Skip to main content

Full text of "Historical memoranda of Breconshire; a collection of papers from various sources relating to the history of the County"

See other formats


u 



n 




HISTORICAL MEMORANDA 



OF 



BRECONSHIRE. 



A COLLECTION OF 

PAPERS 

FROM VARIOUS SOURCES 



RELATING TO THE 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY. 



"VOX-TCTIMIIE 



BY JOHN LLOYD. 



BRECON : 

PRINTED BY ELLIS OWEN, " BRECON & RADNOR EXPRESS " OFFICES. 

1903. 



PREFACE. 



These Memoranda have now extended to a couple of hundred pages, and I have 
resolved to collect the four Parts in which they have appeared into one Volume. 

The material at hand of a similar character is abundant, and in the hope of being 
able to add other Parts, so as to form a second Volume, I have ventured to give this 
the title of Volume I. 

During the last few years, some very important questions connected with our 
County have had my attention, such as the Right of Common in the Penkelly Manors, 
the Great Forest Inclosure, and the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, and it became 
necessary to search all available records, including our County Histories, for inform- 
ation. 

In dealing with such in Courts of Law, the most accurate and full information is 
required, and not extracts but the documents themselves have to pass through the 
hands of the inquirer. 

For these purposes the pages of our County Historian, or of historians generally, 
are of little use. Not only in our case have 100 years passed since our able historian, 
Theophilus Jones, compiled his history, in which period events of great county 
importance have occurred, but even in his time the field of history to explore and 
describe was so wide that the historian was quite unable fully to deal with it. Where 
we now wish he had paused, and given full particulars ot some subject now again of 
present interest, we find he had time and space only to give it a passing comment or 
reference. His help seems to fail us at the very time it is needed. 

In such respects my object has been to supplement the work of our County 
Historian, and by printing copies of original documents in extenso, to add to the value 
and practical utility of his great work. 

For instance, the chief documents used in the Penkelly Manor trials have been 
twice searched for and copied at great expense, since Theophilus Jones wrote, in 1817 
and again in 1898, and by printing these documents now in full, the litigants, if any 
further trial takes place regarding these Manors and Common rights, will be able to 
read the papers for themselves in their own arm chair, without any expense, and 
possibly they may think twice in consequence before they commence a lawsuit. 

The Great Forest Case, and that of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, are 
also those where the fullest documentary evidence should be accessible to the public^ 



and the rights of all parties fully stated. There should be no mystery as to what the 
documents of title are, and if any dispute arises, it then becomes at once narrowed 
down to the legal interpretation of the language of the document, the document being 
public property and known to all interested. 

And it may be said that in the interest of the least powerful and the weak, this ready 
available knowledge is of the chiefest value, placing them on an equality with the 
powerful and rich, who can afford to make costly searches of their own whenever 
needed. The Lord of a Manor knows his title, but what does a Commoner know of 
his ! What title deeds or documents has he, though his title is the same as that of the 
Lord to his common land ! 

Whenever copies of old documents are given in this volume, 'every pains have 
been taken to secure perfect accuracy, and the services of one of the most competent 
copyists who attend the Record Office has been secured. The experience of a recent 
trial has given proof that in that instance at least the copies were thoroughly trustworthy 
and to be depended upon. This character for accuracy is the best reward that a collector 
of papers like these can wish for. 

Some lighter pieces are here and there interspersed, possessing an antiquarian 
interest, or illustrating the life and times of our Breconshire forefathers. 

15, Chepstow Place, London, W., 
Oct. 1, 1903. 



I. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Parliamentary Surveys : 

1. Manor of Builth 3 

2. Manor of Brecon 4 

3. Seven Forest Mills 5 

4. Llynsavathan IO 

5. Manor of Llanspythid II 

6. Honddu Mills J 4 

7. Burgess Mill lf > 

8. Manor of Welsh Penkelly 1 7 

9. Manor of Welsh Haye 20 

Inquisition on Death of William Aubrey, D.D. . 22 
Welsh Penkelly Manor Court Leet and Per- 
ambulation 31 

Welsh Penkelly Manor Report by John Cheese 33 

Tales of the Belfry 37 

Now and Then 3 8 

Great Forest of Brecknock 39 

" Rhesfa's " 4 

Inquisition on the Death of Thomas James, Lord 
of the Manors of Talachddu, Slwch, and 

Saint Aylett 4 1 

Lordship of Builth 44 

Lordship of Dinas Part of the March Counties 46 

Absolution of Catherine Powell 5 2 

Black Cattle Droves 53 

Lordship of Brecon Grant to Sir Francis Bacon 56 

Lordship of Brecon Sale to Collins and Fenn. . 57 
Great Forest of Brecknock Agistment to Rice 

Jones 59 

Manor of Haya Wallensis 1 61 

Manor of Haya Wallensis II 63 

Glasbury Bridge 66 

Glasbury and the County Boundary 68 

Glasbury 7O 

Glasbury and District 73 

Do. 75 

Do. 77 

Do. under the Commonwealth. . 78 

Old Maps 79 

Sale of Crown Manors 81 

Henry VII ' 82 

Crosses in Breconshire 8 3 

Crown Property in Breconshire in the reign of 

Elizabeth 8 5 



PAGE. 

Wilkins' Old Bank 86 

Compulsory Attendance at Church in 1687 .... 89 

John Lloid, of Towy 93 

Talavan Forest 95 

Grant to William Herbert, Knight 96 

Lease of Talavan Forest 97 

Grant of Lordship of Builth 99 

Gwynne of Garth and Llanelwedd Estate 100 

Forgotten Industries (Breconshire) I4 

Brecknock Castle lo6 

Manor of Tal y Llyn or Croft y Yarll 109 

Old Lease of Land in Cathedine Parish and 

Blackmoor Common 1 1? 

Forest of Buchlyd or Auckland 12 

Manors of Crickhowell and Tretower 127 

Miarth Hill (Tretower) J2 9 

Penkelly Manors 13 

Lands of Strata Florida Abbey in Breconshire. . 155 

VennyWood '5 

Manor or Lordship of Brecknock 157 

Halimot Manor of Brecon I5 8 

Quarrying Stones on Common Lands in Brecon- 
shire I6 

Manor or District of Troescoed 162 

Gabriel Powell (of Pennant), 1 700-35 163 

Blawd y Kwn or Dagges : 7 

Abercynrig Lordship and Estate 1 7 - 

Nonconformity in Breconshire, 1700 to 1800 179 

Tor Glas Common Lawsuits 182 

The Granting of a Faculty for a Seat in St. 

Mary's Church, Brecon, 1 727 185 

A Letter of 1/73 l86 

The Fisheries of Breconshire in Olden Times . . 187 

Consistory Court J 88 

Terrier of Llywel Parish l8 9 

The Act of 1776 and the Town of Brecon 190 

The Usk and Canal I9 1 

The Angling Waters of the Wye I9 6 

A Letter of 1794 ! 99 

A Letter of 1803 2 

A Letter of 1807 2O 

Terms of Junction of the Two Canals 201 

Llansaintffread and Llanvillo Inclosure 203 



ERRATUM. Page 93, line 18 For " forgotten," read " fotten." It is a north- 
country term for where a battle was fought. 



Augmentation Office, Parliamentary Survey, 

Brecon, No. 1. 



MANOR OF BUILTH. 



BRECON MANEKIUM DE BUILT CUM JUKIBUS MBMBBIS ET APPUKTENANT. 

A Survey of Certaine Parcelles of Land lyinge within the Manner of Built presented 
to vs to bee Crowne Land and concealed though the Mannor bee granted to ffee ffarme 
made and taken by vs whose Names are herevnto Subscribed in the Moneth of Januarii by 
vertue of a Comission grounded vppon an Act of the Comons in Parliament assembled for 
the Sale of the Honnors Manners and Land heretofore belonginge to the Late Kinge 
Queene and Prince vnder the Hande and Seales of ffive or more of the Trustees in the 
said Act named and appoynted 

THOMAS LEWIS VNDEB TENNANT 

All that one parcell of Mountaine Lande lyinge and beeinge within the Parish of 
Mashmannys and Mannor of Built in the posesseon of Thomas Lewis abbuttinge 
North vppon the Mountaines and bounded West with the ffreehould lande of the said 
Thomas Lewis the pathway devideing it contein by estimacon 20 Acres 

Worth p Acre .. Is 

In toto p. Ann xx s (20s ) 

HOWEL LEWIS UNDEB TENNANT 

All that Parcell of Moreish ground lyinge and beeing within the said Pish (parish ) 
of Mashmannes and Mannor of Brecon aforesaid and in the possession of Howell Lewis 
abutting West vpon the Mountaines and bounded North with the ffree Hould lande of 
the said Howell Lewis a certaine path way devidinge it conteininge by estimacon x Acres 

Worth p Acre Is 

In toto p Ann xs 

HOGER PKOSSEB UNDEB TENNANT 

All that Water Corne Grist Mill lyinge and beeinge within the Pish (parish) of 
Llandewy-com and Mannor of Built comonly knowne by the name of the Ould Mill in 
the occupation of Roger Prosser 

The said Prosser payes to the Auditor yeerly vi s viii d but is worth vppon improve- 
ment over and above the said Rent p ann \l (5) 

There is no Lease to be pduced (produced) 

SB. EDMONDE TITLE 

All that the Custome called a Comortha of twenty pounde payable every second yeere 
within the Mannor of Built aforesaid which said some of twenty pounde Sir Edmond 
Sawyer who hath the ffee ffarme of the paid Mannor or his Steward or Bayliffe for the 
tyme beeinge hath allwayes beene accustomed to Collect and Pay vnto the Receiver of the 
late Kinge. 

Exr p Will Webb Supvis Genrll (Supervisor Generall) 1650 

HEN MAKEPEACE 1650 
PETER PRICE 
JOHN MARRYOTT 
JOHN LLOYD 

[Endorsed] Built Mannour Concealments Brecknock 
Received this 27th of Aprill 1050 

Transmitted to the Srveyor Grail (Surveyor General) the same day 
Returned the 29th of Aprill 

MAKEPEACE. 



Augmentation Office, Parliamentary Survey, 

Brecon. No. 2. 



MANOR OF BRECON. 



BRECON MANERIUM DE BRECON CUM JURIBUS MEMBRIS ET APPURTENANT. 

A Survey of Certaine Pticular Pcells (Particular Parcells) of Land lyinge and beeinge 
within the Manner of Brecknock and County of Brecon presented to vs to bee Crowne 
Land and Concealed though the Manner bee granted in ft'ee farme, made and taken by us 
whose names are hereunto subscribed in the Month of January by vertue of a Comission 
grounded vppon an Act of the Comons in Parliamt Assembled for the Sale of the Honuors 
Manners and Land heretofore belonginge to the late Kinge Queene and Prince under the 
hands and seales of ffive or more of the Trustees in the said Act Named and appointed. 

All that peice or pcell (parcell) of grounde lyinge and beeinge neere the Towne of 
Brecon and within the County of Brecon comonly called and knowne by the name of the 
great fforrest consistinge of a large Comon or Pasture by estimacon Seaven Miles in 
length or there abouts 

Memorand that the Inhabitants of the severall Parishes of Devennocke Llewell 
Llyntuog Strodwelty Pedoryn Cantreffe Llanvygon and Llandvettee and there 
pdecessors have tim out of minde had the benefitt of the Hearbage there for all 
Beast Sheepe and Horse sanse number for which there is yeerly payd by the 
severall inhabitants of the aforesaid Parrishes the some of twenty pounds six 
shillings eight pence to be collected (in modo sequent) (vizt) for every cowe a 
penny for every horse Id A and for every score of sheep fowre pence 

Redditus (Bent) xx/ vi s viii d (20 6s 8d) 

All that tiie Custom called a Comortha of ffifty six pounds sixteene shillinges payable 
every second yeere within the Mannor of Brecon and Cour.ty of Brecon aforesaid which 
said somme of ffifty six pounds sixteen shillinges William Morgan Esq who hath the ffee 
ffarme of the said Mannor or his Steward or Bayliffe for the time beeinge hath all ways 
beene accustomed to Collect ind Pay vnto the Receiver of the late Kinge 

HEN. MAKEPEACE 1660 
Exr p Will. Webb Supvis Genrll 1650 

PETER PRICE 
JOHN MARRYOTT 
JOHN LLOYD 

[Enclosed] Brecknock Concealments Nup Car Regis 
Brecknock 

Received this vith day of Aprill 

Transmitted to the Srveyor (Surveyor) the same day 

Returned the 29th of Aprill 

MAKEPEACE. 



NOTE ON PARLIAMENTARY SURVEY. No. 2. 

MANOR OF BRECON. 

We find the following in Beport ii, Page 27, of the Commissioners of Woods and 
Forests for 1816 : 

" According to the intention mentioned in our first report, we were about to proceed 
le authority of the Act of the 48th of the King, Capt. 78, to take measures for 



(6) 

selling by Auction the entire interest of the Crown over the Great Forest of Brecknock, 
and with that view we have caused the same to be divided into seven Lots which were set 
out and measured by Mr. Hassell, an eminent Land Surveyor in that part of the country. 
But finding that a great impediment to the sale would arise in consequence of a claim set 
up by the Homagers to depasture an unlimited number of cattle on the Forest, we thought 
it expedient to suspend our proceedings, until the question involved in that claim could be 
determined by an issue at Law. An information in the Court of Exchequer was 
accordingly filed, upon which the parties soon relinquished their claim to the extent 
above-mentioned, and agreed to confine it to the right to depasture as many cattle as they 
could maintain in winter in their respective occupations." 

On the other hand it is clearly stated in the Parliamentary Survey of 1650 that the 
commoners were not limited as to their stock, but could turn out beast, sheep, and horst 
same (without) number. When the Crown brought the Homagers into the Court of 
Exchequer in 1816 to test the question, 1 wonder if this old survey was referred to, and 
used by the Homagers ! It would have been useful to them. J.LL. 



Augmentation Office, Parliamentary Surveys, 

Brecon. No, 3. 



THE SEVEN FOREST MILLS. 



BKECON : ss : THE 7 MILLS CALLED THE FFORREST MILLS. A Survey of the seaven Mills 
comonly called the fforest Mills als the Custome Mills scituate and Jbeing within 
the Honnor of Brecknocke and within the several pishes of Divynocke Llewell 
Istradvelltye Istradgynles and Penderrine in the Countee of Brecon within the 
Dominion of Wales, called or knowne by the names of Divynocke Mill Istrodvelltye 
Glintaway Mill Craye Mill Pwllcoeh Mill Llewell Mill and Sennye Mill with the 
Eights members and appurtenances there of late pcell (parcel!) of the possessions of 
Charles Stuart late King of England, made and taken by vs whose names are hereonto 
subscribed, By virtue of a commission granted to vs by the Honoble the Trustees 
appointed by Act of the Comons assembled in Parliament for Sale of the Honnors 
Manners and lands heretofor belonging to the late King Queene and Prince vnder 
there hand and seales. 

DYVINOCK MILL. All that water grist Mill with the appurtenances comonly called 
Divynocke Mill als the Mother Mill scituate standing and being within the Parish of 
Divynock and neere vnto the Parish Church of Divynocke with all Tolls Mulktures Suits 
Services and Customs therevnto belonging nowe in the Tenure and occupacon of Wm. 
Morgan Esqr. or his assignes wch we estimate to be worth p ann I/ (50.) 

LLEWELL MILL, All that water grist Mill with the appurtenances comonly called 
Llewell Mill scituate standing and being neere vnto Trea Castle in the Parish of Llewell 
afforesaid with all Tolls Mulktures Suits Services and Customes therevnto belonging nowe 
in the tenure and occupacon of one David Gualter which we estimate to be worth p ann 
xiiiZ vis viiid (18 6s. 8d.) 



(6) 

SENNY MILL. All that water grist Mill with the appurtenances comonly called 
Sennye Mill scituate standing and being within ye vally of Sennye and within the Parish 
of Divynocke afforesaid with all Tolls Mulktures Suits Services and Customs tberevnto 
belonging nowe in the tenure and occupacion of Lewis Powell Haverd which wee estimate 
to be worth p ann xxiiii (23). 

OKAY MILL. All that water grist Mill with the appurtenances comonly called Cray 

Mill scituate standing and being in the valley of Glancraye and within the Parish of 
Divynocke aforesaid with all Tolls Mulktures Suits Services and Customes therevnto 
belonging now in the tenure and occupacion of one Mrs. Williams wch we value to be 
worth p ann xii (12). 

GLINTAWAY MILL, All that water grist Mill with the appurtenances comonly called 
Glintawaye Mill scituate standing and being in the Parish of Istradgunles aforesaid with 
all Tolls, Mulktures Suits Services and Customes therevnto belonging nowe in the tenure 
and occupacion of Walter Thomas of Swansey Esq. which we value to be worth p ann xZ 
(10). 

ISTBODVELLTY MILL. All that water grist Mill with the appurtenances comonly 
called Istrodvellty afforesaid with all Tolls Mulktures Suits Services and Customes there- 
vnto belonging nowe in the tenure and occupacion of one John Williams and others which 
we estimate to be worth p ann xH (40)- 

PWLLCOCK MILL. All that water grist Mill with the appurtenances comonly called 
Pwllcock Mill scituate standing and being in the Parish of Pennyderrin afforesaid with all 
Tolls Mulktures Suits Services and Customs thereunto belonging nowe in the tenure and 
occupacion of Mrs. Games which we estimate to be worth p ann -s.1 (10). 

And all wayes passages Liberties priviledges Jurisdiccons Immunityes Suits Services 
Mulkts Mulktures tolls pounds weares Mill pounds Mill dams watercourses floodgates 
sluces together with the ffishing in the Rivers of Neath and Tawaye and elsewhere with all 
other profits Comodities advantages and appurtenances whatsoever to the said Mills or to 
any of them belonging or in anywise appurteyneing or which have been heretofore vsed 
occupied or enjoyed as pt pcell (part parcell) and Member of them or any of them. 

There are divers {freeholders and tenants within the several pishes (parishes) o 
Divynocke Llewell Isdrodvellty Istrodgunles and Penniderrin afforefaid whoe doe owe 
divers suits services and Customs to the said mills within theire severall precincts and are 
lyable to sevrall Mulkts ffines and amerciaments ffor and in default thereof. The names 
of such Suiters and of there severall Customs belonging to the said Mills we received 
partly by the Informacion of divers psons (persons) that owe the said Suits and services, 
and also from others. And more pticularly and ffully by prsentment exemplified before the 
Barrens of the Exchequer and made letters Pattents wch Presentment was taken at 
Brecon [sic] the xth day of April 1651 last past by divers Commissioners Authorised and 
required thereunto by Commission from the said Barrens of the Exchequer dated the 12th 
of Ffebruary 1650 upon the prsentment of a Jurye of Considerable persons within the said 
Honnor of Brecknock [sicj And duced (produced) to vs by one Thorns (Thomas) Awbery 
Esq. in whose Right the severall psons before named doe posses the said Mills. All which 
said psons (persons) bound to the suits and services and Customes to ye said Mills and 
alsoe ye Services and Customs which they owe to the said Mills And the ffynes and 
Penaltyes they are Lyable vnto in default there of here after ffolloweth (vizt). 

The names of those that owe Suite &c. to Divynocke Mill : Cisley Morgan, John 
Morgan, Margrett vxr Thomas, Thomas Powell Thomas Richard Griffith, Watkin David 
Griffith, Thomas David Thomas, Walter Watkin Cle, the Relct of Morgan Thomas Watkin, 
Howell Thomas, Howell David, John Lewis. Havered Gualter, David idem and Thomas 
Morgan tenntes, David Willm David William, Thomas Williams, gent, Rosser David, 
Phillip William, Gwenlian Lewes, Widd, Lucy Powell, Phee Williams Evan Prosser, 
Gladish Watkin, David Howell, David Howell Prees William Howell, William Gwinlian 
Lewis Gyles, Evans Howell Gyles Evans, Gyles Dawid Llewellin Thomas Jenkin John 
William, Howell Prees, Mauld vxr Thomas Gwenlion vxr Watkin Jevan Preess Powell 



(7) 

David Thomas John Morgan Watkin Thomas Thomas Meredith Morgan, Watkin Richard 
Thomas Awbery William Jenkin Andrew Jenkin Ellinor vx : Thomas Meredith Andrew 
Howell Meredith Howell, William, William Howell Thomas Lewes, Phee Morgan, Howell 
William Phee, Thomas Morgan et mater, Morgan William Bowen, Owen William Bowen, 
Lewis Phee, Thomas Willm, David Llewellin, Thomas Richard Thomas Awberey Alice 
vxor Jenkin, Richard Thomas Awberey Howell Watkin Agnest vxor Watkin. 

These tennts owe Suit to Senny Mill : Griffith Llewellin, David Rees ap John, 
William Bowen John Howell David Howell, Lewis Powell, Haverd Howell, Haverd 
Howell [sic] , John William, William David Lewis, William Phee Griffith Llewellin 
David Idem Lewis William, William Phee, David Howell Lewis Willinm Lewis idem, 
idem William John, William Howell. John Thomas Inhabitaus as tenntes to Mrs. Edward 
Games, Gwenlian vxor Morgan as tennts to Mrs. Jones of Cungoodye.Howell John Howell, 
William Walter as tennts to Mrs. Jones of Cungoody Thomas Morgan Howell as tenns to 
Rees Thomas David Llewellin Rees ap Rees as tennt to ye sd Rees Thomas Lewis 
William, Phee Howell, Morgan Howell Lewis Thomas John, John David John David 
William John David Jevan Frees Powell David, Llewellin Thomas William Llewellin, 
William William David William. 

The names of those that owe Suit &c. to Llywell Mill : John David, Peeter 
Powell, Watkin John Beavan Llewellin Frees, Howell David, David Rees, David Frees 
Harrye Rees, Thomas Rees David John David Morgan David Rees David Frees Nicholas 
Morgan idem David Walter Jenkin Bowen, Watkin William, Jenkin Beavan David 
Prichard Richard Powell, Thomas Bevan Watkin Edward John William David Jenkin 
Thomas William Prosser, Jsnkin Llewellin, John Llewellin, Thomas Morgan Frees, idem 
Howell David, Jeram Watkin, William Lloyd, Lewis John John William Frees, Edward 
Williams idem Margarett vxr Thomas Nicholas Morgan, Thomas William Morgan. 

The names of those that owe Suite &c, to Cray Mill : Howell Griffith, William 
Llewellin John Watkin, Llewellin Wm as tennts to John Frees David John of Camleis 
Howell Thomas and Lluky William as tennts to the same man, Evan Powell David John 
Morgan, Howell Morgan as tennts to David William David Wm of Maescar, John William 
Llewellin as tennts to the said Watkin David as tenants to Jevan Frees David Morgan 
Frees Richard William Smith as tennts to G waiter David Lewis Thomas idem as tennts 
to Walter Watkins Clerk, David Thomas and his tennts Rees Griffith Joha as tenants 
to David Gwalter David David, Thos ap David as tennts to the same Morgan, Rytherth, 
John, William Bowen Llewellin, Morgan John, and David William Llewell as tentes to 
Mrs. Williams of Blaencray and her tennant Llewis Morgan Mrs. Williams of Blaencray 
Thomas John Thomas Lewis John ap Owen Thomas ap Jevan Jevan John Watkin Jenken 
Price Lewis Phee William Howell Morgan Lands Watkin John and John David John 
Llewellin the Relict of Lewis Morgan, and Wm Howell William Gradish vxr Richard 
Morgan Howell Thomas David Relict Llewellin John Thomas ap John Wm. Howell 
Thomas, Thomas Lewis John Morgan Griffith Llewellin William Powell William Jones 
Griffith ap Griffith Lewis Lewis Powell Hugh Powell David Lewis. 

The tennts names that owe Suite &c. to Glyntaway Mill : Edward Gwin Esq. 
Howell Thomas William Beavan John Griffith Griffith John Howell Thomas William 
Beavan Rees Wm Hoppkin Evan Bowen William Hopkin Rees William Hopkin John 
Morgan Richard Rees Parrye, David Harrye William Thomas Jenkin Margarett David 
Thomas Frees William Frees Rees Pennry Rees John Price William Howell Jones John 
William Bowen. John Thomas Howell Edward Lewis Lewis Bowen John Thomas Phee 
Howell, Thomas Ffee, Mauld Howell Howell Thomas Alice Jenkins Margrett Thomas 
John Frees David Morgan William John p.p John William John Frees William Bowen 
Jenkin John Rees David, Meredith Willia'm Howell John Howell Thomas William, 
Margarett John Lewis Watkins Llewellin Jones William Thomas William. 

The names of those that owe suite &c, to Ystrodvelltye Mill : Llewellin John 
Gwalter John Reey Jenkin David Griffith Frees Beavant John Thomas Frees Jevan Frees 



(8) 

Jenkin Frees Morgan Frees Beavan William Llewellin Llewellin Frees, Howell Rees 
David Owen Llewellin Richard William Wm John Beavan Jenkin John Richard Morgan 
George William, Wm John ap John Katherine Howell Morgan Jones gent : Jenkin Wm. 
Llewellin Margarett Prytherch, Morgan Prytherch, Rees Wm Lllewellin, Elizabeth Waters 
Rees William gent W'illiam John William, Jevan Thomas gent, Morgan Frees, William 
John, Griffith Llewellin William Beavan Howell Thomas Jeaven Powell David Rees 
Morgan, Mary Morgan Widdow Griffith David Griffith Morgan Frees gent Llewellin David 
John Richard William Beavan Jonett Llewellin William Llewellin Juhn Jenkin Gent : 
Jenkin Thomas Byvan Thos Frees Llewellin Jenkin Gent : Richard Frees David William 
Wm John ap John, William Morgan, John Llewellin Wm John Llewellin Morgan Thomas 
John Idem Jenkin Williams Gent : David Howell Llewellin Merediih Thomas Frees 
Griffith William Byvan Llewellin Gwilliams Gent : Watkin Lewis Rees Wm. Bevan Gent : 
Walter Willm Byvan, Agnest Llewellin Widdow Jenkin Griffith, Llinap Gwilliam Gwinn 
Thomas Morgan Griffith Pl.ee, Jenett Rees Jevan Thomas Morgan Williams Gent : 

The names of those that owe Suite &c. to Pwllcough Mill : The Lands of William 
John Richard the Lands of Lewis Powell the Lands of William Bevan and David Phee, 
the Lands of William John William the Lands of Llewellin William and Evan Thomas 
the lands of John Thomas William, Isabell Vaughan. the lands of Howell Morgan the 
lands of Edward Press the lands of Rees Thomas the lands of Thomas William the lands 
of Evan David the lands of Elizabeth Morgan atid Griffith Llewellin John the lands of 
Howell Jenkin the lands of Thomas Beavan Jenkin the lands of Gwilliam Morgan the 
lands of Gwenlyon vxr Evan, the lands of Lewis Frees ihe lands of Henry Frees the lands 
of Jonett Lewis, the lands of Evan Llewellin Howell Rees ap John David Rees David 
Byvan John Byvan, Jenkin Jevan, Morgan Samuell, Poweil John, Frees William Rees 
William David Richard William Richard John Morgan Frees Jenkins Morgan Edmonds 
Pres Richard David Roger Symon Morgan John Morgan John Thomas Howell Thomas 
Morgan Frees John ap John, ychan David, William John Jevan William John Jevan 
Howell Morgan. 

THE CUSTOMES OF YE SAID MILLS (vizi) 

Every of the said tennants are to appeere at the severall Mills they owe suit vnto 
upon sumons given them or left at theire respective tenements vpon payne of tenn 
shillings. 

The same tennts are to be ready vpon sumons to carry woode timber and stones for 
the Repayrein or Reedefieing of the said Mills at tbeire owne cost and Charges vpon payrie 
of tenn shill. 

The said tennts are to carrye the Mill stones to ye Respective Mills from any place 
within the Bounds of the Lordship of Brecknock at theire owne charges. 

The Lord of the said Mills or his tfarmer may by the (Justome enter into any of the 
said tennts Bond lands and cutt downe and carrye awaye any Woode and timber there 
groweing for the Repayreing and Keedifing of the said Mills. 

Everye of the said tennts are bounde to come with his grist to the said Mills there 
to be grinded, and if any of them goe to any other Mill, to be amerced vpon every default 
three poundes. 

And in case the Mills be not able to grinde or in Reedifieing ye tennts are to staye 
there three dayes and three nights with thpire grist before hee or they goe to any other of 
the said Mills and are to give accompt what daye they grinde and to pay their Custome to 
the Lord or his Banner vpon the payne of time pounds vpon every default. 

The said Tennts are to pay for grindting theire Wheat Rye Barle* and Mault the 
twentieth part and of their Pilt-coru the tenth pt .part) and for grindeing the said IMt- 
corn into Meal the twentieth part. 

The tennts may not sell any Corne or graine that shall growe vpon their Cuslomarye 
any pson (person) dwellinge out of the Cust:>marye lands vntil he or they agree 



9 

with the Lord or the ffarmer of the said Mills for the tenth part there of or that shall 
carrye any the same to any ffree lands without agreement, vpon payne of three poundes 
everye default. 

The Lord of the said Mills or his ffarmer maye have ffree Ingress Egress and 
Kegress into any of the tennts lands where any watercoure passes to the said Mills there 
to Cutt Turffs and Woode for Bepayre of the Dams and Banks without interruption. 

That if any of the said Tennts doe give his daughter in Marriage he is to pay to the 
Lord or his ffarmer ffoure shill. and if any Mayde doe Committ ffornication to pay ffoure 
shillings. 

Every tennte dwelling vpon the said Lands that breedeth or keepeth above the 
number of two Swyne is to pave yearly three shillings foure pennce to the Lord or his 
{farmers or else to pay the third Swyne of all the Swyne he keepeth. 

Memorandum that one Bees David ap John of the pish of Devinocke hath erected a 
Mill about 80 years since upon the River Canilies to the prejudice of Devinocke Mill afore- 
said And that one Bees Williams of Istrodveltye hath erected a new Mill in Istrodveltye to 
the prejudice of the Oustome Mill there. And one Jenken Phillippof the pish of Pennderrin 
hath erected a Mill in the said Parish about three yeares since to the priudice (prejudice) 
of the Customarye Mill there 

All which said Mills called Devinock Mill Llewell Mill Senny Mill Craye Mill 
Glintawye Mill Istrodvelltye Mill and Pwllcock Mill wee finde in the tenure and 
occupacon of divers psons (persons) who possess the same in the right of one Thomas 
Awbrey Esqr whoe claymes to hold the same by Lettrs Pattentes for divers yeares yett to 
come and vnexpired. But the said Thomas Awbrey Esqr could not pduce the same 10 vs 
by reason he hath left his habitation in the towne of Carmarthen since the Plague grewe 
violent there in. And where he hath left the said Lettrs Pattents in his dwelling house in 
the said Towne. But doth pmise to produce a coppie of the said Lettrs Pattents and to 
cause the same to be shewen to ye Honoble the Trustees and the Surveyor Generall 
according to the Act of Parliament. 

Memorandum that notwithstanding all the said Customes Services and Priviledges 
belonging to the said Mills that they are for the most pt verye ruinous and much in decaye 
for want of Rcedifieing and Bepayracon But what penalty the ffarmer there of doth incurr 
thereby or howe or by what means his Leas is fforfeitable, and what Bents or other 
Covenants and Condicons he is lyable and bound vnto wee knowe not but submitt the 
same to be considered of vpon the pduceing of the Lttrs Pattentes or a coppye thereof as 
afforesaicl. 

This is ye Dicovery of Mr David Morgan. 

j This Survye was pfectd the ) Totall Irnpvd value p Ann clviii/ vi s viii d 

I 29th of October 1851 by us [ 158 6 8d) 

Exr p Will : Webb 1651 

JEBEMIE BAINES 
JOHN FFISKE 
JOH HADDOCKE 
SAMUELL COTTMAN 

[Endorsed] Seven Mills called the Forrest Mills 
Brecknock 

Beceived this 4th of November 1651 
Transmitted to the Srveyor Grail (Surveyor General) 
the same day. 



(10) 



Augmentation Office, Parliamentary Surveys, 

Brecon, No. 4. 



BRECON. 



A Survey of a certain Poole or ffishing Poole commonly called Llinsavathan als (alias) 
Mara Mota als Mara Blaen Llevenye being in and between the pishes (parishes) of Llany- 
hangle Talythin Llangoos Kathedyn, Blaen Lleuenye and Llangastey Tallythm m ye 
Countie of Brecon late pcell of the possessions of Charles Stuart late King of England 
made and taken by vs whose names are hereunto subscribed by vertue of a commission 
granted to us by ye Honble ye Trustees appointed by Act of ye Commons assembled in 
Parliament for sale of ye Honnrs Mannrs and Lands heretofore belonging to ye late King 
Quene and Prince vnder their hands and seales, 

All that standing Poole, ffishing Poole or Poole of Water with ye appten (appur- 
tenances) commonly called Llynsavathen als Mary Mota als Blaenlauence standing and 
being in ye pishes (parishes) of Llanghangle Tally Llin Llangoose Kathedyn Blaen 
Lleuenye and Llangastey in the Countie of Brecknock being by common esti (estimation) 
two miles in lenth and one in breadth with the ffishing thereof being well stored with Eles 
Pykes and Perches which said Poole is fedd or supplyed by a small river commonly called 
Llyvenye als Llyvey which runneth from Blaeu Lleuenee through ye said Poole and along 
vnder a Certaine Bridge called Pontadd Llaueyge (?) or Llanuey bridge below which said 
Bridge are two weares commonly called the Kings weares belonging to ye said Poole and 
ye ffishing thereof At which said weares are good store of Eles taken in potts at ye season 
of the yeare for catching of the same which said weares with ye ffishing of the said Poole 
with all the Lyberties Royalties preuiledges Jurisdiccions ffranchises Imunities and 
advantages to ye said Poole and the ffishing therein and of the said Weares called ye Kings 
Weares and the ffishing thereof wee estimate to bee worth p Ann xx 



Memorandum wee fynd the ffishing in the said Pools and Weares in the tenure and 
occupacion of one Walter Powell of Llangoose and others with him who claimes to hold 
the same in the right of the Lady Williams ye itelict ot Henry Williams Barrt deceased, 
vnder certeine yearlie rents and services which said Lady Williams claimes (by Mr Edward 
Prosser who appeared for her) to hold the said ffishing and Weares for divers yeares yet to 
come and vnexpired by vertue of a Lease granted to the said Barrt Williams And the said 
Mr Prosser doth affirme yt (that) the Poole ffishing and Weares aforesaid were passed in 
ffee ffarme by Queene Elizabeth vnto Sr Thomas Trevor Knt and others vnder the yearlie 
ftee ffarme rente of thirtie six shillings and that by vertue of the said ffee farme grant the 
said Poole ffishing and Weares are conveyed vnto Willm Morgan Esqr in Reversion after 
the expiracion af the Lease granted to ye said Barrt Williams, But forasmuch as neyther 
any Lease or Patten t from the Crowne for the said Poole ffishing and Wears was pduced 
(produced) to vs, though summons given to show the same therefore wee returns ye same 
in possession valued as abovesaid 

Memorandum ye said Willm Morgan Esq claims some interest or prueledge of 
ffishing in the said Poole at some certaine times of ye yeare as belonging to the Lopp 
(Lordship) of Brecknock but wee knowe not by what right neyther doth it appeare that 
that there hath been any vsage or enjoyment thereof. 

Memorandum also wee are informed that Mr Arnoll of London claims some 



(11) 

Libertie to ffish in the said Poole at certaine times and seasons of the yeare but wee doe 
not find yt (that) ever the same was vsed or enioyed (enjoyed) Vallue p Ann xxi (20) 

This survey was pfected ye 6th September JEREMIE BAINES 

1658 by vs vizt SAMUEL COTTMAN 

JOH HADDOCKE 

This is ye discoverie of David Morgan Esqr 

[Endorsed] A Pishing Poole called Llinsavathan in ye Countie of Brecon 

Received the 16th of September 1653 

Transmitted to the Srveyor Grail (Surveyor General) the same day. 

9 October, Mr Wm Morgan of Therwy Esq. layes Clayme to this. 



Augmentation Office, Parliamentary Survey, 

Brecon, No. 5. 



BRECON 



MALVEKNE LLANSPYTHETT CUM JURIES MEMBS AND APPTINENTIBS. 

A Survey of ye (Lopp) of Malverne Llanspythett and of ye free rents and 
Royalties thereof, with ye Rights membs and appurtenances thereof, Scituate Lying and 
being within ye Parish of Llanspythett in ye Countye of Brecknocke sometimes parcel of 
ye Monasterye of Malverne Major late pcell (parcel) of ye possessions of Charles Stuart late 
King of England made and taken by vs whose names are herevnto subscrybed by vertue 
of a Commission granted to vs by ve Honoble ye Trustees appoynted by Act of ye Cotnons 
assembled in Parliament for sale of ye Honnrs Mannrs and Lands heretofore belonging to 
ye late Kinge Queene and Prince vnder their hands and seales 

The ffree rents payable to ye Lord of Malverne Llanspythett by sevall persons 
which hold divers lands and tenements of ye Lord thereof payable yearely at Michs onely 
are p ann xlii s i d ob (JE2 2s 



The Courts Ban-on and Court Leetes and Lawdayes, fynes and amercamts of Courts, 
Issues, ffynes, Heryotts, Waves, Estrayes, deodands, ffellons goods, goods of ffellons of 
them selves, of ffugatives and Condemned psons, Hawkeing Hunting ft'owling and ffishing 
and all other pfitts, comodites and pequesits to ye Royaltye thereof belonging or anywaies 
apptayneing we estimate to be worth Combs annis (Communibus annis) xiii s iiii d (J3s4d) 

Some totall of ffree rents and Royaltyes are p ann Ivs v d ob (2 15s 5) 

HOWSE AND LITTLE MEADE 

All that dwelling house with the appurtenances commonly called Lluellins house 
scituate and being in ye Parish of Llanspythett and pcell (parcel) of the said Lopp (Lord 



(12) 

ship) with a cowhouse there unto adjoyninge Together with one close and pcell of meddow 
ground comonly called ye Lytle Meade adioyning to ye house Abbutted on ye East by 
certayne grounds belonging to one Mr Walbye, on ye South by certayne houses and 
grounds in ye tenure of one Harris and one Pritchard, on the West by ye Lands of Mr 
Hoe Games" And on ye North by ye Hygh way or road leadinge troru Llanspythett to 
Breckenock contayneing by estimacon one acre and a roode more or les which wee value to 
bee worth p ann xiii s iiii d (18s 4d) 

BABAGH CLOSE 

All that close and pcell of pasture and arable ground with the apptenances (the 
appurtenances) comonly called ye Kabagh Close als Litleclose lying and being in ye said 
Parish, Abutted on ye East by a certayne close called Teere vord, on ye South by a 
certayne close called ye Bandyro, on ye West by ye Lands of one Mr Jenkins And on ye 
North by ye lands of Mr Walbye afforesaid contayneing by estimacon one acre and a halfe 
more or less which wee value to bee worth p ann 01 2 08 xv s (15s) 

TEEREVOED 

All that close and pcell of pasture and arable ground with the apptenances comonly 
called ye Teerevord lying and being in ye said pish Abutted on ye East by a certayne close 
called ye Durtye acre on ye South by ye Eandyro close on ye West by ye litle close last 
recyted And on ye North by certayne grounds in ye tenure of Mr Walbeiffe afforesaid 
contayning by estimacon two acre and a halfe more or less which wee value to bee worth 
p ann 02 2 00 xx s (20s) 

EANDYRO CLOSE 

All that close and pcell of pasture and arable ground with ye apptenances comonly 
called ye Eandyro Close lying and being in ye said pish Abutted on East and on ye West 
by certayne grounds of Mr Howell Jefferyes, on ye South by ye lands of Mr Hoe Games 
afforesaid, and on ye North by ye two closes last recyted contayneing by estimacon ffoure 
acres more or les which wee value to bee worth p ann 04 86 xxviii s (J01 80) 

EUDEESSION CLOSE 

All that close and pcell of Meddow or arable gronnd with the apptenances comonly 
called ye Glebdeere als ye Wettgroundes lying and being within ye said Parish Abutted on 
ye East and West by certayne grounds in ye tenure and occupacion of David Griffith, on 
ye South by certayne grounds of Mr Hoe Games, And on ye North by certayne grounds 
belonging to Mr Harris containing by estimacion two acres and a half more or les which 
wee value to bee worth p ann 02 2 00 xv s (15s) 

PATTENT CLOSE. 

All that close and pcell of Arable ground with the apptenances (the appurtenances, 
comonly called ye Pattent Close lying and being in Parish afforesaid Abutted on ye East 
by a certayne close called ye Pederero, on ye South by a high way leading from Brecknocke 
to Caermarthen, and ye West by certaine grounds belonging to Mr Hoe Games, And on 
ye North by ^e grounds belonging to Mr Walbeife contayneing by estimacon eight acres 
more or les which wee value to bee worth p ann 08 80 xxvi s viii d 108) 

PEDEE ERO CLOSE' 

All that close and pcell of arable ground with the apptenances (the appurtenances) 
commonly called Pederero, lying and being in ye said Parish Abutted en ye East by 
certaine grounds belonging to Mr Hoe Games aflforesaid, on ye South by ye high way ffrom 
Brecknocke to Caermarthen aflforesaid, on ye West by ye Pattent close last recyted. And 
on ye North by ye lands of Mr Walbeiffe contayneing by estimaeon eight acres more or les 
which wee value to bee worth p ann 88 xxvi s vii d (1 G 8) 



(13) 

KERODUMTID CLOSE. 

All that close and pcell (parcel) of arable ground with the apptenancee (the appur- 
tenances) comonly called ye Eerodumtid als (alias) ye Durty acre lying and being in ye 
Parish afforesaid Abutted on ye North and on ye East by ye lands of David Griffith, on ye 
South by ye Kandiro close affore recyted And on ye Weso by ye Teerevord close affore- 
said contayneing by Estirnacion one acre and a half more or les which wee value to be 
worth p ann 01 2 00 xiii s iiii d (18s 4d) 

And all wayes passages, Lyberties, priviledges ffranchyses, Imunityes, Jurisdiccons, 
pfitts (profitts) Comodityes, advantages and apptenances what soeur (soever) to ye said 
Lopp (Lordship) or tenement and lands or to any of them belonging or any wayes apper- 
taineing or which have been hereto-fore vsed occupied and enjoyed as part pcell and 
member of them or any of them. 

A rentall of ye ffree rents of ye Mannr or Lopp of Malverne Lanspythett payable 

at Michs onely vizt 

I s A I s d 

Hoe Games Esq 000302 Wm Howell 000111 

David Griffith 000708 Jenkin John 000008 

Edward David 000008 Wm Griffith 000300 

Thomas Wm Lewis 000404 Thomas Lloyd 000100 

Henry John Prichard ... 000008 David Jones 000100 

John Howell 000007 Howell Williams 000006 

Lisly Williams 000007 Thomas Morgan 000006 

Wm Thomas 000105 Roger Watkins 000006 

Jenett Harrye 000206 Buthrough David 000102 

John Watkin 000010 Eoger Thomas 

John Jefferyes Gent 00 01 08 The wife of John ap Jone 

Wm Howell . 000006 John Watkin Phillipp 

Jenkin Griffith 00 80 03 



MEMORANDUMS 

Memorandum that Thomas Herring who hath sometime collected ye rents of ye 
said Lopp (Lordship) doth informe and depose that ye totall some of ye quitrents payable 
every yeare by ye ffree holdrs are xlii s i d (2 2 1) bnt cold pduce (could produce) 
noe rentall, neyther could wee find out ye Eesidue of ye said Eents, by reason of ye 
disperst Habitations of ye said freeholders and ye discontinuation of ye stewards and 
courts occasioned by contests in law betwixt Thomas Pryce Esqr and Sir Walter Pye both 
ef them pretending an interest in ye said Lopp 

The Court Leetes and Court Barron should bee holden twice everye yeare at ye 
vsuall place and times of the yeare at ye will of ye Lord 

The freeholders doe owe suit and service to ye Lord at ye said Courts 

There is due to ye Lord ffor a heryott certayne vpon any freeholders death or 
alienacon of any of his Lands ye some of seaven shillings 

Memorandum wee make noe repryse for any of ye officers of ye said Lopp (Lordship) 
because wee ffind none in being neyther could wee bee informed what ffees have beene 
vsually allowed to ye said officers 



(14) 

Memorandum that ye bouse and seuall closes before menconed are in ye tenure and 
occupacon of one Wm Howell Llewellin who claims to hold ye same in ye Right of Sr 
Walter Pye, which said Sr Walter Pye receives ye pfitts (profits) thereof and claymes an 
Interrest in ye said Lopp and ffarme but by what right and tytle bee receives and claimes 
ye same wee know not for that noe Evidence hath beene pduced to vs though Sumoned 
therevnto, Wherefore we return ye same in possession valued as abouvesaid This Claime 
to be made good 

Some totall of prsent (preseut) rents and futur ( ?) improvements are p ami 
xi I xiii s v d ob (11 13 5J) 

Totall of acres 82 1 00 

This Survey was pfected this 28th of October 1651 by vs vizt 

Exd p Will Webb 1651 

JEREMIE BA1NES 
JOH HADDOCKE 
SAMUELL COTTMAN 
JOHN FFISHE 

[Endorsed] The Manour of Malverne Llanspithett Brecknock 
Reed, this 4th of November 1651 

Transmitted to the Srveyor Grail the same day, 

BAINES. 



Augmentation Office, Parliamentary Surveys, 

Brecon, No. 6. 



BRECKNOCKE, S.S. 



HUNDLYE MILLS 

A Survey of Hunddy Mills with the rights members and appurtenances thereof 
scituate standing and being in the Parish of St Johns in Brecknocke in the Countye of 
Brecknocke late parcell of the possessions of Charles Stuart late King of England made and 
taken by vs whose names are hereunto subscribed. By vertue of a Commission granted to 
vs by the Honble ye Trustees appointed by Act of parliament for sale of the Honnrs 
Marmrs and Lands heretofore belonging to the late King Queene and Prince vnder there 
hands and seales: 



(15) 

All those two Water Mills with the appurtenances commonly called the Hunddye 
Mills alias the Hunthye Mills scituate standing and being vpon the River Hunddy in the 
parish of St. Johns in the Towne of Brecknocke the one whereof is a Water Grist Mill the 
other a Malt Mill and both of them vnder one rooffe together with a Kilne standing and 
being near vnto the said Mill wherein oates and malt are vsually dryed all which said Mill 
and Kilne wee Estimate to be worth per Ann 30. 

All that little peece and parcell of ground with the appurtenances commonly called 
the Milne padocke lying and being in the said parish and neare vnto the said Kilne 
Abutted on the East South and West by the Mill Streams and on the North by the River 
Hunthye aforesaid conteining by Estimacion sixtye perches more or les, now in the tenure 
and occupacion or one Richard Willm Pritchard who holds the same in the right of 
Baronett Willms which said padocke wee vallue to be worth per Ann 00 1 20 10s. 

And all wayes passages Liberties priviledges Tolls Mulcktures Mill ponds Mill 
Streams Mill Dams Water Corses ffloodgates sluces and all other profitts Commodities 
advantages and appurtenances whatsoever to the said Mills, Kilne and padocke or to any 
of them belonging or in any wise apperteiniug or which have bynn heretofore vsed 
occupied or enjoyed as part parcell and member of them or any of them. 

Which said Mills wee ffynd in the tenure and occupacion of one Merridith Powell 
who holds the same by Indenture of Lease dated the ffourth of November 24 Carr. for 21 
years granted vnto him by one Baronett Willms, but the said Baronett Willms hath pro- 
duced noe evidence to vs whereby it might appeare that hee hath any right or title to the 
said Mills Kilne and padock although summoned therevuto wherefore wee returne the 
same in possession vallued as abovesaid. 

Memorandum the said Baronett Willms or Meredith Powell afforesaid doth paye 
yearely the sum of six poundes to the receiver of the Revenue ffor the said Mills and ap- 
purtenances afforesaid as wee are informed. 

Memorandum the said Mills and Kilne are in verry good repaire but have noe 
certaine tennants bound to the said Mills by reason whereof they are of no better vallue. 

Total Improved vallue p Ann 30 10 
This Survey was perfected this 28th of October 1651 by vs vizt 



JERMIE DAVIES 
JOHN FFISHE 
SAMUELL COTTMAN 
JOH HADDOCKE 



[Endorsed] Hundy Mills in the parish of St Johns Brecknocke 
Received this 4th of November 1651 
Transmitted to the Surveyor Generall same day 

BAINES. 



(16) 



Augmentation Office, Parliamentary Survey, 

Brecon, No. 7. 



BRECON s s. 



BUEGES MILL. 

A survey of a ffulling Mill comonly called Burges Mill with ye rights Members 
and appurtenances thereof Scituate and being in Brecknocke, and in ye County of 
Brecknocke within ye Dominion of Wales late parcellof ye possessions of Charles Stuart 
late king of England made and taken by vs whose names are herevnto subscrybed by vertue 
of a Comission granted to vs by ye Honurable ye Trustees appoynted by Act of ye Comons 
assembled in Parliament for sale of ye Honnors Manners aud Lands heretofore belonging 
to ye late King Queene and Prince vnder their hands and seales 

All that ffulling Mill with the appurtenances comonly called Burges Mill scituate 
near Hunddye Bridge in ye said County with a garden therevnto adjoining. Abutted on ye 
East by ye Honddye River, on ye South by ye Honddye Bridge and ye way leading to the 
Pryorye, on ye East by Mr Paynatts house and garden, And on ye North by ye Pryory 
Wood All which wee Estimate to be worth p ann 4 10 

And All waies passages Liberties priviledges Waters and Watercourses ffloodgates 
profitts Comodities, advantages and appurtenances whatsoever to ye said Mill belonging or 
in any waies appertaining or which hath been heretofore vsed occupied and enioyed as 
part parcell and member thereof 

Memorandum wee find ye said Mill with the appurtenances in ye tenure and 
occupacion of one Thomas Watkius who holds ye same in ye right of Mr John Price But 
by what right ye said Pryce claimes to hold ye same wee know not though summoned 
therevnto and therefore we retume ye same in possession valued as above said 

This title to be made good Totall y ann -i 10 

This Survey was perfected the COth of December 1652 by vs 



JOHN FFISKE 
JOH HADDOCKE 
SAMUELL COTTMAN 



Examined by Will Webb 
This is ye Dkcoverye of Mr Wm Phillipps 
[Endorsed] A Fulling mill called Burges Mill Brecon 
Deceived this 28 December 1662 
Transmitted to the Surveyor Generall the same day. 



(17) 



Augmentation Office, Parliamentary Survey, 

Brecon, No. 8. 



BRECON S.S. 



DOMINIUM PENKELLY WALLENSIS CUM JUKIBTJS MEMBEIS ET APPURTENTIBUS. 

A Survey of the Mannr or Lopp of Penkellye Wallenses alias ye Welche Penkelly 
with the rights members and appurtenances thereof scituate lying and beinge in the parish 
of Llanvigan within the Gountye of Brecon within the Dominion of Wales late parcell of 
the possessions of Charles Stuart late King of England made and taken by vs whose names 
are hereunto subscribed by vertue of a Commission granted to vs by the Honourable the 
Trustees appointed by Act of ye Commons Assembled in parliament for sale of ye Honnors 
Manners and Lands hereto belonging to the late King Queene and Prince vnder theire 
hands and seales. 

The ffree rents payable to the Lord of the Mannor of Penkellye Wallenses by 
severall persons which hold divers lands and tenements of the Lord thereof payeable 
yearely at Michas onely are p Ann JB8 12 5. 

The Comhortha is a certaine rent due and payable to the Lord of the said Mannor 
everye other yeare by the flreeholders of the said Lordshipp and also for certaine 
mountaines are thirtye shillings payable in everye Maye everye second yeare which wee 
vallue to bee worth p Ann 14s. 6d. 

The Courts Baron and Courte Leets and Lawdayes ffynes and amerciameuts of 
Courts Issues Herriotts Waifes Estrayes Deodans ffellons goods Goods of ffellons of them- 
selves of ffugative and of condemned persons Hawkeing Hunting ffowleing ffishing and all 
other profitts and perquesitts to the Royaltie thereto belonging or in any waies apperteining 
wee estimate to bee worth Communibus Annis 30s 

Some totall of ffree rents Comhorths and Royalties are p Ann 5 16 11. 

All that piece and parcell of inclosed ground with the appurtenances nowe in the 
tenure and occupacion of one Edward Havard being an Incroachment made by him vpon 
the Common called Gwayny Kyver and part of the highwaye leading from Killegrowne to 
ye said Common being part of the Lords wast within the said Lordshipp containing by 
Estimacion half an acre more or les which wee vallue to be worth p Ann 00-2-00 2s. Od. 

A Rentall of the ffree rents of the Mannor of Penkelly Walenses payable to the 
Lord thereof at Michas onely are as followeth vizt 

li s d 

Thomas Powell for Lands called the Maesmar and Tyr penny nor- 
land p Ann .. .. ... ... .. 000804 

Willm Jno Howell for Lands called the Pauntagwine p Ann . 00 08 00 

Willm Gunter gent for Lands called the Tyrry Button per Ann ... 00 01 02 
Willm Prichard p An .. .. .000005 

Evan Willm for Lands called ye Paunty Liveryee p Ann ... 00 02 01 

Willm Bevan for Lands palled ye Cornewall p Ann ... ... 00 01 02 

Jno Morgan p Ann ... ... ... ... ... 000108 

Jenkin Thomas p Ann .. .. ... ... 000108 

Katherin Llewellin for Lands called the Tyreheare p Ann ... 00 01 08 

Howell Evan for Lands called ye Panytwyny p Ann ... ... 00 00 08 




(18) 

li s d 
Howell David p Ann ... ... ... ... 000005 

Mr Games Lands called ye Blane y nant in Llanvigan p Ann ... 00 02 08 

Charles Walbeiffe Esqr for Lands called ye Comorgan p Ann ... 00 00 10 
Meredith Lewis Esqr for Lands call the Blaentave veghan p Ann ... 00 01 04 
The Leires of Thomas Edwards p Ann .. ... ... 00 02 08 

Evan Pritchard p Ann ... ... ... ... 00 00 02 

Roger Thomas for Lands called the Eewe p Ann ... .. 00 00 06 

The Lady Bewchamp for Lands called ye Eewe p Ann ... ... 00 00 06 

Morgan Thomas for Lands called the Tully Growne p Ann ... 00 02 08 

John Jefferyes for Lands in Tavevechan p Ann ... ... 00 02 09 

Jenkin Frees for Lands called the Pedole p Ann ... ... 00 01 04 

Evans David Meredith p Ann ... ... ... ... 000011 

Lewis Jones for Lands in Tavevc-chan per Ann ... ... 00 00 05 

Thomas Powell p Ann ... .. .. ... 00 00 10 

John Maddox for Lands in Blaeugallen p Ann ... ... 000104 

Evan Thomas per Ann ... ... ... .. 000600 

Jenkin Thomas p Ann ... ... ... ... 00 00 10 

Howell Thomas p Ann ... . ... 00 00 08 

Edward David for Lands in Blaengrawen p Ann ... ... 00 01 00 

Eichard Jenkins p Ann ... ... ... ... 000005 

Howell Prees p Ann ... ... ... ... 00 00 10 

John Lewis p Ann .. ... . .. ... 00 00 04 

John Thomas of Penny Baylyffe p Ann ... ... ... 00 00 10 

John Thomas of Geuan for Lands called ye Keuen p Ann ... 00 00 06 

John Gunter for Lands called the Gwerngafer p Ann ... ... 000102 

Richard David for Lands called the Gwernddy p Ann ... ... 0000 10 

John Jenkins p Ann ... ... ... ... 00 00 04 

Willrn John ap John p Ann ... ... ... .. 000206 

Thomas ap Evan p Ann ... ... ... ... 00 00 02 

The Heires of Edw Games p Ann ... ... ... 00 00 02 

Howell John Llewellin p Ann .. ... .. ... 00 01 02 

John Jenkin Morgan p Ann ... ... . . ... 00 00 09 

Thomas Bowen for Lands called the Tyre y groes p Ann ... 00 00 08 

David ap Evan for Lands called the Eeytye p Ann ... ... 00 00 08 

Jane Watkin p Ann .. ... ... ... 00 00 07 

Evan Powell p Ann . . . . . . ... 00 00 04 

The Heires of David Powell p Ann ... "' 000010 

Thomas ap Bowen p Ann ... 



08 02 05 

A Ren tall of the Comhorthe rents payable in Maye every Second yeare vizt 

li s d li s d 

Thomas Powell 000200 Morgan Thomas 000208 

Bvan Willwma ... 000201 Thomas ap Evan 000002* 

ulmBeavan ... 000102 The heirs of Edw Games ... 000002* 

... 00 01 08 John Jenkin Morgan 00 00 09 

Jenkin Thomas ... 000108 Evan Powell.. 000004 

Katherine Llewellin .. .. 000108 The heires of David Howell... 000010 

Evan - - 000008 flfor ye Mountaine Comorcam 000300 

.. 00 02 08 ffor ye Mountaine Brime 

rcJnoapJno 00 02 C6 Glisson 000300 

ffor ye Mountaine Terrybruyn 00 04 00 



01 10 01 



(19) 

MEMORANDUMS 

Memorandum that ye Bayliffe or Reeve of the said Lordshipp doth vsally in everye 
second yeare in Maye make distress of any goods and Chattels which shall be depastureing 
vpon each of the said Mountaines for the said severall somes of Money due as a Comortha 
and the person or persons whomsoever ownes of such goods or Chattells are to paye the 
said somes before the release of theire goods or Chattells soe distrained vpon every the 
said Mountaines. 

The Courts Baron and Court Leete and Lawdaye may bee holden twice every yeare 
at ye vsuall place and times of the yeare at the will of the Lord 

A three weeks Court also hath bynn vsually holden wherin actions vnder ffortye 
shillings are tryed by a Jurye of six ffree holders 

All the freeholders doe owe suite and service to the Lord of the said Mannor or 
Lordshipp at ye said Courts 

The ^freeholders doe pay for a Herriott certaine vpon death or Alienacion cenn 
shillings to the Lord of the said Mannor 

There is a Common called Alcvygan belonging to the said Lordship. 

Memorandum wee make noe reprise for any the officers of the said Lordshipp 
because wee finde none in being neyther could wee bee informed what ffees have bynn 
vsvally allowed to ye said officars. 

Memorandum that wee are informed that Baronett Willms hath bynn fformerly 
high steward and received the rents and profitts of the said Lordshipp but by what right 
and title wee know not for that hee hath produced no evidence vnto vs though summoned 
thereunto wherefore wee returne ye same in possession vallued as abovesaid 

Some totall of present rents and Royalties are p Ann 5 8 11 

This Title to be made good within tyme 
This Survey was perfected this 28th October 1651 by vs vizt 

SAMUELL COTTMAN 
JEREMIE DAVIES 
JOH HADDOCKE 
JOHN FFISKE 

Exr p Will Webb 1651 

[Endorsed] The Manour of Penkelley Wallensis Brecknock 
Received this 4th of November 1651 
Transmitted to the Surveyor Generall the same day 

BAINES. 



(20) 

Augmentation Office, Parliamentary Survey, 

Brecon, No. 9. 

BRECKNOCK, S.S. 



THE MANNOR OP YE WELCH HAYE WITH YE EIGHTS MEMBERS AND APPURTENANCES THEREOF. 

A Survey of the Manner of Welch hey with the rights members and appurtenances 
thereof in ye parish of Llanigon in the Countie of Brecknock late parcell of the possessions 
of Charles Stuarte late King of England made and taken by vs whose names are hereunto 
subscribed. By vertue of a Commission granted to vs by the Honourable the Trustees 
appoynted by Act of the Commons Assembled in Parliament for sale of ye Honnours 
Manners and Lands heretofore belonging to ye late King Queene and Prince vnder their 
hands and scales. 

All those ffree rents due from divers persons holding Lands and tenements of the 
Mannor of Welch heye in the parish of Llanigon in the Countio of Brecknocke payable to 
the Lord thereof for a half yeares rent at Easter yearlie are p Ann 4 15 

The like ffree rents due from the said persons for theire Lands and tenements 
afforesaid which they hold of the said Mannor of Welch heye payable to the Lord thereof 
for a half yeares rent at Michalemas yearlie are p Ann Jt'4 15 

All that Comorth silver and purse silver beeing a certain money due from divers 
persons within the said Mannor in relation to theire keeping of Cowes and other services 
and Customes according to the ancient custom and vsage thereof payeable to ye Lord of 
the said Mannor euerie second Yeare amounting to the some of nyne pounds which wee 
estimate to bee worth Communibus Annis 4 10 

The Courts Leet and Lawdaye and three weeks Court fiynes and amerciaments 
of Waifes Estraies Deodans ffellons goods Goods of ffellons of themselves of ffugatives 
and condemned persons ffynes vpon alienation and discent herriots Eeleifs Hawking 
Hnnting ffowleing ffishing and all other .Royalties jurisdiccions proffitts commodities 
advantages and appurtenances of the said Mannor to the Eoyaltie thereof belonging or in 
any wise appertaining wee estimate to be worth Communibus Annis 5 5 

Seme total of rents and Royalties are p Ann 19 5 

All which said Mannor with the appurtenances we fynd in ye tenure of DD Gwyn 
Esq who (as we are informed) claymes to hold the same for divers yeares yett to come, 
but by what right hee holds the same wee knowe not for that noe evidence hath been 
produced vnto vs though summoned thereunto therefore wee returne the same in 
possession vailued as afforesaid 

This Clayme to bee made good within tyme 



MEMOEANDUMS. 

A Court Leet is holden for the said Mannor twice everie yeare about Michas and 
faster according to ancient Custome and vsage aud also a three weeks Court for Trvall of 
actions vnder fiorty shillings. 

All flfree holders and resiants doe owe suit to the Courts and are amercable 
vpon default. 



(21) 

There IB due to the Lord of the said Manner vpon death of any freeholder a 
Herriott of ye second best beast any such ffreeholder dyes seased of according to Custome. 

There is due also to tne Lord of the said Mannor vpon euerie alienation the some 
of ffive shillings in name of a ffyne. 

A rentall of the said Mannor as perfect as we cold have vpon the oath of ye Bayliffe 
of ye said Mannor paid one half at Easter and ye other at Michas 



Earle of Hartford 
ffrederick Vaghan Esqr 
Willm Watkins Esqr ... 
Tho Watkins Esqr .. 
Hen Willms Esqr 
Rich James 

James Willms gent ... 
James Watkins 
Watkin Powell Jenkin 
Watkin Lewis 
Roger Phillips 
Watkin Powell Jenkin 
Jeuan Watken 
Kich Gunter 
George Phillips 
Willm Perrott 
Tho John David 
Phillip George 
Eustace Lewis 

DD Willm 

Watkin Jno 

Willm Lewis Watkin ... 
Willcock Jno .. 
David Perrie ... 
Jno ap John ... 

Tho David 

Wm Tho Jno David . . 
David Wilcocke 
Evan Willm Jenken ... 
Myles Willms ... 
Willim De la haye 



li s d 



00 00 04 
00 01 00 

00 02 08 
00 14 00 
00 08 04 
00 05 00 
00 02 06 

00 08 04 
00 02 00 
00 04 08 
00 00 05 
00 08 04 
00 00 06 
00 02 06 
00 01 04 
00 03 02 
00 01 04 
00 00 08 
00 02 04 
00 05 00 
00 02 00 
00 03 08 
00 02 06 i 
00 01 
00 01 
00 02 
00 01 



00 
06 
00 
06 



Jno Gunter 
Walter Gunter 
Walter Powell 
Willm Pritchard 
Georg Powell .. 
James Gunter 
Tho Jno Watkins 
Tho Prosser ... 
Jno Willcocke 
Jno Tho Lewis 
Thomas Whitwey 
Phillip Powell 
Watkyn Jno Bryan . 
Jno Parrye ... 

Tho Watkin 

James David Byvan . 
Jno Powell David and ) 
Willm Lewis j 

Lewis ap Lewis 
Willm Shelton 
Willm Prees weaver . . . 
DD Willm Jenkin weaver 

DD Lloyd 

James Parrye 

Tho Jones 

Jno Pugh 

Will Jno Pritchard ... 

Willm Delahaye 

Willm Prees 

The village of Glynvache 



li a d 
00 04 00 
00 08 08 
00 01 00 
00 04 00 
00 07 00 
00 06 00 
00 04 00 
00 04 00 
00 00 08J 
00 01 00 
00 02 00 
00 00 08 
00 00 08 
00 00 02 

00 00 08 
00 00 05 

00 01 08 
00 01 08 
00 00 02 
00 00 04 

00 02 02 
00 01 10 

00 01 00 



01 16 00 



Some totall of rents and Royalties p Ann 19 15 

Exd by Will Webb 1652 JEREMIE BAINES 

This survey was perfected ye 3rd of Januarie 1662 by vs vizt 

SAMUELL COTTMAN 
JOHN FFISKE 

This is ye discoverie of Willm Phillips 
[Endorsed] The Manour of Welch Hey in the Countie of Brecon 

Received the 4th of Januarie 1652 

Transmitted to the Surveyor Generall the same day. 



[This concludes the Parliamentary Surveys for Breconshire,] 



(22) 

INQUISITIONS POST MORTEM. 



The King was entitled to certain fees upon the death of anyone who held lands of 
him in capite or chief, therefore Inquisitions were taken to ascertain what lands a man 
held, of whom held, by what rent. etc. 

If the heir was under age, the King had the wardship of him and his lands until he 
attained his full age. This wardship was often bought of the King for a large sum by 
some relative. When the heir came of age there were fees to pay, Inquisitions ceased 
practically after the Commonwealth some few only were held in the reign of 
Charles II. 



[TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN.] 



WILLIAM AWBREY, DOCTOR OF LAWS 1595- 



CHANCERY INQUISITION POST MORTEM, 88 ELIZ., No. 85. 

BRECON, A.D. 1595. 

Inquisition indented taken at Brecon 21 November in the 38th year of the reign of 
the Lady Elizabeth by the Grace of God Queen of England France and Ireland, Defender 
of the Faith, &c., before Jenkin Llm esq., escheator of the said Lady the Queen in the 
county of Brecon aforesaid, by virtue of a writ of the said Lady the Queen de diem clausit 
extremum to the said escheator directed and to this inquisition annexed, to enquire after 
the death of William Awbrey Doctor of Laws one of the Masters of the Court of Requests 
of the said Lady the Queen, deceased, by the oath of John Vaughan, Thomas ap John, 
John Richard, John Thomas, junior, William John al goz, John William Llm, Howell 
Edward, Philip Watkin, John William ap Jevan goz. Glim ap Jevan Jenkins, Owen Thomas 
ap Jenn ap owen, John Thomas David, William David, William Howell, John Scull and 
Howell William Powell, which said jurors aforesaid say upon their oath that the aforesaid 
William Awbrey Doctor of Laws long before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee 
of and in the manor of Aberkinvrick with the appurtenances in the county aforesaid, and 
of and in one water grain mill with the appurtenances called Kinvriokes Mile now in the 
tenure possession and occupaton of Edwardi Awbrey, esquire, lying and situate in the 
several parishes of Llanvrenach St. John the Evangelist and St. David's, and that the said 
manor and mill aforesaid with the appurtenances are held and on the day of the death of 
the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws were held of the said Lady the Queen that 
now is as of her manor of Brecon in the county aforesaid by knights service, to wit, by the 
eighth part of one knights fee. And also that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before 
his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in one messuage and the lands and 
tenements thereto belonging lying and situate in the parish of Llanvrenach in the county 
aforesaid now in the tenure possession and occupation of Jevan Kosser, of which messuage 
and the lands and tenements to the same belonging one part is held and on the day of the 
death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was held of the said Lady the Queen that now is as 
of her manor of Penkelly Walonica (Welsh) in the county aforesaid and the other part is 
held and on the clay of the death of the said William Awbrey was held of Richard Herbert, 
Esq., as of his manor of Penkelly Anglia (English) in the county aforesaid in free and 
common aocage by fealty, suit at court and by the yearly rent of 6d., to be paid to the said 



(23) 

Lady the Queen in the Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin 3d., and 
in the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel 3d. yearly. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say 
that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demesne as of 
fee of and in one messuage and the lands and tenements thereto belonging lying and situate 
in the parish of Llanvrenach aforesaid in the county aforesaid now in the tenure possession 
and occupation of Roger ap John, which said messuage and the lands and tenements there- 
to belonging are held and on the day of the death of the said William Awbrey were held of 
Eichard Herbert, esq., as of his manor of Penkelly Anglia (English) in the county afore- 
said in free and common socage by fealty and suit at court. Moreover the jurors aforesaid 
say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demesne as 
of fee of and in one messuage and the lands and tenements to the same belonging lying and 
situate in the parish of Llanvrenach aforesaid in the county aforesaid now in the tenure 
possession and occupation of William John Edmond, of which said messuage and the lands 
and tenements thereto belonging one part is held and on the day of the death of the afore- 
said William Awbrey was held of the said Lady the Queen that now is as of her manor of 
Penkelly Walonica (Welsh) aforesaid in the county aforesaid in free and common socage 
by fealty and suit at court ; and the other part is held and on the day of the death of the 
aforesaid William Awbrey was held of Richard Herbert, Esq., as of his manor of Penkelly 
Anglia (English) aforesaid in the county aforesaid in free and common socage by fealty and 
suit of court, Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long 
before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in one messuage and the lands 
and tenements to the same belonging lying and situate in the parish of Llanvrenach afore- 
said in the county aforesaid now in the tenure possession and occupation of Griffin ap 
Howell trahern and that the same are held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid 
William Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen that now is in free and common 
socage as of her Manor of Penkelly Walonica I Welsh) aforesaid in the county aforesaid 
by fealty, suit of court, and the yearly rent of 2d. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say, 
that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demesne 
as of fee of and in one parcel of land lying and situate in the parish of Llanvrenach 
aforesaid in the county aforesaid now in the tenure possession and occupation of Jevan 
Thomas, which said parcel of land is held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid 
William Awbrey was held of John Walbis, esq., in free and common socage as of his manor 
of Penkelly Anglia (English) aforesaid in the county aforesaid by fealty and suit at court. 
Moreover the jnrors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death 
was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in two messuages and the lands and tenements to 
the same belonging lying and situate in the parish of St. Davids in the county aforesaid 
now in the several tenures possessions and occupations of Lewis John Llins and Watkin 
David ap Jevan which are held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William 
Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen that now is as of her manor of Brecon in 
the county aforesaid in free and common socage by fealty suit at court and the yearly rent 
of 8s. Id , to be paid every other year 6s. 8d. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the 
aforesaid William Awbrey long before lib death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and 
in one messuage and the lands and tenements to the same belonging lying and situate in 
the parish of St. Davids now in the tenure possession and occupation of John Jenkin 
David Whith. And of and in one parcel of land lying and situate in the same parish late 
in the tenure possession and and occupation of Walter Winter, esq., which are held and on 
the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen 
that now is as of her manor of Brecon in the county aforesaid by fealty, and suit at court 
in free socage, Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long 
before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in one messuage and the lands 
and tenements to the same belonging lying and situate in the parish of St, Davids aforesaid 
in the county aforesaid now in the tenure possession and occupation of John Awbrey, Esq., 
which are held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of 
the said Lady the Queen that now is as of her manor of Brecon in the county aforesaid in 
free and common socage by fealty, suit of court and the yearly rent of 5s. Moreover the 
jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized 



in 



(24) 

his demesne as of fee and in one messuage with the lands and tenements thereto belong- 
ing lying and situate in the parish of Cantreff in the county aforesaid now in the tenure 
possession and occupation of Philip William Meredith, which are held and on the day of 
the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen that 
now is as of her manor of Brecon aforesaid in the county aforesaid in free and common 
socage by fealty, suit at court and by the yearly rent of 7Jd. Moreover the jurors afore- 
said say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demesne 
as of fee of and in the yearly rent of 17s. 2d. issuing out of the lands and tenements of 
William Medd Powell, John William ap Jevan coz and Phillip David ap Owen, to wit, out 
of the lands and tenements of William Meredith ap Howell lying and being in the parish 
of Llanthewe yearly 6s. 6d., out of the lands and tenements of John William ap Jevan coz 
lying and situate in the parish of Llanthewe aforesaid yearly 6s. 8d., out of the lands and 
tenements of Phillip David ap Owen lying and situate in the parish of Llanddewe aforesaid 
yearly 4s. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long 
before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in one messuage with the lands 
and tenements thereto belonging lying and situate in the parish of Llanddewe aforesaid in 
the county of Brecon aforesaid now in the tenure possession and occupation of Howell 
Edward, which are held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were 
held of the said Lady the Queen that now is as of her manor of Brecon in the county afore- 
said in free and common socage by fealty and suit at court. Moreover the jurors aforesaid 
say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demense as 
of fee of and in one messuage with the lands and tenements to the same belonging lying 
and situate in the parish of Llanthewe aforesaid, in the county aforesaid now in the tenure 
possession and occupation of Dieniz Phes widow which are held and on the day of the 
death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen that now is 
as of her manor of Alexanderstone in the county of Brecon in free and common socage by 
fealty, suit at court and by ihe yearly rent oi 12d. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that 
the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demense as of fee of 
and in one messuage with the lands and tenements to the same belonging lying and situate 
in the parish of Llanthewe now or late in the tenure possession and occupation of Philip 
William ap Jevan coz which are held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William 
Awbrey, were held of John Pris, Esq., as of the Priory of Malvern in co. - - by fealty 
and suit at court in free and common socage. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the 
aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and 
in two messuages with the lands and tenements to the same belonging lying and situate in 
the parish of Llanthewe aforesaid in the county aforesaid now or late in the tenure posses- 
sion and occupation of John ap Jevan John and Philip Watkin which are held and on the 
day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen 
that now is as of her manor of Alexanderstone in the county aforesaid in free and common 
socage by fealty, suit at court and the rent of 4s. Id. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say 
that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demense as of 
fee of and in one messuage with the lands and tenements thereto belonging lying and 
situate in the parish of Llanthewe aforesaid in the county aforesaid now in the tenure 
possession and occupation of Katherine Sollers widow, which are held and on the day of 
the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen that now 
is as of her manor of Dynas in the county of Brecon in free and common socage by fealty 
and suit at court, and that the manors, mill, messuages, lands and tenements and rents 
aforesaid and all other the premises are worth per annum in all issues beyond reprises & 10. 
Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death 
was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in the manor of Battell with the appurtenances 
in the county of Brecon and of and in the advowson of the rectory or Church of Llan- 
vrenach in the county atoresaid and that tlie same manor and advowson are held and on 
the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of the said Lady the 
Queen that now is as of her manor of East Greenwich in the county of Kent by fealty only 
in free and common socage and not in chief. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the 
aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and 



(25) 

in the advowson of the rectory or Church of Cantreff in the county of Brecon which is 
held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was held of the said 
Lady the Queen that now is in chief by the twentieth part of a knights fee. Moreover the 
jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in 
his demesne as of fee of and in two messuages with lands and tenements lying and situate in 
the parish of St. John the Evangelist and Devynock in the several tenures, possessions and 
occupations of John Awbrey, Esq., and Geoffrey DD and Andrew ap Jevan Llm which are 
held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of the said 
Lady the Queen that now is as of her manor of Brecon in free and common socage by 
fealty and suit at court and by the yearly rent of 6s. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say 
that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demesne as of 
fee of and in six messuages and the lands and tenements to the same belonging lying and 
situate in the parish of Llanspithed now in the tenure possession and occupation of John 
Thomas Dillwyn, Llm David, Henry Phe, Philip Thomas, John ap John Owen and 
Margaret wife of Thomas which are held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid 
William Awbrey were held of John Pris Esq., as of his Priory of Malvern in the county of 
in free and common socage by fealty, suit at court and by the rent of 5s. 6d. More- 
over the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death was 
seized in his demesne as of fee of and in six messuages with the lands and tenements to 
the same belonging lying and situate in the parish of St. Davids in the county aforesaid 
now in the several tenures, possessions and occupations of Agnes wife of Hoell widow Jevan 
Llm, Howell William, Gwirvell wife of David, William Thomas and David William tanner, 
which are held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of 
the Reverend Father in Christ Anthonius Bishop of St. Davids as of his manor of Llan- 
thewe in the county of Brecon aforesaid by fealty, suit at court and the yearly rent of 
8s. 5d. in free and common socage, to be paid every third year 8s. 5d. and every other 
year 4d. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before 
his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in four messuages with the lands and 
tenements to the same belonging lying and situate in the parish of Llanvillo in the county 
aforesaid, now in the tenure, possession and occupation of Jevan William Pris, Philip 
Griff, John ap Richard and John William Poell which are held and on the day of the death 
of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of Robert Earl of Essex, John Walbis, Esq., 
and Richard Herbert Esq., as of their manor of Penkelly Anglia (English) by fealty, suit 
at court and the yearly rent of 6s. lid., to be paid every other year 10s. 3d., and that the 
said mannor of Battell, the messuages, lands and tenements aforesaid are worth per annum 
in all issues beyond reprises 5. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid 
William Awbrey, so being seized of the premisses with the appurtenances by his Indenture 
bearing date the 9th day of November in the 86th year of the reign of the said Lady the 
Queen that now is, made between the aforesaid William Awbrey of the one part, Daniel 
Dun Doctor of Laws, Thomas Norton of Norwood in the County of Kent, Esquire, and 
Hugh George of London, gentleman of the other part gave, granted and enfeofied the 
aforesaid manors of Aberkinrick and Battell with the appurtenances, rents, messuages, 
lands, tenements, advowsons and all and singular the premisses before recited with their 
appurtenances to the aforesaid Daniel Dun, Thomas Norton and Hugh George, To have 
and to hold the said Manors of Aberkinrick and Battell with the appurtenances, 
messuages, rents, lands, tenements, advowsons, mills and other the premises with their 
apurtenances to the aforesaid Daniel Dun, Thomas Norton and Hugh George their heirs 
and assigns to the use and behoof of the aforesaid William Awbrey for the term of his life 
without impeachment of any waste, and after his decease the manor of Aberkinrick with 
the appurtenances, the mill aforesaid, the messuages, lands and rents aforesaid lying and 
situate in theparishes of Llanthewe, Llanvrenach, Cantreff and St. Davids (except those six 
messuages aforesaid with the lands and tenements to the same belonging lying the parish 
of St. David's aforesaid which are held of Anthonius Bishop of St. David) to the 
use and behoof of Willigiffordia wife of the aforesaid William Awbrey for the term of her 
life in the name of her dower and jointure and after the decease of the afore- 
said William Awbrey and Willigiffordia aforesaid and the longer liver of them the 
manor of Aberkinrick aforesaid with the appurtenances the mill aforesaid and the 



(26) 

lands tenements, rents and all and singular the premises last recited and limited for the 
dower and jointure of the aforesaid Willgiffordia and the manor of Battell with the appur- 
tenances, the messuages, lands and tenements, advowson and all and singular the premises 
before recited after the decease of the aforesaid William Awbrey to the use and behoof of 
Edward Awbrey Esq., son and heir apparent of the same William Awbrey Doctor of Law 
for the term of his life without impeachment of any waste, and after his decease to the use 
and behoof of William Awbrey eldest son of the said Edward Awbrey and heirs male of 
the body of the aforesaid William lawfully begotten, and in default of such issue to the use 
and behoof of Edward Awbrey second son of the aforesaid Edward Awbrey the father and 
the heirs male of the body of the aforesaid Edward the son lawfully begotten, and in 
default of such issue, to the use and behoof of Thomas Awbrey third son of the aforesaid 
Edward Awbrey the father and the heirs male of the body of the aforesaid Thomas lawfully 
begotten, and in default of such issue to the use and behoof of John Awbrey fourth son of 
the aforesaid Edward Awbrey the father and the heirs male of the body of the aforesaid 
John lawfully begotten, and in default of such issue to the use and behoof of Hopkin 
Awbrey fifth son of the aforesaid Edward Awbrey the father and the heirs male of the body 
of the aforesaid Hopkin lawfully begotten. And in default of such issue to the use and 
behoof of every other son of the body of the aforesaid Edward Awbrey the father (son of 
the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws) lawfully begotten from the eldest son to the 
next eldest son successively according to the priority and seniority of their birth and of the 
heirs male of the body of every such son lawfully begotten successively. And for default 
of such issue to the use and behoof of John Awbrey the third son of the aforesaid William 
Awbrey Doctor of Laws for the term of his life without impeachment of any waste, the 
remainder thereof to the firstborn son of the body of the aforesaid John Awbrey lawfully 
begotten and the heirs male of the body of such firstborn son lawfully begotten. And for 
defanlt of such issue to the use and behoof of the second son of the aforesaid John Awbrey 
and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to the use 
and behoof of the third son of the aforesaid John Awbrey lawfully begotten and the heirs 
male of his body lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to the use and behoof of 
every son of the same John Awbrey lawfully begolton from the eldest son to the next 
eldest son successively according to their priority and seniority of their birth and the heirs 
male of the body of every such son so begotten successively. And for default of such 
issue to the use of Thomas Awbrey second son of the said William Awbrey Doctor of Laws 
for the term of his life without impeachment of any waste, the remainder thereof to the 
firstborn son of the body of the aforesaid Thomas Awbrey lawfully beyotten and the heirs 
male of the body of such firstborn son lawfully begotten. And for default o) such issue to 
the use and behoof of the second son of the aforesaid Thomas Awbrey lawfully begotten 
and the heirs male of the body of the aforesaid second son lawfully begotten, and for 
default of such issue to the use and behoof of every other son of the aforesaid Thomas 
Awbrey lawfully begotten from the eldest to the next eldest son successively according to 
the priority and seniority of their birth and the heirs male of the body of every such son so 
begotten succcessively. And for default of such issue to the use and behoof of John Awbrey 
brother of the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws for the term of his life without im- 
peachment of any waste, the remainder thereof to William Awbrey eldest son of the afore- 
said John Awbrey and the heirs male of the body lawfully begotten, and for default of such 
iesue to the use and behoof of John Awbrey second son of the said John Awbrey second 
son of the said John Awbrey the father and the heirs male of the body lawfully begotten, 
and for default of such issue to the use and behoof of Thomas Awbrey third son of John 
Awbrey the father and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten. And for default of 
such issue to the use and behoof of every son of the body of the aforesaid John Awbrey the 
father lawfully begotten from the eldest to the next eldest son successively according to 
the priority and seniority of the birth and the heirs male of the body of every such son so 
begotten successively, and for default of such issue to ths use and behoof of the heirs male 
of the body of Philip Awbrey another [brother] of the said William Awbrey Doctor of 
Laws, and for default of such issue to the use and behoof of the right heirs of the aforesaid 
William Awbrey Doctor of Laws for ever. By virtue whereof and by force of a certain act 
of Parliament [made] in the Parliament of the Lord Henry the 8th "late King of England 



(27) 

held at Westminster in the county of Middlesex the fourth day of February in the 27th 
year of his reign for turning the use? of lands and tenements with the appurtenances into 
possession the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws was seized of the manors of Aber- 
kinrick and Battell with the appurtenances and of and in the mill aforesaid the messuages 
lands, tenements, and advowsons aforesaid and all and singular the premises in his 
demesne as of freehold for the term of his life, the remainder thereof to the aforesaid 
Willgifford for the term of her life, the remainders thereof further in the form aforesaid. 
Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long before his death 
was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in the manor of Palleg with the appurtenances 
lying and situate in the parish of Istradginlais in the county aforesaid and that it is held 
and at the time of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was held of said Lady the 
Queen that now is as of her manor of Brecon in the county aforesaid by the eighth part of 
one knights fee. And also of and in 20 messuages, with the lands and tenements to the 
same belonging lying and situate in the parish of Istradvellty in the county of Brecon 
aforesaid now in the tenure, possession and occupation of William Phe Powell, Howell Phe 
Powell William David Griffith David Meredd Watkiu Howell Thomas, Richard Win. 
Jenkin Bice Morgan William Griffin Morgan Griff, William Morgan William, Edward 
David Phillip Awbrey, Thomas ap Re William, Howell Meredith, Philip Jenkiu Myricke, 
Jenkin ap Re, Jevan ap Gwillm and Thomas ap Jevan which are held and on the day of 
the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen that now 
is as of her manor of Brecon in the county aforesaid in free and common socage by fealty 
and suit at court. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey 
long before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in 10 messuages with the 
lands and tenements to the same belonging lying and situate in the several parishes of St. 
Davids, Cantreff, St. John the Evangelist and Llanvrenach in the several tenures, 
possessions and occupations of Maid wife of Richard, Griffin Powell trahern, Hugh Poell 
William, Morgan Awbrey, William ap Harry, John Thomas, Lloyd Roger Phe, Lewis 
Morgan Tucker, John Herbert and John Howell which are held and on the day of the 
death of the aforesaid William Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen that now is as 
of her manor of Brecon in the county aforesaid in free and common socage by fealty and 
suit at court. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long 
before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in two messuages with the lands 
and tenements to the same belonging lying and being in the parish of Llanvrenach in the 
several tenures possessions and occupation of Joan the wife of Re, widow, and Richard 
Jenkins, and that the same are held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William 
Awbrey were held of the said Lady the Queen that now is as of her manor of Brecon in the 
county aforesaid by knights service. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid 
William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in one 
messuage with the lands and tenements to the same belonging lying and situate within the 
parish of Llanvrenach in the county aforesaid now in the tenure possession and occupation 
of Jevan Thomas : of which messuage and the lands and tenements thereunto belonging 
part is held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was held of the 
said Lady the Queen tbat now is as of her manor of Brecon in the county aforesaid in free 
and common socage by fealty and suit at court : and the other part is held and on the 
day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was held by John Morgan David ap John 
as of his manor at Penkelly Anglia (English) in the county aforesaid in free and common 
socage by fealty and suit at court. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid 
William Awbrey long before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in one 
messuage and the lands and tenements to the same belonging lying and situate 
in the parish of Llanspithett in the county of Brecon now in the tenure possession and 
occupation of Henry Phe, which are held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid 
William Awbrey were held of John Pris Esq., as of the Priory of Malvern in the county of 

in free and common socage by fealty suit at court and the yearly rent of 7d., and that 

the said manor of Palleg with the appurtenances messuages, lands and tenements and all 
other the premisses with the appurtenances are worth per ann. in all issues beyond re- 
prises 5. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey long 
before his death was seized in his demesne as of fee of and in the manors of Harnehull 



(28) 

alias Harnehill and Winston alias Dridens Winston in the county of Gloucester and of and 
in the advowson of the rectory or Church of Harnehill with the appurtenances, and that 
the aforesaid manor of Harnehull alias Harnehill with the appurtenances is held and on 
the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was held of Edward Lord Stafford in 
free and common socage by fealty and the rent of 6s. 8d, to be paid yearly by the Feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel, and is worth clear per annum in all issues beyond reprises 5 ; 
and that the aforesaid manor of Winston alias Dridens Winston with the appurtenances is 
held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was held of the Lady 
Elizabeth Danvers, as of her hundred of Brodley in the county aforesaid in free and 
common aocage by fealty and the rent of 6s. 8d. to be paid yearly at the feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel, and is worth clear per annum in all issues beyond reprises 
j8 6s. 8d. And so being seized of the manors of Palleg, Harnehill and Winston with the 
appurtenances and of and in the advowson of the Church of Harnehill aforesaid and the 
messuages lands and tenements aforesaid the aforesaid William Awbrey by his Indenture 
tripartite bearing date the nineteenth day of December in the 27th year of the reign of Our 
Lady Elizabeth the Queen that now is [1585] made between the aforesaid William Awbrey 
and Willgifford his wife of the first part, Anthony Mansell and Elizabeth hia wife of the 
second part and (Dame) Lady Elizabeth Wallwyn of the third part gave granted and 
enfeoffed the aforesaid manors of Palleg Harnell and Winston with their appurtenances 
the advowson of the Eectory of Church of Harnehill aforesaid with the appurtenances the 
messuages, lands and tenements aforesaid to John Awbrey, and Philip Awbrey : To have 
and to hold the aforesaid manors of Palleg Harnehill alias Harnehill and Winston alias 
Dridens Winston with the appurtenances, the messuages lands and tenements aforesaid, 
the advowson of the Chumh of Harnehill and all other the premises to the aforesaid John 
Awbrey and Philip Awbrey and their heirs to the proper uses and behoofs within written, 
to wit, as to the manor of Palleg with the appurtenances lying and situate within the 
county of Brecon and the messuages, lands and tenements aforesaid lying and situate in 
the several parishes of Istradvellty Llanspithed Cantreff Llanvrenach St John the 
Evangelist and St. Davids immediately to the use and behoof of Thomas Awbrey the second 
aon of the said William Awbrey Doctor of Laws and Mary his wife for the term of their 
lives and the longest liver of them. The manor of Harnehill and the manor of Winston 
aforesaid with the appurtenances in the county of Gloucester and the advowson of the 
Church of Harnehill aforesaid to the use and behoof of the aforesaid William Awbrey 
Doctor of Laws for the term of his life and after his decease to the use and behoof of the 
aforesaid Thomas Awbrey second son of the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws and 
Mary his wife for the the term of their lives and the longest liver of them. And after the 
decease of the aforesaid Thomas and Mary and the longest liver of them the manor of 
Palleg Harnehill and Winston with the appurtenances the messuages lands and 
tenements the advowson and all other the premises to remain to the use and behoof of the 
firstborn son of the aforesaid Thomas and Mary and the heirs male of the body of the 
aforesaid firstborn son lawfully begotten and for default of such issue to the use and behoof 
of the second son of the aforesaid Thomas Awbrey and Mary and of the heirs male of the 
body of such second son lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to the use and 
behoof of the third son of the aforesaid Thomas and Mary and of the heirs male of the 
body of such third son lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to the use and 
behoof of the fourth son of the aforesaid Thomas and Mary and the heirs male of the body of 
such fourth son lawfully begotten &c. And for default of such issue to the use and behoof of 
every other son of the aforesaid Thomas and Mary lawfully begotten, from the eldest to the 
next eldest son according to the priority and seniority of their birth successively and the 
heirs male of the body of such issue so lawfully begotten successively. And for default of 
such issue to the use and behoof of all the daughters of the aforesaid Thomas and Mary 
between them lawfully begotten, in common, the remainder thereof to the use and behoof 
of the several heirs of every of the said daughters lawfully begotten in common. And for 
default of such issue to the use and behoof of the aforesaid William Awbrey, Doctor of 
Laws and his heirs for ever. By virtue whereof and by force of a certain Act of Parliament 
[made] in the Parliament of the Lord Henry the 8th late King of England held a 



(29) 

Westminster in the county of Middlesex the 4th day of February in the 27th year of his 
reign [1536] for turning the uses of lands and tenements with the appurtenances into 
possession the aforesaid Thomas Awbrey and Mary his wife were and still are seized of the 
aforesaid manor of Palleg with the appurtenances and of the messuages lands and 
tenements aforesaid within the county of Brecon in their demesne as of freehold for the 
term of their lives and of the longest liver of them, the remainder thereof to the heirs 
male and daughters of the aforesaid Thomas and Mary in the form aforesaid, the remainder 
thereof to the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws and his heirs for ever. And by 
virtue of the said Indenture and by force of the Statute aforesaid the said William Awbrey 
Doctor of Laws was seized of the manors of Harnehill and Winston with the appurtenances 
in the county of Gloucester and the advowson of the Church of Harnehill aforesaid in hia 
demesne as of freehold for the term of his life, the remainder thereof to the aforesaid 
Thomas Awbrey and Mary his wife for the term of their lives and of the longest liver of 
them, the remainder thereof in form aforesaid. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that a 
certain Roger Vaughan Esq. and Gelio Myrick Esq. long before the death of the aforesaid 
William Awbrey Doctor of Laws were seized im their demesne as of fee of and in the manors 
of Burleton and Stradfford with the apppurtenances and of and in the advowson of the 
rectory or Church of Stradfford with the appurtenances within the parish of BurghiUe in 
the county of Hereford. 

And so being seized of the said manors and advowson they by Indentvre bearing date 
the 22nd day of January in the 86th year of the reign of Our Lady Elizabeth the Queen 
that now is [1594] made between Gelio Merick of Gladstre in the county of Radnor Esq., 
Roger Vaughan of Kinerstlie in the county of Hereford Esq., Charles Lister of Windsor in 
the county of Berkshire Esq., and Michael Blunt of London in the county of Middlesex, 
Knight, of the one part and the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws of the other 
part, gave granted and enfeoffed the aforesaid manors of Burleton and Stradfford with the 
appurtenances and the advowson of the rectory or Church of Stradfford to the aforesaid 
William Awbrey Doctor of Laws and bis heirs to the use of the aforesaid William Awbrey 
for the term of his life without impeachment of any waste and after his decease to the use 
and behoof of John Awbrey third son of the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws for 
the term of his life without impeachment of any waste and after the decease of the afore- 
said John Awbrey then the remainder thereof to the use and behoof of the firstborn son 
of the aforesaid John Awbrey lawfully begotten and the heirs male of the body of the afore- 
said firstborn son lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to tbe use and behoof 
of the second son of ihe body of the aforesaid John Awbrey lawfully begotten, and the heirs 
male of such second son lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to the use and 
behoof of the third sou of the aforesaid John Awbrey of his body lawfully begotten and the 
heirs male of such third son lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to the use 
and behoof of the fourth son of the body of the aforesaid John Awbrey lawfully begotten 
and the heirs male of the aforesaid fourth son lawfully begotten. And for default of such 
issue to the use and behoof of the fifth son of the body of the aforesaid John Awbrey lawfully 
begotten and the heirs male of the body of the aforesaid fifth son lawfully begotten. And 
for default of such issue to the use and behoof of every other son of the body of the afore- 
said John Awbrey son of the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws lawfully begotten 
from the eldest son to the next eldest son successively according to the priority and 
seniority of their birth and the heirs male of the body of every such son so lawfully begotten 
successively. And for default of such issue to the use and behoof of Edward Awbrey son 
and heir apparent of the aforesaid William Awbrey Eoctor of Laws for the term of his life 
without impeachment of any waste. And after his decease then the remainder to the use 
and behoof of William Awbrey eldest son of the aforesaid Edward Awbrey the father and 
the heirs male of the body of the aforesaid William lawfully begotten, and for default of 
such issue to the use and behoof of Edward Awbrey second son of the said Edward Awbrey 
the father and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, and for default of such issue to 
the use and behoof of Thomas Awbrey third son of the said Edward Awbrey the father and 
the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to the use and 
behoof of John Awbrey fourth son of the aforesaid Edward Awbrey the father and the 



(30) 

heirs male of his body lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to the use and 
behoof of Hopkin Awbrey fifth son of the aforesaid Edward Awbrey the father and the 
heirs male of his body lawfully begotten. And for default of such issue to the use and 
behoof of every other son of the body of the aforesaid Edward Awbrey son of the aforesaid 
William Awbrey Doctor of Laws lawfully begotten from the eldest to the next eldest son 
according to the priority and seniority of their birth successively and the heirs male of the 
body of every such son so lawfully begotten successively. And for default of such issue 
then the remainder to the use and behoof of the heirs male of the body of Philip Awbrey 
lately deceased brother of the same William Awbrey Doctor of Laws lawfully begotten. 
And for default of such issue to the use and behoof of the heirs male of John Awbrey 
another brother of the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws lawfully begotten. And 
for default of such issue to the use and behoof of the right heirs of the aforesaid William 
Awbrey Doctor of Laws for ever. By virtue whereof and by force of the statute 
aforesaid the same William Awbrey Doctor of Laws was seized of and in the 
manors of Burleton and Stradfford with the appurtenances in the county of Hereford and 
of and in the advowson of the Church at Stradfford aforesaid in his demesne as of freehold 
for the term of his life, the remainder thereof to the aforesaid John Awbrey for the term of 
his life, the remainder thereof further to the heirs male of the aforesaid John Awbrey in the 
form aforesaid, the remainder thereof to the aforesaid Edward Awbrey for the term of his 
life and to his heirs male in the form aforesaid, the remainder thereof to the heirs male of 
Philip Awbrey, the remainder thereof to the heirs male of John Awbrey, with remainder 
thereof to the right heirs of the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws for ever. 
Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid manor of Burleton with its 
appurtenances is held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was 
held of the said Lady the Queen that now is as of her manor Thorny ( ?) in the county 

of by knights service . And that it is worth per annum in all issues beyond 

reprises 83s. 4d. And that the manor of Stradford with the appurtenances is held arid on 
the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was held of the said Lady the Queeii 
that now is as of her manor of Brecon aforesaid in the county aforesaid by knights service, 
to wit, by the third part of a knights fee, and is worth per annum in all issues beyond 
reprises 83s. 4d. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William Awbrey 
Doctor of Laws long before his death was seized in his demsene as of fee of and in the 
advowson of the Rectory or Church of Penbeare in the county of Carmarthen which is 
held and on the day of the death of the aforesaid William Awbrey was held of the said 
Lady the Queen that now is as of her manor of East Greenwich in co. Kent in free and 
common socage by fealty only and not in chief, and that the said advowson after the death 
of the aforesaid Willam Awbrey Doctor of Laws descended to the aforesaid Edward 
Awbrey and his next heirs. Moreover the jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid William 
Awbrey Doctor of Laws named in the said writ so being seized of the manors, lands, 
tenements, advowsons and all other the premises by virtue of the aforesaid enfeoffment 
Indenture and Statute in the form aforesaid died seized of such estate, in London, on the 
25th day of June in the 87th year of the reign of the said Lady the Queen that now is 
[1595] ; and that the aforesaid Edward Awbrey Esq., is the son and next heir of the 
aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws ; and that the same Edward at the time of the 
death of the aforesaid William Awbrey his father was aged 37 years and more. And that 
the aforesaid Willgifford wife of the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws is now 
surviving and is in full life at London. And also that the aforesaid Thomas Awbrey and 
John Awbrey are also surviving and are in full life in London. Moreover the jurors 
aforesaid say upon their oaths that the aforesaid William Awbrey Doctor of Laws did not 
hold nor have any other or more manors, messuages, lands, tenements, or advowsons of 
the said Lady the Queen in chief or otherwise, nor of any other in demesne reversion or in 
service on the aforesaid day on which he died. 

In witness whereof to this present Inquisition as well the abovenamed Escheator as 
the aforesaid jurors have set to their seals. Dated at Brecon the day and year 
abovesaid. 

1595. 
By me Jenkin Lleweline Escheator of the County of Brecon. 



(81) 

The Tor Glas Common Case. 



It was stated at the trial in August, 1898, at Swansea, that a presentment describing 
the boundaries of the waste or common lands of the Manor of Welsh Penkelly had been 
made to the Court Leet by a jury of the freehold tenants of the Manor in 1788, and that 
such would be found duly recorded in the Court Leet books, if they existed. It appeared 
however, that these books could not be produced for that year, having been either lost or 
destroyed by fire. Since that trial a copy of this presentment has been found at the Record 
Office, and also the Presentment itself in the Office of Mr. A. Maybery, Solicitor, Brecon, 
and the latter was used in evidence at the second trial in August, 1899, at Swansea. 
Having regard to its public importance and character, we append the same in full. 

MANOR OF WELSH PENKELLY. 

" At Court Leet and Court of Survey of our Sovereign Lord the King held in and for 
the said manor at a Great Oak lately stood in the village of Talybont, and near which place 
a dwelling house and smith's shop, lying within the manor of Wenallt, now is situate, on 
the 21st April in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, before 
Thynne Howe Gwynne, Esq., steward, and Pennoyre Watkins, Esq.. deputy steward, 
Howell Isaac, bailiff. 

JUBOBS. 

Thomas Williams of Tor Glas, gentleman William Jenkins of Cwmbar 

William Thomas of Lower Wenallt William Howell of Brynyjack 

John Powell of Gwernygafer Meredith Thomas of Penyrheol 

Thomas Jenkins of Brynmellin Lewis Williams of Gwern Lledwr 

Thomas Williams of Guy Jenkin Thomas of Glaisk 

Phillip Phillips of Cwmbanw George Thomas of Llwynon 

" Adjourned to the same place to Friday morning the sixteenth day of May next to 
meet at eleven oclock in the morning. 

At the said adjourned Court held at the place aforesaid on Friday the sixteenth of 
May one thousand seven hundred and eighty eight before the same Steward and Deputy 
Steward, and then adjourned to Friday the thirteenth day of June one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty eight at the desire of these Jurors, in order that they may peram- 
bulate the boundaries of this manor, and then present the same. 

At which adjournment the jurors aforesaid severally appeared before the same steward 
and deputy steward, aud having as well upon their own view and knowledge, as by the 
information of Edward Vaughan, an antient man, aged upwards of eighty years, upon oath 
and had long been bailiff of the said manor, and also of Morgan Edward Bees, another 
aged man, aged of seventy years, on oath, fully satisfied themselves with respect to the 
commons of this manor do upon oath present as follows : 

First, we present the several persons, whose names appear on the resiant roll owe suit 
and service to the Court, and have made default, as opposite to their names appears, and 
we amerce them in the sum severally of two shillings and sixpence each. 

Also, we present Mary Williams, widow, for turning water into the King's Highway 
leading from Pen Pedwr Heol to Pont Llydan in the Parish of Llanthetty in this manor to 
the great damage and annoyance thereof, and continuing the same for years past, and we 
amerce her for the said offence in the sum of five shillings. 

Also we present the Stocks in the several parishes of Llanvigan, and Llanthetty in 
this manor to be wanting, and that the same ought to be set up at the expense of each 
respective parish, to be set up before next leet on pain of forty shillings severally. 

THE BOUNDARY OF THE COMMON OF TOBGLAS. 

Beginneth at Blaen nant gleisydd. and followeth with the course of Nant gleisjdd 
down to the river Taf, then turneth up with the river keeping the same close on the 
left hand to a place called Eudywayn, and so on by the river side to a place called 
Godre Dole Nant y Bwlch, which brook of Nant y Bwlch is there crossed, and so on 




(32) 

close by the side of the river Taf to a place called " Yr han Bont," where the Lordship 
of Brecon Castle belonging to John Morgan, of Tredegar, Esquire, joins with this manor 
on the left side, from thence leaving the river Taf it crosses straight to a small heap of 
stones near Nant Dole, then crossing the brook Dole, and keep up the side of that 
brook, having a place on the left hand, called Godre Nant y Bwlch, keeping the Torglaa 
side of the brook called Nant y Bwleh up to a place called Pen Forddy Tor Glas by the 
side thereof, having such on the left hand, from thence to a heap of stones at a place 
on the side of the highway leading from Merthyr Tydfil towards Brecon called Pen 
bwlch y fan, leaving the said highway and the Brecon Lordship aforesaid on the left 
hand. Then it joins the Manor of Penkelly Castle, then turneth off along the very 
summit of the hill to a place called Pen y Fan big, then turneth across along the 
summit or brim to a place called Bwlch y Cwm Or Gwm and followeth the summit 
or brim of Tor y Glas to a place called Pen Tor y Glas, from thence straight down 
with the brim to a place called Pen y Dorian Goch, and from thence straight along the 
brim to Nanty Gleisidd, where it begun. 

THE BOUNDARY OF DBAINEN LAS CWM OBGWM 

Beginneth at the ruins of an old wall, by the brook called Nant Cwm Orgwm, and 
leadeth down along the brook side, having it on the right hand to a place called Pwll 
yr Hesk, from thence down by the side of the brook lying on the right hand to a place 
called Pencoedcaer Pen yr Heol, thence leaves the brook, turn up with a wall that 
incloses Coedcae Pen yr Heol, and across Keven Cyff straight to Pencoedcae Cwmcynwyn, 
and along the ditch to the brook Cynwyn, where it meeteth the Brecon Lordship, then 
turneth up with the brook, leaving the brook on the right to the ruins of a little fold 
lying within about fifteen yards of the brook, there leaving Brecon Lordship crosseth 
to another old fold about forty yards distant, lying under a little dark bank, called 
Blaen Cwm Cynwyn, from thence to a fold about sixty yards further, and from thence 
straight over Keven Cyff to the other head of the wall above Draynen Las, and with 
that wall to the lower end of it near to Nant Cwm Orgwm. 

THE BOUNDARY OF GWAYN GEHANEY 

Beginneth at Pen Coed Cae y Crofty, and goeth along the ditch to a gate belonging 
to Blaennant, and then along the road leading to Llanvigan Church, to the house of 
Watkin Williams, then leaving the road, along the ditch up to the gate leading to Pant y 
Llefrydd, and along the ditch up to the lands, part of Cwrnwall tenement, and so on to 
the ridge Brwnare, or top of Gwaun Gehaney, to Pen Coed y Crofty, where it begun. 

THE BOUNDARY OF BRYN Y GLEISION. 

Beginning at Bwlch Glascwm, from thence to a place called Pen y Castell, otherwise 
Bryn Pied, from thence to EhydNant Du, from thence along the highest brim or summit 
of Gwaun Nant Du to a place on the mountain called Fald William David, from thence to 
a place called Croes y Gallan, and from thence to a place called Garreg Fawr, otherwise 
Garreg Picca, from thence straight to the gate leading to Black Cullen (probably Blaen 
Callan), where you leave the lordship of Wenallt on the left hand, thence keep along the 
ditch to a stile at Pen y Waun Evan, then leave the ditch on the left hand, and turn 
across to a large stone standing on its end to Pen y Khiw Newydd, then turn straight 
along the top or brim to a place called Bwlch Gwjn, from thence straight to the wall of 
Darren Vawr to a clift of the rock next Bwlch Glascwm, and along the brink, keven, or 
summit to Bwlch Glasgwm. 
(Signed)] 

Thomas Williams William Jenkins 

William Thomas William Howell 

John Powell Meredith Thomas 

Thomas Jenkins Lewis Williams 

Philip Phillips Jenkin Thomas 

Philip Jenkins George Tnomas. 

We give the reference at the Eecord Office Chancery Proceedings, Clifton v. 
Gwynne. Sortation, 1818, No. 1696, The original Presentment (with many others of the 
same manor) is in the custody of Mr Maybery. 



(88) 



Manor of Welsh Penkelly. 



REPORT to the Officers of His Majesty's Land Revenue of the Manor of 

Penkelly Wallensis (otherwise Welsh Penkelly), in the County of 

Brecknock, taken from a Survey made in 1816, by John Cheese, of 
Lyonshall, in the County of Hereford (land surveyor). 

This Manor has been so long held by the present occupier, Thynne Howe Gwynne, 
Esq., of Buckland, in the county of Brecknock, and his predecessors and insulated and 
intermixed with other manors of his, that it is impossible by any information I can obtain 
to ascertain the boundaries on the inclosed lands. I have taken every pains in my power 
to do so, but without effect. 

Commons. There are four detached parcels of commons or Wastes within the said 
manor as described by an eye sketch on the preceding plan annexed, from the best 
shewing I could obtain, with their estimated quantities set down in the reference, with the 
names of the manors adjoining. The situation being very high and exposed, and the 
greater part being bogs, rocks, and full of stones, that renders it quite unfit for cultivation, 
and not to be used for any other purpose but depasturing small cattle and sheep in the 
summer months. The land being of little value, it would not answer the expenses of an 
Act to inclose. The tenants of the manor as set down in the following schedule of chief 
rents and commorthas have the right of pasturage. 

Mines and Quarries. There are no minerals, or quarries, upon either of the wastes 
that are now used, or from the appearance of the surface likely to be productive of any. 

Fisheries. I cannot ascertain what fisheries belong, but it is supposed a part of the 
manor joins the Eiver Usk which abounds with fine trout, but being so very long held in 
common with Mr. Gwynne's manor that it cannot be ascertained. 

Tithes. The lands within the manor are subject to tithes. 

Taxes. There is no land or other taxes charged. 

Market Towns, Eoads, and Canals. Brecknock is the nearest Market Town, about 
five miles, and a Canal from thence to Newport in Monmouthshire, near, also a good 
Turnpike-Eoad from Brecknock to Abergavenny within a short distance. 

There are grouse upon the commons No. 1 and 2 on the plan. 

A RENTAL OF THE CHIEF BENTS AND OCMMOBTHAS OF THE MANOR OF PENKELLY WALLENSIS, 
OTHERWISE WELSH PENKELLY, IN THE COUNTY OF BRECON, FOR ONE YEAH. 




PABI8HES. 


TENEMENTS. 


Amount of 
Chief Bents for 
one year. 


LLANTHETTY 


Bryn Jack.. 


s. d. 
004 




Comorth every 2nd year 4d, if annually 
Cwm Car ... 
Comorth every 2nd year 8s 4d, if annually... 
Blaen Car . 


002 
068 
018 
11 




Comorth every 2nd year lid, if annually ... 
Wain of Wernddwy 
Comorth every 2nd year 4d, if annually 
Tyr-y-waingoch 


5i 
004 
002 
005 




Comorth every 2nd year 5d, if annually 
Ty-yn-y-Coed 


2* 
008 




Comorth every 2nd year Is 4d, if annually... 
Pentwyn ... 


008 
009 




Comorth every 2nd year Is 6d, if annually . 


009 



(84) 



pARTflmtfl. 


nxnoDRii 


Amount of 
Chief Rents for 
one year. 


r- 


Torygare ... 
Comorth every 2nd year Is 4d, if annually... 
Blaen Callan 


a. d. 
014 
008 
008 


r 

TJjAKVTflAN 


Comorth every 2nd year la 4d, if annually. . 
Bryn-y-Gleision ... 
Comorth every 2nd year 8s 4d, if annually... 

Tyr dan-yr-Allt 


008 
084 
018 

008 




Comorth every 2nd year 8d, if annually 
Ty-yn-dee .. 


004 
006 


LLANFEYNAOH 


Comorth every 2nd year 6d, if annually 

Tor Glase 
Comoith every 2nd year 6s 8d, if annually.., 
Llwyn Onn 


008 

034 
034 
028 


LLANTHETTY ... . 


Comorth every 2nd year 8s 4d, if annually... 

Glascwm ... 
Comorth every 2nd year 4d, if annually 
Gellybant . 
Comorth every 2nd year 8d, if annually 
Llwynkelin 
Comorth every 2nd year 6d, if annually 
Tir-y-keven 


018 

008 
002 
008 
004 
000 
003 
008 


LLANVIGAN 


Comorth every 2nd year 8d, if annually 
Bryn Melin 
Comorth every 2nd year lid, if annually ... 
Gwern y Gavrn ... . .. ... 
Comorth every 2nd year 7d, if annually 
Penybaily .. 
Comorth every 2nd year lOd, if annually 
Penybailey af pantyscyndraeth 
Comorth every 2nd year 2d, if annually 
Llwynyr Eas 
Comorth every 2nd year 2d, if annually 
PantyWenallt 
Comorth every 2nd year 9d, if annually . . . 
Dany Wenalt 9d one year and Is 6d the next ... 
Penydorlan 2d one year and 4d the next 
Tyry Crigie 4Jd one year and 6d the next 
Maes Mawr, 8s 9d one year and 5s lOd the next 

Caer-yr-Evan ... 
Cwmbanw... 
Comorth every 2nd year 6d, if annually 
Blaen nant, Is 4d one year and 8d the next 
Gwernylleder 


004 
1 10 
6J 
012 
003$ 
10 
005 
002 
001 
008 
002 
007 
44 
1 1J 
008 
005} 
7 S| 

020 
010 
008 
010 
009 


LLANVILLO 
LLANFBYNACH 


Tille Crwn (Lower) 10s one year and 5s 4dthenext 

Tor Glas Tenement ... .. 
Comorth every 2nd year 8d, if annually 


078 

014 
004 



(86) 



PARISHES. 


THNHTENT8. 


Amount of 
Chief Rents 
for one year. 


LLANFEYNACH 
LLANVIGAN 


Llwynkelin 4d. one year and 2d. the next 

Pentwyn 8d. one year and 4d. the next 
Lands near Coy ty Bach . 
Pant llevraith 
Bryny Bair 


a. d. 
008 

006 
020 
020 

9J- 




Allt 


001 




Cwmbanw 


006 


LLANFEYNACH 
LLANVIGAN 


Penyrheol in Cwm Orgwm 
Garngledy 
Allt 


015 
008 
001 


LLANFEYNACH 


Cwm Orgwm 


002 


LLANTHETTY 


Fynnon vawr 


006 








*HEBIOTS AND ALIENATION 
FEES 


Eeceived for this last 20 years taken from the 
Steward's Book, 14 7s. 
Annual amount . 


8 17 6* 
14 4 










Total Profits of the Manor 
Amount of Commons or Wastes about 1510 
acres, taking the one-twentieth part for the 
right of soil will be 75a. 2r. Op. 
Annual value Is. 6d. per acre ... 


4 11 9J 
5 18 8 






10 5 OJ 



* Heriots are 10s. and Alienation fees 7s. each. 



Without an Inclosure taking place the latter sum cannot be reckoned upon, and from 
the annual amount of the real profits of the manor arising, chief rents, comorthas, heriots, 
and alienation fees, with the uncertainty and trouble of collecting the many small 
payments, together with the expenses of holding the courts, the real value of this manor 
would be nominally very little, but the wastes having grouse and other game upon it 
makes it desirable for many gentlemen to purchase for the purpose of sporting, but no way 
to be calculated upon by any number of years purchase, ae gentlemen will often pay more 
for pleasure and profit, and being more a honorary thing than a profitable one, I think 
calculating in that way it should be worth 400, but it all depends upon the motive of the 
purchase. 

From the report sent me of 1651, this manor is called in the parish of Llanvigan, but 
from chief rents and other manorial payments, it is in Hamlets in different parishes. I 
cannot at all ascertain the parcel of encroachment set down in that report, but suppose 
from the name of the common called Gwayn y Keyvor, which is in the parish of Llanvillo, 
there is a place called Tille Cwm pays 7s. 8d. per year, which is upwards of four miles 
distance from any part of this manor, and the only place in that parish that pays anything 
to the manor therefore I suppose it is for this encroachment. 

The amount of charges as per bill annexed, 40. 



(86) 

I, John Cheese, do swear that the survey or account hereto annexed was faithfully 
and impartially made by me, from the best information I could obtain, that the value of 
the property of the Crown therein contained is justly estimated therein according to the 
best of my skill and judgment and that all the particulars stated in the said survey or 
account are true to the best of my knowledge and behalf. 

So help my God (Signed), 



Sworn before me this 6th day of July, 1816, 
(Signed) JAS. CRAMMER. 



JOHN CHEESE, 



No. Name of Common. 

1. Brinneu Gleison 

2. Torglase Common 

8. Dinaslas Cwmorgwm 

4. Waingyhene 



SCHEDULE. 



in Llanthetty Parish 
in Llanfigan Parish 
in Llanfrynach Parish 
in Llanfrynach Parish 

Total 



Estimated Quantity. 
A. B. P. 
400 
650 
400 
60 



1510 



[An "eye sketch" or eye view is the expression used by Surveyors to describe a survey of 
land made without using measuring instruments. When made in this way by 
experienced Surveyors it would probably be very nearly accurate as to the acreage.] 



(87) 

Tales of the Belfry. 



In searching through some old papers lately, I came across surprising stories 
of exciting scenes that have occurred in past times in a church belfry. Perhaps the 
most strange one is that related of St. Fagan's Church, near Cardiff, For a considerable 
time the bellringers had done as they liked, ringing when they pleased and as long as 
they pleased, and caring not a jot for what the parson and churchwardens said. On one 
occasion they had an exceptionally grand carousal, and enjoyed themselves vastly well. 
They first laid in a good stock of victuals and drink, and then closed the door against all 
comers. The clanging of the bells ceased only at intervals, day and night, and when 
provisions fell short further supplies were by arrangement with their friends hoisted up 
from the outside through the belfry window. 

A truce or capitulation came at last, but the parson registered a vow that there 
should be no more bellringing, and he closed the belfry door, and fastened it with three 
locks. Thenceforward no bell sounded in that belfry, either for service, christening, 
wedding, or funeral, for many a long year. In the course of time, however, the daughter 
of the great man of the village was to be married, and earnest entreaties were preferred 
to the rector to allow the bells to be rung just that once. He was very decided and firm 
in his resolve, saying he had refused to allow the bells to be rung for a poor maid's 
wedding, and there must be the same rule for the rich : and the wedding, I believe, 
passed in dead silence so far as the bells of St. Fagan's took part. What was the sequel 
I do not know. Probably time in due course worked its cure, and the bells of St. Fagan's 
were rung again, though it may be presumed the lesson of the past was not altogether 
forgotten within the belfry walls. 

This took placee about 1836, I think : but a somewhat older story has to be told for 
our own county. 

It would appear that on the night of January 19th, 1824, William Williams, the 
elder, William Williams the younger, and John Williams, blacksmiths, and Howell 
Powell, cooper, David Powell, tiler, Roger Eogers, farmer, and John Morgan, tiler, and 
Thomas Powell, carpenter in all eight men " riotously and routously " did forcibly 
break and enter into the parish church and steeple of Devynnock at a late hour of the 
night. They then and there commenced ringing the bells of the steeple without the 
consent of the vicar and churchwardens. It would appear that the party or some of 
them stayed ringing the bells all night, and David Powell, tiler, and John Williams, 
blacksmith, were found in the morning to be still in the church, while all the doors were 
bolted and locked. 

The summons, issued at the instance of the churchwardens, and signed by the Rev. 
Thos. Watkins as magistrate, < omruanded the offenders to appear on Saturday, January 
81st, 1824, at the Shirehall, Brecon, to be "further dealt with according to law." What 
happened then I do not know, or what punishment was meted out to the offenders. At 
that time Mary Gittens wab the keeper of the county gaol. I wonder if they came into 
her hands. Let us hope they were let off with a caution, The thought occurs to me 
whether any tradition of this somewhat startling occurrence still lingers among the 
Devynnock people, for there surely wouW have been some entry made in the parish books. 
These eight men the bellringers of the mother church of Devynnock must have been 
no small power in their day for a vicar and his churchwardens to tackle, if they were 
obstinately inclined. May we hope that the storm soon passed away, and that peace 
reigned once more within the belfry. 



(38) 

Now and Then. 



Glancing back over our County history for the past hundred years, it surprises one 
to find how great have been the changes of property in Breconshire during that period. 
Very few of the estates are now owned by the same families that possessed these in the 
18th century. We then had eight peers of the realm holding large estates, namely, Earl 
Jersey, with his Ystradfellte, Park, and Llechfaen property ; Lord Oxford, holding 
Trebarried and other property ; Earl Talbot, with Newton (Llanspythid) and other 
extensive lands coming down from the Games family ; Viscount Ashbrook, with the 
Abercynrig, Battle, and other property, which came from one branch of the Jeffreys 
family, and formed the bulk of the Estates which William Awbrey, D.C.L., had got 
together. Neither of these peers have now a square yard of land in the county. The 
other four peers the Duke of Beaufort, the Earl of Ashburnham, Viscount Hereford, and 
the Marquis of Camden, still in their descendants possess their Breconshire estates. Of 
recent years we know two more peers have been added, both holding Breconshire 
properties Lord Tredegar, a moderate sized though ancient estate, and Lord Glanusk, 
landed property of a portentous extent, all acquired in the present century by his 
grandfather, the founder with his brother Crawshay Bailey, of the once great ironworks 
of Nantyglo and Beaufort. But I do not think we want more peers made for our county, 
because there is a difficulty now in finding suitable county gentlemen to fill the office of 
sheriff and peers, like Members of Parliament, are excused from the performance of 
these onerous and costly public duties. Breconshire was never rich in Baronets and 
knights, but in the last century we had a Sir Eowland Gwynne of Garth, Sir Edward 
Hamilton of Trebinshun. a Sir David and a Sir Edward Williams of Llangoed, Sir Wm. 
Keppel, G.C.B., of the Tower, Skethrog, and others. Their names are now gone from 
among us, and their lands know them no more, and I really cannot call to mind the name 
of any baronet or knight we have now, and since the death of Sir Alexander Wood and 
the promotion of our only baronets, Sir Charles Morgan and Sir Joseph R. Bailey, 
to the Upper House. Many of the old Welsh families of commoners disappeared in the 
18th century, and a flock of English became the purchasers of their estates. I will mention 
some of the purchasers : Clifton and then Pell of Tymawr, Macnamara of Llangoed, Chabert 
and Lefroy of Battle, Kendall and Skrine and Harcourt of Llangattock, Champion Crespigny 
of Llangasty Talyllyn and Scourfield of Llanvihangel Talyllyn, but these in their turn are 
gone now, though they once filled and for several successive generations the office of sheriff of 
the County. Man proposes, but God disposes, and even if like William Awbrey of Elizabeth's 
day, men may entail their lands to the third and fourth generation, a time surely comes 
when either by failure of the male line or the extravagance of heirs those lands pass 
away into the hands of aliens. And, alas, too often a loving but weak husband is per- 
suaded by his wife, in the absence of children, to leave the estate to her absolutely or to 
her for life and then to her kith and kin, his own blood relations being ignored, and the 
true family name in connection with the estates become blotted out and gone for ever. 
And so-and-so, the old names and families in one way or another for the most part very 
quickly pass from off the scene. 



(39) 

The Great Forest of Brecknock. 



The following is a copy of the important printed paper issued by the Committee 
of Commoners just the year previous to the passing of the Forest Inclosure Act of 1615. 
It is a matter of deep regret to me that it did not come into my hands at an earlier period. 
It would surely have carried conviction to the minds of the Committee of the House of 
Commons of the merits and justice of the case put before them in 1893 by the Allotment 
holders. 

COPY. 

At a meeting of the different persons entitled to rights of common upon the Great 
Forest of Brecknock, held at the Bull's Head Inn, in the village of Devynnock, in the 
county of Brecon, on Wednesday, the 17th day of August, 1814, Penry Williams, Esq., 
in the chair. 

Mr. Thos. Bold having submitted to this meeting certain proposals, made by the 
solicitors for the Board of Woods, for inclosing the Great Forest. 

Resolved, that this meeting consent to the first proposal. 

Eesolved, also, that this meeting cannot consent to the second proposal, because they 
think that the Crown must see the propriety of there being a surveyor as well as a 
commissioner, on behalf of the commoners. 

Resolved, also, that this meeting consent to the third proposal upon the following 
conditions. 

That previous to any division of the waste land of the Forest, under the provisions 
of the intended Act, a certain portion of the same, equal in value to the sum required, 
be taken out and sold In the first place to defray the expenses of obtaining, passing, and 
carrying the Act into execution to its termination ; and in the next place, for bearing the 
expense of forming, making, and fencing out the roads, bridges, etc. 

Also, that an allotment may be made in lieu of tithes. 

And, that those parts of the common containing limestone quarries, shall, at the 
discretion of the commissioners, be left open for the use of the future tenants of the Crown 
and the commoners as at present enjoyed. 

Then that one moiety shall be allotted to His Majesty, freed and discharged from all 
rights of common, and other rights or claims whatsoever of the occupiers or owners of any 
adjacent messuages, lands, and hereditaments. 

And, that the residue thereof be divided amongst the persons having rights of common 
or other rights on the Forest, freed and discharged from all forestal or other dues, duties, 
or payments whatsoever. 

Resolved, that a committee, consisting of Marquis Camden, Sir Charles Morgan, 
Bart., Penry Williams, Esq., Edward Morgan, Esq., Thomas Harcourt Powell, Esq., 
Hugh Bold, Esq., the Rev. 'Ihomas Watkins, clerk, the Rev. Thomas Powell, clerk, 
William Vaughan, Esq., David Lloyd, Esq., John Downes, Esq., Philip Morgan, Esq., 
Watkin Lloyd, Esq., David, Esq., and Thomas Powell, Morgan Morgan, and Griffith 
Rees, gentlemen, be appointed to arrange with the Crown the terms of the intended bill ; 
and that such committee be requested to attend to the progress of such bill in parliament ; 
and that any three of them be competent to act. 

Resolved also, that such committee do settle the bill of the solicitors for the business 
hitherto done, and order a rate upon the subscribers according to the land-tax assessment 
for the payment of the same. 

Resolved that the thanks of this meeting be given to Richard Mansell Phillips, Esq., 
for his attendance at this meeting, and for a suggestion of a plan which will undoubtedly 
contribute to the benefits arising from an inclosure of the Forest, as well as promote the 
interest of the public in general. 

Resolved also that the chairman be requested to sign these resolutions on behalf of 



(40) 

this meeting ; and the solicitors do get the same printed, and send copies thereto to 
XquTcamden, Sir Charles Morgan, Gilbert Jones, Esq. the solicitor for the Board of 
Woods, and also distribute them among the persons interested in this forest. 

PENKY WILLIAMS, Chairman. 

The Chairman having left the chair, 

Resolved, lastly, that the thanks of this meeting be given to him for his conduct in 

4116 chair> G. North, Printer, Brecknock. 

This account reminds me of the tragic story in verse of the Spider and the Fly. And how 
readily did the flies in this instance walk into the parlour ! But we must, in 
fairness, remember that it was the time of the great Peninsular War, when wheat 
sold at 18s. a bushel, and an ordinary oak tree was worth 10. Col. Wood tried 
afterwards to rescue them from their, fate, but unavailmgly, because by that time the 
Inclosure machinery had been set in motion. Mr. Thomas Bold was the solicitor of 
Brecon, and the then Sir Charles Morgan's Breconslnre Agent, but who Richard 
Mansell Phillips was I do not know probably some Inclosure expert, who knew well 
the turns of the winding stairs ! 



" Rhesfa's." 

In searching recently among old papers I happened to meet with the records of a 
lawsuit relating to a mountain sheep walk near Llywel, tried at the Great Sessions of 
Brecon in 1814. In the brief for the defendants the following graphic and full description 
of a "Rhesfa," as then used and employed by the mountain sheep-farmers of Breconshire, 
is given : 

" It -is customary for farmers to turn out their stock to that part of the common 
immediately adjoining to their respective mountain fences for a most manifest reason, 
viz. : That they are nearer to the residence of the owner to be looked after, and for the 
convenience of being brought down when wanted as the common is upon higher ground 
than the land of each farm. The exercise of this custom gives a name to the individual 
part of the common so depastured by the stock of each farmer as before mentioned. It is 
called his " Rhesfa " (or what in English would be termed the usual place for depasturing 
the stock of any particular farmer), and again to distinguish those particular parts more 
completely, the name of the particular farm or that of the occupier is added. For 
instance, " Rhesfa Pwllddu," " Rhesfa Wern," or " Rhesfa John Peter." But such 
Rhesfa is not the exclusive property of the farm, by the name of which it is distinguished, 
as the other stock of the common intermix with the stock of that particular Rhesfa. At 
the same time it is not considered good neighbourhood for a farmer to turn his stock upon 
the Rhesfa of another one, and indeed in prudence it would not be advisable for him to do 
so, because if he turned his stock near the mountain fence of his neighbour they would in 
all probability break into the inclosed land of the latter, and consequently there would be 
trespasses and lawsuits without end." 

In Glamorganshire the term, by which a sheepwalk of a similar character is 
denoted, ie " Arosfa," or " Usfa," and it may be added that the learned writers of the 
English text books on common lands and common laws apparently make no allusion 
whatever to either of these terms or that of Rhesfa, though such have been well 
understood and generally used in Wales for centuries. 



(41) 

Manors of Talachddu, Slwch, and Saint Aylett. 

The annexed Inquisitio post mortem of Thomas James, the Lord of this Manor, 
taken in the reign of Edward VI. (1551) is specially interesting as referring to the Manor 
of Slough I Slwch) and Saint Aylett close to the town of Brecon. There is a sonnet by 
my father to the memory of fair Elined (the name is variously given as Alud, Elud, 
Elyned and Aluned, and hero we have it as Aylett), a, daughter of Brychau Brycheiniog, 
to which your readers may refer, and also to the account in Jones' History (New Ed., 
pages 28 and 215) of her life and death, and of the chapel called after her, that stood in 
Giraldus Cambrensis' day not far from Slwch hill in the direction of Slwch farm. In 
Jones' time a heap of stones near an aged yew tree, with a well at its root, marked the 
site of the chapel. 

FIRST PART OF THE ESCHEATS OF THE FOURTH YEAR OF THE 
REIGN OF KING EDWARD THE SIXTH 1551. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

Edward the Sixth by the grace of God King of England, France and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith, and on earth supreme Head of the Church of England and 
Ireland, to his Escheator in the county of Brecknock, greeting. Because Thomas James, 
Gentleman who held of Us in chief has closed his last day as we understand. We 
command you that without delay you take into Our hand all the lands and tenements 
whereof the said Thomas was seized in his demesne as of fee in your bailiwick on the day 
of his death, and cause them to be safely kept until We shall command you further in the 
matter, and by the oaths of honest and lawful men of the same your bailiwick, by whom the 
truth of the matter may be better known you shall diligently enquire what lands and 
tenements the aforesaid Thomas held of Us in chief as well as in demesne as in service in 
the same your bailiwick on the said day in which he died, and how many of others and by 
what service, and how much those lands and tenements are worth per annum in all 
issues beyond reprises, and on which day the said Thomas died, and who his next heir 
may be and his age. And the inquisition thereof distinctly and openly made you shall 
send to Us in Our Chancery without delay under your seal and the seals of those by whom 
it shall be made, together with this writ. Witness Ourself at Westminster the eighth day 
of July in the fourth year of the King that now is. 

MAETEN. 
The execution of this writ appears 

in a certain indenture to this writ 

annexed . . . R. Of 

Rice ap Griffith Esquire Escheator of 

the lord the King within written. 

This is a true Copy of the Original 
Record remaining in the Chapel of the 
Rolls having been examined. 

HEN. ROOKE, Clerk of the Rolls. 

It was delivered into the Court of the 16th day of November in the year 
underwitten by the hand of John Gunter. 

Inquisition indented taken at Brecon in the county aforesaid on the 18th day of the 
month of October in the fourth year of the reign of the lord Edward, France and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith and in earth of the Church of England and Ireland the Supreme 
Head before Rice ap Griffith Esquire Escheator of the lord the King in the county afore- 
said by virtue of the writ the lord the King de diem clausit extremum to the said 



(42) 

Escheator directed and to this Inquisition annexed after the death of Thomas James, 
gentleman, deceased, by the oath of Walter Havard, gentleman, Thomas ap David 
gentleman, John Thomas ap Gwatkyn, gentleman, David Morgan Thomas, gentleman, 
Hoelle David Thomas, gentleman, David glin Morgan Janckin, Phelpott Watkin ap 
Morgan Janckin, David Madok Griffith, Rice ap Thomas ap Rees, John G. . . , John 
Williams ap Morgan ap glin, Janckin ap Rees Meredith, David glin Vaughan, Thomas 
Walter Thomas, and William ap John Ychan, Who say upon their oath that long before 
the death of the said Thomas Jamys named in the said writ Edward ap Glin ap Jevan ap 
Morgan, Edward Games, Watkin Williams, and Llewellyn ap Thomas ap Jevan ap Morgan 
were seized in their demesne as of fee of and in the manor of Talaughduy 12 messuages, 
one cottage, three hundred acres of land, sixty acres of meadow two hundred acres of 
pasture one hundred acres of wood and one hundred acres of furze and heath, and of 
seventeen shillings and seven pence of rent in Talaughduy in the county aforesaid, together 
with the advowson of the Church of Talaughduy aforesaid with the appurtenances, And 
being so thereof seised the said Edward, Edward, Watkin and Llewellyn by their charter 
shown to the jurors aforsaid in evidence upon the taking of this Inquisition, the date of 
which Charter is the eighteenth day of the month of October in the thirtieth year of the 
reign of the lord Henry the Eighth late King of England father of our lord the King that 
now is, gave granted and by their said Charter confirmed to a certain James ap Thomas 
ap Janckyn, gentleman, father of the aforesaid Thomas Jarnys, inter alia, the aforesaid 
manor of Talaughduy, the messuages, lands, meadows, pastures, woods, furze, heath and 
rent in Talaughdy aforesaid, together with the advowson of the Church of Talaughduy 
aforesaid with the appurtenances : To have and to hold to the said James for the term of the 
life of the said James with impeachment of waste, the remainder thereof inter alia after 
the death of the said James to the said Thomas Jamys by the name of Thomas ap Jamys 
son of the said James in tail, &c. By virtue of which gift the aforesaid James was seised 
of and in the premises with the appurtenances in his demesne as of freehold, the fee and 
right simple thereof then being in the person of the said James by the form of the gift 
aforesaid. As so being thereof seized the said James died seised of such estate thereof 
at Sloughe in the said county, after whose death the said Thomas Jamys named in the 
said writ, being the son and heir of the said James ap Thomas, by virtue of the said gift 
entered into the premises, and was thereof seised in his demesne as of feetail, the fee and 
right simple thereof being in the person of the said Thomas as son and heir of the said 
James by the form of the gift aforesaid. And so being thereof seised the said Thomas 
Jamys by his charter shown to the jurors aforesaid in evidence upon the taking of this 
inquisition, the date whereof is the 10th day of the month of June in the 35th year of the 
reign of lord Henry the Eighth late King of England father of our lord the King 
that now is, gave and granted to a certain Edward Games for the occupation and exercise 
of the office of Steward of the Manor aforesaid, and of the Manor of Slough late of the said 
Thomas a certain annuity or yearly rent charge of 18s. 4d. issuing out of his Manor, 
land and tenements in Talaughduy aforesaid To have, raise and take to the said Edward 
Games for the term of his life at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel yearly, by virtue 
whereof the said Edward was seised of the rent aforesaid as of freehold. And afterwards 
the said Thomas James died seised of such estate. And that the aforesaid Manor of 
Talaughduy, the 12 messuages, and the said cottages, 800 acres of land, GO acres of meadow, 
200 acres of pasture, 100 acres of wood, 100 acres of furze and heath, and the said 
7s. Jd. of rent, together with the advowson aforesaid with the appurtenances, parcels of 
e Manor aforesaid are worth per annum in all issues beyond the rent charge aforesaid 
and other the premises G 15s. Od., and are held of the lord the King as of his lordship of 
econ by the fourth part of a knights fee. And further the said jurors say that the said 
Jan s ap Thomas, Edward ap glin ap Jevan ap Morgan, Edward Games, Watkin 
Williams and Llewellyn ap Thomas ap Jevan ap Morgan long before the death of the said 
Iliomas Jamys named in the said writ were seised in their demesne as of fee of and in the 
Manor or capital messuage of Slough or Slozthe and Saint Aylett, 2 messuages, 150 acres 

iT: 2 r 8 , m( ; ado , w ' 8 acres of P asture ' 14 acres of >a, 12 acres of furze and 

th and 8d. rent with the appurtenances in Brecon in the county aforesaid. And so 

therof being seised the said James, Edward, Edward, Watkins and Llewellyn enfeoffed 



(48) 

thereof the said Thomas Jamys and Gwenlliana his wife To have and to hold to the said 
Thomas and Gwenlliana and to the heirs of their bodies between them lawfully begotten 
for ever. By virtue of which gift the said Thomas and Gwenlliana were of the premises 
with the appurtenances jointly seised in their demesne as of fee-tail, And so being thereof 
seised tha said Thomas Jamys died and the said Gwenlliana survived him, and held her- 
self in the said Manor, messuages, land, meadow, pasture, wood and rent with the 
appurtenances by right of accruing. And the jurors aforesaid further say that the 
said Gwenlliana is still surviving and is thereof seised in her demesne as of fee-tail by the 
form of the gift aforesaid. And that the said Manor of Slough or Slozth and Saint 
Haylett, the two messuages, 150 acres of land, 50 a. of meadow, 80 acres of pasture, 14 
acres of wood, 12 acres of furze and heath and the said 8d. of rent are worth per annum 
in all issues beyond reprises ten pounds. And that the said Manor, messuage or capital 
messuage aforesaid, and the lands, meadows, pastures, wood, furze, heath and rent aforesaid 
with the appurtenances, except fifteen acres of land with the appurtenances called Maes y 
pren, parcel of the same, are held of Edward Herbert Esquire as of his Manor ot Skethrok 
in the county aforesaid by the rent of 11s. 8d, for all services. And that the said 15 acres 
of land with the appurtenances called Maes y bren are held of the Lord the King as of his 
manor of Brecon by fealty and the rent of 4s. for all purposes. Also the jurors aforesaid 
say that the said Thomas Jamys long before his death was seised in his demesne as of fee 
of and in 11 acres of land with the appurtenances called Dey glose y dwr with the 
appurtenances situate in Brecon in the county aforesaid. And so being thereof seised by 
his testament and last will shown to the jurors aforesaid in evidence upon the taking of 
this Inquisition willed and bequeathed to a certain Jonete his sister for her marriage 20 
marks and as security for the same bequeathed to the said Jonete all his lands of fee 
simple : To have and to hold to the said Jonete and her heir for ever until she should be 
satisfied of the said 20 marks by the heirs or executors of the said testator. And that the 
aforesaid Thomas Jamys afterwards died thereof seised in his demesne as of fee. And 
that the aforesaid 11 acres of land with the appurtenances are worth by the year in all 
issues beyond reprises 8s. 4d., and that they are held of the lord the King in burgage by 
fealty only. And further the jurors aforesaid say upon their oath that as well all the 
issues and profits of the Manor, messuages, lands and other the premises with the 
appurtenances in Talaughduy aforesaid as all the issues and profits of the 11 acres afore- 
said caled Dey glos y dwre with the appurtenances from the time of the death of the 
aforesaid Thomas Jamys remain still in the hands of Jevan ap David, Thomas ap Jevan, 
John Williams, Rice ap Morgan, John Buy, John ap Res, David ap Thomas ab (sic) Jevan, 
Howell ap glin, Roger Vaughan, Knight, Lin ap glin, Walter ap glin, David ap Rees, 
Philip John Vaughan, Morgan ap [sic] Jevan, Clerk, Philip ap Phe and William Havarde 
tenants of the Manor, lands and other the premises, still not raised or taken. And that 
the aforesaid Gwenlliana while she was sole and one Meredith Games husband of the said 
Gwenlliana after the marriage had between them had and took all the issues and profits 
of the Manor of Slough or Slozth and Saynt Aylett, and of the said 2 messuages, lands 
other the premises parcels of the said Manor with the appurtenances as in the right of the 
said Gwenlliana from the time of the death of the said Thomas Jamys. And the jurors 
aforesaid say that the said Thomas Jamys did not hold any other or more lands or 
tenements of the said lord the King or of any other in the county aforesaid in demesne or 
reversion on the day that he died. And that the said Thomas Jamys died on the fifth day 
of July last past before the date of this Inquisition. And that one Jamys ap Thomas is 
his son and next heir. And that the said Jamys ap Thomas on the day of the taking of 
this Inquisition is of the age of nine years, ten months and 17 days. In witness whereof 
as well the aforesaid Escheator as the said jurors to this Inquisition indented alternately 
has set to their seals. Given the day year and place aforesaid. 

[Endorsed] " Copy of a Writ to enquire post mortem Thomas James Gen. 8th 
July 4th Ed. 6. And the Inquisition found thereon 18th of October 
following." 



(44) 

Lordship of Builth. 



[FROM AN OLD PAPER, 1704.] 

Between Walter Vaughan, Esqre., and others, Plaintiffs, and Marmaduke Gwynne, Esqre., 

Defendant. 

Advice taken for the Plaintiffs in the said cause, 

1 That the custom that a Freeholder shall pay but one ten shillings heriot for his 
lands on decease of his ancestors, and but one five shillings to the Lord, and but one ten 
pence to the Officers for their fees, being in all 15s lOd is good, and the Lord cannot by 
law have any more, and cannot have a several heriot, or several 5s., or several lOd. for 
each tenement, whereof a freeholder dies seized, for the Lord cannot multiply the sum in 
respect of the said tenements that the freeholder dies seized of, for the defendant's own 
verdict and his father's and the constant usage and practice long before and ever since 
the said verdict for payments of the said several sums as aforesaid, and no more, bind 

'2. The lord cannot cause the tenants to be summoned to be jurors at the Court 
Baron, for his own verdict as to our custom therein is binding upon him (viz) that such 
juries shall be made of the standers by in the said court. 

8. That the tenants and inhabitants of the Lordship of Builth are to be toll free in 

consideration of the '2 13s. 4d. yearly paid to the lord, and in case there has been no 
such consideration paid, yet that there is no toll due for anything sold or bought out of 
the fairs and markets throughout the rest of the lordship, and there is not anything due 
for Toll through, for every subject has a right of using freely by inheritance, and that prior 
to any prescription, and if an unreasonable toll be granted by patent it is not good, and a 
prescription for an unreasonable is not good, and it is a question whether the King could 
grant a toll in any fair or market, it being a tax on the people without their consent in 
Parliament, and if any toll due at all, one penny for an entire bargain or contract is 
sufficiently reasonable for entry in a toll book. 

4. That the owners of the next adjacent soil to the river have a right to fish the 
stream each on his side of the river (excluding the lord), and the lord and his servants 
should be disturbed by the owners to fish opposite to their said lands, lest in time he may 
gain hereunto by custom, viz. (in the like case) the causes where the lord hath been sued 
by the owners of the soil adjoining to the river, and verdict found for the plaintiffs. 

5. The freeholders by custom may make trenches or watercourses on and from the 
commons to convey water to water their lands. 

6. The lord cannot hinder the freeholders to dig for stones and tyles in the wastes 
and mountain for repairing and building their houses or hinder them of common of 
pasture and turbary to build little houses on the commons according to their ancient usage 
and custom in every the premises. 

7. The petty constables are to be chosen by the jury and to be sworn at the Court, and 
the pound-keepers ought to be elected there also by the jury, the parishioners being at the 
charge of making and keeping the several pounds in their respective parishes and this by 
our custom as well as common law. 

8 It is evident not only the soil to the gutters running on either side the streets in 
the town of Builth along the fronts of the houses is the ground or soil of the owners of the 
said houses and that they have a right severally to set up stalls there on the fair and 
market days and to take rent for the same as the lord has to set them in the middle of the 
said streets between the said gutters, and the lord ought not to disturb the said owners of 
the houses there in setting up stalls in the places aforesaid. 



(45) 

9. The lord cannot now set up a warren in any of the commons and wastes without 
a particular charter or grant from the King. The lord has not the power of taking from 
the tenants their herbage or making the common useless to them, and if the rabbits of the 
warren come upon any of his tenants grounds any one may kill them and the lord has no 
remedy. It is not probable that he will prescribe to a warren there, and if he should, 
yet if he cannot prove an ancient warren in that place he cannot maintain his prescrip- 
tion. 

10. As to the custom of " the father to the bough and the son to the plough," 
(being the custom of the gavell kind in Kent), Tis good and not destroyed, so that if the 
father be attainted of felony and executed yet his heir shall inherit. 

11. The lord cannot fence in the common without the tenant's consent, but notwith- 
standing the enclosure they may go and depasture and take their estovers as customary 
and justify it. 

12. That the Court Baron may be kept in any part of the Manor where the lord 
pleases, but the Court Leet is to be kept by the Stat. 84th 85, Hen. 8, 26. at the most 
ancient and usual place within the Lordship so as such place be meet and convenient for 
that purpose with respect to the number of suitors. 

18. As to the fishpool cross the highway on the hill an indictment or information 
lies for the nuisance. 

14. That the lord or his servants ought not by law to enter the estate of any free- 
holder to hunt or fowle there, against the will and consent of the owners thereof and 
contrary to the ancient usage and custom that every freeholder hath to the quiet possession 
and enjoyment of his estate grounded on the common law, unless it be in pursuit of a 
vermin of prey as fox or the like. 

15. That strangers' or foreigners' cattle grazing on the mountain or waste (though 
by consent and leave of the lord) may be distrained and impounded by any freeholder or 
freeholders having right of common there or action or trespass may be brought against 
one or more of such foreigners in the name of one or more (having right of common) for 
such trespass on his or their common waste. 

[This advice was given to aggrieved tenants and inhabitants of the Lordship o? Builth by 
Councellor Dawbins and others in the Year of Our Lord 1704. M. Gwynne, Esqre., 
being Lord of the Manor.] 



(46) 



Dynas, with its Members, Parcel of the March 

Counties. 



TRANSLATION. 



MINISTERS ACCOUNTS. 

Accounts of all and singular the Ministers of the lord the King Henry the Eighth 
that now is, of his lordship there from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel in the 12th 
year of the reign of the said King Henry 8 [1520J up to the same feast of St. Michael 
then next following in the 18th year of the said lord the King, to wit, for one whole year. 

Welsh Eeeve of Dynas. The account of Jevan ap Thomas ap John reeve there for 
the time aforesaid. 

Arrearages. The same renders account for 69 11 10 of the arrearages of the last 
account of the year next preceding as appears in the foot of the same. 69 11 10. 

Eents of Assize. And for 9 18 5 of the rents of assize of the free tenants by 
progeny. And for 68s 2d of the rents of the same beyond progeny. And for 11s 8d of the 
rent called Kynghalle this year. But he renders nothing of the 668 lately received 
from the 4 foresters there this year. And nothing from the farm of the office of the 
Welsh reeve there this year, because nobody wished to farm the said office. And 
nothing of the 40s. of the farm of the borough there this year for the cause aforesaid. 
And nothing of the pannage of the pigs there in the term of St. Martin this year. But he 
renders (answers) for 8s. received of the customary tenants of Fynnebroke this year. 
And for 4d received for the farm of 4 acres of land at Brymleth, so demised this year. 
But nothing of the 4d received from the toll of Frondell this year because no profits were 
forthcoming therefrom. And nothing of the 8s received from the toll of the country there 
this year because no profits were forthcoming therefrom. But he renders (answers) for 
the 12d for the rent of 6 acres of land there so demised this year. And for 4d received 
from 8 acres of the land of Llewellyn Lloid so demised. And for 8d received for the farm 
of 14 acres of land so demised to the tenants there this year. 

And for 6s 8d received for the farm of the demesne land at Keven Llannelowe so let 
to farm by the year to Philip ap Thomas for the term of 99 years by the record of the 
Exchequer. Sum 14 5 8. 

Commorthas with the Customs of Cows. And for 11s for a certain custom called 
commortha from the Welsh by progeny happening every other year, charged this year, 
because it was not charged in the year next preceding, and ought not to be charged in the 
year next coming, and so only happens every other year. And for 6s 8d for a certain 
custom called Horsong, happening every other year, charged this year, because it was not 
charged in the year next preceding, and ought not to be charged in the year next 
coming, and so only happens every other year. And for 8 8 for the price of 
24 cows coming from the Commortha, happening every other year, charged this year 
because it was not charged in the year next preceding, and ought not to be charged in the 
year next coming, and so only happens every other year. Sum 9 5 8. 

Perquisites of Court. And for 52s 8d of the perquisites of all the Courts held there 
this year as appears by the roll of the same shown and examined upon this account. 
Sum 52s 8d. Sum total of the receipts with the arrearages 95 16 5, Out of which 
Stipend the same accounts for the stipend of the said accountant by reason of his office by 
the year 8s. Sum 8s. 



(47) 

Delivery of money. And in money delivered to William Herbert of Creconwell, the 
deputy of Charles Somersete Earl of Worcester receiver there for the charge of the said 
accountant of the issues of his office this year by the recognizance of the same receiver 

upon this account before the auditor of the lord the King there 19 4 8. 

Sum, 19 4 8d. Sum of all the allowances and payments aforesaid 19 12 8. And he 
owes 76 2 9. Out of which are respited to him 68 8 9 of decayed rents and divers 
lands and tenements being in the hands of the lord the King as in the preceding accounts, 
as well for this year as for 12 years next preceding, each year 105s. SJd. And to the same 
7 14 of the decayed rent of a certain custom of cows called Commortha happening 
every year, to wit, for the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, llth, and this 13th year of the said 
King, each year 25s 8d, because it is charged above at 9 5 8 by the year, and now only 
8 can be raised by the year, because the tenants who used to pay the said custom are 
dead and have gone out of the country, as the said accountant says upon his oath. There- 
fore it is here respited until, &c. 

Mara Manor. The account of William ap Thomas David reeve there for the said 
time. 

Arrearages. The same renders account for 66 4 Si of the arrearages of the last 
account of the year next preceding as appears in the foot of the same. Sum 66 4 S 

Kents of Assize. And for 5s 5f of the rents of assize there in the term of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin. And for 8s. 3d. of the rents there in the 
term of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist. And for 7 3s 6d of the rents of the 
Malmani and suit of the lord in the term of St. Michael. And for 8s 7 received of the 
rent of the borough there at the same term. And for 3s. of the rent of John Hancockes 
for the lands of Griffen Thee in the said terms of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary 
the Virgin and St. Michael the Archangel by the year. And for lOd. received for the 
increase of the rent of one toft sometime of .Richard ap Philip in the said terms by the year 
besides 2d. of ancient rent. And for 9d. of the increase of the rent of Philip ap David for 
one parcel of meadow there in the said terms, besides the ancient rent. And for 12d. of 
the increase of the rent of 2 curtilages late of Beatrice Leche so demised to Eichard 
Billesdon and John Kinge ; To hold to them and their heirs according to the custom of 
the manor, in the term of St. Michael, to wit, of each of them 6d. per annum, besides 12d. 
of ancient rent. And for 2d. of increase of the rent of Jevan Legge by the year in the 
said 2 terms besides lOd. of ancient rent. Sum 8 7 11. 

Foreign rents. Out of 4 8 10 of the rents of the free tenants of Btli and Mara 
in the term of St. Michael by the third part of the lands which Eichard de la Mere lately 
held there for the term of his life of the grant of the lord he renders nothing here because 
the beadle of Dynas renders for the same in his account there. Sum, nil. 

Farm of the demesne lands with the issues of the Mill. And he does not render 
(answer for) anything of the 2s. of the issues of the water mill at Mora this year because 
it lies in ruins. But he renders (answers) for 10s. of the farm of 24 acres and 3 rods of 
the demesne land, there, so demised this year. And for 24s. 4d. for the farm of 123a. Ir. 
of the demesne lands, so demised this year, and not more, because 4 acres of the said land 
lie in the hands of the lord through want of farmers, and no profits were forthcoming from 
the same by the oath of the accountant. But he does not render account for the farm of 
the manor house there with the curtilage sometime of Holleway, and which ought to be 
leased with an orchard there for 5s. 4d. per annum; nor for 8s. 4d. of the fruit and 
pasture of the orchard there this year. But he renders account for 20s. of the farm of the 
fishing in the lake of Mara, so demised this year. And for 6s 8d for the farm of 24 acres 
of the demesne lands so demised this year. And for 89s. 4d. for the farm of 24 acres of 
meadow there so demised this year. But he renders nothing here for the issues of 2 
curtilages sometime of Eichard Millewarde, because they are in ruins. Sum 4 19 4. 

Issues of the manor. But he renders (answers) nothing for the tallage of the natives 
in the term of St. Martin because it is within the high halmote. And he renders nothing 
for the pannage of the pigs of the natives called Wormetak in the same term because it 
appears on the roll of the said halmote. And he renders nothing this year for the hens 
forthcoming from the custom of the customary tenants there in the term of the nativity of 
Our Lord, beyond 2d. for 2 hens in the allowance of the said accountant by reason of his 



(48) 

office And of the 2d. of Bondemere so lately demised to Richard Piper he renders here 
nothing this year for want of farmers, by the oath of the accountant. But he renders 
(answers for) of the 6d. of the farm of the pasture called tiilbesdiche and Crokeworth 
2d so demised this year. Of the farm of the pasture of Totteford nothing this year for 
want of farmers. But he renders (answers for) of the 4d. of the farm of the demesne 
lauds at Greueputtes, so demised this year. Of the eels sold there he does not render 
account here, because they are with the farm of the ffishmg above. Neither does he 
render (answer) for wild (wood) honey and wax found there this year, because none such 
happened. Sum lOd. 

Perquisites of the Halmote. Neither does he render account for any money forth- 
coming from the perquisites of the halmote held there this year, because they are in the 
account of the Welsh reeve and beadle. Sum nil. 

Received there. Sum total of the receipts with the arrearages 79 16 0. Out of 
which he delivered to the said receiver by the hands of his said deputy of the issues of his 
Office this year by the recognizance of the said deputy receiver upon this account before 
the auditor of the lord the King there, 8 18 4. And he owes 71 17 8$. 

Respited. To him of the decayed rents of divers land and tenements being m the 
hands of the lord as in the account preceding, to wit, for the term of St. Michael in the 1st 
year of King Henry 8 66s 8Jd as well as for this year and 11 years next preceding, 
each year 118s. 5d. 

Military bedelry. The account of Roger Vaughan beadle there for the said time. 

Arrearages. The same renders account for 39 12 6 of the arrearages of the 
account of the year next preceding as appears in the foot. Sum 39 12 6J. 

Rent of Assize. And for 26s. If of foreign rents of assize there in the term of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin. And for 7s. 1\ received of the rents of the 
free tenants in the bailiwick in the same term. And for 10s. lOf of the rent of Assize of the 
free tenants of Mara in the same term. And for 18s. 8J of the rents of the same in 
Michaelmas term. And for 6s. 7d. of the rents of the free tenants of Dynas in the same 
term. And for 6d. of the rent of 1 Ib. of cuminin sold in the same term. And for 64s. 8J 
of the rents of the free tenants in Mara in the same term, with 3d. of increase of the rent 
of John Foster and Id. of the increase of the rent of Walter Shepherde. And for 3d. of 
the increase of the rent of John Jevan of Mara, Trahayron ap Jevan de Betti and Philip 
Reese in the same term, each of them Id. And for 2d. of the new rent of Thomas 
Gounter for one messuage in Mara in the same term. And for Id. of the increase of the 
rent of Walter Hynde for one therrell in Mara. And for 2d. for 2 pairs of gloves of rent 
there sold in Michaelmas term. And for 2d. for the rent of 1 hawk in the term of the 
Nativity of St. John the Baptiet so sold this year. Sum 9 6s. Id. 

Rent of the Avowry. And for 4d. of the rent of the avowry there as appears in a 
schedule shewn upon the account of divers preceding years. Sum 4d. 

Tolls. But he does not render any account for any profit arising from the tolls of the 
English in the lordship there with the tax this year, because no profit has arisen from the 
same. Sum, nil. 

Perquisites of court. Neither does he return for any moneys forthcoming from the 
perquisites of the court held there this year, because they are charged in the Welsh 
account. Sum, nil. 

Sum total of the receipts with the arrearages, 48 18 Hi. Afterwards charged with 
8d. of the rent of one old dovecote by the supervision there demised to Roger Vaughan for 
the term of 21 years, this year being the first of his term. And he owes the joint sums 
JB48 19 7|, out of which out of the regard given to the said accountant for the collection 
of the rent there this year, as is allowed in the preceding accounts 8s. And he delivered 
to the aforesaid receiver general by the hands of his said deputy of the issves of his office 
this year by the recognizance of the said receiver upon this account before the auditor of 
the lord the King there, 5 10 2d. And he owes 43 1 5. 

Respited to him for the decayed rents of divers lands and tenements being in the 
hands of the lord as in the preceding accounts, as well as for Michaelmas term in the first 
year of the King that now is 34s 5|d, as for this year and II years next preceding, 
each year 68s lid. 



(49) 

Mara Betti Borough. Account of the same William Thomas ap David reeve there 
during the said time. 

Arrearages. And the same renders account of 7 11 5 of the arrearages of the 
account of the year next preceding as appears in the foot of the same. Sum 7 11 5. 

Bents of Assize. And for 420 received of the rent of the borough there by the 
year at the feast of St. Michael. Of the rent of 6 burgages there which ought to pay by 
the year 6s nothing is charged here because they lie vacant in the hands of the lord, by 
the oath of the accountant. But he renders for 12d of the rent of one curtilage late of 
Richard Miller lying in Mara late in the charge of the reeve of the manor of Mara at lOd 
by the year, and now demised to - by the name of a burgage to him and his heirs for 
2d of increase by the rolls of the Court of the year preceding. Sum 4 3 0. 

Perquisites of the Court. But he does not render account for any profits arising 
from the perquisites of the hundred held there this year because they are in the account 
of the Welsh reeve and beadle. Sum Nil. Sum total with arrearages 11 14 5, out of 
which 

Default of Rents. The same accounted in default of rents of divers burgages lying 
in the hands of the lord for default of tenants by the oath of the accountant as in the 
proceeding account, 4s. Sum 4s. 

Payments of Money And in money paid to the said receiver by the hands of his 
said deputy by the recognizance of the said deputy. 

Received upon this account before the auditor of the lord the king there without a 
bill, 65s lOd. Sum 65s lOd. 

Sum of all the allowances and payments aforesaid, 69s lOd. And he owes 8 4 7. 

Respited. To him of the decayed rents of divers lands and tenements being in the 
hands of the lord as in the preceding accounts, to wit, as well for Michaelmas term in 
the first year of the King that now is as for this year and 11 years next preceding, each 
year 18s 2d. 

Dynas Forest. The account of William Herbert forester there for the said time. 

Issues of the forest. Of the mone\ forthcoming from divers men gathering wood in 
the forest there with as many horses in the term of the Nativity of Our Lord, to wit, of 
each man with a horse 3d. he renders (answers) nothing because in the farm below. 
Neither does he render account of the men gathering wood without horses, in the said 
term, of each man ld. for the said cause. Nor for the men gathering wood with so many 
horses in the said forest in the term of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin, 
to wit, of each man with a horse, for the said cause. Nor for the men gathering wood 
without horses in the said term, to wit, of each man IJd for the said cause. Nor for the 
men gathering wood in the said forest with as many horses, in the term of the Nativity of 
St. John the Baptist, to wit, of each man with a horse 3d, for the said cause. Nor for the 
men gathering wood without horses, to wit, of each man ld, as above. Nor for the men 
gathering wood with so many horses in the said forest in Michaelmas term, of each man 
3d for the said cause, nor for the men gathering wood without horses in the said term to 
wit, for each man ld for the said cause, Nor for the men for having their way in the 
said forest in Michaelmas term, for the said cause. Nor for the brewings of the town of 
Tallegarth to be made this year at the feast of the Nativity of Our Lord, to wit, for each 
brewing for e.ach man .... of dead wood (?) 2d, for the said cause. Nor for 12d 
from divers men for having their way at the pease this year. Neither does he render any- 
thing for the toll of divers men going through the forest beyond the way this year, although 
there ought to be paid 8s. Neither does he render anything for the nuts to be sold there 
this year. Nor does he render anything for the honey and wax of the woods hold there 
this year. Neither does he render anything for the hens forthcoming from the customary 
tenants of Talgarth seeking for wood in the said forest this year, to wit, of each of them 
2 hens, price per head Id. Neither does he render anything for the attachment of strange 
beasts in the said forest this year, because it is let to farm below. Sum Nothing. 

Agistment of the Forest with the Pannage of the Pigs. Nor does he render anything 
this year of the pannage of the pigs in the country there, to wit, of those who have pigs 
and do not extend to the number of 3 pigs, and if they have three pigs or more, the lord 
shall have the pig cf each of them, because it is let to farm below, Nor does he render 



(50) 

anything from the tenants there for the pigs accruing to the lord as above, because none 
happened. Nor does he render anything of the 16s of the agistment of the goats in the 
said forest in the term of the Nativity of our Lord, for each goat Id, for the cause aforesaid. 
Nor does he render anything for the herbage of the Holyns trodden down by the animals 
depasturing for the said cause. Nor does he render anything here for the goats agisted in 
the said forest in the term of the Nativity of John the Baptist because it is let to farm 
below. Nor does he render anything for the fine of strangers going across by the ways in 
the said forest in Michaelmas term for the cause aforesaid. Sum nil. 

Farm. But he renders account for 40s. of the farm of the farm there so demised to 
this year as in the preceeding. Sum 40s. 

Perquisites of court. But he does not answer here for any moneys forthcoming from 
the perquisites of the Court held there this year because they are in the account of the 
Welsh reeve when they happen. Sum nil. 

Eeceived there. Sum of the farm aforesaid 40s. which he delivered to the said 
receiver by the hands of his deputy by the recognizance of the same deputy receiver upon 
this account before the auditor of the lord the King there. And they are equal. 

Blli Manor. The account of the aforesaid William Thomas, reeve there for the time 
aforesaid. 

Arrearages. The same renders account for 18 18 9J and half a farthing of the 
arrearages of the account there for the year next preceding as appears at the foot of the 
same. Sum 18 18 9J and half a farthing. 

Rents of Assize. And for 85s. 8d. received of the rents of the natives there in the 
term of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin. And for 2s. 7d. received of the 
rents of the same in the term of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist. And for 9d. 
received of the rent of William Muldenham by the year in the said terms. And for 
48s. 9J of the rents of the natives in the term of St. Michael with 5s. of the increase of 
the rent of William Wodemonton in the said term. And for 4s. which used to be charged 
on the account of the old hill at the same term. Sum 5 8 9. 

Farm of the demesne lands. And for 16s. 4d. of the farm of 49 acres of demesne 
lands there this year. And for 8s. 4d. received for the farm of 264 acres of the demesne 
lands there so demised this year. And for 27s. 2d. received for the herbage of 18 acres of 
meadow so demised this year and not more because they lie in the hands of the lord for 
default of farmers. Of the 13 works of the customary tenants, to wit, of each tenant 8Jd. 
by the year, to be paid equally in the terms of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the 
Virgin, the Nativity of St. John the Baptist and St. Michael the Archangel nothing is 
charged here, because there are no customary tenants there. But he answers for 6d. for 
the farm of the fishing of the pond there called the pool next the garden of the lord there 
so demised this year. And for 6d. for the herbage of one orchard next to the Castle there 
at the end of the ffysshe pool next the garden so demised this year. And for 6d. received 
for the farm of one close called Curverhouse Orcharde so demised this year. Of the farm 
of the fulling mill on Kyrssbroke he does not answer here because the windmill is there 
now. Nor does he answer for the farm of the water mill there because it is altogether in 
ruins. Sums 48s. 4d. 

Issues of the Manor. Nor does he answer anything of the hens of the rent of the 
customary tenants there sold in the term of the Nativity of our Lord, because there are 
no customary tenants there. Nor does he answer anything of the tallage of the natives 
this year. Nor does he answer for the Wormetak of the natives this year, because there 
are no natives there. Nor does he answer anything for the sale of wood there this year, 
because none happened. Nor does he answer for lerewhit there this year. Nor does he 
answer for the rents of the tenants advowed there as is witnessed by the locum teneus of 
the steward of the court upon this account. Nor does he answer anything for the farm of 
the dovecote there this year by the oath of the accountant. Sum nil. 

Perquisites of the court. Nor does he answer for any moneys forthcoming from the 
perquisites of the court held there this year because they are charged in the Welsh 
account and bedelry if there were any. Sum nil. 

Received there. Sum total of the receipts with the arrearages 26 15 10 half a 
farthing, out of which he delivered to William Herbert deputy receiver there of the issues of 



(61) 

his office this year by the recognizance of the said deputy receiver upon this account 
before the auditor of the lord the King there 6 4 2. And he owes 20 11 8 half a 
farthing. 

Eespited. To him for the decay of the rents of divers lands and tenements 
being in the hand of the lord as in the accounts preceding, to wit, as well for 
Michaelmas term in the first year of the King aforesaid 16s. 6. half a farthing as for this 
year and II years next preceding, each year 82s lljd. 

Dynas manor. The account of William Herbert farmer there for the said time. 

Eents and farms. The same renders account for 80s. of the farm there with the farm 
of the park so demised to the said accountant this year. For the honey and wax of the 
woods or the "iopp or crop; of the ash trees sold there this year he does not answer 
because they are by themselves above with the farm aforesaid. Sum 80s. 

Keceipts there. Sum of the farm 80s. which he delivered to the receiver by his 
recognizance upon this account before the auditor of the lord the King there. And they 
are equal. 

[Endorsed] Dynas with its members, parcel of the county of the Marches. The accounts 
of all and singular the ministers of the lord the King Henry the 8th there ending (?) 
at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel in the 13th year of the said King. 



(52) 

Absolution of Catherine Powell, 1735. 



Defamation is the offence of speaking scandalous words of another, and was in the 
last century punishable by the ecclesiastical laws. For instance, if a person was called a 
Heretic, Schismatic, or said to have broken the Seventh Commandment, the Ecclesiastical 
judges would deal with the offender. No damages were given, and the suit was only for 
punishment of the fault by way of penance. If the offence was proved, excommunication 
followed, and if the excommunicated person obstinately refused to seek absolutien, a writ 
then issued for imprisoning him or her without bail or mainprize (friendly custody) until 
they conform. 

In the following case Widow Catherine Powell did not at first appear to answer the 
charge, and a decree of excommunication was made against her in the Archdeacon's 
Court at Brecon. Then better counsels prevailed, and absolution from the decree was 
duly sought for and obtained. The bond entered into by her with a substantial surety 
for JE100 is given below, and as the matter occurred one hundred and sixty years 
ago, there cannot be, w trust, the slightest harm in giving the names of all the parties as 
they appear in the old paper. 

LLANVIHANGELL NANT BRAN 15 NOVEMBER 1785. 
A Bond for granting an Absolution to Catherine Powell. 

Know all Men by these presents that We Catherine Powell late of the Parish of 
Llanvihangell nant Bran in the County of Brecon Widow and Walter Williams of 
Penpont in the County aforesaid Gent are held and firmly bound unto the Eight 
Reverend ffather in God Nicolas by Divine permission Lord Bishop of St. Davids in 
the sum of One Hundred Pounds of good and lawfull money of Great Brittain to be 
paid to the said Lord Bishop or to his Certain Attorney his Executors Administrators 
or Assigns To which payments well and truly to be made we oblidge our selves and 
each of Us by himselfe severally for the whole our and every of our heirs Executors 
and Administrators firmly by these presents Sealed with our Seals Dated the fifteenth 
day of November in the Ninth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the 
Second by the grace of God of Great Britain Ffrance and Ireland King Defender of the 
faith and so forth and in the Year of our Lord God One Thousand Seven Hundred 
and thirty five. 

The Condition of the Obligation is Such that whereas the above bounden 
Catherine Powell was by a decree of the Ecclesiastical Court held for the Archdeacon 
of Brecon Excommunicated for not appearing to answer Sarah the wife of Thomas 
Price of the Parish of Llanll nant Bran in the County of Brecon in a Cause of 
Defamation from which Decree of Excornunication She is now Absolved Now Therefore 
if the said Catherine Powell shall and will from time to time and at all times herein- 
after observe stand to perform and obey all the Decrees and mandates of the said 
Court in all their Lawfull and Just Commands and shall also Save harmless and 
keep indemnified the above named Lord Bishop his Vicar general and all other his 
Officers Concerning the premises and Shall also pay or Cause to be paid all Such 
Costs of Suit or Sume or Sumes of Money as the Said Lord Bishop his Vicar 
generall or his Surrogates Shall tax in the Cause against the said Catherine Powell 
then this obligation to be void and of none effect or else the same to be remain in full 
force and Virtue. 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of 

EDWARD DA VIES 

The marks of 

CATHERINE POWELL 
WALTER WILLIAMS 



(53) 

The Black Cattle Droves. 



The passage of large droves of black cattle, from Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire, 
and Cardiganshire, through Breconshire to the markets of England, was in pre-railway 
days a common event ; and now that it has ceased, the cattle being taken more quickly 
and cheaply by rail instead, it will be interesting to place on record the facts 
that I remember, or that have been told me by persons now living, concerning the 
practice of the olden time. 

During the holding of the summer or early autumn fairs, the chief capitalist drovers 
purchased and collected together their droves in Cardiganshire and North Carmarthen- 
shire ; and similarly other drovers, in Pembrokeshire and west and south Carmarthenshire, 
arranged for the assembling of the cattle they had purchased at some given point. They 
were all black oxen, and some of the Castle Martin breed were large, having long white 
branching horns. We should call them two-year-old steers, and they were 
roomy and well-developed animals. 

The Cardiganshire droves passed through Lampeter, and thence along the main 
Llandovery turnpike road to Pentre Davies tollgate, near Pumpsaint in Carmarthenshire. 
They paid a toll there, but it was the last toll paid until they reached Khydspence on 
the borders of Eadnorshire and Herefordshire, where they entered England, the intervening 
distance of 40 miles being partly along by-roads, but mainly over the open bill. 

These droves, having left the main Llandovery turnpike road at Pumpsaint, turned 
down the parish highway leading by Ogofau (Angl. Caves), Caio Village, Albert Mount, 
Pencraig, Penlevy, Cwmfran fawr, and Cilcwm Village to the river Towy, at a point four 
miles above Llandovery. This river they forded, and still keeping the by-roads, crossed the 
Forest bank by Pendryn llwyn to Talgarth Inn, in the Bran Valley. Here they took the 
Llwydlo road for some distance, until branching off to the right by Aberebwll on the 
borders of Breconshire and by Spite Inn (Lat. hospitium), they reached Llandulas Church. 
Here we must let them rest for a moment, before we climb together the steep of Epynt, 
and I hope some of our readers are following on the map the course we are 
taking. 

The droves that were collected in Pembrokeshire, and south and west Carmarthen- 
shire, made for Llandovery, as the common starting point, and are awaiting there the 
signal that all is ready for a start. On leaving that town and its rich accommodation 
meadow land on the Bran and Gwydderig sides, having been of course first duly shod, the 
droves passed through the Velindre turnpike gate, paying there their last Welsh toll, and 
along the main Brecon road for 4J miles to Pentrebach. Here they left the main road, 
and crossing the Gwydderig stream, followed the highway leading over Cefn Erthan to 
Llandilo fan, as far as Clwydd y Watch. Here they turned a little to the left, and passing 
over Trelaeth hill soon reached Llandulas Church, joining there the cattle track, as we 
have seen, from Cardiganshire. 

And now we must climb together the steep escarped side of Epynt, and a fine sight 
that must have bsen along the sloping roadway (rhiw) up the mountain side, the deep 
black gorge of Cwmydwyfnnant beneath, and the purple heath clad banks on either side. 
I have ridden along this sloping mountain-side roadway, but have never seen the droves 
of big majestic black oxen passing up in single file in an almost endless procession. It 
must have been a grand sight, the massive jet black beasts leisurely labouring upwards, 
with here and there in view a single horseman, or group of horsemen in charge, and then 
would come the thought that none of those thousands of cattle would ever return ! 

But they have passed Cefn-iolau and Crossynn, have ascended the sloping mountain 
track, and are breathing easily the fresh air of the plateau of the Epynt range. With heads 
pointing for the east, and for England, they pass along the broad deeply indented go-where- 
you-please track on the level mountain top by Fynnon David Bevan and Tircrugyu, and 



(54) 

thence across the Brecon and Maescefnyffordd road by Pencenffordd, where the 
Drovers' Arms welcomed the thirsty drovers. 

Thence refreshed, and perhaps having rested on the open hill for the night, the 
drovers crossed the Builth and Brecon road at Gwm Owen (possibly along the old cause- 
way), and following the descending slope of hill to Twyn y big, took the Blaen hir Waun 
track down the mountain side along the Twympath, leaving Gwenddwr on the right, and 
made for the passage of the Wye at Erwood. There, if the river was fairly low, the huge 
beasts forded the stream, and an exciting scene that must have been. If the river was in 
flood, little Twm with his boat, Cavan-Twm-bach, took care of them, and ferried the 
cattle across. Like Charon at the river Styx, he patiently waited for his passengers to 
come ; and often Twm, like the salmon angler now does, uttered a silent prayer that some 
good strong " freshes " might be sent by a beneficent Providence so as to make the stream 
unfordable. That ferrying over must have been a long and tedious work, and full of 
excitement, and sometimes very dangerous, as now and agiin both men and cattle were 
washed away. 

Once safely across the Wye, they made their way over the open hill of Llandilo Allt, 
or Garth, and passing Sunny Bank and Penrhue crossed a hill called Penpreselly, and so 
on to Penbryn coch and Painscastle. Here some of the droves rested, and had their shoes 
looked to, after which their road lay over Clyro hill to Ehydspence on the left bank of the 
Wye near the border of Herefordshire. Here also shoes were looked to, and it was the 
special business of the blacksmith there to attend to the shoeing before the cattle travelled 
the hard roads of Herefordshire. The first toll paid in England was at Willersley turnpike. 

From thence onwards the droves were taken to the English markets and fairs, 
Leicester and Northampton, and even to Kent and Essex, making about 20 miles a day, 
the by-roads being always chosen, where practicable, to avoid the payment of tolls. Probably 
the cattle went to the same markets as they do to-day, because the chief grazing districts 
of England remained unchanged. I do not think they went as far east as Norfolk, for 
recently when I saw on the broad salt marshes of the Yare and Bure rivers thousands of 
young cattle grazing there, which had been brought from Ireland, Scotland, and Canada, 
I failed to find a single black beast among them. As it is now, probably it was then, the 
nearer markets to Wales were found the best. 

Many droves, however, reached London, and were sold in the old Smithfield market, 
near St. Bartholomew's hospital. One public house there, the Lock and Key still 
standing, for public houses live long was specially patronised by the Welsh drovers, and 
was in fact their house of call, and here I may be permitted to give an amusing story. 
Some of the cattle dealers used to walk out in the town in the evening, and stroll here and 
there, little thinking they might get lost, but many of them were out all night, trying but 
failing to find the Lock and Key. On one occasion two men from the neighbourhood of 
Llansawel strayed out from the Lock and Key, and, in their efforts to return, got hope- 
lessly lost. At last it occurred to one to ask their way to Bailey Vicar (the largest farm 
in the parish of Llansawel), when it is said they met a Welshman, who guided them back 
to the Lock and Key ! It is a curious coincidence, that a public house with the same 
sign, is to be found at Pencarreg, near Lampeter. 

In troublous times, when gold and silver had to be carried largely on the person, and 
specially by drovers after completing their sales, the sign of the Lock and Key was by no 
means a bad one for a house of call for drovers. Presumably the doors were securely 
barred at night, even if the landlord did not possess a modem safe, and the sleep of the 
drovers was calm and peaceful. Since then of course the live cattle trade has been 
removed from old Smithfield to the market in Copenhagen fields at Islington, but you can 
see the same public house to-day on the east side of the Square ; and when there, do not 
forget the wondrous old church of St. Bartholomew hard by. 

Readers have heard of the Black Ox figuring on the bank notes of David Jones & 
Co., bankers, of Llandovery. I believe David Jones, of Blaenos, the founder of the firm, 
and of the Pantglas family, was one of the chief cattle drovers. How the drovers were 
financed I do not know, but probably it was made easy when the Black Ox Bank with its 
various branches was established in Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire. Most of the 



(55)' 

dealers lived in the parishes of Caio and Llancrwys, with the exception of one named 
Griffiths, of Cilgerran, on Teivy, who is said to have done the biggest trade of them all. 
Then there were the Evans's of Llawdre ; Davies, the Farmers ; Tom Phillips, of Peny- 
bank ; Jones, of the Tanner's Hall, Llandovery ; and a number of smaller dealers. They 
purchased their cattle here and there throughout the three counties of Carmarthen, 
Pembroke, and Cardigan. 

It was the custom to divide each drove into lots, each lot being in charge of a drover. 
The drover of the leading lot, generally about six of the finest oxen, was called the 
"Guide," a man who became usually, as a rule, in turn a cattle dealer. Dan Davies 
was Tom Phillips' "guide " before he became a cattle dealer ; but Dan, I am told, was 
only a guide during the period when cattle were driven. His success in the business 
happened after the advance of railways. Old Davies, of Cefn tybych, from the Cothy 
Valley, was on the road from early childhood ; if alive, he would have been 100 now. He 
used to tell many good tales of the road, but my informant has forgotten them. 

The shoeing of the cattle was a very important affair, and preparations were made 
long before-hand. On wet days and in winter, when jobs came slow to hand, the smiths 
employed their time in making " Cuse," pronounced Kuce, that is, thin iron ready for making 
the shoes of. They also prepared the shoes themselves, which consisted of two bits 
of this thin iron for each foot. The nails were called " hoel ion cuse." Shoeing a drove 
was a great event. The cattle were caught, cast on the ground, their legs tied, and 
a piece of wood, shaped like a Y, was placed under the crossed legs to keep the feet firm, 
being heel upwards. The shoes were tacked on very quickly, and it was a busy, lively 
scene, and cwrw da flowed, it is said, freely. 

Occasionally, I have seen and why they came that way except from stress of 
weather and high floods in the Towy or Wye I do not know large droves coming along 
the road from Llandovery to Brecon, and passing through Brecon on to Hay. It was not 
often, but I distinctly remember meeting the droves near Llanspythid, and thought 
I was quite young then as perhaps I should now, what a wondrous noble sight to see 
this black crowd marching forward in ordered ranks. And it was a novel sight, too, 
because our Breconshire cattle are so different, and, like the old red sandstone soil, of red 
colour. 

Ichabod ! The droves are gone, and with the droves the employment of the shoeing 
smiths, the profit of tack to the owners of the rich meadow land near Llandovery, and the 
profit of the Drovers' Arms. Little Tom sat on his ferry boat at the Cavan waiting for his 
passengers and his obolus, but he waits now in vain. Painscastle suffered a loss, too, and 
the smith at Ehydspence. and the owners of the rich meadows at Whitecross, Hereford, 
where I have seen many a brave drove resting on their way eastward. And so on far 
down the road into England, many a pocket was the lighter when the drovea ceased to pass 
that way. 

I am told that occasionally at the present day, large flocks of sheep are taken to 
England along the old track, and that on Clyro hill though the hill has been enclosed 
a broad open roadway had been left unenclosed, and which is known as the cattle track. This 
is, as it should be, though I doubt if ever large droves of cattle will pass that way again. 
And on the Epynt range, the old track is quite open and ready for use at the present 
moment. 

Of course the main object probably of taking the cattle over the hills and by the bye- 
roads, was to avoid the toll-gates, which were at one time thickly studded over Brecon- 
shire, and, down to their total removal in 1889, as close as seven miles to each other on the 
game road. What happened previously to 1767, when the first toll gate was 
established in Breconshire, it is impossible to say, and what route the cattle droves then 
took. I am inclined to think that the Cardiganshire droves continued along the straight 
and dry Roman road over Llwydlo to Builth, instead of taking the hill at Llandulas, and 
that almost certainly some of the Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire droves ascended 
the Trecastle mountain at the Black Cock, and so over that mountain to Llywel. Thence 
they would make for the Wye over Llandilo Fan hills and Epynt, much the same route as 
described, or possibly they took the main county roads to Brecon and Hay, and so on 



(56) 



to Hereford. The signs of great traffic over the Trecastle mountain are so apparent 
as to warrant this suggestion ; and it is quite certain that the low-lying bottom road in 
the Cwmdwr Valley had not then been formed. 

I have made a rough calculation of the number of the cattle passing, along the routes 
described, in a year. It works out at 30,000 total, of which I credit 13,000 to Carmarthen- 
shire 10 000 to Pembrokeshire, and 7,000 to Cardiganshire. In conclusion I have to 
thank several . valued correspondents in the Cothy, Towy, and Wye Valleys for the 
information they have kindly given me on this interesting subject. 



Grant of Brecon Lordship to Sir Francis 
Bacon, in Trust. 



PATENT ROLL. 14 JAMES I. P.20 M.I. (1G17). 



Indenture made 10 January 14 James I. [1617] between the King of the one part and 
Sir Francis Bacon, Sir John Baccombe, Knight, and others of the other part. 

The King grants to the said Sir Francis Bacon and others all those lordships and 
lands of North Wales, South Wales, and West Wales, in any way belonging to the 
Principality of Wales : to the only use of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, &c. 

First, of the Lordships, castles, &c., in the county of Carnarvon in North Wales. 

And all and every those his Majesty's lordships Manners Townships lands and 
tenements of Buelth or soe called or there lying or renewing and Comortha there with 
their rights members and appurtenances in the Kings Majesties Countie of Brecon, parcell 
of the lands exchanged by William late Earl of Pembroke. And his Majestys Rents and 
farms of the lordships manors Townships lands and tenements of Buelth or so called or 
there lying or coming with the rents of tenants there paid for Comortha in the same 
county of Brecon (excepting a mill there and lands and other things to the same mill 
belonging and the rents and farms of the same mill and lands excepted) And all and every 
those his Majesty's lordships, manors, townships lands and tenements of Brecon or so 
called or there lying or coming with their rights, members and appurtenances in the said 
county of Brecon late parcel of the lands and possessions of Edward late Duke of 
Buckingham. And his Majestys rents and farms of the lordships, manors, townships 
lands and tenements of Brecon or so called or there lying or coming with the appurten- 
ances in the same county of Brecon. And all and every those his Majesty's manors town- 
ships, lands tenements comortha and hereditaments in the charge of the forraigne Bailift'e 
of the possessions of the said late Duke of Buckingham or his Majestys possessions of 
Brecon or so called or there lying or renewing with the appurtenances in the aforesaid 
county of Brecon. And his Majesty's rents and farms, lands and tenements in the charge 
of the foreign bailiff of the possessions of the aforesaid Duke of Buckingham in the said 
county of Brecon, with 28. 8. 0. yearly paid for Comortha there, (excepting a mill there 
with lands and other things to the said mill belonging, and the rents and farms of the 
same mill and lands excepted). And all and every those his Majesty's lordships, manors, 
townships lands and tenements of Welshe Haya or so called or there lying or coming With 
Comortha there with their rights members and appurtenances in the said county of 
Brecon And his Majesty's rents and farms of the lordships, manors townships lands and 



(57) 

tenements of Welsh Haya or so called or there lying or accruing in Welsh Haya with the 
rents and sums of money for Comortha there with the appurtenances in the said county of 
Brecon. And all and every those his Majesty's lordships manors, townships lands and 
tenements of Welshe Penkelly or so called or there lying or being with Comortha there 
with their rights, members, and appurtenances in the said county of Brecon, and his 
Majesty's rents and farms of the lordships manors townships lands and tenements of 
Welsh Penkelley or so called or there lying or accruing With the appurtenances with the 
rents for Comortha there in the same county of Brecon. And all and every those his 
Majesty's lordships manors townships lands and tenements of Alexanderston or so called 
or there lying or renewing with their rights members and appurtenances in the said 
county of Brecon. And his Majesty's rents and farms of the lordships manors, townships 
lands and tenements of Alexanderston or soe called or there lying or accruing with the 
appurtenances in the same county of Brecon. And all and every those his Majestys 
forests soils grounds lands tenements and hereditaments called or known by the name of 
Brecon or Forest of Brecon or of the little Forest of Brecon with the appurtenances in the 
said county of Brecon, late parcel of the possessions of Thomas late Lord Seymour. And 
his Majesty's rents and farmes forest herbage lands and tenements of Brecon or of little 
Brecon or so called or there lying or coming with the appurtenances in the same county of 
Brecon. And all and every those his Majesty's lands tenements rents farms and 
hereditaments in Buelth and Llanavan with the appurtenances or called or known by the 
name or names of Buelth and Llanavan or either of these names or there lying or coming 
with the appurtenances in the said county of Brecon. And all those his Majestys rents 
and farms and rents of Assize and hereditaments in the townships and places following in 
the said county of Brecon, that is to say, in Haya seven shillings and fivepence, in Buelth 
forty five shillings, and eleven pence, in Dyvynock eight pence. 

[Then follows Radnor.] 

To hold all the said premises to the said Sir Francis Bacon and others for the full 
term of 99 years fully to be completed and ended, to the only use of the said Prince 
Charles, who shall take all the rents and profits thereof. 

Given the day and year abovenamed. 

[This grant is of great length, covering 80 membranes.] 



Sale of Brecon Lordship to Collins 
and Fenn. 



PATENT EOLL 7 CHAS. 1. PART 16 (1632). 

LICENCE TO WILLIAM COLLINS AND EDWARD FENN, GENTLEMEN 

AND THEIR HEIRS. 



The King to all, &c., Whereas We by Our contra'ct indented, sealed with the Great 
Seal of England, dated 7 May, in the 6th year of our reign [1630] made between Us and 
several of the Lords of Privy Council of the one part and Thomas Heydon, Knight, 
William Russell, Knight, Ralph Freeman, Esq., of the City of London, and Charles 
Havard of London, Esq., of the other part, in consideration of 20,000, paid by the said 
Ralph Freeman into Our Exchequer at Westminister to Our use, to be expended about 
Our Maritime business for our special service have agreed to grant and confirm to the 



(58) 

said Ealph Freeman and his heirs in fee farm for ever, Our honors, castles, lordships, 
manors, lands, tenements, and hereditaments whatsoever, by the said Ealph Freeman 
to be chosen, of the clear yearly value of 1000 according to such rates and reprises, and 
with such reservations, clauses and agreements as in the said contract are contained and 
declared. 

And whereas We by Our Letters patent dated 28 May last, in consideration of the 
sum of 5,555. 9. 2, parcel of the said sum of 20,000 to be paid by the said Ealph 
Freeman, and at his humble petition We have declared that all such honours, castles, 
lordships, &c., to be chosen by the said Ealph, not exceeding the clear yearly value 
of 277. 15. 5, parcel of the said 1000, shall be granted to the said Ealph Freeman and 
his heirs in fee farm for ever. And that the said Ealph may grant the residue of the said 
1000 to the said William Eussell, Knight. 

And by the same Our Letters Patent we will that all the honors, lordships, castles, &c., 
to be chosen by the said William Eussell may be granted to the said William and his 
heirs in fee farm : 

And whereas the said Ealph Freeman by indenture dated 22nd September last past 
granted the residue of the said sum of 1000, being 722. 4. 6 to the said William 
Bussell : 

Know ye that We in part fulfilment of the premises and for the sum of 13,545. 15. 10 
to us paid by the said William Eussell, and at his humble petition have granted to 
William Collins and Edward Fenn of London, gentlemen, and to their heirs and assigns 
for ever all that Our tenement within Our own town of Carmarthen. 

Also all that Our lordship and manor of Brecon alias Brecknock, with all and 
singular their rights, members and appurtenances whatsoever in Our county of Brecon, and 
all and singular the rents of assize, lands, tenements, burgages, wheat and oats, demesne 
lands and woods, services, customs, works of tenants and hereditaments whatsoever 
in Brecon, Walton, Benny, Llanvayes and Bifield and elsewhere, parcels or reputed to be 
parcels of the said lordship and manor of Brecon, or to the same in any way belonging or 
appertaining; and all that foreign bailiwick (forinsec Ballivat) to the aforesaid lordship 
and manor of Brecon ; and all those rents of assize escheated lands and burgages and 
other parcels in the tenure of divers persons, lands and tenements forfeited, heriots, 
perquisites and profits of Courts there, fishing in the water of Lane and Mere and all 
small farms, lands tenements and hereditaments whatsoever, parcels or reputed to be 
parcels of the said foreign bailiwick and to the same belonging : Except nevertheless and 
always reserved all that forest called the great forest of Brecon and the soil and agistment 
of the same ; and also except and always reserved the town of Brecon and 20 per ann. 
therefrom, the mill called Eedcrewe Mill and the rent of 20s therefrom, the manor of Mara 
and Mota and the fee farm therefrom of 3 per ann., the manor of Welsh Penkelley and 
the rent therefrom of 22. 16. 8 per ann., the manor of Welsh Haya and the yearly rent of 
7. 1. G therefrom, the manor of Alexanderston and the j early rent of 100s therefrom, 
and divers mills in Divynock, Crassenny Llewell, Astradvelty and Pulchaughe with the 
fishings of Nethe and Towy parcels or reputed parcels of the said lordship and manor of 
Brecon, of the ancient yearly rent of 43. 6. 8 ; also except and out of this, present grant 
altogether reserved, all those demesne lands, late parcel of the said manor and bailiwick 
of Brecon lately granted in fee farm to the use of the Mayor, Commonalty and citizens of 
the City of London and the rent therefrom attaining to 20. 0. 10 per ann. : Which said 
lordship and manor of Brecon with the foreign bailiwick by the particulars thereof are 
mentioned to be parcel of the lands late of Edward Duke of Buckingham and to be of the 
yearly rent or value of 83. 0. 11J. 

Also all those Our lands and tenements in Co. Merioneth. 

To have and to hold to the said William Collins and Edward Fenn and their heirs 
in fee farm for ever, as fully, freely, and wholly as We or any of Our ancestors held the 
same, except all knights fees, wards and marriages, advowsons, free gifts and right of 
patronage of rectories, Churches, vicarages, Chapels, &c. &c. and mines of gold and silver, 
they paying yearly to Us and Our heirs for the said lordship and manor of 
Brecon with the foreign bailiwick of the same 44. 0, 1 J 



(59) 

And the said William Collins and Edward Peiiu shall pay to Us and Our heirs all 
their money for the materials of the Castle of Brecknock within the lordship of Brecon in. 
Our said county of Brecon. 

Witness Ourself at Westminster the 8th day of December [1631] 

by writ of Privy Seal. 

[This grant covers 34 membranes] . 



Great Forest of Brecknock. 



GRANT OF THE GEEAT FOREST OF BRECKNOCK AGISTMENT 
TO MR. RICE JONES [1661.] 



[TRANSLATION.] 

Charles the Second by the grace of God King of England, Scotland, France, and 
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all to whom these present Letters shall come. 
Know ye that We as well in consideration of the yearly rent below by these presents 
reserved as for certain other good causes and considerations Us at this present time 
moving by the advice of Our beloved and faithful counsellor Anthony Lord Ashley 
Chancellor and Sub-Treasurer of Our Court of Exchequer, and also of Our beloved and 
faithful Counsellors Thomas Clifford, Knight, Treasurer of Our Household and John 
Buncombe, Commissioner of Our Treasury have given, granted and to farm demised, and 
by these presents for us our heirs and successors do give grant and to farm demise to Our 
beloved Rice Jones, gentleman, all those reliefs yearly from time to time happening, 
growing and forthcoming in certain vills, wells, gabells and places in the counties of 
Carnarvon, Anglesey and Merioneth or in any of them with all their appurtenances : 
which said premises are parcel of the possessions of the Principality of North Wales and 
were leased to Richard Protherch, Esquire, and Godfrey Protherch, gentlemen, by 
indenture dated the 1st day of July A.D. 1637, for the term of 31 years, beginning from 
the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin next before the date of the 
said indenture under the yearly rent of 6. 13. 4. 

And also the agistment of the Great Forest of Brecon in the county of Brecon, parcel 
of the lordship of Brecon in the same county late parcel of the lands and possessions of 
Edward, late Duke of Buckingham attainted of high treason, and all and singular the 
profits commodities, emoluments, advantages and hereditaments whatsoever to the said 
agistment belonging and with the said Forest before demised and so demised to William 
Jones, gentleman, his executors and assigns by Letters Patent of the late Queen Elizabeth 
dated at Westminster the 17th day of March in the 23rd year of her reign for a term of 
21 years from the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin then next 
following under the yearly rent of 20. 6. 8. 

And also all those escheated lands within the granges of Gwyderigg alias Goithgarreg 
in the county of Carmarthen called Tyr Evan Blaen Tyrydall Tyr Baiddaw'r Coed and 
Kainer bwnysklawd dd ardwr, parcels of the possessions late of the manor of Tally in the 
county of Carmarthen now or late in the tenure or occupation of William Gwynne, 
Esquire, or his under tenants under the yearly rent of 10s. 



(GO) 

Except nevertheless and out of these Our presents and grant altogether reserved all 
reliefs due and to be due and payable for and in respect of all feoffees of rents reserved 
under certain Letters Patent for all lands, tenements and hereditaments within the afore- 
said vills wells, gabells, and places in the said county of Carnarvon, Anglesey.and Merioneth, 
and also except all wild animals and fallow deer (feris et cervis*) being within the said 
Forest of Brecon, from time to time yearly accruing, and the herbage and feeding for the 
said wild animals and fallow deer, as at any time was used and accustomed, also except 
all the great trees, woods, underwoods, mines ard quarries on the premises. 

To have and to hold all and singular the premises above by these presents demised 
or mentioned to be demised with all their appurtenances (except as before excepted) to the 
said Bice Jones his executors and assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel next 
following the date of these Our Letters Patent up to the end of the term and for the term 
of 81 years then next following and fully to be completed, paying therefore yearly to Us 
Our heirs and successors these several yearly rents following, to wit, of and for the said 
reliefs happening and forthcoming in the said vills, wells, gabells and places in the said 
counties of Carnarvon, Anglesey and Merioneth 6. 13. 4. And also for the said agistment 
of the said Forest of Brecon, 20. 6. 8. Also for the said escheated lands in the said 
granges of Gwyderigg 10s of lawful money of England to be paid at the feasts of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin and St. Michael the Archangel into the 
Eeceipt of the Exchequer of Us Our heirs and successors at Westminster or into the hands 
of the bailiffs or receivers of the premises for the time being, by equal portions during the 
said term. 

And the said Bice Jones for himself his heirs, executors and assigns agrees and grants 
with and to Us Our heirs and successors by these presents that he the said Rice Jones his 
executors and assigns will well and faithfully demand, take and collect all and singular the 
reliefs aforesaid within the said vills, wells, gabells and places aforesaid in the several 
counties aforesaid from time to time growing and forthcoming, except as before excepted, 
and will present the same and give notice thereof at the next court to be held in or for the 
said vills, wells, gabells and places where such shall happen and come and will enter them 
and cause them to be entered in the Court Bolls there. Also that yearly and every year 
during the term aforesaid they will make and deliver or cause to be delivered by the auditor 
of the said premises for the time being a true and perfect extract and particular of all and 
singular the reliefs aforesaid so had, taken or collected, or henceforth to be had, collected 
and taken and particularly in which lands, closes, grounds, estates, vills, hamlets, wells, 
gabells, places and counties, the same severally shall grow, happen or come. And also 
within 8 years next following after the date of these Our Letter Patent, and so henceforth 
every three years during the term aforesaid they shall make and deliver and cause to be 
delivered to Us Our heirs and successors into the Exchequer of Us Our heirs and successors 
a perfect terrier and particular of the aforesaid Forest of Brecon and of the said escheated 
lands, plainly distinctly and particularly showing and proving the true quantity and 
number of the fields of the same and also the metes and bounds of the same, anglice, the 
Buttalls and Boundaries, for the better service of Us Our heirs and successors. 

And that the said Bice Jones his executors and assigns shall permit the tenants, 
residents and inhabitants of the lordship of Brecon aforesaid and such other persons 
whomsoever who from ancient time have usually been accustomed to have pascage, 
herbage and agistment in the Forest aforesaid to have and enjoy and take the same 
liberties in the future in such and like manner as hitherto and from ancient time 
it was accustomed. And shall not permit or cause any other person or persons whomso- 
ever to be permitted to have and enjoy the same liberties and privileges in the herbage 
and agistment of the said Forest or of any parcel thereof. 

Provided always that if it shall happen that the said several rents above by these 
presents reserved or any of them shall be in arrear and unpaid in part or in the whole by 
the space of forty days after any feast of the feasts aforesaid whereupon they ought to be 
fully paid. Or if the said Bice Jones his executors or assigns shall not enrol or cause to 
be enrolled these Our Letters Patent before the Auditor of the premises for the time being 
or his sufficient deputy within the space of six months next following after the date of the 



'g 

e i 

ila 

tal. 

lls 

in 

ft 
er 
rfe 

3, 

be 
al 
A 

lei 
m: 
>ag 
tic 

18 

tc 

ag 
P 
en 
sp 

^F 
nr 
is 




(61) 

same That then and from thenceforth this Our present demise and grant shall be vacant 
and of no benefit, anything in these presents to the contrary thereof notwithstanding : any 
statute, act, ordinance, proviso, proclamation or restriction to the contrary thereof 
hitherto had, made, edited, ordained, or provided or any other thing cause or matter in 
anything notwithstanding. 

In witness whereof We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent. Witness 
the said Commissioners of Our Treasury at Westminster the 26th day of September in the 
22nd year of Our reign. 

Croke. 

By the warrant of the said Commissioners. 

Enrolled in the Office of the Auditor of Wales the 80th day of November in 
the 22nd year of the reign of King Charles the Second 

By me 

Thomas Taylor, Deputy Auditor. 
[Endorsed] Dated 6 (?26th) Sept 22nd Chas. 2nd 

Copy 
Grant of the Agistment of the Great Forest to Mr Bice Jones. 1661. 

* "Feris et cervis " are by some translators called " Wild animals and fallow deer," by 
others, " Wild beasts and stags." 



NOTE. The above grant of the Agistment of the Great Forest of Brecknock to Mr Itice 
Jones is dated 1661. We propose to follow this up with a similar grant to Thomas 
Morgan, Esquire (of Dderw probably) in 1770. This, with documents already published 
and accessible, will bring the history of the Forest, including its Inclosure and 
Allotment in 1816-19, down to the present day. 



The Manor of Haya Wallensis-I. 



The lordship or manor of Haya Wallensis, otherwise Welch Hay, is situate in the parish 
of Llanigon in the Hundred of Talgarth in the County of Brecon, and extends from the 
Wye at Fforddfawr over the Black Mountains to the county boundary at Capel-y-ffin. It 
is also called the Manor of Llanigon practically it is co-extensive with that parish, and 
it is further called the Manor of Glynbwch from the brook and village of that name, the 
Bwch stream joining that of the Honddu at the Capel. Of the early history of the Manor 
I know little for certain, but this much may be relied upon, that it was like other manors 
of the neighbourhood, parcel of the possessions of Eobert, Earl of Essex, when his 
estates became forfeited to the Crown. 

The present owner is Viscount Hereford, of Tregoyd, and Parliamentary papers show 
that his grandfather (Henry Viscount Hereford) purchased the Manor, together with 
various small tenements and lands, being encroachments on the waste, but paying small 
rents to the Crown, and containing altogether 71 acres, 2 roods, from the Crown in 1827 
for 2100. The purchase was actually completed and the money paid on March 4th, 
1828. 

The Commissioners of Woods and Forests, whose courtesy I wish here to acknow- 
ledge, have been good enough to show me a copy of the conveyance referred to, and what 
is far more explanatory, the sworn Survey of the Manor made in 1807 by Mr Charles 
Hassall, of Eastwood, Pembrokeshire (the Crown Surveyor) to John Fordyce, then His 
Majesty's (and I believe the last ever appointed) Surveyor General. 



(62) 

Those who know a little of the history of the Crown Manors in Breconshire are aware 
that it was the custom of the Crown to farm out their manors to rent to the chief men of 
the county generally to the Parliamentary representatives, being presumably men of 
high position. In this instance we find that John Morgan, of Machen, became the tenant 
in 1787 for 20 years, at an annual rent of 18 10s, and again subsequently in 1821, Sir 
Charles Gould who married the heiress of John Morgan, and had assumed the name of 
Morgan was tenant at will under the Crown. I think also he was lessee at the same time 
of the Great Forest of Brecknock, held under the Crown. It would seem by the Crown 
Surveyor's report, that in 1807 Mr Thomas Bold, solicitor, of Brecon, was the steward of 
the Manor, and that he held the Court leets yearly, and duly kept up the rights of the 
Manor : also that the sporting rights chiefly famous for grouse and hares over the lands 
were carefully preserved by Lord Hereford, under a deputation, as it is termed, from Sir 
Charles Morgan. 

My readers should now take in their hands a copy of the old one-inch Ordnance Tithe 
Map Survey, having the parish boundaries marked upon it, and follow me as I proceed in 
the perambulation of the Manor. 

Beginning at the river Wye on the South bank (though a small part, it is said, 
extends to the North side of that river) a breadth of about 300 yards runs up from the 
river to the turnpike road near Great Fforddfawr: thence proceeding on its Western 
boundary, we pass up the Nantyscallen (thistlebrook) bronk to Cocket and Heol Cadwgan. 
Thence to Twyn-croes- Walter and Pen-y-twmpa (Lord Hereford's knob), thence along the 
mountain ridge to Twyntaland Capel-y-ffin, till we meet theBwch river very near the Chapel. 
Thence the boundary turns short back at an acute angle, and proceeds up the river 
Bwch to Blaen-afon-Bwch, at which point it turns abruptly due South- Westwards to a 
large stone on the mountain (Twyn-tal-y-cefn) which separates this Manor from those of 
Mark (? Thomas) Wood and John Macnamara, Esquires. 

From this stone the boundary runs along the high ground South-Eastwardly to the 
great Van which I take to be the point known and marked on the Ordnance Map as the 
Blacksmith's anvil, where there is a large stone of that shape, I am informed. Thence it 
turns due East across Cwm-bwch, following the county boundary "to about 400 yards 
below Capel-y-ffin. Thence ascending to the top of Mynydd Hatrel, it proceeds along the 
ridge of that mountain to Llech-y-lladron (the robber's altar) a big hollow stone, Lord 
Hereford informs me, at the top of Hatterell and Kotten Hill, and is marked " C.M," for 
Sir Charles Gould Morgan, the tenant of the Crown when the Manor was sold. The 
Latin word latro, a robber, is derived from this Welsh word, lladron (or vice versa.} 

The boundary now descends on the North side of the Black Mountains, by Ehydy- 
wernen, by Quarre, Ffynnon-velen to Twyn-y-beddau (tump of the graves), and on to 
Pen-yr-hen-Allt. Here it assumes an irregular line, following the Llanigon parish 
boundary, by Ponty-fithel, thence to Canon Melyn, and on to Tyle well. Thence it runs 
across the Kevens to the Hay and Brecon turnpike road, then Westwards for 400 yards up 
to Llanthomas House, and by Llwyn-llwyd and Little Fforddfawr to Great Ffordfawr, 
where we started from. And this is the ambit of the Manor, as given by Mr Hassall, the 
Crown Surveyor, in his sworn survey of 1807. 

I must reserve for another paper tome remarks as to the customs of the Manor, 
names of places, its value as commanding one of the chief passes over the Black 
Mountains, and one of the main fords across the Wye, and other particulars of some 
interest. 



(68) 

The Manor of Haya Wallensis--II. 



Besuming the description of the Manor, a word or two may be interesting as to the 
71a. 2r. Op. of land comprised in the sale. It is stated in the survey that these consisted 
entirely of small encroachments on the waste land made from time to time, having small 
cottages built upon them, and for which probably first an acknowledgment, and subse- 
quently a rent of a few pounds was paid to the Lord. The names of these encroachments 
are given as Glynbwch, Wernllwyd, Waungoch, Caeceiliog, Bwlch, Fforth y Glanne, and 
Nantyscallen, and range from 19 acres to 14 perches in extent. The 72 acres yielded to 
the Lord a rental of 84 18s. I do not quite know where these bits of land are situated, 
but I think they are mainly in the Honddu and Bwch valleys on the Southern slope of the 
Black Mountains. 

One and the chief object of the Crown Surveyor's survey in 1807 was to ascertain the 
extent and value of the wastelands. The Surveyor reports these to be 6,500 acres in 
extent, of which 6,000 acres are high and poor and not fit for cultivation or planting, but 
that about 500 acres on the North side of the mountains, and surrounded by old inclosures, 
are suited for improvement, and worth seven shillings an acre yearly. The names of these 
small commons he gives as VVaen Croes Howel and Waun y Capel, and a smaller parcel, 
called Maesgoch. 

I must digress a little here for the purpose of describing the inclosures of ancient date 
which you find in this Manor, and very extensively in the Manor of the Grange, near 
Khayader, recently purchased by the Birmingham Corporation. Usually the Coedcaes in 
Breconshire are pieces of the mountain added to and joining the farm, and without any 
house upon them. In this Manor, as in that of the Grange, you find up on the slopes of 
the hill inclosures by themselves of an acre or perhaps four or five, surrounded entirely by 
the open hill land. It would seem to be an evidence of the earliest form of sheep farming, 
when shepherds watched their flocks by night, being practised in those districts. Probably 
in winter the sheep were taken away to the large homesteads in the low valleys, and when 
spring came, the shepherds, and possibly herdsmen too, brought up their flocks and herds 
to the mountain pastures, making use of the enclosure as their resting place, and for 
numbering, marking, shearing, and generally attending to their stock. Probably the cows 
were brought up as well, and the processes of a dairy with the making of butter and cheese 
carried on there. At any rate, the shepherd was there on the spot to see to the wants of 
the stock, and to protect them from the dangers of robbers, and from beast and birds of 
prey. 

You will find on the one-inch ordnance sheet near Croes Howel in Llanigon parish 
one of such detached pieces of ground, named on the map as " The Island." I understand 
there are really two, the Upper and Lower Island, Waun Henry ucha and isha, and both 
ancient freehold properties. Properly, the name should be Ynys, the Welsh for island, and 
you find one of these pieces on the Great Forest of Brecon, called Ynys gron, or Ffynnon 
Ynys gron, the well of the round island. No doubt these isolated hill enclosures were used 
in olden times for the flocks of the large homesteads lower in the valley. The point is, I 
think, worthy of notice here, as such isolated enclosures are the exception, not the rule in 
the system of hill sheep farming in Breconshire, as it has been handed down to us from 
past centuries. 

The customs of the Manor are said to be the payment of fines of 5s on descent, and of 
fees of 5s on alienation, and also a heriot of the best beast on death of a tenant of the 
Manor. The last heriot actually taken was, it is said, many years previously, from the 
widow of Bullock Lloyd, at his decease ; afterwards the payment was reckoned at 40s. It 
was then considered a hard thing to take a heriot in kind. The heriots were larger on the 
valley lands than on the hill farms. 

The Ceisiad (to ask) Medy (to reap) had long been discontinued, except from the lord- 
ship of Kilonw, owned by Lord Ashburnham, to which I shall refer presently. You find 



(64) 

these payments made in Patrishow parish, according to Theophilus Jones, but I have not 
met with them elsewhere. 

Chief rents in small fixed sums were regularly paid by the tenants of the Manor, and 
a list is found in the survey, and I give a few of the names of the tenements, some of 
which do not appear on the map Tal-y-sarn, owned by George Watkins ; Cockett, by 
Bullock Lloyd ; Caermarchog, Tirllwyn Magan, Tir Henry Simon, Tir George Simon, and 
also Talsarn. I think sarn means a causeway. 

The full rent roll of the Manor is given as follows: Chief rents of lordship of 
Llanigon or Glynbwch, 10 0. 1. ; Cymmorth, every two years, 3. 2s. 6J (being half of 
6. Os. 5Jd) ; yearly rents, 34. 5s. ; Ceisiad and Medy of Kilonw, 15s 9d ; Cymmorth of 
Kilonw, 1. 8s. 9d ; total rental of Manor, 49. 12s Id. The survey is not very clear on 
the following points, namely, as to the Manor of Kilonw within this lordship, which owns 
the Earl of Ashburnham as Lord, and pays chief rents to him, while paying some dues, as 
stated, to the Crown ; nor as to the small manor of Parkbach, said to be surrounded by 
the Crown Manor, and belonging to Davies Esqre ; nor as to Llangwerthan, which is said 
to be a detached parcel of the Crown Manor lying within Mrs Harley's Manor of Hay. 
I simply note what is stated in the survey, and must pass on, but both places will be 
found on the ordnance map. 

No map of the Manor generally is appended to the survey, but of the various 
parcels of encroachment lands, comprising the 72 acres, very carefully made 
maps are given in a special map book, and are as fresh and clear to-day as when they were 
made. Some of the old map makers, especially David Davies, of Llangattock Court, did 
some excellent work, and his maps of the Court estate there, now in the possession of our 
family, are quite a work of art. 

It appears from the survey, there were no fisheries belonging to the Manor, nor 
mines, colleries, or any sign of minerals, but there was an immense stretch of stone fit for 
building and flagstone, but of no value, because the landowners got sufficient supplies on 
their own private land. There was, however, on Waun Croes Howell, a quarry of inferior 
tilestone, worked by John George, who paid Sir Charles Morgan, the Crown lessee, 1 Is. 
a year. The shooting rights for grouse and hares were said to be valuable. It was also 
stated that there was no timber on the waste lands of the Manor. 

The Surveyor, lastly, considers the property an unimprovable one, and that it would 
not be worth while to obtain an Act of Parliament to enclose the waste lands, of which 
only 500 acres were capable of improvement, and finally recommends the Crown to put it 
up to sale by auction. As we have seen, this advice was subsequently acted upon, and 
Henry Viscount Hereford became the purchaser in 1827-8. 

And here I must make a slight digression, and it is for the purpose of asking 
how the name of Glyn Vach ever came into existence. It figures now as the name of a 
hamlet, and is so described and mapped on the recent Ordnance Survey. We have Taf- 
fechan and Taf-fawr, but I do not remember the title of Vach applied to a valley by itself 
by the old place-namers. Like Tybach, it does not sound to me as good Welsh, but an 
English half satirical name. Where is the Glynfawr, if there is a Glyn Vach ? True, 
there is Velinfach and Vennivach ! But what do you say to this ? One of the names of 
this Manor is Glyn-bwch, or the valley of the buck, and the stream joining the Honddu at 
the Capel is called the Bwch to this day. Obviously to my mind the name of Glyn-fach 
has been allowed erroneously to supersede the true and olden name of Glyn-bwch, denoting 
the haunt of the antlered stag, and the cool deep pool, where the panting hart cooled his 
flanks in the noontide heat. There is some romance in this ; in Glyn-vach absolutely 
none ! 

And now what about the ancient history of the Manor ! The muniment room of the 
office of Woods and Forests has nothing, I am informed, to help us, except so far as to 
show that the Manor came to the Crown by the forfeiture of the estates of the Earl of 
-ssex. I do not think our early county historian (Jones) tells us anything, but I am 
informed by the present Viscount Hereford, that he has a survey of tlie Manor (temp : 
James I), but which I have not seen. The mountains, too, are silent, and the rivers, 
roadc, vallies, and rocks can tell us nothing, except what in conjunction with Llanthony 



(65) 

Abbey, and the important ford over the Wye near Glasbury, their position and formation 
and ancient place-names reveal. 

Poets are said to invoke the aid of the muses when they write. We must ask the aid 
of the genius of the past, when the mind tries to picture scenes of ages long ago, and of 
which not the trace of a record now exists. 

Apparently there was no stronghold or castle within the Manor, and its narrow 
area lay between the Castle of Hay on the east, and Dinas Castle on the west, stretching 
right from B^forddfawr on the Wye practically to the great Abbey of Llanthony on the 
farther side of the Black Mountains. The road from Llanthony led up to the Honddu 
Valley to the pass at Bwlch-y-fingel (or efongyl) the gospel pass, thence down by the two 
roadside crosses, known as Croes Howel, and then down to Fforddfawr (Great Way) 
where a famous ford across the Wye was available. The perambulation of the Manor, 
which has already been given, shows that the Manor just touched the river's bank here 
for a few hundreds of yards only, just sufficient for fording purposes. On the opposite side 
of the river we find the corresponding name of Penrhudd, or the head of a ford, and thence 
over the common lands a broad open way led to Painscastle in Radnorshire, a place of 
great renown, and away to Leominster, Wigmore, Abbey Cwmhir, Buildwas (in Shrop- 
shire), and all the great Abbeys in the North. I believe this Manor was originally, or at 
some date, an Ecclesiastical one, and its chief value was in protecting the great highway 
from the North of England for monks and pilgrims to Llanthony, and other Abbeys in the 
South. 

At the same time I must not forget the claims to be advanced on behalf of 
Glasbury manor to the possession of a sacra via by Rhiw Wen over the Black Mountains. 
Possibly both may have served the same purpose, and the monks and pilgrims had the 
choice of two roads, according as one was deemed safer than the other, or more easy of 
ascent. Let Glasbury and Haya Wallensis share the fame. 

*** I think this Park-bach must be Parc-y-meirch across the county boundary, not far 
from Crasswall Chapel. I remember Mr Thomas Davies, of Llangattock Court (Twm 
Davies as he was known) having property himself, or being agent for property close to 
Crasswall Chapel. 

A detailed account of some of the antiquities of this very interesting parish of Llanigon I 
may be able to give some other day. Twyn-y-beddau deserves some notice, also the 
large flat stone on the side of the road leading from Hay to Llanthony, said to mark 
the burial place of a murdered Scotch pedlar, or, according to another account, of a 
British prince. And again another large stone of peculiar form, standing upright in 
a ditch near Penlan, has probably some interesting history. When we have a 
parochial glossary of Welsh place-names in Breconshire, many ancient secrets may be 
revealed. In these papers I have confined my remarks chiefly to the Manor. 

[See Parliamentary Survey No. 91 of Welsh Haya Manor page 20 ante.] 



(66) 

Glasbury Bridge. 



Formerly the boundary of Radnorshire crossed the Wye about half a mile above 
Glasbucy, and enclosing about 470 acres on the right bank, on which the Rai way btation, 
Church/and School now stand, returned again to the river about half a mile below. It 
took a kind of square bite out of the Breconshire side of the river. 

In 1832, when the Parliamentary Reform Act was passed, an Act was also passed 
for the purpose of rectifying County Boundaries, in order to facilitate the polling of the 
electors and this "isolated or detached" piece of Radnorshire was then added to 
Breconshire for electoral purposes only. At least, the provisions of the Act were so 
understood, though as will be seen later, the description of the area was inaccurately 
given in the Schedule to the Act. 

In 1844 that is about twelve years later another Act was passed declaring all sucti 

outlying areas, if transferred for electoral purposes, to belong absolutely to the County 
to which they had been transferred. 

Upon this disputes began between the counties, Breconshire contending that the 
Schedule of the 1832 Act did not refer to this particular portion of land, Radnorshire 
contending that it did. And so the controversy went on for several years, neither County 
claiming the area, and neither levying any County Rate upon it. No doubt she ground 
of objection on the part of Breconshire to the transfer, was that the liability to repair 
one half of Glasbury Bridge would be thrown upon that County, if they took over the 
area named. 

Glasbury Bridge, on the Breconshire side, had now become impassable through want 
of repairs, and the Rev. R. Lister Venables, a magistrate for both Counties, made a 
presentment at the Breconshire October Quarter Sessions, 1847, calling upon that County 
to repair one half of the bridge. The Justices were equal to the occasion, and being so 
advised, held that a presentment could not be lawfully made by one Justice only. The 
matter was carried by writ of certiorari to the London Courts, when on a rule nisi being 
obtained by Breconshire, it was decided that the power of one Justice to make a 
presentment in such cases had not been repealed by 5 and Wm. IV., cap. 50, as 
Breconshire had contended. This was the first victory for Radnorshire over her sister 
County. 

Then followed the indictment, Regina v. Breconshire, for the non-repair of their half 
of the Bridge at the Summer Assizes of 1849 at Hereford, before Baron Rolfe, and a 
verdict was given against Breconshire. 

However, an appeal was lodged, and came on for hearing before Justices Patteson, 
Erie, and Coleridge, in the London Courts. Mr. Phipson contended for Breconshire that 
the Schedule to the Boundary Act of 1832 did not refer to this particular area at all, as it 
was described as being in Breconshire, whereas it had always been in Radnorshire. The 
Court, however, held that though the Schedule was " incomprehensible," yet as the 
legislature must have meant something, and that the only thing it could have meant was 
to deal with this outlying portion, it must be so considered. 

Mr. Phipson, for Breconshire, then advanced a second contention. It was, that only 
the bank of the river and the 470 acres were transferred, and not the bed of the river 
itself; and that, therefore, if Breconshire built an abutment on their bank to receive the 
end of the Radnorshire Bridge, it would be all that they were required to do. However, 
the Court overruled this ingenious argument, and held that half the river, according to 
the maxim, usque ad melium Jilum aqua, passed with the transferred land, and with it the 
liability of Breconshire to repair one half the Bridge. During the case, several arguments 
were raised as to the meaning of the terms " isolated " and " detached," as applied to a 
case like this, where really the river was the only isolating or detaching element. 

However, Breconshire was defeated on all points, and this portion of the Bridge being 
now ruinous, that County accepting their defeat, proceeded to put up stone piers instead 



(67) 

of wooden piles, and the river being deep at that point, with a gravel bottom, a couple of 
thousand pounds had to be spent on the work. 

Perhaps some blame rests on Breconshire for resisting the transfer, and pursuing 
what proved a profitless litigation ; but the chief blame undoubtedly rested with the 
legislature, which first of all carelessly inserted a Schedule in the 1832 Act, which was 
"incomprehensible," if strictly interpreted in fact ic was sheer nonsense; and secondly, 
by another Act passed twelve years later, transferred these 470 acres for all purposes 
whatever, without taking into consideration in any way the responsibilities thrown on 
fresh shoulders in consequence. In this case Breconshire had to face an immediate 
outlay of 2,000, and gained only an increase of rateable value of, say, 470 a year. 
When the transfer was made in 1844 finally by Parliament, the Act should have contained 
a clause providing for the adjustment of liabilities between the counties affected, but this 
was not done. 

I would add an observation of my own, after studying this case, the Great Forest of 
Brecon Inclosure Acts, and the Tithe and Poor Law Acts, that from some cause or 
another probably ignorance of the County and its distance from the seat of Government 
the interests of Breconshire have been carelessly treated in the past in a kind of 
slip-shod fashion by the Legislature, and that in consequence, difficulties, heart burnings, 
and positive injury have been occasioned, lasting to this day, when really with proper 
care and due inquiry, anything of the kind could have been avoided, or certainly much 
lessened. In the matter of Chancery and the administration of estates under 
it, Wales has been dragged cruelly at the heels of England, and that scandalous case of 
Price v. North, by which numbers of Breconshire men were given years of trouble and 
uneasiness, -and caused much loss, and by which several were completely ruined, very 
much owing to the law's procrastination, is a living instance of it to-day. 

I cannot part company with the history of the Bridge without noting what Jones in 
his history of Breconshire, and Ireland in his " Eiver Wye," state as to the disastrous 
fate of three bridges built successively by Kadnorshire at this spot in the last century. 
No wonder but that the county was greatly pleased to get rid of part of the responsibility 
by making Breconshire a partner, and that the latter was reluctant to enter into a 
partnership in a property which had proved a damnosa hereditis to its former sole owner. 

Jones (Vol. II., p. 888 published 1809) writes : " Unfortunately for the County 
of Eadnor, the present bridge (as well as three which have preceded it, and have been 
destroyed almost within memory of man) is within that part of the County which intrudes 
into Breconshire. The first bridge was just before Mr. Hughes' house, called the Dolphin, 
and fell in 1738 ; the next was nearly in the same situation, and continued about forty 
years, both these were of wood. The third was a beautiful bridge of stone, built by 
Edwards in 1777, who assisted his father to build the great one-arched bridge upon the 
Taf. It fell down in the great flood in February, 1795, for want of proper attention to 
its foundation, which was undermined. It stood nearly where the present bridge of 
wood, erected in 1800, is situated." 

Ireland in his " River Wye," p. 28 (published in 1797) writes : "In the midst of 
this rich and beautiful valley, an elegant stone bridge of seven arches is thrown across 
the river. It was built about 14 years ago by the family of Edwards, under the direction 
of their father, the celebrated architect of Pontypridd. The adjoining view (see sketch in 
book) was made in August, 1794 ; in the ensuing winter the bridge was totally destroyed, 
which will in some degree give value to this sketch, as a memorial of that which is at 
present little more than a wreck, every arch of it having been blown up by the torrent of 
ice, which passed down on the very sudden thaw after the long frost in the beginning 
of 1795." 

The sketch given by Ireland shows it to have been a very graceful bridge, quite an 
ornament to the valley. 

The flood of 1795 was one of the highest and most disastrous ever known on the 
Wye. It attained its greatest height at Hereford on Wednesday evening at six o'clock on 
February llth, at which time it was said to be two feet five inches higher than any flood 
ever known by the oldest resident. A brass plate still records the height and date in Mr. 



(68; 

W. Stephens' yard, near Wye Bridge. At the village of Hampton Bishop the water rose 
six feet in half an hour. All but the very strongest bridges were washed away, including 
those of Glasbury, Hay, and Whitney. A farmer of Clyro, named Lloyd, was crossing 
Hay bridge at the time it fell, and was drowned. Boss (Wilton) and Monmouth bridges 
were said to have been much damaged. A similarly disastrous flood occurred in the Usk 
at the same time, though I think the brass plate formerly on the front of the Forge Mill, 
near the town of Usk, recorded the date as February 10th. The middle pier of Usk 
bridge was then carried down, but the arches were left standing. January of that year was 
the coldest known for the previous hundred years, having an average temperature of 24 
degrees. The ice on the Wye at Boss measured one foot thick. 

So far the stone piers placed by Breconshire on their half of the bridge in 1851-4, 
have safely stood, and the late County Surveyor, Mr. William Williams, and his late 
father, are entitled to great praise for the good work done. A day, however, of crucial trial, 
like that in 1795, may yet be in store, and it certainly behoves the County Surveyors of 
both counties to keep a watchful eye on Glasbury bridge. 



Glasbury and the County Boundary. 



Those who have not looked closely into the subject, but yet possess the knowledge 
that some change was made by law in the boundary line between Breconshire and 
Badnorshire during the present century are under the impression, I find, that some 
modern shifting of the course of the Wye was the original cause ; in other words, that 
the Wye had always in ancient times been the boundary line uninterruptedly between the 
the two counties, but subsequently changing its course had left a piece of Badnorshire 
high and dry on the Breconshire side, isolated from the rest of the county; and that 
modern legislation was simply for the purpose of again rectifying the boundary line, so as 
to make it march with the river's banks. 

Of course this is an error, and an inspection of the ordnance map or a visit to the 
locality would immediately dispel it. As far as it is possible to judge, there has not been 
for thousands of years any considerable change in the river's course at Glasbury bridge. 
Where stand Glasbury Church, the Railway Station, and the School, there is a firm high 
bank or knoll of ground extending half a Hriile back ("intruding" into Breconshire as 
Jones has put it), which w*s Badnorshire land, and to tlie south of which, communicating 
as it did continuously with high ground right up to the Black Mountains, the Biver Wye 
could not possibly have ever flowed. And now comes what I believe to be the true 
and certainly interesting explanation of the case. 

Your readers will bear in mind that the five border counties of Wales Monmouth, 
Brecon, Radnor, Montgomery, and Denbigh were divided into various Marches, and 
governed according to Welsh laws and customs by Lord Marchers up to the time of the 
reign of Henry VIII. By 27, Henry VIII., cap. 26, extensive changes and rearrangements 
were made, and the Marches were formed into Shires for the first time. The most 
considerable change was the lopping off of large portions of the Marches and adding them 
to the English Shires of Salop, Hereford, and Gloucester, and in every case, as throughout 
Wales, the English tenure was to take the place of Welsh tenure, customs and laws. We 
find, by section 5, various named lordships, townships, parishes, commotes, and cantreds, 
and all the castles, manors, and lands within their compass were to be reputed, and to 
stand as part of the Shire of Breconshire. And by section 6, of the same Act, other 
lordships, townships, and parishes, &c., were to be reputed and to stand as part of the 



(69) 

County or Shire of Radnor, and from that date the Manor and Parish of Glasbury, no 
matter on which side of the Wye they were, became part of Kadnor. A rough and ready 
method was adopted, and lordships, manors, and parishes were allocated in their integrity 
to this or that county. 

So far, all is clear, and the land belonging to the Manor and Parish of Glasbury, 
wherever it might have been (and some was on the Breconshire side of the river) passed, 
as a matter of course, under the statute to Eadnorshire. 

Now comes for consideration the more interesting and difficult question how was it 
that the Manor and Parish of Glasbury extended to both sides of a great river like the 
Wye, which for weeks together must have been in the tarly days, in the absence of a 
bridge, impassable except by ferry boats ? For the present at least, we can leave out the 
parish, as that presumably followed the manor, and deal only with the Manor of Glasbury. 

The first clue is in its name Ghw-bury which I take to mean, " The green ditches of 
a fortified place on a hill." This answers the description of the natural bank of ground 
on the Breconshire side, behind the Railway Station. Remains of ditches and 
fortifications are to be seen there to-day, and one roadway is now known as Heol-y-gaer, 
or the Road of the Camp. Obviously, the ground was selected to command the first 
practicable fords of the Wye, after leaving the narrow gorge, in which it had flowed from 
Builth down to that point. Here were inviting and practicable fords for crossing the 
great river, and naturally it was the duty of a General, whether Roman, Saxon, or only a 
Lord Marcher, to seize this advantageous point, and so command the passage of the 
stream. 

The course of all great rivers is studded with castleg and camps at such points, and 
on the Wye itself it is easy to mention several, especially Clifford, Hereford, Wilton, and 
Goodrich Castles, commanding the convenient fords adjacent thereto. Fords and bridges 
have ever played important parts in warfare, from the time of Horatius, Xerxes, and 
Ceesar in Gaul and Britain, and Henry V., at Agincourt, where Fluellen tells King 
Henry " The Duke of Exeter was a prave man, and gallantly maintained the pridge." 
Our modern fighting men would describe a post of this kind as a tile du pont, and mounted 
volunteers would be sent forward in advance to seize it. Are there any local names 
denoting " bloodful engagements " at this spot ? as Edward Morgan describes them, in 
his song. What do you think of Treble Hill ? It sounds like Trouble Hill. But that 
will not do. What do you say to the derivation " tre," a town, and " bel," war or 
tumult ? That would suit the place accurately. 

It seems to me that this was a fortified place in the Roman and Saxon days, long 
before the Norman conquest, and wherever you find common lands of the Lammas 
character, that is lands closed for hay for the summer months, and open to all commoners 
during the winter months, as is the case here on the Gro Common, that circumstance 
probably denotes a Saxon division and arrangement of the common land. 

We learn from Jones, in his " History of Breconshire," p. 359, New Ed., that Bernard 
Newmarch, in 1088, or a few years before his conquest of Brecon, gave the advowson of 
Qlasbury to the monks of Gloucester in the time of Abbot Serlo, and also that the rnesne 
manor of Glasbury was held by the same monks probably a gift also from the same Lord 
in 1144, when it passed by exchange to the Cliffords, subsequently to the Giffards. 
Ultimately it came to the Crown, by whom it was granted to Sir David Williams, the 
ancestor of the present holder, Colonel Thomas Wood, of Gwernyfed. 

Various names of places in the immediate vicinity point to a great thoroughfare across 
the river at this point. Ffordd fawr or the great highway and Croeshowell the cross of 
Howell occur on the line of road leading to the river. Besides, and apart 
from commanding the ford, this point of vantage at Glasbury may have enabled the monks 
of Gloucester to levy a goodly sum in toll from passengers crossing the river at this point. 

I have been much struck by the circumstance, that a long strip of Glasbury parish 
when first part of the parish I do not know stretches across the Black Mountains to 
Capel-y-ffin (the chapel of the boundary) within a very few miles of Llanthony Abbey, and 
it has occurred to me as possible that by the way of the ford at Glasbury over the river, 
and subsequently along this part of Glasbury parish, a kind of sacred way was reserved for 



(70) 

pilgrims from the Abbeys of North Wales and even Shropshire to Llanthony. This is pure 
conjecture, though we have reason to believe such a sacred way was kept outside Brecon 
Forest for an interchange of visits between the monks of Brecon Priory and those of Neath 
Abbey. 

The whole district of Glasbury on the Breconshire side is most interesting historically, 
and also the neighbouring parish of Llanigon, where such suggestive names as Cae Cadifor, 
Hen gastell, Twyn-y-beddau, Castell-fferwydd, Maesgoch, Cadwgan, are to be found, and 
Poole in his history of Breconshire (page 21C) writes that the tumultis below Llanthomas 
is said to direct to the ford on the Wye. 

On the mountains near Capel-y-ffin, is a fine range of rocks, called Taren yr Esgob, 
where some worthy bishop, escaping from his enemies, is said to have fallen over, and been 
killed. Also Dr. Bull, in the Woolhope Club Papers, tells us that there is to be seen in 
that district a large mass of Travertine, which is called Twlch-y-foel-las, or the cave of the 
grey stone. It is about 24 feet wide, SOU. high, and 210 feet in circumference, and has 
within it a hollow capable of holding several people. Apparently it had fallen from the 
rocks above. There is a tradition that St. Paul visited this district, and a pass in one of 
the valleys is called Bwlch Efenygl, or the Gospel Pass, to this day. The whole range of 
the Black Mountains, Dr. Bull adds, is full of history and legends yet to be written. 

There was also once a Glasbury cross, and in Richard Symons' " Diary of the 
Marches of the Royal Army during the Great Civil War," several references are made 
to the numerous and perfect crosses found in Breconshire. I hope to make a list of places 
in our county having trues as some part of their names, and it will be found there are 
several, but probably more in the neighbourhood of Glasbury than in any other part, that 
being essentially a strong ecclesiastical (Roman Catholic) district in olden time. 

Other places in the vicinity have curious names : Pipton, or Pepperton, the manor 
being so called and held formerly by the payment of a pound of pepper annually to the Crown 
by the lord ; and the " Stonces, ' those ninety acres of rich meadow land by the riverside in 
Breconshire, so called from large stones being used as mere or meare stones, or possibly as 
stepping stones across the Llynfi to the site of the old church.* Our little town of Staines 
on the Thames has its name thus derived. How rich this land must be can be imagined 
when we know that the 90 acres bear JE30 tithe annually, or a lawyer's (is. 8d. for every acre, 
probably the highest tithed land in Breconshire. The parish of Aberllynfi is a curiosity. 
It has no church, and is the only parish in the county that pays no tithe. 

In conclusion, this piece of Glasbury manor, 470 acres in extent, intruding into 
Breconshire at this point, was made part of Radnorshire by the Act of Henry VIII., 
following the rest of the manor. And the manor itself comprised this high bit of naturally 
fortified ground, because it gave the owner command of the ford for offence and defence, 
and in times of peace for levying tolls on travellers, merchandise, and possibly on Welsh 
drovers taking their droves of iilack Castlemartiu cattle across the river into England. 

See note, page 78. 



Glasbury (continued). 



Before I quite leave Glasbury, I must mention an interesting fact that has come to 
my knowledge since I wrote the preceding papers. 

Your readers will remember the situation of the old church near the lower end of the 
delta of land known as the Stonces, between the Wye and its tributary, the Llynfi. 
Well, standing on the platform of Glasbury station and looking across the Wye and a 
charming view it is you will see by the sharp corner of the high river wall on the 
Radnorshire side of the Wye an old-fushioned house of two stories, one large gable 
forming almost the entire south front riverward?. It is evidently a house of three, four or 



(71) 

even five hundred years old, and resembles very much the old Church Cottage near the 
entrance to the churchyard of Llangattock. Crickhowell. This was the vicarage attached 
to the old church, but long since separated from the site by the full volume of the majestic 
Wye. And in this vicarage ihere is still, I am told, a peculiar little closet with just room 
for one person, and to which there was a narrow little window looking out, all to itself, as 
we say. The vicarage and old church were, of course, built by our pious ancestors of the 
Roman Catholic faith, whose zeal in religion and in building places of worship is only 
equalled by that of Welsh Nonconformists ; and whether this little single chamber was 
built and used for the self-infliction of punishment, fasting, private prayer, by the priest in 
charge, or possibly as a cool larder for Wye salmon and Lenten fish, or as a look-out 
across the river, I can at present offer no opinion. Places of concealment in such old 
houses are not uncommon, but if this had been intended as such, there would scarcely have 
been provided a lancet window looking outwards. The old house, still in good repair, is 
remarkable in other respects, having very thick walls, old oak staircase and landing, on 
which there is a kind of arch, having as its tympanum a trace of a figure carved, which 
some think is that of the Virgin Mary. My informant also tells me that the north front 
of this Elizabethan style vicarage is much more picturesque than even that of the south. 

And now I must ask my readers to look still more searchingly across the river from 
this point of vantage at (he railway platform, and they will see the long row roof of the 
tithe-barn to the east of the vic-trage. What pictures in the mind does the sight of one of 
these old barns conjure np ! You see them everywhere near the rectory and vicarage 
houses, and all will remember those at the Priory and St. David's churches in Brecon, 
especially that roomy one near the old Llanfaes turnpike gate. It was essential that they 
should be roomy, as the ecclesiastics looked sharply after their " tenths," and thither was 
brought a tithe of all the wheat, barley and oats grown in the parish, and of course there 
must be room besides for the holly stick flail to thresh the corn on the wooden floor. 
Those were primitive good old times, when tithes were paid in kind, now we pay them by 
cheque ! 

1 have an object in enlarging on all this, and it is to show and I think the conclusion 
is irresistible that the old vicarage, and the tithe barn, and the old church were never 
separate when built, but stood on the same mainland together and in close proximity. In 
saying this I have to make no correction of what I have previously written. My contention 
that the high ground by and above the railway station had been made part of Glasbury 
manor and parish in order to secure the ford for crossing the river still remains good. It 
is quite consistent with the position as it now is and as I conceived it once to have been, 
and the point now for consideration is, how and in what manner the site of the old church 
became separated from that of the vicarage, and what vagaries fair Vaga made in her course 
through the valley some 250 years and more ago. 

To this point I have the attention of two friends of mine directed, who are resident in 
the district, and experts in the study of rivers, and we may shortly have some light thrown 
upon it. Old river beds and courses are not easily obliterated, though hundreds of years 
may have passed since the stream Sowed by that way. 

My theory is the Island one and islands are commonly found in large rivers where 
civilised man has not iuterfered and in this way. Near the Spread Eagle, the Wye was 
divided into two arms or branches, one and practically the main stream flowing to the 
right near the present course of the Llynfi, and the other flowing to the left in a great 
sweep under Lower Scynlas, and north of Glasbury village at the foot of Maesllwch Park, 
both streams uniting again near Glanhenwye or thereabouts. 

Then came man on the scene. The inhabitants found it inconvenient to be living 
practically on an island, and proceeded to throw a dam across the left branch near Wood- 
lands. On some high flood or other, this obstruction caused the river to strike a new 
channel between the old church and the vicarage, subsequently uniting with the right branch 
just at the present confluence of the Llynfi. Those on the spot will notice the high stone wall 
round the vicarage grounds as a protection from the river. It is a work of no small 
magnitude, and was not paid for by the occupier of the vicarage, but probably out of the 
funds of Gloucester Abbey. The vicarage and the village were saved, though the church 
was unavoidably severed. 



(72) 

Then came the third and last scene. The monks saw their rich lands on the Stonces 
to be an island and of less value to them, and the two branches of the stream on either 
side of the valley devastating good ground. So being thus advised they resolved to cut a 
straight new course through the Sconces, and carry both branches in one channel down, 
much as we see it to-day. In those times the level of the Stonces meadows was much 
lower than it is now, and a small channel could have been easily formed. In fact the 
river itself makes the new channel when you stop the entrances to the branches at their 
top. The cut through the Island on the Usk just below Brecon was formed thus about 
1830, and I saw the water let into a similar cut made in the Cynrig on Abercynrig Farm. 
It was a pretty sight to see the stream pour through, and a cut of 10 feet wide became one 
of 20 feet wide in a night. And very recently Colonel Wood turned the Wye through the 
horseshoe below Glasbury Bridge, and the monks of old witness the Bishop's Stank at 
Hampton Bishop, Hereford knew a good deal about engineering, as well as about the 
true lines of a Norman arch. However, I may have more to say as to this later. 

I am a great believer in Welsh place-names, and my ambition would be to put 
together a glossary of our Breconshire names, parish by parish, with a cross index for the 
whole county. Who will help ? But I have learnt to place little faith in English names, 
whether in England or Wales. I remember finding the name of an inn in a village on the 
banks of the little river Gade, right up among the chalk hills of the Chiltern Hundreds. 
I jumped to the conclusion that, just as at Llangynider, Crickhowell, Abergavenny, and 
Usk, the sign of the " Three Salmons " truly denotes the presence of the monarch of the 
stream in the bright waters of the Usk, so the " Salmon Inn " near the waters of the Gade 
spoke of that lordly fish visiting its stream in days of old, having passed the Nore and 
London Bridge on his way up the Thames. But a F.E.S. how wise these Fellows are, 
and how affectionately they co-opt their friends as Fellows ; they would not make dear 
old Frank Buckland one, he was forsooth too superficial ! dispelled my fond illusion. 
He said, "Nothing of the kind; a truck of Scotch salmon was upset on the North 
Western, and the contents scattered about, and so to commemorate the salmon feast the 
people gave the inn, where they swilled the tasty morsels down, the immortal title of the 
" Salmon Inn." I still believe my theory to be right, but of course I am wrong, as a 
F.B.S. must know ! 

This is apropos of the Spread Eagle sign of a public house near Pipton (Pepperton). 
Your readers are familiar with it as the crest of imperialism abroad, and the American 
Eagle much resembles it. Would it have any relation to the division and bifurcation of 
the Wye at this point in some small degree, if not to the great extent I have sketched out ? 
and we all know the figure of spread eagle in skating. After all it is only a modern 
English name, and perhaps has no meaning at all of any value. 

And there is another place with a queer English name near Glasbury bridge the 
Dolphin. How comes that ? I could write a page about the dolphin fish with his 
changing colours when dying, his love for music when alive, and how he carried Arion, the 
poet and minstrel, on his back safely away from his would-be murderers. But why this 
house was called the Dolphin, that I cannot tell ! 



(78) 

Glasbury and District. 



A FEW MOKE NOTES. 

Llanthony Abbey is, as we all know, in the Vale of Honddu, or Ewias Harold, in 
Monmouthshire, but I forgot to mention that Father Ignatius' modern monastery, or 
religious building, is in the parish of Llanigon in Breconshire, and the land on which it 
stands is subject to tithe to the Vicar of that parish. 

There are two names of places mentioned on Theophilus Jones' map of the county, of 
which I can find no record elsewhere. Both are near the extreme eastern point of 
Breconshire, overlooking the valley of the Dulas (Hay). The one he gives as Sykes' cot or 
cottage, and the other marked by the drawing of a large upright stone on the map, is Maen 
Ehywr Darren, the stone itself being cal'ed Carreg Llwyd, and marking the boundary 
between Llanigon and Hay parishes. Is this the same stone as llech-y-lladron (robbers' 
altar), and does Sykes' Cot still exist ? And I observe Jones mentions at page 6, New. Ed., 
that Llangwaithan, or Llanywerthan Mill and two meadows are situated within Hay 
parish on the Dulas brook, but which are part of Llanigon. They are also, as I have 
previously pointed out, part of the Manor of Llanigon (Haya Wallensis), and no doubt 
had been so appropriated, as a mill for grinding the corn of the Lord's tenants. 
In the case of the Great Forest of Brecon 7 mills of this character were held with the 
Forest, down to the commencement of the present century. 

I wonder who helped our first county historian to prepare his county map, which 
appears at the commencement of his Work. It is skilfully and accurately made, and I 
expect David Davies, the famous surveyor of Llangattock, Crickhowell, was the real author. 
The scale of the map of 8-8ths of one inch to the mile, is less by more than one half than 
that of the one inch ordnance sheet. The size of the map is about 16 in. by 16 in. At 
the foot is a very striking and bold engraving, representing the summit of our Beacon 
range. I think I have seen somewhere that this sketch was made by Sir Kichard C. 
Hoare, who drew several for the historian, but the copy from the original was made for 
him by Mr. David Davies, the surveyor, in 1804. But it is as an engraving that this 
must stand as a work of great skill, whoever the craftsman may have been. Those who 
have seen our majestic Beacons in a thunderstorm at night, every peak momentarily 
lighted up by the lightning's lurid flash, will then have seen the view which this engraving 
presents. All darkness in the valleys below, but the summit outlines in their grandeur 
all visible for the moment ! 

Our historian must have had considerable trouble with his map in any case. Map 
makers generally copy the one from the other, everlastingly perpetuating mistakes. I 
remember seeing the device on the frontispiece of one old map of a strong man beating a 
snake on a dog's back, and the motto is "indefessw agenda" I am never wearied in 
doing it that means, unceasingly correcting mistakes. In a corner was a vignette of 
Father Time with his scythe, as much as to say, do what you like, yeur map will be full 
of errors and out of date in a very few years ! Of course, when Jones made his map, the 
first ordnance survey was not completed. He must have copied a good deal, probably 
from some older map or other. 

There are three very old English maps of renown, all published in the 16th and 17th 
century. It was in 1578 that Christopher Saxton brought out his celebrated 
map of England and Wales ; in 1606 Speed followed with his great map, and later in the 
17th century a German named Jean Blaeu, or Blavius, brought out an elaborate map of the 
English and Welsh counties. It was dedicated to Princess Henrietta Marie, Queen of 
Great Britain, France, and Ireland, and daughter of Henry le Grand, King of France and 
Navarre. This lady, daughter of Henry of Navarre, King of France, was the wife of 
our Charles I., and after her husband's execution lived in exile on the 



(74) 

Continent up to the time of her death in 1660. The Blaeu family were 
celebrated publishers at Amsterdam, and, no doubt, produced this great work at the 
request, and possibly at the cost of the Ex-Queen of England. The German profusely 
illustrated his maps with coloured sketches of industries, and with fanciful devices, and the 
picture of two German peasants with the build and dress of such reaping the golden 
grain in an English corn field is strangely incongruous. Of course, presumably, the 
German artist had never seen an English peasant ! 

I looked at these three old maps very carefully to see where they had placed Glasbury 
Church, which we know was pulled down and rebuilt on another site in 1661. All of them 
place the church on the left bank of the river, and not on the right bank as it really was. 
They also mark the junction of the Llynfi quite as high up as Aberllynfi. They seem to 
have copied from still older maps, and their handiwork is of little value to us 
in attempting to trace out the ancient changes that have evidently taken place at 
that point in the course of the Wye. Jones, however, killed this particular snake, and by 
his local knowledge was able to map the church on the right bank of the river. 

This leads me to make the remark, that this country, as I have long known, has been 
greatly deficient in good maps, whether of geography or of geology, and there is a field 
open here for any clever Welsh draughtsman to find employment, and to go, if really 
skilful in his work, to the very forefront. The routine of private map establishments is 
not conducive to the display of talent and original work, and the proprietors are content 
to follow and wait upon instead of anticipating the public demand, and then only in a 
hurried and the least expensive manner. The first question to map sellers is whether it 
will pay to produce a map, not whether it is wanted, and will be of public service 

I must hark back from maps and map-making to Glasbury Manor, with reference to 
which I have still a few interesting particulars to give, thanks to the kindness and with 
the permission of Colonel Thomas Wood. 

Close to Twyn-tal-y-cefn, the well marked tump on the mountain, where the Manors 
of Dinas, Velindre, and Haya Wallensis meet, a stone still stands, marked on the South 
side " Sir Edward Williams Bart's Lordship of Dynas, 1759," and on the north side 
" and of Velindre." In 1848 there was a dispute between Lord Hereford and Col. Wood, 
of Littleton, our then county member, as to boundaries, and according to an award in an 
arbitration made December 5th, 1848, a new stone was added by the side of the above old 
one, with a " V " on the one side for Velindre. and " L " for Llanigon on the other. 

Referring back a little, we find, that on Sir E. Williams' death in 1803, the Colonel 
Wood named inherited all his Breconshire property through his mother, but it appeared 
that Mr. Macnamara, a London solicitor, had lent large sums of money on mortgage to 
Sir Edward Williams, and after a long lawsuit it was decided that the Wood family 
retained only the settled property, losing the manors of Dynas, Cantref-selyff, and others. 
These manors, with the other unsettled property of Sir Edward Williams, were subsequently 
bought, sometime between 1840-50, by the first Sir Joseph Bailey, of Glanusk, from 
Arthur Macnamara, son of John Macnamara. And here 1 may correct a slight error in 
the Crown Surveyor's report on Haya Wallensis manor. For "Mark Wood" read 
"Colonel Thomas Wood." 



(75) 

Glasbury. 



A FEW MORE NOTES. 

It would seem that in 1561 the Lordship and Castle (with various demesne lands) of 
Glasbury were possessed by Queen Elizabeth in right of the Crown, and Her Majesty then 
appointed certain commissioners William Wightman. Robert Moulton, John Gwyn, 
James Lewis, and Robert Davies by name -to enquire and report concerning this lordship. 
A jury was accordingly impanelled by them, and a sworn presentment and verdict made 
by the jurors as to the extent of the lands and their description, and the rights and customs 
of the manor. The presentment was made at Radnor on the 14th November, 1561, and 
a copy of it Col. Wood has been good enough to let me see. 

In the first place, how the Lordship came to the Queen at all, that I do not know. 
Probably it descended to her from her father, Henry VIII., but it is quite possible that she 
herself acquired it from the Church, because I find by 1st Elizabeth c. 9, power was given 
to take Church lands, if impropriate livings, and tenths in the hands of the Crown were 
assigned to the Church in lieu of and as an equivalent to the lands. 

We have seen in previous papers that the Earl of Essex held property in this neigh- 
bourhood, and it occurred to me at first that this manor came to the Crown through his 
attainder for high treason, but this could hardly be, as this great favourite of the 
Queen was not beheaded in the Tower until 1601. I am inclined to think on the whole 
that this was the hereditary property of the Crown at the time of the accession of Queen 
Elizabeth, in ]553, and that the survey at the commencement of her reign naturally 
followed. 

According to this presentment, a large extent of land belonged in fee to the lordship, 
the greater part of which was at the time held from the Crown by John Gunter on lease. 
Particulars and names are given, but it is very difficult to identify the fields now from 
the description. And the same applies to the boundary of the lordship, which, however, I 
here give, as some greater experts than myself may be able to make out the boundary. 

" And, further, the said jury upon their oaths do say, that the mears and bounds of 
the Lordship of Glasbury are these, viz., from a place called Garrig by Wye side eastward 
followirg the ditch between Melinoge and Glasbury to a place called Kefn Trewgoed, from 
thence to Hether-goz, from thence to the house of Henry Phema, from thence to a place 
called Chad, and then to the Lord's wood called Parke Coyde bollen, from thence to 
Gurglodd Thomas Williams, and from thence to pass over the rivers Leveney and Wye to 
the Castle banks of Caleybury, from thence hard by the river side to Tyr-trappe, from 
thence to Llore-plonkhat, and so passing by Cayecron joining to the Lordship of Bough- 
rood to Foxcholles. and thence by the meare to Footman-y-gog and Llydiat Mayne, from 
thence by the highway side to Caringkaye, Fynnonynor, and from thence to the brook 
side to Postey. From thence to the Three Crosses, and following the brook side of Combe 
Llundeg to Aber to a part of Melisnag called Gay-gennog, and to the middle of Hayne-sye 
to the Lord's meadows Pule Grattloge, from thence to Kyde Hocking Geruge." 

We have here the following names that we still know : Wye, Leveny or Llynfi, 
Melynog, and Park Coed-y-bollen ; but that is about all, so that it is apparently the Glas- 
bury Lordship, though so corruptly and strangely described. 

The usual rights of a manor belonged to this, and are mentioned in the presentment, 
such as payment of chief rents, heriots, and alienation, and admission fees and fines, for- 
feitures, &e. The demesne lands of the Castle held by John Gunter on lease were 
considerable, amounting to 280 acres of arable and 40 acres of meadow, including the 
Queen's great Broadfilde of 97 acres, and the Queen's meade. 

It was the custom of this lordship for courts to be held at fixed periods, when on the 
decease of a tenant of the lord the successor came to do fealty to the lord, and a rod was 



(76) 

given to the new tenant, showing possession, by the Mayor of the Court, when the ceremony 
of braynte and estimation was concluded. The same custom of using and delivering the 
rod took place on lands being sold. It was called the livery of the rod. 

It was also the custom that the eldest son should inherit his father's lands ; if there 
were no sons, then the daughters equally, and failing sons or daughters, the next heir. The 
Widow of a tenant was to have one third of any lands her husband possessed during the 

spousals. 

Among the various recommendations which the Jury in their presentment made, is one 
that every tenant within the lordship, holding any of the demesne lands, or any of his 
own customary lands adjoining the river Wye, should this side of next Spring plant three 
rows of osiers that is of willow trees, alders, or poplars, on the bank of the river for its 
protection, whichever kind seems best, the osy-yards to be three inches compass, one yard 
Jind a half in length, and to be set f yard one from the other. 

The following particulars in the presentment are at present unintelligible to me : 

" Within the Tower of is one scyte of a house decayed in the street, one other by 

the water, one other in the same lane, and one near to the chappell." Also the whole of 
the following presentment : "Item they say that James John Plie hath incroached the 
eighth-part of au acre by the old Mylne pound, and there builded a cottage to be seined 
and set for the lord, and that the Castle and Castle Green from the west style of the 
churchyard to the bridge end is the lord's demesne." 

Further memorandum of Jury : " The Bayliff is charged by the Steward to enclose 
from the west style of the churchyard of Glasbury to the corner of the great broad field, 
and to keep all the scite of the lord's mansion with the ground on the back side of tha 
church between the church and the river to the west end of the bridge several to the 
lord's use, and to set a gate for passage in the highway near to the said church style." 

Item, the Jurors say that the custom is and tyme out of mind, that the Tenants after 
every change of the Lord wise should pay a Myse of 100s. at three payments three years 
next after the entry of the new Lord. This Myse they ought to have white bookes, 
viz., release of all things due to the Lord at and before entry. 

The following curious entry relating to bondwomen, in the Presentment of the Jury 
of 1561, runs as follows : 

" To the third Article, the said Jurators say that they know nor ever heard there are 

or ever were any bond or bondwomen belonging to the said Lordship." 
Bondage was a form of slavery, and bondmen in Domesday Book are called servi. 
Some of these were bound to the person of the Lord and his heirs, while in other cases 
they were belonging to and annexed to the manor, and when a manor was sold, the bond 
servants passed with the land to the new owner. Those who remember their French 
school book story " Le Serf," will find there related the hardship caused to the serfs or 
bondmen by the transfers of large French estates. 

The same rules applied to bondwomen, who were also called " Neifs " (French 
naif, naturalis, nativa) and She Villeins. If a bondwoman married a free man, she 
became free. Anciently lords of manors sold, gave, or assigned their bondmen, bond- 
women or neifs freely. You will find reference in various statutes of Edward III., 
Richard II., and Henry VIII., to bond servants, and villeinage, or holding bondmen and 
bondwomen, was not finally abolished until 1660 by 12 Charles II,, cap. 24, " an Act for 
taking away the court of wards and liveries, and tenures in capite, and by knights' ser- 
vice and purveyance " in fact, abolishing feudal tenure. Thank heaven we are not 
going back to those times ; and it would seem that even for a hundred years previously 
to 1561, bond service was stated then to have never been known in this lordship. 



(77) 

Glasbury. 



FURTHER NOTES. 

Since I wrote last as to Glaabury Manor, and the old Presentment of 1561, I have 
made a few discoveries of some interest. I think we can make out the boundaries of the 
Manor pretty nearly, also the site of the Castle and of the old Mill referred to. 

The Castle apparently strod in a field near the Wye behind the old Vicarage, called 
Sally Vawr, and between the Maesllwch Arms and Parkgwynne, and at the Parkgwynne 
side of the road there are some irregularities in the surface of the meadow, and the 
ground underneath is said to be full of stones, and at one spot there is a circular low 
mound, as if it were the remains of a circular tower. 

The field, called Sally Vawr, appears to give the name to a small manor, presumably 
a small manor within that of Glasbury, and Miss Bevan, of Brynrhydd, is the 
lady of the manor. The manor is styled the manor of Sally Vawr, and is said to hare 
comprised Cwmbach and Ciltwrch.* 

If this was the site of the old Castle, it would bring Castle, Vicarage, and the old 
Church close together, as the 1561 paper describes. 

Again, with regard to the old Mill, there are traces of it at Cwmbach, where the old 
brook must once have flowed, and local people seem to be aware of it. It was called 
Melin Cwm bach, and is said to have fallen into ruin long before the time the presentment 
of 1561 was made. 

If any old branch of the Wye flowed by Pwllpatty, and close to the north slope of 
the valley, it is probable that the Cwmbach brook then entered the Wye within 150 
yards or so of the old Mill at Cwmbach. 

The name of Parkgwynne would seem also to identify the place named as Glaibury 
Park in the old paper. 

Strange, is it not, how quickly things are forgotten, and all traces of such lost. I 
had a marvellous instance of this, wken through some old papers in our family not very 
old, 1695 I was able to bring to the knowledge of Mr. Johnson, the town clerk and his- 
torian of Hereford, facts as to the wear and mills once on the Wye by the Castle Green, 
which were otherwise forgotten, and of which he had never heard ! 

I will conclude with a few further remarks with regard to the possible changes in the 
course of the Wye at Glasbury. 

In very ewly times I conjecture that the Wye flowed under the southern slope from 
Pipton downwards, receiving at Aberllynfi, as the name implies, the waters of the Llynfi. 
In course of time sudden fearful waterspouts, falling either in the Llynfi Valley or in the 
Felindre Brook, caused a huge mass of debris to be lodged in the Wye. 
This mass, trees growing upon it, and resisting the force of the Wye, turned that river, 
or a branch of it, right away to the north side. Naturally the stream would then hug 
that bank, and cut deeply into the alluvial soil, forming finally a large sweep by Pwll- 
patty and by the Woodlands again to join the old course of the river south of the old 
church site. 

And now follows the scene which you may witness taking place below Glasbury 
bridge to-day. The deeper the river cut out the horseshoe at the Woodlands, the greater 
the pressure of water became at the lower corner by the old church. The local people 
did what they could by the massive river wall at the Vicarage to prevent it breaking 
through, but at last it broke through, the forces of nature being too strong, and the river 
found its way between the old church site and the Vicarage, as we see it to-day. 

Now came another natural process. The river relieved, no longer cut deeply into the 
horseshoe at the Woodlands ; it began to silt up there, and that silting up of the beiid 



(78) 

was gradually increased, until after the lapse of 200 years the old course has become 
scarcely traceable. 

Clearly in 1561 the river flowed to the south of the old church site, and I think a 
branch of it at least by Pwllpatty and the Woodlands. In 1667, when the new church 
was built, the old church was isolated from the Vicarage, and therefore the river broke 
through in the hundred years subsequent to 1561. As to the very old course of the 
river by Aberllynfi, and following the Breconshire bank, there is nothing to give us 
any clue as to the date, though, as I have stated, the old maps (1560 1660) of Speed, 
Saxton, and Blaeu apparently it may be wholly in error, and only as a copy of other 
older maps mark the course of the Wye by Aberllynfi, and hugging the Breconshire 
bank. 

I am told that even now, if not prevented by weiring, the Wye seems half inclined to 
try the Pwllpatty and Woodlands course again, and there is little doubt that in the 
course of ages, historic and prehistoric, the Wye has shaped its course here, there, and 
everywhere in the soft alluvial deposit, constituting the flat plain between the Breconshire 
and Radnorshire slopes. It would be very interesting to know, who built the river wall 
at Parkgwynne ! Other conjectures, as to the possible changes in the course of the Wye, 
will be found at pages 71-2 ante. There is an interesting field open here for the ingenuity 
of the reader. 

Further enquiry leads me to think that the term "stonces" may be derived from 
the Norman word " estance," a fish pool, from which comes " stance," any barrier against 
water, and our modern "stank." "Estance" is given in the Latin equivalent "agger 
aquis oppositus," a mound opposed to the flow of water. 

In a situation like that which the " stonces " hold, forming a delta between the Wye 
and the Llynfi, one or other of those rivers was constantly in the habit of making inroads, 
and warping, weiring, and stanking were often needed to preserve the land. The wood 
near, known as Coed-y-bolen, or the wood of poles, was probably made use of to furnish 
the necessary stakes for weiring. On further examination of the Presentment of 1561, 1 
find a field described as being in length " from a place called Istance, being the Queen's 
meade." 

* This Manor is also called Brinseviok, or Soler Vawr. See Radnorshire Hist. Mem. p. 62. 



Glasbury under the Commonwealth. 

165060. 

The Eev. Alexander Griffith had been the Vicar of the Parish from 1889 to 1850, in 
which latter year the Commissioners under the Commonwealth, for the Propagation of 
the Gospel called Propagators ejected Mr. Griffith from the living either for being a 
Royalist or for his religious views. 

The tithes were then sequestered, and first one Richard Powell, of Penywern, 
and then Owen Griffith entered into possession of the Vicarage, probably at a salary of 
100 a year. Mr. William Jones, of Bucklyn (Buckland) was the sequestrator, and Owen 
Griffith is said to have received his presentation from Oliver Cromwell, the Protector, in 
1658. 

On the restoration of Charles II., 1660, the old vicar, the Rev. Alexander Griffith, 
came by his own again, and one of the first acts he did, as a token of thanksgiving, was 
to change the site of the parish church from the low flooded ground on the Stonces, and 
rebuild it as we see to-day on the high ground near the railway station on the right 
bank of both the Llynfi and the Wye. The following old paper, which I found in 
Lambeth Palace with others of the same date relating to other sequestered livings in 
Breconshire, fits in with and explains some of the previous papers relating to Glasbury, 
and the rebuilding of the Church. 



(79) 

Sequestered Livings in Breconshire, 1650-1652, 
No. 22, in Lambeth Library. 



The Return of the Pettie Constables of Glasbury within the County of Brecon, 

20 Aug. 1662. 

1. The Vicaridg of Glaabury was accounted to be of ye yearlie value of 100. 

2. Alexander Griffith clerk was vicar of the said parish from the yere 1639 untill the 
seventh day of June 1650 att which day he was eicted. 

8. The Commissioners for eicting him were the propagators, viz., John Williams, of 
Eadnorshire ; Eichard King, John Dauntesey, Th. Watkyns, Wm. Watkyns of Shephouse 
and others. 

4. The Sequestrator for the yeares 1650, 1651, 1652, was as we are crediblie 
informed Wm Jones of Bucklyn, or John Morgan, taylor within the Countie of Braccon. 

5. Their ffarmor or vndertenant for those yeares was Evan Thomas of Glasebury 
carpenter throwout the whole Parish. 

6. In the yeare 1653 being Easter Munday after the expiration of the Act for 
propagation One Kichard Powell of Pen y wern within the County of Radnor and parish of 
Glasbury entred upon the Vicaridge by power of the said Commissioners wherein he 
continued sometimes preaching and was accounted among us as vicar untill the yeare 
1658 and during those yeares his ffarmors and Agents did sett out the Tiethes belonging 
to the said Vicaridg. 

The said Richard Powell is now dead, his widow is marryed to one William Phillips. 
And Richard Powell's son and heir is called Richard Powell, aged about 20 yeares. 

7. Owen Griffith clerk was by the Commissioners for approbation 12 Jun 1658 
intituled into the said Vicaridg of Glasebury by virtue of a presentation from Oliver, then 
Protector, being then accounted vacant by the decease of Richard Powell, where he 
continued as Vicar until his Majesties most happy Restauration, and then our former 
Vicar Mr. Alex. Griffith re-enjoyed the same. 



Old Maps. 



Of all the old maps of Breconshire, the best certainly is that of John Speed, pub- 
lished in 1608, and made, it is said, from actual survey on the fair scale of 2J miles to 
1 inch. It gives the hills shaded in, villages, churches, and rivers. I think the map is 
worth re-producing, because it has a special side plan of the town of Brecon on the scale 
of 100 passes to 1 inch. And there is shown the Castle with its towers and ramparts, 
and the wall encircling the town by Watton Mount, and the Captains' Walk, also with its 
towers and gateways, standing complete. But who is there in the town or country able 
and public spirited enough to pay the cost ? The British Museum authorities will permit 
the tracing to be made, and probably one of the map makers would produce 500 copies 
for JE10 or 15. Will someone volunteer ? 

But Christopher Saxlon's is even an older map, made from actual survey in 1578, 
and dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, The scale is smaller than that of Speed, being 5 
miles to 1 inches. On this map the mountains are very conspicuous and Breconshire 
has a good few drawn like conical apple dumplings on the sheet. This was the way the 



(80) 

old mappers had of showing height, and you will find Jones in his county map draws the 
hills much in the same way. 

Another old map, as I have told my readers before, is that of John Blaeu, the 
Dutchman of Amsterdam, published in 1662, and dedicated to Henrietta Maria, widowed 
and exiled Queen of Charles I. This firm of Blaeu was one of the most eminent of map 
makers that ever existed. The scale is the same as that of Speed, and possibly it was 
in the main a copy. 

All these three old maps, as you will remember, place Glasbury Church on the left 
bank of the Wye, and also place the junction of the Llynfi with the Wye as high up as 
Aberllynfi. Blaeu's map of 1662 was certainly wrong, but whether those of Saxton and 
Speed were or were not, it is impossible to say, as we do not know the year when the 
river altered its course and broke through between the Vicarage and the Church. 

However, these veteran maps show things of interest, and give some old names now 
entirely lost. In the parish of Llanwrthwl, there is the well-known rhos saith maen, 
" Wet Place of the Seven Stones," and all the maps give the name, Jones further draw- 
ing little figures of conical stones to represent the Seven. But it is only the old maps 
that show the important road that led in olden time from Ehayader by the Seven Stones 
past Llanafan Fawr Church and Aberanell to the well known large upright stone land- 
mark on Maesy-gwaelog Farm near Llanwrtyd. The Seven Stones and this one stone 
seem to have served as finger posts. On the same important main road the old maps 
give a place with the curious name of Tulwr Milog, near the Seven Stones, but no such 
name appears in Jones (who gives very few place names) or on the modern ordnance 
sheet. 

Another road these old maps make a good deal of, is that of the road from Builth to 
Brecon by the Upper Chapel. Jones gives one place on the mountain as Cwm Awen, 
while the old maps give it as Cwm Owen, and so does the ordnance map. This is of 
little moment, perhaps, but the old maps say that near Cwm Owen bridge there was " a 
causeway called Foes Torr Cengyl." I presume it led up to the bridge of Cwm Owen, but 
this is the first I have ever heard of this causeway. The meaning of the name would 
probably be "the ditch of the broken girth." No wonder the old folk made a causeway. 

And now I wish to ask my readers, which do they consider to have been the most 
ancient fenced-in park in the county ? Glanusk Park, Llangattock Park, Danypark, 
Cefnparc ? Oh no ; all these are modern, and some of them never were really 
parks at all. Well, you say, Porthamel and Gwernyfed. That is nearer, and both these 
parks are marked on Bowen's map of 1768. But the oldest park of all is one now quite 
forgotten except its name, and long disused, that of Pare, Trallong. It is named on 
these old maps " Hennid Pare," and a pretty little coloured sketch of its encircling 
palisading is given. Evidently Hennid Pare was then in full and vigorous use, and no 
such other appears in equal splendour in the whole county. To whom this park then 
belonged I do not know. Will someone help us to paint again its pristine glory ? Jones 
in his county map does not even mention the place at all, giving only the name of Trallong 
for the whole district between the Bran and Cilieni streams. The spot was well chosen 
for its purpose, sunny with ferny banks and undulating ground, and water from the 
Cilieni stream, if needed. Was it the park of Einon Sais or of Bernard Newmarch, a 
kind of appanage to the Great Forest ? If I were the owner of the Pare farm, I should 
certainly have a sketch made of the Pare palisading, as it appears in its livery of green in 
these old maps. 

The next reliable map is that published by Bowen in 1768. It is said to have been 
made from an actual survey by Thomas Kitchin, and is dedicated not to a Queen or ex- 
Queen, but to one whom my friend Bees Williams would hold in nearly equal esteem, as 
an untitled Prince, Thomas Morgan, Her Majesty's Lieutenant and Custos Kotulorum for 
the county of Brecon. As a prince should, he patronised map making, and I hope gave 
Mr. Kitchin, a liberal order. The scale of this map is smaller, than the older ones, being 
8J miles to 1 inch. 



(81) 

It may be stated, that this map for the first time places Glasbury church on the 
right bank of the Wye, and also gives the names of the owners of some of the county seats, 
like Jeffreys, for Pencelly Castle (not Abercynrig, as I wrote previously). It also plainly 
marks one very important roadway of that day, the one leading from Trecastle to Llan- 
dovery over the Trecastle mountain. The map also shows drawn upon it a mountain-gate 
at that point, and what now bears the name of the Black Cock on the brow of the pictur- 
esque Myddfai ridge of the Llandeilo flags, is given as the Heath Cock. 
The broad tracks on Trecastle mountain, and the deep cut sweep of the ascent 
by the Heath Cock, clearly show the road must have been once a very important 
one, and the main thoroughfare from Breconshire to Carmarthenshire. The Cwmydwr 
road down the valley of the Gwydderig was not made until the last century was well 
advanced. But why is this mountain gate so markedly given on this map ? Was drift 
toll, do you think, taken here on passing droves of cattle, by some manorial lord or un- 
titled prince ? 

There are some side notes to this map worth mentioning for the old map makers 
always throw a little in extra to their maps to embellish, or make them more inter- 
esting. They utilized the vacant spaces on the side, or wherever they could find room for 
a note. 

Bowen tells us : " It is said of the Usk that it was famous for producing an abund- 
ance of the largest trout, and of the Wye, that it contained plenty of salmon and other 
fish " the old story, in fact, of Giraldus Cambrensis over again, " Usk famous for 
trout, Wye for salmon." Marginal notes to the map also record that in 1690 half of the 
town of Builth was consumed by fire ; also that a large wooden bridge crossed the Wye 
there. 

Another note states that the First Earl of Brecknock was James Butler, Duke of 
Ormond, who died in 1088. He was succeeded by his grandson, James, who died in exile 
in Spain in 1746, attainted, and stripped of all his titles. I notice also on this map 
" Pont Gwenllian " mentioned. The name is not known now, but possibly it is the same 
as our Pontgwillym ! 



Sale of Crown Manors, &c., in Breconshire. 



1799, Feb. 12. Seven mills within the Lordship of Brecon, called the Forest Mills, 
the place of the feeding of swine in the Forest of Devynnock, and a fishery, with 
Oa. 3r. 28p. of land (being then in lease to Penry Williams, Esq., at the yearly rent of 
88 10s. 9d.), was sold by private contract to John Powell, gent., for 1,003 5s. 6d. See 
Par. Eeturn 1831, No. 128, p. 416. 

1817, May 23. A fee farm rent for Uske Mill (at Newton Weir, Brecon,) of 6 was 
sold to William Gwyn, gent., for 124 16s. Od. See Appendix to Eeport III. of 
Commissioners of Woods and Forests, p. 54. 

1817, June 12. The Manor of Penkelly Wallensis, with the chief rents and all 
rights and royalties thereto belonging, amounting to 3 19s. 5d. per annum, was sold by 
tender 10 Charles C. Clifton, Esq., for 425. See Par. Eeturn, as above. 

1818, May 23. Henry Fleming Lee, Viscount Hereford, premier Viscount of Eng- 
land, for part of Llanigon Eectory, valued at 4 13s. 4d. a year gave the sum of 118. 
See Appendix to Report III,, p. 54. 

1820, Feb. 7. An allotment, containing 13,760 acres, in lieu of the agistment of the 
forest of Brecon, part of the lordship of Brecon, and other rights therein, was sold by 
tender to John Stewart, merchant, for 15,000. See Par. Eeturn, 1831, No. 128, p. 416. 

1820, Feb. 19. The right to the coal and minerals within an allotment, containing 
l,766a. 2r. 8p. was sold by tender to Archibald Christie, Esq., for 200. See Par. 
Eeturn, as above. 



(82) 

1820, Feb. 19. The right to tithes over the allotment, purchased by him, wa8 sold 
by tender to John Stewart, for 1,830. See Par. Return, as above. 

1824, Marjh 81. The fee farm rent of 7 for the Little Forest of Brecon, was sold 
to John Christie, Esq., for 168. See Appendix to Eeport V. of Commissioners of 
Woods and Forests, p. 99. 

1827, April 14. The fee farm rent of 6 10s. Od. for the Manor of Pepperton, was 
sold to Thomas Wood, Esq., for 145 12s. Od. See Appendix to Eeport VI. of Com- 
missioners, p. 182. 

1828, March 4. The Lordship or Manor of Hay and Wallensis, with the quit rents 
and manorial rights thereto belonging, with 71a. 2r. Op. of land, was sold by public 
auction for 2,1CO, to Henry, Viscount Hereford. See Par. Eeturn, 1881, No. 128, 
p- 416. 

The Sales and Grants made in the previous century and previously, I have not yet been 
able to obtain a list of, except the one of the Forest Mills in 1799. 



Henry YIL 



I have always understood that King Henry VII. (then Earl of Eichmond) on his 
way from Milford Haven to Bosworth, in Leicestershire, where he fought and won the 
great battle of that name against Eichard III. in 1485, stayed one night at Court Henry, 
near Cilcwm, in Carmarthenshire. As I remember the house, it was a pretty old thatched 
farmhouse near the corner of the road between the village of Cilcwm and Neuadd Fawr, 
and it belonged for generations to the Jones-Loyd or Lord Overstone's family, I believo 
the house is now pulled down. 

A few days ago I was shown by the Adjutant of the Yeomen of the Body Guard at 
St. James's Palace some of the very halberds, or battle-axe headed javelins used by Henry's 
troops at Bosworth, They resemble in shape the javelins of our Sheriff's men at assize 
time, but are much larger, being fully twelve inches across the double blade, and broad in 
proportion. The shafts were eight or nine feet long, and one of their chief purposes was, 
when planted against the right foot and resting on the left knee, to resist the charge of 
cavalry. The head also acted as a hook to pull a horseman off his horse. 

Colonel Henwell, the adjutant, is possessed of a great deal of information about the 
King's Yeomen of the Guard, and is now quietly placing it together. Among other things 
he told me that the list he has gives four Lloyds that fought for King Henry at Bosworth. 
Their names were Pierg Lloid, to whom the King gave as his reward the custody of St. 
Augustine's of Canterbury ; Owen Lloid, who had a grant of the Castle at Cardigan ; 
Morris Lloid, to whom was given the lands of Walker of Wydegdda (the list is imperfect 
here, a part being missing) ; and, lastly, David Lloyd, who was not so fortunate. For 
some offence he was imprisoned in the Tower of London for eight weeks. All these men 
were present, so the paper says, " at our triumph." 

I was hoping to find the name of Thomas Lloid, the first Lord Lieutenant of Brecon- 
shire, on the list, buti t is apparently not there. Perhaps he stayed at home, while some 
of his brothers went with Henry when he marched through South Wales. I did not 
expect to find John Lloid of Towy and Porthycrwys, his son (whose effigy is in Builth 
Church), as he could not have been born then i.e., in 1485 as he died in 1585, or a 
hundred years later. And this John, so the brass plate there tells us, flourished much 
later in the succeeding reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. 

I think it is generally known that Henry VII., Henry VIII., and Queen Elizabeth 
were very partial to the Welsh, and placed them in posts of trust and honour. 

Some of these notes may set some of my younger readers thinking and studying 
history for themselves. I believe Breconshire to be one of the most interesting counties in 
England and Wales, and though much of its history can be learnt from Theophilus Jones 
great work, theie is still a very wide field open for profitable research. 



(83) 

Grosses in Breconshire. 



A careful examination of the ordnance map of the county gives the following place 
names in which groes, croes, or crwys (Welsh for cross) form a part : 

1. Maes y groes or the field of the cross in the parish of Llanavanfawr. It is 
near Ehos y capel, where there are several cross roads, and also a large stone. We know 
that in Koman Catholic days the church at Llanavan was a kind of head centre for that 
district. I think this would be a wayside cross for public worship. 

2. Porth y crwys the gateway of the cross in the parish of Llanynis, and very 
near the right bank of the Irvon. This is the place where the John Lloid lived, whose 
full length effigy is still to be found in Builth church. We here find crwys instead of 
croes, a pretty variation of the name. Apparently, on the entrance gateway to the mansion 
a cross was fixed. 

This John Lloid, said to be of Towy, was squire to the body and servant to Queen 
Elizabeth, and had also fought for Henry VIII., her father, at Montreuil and Boulogne 
in France. 

8. Cross ynn the inn at the cross in the parish of Llangammarch (division of 
Penbuallt) just at the foct of the steep road (Troed rhiw) leading up from Llandulas 
Church to the top of Epynt, the old Black Cattle track. Near Cross ynn was once a farm 
called Llan y crwys, or the enclosure (possibly church) of the cross, but which now is 
fallen down. This would seem to point to a cross for worship being placed there. 

4. Mynydd bwlch y groes, or the cross of the pass of the mountains, in the parish of 
Llandilo fan. 

5. Clydd bwlch y groes, or the sheltered place by the cross of the pass. This is 
part of the mountain named in No. 4, and very near, and probably gives its name to the 
mountain. Whether there was a cross for worship placed up here on the mountain range, 
or the name simply means crossing or cross roads, it is impossible to say. I am doubtful 
whether " clydd " should be the prefix to this name, and rather think it should be clawdd 
ditches, after the British camp close by, or possibly clwydd, a gate, as clwydd-watch, 
the gate of the watch, a mixed Welsh and English name, is also near. It is certainly very 
strange that this mountain bears the distinctive name of croes. Of course we know that 
the marked division line between the old red sandstone and the upper Silurian runs right 
through the Epynt range, and croes may have some geological meaning in this instance. 
Or it may simply denote an important road across the mountains. 

G. Croes Howell, or the cross of Howell, in the parish of Llanigon, and which is an 
old friend of ours. It was placed on the side of the main road leading from Fforddfawr on 
the Wye, over the passes of the Black Mountains to Llanthony Abbey. There appear to 
have been two places thus named, and they were almost certainly crosses for worship. 
Who Howel was I am in doubt, but possibly the same that gave the name to Craig-Hywel, 
our Crickhowel, which across the mountains is quite near. 

7. Glasbury cross. There was once a cross in the churchyard laere, probably 
removed from the old church on the stonces. Lord Hereford tells me that he remembers 
seeing some fragments of it. Eichard Symons, in his diary of the marches of the royal 
army during the great civil war, refers to the numerous and perfect crosses in Breconshire. 

8. Croes y goegir, or Garter cross, near Tregoyd, is now called Arbor Oak, Lord 
Hereford informs me. 

9. Croes llechau, or the cross of the flat stones, in the parish of Brynllys, not far 
from Porthamal. Jones, in the Volume II. of his History, gives, as a very pretty vigciette, 
these large stones with a fine blossoming thorn tree overhanging them. I have made 
inquiries, and I am informed the place knoweth them no more stones, cross, and thorn 
tree have been improved away. 



(84) 

10. Bryn-y-groes, or the bank of the cross, the name of a farm once very near 
Croes-llechau, and probably hence deriving its name. It is situate near that banky wood 
with the puzzling name, Baradwys. 

11. Brecon Cross. I believe a cross once stood on the centre of the Bulwark, just 
where the Wellington monument is placed. 

12. Groes-ffordd, or the cross of the road, in the parish of Llanhamlach, near Llech-fan 
(the large flat stone on the top of the hill). It may mean here either a crossing or cross 
roads, or a cross for worship placed there. No doubt a very important road ran that way 
once, being the .Roman road from Gaer (Aberyskir) to Gaer (Cwmdu), keeping the high 
ground along the Llechfaen, Manest, and Allt-yr-ys-grin banks very much in the line Sir 
A. Binnie wished to convey the Usk water to Llangorse Lake. In fact it was one of the 
mainroads up the Usk Valley, and I am inclined to think the name denotes a cross for 
worship. 

18. Derwen-y-groes, or the oak tree of the cross, is situate in the parish of Llanvigan, 
where the road divides, one part leading to Talybont, and the other to the Aber. 
Probably there was a cross for worship fixed here. This road is also a very ancient one, 
up the vale of Usk from Crickhowell to Brecon. Near the Dyfnant we have "Spiteful 
Inn " (Latin, hospitium, same derivation as Llanspythid), the ruins of which I have often 
seen, and where an ancient roadway led down to the island in the Usk, and so across to 
the Penmiarth side. You find the road continuing all up the valley past Llanthetty, 
Talybont, Derwen-y-groes, Llanfrynach, where it followed the present footpath through the 
fields, and then the short lane nearly to Velindre Mill. Subsequently it passed through the 
Dinas woods by the limestone quarries, with a branch down to the ford at Khydymaen, 
right on to the Little Green, entering Llanfaes just as the present Dinas drive does. This 
road, with its deeply worn bed, has every appearance of being a very ancient highway, 
perhaps 2000 years old, if not more. I am inclined to think that, having regard to the 
antiquity of this road, a cross for worship was placed some time or other at the parting of 
the ways at Derwen-y-Groes, and if made of wood, may have been simply nailed to 
the oak tree standing there. 

14. Croes, or Groes The Croes, is the name of a farm in the parish of Cantref, 
belonging to the Marquis of Camden. It is also called Tir-y-croes, the land of the cross. 
Please, readers, take the C as the first letter in pronouncing the name. Croes sounds 
softly and mellifluously, but Groes sounds hard and coarse. This farm is on the side of 
a very old road leading from Brecon to Cantref Church, and I feel sure a cross for worship 
once stood there. I have had some fun over this name. One person said it was 
given because of a cross road, and another said it was because some of the fields of the 
farm were separated from the farmhouse by the road, and were across the road ! What 
next, I thought. I hope the Agent of the Marquis of Camden will in future enter the 
name of this farm on the rent-book as Croes or the Cross. I have little doubt that a 
cross, it may have been either of wood or stone, once stood and was worshipped there, and 
on each successive May day its steps were strewn with garlands of butter-cups, blue bells, 
and daisies. 



(85) 



Crown Property in Breconshire in the Reign 

of Elizabeth. 



CASTLES, MANGES, LANDS, FORESTS, MILLS, AND RECTORIES. 



Few persons realize how great were the Crown's interests in Breconshire at the close 
of the reign of Henry VIII., and through the reigns of Edward VI., Philip, and Mary and 
Elizabeth. The forfeiture of the large possesions of the Duke of Buckingham, and of the 
Earl of March, and the seizure of the property of Brecon Priory, and of the Priories of 
Clifford, Dore, and Much Malvern made the Crown the owner of most of the manors, and 
of much of th land in the county. It may be said, speaking roughly, that Lords Camden, 
Glanusk, and Tredegar, with Mr. Gwynne Holford, are the possessors now through grant 
or purchase of the bulk of this quondam Crown property, if we except the Great Forest of 
Brecon, which has been specially dealt with by Inclosure Acts. Another remark has to be 
made. The Manors of the Crickhowell Hundred, Crickhowell and Tretower, in no way 
appear in the list, they have a history of their own. 

The forfeited Estates of Edward Duke of Buckingham were as follows : Brecon 
Castle and LorJship, Demesne lands of Brecon Lordship, Waste lands in Burgh of Brecon, 
Cantercelly Manor, Cantercelly Forest, The Great Forest of Brecon, The Seven Mills in 
the Great Forest, viz., Devynnock, Llywell, Cray, Ystradfelte, Senny, Glyntawe, Pwll 
Coch ; The Fisheries in the Neath and Tawe rivers, Y Troesgoed in Ystradfelte, The 
Manor of Llywel, Demesne lands in Llywel, Tir y Bedlwyne demesne lands in Devynnock, 
Brecon Little Forest, Ibebillwa, a parcel of land in Brecon lordship formerly belonging 
to the Abbey of Strata Florida, Penkelly Castle. English Penkelly Manor, Welsh Penkelly 
Manor, Welsh Hay, or Haya Wallensis Manor and Glynbwch, Brentles Castle and Manor, 
Poole Manor, service of the tenants of Battel. 

The Manor of Alexanderstone, Bogheled or Buchlyd (Buckland) Forest, Bennye Wood, 
Kaye Newydd (?), Piperton, Llangoyd, Brynich demesne lands in. 

Forfeited Estates of the Earl of March : Dynas Lordship, Dynas Forest, Lands in 
Talgarth and Llangorse, Mere or Mara, Blaenllevenny, Builth Castle, Builth Lordship and 
Burgh, Tallawayn Forest, Llanddewircwm Mill, Llanvair Mill, Llangwenwell Mill, 
Demesne lands in Builth Manor, Poole Manor in Merthyr Cynog (?) 

Forfeited Estates of Brecon Priory : Demesne lands in the lordship of Brecon, Usk 
Mill, Divers Messuages and lands in Brecon, Hodney Mill, Llanvaies Mill, Held Mill and 
Battell Chapel, Battell Manor and Grange, Sub Prior's lands in the Manor of Monkton, 
Tir y Prior's land in Devynnock, Tithes of Ystradfelte, Brecon Rectory, Devynnock 
Rectory, Builth Rectory, Talgarth Mara Rectories and Chapel, Chapel of Llanvihangel 
Carreg, Tithes in Hay. 

Forfeited Estates of Clifford Priory : Rectory of Brentles, Rectory of Llandevalle, 
Messuages in Brentles Vill. 

Forfeited Estates of Malvern Much Monastery : Possessions in Brecknock Lordship 
and Town and elsewhere. 

Forfeited Estates of Dore Monastery : Gwenddwr, Tretower (?) Llanegwit (?) Chapel 
and Tithes, also Gwenddwr Lordship. 

Other Escheated Lands, &c. : Burgess Mill (Brecon), Land in Llandevaelog, Tredustan 
Mill, Tredustan lands, Glasbury Manor, Part of Strata Florida Abbey land, Tir y Mew, 
Lloydartha in Llangammarch, Haya-Parish possessions of Free Chapel of St. John's, 
Chauntry lands in Brentles and Llanigon, Chauntry lands in Devynnock, 4 messuages and 
lands in Entradvelte and Cantref. 

Those must have been curious times to live in when the Crown was almost the 
sole great owner in Breconshire. It must have been a great point to keep in well with 



(86) 

Eoyalty, when so much depended on Koyal favour. The Auditor of the Crown, who came 
down periodically to receive the rents, was of course the great man, and previously to his 
coming a printed Proclamation of portentous size was posted in all Market Towns, 
requiring attendance of Mayors, Sheriffs, Stewards of Manors, Woodwards, Bailiffs, 
Farmers and other his Majesty's officers and subjects to tender their duties to His Majesty. 
One of these Proclamations a comparatively modern one it is dated 1786, and signed 
Thomas Johnes, Auditor is now before me. It measures 1ft. 9in. by 1ft. Sin., and is 
adorned at the head with a large engraving of the Eoyal Arms, with Crown at the top, 
and the mottos, " Dieu et mon droit " and " Honi soit qui mal y pense," and flags, cannon, 
tridents, and spears projecting at either end. It is dated June 26, and the day of 
Audit was stated to be October 30th and at the Golden Lion Hotel. So that everyone 
had at least ample time to prepare for so important an event. I do not know whether 
the Auditor gave receipts generally in Latin to the tenants in Wales, but 1 have one 
printed receipt, dated 1763, in Latin, signed Thomas Wynne, Auditor, giving Jacobus 
Williams. Vicecomes, his " quietus " for the payment of 42 due to the Crown. And the 
Escheator was a well known officer, of whom everyone went in dread, especially those 
who omitted to go to Church regularly. However the James' and the Charles' let slip 
most of the property during their reigns, and Geo. III. completed its dispersion, so that 
when our late Uueen came to the throne, the Crown had not a Castle, Forest or Manor, 
or even a square yard of ground in the county to call its own, except that possibly the 
Crown retained, as it is thought by some to retain still the Fee, but only as a bare Trustee, 
of the 17-000 acres comprising the Commoners' Allotment of the Great Forest of 
Brecknock. 



Wilkins' Old Bank, Brecon. 



SKETCH OF ITS HISTORY. 



This long-established Bank having been amalgamated with Lloyds Bank, Limited, and 
having practically ceased to exist after a flourishing career of about 120 years, it may be of 
interest to give some particulars concerning its formation and management, especially as 
the partners were throughout local gentlemen known and respected in our county. 

The Bank was established in 1778, and the first partners were Walter Wilkins, 
Maesllwch; Walter Jeffreys, Priory Hill; Jeffreys Wilkins, The Priory; William 
Williams, Brecon (known as "Merchant Williams.") Walter Wilkins and Jeffreys 
Wilkins were brothers and the sons of John Wilkins, deputy Prothonotary of the Court of 
Great Sessions of Brecon, by Sybil, his wife, the daughter of Walter or Watkin Jeflreys of 
the Priory. The Walter Jeffreys, the member of the firm, was the son of another member 
of the Jeffreys family and nephew to Sybil. Except therefore " Merchant Williams," it 
was a family party. 

It appears by an entry in the New Testament of Frances Wilkins, daughter of William 
Wilkins (the Prothonotary 1800-12), that " W alter Wilkins went for India 20 Jan. 1759," 
and there, according to common report, he quickly amassed a considerable fortune. With 
some of this, no doubt, he helped to found the Bank, and his proved enterprise and ability 
contributed greatly to its success. This Walter Wilkins purchased about that time the 
Maesllwch estate from Sir Humphrey Howorth, and became subsequently Member of 
Parliament for Kadnorshire. He married Catherine Augusta Hay ward, and died at a good 



(87) 

old age in 1828. He was succeeded by his son, known as Walter Wilkins, the younger, 
who had married the Honourable Catherine Devereux, daughter of Viscount Hereford. 
He died in 1831, and was succeeded by his son, Walter Devereux Wilkins, who married 
Miss Julia Collinsou. The last named Walter Wilkins died in 1840, and then for the 
first time since its formation in 1778, the interest of the Maesllwch branch of the 
Wilkins family in the Bank ceased, the capital invested was withdrawn, and the connexion 
severed. The Wilkins families of Maesllwch, Maesderwen, and elsewhere changed their 
name to De Winton in 1839. 

But we must turn back to 1808, when John Parry Wilkins, the eldest son of Jeffreys 
Wilkins, of the Priory, and afterwards of Maesderwen (one of the four original partners) 
joined the Firm. Changes soon came in the Bank, Walter Jeffreys, the possessor of a 
large landed estate in Breconshire, died intestate in 1811, Jeffreys Wilkins, then of 
Maeederwen, died in 1817, and " Merchant " Williams about the same period. And thus 
it came about that in 1820 the only remaining partners in the Bank were the old Walter 
Wilkins, of Maesllwch, and his son, Walter, and John Parry Wilkins, of Maesderwen. 
The latter after his father's death became the acting manager, having as early as 1820 
the late Mr John Evans, of Wheat Street, as the trusted cashier. I have a letter from 
Mr. J. Parry Wilkins from the old Hummums Hotel, London, where he was detained on 
business, and dated 1820, asking a friend at Brecon to " tell Evans to let me know 
frequently how things go on at the Bank." and I have also a deposit receipt to a customer 
of 10th February, 1821, signed " For Wilkins & Company Jno. Evans." This proves the 
connexion of the late Mr. John Evans with the firm to have commenced early in the last 
century. 

I think about that time, or it may have been a little later, a fresh deed of partnership 
was entered into, and apparently the capital, apart from " rest account," was not then 
more than 30,000. And on the important event happening in 182(5 of Mr. J. Parry 
Wilkins being asked by the Bank of England to go to Swansea to establish a Branch of 
their Bank, and which he consented to do, it was arranged between the partners that Mr. 
John Evans should be general manager of the Bank at Brecon under Mr. Parry 
Wilkins' superintendence. This arrangement did not last long, as owing to the death 
of his two partners, old Mr. Wilkins in 1828 and his son in 1831, the return of Mr. Parry 
Wilkins to assume immediate personal control of the Brecon Bank became necessary. 
It had been a great compliment to his Banking knowledge to have been asked to under- 
take so responsible a duty by the Bank of England, and no doubt Mr Parry Wilkins was 
enabled thereby to become familiar with the rules of management of the greatest Bank in 
the world. In 1835, I think, John Jeffreys, the eldest son of John Parry Wilkins, 
became a partner in the Bank for a few years, and then retired. Otherwise the Bank 
continued its even course with Mr. John Parry Wilkins as managing partner, and Mr John 
Evans as cashier and confidential adviser up to 1840. 

In that year, on the death of Walter Devereux De Winton. the grandson of Walter 
Wilkins, of Maesllwch, one of the original partners, and the withdrawal of the capital of 
the family of Maesllwch from the concern, it became necessary to reconstruct the Bank, 
if it were to be continued. 

It was a time of some anxiety, no doubt, and the sole remaining partner, Mr. Parry 
DeWinton, who had long ranked as an able banker and held a high position in the connty, 
proved equal to the occasion. He was able to add to the firm the names of John Jones, of 
Glanhonddu ; Samuel Church, of Ffrwdgrech ; David Evans, of Merthyr ; and John 
Evans, of Brecon, the latter being the trusted official of the Bank, each bringing a 
considerable local influence, as well as fresh capital. Mr. Church appears to have 
died the very same year, and then Mr. Parry DeWinton's third son, William, was 
taken in as partner in his place. 

Mr. J. Parry De Winton died in 1861, and of the recent history of the firm most of 
us know a little. Apparently the great bankers who have successively ruled and led that 
firm were the first Walter Wilkins of Maesllwch, and his brother Jeffreys, then John Parry 
DeWinton, and lastly Mr. John Evans. This is purely surmise on our part, as of the history 



(88) 

of the branches of the Bank at Merthyr, Cardiff and Carmarthen we have no knowledge. Be 
this as it may, as far as we do know- and our knowledge extends back for 50 years, and 
much longer, as derived from others the conduct of the firm has throughout been of a 
high and honorable character. While large landed estates and great fortunes have been 
acquired by the successive partners in the Bank previously to 1840 and since behind 
the bank counter, these have not been obtained by usurious interest charged or harsh 
treatment of their customers, but by the exercise of unflagging industry, ability, and 
unchallenged integrity. Whenever times of difficulty came, as they must have come now 
and again in a Bank's life of nearly 120 years, those were met with sound judgment 
and unflinching courage, and the danger of the passing financial storm successfully sur- 
mounted. High credit and high character ever stood the firm in good stead in the 
country side, as well as in the great financial world. 

A few additional notes will be interesting. The money-making career of this Bank 
seems to have been one of unbroken success, and you have only to look through the County 
to see proof of it in the mansions built or purchased, and the large estates acquired 
through its power. And even then we have to except the important landed property of 
Walter Jeffreys, which is no longer recognizable, having been dispersed on his intestacy 
happening in 1811. Though they financed the Plymouth Iron Works, which owed them 
for many years a standing debt of 30,000, and were obliged to foreclose on the Clydach 
Iron Works and also on those at Hirwain, the Bank came to no harm. In those early days 
there were no rival e:tablishments at Brecon, because we can hardly account George 
North's note issue as more than that of the Whiteley of the day, and not as of a regular 
Bank, and the modern system of paying interest on current balances was unheard of. I 
rather think there was more money then about Breconshire than now among the gentry 
and farmers. The price of wool was then high, rents were high, and the price of 
agricultural produce generally ranked higher, with the exception of meat, which was about 
the same price per pound as it is to-day. And in those days a fine oak tree and there 
were many of them in the County then sold for as high a price as 9. 

The original partners in the Bank were evidently go-ahead people, and supported 
every new County project. You find their names as subscribing 11,000 to the Brecon 
and Abergavenny Canal Company in 1793, and Walter Jeffreys was the Chairman through 
the very trying time that preceded the opening of the Canal to Brecon in 1801. Sub- 
sequently you find the names of one or more of the Firm, as subscribing largely to the Hay 
Tramway, the Brecon Boat Company, and later to the Brecon Gas Company. Doubtless 
the accounts of those concerns were kept at their Bank, and so it all helped business. 
And of course they were Bankers to the Court of Quarter Sessions, to the Turnpike Eoad 
Trustees great men in those days, to the Commissioners of the Great Forest, and 
probably to many other smaller County authorities. Their original capital was, I believe, 
small, and from some figures in my possession I have put it at only 30,000. This was 
in 1825 or thereabouts, but probably it was the amount of " free capital " only, and that 
the veteran banker, the old Walter Wilkins, had then taken to himself personally some of 
the chief overdrawn, though secured, accounts, for the express purpose of lessening the 
liabilities of the Bank. The authorised issue of the Bank in Notes was 68,271. 

In 1840, however, the great development of the Bank took place, and several new 
branches were opened and more business taken, the capital having been much increased by 
the contributions of the new partners. And I am informed that when the transference to 
Lloyds' took place the other day, the Banking Capital had grown to 165,000, with a 
large " rest " in addition. There was one serious crisiswhich the Bank passed safely through, 
that of the failure of Overend, Gurney & Co., who had been the Bank's discount house for 
a long series of years. To expect a house of such standing to fail was to suppose something 
as likely to happen as the failure of the Bank of England itself ! 

I have a distinct recollection of the two veterans of the Bank in modern times, now 
deceased. Mr John Parry De Winton was a short agile man, full of sparkling life and 
boundless energy, and his hospitality, kindness, and geniality were known throughout the 
country side. The annual celebration of his birthday by a picnic to the top of the Beacons 



(89) 

was a happy time long to be remembered. He was especially quick on his feet, and 
constantly walked from Maesderwen to the Bank by my old home at Dinas, and when 
quite an old man he offered to run my father, who was 15 years younger, a race, and I 
believe he would have won. Quickness of movement is no slight advantage in the race of 
life ! His favourite outdoor wrap was a long plaid shawl, becomingly arranged round the 
waist, and crossed over the shoulders. 

The other veteran was Mr. John Evans. He was a short man, very quick and firm 
on his feet, with good fresh colour, shaggy eyebrows, and strong grey eye that went 
through you at a glance. You hardly passed the old door of the Bank looking towards 
Ship Street without seeing him on the steps earnestly talking to some farmer about some- 
thing that concerned them, the price of oats it may have been. All the farmers for ten 
miles round knew him, and he knew them by name, and all about them. Such a man was 
a fortune to any Bank, and his connexion with it in one way or another had lasted for GO 
years ! Do you think the old man ever took holidays ! Never probably ! 

I am rather sorry the days of the old private Banks have gone, and among them at 
last, that of Wilkins and Company. 

Perhaps we may some day see established Co-operative Banks by the people and for 
the people ; if such had been established in 1778 and had been managed as well as the 
Brecon Old Bank, the accumulated wealth of the County would have reached a marvellous 
sum, and the pauperism of the aged at least would never have existed. 



Compulsory Attendance at Church in 
Breconshire in 1687--Jas. II. 



[Page 10 of the County Quarter Sessions book of Orders, Vol. 1. From 1686 to 
5th October, 1713.] 

Com. Brecon, 1687. Ad generalem sessionem pacis Domini Eegis tenendum apud 
Brecon, in et pro Comitatu eodem duodecimo die Januarii Anno Jacobi Scotia nunc 
Angliaa primo coram Thomas Walker, Marmaduke Gwynne, Edward Jones, John 
Steadman, Bichard Jeffreys et alii justiciarii ad pacem in eodem comitatu conservandum. 

[TRANSLATION.] 

At the General Session of the Peace of our Lord the King, held at Brecon, in and for 
the same county, on the 12th day of January, in the 1st year of James of Scotland, now of 
England. Before etc., and other justices for preserving the peace in the same county. 



Various entries are made of offences against the law and of complaints respecting the 
inequality of rates, the parishes being set out by name. Also orders were made with 
regard to bridges and sundry county payments. One item under the head of Llangamarth 
(Llangammarch) is noticeable " whereas it appeared unto this Court that Daniel William 
doth keep a disorderly ale house, ordered that the ale house of the said Daniel William be 



(90) 

suppressed." In the parish of Gwenddwr, John Meredith and John Bevan were presented 
for being badgers without a license. Thomas Prosser was presented for selling ale with- 
out a license, and for keeping of a gun to destroy the game. Also a number of men were 
presented for encroaching several acres of land, and erecting cottages on the common land 
of the Forest of Dynas, in the Parish of Talgarth. 

Then follows this most singular Presentment : 

" THE FOLLOWING WERE PRESENTED FOR NOT COMING TO CHURCH FOR THREE SUNDAYS 
LAST PAST, NAMELY : 

Penderyn. John Thomas, Elinor Thomss, John Lewis, David Thomas, ) For the above 
Thomas Lewis J offence. 

) Pro consimili 
Lly well. Thomas Pugh and Elinor uxor ej us (Ins wife) j / For ^ y 

Llangynidr. Thomas Prosser Howell, de Llangynidr ; Thomas John 
William, de eadem ; Evanus Powell, et Maria uxor ejus ; Ludovicus 
Prytherch, Thomas David, et Maria uxor ejus ; John David, 
Thomas Williams, Anna Watkins, Thomas Prosser, et Margaretta, 
uxor ejus ; William John et Jana, uxor ejus, Anna Price, Thomas ' 
Prosser, et Jana, uxor ejus ; Thomas John Walter, et Jana uxor 
ejus, Thomas William et uxor, William Watkin de eadem, Matilda 
Edmund, Matilda James, Maria, uxor Jenkm Lewis, Evanus John . . . 

Garthbrengy. Ho wellus Thomas et Anna, uxor ejus pro. consi. 

Llandefaelog. William Pritchard pro. consi. 

Llanywern. John Havard pro. eonsi. 

Merthyr. John David, Ellinora uxor Morgan David pro. consi. 

Duffryn Honddu. John David, John Morgan, Gladissa Morgan pro. consi. 

Yscirfawr. Ludovicus Powell pro. consi. 

Talachddu. Jane uxor Thomas, David Williams, Eichard Thomas 

Pugh, Evan Phillip David, Margaretta David, Eliz. Thomas pro. consi. 

Llanfigan. William Howell, Abrahamus Morgan et uxor, Margaretta 
Anthony, Ludovicus David, John ap John Morgan, Evanus John, 
ex uxor, Richardus Bevan, et uxor, John Jones, Hugo Bevan, John } pro. consi. 
Bevan, et uxor, Watkinus Thomas, et uxor, John David John, 
Thomas Lewis 

Vaynor. Thomas John Watkin, et Gwenlliana, uxor ejus, llichardus\ 
Robert et Gwenlliana, uxor ejus, Meredithus Wm. Eichard, 
Richardus Morgan, Eichardus ap John et Matilda, uxor ejus, David I 
Richard et Gwenlliana, uxor ejus, Margaretta Eees, Margaretta 
Meredith j 

Llandetty. David Richard, Ludovicus William, William Thomas, John 
Howell, Stephanus Howell, Maria Howell, Gwalt ap John, John 
ap John, Agnes William, Johanna Gunter, Susannah uxor Thomas 
John, Richardus Howell 

Llanfrynach. John Morgan, et uxor pro. consi. 

Llangammarch. David John, Ellinor Pugh, Margaretta Prytherch pro. consi. 

Llandewi-cwm. Anna William vidua.Eogerus Proper, et Sarah uxorejus pro. consi. 

Llanganten Parish. Ho wellus David, Ludovicus David pro. consi. 

Llysdinam. Thomas Evans, et uxor pro. consi. 



pro. conii. 



pro. consi. 



(91) 



Llangynidr. Thomas Powell, Watkin John William, et uxor, Maria 
Jones, Johanna Jones, Alicia Llewellin, John Wm. Lewis, Matilda 
Jones, Thomas Prosser, jun,, et uxor, John Watkins, et uxor, 
Catherina Williams, Anna uxor Thomas Watkins, Phillipus Powell 
David Watkins 

Cwmdu. Thomas Lawrence, Maria Lawrence, Sussannah Edward, \ 
Phillipus William, Arthur Prosser, Janetta, uxor ejus, Jacobus! 
David et Catherina, uxor ejus, Watkinus William et Elliuora, uxorf 
ejus ..' 

Llangattock juxta Orickhowell. -Thomas John, Elizabeth John, Jana \ 
uxor Rogeri Meredith, Thomas John, Janetta uxor Rogeri > 
Meredith ) 

Llanbedr. William Gwillym et Maria uxor ejus, Anna James 

Llangenny. Sarah Herbert, Jana Thomas, Jannetta Thomas 

Llanelly. David Price, et Anna uxor ejus, Bogerus Morgan, John) 
Spencer, Catherina Edwards j 



pro. consi. 

pro. consi. 

pro. consi. 

pro. consi. 
pro. consi. 

pro. consi. 



Devynock. Ludovicus Powell, Ludovicus Powell, junr., Elizabeth David, \ 
Gwenllian Powell, Jannetta Powell, Ellinora Havard, Gwenlliana 
David, Alicia David, Margaretta John, William Powell, Matilda 
Lewis, Eleanor, David, Agnes Llewellyn de Glyn, Thomas, I 
William Thomas, Thomas Ap Thomas, Agnes uxor Watkin, ^ pro. consi. 
Priscilla Watkin, Maria Watkin, Gwenllian Watkyn de Mascarr, 
Sarah Watkin, Priscilla Richard, Isabella Richard, Maria Richard, 
Isabella Howell, Anna Penry, Williamus Powell, Gwenlliana 
Powell 

Llanspyddid. Priscilla Lewis pro. consi. 

Battle. Rogerus Powell et Ellinora uxor ejus, Anna uxor William de] 
eadam, Richardus William et Janetta uxor ejus, Johanna uxor! 
Thomas William, Richardus Thomas, Williamus Thomas, Thomas f P ro> conei - 
David, Margaretta uxor William, Matilda uxor Thomas J 

Talgarth. Williamus Watkin, meyrishe, Margaretta William, Richardus^ 
et uxor, Thomas Watkin, et uxor, David Williams, et j 

uxor, Elizabeth Pn>ser, Phillipus Thomas et uxor, Wm. Prosser, I consi 

et uxor, Thomas Watkins, et uxor, William Pritchard, Ludovicus | 
John Phillips, et uxor, Joanna Thomas, Catherine Williams vidua J 
(widow), Willielmus David, Richardus de Thomas Prese j 

Borough of Hay. Jacobus Hughes et Maria uxor ejus, Priscilla uxor^l 

Mathei Parry de eadem, Abya Watkins, Elizabeth Gorson, Janetta }- pro. consi. 
Lewis J 

Hay Parish. John Price, Catherine Price, Jacob Parry pro. consi. 

Llanfihangel. Willielmus John, Matilda Howell, Matilda Thomas,} 

Janetta Thomas .| P ro ' C0n81 ' 

Llandifalle. Margaretta Herbert, Maria uxor Jacobi Price, Gwenlliana"] 

uxor Davidi Lewis, Elizabetha Thomas, Watkinus William, Eliza- [- pro. consi. 
betha uxor John Havard J 

Glasbury. David Preece et Maria uxor ejus, William Jenkin, Margaretta] 
uxor John Woodford, Thomas Vaughan et Elizabeth uxor ejus, I 
Carolus Lloyd et Fortuna uxor ejus, Ellinora Watkins, Maria John, j 
Anna Lewis.. I 



(92) 



Llangorse. Walterus Price et Margaretta uxor ejus, Williamus John j 
et Catherina uxor ej us, William John Taylor r 

Llanigon. Watkinus Lewis, Willielmus Miles, Thomas Parry, David "| 
William Prosser, John George, Anna Gunter, Joanna Gunter, i- 
Thomas David... J 

Bronlljs. John Powell 

Criekadarn. William Jenkin, Maria Dunn 

Llandhue. Elizabeth uxor Williami Awbrey, Bichardus Awbrey, ) 

Wm. Awbrey, jun j P ro ' con31 

Gwenddwr. Thomas Powell, Catherina Powell pro. consi, 

Llanigon. Maudlena uxor Ricardl James, Margaretta uxor Thomas") 

Parry, Alicia uxor William Watkin, Elizabeth Awbrey, Thomas \- pro. consi 
David J 



pro. consi. 

pro. consi. 

pro. consi. 
pro. consi. 



It will be found that in these presentments about 265 names are given, and 39 
parishes mentioned. Apparently the persons presented were well known in their respect- 
tive parishes, as no other address is given. Probably at some ensuing sessions the church 
defaulters in the remaining parishes were presented to be dealt with by the court. It was 
rather too strong an order to bring up all the offenders in the county in one batch. 

What was the history of all this, which sounds very much like persecution ? Yes, 
and so it was, but mainly for the purpose of putting down Popery. Compulsion came in 
at the Reformation on purpose to uphold the Protestant faith and keep people in the right 
way. In Henry VIII's reign refusing to receive the sacrament was first made subject to 
fine or imprisonment, and a second oifence was felony and death, and involved forfeiture 
of lands and goods. 

Those who having no lawful excuse absented themselves from the parish Church, 
were in the time of Elizabeth fined twelve pence not a small sum in those days. After- 
wards this penalty was changed to 20 per month, but exemptions were allowed in cases 
where there was no persistent obstinacy. However, the punishment of all persons above 
the age of 16 who neglected to go to Church for one whole month was very severe. They 
were abjured of the realm, and to return to the realm was felony. And two-thirds of the 
rent of the offender's land might also be seized, till he conformed. 

These laws were in force through the reigns of Henry VIII., Mary, James I,, Charles 
I. (the Commonwealth period, 1649 to 1660 excepted), Charles II., James, and up to I. 
William and Mary, when what is known as the Toleration Act was passed. It was then 
provided that all Protestant Dissenters should be exempt from all such penalties, and 
permitted to attend their own places of worship, such having being duly certified to the 
bishop, or archdeacon, or to the General Sessions of the Peace for the county. And of 
such places the Clerk of the Peace was to keep a register, and to give a certificate to any 
person demanding the same on payment of 6d. It \vould be very interesting to see this 
register to-day. 

This Act was passed in 1688 (just the year after the holding of the Breconshire 
Sessions alluded to above), and therefore these penal laws had from the time of Henry's 
reign downwards been in force for 188 years. Papists were even then excepted from the 
benefit of the Act, which applied only to Protestant dissenters. 

It is commonly believed that immediately on the passing of the Toleration Act, the 
chapels of the Plough in Lion street, Brecon, and of Golynos (light in the darkness) at 
Llanwrtyd, were built. 

Of course these old compulsory enactments were to a certain extent impotent, as the 
people here and there met secretly to worship in their farmhouses, often with doors locked 
and barred ; but they gave an immensity of trouble to our forefathers in Breconshire for 
many a long year, and I sometimes think their harmful influence is to be seen and felt 
to-day. 



(93) 

It was the same, too, in England as in Wales, and we owe the writing of the immortal 
allegory of the Pilgrim's Progress to the enforcement of these penal laws. John Bunyan 
composed it in Bedford gaol, when imprisoned by the justices of the day for, as a Baptist 
minister, preaching in a conventicle contrary to the statutes therein made and provided. 



John Lloid of Towy. 



The readers of our County History are familiar with the Inscription in Builth 
Church, and the monument there of this somewhat famous man, and also with the 
references to him under the heading of Llanwrtyd, and of Llanynis in the same work. I 
have, however, thought it well to give here a copy of the Inscription, because it serves as 
an introduction to the subjoined letter from W. Hereford to this John Lloid, which I have 
recently found. As far as I can ascertain this " W. Hereford " was Walter, Earl of 
Hereford, grantee or lessee of various Crown properties from Queen Elizabeth, and it 
seems probable this John Lloid was then Steward or Receiver of the Manor of Builth 
under the Crown. 

INSCRIPTION IN BUILTH CHURCH. 

" Here lieth John Lloid of Towy Squer to the body and Servante to our Sofvereigna 
Queene Elizabethe, who served herr Mat's father both at Mutreil and at Great Bullen, 
where hit was forgotten, and also in Scotland. This man was Steward of this Manr 
under the Right Honorable the Erie of Essex, transported out of Ireland into Carmarthen. 
Also the first Sherif and first Justice of the Peace that ever dwelte in this Lordship after 
the division of Wales into Shere ground. Whose father, Thomas Lloid, had been Id. 
liftenant of this County XL yeares together next after the arivall of that most famous 
Prince Henry the Seventh and Jasp his Uncle at Milfurde. This man departed this lief 
the First day of March Anno dmi 1585. 

% "Mutreil" is a town in France, and still I believe strongly fortified. " Great Bullen " is 
the modern Boulogne. 



LETTER FROM W. HEREFORD TO JOHN LLOID OF TOWY. 
[LAND REVENUE OFFICE, SOUTH WALES INROLMENTS, VOL. V. P. 66.] 

I understand you have gathered all the heriotts wtin buelth sithence michalms last 
wch are myne by my Lease ; I appointed Rothergh Gwyn to receave them before this but 
I pceave he hath not Also you wrot to me touching the Fellones goode there that the 
Shireff had ceased Them. I understand by the Shireff and other that tbe came are come 
to your hande. The Shireff would not meddle wh any thing that touched me. I require 
you to send me a pfect reconning wtin theise xv daies hither both of the heriotte and the 
Felons goode. The Aceorapt to the receavoor for them both I will take uppon me., 
Therefor let me understand the cteintie of all things to thered I rnaie conferre the same wt 
such note as are sent me thereof and hereof faile yo not as yo tendre my Favour And 
so fare you well. This iiijth of September, 1569. 

Yor ffrend 

W. HEREFORD. 
To my ffrend John lloid of Towy. 



WILL OF JOHN LLOYD OF TOWY, 1585. 
[EXTRACTED FROM THE DISTRICT PROBATE REGISTRY AT HEREFORD.] 

In the Consistory Court of the Archdeaconry of Brecon. 

In the Name of God Amen. The daye of January in the yere of or Lord God a 
thousand fyve hundred eightye with fyve in the xxviii th yere of the Reigne of our 



(94) 

Sovereigne Lady Elizabeth by tbe grace of God queue of England France and Ireland 
Defedr of the fathe, I John Lloyd of Towy in the Countye of Brecknock Esquier sicke and 
feble in body but whole in mynde and of pfect memorye laude and prayse be unto 
Allmightye God make my last Will and Testament in maner and forme followinge. 

First I doe geve and bequeathe my Soule unto Allmightye God my Savior and 
Eedemr. by whome I trust to bs saved, and my bodye to be buryed in the Church of 
Llanynis. 

Item I doe geve and bequeath towoords the reparation of Cathedral! church of St. 
David's 12d. 

Item I do geve and bequeth to the poore mens boxe of Llanynis ijs (2s.) 

Item I do geve and grant unto John Lloyd my second sonne all my messuages or 
tenements of lands with all houses barns buildings lands medowes leasowee pastures woods 
underwoods gardens orchards liberts with all their apprtencs. comonly called ond known 
by the names of Tyr Jevan apglluy ap Jevan Dewey yn y Velyndre y bryth werny Tir 
Jevan Weithhene Kae Jevan Lloyd garll madok ap Morgan garll hughe ap Es in the 
Castle Streett ty vadok dd Morgan at Bridge ende yt yn somvent (?) at ty Eobt Dio ap 
hoell ty hoell vadok ty wallt vy Isk and ty John Banner sett lynge and being within the 
towne and parish of Llanvair in Buellt in the Contye of Brecknock. To have and to ferine 
hold to the sayd John Lloyd and his assignes for and duringe the terme of xxj (21) years 
next ensuinge in manner and forme followinge, vid : soe that my sayd Bonn Jon. Lloyd 
will be content to take the same by lease at the hands of my eldest sonne and heyr David 
Lloyd ap John and enter into covenants wth sufficient land to the use of David Lloyd ap 
John his heires and assignes not onlye to surrender up the premisses wth their apptenncs. 
unto the said David Lloyd ap John his heirs and assignes at the end of xxj (21) yeares but 
allsoe keepe reperacon of eny of the said houses and pseles (parcels) & soe leve and yeald 
up the same well and sufficiently as they are at this present time and allsoe to paye to the 
said David Lloyd ap John hie heires and assignes the some of fortie shillings of good and 
lawful money of England yerely at evy. feast of Saint Michaell the Archangell for and 
duringe the said term of xxi yeres. 

Item I doe give and bequethe unto my said Sonne John Lloyd all my dyrie oattells 
and cattells beinge upon my lands called y kae Dye wth. all manner of cattell what soevr 
they be wch are wth my keeper there. 

Item I doe give and bequethe unto Gwenllian vz (daughter) Willim my woyre 
(grandson) twllve heyffers, 

Item I doe give and bequethe unto Jivan ap Madocke one cowe. 

Item I doe give and bequethe unto Syble vz (daughter) Willim my woyre (grandson) 
one heyffer. 

Item I doe give and bequethe unto David ap Jevan ap Morgan one heyffer. 

Item I doe give and bequethe unto William John ap Morgan one beaste. 

Item I doe give and bequethe unto Gole vz (daughter) David Lloyd one beaste. 

Item I doe give and bequethe unto Eobert John my woyre (grandson) two yerelinge 
beasts. 

The residuie of all my goods cattels movable and unmovable lands tenements rents 
reversions leases covenna> ts grants contracts recoveries capiasses executions debts demands 
and judgments as well by specialities as without specialities as well in matters and causes 
spirituall and temporall whereof I the said John Lloyd am of them or any parte of them 
entetuled at the writtinge hereof I doe give and bequethe unto my said eldest Sonne Dd 
Lloyd ap John his assignes for ever for ever whome I doe constitute ordaine and appoint 
to be my only true & sole executor these being wittnes William Merodocke John ap 
John Lloyd Willm David Lin ap Morgan William Thomas & Madocke Griffithe with 
others. 

DEBTS DUE TO THE TESTATOR. 

Imprimis upon Eobeit Toy of Carndthin (Carmarthen) Merchant ffortie markes 
which I lent him and given and delivered unto Kobert Kerver his man to be delivered over 
unto the said Eobert Toy at a daie long past. 



(95) 

Item upon David Lloyd ap Meredd esquire recovered in the last assisses in the 
Countey of Eadnor nynetene pounds six shillings where upon I have two capiasses one 
upon his bodie & the other upon his goods. 

Item upon David Powell of Llanellwedd recovered in the said assisses the lick (like) 
some of nynetene pounds six shilings wth lick (like) capiasses 

Item upon William Lloyd ap David of Llanava (Llanavan ?) vechan the some of iiij 1 
xiij s iiij d (4 18s. 4d.) 

Item upon David Lloyd ap Jevan ap Rees xx s (20s ) 

Item upon Willim ap Jevan ap Richard twentie shillings wch. I lent; him by the hands 
of my sone John Lloyd to be delivered over unto him paiable at daie longe past. 

Imprimis xxiiij lie (24) Great Kyne pric (price) xxiiij 1 (24). 

Item six great oxen pric (price) vj 1 (JB6). 

Item Ix (60) yewes pric (price) x 1 (10). 

Item one geldinge pric (price) vj 1 (6). 

Proved 14th March 1585 by the Executor. 



The copy of the will received by me from the Hereford Registry is evidently an 
imperfect one, the copyist being unable to read some portions of it. However, it ia I 
think, fairly intelligible. The word " woyre," which occurs three times, denotes a 
grandson, and vz, ferch, or merch, a daughter as Ap does the Son. 

The names of places and tenements at Builth (Bridge End) are not intelligible, nor 
the tenants' names. 

It appears that David Lloyd ap John was the eldest son and heir of the testator, and 
John the second son. 



Talavan Forest. 

Hundred of Builth, County of Brecon. 



The first paper I have containing any references to this Forest is the Grant by 
Edward VI. (1550) of the Lordship of Builth to William Herbert, " Knight of the Garter 
and Master of Our Horse." The lands of " Tallawyn " are therein mentioned. This 
Grant was made in the 4th year of the King's reign, and it would seem that immediately 
after an Exchange took place between the King and Sir William Herbert, by which the 
Lordship of Builth, including the Forest of Talavan, became again part of the possessions 
of the Crown. 

This is shown by the Grant to farm in 24 Eliz. (1582) by Letters Patent of the 
herbage and pannage of the Forest of Tallavan (formerly held by Richard Lloid) with all 
its rights, &c., to David Lloid ap John Lloid. The lease was for 21 years at the annual 
rent of 6s. 8d. It is evident that the Forest was very well known, as it was thought 
unnecessary to give any description of its boundaries. Apparently at that period parishes 
were not recognized as defined districts in legal documents as they now are. 

The next paper gives the lease of the same Forest in 84 Eliz., 1592, to John Wells, 
Scrivener, of London, at the same rent of 63. 8d. for the term of 60 years to commence 
from 1608, when the lease previously granted to David Lloid ap John Lloid expired. 

The said Wells appears to have immediately assigned his interest to Richard Budd, 
who again in 85 Eliz. assigned his interest to one David Lloid ap John Lloid, who was of 
course the old tenant. This carries on the interest of David Lloid and his descendants 
down to 1668. 

The last document I have relating to the Forest is dated 1st James II. (1686). It is 
a grant by the King of the Lordship of Builth, including the Forest of Talavan, to 



(96) 

Christopher Favell and Thomas Young in confirmation of a previous grant by the King's 
father in the 7th of his reign. 

Sir Edmund Sawyer's name is also mentioned as a grantee. These men were 
London financiers, or money lenders, who had advanced money to Charles II. and James 
II on security of the private resources of the Crewn. The facility with which this could 
be done, and had been by Charles I., in a measure contributed probably to the outbreak of 
the Great Kebellion, or the Civil War. 



Grant to William Herbert, Knight of the 
Lordship of Builth, &c., 1550. 



SOUTH WALES ENROLMENTS. 



[TRANSLATION.] 
VOL. 1., Fo. 152d. 

LETTEKS PATENT OF WILLIAM HERBERT, KNT., FOK LANDS IN Cos. GLAMORGAN AND MONMOUTH, 
RADNOR AND BRECON, GRANTED TO HIM FOR EVER. 

Edward the 6th &c. To all to whom these present letters shall come. Know ye 
that We in consideration of the good, true, faithful and acceptable service which Our 
beloved and faithful Councillor William Herbert, Knight of the Garter, Master of Our 
Horse, rendered to Us at his great charges, against the rebels in the west parts of 
England, of Our special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion and with the advice 
of Our Council have granted to him and by these presents do grant to him all those our 
lordships and manors of Ruthin, Llanblethian, Boviarton, &c. &c. &c. in co. Glamorgan. 

Also all Our lordship and manor of Buelth and Our borough of Buelth and also all 
Our castle of Buelth and Our forest of Tallawyn, and all Our lands, tanements, rents and 
hereditaments called Tyre tale diesten with all their rights, members and appurtenances, 
jurisdiction and liberties in Our County of Brecon formerly parcel of the lands and posses- 
sions of the late Earl of March. Also all Our lordships and manors of Ebvell villa Castri 
Istemoneth &c. &c. in co. Eadnor. 

Also all the messuages, granges, mills, tofts, cottages, houses, buildings, barns, 
ponds, orchards, gardens, lands, waters, fishings, moors, warrens, chaces, woods, advow- 
son, free disposition and right of patronage of Churches and other ecclesiastical benefices, 
courts leet, view of frank pledge, fairs, markets, tolls, customs, <fec., &c., &c., in Ruthin. 

Buelth, Tallawyn, Ivan, Treffles, Penne buelth and Southirvin in Co. Brecon . . 
. . . to the said lordships, manors, boroughs, vills. castles and granges and other the 
premises in any way belonging or appertaining. We also give to the said William 
Herbert, all woods, underwoods and trees growing upon the premises ; also all rents and 
yearly profits whatsoever reserved upon any dcmites made of the said premises. 

And we give to him all the said premises as fully and wholly as Jasper, late Duke of 
Bedford or the Lady Katherine late Queen of England or the said late Earl of March 
held and enjoyed the same and in as ample manner and forme as the same came to Our 
hands or to the hands of Our most dear Father King Henry 8. 

And We also grant to the said William Herbert that he may hold and enjoy within 
the said lordships, manors, &c., all, such, and the like courts leet, views of frank pledge 
and assize of bread, wine and ale, alvo chattels waived, estrays, free warrens, fairs, 
markets, &c., such and as fully as the taid Jasper, Queen Katherine and the Earl of 
March held the same. [Then follow grants of land in London and Middlesex, &c., &c.] 



(97) 

Which said premises extend to the clear yearly value of 447 10s. IJd and half a 
farthing. 

To hold to the said William Herbert and his heirs for ever, to the proper uses of him- 
self and his heirs for ever. 

And We also grant to the said William Herbert all the issues, rents and profits of all 
the said premises forthcoming from the feast of the Annunciation last past up to the 
present time without rendering any account for the same. 

In witness whereof We have caused these Our Letters to be made patent. 

Witness Ourself at Westminster 7 May in the 4th year of Our reign f!550.] 



Talavan Forest. 

Lease of 1582. 



[TRANSLATION.] 
LAND REVENUE RECORD OFFICE. 

COUNTY OF BRECON. 
LETTERS PATENT TO DAVID LLOID AP JOHN LLOID. 

Elizabeth by the grace of God Queen of England France and Ireland, Defender of the 
Faith, &c. To all to whom these present Letters shall come greeting. Know ye that we 
for the fine of twenty six shillings and eight pence of lawful money of England paid at the 
Receipt of our Exchequer to our use by our beloved subject David Lloid ap John Lloid 
have given granted and to farm demised and by these presents do give grant and to farm 
demise to the aioresaid David Lloid ap John Lloid all that our herbage and pannage of 
our forest of Tallavan with all their rights members and appurtenances in our County of 
Brecknock now or late in the tennre or occupation of Richard Lloid or his assigns, and all 
and singular our profits commodities advantages emoluments and hereditaments whatso- 
ever to the said herbage and pannage and other the premises in any way belonging or 
appertaining or with the same or any of them by the rent below in these presents reserved 
demised, placed used or occupied, being parcel of the possessions exchanged by William 
late Earl of Pembroke with our mcst dear brother Edward VI. late King of England, and 
formerly being parcel of the possessions late of the Earl of March : To have and to hold 
all and singular the premises with all their appurtenancss to the said David Lloid ap John 
Lloid his executors and assigns from the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary 
the Virgin last past up to the end of the term and by the term of 21 years then next 
following and fully to be completed, paying therefore yearly to us our heirs and successors 
six shillings and eight pence of lawful money of England at the feasts of St. Michael the 
Archangel, and the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin at the hands of the 
bailiff or receiver of the premises for the time being by equal portions, to be paid during 
the term aforesaid. And the said David Lloid ap John Lloid his executors and assigns 
shall support do and make all charges, suits, services and repairs due for the premises or 
by right from old times accustomed to be supported done or made from time to time, and 
shall exonerate us our heirs and successors and shall keep us quit and indeinpnified 
against all persons in all things during the term granted in these presents. Provided 
always that if the said rent shall happen to be in arrear or unpaid in part or in the whole 
by the space of forty day after any feast of the feasts aforesaid when it ought to be paid 
as is aforesaid : That then and from thenceforth this present demise and grant shall be 
null and void anything in these presents to the contrary thereof notwithstanding and not- 
withstanding any statute act ordinance provision proclamation or restriction to the 



(98) 

contrary thereof heretofore had, made, published ordained or promised or any other thing, 
matter or cause whatsoever. In witness whereof we have caused these our Letters to be 
made Patent. Witness our beloved and faithful Councillor William Baron of Burghley 
our Treasurer of England, at Westminster the 9th day of July in the twenty fourth year 

of our reign. 

Smyth. 

By warrant of the Lord Treasurer of England and the Chancellor of the 
Court of the Exchequer. 



Talavan Forest Lease for 60 Years 1592. 



LAND REVENUE OFFICE. 

South Wales Inrolments, Vol. 6, F. 49, is the following : 

To all true xxian people to whome thes p'sence shall come Eichard Budd of London 
gent sendeth greeting. Whereas or soveraygne Ladie Elizabeth the Queues Maty that 
nowe is by her highnes Lres Patente under the great seale of England beareing date at 
Westmr the iiijth daie of maye in the xxxiiijth yere of her hignes reigne for the consider- 
acon in the sayde Lres Patente menconed and expressed And at the humble peticon of Sr 
Owen Hopton knight hath amongst other thinges therein couteyned dimised graunted and 
to fearme letten unto John Wells of London scrivener All that her highnes herbage and 
pannage of the fforest of Tallavan with their righte members and apprtennce whatsoevr. 
in the Countie of Brecknock sometime p. cell of the landes exchanged by Willm. late 
Earle of Pembrook with Edwarde the sixte late Kings of Englande sometymes p. cell of 
the possessions of the late Earle of March. And to one dd Lloyd ap John lloid by her 
highnes Lres Patente bering date the ixth daie of Julie in the xxiijth yere of her Maty 
reygne for the tercue of xxjtie yeres begyning from the feast of the Anunciacon of or 
blessed ladie St. Marie the Virgin then last past and for the yerelie rent of six shillings 
& eight pence demised and grannted. To have and to hold the saide herbage and pannage 
of the fforest of Tallavan aforesaid wth thsire righte members and appurtennce whatsoev. 
to the said John Wells his executors and assignes from the feaste of the Annuc. of or 
blessed ladie St. Marie the Virgin wch shall be in the yere of or lord God 1603 unto the 
end of the terme and for the term of Lx yeres from thence next ensewing and fully to be 
compleat and ended Yielding from thenceforth yerelie unto or said Sovereigne Lady the 
queene her heires and Successors of and for the said herbage and pannage of the fforest of 
Tallavan aforesaid wth the appurtennce six shillings eight pence of lawefull money of 
England at the feaste of St. Michaell th archangell and the Annuc. of our blessed ladie 
St. Marie the Virgin at the receipte of the excheqr of our sayde sovereigne lady the Queene 
her heires and Successors or to the handes of the bailiffe or Receavors of the same 
prmisses for the tyme being by equall porcons to be paid during the terme aforesaid thereof 
by the said first recited Lres Patente graunted as in and by the sayde Lres Patente to the 
said John Wells graunted as aforesayde (amongst other thinges) more at large it doth and 
maie appere 

The said Wells assigned his interest to Richard Budd by his deed dated the fifte daie 
of maie in the xxxiiijth yere of her Maty reigne. 

The said Rich. Budd assigned his interest to one dd Lloid ap John Lloyd by his deed 
dated the xth daie of No : in the xxxvth yere of her Maty reigne. 



(99) 

Lordship of Builth, &c. 

Grant of 1686. 

SOUTH WALES INROLMENTS, VOL. 12, Fo. 198. 

James the Second, & all to whom, &c. greeting. We have inspected the enrolment 
of certain Letters Patent dated 9th Jany in the 7th year of the reigo of Our most dear 
Father made to Christopher Favell and Thomas Young gent, the tenor whereof as to the 
lordship of Buelt in Our County of Brecon follows in these words : The King to all, &c. 
greeting. Whereas We by Letters Patent dated at Canbury 4 Oct., in the 6th year of our 
reign in part compliment and performance of the promise on Our part specified in an 
indenture dated 7 May in the 6th year of Our reign, made between Ourselves and several 
of the lords of Our Privy Council of the one part, and John Haydon. Knt., William 
Russell, Knt., Ralph Freeman, Esq., and Charles Harbord, Esq., of the other part, and in 
consideration of 2350 paid to Us by the said Charles Harbord, and by Us then owing to 
him, and for the further sum of 2205 17 4 by the said Charles paid into Our Exchequer, 
being part of the sum of 4250 to be paid by the said Charles Harbord, have given to the 
said Charles Harbord, Christopher Fa well and Thomas Young, gent., their heirs and 
assigns for ever All that manor of Burneham in Co. Bucks, and divers other manors, 
castles, lordships messuages, lands, tenements and hereditaments specified in the said 
Letters Patent : Which said Letters We hereby ratify and confirm. 

Now know ye that We in further complement of the promises made in Our said 
indenture, and for the further sum of 2044 2 7J paid by the said Charles Harbord, and 
at his request, have granted to the said Christopher Fawell and Thomas Young, gent., 
and their heirs for ever all that Our lordship and manor of Buelt with all its rights, 
members and appurts in Co. Brecon ; also all that Our borough and vill of Buelt and all 
the hamlets, parishes, villages, rents and customs, rent of assize, rent of burgage, demesne 
land and forest land called Tallavon, and all the toll of the vill of Buelt, and all profits 
and commodities whatsoevtr as well within the liberties as without and all the shops and 
warehouses in the said vill and lordship, together with the toll of the Bridg End and all 
other places there, and all other lands, tenements and hereditaments whatsoever called by 
the name of the lordship, manor, borough and vill of Buelt : Except always all that mill 
in Southervon, parcel of or reputed to be parcel of the said lordship or manor, and before 
granted in fee farm : which said lordship and manor of Buelt by the particular thereof is 
mentioned to be parcel of the land exchanged by William late Earl of Pembroke with 
Edward VI. late King of England, and to be of the clear yearly rent or value of 
68 14 llf , together with 20 for a certain Comortha there every second year : Which 
premises above by these presents granted by indenture dated 8 Feb. in the 6th year of 
Our reign, are by Our warrant granted to the said Charles Harbord for the whole residue 
of 99 years and for all the term granted to him, Thos. Trevor and others now deceased 
by the indenture of Our late Father King James to Our use before We came to the throne : 
which said indenture We have examined and hereby ratify and confirm the same. 

We have also given to the said Christopher Fawell and Thomas Young all the 
messuages, lands, mills, barns, orchards, lands, trees, tithes, waters, mines, quarries, &c., 
&c., &c. within the said commote and lordship, and in any of the said castles, lordships, 
manors, &c. ; also all yearly rents and profits on the said premises ; and that they may 
hold the same as freely as We have done : Except nevertheless all knights fees, wards and 
marriages, and all advowsons, free gifts and right of patronage of all rectories, churches, 
vicarages, chapels, and all other eccltsiastical benefices whatsoever : Also except all 
royalties of mines of gold and silver being upon the premises : To hold the said premises 
to the said Christopher and Thomas and their heirs in fee farm for ever, of Us and Our 
heirs as of Our manor of East Greenwich in Co. Kent by fealty only in free and common 
socage, and not in chief or by knights service, paying to Us yearly for the said lordship 



(100) 

and manor of Buelt 45 1 5 ; and also paying to Us for the lordship and manor aforesaid 
for a rent called Magna Comortha of custom there 20 every second year. And further 
We grant that We for ever hereafter will pay to Robert Earl of Essex and Theophilus 
Earl of Suffolk a yearly fee of 18 13 4 to them before granted for their fees as stewards 
of the said lordship or manor of Buelt for their lives ; and We also absolve them from 
paying any other fees, annuities and pensions. 

Witness the King at Westminster 29 Jany. 7 Charles. 

We have also inspected another indenture made 2 March, 1G31, between Charles 
Harbord of London, Esq., and Christopher Fawell and Thos. Young of London, gent., of 
the one part and Edmund Sawyer of Hey wood in Co. Berks, Knt., and John Philipps of 
London, gent., of the other part for a sum of money and the said Christopher & Thomas 
at the appointment of the said Charles Harbord have granted to the said Edmund 
Sawyer, Knt., and John Phelips an3 their heirs all the lordship and manor of Buelt, in 
co. Brecon, all the borough and vill of Buelt, &c. &c. [as above] : except [also as above] . 
Also land in Llanire in co. Radnor ; also all the houses, lands, &c. to the said lordship 
belonging : To hold all the same as fully as the sa d King Charles by Letters Pati-nt dated 
29 Jany in the 7th year of his reign, granted the said lordship of Buelt to the said 
Christopher Fawell and Thomas Young and their heirs in fee farm. Except knights fees, 
&c. [as above] : To hold all the said premises to the said Edmund and John and their 
heirs for ever, of Us as of Our said manor of East Greenwich by fealty only in free and 
common socage and not in chief or by knights service, paying for the said lordship of 
Buelt 45 1 5. 

In witness whereof We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent. Witness 
Ourself at Westminster 12 January, in the 1st year of Our reign [1686.] 



The Gwynne of Garth and Llanelwedd 

Estate. 

LORDSHIP OF BUILTH, &c., 1823. 



ACCOUNT OF RECEIVER IN CHANCERY. 

It happens that a Suit was begun in the Court of Chancery relating to this 
large estate between Thomas Price and Thomas Thomas, plaintiffs, and Rice Price, Clerk, 
and Eliza Ann, his wife, and others, Defendants, about, 1820, and we find that the whole 
estate was for the time being thrown into Chancery. The Court appointed Mr. Thomas 
Maybery, of Brecon, Solicitor and Prothonotary of the Great Sessions, their Receiver, and 
we have been enabled to find among the Master's Documents (Master Rose) in the Suit at 
the Record Office the third annual account of the Receiver of the Estate. We think it an 
interesting document, as giving the names of the farms on the large Gwynne Estate in 
1823, before its dispersal by Public Auction had taken place, knd also particulars of the 
Chief Rents payable by the Parishes within the Lordship. 




l'A(JK 100. 1 



THE DOLDYMMER FOOTBRIDGE ON THE YRFON. 



(101) 

IN CHANCERY. 

THOMAS PRICE and THOMAS THOMAS, Plaintiffs, 

versus 
RICE PRICE, Clerk, and ELIZA ANN, bis Wife, and others, Defendants. 



[MASTER'S DOCUMENTS (MASTER ROSE) CHANCERY. BUNDLE 296. PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE.] 
The Third Account of Thomas Maybery, Esq., Receiver of the Estates in this Cause, for 
the year ending Lady Day 1823 and of his Disbursement. 



Tenants 
Names. 


Estates. 


Arrears at 
Lady Day, 
1822. 


Yearly 
Rent. 


Cash 
received. 


Arrears at 
Lady Day, 
1823. 






25 


150 


175 







*Hugh Morgan .... 


Kingshead, &c 




52 10 






52 10 


Richard Butts 






23 


23 


II 




tCharles Lawrence . . 


Park and Wells 


128 


128 


50 





206 


Thos. Jones 


Pencaer helen 




58 


58 







Wm. Thomas 




31 10 


60 


54 10 





37 








60 


60 


II 






Kilgawidd 


30 9 


32 6 


30 





32 9 


Lewis Williams . . 


Penfynon 


25 10 


16 


14 





27 10 


Charlotte Lewis . . 


Bryngoch 


117 18 6 


38 


24 





131 18 6 




Wain Odin 


500 


800 






13 


Do 


Brynyoye \ ,==10 n 
Brynheol & Penwhylod J 


188 


189 10 





154 9 


Benjamin Griffiths 


Ystrad 


17 


50 


46 





21 


Roger Davis .... 


Llanaf an 


111 4 


65 


27 1 





149 3 


John Price 


Kef n lippa 


16 


16 






32 


John Evans 




123 


60 


70 





113 


JJohn Jones 


Gentre 




60 6 






60 


John Thomas .... 


Kefn Coed 


34 


42 


40 





36 


Rees Davies 


Penrhiewmoch 


77 


35 


8 





104 


Wm. Price 


Llanerch Llwyd 


35 3 


45 10 


47 





33 13 




Kildu 




31 10 


31 10 


II 




John Thomas .... 


Maes y cefen y Eordd . . 




42 


10 10 





31 10 


David Evans 


Tyn y foes & Trwderwen 


224 5 6 


112 10 


30 





306 15 6 


jDavid Jones 


Rhose Gilwen 




40 


39 2 





18 


David Davies .... 


Kenigia 


300 


600 


6 





300 


Evan Powell 


Llethlr bach 


10 6 


1 1 


10 


6 


1 1 


David Davies .... 


Newhouse & tolls of Builth 


18 


21 10 


21 10 





18 


Thos Pritchard . . 






400 


4 









Pant y wrach 


2 10 


508 


2 9 


6 


506 


Catherine Jones . . 


Llwyn Piod 


82 2 


130 


105 





106 13 


David Price 


Macs lleoh 


82 


120 


44 3 





157 17 


Catherine Jones . . 


Ynis Codwor 


30 


55 


50 





35 


If John Williams .... 


Garth, &o 


189 5 


320 o 






509 5 








2 12 6 


2 12 


fi 






Crawnant mawr 


25 


25 






50 


|| James Meredith . . 


Llanelwedd 


200 


400 


231 10 





348 10 


Peter Holl 


Groe House 


54 


25 2 


18 





61 4 


John Jones 


Cottage on Llanelwedd 


7 7 


220 






990 




Rocks 
















322 6 6 




147 11 


9 




sJohn Davies 


Gelly Cadwgan 




136 10 






136 10 


Samuel Jones .... 


Cwm Shepherd 


49 18 


25 






74 18 


Hugh Morgan .... 


Groe 


27 


20 


10 





37 


Isaac Price 


Meeting house at Pent- 
rhydir 


600 


300 






900 


Joha Jones 


Waste lands in Builth . . 




050 


5 







David Evans 


Cottage on Garth Common 626 


1 10 






7 12 6 


William Thomas . . 


Llyohnant 


10 


050 






15 


John Jarmaa 


Bwlch y derwent 


1 1 


1 1 






220 



(102) 



Tenants 
Names. 


Estates. 


Arrears at 
Lady Day, 

1822. 


Yearly 
Rent. 


Cash 
received. 


Arrears at 
Lady Day, 
1823. 



oBees Jones 

Bees Jonas 

William Jones .... 
Bees Williams .... 
late William Jones 
Bev. M. Williams 
Samuel Handley . . 
Thomas Pritchard 

Evan Powell 

Evan Evans 

Biehard Butts . 



Common Tyr Bailey . . 


7 7 
2 10 







Tytwdd 


10 







1 1 







4 





Cottage at Pontyded .... 
Gilbert's Mill 


1 10 
17 




?, 


Pen llan 






Newll 


2 2 





Tyle quarry on Alt Dinas 
Chapel iu Built 


1 












1 1 

150 

050 

1 1 

200 

1 10 

1 14 4 

1 1 

220 

200 

050 











1 



1 14 4 
1 1 
220 

'6"5"b 



880 
3 15 

15 

1 2 
600 
300 
17 2 

Vif'o 

300 



1945 4 2 2732 10 1696 17 3127 10 2 



* This is a new taking and the Tenant has expended a considerable sum in Bepairs of the Inn, &c., which 
were before scarcely Tenantable. 

t There was a Mistake of 28 in the last Account, the Bent ought to have 128 instead of 100, and the 
Tenant has expended a large sum in building a new House, the accounts for which have not yet 
been settled. 

J This tenant has laid out money in repairs; which have not as yet been ascertained. 

This Tenant has purchased his Farm and will pay the arrears on the completion of his Purchase. 

If This tenant is considered responsible, but owing to the pressure of the times has not been able at present 
to pay his Bent. 

|| It is intended to Petition for an Abatement of Bent. 

A This is the residue of the money produced by sale of Tenants Goods sold under Distress. 

B This is a new taking from Lady Day, 1822, and the Tenant claims a considerable sum for Bepairs. 

o This Piece of Land is pen to the Hill or Common, has no fence whatever, and a Distress on the Hill 
Sheep could not be justified on that Account. 



CHIEF EENTS 



RECEIVED TO 



Hamlet of Llanlleonvel 

Do. Treflis ',' 

Llanafan Vaur, 1st Division 

Do. 3rd Division 
Hamlet of Llysdinam 
Llanfihangel Abergwessin .. 
Llanganten . . . 
Llandewy Abergwessin 
Hamlet of Gwaravog 
Llanynis 

Llanvihangel Bryn pabean ... 012 

Llanvechan ........ 15 

Llanwrthwl Upper Division ... o 15 

Do. Lower Division ... ... ... ... o 15 

Maesmynis ... ... ... ... 28 

Llangammarch ... ... ... 2 11 



s. 
1 5 
1 13 
16 

10 10 
098 

1 
1 5 

10 

1 
1 18 



d. 
Of 
4f 
8 



7 

Of 

8 

4 

7 

4 

Of 

64 

6* 

8 

6 



(108) 

a. a. 

Llandewy Cwm ... ... ... ... ... 205 

AlltMawr 10 7 

Llantwid Llechweddol 17 8 

Do. ClawthMaddog 018 2* 

Llanvihangel Bryn pabean... ... ... ... ... 1 1 10 

Maesmynis ... .. .. .. ... ... 1 7 2| 

Llandewir Cwm ... ... ... ... ... ... 194 

AltMawr 071 

Llanganten . . ... ... ... .. ... 18 2 

Llanvechan ... .. ... ... ... .. ... 18 2-J 

Llisdinam 16 3 

Gwaravog .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 5 

Llangunnog ... 

Llanavon Vawr 3rd Division ... ... ... 01 

Llangammarch Penbwyallt .. .. ... ... 1 10 8 

Treflis 186 

Llanwrthwl Upper Division ... . . ... ... 7 5 J- 

Do. Lower Division ... . . ... ... 1 7 5 

Llanynis ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 9 

Llanlleonvel 18 2J 

Llanvihangel Abergwessin ... ... ... .. ... 1 16 8 

JE41 7 9 

THE RECEIVER'S DISCHARGE. 

FEE FARM RENTS. s. d. 

Paid Miss Isabella Hughes Fee farm Rents due Michas., 1823 5514 8 

REPAIRS, &c. 

To an allowance to John Davies, Bryn y oye Money by him paid to Mr. John ) 250 
Price for a Water course thro' his lands ... ... ... i 

To Do. to Roger Davies Llanafan for repairs as Pr. Bill and Receipt 7 6 

To Do. to Wm. Thomas Noyadd for glazing window ... . . 15 5 

To Do. to for repairing Beast house &c. ... 

Paid David Jones, carpenter, on further Account of Repairs 20 

Allowed David Gwillim for repairs and half a year's allowance for lime ... 26 5 
Receipt Stamps &o. for two years... 

Receiver's Salary on Receiving 1788 4 8618 

Do. 's Costa of passing this Account ... ... ... 16 15 4 

The Plaintiffs Do. of Do 5 17 6 

The Defendants Do. of Do ... 41210 

The Receivers Do. punuant to Order 29 July 1822 69 2 

The Plaintiffs Do. Do. Do 18 7 2 

The Defendants Do. Do. Do... 18 7 2 



JB336 11 1 
1129 2 Balance of last Account paid. 

T.M. 

SUMMARY. 

Balance due from the Receiver on passing his last Account .. ... 1129 2 

Amount of Rents received ... . ... ... -. 1696 17 

Chief Rents 41 7 

1738 4 



Total Charge on Receiver 2867 6 



(104) 

Balance due from the Eeceiver on passing his last Account paid 

into the Bank ... H29 2 

Amount of payments as per this Account ... ... 336 11 1 

Total Receiver's Discharge . . 1465 13 1 



Balance due from the Receiver on passing this Account 1401 12 11 

This large Estate, said to comprise the Manor of Builth and about 110,000 acres of 
Waste land and hills, and Freehold Farms containing 4,400 acres of meadow and pasture 
land, and the Park Wells were put up to auction at the Castle Hotel, Brecon, on April 
3rd and 4th, 1823, by order of the Court of Chancery, by Master Courtenay. 

A further auction of the 1700 acres unsold was held at the same place on August 15th, 
1823 (the same year). 

The Printed" Particulars of these Sales (there are however no Plans attached) I have 
had placed in the large Folio Book of such County Property Sales, page 57, now in Mr A. 
Maybsry's possession at Brecon. 



Forgotten Industries. 

(BRECONSHIRE.) 

An account of the vast Black Cattle droves that were brought along the cattle track 
on Epynt mountain from Carmarthenshire and other West Wales counties to England has 
previously been given (Page 53.) 

And a friend, I am glad to say, has written at my request an account of the old Mail 
Coach days, and I hope in due time to be permitted to include it among these papers for 
publication. There is no one so competent to write it as my friend, who has a facile pen, 
a wonderfully good memory, and a long experience himself of the mail coach days. The 
persons of the famous coachmen and guards of that time are pictured in his memory, as 
if he saw them yesterday. 

But there are other forgotten industries of our County, which deserve description. 

CABDY CARTS. 

The large trade by means of the Cardy Carts in dressed pigs, and in casks of butter 
from Cardiganshire and West Carmarthenshire through our County to the iron werks on 
the hills, is well described in the poem by my father entitled : 

THE WEEK'S JOUBNEY. 

" It was in early winter, at the time 
When to the Southern range of Cambrian hills, 
Whose mineral wealth is as a boundless sea 
Widespread, and to its centre deepening still, 
Light carts from all our inland vallies wend, 
Giving each road an air of cheerfulness: 
Some with their tempting tiers of slaughtered swine 
Outstretched, as if the Goddess Plenty held 
A pageant, and her portly emblems these. 
Others again with dairy casks replete, 
That through the summer season day by day 
Filled up, as hives with honey, by the bees, 
Must now rejoice the good wife's eyes no more, 
But through that mountain tract be scattered wide 
To help the industrious miner's hard-won meal." 

These verses tell practically ihe whole story to those who have once seen a procession of 
the Cardy Carts passing along our roads, but to those who have not, a short description 



(105) 

in prose is necessary to enable them to understand the trade, and to form a true idea of 
the mode of transit. 

In the days we are writing of, there were no railways to the Hill districts, while those 
districts themselves were the scene of far larger iron mining operations than any the present 
generation have seen, or that ever will be seen again. From Hirwain onwards to the east 
at Nantyglo and Blaenavon, the borders of Breconshire and Glamorganshire, including 
Cyfartha, Plymouth, Khymney, Tredegar, Sirhowy, Ebbw Vale, and Beaufort, had vast 
iron-works in full swing, with a large and increasing population that had to be fed. And 
so, in the vales of Teivy and Towy, and even farther west, it became the habit of the 
farmers to breed pigs, and prepare casks of slightly salted butter to be sent to the Hills in 
the early autumn and winter seasons. 

The pigs were fresh-killed, and dressed, just as you see sheep in our ordinary 
butcher's shop. But a weighty pig dressed, and stretched out at full length, was rather a 
gruesome sight, and when reposing on their journey in the Cardy Cart were practically 
hidden by folds of clean white sheets. However, the points of the oui stretched legs and 
the head were always visible. I think the pigs had the cart to themselves generally, while 
the rows of butter casks filled another. 

The Cardy Cart was peculiar, and is foreign to Breconshire. We have nothing like 
it, and I wonder if the learned King's Counsel, who said and maintained in spite of the 
laughter of the Court, that a Breconshire " gambo " had no wheels, would be able to 
describe a " Cardy Cart ! " The peculiarity is the lightness of the wheels and sides, the 
latter being open with low upright turned rails. I expect it was designed for this 
particular trade, though useful for harvest work at home. The cart was always painted a 
light red ochre colour and kept spotlessly clean. 

The one horse in tho shaft was a "Cardy" horse a breed of itself, of a medium 
brown colour, but light and slingy, 14 hands or a little more in height, a good 
free walker, and capable of going long distances without tiring. 

The driver for he sat on the cart with the o.o.-like reins in his hand was either 
the farmer or the hired carrier, and he was of that spare lathy breed of men you find to- 
day on the borders of Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire. And we know that district 
has produced many a shrewd man of business, who has made his mark in trade in 
England. 

The party of carts, usually 10 or 12 together in a string, all came from 
Llandovery to Brecon by way of Trecastle. Some turned up the road for Merthyr 
either at Pont Senny or at the Tarrall bridge, but the bulk came 
on and always made the Bridge End Inn, kept then by Prosser, as their 
resting place for the night. It was rare to see the road by the side of the College wall 
unoccupied by a string of un -horsed carts, those laden or those returning empty. 

Of course they had their regular stopping places. Their object was, leaving Teivy 
side on a Monday, to get to the Hills, transact their business there, and then be back 
home in good time for Friday, or Saturday, and so have the Sunday quietly at home. 

After leaving Brecon bv the Watton road, the carts usually turned over the Lock 
bridge, and made for Llangynider, and then up the Trefil hill to the Works, where their 
best customers dwelt, probably in those days the Companys shops, like Bychan's at 
Ehymney, and Jayne's at Natityglo. 

These journeys were not unattended with risk, and the sad story so well told in the 
" Week's Journey " is an illustration of the dangers. And of course they had to keep a 
good look out for Howel Eees, coming down the 8 miles from Trecastle to Sennybridge in 
7J minutes. They knew his time and prudently drove on one side when they heard 
old Compton, the guard, blowing his horn. What a lot of money they must have paid 
in Tolls to the Breconshire Trust ! I think I have heard the freight of two full Cardy 
Carts was worth 70 but I have no means of verifying it now. 

The distance to be travelled in the week, to and fro, would be about 180 miles, and a 
good deal of the travelling was done at night, or in the very early morning. 



(106) 

OAK-PLANKING FOR NEW QUAY AND ABERAYRON. 

Another lost industry is that of the conveyance of oak timber, converted into planks 
at Brecon, from our County westward into Cardiganshire to New Quay, Cardigan, and 
Aberayron. I think most of it went to New Quay, and was used for the purpose of 
building and repairing coasting vessels there. It was not uncommon for Breconshire 
small capitalists to have a share in these vessels, and I remember some cousins of mine 
having this investment. Messrs. John Griffiths & Son mainly provided the oak timber, 
and converted it into planks of the required dimensions at their Brecon yard. The timber 
carriages used were a Cardiganshire speciality, having the lightest of narrow wheels and 
framework. And the horses used were two in number only, one before the other, and of 
the stronger class of Cardy breed, but smart walkers Of course this was but a small 
industry, and you only occasionally met these timber carriages on the road. However, 
this traffic, with that of the frequent strings of Cardy carts, and the rush by of the mail 
coaches, added to the passing of postchaises, imparted a life and cheerfulness to our roads 
that we can hardly realise now. Bicycles and motor cars are but a poor substitute, and 
only to be met with on the roads when they are dry. 

This demand for a small class of lengthy oak timber for Cardiganshire helped to keep 
the price up, and Breconshire landowners were in those days able to obtain 9 for a full- 
sized oak tree, containing about 60 to 70 feet cube of timber. I have by me the prices 
realised at a timber sale on the Tregunter estate, when 90 trees were sold for 900. 

Mr. Davies, of Ffrwdvale, in Carmarthenshire, who gave me many valnable notes, 
when preparing the paper on Black Cattle dreves, writes me thus : 

" I remember a great number of carts passing through Llansawell from South 
Cardigan and North Pembrokeshire, and another string from the Lampeter and Tregaron 
district in fact, Mid-Cardiganshirepassing through Pumpsaint on their way to the iron- 
works, carrying ' Pigs in carcase.' It was winter, I should think, from November to the 
end of March. The pigs were freshly killed, but not salted, and would not, I suppose, 
stand carrying in warm weather." 

And he adds 

" There was another great industry in those days, the carrying of oak timber from 
Radnorshire and Breeonshire to Aberayron for ship-building." 



Brecknock Castle. 

A COMYSSION FOR REPACONS OF BRECKNOCKE CASTLE. 



LAND REVENUE RECOHD OFFICE COPY. 

Among the Inrolments in the custody of the Keeper of His Majesty's Land Revenue 
Records and Inrolments in book intituled " South Wales Inrolments Vol. 1 " and at Folio 
171 is the following : 

Edwarde the Sixthe by the grace of God King of Englande FFraunce and Irelond 
Defendo'r of the faith* and of the churehe of Englande and also of Irelond, in earthe the 
Supreame headde, To our trustie and welbelovyd Sr Roger Vaughan knight John Bassett 
and Edwarde Games esquiers Greating. 

Wheare wee ar enformed that our Castell of Brecknocke in dyvers places thereof are 
mochie in decaye for default of repacons thereof an estymat of the charge of which repacons 
appearith in a Cedule herunto annexed, Knowe ye* that wee willing to have the same 
repacons to be made and donne trusting in yo'r fidelities and approved wisdoms doe give 
vnto you or two of you of whom you the said John Bassett to be one full power and 
authoritie to repayre to o'r said Castell and diligently to sorvey viewe serche and examyn 



(107) 

by all wayes and means that ye can whether the repacons mencioned in the said Cedule ar 
necessary to be don or not and what somes of money the same repacons will amount unto. 

And theruppon you the said Sr Roger Vaughan John Bassett Edwarde Games or ij of 
you of whom you the said John Baasett to be one to direct yo'r warraunt to Mathew 
Herbert esquier for the payment and delywie of so mochie money of o'r Revenues remain- 
ing in his hands to be bestowed and employed upon the repacons aforesaid as is mencioned 
in the said Cedule or as mochie thereof as by you shall be thought necessary and con- 
venient for the same which warraunt and warraunts shall be to the same Mathew Harbert 
a sufficient discharge for the payment and delywye of the same money. And what you 
shall doe in the premyssies to certifie into our Court of Thaugmentacons and Revenus of 
o'r Crowne at Westm' ymediately uppon the sight hereof tagether with this Comyssion 

In Wittness whereof wee have caused theia o'r Lres of Comyssion to be made Patente 
and sealed with the great scale of o'r said Court of thaugmentacong, Wittness Richard 
Sackville Knight at West' the xxiiijth day of ffebruarye in the vth yere of o'r Reygne 

Duke. 



COM' BRECKNOCKE. 

AN ESTIMAT OF THE NEOESSABIR REPACONS TO BE MADE AND DONE UPPON THE KlNOE MA 

CASTE LL OF BRECKNOCKE IN THE SAID COUNTIE. 

Ffirst next win the gate of the said Castell in the schequier chamber and the chamber ov' 
the same being xl fote in length and xviij fote in bredeth, lacking a gutter of leade betwene 
the Castell wall and the said lodging of xl fote in lenght and fortye vij in fote, Justs 
conteyning xvij fotn in lenght and other necessaries o vijli 

Itm in the Inn'chamber w'in the same lacking v lodes of v fote longe and one pticon 
of xvj fote in length, tenne ffote ffoure dores amounting to the sume of xxxs 

Itm the porters chamber lacking one gutter to be leaded of xxvti fote longe, one walle 
plate of lenght x fote, fyve borders fote bread xiij fote longe, one dore and one pticon w't 
w'ich toguether w't the tyle stones lyme nayles the biers of Carpenters and tylers amount- 
ing to the sum of xl g 

The kitchen lackith one wall plate throughe out of xlti fote longe, one gutter, xl 
rafters of x fote in lenght ev'ry rafter, w'ich toguether w't lyme nayles latte tyles stone 
and hiers of carpenters and workemen amountenthe to the some of xxxvj's viij'd 

The harnes Tow'r lackith iiij beames of xvtene fote longe the pece, liiijti bourds fote 
brode xviij fote longe one wall plate of xvj fote longe, amounting in all repayres to Ixx's 

Itm the well of the same decaied being xxxti fote in depthe x.s. 

The stable also this p'nte yere decaied and fallen down te the grounde which was in 
length xxx fotes and in bralth xviij fote, also a pece of the Castell wall this yere was 
decayed and fallen downe to the ground w'ich was iij fote thicke and xxti fote highe, the 
new building whereof in all things requisite to the same by estimacon amountithe to the 
sume of xxxli. 

The bisshops Tower lackith borders to make newe the loft of the same, being xxxj 
fote one way and xxxti fote thother way, w'th a new beam in the same and taking downe 
thereof and new making of the same and the new casting of the leads, in all things requisite 
by estimacon amount to the some of xli. 

Exr. Irr'u vijmo die Septembrie Anno Rx Evjth Qinto. 



EXPLANATOBT NOTES. 

Let us imagine we are crossing the Castle Bridge from Castle street, and then passing 
through the archway ot the Postern gate, which stood on the hill connecting the eastern 
wall of the Castle with the bishop's (Ely) Tower. 

Once within the gate, we find on our left the porter's chamber. This, it will be seen, 
lacks a lead gutter and other repairs. 



(108) 

And passing on still to the left, we enter the Schequier Chamber (the Exchequer 
Chamber, where rents were received and accounts paid, and also where probably the 
Courts Baron and Courts Leet were held the Court f Justice of the time) and ascend tke 
stairs to the chamber over it. Some considerable repairs are needed here, including a lead 
gutter between the exterior Castle wall and this lodging or chamber. 

There was also an Inner Chamber within this, which also needed repairs. 

Next comes the kitchen, which requires a 40 feet long gutter, a wall plate of the same 
length, and 40 rafters of 10 feet long each. 

Still keeping to the left, we enter the harness tower, which I take to be the present 
flagstaff tower. The repairs there required were the fixing of four beams, 15 feet long 
each, of wallplates and boarding for the various floors. This tower was probably the one 
in which bows and arrows and weapons of all kinds were kept, as well as the saddlery and 
trapping of the horses that occupied the stable. It was a kind of armoury, being we can 
conceive the most secure place within the Castle walls. 

Then we meet with the Castle well, which is said to be 30 feet deep, but in a decayed 
state. Theo. Jones wrote " there doubtless was a well in the Castle." We know more 
than that now. We have evidence that there actually was one, and that it-i depth was 30 
feet. The well, moreover, is said to have been in a decayed state but the exact spot 
where the well stood is, I believe, not known. 

At one point the Castle wall itself, being 20 feet high and 3 feet thick, had fallen to 
the ground. 

Near thereto was the stable, which had also fallen down, being in length 30 feet, and 
in breadth 18 feet. The rebuilding of this and the Castle wall required a large outlay. 

But the heaviest cost was that of repairing the bishop's, or, as we know it, Ely 
Tower. This was in fact the Keep, standing on the summit of the highest mound of 
earth within the Castle and to the right of the Postern gate as we entered. 

This tower then stood 31 feet the one way and 30 feet the other nearly square, but 
how high we are not told. It was the same here as in other portions of the Castle, the 
walls were mostly sound, but through the decay of the lead roof, the whole of the floor in 
the tower had become decayed. It is interesting tj learn some of the dimensions of this 
tower, as it was there Morton, the Bishop of Ely. was confined for months as a prisoner, 
and that the famous and successful project for securing the accession of Henry VII. 
to the throne was conceived and matured, This tower alone affords sufficient matter for 
an interesting historical novel. 

Assuming that all the specified repairs were carried out by the Commissioners, the 
cost to the King may be thus summarised : 

s. d. 

Eepairs to "Schequier" Chamber, &c 700 

,, Inner do. 1 10 

,, Porter's do. 200 

,, Kitchen do. .. 1 16 8 

,, "Harness" Tower ... .. .. ... 3 10 

Castle Well 10 

Stable and Castle Wall... 30 

"bisshop's" Tower ... 40 



Total . 86 6 8 



^ Taking the value of money to-day to be equal to twelve times the value in the reign 
of Edward VI., the repairs, if executed, may be said to have cost of our money, 1036. 

Theo. Jones, in his History of the County, alludes to the description of the Castle by 
Hugh Thomas, the Herald, in 1700. Your readers must refer to Jones (New Ed. page 221 
and Old Ed. Vol. II. page 106), and note what is said as to there being two watch towers 
at each of the four corners of the Castle walls, as to the situation of " the goodly hall 
with its costly pendants," and the Chapel of St. Nicholas, and also as to the figure of the 
Cow in wood that stood in front of the present modern house. I can tell them about none 



(109) 

of these things at present, as I have not had the opportunity to study the M.S. Works of 
the famous Welsh Herald in the Bodleian and British Museum Libraries. 

Passing on to Elizabeth's reign and that of James I., it would seem that the Castle 
then was falling to ruins, and that the inhabitants of the town were allowed to take the 
stone from the walls and use them for building purposes on cheir own lands, just as though 
it were a quarry. This was permitted by the Crown commonly in the case of dismantled 
castles, like Wigmore, &c., on payment of so much per load for the stones, and we find in 
the well known grant, 7 Chas. I. to Collins and Fenn, they were to pay to the King and 
his heirs " all the money for the materials of the Castle of Brecknock." And, unless 
rescinded, of which I am not aware that it has been, that provision of the grant is still in 
force. The Lordship and Castle belong to the Grantees and their successors, but if the 
stones of the Castle are sold, they are to be accounted for to the Crown. 



The Manor of Tal y Llyn or Croft y Yarll. 

(CO. OF BRECON.) 



AUTHORITIES. 

(Exhibits shown to Sheldon Powell, witness in the suit of 1682 (see infra) viz., 
Presentments of the Court of the Manor of Tallyn in 1586 (28 Eliz.) Roger Howell, 
Steward, and Hugh Powell of his (?) Manor. Also Presentments of the View of Frank 
Pledge with the Court Baron of the Manor of Tallyllyn, alias Croft y Yarll. Thomas 
Williams, Lord, and David Powell, Steward in 1623 (20 James I). Proceedings in the 
Chancery suit, Edward Williams v Charles Jones 1682-4. Records of Court Barons and 
Court Leets with Presentments, 1670 (31 Car. II.) to 1714 (1 Geo. I) Edward Williams 
and Joshua Parry, Lords of the Manor successively. Chief Rent Account Book, Henry 
Williams, Seneschal (steward) 1749-55. Particulars of sale of Manor, &c., 1794. Court 
Leet Presentments 1807, Claude Champion Crespigny, Lord of the Manor. Inclosure 
Commission of Llansaintfread and Llanvillo Commons, 1814. Evidence of Witnesses, 
thereat, and claims made by Sir E. Hamilton, of Trebinshwn and another. Award of 
Commissioners with Plan showing the boundaries of the Allotments made, Parish Tithe 
map, 1841. Jones Hist, of Breconshire, Old. Ed. 111., p. 548; New Ed., p. 438.') 



The following history of this Manor has been prepared with some care from the 
preceding Authorities. It would seem that at all times the Lord of the Manor and the 
Tenants were equally anxious to preserve and protect the Common lands and the public 
rights of the Manor from encroachment or infringement by individuals, and 
that in only quite recent days has there been any attempt made to claim and appropriate 
as private property the common land on the summit of the Allt yr Esgir Hill. It is to 
be hoped that the tenants and resiants (inhabitants) of the Manor will continue to assert 
and vindicate their claim to the common lands, and to protect rights, which are in the 
nature of public, and in the interests of the whole community, and I trust now, and long 
after my lime this Paper may be of service to them to that end. 

The Manor itself is of small extent, comprising the Parish of Llangasty Tal y Llyn, 
and though held at present by the same owner, is distinct from the adjacent manors of 
Blaenllynfi, Scethrog, and English and Welsh Penkelly. 

Without going back to very early history, and which I have not the means at hand 
of tracing out, the papers in my possession show, that in the reign of Elizabeth ( 1586) 



(110) 

Roger Howell was the Steward, and Hugh Powell, either the Lord of the Manor or holding 
it as tenant under the Queen (the Latin expression used is ui manerii, and I am told it 
may mean "his " or "her.") 

THE EXHIBITS. 

Paper A. 

(Papers shown to Sheldon Powell, witness, on the 25th Jan. 1682, in 
the suit in the Court of Exchequer between Edward Williams, 
gent. pit. and Charles Jones, Esq., deft. 

John Price. 
Henry Prichards.) 

No. 1 Manor of Tallyn. 5 Oct. 28 Eliz. (1586) Names of tenants. Sir John Watkins 
and others. 

(Imperfect.) 

No. 2. Court held there 8 Aug. 28 Eliz. (1586) before Roger Howell, gent., steward of 

Hugh Powell of his manor (?) 
No. 8. Court held there 24 Aug. in said year before the same. 

Pleas of trespass, &c. 

Pigs trespassing upon the oats (avenas). 
No. 4. Court held there 5 Oct. in said year before same. 

Pound and stocks out of repair, therefore all the tenants to be amerced. 

Assault by Thomas D. D. Morgan upon VVatkin Thomas and drew blood (cum 

traccione sanguinis). 
No. 5. Court held there 26th Oct. in said year before same. 

Pleas of trespass and breaking hedges. 
No. 6. Court held 16 Nov. in said year before the same steward. 

Thomas Llewellyn v. Thomas Waites, plea of trespass to the damage of 25s. 

for killing a horse of that value with a dog called a " mastiffe." 
No. 7. Court held there 7 December 29 Eliz (1587) before said steward. 

Pleas of trespass, &c. recovery of debt. 
No. 8. Court held there 21 December, 29 Eliz. (1587). 

Pleas of trespass. 
No. 9. Court held there 18th Jan. 29 Eliz. (1587) before the same steward. 

Pleas of trespass and assault. 
No. 10. Court held there 8 Feb. 29 Eliz. (1587 1 before the same steward. 

Pleas of trespass. 
No. 11. Court held there 8th March 29 Eliz. (1587) before the said steward. 

Trespass. 
No. 12. Court held 14 June 29 Eliz. (1587), before the said steward. 

Plea of debt. 
No. 18. Court held there 4 July, 29 Eliz. (1587) before the said steward. 

Pleas of trespass. 
No. 14. Court held there 2 Aug. 29th Eliz. (1587) before the said steward. 

Bobert Olborn pit., versus Eichard David, plea of taking and carrying away 

apples out of his orchard (pomas ex pomario) to the damage of 10s. 
The jurors find him guilty and assess the damage (dam) at Id. besides costs 

(unum denarium ultra mis). 
No. 15. Court held there 20 September, 29 Eliz. (1587) before the said steward. 

Trespasses. 
No. 16. Court held there 11 Oct. 29 Eliz. (1587) before the same steward. 

The pound of the said manor not kept in repair, therefore all the tenants are 
amerced. 

William Hoell, William and John Hoell presented for keeping goats contrary to 
the custom of said manor, therefore all of them are amerced. 



We now come to a second batch of exhibits, in 21 Jas. reign (1628) when David 



(Ill) 

Powell was Steward, and Thomas Williams (clearly stated to have been) Lord of the 
Manor. There may have been a grant of the Manor made in the intervening period, 
assuming it was held by Queen Elizabeth in 1586. 

Paper B. 

View of frankpledge with the Court baron of Thomas Williams, 
gentleman, the lord, held there on the 1st day of May 21 James I. 
(1623) before David Powell, gentleman, steward. 

No. 1. Names of the free tenants and resiants of said manor. 

Pleas of trespass, &c. 
No. 2. Court Baron of Thomas Williams, gent., held there 20 March, 20 Jas. I., before 

the same steward. 
Pleas of debt. 
No. 8. Court baron of Thomas Williams, gent., held there 10th April, 21 Jas. I. before 

the same steward. 
Pleas of debt. 
No. 4. Court baron of Thomas Williams, gent., held there 22 May, 20 Jas. I. before 

Thomas Forster, clerk. 
Pleas of debt. 
No. 5. Court baron of Thomas Williams, gent., held there 12 June, 20 Jas. I., before 

Thomas Forster, clerk. 
Pleas of debt. 
No. 6. View of frank pledge with court baron of Thomas Williams held there 24 Oct. 

20 Jas. I. before David Powell, gent., steward. 
Freemen of said manor. 

Entry regarding repairs of highway leading from Bulch to Brecon. 

No. 7. View of frank pledge with court baron of Thomas Williams, held there 1580 22 
Jas. 1, before David Powell, steward. 

List of free tenants and resiants. 
No. 8. View of frank pledge with court Baron of Thomas Williams, held there 30 Oct. 

21 Jas. I. before the said stewards. 

Presentment of parish for not mending the highway leading from the Bulch 

towards Brecon 
No. 9. View of frank pledge with court baron of Thomas Williams held there 28 Oct. 

22 Jas. I. before the same steward. 
Inquisitio Magna, i.e. Grand jury. 

List of free tenants and resiants of the manor. 
No. 10. View of frank pledge with court baron of Thomas Williams held there 12 May 

1 Chas. I. 1625, before the same stewards. 

List of names including Hugh Morgans, clerk, (see Jones, Vol. 3, 553). 
No. 11. View of frank pledge with court baron of Thomas Williams, held there 14 Oct., 

1 Chas. I., before the same steward. 
List of Names. Presentments. 

Here follows a series of Court Leets and Presentments made thereat from 1669 to 1714, 
a period of 44 years. 

In 1669 (80 Car. II.) Court Leets were held, William Williams being Lord of the 
Manor, and Edward Williams his son, who succeeded him. William Walters was the 
Steward, Mathew de la Lagrange being the deputy steward. 

In 1670 (81 Car. II.) the Court Leet of Edward Williams, Lord of the Manor was 
held, William Phillips being Seneschal. 

In 1671 (32 Car. II.) a Court Leet of the same Lord was held, over which an 
important person, judging from his large bold signature, by name " Sheldon Powell " 
(the witness to whom the Exhibits were shown) presided as Steward. A number of 
tenants were summoned to the Court, including Sir William Lewis, described as knight 
and Baronet. 



(112) 

In 1678 a court leet was held with the same Lord and Steward, and among the 
presentments are the following : 

Item we doe present Theophilus John for incroaching about three foot of land in 

breadth bounding the highway within the said Lordship. 

Item we doe present Watkin John for encroaching about six yards of the Common 
called Allt within the said Lordship. 

1680. There appears also to have been a court leet held on Oct. 20, 1680, when 
similar presentments to the above were again made, but the names of the lord of the 
manor and of the steward are not entered. 

1682. Disputes appear now to have arisen as to what services were properly due by 
the tenants to the Lord, and we find that in 1682, a man of substance within the 
Manor, Charles Jones, of Trebinshwn, Gent., and who had been High Sheriff of the 
County in 1681, refused to perform the services required. 

These disputes led to the Chancery Suit of 1682 between Edward Williams, Lord 
of the said Manor, and the said Charles Jones, as a tenant of the Manor. The points at 
issue were many, but chiefly related to services to be performed annually in helping to 
plough the Lord's land and to harvest his corn. 

By a copy of the Decree in the case, dated 4th Sept. 1684. it will be seen that Edward 
Williams did exhibit his English Bill against Charles Jones, setting forth that the com- 
plainant and his father William Williams before him, had for 40 years pasc been seized of 
the Manor of Llangasty Tal y Llyn, otherwise Croft y Yarll, and that about 800 aeres of 
waste land, and 40 tenements, including that of Charles Jones the defendant were com- 
prised within the manor. And then the Bill proceeded to set forth the matters 
complained of. 

There appears to have been the usual Commission de bene esse to take the evidence of 
aged and infirm witnesses, followed by a trial at Hereford, and other legal proceedings, 
before which were concluded Charles Jones, the defendant, died. The suit wag then 
revived against his brother, Edmund Jones, and in 1684 the decree referred to was 
issued, by which it was ordered that the defendant and all other tenants of the manor were 
required to pay heriots and alienation fees, to give one day's ploughing to the Lord in the 
autumn, and another in the spring, and to give one day to harvest the Lord's corn if called 
upon to do so. 

1684. This ended the litigation, and on April 26 1684, an important court leet was 
held before William Williams, gent, steward. 

At this Court a full list or Eent roll of the Chief Bents and Comorth due to the Lord 
were set forth " to the best of the knowledge of the Jury." The chief rents are stated to 
be payable, some at Michaelmas, some at the Feast of the Nativity (Christmas Day), and 
others at the Feast of the Annunciation (25th March or Lady Day) Comorth was pay- 
able every second year in the month of May. The Jury then proceed to present heriots of 
the best beast due on the death of various tenants, including one on the death of the 
Charles Jones previously referred to. They also present the alienation fine of 7/- due on 
the change of a tenancy, and then proceed thus : 

Item we present plowing in two days, viz., one in the spring time of the year or Lent 
crops sown, and the other in the autumn or fall of the year about Michaelmas, and one 
day reaping in corn harvest upon due notice. 

Item we present the defect of a pound, and *cucking stool in the Manor. 

It would appear that Rachel, the daughter and heiress of William Williams, and 
sister of Edward Williams, the previous Lords successively, married Joshua Parry, a son 
of the well known family of Parry of Llandevaelog Tre'graig, and brought to him the Lord- 
ship of the Manor, and we now find his r.ame as Lord of the Manor for several years. 
Joshua Parry was High Sheriff for the county in 1724. 

1695. The first Court Leet of the new Lord, Joshua Parry, of which we have a 
record, was held in 1695 (9 Wm. & Mary) before Phillip Williams, Seneschal or Steward 
of the Manor. 

* Clicking stool _ _ 
in ancient times 



Interpreter. 



i an engine invented for the punishment of Scolds and unquiet women, called 
;imes a Tumbrell. It was usually kept in charge of the Court Leet. Cowett'a 



(118) 

The tenants attended and the Jury sworn and a presentment of the admission of a 
new tenant to the manor made. 

1700. The next Court Leet of Joshua Parry, Lord of the Manor, appears to have 
been held in May, 1700 (11 Wm. and Mary; before Henry Williams, Seneschal. 

The Jurors names are entered, and a number of the usual presentments were made, 
including the wa* t of a stocks and whipping post within the Lordship. 

1701. On Oct. 23, 1701 (12 Wm. & Mary) the court leet of Joshua Parry was held 
before Henry Williams, Gent., Seneschal. 

A full list of Jurors is entered on the Minutes, and various presentments were made r 
and inter alia : 

Item we present Gwenllian John for keeping goats upon the Common called Allt yr 
Yskir within this Lordship. 

Item we present Mary the wife of Thomas Price, and Gwenllian. the wife of John 
Eichard for being common hedgebreakers. 

Item we present the want of a stocks and whipping post within this Lordship. 
Item we present Thomas Bevan, of Blaenllonwy, Isaac Williams oi the same place, 
and William Thomas for breaking the pound and taking there hence cattel. 

(Thomas Madocke, Gent., and Thomas Perrott are among the jurors who attended.) 

1679. On the back of this paper there are some entries made at a court leet held on 
May 14, 1679, but before what steward is not stated. 

The names of the Jury are, however, given, and there are a number of presentments. 
As to the encroachment on the common land. 
,, Want of stocks and whipping post 
,, The moiety of the common land adjoining Llanvihangel Parish being within 

this Lordship of Taly llyn. 

,, John Prosser encroaching land adjoining to his own land. 
,, John Davids encroaching land adjoining his own garden. 

,, Watkin John encroaching land J acre or less adjoining the Common called, The 
Allt. 

1702. A court leet of the same Lord, Joshua Parry, was held in October, 1702 (18 
Wm. & Mary) before Henry Williams, Seneschal. 

Adjourned to December 7 of the same year. 

At the adjourned Court various presentments were made, including the defect of a 
Stocks and of Whipping post, Henry Williams being Seneschal. 

1704. At a Court Leet held in 1704 (2 Anne) the presentment as to Stocks and 
Whipping post was again made. (No Steward's name. ) 

1705. Court Leet of Joshua Parry, Lord of the Manor held in 1705 (8 Anne) before 
Henry Williams-Seneschal. 

Only name of Jury given, apparently no presentments made. 

1706. Court Leet held in 1706 (4 Anne). Same Lord and Steward. 
Presentments made as to defect of pound, Stocks and Whipping post. 

1707. Court Leet held in 1707 (5 Anne) same Lord and Steward. Jurors attended 
and present alienations of lands, and default in attendance of the Tenants of the Manor. 

1708. Court Leet held in 1708 (6 Anne) same Lord and Steward. One Tenant 
was admitted to the Manor. 

1710. Court Leet of Joshua Parry, Lord of the Manor, held in 1710 (8 Anne) before 

John Howell, Sub- Seneschal, or Sub- Steward. 

Various presentments were made by the Jury as to heriots on death, alienations, and 

the usual one as to defect of pound, Stocks and Whipping post within the Lordship. 

Item we doe present the want of a nett for taking and destroying of Crows within 

the Manor, and that the same ought to be made at the expense of the Parish of Llanffasty 

Taly Llyn. 

[By 24 Henry VIII. cap. 10, an Act passed " For the destruction of Crows and Rooks." 
It was enacted that having regard to the serious destruction of corn and grain of all 
kinds, and over that, of the covertures of thatched houses, barns, etc. by the 
innumerable number of rooks, crows, and choughs then existing in the land, every 



(114) 

person possessed of a Manor or estate of inheritance is required to do everything in his 
power to destroy the said birds, especially in the breeding season, and every parish, town, 
hamlet, etc. is required to provide crow nets during the next ten years. And the taker 
of crows was to be paid at the rate of 2d. for every twelve old crows, Id. for every six, 
and Jd. for every three, the same to be paid by the farmer or owner of land. 

This Statute was repealed by 14 El z. Cap. II., except so far as concerneth the 
provision, use and maintenance of nets and " Shrops " for the destruction of crows, etc. 
I do not think I have seen more than one such entry before. It was in the present- 
ment of the adjacent manor of Scethrog in 29 Eliz. 1586, as to the wants of " crow 
nets " (rttia conum) and also of " les buttes " (for bowmen), and I do not recollect that 
I have met with the entry of a "cucking stool " previously.] 

1718. A Court Leet was held on Saturday, being the 25th October, 1713 (10 Anne) 
the same Lord of the Manor and Stewards. 

The Tenants attended, and were sworn as Jurors. Various presentments were made. 
1714. Court Leet held on the 22nd October. 1714 (12 Anne), the same Lord of the 
Manor and Steward. 

The names of the Jurors sworn are entered and a list of the presentments. 
Imprimis we present that a footway leading from the Mansion house to the Parsonage 
within the said Ma> or through a field called Close dd Myrick is no common highway, but 
a byway at the will and permission of the Lord of the said Manor. 

Item we present Eobert Perott for setting and erecting rayles or barriers upon a way 
leading from the highway, as well as to the lands of Wm. Thomas and other inhabitants 
within the said lordship, by reason whereof the tenants of the said Manor are much 
hindered in the use of the said way to serve (?) and manure their lands. 

Amerced for the time past and to remove the nuisance within a month on pain of 
fine. 

1714. Court Leet held in 1714 (1 Geo. I.) the same Lord and Steward. 
The Tenants attended and were sworn as Jurors, various presentments were made, 
and inter alia. 

Item we present Eobert Perott for encroaching about a quarter of an acre of land 
upon the Common within the said Lordship, and thereby stopping a way, which leads to 
the lands of Wm Thomas within the said Lordship. 

Item we present Thomas Vaughan for diverting an ancient watercourse running from 
Maes y ffynon to the highway within the said Lordship. 

Robert Perott was amerced 20/- for the encroachment for the past two years 

and to remove the same before January 1 next on pain of 40/-. 
Thomas Vaughan was amerced 18/4 for diverting the water, and ordered to 
restore the same to its ancient course before December 1st next on 20/- 
penalty. 

[Here our records of the Court Leets of this Manor, for the present, cease.] 



It is stated by the County Historian, that there was a tablet affixed to the eastern 
end of the Parish Church, stating that Joshua Parry of Taly Llyn died on May 8, 1729, 
which would be the year after he had served the office of High Sheriff, and Jones adds 
that Mary, the daughter of his grandson. James Parry, brought the Manor and the 
Talyllyn property (on her marriage) to Richard Lewis of Courty gollen. The only 
daughter and heiress, Mary, of this marriage, married Richard Davies, who thus became 
owner of both the Courty gollen estate and of that of the Manor and estate of Llangasty 
Talyllyn ; and we find that from 1762 to 1773 a Richard Davies, probably the same, was 
owner of the adjacent manor of Blaenllynfi, Pennoyre VVatkins, the well-known Solicitor 
of Brecon being the Steward, and holding Court Barons regularly. 

There are no records extant of any Courts Leets held for the Llangasty Taly llyn 
manor from 1714 to 1795, during the greater portion of which time the family of Davies 
were the Lords. But we have a Manorial receipt account book kept by Henry Williams, 
Steward from 1749 to 1755, which shows that whether or not Court Leets were held, the 



(115) 

chief rents and comorth due to tha Lord of the Manor, weie regularly paid and accounted 
for to the Lord. This book is now before me, and was evidently thought something of by 
the new owner of the manor, by purchase, in 1795, as it bears the book plate of Philip 
Champion Crespigny, with coat of arms and motto " Mens conscia recti." 

It appears by the "particulars of sale" published by Mr. Christie that there 
would be sold by auction at his Great Boom in Pall Mall on Wednesday, June 18th, 1794, 
at one o'clock, a large Breconshire estate comprising the manors of Llangasty Talyllyn and 
Blaenllynfi, forming a circuit of at least 20 miles, and including the three neighbouring 
parishes. The waste lands were stated to be upwards of 1500 acres in extent, and the 
enclosed freehold lands upwards of 2000 acres, yielding a rental of 1,600 a year. 

The owner's name is not given in the Particulars (as by some stupid custom was 
then, as it is now, the rule) but we know that this estate belonged to the Eichard Pavies 
we have spoken of as the owner of Courtygollen, and Lord of the Llangasty Talyllyn 
Manor. There is no plan attached, and the tenant's name with the acreage and the rent 
of their holding is given but not the names of the Farms. 

Of this large property (or the greater part of it) Mr Philip Champion Crespigny 
became the purchaser in 1795. And with the readiness with which new comers into the 
county, as the saying is, " new men and old acres," are usually nominated, either at their 
own suggestion or otherwise, he was nominated High Sheriff in the following year, 1796. 
The possession of broad acres is the ready passport to that high office. 

Apparently in 1807, the estate was in the hands of Trustees, namely, the son, Claude 
Champion Crespigny, liichard Scott, and Stafford Squire Baxter, and on their behalf, as 
joint Lords of the Manor, a Court Leet was held at Talyllyn House on 26 May, 1807. 

There were then various presentments made, and among others : 

Item we present an encroachment made by Theophilus Williams of a piece of waste 
ground on the side of the road leading from Talyllyn House to Breccn. 

In 1812 the above Claude Champion Crespigny was appointed High Sheriff for the 
County. 

We now come to an important event, the Inelosure, under the provisions of a Special 
Act of Parliament, of that part of the open Common of Allt yr Eskir Hill which lay in the 
parish of Llansaintfread, of about, roughly speaking, 100 acres in extent, Thynne Howe 
Gwynne, of Buckland, and the Crown claiming to be joint lords of the Manor. 

The position of the grazing rights as regards these two parishes seems previously to 
have been as follows. The whole of the common lands on the Allt yr Eskir hill 30 
acres in Llangasty, and 100 acres in Llansaintfread, about 130 acres in extent was open 
and unenclosed and undivided, and there is little d.,mbt that the sheep of the two parishes 
intermingled on the top. And probably when a gale was blowing from the south west, 
the Llansaintfread sheep passed over the brow to the sheltered side, and in fine weather, 
and when the sun shone, the Llangasty sheep came in turn over the border to their 
neighbours' common. This, it will be seen, is the tenor and effect of the evidence given 
by witnesses from Llangasty before the Inelosure Commissioners. 

At this inquiry, it may be here remarked, the Commissioners found that Mr. Thynne 
Howe Gwynne was the sole Lord of the Manor, the Crown having no interest, and 
further that the claim of the Llangasty Talyllyn Commoners to a share in the division of 
the common land of Llansaintfread on the Allt Hill could not be held good. On the other 
hand there was of course no interference with their own 80 acres of common land within 
their parish, and that remained intact, though divided off, for their common use, as before. 

The following is the evidence taken before the Commissioners to which I have 
referred. 



LLANSAINTFEEAD AND LLANVILLO INCLOSUEE AWAED, 1814. 

EVIDENCE TAKEN. 

Thomas Davies lived at Ty Gwyn and Cynyhordy Farms in the Parish of Llangasty 
Talyllyn. He remembers his father turning sheep up to the Allt yr Eskir without any 
interruption. He did so every year. Latterly he had about 60 head there. Never heard 



(116) 

of any interruption. His father held another farm, called the North, but the sheep were 
from Tygwyn and Cjnyhordy. 

William Jones was servant to the father of previous witness. During the whole time, 
Mr. Davies turned his sheep on Alltyr Eskir, and Mr. William Brewer who succetded Mr. 
Davies also turned his sheep there. Mr. Brewer held no other farm but Tygwyn. Never 
heard of any interruption. 

John Parry was with his father in 1795. His father rented the two Trebinshwn 
Farms from Sir Edward Hamilton, and his brother rented them afterwards. Every year 
they were accustomed to turn a small number of sheep to the Allt yr Eskir Common. 
Both his father and brother exercised the right. Never knew of any interruption. They 
used to turn the rest of the sheep to Cefn Mole Common in the Parish of Cathedine. 
When they turned the sheep on the Allt they sometimes turned them to the part of it, 
which is in Llangasty Talyllyn, and continues to the part in the Parish of Llansaintfread. 

Henry Moseley rented Scybor Newydd farm in 1809. Some of his sheep used to get 
upon the Allt. He considered that they had a right there. 



EXTBACTS FROM AWAED AS TO ABUTTALS OF THE ALLOTMENTS. 

To JOHN JONES. 
Allotments Nos. 40, 41, 42, 48, 44 AND 45. 

Bounded by the carriage roads, Nos. 11 and 12 on the west, and on all other parts and 
sides thereof by waste lands in the Parish of Llangasty Talyllyn, and by an allotment 
herein awarded to Thynne Howe Gwynne, the elder. 

To LANCELOT MORGAN. 
Allotment No. 47. 

Bounded in part by the said waste lands in the said parish of Llangasty Talyllyn. 

To THYNNE HOWE GWYNNE AS LORD OF THE MANOR. 
Allotment No. 81. 

Bounded in part by the waste lands in the said parish of Llangasty Talyllyn. 

To Do. AS LORD OF THE MANOR. 
Allotment No. 82. 

Bounded in part by the waste lands situate in the said parish of Llangasty Talyllyn. 

Sir Edward Hamilton submitted his claim to allotments on the Llansaintfread Common 
in the parishes of Llangasty and Llantaintfread, in respect of his estate of 763 acres, con- 
sisting of Trebinshon and Treberfed, &c. mainly in the parish of Llangasty Talyllyn. 
Miss Hughes, through her tenant, Mr. Brewer, claimed in right of Ty Gwyn in the Parish 
of Llangasty Talyllyn. 

It would seem that the Commissioners disallowed these claims, so far as concerned 
the Alltyr Eskir Common within the Parish of Llansaintfread. 

The rights of common on the waste lands of Alltyr Eskir within the limits of the 
Parish of Llangasty Talyllyn then remained as they had been, and were unaffected by the 
proceedings of the Commissioners, and the award made by them. 

Mr. Charles Fox Champion Crespigny, being Lord of the Manor of Llangasty 
Talyllyn, and owner of the Tymawr estate, made no claim in respect of his Talyllyn 
property, but only in respect of his lands at Pennorth within the parish of Llansaintfread. 

And you find to-day on the Parish Tithe Map of Llangasty Talyllyn, the lands 



(117) 

mentioned and described above, as the Waste Lands of the Parish, mapped and described 
tfcereon in the same manner, i.e., as the waste or common lands of the Parish 

In 1836 Mr. Crespigny advertised his Talyllyn property, including the Manor, and 
also the Blaenllynfi Manor and Cathedine estate for sale, and after considerable negotiation, 
Colonel James Price Gwynne Holford, of Buckland and Kilgwyn became the purchaser in 
1837. On his death, in 1846. the Manors and Estates descended to his eldest son, 
James Price Gwynne Holford, the present owner. 

And it is a matter of common knowledge that Mr. Gwynne Holford a few years ago 
claimed the 80 acres of land on the Allt yr Eskir Hill as his absolute private freehold 
property, and enclosed it with a barbed wire fence, so far as to prevent any access thereto 
from the Pennorth end. 

Assuming the evidence of the Presentments at the Court Leets previously quoted as 
to encroachments made on the Allt yr Eskir hill, and the evidence of the witnesses before 
the Inclosure Commissioners to be faithfully reported, it would seem to be conclusively 
proved that, down to 1814 at least, the land had been treated and considered as common 
land by the successive Lords of the Manor and their tenants. And though perhaps not 
strictly evidence, the Parish Map of 1841 conveys with it to all reasonable persons the 
moral proof that the land was still so regarded at the date when the Parish Map was 
made. 

And that, therefore, as there has been no Inclosure Act passed relating to this common 
land, any change in the character of it from common or waste land to private freehold 
must have taken place during the lifetime and ownership of the present Mr. Gwynne 
Holford, of Buckland. 

The value of the land, which ia exposed and stony, cannot for grazing purposes be 
more than 2/6 an acre as yearly rent, or say a capital sum of 120. But to the lovers of 
beautiful views and scenery, and to many of the inhabitants around for an occasional 
healthful and pleasant walk to the summit, the preservation of this summit ridge of the 
Allt Hill as an open space is of great value. It has always been so open until recently, 
and let no expense or trouble be spared to preserve it as such for ever. 



Old Lease of Land in Cathedine Parish-1617. 



(BLACKMOOR COMMON.) 

This Indenture made the ninth day of Aprill 1617 in the yeres of the raigne of our 
soveraigne lord James by the grace of God of England Scotland ffraunce and Ireland, 
Kinge Defender of the faith &c. that is to say of England ffraunce and Ireland the fifteenth 
and of Scotland the fiftieth Between Sir Henrie Williams of Gwernevett in the Countie of 
Brecon Knight of the one parte, And William Vaughan and Roger Prosser gentlemen, 
Phillipp John Howell, Watkin Prosser John, Watkin Thomas Watkin, William John 
Howell, David Prosser Jevan, Jevan Thomas, John Lewes Watkin, David ap Jevan, Jevan 
David Willim. Lewes Watkin, John ap John Jevan, John Thomas Lloyd, John Thomas 
Lewes, Thomas Lawrence, Roger Prosser Lewes, Edward John Rosser, Lewes Edmond 
Lewes, John Lewes Howell, John Howell ap Jevan, Thomas Jevan William David, Lewes 
Edmond Rosser, John Jevan Wm. David, Jenkin John Howell, and Thomas ap Prees Lewes, 
yeomen all of the parish of Kathedine in the said Countie of Brecon of the other parte ; 
Witnesseth that the said Sir Henrie Williams for diverse good causes and considerations 
him thereunto specialise moveinge, hath demised giaunted and to f&rme letten and by these 



(118) 

presents doth demise graunt lett and to farme sett unto the said William Vaughan, Roger 
Prosser, Phillipp John Howell, Watkin Prosser John, Watkin Thomas Watkin, William John 
Howell, David Prosser Jevan, Jevan Thomas, John Lewes Watkin, David ap Jevan, Jevan 
David Willtn, Lewes Watkin, John ap John Jevan, John Thomas Lloyd, John Thomas 
Lewes, Thomas Lawrence, Roger Prosser Lewis, Edward John Rosser, Lewes Edmond Lewes. 
John Lewas Howell, John Howell Jevan, Thomas Jevan Wm. David, Lewes Edmond 
Rosser, John Jevan Wm. David, Jenkin John Howell, and Thomas Prees Lewes, and to 
theire heires and assigns All that part and parcell of land and pasture with the appur- 
tenances conteyninge by estimacion ffortie a^res be it more or lesse which nowe is or 
heretofore was parcell of the demesne lands of the Lordshippe of Dynas and Blaen- 
lloveney in the said Countie and was sometime demised to Thomas Vaughan Esq. beinge 
parcell and latelie enclosed and drawne into severalltie out of a certeine pasture ground 
comonly called or knowne by the name of Blackmore within the parish of Kathedin and in 
the lordshippe of Dynas and Blaenlloveney aforesaid for ye depasturing of theire beasts 
catties there hereafter specified and expressed from time to time dureinge the tearme 
hereby graunted and demised vidz the said William Vaughan to have the depasturinge of 
flower beasts, Roger Prosser six beasts, Phillipp John Howell three beasts, Watkin Prosser 
John three beasts, Watkin Thomas Watkin tlnee beasts, William John Howell three beasts, 
David Prosser Jevan three beasts, Jevan Thomas three beasts, John Lewes Watkin three 
beasts, David ap Jevan three beasts, Jevan David Willim two beasts, Lewes Watkin two 
beasts, John ap John Jevan two beasts, John Thomas Lloyd two beasts, 
John Thomas Lewes two beasts, Thomas Lawrence two beasts, Rosser Prosser 
Lewes two beasts, Edward John Rosser two beasts, Lewes Edmond Lewes two 
beasts, John Lewes Howell two beasts, John Howell ap Jevan two beasts, Thomas Jevan 
Wm. David one beast, Lewes Edmond Rosser one beast, John Jevan Wm. David one beast, 
Jenkin John Howell one beast, and Thomas Prees Lewes one beast, To have and to farme 
hould the said parcell of land and pasture with the appurtenances unto the said William 
Vaughan, Roger Prosser, Phillipp John Howell, Watkin Prosser John, Watkin Thomas 
Watkin, William John Howell, David Prosser Jevan, Jevan Thomas, John Lewes, Watkin, 
David ap Jevan, Jevan David Wm. Lewes Watkin, John ap John Jevan, John Thomas 
Lloyd, John Thomas Lewes, Thomas Lawrence, Roger Prosser Lewes, Edward John 
Rosser Lewes Edmond Lewes, John Lewes Howell, John Howell Jevan, Thomas ap 
Jevan William David, Lewes Edmond Rosser, John Jevan William David, Jenkin John 
Howell, and Thomas Prees Lewes, theire heires and assigns from the feast day of the 
Purification of St. Marie the Virgine last past before the date of these presentes for and 
dureinge the tearme of one thousand yeares from thence forth next immediatlie ensueinge 
and fullie to be compleate and ended. Yealdinge and paying therefore yearelie dureinge 
the said tearme unto the said Sir Henrie Williams his heires and assigns the summe of 
ffower pounds of lawfull money of England on the first day cf August yearelie, And alsoe 
yealdeinge and paying unto the said Sir Henrie Williams his heires and assigns the summe 
of ffower pounds fine of like lawfull money for and att the end of evcrie Threescore yearea 
dureinge the said tearme to be payd uppon the afforesaid first day of August next before 
the end ofeverieof the said threescore yeares if the same shall be lawfullie demaunded. 
And if it shall happen the said yerelie rent of ffower pounds payable yearelie as aforesaid 
or the said ffower pounds fine payeable at the end of everie threescore yeares dureinge the 
said tearme as aforesaid or anie parte thereof to be behinde and unpayd after anie 
feast day att and uppon which it ought to be payd as aforesaid being lawfullie demaunded, 
That then and at all times then after such default of payment it shall and may be lawfull 
unto and for the said Sir Henrie Williams his heires and assigns unto the aforesaid demised 
premises to re-enter and there to distraine for the same and for all the arrerages thereof 
which shall happen to be, and the distresse and distresses there found to take leade drive 
and carrie away, and the same to detain* and keepe with him and them untill such time 
as he or they shall or may be fullie satisfied and payd of the said rent and fine soe [in] 
arreare and of all arrerages thereof, And that if noe sufficient distresse or distresses can or 
may be then found for the same in or uppon the said demised premisses or anie parte 
thereof That then and from thenceforth this present Lease shall be voyd, and that it shall 



(119) 

and may be lawfull unto and for the said Sir Henrio Williams his heires and assignee 
unto the said demised premisses with the appurtenances to re-enter and the same to have 
againe repossesse and enjoy as in his or theire former estate this present Indenture or anie 
thinge herein conteyned to the contrarie notwithstandinge ; provided alwayes and it is 
neverthelesse Covenanted graunted condiscended and agreed by and between the said 
parties and theire true intent and meaninge is, And soe the said Sir iienrie Williams doth 
for the consideracions aforesaid for him his heires and assignes Covenant promise and 
graunte to and with the said William Vaughan, Eoger Prosser, Philipp John Howell, 
Watkin Prosser John, Watkin Thomas Watkin, William John Howell, David Prosser 
Jevan, Jevan Thomas, John Lewes Watkin, David ap Jevan, Jevan David William, Lewes 
Watkin, John ap John Jevan, John Thomas Lloyd, John Thomas Lewes, Thomas 
Lawrence, Eoger Prosser Lewes, Edward John Eosser, Lewes Edmond Lewes, John Lewes 
Howell, John Howell ap Jevan, Thomas Jevan William David, Lewes Edmond Eosser, 
John Jevan Wm. David, Jenkin John Howell, and Thomas ap Frees Lewes, and theire 
severall and respective heires and assigns and everie of them by these presents That they 
and everie of them theire and everie of theire severall and respective heires and assigns 
shall from time to time and att all times hereafter dureinge the tearme (notwithstandinge 
this demise and Lease made of the said lands and pasture enclosed) have and enjoy all 
such and the like libertie and benefit! of Common of herbadge pasture and pawnadge in all 
the rest and residue of the said Common called Blackmoore not enclosed nor hereby 
demised as they the said Lessees have heretofore soverallie had and enjoyed or which they 
or theire severall heires or assigns hereafter of right ought to have had and enjoyed if this 
present demise had not bin had or made, And further that the said respective parties 
Lessees and theire heires and assigns shall have and enjoy the benefitt of this present 
Lease, and demissed premisses with the appurtenances and the said herbadge pasture and 
Common of pasture hereby demised or graunted, And that noe executor or administrator 
of anie of the said Lessees before named shall have anie interest therein dealeinge there- 
with or benefitt thereby but the heire and heires or assignes of them the said respective 
Lessees successivelie shall have and enjoy the same as appendant and belonginge to the 
respective messuadge lands or tenememes which they the said Lessees doe nowe severallie 
hould and enjoy under the said Sir Henrie Williams within the parish of Kathedine afore- 
said And lastlie that he the said Sir Henrie Williams and his heires all and singular the 
premisses with theire appurtenances hereby demised and graunted as aforesaid unto the 
said severall and respective lessee* and theire severall and respective heires and assignes 
under the rent fine and covenants aforesaid against him and his heires and assignes shall 
and will warrant acquite and defend dureinge all the said tearme, In witnes whereof the 
parties above said to these present Indentures interchangeable have put theire hands and 
seales the day and yeare above written 1617. 

HENRY WILLIAMS. 
Sealed aud delivered in the Presence of 

Thomas Vaughan of Llanvigan 
Howell Thomas de Brecon 
William Powell de Llanvigan 
Eoger Lloyd de Llangomarch 
John Thomas de Brecon 
Eoger Phillipp de Llanigon. 

Copia vera 

David Morgan. Wm. Jones. Jo. Perott. 

[Endorsed.] A lease of 1000 years from Sir Henry Wm. of Gwernevett Knight to 
ye several tenants of Cathedine of ye common Enclosed and Cald ye Black- 
moore in ye Lordship of Dinas and Blaenlloveney att ye Eent of 4li (4) per 
annum and 41i (4) fine every GO years. Dated ye 9th April, 1617. 



(120) 

Within recent times a Common, situate at the upper end of Llangorse Lake, and 
of about twelve acres in extent, known as Blackmoore Common, was enclosed and 
divided under the provisions of the Cathedine Inclosure Act of 1859. The Common lay 
in a marshy bottom by the Llynfi stream, and the use of it for grazing purposes had 
long been much valued by the poorer inhabitants of the neighbourhood. It is a pity, 
I think, to find all such open spaces enclosed one after the other, but so it is nowadays, 
and this one at Blaokmoore had to go the way of the rest. 

But the deed, given above, refers to a long antecedent private arrangement, that of 
the appropriation or inclosure of some forty acres of the demesne lands of the Lordship 
of Dynas and Blaenllynfi, which lay near to Blackmoore Common, in the year 1617. 

It appears that the twenty six tenants of the Manor named in the foregoing 
Indenture had, by consent of the Lord or otherwise, enclosed these forty acres of 
pasturage, and were then given a lease of the land for 1000 years by Sir Henry Williams, 
Knight, of Gwernyfed, the then Lord of the Manors of Dinas and Blaenllynfi. 

The conditions of this very long lease were the payment of an annual rent of 4, 
and of a fine of JB4 at the end of every sixty years, and that the right to this Common 
of pasture was to be appendant to the holdings of the persons named therein and their, 
heirs. The right could only be enjoyed in connexion with tenements held of the Manor. 
In case of failure in payment of rent or fine, a power of re-entry was reserved to Sir 
Henry Williams and his successors, as Lords of the Manor. 

Can any one throw some light on this strange old Indenture, the like of which I 
have never heard of in Breconshire ! The conditions of such were almost certain to 
entail a forfeiture in two or three generations, but it is just possible that some lands near 
to the modern Blackmoore Common, are still held under this 1000 years lease, and that 
some reference was made thereto when the Inclosure of the remaining twelve acres was 
recently effected. Who can peer into the dark chamber of the history of Blaokmoore 
Common lands ? 



The Forest of Bucklyd or Buckland. 



And here is another dark chamber in the past history of our County ! 

It is stated in an old paper, used in the trial at Hereford in 1816, Thynne Howe 
Gwynne of Buckland, v. C. C. Clifton of Tymawr a trial which was the precursor of a 
ten years litigation between the parties, ending at last in a compromise and a drawn 
battle that though diligent search had been made, " no antient documents can be found 
to throw ny light upon the origin of the Penkelly Manors " or other adjacent ones held 
by the Qwynne of Buckland family. This old document is now before me, as I write, 
and though silent as to the origin of the Manors, has proved a very treasure house of 
valuable knowledge in other respects. 

Again, when the Inclosure Act of 1814 was being passed for enclosing the waste 
lands of Buckland Hill, Allt-yr-Eskir and Alltvillo, it appears that the Crown and Mr. 
Thynne Howe Gwynne claimed to be joint lords of the Manor of those waste lands. 
Subsequently, however, when the Commissioners came down, they, after holding an 
Inquiry, declared in their Award, that the claim of the Crown could not be maintained, 
and that Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne was the sole Lord of the Manor. This of itself is a 
proof what great doubt existed then as to the origin and boundaries of the Penkelly 
Manors, so far at least as regards the north side of the Usk. And I feel sure the 
promoters of the Inclosure Act of 1814 did not know much about the question, nor did 
they take the trouble to make any special inquiries and the Act was obtained as we 
have seen, on the erroneous assumption that there were two joint Lords of the Manor. 

The accidental discovery the other day of the old papers relating to Bogheled or 
Bucklyd Forest (or Buokland) ie quite a revelation, and opens up a new and wide field 
for Inquiry ! 



(121) 

Where was Bogheled Forest ? We know that it was in the vicinity of 
Llansaintfread Parish, if not a part of it, because the inhabitants were granted for ever 
the right of turning their cattle there for pasture free of charge, and we know also that 
it was part of the Lordship of Brecknock, possessed by Harry, Duke of Buckingham, in 
1482, and by Queen Elizabeth in 1595. Where located then was this Forest, and what 
has been its history from 1595 downwards ? We have it on record that in that year 
David Phillip and Evan Madocke, of Llansaintfread, fought at lw against the Crown for 
the preservation of their right of free pasturage, and won the day but what since ! 

There I must leave the question for the present. I am not able to say what were 
the boundaries of this Forest, and which lands they included, and without that knowledge 
it would not be fair to hazard conjectures. This may, however, be said, that when in 
1595, the release of the payment of 7s. yearly was confirmed by the Crown as the result 
of the decision in favour of the Commoners, there was no object to be gained 
afterwards, even in keeping the name of the Forest on the books of the Crown. It may 
have then in this way dropped out of the Crown's list of properties once and for ever, 
and subsequently it fell into the possession of the first person that set up a claim to 
this no man's land ! 

The following Documents will be given in order of date : Grant of the Free 
Pasturage of the Forest to the inhabitants of Llansaintfread by Harry Duke of 
Buckingham in 1482. Subsequent grant to Thomas ap Hoell Bynon by Letters Patent 
of Eliz. 1585. Pleadings in the Suit, Madocke v. Gwynne. The Decree of the Court of 
Exchequer in 1595, establishing the legality of the Grant made in 1482. 



FOREST OF BOGHELED OB BUCKLAND, BRECONSHIRE. 

THE DUKB or BUCKINGHAM'S WARRANT FOR DISCHARGE OF 7s. or RENT. 

[South Wales Inrolments, Vol. 5. fo. 38.] 

Harry Dnke of Buckingham, Earl of Hereford, Stafford and Northampton to John 
Counter or Auditor of our lordship of Brecknock, greeting. 

Whereas we have heretofore been answered in the accounts of our receiver of our 
said lordship of 7s. yearly for the farm of our forest of Bogheled within our said lordship, 
and that we for divers considerations have released the said yearly farm to the behoof of 
our tenant* and resiants of our said lordship for evermore. 

We charge you that in the account of the said receiver you allow the sum of la. of 
the farm of the said forest for the year ending at Michaelmas last, and that yearly from 
henceforth you discharge the said receiver of the said farm for ever. 

And this our writing shall be to you sufficient warrant and discharge in that behalf. 

The 10th day of January, 21 Edw. IV. (1482). 

H. BUKINGHM (HARBT BUCKINGHAM). 



LAND REVENUE OFFICE. 

VOL. 4. Fo. 161. [No DATE.] 

" OCCUPATORBS 7FOXEST DH BoUGHLED." 

Meredd Nicholas Roger William 

Thomas Nicholas DD ap Richsrde ap llanke 

Thomas Powell dd DD William th elder 

Watkin dd Lloyde DD William the yonger 

Thomas ap Jevan Hoell Harry John 

Thomas Powell Jenkin Jevan Maddocke ap Jevan Watkin 

Watkin Probarte William Pricharde 

Jenkin John John Hoell Goz 

Jevan Jenkin Phillpott Edmunde Hoell Goz 

Roger Hoell 



(122) 

LAND REVENUE OFFICE. 
VOL. 4. Fo. 36. 

[TRANSLATION.] 
LETTERS PATENT FOB THOMAS AP HOELL BYNON. 

Elizabeth by the grace of God, &c. Know ye that We for divers causes and 
considerations Us now moving by the advice of Our beloved and faithful Counsellors 
William Baron de Burghley Our Treasurer of England and Walter Mildmay, Knight, 
Chancellor of Our Exchequer have granted to Thomas ap Hoell Bynon all that Our 
herbage and pasture growing in the park called Parke Llinde in the vill of Castle called 
Painscastell in the co. Eadnor. 

And all that Our forest of Boughled alias Boughbed in Our county of Brecon now or 
late in the tenure or occupation of John ap Owin Gunter or his assigns, parcel of the 
possessions of Edward late Duke of Buckingham, attainted of high treason. 

Also all the lands, meadows, feedings, pastures, Ac., Ac., to the said premises 
belonging for the rents herein below reserved always excepting nevertheless and reserving 
to Us, Our heirs and successors all large trees, woods, underwoods, mines and quarries : 
To have and to hold all the said premises to the said Thomas ap Hoell Bynon for 21 
years, paying therefore yearly to Us and Our heirs for the said herbage 18s., and for the 
said forest of Bughled 7s. 

And We also grant to the said Thomas that he may fr >m time to time take sufficient 
hedgeboote, ploughboote and carteboote growing on the premises to be used there and not 
elsewhere. 

Witness, &c., at Westminster 16 July, 27 Eliz. [1585.] 



BUGLYD (OR BUCKLAND) FOREST CASE, 1595. 

PHILLIP AND OTHERS v. GWYNNE. 
PLEADINGS IN THIS EXCHEQUER SUIT. 

The Bill of complaint was signed by "David Phe (Phillip), Evan Madocke, Richard 
Howell, Wyllyam Pritchard, John Wyllyam John, and Wyllyam John Howell, every of 
them beinge Tenante or occupyor of certen parcelles of ground lyings within Her 
Majesty's Lordeship of Brecknocke, called the Forest of Bughlyd, as well as for and on 
the behalf of themselves, as of the residue of the Tenant es and occupyors of the same 
Foreste, amounting to the number of 60 persons or more, and all of them beinge Her 
Majesty's Tenantes, as of her highness Honor or Lordship of Brecknocke." 

The Bill then sets out, that up to the time of 21 Edward IV., their predecessors had 
held of the Lordship of Brecknock the profit and herbage of the said Forest in fee farm 
of 7s. a year from Henry, Duke of Buckingham, and in that year (1482) the said Duke 
(afterwards in the time of King Richard III. attainted of High Treason) by sufficent deed 
in law did exonerate his tenants and resiants of the said Lordship and their heirs for 
evermore from the payment of the 7s. paid for the Forest ; and also further that by his 
special warrant in writing, under the signet and sign manual, ready to be shewed forth 
to the Court, dated January 10th, 21 Edward IV., he charged his auditor to give 
allowance of that discharge in future. The Bill then proceeds to state that for nearly 
120 years since that date, the tenants and resiants have peaceably enjoyed ihe said forest 
as an estate of inheritance without paying any manner of rent for the same until now, 
when by some "casual means" the said release arid other evidences touching the 
(suppliants) title to the inheritance of the soil of the said Forest were lost out of the 
possession of some of the aforesaid tenants who had the custody of them. 

On which happening one Thomas Howell ap Eignon and Richard Gwynne, gent., 
procured a lease for a term of years of the said Forest from Her Majesty, and not only 



(123) 

threatened to molest the suppliants in their enjoyment of the Forest, but had levied 
8. 8s. of arrearages supposed to be due, The deed of release being lost (though, as above 
stated, the warrant to the Duke of Buckingham's auditor was in their possession) the 
suppliants pleaded the Statue of 83 Henry VIII., and claimed under that Statute to have 
their case heard in equity, inasmuch as while they had only a doubtful remedy at common 
law, they had '' reason and good conscience" on their side. 

Upon this Bill of complaint being filed a writ de subpena was issued calling on 
Richard Gwynne to make his answer thereto. 

The Bill is indorsed : 

" Fiat breve de subpena secundum formam istui peticionis," i.e., that a writ, 

" de subpena " issue, according to the form or prayer of the Petition. 



BRECON. TEK.MINO PASCHE ANNO 82 UECHNE BLIZ. 

THE ANSWER OF RICHARD GWYNNE TO THE BILL OF COMPLAINT OF 
DAVID PHE AND OTHERS COMPLT. 

The saide defendant the advantage and exception to the incerteintie and insufficiencie 
of the said Bill of Complaint to the def. at all tymes hereafter saved then and not before 
for answere saith That trewe it is that it appereth by soundry ministers Accomptes that 
the saide fforest called Bighled was sometimes parcell of the possessions of Edward late 
Duke of Buckingham atteinted of treason And this def. taketh it there was in the tyme of 
the said Duke of Buckingham or of some of his anncestors an yerely rent of seven shillings 
answered in the name of a farme rente And under the title of Minut firm, and he further 
saith that it appereth by diverse Accomptes sithence the atteinder of the said Edward 
Duke of Buckingham and after that the said forest amongest other thinges came to the 
handes of the late Kinge of famous memorie Henrie the Eight by the atteinder of the said 
Edward late Duke of Buckingham that the said forest was in charge for the rent of seaven 
shillinges And that alsoe the said forest was demised sometymes to one John ap Hoell 
Gunter for the said rente as by the Ministers Accomptes with her Majesty's Auditor of 
the Revenewes of that Countie of Record remayneth And this def. confesseth that the said 
forest was demised by her Majestie to Thomas ap Hoell ap Eignon and by him the said 
Thomas conveyed over to this def. in manner and forme as is partely surmised by the 
Compl and that he this def. is lawfullie as he taketh it thereof possessed and that her 
Majestie mighte lawfullie demise the premises. And this def. is further informed by his 
Counsaile that the significacion supposed to be made by Henry late Duke of Buckingham 
to his then Auditor that he had pardoned and released the said ffarmer of seaven shillinges 
to the behoofe of the then Tenantes and Resiantes in the Bill mencioned is no sufficient 
discharge or extinguishment of the Rent And if the deed itself were shewed yet it is but a 
discharge for the rent during the lives of the then Tenautes and no more. And that alsoe 
there is noe graunt or conveyaunce of the fforest itself or of the soile, but it still rested 
and remayned in possession, to the said Henry Duke of Buckingham and from him 
discended by course of Ir.heritaunce or by meane conveyaunce to the said Edward Duke of 
Buckingham of highe treason atteinted And by reason thereof act uallye vested in the said 
Kinge Henry the Eighte and by course of Inheritance discended into her majestie whoe is 
thereof seased in her demeane as of fee in the righte of her Crowne of England as 
this def. taketh it. And he this def. further saithe that he is credibly informed that 
the moste parte of the said forest is encroached severed and Inned by the Compls. 
and others of the neighbors borderinge and adjoyninge to the said forest, and if the 
freholdes were surveyed and the boundaries of the said fforest of auncient tyme vewed or 
any perambulacion thereof made it wolde fall oute that the moste parte thereof is 
encroched And that their scverall freeholdes are augmented and enlarged by taking in a 
greate parte of the said foreste into theire freeboldes Without that [that] the said fforeste 
is parcell of the said Lordshipp or Mannor of Brecknock as this def. thinketh or that they 
[sic.] Compls. are her Majestes Tenantes of the Lordshipp of Brecknocke as this def. 
beleaveth or that the said Henry Duke of Buckingham to the knowlege of this def. did by 



(124) 

his sufficient deed in Lawe exonerat and release his said then Tenantes and resiants of 
the said Lordshipp of Brecknock for ever of and from the said yerelie rente of seaven 
ahillinges or that the nowe Compl. as this def. tliinketh be Tenantes of her majestes 
lordshipp of Brecknock as is ontrulie surmised by the Compl. and withoute that everye 
the Tenantes resiantes and their heires and those which had their several estates 
in and to the said forest oughte to have and peaceably to enjoy the said forest 
to theim and to their heires to this def. knowledge, or that the said deed of 
release or any other evidences touching the title of the Compls. came into 
the hands of the Deft, or that by color of havinge thereof the said lease was 
obteyned in manner and forme as is untruly surmised by the said Compl. and without 
that there was any processe awarded to levye the said rente as a fee farme but rather as a 
farme rente due unto her Majestie as may appere by diverse and soundry Accomptes for 
the def. saith that the payment of the said rente for many yeres was excused by reason the 
Keve or farmer cold make noe profitt thereof by Agistment as this defendant supposeth all 
which matters the defs. is ready to averr and prove as this honorable Courte shall award, 
and prayeth to be dismissed with his costes and charge and chardges wrougfully 
susteyned. 

Prestitit sacramentum six die Maii Ann> xxxi Begine E. in Curia. 

The above answer of Richard Gwynne was to the effect that even if the deed could 
be found and if it did release the tenants and others from the payment, such was only 
good for their lives and not for ever. 

The Court of Exchequer however decided against this contention, and held that the 
pasturage of the Forest was free of payment for ever. 



FOREST OF BOGHELED OR BUCKLAND. 

In the Book of Ordinances remaining in the custody of the Remembrancer of the 
Queen there, there is contained as follows : viz., among the Ordinances of Michaelmas 
Term, 86 & 87 Eliz. (1598-4). 

DECREE. 

Friday 29, November. 
[South Wales Inrolments, Vol. 6. fo. 6lb.] 

Whereas DAVID PHILLIP, EVAN MADOCKE, and divers others, the tenants and 
inhabitants of Llansanffred within the lordship of Brekon in the county of Brekon 
exhibited their Engliih Bill into the Exchequer Chamber, against Richard Gwynne, 
gent., showing thereby that by usage and custom time out of mind of man the tenants 
and inhabitants of that parish have had and accustomed to have common of pasture for 
all manner of beasts at all seasons of the year upon a parcel of her Majesty's waste 
ground called the Forest of Buychlyd, parcel of the said lordship of Brekon which cama 
to the Crown by the forfeiture of Edward late Duke of Buckingham of high treason 
attainted, and showing moreover that in ancient times Harry late Duke of Buckingham 
had been answered of 7s. by year for the farm of the said forest at the hands of his 
tenants and resiants there, and that the said Harry by deed dated 10 January, 21. 
Edw. 4 (1482) discharged and remitted the said annual rent of 7s. to the said tenants 
and inhabitants for evermore, according to which deed they ever since enjoyed the said 
commons freely without paying anything for the same : 

Howbeit the now Auditor found and conveyed the same 7s. in charge as to thia day 
ever from the attainder of the said Edward Duke of Buckingham, whereby the said 
tenants complained themselves to be grieved both by distress and otherwise for the 
answering of that charge which was not paid, and showing also that the said Gwyne 
the defendant had procured to be taken in lease her Majesty's forest under the seal of this 



(125) 

Court for the term of 21 years at la. rent, by color of which it is to be intended that he 
proposed to evict the poor plaintiffs of and from their lawful use of common therein to 
their great prejudice : 

To which bill defendant answered and confessed the taking of the said lease and an 
assignment thereof to him made and that the said charge was set upon the pit. in form 
as in the bill is alleged : upon which bill and answer the cause coming to be heard this 
present day and being opened before the Lord Treasurer of England, Sir John Fortescue, 
Knt, Chancellor ot the Exchequer Sir William Peryam, Knt., Lord Chief Baron, by the 
Counsel of pits., in the presence of deft, and of Thomas Hanbury, Esq., her Majesty'* 
Auditor of Wales, who showed in court such records as he had to maintain the said 
charge and her Majesty's title to the said forest : upon due considerations had of which 
records and of the said ancient deed of discharge made by the said Harry Duke of 
Buckingham : 

It is ordered and decreed that the plaintiffs and the tenants and inhabitants of the 
said parish of Llansanffred shall from henceforth quietly have use and enjoy their said 
common of pasture freely without paying anything for the same to her Majesty ; and that 
there shall be by the said Auditor an exoneration made of the said charges, and that plti. 
nor any of the tenants and resiants of the said lordship shall be hereafter at any time 
molested distrained or troubled by reason of the said charge, or of any supposed arrearages 
which have past of the same. 

And it is also ordered that defts. said lease or his assignment made of the same shall 
be brought into court by deft, before the end of the next term to be cancelled and no 
new lease or assignment thereof to be made hereafter which may impeach the interest of 
the said parish of Llansanffreyd and that deft, shall not be charged hereafter with the 
said rent of 7s. reserved upon the said demise or lease toward her Majesty her heirs or 
uccessors. 

Exr per me THO : FANSHAW. 



The following verses give the story, and I trust I may be pardoned for reproducing 
them here : 

A TALE OF THE FOREST. 

SCENE I. A.D. 1482. 



Four hundred years ago, and more, 
There lived in Brecknock Town, 

Within his castle's ancient walls, 
A Lord of great renown. 

ii. 

'Twas Harry, Duke of Buckingham, 
He ruled the county round, 

His castles, lordships, forest lands 
On every side were found. 



To England on the Bychlyd Hill 
Some mountain passes lead, 

These had been safely guarded by 
The men of Llansaintfread. 

v. 

And so, this mighty nobleman, 
By deed, signed by his hand, 

G-aTe them for ever pasturage free 
Upon this forest hind. 



And to his tenants, great and small, 
If they to him were true, 

He gave them many a privilege, 
As often great men do. 



And when the happy news was told, 
The " resiants all around 

Together met, to thank the Duke 
For granting them the ground. 



The bells rang loud, and all was joy ! 

The priest ne bade them pray, 
And thank the Gracious Lord of all 

For what was done that day. 



(126) 



SCENE II. A.D. 1595. 



Glides by a century of time ! 

The Virgin Queen, alone, 
Had reigned for more than thirty years 

On her late father's throne. 



To men of Llansaintfread that day 

It was a trying hour. 
They quailed not, though they knew full well 

The Crown of England's power. 



Gone was the House of Buckingham, 
And Brecknock Castle lay 

In ruins. And the Duke's estates 
Had all been swept away. 



Then up there spake two aged men, 

Phillip and Maddocke brave. 
And told their neighbours they had heard, 

From those now in the grave, 



Gone, too, the rich lands of the Church ! 

Changed was the nation's creed ! 
What, wonder, if a trouble came 

To men of Llansaintfread. 



' ' The Forest land was free of rent 
For men of Llansaintfread " ; 

And begged them search the Parish Chest, 
Perchance they'd find the deed. 



It chancrd, a careful auditor, 
Who acted for the Queen, 

Among the Duke's old documents, 
This item he had seen. 



And there good luck the deed was found 

Then cheers loud rent the air, 
And joy again was in tbeir hearts, 

Instead of deep despair. 



Seven shillings for the Forest land 
Once on a time was paid 

" Why not again ! And all arrears ! 
The faithful Steward said. 



But yet the Crown held to the claim ! 

And those brave men, by law 
In civil suit, were forced to prove 

The deed was free from flaw. 



He sends for " fermor " Richard Gwynne, 

To rent this Forest land, 
And, never doubting, grants a lease, 

Under the Queen's own hand. 



And England's Lord High Treasurer, 
The Lord Chief Baron, too, 

And Chancellor of Exchequer 

Looked o'er it through and through. 



Ill tidings travel fast, we know, 
And soou the word came down 

" Pay up ' arrearages,' and rent, 
Long due unto the Crown. 



Then summoning the Auditor, 
And Gwynne, the Crown lessee, 

Before the High Exchequer Court, 
They issued this decree 



" Cancel that lease. The Ducal grant 

Of the Free Forest land, 
To men of Llansaintfread is good, 

And shall for ever stand ' ' ! 

The story, as told in verse, is authentic, except on two points, that of the 
"considerations" for the grant of free pasturage (guarding the mountain pass or ford 
over the river seems probable), and of the finding of the deed in the Parish chest. 
A little licence is taken in the verses in these two respects. 

The Grant of 1482 and the Decree 1595 are both extant. 

The full names of the Llansaintfread worthies are David Phillip and Evan Madocke. 
It appears by the will of a Meredith Phillip in 1578 (probably the father of David), that 
he owned a house and lands in Byohlyd ; and further by the will of Evan Madocke in 
1626, that he possessed a house called Bucldand. Both were probably yeomen 
(freeholders) in the parish, and the name of Madocke is still to be seen on a stone in the 
parish churchyard. 

This case has more than a local interest, in that it confirms the decision of the 
Arbitrator (Lord Hobhouse), in the great Epping Forest Settlement. It was to the 
effect (Loughton " Lopping Wood" case, as it is known) that the inhabitants of a parish 
or township generally, as well as the tenants of the lordship or manor, can be granted, 
and if so, can exercise special rights over Forest and common lands. 

The historian of Breconshire, Theophilus Jones, writing in 1809, said he thought the 
Bychlyd Forest extended from the River Usk at Llansaintfread to Dinas Castle several 
miles apart but at this date not only the boundaries of the Forest, but even the situation, 
are in doubt. 



(127) 

Manors of Crickhowell and Tretower. 



These manors, unlike those of Breconshire generally, have not been in the hands of 
the Crown for a number of years. It is stated that Edward IV., soon after his accession, 
1488, granted these manors with their castles to Sir William Herbert, Knight, of Raglan 
Castle, afterwards Earl of Pembroke. His grand-daughter, heiress of these estates, 
married Sir Charles Somerset, afterwards Earl of Worcester. There appears also to have 
been a grant in the reign of James I., of these Manor* and Castles with Raglan, and 
many others in Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire to Edward, Earl of Worcester. 
This grant is not noticed either by Theo. Jones or Poole, and as yet I have only seen the 
title of it in the Crown Record books. 

Crickhowell Manor comprised the parishes of Crickhowell, Llangenny, Llanbeder, 
Patrishow, Llangattock, and Llanelly, while Tretower contained those of Cwmddu and 
Llangynider. 

The old papers which I have show that in 1714 Lord Arthur Somerset was the 
owner, and at the foot of a long list of chief rents and comorth made out parish by pariah 
is written : 

" This writing was shown to John Somerset on his examination in Chancery, 
on the part of Arthur Somerset, Esq., commonly called Lord Arthur 
Somerset, complainant against Richard Lewis, Esq., and others, 
Defendants. 

" (Signed! A. TKEVOR." 

The name of the first person on the paper owing chief rent and comorth in 
Crickhowell, Llanelly and Cwmddu Parishes, is that of Lord Mansell, and then 
follow a number of names with their respective payments. 

We pass on to 1728, when a full list of the Cott Rents (cottage rents and for 
encroachments), and of the chief rents, comorth, Knight's fee, payments by Welsh 
tenants, English rents, and Da Powell Reer is made by the steward, Gabriel Powell. 

In the Crickhowell Manor, chief rents and comorth are payable, but in Cwmddu 
Parish within Tretower, we find the payments divided into Knight's Fee, Welsh tenants, 
English rents, and in Llangynider in the same manor, we meet with the term, Da Powell 
Reer. Chief rents and comorth we find paid in most Breconshire manors, and Welsh 
tenants and English rent denote English and Welsh tenure, as in the manor of Penkelly 
and Hay, where even the manors were divided into English and Welsh. But I have 
never previously met with the terms Knight's Fee and Da Powell Reer. 
Jacob in his Law Dictionary thus describes Knight's Fee : 

" It was so much inheritance in land, as was sufficient to maintain a knight. This 
was 20 a year by the Statute I Edward II. C.I. Sir Thomas Smith puts it at 40. 
Sir Edward Coke says a Knight's Fee contained 680 acres. When the estate of a knight 
was esteemed 20 by the year, then that of a baron was 400 marks, that of an earl 400, 
of a marquess 800 marks, and 800 for a duke. In England at the time of William the 
Conqueror there were 62-015 Knight's Fees, whereof 23-015 were in the possession of 
religious houses." 

The following paid Knight's Fees in Cwmddu Parish : 

8. d. 
Lord Ashburnham for Porthamell .. .. ... 080 

Edward Herbert, gent., per Thomas Walter Powell ... 020 

The heirs of Vaughan Morgan, gent., now Mrs. Butcher, 

for the Keyney Denies, the charge ... .. 1 10 

William Phillip ...020 

John Prosser de Nantyfeen . .. ... ... 022 

As regards Prosser of Nantyfeen, which place is juit where the two parishes of 
Cwmddu and Crickhowell meet on the main road. I am under the belief that the mill on 
the Rhiangoll stream is now called Knight's Mill, and that I have seen Particulars of 



(128) 

Sale of the property near by the Prosser family some time this century. If so, we have 
the explanation. 

I do not find " ced " or " ceisiad," an assistance, among the payments in these 
manors, though Jones says it existed in Patrishow parish. We found it existing, it will 
be remembered, in the Manor of the Welsh Hay. 

The following is the account of his stewardship by Mr. Gabriel Powell for 1831. 

Gabriel Powell, Debtor to the Eight Honourable Lord Arthur Somerset, for 
the year ended att May, 1781. 

a. A. 
Arrears returned on last account ... ... ... 094 6 10 

Farme Bents and Dutyes ... ... ... ... 710 14 11 

Casual Keceipts, etc. .. ... ... ... 16812 

Chief Rents and Incroachments received ... 100 8 6 



1,082 2 3 

E. CONTRA, Creditor. 

s. d. 

By Casual Payments, etc. ... .. ... ... 189 6 2-i 

By other Payments to my ledger ... ... .. 888 19 8 

By ballance of rent account, salary, interest money, etc. 096 1 7 

By arrears, remaining due att May, 1781 .. ... 156 8 9 



1,224 16 3 

s. d. 

Debtor... ... ... ... ... ... 1,082 2 3 

Creditor ... ... ... .. ... 1,224 16 3 



Balance due to Accountant ... 0142 16 3 



25th of January, 1731. 

Passed and allowed then of this account, and there is due to the Accountant 
the above ballance, as witnesse our hands. 

(Signed) A. SOMEBSETT, 

GA. POWELL. 
JAS. ROGERS. 

There are several items of small rents received from lime-kilns, in Llangynider 
parish, but I do not find any relating to coal. 

One item is of interest to me, chief rent paid in Llangattock, by Edward Williams 
(formerly Henry Williams.) The amount is 15s. and clearly is the chief rent my nephew 
pays to-day to the superior Lord for the little manor of Penallt and Aberonney at 
Llangattock. There are some curious chief rents in connexion with this small manor, 
such as a Bed .Rose. 

Croxhall and Harcourt are names mentioned in the list of tenants of Crickhowell 
no Tretower manors. 

What Da Powell Beer means I do not know Eheydir is a knight, and Da, goods or 
property, or cattle, and possibly it means the " lands or goods of Powell, Knight." 

Among the Farm Rents in Crickhowell Parish are the following : 

s. d. 
Mr. Joseph Ash, for ffarm... ... ... ... 40 10* 

Do. for mills ..... . 900 

Duties ; 080 

The Bailiff of Crickhowell for Burrough Rent.. ... 975 



(129) 

a. d. 

Mr. Jno. Herbert for late Wm. Hughes ... 12 

The Stranger's grounds 

Jno. Herbert and Lewis James for part of Ye Toll 5 10 

Duties, 2 hens or... ... ... ... 010 

Jno. Walbeoffe for the other part of the Toll ... 

Mr. Wm. Hughes, a portionery ^?) ... ... ... 14 

Duties ... 

Jno. Wm. Jno., for late Thomas Jenkins 

Anne Jasper 

Mr. Rumsey Watkins 

Mr. Jones for {fishery 

Morgan Jenkins for stables ... ... 0120 

and from the lettings of the park in Llangattock Parish to Herbert Job, 
and others, various sums. 
In Llangynider 13 lime-kilns are stated to be rented out at 15s. a kiln. 



The Miarth Hill (Tretower). 



In the paper on the Crickhowell and Tretower manors I omitted any notice of this 
part of Cwmdu parish. I find in the year 1850 the late Sir Joseph Bailey was lord of the 
manor of Penmiarth presumably a mesne manor of Tretower, but how it came to him, 
and by what purchase, I do not know. He then almost immediately applied for an 
Inclosure Act, and in 1856 the Miarth Hill was enclosed and all common rights 
extinguished. Much of the land around was already his property, and by buying out 
the interest of a Mr. Williams, of Crickhowell, who held some small tenements, Sir 
Joseph Bailey had all the common lands allotted or transferred to him, except 40 acres 
allotted to the Gliffaes estate of Mr. West. At the time I remember hearing of some 
cases of hardship of cottagers being dispossessed, and this was likely to be the case if an 
inclosure took place in any of the Crickhowell manors, where cot rents and small hillside 
holdings under the Duke of Beaufort are so common. 

Miarth is said to have the same meaning and derivation as Garth, Penarth, &c., 
generally a hill by itself standing up a good height, and hogbacked a ridge when inland, 
and a promontory or " head " when near the sea. 

There is a very interesting old driftway across the Usk between Gliffaes and 
Penmiarth at the Island, which deserves notice, and there are also large maen-hirs in 
the glade leading to the driftway, arid higher up at Pantyfedwen, near Llangynider. This 
driftway, to which common land led down from the hill all the way to the water's 
edge, before the inclosure was made, enabled the Cwmdu-side people to cross the river, 
because in those early times there were no permanent stone bridges, to bring their lime 
and coal from the Llangattock mountain ; and having crossed the Usk, they then found 
the Roman road to take them, either up or down the valley, and " Spiteful Inn," as 
the hospitium or hostelry of ancient days, ready to receive them and to entertain both 
man and beast. When the inclosure took place, no new roads were set out on Miarth 
hill, neither were any old roads ordered to be closed ; but whether you or I, if a 
parishioner or simply a tourist, have the right still to go to the top of the Miarth hill, and 
gaze on the lovely scenery of the Usk valley and on Llangorse Lake and Mynydd Troed 
from its summit, I cannot tell. Yon must example the inclosure map. 



(180) 

The Penkelly Manors. 



These Manors have been known by the names of Penkelly Castle, English Penkelly, 
Welsh Penkelly, Penkelly Cwmorgwm, Wenallt, and we may add Penkelly Glyncollwm 
and Cwmbanw. In the early times of Bernard Newmarch, and in those of his successors 
in the Lordship of Brecknock, they were included in and held by the one general name 
of the Manor of Penkelly. Some time previous to or subsequent to the attainder of 
Edward Duke of Buckingham, in the reign of Henry VIII., the Manor was divided, but 
it has been found impossible, though the attempt has been made by many successive 
inquirers, experts, and amateur antiquarians, satisfactorily and clearly to trace out how 
the division occurred. 

And it has never been found possible to ascertain the distinctive boundaries of these 
Manors respectively on the enclosed lands, and only in the case of Welsh Penkt lly on the 
waste or common lands. Speaking, however, of all these Manors taken together, they 
may be said to include the entire parishes of Llanfrynach, Llanfigan, Llanddetty, and 
Vaynor on the south side of the Usk, and parts of the parishes of Llansaintfraed and 
Llanvillo on the north side of that river, a very large extent of country, measuring many 
square miles and including a great tract of waste or common land. 'A part of Llanvillo 
parish may, I think, be safely included, but I am in doubt as to Llansaintfraed, because 
we have no accurate knowledge where to place the Forest of Buchlyd, or Buckland. 
Forests were generally held to be extra-parochial, and in olden time it may have 
been that Llansaintfraed Parish did not include all the land comprised within its 
modern boundaries. The Manor or Manors of Penkelly may be said to be wholly within 
the Hundred of Penkelly, and to include all except a small portion of it. 

In 1816 it became necessary for Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne, of Buckland, to prove 
his title to some of the Penkelly Manors then held by him, and with this object an 
elaborate statement was prepared at great cost on his behalf. That document is still 
extant, and from it the following information is obtained. It would seem that there were 
no ancient documents in his possession which could throw any light upon the origin of 
his Manors, so Mr. Gwynne caused search to be made into ancient records in all the 
Public Offices in London in order to ascertain the extent and antiquity of those Manors. 
Every possible search was then made by Mr. Illingworth, the antiquarian, but very little 
information could be obtained. All that could be learnt was that antiently there was one 
great Lordship or Manor, and a Barony, called Penkelly, and parcel of the Castle or 
greater Lordship of Brecknock of which Humphrey de Bohun died seized in 46 Edw. III., 
and that in the reign of Richard III., this Manor and the third part of the Barony were 
the property of the Duke of Buckingham, upon whose attainder it was escheated to the 
Crown. 

The writer of this old paper then proceeds to quote from and comment on Jones' 
History of Brecknockshire, Vol. III., p. 592 : 

" Mr. Jones says the Manor of Penkelly was divided into five Lordships, viz. : 
Penkelly Castle, English Penkelly, Penkelly Cwmorgwm, Wenallt, and Welsh Penkelly ; 
that the three first were granted to one of the Herberts, and that Richard Herbert or 
descendants sold it to Edward Games, Esquire, of Buckland, from whom it came to Mr. 
Roger Jones' ancestors ; that Charles Herbert in his will proved at Brecon in 1645 states 
the Manor of Penkelly, his Castle and Demesne to be held of the King in Knights 
service." Mr. Jones further states " that the Manor of Wenallt was a Mesne Manor of 
his Lordship of Penkelly, and belonged to a family of the name of Morgan, and afterwards 
became part of the Buckland estate." How Mr. Jones got possession of this informa'ion 
it is now impossible to ascertain, as he is lately dead, but Mr. Illingworth in the Public 
Record Office could gain no other information than what is stated, and none at all as to 
the extent of the boundaries of the Manors or of the commons and wastes thereon. 

As to Welsh Penkelly, it appears it was in the hands of the Crown in the reign of 
Henry VIII., and has continued so ever since ; and it appears by the Parliamentary 



(181 

Survey made in 1650 (see page ante 17) there is a common called Abergatn belonging to 
it, but neither the situation of this common or the boundaries and extent of it or of the 
Manor itself are stated. 

It appears, therefore, that there is no ancient documentary evidence relating to the 
Manors upon which Mr. Gwynne could depend, and that he must look solely to deeds of 
comparatively modern date and to parol evidence of acts of ownership to establish his 
rights. 

The Manors of Penkelly Castle, Wenallt, English Peukelly, Skethrog, Penkelly 
Cwmorgwm, and the King's Manor of Welsh Penkelly lie together, and are so inter- 
mixed that no person living can trace their respective boundaries, nor are there any 
written documents in existence which describe them, particularly in the lowlands, but 
upon the common the boundaries of Welsh Penkelly are known and well ascertained, and 
the external boundaries of the whole between the Manors of other Lords are well 
known." 

In the same old paper follows the statement of Mr. Illingworth as to his researches. 
He first produced a document relating to Penkelly Castle, Inquisitio post mortem 
88 and 39 Henry VI., on the death of Sir Hugh Mortimer, 1460, and remarks that the 
40 marks mentioned in the Inquisition were a very large sum in those days. 

Next follows. 14 Eliz., a Triall of the Hundred Court and of a Court of Survey of 
the Manors of Penkelly, situate and lying in divers parishes, Vaynor, Llanddetty, 
Llanfigan, Llanfrynach, and Llansaintfraed, in which mention is made of Wm. Games, 
Esqr., and Wm. Aubrey, Esqr., and John Walbye, Esqr., holding suit of the same Court. 

As touching English Penkelly, Mr. Illingworth produced the letters patent, 20 
Henry VIII., 1528, being a grant to Lord Ferrers in tail male ; also the Inquisition post 
mortem, 20 Jany 3 Eliz., in which the words " beyond fees " are important, denoting 
that these were subinfeudations holden of that Manor ; they show also that the Manor 
was a paramount Manor. 

Mr. Illingworth also produced the Inquisitio post mortem, 7 Sep. 19 Eliz., taken 
1577 on the death of Walter Earl of Essex, grandson of the Walter Viscount Hereford 
mentioned in the last Inquisition. He also produced Letters Patent 43 Eliz., and the 
Parliamentary Survey in the time of Oliver Cromwell, which relates to Welsh Penkelly. 

It will be observed that no allusion is made in this old paper to the Manor of 
Penkelly Glyn Collwm, or Cwmbanw, which was then about to give Mr. Gwynne such 
great and prolonged trouble. 



It will be convenient to give a list of antient documents relating to the Penkelly 
Manors, which I have been able to find, and many of which were used either at the 
Hereford trial of 1817 or in the recent Torglas Common land Case of 1898. The 
documents will be printed in extenso at the end of this account, as possibly on some 
future day reference to them may have again to be made. 

1. 1460. Castle & Manor of Penkethle. Inquisition on the death of Sir Hugh 

Mortimer, Knight. 38 and 39 Henry VI. 

2. 1509. Grant of the Manor or Lordship of Penkelly and one-third of the 
Barony of Penkelly to our kinsman, Edward, Duke of Buckingham. 
37 Henry VII. 
3. 1522. Grant of the office of Steward of the Lordship of Penkelly (inter alia) 

to Walter Devereux, Knight, Lord Ferrers. 18 Henry VIII. 

4. 1528. Grant of the Manor of English Penkelly to John Kageland, and subse- 
quently to Walter Devereux, Knight of the Garter, Lord Ferrers, on 
the attainder of Edward, Duke of Buckingham. 20 Henry VIII. 
5. 1553-4. Exchequer Ministers account of Welsh Penkelly. 1 & 2 to 2 & 8 Phil : 

and Mary. 

6. 1558. Proceedings against Thomas Gunter of Gileston by the Attorney General 
as to Welsh Penkelly accounts. 1 Eliz. 



(182) 

7. 1562. Further proceedings against Thomas Gunter. 4 Eliz. 

8. 1561. Inquisition on the death of Walter, Viscount Hereford, Lord Ferrers, of 

the Manor of English Penkelly (inter alia). 8 Eliz. 

9. 1560. Court of Law of the Manor of Penkelly on behalf of Walter Vaughan, 

Esqre., held at the Castle, of Welsh and English Tenants. 14 Eliz. (?). 

10. 1577. Inquisition on the death of Walter, Earl of Essex, of the Manor o~f 

Penkelly (inter alia). 19 Eliz. 
11. (No date). Survey of the Manor of Penkelly Castle of John Powell, gentleman. 

(No date.) 
12. 1G01. Grant of English Penkelly Manor to Michael and Edward Stanhope. 

48 Eliz. 

13. 1650. Parliamentary Survey of Welsh Penkelly Manor. See ante page 17. 
14. 1762. Appointment' by the Crown of Thynne Howe Gwynne, as Steward of 

Welsh Penkelly Manor. See infra. 

15. 1786. Presentments at Court Leet of Welsh Penkelly Manor, and Perambula- 
tion of the Waste lands. See p. 81. 
16. 1787. Sworn Report of Thynne Howe Gwynne, Steward of Welsh Penkelly 

Manor, made to the Crown. 
17. 1816. Sworn Survey of John Cheese with Valuation, of Welsh Penkelly 

Manor, made by Order of the Crown. See p. 88. 
1817. Sale of Welsh Penkelly Manor by the Crown to Charles Claude Clifton. 

See Land Eevenue Eecords. 

1824. Sale of Welsh Penkelly Manor by Clifton to Thynne Howe Gwynne. 
See Order of Court at Record Office. Chancery. July 8, 1824. 
1823 . A . 2015. Clifton v. Gwynne, 

1826. Death of Thynne Howe Gwynne, and devise of Welsh Penkelly Manor 
to his second son, with option of purchase by granddaughter, the 
other Penkelly Manors having passed to her by settlement. This 
option was exercised. 

We now pass from the antient documents, and dealing solely with records of modern 
date, trace as far as we can the transfer of all the Penkelly Manors into the hands of the 
Gwynne of Buckland family. 

In 1709, by Indenture dated 9 & 10 October, Edward Games, Esquire, of Tregare, 
conveyed the Mansion of Penkelly Castle, and the Manor of English Penkelly, together 
with lands iu the parish of Llanfigan, and other lands which he had purchased from Hugh 
Powell in the same parish, also in Llandetty, Vaynor, and elsewhere, to Roger Jones, 
Esquire, of Buckland, for the sum of 1200. 

This Roger Jones, into whose hand the Manor of Wenallt, and also of Skethrog (or 
some portion of the latter) had previously passed, died in 1741, and devised all his Manors 
and landed estates to his wife, Elinor, and in default of children (and there were none), to 
her heirs and assigns for ever. In 1741 the widow married Sir John Pryce, of Newton Hall, 
in the County of Montgomery, and by her will dated 1743 devised all her Manors and 
estates to her husband for his life, and subject to his life interest, these descended, as she 
made no further appointment, to her brother, David Evors, as heir-at-law. 

In 1756 Roger Gwynne, of Glanbrane, in the County of Carmarthen, Esquire, 
purchased the Buckland Estate with its Manors and lands from Sir John Pryse and Mr 
David Evors for 13,026. 

The Conveyance specified, inter alia, the several lordships and Manors of Penkelly, 
Penkelly Castle, Wenallt and Skethrog, together with the Fishery or Fisheries in the 
River Usk thereto, or to either of them belonging, used, occupied, and enjoyed, and 
commonly known and distinguished by the name of "The Buckland Fishery." Great 
stress was laid on these latter words in the celebrated trial as to the right of fishing on the 
Maesmawr land, Holford v. Bailey, at Gloucester in 1846, a several fishery having, in the 
absence of any Grant, been presumed thereby to have once existed in the Usk in connexion 
with one or other of the Manors named. 



(188) 

In 1774 Mr. Eoderick Gwynne died, but in the year previous he had concurred, 
subject to his life interest, in a settlement of the Buckland estate, with the Manors, &c., on 
his second son, Thynne Howe Gwynne, on his marriage with Miss Maria Elionora 
Mathews, a Glamorganshire co-heiress. 

A few years before this happening, Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne had been appointed 
by the Crown to be Steward of Welsh Penkelly Manor by the following instrument : 

To all to whom these presents shall come, I, William Viscount Barrington, 
Chancellor and Under Treasurer of his Majesty's Exchequer, send greeting : 

Know ye that I the said William Viscount Barrington, reposing especial trust 
and confidence in the care and probity of Thynne Howe Gwynne of Buckland, in the 
County of Brecon, Esquire, have constituted, and appointed, and do by these presents 
constitute, nominate, and appoint the said Thynne Howe Gwynne to be Steward of 
His Majesty's Manor of Penkelly (sic) in the County of Brecon, which said office of 
Steward of the Manor aforesaid was granted to Howel Gwynne of Garth, in the 
said County of Brecon, Esquire, by appointment bearing date the 31st day of October 
1781, under the hand and seal of the Eight Honble. Sir Robert Walpole, then 
Chancellor of His Majesty's Exchequer, but determined by the demise of His late 
Majesty, George the second, To have and to hold the said office unto the said Thynne 
Howe Gwynne during His Majesty's pleasure, together with all lawful powers and 
authority to hold Courts, and to do all other acts and things which to the said office of 
Steward of the said Manor belong, or in any wise appertain, and all perquisites and 
advantages belonging to the same in as full and ample a manner as any former 
Steward heretofore lawfully executing the said office have held and enjoyed the same. 
In witness thereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal of Office the eleventh 
day of March, 1762. 

BARRINGTON L. S. 

Sealed and delivered in Inrolled in the Auditor of Wales Office in 

the presence of Jas. Best. New Palace Yard, Westminster, 29th 

day of March 1762. 

THOMAS WYNN, Auditor. 



In 1786 a very important Court Leet was held, and a Perambulation made of the 
wast lands of the Crown Manor of Welsh Penkelly by Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne as the 
Steward, and Pennoyre Watkins, the well-known Solicitor cf Brecon, as Deputy Steward. 
They took evidence from all the aged witnesses then living, and the Court Leet was three 
times adjourned in order to complete the evidence, and make the perambulation of the 
waste lands of the manor. The original minutes of that Court, and also sworn copies at 
the Becord Office are fortunately extant. (See page 81.) 

In 1787 Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne, as Steward, was called upon to make a Sworn 
Report to the Crown as to the Rental, &c., of Welsh Penkelly Manor. This Report is 
extant. See infra. 

In 1792 Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne, being anxious, as it is said, to consolidate his 
manors, and finding a small manor, belonging to a different owner, in the centre of his, 
called Penkelly Cwmorgwm, in the parish of Llanfrynach it adjoined the Crown Manor on 
Cefn Cyft Hill, and was very near his own Manor took steps to purchase it. The 
owner was Thomas Harcourt Powell of Peterstone Court, who had inherited it from his 
father, John Powell formerly of Swansea, and Mr. Harcourt Powell, with the consent of 
his mother, Amy Powell (one of the daughters and co-heiresses of Godfrey Harcourt of 
Wirewood Green, Tidenham, in the County of Gloucester, a branch of the Harcourts of 
Danypark) agreed to sell the Manor for 200. The conveyance is dated 1 & 2 March, 
1792, and contains a provision that the sale should be without prejudice to the right of 
fishery in the river Usk to the extent of the parish and Lordship of Llanhamlach. 

About the same time Mr. Gwyune purchased the interest of Mr. Greenly in the 
Manor of Scethrog, or in some portion of it beyond what Mr. Gwynne already possessed. 
The particulars of the purchase are not clearly stated in the paper before us. 



(184) 

However, in one way or another Mr. Gwynne had become the possessor of all the 
Penkelly Manors, as he thought, by the year 1800, except of course the Crown Manor of 
Welsh Penkelly, and of that he had been the Steward since 1762 and now came a very 
unpleasant surprise. 

The farm of Tymawr in the parish of Llanfrynach had been the property of Thomas 
Vaughan and Edward Vaughan, his brother, and their ancestors for several generations. 
Their grandson, Mr. Edward Clark, sold the estate to a Mr. Jones, from whom Mr. 
Charles Claude Clifton, an English gentleman of position, purchased it. With the 
property there was conveyed the Manor, or the reputed Manor, of Penkelly Glyncollwm 
or Cwmbanw, which it was said had been held and enjoyed in connexion with the 
Tymawr estate, and though no Court Leets had been held of recent years, such had been 
admittedly held in the time of the Vaughan family from 1750 to 1770. 

Mr. Clifton, the new owner, proceeded to assert his right to the Manor, claiming 
that the rights and privileges of it extended over the whole of the wastes of the Penkelly 
Manor, including the parish of Vaynor, equally with those of Mr. Gwynne that he had 
equal and concurrent rights over the wastes. Sir. Clifton proceeded to shoot over all the 
waste lands, and employed a bailiff to collect the estrays. 

Of course Mr. Gwynne resisted this claim, and both being determined and wealthy 
men, a right royal battle ensued of a virulence and length in excess of that of any 
lawsuit in modern times in our County. 

The first blow was struck by a letter from Mr. Gwynne's solicitor, Edward Jones, 
junr., of Llandovery (the late Mr. Thomas Jones' father), to Mr. Clifton, and legal 
proceedings very soon followed. In 1816 de bene e.\se Commissions sat to take evidence on 
both sides, and the venue having been changed from the Great Sessions at Brecon a 
very usual proceeding in important civil cases in those days to Hereford, as the nearest 
English county, the cause was tried there in August, 1817. It occupied four days before 
Baron Parke, three counsel were engaged on each side, and a large number of witnesses 
were in attendance, as many as 60, it is said, on the part of Mr. Gwynne. The verdict 
was for the plaintiff, and Mr. Clifton paid 1858 10s. costs into Court, pending the 
result of the appeal which he at once lodged. 

On the eve of the trial, it should be stated, Mr. Clifton strengthened his position by 
having been able to purchase from the Crown their Manor of Welsh Penkelly for the sum 
of JB425. Though this purchase did not actually help him at the Hereford trial, it proved 
a tower of strength in the subsequent legal proceedings of great length that ensued. The 
cause now became known, not as heretofore, Gwynne v Clifton, but Clifton v. Gwynne, 
and as such the numerous entries in the index books at the Kecord Office will be found. 
And the proceedings were as follows : 

There was first a long bill of complaint by the Orator, Charles Claude Clifton in 
1818, then came the answer and supplementary answer of Mr Gwynne in 1819, a 
Commission having been appointed to take his evidence at Buckland, which, it was 
alleged, was more than 20 miles from London. Then came a shower of interrogatories 
to witnesses in 1821, of Commissions to take evidence to discredit witnesses at the trial, 
and that of the evidence of witnesses examined since, of Orders to produce documents, 
Reports, Decrees of Court, &c. Apparently Mr. Clifton was getting the better of the 
proceedings, for when the Court, impressed with the gravity of the charges made by Mr. 
Clifton, and the complications of the case, had on December 22nd, 1822, appointed a 
Commission to examine into and report on the whole case, and when such Commission, 
having concluded its inquiries, was about to report, a settlement between the parties was 
suddenly effected, and on these terms : 

The sum of JE1858 10s. paid as the costs of the Hereford trial was to be paid out of 
Court to Mr. Gwynne, and he, Mr. Gwynne, was to purchase Mr. Clifton's Manor of 
Welsh Penkelly, and all his interest in the disputed Manor of Penkelly Glyncollwm or 
Cwmbanw for 2,000, each party bearing their own costs since the date of the trial at 
Hereford. 

The final decree of the Court, defining the agreement between the litigants, and 
confirming it, is dated July 8, 1824. And so ended this remarkable cause in a 



(185) 

compromise after lasting nearly ten years, and which of the parties was in the right will 
probably ever remain unknown. 

In 1826 Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne died, his eldest son Koderick, on whom the 
Buckland estate and the other Fenkelly Manors were settled on his marriage in 1804 to 
Miss Hughes of Tregunter, having predeceased him in 1808. By his will he left the 
Welsh Penkelly Manor, being an after acquired property, to his second son, Thynne 
Howe Gwynne, but with an option to his granddaughter, the only child of his son 
Roderick, to purchase. This option she exercised a few years later, becoming thereby 
possessed of all the Penkelly Manors. 

These Penkelly Manors have from time to time been fertile in other disputes. There 
was a disputed boundary question with the Marquis of Bute, a water right question with 
the Crawshays as to the feeder to the Cyfarthfa pond from the Taff Fechan river, and 
many minor disputes with building leaseholders on the Cefn Gil Sanws Common land at 
Cefncoed Cymmer. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown, it is said, and the same 
often holds true of the Lord of an extensive Manor like the one we are describing. 

In 1846 the manorial right to a several fishery in the Eiver Usk opposite Maesmawr 
Farm was challenged by the riparian owner, the late Sir Joseph Bailey, Bart. Major 
Gwynne Holford, the then possessor of the Penkelly Manors, in virtue of his wife, 
immediately commenced proceedings, and the trial took place at Gloucester, resulting 
in the establishment of the right of a several fishery. Further proceedings in the form 
of appeal were taken by Sir Joseph Bailey, but these were unsuccessful. This case is 
known in the Law Reports as Holford v. Bailey, and the final stages of it were only 
completed, after Maj r Gwynne Holford's death in 1847, by his widow. 

Still more recently has occurred the Tor Glas Common case, where the Lord of the 
Manor of Welsh Penkelly, Mr. J. P. Gwynne Holford of Buckland, claimed certain 
mountain land about to be compulsorily taken by the Merthyr Urban District Council, 
for the site of a reservoir, as his absolute private freehold property, and consequently 
that the proceeds of the sale, amounting to 2,000, should be paid over to him. The 
Tor Glas Common, of which the land then taken was a part, contained an area of 650 
acres, and the title to the whole was necessarily the same. And it may be said the title 
to this 650 acres involved that to the whole waste lands of the Welsh Penkelly Manor, 
amounting to 1650 acres. 

The Commoners, however, of Llanfrynach parish contested Mr. Gwynne Holford's 
claim, alleging that the whole of the 650 acres was a common, known as Tor Glas 
and part of the waste lands of what had formerly been the Crown Manor of Welsh 
Penkelly. 

The first trial, held at Swansea in 1898 before Justice Phillimore, resulted in 
favour of the Commoners. Then followed an appeal to the High Court, and on the 
ground of evidence of reputation having been rejected by the Judge, a new trial was 
ordered. This took place before Justice Kennedy at Swansea, and again resulted in 
favour of the Commoners. 

One of the main pieces of evidence in behalf of the Commoners was the Presentment 
of the Court Leet held in 1786 by Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne as Steward of the Crown 
Manor, in which the boundaries of the waste lands were clearly stated (see page ante 81). 
Equally strong evidence was the Report of the Crown Surveyor, Mr. John Cheese, prior 
to the sale by the Crown to Mr. Clifton of the Manor in 1816 (see page ante 83). Small 
plans of the Common Lands accompanied his report, and the boundaries shown precisely 
agreed with those named in the Perambulation of 1786. The Commoners were also able 
to prove by various documents of old date, and by the appointment of Mr. Thynne Howe 
Gwynne, as the Steward in 1762, a continuous title in the Crown to the Manor and to 
this land as forming part of the waste lands from the time of Henry VIII. to the sale of 
the Manor to Mr. Clifton in 1816. 

A few more notes must be added. 

On Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne's death in 1826. it was found that he had left by will 
the Manor of Welsh Penkelly (not being in settlement on his deceased eldest son Roderick 
like the [bulk of the estate, and the other Penkelly Manors) together with some after 



(186) 

acquired property to bis second son Thynne Howe Gwynne, but with the option to his 
granddaughter to purchase the Manor and other farms and lands near Buckland for the 
sum of 7,000. This option Miss Gwynne exercised shortly after coming of age about 
1828. Subsequently that lady married Major J. P. Holford, and was the mother of the 
present owner. 

When Mr. Clifton was the Lord of the Manor of Welsh Penkelly 1816-1824 a 
Court Leet was held on June 21, 1821, at the house of Evan Williams, where " the Great 
Oak" stood in the village of Talybont, Samuel Church being Steward, Thomas Evang, 
bailiff. At that Court the following Presentments were made : 

We present that Jeffreys Wilkins, Esq., one of the tenants of this Manor, died since 
the last Court seized of two freehold tenements, called Blaentaff and Tirhir, lying in the 
several parishes of Llanfrynach and Llanfigan within this Manor, for each of which 
tenements a Heriot of Ten Shillings is due to the Lord of this Manor. And we present 
John Parry Wilkins, Esq., tenant in his stead. 

We present that John Lloyd, Esq., one of the tenants of this Manor, died seized 
since the last Court of four freehold tenements, called Abercundrig, Tir Llwyn Celyn, Tir 
Glas, and Khiwe, lying in the parish of Llanfrynach within this Manor, for each of which 
Tenements a Heriot of Ten Shillings is due to the Lord of this Manor- And we present 
his only son, John Lloyd, Esq., Tenant in his stead. 

There is an interesting episode as regards this Torglas Common. At one time, in 
1846, Mr. J. Parry Wilkins then De Winton claimed the whole of the Common as part 
of his freehold farm of Blaentaff, and sold it as a sheepwalk to Mr. Richards, the 
ancestor of the present owner of that farm. In 1868 Mr. Bichards asserted a similar claim, 
but in both cases on the intervention of the Lord of the Manor, the claims set up were 
abandoned. The carelessness with which the Tithe Apportionment Map of the Parish 
was made and in which open hill land was mapped out as aheepwalk and as part of the 
farm, paying a tithe rent-charge, had much to do with this strange misconception. 

The documents, large plans, Court Leet Presentments, and papers, are all extant 
relating to tbis Manor of Welsh Penkelly, and it has been a constant source of wonder to 
me how Mr. Gwynne Holford's advisers could have recommended him to advance a claim 
to the Torglas Common as his private freehold. Every paper in their possession 
must have told them differently, and the statement alone of Mr. Thynne Howe Gwynne, 
who had been Steward of the Manor for 54 years, tbat it was common land, should have 
set at rest any possible doubt that might have existed in their minds. 

Thus, not without a feeling of relief, I bring to a close this sketch of the History of 
the Penkelly Manors. 



1. CASTLE AND MANOR OF PENKETHLE. 

3839 HEN. VI., No. 38. 
CHANCERY INQN. P.M. 

Inquisition taken at Webbeley in co. Hereford 28 June, 38 Hen. 6 [1460], before 
Simon Mylborne, Esq., Escheator, after the death of Hugh Mortymer, Knight, by the 
oath of John Baker, &c., &c., jurors, who say that 

The said Sir Hugh Mortymer, Knight, held in his demesne as of fee on the day that 
he died the manor of Sapy in co. Hereford, jointly with Alianore his wife who still 
survives. 

Also the Castle and Manor of Penkethle with the appurtenances in the Marches of Wales 
adjoining the said county of Hereford, which said castle and manor are held of Humphrey 
Duke of Buckingham as of his castle and manor of Brecknok, by what services the jurors 
do not know, and they are worth per ann., clear, 40 marks. 

The said Hugh died on Wednesday next after the feast of the Invention of Holy 
Cross, 38 Hen 6 [1460] ; John Mortymer is his son and next heir and is aged 3 years, 
8 months and more. 



(137) 

2. GRANT OF THE MANOR OR LORDSHIP OF PENKELLY AND ONE 

THIRD OF THE BARONY OF PENKELLY TO THE 

DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM. 

PATENT ROLL, 24 HEN. VII. PART 3 MEMB. 20 (1509). 
FOB THE DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM. 

The King to all to whom, &c., greeting. Know ye that we of Our special grace and 
for the affection We bear towards Our kinsman Edward Duke of Buckingham and for the 
faithful service which he has heretofore rendered to Us have granted to him and his heirs 
the Castle and town of Bredles, the manors and lordships of Cantrecelly alias Cantrecellyf 
Brendleys Penkelly alias Penkellyf Langoite and Alexaunders town and the third part of 
the barony of Penkelly in South Wales, also the advowsons of the Churches, Chapels, 
and Chantries within the said lordships, manors, and other the premises ; also all knights 
fees, liberties and franchises and hereditaments whatsoever to the said premises belonging, 
Ac., &., &. To have and to hold all the said lordships, manors, &c., to Our said kinsman 
and his heirs of Us and Our heirs in chief for ever, without rendering or paying anything 
to Us or Our heirs for the same. 

Witness Ourself at Westminster, 25 January, by the King. 



3. STEWARD OF THE LORDSHIP OF PENKELLY. 

PATENT ROLL, 13 HEN. VIII.. PART 3, MEMB. 12 (13). 

FOB WALTER DEVEBEUX, KNIGHT, LORD FERRERS. 

The King to all to whom, &c. Know ye that We of Our special grace and in 
consideration oi the good and acceptable service which Our beloved and faithful Walter 
Devereux, Knight, Lord Ferrers, has hitherto rendered to Us and during his life intends 
to render to Us have given and granted and by these presents do give and grant to the 
said Walter the office of steward of all Our lordships or manorg of Cantrecelleff, Penkelly, 
Brendeles, Langoite, and Alexandretowne ; also the office of steward of Our lordships or 
manors of Haje and Glynbough in the Marches of Wales, &c., &c., &c., and We make 
and ordain the said Walter steward of Our said lordships, and give to him for exercising 
the said office of steward of the said lordships of Cantrecelleff, Penkelly, Brendeles, 
Langoite and Alexaundrestone 66s. 8d. per annum : all which said lordships, manors, 
lands, &c., came to Our hands by reason of the forfeiture and attainder of Edward late 
Duke of Buckingham : To have, hold, occupy, and enjoy the said offices to the said 
Walter by himself or his sufficient deputy for the term of the life of the said Walter of Us 
and Our heirs, taking and receiving all the profits, advantages, revenues and emoluments 
to the said offices belonging. 

Witness the King at Hampton Court the 29th day of March [13 Hen. 8, A.D. 1522.] 



4. MANOR OF ENGLISH PENCKELLY. 

20 HEN. VIII. PATENT ROLL, PART 2, 15 (18). 
FOR. WALTER DEVEREUX OF THE MANOR OF PENCKELLY. 

The King to all to whom, &c., greeting. Know ye that whereas We by Our Letters 
Patent dated at Westminster 24 November, in the 16th year of Our reign [1524] have given 
and granted to John Rageland, Knight, the manor of English Penckelly in Southwall, 
together with all the rents, woods, waters, vivaries, ponds, villeins with their families, 
warrens and parks with the liberties of the parks to the said manor belonging : which 
said manor and premises were late of Edward late Duke of Buckingham who was 



(188) 

attainted of high treason and which came to Our hands by reason of the forfeiture and 
attainder of the said Duke : To have and to hold the said manor and premises to the said 
John for the term of his life, paying therefore to Us such rents and yearly services as the 
said manor before the attainder of the said late Duke was held by, without making any 
account for the said manor rent and service : And now the said John Eageland wishes to 
restore the said Letters Patent into Our Chancery, There to be cancelled, to the intent 
that We may see fit to grant other Letters Patent of the said manor and premises to Our 
beloved and faithful servant, Walter Deveroux, Knight of the Garter, Lord of Ferrers and 
Cherteley and steward of the household of Our dear first firstborn Mary Princess of 
Wales : which said Letters remain cancelled in Our Chancery for that cause : Know ye 
that We of Our special grace and in consideration of the true and faithful service of the 
said Walter Deverous, rendered as well to Us as to the said Princess, have given and 
granted and by these presents do give and grant to the said Walter Deverous the said 
manor of English Penckelly together with all the rents, woods, waters, &c., thereto 
belonging : to hold to him and the heirs male of his body, paying to Us such rents and 
services as the said manor was held by, without making any account to us for the same. 
Witness the King at Westminster 5 May [20 Hen. 8 A.D. 1528] . 



5. WELSH PENKELLY MANOR. 

EXCHEQUER MINISTERS ACCOUNT 1 & 2 TO 2 & 8 PHILIP <fc MABY, ROLL 52 K. 16 

(1553-4). 

PENKBLLY WELSH. The account of Jankin ap Rice deputy of Thomas Gunter, bailiff 
there for that time (i.e., from Michaelmas 1 & 2 Philip & Mary up to Michaelmas 2 & 3 
Philip & Mary [1554-5] ). 

ARREARS. None. 

RENTS OF Assize. He renders account of 9s. 2d. of the rent of the tenements 
sometime of John Deveroux at Penkellie in the term of the Annunciation of our Lady, 
and 7s. 5d. of the rent of the 7th part of the Welsh tenants sometime of the said John at 
Penkellie in Michaelmas term ; and 37s. 6fd. of the rent of the tenants at Penkellie and 
Saint Barnall with the dower of Gwervill, wife of the said John, in the same term ; and 
16d. of the rent of Kethn in the same term ; and 83s. 4fd. of the rent ot the tenants in 
Tralf in the part of Roger de Mortuo Mari in the same term ; and 18d. of the rent of 
William Werren at Tulecrom in the same term ; and 2s. of the rent of Philip ap John 
and John Browne sometime tenants of the said Roger at Tulecrom in the said term ; 
and 16d. of the rent of Llewellin Jevan tenant of the said Roger in the said term ; and 
6s. Id. of the rent of the tenants of John Sutton at Lathnam in the said term. Sum 
total, 4 19s. 9d. 

NEW RENTS WITH INCREASE. And renders account for 6s. 8d. of increase of the rent 
of the wife of Philip ap Sethfeld Lloid Vaughan ap Llm ap Mad Saith Jevan ap Llm ap 
Merike ap Sayfeld and Mad Llm ap Mad ap Phip for lands in Diffrincarr, which came 
into the hands of the lord as escheats and forfeitures of the said tenants in Michaelmas 
term : and 18d. of increase of the rent of Thomas Pull for the tenement and 3a. of land 
sometime of Michael Lingen, besides 22d. of ancient rent. Of the advowson there this 
year nothing. Sum, 8s. 2d. 

SALE OF WORKS. And renders account for 19d. of the ploughing of the Welshmen of 
Tircarthel on the part of Roger de Mortuo Mari in the term of the Annunciation of Our 
Lady ; and 14Jd for the works of mowing (reaping) on the same part in Michaelmas 
term. Sum total, 2s. 9Jd. 

COMORTHA. And for 80s. 9d. forthcoming from a certain custom called Comortha 
happening every second year in the month of May, to wit, to be charged this year as the 
second year, because it was not charged in the preceding year, and ought not to be 
charged in the ypar next coming. Sum total, 80s. 9d. 



(189) 

PER&UISITES OF COURT. He does not account for perquisites of Court this year, 
because none happened during the time of this account. 

Sum of the charge 7 18s., whereof he is allowed 8s. 4d. for the stipend of the said 
accountant by reason of his office, and 2s. for the stipend of the clerk of the auditor for 
writing this account. And he is discharged here of 43s. 4Jd. respited to the said bailiff 
and charged in the account of William Wightman, Esq., receiver, there. 

And he owes 4 12s. 9fd. wLich he delivered to the said receiver. And so it is 
equal. 



6. WELSH PENKELLY MANOR. 

BRECON. OF THOMAS GUNTER CALLED TO ACCOUNT FOR TAKING HERIOTS WITHIN 

THE QUEEN'S MANOR OF PENKELLY TO HIS OWN PROPER USE TO THE 

DAMAGE OF THB QUEEN. 

Q.E. MEMORANDA ROLL, EASTER I. ELIZ. MEMB. 42. 

Memorandum that Gilbert Gerrard, Esq., Attorney General, on the 22nd day of 
April in this term appeared personally and informed the Court That whereas the Castle 
and Manor of Welsh Penkelly with the appurtenances in Co. Brecon, parcel of the 
possessions 9f the Queen's Principality of Wales, came into the hands of the Queen from 
the first day of her reign, and still are and ought to be in her possession, as appears by 
many rolls, records, and memoranda of this Court of Exchequer, yet nevertheless 
Thomas Gunter of Gileston, co. Brecon, Esq., intending to defraud the Queen of the 
revenues, heriots, fines, and other profits arising within the said manor, on the 3rd day 
of December last past and on divers other days between that day and this, with force and 
arms, to wit, with swords, &3., entered upon the said premises, held a view of frank 
plsdge with a court of the manor there in the name of the Queen, and took and converted 
to his own proper use 22 10s. in money due to her Majesty for the value of divers 
animals called heriots after the deaths of divers free tenants within that manor, whose 
names follow below, and concealed and withheld the same from the Queen, to wit, after 
the death of Roger David ap Holl for one tenement called Tirwan Gethin, 10s. ; after 
the death of Thomas Phillip Jevan for one tenement called Boryn Roddyn, 10s. ; after 
the death of Watkin Jevan Meredith for one tenement called Tyrycoytty, 10s. ; after the 
death of Lin ap Holl for one tenement called Tyrblayn Carri, 10s. ; after the death of 
Holl ap Lin for one [tenement] called Tyrdifferm Cavecham, 10s. ; after the death of 
Jenkin ap Holl Gunter for one tenement called Dyfterm Canawr, 10s. ; after the death of 
John Traharne ap Glm for one tenement called Kelifanws, 10s. ; after the death of John 
Roff for one tenement called Tirblayn Yglais, 10s. ; after the death of David ap Morgan 
for one tenement called Giramdd, 10s. ; after the death of John ap Jevan for one 
tenement called Tiralt Veygan, 10s. ; after the death of David ap Gwalter for one 
tenement called Tir Gwalter David ap Griffith, 10s. ; after the death of Edmund Lin for 
one tenement called Tirybirgrath. 10s. ; after the death of Edmund ap John for one 
tenement called Tirgwealt, 10s. ; after the death of Griffith ap Jenkin for one tenement 
called Tirpenkelly, 10s. ; for the land of John Thomas ap Glln for one tenement called 
Tirblaynt Kawy, 10s. ; and of Holl ap Jevan ap John for one tenement called 
Tirbryntadrig, 10s. ; of Jenkin ap John for one tenement called Tirllethwain, 10s. ; of 
John Jenkin for one tenement called Telle, 10s. ; of David ap Madock for one tenement 
called Tyrllem Sanffred, 10s. ; from Lin Goth ap Morgan for one tenement called 
Llethvain, 10s. ; of John Jenkin John for one tenement called Blaynchlydach, 10s. ; of 
Thomas ap Jevan for one tenement called Tirsigm, 10s. ; of Bees ap Holle, for one 
tenement called Blaynynant, 10s. ; of Gwallian vz Gwln for one tenement called 
Ternmorgan, 10s. ; of Thomas ap John for one tenement called Tirblayn Kuyn, 10s. ; of 
John ap Morgan for one tenement called Tir Llanvernach of David Morgan Thomas 
for one tenement called BlayN Tavechan, 10s. ; of Llyn John ap Morgan for 
one tenement called Llanvernach, 10s. ; of John ap Glim for one tenement called 
Troftri (or Trostri), 10s. ; of Philip Thomas ap Meredith for one tenement called Trivith, 



(140) 

10s. ; of William John ap Glim for one tenement called Troftri lor Trostri), 10s. ; of 
Tliomas ap Richard for one tenement called Ybringlas, 10s. ; of Richard ap Andrews for 
one tenement called Blaynynant, 10s. ; of Sicelly vz Re for one tenement called 
Llanvernache, 10s. ; of Gllni Jevan ap Glim for one tenement called Tredulk, 10s. ; of 
Holl ap Gwalter for one tenement called Maes Mawr, 10s. ; of Thomas ap Meredith for 
one tenement called Tirhery, 10s. ; of Llus Walter for one tenement called Tir Jenkin 
Jevan Las, 10s. ; of Richard Burgehill for one tenement called Tirywygarth, 10s. ; of 
Holl ap Jenkin for one tenement called Abercrawnun, 10s. ; of Watkin ap Glim for one 
tenement called Blani Calln, 10s. ; of Roger ap Meredith for one tenement called 
Tirpodole, 10s. ; of Thomas Edmond for one tenement called Llethwain, 10s. ; and of 
Wallt vz Meredith for one tenement called Comorgan, 10s. ; whereupon the said Attorney 
prays for the help of the court, and that the said Tliomas Gunter may come here as well 
to answer for the said contempt as for the said 22 10s. Whereupon it is agreed that the 
said Thomas Gunter shall be attached by his body, and the Sheriff is commanded to 
attach him, so that, &c., in the Octaves of Holy Trinity. On which day the Sheriff did 
not return the writ, and the said Thomas did not come. Then it was commanded to the 
Sheriff so that in the Octaves of St. Michael, &e. At which day the Sheriff did not 
return the writ, and the said Thomas did not come (and so on for six terms). Then the 
said Thomas Gunter came by John Marwood his Attorney, admitted by the special grace of 
the court, and prayed to hear the information, which was read over to him. Having 
heard it he complains that he has been grievously vexed and troubled in the premises and 
this unjustly, because he protests that the said information is insufficient in the law, and 
that by the law of the land he is not bound to answer it ; nevertheless for plea he says 
that as to the coming with force and arms, defrauding the Queen of the heriots, tines, &c., 
within the said manor of Welsh Penkelly, or holding view of frank pledge, or taking the 
said 22 10s., or any heriots after the deaths of any tenants there, or any further trespass 
or contempt he is not guilty of any of them. Whereupon he puts himself upon the 
country. And the said Attorney General being also present prays for the said Queen 
likewise. 

Therefore let an Inquestion be made. 

[The case came 011 again and it is to be found on the Q.R. Memoranda Roll, Easter 
4 Eliz. Memb. 182.] 



7. Q.R. MEMORANDA ROLL, EASTER, 4 ELIZ. MEMB. 182. 
ATTORNEY GENERAL v. THOMAS GUNTER. 

The said Thomas Gunter was accused of taking naoney (amount not given) for the 
value of heriots by and after the death and surrender of divers free tenants within the 
Manor of Welsh Penkelly, and keeping the same to his own use, to wit, after the death 
of Watkin Elin Prosser for une tenement called Blain Thalia 10s., after the death of John 
Elin for one tenement within the said manor 10s., after the death of Watkin Gunter 10s., 
of John Thomas ap John 10s., of Hoelli Lin 10s., of Thomas Griffith 10s., John ap Ross 
de Vanior 10s., Lin ap Hoell 10s., Jenkyn Richard 10s., Phe Jevan ap Jevan 10s., 
Jevan Thomas ap Jevan ap John 10s., John ap Morgan, Esq., 10s., Hoelli Walter 10s., 
Lodovici Walter 10s., William Havarde 10s., Lin John ap Morgan 10s., Elun John ap 
Elin 10s., John Philpotte 10s., Phu Elin John ap Meredith 10s., of Lin at Morgan 10s., 
John Phu Madok 10s., David Madok 10s., Thomas John Thomas Poell 10s., John Walter 
lln ap Morgan 10s., Richard ap Morgan 10s., David ap Gwalter 10s., Watkyn ap Jevan 
Meredith 10a., Thomas Jevan ap Hoell ap Dd IOs., John Jenkyn ap John 10s., Griffin ap 
Jenkin 10s., Matilda de Meredith 10s., Thomas ap Jevan 10s., William goz Thomas 10s., 
Richard Andrewe 10s., Hoell Willin ap Jevan ap Elin 10s., Edward Havard 10s., Roger 
ap Meredith 10s., and by and after the surrender of Roger Vaughan, Knight, of one 
tenement parcel of the said manor late in the tenure of the said Roger 10s., by the 



(141) 

surrenders of Elin ap Jevan Elin 10s., Joan vz Bichard Burchill 10s., Owen Jenkyn, 
Sicillia vz Kes 10s., William ap Jevan 10s., Hoelli Edmond Meredd 10s.. Thomas ap 
Eichard 10s., Res ap Hoell Goz 10s., John Thomas ap Elin 10s., Thomas ap John 10s., 
Watkin Berber. Esq., of one tenement parcel of the said manor late in the tenure of the 
said Watkin 10s., Hoelli Lin ap Hoell 10s., Watkyn ap Hoell ap Lin 10s., Jenkyn ap 
John 10s., Lodovici ap John 10s., Richard John Lin of tne town of Brecon 10s., Edmund 
ap John 10s., Roger David Hoell 10s., John Trune ap Elin 10s., Jenkyn ap John Don 
10s.. all which several tenements are parcels of the said Manor of Welsh Penkelly. 

It was agreed by the court that the said Thomas Gunter should be attached by his 
body to answer to the Queen in the premises, and the Sheriff of the county of Brecon 
was commanded to attach him on the 23rd day of April in this term, but he did not 
return the writ. 

The said Thomas Gunter was committed to the Fleet Prison there to remain, etc., 
but the same day he was brought by the warders of the said prison to the bar and by the 
grace of the court was bailed out by John Ellyot of the City of Hereford, gent., and 
Henry Vaughan of Crekehowell in co. Brecon, gent., to wit, each of them body for body 
until the morrow, and so on from day to day and from term to term until, &c., by virtue 
of which bail the said Thomas was released from the said prison. 

He then complained that he had been very badly and unjustly treated in the matter 
and declared that he had not defrauded the Queen of the heriots as aforesaid. 

He then put himself on the country. 

[Here the case ends.] 



8. ENGLISH PENKELLY. 
CHAN. INQ. P.M., VOL. 129, No. 4, 8 ELIZ. 

Inquisition taken at Brecknock in co. Brecon 20 January, 8 Eliz. [1561] , before 
Thomas Solers, Esq., Escheator, by the oath of Thomas Gunter, Ac., &c., Jurors, who 
say that 

Walter Viscount, Hereford, Lord Ferrers and Charteley, was seized in his demesne 
as of fee on the day that he died of the manor of Piperton alias Pipton in co. Brecon, 
which is held of the Queen as of her castle of Broyntles in the said county by knights 
service, and is worth per ann. clear, G 0. 8. 

The said Walter Viscount Hereford was likewise seized to him and his heirs male for 
ever on the day that he died of the lordship or manor of English Penkelly in the said 
county, with all the lands and tenements, meadows, feedings, pastures, woods, rents, 
reversions, waters, fishing [piscar] *, &c., thereto belonging, and with divers lands and 
tenements in Llandetty als Llanthetty and elsewhere, parcel of the aaid lordship, and it 
is worth per ann., clear, besides the fees and fee farms issuing out of the said manor 7. 

The jurors further say that Thomas ap Glm who is attainted and couvicted of felony 
held in his demesne as of fee on the day that he was condemned one tenement at 
Llanthetty within the lordship of Penkelly called Tire Richard ap Geffrey, and that the 
said tenement is held of Walter Viscount Hereford as of his manor of Penkelly aforesaid 
in socage by the yearly rent of 5d., and suit at court and is worth per aim. clear, 26s. 8d. 

The said Walter was also seized for the term of his life of the manor of Llanthomas 
in the parish of Haya in co. Brecon : which said manor by his death came to Dorothy 
Devereux, widow, late the wife of Richard Devereux, knight, for her life, as parcel of her 
jointure, the remainder after her death to the right heirs of the said Viscaunt for ever : 
which said manor is held of the Queen by knights service as of her castle of Haia, and by 
a certain rent, and is worth per ann., clear. 6 10 0. 

Walter Viscount Hereford died 17 September, 5 & 6, Philip and Mary [1558] ; 
Walter Devereux, Knight, now Viscount Hereford, Lord Ferrers and Chartley, son of 
the said Walter late Viscount Hereford is his kinsman and next heir and was aged 19 
years on the 16th day of September in the said 5th and 6th years. 

* The term " fishing " here occurs (piscar). 



(142) 

9. MANOR OF PENKELLYE. 
TRANSLATION AND COPY. 

ON THE BEHALF OF WALTEK VAUGHAN, ESQ., TO WIT. 

Court of Law also of the supervisor, auditor, and governor. Held at the Castle 
there on the first day of December in the fourteenth year (?) of the reign of the Lady 
Elizabeth, by the grace of God Queen of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the 
Faith, &c. [1560] . Before John Harris and Lewis Meredith by virtue of a Commission 
thereof made to them by Walter Vaughan, Esq., the lord on behalf of the said manor, as 
by the said Commission it may Ihe more appear and Beem, the date whereof is, &c., 
to wit. 

ESSOINS. 
JURORS 

Jenkins Morgan Meredith Phe 

Henricus Vaughan Willimus Edmonde 

Johannes Morgan Lodovicus Kicharde 

Jenkyns John Jenkyns Philippus Jenkyns 

Watkins Jenkyns Riscus Thorn ap Jevan ap John 

Gwalterus Hoell Johannes Thome Jevan ap John 

AMERCIAMENTS, TO WIT. 

xiid. xiid. xiid. 

Who say upon their oaths that Hoel Llewellyn, Jenkin goz, Robert Morgan, Roger 

xiid. xiid. xiid. xiid. xiid. 

ap Jevan DD ap Hoell, Edmond, Meredith Games, Elizabeth Gounter, John Llewellyn, 

xiid. xiid. xiid. xiid. 

William Watkyn Gonter, Jevan ap Andrewe, Thomas ap Glln, Walter David, Thomas 

xii, xiid. xiid. xiid. 

ap John ap Jevan ap DD, David ap Roger DD Hoell, Lykey Robard, Morgan Griffith, 

xiid. xiid. xiid. xiid. 

Roger ap DD Hoel, Roger Thomas, John ap Jevan John Richard, John Thorn ap DD 

xiid. xiid. xiid. xiid. 

Roger Gough, Meredyth ap Richard, Watkin Hoell Lin, William Games, Esq., David 

xiid. xiid. xiid. 

Thomas glim ap Jevan ap John, William Awbrey Doctor of Law, and John Thoma 
John Thorn ap Hoell, who owe suit at the court of the manor aforesaid and made default, 
therefore each of them in mercy as appears over the heads of them, to wit. And order 
is given by the court to the bailiff to raise the said amerciaments out of their goods and 
chatties before She next court to the use of the lord 28s. 

FINES, TO WIT. 

Also they present " that there Customs ys, That everye tenant wythin the 
Lordeshippe ought of rygthe to comence there Accons one agenst the other in the lordes 
Corte and not elsewhere ether for matters af Trespas or for anye other matters 
determynable there, upon pain of Amercyamentes. Yt ys therefore ordered by the 
Courte that hereafter none of the saide Tenantes comence anye Accone oute of the sayde 
Courte ether for Trespas or other wyse uppon the payne of viis., to be raised out of their 
goods and chatties to the use of the lord. Except there be lycence gyvyne by the Lorde 
or his offy cers to the Contrarye 7s. 

Morover they say " that the sayde Lordshippe syttuatyth and lyethe in dyvers 
parishes. That ys to saye, in the parysshe of Vaynor, Landettye, Llan Vygan, Llan 
Vronye, and Llan Saynt Frege." 

And they say " that the freholders to there knowlige have bothe presented there 
Tenures of freholde wythe the number of acres as also the anuall Rentes, and that the 
same Rentes ys due by there Custome to be payed at the feast of St. Mychaell 
Tharcbangell yerlye. And there Commortbe ys due everye secende yere to be payid." 

Also they present that Philip Jenkynge holds his lands lying and being at Llan 
Detty upon the way there tenur Walic called Welshe Tenure. 



(143) 

PAINS, TO WIT. 

Also the jurors aforesaid have a day by the court to enquire " Whether the land and 
inherytance of Wakyng Jenkynge Morgan, be holding of this lordshippe ether by Knyghtes 
service or otherwyse, which landes and tenymentes lye and be at Gylston, and that they 
brynge in at the next courte by verdytt not onlye the true tenure and quantitye whether 
by a hole Knyghtes fee or otherwyse, but also whate marryages warde and Reliffes hathe 
byne and is conselid from the lorde " on the side of the next court under pains to be 
levied 12s. 

THE FREE TENANTS FOLLOW AS WELL OF TENURE AS OF YEARLY BENTS & OTHER SERVICES. 

HERIETES AFTER THE CUSTOME OF THE MANOR, TO WIT. 

Yearly Kent. 
English. Rees Thomas claims to hold one tenement in the parish of Combano 

containing by estimation acres of land by rent and service 2s. 4d. 

English. John Thomas claims to hold one tenement in Combano aforesaid 

containing by estimation acres of land by rent and service, &c Id. 

English. Jenkin John Jenkyng claims to hold one water course at Combano 

aforesaid called Cledagh by rent and service, &c .. 2s. 

Welsh. Meredyth Phe claims to hold one tenement at Llan Dettye as of free 

tenement Welsh containing by estimation 9 acres of land by rent and 

service, &c. 8d. 

Welsh. William ap Kees claims to hold 1 tenement with the appurtenances at 

Llan Dettye as of free tenement Welsh containing 8 acres of land by 

rent and service, & 4d. 

Welsh. The same William ap Rees holds one other tenement at Llandettye 

aforesaid containing by estimation 30 acres Welsh by rent and 

service, &o lOd. 

Welsh. Gwalter Hoell claims to hold half an acre of land at Llandettye as of 

his free tenement Welsh by rent and service 2d. 

Welsh. William Edmond claims to hold 1 acre of land Welsh at Llandettye as 

of free tenement by rent, &c 2d. 

Welsh. Thomas ap John Baran claims to hold half an acre Welsh at Llandettye 

as of free tenement by rent, &c. .. 4d. 

Welsh. John Morgan ap John claims to hold at Llandettye 4 acres of land 

Welsh in a place called Earthimadderinge by rent, &c 4d. 

Welsh. The same John claims 1 tenement on the way in the which he lives 

Llandettye, containing 24 acres of land Welsh, by estimation, 

by rent, &c 8d. 

Wetsh. David Jenkyng ap Kees claims to hold 4 acres of land Welsh at Llan 

Vygan by rent Id. 

Welsh, Welthian vz Hoell claims to hold 5 acres of land Welsh at Llan Vygon 

by estimation by rent and servico 4d. 

Welsh. Roger ap Jevan DD Hoell claims to hold 4 acres of land at Llan 

Vigon Welsh, as of free tenement by rent and service, &c 2d. 

English. Jevan John Jenkyng claims to hold 1 tenement with the appurten- 
ances at Llan, containing by estimation 10 acres English by rent, &c.... 4s. 
English. Neast, wife of John Thomas DD, claims to hold 1 tenement with the 

appurtenances in Vaynor at of free tenement containing acres by 

rent, fec. 16s 8d. 

English. Rogerus Goz claims to hold certain lands there containing by 

estimation acres by rent and service, &c, 2d. 

English. The same Koger claims to hold another tenure there by rent, &c Id. 

English. Jenkyng Goz claims to hold there certain lands by rent, &c 8s. 4d. 

Welsh. Robert Morgan Richard Morgan Lin Morgan John Morgan Mawde 

vz Hoell Morgan for their Welsh lands there by rent 2s. 



(144) 

Welsh. John Lin claims to hold 8 parcels of land at Llandettye, one parcel 

whereof is called Teyer Jeny Proser, the second is called Teyer Ykaye 

in Wenalte, and the third is called Teyer Nest .Richard, containing by 

estimation 18 acres Welsh by the rent, &c ... 12d. 

Welsh. Meredyth ap Eees claims to hold 1 tenement with the appurtenances in 

a places called Tavehan by rent and service, &c., Welsh 2s. 8d. 

Welsh. Watkin Hoell Llin claims to hold 1 tenement with the appurtenances 

by Welsh tenure, by rent and and service, &c 12d. 

Welsh. Thomas Lin claims to hold certain lands as of his free tenement in the 

place called Cranant as of Welsh tenure, by rent, & ... lOd. 

Welsh. Jevan Meredyth claims to hold 1 tenement with the appurtenances in 

the place called Llanvigan by Welsh tenure, by rent, &c. 12d. 

Welsh. Philip Jenkyng 4 acres of Welsh land and as the jurors present to this 

court he holds them as of free tenement at Llandettye by rent, &c lOd. 

Welsh. Meredyth Games claims to hold as of free tenement certain parcels of 

land in Llan St. Fryde by rent and service as Welsh lands 2d. 

English. Lewys Eychard Gunter, Esq., claims to hold certain lands at Llan 

Vygan as of free tenement by English tenure by rent, &c 5s. 4d. 

English. Koger Thomas claims to hold one tenement with the appurtenances 

at Llan St. Bryde as of English tenure by rent and service, &c 16d. 

Welsh Jenkin Morgan claims to hold one tenement at Llan Vronye as of free 

tenement by Welsh tenure containing 12 acres of land, but in the 

Court Rolls it appears to be held by indenture and not of free tenement 

Welsh. Therefore query, by rent 20d. 

Welsh. John Edmond claims to hold one acre of land as by Welsh tenure by 

the rent and tervice thereof first due and of right accustomed 2d. 

Welsh. William Watkynge Gunter claims to hold one tenement with the 

appurtenances at Llan Vygan as of free tenement Welsh, by rent, &c. 2s. 3d. 
Query. Watkin Jenkynge Morgan claims to hold one tenement at Gylston 

containing by estimation 60 acres of land, but by what service and 

tenure the jurors aforesaid upon their oaths ought to present at the 

next court, by the re-'t 4d. 

Welsh. The same Watkin claims to hold one other tenement at Talybant 

[containing by] estimation 10 acres Welsh by rent and service, &c. ... 4d. 
English. Jevan ^p Androwe claims to hold one tenement with the appurtenances 

as of his free tenement English by rent and service, &c. .. lOd. 

Welsh. ihomas glim goz claims to hold one tenement with the appurtenances 

of his free tenement Welsh by rent and service, &c 2d. 

Welsh. Walter David claims to hold certain lands at Llan Vygan as of his free 

tenement Welsh by rent and service, &c 8d. 

English. Thomas ap Thomas claims to hold certain lands at Llanvygan as of 

his free tenement English by rent and service lid. 

Welsh. David ap Roger DD ap Hoell claims to hold certain lands at Llan 

Vygan as of his free tenement Welsh by rent and service Hd. 

English. Llykye Rycbard claims to hold certain lands at Llan Vygo as of his 

free Unement English by rent and service, &c lid. 

Welsh. Jenkin DD Thomas claims to hold one tenement with the appurtenances 

at Llan Vygan containing by estimation 5 acres Welsh by rent and 

service . . , .. 5d. 



Sum 1 17s. 7d. 



TENANTS WHO HOLD BY INDENTURE OF CERTAIN DEMISES. 
Jevan John ap Jevan Madock holds one tenement with the appurtenances 
and a parcel of land called Teyr Todogan for the term of his life of the demise 
(lease) of Walter Vaghan, Esq., dated the 20th day of September in the 4th and 
5th year of Phillip and Mary, by service and rent, &c 5s. 



(145) 

Walter William with others holds by Indenture divers parcels of land for 
the term of his life, lying between the water there called gunles of the demise 
(lease) of Walter Vaghan, Esq., dated the 20th day of December in the I0th 
year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by rent 18s. 4d. 

The same Walter Glim and others hold by indenture for term of life 2 
messuages of the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., and Thomas Vaghan his son, 
dated the last day of May in the first year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by 
the rent 5s. 4d. 

The same Walter Glim holds by indenture one close of land called Guys 
Goules by the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., and Thomas his son, dated the 
last day of May in the 1st year of Queen Elizabeth, by rent 5s. lOd. 

The same Walter Glim holds by indenture one tenement with the appur- 
tenances called Teyer Courte of the demise of Richard Vaghan, Knight, for the 
term of 99 years, dated the 14th day of January, 20 Hen. VIII., by the rent 18s. 4d. 

Jenkin ap Rosser holds by indenture one barn with 4 acres of land, Welsh, 
of the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., for the term of 20 years, dated the 10th 
day of January in the 9th year of Queen Elizabeth, by rent, &c Ss. 4d. 

Thomas ap Jevaa Hyggine holds by indenture one tenement with the 
appurtenances of the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., for the term of 21 years, 
the patrimony of Jevan ap Higgin by the last will of his father which is Hated 
the 22nd day of September in the 5ih and 6th year of Philip and Mary. &c. 8s. 4d. 

Henry Vaghan holds by indenture one tenement with the water course with 
the appurtenances of the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., for the term of 21 
years, the date whereof is the 6th day of May in the 13th year of Queen 
Elizabeth, by rent, &c .. 10s. 

Jevan Hoell holds by indenture one tenement with the appurtenances of the 
demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., and Thomas his son, not shown 2s. 

Morgan ap Eichard ap Hoell holds one tenement with the appurtenances of 
the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., and Thomas Vaghan his son, for the term 
of his life, dated the last day of May in the 1st year of Queen Elizabeth, by the 
rent 6s. 8d. 

Morgan ap DD of Llan St. Frede holds one tenement with the appurtenances 
of the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., and Thomas Vaghan his son, for the 
term of 21 years, dated the 4th day of October, 11 Eliz., by rent 6s. 8d. 

William Thomas ap Jevan ap Phe and others hold equally one tenement 
with the appurtenances of the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., for term of life, 
dated the last day of January, 4 Edw. 6, by the rent.. 16s. 8d. 

Margaret ap Hoell holds one tenement with the appurtenances of the 
demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., for the term of 21 years, as it is said, but not 
shown 8s. 

Johan DD ap Wakyng, widow, claims to hold one tenement with the 
appurtenances at the will of the Lord during her life, by rent 4d. 

David ap Morgan ap Jevan and others hold one tenement with the appur- 
tenances of the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., and Thomas Vaghan his son, 
for the term of his life, dated the 20th day of October, 8 Eliz., by the rent .. . 23s. 4d. 

Morgan ap Jevan ap Morgan holds one tenement with the appurtenances 
of the demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., for the term of his life, dated 29 August, 
8 Eliz., by the rent 8s. 4d. 

John ap Jevan ap John Yghan with others holds one tenement of the 
demise of Walter Vaghan, Esq., for term of life, dated 2 October, 5 Eliz., by rent 10s. 

Andrew Watkyng holds by indenture one way leading to the common there 
called Combano, not shown, by the rent 12d. 

Morgan Gryffyth of Penkellye claims by indenture here one orchard in 
Penkellye aforesaid, but it is not shown, by the rent 2d. 

Madock ap DD and Phe Madock ap DD hold one tenement at St. Brydes 
by indenture of the demise of Richard Vaghan, Knight, for a term of years, as it 
is said, but not shown, by the rent 5s. 



(146) 

William ap Bees holds by indenture of the demise of Walter Vaghan the 
moiety of one close of land called Guys goules Issa for the term of 21 years, 
dated the 7th day of May, 6 Eliz., by rent 5s. lOd. 

The same William holds by indenture of the demise of Richard Vaghan, 
Knight, one close of land called Kay Eynon for the term of 99 years, dated the 
6th day of July, 29 Hen. 8, by the rent 20d. 

The same William holds at the will of the lord one close of land called Kay 
Juer by the rent and service thereof, &c 3s. 4d. 

Sum . . 7 18s. lOd. 



Sum total of the yearly rent by the year there, except Comortha 
and the perquisites of the court, as it shall happen, to wit 10 11s. 5d. 




COMORTHA TO BE PAID EVERY SECOND YEAR. 

Meredith John Meredyth 2d. 

Walter Hoell 2s. 

DD ap Bosser DD Hoell lOd. 

Lykye Eichard, widow lOd. 

Thomas ap Thomas ... 8d. 

Walter David 4d. 

William ap Bees lOd. 

The same William 3d. 

John Morgan 3d. 

Meredyth Games Id. 



Sum 6s. 3d. 



FREE TENANTS WHO OWE SUIT AT COURT PAY NOTHING BUT HERIOTS. 

The jurors say upon their oaths that William Games, Esq., for his lands at Llan 
Vronye, James Apparrye, Esq., for his lands at Llan Vronye, William Awbrey, Doctor 
of Laws, at Llan Vronye, John Walbye, gentleman, for lands in the parish of Brenocke, 
John Thomas ap John for lands at Llan Vruges (?), William Thomas ap Jenkjng for 
lands at Llan Vygos, Meredyth John Meredyth for lands at Llan, and Thomas ap Jevan 
for lands at Llan Vronye, owe suit at every court held within the manor of Penkelly 
aforesaid by reasonable summons, and to do all other charges thereof first due and of 
right accustomed, &c. 

*** Several tenants of the Manor are said to be " free." They owed suit at 
Court, but paid nothing beyond Heriots at death. The names of 
William Games, James Apparry. William Awbrey, and John Walbye 
occur among these free tenants. 



\ 



10. MANOB OF PENKELLY. 

19 ELIZ., VOL. 177, No. 53. 

CHAN. INQN. P.M. 

Inquisition taken at Stratford Llangthorne in co. Essex 7 February, 19 Eliz. [1577] 
before Thomas Harrington, Knt., and others, after the death of Walter Earl of Essex, by 
the oath of William Dunce, &c., &c., jurors, who say that 

The said Earl was seized of the Manor of Hallingburye Parva alias Hallingburie 
Bourghcher in co. Essex, &c., &c. 

So seized, the said Earl made his will 13 June, 1576, as follows : 

And furthermore I leave to descend to my heir in course of inheritance the manors 
of Newington, &c., &c. . . . and all that my manor of Penkelly with the 



(147) 

appurtenances in co. Brecknock, with all and singular my lands, tenements, rents, 
revenues and hereditaments in Newingtou and Penkelley, &c., &c., which said premises 
are a full third part of all ray manors, lands, &c. 

The said Earl of Essex died 22 September last past ; Eobert now Earl of Essex is 
bis son and heir, and was aged 11 years on the 10th day of November last past. 



11. MANOR OF PENKELLY CASTLE. 

A true and perfect Survey and Eent Roll of the names of all the tennantes of the 
said Mannor and Lordshippe of John Powell, Gentleman, together with the 
severall summes due uppon each of the said t<-nantes uppon theire severall and 
respective Lands as at theire names appeareth and payable unto the said John 
Powell, Gentleman, at every the feast of St. Michael the archangell yearly. 

VAYNOR PARISHE. 

William Morgan, Esq., for two paro.ells of Landes in Vaynor. 

Richard David for his house and landes called Pen-y-Gelly. 

Lewis William Thomas for his house and lands in Pen-y-Gelly wherein Johan 
Thomas now liveth. 

William Meredith for his house and lands called Pen-yr-adwy-Meane. 

Roger William for his house and landes wherein he now liveth by Pont-y-Stickell. 

Richard David, junior, for his house and landes called Llwyn-y-Braine. 

Lewis William for his house and landes where William Edward John Traharne 
liveth called Pant-y- Vaynor. 

The said Lewis for ye severall houses and landes called Tyr Bryn Rees. 

Lewis Watkin Richard for the landes lyeinge betweene Bryn Rees and Pant-y- Vaynor. 

Richard William and William John for ye house and lands called Pen Rhyw yr 
Glaish. 

Morgan Frees William for his house and landes att Pen Rhwy yr Glaish. 

John Robert for the severall houses and landes wherein his mother and he now live. 

Henry William for his house and landes lyeinge bettweene the landes of John 
Robert and Koed-y-Rymor. 

Thomas Jenkin, senior, for his house and landes. 

Thoma* Jenkin Phillipp for his house and landes in Taue Vaure. 

The said Thomas Jenkin Phillipp for his house and landes where in Rees William 
and Miriah Powell now live. 

John Thomas for his house and lands called Abercarr. 

Walter Jones, gentleman, for the severall houses and landes called Tyr-y-fedye. 

The said Walter Jones for the house and landes where Jenkin John Rees now liveth. 

William Morgan for Tir-y-Grauten and his house and landes where he now liveth. 

William Meredith for his house and landes called Dan-y-Graig in Taue Vaure. 

Edward David for his house and landes in Taue Vaure. 

The lands where Evan John Bevan now liveth. 

Jonnett Watkin Meredith for the lands wherein Morgan Robert now liveth. 

William Howell for his house and landes called Tyr-y-Cwne. 

LLANFIGNACH PARISHE. 

The Lady Beachampe for the landes in the handes of Phillip Maddocke and 
Watkyn Gwynn. 

Richard Jones for his house and landes now in the occupation of William Howell. 

Phillip Madockes for the house and lands where he now liveth. 

The Lady Beachampe for the house and landes where Thomas David Prees now 
liveth. 

Henry Thomas for the house and landes where Howell Thomas David Meredith 
now liveth. 

Richard John Meredith for his house and landes called Cumcynwyn. 



(148) 

Gwenllian, the wife of Howell Meredith, for her houre and lands. 

Thomas Gunter for the landes called Tille Lloyd. 

LLANVAN ( ?) PARISH. 

John Jeffreys, Esq>iire, for the house and the pi. above the house in Edstroogew- 
wynne. 

Eichard Jeffreys, Esq., for the lands late of William Powell and now in the 
possession of John Bevan. 

John Jeffreys for the lands called Aperpedole. 

Edward Powell, Esq., for his landes in Penkelly, late of William Vaughan. 

Edward Powell, Esq., for the house of Harry the smyth. 

Edward Powell. Esq., for the house of Poolsurpill and Kadbach. 

William Jones, Esq., for the lands called Y Pank (?) Gwynn ne Gwrlod Howell Bach. 

William Jones, Esq., for Tyr Blaen Cuy. 

Edward Games for Tyr Kilvach Collan. 

John Games for Tyr Llwyn y Buttur. 

Gladis Gunter, widdow, for Tir Errow yr Ffynon. 

Gladis Gunter, widow, for the old house and the close by the house where Jenkin 
John lives. 

Walter Phillips for the house and the meadow by the house of Bwyn-y-Bair. 

Thomas Bowens, Esq., for Tyr Pant y Goytre. 

Thomas Bowens, Esq., for Ehandyr Ychlow yr Ffordd, being the lands of Watkin 
Bevan. 

William Pritchard for his land called Tyr-y-Apediodd. 

David ap Evan for Tyr Kaye-yr-Allt called Errw-yr-Spydwydd. 

Lewis Gunter, gent., for Barnartand Wytkerne (?). 

Lewis Gunter, gent., for his landes Y Bir erne. 

Thomas Bowens, Esq., for his landes called Tir Lewis William Kae Ycha, Kae Yssa 
and Kae Kennoll. 

Jeukin John for the house and garden. 

Howell Powell (?) for the old soyle and orchyard called Ty Pen-y-Twyn. 

Henry Games for his landes called Rhandir y Porth. 

Mary Powell for her landes called Kae Scogin, late in ye occupacion of John Morgan. 

Mary Powell for ye landes called Kas Janewaka, late in the occupation of John 
Morgan. 

Meredith John for the house and garden where he liveth. 

For Tyr Close y Porth. 

David ap Evan for Tyr David ap Howell. 

LLANVRYNACH. 

Bartholomew Games for ye landes of Tregare. 

John Maddocks for Katermele Keven yr Hendynwyn y Pwll, y Kefan. 

Gladis Gunter for her landes called Kaesykollogy. 

Evan Powell for his [house] aod landes in Cum-Morgum. 

John Madocks for his landes called Y Kayre. 

William Meredith for his landes called Kae William Brick. 

LLANVILLO PARISHE. 

Edmond Jones, Esq., for his house and landes in Trevithe (?) called Y Wurd (?). 
John Williams, Esq., for his landes called Terllenovalle. 

John Williams, Esq., for the lands wherein William Howell lives called Tyr (?) 
Dar yr Allt. 

John Williams, Esq., for part of the house and landes called (?) 

[MEMBRANE 2.] 

Morgan Thomas Bowen for ye house and lands where he now dwelleth in Tyllecrwnn. 
Thomas ap Thomas of Tallachdy for his landes in Llanvillo. 



(149) 

Owen Christopher. 

Roger Havard for the house and landes called Keven y Ffordd. 

William John Frees for his house and garden in Tredomen. 

Jonnet Havard. 

James Parry of Trostrey, gent. 

Hugh Lewis of Trevithe. 

William Awbrey of Brecon for his garden. 

Watkin Frees for his house and garden. 

Thomas David for a house, barne, and one close in Trevithe. 

Thomas Havard for three acres of land by Allt yr Honow. 

LLANDDETTY PABISHE. 

John Morgan for ye house and lauds of Glawcod. 
John Morgan for ye meadow by Wenallt House. 
Richard Jenkin for his house and Coadkae yr Mort. 
David Richard Jenkin for ye Gelly Bant. 
Howell Frees for part of the lands of Gelly Bant. 
Thomas Gunter for the landes called Kae Katherin Gunter. 
John Howell Gunter for his lands called Tyr y Barren. 
For the lands of Abercriban. 

William Phillip Lewis for the house and landes where he dwelleth. 
David Richard Jenkin for his landes called Tyr Bryn y Gwynydd. 
William Lewis for Tyr yr Yskir. 
William Thomas and Richard Watkin for the house and landes where they dwell. 
Lewis Richard Jenkin for the laudes called Yr Wrlode hiz ar Ian ta fe vechan. 
Edward Powell, esquier, for Tir y Dole Bach. 

Thomas Powell for his landes, late in the occupacion of John Tho. Wm. in ye 
Wenallt. 

Barsillay Jones for Tir y ke fen called Y Kae Gwynn. 

LLANSANFHEAD. 
William Bowen, Esq. 
Henry Vaughau, Doctor of Physick. 

Cottagers in Vaynor Parishe. 

[ENDORSED] MANOR or PENKELLY CASTLE. 

An ancient Survey and Rent Roll without date (in a later handwriting) in the 
time of Hugh Powell, gent. 




12. GRANT OF ENGLISH PENKELLY MANOR TO RICHARD AND 

EDWARD STANHOPE. 

PATENT ROLL, 43 ELIZ., PAKT 8, MEMB. 37-89 (1601). 

OF A GRANT TO HIMSELF AND His HEIRS FOR MICHAEL STANHOPE, ESQ., AND OTHERS. 

The Queen to all to whom, &c., greeting. Know ye that We in consideration of the 
sum of 779 19s. 6d. in hand paid to the Receipt of Our Exchequer into the hands of 
Our beloved servant Edward Carie, Knight, to Our use, by Our beloved subject Michael 
Stanhope, Esq., one of the grooms of Our Privy Chamber of Our special grace, certain 
knowledge and mere motion have given and granted and by these presents for Us Our 
heirs and successors do give and grant to the said Michael Stanhope and to Our beloved 
subject Edward Stanhope, Doctor of Laws and one of the Masters of Our Court of 
Chancery, and to their heirs and assigns all that Our manor of English Penkelly alias 
English Pinkelley alias English Pynkelly, in our County of Brecon, with all its rights, 
members and appurtenances by the particular thereof of the yearly rent or value of 




(150) 

18 11s. 5d. per annum, late parcel of the lands and possessions of Robert late Earl of 
Essex, lately attainted of high treason ; also all and singular the messuage?, mills, 
houses, buildings, structures, barns, stables, dove cotes, orchards, appleyards, gardens, 
shops, cellars, sollars, lands, tenements, meadows, feedings, pastures, commons, demesne, 
lands, wastes, furze, heath, moors, marshes, woods, underwoods, tithes of sheaves, corn, 
grain! hay, wool, linen, hemp and lambs and all other tithes whatsoever as well great as 
small ; also oblations, obventions, fruits, profits, waters, fishings, fisheries, suits, sock, 
mulcture, warrens, mines, quarries, rents, reversions and services, rent charges, rents 
dry and rt-nts and services as well of free as of customary tenants, works of tenants. 
farms, fee farms, annuities, knights fees, wards, marriages, escheats, reliefs, heriots, 
fines, amerciaments, courts leet, views of frank pledge, perquisites and profits of courts 
and leets, and all things belonging to courts le t and views of frank pledge, cattle waived, 
estrays, bondmen, bondwomen and villeins with their belongings, estovers and commons 
of estover, fairs, markets, tolls, customs, rights, jurisdictions, franchises, privileges, 
profits, commodities, emoluments and hereditaments whatsoever, with all their 
appurtenances of whatsoever kind, nature or sort, or by whatsoever names they may be 
known or called, lying, being, forthcoming, growing or emerging within the said County 
of Brecon to the said manor and other the premises above by these presents granted, or 
any of them in any way belonging, appertaining, incident or appendent or reputed to be 
member, part or parcel of the said manor and other the premises or any of them ; also 
the reversion and reversions whatsoever of all the said manors, messuages, lands, 
tenements and hereditaments whatsoever, and of every part thereof. 

We also give to the said Michael arid Edward Stanhope their heirs and assigns all 
and all manner of Our woods, underwoods and trees whatsoever growing in and upon 
all and singular the premises or any part thereof ; and all the land, ground and soil of 
the same woods, underwoods and trees ; also the reversion and reversions of all the said 
premises ; also the rents and yearly profits whatsoever reserved upon whatsoever demises 
or grants made of the said premises or any part thereof; also the rents and yearly profits 
of all and singular the said premises. 

Also We have given and granted by these presents to the said Michael and Edward 
Stanhope and their heirs and assigns for ever that they may have hold and enjoy within 
the said premises all, so much, such and the like courts leet, views of frank pledge, 
law dais, assize and assize of bread, wine and ale, cattle waived, estrays, chattels of 
felons and fugitives, felons of themselves and put in exigend, deodands, knights fees, 
wards, marriages, escheats, reliefs, herriots, free warrens and all other rights, jurisdictions, 
franchises, liberties, customs, profi's, commodities, emoluments and hereditaments 
whatsoever as, which and suchlike, and as fully, freely, and wholly, and in such ample 
manner and furm as the aforesaid Robert late Earl of Essex, or any other at any time 
heretofore held the said manor, messuages, lands, tenements, and other ihe premises or 
any part thereof, by reason of any charter, gift, grant or confirmation heretofore made 
or granted by Us or by any of Our progenitors, and as fully and freely and in such ample 
manner and form as We or any of Our progenitors had or enjoyed the said premises. 

We also by these presents give and giant to the said Michael and Edward and their 
heirs and assigns all the said premises with all their appurtenances as fully, freeh , and 
wholly and in such amp'e manner and form as the said premises came into Our hands 
or into the hands of Our most dear father and brother Henry the 8th and Edward the 
6th, late Kings of England, or into the hands of Our most dear sister Mary, late Queen 
of England, by reason of the dissolution or surrender of any of the late monasteries or 
Priories, or by pretext of any exchange or purchase, or of any gift or grant, or of any 
attainder or forfeiture, or by leason of any Act of Parliament, or by reason of escheats 
or any other lawful manner, right, or title : Which said Manor of English Penkelley by 
the particular thereof extends to the yearly rent or value of 18 lls. 5d. per annum : 
Except nevertheless and always reserving to Us and Our heirs all advowsons, free gifts, 
and right of patronage of all and singular Churches, vicarages, chapels, and ecclesiastical 
benefices whatsoever to the said premises belonging and appertaining : To have, hold, 
and enjoy the said manor, messuages, lands, &c., &c., &c., and all and singular the 



(151) 

premises above expressed and specified, and the reversion of all the said premises, except 
as above excepted, to the said Michael and Edward Stanhope, their heirs and assigns, 
to the sole use of them, their heirs and assigns for ever : To hold all the said premises of 
Us ( Our heirs and successors as of Our manor of East Greenwich, in co. Kent, by fealty 
only in free and common socage and not in chief or by knights service for all other rents, 
services, exactions, and demands whatsoever thereof to Us. Our heirs and successors in 
any way to be paid, rendered, or made. 

And further We give to the said Michael and Edward all the issues, rents, revenues, 
and profits of all the said premises and of every part thereof from the Feast of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the Virgin last past forthcoming or growing up to the 
present time : To have to them of Our gift, without any account of the same to be made 
to Us or Our heirs. 

[Then follow clauses as to corrodies, fees, annuities, &c., with various exceptions ; 
also commands as to the enrolment of the said Letters Patent, notwithstanding, &c., &c.] 

Witness the Queen at Westminster the 4th day of September. 

By writ of Privy Seal, &c. 

16. [INDORSED]. WALES. RENTAL OF PENKELLY WALLENSIS. 

COM. BRECON. 

RECEITED DEC. IST, 1787. 

Among the Records in the custody of the Keeper of Her Majesty's Land Revenue 
Records and Enrolments in Box No. 43, is the following : 

LAND REVENUE OFFICE, 

SCOTLAND YARD. 

The Commissioners appointed by an Act of Parliament, intituled, " An Act for 
appointing Commissioners to enquire into the State and Condition of the Woods, Forests, 
and Land Revenues belonging to the Crown, and to sell or alienate Fee Farm and other 
unimprovable Rents," do, in Pursuance of the said Act, hereby require you to make out 
and transmit to them a Rental, of all the Rents due to the Crown in your Collection 
within the Manor or Lordship of Penkelley Wallensis otherwise Welsh Penkelly (according 
to the Form herewith sent you) specifying the Amount of each Rent, for what Messuages, 
Lands, or Tenements the same is payable ; and whether such Messuages, Lands, or 
Terements are Freehold, Copyhold, or Leasehold under the Crown ; the Land Tax (if 
any) allowed out of each Rents (sic) ; the Names and Residence of the persons from 
whom the same are due ; and to what time each Rent is paid ; and where any Rent is 
more than one year in arrear, to state the reason why such Rents have not been collected ; 
with any other Observations which you may think fit to make relative thereto, such 
Rental to be verified on Oath before a Justice of the Peace, and transmitted to this 
Board on or before the last day of November next. 

Given under our Hands and Seals this Eighteenth Day of September, 1787. 

(Sd.) CHAS. MIDDLE-TON. 
(Sd.) JNO. CALL. 
To 

The Bailiff of Penkelley Wallensis, otherwise 
Welsh Penkelley, in the County of Brecon. 

FORM OF THE ACCOUNT. 

MANOR OR LORDSHIP OF PENKELLEY WALLENSIS, OTHERWISE WELSH PENKELLEY, 

IN COM. BRECON. 

A Rental of all the Rents due and payable to his Majesty within the Manor or 
Lordship aforesaid in the Collection of the Bailiff there made out in pursuance of a 
Precept from the Commissioners of the Land Revenue dated the Eighteenth day of 
September, 1787. 



(152) 



Names of the Tenants 
from what the Rents are 
received. 


Name and Description 
of Estate. 


Names ot Proprietors. 


1 Annual Rent 
received from 
each Person 
by the Bailifl. 


Land Tax J 
allowed out ofl 
each Bent. 1 


To what 
Time Paid. 








s. d. 






Wm. Howell 


Bryn Jack 


David Davies 


4 




1784 


William Jenkin 


Cwm Car 


Alice Phillip Morgan 


6 8 


B 


Do. 


Jahn Jenkiu 


Blaen Car 


John Jenkin 


11 


P 

a 


Do. 


David Nicholas 


Wain alias Wern Dee 


Morgan \Dd. Prichard 


4 





Do. 


Thomas Llewellin 


Tir Wain Goch 




5 


s 


Mic. 1780 


Thomas Llewellin 


Tuy yn y Coed 


William Morgau 


8 


p. 


1768 


Eees Wi'liams 


Pentwyn 


Rees Williams 


9 


33 


1784 


Howel Thomas 


Tor y Gare 




1 4 


o 


1781 


Phillip Thomas 


Blaen Callan 


Mary Watkins 


S 


IB 

C^ 


1784 


William Powell 


Boinna Gleision 


William Powell 


3 4 


' 


1784 


John Jenkin 


Tir Coan yr Alt 


Mrs Thomas 


8 


o 

5S 


1184 


Thos. Williams 


Tuy Dee 


Howell Prichard 


6 


K 


1781 


William Thomas 


Tor y Glase 


William Thomas 


3 4 


n 

H 


1784 


George Thomas 


Llwyn Onn 




2 3 




1784 


George Lewis 


Glas Cwm 


George Lewis 


S 


a 

CO 


1784 


Thos. Prosser 


Gelly Bant 




8 


HJ 


1784 


Llewellin Morgan 


Llwyn Thelin 


Catherine Morgan 


6 




1784 




Tir y Thevin 


Thomas Prosser 


8 


60 a, 


1784 


Thos. Jenkin 


Brin Mellin 


Jane James 


" 1 10 


a-* fr.ii 

" C-l f-i gj 


1784 


John Powell 


Gwern y Gavar 


M. Hanbury 


1 2 


(5 i; <D o> 
"S ^ 


1784 


Evan Morgan 


Peny Baily 


R Ramsey 


10 


a 

O P rr* ^ 


1784 


Griffith Griffiths 


Peny Baily 


Griffith Griffiths 


2 


*H fl .S i 

v <" 


1784 


Richd. Jenkin 


Llwyn y Rhios 


M. Hanbury 


S 


d ^o 


1782 


William Thomas 


Panty Wennalt 


John Williams 


7 




1768 


John David Abraham 


Dan y Wennalt 


Thos. Wm. Watkins 


9 


9 


1784 


John Gunter 


Pen y Dorian 


George Lewis 


2 




1784 


Robert Haines 


Tir y Origgie 


Thynne Howe Gwynne 


41 


2 


1784 


Morgan 


Mais Mawr 


George Lewis 


5 10 


4J 


1765 


Howell Thomas 


Car ver Evor 


Thos. & Jane Meredith 


2 


2 ll" 


1771 


Morgan 


Cwmbanu 


Richard Lewis 


1 




1784 


David Thomas 


Blaen Nant 


Thbmas Phillips 


8 




1,777 


David Prosser 


Gwem Lledder 


Wilkins 


9 


8 


1781 


Vaughan 


Tily Crwn 


Mr. Moody 


5 4 




1779 


William Thomas 


Tor Glase 


Thomas Williams 


1 4 


4 8 


1784 


Thomas Evans 


Llwn Mallin 


Meredith Evan 


2 




1784 


John Howell Evan 


Pentwyn 


John Howell Evan 


4 


2 


1784 


Winifred Thomas 


Lands near Coity 


John Williams 


1 


4 





* These Rents are Chief or Fee Farm Rents issuing out of Freehold Tenements, very many of 

which cannot possibly be identified. 



NAMES OF TENANTS. 



NAMES or TENEMENTS.. 



RENTS. 
s. d. 

David Price Pant y Lleverith 2 

Late Gladis Games For Caig not I nowri 2 

Wm. John Mason 

Margt. Thomas, Widow 

Elizabeth Thomas, Widow ' .'''.'.'.'.'.'. .'!'.'.'.'.."'.'..'!!!! 

Bryn y Brair o 

Late Edw. Williams Cwm Wain 

Late Mrs Philips Tir y Ton ... 2 

Late Ed. Williams Poor's Land in Llanvigan " 3 

Late Elizabeth Madox 1 

Late Thomas Gunter j 

Late Mrs Jones Coity g Q 

Late Thomas Phillips Blan Nant '..'...... 8 

Late Mrs Phillips Cwm Crgwm. ......... 3 g 

Late Mrs Powell Cwm Orgwm o 10 

Mrs Phillips For Lands said to be in the 

possession of Thos. John 4 

Late Phillip Lewis Late Morgan Powell o 6 



(153) 

For all the above, the Receiver has never been able to get one 
payment. The Boundaries of this with other Manors being so inter- 
mixed and unknown. 

Late Mrs Harry Lands in Cwm Orgwm 4 pd. 1777 

Meredith Thomas Cwm Orgwm 1 5 Commoth every 

other year 3s. 

The Rents due 1787, I have paid the Auditor. The Tenants will pay the money I have advanced 
between this and May. 

There is a Heriot of ten shillings on the death of every freehold Tenant and an Alienation of ten 
shillings on the sale of every freehold tenement within the Manor, but the difficulty of ascertaining the 
Boundaries of the Manor, the expense of holding Courts for that purpose, and the Bailiffs fees for 
Distraining makes it communibus annis not adequate to the expense. 

BBECONSHIBE. Thynne H. Gwynne, Esq., came voluntarily before me, one of his 
Matyes Justices of the Peace in and for the said County, and made Oath that the return 
hereon is true to the best of his knowledge and belief. 

Sworn at Brecon, 

THYNNE HOWE GWYNNE. 
Nov. 29, 1787, 

before me 

PENN WATKINS. 



I certify the foregoing to be a true copy from the said Records pursuant to the Act, 
15 & 16 Viet., cap. 82, Section 8. 

MAURICE HEWLETT, 

July 22nd, 1898. Keeper of the Records. 



The Penkelly Manors. 

(ADDITIONAL). 

Since the above was printed off, I have found the following interesting account of 
these Manors, which appears in a letter from a Mr. George Jones, apparently written at 
Carmarthen, to some one at Brecon. The only date is " Sunday morning," but from the 
contents it seems to have been written about seven years after the purchase of the Buckland 
estate and Penkelly Manors by Mr. Roderick Gwynne of Glanbran Park, which took place 
in 1750. That would bring the date of the letter to 1763, or just the year after his son 
Thynne Howe Gwynne became Steward of Welsh Penkelly Manor under the Crown. 

The writer of the letter was evidently very familiar with the Penkelly Manors and 
their customs and management, and gives the most intelligible and reasonable account of 
them that I have yet met with. I make therefore no excuse for adding the letter here. 

DEAR SIR, I take the liberty of mentioning to you that I purpose 
being at Brecknock on Wednesday, and to do myself the pleasure of 
waiting upon you. 

In ye meantime I am with respect, 

Dear Sir, 
Your most obedt. hble. servant, 

(Sgd.) GEO. JONES. 
Carmn., Sunday morning. 

In ye Hundred of Penkelly and County of Brecon are five Lordships called Welsh 
Penkelly, belonging to the King : 2d, English Penkelly belonging to Roderick Gwynne, 





(154) 

Esq. ; 3d, Penkelly, otherwise Penkelly Cwmorgau, belonging to John Powell, Esq. ; 4th 
Wenallt, belonging to ye same Eoderick Gwynne, Esq. ; and 5th, Llanvrenach, belonging 
to Edward Vaughan, Esq. These five Lordships lie within ye four Parishes of 
Llanvrenach, Llanvigan, Lanthe, and Veynor, and ye Bounds of the Parishes are ye 
Bounds of the Lordships, but ye Lordships themselves have no particular separate 
Boundaries but lie intermixed through ye whole four Parishes (except a part of English 
Penkelly, and Penkelly, otherwise Penkelly C/Tmorgan, which lies in ye Parish of 
Llanvilloc (?), and which were always enjoyed by Mr. Gwynne and Mr. Powell only). 

For these several Lordships there are as many different Leet and Baron Courts held, 
and Suitors being dispersed in ye several Parishes attend one or other of these Courts and 
some of them attend two or more of them, if not held on ye same day. 

Each of ye Lords have also Chief Bents from Persons residing in each of ye several 
Parishes ; they have also Heriots upon Deaths and fines upon Alienations, as well as each 
of them his Bailiff who is .... ye Commons and Wastes and takes up Estrays 
and he who takes ye Estray has it and sometimes two have collected jointly and tLen 
divided them. But neither can appoint a Constable in his Leet. In this manner they 
have been held and enjoyed time out of mind, but ye Country has a notion that these 
Lordships were once in .... and was but one Lordship ; that it afterwards came 
to five daughters, one of whom by some Act forfeited her share to the Crown. Or it 
might have descended in Gavelkind (the common Tenure in Wales) between as many 
sons, and one of them might have forfeited. But this is purely imaginary, without any 
proof more than common rumour. 

Thus each Lord enjoyed his respective right ; ye Tenants enjoyed ye Commons over 
ye four Parishes and dug stones upon ye wastes for repairing their Walls adjoining to ye 
Mountains without any the least interruption till very lately : when Mr. Gwynne, who 
purchased Penalt and English Penkelly about 7 years agoe, put up a separate Eight and 
wants to exclude ye other Lords ; and accordingly about two years agoe gave a Licence to 
some persons to erect Lime Kilns, and dig and burn the stones upon a Common in ye 
Parish of Veynor. Whereupon Mr. Powell and Mr. Vaughan gave Licence to another 
person to do the same in ye same place, which he did, and for this Mr. Gwynne has 
brought an action of Trover against him. 

N.B. Neither of ye Lords ever dug stones on this Common before ; because as 
supposed ye Common being but small they would not injure ye Tenants by destroying ye 
Herbage. 

N.B. Also the Person of whom Mr. Gwynne purchased always paid a Chief Eent for 
his Lands in English Penkelly, and Heriots have been paid upon ye death of the former 
Lords to Mr. Powell and those under whom he claims and Mr. Gwynne had Notice of it 
at the time of his Purchase. 

N.B. Mr. Powell also pays a Chief Bent to ye King, and 10s. in lieu of a Heriot 
upon a death is also due to his Majesty. 

(Endorsed) PENKELLY LORDSHIP. 



I have also to add, that it would appear from the Perambulation made in 1870 by 
the Steward of the Brecon Lordship on behalf of Lord Tredegar, that a small portion of 
that Lordship extends into the Penkelly Manors, and includes a part of Llanddetty Parish 
near Ashford. If so, it is a curious circumstance, and I shall hope to find the explanation 
later. The Penkelly Manor papers, that I have seen, make no reference to the existence 
of any such right. 



(155) 

Lands of Strata Florida Abbey in 
Breconshire. 



This important Abbey, known by the Welsh name of Manachlog Fawr, stood in the 
Valley of the Teivy, in Cardiganshire, not far from Tregaron. It is a wild district, but 
famous for its sheep, and you will find to-day on inquiring from some of the drovers 
bringing thtir flocks on a Thursday along the old Builth road to Brecon, that they have 
brought them from Tregaron. When this Abbey flourished, prior of course to the 
Reformation and the seizure of its estates by Henry VIII., it held large tracts of wild land 
in Cardiganshire and a manor in Eadnorshire, in the Elan and Claerwen valleys, called 
the Grange, and I had an idea in my mind that it also possessed lands in Breconshire, 
and there is a tradition handed down that all the country between the Irvon and Towy 
(or Teify^ rivers was once the property of this Abbey. 

It has been of interest to me, therefore, to find the following old paper, being a lease 
by the Abbot of Strata Florida, dated 1517, of a parcel of land called Ibebillwa, in the 
Lordship of Brecon, to one Eoger ap Thomas ap Gwillym for 99 years. The name of the 
land puzzles me, and I shall be glad of assistance in locating it. My own impression is 
that it is the land near Llanwrtyd, now called Cefn Trebedd Willim, the name being 
possibly a corruption of Tre or Tir Abad Willim, the land of the Abbot held by William. 
And of course there is the further difficulty that it is not in the Lordship of Brecon, but 
this may be explained if we assume that the Abbot in his lease considered the whole 
County of Brecon as Brecon lordship. Cilypebyll in Glamorganshire, is more like 
Ibebillwa, and our Bailyhelig near Brecon, but it is not likely the Abbey held lands so 
far away. This lease is extant for the reason (like that of Usk Mill by the Prior of 
Brecon) that the current leases were respected by the Crown, and became a continuing 
holding under it after the dissolution. 

INDENTURE OF ROGER AP THOMAS AP GLLM FOR THE FARM OF ONE PARCEL OF LAND 

CALLED IBEBILLWA. 

[Land Revenue Office, South Wales Enrolments, Vol. I. fo. 14.1 

[Translation.] 

Know all men by these presents that we Richard Abbot of the Monastery of the 
Blessed Mary the Virgin of Strata Florida with the consent and assent of the Convent of 
the same place have given, granted, and let to farm to Roger ap Thomas ap William and 
his heirs, one parcel of land commonly called Ibebillwa, lying in the Lordship of Brecon, 
To hold from the Feast of the Apostles Philip and James last past for the term of 99 years, 
paying yearly to us and our successors for the profit and tithe to us belonging 20d. at the 
Feast of St. Michael and a heriot when it shall happen, viz., 2s. And it shall not be 
lawful for the said Roger and his heirs to alienate the said land without the licence of the 
said Abbot, and if the said Roger shall be in arrears with the said rent then it shall be 
lawful for the said Abbot to re-enter the said parcel of land, this deed notwithstanding. 

Given in our Chapter House the 18th day of May, 1517. 

The said Abbot and Convent and Roger ap Thomas grant to Meredithe ap Thomas 
ap William the *sphewryght part of tht said parcel of land paying after the rate as Roger 
ap Thomas does during the said term. 

Enrolled 19th October, 1 Edw. 6 [1547J . 

* Sphewryght may denote his calling, as a spear-wright, the maker of spears, or as a 
wheelright, the maker of wheels (spheres). 



(156) 

Yenny Wood. 



Everyone knows Venny Wood, and in this instance there is no doubt as to the part 
of our county where it can be seen. 

" Where Yscir winds, by Gaer's deserted mound, 
And Venni's brow with silver honours crowned." 

And another describes it in prose as the " circling knoll of Venni's Wood, sloping 
downwards to the river's edge, with its many-tinted foliage." 

I have found an old paper about this wood. Of course, as nearly all land near 
Brecon once was, it had been the property of the unfortunate Edward, Duke of 
Buckingham, and had passed to the Crown on his attainder for High Treason. 

And the following lease shows how the wood was managed in Elizabeth's reign. 
Apparently the undergrowth was cut periodically by the tenants, while the large trees 
were reserved to the Crown. These were called " Stadells " or " Staddles," or as we 
should call them " Standards," and the wood was apparently managed on the same plan 
as the Herefordshire coppice woods Ladylift, &c. are to-day. Eichard Price, Gent., 
was probablv the Richard Price, of the Priory, who managed to get hold of nearly 
everything good that was going at Brecon in those days. 

BENNY WOOD. 

LETTERS PATENT TO EICHAKD PRICE, GENT. 

[Land Revenue Office, South Wales Enrolments. Vol. III., fo. 146, Co. Brecon.] 

[Translation.] 

Elizabeth, &c., greeting. Whereas We, by Letters Patent, dated at Westminster, 
10th July, in the 18th year of Our reign [1576] , granted to Jevan ap Morgan, William 
Meredd, Watkin Howell, John David, Llewen Howell, Thomas DD, William Dd, and 
David ap Jevan, all that Our wood and underwood called Benny Wood alias the wood of 
Benny with all the appurtenances in co. Brecon, containing about 100 acres, and all the 
woods, underwoods and woodlands of the said Benny Wood yearly and from time to time 
in any way belonging, parcel of the lands and possessions of the late Duke of Buckingham 
attainted of high treason, except, nevertheless, and always reserving to Us and Our heirs 
all great trees being timber, and all sapling oaks fit for timber, also sufficient les Stadells 
in each acre of the premises according to the Statute in such case lately published for 
such kind of wood ; to hold for 21 years, paying therefore yearly to Us and Our heirs 
88s. 4d. : Which said Letters Patent the said William Meredd and others abovenamed 
surrendered into Our Exchequer as by deed dated 25th May in the 26th year of Our 
reign [1584] appears, with this condition that We should think fit to grant other 
Letters Patent of the premises to Eichard Price, gent., for 21 years, which said 
surrender We hereby accept. 

Know ye, therefore, that We, in consideration thereof, by the advice of William 
Baron, of Burghley, Our Treasurer, and Walter Mildmay, Knt., Chancellor of Our 
Exchequer, have granted, and to farm demised to the said Eichard Price, the said Benny 
Wood, except as before excepted, to hold for 21 years, paying therefore yearly to Us and 
Our heirs 88s. 4d. And the said Eichard Price shall only cut the said wood twice, and 
then only at fit and suitable times ; and shall enclose the said wood well and sufficiently 
with hedges and ditches ; and shall keep the said wood free from damage by not putting 
any horses or animals in the same ; and shall deliver up yearly sufficient les Staddles in 
each acre of the premises. 

Provided always that if the said rent should at any time be in arrear for 40 days, that 
then this demise and grant to be void. 

Given at Westminster, 16th October, 26 Eliz. [1584.] 



(157) 

Manor or Lordship of Brecknock. 



SALE OF FEE FARM RENTS BY THE CROWN TO JOHN MORGAN OF TREDEGAR, ESQUIRE, 1787. 

Land Kevenue Record Office Copy. 

Among the Inrolments in the custody of the Keeper of His Majesty's Land Revenue 
Records and Enrolments in book intituled " Purchase Deeds and Fee Farm Rents sold, 
1786 to 1831, Vol. IV.," is the following : 

No. 440 G. R. By the Cornmisgioners of the Land Revenue. 

BRECON. 

Tuese are to certify that the said Commissioners have contracted and agreed with John 
Morgan, of Tredegar, in the County of Monmouth, Esquire, for the sale to him of All those 
six several rents or payments due and payable to His Majesty by the said John Morgan 
and lately payable by Charles Morgan, Esq., deceased, that is to say, One yearly rent of 
Forty-four pounds and one penny half penny for or in respect of the Manor or Lordship 
of Brecknock with the foreign Bailiwick there with the rights, members, and appurten- 
ances thereof in the County of Brecknock ; One other rent or payment of Fifty-six pounds 
sixteen shillings commonly called a Comortha payable every second year for or in respect 
of the Manor or Lordship of Brecknock aforesaid ; One other yearly rent of Twenty pounds 
nine shillings and tenpence for or in respect of certain demesne lands lying and being in 
Llanvaes and elsewhere, parcel of the Lordship of Brecknock aforesaid ; One other yearly 
rent of Eleven pounds sixteen shillings and eight pence for or in respect of the Rectory of 
Brecknock with the appurtenances thereof in the County aforesaid ; One other yearly rent 
of Six pounds for or in respect of a certain Mill called Honddy Mill in the County 
aforesaid ; And one other yearly rent of Two pounds six shillings and eight pence for or in 
respect of certain fines due or payable for exemption from performing suit at the Court 
of Bail y Glaes within the Manor or Lordship of Brecknock aforesaid with the appurten- 
ances thereof at or for the price or sum of Two thousand seven hundred and twenty-one 
Siunds and nine shillings of lawful money of Great Britain to be paid by the said John 
organ into the Bank of England in the name of the said Commissioners Which said rent 
from and immediately after the payment of the said sum in manner aforesaid and the 
Inrollment of this Certificate with the receipt for the said purchase money in the Office 
of the Auditor of the Land Revenue for the County aforesaid shall be adjudged, deemed, 
and taken to be absolutely vested in the said Purchaser, his heirs, and assigns for ever by 
virtue of an Act passed in the twenty-sixth year of the reign of His present Majesty King 
George the Third, intituled " An Act for appointing Commissioners to enquire into the 
state and condition of the Woods, Forests, and Land Revenues belonging to the Crown 
and to sell .or alienate Fee Farm and other unimprovable rents." 

Given under the hands of the said Commissioners the twenty-eighth day of June, 
one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven. 

Witness to the signing by ) CHARLES MIDDLETOK 

the said Commissioners. ) J. FORDYCE, Sec. JOHN CALL 

ARTHUR HOLDSWOHTH. 

Received the 8 day of July, one thousand seven hundred 
and eighty-seven of and from the above named John Morgan 
the sum of Two thousand seven hundred and twenty-one 
pounds nine shillings lawful money of Great Britain being 
the consideration money expressed in the above Certificate. 



(158) 

Witness my hand, For the Governor and Company of the 
Bank of England. 

JE2721 9s. T. OEMES, Cashier. 



A Threlkeld 
Inr. 2 5s. Inrolled the 8 day of July, 1707. 

JOHN FENWICK, 

Deputy Auditor. 
Examined by me, 

W. J. GREEN. 

I certify the forgoing to be a true Copy from the said 
Inrolments pursuant to the Act 15 and 16 Victoria, Cap. 62, 
Sec. 8, having been examined as above. 

10th May, 1902. 

W. J. GREEN, 
Assistant to the Keeper of the Records. 



Halimot Manor of Brecon. 



The Court of this Manor is still regularly held by the Steward, Mr. H. Edgar 
Thomas, on behalf of Lord Tredegar, at the Castle Hotel. 

The form of opening the Court is as follows : 

" All manner of persons that do owe suit and service to this Court Leet and Court 
Baron of the Right Honourable Godfrey Charles Lord Tredegar, Baron Tredegar, now to 
be holden in and for the Manor of Brecon draw near and give your attendance. 

The form of adjourning the Court is as follows : 

" All manner of persons that have made their appearance here this day may 
from hence depart, and keep their day and hour again on a new summons. 

God Save the King. 1 ' 

The following form of surrender of land in Llanfaes by the Revd. Rich. Davies, 
Archdeacon of Brecon, into the hands of the Lord of the Manor on the sale to Mr. 
Llewelyn Jones in 1814 before Hugh Bold, Esq., Steward, is here given. It will be 
seen by the same deed Mr. Llewellyn Jones was admitted as tenant of the Manor, and 
thus the transfer of the land was legally completed and enrolled. 

At the Court Baron of Sir Chas. Morgan, Baronet Lord of the Halimot Manor of 
Brecon aforesaid, holden at the Castle of Brecon within the said Manor on the 
day of in the fifty-fifth Year of the reign of Our 

Sovereign Lord George the 3rd by the grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, King Defender of the faith, and in the year of our Lord, 1814. 
Before Hugh Bold, Esq., Steward of the said Manor, and in the presence of 

two customary tenants of the said Manor. 

At this Court came the Revd. Richd. Davies, of the Town of Brecon in the County 
of Brecon, A.M., Archdeacon of Brecon and Canon of St. David's, only son and Heir at 
law of the Rev. Rich. Davies devisee named in the last Will and Testament, and also late 
of the sd. Town of Brecon, clerk deed, customary tenant in his own proper person and 
for and consideration of the Sum of of good and lawful money of Great 

Britain in hand well and truly paid by Llewellyn Jones of the parish of St. David's in the 
said County of Brecon Victualler, the receipt whereof the said Richard Davies (party 



(159) 

hereto) doth hereby acknowledge, and of and from the same, every part thereof doth 
acquit, release and hereby discharge the said Llewellyn Jones, his heirs, exors, 
administrators, and assigns, by these Presents, and surrendered into the hands of the 
Lord of the said Manor by the hands of his Steward aforesaid by the verge according to 
the custom of the said Manor. All that close or parcel of land with the appurts. called 
Wainwach lying near Clawdd Mawr contg. by estimon one acre (more or less) with 
ye appurts., and which said close or parcel of land is situate and lying within the parish 
of St. David's aforesaid, and within the said Manor heretofore in the possession of 
Elizabeth Jones, Widow, her undertnt or aforesaid, and now or late in the occupation of 
Davd. Williams, Gent. To the use and behoof of such person and persons and to and 
for such estate and Estates use and uses Trusts, interests and purposes, and in such 
manner as the said Llewellyn Jones in and by his last Will and Testament in writing, or 
any writing in the nature of and purporting to be his last Will and Testament or any 
codicil or codicils thereto shall from time to time give, devise, direct, limit, or appoint the 
said close or parcel of land and for want of such Gift Devise Diron, Limiton or 
Appointmt. and so far as no sucii Gift, Devise Diron, Limiton or appointment shall 
extend to the use and behoof of the said Llewellyn Jones and his customary heirs and 
aforesaid for ever at the Will of the Lord according to the custom of the said Manor. 
And the said Llewellyn Jones present here in Court desires to be "admitted Tenant of the 
premises aforesaid with the appurtenances according to the manner and effect of the said 
Surrender to whom the said Lord by the hands of his Steward aforesaid hath granted 
and delivered seizin of the aforesaid premises with their appurts. by the verge according 
to the custom of the said Manor. To have and to hold all and singular the said close 
piece or parcel of land with the appurts. to the use and behoof of such person and persons 
and to and for such estate and estates use and uses, trusts, interests and purposes, and in 
such manner as the said Llewellyn Jones in and by his last Will and Testament in 
writing or any writing in the nature and purporting t,o be his last Will and Testament or 
any codicil or codicils thereto shall from time to time give, devise, direct, limit or appoint 
the said premises, and for want of such gift, devise Diron, Limiton or appointmt. and so 
far as no such Gift, devise, Diron, Limiton or appointmt. shall extend to the use and 
behoof of the said Llewellyn Jones his customary heirs and aforesaid for ever at the will 
of the Lord according to the custom of the said Manor. Yielding and performing the 
Eents and Services thereupon due and of right accustomed, And the said Llewellyn 
Jones paid to the Lord of the said Manor One Shilling for his admission and performed 
his fealty by the verge according to the custom of the said Manor and thereupon he is 
admitted Tenant of the said premises. 

NOTE. Hallmote or Halimote (Sax. Heall i.e. Aula and Gemote, Conventus) was that 
Court among the Saxons which we call a Court Baron ; and the etymology is from 
the Meetings of one Hall or Manor. Tho name is still kept up in several places in 
Herefordshire, and in the Records of Hereford this Court is entered as follows, viz. : 
Hereford Palatium, ad Halimot ibidem tent : 11 die Octob, Anno regni regis Henry 6 
&c. It hath sometimes been taken for a Convention of Citizens in their Public Hall, 
where they held their Courts, which was also called Folkmote and Halmote. But 
the word Halimote is rather the Lord's Court held within the Manor, in which the 
differences between the tenants were determined, Omnis causa termineter vel Hundredo, 
vel comitatu, vel Halmote socam habentium, vel dominorum curia. Leg. Henry I. 
cap. 10 Jacob's Law Diet. 1756. 

Halymote, alias Haelyemot, is a Court Baron. Manwood parte prima of his 
Forest Law p. Ill, and the etymologie is the meeting of the Tenants of one Hall or 
Mannor. M. Gwyn's Preface to his Reading. Cowell's Interpreter 1687. 



(1GO) 

Quarrying Stones on Common Lands in 

Breconshire. 



It may reasonably be assumed, that in the olden time, when the tenants of a manor 
first built their homesteads, they quarried the stone on the waste land for the purpose, 
wherever it was convenient to do so, without asking leave from the Lord of the Manor. 
Similarly in forming the high and massive hill fences, where a certain thickness of quarried 
stone was placed as the base of the bank, the tenants availed themselves of the nearest 
quarry. In some instances dry stone walls were built along the hill sides of their coedcaes. 
And of course in succeeding years, when repairs were necessary to either buildings and their 
roofs, or to the hill fences, the same free use of the available stone on the adjacent waste 
lands continued. Thus a general prescriptive right to the use of such stone by the tenants 
of a manor grew up, and which was beneficial alike to lord and tenant. 

Certain quarries, however, of tilestones and paving stones in more modern times came 
into special favour round the country side, and to these many persons outside the parish 
and manor began to send for a supply. Hence it was necessary to place the quarries 
under some controul ; and usually a professional quarryman became the tenant under the 
Lord of the Manor, charging the public so much for the stone, and paying a small royalty 
on the stone raised, or a small annual rent to the lord for the privilege. Skilled quarry- 
men were in esteem in those times, and up to a hundred years ago tilestones were the only 
available roofing material in our county. 

Hence the old custom of tenants of a manor opening quarries for themselves gradually 
fell into disuse, and it is I believe the rule now on most manors to obtain the consent of 
the agent to the Lord of the Manor when quarrying stone for building purposes on the 
common lands. I think so far as repairing the hill fences and walls the old custom would 
still stand good, and any stones near, either in a quarry or lying loose, can be used for 
such a purpose without asking any leave. It is undoubtedly a very old custom, it is a 
necessary one. and has also in many cases modern user. Where such a custom does 
exist, it should be, like those of cutting fern, rushes, gorse, peat, hedgebote, etc., exercised 
from time to time, so as to keep the right good against the Lord of the Manor. Other- 
wise, as experience has amply proved, a Lord of the Manor comes on the scene some day, 
and squeezes one by one these ancient customs out of existence. 

When the Great Forest of Brecknock was enclosed in 1815-19, two quarries of build- 
ing stone in addition to the limestone quarries, were set apart for the use of the allotment 
holders, and as far as can be ascertained from old records, the commoners had previously 
the free use of both building stone and limestone on the Forest ; and neither the Crown 
or their agisters claimed building stone and limestone as minerals, or that any payment or 
royalty was due in respect of the use of the same. 

Other old records of Dinas Forest, of the Crickbowell and Tretower Manors, and of 
Welsh Penkelly Manor do not show, I believe, any payments for quarrying the native 
stone of the county. 

The following is an interesting case of a serious dispute between the Lord of the 
Manor of Brecon and the people of the district as to the quarrying of stone in the parish 
of Llanspyddid. It occurred in 1735. Some persons, being as they said tenants of the 
Brecon Manor, claimed the free right to quarry tilestone on Penygast (Pen y Gaer) 
hill in that parish, and assembled themselves in force to exercise the right, and to resist 
any interference that might possibly be contemplated by the Lord of the Manor and his 
steward and agents. Their claim was that of a general Prescriptive right in respect of 
their lands being within the manor to quarry stones on any part of the waste lands of the 
manor, and some of those present came from the parishes of Trallong and Devynnock. as 
well as from Llanspyddid. They succeeded in quarrying and carrying away 500 tilestones 
of the value of five shillings, but on the morrow were proceeded against by William 



(161) 

Morgan, Esquire, the Lord of the Manor. Such proceeding, however, did not take the 
form of a civil suit to test the right set up, but the illegality of the act was assumed, and 
the very strong measure taken of indicting the whole party straight off at the Great 
Sessions of the County for a Eiot. 

It will be seen that the Commoners took the opinion of Mr. Denison on the case, 
which was to the effect that the question of the act being a Biot or not, depended upon 
the lawfulness or otherwise of the act done. 

What was the final issue of the case, I have at present no information, but from the 
nature of it, the position of the prosecutor and defendants respectively, and even of the 
witnesses, the proceedings must have excited the greatest interest throughout the County. 
I hope in some way the question of prescriptive right claimed was fairly tried out, 
whether the tenants of the Manor won or lost, otherwise they may have been convicted 
of a Eiot, when in fact what they had done might have been a lawful act, no Eiot in 
a legal sense having ever occurred ! 



BRECON, TO WITT. 

The Jurors for our Sovereign Lord the King upon their Oaths Present that Eees 
Morgan, late of the Parish of Llywell, in the said County of Brecon, labourer, Wm. Price, 
late of the Parish of Llanspithitt, in the same County, labourer, John Hugh, late of the 
Parish of Devynock, in the said County, tyler, Thomas Griffiths, late of the Parish of 
Llanspithitt, in the said County, labourer, David Lewis, late of the said Parish of 
Llanspithitt, in the said County, labourer, Eoger Wm. Eees, late of the said Parish of 
Llanspithitt, in the said County, labourer, Thomas William, of the Parish of Trallong, in 
the said County, tyler, and William Evan, late of the said Parish of Devynock, in the 
said County, tyler, the fourteenth day of July, in the Ninth year of the Eeign of our 
Sovereign Lord George the Second now King of Great Brittain and so forth with force 
and Arms (to witt) with Pickaxes, Shovels, Iron Barrs, and other weapons and Arms as 
Eioters, Eouters, and Disturbers of the Peace of the said Lord the King to disturb the 
Peace of our said Lord the King Eiotously, Eoutously, and unlawfully did Assemble 
themselves together att the said Parish of Llanspithitt, in the said County, upon the 
Waste Ground and Common of Pasture of William Morgan, Esq., Lord of the Manor of 
Brecon at a Certain Place there called Pen y Gart, within the said Manor and Parish, and 
then and there being so assembled together among themselves the Soyl and Ground of 
the said William Morgan did then and there with the force and Arms aforesaid 
did Eiotously and tumultuously break open and dig up and Five Hundred Tylestones of 
the said William Morgan of the Value of five shillings then and there did dig up, raise, 
and carry away and other wrongs and injuries to the said William Morgan then and 
there did to the Great Damage of the said William Morgan and against the Peace of our 
said Lord the King, his Crown, and Dignity. 
Prosecutor, WILLIAM MORGAN, Esq. 

Witnesses, JOHN BULLOCK, Gentl. 

BICHARD WILLIAMS, Clerk. 

ihe above is an Indictment found att the last Great Sessions held for the County of 
Brecon against the several Persons above for Digging Tylestones on Part of the Waste 
of the Manor of Brecon. The Tenants within the said Manor claim a Prescriptive Eight 
for the raising of all sorts of stones there for use of their lands within the said Manor, and 
the Persons above were employed by some of them to Eaise the said Tylestones for their 
use. This Eight, therefore, would be more Properly Tryed by an Action. 

Your are Desired to Give your opinion, whether it can be Quashed, and if it can, 
that yon would Write Down your Exceptions. 

" The Court of Kings Bench never will quash an Indictmen for a Eiot Nusance or such 
like offence, but if there is a material fault iu such Indictment the party will be put to 
Demurr. As to this Indictment, I do not observe any error in it. It is a matter of 



(162) 

Bight and properly triable in action. The Act must be unlawful to make a Riot, but 
whether unlawful 'or not in this case ought not I think to be toyed on an Indictment for 

a Biot. 

THO. DENISON, 
Lincoln's Inn, 28rd December, 1735." 

[Endorsed.] Mr. Denison's Opinion upon Indictment for Digging Stones on the 
Forrest of Brecon. 



Manor or District of Troescoed. 



Nearly at the very southern end of the Parish of Ystradfellte is a little peninsula of 
land between the junction of the Nedd and the Melte rivers. It is known as Troescoed, 
and has been for hundreds of years considered to be outside the ambit of the Great 
Forest of Brecknock. Why it was made a little kingdom of itself, a second Monaco, 
is lost in obscurity ! 

The following grant of the land by Queen Elizabeth in 1578 to John Ffarnham, 
Esquire, one of her Majesty's gentlemen pensioners, and Hugh George, of London, gent., 
and the regrant by them to David Williams, of the Middle Temple, Esquire, and 
Llewellin ap Glim, and Eichard Price, then of Ystradfellte, in 1538, are interesting, and 
may throw some light on the history of this outlying corner of our County. 

It was part of the possessions of Edward Duke of Buckingham before his attainder, 
and I am under the impression formed a Manor of itself. At present I am, however, 
unable to give any further particulars. 

TROESCOED. COM. BRECKNOCK. 

DEMISE TO JOHN FARNEHAM. 
(South Wales Enrolments, Vol. III., p. 154.) 

This indenture made the 27th day of November in the 23rd yere of the reigne of our 
Sovereigne Ladie Eliz. &c. Betwene John ffarnham, esquier, one of the gentlemen 
Pensioners of our said Sovereign Ladie the Quenes Majesty, and Hugh George of London, 
gent., one the one partie, and David Williams of the Middle Temple of London, esquier, 
Llewllin ap Glim, and Richard Price of Estradvelltey, in the Countie of Brecknock, gent., 
one the other partie. Whereas the Quenes Majestie by her highness letters pattentes 
under the greate seale of England beringe date at Ipswich the seconde daie of September 
in the 20th yere of Her Majesties raigne for divers good and resonable consideracions 
Her Majestie moving and of her speciall grace certaine knowledge and mere motion, 
Hath given and graunted unto the said John Farneham all that parcell of lande called y 
Troesgoed with the appurtenances lienge and beinge in the Parishe of Ystradvelltey, in 
the said Countie of Brecknock, containinge in lenght from a certain tree called 
Rywypienkm to a bridge called Arneth, And in breadth from a river called 
Melte unto an other river called Nethe, containing by estimacion 10 acres of 
lande, tenne acres of meadowe and 30 acres of heath and moore, be it more or 
lesse, with the appurtenances, sometime parcell of the possessions of Edward 
late Duke of Buck., of highe treason attainted, and occupied and used by Jenkin Thomas 
and others "nknowed by 30 years now last past. And all manner of woodes, underwoods, 
and trees whatsoever groinge and beinge of, in, and upon the premisses or anie parcell 
thereof, and the ground or soile of the same woodes, underwoodes, and trees, and the 
revercion and revercions of all and singuler the premisses and everie parcell thereof and 
the rents, averrages of rents, services, revenues, condicions, forfaietures, comodities, 
emolumentes, and yerelie profittes whatsoever reserved upon anie demises or grauntes 
made of the premisses or anie parcell thereof. To b had, holden, and enjoyed unto the 



(163) 

said John Farneham, his heires, and assigns to the onlie use and behalfe of the said John 
Farneham, his heires, and assigns for ever, and to be holden of our said Sovereigne Ladie 
the Queene, her heires and successors, as of her manner of Estgrenwich, in the Countie 
of Kent, by fealtie only in free and common socage and not in Cheif nor in Knightes 
service. And gelding and paieng yerelie to our said Soveraigne Ladie her heires and 
successors for the said parcell of lande the somme of 18s. 4d. of good and lawfull money 
of England at the times and feastes in the said letters patentes contained with divers 
other covenantes, grauntes, articles, and agrementes in the said letters patentes expressed 
as more at large by the said letters patentes doth and maie appeare. 

The interest of which indenture David Williams Llm ap glim, and Richard Price 
now have and enjoy by the grant of the said John Farneham. 

Note that upon the " Ingosement " there be written Provided always that if the said 
land be not concealed (concellat) that then this grant shall be void. 



Gabriel Powel (of Pennant), 1700-35. 



" On a marble monument attached to the same wall (north, in the Priory Church) the 
inscription, nearly obliterated, and not legible without close inspection and considerable 
trouble : 

" Here lieth the body of Gabriel Powel of Pennant, in this borough, gent., several 
years Steward under two successive Dukes of Beaufort, of the lordship royal of 
Gower, in the County of Glamorgan, some time bailiff of this Corporation, and 
a strenuous asserter of the rights of inhabiting burgesses against foreigners, 
who died 5th November, 1785 ; aged 60." Jones's History of Breconshire, 
Vol. II., p. 61. 

This Gabriel Powel, the first of the family bearing that Christian name, was the 
son of William Powel of Brecon, tucker, and his wife Jennet daughter of John Thomas 
Lewis. I cannot trace the line clearly down, but John Powel, Rector of Cantref in 1601, 
and Hugh Powel, who held considerable property in that parish in 1635, appear to have 
been his ancestors. Gabriel was brought up as a solicitor, and settling in Swansea, 
became Steward of the manor and estates of the Duke of Beaufort. He was also Steward 
of the manor and estate of Lord Arthur Somerset, who then held the Beaufort Brecon- 
shire property, in the Hundred of Crickhowell (page ante 127). In these appointments 
be succeeded the Harcourt family, members of which for several generations had been 
stewards of the Beaufort estates. 

Existing records show that this Gabriel Powel was a man of considerable ability, and 
had great influence both at Swansea and in Breconshire. He amassed a good deal of 
property, chiefly at Swansea, and married as his first wife Joan, daughter of Owen Rogers, 
and secondly Mary, daughter of Lodosick Lewis, of Pennant, near Brecon. This latter 
marriage no doubt gave him an immediate interest in the Borough of Brecon, and he soon 
became a Member of the Council, and subsequently the bailiff. From what motive he 
acted we do not know it may hare been that he wished to increase the Beaufort interest 
in the County as against that of the other leading house, the Morgan family, or simply 
that he considered the Council had lapsed into a bad habit in filling up vacancies, and as 
a reformer, thought it should be put a stop to. It is stated on the inscription quoted 
that he strenuously asserted the rights of inhabiting burgesses against foreigners. And 
as foreigners he classed all those outside the limits of the Borough, or at least at any 
considerable distance from it. Apparently he instituted several suits in the Courts of law 
for this purpose, including the Castle Madoc and Buckland cases. See Jones' Hist., 
Vol. II. p. 24. 



(164) 

The following paper gives some interesting particulars of the doings of the Brecon 
Council when the reform agitation was in its first stage. 

OLD MINUTES OF BRECON CORPORATION. 
[Copy and Translation.] 

THE BOROUGH OF BRECON. At the Guildhall of the said borough on Thursday, to 
wit, the 7th day of May Anno Domini 1696 before William Herbert, Esq., bailiff of the 
said borough, John Price and John Jeffrey, gentlemen, and others of the Common 
Council in camera. 

Ordered that Gabriel Powell, son of \Villiam Powell, Tinker (tucker), be sworn 
and admitted Burgesse of this Corporation. BY CAMAR, JAMES. 

BOROUGH OF BRECON. At the Guildhall of the said borough on the llth day of May 
A.D. 1696, before William Herbert, Esq., bailiff, John Price and John Jeffreys, 
gentlemen, Aldermen of the said borough by the order of the Common Council, &c. 

THE STAMP PAPER is FILED. Gabriel Powell son of William Powell of the town of 
Brecon, tucker, came in his proper person and humbly prayed to be admitted burgess of 
the said borough and is admitted and did fealty therefore according to the custom of the 
said borough, &c. 

The same day before the same. 

KING'S DUTY PAYD AS ABOVE. The same Gabriel Powell was admitted and sworn 
one of the Attorneys of the court of the said borough. 

JAMES, COMMON CLERK. 

BOROUGH OF BSECON. At the Guildhall of the said borough on Monday next before 
the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, to wit, the 28th day of September in the 8th year 
of the reign of our Lord William the 3rd now King of England, A.D., 1696, before 
William Herbert, Esq., bailiff of the said borough, John Price and John Jeffreys, 
gentlemen, Aldermen of the said borough and others of the Common Council of the said 
borough, &c. 

William Watkin, glover, and 

Gabriel Powell, gent. were elected to the office of the 

said borough by 

Lod Lewis Wm. Herbert 

Wm. Phillips Tho. Walker 
Wm. Wynter Jo. Price, Alderman 
Wm. Awbrey Dan. Williams 
Sam Saunders Jo. Walters 
Rob. Lucy. 

BOROUGH OF BRECON. At the Guildhall of the said borough on Monday the 25th 
day of September A.D. 1704, before Lewis Lewis, Esq., bailiff of the said borough, 
Thomas Walker, Esq., Recorder, John Walters, Esq., and John Jeffreys, gent., 
Alderman of the said borough and others of the Common Council whose names are 
underwritten in camera, &c. 

Whereas it hath pleased Almighty God to take out of this Mortal Life William 
Awbrey, Gent., late one of ye Common Counsell of this Burrough whereby there is a 
vacancy of a Common Counsell man's place within ye said Burrough We therefore ye 
persoui whose names are hereunder written being Common Counsell men of ye same 
Burrough Judgeing it necessary to have ye said vacancy supplyed by a fitt and able 
person to serve ye said office. I [sic] have Nominated and Elected and Do hereby 
Nominate and Elect Jenkin Price, Gent., only Son of Jno. Price, of this Town, Gent., to 
be one of ye Common Counsell men or Capital Burgesses of this Burrough in ye Room 
and Stead of ye said Mr. Awbrey, he the said Jenkin Price taking ye Oath now appointed 



(165) 

by Law in such Case. And we Do also hereby order that ye said Mr. Jenkin Price be 
admitted and Sworn a Burgesse of this Corporation. 

Lod. Lewis, Bal. 

Jno. Morgan Thos. Walker, Rec. 

Dan. Williams Jno. Walters, Aid. 

Wm. Philips Jo, Jeffreys, Aid. 

Bob. Lucy How. Jones 

Will. Wynter Jo. Price 

Rich. Hughes Dan. Wynter. 

BOKOUGH OF BRECON. At the Guildhall of the said borough the 28th day of 
September in the 6th year of the reign of the King that now is before the said bailiff, 
Recorder, Alderman and others of the said Common Council whose names are under- 
written in Camera, &c. 

Fforasmuch as it hath pleased Almighty God to take out of this troublesome World 
Jno. Price, Esq., Late one of ye Common Counsell or Capital Burgesses of this 
Burrough by whose Death there is a vacancy in the said Common Counsell, We therefore, 
the persons whose names are hereunto subscribed, being members of ye said Common 
Counsell, Judgeing it necessary that ye said Vacancy be filled up and Supplyed by a fitt 
and able Person to Serve therein, I have Nominated and Elected and Do hereby 
Nominate and Elect Thomas Jones of this Burrough In ye place, Room, and Stead of ye 
said Jno. Price, he ye said Mr. Jones Qualifying himselfe thereto According to 
Law, whereupon ye said Mr. Jones being Called Into ye Chamber Did take ye Oaths now 
appointed for Qualifying him for ye said Office and was Accordingly Sworn one of ye 
Common Counsell of this Corporation. 

Mered. James, Bal. 
Wm. Philips, Record. 
Henry Thomas J. Price, Aid. 

Hen. Williams Roger Jones 

Dan. Wynter. Jan. Rich. Hughes 
Hugh Powell 
Lod. Lewis 
Dan. Wynter. 

BOROUGH OF BRECON. At the Guildhall of the same borough on Monday the 27th 
day of May, A.D. 1723, before Charles Hughes, Esq., bailiff of the said borough, Jenkin 
Price, Esq., Recorder of the said borough, Meredith James, Gent., and Thomas Jones, 
Gent., Alderman of the said borough, and others of the Common Council of the said 
borough, whose names are underwritten in Camera, <fec. 

Ordered that Thos., Morgan, of ye Therw, in the County of Brecon, be admitted and 
sworn a Burgess of this Corporation. 

Chas. Hughes, Bal. 

Hugh Powell J. Price, Record 

Rich. Hughes Wm. Morgan 

Mered. James, Aid. Roger Jones 

Thos. Jones, Aid. 

The same day and year before the said Councillors in Camera, &c. 

Whereas Thos. Morgan, Esq., was During his Minority elected one of ye Capital 
Burgesses or Common Counsell of the said Burrough but hath since Disclaimed any 
right or title to ye said place or office by reason that such Election was made during his 
Minority by meanes whereof there is a vacancy in ye said Common Counsell, And 
whereas also ye said Mr. Thomas Morgan is now attained to his full Age of 21 yeares, 
We therefore ye persons whose narcss are hereunto Subscribed being Capital Burgesses 
or Common Counsell men of ye said Burrough, Judgeing it necessary that ye said 
Vacancy should be forthwith Supplyed by a fit and able person to serve therein have 
Nominated and Elected, And do hereby Nominate and Elect the said Thos. Morgan to 



(166) 

be a Common Counsell man of ye said Burrough to fill up and Supply the said Vacancy 
therein, he ye said Mr. Morgan Qualifying himselfe thereto According to Law. 

Chas. Hughes, Bal. 

Hugh Powell J. Price, Eecord 

Kichd. Hughes VVm. Morgan 

Mered. James, Aid. Eog. Jones 

Thos. Jones, Aid. 

BOROUGH OF BRECON. At the Guildhall of the said borough on Monday, to wit, the 
17th day of June, A.D. 1723, before Charles Hughes, Esq., bailiff of the said borough, 
Jenkin Price, Esq., Kecorder, Meredith James, Gent., and Thomas Jones, Gent., 
Aldermen of the said Borough in open Court. 

By Order of the Common Council in Camera, &c. 

At which time and place ye within named Thomas Morgan, Esq., being personally 
present was first sworn a Burgesse of ye said Burrough and having taken ye Oaths by 
Law appointed for qualifying himself to Serve ye said Office of Common Counsell man of 
ye said Burrough was afterwards Sworn a Common Counsell man of ye said Burrough. 

Per Camara James. 

BOROUGH OF BRECON. At the Guildhall of the said borough on Monday, to wit, the 
23rd day of September, A.D. 1723, before Charles Hughes, Esq., bailiff, Jenkin Price, 
Esq., Becorder, and Meredith James, Gent., one of the Aldermen of the said borough, 
and others of the Common Council, whose names are underwritten, in Camera, &c. 

Whereas by an order bearing Date ye 27th Day of May, A.D. 1723, Thomas Morgan, 
Esq., was Nominated and Elected one of ye Common Council men or Capital Burgesses 
of this Burrough, and it since appearing unto this Chamber that ye said Election was 
Irregular, Wee therefore, ye persons whose names are hereunto Subscribed, being ye 
Major parte of ye Capital Burgesses of ye said Burrough for ye Eeason aforesaid, Have 
removed and put out, and We Do hereby Eemove and put out ye said Mr. Morgan from 
ye said place or office of Common Counsell man of ye said Burrough. 

Chas. Hughes, Bal. 

Wm. Morgan J. Price, Eecord 

Mered. James Wm. Morgan 

Eich. Hughes E. Jones 

Hugh Powell 
The day and year within written before the same Councillors. 

Whereas by ye order lastly mencioned it appeareth unto this Chamber that Thomas 
Morgan, Esq., was Irregularly Elected and Nominated into ye Place or Office of Common 
Counsell man of this Burrough by reason whereof he hath been removed and put out of 
ye said place of Common Counsell of this Burrough, Whereby there becomes a Vacancy 
in ye said Common Counsell of ye said Burrough, Wee therefore, ye persons whose names 
are subscribed, being ye major part of ye Common Counsell, Judgeing it necessary to 
make a speedy Election of a fitt and able person to supply ye said Vacancy, And we being 
satisfied of ye Loyalty, Integrity, and ability of ye said Mr. Morgan to Discharge ye said 
Place, Have re-elected, Nominated, and appointed, and we do hereby Re-elect, Nominate, 
and appoint ye said Mr. Thos. Morgan to be one of ye Common Counsell of ye said 
Burrough, he ye said Mr. Morgan takeing ye Oaths by Law appointed for Qualifying to 
serve in ye said office, and thereupon ye said Mr. Morgan being personally present in ye 
Chamber took ye said Oaths and was accordingly sworn one of ye Common Counaell or 
Capital Burgesses of ye said Burrough. 

Hugh Powell Chas. Hughes, Bal. 

Wm. Morgan J. Price, Eecord 

Mered. James William Morgan 

Eichard Hughes E. Jones. 

THE BOROUGH OF BRECON. At the Guildhall of the said borough on Monday next 
before the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, to wit, the 27th day of September, A.D 



(167) 

1725, before Richard Hughes, Esq., Bailiff of the said borough, Jenkin Price, Esq., 
Kecorder, and Meredith James, gent., one of the Aldermen of the said borough, and others 
of the said Common Council, whose names are underwritten in Camera, &c. 

Whereas by an order made ye 16th Day of Aprill, 1722, Charles Hughes, Gent., was 
Nominated and Elected one of ye Common Counsell or Capital Burgesses of this 
Burrough in ye Room and Stead of Henry Thomas, Gent., Deceased, And whereas since 
his said Election some Doubts have arisen touching ye Validity thereof and he haveing 
Surrendered his said office as appears by ye next preceding order of his Surrender, Wee 
therefore, ye persons whose names are hereunto Subscribed, being ye major part of ye 
Common Counsell of ye said Burrough, willing to remove such Doubts, Have Nominated 
and Elected, And we do hereby Nominate and Elect the said Mr. Charles Hughes into 
ye said place or office of Common Counsell or Capital Burgesse, he taking ye Oaths 
appointed by Law for qualifying him to serve in ye said place or office. 

Eichd. Hughes, Bal. 
Hen. Williams J. Price, Eecord. 

Mered. James Thos. Morgan 

Jno. Morgan Deriry (?) Williams 

Hugh Powell Charles Penry 

Edw. Williams Eice Edwards. 

Whereupon ye said Mr. Hughes being personally present in ye Chamber took ye 
Oaths by Law appointed for qualifying him to serve iu ye said Office and was afterwards 
Sworn a Common Counsell man of ye said Burrough. 

Per Gamer James. 

[Small Document.] 

BRECON GABRIEL POWELL, GENT., v. THE BAILIFFS AND ALDERMEN OF THE 

BOROUGH OF BRECON. 

MICHAELMAS, 8 Geo. II., BOLL. 

a. d. 

Fee to Mr. Eeeves for a motion for a writ of Mandamus .. 110 

Paid for filing the affidavit on which it was granted 8 4 

Paid for the fee of the Master for the Writ of Mandamus 6 8 

Paid for stamp and Seal for the same 2 3 

HILARY, 8 GEO. II. 

Fee to Mr. Reeves for the motion to return the writ of Mandamus 1 1 

Paid for the registering of the Court thereupon 080 

Fee to Mr. Reeves for motion for filing the writ of Mandamus and return- 
ing the same 110 

Paid for the registering of the Court thereupon 080 

Paid to the Master for entering the writ of Mandamus and returning it ... 18 4 

EASTER, 8 GEO. II. 

Fee to Mr. Eeeves for a motion for the Registrar of the Court for a book... 110 

Paid for the Registering of the Court thereupon 040 

Paid to the Master for entering the Traverse to the writ of mandamus and 

returning it 18 4 

Postage with " breats " for Council's perusall 086 

Fee to Mr. Reeves for reporting (?) thereon 110 

Ditto to Mr. Fazakerly 110 

Paid to their Clerks 050 



1168) 

Paid for stamp and seal and to the Master for 2 subpen as 084 

TRINITY, 3 & 4. 

Fee to Mr. Beeves for his opinion concerning Mr. Powell's having received 
the Sacrament __ 

10 12 9 



[Endorsed] Brecon, 

MB. HEN. WILLIAMS AND MB. GAB. POWELL v. THE 
BAILIFFS, ETC., OF BRECON. 

The will of this Gabriel Powel is dated 1783. He left a eon named Gabriel, of 
Swansea, who died 1788, and his grandson became Sir Gabriel Middleton Powel, also of 
Swansea. He died in 1818. 

I may add that if pedigrees of this and other Breconshire families were brought down 
to date, it would much facilitate the study of our County history. 



The annexed letter throws further light on the local affairs of this period : 

A Copy of the Letter sent to Mr. Morgan except that it was a little mended upon 
the second transcribing of it both in form, matter and substance. 

Sir, 

I doubt not but you have ere this heard of the Death of poor Mr. Cha. Hughes, by 
whose death we have lost not only a good Friend, but a Com. Councell man, whereby your 
interest in our Town may seem to be in danger of suffering more or lesse which however 
by good management may not only be prevented, but be improved and bettered ; and in 
order to explain how, I am to acquaint you that since the Death of Mr. Chs. Hughes, Mr. 
Pen Williams, Mr. Gab. Powell and myself have mett togeather more than once to consider 
of the present situation of affaires in our Town, the result whereof is that they have given 
me full power and Leave, or rather Orders, to acquaint you that they are under no Obli- 
gations by Mr. Jefferyes but are at perfect Liberty to chuse and espouse which side and 
party they please, and to assure you that in case you putt up Mr. Sollicitor Generall or 
his son to stand for our Town at the next Election they will be for him with all their 
interest might and main, which being joyned to and with your own will undoubtedly carry 
it with a high Hand, and they are ready and willing [to enter] into any measures in 
concert with you for that purpose and as to the Ceremoniale for a meeting to be had on 
this occasion they desire nothing but just and proper applications to be made unto them 
either to be written or spoken and their friendship and interest desired, and Mr. Gab. 
Powell being now in Town is ready to give you and Mr. Talbot the Meeting at any time 
and place that you shall appoint to give you a full assurance and satisfaccion by word of 
mouth of the reality and sincerity of their intentions herein. If you please you may have 
Tydings of Mr. Gab, Powell at Daniels Coffee House by Temple Bar who stays in Town 
till the Middle of next . . . 

The Gentlemen are both ready and willing to joyn with your interest [in Town] in 
opposition to the Jeffreyss in all other matters particularly in filling the present vacancy 
in the Com. Councell, and you may be assured that when you meet togeather on that 
account the dispute will soon be ended to your satisfaction ; And upon this Head I am 
sorry to have occasion of giving you the account that Mr. Recorder has deserted us and is 
gone off to the other side so far as that he has promised his and his Nephew Dr. Morgans 
Vote for young Ned Williams (Mr. Harry Wms. his son) who is married to Mr. Ni. Jeffreys 
first cousin to come into the Councell in the room of Mr. Cha. Hughes, but if the Proposal 
and Project herein before mentioned be complyed with and will take place, we shall never 
want Mr. Recorder's Vote nor Friendship for us, as will appere by the scheme under- 
written. 

You may also take notice that Mr. Richd. Hughes and myself are grown very old and 



(169) 

cannot live long, and when we dye, who will you have to support your interest in Town, 
no man I am sure of any great weight and interest whereas if we agree upon the project 
aforesaid Mr. Pen. Wms. and Mr. Gab. Powell (if of your side which you now have the 
offer of) will be able to do it effectually, they are materiall men and staunch Friendes 
there they take. They may also one time or other do you and your Family great service 
as to your interest in the County, so that it is highly advisable to close with them. I had 
almost forgott to tell you that I believe Mr, Gab. Powell is to be our next Bayleffe, and 
in that case he will be able to doe materiall services for which Candidate he pleases at the 
Election. I am also to acquaint you that you can put up no other person as I beleive 
except Mr. Talbott to stand for our Towne with any sure hopes of successe. 

I have nothing more to add but my request that this Affair be kept a great secrett, 
there is nobody at present knowes anything of it but Mr. Pen. Williams, Mr. Gab. Powell 
and myself, and the dincovery of it will certainly be a great prejudice to the Affair in 
hand ; and particularly to the private affaires of 

Sir 

Your most faithfull 
Friend and humble 
servant 

MEKED. JAMES. 

The present state of affairs as to the vacancy in the Com. Councell stands thus viz., 

Votes. 

For Mr. Morgan. For Mr. Jeffreijt. 

Tho. Morgan, Esqr. * Pen. Williams, Esqr. 

Eoger Jones, Esqr. Wa. Jefferys, Esqr. 

Ei. Hughes, Esqr. Mr. Hatton (?) Jones. 

Mr. Mered. James. * Mr. Gab. Powell. 

Mr. John Bullock. Mr. Edwd. Williams. 

Mr. Jo. Phillips. Mr. Kecorder. 

Mr. Cha. Sandyrs. Dr. Morgan. 

7 7 

But there must be 8 Com. Councell men to make any Act. 

Take off Mr. Pen. Williams and Mr. Gab. Powell from the Jeffreys' side and add 
them to Mr. Morgan's side then we shall be 9 and they but 5. and our 9 electing another 
Friend to supply the present vacancy will make 10 and what cannot 10 do ? 

Brecon, 22nd January, 1732. 



For the Honble. 

Thomas Morgan, Esqr., a 
Member of Parliament 
To be left at the Lobby of the 
H. of Commons, 

London 

There 



The following is a letter from Mr. Meredith James to Mr. Gabriel Powell, in 
London : 

Dear Sir, 

This comes to give you the meeting at Daniel's Coffee House and to welcome you to 
Town, &c. 

Since you went hence young Ned Williams came to me for my vote to bring him into 
the Councell in the room of Mr. Ch. Hughes and my answer was that I would make no 



(170) 

promises, but would consider of it ; next day afterwards my son went to the Eecorder to 
sound him out and to recommend him to make no promises and he presently answered 

that he had promised both his own and his vote for Ned Williams, 

whereupon my son took the liberty tc . . . . him for it and so went off. I knew 
his inclination was to .... Mr. Haton (?) Williams before some others, which 
you may remember I hinted to you before now ; and there is no more now to be said to it, 
but that he is a weak Brother, and if our Project takes (as I hope it will) we shall never 
want nor desire his vote nor friendship. He leaves the Judgeship and perhaps the 
Eecordership too for your son ; many a true word is spoken in jest. 

Mr. Morgan of Ruperra (?) is now in Town very busy, prosecuting his Grand Assize 
of the Auditorship wherein I hear he has Hopes of Success which I heartily wish. 

I have by the post .... a long Letter a Copy whereof is hereinclosed that 
. . . . and be fully apprised of the whole .... the better enabled for your 
parte now .... may very probably happen that you may not hear anything from 
Mr. Morgan on this occasion whilst you are upp in Town by reason of your short stay 
there or rather of the urgency of Mr. Morgan's or Mr. Talbotts' affaires or other reasons, 
but lett not that discourage us. The thing may be as well transacted and done after you 
return home, and it will not then be too late, for persuaded I am the project will take in 
the end though we will give Mr. M. leave to be a little shy at first. 

I am Sir 
Yours most assuredly 

MERED. JAMES. 

Brecon 23rd January 1732. 

[Addressed.] 

For Mr. Gabriel Powell 

Attorney at Law 
To be left for him at 
Daniel's Coffee House 
by Temple Bar. 

London 

There 



Blawd y Kwn or Dagges. 



AN OLD PAYMENT. 

All trace of payment of any such charge has long since been lost. Probably in very 
early times the lands were charged with the provision of meal for the hunting 
dogs used by the Lord of Brecon Castle. 

[SouiH WALES INKOLMENTS, VOL. III. Fo. 170.] 

COUNTY OF BRECKNOCK. 

DEMISE TO JOHN LEWELL. 

Elizabeth by the grace of God, &c. Know ye that We as well in consideration of the 
charges and expenses which John Lewell has sustained in recovering certain measures* of 
wheat levied yearly upon divers lands, tenements and mills lying at a certain place called 
Eskervaior for a certain custom called Blawde y Kwm which measures of wheat the 

* modius, a measure generally, as bushel. 



(171) 

tenants of the said lands claim to have for a certain yearly rent lo be paid for the same ; 
and also the said John Lewell offers to build a grain mill at his own charges within four 
years nest following the date of these Letters Patent on the site of the decayed mill of 
Llanvaies, and also the decay of a certain tenement in Brentles as well as because the 
Vicar of Brentles claims the messuage and land in Brentles below in these presents 
demised, for his glebe : which claim was defended at the charge of the said John Lewell, 
have granted to him all that Our custom of divers measures of wheat within the Lordship 
of Brecknock called Blawd y Kwn or Dagges meate levied yearly Upon divers lands, 
tenements, mills and hereditaments lying at a certain place called Eskervayor within the 
parish of Mertherkynock in Our said County of Brecon in the tenures of divers persons 
parcel of the possession of Edward late Duke of Buckingham ; also all the site and 
precinct of the late Mill of Llanvays called Llanvays Mill lying within the suburbs of the 
vill of Brecknocke at the place called Llanvays formerly in the tenure of Hoell ap Watkin 
and Lewis (Lodovici) ap John, formerly belonging to tlie said Priory of Brecnok and being 
parcel of the possessions there ; and all that Our tenement lying within the vill of Brentles 
in the said county, now or late in the tenure of Charles Williams, formerly belonging to 
the late Priory of Clifford in co. Hereford ; and all that Our messuage, 1 garden and la. of 
meadow situate in the parish of Brentles in the said County now or late in the tenure of 
William Huyd, Vicar of Brentles, lately given or granted for celebrating masses in the 
parish of Brentles ; and all that Our rent of 2d. issuing out of certain lands and tenements 
in Llanvigan in the said County, now or late in the tenure of John Jenkins ; and one 
other rent of 2d. issuing out of certain lands and tents, in Llanvigan, now or late in the 
tenure of William ap Jevan William, lately given and granted to pray in the pulpit in 
the Church of Llanvigan for the souls of the deceased ; and all the houses, buildings, 
barns, stables, dovecotes, orchards, gardens, lands, meadows, commons, waters, pools, 
tolls, &c., &c., to the premises, in Llanvays and Brentles belonging. Except nevertheless 
and always reserving to Us Our heirs and successors all great trees, woods, underwoods, 
mines and quarries on the premises : To have and to hold all the said premises, except as 
above excepted, to the said John Lewell for the term of 21 years, paying to Us yearly 
for the said custom 20s., for the said site of the late mill of Llanvais 7s. 6d., for the said 
tenement in Brentles late in the tenure of Charles Williams 20d., for the premises in 
Brentles late in the tenure of William Huyd, the Vicar there, 7d., and for the said rents 
issuing out of the premises in Llanvigan 4d. 

And we exonerate the said John Lewell from paying the rent resolute of 8s. 4d. to 
the lord of the lordship of Cantracelli out of certain lands in Brentles during the said 
period. 

And the said John within 4 years after the date of these Letters Patent shall at his 
own costs build a water grain mill on the site of the late mill of Llanvais ; and shall also 
keep all the mills, houses, hedges, ditches, &c., &c., in good repair. 

And the said John may from time to time take sufficient housebote, hedgebote, 
firebote, ploughbote and cartbete, to be used there and not elsewhere, during the said 
term, towards the repairs of the mills and houses. 

Witness : William Baron de Burghley Our Treasurer of England at Westminster 
the 16th day of January in the 15th year of Our reign [1578]. 



(172) 

Abercynrig Lordship and Estate. 



This Lordship, Demesne Lands and Farms are stated by Theophilus Jones, under 
the head of Llanfrynach parish, to have been granted by Bernard Newmarch to his 
follower, Sir Reginald Aubrey, whose descendants held the property for many years. At 
page 22, ante, we have seen a copy of the Inquisitio post mortem of the then owner, Sir 
William Aubrey, D.C.L., in 1595 (38 Eliz.), and who appears to have possessed other 
important estates in the County. The Mansion House, said to have been built by the 
then Sir William Aubrey, forms the shape of a capital E (after the name of Queen 
Elizabeth), and being in a well-preserved condition to-day, with its moated pleasure 
ground, is most interesting. 

In the early part of the seventeenth century (or shortly after this Sir William 
Aubrey's death), the estate was sold to John Jeffreys, of the Priory of Brecon, whose 
daughter and heiress, Dorothy, married Thomas Flower, the ancestor of the Viscount 
Ashbrook, of 1800, and brought the estate into that family. 

In 1801, the estate was offered for sale, and Abercynrig Mansion itself and the chief 
lands near were purchased by John Lloyd, of Brecon, the East Indian captain, and in 
whose family (Lloyd's of Dinas) it is now vested. The other portions of the estate 
were sold to various persons, and I have thought it interesting to print here the full 
particulars of sale of the first portion of this large estate. 

BRECKNOCKSHIRE . 
PARTICULARS OF A FREEHOLD ESTATE SITUATE NEAR THE TOWN OF BRECON CONSISTING OF 

The Manors or reputed Manors, of Abercundrigg and Battle, with the Eoyalties and 
Appurtenances thereto belonging ; the capital Mansion and Estate of Abercundrigg 
Demesne, with the Farms of Velindre, Trevidew, Upper and Lower Penylans 
and Davoden Meadow thereto adjoining, with divers other Farms, Messuages, and 
Tenements, being let to Tenants at Will on easy Terms, and amounting in the 
whole to the Yearly Rent of Eight Hundred Pounds ; together with the Perpetual 
Advowson of the Living of Aberysker, Which will be sold in the following Lots, by 
Private Contract : 

Lot I. Consisting of Abercundrigg Demesne, with the Farms adjoining called 
Velindre, Trevidew, Lpper and Lower Penylan, in the Parish of St. David's, and 
Penylan, in the Parish of Cantreff, together with Davoden's Meadow ; being situate 
likewise in the several other parishes of Llanvrenach, St. John the Evangelist, and 
LI ;u i ham Inch, viz., 

Abercundrigg Demesne, in the Occupation of Mrs. Mary Morgan, consists of 
a large good Mansion House, with convenient Buildings, Stables, Two large Barns, 
Beast Houses, and Cart House ; a large Farm Yard, a Garden walled in, Orchards, 
and about Three Hundred and Thirty-nine Acres of Arable, Meadow, Pasture and 
Woodland. 

Rhyd y Maen is included in the same Bargain with Abercundrigg, and Mrs. 
Morgan's Bailiff lives in the House, being a neat little cottage. The land attached 
to it is Twenty Acres and Nine Perches. 

Velindre Farm, also in the Occupation of Mrs. Mary Morgan, situate in the 
Parish of Llanvrenach, consists of a Farm House, Beast Houses, &c., and a Mill, 
which has been letely rebuilt on a large Scale at a very considerable Expence, and is 
capable of doing a great deal of Business ; together with Two Cottages near the 
Mill occupied by Labourers. The Land belonging to this Farm is Thirty- five Acres, 
One Rood, Fifteen Perches, 

Trevidew Farm, also in the Oecupation of Mrs. Mary Mergan, consists of a 
small Farm House, a Beast House and Barn, and Fifty-one Acres, One Rood, and 
Ten Perches of Arable, Meadow, and Pasture Land. 




PAGE 172.1 



AHKRCYNRIG MANSION HOUSE. 

THK ^KAT OK THE Al'BREY FAMILY. BUILT 1560 1595. 

EAST FRONT. 




(178) 

Penylan, in the Parish of Cantreff, in the Occupation of Mr. John Morgan, 
consisting of a small Farm House, Beast House and Barn, and Ninety-three Acres, 
Three Roods, and Thirty-seven Perches of Land. 

Upper Penylan, in the Parish of St. David's, in the Occupation of Mrs, Mary 
Morgan ; consisting of a small Farmhouse and Barn, and Sixty-eight Acres, One 
Eood, and Four Perches of Land. 

Two farms, called Penylan and the Green, in the Parish of St. Davids, in the 
Occupation of Mr. John Morgan ; consisting of a tidy Tenement and good Beast 
Houses, and One Hundred and Thirteen Acres and Nine Perches of Land. There is 
a considerable quantity of Oaks in the Woods of this Farm. 

Davoden Meadow, in the Parish of St. David's, in the Occupation of Mr. John 
Morgan ; consisting of a rich piece of Meadow Laud adjoining the River Usk, 
containing Twenty-four Acres and Two Roods. 

N.B. The annual value of the several Farms in Lot 1 is Four Hundred and 
Thirty Pounds. 

Lot II. Ccmprising a Farm, called Nant y Cegyrn, in the Parish of Llanspythitt, in the 
Occupation of Philip Phillips, being a compact Estate, situate about Two Miles from 
Brecon : consisting of a small Farm House, Beast House and Barn, and Thirty-one 
Acres and Three Roods of Land. 

N.B. The annual Value of this Lot is Thirteen Pounds Ten Shillings. 

Lot III. Comprising the Manor and divers Farms and Tenements within the Parish of 
Battle, called Cae Crwn, Penrhrw, and divers other Bargains, including the Quit 
Rents of the Manor, amounting to Four Pounds, Nine Shillings, and Nine Pence, 
Yearly. 

Cae Crwn Farm, and other Lands in the Occupation of Eleanor Powell! 
consisting of a good Farm House, Wain House, Beast Houses, Barns, aad Two 
Cottages, let to Labourers. The Land belonging to this Farm is One Hundred 
Acres, One Rood, and Thirty-three Perches. 

Farm at Battle, in the Occupation of John Price ; consisting of the Manor 
House, being a small Farm House, with a Beast House, and another Building 
standing on the Waste ; and Eleven Acres, One Rood, and Eight Perches of Land. 

Lands in Battle, in the Occupation of David Hughes, containing Twelve Acres, 
Two Roods, and Twenty-one Perches. There are no Buildings on this Farm. 

A Bargain, called Part of the Old House and Cae Glass, in Battle, in the 
Occupation of John Price ; containing Thirty-three Acres, Three Roods, and Five 
Perches. There are no Buildings on this Bargain. 

A Croft, in Battle, let to John James ; containing One Rood and Five Perches 
of Meadow Land. 

A Cot and Lands, in Battle, in the Occupation of William Watkin. The Land, 
Three Acres, One Rood, Ten Perches, and a small Garden. 

A Cot and Croft, in Battle, in the Occupation of Daniel Jones. The Land 
about Half an Acre. 

Penrhw Tenement, in the Occupation of Widow Frees ; consisting of a Cottage, 
and Ten Acres, Three Roode, and Three Perches of Land. 

The annual Value of this Lot is Eighty-five Pounds. 

Lot IV. Comprising a Farm, called Ynis Mock, in the Parish of Aberysker, in the 
Occupation of Howell Powell ; consisting of a good Farm House, Stable, Beast 
House and Barn, and Eighty-four Acres and Three Perches of Land. 
The annual Value of Lot IV. is Twenty-six Pounds Ten Shillings. 

Lot V. Consisting of a Farm, called The Noyadd, with a Mill thereto belonging ; a 
Tenement called Corof Gawci ; one other Tenement called Llaner Chlas ; one other 
called Pontvane ; a Cot and Smith's Shop ; and a Wood called Alt y Pont Vane ; all 
situate in the Parish of Merthyr Cynnog, viz., 

The Noyadd, or Hall, in the Occupation of John Powell ; comprising a large 
Farm House, Beast Houses, Out Houses, and a Barn. The Mill is situate at 



(174) 

Pontvane, and there is a small Cottage near to it usually occupied by the Miller. 
The Land attached to this Farm is One Hundred and Seventy-seven Acres, One 
Rood, and Thirty-four Perches. 

Corof Gawci, in the Occupation of David Stephens ; consisting of a Cottage and 
and Beast House, and Five Acres, Two Roods, and Thirteen Perches of Land. 

Llanerchlas, near Pontvane, in the Occupation of Thomas Bevan ; consisting of 
a Cottage and Croft, containing Two Roods and Ten Perches. 

Pontvane, a Cottage, and Four Acres, Two Roods, and Ten Perches of Land ; 
in the Occupation of Alice Moises. 

A Cottage and Blacksmith's Shop at Pontvane, and a Garden containing 
Thirty-two Perches, in the Occupation of William Williams. 

Alt y Pontvane Wood, in Hand, containing Thirty-five Acres, Two Roods, and 
Thirty Perches. 

N.B. A good Stock of Underwood and much Oak Timber. The Annual Value 
of this Lot is Sixty-seven Pounds. 

Lot VI. Comprising Lower, Middle and Upper Vale Farms; Penylan, Ponty Maes, 
and Havodvoririg, or Pantyr Eirin, Farms ; all being situate in the Parish of 
Llandevaylog, viz., 

Lower and Middle Vale Farms, in the Occupation of Thomas Watkins ; 
consisting of Two Homestalls, with Beast Houses, Barns, and other Buildings ; 
and One Hundred and Sixty-four Acres, Three Roods, and Thirty-two Perches of 
Land, part of which is Wood. 

Upper Vale Farm, in the Occupation of Richard Pritchard, consisting of a 
Farm House, Beast House and Barn, and Sixty-six Acres, Two Roods, and 
Thirty-six Perches of Land. 

Penylan, in the Parish of Llandevaylog, occupied by Jenkin David; consisting 
of a Tenement or Farm House, Beast House and Barn, and Eighty-eight Acres and 
Thirty-seven Perches of Land. 

Ponty Maes, in the Occupation of John Jones ; consisting of a Farm House, 
Beast House and Barn, and One Hundred Acres of Land. 

Havodvoririg, or Pantyr Eirin, in the Occupation of Joan Probart, Widow ; 
consisting of a Tenement, Beast Houses and Barn, and Sixty Acres, One Rood, Four 
Perches of Land. 

The Annual Value of Lot VI. is One hundred and thirty-five pounds ten shillings. 

Lot VII. Comprising an Estate situate on each side of the River Trevechan, in the 
Parishes of Llanveiglan and Llanvrenach, in the Occupation of Michael Thomas and 
his Undertenants ; consisting of Three different Tenements, viz., 

Ustadd Gunwynn, or Lloyn Llyen, inhabited by the said Michael Thomas ; 
consisting of a good comfortable Farm House, with Beast Houses, Barns, &c., and 
Seventy-five Acres, Two Roods, and Seventeen Perches of Land in Tillage ; and Two 
Hundred and Twenty-two Acres, Three Roods, Nineteen Perches Sheepwalk. 

Lloyn y Dderllyan, or Owls Bush, occupied by William John David as Under- 
tenant ; consisting of a Cottage and Beast House, and One Hundred and Nine Acres 
and Thirty-eight Perches of Land. 

Lloynon, occupied by George Thomas as Undertenant ; consisting of a Cottage 
and Range of Beast Houses, and Four Hundred and One Acres and Eight Perches of 
Land ; of which Three Hundred and Seventy-Three Acres and Thirty-four Perches is 
Sheepwalk. 

The Annual Value of this Lot is Sixty Pounds. 

Lot VIII. The next Presentation and Perpetual Advowson of the Rectory of Aberysker, 
of the Annual Value of nearly One Hundred Pounds ; subject to Life of the present 
Incumbent, aged about Sixty. 

A Plan of the Estate may be seen at Mr. Charles Deare's, No. 12, Harcourt Buildings, 
Temple, London, where further Particulars, Admeasurement, &c., of the several 



(175) 

Closes, may be known ; also of Mr. Davis, Lewknor, Oxfordshire ; and of Mr. John 
Morgan, Brecon, who will give Directions to the several Tenants to shew their 
repective Premises. 



The second portion of the Estate was sold in 1802, and I give also the Particulars 
of that. Mr. Jeffreys Wilkins, of the Priory, bought several of the farms. It will be 
observed in these particulars, which are in the shape of a handbill, that all "the above 
farms have an unlimited right of Common for all manner of cattle on the adjacent 
Commons." This handbill was put in and accepted as evidence of the enjoyment of right 
of Common at the date named therein, viz., 1802, by Mr. Wood, at the recent Torglas 
arbitration in 1902. Such papers, it is needless to say, are always worth preserving 
among estate papers. 

BEECONSHIKE. 
To BE SOLD BY AUCTION, AT THE BUSH INN, IN THE TOWN OF BRECON, 

On Saturday, the 24th day of July next, between the Hours of Four and Six in the 
Afternoon, in One Lot, the Several Freehold Messuages Farms, Lands, 
and Premises, hereinafter mentioned, subject to such conditions as shall then 
be produced. And in case the said several Messuages and Premises should not be 
sold in One Lot, then the same will be immediately put up to Auction, subject also 
to such Conditions to be then produced, at the Time and Place abovementioned, in 
the following Lots : 

Lot I. All that capital Mansion House, Messuage, Farm and Lands, with the Appurte- 
nances, called Tregare, situate in the Parishes of Llanvrynach and Llanvigan, and 
a House, Garden and Orchard, in the Village of Llanvrynach, containing together by 
Estimation 367a. 2r, 21p., statute measure (be the same more or less), in the 
Occupation of the Representatives of Edward Morgan, deceased, and David Jones, 
under a Lease for 21 Years commencing from Michaelmas, 1796, at the clear Yearly 
Rent of 100. 

Also, All that Messuage, Farm and Lands, with the Appurtenances, called Tir 
Hir, situate in the Parishes of Llanvrynach and Llanvigan, containing by estimation 
64a. 2r. 16p. (be the same more or less), in the Occupation ef the Representatives of 
the said Edward Morgan, deceased, and David Jones, and included in the above 
Lease, at the clear yearly Kent of 42 10s. Od. 

Lot II. Also, All that Messuage, Farm and Lands, with the Appurtenances, called Cwm 
Orgwm, otherwise Coed y Bedw, situate in the Parish of Llanvrynach aforesaid, 
containing by Estimation Ilia. 8r. 2p. (be the same more or less), in the Occupation 
of the Representatives of the said Edward Morgan and David Jones, also included 
in the aforesaid Lease, at the clear Yearly rontal of 27 10s. Od. 

N.B. There is a Rent Charge of 8 Os. Od. annually issuing out of this Farm, 
and payable to the Poor of the Parish of Llanhamlach, which the Tenant pays, and 
and the Farm will be sold subject to such Rent charge. 

Lot III. Also, All those Wo Messuages, Farms and Lands, with their Appurtenances, 
called Panney and Pen y wain, containing together by Estimation 204a. Ir. lip. (be 
the same more or less), in the Occupation of John Parry, under a Lease for 21 Years, 
which will expire at Michaelmas, 1809, at the clear yearly Rental of 63. 

Also, All that Messuage and Lands called Cae Cradog, situate in tha Parish of 
Llanvrynach aforesaid, containing by Estimation 9a. Or. 81p. statute Measure (more 
or less) in the Occupation of Thomas Aubrey, as Tenant at Will, at the yearly 
Rental of 5 5s. Od. 

Lot IV. Also, All that Messuage, Farm and Lands, called Tynllwyn, adjoining Panney 
Farm, situate in the Parish of Llanvrynach aforesaid, containing 115a. 3r. 22p, 



(176) 

statute Measure ^e the same more or less) in the Occupation of Thomas Watkins 
and William James, under a Lease for 14 Years, commencing from Michaelmas, 
1796, at the clear yearly Rental of 52 10s. Od. 

Lot V. All that rough Piece or Parcel of pasture Ground, called Coed Cae Jonet, 

situate in the Parish of Llanvrynach aforesaid, containing 23 Acres, statute 
Measure (be the same more or less) now held by William Mosely, at the clear 
yearly Bent of 2 2s. Od. 

The above Farms have an unlimited Right of Common, for all Manner of 
Cattle on the adjacent Commons, and the several Houses and Out-houses have 
been lately put in complete Repair, at a very considerable Expence. 

NOTE. There is a considerable Quantity of Timber and young Trees 
growing upon this Estate, which will be sold with the same. 

CS" The several Tenants will shew the different Farms, and 

Particulars apply to MB. THOMAS BOLD, Attorney, Brecon, at whose Office 

date may be seen. 
June 14th, 1802. 

BRECKNOCK. 

Appended are further handbills as to the sale of Rime Farm in 1802, and the 
letting of the Abercynrig and Rhiwe farms in 1814, both described as possessing extensive 
rights of Common : 

BRECONSHIRE. 
To BE SOLD BT AUCTION, AT THE SUN INN, IN THE Town OF BRECON, 

On Saturday, the 27th Day of November instant, at Three o'clock in the Afternoon, 
under Certain Conditions then to be Produced, or in the mean Time by Private 
Contract : All that Messuage, Tenement and Lands, with the Appurtenances, 
called the Rhue, containing by Estimation Seventy-Three Acres, Be the same, 
more or less ; now in the Occupation of Morris Smith, as yearly Tenant, at the 
Rent of 33 per Annum, clear of Taxes. And also a Cottage and Garden, 
thereto Adjoining and Belonging, in the Occupation of Lewis Price, at the 
yearly Rent of 1 8s. With Another decayed Cottage, late in the occupation of 
Priscilla Lewis. All situata in the Parish of Llanvrynach in the said County. 
There is a fine Growth of Oak and Ash on the Premises, and the same have a 
valuable Right of Common on the healthy and extengive Hills adjoining. 

VS" For Particulars, apply to Mr. John Parry, at Panney ; or Messrs. 
Walter and John Powell, Attornies, Brecon. 
November 1st, 1802. 

BRECONSHIRE. 

A MOST ELIGIBLE ESTATE TO BE LBT. 

'To be Let for a Term of Years, and entered upon at Michaelmas next, All that 
Capital Messuage, Farm and Lands, called Abercyndrig, with the Water Corn 
Grist Mill, thereunto belonging ; containing by Admeasurement about 535 Acres, 
now in the occupation of Mr. Roger Prosser. Also, All that Stock Farm (held 
with Abercyndrig) called Rhiwe containing by Estimation about Fifty Acres. 
The Mansion-house of Abercyndrig is calculated for the Residence of a genteel 
Family ; and the Offices, Feeding-houses, and other Farm Buildings are very 
commodious. A great Part of the Land lies on the Banks of the River Usk, 
and the whole of it is within the Distance of about Two Miles of the Town of 
Brecon, and about a Quarter of a Mile of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal. 
Limestone in great Abundance upon the Farm, with a convenient Kiln ; also an 
excellent Threshing Machine, worked by a full Supply of Water, which may 
Afterwards irrigate a considerable Part of the Land ; to which there is the Advantage 



(177) 

of an extensive Right of Common. Ehiwe Farm is situate in the Parish of 
Llanvrynach, within the Distance of about Two Miles of Abercyndrig, and has 
also a valuable Eight of Common attached to it. N.B. The Statute Labour is 
very trifling. 

For a View of the Premises, and for further Particulars, apply to the 
Proprietor, John Lloyd, Esq. ; or to Messrs. Powell and Jones, Solicitors, 
Brecon. (If by Letter, the Postage paid). 

June 20, 1814. 



The following is a valuation of the Abercynrig desmesne made for John Lloyd, 
my father, in 1819, shortly after he came into possession of the estate on his father's 
death. It was made by David Davies, the eminent land Surveyor, of Llangattock, 
Crickhowell. Mr. Archibald was then thfl tenant, and it was at his suggestion the 
attempt at great expense to convert the meadows into a kind of water meadows, by 
irrigation from the Cynrig brook was made. Though the system of irrigation was 
long maintained, and as late as 1860, it proved to be of little value, the quality of 
the water being deficient in the properties possessed by the streams flowing from the 
Chalk formation in England. My father covenanted to give Mr. Archibald 200 
towards the expense of laying out " floating " it was called the meadows, but the 
work, which was thoroughly well done, must have cost Mr. Archibald a far larger sum. 
Previously the Brecon races were held on these beautiful meadows, the Grand Stand 
being fixed on the rising bank in Ynyspenybont, but the formation of the numerous 
gutters and deep trenches, and finally the making of the Dinas Gardens caused the 
Baces to be removed to the Island fields near the Town, and on the Town side of the 
river Usk. 

REFERENCES TO THE PLAN AND SURVEY OP THE ABERCUNDKIO DEMESNE NEAR THE TOWN 
OF BRECON, THE PROPERTY OF JOHN LLOYD, ESQ. ARCHIBALD, GENT., TENANT. 



No. 
on 
PlanJ 


Clear 
Names of Pieces, &c. State. Land. 

A. K. P. 


Wood. 

A. B P. 


1. 


Erin mawr Ara. 21 30 




2. 


Brinbach Ara. 10 230 




3. 


CaeLlwch Ara. 11 118 




4. 


Cae Crumlin Ara. 2 1 30 




5. 


Waunllwch P. 8 1 25 




6. 






7. 


Park gwin bach Ara. 7 3 23 


k 


8. 


Ynis Gwilim Ara. 5313 


1 3 32 | 


9. 


Perllan fawr P. . . 2 5 


M 


10. 
11. 


Part of Parkgwyu bach P. . . 300 
Cae Shone Richard A. . . 9 2 26 


V-s 


12. 


Cae glase A. . . 6 2 30 


3 


13. 


Cae barbwr A. .. 1 212 




14. 






14a. 


Cae bach Velindre P. . . 1 3 


$ 


15. 


Pwll bach P. . . 1 20 




16. 


Island.. P.&W. 1 017 


006 


17. 

18. 


P. .. 2 15 
Cottage and garden 012 


1 


19. 


1 30 


12 Cantreffe Parish. 


20. 


P. . . 35 


Lanvrynach . 


21. 


P. .. 2 27 




22 


Cottage Ruin &c . . 25 


) 


23. 




? St. Davids 


24. 


Perllan, Velindre P. .. 217 




25. 


Garden 35 


) 


26. 


Mill pond Yard &c . . 1 35 




27 


Two Cottages and gardens 28 


Lanvrynach. 


28. 


Cae Shone Walter A. . . 15 1 21 


St. Davids. 


28a. 


Part of do. . A. 5 t 31 


Cantreffe 



(178) 



No. 
on 
Plan. 


Names of Pieces &c. Sti 


Clear 
ite. Land 
A. B. P. 


A. B. F. 

Wood. 




29. 




1 o 31 






30. 


Close y Gy fer A. 


3 2 18 








Garden in do 


14 




St. Davids. 




Wood in do W 




1 18 




31. 
32. 


Gwynydd bach Trevedw M 
Cae Bruce P. 


.. 14 1 21 
.. 14 1 


3 34 


... 








1 15 


> Lanvrynach. 


32a. 


Part of Cae Bruce P. 


* W. 


1 10 


St. Davids 


32b. 


Do. do. P. 


& W. 


010 


) _ 


33. 




4 20 




> Lanvrynacb . 


34. 


Perllan fach P.C 


). .. 2 20 




1 T t 


35. 




& W. 


1 1 25 


} Lanvrynach. 


36. 


Do. Gravel, &o P 


& W. 


1 15 


St. Davids 


37. 


Close y Berth M. 


.. 21 2 18 




i T 




Wood and pond in do W. 




1 17 


> Lanvrynach. 


38. 


Vnia Hiiiirlrijj , , M 


9 1 28 




St. Davids 


38a. 


Part of do M. 


3 1 20 




St Johns 


39. 


Tnispenybout A. 


.. 18 10 






40. 


Ynig Shone Sanders M. 


.. 17 2 




\ St. Davids. 


40a. 


Part of do M. 


5 20 






41. 


Ynis fallen A. 


.. 15 1 24 






42. 


Wood adjoining W. 




2 3 30 


St Davids 


43. 


Upper Meadow M. 


13 3 32 






43a. 


Part of do M. 


521 






44. 
45. 


Wayn fach Rhydymaen M. 
Caebach Rhydymaen A. 


1 3 20 

4 3 15 


2 3 30 


i St. Davids 


46. 


Waynfach P. 


1 35 




















297 3 11 
14 19 


14 19 






Total 


311 3 30 

















DEAR SIR, 

I beg to send you the annexed copy of the Reference to the Plan and Survey 
of the Abercundrig desmesne. " 

I remain, Dear Sir, 

Yours very faithfully, 

DD. DAVIES, 

Llangattock, Crickhowell. 
December 8th, 1819. 



(179) 

Nonconformity in Breconshire, 1700 to 1800. 



A previous paper page 89, of the " Historical Memoranda " gave the list, extracted 
from the Minutes of the Quarter Sessions of our county, of persons presented to the Court 
for not coming to Church for three successive Sundays in the year 1687. This was the 
last of such lists ever made. In the year following, 1688-9, the Toleration Act was 
passed, which provided that Protestant Dissenters should be exempt from the penalties 
previously in force, and be permitted to attend their own places of worship, if such had 
been duly certified to the Bishop, or Archdeacon, or to the General Sessions of the county, 
and by the same statute the Clerk of the Peace was required to keep a registpr of such 
places of worship, and to give a certificate to any person demanding the same on payment 
of a fee of sixpence- 

Probably it was found extremely difficult for the Protestant Dissenters to find sites 
for, and to build their places of worship, or even to rent any suitable building, and it ia 
even the case at the present day. Some landowners might be willing to grant or lease 
such sites or buildings, while others would not be, and beyond even this difficulty was the 
further one of being able almost at a moment's notice to extemporise funds for building 
the chapels. The work of covering a wide and sparsely inhabited district like Breconshire 
could only be done gradually, even under the most favourable circumstances. 

Hence it may fairly be assumed that during the eighteenth century 1700 to 1800 
the practice of holding prayer meetings, coupled with preaching in farm-houses and other 
uncertified buildings, was general, and the somewhat serious step of building a chapel 
would only be taken after a nucleus of worshippers in a certain district had been found to 
exist, and that could only be ascertained by the previous holding of many such private or 
clandestine prayer meetings. 

Theo. Jones, our county historian, is strangely silent on the subject of Nonconformity 
in Breconshire. and it was left to Mr. Poole in his more modern work and much credit 
is due to him to describe, for the first time, the rise and progress of Nonconformity in 
our county. He writes at page 858 : 

" The Toleration Act, 1689, was a great advance on previous ordinances. It did not, 
however, bring with it complete justice to the Nonconformists in Wales. The history of 
the Eighteenth Century in this county is one of cruel persecution on the one hand, and 
patient suffering and courageous adherence to principle on the other." 

And then Mr. Poole proceeds thus : 

" The last legal persecution occurred at Brecknock in the year 1791, of which Dr. 
Been gives the following account : ' The Eevd. Thomas Bowen, of Maesyrouen. Radnor- 
shire, who was a very popular and active preacher, used frequently to preach at dwelling 
houses in various districts of the counties of Radnor and Brecon. Among other places, 
he often preached at, a farmhouse in Llansaintffraid, near Brecon His repeated visits to 
this parish so irritated Parson Frew, that he determined to punish him as far as possible. 
Finding that the house in which Mr Bowen preached had not been recorded for preaching 
according to the provisions of the Toleration Act, and that consequently the preacher was 
liable to a penalty of twenty pounds, and that he as informer would be entitled to one- 
third of that sum, on his information, and at his request Mr Bowen was summoned to 
appear before the magistrates at Brecon. On the appointed day he appeared there. The 
presiding magistrate asked him, " Is it true that you preached in Mr. Frew's parish at the 
house named in the summons ? " " It is," was the reply. Then said his worship, "You are 
liable to a fine of twenty pounds and the costs." Without cringing, pleading his poverty, 
or begging their favour, he paid the money, and gracefully bowing to their worships, he 
walked out of the room. A messenger was sent to the door, asking him to return, that 
the magistrates had something to say to him ! When he returned, the Chairman said to 
him, " Mr Bowen, we have the power to fine you to this amount, but we have the power 
to reduce it to a nominal sum." He replied, " Never mind, gentlemen, the money is now 
paid, and the portion of it which will go to the pocket of my accuser, may injure him more 
than the loss will injure me ! " Six weeks after, Mr Frew, on his way home from Brecon, 
fell from his horse on a heap of stones, and his skull was so fractured that his brains 



(180) 

were scattered over the stones. The tragical end of this persecution so terrified his 
clerical brethren, that none of them afterwards ventured to annoy a Nonfortnist preacher 

as he did." 

This story, as told by Dr. Rees, is in any case a very painful one. It is possible that 
Mr Frew laid the information because no one else could be found to do so, and not for the 
sake of getting a share of the fine himself. As to the date of the alleged fatal accident 
that befel Mr. Frew, it seems doubtful whether it happened so very soon after the hearing 
before the magistrates because I find that in the list of Incumbents at Llansaintffraed, it 
was not until 1794, or three years later that the Rev. Morgan Eowlands succeeded the Eev. 
John Frew. 

I had written thus far, and was about to copy a letter of Mr. Frew himself, dated 
January 1st, 1792, relating to this very prosecution, and which then lay on the table 
before me, when there occurred a marvellous coincidence, amounting almost to a 
miracle. I was musing over the difference in date, and trying to find a solution, when to 
relieve the strain of mind, I began carelessly to turn over the pages of a quaint diary book 
published in Kent, which lay by my left elbow as a curio to be looked at when I had 
leisure. Glancing over the leaves, I was first struck by the handwriting, which seemed 
familar to me. Then various entries excited my attention, such as payment for powder 
and shot, won at cards 1 16s, lost at cards 5s, receipt of tithe from Talybryn, and of 20 
tithe from Gwynne. Then on a flyleaf at the end, a copy of the inscription on the well- 
known stone of Victoriuus. This seemed to point indubitably to Llansaintffraed parish ! 
and lastly, not altogether now to my surprise, I found the owner's name, " J. Frew," 
recorded on one of the commencing leaves ! 

It was a 1798 diary, being used for the year 1794, and the very last entry was on the 
30ih April, 1794, " Quarter Sessions, James' Appeal. James' Eecognisance." It is clear, 
therefore, that Mr. Frew did not meet with the alleged fatal accident until after the date 
of that entry, and I find that Theo. Jones gives the date of his death, recorded on his 
monument in Llansaintffraed Church, as July 9, 1794. Therefore, if vtngeance came at 
all in this instance, it was not so speedy as Dr. Kees imagined ! 

How passing strange by the merest accident in the world thus to find the diary of the 
very man, of whom 1 had been writing, and whose original letter I was about to copy ! 
The chances were enormous against my finding the diary at all, still more so against 
happening to open the book at that particular moment, and still further to notice the 

name ! Such instances must be very rare. 

* * 

# 

This brings me to the real object of this paper. I am now about to give the account 
of the prosecution of the Rev. Thomas Bowen, with the circumstances leading up to it, by 
the Rev. John Frew himself, as narrated in his own letter to the Bishop of St. David's. 
I must first give the Bishop's letter to Mr. Frew, asking him to send a full account of the 
prosecution, a report of which had reached him indirectly. Both the letter of the Bishop, 
and that of Mr. Fiew are original autograph letters, and with the diary referred to, are 
before me now, as I am writing. 

Revd. Sir, My late worthy correspondent, the Welsh Freeholder, has just published 
a pamphlet upon the Riots at Birmingham. It is one of the most virulent declamations 
against the Constitution and the Established Church that the meek spirit of Noncon- 
formity ever yet produced. You will perhaps be surprsed to hear that you are brought in 
question. Your proceedings against the Conventicles in your parish are mentioned in 
these terms : 

" A clergyman holding considerable preferments, and who is also a Justice of the 
Peace, has lately compelled a most inoffensive and worthy dissenting Minister of the 
Calvinistic persuasion, to pay twenty pound for the crime of preaching in an unlicensed 
house." 

As the mention of this affair is introduced in such a manner, as clearly to lay the 
scene of it in my diocese, it is possible that I may be often asked about it. I wish 
therefore to be po&sessed of the real story, which to say the truth, I know at present, and 
had very imperfectly. Were uot more than one fined ? Were they who suffered the fine, 



(181) 

or any of them, Dissenting preachers of the Presbyterian, Independent, or Anabaptist, or 
of what denomination ? Were they not Methodists ? If Methodists, were they not of 
that description which use the Liturgy of the Church of England ? If in any circumstance 
this worthy author has deviated from the strict line of Truth in his representation of the 
fact (which I much suspect) I shall take pleasure in giving him the lie in all companies 
where his name, or his infamous work are mentioned. Fail not to tell me particularly 
what were the immediate provocations that put you upon the prosecution. 

I am Eevd. Sir, 

Your affectionate brother, and faithf servant, 

(Sgd.) SAMUEL, St. David's. 
Upper Seymour Street, 

December 20th, 1791. 

P.S.- Lay it not to heart that you have fallen under the censure of this writer. He 
is one of those whose pen, to use a happy expression of his own, " eulogizes when it 
censures," and you are a sharer in a sma'l proportion only in his abuse, with Mr Pitt, Mr 
Burke, Lord Hawkesbury and myself. 
Rev. Mr. Frew. 

To this letter Mr. Frew replied as follows : 

(Copy.) 

Llansaintfraed, January 1st, 1792. 

My Lord, The following is the real state of the Business between me and the 
Methodist Preacher whom I convicted. In the month of last May complaints were made 
to me by some of the Inhabitants of Llangorse, of which Parish I am Vicar, that numerous 
disorderly Meetings of Methodist Preachers and their Followers from various parts, had 
been held in a Barn in the said Parish, and that they continued to a very late hour of the 
night with violent jumpings and great noise, to the annoyance of the neighbourhood. I 
was at the same time informed, that another meeting was to take place in a few days. In 
consequence, I issued my Precent to the Constables of the Parish to attend at the Place, 
and to read it aloud to the People, and particularly to the Preachers. This Warrant or 
Precept recited the penalties to which they would be liable if they would obstinately persist 
in their intentions. This caution was fruitless. The Preachers mounted the Rostrum 
and harangued the multitude in their usual frantic manner with a description of their own 
Zeal and Persecution and with their own customary abuse of the established Clergy. 
Information of this being regularly made to me, I was obliged by law to summon the 
Orators to appear before me on a certain Day. In the meantime I had solicitations to 
drop further Prosecution, and I prevailed on the Informer to consent. For this Act of 
Lenity I naturally expected a decent return of thanks, but instead of that Act of 
Propriety, I was the Subject of their invective. They held frequent cabals, and this 
inoffensive and worthy Dissenting Minister of the Calvinistic Persuasion undertook the 
Task of preaching in an avowed defiance of me as a Clergyman and a Magistrate close to 
my Parsonage House. On Whitsun Monday returning from the performance of my Duty at 
my Church of Llansaintfread I was informed that one Thomas Bowen had signified his 
intention of Preaching the Word to poor Souls at the Barn of a Farmer within less than 
two hundred yards of my dwelling. I immediately sent a message to my neighbour, and 
desired to speak with him. The Churchwarden, who came with me from Church, was 
present at the farmer's arrival. He confessed that Bowen had applied to him for 
permission to preach at his House, and that he was to be there that Day for the purpose. 
To this honest and deluded man I read the Acts of Parliament on the Subject of 
Conventicles, and the consequence to himself, the Attendants, and Preacher. These 
cautionary steps were of no avail. Bowen arrived with a gang of low people from my 
parish of Llangorse, where he performed in the morning, and had exultingly told them 
that he would prove to them, that he had a right to preach at Llansaintfraed also, in spite 
of Mr Frew. He was informed of the irregularity of his design, but he bid Defiance to the 
Law, the Justice and the Rector. A very respectable family in my Parish were 
spectators of this disorderly and indecent meeting, and called on me at a Farmer's House, 



(182) 

where I dined, and laid an information against the Preacher and the Owner of the 
Conventicle. However, the gentleman, who is an officer in the Army, not wishing to 
appear as an informer, I took the information of that person, and regularly proceeded to 
summon and convict Bowen by his own confession, and the Oath of two Witnesses. I 
overlooked the Error of the poor Farmer and the ignorant jumping crew. To your 
Lorship's queries concerning the different classes of Dissenters, and of what species the 
offenders were, as one only was fined, a description of him will be sufficient. He calls 
himself a Presbyterian, has two licensed places of worship, where he officiates, and is also 
a vagabond Methodist preacher. If his Piety is equal to his Impudence, Calvin himself 
must give way on the same comparison. As the bold step taken by Bowen was much 
admired, and applauded by the Sectaries, on the following Sunday another Orator, by 
trade a Skinner, appeared at Llangorse and solicited subscriptions for purchasing a place 
there, and it was to be licensed and appropriated to the purpose of what he termed godly 
instruction. The following Day an Information was made against him before me as a 
Magistrate. I did indeed summon him to appear, and finding that he was of that 
description which attend the Established Church, I did not proceed to convict, tho' it was 
in my Power. From this Instance, and my conduct towards the first offenders at 
Llangorse, your Lordship may perceive that Persecution was not my object, tho' it might 
Lave been easy for me as a Magistrate to have proceeded with severity. 

Indulgence to tender and honest consciences is a proper claim ; but persons of that 
character never seek it by Insolence and Turbulence. If ever, unfortunately for the 
established Church and its ministers, the modern Nonconformists should ever have Power, 
it is not to be doubted, but the antient cut-throat and plundering system would be 
adopted, and pursued with vigour. 

May your Lordship long live in Health, and with full possession of those abilities 
which you have hitherto exerted in Defence of our Religion, and the Church of England, 
is the sincere wish of, etc., 

(Sgd.) J. F. 

[This is probably the copy (in Mr. Frew's own handwriting) of the actual letter sent by 
him to the Bishop. J. LL.] 



Tor Glas Common Lawsuits. 



The following is a copy of Mr. Wood the Arbitrator's Award in these protracted legal 
proceedings : 

Mr. James George Wood, of Lincoln's Inn, barrister-at-law, the arbitrator appointed 
to determine the action brought by Howell William Richards claiming commonable rights 
over the pieces of common land taken by the Merthyr Urban District Council, has made 
his award, which is in the several terms following : 

1. All the lands taken by the District Council as in the said Agreement of reference 
mentioned are situate in the said Parish of Llanfrynach in the County of Brecknock and 
no part thereof is situate in the said Parish of Cantref. 

2. All owners of freehold farms within the said Parish of Llanfrynach are and were 
at the time of the taking aforesaid entitled by themselves or their tenants occupiers of 
such farms to common of pasture on all common or waste lands within the Parish of 
Llanfrynach for all their sheep cattle and ponies as appurtenant to their said several 
freehold farms. 

8. No owner or occupier of lauds outside the Parish of Llanfrynach is or was at the 
time of the taking aforesaid entitled in respect thereof to commonable rights on the 
common or waste lands in the Parish of Llanfrynach. 

4. Such commonable rights as aforesaid are and have from time immemorial been 
exercised without regard to the particular Lordship Manor or Submanor of which the 
particular farm to which such commonable rights are or were appurtenant is holden or of 



(188) 

which the common lands over which the same are or were exercised is waste. And owners 
of farms within or holden of one Manor or Submanor exercise and have as aforeaaid 
exercised such rights of common on waste lands parcel of another manor or other Manors 
within the Parish. 

5. Such rights as to sheep are and have from time immemorial been exereised under 
the " arosfa " system or usage, that is to say, that for the mutual convenience of the 
farmers in the enjoyment of their said rights of common of pasture the sheep of each farm 
are as far as is possible kept on a particular part of the waste called the " arosfa " of that 
farm and known to the shepherds but not defined by artificial boundaries or artificial 
marks and the sheep of other farms within the Parish are as far as is possible kept off 
that particular part of the waste. 

6. The " arosfa " system or usage does not apply and has not been applied and is 
in fact inapplicable to cattle and ponies. 

7. The particular parts of the waste forming the several " arosfas " may be and are 
from time to time changed in shape extent and position as the convenience of the farmers 
may require. 

8. The sheep of 2 or more farms whether of the same or different owners or 
occupiers may be and are sometimes kept on one "arosfa." 

9. The "arosfa" system or usage existing for rautnal convenience only does not 
permanently qualify in law the actual commonable rights of the owners of the freehold 
farms as first hereinbefore set forth. 

10. At the time of the taking in or about the year 1895 by the District Council of 
portions of Torglas Common and Neuadd fach Common as in the said agreement of 
reference mentioned the lands so taken were respectively parts of the Common or waste 
lancis aforesaid within the parish of Llanfrynech and as such subject to the commonable 
rights hereinbefore set forth. 

11. The portion of Torglas Common so taken as aforesaid was at the time when the 
same was so taken part of a larger area of the said Common or waste lands which had 
from time immemorial been and was then used and enjoyed under the system or usage 
aforesaid as the " arosfa " of Blaen Taf farm within the said parish of Llanfrynach which 
farm at the time of the taking aforesaid belonged to the said Howell William Richards in 
fee simple and was in the occupation of John Williams as tenant thereof from year to 
year. 

12. The portion of Neuaddfach Common so taken as aforesaid was at the time when 
the same was so taken part of a larger area of the said Common or waste lands which was 
then and had from the year 1881 or thereabouts been used and enjoyed under the system 
or usage aforesaid as the " arosfa " of Llwynon farm within the said parish of Llanfrynach 
which farm at the time of the taking-aforesaid belonged to the said Howell William 
Richards in fee simple and was in his own occupation until the time when such larger 
area as last aforesaid became the " arosfa " of Llwynon farm as aforesaid the same had 
been from time immemorial used and enjoyed under the system or usage aforesaid as the 
"arosfa" of Neuadd fach farm within the Parish of Llanfryna^h which last mentioned 
farm was in or about the year 1881 sold and conveyed by the predecessors in title of the 
said Howell William Richards to the then Local Board of Health of Merthyr Tydfil for the 
purposes of their water undertaking. 

18. Save as aforesaid there was not at the time of the taking aforesaid by the 
District Council of the said portions of Torglas Common and Neuadd fach Common any 
commonable rights affecting or exerciseable over those portions of the same Commons. 

14. The names of the persons who as owners of freehold farms in the Parish of 
Llanfrynach were at the time of the taking as aforesaid by the District Council of the said 
portions of Torglas Common and Neuaddfach Common entitled to such commonable rights 
as aforesaid (subject to the said " arosfa" system or usage) in or over the lands so taken 
are set forth in the 1st column of the Schedule hereinafter written And the names of 
the persons who as occupiers of such freehold farms respectively were at the same time 
entitled to such commonable rights as aforesaid (subject to the said " arosfa " system or 
usage) in or over the lands so taken are set forth in the 2nd Column in the same Schedule 



(184) 

and the names or description of the farms and lands to winch such commonable rights 
were appurtenant are set forth in the 3rd Column of the same Schedule and the rateable 
values for the purpose of assessment to the rates for the relief of the Poor of the said farms 
and lands respectively at the time of the taking aforesaid are set forth in the 4th Column 
of the same Schedule that is to say : 

THE SCHEDULE ABOVE REFERRED TO. 



Names of Owners. 



Charles Henry de Winton 

The Executors of the late Colonel Lloyd 

Howell William Richards 

Charles Henry de Winton 

J. P. Gwynne Holford 

William de Winton 

Edward Davies 

Executors of late Colonel Lloyd 

Executors of late Colonel Lloyd 

William de Wintou 

David Morgan 

The Marquess Camden 

Howell William Richards 

The Rev J. J. Evans 

William Evans 

Charles Henry de Winton 

William de Winton 

Charles Henry de Winton 

Howell Davies 

The Marquess Camden 

William Smith 

W. Ricketts 

The Rev. D. Saunders Jones 

Charles Henry de Winton 

Charles Henry de Winton 

W. de Winton 

Sir Joseph Russell Bailey 

The Rev. H. Williams 

Executors of T. Williams 

Executors of Col. Lloyd 

Executors of Col. Lloyd 

Charles Henry de Winton 



Names of Occupiers. 



Names or descriptions 
of farms or lands 



David Davies 

Executors of late Col. Lloyd . 

John Williams 

Thomas Evans 

David Jones 

John Evans 

John Smith 

Daniel Rees 

Thomas Davies 

Thomas Jones 

William Morgan 

David Jones 

Howell William Richards . . . 
John Prosser 



John Prosser 

William de Winton 

Howel Davies 

John Powell 

Howel Davies 

John Powell 

William Smith 

David Rees 

The Rev. D. Saunders Jones. 

John Morgan 

Thomas Jones 

John Evans 

William Hall 

John Powell 

William Powell 

Thomas Davies 

Mrs Price 

William Morgan 



Tynllwyn 

Abercynrig 

BlaenTaff 

Caerau 

Cefn Cyff 

Cwm Cynwyn 

Cwm Orgwm 

Velindre Lands . . . 

Wernmar^hog 

Glanusk 

Llanbryneau 

Llwyncelyn 

Llwyn-on 

Llwynfron . . . 

Rhiware fach 

Maesderwen 

Tymawr 

Pannau 

Pannau 

Pentwyn 

Ty Evan Shon 

Triffynon las 

Glebe land 

Tregaer 

Tyf ry 

Tylellwyd 

Tynewydd 

Penyrheol 

Coedcae Penyrheol. 

Rhiwau 

Wern 

Brickhouse Fields . 



Rateable 
Values. 



8. 

108 

175 14 

72 

31 10 

9 

31 10 

78 13 

2 13 

30 12 

270 

81 

40 10 

20 14 

8 2 
1 

10 
135 

18 
100 16 

27 
10 

28 10 
2 17 

126 
180 

36 
55 10 

37 16 
4 15 

40 10 
18 

9 10 



15 






And 1 do hereby further determine and award that if and so far as the costs of this 
reference have been increased by the Cantref Committee as such being parties thereto 
such extra costs of all parties shall be borne by the Cantref Committee And that the said 
Howell William Richards shall bear and pay his own costs of the reference except such 
extra costs (if any) as aforesaid and shall also pay to the Llanfrynach Committee one 
moiety of their costs of the reference except such extra costs (if any) as aforesaid and that 
the Llanfrynach Committee shall bear the other moiety of their costs of the reference 
except as aforesaid And shall also pay the costs of the Award And that if the costs of this 
award shall in the first instance be paid by the said Howell William Richards then the 
same shall be repaid to him by the Llanfrynach Committee or set off against the costs 
payable by him to them as aforesaid. 



(185) 



The Granting of a Faculty for a Seat in St. 
Mary's Church, Brecon, 1727. 



Bichardus permissions Divina Meneven Episeopus Dilecto Nobis in Christo Richards 
Davies Clerico Vicario Ste Marias Virginis Brecan In Comitatu Brecon Et Diocess Meneven 
Salutem Tibi Precipimus quatinus in Gapella Beate Marias Virginis predict Die Dominico 
sive Festivo proximo et immediate sequen receptionem presentium Dumque Major ibidem 
ad Divina audiend adfuererit Populi Multitudino hoec Verba Anglicana sequen palam et 
publice Denunties et declares (vizt.) 

Whereas couiplaint hath been made and information given into the Consistory Court 
for the Archdeaconry of Brecon in the Diocese of St. David by and on the part and behalf 
of Margarett Lewis of the Town of Brecon in the County of Brecon widdow that she is 
destitute of a Seat or Pew within this Church to sit stand or kneel in to hear Divine Service 
and sermon read and preached And whereas there is a certain vacant seat situate in the 
north Isle in this Church or Chappell between the seat where Elizabeth Fisher spinster 
sits in on the west side thereof and the seat wherein the servants of Elizabeth Price widdow 
doe commonly sit in on the east side thereof fit for the said Margarett Lewis and her 
family to sit stand and kneel in to hear Divine Service and sermon read and preached in 
this Church or Chappell and whereas the said Margaret Lewis has desired that the said 
vacant seat might be allotted and confirmed unto her for her the said Margaret Lewis and 
her family to sit stand and kneel in as aforesaid I do therefore peremptorily cite all and 
every person and persons that have or pretend to have any right title or interest in the 
said vacant seat or pretend to shew any cause or reason why the said seat should not be 
granted or confirmed to the said Margaret Lewis for the use aforesaid that they and every 
of them be and personally appear before the Right Reverend father in God Richard Lord 
Bishop of St. David his Chancellor his Surrogates or other competent judge in this behalf 
in this Church or Chappell of St. Mary and in the usual Consistory place here upon 
Thursday the two and twentyth day of this instant February att ten of the clock in the 
morning of the same day then and there to shew propound and alledge their severall 
claimes and interests and reasons why the said vacant seat should not in due form of law 
be granted and confirmed unto the said Margarett Lewis And I do further intimate unto 
them that if they do not appear att the day time and place aforesaid or appearing do not 
shew any lawfull cause to the contrary the said Chancellor or his Surrogates do intend to 
proceed or will proceed to the granting or confirming of the aforesaid seat to the said 
Margarett Lewis for her self and her family to sit stand and kneel in to hear Divine 
Service and sermon their and every of their absence or rather contumacy notwithstanding. 

Et Quid in Premiss feceritis Vicarium Nostrum in Spiritualibus Generalem Ejusve 
Surrogatum sive Surrogates aut ... in hac parte Competeu quemcunque Debite 
Certetis una Cum presen Dat sub Sigillo quo in hac parte utimur Secundo Die Februarii 
Anno dni 1727. 

CAROLUS LEWIS NOTARIUS PUBLICUS, 
Reg. Deputatus. 

[Endorsed] PROCLAMATION FOR A SEAT. 

This is to certify that ye within written proclamation has been read in ye Chappell of 
St. Marys according to ye directions therein given 

by me 

D. MORGAN. 



(186) 

A Letter of 1773. 



DAVID POWELL OF ABERSENNY TO HIS CHILD. 

DEAR CHILD, In compliance to your request of ye 5th Inst., I have given Miss Molly 
Williams eight guineas for which you have the inclosed draft upon her Brother, which I 
hope you will receive in due time. Billy Williams would not draw under 30 days which 
I thought might be too long for you as you intend setting out so soon. The 3 guineas 
over and above your Bequest is to buy some things for your sisters which your Mother 
desires you will get as cheap and as good as you can (viz.) a hat and cloak for your Sister 
Nelly, s'uch as you bought for your Coz. of Goytre and a silk capucheen apiece for Molly 
and Peggy, if you can get tolerable good ones at second hand they may serve frr the two 
last. 

I was at Monmouth to see the Race (owing to a letter I received 2 days before from 
ye old Exciseman at Usk that he was very ill) and stood my ground with the Welshman, 
and got about two guineas and a half, tho my friends and neighbours turned tail and took 
to ye Englishman, and were drawn in most handsomly (viz., Treweren, Landilo and the 
Turk)) if the English had been prudent they would have had odds but they overpowered 
ye Welsh and freightened them to that degree that they did not know what to do. Mr. 
Davy Watkins is a widower this fortnight ago Morgan Powell's settlement was drawn up 
by Mr. Robt. Williams. I suppose that couple will he married before you arrive. Since 
I have been with Miss Molly Williams and this minute indeed. Your Mother and Brother 
Ricy informed me that he intended to send 2 Guineas to buy him a watch (at your 
proposal I find) if the Parson comes up before you set out (as he says he will) it shall be 
sent by him, otherwise you shall be refunded by your Brother when you are come, if you 
can conveniently spare it. 

The Parson's lawsuit I apprehend will soon be settled, without my being obliged to 
put in my answer, both parties rnett last Wednesday in Mr. Williams' office, who seemed 
to be satisfied that the Parson's title was good, as it appeared that David Walter in his 
life time had been in the possession of it for upwards of 22 years, and Howell 
Thomas's holding it under David Walter's will for 50 years afterward, but it was from 
thence adjourned to Mr. Williams of Penpont for his opinion accordingly I was obliged 
to waite on him on Friday last (where Coz. Powell also attended) with the Deeds, who 
waved it off by advising to have the Case stated and to have Counsel's opinion theron, and 
yesterday I was with Mr. Robt. Williams, talked some part of the matter over, who 
desired me to acquaint Coz. Powell that he would be glad to see him, and that he thought 
ye affair might be settled without any further expense, so Coz. is to call upon him 
to-morrow in his way to London ; the old people of Ystradvelltey are in a manner satisfied, 
but Tom keeps such a route, that he will never submit for want of a fine, which I imagine 
is not to be found, but I believe Mr. Williams will not be concerned for him. If the affair 
should go on Coz. tells me, I shan't be obliged to put in my answer, till I shall see theirs 
by which time you will be in the country. 

Mr. Jones, of Treweren, who dines with me now sends his compliments to you, as does 
Coz. Powell, who is also here. I can think of nothing worth sending you at present, but 
that we have escaped the small-pox as yett here, and at Llwyn y vron, tho it has been very 
mortal in the neighbourhood, where twos and threes have been buried from ye same house. 
We are all well and join in wishing to see you safe and well at Abersenny, which is the 
sincere wish also of your ever loving 

FATHEH DAVID POWELL. 
Abersenny, June 13th, 1773. 

P-S. You mentioned nothing whether you had engaged yourself an office in town or 
not. I spoke with Mr. Powell, the Ironmonger, about the room where Coz. Nancy lived 
in under his roofe, he promised not to lett it to any body till I should hear from you, 
something concerning that in your next. 



(187) 

The Fisheries of Breconshire in Olden Times. 



Very few references are to be found in old books and papers to this subject, though 
the Usk and Wye and the numerous smaller streams flowing through the county must have 
supplied our ancestors with an abundance of fish. Giraldus Cambrensis described the 
Wye as famous for its salmon, and the Usk for its trout. In some old Penkelly Manor 
papers I find the term Piscar, or Piscaria fishing pools used once, but once only. In 
the lease from the Prior of Brecon of the Usk Mill at Brecon not a word is to be found as 
to any fishing rights. In an old paper of 1714, a rent is stated to have been received by 
Gabriel Powell, steward, on behalf of Lord Somerset, of a fishery in the Usk at 
Crickhowell, doubtless that of the old mill and weir just above Crickhowell bridge, rented 
subsequently in 1821, by Mr. John Hotchkis, who was a great fisherman. The records 
of our Quarter Sessions will show that he was the first to move the appointment of Fence 
months for salmon in Breconshire. Later, in 1754, on the sale of the Buckland and 
Penkelly estate by Roger Jones' devisees to the Gwynne family, mention is made of 
" all the Buckland fishery," and in 1797, when Mr. Harcourt Powell sold the manor of 
Penkelly Cwmorgwm, a special reservation is made of the fishery in the Usk adjacent to 
the Llanhamlach estate and parish. In 1784 John William Powell was presented at the 
Court Leet of Welsh Penkelly Manor (then belonging to the Crown) " for fishing in the 
Taffechan river with nets without consent." 

Unimportant fisheries, as we should now consider them to be, were in olden times 
mentioned in old writings. In every lease or agistment of the Great Forest of Brecknock, 
fisheries of the Crown in the Nedd and Tawe rivers were specially dealt with, as being 
included in the taking, or reserved. And it is to Llangorse Lake, or the " fishing pool of 
Llinsavathan," that the palm of notice is to be given. It had great repute in the pre- 
reformation days and kept up its name in 1650, when a special Parliamentary Survey (see 
Hist. Mem. Breconshire, page 10) was devoted to it. Below Pont-ar-Llynfi there were, it 
is said, " two wears belonging to the king, called ' the King's wears,' at which a good store 
of eles were taken in potts at ye season of the year for catching of the same." A fishery 
in the Wye, since sold, is stated to have belonged to a manor held by Rice Powel's charity. 

Theophilus Jones though not alluding to any particular fisheries, has some valuable 
and interesting remarks in his county history on the fish found in Breconshire riyers, and 
strongly urges that pains should be taken to protect and cultivate the river fisheries. I am 
almost tempted to reprint what he has written on the subject at pages 16, 17, 18 and 19 of 
Vol. I. His remarks are very accurate and intelligent, and his recommendations far 
sighted. In his observations on the habitat of the sewin, east and west are apparently 
wrongly printed for west and east, and I may add that the estuary of the Usk and the 
small tributaries flowing into it, where pure, abounded with sewin, when I was lessee of 
the fisheries there in 1856. But that delicate fish seldom ascended the Usk far, and in 
Breconshire we rarely meet with one. The white trout we occasionally catch in the spring 
I regard as a sewin. At page 856, Vol. II. he has an interesting account of the Lake of 
Llynsavaddan, and the fish found there, and how they were caught with a draft net pitched 
here and there in the middle of the pool, and then hauled into a boat. I have seen the 
net that was used, and the old fishermen who used it they lived in a cottage in a small 
dingle near Cathedine, but I have never seen the net actually used. I do not think the 
old pitched draft net has been used in the Lake since 1850, and the old race of fishermen 
has long since died out. 

Further at page 432, vol, III., under the head of Llaaelly parish, Theo. Jones sounds 
the alarm as to the injury the then recently opened canal was doing to the fisheries of the 
Usk, and adds that " unless a smaller gra'ing is placed at the mouth of the feeder from 
Newton Pool, I apprehend a lamentable difficiency in our stock in the Usk." Truthfully 
prophetic, that ! It was not until 1866 a really effective grating was placed. Theo. Jones 
did not, however, foresee that the water of the Usk one day would be drained away by that 
canal as to leave the bed dry below the weir. That was an evil that came long after his 
time, and mainly in our careless degenerate days ! 



(188) 

Hugh Thomas, the Herald, writing at Brecon in 1G78, describes the county as " well 
stocked with wood, water, and fish, especially Trout. The best and the most are taken in 
the Usk river, no better in all Wales, having abundance of fine springs and purling 
streams, besides the Usk and Honddu, etc., which make the country most pleasant and 
healthy." [Essay, Brecknockshire, Bodleian Library.") 

Henry Vaughan, the Silurist, was a fisherman, and appears to have had a great love 
for our famous river, the Usk. He apostrophises her in verse in the Olor Iscanus, and 
prays for her safe journey to the sea, with unsullied purity, and with an abundant stream ! 
A salmon and a Latin poem were his welcome gift to his friend Dr. Powell, of Cantref. 

This is all I can recollect to have seen about our fisheries in old papers. There are 
no records extant of great takes of fish in either the Usk and Wye, or the Nedd and Tawe, 
and Llangorse Lake seems to have received the greater notice, and to have been held in 
chief esteem. 



Consistory Court. 



CITATION FOR NON-PAYMENT OF TITHE, WHEN DEFAULTER IN ONE 
DIOCESE MOVED TO ANOTHER, 1746. 

Edward Wynn Doctor of Laws Vicar General and Official Principal of the Right 
Reverend Father in God James by divine permission Lord Bishop of Hereford lawfully 
constituted To the Right Reverend Father in God Richard by divine permission Lord 
Bishop of Saint Davids his Vicar General in Spirituals or any other competent judge in 
that behalf greeting Whereas the Reverend George Phelps Clerk Master of Arts and 
lawful Surrogate rightly and duly in proceeding in a certain Cause of Subtraction of 
Tythes or other Ecclesiastical Dues lately depending before us in judgment between 
Susannah White widow the and Executrix of the last Will and Testament of 

John White Clerk late Vicar of the Vicarage and Parish Church of Kington with the 
Chapels annexed in the County and Diocese of Hereford deceased the party agent of the 
one part and Thomas Welson of the Parish of Brilley in the County and Diocese aforesaid 
the defendant on the other part And whereas the said Susannah White now lives in the 
Parish of Glazebury in the County of Radnor and within your Diocese so that without 
your aid the said Susannah White cannot be compelled to appear before us to the effect and 
for the purposes hereafter written And whereas our Holy Mother the Church wheresoever 
acknowledged throughout the Universe is one and the same and the Ordinances of different 
Courts with regard to things that concern the Administration of Justice looked upon as 
the Sons of one common Mother and are therefore obliged mutually to aid and assist one 
another in the execution thereof We therefore humbly intreat that you in supply of 
justice would by your authority cite or cause to be cited peremptorily the said Susannah 
White that she appear before us, our lawful Surrogate or other competent judge in this 
behalf in the Cathedral Church at Hereford and in the Bishop's Consistory Place there on 
Thursday, the sixteenth day of March next ensuing between the hours of nine and twelve 
in the foienoon of the same day then and there to shew good and lawful cause (if any she 
can) why the sentence passed in the said cause against her should not be put in execution 
and the costs of suit taxed and to see and hear the said sentence put in execution and the 
costs of suit taxed under pain of the law and contempt thereof And further to see and 
receive as unto law and justice shall appertain And we for our parts shall be ready on the 
like occasion to give our assistance towards the fulfilling of justice and the better execution 
of the laws ; and do further request of you to certify your proceedings to us our lawful 
Surrogate or competent Judge in this behalf on the aforesaid day and at the time and place 
together with your proceedings therein. 

Given under our seal of office the sixth day of February in the year of our. Lord 1748. 

THO. CROFT, Dep. Regr. 



(189) 

Terrier of Llywell Parish. 



The following is one of the most interesting of the old Breconshire Terriers. There 
appears to have been a modus of one penny on each farm in lieu of hay, but there was no 
modus or charge whatever on corn. The heaviest and most productive charge was that on 
lambs, if we rightly understand it to have been one lamb in seven, however many there 
were if there were seventy lambs, then ten went to the tithe-owners and sheep rearing 
was then, as now, the chief industry of the parish. The impropriators, who were the 
Dean and Chapter of St. David's, monopolised the glebe land, and the Vicar had to be 
content with the churchyard. And it will be seen that there was no Vicarage. The list 
of mortuaries payable to the parish clerk is very interesting, describing as it does the dress 
of men and women of that day. The woman's hood would be the capucheen mentioned in 
David Powell of Abersenny's letter. Jones, in note Vol. III. p. 674, alludes to this 
mortuary custom. 

A TERRIER of the glebe lands, tythes, moduses, dues, rights and profits belonging to- 
the rectory and vicarage of Llywell, in the County of Brecon, and Diocese of Saint David's, 
made the day of in the year of our Lord 1800. 

Glebe land, the closes known by the names of Cae Mawr, Cae Bach, and Ynis Llywell, 
contain twelve acres or thereabouts, now in the occupation of Mary William, widow, 
belonging to ye impropriators. 

The churchyard, containing three roods or thereabouts, belongs to the Vicar, and the 
walls and gates around the same are made and repaired by the parish. 

There is no glebe or house belonging to the vicarage. Two-thirds of all tithes and 
other dues, except surplice ffees, belong to the rector or impropriators, and the other third, 
and the surplice ffees to the vicar. 

In lieu of the tithe of hay, there is a modus of one penny for every farm or ancient 
holding throughout the parish, payable at Easter. 

In lieu of tithe calves, there is a modus of one penny for every yearling beast reared 
throughout the parish, payable yearly at Easter. 

In lieu of tithe colts there is a modus of one penny for every yearling filly, and two 
pence for every yearling horse colt drop'd in the parish, payable at Easter. 

In lieu of the tithe of milk there is a modus of 12 cheeses made of 12 days's milk 
yearly, and delivered on two different days, viz., the first six cheeses at Midsummer and 
the others at Michaelmas, and made six days preceding the respive times of delivery, by 
every person keeping one or more cow or cows, within the said parish. 

Tythes of lambs in kind if seven or above, to pay a lamb, under seven a halfpenny 
each lamb, and three odd lambs to pay nothing. 

Pigs, one from every litter if they exceed two in number. 

Geese, if three or more in number to pay one from every pair. 

All other tithes are due in kind, but no tithes have ever been demanded of cottagers, 
except from taxes. 

For every married couple, threepence ; every single housekeeper, three half-pence ; 
for overy male and female servant above twelve years of age, one penny ; and for every 
child above that age, three farthings, due yearly at Easter. 

To the Vicar for every wedding by bands, three shillings and sixpence, and one 
shilling for publishing the same, by licence, seven shillings. 

At every churching of women, one shilling and sixpence ; and for every funeral, one 
shilling ; also payable by the churchwardens for copying the register, and making the 
presentment yearly, at Easter, 7s. ; and for answering the Bishop's queries at every 
Visitation, 6s. 

There is a due to the parish clerk for every family paying taxes, and keeping a separate 
fire, fourpence yearly at Easter, and from every cottager twopence, payable at Easter. 

For every wedding by banns, sixpence ; by licence, one shilling ; for every funeral 



(190) 

and for tolling ye bell and digging the grave, one shilling and fourpence ; for every 
churching of women, twopence ; for every proclamation in the churchyard, fourpence, 
except for parish affairs, for which there is nothing. 

Mortuaries are also due to the parish cferk as follows, viz. : From every housekeeper 
the best hat, wig, handkerchief or cravat, gloves, girdle, breeches, shoes and stockings. 

From wives and widows the best hood, cap, ribbands, handkerchiefs, gloves, shoes and 
stockings, except the inhabitants of Trecastle, who pay fourpence in lieu of the said mor- 
tuaries, or a composition according to the Act of Parliament, at the option of the relations 
of the deceased, but on the decease of persons receiving parish relief thera is nothing due 
for mortuaries, 
g ,,.j. The church and chancel are kept in repair by the parish. 

There are also due to the parish clerk from the vicar and impropriators two of the 
best tithe cheeses, viz., one at Midsummer and the other at Michaelmas ; also the best 
lamb and sixteen pounds of wool at the times these tithes are payable. 

In witness whereof, we the vicar, churchwardens, impropriators, and inhabitants of 
the said parish, assembled at a vestry meeting, pursuant to publick notice given thereof, 
have hereunto as also to a duplicate hereof, set our hands this day of in the 

jear of our Lord 1800. 



The Act of 1776 and the Town of Brecon. 



The object of this Act passed in 16 George III. (1776) was to supply the Borough 
with water, to provide for cleansing, paving, and lighting the streets and lanes, and the 
making of some of the streets more commodious by widening the same. In fact it was a 
General Improvement Act on a big scale, and such as the Borough has never known since. 

The Authority to carry out the Act was a composite body, called Commissioners, and 
which consisted of the Bailiff, Recorder, Aldermen and Council of the Borough, with the 
addition of some hundred or more named persons duly qualified residing in the Town, or 
elsewhere ownership or occupation of property in the Borough to a certain amount, 
being the necessary qualification. 

1. WATER SUPPLY Power was given to the Commissioners, by agreement with the 
persons interested therein, to enter upon and take any stream within the Borough for the 
purpose of such supply, and to lay mains in the streets, &c., but there was a proviso, that 
if the water was taken from the Honddu Kiver, there should be only one pipe laid in, and 
the diameter of the same should not exceed four inches. 

Your readers will find in " Poole's History " some interesting details as to the 
carrying out of the works. 

2. PAVING. The tootways were to be laid with flat stones or a smooth pavement. 
The horse ways to be laid with good pebbles, " or such other materials " as the Com- 
missioners may think best. 

8. LIGHTING. Glass lamps were to be fixed in the streets, lanes, and public passages 
in such number as the Commissioners may direct, and provision made for lighting the 
same. 

4. CLEANSING. There is a general provision as to cleansing the streets, and in 
addition thereto this special clause : " Every person after the passing of this Act shall on 
Wednesday and Saturday in every week, sweep and cleanse, or cause the same to be done, 
the Footpaths and Streets extending to the Kennels (the ancient term for the gutters or 
side channels of the street) before their respective houses, buildings, and walls, between 
the Hours of two and six in the afternoon on pain of forfeiting two shillings and sixpence 
for every neglect of the same." 

5. ROAD MATERIAL. The Commissioners were empowered to dig and carry away for 



(191) 

the repairs of the streets, &c. : Gravel stone and other material from the rivers Usk, 
Honddu, and Tarrall, and from any waste land within the Borough or Liberties thereof. 

This may be a useful provision to bear in mind, as I presume the present Council has 
inherited in this respect all the powers that the Commissioners were possessed of. 

6. STREET IMPROVEMENTS. The following is the Schedule of Buildings necessary to- 
be taken down for the purpose of making the Street Improvements resolved upon : 

(1) Ship Street Improvement. To make the street or passage leading from Ship 

Street to Usk Bridge Thirty Feet wide. Three Houses situate on the North side 
of the said street or passage, now or late in the occupation of Andrew Morgan, 
skinner, John Rees and David Walters, shoemakers ; the old building, called 
Porthbach, and Gateway adjoining. 

(2) Watton Gate Improvement. To widen the Entrance into the said Town from 

Abergavenny, the Gateway, called the Watton Gate, and the Buildings thereto 
belonging, now or late in the occupation of John Pye, hatter. Two old Cottages 
near the Watton Gate, one of them now vacant, the other in the possession of 
Elizabeth Batty, widow ; also a small House, Stable, or Building at the West End 
of the Bulwark, near St. Mary's Church, now or late in the occupation of the 
Reverend Charles Lloyd. 

(8) The Struet Improvement. To widen the Entrance into the said Town from Hay,. 
The Gate, Gateway, and Buildings thereon, commonly called the Struet Gate ; and 
part of the Town Gaol, and three Houses adjoining, now or late in the occupation 
of William Frew, Thomas Willet, staymaker, and James Lewis, the younger, 
butcher. A House now in the occupation of Thomas Williams, tailor. A House 
now or late in the occupation of James Jones, watchmaker ; and John King, 
shopkeeper ; and a House now or late in the occupation of John Smith, peruke- 
maker. 

The year 1776 just preceded the formation of Wilkins' Brecon Old Bank, which took 
place in 1778. There were giants about in those days in Brecon men of much enterprise. 

The Gateway at Porthbach, the Watton Gateway, and the Struet Gateway with 
buildings thereon, were all standing at that date. And where are the " Local Industries " 
to be found now of the Hatter, the Stay-maker, and the Peruke (Wig) maker ? 

There is a bit of very interesting Local History to be gleaned from this long forgotten 
Act of Parliament. 



The Usk and the Canal. 



It may be of public service to state here some particulars with reference to this 
important case. 

1. The Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Co. (1793) had and still has statutory 
powers to take water for the true purposes of navigation from all streams within 2000 
yards of the line of the canal. 

2. The Monmouthshire Railway and Canal Co. (1792) had and still has entirely dis- 
tinct statutory powers to take water for the true purposes of its canals from certain streams 
and reservoirs adjacent to the course thereof in Monmouthshire. 

3. The Brecknock Canal was commenced to be made at Clydach, Llanelly, and the 
length to Brecon (opened in 1801) was first completed. Subsequently the lower length 
from Clydach to Pontymoile was commenced, and then in due time completed. It was 
not until 1813 the junction with the Monmouthshire Canal was effected, and a through 
passage for boats from Brecon to Newport secured. 

4. As the canal to Brecon was in progress of construction, the various streams near 
were utilised for filling the completed length. Signs of this are evident to-day. At a 



(192) 

later stage each of these streams in turn was abandoned as feeders, except the Crawnon 
brook at Llangynider, which is still used for such purpose. 

6. Mr. Dadford was the engineer of fhe canal, and Benjamin Outratn was called in as 
consulting engineer in 1799. His report is a valuable document, and still extant, and is 
of great importance, as he gave much attention to the supply of water 

6. From time to time (1800 to 1830) various tramways were formed to communicate 
-with the Brecon Canal, viz. : 

Llanelly (Clydach) tramroad. 
Llangattock 
Brynoer 
Hay 

Bailey's (Nantyglo) 
Blaenavon Co. 
Nearly all these tramroads have ceased to exist, and the tramplates pulled up. 

7. The trade on the Brecon Canal was large in the period from 1815 to 1840, and 
possibly amounted to 12 boats, of 21 tons burthen, passing each way throughout its entire 
length of 32 miles in a day. The tolls amounted to 10,000 and upwards a year, and 
dividends were paid of 5 per cent, on the shares, and at the same time the debenture stock 
was partly extinguished. 

8. The trade of the Brecon Canal fell off after 1850 (the Nantyglo iron being no 
longer sent that way) and in 1865, soon after the opening of the Brecon and Merthyr 
Railway, fell to a very low point, the important Brecon Boat Company ceasing then to 
trade from Llanelly to Brecon, and the Brynoer and Hay tramroads being closed. 

9. The present trade of the Brecon Canal cannot be said at the outside to be more 
than three boats (only partly laden) each way per week for the upper half the length of the 
canal, and only one boat per week each way for the whole length of the canal. 

10. The present condition of the Brecon Canal itself as regards navigation is bad, 
the bed of it being mudded up and shallow and also full of leaks, and the lock gates at 
Llangynidr (5 locks) nearly all out of repair. 

11. The power to take water from the Usk at Brecon was obtained in the Act of 
1793, and the power to purchase Usk Mill at Brecon was obtained in the Amendment Act 
of 1801. This latter power of purchase was not exercised until 1827. 

12. In addition to the report of Benjamin Outram on the water supply in 1799, the 
correspondence with Mr. William Gwyn, the owner of the Usk Mill at that time, which is 
still extant, should be read. The feeder to the canal and the race to the mill were both 
supplied, there being a main sluice for each. It would seem that the Canal Company 
had not then the remotest idea of it ever being necessary to take the whole flow of the 
river there. 

18. In 1833 or thereabouts (the period of the largest trade on the Brecon Canal) the 
Company greatly enlarged the conduit from the entrance of the feeder at Usk Mill, and 
placed syphon pipes of great size under the Honddu stream at Brecon. 

14. The first fish-pass in Newton Weir was placed there in 1863. It was a straight 
cut through the weir, 2ft. 6in. wide by 1ft. Gin. deep. This was taken up in 1901, and a 
diagonal pass substituted, with less capacity for passing down water than the old one. 

15. Newton Weir has been considerably raised at various times since 1870, and 
made more watertight. 

16. In September, 1899 a time of excessive drought nearly 18 millions of gallons 
of water were taken into the canal at Brecon in 24 hours, all through the week. 

17. In ordinary times 20 millions of gallons of water are taken into the canal there, 
apart from the supply of one million to two million gallons of water taken in from the 
Crawnon at Llangynider. 

18. This supply of 20 million gallons is sufficient to maintain an incessant passage 
of boats through the locks for the whole 24 kours (a 4 minute service, the very quickest 
possible), and with a margin to spare of 4 million gallons per day. 

19. The Brecon Canal was purchased by the Monmouthshire Railway and Canal 
Co. in 1865 for JE29.000 share capital, and a sum for debentures besides. 



(198) 

20. The whole property of the Monmouthshire Railway and Canal Co. was acquired 
by the Great Western Railway in 1880. 

21. The conveyances of land to the Brecon and Abergavenny Canal Co., 1798 and 
later, are all extant, and should be seen, especially those of the Crawnon Mill, Llangynider, 
and Usk Mill at Brecon. 

22. The first large pipe into the Brecon Canal, for other purposes than navigation, 
was granted, to be at will, to Sir Joseph Bailey, Bart., M.P., of Glanusk Park, in 1854. 
It was Gin. diameter, and 10 rent was paid. 

28. In 1847-9 the Monmouthshire Canals were supplemented by railways, and a 
portion of the canal was abandoned, and also some of the previous supplies of water, but 
fresh powers of taking other supplies from streams and reservoirs were given. 

24. These fresh powers of taking supplies were never exercised, and since 1849 the 
length of the Monmouthshire Canal from Pontymoile to the junction of the Crumlin Canal 
has mainly depended for its supply of water upon the good will of the Brecon Canal 
Company. 

25. In 1847-9 the M. R. & Co. Co. made a strong effort to close the whole of this 
canal from Pontymoile downwards and through Newport. They did not succeed, being 
opposed, it is believed, by the Brecon Canal Co. See Mr. Harrison's (manager) letter, 
still extant. 

26. The Brecon Canal Co. never made any reservoirs, though possessed of powers to 
do so, trusting entirely to a supply from the open river. 

On the Crawnon brook such reservoirs could be conveniently formed to-day, and at a 
very moderate cost. 

If the present large abstraction of water from the river at Brecon is continued, that 
coupled with increased pollution, justifies the description given in my letter in the Times 
of Nov. 26th, 1901, of the river Usk as "a dying river." Remedies must be quickly 
applied in order to save its very life, and the first question that demands attention is that 
of the canal and the flagrant abuse of its powers. 



The following copies of interesting papers are annexed : 

Extracts from Benjamin Outram's Report on the Canal, dated July 1st, 1799. He 
was the eminent engineer called in by the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Company to 
advise during the construction of the canal : 

" I have particularly examined the other parts of the Line proposed for the Canal 
between Tal-y-bont and Brecon, and adyise a small deviation at the crossing of the Usk. 
I recommend the aqueduct to be erected upon a rock about two hundred yards below the 
New Bridge, instead of the situation above the bridge before proposed. And instead of the 
two proposed Locks of small rise, I recommend one Lock of rise equal to both be erected 
by the road east of the New Bridge, and so that the Bridge for that road may be over the 
Lock Tail. By these alterations considerable expense and risque will be avoided, and the 
summit pond will be more than double the length before proposed, and if made one foot 
deeper than the other ponds of the Canal, it will be found very commodious, and by cutting 
the northwardly end or bason of the Canal, so that the east side of it may lay open all 
the small pieces of freehold land between the line and the turnpike road, the best possible 
advantages for wharfage and promotion of trade will be secured. 

" I have examined the different feeders, and gauged such as appear likely to be of 
consequence, and have calculated the number of locks full, each would produce in twenty- 
four hours, taking for these calculations the quantity of water used by passing a vessel 
through a lock of ten feet fall, at one hundred and eighty tons. 

" On the lower level, the principal feeders are the Clydach, which I found to produce 
sixty-two locks in the twenty-four hours and the Nant Organ , which gave twenty-eight 
locks in the twenty-four hours. The Nant Rhyd y Mirch, and the brooks at Govilon and 
Llangynider, would form feeders of less consequence ; but there are several mills on each, 
and there can be no occasion to use them for the purposes of the canal. The Cwm 
Crawnon brook, which is taken in above the second lock, yields twenty-two locks full of 



(194) 

water in twenty-four hours. The several feeders between Llanvigan and Llanfrynach, on 
the tunnel level, collectively yielded thirteen locks in the twenty-four hours. On the 
summit level, the Brynich brook yielded four locks, and the Honddu sixty locks in the 
twenty-four hours. I did not think it necessary to guage the abundant stream of the 
river Usk. If it should be found necessary to make a feeding sluice from that river, water 
sufficient for the supply of many canals might at any time be taken from it. 

" The waters were very low at the time the above gauges were taken, the season being 
considered a very dry one. 

" Upon the Honddu are several mills that occasion great variations in the stream. 
To get it accurately, a gauge should be placed in the bed of the brook, which should be 
frequently examined in the twenty-four hours, in the driest season." 



THE FEEDER FROM CRAWNON BROOK. 

Sale of Cwmcrawnon Mill by Thynne Howe Gwynne, of Buckland, Esq., to the 
Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Navigation Company. 

80th April, 1802. By Deed Poll of this date Thynne Howe Gwynne, of Buckland, 
in the County of Brecon, Esq., and Roderick Gwynne, of the same place, Esq., eldest son 
and heir apparent of the said Thynne Howe Gwynue, in consideration of 682. 10s. Od. to 
them paid by the Co. of Proprs. of the B. & A. Canal Navigation, did grant, sell, release, 
and convey unto the said Co. of Proprs., 

All that Messuage and Water Corn Grist Mill called Cwmcrawnon Mill, and all 
singular outhouses, &c., situate in the Parish of Llanthetty, in the said County of 
Brecknock, 
And all the right, title, and properties of the said T. H, Gwynne and Rodk. Gwynne 

or either of them of in and to the water of the River Crawnon. 

And also all those Dwelling Houses or Cottages and Gardens with all rights members 
and appurtenances thereunto belonging, situate near Usk Mill, in the Parish of 
St. John the Evangelist, in the County of Brecknock, then or then late -in the 
occupation of Peter Williams or his undertenants. 
And all their Estate, &c. 

To hold to the Co. for ever by virtue and according to the true intent and meaning of 
the Act of Parliament passed for making and maintaining the said Canal with 
General Warranty. 
Executed by both and attested. 
17th October, 1845. Memorandum of Enrollment with Clerk of the Peace. 



RESALE OF HONDDU MILL TO SIR CHARLES MORGAN. 
Copy of Minute. 

" Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Navigation, 

Angel Inn, Abergavenny, 

Oct. 18, 1809. 

Mr. Thomas Bold having applied on the part of Sir Charles Morgan for the purchase 
of Honddu Mill and premises at the sum of two hundred and twenty pounds, reserving to 
this Company the right and use of the Mill stream and water, with liberty to divert the 
same on the premises, whenever it may be wanting for the purposes of this navigation : 
Resolved that the said Proposal be agreed to, and that Mr. Walter Powell, the 
Solicitor, be requested to prepare the necessary conveyance, and submit the same to the 
perusal of Mr. Bold, to be handed over to this Committee at the next meeting. 

By the Committee, 

(Sd.) B. A. GRIFFITHS, 

Clerk to the Company. 




I 1 AGE 195.1 NKWTifX U'KIK, 1 893- 

RIYER USK HE LOW AM) A HOVE THE CANAL WEIR (NEWTOX POOL AHOVE\ 




NKW Ti>N WKIK, 1893. 

WATER ENTERING THE CANAL FEEDER FROM THE USK. 




PAGE 195, 



] NEWTUN WEIR, 1899. 

RIVER USK. H-HLfW AND AKOVK THE CANAL \VKIR NEWTON POOL AHOVK). 




I'ACE 195.1 



NKWTON \VJ-.IK, 

WATER ENTER INC THE CANAL EEEDER ['ROM THE USK. 



(195) 

LETTER FROM MR. WILLIAM GWYN AS TO THE SALE OF USK MILL. 

Neatb, 9th October, 1819. 
Dear Sir, 

Observing by the Cambrian that there is to be a General Assembly of the Brecon and 
Abergavenny Canal Company on the 21st inst., I have to request you will be so good as to 
inform the General Assembly that 1 beg to decline selling the Usk Mill, and shall prefer 
renting the same at a fair rent. I will either name a rent which I expect from it, and 
which I think, under all circumstances, will be deemed a moderate rent, or I will leave the 
amount to be ascertained by any two competent judges. 

The Canal Company can have no right to the water above the wear to the prejudice of 
my mill. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 

(Sd.) WM. GWYN. 

I intend being at Brecon in the course of about a fortnight, and shall then call on you. 



FEEDER FROM THE RIVER USK. 

Conveyance of Usk Mill to the B. & A. Canal Co. 

4th September, 1827. By Deed Poll of this date William Gwyn, of the Town of 
Neath, in the County of Glamorgan. Esq., in consideration of 1,500 to him paid by the 
Co. of Proprietors of the B. & A. Canal Navigation, did grant, sell, release, and convey 
unto the Company of Proprietors 

All that Water Corn Grist Mill called Usk Mill, together with the Dwelling House, 
Kiln, Garden, and land, and all singular ways, waste grounds, outlets, waters, 
water courses, weirs, ponds, dams, stanks, sluices, fishings profits, commodities, 
easements, rights, privileges, and advantages whatsoever to the said Mill be- 
longing or in any wise appertaining, situate lying and being in the Parish 
of St. John the Evangelist, within the liberties of the Town of Brecon, in the said 
County of Brecon, and then in the occupation of the said Co. of Proprietors, And 
all the Estate etc. 
To hold to the said Co. for ever by virtue of and according to the intent and meaning 

of the Act of Parliament passed for making and maintaining this Canal. 
General Warranty, etc. 

Release from all claims for rent or arrears of rent in respect of said premises 
which had accrued since the decease of Maria Teresa Gwynne widow, then late 
tenant for life and owner of same. 
Executed and attested. 
Receipt 1,500 signed and witnessed. 

The following important Resolution was passed by the Committee of the Brecknock 
and Abergavenny Canal Co. on the claim by the Monmouthshire Canal and Railway Co. 
and others, to be supplied with water from the Brecon Canal : 

" Shirehall, Brecon. Special Meeting of the Committee, 1st March, 1869, 
Jno. Parry de Winton in the chair. 

Petitions having been presented by the Monmouthshire Canal and Railway Co., the 
Newport Dock Co.. and Thos. Brown of Newport Mill, asserting rights to a supply of 
water for their respective works from the river Usk by means of the Canal. 

Resolved, that this Committee on the part of this Canal expressly deny any such rights 
beyond that of the first mentioned Company to such supply of water for the purpose of the 
traffic of their Canal from the Canal of this Company. 

Resolved also that the Clerk of the Company notify to the above-named Petitioners 
that the Company deny their claims to such supply of water." 



(196) 

The Angling Waters of the Wye. 

(WRITTEN IN 1871.) 



That brook is e'en Plinlimmon's fairest child, 
The peerless Wye. 

The Eiver Wye, or Welsh Gwy (pronounced Gooe), Anglice " the water," rises in 
the vast range of mountains that divides Cardiganshire from Montgomeryshire, and, as 
well as the Severn, springs from the eastern slope of Plinlimmon, 2,463 ft. high and one 
of the loftiest mountains in Wales. The sources of the Wye and Severn are but one mile 
and a half distant. On the western slope of the same range rise the Bheidol and the two 
smaller streams, the Llyfnant and the Dulas ; and hence the pretty legend of the race run 
by these five sister streams from their common starting point to the sea. 

From its source to Rhayader a mere mountain stream, though joined first by the 
Tarenig and then by the Bidno, the Wye offers few attractions to the trout fisher, as its 
stream, naturally strongly impregnated with mineral water, has been for several years 
past poisoned by the washings of numerous lead mines. It is an ill wind that blows no 
good, and while it is a thousand pities to find this stream poisoned from her birth, that 
fact will probably deter engineers from attempting to take a water supply for the metropolis 
or other large towns from so polluted a source. 

Except after long continued floods, and late in the season, this upper portion of the 
river is disregarded by the salmon fisherman. In the winter months the salmon, obeying 
that wonderful instinct of nature, push their way high up among the mountains, and 
deposit their spawn in the shallow streams, and still shallower tributaries, where the 
water is hardly deep enough to cover their backs. 

At Rhayader, or Rhayader Gwy, which means " the fall of water," the Wye flows 
through a narrow but deep channel, worn out of the solid Silurian rock by the continued 
action of the stream, and at the bridge rushes over a fall, partly natural and partly arti- 
ficial, of considerable height. At Llangurig the first weir and mill are met with, and on 
the side of this fall is the second mill, or rather a little cluster of mills. Below this fall 
salmon have been caught in all ages up to 1861, and in great numbers, in a very primitive 
and not very sportsmanlike manner. The fisherman, or poacher, used to stand on the 
rock with a long pole and gaff or triangle at the end, and, by continuously dragging it 
backwards and forwards in the boiling water, hooked salmon after salmon without seeing 
them. The only approach to this rock was through a blacksmith's garden, and that 
worthy made a charge to each fisherman for the right of way. The good old times are 
gone, says the blacksmith, and many too of the Rhayader fishermen, who in this matter, 
and that of the enclosure of their free water, are not loud in their praise of Acts of Parlia- 
ment. 

Two miles below Rhayader the river Elan a tributary of which, the Claerwen, forms 
the boundary between Breoonshire and Radnorshire to its source joins the Wye on the 
right bank at 8 place called Aber-dau-ddwr, or, "the junction of the two waters." The 
vale of Elan is very beautiful. From Aber-dau-ddwr to Aberithon, at which place the 
Ithon joins the Wye on the left, there are many good salmon catches, and in high water 
with a little stain there is no better part for catching salmon, as they rise more eagerly 
than lower down. At Newbridge, half way between Rhayader and Builth, just above the 
bridge, there are two very good catches, Fish-pool and Pwlcam, which are easily fished, 
and always hold salmon. From Newbridge the river flows through the Llysdinam estate, 
belonging to Mr. Venables, all good water, and then to Aberithon, the best catch on this 
portion of the river. When the water is in order, the salmon fishermen are almost cer- 
tain of a rise in this catch, and that where the two waters meet, though fish do rise both 
above and below according to height of water. 



(197) 

The Ithon is a constant annoyance to fishermen lower down, in consequence of the 
Tery dirty colour of its water when flooded a sort of cream colour, which is owing to the 
white clay soil of the parishes of Disserth and Llanbadarn Fawr, through which it flows. 
From Aberithon to Builth we have many good catches, the chief of which, until we come 
to Builth rocks, is the " Goitre pool ;" the tail of this in high water is one of the best on 
the river. In low water formerly poachers could kill every fish in the pool with the spear. 
As there are no rocks, they used a faggot or a few branches, which were sunk with a large 
stone. The water was then pelted with stones, and the salmon, seeking shelter under the 
faggot, soon became an easy prey to the spear. Below the " Goitre " are Gwernyfed pool 
and the "Rocks," which are celebrated for the great number and excellence of the catches. 
The river here flows through bold and upright masses of igneous rock, and for more than 
a mile, though distinguished by different names, forms almost one continuous catch. The 
best are the Cavan, Hell hole, and the Stone pool. Below the rocks on the right bank is 
the fine tributary the Irvon, which rises more than thirty miles off, amidst the wild and 
vast extent of mountains of which Drygarn is the chief. After a succession of floods, and 
also late in autumn, a good many salmon are killed as far up as Garth. The Irvon is a 
fine river, and from its natural qualifications ought to be, and probably is, the most 
productive of the tributaries. At its junction, there used to be a good catch, but 
of late years it is filled up and is worthless. From this point the Wye is a grand 
and large river, no tributaries of any importance, except the Llynfi in Breconshire, 
and the Lugg and Monnow in the lower course, flowing in till it reaches the sea. From 
Aber-Irfon, which is close to the town of Builth, to Glasbury, is par excellence the cream 
of the salmon fishing of this river. 

Commencing at Builth bridge, we have first the Mill-stream, then the Stone Catch, 
then " Pompren Cam," and the top and tail of Aberdihonw pool, both very good catches. 
The tail is especially so, and although rather difficult to fish from the left side, if the water 
is a little stained, or with some wind, it is almost a certainty to raise a fish, and if hooked 
to kill him. The river here is confined by a long shelving ledge of rock, and a very strong 
draw of water is consequently produced. The next catch of importance is the Church- 
house Cabin, or Cavan, which means a gutter or channel. This catch is rather difficult to 
get to when the water is high, but it is well worth the trouble of trying. 

We now come to Sir J. E. Bailey's water, which extends on one side of the river for 
two miles. For the first half-mile the river rushes through a narrow rocky channel, in 
some places so narrow that in low water you could .jump across. The first catch is the 
" Ash Pool," close to the keeper's lodge, then the " Wash Pool," and in succession below 
" Hell Hole," " Cavan Hir," or long channel, " Craig Pdu," so called from a black pro- 
jecting rock. The water rushes past this rock impetuously, and confined in a narrow 
compass roars along, so that a steady head is required to stand on the jutting rock, and so 
keep the fly on the farther side of the stream. Just as the fly comes away from the slack 
into the stream you may see a sudden gleam of silver dart through the boiling water, and 
springing into the air, away goes a 16-pounder firmly hooked. 

The river now, as if tired of rushing and leaping through the rocky pass, opens out 
into a magnificent pool, called " Llyn-em," on which are two catches. The top is very 
good and easily fished, and the tail better, but rathsr difficult to get at from the right side. 
Next comes the " Boat Cavan," just under the Skiog farm, the best catch on this water, 
but very difficult to fish. On high water you have to make three different journeys to it, 
to avoid the rough shelving rocks, which must be traversed on your way down the catch. 
For the next mile there is no catch until we come to " Llyn Cummer," a fine noble pool 
always holding fish, and in high water a very likely place. We now leave Sir J. K. 
Bailey's water, and enter upon Mr. Powell's, of Chapel House, where there are three good 
catches, nearly opposite the junction of the Edw. Below, on the right bank, is the 
fishery rented by the late Mr. Greenwood, and on the left that of Mr. De Winton, which 
extend for about two miles, nearly down to Cavan-twm-bach, or "Little Tom's Boat." 
This fishery is decidely the best on the Wye, and when regularly fished always sends 
better returns than any other. On the upper part are two catches, which, although not 
often fished, are very good, and generally hold fish ; they are called the " Turn Pool," and 



(198) 

" Hoiwell Fach." The favourite catch on these fisheries, and the next we come to, is 
" Cavan Shwn Lewis," More fish have been caught in this stream than any other on 
the Wye. It is said that Mr. Charles Stretton once caught twelve clean salmon on this 
stream without leaving the spot. It is the tail of a long pool, and, unless flooded, is 
always in order. On high water fish rise on the upper part of it, and near a large stone 
which is a sort of high water mark for all the catches. From this catch for nearly a mile 
there is a succession of good catches, which are formed by the rocky channel through 
which the river rushes. Next to Cavan Shwn Lewis is " Hell Hole," and " Never-say- 
die," which name arose from the fact that within the memory of man, although often 
hooked, there was no authentic account of a fish being killed. In late years the spell has 
been broken, and fish are killed every season. Next is the " Agin," top and tail, " Jack 
Dunn," the "Dablin," and " Furnant," all very good, "Cavan Llwyfen," a long narrow 
channel full of fish, "Ffrwdwen," " Pwllyfaddau," almost equal to Cavan Shwn Lewis 
and of a similar character, " Isaacson's," and the " Boat Cabin." This is the last catch 
on this fishery, and is a very good one both on high and low water, as there is rough and 
smooth water, and generally very heavy fish are to be met with there. 

Next is the Skreen Fishery, belonging to Mr. Vaughan, of Velinnewydd. Though 
small it contains three or four good catches, the best of which is the " Gravel stream.' 
Below the Skreen Sir J. E. Bailey's Llangoed estate commences on the right, and Mr. De 
Winton's Llanstephan property on the left bank of the river. There are some very good 
catches on the right bank, and easily fished. The Eirw, or " Eirw-ci-cynddeiriog" Anglice, 
" the foam of the mad dog" is a most remarkable and picturesque catch, which the name 
illustrates better than any description. There are two places on this catch where the fish 
will rise, the chief that below the fall, where the water begins to clear of foam. The 
other, which is not so well known, is about ten yards above the fall. Any fisherman 
might pass this catch unless shown, as it is not at all a likely looking spot. Nevertheless 
when your fly is put over it, look out, as you are almost sure to raise a fish, and if hooked 
he will invariably take you down the fall. Llangoed Pool also is a very fine catch, and at 
the tail which is very similar to Aberdihomv, before described the river has a strong 
draw, which in high water renders this catch very good. This catch is unhappily cele- 
brated as the place where poor Holmes, a very promising salmon fisherman, and a good 
sportsman, was drowned while fishing for salmon. It seems he had just killed a fish, and, 
having seen another rise, was endeavouring to reach it, when one step too far took him 
over the ledge of rocks into the deep water. Encumbered with fishing boots, he soon sank, 
and was never seen again alive by his newly-married wife, the single witness of the 
catastrophe. 

Leaving Llangoed, we come to Llyswen fishery, belonging to Lord Tredegar, on the 
right, and Mr. W. De Winton on the left bank. Immediately above the bridge is the 
" Stone " pool, which, though awkward to get to in strong water, is very good. Below 
is the third and last mill on the Wye, and its low, unobtrusive weir hardly merits the 
title of such, and is no obstruction to the passage of fish. Would that could be said of all 
weirs ! Between the weir and the railway bridge is the Mill-stream, and below the bridge 
Llan-pwll-llyn, a very good catch, never too low, most picturesquely situated, and alas ! 
the ultimate of the famous rocky catches of the Wye. 

From hence to Glasbury the river runs slow, witu broad long pools and occasional 
gravelly streams. Llangwy pool is good, and holds a great many fish and otters ! 
Adam's or Spread Eagle catch is the best on this section of the river ; it is a high-water 
catch, and very good for an early fish. The water belongs to Gen. Wood, but Mr. Perry, 
of the Three Cocks, is able occasionally to give leave to gentlemen staying there. 

Below Glasbury the fisheries belong to Mr. de Winton, Gen. Wood, and Sir J. R. 
Bailey. Angling in this part of the river, though good, is very uncertain, as fish rise far 
from eagerly. There are a great many fair catches, the best of which are Glanhenwye 
Pool, Pwll Dwrgu, or the Otter's Pool, and the Watlins. Next come Mr. Baskerville's 
water, immediately above Hay, which is of a similar character, but not so good. At this 
point, I think, we leave the fly fisher's part of the Wye ; although there are many good 
catches lower down, and perhaps holding more fish, they do not show the sport which is 
to be found in the higher and rocky portion of the river. 



(199) 

The flies used in the Wye are as numerous in pattern and different in colour as can 
be found. A fisherman of many years' experience, and using flies of all descriptions, 
prefers the Welsh fly, made with brown turkey or bittern wing, as the best general fly that 
can be used. Sometimes the body and hackle are varied from the real blue cock's hackle 
and tawny body to bright yellow or red with claret body ; but the yellow-brown wing 
remains the same, and has ever proved a tempting morsel to the salmon of this river. 
Of late years the Welsh fly has not been thought so much of, and flies of the Irish pattern 
Butcher, Priest, and Blue Doctor are now more commonly used. 

In this paper an attempt has been made to describe the upper angling waters of the 
Wye. On no other river in England or Wales are there such a twenty miles of almost 
continuous rocky catches, and in the midst of grand scenery, as between Newbridge and 
Glasbury ; and all that is wanted to make the angling perfect are spring and summer 
freshes and a fair run of fish. 



A Letter of 1794. 



BRECONSHIRE WOODCOCKS, TURKEY, AND HARE. 
LOTTERIES, AND THE WAR. 

Mr. E. Marshall, of Woolwich, to Rev. John Frew, Skethrog, near Brecon, South 

Wales. 

Woolwich, 10th April, 1794. 
My Dear Sir, 

I ought to make a thousand apologies for having so long neglected writing to you, 
particularly as we have an acknowledgment due to you (of some considerable time 
standing) for a very tine Turkey and a Hare, which came safe in due time, and for which 
we return you many thanks. Indeed for some time past I have purposely deferred 
writing till I could give an account of your success in the wheel of Fortune, which my 
journey to London yesterday enables me to do, and I have to congratulate you 
on two (though small) prizes ; your Tickets, Nos. 26,599 and 81,050 are both Prizes of 
20. If you have not received your share of 20 for one of your last year's tickets, I 
think you had best inclose the three to me, and let me receive the amount for you, and 
dispose of it in any manner you shall direct ; unless (which we most sincerly wish) you 
mean to favour us this summer with a visit. 

Mrs. M and the family are well ; Frances is on a visit to Mrs. Firmin in Town 

(late Miss Brown), the Boys in their several stations as before ; and the young one at 
home grows a fine entertaining little girl. Our Friends in the Island are all well. Poor 
Tassell, we hear, continues much the same as when he left Woolwich ; he is able to walk 
about and takes his meat and glass of wine tolerably well, but his speech and recollection 
are not a bit better. Mrs. Grant came up some time ago to clear the house, and pack up 
the furniture, all of which is sent to Portsmouth. We are exceedingly busy at the 
Warren preparing very large Orders for Flanders, besides having 40 or 50 Gunboats to 
arm, composed of River sailing Barges and Dutch Hoys; His Grace, the Master Genl., 
is so ill that he has been obliged to give up all business and was to have gone into the 
Country, but at present cannot be moved ; Report says, that amongst other complaints, 
he is inclining towards Dropsy. I am sorry to see by the Papers that your friend, Ld. 
Wood has been obliged to give up the conquest of Corsica, as besides the great expense, I 
shudder for the fate of the poor wretches who must be left behind. God send a speedy 
conclusion to this destructive War. 

With every good wish for your health and happiness, I remain, 

My dear Sir, yours truly, 

(Sd.) E. MARSHALL. 

P.S. I do not know whether I ever acknowledged the receipt of a brace of 
Woodcocks. 



(200) 

A Letter of 1803. 



FASHIONABLE LIFE, THREATENED INVASION OF ENGLAND, AND THE 

INCOME TAX. 

Mrs. Bullock Lloyd (returned from London), 25, Gay Street, Bath, to John Powell, Esq., 

Attorney, Brecon. 
Sir, 

I suppose you will not be surpris'd to receive a letter from me. I left London ten 
days since, stayed one week at Windsor to shew my Daughter that gay place, and you 
may be sure well attended the Royal Family on the Terrace every evening. We had 
the pleasure of seeing Mr. Edward Morgan in Town, and I was very glad to hear you was 
perfectly recover'd, and Mrs. Powell and family quite well. I believe I must now trouble 
you for my Money, as the London journey have pretty well emptyed my purse, and shall 
likewise wish to settle my account. I hope Mr. T. Lloyd, of Aberanault, and you have 
settled everything he must not get on any longer. What dreadful times ! I was very 
glad to leave Town, the preparation for an invasion is melancholly tho' necessary. They 
began last week to Brick up the arches leading to Somerset House. A gentleman of our 
acquaintance who hag appartments there informed us of it, and said they had all arms 
sent them. I am at present in very comfortable lodgs which I fully intended taking for a 
twelvemonth, but as we are to pay the incombe tax I must humble myself and take one 
not quite so high. We all beg to join best compliments to you and Mrs. Powell, and 
am Sir, 

Your much obliged 

Humble Servant, 

(Sd.) S. B. LLOYD. 
Bath, July 9th, 1803. 

No. 25, Gay Street. 



A Letter of 1807. 



From Capt. John Lloyd i 1 ), commonly called Capt. Lloyd, of the East India Co.'s Mauship, 
to Walter Powell, Attorney, Brecon. 

Newport, Tuesday, 11 o'clock. 
Dear Walter, 

We arrived here last night after 10. This morning I called on the Old Lady no 
will to be found therefore request you or your partner will take a chaise and come to 
Newport by dinner time to-morrow ('tis at the request of Mrs Jones ). 

Pray call on Mr. Bold and ask if he knows anything of a Will, am afraid he will not 
be at home. 

Yours sincerely, 

(Sd.) J. LLOYD. In haste. 

Our love and respects to Mrs. Powell and Mary Ann give a look to John () Mr. 
Jones will be buried to-morrow. We were five hours coming from Abergavenny, therefore 
look to your horses. 

(i) My Grandfather and ( 2 ) my Father. 



(201) 

Terms of Junction of the Two Canals. 

(PAGE 191 ante). 



To complete the series of Canal papers, it is important to give a copy of the original 
Agreement between the two Companies as to the terms on which the Junction at Ponty- 
moile was made, and also a brief description of the preceding negotiations leading up to 
that Agreement. 

It would seem to have been the original intention of the promoters of the Brecon and 
Abergavenny Canal to have carried their line from Clydach downwards at a low level near 
the Usk, and along the Valley by Abergavenny and the town of Usk to the tideway at 
Newbridge. The effecting of a Junction with the Monmouthshire Canal does not appear 
to have been part of their original plan, and the extreme difficulty and danger of carrying 
the Canal along the steep and treacherous hillside at Llanfoist probably induced the 
Engineers to prefer the Lower Level. 

However, during the autumn of 1792, the Monmouthshire Company approached the 
Promoters of the Brecon Canal, and offering favourable terms, induced the latter to 
abandon the Usk Valley line, and adopt the Summit Level line, as it was called, to join 
their Canal at Pontymoile. 

One of the objections which had been raised by the Promoters was the difficulty to 
supply the Summit level line with water, and this was overcome by the Monmouthshire 
Company covenanting to supply that portion of the Brecon Canal with sufficient water. 
Agreements to that effect were duly entered into between the parties, dated November 6th 
and November 8th, 1792, and a copy of the letter, which has a considerable value, if I 
mistake not, to-day, is subjoined. The notion has been prevalent in the minds of some 
persons, that the Brecon Canal Company undertook to supply the Monmouthshire Com- 
pany, whereas the reverse was the case, and this formal agreement made it incumbent upon 
the Monmouthshire Company to give such sufficient supply to that part of the Brecon 
Canal "unequivocally," which may be taken to mean, " under all circumstances." 



WHEREAS David Tanner, Edward Kendall, and John Partridge, Esqrs., for and on the 
part and behalf of the Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal, by an Agreement in 
writing, bearing date the 6th day of November instant (amongst other things therein con- 
tained) Did agree to and with Thomas Hooper and Eichard Lewis, Esqrs., for and on the 
part and liehalf of the Subscribers to the Abergavenny and Brecon Canal. 

That the Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal shall supply the intended Aber- 
gavenny and Brecon Canal with water for their Pontypool Summit (if practicable). Now 
I, the said Edward Kendall, as Chairman of the Monmouthshire Committee, do hereby 
for and on the part and behalf of the Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal undertake 
promise and agree to and with the Subscribers to the Abergavenny and Brecon Canal that 
the Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal shall unequivocally supply the Abergavenny 
and Brecon Canal with a sufficient quantity of water for their Pontypool summit. As 
witness my hand this 8th day of November, 1792. 

EDWARD KENDALL. 
Witness, WILLIAM POWELL. 



EESOLUTION OF MONMOUTHSHIRE CANAL NAVIGATION PROPRIETORS. 

January 15th, 178. 
[Copy of Original on Parchment with Seal of Company.] 

Later in the same Session of Parliament, a more formal and full arrangement was 
come to, and proved by a Special Assembly of the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation 
convened for the purpose. 

BE IT REMEMBERED 

That at a Special General Assembly of the Company of Proprietors of the Monmouth- 



(202) 

shire Canal Navigation, held at the Westgate Hotel, in the Town of Newport, in the 
County of Monmouth, on Tuesday, the Fifteenth day of January, One thousand seven 
hundred and ninety-three, for the purpose of receiving the report of the Committee 
deputed by the General Assembly to treat with the subscribers to the intended Brecknock 
and Abergavenny Canal, for a Junction of their Canal with the said Monmouthshire Canal 
Navigation, of which due notice has been given in the Gloucester paper. It was Resolved 
and agreed as follows : 

That the said Company of Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation shall 
give every aid and assistance in their power, particularly by the attendance of their Sur- 
veyor and such other persons belonging to them, as may be deemed necessary to the 
subscribers to the said Brecknock and Abergavenny intended Caual for obtaining an Act 
at the next or any other subsequent Sessions of Parliament for making and maintaining 
the said intended Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal from a junction with the said Mon- 
mouthshire Canal at or near a place called Pontymoile, in the Parish of Panteague, in the 
said County of Monmouth, on the line taken by Mr. Thomas Dadford, called the Summit 
Line, and in all respects whatsoever for carrying into effect the said intended Brecknock 
and Abergavenny Canal and Junction, and that an application be immediately made to 
Parliament by and at the expense of the said Monmouthshire Canal Proprietors for an 
Act or Clause empowering the said Proprietors of the said Monmouthshire Canal 
Navigation to make tne necessary deviation in the line of Canal from Pontnewynydd to 
Newport, so as to form such intended junction at or near Pontymoile aforesaid. 

That in consideration of the advantages to be derived in consequence of such junction 
by the said Company of Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation, they shall 
pay to the Proprietors of the intended Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Navigation 
towards the extra expense which they will be put into by such Junction, the sum of three 
thousand pounds at the end of twelve calendar months from the passing of the Act for 
making the said last mentioned Canal. 

And in further consideration of the advantages to be derived from such Junction, the 
said Company of Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation shall not make or 
demand for any coals, goods, merchandize or other things, which shall pass or be navigated 
in boats or other vessels upon the said Monmouthshire Canal to or from the said intended 
Brecknock and Abergavenuy Canal any higher or greater tonnage than shall for the time 
being be taken by the Company of Proprietors of the Brecknock and Abergaveuny Canal 
for coals, goods, merchandizes, or other things to be navigated or passing on such last 
mentioned Canal. But it shall and may be lawful for all boats and other vessels passing 
to and from the said intended Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal and navigating thereon 
two miles or more to pass and navigate into and upon the said Monmouthshire Canal at the 
same rate of tonnage, as shall from the time being be taken by the Company of Proprietors 
of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Navigation, but never exceeding the rate of 
tonnage taken for the time being by the said Company of Proprietors of the said Monmouth- 
shire Canal Navigation. 

That the above Resolutions or such of them as shall be thought proper shall be in- 
troduced into the Act for making and maintaining the said intended Brecknock and Aber- 
gavenny Canal Navigation, and that Edmund Estcourt, Edward Kendall, George Smith, 
and Alexander Raby, be a Committee on the part of the Monmouthshire Canal Proprietors 
armed with full powers to carry these resolutions into effect. 

Given under the Common Seal of the Proprietors of 

the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation at the Seal 

time and places first above mentioned. Monmouthshire Canal Co. 

(Sd.) ROBERT SALISBUBY, Chairman. 



Appended also is a copy of the CVIII. Clause in the Brecon Canal Act of 1793, in 
which the main heads of the Agreement between the Companies were embodied. It will 
be seen that the Agreement is fuller than the Clause, and that the 3000 was to be paid 



(208) 

specially to cover the extra expense that the Brecon Canal Company were put to in the 
works attending the Junction as to Levels, &c. 



1798. 
CLAUSE IN 1798 ACT BASED ON ABOVE EESOLUTIONS. 

33 Geo. III. Cap. 96 CVIII. 
Brecon and Abergavenny Canal Navigation Act. 

CVIII. And whereas in consideration of the advantages to be derived by the Com- 
pany of Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation from the Junction of the 
said Canals, they have agreed to make the payment hereinafter mentioned to the Company 
of Proprietors of the said Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, and also to certain Eegu- 
lations respecting the rates payable to them : 

Be it therefore further enacted that the said Company of Proprietors of the Mon- 
mouthshire Canal Navigation shall pay to the Company of Proprietors of the said 
Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Navigation, the sum of three thousand pounds upon 
the twenty-fifth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four, and in 
default of payment the same may be sued for and recovered by action of debt, or on the 
case, in any Court of Law, 

And the said Company of Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation shall 
not take or demand, for any coals, goods, merchandize, or other things, which shall pass 
or be navigated in boats or other vessels upon the said Monmouthshire Canal to or from 
the said Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, and passing for two miles or upwards upon the 
said Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal any higher or greater rate of tonnage than shall, for 
the time being, be taken by the said Company of Proprietors of the Brecknock and Aber- 
gavenny Canal Navigation for any coals, goods, merchandize, or other things passing or 
to be navigated on the said Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, but never exceeding the 
rate of tonnage taken, for the time being, by the said Company of Proprietors of the 
Monmouthshire Canal Navigation. 



NOTE. See Page 115 ante. 

Llansaintffread and Llanvillo Inclosure. 



Description of the Boundary set out by the Inclosure Commissionera over Allt yr Yscryn 

Common. 

From Heol yr Allt (on the south end of Alltyryscryn Common) upwards along a 
roadway leaving a small tenement in the Parish of Llansaintffraed on the left, and a 
cottage and land in the Parish of Llangasty Talyllyn, belonging to Sir Edward Hamilton, 
on the right ; from thence upwards along the said road over a ridge of the hill to a stone 
nearly opposite a cottage and land called the Allt, held by Richard Williams, leaving the 
Common of Llangasty- Talyllyn on the right hand ; and from thence across old quarries 
on the Allt, in nearly a straight direction to the side of a ledge of rocks at the summit of 
the hill called Llecher Court ; and from thence downwards along the said Common, 
leaving a very narrow part of the Common of Llangasty Talyllyn on the right hand to a 
Boundary Stone ; and from thence to an antient lane called Heol yr Allt, at the northern 
extremity of the Common. Aug. 13, 1815. 

Copies of the above were served on Mr. Gwynne and on the Churchwardens of Llan- 
sainti'read and Llangasty Talyllyn Parishes. 




Lloyd, (Sir) John Edward 

Historical memoranda of 
Breconshire 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 




\ 





^ 



t'sr 



v 



w 

v" v - 






WV 



v 



% 



^Cj 



* 

^ Nb 



V SiSo. I 





+