfen (188), to omit, leave 

an^lofc^en, to put out, ex- 
au^Iugen, to look out, peep out. 
-au^e|men (167), to take out, 
-^ to except ; fid^ ^nt — , to look 

well, be eflfective. 
auv?rnben, to rest, repose. 
aui5fd)elten (159), toscold, chide, 
au^fitmarnien (fein^ to extend 

in skirmishing order, 
au^feben (181), to look (like, 

5(u^rid)t,/(-en), view, prospect, 
au^fprecben (167), topronounce. 
au^ftetlen, to lay out, expose, 

^u^ftedunc;,/ (-en), exhibition, 
au^l'trccfen, to stretch forth, 
auijtvinfen (14-1), to drink up, 

au^mortcf, abroad. 
au§en, outside, without. 
an§er (46), outside of, except, 

au§er^a(b (gen.), outside of. 
du^iventiv^, by heart. 
au^3eicl)nen, to distinguish. 

iiu^^iebcrt (131 ; fein), to re- 
move (intr.) 
at^vtncieren, to advance. 
"}h{,f. (-e), axe. 

'$>Ck6>, m. (-e^ ; "e), brook. 

^acfe,/ (-n), cheek. 

bac!en(186, R. 1), to bake. 

^acfcfcn, m. (-v? ; -), baking 

Sacfftcin, m. (-eo ; -c), brick. 

^alnt, /I (-en), path, way, course, 

33vtbnbcf, m. (-Ci?; -e), railway- 

Kilb (ebcr, am ebefien), soon, 

Svitlfijiel, n. (-ev? ; -e), game of 

Banc^ C'ev), timid, anxious, 

33ant*, n. {-t^, -e), bond, tie; 
(-e^^ ; -ev), ribbon ; m. (-ec ; 
-e), volume. 

53an!, / (-en), bank; (^e), 

bar, (paid in) cash, ready (of 

^'dx, m. (-en ; -en), bear. 

Q3arenTi't6rer, m. (-c ; — ), bear 

iBavbicr, m. (-e>? ; -e), barber. 

Q3an6, m. (-ej5; "t), stomach, 

6auen, to build. 

33auer, m. (-n or -v ; -n), peas- 
ant, countryman. 

33anenil>vni»?,n. (-(^; -er), peas- 
ant's house, farm house, hut. 

53aum, m. (ei? ; -c), tree. 



33aupla^, m. (-ci? ; -c), site. 

beadUcn, to consider, observe, 

Bet en, to tremble. 

53ed)cr, m. {-^ ; — ), goblet, 
beaker, cup. 

bebaucrn, to pity; regret; (id>) 
bebaure, I am sorry. 

t>etcnfen (99), to consider. 

betenfli^, serious. 

bcteuten, to indicate, mean. 

ktienen, to serve, wait upon ; 
jt^ — , to help one's self. 

33cbiente(r), m., servant {adj. 

^ebingung, /. (-en), condition. 

bebriicfen, to oppress, trouble. 

beeilcn (fid)), to hasten, hurry. 

Seenbiguncj, / (-en), ending, 

^eere,/ (-n), berry. 

SefeH/ rti. {-tv, -e), command, 
order; gu — , at (your) ser- 
vice, what is (your) plea- 
sure ?, Yes, sir. 

befe()(en (167), to command. 

befinben (fi(^, 144), to find one's 
self, be situated ; be. 

beflei§en (ftc^, 118), to apply 
one's self. 

befriebtgcn, to satisfy, content. 

be^egnen (dat.; fein), to meet. 

begeben (188), to commit (a 
crime, etc.) 

begie§en( 1 23),to water (flowers, 

beginnen (158), to begin. 

begleiten, to accompany. 

33eg(eitung,/ (-en), accompani- 

begniigen(fic^ — mit), to be satis- 
fied, be contented (with). 

33egviff, m. (-eo; -e), idea, no- 
tion; im — fein, to be upon 
the point of, be about (to). 

bebaupten, to assert, affirm; to 

bel)er3t, courageous, plucky. 

bef)utfani, careful, cautious. 

bei (46), by, at, about; with; 

— 2^if(te, at table; - — mein- 
em Onfel, at my uncle's; 

— mir, with me, at my house ; 
about me ; — fic^, to one's 
self; — einanber, together, 
on hand; — fc^onem 2Better, 
in fine weather. 

beibe, both, two. 
beibe^, n. sing., both. 
33eifall, m. (-e^^), applause, 
^ein, n. (e«?; -e), leg; bie S^adtn 

unter bie — e ne:^men, to take 

to one's heels, 
beina'^e, almost, nearly. 
^n^tn (118), to bite, champ, 
beifte^en (186; dat), to assist, 

befannt, familiar, well-known. 
^efannte(r), acquaintance {adj. 

33efanntfd)aft,/ (-en), acquaint- 
befennen (99), to acknowledge; 

befommen (167), to obtain, get, 

receive, have ; n? 0^1 befomm'^, 

may it do you good. 
beOen, to bark, 
bemevfen, lo perceive, observe, 

bempoft, moss-covered, mossy, 



bcmiibcn {\id)), to take pains, 

beo'bad)ten, to observe. 

bequem', convenient, comfort- 
able, commodious. 

bercit, prepared, ready. 

bereiteU; to prepare. 

bcreitc, already. 

33erg, m. (-e^; -e), mountain, 

bergen (159), to hide. 

33ernftein, m. (-e^), amber. 

berften (159), to burst. 

33eruMoiung,/, quiet, comfort, 
ease of mind. 

beriU)nit, famous, celebrated. 

beriibren, to touch. 

befc^afticjen, to occupy, employ; 
befcbaftigt, busy, employed. 

bef(^niiffe(n, to sniff at, smell 

. at. 

Sefc^ii^er, m. {-$ ; —), protec- 

berinncu ([ic(> ; 158), to deli- 
berate, reflect. 

33eff nnung,/!, consciousness, re- 

befi^eu (ISl), to possess, own. 

33e|l^er, on. (-c; -); possessor, 

befonber^, particularlv, especi- 

beforgen, to attend to. 

befprccben (167), to discuss. 

beffer (see gut), better. 

beft (superl. of gut, tvhich see), 
best; jum ^eften, for the 
benefit of; am bcften, best 
(of all). 

befteben (186), to undergo, pass 
(an examination); — au^, 

to consist (of); — auf ( + 
ace), to insist upon. 

befteigen (120), to ascend. 

befteden, to order. 

beftimuit, fixed, certain. 

beftiMfcu, to punish. 

bcftreiten (118), to defray. 

'^efuc^, m. (-(€; -e), visit, visi- 
tors ; — ^aben, to have visi- 
tors; — e mad) en, make calls; 
bet 3emant) auf — [ein, to be 
on a \asit at any one's. 

befud^cn, to visit; t'ie llni^er- 
fttdt — , to study at the uni- 

beten, to pray, say prayers. 

betrac^ten, to observe, consider. 

betragen (186), to amount to; 
fic^ — , to behave. 

53etragen, n. (-^), behaviour, 

betreffen (167), to concern; jrao 
mic^ betrijft, as for me. 

betreten (181), to enter. 

betriigen (131), to cheat, de- 

Sett, n. (-e^ ; -en), bed. 

53ett(er, 7n. {-s ; — ), beggar. 

beyo'r, before. 

bet>o'rfte^en (186), to be in 

betralbet, wooded. 

beivegen (131, E,.), to induce; 
to move. 

bemeifen (120), to prove, de- 

be'ttjunbern, to admire. 

53cirtn'^tfein, n. (-0), conscious- 

• ness. 

h^iaUcn, to pay (ace. of thing; 
thit. of pcison and ace. of 



tJdntj when both are p7'ese7if, 
otherwise ace. q/pej'son). 

53e3abluiii^,/ (-en), payment. 

JBibIiot()ef / (-en), library. 

bie^eit (131), to bend. 

33ier, n. (-eg ; -e), beer, ale. 

•33ier!ruc|, m. (-ev5; -e), beer-mug. 

Meten (131), to offer, bid. 

33ilb, n. (-ee; -er), picture, por- 
trait, image. 

bilben, to form, shape, make, 

Si(t)ung,yi, education. 

S3i(Iet' {pron. bill-yett), n. (-te^; 
-te), ticket. 

MUig, cheap. 

binbeit (144), to bind, tie, 

binnen (dat), within. 

big (34), till, until, up to, as 
far as; jirei — bvei, two or 
three; — 511, — nac^, as far 

33if(tDf, m. (-eg, -e), bishop. 

bi5d)en, n. {indecL), little, bit. 

bitten (181 ; for, urn), to ask, 
beg; (i(^) bitte, if you please, 
please {I'tt.^ I beg, pray) ; 
njenn i(^ — barf, if you please 
(lit., if I may ask). 

S3ijyen, m. (-g ; — ), bite, sup. 

blan!, bright, shining, clean. 

blafen (188), to blow. 

531att, n. (-eg ; "er), leaf. 

b(an, blue. 

blaulic^, bluish. 

bleiben (120; fein), to remain. 

bleiit, pale. 

bleicben, to bleach. 

33Ieiftift, m. (-eg ; -e), lead-pencil. 

Miifen, to look, glance. 

b(inb, blind. 

blinfen, to blink ; to peep. 

bltnt^eln, to blink, wink. 

^(ife, m. (-eg ; -e), lightningj 

bli^en, (impers.), to lighten, 

bfonb, fair. 

b 1 ^ , naked , mere ; adv. , merely, 

bill ben, to bloom, blossom, 

53(uine,/ (-n), flower. 

^(umenfol)!, m. (-eg), cauli- 

^^int, n. (-eg), blood ; ein iun= 
geg — , a young fellow. 

Sliite,/ (-n), blossom, flower. 

^futenften^el, m. (-g ; — ), 

■Bliitengeit,/, blossoming time. 

^oben, m. (-g ; — ), ground, 
soil, earth, floor. 

^Ogen,m (-g; — ), arch, curve. 

53ogengan^,m. (-eg ; -e), arcade, 

bombarbieren, to bombard. 

^oot, n. (-eg ; 33cte or -e), boat. 

bofe, bad, evil, wicked ; cross, 

^ofeiric^t, m. (-eg; -er), villain. 

53ote, m. (-n ; -n), messenger. 

branben, to roar (of the break- 

^ranbopfer, n, (-g ; — ), burnt- 

i^xattn (188), to roast. 

bvaud)en {gen. or ace.), to re- 
quire, want, need, use, make 
use of ; {impers. ), be neces- 
sary ( + ace. of thing). 

braun, brown. 



brauncn, to turn brown, bronze. 

^raut, / {-(), bride, spouse, 
affianced lady. 

33vautau5Ui5, m. (-c»?; -e/, bridal 

33vautic}am, m. (-Cc ; -e), bride- 
groom, spouse, affianced. 

53vautrin9, m. (-ec ; -e), bridal 
ring, wedding ring. 

^rautftaat, 7?i. (-c?), bridal 

bxa'O, excellent, good, upright, 

^iic^erbrett, n. {-c^ ; -cr), book- 

53iiiterfreunb, m. (-e^ ; -e), lover 
of books. 

Su(^()anbler,m. {-^ ; — ), book- 

33iid>^anblung, / (-en), book- 

^itc^fe, / (-n), box : gun, 

biicfen, to bend, bow. 

bunt, many-coloured, bright, 
coloured, motley. 

brei^en (167), to break; to pick ^ ^T3iireau (jn-o^i. bii-ro'), n. (-^ ; 

-v), (business) office. 
Surg,/ (en), castle; borough, 
biirgerlid^, citizen-like, plain, 

53iirgermeifter, m. {-t^ ; — ), 

35urg^of, m. (-e^; -e), castle 

yard, courtyard. 
53urgfapeae, / (-n), castle 

Snrfd)(e), m. (-n; -n), boy, 

fellow, chap. 
53iir)'cl>d)en, 71. (-^; — ), little 

Sufc{^, 771. (-e^^ ; -e), bush, shrub. 
33ufen, 7n. (-g ; — ), bosom. 
53utter,/, butter. 

(flowers, etc.) 

breit, broad, wide. 

breiten, to spread. 

brennen (99), to burn, be burn- i 

Srief, 771. (-ei? ; -e), letter, epistle, i 

53ritlenglay, n. (-e^; -er), spec- ' 
tacle-glass. , 

bringen (99, 2), to bring, take. 

33rot, 71. (-e^ ; -e), bread ; loaf. 

Sriicfe,/ (-n)* bridge. 

Sruber, m. (-^ ; -), brother. 

Srummbaf,m. (-^ec ; -^e), bass- 

S3runnen, ??i. {-^ ; — ), well. 

33ruft,/ (-e), breast, bosom. 

S3ruftf(^{Ib, 771. {-t$ ; -e), breast- 
piece, cuirass, breast-plate. 

Srut,/, brood. 

briiten, to brood ; to hatch. 

33ncentor, m. Bucentaur (the 
barge of state from which 
the Doge of Venice per- 
formed the ceremony of 
marrying the Adriatic). 

53ud), 71. (-e^ ; -er), book. 


S^e'rub, 771. (-^), cherub. 
S^ofolabe,/, chocolate. 
S^vift, m. (-en ; -en). Christian. 
Sigarettenpapier, n. (-e^), cigar- 
ette paper. 
Sitrone,/ (-n), lemon, citron. 
Souffne,/ (-n), cousin. 



ta, there, in tluat place ; here; 
then; conj., as, when, be- 
cause, since. 

tabci, thereby, thereupon, at 
the same time, on this oc- 

Tafi), n. (-c^ ; -cr), roof. 

5^ ad) fa ninier,/. (-n), attic. 

2:ad)(ein, n. {-^ ; — ), little 

tafiir, for that, for it, for them 
{of things). 

bagegcn, against that, to that. 

ta|er, thence, hence, therefore. 

ta^itt, thither, along. 

tat)in9eben (188 ; fein), to walk 
along, go along ; pass away. 

babeim, at home. 

bamit, therewith, with it, with 
that, in order that, so that 

bammcrnb, darkling, dim. 

Xampferlinie, / (-n), steam- 

Xampfi'c^ijf, n. (-e^ ; -e), steam- 
boat, steamer. 

banacb, after that; afterwards. 

J^anf, m. (-e^), thanks, grati- 
tude ; f(^6nen — , many 
thanks ! 

tanfbar, thankful, grateful. 

Xanfbarfeit, f. thankfulness, 

tanfen (dat), to thank ; irf) 
tanfe (3^nen), (no) thank 

bann, then. 

tar, there. 

taran, thereon, on it, etc. 

t^arauf, thereon, on it, on them 

(of things), etc ; thereupon, 
barin, therein, in that, in it. 
tarnad), after it, etc. 
t'ariiber, over that, over it; 

about it, at it. 
barum, therefore ; about it. 
tarunter, among them. 
^a^, n. oft'CXf which see. 
tafelbft, there, in that place, 
tafi^en (181), to sit (there), 
bauern, to last, endure. 
t»a§,that; (aitf) — ,inorderthat. 
bayou, thereof, of it, etc. 
ba^cr, in front of it, etc. 
bagu, to it, etc.; in addition 

(to that), besides, for this 

"Tecfe,/ (-n), ceiling, 
beden, to cover. 
Tedung,/, covering, cover, 
bein, beine, bein, thy. 
beintg(e), thine, 
benfen (99; ge^i. or usnally 

an-l-«cc.), to think; fid) — , 

to imagine, 
benn, for, conj. 
ber. Die, ba^, def. art, the (4 ; 

44); rel. pr., who, which, 

that (92, 93, 95); dera. pr., 

the one, he, she, it, that 

(133; 140-143). 
berb, coarse, sturdy, 
berjeni^e, btejenige, ba^jenige 

(135; 140\ that, this, the 

one ; he, she, it. 
berfe(lH\ biefelbe, ba^felbe (136; 

143), adj. and2^r., the same; 

he, she, it, etc. 
bec'^alb, for this or that reason, 

therefore, on that account. 



befto, (all) the, so much the; 
— beffer, so much the better ; 
je mel)r — bejfer, the more, 
the better. 

becivegen, on that account. 

t'euten, to point. 

t)eutli6, clear, distinct; clearly, 

beutfd), German; an^ Tnit]6>, 
im ireutf(i)en, in German. 

beutfc^==frango)tf(^, Franco-Ger- 

Teutfcb'Ianb, n. (-i?), Germany. 

X^tabem', n. (-e^ ; -e), diadem. 

Diamant', m. (-^ or -en ; -en), 

bid^t, thick, dense. 

Did^ter, m. {-v, — ), poet, 

ticf, thick, stout. 

bicffopftg, thick-headed. 

I^ieb, m. (-e5 ; -e), thief. 

Tiener, m. (-^ ; — ), servant. 

Xienft, 771. (-e^ ; -e), service. 

3Dien^tao!, w. (-e^; -e), Tuesday. 

biefer, biefe, btefeg (bie^), (6 ; 
134, 140, 143), this, that; 
the latter. 

bieo'mal, this time. 

bies'feitc, adv., on this side. 

Xing, n. (-eg ; -e and -er), thing. 

Xirne,/ (-n), girl, maid, wench. 

bi^ibieren, to divide. 

boc^, yet, however, but, after 
all, pray, well, just, I hope. 

Xoftor, m. (-&; Xofto'ren), 

Conner, m. (-^ ; — ), thunder. 

bonnern, to thunder. 

XonnevvJtiig, m. (-eg; -e), Thurs- 

Xcppelfc^leife, / (-n), double 

Xorf, n. (-eg ; -er), village. 

bort, there, yonder, in that 

Xrad^e, m. (-n ; -n), dragon. 

Xrac^enivagen, m. (-g ; — ), 

brdngen, to press, urge, crowd, 

brau^cn, outside. 

bre^en, to turn, twist. 

bret, three, 

breifarf), three -fold, triple, 

breijdlnig, three-year-old. 

bretmal, three times, thrice. 

breinfc^auen, to look on, look. 

byetfig, thirty. 

brefien (159), to thresh, thrash. 

bringen (144; 1:)ahtn or fein), 
to press, pierce, penetrate. 

brittebalb, two and a half. 

broben, above. 

bro^nen, to rumble, ring, re- 
verberate, hum, buzz. 

briiben, over there, over the 

Xrucf, m. (-eg), printing, print. 

briicfen, to squeeze, press, im- 
print (a kiss). 

bu, thou, you. 

bumm (-er), stupid. 

bumpf, hollow (of sound), 

Xiine, /. (-n), dune (sandbank 
blown up by the wind on 
the sea-shore). 

bunfel, dark, gloomy. 

Xunfefbeit,/, darkne.s.s, gloom. 

bunfein, to grow dark. 



biiitn, til ill. 

t>mcb (34-), through ; by. 

burd)auij', absolute!}-, entirely ; 
— niitt, by no means, not 
at all. 

t)urd)fd)nei'tcn (118), to cut 

tur^fitivei'feu, to roam over, 

t>urd)fuc^'en, to search through. 

t)uvfen (196-202; permissioii), 
to dare ; be permitted, al- 
lowed ; ttarf ic^ ? may 1 1 

biirr, dry. 

Durft, m. (-ee), thirst; — i)a1itn, 
to be thirsty. 

biifter, dark, gloomy. 

X)U^'enb, n. (-ei? ; -e), dozen. 

ebeu, adv., even, just; exactly; 

fo — , just noV. 
(Sde,/ (-u), corner, 
e'bel, noble. 
S'belftein, m. (-e^ ; -e), precious 

stone, jewel, 
efte, adv. andconj., ere, before, 
e'^ern, (of) bronze. 
(S^re,/. (-n), honour, respect, 
e^ren, to honour, esteem, 
e^rerbietig, respectful, 
e^rlic^, honest ; — lua^rt ant 

lanc^ften, honesty is the best 

St, 7i. (-fi?; -er), egg. 
ei ! ah ! oh ! 
(Ei(^e,/ (-n), oak. 
(5ic^6aum,m. (-e^; -e), oak-tree, 
eigen, own. 
eigenmacbtig, of one's own 

power, arbitrary. 

ci'gcntlid), real, actual, ; adv. 

really, strictly speaking. 
Sigeutum, n. (-e^ ; "er), prop- 
erty, possession, estate. 
diiii,/. haste, hurry; tra^ l)aft 

bu fiir — ? what is your 

hurry ? 
eilen, to hasten, hurry, 
eitig, hasty, speedy ; i& — i)a^ 

ben, to be in a hurry, be in 

Stmer, m. (-^ ; — ), pail, 
ein, eine, tin (9), a, an ; one ; 

bie Sineu, some, 
einanber (dat. and ace), one 

another, each other ; bei — , 

together, "all there." 
(Einbanb, m. (-e^ ; -e), binding, 
einbinben (144), to bind (a 

etttbrtngen (144 ; feitt), to enter 

by force ; rush in ; press in, 

etner, eine, ein(e)^ (150), pron., 

one (equivalent of man). 
einbriiden, to press in ; to close 

(the eyes), 
cittfacb, simple, plain. 
etnfa((en (188; fein), to occur, 

come to mind ( -f- dat. ; im- 

eiiifaftig, simple, silly, 
einfliegen (131 ; fein), to fly in. 
Sinfluf, m. (-fe^, -fe), influ- 
etnge^en (188; fein), to go in, 

ein^alten (188), to hold in; to 

ein^auen (188), to hew away, 

slash away, peg away. 



Ctnigc, some, several, a few. 

cinlaben (186), to invite. 

eirnnal, once; auf — , at once. 

SinmaleiUif, n. (indecL), mul- 
tiplication-tabie . 

einne^inen (167), to take up, 

einpacfen, to pack up. 

einred)nen, to reckon in ; com- 
prise in account. 

etnric^ten, to arrange. 

etnfc^en!en, to pour in, till. 

einfcblafen (188; fein), to fall 

cinfc^lagen (186, fein), to strike 
(of lightning). 

eittfc^reibett (120), to book, in- 
scribe, check (luggage). 

einfeben (181), to perceive, 
comprehend, see. 

einfeitig, one-sided. 

einfingen (144), to sing to sleep. 

einft, once upon a time. 

einfieigen (120; fein), to mount 
into, get into (carriage, etc. ). 

eintanjen, to dance to sleep. 

eintreten (181 ; fein), to enter. 

Sin'trittcera'men, n. {-s : — ), 
entrance-examination, ma- 

einunbad^t^ict, eighty-one. 

einwenben (99), to object. 

einmicgen, to rock to sleep. 

(Sinwo^ner, m. (-^; — ), inhabi- 

ein'^eln, solitary, single, iso- 

cinjig, single, only. 

Sinjug, m. (-e^s -e), entry; 
— batten, make entry, march 

(Sic, n. (-co), ice ; ice-cream. 

Sifen, 71. {-^), iron. 

(ii\mbabn,/. (-en), railway. 

eifern, (of) iron. 

elegant', elegant. 

SUScgen, m. {-v ; — ), elbow. 
.e'(enb, wretched, miserable. 

SIf, m. (-en; -en)\fairv, sprite, 

(SIfe,/(-n) / eif 

etle,/ (-n), yard. 

(Eltern (no sing.), parents. 

empfeMen (167), to recommend. 

emi^ftnben (144), to feel, ex- 

empo'r, up, upwards, on high, 

empe'r6(iihen (fein), to begin 
flourishing, flourish. 

empo'ranrBeln, to roll upwards. 

(£nbe, n. (-^ ; -n), end, termin- 
ation; ein — ne^men,to come 
to an end; ^n — , at an end; 
am — , after all. 

enblicb, at last, finally, at length. 

eng(e), narrow. 

(Engel, m. {-i ; — ), angel. 

(Sng(e)fein, n. {-^5; — ), little 

(En'gliinter, m. (-s ; — ), Eng- 

eng(if(^, adj., English ; auf 
(Snglifc^, in English. 

entbe^rlidv unnecessary, super- 

entbieten (131), to send (greet- 

entb(o§en, to uncover, bare. 

entbeden, to discover. 

Snte,/ (-n), duck. 

(Snteubraten, m. (-g ; — ), roast 

entfaUen ^188; fein), to escape 



(the memory) ; Ci? ift niiv — , 
I have forgotten. 

entvic\lf», towards. 

ent^c'i-^ciu^fbcn (188; \tin; dat.), 
to go to meet. 

entiic'v^cnfommcn (167 ; fciu ; 
dat.), to come to meet. 

entije'cicnlaufcu (188; fein), to 
run to meet. 

enti^cgncn, to reply, rejoin. 

cnt[d)lie|lcn (fid); 123), to re- 
solve, decide. 

Sntfd^Iug, m. (-fe^; -fe), re- 
solve, determination. 

entfe^liit, terrible, dreadful. 

entfi^ulti^en, to excuse. 

entfteioien (120; feiu), to rise 
from ( + dat. ) 

entivet»er, either; enttt?et)er. . . 
oTer, either. . .or. 

enhverfen (159), to draw (a 
plan, etc.) ; design. 

enti(iicft, delighted, charmed. 

er, he ; it. 

erbliden, to behold, see. 

(Srbfe,/. (-n), pea. 

(Srbfenfuppe,/ (-n), pea-soup. 

(SrbkJlvurft, /. (-e), pea-sausage 
(used for soldiers' rations). 

(Srbbel^en, n. (-^; — ), earth- 

Srbbeere,/ (-n), strawberry. 

Srbe,y!, earth, ground. 

Srthigel, /. (-n), terrestrial 

erfinbcn (144), to invent. 

(frftnbung,/ (-en), invention. 

Srfolg, m. (-e^ ; -e), success. 

er frier en (131 ; fein), to freeze, 
be frozen. 

(Eifiillinig,/ (-en), fulfihnent, 

accomplishment; in — gel)eii, 
to be fulfilled. 

er^e()en (188 ; fein), to go, fare 
(impers. + dat. qfjJers.). 

ergo^en (ftc^), to delight, take 

ergreifen (118), to seize. 

crl)aBen, lofty, exalted. 

er()altcn (188), to receive, get, 
keep, preserve. 

erl)eben (131), to raise; fi(^ — , 
to rise. 

er()elen (fid)), to recover. 

erinnern, to remember ; to re- 
mind (of, an -h ace.) ; ftd) — , 
to remember, recollect ( -}- 
gen. of thi^ig). 

erfalten (ftc^), to catch cold. 

(Srialtung,/ (-en), cold. 

ertennen (99), to recognize. 

erllciren, to explain, declare. 

eriunbigen (fid)), to inquire ; 
fid) t>ei jenianti nacfe etwag — , 
to inquire of anyone about 

erfiiren or erf iefen ( er!cr, erior en), 
to choose, select. 

erianben (dat. ofpers.), to per- 
mit, allow. 

crieben, to experience. 

(£rI(en)!onig, m. (-e^), erlking, 
alderking (a mischievous 

erlcnd)ten, to illuminate, light 

erlijfen, to release, rescue. 

(Sriofer, m. (-^ ; — ), rescuer. 

erna^ren, to feed, nourish, sup- 

erncnnen (99), to nominate. 



appoint; gum ©ouijernciir 
— , to appoint (as) governor. 

evneucn, to renew. 

erobern, to conquer, overcome. 

crret(^en, to reach. 

erfaufen (123; fein), to be 
drowned, drown. 

erfc^atlen (131 ; fein), to re- 
sound, sound. 

er[d)einen (120; fein), to ap- 

erfc^nappen, to snap up. 

erfcfcrecfen (167; fein), to be 

erft, first; ]nx^ crfte, for the 
present; ber evfte befte, the 
first which comes to hand ; 
adv., first, only, not before, 
not till ; really. 

erftaunen (fetn), to be amazed. 

erftenc, first, in the first place. 

erfticfen (fein), to choke, be 

ertrinfen (144 ; fein), to drown, 
be drowned. 

erwac^en (fein), to awake. 

crmaMen (ju), to elect (as). 

ermarten, to expect, wait for. 

ermeifen (120), to prove, to 
show ; einen IDienft — , do a 

ent)it»ern, to answer, reply. 

enuiinfeten, to wish for, desire. 

erjaf)[en, to relate, narrate, tell. 

eg (38, 39), it ; they ; he ; she 
(of diminutives), there ; er 
iff — , it is he ; eiJ jinb Wdn^ 
ner, they are men. 

Sfel, m. (-^ ; — ), ass, donkey. 

cjfen (181\ to eat; 311 mtUi^ 
' — ; to dine. 

Sjfen, 71. (-0), eating, food, meal. 

etlic^e, some, a few, several. 

ttroa, nearly, about. 

etma^, something, anything ; 
some, any. 

euer, eure, euer, your. 

Suropvi, n. (-§), Europe. 

eang, eternal, everlasting. 

Sjra'men, m. (-g ; — ), exam- 

Svcmplar', n. (-C> ; -c), copy (of 
a work, etc.). 


gabri!',/ (-en), factory. 

gacfettrdger, m. (-0 ; — ), torch- 

gaben, m. (-e^ ; -), thread. 

5a^ne,/ (-n), flag. 

fafn-cn (186 ; fein), to go, drive, 
ride (in a conveyance) ; 
travel ; sail. 

gabrt,/ (-en), journey, voyage; 
ride, drive. 

gall, m. (-eg ; -e), fall ; case, 
event; in bem galte, in that 

faUen (188; fein), to fall; fid) 
tot — , to be killed by a fall. 

fiidg, in case. 

^ami'ik,/. (-n), family. 

fangen (188), to catch. 

%axht,f. (-n), colour. 

ga'fel^ang, m. (-en; -en), drivel- 
ler, idiot. 

faffen, to seize, grasp. 

fa ft, almost, nearly ; — nie, 
hardly ever. 

gauft,/ ("e), fist. 

gebruar, m. (-g), February. 

fec^ten (124), to fight, fence. 



gcbcr, f. {-w), feather ; pen : 

^ctcrflcii^, n. (-Cc ; -cr), feather 

gee,/ (-11^, fairj^ 
geeni'cMef', n. (-fci? ; -fer), fairy 

feMen, to be wanting, lacking, 

to ail {dat. of pern.). 
feierlid), solemn, 
feiern, to celebrate, 
^eierftunbe,/ (-u), leisure hour 

(when work is done), 
geievtiiii, m. (-eC> ; -c), holiday, 
geipicnbviuin, m. (-c^s ''e), tig- 
fein, fine, delicate, refined, 

eeint^, m. (-e.^ ; -e)\ 

gelb; n. {-ti ; -er), field. 
gelf(en), m. (-eui? or en ; -cii), 

gelfenriff, m. {-\i ; -c), rocky 

genUev, n. {-t^ ; — ), window. 
genften>or^ang, m. (-cc ; "e), 

window curtain, 
gcricn, pi. (no sing.), vacation, 

gerne,/! (-n), distance; in ter 

— , at a distance, 
ferti^, ready, done ; — fein 

(mit),tohave finished (with). 
fefl, fast, firm, 
geftgefang, m. (-ei? ; -e), festive 

geftHc^feit,/ (-en), festivity, 
gett, n. (-ee ; -e), fat. 
fett, fat. 
gcuer, n. {-^ ; — ), fire. 

5cnerf({)ein, m. (-ec^), firelight. 

feurig, fier}', ardent, spirited, 

?5iekr, 71. {-$ ; — ), fever. 

giebelbogen, m. {-$; — ), fiddle- 

ftnben (144), to find ; meet 
with ; think, be of opinion. 

Sincjev, m. (-i? ; — ), finger. 

ftnftev, dark, gloomy. 

-gifd), 7)1. (-ec; -e), fish. 

ftfd)en, to fish, angle. 

^ifc^en, 71. (-^), fishing, angling. 

f(ac^ (-er), flat, level. 

gldd)e,/. (-n), surface. 

ghigge,/ (-n), flag. 

g[amrtienfd)irert, 7i. (-c^ ; -cr), 
flaming sword, sword of 

g[afd)e,/ (-n), bottle. 

flattern, to flutter. 

f(cd)ten (124), to weave. 

^(eifcb, n. (-ei?), meat. 

flei§tg, diligent ; industrious ; 
diligently, etc. 

glieberlmnni, w. (-e^; "e), elder- 
tree, alder ; lilac. 


fliegen (131 ; jein), to fly. 

flieben (131; fein), to flee. 

gliefe,/ (-n), flag-stone. 

fliegen (123; fein), to flow. 

f(o§en, to pour. 

glote,/ (-n), flute. 

glitgel, m. (-^ ; — ), wing. 

gliigclbecfc, / (-n), wing-cover- 

fhmfcrn, to brag. 

%iuv,/. (-en), meadow, plain. 

^(ng, 771. (-[e^; -fe), river. 

fliiftern, to whisper. 



glut,/ (-en), flood, tide, wave, 

fol^en (fein; dat.), to follow. 

^oreUe,/ (-n), trout. 

?5ormat', n. (-e^ ; -c), size (of a 

fort, forth ; awa}', gone ; on ; 
anr miijyen — , we must be off". 

fortfa:^ren (186; fein), to con- 
tinue ; to drive away. 

fortfliegen (131 ; fein), to fly off. 

fortge^en (188; fein), to go 

fortreifen (118), to tear away; 
carry off. 

fortfprittgen (144; fein), to run 

forttra^renb, perpetual, con- 
tinual, incessant. 

gorum, n. (-y), forum, market- 
place, public square. 

fragen (186), to ask questions. 

gragen, n. (-g), questioning, 
asking questions (action of). 

grnnfreij, ti- (-^), France. 

%vanio')t, m. (-n ; -n). French- 

frau36|ifc^, French, 

gran, /. (-en), woman, wife, 
lady, madam, mistress, Mrs. 

?5raulein, n. {-^ ; — ), young 
lady. Miss; mein — , Miss. 

frerf), bold, insolent. 

frei, free; ind — e, into the open 

freigebig, liberal, generous. 


freilaffen (188), to set free, 

frcifte^eub, standing alone, iso- 

freilic^, to be sure," indeed, of 

preitag, m. {-c^ ; -e), Friday, 
fremb, strange, foreign, 
greinbe, (adj. subst.) m. or /., 

stranger, foreigner, 
trembling, m. (-e^ : -e), stranger, 
freffen (181), to eat (said of 

beasts), devour, 
greube,/ (-n),joy, delight, 
freubig, glad, joyful, 
frenen (ft^ ; at, uUx + acc), to 

rejoice, be glad; ec frent 

mic^, I am glad, 
greunb, m. (ee; -e), friend; ic^ 

Mn ein — »on, I like, 
grennbin, / (-nen), friend 

freunb(id), friendly, kind, 
greunbfd^aft,/. (-en), friendship. 
5riebe(n), m. (-n^ or n), peace, 
griebrid), m. (-e), Frederick. 
^rieren (131), to freeze; feel 

cold ; e^ friert micb, I feel 

cold; m\6y frtert, I am cold. 
frifd>, fresh. 

gri^, m. (-en^), Fred, Freddy, 
fro^, joyful, glad; frot)e.n 

^l^nte^, cheerfully. 
fro^Iic^, joyous, merry, 
frommen, to be of use, avail 

{impers. + dat. of per s.). 
5ruci)t,/ ("e), fruit. 
frud)tbar, fruitful, fertile. 
frii:&, early; fritter, earlier; 

gvii^Hng, m. (-e^ ; -e), spring, 
frii^'ft^i'^f"' to breakfast, 
gnd)^, in. (-c^ ; "i), fox. 
fii^Ien, to feel. 



5uf)lbcrn, n. (-c<? ; ''cr), feeler, 

antenna (of an insect), 
fiibren, to lead, guide, 
gii^rcrin,/ (-nen),leader, guide, 
fiillcn, to fill, 
fiinf, five, 
fiinftcbvllb, four and a half. 

fitnfeln, to flash, sparkle, gleam. 
gunfe(n), m. {-\\i or ii ; -n), 

fiir (34), for. 
gurdU,/. fear (of, ijor). 
fiircbten, to fear ; fid) — ^cr 

{-\-daL), to fear, be afraid 

^iirft, m. (-en; -en), prince, 

gu§, m. {-cv ; "c), foot, 
gufboben, 7n. (-y ; — ), floor. 


®ahtj. (-n), gift, 
gdbnen, to yawn. 
(i)anibri'nn^, m., a mythical 

king of Brabant, reputed 

inventor of beer. 
Qian?,/ C'e), goose. 
®anfebraten, m. (-i? ; — ), roast 

Qani, adj., whole, entire; the 

whole of; adv., quite, wholly, 

altogether, entirely. 
ganj nnt Qav, altogether, out 

and out. 
^ax, even; very; — nirf>t, not 

at all ; — ntc^ti3, nothing at 

(^Jarten, m. {-^ ; -), garden, 
©artennmuer, / (-n), garden 


(i)drtner,m. (-cf ; — ), gardener. 

©affe,/ (-n), street. 

©aft, m. (-e^ ; -e), guest. 

®a|'t()anc, n, (-e^ ; "cr), inn, 

® a ft ft u be, / (-n), guest-room, 
parlour of an inn. 

(3ani, m. (-e^ ; -e), horse, nag. 

©ebacfenec, n. (adj. suhst), 
baked meats, cakes and 

gebdren (167), to bear, bring 

geben (181), to give; im- 
pers., e^ giebt, there is, there 
are; ira^ giebf v ? what's 
the matter ; je^t — \va^ in 
bie ,^reibe, nowthere'll be the 
mischief to pay (viii., 43'. 

®ebieter, m. {-^ ; — ), lord, 

®ebirge, n. (-^; — ), mountain- 

®ebot, n. (-e^ ; -e), command- 

gebiicft, bent, bowed down. 

®eburtv?bau!?, n. (-ei? ; -er), house 
where a person was born. 

©ebnrtiJtag, m. (-e^; -e), birth- 
da}^ ; jum — , as a birthday- 

©etanfe, m. (-no or -n; -n), 
thought, idea. 

gebet^en (120; fein), to thrive. 

getenfen (99), to intend; to 
remember ( + gen.) 

©ebic^t, n. (-eg ; -e), poem. 

©etrdnge, n. (-e ; — ), throng, 
crowd, press. 

getidncit, packed, compressed, 
Qrowde5. * 



®ebu{r,/, patience. 

9efdbrlid\ dangerous ; adv., 

©efiibrte, m. (-n ; -n), com- 

gcfaUen (188), to please, suit ; 
trie ciefatlt e^^ 3buen \\\ 33c^^ 
ton? how do you like Boston? 

gefdllig, pleasing, complaisant, 
kind; ift tent .^?evrn etn?ac — ? 
will the gentleman be help- 
ed to anything ] 

gefdtligft, if you please. 

©cfdngnitf, n. {-\it-\ -fe), prison, 

gefliigelt, winged. 

G)efiit)(, n. (-e?; -e), feeling, 

gegen (34), towards, against, 
about ; for. 

gc^enii'ber, opposite ( + dat.). 

gegittert, latticed. 

©e^ec^e, ?z. (-y ; — ), hedge, en- 
closure, precinct. 

^tijtn (l'^8 ; ]tin), to go; walk; 
to fare, be; ane g^ti^t Cc 
36ncn? how do you do? 
how are you ? 

ge^cren (dnf.), to belong (to). 

ciebornt, horned. 

®eige, / (-n), violin. 

®eii^enfl>{c(, ?i. (-e^^), violin- 

geijig, miserly, avaricious, 

gelangen (fcin), to reach. 

gelb, yellow. 

®clt, /z. (-e{? ; -cr), money. 

©etbbeiitel, m. (-c^ ; — ), purse. 

gelegcn, convenient ; oppor- 
tune; nic^tc fennte mir gc- 

tegener fein, nothing could 
suit na^ietter, 

geleiten, to accompany, escort. 

(i)eliebte(r), w. (acZ/. subsL), be- 
loved, lover. 

gefingen (144; fein), to succeed; 
ec> getingt mir, I succeed. 

gelteu (159), to be worth, to 
be at stake ; jeftt gilt'?, now 
you'll have to fight. 

(^eliiften, 7i. (-e), lust, appetite, 

&tmad\ n. {-t^ ; -er), room, 

(l3emaM, w. (-c^ ; -e), husband. 

(^emaM, 7i. (-e? ; -e), spouse 
(husband or wife). 

(ijemdlre, a. (-5 ; — ), painting, 

gemetnigHcb, commonly, gener- 
ally, usually. 

®emiife, n. (-^; — ), vegetables. 

genau, precise, exact ; precise- 
ly, exactly, carefully, min- 

(General, m. {-ti ; -e), general. 

genefen (181; \tu\), to get well, 
recover (from an illness). 

(Beni'e, n. (-c ; -j), genius {pron. 
(S 05 ill French). 

genie^en (123), to enjoy; to 
eat or drink. 

genug, enough. 

geniigen, to be enough, suffice 
( + dat. of per s.) 

©eomctrie',/., geometry. 

(53epdcf, n. (-e^), luggage, bag- 

g crate, adj., straight ; (uh\, 
exactly, just. 



Cicrabe^ltjeoi^, straightway, 
straight, directly. 

©ciMiifc, n. (-i?), tendrils, creep- 

gcrateu (188; fein), toget(into, 
etc.), hit upon, get acci- 

©erdufd), n. (-e^ ; -e), noise. 

®eriAt, n. (-e^ ; -e), dish, mess, 

gering, small, trifling, mean, 
slight ; tti^t im — ften, not 
in the least. 

Qtxn, (^erne (lieber, am liebften), 
with pleasure, willingly, 
gladly; etivau — I)a6en, to 
like anything ; — lernen, to 
like to learn, study; t^ac ift 
— nioglic^, that is very prob- 

®tx\tt,f., barley. 

®erui; w^- (-c^ ; "C), sense of 
smell ; smell, odour. 

aefal^en, salt, salted. 

©efang, m. (-ei? ; -e), song ; 

©efd^aft, n. (-e^; -e), business; 
mercantile establishment ; 
shop, store. 

®efcbafti<angeIegettBcit, / (-en), 
business matter, business 

gc|'rf)eben (181 ; fein), to happen; 
iv gcfc^iel)t i^m rec()t, it serves 
him right. 

gcfc^eit, sensible, clever. 

®cfd)enf, n. (-e^ ; -e), gift, 

®efdnrf^te,/ (-n), history, story, 

©efcfemacf, m. (-co), taste. 

(53efcl)nteibe, n. (-<c ; — ), jewels, 

gcfci)ult, trained, cultivated. 

iiefitannb, quick. 

(^efii)aMfter, ;j/., brothers and 

©e fed I'd) a ft, / (-en), company, 

®ef{d)t, 71. (-e^ ; -er and -e), 
face, countenance ; (sense of) 
sight, (power of) vision ; 
©effc^ter, faces ; ®efic^te, vi- 

gefpannt, anxious. 

0)efpe'nft, n. {-ti ; -er), ghost, 

gcfpenfter^aft, \ ghostly, spec- 

gefpenftig, j tral. 

®efptc(e, m. (-n; -n), playmate. 

QJefta'lt,/ (-en), shape, figure, 

ge'ftern, yesterday. 

®eftrand), n. (-eo ; -e), bush, 

©efnnb^eit,/., health. 

getrauen (\id)), to venture. 

Q3ett*nffen,n. (-i?), armour, weap- 

G5eaHi(t,/. (-en), force, violence. 

geira(tig, mighty, powerful. 

©eanint', n. (-e^ ; "er), gar- 

®eivebr, n. (-e^ ; -e), gun, small 

©etvie^er, n. (-5), neighing, 

g can (It, willing. 

geiinnnen (158), to win, gain. 

geai^ igf'n.), certain fof); cer- 
tainly, surely. 

geiriffenbaft, conscientiou.s. 



®en>{tter, n. (-^ ; — ), thunder- 
storm, storm. 

®eirol>ui)eit, / (-en), custom, 
habit; ^ie — babm, to be 

9el^?e^n(id), usual, custom a,ry: 
ordinary, common ; adv. 
generally, usually. 

9en?ol)nt, accustomed. 

c\k\izn (123), to pour. 

©ipfcl, m. (-c^ ; — ), summit, top, 

©itterbvi^, n. (-tt^), latticed 
roof, leafy tracery (of tree 

gliiii^en, to shine, glitter. 

i^Iiinjent, brilliant. 

®lvic, n. (-Cv:? ; -er), glass. 

i^Iatt, smooth, slippery. 

(i3Iaube(i]), m. (-n^ or n), faith, 

i^Iviuben (dat. of per s.), to be- 
lieve ; think. 

gleiit, like, similar ; the same, 
identical ; adv., at once, 
at the same time, immedi- 
ately, directly ; fo — , imme- 
diately, etc. 

gleiAen (118), to be like, re- 
semble ( -+- dot. ). 

©(ei^geanit, n. (-ec), equili- 
brium, balance. 

glciitgiltig, indifferent. 

gleiten(118; fein),to glide, slip. 

^limmen (123), to glimmer. 

(3\ud, n. (-c^), (good) fortune, 
good luck; success; — JDiiu- 
fcbeit, to congratulate, wisli 
success to ( -H dat. of pers. ). 

g(iicf(ic^, happy, fortunate; suc- 

®(iicfjfinb, n. (-ec ; -er, lucky 
child, lucky fellow, 

0(liif)en, to glow ; to be red-hot. 

@oIt, n. (-Ctf), gold. 

©citbaum, m. {-ti ; "e), gold 

gotten, of gold, golden. 

©cltbelm, 771. (-ee ; -c), golden 

©citfdfer, m. (-c^ ; — ), rose- 
chafer, golden beetle. 

®o(tfdfer!cnig, vi. (-^i^ ; -e), 
king of the ofolden beetles. 

gcltlccfig, with golden curls. 

©oltmiin^e,/ (-n), gold coin. 

©olDorange, /. (-n), golden 
ora.Jige (pr on. Qas in Fy-ench). 

©cltftiicf, '/I. (-ec; -e), gold piece 

©cltfporn, m. {-tt- ; -e and 
-fpcren), golden spur. 

©oif, m. {-(§ ; -e), gulf, bay. 

®onte(,/ (-n), gondola. 

Q)ett, m. (-e^ ; -er), God, deity; 
t>er liebe — , [the dear] God 
{comp. Fr. "le bon Dieu'"'). 

gottIi6, godlike, divine. 

®ont erneur'; m. (-c ; -e), gov- 
ernor {proa, as in Fr.) 
' ®rat», n. (-ec ; "er), grave. 
' graven (186), to dig. 

d)rab, m. (-eo ; -e), degree. 

(5^raf, m. (-en ; -en), count, earl. 

®rdfin,/ (-nen), 

©ramma'tif,/ (-en), grammar. 

C^rad, n. (-e? ; -er), grass. 

®rd[cn, n. (-^), horror, fright, 

grckulieren (-vdat.), to con- 
I gratulate. 
i gran, gray. 



Q^rvUifopf, m. {-c^ ; -'e), gray- 

®raud, m. (-c^), dread, awe, 

Cjniufvim, cruel. 

graufcn, to feel horror, be ter- 
rified, shudder {iinpers. + 
dat. of per s.). 

greifen (118), to grasp, seize; 
touch; einemin^-C^antiverf — , 
to interfere with anybody's 

cccn^, gray, old. 

©ricd^enf^abe, m. (-n; -n), Greek 

®rieienlanb, n. (-t^), Greece. 

(SH'tlle,/ (-u), cicada, cricket. 

grimmioi, furious, grim, savage. 

grinfen, to grin. 

gro§ C'er, sup. groft), great, 
large, big, tall. 

®rc^ in utter, / ("), grand- 

ciriin, green. 

©runb, m. (-e^ ; "c), ground. 

griittblici\ thoroughly. 

griinen, to be green, flourish. 

@ru§, m. (-e5 ; -e), greeting, 

grii^en, to greet, salute, bow 
to; 3br ireunb la^t (Sie — , 
your friend wishes to be 
remembered to you. 

gucfen, to look, peep. 

©iiitvure,/. (-n), guitar. 

gut, adj. J good; kind; adv., 
well; fo — fdrt uut*, to be 
so kind as to ; [icb etma^ ju 
— tbun, to indulge one's 
self, enjoy one's self, have 
some good of a thing. 

®ut, n. (-fg ; -'or), estate ; 

©utec, n. (adj. subst.) good 

gutmiitig, good-hearted, good- 

®ut^()err, m. (-n ; -en), landed 
proprietor, squire. 


^aav, n. (-e^ ; -e), hair. 

\y\im\ (24), to have; SflcAt — , 

to be (in the) right; Uu- 

rec^t — , to be (in the) wrong; 

irao — (2ic ? what is the 

matter with you ? 
^adiff. (-n), | heel ; fid) 

niac^en, tie — gn>{fd)en bie 
Seine ne()men, to take to 
one's heels. 

^afen, m. (-^ ; -), port, har- 
bour, haven. 

^afer, m. (-c), oats. 

^agelforn, n. (-c^ ; ''er), hail- 

()agcln, to hail. 

Jpageltt)etter, w. (-^; — ), hail- 

^ain, m. (-eS ; -e), grove. 

Ijaib, half; — brei, half past 

^atbgeoffnet, half open. 

^alh'ec^t^, half right. 

^aifte,/ (-n), half. 

^atle,/ (-n), hall. 

^aU, m. (-ec ; -e), neck, throat. 

^t^al^tud), n. (-c^ ; -er), necktie. 

Mi, halt ! stop ! hold ! 

balteu (188), to hold ; to think ; 
— \\xx, consider; id) t)alte 



^tet ^Ott i^ni, I think highly 
of him (esteem, value him 
highly); to stop, halt; fid) 
— , to behave, bear one's 
self ; wav t^a^ 3^W9 — ^^^^> 
as fast as you can (viii., 21 ). 

^ant?,/ C'e), hand; jur — , at 

^anbler, m. {-v ; — ), dealer, 

^ant»[ii)u^, m. (-e5 ; -e), glove. 

Jpantwer!, 7i. (-e^ ; -e), work, 
handiwork, trade ; einem im 
— greifen, to interfere with 
a person's business. 

f)angen (188; intrans.)^ to hang, 
besuspended ; bay ^ilt) ()dngt, 
the picture is hanging. j 

^dngen {trans.), to hang, sus- i 
pend, I 

^awi, m, (-enc ; -en), Johnny, ; 

Jpdppc^en, n. (-t^] — ), slice, bit. 

|)arfe, / (-n), harp. 

^arfenbegleitung,/, accompani- 
ment on the harp. 

^axxtn, to wait, tarry (auf-h 
acc. ). 

^art C'cr), hard, severe. 

^afe, m. (-n ; -n), hare. 

^ajjen, to hate. 

^CLuht, f. {-n), cap, mob-cap. 

^auen (188), to hew, cut, chop. 

^aiipt n. (-ey; -er), head; 

Jpauptbaar, n. (-e*? ; -e), hair of 
the head. 

^auptniann, m. (-ec ; -leute), 

Jpauptftabt,/ (-e), capital. 

Jpau^, n. (-e^ ; -er), house ; ju 

.^aufe, at home ; \u\&} .V'vUife, 

^dufc^en, i?. {-i ; — ), little 
house, cottage, hut. 

l)i\\x^zn ( = §ier au^en), out- 

batja'nafarben, havana-colour- 
ed, cigar-brown. 

be ben (131), to raise, lift. 

.ipeefe,/. (-n), hedge, fence. 

beba', halloh ! heigh ! 

^eer, n. (-e5 ; -e), army. 

beftig, violent, heavy ; heavih^ 
(of rain). 

.^eibe, m. (-n ; n), heathen. 

Jpeibe,/ (-n), heath. 

beibenmd^ig, heathenish, im- 
mense, enormous. 

beil, whole, unharmed. 

beilig, holy; bev — e ^etru^, 
St. Peter. 

beim, homewards, home. 

Jpeimi^en, n. {-§ ; — ), cricket. 

^eimlic^, secret. 

beim[ud)en, to visit, haunt. 

^einrid), m. (-»), Henry. 

b^irx], m. (-iXlv), Harry. 

heifer, hoarse. 

^ei§, hot. 

()ei§en (188), to be called, be 
named ; mean, signify, call ; 
bid, order ; e^ — t, it is said, 
they say ; tt?ie ^ei§t ba»3 auf 
'i)eutfc^ ? how do you say 
that in German? mt ^eift? 
what is the name of? tcb 
!^ei§e 51., my name is A. 

.^elb, m. (-en ; -en), hero. 

^elfett (159; dat), to help, 
avail, be of use ; remedy, 



l)cU, bright ; brightly. 

Jpemt*, n. (-c»?; -en), shirt. 

.^cmtct)en, n. (-0; — ), little 

^enne,/ (-n), hen. 

l)er, hither, to this place. 

fterab, down (towards). 

l)eriVbfteigen (120; fein), to de- 

be.ran, up, up to, along. 

bevanfommen (167; fein), to 
come up (to), come along, 

lerauf, up (towards). 

^erauffommen (167; fein), to 
come up (to), rise. 

()erauf[c^(eppen, to drag up (to- 

^eraufftetgen(120; fein), to rise, 
rise up, ascend. 

:^eraut3iel)en (fic^; 131), to lead 
(up) ; {see ix., 6). 

l)evau^, out (towards). 

t)erau0fommen (167 ; fein), to 
come out, come forth. 

^crbft, m. (-e^ ; -e), autumn. 

^erbe,/ (-n), flock, herd. 

herein, in (to, towards). 

^ereinfonimen (167; fein), to 
come in, enter. 

()ereinne(}men (167), to take 

l)erfommen (167 ; fein), to come 
hither, come along, come 
up, come forward. 

^err, m. (-n ; -en), master ; 
gentleman; Lord; Mr.; 3(u* 
— 33ater, your father. 

^errlid), glorious, splendid. 

^errlid)feit,/ (-en), glory, splen- 

(^evfprengen (fein), to galop 
along, galop up (to). 

(^ei'itber, over (towards), across. 

l)eruni, around, about. 

bernmlaufen (188 ; fein), to run 

t)erunter, down, off. 

bernnterfriegen, to get down, 

berijor, forth. 

()er&orragen, to stand forth, 

beryortreten (181; fein), to come 
forth, come forward. 

.f)er3, n. (-en^ ; -en), heart. 

(^erjd^Ien, to count up. 

berjli^, heartily, exceedingly. 

Jpeu, n. (-e^), hay. 

l)eute, to-day ; — 2I6enb, this 
evening ; — ^orgen, this 
morning; — iiber ijier^e^n 
Jage, this day fortnight; 
^eutjntage, now-a-days. 

bie, here ; — 511 Sante, in this 

()ier^er, hither, 

^iermit, herewith, with this. 

^intmei, m. (-^ ; — ), heaven, 

^imnielk? (Halfam,m. (-»?), heaven- 
ly balm. 

.^pimme(sftfd)er,m. (-^s — ), fish- 
erman in heaven. 

.^inimeUpfortner, m. (-^ ; — ), 
heavenly porter, janitor of 
heaven (St. Peter). 

Jpimmel^ranm, m. (-e^; -'e), space 
of heaven, heaven. 

.pimmek^fitliiffel, m. (-^ ; — ), 
key to heaven ; primrose. 



.t>immelv?t^or,n.(-ec;-e), heaven's 

.^immei^^clt, n. (-c^5), canopy of 

heaven, sky, firmament, 
bin, hence, away from ; off, 

away ; down ; along ; — 

wnb (>er, up and down. 
I)ina6, down (from). 
()inabfa(Ien (188; \n\\), to fall 

I)ina6taufen (188 ; fein), to run 

MnaOfcbvUien, to look down. 

^inaufge^en (188 ; fein), to go 

Mnaufftelfen (159), to help up. 
l)inaufftcigen(120; fein), to rise, 

rise up, climb up, ascend, 
^inaui?, out (from). 
t){nau^fcinme:i (167; fein), to 

come out, get out (of the 

^inanc'foljen (181), to look out 

(at the window, ^um ^enfter). 
^inein, into, 
^ineinge^en (188; fein), to go 

into, enter, 
^ineingevaten (188; fein), to get 

^ineinlaufen (188; fein), to run 

\:)m\a\itn (188; fein), to fall 

l^ingeben (181), to give away, 

give up. 
linge^en (188; fein), to go 

(hence) ; go anywhere ; pass 


\ Mngfeitcn (\\^: fefrt), to glide 
I along. 
f^infe^en,to setdown, put do^vai, 

(nntcr (65), behind. 
J^interfup, m. (-ec ; -e), hind- 
()inter^aUtg, sneaky, deceitful. 
Mnunter, down (from), 
binunterfliegen (131 ; fein), to 

fly down, 
(nnunterregncn, to rain down, 

pour down, 
^irn, n. (-e^), brain. 
Jpirf(i, m. (-ev ; -e), stag, deer. 
fy\^t,f. heat. 
^D(^ {loses c in inflection; com- 

pm\ bober, sup. bo6ft), high. 
{^ccb6eg(iicft, highly fortunate, 

highly delighted, verj' happy. 
•^pcd)cfen, m. (-0; -), furnace, 

borf)ft, very, exceedingly, most, 
(untftene, at most, 
.'^of, m. i-t^i; -'e), court, yard, 

courtyard, farm, farmyard. 
(u^fffn, to hope. 
bcf'fentfirf), adv., (it is) to be 

hoped, I hope, 
^^cffnnng,/ (-en), hope, 
bon^nung^octl, hopeful. 
bof(ii"6, courteous, polite. 
•^cfmavfcBall, m. (-e-J ; -e), court 

^ro()e,/ (-n), height; in tie—, 
■ up, aloft. 

i)'^[^tx,compar. of f)o^, which see. 
^^ol)(e,/ (-n), cave, cavern, 
^o^n, ?fi. (-e^), scorn, mockery; 

— fprerf>en (-{-dat.), to flout, 

mock, jeer at. 



l^olt*, fair, lovely, Ijcauteous. 

l^oleii, to (go and) bring, fetch ; 
get : — lajfeu, to send for. 

^etlerbaum, m. (-Cc ; -e), elder- 
tree ; lilac-tree. 

^ederjiveii^, m. (-c^ ; -e), elder- 
bough, lilac-branch. 

^0(3, n. (-ev?), wood. 

^ol5ern, wooden. 

^ol^jlcf, 7n. (-e^; "e), wood- 

^cl^ftubl, 7)1. {-c6 ; -e), wooden 

^ord), hark ! 

!^or(^en, to hearken, listen. 

l^oren, to hear ; to listen ; fac^cu 
— , to hear say, hear. 

^orn, n. (-ec ; "er), horn. 

]^iibf(^, pretty, nice. 

^uffc^Iag, m. (-e^ ; -e), hoof- 

^ii^el, 771. (-^; — ), hill, mound. 

knhn, 71. (-ei?; -er), fowl; 

ipu()ner^of, ??i. (-e^; ''e), poultry- 

^iillen, to veil; cover up, 

^unb, 771. (-ec ; -e), dog. 

|)iinbc^en, n. (-0; — ), little 
dog; doggy. 

l^unt'crt, hundred. 

^untert, ti. (-e0 ; -e), hundred. 

|)itn^er, 771. (-g), hunger; id) 
i}abt — , I am hungry. 

^ungrig, hungr3\ 

^ut, 771. (-ci" ; ''c), hat. 

pten, to guard, keep ; fic^ — , 
to be careful, avoid. 

^ntk,/. (-n), hut, cottage. 


id), I. 

i^m, dat. siiig. ofn, z^, which see. 

t^r, pei's. p7'07i., to her, her 

{dat. si7ig.); you {710m. jjL). 
i^r, i^re, ibr, poss. adj., her; 

its; their. 
3^r, 3^)1^^/ 3(n',;J05s. adj.j your. 
il)rer, i^re, t()re0, ^poss.proii., 
{()re (t>er, t)ie, ba^?), [ hers; its; 
i()rige (ber, bie, bac) J theirs. 
3()rev, 3^i^e, 31)re^,lposs. 
3t)re (ber, bie, bai?), Won., 
3t)nc|e(ber,bie,bay), J yours. 
3^rettvi(fen(um), for your sake, 
immer, always; at all times; 

nod) — , still; — niel)r, more 

and more, 
in (65; dat. or ace), in, at; 

into, to. 
inbem', while, whilst. 
inbe'c(feu), meanwhile; whilst, 
tuner, inner, interior; ba^ — e, 

the interior, inside, 
iuner^alb {ge7i.), on the inside, 

inntg, hearty, affectionate. 
3ttfd^rift,/ (-en), inscription. 
3nftrument', n. (-e^; -e), instru- 
intereffant', interesting, 
irgenb einer, — jentanb, any one 

at all. 
3r(anb, n. (-^), Ireland. 
3taUen, n. (-^), Italy. 

3it, yes, indeed, certainly, you 
know ; did I (etc.) not ; ja= 
tt)ot)I, yes indeed, yes to be 
sure, yes certainly. 



3ac!c()en, n. (-i? ; — ), little 

jagen, to hunt, chase, pursue. 
Sagen, ?z. (-c), hunting (act of;. 
Sa^er, 771. (-c ; — ), hunter, 

3a br, 71. (-ec; -e), year. 
3vibrmar!t,7/i. (-ee; "e), (yearly) 

^a'fob, m. (-c), James. 
3cimm er, w. (-C' ), misery, wretch- 
SatfUiinKiite,/ (-n), jessamine 

jaivcM, see ]a. 
\t, ever (at any time); the 

(before comparative degree, 

126, 4); — jivei, two at a 

jeben fa (!>:?, certainly, at all 

jcber, jebe, jete*?, every, each, 

every one, any. 
jetcrmann (-0), everyone, every- 
jebeemal, on each occasion, 

every time. 
\t\waU, ever, at any time, 
jemanb, somebody, some one, 

any body, any one. 
jener, fene, jenei;, that, that one, 

that person ; yonder ; the 

ienfeit(5), on the other side, 

je^t, now, at present. 
3oc^, n. (-e^, -e), yoke. 
Sobann', m. (-«), John. 
3o{)a'nnii?miirmd)en, n. (-0; — ), 

ju'bein, to shout with glee. 

3ut'en^a[fe, /. (-u), the Jews' 
street, ghetto (where all 
Jews were compelled to 
dwell in the various cities, 
until recent years). 

3u'gent,/, youth. 

3u'It, ?/i., July. 

jiing ("er), young. 

3un9e, m. (-n; -n aiid-wz^), boy, 

3un9frau, / (-en), virgin, 

3im9nng, m. (-e^ ; -e), young 
man, youth. 

3u'ni, m., June. 

3itf9en, 7n. (-y), George. 


^abe'tt, m. (-en ; -en), cadet. 

^afer, m. (-c ; — ), chafer, 

^^affee, m. {-v), coffee. 
i u^a'ffeelcffel, w. (-e; — ), coffee- 

^abn, m. (-ti ; "e), boat. 

.^aifer, in. (-c ; — ), emperor. 

^aiferfronung,/. (-en), corona- 
tion of an emperor. 

.^a I b-^ bra ten, m. (-c ; — ), roast 
of veal. 

^a(bcfote[ettf,/(-n), veal-cutlet. 

!a(t (-er), cold. 

.^amera't, ?/i. (-en ; -en), com- 

^amin', n. (-e^ ; -e), fireplace. 

c^amm, m. {-t-i ; -e), comb. 

tiimmen, to comb. 

^ammerbiener, m. (-c ; — ), va- 
let, attendant. 

^ampf, m. (-ee ; -e), combat, 
fight, struggle. 



.^lau^Icr, m. (-cj; — ), chancellor. 

^appc,/ (-n), cap. 

^app^eil, n. (-^ ; — ), little cap. 

jTart»inar, ?/i. (-Ci?; -e), cardiual. 

jlarfu'nfelftein, m. (-e^; -e), car- 

^virl, m. (-0), Charles. 

^arte,/ (-u), card. 

^artcffel,./. (-n), potato. 

^avto'ffelfelt»,n. (-ee ; -er), potato- 

^life, m. (-V? ; — ), cheese. 

faufen, to buy. 

fauni, hardly, scarcely. 

Rii){t,f. (-n), throat. 

!el}ren, to turn. 

fein, feine, fein, no, not a, not 

feiner, feine, fein(e)^, pron., no- 
body, not anybody, no one, 
none, not one. 

^elluer, m. {-v ; — ), waiter. 

hnmn (99), to know, be ac- 
quainted with. 

^enntnic, / (-fe), knowledge ; 
/>Z. acquirements, attain- 

^erl, m. (-e^; -e and-^), fellow, 

^eqe,/ (-n), taper, candle. 

^ette,/ (-u), chain. 

^inb, n. (-cv? ; -er), child. 

^irc()e,/ (-U), church. 

^lang, m. (-e0 ; "i), sound, 
tone, note. 

^(agelicb, n. (-e^ ; -er), mourn- 
ful song, dirge, plaint. 

flar, clear. 

S\{a\\t,f. (-n), class. 

^(affifer, m. (-^ ; — ), cla.ssic 
writer, classic. 

ffatfds slap ! 

^latjier', n. (-e^ ; -e), piano. 

^(eit), n. (-ec ; -er), dress ; pi. 

ffeiben, to clothe, dress. 

jlleit)erfd)ranf, m. (-e^ ; "t), 

ffein, small, little. 

.^(ei'nob, n. (-e^ ; -e and -ten), 

flettevu (fein or ^aBen), to climb. 

flimmen (123; fein 07^ \)ahi\\), 
to climb. 

flingeln, to ring (said of small 
bells) ; tv lUngelt, there is a 
ring (at the door, etc.). 

flingen (144), to sound. 

^liufe,/ (-n), latch, handle. 

flirren, to clank, rattle. 

flopfen, to knock. 

ilucf, cluck ! 

flug C'er), wise, clever. 

^tnabe, m. (-ri ; -n), boy. 

,^nall, m. (e^; -e), loud quick 
sound ; clap, thunder-clap. 

^nafter, m. (-0), (canister) to- 

^nec^t, m. (-ec ; -e), (farm) ser- 
vant, man-of-all-work; hos- 
tler (of an inn). 

fneifen (118), to pinch. 

^nirp^, m. (-e^ ; -e), little in- 
significant chap, mannikin. 

!nirfc()en, to grind the teeth, 
creak, squeak. 

fiiijren, to make a courtesy. 

^nocf>en, m. {-v ; — ), bone. 

fnotig, knotty. 

fniipfen, to button ; to tie, 

^oc^, 7)1. (-e^ ; -e), cook. 



foc^en, to c<x)k, boil. 

^•^01)1011 (p/.), coal. 

Poller, m. {-i ; — ), jacket, jer- 
kin, doublet. 

hornet', m. (-en ; -cu), comet. 

fommeu (167; feiu), to come; 
arrive; — Ik^fffH, to send for : 
xo'xt fomnit ba^? ? how is that I 

^ompacjui'e,/ (-n), company (oi 

^ouipiime'ntnui(^en,?i.(-o), mak- 
ing compliments, being po- 

^onig, m. (-cc ; -e), king. 

^onigin,/ (-uen), queen. 

^oni^tf mantel, m. (-c-; "), king's 

^onigftra§e, /. King-street. 

fonneu (196-202; ability, etc.), 
to be able, can; know, be 
versed in, know how. 

c^on3ert', n. (-e^ ; -e), concert. 

j^epf, m.. (-ei3 ; -e), head, bowl 
(of tobacco-pipe). 

^opfiteu, n. (-0 ; — ), little 

fopfii'bcr, fopfu'utev, head over 

^orb, m. (-e^ ; 'e), basket. 

^orii, n. (-e^ ; -er), grain, corn. 

^crnfelb, n. (-ei? ; -er), corn- 
field, grain-field. 

.^eften, pi., expenses. 

foftett, {ace. of pevs. and of 
thing), to cost. 

tra^en, to crack, crash. 

^rat)e,/ (-u), crow. 

!rampfl)aft, convulsive. 

txawl (-er), ill ; sick ; ^ranfe, 
{ail J. suhst.}, sick person, pa- 

(-c-^; ''e), curly- 

^rvini()cit, / (-en), disease, ill- 

.^ranj, m. {-e^ ; -'e), wreath, gar- 

frvUi^, curly. 

.Hrauvjfepf, m. 

.^raut, n. (-ei^ ; -'ev), herb. 

.Rreite, /., chalk ; chalk-mark 
used in tavern reckonings : 
je^t giebt'i? wav in tie — , novv 
there'll be the mischief to 

freiten?ei§, white as chalk, pale 
as a sheet. 

J^reiy, 771. (-e^ ; -e), circle. 

^reuj, n. (-e^ ; -e), cross ; ba^ 
etferne — , the iron cross (a 
Prussian decoration given 
for personal valour on the 
battlefield, corresponding to 
the Victoria Cross in the 
British army). 

freiijbra^, thoroughly good, ex- 

frie^en (123 ; fein or haUn), to 
creep, crawl. 

jtrie^, 771. {-tv ; -e), war. 

friegen, to get. 

^riegcnumn, m. (-ec ; -or and 
— leute), warrior, soldier. 

^ri'tifer, m. (-5 ; — ), critic. 

M:xom,/. (-n\ crown. 

^rug, m. (-e^^ ; -e), jug, mug. 

,^nbi'fn?ur5e(,/ (-n), cube-root. 

^iic^e,/ (-n), kitchen. 

,^ud>en, w. (-g ; — ), cake. 

c^iid)(ein, w. (-c ; — ), chicken, 

^UC|e(, / (-n), ball; Vjullet; 



-^"t)// ('(), COW. 

fii()l, cool. 

fiilnt, bold. 

^uniiiicr, m. (-i?), grief, sorrow. 

^uuft,/ C'e), art. 

^iinftler, m. (-c> ; — ), artist. 

^U))pel,/ (-n), cupola, dome. 

fuvj (-er), short. 

fiirjlic^, not long ago, lately, 

^uj, 771. (-[eg ; -fe), kiss. 

fijffen, to kiss. 

^utfd)er, m. (-g; — ), coach- 
man, driver. 

Sabe,yi, refreshment. 

Iad)eln, to smile. 

la^en {gen. or iiber + ace), to 
laugh (at). 

Sac^g, m. (-eg ; -e), salmon. 

labeit (186), to load ; to invite. 

Saben, m. (-i), window-shutter 
{pi. — ) ; shop, store {j^l. '-). 

Sager, n. (-g ; — ), couch, bed. 

Santm, ?z. (-eg ; -er), lamb. 

2anb, n. (-e5 ; ''er and -e), land, 
country; country (opposed 
to town); auf t)em — t, in 
the country; aufg — get)en, 
to go into the country; ju 
— e, by land ; ^ier ^w — i, in 
this country. 

Sanbfarte,/ (-n), map. 

Santfd^aft,/ (-en), landscape. 

Sflnt)|'trafe, / (-n), highway, 

lang ('-'er), long, tall. 

lang(e), adv. long, a long time 
or while, for a long time ; 
fo — , as long as; lauge nic^t, 

not for a long time, not by 
a long way. 

Sangeii^eile,/, ennui; — l)abtn, 
to be bored. 

(angfam, slow. 

Hingg, along. 

langft, long ago, long since. 

Sanje,/ (-n), lance, spear. 

Sarm, m. (-eg), noise. 

laffen (188; 200, 7), to let, 
allow ; leave ; have (a thing 
done); fagen — , to send 
word; font men — , to send 
for; ic^ taffe \)ai S3ud) ein- 
binten, I am having the book 
bound; eg laft fic^ nid)t 
(eugnen, it cannot be denied. 

Safi,/ (-en), load, burden. 

Rafter, n. (-g ; — ), vice. 

gatein, n. (-g), Latin. 

(atetnifi^, Latin. 

Saub, n. (-eg), leaves, foliage. 

2auf, m. (-eg ; '-e), course. 

laufen (188; fein), to run. 

Saune, / (-n), whim, humour, 

Saurenjiug, m., Lawrence. 

laut, loud, aloud. 

tauten, to ring (of large bells), 

lautfog, silent, dumb. 

gajjarone, m. ( — ; -t), lazza- 
rone, Italian beggar. 

leBen, to live ; be alive. 

2ekn, n. (-g), life. 

leben'ttg, alive, lively. 

?ebe)DO^I,w.(-g),farewell, adieu. 

Sebtag (indecL), life, whole life. 

l^eber, n. (-g), leather. 

(egen, to lay, put, place, set. 

le|nen, to lean, set, prop. 



?e^re,y] (-n), teaching, instruc- 
tion, doctrine. 

Sct)rer, m. {-v ; — ), teacher, 

2ci[\ on. (-e«? ; -er), boch\ 

Seidu',/ (-n), corpse. 

leirf^t, light, easy ; readily. 

Seib, n. (-ee), sorrow, harm, 

leib {used as irred. ivith fein, 
ft»erten and tbun), sorry, 
grieved; ti ift, e^? tluit niir 
— , 1 am sorry ; jentanb(cn) 
ehiHi^ 3U — e t^un, to hurt, 
harm anyone. 

leiben (118), to suffer, endure; 
an ctwaS — , to suffer from 

letter, alas ! unfortunately ! 

Seitc, n. {of adj. leib, see above), 
harm, injury. 

leiben (120), to lend; to bor- 

Seine,/. (-n\ line, cord, string. 

teife, gently, softly, in a low 

Seiften, m. (-y; — ), (shoemak- 
er's) last. 

leiften, to accomplish ; 5>er5ic{)t 
— (viuf-facc), to decline. 

Seftion',/. (-en), lesson. 

Send^en, n. {-^i), ISTellie. 

2en^,m. (e^; -e), spring, spring- 

lernen, to learn, study. 

lefen (181), to read. 

Sefen, n. {-i), (act of) reading. 

le^t, last, final. 

leud)ten, to shine, flash. 

2en(^ter, m. {-<} ; — ), candle- 

2eute, j)^- (^^*^ •''^^5'-)j people, 

Sevifon, n. {-^ ; -!a), lexicon, 

S!:\6>i, n. {-tv ; -er and -c^, light; 

(idU, light, bright; thin, clear 

(of a forest), 
(ic^ten, to clear (a forest); fid) 

— , (of the forest) to grov>^ 

light, show a clearing, 
lieb, dear, precious ; — ^al^en, 

to love. 
Siebe,/, love, affection ; — gu, 

love of or for. 
lie^en, to love, 
lieber {comp. of gern); conj., 

rather; ic^ gel^e — , I prefer 

to walk. 
lieBHA, lovely. 
Sieb, n. (-ec ; -er), song, 
liefern, to deliver, supply, 
liegen (181 ; fein, Baben), to lie; 

be ; be situated, 
lin!, left; bie — e, the left hand, 
linf^, to or on the left. 
2ip^e,/. (-n), lip. 
\^hzxi, to praise. 
2o(^, n. {-ii ; -er), hole. 
Sode,/. (-n),curl, lock (of hair). 
Soffel, m. (-g ; — ), spoon. 
So^en^rin, m. {-i), name of an 

opera by Wagner. 
Sof)n, ra. (-ec ; -e and ''c), re- 
ward, pay. 
to^nen, to reward, repay ; fid) 

— , to be worth while. 
Sorbeer, m. {-i ; -n), laurel. 
Sorefei,/, Lorelei (witch of the 

Co'renj, w. (-enc), Lawrence. 



U^, loose, slack ; tinii? ift — ? 
what is the matter ? 

2o)"d)bIatt, n. (-Cj?; "er), sheet 
of blotting paper. 

lijfen, to free, redeem; ein 33i(- 
Ict — , to buy a ticket. 

Ioi?f(^ie§en ( 1 23),toshoot quick- 
ly, shoot away. 

Ioi?fpvingeu (144; feiu; aiif + 
acc.\ to spring upon, leap 

l^otfe, m. (-n; -n), pilot. 

Souife,/ (-Uo), Louisa. 

2oa>e, 7?2. (-n ; -n), lion. 

8ut)tt?lg, m. (-^), Louis ; Lewis: 

2uft,y! ("e), air, atmosphere. 

Suftfat)rt, f. (-en), aerial journey. 

Iuc;eu, to look, peep, peer. 

lit^en (131), to lie, utter a 

Siii^ner, m. {-i^ ; — ), liar. 

Iuni)jen, to treat shabbily ; bu 
tarfji bid) nicl)t — laffen, j^ou 
mu.stn't let yourself be beat- 
en (p. 437, 1. 110). 

Sunipenhtnt), m. (-eg ; -e), raga- 
muffin, beggarly fellow. 

Sllft, / C'c), lust, pleasure, de- 
light ; — ijahiix ]n, to have a 
mind to. 

lufttg, merry; ftrf) iiber eineu — 
macbeu, to make sport of 

mac^en, to make ; arrange ; 
cause, give; be (in arithm. 
calculations); id) mac^e mix 
niitti? baraug, I care nothing 
for it; eiue (BttcQi^t — , to 
take a voyage; eineu ®pa= 

^ierciang — , to take a walk; 
\id) auf ten 2Ceg — , to set 

^?ac^t,/ (-e), might, power. 

mad)tig, mighty, powerful. 

•iDZabd^eu, n. (-d ; — ), girl. 

^Dtafcc^ettj^eftalt, / (-en), girlish 

-Dtarjb, /. ("c), maid, maid-ser- 

^Oiagen, m. {-i ; — ), stomach. 

?Oiai, m. (-ei? or -en), May. 

Wdi}n(,f. (-n), mane. 

ma^nen, to warn, admonish. 

Wait\tai',f. (-en), Majesty. 

■DZal, n. (-ei5 ; -e), time (occa- 
sion); jum le^teii — ,'for the 
last time. 

ma (en, to paint. 

*3)?aler, m. (-5 ; — ), painter. 

^D}(alerej',y! (art of) painting. 

man, pron., one, we, you, they, 
people ; — fajU, they say, 
people say, it is said. 

rjiaud)(er), adj. mid pron., 
many a. 

5'?angel, m. (-^ ; ''), want. 

'D^cann, 'in. (-ed ; ''er). man; hus- 

'D?(annd)en, n. (-^ ; — ), little 
man, mannikin ; dear hus- 

Mantel, m. (-y ; ";, cloak, man- 

Wdxd:)tn, n. {-^ ; — ), fairy-tale, 

'3)?ard)cntt)atb,r/i. (-ev? ; -cr), fairy 
forest, enchanted wood. 

^argavete,/ (-n^), Margaret. 

'i^^uirie,/. (u.^), Mary. 

MiUi,/. ( -), mark (a coin = 



100 pfennig or about 25 

iDZarft, m. (e-j ; "e), market, fair. 

'D^iarmovbecfcn, n. (-c; — ), mar- 
ble basin. 

'??iarmcrbi(b, n. (-e^ ; -er), mar- 
ble statue. 

marmorn, (of) marble. 

9??armortreppe, J'! (-n), marble 

mar fester en (fein or baben), to 

^axi, m. (-e^), March. 

9)'lafern, 'ph, measles. 

SJiafl, m. (-to ; -en), mast. 

^a§, n. (-Cc ; -e), measure. 

'!J?Za§frug, 771. (-ey ; '-e), pint- 

Matijimatil,/., mathematics. 

^D'Zatbcmattfer, m. (-c-; — ), ma- 

9?Zatro[e, m. {-n ; -ii), sailor. 

Sfflaui, n. (-C'-s -cr), mouth, 
muzzle (of an animal). 

maulfauf, slow of speech, taci- 

i)}?aiiltier, n. (-e? ; -e), mule. 

mawt^,/. (-e), mouse. 

5JlaiifeIe'um, n. (-i; -een), mau- 
soleum, tomb. 

Wax, n. {-ti : -e), sea, ocean. 

^Iceerfcbaum, m. (-ec), sea-foam ; 

mt^, n. (-e^), flour. 

me^r, more ; nicbt — , no longer, 
not now. 

mebrere, several; ine6rere>j, sev- 
eral things, a good deal. 

me^rntiilc, several time.s. 

meiten (120), to avoid. 

\ ^JlnU, f. (-n), mile (German), 
' league. 

mein, meine, minx, my. 
I meine (ter, tie, ta?), mine. 
, meinen, to think, be of opinion, 
suppose, mean : .say ; baC' 
foUte icb — , I should think 
so {emjyhatic). 
meinctireoien, for my sake; for 

all I care. 
meini^e (ter, tie, tae), mine. 
^Jtiimin^,/. (-en), opinion, 
meift {superl. of *}iel), most: 
am — en, most, most of all; 
— enc, for the most part, 
generally, usually. 
5}?eifter, m. {-t- ; — ), master, 
melfen (121), to milk. 
j V?telctie',l / (-n), melody, tune, 

-^tetctei',/ air. 
j '??te[ene,/i (-n;, melon. 
I ^Jcen^e^/! (-n),multitude. crowd : 
great quantity or number. 
"^lenfcb, 7/1. (-en ; -en), human 
being, man; person; ^j>/.; 
mankind, people, 
i '??ienfttenfeele, /. (-n), human 
I soul. 

; merfen, to observe, notice, re- 
I mark. 

I mejTen (181), to measure. 
■'?teiTer, n. (-iJ ; — ), knife. 
"?}tetaU', 7i. (-ex- ; -e), metal, 
mieten, to rent, hire. 
^??"a(cf>,/, milk, 
niilcba^eip, milk-white. 
niill'(e), mild, gentle. 
'i'?tilIion',/ (-en), million. 
?}?inute,./! (-n), minute. 
'??hnuten3eiiier, m. (-^ : — ), 



mir {dat. of'\^), (to) me. 

mi^'muti^, cross, disappointed. 

mit (46), with ; by (in multi- 
plication); «o?r., along with. 

mitbrinoicu (99), to bring along. 

initcjycn (ISl), to eat (in com- 
pany) with others. 

mitfcmmen (167; fein), to come 

mitleitici, sympathetic, com- 

mitne^men (1 67), to take along. 

mitfpielen, to take part in 
play; play a part. 

iD^ittag, m. {-it- : -c), mid-day, 
noon ; ^u — eijen, to dine. 

5D(ittagC'effen, n. {-i ; — ), din- 

^JJitte,/, middle, midst, centre. 

mitteilen, to impart. 

mitten, in the middle or midst 
of; — iin SBinter, in the 
middle of winter, 

5?iitternacf)t,/ ("e), midnight. 

^3}Zittmocb, m. i'i-), Wednesday. 

mogen (196-202; preference, 
liking), to be able ; may ; 
like; ht mag tvV^ iticbt, I do 
not like that; id) modbte, 1 
should like. 

moglicb, possible ; bai! {ft gcru 
— , that is very probable. 

^Il^cffa, m., Mocha (coffee). 

''3}^onarcb', m. (-eii ; -en), mon- 

"5)Zo'nat, m. (-e^ ; -e), month. 

"ilO^onb, m. (-H ; -t), moon. 

5}^ontag, m. (-e5 ; -e), Monday. 

^t^\i^, n. (-ce ; -e), moss. 

SlJiorgcn, ra. (-^ ; — \ morning; 
gutcn — , good morning ; 

te^ — i? {or morgen^), in the 

morgen, to-morrow ; — frii^, 

to-morrow morning; ^eutc 

— , this morning. 
5>Zorgenbammerung,/., morning 

5}Zorgeng(ocfe, / (-n), morning 

miibe, tired, weary. 
SJ^ii^e, / (-n), trouble; ni^t 

ter — tvert, not worth while, 
miiben {\\6>), to take trouble, 

try hard. 
mii(^ei:'oII, laborious, tiresome, 

mxxUt,/. (-n), mill, 
miibfvim, \tedious, slow, diffi- 
miibfeligj cult, 
multiplijieren, to multiply. 
•IRunb, m. (-e^), mouth, 
miinjen, to coin, 
mnnter, cheerful, awake, safe 

and sound, 
nuirmein, to murmur, grumble, 
^uflf',/, music, 
mufifalifcf^, musical. 
'D}2nfifant', m. (-en ; -en), musi- 
muiqicven, to make music, 
mil j[en (196-202; necessity), to 

be obliged or forced, must. 
'}?Zit§iggang, m. (-ee), idleness. 
"Mui, m. (-e^), mood, courage, 

spirit; mir ift fd^IecBt jn — e, 

T feel ill ; frozen — e^, cheer- 
mutig, courageous, spirited. 
'}1tuttcr,/ (-), mother. 
"D?^iittercien, n. (-c; — ), mother 

darling ; little old woman 



Mni^t,/. (-n), cap. 
^m^rte,/ (-n), myrtle. 


na(^ (46), after ; according to; 
by (of a time-piece) ; past 
(of hour of day); to (before 
proper names of places) ; — 
Jpaufe, home. 

^a6^bax, m. {-i and -u ; -n), 

na^tem', conj., after. 

nact)benfen (99), to think, re- 

nad)9ebett (181), to yield. 

nai^ge^en (188; fein), to go 
after; go or be too slow (of 
a time-piece). 

narbfommen (167; fein-f-c/a^.), 
to come after, follow. 

9?ac^mittag, m. (-ec ; -e), after- 
noon; be^ — i, in the after- 

5^ac^ric^t,/. (-en), news. 

nad)[c^ie§en (123-1- dat.\ to 
shoot at, shoot after. 

nad)fd)Ieic&eii (118; feiii -ft/a^), 
to sneak after. 

na^fe^en (181 -i-cZa^.), to look 
after, follow with the eyes. 

nact)|t (superL of nab), next. 

Oiac^fte, m. {adj. subsL), fellow- 
creature, neighbour. 

ndc^l'tcn^, shortly, soon, very 

9^acf^t,/ ("e), niglit. 
nad^tUc^, nightly, nocturnal, 
tiacft, naked, bare. 
na^e), (na^er, ttdrf)|l), near. 
9ld^e,yi, nearness ; neighbour- 

hood; lit nieincr — , near 

me ; in my neighbourhood, 
ndbren, to nourish, feed. 
5flanie, m. (-Uc or n; -n), name, 

luimenc; by name. 
dti[]i,f. (-n), nose. 
^atm',f. (-en), nature, 
natiir'lid^, naturally, of course, 

I suppose. 
Sflta'pd, n. (-g), Naples, 
^ebel, m. (-^ ; — ), fog, mist, 

5f^ebelfnaul, m. (-ec ; ''e), ball of 

9^e6elftreif, m. (-e^ ; -e), streak 

of mist, 
neben (65), beside, besides; 

near, alongside of, by. 
^f^eben^i miner, n. (-cs — ), small 

room at the side, adjoining 

nebft (51), together with, in- 
5(^effe, m. (-n ; -n), nephew. 
ne^men (167), to take; fid) in 

%6^t — , to take care, beware, 
neigen, to incline, bow. 
nein, no. < 

nennen (99), to call, name, 
netto, net {commercial term). 
9Te^, n. (-ec ; -e), net. 
neu, new. 
neulid>, lately, the other day, 

not long ago. 
nenn, nine, 
nennnutl, nine-times, 
nennftellia, of nine places, 
neuntebaib, eight and a half, 
nicbt, not ; — inebr, no longer; 

— tt>a()r? is (it, etc.) not (so)? 



9^{c^tpariercn, n. (-^), disobedi- 
ence ; refusal to obey orders. 

nid)t^ {indecl.)^ nothing. 

nirfcn, to nod. 

nie, never. 

nieber, down. 

^'lieterlnnt^e (bie), ;:>/., The Ne- 

ttict'erftitr3en (feitt),to fall down, 

nietilicb, neat, pretty, charming. 

nietrioi, low, lowly. 

nie'manb, nobody, no one, no 
person, not anybody, etc. 

ni'rgent^, nowhere. 

no(^, still, yet, even ; — ein, 
one more, another; — et- 
toa^, something (anything) 
more; — einmal,. over again ; 
— ^eute, before the end of 
the day, before the day is 
over; — immer, up to the 
present time, still; — ijor 
ttier^e^n Zao^tn, only a fort- 
night ago. 

5^ort)'eifenBa^n,/ (-en), North- 

5^ot, / (-e), need, necessity, 
trouble ; • — t()itn, to be ne- 

nottg, necessary; — ^aben, to 
have need of. 

57oi)emkr, m. (-g), November. 

nii extern, sober ; hungry, fast- 
ing ; plain, commonplace. 

5^u'mero, (indecl), number 

nun, now. 

nur, only, just. 

9^u§,/ ("fe), nut. 

^ii^tdt,/. (-n), nut-hedge. 

nii0en,\to be of use, profit, 
nu^en,/ avail, 
^^u^en, m. (-^), profit, use. 
nii^Hc^, useful. 

ob, whether, if. 

oben, above, up-stairs ; nac^ — , 

Dkrft, 771. (-en; -en), colonel. 

0(^fe, m. (-n ; -n), ox. 

Dc^f entreiber, m. {-& ; — ), ox- 
driver, drover. 

Oc^f ent)ierte(, n. (-^; — ), quar- 
ter of beef. 

eber, or. 

Ofen, m. (-g ; -), stove. . 

offen, open. 

Dfftjicr', m. (-co ; -e), officer. 

ojfnen (ftd)), to open. 

oft C'er), often, frequently. 

oftmaU, often. 

D'^etm, m. (-c^ ; -e), uncle. 

o()ne (34), without; but for. 

O^nebie^', as it is, anyway. 

D^r, n. (-e^ ; -en), ear. 

Dnfet, m. (-& ; — ), uncle. 

Dpfer, n. {-§ ; — ), victim. 

orbentticb, proper, genuine, real. 

Drt, 7ii. (-e^ ; -e and-tx), place, 

^aax, n. (-H ; -e), pair, couple. 
paav, adv.j few, several, 
^age, m. (-n ; -n), page, at- 
tendant (g soft as in French.) 
^ala'ft, m. {-t§ ; -e), palace. 



^antoffef, m. (-^ ; -n and — ), ' 

^])apier', n. {-ti; -e)/paper. 

i)apft, m. (-ti ; -;;, pope. 

^Pari^', n. (ijon — ), Paris. 

parlieren, to talk, chat, jabber. 

pajfenb, fit, suitable. 

'Patrone,/ (-n), cartridge. 

peini^en, to torment. 

^d^, m. (-ec ; -e), fur, skin. 

§)erle,/ (-n), pearl. 

^etru^, m., Peter. 

f)et3, m. (-env^), Bruin. 

§)fat>, m. (-e0; -e), path, road. 

f)farrer, m. (-^; — ), parson, 
minister, clergyman. 

^feife,/ (-rt), pipe. 

pfeifen (118), to whistle. 

^Pfeifenfopf, m. (-ec ; -e), pipe 

^feifenro^r, n. {-ti ; -e and -c), 
pipe stem. 

^feifenjlopfer, m. (-^ ; — ), pipe- 

^feiler, m. (-^ ; — ), pillar, 

^fennic;, m. (-ey ; -e), the one 
hundredth part of a mark, 

^ferb, n. (-e^ ; -e), horse. 

5)ferte6a[)n, / (-en), tramway, 
tram ; street-cars, horse- 

^fert'e6anbrcr,m.(-^; — ),horse- 

^flaume,/. (-n), plum. 

pflcgcn \iceak\ to attend to; 
to be accustomed, be wont. 

^>flu9, m. (-c^ ; -t), plough. 

^funb, n. (-e^ ; -c), pound. 

^P^ilologe, m. (-n ; -n), philolo- 

gist, student of philology ; 
student of languages. 

^MIofopMe',/ (-n), philosophy. 

^lau, m. {-li ; -e or ''e), plan, 

^planet', m. (-en ; -en), planet. 

platfitern, to splash. 

p(attfii§tg, flat-footed. 

^[a^,m. (-ee ; -e), place ; square; 
— nebmen, to sit down, be 

platen i^\t\\\), to burst. 

^Ha^regen, m. (-^ ; — ), shower, 

plautern, to chat, talk. 

5)hiufd^erei', / (-eu), tale-bear- 
ing, tattling. 

plo^Iicb, sudden. 

pluttttf, plump ! 

poltern, to make a noise. 

f»ommer, m. (-{? or -n; -n), 

pommerfd), Pomeranian. 

portion',/ (-en), portion, plate 
(of meat, etc.). 

^Por^etla'n, n. (-ee), porcelain. 

^or3etIa'n!opf, m. (-e^ ; -e), por- 
celain pipe-bowl. 

^oft,/ (-en), post, post-office. 

^oftbote, m. (-n ; -n), postman. 

^rad)t, y! (-^n)/ magnificence, 

prad^tig, magnificent, splendid. 

praMen, to boast, brag. 

prangen, to be splendid, re- 

. splendent, brilliant. 

^rei^, m. (-eo; -e), price; prize. 

preifen (120), to praise. 

prei^geben (181), to give up, 
give away. 

^rinjejyin,/ (-ncn), princess. 



^recent', ??. (-e^ ; -c), per cent. 

t^vofeffor, m. (-^; -en), professor. 

^remo^ieren, to take a degree, 

propbe'tifcb, prophetic. 

^Vo^inj,/. (-en), province. 

^^rciMnjialftabtd^en, n. {-i ; — ), 
provincial town. 

^Miblihtm, n. (-^), public ; audi- 

^mxtt, m. (-e5 ; -c), point ; — 
jeBn \\i)X, at ten o'clock pre- 

^iinftlid)fett,/, punctualitv. 

^iippe,/ (-n), doll. 

pur, pure. 

pu^en, to polish, clean. 

-»* • 

Qua'berflein, m. (-ey; -c), cut- 
stone, freestone. 

£^ua(m, m. (-e^), thick vapour, 

qualnien, to puff out clouds of 

Cuafte,/. (-n), tassel. 

Quelle,/! (-u), fountain, spring, 

quetlen (124; fein), to gush, 

S^abatt', m. (-e^ ; -c), discount, 

JRab, n. (-f(? ; -er), wheel, 
ragcu, to project. 
^C[\\\i, m. {-t^ ; -er), edge, rim, 

xa]d\ quick, rapid, 
raftlo^, restless. 
9iat, m. (-ee), counsel, advice. 

rntcn (188), to counsel, advise. 

^latbaui?, 71. (-e5 ; -'er), town- 

3ftautt, m. (-e^), smoke. 

rauc^en, to smoke. 

9^aud)iroI!e, /. (-u), cloud of 

Sf^aum, m. (-eg; ''e), room, space. 

rauueu, to whisper. 

^aupe,/ (-n), caterpillar. 

raufpern (fid)), to clear the 
throat, hem. 

3fled)nen, n. {-^), arithmetic. 

5te^nung,/ (-en), account, bill, 
reckoning; calculation; eiu 
(Stri(^ t)ur(^ bie — , disap- 
pointment; fc^reiben ©ie ba(3 
auf meine — , charge that to 

red^t, right; bie — e, the right 
hand; adv., quite, very. 

ffitd)t, n. (-eg; -c), right; — 
):)K\^tn, to be right, be in the 

rec^rg, to (on) the right. 

red)t'3eit^/ at the right time, 

3^ebe,y! (-n), speech; oration. 

reben, to speak, talk. 

^Reformation', f. (-en), reform- 

'Sit^tn, m. (-5), rain. 

9Re'gentvopfeu, m. (-g ; — ), drop 
of rain. 

rei^ieren, to reign, rule, govern. 

0lcgierunc|,y! (-en), government, 
reign; unter ter — , in the 
reign (of). 

^lei^imeut', n. (-eg ; -er), regi- 

regueu, to rain. 



9let), n. (-e^ ; -e), roe, deer. 

reibctt (120), to rub. 

reic^, rich, wealthy. 

reic^en, to reach, hand. 

reif, ripe. 

reifen, to ripen, mature. 

3flei^(e)n, m. {-^; — ), dance. 

rein, clean, pure. 

S^lei^, m. (-ey), rice. 

ditii, n. {-ti ; -er), twig. 

9^eife,/ (-n), journey, voyage; 
etne — mac^en, to take a 

reifefertt^, ready to start (on a 

3fleifc!often, pi., travelling-ex- 

reifen (feittanfn)aBen),to travel, 
journey, go. ^ 

9^eifettbe(r) (adj.subst.), travel- 

reifen (118), to tear, pull. 

reiten (118; fein and |akn), 
to ride. 

^eiter, m. (-5 ; — ),] ^.^^^ 

3fteiter^mann,m(-ee; ^horseman 
'-^er and -leute), j ^^^seman. 

reijen, to charm, allure, tempt. 

rennen (99 ; fein and I)aben), 
to run, race. 

die^, m. {-t€^ ; -e), remainder, 
remains, rest. 

3fleftauration', / (-en), eating- 
house, restaurant. 

retten, to save, rescue. 

^^ettung^mer!, n. (-e^ ; -e), life- 
saving work, work of rescue. 

reuen (impers.), to repent; e5 
rent mic^ {+gen.), I repent 

0l^ein, m. (-e^), Rhine. 

3^^cumat{^mu^, m. {(/en. — ), 

ricfetig, right, correct ; correct- 
ly ; — ge^cn, to be correct 
(of a time-piece). 

3flid)tnng,/ (-fn), direction. 

riec^en (123), to smell. 

^k]t, m. (-n ; -n), giant. 

riefein, to ripple. 

rieftg, gigantic, enormous. 

3f^inbfleifd\ n. (-e^), beef. 

Diing, m. (-e^ ; -e), ring. 

9^inge(, m. (-^5 ; — ), ring, curl. 

ringen (144), to wring, wrestle. 

ringoum*, all around, round 

rinnen (158; fein), to run, flow. 

JRippenfto§, m. (-eo ; "e), blow 
in the ribs. 

3Ritt, m. (-e^ ; — e), ride. 

Sf^itter, m. {-v ; — ), knight. 

rittling^, astride. 

fRod, m. (-e^ ; -e), coat. 

diod^tn,n. (-€; — ), little coat, 
jacket ; gown ; skirt. 

roSen, to roll. 

iRom an', w. (-ec ; -e), romance, 

Stonier, m. {-€ ; — ), Roman. 

9*^ofa=^ut, w. (-e^ ; -e), pink hat. 

3^ofe,/ (-n), rose. 

^tofenblatt, n. (-e5 ; -'er), rose- 

xo]U], rosy. 

3fto§, n. (-fe^; -fe), horse, steed. 

3^o§(ein, w. (-^ ; — ), little horse, 

rot, adj., red. 

JKot'f a^jpd) en, n. (-^), Little Red 
(Riding) Hood. 

9lot'n?ein, jh. (-e^; -e), red-wine. 



9lu6e,/ (-tt), turnip ; c\dU —, 

3tubin', m. (-Ci3 ; -c), rubj^ 
^tubel, m. {-^ ; — ), herd, flock, 
nibcrn, to row. 
nifen (188), to call. 
dinl)C,f.i rest, quiet, 
rii^en, to rest, repose. 
rul)ig, quiet. 
^ii()m, m. (-e^), praise, 
rii^ren, to move, touch, affect, 

runb, round. 

3*lu)Je, m. (-n ; -n), Russian, 
rutfc^en (feiu), to slide,_slip. 


(5aal, m. (-t^ ; (B'dU), hall. 

(Scibel, m. {-& ; — ), sword, sabre. 

fabelu, to cut, hew, hack. 

3ad)e, / (-n), thing, matter, 
affair, business ; bift bu tei- 
ner — getuif'? are you certain 
of your information ? etc. 

^ad, m. (-e^ ; -e), sack, bag. 

(gage,/ (-n), saw. 

fagen, to say, tell ; — ^oren, 
to hear say, hear. 

©a^ne,/, cream. 

(Saite, / (-n), chord, string; 
stringed instrument. 

(Saitenfpiel, n. (-ci? ; -c), string- 
ed instrument ; lyre. 

fammein, to gather, collect; 
fic^ — , to collect one's self, 
gather one's wits together. 

fdmmtlic^, complete (of literary 

[an ft, soft, gentle. 

Sanger, m. (-^; — ),) . 

Sangerin,/ (-m\\), y^ 


(Sanft, saint. 

2ava,»f. (-^), Sarah. 

Ibarra vJ, m. {-\tv ; -fe), sword, 

fatt, satisfied. 
battel, m. (-^ ; -), saddle. 
(2a^, m. (-e^ ; ''e), sentence ; 

leap, jump. 

faufen (123), to drink (of 

@au(e,y! (-n), pillar, column. 

faufeln, to rustle. 

@c()flt)e(n), m. (-n o?- -n^ ; ''n), 
damage, injur}^, haim, mis- 
chief; (V ift fc^abe, it is a 

@d)at^e(, m. (-(3 ; — ), skull. 

®d)af, 71. (-e^ ; -e), sheep. 

@(^afer, m. (-^^; — ), shepherd. 

(Sd)aferrocf, m. (-c^^ ; "(), shep- 
herd's coat. 

fdjajfen (186), to create. 

*S(^aIe,/ (-n), cup, dish. 

fitatlen, to sound, resound. 

®d)aUer, m. (-5; — ), wicket, 

f(^amcn (fid); gen. or uUv + 
ace), to be ashamed. 

(BdCjax,/. (-en), host, company, 

fc^arf ('-er), sharp. 

(Sd^attcn, m. (-^; — ), shade, 

(2(^attenbilt>, n. (-e^; -er), shad- 
owy image. 

fc^attig, shady. 

fc^auen, to look, see, behold. 

[(^aumen, to foam. 

B^^ttxz,/. (-n), scissors. 



8(^effet, m. {-i ; — ), peck. 

(Sc^eibe,/ (-n), window-pane. 

fc^eiben (120), to separate. 

fc^einen (120; dat.), to shine; 
to appear, seem. 

(Bd)tUn, m. (-ti ; -e), scamp, 
rascal, fellow, chap. 

fc^elten (159), to scold. 

(Sc^enfe,/ (-n), inn, tavern. 

fc^enfeii (dat. of per son and ace. 
of thing), to give, make a 
present of, present; to pour 
(out of one vessel into an- 

fc^ercn (131), to shear. 

fc^icfen, to send. 

fc^icbcn (131), to shove, push. 

fc^ief, crooked, awry. 

f(^ier, almost, nearly. 

fc^iefcn (123), to shoot. 

(B^iff, n. {-t€ ; -e), ship, vessel. 

(Sniffer, m. (-5 ; — ), boatman, 

(Sc^ilt), m. (-e5 ; -f ), shield. 

@(^i(b, n. (-ec; -er), sign-board. 

©(^ilttfrote,/ (-n), tortoise. 

f^immern, to shine, glitter, 

(5(|lac^t,/ (-en), battle. 

f(^(afen (188), to sleep ; fic^ — 
legen, — geben, to retire to 
rest, go to bed. 

@d)Uifro(f,m. (-e^; -e), dressing- 

©(Slaf'^immcr, n. (-g; — ), bed- 

(Sc^fag, m. (-e^; -e), blow; 
stroke (of paralysis). 

fc^Iagen (186), to beat, strike. 

©c^Iaiient^trei, m. (comic prop. 
name)f Thrashem. 

fc^(anf, slender, graceful. 

frf^IedU, bad. 

fc^leid^eu (118; fein), to slink, 

sneak ; creep, crawl. 
[6(eifen (118), to sharpen, 

fc^Ieppen, to drag, haul. 
Sc^leubev,/ (-n), sling. 
[rf)feubern, to hurl, fling, sling. 
l'cl)Iie§en (123), to lock, shut, 

close ; to conclude, finish. 
f($Iimm, bad. 
®(^(ingel, m. (-»? ; — ), rascal, 

[i^Hngen (144), to sling; to 

twine ; to swallow. 
Scfelitten, m. (-c ; — ), «leigh. 
®c&Utt'fc^u^(aufen, n. (-y), (act 

of) skating. 
(2c^lo§, n. (-feS; -fer), castle, 

(S(|(o^tl)or, n. (-e^ ; -e), castle- 
<Sd)Ict, m. (-p^ ; -e and -c), 

flue, chimney. 
(Bd)iiid, m. (-etf ; -e), swallow, 

draught, pull. 
(5d)Iu§, m. (-fe^; -e), ending, 

(Srf)liijTe(, m. (-5 ; — ), key. 
ScbliiiJetloc^, n. \-ii ; -ev), key- 
fdjmal (-er), narrow, 
fc^mecfen, to taste, relish ; itjie 

fc^mecft 3(Mten tiefe^j ? how 

do you like (the taste of) 

this ? 
(2c^mei6e(ei', / (-en), flattery, 
f^meiiteln {dat.), to flatter, 
fd^meifen (118), to throw, 




[d)niel5CU (124 ; hitr., fein ; tr., 
{)cCot\\), to melt, smelt. 

(gc^mer^, m. {-ti or -n\i ; -en), 

(Siimucf, in. (-e^), ornament. 

fc^mucfen, to ornament, adorn. 

[canard) en, to snore. 

(£d)nau3bart, 7?i. (-e^; -e), mous- 

©(^necfe,/ (-n), snail. 

^Si^nee, m. (-g), snow. 

fc^neetvei^, snow-white, snowy. 

[Aneiten (118), to cut, reap; 
ftc^ in tie ^anb — , to cut 
one's hand. 

Sc^neiber, m. (-^ ; — ), tailor. 

frf^neien, to snow. 

fc^ncll, quick ; quickly. 

'ScbncUju^, m. (-ti ; -e), ex- 

(Sc|nitt, m. (-e^ ; -e), cut. 

[d)nup^)ern,to sniff, smell about. 

^c^nur, / (-e), string, cord ; 
shoulder-strap, shoulder- 
cord (of a staff-officer's uni- 

[d)nurr, whirr ! whizz ! 

^d)nurrtart, m. (-e^; "t), mous- 

fd) on, already, as early as, 
readil}'-, easily, indeed ; — 
lange, for a long time (past). 

fc^on, fine, beautiful, hand- 

!S(^6n()eit,/ (-en), beauty. 

<Sd)Opf, m. (-e^ ; -e), crown (of 
the head). 

(Sd)oo§, m. (-e^; "e), lap, bosom. 

©djotte, m. (-n;-n), Scotchman. 

©c^ranf, m. (-e^ ; "e), chest, 
cupboard, wardrobe. 

fd)ranben, to screw. 

Sc^red(en), m. (-^), fright, 

[d)reden(^r.) to frighten, startle. 

fc^reiben (120), to write (to, 
clat. or an -I- ace. of per s.). 

(Sd)reibtifc^, m. (-evj ; -e), writ- 

fd)reien (120), to cry, scream, 

fd)reiten (118; fein), to stride, 
step, stalk. 

(Sd)riftftener, m. (-5; — ), writer, 

^d)ritt, m. (-c^; -e), stride, 
step, pace. 

@(^u^, m. (-eg ; -c), shoe. 

(2fbnlbanf,/ (-e), school-bench. 

(Sd)ulbu6(e),m. (-n ; -n), school- 
boy. • 

©c^ulb, /, guilt; (-en), debt; 
fc^ulb an etma^ fein, to be to 
blame for anything 

(S(^nle,/ (-u), school. 

fc^ulen, to school, train. 

©filler, m. (-g; — ), pupil, 
scholar, school-boy. 

(Sdnilfnabe, m. (-n; -n), school- 

(Sc^nlmeifter, m. (-§; — ), school- 

®c^n(ter,/ (-n), shoulder. 

(Sd)iirje,/ (-n), apron. 

Sc^ufter, m. (-$?; — ), shoe- 
maker, cobbler. 

fc^iitteln, to shake. 

fd)iitten, to spill; to empty out. 

(2cfcu^, m. (-e^), protection. 

(S(^uti6efo^(ene(r) (aJj. subst.), 
ward, protege. 

("er), weak, infirm. 



@rf)lDd^C,/ (-11), weakness, in- 

@(^mager, m, (-<? ; '-), brother- 

(Sc^n?aI6e,/ (-n), swallow. 

(Sc^tranj, m. {-0-3 ; "t), tail. 

[(^waq (-er),' black. 

fc^mar^blau, bluish-black. 

[c^mar39e!(eitet, clad in black. 

(c^tt5e6en, to hover ; be sus- 

©d)tt>eif,w. (-e^; -e),tail; train. 

fcbmeifen (fetn), to wander. 

fc^trei^en (120), to be silent, 
keep silence. 

(Sc^lueigen, n. (-q), keeping 
silence, (act of) silence. 

(Sc^mein, n. (-eg ; -e), pig. 

©Amei^,/, Switzerland. 

©^ttjetle,/. (-n), threshold. 

fd)n?e(Iett (124; fein), to swell. 

fc^roenfen, to swing, wave; to 
turn, wheel. 

fcbmer, heavy, hard, difficult. 

fd)n?erli(^, hardly, scarcely. 

Sc^wert; n. (-eg ; -er), sword. 

(3(^n?ejler,/ (-n), sister. 

fc^mierig, difficult. 

fc^mimmett (158; ^aSen and 
fcin); to swim, float. 

©c^mimmen, n. (-g), swimming 
(act of). 

(5(in?inbel, m. (-g), giddiness, 

fc^minben (144; fein), to vanish, 
[rfjmingen (144), to swing, 

brandish, flourish, wave ; 

|t(^ — , to leap, bound, 
fc^mi^en, to sweat, perspire. 

fdMrorcn (131), to swear. 

fd)ioii(, sultry, close. 

fec^g, six. 

(See, m. (-g ; -en), lake. 

(See,y! (-n), sea, ocean. 

^geele,/ (-n), soul. 

feelenyer^nitgt, highly de- 

(Seereife,/ (-n), voyage. 

Segel fd) iff, ?i. (-eg; -e), sailing- 
vessel, ship. 

fegnen, to bless. 

felen (181), to see, perceive, 
look, behold. 

fe{)nen (fic6), to long, yearn. 

febn' fii(^ tig, longing, yearning. 

fe()r, very, very much, exceed- 

feltg, blessed, blissful, happy. 

(5e(ig!eit, / (-en), bliss, happi- 

fein, feine, fein, his, its, one's, 

fein (52 ; fein), to be ; (as aux.), 
to be, have. 

feit (46), since ; — wann, since 
when, how long; — ad)t 
2^0 gen, for a week past. 

feitbem', conj., since. 

(Seite,/ (-n), side. 

felber,! ,. . 

\tlM, f ' ' ®^^^' 

felten, seldom, rarely. 

feUfam, rare, strange, curious, 

fenben (99), to send. 

(Serviette,/ (-n), table-napkin. 

fe^ en, to set, put, place ; to stake ; 
ftc^ — , to seat one's self, sit 

fen fjen, to sigh. 



©euf^crh-iicfc, f., Bridge of i 

\\&j, pron. reji. {ace. and dat.), 
one's self, himself, herself, 
itself, themselves ; to him- 
self, themselves, etc. ; re- 
cipr., one another. 

fic^er, safe, secure. 

ft(^tbar, visible, in sight. 

jle, she, it; her, it; they, them, 

(5ie, {polite for tu and i()r), 

fiekn, seven. 

seven hundred and twenty- 

(Bkh'tnttl, n. (-g ; — ), seventh 

fieben (123; fcin), to boil. 

*5teoie^maft, m. (-ec ; en), tri- 
umphal mast. 

(gigtta'I, n. (-e^ ; -e), signal. 

©tiber, n. {-€), silver. 

(Eilberloffel, m. (-0 ; — ), silver 

f{'(bern, (of) silver. 

fingen (144), to sing. 

finfen (144 ; fein), to sink, fall. 

^inn, m. (-e^ ; -e), sense, mind. 

finnen (158), to reflect. 

ftttfam, modest, proper. 

fi^en, (181), to sit. 

©Haoe, m. (-n ; -n), slave. 

(Smara'gb, m. (-e^; -e), eme- 

fo, so, thus, in such a manner, 
indeed (not translated in the 
apodosis to a conditional 
clause); — eben, just, just 
now; — ixn, eine, ein, such a. 

foba'It, as soon as. 

fofo'rt, immediately, directly. 

foga'r, even. 

foglei'd), immediately, directly. 

(So^n, m. (-ei3 ; "t), son. ^ 

foId)(er), adj. and pron.^ such. 

©olt^at', m. (-en; -en), soldier. 

foUen (196--202; duty or obli- 
gation), to be in duty bound, 
be to ; shall ; be said to. 

(goUer, m. (-g ; — ), loft, garret, 

(Bommer, m. (-^ ; — ), summer. 

(5ommerna(^mittac|, m. (-e^ ; -e), 
summer afternoon. 

fonbern {after negatives only), 

(gonnabenb, m. (-eg ; -e), Satur- 

(Sonne,/ (-n), sun. 

(Sonnenlic^t, n. (-e^ ; -er), sun- 

(Sonnenfc^ein, m. (-e^), sun- 

@onntag, m. (-eg ; -e), Sunday. 

©onntagglieb, n. (-eg ; -er), Sun- 
day hymn. 

fonft, else, otherwise; gener- 
ally, usually; — noc^, any 
more, any other, any besides. 

fonftig, other, different. 

©ojj^ie,/ (-ng), Sophia. 

foremen, to care, be anxious. 

forg'fditig, careful ; carefully. 

t>at, late. 

fpa^teren {also — (^e^en, 188), 
to take a walk, go for a 
walk, go walking; — fa()ren 
(186), to go for a drive. 

(Spajier'ganci, m. (-eg ; -e), walk ; 
eincn — mac^en, to take a 



(Spec!, m. (-ec), bacon, 
(gpcifcfarte, / (-n), bill of fare, 
fpeifcn, to eat, dine. 
(Sperling, m. (-e^ ; -e), sparrow. 
(Sp^inr,/ (-e). Sphinx. 
(Spiegel, m. (-^ ; — ), mirror, 
fpiegelflar, clear as a mirror. 
(Spiel, n. (-ei? ; -e), play, game, 

fptelen, to play, 
fpinnen (158), to spin. 
(Spi^e, / (-n), point; mouth- 
piece (of a pipe), 
fplittcrn, to split, shiver. 
(Sporn, m. (-ee ; -e and Sporen), 

(Spott, m. (-e^), mockery, scorn, 

(Spracf>e,/. (-n), language. 
(Sprac^talenf, n. (-e? ; -e), talent 

for (learning) languages. 
(Spracb'ftut^ium, n. (-0; -ten), 

linguistic study, 
fprecbeit (167), to speak, say, 

tell ; to speak or talk to or 

(Sprec^en, n. (-0), speaking (act 

of), speech, 
fpreigen, to spread out. 
fprengen, to burst ; to gallop. 
(Sprid)Wort, n. (-e^ ; -er), pro- 
fpriegen (1'23: fein), to sprout, 
©pringbriinnen, m. (-^ ; — ), 

fpringen (144 ; fein), to spring, 

leap, jump, run. 
(Sprung, m. (-e^; -'e), leap, jump; 

fpiiren, to notice, perceive. 

(Staat, m. (-eg ; -en), state ; fine 

(Sta(^e(beerbu[c(\ m. (-e5; -e), 
gooseberry bush. 

(Stabt,/. (-e), town, city. 

(Stabtleute, pi, city people. 

(Stabtmauer,/. (-n), town wall. 

(Stabt't^or, 7i. (-e^ ; -e), towm- 
gate, city-gate. 

(Stabt'u^r,/. (-en), town-clock. 

(Sta^l, m. (-ec), steel. 

@ta^Ifeberba(ter, m. (-^ ; — ), 
(steel) penholder. 

^tatl, m. (-eg ; -e), stable, stall. 

(Stamm, m. (-eg; -e), stem, 

(Stanb, m. (-eg ; -t), stand ; 
condition; 3U — e fommen, 
to be completed, be done ; 
ini — e fein, to be able, be in 
a position to. 

jlar! C'er), strong, powerful ; 

ftdrfen, to strengthen, invigor- 

ftarr, staring, rigid. 

ftatt, instead of ( -\-gen.). 

ftatt'ftnben (144), to take place, 

j^attli^, stately, handsome. 

flauing, dusty. 

ftaunen, to be surprised, as- 
tonished, amazed. 

(Staunen, 7i. (-g), surprise, 

ftec&en (167), to sting. 

ftecfen, to stick ; to put in. 

fteben (186; fein 07- babtn), to 
stand, be ; to be situated. 

fte^len (167), to steal. 

fteif, stiff, rigid. 



ftfii^cn (120; fcin), to rise, 
climb, mount, ascend, de- 
scend, get down or off, 
alight ; to rear (of a horse). 

<3teiu, m. {-t^ ; -e), stone. 

fleincrn, (of) stone. 

<3teiutrog, m. (-e^; -e), stone 

<SteIIe,/ (-n), place, spot; pas- 
sage; auf ber — , immedi- 
ately, at, once; jiir — feiu, 
to have arrived, be there. 

ftellen, to put, place, set (up- 

ftemmen, to rest (the arms). 

fterben (159 ; fein), to die. 

(5terbe^emt)iten, n. {-§ ; — ), lit- 
tle shroud. 

(Stern, m. (-e^ ; — e), star. 

(2ternblume,/ (-n), star-flower, 

(Sternf(^nuppe,/ (-n), shooting- 
star, meteor. 

flier, staring, fixed. 

ftid, still ; quiet, silent. 

©title,/!, stillness, silence. 

flitten, to satisfy. 

©tint me,/ (-n), voice. 

ftimmen, to be in tune ; agree. 

©time,/ (-n), forehead. 

Stocf, m. (-ei ; -'e), stick, cane. 

ftocf nil extern, absolutely fasting, 

flo^nen, to groan, moan. 

©tolj, m. (-e^), pride. 

I'tol^, proud, haughty. 

flopfen, to stuff, fill (a pipe). 

©tordb, m. (-eg ; -e), stork. 

®torc{)neft, n. (-eg ; -er), stork's 

fioren, to interrupt, disturb, 

ffof^en (188), to push, kick, 
strike, bump, knock. 

(2trab(, m. (-eg ; -en), ray, beam; 
jet (of water). 

ftra()(en, to beam. 

©tranb, m. (-eg), shore, beach. 

<Stra§e,/ (-n), street, road. 

ftrekn, to strive, endeavour. 

ftrecfen, to stretch, extend. 

ftvei(i)ein, to stroke, pat. 

ftteic^en (118), to stroke. 

©treifen, m. (-g ; — ), stripe, 
strip, streak. 

fireiten (118), to quarrel. 

ftreng, severe ; severely. 

ftreuen, to strew, scatter. 

Strict, m. (-eg ; -e), stroke, 
dash ; ein — turd) bie 3fteci)= 
nung, disappointment. 

@tro{)bac^', n. (-eg ; -er), straw 
roof, thatch. 

®trom, 7)1. (-eg ; "e), stream, 

flromen, to stream. 

flro^en, to be full, bulge out. 

©trumpf, m. (-eg; -e), stock- 

©tube,/ (-n), room. 

©tiicf, m. (-eg ; -e), piece. 

©tiicfi^en, n. (-g ; — ), little 
piece, morsel, bit. 

©tubent', m. (-eu; -en), student. 

©tubium, n. (-g; ©tubien), 

flubieren, to study. 

(Stubieren, n. (-g), studying 
(act of). 

©tubier'^tnimer, n. (-g ; — ), 
study (room). 

@tul)I, m. (eg ; "e), chair. 

©tunbe, / (-n), hour ; lesson ; 



an hour's walk (about four 

English miles). 
(Stunt cujeiger, m. {-$ ; — ), 

®tiiut>(ein, n. (-^ ; — ), hour. 
Sturm, m. {-tv ; -e), storm, 

fiiirjen (fein), to fall, plunge. 
ftiT^en, to support, 
fubtra^ieren, to subtract, 
fucfeen, to seek, search, look 

fummen, to hum, buzz, 
(iiinber, m. (-^ ; — ), sinner. 
(Suppe,/ (-n), soup, broth, 
fiig, sweet, 

ZaM, m. (-^), tobacco. 

Xabafelfe,/ (-n), tobacco-fairy. 

^^abafcpfeiff/ /• (-n), tobacco- 

3:abafi:pflan5e, / (-n), tobacco 

labafi^roUe, / (-n), roll of to- 

labvif^ivotTe, /. (-n), tobacco- 

ta'teln, to blame, find fault 

Za}i{, /. (-11 ), table, tablet, 
slate, blackboard ; dinner- 

Jag, m. (-e^ ; -e), day ; a6>t 
— e, a week ; fcit ad)t — en, 
for a week past; ein — uiii 
ten antern, every other (al- 
ternate) day; alle trei — e, 
every third day. 

Jagelc^ner, m. (-5; — ), day- 

lage^anbrud^, m. (-ee), da}-- 

Jambcurin', n. (-e^ ; -e), tam- 

Zantt,/. (-n), aunt. 

Jan^, m. (-e^ ; -e), dance. 

tanjen, to dance. 

tapfer, brave, valiant. 

2;apferfeit, /, courage, valour. 

Zaiift,/. (-n), pocket. 

IdjTe,/. (-n), cup. 

Jaube,/ (-ii), pigeon, dove. 

laucber, 7n. (-s ; — ), diver. 

tauen, to thaw. 

Jaufd^, m. {-^i ; -e), exchange, 
bargain : in ten — , into 
the bargain. 

taufrf^en, to exchange. 

taufent, thousand. 

taufentmal, a thousand times. 

Zt\6>, m. (-ee; -e), pond. 

Xei(, m. and n. {-ti ; -c), part, 

teilen, to divide, share ; to part, 

teilv^, partly, in part. 

Je(egrap{)', m. (-en ; -en), tele- 

Xe(epf)cn', n. (-ec; -e), telephone. 

leder, m. {-t- ; — ), plate. 

Jempel, m. (-5 ; — ), temple. 

Jeppicb, m. (-e^ ; -e), carpet. 

Jeftament', n. (-ec ; -e), testa- 
ment, (last) will. 

teuer, dear, precious, costly. 

Zhni, n. (-e^ ; -er), valley. 

3^6vT(er, m. (-^ ; — ), dollar. 

3:^at, / (-en), deed; exploit, 

%^it, m. (-i?), tea. 

S^^emfe,/, Thames. 



Zi^ox, n. (-e^ ; -e),gate, gateway. 

3:^or; m. (-en ; -en), fool. 

3:()ranc,/ (-n), tear. 

2:t)ron, m. {-tv ; -e), throne. 

t^nn (196), to do; e^ t^ut mir 
(eit), I am sorry, regret ; je* 
manb(en) etiva^ jn (eibe — , to 
harm, hurt any body; xot^ 
— , to hurt; fid) etn?a^ ju 
gut — , to enjoy one's self. 

%%uxi,f. (-n), door. 

2;ier, n. (-e^ ; -e), animal, beast. 

tief, deep, profound. 

3^{efe,/ (-n), depth, abyss. 

3:inte,/ (-n), ink. 

ttntenkffert, ink-spotted. 

Jintenfag, n. (-fed ; -fer), ink- 

tintengefc^marjt, ink-stained. 

Slintenffecf^, m. {-ti ; -e), ink- 
spot, blot. 

%\\6:i, m. (-ed ; -e), table. 

3:ife(, m. (-g ; — ), title. 

%06>itix,f. CO, daughter. 

Joc^teri^en, n. (-g; — ), little 

Job, m. (-e^), death. 

tod, mad, crazy. 

%\i\\, m. (-ed ; "t), tone, sound, 

tonen, to sound, resound. 

Jonne,/ (-n), barrel, tun. 

lorcntoer, adj.^ (of) Toronto. 

tot, dead. 

toten, to kill. 

traben, to trot. 

triicje, idle, lazy, indolent. 

tra^en (186), to carry, wear. 

Iragfeffel, m. (-g ; — ), sedan- 

S^ranf, m. (-ed ; -e), drink, 

traucn, to trust. 

Jrauerflor, m. (-ed), mourning, 

3:rauerfleib,n. (-eg; -er), mourn- 
ing apparel. 

trauern, to mourn. 

traufein, to drop, drip, distill. 

traulic^, familiar. 

2;raum, m. (-eg ; H), dream. 

traumen, to dream. 

S^raumer, m. (-g ; — ), dreamer. 

traurig, sad, sorrowful, me- 

Xrauung, / (-en), marriage 

treffen (167), to hit, strike, 
happen upon, meet with; 
hit upon, fall in with. 

ixtih^n (120), to drive; to put 
forth (buds, etc.). 

Jreibcn, n. (-g), conduct, ac- 

Jreppe,y! (-n), stairs, stair-case. 

%xt^t,f. (-n), lace, galloon. 

3;re|ten^ut, m. (-eg ; H), galloon- 
hat, laced hat. 

treten (181; ^aben and fein), 
to tread, step. 

treu, faithful, true. 

triefen ( 1 23 and weak), to drop, 

trinfen (144), to drink. 

irinfcn, n. (-g), (act or habit 
of) drinking. 

Xrinf gelb, n. (-eg ; -er), drink- 
ing- money, gratuity, tip. 

trocfnen, to dry. 

3:rog, m. (-eg ; -e), trough. 

Irommel,/ (-n), drum. 



Jrompete,/ (-n), trumpet. 

ZxopVdt,/. (-n), trophy. 

3:ro^fen, m. (-^ ; — ), drop. 

tro^ (223), in spite of. 

Zxnnt,m. (-Cy), drink, draught. 

Zxun'Unboi't,m. (-e^ ; -e), drunk- 

3^U(j^, n. (-eg ; "ev aiid -e), cloth; 

tiic^tici, thorough, good. 

Zn'Qtxxb,/. (-en), virtue. 

3:urfe, m. (-n ; -ii), Turk. 

Jurm, m. (-eg ; -e), tower. 

tiirmen, to pile up. 


UBel, n. (-g ; — ), evil. 

iibel, bad, evil. 

liber (65), over, above, all 
through, by way of, about, 
concerning : l^eiitc — trei 
SBod^en, this day three 

libera' U, everywhere. 

iibera'ntivortcn,to entrust, hand 

iibergie'ffen (123), to pour over, 
deluge, cover. 

iiberei'nflimmen, to agree. 

iiber^aupt', in general, gener- 
ally ; as a matter of fact, at 
any rate. 

ii'berlaut, very loud, too loud. 

iiberle'ben, to survive. 

U'bermac^t,/, superior force. 

ii'bermorgen, the day after to- 

iiberre'ten, to persuade. 

iiberfe^'en, to translate ; iiig 
'Ceutfd^e — , to translate into 

ubertra'c^en, to v/atch over, 

iiber^eu'gen, to convince. 

U'bergie^er, m. (-e; — ), over- 

iibrig, remaining, left over; 
bag librige, the remainder, 
what is left ; — bleibeit, to 
be remaining or left. 

iibunci,/ (-en), exercise; prac- 

Ufcr, n. (-g ; — ), bank, shore. 

U|r, f. (-en), clock, watch ; urn 
tier — , at four o'clock ; ivic 
ijiel — ijl eg ? what o'clock 
is it? 

um (34), around, about; for 
(of price) ; at, about (of 

uma'rmen, to embrace. 

umfa'ngen (188), to surround, 
enclose, envelop, embrace, 

umflo'rt, shrouded, misty. 

umge'ben (181), to surround. 

um'gucfen (ftc^), to look around. 

um^er', around, about. 

um^cr'fcfoanmmen (158; fein), 
to float about. 

u'mfe^ren (feitt), to turn back. 

umna'mmern,toembrace, grasp. 

u'mfniipfen, to fasten around, 
tie on. 

um'[<^awcn(fic^),to look around, 
. look back. 

Um')lant>, m. (-eg ; -e), circum- 
stance ; pi. ceremony. 

Um'jlant)Ud^feit, / (-en), care, 
carefulness, ceremonious- 



um'jrent«cn (99), to turn round. 

unt*, and. 

unentbe'l)rli6, indispensable. 

ungefii'^r, about, nearly ; i?on 
— , by accident, accidentally. 

im^cfcben, unseen. 

im^cfti'Ut, unsatisfied. 

unt)ei'mlicb, uncanny. 

Unifo'rm,/ (-en), uniform. 

unmeg'licb, impossible; id) faun 
— , I cannot possibly. 

lln'red)t, n. {-t^), wrong; — 
^Ci^tn, to be (in the) wrong. 

U 11 [d'gHd>, inexpressible, un- 

unfer, unfere, itnfer, our. 

unteu, below, down-stairs. 

unter (65), under, beneath, 
below; among; — ter 'Si^- 
gierunc^ (Slifabetbi?, in the 
reign of Elizabeth. 

unterne^'men (167), to under- 

Unterne^'men, n. {-§), enter- 
prise, undertaking. 

Un'terfc^teb, m. (-e^ ; -e), difier- 

Un'terfc^rift,/ (-en), signature; 
explanatory word or phrase 
written under a picture, etc. 

lln'ambrkit, / (-en), untruth, 

un'tt?al)rfd)cinlirf), improbable. 

un'treit (gen.), not far from. 

nn'wirfA, unpleasant, uncom- 
fortable, nasty. 

im'^ufrieben, discontented, dis- 

ur'teilen, to judge. 

u. f. xo., ahhrev. for nnb fo 
h?eiter, and so forth, etc. 

55ater, m. (-g ; -), father. 

53ene't)ig, n. {-&), Venice. 

y era c^ ten, to despise, scorn. 

oerbergen (159), to conceal, 

t)erbieten (131), to forbid. 

53erMnbungi?t^iir, / (-en), con- 
necting door. 

^erbliilen, to fade. 

yerbrec^en (167), to commit a 
crime or fault. 

ijerbreiten, to spread. 

tterkennen (99), to burn, con- 
sume with fire. 

»erberben (159), to spoil {intr.); 
— {weak), to spoil {tr.), in- 

ijerbid^ten, to condense. 

ijerbrie^en (123), to vex. 

33eretnigten ©taaten (t>ie), pi, 
The United States. 

ijergangen, past, last. 

tjergebeni?, in vain. 

i)ergel)en (188; fein), to pass 
away, perish. 

t)ergelten (159), to requite, re- 

ijergeffen (181), to forget. 

oergilbt, yellow, faded. 

53ergniigen, w. (-^), pleasure, 
delight, amusement. 

t)ergniigt, pleased, merry. 

ijcrgolbet, gilded. 

»erf)alten (fid), impers., 188), 
to be, be the case. 

5Ser^a(tni0, n. (-fcv? ; -fe), cir- 

tter^ei'raten (ft(^ mit), to marry. 

t>erf)iiOen, to conceal, hide. 



tjerirren (ftcfo), to go astray, 
lose one's way. 

»erfaufen, to sell; tiefeg ^an^ 
i|l ju — , this house is for 

»erfruppeU, spoiled, dried up. 

ijerlangen, to ask, demand, re- 

terfajyen (188), to leave, de- 
sert, quit ; ffc^ — auf ( + 
ace), to rely upon, depend 

ttertaufett (188, ft c^), to lose one's 
way, run away, go astray. 

3Scr(eger, m. (-^; — ), publisher. 

»er(eit'en, to render disagree- 
able, spoil. 

»erle|en, to hurt, wound. 

»er(ieren (131), to lose. 

35erluft, m. (-ei? ; "t), loss. 

i?ermeinen, to think, suppose. 

t^ermieten, to let, rent. 

ttermtttelft {+gen.}, by means 

ttermutltc^, probable. 

»erne§m6ar, perceptible, audi- 

tterne^men (167), to perceive, 
hear, learn. 

»erneic(en (fic^), to bow, make a 

tterniinftig, reasonable. 

tterobet, desolate, deserted. 

»errcifen (fein), to go on a 

tterreifl, absent on a journey. 

i^erfammeln, to collect, assem- 

^erfd»enfen, to give away. 

tterfc^ic^en (123), to shoot off, 
shoot away. 

tjerfc^Iiefert (123), to lock up. 

yerfc^Iingen (144),\to swallow, 

oerfc^Iucfen, / devour. 

uerf4reibeu (120), to prescribe. 

tjerfc^menben, to squander, 

^Serfc^roenbung,/ (-en), waste, 

ijerfc^trinben (144; fein), to 
disappear, vanish. 

ijerfe^en, to move, transport ; 
answer, reply, rejoin. 

ttcrfprec^en (167), to promise. 

33erfte(Jen, n. (-€), hide-and- 

Oerflel)en (186), to understand; 
fl^ — auf (4- ace), to be a 
judge of, know how. 

tjerflorben, deceased. 

tjerfuc^en, to try. 

ycrtaufc^en, to exchange. 

»ertraumcn, to dream away. 

oeritjanbetn, to change. 

S)ertt)a^ren, to keep, stow away 

5Sermant'tc(r), (adj.subst), rela- 
tion, relative. 

»ertt)ent>ett (99), to make use of. 

yermiittfc^t, cursed, confounded. 

^erjaubern, to charm, enchant. 

t)erjet)ren, to swallow, devour. 

ycrjei^en (120; dat. of per s.), 
to pardon, excuse. 

^Serjei^ung, / (-en), pardon, 
forgiveness; urn — bitten, 
. to beg pardon. 

tjeqicben (131, fic^), to with- 
draw, disappear. 

tjerjiveifeln, to despair. 

55efperbrot, n. (-e^), supper. 

^Setter, m. (-^ ; -n), cousin. 



5?icl>, n. (-Co), cattle, beasts. 
i?iel (mcbr, meift), much, many, 

a great deal of ; ivie — lU)r, 

what o'clock. 
t?ie(Ieid^t', perhaps, possibly. 
»ielma(, inelmaU, many times, 

frequently, often. 
Oicr, four. 

ijierja^rig, four-year-old. 
3Siertet, n. (-^ ; — ), fourth 

part, quarter. 
35iertelflun'be,/ (-n), quarter of 

an hour. 
^ier3c(m, fourteen ; — 3;age, a 

5?iUa,/ m\ii\\), villa. 
33icIonceII', n. (-e^ ; -e), violon- 
SSogcI, m. (-^ ; -), bird. 
tJcU (+gen. or 'oon or undecL 

subst), full, 
^oflbrin'gen (99), j to finish, 
»c(le'nben, j complete. 

'Oon (46), of, from, by, about, 

'OOX (65), before, of, in front 

of, ago; — a^t Jagen, a 

week ago. 

sorbet', over, past. 

tjorbeige^en (188; fein), to go 
by, pass by, pass. 

^orbereiten, to prepare (for, auf 
+ ace. ). 

55or'berfu§, m. (-e^ ; "e), fore- 

Vorfabren (186 ; fein), drive up 
to the door, etc. 

ttorge^cu (188; frin), to go (or 
be) fast (of a time-piece). 

oor'geftern, the day before yes- 

yor^aben (24), to contemplate, 

55or^anc^, m. (-ei? ; -e), curtain. 

t)or^er', before, formerly. 

'OOXXQ, preceding, last. 

s?or!ommcn (167; fein), to seem, 
appear ; to occur. 

i?orlduftg (adv.), temporarily, 
for the present. 

»orIefen (181; +dat. of 'per- 
son)^ to read to. 

3Sormunb, m, (-e^ ; -er), guard- 

ttor'ne^m, distinguished, prom^ 
inent, aristocratic. 

3Sorrat, m. (-e^ ; -e), stock, pro- 

»Dr[{(^tig, cautious, prudent. 

55orjtabt,/ (-e), suburb. 

^orftetlen, to present, intro- 

ijorteil^aft, advantageous. 

»ortreten (181 ; fein), to step 
forward, advance. 

^oriiber, past. 

t)oriiberflie§en (123; fein), to 
flow past. 

ttoriikrge^en (188 ; fein), to go 
past, pass by; am Jpaufe — , 
to go by, go past, the house. 

ttorn?drt^, forward, onward, on. 

»orjiet)en (131), to prefer; to 
pull to (of a curtain, etc.). 

n?ad^, awake. 
tt)ad)en, to be awake, 
macfelici, shaky. 
tt)ad)fen (186), to grow 



2Bagen, m. (- 

-), waggon, 

ani^en, to dare, venture. 

irdgen (131), to weigh. 

iBa^eftiicf, n. {-ti ; -e), adven- 
ture, daring deed. 

ird^len, to choose, select. 

wa^r, true, real; nicbt — ? am 
(I, etc.) nof? is it not so ] 

ivd^ren, to last, continue. 

ivakent* (223), during: while. 

a^abrba'ftig, true, real, actual : 
wJv., upon my word. 

SSabrbett,/ (-en), truth. 

n)a'brnct)men (167), to perceive. 

n?abrfd)einlicb, probable. 

SBaifen^auc, n. (-ec ; -er), or- 
phan-asylum, orphanage. 

2i}alb, m. (-ec ; -er), forest, wood. 

SBalbbaum, m. (-c^ ; -e), forest 

S3alt'f)a(Ie,/ (-n), forest avenue. 

2BaIbfd)enfe, / (-n), tavern in 
the woods. 

SBalbtter, n. (-e^5 ; -e), forest 
animal, wild animal. 

2Ba(bn?ie[e,/ (-n), forest-mead- 
ow, glade. 

ifiiUen, to move gently, roll; 
wave, heave; walk. 

trdf^en, to roll, turn over. 

S?am5, n. (-ts ; -er), jacket. 

SSanb,/ (-e), wall. 

2Bant}(e)rer, m. (-{? ; — ), tra- 

trann, when? 

5i?at5?enfAilt), ?i. (-e^? ; -er), shield 
with armorial bearings, es- 

trarm (''er), warm. ^ 

amrten {+gen. or an^ + acc), 

to wait for, wait on, tend, 
nurse ( + acc.). 

waxnm, why, wherefore. 

lyac, what, that which, which, 
that ; — fi'ir eirt, eine, ein, 
what kind of a, what. 

ma5 (adv.), why? 

aM5 ( = etn?ac), something, any- 

\va\dftn (186), to wash. 

2}ajTer, n. (-c ; — ), water ; ju 
— , by water. 

ire6en (131), to weave. 

3Be6er6aum, m. {-ti- ; '-e), weav- 
er's beam. 

ived^felbaft, changeable. 

trecfen, to wake, awake, waken. 

SSecf'u^r, / (-en), alarm-clock. 

weter, neither; — ... noc^, 
neither . . . nor. 

2Beg, m. (-tv ; -e), way, road ; 
fic^ anf ben — madden, to set 
out, be off. 

IT eg, away, off. 

aegen (223), on account of, 
because of, for the sake of, 
for ; i)on — , on account of, 

ireg!ommen (167; fein), to come 
away, get off. 

megmac^en (^ld^), to get off, get 
out, make one's self scarce. 

irega'^eifenb, showing the way, 
leading, guiding. 

SBegweifer, ?7z. (-v ; — ), leader, 

SBeb(e), 71. (-^), sorrow, pain, 

n?eb(e), painful, sore ; — t^iin, 
to hurt, pain. 

ivekn, to IjIow ; to wave. 

2Be^mut,/!, melancholy, sorrow. 



SBebn, n. {-i), breath. 
2Bebr,/! (-tn), armour, defence. 
SBeib, 11. (-e^; -er), woman; 

irciiten (118), to yield, vanish. 
^\>eite, f. {-w), pasturage, pas- 
ture ; willow. 
3S?eitniact)ten, p/., Christmas. 
n?eil, because. 
SBeilc, /. (-n), while, space of 

^t\n, m. (-eo ; -e), wine, 
ireinen, to weep, cry. 
i©einfarte,/ (-n), wine-card, 
iveife, adj., wise. 
SBcife, /. (-n), manner, mode, 

way; auf ticfe — , in this 

n?eifen( 120), to point out, show. 
tvei§, white. 
)rei§en, to whitewash, 
ireit, far ; broad; wide; far off; 

afar, distant. 
2Ceite, / (-tt), distant place; 

widtli ; wide space, 
tretter, farther, further. 
SiJei^en, 77i. (-c), wheat, 
tpel^er, melc^e, ive(6ei?, re/. 

jyron., who, which, that ; 

interrogative adj., which? 

what? ivelci\ adj. (in exclor 

mations), what a ! what ! 
SBellc,/ (-n), wave, billow. 
SCelt, / (-en), world; auf ber 

— , in the world, 
ttjentcn (99), to turn ; fief) — , 

to apply (to, (kw + acc). 
tt)eni^, little, few. 
njenn, when, whenever, as soon 

as ; if ; — a\\6>, even if; 
XOtx, who; whoever; who? 

werbeit (159), to sue (for = 

jrertett (159 ; fein), to become, 
grow; (as aux. of Jut. tense), 
shall, will (201) ; {as aux. oj 
the jmssive voice, 112-114), 
to be ; — anv, to become of. 

trerfen (159), to throw, toss. 

SJevf, n. (-ev? ; -e), work. 

Wtxt, worth, worthy. 

weffen, whose ; whose 

irei?6al6, wherefore? why? 

iS>ette,/ (-n),- wager, bet. 

metten, to wager, bet. 

SBetter, n. {-C^ ; — ), weather; bei 
biefem — , in this weather. 

mi($tig, weighty, important. 

tviber {ace; 34), against, con- 
trary to. 

Witerftre'ben, to resist, be re- 

toit, how ; how ? ; as, like ; — 
fe|r au6>, however much. 

ittieter, again, once more. 

ane'ter^allen, to echo, resound; 
be repeated. 

ane'berfe^en (181), to see again, 
meet again. 

2Bie'rerfef^£n, n. (-^), meeting 
again ; auf — , good-bye till 
we meet again, aic revoir. 

iviegeu (131), to weigh. 

ivieoien (iceak), to rock. 

anebern, to neigh. 

2.^iefc,/ (-n), meadow. 

trilb, wild, savage. 

2BiI6eIm, m. {-^), William. 

S}iUp, m. (-n^ and -n ; -n), will ; 
wish ; urn . . . tvitleu ( + gen.), 
for the sake of. 

WxUxQ, willing. 



SBint", m. (-e^ ; -e), wind. 

annben (144), to wind. 

iOinCC^faufeu, n. (-e); rushing 
or roaring of the wind ; 
ir»ie — , as swiftly as the 

winbig, windy. 

S3tn!el, m. (-^ ; — ), corner, 

n?infen, to wink, beckon, signal. 

5Binter, m. (-o ; — ), winter. 

n?ir, we. 

Wirflicb, adv., really, truly. 

trirbelii, to whirl, curl. 

SBirt, m. (-ec ; -e), host, land- 

SBivtin,/ (-uen), hostess ; land- 

SS^trte^au0, n. (-eg ; '-'er), inn, 

n?if(^eu, to wipe. 

n?i|Jen (196), to know {said 
of knewledge) ; ni(tt bag ic^ 
njiipte, not that I know of. 

SBiiTenfc&nft// (-en), science. 

jrijTentlid>, knowingly. 

JBittirenfcbleier, m. (-g ; — ), 
widow's veil. 

ttJO, where ; where 1 

2Bocf)e,/ (-n), week. 

SCoge,/ (-n), wave, billow. 

Voobifpred. adj., well (of health) : 
mir iji nid)t — ^u ^^}^ut, I do 
not feel well ; — , adv., well, 
then, indeed, I suppose ; ja 
— , yes, to be sure. 

SBo^lgerucb, 7n. {-ts ; -e), pleas- 
ant odour. 
JBo^Iflanb, m. (-eg), wealth, 

comfort, prosperity. 
ttJobiten, to dwell, live, reside. 

5Bo6nung, / (-en), dwelling, 
house, residence. 

ifijolte,/ (-n), cloud. 

5Bo(fen[d)ic^t, / (-en), layer of 

©otfenfteg, m. (-eg; -e), cloudy 

3:Go(fenftra§e, / (-n), street of 

JSoIfent^ron, m. (-eg; -e), 
throne in the clouds. 

SBotte,/, wool. 

irotlen, woollen, of wool. 

ivoaen (196-202), to will, de- 
sire, wish, want, intend, 
mean, like ; — (5ie ein ©lag 
^Baffer? will you have a 
glass of water 1 

SBonne, /. (-n), pleasure, de- 

IV c ran, whereon 

, on which, on 

what, of what. 
Rjorauf, whereon, on which, 

for which, on what, 
troraug, wherefrom, from what, 

of what. 
TOorin, wherein, in which, in 

SCort, n. (-eg ; "er ayid -e), 

ivcriiber, about what, at what, 

over what, 
njucfcern, to increase rapidly, 

grow luxuriantly. 
Ji^unbe,/ (-n), wound. 
iR}nnber, n. (-g ; — ), wonder, 

wunberbar, wonderful, strange, 

Jl^unberbauin, m. (-eg ; "e), ma- 
gic tree. 



munbcru (firf)), to wonder, be 
astonished (at, iibcr H- ace); 
ti iviintcrt mid) (impers.), I 

ttJUnberfani, wonderful, won- 

n?unter[cbcn, most beautiful. 

2l>unfcb, m. {-t^ ; -e), wish. 

ttjiinfiten, to wish, desire, want; 
©liicf — , to congratulate, 
wish success. 

jriirbeyotl, dignified. 

51>urm, m. {-ti ; -cr), worm. 

S}urft,/ (-e), sausage. 

5i^ur3el,/ (-n), root. 

2But,/, rage, fury. 

itjiitent*, furious. 

3a^I,/. (-en), number. 

jaMen, to pa}^ 

jaMen, to count. 

3a^tt,. m, (-e^ ; -t), tooth. 

3a^ntt?e^, 71. (-e5), tooth-ache. 

ga'ppein, to kick, struggle. 

^axt (-er and -ex), tender, 

3iiu6er, m. (-i-), charm, magic, 

3<iubcrpferb, n. (-e^ ; -c), en- 
chanted horse. 

3aukrfrf)Io§, n. (-[ci? ; -fer), en- 
chanted castle. 

3aubcrwalb, m. (-e^; -er), en- 
chanted wood. 

3aun,m. (-e^; "c), hedge, fence. 

3el)n, ten. 

3ei(^en, n. {-^ ; —), sign. 

,3ei(^en, to show. 

jeiben (120), to accuse. 

3eit, / _(-en), time; 511 adcu 

— en, in all ages. 
3eitunoi,/ (-en), newspaper, 
gerbrec^en (167), to break to 

jerfatlen (188; fein), to fall to 

pieces, decay, 
^erfliefen (123; fein), to flow 

away, vanish. 
3er!nirfd)t, crushed, dejected, 
^errei^en (118), to tear (to 

3errinnen(158; fein), to vanish, 

run away (of liquids), 
jerftreuen, to scatter, disperse. 
3eug, n. (-e5 ; -e), cloth ; stuff; 

ttjaa biio — :^alten anil, as 

hard as you can. 
3eU(?, m., Jupiter, 
jie^en (131), to di^aw; pull, 

take ; extract ; doff (one's 

cap) ; (fein), to move, march, 
^ieren, to adorn, 
^ierli^, elegant, graceful. 
3immer, n. {-§ ; — ), room. 
3inne,/ (-n), battlement. - 
3ipfel, m. (-0 ; — ), point, tip ; 

jittern, to tremble. 
jL^gern, to hesitate, delay, 
pttig, shaggy, 
ju (46), to, at- — meineui 

Dnfel, to my' uncle's; — 

berfelben 3^i^ ^t the same 

time ; adv., too ; closed, 

3u'6rinc<en (99), to pass, spend 

(said of time). 
3ncf)t,/, discipline. 
3u(!er, m. {-^), sugar, 
jnerft', first, first of all. 



^ueffeit (181), to go on eating. 

3ufaU, m. (-ti ; -e), chance, ac- 

jufliiftern, to whisper to. 

jufcl^e {ge7i. or dat.; 223), in 
consequence of, according to. 

3ufriet»en, contented, satisfied. 

3ug, m. {-ti; "t), feature; 
character ; train. 

3u9el, m. (-» ; — ), bridle, rein. 

gugreifen (118), to reach out, 
put out the hand. 

IVL^oxtn, to listen. 

3ufunft,/, future. 

3u(e'0t, at last. 

3 urn a it en, to shut, close. 

5unet)men (167), to increase. 

junicfcn, to nod to. 

juraunen, to whisper to. 

jureiten (118 ; fein), to ride up 


\\xx\xd, back. 

juriicfbringen (99), to bring 

juriicfbleiben (120; fein), tore- 
main behind ; remain at 

}uriicft>rangen, to force back. 

juriicfge^en (188; fein), to go 
back, retire, retreat. 

juriicffebren (fein), to return. 

juriicffcmmen (167 ; fein), to 
return, come back. 

jnriicflegen, to put bv, lay up. 

5 n fa mm en, together. 

jufammenlaufen (188; fein), to 
run together. 

jufammenfc^raubcn, to screw 

jufamnienfto^en (188), to col- 

3uf(ticfen, to send to {-\-dat.). 

5ufd>ie§en(123), to go on shoot- 

3ufcblagen (186), to shut 

5ufd)(iepen (123), to lock up, 
fasten, shut. 

jufitreiten (118 ; fein), to stride 
up, stride on. 

^ufeben ( 181), to look on, watch. 

^ufebentc, while one is looking, 

3ufpred)en {\^1 + dat.), to ad- 
dress, speak to. 

juijo'r, before. 

^umei'Ien, sometimes, at times. 

jutrenten (99), to turn to- 
wards, take to, have re- 
course to. 

jrcanjig, twenty. 

jttJar, true, truly ; to wit, 

3n?ecf, m. (-c^ ; -e), aim, object. 

jivei, two. 

3n?ei9, m. {-t^i ; -e), branch, 
bough, twig. 

^meitene, secondly. 

3irerg, m. {-ti ; -e), dwarf. 

3n?iebel,/ (-n), onion. 

^wiefach, double. 

jroingen (144), to force. 

gnjifcJen (65), between. 

jTOolf, twelve. 



able, f a!§tg, gefd^irft ; to be — , 
fonnen, 196; im (Etanbefein. 

about, 'prep. (around), urn, 34, 
226, a; (the person), bei, 
46, 226, d\ oc?!?., (nearly), 
ungefal)r ; tixQ^, 226, 6, c ; 
to be — to, im 53egriffe fein. 

above, prep.^ iiber, 65. 

absent, abroefenb ; mind- 
ed, ^erftreut. 

abuse, v., mtgl^an'beln. 

accept, annel^men, 167. 

accompany, begleiten {trans.). 

account; on — of, iDcgen, 223; 
]^alb(en), ^alber, 223 ; on 
that — , beSroegen, be§]^al6. 

accusation, 2lnflage,/. (-n). 

accuse (of), anflagen {gen. of 
thing), bef(i)ulbigen {gen. of 

accustomed, geirol^nt ; to be — , 
bie @en)of)n!£)eU h^ahtn. 

acknowledge, anerfennen, 99. 

acquaintance, 33efanntfc^af t, /. 
(-en) ; to make the — of, 
fennen lernen. 

acquit (of), lo§fpred)en (167; 
gen. of thing). 

act, V. fjanbeln ; to — amiss, 

add, abbieren. 

address, suhst., ^tbreffc,/ (-n). 

address, v.y anreben. 

admire, beraunbern. 
advance, Dorriirfen {intr.; fein). 
advantage, Q^ovteil, m. (-e§ ; -e). 
advantageous, r)or'teilI;aft. 
advice, 'iRai, m. (-e§). 
advise, raten (188; dat.). 
affair, @ad)e,/. (-n). 
afraid ; to be — (of), fic^ 

fiird)ten (oor + c^a^.). 
after, na(^, 46. 
afternoon, 9^ad)mittag, m. (-e§ ; 

afterwards, nadjl^er, l^ernad), 

again, toieber, nDd)maI§. 
against, iriber, gegen, 34. 
ago, Dor {prep. + dat.), 65 ; 

many years — , t)or Dielen 

3a^ren ; a week — to-day, 

l^eute t)or ac§t ^agen. 
agreeable, angene!f)m. 
ail, fel^Ien ; what — s j^ou ? 

tt)a§ fel^lt S^nen ? 
alas ! a6:) \ 
all (the), all, 5iae§ ; aUer, aCe, 

alle§ ; — the same, einerlei. 
allow, erlauBen {dat.)-, laffen, 

188; tobe— ed,biirfen,196. 
Alma (river), 5llma, /. 
almost, faft, ktna!^e. 
alone, alletn. 

along, lang§, entlang, 223. 
alphabet, 5llp^bet', n. (-e§ ; -e). 
already, fcljon. 




also, and). 

always, iininer. 

America, 5(iuerifa, n. (-§). 

amiss; to act — , mi^'^anbeln, 

among, amongst, unter, 65. 
a, an, etn, eine, ein. 
ancient, alt ; the — s, bte %itm, 

and, unb. 

anecdote, 5lnefbote, /. (-n). 
angry, 6i3ie ; be — at, 6o[e fein 

auf ( + ace. of pers.). 
animal, 2^ter, ?i. (-es ; -e). 
another (a different one), ein 

anberer ; (one more), noc^ 

ein, eine, ein. 
answer, subst., ^ntaort, /. 

answer, v., antroorten (dat.) ; 

beanttt)orten {ace. of thing, 

dat. of pers. \ 
answering (act of), 5tntn)orten, 

n. (-§). 
ant, ^meife,/. (-n). 
any {partitive^ 2, 2); irgenb, 

ein, eine, ein ; — thing, ir; 

(x^zv^ tixoQi^, etraaS ; — thing 

but, nid)t5 raeniger al§ ; ^;/., 

raeld)e, einige ; not — body, 

not — oney niemanb ; not 

— , fein, feine, fein. 
apartment, @ema^, n. (-e§ ; 

appear, fdieinen, erfd)einen, 120. 
apple, Slpfel, m. (-5 \ -)\ — 

-tree, ^Ipfelbaum, m. (-e§ : 

apply to anyone, fief) an je; 

ntanben (ace.) raenben, 99. 

appoint (as), evnennen (99 ; 

approval, ^eifad, m. (-eo). 
April, ^Iprir, m. (-G). 
architect, 2Ird)iteft', ??i. (-en ; 

arm, 2Irm, m. (-e§ ; -e) ; — s, 

pi. SSaffen. 
army, 5(rmee,/. (-n). 
arrival, SInfunft, /. (-e). 
arrive, anfommen (167; fein). 
art, ^unft, /. ("e). 
article, Sirti'fel, m. (-§ ; — ). 
artillery, 5(rti(Ierie, /. ; ©e? 

fd)ii^, n. (-es). 
artist, ^iinftler, m. (-§ ; — ). 
as, 241, al§ ; roie ; fo ; ba ; 

— soon — , fobatb (raie) ; 

— a,a(§; — . . . — , (eben)fo 
. . . n)ie or al§. 

ascend, auffteigen, fteigen (120 ; 

ashamed ; to be — of, ]id) 

fdjdmen {gen. or iiber -f- ace. ). 
ask, fragen, 186; — for, bitten 

(181, um); Derlangen (narf)). 
asking questions (act of), 

gragen, n. (-§). 
assert, bel^aupten. 
assist, beifte^^en (186 ; dat.). 
astonish ; to be — ed (at), fic§ 

raunbern (iiber-f ace), 
astonishing, erftaunenb. 
at {of locality), in, an, aw], ^u, 

227, a ; {of time) um, §u, 
• bei, 227, 6; {of price) urn, 

227, c ; not — all, gar 

nic^t ; — my brother's, bei 

meinem 23ruber ; — last, — 

length, enb(id). 



attack, r., anc^vcifcn, 11^^; 

subst., ^^Ingrtff, m. (-ee? ; -e). 
attempt, stibsf., 53er[ud;, m. 

(-eg ; -e). 
attendant, 33egteiter, m. (-§ ; 


attention, Slufmerffamfeit, /. 

(-en) ; to pay — , 5Id)t gebeu 

(181 ; au\ + acc.). 
attentive, aufmerffam. 
August, 5(uguft', m. (-§). 
aunt, ^ante,/. (-n). 
author (of a particular work), 

3?erfafier, m. (-5 ; — ). 
autumn, ^^txhft, m. (-eg ; -e). 
avoid, meiben, oermeiben, 120. 
away, fort, abioefenb ; — from 

home, uon ,g)auie. 


back, adv., ^uriirf. 

bad, badly, fd)Ie(i)t. 

bag, Sacf, m. (-eg ; -e). 

bank, ©anf,/. (-en). 

bark (of trees, etc.), 33aum; 

rtnbe, /. (-n). 
basket, koxh, m. (-eg ; -e). 
battery, 33attertc, /. (-n). 
battle, ®d)la(^t,/. (-en), 
be, jein, 52; werben (159; as 

aux. of passive, 112, R. 5); 

fte^en, 186 ; there is, there 

are, eg giebt, eg ift, etc., 220; 

{of health) fid) befinben, U4; 

how are you? :cte ge^t eg 

3()nen ? I am to, id) foU. 
bear, suhst.^ S3dr, m. (-en ; -en), 
bear (bring forth), v., gebdren, 

beat, r., fc^lagen, 186. 

beautiful, fd)bn ; the — , bag 

beauty, 3d)bn]^ett,/. (-en), 
because, raeil ; 'tia. 
become, merben (159; fein) ; 

(suit) fte^en (186; dat.). 

bed, '^tii, n. (-eg; -en) ; to go 
to — , ju 33ette gef)en, fic^ 
fc^lafen kgen ; in — , ju 

bee, ^Btene,/. (-n). 

beef, ^Jttnbfleifd), n. (-eg), 
beer, 33ter, n. (-eg ; -e). 
before, prep., vox (65 ; dat. or 

ace); conj., beoor ; e()e (oa^), 
beg (ask), bitten (181 ; for, 

um) ; to — pardon, urn 

^Serjetl^ung hittm ; — (for 

alms), bettefn. 
beggar (-man), 33ettler, m. (-g ; 

— ) ; woman, ^ettlerin, 

/. (-nen). 
begin, anfangen, 188; beginnen, 

behave, ftd) betragen, 186. 
behind, I) inter (65 ; dat. or 

believe, glauben (dat. of j^er- 

belong (to), gel^bren {dat.). 
beloved, geltebt, raert. 
below, prep., unter {dat, or 

ace; 65); unter^lb {gen.; 

223) ; adv., unten. 
besides, adv., augerbem. 
between, §n)ifd)en {dd^or ace.; 

beverage, ©etran!, n. (-e§ ; -e). 
bid, V. (order), l^eigen, 188. 
big, gvofe. 



bill, D^ed)uuug,/. (-en), 
bird, 33 gel, m. (-0 ; "). 
bird-cage, ^ogetbauer, n. (-5 ; 

birth-day, @eburt§tag, m. (-es ; 

-e) ; as a present, jum 

bishop, 35t[d)of, m. (-e§ ; "e). 
bite, r., hd)^t\\, 118. 
bitter, bitter. 
black, adj., f(i)iDar5 (-er\ 
black, V. {of hoots), luidjjeu. 
blame, v., tabeln. 
blindly, bltnbltng§. 
blow, v., blajen, 188. 
blue, hiavi. 
board ; on — {of a ship), am 

boat, 33oot, n. (-e§ ; -e or ^bit), 
bodily, forperlic^. 
bombard, v., bombarbteren. 
bone, iinoc^en, m. (-§ ; — ). 
book, 33ud), n. (-e§ ; -er). 
bookseller, 53ud)f)dnb(er, m. 

(-§ ; -)• 

horn, part., geboren, 167. 
borne ; having been — down 

by the stream, Dom (Strome 

botanist, Sota'uifer, ?w.(-§; — ). 
both, htihc ; a((e beibe, beibeS. 
bough, 5Ift, m. (-es ; -e). 
Boston, 53o[ton, n. (-e) ; the 

— train, ber 3"9 ^on (nad)) 

Vx)y, ^rtabe, m. (-n ; -n). 
brave, tapfer. 
bread, ©rot, n. (-e§ ; -e). 
break, bredien, 167; - — through, 

cinbrec^en (fein). 

breakfast, v., |riif)ftiicfeu ; 

sicbst., ^riUjftiicf, n. (-eo;. 
bridge, ©riicfe, /. (-n). 
bring, bringeu, 99 ; ^o(eu ; to 

— with one, — along, 

mttbrtngen ; to — in, ^er; 

einbringen ; to — up, l^er; 

broad, breit. 

brother, sgruber, m. (-§ ; -). 
brother-in-law, ©c^ imager, m. 

(-§ ; ')■ 

build, bauen. 

building, ©ebciube, n. (-5 ; — ) ; 
(act of), sBaiieu, n. (-s). 

bullet, ^uget,/. (-n). 

burn, brenneu (99 ; hifr.) 
oerbrennen (99 ; tr. and 

business, ©efd^aft, n. (-e§; -e). 

business-matter, @ e f d) a f t § = 
angelegen^ett,/. (-en). 

but, aber; aUetn (241, 1); 
[onbern {only after a nega- 
tive, 236, R. 1). 

button, ^nopf , m. (-eg ; -e). 

buy, faufen. 

buying (action of), ^aufen, n. 


by, 228; (near by), bei {dat.); 
{of agent with j)(f-ss. voice) 
Don {dat.) ; {of means or 
instrument) burcf) (ace), mit 
(dat.); — rail(way), mit ber 


call (out), ruf en, 188; (name), 
nennen, 99; be — ed, ^eis 
gen, 188. 



call, subst. (visit), 3?efurf;, m. 

(-ef. ; -e). 
can, fonuen, 196-202. 
cannon, ^anoue,/. (-n). 
capable, fcifjig (gen., or + ju). 
capital, suhst., SpCiVii(>i]iCi\it, f. 

cardinal-point (see point), 
care, 5(d)t, /. ; to take — , fid) 

in 5ld)t nel^men, 167; do you 

— to? ^ben ®ie :^iift ju ? 

for all I — , meinetraegen. 
carpet, Xeppid^, ??i. (-e§ ; -e). 
carriage, QSagen, m. (-§ ; — ). 
carry, tva gen, 186 ; to — up, 

case, gall, on. (-e§ ; -e). 
castle, @(i)(og, n. (-ffe§ ; -ffer). 
cat, ^a^e, /. (-n). 
catch, f^ngctt, 188; — cold, 

ft(^ erfdlten. 
cause; to — to, laffen (188; 

+ infin.). 
celebrate, f etern ; — d, Beriil^mt. 
century, 3a{)r!f)unbert, n. (-e§ ; 

certain, — ly, gen)t^, jebenfa(I§. 

chair, ^ivii^i, m. (-e§ ; -e). 

chancellor, ^an^ler, m. (-§; — ). 

change, -y. tr., cinbern ; v. intr., 

fid) dnbern. 
Charles, ^arl, m. (-§) ; little 

— , ^ar(d)en, 7i. (-§). 
charming, ac?;., ret^enb. 
cheap, Mtlig. 

cheese, ^afe, m. (-§ ; — ). 
cherry, ^iri"d)e,/. (-n). 
chicken, §u!)n, n. (-e§ ; -er). 
child, ^inb, n. (-e§ ; -er). 
Christmas, 2Set^nad)ten, pi. 

church, ^ird)e,/. (-n). 

Cinderella, 5lf d)en|)Utte(, n. (-§). 

city, ^taht,/. (-'e). 

claim to be, tuoUen, 196. 

clear, flar. 

clever, ge[d)idt. 

climate, £Uma, n. (-§). 

climb up, ^inaufflettern. 

cloak, 9J^antel, m. (-§ ; ''). 

clock, U^x,/. (-en). 

close, ^umad)en; fc^liegen, §u; 
f^liefeen, 123. 

cloth, Xu(^, -yi. (-e§; -e or "er). 

clothes, ^(etber, n. pi. (see 

cloud, 2BoIfe, /. (-n). 

coachman, ^utfc^er, m. (-§; — ). 

coal, ^o^len, pi. 

coat, 9^od, m. (-e§ ; -e). 

coffee, ^affee, m. (-§). 

cold, fait (-ex) ; to catch — , 
fid) erf alien. 

colour, garbe, /. (-n). 

combat, ^arnpf , m. (-e§ ; -e). 

come, fommen (167; fetn) ; — 
in, l^ereinf ommen ; — here, 
^ier^erfommen ; — down, 
l^erunterfommen ; — out, 
l^eraugfommen; — back, 
^uriic^fomnien ; — again, 
n)tebetf ommen ; what is to 
— , b«i§ 33eDorfte^enbe. 

coming '(act of), ^ommen, n. 


command, v., befel^Ien (167; 

commandment, ©eBot, n. (-e§j 

company, (55efeIIfd)a[t, /. (-en), 
complain, f (agen (iiber + ace). 



complete, uoCfftanbtg. 
concert, ^on^ert', n. (-e§ ; -e). 
condition, 33ebingung,/. (-en), 
confusion, 53errairrung,/. (-en); 

Seftiir^ung,/ (-en), 
congratulate, (Sliicf roiinfc^en, 

gratutteren (dat.). 
conscious, htxovi^i{-\-gen.) 
consequence; in — of, jufolge, 

consider, betrac^ten ; l^alten 

fiir, 188. 
consist (of), 6efte§en (au§), 186. 
contented, jufrieben. 
contradistinction, ©egenfa^, 

m. (-es ; -e). 
contrary ; on the — , im @e; 

convent, ^(ofter, n. (-§ ; -). 
convince (of), iiber^eu'gen (-}- 

gen. of thijig, or Don). 
cool, adj., ixx^i. 
copy (of a book, etc.), subst., 

dremplar', n. (-e§ ; -e); t\, 

ab[d)reiben, 120. 
corner, (Sdt,f. (-n). 
correct, adj., ridjttg. 
cost, v., foften ( + ace. or dat. 

of person). 
counsellor, D^^atgeber, m. (-§ ; 

count, subst., ®raf , m. (-en ; 

countess, ©vcifin, /. (-nen). 
country, 2anh, n. (-ee; -er or-c); 

in the — , auf bem ^^anbe; 

man, 3?auer, m. (-n or 

-§; -n). 
couple, ^aar, n. (-e§ ; -e\ 
courtier, .l^ofling, m. (-e§; -e). 

cousin, ^Setter, m. (-§ ; -n); 

Confine, /. (-n). 
cover, v., becfen. 
create, fi)affen, 186. 
creditor, ©(dubiger, m.(-o; — ). 
creep, frted)en (123; fein). 
crime, QSerbred^en, n. (-5 ; — ). 
crop, crops, Srnte, /. 
cry (call), rufen, 188; (weep), 

cup, Zaiic^f (-n). 
curtain, 53Dr^ang, m. (-e§; -e). 
cut, fd)neiben, 118; — off, 

abfc^netben; to — one's 

hand, fic§ in bte §anb 


danger, @efa!§r, /. (-en). 

dangerous, gefd{)v(id). 

dare, fid) unterfte^en, 186 ; 

biirfen, 196. 
daughter, Xo6)Ux,f ("). 
day, Xag, m. (-es ; -e) ; in 

broad — light, bet ^eUem 

dead, tot. 

deal ; a great — of, t)ie(. 
dealer, ^dnbfev, m. (-§ ; — ). 
dear, Iteb, teuer. 
dearly-bought, teuer. 
decide, intr., ]id} ent](^lte§en, 

123; — d, ac?/., entfdjieben. 
defence, 35erteibtgung,/. (-en), 
definition, definition, /. (-en), 
deserve, oerbienen. 
desire, subst., 33ev(angen, n. 

(-§; — ); 2n]XfCe). 
desperate, oer^weifelt. 
devote, loibmen. 



diamond, ^tamant', m. (-§ or 

-eit ; -en), 
dictionary, SSorterbud), 71. (-e§; 

die, ftevben (159 ; fetnV 
difference, Unterfc^ieb, m. (-e5 ; 

difficult, fd)«)er. 

dig, graben, 186. 

diligence, ^leife, m. (-e§). 

diligent, flei^ig. 

dinner, 3D^ittag§efjen, n. (-§ ; 

— ). 
disagreeable, unangene^m. 
disappoint, enttdu](^en. 
discover, entbecfen. 
discoverer, (Sutbecfev, m. (-3 ; 


discovery, (Sntbetfung,/ (-en). 

disgrace, ©c^anbe, /. (-n). 

displeased, unjiifrieben. 

dissatisfied, unjufrieben. 

distant, entfernt. 

disturb, ftoren. 

diver, Zavi^tx, m. (-§ ; — ). 

divide, titen. 

divine, gf ttUd^. 

do, t^mi 196; (make), ma; 
c^en ; i{as aux. is not trans- 
lated Ihy a separate form; 
see 3/1, R. 3) ; how — you 
— ? luie ge!)t e§ 3^eu ? 

doctor, ^of tor, m. (-§ ; 
jDofp'ren); (physician), 
^r^t,' m. (-e§ ; "e) ; that is 

dog, S^xm"^, m. (-e§ ; -e). 

dollar, %i)Ci\tx, m. (-§ ; — ). 

door, %i)\\x{i), f. (-en) ; at the 
— , an bev 3:f)iir(e). 

doubt, suhst.y '^n)t\\tl, m. (-§ ; 

doubt, v., ^rcetfeln (an + c?a^.); 

I have no — of it, tc^ f)abe 

feinen S^^^t^^^ baran. 
down, ijerunter ; — -stairs, 

unten, l^inuntev, Ijevunter. 
dozen, ®u^enb, 71. (-eg ; -e). 
draw, ^tel^en, 131; ^eid^nen. 
dress, ^(etb, n. (-e§ ; -er). 
dress, v. tr., anfleiben; v. hitr., 

fi^ anfleiben. 
drink, trinfen, 144 ; — (of 

beasts), faufen, 123. 
drive, v. tr., treiben, 120; 

intr. (go in a conveyance), 

fa!^ren(186; f ein) ; go for 

a — , fpajieven fa()ren. 
driving (act of), gal^ren, n. (-§). 
drop, ^ropfen, m. (-§ ; — ). 
drown, intr.; be — ed, er= 

trinfen, 144. 
duke, ^erjog^m. (-e§; -eor'-e). 
during, n)al^renb {gen.-, 223). 
duty, ^flid)t, /. (-en), 
dwelling-house, 2Boi)nl^au§, n. 

(-e§ ; ^'er). 

each, jeber, jebe, jebeS ; — 

other, einanber. 
eagle, 5(bler, m. (-§; — ). 
ear* t)^x, n. (-e§ ; -en), 
early, friii). 
earn, Derbienen. 
earth, (Srbe, /.; quake, 

(Srbbeben, n. (-§ ; — ). 
east, Dft(en), m. (-en§ or -en), 
easy, — ily, leid)t. 



eat, effen, 181 ; freffen, 181 [ 
{said of beasts). 

effort, Hnftrengung, /. (-en), 
^emii^ung, /. (-en) ; 3>er= 
fud), m. (-e§ ; -e). 

either, entoeber ; — ... or, 
entiueber . . . ober. 

elect (as), ernjci^len (^um). 

elm, Ulme, /. (-n). 

else, or — , fonft. 

embarrassment, 3SerIegenf)ett, 
/. (-en). 

emperor, ^aijer, m. (-§ ; — ). 

endure, au5ftef)en, 186. 

enemy, geinb, m. (-e§ ; -e). 

engaged, ferfagt ; I have an- 
other engagement, I am — 
elsewhere, x6) Bin anber§ir)o 

English, engltfc^ ; — (lan- 
guage), (^nglifd) (be§ (£ng; 
lijdien); in — , auf (Snglijc^; 
into — , ins (5'ngUfd)e. 

Englishman, (^ngldnber, vi. 

(-§; — ). 

enjoy, gemeBeu (123; gen. or 

more generally ace.) 
enough, genug ; be — , suffice, 

err, irren. 
escape, entflie^en (131 ; fein; 

esteem, ad^ten. 
etc., u. )'. n). (abbreviation for : 

unb jo treiter). 
Europe, (Suropa, n. (-§). 
even, ac?v.,[ogar,fe(bft; not—, 

nic^t etnmal'; — if, luenn and), 
evening, 9l6enb, m. (es ; -e). 
ever, je, jematg. 

every, jeber, jebe, jebeo ; — 
body, — one, jebermann, 
jeber, jebiceber, jeglid)er ; 

— week, alle ad)t 5;age. 
everywhere, libera (I. 

evil, subst.y'^bi^^, n.{adj.subst.) 
exactly, gerabe, e6en. 
examination, ^ranien, n. (-§ ; 


examine, unterfud)'en, Beob'^ 

exceeding, — ly, \'0&)]t, \t^x, 

except, au^er {dat.; -16). 
excuse, v.^ entfcCjutbigen {tr.\ 

oer^ei^en (120; dat.); subst., 

(Sntjc^utbigung, /. (-en), 
exercise, subst., 3(uf gabe,/. (-n). 
expect, erroarten. 
expense, Soften, ^;^. ; at the 

— of, auf Soften, 
eye, ^uge, n. (-§ ; -n). 

fail (in business), faHieren. 
fall, faaen (188; fein). 
family, gamilie, /. (-n). 
famine, .g)un'ger§not, /. (-'e). 
far, mtit ; as — as, big nad) 

{dat.); not — from, unferu, 

unroeit (geii.; 223). 
farewell, Sebeiuol^t, n. (-o). 
fast (quick), gefc^roinb, fdjnell. 
father, 53ater, m. (-§; -). 
favour, @efa(Ien, m. (-§ : — ). 
fear, v., fiird)ten (tram.); [id) 

fiird)ten {vox + dat.) 
fear, subst., gurc^,/.; for — , 

an^ ^urc^t. 
feather, ^eber,/. (-n). 



February, Je^vuar, m. (-§). 
feel, fiUjlen ; (perceive), emp; 

finben, 14^4:; intr. (of health), 

[id) befinben ; ^u Mutt fein ; 

I — ill,miriftfd)le(^t5u3D^ute. 
few, luenig, luenige ; a — , 

einige, ein paar. 
field, gelb, oi. (-e§ ; -er). 
fight, fed)ten, 124;ftvetten, 118. 
fill, fiiaen. 
find, finben, 144; — out, au§; 

finben; evfaljven (186); — 

again, luieberfinben. 
fine, fc^on. 

finger, ginger, m. (-§ ; — ). 
finish, uoUen'ben; to have — ed 

(with), fevtig fein (mit) ; 

— ed, fertig. 
fire, geuer, n. (-§ ; — ). 
first, adj., ber, bie, ha§ erfte ; 

adv., juerft, erften§ ; — of 

all, ^uerft. 
fish, Stfd), m. (-e§ ; -e). 
fishing (act of ), gtfd)en, n. (-§). 
fit for, — to, gut ju. 
five, fiinf. 

flatter, fc^metd)eln (dat.). 
flatterer, @d)meid)ler, m. (-§ ; 


fleet, suhst., g-fotte, / (-n). 

floor, gugboben, m. (-§ ; -). 

flour, Tlc^, n. (-e§). 

flow, v., fliegen (123; fein). 

flower, 33(ume, /. (-n). 

fly, fliegen ( 1 3 1 ; fein); — away, 

follow, folgen (fein ; daf.). 
foot, gug, m. (-es ; -'e). 
for, 229, prep, (in behalf of), 

fiir (ace; 34); (of jmrpose) 

in (dat.; 46); — reading, 
jum Sefen ; (of past time) 
\tit(dat.; 46); — three days 
(past), feit brei ^agen; (of 
fut. time) auf (ace. ; 229, h), 
2); — three days (to come), 
auf brei Xa^c, 

forbid, Derbieten (131 ; dat.). 

force, jroingen, 144 ; to be 
— d, obliged (to), miiffen, 

ford, gurt, /. (-en). 

forest, SSalb, m. (-e§ ; -er). 

forgery, ^erfalfd)ung, /. (-en). 

forget, Dergeffen, 181. 

forgive, uergeben (181 ; dat.). 

former, jener, jene, jene§. 

fort, gefte, /. (-n), geftung,/. 

fortieth (part), ^Sier^igftel, n. 


fortnight, Dier^el^n Za^c. 

fortunately, gliidlidierroeife ; 
g(iicfUd)er 2Beife. 

fortune, good- — , ©liidf, n. 

four, t)ier. 

fox, gu(^§, m. (-e§ ; -e). 

France, granfreid), n. (-§). 

Francis, gran^, m. (-en§). 

Fred(dy), gri^, m. (-en§). 

Frederick, grtebrid), m. (-§); 
Frederick-street, bie grieb= 

free, frei. 

freeze, frteren, 131. 

French, franco ftfc^ ; — (lan- 
guage), gran^ofifd), 7i. (be§ 

fresh, frifd). 



Friday, ivv^it^9' w^- (-^^ l -^)- 

friend, greunb, m. (-c§ ; -e). 

friendless, freimbloS. 

friendly, freunblid). 

friendship, greunbfdiaft,/. (-en). 

frighten (terrify), evi'divecfeu : 
to be — ed, erfd)recfen, 167. 

frog, grofd;, m. (-e§ ; -'e). 

from {directi(yii\ uon, au§ 
{dat. ; 46) ; (cause) aus ; 
(time) iihtx ( + ace; 65); a 
week — to-day, f)eute ii6er 
a6)t ^age: {disease) an (daf.; 
65); ev ift an biefer .Hrantbeit 
geftorbeii, he died of that 

front ; in — of ; vox {dat. or 
ace. ; 65). 

fully, gan^. 

funeral, Segrd6ni§, n. (-fes ; 

furious, — ly, U}iitenb. 
future, 3wf imf^/ /• 


gallop, galoppicven; fprengeu. 

garden, @arten, m. (-§ ; -). 

gardener, ©dvtner, m. (-5 ; — ). 

gather, faiumeln. 

general, ©eneral', m. (-eo ; -c). 

generally, geinobUid). 

generous, freigebig. 

gentleman, ^Jerr, m. (-u ; -en). 

George, ©eorg, m. (-5). 

Grerman, adj., beutfd) ; — 
(language), Teutfdi, n. (be§ 
^euti'dien) ; in — , auf 
Xeuti'd) ; into — , ino 

Germany, Xeut[dj(anb, n. (-$). 

get(become),n)evben(159: feiu). 

girl, i^Hbdien, n. (-5 ; — ). 

give, geben, 181 ; — up, auf; 

glad, fro^ (g^f^-) ', be — , \\<i\ 
fveuen ; I am — , e5 freut 
mid) : I should be — to, 
should like to, 16:} modite gem. 

glass, ©(as, n. (-c§ ; -er). 

glove, t'nanbj'c^u^, m. (-es ; -e). 

go, gef)en (188; fein) ; reifen 
(fein or fia6en) ; — away, 
lueggefien, fortge()en: — back, 
^uviirfgefjen: — out, (^in); 
auogehen ; — down, !)inun; 
tergefien ; — up, ^inauf; 
gel) en ; — past a place, <x\\ 
einem '^la^e coriiBevge§en ; 
— for, fetch, 1)0 (en. 

goal, ^\t\, n. (-es ; -e). 

God, god, @ott, m. (-es ; -cr), 

Goethe, @oet!^e, m. (-5). 

gold, suhst., @olb, n. (-€o). 

gold, adj., golden, go lb en. 

good, gut ; be — enough, 
l)a6en ^te bie (5nite ; — 
morning, guten iDlorgen. 

goodness, ®iite, /. 

graceful, — ly, anmutig. 

grand-parents, ©roBeltern, pi. 
I grapes, ^raukn, 7^. 
I grass, @ra§, n. (-eo ; "er). 
: grateful, banfbar. 

great, groB ("er, gro^t). 

green, gviin ; suhst., ©riin, n. 

I grind, fd)(etfen, 118. 

i ground, ^oben,7?2.(-o); (^rbe,/ 

I grow, luadifen (186; fein) 186; 
I luevben (159; fein). 



guess, ratcn, erraten, 188. 
guest, ©aft, m. (-eg ;, -'e). 


habit, ®moi}n^t\t, f. (-en) ; 

to be in the — of, bie (i)e= 

tDo()n(}eit I;aben ju, etc.; 

half, adj., ^dih ; — an hour, 

eiue I)al6e 3tunbe. 
half, suhst., <g)dlfte, /. (-n). 
hand, .g)anb, /. (-e). 
handsome, fd)on. 
handwriting, §anb]'d)rtft, /. 

hang, V. tr., lEiangen ; v. hifr., 

^ngen, 188. 
happy, g(ii(l(td). 
harbour, §afen, m. (-5 ; -). 
hard, [c^iuer. 
hardly, faum. 
hare, .^ai'e, m. (-n ; -n). 
harvest, suhst., (Srnte, /. (-n); 

v., ernten. 
haste, (Si(e, /. ; to make — , 

hat, c5ut, m. (-e§ ; "e). 
have, ^aben, 24; fein, 52, 53; 

laifeit, 188, 200, 7; to — 

to, be obliged to, miiffen, 

196-202; will you — a cup 

of tea? raotlen <sie eine 

Xaffe Z\)tt ? 
hay, Jpeu, n. (-e§). 
he, er ; ber ; — who, berje; 

nige n)eld)er, etc., luer. 
head, ^opf, w. (-e§ ; -e). 
health, @e]"unbf)eit, / 
hear, ^bren ; to — say, fagen 


hearing, ©el^or, n. (-ee). 

heart, .§^^'5/ ^^- ("^"^ i -^^) ; 

by — , au§n)enbig. 
heat, §t^e, /. 
heath, ,g)eibe, /. (-n). 
heaven, ^2>v^mti, m. (-§ ; — ;. 
heavy, f d^jtJer ; — ily, lcf)U)er; 

(of rain) ftarf ; heaviest of 

all, am aKerfc^tcerften. 
help, suhsL, §t(fe, /. 
help, v., ^etfen (159; dat.)-, 

it cannot be — ed, e§ Id^t 

fid) nidji anbern. 
Henry, ^t'mx'x^, m. (-§). 
her, pers. pron., fte (ace); tf)r 

her, poss. adj., ii)X, x^xc, if)V, 
here, l^ier. 

hide, v., oerBevgen, 159. 
high, ]f)od), I)of)er, f)0(^ft (Zoses 

c i?i inflexion) ; to think 

— ly of, Dtet ^alten oon, 188. 
him, t^n (ace), i§m (o?a^.). 
himself (he), er felbft; (to, for) 

— , fid^ (ace. or dat.). 
his, 2^oss. adj., fein, feine, fein. 
his, poss. pron., feiner, feine, 

fetne§ ; ber, bie, ba§ feine ; 

ber, bie, bag feintge. 
hoarse, Ifjetfer. 
hold, f)alten, 188; — together, 

holiday, ^eiertag, m. (-eg; -e); 

— s, gerien, pi. 
home, §etmat, /; adv., nadi) 

^an]c ; at — , ju JP)aufe ; to 

go — , nad) §au|'e gei)en, 188. 
honest, efjrlid), reblic^, aufs 

honey, i^onig, m. (-eg). 



hope, suhst., ,!f)Dffnung, /. (-en); 

r\, !§ often, 
horse, ^[erb, n. (-e§ ; -e). 
hospital, ^oj'pital, epital, n. 

(-e^ ; -er). 
hostess, 3£>irtin, /. (-nen). 
hot, f)eiB. 
hour, (£tunbe,/.(-n); hand, 

^tunben^etger, m. (-5 ; — ). 
house, .5)0115, n. (-e§ ; -ev) ; 

at your — , bet 3§nen. 
how, trie ; — do you do ? trie 

gef)t ee 3^tten ? trie befinben 

Sie fid) ? 
however, aber ; jeboc§. 
howl, f)eu(en. 
human, meni"d)licf) ; — being, 

DJtenjd), m. (-ett; -en), 
hundred, ^unbert; suhst-^QviXi' 

bert, n. (-e§ ; -e). 
hunger, §uttger, m. (-§). 
hungry, ^utigrig ; be — , 

c5)unger ^abeit. 
hunter, 3^^9^^*/ *^^- ("§^ — )• 
hunting (act of), Qcigett, n. 

(-5); (chase) 3agb,/. (-ett); 

go — , auf oie ^agb gef)en. 
huntsman, 3a9^^/ ^^- (-^'j — )• 
hurry, (vile,/.; I am in a — , icE) 

biit in ber (f ile, id) ^be es eilig. 
hurt, r., t)erlet3en ; roef) tl)nn i 

(99; dat.) 
husband, DJknn, m. (-es ; -er). 
hussar, §ujar, m. (-eno?'-5 ; -en). 


I, ic^. 

ice, (^i3, n. (-e§). 
idea, 3bee, /. (-n), ©ebanfe, 
m. (-n§ or -n ; -n). 

idle, faur, trdge. 

idleness, idling, 93^ii§iggang, 

m. (-e§). 
if, irenn; (whether), ob. 
ignorant, unn)iffenb. 
ill, franf ; health, fd;(ec^te 

®ei'unbf)eit, / 
illness, ^ranf^ett, /. (-en). 
imagine, [id)(c/a^.) benfen, 99. 
immediately, (fo)g(ei(^. 
importance, 3Bid)tigfeit, /. 
important, n)id)tig, bebeutenb. 
impossible, umnoglid). 
in, in ((/a^.; 65); cl\\\ {dat.; 65, 

230, a) ; — the country, 

auf bent Sanbe. 
inch, 3otr, m. (-e§). 
induce, benjegen, 131. 
industrious, flei^ig. 
industry, %it\^, m. (-es). 
inform, tnitteilen. 
inhabitant, (Sinrao'^ner, m. 


ink, 3:inte or ^mit,f. 
innocence, Unfcbulb, /'. 
inquire, \\&} erfimbigen, fragen. 
inside of, inner §a lb igen.; 223). 
insist on, befte^en (186 ; auf + 

instead of, ]tCiii, anftatt {gen.; 

intend, beabfidjtigen, oor'baben, 

24, gebenfen, 99. 
intention, 5(bfid)t, /. (-en), 
interrupt, unterbred/en, 167. 
into, in {ace; 65). 
invent, erfinben, 144. 
invitation, (Jinlabung,/ (-en), 
invite, einlaben, 186. 
iron, (^ifen, n. (-§); adj.^ eifern. 



it (38, 39), e§ ; ev ; fie ; bev, 

bie, ba§|'e(be ; in — , bavin ; 

for — , bafiir; of — , baoon; 

with — , bamit; to — , 'o^n. 
its, poss. adj., fein, i()r. 
itself {nom.), e§ felbft {dat., 

ace), [id). 

James, 3^1^'-^^^ ^^^' (-^)» 
January, 3il»W^i^/ ^^- (-^)* 
John, 3o^ann', m. (-^), 3o^n* 

journey, Slcife,/ (-n). 
joyous, froi)(id). 
July, '^u'i'x, m. (-^). 
jump, [pringen, (144; fein); — 

down, ()erunterfpringen, ^in^ 

June, 3u'ni, m. (-?). 
just, gerabe, e6en ; — now, 

foeBen, — as, ebenfo. 
justify, rec^tfertigen. 


kick, fto§en, 188. 

kind ; what — of, mag fitr (ein, 
eine, ein) ; of many — s, t>ie= 
lerlei; adj., gut, freunblid) ; 
to be so — as to, fo gut fein 

kindness, ®iite,/, ^ittigfeit,/, 

king, jlcnig, m. (-eg ; -e); King- 
street, tie .^onigftva^e. 

kingdom, v^enigreid),-/!. (-eg; -e). 

knife, ^z\\tx, n. (-g ; — ). 

knock down, {)erunterfd)Ictgen, 

know {of acquaintance), !c li- 
nen, 99 ; {nf knoiohdge ac- 
quired by mental effort) 

miffen, 196; —how, fbn^ 

nen, 196. 
knowledge, ^enntnig, f. (-fe), 

2Biffenfd)aft,/. (-en), 
known, tefannt. 


lady, X)ame,/. (-n); young — 
(Miss), graulein, n. (-g; — ). 

lake, (gee, m. (-g ; -en). 

landscape, ?anbfd^aft,/ (-en). 

language, (gpraie,/. (-n). 

lantern, Saterne,/. (-n). 

large, groj (''er, groft). 

last, le^t, ijorig; at — , enb* 
lic^ ; v., bauern. 

late, fpat. 

lately, neuli^, fiir^Iic^. 

Latin, subst., Satein', n. (-g). 

latter, the — , jener. 

laugh, lac^en ; — (at), lad^en 
{gen. or iiber-f ace.) ; he — s 
at (makes sport of) you, er 
mad)t fid) iiber Sie luftig. 

lawyer, ^t)Oo!at', m. (-en ; -en). 

lay, regen. 

lazy, faul, triige. 

lead, 331ei, n. (-es). 

lead, v., fii()ren. 

lead-pencil, ©leiftift, m. (-eg ; -e). 

leaf, 53(att, n. (-eg ; -er). 

learn, lernen. 

learned, adj., geteBrt. 

learning (action of), Semen, 
n. (-g). 

least; at — , menigfleng. 

leave, laffen, 188; — behind, 
desert, abandon, ^jerlaffeu ; 
— out, auglaffcn. 

left, finf; be—, iibrig b(ei6en 
(120; fein). 



leg, 'i^cin, 7?. (-ei? ; -c). 

lemouade, IMmeiuitc,/! (-n). 

lend, Iciben (120; dat.oj pers.) 

lesson, 3(uf^vibe, / (-n) ; ^th 
tion,/ (-eii). 

let, lajfen, 188. 

letter {of alphabet)^ 33ucbftabe, 
m. (-lie or -n; -n); (epistle), 
53rief, m. (-e^ ; -c). 

liar, ?iigiier, m. (-5 ; — ). 

library, 33iMiotl)cE',/. (-en). 

lie (be recumbent), (iegen, 181 ; 
— down, fic6 ^iiilegen. • 

life, 2e[^eii, n. (-i? ; — ). 

lighten (flash), bli^Cll. 

lightning, 33Ht^, m. (-eo ; -e). 

like, luc^eii, 196-202; gem {}a^ 
ben, 24; I should — , id) 
nioc^te (gem); to — to learn, 
gem lernen ; I — music, \6> 
bin ein greunt yen ^Ihifif; 
how do you — London? ivie 
gcfdtlt 3^"fn Sonton ? 

lily, U\t,f. (-n). 

Limburg, adj., Simburcier. 

lion, Soire, m. (-n ; -n). 

listen to, anboren {tr,). 

literature, Siteratur',/ (-en). 

little {of size), flein ; {of quan- 
titt/) menig. 

live, Icben; (dwell), mcbnen. 

living, le'bent*, leben'tig. 

locality, (5)ecrent»,/ (-eu). 

London, Sontcn, n. {-i) ; ac//*., 
^ontoner. i 

long, adj., lang (-er) ; adv., \ 
lange (-v); have you been 
here — ? fint) (Sie f6on lanoie 
:^ier? he has not been here 
for a — time, er ift (ancie 
nic^t l)ier gemefen ; three i 

months — er, noc^ t>rei S)io= 
nate ; no — er {lit.^ not 
more), nicbt mebv. 

long for, v., fid) febnen iiad>. 

look for, [luten, fud^en na6 ; 
— like, auefe^en (luie o?- 
nad>), 181 ; it — s (aj^pears, 
seems) like rain, ei? ftebt nad^ 
^z^iw <ku^ ; — up, ^inauf^ 
feben, 181. 

lose, t?er(ieren, 131. 

lost, yerloren. 

loud, — ly, Unit. 

Louisa, Scuife,/ (-n^). 

love, v., lieben. 

lower, unter, nieter {adjs.). 


magnificent, prdd^tio(. 

majesty, Wa\t\i'<k{' , f (-en). 

make, madden. 

man, ^Dcann, m. (-ec; "er); (hu- 
man being), 'D?ten[d>, m. (-en ; 
-en); — kind, 5l^en[d5,m.; men 
(soldiers), Solbaten ; -little 
— , 'i)}idnn{ein, 71. (-^; — ). 

manikin, ^D^tdnnlein, 72. (-y; — ). 

manner, S}cife,/ (-n); in that 
— , anf tie[e SBeife. 

many, yiete ; — a, — a one, 
nuuuter, inand^e, ntand^ec. 

March, Wax\, m. (-e»?). 

Margaret, 5)Zaroiavcte,/ i-ni). 

market, 'D?Zarft, m. (ec ; "e). 

marriage (-ceremony), J^raii- 

• nng,/ (-en). 

married, i?erbeiratet. 

marry, ()eiraten, ijerbeiraten {\\&) 

marsh, ©umpf, m. {-t^ ; -e). 

Mary, 5)?arie,/. (-n^). 



matter, (Sacbf,/ (-n) ; what is 
the — 1 WiU i^iebtiJ? wai- ift 
lo^? what is the — with 
you? \va^ fet)(t 3^nen? 

May (month of), ^ai, m. (-e5 
or -en). 

may, v., tiirfen ; !onnen ; mo= 
c^tw, 196-202. 

mayor, ^Siirgermeifier, m. (-^ ; 

me, mic^ (ace), ntir {dat). 
mean ; in the — time, untcr* 

bejjeii ; by — s of, "otxwxxU 

telft, iH'vmoge, gen., 223. 
mean, v., meinen ; to — to, 

intend to, trotlen, 196-202. 
meat, g(eif(^, n. (-eg), 
meet, v., begegnen {dat.; fetn); 

to go to — , entgegen ge^eii 

(188; dat; fein). 
meeting, 5Serfamm(ung,/ (-en), 
melon, ^l\tUnt,f. (-n). 
mental, geiflig. 
merchant, ^aufmann, m. (-eg ; 

mere, — ly, blog. 
merry, merrily, lujlig. 
messenger, Sote, m. (-n ; -n). 
metal, W.tia\i' , n. (-eg ; -e). 
microscope, 9)?ifro[fo|)', n. (-eg; 

middle, mittt,/.; in the — of 

summer, mitten im (Somnier. 
mile, mtiUJ. (-n). 

milk, mm J. 

mine, meiner, meine, meineg ; 

ber, t)ie, bag meine; ter, bie, 

bag meinige. 
minute, ?[Rinute, / (-n); — 

-hand, ^IRittutenjeiger, m. (-g; 

misfortune, Ungliicf, n. (-eg). 
Miss (young lady), graulein, 

71. (-g ; — ). 
mistake, ^e^ler, m. (-g ; — ). 
mock, fpotten (ge^i. or iiber-l- 

moisten, bene^en. 
moment, 5tugenbli(f , m. (-eg ; -e). 
monarch, m.onaxd)', m. (-en ; 

Monday, ^iJJontag, m. (-g ; -e). 
money, ®e(b, n. (-eg ; -er). 
month, ?[Ronat, m. (-eg ; -e) ; a 

— ago, ijor einem 5!)?onat. 
more, me^r ; one — , nod) 

morning, ^orgen, m. (-g; — ); 

in the — , beg 9}?orgenc; 

good — , guten ?!J?orgen. 
mostly, meifteng. 
mother, Sfflxitkx,/. (-'). 
mountain, 33erg, m. (-eg ; -e). 
mourning, Zxautv,/. 
Mr., ^err, m. (-n; -en), 
much, ttiel ; very — , fe'^r ; as 

— , eben fo »ie(. 
music, ^uji!',/ 
musician, ^u'ftfer, m. (-g ; — ). 
must, miiffen, 196-202. 
my, ]?oss. adj., mein, meine, 

mein {also expressed by dat. 

of per s. pron. +def. art). 
myself (I), (ic6) felbjl. 


name, siibst., 5^ame, m. (-ng or 
-n; -n) ; nennen, v., 99; what 
is the — of? ivie ^ei§t? 
what is your — ? n?te ^ei|en 

nation, 5^ation,/. (-en). 



native town,®e6urt^flatt/(-e). 
natural, natiirlid). 
naughty, muirti^. 
near, prep., nebeii {dat. or ace. ; 

necessity, '^^i,f. (''e). 
need, v., braud^en ; be in — of, 

betiirfen (196 ; gen. or ace); 

in — of, betiirftig {gen.) 
neglect, v., ^jernacbldfffgen. 
neighbour, ?Ra(i)bar,m. (-^; -n) ; 

— (/e??i.),9kc^bann/(-nen). 
neither, me'Der; — . . .nor, me== 

ter. . .nocfc. 
nest, 5^eft, n. (-e^ : -er). 
never, nie ; niemal^ ; — yet, 

nod) nie. 
new, ncu. 

news, ^f^ac^ricbt,/ (-en), 
newspaper, ^txinv.^,/. (-en), 
next, x{'ik&>\i {see nabe). 
Niagara Falls, tie S^iagara* 

niece, 5^icbte,/. (-n). 

night, «RaAt, / (''e); at — , 
wadsli, be5 ^a&ji^. 

no, a/:/;., feiu, feine, fein ; adv., 
nein; —body, — person, nie* 
nianb, feiner, feine, feine^ ; 
— more, — longer, nid)t 
mebr; — , thank you, id) 
tanfe (3^nen). 

noble, etel. 

noise, Sarm, m. (-eg). 

noon, ?i}?itta9, m. (-eg ; -e). 

north, ^'^orb, m. (-es) ; 5'lorten, 
m. (-g). 

not, nic^t; — a, fettt, feine, 
fein; — yet, nocb nid^t; — 
at all, gar nidjt; are (you, 
etc.) — ? nic^t n>a§r? 

nothing, nid>tc. 
notwithstanding, un9ead^tet 

{gen.; 223). 
novel, suhst., Sioxnan', m. (-eg ; 

November, 9^c^eniber, m. (-g). 
now, je^t. 
nowhere, nirgentg. 
nut, 9^u§,/ (-fe). 


oak, Sid^e,/ (-n). 

obey, gebord^en {dat.) 

oblige, ^erbinten, 14-4; be — d 

or compelled (to), miijfen. 
occasion, suhst., ©e(eo|enbeit, 

/ (-en); v., oerurfvuten. 
o'clock, Ubr {invariable) ; what 

— is it? irie yiel Ubr ift eg. 
of (231), »cn {dat.; 46; 231); 

{material) aug {dat.; 46); 

{cause) an {dat.; 231, f/); 

the treaty — Paris, ter i>er= 

trag ^u ^arig : the battle — 

Waterloo, tie (Sd>(ad>t htx 

2CaterIoo ; — the Alma, an 

ter 5((ma. 
off, ah, 
offer, bieten ( 131 ; dat. ofpers.); 

anbieten (131; dat. of pers.) 
officer, Cfft^ier, m. (-g ; -e). 
often, eft (-er), cftmalg, uianc^* 

oh! n 
old, aft (-er). 
on, 232, auf, an {dot. or ace; 

65); {of time) an \dat.; 232, 

a); {about) iiber {ace; 65). 
once, einmal. 
one, eing ; ein, eine, ein ; the 

small — , ter, tie, tag ^(cine; 



— and the same, ein^ ; — 
and a half, antert()alb. 

only, nur ; {of time) crft ; not 
— . . .but also, nic^t uiir. . . 
fout'crn aurf). 

open, adj., offen; v., aufmarf)fn; 

opinion, ^Dleinung,/ (-en)» 

opportunity, ®elegen^eit, / 

oppressive, briidenb. 

or, ober ; three — four, bret 
big oier; either... — , twU 
jueber . . . oter ; • — else, fonfl. 

orator, Siebner, m. (-g ; — ). 

order, v. (command), befe()Ien 
(167; dat. of pers.); (pre- 
scribe), t)erorbncrt; "beftellen. 

other, cinber ; every — day, 
einen Zao, urn ben anbern. 

otherwise, fonj^ ; a'nber^. 

our, adj., unfcr, unfere, unfer. 

ours, pron., unfer, nnfere, un- 
fercg; ber, bie, bag unfere; 
ber, bie, bag unfrii^e. 

out of, am [dat.-, 46); 

{or at) the window, gum 
genfler ^inaug. 

over, iiber {dat. or ace, 65); 

— there, — the way, briiben. 
overcoat, U'berrocf, m. (-eg ; -e); 

U'ber3ieber; m. (-g ; — ). 
own, adj., eigen. 

paint, malen ; to — (other than 
pictures), anflreiAen, 118. 

painter, ^a(er, m. (-g ; — ). 

painting (art of), 5}^alerei',/. 

palace, ^>a(aft', m. (-eg ; ''e) ; 
©c^lo^, n. (-feg ; -fer). 

pale, bleic^. 

l)aper, f>apier, n. (-g ; -e) ; 
news — , 3fitung,/. (-en). 

paradise, ^arabicg', n. (-eg; -e). 

pardon, 33er3ei()uni3, / 

parents, SItern, ^:>/. only. 

Paris, ^arig', n. {'Q\i\x ^artg). 

Paris, adj. ( = Parisian), ^ar^ 

part, %t\\, m. and n. (-eg, -e); 
for the most — , meifteng, 

party, ®efeflfd)aft,/ (-en). 

pass, V. tr., {of time, to spend, 
etc.), gubrinjTien 99, '2; — 
(an examination), befle^en, 
186; intr., yer9e()en (188; 
fein); ^erfliefen (123; fein); 
— through, burc^fommen 
(167; fein). 

passing, adj., ^oriiberc^e^enb. 

past, x)ergangen, yoriiber, i)or= 
l^tx ; to go — the house, am 
^aufe Doriiberge:^en, sorbet* 

patient, ^ranfe,«c?;. suhst. 

pay, be^ablen {ace. of thing, 
dat. of pers. ; ace. of pers. 
ivhen pers. only is mention- 
ed); — attention, 5Id)t (^e- 
ben (181) ; — a visit, einen 
Sefud) macben {dat. of pers.); 
befuc^en {ace. of pers.). 

paying (action of), 53e3a:^Ien, 
n. (-i?). 

peace, ?5i'ict)e(n), m. (-n or -ng). 

pear, 33irne,/ (-n). 

peasant, Sauer, m. (-n or -g ; 

pen, ^eber,/ (-n). 

people {pl.)i Seute, pi. {no 



sing.); — {indef.), man : — 

say, man fagt; — , nation, 

5?olf, n. (-eg / -er). 
pepper, "^ii^tx, m. {-^). 
perfect, — Ij, c^an^, ^cllfommcn. 
perhaps, ijielleic^t'. 
permission, Srlanhti^^/ 
permit, eriauben {dat. ofjyers.). 
person, ^>erfcn',/ (-en), 
personal, perfcniid). 
philosopher, ^MIofop^',m. (-en : 

physician, 5(r^t, m. i-^i^ ; "e). 
pick up, anffjeben, 131. 
picture, Si(b, n. (-e^ ; -er); 

(painting) ©emalte, n. (-s ; 


piece, ^tud, n. (-e^ ; -e). 
pigeon, Zaubi,/. (-n). 
pinch, fneifen, 118. 
pity, v., befcauern; it is a — , 

e0 x]t fcfeabe. 
place, subst., ^(a^, m. (-e^^ ; 

"e) ; Crt, m. (-e? ; -e or ''er); 

to take — , ftattfinben, 144; 

in that — , ta, t^afelbft, 

place, v., flellen, fe|ien. 
plant, Pffan^e,/ (-n). 
plate, teller, 7?i. (-o ; — ). 
play, v., fpielen. 
pleasant, angenebm. 
please, gefatlen (188 ; dat.); (if 

you) please, (id)) bitte, ivenn 1 

id) bitten tarf, c^efiidi^ft. 
pleasure, 3Serc(nuc;en, n. (-^); ' 

— trip, (short) excursion, 

5hii?r"(ug, m. (-e^ ; -e). 
plum, ^flaume,/. (-n). 
poem, ®et)ic^t, 7i. (-e^ ; -e). 
poet, Vi6:)Uv, m. (-^ ; — ). 

point ; cardinal — (of the 
compass), ^immclvniei^ent', /. 
(-en) ; to be upon the — of, 
im 53e9viife [ein. 

poison, subst., ®ift, n. (-ec ; -e); 
v., i^ergiften. 

policeman, ^^oH^eitiener, m. 
(-5; — ); (Ed^u^niann, m. 
(-e>^; -(ente). 

poor, arm (''er'. 

position, Stelle, / (-n): 2tel- 
(ung,/ (-en). ' 

possess, befi^en, 181. 

possible, moglicb. 

post, — office, ^cft,/ man, 

^3)cftbcte, 771. (-n ; -n) ; by re- 
turn — , mit umgetjenter ^oft, 

postage-stamp, ^rtefmarfe, / 

postpone, anffd^ieben, 131. 

pound, ^V'unb, 71. (-ex?). 

power, Sixa]t//. {"(). 

praise, v., loben : Dreifen, 120. 

pray, v., beten; inte7'j., bitte! 

precise, — ly, genan. 

prefer, ^erjieben, 131 ; I — to 
walk, ic^ gebe lieber ju 5ii§. 

prepare ; to — for, fic^ i?or= 
bereiten anf (ace). 

presence, ®egenn?art,/ 

present, adj., gegenanirtig ; for 
the — , fiir'e (Srfte. 

present, S7ibst., ®ef(^enf, 7/. 
(-ec ; -e). 

president, ^raptent', m. (-en ; 

press (urge), v., tringen, 144. 

pretty, biibfd>, fd)on ; adv. (tol- 
erably), 3iem(id>. 

prevent, »er^intern. 



price, ^vn^, m. (-ei ; -e). 
prince, giivft, m. (en; -en); 

^rin^, m. (-en ; -en), 
prison, ©efiin^nt^.n. (-fee; -fe). 
probable, probably, wat)rf^ein* 

li^ ; probably, wo^I. 
professor, ^vo^t\^ox,m. {-v;-tn). 
promise, v., ijerfprecben, 167. 
propose, i^orfitlagen, 186. 
proud (of), ftolj (auf+acc.) 
proverb, ©pric^ltjort, n. (-e5 ; 

province, ^rottinj',/ (-fiO^ 
prudent, ijorfi^tig. 
Prussia, ^reu§en, n. (-^). 
Prussian, subst, ^reufe, ?7i. 

(-n ; -n). 
public, effentlic^. 
punish, beftrafen, (Irafen. 
punishment, ©trafe,/ (-n). 
pupil, (5d)iiler, m. (-g ; — ). 
pure, rein, 
put on (coat, etc.), an^ie^en, 

131 ; (hat), anffe^en. 


quality, gigenfcfeafl,/ (-en), 
quarrel, v., ftreiten, 118; fic^ 

ftreiten (mit). 
quarter, 3Sicrte(, n. (-§ ; — ) ; 

— of an hour, 55iertel(lunt)e, 

queen, ^bnigitt,/ (-nen). 
quick, — ly, fc^netl; quickly, 

quit,-??., toertajfen, 188. 
quite, ganj. 

railway-station, 33at)n^of, m. 
(-e^ ; -e). 

rain, subst., S^legen, m. (-^) ; v. 

raise, ()eben, 131. 
rather, eber, lieber. 
raven, diabe, m. (-n ; -n). 
read, lefen, 181 ; to — to, ^or- 

lefen {dat. of pers.) 
reading (act of), Sefen, n. (-^). 
ready, fertig, bereit; readily, 

reason, ®rnnt), m. (-e^ ; -e). 
receive (get), ev^alten, 188; 

empfangen, 188; be!ommen, 

167 ; — (as a host), aufnet)* 

mtn, 167. 
recover (from illness), genefen 

(181; fein). 
red, adj., rot(-er); subst, 3flot,?i. 
Reformation, 3^lefovuiation, / 

refuse, intr., ft^ ttJeigcm. 
regard, anfe^en (181 ; fitr -f- 

acc); betrac^ten (alg). 
regret; I regret, e5 t^ut mir leib. 
reign, S^legierung,/ (-en), 
relate, er3d()len. 
related, ijentjanbt {dat. or mit). 
rely upon, ftc^ i?er(a|Jen (188; 

a\\\ + acc.). 
remain, b(eiben(l 20; fein); — at 

home, — behind, ^uriicfbfei* 

ben; — over,i:brig bleiben; — 

standing, fteben (186) bteiben. 
remarkable, nierfit)iirt)ig. 
remember, fic^ erinnern (gen.)] 

erinnern {ace); I wish to be 

— ed to him, {c| lafjTe \{)n 

remind of, erinnern an ( -f ace.) 
rent, v., ttermteten. 
repeat, n?iet>ert)o'(en. 



reply, subst., 5Intnjort, / (-en). 

reply, v., anttvorten, erttjit'ern, 

report, v., bcri(^ten. 

representation, 33orj^etIuit9, / 

resemble, a^nlic^ fein (dat); 
gleic^cn (118; dat.) 

reside, n?ot)nen. 

resist, ttjiberfte'^en (186; dat.) 

resolve, v., fic^ entfd)Iief en, 123. 

rest ; all the — , atle anbern ; 
retire to — , ft(^ f(^(afen 
(188) legen. 

return, tjer^elten (159); — good 
for evil, 33ofe^ mit ®uteni 
ttergelten; by — of post, mit 
umge^enber 5^oft, umgeknb. 

reward, subst., So^n, m. (-e^). 

rheumatism, 9^^eumati0mu^,m. 
(be.i -). 

ribbon, ^Banb, n. (-e^ ; "er). 

rich (in), rei(^ (an + dat.) 

rid, lo^ ; to get — of, log tt)er* 
ben ( + acc.) 

ride, reiten (118); (in a con- 
veyance), fa^ren (186; fein). 

riding (act of; not in a con- 
veyance), 3^eiten, n. (-0). 

right (adj.), rec^t; (correct), 
ric^tig ; in the — way, nuf 
tic rid)tijie 5Beife ; subst, 
JRed)!, n. (-e^ ; -e); to be (in 
the) — , mt&>t ^aben. 

righteous, gerec^t; the — (man), 
ber G^ere^te. 

ring, subst., SRing, m. (-eg ; -e) ; 
— , v., (auten (of a large 
bell), flingeln (of a small 
bell); there is a — at the 
door, eg flingelt. 

ripe, reif. 

rise (get up), auffte()en (186 ; 

fein) ; (ascend), auffteigen 

(120; fein). 
river, gfug, m. (-feg ; -fe). 
road, S3eg, w. (-eg; -e) ; Strage, 

/ (-"). 
Roman, 9^cmer, m. (-g ; — ). 
room, (apartment), (5tu6e, y! 

(-n); Bimmer, n. (-g ; — ). 
rose, 0iofe,/ (-n). 
row, -y., rutern. 
run, (aufen (188; fein); — 

after, nai^Iaufen (188; fein; 

dat.); — away, taoon'Iaufen. 
Russia, 0iuf (anb, n. (-g). 
Russian, subst., 0^uffe, m. (-n; 



oad, tranrig. 

safe, fid^er. 

sailing-ship, Segetfc^iff, n. (-eg ; 

sale ; for — , ju »er!aufen. 
same, adj. and pron., ber, bie, 

bagfelbe; ber, bie, bagfelbige; 

ber, bie, bag ncimlic^e; at the 

— time, ju gteic^er ^ni ; all 

the — , one and the — , 

Sarah, Sara,/ (-g). 
satisfied, jufrieben. 
Saturday, (2onnabenb,m (-e?); 

(5a nig tag, m. (-eg), 
save, retten ; I — d his life, ic^ 

rettete ibm bag ?e6en. 
say, fag en ; to hear — , fagen 

!^6ren ; (assert, claim to be), 

moden (196-202); to be said, 

foUen (196-202). 



scholar (pupil), '<si.tuler, m. (-c ; 

school, ^itule, / (-u); — boy, 

<3dmler, m. (-5 ; — ). 
scold, fcbeltcn, 159. 
Scotland, (gcbottlanb, n. {-^■). 
scream, fitreien, 120. 
search (for), fucfeeu. 
seat one's self, sit down, ftd> 

second, num. adj., jiveite. 

second (of time*, siibst., (£e= 
funbe, / (-n). 

secret, — ly, ge^eim, beimlic^. 

see, fe^en, 181. 

seek, fiutcn. 

seem, fiteinfit, 120. 

self, felbfl. 

sell, »er!aufcn. 

send, f^icfen; — to, jufdMcfen; 
— word to, beuad)rid)ti5eu 
(ace. o/pei's.); — for, ()clen 
laffen (188), fd)icfen nac^. 

September, (Btpttmhtx, m. (-i). 

servant, X)iener, m. (-^ ; — ) ; 
S)ienftbote,m.(-n; -ii); ^Jiaab, 

serve, bienen (dat.) ; — (of a 

meal), [ert^ieren. 
set, tr. (of a time-piece), ftef= 

len; hitr. (of the sun), un'= 

tergcben (188; feiii); — free, 

settler, 21nftebler, m. (-c ; — ). 
seven, fieben. 

several, einige; etlid^e; mtijxtxc. 
shake, fd)iittelii. 
shall, foUen (196-202). 
she, fie. 

shield, (5d^i(b, m. (-eg ; -e). 
ship, (S(^iff, 71. (-eg; -e). 

shoe, (Sdni^, m. (-eg ; -e). 
shoemaker, ©dnifter, m. (-g ; 

— ); £d)u()ntaduM*,m.(-cs — ). 
shoot, fd)iegeit, 123. 
shop, Saten, m. (-g ; -). 
shore, Ufcr, n. (-c ; — ). 
short, furj; — ly, naAftcng. 
shout, fc^reien, 120. 
show, jcic^en. 

shutter, Saben, ??i. (-g ; — ). 
shy, i7itr. (of horses), fd>eu 

werben (159 ; fein). 
sick, fran!; the — (man), ber 

side, vgeite, / (-n); on this — 

oi',2>re2)., biec-feit {gen.; 223) 

on that — of, 2)rep., jenfei 

(gen.; 223); on this — , adv. 

biegi'eitg; on that — , adv. 

sign, subst, 3^1^^"/ '''^- ("^ 

— ); v., unter3eid>'nen. 
silence, ©i^meigeu, n. (-i?). 
silent, ftunim» 
silly, ctnfaltig. 
silver, (Silver, n. (-g). 
since (241), ^yrep., feit (dat; 

46); adv. J feitbem; co7ij., ba. 
sing, ftnc^en, 144. 
singer, (Saugerin,/ (-ucn). 
single, etn^ig. 
sink, ftufen (144; fein). 
sister, ^c^trefter,/ (-n). 
sit, fi^eit, 181; — down, ftd) 

fc^en; — up, remain up, 

au\bUihm (120; fein). 
six, fc d>g. 
skate, v., (Ec^(ittfc^u§ la u fen 

(188; fein). 
skill, ®efd^tcfac^!e{t,/ 
slave, (Sflai^e, m. (-n ; -n). 



slay, to ten. 

sleep, v., fd^lafen, 188 

@cl) (af, m. {-(v). 
sleighing, (5c^Utten6abn,/. 
slipper,^\antcjfeI,??2.(-c;-nor— ). 
slow, — ly, langfam. 
small, !(ein. 
smelt, fc^niet^cn. 
smile, v., lacbeln; subst., $?acb^ 

ein, n. (-t>). 
sneak, fd)(eic^en (118; fein). 
snow, S2ibst., (Sc^nee, m. (-§); 

v., fd)neien. 
so, fo ; — are we, njir finb e5 

soldier, (Sotbaf, m. (-en ; -en). 

some, einige, etliAe, n?etd)e, 
manAe; ettrac; irgenb ein, 
eine, ein ; — one, — body, 
jenianb, — thing, — what, 
ettra^ ; — where, trgenbtvo ; 
— of it, tat^cn ; for — time 
(past), feit einiger ^tit. 

son, (Boi)n, m. (-e^ ; -e) ; little ! 
— , Scbn(^en, n. (-6 ; — ). j 

song, Sieb, n. (-e^ ; -er). | 

soon, balb {comp. e^er, super!, 
am e()eften); as — as, fobalb. 

Sophia, Sophie,/ (-n^). 

sorry ; I am — , e^ ifl mix teib, 
e^ tbut mir leib. 

sound, ~ly, fefl. 

sour, fauer. 

South, Siib(en), m. (-g). 

Spain, 2panien, n. (-^). 

speak, fprecfeen, 167, reben ; — 
with or to, fprec^en {ace. of 
pers. ). 1 

speaking (act of), (Sprerf^en, n. ■ 

spectacles (pair of), ^riflet/^(-n). I 

speech, Sf^ebe,/ (-n). 

spite; in— of, trot^ (gen.; 223). 

spoil, V. tr., oerleiben. 

sport ; to make — of any one, 

firf) iiber jemanb(en) (ace), 

iuftig macben. 
spread (out), \id) »erbreiten. 
spring, v., fprincjen (144 ; fein); 

subst., gruMing, m. (-e^; -e). 
square (in a town), ^la^, m. 

(-e^ ; -e). 
St. Lawrence, @anct Sorenj, m. 
stand, fle^en, 186. 
start (for), abreifen (nad); fein). 
state (condition), 3w^flnb, m. 

(-e^:?; '-'e). 
statesman, (gtaat^mann, m. 

{-tt^ ; -er). 
stay, bleiben(120; fein); — up, 

anfbleiben; — away, fort== 

steal, fle^ten, 167^ 
steam-engine, !I^ampfniaf(^ine, 

/• (-")• 

steamer, S^ampffcfciff^n. (-e^^ -e). 
steel, (Bta^l, m. (-e^). 
stick, subst., (Stocf, m. (-e^; -e). 
still, adv., nod), boc^ (195); 

no(^ inimer. 
sting, fted^.en, 167. 
stocking, (gtrumpf,'m. (-e^ ; -e). 
stop (cease), v. intr., auf^ten. 
storm, (Sturm, m. (-e^ ; ''e). 
story, G3ef^i(^te,/ (-n). 
stove, Cfon, m. {-€ ; -). 
stranger, grembling, m. (-ev? ; 
■ -e); ?5rembe (adj. subst.) 
stream, (gtrom, m. (-e^ ; "c). 
street, (2tra§e,/ (-n). 
strong, ftarf (-er). 
student, (5tubent',m.(-en; -en). 



study, subst, (Stubium, n. {-^ ; 
(Stubien) : (room), ©tubier- 
gimrner,?*. {-^; — );v., ftubier= 
en; — (prepare) for, fid) 
t>or'6erc{ten anf { + acc.) 

studying (act of), subst., (5tu* 
bieren, n. (-^). 

submit, ftc^ untenver'fen, 159. 

subscribe, unterfcf)ret'ben, 120. 

succeed, tuelin^eu (hnpers., 144; 
]dn); I — , e^ ^elingt mir. 

such, foI(^, folc^er, foUte, fol^e^; 

sudden, — ly, plo^U(^. 
suffer, ieiben, 118. 
suffice, geniigen (dat.) 
sufficient, ^inreid^ent). 
summer, (Sommev, m. (-&; — ). 
sun, (Sonne, / (-n); dial, 

©onnenii^r,/ (-en) ; — set, 

©onnennntergang, m. (-e^). 
Sunday, ©onntiig, m. (-e^ ; -e). 
support, nnterftii^'en. 
sure, fjd^er ; to be — , freilit^ ; 

Switzerland, tie (Sc^meij (ber 


*% T. 

table, Jifc^, tn. (-e^ ; -e). 

tailor, ©c^neiber, m. (-g ; — ). 

take, ne()men, 167; — a walk, 
einen ©pa^iergang macben ; 
fpajieren gcben (188; fein); — 
a voyage, etne (Seereife uuu 
c^en; — up, (^in)aufne^nicu; 

— care, fic^ in 5I(^t ne()men ; 

— place, ftattfinben, 144; — 
cold, ]id) erfiilten. 

talk, fpred^en, 167. 

tall, gro§ ('-'er, superl. groft). 

tea, J()ee, m. (-^). 

teacher, Setter, m. (-^ ; — ). 

tear (to pieces), jcrrei§en, 118. 

telegram, sw6s^.,T)epe|4e,/ (-n). 

tell, fagen (dat. ofpers. or gn); 
er^a^len {dat. ofpers.) 

teller, Sqa^Ier, m. (-g ; — ). 

tempest, ©tnrm, m. (-e^ ; -e). 

ten, 3et)n. 

terrible, — ly, fiirc^terlid^. 

than, aU ; aU ba§. 

thank, banfen (dat.); no — 
you, i^ banfe (3^nen). 

that ( 1 40), demonstr. aci?/., biefer, 
biefe, biefe^ ; jener, jene, jene^; 
rel. pron., ber, bie, ba^ ; XotU 
(^er, njel(^e, melc^e^; de- 
monstr. pron., ber, bie, ba^ ; 
conj., bvtj^. 

the, ber, bie, bag; adv., je, bejlo; 
urn fo. 

their, i^r, i^re, i^r. 

them (ace), [te; {dat), i^nen. 

then, tann ; since — , feitbem. 

there, ba ; — is, — are, eg ifl, ^/ 
eg fmb ; eg giebt, 220. 

therefore, barnm. ^ 

thereupon, baranfr' 

they, fie, eg ; {indef.), man. 

thief, Diet, m. (-eg ; -e). 

thin, biinn. 

think, benfen, 99; — of, bcn!en, 
gen. or an + ace; (believe), 
glanben ; I should — so, bag 
foUte i^ m einen; — highly 
of, esteem, etc., md ^alttn 
(188; ^on). 

third, britte. 

thirst, Xiurfl, m. (-eg). 

thirsty, burflig ; to be — , 
Tnrft ^aben,24. 



thirty, brcigig. 

this, adj. and />?-on., biefer, 

tiefe, tiefec. 
those, tiejeniv^en ; tie ; jene. 
though, obgleicb. 
thousand, taufenb; subst., Zan^ 

[enb, n. (-e« ; -e). 
three, trei. 

through, burc^ {ace. ; 34). 
throw, merfeit, 159; [c^mei^en, 

118; — away, tt)egwerfen. 
thunder-storm, ©eiDitter, n. 

(-«;-)• - 

Thursday, Xontter^tag, m. (-ec; 


tie, binben, 144. 

till, bi^, 34. 

time, S^\t,f. (-en); (occasion), 
Wal, n. (-e^; -e); what — 
is it? ane oiet Ubr ift ec ? 
for the third — , jum iritten 
^ait; at the right — , red)t= 
^eitig; at the same — , gu 
cjleid^er 3eit. 

tired, miibe. 

title, Zitd, m. (-^ ; — ). 

to, 233, ^u (dat; 46); (with 
names of places) nad) {dat. ; 
46); nn, auf, in {ace; 65, 
233) ; — the concert, inc 
^on^ert; (6e/br€ in/.) ju, 272- 
274; (r/pitr/>c»5e)um ju,273. 

to-day, bciite. 

to-morrow, morgcn ; — morn- 
ing, morgenfriib. 

too, \\x ; (also), auc^. 

top, ©ipfel, m. {-i ; — ). 

tortoise, (£cbi(bfr6tc,/. (-n). 

towards, gegeu (ace; 34). 

town, (gtabt, / ("e); hall, 

3ftat^au^, n. (-e^ ; -er). 

tragedy, 2;rauer)>ief, n. (-e^ ; 

-0; 2:rag6bte,/ (-n). 
train (on a railway), 3^9, »>i. 

(-e^; -e); the Boston — , tcr 

3ug '^QXi (nac^) 33ofton. 
translate, iibevfe^'en. 
transparent, burc^'ftc^tig. 
travel, reifen (babeii or fein), 
traveller, 3*^eifenbc, atZ;*. sz^66-^. 
treasure, (Scbat^, m. (-e^; -e). 
treaty, 33ertrag, m. (-e^; -e). 
tree, ^aum, m. (-e» ; -e) ; little 

— , 33aumc^en, n. (-g; — ). 
triumph, %x\\x\n^\)' , m. (-e^; -e). 
true, trabr; (faithful), treu 

trunk (of a tree), 33auni(lamm, 

m. (-ee ; -e). 
trust, v., trail en (dat.) 
truth, 2Babr^eit,/ (-en), 
try, ^erfucfeen. 

Tuesday, !l)ien^tag, m. (-eg; -e). 
two, ]\vti ; beibe ; — at a time, 

|e jroei ; — and a half, brit* 



umbrella, S^egcnfc^irm, m. (-eg; 

uncle, D^eim, m. (-eg; -e); 

Cnfef, m. (-g ; — ). 
under, unter {dat. or ace; 65). 
understand, begreifeii, 118; t>er== 

fte^en, 186; to make one's 

self understood, ficb 5:erftanb== 
. (id) macben. 
undertaking, Unterne^'mcn, n. 


unfortunate, iingliicfncb ; — ly, 

unhindered, unge^inbert. 

^AA^HjuisJtXy ' <3j^^>*4vyUX^^ 



United States (The\ tic 5^er- 

cini^ten (istviaten. 
universit}', Uuiocrfttdt',/ (-en), 
until, coiij., He (ba|5). 
untruth, llnjva()r(>eit,/ (-en). 
upon, auf {dat. or ace. ; 60). 
upper, cber. 
upstairs, obcit, nac^ o^Beit; ^in- 

use ; of no — , itn'nii^. 
useful, nii^lirf) ; the — , ba^ 

utmost, moglidbft. 


vainly, in vain, oergeKic^ ; 

valley, I^al, n. (-ei? ; "er). 

venture, v., tragen. 

verse, 3?cr^, m. (-Cc ; -e). 

very, fe^r; vecbt; — much, fel^r. 

vex, cirgern ; be — ed (at), ]{&) 
iirgern (iiber + acc.) 

victory, <Steg, m. (-c5 ; -e). 

village, i:orf, 7i. (-e^5 ; -er). 

vinegar, (Sfflg, m. (-c). 

violet, 53eil(^en, n. (-^ ; — ). 

virtue, %\xo^tn\),f. (-en). 

visit, 33efud\ ??i. (-e^ ; -e) ; to 
be on a — at any one's,. l>ei 
jemanb Ck\\\ 33efu6 fein ; v., 
befucfcen ; einen Sefuc^ ab= 
ftattcn, maAen (dat. of2:>ers.) 

visitor ; to have — s, ^efud) 

voice, (Btimnie,/ (-n). 

voyage, W\\(, f. (-n), ©eereife, 

/ (-n). 


wait for, War ten auf {ace.) 
waiter, ^ctlner, m. (-^ ; — ). 

walk, s^ibst., (gpa^iergang, m. 

(-c^ ; -'e) ; take a — , cincn 

i2pa3ier9ang ntac^en ; fpa^ier- 

en ge^en (188; fein). 
walk, v., ge^en (188; fein); 

fpajieren get^en. 
walking (act of), ®eben,7i. (-^); 

©pajierenge^en, n. (-^). 
want, iriinf6en;n?oUen,l 96-202. 
wanting; to be — , ^t^U\t{dat.), 

mangein (dat.) 
war, ^rieg, m. (-e^ ; -e). 
warm, — ly, ii^arm (-er). 
warning, fcamung,/ (-en), 
waste, »erfc6tt?enben. 
watch, subst, llbr, / (-^'t); 

3:afienu^r, / (-en); v., be== 

watchful, n?arf)fam. 
watch-key, U§rf(^Uijfe(, m. (-5; 


water, JCmjfer, n. (-» ; — ). 

waver, fitivanfen. 

way, 31>eg, m. (-e^ ; -e) ; (man- 
ner), JBeife, / (-n) ; in this 
— , auf biefe SBeife. 

we, iriv. 

weak, (in), fc^macb (an + dat.) 

wear, r. intr. (of clothes), fic^ 
tragen, 186. 

weather, 23}etter, n. (-i) ; in 
fine — , ki frf)oncm ^Better. 

Wednesday, iJ)?itt»uocb, m. (-^). 

week, ^l>0(ie, / (-n) ; a^t 
Jage ; for a — past, feit 
aitt la gen. 

weigh, intr., anegen, 131. 

welcome, iiMUfoui'men. 

weW, pred. adj., n?o^)I, gefunb ; 
adv., gut; as — as, foTOO^l 
aU ; — known, befannt. 



West, SBeji(en), m. (-^). 

wet, na§ ("er). 

what, interrog. pron., xod^ ? 
interrog. adj., xoi\6>tx, treld^e, 
trelcbe^; — kind of, n?ag fitr 
(ein, eine, ein); rel. pron. ( = 
that which), ivni?; — a! 
ireld^ ! — is that in German 1 
mt ^et§t tag auf ^eutf6 ? 

when, interrog., trann? lUtotU 
c^er 3f^t? conj., n?enn ; a!g, 

where, tt?e. 

whether, 1)1^ 

which, interrog. adj., X0t\6>tx, 
ttjelc^e, trclc^eg; re/, ^rz-o^i., 
ttjeld^er, njel^e, tvelc&eg; ber, 
tie, tag ; that — , tt?ag. 

while, whilst, tra^rent (ta§), 

whistle, pfetfen, 118. 

white, roetB- 

who, interrog., VOtX ? rel. pron., 
wetc^er, n)e(d)e, n)elcf)e§; ber, 
tie, bas; he — , the one — , 

whole, gan^ ; the • — of, gan;,. 

whom, iren (ace), xotm (daf.) 

whose, interrog., trefjen ? rel., 
beffen, m. n. sing.; beren, /. 
sing.; pi. 

why, roavum ? loes^alb ? 

wide, 6reit. 

will, rooaen, 196-202. 

William, 25>ilf)e(m, m. (-§). 

willing; to be — , raoUen, 196. 

wind, 2[9tnb, m. (-co; -e). 

wind up, auf^ietien, 131. 

window, T^enfter, n. (-5 ; — ). 

windy, roinbig. 

wine, 2Bein, m. (-e§ ; -e). 

wing, gtiiget, m. (-§ ; — ). 

winter, 2S inter, m. (-§ ; — ). 

wise, tDetfe; !(ug (-er). 

wish (for), tDiinfd)en. 

with, 234, xa\t{dat.; 46); bet 
(dat.; 46). 

without, o^ne {ace; 34). 

witty, iri^ig. 

wolf, 33}D(f, ■^n. (-e^ ; -e). 

woman, %xa\i, f. (-en). 

wonder, 3I:unber, n. (-§ ; — ) ; 
I — , e§ rannbert micf), tc^ 
luunbere mtc^ ; — of the 
world, 3Se(tn)unber, n. (-§ ; 

wood, 32atb, m. (-e§ ; -er). 
word, SBort, w. (-e§ ; -e or 

-er) ; to send — , benad^rii^s 

work (labour), 5(r6eit, / (-en); 

(thing done), 2Berf, n. (-e§; 

-e) ; v., arBeiten. 
world, 29elt, /. (-en); in the 

— , anf ber 2i>ett. 
worth, adj., raert ; — while, 

ber 9JZiiiE)e roert. 
wound, v., nerraunben. 
wring, ring en, 144. 
write (to), f(^retben (120; dat. 

or an + ace. of pers.) 
writing (act of), ^d^reiBen, n. 


wrong ; to be (in the) — , Um 
xcd)t ^ben. 


yard (measure), (^Kc,/. (-n). 
year, 3ai)r, 7i. (-eg ; -e). 
yellow, gel6. 
yes, ja. 



yesterday, ge'fteru ; — 's, now 

gefteru, geftrig. 
yet, nod) ; not — , nod) nid)t. 
yonder, bort. 
you, 38, 40, \l)X; @ie; bii; cud); 

(Bk; hid); 3^nen; bir. 
young, juitg ("er) ; — man, 

^iingliug, m. (-eo ; -c). 
your, 40, 43, eiier, eure, euer ; 

bein, beiiie, bein; ^^x, 3^re, 

yours, ber, bie, ba§ eure, eu; 
rige; ber, bie, ha§ 3^re, 
3^rige ; ber, bie, ha§ beine, 
beinige; eurer; beiner; 3^rer. 

youth (time of), ^ugenb, /. ; 
(young man), ^^^^g^i^g, m. 
(-eg; -e). 


*#* The references are to the sections and subsections, unless otherwise specified; 
N. = Note ; R. = Remark ; O. = Observation; p. = page. 

Abbreviations, p. 404. I 

aber, conj., 236. I 

Ablaut, 105, R., 110. I 

'About,' how rendered in ' 
Germ., 226. | 

Absolute accusative, 255; ab- j 
solute superlative, of adjs. , ' 
127,2; ofadvs.,190,4 6. 
Abstract substs., take article, 
44,1 (3); pluralof, 66, 3; 
App. H. 
Accentuation, p. 10: in com- 
pound verbs, 117, 3, 204, 

205, 3, 208, 209, 212; of 
compound adv. prefixes, i 

206, 2, N. I. 
Accusative, use of, 3, 252- 

255; place of, 296, 4; af- 
ter preps., 34, 50, 65, 
223, 19, R. 2; expresses 
time, 184,1 ; measure, 185, 
4 ; after reflexive verbs, 
216; after impers. verbs, 
21 7, 2, (a), 219, 220; after 
adjs., replacing gen., 244, 
R. 1, 2; double ace, 253; 
after intrans. verbs, 254; 
cognate ace, 254, 1; ad- 
verbial ace, 255; absolute 
ace, 255, 2; before advs. 
of direction, 224, 1. 

Address, modes of, 40, 43, 

Adjects, place of, 296, 1, 
297, R. 1. 

Adjectives, when spelt with a 
capital, pp. II, 12; predi- \ 

cative, not declined, 14, 
100 ; place of, 18, 20, O. 
3, 295, 296, 8 ; attributive, 
decl. of, 101; strong, 102, 
weak, 115, mixed, 116, ta- 
ble, 121, general remarks, 
122 ; place of, 290, (i), 
N. 2, 298, 1, 299; in- 
declinable in *er, 122, 9; 
as advs., 122, 8 ; of colour, 
122, 3; in *el, sen, ser, 
122, 6 ; a succession of, 
122, 5; after pers. prons., 
122, 10; after indef. prons. 
and numerals, 122,11,12; 
after roelc^e, 122, 13 ; used 
as substs., 122, 2; compa- 
rison of, 125-127; without 
Umlaut, -A.pp. L. ; incapa- 
ble of comparison, 161, 
N. ; adjs. used as attri- 
butes only, 160 ; as predi- 
cates only, 161; as pre- 
fixes to verbs, 206, 4, 212; 
governing gen. and ace, 
244; dative, 251; preps., 
291; possessive adjs., 43, 
44,6, (a); interrogative, 84- 
86; appo~i:ive adj., 290; 
concord, 288 ; derivation, 
by suffixes, 813; by pre- 
fixes, 316 ; composition, 

Adverbial clauses, 306. 

Adverbial conjunctions, co- 
ordinating, 237 ; throw the 
subject after the verb, R. 1. 

Adverbial expressions, place 
of, 45, 297. 

Adverbs, 187 ; place of, 45, 
297; formation, 182, (a), 
183, (c), 189 ; compari- 
son, 128, 190 ; numeral 
adverbs, 182, 183; idio- 
matic uses of certain ad- 
verbs, 195 ; advs. with an 
accusative, 224, 1; with 
preps., 224, 3, 4. 

«age, substs. in, gender, 89, 
2, (0. 

Agent, with passive, 112, 
R. 3. 

sqI, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

'all ' expressed by qam, 170, 
1; 'at all,' 157. 

aaein, conj., 236, 241, 1. 

aller, -e, -es, 169; aUer= be- 
fore superlatives, 127, 1, 
N. ; alles of a nimiber of 
persons or things, 162,2; 
before adjs., 122, 12. 

Alphabet, German, pp. i, 5, 

als, conj., 239, 3 (3); after 
a comparative, 126, 1 ; dis- 
tinguished from roenn and 
warm, 58, 241, 6, 8 ; 
'but,' 241, 19; al5 clause 
replaces Engl. part, of time, 
284, 1, (a) ; introducing 
an apposition, 289, 6 ; with 
comparative clauses, 306, 
R. 4. 



al§ bafe, after adjs. •with ju, 

273, N. 
aI5 Ob, al§ luenn, 239, 3, {b), 

and R. 4. 
am, before a puperl., 127, 1, 

(3), 128, 190, 3. 
an, prep., 65 ; expresses 

date, 184, 2, («); of loca- 

Uty, 227, {a), 2, 232, (c), 

2, 233, (c-), 2; of cause, 
\n-ith diseases, 231, {c) ; 
w-ith names of battles, 231, 
{d), 2 ; after verbs and 
adjs., 244, 245, 1, 291, 6, 
8, 9, 12. 

*an, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

nnber, ordinal numeral, 166, 
1, N. ; anberfeit?, 238 ; 
anbevtf)aU\ 183, (3), R. 2. 

angefic^tS, 223, 20. 

anftatt, 223, 14; governing 
an infin. or ha% clause, 276. 

'any,' how rendered in Ger- 
man, 2, 2, 157, 180. 

Apposition, appositive sub- 
stantive, 289 ; participle, 
280, (3), 281, R. 3; ad- 
jective or participle, 290; 
clauses, 304. 

«ar, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

Article, not used before words 
in partitive sense, 2,2; de- 
finite, declension, 4; agree- 
ment, 5, 1; repetition of, 
S, 2 ; use, 44 ; contraction 
with preps., 34, R., 46, 
R. 1, p. 83, O., 65, R. ; 
with proper names, 44, 2, 

3, 73, 76, 2, 5, 78; for 
poss. adj., 44, 6. 

Article, indefinite, declen- 
sion, 9; use, 44, 4, 5. 

Aryan languages, 322, 2, 3. 

' as,' how rendered in Germ., 
162, 4, 241, 8-11. 

A&socialives, how formed, 
815, 2. (3). 

saft, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

5 at, foreign substs. in, declen- 
sion, 22, 2, 6. 

' at,' of time of day, 184, 3, 
(<r); how rendered in Germ. , 
227; after verbs, etc., 291, 

'at all'; see 'all.' 

Attributive adj., see Adjec- 

auc^, adv., after rel. prons., 
96, 6, idiomatic use of, 
195, 9; conj., 236, 237, 
R. 2, 238. 

auf, prep., 65 ; with abs. 
superl. of advs., 190,6; of 
locality, 227, (a), 3, 230, 
(a), 232, (c), 233, (c), 2 ; 
of future time, 229, (3), 
2 ; after adjs. and verbs, 
245, 1, 291, 2, 7, 10 ; after 
reflexive verbs, 215, 1, (i>). 

auf boB, 239, 3, (3), 268, 3. 

au§, prep., 46 ; of cause, 
229, (c). 

auBen, adv., 189, 3 ; com- 
parison, 130. 

auBer, prep., 46. 

auBerf)aI5, 223, 3. 

ciuBerft, with absolute super!., 
127, 2, 190, 4. 

Auxiliary' is verb in com- 
pound tenses, 26, 32. 

Auxiliary verbs of mood, see 
' !^Iodal Auxiliaries.' 

Auxiliarj' verbs of tense, 25, 
53 ; place of, with Modal 
Auxiliaries,199,3; omitted 
in dependent clauses, 287. 

balb, comparison of, 190; 
balb . . . balb, 238. 

sbar, suffix of adjs., 313, 1. 

'be,' with p. part., how ren- 
dered in Germ., 112, R. 5. 

be?, insep. prefix, 36, R. 6, 
204; meaning of, 314, 1. 

bei, prep., 46; = 'with,' 

' about,' 226, (d) ; of time, 
227, (3), 3; idioms, 228, 
(d), (^),232, (d); of bat- 
tles, 231, (d), I. 

beibe, beibeS, 165, 3. 

beifecn Model, 118. 

beoor, 241, 13, 14. 

binnen, 51, 1. 

bt§, prep., 34, 60, 4; conj., 
239, 3, (6). 

bleiben Model, 120. 

Slume Model, 56. 

'both . . . and,' 238. 

' but,* rendered by al§, 241, 

'by,' with passive, 112, R. 
3; how rendered in Germ., 

Capitals, use of, p. 11 ; 122, 
2, 9, N., 11, O. 

Calling, verbs of, 242, 3, 
253; with p. part., 281, 6. 

Cardinal numerals, 163,165 ; 
gender as substs., 80, 2, 
(c), 165, 10. 

Cases, use of, 3 ; syntax of, 
242-255 ; place of, 296. 

Cause, adverbial expressions 
of, 284, 1, (3), 306, R. 2 : 
their place in a sentence, 
45, Rule 5. 

=^en, substs. in, declension, 
16, 17; gender, 89, 3, (a); 
subst. suffix, 312, 2 ; pro- 
duces Umlaut, 326, R. 2, 
(c). 4 

Choosing, verbs of, 242, 3, 
N., 253. 

Clauses, conditional, 69,267. 
293, (a), 3; proportional, 
see ' Comparative clauses,' 
below; dependent, preced- 
ing principal, 293, (3), R. 
4, 294, (3), R. 2, 306; 
with benn, 241, 18, 293, ^ 
(c), R. * ; incomplete or 
elliptical, 299 ; order of 
clauses, 302-306; apposi. 



tive, 804 ; relative, 305 ; ; 
subjective, objective, ad- 
verbial, 306. 

Cognate accusative, 254, 1. 

Gollertives, declension of 
those with prefix ©6;, 16, 
17,2; gender, 89,3, {d)\ 
concord of wth verb, 285, 
R. 4; formation, 315, 2, 

Colour, adjs. of, used as 
substs., 122, 3. 

Comma, before dependent 
sentences, 98, 3, N., 301, 
N. 5 ; before infin. clauses, 
273, R. 2. 

Comparative degree, 125, 
126; declension of, 126, 5. 

Comparative clauses, \^-ith 
befto, etc, 126, 4, 293, 
{S), R. 4, N. 3 ; 306, R. 4 

Comparison, of adjs., 125- 
130; of equality, 126, 3, 
241, 8; irregular, 129; de- 
fective, 130 ; of advs., 
128, 190 ; adjs. incapaUe 
of, 161, N. 

Compass, points of, p. 104, 
top; gender, 80, 1, {c). 

Complex sentences, 802- 

Composition of words, 818- 
321; of numerals, 165, 
5-7, 182, 183; of Verbs, 
203-213; of substs., 319 ; 
of adjs., 320 ; of advs., 

Compounds, accentuation of, 
p. 11; how formed, 818- 
321 ; primary and secon- 
dare-, 819, 1, N. I, 2 ; spu. 
rious, 319, 2, N. 

Compound substantives, of 
irregular declension, 68 ; 
of irregular gender, 90, 4, 
App. I., p. 3SS ; how 
formed, 319. 
Compound tenses, formation, 

25, 108 ; construction, 26, 

Compound sentences, 302. 

Compound verbs, 203-213, 
separable, 109, 117, 205- 
207; inseparable, 35, R. 
6.. 109, 204; compounded 
with substs., 206, 3; with 
adjs., 206, 4, 212 ; sepa- 
rable and inseparable, 208 ; 
with double prefixes, 207, 
213 ; with miB*, 209 ; with 
^ers and ^in», 210 ; from 
compound substs., 211. 

Concord, of Subject and 
Verb, 285 ; other concords, 

Conditional clauses, 59, 239, 
R. 1, 2, 4, 267, 293, {a), 
3, {b), R. 4, N.I. 2; ellip- 
tical, 268, 2, N., 293, (--), 
R. 2 ; use of f in, 59, N. ; 
293, {h), R. 4, N. 2. 

Conditional conjunctions, 59, 
239, R. 1, 2, 4. 

Conditional mood, formation 
of tenses of, 25, 2, 3; 
shorter forms, 111, 112, 
R. 1 ; in ^lodal Auxilia- 
ries, 199,4; use, 263, 267. 

Conjugation of verbs ; see 
" Verbs," " Modal AuxiH- 

Conjunctions, 235-241 ; co- 
ordinating, proper, 236 ; 
not counted, 293, (<?), R. 
2; adverbial, 237, 293, 
(J>), R. 2 ; correlative, 23S ; 
place of, 298, 3. 

Conjunctive Mood, see 
" Subjunctive." 

Considering, verbs of, 242, 
3, 253. 

Consonants, pronunciation, 
p. 9, top; digraphs and 
trigraphs, pp. 5, 8, 14; 
doubling of, in verbs, 118, 
R. 1, 123, R. 1, 167, A., 

Construction of Sentences, 
292-306; principal, 20, 
26, 293, (3), 294, (/-), 
295, 2, 297, R. 1, 2; de^ 
pendent, 32, 33, 293, {c), 
294, (r), 295, 2,297, R. 2, 
306; direct interrog., 23, 
293, (^), I, 294, (a), 295, 
2, 300; indirect statements, 
87, 293, (c), R. 1 ; indirect 
questions, 88 ; relative 
sentences, 98, 305 ; im- 
perative, 293, (rt), 2 ; of 
clauses with benn, 293, 
(cr), R. 4; of incomplete 
clauses, 299 ; general re- 
marks, 301 ; compound and 
complex, 302, 303; see 
also " Clauses," " Condi- 
tional clauses." 

Contracted form of strong de- 
clension, 70, R. 3. 

Contraction of def. art. and 
preps., 34, R., 46, R. 1, 
p. 83, O., 65, R. 

Coordinating Conjunctions, 
proper, 236, adverbial, 
237, correlative, 238. 

Copula, 292 ; place of, 293, 
301, 1. 

Correlative prons., 43, R. 3, 
4; conjunctions, 238; clau- 
ses, 241, 9, 293, (/), R. 4, 
N, 3- 

Countries, names of, gender, 
80, 3, (<:) ; see also "Places, 
names of." 

sb, suffix of substs., 312, 1. 

ba, adv., with prep, annexed, 
38, R- 5, 142;conj.,239, 
3, {F) ; various uses of, 
241, 12, {d), 20; with 
preps., representing an in- 
fin. or bc§ clause, 277; re. 
places Engl. part, of time 
and cause, 284. 

bamit, conj., expresses pur- 
pose. 239, 3, {b). 268, 3. 



004 before the verb f ein, 1 41 
of a number of persona o> 
things, 16*2, 2. 

baf>, conj., omitted, 83, 3, 
241,3, 13, 266, R. 2; use, 
239, (/'), 241, 3; express- 
ing purpose, 268, 3. 

ba§ clauses governed by 
preps., 224, 2, {a)\ for in- 
fin., 272, R. 1, 2J6, 276, 
R. 2, 277. 

Date, how expressed, 184, 
2, (a). 

Dative, use of, 3, 248; place 
of, 296, 4; ethical dat., 
249; dat. after verbs, 250 ; 
after adjs., 251 ; after 
preps., 46, 51, 65, 223 ; 
after reflexive verbs, 216, 
2 ; after impersonal verbs, 
217, 2, {b), 219, 1} after 
fetii and luerbcn, 217, 2, 
{c)\ after interjections, 240, 
4. {b). 

^dud;tett, see beuc^ten, biiits 

sbe, subst. suffix, 312, 1. 

Declension ; see " Substan- 
tives," "Adjectives," "Pro- 
nouns," "Numerals." 

Definite Article; see "Arti- 

Degrees of comparison; see 

bem after feiii, 250, {e), 
268, 6. 

Demonstrative pronouns; sec 
" Pronouns " 

benn, conj., 236; adv. conj., 
{c), R. 4. 

bennodi, adv. conj., 237. 

Dependent se;itences ; see 
" Construction,''' " Sen- 

Dependent questions ; see 
" Constn-f^ijn," " Sen- 
tences," ''IrnJirect ques- 

ber, bic, ba5; see "Article, 
definite"; demonst. pron., 
132, 133, 135, 2, 140, 1, 
(a), {b), 142, 143, 1, 2; 
after roer, 162 ; relative 
pron., declension, 93 ; use, 
95, 140, 2 ; replaced by luo 
before preps., 95, 2 ; used 
former, 306, R. 3, N. 

bertjleidjen, rel. pron., 97; 
demonstr. pron., 132, 
139, 2. 

bereti, gen, pi. of demonstr. 
pron., when used, 133, 
2, N. 

Derivation, 307-317; of nu- 
merals, 182, 183 ; of advs., 
189; see also "Adjective," 

berjenige, 132, 135, 140, 
1, {b). 

bero, 49. 

bevfetb(ig)e, 132, 136; re- 
places poss. adjs. and pers. 
prons., 143, 2-4. 

bcSgleirfjen, rel. pron., 97; 
demonst. pron., 139, 1; 
adv., 139, 1, N. 

befjcn, used for gen. of rods 
cfjer, 95, 1, {a)\ precedes 
its case, 95, 3; of neut. 
pers. pron., 143, 1; for 
poss. adj., 143,2. 

beffenungeac^tet, adt. conj., 

befto, 126, 4, 237, 241, 2, 
293, {b), R. 4, N. 3. 

beuditen, 99, 2. 

biejer Model, 6. 

biefer, declension, 6; use, 
132, 134, 140,1, (a), 141; 
replaces pers. prons.,143,3. 

bifc6feit(5), 223, 12, R. 

Digraphs, consonantal, pp. 4, 
8, 14. 

Diminutives, gander, 89, 3, 
{a): fonr.ation, 312, 2; 
origin, 326, R. 2, {c). 

Diphthongs, pp. 4, 6, 14. 

Direct objects, clause or neut 
pron. as, 260, R. 2; infin. 
as, 272, R. 2; see also 
"Accusative," " Cases," 
Direct questions; see also 
" Questions," " Interroga- 
tive Sentences." 
Direction, expressed by ^ins 
and l^er* before verb?, 
210; w-ith an accusative, 
224, 1. 
Distance, measure of, 185, 4. 
bod^, adv., idiomatic use, 195, 
8; adv. conj., throws subj. 
after verb, 237, R. 3, 293, 
{b), R. 3 ; in quest;^ons, 
300, 2, N. I. 
3)orf Model, 36, 37 ; origin 
of Umlaut in, 326, R. 2,{b). 
Double Accusative, 263. 
" Gender, 91; App. J. 
" Pliu-als,64;App.G.* 
" Prefixes, 207, 210, 

" Vowels, pp. 4, 6, 14; 
do not take Um- 
laut, p. 12. 
brei, declension, 165, 2. 
biinfen, 99, 2. 

burcf), prep., 34 ; prefix, 208, 
biirfen, conjugation of, 196- 
199; use, 200, 1. 

e, in conjugation of verbs, 
81, R. 1, 35, R. 2-4, 107, 
R. 1; in imperative, etc., 
167, B., R. 3, 181, O. 4; 
in subjunctive, 31, R. 2, 
107, O. 3; in dat. of 
substs., 21, {a), O. 4, 46, 
R. 2; in adjs., 102, R. 
2, 122, 6, 125, R. 5, 6, 
126, 5; in poss. adjs., 43, 
R. 2; in poss. prons., 119, 
(a) Obs., {c). N. i; re- 
presents Umlaut of a, 326, 
R. 3. 

sC, adjs. in, declension, 102. 



R. 2 ; comparison, 125, ; 

R. 6. I 

»e, substs. in, declension, 54, 

67, 1, 61; gender, 89,2, j 

(c); subst. suffix, 312, 4. j 
eben, 195, 2. 
ebenfo, 237, 241, 8. 
e^e, conj., 241, 13, 14; com- ' 

parison, 130. 
«ei, substs. in, gender, 89, 2, 

(a); subst. suffix, 312, 5. 
Cin, see "Article, Indefi- 
Ctlt, numeral, 163,165, 1; 

with def. art., 165, 1, (c), 
einanber, 42, 2. [and N. 

einer, indef. pron., 145, 150; 

cardinal numeral, 163, 

165, 1, ii). 
cinerlei, 182, (c), X. 
cinerfeitS, 238. 
einige, eini^eS, etiidie, etiis 

^e§, indef. pron., 145, 

152; numeral, 168, 173, 

180 ; before adjs., 122, 12. 
einmal, 182, (a), N. 2, 3. 
Cins in counting, 165, 1, (d). 
einft, 182, (a), N. 2; 187, 

1, (e). 
scl, substs. in, declension, 

16, 17 ; fems. in, 57, R. 

2; gender, 89, 1, (a), App. 

I. ; adjs. in, declension, 

122, 6; comparison, 125, 

R. 6; subst. suffix, 312, 6. 
*cl, verb-stems in, drop c, 35, 

R. 4. 
seli)en, diminutive suffix, 

812, 2, N. 2. 
EHiptical constructions, 59, 

239, R. 2, 4, 266, X. 4, 

267, 6, N., 268, 2, N., 

269, R. 6, 278, 293, {i), 

R. 4, N. 2, 299. 
«eln, verbs in, conjugation, 

85, R.4; formation,311,l. 
»em, substs. in, declension, 

16,17,69,1; gender, 89, 


emp«, insep. prefix, 35, R. 
6, 204; meaning, 314,2. 

»eit, substs. in, declension, 
16, 17 ; gender, 89, 1, (a), 
App. I.; adjs. in, declen- 
sion, 122, 6 ; comparison, 

125, R. 6 ; not used as 
predicates, 160; advs. in, 
189,3; subst. suffix, 312, 
7; adj. suffix, 313, 2. 

«en for ses in gen. sing, of 
adjs., 102, R. 1. 

sCnb, substs. in, gender, 89, 
2, (i); subst. suffix, 312, 

Endings of weak verbs in 
simple tenses, 35 ; of strong 
do., 107 ; of substs., 70; 
of adjs., 121. 

English, its relations to Ger- 
man, 322. 

Enlarged form of strong de- 
clension, 70, 4. 

sett'j, termination of advs., 

ent;, insep. prefix, 35, R. 6, 
204 ; meaning, 314, 2. 

eiitgegen, 51, 2. 

cntlang, 223, 19, R. 2. 

enticeber . . . ober, 238, 285, 
R. 6, N. 1. 

sen^, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (e). 

er-, insep. prefix, 35, R. 6, 
204; meaning, 314, 3. 

scr, substs. in, declension; 
16,17; fems. in, 57, R. 2, 
gender, 89, 1, (a), App. I. ; 
adjs. in, declension, 122, 
6; comparison, 125, R. 6, 

126, N. ; subst. suffix, 
312, 8. 

ser, verb-stems in, drop e, 
35, R. 4. 

ser, Plural ending, 36; ori- 
gin, 326, R. 2, (d). 

serei, subst. suffix, 312, 5, 
N. 2. 

scrn, Adjs. in, not used as 

j predicates, 100, adj. sut- 
I fix, 313, 2. 

5ern, Verbs in, conjugation, 
35, R. 4; formation, 311,2. 
j erft, adv., idiomatic use, 
I 195, 4. 

crfteni, adv., distinguished 
from auerft, 195, 5, N. 

©rjs, subst. prefix, 315, 1. 

e§, neut. pron., uses of, 39; 
omission of, 113, 2, N. ; 
for a number of persons. or 
things, 162, 2 ; as subject 
of impersonal verbs, 217, 
220, 2, R. 2, X.; aftei 
adjs. governing gen., 244, 
R. 1; representing a fol- 
lowing infin., 272, R. 2. 

65 giebt, e§ ift, etc., 220. 

effen Model, 181. 

Ethical dative, 249. 

etltc^e; -e§, see einige. 

etioQ, 187, III., 226, (4 

etroao, indef. pron., 145, 
149 ; indef. numeral, 168, 
177 ; before adjs., 122, 11. 

' even,' rendered by f el&ft, 42, 
3, R. 

' ever,' after rel. prons., 96, 6. 

Exclamatory clauses, 269, 
R. 6, 293, (o), R. 3, 300, 


sfac^, sfiiltig, form multipli- 
cative numerals, 182, (3). 

faUen Model, 188. 

faU§, subord. conj., 239,3, 

*faltig; see sfac^. 

Factitive accusative, 253. 

Factitive predicate, 253, 
254, 3. 

Family names, 74, 76, 4, 6. 

fediteii Model, 124. 

'few,' how rendered in Cer., 
145, 152, 168, 173, 175. 

'for,' how rendered in Ger., 
229; after verbs, substs. 
and adjs., 291,2-4. 



Foreign substs., accentua- 
tion, p. lo, bottom ; de- 
clension, 22, 6, 37, 4, 
App. D., 57, 5, 63, 3, 77 ; 

gender, 89, 2, (r). 
Fractional numbers, 183, (a), 

freilid^, 187, IV. ; does not 

count as a member of a 

sentence, 293, (3), R. 2, 

Frequentatives, how formed, 

315, 2, (c). 
frieren Model, 131. 
'from,' after verbs, 291, 5. 
fiir, prep., 34; not used of 

purpose, 229, (a) ; after 

verbs of considering, 253. 
Future Tense, how formed, 

25, 2; use, 261; replaced 

by present, 257, 5. 
Future-perfect Tense, how 

formed, 25, 3 ; use, 262 ; 

replaced by perfect, 259, 4. 

gaitj, indef. numeral, 168, 

flCs, prefix of p. part., 30 ; 
when omitted, 35, R. 5, 6, 
109, 112, R. 2, 204; of 
verbs, 35, R. 6, 204, 314, 
4; with sep. verbs, 117, 2, 
205, 2 ; with miB=, 209 ; of 
substs., 315, 2 ; of adjs., 
316 ; declension of substs. 
beginning with gc*, 16, 17, 

2, 36, 37, 3; gender, 89, 

3, (d). 
gegen, prep., 34. 
gegeniiber, 51, 4. 

ge^cn v^ith infin., 271, (c). 

gemdfe, 51, 5. 

gen, 50, 2. 

Gender of substs., according 
to meaning, 80, and form, 
89; of compound substs., 
90, 4, App. I., p. 38S; 
double gender, 91, App. 
J. ; general remarks on, 

90 ; exceptional gender, 
App. I. 

Genitive, use of, 3, 243 ; af- 
ter adjs., 244 ; after verbs, 
245 ; adverbial, of time 
and manner, 184, 2, (3), 
189,2, 246; of place, 246; | 
after reflexive verbs, 215, \ 
216 ; after impers. verbs, I 
219, 2, (a); after interjec- 
tions, 240, 4, (a): after 
preps., 222, 223 ; unin- 
flected appositive genitive, 
289, 3, N. 2 ; position of 
in a sentence, 296, 4-7. 

ijeiuig, indef. num. and adv., 
168, 178 ; followed by 
inf., 273,3. 

German language, its rela- 
tions to English, 322 ; his- 
torical sketch, 322-326. 

Germanic languages, 322, 
323; diagram of, p. 376. 

gent, comparison of, 190, 1; 
idiomatic use of, 195, 3. 

Gerunds, or infin. in -ing, 
not to be confounded with 
pres. part., 277, R. 3, 4, 6. 

Gerundive, 282. 

glauten, infin. after, 275, 

gleii^, prep., 51, 6. [R. 3. 

sgleic^en, 48, 97, 139. 

©raf Model, 55. 

Grimm's Law, 325. 

groB, comparison, 125, 5. 

@ninbiprad)e, 322. 

gut, comparison, 129; as 
adv.,195,io,N., 293,(3), 
R. 2, N. 

If, mute before consonants, 
after vowels and after t, p. 
9; when rejected after t, 
p. 12. 

f)aben, conjugation, 24 ; use, 
25; with infin., 271, (i), 
and R. 1, 272, R. 2; omis- 
sion of in dependent sen- 
tences, 287, 293, (<:), R. 5. 

*l^aft, suffix of adjs., 313, 3. 
I^alb, numeral, 183, (a), N. 

2, (3). 
f)alb(en), l^alber, prep., 222, 

223, 1. 
* half,' how rendered in Ger., 

183, (a), N. 2 ; (3). 
half-hours, 184, 3, (a). 
fjetfeen with infin., 271, (d). 
s[)eit, substs. in, gender, 89, 

2, (a): subst. suffix, 312, 9. 
f)elfeu Model, 159. 
I}CV, prefix, 210. 
t;ter, 187, II., (a); before 

preps., 142. 
High German, history of, 

f)tit, prefix, 210. 
^intcn, adv., 189, 3; com- 
parison, 130. 
Winter, prep., 65; sep. and 

insep. prefix, 208. 
f)0(^, declension, 122, 7 ; 

comparison, 129. 
^'6<i)it, with absolute superl., 

127, 2, 190, 4. 
'however,' adv. conj., how 

rendered in Germ., 241, 

Hours of the day, 184, 3. 
^unb Model, 21, (3). 
^unbert, 165, 8, 10, (c). 
Hyphen, its use in com- 
pounds, 318, 3, N., and 4. 

i, produces Umlaut, 326. 

tid), substs. in, declension, 
22,2; gender, 89, 1, (a). 

A(i)t, subst. suffix, 312, 18; 
adj. suffix, 313, 4. 

sie, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (e). 

sier, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

sicrett, foreign verbs in, take 
no ges in p. part., 36, R, 
5; verb suffix, 311, 3. 

'if,' when rendered by o5 



»ig, substs. in, declension, 
22,2; gender, 89, 1, (^); 
adjs. in, not used as predi- 
cates, 160; advs. in,superl. 
of, 190, 5; suffix of poss. 
prons. , 119, (c) ; subst. suf- 
fix, 312, 18; adj. suflax, 
313, 5; before ^feit, 312, 
10, N. ; after Aja^t, 313, 
3, N.; produces Umlaut, 
326, (/). 

sif, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (e). 
immer, adv., 187, I., (^); 

after rel. prons. , 96, 6. 
Imperative Mood, true forms 
of, 31, R. 4; endings, in 
weak verbs, 35 ; in strong, 
107 ; expressed by laffen, 
200, 7, (tf); replaced by 
subjunctive, 268, 1; use 
of, 269. [196. 

Imperfect-Present Verbs, 
Imperfect Tense, formation, 
in weak verbs, 30 ; in 
strong, 104 ; endings, in 
weak verbs, 35 ; in strong, 
imperfect Indicative, use, 
258; distinguished from 
Perfect, 259, 2, 3; replaced 
by present, 257, 3. 
Imperfect Subjunctive, for 
conditional. 111, 263, 2, 
N.; in hypothetical peri- 
ods, 267, 2; to express 
wish, 268, 2 ; to express 
possibility, 268, 5; origin 
of Umlaut in, 326, (^). 
Impersonal Verbs, 217 ; con- 
jugation, 218 ; govern- 
ment, 219; 'there is,' 
etc., 220; impersonal use 
of passive voice, 113, 2. 
'in,' how rendered in Germ., 

230, 291, 6, 7. 
in, prep., 65; rendered by 
•at,'227,(^), I, and4. 

tin, substs. in, declension, 
67, R. 3; gender, 89, 2, 
(a); subst. sufi'ix, 312, 11; 
produces Umlaut, 326, 

Indefinite article, see "Arti- 
cle, Indef." [180. 

Indefinite numerals, 168- 

Indefinite pronouns, 145- 

in cent, subord. conj., 239, 
241, 16 ; replaces Engl, 
participle, 284, 1, (a), (d). 

inbefi'en, conj., 237, 239, 
241, 15. 

Indicative mood, use, 256; 
tenses of, 257-262; in in- 
direct statements, 266, R. 
3 ; in h\T30thetical periods, 
267, R. 5. 

Indirect statement, 87, 265; 
tense of, 266 ; construction 
of, 293, (c), R. 1. 

Indirect or dependent ques- 
tions, 88, 293, (c) ; object- 
ive, with infin., 275, R. 4; 
use of o5 in, 277, R. 5. 

Indo-European or Indo-Ger- 
manic languages, 322. 

Infinitive, place of, 26, 33, 
295,3, 299; endings, 35; 
for p. part, in Modal Auxi- 
liaries, etc., 199, 2; with 
passive sense after laffert, 
200, 7, (c), X. ; for im- 
perative, 269, R. 5 ; as 
subst., 270; without ju, 
271 ; with ju, 272 ; of 
purpose, 273; after substs. , 
274; accusative with inf., 
not used in Germ., 275 ; in 
objective indirectquestions, 
275, R. 4; governed by 
preps., 276, 277'; infin. in 
-ing, or gerund, 277, R. 
3-6 ; in elliptical construc- 
tions, 278 ; replaced by p. 
part., 281, R. 6, 7; as 
part of predicate, 295. 

" ing, ' in finitive in , or gerun4 
277, R. 3-6. 

. iitv], substs. in, declension, 
22,2; gender, 89, 1, (a)j 
subst. suffix, 312, 18. 

inmitten, 223, 21. 

innen, adv., 189, 3; compa. 
rison, 130, 

inner^alb, 223, 4, and R. 

Inseparable prefixes, 35, R. 
6, 109, 203, 204, 207, 
208, 212, 213; meaning 
of, 314. 

Interjections, 240. 

Inversion, inverted sentence, 
301,2, X. 1,2. 

Interrogative pronouns and 
adjs., 81-86. 

Interrogative sentences, con- 
struction, direct, 23 ; 293, 
(a), I, 294, (a), 295, 2, 
300, 301, X. 2 ; indirect 
or dependent, 88, 275, R, 
4, 277, R. 5, 293, (c). 

Intransitive verbs, used only 
impersonally in the passive, 
113, 2 ; accusative after, 

siott, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (e). 

siren, verbs in ; see sieren. 

irgenb, 157. 

sifc^, adjs. in, not used as 
predicates, 160; adj. suf- 
fix, 313, 6. 
Italics, not used in Germ., 

p. 12. 

'it,' when rendered by er, fte, 

j, produces Umlaut, 326. 
\a, idiomatic use, 195, 11. 
ja, jaiDO^I, not counted ar 

member of sent., 293, (3), 

R. 2, N. 
je, before cardinal numerals. 

165, 9. 
je . . . befto, 126, 4, 239, 

3, id), 298, ii>). R. 4, N. 3- 



r«t*«aH\ adv., 187, I., W- 
iCwpr, declension, 6 ; indef . 

p.trtj., 145, 153 ; indef. 

num2i-d, 168,171; jebc^, 

of a nun-.ber of persons or 

things, 162, 2. 
jebermann, 1-45, 147. 
jebocfi, 237. 
tebroebcr; see jcbcr. 
jeg[t(^er; see febcr. 
jemanb, 145, 148. 
jener, declension, 6 ; use, 

132, 134, 140,1, (c), 141, 

jenfeitC^O, 223, 13. and R. 
je^t, 187,I.,(3). 

fein, declension, 8; indef. 

numeral, 168, 172. 
feiner, indef. pron., 145 ; 

used for nietnanb, 151. 
«feit, substs. in, gender, 89, 

2, (a); subst. suffix, 312, 

fennen, 196, R. 4, N. i 
jlnabe Model, 54. 
fommert, wth p. part., 281, 

R. 5. 
fonnen, conjugation^ 196- 

199 ; use, 200, 2, 202. 
fvaft, prep., 223, 7. 

«I, forms fractions, 183, (a). 

Idngs, 223,18, and R.l. 

Language, German, histori- 
cal sketch of, 322-326. 

Language-names from adjs., 
122, R. 2. 

Languages, Indo-Gemianic, 
etc., 322, 2, 3; Germanic, 

laffen, its use, for passive 
voice, 114, (3); as Modal 
Auxiliary, 200, 7. 

laut, 223, 8. 

Slautucvi'diiebung, 325. 

slci, forms variative nume- 
rals, 182, (c). 

fltic, substs. in, declension, 

16, 17 ; gender, 89, 3, j 
(.1); subst. suffix, 312, 3; j 
produces Umlaut, 326, R. i 
2, (c). I 

Letters, German, shape and I 
pronunciation of, see In- 
troduction, pp. I-I2. 

le^t, 130. 

sleute, plurals in, 68, 1. 

sHc^, adjs. in, not used as 
predicates, 160 ; superl. of 
advs. in, 190, 5 ; suffix of 
advs., 189,1,(3); of adjs., 
313, 8. 

(iebcr, compar. of gern, 190 ; 
use, 195, 3, 

sling, substs. in, declension, 
22, 2 ; gender, 89, 1, (a) ; 
subst. suffix, 312, 12. 

*ang5, suffix of advs., 189, 
1, (.). 

lobei:, paradigm of, active, 
31 ; reflexive, 41 ; passive, 

stn, substs. in, declension, 
69 ; gender, 89, 1, (a). 

■LTJad&t, irregxilar compounds 
of, 68, 2. 

;ma[, forms numeral advs., 
182, (a). 

main- Model, 16, 17, App. 

man, indef. pron., for passive 
voice, 114, (a); use, 145, 
146 ; replaced by einer, 
150; with imperative, 269, 
R. 2. 

mandier, indef. pron., 145, 
164; indef. numeral, 16S, 
174; before adjs., 122, 12. 

sjttann, substs. in, declen- 
sion, 68, 1. 

Manner, advs. of, 189; 
their place in a sentence, 
45, Rule 5. 

Materials, names of, take 
art., 44, 1, (6); plural of, 
66, 2. 

' may,' when expressed by 
biirfen, 200, 3, (i), N. 

'meanwhile,' how rendered 
in Germ., 241,15. 

Measure, expressions of, 
185;advs. of, 187, IIL 

incf)r, when used in compari- 
son of adjs., 126, 2, 161, 
N. ; adv. of quantity, 129, 
X. I ; indef. numeral, 168, 

mefirere, -e§, indef. pron., 
145, 152 ; indef. numeral, 
168, 175 ; before adjs., 
122, 12. 

mein Model, 8. 

Middle High German, 324, 2. 

lliillion, declension, 165, 10, 

Minutes of the hour, 184, 3, 

tnigs, verb-prefix, 204, 209, 

314, 5; subst. prefix, 

315, 3. 

mit, 46 ; after reflexive verbs, 
215, 1, (a). 

mittel, comparison, 130. 

nuttelfi, see oermittelft. 

Mixed declension, of substs., 
60-63, 70; of adjs., 116, 
121, IIL 

Modal auxiliaries, 196-202 ; 
peculiar forms, 196, R. 1- 
3 ; paradigms, 198 ; fur- 
ther peculiarities, 199 ; idi- 
omatic use, 200-202. 

Modern High German, 324, 3. 

Modification of vowels ; see 

mijgen, conjugation, 196- 
199 ; use, 200, 3, 202. 

Monosyllables, declension, 
22, 1, 3, 5, App. B., C., 
E., 37 ; gender, 89, 1, (a). 

Month, day of, how ex- 
pressed, 166, 3. 

Months, names of, p. 104, 
top; gender, 80, 1, (3). 

Moods of the verb, their use, 


Ol t 

256-278; see also "Con- 
ditional," " Indicative," 

' most,' with absolute super- 
lative, 127,2. 

Motion, neuter verbs of, con- 
jugated w-ith fein, 53, {b). 

miiffen, conjugation, 196- 
199; use, 200, 4, 202. 

Dlut, fem. compounds of, 
App. I, p. 388; ju aWute 
feiit, iDcrben, 250, {e). 

Mutes, progression or shift- 
ing of, 325. 

nac^, prep., 46, 184, 3, {b), 

233, (<r), I ; after adjs., 

244 J after verbs, etc., 291, 

3 ; after reflexive verbs, 

215, 1, {a). 
9lac^bQr Model, 62, 63. 
na^bem, subord. conj. clause 

with, replaces Engl. perf. 

part., 284, R. 1. 
tiac^ft, 51, 7. 
tia^e, comparison, 129. 
5Rame Model, 60, 61. 
Names, see " Materials," 

" Persons," " Places," 

" Proper Names." 
iiamlic^e, bcr, 132, 137. 
neben, prep., 65. 
nebft, 51, 8. 

nettnen, infin. with, 271, {d). 
Neuter verbs conjugated with 

fein, 63. 
New High German, 324, 3. 
ni^t, place of, 12, 
nic^t nur . . . fonbcrn auc^, 

ni*;t fotoo^I . . . aB, 238. 
nid)t§, indef. pron., 145, 

149; before adjs., 122, 11. 
ni(^t5beftorjeniger, coord. 

adv. conj., 237. 
nic^tS rocniger alS, 241, 19, 

nib, obsolete adv., compari- 
son, 130. 

nic(mar5), 187, I., (4 

niebev, 130. 

niemanb, 145, 148; re- 
placed by fciiier, 151, 1. 

nimmer, 187, I., (<:). 

»ni§, substs. in, declension, 
22,4; gender, 89, 2, (^), 
3, (<:); subst. suffix, 312, 
13 ; produces Umlaut, 326, 

U0(^, adv., idiomatic use, 195, 
7; conj., 237, 238. 

Nominative, use of, 3, 242. 

Number, in Substs., 3; ex- 
pressions of, 185. 

Numerals, cardinal, 163, 
165 ; ordinal, 164, 166 ; 
Roman, how rendered in 
Germ., 166, 2, N. ; indefi- 
nite, 168-180 ; derivative, 
182, 183 : multiplicative, 
182, {b): variative, 182, 
(<:); fractional, 183, {a), 

nun, 196, 1. 
nur, 195, 12. 

ob, prep., 51, 10; conj., 241, 
4; when omitted, 239, R. 
4, 267, R. 6, N. ; in in- 
direct questions, 277, 
R. 5. 

Ob aud}, 239, R. 3, 4. 

oben, adv., 189, 3; compari- 
son, 130. 

oberlialb, 223, 5. 

obgleic^, obfc^on, obino^l, 
239, R. 3, 4. 

Object, direct, see "Accusa- 
tive " ; indirect, see " Da- 
tive " ; remote, with reflex- 
ive verbs, 216. 

Objects, place of, 45, 296, 
297, R. 1, 2. 

Objective clause before the 
verb, 306. 

Objective genitive, 243, 3. 

ober, 236, 238. 
I *of,' how rendered in Germ., 

3, 46, R. 3 ; 231 ; omitted 
before infin. clauses, 2V7, 
R . 1 ; after verbs, etc. , 
201, 8-11. 

Ov':;e, prep., 34; governing 
infin. or bap clause, 224, 
2, {b), 276. 

oI;nebem, 50, 3. 

CI;r Model, 02, GS. 

Old High German, 324, 1. 

;on, foreign mascs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

' on,' how rendered in Germ., 
232 ; after verbs, etc., 
291, 7. 

' one,' rendered by e§, 39, R. 
3; indef. pron., 145, 146, 
150; not expressed after 
adjs., 122, 4. 

sor, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6, 63, 3. 

Ordinal numerals, 164, 166. 

Origin, genitive of, 243, 1. 

Orthography, p. 11 ; recent 
changes in, p. 12. 

Vaar (ein), indef. numeral, 
173, 3, N. 

Participial constructions, 
English, how rendered in 
Germ., 284; English pres. 
part, after ' come,' 281, R. 
5; not to be confounded 
with inf. in -ing, or ge- 
rund, 277, R. 3. 

Participle, past, how form-sd, 
in weak verbs, 30 ; in 
strong, 105 ; of Modal 
Auxiliaries, 199, 2. 

Participles, place of, 26, 33, 
283, 4, 295, 1, 3, and N., 
298, 299; endings, 80, 
35; used as adjectives, 
122,1; as substs., 122,2; 
comparison of, 125, 4 ; iso- 
lated strong, 194, N. ; use 
of, 279-284; present part., 
280 ; not used v\ith ' to be,' 
31, R. 3; past, 281; with 



imperative force, 269, R. 5; 
fut. pass, part., or gerund- 
ive, 282 ; general remarks, 
283; no perfect part, in 
Germ,, 284, R. 1; apposi- 
tive participles, 280, (3), 
281, R. 3, 283, 3, 290. 

Partitive genitive, 243, 6. 

Partitive sense, words used 
in, take no art., 2, 2. 

Passive voice, 112-114; pa- 
radigm, 112; agent \\-ith, 
R. 3; limitations of, 113; 
substitutes for, 114; pass- 
ive of transitive verbs, 113, 
1 ; of intransitive verbs, 
113, 2. 

Past participle, see " Parti- 

'people,' indef. pron., 145, 

Periphrastic forms of conju- 
gation, English, 31, R. 3. 

Perfect participle, none in 
Germ., 284, R. 1. 

Perfect tense, formation, 25, 
1; use, 259; replaced by 
present, 257, 4. 

Personal pronouns, declen- 
sion, 38 ; use, 39-42, 44, 
6, {b)\ place of, 45, Rules 
3, 4, 294, {c), N., 296, 3, 
4 ; replaced by demonstra- 
tives, 143 ; after gleic^en, 
48 ; after ^alben, toegeii, 
223, 1, 2, R. 3 ; omitted 
with imperative, 269, R. 1. 

Persons, before things, 45, 
Rule 2, 296, 5; names of, 
how declined, 73, 74, 76, 
2-7; article with names of, 
73, 1, 2, 76, 2, 5, 78. 

Place, advs. of, 187, II.; 
position in a sentence, 11, 
46, Rule 5, 297, 3, and 
R. 1. 

Places, proper names of, 72, 
76, 1 ; article with, 44, 3. 

Pluperfect tense, formation, 

25, 1 ; plupf . indicative, 
use, 260; plupf. subjunc- 
tive, used for conditional, 
263, 267, 2, and R. 4; to 
express a wish, 268, 2. 

Plural, see " Concord," 
" Number," " Substan- 

Possessive adjs., 43; agree- 
ment, 43, 5 ; replaced by 
def. art. , 44, 6. 

Possessive case, rendered in 
Germ, by the genitive, 3, 
243, 4. 

Possessive dative, 44, 6, 249. 
" pronouns, 119. 

Possibility, advs. of, 187, 
VI. ; expressed by impf . 
subj., 268, 5. 

Predicate, definition of, 292, 
1,295; place of , 295 ; fac- 
titive pred., 253, 254, 3. 

Predicative nominative, 242. 

Predicative adj., not de- 
clined, 14, 100 ; place of, 
18, 20, O. 3, 296, 3. 296, 
8; factitive, 254, 3. 

Prefixes, of verbs, 203-213, 
314 ; inseparable, 35, R. 
6, 109, 204, 207, 208, 
209, 212; meaning of, 
314;separable, 117, 206- 
208, 210, 295 ; separable 
and inseparable, 208; com- 
pound, 206, 2; double, 
207 ; accent of, 204, 205, 
3; place of, 117, 295, 3, 
and N. ; subst. prefixes, 
315 ; adj. prefixes, 316. 

Prepositions, governing accu- 
sative only, 34, 50 ; dative 
only, 46, 51 ; dat. or ace, 
65 ; genitive, 222, 223 ; 
contracted with def. art., 
34, R.,46, R. 1, p. 83,0., 
66, R. ; general remarks 
on, 224; joined to advs., 
224; governing the infin., j 
224, 2, (3), 276, 277 

English preps, and their 
Germ, equivalents, 226- 
234; place of, 46, 51, 
223, 298, 2; after verbs, 
etc., 291. 

Present participle ; see 
" Participial Construc- 
tions, English," and 
" Participles." 

Present tense, endings, in 
weak verbs, 35, in strong, 
107;pres. indicative, 257, 
267, R. 5 ; pres. subj., re- 
places imperative, 268» 1, 
269, and R. 2. 

Preterite, see " Imperfect." 

Primary Form of strong 
declension, 70, R. 2. 

Principal assertive sentences, 
construction, 20, 26, 59, 
N., 293, (/'), 294, (3), 
295, 2, 297, R. 1, 2, 301, 
2, 302, R, 303. 

Principal parts of a verb, 

Progression of mutes, 325. 

Pronouns, agreement of, 13; 
place of, 45, 296, 2-4; 
personal, declension, 38; 
use of ea, 39; use in ad- 
dress, 40, 47, 49; dative 
of, replaces poss. adj., 44, 
6, {b); reflexive, 41, 42; 
reciprocal, 42 ; interroga- 
tive, 81-83 ; relative, 92- 
97, place of, 98; posses- 
sive, 119 ; demonstrative, 
132-143 ; indefinite, 146- 
157; remarks on, 162. 

Pronunciation, Introduction, 
pp. 1-12. 

Probability, expressed by 
future, 261, 2; by future- 
perfect, 262. 

Proper names, declension of, 
66, 1, 72-74, 76. 

Proportional Clauses ; see 
" Comparative Clauses." 

Purpose, conjs. of, 239, 3, 



(S); expressed by JU, 229, 
(a) ; by subj. with boB, 
etc., 268, 3 ; by infin. with 
ju or um . , . ju, 273, R. 
1, 276, 1. 

Quality, genitive of, 243, 5. 
Quantity of vowels, pp. 9, 10. 
Quantity, expressions of, 

Quarters of the hour, 184,3, 

Questions, direct, construc- 
tion of, 23, 293, (a), I, 
294, (a), 295, 2, 300; in- 
direct or dependent, 88, 
293, (c). 

Question-word, begins sen- 
tence, 23, O. 2, 293, (a), 
I, 294, {a). 

Reciprocal pronouns, 42. 

Reflexive pronouns, 41, 42, 
44, 6, (3), N. ; used in re- 
ciprocal sense, 42 ; place 
of, 294, {c), N. 

Reflexive verbs, paradigm of, 
41: for passive, 114, {b)\ 
use, 214 - 215 ; govern- 
ment, 210. 

Relative clauses, replace Engl, 
part., 284, 2, (a); place of, 
305, 306, R. 3, and N., 
R. 4. 

Relative pronouns, 92-97 ; 
place of, 98, 294, {c), 305 ; 
introduce dependent clau- 
ses, 98 ; not omitted in 
Germ., 96, 7, O.; concord 
of, 95, 1, {b), 288, 2, N. 

Relative superlative, of adjs., 
127; of advs., 190, 3. 

Roman numerals, how read 
in Germ., 166, 2, N. 

Ȥ, plurab in, 77, 5. 

Ǥ, suffix of advs., 189, 1, 2, 

821, 1, N. ; suf&c in subst. 

compounds, 319, 1, N. 2, 3. 

jfal, substs. in, declension, 
22,4; gender, 89, 3, W; 
subst. suffix, 312, 14. 

sfam, adj. in, superl. of, 190, 
5; adj. suffix, 313, 9. 

fomt, 51, 9. 

»f(^aft, substs. in, gender, 
89, 2, (a); subst. suffix, 
312, 15. 

fc^ie^en Model, 123. 

fc^Iagen Model, 186. 

fc^ort, idiomatic use, 195, 6. 

Script, German, pp. 13-16. 

)e^r, with absolute superl., 
127, 2, 190, 4. 

fein, 'to be,' use as auxilia- 
ry, 25, 4 ; conjugation, 
62 ; verbs conjugated with, 
63; \vith past part., 112, 
R. 5, {b) ; as impersoual, 
217,220; with dat., 250, 
(e)-, with infin., 272, R. 2; 
omitted in dependent sen- 
tences, 287. 

feit, prep., 46, 241, 12, (a) ; 
conj., 239, 241, 12. 

feitbem, adv. conj., 237 ; 
subord. conj., 239, 241, 
12. W. 

sfel, substs. in, gender, 89, 
3, (c); subst. sufiSx, 312, 

felber, felbft, 42, 3, and R. 

felbig, 136, N. 

felbft; see felber. 

Sentences, construction of, 
292-306; essential parts 
of, 292 ; construction of 
assertive principal, 20, 26, 
69, N., 293, {b), 294, (3), 
295,2, 297, R. 1, 301, 
2, 300; of dependent, 
32, 33, 98, 293, {c), 294, 
(c), 295, 2; relative, 98, 
305, 306, R. 3 and N., 
R. 4; interrogative, 23, 
88, 293, {a), I, 293, (r). 
294, (a),295, 2, 300: ex- 
clamatory, 293, {b), R. 3 ; 

expressing command o* 
\\'ish, 293, {a), 2 ; condi- 
tional, 69, 293, {a), 3 ; po- 
sition of verb in, 293; of 
subject, 294 ; of predicate, 
295 ; of objects, etc., 296; 
of advs., etc., 297 ; of 
other members, 298; in. 
verted, 301, N. 1,2 ; com- 
pound and complex, 302- 

Separable prefixes, when se. 
parated, 117 ; place of, 
295, 3 and N., 303, 4. 

' shall,' how rendered in 
Germ., 201. 

Shifting of mutes, 325. 

' since,' how rendered in 
Germ., 241, 12. 

fingen Model, 144. 

Singular, see " Concord,** 
" Substantives." 

' so,' rendered by e5, 39, 3. 

fo, after conditional and ad. 
verbial clauses, 59, 239, 
R. 2, 267, R. 3, 293, {b\ 
R. 4, N. I, 2, 294, {b), R. 
2; replaces \o{S) before etn, 
138, N. 2; adv. conj., 

io . . . fo, 241, 9. 

fo etn, followed by ttic, 
162, 4. 

fogar, adv. conj., 237, R. 2. 

SoEin Model, 21 ; origin of 
Umlaut in, 326, R. 2, (a). 

foId)(er), demonstr. pron., 
132, 138 ; followed by 
iDie, 162, 4 ; before adjs., 
122, 12. 

foQen, conjugation,196-199 ; 
use, 200, 5, 201, 202. 

'some,' how rendered in 

I Germ., 2, 2, 150, 152, 

155, 168, 173, 177, 180. 

fonber, 50, 1. 

fonbern, 236, R. 1. 

foiroOI . , . ol§ (au(§), 288i 
285, R. 6. 



?piimen Model, 158. 
tprec^en Model, 16?\ 
ff, B/ p. 5; in verbs, l^S, 
R. 2, 123, R. 1, 1^1, 9. 

1, 188, R. 3. 

ftatt, see anftrttt. 

«ft, subst. suffix, 312' 1. 

fte^cii, withinfin.,272,R. 2. 

Stem of verbs, 27. 

Strong declension; see " Sub- 
stantives, declension of." 

Strong conjugation; see 
"Verbs, conjugation of." 

Subject, definition of, 292 ; 
place of, 294 ; in principal 
sentences, 20, 69, N. ; 
in direct questions, 23, 
O. 1; in dependent sen- 
tences, 33, N.; inver- 
sion of, 301, 2, N. I, 2; 
expressed by nom. case, 
3, 242, 1 ; agreement with 
verb, 285; repetition of, 

Subjective clause, 306; rela- 
tive, 306, R. 3. 

Subjective genitive, 243, 2. 

Subjunctive Mood, use, 264- 
268, for conditional. 111, 
263, N. ; in indirect state- 
ments, 87, 265, 266 ; in 
indirect questions, 88 ; in 
hypothetical periods, 239, 
R. 1, 267 ; for imperative, 
81, R. 4, 268, 1, 2G9; 
expressing a wish, 268, 2 ; 
of purpose, 268, 3 ; after 
a negative, etc., 268, 4; of 
possibility, 268, 5; origin 
of Umlaut in impf. subj., 
826, (^). 

iJubstantives, their declen- 
sion, malex Model, 16, 
17;So[)ndo., 21, (^), 22, 
App. C. ; ^iinb do., 21, 
(,5),22, App. E.;25or!do., 
86, 37; Sim'oe, ©raf, 
iMume do., 54-67, App. 

, Jo., 60-63, App, G. ; with 
Jouble plurals, 64, App. 
5.*; Summary and tables, 

i 70 ; essential parts, 71 ; 
anomalous, 66-69 ; substs. 
without plural, 6G ; without 
£ing.,67; of measure,weight 
and number, 185 ; as verb 
prefixes, 206, 3, 212; ir- 
regular compound substs., 
68; appositive subst., 289; 
derivation, by internal 
change, 310; by suffixes, 
312 ; by prefixes, 315 ; 
composition, 319; see also 
under " Accentuation," 
" Compound Substan- 
tives," " Foreign Substan- 
tives," " Gender." 
Suffixes, of verbs, 311; of 
substs., 312 ; of adjs., 
Superlative degree, of adjs., 
relative, 127, 1; absolute, 
127, 2; of advs., 190, 

*t, substs. in, gender, 89, 2, 
{i>) ; subst. suffix, 312, 1. 

stat, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, {e). 

taufenb, 165, 8, and 10, (c). 

teil'3 . . . teilS, 238. 

Tense, in indirect state- 
uients, 87 ; in indirect 
questions,88; auxiHariesof, 
use, 25, 63 ; place of with 
auxiliaries of mood, 199, 3. 

Tenses, simple, how formed 
in weak verbs, 30 ; in 
strong, 104-107, 110 ; 
endings of, in weak verbs, 
35 ; in strong, 107 ; com- 
pound, how formed, 25, 
108 ; construction, 26, 
33 ; sequence of tenses in 
indirect statements and 
questions not observed in 
Germ., 87, 2. 88, 2, 266, 

4 ; of the indicative, how 
used, 267-262 (see also 
under the various tenses) ; 
of the conditional, 263, 
N.; the tense in indirect 
statements, 87, 266; in 
hypothetical periods, 267. 

Terminations; see "End- 

* than ' after the compara- 
tive, 126, 1, 241, 7. 

'that,' how rendered in 
Germ., 140. 

' the . . . the ' before compa- 
ratives, 126, 4. 

'there,' rendered by e§, 39, 
1, R. ; ' there is, there are,' 

' they,' indefinite, 146, 146. 

stf)um; see stum. 

Time, expressions of, 184; 
place of, 11, 46, 297, 2, 
306, R. 2; advs. of, 187, 
I. ; English participial con- 
structions of, how rendered 
in Germ., 284, (a); time 
of day, 184, 3, 285, R. 6, 
N. 2. 

Titles of rank, 49 ; 7P, 5, 6. 

' to,' how rendered in Germ., 
46, R. 4; 233. 

Towns, names of, gender, 
80, 3, (c) ; see also "Places, 
names of." 

Transitive verbs, English, 
with object unexpressed, 
rendered by reflexive verbs 
in Germ., 215, 2; "often 
intrans. in Germ., 250, R. 
1, 252, R. 

Trigraphs, consonantal, pp. 
4, 8, 14. 

tro§, 223, 16, and R. 2. 

stum, substs. in, declension, 
87; gender, 89, 3, (3); 
subst. suffix, 812, 16. 

iiber, prep., 65 ; after inter- 
jections, 240, 4, (a) ; after 



verbs, etc., 291, 1; prefix, 
208 ; after reflexive verbs, 
215, 1. 

urn, prep., 34, 18-t, 3, (c), 
226, (a), {b}, 2-21, (d),i; 
after verbs