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977.34-65 G84.7 


Historical sketches 




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J. N. Gridley and Others 

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The undersigned gathered Jnformrtion used in the construction of some 
half dozen sketches of an historical nature to be published in the Virginia 
Enquirer. These productions attracted the favorable attention of numerous 
readers of that journal, which induced the writer to prepare additional 
slcetches. Dr. J. F. Snyder kindly offered to furnish a series of sketclies of 
the early physicians of the county to be added to the series which offer was 
gladly accepted and his contributions make the series worthy of publication 
in book form. Had the result of the venture been foreseen tiie series would 
have been prepared in different form. Tlie sketch of the Doctor upon Early 
Illinois should have been tiie initial number of the series, and tiie arrange- 
ment would have differed in other respects. Newspaper^ offices are not ar- 
ranged and conducted as regular book publisliitig concerns, and therefore 
numerous typographical errors are to be found which somewhat mar the 
effect of the volume. The more important errors are noted upon another 

The sketches herein prepared by Dr. J. F. Snyder are the following: 
Early Illinois, page 21; Dr. Pothicary, page 60; Dr II. II. Hall, page 94; 
William Holmes, page 1.39; Dr. Schooiey, page 151; Dr. Tate, page l(i7; Dr. 
Elder, page 209; Dr. Lippencott, page 23H; Dr. Chandler, page 275; Dr. Mc- 
Clure, page 296; Dr. Logan, page 354; Dr. Christy, page. .384 

The sketch of Pioneer L'fe in Illinois, on page 179, was written l)y Mrs. 
Emily C. Burton, of Hebron, Nebrnska. 

The sketch of Ambrose Buraker, page 4, was dictated by himself. 

The sketch of Col. J. W. Judy* on page 14, was prepared by him,self. 

The sketch of Judge Rearick, on page 40, was written by ttie Judge, ex- 
cept the last paragraph. 

The sketch of Captain Campbell, on page H7, was written 1)\' tlie C.iptain. 

The sketches of Tiios. J. Collins, page 85 and of Ciuules Brady, page 88, 
were written by Mrs. Emily Collins Brady, of Pomona, California. 

The sketch of Zachariah Hash, on page 271, was prepared by iiis grand- 

Tiiere are many historical facts to be found in this volume that liave 
never before been published, and which are deemed to be worthy of preserva- 
tion. The writer has in his possession other matter of the same nature which 
may appear in a second volume. 
Virginia, III., August, 1907. J. N. GBIDLEY. 

(5, ^Vl 

Index to tKe SketcHes. 

Buraker, A 4 

Business Directory 18(i0 37 

Bennett, Wra. J 47 

Bridgman, Frank , 56 

Brady Charles 88 

Black Laws of 111 inois 322 

Beard, Thomas 404 

Buckley. Mark 421 

Beggs, Captain Charles 424 

Campbell, Captain J. 6 67 

Collins, Thomas J 85 

Crews, Jesse 161 

Crews, Rev. Hooper 161 

Collins, Rev. W. H 218 

Cl'.andler, Dr. Charles 275 

Christy, Dr. Samuel .384 

Dyer, .Joseph 258 

Dunavvav, Jacob 289 

Early Illinois 21 

Election of 1837 51 

Election of 18.38 106 

Election of 1842 1.32 

Elder, Dr. A. W .- 209 

Early Virginia History 369 

(latton Mrs. S. C 1 

Graveyard Field 7 

Graveyards No. 2 303 

(Traveyards No. 3 308 

G raveyards No. 4 312 

G raveyii rds No. 5 318 

Graveyards No 6 376 

G raveyards No. 7 379 

G raveyards No. 8 382 

Graveyards Mo. 9 398 

Hull, Henry \l .35 

Hiisted liaid 90 

Hall, Dr. 11. 11 94 

Holmes, William 139 

Ihirdii.g, Martin 256 

Hash, Zachariah 271 

Haskell, Jolm E 401 

J udy, Col. .1 . W 14 

Lippencott, Dr. C. E 236 

Logan, Dr. D. M -354 

McConnell, Mrs. C. A 32 

Madden, W. J. Letter 81 

Madden, F. M. Letter 83 

McClure, Dr. Samuel < , 29() 

Needham, Rev. James 2()1 

Pothicary, Dr ()0 

Pratt, John W 221 

Pioneer Life in Illinois 171) 

Rearick, Judge F. H 40 

Schooley, Dr. M. H. L 151 

Tegg, Mrs. M. F IH 

Tate, Dr. Harvey 1<)7 

Thaclier, W. H. Letter .mi 

Virginia H. S. Graduates 44 

Virginia of 1860 1 1 1 

Index to tKe Illustrations. 

Ruraker A 4 

Bennett, W. J 47 

Bridgman, Frank 57 

Brady, Mrs. Emily 85 

Brady, Mrs. M 88 

Brady, John T 88 

"Boston Brick" 122 

Burton, Mrs. Emily 180 

Buckley, Mark 421 

Beggs, Capt. Charles 424 

Beggs, W. II 438 

Beggs, James L 439 

Beggs, John 441 

Campbell, Capl . JO (57 

Coilifis Sisteis 85 

Collins, Thos. H S5 

(Collins, Ira 87 

Collins, W. n 87 

(\)llins Home 117 

C. P. Church 120 

Crews, Jesse .hil 

Crews, Ivev. Hooper hil 

Clary's Creek Valley 184 

Collins, Rev. W. II 218 

Chandler, Dr. Charles 275 

Chandler Home 281 

Clay. Henry 350 

Christy, ')r. Samuel .■584 

Dyer, .loseph 2oS 

Diniaway. J;ieoi) 28Vt 

Elder, Dr. A W 200 

Epier, M rs. S;i i ah 434 

Epler, Mrs, Mary 435 

Gall. )ii, Mrs S. (' 1 

Greenwood. D 11 

Hull, Henry I! 35 

Hallowell. Mrs A 8(3 

Hosted, .lohn 02 

Hal I 1 1 ome 112 

Haskell Home 121 

Holme.s, William 13!» 

Harding. Martin 25(i 

nash,Zachariali 271 

Haskell, John E 4ol 

Hopkins, l>Irs E 433 

.1 udy , Col .1 . W 15 

Lippencott. Dr. C. E 236 

Logan, Dr. D. M 354 

McConnell, Mrs. C. A 32 

McClure, Dr. Samuel 296 

Needham, Rev. James 261 

Oliver home 123 

Pothicary, Dr. and wife 60 

Pollard office 119 

Pratt, John W 221 

Pratt home 234 

Rearick, Judge F. H 40 

Robinson, James M 181 

Robinson, Mrs. J. M 181 

Robinson, Charles C 182 

Robinson home site 183 

Robinson's Mill 185i 

Robbins, Mrs. Hellen 195 

Robinson, Seth 201 

Roodhouse, Mrs. Lucy 206 

Snyder, Dr. J. F 21 

Schooley, Dr. M. IL L 151 

Sisson, Mrs. Clara 201 

Stribling, Mrs. M 440 

Sinclair, Mrs. D. B 441 

Tegg, Mrs. M. F 18 

Tate home 121 

Tate, Dr. Harvey 167 

Talbott, Mrs. Eva 206 

Van DeMark, J. AT. 343 



Page 21. The sketcli beginning on this page slioukl be entitled Early 

Page 41. Tlie name .John Christy in Kith line from bottom of page should 
read Samuel Christy. 

Page 46. The date 1892 in middle of page should read 1902. 

Page 8.5. The sketch on this pnge is that of Thomas .J. Collins. 

Page 88. The sketch on this pnge is that of Charles Brady. 

Page 101. In 7th line the name .Jack Manley should read .Jack Moseley. 

Page 106. Name in .5th line John A Pratt should read ,h)hn W. Pratt. 

Page 122. Second line under tlie cut, name Henjainiti Bensley, sliould 
read Benjamin Beesley. 

Page 124. In last line tlie word Xaple should read Yaple. 

Page 128. In 10th line the name Ileeley slionid read Neeley. 

Page 164. In line 13 the tigiires 18-9 should read 17 R 9. 

Page 179. This sketch is entitled Pioneer Life In IlHnois. 

Page 195. Line under cut sliould read: In the rear, at, the light. Mrs. 
Emily Burton, at the left. Mrs. Clara Sisson. 

Page 244. In lotli line from bottom of page the date 7tli of .Inly, should 
read 14th of .July. 

Page 308. Second line should read Number Three. 

Page 414. The word Zumuli on this page should read 'I'limuli. 

Page 445. Fourth line from bottom of page, tJie date iNiil slhuild read 


MIJS. Sarah C. Gatton was born on the 18tli day of May, in the year 1822, 
at Madison, Ohio. Her father was Arthur St. Clair Miller, who was 
born in Middletown, Connecticut, in 1790. In 1827, the family re- 
moved to Covington, Kentucky, where Mr. Miller died in 1834. 

In 1811, Miss Sarah C. Miller came to Beardstown, this county, to visit 
lier brother, Abram Miller, who was an engineer; after a short visit she re- 
turned to Kentucky, but in a few months returned to this county where she 
lias since lived. At that time Beardstown was a small town containing about 

thirty liouses; there was no church in 
the place. Religious services were 
held in a schoolhoiise several blocks 
back from the river among a lot of 
black jack trees. Beardstown was 
one station on a circuit of the Method- 
ist conference, and that denomination 
held services once in three weeks. 
The circuit riders were Enoch G. 
Faulkner and John Mathers: tiie lat- 
ter becam.e a very prominent Jackson- 
ville citizen, was one of the proprie- 
tors of the town of Ashland; his son 
became mayor of Jacksonville. One 
of the family, William D. Mathers, is 
well known to the people of this city. 
The Protestant Methodists were well 
represented here in those days; per- 
haps the most prominent of their 
clergy in this part of the country was 
Reddick Horn, who owned a farm in 
Township 18 Range 11: he was well 
SA HAH C. (J ATTON. known to all the people of this sectioi* 

of the country, and very frequently preached in Beardstown. Tlie people of 
tlie town went to hear all the preachers, who came in turn, week after week. 
On a certain Sabbath day Henry E. Dummer, a well known lawyer and judge, 
and a very religious man, publicly announced that on the following Sabbath 
The President of the Methodist Protestant Church would hold services at that 
place. The name President was used to indicate tiie office in that churcii. 


— 2 — 

which corresponds to the ortice of Bishop of the M. E. church. On the clay 
appointed tlie building was crowded to hear this President of the church; in 
walked Uncle Reddick Horn, who took possession of the pulpit, and began the 
ceremonies, to the great disappointment of many, who had not heard that 
Uncle Reddick had been selected to the office of President. This is the only 
practical joke of which Judge Dummer was ever guilty so far as the writer 

Rev. Cyrus Wright, was the standby of the Baptists, and he regularly 
went to Beardstown to preach the word. He often preached without a coat, 
and had the old time habit of drawling his words in a solemn way, adding the 
syllable ah, to the word and, as well as to many others. He had a droll habit 
of turning his head, first to the right, then to the left to spit; and when he 
uttered tlie word and-ah, he would spit, either to the right, or to the left, in a 
manner which would certainly attract unusual attention in these degenerate 

On the 25th day of March, 1847, Sarah C. Miller was united in marriage 
with Zachariah Gatton by the Rev. George Rubledge, of the M. E. church. 

The father of Z. W. Gatton was Thomas Gatton, one of the very early set- 
tlers in what is now Cass county. On September 18, 1820, Tliomas Gatton 
entered the west half of the northwest quarter of Sec 3.5-17-10, being now 
owned by Wm. Stevenson; it is the 80 just south of Little Indian station. The 
eldest son of Thomas, was Carrolton Gatton, who entered the land just north. 
They sold to James Stevenson in 182^'. The same year, Thomas Gatton en- 
tered 80 acres in Sec 33-18-10 being the 80 on which the 1. M. Stribling resi- 
detice is situated; the 80 just north, was entered in 1827 by William Miers, 
who sold to Thomas Gatton in 1830, when the family removed to the new loca- 
t ion. and later acquired an additional 40 acres on the south, making a farm of 
2i)() acres being a quarter of a mile in width. Here the Gatton fsmily re- 
mained until 1830 wlien Thomas sold the farm of 200 acres to P. S. Outten for 
$2;!00 and purcliased of Jesse Allred, the farm in Sees. 24 and 25 in 17-10 known 
as the Phil. Buraker farm or the Walnut Grove farm. 

In 1838 Thomas Gatton conveyed this farm to his two sons, Z. W., and 
Richard Gatton. This conveyance, was in fact, a distribution by Thomas, be- 
tween his children, he tlien being 04 years of age; apart of tlie consideration 
wont to tlie three orpluin children of Thomas Payne who was the deceased 
husband of a daughter of Thomas Gatton; one of these three children became 
the wife of Dr. L. S. Allard, long a resident of this city. The following year 
Z. W. Gatton purchased the interest of his brotlier Ricliard, and in 1844 sold 
to .lesse Petefish 00 acresof the farm. Thomas Gatton and wife remained 
members of the family of Z. W. Gatton so long as they lived; the mother. 
Ruth Gatton died Feb. 19, 18.50, aged 07 years, and Thomas Gatton died in 1853 
aged 71) years: they are buried on the family burial lot in Walnut Ridge Cem- 
etery. Mr. Gatton's ancestors, were natives of the state of Maryland. 

Ill ?ilarcb 1851 Mr. Z. W. Gattoti sold and conveyed his farm to Phil A. 
Buraker. and purchased from P. S. Outten the same 200 acre farm winch his 
faliier had owned, (now owned by the I. M. Stribling- heirs.) For this 200 
acres he paici sj^is per acre. He remained here but one year, selling to Samuel 
F. Campbell, for $24 per acre, and with Thomas Heslep bougtit a farm in Sees. 
s and 17 in T. 17 R. o, whicli is now owned by William Coleman. This farm 


lies upon the State Road one mile and a half westerly from Philadelphia: on 
the north end of tlie farm was a tract of valuable timber, and the owners 
erected a saw-mill which produced the timbers which were used in the build- 
ing of many of the structures in this town. Two years later Mr. Gatton 
conveyed his interest to Thomas Heslep, and purchased the Whitmire farm ad- 
joining Virginia on the east, where he remained up to the date of his death: 
the property now belonging to his heirs. This farm of 173 acres was sold to him 
for $31 per acre. 

Vflien Mrs. Gatton tirst saw Virginia, she came here from Beardstown to 
attend a quarterly meeting held in the Court House in this town which stood 
in the west square where the primary school building is located. The Presid- 
ing Elder Eev. Peter Akers preached to the patient liearers for three 
mortal hours, a frequent habit of the good old man. Mrs. Gatton says, that 
upon one occassion, when Dr. Akers was Instructing a class of young preachers 
at a conference at Lincoln. Illinois, he warned them against the bad habits of 
preaching too long, and too loud; he then added: "as for mj^self, I reserve the 
right to preach as long and as loud as I please." 

The day this sketch is prepared, Is the 83d anniversary of the birth of 
Mrs. Sarah C. Gatton; her health is good; her intellectual powers are unim- 
paired; she can readily read ordinary print without the aid of glasses. She is 
a very active woman, spending mucli time, in pleasant weather, with plants 
and flowers, which have always been her delight. To this fondness of out- 
door life, may be attributed the fact that she has attained her present age so 
well preserved. 

Her husband, Mr. Z. W. Gatton was one of the solid and substantial men 
of this county; he was a man of strict integrity, of firmness of purpose, and of 
excellent habits. For years he was the President of the Farmer's National 
Bank of this city; lie died at his home on the 29th day of July in the year 1896 
at the age of 84 years. 


[The following sketch was dictated by Mr. Buraker and is here presented 
in liis own language. J. N. G.] 

fwas born June 1st, 1830, near Marksville, Page Co., Mrglnia. My 
schooling was limited to about eighteen months. A log house furnished 
with crude wooden benches and desks, wooden ink wells and goose quill 
pens was the only school I ever attended. My parents owned a farm and tan- 
nery. I learned a little of both. My mother died when I was but fourteen 
of years age. At the age of sixteen I came to Illinois, county of Cass, where 
brother Phil Buraker, Uncle John Rosenberger and Gideon Koontz were lo- 
cated. Piailroads being few I came (in company with Wesley Rosenberger and 

William White by stage and steam- 
boat) landing at Beardstown, 111., 
then each of us loaded our baggage on 
•Shank's ponies' and heafled for Vir- 
ginia, Illinois, where we rested over 
night then took a short cut across the 
wild prairies to Princeton and the 
house of Uncle John Rosenberger. 
Among my first acquaintances was 
that good old soul Uncle Jake Bergen. 
In these early days I frequently 
tramped from Princeton to the 
Lancaster P. O., then called the 'Wal- 
ker House' kept by Richard Walker, 
who was at one time representative 
of Cass county. This was the princi- 
pal point for voting in these days. 
Among the first most prominent doc- 
tors of Cass Co., at tliis time was 
Clu-isty, of Philadelphia, Chandler, of 
Cliaiidlerville, and Tate, of Virginia, 
later on the much appreciated Doctor 
AMBROSE BLTRAKER. .1. ^\ Snyder, of Virginia. 

Jacob Strawn was the great cattle king of the western country. His 
good advice was "when you wake up in rha morning don't roll over but roll 
out." The rival religions weie Old r.aitti.-ts and Methodists. The Bap- 
tists had for their cliampions Billy Crow, and Cyrus Wright, the Metho- 

dists Peter Cartwright, Jimmy W.vatt, Jerry Mitchell and Sam Sinclair. At 
these times camp meetings were quite common but Anally Peter Cartwright, 
the leader, admitted that the "devil had beaten him" and thought best to 
stop them. I knew him as one of, if not the greatest preacher of the west, 
a peculiar character because of his odd statements and ways of expressing 
them. The religion of those early days was somewhat different from 
that of the present day. Seekers for it were led to a mourner's bench 
where they frequently knelt for hours, then came loud singing, sliouting. 
praying, hand-shaking and often falling together in heaps upon the ground 
or floor. At Harmony log schoolhouse sea'.ed upon a slab bench I 
have listened to Uncle Jimmy Wyatt and others; have also listened to Uncie 
Billy Crow at the Old Baptist church near Yatesville, 111., and took notice 
that Julius Elmore made numerous nods as the long sermon was continued 
without any regard to fatigue or time. The roads of Illinois were then a bee 
line across the prairies. I have helped to chase deer on horse back over the 
prairie where Ashland now stands, have stood hours on the long prairie 
grass listening to Jim Judy (now Col. Judy) crying of the sale of lots in what 
is now the city of zVshland, have heard Henry Phillips and Henry Savage de- 
bate on politics. On my first arrival there was yet some land to enter at 
$li per acre. Archibald Job had timber land that he could have sold 
at $25.00 per acre and purchased the tine prairie land around him at $3.00 
per acre. In the fall of '48 the gold fever took hold of me and many othei's. 
With the aid of my brother, Phil Buraker, I prepared an outfit and 
with others made ready to go to California. Quite a number of us met to- 
gether at Virginia, 111., among them Thomas Deal, Wesley Rosenberger, 
John Yaple, High Maston and Lee Conover all now in their graves. 
Others who were fitted out to go was Squire Brady, Zirkle Robinson, Joe 
Robinson. Lou Bunce, Mole Bjard and others I cannot recall. Among 
those wlio fell in with us at Beardstown, HI., was Richard Dutch.. On 
the morning of March 26 we shouldered our long, slim hickory poles with lash 
about equal in length (12 to U feet long with buckskin cracker attaclied) 
climbed on our wagons and started our long team of oxen for the gold 
mines of California. Our first mishap was a miring down in quicksand of 
what is now the ceni,er of Beardstown. The Illinois river was high and we 
found great difficulty in reaching solid ground at Frederic. Driving leisurely 
along the line of Missouri and Iowa we passed through Alexander and 
later on arrived at the village of St. Joseph situated on what was at that 
time the boundary line of the U. S. From that on to California the coun- 
try was claimed by the red man and supposed to be only a wilderness of 
trees and wild, rugged scenery. 

After laying in a supply of food for our cattle or oxen at St. Joseph we 
crossed the Missouri River and wound our way through bottom lands which 
were tlien only a vast wilderness halting at the bluffs where dwelt the 
Indians. Here we camped for some two weeks waiting for the grass to be- 
come fit for food for our animals. We had formed a company of twenty-six 
wagons which we placed in a circle at night to corral our cattle. Acting as 
driver I was not expected or called upon to pick Bufl'alo chips or assist in 
tlie cooking. Breaking camp we passed on to Platte River where from 
the top of a high blufl: we could look out over broad, beautiful bottom 

]ancls. Here we could count upwards of five hundred wagons or more on 
their way to California. This low land began at Fort Kearnney, Neb. 
We followed the rivers and low lands mostly. Out side of being- surprised 
by a severe blizzard and a stampede of buffaloes, which we thought for a 
time would destroy a Bm-lington Iowa wagon train, also great persecution 
from big mosquitoes and the gaunt condition of our oxen from lack of sus- 
tenance while crossing a barren sar)cly stretch of land or desert our trip was 
an enjoyable one. We were not molested by the Indians although we 
saw many bands of them, their bodies being decorated with war paint, 
feathers and gaudy attire. We crossed the Rocky Mountains with a 
gradual ascent and descent following the Sierra Nevada whose sides were 
very steep and rugged the descent being almost perpendicular. From these 
mountains we entered the village of Ilangtown where we made our first 
gold diggings. Arrived there Sept. 2o. 

The state of California was then a lawless state, no assessor or collector. 
Mining laws were 10 feet square to eacli man, earning from $16.00 to 
$24.00 per day. Stockton which we found as a city of tents in one year 
became a city of buildings. San Francisco was a city of gamblers. The 
climate vvas pleasant and mild, so warm that we slept out of doors with 
out feeling any discomforts from it. 

During my sojourn of two years in the rocky, rugged mining districts of 
California I became separated from my mates, later on falling in with 
Michael Whittlinger, who is still living near Ashland, Illinois. We mined 
together the last six months returning, by water mostly, to Illinois, 
March 20, IbSl. Reward for my hard labor and daring adventure vvas $2000. 
I remained in Illinois but a sliort time going on to the state of A'irginia, 
my father s home. At this time I was but 21 years old. In one year I re- 
tuined again to Illinois passing through Springfield when lots were 
worth $400 about the square. Aug. ,3, 1854 was married to Margarette I. 
Stout, daughter of Philemon Stout then living on Little Indian Creek. 

Those days cattle were driven on foot to New York market. I farmed 
some, ti'aded also in cattle and hoys running a cattle pump (my own and 
Joe Black's invention) for seven years. Subsequently I followed the meat 
business about twenty years. Came to Memphis, INIo., in 1892, have a 
farm near the city and a good home witiiin the corporation. 

I am seventy-flve years old my healtli fairly good, but two children 
living My religion is: '-Learn the laws of Nature and live up to them." 


NEARLY one mile west of the Court House, on a high point of ground be- 
longing to Robert and Henry Hall is the spot where lie many of the 
first of the dead of Virginia. 

In the fall or early winter of the year 1838 John Lindsey died in this town 
then a mere hamlet. There were no nearby church yards in this section at 
tliat date. The dead were to be found upon the farms of their survivors, 
scattered here and there. The body of Lindsey was borne across the south line 
of the addition to the town, and buried on the prairie, where tiie present 
residence of Ernest P. Widmayer is now situated on lots one and two in the 
addition of Mrs. Ann Hall and Richard S. Thomas which was laid out and 
platted eighteen years later on. Tliis body was removed to the grave yard 
fleld several years afterward by Edward Dirreen and Tlioraas Elliott. 

About 1844 Dr. Hall granted permission to the people of the town to bury 
their dead at the place above indicated in the grave yard field. The first 
man buried there was one Swift, a blacksmith, who was a helper of Allen 
Miller. The first woman buried there was 'Clara E. Hardy, wife of John W. 
Hardy, who died in this town on the 8th day of October 1845. 

Since the establishment ot Walnut Ridge Cemetery by this City in the 
year 1873 many of the dead have been removed from the grave field to the new 
place. Many were buried in the old field and no monument erected, and their 
graves were long since plowed over. 

Last Sunday I visited the burial place, with two boys, to see what re- 
mained of the head stones. We picked up the broken and scattered frag- 
ments and replaced them as best we could to decipher the inscriptions. Somft 
of them were where they were originally planted, but most are lying about on 
the sod in a greater or less damaged condition. 

The inscriptions upon the remaining stones here follows: 

William Elliott, husband of Agnes Elliott, died April -22, 1857, aged 38 
years, 2 months and 22 days. 

Thomas Proctor, born January 9, 1785, died April 17, 1855. 

Anna, wife of Thomas Proctor, born May 5, 1796, died September 2:}, 1859. 

Elizabe thj3^wifej)£W jlliam Finny, d ied October 4, 1855, i n th e 22nd ^ 
year of her age. 

Matilda, wife of William Ferguson, died March 10, 1S53, aged 42 years, 
11 months and 23 days. 

Dennis O'Brien died February 2:), 1851, aged 02 years. 

Ida W., daughter of L. and V. C. Carpenter, died ^S^ovember 2.'3, ISOii, aged 
2 jears and 1 month. 

Jenn3\ consort of John Davison, died June 11, 18()2, aged 30 years, 7 
montiis and 8 days. 

Our father, Thomas Luttet, died January 19, 1870, aged 50 years. Erected 
by liis son. 

William L., son of R. and E. Jacobs, died February 4, 1859, aged 7 months 
and 4 days. 

-Tolm F., born August 13, 1855: died December 19, 1855. Robert, born 
January 19, 18H0: died May 10, 1800. Sons of R. and C. Thompson. 

Simon, son of A. and M. Mobley, died November 0, 1857, aged 17 years, 
11 months and 21 days. 

James ElHort, died April 10, 1850, aged 29 years, 10 months aud 21 days. 

Cliarles W. Tate, son of Dr. H. and Lydia E. Tate. Passed by the 
second birth to bloom in the second sphere August 29, 1854, aged 19 months. 

In memory of Ellen Maloney, died October 11, 1851, aged 22 years. May 
she rest in peace. Amen. 

In memory of Michael J., son of James and Ann ^Nlaloney, died August 30, 
1858, aged 13 montlis and 5 days. 

Robert Thompson, died December 19, 1859, aged 35 years, 8 months and 
5 days. 

Kata E., duiglitef of M. and R . F. Wiiite. d ied Ssptembor li), 1857, aged 

Albert T., son of M. and R. F. Wliite, died Nov. 10, 1850, aged 1 month 
and IS days. 

.lames MacCarthy, died Sept. 25, 1870, aged 5 year. months and 4 days. 

Our little Eve, died March 29, 1852, aged j^ears, months and 3 days. 

Edward C, son of W. and C. Armstrong, died Jan. 11, 1850, aged 4 years. 

Lewis W. and Charles F., sons of Wm. and C. Armstrong, died Jan. 29, 
1845, aged 5 years and 27 days, and Feb. 19, 1845, aged 15 months and 29 days. 

in the afternoon of the same day, we went to Walnut Ridge wliich is re- 
garded by visiting strangers, as a beautiful burial ground. To Dr. J. F. Sny- 
dei' of tliis city, tlien a member of the city council, is due the thanks of this 
connnunity for the part he took in tlie purchase of this ground. His active 
and persistent efforts, with the co-operation of John A. Peteflsh induced the 
l)uirhase of the ground from the Elliott heirs by the city of Virginia. Here, 
many tlioi'.sand dollars luive been expended by surviving relatives and friends, 
as a proof of their affection for their de;id, and as a proof of the advancement 
of civilization, in tliis county. The youth of to-day mav wonder, why the 
pioneers ware so heedless as to bury their dead upon ground to which they 
liad not the shadow of a title, wlien land was so cheap, when a little reflection 
would liave convinced tliem tliat, in a few years, the place of burial would be 
lost, and forgotten: but that seems to be the history of all pioneer settle- 
ments. In Kansas, as late as 1805. the traveler in passing througli tlie sparse 
tracts of so-called timber in tliat then tire-swept state, would find along the 
■roadway pens of poles or rails, and would be told for explanation, tliat the 
pieces of wood were t^hrown down to protect dead human bodies from the rav- 
ages of wild animals. The settler would say, "There lies a fellow, who came 
over from Missouri to steal horses: we hung him to that tree yonder, and 

buried him under it." That these early Virginia settlers were mindful of 
their dead, is proven by the amount of money which they expended in grave 
stones to mark their resting place. At one time Mrs. Ann Hall, the widow of 
Dr. Hall, promised a deed to the county, of this burial place if the persons 
who had friends buried there would erect a fence; a man who had several 
members of his family there buried, gathered up something like $80 with 
wliich to pay for the fence; a few posts were hauled, and perhaps the fence 
begun, and there the matter ended; it is believed by some, that this man 
appropriated the greater portion of the money to his private use. 

A visitor of this burial place in the old grave yard field, standing among 
the broken bits of marble lying on the grass between heaps of earth thrown 
up by those who have removed their dead will instinctively recall the famous 
poem, a favorite of President Lincoln, whicli closes with the following stanzas: 
. "They died,- -ah! they died:— we things tliat are now, 
That walk on the turf that lies over their brow, 
And make in their dwellings a transient abode. 

Meet the things tliat they met on their pilgrimage road." 
"Yea, hope and despondency, pleasures and pain, 

Are mingled together in sunshine and rain: 
And the smile and the tear and the song and the dirge. 

Still follow each other like surge upon surge." 
' 'T'is the wink of an eye: t'is the draught of a breath 
From the blossom of health to the paleness of death, 
From the gilded saloon to tiie bier and the shroud: 
O why should the spirit of mortal be proudV" 


MR. Greenwood was born in Franklin county in the state of Virginia on 
tlie fifth clay of January, 1821, and has passed the S-ttli mile-stone of 
his useful life, and is as active and vigorous as the average man of 
fifty. He came to this county with his wife and four children when he was 
.SI years old and settled in Chandlerville, this county, in ls52, where lie re- 
mained for two years. The town then contained less than twenty houses. 
Mr. Greenwood was a carpenter by trade, but during the first winter of his 
residence, as mechanical work was not rushing, he was in the employ of 
Chandler and Olcutt, who were engaged in packing pork. By the spring 
following they had 1500 hogs packed in rail pens, covered with lumber. Mi'. 
Greenwood insists that thieves were very scarce here, in those da}\s for when 
they removed the pork, not a piece was missing. It was all taken to Beards- 
town by farmers' wagons which returned with merchants" goods. These hogs 
were sold for four and a half cents per pound. 

Chandler and Olcutt owned a general store and William L. Way was also 
a merchant there at that time. Dr. Chandler was the leading physician in 
this part of the county and has gone as far as fifty miles from his home to 
visit patients. He would have several horses stationed at different points 
which he used one after another. Sometimes, he would send out several 
men, with as many horses to meet him in his rounds; he was full of energy. 
When people came to him for medicine on Sunday he refused to charge for it 
for a time, until he found his good nature was being imposed upon by people 
who made it a point to delay their applications until that day; then he 
charged the applicants and turned the money over to the Congregational 
church, of which he was a member. 

The Methodists liad regular services in Chandlerville when Mr. Green- 
wood settled tliere. Among the early preachers of the town lie remembers 
Lippencott (the father of Genera! Charles E. Lippencott) and a preacher 
named Beane. 

Thomas Plaster, the father of Jeptha Plaster who lived a few miles be- 
low Chandlerville was a justice of the peace. A man named Haynes and a 
woman named Doty went to his house to be married. When the sijuire 
learned their business he solemnly sb.ook his head saying: I married tliis 
woman once to Doty, and as the marriage did not turn out well, I am not go- 
ing to marry her any more:" the disappointed couple went away to find an- 
other justice. Squire Plaster used to say that he owned stock in but two en- 
terprises: one was in McKee's scales and the other in Lippencott's preaching. 






Mr. (rreenwood rented land of Dr. Chandler, the rent— one-third of tlie 
crop— delivered in the field. Part of the land was sown in oats. Prices were 
so low, that Mr. Greenwood, under tlie direction of Dr. Chandler set the oat 
shocks on tire as they were not wortli hauling in. Childs, a tenant of 
Chandler's, hauled corn to Beardstown and sold it for ten cents per busliel. 

Lippencott (Charles E. ) was a pliysician, wlio married Emily Chandler, a 
daughter of the Dr. At the time of the marriage Mr. Greenwood accommo- 
dated the groom with a loan of thirty dollars and helped him gather up his 
hou.sekeeping effects. Dr. Lippencott had some considerable medical practise 
—at one time liaving a number of small-pox patients on his hands. Later on, 
lie went to California leaving iiis wife in Chandlerville. Mr. Greenwood de- 
livered to her, in her door-yard the letter giving her the account of the duel 
fought by her husband in the Golden Stare. 

Mr. (Greenwood recalls the canvass made by Cyrus Wright, a candidate for 
the state legislature. Some temperance legislation was being agitated: at a 
public meeting in Chandlerville, Mr. Wright, altliougli a Baptist preacher, 
ex|)iessed himself as bitterly opposed to the proposed temperance law and stated 
that, rather than voteforit, he would vigorously fight against it. Squire McKee, 
a political opponent in answering him, said he knew something of Wright's 
military history; that on one occasion, he ( Wriglit) had kicked an old woman 
out or her house and was fined five dollars for it. Candidate Wright lost his 
temper turned upon McKee and savagely threatened that if he repeated that 
statement, he would knock his teeth down his throat. It was about tliat 
time proposed to prepare the Sangamon river for navigation: a steamboat was 
purchased, Amos Dick became the captain of it: for several miles, trees, logs 
:iiid drilts, were removed from the charuiel. The town of Richmond was laid 
out near the Dick farm, and upon the plat a slough was marked "Harbor for 
Boats." This enterprise was short lived, the boat was seized and sold by tlie 
sheriff for debt. John Gum bought the boiler, hauled it to California and 
back and aHerwards it was used by Jerry Davis in running a saw mill. 

After a two year's residence in Chandlerville, Mr. Greenwood moved to 
^Middle Creek near the present site of Oakford, but soon after went upon the 
farm of John P. Dick, about four miles above Chandlerville, where lie re- 
mained lor six years. While living on this farm Mr. Dick rode a horse upon a 
sidewalk for which he was arrested and lined by Raines police magistrate. 
Dick demanded an appeal and offered as sureties on the appeal, two men who 
were supported in whole or in part by the county. Upon the refusal of tlie 
Court to accept this bond Mr. Dick gravely assured the Court he would not be 
able to make a bond, and would become a victim of injustice. The bond was 
finally signed by his brothers, Amos and Levi, and the papers sent to the cir- 
cuit court. Wishing to avoid the expense of litigation over so trifiing a mat- 
ter. Dr. Boone on behalf of the town sent a proposition by Mr. Greenwood to 
Mr. Dick that the town would remit the fine if he (Dick) would pay tlie costs. 
Tills oft'er was declined, and Mr. Greenwood took back a message to the effect 
tliat if the town would remit the fine, and pay the costs, and remit two other 
fines standing against two friends of Mr. Dick and build a certain bridge, that 
the matter would end. This not beiti-;- agrei^l upon, the cas3 proceeded: the 
town lost, and for a long time afterward Diclc would not use the town walk, 
but kept in the "middle of the road." 


Some years later on Mr. Greenwood lived on land adjoining a farm of John 
E. Guin in Menard county. Mr. Gum, one season harvested 2500 acres of 
wheat using seven harvesting machines which were run day and night until the 
work was done. Gum had a blacksmith shop on one of his farms, and a 
stranger came along and wanted to rent it; Mr. Gum asked him if he (the pro- 
posed tenant) would be willing to do his (Gum's) blacksmith work for the use 
of the shop and tools; the stranger, supposing he was an ordinary farmer, glad- 
ly closed with the offer. A few days afterward Gum came with fifty mules to 
be shod; the smith said he could not stand that, and a new contract was 
patched up. 

For several years Mr. Greenwood helped Col. Judy drive hogs from Sang- 
amon, Menard and Cass counties to Beardstown, often passing through this 
city with as many as fifteen hundred in a single drove. 

Thementalfacultiesof Mr. Greenwood are excellent; he can walk a half 
dozen miles or more with perfect ease; he is a man of tlie highest sense of 
honor and of the strictest integrity. May he live to see the remainder of a 
hundred years. 


I was born in Clarke Countj', Ky., May 8th, 1822. My grandparents on 
my father's side came from Switzerland and on my mother's side were 
Scotch Irish My father was a farmer and a very quiet, industrious man 
and I being- the eldest son and well grown for my age soon found myself be- 
tween the plow liandles and did all the work usually done on a farm. Have 
lived on a farm all of ray life. 

My education was very limited never having attended scliool over three 
months in one year There were no free schools in those days. Scliool houses 
were very different then than what they are at the present day. They were 
usually of logs and one log left out on one side to give light. The writing 
desk was arranged under this long window and consisted of a slab the length 
of the window, a bench made out of a split log with holes bored and legs driven 
in from the under side for a seat. This composed the writing desk for the en- 
tire school. 

In those days our mothers made almost all the wearing apparel for the 
family besides table linen, bed clothes, etc. Every farmer kept his flock of 
sheep and also raised a good sized flax patch which furnished with tlie spun 
cotton added all the material to make the necessary wear for the family. 

The spun cotton was bought at the stores, the wool and flax part of the 
material was all prepared at home. 

When I was seventeen years old my father engaged in a speculation which 
was very disastrous to him, in fact broke him up. I remained with him until 
I was twenty-one. I then engaged with a wealthy farmer at ten dollars per 
month and worked the first year without losing a day. Wages increased the 
next year to twelve dollars per month. The third year began to trade some 
and do business for other men, worked for Col. Tom Johnson, of Mt Sterling, 
Ky., who had a large trade of mules, horses and hogs in Georgia and South Car- 
olina. I kept that up for several years, but all the time had the Horace 
Greeley idea in my head: ' Young man go West and grow up wich the country.'" 

I visited Illinois in 1849, again in 18.jO and 1851 wlien I married Miss Kate 
A. Simpson, of Menard Co., daughter of Dr. .lames W. Simpson. I have lived 
in this country ever since. The change in the country from tifty-six years ago 
is wonderful. There were no railroads, no telegraph or telephones. Fat 
cattle were driven from Illinois on foot to Philadelphia and New York. Hogs 
were slaughtered at Beardstown and oilier points on the river and the pro- 
duct shipped by boat to southern markets. No market for fat hogs only in 
December, .lanuary and February. 



All diT ^oods and ^n'uceries were sliipped by steamboat and hauled by 
teams to the different towns. The best farm lands in Menard Co., could be 
bought wlien for sale in 1819 from $10.00 to $15.0!) per acre and there was much 
condemned swamp land that sold for twenty-tive cents per acre. The above 
lands could b3 sold to-day from $75.00 to $150.0:) per acre. 

When I came to Illinois in ISli), I left Mt. Sterling, Ky., in stage for 
Maysville, then a boat for Cincinnati, took a larger boat for St. Louis," then 
an Illinois river packet for Baardstown, then the stage for the old Dutch 
stan;l near Ashland and there was not a fence from there to the head of Clary's 
Grove which was eiglit miles away. 

While I have always lived on the farm I have done some other business. 
I have probably sold more thoroughbred registered cattle at public auction 
t'lan any man in the world and traveled farther to do it. Have sold from 
Canada to California and from Minneapolis to San Antonio, Texas, and all of 
the intermediate states where such cattle are raised. Commenced as auc- 
tioneer in 1856. 

In 186;) and 01 our political troubles began and South Carolina seceded 
and other southern states followed. Hence our civil war and the battle was 
on. In August, 1862, raised a company of 100 men at Tallula, Illinois, and 
was elected captain of the same and was ordered to camp Butler near Spring- 
field. Tiiere was organized with 9 other companies as a regiment and num- 
bered the lU Regt. III. Vol. Infantry and I was unanimously elected its Col- 
onel and soon the regiment was ordered to the front where it did good service 
until the close of the war. 

When I was quite a young man I often heard my father and others speak 
of the great West. Indiana, Illinois and Iowa in those days constituted the 
great West as the people understood it. I will give you a few lines written 
by a gentleman traveling froin the East to his western country with the view 
of selecting a home which portrays very vividly the conditions that existed 
not a great while before my first visit to Illinois: 
Suppose in riding tlu'ough the West, 
A stranger found a Hoosier's nest: 
In other words, a Buckeye cabin, 
Just big enough to hold Queen Mahin. 

Its situation low, but airy, 

Was on the borders of a prairie. 
And fearing he might be benighted 

He liailed the house and then alighted. 

The Iloosier met him at the door, 

Their salutations soon were o'er: 
He took the stranger's horse aside. 

And to a sturdy sapling tied. 
Then having stripped the saddle off. 

He fed liim in a sugar trough: 
Tile stranger stooped to enter in. 

The entrance closed with a pin, 
Wliere half a dozen Hoosierroons 

With mush and milk, tin cups and spoons. 


White heads, bare feet, and dirty faces, 
Seemed much inclined to keep their places. 

But Madam, anxious to display 
Her rough and undisputed sway, 

Her offspring to the ladder led. 
And cuffed the youngsters up to bed. 

Invited shortly to partake 
Of venison, milk and johnny cake, 

The stranger made a hearty meal, 
And around the room a glance would steal. 

One side was lined with divers garments. 
The other strung with skins of varmints; 

Dried pumpkins over head were strung. 
Where venison hams in plenty hung. 

Two rifles placed above the door, 

Three dogs lay stretched upon the floor. 
In short the domicile was rife 
In specimens of a Hoosier's life. 
Dictated by Col. J. W. Judy. 


MARY Fletcher Tegg was born at May Hill, Bertie County, North Caro- 
lina, within one huiiclred miles of the Atlantic Seaboard on the 8tli 
day of December 1825. Her father John W. Hardy, was born in the 
same county. ' 

In May 18.3(5, John W. Hardy and family started for Illinois to join some 
of his relatives who preceded him named Hardy and Buck, who had settled on 
the sand ridge about ten miles southwest of this town. They arrived on the 
15th of August, and settled down near these relatives where they remained 

till tlie following year when Hardy 
bought of John Schaeffer lot 14 block 1 
in the town of Monroe, seven miles 
southwest of here, where he began his 
business of a wagon-maker. The phy. 
sician who had the leading practice in 
tlie sand ridge neighborhood was Dr. 
Ephraim Rew; Squire Clemons taught 
school near Monroe; Benjamin Beesley 
kept a store in Monroe. 

In the fall of 18.38 the Hardy fami- 
ly removed from Monroe to Virginia, 
moving into a log cabin which stood 
near the northeast corner of the ad- 
dition to the town and very near, 
where the Randall property is now sit- 
uated. Mary F. Hardy was tlien be- 
tween twelve and thirteen years of 
age. In 1841 Mr. Hardy purchased lot 
S2 in the addition to the Town and in 
1S47 he added lot 83 to it, these lots 
are those on which Mrs. Gore now 
lives, across the street east of the Christian church. The first school Mrs 
Tegg remembers in Virginia was kept by WillimiL-Caxeeiltei', abrotlierof Mrs. 
^Bfi^ wlio afterwards became county clerk of this county, and emigrated to 
Texas where he died. This school was opposite the Murray residence which 
stands on lot 80 in the addition to the town, and near the electric light liouse. 
Another school was taught in the second story of the ]\Iethodist church build- 



ing which stood on lot 64 in the original town— just back of the Slciles lumber 
yard. A man named Morgan taught there; Robert and Henry and Eliza Hail, 
George Harris and James Harris went tliere to school wlien Mrs. Tegg was a 
pupil. The Harris family lived on the west side of the public square where 
the Hillig shoe shop now stands. George Harris, the father, made furniture. 
In this church Mrs. Tegg experienced religion in the year 1840, when but a 
child of 15 years, 

Among the preachers of those early days were Levi-Springer, Rev. Fox, of 
Jacksonville; Guthrie White, oj Menard county, and Rev. William Whipp, a 
local MethodistTprg'acher, 'the last named was born September 19, 1797, and 
died February 2.S, 1869, more than 71 years old and is buried in the old ceme- 
tery in Beardstown. For several years he kept a drug store in that city; lie 
was a large man, weighing more than 200 pounds; his children were John W. 
Whipp, William Wliipp, Elizabeth Munsell, Sarah Peteflsh and Jane Orwig. 
His last wife was Harriett Hinchee, a sister of the first wife of William Wat- 
kins, of this city. William Wliipp and Harriett Hinchee were married on 
December 30, 1854, by Rev. William Clark whose wile was a sister of the bride. 
The wife of Hon. Milton McClure, of Beardstown, is a grandaughter of Rev. 
Whipp. Mrs. Sarah C. Gatton gratefully remembers h'm for the follov\ing 
reason: She was afflicted with a bad case of chills and fever wlien a >oung 
girl, at Beardstown, and nothing she could find seemed to help her. Mr. 
Whipp mixed up some pills and gave them to her, with the assurance they 
would surely break up the chills. Her sister, Mrs. James C. Leonaixl, advised 
her to let them alone, but the patient, in a desperate mood, swallowed the 
pills and never had a chill afterward. 

Mrs. Tegg well remembers the occasion of the marriage of I. M. Stribling 
to Miss Margaret Beggs, his first wife. The day following the wedding, the bridal 
couple accompanied by the wedding guests came through Virginia on their 
way to the home of Benjamin Stribling, father of the groom, who lived a 
short distance northwest of this town. This company of young people, some 
seventy-five in number, were all on horseback and made a gay procession 
reaching from the present George Conover residence to the southwest corner 
of the public square. 

When a young girl she worked as a domestic servant in the family of Dr. 
Pothicary, who kept the hotel on the southeast corner of the square, where 
the Centennial Bank now stands: Mrs. Pothicary taught her to make butter. 

The town of Monroe was laid out by John Schaeffer on June 27, 1836, a 
month after A^irginia was platted. Mr. Benjamin Beesley bought a lot in 
Monroe, in January, 1837, and three months later, he and John SchaetTer laid 
out an addition to Monroe. The stage line from Jacksonville to Beardstown 
then passed througli this town. Mr. Beesley was a merchant in Monroe, but 
concluding that Virgniia would be a better business point, in September, istl, 
purchased of Dr. Hall, then acting as a commissioner for Cass county, lot 87 
in the Public Grounds addition, at southeast corner of the west squai'e for 
$210 and built the two story brick building long known as the "Boston Brick." 
Here he sold goods. In 1853 he sold the property to one Perrin Fay, who 
made the purchase on credit, and not being able to pay for it, it fell back to 
Beesley, in 1855, and on September 6, 18.56, he sold and conveyed it to William 
Boston for $8oo, who remained its owner up to the date of his death. 

- 20 - 

On Christmas Day, 18«, Mary Fletcher Hardy was married to.lamesTecrg 
by John IT. Daniel, a Baptist preacher who lived in Virginia. Mrs. Tegg was 
then but 18 years old: her husband, Englisli by birth, was then 43 years old. 
They began housekeeping in a log cabin wliicli had been used as a house for 
sheep on land in Sec S, T. 17, R. K), about 2 miles southwest of Virginia, now 
owned by tlie heirs of Henry Quigg. The first year, Mr. Tegg put up prairie 
hay: his young wife would take their dinner and lier knitting work and 
spend the day with him, knitting in tlie sliade of hay shocks. They went 
from place to place, living for a time on the Dick farm in Sangamon bottom, 
on the William Campbell farm, on the Lynn Grove farm, on the land of 
Elliott near Sugar Grove, and came to this town to live in a house on lot 1.5. 
in tlie addition to Virginia wliicli was afterward conveyed to Mrs. Tegg and 
hercliildren by Iier fath(?r, .John W. Hardy, on October 7, 18,50. This" house 
was burned about three years ago: here her son .lames Tegg, jr., a resident of 
this city, was born on May 3. 1848. He helped his father to plant the sugar 
maple trees in front of the Rodgers property, lots 44, 45 and 4(i in the addition 
of the town and in front of the Cosner property, then owned by Spaulding. a 
scfiool teacher, at northwest corner of the square, in the year 18.56. These 
trees were dug up about a mile and a half north of the town on land now 
owned by .T. T. Robertson and are as tine specimens asare growing in the town 

Mrs. Tegg's mother died in 1845, after she had been blind for tifteen years! 
Her husband died in this town, .June 4. 18(54, at tiie age of 78 years: both 
tliese people were buried in the old graveyard field two miles west of tlie town. 

Mrs. Tegg is now more than 79 years of age: she remembers that on the 
day lier fatlier moved into Virginia, the first load of brick to be used in tiie 
building of the court house was then lying in tlie old square at west end of 
the city. 

Slie remembers that Dr. H. H. Hall practised his profession in her 
father's family: she remembers Tliomas Finn, the first of the family who 
lived here, who never was married: he owned a distillery north of this 
town wliere pure and unadulterated whiskey could be bought for twenty-five 
cents per gallon. Her memory of old-time events is clear: her physical condi- 
tion, considering her age, is exeellent. 


[By Dr. J. F. Snyder, of Virginia, Illinois, ex-president of the Illinois Historical Society. Read 
by the author at a public reception given by the Virginia Travelers Club on May 15, 1905. J 

FOR convenience of description, the history of Illinois is divided in two 
parts: the term '-Early Illinois," comprises that part of its history ex- 
tending from the discovery of tlie Mississippi river, in 1673, to its ad- 
mission as a stata in the Union in 1818, a period of 145 years: part second 
comprehends the annals of its existence as a state. 

By the middle of the 17th century the Canadian French had penetrated 
the wild region of the north, from the St. Lawrence to the western extremity 
of Lake Superior, and were told bv the Indians there, that at a comparatively 

short distance farther west was a 
large river flowing from the north in a 
southern direction, they knew not 
where. That information, when re- 
ported in Canada, proved of startling 
importance. For two centuries the 
dream of Europe had been tlie discov- 
ery of a direct western passage by 
water to Ciiina and India. It was 
tiiat object, Columbus had in view in 
his voyage that resulted in the dis- 
covery of America in 1492. 

In 1510 Balboa had discovered the 
eastern shore of the Pacilic ocean at 
the Isthmus of Panama, and in 15:54 
the ships of Cortez had traced its 
coast up as far as the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. Into that Gulf, it was con- 
jectured by the Canadians, emptied 
the large western river mentioned by 
tlie Lake Superior Indians: that by 
its proximity to the cliain of great 
lakes, and their connection vvitli the 
DR. J. F. SNYDER. St. Lawrence, might alTord to France 

the long and eagerly sought waterway to the distant Orient. 

Frontenac, the governor of Canada, with sanction of the French court, 
arranged to send an expedition to explore tluit unknown river, and definitely 
ascertain its extent and course. 


For that liazardous undertaking-, he selected Louis Joliet, a merchant and 
educated native of Quebec, who was joined by Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit 
missionary priest, and they, talcing a simple outfit of parched corn and dried 
buffalo meat, with necessary blankets, guns and ammunition, in two birch- 
bark canoes with five Canadians to row them, set out from the Straits of 
Mackinaw on the 10th of May, 1673, on their long and dangerous journey. Ar- 
riving at the mission that Marquette had before established on Green Ray, 
they passed to the mouth of Fox river, and ascending it to its sources they 
made tlie portage of their canoes and equipage over the divide to the liead- 
waters of the Wisconsin, and descending that stream to its mouth, on the 
19th of June, tliey glided upon the broad and rapid current of the Mississippi. 
They proceeded down the great river to near the moutli of the Arkansas, 
where De Solo and his cavalcade had crossed 133 years before. Assured there 
that the Mississippi held its course to the Gulf of Mexico, and not to the Pa- 
cific ocean, they turned the prows of their canoes up stream and started on 
their return. When they reached the mouth of the Illinois river, they were 
told by the Indians they met there, that to follow that stream up to its head- 
waters would materially lessen the distance to Green Bay; and that course 
they pursued. 

At that day and less than lialf a century ago, there stood near the river 
bank at Keardstown, one of the finest Indan mounds of Central Illinois. It 
was a sepulchral mound, conical in form, 50 feet in height, about 200 feet in 
diameter at the base, and made of clay brought from the bluffs four miles dis- 
tant. For ages there were clustered near it, the wigwams of a large Indian 
village. In imagination, we can readily restore the primitive conditions ex- 
isting there, when, on one sultry day in August, 1H73, the swartiiy denizens of 
tliat village, in wild excitement, ruslied to the water's edge, and covered tlie 
western face of the great mound from base to apex, to gaze in awe and speech- 
less wonder at two strange canoes approaching from below, bearing strange, 
bearded white men of a race never before seen by them. In token of friend- 
sliip the dusky chief extended to the weary Frenchmen, tiie pipe of peace, 
who, understanding that signal of welcome, came ashore and here, on the soil 
of future Cass county, the discoverers of Illinois were entertained by the red 
natives with generous hospitality.'^ 

Resuming their voyage, after a needed rest, the explorers, in time, pad- 
dled up and out of the Illinois into the Des Plaines river, then carrying their 
canoes over to the south branch af the Cliicago river, soon were once more 
afloat on Lake Michigan, and arrived at Green Bay in September. Thus was 
Illinois discovered by the wliites, and sucli is the beginning of its written 

But our State has a much older and unwritten history extending from the 
dim archaic past to that daring canoe voyage of Joliet and Marquette. Along 
its picturesque ranges of bluffs: on the shores of its beautiful lakes and 
streams: on its fertile prairies and alluvial bottoms, abound the curious relics 
of its earliest human occupants of a by-gone age-evidences of the primitive 
arts, as well as of the highest culture, of a people of unknown origiOB, who 
disappeared, leaving no otiier record of their history. In Illinois are the 
works of the mound builders, as numerous, and varied in form, design and 

i^ i^t^^sCi-iii^ u^Cu^ 4Lt^e.*^ ^7^i^C*-u^ /^ ^2U T^^-s-^-x^c^ 


dimensions, and of as fascinatinp^ interest as any elsewliere found in tlie United 
States. In tlie Rock i-ivei- valley are seen the singular "Etliury" mounds, rep- 
resenting figures of the luiman form, of birds, animals, and nondescript 
objects, projected on gigantic scales. The mounds of the Illinois river region, 
are of a distinct and different type, corresponding with those of southern 
Ohio; while In the American bottom, opposite St. Louis, are the huge 
"teocali," or truncated pyramids, identical in structure with those of the 
southern states from Georgia to Arkansas, and very probably the product of the 
same people. Of that class is the Cahokia mound on Cahokia creek. 7 miles 
east of St. Louis, the largest of all the earthen motnniments of the vanished 
race north of Mexico. It is almost a hundred feet in height, with level top of 
three acres, and square base measuring 700 feet in length, by 500 feet in widtli. 
From it can be seen <>! otiier large mounds of various forms scattered through 
the Bottom between the river and the bluffs. 

Then again, from the Ohio river along the Mississippi bottoms and bluffs 
as far as Alton can be traced the ancient colonies of still another race of 
prehistoric aborigines differing from tiie others, and easily distinguished by 
their peculiar mortuary custom of burying their dead in stone-lined graves: 
and by the superior workmanship of their pottery, ornaments, and stone im- 
plements. Illinois also offers to the Ethnologist a limitless Held for studying 
the migrations, affinities and characteristics of the numerous tribes of no- 
madic and semi-sedentary Indians of later date, that replaced tlie mound 
builders, and for ages, chased the buff'alo and elk over our broad prairies, 
and made this fair region, the theratre of their interminable wars for su- 

At Green Bay Marquette and Joliet separated, the priest remaining there 
to continue his missionary work among the Indians, and .loliet proceeding to 
Quebec to report the results of their expedition to the Governor. Fortune 
had especially favored them throughout their wonderful voyage of 27()7 miles, 
having met on their way neither serious sickness, loss or accident. Rut as 
Joliet was nearing the French settlements, when almost in sight of Montreal, 
his canoe was capsized, two of his men drowned, and a box containnig all liis 
journals, notes and maps was lost. Marquette, however, had kept an account 
of their daily travels, with recorded observations of what he saw, which has 
been well preserved to the present day. Of tlie Illinois river he wrote: "We 
liad seen nothing like this river for the fertility of the land, its prairies, woods, 
buffalos, elks, deer, wildcats, wild turkeys, ducks, parrots, and even beavers: 
its many little lakes, and (tributary) rivers. That on which we sailed is 
broad, deep and gentle, for sixty-flve leagues. During the spring and part of 
the summer, the only portage, (between its headwaters and the great lake,) 
is but half a league." 

About where the town of Utica now stands, in LaSalle county on the Illi- 
nois river, the French explorers, upon their return, found a large Indian 
village called Kaskaskia: and there they halted for a few days' rest and to re 
plenish their store of provisions, and were very kindly treated by the natives. 
Asking the Indians who tliey were they answered, "We are Illini," a term 
meaning "true or brave men;" in contradistinction to tribes surrounding 
them, whom they designated as beasts. That name, pronounced by the 
French, "Illinois," they very appropriately adopted, not only for the Indians 

- 2^ - 

of Mie villag'e, but for all the newly discovered country north of the Ohio 
river, and for Lake Michigan, wliich for many years was known to the Canad- 
ians as Lake Illinois. Two years later, Marquette, then in the last stages of 
consumption, revisited those Illinois Indians, as he had promised he 
would, and zealously ministered to their spiritual wants during the entire 
winter. The next spring, feeling a premonition of his approaching end. he 
departed for Canada, but died from exhaustion, on the southeastern shore of 
Lake Michigan, and was buried in the sand by his attendants. Tlie Illinois 
country, with the then limited means of transportation, was too remote from 
the Atlantic seaboard to invite colonization; but it at once attracted a few 
adventurous traders, priests and bush-rangers, who were welcomed to the In- 
dian villages and readily assimilated with the natives. 

Four years later, in December, 1709, there came to the Illinois, Robert 
Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle, a young Frenchman of education and the self- 
reiyiiig energies of modern enterprize, authorized by the French king to take 
up the work of exploration, and, if need be, of conquest, where Marquette 
had left it: and to solve definitely the problem of the Mississippi's ultimate 
coui'se. lie was accompanied by his trusty lieutenant, Henry Tonti, and 
Louis Hennepin, a Recollet friar, together with thirty enlisted men, three 
Jesuit priests and several Canadian employes. He built Fort St. Louis at the 
Starved Rock, and Fort Creve Coeuer (Broken Heart) on the southeastern 
blutTsofLake Peoria. He later descended the Mississippi to the Gulf of 
Mexico, and. with formal ceremonies, took possession, for the King of France, 
of all the country he traversed from Canada to Texas. His genius and iron 
resohit ion are indelibly stamped upon the early history of Illinois; but the 
hardships, disappointments and disasters that befell him, with the sacrifice of 
all lie possesse 1, and finally, of his life, form one of its most pathetic chapters. 

The village Indians found by Marquette and Joliet on the upper Illinois 
river were an o'"ganized federation of five tribes, named the Kaskaskias^ 
Caliokias, Peorias, Tamarwahs aiui Michigamies, subsequently collectively 
known as the "Illinois Indians." a once powerful confederacy, but at that 
t iiiie greatly reduced and weakened bv the frequent forays of the fierce Iro- 
<|Uois Indians of New York. To escape total annihilation by that unrelent- 
ing enemy, the Illinois Indians, intUtenced, no doubt, by advice of their 
solf-con>t!tuted guardians, the .Jesuit prjpsts, decided to abandon their an- 
cient village and ancestral hunting grounds and seek safety in another local- 
ity. In the early spring of 1()78, having made all necessary preparations, they 
embar'.ced in a fleet of canoes, and passing down the Illinois river continued 
down the Mississippi, until arriving at a point seven miles below the present 
city of St. Louis they halted on the eastern bank of the river, and there, 
under the guidance of Father Pinet. a .Jesuit missionary, they establislied 
their village named Cahokia. In this exodus of the Illinois Indians the 
Peoria tribe stopped temporarily at the expansion of tlie Illinois river that 
has since retained their name, "Peoria Lake.'' 

Two years later in 1700, the Kaskaskias, led by Father Marest, another 
.Jesuit priest, left Cahokia, and moving 40 miles farther down, built a village 
of their own, known as the Kaskaskia village, six miles above the mouth of 
the stream, also taking their name, the Kaskaskia river. A dozen or more 
Canadian Frenchmen, some with their families brought with tliem from 

- 25 - 

Canada, and others wlio had married Indian squaws, in each of those villag-eg 
constituted tlie nucleus of civilization that entitled them to the distinction 
of being the first actual settlements of white people in Illinois—Cahokia, the 
first, dating from 1H98, and Kaskaskia from 1700. Gradual accessions of other 
Canadians and French, in time displaced the Indians and constituted those 
settlements permanent French towns. 

The wonderful discoveries by Marquette and Joliet, and peaceable acquisi- 
tion, by La SalVe, of a new empire, produced at first, but little excitement iii 
France. The magnitude and remote distance of the new possessions were be- 
wildering; and not until the nine years war with England was terminated by 
the treaty of Ryswick, in 1697, did Louis XIV, King of France, give the mat- 
ter serious consideration. He then sent Le Moyne d'Iberviile, an officer of 
his navy, to the mouth of the Mississippi to assert formal authority over his 
vast and new domain; and that officer, on his arrival there, built a fort and 
founded a settlement on a sand bar which he named Biloxi. Tlijn, to en- 
courage the colonizing and development of that region, the French govern- 
ment, in 1712, granted to Antoine Crozat and company, the commercial 
monopoly of all the lower Mississippi country, then named Louisiana in honor 
of Louis XIV, who died in 1715. Two years after the King's death, the 
Crozat Company failed, and surrendered its cliarter to the crown, and Jean 
Baptiste de Bienville was appointed Governor of Louisiana, and he, in 1711)? 
founded, what is now, the city of New Orleans, by settling there a number of 
emigrants that followed him from France. 

About that time, Pierre Duque de Boisbriant was sent with a small mili- 
tary force up the Mississippi as Commandant of the Illinois country, ^lak. 
ing Kaskaskia his head-quarters, he at once set about planning the defense of 
his territory from threatened invasion by the Spaniards at Santa Fe. Select- 
ing a site near the bank of the Mississippi, 16 miles above Kaskaskia, lie 
there, in 1721, built a stockade fort, which he named Fort Chartres. in honor 
of the Duke de Chartres, son of the Regent. There he established his seat of 
military government, and there upon, jy royal decree, the Illinois passed from 
the jurisdiction of Canada to that of Louisiana. 

In 1719 John Law originated, in Paris, his celebrated Mississippi scheme, 
styled "The Company of the West," and, granted by tlie French government 
more extraordinary powers than had been given to the Crozat company; lie 
frenzied all Europe with dazzling promises of immediate fabulous wealth. 
One of his chief agents, Phillip Francois Renault, Superintendent of the Im- 
perial Mining company of Paris, arrived at Kaskaskia, from France, in 1721, 
with 200 employees and .500 negro slaves to work the reported gold and silver 
mines of Illinois; and thus planted in the Mississippi Valley the baneful curse 
of African slavery. He secured from the commandant a large grant of land 
five miles above Chartres where he built the town of St. Phillip, and to-day 
his descendants are still contesting in the Illinois courts for possession of that 
land. The influence of John Law's wild enterprize was sensibly felt in Illi- 
nois. It gained some accessions to its population. In 1722, the village of 
Chartres sprung up at the gate of the Fort; quite a settlement was made at 
n»e foot of the rocky cliff four miles to the east of Chartres named Prairie de 
Rocher; Cahokia gained impotance as a trading point and Kaskaskia became 
the central emporium of the Mississippi valley. 

" 26 - 

But tlie g-littering bubble of speculation soon bursted. The John Law 
company collapsed and went into bankruptcy. Renault found neither mines 
of ^-old or silver in Illinois; but discovered and opened tlie deposit of lead ore 
at Potosi on tlie west side of tlie Mississippi whicli has ever since been pro- 
fitably mined. 

The depressing reaction that followed failure of the -John Law Company 
Itiighted every prospect of the Illinois, and for twenty years its dwindling col" 
onists, left to shift for themselves in profound obscurity. Fort Chartres was 
almost deserted; its stockade rotted away, and the country was on the verge 
of abandonment. So desperate was its condition, that the Marquis de 
(lallissonaire, Governor General, of Canada, implored King Louis XV to come 
to its rescue. "The little colony of the Illinois," he pleaded, "ought not to be 
left to perish. The country is extremely productive, and its connection with 
Canada and Louisiana must be maintained. The land is mostly a plain ready 
for tlie plow, and is traversed by an innumerable multitude of buffalo. These 
animals are covered with a species of wool sutHciently tine to be employed in 
various manufactories." He further suggested, and doubtless correctly, tliat 
the buffalo, if caught, and attached to the plow, would move it at a speed 
superior to that of the domestic ox. 

At length the dissolute King was aroused to the importance of preserving 
his western empire. In 1751, he sent to Fort Chartres a regiment of grena- 
diers, and a large number of artisan -i and laborers who began at once the erec- 
tion of a new and larger Fort Chartres, of stone, a mile above the old one, 
which was built at the cost of $1,-500.00, and when completed in 17(il, was the 
grandest and strongest fortress in America. But before its completion. 
France was, in 1755, engaged in a war with England, which, continuing for 
seven years, was practically terminated by the English victory on the Plains 
of Abraham, and the fall of Quebec, on the 13th of September 1759. To in. 
demnify Spain for her los? of Florida tiie weak French King ceded to her, in 
17()1, New Orleans and all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi; and by the 
treaty signed at Paris on the loth of February, 17(13, he transferred to Eng- 
land all the rest of his possessions in America. 

However, for two years after its cession, Pontiac, the great Ottawa chief, 
the friend and ally of the French, stood in the path of the victorious English 
and frustrated all their attempts to take possession of the Illinois. And not 
until assured by St. Ange de Belle Rive, the old commandant at Fort Chartres, 
that further opposition to the victors was helpless, did he relent and sullenly 
retire beyond the Mississippi. Tiie way then open, Captain Sterling, with his 
42iid. liigldanders marched to Fort Chartres, and on the lOth of October, 
17(i5, received from St. Ange formal surrender of the Fort, and all of the Illi- 
nois country. And thereupon, to the deep humiliation of the French soldiers 
and settlers, the wliite lillies of France were lowered from the bastion llag- 
staff and replaced by the red cross of St. George. 

For the following thirteen years the Illinois was a province of Great Bri- 
tain, governed by an English garrison, at Fort Chartres until 1772, when the 
Mississippi still loyal to tlie French, ever murmuring the names of IManiuette 
and LaSalle arose in wrathful indignation, and sweeping over the American 
bottom, carried away one wall and a bastion of the Fort, forcing the detested 
English to evacuate it, and take refuge at Kaskaskia. There th.ey enclosed 

■ -27- 

the old deserted Jesuit college with pickets, upon which they mounted a few 
small guns and dignified it with the title of "Fort Gage," in honor of General 
Thomas Gage, then Governor of New York and commander of the English 
forces in America. 

Under Britisli rule the Illinois remained in its almost primitive condition. 
As a subjugated province it repelled immigration, and its white population, 
of scarcely more than 800 confined to a few small villages, remained stationary. 
In its wilderness solitude, so completely isolated from the outside world, not 
a sound reached it of the momentous events occurring a few years later in the 
Atlantic seaboard colonies. The French inhabitants of Illinois knew nothing 
of that political upheaval that produced the Declaration of Independence, nor 
did they hear the faintest echo of the "resounding clash of arms," at Lexing- 
ton and Concord, on the 18th of April, 1775, that began the mighty struggle of 
the American Revolution. But the English heard it, and their garrisons at 
Kaskaskia, Vincennes and Detroit were hurried to the east to iielp subdue 
Washington and his revolting colonists, leaving at each western post but a 
corporal's guard to maintain there the authoriny of George the Third. 

Fort Gage, in Kaskaskia, was left in command of Chevalier de Rociieblanc, 
a renegade Frenchman, who had joined the English, with but a few invalid 
soldiers , unlit for eastern service. Sleeping in fancied security, far from the 
turmoil and dangers of war, about the middle of the night, July 4th, 1778, his 
Fort was rudsly entered by CtI. George Riger-; Clark an.l his b:ind of Vir- 
ginia back-woodsmen, who made the commander and his soldiers prisoner.s, 
and took possession of his Fort and of the town. 

While Washington and his valiant rebels were battling in the Atlantic 
colonies, with British despotism for independence and liberty. Col. Clar'< con- 
ceived the plan for wresting the Illinois country from English power. By per- 
mission and authority of Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia, iie raisid four 
small conpanies of volunteers, and set out through an unknown wilderness on 
his perilous venture. Landing from his flat boats near old Fort Massic, on 
the Ohio river, with 117 men, all afoot, he marched 100 miles to Kaskaskia, 
through a strange country, infested with hostile Indians to attack an English 
fort of (to him) unknown strength. The French people of Illinois who enter- 
tained hereditary hatred for their British rulers, ondiscovering who Col. Clark 
was, joyfully hailed him as their deliverer, and unhesitatingly theirallegiance 
to the cause he represented. 

In the middle of the following winter, on Feb. 5th, 177;), Col. Clark, with 
177 men, left Kaskaskia, and marching afoot through trackless prairies and 
swimming overflowed streams, to Vincennes, there captured Fort Sackville, 
with Col. Hamilton its English commander, and then completed his, 
for the .state of Virginia, of the country between the Ohio and the northern 
lakes. That new acquisition of territory was annexed to Virginia, and by its 
legislature, organized as a county of that state entitled the county of Illinois, 
with Col. John Todd appointed its civil commandant. 

The Revolutionary war ended, and peace with England was restored by 
the treaty signed at Paris on the .3d of September, 1783; and then the 1.') in- 
dependent colonies joined the confederacy since known as the United States 
of America. To that new born republic the state of Virginia ceded tlie 
County of Illinois, in 1787, organized it into the Northwestern Territory, and 


General Arthur St. Clair was appointed its Governor. Congress, by its or- 
dinance of 1787, provided for the ultimate divison of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory into not less than three, nor more tVian five States, and prohibited slav- 
ery therein, though, unfortunately, slavery already existed there since the 
advent of Renault. 

Tlie tirst settlement of Americans, in the Illinois country dates from the 
close of the Revolutionary war. Then many of the rugged followers of Col. 
Clark who, in their campaign of conquest through it, had been charmed with 
its magnificent prairies, its beautiful streams, and picturesque woodlands 
and evident fertility of its soil, returned with their families and neighbors of 
the east and south, to the new, and now free country, to make their perman- 
ent homes. Braving the murderous hostilities of the Indians, and innumer- 
able hardships and privations incident to frontier life, those sturdy pioneers 
built their cabins and blockhouses, and held tlie country. 

By subsequent act of Congress the Northwestern Territory was divided 
into five prospective states: and in 1802, Ohio, the one of them nearest the old 
colonies, was admitted as a state into the Union, and the rest were comprised 
in the Territory of Indiana with Vincennes as its capital. The few settle- 
ments in Illinois Territory at that time were near the Mississippi. Their 
remoteness from Vincennes. and the ditticulties and dangers of maintaining 
communication with it, impelled the Illinoians to desire division of Indian 
Territory and establishment of Illinois as a separate Territory. After much 
discussion that object was accomplished by act of Congress of March 7th, 1809, 
which gave to Illinois, including Wisconsin, a separate Territorial organiza- 
tion with Kaskaskia as its capital. To set in motion the political machinery 
of tiie new Territory, President Madison appointed Ninian Edwards, a Ken- 
tucky Judge, its Governor, and Nathaniel Pope, also of Kentucky, Secretary. 
Its population, gradually increasing, Illinois was raised, in 1812, to a Territory 
of the second grade with a legislative assembly of its own for local self-govern- 

On June 19th, 1812, the United States declared war against Great Britian. 
Though Illinois was far distant from the conflict that followed, it maintained 
a military force in the tield to protect its northern frontier, then reaching a 
]ine drawn from Alton to Vincennes, from ravages of hostile Indians in the 
interest and pay of the Britisli. It was on Aug. 15th, of that year, 1812, that 
2r) regular soldiers, 12 militiamen, 2 women and 12 children, occupants of Fort 
Dearborn at the mouth of the Chicago river, were massacred by the Indians. 
Among many other atrocities then committeed here by the savages was the 
murder, on the 10th of July 18U, of Mrs. Moore and 7 children, on Wood 
river, a few miles east of the present city of Alton. 

In December, 1814. peace with Great Britian was restored, with the 
result, the year following, of greatly increasing the tide of immigration to 
Illinois from all the older states By 1816, in all that portion of Illinois Terri- 
tory south of the Kaskaskia river the Indian title to the land had been ex- 
tinguished and cabins of the pioneers had displaced the Indian lodges. Salt 
in sutlicient quantities to supply the settlers, was produced by primitive 
methods from saline springs on the Big Muddy and in Gallatin County, and 
quite a commerce was maintained, by flat-boats, with New Orleans. Then, 
too, the introduction of steam power was beginning to revolutionize the means 

- 29 ^-- 

of river transporation. The tirst steam boat on our western waters was tlie 
"New Orleans," built at Pittsburg in 1811, by Livingston and Roosevelt, (the 
President's grandfather,) and descended to New Orleans. The fli-ststeam boat 
to ascend the Mississippi above the mouth of the Ohio was the General Pil<e, 
that arrived at St. Louis on August 1st, 1817. In 1827 the "-Mechanic" was 
the first steam boat to cautiously venture into the Illinois river. It reached 
Fort Clark, now Peoria, and returned to St. Louis in safety. The first steam 
driven vessel arrived at Chicago in 182.'i. The first newspaper publi-shed in Ill- 
inois, the Illinois- Herald, was issued at Kaskaskia by Capt. Matthew Duncan, 
in 1814. The tii'st American school teacher ni Illinois, was Samuel John Seeley, 
who ta'.tght a school at New Dssigti. in Monroe County, at the close of the 
Revolutionary war, in 1783. 

With the large influx of emigrants that poured into Illinois Territory, 
after termination of the second war with England, from the southern and 
eas'-ern states, there came the politican and office seeker in full force: and 
then soon began the agitation for advancing Illinois from the status of a 
Territory to that of a State. Very fortunately, indeed for the future of Illi- 
nois, Nathaniel Pope was elected, in ISK), to represent it as a delegate in 
Congress. He secured an act enabling Illinois to apply for admission into the 
Union. And, with far-seeing sagacity, provided in that act that rhe northern 
boundary of the State, which Congress, in 1787, had designated to be a line 
running west from the extreme southern extremity of Lake Michigan, be 
moved 61 miles farther north, from which extension of territory the fourteen 
northern counties of our State, (including Chicago and Galena) were sub- 
sequently formed. He also secured an amendment of the law I'ecjuiring a 
population of ()0,000 to qualify a State for admission into the Union, reducing 
the number to 40,000; and had Congress grant to Illinois a certain percentage 
of the proceeds of sales of its public lands to promote the cause of public 

The enabling act demanded a census of the Territory to be talcen as the 
initial step in its application for statehood. The actual number of white 
residents in Illinois in 1818 was .34,620, but the census enumerators knew tiieir 
duty, and stationed at the main cross-roads, counted all who passed and re- 
passed, including wandering Indians, and emigrants, passing through to 
Missouri and elsewhere, with the result of reporting a large excess of popula- 
tion over the stipulated 40,000. Then the necessary elections were held. In 
August, 1818, a properly constituted convention framed a state constitution. 
Shadrack Bond was elected first Governor and Pierre Menard Lieutenant 
Governor. John McLean was the first congressman elected. Then on the 
.3d day of December, 1818 Congress passed the crowning act of admission of 
Illinois, as a soverign State into the Union. 

Such is Part 1st of the History of Illinois, of which I have hurriedly pre- 
sented but the mere outlines. It comprizes a story of hazardous adventure 
and heroic daring that will in all time claim the interest and admiration of 
every intelligent citizens. In the achievements of those fearless pioneers of 
civilization, the trapper, the trader, the explorer, the priest, wlio, two hun- 
dred years ago, braved the dangers and hardships of the savage wilderness to 
found a new empire and promulgate old faith there is an element of romance 
worthy of the finest efforts of the poet and artist. To the hardy Canadian 

- 30 - 

French is due the credit of discovering Illinois and planting upon its soil the 
germs of European civilization. But their faculty for ready assimilation with 
the inferior race they came in contract with blasted their energies and par- 
alyzed all progress. For nearly a century they were in sole control of this 
prolific country, of unlimited natural resources; yet, at the end of that period 
they surrendered it to the British almost in the same condition in which they 
had found it. The only products of their long tenure were a splendid stone 
fortress on a sandy foundation: a few villages, with a Catholic church in each, 
on the alluvial banks of treacherous streams: rudely built water mills on 
creeks that were dry half the year, and a white population not exceeding one 
thousand in number. 

Their agriculture, little more than supplied their immediate wants: their 
dwellings were of simple and antiquated construction; their commerce little 
more than trade and barter with the natives for the natural products of the 
forest, streams and prairies, and their roads the ancient trails of the buffalo 
and Indian. But, shut out from the world, with no artiticial wants, and free 
from the restraints of law; free from the tyranny of fashions and exactions of 
public opinion, and exempt from the curse of taxation, they enjoyed, if not 
supreme happiness, the highest degree of contentment. 

The thirteen years of British rule added nothing to the physical in- 
tellectual or industrial condition of Illinois; but, by continually inciting 
Indian hostilities retarded its advancement. A new era dawned upon this 
region with its conquest, in 1778, by Col. George Rogers Clark. In his track 
came a new people, of the aggressive Anglo-Saxon stock, fresh from their 
baptism in the spirit of liberty through the tires of the Revolutionary war. 
From the coming of those hardy pioneers dates the beginning of the wonder- 
ful developuient of our great State. By the necromancy of their genius and 
industry they converted the barren wilderness of the French, into the garden 
spot of the world. Illinois was admitted into the Union scarcely 86 years ago, 
about the extreme space of a human iife, and in that comparatively brief 
period the marvellous unfolding of its latent riches and possibilities has 
amazed humanity. An honored citizen of Cass County, Mr. Wm. Stevenson, 
often seen driving through our streets, still "hale and hearty," was born five 
years before Illinois became a State. He has lived here under all the Gover- 
noi-s from Ninian Edwards, to Charles S. Deneen. He was here when Jack- 
sonville and Springfield were small collections of log cabins, and Indians 
occupied the northern half of the State. He was here long before Illinois had 
either a canal, railroad, or telegrapli: and saw the 2,000 volunteers called for 
by Governor Reynolds, rendezvous at Beardstown, in 18.32, and march to Rock 
Island to repeal the invasion of the State by Black II;i\vk and his band. Even 
in the space of my own life time and certainly no one in this audience will 
class me among the old men. I have seen the population of Illinois expand 
from 100,000 to over 5,000,000. I saw the construction of the first rail road 
built in this State, which was also the first built in the Mississippi valley: and 
I saw the wires stretched across onr prairies for the first telegraph line in Illi- 
nois. In my time, Illinois has arisen from the verge of ruin and bankruptcy, 
unable to pay the interest on its enormous indebtedness, incurred for its insane 
scheme of internal improvements, of 1837, and with giant strides march on 
and up through every obstacle to the pirniacle of wealth and power it now 

- 31 - 

occupies. And keepino^ pace witli its astounding growth of material wealth 
were all the multifarious interests of education, religion, social refinement, 
and other factors of modern civilization. 

It is our proud boast that in arts and sciences; in the domain of classic 
learning and literature; in the field of politics, diplomacy and statesmanship; 
in the realm of mechanical inventions and discoveries, the sons and daughters 
of Illinois are found in the front ranks, and are, to-day in all lines of in- 
tellectual activity, the peers of any in the world. 

To the patriotic citizens of our State, its history must always inspire 
sentiments of pride and exultation. Illinois has become the key-stone of the 
great arch spanning this continent from ocean to ocean, and one of the strong- 
est and most important States of the American Union. 

By tlie genius of its people and successful developement of its innate 
capabilities, it has progressed from on obscure Canadian colony and conquered 
British province to its present proud preeminence among the commonwealths 
of this mighty Republic; ranking First of the States in extent of railroad 

Second in wealth and educational institutions and Third in population. 

"Not without thy wondrous story, 

Illinois, Illinois, 
Can be writ this nations glory, 

Illinois, Illinois; 
Throughout the records of thy years, 
With all their varying hopes and fears, 
Thy true greatness there appears, 

Illinois, Illinois." 


THE father of the subject of this sketch, was Dr. Ephraim Rew,' who was 
' born in the State of Massachusetts in the year 1778. He started on 
liorsebaclc in December, 1829, from his home in the state of New York, 
on a western trip, hoping- to benetit his liealth. Six weeks later, he arrived 
at Meredosia, Illinois, in Morgan county; he had greatly improved in healtli, 
and being- pleased with the western country returned for liis family. As 
tliere were two physicians in Meredosia, he concluded he would settle at 
Beardstown, in which there was but one house, at the foot of Lafayette street 

in whicli lived Thomas Beard and 
family, and also another family with 
them. Dr. Rew came from St. Louis 
on a tlatboat; he was six weeks in 
making the river trip. He covered 
the deck of an old boat in the river 
with Hat stones, on which to build 
flies for cooking purposes, and began 
cutting timber in the woods on the 
Schuyler side of the river, for lus cab- 
in, the family, in tlie meantime living 
on the boat in the river. At tlie end 
or a few weeks. Dr. Rew and his fam- 
ily consisting of himself, wife and his 
son. Bradford, upon the earnest solici- 
tation of Thomas Beard moved into 
the cabin Ki feet s(iuare with the 
otlirr two families. In the meantime 
he proceeded with his building enter- 
prize, and erected a cabin 1.5 feet 
s(|uare on the northeast corner of Sec- 
ond and State streets on part of lots n 
and 7 in block 11, which property he 
He lived i'. this cabin which 
he sold it to John 
south, on lots ;] and 
f and family. The 
fiison f\)r the west 

('YN 1 111 \ \N\ 

pu;vlia>H(l ni i hoiii i^ 

Sl.KHl uIm 1 tJK^ ()\H 1 

S. Will.oiirn the saui 
4 in block 111. (in \vlii( 
next \ear Dr. Ivt'A- n 
half of the riorllicast 

I Ik 


I \I n Mih, 1- 

NC \,i)\\ 1-. but a few days wh' ,i 
itb and moved across tlie s* eet 
as^aiii biiiit a cabin for oiuise 
I bis proiiertv witli I'eiiry M; 

2!)T IS U 1 


aljoiit one mile 

- 33 - 

west of BInff Springs and he then moved into a house on Second street, in 
wliich house Cyntliia Ann Rew was born on tlie 6tli day of April, 1832. Tliis 
liouse was afterwards moved 5 or (5 blocks south, where it remained until last 
fall wlien it was burned, 73 yeai-s after it was built, in 1831. At the date of 
her leaving Virginia in tlie spring af 1905 with lier liusband, David J. McCon- 
nell, to make their home at McCook, Nebraska, wliere their son, Lewis W. 
McConnell, resides, she was the oldest native of Beardstown living in Cass 

Dr. Rew was the flret physician at Beardstown, and while there, he prac- 
tised medicine, and continued his practise after removing to his farm near 
Bluff Springs, and up to his death. He was a widower, witii five children, 
wlien he married his second wife, tlie subject of tliis sketch, being the only 
cliild of tlie second marriage. Wliile living in Beardstown, Mrs. Rew as- 
sisted her husband in a tinancial way, by making men's clothing. In 18.33, 
the Doctor moved from Beardstown to the tract in 29-18-11, wliich he had 
procured of Madison, and on May 17th, 183(5, purchased of John Gains an ad- 
ditional 120 acres adjoining. This land is now a part of the Oetgen farm. 
Mrs. McConnell remembers, that her father dug ditches along the boundnrits 
of his lands, to protect Iris crops from cattle, as fences were expensive in 
tliose days. 

Here Dr. Rew remained, raising crops, and practising medicine until his 
deatli which occurred on tlie 23d day of May, 1842, when liis daughter, Cyn- 
thia, was ten years and one month old. She well remembers, that- on the 
morning of his death, he told his wife, tliat his time liad come; that he had 
some business matters witli his neighbors, that ought to be settled: he mounted 
liis saddle horse and rode away to finish that work; in a few liours lie re- 
turned, and complaining of being cold, asked the wife to put away the liorse, 
and lie went to liis bed, and slept for a short time, and upon his awakening, 
his wife asked him if he would have some gruel made; he replied that he 
would prefer heartier food, and she went to the smoke house to get a slice of 
ham to cook for him, his little child remaining at his bedside. Wliile the 
mother was cooking the meal, he turned his head, looked long and earnestly 
into the eyes of his young daughter, and died without uttering a word. He 
was a Free Mason, and the members of his order came from long distances to 
attend his funeral services, which were conducted by Rev. Levi Springer, who 
lived for many years on his farm three miles east of Virginia. He was buried 
in the old cemetery in the city of I>eardstown which he as.^isted to establi^ii. 
The stone at his grave has crumbled away, and the spot where he lies can not 
now be located. 

The estate of Dr. Rew was settled by his son, Horatio G. Rew; tlie sale of 
the personal property was held on Saturd ly. July 30, 1842, at tlie farm. 

An extract, from the sale bill, may be of interest, as as it shows the pre- 
valing prices paid at sales in that day: 

One large cow and calf sold to Nathan F. Horn for $;». 

One dun cow sold to John B. Bell for $8.25. 

One brindle cow sold to Jesse Ankrum for $10.12. 

One brown cow sold to Stephen Holt for $ht. 

One red cow sold to John McKown for $8.50 

Two cows taken by the widow at appraised value. 


One three-year-old white steer sold to iViigustns Krohe for $12. 

One three-year-old red steer sold to Augustus Krohe for $11.75. 

One two-year-old red steer sold to John Duchart for $8.75. 

One red yearlihg heifer sold to Amos Bonney for $5. 

One red lineback heifer sold to John Duchart for $.3.25. 

One bay mare sold to John Decker for $57. 

One bay mare sold to Mrs. Lucy Arm Rew for $10. 

One two-year-old roan lilley sold to George White for $11. 

One yearling bay filley sold to Weslev Daugherty for $20. 

One three-year-old brown gelding sold to J. C A. Seeger for$()1.5(). 

One small sucking colt sold to Amos Bonney for $19. 

Ten bbls. corn sold to John J. Moseley for $6.06. 

Five bbls. corn sold to W. B. Gaines for $2.50, 

Joseph M. McLane was the crier of the sale and X B. Thompson was the 
clerk. John Savage was the collector of taxes in 1813. 

The mother of Mrs. ]\rcConnell, Mrs. Lucy Ann Rew, married Benjamin 
Stribling. on March 26th, 1816. The ceremony was conducted by Rev. Red- 
dick Horn, a Methodist protestant pi'eacher. Mr. Stribling was the father of 
Isaac Milton Stribling; lie entered 180 acres of land in Sees 32 and 33 T 18 
R 10, in 1830: most of this land now belongs to the heirs of I. M. Stribling. 
Mr. Benjamin Stribling brought his new wife and her daughter to this farm, 
and here Mrs. McConnell was married to David J. McConnell on September 
4, 1855, by Rev. L. C. Pitner, a, noted Methodist preacher, the year previous 
to her marriage Mrs. McCorniell professed religion at a camp-meeting con- 
fhicted by Peter Cartwriglit at the Garner Ciiapel grove, six miles east of Vir- 
giniii. Her husband was then a clerk in a store owned by William Chase, of 
Beard.stown; this store was in Virginia, on lot 109, where the shoe shop of 
John Menzies now is: immediately after the marriage Mr. and Mrs. McCon- 
nell removed to Beardstown where he was employed by Chase in his Beards- 
town store; Cliase married Susie Miller, who was a sister of Mrs. Sarah C 
Gatton, of this city. Here they remained for nearly twenty years, or until 
1871, when Mr. Benjamin Stril)]ing purchased the Bevis property in Barden 
and Wood's addition to Virginia, and invited Mrs. McConnell to come and 
live with llieiii. They moved into tlie Stribling property, and here remained 
unt 11 t!ie spring of 19)5. Nfr. Stribling died June 25, 1880, and his widow, the 
mother of Mrs. McConnell, died January 11, 1896. 

Mrs. McConneli's memory of past events, is excellent; the first church 
sei'vice she recollects was held by Rev. Levi Springer at the farm liouse of 
lier lilt licr. when she was 14- years old: the liouse contained one room, 18 feet 
.square: benches and cliairs were br'^ught in for the hearers: among whom 
were Mr. GarlicU and wife, Mrs. Frank Hammer, of Beardstown, Mr. and 
Mrs. Higgins, Mr. and Mrs. Gaines. Wiien she was seven years old a school 
house was built where Bluff Springs now is situated. Mr.'^ Henry Babb was 
the iii-st teacher, M iry Ann Lindsley, who afterward married John L. Buck- 
lev, was the second teacher: tiie next was a man named Humingston, wlio 
was a. brutal wretch wlio deserved hanging. Of her step-father, Mr. Strib- 
ling, she says that lie always regarded lier as if she was his own child, and she 
declares that he was one of the best men tliat ever lived. 

Mrs. McConnell's liusband, David I. was born January 4, 1830 iti the state 
of Tennessee; when he was a year old, his father, John M. McConnell, a tailor, 
brought him to Missouri: lie came to Beardstown in 1848. He died in the 
west, a few weeks after their departure from this city. 


HENRY I\. Hull was born on the 11th day of September, 1823, in Marion 
county, Illinois, near the town of Mt. Vernon. His father, Seth 
Hull, was born in Connecticut, and his mother was a native of the 
state of, Massachusetts. This family came to Beardstown, in 1834; they came 
up from St. Louis on the steamer "Utility," in a run of seven days, whicli 
was then a quick trip. This boat was rebuilt for running on the Sangamon 
river and made a trip or two to Petersburg, and then gave it up. 

When Mr. Hull tirst saw Beardstown, then a boy of 11 years of age, it was 

a little town of some four stores, a 
grist mill and saw mill, with one 
church, in which all the d liferent de- 
nominations held religious service, 
situated on Sth street, if he correctly 
remembers the location. Among the 
merchants were the Wilbourn broth- 
ers, who were the first pork-packei's of 
the town; and Knapp and Pogue. wIh^ 
owned both a store and a mill. The 
tifst physician whom Mr. Hull remem- 
bers, was s Dr. Giljson. who came 
from Kentucky. I'eiuained about tpu 
years, and w(>nt to P>erlin, Illinois, 
and was succeeded by Dr. Turpin. also 
a Kentuckian, wlio practised there 
some eight y(>ars, and went to (Mii- 
cago. One of the lirst preachers he 
knew, was Levi C. I'itner, a M(>[ho(i- 
isl : Cyrus Wi'ight. a larj^e heav\, 
was a, Paptist preacher, who lived in 
the northeast paitol'the count\. !>nt 
IIENKi b. JH LL. freipienllv was iicard in beard, -tow n. 

Tlie first time Mr. Hull met George Plahn 
Tinsley, a merchant and commission man 
corner of the junction of Washington s! 
Shaw, and liis brother. .John B. Shaw, wen- 
was tiien unmarried, but hUer weni to Ch; 
of Dr. Chandler. 

, he \vas 

n 1 h 

' employ of S. 


w ho \\as 1 


1 at the noi'th. 


|-cet with 
• ^ at t oiaiiM' 


s of tl 

str.-et. .]. II( 
(■ town: the la 


i.ndler\'il le 


narried a (iaii;^! 


- :ui - 

Mr. Hull assisted in running- the terry boat when quite a boy: this terry 
was owned by Thomas Beard, and was a great money maker, wlien emigra- 
'.ion was pouring into Missouri and Iowa; often the receipts would amount to 
one liundred dollars per day. 

The tirstsciiool Henry Hull attended was conducted by his father, Setli 
Hull, assisted by a man named Smith, supported by voluntary contributions. 
Francis Arenz he remembers, as a taller man tliaii his brother. John A. 
Arenz, but thin in flesli; he did not remain long at Beardstown, but removed 
to Arenzville, which town he founded. 

The name of Heru'y R. Hull is found on the Beardstown list ot voters at 
the general election held in Illinois, on August 3d LSKi. The judges of elec 
tion were Amos Atwater, Plorjir^e Ho wen and Mclveever Dellaven; the clerks 
were James C. Leonard and Edward R. Saunders. Upon the democratic 
ticket were the following named candidates: 

For governor, Augustus C. French. 

For lieutenant governor. N. G. Wilcox. 

For representative in congress, Peter Ciirtwright. 

For representative in state legislature. Edwaid \V. Turner. 

For slieritf, W. J. DeHaven. 

For coroner, H. Springer. 

For county commissioner, Thomas Plaster. 

Upon tlie whig ticket were the following names: 

I'^or governor, Thomas M. Kilpatrick. 

For lieutenant governor, J. B Wells. 

For represenrative in congress, A. Lincoln. 

l^'or i-epresentative in stnte legislature. F. Arenz. 

Foi-sheriir. .John Savage. 

For coroner, .lames L6;,an. 

For county conimissionei', 11. McIIenry. 

The (luestion as to whether a Constitutional Convention should be held, 
was also voted upon. 

This election, was lield uufler a law retiuiring each voter to name the 
candidates of his choice, and the votes vvere rhus recorded by the officers hold- 
ing the election. A resident of the county, was allowed to vote at any vot- 
ing place in the county, and the name of Samtiel Petetisli, is found on tlie 
P>eai'dstown Poll book, and the name of Dr. Chandler, of Chandlerville, is 
foinid upon tlie X'irginia Poll book. The election at Virginia on the same day 
was lield by A. Xavlor, .lohii C. Scott and .Julius Elmore judges, David Whit- 
mire and David Iilair clerks. At Virginia there were 135 votes foi- Kilpatrick 
for governor, and 100 votes for French for governor: 127 votes for Lincoln, and 
98 votes for Cartwright: 109 votes for Arenz, and 105 votes for Turner: 135 votes 
for McIIenry, and ss votes for Plasters: 122 vol es for Savage, and i)S votes for 
DeHaven: i2(i votes for Logan, and 95 votes for Springer. There vvere U>< 
votes cast for the convention, and 47 votes against it. 

In 1.S51, Mr. Hull vva.s married in Morgati county, near the present town 
of Literberry, to Miss Lydia Ann Hudson, a daughter of Peter Hudson, and a 
sister of William Hudson and of >Irs. Nancy M. T'etetish of this city. This 
lafly died at Beardstown. in isiio. Mr. Hull remained a widower until IStw, 
vvlien he married Mrs. Mary Case, a widow, who was a Henderson, b.y birth, 
related to tlie Henderson family of Morgan county: she died in the state of 
Kansas in the year 1.S95, while visiting a daughter who resided in tliat .state. 

In 1S07, Mr. Hull came to Virginia to build a house for Ids brother-in-law, 
Ml'. Samuel II Petetish, and has resided here ever since, making his home at 
the Petetish residence. .Mthough nearlv eightv-two years of ag\-. he eiijo\s 
good health. He i.s ii(»t ijuite so vigorous as when in i.S()7 he was iii:iisliai or 
the city of Beardstown, still, he is well preserved, considering his years. ]lo 
i.s a very quiet, and unassuming man, of excelle it liabits, and of strict inU'g- 
rity. He deserves to live as long as he desires. The above engraving was 
made from an old dicture taken at P>eardstown, in lS(iO. 


Business Directory of Cass county, Illinois, for tlie year eig-iiteen hundred 

and sixty: 


Attorneys at Law: Henry E. Dumnier, Thomas M. Tiiompson, Thos. 
H. Carter, C. H. Houselveeper, J. H. Sliaw, James M. Epier, G. rollard. 

Physicians: Cliarles E. Parl<er, F. Ehrhardt, H. H. Littlelield, .1. R. 
Dowler, Johivlfeei liomeopathic pliyscian; T. A. Hoffman, chemist and pliysi- 
cian; E. S. Cartiei', surgeon dentist; Dr. D. Wnitney, surgeon dentist. 

Printers: ShurtletT & Jones, publishers Beardstown Democrat; Thomp- 
son, Fulks, and Irwin, publishers Weekly Illinoian. 

Magistrates, Notaries Public, Agents, Etc: C. H. C. Havekluft, 
county judge; J. A. Arenz, Notary public and magistrate; Thomas S. Wiles, 
notary public and magistrate; Thomas M.Thompson, notary public; S.Em- 
mons, magistrate and land agent; L. F. Sanders, tire and life insurance agent; 
D. C. Meigs, insurance agent; C. H. Housekeeper, police magistrate: I. H. 
Harris, land agent. 

Dealers in Boots and shoes: Sanders & Stettenus, Tread way & Bro., 
Adam Fis her, J. Livermore. 

Blacksmith Shops: Thomas B. Clayton, Christian French, William II. 

Proprietors of Brick Yards: Fred Potter, John Baujan. 

Bankers: J. C. Leonard & Co., Bankers and dealers in exchange. 

Hotels: Park House, II. Billings; National House, C. P. Dunbangh; 
Virginia House, Campbell & Goodloe; Farmer's Home. G. Thompson. 

Druggists: Menke & Fletcher, William Whipp, Rice & Maxwell. 

Dealers in General Merchandise: D. M. Irwin, Chase, Parker & 
McLaughlin, Ed P. Chase, Dutch & Brother, George Plahn & Co., Leonard 
Montgomery & Co.. Nolte & McClure, M. L. Read & Co., George Kuhl, Isaac 
W. Overall, C. F. Frauman, C. Nicholson, G. F. Sielschott, II. Boemler, Alex- 
ander Lammers, G. H. Seeger, John Quigg; dealer in stoves and hardware; F. 
H. Rearick & Bro.; H. B. De Sollar; C. F. Morton. 

Dealers in Lumber: II. F. Foster &Co.. Hitchcock & Montgomery. 

Dealers in Groceries: Low & Billings, wholesale & retail; Tiiompson 
& Fames, commission merchants; Fred. Krohe, J. C. Eberwein, R. F. Kippen 

Manufactories, Etc.: Thom, Webb & Co., proprietors of the Phoenix 
foundry and machine shop; C. A. Bussman, manufacturer of sash, doors and 


blinds; II. Molilmaiin & Co., manufacturer of sash, doors and blinds; Durand 
& Co., undertakers and manufacturers of all kinds of cabinet ware; Jienjamin 
Eyre & Treadway, manufacturer of vvag-ons and plows; H. B. De Sollar, 
manufacturers of carriages and wagons; J. II. Pfeil, manufacturer of carri- 
ag-es and wagons: A. Wetterau, wagons and plows; C. II. Bockmeier, manu- 
facturer of plows; John Lehmberger. manufacturer of cigars and tolDacco; A. 
J. Wevers. cigar manufacturer; G. W. Weaver, proprietor of steam saw mill; 
Fisli, proprietor of flouring mill; E. S. Houghton, proprietor of flouring mill; 
W. E. Pearce, proprietor of flouring mill; Rearick, proprietor of flouring mill. 

Miscellaneous: Charles Sprague, President of the Rock Island & Alton 
Railroad Co.; Ira Crow, proprietor of feed stable; John Putman, proprietor of 
jewelry and music store; John J. Pappmier, watchmaker and jeweler; C. A; 
Kulil, brick mason; A. Orlopp, builder and contractor; August Hoyer, car- 
penter and joiner: S. Harper, carpenter and joiner; J. H. Reitz, architect and 
carpenter; J. II. Nickel, dealer in harness, saddles, whips and truhks; A. 
Petri, gunsmith; J. W. McClure, baker and confectioner; William McCrndden, 
marble dealer; F. W. Tracy, proprietor steam ferry; Moehring, proprietor 
barbershop; J. Duchart, meat market; Mrs. S. Harper, milliner; Joseph Rutf, 
proprietor of Lafayette saloon; J. Montgomery & Bros., proprietors eating 
and ice cream saloon; Jacob Bohrmann, proprietor of Washington brewery; 
Miss Sarah Whipp, millinery and fancy store; II. Steinkuhler, carpenter; Gr- 
Moore, saloon proprietor. 


Hezekiah Naylor, Proprietor Cass County Independent. 

I. H. Miller. President of Union College. 

R. S. Thomas, attorney-at-law, and President, Illinois River R. R. Co. 

Cr. Pollard, attorney-at-law. 

N. B. Thompson, merchant. 

C. H. Oliver, merchant. 

Pierce & Co., merchants. 

(t. W. (Joodspeed M. D., physician. 

E. Loomis, family grocery. 

W. E. Martin, grocer and corn merchant. 

William Kendall, grocer and produce dealer. 

Dr. Phillips, proprietor of flouring mill. 

John E. Haskell, proprietor of woolen manufactory. 

N. B. Beers, house builder. 

C. Brooks, carpenter and joiner. 

William Armstrong, proprietor of Glen Cottage Nursery. 

Jacob Dunaway, proprietor of Virginia Hotel. 

H. E. Warcl, Proprietor of Livery Stable. 

Robison & Brother, carriage and wagon makers. 

L. F. Briggs, proprietor of "Cass County Union." 

Robert IT. Cliittick, carriage and plow maker. 

J. B. Arthur, blacksmith. 

H. Hiiichclilf, blacksmith. 

C. E. Lawson, saddle and harness maker. 

J. G. Campbell, boot and shoe dealer. 

C. Magel &Co., boot and shoe dealers. 


E. B. Randal], lumber dealer. 
L. S. AUard, druggist, 
W. Sliiiiey, Justice of the Peace. 
Jacob Wise, butcher. 


S. Paddock & Bro., merchants. 

W. L. Way, merchant. 

II. McKee & Co., merchants ,' 

L. P. Renshaw, dealer in grain. 

L. McKee, postmaster and justice. 

K. II. Chandler, Police Magistrate. 

A. Englis & Co., plow makers. 

A. Englis and McKee, carriage and wagon makers. 

J. Robinson, miller. 

R. Ward & Co., .saddle and harness makers. 

C. L. Robinson, builder of (rilmore's patent- bee houses. 

J. W. Gladden, carriage and wagon maker and sign painter, 

G. Mayreis, boot and shoe maker. 

W. T. Sprouse. blacksmith. 

Charles During, Bakery and saloon. 

J. Raworth and A. J. Bruner, attorneys at law. 

R. Boles, Merchant tailor. 

Thomas J. Brook, carpenter and joiner. 

Charles E. Chandler, druggist. 

N. S. Read, M. D.. physican. 

Charles E. Lippencott, M. I)., physician. 

Charles Chandler, M. D., physician. 

W. R. Hunter, merchant and grocer. 
J.K. VanDemark. county surveyor and justice. 

O. H. Flickwir, merchant and grocer. 

D. Ridpath, merchant tailor. 

Hugh B. Elliott, carriage and wagon maker. 
Robert Putman, pliysician. 

J. B. Glass, physician and surgeon. 
Charles E. Yeck & Bro., mercharjts and grocers. 
J. L. Cire, merchant and justice. 
H. Englebaugh, merchant and miller. 
Charles Coerper, miller. 
H. Schatfer. boot and shoe dealer. 
Charles Pillney, carpenter and cabinet maker. 
N. Brill & S. Gephart, wagon makers and blacksmitlis. 
A. Boehme, merchant. 

T. B. Way, merchant. 
A. Oakley, .school teacher. 
C, King & Son, chair manufactory. 

E. Smith, brickmaker. 

S. Christy, pliysician. 
J. F. Black, machinist. 
H. Be vis. merchant, 


FRANCIS H. Rearick, the subject 
of this sketch was born in Berle. 
burg, in tlie province of Westplia- 
lia, in the Kingdom of Prussia, Octo- 
ber 12, 1829. Was one of five sons of 
Jacob Rearicl<, wlio was a copper and 
tinsmith in ihe old country and lav- 
ing a large family of live sons and one 
daughter conceived the idea of mov- 
ing to the rnitod States. Having a 
gieat horror of i he forced military 
senice which his sons would have to 
render to the king of Prussia, he de- 
cified to go to a new countiy, the Uni- 
ted States, the "home of the brave 
and the land of the free," and emi- 
grated in is;',(i ill the the month of 
.lune from his home in Prussia for the 
United States of America and after a 
two months" sea voyage with many 
tempestuous storms and privations 
reached Baltimore in iVugust of the 

After having sought for a brief time for employment lor himself and fam- 
ily in Raltimore and having failed to lind it he moved bv wagon to Franklin 
county, l^a , and located at Mount Alto in that county, where his family grew 
up about him. Here, the subject of this si<etch grew to manhood, having re- 
ceived such education as the village schodl alforded him. which was very im- 
perfect, as not over three months a 3 ear of schools were then conducted iiithe 
village, and these, very crude and imperfect, At the age of 14, he was obliged 
to stop school and give himself to various employment, largely doing farm 
work and other manual labor and at intervals working with his father at the 
tinner's trade which he learned, and so continued until he arrived at the age 
of 21 wlien he determined to go westward and in September 1S50 he left his 
home in Pennsylvania and came west and located at Beardstown in November 
1850, where he commenced work at his trade for an older brother, who had 
preceded him to this place. Thei'e he continued to work for his brother 

- 41 - 

using call his spare hours to improve his laclc of education in his younger years, 
and by reading and studying the history of our country, and becoming famil- 
iar with the prominent men of tlie land became interested in the politics of 
that day. 

His political leanings were with the democratic party. At this time the 
political parties in Cass county were very evenly divided numerically, the 
whigs sometimes filling the offices of the county, and sometimes the democrats. 
At this time the office of circuit clerk was filled by Thomas R. Saunders. The 
county clerk's office was held by L. F. Sanders. The slieriff's office was filled 
by Col. J. B. Fulks all of whom were whigs. Soon after this, the democratic 
party rather gained in streng-th in the county and the offices were filled more 
generally by democrats than whigs. 

About these times, the subject of our sketch was active in his political 
preferences and having been recognized as one of the leading young men of 
the county in political affairs, was elected to the office of city treasurer of the 
city of Beardstown. About this time Beardstown was the commercial center 
of all that region of country, drawing nearly all the trade of Cass county, 
a large part of Menard county and also drawing largely from Morgan and 
Sangamon counties, for at this time there were no railroads in the state of 
Illinois, except a short piece of railroad running from Naples on the Illinois 
river, to Springfield, Illinois, and all grains, pork and other farm produce had 
to be hauled to the river in wagons, then carried mostly to St. Louis by steam- 

At this time the leading merchants of Beardstown were such men as John 
McDonald, E. E. Saunders, Billings, McGee & Warner, Miller Hagerman & 
Bros., Nolte & McClure. Most of these firms were engaged at the same 
time in buying and packing pork, which was a very important business carried 
on at Baardstown at this time. The hogs were driven from adjoining counties 
often as far as from Logan county, in this state, to Beardstown to be there 
slaughtered and packed and shipped to the market. 

Among the prominent professional men of Beardstown at this time, of the 
attorneys were Henry E. Dummer, John B. Shaw, J. Henry Shaw, Isham 
Eeavis, Sylvester Emmons. And among the leading doctors were Dr. Cliaries 
Sprague, John Christy, Dr. J. R. Dowler and Dr. Francis Erhardt. The only 
newspaper in Beardstown at this time was the "Beardstown Gazette." which 
was published by Sylvester Emmons, who was elected clerk of the circuit 
court in 18.52. About this time L. U. Reavis made his appearance at Beards- 
town, and became the publisher of a newspaper called the "Center Illinoisan," 
now called "Illinoian-Star;" associated witli him in tlie publication of this 
paper was Mr. J. B. Shaw. L.U. Reavis took Horace Greeley as a patron saint 
and his great hobby was to remove the capitol from Washington to St. Louis 
and his enthusiasm in this direction made him tlie butt of ridicule oftentimes, 
and newspapers were known to caricature him as bearing on his back the cap- 
itol from Washington to St. Louis. Reavis was lame, one leg being shorter 
tlian the other. He lengthened the sliorter leg by adding to the heighth of 
the heel of the shoe. 

Durin^j these years between 1850 and 1853, the subject of this sketch con- 
tinued to work at his trade for his brother. In the spring of 185.3 his brother 
sold out his interest to him and went to California. Tlien he began to con- 


duct the business on his own account and continued in this business for many 
years, almost continuously for 20 years. 

In the fall of 1853, Oct. 12th, he was married to Helen M. Shaw, who was 
the daughter of Joseph Shaw, a man well known in Morgan and Cass counties, 
and she was the tlie sister of John B. Shaw and J. Henry Shaw. By this un- 
ion were born nine children, six surving and three dying in cliildhood. 

In the year 1858 his politital friends prevailed on him to accept the office 
of SherilT of Cass county to which he was elected in the fall of 1858 and served 
his term of two years, going out of ollice in 1860. In the meantime he contin- 
ued Ills interest in the hardware and tin business in connection with a young- 
er brother, William J. Rearick. In 1861 he was again prevailed upon to accept 
the nomination of his party to the office of Judge of the County Court of Cass 
County and was in the fall of 1861 duly elected to this place of honor and 
served his term of four years. During his term of office, his associates were 
William Mcllenry and G. W. Shavven. At this time the offices of the county 
were all tilled by democrats, Allen J. Hill being county clerk, Henry Phillips 
being clerk of the circuit court, and James Taylor being sheriff of the county. 

After the expiration of his term of office he again gave his undivided at- 
tention to his business for a time. In the year 1870 upon the death of Judge 
Hoffman, who was then filling the office of county judge, he was re-elected to 
lill tlie unexpired term of Judge Hoifman with unanimity, without any op- 
posing candidate in the field, both parties supporting him. After the expira- 
tion of his second term as Judge of the county court, in the spring of 1874, Mr. 
Rearick found a family growing up about him of sons and daughters and hav- 
ing a desire to give them the benefit of a good education he sought for a new 
location and upon investigation, finding he could purchase an interest in the 
hardware business of Boyd & Brother, of Galesburg, he decided to make a 
change of location and in the spring of 1871 moved to Galesburg, the firm 
name being Boyd & Rearick. which lirm continued in the hardware business 
in Galesburg for about ten years, when he purchased the interest of his part- 
ner and has since continued in the hu'dware business part of the time being 
the sole proprietor of the business, a ifl afterwards associating with him in the 
business, his oldest son Harry F. Rearick. To the business at Galesburg, he 
has given his undivided attention in all these years and is still actively en- 
gaged in the business with his son, doing as H. F. Rearick & Son. Since com. 
ing to Galesburg, he has several times served on the Board of Supervisors of 
Knox county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rearick were permitted to enjoy a long and happy married 
life, having lived together as husband and wife for over fifty, sharing in 
each others joys and sorrows of life; were permitted to live to celebrate their 
Golden Wedding on the 12th of October, 1903, on which occasion all their child- 
ren were permitted to enjoy this happy event with their parents. Mrs. Reai'- 
iok's days were few after this occasion, being taken away April 1st, 1904, 6 
months after. 

The church relations of Judge Rearick have always been with the Con- 
gregational church. He united with the Congregational church at Beards- 
town, in 1855, and contiimed his membership and united with the First Con- 
gregational church at Galesburg with his family and entered on the union of 
the two churches, the old First and the Congregational church and became 

- 43 - 

a member of the Central church. He was always in his younger years, active 
in the Sunday School work and other cluirch work and has always been ready 
to contribute of his means to the lielp of the church and other Christian 

At the time Judg-e Rearick held the office of county judge of this county, 
he, with his two associates performed the duties which now devolve upon the 
board of county commissioners. Some of the latter named officials have been 
charged with being very zealous in their efforts to benefit the neighborhood 
of their residence to the neglect of other portions of the county, but no such 
charge was ever made against Judge Francis H. Rearick. He possessed such 
breadtli of mind as to be absolutely impartial and was watchful of the inter- 
ests of every section of Mie county he so faithfully and efficiently served. IVo 
more capable or honorable man ever filled an office among us, and his de- 
parture from Beardstown was a serious loss to Cass county. 


A Complete list of the graduates from the Virginia High School, from 
its foundation to the present time. We are indebted to Miss Kate 
Wilson, for the loan of her full collection of the programs for the sev- 
i eral years, which she has preserved. Had these programs been published with 
j any respectable degree of uniformity, the names of the High School instruct- 
I ors might have here been given, which would have added much to the value 
i of the article. We expect to publish a correct history of the Virginia Hicfh 
j School, before this series of sketches end, provided we are able to find all of 
! the necessary records. 

Flora B. Rergstresser J. C. Cherryholmes Sallie R. Readies 

Nellie Snyder. 
Katie Wilson 

Lee Jolley 

Flora Bevis 

Edwin Allison 
Elijah Needham 
Edward Massie 

Minnie M. Berry 
Ella Ivnowies 

Allen (I. Dunavvay 
.Jennie C. Rodgers 
Elizabeth L. Savage 

Emma Cherry 
Nellie Clill'ord 

Clara McIIenry 

Emma A. Ruracker 
Mary E. Rillings 
Relle Snyder 

ICate A. Downing 
Nellie M. Bunce 
Ret tie R. .ToUey 


Carrie R. RIack 

Florence 1. Savage 


.Tennie M. I?unce 
Cecelia A. Need ham. 

Emilia Tate 

Cora Detrick 
Rlanche Lowry 

1885. " 
Josie Costigan 

Lewis W. McConnell 
William R. Dunaway. 

George J. Kelly 
Nellie Cosgro 
Emma L. Stribling. 

Lelia R. Humphrey 
Nellie W. Epler 
Charles T. Kemper. 

Mamie McDonald 

Sadie A. McConnell 

Fannie M. Rlack. 

Ada Beard. 

.James Needham 
Leonard Bryan. 

Lyman Savage 


Emma Black PhilBevis George Moul ton. 

Nellie E. Epler 
John Payne 
May Thacker 
Don Beatty 

&eorge Phillips, 
Lizzie Schaffer 
Charles W. Eussell 

No graduates this year on account of change in course of study 


Minnie Oldridge Grace Finney 

Etta Savage 
Mamie Turner 
Ida Wilhite 
William Rawlings 

Anna Freeman 

Ella Walker 
Harry Downing 
Jennie Phillips 
Elton Simmons 

Cora Black. 

Belle Hutchings. 

Ella Bowers 


Apple Graves 

Ella Wilson 
Jessie Black 

Halle Mu 
Maggie Collins 

Anna Hillig 
Nellie Suffer n 

Myrtle ITickox 
Nelia Widmayer 
Bettie Kikendall Sarah Chittick 

Mamie Wyatt 

Robert C. Finn Frank H. Wilson 

Loren Thompson 
Ella Kikendall 

Jennie Beard 

Alfred Edward Schaffer 

Alice Taylor 

Ida Black 
Lou McIIenry 
Emily Treadway 

Myrtle Baker 
Edward Clifford. 

Jennie Davidson 
Charles McDonnel 

Maud Duffield 
Henry Jacobs 

Anna B. Mitel lell 

Nellie Davis 
Harry Buracker 
Oren Gould. 

George Dirreen 
Robert E. Lee Plummer 
Flora Belle Jones 

Mary Josephine Finn 
Vida Viola Crum 
Gertrude Emma Duffield 
Virginia Ann Kikendall 
Alice Cary Wilson 

George H. 

Grace Davidson 
Mabel Anna Leeper 
Margaret Ethel Black 

Edward O. Phillips 

Edith Alba Mains 
John Howard Jokisch 
Thomas H. Wright 

Verne Gertrude Wyatt 
Sadie Hurst 

Eva Grace Ater 
Francis William Bristow 

LaVergne Gatton 
Arthur Crum 
Lavenia Ednah Robinson Pearl Barkley 
Elizabeth Lee Crum Mary Earnestine IT 

Harry N. Gridley Frederick C. Bishop 

Widmayer Burton E. Gridley 

Mary Jane Bowers 
Mary Sarah Killam 
Mabel Skiles Mitchell 

Floy Zillah Dunaway 
Frederick T. Dunaway 
Charles Judy Savage 

Mary Jean Chittick 

Lola May Berry 



Alice Runj'an Leeper 

Carrie Edna Plummer 

Arthur Jolin Ilueffner 

Emma Etliel Horrom 

Minnie Margaret James 

Edna W. Widmayer 
Alice Goodspeed Sutfern 
Roscoe Brice Gatton 
Kathryn Amanda Abney 
Olive Dobson 

William Leslie White 

Kathryn B. Savage Matilda L. Musch 

Beatrice Mains Edith A. Turner 

Lee D. Springer Thomas L. Finn 

Daisy V Gruer Viola M. Coleman 

Dorothy F. Clark Nellie Schaffer 

Lee E. Robinson 

Grace Louise Todd 
Orlando Chester Crowtlier 
Rose Martha ITueffne'- 
Edna Jennie Berry 
Eva No 1 sell 
Iva May Lancaster 

Edith ColemaJi_ 
Clarence Noeker 
Clarence Evans Bishop 
Edith D. Thornsbury 
Marcus Dyer 

Lewis Earl Lancaster. 

Clara B. Lang 
Frank M. Robertson 
Howard Stribling 
Florence L. Black 
Richard G. Martin 
Burton O. Springer. 

Esther Massey 
Alma Louise Widmayer 
Maude Louise Martin 
Lola Grace Treadway 
Fred Dayton Savage 
James Franklin Phillips 
Nellie (]ecil Springer 

Graduates of the fou 

George Bone Conover 
Florence J. Crawford 
Edgar Bishop 
Mabel Pearl Wilson 
Lee Widmayer. 
Charles Noeker 
Louis Lee Savage, 
year's course. 

Edith Adelaide Turner 

Nadine Robertson 
Nora Thompson 
Ida Mae Dunaway 
Harry Edward Paul 
Robert Howard Campbell 
Dorothy Ann Walker 

Gifford Matthew 
Norman Luther McNeill 
Helen Louise Angler 
Grace Hiilig 
Ethel Plummer 
Grace Nowers Taylor 

Florence Leah Black 

No Graduates, on account of change of length of course of study 


Lewis William Riley 

Charles Chase Savage 

Clara Louise Gridley 

Oarrie Maud Horrom 

Harry Jacobs 

William Thomas Gordley 

P"'lorence Mae Morris 

Leslie Nay lor Martin 
William Earl Rexroat 
Daisie C. Beadles 
Louise Massey 
Ruth Sinclair 
Dorothy E. Virgin 

Robert Dimcan Taylor 

Kathryn Belle Savage. 

Grace LaVesta Martin 
Edith Massey 
Edward R. Widmayer 
Mary Strain Plummer 
Bertha E. Anderson 
Lillian Gertrude Ray 

George Otto Maurer 

Nace Yaple 

Jessie Rachel Beadles 

Hazel Orr 

Eva Jane Struble 

Minnie Zillion 

Leo Harry Finn Robert Dimcan Taylor Joseph Roy Hunter 

Samuel Rutherford Turner Ted Anderson Jacob Tenny Hill 

Harry Tilden Petitt Margaret Ellen Wilson Hat'-ie May Norris 

Mary Eieanora Hageman Essie Mae Harris Nellie Mabel Irvine 

Rose Margaret Widmayer Lcora Venetta Ater Grac^ Edna Kors 
Rebecca Lillian Black 


ISAAC R. Bennett, the father of the subject of this sketch, was born on 
February 2nd, 1799, in Barren county, Kentuclcy. He came to Morg-an 
county, Illinois, in 1820, and on April 10th, 1822, was married to Mary 
Jones, also a native of Kentucky. For one season, they lived within the pres- 
ent limits of Cass county, not far from the location of Bluff Springs. 
On September 1.5th, 1826, he purchased from the government the southwest 
quarter of Sec 12, T 16, E 9, Morgan county, Illinois, and theve he settled 
down to remain for life. He shortly added other adjoining lands to his 

posessions and on July 16th, 18.57, he, 
and Joseph Hayes, laid out upon their 
lands, the little town on the line of 
the Tonica and Petersburg railroad, 
whicli they named Yatesville, in 
honor of Richard Yates, so well 
known as tlie War Governor of the 
state of Illinois. 

Isaac R. Bennett went into the 
Black Hawk war with many of his 
neighbors among whom were Royal 
Flynn, William Cooper, William Mill- 
er and Travis Elmore. He, with his 
comrades followed up the murderous 
red men into the state of Wisconsin, 
and staid \^ith his job, until it was 
completed. Again in LSKi he should- 
ere I his gun, and under the command 
of John J. Hardin went to Mexico, to 
tight the battles of liis country. He 
was elected to the legislature of Illi- 
inois in the year 1854; he served as an 
WILLIAM J. BENNETT. Associate Justice of Morgan county, 

he was a democrat, a member of the Baptist church and f )r many a year was 
a Justice of his community, widely known, and universally respected. He 
reared a family of eleven children, the first born in 1824, and the last in 1848. 
He died on .June 24, 1881, at the age of 82 years, 4 mouths and 22 days. 

William J. Bennett the second child, was born on November 2:5, 182(i, on 
the Yatesville farm. His education was limited to the pioneer conditions of 


that early day. He wenfc to a log school house, sat on a slab before a Are of 
green timber, with an old English Reader, and a Ray's Arithmetic, over which 
he puzzled his brains as many a lad has done before and since. His first in- 
structor was a man named Graham, who took for his pay, the small contribu- 
tions, the parents could afford to make to him, and when the springtime 
came, worked in the fields, until fall came round, when he would resume his 
duties of an early Illinois teacher. The first church in the neighborliood, was 
built by the Baptist brothers, and the lirst of their preacliers was William 
Crow in 1827. Cyrus Wright, from the northeast corner of the county, often 
came and preached to them. Their Associations, were great events in those 
days. The members came for miles around, and were gladly entertained by 
the local brethren; often fifty were cared for at one iiome, the women sleeping 
in the cabin, and the men in the stables and sheds. 

The Bennett family being numerous, William J. went to work for a year 
for Wright Flynn, for twenty-iive cents per day; he plowed with a wooden 
plow, and cut grain with a sickle. As he grew older he, engaged in the busi- 
ness of breaking raw prairie land, and ran the first grain thresher in his 
neighborhood. Later, he engaged in the livestock business, buying cattle in 
Illiiiois and Iowa avd driving t!iem to St. Louis to market He was married 
Fiances S. Fitzhugh, on the 27th day of November 1850 by Rev. William Crow 
and began living on a farm south of Philadelphia, in Cass county where he re- 
mained for eight years and then removed to a farm a mile from Princeton, on 
wliich he lived until i87(), and tlien, on account of the failing health of his 
wife, moved to 'I'allula where she died August 18, 1878 in the 51st year of her 
age. leaving, surviving her husband and one child, now the wife of M. L. Nev- 
ins. a larmei'. residing near Cuba, in Missouri. 

In 1 -'7!), Mr. Bennett moved to the town of Ashland, in this county, but 
soon (Mine to Vii-ginia, and was elected coroner of the county in 1880, and 
solved I wo terms. He was mariied to Elizabeth A. Gridley on .June 23d. 1881, 
and the following year removed to Beardstown, and went into the employ of 
theQ \\. R. Co. Some time thereafter he moved to .Jacksonville and became 
manager of the stable of Howard Thompson: built a home on Chambers 
street, which was sold the following spring, and a residence purchased in 
Springfield, Illinois, in which he resided until his appointment as an examin- 
er of live stock at Chicago by J. Sterling Morton, the secretary of that de- 
partment at Washington. Here he remained for several years, and until his 
wife's health reciuired a different climate, when they went to Colorado for a 
year, and then went on to Southern California, where tliey remained another 
year, returning to St. Louis in the fall of 1903. At the present time, he and 
his wife, are visiting his relatives in Missouri. 

Mr. Bennett recollects the time of the old stage lines through the county. 
One line ran from Virginia to Springfield, and another from Virginia to 
Beardstown, and a third from Virginia to Jacksonville. The half-way house, 
a hotel conducted by John Dutch was situated three miles southeast of Phila- 
delphia, on the state road, and when built, was the only house on the road 
between the home of Archibald Job, three miles southeast of Virginia, and 
Pleasant Plains, in Sangamon county. This Half-way liouse, stands where 
the present residence on the farm of Mrs. Mary Skiles-Black is located, in 
Sec 25, T 17, R 9, long known as the Duling farm. On July S, I83fi, Arclii- 

- 49 - 

bald Job, and Alexander Beard, trustees of tlie school lands in T 17, R 9. laid 
out the town of Philadelphia in this county, then Morgan county. This town 
covered one hundred acres of ground, and when the -lots were sold on that 
year, there were buyers from Jacksonville, and from Springfield, and from 
other towns. Among these crazy investors in real estate was the Hon. 
Stephen A. Douglass. In May 18.37, John Dutch, the owner of the Half-way 
house, three miles down the state road from Pliiladeiphia laid out the town of 
Lancaster using one hundred acres of his farm to put it upon. On the same 
year Dutch conveyed about one-half of the town lots to Erastus W. Palmer, 
who was a real estate man; in these days he would be called a "promoter." 
In about a year Palmer sold one of his lots for a dollar and the next year 
turned all the balance back to Dutch, and quit Lancaster in disgust. There 
were a few buildings erected there but it seems that Dutch built them: 
there was a postofflce, a blacksmith shop, and in all probability a 
whiskey shop, one or more. That was the day for wild-cat 
speculation; when railroads and canals were contemplated: when 
so many seemed to have gone insane, over the "great internal improvement 
system!" At that time the prairies were covered with wild grass, swamps 
and rattlesnakes in summer, while in winter the roaring and rushing winds 
sweeping over the snow-covered level and bleak waste, convinced the few ear- 
ly settlers, hovering over their miserable tires of green wood in their cabins 
along the edge of the "brpph," that the prairie lands would never be set- 
tled.'' Even as late as 1854. wlien the writer lirst saw the prairies of Illinois, 
the winter winds howled over the vast tracts of unsettled lands, in true Kan- 
sas style. In the winter of 1854-55 the rail fences in Cook county were buried 
under drifts of snow, and loaded sleds were safely driven over them. Why 
men would plat towns three miles apart, as was done by these early boomeis, 
when people were so scarce, is a matter of wonder. The then proposed rail- 
roads and canals would have sufHced to carry to the market, the entire pro- 
duct of a vear, within one week. 

An occurrence quite out of the ordinary, is related by Mr, Bennett, and is 
vouched for by other witnesses. Many years ago his brother-in-law William 
Fitzhugh, left his home on liorse-back in the spring, or early summer, upon a 
neighborliood errand across Indian creek. His horse returned after darkness 
liad set in, with the bridle dragging upon the ground. A heavy rain of that 
day had caused the overflow of the Creek which Mr. Fitzhugh had crossed in 
the morning. A search was instituted by the alarmed neighborhood, 
without success. After some hours vainly spent in the effort to find the miss 
ing man, someone in the crowd suggested that a worthless character of the 
ne'ighborhood had been guilty of foul play: it was soon after suggested, to 
hang the man up at the end of a, rope, and endeavor to extort from him a con- 
fessFon, One of the cooler men of tlie party, proposed that he would go to 
Springfield, to consult a fortune teller, if the others would await the result. 
Upon their promise so to do, he departed on his errand. Arriving at the 
home of the woman, he was told that she could do nothing for him, without 
the presence of some article of the personal property of the missing man. The 
messenger returned to the home of Fitzhugh, obtained a pocket handkerchief, 
and delivered it to the Springfield woman. She told the messenger, tliat if 
she was successful in getting into communication with Fitzhugh, he would 

- 50 - 

talk to him. Then she seemed to become unconscious, and soon after began 
talking to the waiting- man. The communicant claimed to be William Fitz- 
iuigh, and told the messenger, that in trying to ford Indian Creek, which was 
very high, tliat liis horse was swept below the road, and an overlianging tree 
limb, brushed liim from the horse, and he was soon drowned. lie then went 
on to carefully describe the location of his body, de.scribing stumps known to 
the listenei:. The body was found without delay, by tlie person who received 
the information, located as described, and was buried in the neighbord burial 
plat on William Ward farm, southeast of Philadelpha. 

Mr. Bennett is a man of even temper, thoroughly honest, of a very kind 
disposition, and has a very large circle of warm friends. He is well preserved 
physically and mentally, While in the employ of the government in Chicago, 
he was known as the "old reliable inspector," enjoying the respect and esteem 
of all his associates. 


The first election in the county was held on Monday, August 7, 1837. 
There were three voting places: one at the house of Moses Perkins in Beards- 
town Precinct; one at the house of John Deweber in Virginia Precinct, and 
one at the liome of John Lucas in the Lucas or Richmond Precinct, in the 
nortlieast part of the county. 

The olection officers were: Thomas Reard, James Arnold and John 
Schaeffer, Judges, and C. W. Clarke, and T. W. Webb, Clerks, at Reiirdstown: 
Isaiali Paschal, William M. Clarkand James Daniel, Judges, and William I'.lair 
and M. H. Beadles, Clerks, at Virginia; and Jolin Taylor, Matthew Lownsbury 
and Robert Leeper, judges, and Robert B. Taylor and Cyrus Wright, Clerks, ;it 

Tlie candidates voted for at said election were: 

For Probate Justice— J. S. Wilbourn, William Scott and James Hori-y. 

For County Commissioners— A. Bonny, Joshua P. Crow, George F. Miller, 
Benjamin Stribling, Henry McKean and Henry McHenry. 

For Slieriff— Lemon Plasters, Jolin B. Bueb and Martin F. Higgiiis. 

For County Clerk (then called County Commissioner's Clerk)— Robert G. 
Gaines and John W Pratt. 

For Recorder— N. B. Thompson, O. M. Long, Alfred Elder and Tliomiis 
Graham, jr. 

For Surveyor— William Clark and William Holmes. 

For Treasurer— I. C. Spence and Thomas Wilbourn. 

For Coroner— Ephraim Rew, Jacob Anderson and Halsey Smith. 

Upon the election returns from the Virginia Precinct two of the judges 
make the following recital: 

"The county not being organized and of course no justice of peace or ap- 
pointed judge, Mr. William Clark administered the oatli to tlie other acting 
judges, and Mr. James Daniel administered it to him and to the clerks." 

In Shaw's history of Cass County the names of the voters at this election 
are given in the order in which their names appear upon the returns, but 
quite a number of typographical errors appear in that history. The names of 
these voters are here given in approximately alphabetical order so that tliey 
may be preserved in this series of sketches, and for the further reason that 
use will be made of this list in sketches to follow. As this was the first elec- 
tion in the new county, it is likely that it was quite generally attended, al- 
though the familiar names of Andrew Cunningliam and Thomas Pothicary do 
not here appear. Some of the names were not spelled by the officers, as they 

were usually spelled in aftei' years: for instanc e the name of the father of II. 
E-Juix&-uais_ace]lecl with a "C" and the name of Carr was spelled with a "K" 
but it is said the Carrs then used the letter K in the construction of their 
name. It should be remembered that a voter of that day was allowed to vote 
at any polling place in the county which accounts for names on the Beards- 
town list, of people who lived in Virginia and in the Lucas or Richmond pre- 
cincts. It should further be remembered that this election was held before 
the three-mile strip on the south was arlded. 

Names of tHe voters \xpoi* tKe Beardsto^wrk list: 


Alexander, Joshua 

Ayers, John 

Arnold, James. 

Anderson, Elijah 
Arenz, Arnold 
Arnold, Butler 

Bailey, J F 
Boyd, Chares 
Buck, Thomas E 
Boyne, Daniel 
Buck John 
Bassett, William 
Bell, Peter B 
Bracken, John 
Braker He ry 

Crewdson, J W 
Cnwjn. Louis 
Cuppy, John 
Cross, W liam 
Carrol', Thomas 
CofCran, Seymout 
Clayaan, Louis 
Clark, C W 

Dickens, James 
Dirgy, Moses 
Deckhart, John 

Fissall, Jacob 
Felix Wm S 

Groshong-, Samuel 
Graves, Richard 
Gillett, William W 
Green, D D 

Hoskins, Thos 
Horn, William S 
Hocks, Irwin 
Holtman, John 
Hoffman, T A 
Harvey, I P 

Anderson, John W 
Ankrom, Jesse 
Anderson, Jacob 

Alexander, Reuben 
Arenz, Francis 

Beasley, Benjamin 
Beast, Banner 
Britton, Daniel 
Brown, George 
Buck, Stephen 
Bowen, Jeremiah 
Boynes, Herman 
Briaut, Lucien 
BuUer, William 
Beard Thomas 

Cox, William 
Cactawas, Nicholas 


Bitten, Joseph 
Britton, Benjamin 
Brown, Jacob J 
Burns, John 
Bridgewater, Zach 
Baker, Joseph 
Bonney, G A 
Baml^r Henry 
Babb, Wil iam W 
Bapti^te, Andrew 


Cole, R 
Chandler, Marcus 

Ciemmons, Joseph H Collins Henry 

Cook, James 
Cole, Christian 
Colli s, Edward 
Clark, William 
Cashmere, John 

Cowan. Thomas 
Cole, George 
Course, Frederick 
Crow, Joshua P 

Dick John P, Jscob 
DeHaven W I 

Fletcher, Samuel 
Fediking, H 

Garliek, James 
Gordon, WW 
Gil lis, John W 


Davidson, James 
Douglas, Peter 
Duvdll, William 

Emerick, David 


Foster, H T 
Feby, Henry 


Garliek, George 
Gil'ett, E R 
Garland, Charles 

Hoskins, Joseph 
Haines, Bluford 
Hiclis, John 
Harmeiker, Henry 
Hager. Reuben 
Higgins, M F 


Hunt, Samuel 
Horham, John 
Hager, Curtis 
Hemminghouse, Wm 
Hill, Charles 

Briant, George 
Briant William 
Brown, Leander 
Bridgewat r, John 
Boyce, Demsey 
Buck, Jasper 
Bennett, James 
Bowman, Joel K 
Bueb, J B 
Blackman, I H 

C owan. G eorge 
Cauby, Joseph 
Ciemmons W W 
Chandler, Charles 
Cole, George the 2nd 
Capper, Meredith 
Chittenden, Austin 

Davis, James 
Decker, John 

Frooman, Christian 

Gutlip, Godfrey 
Gains, W B 
Graham, J W 

Hensley, Edmund 
Halfklutt, H 
Haines, Louis 
Hardy, John 
Holmes, Wm 

Inkell. Fred H 


Jenkins, Evans 

King, Alexander 
Karr, James A 
Krogh, Adam 
Kemper, Morgan 

Lamberth, Louis G 
Light, Peter 

McCoy, George 
McKee, Samuel 
McKean, H 
Marshall, John 
Moody, M 
Miller, WC 
Melms, WH 

Nuper, Joseph 
Nolte, Louis 

Jenkins, John 

Keltner, Andrew 
Karr, James 
Krough, Frdk 
Kallenbach, Moritz 

Lindsey, John C 
Lee, Caleb 

McCaulley, W H 
MeKowen, James 
Marshall, Ellsha 
Marshall, David 
Miller, John 
Miller, H B 
Morgan, Ralph 


Jones, David 

King, James 
Krohe, P 
Kimball, Hensy 
Kashner. Henry 
Knapp, Augustus 

Lindsey, R 
Lippencott, John W 
Long, O M 


McBride, Mathew 
McClure, Joseph M 
Marshall, William 
Moore, William 
Moseley, T J 
Moore, Peter 

Newman, Christ 
Norbury, C J 


Newman, John 

Keatherly, John 
Krogh, August 
Kuhn, Phillip 
Kelly, Nicholas 

Logan, James 
Logan, Carleton 

McKain, John 
McClain, J W 
Mills, P C 
Morris, Joshua 
Moore, Robert 
Miller, G F 

Newman, DaviJ 

Olcott, Elisha 

Pearson, Michael 
Proctor, Thomas 
Phlllippi, I 
Pierce, Jesse 
Pogue, Thomas 

Quaite, John 

Randige, C F 
Ratliff, Alexander 
Richardson, Rusey M 
Rohn, John 

Shank, Christian 
Steward, Jackson 
Street, Asa 
Scott, James 
Sanders, Edward 

Shepherd, Wm 
Smith, H 
Schneider, B W 

Turkemeir, Wm 
Treadway, Edward 

Wilson, Jeremiah 
Warren, Amos 

Oatman, Hammer 

Parmalee, Milton 
Payton, J W 
Phlllippi, A 
Price, John 
Parking, Moses 

Quigg, Wm 

Reavls, Isham 
Roach, James 
Ream, Michael 
Ritchy, William 


Pounds, James 
Parks, William R 
Philiippl, P 
Plasters, Lemon 
Pratt, John W 


Quaite, Joseph 

Reeves, Amasa 
Rohn, Henry 
Ross, Henry P 
Resides, Wm. 
Rew, E 


Stewart. Hankland 
Shortt, Isaac 
Shoopman, Wm. 
Soubeling, Louis 
Spence, David 

Seaman, J J 
Scott, John C 
Scott, Jackson 
Stoke, Thomas 
Shupon, Adolph 

Sewall,Wm Spence, Absalom 

Spence, I C Shaw Samuel 

Scot , Daniel Stover, Louis 

Scott, William 
Toukeris, Godolph Thomas, John \ 
Treadway, John N Tureman, David 

Thompson, N B 

White, David White^Mude 

White, Wm R WilToourn, John 

Pierce, John 
Powell, Aaron 
Patagen, John G 
Peep?r, Loui i 
Plasi.ers, Isaac 

Rew, Bradford B 
Richardson Monlillion 
Richardson, John 
Riggle, Daniel 

Schaeffer, Henry 
Schaeffer, George 
Sallee, Edward 
Schaeffe", Phillip 
Steel, John 

Saunders, T R 
Sheldon, David 
Schaeffer, John 

Treadway, S H 
Thompson, Samuel 

Wells or Wills, Richd 
Waggoner, John 


Wells, Daniel 

Wells, Otto 

Wilkey, L H 

Whlttock, H 

Williams, Andrew 

Wilson, I B 

Wilbourn Thomas 

Webb, Timothy 

Wllbourn, John S 


Yonkers, John 

Yonkers, Gottlieb 

Names of tKe voters upon the Virginia list: 


Anderson, Charles P 


Blair, William 

Brady, Charles 

Bland, James 

Bonney, Aaron 

Bonney, Amos L 

Berry, T L 

Boicourt, Thomas 

Boon, A 

Blantin,B A 

Beadles, James 

Bair, Alex 

Readies, John 

Beggs, George 

Biddlecome, John 

Berry, James 


Beadles, M H 

Cunningham, G S 

Cameron, Felix 

Cameron, Benedict 

Craig, John 

Carpenter, John 

Corby, Benjamin 

Craig, William 

Carpenter, L 

Clark John 

Clark, Lee 

Cauby, Daniel 

Cunningham, John 

Cochrane, Phillip 

Clark, WmM 


Darlel, John 

Daniel, Joseph W 

Davison, Robert 

Dutch, Ebenezer 

Daniel, Wm 

Davis, James B 

DeWebber, John 

Daniel, James 

Elder, A 


Finch, WP 

Finn, Thos. 

Freeman, L B 

Fields, Wm 

Graves, William 

Glover, John 

Garner, Green 

Garner, James 

Horn, Joel 

Howard, Thomas G 

Hopkins, Henry 

Holland, James 

Hoffman, Alex 


Hall, HH 

Thomas J 



Johnston, W B 

Jump, Joe 

Job, Arch 

Kiik, Wm B 

Kirk, John A 

Kirk, Wm T 

Lee, Thomas 

Long, John T 


McDaniel, John 

McLean, I M 

McDonald, Jonas 

Moseiy, Ephraim 

Matthew, Ellas 


Northern, Jere 



Osborne. H 

Oliv r, C H 

O'Brien M 

Paton, Wm 

Paschal, Green H 

Phelps, Young 

Phelps, Anderson 

Plasters, Thomas, 

sr. Price, Joshua 

Price, Perry G 

Phelps, Titus 

Powell, J T 

Pierce, John 

Paschal, Isaiah 

Reed, Mich! 

Ross, L B 

Redman John 

Ross, James sr. 

Robinson, John 

Ross, I M 


Springer, Levi 

Stark, John 

Soicer, Jesse 

Scott, Pleasant 

Stribllng, B 

Stevenson, S 


Thornberry, Louis 

Watson, Onflower 


Thomas. Charles Thew, George 


Underwood, P 1r. 


Wood, Zebedee Williams, James 

West, A S 

Names of tHe voters upon tKe R-icKmond list: 


Bixler, Jaeob Bennett, James Bolden, John Bonny, Amos 


Chisser, John 
Carter, Robert 

Dick, Peter 
Daniel. Washington 
Dick, Henry 

Fanchier, John 

Gaines, Coleman 

Hickey, James 

Carter, Gibson 
Cox, Eli 

Dick, Levi 
Dutch, Henry S 
Davis, John • 

Connor, James T: 
Cooper, Marcus 
Cook, John 

Davis. Jerry W 
Daniel, Alfred 

Elmore. Cyrus 
Fanchier, Jacob Foster, Abner 

Fryor, John 


Gaines, Robert G 


Hickey, Ashley Hash, Zachariah 

Hathorn, John 

Clemmons, W S 
Claxton, Riley 

Daniel, Wiil s 
Dick, Amos 

Fanchier, George 

Hathorn, James 

Jones, Thomas 

Lounsbury, Matthew 
Lseper, John 
Logue, Jonathan 

McHenry, Hen y 
Myers, Wm 

Nichols, Henry 

Robbards, James 

Scaggs, Charles 
Taylor. Henry 

Johnson, John 


Lodermar, Thomas Lex^ is, Azariah 
Logue, Oliver Lucas, William 

Libbeon, H W Lucas, ohn 

Lounsburv, Matthew 


McDonald, Frank 
Myers, William 

Nance, Cary 

Plasters, Thorns 

Rose, Pleasant 

Miller, John 
Mays, Isham 


Nance, Robert 
Nance, Eaton 

3 Purdy, Horatio 


Robinson, Daniel 


Sutton, Silverton 
Thompson, John B 


Taylor, John 

Wright, Aaren 
Witty, John B 

Linn. William 
Lockerman, Stanly 
L"eper, Robert 

Morgan, Obidlah 
Morgan, W P 

Nance, Joshua 

Pratt, John 

Roles, James 

T.iylor, Robert B 

Wing. James 
Wilson, Calvin 

Wheelock, Enoch Wilson, John 

Wilson, Henry D Witty. John L 

Wilson, Clinton Wright, Cyrus 

Of this list of four hundred and ninety six voters but one, Mr. Zacharial 
Hash, of Cliandlerville, is known to be living. 

This election resulted in the choice of the following officers: 

For Probate Justice, John S. Wilbourn 
For TJecorder, N. B. Thompson 
For Surveyor, William Holmes 
For County Clerk, John W. Pratt 
For County Commissioners, Joshua P. 
F. Miller 

For Sheriff, Lemon Plasters 
For Treasurer, Thomas Wilbourn 
For Coroner, Ilalsey Smith 

Crow, Amos Bonny and Geeorge 


N the year 1799, in Wythe county, Virginia, was born Hezel<iah Bridgman^ 
who became the husband of Sarah Jane Brown, a native of tiie same 
county, and to them, their first child, Frank, tlie subject of this sketch, 

was born on the 23d day of March A* 
D. 1820. 

Ten years later, in 1830, Hezekiah 
Bridgman purchased a wagon for $50 
Into which he loaded his few articles of 
property, and his wife and four young- 
er children, and started for the wilds 
of Illinois, the boy Frank, bareheaded, 
and barefooted, following in the rear, 
and in tliis forlorn condition, plodded 
iiis weary way the entire distance, 
with a favorite dog for his companion. 
On numerous occasions, tiie ground 
being too wet to camp upon, the 
horses spent the night upon their feet 
attaciied to the wagon, wliile tlie fam- 
ily waited for the coming day. 

Tiiey arrived a ta place some three 
miles nortiieast of Jacksonville, Mor- 
gan county, where they rented an 
L" ^^^^^ empty cabin twelve by fourteen feet 

C i^^^^v '" ^'^^®' °^ ''•' ™^'i named Ausmus, 

"'^^^^^^ and here they remained for some 
, ^^^^^f three years. In the spring 20 acres 

^^^W of sod was broken with a plow of wood 

and corn planted for the coming fall 
and winter, the family, in the mean 
time, living as best tiiey could on 
game and parched corn, furnished by 
the neigliboring settlers. They tiien 
removed a few miles farther on, in 
Morgan county, a sliort distance from 
where Arenzville is now situated. 
Mr. Bridgman was anxious that 
FRAKK BBIDGMAN. his cliildren should acquire some edu- 

cation, and there being no school in liis neighborliood, he induced his neigh- 

- 57- 

bors to assist in building a log hut for a school room, and he then succeeded 
in finding a man named Williamson, a widower with four young children to 
come into the neighborliood, where he remained four or five years, teaching a 
subscription school In the winter, and working, about, as best he could, be- 
tween terms. 

Modern people, who often feel inclined to complain of hard times, cer- 
tainly know but little of the conditions surrounding the early settlers of Illi- 
nois, otherwise, they wonld keep their troubles to themselves. The wheat 
and corn used for seed by those pioneers must first be "acclimated" as Mr. 
Bridgman expressed it; he says that the first wheat was shriveled and very 
small in quantity, but by continuous sowings and reapings, it gradually in- 
creased in quality and quantity, and the same was true in relation to the 
corn. Hezekiah Bridgman raised wheat which he threshed by driving oxen 
over it, cleaned it up and hauled it to St. Louis and sold it for forty cents per 
bushel. He beat the corn off the cobs with sticks, and took it to Meredosia, 
where he obtained the price of ten cents per bushel for it. Deer were shot, 
and the hams smoked in pits dug in the ground, covered with poles and grass, 
and sold at Jacksonville for 50 cents each. Frank had no shoes for four or 
five winters after reaching this country; his mother gave him ra^s, which lie 
tied about his feet to keep them from freezing. At one time his father had a 
horse hide, which an itinerant shoemaker converted into shoes for the family 
for 25 cents per pair: it took all the money Bridgman had to pay for the mak- 
ing of these shoes. 

When troops were called for to go north to fight Black Hawk, and his 
band, a very large number of the able-bodied of the Morgan county settlers, 
marched away. The wives left at home were called the "Black Hawk war 
widows." Young Frank was sent away with corn to grind into meal, for tiie 
"widows" in his neighborhood; lie drove to a little water mill on the creelc 
about a quarter of a mile from the location of the "Q" depot in Ai-enzville. 
The miller lived in a small cabin without a floor near his mill covered with 
grass. The boy was compelled to stay f r two or three days awaiting liis 
turn; he camped out in the open air, with nothing to eat but parciied corn. 
The miller's wife, one morning, gave him a cup of hot "coffee" made of corn 
meal, and Frank says it was the best drink he had ever tasted. No other 
building on the present site of Arenzville then existed; the timber was all 
confined to the valleys along the streams; the annual prairie fires kept all the 
up-lands, free from trees or bushes. 

The settlers were much harassed from the inroads made by wolves and 
other "varmints" upon their pigs and poultry; and when it was learned that 
an uncle of a settler was coming from Tennessee, an urgent letter was sent 
him requesting that he bring dogs with him. Tlie emigrant started with a 
slut, which upon her arrival in Morgan county, was the proud mother of nine 
puppies; these animals were cared for with great attention and affection, and 
when they were old enough to be hunters, the boys of the neighborhood set 
out upon a grand hunting expedition; they started from the neighborhood 
where Bluff Springs now stands, and travelled on to Meredosia and Valley 
City, securing a choice lot of pelts which were converted into money at Jack- 

Governor Ford, in his History of Illinois, states that in 1816 and 1817 this 


country was overrun with counterfeiters and horse thieves: among them be- 
ing sheriffs, justices of the peace, constables, with now and then a county 
judge. Tiie people organized against these criminals, by forming bands of 
"Regulators" which administered summary justice, without the assistance of 
the "Justices, and County Judges." They broke up many of the worst gangs, 
but these criminals were troublesome down to a time within the recollection 
of Mr. Frank Bridgman. While on the hunt above alluded to the party came 
upon an underground stable, covered with poles and brush, which contained 
nine horses; the hunters went off to give the alarm, but before their return 
the thieves had removed their plunder. A few days later, the youi]g hunters 
found seven other horses concealed in an underground pen; this time Frank 
Bridgman remained on guard, until help could be obtained, and the animals 
were taken to Jacksonville, and appraised and advertised for sale. Before 
the sale day arrived a doctor from Springfield, having heard of the matter, 
came in and proved himself the owner of a very fine mare among the lot: he 
was so much pleasod to recover his property, that he gave Frank $100; the 
others were sold at an average of $.50 each, no owner appearing to claim them. 
At least one hundred horses were stolen from that part of the country, Nich- 
olas Houston, being the loser of twanty-flve. Bridgman. happening to be in 
Monmouth, soon after identified three of Houston's animals, which he subse- 
(juently recovered: the possessor of them proved that he had purchased them 
from strangers. 

.Teremiah Cay wood, the father of John and Charles Cay wood, residents of 
this county, built the first house within the present limits of the town of 
Areii/.viiJe. lie was a teamster, liauling goods froin Beardstown to Waverly. 
A n an named Comstock was taken seriously ill, at the home of Caywood, and 
.soon alter one Freer, was attacked with a deadly disease at a place near by. 
The liitter sent for Bridgman and confessed that he and Comstock were 
counterfeiters, and told Bridgman where their dies and other appliances 
were hidden, and believing he would die, asked Bridgman to make way with 
tiiem. Both men died within one week, and were buried in what was called 
the Newman graveyard west of Arenzville. After these burials, Mr. Bridg- 
man, found these dies in the locality described hidden in the earth, and they 
were destroyed by a committee of settlers, who were in charge of hunting out 

In 1833 there was a large temporary encampment of Indians on the Cem- 
etery hill east of Arenzville. The chief, was a tall man, over 6 feet in heights 
dressed in fine style. Mr. Bridgman tells of a visit he made to this camp, 
taking along as presents, some whiskey and tobacco, which he delivered to 
the chief, who shared them, with aselect few of the braves; in honor of the vis- 
itor, who had brought the most acceptable presents, they formed a circle 
about him, and danced, and went througli with other ceremonial motions, 
much to liis amusement and delight. Tiiese red men, were gathering to go 
to some point across the Mississippi river. 

Mr. Bridgman was married in 1847, and that season he bought two young 
cows with their calves for sixteen dollars. He began his married life as a 
tenant farmer, but soon entered land in Morgan county, where he resided 
until about 1898 when he became a resident of trie town of Arenzville, where 
he now lives with one of his children. 


The wagon, brought from old Virginia, was the only wagon in the Bridg' 
man neighborhood in Illinois for a number of years, after which it was sold 
for $150 to a man named Spearman who was leaving for Iowa; about fifty 
years ago, Frank Bridgman while visiting in Iowa came across the same 
wagon, then valued as a relic of early times. 

Mr. Bridgman, Icnew John Musch, now an honored citizen of Virginia, 
soon after his coming here from Germany, when he could not speak the Eng- 
lish language. He is an uncle of County Commissioner Henry A. Bridgman; 
there is but one man left, of those he knew when he came to this part of the 
country, and he is Siielton J. Mattingly, more than ninety years of age. resid- 
ing near Arcadia in Morgan county. 



THE town of Virginia wlien platted by Dr. Henry II. Ilall. in May 1836, 
was in Morgan county, but an Act of the legislature, passed on March 
3d, 1837, placed it in the new county named Cass organized by that act 
from all that part of Morgan lying north of a line running east from the Illi- 
nois river tlirough the middle of Township 17 to the Menard county line. 

Tlie first physician to locate in the village of Virginia was, of course, its 
proprietor, Dr. Hall. The next one was Dr. Thomas Pothicary, who arrived 
tlieie with his wife and three children, from Beardstown, in a wagon drawn 


by oxen, oti the -Ith day of July, 1836. The town then consisted of three 
houses, tlie residence of Dr. Hall and his store house just across from it on 
the road leading from Beardstown to Springfield, and a small building north 
of the public scjuare near the lot on wiiich Casper Magel resides, in wliich 
whiskey was sold by a man named Thomas Howard. Residing in 
the immediate vicinity of the embryo town were John DeWeber, Col. Amos 
West, Rev. Reddick Horn, and a few others to whom Dr. Hall had sold a few 
of the lots to constitute them promoters of the enterprise. Just what in- 

- 61 - 

duced Dr. Pothicary to cast his destinies in this place will probably never be 
known nor can it now be ascertained wliere he lived, or wliat lie did, for a 
year or more after his arrival; but a reasonable presumption is tliat lie prac- 
ticed medicine. The records show that he purchased of Rev. Reddick Horn, 
on September 11, 1837, for the sum of $68, lot No. 102, on the south side of the 
square, on which the Thompson building now stands, and thereon he immedi- 
ately proceeded to erect a two-story frame building, that as soon as completed 
he threw open to the public as a tavern, or "inn," as he styled it. And he 
continued entertaining travelers and boarders there, in connection with his 
very limited medical practice and the sale of some standard drugs and medi- 
cines, which displayed on a few shelves constituted Virginia's first drug store, 
until he removed to Beardstown in 1845. 

(The records show that Dr. Tnomas Pothicary also purchased of W. F. 
De Weber lot No. 103 on March 29, 1841, of John Ream lot No. 104 in May, 
1844, and lot No. 1 of Jas. Thornsbury on April 10, 1848; and that he conveyed 
to John H. Irwin lots 102, 103, 104 and 105, on April 22, 1851, the entire south 
side fronting the court house square excepting 106 in the Robertson block.) 

Dr. Pothicary was born in Wilkshire , England, on the 21st of .April, 17!)7. 
Of his boyhood life nothing is now known, excepting that his Quaker parents 
who were not of the patrician class, apprenticed liim when a mere lad to a 
tailor, that he might learn that art, and there he served the period of his 
indenture with very meagre educational advantages. Having served his time 
and arrived at manhood's estate he came to this country, and for some time 
worked as a journeyman tailor in the city of New York and its vicinity. He 
was very ambitious to acquire education, and after his day labors attended 
night schools, and devoted every spare moment to reading and study, and 
storing his mind with varied knowledge that he never applied to pr;ictical 
use. In Jefferson county. New York, he was married, on February 14, 1S2;), 
to Miss Betsey Pierce, who was born in the town of Adams in that county on 
the 24th of July, 1803, and was one of a family of eight girls and one boy. 
She was given but limited literary education, but learned to spin wool and 
flax, and weave and make her own clothing. 

Concluding that the South presented to young beginners in the struggle 
for bread advantages for getting along superior to any he observed in the 
crowded towns of New York, he left that state with his wife a short time 
after their marriage, and journeyed southwest to Memphis, Tennessee, where 
he set in to work at his trade. 

He may have settled first in Kentucky and then made his way to Mem- 
phis, having probably had in contemplation the purpose of undertaking tlie 
study of medicine. With his characteristic pertinacity he labored in the 
shop all day and often sat up half the night poring over medical books he 
borrowed or could afford to buy. It may be that when he thought himself 
sufficiently prepared he left the shop and sought localities wherein to launch 
out in professional life, as it is known that he resided for a time in Kentucky 
and also in Vicksburg, Mississippi. It is claimed by some of his descendants 
tliat he returned to New York City and received a diploma from one of its 
medical institutions; but it is altogether probable that he was not a graduate 
of any college, and that his knowledge of medicine was neither extensive nor 
profound. Nevertheless, on his arrival in the incipient city of Virginia he at 

once took rank in the noble profession, and maintained that status— at least 
nominally— throughout life; and no doubt found it ahiiost as respectable, if 
not so remunerative, as tailoring, which plebeian calling he thereafter for- 
ever renounced. 

The aspiration to enter the medical profession was doubtless entertained 
by Thomas Pothicary while plying his trade in New York, probably before his 
marriage; and that was the motive that induced him to leave the east and 
descend the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to Memphis, believing that the 
malarial and benighted South presented a far more encouraging field for the 
professional novice than did the more progressive and enlightened region 
north of the Ohio. Persevering in that idea by a course of hard study and 
training he finally subjected it to a practical test that proved it— in his 
case— to be a delusion and mistake. He failed as a practitioner, and discov- 
ered— as hundreds of other physicians have— that he was destitute of all 
natural aptness for that business, and that though fascinated by the theo- 
retical study of medicine its practical features were to him distasteful, if not 
disgusting, and he very sensibly abandoned it. Boarding a steamboat at 
AMcksburg, with his wife and two young children and a few household goods, 
lie ascended the Mississippi and then the Illinois to Beardstown, determined 
to carve out a new career in a new country that presented more genial, social, 
polil leal and physical aspects. 

For eight years Dr. Pothicary continued to run his "inn" and drug store 
in Virginia, buying, in the interim, other lots and selling some, and by the 
exercise of thrift, industry and economy gradually accumulating some wealth. 
In the meantime Dr. Hall's little prairie village was rapidly improving, 
buildings were going up in all directions, several of tiiem designed for various 
branches of business. Virginia in 1839 became the county seat of Cass and 
Dr. Hall built a court house on the west square. Charley Brady moved his 
carding maciiine from Prmceton to the county seat; N. B. Beers built a 
steam mill down on the branch; Beadles and Jack Powell built a new hotel on 
the corner diagonally across from the Pothicary tavern; DeAVeber had moved 
into town and also built a tavern on the east side of Washington square: W. 
H. n. Carpenter was a practicing attorney, and the medical staff of the vil- 
lage included Doctors Scliooley, Tate, Lord, Conn and, Stockton. 

But the flourishing town of Virginia received a rude sliock by the result 
of a special election held on the 4th of September, 1843, when the people of 
Cass county voted, (by 453 votes /or to 288 against), to remove the county seat 
from that place to Beardstown. Very general depression of business and 
property values followed that action, and several Virginians, losing confi- 
dence in the ultimate success of the place, left it to seek more promising 
localities. On the other hand the success of Beardstown in acquiring the 
county seat gave that place quite an impetds iti the line of material prosperity. 

Dr. Pothicary pluckily stuck to Virginia for two years after its bitter de- 
feat; but general reduction of patronage and active competion impelled him 
to move to Beardstown in the spring of 1845, where he opened out another 
tavern near the river on Main street. That venture, however, was not 
crowned with the success he had anticipated, and after trying business there 
one year returned to Virginia in 1840. That spring Mexico declared war 
against the United States, and was promptly invaded by thousands of Ameri- 


can volunteers. Dr. Pothicary's martial spirit was not aroused as he had 
matters of greater personal importance than killing Mexicans to attend to at 
home. In the early months of 1847 he moved up in Sugar Grove precinct, six 
miles east of Virginia, having purcliased of David B. Ayer the wi of the sej 
and ei of the swj of Sec 4 in Township 17, of Range 9, for which he received a 
deed on March 6th. 1849. There he built a home and settled down in bucholic 
contentment and peace, and there his son and two danghters grew to matur- 
ity and married, his wealth increased, and his days were unmarred by mis- 
fortune or disaster. But soon the peaceful tranquility of his rustic life was 
disturbed by the insiduous whisperings of the demon of avarice. In 1848 Jim 
Marshall, in digging a tail race for Capt. Sutter's sawmill at Coloma, Cali- 
fornia, discovered gold. That fact, soon known, kindled a furor of excite- 
ment that swept over the country— over the world— with the impetuous 
velocity of an old-time prairie fire. 

Dr. Pothicary was one of its early victims. Without the sacrifice of 
property or material interests, he hastily began preparations to reacli tiie 
newly-discovered land of Ophir. Several other citizens of Cass county, in- 
cluding some of his neighbors, were simultaneously attacked by the same in- 
fection, then known as the "gold fever," that soon "carried them off." C;i!i- 
f or nin WHS then n terra incognita only accessible by the long, dreary I'oiite 
across the plains and mountains; or by tlie equally dreary and hazardous voy- 
age by way of the Isthmus of Panama. Each route seemed to present some 
advantage over the other, to those profoundly ignorant of both; that by Pan- 
ama promised greater speed, the otlier greater safety and economy. Dr. 
Pothicary preferred the more expeditious voyage by Panama. He liacl 
crossed the Atlantic and knew something of ocean transportation. He also 
knew something of the slow movement of oxen, that some intended to em- 
ploy as means of locomotion over the land route. Said he: "Come arul go 
along with me by way of Panama, and we will get there and have all Ihe gold 
we want before those bull-whackers are half way across the plains." 

The early spring of 1849 saw great bustle and activity on the part of sev- 
eral adventurous spirits in Cass county, as at many other localities through- 
out the country. With Dr. Pothicary went Dr. M. H. L. Scliooley, John 
Buckley, Jos. Cosner and Mike Whitlinger, by way of St. Louis, New Orleans 
and Panama. They arrived in California in good time without incident or 
accident of note, and proceeded at once to the mines. With ex- 
ception of Whittlinger, their success in scooping up gold fell far short of their 
expectations. Doctors Scliooley and Potliicary soon separated after their 
arrival in the modern El Dorado, but before the expiration of a year bolh 
were heartily disgusted with their quest of the golden fleece, and resolved to 
return home as quickly as possible. Dr. Scliooley had not exhausted the 
means he had taken with him, and at San Francisco took cabin passage for 
New Orleans on the same steamship that brought him to California. He 
changed to another ship after transit across tlie Istiimus, and on arrival at 
New Orleans great was his surprise to meet Dr. Pothicary who had come on 
the same vessel working his passage back as cook! Tiie two Doctors had not 
met on shipboard as tlie one was in the after cabin, and the other's functions 
contlned liim to the forecastle galley. Dr. Pothicary was, of course, flat broke, 
and Scliooley generously advanced him the necessary funds to pay his way 
back to Cass county. 


Dr. Pothicary had many strongly marked characteristics and peculiarities. 
He was not at all handsome in personal appearance; six feet in height, lean, 
bony, slightly stoop-shouldered, with harsh, furrowed features, small gray 
eyes and reddish brown hair, and dark complexion Abrupt in manners, 
austere and reserved, and generally dressed very plainly, he presented but few 
surface indications of culture or refinement. Usually, absorbed in his own 
thoughts, he was not inclined to sociability, and in speech was dogmatical, 
often snappish, and seldom indulged in levity or laughter. But he was really 
of gentle nature, with most kind and sympathetic impulses, and to those who 
enjoyed his contidence and friendship he was an entertaining, pleasant and 
genial associate. All of his life he was an observant reader and meditative 
student, and though not a profound scholar, was a remarkably well-informed 
man of sound, practical education. His portrait illustrating this sketch was 
electrotyped from a dingy, faded, old ambrotype, the only portrait of him 
now extant. 

He was nominally a Quaker, but so broadly liberal were his views concern- 
ing tlie momentuous questions of man's final destiny, and Biblical higher 
criticism, that he might properly have been classed with Agnostics 
Thougli one of the most honest, moral and honorable of men he belonged to 
no secret society and artiliated with no local church organization. In his per- 
sonal luibirs, his abhorence of vice, immorality, profanity and vulgarity, his 
utter intolerance of depraved and evil conduct, lie was essentially a Puritan. 
In all these matters— in fact, in the most of his opinions— he was an extremist 
with lixed, immovable convictions. Expressed in the dialect of Arkansas, he 
was "powerfully sot in his ways." 

An incident that occurred at his "inn," in Virginia, in the spring of IS'IS 
well illustrated his extreme regard for social decorum and propriety — the 
more noticeable because of its general rarity at that period. Governor 
Thomas Ford, with his staff and acompany of Morgan county militia, stopped 
for the night in Virginia after the day's journey from Springfield when en- 
route to Carthage to investigate the Mormon troubles brewing there. The 
Governor and his Aids were entertained at the Pothicary tavern, and the 
soldiers camped on the public square. In stature Governor Ford was a small 
man little more than five feet tall, and by no means prepossessing in appearance. 
He was an eminent jurist of clear, strong mind, well versed in the law, but 
totally out of place as chief executive of the state. His elevation to that posi- 
tion proved unfortunate to him, as its associations led him into habits of in- 
temperance, arrogance and profligacy that wrought his utter ruin. When in 
convivial mood, or specially irritated— as was often the case— he was a boist- 
erous, profane talker, not at all choice in the ti>;ures of speech he employed to 
emphasize his discourse. 

On the evening mentioned he was, after supper, beginning to assert his 
authority with his usual blasphemies and anathemas, when Dr. Pothicary 
politely but firmly told him that he did not permit profanity or vulgarity in 
his house, and that he (Ford) must desist from its use. The Governor was 
speechless with astonishment for a moment, but, recovering himself, 
straightened up to his full five feet one inch, and retorted: "Do you know, 

G— d you, sir, who you are talking toV I'll have you to understand, 

B- G—, sir, that I am the governor of Illinois." "I don't care who you are, 

- 65 - 

sir," replied the Doctor, "but I'll have you to understand, sir, that I am the j 
governor of this house, and if you continue such profane and nngentlemanly j 
Slanguage I'll kick you out of it." Tliereupon the Governor of Illinois sub- ' 
sided and soon thereafter went to bed. 

No one ever liad a kinder or more oblighig neiglibor than Dr. Potliicary. 
Thougli he had but few intimate friends and no confidants, he entertained all 
who called upon him with blunt but genuine hospitality, and was esteemed 
by all for his probity and integrity of character. He never refused a neigh- 
bor the loan of a horse, or team of horses, wagon, or anything he had on tlie 
farm; but never borrowed anything, doing without such thiiigs as he needed 
and was without until he could buy them. A total stranger to the arts of 
flattery, and to deception in all forms, he was strictly correct and reliable in 
all business transactions, exact and methodical in all his private and public 
dealings, industrious, economical and frugal, and rigidly temperate in all 

In political opinion Dr. Potliicary was in his earlier life in this country a 
whig, and after organization of the republican party transferred to it liis al- 
legiance, and was for the rest of his days one of its stalwart and most loyal 
supporters, but refraining from taking an active part among politicians. He 
was an ultra republican because lie thought that party better represented his 
views of correct government and human liberty and equality, and not from 
motivesof personal gain or benefit. His residence in the ^outh acquaintt'd 
him with the institution of slavery which he cordially detested, and vehe- 
mently denounced on all occasions— in Illinois; but probably was more 
guarded in expression of his radical opinions when south of Mason's and 
Dixon's line. In regard to his adopted country he was intensely patriotic 
and faithful to every duty of the American citizen. During the civil war, 
though far passed the age for miltary service, he accepted the posit ion of dis- 
trict'provost marshal, and was unremitting and unrelenting in the dischai'ge 
of every duty connected with drafting recruits for the Union armies, until 
restoration of peace. So assiduous was he in that service that he gained tlie 
bitter enmity of every "copperhead," and of some of the stay-at-home "trooly 
loyal," in his district. He was shot at from ambush, on one occasion causing 
his horse to tlirow him, from which he received severe injuries. He was 
threatened with lynching and mobbing, but still went on fearlessly with liis 
enrollment work. 

At length the weight of advancing years admonished hsm to retire from 
further active basiness pursuits and situated himself and wife for the enjoy- 
ment of well-earned rest and quietude for the remnant of their days. Pre- 
paratory to leaving the farm he purchased lot No. 4 in Stowe's first addition 
to Virginia, and there rebuilt the liouse thereon into which he moved in the 

year 1870. 

Surrounded with all accessible comforts and conveniences the Doctor was 
well situated for enjoyiTient of the few pleasures of life remaining in his de- 
clining years. But unfortunately— as often occur in old age— a chronic disor- 
der, tolerated for some years, intensified by his failing vitality, rendered his 
existence a torture and burden. In his eightietli year lie underwent the op- 
eration of lithotomy, successfully performed by Doctor David Prince, the fa- 
mous Jacksonville Surgeon. From that ordeal he rallied, but though the sur- 

-66- . 

g-ical woiinrl speedily healed, it all'orded him onl}' temporary relief, and his 
protracted suffering again became intolerable. A year or more passed without 
amelioration of his condition. lie then thanked his attending physicans for 
their untiring efforts to mitigate his misery, and told them he well knew that 
at his age recovery was impossible, and even permanent relief from pain was 
lioi eless. and said lie had resolved to endure the agony no longer. As usual in 
such cases, but little attention was given to his intimation of suicide not- 
withstanding his well-known trait of obstinate determination of purpose. 

About three o'clock in the morning of July 3, 1878, when the inmates of 
the h"use and neighborhood were asleep, he stealthily descended the stairs 
from his room to the moonlit lawn in front of his residence, and there sitting 
down on the grass, with the coolness and skill of an expert surgeon, he cut 
down with a razor, and severed the left inguinal artery, and then called to 
his wife and calmly told her the deed was done. A neighbor was im^mediately 
aroused, but the Doctor expired before he could be returned to his room. 

Several days before he had given his relatives special instructions as to 
tlie manner in wliich he desired to be buried, and that was with the strictest 
regard to economy, and as quickly after his death as practicable. With his 
usual circumspection he chose tlie lawn for the place of his self-immolation in 
Older TO avoid soiling the bedding and carpet of his apartment, and on leav- 
ing to descend the stairs he wrote, by the light of the full moon, with chalk, 
on his grandchild's blackboard in the hall, his last earthly message as follows: 
"Rui-y me as I have directed." There was in his suicide not the sligiitest 
tiace of aberration of mind, and it was evident he had made all prepai'ations 
for it with tlie most deliberate premeditation. His age at the time of his 
deatli was 81 years, 2 months and 12 days. He was buried next day in the 
nobinson burying ground three and a half miles east of Virginia. He was 
survived by his wife and three children: Mary E., Joseph M., and Julia L. 

His wife died at the residence of her daughter Mary in Seneca, Kansas, 
on February 1, 1886, aged 82 years, 5 months and 2-4 days. 

Mary E. was born in Kentucky, on October G, 183.3, was married, in Cass 
county. 111., to Thomas Byron Collins on the 27th of Sept-ember, 1850, and 
died in Seneca, Kansas, on tlie (ith of December, 1899. 

Joseph M. was born in Kentucky, July 13tli, 1835, was married on May 
18, 1870, and died in Illinois, January 4. 1878. 

Julia L. was born in Virginia, 111., January 16, 1841, was married in Cass 
county. 111., October 19, 1860, to Charles C. Robinson, and now resides witli 
lier oldest son, C. M. Robinson, in Portland, Oregon. 


JAMES Gray Campbell was born at Bonnington (a suburb of the city of 
Edinburgh) Scotland, on February 24th, 1828, the eldest son of Blair 
Campbell and his wife Isabella (nee Gray.) 
As soon as old enough he attended the common schools of Edinburgh and 
Leith. His father having removed, with his family to the town of Leith, 
which is the seaport of Edinburgh and about two miles distant. His scliool 
days ended when he reached the age of twelve years. He was then put to 
work assisting his father, who was a shoemaker doing business on liis own 


When at the age of thirteen years, 
Philip C. Gray, a bookseller and sta- 
tioner of tiie city of Edinburgh de- 
sired to have James for a clerk in liis 

He remained with Mr. Gray, in 
that employment, for two years, dur- 
ing which time he made large use of 
tlie books in the store, during the in- 
tervals between waiting on customers. 
As tlie books were all for sale no 
thumb marks or dog ears on tlieiu 
would go, so the careful handling of 
books became a confirmad habit. 

Mr. Gray was a man of fine educa- 
tion, a perfect gentlemen and of most 
amiable disposition, but of rather 
quick temper. About the end of tlie 
second year of said clerkship the boss 
lost his temper, for slight cause, and 
told James to go home. James went 
and absolutely rerused to return. 

At the age of seventeen years he 
JAMES GRAY CAMPBELL. went to the city of Glasgow, as a 

journeyman shoemaker and remained there, on his own resources entirely, for 
about a year, and tlien returned to Edinburgh. 

In the early spring of 1849 his health failed. It seemed as if his time was 
to be short. His physician called the trouble functional derangement of the 


] lino's, and palpitation of the heart, caused by wealcness resulting? from the 
lung trouble. Early in May of that year an elderly gentleman and his three 
young lady daughters were going to Kane county, Illinois, where a son of tha 
father had already settled. They were to be accompanied by another young 
lady, tlie fiancee of said son, and lier brother. Campbell desired a kih or cure, 
and thought that such a trip would be one or the other. The matter was re- 
ferred to the doctor and he liiglily approved of tiie idea. So James also ac- 
companied the party. 

Sometime in May, 1S4!), the party started by railway for Glasgow on tlie 
river Clyde. Campbell was so much exhausted by tlie trip that his father and 
eldest sister, who had accompanied him that far, urged him to return. Ilg 
refused. So passage was secured for the party on an American vessel bound 
for New York. On the voyage which lasted live weeks, he recovered rapidly 
and on arriving at New York he was able to help materially in handling the 
baggage of the party. 

After a short stay at that city passage was secured by steamboat, up the 
river Hudson, to the city of Troy, and from thence by canal to the city of 
I'.iill'alo. and then, by steamboat, by the lakes and Detroit river, to Chicago. 
(^iiica:;o was then a dirty little frontier town: but the Illinois and Michigan 
caiia,! li;ii! then, lately, been opened from tiiere to LaSaJle on the Illinois 
river an 1 the founrlation of the greatness 01 that city liad been laid. There 
was then a railway running west perhaps forty or iifty miles from Chicago, 
and \ hat was the route to the destination of his aid friends, and, so far, his 
fellow t raveleis. lie would have accompanied tliem: it was painful to part 
fnan them, but he had undertaken a trust whicli he felt bound to execute, 
although lie had accepted it when he had no realizing sense of the magnifi- 
cent liL^tances in t!ie geography of the United States. It came about in this 
wise: A gentleman by the name of Cunningham in his youth emigrated to 
America and afterward returned to Scotland. Either by inheritance or pur- 
chase he became the principal owner of the real estate in said suburban vjll- 
;,ige of !5oniiington and was known among the people there as the "Auld 
Laird." There he raised a family of five sons and three daughters. The 
father of James Campbell was also born and reared at the same place; was a 
playmate of such of the Cunninghams as were about his age and there was 
always a very friendly feeling between the two families. One of the Cun- 
ningham girls married a Mr. Blair. She. with lier husband and three of the 
/^aid sons, John, George and Andrew, went to Canada and linally located in 
Cass county. Illinois; and about the same time three other members of the 
Elair family settled there also. As soon as the Cunninghams, at tlie Ilon- 
nington liome, learned that James Campbell was going to Illinois, they said: 
"He will see our brothers," and they wrote letters (International mails were 
tiien much slower and uncertain and, with all, more expensive than now), 
and prepared little packages of remembrances to be sent} to their friends in 
Illinois, and the members of the Blair family did likewise; these packeges 
were packed in Campbell's little trunk. So, when he got to Chicago, he had 
those tokens of love in his keeping, and he knew no way of delivering them 
except by hand, wliicli meant to him, a trip on ttie canal to LaSalle and, 
then by steamboat down the Illinois river to Beardstown. That was prac- 
tically the only way to get there then from the north. Arriving at Beards- 

- 69 - 

town in the afternoon of July 3rd. he was put ashore on the river bank, with 
his little trunk by his side. As he stood and wondered what next would be- 
fall this solitary stranger in a strang-e land, a young- Swiss came up and said, 
"Want hotel?" who, on being informed that his guess was right, shouldered 
the trunk and led the way to the liotel, then kept by a Mr. Foster who soon 
made the traveller feel almost at home. 

Early next morning (July 4, 1849) our traveler learned from Mr. Foster 
that it was not the day for tlie stage to go east and that every team for hire 
as well as the other city teams had gone to Virginia, as there was to be a big 
celebration there, and a Barbecue. Mr. Foster did some scouting about town 
and came in and reported that a Mr. Davis and his two daughters had come 
from Virginia to spend the holiday and would return in the afternoon and 
that he had engaged a seat in their rig for the "new Scotchman." Mr. Davis 
proved a pleasant companion and his two, really and truly, handsome girls 
were not less so. This Scotchman had no knowledge of Barbecue and as he 
had a craving for knowledge he inquired of Mr. Davis what it meant. He 
explained tliis wise: A big crowd get together in the hot sun and dust and 
they bring a beef or two and hogs and try to cook them whole, or ne:ui.v so, 
over big lires in the smoke and dust out of doors and when they get them 
half cooked they get the stuff spread on dusty benches and, ■sweating and roll- 
ing in dust, they gather around and eat the stuff like hogs." As James 
learned that the Davis farm adjoined Virginia (almost so at least) on tlie 
north, he concluded that Mr. Davis must have thought himself slighted in 
some way by the "management" and concluded to have notliing to do with 
the patriotic gathering. 

The sun was getting low in the west, when Mr. Davis with his load, 
drove on to the west square of the town. The exercises of the day being over 
the crowd was dispersing. Notwithstanding Mr. Davis' description of the 
Barbecue, the departing people all looked liappy, and just as if they had en- 
joyed a grand good time. 

Of course the Cunninghams and the Blairs and their cousins, their uncles 
and their aunts were there in force and the "new Scotchman" was soon in- 

Our traveller soon found himself in the Andrew Cunningham wagon, with 
Jack Cunningliam as driver, and a tine crowd of young folks from the "Tan 
yard;" so it was then generally called, because Andrew Cunningham then 
had a tan yard there; but the name of the place was Allendale, named after 
the family name of Mrs. Cunningham, his amiable aud talented wife. She 
was born in Sweden and had her early education tiiere, but by blood and gen- 
eral temperament she was thoroughly Scotch, perhaps mellowed and refined 
by much travel and residence in lands other than the homes of her ancestors. 

In that wagon load, the Russell family, for sixty years well and favorably 
known in the neighborhood of Virginia, was largely represented, including 
Eliza (now Mrs. Menzies.) 

At the home of Andrew Cunningham our subject had a cordial welcome 
to a delightful home, and as he was not seeking particularly for fortune, but 
anxiously for health, and the smell of tan bark being healthful he went to 
work at nominal wages at the tan yard. Mr. Kussell, the father of said 
Russell family was foreman there and Richard (Dick as we called him) 


Thompson was his right hand supporter. John Cunningham had died some 
years before this, leaving sons, James, Thomas, Archibald and the aforesaid 
Jack; also a daughter who was then the wife of Eobert Taylor. Some of 
them have passed to the great beyond: but all old settlers will remember 
them as in all respects above reproach. George, the other of the three origin- 
al Cunninghams, was a man of sterling honesty and intelligence. He left a 
large family, the members of which are, or were, well and favorably known 
to most of tlie readers of this paper. In those days the children of Andrew 
Cunningham were all young. Willie, a line, handsome boy, most of the resi- 
dents of the Virginia precinct before the war of 1861, will remember, with 
regret, that he went to the front and gave up his young life, so full of prom- 
ise, in defence of his country's flag. James, you have still with you; always 
genial, and yet, an old bachelor. Who can explain why? Floy was the baby 
then; Maggie just blossoming into womanhood, but now both among the very 
dear old ladies. 

So far the Blairs had little notice in this reminisence, but we must not 
pass tliem lightly by. They performed well their part in the early days of 
\'irgi Ilia and Cass county. In 1819, William and David Blair were residing 
ai N'ir^inia and there on that July 4th the said "raw" Scotchman met them. 
Tlu'ii' sistar Melville also resided there. Both of said brothers died within a 
few years after that. They were both honorable men. William was a farm- 
er: David had been a partner of Mark Buckley, but at that time with John 
Kodgers as cabinet maker. William left surviving him two line daughters 
wliogrew up to a noble womanhood, in and about Virginia. David left one 
daughter, now the wife of Mr. Hillig. Miss Melville Blair resided many 
years in a cottage nearly opposite the home of ''Jimraie" Finn, ^ a once noted 
ciiaracter of Virginia. There she gave lessons in music to lady pupils. 

Karly in the spring of 1850. he boarded at the home of John Robertson, a 
widower with a tine family of sons and daughters, about a mile from the tan 
yard and on the west side of Sugar Grove. Around that grove at that time 
there was a choice lot of genial homes. Tlie little log schoolhouse in the 
middle of the grove, with punchon floor and benches, was the church as well 
as schoolhouse of the settlement. Tliere they had Sunday School regularly 
and preaching, when they could catch a preacher; their singing classes, when 
a teacher came along and got up a class at a dollar a head: and, through the 
winter montlis, their debating society meeting, in which an intense interest 
was taken. 

In the summer of 1850 our Scotclmum's father, mother, tlu'ee sisters and 
two brothers arrived at Virginia, and first, for a short time, made their home 
In part of the house of George Cunningham in tlie country, not far from the 
"tan yard." In the summer of 1851 his sisters Isabella and Margaret arrived 
from Scotland. They were accompanied by David McLauglilin, afterward 
the wife of Isabella; David Redpath, who settled at Princeton— or Jersie 
prairie— and was intimately associated with Jacob Bergen. Miss Ann Boyln 
also was of the party. She, a fe\V years after, married William Ferguson. 
David Redpath was a very lovable man. He married at Princeton, had a tine 
family, but Death claimed him while they yet needed a father's care; but he 
left them in charge of a good mother. 

In the summer of 1851, this subject had a job on the farm of William 

-- 71 

Wood about a mile or two east of Virginia, at Lhe then fair wages of $11.00 
per month, in the fall of that year he resigned tlie job in favor of David Mc- 
LaucThlin wlio was out of a job and gladly accepted the situation and held it 
all winter In the spring David got a situation at Virginia, as clerk in the 
-eneral store of Henry 11. Hall and in the summer of 1852 he married said 
sister Isabella, at the home of her father, at that time in a little log cabin at 
the tan yard. David soon afterward removed to Beardstown as clerk in one 
of the principal stores and, afterward, became partner, in the Arm of Chase, 
Parker and McLaughlin. There he had live sons born to him christened re- 
spectively WilliamBlair, David Chase, James Campbell, John Kcssell and 
Andrew Cunningham. Late in 1 he fall of 18()4. David McLaughlin with his 
family removed to Muskegon, Michigan. There he prospered and rose to 
more than local distinction. For twenty one years he was a member of tlie 
Board of Education of the city and then declined further service. A bank- 
er's wealth and not the banker's ability (by the general judgment) was all 
that prevented David from being the congressman from his district at, one 
time He was for a time collector of customs for the western district of 
Michigan, and had the high compliment of being relieved from that ollice l)y 
President Cleveland on the ground of beingan "obnoxious partisan,' so it \\a,s 
called, and it was convenient for opening a place for some hungrij pafUsan. 
His«on William is now one of the leading bankers of Micliigan. Daviii. jr., 
went to Utah: was at one time the only "Gentile" in tlie Utah tenitnnal 
leo-islature. He died there, wealthy, a few years ago. James is now a pronn- 
ne'nt member of the Bar of Michigan. John died while still a boy. Andrew 
was for many years professor of history ui tlie Ann Arbor university ot M ic!i- 
io-an and is now a historian whom Theodore Roosevelt cites, as an authority, 
in one of his (Roosevelt's) historical works on the early settlement ot t. e 
west of this country. 

The sister Margaret became the wife of John Rodgers, the former partner 
of David Blair. She had five children, but husband and children are all gone 
and all that is left to her of her own family is one granddaughter. She now 
resides with her sister Jeanie, Mrs. George Ellis, in Minnesota. Euphemia, 
next older to James of the Campbell family, became the wife ot Alfred Car- 
man and within two years afterward died. At all times she was the special 
friend and champion of her brother James. Slie left a baby girl which soon 
had to be laid upon her breast in the cold ground. Tiie sister Mary became 
the wife of George Wilkie. She died on their farm north of town in 1805 or 
'GO. She left two sons and two daughters, who will be remembered l)y most 
of the readers of this paper. 

The brother John was married to a daughter of Joseph Needham, one of 
the early settlers. He now resides in Nebraska, as do all his numerous family. 

ThebrotherArcliibald, (generally called Archie), was the flower of the 
Campbell familv. After the installment of Abraham Lincoln in tlie pres- 
idency, a movement was started to have James appointed postmaster at Vir- 
ginia That was without his request or even knowledge: but the commission 
came at about the time Capt. L. S. AUard led his company, afterward Com- 
pany F of the 19th Infy. Vols, to camp at Springfield. James felt, that with 
his short but intensive history as a "precinct politician" immediately behind 
him, and with his reputation as the blackest sort of black republican, a due 


repfard to consistenci' required that he should follow. Archie was then 
teaching- school, in what was known as the Needham schoolhouse. James 
went there and almost by force compelled him to give up his school and take 
charge of the postoffice. 

Archie was put in possession of the postoflice as deputy, and James left 
for the war. 

After the battle of Bull Run it was evident that the war was going to be 
no ninety day picnic, so James resigned his postoffice commission and Archie 
was appointed instead. 

Arciiie considered it his duty to stay and care for his father and mother, 
(then well along in years), and other family interests; but on the return of 
James, and the call for recruits being urgent, he, although not personally 
named in the call, thought it meant him and that he ought to obey. With 
a squad of other Virginia boys, (among them Rudolph Oliver and Henry 
Hinchcliff), he went to Jacksonville. Neither of the three returned. They 
enlisted in the a.^rd Regt. Ills. Infy. Vol. in February, 1865. That regiment 
was then commanded by Charles E. Lippencott, of Chandlerville, and was 
somewhere on the shore of the Gulf of Mexico. Tiiey were immediately sent 
forward to join that regiment. The last letter from Archie was dated at 
Memphis, Tenn.. on March 2, 1865. The next report of him was from a com- 
rade, who wrote, that tlie boat they were on. upon a dark and stormy night, 
struck a snag and sunk. Rudolph being sick,- had been provided with a state- 
room and the last seen of Archie indicated that he was bent on the rescue of 
Rudolph. Rudolph's body was found afterward in the stateroom and \Nas 
buried on the west bank of the Mississippi, near the mouth of the White and 
Arkansas rivers. Immediately on getting the sad news. James went down 
there, but got no tidings of his lost brother, or his body. 

Archie was one of the bravest and the best: kind and gentle, but firm 
and steadf; To know him well, was to love and respect him. 
"He was the loved of all, yet none 
O'er his low bed may weep." 

But let us go back to the Virginia of 1849 for a while. There was little 
business then at what is now the court house square. What little mercantile 
business was done then, was mostly at the old couit, house squai'e. At the 
south end of the west side, was the general store of N. B. Thomp.son, a large 
good looking man, with a tine family of boys and girls; a rabid domoerat, but 
with all a very good fellow: and, adjoining on the north was the general store 
of H. II. Hall. Angling across to the west end of the south side was the store 
and dwelling of "Honest" Charlie Oliver. His estimable wife was one of the 
daughters of the Hon. Archibald Job, who was reputed to have been present 
at the battle of New Orleans, and who settled near the stream east of town, 
afterward known by his name, when the nearest postottice was at St. Louis, 
who had been a member of the Illinois legislature and who mounted his tine 
gray horse and went to the Mormon war at Nauvoo. In the "Boston brick" 
at the southeast corner of that s(iuare dwe't and dispensed druggist'ssupplies. 
Dr. L. S. Allard. He afterward built at the southwest corner of the east 
square. On the south side of that square there was a long stretch of vacant 
space, but, near the east end, Mr. Erwin had a small store; and, angling 
ac'oss from there to the east side of that sciuare, was the hotel, operated then 

- 73 - 

by William Armstrong. On the west side of this square, 
looking painfully lonesome, although within one hundred feet of the 
Harris home, stood tlie postofflce, with Jack Mosley as postmaster. He had 
two liandsome daughters, not to speak of line sons, and sad and lonesome 
though that office looked at a distance, it did not seem so to the young men 
when they called there, for their mail, and, with it, got a smile from the 
daughter Lucy, for she was the belle of the town in those days. 

In those days Virginia had no lawyer unless we count R. S. Thomas, who 
resided somewhere in the vicinity, and a year or two after that had his resi- 
dence and office there. He became the prime mover and member of the 
enterprise that built the first railroad into Virginia, and Cass county. His 
chief clerk was John Naylor, and ardent politician of the old Whig scliool, a 
fine conversationalist and an all around good fellow, and who would have been 
a great man had he not been constitutionally tired. 

We had Doctors Schooley, Hathwell, Tate, Allard (already mentiond,) and 
about that time Phillips: all fine gentlemen and good country doctois. Per- 
haps, in this connection, Logan Proctor should be mentioned, lie was a 
brother-in-law of Dr. Tate; and, being an old bachelor, he was much at tlie 
doctor's home, and being quite a student, he used tiie doctor's library and tlie 
doctor's counsel to train himself in medical science. During a stormy night 
an urgent call, for a doctor came. All the doctors were out of town. The 
lady patient was in dire distress. Logan's sympathies w'ere excited. He 
thought he might help till better skill arrived. He saddled the doctor's 
spare horse; put a few "simples" in the saddle bags and rode through the deep 
mud and darkness. He was introduced to the sick chamber and assured tlie 
patient that the doctor would soon arrive but meanwliile he could help. He 
felt the pulse, saw the tongue and began to prescribe. A lady attendant then 
remarked, "Mr. Proctor, perhaps you don't know what's the matter." "In- 
deed I do," he said, "I have been often that way myself." The laugli which 
followed astonislied Logan, but he understood iiow the laugh came in shortly 
afterward when tlie lady had a fine new boy and was doing as well as could be 
expected. Logan bore tlie title of doctor, after that, given him by the boys, 
and Logan took it, with great meekness, for he was one of the meekest of 
men. He was really a dear, good soul, bnt somehow he did not seem to relish 
that title. Some years afterward, in due form and manner, by proper ecclesi- 
astical authority, the prefix "Rev." was added to his name. 

Between the years 1851 and 1855 the subject of this sketch knocked about, 
ready to put his hand to any work that offered at what was considered then 
fair pay. He spent one year with John Wear on his farm northeast of town; 
and John, long years afterward, and often, remarked that "Jim" was the best 
hand he ever had. As circumstances led he worked at his trade, farmed for 
hire, and on his own account, worked on a brickyard, and, with Joseph and 
Isaac Robertson, run a threshing machine. Jn the spring of 1854 or '55 he 
opened a shop at Virginia. He took an active part during the winter mouths 
in the lyceum debates at the old court liouse where Dr. Harvey Tate was 
usually president, and Henry Phillips, (then school teacher). Dr. Allard, 
Henry Savage and many other able men participated. 

On tlie nomination of Fremont and Dayton, for the presidency, and vice 
presidency in lS5(i Campbell, at first, stood almost alone, in support of that 

ticket in tlie AMrg-inia precinct. In those days it was customary, in the front 
yards of dwelling's and in front of business houses to raise poles and hoist 
flags. "Buchanan and Breckenridge," "Fillmore and Donaldson" were very 
much "in evidence." "Fremont and Dayton" on Campbell's pole was very 
conspicuous by its lonesomeness. In 1858 he was a delegate from Cass county 
to the first regularly called, republican state convention in Illinois. It met 
at Springfield, nominated a full state ticket and named Abraham Lincoln as 
its choice for U. S. senator. 

As has been stated the Virginia company, afterward "F" of the l!)th 
Regt. Infy. Vols., entered camp at the state capital early in May, 1801. 

In the spring of 1858, a military company was formed at Virginia under 
the name of "Virginia Guards." L. S. AUard was elected captain, Abraham 
Bergen, first lieutenant, and James G. Campbell, second lieutenant. The 
state had no arms then to give it and it was never armed nor uniformed, but 
it was drilled in company movements by Capt. AUard, who had been an officer 
in the Mexican war. At that time the Northern people were incredulous as 
to the Southerners' threats of war and the organization did not appear to be 
oiganized with any view to such war, but that it was thought of just as such 
tilings are thought of at any time. Beardstown had a company, "Why not 
\'ii-;;ininV" seemed to be the thought. 

When war did come, Capt. AUard promptly tendered his company to Gov. 
Yates, (the original "old Dick"), but Dick had at his command more than 
enough of fuliy organized, and well drilled and fully eijuipped companies to 
till the quota at that time called for. . So he told Allard to hold his company; 
that it would be called for soon. The men were hard to hold. Many of tbem 
drifted away hunting gaps in the ranks of the accepted, which they might te 
allowed to till. 

Knowlton II. Chandler, of Chandlerville, had organized a company there, 
but, it not then being accepted, there was the same drifting away from it as 
in Allard's case. When soon the "call" came to Allard, in order to till the 
ranks to the required number Allard and Chandler united forces. The ladies 
■of Chandlerville presented that company with a flag of silk, they carried it 
with them, and, when camped alone, it floated over its headquarters. Camp- 
bell has it now as a sacred relic. 

It was tacitly understood that Allard should be captain of the consoli- 
dated companies and Chandler tiist lieutenant, but that the form of an elec- 
tion should be had of the three commissioned officers. Tlie only contest was 
on second lieutenant. Campbell did not attend that election or take any part 
in it. Thomas Job, son of the aforesaid Archibald .lob, was duly elected sec- 
ond lieutenant: which was a first-class selection and entirely satisfactory to 
Campbell. Lieut. Job had all the qualities in full measure necessary to make 
a good soldier and officer. 

Campbell, as stated joined the company at Springfield, and soon there- 
after it was moved by rail to Chicago. It received one months' pay from the 
state. On arrival at Chicago it was with other nine companies formed into 
a regiment and placed under the command of Col. J. B. Turchin, who had 
seen service in the Russian army, and was afterwards brigadier general of 
volunteers. The work of drilling in hard earnest now began. The regiment 
was mustered into the service of the United States, June 17, ISGl. 

- 75 - 

Early in July, the regiment liaving been furnished (all except one com- 
pany) with smooth bore, altered flint lock muskets, (it soon after got Spring- 
field rifle muskets), was ordered into active service, and was carried by rail to 
the Mississippi river and passed over into Missouri, somewhere above and 
near Palmyra. It was rapidly moved from place to place and before the end 
of that month company F was doing garrison duty at Hannibal and there 
while Lieut. Job was at Ills post of duty with his company he was killed as 
lately, in tliis paper, was grapliically described by the pen of Comrade H. E. 
Ward. To give even a skeleton from the history of that company and Camp" 
bell's part in it would fill a good sized volume. The regiment, sometimes to- 
gether, sometimes in detached companies, was coutinually in motion, with 
weary marches. In August. 1866, it was for a few days at Norfolk on the 
west bank of the Missouri, There came a commission as second lieutenant to 
Sargeant Campbell. 

The regiment was soon ordered to Washington; but one of the trains 
carrying it east, in crossing a bridge on the O. & M. R. R., had a wreck. 
The bridge broke. The engine and baggage car got over safely; one car went 
down, end up, the next crashed into it and the third car telescoped tiie 
second one and a fourth car telescoped the third one. In this, companies F 
G H and I suffered severe loss in killed and wounded. Tliat accident changed 
the destiny of the regiment and after a short time for I'ecuperation it was 
sent into Kentucky, entering at Louisville. From there it worked gradually 
southward, with wayside excursions and skirmishes till about the time of the 
battle of Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing, it, with tiie command of Gen. O. M, 
Mitchell, cut the Confederate communications (west and east) at Eluntsville, 
Ala., by a forced march in the night from Fayetteville, Tenn. Soon after- 
ward Gen. D. C. Buell assumed command of the U. S. forces in that region 
and began to gather large supplies and mass troops in northern Alabama, 
north of the Tennessee river, with the evident purpose of crossing and get- 
ting behind Chattanooga to capture that place, ahd with it, all of east Tenn- 
essee; General Bragg by a bold dash, with his army, through Cumberland 
Gap spoiled the plan of Buell and changed the program to a race for Louis- 
ville and the Ohio river. It was determined to hold the capital of Tenn- 
essee, so a garrison was left there under the command of General James Neg- 
ley. The 19th 111. was part of the garrison. 

Company G of the 19th was by his order detached from the regiment to 
act as an artillery company and its offlcers being all on staff duty, by a special 
order of Gen. Negley, Campbell, who had been, about a year before that, pro- 
moted to flrst lieutenant, was detached from his company to command com 
pany I. With tiu'ee pieces of artillery, that company was sent to Gallitan, on 
the line of the L. & N. R. R., south of Nashville. After Christmas, 1862, he 
had orders to tui'n over his military equipments and proceed by rail to Nash- 
ville; to assume the muskets and infantry equipments of the company and 
rejoin the regiment: but the battle of Stone river was on; the confederate 
cavalry were in force between Nashville and the army of Rosecrans, and, by 
order of the post commander at Nashville, he camped his company by the 
Murfreesborough pike and "reported" to the commanding officer of the flrst 
body of troops going to tiie front. It was on December .31st, 1862, when the 
right wing of Rosecran's army was struck, early in the morning, on its ex- 


treme right and doubled back upon itself, and it looked like defeat; but the 
left wing was intact. By night order had been brought out of confusion on 
the right, and, althougli it liad suffered severe loss, a new line had been 
formed for said wing at right angles to its first line and, at the point of the • 
angle, was protected by the embankment of the L. & N. R. R., and there 
Rosecrans massed a large portion of his artillery. 

In the afternoon of January 2, 1S().% Gen. Bragg directed his attack on the 
Union left wing. The l&th was on a high bluff -on the left barjk of Stone 
river. The Confederates were advancingi-apidly, driving the union forces be- 
fore them. To the left of the U)th was a ford. The Confederates' were cross- ■ 
ing there. Gen. Negley, commandingthe Union division there, galloped up- 
to where tiie 19th lay, shouting: "Who wHl save my left?" The gallant'Col. 
Scott calmly but quickly mounted his horse and -said, • "Tlie 19th is ready 
General." "The 19th be itthen." In an'instant tAie 19th we-i-e in-ranks'and 
by the left flank on the double quick tliey were quickly in front Of the' fOrd, 
Then "Halt! Front! Ready! Aim! Fire!" One sheet of fire; o>ie clOud of^ 
smoke, and one great report, as if It were the discharge of- one great ■ musket ' 
instead of many. Then, as qufck as thought, the orders, "Fix bayonets!' 
Charge bayonets! Forward, double (lui'ck,' march! Charge!" and- the 19th 
was on them and tlie "Confederate yell" was hushed. The battle was won. 
The initiative of the 19th was followed up by the whole Union left wing. It 
became good generalship th^ri on the part of Gen. Bragg, as rapidly with as- 
little loss of materialas possible, to withdraw hrs'gallant arnfiy.- ^ 

But the Union losses were heavy. Capt. Chandler led his company across' 
tlie river, but on the farther bank a Confederate 'bullet pierced his head: a' 
brave soldier and admirable man was honorably mustered out. Col; Scott 
was wounded also so that soon after reaching home lie died from the effect 
of it. Early in the morning of January ;5rd, Cumpbell with a party of com- 
rades found Chandler's body wheie he fell (night had closed in at the close of 
the battle of tlie 2nd) and dug a grave, by the foot ^of the tree, which wks 
marked for identitication; and, wrapped in his great coat with its cape 
thrown over his face, he was gently laid away. - ■ 

Campbell, that morning took command Of his own -company, and his com- 
mission coming soon after, gave him ranlcrts captain from January 2, '18(i;}, 
"Vice Capt. (Chandler, killed in battle." " .■...: ... ..;. 

Campbell was then constantly with his- company- arid regiment up to- 
through the Chickainauga campaign, and the two days' hard light of Sep-' 
tember 19tli and 20th, 18(i;^; and on the afternoon of the 20th' they were with 
Gen. Thomas on the left curve of the Horse Shoe bend on the Snodgrass hill 
whereby the Confederates were held and pursuit prevented of the shattered 
right and center of Rosecrans' army, until night covered' all. Then the can- 
non wheels were muffled and silently, without haste and in perfect order,' 
the men who had held that hill against three desperate- assaults of the Con- 
federate troops, marched toward Chattanooga. Tired and hungry they lay 
down to sleep in a corn field in front of Rossville Gap. Early next morning 
a defensive line was formed again to check the advance of the Confederates 
till Rosecrans had made defensive preparations immediately in front of Chat- 
anooga. About mid-day the Johnnies began to show up. They made a few 
efforts to break our lines, but they seemed to have lost the "wire edge" of 

- 77 - 

their valor and made no impression. When night came this rear guard 
passed quietly through the Gap and formed in the hastily constructed 
trenches prepared the day before. Tlien began the siege of Chatanooga by 
the "rebs." The daily cannonade of solid sliot and explosive shells became 
so common that they excited little fear and hardly any curiosity, except 
among the extremely nervous and they were in a very small minority. 

The greatest trouble then was the short supply of rations for men and 
mules. There were large supplies at Stephenson, farther down the Tennessee 
river but the Confederates held the south bank thereof, and the only way to 
get them to the army was by mule power over two high ranges of mountains 
and the roads in the valleys and on the flats of the mountain tops were axle 
deep in mud. Along the whole of that long road dead mules were never out 
of sight. When the creatures pulled till they conld do so no more, the har- 
ness was pulled off and they were left to die, or recover if they could. 

When Gen. Grant came, his first move was to take and occupy the south 
bank of that river to within a short distance of Lookout Monntain, and sup- 
plies were brought there by small steamboats up the river and, from there a 
"cracker" road was made, across the big bend there of the river, making a 
short mule haul of the crackers and pork to the bank of the river opposite 
Chattanooga— and the famine was over. 

Early in September, Gen. Grant having been reinforced by troops from 
the east under Gen. Hooker, and Gen. Sherman, with the army of the Tenn- 
essee, he placed Hooker on his right and Sherman on his left. In the night 
he threw a strong force of Hooker's corps, across the river, westerly of where 
Lookout Mountain rises abruptly from the bank of the river. This body after 
a severe skirmish held the ground taken. Sherman established himself on 
the south bank of the river above Chatanooga. 

On September 24th battle was opened in earnest by General Hooker, who 
attacked the left wing of Bragg's army, in the valley west of the mountain, 
which runs from the river bank by a very deep slope, covered with great 
boulders and scrub trees and bushes till, at about one hundred or one hun- 
dred and fifty feet from the top, it rises perpendicularly to where, on the 
plateau above, tnere were Confederate batteries. Hooker pressed the enemy 
up against the mountain and they fell back, disputing every foot of ground, 
over and around the steep slope, under the precipice, and into the valley east 
of the mountain. Sherman, meanwhile, was thundering on tlie right flank of 
Bragg's army, near the east end of Missionary Ridge, On the next day 
Hooker was still following up Bragg's left wliile Sherman was tliundering on 
his right, and the army of the Cumberland, under Thomas, was formed in one 
long line of battle facing Missionary Ridge. In the af^,ernoon, with a thin 
line of skirmishers in front, it advanced rapidly without tiring a shot, except 
from the skirmishers, under artillery Are from the top of the ridge and mus- 
ketry from the rifle pits at the bottom. They seized the pits and had orders 
there to halt. 

The position there was galling. Exposed to a dropping fire from men 
under cover at the top of the ridge, and the captured rifle pits furriishing 
poor, really no, protection on the reverse side; as if by general consent,, the 
whole line advanced and crowned tlie ridge. The enemy's center was broken. 
Bragg was defeated and the siege of Chattanooga was raised. 


Capt. Campbell, leading his company, when about two-thirds of the way 
up the hill was halted by a bullet in the lower abdomen, toward the right 
side, which, coming from above, trended downward and lodged under the 
skin of his right hip. When he recovered sufflciently he had a leave of ab- 
sence and made his only visit home during his service. He returned in the 
following March to duty with his company in time to take part in the ad- 
vance on Atlanta. Company F participated in the actions along that hard 
contested advance till it reached Muriette, Georgia, near Atlanta. Its three 
year term having expired. What were left of the men, who three years be- 
fore had been mustered-in were ordered back to Chicago to be mustered-out. 
They were mustered-out, July 9, 18()4. In the winter of that year he joined 
his brother Archie in a general store at Virginia. 

That arrangement was broken up by Archie's death, as stated, and 
Archie's interest in the business was sold to William Hitchcock. 

In May, 1865, he married Martha Jane Hitchcock, a sister of Mrs. 
Dr. Goodspeed. By her he had two children, Archibald James and Mattie 
May. The marriage relation was very happy, but was cut short and ended by 
pulmonary consumption. She died in the early summer of 1870. Mattie May 
soon followed her at the age of eleven months. 

In the fall of 1871, he married at Malone, New York, Mrs. Harriet Meigs, 
a sister of his first wife, and removed to Muskegon, Michigan, and first went 
into the general hardware business. His wife and other friends strongly 
urged him to seek admission to the bar; so he sold his hardware business 
and devoted three months to special study of law. at home, at the end of 
which time a regular term of the circuit court for the county of Newaygo, 
Mich., was to be held at the county seat of that county. Accompanied by his 
brother-in-law, David McLaughlin, he went there and applied for admission. 
He knew no one there except his said brother-in-law. A committee of the 
bar was appointed by the court to examine him. After a lengthy examina- 
tion in open court in all the main branches of the law, he was, by the commit- 
tee recommended for admission and was at once admitted and commissioned 
as an attorney and counselor at law, and a solicitor and counselor in chancery. 
He immediately went into practice of the law at Muskegon, He was after- 
ward admitted to practice in the United States courts of Michigan at Grand 
Rapids, Michigan. In 1875, his said wife, Harriet, also succumbed to the fell 
destroyer — consumption. 

He continued in the fairly successful praciice of law at Muskegon, until 
in 1878, he got drawn into the newspaper and general printing business, 
though first assisting a young man (related to him by marriage) in the edit 
ing of a weekly paper, said young man, a printer by trade, had started. In 
the same year, 1878, Campbell married his present wife, Miss Alice Elizabeth 
Davis, then in her 18th year. Said marriage was a very happy one— notwith- 
standing disparity of their years. Campbell soon found that it was absolutely 
necessary for him to buy out his partner to get rid of him: and for that reason 
also to wind up his law business by refusing new cases. He soon made the 
"Journal" a daily as well as weekly. The ottice was the best equipped in that 
city and county. Had good steam power and a large cylinder press for news- 
paper work; ample fonts of type and all necessary appliances; two foremen, 
both experienced: printers and newspaper men, one for job work, the other 

- 7^1 - 

for the paper: a good shorfchand reporter: a circulation cleric, pressman and 
all the typesetters required. With proper manag-ement there was a fortune 
in it; but he needed a good business manager, a practical printer and news- 
paper man, so that he might give sole attention to the editorial department. 
The charge of all the details of such business; .was too much ^ for oqe. The 
publisher of the rival republican paper,' of the city, offered to buj/ him out, at 
a good price, which Campbell took in an iwur of weariness, a,nd, aftierward 
regreted. He publislied the Journal four years. His law.busiijess at Muske- 
gon having been broken up,' he might have renewed it. but jiis, mind being 
prejudiced by Jay Cook's literature ..regarding, the "Great-lf^orthwest," he 
went out to view tlie land of promise: went into it as far .west, as. Miles City, 
Montana, which was as far as he couldgO', rail, iJtnd coming back in- 
vested in this, Stark coiirtty,^IStorth Dakota.' It.,, was: ti.h^n ,a wilderness. 
There was not a town orA'illage betweenvMajndafl -,01} pjtip.iiM,lsspuri riyer, and 
Glendive in Montana,,a distance; of .ovgrijtwc^ihundredlifli.iles., .Buffalo were 
then so numerous that sometimes raiiroad.tTfiins. l>M,j actijally,.t9 stop to al- 
low a herd of them to cross the tjack-rTlie rail rot^d track and "section 
houses" were the only signs tlien {sprJ^g of 18^2) of cjviUzi:},tiou tliere. 

In the confusion attendant upon hpiisekeeping tj,t. Muskegon, his theji 
youngest child, Glenlyon Drysdale, found a of liqiyd.pqisqn, of. which his 
father and mother had no Ivnowledge- H^ tasted. ,it and , witliin .a very few 
minutes'it was^evident that the matter vvas.serioju3. Medical, aid was ijn-, 
mediately called with all speed, but, within about one haltj,Jiour he died in 
his father's arms. He was a beautiful boy of aboutthe age;.of two years. . 

About the end of August, 1882, wi'.h two car loads of .goods he and his 
family then consisting of his wife and sons, Archie and Clyde, arrived at, a 
station on the N. P. R. R., about one hundred miles west, of the Missouri 
river. Therea colony of settlers from Wisconsin ,hii,d started a settlement 
about the time that Campbell first passed through viewing, ttie land,. He had, 
brought the lumber from Minneapolis to build a house and lie built it at said, 
point, which had been called '.'Gladstone," and was the tirst town platted in 
that region. He built a liouse there which is now the Gladstone Hotel, and, 
wintered there, and there his, first daugliter, Alice Isabella, was born, in 
December next following. ; r-.' ..: 

Tlie next spring he built on his land,, about four miles from Gladstone, 
early in the spring of 188.3. In the fall of 1882, Dickinson had been, platted 
and was beginning to be settled, largely by .railroad men, as it was a division 
center on the railway. . The spring before vvJienCampbell tirst saw it, aside 
from what buildings the railway company had, it , consisted of one two-story 
frame buildingiunplastered, and two shades— all. three being saloons. It is. 
now a thriving city, of/abaut'3,500. inhabitants. ,v 

Early in the spring of 18S3,! Dickinson andGlad^tone were both aspirants 
for county seat hoaoxs.j A petition ol itifty. voters was then only ^necessary, to 
move the governor of, the,'territory. to appoint c,qmmisssoners to organize a 
county. Petitions were presented to him from ,botli , places. Dickinson won 
by getting two of the three commissioner^. They were appointed, and of 
these Dickinson had two and Gladstone got one. Tliat one was Campbell. 
They became the county board and selected Dickinson for the county seat, 
and appointed all the other county officers, who held .intil the next general 

- 80 - 

election in 18S4. In tlie summer of 1885, he was appointed county commis- 
sioner for the (iladstone commissioner district, to lill a vacancy, and soon 
thereafter resigned tliat position to accept the office of judge of the probate 
coui't, and, in the fall of ISSfi, he was elected to the same office, for two years 
(regular term.) In 1887, he was elected district attorney for the county and 
held over into statehood, in the state of North Dakota. lie declined further 
service in that office and was nominated and elected to live successive terms 
of judge of the county court and after an interval of two years he was again 
selected county attorney (now called states attorney.) He is now out of office 
but doing a fair law business as head of the firm of Campbell & Field— Field 
being an ex-Confederate colonel. Ills daughter Alice has been, for about four 
years, steriogniplier and typewriter in his law office; his daughter Nina has 
just graduated from the high school here. His sons Archie and Cljde are 
locomotive engineers, with families of their own. Archie, as round house 
foreman on the C. E. & I. R. R. at station for Chicago, called Dalton. Clyde 
is located at the city of Fargo, as a road engineer on the N. P. R. R. His 
oi lier children, all at home, are: boys, Clarence, James and Theodore, and 
gills. Clementine and lone— ail shooting upward with good promise of being 
well worth the raising. 

The I^resbyteriaiis, with whom he had been formerly associated, having 
nbandoned about teti years ago this field of opei'ations: and his wife and 
children, by her, having become attached by full membership, or connection 
witii the choir, or Sunday School of the Episcopal church, he, with them, at- 
tended the regular services of that church also. For about six years, last 
past, he has been clerk of what is called the "Bishop's Committee," but did 
not receive "confirmation," as a communicant, till lately. 

Among fraternal orders, he is Senior Post Grand of the Odd Fellow lodge 
and also Post Patriarch of Encampment, and member of Degree of Rebekah: 
also a Master Mason and member of order Eastern Star. 

[Note— Mr. .James A. Cunningham calls attention to an error in relation 
to his mother, Helen Cuimingham. In the first part of Captain Campbell's 
sketch, he says that Helen Cunningham was born in Sweden; her son says she 
was born in Scotland, and when twelve years of age, went to Sweden where 
she lived from four to six years. J. X. Cr,] 


FIFTY years may not be considered a very long period in the life of a na- 
tion or a people, but when a half-century's grip is clapped on the head 
of an individual and the frosts of sixty years are encircling his brow he 
at least realizes in that span of time there "has been a whole lot doin'." 

To my mind, Cass county, and especially Virginia, contained an atmos- 
phere at the time I write, that was particularly satisfactory in vvhicli to 
nourish political disputation and controversy. Possibly this condition hiis 
not appreciatively changed, and if so I see neither cause for alarm nor a nec- 
essity for calamity apprehensions, as in a country based on free institutions, 
such as constitute the foundation of this republic, in my judgment it is tlie 
most healthful symptom when the public is stirred concerning its own wel- 
fare and the voter is aroused in his own behalf. 

I like to dwell on the view that in the material world there are no acci- 
dents, and if we are but patient and seek to fathom the reason for results we 
without great ditTlculty can find an antecedent cause for either the mountain 
peak of wrong or the smiling valley of blessedness that seem to be the an- 
tagonistic forces always lighting for supremacy. Accepting this premise as 
correct there must of necessity be as great a duty facing the present genera- 
tion as was performed by the preceding one, yes, even as was established by 
the forefathers in building the free land now grown so great and majestic, 
viz., to maintain the same and transmit it pure and :mdetlled to posterity. 

While yet preserving a recollection of the presidential campaign of 1852, 
I find so far a greater interest in the one succeeding, that of 18.5(), the issues 
of which being more portentous in consequence of a new party coming on tlie 
scene and the gradual dissolving views of one of the others, with the conse- 
quence of its final going out of existence, this period can be chronicled as an 
epoch in the political liistory of the country, bringing tlie nation to the 
threshold of dissolution and finally the harvest of civil conflict that required 
an ocean of blood and tens of thousands of lives as a sacrifice in order to main- 
tain national unity. 

As is familiar to all, the contestants in the political battle of 185() were 
Buchanan and Breckenridge, representing the democratic cohorts: Fremont 
and Dayton, the newly organized republican party, and Fillmore and Donel- 
son the Native American idea, termed by way of obloquy the "know-noth- 
ings," speedily going on the rocks of oblivion after that tussle with the 
electorate. It is not violently interpreting the verdict of history to assert, 
that the potency of the people's voice was never more righteously displayed 

-82 - 

nor their verdict more universally approved than when they drove into outer 
darkness, without hope of resurrection, a cabal founded on prejudice, nour- 
ished on bigotry and fed on the offal and venom of all that is vile in the in- 
firmities of human nature. 

To return to the subject in hand, that of a few of the scenes in a notable 
campaign in your beautiful and prosperous city a half ceutury ago, asking in- 
dulgence for this lengthy and somewhat tiresome digression, let me ask the 
readers to follow me at least for tiie outlining of one of tlie half-amusing in- 
cidents that I was a witness of and one of the participants in almost fifty 
years ago. But for fear the lesson may not be received in full I must put the 
lesson first and the story second. The lesson I desire impressed is that no 
great movement ever had the advantage of numbers and equipment, but 
grew inconsequence of the persistence of its disciples and in spite of the an- 
tagonism of those who opposed it. In thumbing tlie pages of history from 
Calvary to Appomattox I find unvarying indorsement of this conclusion. In 
fact it seems impossible to install any important change from existing condi- 
tions without misjudging the motive of those who seek to bring the change 
about and often the disciples of the reform must endure martyrdom for their 

Along about the last or closing days of the campaign of 1856, in Virginia, 
the incident took place which fully illustrates this point. Tliere liad been a 
nuuiber of political rallies of each of the old parties and the ground had not 
only been covered quite thoroughly but in many places had been actually torn 
up by the vigor and energy of the disputants. 

Not wishing to be completely submerged by their opponents the followers 
of Fremont determined to "ratify" just like the democrats and "know- 
notliings," but when they came to count noses their number was so small 
tliat they realized how lonesome it would all be, and gave it up as far as Vir- 
ginia was concerned, but as fortune always favors the brave a way soon ap- 
peared that took tiie place of a home rally. Jacksonville housed a consider- 
able number of the adherents of the "wooly horse," as the Fremonters were 
dubbed at that time, and announced a grand ratification meeting, with dele- 
gations from the surrounding counties, including Cass. This was quickly 
seized on by the liandful of Virginia republicans and they resolved to partici- 
pate. The principal of the faithful junta and somewhat of an agitator 
against the iniquity of slavery was Professor Spaulding, tiie school teacher, 
wlio with his faithful wife and two grown daughters kept the watchfii'es of 
republicanism ablaze, and to these were added .James G. Campbell, .John 
Rodgers and William Owen, the tinsmith. This delegation started for Jack- 
sonville on the road leading from the west end of town, and while there were 
few fiags or banners in the retinue their enthusiasm ran high. 
Before reaching the bridge crossing the "big brancli" a misadventure over- 
took the determined rati fiers and almost brought their journey to disaster. 
It is related as one of the verities of the history of the time that a number of 
bad democrats, juveniles, but emphatic in their conviction that no republi- 
can should celebrate the nomination of Fremont if they could head it off, lay 
concealed in the corn near where the -'procession" passed and bombarded 
from their place of security the entire republican party of Virginia. In the 
excitement the horses became uinnanageable, started to run and came within 

- 83 - 

an ace of running off the bridge, with possible calamity to the occupants of 
the wagon. Of course when the party returned tlie democratic adherents 
came in for a scoring in consequence of tliis latest outrage to tlirottle free 
speech and endeavoring to prevent the enjoyment of tlie fundamental rights 
of American citizenship. Of course the party had no more to do with the 
"assault" than the man in the moon, but the "victims" had a grievance and 
nursed with keen satisfaction their soreness. Tlie election followed in a few 
weeks and as Fremont knocked the "know-nothings" into kingdom come, it 
left the two parties wliich have faced each other practically ever since, to oc- 
cupy the stage of action. In my observation Cass county has never failed in 
its devotion to the glorious principles of democracy, and as even rock-ribbed 
Missouri has left the ancient moorings of the faithful, I feel that I must soon 
return to the beautiful horizon of Virginia, if only for a brief spell to grasp 
the honest hands and commune again with the noble natures that have held 
aloft the banner of the common people— the principles of pure democracy. 


The following communication was received by J. N. Gridley fi'<im Mr. E. 
F. Madden, president of the First National Bank, of Hays City, Kansas: 

"Answering yours of recent date, will say that I have just returned home 
after an absence of sometime and And your letter before me. 

"While I was born in Virginia, I have been away from there for forty 
years. I spent a very pleasant day there about fifteen years ago, and I expect 
to return there for at least a day off, as soon as I can. 

"I pass through Jacksonville very often, but always at night and in a 
sleeper, and I assure you that if I was awake I would get out and go over to 
A^irginia. I have the kindest recollections of the pretty little town, and her 
clever and hospitable people were to my childish memory, the nicest people in 
the world. 

"I remember how the successful farmers used to bring in the most lus- 
cious peaches, the most beautiful and fragrant nice big apples, the sweetest 
cider, and the largest melons, and really such men as Sam Petefish, Jack 
Tureman, Ned Davis, Dr. McClure, and others, whom I cannot now call to 
mind, tilled up barefooted, red-headed and freckled-faced boys like 1 liap- 
pened to be at that time, with all the nice fruits and cider free of before 
they commenced to sell their produce to their other customers. 

"I remember the old schoolhouse in the square in the west part of town 
where T usually went to school. My teachers were the Spaldings, Goodell. 
Miss Hart, Miss Gaines, Mr. Phillips and Mr. Rich, in the school on the hill, 
south of town, Mr. Rei'ry and Mr. Prince, all to ray young memory were kind- 
ness indeed. 

"I guess I knew about all the places the boys used to go fishing and swim- 
ming, about as well as anyone did. I was the boy with the .stone bruise on his 
lieel, and the nail off of one of his big toes every summer, and was unnoticed, 
and likely unseen, and not now remembered by the average citizen ot the 
beautiful village. 


election in 1884. In the summer of 1885, he was appointed count}' commis- 
siotier for the Gladstone commissioner district, to till a vacancy, and soon 
thereafter resigned that position to accept the otTice of judge of the probate 
court, and, in the fall of 1886, he was elected to the same ottice, for two years 
(regular term.) In 1887, he was elected district attorney for the county and 
held over into statehood, in the state of North Dakota. He declined further 
service in that ollice and was nominated and elected to five successive terms 
of judge of tlie county court and after an interval of two years he was again 
selected county attorney (now called states attorney.) He is now out of office 
but doing a fair law business as head of the firm of Campbell & Field— Field 
being an ex-Confederate colonel. His daughter Alice has been, for about four 
years, stenographer and typewriter in his law office; his daughter Nina has 
just graduated from the high school here. His sons Archie and Clyde are 
locomotive engineers, with families of their own. Archie, as round house 
foreman on the C. E. & I. R. R. at station for Chicago, called Dalton. Clyde 
is located at the city of Fargo, as a road engineer on tlie N. P. R. R. His 
other children, all at home, are: boys, Clarence, James and Theodore, and 
girl.s. Clementine and lone-all shooting upward with good promise of being 
well worth the raising. 

The Presbyterians, with whom he had been formerly associated, having 
abandoned about ten years ago this field of operations; and his wife and 
children, by lier, having become attached by full membership, or connection 
with the choir, or Sunday School of the Episcopal church, he, with them, at- 
tended the regular services of that church also. For about six years, last 
past, he has been clerk of what is called the "Bishop's Committee," but did 
not receive "confirmation," as a communicant, till lately. 

Among fraternal orders, he is Senior Post Grand of the Odd Fellow lodge 
and also Post Patriarch of Encampment, and member of Degree of Rebekah; 
also a Master Mason and member of order Eastern Star. 

[Note— Mr. James A. Cuimingham calls attention to an error in relation 
to liis mother, Helen Cunningham. In the first part of Captain Campbell's 
sketch, he says that Helen Cunningham was born in Sweden; her .son says she 
was born in Scotland, and when twelve years of age, went to Sweden where 
she lived from four to six years. J. N. G.] 


FIFTY years may not be considered a very long- period in the life of a na-, 
tion or a people, but when a half-century's grip is clapped on the head 
of an individual and the frosts of sixty years are encircling his brow he 
at least realizes in that span of time there "has been a whole lot doin'." 

To my mind, Cass county, and especially Virginia, contained an atino,s- 
phere at the time I write, that was particularly satisfactory in. which to 
nourish political disputation and controversy. Possibly this condition liiis 
not appreciatively changed, and if so I see neither cause for alarm nor a nef- 
essity for calamity apprehensions, as in a country based on free institutions, 
such as constitute the foundation of this republic, in my judgment it is t)ie 
most healthful symptom when the public is stirred concerning its own wel- 
fare aud the voter is aroused in his own behalf. 

I like to dwell on the view that in the material world there are no acci- 
dents, and if we are but patient and seek to fatliom the reason for results we 
without great difficulty can find an antecedent cause for either tiie mountain 
peak of wrong or the smiling valley of blessedness that seem to be the an- 
tagonistic forces always fighting for supremacy. Accepting this premise as 
correct there must of necessity be as great a duty facing the present genera- 
tion as was performed by the preceding one, yes, even as was established by 
the forefathers in building the free land now grown so great and majestic, 
viz., to maintain the spaiie and transmit it pure atid 'jndetlled to posterity. 

While yet preserving a recollection of the presidential campaign of 1852, 
I find so far a greater interest in the one succeeding, that of 185H, the issues 
of which being more portentous in consequence of a new party coming on the 
scene and the gradual dissolving views of one of the others, with the conse- 
quence of its final going out of existence, this period can be chronicled as an 
epoch in the political history of the country, bringing the nation to the 
threshold of dissolution and finally the harvest of civil conflict that required 
an ocean of blood and tens of thousands of lives as a sacrifice in order to main- 
tain national unity. 

As is familiar to all, the contestants in the political battle of 185() were 
Buchanan and Breckenridge, representing tlie democratic cohorts; Fremont 
and Dayton, the newly organized republican party, and Fillmore and Donel- 
son the Native American idea, termed by way of obloquy the "know-noth- 
ings," speedily going on the rocks of oblivion after that tussle with the 
electorate. It is not violently interpreting the verdict of history to assert, 
that the potency of the people's voice was never more righteously displayed 

" 82 - 

nor their verdict move universal!}' approved than wlien tliey drove into outer 
darlcness, without hope of resurrection, a cabal founded on prejudice, nour- 
ished on bigotry and fed on the ott'al and venom of all that is vile in the in- 
tirmities of human nature. 

To return to the subject in hand, that of a few of the scenes in a notable 
campaign in your beautiful and prosperous city a half ceutury ago, asking in- 
dulgence for this lengthy and somewhat tiresome digression, let me ask the 
readers to follow me at least for tiie outlining of one of the half-amusing in- 
cidents that I was a witness of and one of the participants in almost fifty 
years ago. But for fear the lesson may not be received in full I must put the 
lesson first and the story second. The lesson I desire impressed is that no 
great movement ever had the advantage of numbers and equipment, but 
grew inconsequence of the persistence of its disciples and in spite of the an- 
tagonism of those who opposed it. In thumbing the pages of history from 
Calvary to xippomattox I find unvarying indorsement of this conclusion. In 
fact it seems impossible to install any important change from existing condi- 
tions without misjudging the motive of tliose who seek to bring the change 
alioiit and often the disci pks of tlie reform must endure martyrdom for their 
coiivict ions. 

Along about the last or closing days of the campaign of is.jd, in Virginia 
the incident took place which fully illustrates this point. There had been a 
number of political rallies of each of the old parties and the ground had not 
only been covered quite thorouglily but in many places had been actually torn 
up by the vigor and energy of the dis[)Utants. 

Not wishing to be completely submerged by tlieir opponents the followers 
of Fieinont determined to "ratify" just like the democrats and "know- 
notiiiiigs," but when they came to coimt noses ttieir number was so small 
that (hey realized how lonesome it would all be, and gave it up as far as Vir- 
ginia was concerned, but as fortune always favors the brave a way soon ap-. 
peared that took the place of a home rally. Jacksonville housed a consider-, 
able number of the adlierents of the '"wooly horse," as the Fremonters were 
dubbed at that time, and announced a grand ratilicatipn meeting, with dele- 
gations from the sui'ronnditig counties, including Cass. This was quickly 
seized on by the liandful of Virginia republicans and they resolved to partici- 
pate. The principal of the faithful junta and somewhat of an agitator 
against the iniquity of slavery was Professor Spaulding, the scliool teacher, 
who with his faithful wife and two grown daughters kept the watchfii'es of 
republicanism ablaze, and to these were added James G. Campbell, John 
Ilodgers and William Owen, the tiiismith. This delegation started for Jack- 
sonville on the road leading from the west end of town, and while there were 
few Hags or bannei's in the retinue their entliusiasm ran high. 
Before I'eaching the bridge crossing tlie ''big branch" a misadventure ov-^er- 
took the determined ratifiers and almost brought their joui'ney to disaster. 
It is related as one of the veritiesof tire history of the time that a number of 
bad democrats, juveniles, but emphatic in tlieir conviction that no republi- 
can should celebrate the nomination of Fremont if they could head it off, lay 
concealed in tlie corn near wliere the "procession" passed and bombarded 
from their place of security the entire republican party of Virginia. In the 
excitement the iiorses became unmanageable, started to run and came within 

- 83 - 

an ace of running off the bridge, with possible calamity to the occupants of 
the wagon. Of course when the party returned the democratic adherents 
came in for a scoring in consequence of this latest outrage to throttle free 
speech and endeavoring to prevent the enjoyment of the fundamental rights 
of American citizenship. Of course the party had no more to do with the 
"assault" tlian the man in the moon, but the "victims" iiad a grievance and 
nursed with keen satisfaction their soreness. The election followed in a few 
weeks and as Fremont knocked the "know-nothings" into kingdom come, it 
left the two parties which have faced each other practically ever since, to oc- 
cupy tlie stage of action. In my observation Cass county lias never failed in 
its devotion to the glorious principles of democracy, and as even rock-ribbed 
Missouri has left the ancient moorings of the faithful, I feel that I must soon 
return to the beautiful horizon of Virginia, if only for a brief spell to grasp 
the honest hands and commune again with the noble natures tliat have held 
aloft the banner of the common people— the principles of pure democracy. 


The following communication was received by J. N. Gridley from Mr. E. 
F. Madden, president of the First National Bank, of Hays City, Kansas: 

"Answering yours of recent date, will say that I have just returned home 
after an absence of sometime and find your letter before me. 

"While I was born in Virginia, I have been away from there for forty 
years. I spent a very pleasant day there about fifteen years ago, and I expect 
to return there for at least a day off, as soon as I can. 

"I pass througli Jacksonville very often, but always at night and in a 
sleeper, and I assure you that if I was awake I would get out and go over to 
Virginia. I have the kindest recollections of the pretty little town, and her 
clever and hospitable people were to my childish memory, the nicest people in 
the world. 

"I remember how the successful farmers used to bring in the most lus- 
cious peaches, the most beautiful and fragrant nice big apples, the sweetest 
cider, and the largest melons, and really such men as Sam Peteflsh, Jack 
Tureman, Ned Davis, Dr. McClure, and others, whom I cannot now call to 
mind, filled up barefooted, red-headed and freckled-faced boys like 1 hap- 
pened to be at that time, with all the nice fruits and cider free of cost before 
they commenced to sell their produce to tlieir other customers. 

"I remember the old schoolhouse in the square in the west part of town 
where I usually went to school. My teachers were the Spaldings, Goodell, 
Miss Hart, Miss Gaines, Mr. Piiillips and Mr. Ricii, in the scliool on tlie hill, 
south of town, Mr. Berry and Mr. Prince, all to my young memory were kind- 
ness indeed. 

"I guess I knew about all the places the boys used to go fishing and swim- 
ming, at)out as well as anyone did. I was the boy with the stone bruise on his 
heel, and the nail oil of one of his big toes every summer, and was unnoticed, 
and likely unseen, and not now remembered by the average citizen ot the 
beautiful village. 

- 84 - 

"I worked on the farms a little foi' Mr. Robt. Hall, Mr. Frank Stribling-, 
Jolin Sallee. Wm. Wilson. Dwight Angier, and also Newt Wilson, around his 
grain wareliouse and in his stock trading. All these gentlemen paid me more 
than tlie agreed price, and treated me as nicely as if I had been their own 
boy. Things like the pay proposition mentioned, would make anyone, even 
after forty years feel kindly to such people and such a community. I remem- 
ber all tlie children with whom 1 went to school: but as I was the dull boy, 
tliat all the otliers could lick. I presume I am forgotten. I assure you that 
in my mind, Virginia is the grandest spot on the map. 

"I only regret, that the success in business and trade that I set out early 
to accomplish has kept me away from Virginia so long, and that I have not 
been able to return often and renew my early acquaintance with the citizens 
of your community. 

"Thanking you for writing me and sending me copies of your well edited 
paper and assuring you and all my old friends that should they ever pass 
through my town nothing would please me better than for them to pay me a 
visit. "E. F. Madden." 



THOMAS Jefiferson Collins, bom near Culpepper court house, Viro^inia, 
May 13, 1802. When three weeks old he was taken by his parents to 
Brownsville, Pa., and later on to Ohio. On November 29th, 1827, lie 
was married to Miss Julia Fowler. 

In 1841, he came with liis wife and five children to Cass county, Illinois. 
From his home in Tumbull county. Ohio, he hired his neighbors to take t hem 
to Pittsburg, where they waited three days for a boat to take them to St. 
Louis, where they changed boats and came up the Illinois river to Beards- 
town. Here the travelers were met 
with teams by liis brother, Rev. Wm. 
H. Collins, who resided at Virginia, 
Illinois, to which point they were 
taken. A few days later Thomas .1. 
'.'ollins purchased about 600 acres of 
land, between two and three miles 
cast of Virginia, for $0.30 per acre and 
the family were soon at home. (This 
farm, or part of it, was later known as 
the Wm. Wood farm, and Jake Ward 
fiirm.) After selling part to INIr. 
Reading from left to richt, Wood, the family made a home on the 

Miss Esther Collins Mrs. Emily (Collins) Brady , • ,^^.,,^^. ,,„„,.„ rT^^,._ 

Mrs. Mary (Collins) Allen west i.>o acies toi man\ \eais. ueie 


the seven children grew to man and womanhood, and six of them are still 
living: Byron, Will and Emily, in Pomona, Cal., Jane, (Mrs. J. W. Allen), in 
DuBois, Nebraska, Miss Esther, in Washington, Kan., and Ira. in Sabetha, 
Kan. Almira, (Mrs. J. R. Hallowell), died in Ontario, Cal., 1893. 

When Thomas J. Collins moved from Ohio to Illinois, he brought with 
him a large new up-to-date wagon, with a cast steel thimble. In about a 
year he traded it to Bradley Thompson for 35 sheep, 3 cows and $35 in cash. 
Sheep were tnen worth 50c a head and cows $10 each. He also brought a new 
two seated buggy, which he later sold to Dr. Chandler for $80. Tliese ve- 
liicles were very rude as compared to those in use in this 20th century. 

He also brought a handsome, red-painted cast iron plow, but it was no 
good and soon sold because of its handsome color; then he went down below 
Arenzville and had a blacksmith named Clark make him a wrought iron plow. 
After working on it several days with brick and sand he got it to "scour" and 
that was the first plow in that region that ever "scoured," and all the farm- 
ers for miles around came to see it. 

He was of a genial, happy disposition, quite gcod-looking and sociable, 
ana a fluent talker. He was a member of the Methodist church, and on Sun- 


day wore a blue hroiulcldrii Colonial coar wlrh brass buttons, and over tins in 
winter a firal) cloth c.ipe which J'ell to his boot tops. His occiipiition in Ohio 
was that of ;i iniher. and t he frontier hardships soon wrecked his heiilth and 
lie passed away Febi uaty 8rh, 1818, at the early age of 45 years, leaving to the 
wife and children the heritage of an honorable name which they have never 

- 87 " 
With acliin^"- henrt and willing hands the mother took up lier burden and 

x' ^^B 









bravely lived her life. In 1865, she went to live in Monmouth, 111., to be witli 
her daughters and in 1870 moved with them to Washington, Kan., where she 
passed away April 5th, 1883, with her seven children at her bedside, and 
mourned by all who knew her. 


CITAPiLES Brady was born December (ith, 1801, in Kentucky. He was mar- 
ried, in 182:5, to Mabala Graves. From tliis union there was born to 
tliem eleven children, four of whom are yet livitijif: Mrs. W. S. White, 
of 'i'emple, Arizona; John T. Brady, of Pomona, Cal.: Alexander, of Neodesha, 
J\aii.; Wni. C, of Perkins, Okia. Ter. 

Ill 1S29, with his young wife and two children, (one of whom later be- 
oiimt- Mrs. .Tohti E. Haskell), he emigrated via "Prairie Schooner Route" to 
Jiiiiioi.s. J! is object in leaving Kentucky was to raise his family away from 


the evil intliiences of slaveiy. Tlie Kentuck\ lhail\!5 were tione 
slave holders and did not l)elieve in slavery. Mi 
Charles, was a large slave lioldei'. and wished to present his daughter Maliala 

le of them 
ves, the father-in-law of 


with two young slaves, a man and his wife, when she started with her little 
family for Illinois, but tliis offer was refused. Mr. Brady was an abolitionist 
and a staunch whig. 

In early youth Mr. and Mrs. Brady became members of the Christian 
church, and remained such as long as they lived. 

He was a man of sterling integrity and lionesty, whose word was as good 
as his bond; of a quiet and unassuming disposition, and even temper, but 
with strong convictions and decided opinions on any subject he investigated. 

On arriving in Illinois he settled on a farm of 120 acres in Sugar Grove, 
known later as Wilson Farm, where lie remained until 1838, when he moved 
liis family to the little town of Virginia, which at this date had perhaps 200 
inhabitants, who lived in small frame or log houses, with clap board roofs. 

Here he became associated witli John E. Haskell in a carding machine 
and cloth factory, receiving wool direct from the farmers, carding and weav- 
ing it into tlie cloth desired by the farmers, or returning to the owners, 
carded in rolls ready for spinning. 

By endorsing notes for a friend he became involved in debt and decided 
to go to California to recoup his fortunes, in 1849, as California was then in 
the lieighth of its gold excitement. 

He returned to Illinois, in the fall of 1852. witli about $1200, whicli he 
paid on the notes amounting to $2000, and was released from further obliga- 
tion. Two years later he succumbed to an attack of typhoid fever, and on 
October 18th, 1851, he peacefully "went home," at the early age of 5.3 years. 

Tlie remains of the father were laid to rest in the Robison graveyard, be- 
side the four tiny mounds of his little ones "gone before." 

The brave-hearted and sturdy pioneer mother, who renouncing slaves and 
slavery, and saying a last good-bye to parents, relatives, and home of her 
childhood, went in a covered wagon, with husband and babies, far away into 
an unknown wilderness, and witli unflinching courage bore her share of all 
the hardships of that rugged frontier life, struggled on and in the same 
gentle, but firm way. bore the burden laid upon her. After a long and useful 
life slie laid her burdens down at the ripe age of 88, in Virginia, February 19, 
1892, honored by all who knew her. 

We talk much of "The Winning of the West." Yes, "Winning of tlie 
West" with railroads, telegraph, telephones and automobiles, to say nothing 
of money easily made, good roads, unexcelled postal service and other luxuries 
the real frontiersman never dreamed of. These two pioneers in "The Win- 
ning of the West" liad only brave hearts and iron muscles, a little helpless 
family, a wagon and team and tlie bare necessities, and before them an "un- 
bla/.ed trail" into a vast wilderness. 

All iionor to tliese sturdy pioneers of Illinois! 

THe liusted or JacRso!:iville H.aid. 

THE political atmosphere in 1863 and '64 in Central Illinois was red hot. 
For many years political prophets insisted with great earnestness that 
the discussion of the slavery question in this country would result in 
civil war. The friends of human slavery, in an early day in this state 
sought to legalize the institution in Illinois. The battle was fouglit for two 
years, ending in 1824. 

An eminent historian of that day says: 

"The convention question gave rise to two years of the most furious and 
boisterous excitement and contest, that ever was visited on Illinois. Men, 
women and children entered the arena of party warfare and strife; and the 
families and neighborhoods were so divided and furious and bitter against 
one anooher, that it seemed a regular civil war might be the result. Many 
personal combats were indulged in on the question, and the whole country 
seemed, at times, to be ready and willing to resort to physical force to decide 
the contest." 

The writer of the above history laid down his pen before the advent of 
the great war of the slaveholder's rebellion, but history repeats itself. 

The democratic party of the United States, before that war, was one of 
the most powerful political organizations that ever had an existence. It had 
been dominated by southern leaders who had become intensely arrogant and 
overbearing. Douglas, who was perhaps the strongest and most skillful de- 
bater of his day, was a "compromizer." The southern leaders had resolved to 
dissolve the union, and in pursuance of their plan defeated the nomination of 
Douglas for the presidency in 1860. Lincoln was nominated by the repub- 
licans and the southern democrats took a course which tliey knew would re- 
sult in Lincoln's election. They were tired of the constant and growing op- 
position of the people of the north to African slavery and sought a pretext to 
dissolve the union. When the government was organized, slavery was recog- 
nized; the northern slave states got rid of it, not for conscience sake but be- 
cause it did not pay. The southern democrats and a large majority of the 
northern democrats believed in what was called the doctrine of state rights, 
which included the right of a state to leave the Union when its people chose 
to do so. No force was used, or even tiiought of, to induce any one of the 
tiiirteen independent colonies to join the union of states, although two of 
them, North Carolina and Rhode Island, held out for nearly two years. The 
representatives of New York, who were reluctant to assent to the terms of 
the proposed constitution, did so, at last, but made this declaration: 

- 91 - 

"The powers of government may be reassumed by the people whensoever 
it shall become necessary to their happiness." 

In 1811, on the bill for the admission of Louisiana as a state of the Union, 
Josiah Qiiincy member of congress, of Massachusetts, said: 

"If the bill passes, it is my deliberate opinion that it is virtually a disso- 
lution of the Union; that it will free the states from their moral obligation: 
and as it will be the right of all, so it will be the duty of some' definitely to 
prepare for a seperation — amicably if they can, violently if they must." 

We have not time here and now to follow down this discussion, but the 
gi-eat majority of the democratic party believed a state had the right, volun- 
tarily to go out of the union, just as It voluntarily came into it. Horace 
Greely, the publisher of the l^ew York Tribune, then the most influential 
newspaper in the north, advised that the southern states be allowed to se- 
cede; his language was, "Wayward sisters, go in peace," not many of his read- 
ers endorsed this course, however, as they tliought as did Lincoln that a few 
men in a few days would coerce the states back from secession. 

Douglass, the great leader of Illinois democracy, having brains enough to 
see that secession would fail, announced his purpo>e to support Lincohi in 
suppressing the rebellion, but he died early after secession began. Logan, a 
prominent leader of Illinois democrats, for a time seriously considered fiie 
plan of gathering his neighbors together to cross the border, and figlit foe the 
south; but he soon concluded to enlist with the north, and became tlie great- 
est of the volunteer generals who had never received military training. 

In Cass county, many prominent democrats were southern symputiiizers. 
Dr. Samuel Christy, who was a native of Pennsylvania living upon liis larin :,, 
few miles east of Virginia in this county, and who had an extended medical 
practice was an out and out opposer of the prosecution of the war, and vei-y 
many agreed with him. 

When the government could no longer rely upon patriotism or money to 
keep the ranks filled, but was compelled to resort to force, the situation in 
Cass county became tense. The pro-slavery men banded together in a secret 
organization calling themselves "Knights of the Golden Circle:" their object 
was to resist the draft, and obstruct the prosecution of the war. Those in 
favor of the war, joined a secret order called the "Union League," and their 
aim was to render all the assistance they could to prosecute the war. 

There was a company of "Knights" nearly or quite a hundred in number 
living in the neighborhood of tlie Oregon precinct. The captain of tliis com- 
pany was Alex Robison, now a Justice of the Peace of this city; one of the 
lieutenants was John P. Chilton, a well-known farmer, still among us. Tliere 
was an open tract of land of KIO acres in extent in Sec 31, T is, U 8, now 
owned by William Emerson, upon which this company held weekly drills, in 
18()4. The writer lias seen them, many a time, mounted on horses riding back 
and forth for hours at a stretch going througli with some kind of cavalry 
drill, preparatory to "resisting the draft." As the time for the "draft" drew 
near, these amateur soldiers found their bravery becoming weaker and still 
weaker, and then concludefi to hire enough substitutes to fill the quota of 
their precinct. A meeting was called to be held in the Panther Grove school - 
house. This meeting was well attended. Barney Troutman made a speecli 
in which he said, describing the character of the war: 


"Father is a.rra}'ed ag-ainst son; brotlier is arrayed against brother, and 
comrades who stood side by side on tlie rield of Waterloo, are now arrayed 
against eaeli other." 

Tiie demand of the government was met by tlie hiring of negroes, and the 
crisis was past, without a clash of arms in Cass. 

In tlie latter part of the summer of 1863 occurred the noted Husted or 
Jacksonville raid. John Stokes, of Meredosia, a Knight of the Golden Circle, 
went to Springfield and divulged the secrets of the order as was reported, and 
the feeling against him was murderous. Another Xniglit, was John Ilustedf 
of Beardstown, who was then a well-known character, and was much better 
known soon thereafter. 

Ilusted was a native of Connecti- 
cut and had long been a resident o, 
Beardstown: he was a constable and 
an auctioneer; he had much to do in 
the county seat tight of 1872 and '73 
and we shall have occasion to refer to 
him later. He died in Quincy, 111., 
within the last two years. 

Very soon after ttie report of Stokes' 
treachery was generally known Husted 
was standing on the platform of the 
Wabash railroad in Jacksonville. A 
west bound train came in and Stokes 
was a p;)ssenger seated by an open car 
window, on the south side of the car. 
Husted engaged him in conversation 
and just as the train started it is 
claimed that Husted seized Stokes by 
the arm, with the intent to drag him 
through the window and throw him 
under the moving train. Husted did 
JOHN HUSTED. not succeed in getting Stokes out of 

the car, if that was his intent, but w;is arrested upon a warrant issued at the 
in.stance of Stokes at Meredosia. charging him with an attempt to commit 
murder. It was agreed that the ti'ial should take place at Jacksonville on the 
following Monday. Husted retained James M. Epler, then an attorney of 
Beardstown, and the latter drove the next day (Sunday) to .Jacksonville and 
engaged Cyrus Epler to assist in the defense. 

In the meantime the news spread like wild tire that Huested was to be 
dragged off by U. S. soldiers to Springfield to be court martialed and word was 
sent to the friends of liberty to rally to tlie support of Husted, that he might 
receive a fair trial in a civil court. Judge Epler says that when he proceeded 
the next Monday morning to the court in the Jacksonville public 
square he was greatly surpi'ised to find the building and the square and the 
streets tilled with people — many of whom were acquaintances of his from Cass 
county. M)-. F. M. Davis, of this city, estimates the "raiders" at two thous- 
and in number; they came from Beardstown, Monroe, Chandlerville. Peters- 


burg, Mason City and all the way between. There were wagons containing 
scores of loaded guns concealed under straw. Lest the reader might conclude 
that tliese raiders were a rough and disreputable set it is only necessary to 
say that many of our best people were among them, including Thomas Dyson, 
of Chandlerville, Samuel IT. Petefish and John A. Petetish, of Virginia. Gov- 
ernor Yates was appealed to, for assistance, and he replied that Husted 
should be tried by a magistrate, under the laws of Illinois, and that was all 
that the raiders demanded. 

There is no proof there was any other intention, but the fact that such a 
report as above stated was started and circulated with the results which fol- 
lowed is enough to demonstrate the fact that the people were expecting and 
were preparing for trouble. 

The hearing was had in the regular way: Husted waived an examination, 
gave bonds for his appearance, and no bill was found against him; and thus 
ended the .Jacksonville Raid. 



MORGAN county was org'anized by act of the third g-eneral assembly on 
the olst of January, 1S23, from the northern part of Greene county, 
and comprised all the territory between Greene county on the south 
and the Sano-amon river on the north, bounded on the west by the Illinois 
river, and on tlie east by Sangamon county, and included the present Scott 
a nrl t^ass counties. Its county seat, Jacksonville, was platted in 1825. Mor- 
gan county was part of tiie "Sangamon country,-' as the region, for eighty 
miles in width, extending along the Sangamon river from the Illinois to tlie 
Waliash river, was long known to the Indians, and later, to all emigrants 
lx)uiid for Illinois territory; and justly regarded as the most beautiful and 
fextile^part of Illinois— not excelled by any district of the same limits in the 
United States. 

After the close of the war of 1S12 its fame as a land literally "flowing 
with milk and honev" spread far and wide, and attracted to it manv of the 
more adventurous immigrants who then began to pour into Illinois from all 
the older states of the Union. The intrusive whites moved in, however, 
very cautiouslv, as the Sangamon country was then still in possession of those 
implacable enemies of all Americans, the Kickapoo Indians. In 1811) the gov- 
ernment quieted their title, by purchase and treaty, and sent them to a res- 
ervation southwest of Fort Leavenwortli. A few small bands of them ling- 
ered here for some years later. They were here — in what is now Cass coun- 
ty—until 1821, and. farther east, were on the Embarrass and Wabash rivers 
until 18.32. As the red sovereigns left the state such of their ceded lands as 
had been surveyed and thrown open for pre-emption and sale began to be 
settled up rapidly. 

Among the many prospectors, from a distance, who came, at a later date, 
to inspect this fair and productive land with the view of founding here his 
future liome, was Dr. Henry H. Hall. He was a native of Ireland, born in 
July 17i)5, in county Antrim, almost in sight of the Giants' Causeway, of 
Protestant parents whose lineage had some admixture of Scotch blood. From 
local schools he received the usual elementary education, completing his liter- 
ary and classic studies at the University of Glasgow where he graduated. 
Afterward he attended the medical college in Belfast, which conferred up- 
on Idm the degree of Doctor of Medicine, and subsequently took a special 
course in surgery at the Royal Hospital in Dublin. Thus equipped for pur- 
suing his chosen profession, the influence of his family secured for him a sur- 

- 95 - 

geon's commission in the British navy. 

While serving in tliat capacity on an English war vessel a few years after 
cessation of liostilities between the United States and Great Britian in 1814, 
he obtained a furlough when in the harbor of New York, and made a tour 
through several of the eastern states. So well pleased was he with what he 
then and there saw of this country that upon returniiiiir to England he at once 
resigned his commission, and, as soon as he conveniently could, came back to 
the United States to become an American citizen and find here a permanent 
home. His first trial of the general practice of medicine was in the city of 
Baltimore where he located and offered to the public his professional services; 
buTlilsstay there, so far as can now be learned, was of comparatively short 
duration — long enough perhaps for him to discover the vast difference be- 
tween the study of medicine as a sublime tlieory, and its practice as a dreary 

It is altogether probable — as has been the case with hundreds of other 
young physicians who were endowed by nature with sense enough to know 
themselves— that when he came to realize the fact that he had prepared him- 
self for a life business for which lie found he had neither taste or altinir.v . he 
wisely dropped it, and concluded to try something else in which he mighi. at 
least, feel some interest and pleasure. In that settled conviction he leir the 
Monumental City and made his way aown into Accomac conoty in < Id 
Virginia where he transformed himself into a farmer, or "planter" a^ agricul- 
turists were styled in the South. Finding, by experience', tliat calling more 
genial to his talents and notions, he laid aside his profession as reserve capital 
for exigencies tliat might occur in the future. In the course of his residence 
there he became acquainted with Miss Ann Pitt Beard, the accomplished 
daughter of a wealthy neighboring planter, and their rapidly growing mntii;il 
I'egard ripened into a higher sentiment that culminated — ;is sucli affaiis usual- 
ly do— in their marriage on the 1st day of December,jL_818. The young cnuple 
then settled down on a well-stocked plantation' in tliat county, known as 
"Pitt's Neck," apparently for the rest of their natural lives. Dr. Hall was 
not of the same race as the descendants of the cavaliers to whom he had 
joined his destinies by marriage; nor was he of the Puritan stock that fought 
with Cromwell, and later made I'lymouth Rock famed in history: but he was 
the scion of a people known the world over for energy, industry and ambitious 
enterprise. He faithfully tried for some years to coerce wealth from the poor, 
sandy soil of that old plantation on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, but 
with discouraging results. 

Becoming disgusted witli the sterility of that part of the Old Dominion, 
and its slow, anti(iuated business methods, Dr. Hall concluded not to waste 
his life in a continuous struggle for subsistence there, but try to find in the 
West a fresher and better field where his efforts and energies would meet 
with more generous reward. Near by, in Maryland, he lieard of Archibald 
Job, originally from that state, who had gained political prominence in Illi- 
nois, and was then a state senator representing one of its large central, or 
western, districts in the legislature, and wrote to him for information regard- 
ing the physical features and economic prospects of that country. Mr. Job's 
answer was so favorable that he determined to go and personally examine 
that new and promising region as soon as practicable. 

- 96- 

Having made all necessary arrangements for a protracted absence, he left 
his home in tlie spring of 1831, and, by the then customary route of travel, 
by way of Baltimore and over the Alleghany mountains by stage, tlience 
down the Monongahela, and Ohio rivers, and up the Mississippi and Illinois, 
by boats, he arrived in due time at Beardstown. He landed in that village 
when it happened to be an especially lively place. The volunteers called out 
by Gov. Reynolds to repel the invasion of Black Hawk and his half-starved 
band of Sacs and Foxes, ordered to rendezvous there, were camped in and all 
around the place, and still coming in daily by hundreds. On both sides of the 
river their horses were grazing on the bottom in all directions, and the dark- 
ness of night was dispelled by their innumerable camp tires. 

The Doctor, however, had not journeyed to the western prairies in quest 
of military glory, and saw nothing in tlie appearance of the motley mob gath- 
ered on the banks of the placid Illinois to inspire him with martial ardor; 
consequently, he did not join the militia, but got away from them as quickly 
as he could. 

From Beardstown he made his way to the farm-house of Archibald -Job in 
Sylvan Grove, and made it the basis of Ills further explorations. Securing a 
horse, saddle, and bridle he began a systematic inspection of the country as far 
as Jacksonville on the south and Springfield on the east, closely examining 
its soil, timber and streams. The Sangamon country was a new revelation to 
him. He had seen nothing approaching it in grandeur of landscape, fertility 
of soil, either in Ireland, Scotland, England or Old Virginia. The prairies 
covered with tall waving grass flecked with brilliant wild flowers, skirted by 
large groves of dark green woods, through which coursed rivulets of clear 
spring water: all enlivened by song of birds and whirring flight of startled 
quails and flocks of prairie chickens, presented a scene of rural beauty that 
cluu'med ;n)d captivated him. He was charmed and enchanted by liis novel 
surroundings, not, however, in a poetic sense— for the Doctor was totally des- 
titute of either poetry or music— but liis practical mind saw in that grand ex- 
panse of virgin soil the latent possibilities of its future production of wealth, 
and certainty of its speedy development and rapid increase in value. 

He wasted no time in sentimental musings, but set about selecting sev- 
eral hundred acres of land that Messrs .lob, Murray McConnell, and himself 
considered averaging well with the best in that part of Morgan county, lying 
principally in the prairie some three miles west and southvvest of Mr. Job's 
place, then went to the land office at Springfield and tiled his pre-emption 
claims to hold possession. And the verdict of the past seventy-four years has 
fully sustained the soundness of his judgment in making that investment. 

Archibald .lob was a native of Maryland, born in 1784, and came to Illi- 
nois, settling at Sylvan Grove in 1819. In 1822 he was elected to represent 
Greene county — organized the year before from the northern part of Madison 
county— in the lower iiouse of the legislature. The next year, Morgan county 
having been formed from the northern part of Greene, Mr. .lob was again 
elected to the legislature in 1824 to represent Greene and Morgan. In lS2(i he 
was elected to the state senate, his district comprisfng the present counties 
of Calhoun, Pike, Adams, Brown, Schuyler, Fulton, Morgan, Scott, Cass, 
Mason, Tazewell and Peoria. He was a whig, and again was a candidate for 
the senate in 1830, but was defeated by James Evans, a .lackson democrat. 

- 97 - 

In 1839 he was appointed one of the three commissioners to build the first 
state house at Springfield — the one since converted into the Sangamon county 
court house there. Mr. Job died at Ashland, in this county, in 1874 at the 
age of 90 years. Having tentatively secured all the land he was able to pay 
for Dr. Hall returned to Virginia in the fall to arrange his affairs preparatory 
to his final removal to the West. The records of the land office show that his 
lands were entered in November, 1833, by bounty land warrants issued by the 
government to the soldiers of the war of 1812, which Dr. Hall bought in the 
east, and sent to Springfield. He then came back to Illinois in 1834 for tlie 
purpose of providing suitable buildings for hfs future habitation. Fixing on 
a spot approximately near the center of Section 3 in Township 17 of Range 10, 
on the main road leading from Beardstown to Springfield, he engaged rural 
mechanics who had, like himself, recently come into this part of the country, 
to build two one-and-a-half story houses, framed and weather-boarded, the 
one for his residence on the south side of the road mentioned, and the other 
for a store house on its north side opposite the first. After seeing his build- 
ings well under way, he went back to Virginia in the fall, and sold his plan- 
tation there for $10,010 — about half of its real value and disposed of his live 
stock, and other movable property, then, with his family, left Virginia and 
took up his abode for the winter in the city of Philadelphia. While there he 
carefully selected, at his leisure, a large stock of general merchandise suitable, 
as he thought, for the western trade, that cost him over $10,000. which he 
shipped, with his household furniture, wagons, agricultural implements, etc., 
to New Orleans, thence up the Mississippi and Illinois rivers, to Beardstown. 
Early in the spring of 1835, himself and wife and children took their departure 
from the city of Brotherly Love, by stage over the mountains, and proceeding 
as before, by steam navigation to Beardstown, thence thirteen miles fartliei' 
east to his domicile in the prairie. His two houses were not quite completed 
when he arrived, but were finished during the summer, and are— in sound 
condition— still serviceable dwellings to this day. 

Before leaving Philadelphia Dr. Hall employed there — and brought west 
with him— Charles Oliver, a young store clerk, to assist in his mercantile ven- 
ture; and also hired James Thompson and wife, a stout young Irish couple 
not long married, for general work about the premises, and in putting some 
of his land in cultivation. Tliey remained liere the rest of their lives: Mr. 
Oliver, a few years after his arrival, married one of Mr. Job's daughters, and 
became one of the prominent merchants of Cass county: and Mr. Thompson 
was a successful and wealthy Sugar Grove farmer. 

While Dr. Hall was passing tlie winter in Philadelphia, when writing to 
Mr. Job, on one occasion, in regard to the progress of his buildings and other 
business affairs here, he enclosed in his letter a ten dollar bill whicli he re- 
quested Mr. Job to invest for him in the purchase of black haws. His idea 
was to plant the seeds of the haws in the spring, and when they came up to 
utilize the young haw bushes for hedges to enclose his prairie land. He had 
observed when here some similarity between the Illinois haw bush and the 
English hawthorn, and thought the one would make as servicable hedges as 
the other. Mr. Job perhaps dissuaded the Doctor from trying that experi. 
merit, as his farms were in time enclosed with the old-fashioned Virginia 
rail fences, and hedge fencing was not tried on Illinois prairies of this locality 

- 98 - 

until tlie Osage orange was introduced, and put in practical use for that pur- 
pose, by Prof. Jonathan Baldwin Turner, of Illinois College, in 1853. 

Immediately upon arrival of the stock of goods. Dr. Hall and young 
Oliver, assisted by another young man named Bartlet, opened and arranged 
them in the store room and commenced active business. The first sale— made 
by Charles Oliver— was three pairs of shoes for the family of Wm. S. Berry 
purchased by his son Keeling Berry. But Dr. Hall soon discovered that he 
was no better adapted for the sedentary occupation of merchandising than he 
was for the practice of medicine. He required a freer scope for the exercise 
of his nervous energy and spirit of enterprise. Leaving the management of 
his store in great part to his clerks, he busied himself about everything that 
tended to the aevelopment and prosperity of the country, and the substantial 
improvement of his own real estate. This region was filling up with sturdy 
settlers whose cabins skirted the timber lines and began to invade the prairies. 
Beardstown was the gateway for many who came to this locality, and the 
road from that place to Springfield had become a widely known and much 
traveled thoroughfare. Immigrants, teamsters and prospectors taxed the 
few dwellers alongside the road for entertainment and supplies beyond the 
capacity and resources of their cleai'ings. 

When Dr. Hall commenced liis active career in Illinois a new era was 
dawning upon the state. The rage for speculation, fostered by abundance of 
paper currency in circulation, and prospects of extensive internal improve- 
ments became epidemic. "New towns were projected everywhere. Sedate 
business men, lawyers, preachers, mechanics, farmers, were seized with the 
belief that towns they platted would soon grow to the proportions of cities, 
and large fortunes could be realized by sale of towh lots. More reliance was 
placed in improved river navigation for commercial transportation and de- 
velopment of the country's resources than in railroads or canals, that people 
knew little or nothing about. Consequently, every eligible site along the 
principal streams— and at many cross roads between them— was staked out 
for a new town." 

Dr. Hall was early a victim of the town-building mania. He shrewdly 
foresaw that the large county of Morgan very probably would be subdivided 
within a few years, and a new county created from its northern portion. In 
that event his location would be centrally situated in the new county, and 
the proper place for its seat of justice. His residence and store were at the 
intersection of the main lines of travel from the Illinois river eastward, and 
from Jacksonville to the nortii, on a beautiful rolling prairie at the edge of 
timbered barrens extending to the Sangamon river ten miles distant. It was 
an ideal location for a town, and town lots, he wisely concluded, would sell 
more readily and for more money than raw prairie. His buildings were on 
the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of Section ,3 in Towi^liip 17 of 
Range 10, and, as he owned the greater part, if not all, of that Section, he 
projected a town, with those buildings as a nucleus, to which he gave the 
name, V44'^jnm, as a compliment to his wife's native state. 

Early in the spring of 1836 he employed Johnston C. Shelton to survey 
and plat the town, assisted by Charles Oliver and Fent Sanders as chain car- 
riers. Because of the favorable "lay of tlie land" the Beardstown and Spring- 
field road was taken, without regard to the cardinal points of the compass, as 


the basis of the survey and made a street, the other streets running parallel 
with, and at right angles to it. The result was— as the course of that road 
was not directly east and west through Section 3— the town deviates seven 
degrees from exact orientation. The plat of Virginia was recorded on May 
n, 1836, and the first public sale of lots was made on the 6th of the following 
August, the day of the general state election. Many of them were sold at, 
what then was considered, good prices, and several of the purchasers began at 
once to build houses upon them. 

Already a movement— originating in the loss of harmony between the in- 
terests of Beardstown and Jacksonville— had commenced for the creation of a 
new county to be carved from the northern portion of Morgan county, in 
which Dr. Hall took a particularly active part and became a very important 
factor. That was probably the busiest period of Dr. Hall's busy life. The 
promotion of liis town, the contest for a new county, the improvement of his 
large tracts of land, and the care of his family and many financial interests, 
severely taxed his energies, and fully occupied every waking hour. 

The ink on his town plat had scarcely dried when he employed two car- 
penters. Matt Beadles and Jack Powell, to build a two-story framed house on 
the southwest corner of the block upon which his residence was situated— 
where the Mann House now stands— designed ultimately for a tavern: and 
with other workmen he contracted for the construction of a saw and grist 
mill on Job's Creek, a mile or more north of his store house, to be run by- 
water power. A dam was made across the little stream — remains of which are 
yet to be seen — and the mill when completed was, for a few months aniuuilly, 
of vast service and convenience to the community for several years. 

The strenuous efforts of Dr. Hall, aided by Thos. Beard. Francis Arenz, 
Archibald Job, Richard S. Walker, and others, for organization of a new 
county were crowned with success by the act of the legislature, placing up- 
on the map of Illinois the county of Cass, signed and approved by Gov. Dun- 
can on the 3d of March, 1837. That legislature also decreed, on February 25, 
the removal of the state capitol from Vandal ia to Springfield, and it was so 
removed on the 4th of July, 1839. 

"That legislature, elected August 6th, 1836, including some of the hold- 
over senators, was, for mental strength and ability of its members, the most 
remarkable of any yet chosen in Illinois. No previous general assembly of 
our state, and very few since, has comprised such an array of brainy, talented, 
men; or as many who subsequently gained such eminence in the annals of the 
state and nation. In the senate were Orville H. Browning, Cyrus Edwards, 
Wra. J. Gatewood, John S. Hacker, Robt. K. McLaughlin, Henry I. Mills, 
Wm. Thomas, John D. Whiteside and John D. Wood. And in the House 
were Edward D. Baker, John Hogan, Milton Carpenter, Newton Cloud, Rich- 
ard M. CuUom (father of U. S. Senator Shelby M. CuUom), John Dement, 
John Dougherty, Stephen A. Douglas, Jesse K. Duboise, Ninian W. Edwards, 
Wm. L. D. Ewing, Augustus C. French, John J. Hardin, Abraham Lincoln, 
Usher F. Linder, Dr. John Logan (fatlier of Genl. John A. Logan), John A 
McClernand, James Semple, Jolui Moore, Wm. A. Richardson, James H. Ral- 
ston and Robert Smith. In this list are found one president of the United 
States, six who have occupied seats in the U. S. senate, eight congressmen, 
three governors, three lieutenant governors, two attorney generals, five state 

- 100 - 

treasurers, two state auditors, one superintendent of public instruction, and 
several supreme and circuit court judges." 

And yet, it was that body of learned and distinguished statesmen who 
committed, at that session, the supreme folly of enacting the famous Internal 
Improvement measures that, in tlu'ee years, placed the state on the verge of 
bankruptcy burdeiied with a public debt of over $14,000,000. In that assembly 
Morgan county had three senators, Wm. O'Rear, Wm. Thomas, and Wm. 
Weatherford, and seven representatives, Newton Cloud, Stephen A. Douglasi 
Wm. W. Happy, John J. Hardin, Jos. Morton, Richard S. Walker and John 

In 1837 Dr. Hall sold his residence to Rev. Reddick Horn, and moved his 
family into the unfinished tavern building. Having no time to devote to 
merchandising, and finding that many of the goods he purchased in Philadel- 
phia were too tine and costly to suit his western patrons, he sold his store in 
1838 to Col. Amos West, who removed it, taking Charley Oliver along, to the 
west side of the public square. Dr. Hall then built an addition to his empty 
store room, into whicli he moved, and tliere resided for several years. 

After attaining the cherished object for which he had expended so much 
time, labor and money, the new county, the Doctor was sorely disappointed 
by having Beardstown specified as its county seat in the organic act— provided, 
however, that the citizens of that town would, in the course of a year there- 
after, contribute the sum of ten thousand dollars for the erection there of a 
court house and jail. That time was extended another year by the special 
session held in July 1837. Beardstown failing to comply with the condition 
imposed, the next legislature passed a bill, on the 2nd day of March, 1839, de- 
claring the town of Virginia to be the county seat of Cass county, upon the 
same condition it had been offered to Beardstown, that its citizens would pro- 
vide a court house and jail there for public use at their own expense. 

In laying out the town of Virginia Dr. Hall set apart several lots for 
churches, and the entire block west of the one his residence was on for a pub- 
lic park. He also donated to the county commissioners, for public use, fifteen 
acres of land, subsequently known as "the public grounds," adjoining tlie 
town on the west. 

The citizens of Virginia unhesitatingly accepted the county seat with ob- 
ligations specified in the act of March, 1<S39, whereupon Dr. Hall proposed to tlie 
board of county commissioners that if the fifteen acres, or public grounds, he 
had given to aid the county in the erection of future public buildings, were 
reconveyed to him he would himself build thereon for the county a court 
house and jail. That very liberal offer was agreed to by the county author- 
ities, and as quickly as practicable Dr. Hall set a troop of laborers and me- 
chanics at work to execute his part of the contract. A court house square 
was surveyed, and the balance of the public grounds surrounding it platted 
lots, streets and alleys. Near by bricks were made and burned, while lumber, 
shinglas and other necessary building materials, were procured, f.iom wiiich 
arose during the summer a substantial brick liouse of two stories with ample 
rooms for the courts and county offices. The jail, also constructed of brick, 
was placed on the interior lot of another block near by. 

The November term, 1839, of the circuit court was held in Virginia by 
Judge Samuel H. Treat, who appointed N. B. Thompson circuit clerk. The 


sheriff was Lemon Plaster. 

At the time Dr. Hall had the bricks manufactured for the public build- 
ings, a sufficient quantity were made for the building- of a roomy story and a 
half house, erected the next year, on his Lin Grove farm, a mile south of the 
court house; to which he moved early in 1841, and resided there until his 
death. He sold his tavern in Virginia to Matt Beadles in 1838; but his store- 
liouse was not disposed of until his heirs sold it to Jack Manley in 1850. 

Providing for establishing the county seat of Cass county in Virginia, in 
1839, by legislative enactment, and prompt compliance by Dr. Hall and his 
friends with the conditions that enactment imposed, awakened the citizens of 
Beardstown to a realization of the mistake they made by neglecting to ac- 
cept the same conditions first offered to them; and incited a spirit of envious 
rivalry between the two towns not entire dissipated after the life of two gen- 
erations has passed. So strong was the feeling of resentment in Beardstown, 
and open threats were made there at the time, that Dr. Hall employed men 
to guard the court house and jail (he was having constructed) every night un- 
til thev were completed and accepted by the county commissioners, for fear 
of their destruction by hired incendiaries. 

The Beardstown people then laid their plans for retrieving the conse- 
quences of their previous indifference. Their town was unquestionably very 
nearly, if not quite, the center of the county's population, as all the region 
east of Virginia was very sparsely settled; and it was, moreover, the busines^ 
center and emporium, not only of the county, but of an extensive scope of 
country on both sides of the Illinois river. The tactics they adopted were the 
same that Mrginia, years later, employed with success in final solution of" 
that aggravated contest. They offered to build there, for the county, a court 
house and jail at their own expense if the county seat was removed to that 
place; and, in the spring of 1843, petitioned the county commissioners to order 
an election — in accordance with provisions of the general statutes— for and 
agaiiist removal of the county seat from Virginia to Beardstown. Having 
no opinion in the matter, tfie commissioners ordered such an election to take 
place on the first Monday, (the 4th) of September, 1843, which resulted in 453 
votes cast for removal, and 288 against it. The following year, 1844, was re- 
markable for the unprecedented overflow of all the western streams, inundat- 
ing all the river bottoms and converting them into great lakes, and making of 
Beardstown an isiand on both sides of which steamboats freely passed. During 
that year the citizens of that town, faithful to their agreement, built on the 
block east of the public park, a suitable two-story brick court house, and jail, 
which they conveyed to the county. When both buildings were fully com- 
pleted the records and papers of the county's seat of justice were removed 
from Dr. Hall's town into them, on February 5th, 1845, and remained there- 
on the border of "the great national highway"— with two strenuous, but 
unsuccessful, attempts on the part of Virginia to recover them — until 1872, 
when after another election the county seat was again established in Dr. Hall's 
town, after exhaustive litigation, by a majority of just eight votes of all cast 
in the county. 

The people of Cass county were, from its first organization, dissatisfied 
with its narrow limits, and soon began agitating the annexation of a strip of 
territory from Morgan county three miles in width, extending across that 

- 102 - 

county from east to west. Dr. Hall was, as usual, one of tlie tirst to advocate 
that measure, and one of the most active and influential workers to accom- 
plish it. He was untiring in his efforts, and unsparing of his means, to se- 
cure the necessary legislation, and to win the residents of that part of Mor- 
gan county over to the interests of Cass. He personally visited every voter in 
it, and by various arguments, embellislied with a good deal of Irish blarney, 
persuaded a good many of them to favor secession from Morgan county, 

By an act of the legislature, passed on February 26, 1^45,— just after the 
county seat had been moved from Virginia— the voters residing on the cov- 
eted three mile strip were directed to express, at an election, their wish as to 
which county they preferred to belong. Tliat election was lield on tlie first 
Monday of the following May, the voting places designated being at Arenz- 
ville, Princeton, and the farm houses of Wm. Berry and Henry Price. The 
proposition to again reduce the area of Morgan county by seventy-five square 
miles, or more, of its territory, met witli violent opposition from a few, but 
was carried at the polls by 246 of the settlers voting for attachment to Cass 
comity, and 78 for remaining a part of Morgan. Thereupon the three mile 
strip was transferred to tlie jurisdiction of Cass county. 

Feeling, to a certain extent, consoled, if not compensated, by that victory 
for the late defeat of Virginia by Beardstown, i)r. Hall avoided further prom- 
inence in the management of public affairs, and gave all his time and atten- 
tion to his large landed interests, content to bide his time when limitations 
of the statutes would permit A'irginia to renew the contest for regaining the 
county seat. 

There were but few noints in tlie personality of Dr. Hall that were par- 
ticularly striking or impressive. In stature he was of medium height, 5 feet 
S inches tall, erect, muscular and well-proportioned, with the usual weight of 
about 190 pounds. His face— always smoothly shaved— was regular in every 
feature, and expressive of firmness and self-reliance. With ruddy complexion 
he had dark hazel-colored eyes, and (wlien young) auburn hair. He was of 
nervous temperament, active and quick-motioned, having frank and rather 
abrupt manners, a temper easily irritated, strong resentments and much de- 
termination of purpose. There was nothing of tlie comedian about Dr. Hall; 
no dissimulation; no habitual smile: no fondness for practical jokes or idle 
amusements; no quibbling or temporizing: but, looking only upon the ser- 
ious aspect of life, he was always earnest, straightforward, and very careful 
of his own interests. 

He generally dressed neatly, and in appearance, habits, and speech— from 
which latter, education had almost entirely eliminated the native Irish 
brogue — he was more like an Englishman of tlie middle class than a product 
of the peat bogs. 

For the highly educated scholar his descendants represent him to have 
been, Dr. Hall, wlieii in Illinois, was not a student, and manifested but little 
taste for books and literature. Nor was he particularly noted for culture and 
refinement, or courtly graces in social intercourse: or very choice of terms and 
Idioms to express liimself when irritated. His proficiency as a physician or 
surgeon is not known, as his very limited (and reluctant) practice here was 
confined to occasional prescriptions, and emergency treatment not regarded 
by him as a source of revenue. Clear headed, and well infoi-med on matters 

• -103- 

of general interest, he was pleasant and entertaining in conversation. Not 
always in amiable mood, or ostentatiously benevolent or charitable, he was 
kind-hearted and generous, and ever ready to aid a friend, or relieve suffering 
and distress, though not a church member or attached to any secret society 
Conforming to the universal custom of that day, he kept liquors on his side- 
board and in his cellar— as adjuvants to his cordial hospitality— and in their 
use, as in diet, was not restrained by any puritanical notions of abstem- 

In politics he was a Jacksonian democrat, but not a politician, and con- 
cerned himself very little about the management of his party, or of the gov- 
ernment. His highest ambition in public affairs was to advance his own wel- 
fare by promoting the progress of the country and the community in which he 
lived. Selfishness sufficient for self protection, honesty, truthfulness and per- 
sonal integrity were the leading traits of his character. He drove sharp bar- 
gains, and got the best end of every transaction if he could; but all that he 
promised could be implicitly relied on. His highest intellectual ability was 
manifested in his business and financiering sagacity. When the country, 
flooded with cheap paper currency, was on the crest of fictitious prosperity. 
Dr. Hall made wise and safe investments in real estate. Shrewdly foreseeing 
the inevitable reaction in business when all the banks suspended specie pay- 
ment in 1837, he "unloaded" his stock of unsaleable goods on Col. Amos West 
in the spring of 1838, and sold liis tavern building to Matt Beadles, at good fig- 
ures and secured the pay for them. Collapse of the wild Internal Improve- 
ment scheme in 1839 completed the crash, and placed Illinois on the verge of 
financial ruin. All branches of trade and commerce were paralyzed, all sound 
money was driven out of the country, and the "shinplaster" currency (bank 
notes) in circulation daily depreciated in value until it was practically worth- 
ess. Yet; in that appalling business depression Dr. Hall built the coint 
house and jail in Virginia, and the brick house on his Lin Grove place, and 
made many improvements on his other farms, meeting all his obligations 
promptly without incurring any indebtedness. 

But wary and astute as he was in all his dealings, he got badly caught in 
the purchase of that Lin Grove farm and lost it by oversight of an obscure 
principle of law. The land on which tlie grove stood was bought from the 
government by Thomas Payne, (the father of Mrs. Dr. L. S. Allard. Mrs. Dr. 
Parmenio L. Phillips, Mi*s. I. N. White, and the wife of D. M. Irwin) who 
entered tlie south 80 acres in 1830 and the north 80 acres in 1834, together 
comprising the west half of the west half of Sec. 9 of T. 17 in R. 10. Mr. 
Payne, who resided on the land, when about to die made a will, on the fourth 
day of September, 1835, in which he directed that, after his death, all his land 
and personal property should be sold by his executor for the interest, support 
and education of his children, and the remainder to be distributed in equal 
parts to them upon their marriage or when they became of age; the land, 
however, not to be sold until it would bring eight dollars per acre. But he 
named no executor in his will and died shortly after. 

On September 9, 1835, the court appointed Benjamin H. Gatton admin- 
istrator, with will annexed, of Mr. Payne's estate, who duly qualified and 
gave bond. He then sold to Dr. Hall, who owned land east, west and north 
of it, the IflO acres of Payne's for $1400, which was more than $8 per acre, and 

- 104 - 

made a deed for it to ITall on the second of October, 1835. 

It was there Dr. Hall blundered in totally disregarding the ancient legal 
maxim, caveat emptor, (''let tlie purchaser beware"). N. B. Thompson, as 
sliarp a business man as Dr. Hall, wanted Lin Grove and told the doctor he 
intended to get it yet; but Hall, secure in possession of a deed, went on and 
built his house and outhouses on the land and moved his family there. 
Payne's heirs grew up, and N. B. Thompson, or some other person, pointing 
out to them the invalidity of Dr. Hall's title emanating from an adminis- 
trator not named in Payne's will, who sold the land without an order from 
the court, they commenced an ejectment suit against Dr. Hall to regain 
possession of it. 

The suit was commenced in Cass courrjy in 184.3 and was taken by change 
of venue to the Sangamon circuit court and tried there, before Judge Samuel 
H. Treat and a jury, in 18U. It was decided against Dr. Hall and he appealed 
to the supreme court by his attorney, Flon. Wm. A. Minshall, of Schuyler 
county. Tlie lawyers for Payne's lieirs were Wm. Tliomas, of Morgan, and 
Abraham Lincoln, of Sangamon. That court also decided against Dr. Hall, 
by sustaining the decision of the lower court. The opinion of the supreme 
court was delivered by Justice Koerner. who held that Gatton had no author- 
ity to act, as he was not named as executor in the will. Two of the judges, 
however, dissented from that opinion, Young and Scates, wlio held that, as 
Payne did not name an executor, he evidently intended that the court would 
appoint one who would thereby have all the authority to convey title under 
the will. Judge Young in his dissenting opinion said: 

'•I catmot perceive that either justice or equity will be promoted by an- 
nulling the acts of the administrator and confiscating the rights ot an in- 
nocent Ijona IMe purchaser, for a full and valuable consideration, after the 
lapse of ten years, where no fraud is imputed to him. and where all the pro- 
ceedings, for aught that appears in the record, seems to have been conducted 
acorrling to the forms prescribed by law." 

The statute granted a second trial to defendents in ejectment cases, and 
Dr. Hall again took the matter into court, but died before a decision was 
rendered. It was again decided in favor of the Payne heirs later after which 
four of them sold their undivided interest to X. B. Thompson and the remain- 
ing one-tifth was purchased by Henry IT. Hall, jr., and they divided the land 
between them Hall taking one-tifth off the north end and Thompson taking 
the remainder with the buildings. 

The stringency of money matters in Illinois reached the point of greatest 
distress in 1841 wlien tlie state, without a dollar in its treasury, could make no 
provision to pay the interest due on its enormous indebtedness, and stagnation 
checked all lines of trafflc. Yet, in the spring of that year, before moving to 
his Lin Grove farm. Dr. Hall, at a public sale, disposed of a large lot of sur- 
plus movable property at good prices, and collected all of his sales at maturity 
In that year, 1841, congress passed a bankrupt law— to enable dishonest peo- 
ple to legally rob their confiding creditors— but Dr. Hall had taken such pre- 
caution that he suffered very little loss from that class. During all the mem- 
orable "hard times", from 1837 to 1842, he not only retained all his large 
landed possesion, but added to them by purchasing other tracts, and in- 
creased their value by improvements. 


In lS4fi Dr. Hall's health began to fail. Much of the time during that 
year he was confined to liis house b}^ malarial disorders that permanently de- 
ranged the functions of circulation, ancl resulted in dropsy. The winter's 
cold brought him no relief, and by return of milder weather in the spring he 
was an invalid passed any reasonable prospect of recovery. The best physi- 
cians of the country exhausted their efforts and skill to arrest the progress of 
his malady without success. Among them Dr. David Prince, then Professor 
of Surgery in the medical department of Illinois College, came repeatedly 
from Jacksonville and gave him temporary respite from suffering by tapping 
him. But he gradually grew weaker and less able to resist the ravages of 
disease, until death ended the unequal struggle on the Uth of July, 1847. 

At his country home near the town he founded, surrounded by his family 
and friends, and all the comforts wealth could command, when but little 
past the meridian of life. Dr. Hall died at the early age of 52 years, leaving to 
his heirs the largest and most valuable landed estate in the county. He was 
buried in the beautiful grove near his residence, and there his unmarked 
grave remained undisturbed until in the autumn of 1880, when his ashes were 
exhumed and reinterred, near those of the other dead of his family collected 
together, in the Virginia cemetery. 

Ann Pitt Beard, wife of Dr. Hall, was born November loth, 1798. and 
reared on a plantation well stocked with African slaves, in Accomac county. 
Virginia, and retained all her life a partiality for the customs, manners, and 
institutions of the South. Tall, straight, and handsome featured, a brunette 
with black eyes and glossy black hair, sprightly in motion and speech, intelli- 
gent and well educated, she justly ranked as a beauty in girlhood, and as a 
matron was highly esteemed by all who knew her for beauty of character and 
her many womanly virtues. She died at the residence of her son, Boliort 
Hall, in Philadelphia precinct, Cass county, on the 2d day of January, 18S(), 
at the age of 81 years, 1 month and 17 days. 

Besides his wife, five of their children were living at the time of Dr. 
Hall's death, namely: 

Mrs. Ann Pitt Shackelford, who was born in Accomac county, Virginia, 
Aug. 19th, 1821, and died in Virginia, 111., on March Uth, 1902. 

Henry H. Hall, born Aug. 26, 1820, still living. 

John Pitt Hall, born March 17th, 1829, and died of Asiatic cholera, at 
Peoria, Ills., on the 29th of October, ISoO. 

Mrs. Eliza Tomlin, born March Uth, 1831, still living. 

Robert Hall, who has the distinction of being the tii'st child born in the 
town of Virginia, Cass county. 111., made his advent here on the 19th day of 
June, 1835, and is yet very much alive. 

Previous to Dr. Hall's death the following named live children were born 
and passed away in childhood: 

.lohn Hall, born Dec. 31st, 1819, died July 19th, 1821. 

Henry Hall, born Feb. 10th, 1823, died Oct. 22d, 1823. 

Henry H. Hall, born Oct. 31st, 1824, died Jan. 22d, 1820. 

Eliza Hall, born Nov. 12th, 1827, died Aug. Uth, 1828. 

.lane Hall, born Sept. 18th, 1837, died Aug. 4th. 1S39. 

No portrait of Dr. Hall is now extant. 


ON Ang-ust 14, 1S37, a few days after the election described on page 51 
the newly elected county commissioners Joshua P. Crow, Amos 
Bonney and Geo. F. Miller met and organized their court: the oath was 
administered by Thomas Pogue a justice. 

Jolin A. Pratt tlie elected county clerlv tiled his bond and took the oath 
of ottice. 

The court proceeded to divide tlie county in magistrate and constables 
districts six in number named Beardstown, Monroe, Virginia, Sugar Grove, 
Richmond and Bowen's districts. The voting place in Sugar Grove was es- 
tablished at Philadelphia, in Richmond district at the town of Richmond; in 
Bowen's district at the house of David Karr. The judges in Beardstown dis- 
trict were Peter B. Bell, William L. Felix, and Jasper Xeiper; at Monroe Alex 
Huffman, Jasper Buck and James Arnold: At Virginia John Scott, James 
Ross and Jacob T. Brown: at Sugar Grove Henry Hopkins, John Slack and 
.Idtm Wilson: at Richmond Robert Leeper, Carey Nance and John Taylor; at 
]]()vveii's John Waggoner, Jeremiah Northern and William Cole. 

It should be borne in mind that these districts were the sections of terri- 
toi'v in which justices and constables were elected and served the people; the 
general election districts yet remained three in number; Beardstown, Vir- 
ginia and }\iciuiiond. 

Thomas Plasters and John P. Dick at this August meeting of the county 
commissioners' court tendered their resignations as constables of the Lucas 
precinct which had been changed in name to the Richmond precinct. 

On September 4, 1S37, Thomas Plasters, jr., was appointed school commis- 
sioner for Cass county; on same day Thomas Wilbourn resigned as county 
treasurer and on September (i, William W. Babb was appointed treasurer. 

On September 1(), a tavern license was issued to Wm. P. Finch at New 
Philadelphia: and a license to sell goods at Monroe was issued to lieasley & 

In December is;n a tavern license was issued to Eaton Nance. Richmond 

On January 1, a license was issued to .lames H. Ross to sell goods in 

At the March term ls;}S. .$2-3 was allowed to Augustus Knapp for rent of 
the court house in 13eardstown, and at same time a tavern license was issued 
to M. H. Beadles and to John De Webber and a license to John De Webber to 
sell goods. 


On June 6, 1838. A. Dunlap was allowed $13.50 for conveying- N. Graves 
prisoner from New Philadelphia to Virginia and guarding him and John Creel, 
A. Bowen, J. W. Pa3'ton, I. M. McClain and each allowed $3.75 for guarding 
said prisoner and to Levi Conover, Alfred Elder, Jolin W. McClure, Isaac 
Mitchell, Richard Gatton and H. D. Wilcox were allowed pay for guarding 
said prisoner Graves; and to William Scott was allowed $2.00 as justice for 
trying said Graves. 

On August 6, 1838, a general election was held in Illinois; the election at 
Beardstown was held in the rooms rented of Knapp by the county 'commis- 
sioners, called the court house: the judges were Benjamin H. Gatton, John 
McKown and John Williams; the clerks were John Ayers and Thomas Gra- 
ham, jr. At Virginia the election was held at the house of Madison H. 
Beadles; the judges were Jackson T. Powell, James Daniel and William Moore 
and the clerks were Tiiomas Pothicary and W. H. H. Carpenter. In Rich- 
mond precinct the election was held at the store house in Richmond; tlie 
judges were John Taylor, Robert Leeper and Peter Dick; the clerks were Or- 
ren Hicks and Lucius Lyon. 

The candidates voted for at said election were: 

For governor, Cyrus Edwards and Thomas Carl in. 

For lieutenant governor, William IL Davidson and Stinson IT. Anderson. 

For member of congress, John T. Stuart and Stephen A. Douglas. 

For state senator, Josiah Lam born and William Thomas. 

For state legislature, Thomas Beard, Henry McKean and William riolines. 

For sheriff. Lemon Plasters and Charles H. Oliver. 

For county treasurer, William IT. Nelms, William Scott and Isaiah 

For county surveyor, James Berry and Lawrence Clark. 

For coroner, William Cox, Ilalsey Smith and John De Webber. 

For county commissioner, Joshua P. Crow, Amos Bontiey, George F. 
Miller, Isaac C. Spence, Henry McIIenry, Charles Brady and John B. Wiity. 

The names of tlie voters at this election, which are not found among the 
voters at the election of 1837, here follow: opposite tlie name of one voter at 
Beardstown is entered "Winnebago Co;" opposite another, '-Schuyler Co;"" 
opposite another, "Morgan Co." These were probably visitors, and to them 
was extended the conrtesy of the voting privileges, as new settlers are tioted 
for hospitalfty to guests: 
Names of tHe voters upon tHe Beardsto-wn list: 

Anders, George Alexander, Thomas Altman,John Artquast, Michl 

Barnett, D Butler, Wm Bunn, Jacob Brazel, Seymour 

Barger, John Brooks, Linus Benson, Daniel Bair, Charles 

Blackman, Jas H Benner, John S 


Carr, Jas Carr, David Cowan ^ Lewis Canfleld, J L 

Clark, Lawrence Crane, Silas Carpenter, Geo W Clemmons, Owen 

Cross, David 


Dunsmore, Daniel Duchardt, John Dutch, Henry S Dummer, Henry E 

DeHaven, McKeever Dowler, J R Dutch, Ezra Dunsmore, Hosea 

Duchardt, Chris Dardec, George Decker, Henry Daugherty, Robt. B 


Names of tHe voters upon the Virginia 


Beall, Thos O 
Boicourt, John 

Bane, Daniel 
Berry, Thomas 

Bright. \Vm 


Bright, Daniel 

Campbell, Jas Crow, Ira 

Cunningham, Andrew Cole, William 

Collins, Greenbury 
Carver, Elijah 

Clifford, Lawrence 
Carpenter, W H H 

Dirreen. Edward 

Gatton, Thomas 
Forall, Fredk 

Gaedking, Henry 

Holms, John 
Hermeyer, Henry 
Holtzmann, C 

Daniel, Eliiah 

Goltra, John W 
Farrall, John 

Gender, Fredk 

Holt, Charles 
Hinkel, Fredk 
Holtmeler, Henry 


Fuller, Sidney 


Gorham, Wm C 
Fulks, John B 


Gatton, B H 


Hager, Amos 
Hoffman, John 

Haskins. Wm 
Hill, Sylvester 

Ingram. Allen 

Ingram, James M 

Jokisch, Gottlieb 


King, Azariah 

Kettler, Gottlieb 

Kuhl, Chris 

Kuhl, Geo 

L»mon, Albert 

Liberkarr, Jno 


McHaven, Jno 

Marshall, Simeon 

Miner, Antone 

Marks, James 

Moore, Pf^ter 

Mai 1, Frederick 

Moss, Simeon 

Mler, Henry 

Mos-, E W 

Miller, Henry 

Musser, James 

Miller, Henry B 

Means, James 

Marshall, James 


Niekle, Henry 

Northern, Ed M 

Nelms, W H 


Oetgen, W 

Oyerall, I W 


Patterson, Wm 


Quaite, James 


Revis, Charles 

Rice, Harry 

Rhuman, Moses 

Ruckel, John 

Rich, Francis 

Robinson, Francis 


Smith, .-Xmos sr 

Smith, Amos jr 

Smith, Benj F 

Seibert, Gideon 

Seeger, J C A 

Steven, Sylvester 


Turner, Joseph 

Treaaway, Lflwson 

Tiele, Charles 

Taylor. John B 

Van N 

ess, George 

Wells, John 

Walker, Cyrus 

Wedeklng, Henry 

Willis, Nathan 

Wells, Jacob D 

Wirt, David 

Wallace, Jam^s 

Wheeler, Harris 



Harris. George 

Hamilton, Absalom 


Jennings, Thos 


Kassinger, Wm 

Kelley Joseph 


Lindsay, John 


McCord, David A 
Mosely. John J 

McDonald, Joseph 
Murray, Wm 


McDonald, John 
Matthew, Jas D 
, Ebenezer F 


McGilland, Wm 
Mosely, Thomas 

Newman, David 


Outten, Luther 

Pelrsen, John 

Powell, Yancy 

Parker, Wm R 

Pothicary, Thomas 

Robertson, John 

Ross, Henry I 

Ross, George O. 

Reed Adam 

Shaw, George 
Samuel, Jas D 

Shattuck, Calvin 
Samuel, Andrew 

Samuel, Thos 
Sanders, L F 


Samuel Benj F 

Taylor, Ellis 

Thompson, Jas 

Thornsbury, Jas 

Underwood, Phineas sr 

Wiseman, Solomon 
Names of tH 

Williams. Thomas 
e voters uponi tHe RicHmon 


Alexander, R 

id list: 

Bonny, George 

Brockway, Jos 

Briant, Lucien 


Clodfelter, Jacob 

Clodfelter, Chas 

Clodfelter, Jacob 

Crawford, Josiah 

Dick, John P 
Dare, Samuel 

Dick, Levi 
Dew, Wm 

Davis, Stephen 
Dew, Joseph 


Daniel, Major 

Goodell, Horace 

Golf, Daniel 


Hickey, Willard 

Hash, Thomas 

Hawthorn, Jas 

Is, Henry L 

Hicks, Orren 


Lee, Stephen 

Lyon, Lucien 


McCaulley, W H 

McDonald, Richard 

Martin, Wm 

Morgan, Wm P 

Rogers, Wm 

Maray, Dwight S 

Nance, Allen 


Richardson, J C Ray Daniel 

- no - 

Sutton, Bent— -^ 

Vannetten. Anthony Vannetten, John 


Watkins, Elijah - 

As stated in the sketch of the election of 1837, neither tlie name of Tliom- 
as Pothicary nor of Andrew Cunningham appeared as a voter of this county 
of that year, althougli it is Icnown they were here. The name of Henry E. 
Dummer did not appear in that list, but does appear in this: so the reader 
may know that Judge Dummer was on the ground in little Cass as early as 
1838, if not before that time. The list of voters of 1837 numbered four hund- 
red and ninety-six, and in this list of additional names, one year later appear 
two hundred and two, which gives the reader some idea of the growth of the 
population of the county during twelve months. It should be remembered 
that the three mile strip was not acquired until after this time. 

This election resulted in the election of Lemon Plasters sheriff, William 
IT. Nelms treasurer, Lawrence Clark surveyor, Halsey Smith coroner, and 
Isaac Spence, Amos Bonney and .losliua P. Crow were declared elected coun- 
ty commissioners, although the returns show that Henry McHenry received 
more votes than either Bonney or Crow. Thos. Carlin democratic candidate 
for governor received 1.5.5 votes and Cyrus Edwards candidate for governor re- 
ceived 31(i votes, which proves that Cass was then a strong whig county. 
Stuart was elected to congress, Thomas to state senate, William Holmes to 
the legislature and Thomas Carlin elected governor of Illinois. 


IT is the purpose of tliis article to give a fairly accurate description of the 
town of A'irginia twenty-four years after its location by Dr. Henry H. 
Hall, and three years after its incorporation by the legislature of the 
State of Illinois. It will be necessary for the reader to give his entire atten- 
tion to the study of it, as some portions of the description are rather difficult 
to make sufficiently clear. 

Many of the readers of these sketches now being published in the Enquir- 
er, are greatly interested in them, while others have expressed contempt for 
them: to the latter it may be said there is no obligation on the part of any 
subscriber to read all the contents of the paper; it is published for all mem- 
bers of the community, and all can find somethiug to their taste, and if these 
sketches are wearisome, the wearied ones, might turn back to the neighbor- 
hood items, regularly sent in over the rural routes, and "till up" on them. 

The original town of Virginia is 1340 feet square, covering an area of 
about 41 acres, and was laid out on the 24th day of May, A. D. 1836, and 
consisted of nine blocks, of which block numbered 77 is marked on the plat as 
Market, Washington Fountain Square, Court House, on which the present 
court house now stands. 

The size of the greater portion of the lots is 60 feet by 120 feet, and are 153 
in number. These lots sold so rapidly, that on July 1st. 1837, Dr. Hall laid 
out an addition to the original town which consisted of three blocks added 
on the easterly side of tlie original plat, and also three blocks added on the 
westerly side of said original plat: the lots in this addition running from 1 up 
to 118. 

It is unfortunate for a child to be born and reared in a small town which 
is not laid out "square with the world." 

This town was laid out upon an angle of north thirty-three degrees east. 
It is both ludicrous and pathetic to see an average man try to examine a map. 
He will look at the map, then look out of the window: next he will get up 
and move his chair, take another observation, and give it up; if he is trying 
to find a farm, he will then begin to make marks upon the floor or upon paper. 
He does not know tliat the top of the map is north; probably was never 
taught. The average lady shopper who makes regular trips to Jacksonville or 
Springfield, does not know the south side of the square from the east side, 
and must feel herself lost until she gets home again. It is to be hoped that 
the lady members of the Travellers Club, do not belong to the class indicated. 
Dr. Snyder in his sketch of Dr. Hall, says the town was laid out with tlie 

Sprinotield and Beardstovvn state road: old settlers say that this road passed 
the Dewebber tavern which stood upon the north half of the soutliwest 
quarter of Sec 2 T 17 R 10 about one-fourth of a mile east of the present C. P. 
& St. L. depot, and from there ran north of the present town plat and thence 
nearly straight west, through the land now owned by Daniel Biddlecome 
more than a half mile south of its present location. The act to locate said 
road was passed by the legislature of the state, January 2nd, 1S;}3, and au- 
thorized John Morris and Pliram Penny, of Sangamon county, and Isaac R. 
Bennett, of Morgan county, to locate the road from Springfield to Beards- 
town, (which was then in Morgan county). They were directed to locate it 
upon the nearest and most direct route regarding only the highest and driest 
ground, so as to do the farms as little injury as practicable: to have the same 
accurately surveyed and staked and make a full report to the county commis- 
sioners' courts of Sangamon and Morgan counties as soon after April 1, 183:>, 
as possible. What these commissioners did in the matter, is unknown. Con- 
cerning the location of this road, Mr. ftraff the county clerk of Morgan coun- 


of Dr. ITiill in which Bobert Hall was born 
I is;;."). Still occupied as a residence. 

ty sent the writer a letter of date November l;>. liior), in whicli he says: '•! 
have looked carefully tlu'ough our indexes and records, also through plats in 
Judge Kirby's ottice and am unable to find any record of road as referred to in 
your letter." Dr. ITall built his dwelling and store building on the prairie in 
is:i4 and is;;;"): the dwelling still stands upon its origi?ial foundation upon lot 
S7 of the original plat, and the store building stood upon lots VA and 44 of said 
plat; the store was almost directly east of the dwelling, and Robert ITall says, 
that when his father laid out the town, he located Springfield street to run 
between these two buildings, and tlip angle happened to be north ;;;; degrees 

- 113- 

east. Tliis explanation is Ukely to be the correct one. The state road struck 
the g-round on whicli Ashland hes coming from the southeast, but the pro- 
prietors of that town in 1857 located it "square with the world," and the 
travelers upon the state road, went through the town on an east and west 
line: it is a pit}' that Dr. Hall did not use a compass in erecting his first 

When the town and the addition thereto were platted the county was 
Morgan, and when afterward, in the year 18.37. Cass county was organized, 
the act of the legislature establishing the county of Cass provided that the 
county seat should be located at Beardstown, upon condition that the people 
of that town should erect county buildings of the value of ten thousand dol- 
lars within one year, and in case of neglect so to do, the county commissioners 
were authorized to remove the seat of justice to Virginia, if fifteen acres of 
land should be donated to the county for public use. Tlie people of Beards- 
town failing and neglecting to erect the buildings as provided, the county 
officials contracted witli Dr. Hall for fifteen acres of land adjacent to the plat 
upon the west, and in order to locate tlie court house upon a square in the 
center of a plat of fifteen acres, it was removed a little west of the addition 
to the town, on account of a depression in the surface of the prairie adjoinirig- 
the said addition. The tifteen acres was platted as the Public Grounds of 
Cass county, on the 21st day of June, 1838, and at the same time tlie nnrrow 
strip 797 feet long and 252 wide lying between the Public grounds and the ad- 
dition was subdivided into 13 lots and denominated the "Addition to the 
Public Grounds." 

Soon after the plat was made a contract was entei'ed into between Dr. 
Hall and the county, under which the county transferi'ed the title back to 
Hall upon the condition the latter would erect the buildings, which were 
completed in September. 1839, and the records and county offices were re- 
moved from Beardstown into tlie new court house standing- upon the west 
square .300 feet wide by 450 feet in length. The lots in the Public Giounds 
were 100 in number running from 1 to 100. 

After the additional three mile strip off the north end of Morgan county 
was added to Cass an election for the permanent location of the county seat 
of the county resulted in favor of Beardstown, the people of that town agree- 
ing to erect the court house and jail. These buildings were constructed in 
1844, and in the montli of March, 1845, the offices were returned to Beards- 
town, and the court house in Virginia turned into a school building. This 
removal of the seat of justice was so discouraging to the few inhabitants of 
the town, that several of the leading citizens sold out and went away to the 
town of Bath, Mason county, and to other points, and the growth of the 
town was seriously checked. 

Some years later, through the efforts of Richard S. Thomas, Dr. M. H. L. 
Schooley and others, a railroad was projected between Pekin, in Tazewell 
comity, to Virginia, in Cass county to be called the Illinois River Railroad. 
Many of the farmers were induced to subscribe for stock in this new railroad 
company in sums from .$500 to .$3000, being led to believe that such an enter- 
prize would be a rapid money maker. The building of this railroad caused 
Virginia to look up again and in order to furnish more room for prospective 
builders and settlers another addition was laid out by the widow of Dr. Hall 

- 114- 

and Richard S. Thomas, on the loth day of October, 1856, which was called 
Hall & Thomas addition to the town of Virginia and consisted of 2 blocks 
and 54 lots. The lots in the original town and the several additions above de. 
scribed now nambered 438, wliich was the number the town contained in the 
year 1860. 

In laying- out the town of Virginia, Dr. Hall did not follow the usual 
plan of dividing each block into two rows of lots with an alley through the 
center. Of the nine blocks in the original town, the four blocks at the 
four corners of the plat are 460 feet square; the block in the center of tlie 
plat is 300 feet sciuare and the remaining four blocks are 300 feet by 460 feet 
in size. The corner blocks are cut by 4 alleys 20 feet wide, called streets on 
the plat, which leave a lot in the center of each corner block 180 feet square. 
The four blocks 300 by 460 feet are subdivided in such a manner as to give 16 
lots a front of 60 feet upon the outer edge of the block with an alley 20 feet 
wide in the rear of each and consequently there remains a strip in the center 
of each of these four blocks 40 feet wide by 180 feet in length surrounded by 
an alley 20 feet in width. What to do with these long narrow strips must 
have been a puzzling question. As the plat was recorded a portion 40 feet by 60 
feet was cut off the end of each of these four strips most remote from the pub- 
lic 8(iuare and each of these tracts was marked "school."' There was left four 
pieces 40 feet wide by 120 feet long and these four were marked respectively; 
I'iesl>\terian church. Baptist church, Methodist church, and Episcopal church. 
Tiiese four plats of ground forty feet in width and one hundred and twenty 
feet in length situated in the center of these four blocks bounded on two 
sides and one end by an alley 20 feet wide, the other end adjoining a "school 
lot" are rhe plats of ground wliich Dr. Snyder says that Dr. Hall donated for 
cliiiivh purposes. It is beyond reasonable belief that Dr. Hall seriously in- 
1 elided any such use would be made of these plats of ground. Imagine, if you 
can, our Virginia society ladies wending their way of a holy Sabbath morn 
down one of these alleys in the rear of the north side, or south side, or east 
side, or west side stores, saloons and shops, daintily avoiding the heaps of an- 
cient tish, deceased cats, spoiled sauer kraut, broken glass, smashed crockery, 
rotten eggs and other unsightly objects profusely deposited in these alleys by 
our good natured but careless business men, to find themselves in a house of 
worship bordered by lines of cow stables, asli barrels, swill tubs and hog pens 
situated upon the rear erids of the adjacent lots just across the alley. 

Dr. Hall certainly knew there would never be built four schoolhouses 
within the area of ten acres of ground, and he had no reason to believe that 
these remaining fractions would be accepted as church lots. Perhaps these 
entries were made upon the plat by some wag at Jacksonville who was set to 
work to copy the plat upon the records: if Dr. Hall authorized it, then he 
certainly was a practical joker. There is nothing to indicate niggardliness in 
his manner of laying out the town. In other towns in the county we find 
alleys 10 or 16 feet wide; here they are 20 feet in width. In other towns 
the streets run from 45 to 50 feet in width: (nearly all the streets in Beards- 
town are but 50) but Dr. Hall gave to the public, streets 60 feet wide. The 
prices at which he sold the lots upon the plat were very reasonable. For in- 
stance, lot 22 on the original plat, now owned by James Clifford, just north of 
the Bailey residence, was sold to Henry T. P'oster for five dollars. Lot 97 

- fl5- 

just west of the Cliristian churcli lot, was sold to Green Paschal for four dol- 
lars and tifty cents; to Isaac Mitchell was sold lots 112 and 113, (now the 
county jail lots), for four dollars and twenty-five cents, and to John Daniel for 
fourteen dollars and seventy-tive cents Dr. Hall sold and conveyed four of the 
most valuable lots in the town, being lots 90 and yl (the Cox property, on the 
corner of Cass and Springfield streets), lot 92, (the Theodore Stout lot), and 
lot 41, the corner opposite the Cox lots (now owned by Mrs. Elian Cunning- 
ham). Dr. Hall was anxious to build up the town, and doubtless would have 
donated any lot in it to any chm'ch organization that would have erected a 
good church building. Dr. Hall was not a church member and not very much 
of a church goer, but his house was always open to preachers to come as often 
as they pleased and stay as long as they wished. Strange to relate, the Meth- 
odist Pi'otestant people actually took possession of lot 64 mariced on the plat 
"Methodist church" in the rear of the Skiles lumber yard and built thereon a 
two-story building in which religious services were held on the ground floor, 
and tlie upper portion was used as a schoolroom, but when this building was 
thus used, there were but two or three otlier buildings upon that block. 

Aside from the alleys 20 feet wide, tliere were but four streets in the 
original town each (50 feet wide and 1340 feet long. The court house square 
was located upon all these four streets; the one on the easterly side being 
Main street; the one on the westerly side being Front street; the one on the 
northerly side being Springlield street; and the one on the southerly side be- 
ing Beardstown street. When Byron Collins built his house on lot 4 (since 
rebuilt by Dr. Snyder) he built it fronting upon the 20 foot alley on t.hesontli. 
There was no street north of this lot until the year 1866 when Henry Hall, 
junior, laid out his addition, north of the original plat. The house of Laur- 
ence Clifford on lots 1 and 2 in the addition fronted south upon a 20 foot alley, 
there being no street adjoining the lots, and when the house was built on lot 
24 in the addition, (the W. B. Kikendall lot), it was erected at the east end, 
fronting the alley of 20 feet, altlio there was a street sixty feet wide along the 
west end of the lot, which seems to prove that the early \'ivginia settlers. 
cared very little for streets— alleys were good enough. 

When the addition to the original town was platted in July, 1S3T, Beards- 
town and Springfield streets were lengthened 520 feet at eacli end so as to 
cross the two sections of the addition and a street 60 feet wide and 1340 feet 
long was platted along the easterly side of the original plat called Cass street: 
and a street 60 feet wide by 1340 feet loiig named Morgan street was laid out 
along the westerly side of the original plat. The street westerly of the addi- 
tion, between it and the addition to tlie Public Grounds was named Job 
street in honor of Archibald Job. The narrow street westerly of the addition 
to the Public Grounds is named Horn street in honor of Rev. Reddick Horn, 
a prominent early settler. Tl>e street running along the easterly side of the 
west S(iuare was named Pitt street, in honor of his wife whose family name 
was Pitt. The street along the west side of the west sc^uare was named Hall 

In the addition of Hall & Thomas, Morgan, Job, Pitt and Hall streets 
were extended through it. The street I'unning westerly along the south side 
of the addition to the town was named Washington avenue, and the street 
south of tliat, running westerly through the Hall & Thomas addition (north 
of tlie Joseph Wilson residence) was named Hardin Place. 

- 116 - 

Althoug-h Robert Hall's first addition to Virginia was laid out June 27, 
1856, and his second addition on August 29, 1859, it is quite certain no houses 
were erected upon either prior to 18(J0. Mr. Hall says the first house in his 
first addition was the Robert Stafl'ord house and the first house in the second 
addition was built by Jolni Peters: tlie Start'ord lot was not purchased until 
1864 and it was the same year Peters purchased lots 3 and 4, in block 5, and 
tlierefore we have not included either of these additions in the history of 
Virginia in A. D. 1860. 

In the preparation of this sketch the testimony of Casper ^Nlagel, (i. F. 
Hillig and Alex Robison has been principally relied upon, for the reason that 
these gentlemen made their appearance here about that time, atid can better 
remember what buildings were in existence in the town at tliat date than 
those who have been here much longer. Mr. Magel came liere from Beards- 
town in September 185i) and built his shop on west side of the east square in 
1861: he had known Mr. Hillig before then at Lynnville, Morgan county, and 
at Reardstown, and wrote for him to come to Virginia, and he made his ap- 
pearance in November 1859. 

The boundary of the town, taking into account the original plat and the 
additions which were then built upon in 1860 was as follows: 

Beginning at the northCfist corner of lot 1 in the addition which is the 
norrlivvest corner of the Anderson brick-yard, and from thence running 
souilierly 1340 feet, passing the west side of the flouring mill, to the northwest 
corner of the C. M. Tinney residence: thence westerly to Morgan street a 
distance of 18(i() feet, passing along the south line of the Matt Yaple property; 
thence sonfiierly along Morgan street, 440 feet to the southeast corner of the 
.losiqih Wilson lots: thence westerly 1227 feet: then northerly 820 feet to tho 
l\ihlic (Jrminfls: then westerly 120 feet to tlie southwest corner of the Public 
fi round: then nortlierly 52;) feet to the south line of the old Fair Ground: then 
easirrly ii5I feet to .lob streel : then northerly 200 feet ^o the northwest corner 
of t he property of Mrs. James Tegg (lot 14 in the addition); then easterly on a 
sli;iight line to the place of beginning, passing along the north line of the 
property of Mrs. Zillion. Ben Simmon. Dr. Snyder, F. C.Lang to the beginning. 

This tract was certainly large enough to contain a great many buildings, 
but we shall presently see they were few and far between. East of the plat 
was the Steam Mill, and the Beer's residence (where George Conover now 
lives on lots 3 and 4, block 3 of. the Beer's addition), and from there came 
the G.itton farm residence. From the Matt Yaple property south, there were 
corn lields-not even a farm house for a mile or more out. Tlie Haskell addi- 
tion was a pasture and no buildings south of it. From the Joseph Wilson 
property were fields up to the college ground— now the high school property. 
West of the town R. Jacobs owned a house on north side of state road, after- 
wards known as the Way residence, and a short distance north of that 
was rlie --Olds"" rivsidence. The first addition of Robt. Hall was a Held, and 
the addition of Ilern-y 11 Hall nortli of the plat was farm land up to isdii. 
The Jonarhan Looker residence and biick yiird were north of the town plat. 

To indicate the number of buildings then standing in the town, it will be 
convenient to describe the several blocks begiiniing with the block 
on which stand the residence of F. C. Lang. R. Lancaster and Hugh Ktiowles 
and numbering to the south then hack to the north, then to the .soutli and 

-11/ - 

so on. 

On the first block there were four houses: the Lawrence Cliflford house 
on lots 1 and 2: one on lots 6 and 7 (now owned by F. C. Lang); one on the 
rear end of 24 owned by Joseph Zieglemeier (now the W.B. Kikendall lot; and 
one on 35. then owned by Sarah Deeds; now the Lancaster lot. 

On the second block was but one house situated on lots 69 and 70 (east of 
tlie C. W. Savage property. 

On the third block there were two houses: one the Murray house (now 
owned by Mrs. Jacobs: and a house built by John W. Hardy on lots 82 and 83 
(now owned by Mrs. Gore.) 

Upon the fourth block there were six houses; a log house on lot 134 re- 
cently torn away by its owner, John Thompson: a house north of 
that on lots 132 and 13.3, where Joiin Thompson now lives: two houses 
on lot 96, one of them the house now owned and occupied by Martin Harding, 
and another on same lot east of it, since removed; a house on lot 129 long 
known as the Rev. Collins residence, still standing; on lot 128 on which 
Miss Green lives was a house in early days, the James Needham home. In 
addition to these six houses on this block there was a livery stable of wood 

Former residence of Rev. W. H. Collins. 
Built in 1843. 
on lot 100 where the brick barn of Hiles is now located. 

Upon the tiftli block tliere were seven houses, besides the Virginia Hotel 
whicli was on lot 82 wliere the Mann House now stands; on lot 83 where t!ie 
new Metiiodist church is situated, was tne Weaver house, long afterwards oc- 
cupied by Tliomas Dunaway; on lot 94 where tlie Cumberland church stands 
there was a house: on lots 90 and 91 where Mrs. Cox lives was a house built by 
Rev. Daniel, a Baptist preacher; a house stood on lot 88 and on lot 87 was tiie 

NoTE~Mr. James H. Clifford tells me that tlie first house in Robert 
Hall's first addition to Virginia was built in 1863, on lot 2, for Ben Sims by 
Proctor and Rosson. As Mr. Clifford afterwards purchased the property and 
Hved in it for many years his statement is doubtless a correct one. Mr. 
Frank Davis says the Tliomas Heslep house was built in 1861, and must have 
been the first house erected in Robert Hall's second addition to the town. 

- 118 - 

first residence of Dr. Hall: on the east side of tlie square, nortli of the Hotel, 
there were two buildings; one of them was the old Dewebber Hotel which at 
first stood with its side to the street and was afterwards turned the end to 
the street. In later years this building was owned and occupied by W. S 
Brobst who had a stove and tin shop helow and lived in the upper part; it 
was burned in the east side tire, in 1900: next to this Dewebber building was 
one owned by a Mrs. Williams, this building became the property of Mrs. 
Julia Knowles and remained an ancient land mark until it, too, went up in 
smoke in tlie tire last mentioned. 

On the sixth block, there were six houses: on lots 4() and 47 was the old 
Dewebber residence which in its last days was used as a lime house by Bailey 
& Stout in their lumber business at northeast corner of the square; on lot 42 
was a house formerly owned by "Granny Paschal," in this liouse N. B. 
Thompson lived wlien he first came to Virginia: on lot 41, tlie corner where 
Mrs. Ellen Cunningham's new house was a liouse in which Mrs. Deeds long 
lived; north of this, fronting the east on lot 40 was the Elliott house; on lot 
4 was the Byron Collins house, now owned by Dr. Snyder: on the south halves 
of lots () and 7 was the house in which the mother of Hugh Elliott lived, now 
the residence of .John Greer — Mrs. Knowles lived here for many years. 

On the seventh block there were three houses: one on lot ;52 where Casp- 
er Magel lives; one on lot 28 built by Harris and now the home of Dr. Hum- 
phrey which he has rebuilt; and on lot 51 stood the house now owned by Mrs. 
McDonald, then called the big white house, the only building on the north 
side of the square. In this house then boarded Rev. Webster, the pastor of 
the M. E. church in Virginia. He was a young man without a family: the 
church paid his board and in addition paid him one hundred dollars per year; 
not very good pay, but it had to do in those days. 

The eighth block was Washington Square; a patch of ground where the 
b().\s played marbles and ball and where the circus people stretched their 
tents IK) I'ence, no tree, no bush. 

On the ninth block there were but five buildings; an old log house on 143 
where Dr. McGee lives, torn down after 1800; ahouseon 120and 127, long known 
as the Chittick house; the old Pothicary Inn on lot 102 owned by E. W. Turner 
in 1800: a two-story building on lot 104 owned by Mr. Greenwood and used by 
.1. N. Wilson as a drugstore: and a one-story building on lot 10;5, then oc- 
cupied by Pierce & Co. as a general store. The Greenwood building was 
later moved to the northwest corner of the west square and is now the liome 
of Robert Norris. 

On the tenth block there were seven buildings. On lot 120 was the house 
built by L. B. Ross in 18:57, long known as the Dwelle house, which is still 
standing and occupied by William Zillion; on lot 107, (the Gatton corner), was 
the two-story frame drug store of L. S. Allard which was burned two years 
ago; on lot 108 was Dr. Allard's one-story residence; across tlie alley west on 
109 was the feed store of Ed Loomis, the building is still standing and used as 
a cigar shop; on 110, where Mrs. Caldwell lives, was a two-story building, oc- 
cupied for several years by tlie Hinchcliff family, on lot HI was the Presby- 
terian church lately transformed into a pliotographer's quarters, and in the 
rear on lot 117 was Squire Haskell's wool carding factory. 
On the eleventh block there were nine buildings, tive of them were on the 


property of John E. Haskell, and west of that on lot (>9 was a one-story build- 
ing used to sell wniskey in: on lot 64, back of the lumber yard was the two- 
story building used as a church by the Protestant Methodist people, which 
burned up in the west side tire in the 1880's. 

On the twelfth block were six buildings: a one-story house owned by Prof. 
Spalding on lots 5;i and 54, at northwest corner of square; on lot 25 where the 
Sherman house stands was the one-story house of Robert Thompson and 
family; on lots 15 and 16, back of Miss Hickox's property, was a log house in 
which the John Costigan family lived in an early day, which was torn down 
long since; on lot 57, where Fred HilJig lives, in the same house. Miss Melville 
Blair then lived: on lots 58 and 59 (the S. W. Bailey corner) stood the Meth- 
odist church, and just in the rear of it, on lot 22. owned by J. H. Clifford, was 
a house of li stories, now in Grand Villa owned by G. McDowell. 

On the thirteenth block there were five houses; on lot 3<i, where J. N. 
Gridley lives, was a one-story house, built by Rev. Nathan Downing; on lot 42, 
on southwest corner of block, was the home of Prof. McDowell, who had 
charge of the college: the house still stand.s. the home of Mrs. Mary Turner 
Suffern: north of that, on lot 15, was the house of Mrs. Tegg: the house was. 
burned ten years ago: north of that, across the alley, was the house of 
Jonathan Looker, now occupied by Ed Hudson, and east of that, on lots of 
JT. II. Hall, was a log house in which Robert Stafford lived and l)oaided iiiett 
who worked on the Illinois River railroad, 

On the fourteenth block there were eight buildings: the Amos Woodward 
smith shop, still stands, occupied by Ben Simmon; just west, on lot 54, w;is 
the Amos Woodward residence, still standing: west of this, a-ross the alley, 
on lot 51, was the one-story building occupied by Garland Pollard as a law 

Law ( )riice of (Jarland Pollarrl, isno. 
oftice, now owned by Hetuy Warner, known as the Niles 
that, on the corner, was a one-story huild 
lias been rebuilt, the origin 
v'here Mrs. Ratlibu 

property: west of 

ig. long used as the post-office: it 

building still Miere; north of that, on lot 4,s. 

ives, was rhe twostory "Chase" residence: north 

the corner, on lot 4:>. was a orie-sto-ry liMise: e ist of thir.oii lot 44. was the 

V20 " 

bride residence of .lohn Rogers and east of that, wiiere William Eyi'e w 
lives, on lot 46, stands the IJ story buildini^-, built by the Buckley brothers in 
1S30. foi' a cabinet maker's shop. 

On tlie til'teenth block, there were seven buildings; on the northwest 
corner, on lot !M), (the Mrs. Crandall lot) was the TSTaylor residence: east of 
this, on lots «7 and 88, was the Dr. Schooley home, (the 11 nest in the town) 
now the residence of Mrs. Petetisli: at the northeast corner of the block was 
the Robert Chittick shop: on lot 113, facing- soutli, was the Boyd house: at the 
soutliwest corner of tlie block was tlie two-story residence of Mr. White, 
which burned to the ground soon after: nortli of that, on lot 91, was the 
Cumberland church, wjiich is now the Holiness church on lot 85 insame block, 
and on lot 94 in the center of the block was the brick builditig built for the 
counfy jail and in istio aiui for long- thei'eafter tlie liome of Robert Chittick, 
the blacksmith. 

Old Cumberland I'resln terian Church. 

T^OTE— The following letter is just received from (Jeorge W. Martin, a 
Cliicago lawyer: 

"Hon. J. N. Gridley. Virginia, III. Pear sir and friend: Your historical 
sketches of early \'irginia are deeply interesting to n-ie, and I believe tliey are 
quite reliable. In speaking of the block in which was situated the Lawrence 
Clifford house, you fail to mentior] my father's gunsmith shop, vvliieh was 
directly north of the liouse on lots () and 7, in whicli I was born on the 4th 
day of January, 18,"')(). My father owned the lots and I believe he sold them to 
Dr. Tate, when he moved to the northeast pai't of Cass comity, having pur- 
chased S(» acres either of Parr or Carr, I have forgotten whicih I have the 
original deed somewhere among my papei's. 

"My father died in August. 1862, in tlie war. W^e retui-ned to \'irginia 
in November. 18(;i', and bougtit tlie house just in front of the Cummings prop- 
erty at the extreme end of Springfield street. Bob Hall owns the propertv 
now: we bouglit it from Pherigo. We then repurchased from Dr. Tate the 
old two-room house on lots H and 7, of the first block vou mention in your 
sketch. Preacher Merriam then lived in the that Dr. Snyder has since 
remodeled. My mother. Rose A. Martin, sold the property to James Turner 
(my uncle) and he to F. C. Lang, who had the old building removed and 
turned his new residence so that it would face the nortliwest instead of north- 

east. Say, Mr. Gridley, I was a "kid" in tliose days but my memory is good, 

"Respectfully yours, 

"George W. Martin." 
"P. S. I thank yon and tlirough you, the Enquirer, lor tliese most in- 
teresting sketches. "G. W. M." 

Crossing Job street we find lots 11 and 12 and 13 at the soutli end of the 
addition to the Public Grounds on south side of Beardstown; here is standing- 
the residence of Dr. Harvey Tate, of 1860, now occupied by IVIr. K'ester: the 
building just west of it, then adjoined the residence and was Dr. Tate's office. 
On lots 9 and 10 just across Beardstown street on north side of it was the 
Christian church, reir.oved several vears ago to the ea.^t side of the town. 

■■'•^^^. m^ 

Former Residence of Dr. Harvey Tate. 
The only remaining houi^e on tliis addition in 1860 was the John E. W 

Tiie old Utsideiice of Jolm E. Ilaskel 

Kuilt 18;!S. 

- V22 - 

residence on lets 1 and 2, still affording- shelter for two families; this house 
was built for James Samuels, in 1S38, by the Buckley Brothers. 

We now come to the Public Grounds: on lots 35 and 36 was the Henry 
Arthur property at northeast corner of the west square, and still there: on 
tlie east side of the square there were tnree houses: on lot 100 was the house 
Mrs. Sherrill lives in at north end of east side — in 1860 tlie house was on the 
east end of tlie lot which extends bade 120 feet; it was moved to west end of 
lot where it now is, after 1860: on lots 94 and 95 near the middle of the east 
side was tiie liouse of Mrs. Emily Pratt, to which a room has since been added 
on the soutli and now the home of the Willvs family; in this liouse lived Hon. 
.7 oh n W. Pratt, when tlie first county clerk of the county; to the south of 
this house on lot 92 was thfe P. M. Madden house which has been torn away 
in later years. 

Crcssing Beardstown street to the south we find the old "Boston Brick," 
with the wooden hoii^e ad loniui^'- on the east, still in a j^ood state of preserva- 

T]ie ••Boston Brick" lUiiit l.y ]>. Beesle\. 
tioir. in the brick building- William Boston kept a general store: the building 
was- erected by Benjamin Bensley in the year 1S42. 

On the soutii side of tlie west S(iuare there were six buildings: at east end 
was a saloon building; next west was th.e twn-story brick building known as 
the "Bluford Thompson brick." which llien extended to the street line: 
ten feet was i-einoved from the front end by N. B. Tliompson, a subsequent 
owner in lirting it up for a private residence, after llie business left the west 
s(|aai'e: next came a building- of wood (still standing) huill by Leland C;ir- 
penter and by him occupied as a residence and tailor shop uril il he removed to 
J')atli: next wesi c;ime the two-story -'Cherry house/' which stood on Mie 
slreet line, and was moved back since 1870: this was the home of Dr. Hall's 
widow and lier family for several years: next west was the "Ptabouvn liouse' 
and postoffice, now owned by F. M. Davis: and west of tliis. near the corner 
was the Cliarles H. Oliver residence and store, still in good CDiulition owned 
Ij.V Mrs. Looker. 

- V23 

Old TTome < f ("liarles IT. Oliver. 

Crossing- Hall street to the west we tiiu'l the old residence of N 11. Th )iim>- 
son, in very fair condition on lot 71 at southwest corner of the v\esi >ti!iaie: 
Mr. Thompson boufJ^ht this lot of Dr. Hall, February 8, IStO, and built ti;e 
liouse on it the same year. On tlie west side of the square was the double 
store building' on lots ()() and ()7: then used by N. B. Thompson and Henry 
Hall as store rooms, and at tlie north end of the west, side was tlie Hatbwel! 
house, now owned by Mre. Sarah J. Collins in which Dr. Ilathwell lived in an. 
early day and kept drugs for sale tlierein. 

On the north side of tlie west square, there were Init three houses in ]Siii)„ 
and only one of them — the Hamilton— liouse is now standing; the I^alxuun 
house and the Gormley house havinu'' Ijeen torn down and removed. Noith of 
the square, on the alley was the residence of Jacob Metzmaker, the father of 
Jacob Metzmaker, of Cluindlerville, and of the widow of George E. Harris of 
this city. Upon the west square was the old court house then used as the 
public school building. East of the plat were two-houses, still standing: one 
was the R. Jacobs house, west of the Thompson store building, and the other 
tlie Olds residence, north of the Jacobs place about 200 feet. 

There remains the addition of Hall & Thomas, and beginning at the 
southeast corner, we find on lots 5 and fi the Joseph Wilson residence, then 
the home of Charles Lawson the harness maker: west of that on lot 12, where 
J. F. Wyatt lives was the home of Squire VanEaton: the house lias been 
added to, since 1S60: west of the VanEaton liouse on lot 13, where Mr. Lane 
now lives was then the home of Mrs. Gordley. the mother of W. M. Gordley., 
esq., who, left a widow, came here with her children, in is.>i), to send them to 
the college, then a flourishing institute of learning: west of the Gordley 
home on lots 20 and 21 was a house afterwards the residence of George Wilson; 
on lots 32 and 33, now the home of Ben McDowell, lived Oliver Pratt. 

On the north side of tlie street on lots 30 and 31 was the William Shirley 
property still there in good condition: on the corner east, was the home of 
L. P. Px. Yaple, now owned by MoUie Weaver: north of that, on lots 2(1 and 27, 
the present home of John Menzics. lived Rev. Joseph Roacli, who kept college 


Opposite and east of tl:e Roacli property, on lots l(i and IT. was tlie resi- 
dence of .lames C. Greenwood, now owned by Mrs. E. M. Dale: next east on 
lot 15 lived J. N Wilson and family: tlie next house east on lots 9 and io, now 
the home of Alex Robison, was a liouse whicli belonged to J. ,C. Greenwood. 
On the south side of the block on lots 11 and 14 lived Dr. G. W. Goodspeed 
and family; and on lots 18 and 19 on the corner of the (roodspeed place lived 
Dr. P. L. Phillips who operated the steam mill here: at west end of the street 
on lots ;{() and ."57 lived William P.oston. 

North of the Roach property, where Dr. Tate resided in later years, and 
where his children now live, was the home of Richard S. Thomas, and south 
of the house in the building in which J. Frencli and family reside, was the 
ortice of Thomas: the next house north of the Thomas house was then owned 
and occupied by Isaac Bell, who sold it to Mrs. Mahala Brady in 1X()5. 

Now to re-capitulate: Classing as buildings, shops, churches, stores and 
liouses we have found in the original town 49 buildings: in the addition to the 
town 27 buildings: in the addition to the Public Grounds 4 buildings: in the 
I'libiic (Jrounds 22 buildings: in the addition of Hall and Thomas 17 buildings: 
and to these by adding the .hicobs and Olds houses on the west, the Looker 
bouse on the nortti. the steam mill on tlie east and the college on tlie south 
we have a total of 124 buildings in the town of Virginia in ISfiO, strung out 
from the Lawrence Clifford house on the northeast to the William lioston 
house on the southwest, a distance of three-fourths of a mile. There are. at 
the present time, more buildings in the corporation north of SpringHeld street 
than there were in the entire town in the year isiiu. 

As for sidewalks there were practically none: a few feet of walk along the 
west side of Washington s»iuare in front of the old Dr. Hall store: a few feet 
in front of the Pothicary building on south side: a brick walk in front of Mrs. 
I hill's home on south side of the west square, and a walk from the Rabourn 
post-oMice to the store room of Charles II. Oliver at southvvest corner of the 
west scjuare. 

As late as 1S()7 there was no walk on north side of the s(|uai'e: ncne on 
Springfield street east of the S(iuare: none on the stieet north of Springfield 
street: no walk from Beardstown street to the college where a select school 
was taught that year: the bridge across the creek was so low tliat every heavy 
rain caused the stream to overtiovv the road and the school children stripped 
oil their shoes and stockings and waded through mud and water. 

There were very few trees in N'irginia in 18(i0: the west square liad i)een 
supplied with locust trees by the county authorities in an early day and about 
the same time locusts were planted about the N. I>. Thompson residence, the 
Amos Woodward residence, the Dwelle place, add the McDowell property at 
the corner of Job and Springfield street. Dr. Allard had planted trees on his 
lots— still there: James Tegg and his father planted the hard maples along 
the .John Rodgers lots in 18o() and the same year about the Spalding lots at 
northwest corner of the east s(iiiare. If there were anyotiier ornamental 
trees in the corporation in IHfiO no one knows about them. 

In 18()7 and 18(i8 a great many soft maple trees were brought from the 
Sangamon river bottom and planted along the Virginia streets. In the spring 
of IsitS the writer set out the ti-ees on the north line of the M. Xaple property 

- 125 - 

—some of tliem now twenty-four inches in diameter. A soft m«ple planted 
on Springfield street in 1867 is to-day (December 1905) thirty-five inches in 
diameter, which illustrates the rapid growthof that plant in a favorable spot. 

Washingtcn Square was fenced and trees planted within the enclosure in 
the year 1870. The committee entrusted with the duty of planting- the trees 
was about to set them in rows, but Mr. Henry Dittoe, then a merchant here 
strenuously urged that they be planted at irregulardistances from one another 
as they grew in forests, and his wish was complied with. These trees are 
principally soft maples and are beginning to rapidly decay: the city council 
should have begun the planting of hard maples long since to supply the loss 
of the soft variety. 

The town of Virginia was incorporated by the legislature of the state in 
1857. The area of the corporation is one square mile; the center is located in 
the middle of Morgan street at a point equidistant between Beardstown and 
Springfield streets, within a few feet of the public well north of Ben Simmons' 
shop. The lines run parallel with the city streets. The charter provided 
for the annual election of a board of five trustees and a president; and this, 
board was empowered to manage the public schools in the town— employ 
teachers, build or repair school buildings and levy and collect necessary taxes 
for such use. 

The first meeting of the board was held on the IDth day of August 1857; 
the officers elect were Charles PI. Oliver, president, and John E. Hasl<ell, 
Stephen P. Guinn, Alexander Samples, John Bluford Thompson and S. W. 
Neeley, trustees. The board proceeded to elect the following officers: James 
H. Harris, town constable: L. S. Allard, assessor and treasurer: John A. 
Giles, street commissioner and John W. Naylor, town clerk. 

On September 15th, 1857, Mr. Branson was chosen to take charge of the 
public school; Mr. Branson having declined to serve Mr. Main and lady were 
employed as teachers on September 22nd. 

The value of all the property within the corporate limits subject to taxa- 
tion was found to be «173,190.50. 

On October 27, 1857. Mr. J. Bradley Thompson appeared before the board 
and urged that the town agree to raise one tliousand dollars for the erectior* 
of a court house in Virginia in case the people of the county should decide to 
remove it from Beardstown at the approaching election, and the board agreed 
to the proposition. The people by a decided majority decided to leave the 
seat of justice on the border of the Illinois river. 

On November loth, 1857, C. II. Oliver, John E. Haskell and J. Bluford 
Thompson were chosen by the board to act as directors of the school, and on 
December 1st. Mr. Oliver reported to the board that on November 30th he 
visited the school; that there were about 23 scholars present, that he heard 
two classes recite in reading: that good order was maintained, and the 
scholars generally attentive and studious. That on January 14, 1858, the 
school was visited by C. H. Oliver; about 28 scholai-s were present; classes re- 
cited in reading, spelling, grammar and parsing: all appeared attentive and 
studious and under control of the teacher. 

These directors were certainly deserving of commendation for their fre- 
quent visitation of the school; times liave changed since then. 

At a meeting held on April 20, 18.58. it was recorded that the subject of 

- 126 - 

the last regular town election was taken up and after some talk the ballots 
were opened and the poll book was missing and could not be found, and on 
motion of Mr. Haskell the last election was declared a nullity and a new 
election was ordered, and the ordinance authorizing the sale of spii-ituous 
li([Uors was repealed. 

At the next meeting it was found the election had resulted in tlie choice 
of the following: R. M. Taggart. president; and J. Bluford Tliompson, 
William Shirley, I. N. White, R. B. Mitchell and J. N. Wilson, as trustees: 
and Henry Rabourn as town justice: I. N. White was chosen town clerk, and 
.1. W. Croodell constable and street commissioner, and J. G. Camptjell assessor 
and treasurer. 

The first action taken by this board was to pass an ordinance prohibiting 
the sale of liquors within the town or within two miles of it. 

On July 6, 1858, a petition was read by a number of citizens asking the 
passage of an ordinance prohibiting swine or hogs from running at large with- 
in the corporate limits of the town: on motion the clerk was ordered 
to draw up such an ordinance: also one against jacks, Jennys and dogs: if the 
clerk obeyed the order, the records fail to show It; it is altogether likely that 
tlu' idea, to shut up hogs was so preposterous, that it was ridiculed to death. 

On September 9, 1858, Mr. John W. Goodell was employed to teach the 
school for the following six months at a salary of $4-5 per month, and Sarah 
E. Hart engaged as his assistant at a salary of $25 per month. The west up- 
per room of the sclioolhouse was rented to the Virginia Dramatic Society for 
H per month, (^n October 5, 1858, Dr. Harvey Tate was appointed trustee 
in place of . I. X. Wilson, who had resigned, and A. Bergen appointed town 

The first mention of sidewalks in the records of the town appears at the 
meeting of November hi, 185S. when a sidewalk of six feet in width was order- 
ed built along the south side of Beardstown street, one- half to be paid by the 
owners of the property fronting on that side the street: from subsequent rec- 
ord entries it would appear this walk was not laid till long after this order 
was made. 

On February 1, 1859, Alexander Samples was paid $1() for the Ijnilding of a 
walk in front of lots 102 and 10:5, which is the east end of the south side of 
Washington Square: at the same meeting Mr. James (1. Campbell offered to 
furnish the lumber for a crossing where Job street crosses Beardstown street 
if the town would lay it down, which very liberal proposition was agreed to. 

At the spring election in 1859 the following were the otHcers elect: 

.1. E. Roach, president, and Harvey Tate, X. B. Thompson, Jerry Cox. S. 
P. Guin and Robert Taggart, trustees; S. W. X'^eeley, ju.stice. This board 
appointed ,Je.sse M. Chapman, street commissioner: John Bluford Thompson, 
town constable: Jacob Foltz. town clerk, and Jacob Dnnaway, assessor and 

On April 20tl), on motion of Dr. Tate it was ordered that Mary Proctor be 
allowed to occupy the lower school room until her present school shall be out: 
afid leave granted R. B. Mitchell to occupy the upper east school I'ooivj for 
three months, for a school. At same meeting the board passed ati ordinance 
allowing spirituous liquors to be sold in the town. 

On June 1, 1859, Mr. J. Rosson was appointed street commissiDner. 

- V21 - 

On July 20, 185n, a motion prevailed to employ II. riiillips to teacli and 
stiperintend as principal of the district school for six months of twenty days 
each at a salary of $50 per month. (The H. Phillips above mentioned is Judge 
Henry Pliillips, of Beardstown.) Miss Miranda Gaines was chosen as liis as- 
sistant at a salary of $25 per month. 

On August 7, 1869, an ordinance was passed for the building of a sidewalk 
beginning at southwest eorner of lot 67 in the public square (the west sciuare), 
thence east to the southeast corner of the same lot, tlience south to tlie 
northeast corner of lot 71: thence east on the south side of Beardstown street 
to the northwest corner of lot 101 in the original town of Virginia: thence 
north to the southwest corner of lot 82: thence east to the southwest corner 
of lot 94: then south to the northwest corner of lot 96: the ownere of lots 
along tlie line, to pay one-half the cost of the walk. 

The reader may better understand tlie route of tlie proposed walk by this 
description: beginning at the southwest corner of the lot on which the N. B. 
Thompson store building formerly stood: then east 120 feet to tlie southeast 
corner of the same lot: then south across Beardstown street: then east on the 
soutli side of Beardstown street to the Widmayer shop: then north across the 
street to the hotel corner; then east along the north side of Beardstown street 
to the southwest corner of the Cumberland church lot: then south across the 
street to the northwest corner of the Martin Harding lot. 

On August 25th, 1859, leave was granted to the Petersburg String Band 
to use tlie schoolhouse during the fair for the purpose of holding a concert- 
by the payment of live dollars. 

On November 2nd, 1859, Mr. Henry Phillips was appointed town clerk. 

On December 21st, 18.^9, S. P. Guin resigned as trustee and (larland Pol- 
lard was chosen to succeed him. 

On April 2nd, 18()0, Henry Phillips was declared trustee to till the vacancy 
caused by the resignation of N. B. Thompson. 

The election in 18(iO resulted in the choice of I>r. G. W. Goodspeed, presi- 
dent, and William E. Martin. Charles E. Lawson, Isaac Bell, Harvey Tate 
and William Shirley, trustees. Dr. Tate declining to serve, James G. Camp- 
bell was chosen to act in his place. F. H. Van Eaton was appointed treasur- 
er: L. S. Allard, clerk: Levi R. Cavender, constable and street commissioner. 

On April 24, 1860, the following committees were appointed: 

On common schools. James G. Campbell and Lsaac I^ell. 

On streets and sidewalks. Bell and Lawson. 

On ordinances, Shirley and Martin. 

On finances, Campbell and Shirley. 

The board requested the committee on ordinances to frame an ordinance 
prohibiting people from plowing up the street, sidewalks and commons withiit 
the corporation. 

On August 15, 18()0, Mr. Hodge was employed to teach tlie school and on 
Ts'ovember 7, Miss Hanna White was chosen as his assistant. 

On November 21, 1860, street committee directed to build a crossing fromt 
L. S. Allard's drug store on lot 107, north, accross the street. 

On February , 1861. a petition was presented for the building of a side- 
walk on the west side of the east square and a sidewalk on the east side of the 
west S(tuare. The town constable was ordered to look up the "Town Wagon." 

- VIS - 

Mr. Grirtin was granted the use of the school house for a subscrip- 
tion school for three months, beginning April 15, 1861. 

At the election in the spring of 1801 the following officers were chosen: 
President, N. B. Beers; Trustees, E. B. Randall, John Rogers, Jacob Duna" 
way, Thomas Heslep and S. W. Neel.y. 

The new board chose L. F. Briggs for clerk: \. G. Sims, assessor and 
treasurer; John Blutford Tliompson. constable and William Wood, street 
commissioner, the latter refused to act and Louis B. Griffith was chosen in his 

The Cass County Union was made the official organ of the board: ITeeley 
and Briggs, committee on ordinances: Ileslep and Dunaway on finance: Ran- 
dall and Sims on streets and sidewalks. 

On April 3, 1862, the record shows that a petition was presented signed 
by a large number of citizens praying for a sidewalk across tlie west side of 
the east sciuare. 

The records have been examined thus far. in order to show that the side- 
walks in \'irginia in 18(iO were not worth mentioning, and the footpaths, 
where sidewalks ought to have been were periodically torn up, by shiftless 
people in an effort to scour the rust from their neglected plows. 

NoTK In that part of the sketch, which appeared in the ExtiUiUEii 
we( k one paragraph began: "On August 7, 1869 an ordinance was pas.sed for 
t he hiiildiiig of a sidewalk;" the date should have read August 7, 1859. 

The wi-iters of historical facts ought to contine themselves to the strict 
truth, and in the matter of biography, should state all the facts necessary to 
a full knowledge of the life and character portrayed; when this is done it is 
the rare exception ratlier than the rule. Biographers write as if they thoup-ht 
by covering their subjects wil h a "tlood of glory." the reflection might make 
them immortal. 

To ilUistratethis. it isnot necessary to go back into ancient history; the case 
of a man in our day and generation who grew up in this section of the country 
will answer: That of Abraham Lincoln. We liave had many histories of 
Lincoln, by men and womeir The most accui'ate, was written in three vol- 
umes, by the man who knew him better than any other living man. This 
truthful biographer tells us that Nancy Hanks, the mother of Lincoln, was a 
bastard. Lincoln and his biographer, in isoo, were driviuir to Petersburg in 
a one-horse buggy, and on that occasion Lincoln said his motlier was tlie ille- 
gitimate daugliter of Lucy Hanks and a well-bred Virginia farmer or planter: 
that from this broad-minded unknown Virginian, Lincoln claimed that he 
(Lincoln) inherited his mental activity and ambition that distinguished him 
from the other members and descendants of the ILanksfamily. Elsewherethis 
truthful biographer tells of an act committed by Lincoln wlien a young man 
that richly merited a severe and public cow-hiding. 

When this biography was published what a howl of indignation arose 
over the country! A Chicago newspaper said it was shameful to tell such 
things even if they were true. It would lie rather difficult now to obtain 
this truthful history of the life of Lincoln, as one never hears of it, or sees it 
advertised as are the otheis: perhaps some Lincoln lick-spittle with more 


money than honesty, bought up and suppressed the edition. A ti'utliful man, 
now a citizen of this city, iieard Lincoln tell a nasty story to a promiscuous 
crowd, in a hotel in this town. Suppose all these facts were generally known 
as they ought to be, would their knowledge change the general opinion that 
Lincoln was tlie greatest of tlie presidents, save Washington? Suppose the 
great Englishman, who wrote a historical review of the war of the rebellion 
of tlie southern states, had read Ilerndon's Life of Lincoln, would lie liave 
changed his opinion expressed in these words: "Of all the great men who 
took part in that struggle, two tower far above all the rest: Abraham Lin- 
coln and Robert E. Lee.'" Phineas T. Barnum, the great American showman 
was right when he said: "The people enjoy being humbugged." 

The English Press of last week contains a notice of the fact that the Earl 
of Lovelace who is a grandson of Lord Byron has written a book which con- 
tains the evidences of the truth of the charge long since made by Harriett 
Beecher Stowe that the great poet was guilty of criminal intimacy with his 
own half-sister, and the latter's confession of the fact to the injured wife was 
the cause of her separation from the black-hearted monster. 

The "Byronites" of course raised a great howl against Mrs. Stowe, and 
the new crop of those lunatics wiU renew the out cry, for they can not pos^- 
ibly understand how a man who could write "like a god,'' should be so in - 
moral as to deserve death by strangulation. 

The older readers of this sketcli will well remember the history of the 
famous Henry Ward Beecher scandal. Theodore Tilton, a noted writer aud 
lecturer made the gravest charges of immorality against Beecher, giving to 
the public the fact that he held a letter written by Beecher; that he could 
prove the truth of his assertion by Francis Moulton, of Brooklyn, who had 
been endeavoring to settle the trouble between Tilton and Beecher. The 
latter publicly denied the charge, but made no mention of the letter Mid 
practically admitted that Moulton knew all about it. As Beecher was then 
easily the greatest preacher in America if not of the Engliah-speakiiig world 
the public was much interested. During tlie early part of our great civil war 
Beecher had been sent to England to stem the tide of popular sentiment tlien 
rapidly rising against us. He made public speeches in the large cities to 
great crowds of people and by his wonderful powers of reasoning and oratory 
completely changed the current of public opinion. Beecher was an intellect- 
ual giant. It was learned tliat Moulton was a man of highest standing and 
it was generally conceded that his statement should settle the controversy. 
In the meantime the matter got into the courts and the people instead of 
suspending judgment until the facts could be determined by a judicial ir- 
vestigation began to take sides and discuss the matter; eagerly, at first; an- 
grily and bitterly later on. Before the case could be heard the "Beecherites"' 
had thoroughly made up "the things tliey called their minds." Beecher ad- 
mitted he wrote the letter, and Moulton's testimony clearly corroborated 
Tilton's statement, but this made not a particle of difference with tlie Beecli- 
erites, who accepted the preacher's silly and lame explanation of the meaning 
of the letter and turned upon poor Moulton and denounced him as a liar and a 

God created man, and gave him reason for a guide; he is not controlled 
by it. but is swayed by passion and prejudice, like a tall weed in a strong gale 

- 130 - 

of wind. 

It will be generally admitted that the greatest defect in Illinois as a 
home, is its bad roads. The soil of these broad and fertile prairies is loose and 
rich and a few extra rains convert them into lakes of horrible mud. These 
prairies were worse in ISfiO tlian now since tile-drainage has become common. 
In the sketch of John E. Haskell, our present deputy-sheriff, described the 
"frog pond" that existed a mile or two east of this town, and the prairie just 
south of us, then owned by Richard S. Thomas, was excessively wet, and 
mai]y crop failures were experienced. Look at the miles of excellent side- 
walks we now enjo}% and how pleasantly we give up our hard earned money 
paid by the saloonkeepers in adding to, and improving these walks, many of 
concrete, most of hard bricks. The suburbs of Chicago laid out in Parks, 
Lots and Blocks , without a house barn or shed, contain excellent streets and 
benutiful shade trees; and then imagine this town when it was twenty-four 
years old, witli almost no shade trees, no sidewalks— no crossings, the streets 
and foot-paths torn up by a set of plow-scourers who ought to have been trans- 
ported west to live among the savages of the plains— a perfect sea of mud and 
s'op for months every year. There were good churches, a good public school 
building, a college in good condition, all to be reached in the wet season by 
wading. The streets full of bawling cows, grunting hogs, squalling jacks and 
wandering horses. What a tine place to reside in, poor old Virginia must have 
been. Were there no people here with any enterprise or ambition? There 
were as many of that class then as now in proportion to numbers, the resi- 
dents of that day numbered men of good ability, among them being Richard 
S. Tliomas, .Jacob Dunaway, N. B. Tliompson, Drs. Goodspeed, Tate and 
Schooly. .J. X. Wilson, James G. Campbell, X. B. Beers and others that might 
be nami'd. Why did not these men get their wives and the school children 
and t he c-hinch goers out of the horrible mud? We give it up: wecannot even 
imagine a reason. 

Nor is this all: when these men came into control of business affairs in 
\'irgiriia, there were two excellent public roads from this town to Sangamon 
bottom; one ran in a nortiierly direction: the other in a northwesterly direc- 
tion: the public had a good title to these roads and in dry weatlier a heavy 
load could be transported over them with a common team. These "busi- 
ness'" men allowed these roads to be fenced up by in-coming settlers, and we 
liave never since had a decent road to the Sangamon valley. For this neglect, 
they deserve severe condemnation. Tlie writer has heard more than one 
farmer of Cass county as late as 18()4 declare that a public road passing a farm 
was a damage to it. What better things could we expect of a community in 
whicli land owners held sucli "digger-Indian" notions as that! 

After having duly censured the citizens of the last generation, let us 
see Low much better are we, their immediate successors, in order that we 
may be able to know how our children will regard us, aftei' we are dead and 

We have a public park in which the court house is located, in which soft 
wood trees were planted 35 years ago: of late years "the powers tliat be" al- 
lowed the tops of these trees to be slashed and butchered, in to a dying con- 
dition; now in January 1906 a lot of them are being cut down and dragged 
away. WHiy did not the city council long ago begin the planting of sugar 


nmples in the city park to take the place of the dying soft trees? Years ago, 
the old unsightly elms in Walnut Ridge cemetery were cut out and sugar 
maples planted: wliat a howl there was over it, at that time by a lot of 
cussers and growlers. Where is there a more beautiful cemetery than ours 
to-day? The chief glory of it, is the beautiful maple trees therein. Why 
does not our council provide for the future by planting the same variety in 
the park? 

Look at the miserable, disgraceful roads we have in Cass county! Sup- 
pose a reader of this paper should take an artist to the Sangamon valley, and 
procure pictures of the wonderful farms there: the beautiful brick churcli 
with all the modern improvements: the comfortable parsonage in which is in- 
stalled the faithful preacher: the pleasant and elegant liomes along the val- 
ley supplied with pure water from living springs and warmed with steam 
plants, and at the same time get views of the wretched hills over which pass 
the roads(?)^the ''Hickory church hill," the "Houck hill:" then let him take 
these views on a visit to a New York or New England or Michigan com 
munity and tell those people that the Cass county farmers who owned those, 
grand farms and who lived in those tine homes and who worshipped (Jod in 
that neat, comfortable church, travelled over those '-bloody hills"' to get to 
their county seat less than ten miles distat)t and this Cass county visiior 
would be set down and written up as the biggest liar who ever cauie out of 
the wild and woolly west. 

Then cotisider the thousands of dollars that are being expendetl in buy- 
ing and installing steel bridges, and many of them upon roads not fir \n ride a 
horse over. There is a road running north and south across sections tbiiteen 
and twenty-four on T lS-9, in which are located several costly steel hri(l<:es at 
the foot of hills wliich rise at an angle of not less than forty-five degrees. \\c- 
fore any eastern community would submit to such conditions, they udnid 
turn out, men, women, and children, and cut down tliose hills, if tiiey had to 
work with tire shovels, and hand baskets by moonlight. As late as tiie mid- 
dle of November 1905 within five miles of this city there were men at work 
grading public roads; tilling the road beds with fresh earth, wlien every man 
of sense knows or ought to know that if an Illinois prairie road can not be 
worked before mid-summer it ought to go without work. Hard roads are too 
expensive to be considered, but we can cut the hills down: we can drain the 
surface water from the road-beds; and we can (luit tearing them up in tlie 
fall of the year. 

Of recent years, the people ef this city have exhibited a spirit of pride and 
emulation in the keeping of their homes in good order: houses are kept fresh- 
ly painted, lawns in good condition, trees are planted, flowers cultivated. It 
is a matter of common remark by visitors that Virginia is a nice little city—a 
good town to live in. We have extra tine horses and the la^^est style of carri- 
ages; our churches are the best; our school buildings are a credit to the com- 
munity, and, last but not least, we have the handsomest ladies who ever lived 
anywhere. All things considered, Virginia of 190(i has made good progress 
from the status of Virginia A. D. ISiii) 


AT the September term, 18;5S, the county commissioners elected in Aug-- 
ust of that year drew lots to determine tlieir term of otlice with tlie 
following result: 

Isaac C. S pence, one year: 

Joshua P. Crow, to serve two years: 

Amos Bonney, to serve three years. 

A permit was granted Thomas (rraiiam to sell goods at auction. 

Tavern license was granted to Bradford E. Uew, Frederick Krohe, 
George Nolte and Isaac W. Overall. 

.1. and T. S. Wilbourn were granted a store license. 

I. C. Spence was granted a store license for one year. 

On November 13, 18;58. William Thomas was appointed agent for Cass 
county to receive Iier proportion of money which was appropriated to Cass 
county by tiie 18th section of an Act to establish and maintain a system of 
internal improvements. 

On December 4, 18:58, Augustus Knapp was allowed $2.") rent for the house 
used as a court house. 

Tavctii license issued to 15. W. Schneidei' and store license issued to 11. T. 

On March •"), 18:5!), store license issued to Amos West. 

(ieorge W. Heggs appointed supervisor of road district No. 4, and James 
Garner, Henry Nichols and Charles Brady chosen fence viewers foi' T IT, R 9. 

On March 8, 18:5',), tavern rates established as follows: 

Each meal of victuals, ."57.^ cents: 

Each night's lodging. 25 cents: 

Feed for one horse, 25 cents: 

l\eeping horse each night. 50 cents: 

One-lialf pint of whiskey, 12i cents: 

( )ne-lialf pint of brandy, 25 cents: 

( )ne-half pint of gin, 25 cents: 

One-half pint wine, cordials, etc.. 25 cents. 

Bates of B.eardstown ferry: 

llonse and carriage. Ttl cents; 

Two-horse wagon, 50 cents: 

Four horse wagon, 75 cents; 

Six horse wagon, one dollar; 

Man and horse, 25 cents: 


Loose cattle, (ii- cents: 

Hogs, goats and sheep, 3 cents; 

Each footman, 6J cents. 

Rates also established for landing at the Bluffs, on June 3, 1S?>9. Tavern 
license issued to C. S. A^analstine beginning February 2, 1839. 

On June 4, 1839, S. T. Logan allowed $10 for fees as attending as council 
in three cases in the circuit court. 

Ira Crow allowed $3 for liauling tables, benclies. etc., from Beardstown to 
the court house. 

Ordered the clerk be directed to advertise for sealed proposals to be pre- 
sented on or before June 22 for enclosing the square of 100 yards around the 
court house with a substantial plank fence; also for painting and pencelling 
the court house. 

John W. Pratt, of Virginia, appointed agent for Cass county, witli full 
power to demand and receive money appropriated to Cass county for internal 

Painting of the court liouse sold to J. P. Crow for $17.\ and enclosure 
around court house to I. C. Spence for $18.3. 

September 2, 1839, notice having been given the court l:)y Henry II. IlalU 
contractor for public buildings and ^commissioner for Cass county lor the sale 
of real estate belonging to said county, tiiat the court house and jail had l)een< 
completed and were ready for delivery, and the county commissioners for Cass- 
county after examining said buildings having reported said court house niul 
jail had been erected and completed according to the contract ma/le and en- 
tered into between the county cominissioneis of Cass county and said Hail on. 
April 21, 1838. 

It was ordered said buildings be received and said Ifenry II. Hall, be and 
he hereby is released from all responsibility incurred by or under saiil con- 
tract and in consideration of the performance of said contract in .iccoiilance 
with its stipulations, the proceeds that have been or may be derived Iroin i he 
sale of the 15 acres of land (except the public square deeded by tiie said Hen- 
ry H. Hall to the county commissioners of Cass county and their successors) 
be and the same is hereby relinquished, surrendered and confirmed unto said 
Hall and his heirs. 

September 5, 1839. ordered that the clerk of this eonrt advertise that the 
public oHices in thecourt house are now ready for the different officers of the 
court wlio by law are entitled to have the same furnished by the county. 

Tlie general election for 18+2 was held on Monday, the tirst day of August, 

The candidates were as follows: 

For governor— Josepli Duncan, and Thomas Ford: 

Lieutenant governor —Wm. II. Henderson and John Moore: 

State senator— Henry E. Dummer and James Gillam: 

Pepresentative in state legislature- John W. Pratt and .loshua P. Crow: 

Sherilf— John Savage and Thomas Plasters: 

Probate justice (or county judge)- Alexander Hoffman. Pobert (1. (Jaines^ 
Dr. Harvey Tate, Ezra J. Dutcii and John Richardson: 

County commissioner — Robert Deeper and Marcus Chandler: 

Clerk of the county court— William II. II. Carpenter, Oliver Friend, Isaac 
Pinage and J. ("irant: 

-- 134 - 

Coroner— Jolin Dewebber. Ricbard S. Cole and Josepli Iloskinson: 

The officers at this election were: 

Beardstown— Amos Atwater, A. S. Mille*, jNlcIveever E)eIIaven, judges: 
James C. Leonard and Edward R. Saunders, clerks: place of voting, tlie liouse 
formerly occupied bj' William E. Farrell: 

A'irginia— Alexander Naylor, James Daniel and Jesse 15. Pearce, judges: 
David Blair and F. S. D. Marshall, clerks; place of voting, the court house. 

Riclimond— Henry Dick. Otway B. Xance and John Hawthorn, judges: 
Ezekiel Friend and Samuel C. Lyon, clerks: place of voting, the house of John 

Bowen precinct— David Carr, Mirhael I'iersoi?, and .leremiah Bowen, 
judges: William Sevvall and John H. Hurd. clerks: place of voting, the liouse 
of Isham Reavis: 

Monroe- Henry McKean. John Shaifer and August Krobe, judges: Adam 
Ilagerman and Xicholas Summers, clerks: place of voting, the house of An- 
drew Williams. 

Sugar Grove James Garner. Elijah Cai'ver and Ellas Afattbew, judges: 
R. T. Roberts and Lewis Matthew, clerks: place of voting, tlie house of 
James (Tarner. 

The cut ire nu.mber of votes polled were oiil\- (l-iM. which would indicate 
but lit t le. if any growth in population for the |)revious four years. These 
vot.\s v\ere thus divided: Reardsl own. 1n7: X'irginia. 2.')7: Richmond, 119: 
Boweiis. 44: ^louioe. •';>: Sugar (irove. 2;t. Joseph Dutican received .'US votes 
and Tiiomas Ford ;5lH votes: Hein'y E. Dunner received ;!;>7 votes, and James 
(Jiham ;;.)T votes: .hjlin W. Pratt received 338 votes, and Joshua P. Crow .310 
votes: -John Savage received 343 votes, and Thomas Plasters 303 votes; Robert 
Lemper received .323 votes, and Marcus Chaiidler .319 votes: Alexander Huff- 
m;ni received 240 votes. Robert Ct. Gaines l.)S votes. Harvey Tate 153 votes, 
E/ra J. Dutch 37 votes and John Richardson 2S votes: W. IT. H. Carpenter 
recei\'ed :> ;l votes. ( )liver Friend 2:57 votes. Isaac Rinage is votes, and J. 
Grant 4 votes. 

Richard S. Cole received IS] votes, .lohn Deweber loi) votes, and Joseph 
Hdskinson '.»7 votes. 

Altlunigb the vvhi^s carried the election their majt)rily shrank from Kil 
in 1S3S down to 27 in 1S42. 

It should be borne in mind, that the three mile strii) had not yet been 
added to the county. 

The foll(n\itig list contains the names of voters at the election of ls42. 
which are not to l)e found on the poll books of ls37 or is;;s: 

Naimes of tKe Voters oi^ tS\e Beartistcwn List. 


n revvs, Phillip Alwater, Amos 


Brown, John Boy, Lewis, Buhnc, Henry II Britton, DaniPl 

Brown, David Bridgewater, Israel Berber, Jno Gottlieii Baker, Adolphus 

Brisbin.John Buclc, .James Broeekel, John Butterworth, Isham 

Bell, J,, ha B 


Cowen, Horace Carstnei-, Henry Collin.s, Thomas Cross, Abel 



Dragen, Lewis 
Dunn, John 

Desarme, Albert Dickel, Frederick 

Duchardt, John Banner, Wm 

Eyre, Thomas 

Dougherty, Wm 
DeHaven, McKeever 

Fudge, Jacob 

Fox, Christian 

Falconer, Enooh G 

Gorman, Joseph 
Gill, Jonathan 

Hoskinson, Joseph 

Gray, Dayld Grund, Phillip 

Gill, Andrew Gill, Richard 

Glover, George 

Hagor, Reuben Hope, James 

Hemminghouse, Hy W Hendricker Fi ederick 

Jewett, Oliver 
Kick, John 

Lambert, Wash 

Mitchell, G 
Menke, Augustus F 

Jones, Luther A 
Kelley, George 

Kuhl, Wm. 
Krohe, Adoloh 


Logan, Milton Lutz, Loren 

Leonard, James C 
Meyer, Henrv McKown, John 

Maine Loderick L Miller, Abrahams 


Nolte, George H 

Gray, Jesse 
Greshe, Daniel 

Harris, Joseph 

Kesterson, Richard 

Lasley, James M 

Marvin, Israel 

Powers, Michael 
Rohn, John H 

Smith, William 
Seeger, Henry 

Turpln, Virginus A 
Thompson, Wm 

Winner, Alex 

Powell, Richard 
Riggin, Mitchell 


Plattner, Andrew 

Riggin, Jesse 

Pip r, Lewis 
Robinson. Allen 

Schwartzkaupt, George 
Savage, James S 

Thompson, John 

Adkins, James 
Eyas, Jesse D 

Chandler, Thomas H 

Smith, Francis Shaffer, Christ 

Simmons, George Stock, Henry 

Stock. Thomas 
Tureman, George Thron, Valentine 

Treadwav, Wm Thompson, George B Treadway, Martin 

VanAlstine, Cornelius 
White, George Winhold, George Waddell, Wm 

Wedeking, Frederick 
Names of Voters on tKe R-icKmond List. 
Adkins, Wn Adcock. Irwin 

Bonney, Al Beard, John 

Brown, Vincent 


Comstock, Augustus Clark, John I 

Carmel, B I 
Douglass, Isaac P 

Briggs, Chas 

Chamberlain, Young 

Friend, John 
Fanchier, John 

Friend, Wm 
Friend, Ezekial 

Friend, Oliver 

Foxworthy, T A 



Goble, Joseph 

Goben, John 


Holland, Henry 

Hawthorne, Robt J 

Hicks, Ellis 

Hedricks, Chaa 

Hlckey, John 

Hefflin, Coleman B 

Harman, Benjamin 


Ingles, C F 

Ishmael, Wm 


Leeper.Wm D 

Lockaway, Robt 

Lane, Isaac 

Lane, Jacob 

Lane, Richmond 

Lewis, Ezekial 

Lyon, S C 

Meyers, Price W 

Morris, John 

Marcy, Moses 

Moore, John 


ince, B 

Richardson, Ebenezer 

Ray, Daniel jr 

Ray, Philander 

Rice, Richardson 

Robertson, Francis 

Reccord, John 

Rose, John 


Ray, Lewis 

Skilman, Wm 

Satton, M N 

Sutton, Nathan 

Sutton. Phenlx 

Skinner, Jno F 

Scholes, Francis 


Thomas, J B 


Underwood, Mason 

Names of Voters 

on t}\e Bowens 



Briar. Geo 

Briar, Jas 

Briar, Joseph 


Briar, Jas sr 

Cooper, Wm 

Cheetham, John 

Cole, Wm W 

Carter, Britton 

Horham, Leman 


Fielding, John 


George, Matthew 

Horliham, Hiram Horham, Benjamin Hiird.JohnA 

Jones, Runnels 

Lyonkiller, Phillip Logue, Wm Leonard, Samuel H 


Nichlon, John 

Pearson, Joseph 


Reed, .\dam 


Scott, Daniel 


Wagner, David 

Names of Voters on the Monroe List 

Addington, Sablrd 
Buxton, Peter 

Arnold, James 
Buck, Charlton 

Bee-sley. James L 


Hudson, Peter S 

Morgan, John 

Richatt, Chas 

Singer, Andrew- 
Smith, W H 

Thompson, Warren 


Grant, James L 
Hagerman, Adam 


King, William R 
LidgPt, William 


INIcCarthv, Dennis 

Peterson, William 

Ruby, Geo Rawlings, Greenbury Russel, Amasa 

Warren, Joseph 

Spalding, Lucius 
Summers, Nicholas 

Tureman, Leonard 

Williams, Alec E 



Shoopman, Jacob Springer, Harvey 

White, Ephraim 

Wigons, Thomas 

Allen, Andrew L 

Bridgewater. Zach 
Blair, David 

Church, T M 
Clay, Porter 
Clark, David 
Colwell. Patrick 
Cross, Jesse 

Dunbar, Joseph T 
Dye, Greenville 
Daniel, Paschal H 

Eaton, Joseph S 

Farrow, John 
Farrell, Wm E 

Names of tHe Voters on tl\e VirginLia List. 


Abby, Nelsoa H 

Ashlock, P N 

Beard, Martin 
Beard, John M 
Bailey, Alvin 

Cottrell, John A sr 
Craig, David 
Cook, Joseph 
Clark, Thomas C 
Crowder, Daniel 

Davis, John 
Davis, Thos M 
Davis, Elijah 

Elliot, David 

Freel, Charles 
Fielding, Edmund 

Bailey, Robert 
Buckley, ]Mark 

Conner, Geo 
Cavender, Daniel 
Cams, Asa 
Coggshall, Wm 

Brainard, Sylvester 
Buckley, John L 

Collins, John W 
Collin's, Thomas J 
Clark, Thos ir 
Clark, Thomas 

Daugherty, ^^ressby J Daugherty, Ralph 
Davis, Edward 
Daniel, James 

Elliott, Thomas 

Fre°l. John W 
Ferguson, William 

Dalson, James 

Eaton, David 
Free', Wesley II 


Hinchee, W H 
Haynes, Wm 
Havekluft, C H C 
Hoffman, Alex 

Isahm, Uriah 

Judd, Supplina 

Kerr, James A 

Lucas, Charles 

McElwee, John 
Miller, Allen 
M(;Kenzie, James 

Naylor, Wm 

O'Brien. Dennis 

Phelps, R J 


Gaines, Coleman 

Horn, Nathan F 
Hoyt, Stephen F 
,JIanijr, John W 
^Hil^gins, Martin F 

Inches, James 

Jackson, William 

Krohe, C F 

Leonard, W J 

Miller, Peter 
McClure, Joseph W 
Moore, J L 

Needham, James 

O'Brien. David 

Paschal, Coleman 

Russell, Thos 

Havekluft, Henry 
Horrom, Cyrus 
Holmes, Wm 



Jackson, James 

Kemper, J M 


Lane, Wm 


McClure, John 
Madden, P M 
Miller, John H 

Nelch, John 


O'Neal, Ilarvev 

Royse, Robt A 

Hayues, Geo 
Har well, E 
Haskell, John E 

Knowles, James 

Lee, Joseph 

McNeil, Lochlan 
Miller, Wm 
Marshall, F S D 

Naylor, Alex 

Richardson, esse J 


Rinage, Isaac 

Swift, RH 
Slack, Wm 
S. ribling, Isaac M 
CTSutton, Martin 
Scholes, Edward 
Samuel, Robert H 
Stevenson, Samuel 

Thompson, John 
Taylor, Robert 
Ta.ylor, John 
Taylor, Alex 

Williams, John 
Will ams, A K 
Whitmire, John 

Stockton, \lien 

Shirley, Wm 

Stribling, B F W 

Summers, Wm 

Stockton, G W 

Stone, Thos J 

Smith, Albertson 

Smith, Halsey 

Sims, V G 

Stevenson, J W 

Shaw, Samuel 

Schovley, M H L 

Samuel, James M 

Samples, Alex 

Samuel, George W 

Samuel, Andrew 

Stevenson, James 

Slack, John 

Samuel, Thos A 


Savage, John 

Thompson, Robert 

Thompson, David 

Taylor, Woodford 

Turner, W G 

Taylor, Arch 

Taylor, Duncan 

Taylor, Wm 

Taylor, Angus 

Trotter, David 

Tiger, Lewis 

Tegg, James 


Thornsbury, David 


lion, William 

Watkins, Lewis 

Webb, Timothy 

West, Amos C 

Ware. John 

Warren, Jas C sr 

Woodwa.d, Amos 

Wilson, Thomas 



ng, S las 

Names of tKe voters on Sugar Grove list: 


Akers, Peer Akers, William 

Foster, George W 


Hinehy, Reason M 

Lshatn. James J 


Lee, Stephen Leonard, John 


Neale, John M 


Roberts, R T 


Smith, Samuel Smith. Thomas Sloate, George 

Thomas, Richard S 

Weaver, George W Willson John 





I '!^ his Pioneer History of Illinois Go\. Reynolds classed as "pioneers'' onlj^ 
those who were inhabitants of Illinois before its admission to the Union 
in 1818. But the Old Settlere Association of Morgan and Cass counties, 
when organized, finding so few of that class of residents still living, extended 
the limit and considered all persons who resided in Morgan couuty prior to 
"the winter of the deep snow, 1830-31," as pioneers and eligible to member- 

By that latter standard William Holmes was a pioneer, as lie was an early 

settler in that part of Morgan now 
comprised in the county of Cass. 

His parents, John and Phebe 
(Doughert}) Holmes, of English de- 
scent, were natives of Connecticut, 
who, after their marriage, left the 
Nutmeg state, and crossing over the 
state line into New York settled on a 
small farm, eight miles from that 
line, near Clinton Corners in Duchess 
county. New Yorl<: of which Pough- 
keepsie is the county seat. They 
were members of tlie Society of 
Friends, commonly known as Quak- 
ers—as were their parents before 
them and in very moderate circum- 
stances financially. But they were 
young, strong and hopeful, and by 
industry and economy succeeded in 
life's only mission, the raising of a 
family. Of their eigiit children 
seven sons and one daughter William 
WILLIAM HOLMES. Holmes was the Hftii, born on the 7th 

of February, 17!)!>. Thus, as he often facetiously remarked, he came within 
eight miles of being a native born Yankee 

His boyhood was uneventful as that of most boys brought up in the rura^ 
districts of a region not remarkable for fertility of soil or other natural 
sources of wealth. When old enough he was assigned his share of tlie farm 


work durino- tiie farming seasons, and was sent to tlie district school in tlie 
winters. lie early manifested a marked dislilce for the routine drudgery of 
the farm, and a marked predilection for books and study, in which he made 
rapid progress. Seeing the boy's bent of mind, his father very sensibly en- 
couraged his thirst for knowledge, and assisted him in his efforts to acquire 
education, so far as his limited means would permit. When a grown up 
young man, and still eager for learning, he entered the academy at Pough- 
keepsie. on the Hudson river, and was there a diligent student for two or 
three terms. His parents fondly hoped, and expected, that he would confine 
his attention to the course of studies that would tit him for the Quaker 
ministry. But though very partial to the Quaker faith in which lie had been 
reared, he felt but little interest in the study of theology, prefering to ([ual- 
ify himself for a more active and practical business calling than that of the 
church. His ruling talent was mathematics, in which he gained great pro- 
ticiency, easily mastering the most intricate problems of higher arithmetic, 
algebra, geometry and surveying. 

About tliat time the people of the older eastern states were becoming 
stirred up with intense interest in the rapidly developing voung states of the 
far west, particularly Illinois and Indiana, which had escaped the incubus of 
slavery, and were represented as offering the most tempting opportunities for 
success and advancement in every path of life. A fiu'or to emigrate to the 
\ve^t |)revailed similar to that occurring in lS49-'50, upon the discovery of gold 
ill ('alironiia. Among others, young Holmes — who was well aware that upon 
his own unaided exertions must depend success in his future career— was 
sci/.cd witii an irresi.->tible desire to try his chances in that new and promis- 
ing li.'UI. 

AMli()U)^h it was intimated to him i)y the trustees of tlie academy that if 
lie remained there until his graduation he would be appointed one of the 
faculty and given the position of instructor in the department of astronomy 
and matlieinatics, he declined tlie offer, partly because of his impatience to 
coiiuiience his western journey, but cliielly from lack of funds to continue his 
St iidies. P.idding adieu to t he old homestead and its irunates he set out into 
the broad open world with all the earthly goods he possessed in a Ijiindle car- 
ried on a stick over his shoulder. Going down the Hudson river he landed at 
llackensack in Bergen county, New .Jersey, and from there proceeded afoot 
to Paterson, in Pasaic county, and in that neighborhood secured employment 
as teaclier of a country school. He taught there two or three terms, and, 
with the wages he earned, started on his way to the setting sun. He passed 
through New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and by tlatboat from Brownsville, on 
the Monongahela, floated down that stream and the Ohio to Henderson, in 
Iveiitucky, where only the width of the river separated him from the long 
wished for promised land. 

Crossing the river he found that he was in Posey county, Indiana, a 
stranger in a strange land, with cash capital exhausted, but in sound health 
and good spirits. His first move was to look around for employment, which 
he .soon obtained as teacher of a country school a few miles from the town of 
Mt. Vernon. The marshy, mosciuito-infested Hats and poor post oak ridges 
of Posey county, where fever and ague and milk sickness were the principal 
products, and coonskins and hoop poles passed as legal tender and were the 

- 141 - 

chief articles of commerce and export, fell far short of realizing Mr. Holmes' 
high ideals of the great west. He was disappointed and discouraged, and 
concluded if that was a fan- sample of Indiana and its adjoining states, the 
best thing he could do would be to worli: his way to New York and stay there. 
But poverty compelled him to continue for sometime at his task In order to 
earn money enough to enable him to get away. While debating this matter 
in his own mind he heard of a man named Henry Hopkins who came, with 
his family, from Kentucky, and after trying Indiana awhile, had pushed on 
to the Sangamon country in Illinois, where, it was reported, he had found the 
garden spot of the world. Those reports revived Mr. Holmes' Hagging hopes 
and caused him to change his plans. Instead of returning home a poverty- 
stricken failure he determined to go on into Illinois, as soon as he could, and 
share with Mr. Hopkins the paradise he was said to have discovered. 

In the midst of Mr. Holmes' last term of teaching another Kentuckian> 
named Joseph McDonald, came into that neighborhood, with two or three 
teams and a large family of grown sons and daughters, looking for a new 
location in which to enter land and settle himself and children. In a short 
time the young teacher became well acquainted with the new comers, par- 
ticularly with one of the boys named John McDonald, who was about of his 
own age, and his sister, Polly, a year or so younger. The old gentleman was 
not pleased with the outlook for a permanent home in that part of Indiana: 
the soil was too poor, and there was too much ague and milk sickness: so, he 
thought, he would go on farther up and look at the White river country 
But when Mr. Holmes told him of the accounts received froui Mr. Hopkins of 
the Sangamon region in Illinois, and of his own intention of going there wlien 
that term of his school expired, Mr. McDonald came to the conclusion lie 
would remain there until he heard from him. 

When Mr. Holmes finally dismissed his school he lost no tiir,e in getting 
out of Posey county and going into Illinois in search of Henry Hopkins. 
What method of traveling he adopted is not now known: but most probal)ly 
he made the journey on horseback. Mr. Hopkins came from Indian;! to the 
northern part of Morgan county in the early spring of 1825, and passed the 
first season near the town of Princeton, moving from there the next winter 
to Sugar Grove where he took up a claim and built a cabin in which himself 
and family resided for many years. On his arrival here in the spring of 182(i, 
Mr. Holmes stopped for a few weeks with Sam Sinclair who had made a clear- 
ing not far from where the Centenary church, in Oregon precinct, now 
stands. He immediately wrote to Mr. McDonald that though the report of 
Mr. Hopkins regarding the Sangamon country, received in Indiana, seemed 
very extravagant, he had not told the half of its grandeur, fertility and 
beauty, and advised Mr. McDonald to come on at once— which he did. 

Viewing the country over, with its few scattered settlers, and its line tim- 
ber and water courses, and its grand prairies of exceedingly productive soil, 
Mr. Holmes saw here the elements of vast future wealth. And he also saw 
that the only industry a person without capital could engage in with prospect 
of success was agriculture and gradual acquisiton of land. Farming on the 
rocky clay hills of New York had been very distasteful to him; but here neces- 
sity together witli the certain generous rewards of labor quickly changed his 
youthful disposition, and there not yet being children enough in a township 


to make up a scliool— he made up his mind to ''lay a claim and make a clear 
ing." In that resolve he was strongly encouraged by all the settlers he con- 
sulted. He was received into the Hopkins family as a boarder and lodger, and 
taking up a claim adjoining that of Mr. Hopkins on the west, resolutely went 
to work at cutting away the trees and brush, grubbing up the stumps, and 

Josepii McDonald received the Horid letter of Mr. Holmes, in due time, 
and the next day left the state of Indiana, with his family and teams, with 
tlieir faces set to the west. There was no loitering or waste of time on tlie 
way, and in the course of ten or twelve days the McDonald cavalcade hove in 
sight and rounded to in the prairie grass at the edge of Sugar Grove. Rest- 
ing there a little while, to look around and take his bearings, Mr. McDonald 
decided to move his camp two miles farther east and settle down in Panther 
Grove, where he and his boys right away built a cabin and broke up a patch 
of sod and planted it in corn and garden truck. The records show that on 
the 5tli of June, 182i), Jos. McDonald entered the e\ of the nwj of Sec. 11 in 
T. 17. R. 9, eighty acres. Tliere he and his sons passed the winter in chop- 
ping, clearing, grubbing, making rails, and preparing for making and burn- 
ing bricks early the next spring for building a house. And in tlie eany sum- 
mer of tiie next year, 1827, the brick house was built, and, still in sound con 
dition and good repair, with the tine farm upon which it stands, belongs to 
the granddaughter of Joseph McDonald, Mrs. Wm. Barkley, of this city. 

That brick house— the first one built between Beardstown and Spring- 
lit.'ld, with the possible exception of the residence of Archibald Job at Sylvan 
(Jrove— possessed a peculiar attraction for William Holmes. He often spent 
the evening there after plowing all day with a wooden mold-board plow 
drawn by two or three yokes of oxen, and wasthereSundays whether there was 
pleaching in the neighborhood or not. By force of example, or perhaps other 
motive, lie too built a house that summer on his claim; but not of bricks. It 
was a very modest log cabin situated a little north of the (present) old Cun- 
ningham burying ground about a quarter of a mile west of the Hopkins cabin. 
In those pioneer days in Illinois old maids were very scarce, as the paramount 
duty of life impressed upon the daughters, after tl)eir graduation in the arts 
of cooking, spinning, weaving, etc., was to get married. Miss Mary Mc- 
Donald— "Polly," for short— was occasionally reminded of thisduty by precept 
and example, her sisters being soon married and gone, while she, born in Ken- 
tucky on September 7, 1802. nearing the quarter century mark in age, was 
still single. But in William Holmes she recognized her natural affinity, and, 
having his cabin ready and his crop gathered, they were married in lier 
father's new house, on the 7tli cf December, 1827. 

The appearance of several speculators, known in those days as "land 
sharks," who came into the frontier settlements with the annual stream of 
immigrants, with money to enter settler's improvements on government 
land, early warned Hopkins and Holmes that they had better not delay too 
long the securing of legal titles to their homes from the land office. Conse- 
quently, they hustled around, and by scraping together all the money they 
jointly had, and borrowing more, they succeeded in raising the necessary $20o, 
when INIr. Holmes went to the land office at ^pringfleld and there, on Septem- 
ber 1.). lS2(i, entered two eighties, the sw]- of Sec. .5, in T. 17. IL !•. comprising 

- 143 - 

botli tlieir claims. Tliat success seems to liave developed in Mr. Holmes a 
greed for the acquisition of more land. Late that fall he again visited the 
land office and, on the 9th of November, (1826), lie entered the eighty acres 
adjoining his tirst entry on the west, (the e.} of sei of Sec. 6, in T. 17, R. 9,) 
which he sold to Thomas Cunningham in 1851. On November 30th, 1829, he 
entered another eighty acres— the w.^ of the sej of S. 31, T. 18, R. 9— a mile or 
more northwest of his first clearing, upon which he built the frame house 
into which he moved, where he and his wife passed the remainder of their 
lives and died. A short time after that last entry, on December 29, 1829, he 
executed a deed to Mr. Hopkins for ninety acres that included the original 
Hopkins claim of eighty acres and ten acres of his own upon which he had 
tirst squatted and built his cabin; and some years later sold Mr. Hopkins the 
remaining seventy acres of that quarter section. 

After Mr. Holmes had removed to his new home, in North Grove, yield- 
ing to the persuasion of his neighbors, he taught two or three winter schools 
for the benefit of the rising generation, which was rapidly increasing in num- 
bers by the constant infiux of settlers His first school- in 1831, the next 
winter after the deep snow— was taught in the house of Stephen Lee, (whose 
wife was Mrs. Holmes' sister), at the eastern border of Sugar Grove, suhse- 
quently known as the "Trotter place;'' and he later converted liis deserted 
cabin, west of the Hopkins house, into a schoolroom and "wielded the birch" 
there. Mrs. Jas. Cunningiiam was one of his scholars, and says in all her 
school days she had no better teacher. Wm. H. Lee, another of his first 
Sugar Grove pupils, writing from Rose Hill, 111., on September 13, 19(>r), says: 
"Mr. Holmes was an excellent teacher, but most too kind-hearted to en- 
force good discipline. 

"When a big boy was more than usually unruly Mr. Holmes would ;issume 
a fierce look and rush out to a liazel thicket near tlie house and bi'eak off a 
stout switch or t wo and come in trimming otf the twigs and dead leaves. l>y 
that time he would find the boy badly scared and crying, then going to him 
would pat him on the head and speak kindly to him and in the meaiitnne 
break his switches in pieces and throw them in the fire. He was never known 
to whip one of us." 

In those days Mr. Holmes also did considerable land surveying for his 
neighbors, as much for accommodation as lor pay. and his work in that line 
was always carefully and accurately done. 

He took no part in the RIackhawk war of 18;52. as by liis Quaker faith and 
training he was a non-combatant in principle and opposed to war upon any 
pretext. Naturally of kind and gentle nature, lie was, in fact, a negative 
man with no aggressive or obtrusive force of character, preferring a life of 
(juiet obscurity and slavish toil, and slow but certain acciuisition of wealth. 
INIrs Holmes was his counterpart in active industry, economy and frugality, 
with only occasional help she did all the household work extending toa watch- 
ful care of the poultry, the fruits and the garden. Their style of living and 
dress was rigidly plain, and their only recreation was attending periodical 
preaching, and visiting neiglil)ors and relatives. Tlie gains of their thrifty 
management invested in adjoining lands amounted with the passing of vears 
to over sixteen hundred acres. Their home, though plain and simply fur- 
nished, wasalwaysthe abode of cordial and liberal hospitality. All who came 


met a sincere vvflconie and were pleasantly entertained as lon^^ as they chose 
to stay. 

In 183(), party lines had become well defined in Illinois. Tiie whig-s were 
greatly strengtliened by President .Tackson's strenuous exercise of the veto 
power, and the democrats carried tlie state for VanBuren, that fall, by only 
2983 majority. IVIr. Holmes was a whig-— perhaps because his friends and 
neighbors, the McDonald's, Honry Hopkins and Archibald .lob, were whigs. 
Or. it may be, that his fatlier, .John Holmes, was a whig, as the majority of 
men inherit politics from their father and religion— if they have any— from 
their mother. Let that be as it may, in 18:5(i, lie voted for Daniel Webster 
for the presidency in opposition to Martin VanHuren, and voted the straight 
whig ticket for state and local officers. Agitation of the movement, irrespect- 
ive of party lines, for creating anew county from the nortliern part of Mor- 
gan county started at Beardstown a year or two before, in 1836, assumed def- 
inite form and was made, in a manner, an issue in the territory interested 
for election of representatives in the legislature. Mr. Holmes took quite an 
active part in the state elections tiiat year, particularly for the election of 
Wm. Thomas to tlie state senate, and Newton Cloud and .lohn .1. Hardin to 
tlie lower liouse, all three whigs and his personal friends. 

That legislature, chosen in August, 183(i, passed the bill for organizing 
Cass county, which was approved by Governor Duncan on ^March .3, 1837. 
And it was that same legislature that enacted the famous internal improve- 
ment scheme which three years later collapsed leaving the state over $14,009- 
000 in debt with practically nothing to show for it. 

The county of Cass having been formed, an election was held, on the Tth 
(lay of the following August, for officers to put its legal machinery in motion, 
vvhifli resulted in the election of .John S. ^^'ilbourne. for probate judge: Lem- 
cti Plaster, sheriff: John W. Pratt, county clerk: X. B. Thompson, recorder: 
Joshua P. Crow Amos l^onney and (reorge F. Miller, county commissioners: 
William Holmes, county surveyor, and Halsey Smith, coroner. Mr. Holmes' 
opponent in the race for sui'\eyoi' was Wm. Clark whom he defeated by (i7 

Before that general election l^eaidstown, even that early, jealous of 
Dr. Hall's new town in the prairie. N'irginia. in order to steal a marcli upon 
it, or perhaps misconstruing the organic county law, called a special election 
of its own on the first day of July and, all alone, elected Thomas Wilbourn. 
to represent the county in the legislature. But tiiat scheme was too pre- 
mature. At the special session of the tenth general assembly, that met at 
Yandalia on the 10th. of July, Capt. Wilbourn was present and Hon. P. S. 
Walker presented his Beardstown credentials, which were referred to the 
committee on elections. The House Journal of July 12. 183!i. states: 

'•Mr. Shields (Genl. James Shields), from the committee on elections to 
which had been referred the poll book and return of an election for a 
representative in the legislature from the county of Cass reported, 
that the county of Cass was formed out of the county of Morgan by an 
Act passed during the last session of the general assembly, and organized ac- 
cording to the provisions of the same: that at an election held at Beardstown. 
in said county, on the first day of July last, Thomas Wilbourn was elected to 
represent said county in the legislature of this state. i;y referring to the 

-" 145 - 

seveiitli section of tlie Act above mentioned, the only section bearing directly 
upon this subject, we find the following- provisions: "Incase said county of 
Cass shall be created under provisions of this Act, then, until the next appor- 
tionment of senators and representatives to the general assembly, the said 
county shall be entitled to one representative to tlie general assembly, and 
shall at the next election vote with the county of Morgan for one senator, and 
the county of Morgan shall be entitled to five representatives and two sena- 
tors." By the last apportionment the county of Morgan was entitled to six 
representatives and three senators, and it is clear that whatever disposi- 
tion its citizens may choose to make of their county, and into whatever num- 
ber of distinct counties they may choose to partition its territory, they cannot 
expect to increase their proportion of representation until the next general 
apportionment, whatever quantum therefore of representation is given to 
Cass must be deducted from Morgan. It then remained to consider, wliether 
the new county was entitled to elect its own representatives at the time above 
stated, and then supply the place of a member of the Morgan delegation who 
had previously resigned. The Act above referred to was approved the third 
of March last, and provides that Cass shall be entitled to one representative, 
and shall at the next election vote with the county of Morgan for one senator. 
Tills evidently means the next general election; that contemplated by ttie 
second section of the second article of our state constitution, and could 
bear no reference to a special election for a specific purpose, such astliat 
which has lately occurred in Morgan county to till tlie vacancy occasioned bv 
the resignation of one of its members, Stephen A. Douglas. This will appear 
still more obvious if we consider that had no vacancy occurred this question 
could not have arisen, and the representative who had been elected to till 
such vacancy stands upon the same ground occupied by his predecessor previous 
to his resignation. Besides, the members of the present delegation from the 
county of Morgan were not elected by the present county of ^Morgan, but by 
the counties of Morgan and Cass, and are consequently not the representatives 
of the county ot Morgan: but of the present counties of Morgan and Cass: 
thus the citizens of the new county of Cass cannot justly complain that they 
are left unrepresented. Your committee, therefore, unanimously conclude 
that the new county of Cass is not entitled to a separate representative, and 
that the election held as above stated was wholly null and void." 

The rtrst convention for nominating party candidates for state offices in 
Illinois was held by democratic delegates, at Vandalia, on tlie 4th of Decem- 
ber. 18;57, when Col. J as. W. Stephenson, of (ralena, was nominated for gov- 
ernor, and John S. Hacker for lieutenant governor. Upon discovery that Col. 
Stephenson was a defaulter, as receiver of the land office, in the sum of $.'58,- 
()(»(). the ticket was retired, and the same delegates again met. at \'andalia. 
on June Kith, 183S, and nominated a new ticket with Thomas Carl in in place 
of Col. Stephenson, and Stinson H. Anderson in place of Hacker. The whigs 
held no convention, but agreed upon Cyrus Edwards for governor, and A¥m. 
II. Davidson for lieutenant governor. Neither party held conventions for 
nominating local otTicers, leaving it free for all. in the counties, who chose to 


Tlie next general state election was held on the (ith of August, 1838. It 
w;is the lirst gencrnl election for ('ass county, and as a test of its party com- 


ple X ion proved the whigs to be in control. The^' cast for Edwards, for gov- 
ernor, 335 votes, and for Carlin 188. For congress John T. Stuart received 
220 votes and Steplien A. Douglas 214. For state senator Wm. Thomas 27(;, 
and Josiah Lamborn252. There were three candidates for representative in 
the legislature: Thomas Beard, Henry McKean—both democrats— and 
Wm. Holmes, a whig, who was elected receiving 208 votes to l!)S for Beard, 
and 111 for McKean. At that election Carlin was elected governor by the 
slender majority of 996, and John T. Stuart, a whig, beat Stephen A. Douglas, 
for Congress just 11 votes. 

The eleventh legislature in which iVIr. Holmes served as Cass county's 
first representative, met at Vandalia on the 3rd of December, 183.S, with a 
whig majority in both houses. Of the 91 members of the House 16 were 
whigs, 10 democrats, and 5 were independents. In its organization Abraham 
Lincoln, of Sangamon— who evidently had not yet attained his apotheosis- 
was presented as the whig candidate for speaker and was opposed by the can- 
didate of the democrats, Genl. W. L. D. Evving. Though the whigs had a 
majority of one over the combined vote of the democrats and independents, 
on the fourth ballot Genl. Ewing was elected having received 13 votes to 38 
for Lincoln. Personally, Mr. Holmes disliked Lincoln and had no faith in 
him: but, moved by party zeal, or fear of the party lash, he voted for him on 
all four of the ballots. In that legislature Wm. Thomas was the senator 
jointly for Morgan, Cass and Scott counties. He resigned on March 1th, 1839, 
to accept the circuit judgeship, and Wm. L. Sergeant was elected in his 
place. ^Morgan county had two other senators beside Thomas, and five rep- 
resentatives— Newton Cloud, Wm. Gilham, Wm. W. Happy, John J. Hardin 
and John Henry. In the standing committee assignments the democratic 
speaker complimented Mr. Holmes by appointing him chairman of the com- 
mittee on Public Buildings and Grounds. 

Already the people had become alarmed at tlie enormous public debt ac- 
cumulating by sale of state bonds for constructing the wild scheme of intern- 
al improvements originated by the last legislature, and were clamoring for its 
curtaihnent or repeal. But, instead of so doing, the eleventh general as- 
sembly increased the state's indebtedness by authorizing an additional issue 
of $1,000,000 of bonds in aid of the canal, and over $11,000,000 more for building 
new railroads and for improvement of river navigation. >rr. Hohues voted 
for those measures in obedience to party dictation, but at no time an en- 
thusiastic supporter of the visionary folly, he would have much piel'erred to 
vote for its immediate abandonment. 

He was a very attentive member: never absent, very watchful of evei'v- 
thing transpiring, busy in presenting petitions and serving on special com- 
mittees: but took no part in discussions or acrimonious political debates that 
fritted away two-thirds of the session. He voted for Mr. Lincoln's proposi- 
tion 10 issue state bonds for the purchase of all the public lands within the 
state from the general government (20,000,000 acres) at 2') cents per acre— 
which, of course, resulted in nothing. He also voted for the successful bills 
to supply the supreme court with a library: to incorporate the Chicago Lyce- 
um: to establish the deaf and dumb asylum at Jacksonville: to require the 
governor to reside at the state capital, and to prohibit the banks issuing 
notes of less than Hve dollars denomination. The legislature the last one;to 

- 147 - 

meet at V anda I i a— adjourned on the 4th of March, IS.'iD, and the capitol of 
tlie state was removed to Sprhigfleld on the 4th of the following July. One 
of the last acts of that session was to pass a bill— -approved by Gov. Carlin. 
March 2, 18.39— introduced by Mr. Holmes, providing that, Beardstown hav- 
ing failed to comply with the conditions specified in the Acts of March ;> and 
July 18th, 1837,— to erect a court house and jail there free of cost to the 
county— "the county seat of Cass county shall be fixed at Virginia, in said 
county, upon the same conditions it was ottered to Beardstown." 

The citizens of Virginia accepted the conditions with alacrity, and Dr. 
Hall at once proposed to build a court house and jail if the county would re- 
convey to him the fifteen acres of "Public Grounds"' he had donated to it 
when he laid out the town: and his proposition was immediately accepted by 
the county commissioners. Mr. Holmes then, employed by Dr. Hall, sur- 
veyed the "Grounds'" and platted them into lots, streets and alleys, together 
with an addition made thereto by Dr. Hall, and marking off the public 
square he drove a stal<e down in its center as the spot where the court house 
should be built, and Dr. Hall built it there accordingly. The completed phu 
was filed by Mr. Holmes on tiie 18th of June, 18;W. 

Before adjoununent of the legislature Gov. Carlin appointed Ex-Gov. 
Tveynolds and C. S. Senator Kichard M. Young special commisssoners to sell 
state bonds in our eastern cities and in England. Those distit)guished g- ntle- 
men thereupon went to Europe on a junketing excursion at the state's ex- 
pense, taking along two of the state fund commissioners. Col. Oakit\v and 
Genl. Rawlings, and the four together disposed of the bonds to sharpeis ;iiid 
bankrupts resulting in loss to tlie state of nearly a million of dollars. \',y 
that time with tlie state's credit exhausted, a friglitful waste of public mon- 
ey on all sides, the public debt ran up to over *14,(»00,0i)0, and scarcely an.\ - 
thing accomplished, the bank's suspension of specie payment, their ciirrency. 
as well as state bonds, woefully depreciated, followed by distressing shrink- 
age of all property values, the people, disgusted and panic stricken, demanded 
abandonment of the ruinous folly. 

Governor Carlin awoke to the gravity of the situation, and called the leg- 
islature togetlier again in special session. It met at Springfield on December 
9, 18;W. As the new statehouse was not finished the senate met in the Metho- 
dist churcli, the house in the newly built Second Presbyterian church 
and the supreme court in the Protestant Episcopal building During 
tJiat called session, wliich adjourned on tiie ;}rd of February, 1840. ail 
internal improvements, with exception of tlie Illinois and Michigan canal and 
the railroad from Meredosia to Springfield, nearly completed, were abandoned; 
all laborers and surplus officials discharged, and a general .settlement and 
reckoning made that showed the state to be on the very edge of bankruptcy. 
Though Mr. Holmes made no speeches in favor of the retrenchment measures 
he gave them his earnest support. At tliat session a resolution was adopted 
ordering an investigation of the atTairs of tlie the three commissioners ap- 
pointed before for superintending the building of the state liouse, one of 
wliom was Mr. Holmes' friend and neighbor, Archibald Job, which ultimately 
resulted in his retirement. In the famous "coon-skin and hard cider" cam- 
paign of tlie Whigs in 1840— the most exciting and sensational political contest 
in tlie history of Illinois -Mr. Holmes took a very conspicuous part: but 


thougli TIan-isou and Tyler were elected president and vice-president by the 
Whigs in November, the democrats at the same election carried Illinois for 
Van Buren by a majority of li)39, and at the state election on August 2nd 
they elected a majority of both branches of the legislature. After that cam- 
paign Mr. Holmes' interest in politics gradually declined, yet, he retained his 
prominence in the waning Whig party for some years longer, but paid less and 
less attention to public affairs, and applied himself more closely to his own in- 
terest. On the subject of slavery he was very conservative, emphatically op- 
posed to the extension of the institution in the territories, and equally op- 
posed to congressional interference with it where it already existed, believing 
that gradual emancipation by the agency and wisdom of the southern people 
themselves was the probable, and only logical, solution of the question. 

He held John J. Hardin in high esteem, and was quite an admirer of 
Stephen A. Douglas personally; but never could discover in Abraham Lincoln 
- whom he styled a "vulgar buffoon''— any element of greatness, or more than 
ordinary ability. At the congressional election of 1846 in this, the then 7th 
district, Mr. Flolmes voted the Wliig ticket excepting for congress, casting 
his vote for his friend Rev, Peter Cartwright, the democratic candidate, 
against Lincoln the Whig nominee. 

For this act of party treason— as the whigs termed it— Mr. Holmes was 
severely censured by his party in Cass county. In a communication to the 
Jacksonville Journal, written at the time, presumably by Ricliard S. Thomas, 
of Virginia, Mr. Holmes' defection was criticized in scathing and abusive 
terms: and in order to fully convey the writer's indignation he harl >rr. 
Holmes' name name oecuring in it printed in type upside down. 

In 18+8 Mr. Holmes, though not highly impressed with tiie tittness of 
(Jeiil. Taylor for the p-esidency. was still loyal to the whig party, and contin- 
ued so until 185(). When he saw, at the Bloomington convention, on the 2fith 
of May of that year, the whigs of Illinois coalesce with the anti-Douglas dem- 
ocrats and organize the republican party; and saw John C. Freemont, the 
hare-brained apostle of abolitionism, enter the Held for the presidency bearing 
a thirteen-star flag, with a sectional following— nine-tentlis of whom were old- 
line whigs— who at the November election gave him Ih") electoral votes, he 
joined the democrats in support of Buchanan, and voted the (leu)ocratic ticket 
the balance of his life, but took no further active part in politics. 

Mr. Holmes was eminently a good man. With conscientious honor and 
probity of character; in kindness, benevolence and charity, purity of moral 
life, and a mild, affable disposition, he possessed in high degree all personal 
traits and characteristics of the best type of what is understood by the term 
"Cln-istian gentleman."' His habits were most exemplary. He probably never 
tasted liquor of any kind, never used tobacco in any form, and never expressed 
himself iti coarse, profane, obscene or vulgar language. Though not a nieml)er 
of any secret society, he always willingly accommodated fi-Jends and neigh- 
bors, and did all lie could to relieve distress and sutt'eriiig. and assist the [kh)v 
and needy. 

He is said to have been (juite spruce and good-looking in his younger days: 
then five feet eight inches tall, with black hair and eyes, pleasant expression 
of face and very agreeable address and maiu)ers. His feelings and emotions 
were of devotional cast in I'eady syin|intliy with sacred service or music. lie 

- 14Q - 

was naturally a religiousi man. with true Quaker humility and kindly regard 
for his fellow men. Had the Society of Friends had an organization here lie would 
doubtless have been one of its most steadfast members. Mrs. Holmes joined 
tlie Metliodist church in her early girlhood, and lived and died in that faith, 
a sincere practical, as well as theoretical, cln'istian. Before religious denomi- 
nations liere were strong enough to build houses for worship, Peter Cart- 
wright, and other Methodist ministers, occasionlly held services and preached 
at the Holmes farm for assembled settlers of tlie neighborhood. By request 
and invitation of Mrs. Holmes a two-days' meeting was held there in the sum- 
mer of 1852, during wliich Mr. Holmes was formally admitted into the INIetho- 
dist church. In 1S54 a Methodist camp ground was established in the grove 
just south of his liouse, and was largely attended for three or four weeks. The 
meeting was held again the next year with greatly increased attendance. 
With tlieir customary prodigal hospitality Mr. and Mrs. Holmes invited and 
pressed all who came to the camp meeting to eat at their table, and to feed 
their horses during tlieir stay from their crib and oats and )iav stacks, and to 
use at will their stables and pastures. Noticing the general acceptance of 
that invitation by the crowd- in fact the outrageous imposition upon tlie gcMi- 
osity of brother and sister Holmes, the managers of the camp meeting, very 
considerately for their welfare, closed and moved it away after the second 

The Methodist church of the United States divided upon the (piestion of 
African slavery in 1844-: and on May 1, 1845, the Methodist Episcopal chuicli. 
South, was organized as a distinct denomination by a convention or confeieiK-(> 
of delegatesheld for the purpose at Louisville, Kentucky. Mrs. Holmes, a native 
of Kentucky, was always much attached to the customs and institutions of 
the south, particularly those of her native state. She believed -as also did 
Mr. Holmes— that the schism in the church was altogether due to the meddle- 
some interference of northern abolitionists in southern domestic affairs that 
did not concern tliem, and they would gladly have transferred their member- 
ship to tlie southern branch of tlie church if they could have done so. When 
therefore, in 185(5, agitation of the slavery question had become so frenzied as 
to leave no neutral position, and the Methodist church, Xorth, pronounced in 
unequivocal terms in favor of abolition of slavery, Mr. and Mrs. Holmes could 
tolerate it no longer. They did not formally withdraw from the church by 
letter, but simply abandoned it, attended no more of its meetings and con- 
tributed nothing more for its support. 

None of Mr. Holmes' brothers followed him to Illinois, but his sister, with 
lier husband, X. B. Beers, came to Virginia in 183—, and resided here until 
her death, which occurred on the 9th of March. 1872. leaving two daughters. 

.Joseph McDonald, the father-in-law of William Holmes, was a native of 
Washington county, Kentucky: he was the father of six sons and five daugh- 
ters: William, Frederick. Joseph, Bicliard, .Jonas, .Tolin, Sarah Thompson, 
Nancy Slack, Elizabeth Lee, Priscilla Gaines and Mary Holmes. The second 
and third sons were never married: the daughter, Sarah Thompson, re- 
mained in tlie state of Kentucky. 

Two children were bora to Mr. and Mrs. Holmes. The first, Xancy P., 
was born on December 7, 1828; was married to James R. Miles, of Indiana, a 
Metliodist minister and farmer, and died at Chandlerville. 111., on the .".0th of 


April, l!)02, survived by tliree sons and two daughters. 

The second child, John J., was born May 1, 183;}, was educated at the 
neighboring country scliools, married Miss Anna Mary Dunaway, and in IS— 
removed to Tecumseli, Xebrasl<a. with liis family, and there died on tlie 1st of 
January, 1894. 

In 1808 Mr. Holmes transferred tlie management of liis estate and business 
to his son, John, and passed the remainder of his days in <iuiet retirement at 
liis old homestead. 

Mrs. Holmes died tliere on June l!», isTl. aged (;<» years,!' months and 7 
days, and was laid to rest in the little family burying ground, a short distance 
south of the liouse. After six and a lialf lonely years Mr. Holmes followed 
her, breathing liis last on the 18th of January, 1S78, at the age of 78 years, 11 
months and 11 days, and was buried by her side. Subsequently their daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Nancy Miles, caused their remains to be removed to her burial lot in 
the Virginia cemetery. 


EYEPiY intelligent man raising a familj' of children should leave for 
them at his death— or before— an account of his ancestral history, oi" 
genealogy, so far as he can ascertain it, and a sketch of his own bi" 
ography. Not that American genealogies are of any material or financial 
value: but because it is to all persons of education and culture very satisfac- 
tory to know from what stock they descended, what sort of people their fore- 
fathers were, and what their parents did iu their day and generation. Dr. 
bchooley neglected that duty— as indeed a large majority of our people do— 

and consequently very little is now 
' ^ known of his lineage, and of his early 

j life. 

He was born of Quaker parents at, 
j or near, Leesburg, in Loudown coun- 
ty. Virginia, on the 12th of December, 
1S12. Of his father's vocation, or his 
station in society, nothing is now 
I known. Some, if not all, of the fam- 
} ily migrated from Virginia to southern 
; Ohio, as the records show that young 
j Mahlon H. L. Schooley taught a coun- 
try school in 1835-'36 at, or near, Lex- 
ington, in Highland county in that 
state, and, while teaching there he 
boarded, and made his home with liis 
sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Johnson, wlio. 
no doubt preceded him there. And, 
from the fact that he taught school, 
I it must be inferred that he had 
I either in \'irginia or Ohio, ac(iuired a 
fail' common school education. An- 
DI{. -M. H. L. SCHOOLEY. other plausible inference is. that not 

being backed by much ready capital, or broad manorial estates, and sensible 
of tlie fact that he must depend upon his own etfoi'ts and resources to make 
his way tbrougli the world, and perhaps not greatly fancying school-teaching, 
for a life avocation, lie concluded to strike out for a newer country where lie 
might have better chances to "catcli dame Fortune's golden smile." At any 
rate, he came 1c Jll'nois t-"^ look it over, and. if it fulfilled his expectations, to 


sta.v and become a part of \t. 

In the spring of 1837 it was, he one day walked the gang plank from a 
little steamboat at Beardst own, and landed in that town in good healtli, 
strong and hopeful, but dead broke, and a total stranger in a strange land. 
He found the citizens there in great glee and rejoicing over the passing of an 
Act, a montli before, by the state legislature creating the county of Cass, in 
which Beardstown was designated as its county seat. But he was then in no 
mood to feel much interest in the organization of a new county, as he re- 
garded the bread and meat (luestion a mucli more important matter. On the 
way up the Illinois river lie had frankly told the captain of the boat that pay- 
ing for his passage to Beardstown entirely exiiausted his funds, and that lie 
would have to look for immediate employment to tide him over until lie 
found an opening for permanent occupation. 

That steamboat captain happened to be a kind, sympathetic man. and 
knowing Doctor Chandler, who had landed from that same boat at Beards- 
town five years before, and knowing how he was flourishing at the Panther 
Creek settlement- as it was then called -up the Sangamon Bottom, advised 
young Scliooley to go up there and seek the Doctor's advice. When told 
what manner of man Dr. Chandler was, and tlie magnificence of the Sanga- 
mon l-)Ottom where he was located, the young man concluded to act upon the 
captairrs suggestion at once; and set out, afoot, upon the journey that same 
afternoon, carrying all his eartlily possessions in an old-fashioned carpet bag. 
He finished his eighteen-mile walk by sunset, and, happening to find Dr. 
Chandler at home, was entertained by him with his cordial hospitalitv— that 
lie accorded all wayfarers who came that way. Then, after hearing the ac- 
count the young carpet iDagger gave of himself, and seeing in him outcrop- 
pings of certain manly traits, lie insisted upon retaining him in his cabin as a 
member of his household. 

Schooley was a close observer, and (juick to observe opportunities. He 
soon discovered that Illinois was a malarious sickly region demanding a large 
ratio of physicians in proportion to its rapidly increasing population, and saw 
tliat the rates charged by the few doctor's in practice there for their services 
were considerably in excess of the earnings of other vocations. He also saw 
that the physician's station in society— he being presumed to be an educated 
gentlemanvvas one of honor and respectability. With probably some prior 
inclination to preparing himself for the medical profession, the great success 
of Dr. Cliandler decided him in adopting that course: for, he thouglit, it 
would beyond doubt suit him as well as any other calling— certainly better 
than that of school-teaching or manual labor. He was deterred, however, in 
this aspiration by the great obstacles of time and poverty in the way of ob- 
taining the end. While pondering this matter in silence, aud scheming to 
devise ways and means, he was one day much surprised and gratified bv Dr. 
Chandler suggesting to him the proposition to study medicine with him. with 
the assurance that in two or three years he could become well (|ualitied to en- 
gage in the practical work of the lu'ofession without the beneficent aid of 
college lectures or any Board of Health. Without hesitation he accepted the 
Doctor's proposal, and lost no time in commencing the rudimentary studies 
of the. so-called, science. 

At that early day in the west collegiate medical education was not con- 

- 153 - 

sidered so indispensably necessary to fit a physician for the active duties of 
liis profession as it now is. Sound judgment, quick perception and strong- 
common sense, with some learning, were regarded, very justly, as more es- 
sential to success than Latin-printed parcliments or Board of Health certifi- 
cates. Students who could not afford the expense of medical college instruc- 
tion, studied witli establislied physicians and "rode with them," as it was 
styled, accompanying them on tlieir rounds of professional visits, thereby ac- 
quiring clinical knowledge and practical training of value. Schooley "rode" 
with Dr. Chandler when convenient: and when not riding applied . himself to 
his text books, took care of the Doctor's horses and made himself generally 
useful about the premises. 

Three years of that pracical pupilage turned Schooley out a full-fledged 
Doctor— a graduate, so to speak, of "Brush College,"— as competent to admin- 
ister calomel and Do vers powder, and to bleed, blister and purge, as he could 
have been with half a dozen diplomas and board of health certificates. With 
perfect confidence in liis ability to take care of himself, and of all patients 
who might entrust their bodily ailments to his treatment, by advice of Dr. 
Chandler, he left the Sangamon Bottom in tlie Spring of IS-to and located it» 
the town of Virginia.. Already well kown in that community by his associa- 
tion witli Dr. Chandler, and highly recommended by him, his success was at 
once assured, and for years fie ranked as one of the best physicians, and most 
influential citizens, of Cass county. Without the illusorv prestige of a diplo- 
ma he successfully stood the test of an extensive circuit of practice upon liis 
merits as a practioneer alone: but in later years obtained a Doctor's degree in 
due form from one of the medical institutions of Chicago. 

In February. 1841, Dr. Schooley was united in marriage to Miss Catherine 
.1. Gatton, daughter of Mr. Thomas Gatton, one of the pioneer settlers of Mor- 
gan county, a farmer and merchant, who resided near the present station of 
Little Indian. In tliose days young folks didn't fool away much time or mon 
ey on honey-moon excursions; but regarding marriage as t)ie initial step in 
the only real mission of life, they settled down and began in earnest the nev- 
er-ending task of earning bread by the sweat of their brows. Following tliat 
precedent Dr. Schooley brought his wife to Virginia, and they commenced 
house-keeping in a small frame house on lots 87 and 88 in Hall's first addition, 
now known as the Sam. Petefish residence, which, with his characteristic 
prudence, the Doctor had bought of Dr. Hall in IS-tO. For the next several 
years Dr. Schooley applied himself very closely to his business, gradually ex- 
tending ttie area of his medical practice beyond the limits of the county in ;ill 
directions, and finally establishing himself in the front ranks of public spir- 
ited citizens. 

Cass county in tliose days was dominated by the whig party, of which 
Schooley was an active member. He really had no taste, or aptitude, for poli- 
tics or public life; but, impulsive and resentful, he liecame an ultra whig, not 
so much from the strengtli and candor ef his convictions, as from prejudices 
engendered by his associations. Those who early befriended and sustained 
him— Dr. Chandler, R. S. Thomas, the Gattons, Naylors, Beesleys, and others 
—were all wliigs; while tliose who ignored him and contemptuously called him 
"Dr. Chandler's stable boy"— the Dunaways, Rabourns, N. B. Thompson. 
Petefishes, and retainers, whom he thoroughly detested —were all sti'ong dem- 


ocrats. For several years the entire community in and aroUnd N'iryinia was 
divided— with bitter hostility— not only upon strictly party lines, but also up- 
on tlie respective professional merits of Doctors Schooley and Tate, the demo- 
crats, with few exceptions, sustaining Tate, and the whigs adhering to School- 
ey, yet, neither of the Doctors was a representative leader of the political 
party backing him. 

The convention system for nominating party candidates for county of- 
ficers had not then been adopted in Illinois, and was not adopted for several 
years later; nor liad King Caucus yet asserted his power. Elections, without 
registrations, petitions or primaries, were free for all wlio chose to enter tlie 
lists, and, literally, "the lojigest pole knocked tiie persimmons," as ballot box 
stuffing, and other election frauds had not yet been invented. In is^;}, by 
tacit agreement of leading democrats of Cass county, C. H. C. Havekluft, a 
young lawyer and poet of Beardstown. was announced as their candidate for 
county recorder. The jealous rivalry of Beardstown and A'irginia, originating 
before the county was organized, was intensified that year by tlie declared in- 
tention of Beardstown's citizens to apply to the county commission- 
ers for an order for an election to remove the county seat from Virginia to 
tlieir town. Tiie whigs desired very much to defeat Havekluft. Correctly 
calculating upon the county seat tight aiding them by making the recorder's 
election as much a sectional as political contest, they brought out Dr.Schooley 
as their candidate. The election was held on the 7th of August, resulting in 
Scliooley's election, as lie received 451 votes to-f;i7 for Havekluft, and ;{2 for 
Dr. George Van Ness, also a whig, who was the father-in-law of Hon. Henry 
E. Dummer and a pitiable wreck of a once brilliant man. 

On tlie 4th day of the next month, September, the county seat removal 
election was held, when Virginia lost it, having but 28S votesagainst removal, 
and Beardstown 453 for removal. The recorder's office proved more of a detri- 
ment to Dr. Schooley than a profit as it interfered considerably with his pro- 
fessional business and returned but small emoluments. He retired from it 
when the transfer of the county seat from Virginia to Beardstown was made, 
in February, 1845, and was succeeded by Sylvester Emmons, a whig, of Beards- 
town, who, by re-elections, held it until the constitution of 184S legislated 
him out of office by abolishing it. Tiie only other public position to which 
Dr. Schooley was elected by popular vote was that of school director, the 
duties of which he well and faithfully discharged. 

To many of the most intelligent and competent country practitioners of 
medicine the everlasting drudgery of their calling becomessooner or latei-, 
very irksome— sometimes intolerable. Thus it is that many of them, seeking 
rest and respite in change of some .sort, embark in other pursuits or enter- 
prises of which they know practically lit tie or nothing. Such was the case 
with Dr. Schooley. Office liolding proving not altogether satisfactory, his 
next venture was in the milling business. The first steam mill established 
in Virginia was built on the branch in the eastern edge of the village bv .\. 
B. Beers, a New Yorker and brother-in-law of Wm. Holmes. Hito that enter- 
prise Dr. Schooley invested .some of his surplus earnings, as partner and jun- 
ior member of the firm of Beers & Schooley. Tlie partnership continued 
about two years wlien it was dissolved by mutual consent. Dr. Schooley re- 
tiring with some aciiuired experience, but no material addition to his wealth. 

- 155 - 

As may be iiiferred, his experience was gained, not in tlie work of the mill, to 
which he paid little or no personal attention, but in its financial outcome. 

The war with Mexico, in 1846-48, had no perturbing influence on the medi- 
ical practitioners of Cass county, and not one of them offered his services in 
aid of his country. They no doubt liad sufficient exercise of their patriotism 
in the caseless war they waged at home upon the chills and fever, and other 
local endemics. Medical practice in the Virginia district was nearly equally 
divided between Doctors Schooley and Tate, who still hotly contested for su- 
premacy. Dr. Hall, an invalid for several months, died in July 1847, and Dr. 
Pothicary had moved to Beardstown. Three other doctore— Conn, Stockton 
and Clark— had located in Virginia, but not being able to wait until Tate or 
Schooley died, they left in disgust. A short time before Dr. Hall's death, in 
1847, Dr. Kufus S. Lord, with a newly married wife, came to Virginia and 
quietly settled down for business. His thorough education, affable disposition 
and cultured manners favorably impressed the peop'e: and Dr. Schooley, tak- 
ing quite a fancy to him, entered into partnership with him in the general 
practice of medicine, moved no doubt by the selfish desire to get rid of some 
of liis slavish toil and thereby have more time for deer and turkey hunting. 
Just what attraction the little squalid village of Virginia had for the medical 
profession at that time is now difficult to comprehend. Though tlie field was 
fully and ably supplied, Dr. Charles Aust Hathwell moved in and "perma- 
nently" establislied liimself in a dwelling he had built in the northwest cor- 
ner of tlie town. 

The discovery of gold in California, in 1848, was liailed by Dr. Schooley 
with pleasant and intense interest: as it seemed to present a loophole through 
whicli he might escape for all time his dreary and monotonous avocation. He 
quickly concluded to go there and gather up all the gold he wanted to enable 
liim to retire from all active business, and, with his guns and dogs, pass the 
remainder of his days in the blissful slaughter of wild game. After all need- 
ful preparations, leaving his patients in care of Dr. Lord, and his family at 
home, he left in the spi'ing of 1849, witli Dr. Potliicary and other Cass county 
friends, for the new-found Ophir, by way of New Orleans and the Isthmus of 
Panama. Their voyage was pleasant and uneventful, and they arrived in the 
promised land in safety and good health. From San Francisco they proceeded 
up the Sacramento river to the mountains, and there separated, each taking 
the route to the gold diggings he thought the most advantageous. 

Dr. Schooley was in California just a year, and was always very reticent 
about what he did while there. He did not find gold laying around loose re- 
quiring only to be shoveled up in sacks: but disappointed in all his expecta- 
tions, homesick and disgusted, he returned to Cass county in 1850 by the same 
route he went; having with prudent forethought taken with liim ample 
means to defray expenses botli ways. Again taking up liis old pill bags and 
lancet, he began anew to trudge along the familiar well-worn ruts, and with- 
out effort resumed his former prominence in his profession and in social and 
public affairs, although Dr. I'armenio Lyman Pliillips had located in Virginia 
early in 1849 to supply his vacancy in the medical staff there. His partnership 
witli Dr. Lord continued until the spring of 1851, when tliat gentleman seeing 
that Virginia, a village with less than 400 population, was overstocked with 
Doctors— having five: Schooley, Tate, Hathwell. Lord and l^hillips concluded 


to pull out and look out a more promising location. He went to Chester, in 
Randolph county, taking- young Henry H. Hall with him to assist in running 
a drug store there in connection with his practice of medicine. 

The Virginians had lost the county seat, but had by no means lost the 
hope of some day regaining it; and were united in endeavoring to secure every 
advantage for their town that would promote that object. The citizens of 
Beardstown projected a plank road over the sand from the river east to the 
bluffs that promised to be a great advantage to their commercial interests. 
Not to be left in the lurch by their successful rival, the Virginians organized 
a joint stock company to build a similar plank road over the sticky clay hills 
and mud flats from their town to Bluff Springs. Of that company Dr. 
Schooley was elected secretary and treasurer, as appears from the following 
notice in the Beardstown Gazette of tliat date: 

**PlanR K-oad Notice." 

'•Notice is hereby given that Bot)ks for the subscription for Stock in the 
Plank Road leading from the Bluffs to Virginia will be opened at the office of 
Di'. M H. L. Schooley in the town of Virginia, on Saturday the 1-lth day of 
June, 1851, and continue open from day to day until a suHicient amount of 
Stock shall have been subscribed. 

Virginia, May 21st, 1851." 

liow long the books for subscriptions remained open at Secretary School- 
eys office, and how mucii of tlie capital stock was subscribed, is now impos- 
sible to ascertain; buttiie "wind work" of the enterprise was all of it ever ac- 

Among t!ie many results produced in the business world by the amazing 
(luantities of gold yielded by the California mines was the stimulus given to 
railroad building in all parts of our country east of the great western plains. 
And in no state of the Union was that class of enterprises prosecuted with 
greater vigor than in Illinois. In 1853, Major J. M. Ruggles, representing the 
counties of Mason, Menard and Sangamon in tlie state senate, secured the en- 
actment of a charter for construction of a railroad from Pekin, in Tazewell 
county, down the eastern side of the Illinois river to some indetinite point, 
to be known as the 'Tllinois River Railroad." The right of way was secured 
to Bath, in Mason county, and orer $100,000 subscribed for its stock, when 
ti»e influence of Dr. Chandler. R. S. Tliomas and Dr. Schooley, of Cass count.r, 
and certain influential citizens of Jacksonville, succeeded in eft'ectinga di- 
vergence of the route of the road from the Illinois river, at Bath, directly 
south through ChandlerviUe and Virginia to Jacksonville, and the name of 
the road changed to the Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville. In September, 1857, 
the company for building the road was formally organized, at ChandlerviUe, 
by selecting Judge Wm. Thomas, of Morgan, Hon. R. S. Thomas, of, J. 
M. Ruggles and Francis Low, of Mason, and Joshua Wagonseller, of Tazewell, 
as a board of directors. The directors then perfected the organization by the 
election of Hon. R. S. Thomas, as president, Dr. Schooley, secretary, and 
Thomas Piasters, treasurer. 

The grand opportunity Dr. Schooley had long looked for, to emancipate 
hiiii from professional servitude, was at last presented to him. and he seized 

- 157 - 

it with avidity. Casting aside the oldshacliles of medical practice, he entered 
upon tlie duties of his new position with devoted entluisiasm. Mason, Cass 
and Morg-an counties were industriously canvassed by President Thomas and 
other officials of the company and their citizens urged to subscribe for stock 
in the railroad, which they did with open-handed liberality. Work on the 
road was prosecuted with energy and Beardstown saw, with envy, the daily 
onward march of iron rails and locomotive in the direction of Virginia. 

As a railroad magnate Dr. Schooley's social status was suddenly much 
exalted. Considering that his new dignity should be sustained with more 
refined surroundings, he caused the old house, serving for some years as his 
home, to be moved on the corner lot across the street, and upon the lots where 
it formerly stood erected a fine mansion (still in good condition there,) at that 
time the most stylish and costly residence in the town, and excelled by few, 
if any, in the county. In corresponding style he refitted his domestic estab- 
lishment, converted his pill shop into a railroad office, and for a time occupied 
a sphere in life he had long desired and was eminently well qualified to fill. 

About that time— in 1857— the .Jacksonville and Tonica railroad company 
was pushing its road nortli across the southeastern corner of Cass county, re- 
sulting, in its anticipation, the founding of the town of Ashland (in that year) 
and quite an influx of immigration to the east end of the county. Tlie cer- 
tainty that Virginia would in a short time be in railroad communication witli 
the large centers of trade gave the village a big "boom" that — together with 
the increasing vote of the east end of the county, inflated its leading citizens 
with their importance and strength. They thought the time had arrived for 
wresting the county seat from Beardstown. that was yet without anv im- 
mediate prospect of a railroad, and applied to the county commissioners to 
order a special election for tliat purpose. In compliance therewith an elec- 
tion was ordei'ed to be held on the 3rd day of November, 1857, upon three 
propositions, namely: for and against subscription by the county of 
Cass of $50,000 in aid of the Keokuk and Warsaw railroad (to pass through 
Beardstown); for and against adoption of township organization, and for and 
against removal of the county seat from Beardstown to Virginia. The elec- 
tion was held accordingly, resulting in defeat of the railroad tax by the vote 
of 636 for and 792 against; defeat of township organization by 385 votes in its 
favor and 1921 opposed to it: and defeat of county seat removal by 986 for and 
l(iO() against it. 

At that election unblushing frauds were perpetrated by the partisans of 
both Virginia and Beardstown, the latter casting against removal almost as 
many votes as the whole number of legal voters in the county. At the hotly 
contested presidential election a year before— Nov. 4th, 1856— the total num- 
ber of votes cast in Cass were: 303 for Fi'emont, 438 for Filmore, and 914 for 
Buclianan, aggregating 1655. 

The old adage, "Misfortunes never come alone," often proves well 
founded. The failure to regain thecounty seat was alraosta "solar plexus knock- 
out blow" to Virginia. It survived the shock, however, but another came in 
less than three years, wlien, by foreclosure of mortgages, the ownership and 
management of the P. P. and J. railroad was transferred to another company, 
whereby President Thomas and Secretary Schooley were relieved of ail con- 
nection with it. To make matters worse, by that transfer of the road, the 

~ I5S - 

many citizens wlio liad bought the bonds of the road lost every dollar they in- 
vested in them. And worse yet for Dr. Schooley, about that time his health 
began to fail with serious symptoms of pulmonary disease. Once more he 
took up the discarded pill bags and lancet and began again his old treadmill 
rounds of professional toil. Dr. Hathwell was gone — went in lS5(i, with his 
family, to California by way of New York and Panama. Dr. Parmenio 
Pliillips had engaged in the steam-milling business with old Bill Armstrong, 
and practically retired from the medical arena: but Dr. Tate was still doing 
business at the same old stand, and had a new competitor in Dr. George 
Washington Goodspeed wlio moved into Virginia irom old Princeton in 1859. 

Dr. Schooley's host of friends were steadfast in their devotion to him; 
but, disappointed and dispirited, the charm of his old associations was gone, 
and lie saw little hope for regaining his former prestige in the community 
Impelled, in a measure, by financial reverses, and by the desire to change his 
mode of life, in order to improve his failing health, he sold his mansion, 
closed up his business, and in the spring of 1863, when the nation was reeling 
from the shock of civil war, he left Virginia and moved over to Mason 
county. There he quietly settled clown on a little sandy farm he had pre- 
viously purchased, and which constituted about all of his available assets, he 
continued his professional work. 

In his palmy days Dr. Schooley was a man of attractive appearance^six 
feet in heiglit. sti'aight as an Indian, with well developed and tinely propor- 
tioneil figure, regular, well-formed face, high cheek bones, and black hair and 
eyes. His features, strong and impressive, but habitually immobile, neither 
reflected his feelings, or revealed iiis thoughts. With usually s^rave expres- 
sion of countenance he laughed but little, and seldom indulged in jests or 

These personal and mental traits, coupled with his immoderate love of 
hunting— the lowest and most brutal of all human instincts— gave color to 
the frequent intimation of his adversaries that he was of Indian de.scent. 
lie dressed neatly, and was invariably dignified, courteous, and gentlemanly. 
Though not wanting in energy his movements were deliberate, and marked 
with a degree of reserve indicating ade(iuate self-respect. Polite in his inter- 
course with the people, he was not vei'v talkative, and generally mild in 
speech and manner, but when irritated displayed a fiery temper and pugna- 
cious disp sition backed by reckless courage. At his hospitable home, or in 
society, his affability could not be exceeded, and when with genial friends he 
was a pleasant and jovial companion and entertaining talker. Music and 
oratory were not among his natura: gifts: nor did he make any claim to sanc- 
tity or piety, but he was kind, benevolent and charitable: and, without 
blemish in character or personal habits, was g-iided in all aft'airs of daily life 
by a high sense of honor and morality. 

As a financier Dr. Schooley was not a conspicuous success. His income 
was ample, but was readily absorbed in expensive tastes, stylish mode of liv- 
ing, and requirements of a growing family of sons and daughter. In all his 
dealings he was exact, prompt and scrupulously honest. Not having been 
one of the canvassers for subscriptions to railroad stocks he escaped the bit- 
ter censure heaped by many of the victims of misplaced confidence upon R. 
S.Thomas: and at no time was any charge of corruption ever insinuated 

- 159 - 

against him. 

Knowing and caring nothing about politics, or questions of public policy, 
when he came into Illinois he followed Dr. Chandler into the whig ranks; 
and when that party in the state was merged into the new-born republican 
organization, at tlie Bloomington convention in May, 1856, by logical transi- 
tion lie became a republican. He was at times quite an aggressive politician, 
not, however, of the office seeking variety, but from fixed prejudices and to be 
of service to his party friends. 

Dr. Schooley's education, literary and medical, was fair, but not of the 
ighest class. He was probably never a deep student, and as a man of learn- 
ing passed for much more than his real value. He was, by the standards of 
that era. a good physician; but his success and reputation as such were due 
not so much to his book learning as to his intuitive perception, sound judg- 
ment and self-reliance — in a word to his clear, strong, practical, common 
sense. In the sick room he was formal, positive and silent, seldom indulging 
in idle conversation, or expressions of opinions simply for effect. There was 
no hesitancy in his conclusions or prescriptions, and he gave his directions to 
the nurses or other attendants like a geneva! issuing his orders to subord- 
inates, with no explanations of the nature of medicines prescribed, or their 
expected effect. That course passed for— and really was — profound wisdom, 
as it impressed the patients with faith in the doctor and confidence in liis 
treatment. For, as a rule, the more a physician palavers in presence of tlie 
sick, and assumes to explain the properties of his remedies and their modus 
operandi — of which he is himself often totally ignorant— the less will they 
believe in him, and the less will be his success. In diagnosis Dr. Scliot)ley 
was not very often at fault: but, as is the case with all other practitioners of 
medicine, his deductions from correct premises were not always infallible. 
Some of his notions would at this day be condemned as singularly absurd: as, 
for an instance, he adhered to the antiquated idea that two diseases cannot 
possibly exist in the human system at the same time, and upon that theory 
he conquered fevers by establishing an artificial disease, that of mercurial 
ptyalism (salivation)— a remedy worse than the original disorder. 
Strange as it may now seem to us, he was considered peculiarly successful in 
the treatment of typhoid fever by that barbarous method. It is but just to 
add that the same plan of treatment was then practiced by physicians of the 
highest reputation everywhere. 

It is a fact, with a few exceptions, that the man specially fond of his gun 
and dog is a worthless member of society. Dr. Schooley was one of the few 
exceptions to that rule, although his fondness for hunting amounted almost 
to a mania. Often in his busiest seasons, when demands for his professional 
services were crowding upon him from all directions he would drop every- 
thing and strike out for the Sangamon Bottom, or Mason county, to kill deer 
and turkeys; and be gone for days, and sometimes weeks. It mattered not 
what important cases, or pressing business, he had on hands if a brother 
Nimrod came along and proposed going on a hunt, he was ready to start off 
at once and made no promise when he would return. 

In regard to religion Dr. Schooley was always inclined to be a Christian 
and certainly was a moral and conscientious man. He attended church with 
his wife when convenient, contributed liberally for support of the creed and 

preaclier and entertained a wholesome respect for the sanctuary, but was by 
no means a puritan. In a general way he accepted the blessed truths of the 
bible, without making any fuss or display about it, and never seemed to be 
distressed with doubts as to his final destiny. In middle life he joined the 
Cumberland Presbyterian church— more to gratify his wife than to quiet any 
qualms of conscience— and then quit swearing, excepting when angry or much 

His prospects in Mason county, where lie was located on poor soil in a 
poor community, with health declining and earning capacity reduced, could 
not have been otherwise than gloomy and discouraging, but he bravely faced 
the situation and did the best he could to be reconciled to it. His new res- 
idence, however, had the advantage of being near his favorite hunting ground 
where game was abundant, and removed from the dead beats and loafers that 
infest tlie villages and mark the doctors as theu- especial prey. He remained 
there two years, with no improvement of his health or finances, when his 
friends persuaded him to get out of the Illinois river valley and try the effects 
of a more elevated and open region. Acting upon that suggestion he sold his 
farm in 1865 and left the state of Illinois, establishing himself at Harrison- 
ville, the county seat of Cass county, Missouri. He there commenced anew 
the practice of his profession, to which he gave his whole time and attention 
and wasquite successful. His ability as a practitioner and worth as a citizen 
soon gained recognition throughout the county and he was given all the 
patronage he could attend to. 

The higher altitude and purer air of western Missouri arrested— or re- 
tarded—the ravages of the scourge that held him in its grasp, and gave him 
an extension of his lease on life. But it was only a prolongation of the 
struggle against the inevitable. The spirit and force that inspired him in his 
younger days were gone, and only his strong determination and high sense of 
duty— together with constant use of cod-liver oil and whiskey— sustained him 
in his daily routine work. For twelve years after his arrival in Harrisonville, 
he sustained the high professional and personal reputation he had established 
in Illinois. Despite ill healtli and advancing age he manfully remained at 
his post, administering to the sick and relieving human suffering until ex- 
hausted vitality compelled him to surrender to "the grim reaper called 
Death," and breathed his last on the 14th day of December, 1877, at tlie age 
of <i5 years atid 2 days. He was buried with the ritual ceremonies of the Odd 
Fellows, of which order he had been a member for many years. 

Dr. Schooley was survived by his wife, three sons and one daughter. Two 
or three of his children had passed away in their early infancy. Edward 
Chapman Schooley, his eldest son, died of consumption in Harrisonville, in 
August, 1884. Mrs. Catherine G. Schooley died in April, 1897, and was fol- 
lowed to the grave by Dr. Wm. T. Schooley, the second son, who died of con- 
sumption, in October of the same year. The only survivors of tlie family at 
present are James Henry Schooley, of Washington City, and the only daugh- 
ter, Mary E., wife of Mr. Shad Owens, of Harrisonville. Mo. 

Two young men, residing in Virginia, named Whitmeyer and O'Neil, 
studied medicine in Dr. Schooley's office and -'rode" with him for some time. 
After their horseback curriculum and brush college graduation they wandered 
beyond the conlines of Cass county to find locations for practicing the art 
they had learned. O'Xeil settled in Mason county and in time became there 
quite a popular and reputable physician and substantial citizen. Whitmeyer 
migrated west, with his parents and their other children, and was totally 
lost to even the oldest inhabitants of \'irginia. 


IN the year 1773, three years before Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declara- 
tion of Independence, two brothers, John Crews and Richard Crews bade 
goodbye to their old friends and neighbors in England, and embarked in 
a small vessel for the American Colonies. These brothers did not long re- 
main together: John Crews settled in Virginia where he prospered after tlie 
manner of English immigrants, and his descendants drifted to the south 
where they may be found in the states of Alabama, Georgia and Florida. 

Rioliard Crews settled in Kentucky and became the father of five sons: 


Peter Crews. Richard Crews, .lolui Crews, .loseph Crews and WiUiinn ("rews- 
The eldest of these five. Peter Crews, was tlie grandfather of the subjects of 
1 his sketch. To Peter Crews were born three sons: Andrew Crews. Janios 
(yrevvs and Jesse Crews. The .second son, James Crews, was tlie fatlier of two 
sons: Hooper Crews and Jesse Crews and one daughter named Millie, who 
married D. W. Wright. 

ITooper Crews was born in Barren county, Kentuckj', near Pruett's Knob, 
on April 17tb, 1807. Of his early life nothing can here be recorded. Dr. 
George B. Crews, a great nephew of Hooper Crews, sent the writer the ad- 
dress of Mrs. Walter P. Miller, 21()0 S. Columbine Street, University Park, 
Denver Colorado, a daughter of Hooper Crews. To this lady a letter was 
sent, asking for information concerning her father, explaining it was to be 
used in the preparation of this sketch. As the letter was not returned the 
presumption is, that it reached its destination, but nothing ever came of it. 
The writer has sent many other such missives during the progress of the 
writing of this series of sketches and not a few have met the fate of this 
Denver communication. If one is so illiterate that he cannot write a letter 
fft to be seen, he should be excused upon that ground; if he is so ignorant, as 
to have no appreciation of the common courtesies of life he should be for- 
given. If this lady received the letter addressed to her and contemptuously 
refused to answer it, she is certainly very unlike her distinguished father. 
Rev. E. K. Crews of the Illinois conference, also a great-nephew of Hooper 
Crews, promptly responded to my inquiries and kindly furnished me nearly 
all the information I have been able to gather concerning his relative. 

When but a lad of 17 years of age he was converted, joined the Methodist 
church; was licensed to preacli when 21 years old and the next year became a 
travelling preacher of the Kentucky Methodist conference. 

Peter Cartwright was '22 years older than Hooper Crews, and had left the 
Kentucky conference and come to Illinois and very soon after Mr. Crews, in 
1834, was transfered to the Illinois conference which was as large as the state, 
and was appointed to preach at Springfield, now the state capital, he then 
being but 27 years of age, His subsequent appointments were as follows: 

Presiding elder of the Danville district: 

Presiding eider of the Galena district: 

Pastor of a church in city of Chicago: 

Presiding elder of the Chicago district: 

Presiding elder of the Mount Morris disti'ict: 

Presiding elder of the Chicago district: 

Agent for the Rock River Seminary of the >r, E. church: 

Pastor of the M. E. church at Galena: 

Pastor of the Clark street church in city of (Chicago; 

Pastor of the First M. E. church at Rockford: 

Presiding elder of the Rockford district: 

Pastor of the church of Jol let: 

Presiding elder of tlie Chicago district: ' "' • 

Pastor of the Indiana Avenue church of Chicago: 

Pastor of the Embury church at Freeport: 

Pastor of the church at liatavia: 

Pastor of the First church at Pockford: 

Pastor of tlie M. E. cliurch at Orv-gon. Illinois, where he ended his long 
and useful life on the 2lst day of December, ISSI. aged 71 yeai's, 8 months and 
4 days. 

In addition to the immense amount of valuable service he rendered the 
church of his choice in the stations above described he was a delegate to the 
general conference of the M. E. cluiich four 1 imes. and was eliaplain of the 

- 163 - 

lOOth regiment of Illinois volunteers. 

The writer first saw Hooper Crews, when he was in charge of a church in 
the city of Chicago in the year 1854, and afterwards heard him preach, while 
visiting his only brother, Jesse, in this county. He was a man of unusual 
ability: had he turned his attention to the law, he would have made an ad- 
mirable judge; he was dignified in his bearing, courteous in his manners, a 
strong and eloquent preacher. He was a man of great influence in his church. 

Jesse Crews was born in Barren county, Kentucky, on August 2.3, 1809. 
Of his early history very little is known by his descendants; he ;;was a very 
modest; unassuming man, and was never known to boast of anything personal 
to himself. His wife was Susan A. E. Sneed, who was born on the western 
border of the state of Virginia on April 3, 1812. Her father diediwlien she 
was a very young child and she remembered nothing of him; her mother mar- 
ried a blacksmith, and Mrs. Crews used to tell her children of her step-father 
making shackles in his shop for slave owners and slave drivers who used them 
to fasten together their "property," that they might not foolishly escape 
from their dear friends and protectors. Her son, Jesse Crews, of this county 
has in his possession, a fire shovel, made by this old-time blacksmith which 
he gave to his step-daughter Susan as a wedding present, w hen she was mar- 
ried to Jesse Crews on December 30th, 1830. The following day, the last day 
of 18.30, this young married couple made a honeymoon trip of thirty miles on 

The name and fame of Illinois were well known to the Kentucky people, 
and the young men of that state, of that day were greatly tempted to leave 
the old home and fireside and seek their fortunes by settling along the 
streams of the land of the lUini. Jesse Crews' sister Millie had married a 
young man, D. W. Wright, and these two young married couples, in 1832, lefr^ 
old "Kentuck" and made their way to Sangamon county, where they un- 
harnessed their horses, and unloaded their wagons near the present town of 
Pleasant Plains on the border of Rock Creek. Mr. Wright did not long re- 
main liere, but, in 1842, turning his face to the north, travelled on into Min- 
nesota, and the'-e bought a farm; on his return he was taken sick and died 
among strangers; his widow and family removed to the Minnesota farm, 
where they made a permanent home. 

Jesse Crews settled very near the home of Peter Cartwright, and the two 
men became fast friends: both were loyal Methodists, Kentuckians, and 
early Illinois settlers, but differed in politics, Cartwright being a democrat, 
aud Crews a wliig. In 1846, Jesse Crews then being a resident of Cass county, 
voted for Cartwright, a candidate for congress, against A. Lincoln, his whig 
opponent. Crews' regard for his old neighbor, and brother Methodist being 
stronger than his political affiliations. 

In 18.37, Jesse Crews purcliased of John H. Plunkett a tract of land de- 
scribed as located on Richland Creek, but from the imperfect description, one 
caimot, at this day exactly locate it. In August, 1841, he purchased another 
tract of William Crow executor of Dallas Scott in Sec 34 T 17 R 7 Sangamon 
county. In May, 1842, of John Dickey he bought 160 acres of land in Sec 1 
T hi R 8 and in December, 1842, he bought of David Wright 40 acres in Sec 30 
T 17 R 8. 


The early death of his brother-in-law and the removal of his sister 
and her children from his neighborhood, were events that served to cause 
Jesse Crews to become discontented, and late in 1842 he sold a part of his 
land in Sangamon county and moved across the Illinois river into Schuyler 
county, as a sort of experiment, where lie remained a year. Not being satis- 
lied in Schuyler he partly retraced his steps, came into Cass county and lind- 
Ing in the Garner neighborhood seven miles east of the town of Virginia a 
Methodist log church with a good sprinkling of members of that body nearby, 
lie concluded to settle among them, and not then having sold his land in 
Sangamon county he rented a tract of Keeling Berry in nwi Sec 3 T 17 R 9 
and also SO acres of Josiah Parrott adjoining, and after a few years being sat- 
istied with his surroundings in February, 1848, he purchased of Parrott the 
nwi- of nwj Sec 3 T 18 R 9 and the swj- of swi- of Sec 34 T 18 R 9 on which latter 
tract he erected a house, comfortable for those days to which he removed his 
wife and growing family to which he gradually added thereto by the follow- 
ing purchases: In 1853, he purchased of John R. Dutch nel of sei Sec 34 T 18 
R 9; in 1859, he bought of Wra. Crews nei of swi Sec 34: he purchased of his 
brother the sei of nw i Sec 34; he entered 80 acres in nwj Sec 34. 

His neighbors soon learned his ability and integrity and he was often 
chosen for jury service; elected to the office of justice and for many years was 
the postmaster of the neighborhood. 

Tliis farm is now owned by Flavins C. Fox and then was and still is a 
good one. 

About the year 1854, Jesse Crews and his oldest son, William, embarked 
in aspeculation which proved a disastrous failure. At that time there was 
no Asliland; Philadelphia was a mere hamlet, Chandlerville contained less 
than two dozen houses and Virginia was a poor straggling village. Mr. 
Crews thouglit a country store would give his son employment and wealtli; 
he t herefore purchased a stock of general merchandise of S. C. Davis & Co. of 
Saint Louis, moved it into a small building in his dooryard, which was after- 
wanis removed a few rods to the northeast and began liis career as a mer- 
chant. As the vicinity was infested with Ihe usual proportion of dead beats 
who "buy" all they can be allowed to carry away and never pay a cent if it 
can possibly be avoided, and as the older member of the firm never had the 
lieart to refuse a neighbor anything he liad, it does not require the wisdom of 
a Solomon to foretell the result of tlie mercantile venture. ]\Iore and yet 
more goods were sent for; Jesse Crews sold out liis interest to David Monroe, 
but too late, alas, to save liis property. In 18(iO, his farm was mortgaged to 
Davis & Co., the store building was dragged across the prairies to the young 
town of Ashland, but Jesse Crews was a ruined man. He m;inaged to save 
from the wreck forty acres of hazel brush and young timber, the nej of the 
nwi of Sec 34: here he built a shelter and in the earlv spring of 18(i4, he re- 
moved his few articles of personal property, with his wife and tlieir three 
younger boys to the new place. Tne writer of this sketcli assisted in this re- 
moval and grubbed up the first black jack at the new home. As they drove 
away from their comfortable old home, the good wife lo'^ked sadly behind her. 
with the tears in her eyes, but good "Uncle Jesse" exhibited no sign of grief, 
but maintained his usual composure and good temper and was never heard to 
utter a word of complaint. Had .lesse Crews been a sharp and shrewd tinan- 

- 165 - 

cier, after he found tlie mercliatidising business going- wrong, witli war times 
and iiigh prices for farm products coming on, with the help lie had about him, 
and with a kind-hearted creditor, Samuel C. Davis, who would have willingly 
leased him the farm at a moderate price he might have re-couped his fortunes 
and saved his farm for himself and family. But Jesse Crews was not a money- 
maker, his heart was not set upon scraping together earthly possessions, he 
was a consistent follower of the Master who taught his disciples to take no 
thought for the morrow: to set their atfections on things above: he often read 
and pondered over the text. "For what shall it profit a man, if he gain the 
wliole world and lose his own soul." He would quit his farm work any time 
to attend camp meetings or other means of grace. His business was not to 
raise corn and hogs for the market, but to serve God, and to do all the good 
lie could. 

Here, on the little farm of 40 acres, Jesse Crews with his old mother, his 
wife and younger boys spent the remainder of his days. Ever cheerful and 
happy, he was "a light set upon a hill that could not be hid." If even a re- 
spectable majority of the church members of to-day possessed the sincerity of 
Jesse Crews the preachers would not be heard complaining that less than 
forty per cent of the young men of Illinois are ever seen within church walls 
except on funeral occasions. He was not like the worldly church member 
who sits in the social meeting while the preacher and the women sing of the 
"number of stars in their crown," with his thoughts upon the number of 
steers in his feed lots, and who would gladly exchange all knowledge and in- 
terest he has in the "plan of salvation" for a reliable cure for hog cholera. 

Jesse Crews was a broad minded man; his good old mother, Nancy Crews, 
born Feb. 17, 178.3, who died Sept. 13, 1S71, was a kind-liearted Kentucky 
woman, but as mucli of a Puritan as though she had been reared in the shad- 
ow of Plymouth Rock, On one occasion in 1861, this writer went with him 
to a grove meeting, where the Oregon chapel now is, to hear Peter Cart- 
wright preach an afternoon sermon in the shade of the oak trees. In the 
course of his talk, the old Methodist war-horse bitterly denounced colleges 
declaring that "they turned out imfldels." On the way home, Jesse Crews in 
commenting on this language, remarked that he did not believe the Doctor 
was right, and then added that if it were true it was a strong argument 
against the Christian religion. Mr. Crews had a keen appreciation of the 
humorous; which is always an indication of brightness of intellect. In con- 
versation he was hesitating in his manner of speech; his voice was low and it 
re(|uired an effort to catch all he said. Physically he was about live feet, ten 
inches in height and his weight about one hundred and seventy pounds. His 
wife was a very small woman in size, and in later years much bent with age. 
She, like her good liusband, was very modest and unassuming; she was the 
kindest of mothers, and a true christian woman. 

Mr. Charles W. Crews, of Pueblo, Col., grandson of Jesse Crews, writes: 
"My recollection of my grandfather is, that any Methodist republican, could 
have got anything he had." Very true, and lie might have added "and even 
a needy, swearing democrat would not have been turned away, empty- 

There were born to Jesse and Susan Crews ten children, as follows: 

Martha H. Crews, born Dec. 5, 18;31; mari'ied to Joseph Allison a farmer 


of Oregon precinct Cass county, Illinois, and who died in giving birth to her 
first child, a son now living in Iowa. 

William J. Crews, born March 27, 1S:}3, and who died in the state of yVrk- 
ansas, Dec. 15, 1871. 

David Crews, born Aug. 5, 1S35, still living in Brown county, Kansas. 

Nancy Crews, born Oct. 14, 18.37, the wife of Rev. Wm. S. Garner, and 
now living in Oregon precinct. 

Thomas M. Crews, born July 31, 1810. now living in Oregon precinct. 

Mary F. Crews, born March 12, 1842; died Sept. 25, 1847. 

Elizabeth Crews, born April 9, 1845, died Feb. 18. 1849. 

John W. Crews, born Nov. 30, 1847, now living in Oregon precinct. 

George W. Crews, born July 7, 1849, died Aug. 12. 1869. 

Jesse J. Crews, born Aug. 20, 1852, still living in Oregon precinct. 

Jesse Crews departed this life on Sept. 6, 1879, aged 70 years and 13 days; 
his wife died Jan. 18, 1885, aged 72 years 10 months and 15 days. 

Every man, whose life is worth living has some worthy object in view. 
With him, the providing of food, clothing and shelter for his natural body is 
merely incidental. A proper estimate of the life and character of Jesse 
Crews depends entirely upon one's point of view. He was a member of the 
department of agriculture in the industrial world. If he of tliat department 
is most worthy of emulation who expends his vital energies in buying more 
land, to raise more corn, to feed more hogs, to buy more land to raise more 
corn to feed more hogs, etc., etc., then Jesse Crews was a very insignificant 
personage, not even tit to have a place in these humble sketches; but if man 
has a mental and spiritual nature as well as a physical: if he is an immortal 
being, destined to live after the crisis of bodily death; if it is his duty to fear 
God, to work righteousness, and to love his neighbor as himself, then Jesse 
Crews was one of the noblest and most worthy characters who ever spent the 
mature vears of his life within Cass county. 


IN tlie old Cass Cow7if?/ ^iZas published in 1874, by W. R. Brink & Co., on 
page 28 there is a biographical sketch of Dr. Tate dictated by himself^ 
wherein he states that he was the son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Owings) 
Tate, who migrated to Miami county, Ohio, at an early day from Delaware, 
their native state: also that he was the fifth in a family of nine cliildren, five 
sons and four daughters: and was born in Miami county, Ohio, on the 20tii of 
February, 1810. When he was quite young the family moved from Ohio to 
Lancaster county, Indiana, and remained tliere twelve j-ears. They then re- 
turned to Ohio and settled down on a 
farm in Montgomery county, where 
shortly afterward the father died, and 
then for about five years the care of 
his mother and younger children de- 
volved upon Harvev. who never fal- 
tered in manfully discharging that 

At the winter terms of subscrip- 
tion schools in his neighborhood Har- 
vey Tate mastered the elementary 
branches of an English education. 
He was very eager to lea/n, and gave 
to his books every spare moment of 
his time, with the result that when 
he arrived at man's estate in years he 
was fairly well qualified to assume the 
responsibility of teaching a country 
school himself. Tlien came a disper- 
sion of the family, his mother going 
to live with some of her relatives, and 
her younger children finding homes 
among other relatives. Harvey then 
secured subscribers for a surticient 
number of pupils to make up a three months' school, and commenced the vo- 
cation of teacliing. Thus promoted from the cornfield to the station of school 
teacher he continued with zeal and earnestness, for five years the inexorable 
conflict with poverty and the world. 

Manv of the eminent men of our country— as Lyman Trumbull. Stephen 



A. Douglas, E. D. Baker, Gov. Deneen, and others— began their ilkistrious 
careers in tliat same way. Moved by the laudable ambition that wrought 
their elevation, young Tate aspired to a liigher plane in life than that of a 
country teacher. Possessing none of the elements for success as a statesman, 
his natural philanthropy and benevolence inclined him to regard the medical 
profession as the noblest and most exalted calling of man: and he determined 
to make every effort possible to tit himself for it, and consecrate his life to 
the amelioration of human suffering— for adequate remuneration. 

With that aim in view he applied such time as he could conveniently 
spare from the exacting duties of the schoolroom to the laborious study of a 
few borrowed medical books. In that way, aided and advised by Dr. Van 
Tyne a local pliysician, he pursued his studies, often by the light of the mid- 
night lamp— or tallow dip— until he thought J'.e knew enough of tlie liealing 
art to engage in it as a practitioner. Not having the means to pay for secur- 
ing further medical instruction in the college halls and dissecting room, he 
began practicing medicine without collegiate authority in order to earn 
enough to defray the expenses of obtaining that authority. 

That was before the era of ornamental boards of health instituted chiefly 
for consuming taxes wrung from the people, by creating sinecures for favored 
political partisans. It was also before the foolish enactment of arbitrary 
medical practice laws based upon the senseless assumption that a diploma, or 
certificate Iroin a fancy state board of health having a political pull, consti- 
tuted a pli\siciati. The true pliysician is born with the especial gifts of gen- 
ius and aptitude, not made by memorizing text books. With neither diploma 
or state board of health certificate. Dr. Tate had fairly average success in his 
practice, well sustained for ten years by faithful attention to his work. 

lie had wielded a free lance(t) as a country doctor for tive or six years 
when he met his fate — the inevitable fate of prosperous young men of those days, 
— appearing to him in the form of a handsome girl, named Rebecca Evans, a 
native, as himself, of Miami county, with whom he, of course, fell in love. The 
usual silly courtship followed and in due course of time, they were married on 
the 4th of August, 18.36. In a modest cottage the doctor and his young bride 
began housekeeping with every prospect of enduring happiness and domestic 
bliss. His new incentives and added responsibilities animated him with high- 
er hope, and determination to win the battle he was waging. But scarcely 
more than a year had passed since their wedding day when the sunlight of his 
home was suddenly dissipated by the death of his young wife. Despite his de- 
voted care and attention, and iiis skill, and that of other pliysicians called to 
his aid, the icy hand of death was laid upon lier and her new-born babe, and 
they were taken away and laid in the grave. That cruel blow sliattered tlie 
doctor's faitii — he had been taught from infancy— in the doctrine of personal 
supervisirn of mankind by a Divinity overflowing with goodness and mercy, 
and thenceforth he very sensibly attributed such inflictions to purely natural 

He bore his great burden of sorrow with fortitude, and in continued work, 
and philosophical meditation sought relief for his depressed spirits. Then, 
Time, that blunts the point of our misfortunes, by degrees assuaged tlie poig- 
nancy of the Doctor's grief. The clouds of gloom that enshrouded him were 
gradually lifted and wafted away, and once more there beamed upon him the 

- 169 - 

rays of renewed hope. There also beamed upon him the smiles of Miss Marey 
Windsor, a scliool teacher of his neighborhood, with whom he had been ac- 
quainted for some time. Her tender sympathies lightened the dreariness of 
his lonely existence so effectually that two years after the death of his wife, 
they were, by the usual wedding ceremony, joined in the holy bonds of wed- 
lock, on the 15th of June. 18.^9. 

Dr. Tate practiced medicine about ten years without a diploma; not 
deeming, for the first few years, the authority conferred by the parchment es- 
sential to his reputation as a practitioner. But popular education was year 
by year attaching a higher significance to the doctor's Latin-printed ''sheep- 
skin," and he saw that he would have to obtain one in order to keep abreast 
of advancing public opinion and professional ethics. Therefore, making ar- 
rangements to meet all contingent expenses, he went to Cincinnati in the fall 
of 1839, and there was matriculated in the Ohio Medical College; from which in- 
stitution, at close of the session, in March, 1840, he received the degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine. Though the diplqma then conferred upon him by the faculty, 
in point of weight and exalted professional authority, fell lamentably short of 
that of a modern state board of health certificate, its importance so inflated 
the young doctor with an increased sense of dignity, and self esteem as to 
cause him to become dissatisfied with his obscure country location. He sud- 
denly discovered that he needed more elbow room, among more progressive 
people, to enable him to introduce certain reforms he had devised that inevit- 
ably would revolutionize the old time-worn metliods of medical practice. 

The fame of Central Illinois for beauty and unsurpassed fertility having 
spread far and wide a stream of immigration was steadily pouring into it from 
the older settled portions of the country to the east, south and north. The 
greater part of the newcomers came by wagon transportation by way of Shaw- 
neetown, A^incennes or Chicago. Th se who came by way of the rivers found 
Beardstown to be the most convenient gateway to their destination. Having' 
matured his plans deliberately. Dr. Tate left his rural home, in the spring of 
1841, with his wife and infant daugliter, Marcy Rebecca, who was born on 
January 13th, 1841— and is now Mrs. Jaspc Plummer— and began his migra- 
tion westward. By which route of travel he reached Illinois is now not 
known: but most probably he left Ohio and Cincinnati by steamboat, thence 
rounded the point at Cairo, and on up to St. Louis, and up the Illinois river 
to Beardstown. That he landed at Beardstown is inferred by the fact that 
liis first stopping place in Cass county was at a point on the road nine miles 
east of tliat place, now known as the Powell farm, a mile west of Cass Siding. 
It is altogether probable that he startad for Virginia, but at that season the 
mud was so deep the team that hauled him out of Beardstown could get no 
farther. There was a little house and a stable thereon a forty acres belong- 
ing to Joshua Crow, who owned, and lived on, the farm two and a half miles 
farther east subsequently owned by Mr. Wm. Campbell. 

Located in that little house by the wayside, either from choice or com- 
pulsion, the Doctor "hung out his shingle" and commenced anew the practice 
of medicine. His professional services were at once required by citizens of 
Monroe precinct, near by, whose confidence and friendship he gained and re- 
tained to the close of his life, and for years was the leading practitioner in all 
that territory. His nearest neighbors were tlie Proctor family living in a log 

- 170 - 

liouse less than a mile to the northwest, comprising one son nearly of his own 
age and three or four daughters. His next nearest neighbor was Halsey 
Smith a prosperous farmer who built and occupied the two-story brick house 
now belonginp- to Daniel Biddlecome. 

The Doctor did not long remain out there on the clay hills, having had 
enough of country life in his native state and Indiana. From the Cass coun- 
ty records we learn that on the 19tli of July, 1841, he bouglit of Josepli Scott — 
who built it— a two-story frame house, with lot 83, in the Public Grounds of 
Virginia, on which it stands, subject to a mortgage to secure a debt due to 
Dr. Hail. It is now known as the "Cherry house," a Portuguese harness- 
maker of that name, prominent in the Presbyterian church, liaving resided 
there for several years. There Dr. Tate established himself "permanently," 
and entered into active competition with Dr. Schooley who had located in the 
village the year before, and. recently married to Miss Kate Gatton, was resid- 
ing on the same street about a hundred yards farther east. The antagonism 
of political parties was at that time characterized by much bitterness. Per- 
sonal animosities engendered in the exti'aordinary campaign of 1840, when 
the whigs elected their president, and the democrats carried Illinois and 
gained a large majority in both houses of the legislature, had not in the least 
abated. In Cass county the whigs were in the ascendency, but gradually los- 
ing ground. Dr. Schooley was a whig and Dr. Tate a democrat. Immediate- 
ly the patronage of the two physicians divided on party lines, and that divi- 
sion continued in a general way, and with more or less asperity, for several 

Employed so promptly and vvitli so mucli unanimity by the democrats Dr. 
Tate very naturally became impressed with the belief that his popularity was 
due ;is much, or more, to his aeuteness and prominence in politics as to his 
skill and success as a practitioner of medicine. That delusion stimulated his 
ambition to attain an official position entailing more dignity and dis- 
tinction than that of the village doctor's station. Though party lines were 
rigidly drawn neither party had yet adopted the convention system for nom- 
inating county candidates, and no restrictions were imposed upon any who 
chose to run for office. The general state election of 1842 presented the 
chance Dr, Tate was looking for, and he offered to s^rve the people of 
county in the capacity of county judge. He was. liowever, not permitted to 
make the race for it alone, as, in a .short time Alex Huffman, another mos.s- 
back democrat, and pioneer settler of Monroe precinct, announced him.self a 
candidate for it also. Then Robert G. Gaines, son-in-law of Jos. McDonald, 
and a whig, seeing two democrats in the field, went in the race to beat them 
botii. And, as it was a free for all dash, Ezra Dutch, of Beardstovvn, a dem- 
ocrat, and one John Richardson, of now unknown party proclivities, ottered 
to make the personal sacrifice and serve the people in that judgeship. 

The election was held on Monday, the first day of August, 1842, resulting 
in a sweeping victory of the democrats, who elected Thomas Ford governor by 
over 8000 majority, and a large majority of both of the legislature. In 
Cass county John W. Pratt, a whig, was elected to the legislature, and 
"Uncle Alex Huffman was chosen county judge, receiving 240 votes to 158 for 
Gaines, 153 for Dr. Tate, 37 for Dutch and 28 for Richard.son. For the next 
year or so Dr. Tate paid closer attention to his practice than he did to poll- 

- 171 -- 

tics: but yet, he was alwaj's loyal to his party. On the ith of September of 
the next year. 1843, the special county seat removal election was held, and 
Virginia was defeated. The loss of the county seat was a crushing blow to 
Virginia, and its actual removal, on the 5th of February 1845, so seriously de- 
pressed the prospects of the town that many of its citizens, losing all hope for 
its future, deserted the place and sought their fortunes elsewhere. The cal- 
amity to the village was only to a minor degree detrimental to Dr. Tate's bus- 
iness, as his practice was almost altogether among the surrounding farmers. 
But, following so closely his own defeat, very much discouraged him. That, 
with the operation of certain other influences, decided him to abandon Vir- 
ginia too. 

A few months before, one Dr. George W. Stockton made his appearance 
in A'irginia, proposing to remain here as one of its practitioners of medicine. 
There was nothing about Stockton, either in personal appearance, or acquire- 
ments, to cause any physician to fear his competition; nor did Dr. Tate fear 
it; but the presence of Stockton gave him the pretext he desired to get away. 
He sold his liouse and lot— the mortgageon itstill unpaid— to Dr.Stocktori,and 
closing up his business, left Cass county in tlie fall of 1843, moving to Nauvoo, 
tlie Mormon city on the Mississippi. He had two objects in view in going 
there— as he repeatedly told the writer of this sketch; the one was the liope 
of benefitting his wife's health by the change: the other was to study the 
Morman religion. His wife, formerly Miss Marcy Windsor, a native of Mas- 
sachusetts, was a well educated and cultured lady, wlio liaving fitted herself 
for teaching as a life vocation, had gone to Ohio for employment. On coming 
to Illinois her health failded manifesting unmistakablesymptomsof consump- 
tion. It has been attested— but with what degree of truth, if any— is not de- 
finitely known that on going to Ohio siie was, for awhile, associated with the 
Mormons at their Kirtland settlement near Cleveland, and was partially con- 
verted to their creed, and it was by her persuasion that the doctor went to 
Nauvoo. Let that be as it may, they remained there only till the next sum- 
mer, when, Mrs. Tate's condition growing worse, the doctor determined to 
take her back to Massachussets and try the effect of a higher latitude and the 
ocean air in arresting the ravages of disease. 

They traveled in the eastern states for some months, the Doctor paying 
their expenses, it was said, by delivering public lectures on phrenology, physi- 
ology and kindred subjects. But she continued to decline in health, and 
died, in 1845, from exhaustion, among her kindred at her birthplace. Dr. 
Tate and his little motherless daughter then returned to Virginia where they 
secured a temporary home at the village hotel then managed by Mr. Wm. 
Armstrong. Dr. Stockton had in the meantime "played out" and departed 
for Schuyler county leaving beliind him a very unsavory reputation. He, of 
course, failed to pay the debt due on the "Cherry house," which, after fore- 
closure proceedings and decree of count, was sold by the master in chancery, 
and pui'chased by Dr. Hall on the 19tli of October, 1845. 

Dr. Tate resumed his slavish professional drudgery witli vigor and en- 
thusiasm speedily regaining Ids former circle of practice. But with a small 
child to care for, and no lixed home his situation was neither pleasant or sat- 
isfactory. He had drained the cup of sorrow to its dregs in the deep afflic- 
tion visited upon liim by the loss of his two companions in their morning of 


life. They were gone, and mourning could not restore them; so he sen- 
sibly concluded that, as it is not well for man to be alone, — more especially a 
medical man— he would look around for another life partner to share his for. 
tunes and misfortunes. With that object in view he remembered his old 
friendly relations with his early neighbors, Mr. Thomas Proctor and family, 
making for that purpose many visits out there not altogether professional, 
and not charged up in his ledger. Those gratuitous visits, however, were 
settled for in full when, on the 23d of February, 1848, he was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Lydia E. Proctor, a young lady of rare amiability and admir 
able personal qualities. 

As a country doctor. Dr. Tate had seen and experienced all the beauties 
and grandeur of the business, and was getting tired of its physical labors. 
He began to long for something to turn up, or some opening to offer, that he 
could engage in, that would contribute to lighten the burdens of his daily 
life. Running at the beck and call of the public at all hours of the day and 
night had become very monotonous, and he felt that he would like to have an 
easier job than the one he had. A few months after his last marriage he 
thought he saw a chance for relief by buying a drug store effered for sale at 
Lacon, in Marshall county. The prospect was so alluring that he left Vir- 
ginia, with his wife and daughter, to find a new home in Lacon. For some 
unknown reason he failed to consummate the trade for the drug store, butdid 
something in the line of his profession, wiiich, no doubt, would have in- 
creased had he remained lorjger. But he had formed an attachment for Vir- 
ginia, and his wife, very naturally prefering to be near her relatives, they re- 
turned to Cass county the next summer that of 1849, bringing with them 
their tirst-born, a son named Thomas, who came into this cold, heartless 
world there amidst the Marshall county mosquitoes. 

In Virginia once more— to stay there until the end— the Doctor rented a 
house on the southwestern corner of Beardstc.wn and Job streets and settled 
down to his same old routine work The premises he occupied were lots 11, 
12 and 13 of Hall's addition to the Public Grounds. And he purchased that 
property on the 24th of January. 18.")0, lots 11 and 12 of Alexander Naylor, 
and lot 13 of Ulysses IVaylor. He was there situated only sixty ya'-ds from 
his old competitor. Dr. Schooley, who, however, was gone to California to get 

Residence of Dr. Tate fiom IX'A) to isii". 

- 173 - 

rich quickly. His vacancy was supplied by Drs. Lord and Hathwell, and the 
next year Schooley returned. But Dr. Tate stuck to his post: and was still 
there long after Schooley, Lord and Hathwell had le'^t Virginia, and long 
after every physician who was in Cass county at the time he (Tate) first came 
into it had passed to his final reckoning where pills and powders, and petty 
professional jealousies, are unknown forever. 

The last change of residence made by Dr. Tate in Virginia was in 1867, 
when he moved from his old home on the corner lots to the premises formerly 
improved and occupied by Richard S. Thomas on Job street a few yards far- 
ther south, which he bought of Samuel Vance, described on the town plat as 
block No. 1 of the Hall and Thomas addition, less a strip of 90 feet in width 
off the north end previously sold to Isaac Bell. There, with ample room for 
his garden and live stock, and his children growing up around him he was 
well situated to pass the evening of life serenely. 

Dr. Tate was always duly interested in public affairs, and, without os- 
tentation or parade, was public spirited enough to willingly bear his sliare of 
the public burdens unavoidable in the regulation and advancement of the 
community. He served the town for years as one of its Board of Trustees. 
Invariably a friend and promoter of education, he was a long time one of its 
most efficient school directors, often visiting the schools and exercising over 
them practical personal supervision. In politics he was a primeval Jeffer- 
sonian-democrat, but not a noisy, pernicious partisan. Yet, he was well 
posted on all questions of public policy, able and ready to defend his views, 
and usually considerably concerned in tlie management and fortunes of his 
party. In 1869, he was nominated by the democratic county convention a 
candidate for superintendent of public schools. His opponent on the repub- 
lican ticket was James L. Dyer, a teacher of the Arenzville schools and a 
gentleman of very respectable attainments. At the election on November 
2d, Dr. Tate was elected to succeed Hon. J. Iv. Vandemark. receiving 905 
votes, and Mr. Dyer 527. 

His bond having been filed and approved. Dr. Tate commenced his official 
career on the first Monday of December in 1869. In order that he miglit 
have more time to devote to that career, in 1871 he entered into partuersliip 
in the practice of medicine with Dr. C. M. Hubbard, a bright young physician 
fresh from the same medical college in Cincinnati where he himself had grad- 
uated thirty-one years before. Tliere are few avocations in life in which 
partnerships are so seldom satisfactory as in the medical profession. That 
partnership was not an exception to the general rule. In the course of a 
year it was dissolved by mutual consent, without friction or ill-feeling, the 
younger member of the firm withdrawing" and setting up shop for himself. 

The routine official work of the superintendent's position gave Dr. Tate 
genial employment without seriously interfering with his medical practice. 
It accorded well with his tastes and habits of thought, at tlie same time 
atfording him opportunities for ventilating some of his reform ideas of teach- 
ing. He felt much pride in properly discharging the duties of the position, 
which he did for four years with credit, and to the general satisfaction of the 
people. But about the close of his term a temporary realignment of political 
parties in the county, based upon the county seat removal contest, rendered 
his re-election impracticable. Dependent then upon his professional work 


altogetlier, with sharp competition all around, and the slowing up of vitality 
by reason of advancing age, impelled liim to again devise some means to mit- 
igate the rigorous struggle. 

His intimate knowledge of medicines naturally suggested the drug busi- 
ness as the one lie could more readily manage, with but moderate capital, and 
the least preliminary preparation. In the spring of 1873 a neat little drug 
St )re was established, in the old Allard corner building, by Rufus Rabourn 
and Dr. Jeffries, a local dentist, neither of whom had any practical knowledge 
of the drug trade. Tliey both soon tired of the enterprise and offered it for 
sale on liberal terms. It was just what Dr. Tate was looking and wishing for, 
and he bought it, in the spring of 1874. Installing his son, John, as chief 
clerk, he successfully conducted the store for four years, in connection with 
liis practice, when, growing tired of it himself, he sold the establishment to a 
man named Sprague, in the summer of 1878. While in the drug business the 
Doctor concocted a patent nostrum known as "Dr. Tate's Celebrated Anti- 
Bilious and Liver Pills," warranted to be purely vegetable in composition, 
and '"certain, safe, mild" in action. After disposing of his stock to Mr. 
Sprague he lived a more retired life at home, still manufacturing his pills 
whicli for several years had considerable reputation and sale. He also con- 
tinued the practice of medicine vuitil forced by the decrepitude of age to 
abandon in. 

In stature Dr. Tate was five feet ten inches tall, with well-proportioned 
figure neither stoop-shouldered or corpulent, having an average weight of 
about 160 pounds. His complexion was fair and eyes gray, with hair— in early 
life— of dark sandy color. Until his last days he retained an ahiiost full set of 
sound natural teeth. His regular features habitually wore a pleasant, benev- 
olent expression, and his smoothly shaved face, in repose, had a reverential 
look that seemed to index sentiments of piety and devotion. Any stranger 
would have pronounced him a preacher. He walked with a somewhat shamb- 
ling gait, his left arm usually partially flexed at the elbow by force of habit, 
not anchylosis. His voice was soft— almost feminine, his language chaste 
and grammatically correct; but his conversation and public addresses were 
void of eloquence and monotonous. Of strict moral character, unexceptional 
personal habits and deportment, he was temperate in all things, to the degree 
of total abstinence from the use of liquors, tobacco and profanity. With do- 
mestic tastes, much attached to his wife and children, the quietude of liis 
home, pervaded by an atmosphere of affection and filial regard, constituted 
his sphere of earthly happiness. 

He did nothing rashly or hurriedly, was cautious, slow and deliberate in 
tliought, speech and action, and always very considerate of his own ease and 
comfort— in fact, wa? very partial to ease and comfort. If called profession- 
ally to the country before breakfast he generally remained tliere until after 
supper— if the cooking suited him and his horse was well fed. An expert in 
dietetics and an epicurean, lie was usually the last one to leave the table- 
teaching by examt)le one of his hobbies, the proper and perfect mastication of 
food. Kind and charitable, abliorring vice, depravity and vulgarity, his nat- 
ural impulses all tended to the good of the human race, and the elevating 
and purifying of society. He was not a financier, too lenient to his delinquent 
patrons and other debtors: too negligent of business affairs: generous with 

- 175 - 

his means, he lived well, and raised a large and expensive family, butaccumu 
lated no wealth. In all ordinary transactions he was strictly honorable. As 
a physician he was as honest and as truthful as the ethics of his profession 
would permit; for all doctors are compelled to lie and practice deception in 
self-defense, often to conceal their ignorance. 

Many persons of intelligence — some who are well educated — from habitual 
concentration of thought, or natural eccentricity, adopt hobbies which they 
advance on all favorable occasions. Those whose hobbies are so persistent as 
to dominate the mind are styled "cranks." Dr. Tate's hobby that brought him 
in the verge of crankism was "reform." He constantly advocated reform, not 
only of medical practice, but of society, churches, modes of worship, political 
parties, and methods of education. He professed to practice the "Eclectic 
system of medicine, claimed by him to be a vast improvement on the old Allo- 
pathic school and a startling reform. In his characteristic style he displayed 
that idea in a professional card he inserted in the Cass County Times, in 1851, 
as follows: 

"H. TATE, M. D. 

'■^Reformer, Eclectic Physiciau and Surgeon — posted up in the prof ession and 
in Organic Chemistry. 

'■'■SENTIMENT— Agriculture and Medicine ^\\o\x\di go liand in hand in im- 
provement — old implements in the fence corner. By the concentrated veget- 
able alkaloids the pulse, fevers and inflammations are more easily controlled 
in three days, than by old remedies in three weeks, despite the croaking and 
clamor of fogies. 

"iWOTTO— Truth and correct principles will prevail." 

Medical science ahd schools were the objects he insisted reqired reform 
most urgently, but almost everything in which the public was interested 
came in for its share. To be sure, some of those things needed considerable 
reforming; but his theories were so vague and disjointed, and his reform 
measures so visionary and impracticable that lie failed to impress the people 
with the wisdom of his notions, and lie proved no more successful as a re- 
former than he did as a financier. 

For some years the practice of medicine in a wide circle around Virginia 
was divided between Dr. Tate and Dr. Schooley, each hotly trying to surpass 
the other in popular favor. They were not only strenuous rivals in business, 
but bitter personal enemies. As Dr. Schooley for some years had no diploma 
Tate pronounced him a quack, a lialf-Indian adventurer who liad picked up a 
little smattering knowledge of medicine while feeding and currying Dr. 
Chandler's horses. Schooley retaliated by referring to Tate as a root and 
herb peddler, an old granny and ignoramus. Each had his friends and ad- 
mirers loyal to his interests and ready to disparage and abuse his rival. 

The two men were totally dissimilar in every particular. In their sys- 
tems of practice, in religious views, politics, temperament, tastes and dispo- 
sitions they had scarcely an idea in common. Yet, both were good men. the 
best of citizens, and reputed by their respective friends to be fine physicians. 
In one particular trait the contrast between them was well marked. Dr. 
Schooley possessed the Indian's passion for hunting; the savage desire for kill- 
ing—that he enjoyed as "sport" — fortunately restricted to dumb animals and 
birds. Dr. Tate, too compassionate and tenderhearted to kill even a snake or 


rat, was never known to handle, or fire, a gun. With Goldsmith's Hermit he 
could well have said: 

■'No flocks tliat range the valley free 

To slaughter I condemn; 
Taught by that Power that pities me, 

I learn to pity them." 
■- For all humanity he also entertained heartfelt compassion and charity: 
never purposely liarming or injuring anyone; never speaking evil of his neigh- 
bor, (excepting Schooley;) never retailing malicious gossip or slander, and ever 
ready to throw the mantle of charity over tlie faults and frailties of the weak 
and erring. Finally Dr. Scliooley abandoned the Held; but too late for Dr. 
Tate to profit by his victory; as the brisk competition of younger rivals, and 
the decrepitude of advanced age had rendered himself one of the "old imple- 
ments" relegated to the "fence corner." 

As a physician Dr. Tate was much esteemed by a large class of people, 
and, in tlie main, was quite successful. At no time a profound scholar or 
student, liis "book-learning" was superficial and desultory. Therefore, in his 
practice, he relied but little on theoretical deductions, and depended upon 
his knowledge gained from experience and precedents; on attentive nursing, 
and largely on the vis medicatrix naturae. He was a cautious, conservative, 
practitioner, aiming to check the projfress of disease and allay suffering by 
aiding pliysiological processes with harmless remedies, avoiding heroic treat- 
ment and doubtful experiments. In the sick room he was— as elsewhere- 
slow, deliberate and methodical, very explicit in his directions to the nurses, 
and exact in his remedies, carrying with him a pair of prescription scales and 
small graduated measure by means of which he compounded his medicines to 
the required grain or drop. He claimed such precision to be .scientific reform; 
but in reality it was stage play more for effect upon the patient and bystand- 
ers than from any solicitude on his part for absolute The ele- 
ment of Eclectic reform and advancement in his system of practice, of which 
lie so loudly boasted, was his employment of Merrill's ''concentrated veget- 
able extracts," manufactured in Ciricitniati, really meritorious remedies, quite 
popular for a longtiuie, and in use by all progressive physicians. As another 
phase of his great reform, the Doctor professed to abjure all mineral thera- 
peutical agents as being deleterious to the human .s\stem. or covert poisons; 
yet, when he salivated a hapless patient with his '-purely vegetable" (reform) 
remedies — as occasionally was the case — he gravely explained the "complica- 
tion" away to the attendent relatives in such a satisfactory way as to gain 
hgh credit for having saved the victim's life. He never attempted operative 
surgery, and in minor surgery was timid, bungling and awkward. 

Dr. 'J^ate was essentially a good man. actuated in everv walk of life by 
motives of benevolence and sympathetic kindness. He was naturally a relig- 
ious man wit h devotioual bent of mind, and ever-pre.sent sense of responsi- 
bility to Omnipotence, flis belief ni immortality was fixed conviction— not 
luerely a hope or conjecture. In the old graveyard in the Hall field near Vii'- 
ginia is a child's grave with headstone bearing this inscription: ••('harles W. 
Tate, son of Dr. H. and Lydia E. Tate. Passed by the second birth to bloom 
in the second sphere, August 2;)th. Is:a. Aged 19 months." 

■^ The epitaph on that stone expressed tlie Doctor's entire creed. Bevond 

- 177 - 

the portals of death was the second bh'th; beyond that all was chaos and con- 
fusion. He meditated deeply upon the much discussed question of man's 
final destiny, and prayed for divine help to light his bewildered way. In his 
early manhood he examined into the new cult founded by Alexander Camp- 
bell in 1811; but to liim it appeared little more tlian a rope of sand. In 1843, 
he went to Nauvoo and investigated Mormonism. By his detractors he was 
accused of becoming a member of that abominable hierarchy, but he denied it. 
At any rate, he returned as much unsettled in beliefs as before. After his 
marriage to Miss Proctor— the Proctor family all being Methodists— he was 
persuaded to join that fold, and he earnestly tried to accept its creed. With 
the zeal of the new proselyte, he is said to have attempted to preach it: but 
periiaps his efforts were only to exhort sinners to repentance. But that too 
failed to satisfy the yearnings of his soul: for, in reality, he was deficient in 
faith— as defined by the church. Belief of the supernatural and impossible 
was not his difficulty- it was the essence and nature of that supernatural 
agency that staggered him. He was convinced that the activity of tnat 
agency, or force, was present in life, and not deferred to the "second sphere." 
Consequently he believed firmly in premonitions, omens, presentiments, and 
other esoteric phenomena. 

He often told that one day during a hot, dry summer he rode his tired 
horse into a shallow slough for water, stopping near a large dead tree that 
stood in the water. Tlie thirsty animal had scarcely commenced to drink 
when the Doctor was suddenly seized with an urgent impulse to get away from 
there immediately. No sound was heard and not a breath of air was astir 
Giving his horse a sharp cut with the whip the startled creature sprung for- 
ward several feet. At that moment a large decayed limb of the tree, weigh- 
ing perhaps half a ton, came crashing down on the spot where he stood an in- 
stant before. Again: about the middle of the night, on another occasion, he 
had just issued his medicines and directions at the bedside of a patient, a few 
miles from Virginia, when he felt a sudden command, which he could not re- 
sist, to return home at once. Rushing to the gate he mounted his horse, and 
in a sweeping gallop soon reached the village. Arriving at his home he saw 
an unusual light that, on nearer approach, he discovered emanated from fire 
rapidly spreading over the rear end of the kitchen, caused by the careless 
dumping of ashes there early in the evening. Springing from his horse he 
seized a bucket near by, which happened to be full of water, and with that 
and more he pumped, extinguished the fire before apprising anyone of the 
impending danger. 

Dr. Tate was an idealist and dreamer, rejecting the rubbish of orthodox 
theology though sanctioned by the credulity of ages. He looked beyond that 
for a more rational philosophy to satisfy his soul's aspiration. He was deeply 
interested in the Harmonial hypothesis of Andrew Jackson Davis in its day — 
so deeply impressed with it that he named a daughter Harmonia;— and was 
charmed with the visionary idealism of Emanuel Swedenborg; but he was so 
totally wanting in application, and the power to concentrate and systematize 
his ideas that they remained confused and without definite form or order. 
Had he lived long enough to have become a member of the Society for Psychi. 
cal Research he would have found in modern Spiritualism removal of all 
doubts, and satisfactory solution of the many occult problems that sorely per- 


plexed him. He kept aloof from all secret societies, and, after having passed 
the meridian of life, affiliated with no church, willing to rest his case, before 
the Eternal Arbiter of the universe, upon the broad principles of Christian 
morality, and the consciousness of having done his work to the best of his 

His failing strength and faculties compelled him at length to retire from 
tlie practice of medicine, to wliich he had devoted all the best years of his 
life. Then followed a few more years of involuntary seclusion to which he 
could illy reconcile himself. He knew that he had reached the limit—that 
ills course was run; but he was reluctant to depart. The world still appeared 
to him bright and beautiful. He loved his home, his family, liis friends, and 
clung to life with pathetic tenacity; but exhausted vitality forced him to sur- 
render, and he quietly passed away on the 21st of J une, 1891, aged 81 years, 
4 months and 1 day. 

His wife did not long survive him. After a brief illness she died on the 
8th of November, 1893, at the age of 6G years, 3 months and 12 days. 

Of their children four sons and three daughters are still living. A grown 
son— tlie one born at Lacon— and a married daughter, Mrs. R. W. Mills, some 
years before, preceded them to the grave. 

A young man named Dunlap studied medicine with Dr. Tate, and "rode" 
witli him, ultimately graduating at one of the St. Louis medical colleges, and 
located at Arenzville. He there made a promising beginning of a professional 
career, but too free indulgence in "the cup that both cheers and inebriates" 
prostrated him in public esteem and confidence, and ruined his prospects and 
usefulness. He left Illinois about 18(J7 for some unknown destination, and 
Cass county heard no more of him. 


Introductory Note By J. N. Gridlby: Many farmers' wives are driv- 
en to insanity by overwork, tlie monotony the loneliness of country life. The 
city lady, wlio, with pity, and sympatliy, looks out of the window of 1 he palace 
car, upon tlie wife of a poor farmer, standing, in faded calico garments, in the 
doorway of a cheap, isolated farm liouse, would prefer death to the existence 
of the object of her commisseration. But the life of the country women of to- 
day, is certainly a better life, than tiiat of a wife of a pioneer. The pioneer is 
fond of dangers, and adventure; liis daring spirit is exliilareted by the chase 
of the deer, and the hunting of wild animals: he enjoys some degree of socia- 
bility witli his comrades in the popular wild west sports of drinking liquor, 
gaming, lighting and running horses. But what of his wife who lias left far 
behind, her father, mother, brother and sister, church and school privileges, 
to march on toward the setting sun to find a shelter in a log hut, in which slie 
swelters in summer, and chills in winter; where she is stricken in autumn, 
with the deadly malaria, far from medical assistance and without suitable 
careV Is there anything in this life, of comfort or cheer? 

Tliinking that a sketch of early life, written by a woman would be of 
much interest, I addressed a letter to my friend, Mrs. Emily Burton, asking 
lier to become a contributor to this series of sketches. Her father Hon. 
James M. Robinson, left his home in central New York in the year 18.S.3 with 
liis wife and baby, for the land of the mini, with his family and household 
effects packed into a wagon, drawn by oxen; passing through the wild fron- 
tier town of Chicago, he wended his way slowly over the prairits. till he 
reached, the northwest corner of what was then Sangamon county, in the val- 
ley of the Sangamon at a point within a mile or two of the present east line 
of Cass county. Here he unloaded his wagon, prepared a shelter, and near 
by, on Clary's Creek lie soon established Robinson's .Mill, wliich soon became 
w'ell known far and near, as a familiar land mark: and here liis children were 
born and grew to manhood and womanhood. One of them his son Charles C. 
who lived for more than twenty years six miles east of this city, is well and 
favorably remembered by a majority of our present residents. 

Mrs. Burton's communication, came in the form of a letter widi the le- 
(luest that I take therefrom the material for the construction of a sketch, 
but I at once decided to produce it as she had written it without alteral ion, 
being satisfied it would prove more satisfactory to the readers of these 
sketches, than anytliing I could write, from its contents. 

Deshler, Neb., Feb. 1, lM()(i. Hon. J. N. Gridley. Virginia. III. Dear 
friend: I received your letter of January in due time, and have waited for 
tlie papers containing the tiistorical sketches before rei)lying. 

Your letter was a pleasant surprise, I assure you. Aside from the pleas- 
ure given by your kind mention of my father and my brother Charles, your 
name on the corner of the envelope awakened a train of delightful as.socia- 
tions tliat carrried me back to the "noontime and June time" of life. ;ind 
even before I had tinislied opening your letter. 1 was in the beautiful country 
around A'irginia. visiting at my brother's house, enjoying his sweet, congenial 


company, and that of his cheerful family, and partaking of their honey and 
their fruit. How long and many the years seem since I visited there and was 
happy! "The thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts." And being there, 
how easy to be transported to Chandlerville to the blessed haven of my 
father's roof, or to stroll about the hills, and dream the dreams that come 
but once in our three score years and ten. 

In tlie time that has elapsed since the receipt of your letter, I have been 

trying to recall dates and events, and 
any matter that I thought would be 
of use to your Society. In this matter 
of dates and events, I hope to get 
some assistance from an aunt, my 
father's sister, and only member of 
his family living-, who is now in the 
eighties, but bright and active in 
mind. This aunt, then young and 
beautiful, left civilization behind and 
came with her parents, who in less 
than a year followed their favorite 
son, my father, to the wild west- 
still supposed to be infested by In- 
dians, rattlesnakes and panthers. 
This aunt, Mrs. Cyrus McDole, lives 
at Petersburg, in Menard county. I 
will also call on Mrs. Talbott, my old- 
est sister, and oldest of our family, 
who was born in Thompkins county, 
New York, and who while yet a mere 
babe of scarce two years, " made the 

Mil^. EMILY BURTUN. journey with our parents in a two 

horse wagon drawn by oxen, across the wide stretch of country between New 
York and Illinois. 

My father and mother— what brave liearts they must have had! It seems 
to me that not Nogis, nor Togos, nor Oyamas could be braver— made the 
journey in 1833. 

My father's full name was James Madison Robinson. He was the son of 
Ebenezer and Lucy Robinson, and was born near Itliaca, Tompkins county, 
New York, June 14, 1800. My grandfather, Ebenezer Robinson, was a thrif- 
ty farmer of unusual intelligence, who owned his home, and had surrounded 
himself with many conveniencies. Thus my father in setting his face west- 
ward had ttie courage of sacrifice. 

My mother was a native of the same state and county, and was born 
April 25, 1809, being a month and nineteen days my father's senior. She was 
the daughter of Joshua and Rachael Jay, and was married to my father, 
March n, 1829. 

Joshua Jay, my grandfather, was a consin to the renowned .Tohn Jav, and 



an old family Bible I'ecords that he was born 1765,— he was, therefore, a lad of 
ten years when the revolutionary war broke out. In that momentous year of 
1775, he was riding to mill horseback, with a sack of grain in front of him, 
and was overtaken by three men, also on horseback. Tlie one in the lead was 
on a white horse, and was very tall and straight. He rode up to my grand- 
father's side, and putting one hand gently on his liead, asked him liis name, 
and where he was going. "My name is Joshua Jay, and lam going to mil], 
sir." "You are a fine lad, and will no doubt make a tine man, good-day," and 
the three rode past leaving the boy behind. Jle learned afterward that the 
one on the white lioree was Washington, and, that he was on his way to Bos- 
ton to take command of tlie American forces. In the light of what Wasliing- 
ton afterward became, my grandfather loved to tell tliis to his children, and 
they, to tlieir grandcliildren. 

In making their way to Central Illinois, my parents passed througli a 
muddy, desolate looking village of only a few houses on the shore of Lake 
Michigan, called Fort Dearborn. Twenty years later my fatlier went with a 
drove of cattle to tliat place and found it a city. That insignificant village 
had become Cliicago. My fatlier brought back gifts to liis family, and wliile 
distributing them said: "Oh! Oh! If I could only have seen into the future, 
and stopped right there in the mud of Fort Dearborn, what might we not 
have enjoyed by this time?" That was in 185,3. The Board of Trade had not 
then come into existence, "municipal ownership" was not even a myth, 
strikes were unheard of, traction companies, telephone companies, and trolley 
lines were yet to be, an automobile would have frightened men as well as 
horses, the great stock yards were not there, nor the evidences of many other 
"trusts,"— or he might have expressed joy for his own sake, and for the sake 

18 '2 

of liis children that he had been able to live in tranquillity, out of sight and 
hearing" of the mad rush of "frenzied finance." 

What lured them on so far south of that place I cannot recall, but they 
made their first halt, to stay, near tlie border line between the counties of 
Menard and Cass, a mile or so from Clary's Creek on the Sangamon river bot- 
tom. Uhey built their first fire on the site of what was afterward the town 
of New Richmond, where the thick stout grass was taller than a man's head, 
and as the flames lit up the wild place, I liave heard my mother say that my 
father sat dawn on the tongue of the wagon with hope and courage for the 
moment all gone, and that in cheering him she cheered herself, and they re- 
solved to conquer the wilderness with no turning back. They had been 
months on the road. 

About where tliey passed their first night, with no shelter but what the 
wagon gave, a rude log hut was erected with a dirt floor, and one small win- 
dow that for a long time had no glass. A heavy quilt served many weeks for 
a door shelter. The logs to build the cabin were cut from the trees along the 
Sangamon I'iver. The water and the timber of that river decided the location 
of the cabin, for the river water was all they liad to use at first. Afterward 
a spring was found that gave a purer supply. In this cabin not many weeks 
after their arrival, their first son was born. Dr. Chandler, of Chandlerville, . 
was in attendance on my mother during this trial of strength and courage, 
and in gratitude for his great kindness, my brother was named Charles Chand- 
ler. And for thirty-five years Dr. Chandler was not only our family physician, 
but a highly respected and beloved friend. He was known and sent for far 
and wide, and liis kindness, manliness, and integrity no doubt, won for him 
the same reverence in many homes tliat he held in ours. 

May Ki, 1S3.5, my father entered 40 acres 
of land in the western part of Menard coun- 
ty. This was two or three miles east of 
New Richmond, and was divided almost di- 
agonally by Clary's Creek. September 9th, 
of the following year he bought 40 acres of 
David Atterberry. This forty joined the 
other on the north and was almost wholly 
on the right, or east bank of the creek as it 
ran at that place. In the northwest corner 
of tills forty, and on the riglit bank of the 
creek, Robinson's mills, saw mill and grist 
mill were built, in 1836. The next year, 
;'y| 1837, he bought the 40 acres joining this on 
the west, so that he liad 120 acres in one 
body. In 1839 he bought another 40, but it 
was in the section south of him, and in the 
southeast part of the section. This made 
m the owner of 160 acres of rich land. 
In those days the "timber" hugged the 
streams closely, and to be away from creek 
or river was to be in the prairie grass, or on 
the bald bluff. The growth of the trees on 


- 183 ~ 

the bluffs^ whose sliade ancf nnts were such comfort and delfghttoiischildren, 
was nearly all after my parents came. The bluffs were bare, or showing only 
patches of low brush when they first saw them, and nothing was more of a 

(Site of the Robinson Mill. The Handkerchief is upon the exact location.) 
marvel to them than this growth of trees. They often spoke of it. and told 
us how the country looked when they first it. All one wilderness of grass, 
and so full of danger from fires in the late summer and autumn that 'fire 
guards" were as necessary to safety as the fire department of a city. Often 

(Site of the Robinson Homestead, which stood just in front of the site of the 

brick house shown in cut.) 
and often they told us of the wonderful prairie tires that spared nothing, man 
nor beast, nor young tree in tlieir track. Many a time my father helped tight 
fire to save a neighbor's grain, or hay, or stock, till he was as black as smoke 
and soot could make him. Wood and water, the first settlers were obliged to 
have, and this is why the land along the creek and river bottoms was entered, 
and turned into homes, before the tine grain lands, that proved such a 


source of wealth to those wlio came later. But my father looked with a mil- 
ler's eye, and would have searched for water to turn his wheels had he come 
ate or early. 

About a quarter of a mile from the mill, and east, at the foot of the hills 
that were mountains to our child eyes, my father reared a double log house, 
roomy and by comparison with other homes around it, comfortable. It had 
a wide fireplace and an "up stairs." I have a distinct memory of it. There 
was a neat cave that served for a cellar, a good well with an old-fashioned 
sweep, and an orchard on the slope of the hill, whose Jennetings, bell flowers 
and "little Romanites" helped witli nuts to brighten winter evenings. 

Here my father and mother passed some of their best days. Here six 
children were born to them, atid here they wept over the little girl that died. 
Hardship and toil there had to be, and privation. But they had the joy of 
liberty. There was no exacting sweat-house master over them. Their child- 
ren had the hills and streams and birds and flowers, and all tlie wonder and 
beauty of the change of season in such places. The pawpaw leaves along the 
ci'eek bottom still glow for me in the October sunshine; the mulberries, the 
wild plums, crabs, and hawthorn blossoms, shed their fragrance and bear 
fruit for me. Still do I taste tlie nuts—hazel nuts, hickory nuts, big and 
little, butternuts, walnuts, chinkapins and pecans— and keep in mind the and peculiarly shaped stone that was used instead of a hammer to 
crack them witli, and the place where they were thrown in piles to dry 

(Looking up Clary's Creek.) 
awhile before being stored away for the winter. We children ranged the 
hills and slopes for hazel nuts, but ray father made a business every fall of 
going with tlie "big wagon" for hickory nuts and pecans. For the finest big 
hickory nuts and pecans, he went to a place on the Sangamon called the "Big 
Bottom." When we went there, we took our dinners and stayed all day. 
How delightful to have our father with us, helping to gather the nutsi 
Often if the day was chilly he would build a rousing fire of leaves and sticks 
for our delight, taking care always that no damage was done. I have come 
to think that children who grow up without the joy of gathering nuts and 
wild flowers, ^row up deprived. I would not exchange tlie picture memory 

- 185 - 

draws for any however famous painting by tlie great mastei's. 

My parents, like their neighbors, Icept their flock of geese and their flock 
of slieep. The geese had their yearly or more frequent pickings, when pillows 
and feather beds were added to; and often one or two of their number; roasted 
before the fire in the fireplace, contributed to the cheer of Christmas and 
other holidays. The sheep were driven to Clary's Creek and given a good 
washing before the yearly shearing: and the wool cut from their backs with 
such dreadful looking shears, was tied up in large sacks or old sheets and 
stored away wherever room could be found for it, till wool picking day And 
wool picking day was quite a "function." Between it and one of Mrs. Brad- 
ley Martin's "functions," there is all the difference between pioneer life and 
a society grown corpulent with wealth, and hard put for a new amusement. 
On wool picking day the neighbor women and children, who had been invited, 
gathered in and arranged themselves in a circle around a large pile of wool 
that occupied tlie center of tlie room, and each one helping himself to a por- 
tion, picked burrs, sticks and trash out of it, till it looked clean and fluffy, 
and then tossed it on to a sheet spread out for that purpose. In due time a 
good dinner, and perhaps a good supper too, rewarded the pickers, For let us 
not for a moment imagine that people did not have good dinners in tlio-<e 
days. Nice light bread, luscious "corn pone,' potatoes, cabbage, beans, peas 
in their season, meats nicely browned, mince pies, pumpkin pies and Iruit 
sauces of various kinds, from fresh fruits in summer and dried fruits in winter, 
were to be found on the tables of the tlirifty country folks; and for sucli occa- 
sions as wool picking many dainties were prepared, such as pound cake pre- 
serves and puddings. 

The picking was only the beginning of work on the wool. The next task 
was to card it into rolls. This was nice work that not every woman was 
skilled in, but one way or another every family managed to do its own card- 
ing. Next came the spinning and winding into skeins, and this work of 
spinning usually fell to the girls or young ladies of the family. Girls may be 
happier now with their music practice, their Battenburg and golf, but they 
were very happy then. Being one of the younger members of the family, all 
work of this kind was taken out of the home before I was old enough to be 
useful, but I remember how pleasant the buzz of the wheel was to me as I 
watched my sisters in their tidy dresses bold a roll to the spindle, give the 
wheel a touch with their wlieel pin, walk backward as far as tliey could and 
keep the wheel going, then forward again to wind up the thread, perhaps 
singing, or reciting some poein all the while. I had a great desire to be able 
to turn a roll into thread, but 1 was born too late. After the yarn was in the 
skein, came the coloring, and wliat discoveries in chemistry women made over 
their "bluedye" kettles, and in experimenting to get madder, and copperas 
shades. If I remember right, I think they got green, by steeping peach tree 
leaves and mixing the liquid with the blue dye. Next came the weaving: and 
gave forth flannels and linseys, and jeans of two colors, sheep's gray and blue, 
all of which had to be cut into garments for men, women and children, each 
seam sewed by hand, many of them back-stitched and pressed, and much of 
the sewing done by candles or a grease lamp. 

The changes that have taken place since then surpass the tales of tlie 
"Arabian Nights." We press a button and maciiinery is set in motion, that 



obeys our every wish, performs labors that might puzzle tlie "slaves of the 
ring or lamp," relieves both men and women of drudgery, lights our dwellings, 
annihilates distance and enables us to talk with friends on the other side of 
the earth. No fairy tale can equal it, Women "back-stitch" no more. The 
sewing machine is a common household utensil, and above it is a gas jet or an 
electric light that turns night into day. Chemists get all tlie colors of the 
rainbow from coal tar and blue dye and madder tints as obtained then seem 
to belong to a rude age. 

My father kept sheep for several years after the work of converting the 
wool into cloth had ceased to be a household industry. He sheared the sheep 
and sent the wool to Bale's Mill at Petersburg, to be exchanged for pretty 
"pressed flannels" that went far toward making the family elegant as well as 
comfortable. Well do I remember the first "pressed flannel" my father 
brought home from the mill at Petersburg. One "bolt" was green and the 
other black. The green was too pretty to go round— each one wanted some- 
garment from it— and my school dress had to be made of the black, but my 
fat her said it was pretty and I was not unhappy. 

Elobinson's Mills became famous. People came from far and near with 
grists to be ground and logs to be sawed. They came f'om fifty and seventy- 
five miles away. My father worked day and night. There was always too 
much waiting for the rail! to rest. And the poor miller! God bless him, 
with his powdery curls and his sweet reasonable temper. He certainly had a 
pleasant way with him, and men called him "Jimmy" as if from real affection. 

It was often into the small hours of the night before he could leave the 
mill, and because of this my mother kept the house as quiet as possible in the 
mornings, and never allowed him to be awakened until just in time to eat his 
biealvfast. One night when he was at the mill watching the hopper, and be- 
ing wearier tiian usual had grown a little drowsy— a great many wagon loads 
of grinding had come that day and he had helped carry the bags up the steps 
—lie heard a strange moaning sound that did not come from an empty hopper 
nor from any piston rods, cogs or belts. He heard it more than once and turn- 
ing liis eyes in the direction of the sound saw two figures draped in sheets 
coining stealthily up the mill stairs. They looked very tall and were dis- 
guised by dough faces. My father seized a large iron bar, of use about the 
mill, and made for them with it lifted to strike. My father was a strong atli- 
letic man of good size. The two figures tore off their dough faces, flung the 
sheets to the floor, and revealed two young fellows that my father knew well 
and who were often about the mill, one of them Amos Ogden. the name of the 
other 1 cannot recall certainly, but think it was Amos Garner, who after- 
ward became a Methodist exhorter and preacher. They begged "like good 
fellows," and said they were only in for some fun. My father advised them 
not to indulge in that kind of fun any more, as they had found out how dan- 
gerous it might prove. They were glad to be let off so easy for they had sel- 
dom seen my father roused to anger as he was then. 

Later on my father was so fortunate as to And a trusty Scotchman, named 
Steven Burrill. who relieved him of part of this night work at the mill. Then 
his evenings were given to reading: he read much aloud to his family, and of 
the best. He was fond of a good story and wept over the pathetic parts in a 
way that made it very real to his listeners. I may as well say here that he 

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had some of the classics, both in history and in poetry on his bool^ slielf, and 
pored over tliem often, dividing his enjoyment of them with liis family. 
Among the poets were Shakespeara, Burns, Pope, Cowper and Milton, and a 
beautifully bound volume of selections from poets of New England. This 
volume contained many favorites with us children, among them I remember 
"Fannie Willoughby" (author forgotten), Marco Bozaris by Halleck, Bryant's 
"Melancholy Days" and others. My mother early encouraged us to mem- 
orize beautiful poems. She was very fond of Cowper and 1 early learned to 
love "The Task," reading with her. And many times did we children laugh 
with our parents over "John Gilpin's Ride." Among the historians he had 
Rollins, Josephus, Plutarch's Lives, and a cyclopedic history of noted Greeks 
and Romans, with pictures, from which we younger children gleaned more 
than from Plutarch's Lives. He had also "Dick's Works," Olmsted's "Let- 
ters on Astronomy," Abbott's "Napoleon" and other works that I cannot re- 
member. Brother Setn and I read Abbott's "Napoleon" when we were veiy 
young, and I was never able to quite overcome the bias it gave me in favor of 
Napoleon. My father took Harper's Monthly from the very first number pub- 
lished till his home was broken up in 1S()5. He took the Saturday Evening 
Post, and the New York Ledger before its degenerate days. When George 
D. Prentiss had a column in it, and "Fanny Fern" wrote her spicy articles 
for it— articles, I believe, that went as far toward rousing women, and men 
also, to the true dignity of womanhood, the sacredness of motherhood, and 
the justness of freedom for the mistress, as well as for the master of the 
home, as did the deeper reasoning and greater eloquence of Susan B. Anthony 
and Mrs. Stanton; because her words reached many a home in which Miss 
Anthony and Mrs. Stanton were strangers. The two Cobbs. Sylvanus senior 
and Sylvanus junior, Emerson Bennett and Mrs. Emma D. E. N. Southwortii 
wrote for these two papers. The two Cobbs and Emerson Bennett have 
passed to oblivion; we would search for them in vain in book catalogues. 
Mrs. Southworth is still writing, or was at least until very recently, and is 
widely read and known: but critics do not give her a high place. Yet by 
reading the Cobbs I learned to hate religious intolerance, and religious 
hypocrisy. With Emerson Bennett I roamed the forest, learned the ways of 
Indians, their trickery and their faitlifulness, their courage and their wari- 
ness, and fostered a love for the romantic that has sweetened life all along 
the way. By reading Mrs. Southworth I learned more of Southern life 'in 
slavery times than I could have got by reading any history. Some of her 
stories give far truer pictures than "Uncle Tom's Cabin." The negroes as a 
rule sang at their work, danced at night and were happy. They did not 
realize their state till taught by the white man. At any rate her glimpses of 
Southern life are pleasant and were enjoyed by our whole family. My 
father thought the Saturday Evening Post one of the best newspapers in the 
land, and 1 can remember after I was ten years old having often a playful 
squabble witli him as to which one of us should be first to open it. 

My motlier was just as fond of reading as my father, and he always read 
aloud at niglit while she sewed or mended, unless interrupted by company, or 
some other unusual event. In this way we children were taught to be quiet 
and attentive. Often after supper while my mother was busy at the house- 
work he would have a little game with us children, "Blind Man's Buff" or 


"Piiss Wants a Comer." romping and running as boisterous as any of us; but 
when my mother was ready to sit down, we were delighted to be still and 
listen. When my brother Charles was old enough, my father delegated much 
of the reading to lum, and often required one of my older sisters to take the 
book and rest him. 

All this reading and pleasant family life was round a wide open fire-place, 
with andirons to hold up a good stout fore stick, and generous room for a 
huge back log and a plentiful supply of smaller wood between back log and 
fore stick, that cracked and blazed and gave forth light and cheer that steam 
heated houses can never know. Two grease lamps supplied the light to read 
and sew by, and every morning those lamps had to be cleaned with nice care 
My mother was very particular. Every family that did not borrow of their 
neighbors had canr"e molds in those r'^vs, and molded their own candles from 
beef tail. w. Pretty brass candlesticks and snutfers ornamented the mantles 
in many homes. But it took much polishing, I remember, to keep the brass 
shining. In our liome the candles were used mostly "to run around" witli, 
or to help out a lamp when extra light was needed. 

Not often did an evening close round my father's hearth without a colla- 
tion of nuts and apples, and now and then a treat of "layer raisins." He was 
very fond of them and bought them by the box. They were always passed 
around in the box, so as no: to disturb more than were eaten. That was be- 
fore the age of "shoddy" and "graft" set in, and the bottom of the box was 
where it should be— so very different from strawberry boxes of the present 
day— and the last layer of raisins was as firm as the first. 

My parents liad neighbors— neighbors without stint it seems to me; I can 
remember the names of many of them. Tlie Lynns, the Hickeys, the Ish- 
maels, tlie Dicks, the McHenrys, the Lounsberrys, the Ogdens, the Jones', 
the Watkins'. t lie Overstreets, the Armstrongs, were all my father's neigli- 
bors, with whom he exchanged kindnesses and with whom he met at times in 
a social way. My parents were both socially inclined, and took moderate 
part in apple bees, quiltings, house or barn raisings, dances, picnics, or what- 
ever brought the people together, except horse racing. This my parents dis- 
approved, the more especially as it was usually accompanied by whiskey 
drinking and betting. My mother was bitterly intolerant of drunkenness. 
For the man under the influence of alcohol she had neither pity nor kindness. 
My father while using his influence against it by example as well as by words, 
was more patient, and looked upon the drinking man as more victim than 

Camp meetings were a kind of social gathering in those days and took 
place about once a year, in the early autumn, bringing more people together 
than perhaps any one cause. But my parents thought the religious fervor 
roused by the preaciier's words and tlie singing in the center of the crowd, 
more than off set by the rowdyism on the outskirts, and if they attended 
these meetings it was more to study human nature than to take part, 
or encourage them. 

Most of the preaching at that time was done by "circuit riders," preach- 
ers whose regular charge was in some town, but whose duty it was to devote 
certain Sabbaths to the people of the surrounding country; and it was not 
unusual for the speaker to announce at the close of his sermon that theie 

- 189 - 

would be meeting at the same place the following Sabbath, when some broth- 
er in the audience, perhaps, would address them. This brother, not an or- 
dained preacher, was called an "exhorter." Some of these, both circuit 
riders and exhorters, were sharp-witted and ready enough of tongue, and 
with these my father loved to have a bout at argument, "to try their metal 
and see how much they knew," he used to tell my mother when she chided 
liim. fie seldom failed to go to hear a good talker, of whatever denomina- 
tion, but never let a chance slip to joke a Methodist preacher about his fond- 
ness for "yellow legged chickens." These meetings were held in school- 
houses, or out of doors in the shade of trees. Well do I remember, during 
what was called a "revival," the passionate appeal to sinners, made by 
preachers, exhorters, and brothers in the church, to come forward to the 
mourner's bench and be saved, thus escaping outer darkness, and everlasting 
hell fire; and I recall my childish wonder at seeing men and women, some of 
them no longer young, rise and go forward, and kneel— some of them quietly, 
some of them sobbing; and then my childish terror at seeinij first one and 
then another start up, shouting and lifting their hands, calling on the Lord 
to come right then and save them, or falling over prone upon the ground, 
utterly overcome. 

Peter Cartwright was a preacher and circuit rider of great fame in those 
days, and more than once must have come near enough to Robinson's Mills 
for my father and family to go and hear him. But it was after we had left 
there and were living at Bath that I remember seeing and liearing him. As 
I recall him a gray-haired man, not tall, but well built, with good chest and 
shoulders, a tine head, with a keen eye and a square jaw. He had that ease 
of manner that comes to the man, who being round has found that round 
niche or hole that tits him— in other words, the masterful manner that comes 
with long practice crowned witli success in a chosen work. His sermon was 
gloomy, an arraignment of the intidel, and disappointed me, as I was expect- 
ing something bright and witty, of both of which I knew he was capable, 
knew it from what I had heard of him. 

Now and then my father invited the preacher home with liim to dinner 
and took pleasure in entertaining him, though he was not a member of any 
church, nor was my mother. They were not bound to any creed, but held 
that the Universalist has the most rational belief. 

Tlie dances of those days were not such rude attempts at pleasure and 
sociability as one might be led to think. For there were certainly good 
tiddlers and callers then, that a later time has not surpassed. "Fiddler John 
Jones" was almost as far famed for his music and good calling as preacher 
Cartwright for his oratory. He was head musician at the "balls" in Peters- 
burg and other towns: and in the country around, wlierever young people 
were assembled to "trip the light fantastic toe" "Fiddler Jones" was in de- 
mand, though on account of the many calls on his skill and time, he could 
not always respond. He had a voice, that without being loud, penetrated 
every part of a ball roou}-. his enunciation was distinct, and his time perfect, 
so tliat the dancers seldom made a mistake, and he knew so many clianges 
that they did not tire, and too often did not "go home till morning." My. 
oldest sister, Evalyn, now Mrs. Talbott, was just blooming into young lady- 
hood, and was one of the belles of the county when "Fiddler Jones" was so 


popular. She wrote to an aunt— I wish I could state in wliat year, but it 
must have been in 1845 or '4(1— "I went to dancing'' school last winter, and old 
Bell died last summer." "Old Bell" was a favorite cow. This dancing school 
was conducted in a schoolhouse, and Mrs. Talbott thinks young people have 
seldom had such a skillful teacher, or such entrancing music to practice by. 
My father thought dancing in moderation excellent for young people; it was 
one of the best means, he said, of acquiring pliysical grace, and of imparting 
ease of manner. And he thought it good even for the elderly, keeping the 
muscles supple, and the heart young. He was very fond of the Opa reel, and 
took pleasure in guiding unsophisticated youngsteis through its mazy de- 
lights. I have danced in the same set with my father, and not one of his 
cliildren but could say the same. 

This memory of him in the danoe with us, and entering into the spirit of 
it with the zest of youth, so far from detracting from his dignity as a father, 
fills my heart with loving gratitude for the sweet sympathy that doubled our 
joys by sharing them. As I think of him, my father would have been a par- 
ent to satisfy, almost, the ideal of Froebel, the founder of the kindergarten, 
whose wisdom the world is just beginning to compreliend. As 1 see him with 
us in our play, once more I must say, "(lod blesshira." 

Equal!}' did he sympathize with us in our tasks. He heard us read and 
spell and questioned us on all our lessons. Often he took the spelling book, 
"Webster's Elementary," and pronounced words for us to spell till my mother 
would declare that he was wearing us out. But we had wonderful staying 
powers in sucti exercises and could hold our own with him. spelling as long as 
he could "give out." He had no patience with careless spelling and expected 
us to learn the "hard pages" as well as the easy ones: and we did. lie had his 
reward; we were a family of good spellers. Ptyalin, phthisic, tyranny, mort- 
gage, pli}sic were just as easy as grease, fleece, tare, fair, stare, requiring no 
more strain on the attention. Owing to this practice and the love of it, our 
mates and their parents sometimes thought we got more than our share of 
head marks and other school honors, and on our account one teacher, a Mr. 
Walker, was confronted by the school board one afternoon, just about spelling 
time, and accused of partiality to the "Robinson children," and told that he 
would better give up his job. Many of the children were frightened, I among 
them, and very glad that 1 could shrink to my older sister, Lucy, and 
be soothed by her. This was in the iMcHera-y schoolhouse. and the chairman 
of the board which came that day, was Murrill McHenry. Mr. Walker re- 
signed his otiice of teacher, then and there, and the next day came to my 
father's house to tell us children good bj^e. We were fond of him and for us 
younger ones it was a tearful farewall. As a parting gift he gave me a Mc- 
Guffey's first reader. How happy 1 was and grateful! How well I remember 
the little green-backed book, crisp and clean and new. Pretty it was, with 
pictures illustrating the lessons, and with all the strides in book-making for 
children, some of them beautiful, almost ideal, that little book is not greatly 
surpassed. So far I had never been put to reading, not a line, but I could 
spell metheglin, cinnamon, incomprehensibility and so on, and pronounce each 
syllable and group of syllables as 1 spelled, and when that dear teacher was 
gone 1 sat down in a little splint-bottomed chair, before the fireplace, and 
read the first lessons of the little book aloud, delighting and surprising my 

- 191 - 

hearers almost as much as myself. I can still repeat some of the lessons. 
Did my father have to look at that book and enjoy it with me when he came; 
Ah! sweet the memory of his interest in it, his real enjoyment of it. We 
never attended school in that schoolhouse or district again When we went 
to school again it was at the Kendall schoolhouse, about a mile and a quarter 
northeast of our home. My father was not strict with his children. He was 
always willing to reason with us, ready to compromise if need be, and seldom 
opposed us in our little plans for work or pleasure, unless he could show good 
cause; but there were two rules that he did not want infringed upon— when 
school time came we had to be ready to start; when we came home we were 
to tell no "tales." Neither of which seemed "rules" to us. It was our de- 
light to go to school, and save one we never had a teacher that we did not 
love and honor with all our hearts, consequently what we had to tell was not 
"tales" and could be listened to. "Tales," interpreted, meant fault finding 
My father believed those children who were allowed to stay out of school of 
t'leir own accord, or who were kept at home to work, greatly wronged, and 
was in favor of a compulsory school law. He impressed upon us constantly 
the necessity for diligence in study, and the bad consequences to ourselves, 
and even to others, if we wasted our precious school days. Nothing gratified 
him more than to know we had deserved the teacher's praise. He used all his 
influence for good schools and urged the need of mailing generous contribu- 
tions for that purpose. He encouraged us to never mind the weather, and 
we didn't. We enjoyed rain and shine, snow and sleet, and with it all we en- 
joyed the contents of our dinner basket. 

Here I am reminded of the Davidson family and the Holland family, who 
were neighbors of my father, but whose names I failed to include in the list. 
It is a pleasure to recall them. Robert Davidson and wife were excellent 
people, notwithstanding the fact that "Uncle Bobby," as he was called, was 
accused of being too strict on Sunday to be consistent with his week day con- 
duct; too strict, it was said, to allow his two little orphan grand-daughters to 
whistle or play with dolls, or even walk about the yard Whether justly ac- 
cused or not, he raised a family to be proud of. There was a son, Robert, and 
two daughters, Margaret and Mary. Margaret taught the Kendall school, to 
which we were transferred. She was a young woman of sterling worth, com- 
manding in figure, bright, witty and of pleasing manners— she had almost 
every quality that goes to make the good teacher. Mary, a tall, shy, studious, 
conscientious girl, was beloved by tlie little scholars, be.-ause she helped them 
with their lessons and took much charge of them, protecting them against 
the rude and thoughtless ones. Robert was a fine young man. He kept a 
store at Robinsons Mills, after it had been laid out in town lots, and a post- 
office establislied there; both of which events took place after my father had 
left the Mills. Before this our post-office was Petersburg, ten miles away. 
This store was kept in a room that had been used by Egbert Buckley as a 
carpenter shop. In this store I made my first purchase. I bought a pair of 
"side combs," choosing them myself. Robert told my mother that I picked 
the best pair in tlie show case. Instead of making me proud, this mortified 
me. I thought I had been guilty of bad manners, in choosing the best ones. 
The Davidsons moved to Monmouth, Warren county. 111. Margaret had 
married a Mr. Sterret, also a teacher, and they and Margaret's sister Mary 

became teachers of the higliest position in the xVlonmouth schools, and after- 
ward in the college at Galesburj,'-, 111. To me, Margaret Davidson is a name 
denoting dignity and worth. 

To the Kendall, school came the children of Henry Holland and wife, 
three sons and three daughters. Tiie parents were highly respected by my 
father and mother, and the children, especially the daughters, were much 
beloved, and almost as free in our home as in their own. All of them grew 
up to be well respected men and women, and some of them very prosperous. 
They were our playmates. 

The Kenflall schoolhouse was a type of the school architecture of tliat 
tiiup. It was built of logs, and tlie chinks between the logs rudely stopped 
witli clay. Tlie seats were benches without backs tliat reached the length 
or width of the room, and were made of heavy slabs with holes bored in each 
end for legs, that protruded more or lenS above the top of tlie seat. A wide 
board chat like the benches reached the length of the room, was fixed up 
against the wall at what was considered the riglit lieight. and with the prop- 
er slant, and heie on one of the long benches, managing as best they could to 
get feet and legs over it, and under the slanting board, the pupils sat to write. 
They wr)te with quill pens, and the teacher's patience as well as the metal 
and con. I it ion of his penknife were often greatly tried in keeping these pens 
jh order. In my memory of this schoolhouse it is always summer, the door is 
wide oixMi. tlie tioor is clean swept, the walls hung with blossomed boughs of 
dogwood, wild cherry, crab apple and liawthorn, and sprays of glistening oak 
and sassafras. And O, tliat sassafrasl For wiiat did it not serve? Its green 
a 1(1 L.rittle shoots were bonbons. Its buds were spice of the most agreebable 
flavor, its \oung leaves were food, its bark was chewing gum, and its roots 
surpassed young ll^soii or tjunpowder! What need of sandalwood or spices 
from tlie orient? 

Tlie girls in pairs took turns in sweeping the floor, and were allowed un- 
restricted freedom in adorning the walls with bouglis while all vied with one 
another in beautifying the teacher's desk or table with violets, sweet Will- 
iams, hawk's bills, lady slippers, Dutchman's breeches, ferns, and bluebells. 
As it is always summer, so it is always afternoon, and the scholars with faces 
washed clean at the "branch," and hair made smooth with "side combs" 
after boisterous play, are swaying to and fro on the high benches absorbed in 
ttieir spelling lessons. Two freckle faced boys, .John and Alvin llarman— how 
well I remember them— are on the floor reciting their -'a, b, abs." "B-ah. 
a-ah, b a-ah: c-ah, a-ali, c a-ah: d ah, a-ali, d a-ah." The sound is monot- 
onous, the soft, cool air scented with flowers is irresistible, and one little girl 
goes fast asleep and drops her spelling book. Startled by the sound, she 
gathers it up hastily, receives the teacher's chiding meekly, and with a 
shame-faced air proceeds to study her lesson There were long rows of spell- 
ing classes, and much strife in getting head marks: emulation in reading, and 
in quickness at answering mental .Vrithmetic problems. Outside there were 
joys without number: the brook, or "branch'' from which we constantly 
chose a new set of "jackstones," game of the Ave mystic pebbles: tlie trees- 
oak, elm, hickory, red bud, paw paw, .sycamore, maple, hackberry, willow- 
all dear to tlie children, their very names beloved: the teeter board in the 
fork of the great oak, .so near the schoolhouse that its liranches shaded the 

- 193 - 

roof: tlie play houses, with the corners of its rooms marked by tlie position 
of young trees or saplings, with stump or log for table, and carpeted with 
leaves gathered by the boys and sewed togetlier with Spanish needles— a 
bearded grass that grew in the moist glades; with drinking cups and bowls 
fasliioned also out of leaves, and held in shape by Spanish needles. There 
are school houses now from Maine to California, every two miles, of wood, or 
brick, or stone, painted, well lighted, with varnished desks, and seats made 
according to hygienic rules; and supplied with Courses of Study and other 
aids for the teacher; and for tlie children, with books so beautifully illus- 
trated and printed, with matter so appropriate and well chosen, that they 
are almost a marvel of perfection; but who can doubt that a schoolhouse sit- 
uated as the one described, however rudely built, where children may learn of 
trees and running brooks, and of all creatures that do inhabit them -squir- 
rels, birds, bees, flowers, vines, and even toads, frogs, and snakes— who can 
doubt that such a schoolhouse is a true seat of learning, in some respects, 
surpassing in far off good results, many a trig brick structure of the present 
day, wliose imposing front looks from some bare, windy hill near its fostering 

For half, yes one-third the millions that are appropriated by govern- 
ments for a "big navy" the grounds about every schoolhouse could be m;ide 
into little park«, beautified with trees, gardens, beds of tloweis, and even 
artificial brooks and lakes — with every charm for children, thereby fostering 
influences that would lead toward that universal peace men talk of in high 
flown words, whose meaning is drowned by the clang of the hammer that is 
fashioning, by their sanction, the latest and most formidable warship yet 

My mother was equally interested with my father in all matters of cultui-e 
and education: and was not behind him in re(]uiring of us sti'ict attention to 
duty, and in reminding us that the reward is to the diligent. She quoted from 
Franklin's sayings, and from the proverbs of the Bible often, that she might 
inspire us to greater effort. Sweet the memory of my mother, and I find no 
higher reason, no more convincing argument— reason and argument unanswer- 
able— for the advancement of woman, for perfect freedom for her as for man, 
than this memory of my mother. 

As for roads when my father came to Illinois, there were none. Tlie 
traveler took his bearings from the sun and the course of streams, and struck 
out with only his courage and common sense to guide him. When he came to 
sloughs, he chicked up, went in atid trusted to luck not to get miied down. 
When creeks crossed his path, there were no bridges, and he found the shal- 
lowest looking place he could, and plunged in, hoping to escape (juicksands 
and drowning, and come out safe on the other side. If his hope was realized 
he found the same place when crossing again: and others seeing his tracks 
followed where they led. Such a crossing was called a "ford," and was named 
for the nearest inhabitant sometimes, sometimes for the nearest town, (^ne 
man followed the other's track, and gradually the safest, smoothest route for 
wlieels, and the shallowest, most gravelly fords were found. There was no 
"marked" roads, and no bridges to speak of, except near the towns, as late as 
18()0. When rivers impeded the way, a rude ferry boat, with a man unambi- 
tious enough to attend to it, carried people over. But often the traveler had 

- 194 - 

to spend a quarter of an liour or more, liallowing the ferryman to his post of 
duty. Unambitious tliough tlie ferryman was. he had to keep up a pretty 
good tiglit part of the year witli mosquitoes and malai-ia. After the prairie 
sod was broken up and converted into cornfields and wheatfields, and fences 
built around men's farms, teams could no longer "pick their way,"' but were 
confined to the lanes, and often had a long hard pull for three or four miles at 
a stretcli through mud, deep enougli to test the singletrees, and tugs, and 
even to-day good roads in Illinois and most other states are still in the future 
—at present reflecting the poverty of road districts, townships and counties, 
and the indifference of the state, or national government. 

My fatlier took great interest in public questions, and I can not remem- 
ber wheu free trade and tariff, free soil and slavery were not discussed in our 
liome. My earliest recollection is of the talk of the Mexican war. The battle 
was over but the disturbance it caused liad not quieted down. The military 
spirit still ruled and "training days" were set apart, when men donned uni- 
forms and shouldered muskets for drill in marching and handling arms. My 
fatlier had no musket, and took no part in this practice, but his brother-in- 
law. Seth Buckley was a "train band captain," and had a sword and musket 
with bayonet; and his uniform with "gold" buttons and epaulettes, was both 
gor.edus and fearful to our childish eyes. 

.M\ father read The Federalist, and admired the arguments in favor of the 
atloption of the constitution. My uncle, Seth Buckley, admired Jefferson's 
criticisms of the constitution, and his plea for state rights, and partook of liis 
fears of a centralized govern.ment. Seth Buckley married my father's sister, 
Caroline, and lived in the house that was afterward owned and occupied bv 
.lohn Borntett at Robinson's Mills. It was but a few steps from my fatlier's 
liouse. and the two families read the same books and neT\\spapers, and dis 
cussed them t(^gether. Seth Buckley was a democrat, my fathei- a whig, but 
their affections for each other was something out of the common, and is pleas- 
ant to remember. My mother and all the family shared in this affection, and 
when a second son was born to my parents he was named Seth in honor of this 
uncle. Mr. Buckley left Robinson Mills about the time my father died and 
moved onto a farm five miles northwest ef Petersburg, near wliich the town 
of Atterberry has since been built. Here he died while yet a young man. and 
my aunt after a widowhood of eight years was married to Cyrus McDole Mr. 
and Mrs. McDole lived on the farm for many years and prospered well, but as 
old age approached they left it to younger hands, and are now pa,ssing the 
pleasant days of a well earned leisure in their beautiful home at Petersburg. 

As has already been stated in the beginning of this sketch, my father's 
parents, with what family they still had under their care, followed him to 
Illinois in less than a year. This family consisted of tlu'ee daugliters. Eliza. 
Harriett and Caroline, and one son, Joel. A married son, Daniel, came also 
witii his young wife. My father had one other brother, Charles. He was a 
well-to-do lumber merchant at Ithica. New York. He was not tempted to 
try the West till several years later when he went to Saginaw, Micliigan. 
My Grandmother Robinson died within a few years after coming to Illinois, 
and my grandfather married a J^Irs. Ogden, a widow a few years younger than 
himself, as second wife. When I first knew my grandfather he was a cripple 
from paralysis, and could not walk even with crutches, without a hand to- 

- 193 - 

steady liim. He was a reader and a thinker, and at limes took pleasure ir^ 
putting- liis tlioughts on paper. After tlie stroke that bound liim to his easy 
eliair, a prisoner, his chief solace was in books. 

ITe had tlie Bible at his tongue's end. and could quote an apt verse front) 
any part of it to strengthen his own position or, weaken that of an opponent 

In tlie rear, at tlie r 

5ht, M 
In li< 

in an argument. He h;ul 
old man. ( )nce on being i 
trict. named .loseph Crai^;" 

onl. Mis 

I large, til 


II. -Ic 

; at the left, Mrs. Emily Burton. 
M. Bobbins. 

head, and was a handsome, cheerful 

' the young school mask 

ho was a favorite with all Ins sc 

schoolmaster of our dis- 
'holars. and a 

- \96- 

good looking, unpretending sensible young man, my grandfather noticed that 
he had a small head, and his tirst words were, "Little head, little wit." 
Young Craig, not in the least disconcerted, answered readily, "Big head, not 
a bit." My grandfather was so pleased with the answer that he laughed 
heartily and extended his hand for a warm shake, and was ever after the tirm 
friend of the young man. Our step-grandmother was beloved by uschildren— 
for us, the "step" had no meaning. Her love for my grandfather, her pati- 
ence witli his ailments, her untiring devotion during his years of helplessness 
endeared her to my parents, and at my grandfather's death, in 1S.);{, she was 
welcomed to our home, loved and petted, and made happy by the little at- 
tentions that children with willing feet and hands can give. She had child- 
ren of her own and spent part of her time with them, but she was sure of her 
welcome in my father's house when she chose to come. 

After my mother's death, my aunt Caroline, who was tlie "youngest and 
the dearest," of the family, lived with my parents unti^ her marriage. Tlie 
two other sisters, both fond of books and study, taught school and were self- 
supporting, intelligent young women. After they were married, Eliza to Ho- 
ratio Purdy, and Harriet to John Xorris, tiiey lived on farms nenv my father. 

My father's brother Joel, studied law, and to help himself through the 
long wait that the law entails before granting any measures of success to its 
votaries, he also taught school. He was teaching in Sharpsburg, Bath county, 
Kentucky, in 1842, or perhaps a 3'ear later, when having incurred the enmity 
of one of the young men of his school, by administering some punislmient, he 
was waylaid >\v iiim as he was leaving the schoolhouse that night and killed. 
The young man had been dismissed with the rest but instead of going home 
he skulUed near the schoolhouse, and as my uncle, after locking the door, 
passed around t he corner of the building, he struck him a death blow with a 
heavy stick. The young man was brouglit to trial, but he was the son of 
wealtliy parents and was cleared. My uncle left a wife and one child. 

My uncle Daniel Robinson lived near my father on a farm tliat bordered 
on Clary's Creek. He became subject to periods of insanity wliile yet in his 
prime, and these periods coming on more and more frequently, his condition 
became so serious that he was sent to the asylum for the insane at Jackson- 
ville, HIinois, but he received no benefit, his case was a helpUss one. For 
several years before he died he became harmless and at times seemed rational, 
talking of the past as if he remembered. He was grateful for the liberty to 
come and go, and was a patlietic figure at our fireside, at liis son's, or at his 
sister's. For many years my father gave this brother and his family what 
care and help he could. 

So far as I know the children and grandchildren of my Uncle Daniel are 
prospering well. Tiius it will be seen that my father in his western home, 
was not long without the cheer, the strength, tlie joy, and tlie demands for 
sympathy, that spring from the ties of kindred. But outside the pale of 
kindred my father was in deep sympathy with men, and formed strong and 
lasting friendships with many with whom he came in contact. He was 
never indifferent to his neighbors' ills, and if he could lighten a man's trouble 
or help him out of a strait, he was prone to do so, often to his own hurt; for 
by rendering financial aid he was obliged to pay more than one "security 
debt." Judging, as a child may judge a parent, tlie most beautiful trait in 

- 197 - 

my fatlier's cliaracter was this sympathy with men, this willingness to heark- 
en to a man's trouble, this readiness to try to make his neighbor as happy as 

My father took liis turn at being scliool director, and did what lie could 
for better schools, and more worthy teachers. In 1844, he was justice of the 
peace for Menard countv: whether he held the office for more than one term, 
I do not know, but the title of "squire" hung to him for several years. 

In 184G, while still at the Mills my father was elected to the Illinois state 
legislature as representative from Menard county. While at Springfield, he 
formed not only an acquaintance but a friendship, with Abraham Lincoln, 
Judge Logan and other prominent men. He had a warm admiration for Lin- 
coln, and never tired of telling of his wonderful gift of "seeing right througli 
a man," and of his equally wonderful gift of getting- the best of his opponent 
in an argument. My father loved to repeat incidents and stories that he had 
heard Lincoln relate, and as this was befoi'e Lincoln had been thought of for 
senator, or dreamed of for president, my father must be credited with some 
degree of discernment— he saw the greatness of the man. lie was present in 
Springfield once when Douglass was holding a conference with his political 
friends. The Lincoln and Douglas debates had been arranged, and someone 
asked Douglass if he had agreed to debate the questions of the day in public 
with Lincoln, rather holding out the idea that his triumph over Lincoln 
would be an easy one. Douglas replied that he had so agreed, and added^ 
"Gentlemen, I would rather meet any other man." In ISoS, when Lincoln 
was making the run for senator against Douglass, he spoke to a crowd in tiie 
open air in a grove of black jack oaks, just outside the town of Bath in Ma- 
son county. My father was living in Bath at that time, and he took his fam- 
ily to hear him. "lie is a great and good man," he said. Mr. Lincoln's sub- 
ject was the Irrepressible Conflict, the Sophistry of Squatter Sovereignty, 
and the dangers attendant upon a "House Divided A gainst Itself." After the 
speaking there were introductions and liand shakings, and my father pre- 
sented my mother and us children, and Mr. Lincoln walked back into the 
town with us, conversing as he went on the political situation. But even he, 
perhaps, did not realize how fast the cloud of war was rising. 

My parents were acquainted with .Tack and Hannah Anr.strong, whose 
son, Duff Armstrong, was cleared of the charge of murder by Lincoln, when 
he was a practicing lawyer in Menard county. They lived in Mason county, 
just across the border line of Menard, near the mouth of Salt Creek, thus 
their home was not many miles from ours, but there was never any intercourse 
between the two families. Hannah Armstrong was a bright, fine looking 
woman, deserving of better things than fell toiler lot, and those who knew 
her rejoiced for her sake when her son was cleared. Abraham Lincoln held 
then, no doubt, as through all his subsequent career, that if either must be 
infringed upon, it would better be justice than mercy. 

In 184S, or it may be earlier than this, while they were still living at Rob- 
inson's Mills, my father made a visit to New York. He did not go alone, he 
took my mother with him. The visit meant more to lier than to him— all 
lier kindred lived there. What they said of the journey back and forth I can 
not recall, but know that the visit tended to convince my father that he had 
made no mistake in coming to Illinois. 

- 108 - 

Tlie following- year, lS4i), he bought a farm on Sangamon river bottom and 
sold out his interest in land and mills at Robinson's Mills. Not being able to 
get possession that spring and being obliged to give possession, he moved to a 
rented farm about three miles northwest of Petersburg, where we lived neig-h- 
bors to David Panteer, James Berry and ]\rcGrady Rutledge, father of vVnn 
Rutledge, for whom Abraham Lincoln is said to have cherislied so deep and 
noble a passion. I remember tliat my father held McGrady Rutledge in high 
esteem, and knew there was an Ann Rutledge, but whether she was dark or 
fair, tall and stately or petite, I am unable to recall. When reading Miss 
Tarbell's Life of Lincoln, I was surprised to learn that I had once lived so 
near to one whom he had admired and loved. Not to be able to recall her 
seemed a lost opportunity and still seems so. I recall much more readily the 
tine strip of woods in which the schoolliouse was situated, and the grapevine 
swing that caused a shock to many a j^oungster's nervous organization as he 
realized the awful height to which he had been sent by some of the good- 
natured "big scholars" at noon or recess. 

The following spring, 1849, we went to the farm near Oakford. This con- 
sisted of 240 acres, one SO of it bought from John Norris who lived just across 
the road from us, not a quarter of a mile away. Afterward another 80 was 
added, making 320 acres. I know now that this was a tine estate, most of it 
rich bottom land, that produced some of the tallest, most heavily eared corn, 
and some of the best wlieat in the world, with abundance of timber on the 
higher land for tire wood and fence posts Here was a continuation of the 
pleasant family life round a wider hearth, in a larger, more convenient house, 
with kitchen, dining room, spacious living room, and sleeping rooms. Xot 
long after we came to this home the kitchen fireplace was boarded up, and a 
cook stove was set upon the hearth. This was a great innovation. At first 
my mother feared the flavor of the victuals would be spoiled; but she soon 
learned that a great labor saving invention had come into her hands, and 
fully appreciated the blessing. Tiiis house fronted south upon a lawn set 
with sliade trees and shrubs. An orchard of apple, peach, cherry, and pear 
trees made a leafy background. Tlie view of the timber along the Sangamon 
was fine. The storm clouds seemed to us children to hang dark above this 
timber. There did not seem to be so many cyclones and destructive storms 
in those days, and we were not so fearful but that we could enjoy the grand- 
eur of the cloud with its awful lightning, and as the storm broke we loved to 
watch the rain rushing before the wind across the low land to the hills. 
Here we had lish in abundance, pike, perch, cat, and buffalo. My father kept 
bees. jSIy mother made buttei, that for looks and fragrance and taste -was 
surely "premium" butter, molding it into balls, and packing it into kegs or 
small barrels for market. I tliink the top price for this nice butter never 
exceeded a "bit," I2.\ cents. My father made a drying kiln, and in tlieir 
season the whole family helped at drying apples, peaches and cherries. He 
took much pains with his orchard, grafting, budding, pruning- and— hoping. 
Ko peaches have ever tasted as did the luscious, pink meated "clings" my 
father used to raise and I have seen few that could surpass them for looks. 
The California fruit shipped here in baskets, though promising much to the 
eye, is a disappointment to the taste. This will not be the case, probably, 
when Luther Burbank's methods have become common pi'operty. 

— \99 — 

Here my father was "the man with the hoe" instead of the man witli the 
grain sack. He loved a garden and to see liim make the rows of lettuce, beets 
and cabbage look almost as pretty as the rows of pinks and roses was unalloyed 
pleasure. My mother was very fond of tlowers: my father enjoyed her pleasure 
in them. 

Here we children had the same wide range for nuts and a still wider one 
for wild fruits and wiM flowers. What child could forget the dog-tooth violet, 
the Indian pink, the .Tohnny-jump-up, the hawthorn, the crabapple, the straw- 
berry and the blackberry that grew among those hills? Nature, in all her 
magic chemistry and various mixtures, has not surpassed the flavor of the 
wild strawberry. Aud can a boy's triumph in his first brace of quails or 
prairie chickens, as he swings toward home with his gun on his shoulder, sur- 
pass or even equal the girl's, as with rosy cheeks, tired feet and a good ap- 
petite, she enters the door with a large heaping bowl of wild strawberries, 
ready hulled for the table? She sees the snowy cloth spread for dinner and 
swaying in the breeze in the cool dining room, and lier mother's smile and 
words of praise as she takes the bowl and places it on the table is a great 
reward. She feels that she has crowned this meal with a beautiful desser^ 
Her own saucer full of berries, smothered in cream and sugar, and her father's 
call for a second helping, are exceeding recompense for her labors. My mother 
often had five daughters in the berry patch at once, though one was too small 
to be of much service: but she was allowed to carry her little bowlful home 
and get her praise with the rest. There were times when she had to be 
carried hei"self part of the way. With four good pickere, it will be seen that 
my mother could have berries for the table and some to make "preserves" or 
jam— though Mason jars had not yet come into use. 

Around the tireside of this home the social nature of my parents had 
greater room to expand. They loved to have their friends with them, and did 
have them to dinners and suppers, and now and then to a dancing party for 
the young folks. They were not unmusical— both could sing. My father had 
many favorite songs; one was "The Disappointed Philosopher." Some of the 
words and tune have not gone from me: 

"When first 1 came to be a man, 

Of twenty years or so, 
I thought myself a handsome youth. 

And fain the world would know. 
In best attire 1 stepped abroad, 
With spirits brisk and gay.'' * * * 
In the end the philosopher loses some of his gaiety. My mother loved old 
ballads and used to sing, among others, "Barbara Allen," The Higliland 
Chieftain." "Boneparte and Louisa," and "Tiie Outlandish Knight," the 
latter beginning: 

An outlandish knight to the North seas came. 

And he came a wooing to me; 
He said he would take me unto the north lands, 

And I should his fair bride be. 
A broad, broad shield did this strange knight wield. 

Whereon did the red cross shine. 
But never I ween, had this strange knight been. 


To the fields of Palestine. 
Thy sire is from home ladve, 

He hath a journey gone, 
And the shaggy blood-hounds are sleeping sound, 

At the foot of the postern stone. 
Go bring me some of thy father's gold, 

And some of thy mother's fee, 
And steeds twain of the best in the stalls that rest, 

Where they stand thirty and three. 
I mounted on the steed milk white, 

And he on tlie dapple gray. 
And we forward did ride, till we reached the seaside, 

Three hours before it was day. 
Pull off, pull off, thy bonny green plaid. 

And deliver it unto me: 
Six maids have 1 drowned where the billows sound, 

And the seventh one thou shalt be. 
Pull off, pull off, thy brooch of gold, 

For comely it is to me. 
And thy kirtle of green is too rich I ween, 

To rot in the salt, salt sea. 
'•If I must pull off my bonny green plaid, 

Pray turn tliy back to me. 
And gaze on the sun that has just begun 

To peer o'er the salt, salt sea." 
He turned his back on the damsel fair, 

And gazed on the bright sunbeam: 
She grasped him tight with her arms so white. 

And plunged him into the stream. 
Lie tliere, sir knight, thou false hearted wicriit. 

Lie there instead of me. 
Six maids hast thou drowned where the billows sound, 

But the seventh hath drowned thef^. 
With gasping breath he fought his death. 

And uttered an Ave Marie, 
And I fastened on my broocii of gold, 

As lie sank beneatli the sea. 

For this strange knight dead, no piayer was said. 

No convent bell did toll: 
He went to his rest, unshrived and unblest, 

Heaven's mercy on his soul! 

Now she mounts one steed and leads the other and reaches her father's castle 
before night. No one knows that she has been away, or sees her return, ex- 
cept the parrot, wlio tells her that the earl, her father, is asleep. She bribes 
the parrot to tell no tales, by giving him a gilded cage. 

Long, long, she lived but lived unwed 

- '2Q\ - 

Did this maid with raven hair, 
For if lovers came wooing they went away sad, 
Till her face became wrinkled with care. 

This ballad was a great favorite with us younger children, and we were 
content to have it recited if it could not be sung. 

My sister, Evalyn, had a sweet voice and in those days sang the "'Irish 
Emigrant's Lament." "Ben Bolt," and "The Old Oaken Bucket " 



Around tlie fireside of this home we lead "ITncle Tom's Cabin," and wept 
over the woes of its hero, and the death of Httle Eva and ever after cherished 
in our hearts a deeper hatred of slavery. Here more and more we came to 
appreciate the newspapers and magiizines that came to my father through 
the mail. 

In l!K)i) while visiting my son in Chicago I went with him to see Hull 
House, the famous settlement on Halsted street, pi'esided over by .lane Ad- 
ams. Halsted street is a part of Chicago's "east end," and therefore the 
place chosen for a settlement. Miss Adams was away on a tour of recreation, 
but another lady with sweet manners showed us through the building and 
answered our questions. Everything about Hull House appeals to the artistic 
taste. Its modest elegance is a part of the uplifting influence on those who 
are so fortunate as to be gathered within its walls. When we came to the 
living room, was I surprised when I saw a higli paneled mantle, without any 
carving of any kind, and on its shelf at either end a tall brass candle? Was I 
shocked to look up and see the wooden, almost "sagging" beams of the ceiling 
instead of the calcimined or paper covered plaster? A few pictures hung on 
the walls: in a niche, as if made for it, was a tankard of exquisite shape, beau- 

- -20^1 - 

tifull.v ornamented. A large, straight backed settee was at one side of the 
fireplace: not against the wall, but drawn diagonally in front of it, so that 
those sitting upon it could get full view of the tire. I do not think I was sur- 
prised or shocked to see these things, but those who read this sketch ma^^ be, 
when I say that the living room at Hull House, though a model of the house 
beautiful, was so like the living room in my father's house on this farm, that 
I was transported and stood as one in a dream. But the costly tankard, the 
niche for it, the rugs on the floor, and tlie vi'indows placed wherever light 
could give beautiful eft'ect, recalled me. Nothing in the city, not even the li- 
braries and parks, nothing save tlie great lake itself gave me more pleasure 
than Hull house; it seemed to prove to me that it is not distance altogether 
that "lends enchantment," and causes me to cherish the vision of my father's 
living room. It was beautiful in its simplicity, and was one of the sweet in- 
fluences of our lives. 

One more item in our education I wish to speak of before I hasten on, 
lest my story become of burdensome lengtii. As I have already stated our 
home was less than a^ quarter of a mile from tliat of my uncle, John Norris. 
My aunt had no children of her own, and often had as many of my father's 
l)()use full, as conld be spared at one time, to stay with her. She was an om- 
niverous reader and an excellent story teller. Her mantel shelf was adorned 
with books instead of bric-a,brac. 1 can remember the titles to some of these 
books: Lalla Uhook, Lady of the Lake, Pope's Essay on Man, NightThoughts, 
Thompson's Seasons, Pleasures of Hope, Scottish Chiefs, Our Village, Alonzo 
and Melissa, and Children of the Abby. My father s:iid "Hat" should have 
been professor of history or literature in some college, instead of a pioneer 

farmers wife. But her talents were not wasted even here on the "frontier," 

she had a gift for entertaining children; and gathered at her tire-side, on one 
occasion or another, — when my uncle was away when she was in need of help, 
or when she liad planned some games— we children, with perhaps several from 
other families, listened to fairy tale and myth, and stories from history: Tlie 
Forty Thieves, Beauty and the Beast, Sinbad the Sailor, Tlie Sleeping Prin- 
cess, The Boy Who Could Not Shudder, Robin Hood and Little John, Blue 
Beard, Aladdin and His Wonderful Lamp, Red Riding Hood, Cinderella, 
Diamonds and Toads, riddles and rhymes from Mother Goose, and tales of 
Indians from Cooper and other sources, as well as deeds of valor performed, 
not only by Washington and his men, but by Greek and Roman and heroes of 
all ages. While the stories were oeing told, often a heap of potatoes or eggs 
would be roasting in the embers befoi'e tlie tire, to be eaten with salt when 
the stories were done. For these nights beside her hearth, I liold this aunt 
in blessed memory. Besides enriching our minds, they make life a joy by 
satisfying the fancy, which faculty of the brain most parents, and until of 
late years, most teachers have iield in such slight consideration as to give it 
but a passing smile. Indeed time was when it was thought a duty to suppress 
the fancy of the child, by forcing upon its mind "solid" and solemn facts: 
which was equal to feeding beefsteak instead of milk to babes. 

My annt taught the school in our district for a few terms, using the larg- 
est room in her house as a school room. Later, a good school house was built 
on my father's timber land, between our house and her own. My father was 
a neat hand with tools, and he helped to build this schoolhouse, taking great 

- 203 - 

pleasure in trying- to make the desl<s and seats nice and comfortable. After 
it was tinislied we felt tlie pride that people do in a nice, new, roomy dwelling- 
after living in a little shabby one. We liad many night spelling matches in it 
and no doubt improved our English more than we knew of. 

This home was consecrated to my pa'-ents by the marriage of their oldest 
daughter, Evalyn, to Robert A. Talbott, of Springfield, 111., and of their 
second daugliter, Lucinda, called Lucy always in the home, to James D. 
Roodhouse, of Wliite Hall, Green county. 111., and also by the leaving home 
of their son Charles to go with a company of young men. and some not so 
young, to California. The year of his going was IS-'il. Tlie gold fever was 
still at its lieight. He was only eighteen. My mother grieved, my sisters 
wept, especially Lucy who was nearest liis age. She hung upon his neck and 
begged him not to go. Many dangers, Indians, lack of food, scarcity of 
water, and often sickness, and homesickness, beset those who crossed tlie 
plains in those days. 

One of the leaders of this compatiy was '"Jake" Armstrong. Some of the 
company my mother thought rude companions for tlie young, and feared for 
the morals of her son. But my father said. "He must see the world for hini- 
self, let him go. He has headed right so far, and will not be easily I'd 

This company took cattle, horses and provisions. They bought one cow 
of my father, a line animal named Star, because of a white spot in her fore- 
head. We three younger children did not like to see her go, neither did she 
like to go. She got away the third time and came back, the last time after 
they had reached Beardstown. We rejoiced each time, thinking, '-Now they 
will let her stay:" but her fate was in their hands, and the last time they 
drove her away, my little brother and I peered sadly through the fence, far 
down tiie road, saying we thought it was wicked to take cows and horses 
from their homes. 

I cannot remember when a postoffiee was established at Robiuson's Mills, 
but know that letters came to that point from mv brother Charles, and tliat 
we younger children made frequent trips there, always hoping for a letter lo 
keep my mother in heart. 

During my brother's absence, in 185.'] I think, mj' father, grandfather, 
and my father's sisters were gladdened by a visit from my Uncle Charles 
Robinson, of Ithica, New York. My father's pleasure in this visit is still 
vivid in my mind. My uncle was older than my father, but they had beeti 
"boys together," and later students and young men together, and the tie be- 
tween them was as strong as kinship and congenial tastes could make it. 
When my uncle returned to New York he took my sister Helen, third daugh 
ter of my parents, with him to attend school and see a little of the world. 
It was a tine opportunity lor her and my parents were grateful. 

1 have netrlected to mention the fact that the year previous to my uncle's 
visit, my parents made another journey to New York. It was their lirst ex- 
perience in railroad riding, and they had much to tell of the whole trip when 
they returned, ^of the changes from stage to river boat, from river boat to 
cars or lake boat,— it was very interesting, fully as wonderful as a fairy tale 
to us children. My father came back with the idea that the people of the 
East were narrow in their ways of thinking and living, as compared with the 

- 1\M - 

people of the west, and consequently less progressive. lie said tliey were 
"picayunish," and departed farther from Webster in their pronunciation of 
English tiian the people of Illinois. Altogether lie thought it an excellent 
thing for people to have an undeveloped region to spread out in. Narrow 
quarters, with the necessity for little economies, pinching, aVays pinching 
expenses down, gave him a choking sensation. He thanked God for the 
prairies and big rivers of the west. 

One wintry night in December 185,5, twomutTled wayfarers, there were no 
"tramps" then, knocked at my father's door and begged a night's lodging, 
saying tiiat they liad traveled far, and were hungry. My father consulted 
witli my mother and she decided that it would be very inconvenient to feed 
two hungry men as the supper tilings liad just been put away, and the women 
folks had just come in for their evening by tiie fire. My father delivered this 
message at tlie door. Tiiey said they would be willing "to eat anything," 
and sleep anywhere. My father reminded my mother tliat it was snowing 
and blowing and growing colder fast. She told him to invite them in; he did 
so and asked them to remove caps and overcoats and comforters. Without 
a word of thanks they removed their wraps and took the offered seats by tlie 
tire. My father gave one look, and rushed toward them saying in a husky 
voice, -"you rascals, youl" My mother screamed and ran into the arms of one 
of them; th it one was my brother Charles. He had been gone four years, 
and had comi back, not the owner of a gold mine in accordance with liis boy- 
ish dream, but unspoiled, unsullied by his contact with the world. And my 
parents felt that they were blessed. 

In 1.S5), my father thought it best for all concerned to leave the farm in 
cliarge of his son Charles, and of his :^on-in-law, llobert Talbott, and move to 
Bath, Mason county, Illinois. He left the farm pretty well stocked, and the 
house pretty well furnished. 

He purchased a tlour mill at Hath and was aga.n the ''dusty miller." 
His partner was . 

The year after we moved to this place, my parents gave their third 
daughter, Helen, in marriage to W. I. R-jbbins, of Petersburg, 111. This left 
their family reduced to three, namely; Clarinda, called Clare or Clara in the 
home, and the youngest born, aged nine years: Seth, aged eleven; and myself, 
aged thirteen. 

It was whih we were living here that the Illinois R. R. was extended so 
as to run through Bath, and on to Chandlerville, and later carried on to Vir- 
ginia and Jacksonville. My father entered into a contract to furnish a speci- 
fied number of wooden ties for the laying of this road, and with the help of 
his son Charles fulfilled his part of this contract, but the road changed hands 
and lie never got his pay. 

Bath was often spoken of as a "hard little river town." "seedy," "nutty," 
and so forth, as if it were a .sort of Sodom or Gomorrah; but good and worthy 
people lived there. J. M. Ruggles and family, Richard and Benjamin Gatton 
and their families, the Beasleys, .Jerry Burlingame and wife, Jerry Taylor 
and wife, the Guests and others tiiat 1 cannot recall at the moment were all 
as tine people as one would meet any where. 

We children found no lack of joy here. There was always the beautiful 
river with its steamboats, b:irges. canal boats, skiffs and canoes, and not the 

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least important, the ferry boat that took people across to Snicarte Island. 
We liad boat rides in all weathers, and if there were any black-liearted 
villians lurking on the river banks, we never ran across thera. We found in- 
stead luscious grapes, and pereimmons that became luscious if we waited for 
the frost to toucli them. But the school here was not what my parents 
wished for us and in 1859 they moved to Chandlerville. 

Chandlerville was an ideal village. The people were thrifty, intelligent, 
social, and not given to gossip to the degree that most villages are. My 
father bought a cottage that we soon made neat and comfortable, and en- 
gaged in the milling business. Besides the free school here, there was an 
excellent private school taught by Scharlotte P. Butler, a graduate of Oberlin 
College, Ohio. We had had dear teachers before her, we had dear teachei-s 
after her, but she was the loveliest, and inspired us with the deepest thirst 
for learning. She has "passed beyond;" but the memory of her still blesses 
and uplifts her pupils. 

In 1861, came tlie shock of war. My fatlier while opposed to slavery was 
not an uncompromising abolitionist. He did not believe in adding to the 
crime of slavery, the crime of a cruel war. He contended that war was the 
most unreasonable and expensive way of righting the wrong. He grieved 
over the situation and hoped to the last that actual war would be averted. 
When he knew it was inevitable, he said we had the right man at the helm. 

In our village from 1861 to 1865 tliere were but few signs by which one 
could know that a war was going on. All the arts of peace were practiced 
with even greater prosperity than before. There were a few signs that 
brought the matter home to us: Young men from some of the families we 
knew enlisted: Doctor Charles E. Li ppincott who went as captain of a com- 
pany, and was afterwards colonel, then general. Lippincott, was our next door 
neighbor, and we saw his wife and two little sons wave him a last good-bye. 

There was a Soldier's Aid Society, where lint was scraped, and such gar- 
ments as it was thought a soldier might need were made, and where these 
with packages of cotfee, tea, sugar and dried fruits, with cakes and cookies, 
and everything love and tenderness could think of, were packed into boxes 
and sent to the south. 

In 1861 my father sold his farm near Oakford to Charles Skaggs; and his 
son-in-law and daughter who had lived upon it, bought a farm in Logan coun- 
ty, Illinois, and went there to live. His son Charles, now a married man, 
moved to a farm in Cass county. 

In 186;{ my father made a trip to California; and soon after his return he 
went to Nebraska to look at the country with a view to investing in land if 
he was pleased. lie was not only pleased but charmed. The great prairies 
seemed to call him. His prophetic imagination enabled him to see them dot- 
ted with groves, villages, tine farm houses and barns. What he saw of crops 
there satisfied him, and he bought a farm of 160 acres on the Nemaha bottom, 
twelve miles southeast of Pawnee City in Pawnee county: and went to work 
to build a liouse on it. It was to be a good house wlien it was all done, of 
eight rooms. After getting things under way he sent for his son-in-law, W. 
I. Bobbins and family to come. Mr. Bobbins had failed to prosper financially, 
and this was my father's way of helping him. 

In the fall of 18(54 Mr. Bobbins went to Nebraska with two teams. Mrs. 



Robbiiis and myself drove one of them. We started October 4. The weatliev 
was Indian summer HI its balmiest mood. Tlie air was indeed an elixir of 
life. Tiu'ouiJ!-!i Illinois from Chandlerville to Keolvuk, Iowa, we saw tine coun- 
try: It was tlie same all througli Iowa, and on the morning of October 16, 
when we looked on Nebraska for tlie first time, with just enough frost in tiie 
air to give the grass a sparkle, and produce wliat I have since learned is a 
milage, we felt like sliouting. Tlie first view of the ocean could not be broad- 
er, more billowy, or more thrilling. 

That was our last day of travel. We reached our destination tliat night 
There was one good sized room in my fatlier's house so near done tliat it 
would do to live in, and we felt happy and fortunate wlien we were estab- 
lished, and heard our fire roaring, and tlie kettle humming. 

The next year my father returned to Illinois to settle up liis affairs and 
make arrangements for moving to Nebraska: and late in the spring accom- 
panied by my mother and youngest sister lie left Illinois behind. 

My parents had one more happy summer together. They could not know 
it was their last. My father did not take my mother to live in the new iiouse 
on the Nemeha; that was for his daughter and son-in-law. There was a mill 
about three miles west of his farm, known as Freese's Mill, and thither he 
was drawn as by a magnet. Nothing made such sweet music in his ears as 
the whirr of a mill. God bless liiml Turning the finest grain the earth pro- 
dnces into flour to feed the world, —was it not, will it not ever be a noble call- 

He rented the mill and a house nearby and that was his home. That 
busy happy summer went all too soon. My mother was preparing for a 
Christmas dinner when she was taken with what seemed a severe cold, but 

- 207 - 

which proved to be acute pneumonia, and died within forty-eii,flit hours, 
December 2;^rd, 1865. For her children, neither for those who stood beside 
her bed to receive the last precious look and word, nor for those to whom 
the news was borne on wintry winds, was there any Christmas joy that year. 
And the season for many years was to them a time consecrated in part to 

My faMier's life was maimed; his hopes were scattered, and his loneliness 
seemed greater than he could bear. Within a year's time to relieve this 
loneliness he made a second marriage. He married a widow named Thomp- 
son, a woman near his own age: but the union was not a happy one; and in a 
short time they separated by mutual agreement. Here I leave my father's 
sorrow sacred within his breast, as I Ivnow would be his wish. 

Soon after the event just related he sold his farm on the Nemaha to John 
T. Brady and Byron Collins, and bought a fine quarter of land near Sabetha, 

In 1867 or '68 he returned to Illinois, still engaging in bus'ness, and faciuo- 
life with a heroic spirit. Part of the time he was planning and working with 
his son Charles, and part of the time in affairs entirely his own. 

In the fall of 1870, a few days before Thanksgiving, he came to my home 
near Lincoln, Illinois, for a visit and for a season of needed rest. He was not 
well. His malady proved to be Bright's disease. He was in need of tender 
nursing. Pliysicians were called. I gave my whole time to his care, and 
my husband was like a son to him. But the end was near. He bore his pain 
with fortitude. Once, on the 2.'ird of December, he gave way to tears, saying, 
"Mummie died tlve years ago to-day," iMummie was a term of endearment for 
my mother. We wept together and were comforted. The end came Febru- 
ary 22, 1871. With loving hands we laid liim to rest in the beautiful ceme- 
tery at Lincoln, Illinois. 

Of the seven children reared to maturity by my parents, my mother saw 
them all in homes of their own but one; my father saw them all establislied 
for themselves. 

These in the order of their birth were: Mary Evalyn, born at Ithica, 
New York, 1831. Attended select scliool at Petersburg, Menard county, Illi- 
nois, for three years after leaving the country schools. While at Petersburg 
she was an iiniiate of the home of Major Hill and his most capable and excel- 
lent wife. She was married to Robert A. Talbott. 1851. Mrs. Talbott has 
been a widow since 1892. Her home is in Lincoln, III., though slie spends 
much of her time with a son in Hebron, Nebraska. 

Charles Cii;indler, born at New Richmond, Cass county, III., November 
25, 183.3. He was fond of study, and longed for college; and so did my father 
for him, but^ circumstances at that time would not permit him to gratify the 
cherished wish. Charles was married to Julia Pothecary, daughter of Dr. 
Pothecary, whose liome was near Virginia, Illinois, October 9. 1859. He died 
January 19, 1881, aged 47 years, 1 month and 24 days. His widow and part of 
her family are at present living in Portland, Oregon. 

Martha Lucinda, born at Robinson's Mills, August 9, 1836. She was a 
good student, a good ball player, a fast runner, and fond of all out door sports. 
Like Charles, she was deprived of college or seminary advantages because of 
my father's circumstances at the time when she could have profited by them. 


Slie was married to James D. Roodliouse, of White Ilall, Greene county, 111., 
1853. She has been a widow since 1902. Her home is in Fort Scott, Kansas, 
but she spends part of her time with a daugliter in Pomona, California. 

Helen Mar, born May 5th, 1837. With needle and thread and shears she 
was the genius of the family. She attended school in Ithica, New York, 
under the care of her uncle, Chas. Robinson, of that city. She was married 
to W. Irving Robbins, of Petei'sburg, 111., 18.")(i. Iler home has been in Chi 
cago for many years. 

Emily Caroline, born February 14th, 184.3. Attended Select- School at 
Chandlerville, 111.. West District School and Presbyterian Female Academy 
of Jacksonville, III. Was married to C. C. Burton, of Lincoln, 111., February 
6th, 18(55. Mr. and Mrs. Burton are at present living on a farm in Thayer 
county, Nebraska, where they liave lived since 1886. Sixteen years of this 
time Mrs. Burton was engaged in school teaching. 

James Seth, was born ISIay (i, 1845, was a graduate of Illinois College, of 
Jacksonville. Illinois: graduated in 18(i4. Studied law at Aim Arbor, >richi- 
gan, was married to Miss Jennie Dustin, of Pittsfield, Pike county, Illinois, 
1865. Began the practice of law in Lincoln, Nebraska, 18()8. Was eminently 
successful in liis profession. Was candidate for governor of Nebraska on the 
Greely ticket, in 1872: but the people wanted nothing so sensible as that tick- 
et advocated. In 1876 on account of his wife's failing health, he moved to 
San Fr;iiicisco. The climate aggravated a throat trouble to which he was 
subject, and he died of quinsy. October 19, 1878, at the early age of thirty- 
three. He had already taken a high position at the Bar in San Francisco. I 
have forgotten to mention that he was a partner of Attorney O. H. Whedon 
while ill Lincoln, Nebraska. They were struggling young lawyers together, 
and warm friends. Mr. Whedon is one of the successful lawyers of the state. 

Kli/.a Clarinda, born May 4, 1847. Attended select school at Chandler- 
ville, 111., and after ^oing to Nebraska was a pupil in the "college" at Pawnee 
City. This was an excellent school under the charge of Professor McKenzie 
and wife. Was married to EL H. Sisson. of Lincoln, 111., 1867. Mr. and Mrs. 
Sisson came to Nebraska in 1885. They lived on a farm for several years, but 
are now residing in their pleasant home at Hebron, the county seat of Thayer 

I have found the writing of this sketch fraught with botli pleasure and 
pain, but on the whole it has been a lab ir of love. 

Most sincerely yours, 
Emily Hirtox. 


DPv. A. W. ELDEPv. 

DR. ELDER was a typical southern gentleman, and a first class specimen 
of the pioneer coinitry doctor. He was a product of the Kentucky 
bluegrass region, born in tlie city of Lexington, on July <itli, 17!)S, and 
grew to manliood there, employed chiefly in storing his mind with learning 
obtained in great measure from the common schools of that city. Ambitious 
to occupy a higher intellectual and social station in life tlian that of a hewer 
of wood, or a manual laborer of any other grade, and not having a profusion 
of wealth at his command, he had recourse to that stepping stone of genius, 
scliool teaching, to earn means for further advancing his education. 

In that vocation he was so successful that in 1820, he finished a classical 
course in the Lexington college, an institution at that time under the pres- 
idency of Rev. l'.arton W. Stone, famous as a writer and scholar, and widely 
known by his celebrated controversy with Alexander Campbell, the founder 


of tlie cluirch of Christ. He then began tlie study of medicine in tlie office of 
Dr. Cliarles Wartield, a noted physician of Lexington, who i^indly gave him 
much valuable advice and instruction. In time lie was enrolled as a student 
in tlie medical department of Transylvania University, in his native city, 
which at that time, and long afterwards, held the highest reputation for 
thorougliness of its instruction, and profound ability of its faculty, of any in- 
stitution of learning west of the Allegheny mountains. There, for two years, 
lie attended tlie lectures and clinics of tiie renowned surgeon Dr. Ben Dudley, 
and his associate professors, wiio. on the 9th of March, L82;'>, conferred upon 
him the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 

Tlie next spring, that of 1824, his father, having perfected his arrange- 
ments, left Lexington with his family to look for a new home in Illinois, and 
the newly Hedged Doctor went with him. The old gentleman purchased a 
fine farm in Morgan county ten miles northeast of Jacksonville and about two 
miles south of the village of Princeton. There Dr. Elder, residing with his 
parents, began the practice of medicine. lie secured ample employment from 
the start, as he supplied a pressing want with but little competition, there 
being no physician north of him in the state nearer than Peoria: or in any 
other direction between his home and Springfield, Rushville and Jacksonville. 

Old Princeton, in Morgan county, was tlien but a collection of less than 
half a dozen houses at a point of timber on the western edge of Jersey prairie, 
on the road from St. Louis, through Jacksonville, to Fort Clark on Peoria 
Lake. The town was not laid out until February li), 183;}, but as early as 
I82H, or earlier, there was a blacksmith's shop there, and a store wliere gen- 
eral merchandise was sold by Mallory & Lewis. A postollice was established 
there on the 2()th of July, lS2(i, and Mr. Eli Redding appointed postmaster. 
It became quite an important trading point for a large scope of magnificent 
country thinly settled by people principally from Kentucky, and, later, a few 
fmiu New Jersey. Though the little hamlet was not exceptionally un- 
healthy it seems to have been visited with increasing frecjuency by young 
Doctor Elder. In the spring of 1827, Mr. Redding, tlie postmaster, was laid 
up with an attack of inflammatory rheumatism, and Dr. Elder was^ called to 
treat him. The disease must have been of a peculiarly obstinate type, as the 
Doctor continued his calls every few days all summer, fall and part of the 
next winter. It may be that his visits were not altogether professional— 
perhaps his correspondence was so extensive as to reiiuire his presence at tiie 
country postotfice every two or three days, and detained him thei-e sometimes, 
in the evening, until all the villagers were asleep. 

But, causa lately vis notissima fuit—und time revealed that the post- 
master's pretty daugliter was the real attraction. The affair culminated in 
the marriage of the spruce young Doctor and Miss Hannah Eliza Ivedding on 
the loth of January, 1828: and that was the Hrst wedding-of white people- 
that occurred in the territory now comprised in Cass county. The youn'J' 
couple settled down to housekeeping in a small house on the farm belontTing 
to the Doctor's father, where, after the usual infare, or reception, tliey com- 
menced together tlie arduous journey of life. By 18;}.i, Princeton had grown 
to be quite a smart little village, its row of liouses of rather primitive style 
of architecture, strung along each side of the road for half a mile or more, 
having two stores, blacksmith and wagon shops, a shoemaker, a Baptist 

- 211 - 

church built of brick, and a frame Cluirch of Christ, a schoolhouse, and many 
comfortable residences. In that year Dr. Elder, concludinp^ tliat the village, 
as a more central point, offered better advantages for his business than the 
farm, left his father's premises and became a resident of Princeton, and there 
gave his entire time and attention to the practice of his pi-ofession for several 
years. In tiie meantime the passing years wrought many changes in the 
Doctor's surroundings. A vigorous pioneer population was gradually spread- 
ing over central Illinois, transforming its wild prairies and woodlands into 
abodes of civilization. With the influx of settlers came more doctors, and a 
corresponding contraction of the Doctor's sphere of practice. Dr. Ephraim 
Rew had made his way to Beardstown on the 1st of December, 1829. Dr. 
Charles Chandler laid a claim and built a cabin on Pantlier creek, in the 
Sangamon Bottom, in 1832. Dr. James Morrison, from Kentucky, was located, 
in 1831, near Arcadia only live miles west of Princeton. The stumps had 
pretty well rotted out of the public square in Jacksonville since it was laid 
out in 1825, and Drs. Ero Chandler and Saml. M. Prosser were there dosing 
out calomel and jalap, squills and Peruvian bark, to sufferiug humanity for 
miles around. In Dr. Elder's household a few young Elder's had come to 
bless and cheer his liome, and likewise keep him humping for food and rai- 
ment. His parents had both fulfilled their mission and gone to everlasting 
rest— the dates of their death, not recorded, are now lost. 

Having a fair start for a family of children growing up around him, and 
always prefering rural life to the hampered limits of a village or town resi- 
dence, tlie Doctor bouglit the interests of tlie other heirs of liis father's es- 
tate, and became sole owner of tlie old homestead — now known as the Crum 
farm, a mile or so east of Literberry. Leaving Princeton he moved to the 
farm, and there divided liis time between the active duties of his profession 
and giving his boys, as they grew up, an opportunity to learn the practical 
beauties of agricultural science. There for several years he led the unevent- 
ful life of a country doctor, with the chief care of giving his children every 
educational advantage possible in sucii an isolated location. 

When Dr. Elder came to that farm with his father in 1824, Morgan was a 
new county, having been organized on January 31st, 1823. It was originally a 
part of Greene county, and extended from Crreene to the Sangamon river. As 
its population increased local jealousies and discontent— especially among 
politicians and office seekers— fomented agitation for its division. It had ter- 
ritory sufficient for two good-sized counties: but to divide it into two eijual 
parts would place Jacksonville— whicii that early exerted a controlling influ- 
ence— on the border of one of the divisions wliei'e it could no longer be a coun- 
ty seat, and in consequence would lose its importance. As division of the 
county seemed inevitable, the problem presented was to effect it in such uian- 
ner as would retain the county seat at Jacksonville. By connivance of a few 
leading men about Beardstown and Virginia with those of Jacksonville astrip 
of about ten miles in width was taken off the northern end of Morgan, and by 
legislative enactment, in force March 3, 1837, oi'ganized into a new county 
named Cass. Then on Februaiy Ki, 18;5H another portion of Morgan was de- 
taclied and made into Scott county. Soon after that the people of Cass coun- 
ty began clamoring for more territory, demanding anotlier strip three miles 
in width from Morgan. As that concession would place .Jacksonville only 

-2\V. - 

eight miles from the northern border of Morgan county, thereby endangering 
the stability of the county seat, the tacticians of that city had a bill passed 
through the legislature March 4th, 1843, creating the county of Benton from 
the southeastern part of Morgan and a portion of Sangamon county, which, 
however, was defeated at the polls when submitted to the people. Then on 
February 2f)th, 1845, tlie legislature passed another act "extending the limits 
of Cass county," whereby at the election following the three mile strip was 
tal<en from Morgan and added to little Cass. 

These mutations and mutilations of Morgan county exerted no particular 
effect upon Dr. Elder, farther perhaps than to give him a favorable opinion of 
Cass county. He did not follow Col. John J. Hardin into the Mexican war in 
1846; but late in that year sold the old homestead, and on March 18, 1847, 
purchased, for the sum of $1,100, of liis brother-in-law, Peter C. Redding, his 
farm of 270 acres in the south and southeastern part of Sec. 18, T. 17, R. 9, in 
Cass county, about three miles north of Princeton, since known as the Hutch- 
ings place. Moving at once into his new home he went right along with his 
medical practice witliout let or hindrance, as that region liad long been in 
the spliere of his influence. Not only in the Princeton district, but in all tiie 
country from .lacksonville to Petersburg, and between Virginia and Spring- 
field, he was a familiar figure for the third of a century, personally 
acquainted with every settler, and a welcome visitor at every home. He was 
not, brilliant or showy, but a man of strong individuality, very active mind, 
and most excellent character. His usual appearance, in his best days, was 
quite impressive: nearly six feet in height, straignt, square shouldered, raw- 
boned and muscular, about 175 pounds in weight: liis blue-gray eyes and reg- 
ular features surmounted by a broad forehead and brown hair, were rendered 
more attractive by a friendly, genial expression of countenance. He was in 
every '-espect a good citizen and good man, of spotless character and unsullied 
honor, and noted for kindness, benevolence and open-iianded hospitality. 
Neither malice, envy, jealousy, or cupidity were in his nature: nor selfishness 
enough for due protection of his own interests and the welfare of his 

As physical energy was not one of his conspicuous traits he was not a fast 
man in any sense: but deliberate and slow-motioned, averse to unnecessary 
exertion and fond of ease and comfort. Guaged by the standards of this era 
of active hustling for business, he would iiave been considered somewhat dila- 
tory; and some of iiis friends diagnosed him as being infested with the bac- 
cilus of laziness: at any rate, he seemed to be so constituted as to be able to 
bear a good deal of rest. Mindful of the maxim, "Time comes as fast as it 
goes," and knowing he had all the Tniie there was as it passed, he thought 
it unnecessary to hurry through life— and didn't. I>ut for all that Dr. 
Elder was a busy man, and for years did a great deal of slavish labor in a cir- 
cuit of practice extending far into four counties. Always on the best terms 
with other "regular" physicians with with whom he chanced to come in con- 
tact, he retained tlieir confidence by invariably treating tliem with the ut- 
most courtesy and fairness. His estimate of the dignity and nobleness of his 
profession, however, was so exalted that he would never debase it by consult- 
ing with a Homeopath or Thomsonian, regarding both as on a par with otiier 
charlatans and humbugs. When Dr. Charles Chandler had established him- 

- t^l3 - 

self in the practice of medicine in tlie Panther Creek settlement, in order to 
curtail the immense territory lie luid to travel over, lie proposed to Dr. Elder 
a division of that territory' by agreeinjy upon a line of demarkation bounding 
the space in which each should practice exclusively, and not trespass upon 
that of the other. But Dr. Elder declined the proposition, for he could 
not refuse his services to friends in all parts of the county who might send 
for him; and besides, he did not wish to enter into any entangling compact 
witli a slick Yankee like Chandler. Their relations, however, were, all the 
years of their frequent intercourse, pleasant and friendly. They were both of 
the Allopathic school of medicine, and as neitlier were active politicians there 
were no serious disagreements to disrupt their professional harmony. 

Naturally inclined to piety and veneration for all that to him seemed holy 
or sacred: and earnest in maintenance of every principle he deemed to be 
right, Dr. Elder was all his life a religious man. Instinctively he was moral, 
just and charitable, witli never an evil thought or inclination. His early coi- 
version to Christianity, then, was a matter of course— a mere form— for he 
was always a Christian. When quite a young man he joined the new sect-- 
then so popular in Kentucky — known as the Church of Christ, derisively 
styled by the jealous and envious of other denominations, "Campbellites."' 
and continued to his last hour one of its most steadfast members. Conscien- 
tious in all his convictions he was zealous in upholding his creed, and in ihe 
discharge of every duty and obligation it imposed. For the latter half of his 
life he served as an elder of his church, and often addressed the congregations 
in exhortation, and sometimes supplied the place of an absent minister, in 
the pulpit. Regarding his moral obligations as paramount, at one time in 
his professional career his conscience sorely prodded him for pursuing his 
bread-earning vocation on the Sabbatli, t)iereby desecrating the Lord's holy 
day. Seeing no way to avoid it— for Nature has no Sabbath, none of its oper 
ations are suspended on Sunday, sicktiess occurs, humanity suffers, and child- 
ren are born, and also have the colic, on that blessed day as on others, causing 
the doctor's services to be indispensible— he concluded, and so informed the 
public, that henceforth he wovid attend sick calls as usual at all times, but 
would charge nothing for professional services he rendered on Sundays. The 
result amazed him. His business on week days fell off 50 per cent, and a 
startling increase of bodily ailments on the Sabbath taxed all his time, to the 
exclusion of home enjoyments and rest, and— worse than all— debarred him 
from the highly-prized privilege of church attendance. 

That new departure in his business methods to some extent quieted his; 
scruples, but seriously decreased his revenues, without in the least mitigating 
his infractions of the third and fourth commandments. Compelled to discon- 
tinue that course he adopted another equally philanthropic, and not so labor- 
ous. He notified his patrons that he would no longer attend professional calls 
on Sunday: but would prescribe for tlie sick at liis home on that day free of 
charge. Still, the Lord's day contituied to be exceedingly unhealthy. To his 
dismay he saw his liouse each Sunday converted into a free dispensary crowded 
with the halt, the sick and the manned with their attendant parents, broth- 
ers, sisters and aunts, demanding all his time and mental energy from early 
dawn until late bed-time. That plan was no improvement upon the tirst. It 
converted his house every Sunday not only into a free hospital but a free tav- 

ernalso, enslaving his wife and 'aniiiy, consuming iiis medicines, and exhaust- 
ing his larder. Forced to abandon his well-meant reforms, lie quieted his com- 
punctions of conscience the best he could, and relapsed into the old daily rout- 
ine in luimble compliance with tlie ways of nature's Uod who makes no dis- 
crimination in days of the week. The conventional institution of the Sab- 
bath, in its setting apart one clay in every seven for rest and recreation, was a 
priceless boon to humanity, commanding the gratitude of all mankind— ex- 
cepting physicians, whose toil is continuous as the earth's rotation on its axis. 

The constant mental and physical stress of country practice, with its ir- 
regular hours and exposures at all times of day and night, its r'ismal associa- 
tions with disease aud suffering, and its numerous disappointments, perplex- 
ities and vexations, began rather early to tell upon Dr. Elder. When but lit- 
tle past the noontide of life he felt premonitory spmptoms of the inevitable 
breakdown of professional enthusiasm and vigor. He tried to think of some 
change of business or location that might palliate the severity of his never- 
ending task. After earnest consideration of the problem for some time, he 
concluded to move to Oregon where he would have the advantages of a milder 
climate and cheap land for tlie settlement of his children who were rapidly 
growing up. One of them. Rev. Charles W. Elder, for the last half century a 
minister of the Clinrch of Christ, was married to Miss Mary G. Hopkins 
on the 7tli of November 1850. Another son was destined for the church, and 
one a student of medicine, would in a few years be looking for a location, and 
ir probably would not be far in the future when some of the other children 
might l)e scattei'ing out to hunt for homes for themselves. Having resolved 
upon migrating to the far west the Doctor sold his farm, on the 13th of >[arcli 
is,-)i. to Joseph Hutchings, for $3000. and began immediate preparations for 
his long journey. But as he came to face the dirticulties in the way his reso- 
lution wavered. The magnitude of the undertaking staggered him. Then 
the reports of the outbreak of Asiatic cholera on the plains, and its appalliiur 
havoc among the throng of emigrants going to California that .season deterred 
him from going, and he abandoned it. 

Instead of leaving Hlinois he bought of James Hill two small adjoining 
farms— formerly occupied by "Uncle" Jack, and Jim Conover, in the timber a 
mile and half southeast of Princeton, and moved there, his son Charles on one 
of tliem and he and family on the other. There, in November of the next 
year, 1852. his tirst-born child, Samuel McPhei'son Elder, then a young man 
twenty six years of age and a medical student about to enter the profession, 
was stricken down with fever and died. 

There are several contemporaries of Dr. Elder still living in and 
Morgan counties who knew liim well, and speak of him in the highest terms, 
as a thorough, well-bred gentleman of more than ordinary intelligence, cleai- 
head and sound judgment: that as a physician he ranked \n popular estima- 
tion with the best in the country, and as a citizen was not surpassed by any 
for .sterling integrity of cliaracter. But he was a negative man, quiet, unob- 
trusive, not aggressive in anything but defense and propagation of his religi- 
ous views. His failings were all negative. Deficient m industry and tact, 
destitute of cunning, scheming and avarice, he was of course, not a monev- 
raaker. Full of kindness and sympathy, ho was ever ready to do all in his 
power to relieve suffering and distress too often without thought of the 

pecuniary value of his services. He left payment for his labor and skill almost 
optional with his patrons; and all the Lord's poor, the por>r devils, the dead 
beats, improvident and dishonest loafers, were on his free list. His total want 
of business sense, and his generous charity and free hospitality were necessari- 
ly fatal to financial success. 

Notwithstanding- Dr. Elder's absorbing interest in his church, and his 
rectitude of conduct, he was free from the repulsive aceticism and whining 
cant of the generality of religious zealots. He was of sunny, jovial tempera- 
ment, fond of merriment and lively company, and relished jokes, even though 
at his expense. His mind was a storehouse of varied information, as all his 
life he was a voracious and omniverous reader, familiar with the best litera- 
ture of the times, from the classics, poets, scientists, down to the latest and 
best novels. By his studious habits he kept well posted in the progress and ad- 
vancements of his profession, in which his attainments were very respectable. 

He was very sociable, of plain and domestic tastes, and a fluent and en- 
tertaining talker. Seen at his best was when seated in a comfortable chair 
in the shade, if in summer, or by the fire in winter, with a circle of appreci- 
ative listeners around liim. who were always entertained and protited by his 
conversation. He told anecdotes well in faultless language, never descending 
to slang, profanity or vulgarity. His personal habits were most exemplary, 
with the one exception of being an inveterate tobacco chewer. Dr. Sam 
Christy often said he knew of but one man wlio habitually took a larger 
"chaw" of tobacco than himself, and that person was Dr. Elder. Nor was he 
ever entirely weaned from the natural beverage of Kentuckians, Bourbon 
whiskey. He relished an occasional swig of it, which he took for the stom- 
ach's sake, of course, finding scriptural authority for the indulgence in the 
advice of Saint Paul to Timothy, by interpreting the Apostle's term "wine" 
so liberally as to include the essence of sod corn. 

In politics. Dr. Elder was all his life a steadfast, radical democrat, though 
in no sense a politician, and with never the sliglitest ambition for public 
office of any kind. The first vote he cast for a presidential candidate was for 
Genl. Jackson, in 1828; the last was for Horatio Seymour, in 1868. In 1836, 
he took an active interest in the movement for organizing Cass county, and 
in 1837, voted to ratify the act of the legislature creating it. In 1845, he ex- 
erted all his influence to carry the election for adding the "three mile strip," 
including Princeton, to Cass county, becoming by the result of tlmt election 
a citizen of Cass. He was in Morgan county three years before the first 
steamboat ascended the Illinois river, in 1827. He heard John Reynolds and 
Wm. Kinney address the people, while standing on stumps in the public 
square at Jacksonville, in their famous campaign for governor in 1829-30. He 
visited his scattered patients tlirough "the winter of the deepsnow," 18.30-'31, 
when in several instances the snow had drifted to the roof of their cabins. 
He went over to Beardstown in April, 1832, to see his friends among tlie vol- 
unteers gathered there in response to the call of Gov. Reynolds to repel the 
invasion of Black Hawk. He did not himself volunteer for military service 
because his medical services were more imperatively needed by tiie people 
here. Returning liome from a sick call across the prairie about two o'clock 
on the morning of November 13th, 1833, he saw the beginning of that marvel- 
ous phenomenon known as the "falling stars," and watched the falling 


meteors with awe and wonder until their strange, brilliant illumination of 
the night was superceded bv tliat of the rising sun. He happened to be at 
home on the 20th of December, 1836, the "memorable cold day," when the 
temperature fell in one hour from <)8 degrees above zero to 15 below, freezing 
the mud so quickly— it has been said— as to catch, and hold fast in it, the 
feet of many pigs, chickens, etc. He gave graphic accounts of the Internal 
Improvement craze of 1836-38, ^nd in 18.39 saw the first locomotive put in 
motion on the first railroad with a strap iron track in Illinois. He was per- 
sonally well acquainted with John J. Hardin, Gov. Duncan, Steplien A. 
Douglas, Lincoln, and other noted public men of Central Illinois. Peter 
Cartwright and himself were for years intimate friends, and tliough they 
differed broadly on some points ot gospel exegesis, they were in perfect har- 
mony on the etficacy of prayer and Jacksonian democracy. 

At his little farm in the timber Dr. Elder continued his practice of medi- 
cine; but the years of hard riding and exposure were telling on his impaired 
constitution, and limiting his powers of endurance. His once wide circuit of 
practice iiad contracted to a narrow circle. As the country filled up with people 
more doctors came— like cormorants— to prey upon tliem. Dr. John Walker 
had located at the head of Indian Creek, seven miles east: Dr Sam Christy 
was on a farm five miles northeast and a mile east of Lancaster post oflice. In 
Virginia, Doctors Schooley, Tate, Lord and Stockton were supplying tlie 
needs of the sick for miles around. Dr. Hathwell had located lialf a mile east 
of Princeton on the Clendennin farm, and otliers were scattered around 
wherever tliey saw a chance to make a living. In the spring of 1859 he sold 
Ills Morgan county land and once more became a resident of Princeton. There 
lie soon again found village life unsatisfactory, and longed for the freedom 
and independence of the open country. He never revisited his native state 
after leaving it in 1824; but his father returned to Lexington a few years lat 
er, called there by the serious sickness of his daughter, Mrs. Judge Venable. 
Early in 1860 Dr. Elder left Princeton and the scenes of his former struggles, 
triumplis and failures, and moved to a farm he purchased near the village of 
Elkhart in Logan county. The motive inducing him to make that change 
was perhaps not a particular desire to become a neighbor to "Roaring Dick" 
Oglesby, who then resided in or near that place; but was more probably the 
advantage of cheaper land and greater elbow room to be had there at that 

Dr. Elder's health, that for some time had been declining, in 18(i0 reached 
the stage of almost total physical collapse. Distressing enervation compelled 
him to retire from all active business and lead a sedentary life, however, be- 
yond inability for much muscular exertion, he was not an invalid. Tliere was 
no impairment of iiis intellectual vigor, tlie integrity of his mental faculties 
remaining as clear as in his youthful days. He was never an advocate, or 
apologist, for the institution of slavery, but having liad the doctrine of 
state's rights inculcated in his early training he believed it wrong forthegen- 
eral government, or people of the northern states, to interfere in the domestic 
regulations of the soutti, of those of any new state applying for admission in- 
to tiie Union. In the turbulent agitation preceding the civil war he was out 
spoken in defense of the position assumed by the south: and during the ter- 
rible conflict that followed, his sympathies were earnestly enlisted for the 

- 217 - 

confederate cause. Without hesitation or reserve he expressed himself favor- 
able to the south on all occasions— not in a spirit of bravado or defiance, but 
as his candid opinion of the right and justice in the question at issue. In 
tliose lurid days of furious excitement and intense sectional enmities a num- 
erous class in Illinois — in fact everywhere both in the north and south — were 
very intolerant of the liberty of speech when the sentiments spoken were con- 
trary to their views. Individuals of that class in his vicinity intimated to 
Dr. Elder that if he did not stop talking so boldly for the rebels they would 
forcibly suppress him. That threat had the opposite effect from that antici- 
pated by the loyal stay-at-homes. He was not in the least intimidated by it: 
but carefully cleaned his old rifle, replenished his powder horn and bullet 
pouch, and sent them word to come on and suppress him, he was ready to re- 
ceive them. They neither silenced nor molested him. 

To Dr. Elder and wife were born eight children, four sons and four daugh- 
ters, named Samuel McPherson, Charles Warfleld, M. Ripley, and Andrew W. 
—Catherine, Elizabeth. Martha Helen and Maria Jane. The two first named 
sons were born on the old homestead in Morgan county. Charles W. and M. 
Eipley chose the ministry in the Church of Christ for their life calling-, and 
are still doing the Master's work, the first a resident of Denver, Colorado, for 
several years past, the other in charge of the Christian church at Ashland. Il- 
linois. Andrew W. is a citizen of Peoria, 111. The last named daughter Maria 
Jane, resides in Salem, Oregon, the other three in Los Gatos, Californi;i. 

Dr. Elder occupied liis Logan county farm until about the close of the 
civil war, when too feeble to further superintend its management, lie sold it, 
and then purchased a modest little dwelling in VVilliamsville. in the northern 
edge of Sangamon county, a few miles southwest of Elkliart, anrl there es- 
tablished his last liome on earth. There himself and wife, surrounded by 
their children, quietly passed their remaining days, watcliirig the lengthen- 
ing shadows as the evening of life came on apace while awaiting realizaf inn 
of their faith in the final summons to "come up higher." The call came first 
to Mrs. Elder, who breathed her last in April, 1867. Tlie Doctor remained 
five years longer, a mere wreck of liis former self, lonely indeed, but sustained 
by his unfaltering faith in the promise of Him who said, "Come unto me all 
ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." Dr. Elder was 
"heavy laden" with grief for loss of his life companion, and with premature 
senile debility from years of slavish labor. lie had fought the good tight and 
felt that he was entitled to the promised reward, "well done thou good and 
faitliful servant," and was prepared to enter into the kingdom. As though 
passing into the repose of a quiet, peaceful sleep, he departed this life, in 
answer to the summons, on the 6th day of March, l'^72, having attained the 
age of 73 years and eight months. 



/"H-\IIE Rev. Wm. IL Collins was born in Slego, Ireland, November 21, 17!».'). 
^ II.s parents emig-rated from Ireland in 1796 and took a goat with them 
on the ship so as to have milk for the baby. The new emigrants 
landed at Baltimore and made their tirst home in Mar.yland. Later they lived 
in \'irginia and finally came to Ohio, where William was married in Cincin- 
nati, April 18, 182."), to Miss Rebecca Brinkerhotf. 

Wm. II Collins was a saddler by trade, but became a Metliodist minister 
and was a "circuit rider" for many years. lie preached at Cincinnati and 

I)a\ton, Oliio and by chanp-ing from 
one conference to another worked 
westward. i)reaching a year or so in 
iii-liana. and finally settling in Vir- 
ginia ahout the year 1830. Here for 
man\ \eaislie preached as a "circuit 
rider." t raveling the long distances oi-i 
horseback, with a pair of leather 
saddle-bags strapped on behind the 
saddle containing his meager supply 
of clothing, a b. ok or two, besides his 
w^ell-worn Bible, and doubtless a good 
supply of (juiiiine, as fever and ague 
were much in evidence in those times. 
(I now have tliese saddle bags.) In 
later years wlien settlers and towns 
became more numerous, and roads im- 
()roved, he liad a buggy and often took 
his wife wil h him. 
■i He was. as most Metliodist minist- 

/; ers were in t hose early days, a great 
h( r.^e I rader, 

Soiiiet lines he drove one horse and 
sometimes two. My earliest recollec- 
tions of my Uncle WilMam are of his 
es east of Virginia, in a very large and 
which we children all called the "old 


coming to my m:)ther's home two mi 
clumsy two seated covered carriage, 

He generallv arrived after dark, 

sometimes as late as ten or eleven o'clock 


and had a very peculiar "hello!" and when we heard it there was g-reat ex- 
citement in our humble home, for in those primitive times great respect and 
reverence was paid to all "preachers." My brothers would hurry out to help 
care for the horse, receiving most minute instructions from my Uncle. We 
children (Ira and myself) liad the fun of carrying in the bundles while my 
dear, good mother and sistei's made ready a dainty, hot supper of tea, soda 
biscuits and preserves. At the close of the repast the children generally en- 
joyed a taste of the good things and stayed up for the Bible reading and the 
long family prayers. A little latter if we could get a reasonable excuse we 
would slip in the room to see the unpacking and get a glimpse of the little, 
jolly old Uncle in liis pointed night-cap. 


Surely there must be many "old timers" in and around Virginia who 
well remember "Uncle Billy Collins," as he was familiarly called, and his 
wife, "Aunt Beclcy," for two odder or better people never lived in Virginia. 
Aunt Rebecca's favorite beverage was black tea, and she always carried some 
In lier reticule, so if lier liostess did not use black tea, she could supply the 

Wm. H. Collins was the oldest of eight children, and his parents were 
Pratt and Elizabeth Collins, married in Dublin, Ireland, November 9tli, 1794. 
Pratt Collins is buried at Little Rock, Ark., and Elizabeth was buried by the 
side of my father, Tliomas J. Collins, in the Robinson graveyard, east of 

Wm. II. Collins and wife had adaughter Elizabeth whodiedat Cincinnati, 
aged six weeks, in 1833. 

Wm. H. Collins and wife, also her father, Mr. Brinkerhoflf, and her maid- 

- 220 - 

en sister, Sarah BrinkerliolT, all died in Beardstown and are buried there. 
Wm. IT. Collins was never a man of means but for many years owned a 
home in A"irj?inia on the street goin^^ south from the old Dunaway hotel. 
He also owned a home in Beardstown for some years before liis death. 

House on South Main Street, the former home 
of Bev. W. Fl. Collins. 
The cJiureli he labored for in those olden times was known as the Method- 
ist Protestant, or Protestant Methodist, but I do not know what distinction 
tliere was between it and the Metliodist Episcopal church, but I do know my 
Uncle was a zealous, enthusiastic worker in the chosen field of his belief. 

rion. David C. Dilley, for many years the assessor and treasurer of Cass 
county, was a nephew of Rev. William H. Collins. Mr. Dilley now resides at 
Lebanon. Missouri. Concerning liis Uncle he writes, under date of May 5. 

"My sister, Mrs. H. A. Baldwin, of Central ia, Illinois, has Uncle Collins' 
family Bible. He was about 70 years old, and died about 1868 and was buried 
in the Beardstown City (cemetery, at the east end of the ground. His wife 
died about 1880. He was about 5 feet 4 inches in height; hair black or brown, 
before it became gray; light eyes. He was a verv positive man in his ways: 
when lie believed anything was riglit, fie would go any length to carry it out. 
He wore himself out in the service of the Protestant M. E. churcli. He was 
a kind husband, and a good citizen." 

A letter addressed to Mrs. Baldwin, brought no reply. An incident 
wliich occurred many years since is worthy of a place here. It had been an- 
nounced that Rev. Newton Cloud would preach in Virginia upon a certain 
occasion in the old church, which stood just west of the west side of the pub- 
lic square. As Rev. Cloud was a democrat. N. B. Thompson, a prominent 
merchant here, who was not a churcli goer, but was very mucli of a democrat, 
concluded to go and hear him preach. Mr. Thompson, wlio prided himself 
upon his personal appearance, walked to tlie front unusually well dressed, 
and attracted the attention of all the audience. It happened, that the ex- 
pected preacher could not come, and it was arranged that Rev. Mr. Collins, 
should conduct the service. Wtien Mr. Thompson discovered the situation, 
lie arose with his accustomed dignity, started to leave the building: Rev. 
Collins halted a moment, and then quietly remarked: "Tlie wicked tlee, 
when no man pursueth:" and then proceeded witli tlie religious service. 



JOHN W. PRATT was born in Alle^'^liany county, in-the state of Marylanrl. 
on the third day of December, 1806 He was the son of Thom;is G. and 
Christiana (Tyler) Pratt: tlie mother was a cousin of Jolin Tyler, president 
of the United States. 

Thomas G. Pratt was born in the year 17(i9. At an early day he removed 
from Prince George county to Allegheny egunty. Maryland; he afterwards 
lived in Frederick county, at a point but five miles distant from Harper's 
Ferry. He was an influential man of propeity and gave his son, John W., a 

libei'al education, which he readily 
acquired, and he was admitted to the 
bar in the state of Maryland, where 
lie doubt less would have risen to dis- 
tinction in hischoosen profession and 
remained a practitioner in his native 
state, had he not contracted a severe 
ciild in 1823, wti^n a hid of seventeen 
\e;ns. \\ Idle sutfering with an attiick 
iif iii(-;isles. The. residt of this cold 
Irfl hiiu a victim of consumption, 
lie began I he practice of his profes- 
sion and soon foiuid himself famous as 
;i public speaker and made numerous 
.Mldresses on various subjects to large 
;iiid ^nlelligeiit audiences. 

Hoping that a change of climate 
would iinest the progress of the ter- 
liljle disease that had fastened itself 
up(^n him, he removed to Florida, and, 
after a thorough trial of that climate, 
finding the change had been of no 
The fame of the Illinois coinitry had 
tt in the year 1835, when 29 years 
a man named Case, making the 
journey on horseback, in search of a climate which would help him in his 
battle for life and health. The travellers were attracted to Beardstown, then 
a point of prospective importance, from its position upon the Illinois river. 


benefit, he returned to tiis native state 
reached all sections of the east, and .Mr. Pi 
of age, came to this state, in company wit 

- 222 ~ 

before the day of the steam roads of iron. He purchased 40 acres of land in 
S3C. 14 and 23, T. 17, R. 11, of Loudon Case, on July 10, 1835, which was located 
about one mile distant from the farm of John Savage, who was then a leading 
citizen of Morgan county, in whose family he became a boarder and on the 
26th day of N^overaber, 1836, he was married to Emily, the oldest child of John 
Savage, by Rev Benjamin Cauby, a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian 

The quiet and seclusion of life on a pioneer's farm in this new country 
was so different from his life in the east ttiat Mr. Pratt soon tired of it and 
rt'.inoved to Beardstowii, where his oldest child, Thomas G. Pratt, now a 
resident of this city, was born, on the bank of the Illinois river, on September 
6, 1837. In the meantime Cass county had been organized and Mr. Pratt had 
become a candidate for the office of county clerk and, at the election held in 
August, 1837, was elected over his opponent, Robert G. Gaines, and on 
14, 1837, tiled his bond and took the oath of office: the sureties upon his official 
bond were Isaac C Spence and Alexander Huffman. 

The county commissioners soon found that Mr. Pratt was a man of in- 
tegrity and exci-llent business capacity and on tlie 5th of June, 1839, they ap- 
pointed him as t !ih agent of Cass county, to demand and receive money due 
the county under liie state Internal Improvement Law. 

In 184-2 Mr. Pratt, intending to become a candidate for tlie office of mem- 
ber of the Ipgislature of the state from Cass county, on .iiuie 8tli, of that year 
resigned liis office of county clerk, and was then appointed clerk j^ro tern. At 
tlie election held on Monday, August 1, 1842, he was elected over Joshua P. 
Crow, his opponent, and William II. II. Carpenter was elected to succeed him 
as county clerk: Mr. Pratt succeeditiiJ Amos S. West who represented Cass 
county in the Lower House, 1840 to 1842. 

The Thirteenth General Assembly nf Illinois for 1842-1844, convened at 
Springfield on December 5, 1842. John Henry, of Morgan county, was a mem- 
ber of the senate: Newton Cloud, David Epier and William Weatherford, all 
of Morgan county were members of the House of Representatives. Those who 
were active in the matter of the formation of Ciss county petitioned for its 
boundaries as they now exist. l)ut, as it will appear later, by sharp practice, 
a strip three miles wide was retained by Morgan county; the south line of 
the county as formed being three miles north of tlie present county line. 
Mr. Piatt began a determined tight for this three mile strip, and was assisted 
1)\ Mr. Epler who resided within the said strip, and was anxious to have it 
annexeii to Cass county. Bat the other mem'oers frjm Morgan made a stren- 
uous tiglit against Mr. Pratt and Mr. Epler, and tlieir assistants had worked 
upon the citizens of the strip taking advantageof the bitternessthat prevailed 
anion • I he people on accoiHil of I he rivalry that existed between Virginia 
and Heardstovvii over the permanent location of the county seat, which had 
been Ihst established at Be, irdstown and afterv^ards removed to Virginia. 

On the 7th day of February, 1843, Mr Pratt made a speech upon his bill 
to extend the liuiits of Cass county, which we have been so fortunate as to find 
among his pa.pers and wliich is here produced in full. It will be remembered 
that the precinct he refers to as the "Lucas Precinct"' was located in the 
northeast corner of the county, anrl is now known as tiie Richmond Precinct. 
This speech contains recitals of historical facts entirely unknown to the pres- 

- 2*23 - 

ent generation so far as this writer lias been able to ascertain, and makes a 
most valuable addition to these Historical Sketches. It was furnished by 
Mrs. Ellen Tread way, of this city, a daughter of Mr. Pratt. 

Remarks of Mr. Pratt, of Cass connty, in the House of Representatives 
February 7, 184.'?, on the bdl to extend the limits of Cass county: 

Mr. Speaker:-— It would be, at all times, with mucli ditliculty, that I 
could address a deliberative body, and the difficulty is jj-reatly increased on 
the present occasion by sickness, whicli has kept me from the house for sev 
eral days, and a severe hoarseness which increases the embarrassment and 
lessens the chance of my being understood. But, Sir. I am by no me;i,ns will- 
ing to postpone the consideration of this question. I rejoice that it is now 
before the house, and that I have an opportunity of placing it on proper 
grounds, and of answering whatever inav l)e urge! by those who are opposed 
to this just claim. 

Personally, I am but little interested.— peciniiarily I have little or noth- 
ing to gain or lose by the issue of this question: but Sir, my feelings have 
been warmly enlisted from the fact, tiiat the people of the county which 1 
liave the honor to represent on this floor the whole people—do feel :i deeper 
and more absorbing interest in this matter than any other that has engiiged 
the consideration of the Legislature. They must not be charged with making 
their principles subordinate to their interest in, their zeal on this point. 
Sir, there is a great principle as well as heavy interests involved in this mat- 
ter— a principle which 1 am willing to contend for and which they are not 
willing to surrender. We deny the right of any county in the state, or the 
state itself, to inflict an unnecessary wrong. We claim that when it is in 
flicted, it is the bounden duty of the st.ite to redress that wrong, more es- 
pecially when it can be done without serious injury to others. The people of 
Cass county have been wronged in the formation of the county, and without 
stopping to inquire who inflicted the wrong we call upon the Legislature to 
redress it- 
Mr. Speaker, I will first give a brief liistory of the foi'mation of the 
county, vouching in my place, fiom my personal knowledge, for the truth of 
the statements and facts presented. I will then answer the gentleman fi'om 
Morgan, (Mr. Cloud) and pledge myself triumphantly to refute every argu- 
ment adduced by him adverse to our claiuis, and will especially show, that .a 
majority of the people of Cass county, not only did not accept of the county, 
as asserted by him, but that a clear majority— a large majority, were opposed 
to its formation. 

During the winter of 18.36 and '37, petitions were circulated in the north- 
ern part of Morgan county, for a new county. The proposed county was to 
be made from tlie northern part of Morgan, which laid north of the line 
dividing townships IH and 17, running from the Illinois river ea>t to the 
Sangamon county line. This line included the three mile strip that it is now 
proposed to attach to the county of Cass. These petitions were signed by 
some tive hundred voters in Morgan county, which then contained, and at 
the previous August election had polled, about .'5(iOO votes. Acting on these 
petitions the legislature passed a law conditionally creating the present 
county of Cass, making the line not where the petition called for, viz: the 
line dividing township Ifi and 17, but making it run in the middle of town- 

- 224 - 

sliip 17, thus leaving a strips miles wide on the entire length of the county, 
and curtailing the claims of the petitions upwards of 80 square miles. The 
condition of the law was, that at a time appointed in the law, an election 
should be held in Morgan county, then composed of tlie present counties of 
Morgan, Scott, and Cass, for the purpose of accepting or rejecting the pro- 
posed county. At the time appointed, April 1837, an election was held under 
the said law for that purpose. About lOOO votes were polled in a county 
wliich, as I before observed, at that time contained, and at the previous 
August election liad given, 3,(i00 votes. Of these 1000 votes a majority of 48 
was cast against the formation of the county, but the poll book of the Mere- 
dosia precinct, in tlie present county of Morgan, having been returned by a 
citizen of Cass county, who was neitlier a judge nor a clerl< of the election, and 
the poll book of tiie Lucas precinct, in the county of Cass, having been re- 
turned by mail— both precincts giving almost an unanimous vote against 
division— tliey were rejected by the officers authorized by law to count the 
votes on account of this informality. The county of Cass was thus estab- 
lished, when a majority of the votes polled had been cast against its forma- 
tion: when ;i majority of the people witliin iier bounds, were opposed to it, 
and when nearl\ tliree-fourtbs of the people had failed to attend the polls. 

Mr. Speaker, here are several iui port ant facts ttiat present this claim on 
grounds different from any question of county divisions that has even been 
, presented to the legislature. The claims of the petitions were curtailed— the 
boundaries reduced: nearly three-fourths of the people did not vote; of tliose 
voting a majority was cast against the division of the county; and what is of 
si ill greater importance, and a still greater hardsliip, a majority of the people 
within the curtailed limits of the new county of Cass were opposed to tliis 
formation-first changing the boundaries of the county they petitioned for, 
and then forcing it on them against their will. I do not mean to cast censure 
on the tlien existing delegation from Morgan county, for changing the lines 
and referring tlie question back to a vote of the people; nor do I mean to 
charge the majority of the people of Morgan county with the intention of 
forcing the county on the people of Cass, for they had the power and did not 
exercise it. But I do mean to say that it is a fact beyond controversy, the 
people of Cass county have a county that they did not petition for: a county 
they were opposed to; a county they were not willing to accept: a county 
against the formation of which tiiey remonstrated until remonstrance was 
v;iin— until the legislature declared the county established: a county which 
tliey now call upon the legislature to enlarge. 

At every subsequent session of the legislature the people of Cass county, 
and the people living on the three mile strip, liave petitioned for tliis dis- 
puted territory, to '^e attached to the county of Cass, but as yet without suc- 
cess Tlie county of Cass, tlius singularly and unfairly established, is in ter- 
ritorial limits one of the weakest in the. state, and deducting from its nominal 
surface tiie inundated lands bordering on the Illinois and Sangamon rivers, 
the sand ridges and bluffs by which tney are skirted, and the waste and un- 
tillable lands in the interior, amounting in the aggregate to more than a 
third of the whole county, Cass county contains, I believe, less productive 
land than any other county in the state. 

Besides. Sir, this county lias been created by dispensing with those pre- 

- 2^25 - 

liminary checks to imposition and surprise for which the law was wisely 
enacted; and created virtually and in truth contrary to the will of those im- 
mediately interested. It has been formed out of one of the largest counties 
in the state, and made one of the smallest; when the required notice of in- 
tention to petition had not been given; when the required number of petitions 
had not been obtained; when a majority of the votes polled had been cast 
against its formation, and wnen a majority of the new county were opposed 
to it. Then, Mr. Speaker, it is confidently hoped, that, as this county has 
been thus formed without a strict observance of the statutory provisions in 
relation to county divisions: as tiie required notice was not given; as a major- 
ity of the people did not petition; as a majority of the vote polled were against 
it; as a majority of the people witliin the bounds of the new county were op- 
posed to it; and a majority of tlie people in the three mile strip are in favor 
of being attached to Cass; it is confidently hoped, that, as this county luis 
been palmed on the people of Cass, against their will ;i,nd to their injury, in 
disregard of these statutory provisions, that tiiose same provisions will not be 
attempted to be rigidly enforced against her now, when siie is asking the 
Legislature to rectify the identical wrong done her by not observing them; 
when she is asking nothing more and nothing less tlian iier first petition. 
And. Sir, it will be her last petition, for as long as the Representatives of the 
people assemble within these walls, and her prayers remain unanswered, she 
will petition. And, Sir, when it shall be her destiny to be borne down by 
numbers; when siie shall be attached to some other and probably larger county 
in the election of a Representative, as slie must be so attached, unless this 
territory is obtained (for witiiout it she is not entitled to a representative); 
wlien she will not have the strength to send one of her own citizens to ad- 
vocate her rights on this floor and will not have strength enough to cast tlie 
balance of power in the county connected witli her, siie will still petition and 
trust to some friendly voice being raised in lier behalf, and above all, trust to 
the justice of the Legislature. 

Mr. Speaker, the people of tills three mile stripare sometimes discouraged 
in their efforts to be attaclied to the county of Cass. Disiieartened by their 
repeated failures and overpowered and borne down by superior numbers, it is 
no matter of surprise that they do not press this claim with the enthusiasm 
they once manifested. But, let tlie question once be left to a vote of the 
people living within the bounds of this disputed territory; let the people of 
Morgan county, in answer to tiieir petitions, say to tliem "you iiave been 
wronged and injured and you may now determine, by your own suffrage, 
whether you will reinain witli Morgan or be attached to Cass," and. Sir, they 
will be united almost to a mai-. 

Besides every conceivable effort lias been made to divide the people of 
this three mile strip. Some have proposed to compromise and take less tlian 
the first petition called for, while others have proposed to take more. Some 
have proposed to take half of the three mile strip, dividing it east and west; 
others to take half, dividing it north and soutli. These propositions have 
generally come from enemies of division, yet they liave had a tendency to 
divide its friends. 

Like most new counties tlie people are divided on the subject of county 
seat — the western part prefering Beardstown, the eastern part Virginia, as 

- 2^26 - 

the seat of justice. Now, to show the unfair means resorted to, to prevent 
the majority of the people within this territory signing the petition— while 
the people living in tlie eastern part, who are favorable to Virginia, have 
been told that if they were attached to Cass, the county seat question would 
be left to the vote of the people, and a majority of them would remove It to 
Beardstown; the people in the western part of the territory, have been falsely 
assured, that if they were attached to Cass, the question of the county seat 
would not be left to the vote of the people, but that it would continue at 
Virginia, by legislative enactment. As a natural consequence the people in 
the easterh part of the territory, wiio understood my position, liave signed 
tlie petitions, while a large majority in the western part, under this misap- 
prehension, have not signed. All I ask is tiiat there be passed two bills, one 
authorizing the people of this disputed territory to vote for or against being 
attached to Cass, the other authot-izing the people of the county, including 
the acquired territory, to locate by vote the seat of justice of the county. 
This is all I ask 

I must be permitted to give another reason for the smallness of our peti- 
tion. It was understood that so far as the Morgan delegation was concerned, 
no division of Morgan county would be allowed, on any petitions— no matter 
how rui merous— but all projects of division, should be referred back to the 
vote of the people. In other words, that if the majority, or all of the legal 
voters of Morgan county, petitioned for any division, that division should 
not take place unless a majority of the votes should be cast for it at the sub- 
sequent August election. 

Mr. Speaker, I will not conceal the facts from the House that the people 
of Cass county, have never relied on a majority of Morgan county, giving us 
this territory. They have always looked, and still continue to look, with 
greater contidence to the Legislature settling this matter, than they have to 
a majority of Morgan. Tluit would be tlie last hope. The county of Cass, 
containing five hundred voters, having been formed, when only 163 votes 
were given at the precincts within her bounds for it, the lines she petitions 
for having been altered, the county formed, by the rejection of poll books: 
the people in the retained territory petitioning to be set off to Cass, Morgan 
county, after this division still remaining one of the most populous counties 
in the state, it seems strange that so completely a one sided proposition 
should have met with sucli uncompromising warfare. 

Mr. Speaker, I ask my friends from Morgan if this question ought not to 
be settled, and if Morgan county cannot well atford to settle it, by giving us 
the territory and then remain one of the first counties in the state, in terri- 
tory, in population, and consequently in political strength; how will they 
force this people to stay with them against their will and in spite of their re- 
monstrances? Are not liere good grounds for legislative interference? I will 
not say it is right to set off a portion of the county whenever the people with- 
in its bounds petition to be set off in disregard of the reiiuiinder of tliecounty; 
but I do say, when a new county has been formed with limits so contracted 
as to require the heaviest assessments of taxes to defray the necessary ex- 
penses of county government; when the county from which it was detached 
can well afford to spare the disputed claim and afterwards have the requisite 
population to entitle her to her four representatives on this floor, not lessen- 

- Til - 

iiig her political power: not disturbing her county seat, in fact, doing no 
wrong to her, but rendering justice unto Cass county: and when the people 
in the disputed territory have time and again petitioned to be separated 
from Morgan county and attached to Cass county: when these facts exist, it 
is right, it is just, it is righteous, to let them go: and anything short of this 
is downright injustice to them. 

Mr. Speaker, I wish to give a few figures in relation to this question: I 
wish to show the relative size and pop .lation of the two counties. By tiie 
State census of 1840, Morgan county contained a population of 15.414; by tbe 
Marshals' return it was 19,154. No state census was taken in Cass county 
and the Marshals' return of its pnpnUition w is 2,9H8. The population of the 
three mile strip does not exceed 1.500. Deduct this amount from the higliest 
returns of Morgan county and slie will be left a popuhition of 17654: add it to 
Cass and she will have 4,468. But admitting tlie U. S Marshals" returns too 
high, and adopting the medium between the two censuses as correct, Morgan 
county will still have 16,000 population, entitlirig her to four representatives 
on this floor, and Cass county will have 4.468, entitling her to one represent- 
ative on this floor. So far as population is concerned t hen, it can be no great 
hardship for Morgan coiuity to reliriquisli this claim. 

In relation to territory, tlie case is equally strong. Morgan contains 612 
square miles, Cass 288. Deduct the three miles from Morgan and she will 
still contain 532 square miles and Cass 3()8: Morgan 132 miles more and Cass 32 
miles less than the law of 1841, fixing the limits of counties, contemplated. 

Mr. Speaker, many gentlemen in this House, when I have given them a 
hi,story of tills territorial question, have told rae it was right f(.r this county 
to have it, but they could not vote for this bill because it was a local measure 
and the Morgan delegation was oppo.sed to it. Asa general principle, Sir, it 
is doubtless correct that in matters strictly local, the representatives from 
the counties immediately interested should not be overruled, but this is a 
question in which Cass county is concerned as well as Morgan. This is no 
new claim she has hatched up: it is as old as the county itself. It was ci'eated 
with the formation of the county, [t was then that the poll books were re- 
jected: it was then that the wrong was done; when she was cut off against 
tlie wishes of her people and with less bounds than her petition called for. 
Has she not always remonstrated against this unequal division'? Has she 
ever changed her position? Flas she ever relinquished her original grounds? 
Is the doctrine to be .sent forth from this House that no matter how much 
wrong mav be done; that no matter how great injustice may be done to a new 
county in its formation by the mother county; the injured party must seek 
redress from the stronger party inflicting the injury; that there is no remedy 
known to our laws; that the Legislature itself is powerlessand can do nothing 
without the consent of the delegation from the mother count>^V Mr. Speaker, 
it is apparent by observing this rule of such questions as the one now under 
consideration that they will be settled by one of the parties interested, witfi- 
out reference to their justice or merits; and the sanct'on of the Legislature 
obtained by an unfair formality. Why are such questions brought here to be 
settled if the Legislature is to be trammeled and controlled by the members 
from a few counties? Why not let them settle them elsewhere and save the 
time of the Legislature, if its province is only to endorse their acts. 

- 2tZ8 - 

Mr. Speaker. I have encountered more difficulty on this point than any 
other, botli before tlie committee on counties and in my conversation with 
members; all admitting the justice of the claim, but many unable to vote for 
it, because it is local, and the Morgan delegation opposed to it. Adopt this 
arbitrary principle unrestricted and where will it conduct you? What kind 
of vassalage will you not establish by it? Under its operation, a large county 
wishing to get rid of some part of its population, could cut them off in a new 
county, contrary to their petition, lessening their territory, imposing upon 
them debts and burdens and wrongs insufferable! atid yet the Legislature 
could do nothing with it, unless this large county, or her delegation, would 
agree to it. This, Sir, is a local (luesMon between the counties of Morgan and 
Cass, on which the small voice of Cass county has as much right to be heard 
as that of the large county of Morgan, and which, it is the duty of this House 
to settle according to its merits The members, the strength, tbe influence 
the power are on the side of Morgan; the right and justice is on the side of 

It may bi said thit this is a small matter that we are attaching too 
much importance to it. To some It may appear small: to Morgan county 
it is comparatively small, but it is of great importance to us. The value of 
this territory is not the only, perhaps not the most important consideration. 
There is a question of principle at issue— a question of right at stake. I 
shall not deny the right of an old county to preserve her existence, or even 
keep her limits respectable, by forming new counties on her boundaries and 
outskirts: but I do pi'otest against any county— not for her self-preservation, 
but for some fancy or whim, or to keep her territory as large as possible— cut- 
ting off new counties against the petitions of the people: against the wishes 
of the people; contrary to the interest of the people; disregarding everything 
like justice and equality ill their formation, and making the burdens neces- 
sarily imposed on the new counties, with the dirticuities created with them, 
curses instead of i)Iessings to their citizens. 

Mr. Speaker, I will noti^'.e some of the arguments of tlie gentleman from 
Morgan (Mr. Cloud). He sets out with tlie declaration, that if any wrong 
has been done to Cass in the form ition of the county, she alone is responsible, 
as Cass county received the county in its present form, and Morgan county 
voted against it. The evidence he has brought forward, to sustain this posi- 
tion is the official certificate of the clerk of the county commissioners' court 
of Morgan county. By this it appears, that in the three precincts in Casg 
county— Beardstown, Lucas and Virginia— Ki;} votes were polled for the 
county and 1.39 against it, leaving a majority of 24 in favor of the county. 
But, sir, it is a fact which was ascertained hy others at the time, of which I 
have not personal knowledge, but in the truth of which I place as implicit 
coritidence as if [ personally knew it, that a greater number than these 24 
voted for the county, who lived out of the limits of Cass county. At the sub- 
sequent August election, 496 votes were polled— being 194 more than were giv- 
en at the election for the division of the county: and more still were given at 
the election of county seat— or at the July election for representative. The 
vote of the county was not brought out on any of these elections, because 
there was a large party opposed to organizing; but the vote was increased at 
the first election after the legislature at tlie called session in 1837 had declared 

- 229 - 

the county leg-ally established. 302 vo^.es were given on the division of the 
county, and 49(i at the subsequent August election. 113 is the biggest vote 
for division; and this vote is given as evidence that Cass county accepted the 
county. She then contained between 500 and 600 voters; and many refused to 
vote on the question of dividing the county, because it was not the county 
they petitioned for and they were willing to receive no other; and, also, be- 
cause they knew Morgan county possessed the power of voting them off; and 
further, because, wliether voted off by Morgan or by Cass, they were opposed 
to organizing witii less territory tlian their petition called for. In evidence 
of the fact that a large number of those who did not vote were opposed to the 
formation of the county, I present the certificates of Mr. Savage and Mr. 
Huffman, the sheriff and probate justice, of Cass, neither of whom voted at 
that election, and who by accident were in Springfield two days ago. These 
certificates could be verified by hundreds in Cass county, and I know their 
contents to be true. I also present the original proceedings of a meeting in 
Virginia after the county was forced on the people of Cass; bv which it ap- 
pears that this whole precinct refused to organize. These proceedings were 
published in the newspapers at the time. 

Mr. Speaker, the certificate introduced by the gentleman from Morgan 
(Mr. Cloud) is good evidence in our favor. By that certificate it appears that 
of the votes received by the officers, five iiundred were given for division, and 
479 against; thus forming the county of Cass by 21 majority. The same cer- 
tificate shows the rejection of the Lucas precinct in Cass county which gave 
30 votes against, and one vote for the county. If this poll book had been re- 
ceived, instead of the county being formed by 21 majority, it would have been 
defeated by 14 majority. 

The gentleman says the Meredosia poll book was not returned. It was 
returned by Mr. Henry McKean, Esq., a citizen of Cass county, on the last 
day after tlie election that it could be received, for the purpose of defeating 
the county; but was also rejected with the Lucas returns. Tlie recepticm of 
either would have defeated the county. Why the one has been retained and 
the other not, I cannot tell; but I rejoice that the official returns from .Jack- 
sonville siiow that the rejection of the poll book in Cass county forced the 
county on the people, when its reception would have defeated it. 

The gentleman says that I was in favor of the county; that I attended 
the election in Morgan, and electioneered for the county. I admit it; but in 
doing it. 1 only exercised the rigiit of a private citizen, and could not com- 
promise tiie rights of the new county. Shall the people. Sir, of Cass county, 
be punislied for my acts? A majority of them did not vote for the county, 
anr^ shall they be deprived of their rights because I did wrong? As personal 
reference has been made to me, and the people of my county attemi-ted to be 
prejudiced by my mis-acts, I will of course be allowed the privilege of re- 
feiTing to otliers in the same way. If my vote for the present county is to be 
construed into evidence that Cass is not entitled to this three mile strip, may 
not the past opinions of my friends from Morgan, when favorable to us, be 
also construed into evidence that Morgan county is not entitled to it? If I 
have no right to stand here as the humble representative of the county of 
Cass, and claim this territory as her honest due, because I voted for the 
county, with her present limits, what right has the gentleman from Morgan 

- 230 - 

county to stand here and oppose giving us tliis three mile strip when they 
have recognized the justice of our claim in former years? I voted for the 
county, Sir, with an assurance on wiiich I placed too much reliance, that if 
we accepted of the present county there would be no difficulty in obtaining 
the balance. 

Mr. Speaker, here are 163 votes out of 500. all but two concentrated at one 
point, interested in a local question, working for the county; and the gentle- 
man contending they were a majority of the county! I was glad to hear the 
closing remarks of the gentleman from iMorgan —that if it was just for these 
tiu-ee miles to be attached to Cass, he was wil'ing; if not just, it should not 
be. I join him there I have endeavored to show the justice of this claim, 
and will add that I do not want it— that tlie people of Cass do not want it— 
unless it is strictly just. 

Tlie junior gentleman from Morgan, (Mr. Yates), complains that I have 
taken advantage of him; that I electioneered with his personal and political 
friends and got them pledged before he knew this question would be intro- 
duced: that both here and at home thev have been taken by surprise. If he 
was in the dark as to the introducrioti of this measure, I was also: for I often 
despaired of receiving any petitions, and they were given to the Morgan del- 
egation to examine as soon as received. Besides. I have conversed with the 
geni leman and his colleagues more frequently on this than any other subject; 
and have always told them that my actions depended on the petitions. I 
sometimes thought the petitions would not come, and may so have expressed 
myself. But, Sir, if they have bi^en taken by surprise here, of which I leave 
tiie House to judge, thev have not been in Morgan county; for the gentleman 
himself, and each one of his colleagues, have told you that this was a ques- 
tion before the people at the last August election, and all of them were 
pledged against any division of Morgan county unless such division was re- 
ferred back to the people. 

The gentleman calls upon the Flouse to reject this bill, because the people 
of county accepted the county, and because neither a majority of the 
people of the "three miles," or in Morgan county have petitioned: I admit 
we iiave not a majority in Morgan. 

I stated it before the committee on counties, and I repeat here, that it 
is vain to look to Morgan county; that- she will vote us down as often as it 
is referred to her. The wrong was done— and it was fastened on us— and no 
matter whether it was done by accident, or partiality, or fraud: by Morgan, 
by the Legislature, or by Cass herself: it is the duty of the sovereign power 
in the state to redress it. Admitting then that Cass county is by lier minor- 
ity vote responsible for tlie wrong done the county in its formation, is it 
possible that she lias no recourse? Why is this question now under the con- 
sideration of this House, if it has no jurisdiction, or if its action is to be con- 
trolled by a single county? Why are the representatives of the people en- 
gaged in it, if they have not the power to decide according to its merits. 

The gentleman (Mr. Yates) says that at the time Cass county was formed 
Scott county was also petitioning: that Morgan could not spare all petitioned 
for, but gave each a part. He is mistaken liere. In 1837, when Cass was 
formed, there was no other proposition, to divide Morgan county. Scott 
county was petitioned for and formed two years after. 

- 231 - 

Another argument urged all the gentlemen from Morgan, is, that the 
people in the territory are divided on the subject of county seat, and if it 
were located at any otlier part in Cass county, a bare majority, if any majority 
at all, would vote to be attached to Cass. That those living in the eastern 
part of that territory would prefer Jacksonville to Beardstown, and those in 
the western part Jacksonville to Virginia. But do the gentlemen forget that 
the seat of justice has already been both at Beardstown and Virginia; and 
yet at every session of the legislature since the county was formed, a large 
majority of the people in the "three miles" once approaching unanimity have 
petitioned to be attached to the county of Cass? The gentlemen are pursu- 
ing the same game here that was followed in Morgan, in circulating the pe- 
tition, "divide and conquer." They endeavor to make the impression on the 
legislature that unless the county seat is located at certain points the people 
in that territory will vote to remain with Morgan. It is their will and their 
interest to be attached to Cass, and when so attached they recognize the right 
of the people to settle these local concerns. They are able to do so without 
the inference of the gentlemen, or the people of Morgan county. 

It is contended that a majority of the voters in" the "three miles" have 
not petitioned. This was not disputed before the committee on comities; but 
the gentleman near me (Mr. Epler,) admitted there was a majority, and now 
says that he supposed so, from reading over the names, but on a more minute 
examination is satisfied that a majority have not petitioned. This objection 
might apply if the bill proposed to set off this territory absolutely. It only 
proposes to leave it to the vote of the people in its bounds to determine: and 
if the gentlemen are sincere in their statements, that the voters i.i the "three 
miles" are opposed to going to Cass, why object to this bill? Why object to 
referring it to their suffrages? Why the appeals not to cut Morgan county to 
pieces? Pass tliis bill— refer the matter to the people— and if they are op- 
posed to it, they will vote against— and thus settle this vexed question for- 

The gentleman (Mr. Yates) says we gave no notice of an intention to 
petition, and in this respect disregarded the statute. But, Sir, why was this 
same provision of the statute disregarded when the county was formed? No 
notice was then given; a majority did not petition; tha petition was changed; 
a majority voted against the county: the county was still formed by rejecting 
a poll book within its bounds in disregard of the will of the majority; and now 
can that gentleman stand in his place and object to this bill because we liave 
not observed those laws? Why were they not observed when the Legislature 
passed the law forming the county? If they were not compulsory then, why 
should they be made so now? 

But, Sir, they have had notice. Their complaint of being harassed witti 
petitions is evidence of notice. Their pledges against any division of Morgan 
county without referring it back to tiie people, is evidence of notice. They 
have had other notice, and one that will last. At the Hrst session of the 
Legislature after the county was formed, the people of Cass county and the 
"three miles," in strict conformity with the requirements of the statute, 
petitioned for their original bounds. They were in earnest then. They were 
in earnest even in the formal language with which such questions close— "and 
as in duty bound they will ever pray," etc. They are in earnest now: and 

- 2:V2 - 

if they want any further notice, let me tell the g-entlemen that if this terri- 
tory is not given to Cass now, not only at the next session of the legislature, 
but at every subsequent session, until it is given, or until the right of petition 
is spurned from these halls, they will petition, and call upon the Representa- 
tives of the people toredress their grievances. 

The gentleman, (Mr. Yates,) complains that this bill is in violation of the 
law of '41 for the protection of the old counties. One clause of this law pro- 
vides rim'-' no o'd c )uuty should be redu -ed ro less than 400 square miles, and no 
new county therafter to be formed should contain less than 400 square miles. 
The bill pending will si ill leave Morgan county .532 square miles and Cass 308 
square miles. Tlie other clause provides, that in dividing counties, no 
boundary line shall be estai)lished nearer than ten miles from the seat of 
justice of tlie old county. Tiiis bill encroaches about a half mile on this 
clause. Ciiss is about nine miles wide, excepting in the meanderings of the 
Sangamon and Illinois rivers, making the distance from our present county 
line to .lacksonville three miles moie th;in the whole width of Cass county. 
lias this legislature no ri/ht to alter a coutitv line conflicting with that law, 
because another legislature passed iiV Does the gentleman mean to avow 
the monstrous doctrine tliat a sul)sequent legislature has no right to repeal a 
sin^p'e law of a preceding legislature, or even, alter or modify it? Let him 
look to the proceedings of Saturday, when this House, by an overwhelming 
majority, passed the bill repealing the charter of the Bank of Illinois. 

The gentleman charge^ t hat, in the account I gave, I disparaged and 
sliamefully abused the county; that if I will not stand up and defend that 
tine county, he will. I have no fears that the people of Cass will believe that 
I abused tier. I iiave sustained her interests here with all the zeal and 
energy tliat I could command; and I am al A'ays prepared to defend her to the 
utmost of my power. Ihit why this high compliment to Cass county? Does 
not the gentleman know that it is incorrect? I appeal to his candor, if he 
ever travelled in that county; I appeal especially to the gentleman near me, 
(Mr. Epier), who is well acquainted with it if my account is exaggerated. I 
placed the unproductive land at one-third. It was a small estimate. Where 
the land is good, it is equal to any in the state: and where it is populated, 
her people are unsurpassed by the constituents of any member on this tloor. 
But if we deduct the iinindated lands, the sand ridges, slouglis, bluffs and 
frog ponds from lier nominal surface, it will not leave one-half of tlie land 
good. If Cass county is so tine a county, containing less than 3,000 inhabit- 
ants, what kind of a county is Morgan, containing 19,000 inhabitants? What 
kind of equality is this? 

The gentleman complains that this bill is unjust to tlie Morgan delega- 
tion. I protest that I have no such design. They came here pledged to op- 
pose this territorial question. I can testify that ably and industriously they 
liave redeemed their pledges. I have known them long, and would be the 
last man to do anything to wound their feelings. The people of Morgan 
county cannot complain. The passage of this bill is no reproach on her rep- 
resentatives, but is the result of a conviction on the part of tlie Legislature, 
that Cass county is entitled to the "three miles." 

Tliere was a remark made by the gentleman, (Mr. Cloud), which I deeply 
regret. It was an appeal to party. He says that this measure was fully in- 

- 233 - 

vestigated two years ago by a democratic legislature— when Morgan and Cass 
were represented by whigs, and no party reasons could exist for favoring 
either, and tliat legislature decided against us. 

He then enquires if this democratic legislature will carry this meas. 
ure over the head of the democratic delegation from Morgan, when their pre- 
decessors had refused to pass the same, when Morgan was represented by 
Whigs? This, sir, is no party measure, and if it were, it is known to all, that 
so far as party is concerned. I am powerless here. If that appeal is to he 
successful, I must submit; and the interests, the rights of my county made 
subservient to party ends. But can this course possibly be right? How can 
the opposite appeals of my political friends and opponents be correct? The 
democratic portion of the Morgan delegation call upon their personal and 
political friends to stand by them and defeat it. My democratic friends say 
that if it is carried over their heads it will injure them and use up the demo- 
cratic party in Morgan; and my whig friend with equal zeal, with as warm ap- 
peals to party, declares that it is unjust to him, and if carried over his head 
will use up the whig party in Morgan. Here are opposites— here are contra- 
dictions—here is a cross firing that no cause can stand. 

If these appeals are to be successful in rallying both parties against the 
measure, where am I to look for help? If whig and democrat are rallied on 
the side of Morgan, because the Morgan delegation is composed of whig and 
democrat, where are my constituents to look for help? To whom shall Cass 
go for relief. 

Sir, I have no such appeals to make: I have no personal appeals to make, 
I have no party appeals, but I have a higher, a stronger appeal to make. It 
is to the justice of the cause, I appeal to the justice and wisdom of this House 
in the name of the whole people of Cass county. I rely more upon that ap- 
peal than upon any other that has been or can be made. 

I return my hearty thanks to the, for its patience and attention, 
and will cheerfully abide its decision, knowing tliat it will be in accordance 
with its views of right and justice. 

The legislature adjourned in less than a month after Mr. Pratt had de- 
livered his speech upon his bill, and in that limited time he was unable to 
overcome the opposition of the Morgan county influence against it. 

In his description of Cass county, Mr. Pratt refers to "the waste and un. 
tillable lands" in the interior of the county. This class of lands had been de- 
nominated "The Barrens;" by the Kentucky settlers called "The Barns " It 
is a matter of small wonder that the early settlers held this erroneous opinion 
regarding this class of land. It was uneven in surface, covered with brusli 
and worthless black-jacks; the soil very thin in appearance and of a light yel- 
low color. When Jesse Crews settled in Cass county in 184.S, he could drive 
his two wagon over the barrens in T. 18, R. 9, and the bushes and sap- 
lings would bend under his wagon; tiiirty years later these saplings would fur- 
nish four fence rails to the cut. As late as 1H()7, Charles C. Robinson helped 
the writer break up a strip of ground in the "barrens" in Sec. 28, T. 18, R. 9, 
and forcibly expressed his contempt for the quality of its soil. About ten 
years afterward Mr. Robinson leased a farm in Sec. 20, in the same township, 
now owned by Joseph Turner. After he had cultivated it for several years he 


said he could make as much money farming that land, as he could make out 
of a good prairie farm. A successful farmer, now living in Cass county, who 
owned a quarter section of black prairie ground and an equal amount of "bar- 
ren" land testifies that for an extended term of years he made quite as much 
on the "barren" quarter as upon the prairie quarter. He found he could 
raise better oats and better wheat on the barren tract; it was better for grass 
and fruit and fully as good for corn, if but two crops were raised in succession. 
Much of the old time prejudice in favor of "black" land still exists— it will 
end in the years to come. 

Although Mr. Pratt failed in his effort to recover the three mile strip of 
land, he was not discouraged. He used his influence among the people to en- 
large our territory. He became a candidate for re-election to the lower 
house, which election took place on the 5th day of August, 1844. The dem- 
ocrats re-nominated Joshua P. Crow, a popular and prominent man who 
owned the farm in Sec. 5, T. 17, R 10, two miles west of Virginia, so well 
known in later years as the William Campbell farm. Of the 740 votes cast 
at that election Mr. Pratt received a majority of 72 votes as follows: 
Beardstown Kil, Virginia 175, Monroe 27 and Richmond 43. The 334 votes 
for Mr. Crow were divided thus: Richmond (i8, Monroe 10, Virginia 81 and 
Beardstown 175. Both candidates resided in the Virginia precinct in which 
Mr. Pratt's majority was 94. or more than 2 to 1. While in his old home, 
Monroe, he received nearly three-fourths of the votes cast. 

On tlie 2nd day of December, 1844, Mr. Pratt took his seat in the lower 
house as the member from Cass. The Morgan county delegation consisted of 
John Heru'y, senator, and Francis Ar.Miz, S imuel S. Matthews, Isaac D. Raw- 
lings and Richard Yates, members of the House of Representatives; Newton 
Cloud was clerk of the House. The proposition to extend the limits of 
county was again brought to the attention of the law makers of the state: 

Home of .lohn W. Pratt on the west S(iiiare. 
Mr Pratt with his persistent ability, aided by his former experience and 
more general acquaintance with the public men of his day; with right and 
justice upon his side was successful in obtaining the passage of his bill on the 

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26th day of February, 1845, which submitted the question of adding the three 
mile strip to Cass county to a vote of the residents upon the territory in' 
question, which election was held on the first Monday in May, 1845, and re- 
sulted in favor of the proposition by a large majority; 246 voting for aimexa- 
tion to Cass county, and 78 voting against it. 

It has been impossible to ascertain, with any certainty, how Mr. Pratt 
employed his leisure time from 1842 to 1847. He was in ill health, much of 
the time, and not able to lead an active life. He served the people as post- 
master; he assisted Governor Ford in his troubles with the Mormon people; 
lie took an active part in all public affairs and was held in high esteem by all 
who knew liim. During these years he resided with his family in the house, 
purchased for his wife, by her father, .John Savage, on lots 94 and 9.5, on the 
east side of the old square, now owned by Johti Wilkes. In this house his 
three younger children were born. 

In the summer of 1847, he became a candidate for the office of county 
clerk; his opponent was Charles B. Epier, of Prificeton, who was a democrat, 
and a young man of ability. Such was the prestige of Mr. Pratt that at the 
election lield on August 2nd, 1847, he carried every precinct in the county 
receiving six fiundred and twenty votes out of ten hundred and seventeen 
cast at the polls. While making his preparations to remove his family to 
Beardstown, tlie seat of justice of the county, he became, took to his 
bed and expired on the 7th day of October, 1847, aged 40 years, 10 months and 
4 days, leaving him surviving his faithful wife and four children, the eldest 
ten years of age and the youngest but two. It must have been a sad sight to 
witness the death of this useful citizen, so early in life, leaving his family 
of helpless little ones, to grow up without a father's help and protection. 
The family was made welcome at the liome of the good father of the young 
widow, who erected a dwelling for her and his grand children, very near his 
own homestead where they grew up to manhood and womanhood. His two 
sons, inheriting the public spirit of their father enlisted in the army of 1861- 
65, and became brave and faithful soldiers and are now honored citizens of 
this community. 

Thomas G. Pratt, the eldest child, was born in Beardstown, September 6, 

Ellen Pratt was born in Virginia, 111., July 14, 1845. 

Mary E. Pratt was born in Virginia, 111., December 25, 1842. 

Henry C. Pratt was born in Virginia, HI., June 18, 1845. 

Ellen Pratt was married to Francis M. Treadway who was a soldier in the 
Civil war, and who died at his residence in Virginia, 111., in the year 189.3, 
where his widow now resides. 

Mary E., married Jacob Yaple jr., she removed to Maryville, Missouri, 
many years ago. 

Emily (Savage) Pratt died on the 7th day of December, 187.3, at the home 
of her son, Henry C. Pratt. She and her husband were buried on the Savage 
farm; afterwards their remains were removed to the Monroe burial ground, 
located on the farm of Henry C. Pratt. 

In personal appearance Mr. Pratt was six feet in height, weight 170 
pounds, with ligiit hair and eyes; his manner quiet and dignitted. 

The name of John Wilkes Pratt should ever be held in grateful remem- 
brance for his distinguished services rendered the public in the early history 
of Cass County. 



/•j^HOMASLIPPINCOTT, the father of Dr. Charles E. Lippincott, was 
I quite a noted personasie in the early days of Illinois. He was born of 
Qual<er parents, in Salem, New Jersey, on the Hth of February, 1791. 
His motl^eTdying- when he was ei^lit years old, lie was taken by her brother, 
Charles El let, of Philadelphia, as a member of his household, and educated. 
In 1813, he enlisted as a volunteer to ^nuird the city from possible attack by 
the British. In 18U, he went to Lumberland, New York, for employment. 
There he met Miss Patsy Swift, a pious girl who converted him to Christian- 
ity; and he married her on August 15, 
181(). In 1817, with his wife and in- 
fant daughter, he started for the west, 
going from Pittsburg, on a rtat-Doat, 
down the Ohio river to Shawneetown. 
From there they traveled, in a dear- 
born wagon with one horse, to St. 
Louis by way of Kaskaskia. In St. 
Louis he secured employment of 
Ruf us Eaton as" a clerk. In Novem- 
ber of tliat year, Mr. Eaton sent him 
with a stock of goods to Milton, in 
Madison county, Illinois, four miles 
east of Alton, where he opened a store 
with the sign, "Lippincott & Co." 
■"I'liere he and his wife taught I he first 
Sunday School in Illinois. And there 
she died on the 14th of October, 1819. 
He did not remain single long, being 
united in marriage to Miss Henrietta 
Maria Slater, near Springfield, III., on 
March 25tli, 1820. Less than six 
GEN KRAL C. E. LIPPINCOTT. months later she died, on September 
lltli, 1820. In little over a year he supplied her vacancy by marrying, on the 
11th of October, 1821, Catharine Wyly Leggett, sister of VVm. Leggett, 
the distinguished editor of the New York ^^f^eni/ig Post. That wife was the 
mother of eleven children, and died May 8th, 1850, and was buried at Upper 

In 1S21, Mr. Lippincott vvas a resident of Ldwardsville, where for a year 

- 237 - 

or more he edited The Spectator, Hooper Warren's paper, established by Gov. 
Edwards. He was also a clerk there in the Land Office, and a Justice of the 
Peace. At the same time he was an Elder in the Presbyterian church, and 
frequently conducted public worship in absence of the minister. Always in- 
terested in politics he was for years a liberal contributor to the columns of 
various newspapers. In 1822, he was elected Secretary of the State Senate, 
serving in the session of the third general assembly from December 2nd, 1822, 
to February 18th, 1823. In the famous convention sciieme contest that fol- 
lowed he played a conspicuous part as an unrelenting opponent of slavery. 
On October 28th, 1828, he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Mis- 
souri, which at that time included all of Illinois, and to the ministry he de- 
voted the balance of his life. With John M. Ellis and Samuel D. Lockwood, 
he was an original mover in founding Illinois College, and from its beginning 
was one of its trustees. About from 1852 to 1857, he liad ciiarge of the Con- 
gregational church at Chandlerville. 

He was married, for the fourth time, to Mrs. Lydia Barnes— wiiose maid- 
en name was Fairchild— at Alton, on November 27th, 1851; she died in 187.3. 
Mr. Lippincott, from 1867, resided at Pana, 111., with his son, Thomas W., 
and he died there on April 13tii, 1869. He was of very prepossessing ap- 
pearance, morally above reproach, and his Christian character was complete. 

His son, Charles Ellet Lippincott, was born in Edwardsville, Madison 
county, Illinois, on the 26th of January, 1825— the first-born, by tlie second 
marriage, of the family of eleven children. He was named Charles Ellet to 
testify his father's gratitude to his uncle in Philadelphia of that name, who 
raised him. He is said (by his father) to have been a very homely brat, his 
nose appearing as a little round lump stuck on his face midway between his 
big, prominent mouth and eyes. So ill-featured was he when a babe that his 
mother concealed his face witii a veil when she took him out from home. He 
early manifested the "g-rit" in his nature that became snch a distinguishing 
trait in after life. When able to toddle about tlie premises he came in one 
day to "'siiow a purty little bird" he had caught, which proved to be a bumble 
bee; and though it stung him lie held on to it without whimpering until he 
delivered it to his mother. When a few years older a little incident occurred 
exhibiting anotiier trait, wliich in after Time Ills educated conscience modi- 
lied, or held in subjection. When liis father had charge of a little old Pres- 
byterian churcli at CarroUton the Baptists there erected a much larger and 
finer church building than his. The Baptist boys jeered Charley about his 
father having such a shabby little house to preach in until he got mad, and 
by way of retaliation, with rocks and brick-bats, broke every pane of glass in 
several windows of the new Baptist edifice. He said afterwards that he 
didn't mind the thrashing he got for it, as he felt that he had in a material 
way vindicated his father. 

In pioneer days a new student arriving at McKendre.e college, after giving 
the Dean his name, was asked wliere his home was. "I have no home," he 
answered, "my father is a Metiiodist circuit rider." Charley Lippincott when 
a boy had a home— in fact, several of them. His father, though not exactly 
a circuit rider, often ciianged his location to preach to different congrega- 
tions. Wherever he happened to be stationed lie sent his children to such 
schools as the place afforded, until they were all advanced considerably be- 


yond the curriculum embraced by the three "R's." Charley was a bright, 
impulsive boy, fond of going to school, as well as of all kinds of sport, and 
learned his lessons without difficulty. He grew up to be a stout, athletic lad, 
developing with the advance of years a keen desire for a higher education. 
When his father was located in Alton, Charley went to the "Academy," and 
when the family moved to Marine^a village in Madison county— he was 
taught by Philander Braley, of (Jollinsville, with some assistance in his books 
from Rev. Cliarles E. Blood. 

By that time his father, with a rapidly increasing family and only a vil- 
lage clergyman's salary for their support, was financially unable to pay 
Charles' way to higher schools, and from then on he had to depend upon hiis 
own resources. Not a word of complaint or whining was heard from him, but 
in jolly good liumor he manfully faced tlie struggle and went to work. For 
two seasons he labored as a farm hand for $12 per month and board. In the 
autumn of two years he put in crops of wheat on the farm of his cousin, John 
Breath, and harvested them the following summers. In the winter time he 
taught school— two terms on Rock ('reek in Menard county. In 1844, then 
nineteen years old, he entered Illinois College at Jacksonville. In after years 
he often told of the rigid economy he was compelled to observe to enable him 
to remain there the entire session. He said he had just twelve and a half 
cents a week for spending money, and almost every Saturday he and Newton 
Haieman, who was as poor as himself, would go to town and treat themselves 
to a glass of spruce beer and some ginger cake. Sometimes tliey indulged in 
other luxuries by way of variety, but when they did so they were always sorry 
they liad not gotten the spruce beer. 

He applied himself closely to his studies, bearing in mind that he had ar- 
rived at the age when he sliould be uiaking choice of a life avocation, for he 
ha(' no thought of fanning as a permanent occupation — or of preaching. His 
daily association with Dr. David Pritice, an enthusiastic young physician who 
had recently located in that town, and the vvarm mutual friendship attract- 
ing them to each other, decided him to adopt the profession of medicine, to 
attain which he there and then began to bend all his energies. At an early 
age he was indelibly impressed by his father's implacable hostility to the in- 
stitution of slavery, and, tfiough deeply absorbed in tiis college course, he yet 
found time to put in practice some of his theories of human liberty, by be- 
coming an active agent of the -'underground railroad," of which Jacksonville 
was an important station. Of the little circle of abolitionists specially de- 
voting themselves there to harboring, concealing and expediting the progress 
of runaway slaves on their way to (.'anada, Charley Lippincott was known as 
one of the most daring, industrious and zealous. 

When the session closed in the spring of 1845, his funds entirely exhausted, 
he went to Marine, where liis father and family resided, and secured employ- 
ment among the neighboring farmers. In the meantime he commenced the 
study of medicine in a desultory way, with Dr. George T. Alleti, of Marine, 
who was during the war medical inspector, with the rank of colonel, on Genl. 
Grant's staff. He again attended Illinois college during the session of 1857-58. 
The college at that time comprised a medical department, having for its 
faculty Dr. David Prince, Dr. Henry Jones and Dr. Samuel Adams, and in 
that department Charley Lippincott was enrolled as a student. However, he 

- 239 - 

did not graduate in either the medical or literary department, but after the 
Civil war Illinois colleg-e conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts. 

Abia Lippincott, the daughter and only living child of his father's first 
marriage, was married to W. S. Gilman. of the firm of Godfrey, Gilman & Co., 
in whose warehouse Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy was killed, on the evening of 
November 6, 1837. Subsequently that mercantile firm mover" to St. Louis 
and continued their business there. After close of the session of Illinois 
college in the spring of 1848, Charley Lippincott went to St. Louis and ob- 
tained a situation as clerk, or salesman, for Godfrey, Gilman & Co., where he 
remained until October. He was then entered in the senior class of students 
at the medical department of the St. Louis University, usually known as 
Pope's Medical College, where, with some financial aid from Mr. Gilman, he 
attended the full course of lectures and in March, 1849, graduated, receiving 
the degree M. D.— Medicinae Doctor, or literally translated. Learned in Med- 
icine. Having thus reached the goal of his aspirations, the next matter to 
be considered was the tinding of some place wliere he could makefile learning 
in medicine he had acquired productive of revenue. In some of his hunting 
excursions wlien residing in .lacksonville, and also when looking for employ- 
ment as a country school teacher, he had visited the Panther Creek settle- 
ment in the Sangamon bottom and become acquainted with Dr Charles 
Chandler there. 

In the spring of 184ft Dr. Schooley, of Virginia, went to California, and 
Dr. Parmenio Lyman Phillips, who liad been "riding" with Dr. Chandler, 
moved up to Virginia to supply Dr. Scliooley's vacancy. And it so happened 
that, shortly after Dr. Phillips left Panther Creek, Dr. Chandler was pros 
trated with sickness and laid up for repairs for a few weeks. There then 
young Dr. Lippincott saw his opportunity and availed liimself of it with 
alacrity. When, by aid of Mr. Gilman, he was fitted out with a horse, saddle 
and bridle, a lancet and lot of calomel, jalap, squills, blistering ointment and 
other essentials for country practice, he "located liim.self permanently" at 
the Panther Creak settlement. His reception by Dr. Chandler and his family 
was very cordial, and the offer of his professional services to the sick doctor 
thankfully accepted. If he was not very instrumental in promoting the doc- 
tor's recovery, he was, at any rate, very assiduous in his attention and efforts, 
which perhaps profited himself as much as the doctor by the experience and 
practical knowledge he gained. By taking charge temporarily of Dr. Chand- 
ler's country patients he quickly became acquainted throughout the com- 
munity, earning in a short time the reputation of "a good doctor and mighty 
clever fellow." As all young physicians ffrst commencing the business, he 
entered into the practice with spirit and eni husiasm. Industrious and active, 
and backed by the good will and friendshipof Dr. Chandler, his success seemed 
assured. Of buoyant, cheerful spirits and jovial, mirthful disposition, he was 
soon popular with all classes, particularly the young folks, and was the soul 
of all social gatherings, and leader in their sports and amusements. A fine 
horseman and superior marksman, he was very fond of luinting, making use 
for that purpose, generally, of a double-barrel shot gun, one barrel of which 
he loaded with ball for deer, and the other with sliot for wild turkeys, prairie 
chickens and ducks, tliat fell before his steady aim by scores. 

During a revival at Marine, a few years before, he profe.ssed religion— 


Presbyterian religion; but he had in a great measure outgrown it; yet, he 
was strictly moral, with unexceptionable habits, totally ignoring all use of 
tobacco, liquor, profane and vulgar language. The strangest and most inex- 
plicable feature of his personal history was his political affiliations. Despite 
the teaching and example of his father, and brother-in-law, Mr. Gilman, life- 
long bitter opponents of the democratic party; notwithstanding his own 
activity as an agent of the underground railroad; in spite of the influence of 
those distinguished Jacksonville leaders of the whig party, John J. Hardin 
and Gov. Jos. Duncan, and of all the professors of Illinois College; and the 
fact that nearly all his associates, and such esteemed intimate friends as 
Newton Bateman, Dr. Samuel Willard ahd Dr. Chandler were radical whigs, 
yet. Dr. Lippincott, was a democrat. Not of the passive sort either; but a 
bold, aggressive defender of the democratic party and its principles. He may 
have adopted that course through pure perverseness, but more probably be- 
cause of his great admiration of Stephen A. Douglas with whom he early be- 
came acquainted, and always thereafter entertained for iiim tiie highest es- 
teem and personal friendship. He continued to be an active, working mem- 
ber of the demacratic party until after his enlistment in military service in 

As late as 1848, the Panther creek settlement contained but ten families. 
It then had a postoffice named PariMier Creek, and Dr. Chandler was post- 
master. Its mail service was conducted by a boy (one of Dr. Chandler's sons) 
and a horse, making the trip to Heardstown and return once each week. At 
an earlier date an effort was made to establish a postoffice seven miles above 
Panther Creek, to be named after the well known Sac chief, Shickshack, 
whose village was until 1827, near the bald knob of the Sangamon bluffs that 
stm bears his name; but it was unsuccessful. By 1851, Pantlier Creek liad as- 
sumed the proportions and appearance of quite a village, containing a popula- 
tion of nearly 200. In that year Stephen A. Douglas and Geni. James Shie'ds 
were tlie Illinois Senators, and Richard Yates, of Jacksonville, represented 
the seventh district— which included Cass county— in the lower house of Con- 
gress. In that year, also. Dr. Lippincott's regard for the Chandler family 
had progressed to a sentiment more fervent than mere interest; at least, for 
■one member of that family. Prompted by tiiat sentiment, he circulated a 
petition that spring, signed by all who saw it, which he sent to iiis friends. 
Senator Douglas and Congressman Yates, with his own urgent request to 
cause the name of the Panther Creek postoffice to be changed to "Chandler- 
ville" in honor of the pioneer founder of the settlement; whicli was done, 
ainl thus the town was named. 

In 183(), Julian M. Sturtevant with one or two others of the "Yale band," 
wjio first breatlied the breath of life into Illinois College, went down to 
PantTier Creek in their capacity of missionaries and organized a Presbyterian 
cliurch, wliich they nursed and nurtured with their prayers and an occasional 
sermon preaciied there by some one of them. But notwithstanding that 
spiritual pabulum tlie infant organization languished and seemed to have 
4'eached the last stages of decline, when new blood was infused into it by Dr. 
Ipiiandler and a few others, who, in 1847, reorganized and incorporated it as 
Congregational church. It was revived by that change, and tjrew and flour- 
islied. In 1857, it included in its membership Dr. Ciiandler, wife and 

- 241 - 

daughters, and perhaps one or two of his boys. The Doctor's daughters in 
that church exerted upon Dr. Lippincott a powerful attractive force, which, 
combined with his probable conviction of sin, was more than he could resist. 
Meekly surrendering, he was admitted as a member of the church on the 9th 
day of November, 1851. 

In that year, also. Dr. Lippincott again testified his profound regard for 
Dr. Chandler— after all the preliminaries between the contracting parties had 
been satisfactorily settled— by asking for one of his daughters in marriage. 
There being no objection from any source, Dr. Charles E. Lippincott and Miss 
Emily Webster Chandler were, by Prof. Jonathan Baldwin Turner, of Jack- 
sonville, pronounced man and wife, on Christmas, Dec. 25, 1851. She was 
Dr. Chandler's second daughter, born there on Panther Creek, March 13, 1834. 

When Dr. Lippincott went to Panther Creek, in 1849, Dr. Chandler, 
though still in the medical harness, was engaged in merchandising with his 
brother Marcus. Very tired of country practice, he hailed the young Doctor's 
arrival with pleasure, hoping he would prove an acceptable substitute in his 
place, thereby releasing him from further servitude. He did all he could to 
establish him in professional work, and with such success that at the time of 
his marriage Dr. Lipp ncott had practically a monopoly of the whole settle- 
ment's patronage. He was personally very popular, and, for a new beginner, 
acquitted himself as a practioneer witii much credit. His cheerful disposi- 
tion, and pleasant manners and conversation, always brought a ray of sunshine 
into the sick room that braced up the patient's iiope and resolution. His 
bright, quick intellect, perfect self-reliance, and broad range of general infor- 
mation inspired tlie people with confidence in his ability. Trusting to his 
own common sense and the repairative forces of nature for successful results 
in ills practice, he adhered to the Allopathic system, administering remedies 
secundum artem, with no thought of investigation, innovation or deviation. 
Tliough kind and gentle in his treatment of the sick, he rej;arded the practice 
of medicine as an art, not a science, and not necessarily based on sympathy 
or philanthropy. 

With fleeting time the romance of courtship and marriage faded out 
leaving Dr. Lippincott face to face with the unpoetic realities of everyday 
life. With increasing professional experience, his faith in the efficacy of 
medicine declined; his enthusiasm in the noble profession began to wane, 
and its drudgery became more and more monotonous and distasteful. As 
has been the experience of hundreds of other physicians, when he had been 
in the business long enough to learn its liard, practical features, lie saw tiiat 
it was unsuited to one of his tastes and inclinations, and realized that his 
selection of medicine as a life calling was a mistake. In the spring of 1852, 
Dr. N. S. Reed, a young physician from Geauga county, Ohio, came to Chand- 
lerville bringing some capital which lie invested in a farm near by, and began 
the practice of medicine in the village. As he was energetic, active, and 
wholly devoted to his profession, atfable and accommodating in his inter- 
course with the people, he was not long in winning his way into their goof'- 
will, and into a tlulving business. The effect of tlie new Doctor's competi- 
tion was to intensify Dr. Lippincott's disgust with medicine. He became 
discouraged and dissatisfied. His aversion to tlie occupation upon which he 
depended for support, together with liis total want of thrift and financiering 

- 24^, - 

tact, were not conducive to prosperity: in fact, rendered self-support a ser- 
ious problem. The hegira of gold hunters to California was then at its height, 
presenting to Dr. Lippincott an element of novel enterprise and wild adven- 
ture strongly appealing to his restless spirit. He would no doubt have joined 
the mad rush of argonauts earlier had he not fallen in love and been drawn 
into the bonds of matrimony. The novelty and irridescent lunacy of that 
misfortune having passed, he concluded to go to the new-found Ophir the 
next year, and at once commenced to perfect arrangements for the contem- 
plated journey. 

His father, Rev. Thomas Lippincott, and family, moved to Chandlerville 
in the fall of 1852; the old gentleman taking charge of the Congregational 
church there, as its minister, in November of that year — a charge he retained 
until the close of the year 1856. Leaving his wife with her parents, Dr. Lip- 
pincott crossed the plains in the summer of 1853, arriving in California early 
in the autumn, and stopped at Downieville, then in Yuba county, now the 
county seat of Sierra county— a new county situated in the northwestern 
mountains adjoining the state of Nevada. He went to California after gold — 
as the thousands of others did— and in order to get it, on liis arrival in the 
mines, organized, or joined, a company and went to work. He made a full 
hand as a laborer in getting out lumber and digging a long ditch to convey 
water to their claims, and with pick and shovel toiled in other enterprises. 
But fate was against him, and his efforts failed to produce the filthy lucre in 
paying quantity. Quitting the mines as an operative he established himself 
in Downieville as a mining broker and "promoter," at the same time becom- 
ing deeply interested in politics, and an active partisan of the free soil dem- 
ocracy. In the rough and ready life of the mines, free from conventional re- 
straints to which he had all his life been subjected, he found the social con- 
ditions that exactly suited his strenuous nature. On leaving Illinois he had 
left there behind him his profession of medicine, and with it pretty much 
all his profession of religion also, and was soon thorouglily identified with the 
miners, not only in their material interests, but in their free and easy cus- 
toms as well. They were not slow in recognizing ills talents, and were cap- 
tivated by his sparkling humor, his sterling honor and manhood, so that In 
a very short time he was tiie most popular man in the county. 

Admitted as a state into the union on the 9th of September, 1850, Cali- 
fornia was in 1853 still in its formative stage politically and socially. Though 
its constitution specifically excluded slavery, the fierce contention of the pro- 
slavery and anti-slavery factions for control of public affairs caused an ebuli- 
tion of excited, angry feeling among politicians of all grades more intense 
than that then agitating tiie older states of the north and south. 

By 1854 David Colbreth Broderick had loomed up as tlie most conspicuous 
champion and leader of the free soil, or anti-Lecompton, democracy in the 
state. He was born in Washington City in 1818, and when grown to manhood 
drifted to New York, where iie was elected to Congress. Though uneducated 
he was a talented, impulsive and very ambitious man, of rare eloquence and 
more than ordinary force. With the first general exodus in 1849, he went to 
California to recuperate his financial and political fortunes, and in 1855 was 
an aspirant for a seat in the U. S. senate. The most prominent candidate of 
the pro-slavery party for that position was Hon. Henry S. Foote, a native of 

- 243 - 

Virginia but long a resident of Mississippi, at one time its governor and also 
one of its U. S. senators. The contest of the two factions, very nearly equal 
in strength, was extremely spirited and acrimonious, arraying the partisans 
of the aspirants, in deadly personal antagonism, and convulsed the whole 
state with their heated contentions. 

Dr. Lippincott's temperament was such that he could not be neutral on 
any question, or silent. If he saw two dogs, or snakes, fighting, he was at 
once enlisted in favor of one of them and against the other, willing to back 
his judgment with a bet. In the pending senatorial election, although he 
had never seen either candidate, there was no hesitation as to his preference, 
his ingrained free soil principles arraying him immediately and earnestly for 
Broderick; so earnestly that before the next spring he was admittedly the 
leader of the Broderick party in his county. At the general state election in 
1854, though scarcely a year in the state, having been nominated by the Brod- 
erick men, he was elected to represent Yuba county in the State Senate. By 
provision of the first constitution of California, the legislature met annually, 
and state senators were elected for two years. Taking lils seat in the sixtli 
general assembly, on the first Monday of January, 1855, Dr. Lippincott— not 
the sort of man to meekly take a back seat in any public assemblage— was not 
long in making his presence felt as one of Broderick's ablest and. most force- 
ful lieutenants. The southern democrats in the legislature, confident of their 
ability to elect Gov. Foote on the first ballot, exhausted every effort to force 
an agreement of the two houses to meet in joint session for holding the elec- 
tion. By Dr. Lippincott vote, and in a great measure by his skillful maneuv- 
ering, their motions in the senate for that, purpose were defeated, and the ses- 
sion adjourned without an election. By- meeting oi the seventh legislature, 
in January, 1856, the free soil party in the assembly had received an accession 
of strength, so that when the two houses mer, and. held the most exciied 
election in the annals of the state, Broderick was chosen U. S. Senator. Ills 
success, however, cost him his life, as, in 1858, he ^was killed in a duel by 
Judge David S. Terry, a prominent leader of the prp-.slavery faction opposing 
him. , , 

Another deplorable event, having its cause remptely in that contest, oc- 
curred in Nevada couiity in the summer of 185(). In the celebration of the 
Fourth of July of that year by a temperance association at Down ievi lie where 
Dr. Lippincott resided, the chief address of the occasion was delivered by a 
Miss Sarah Pellet, a lady of national reputation as a temperatice orator. By 
invitation. Bob Tevis, a bright young lawyer, read the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence before Miss Pellet's oration. He was a prospective candidate for 
corigress of the extreme pro slavery faction, and violently opposed to Broder- 
ick. Abusing the courtesy extended to him, after reading the Declaration 
with fine effect, he branched out into a long tiresome stump speech altogeth- 
er uncalled for and inappropriate, which so disgusted his auditors that they 
"shut him off" by firing their (anvil) cannons, howls, cat-calls, and a bedlam 
of other noises. 

The only newspaper published in Downieville, the Sierra Citizen, was in 
the interest of the American, or "Know-Nothing" party, and neutral upon 
Other party issues. The Broderick men liad secured control of two columns 
of that paper for defense or promulgation of tiieir views, of which Dr. LIppen- 


cot had charge as editor. He was as fluent a writer as his father, but strong- 
er anp more incisive in his manner of expression. With the ready faculty for 
investing the most commonplace incidents with interest, he had keen appre- 
ciation of the ludicrous which he could always portray in the most humorous 
vein. He wrote for his corner of the Citizen a witty and satiracal report of 
the celebration, specially ridiculing Tevis and his speech that was summarily 
squelched. He had never spoken to young Tevis, but knew his social stand- 
ing, his political affiliations and aspirations. His lampooning of Tevis cre- 
ated much merriment in the town, much to that young man's humiliation 
and displeasure. In a frenzy of passion and wounded pride Tevis called on 
Calvin B. McDonald, nroprietor of the Citizen, demanding publication in its 
next issue of a card over his own signature, denouncing the author of the 
strictures upon himself — whom he well knew to be Lippincott, a satellite of 
Broderick's— as a liar, a coward and a slanderer. Mr. McDonald tried to pacify 
him and appease his wratli by assuring him the report was written merely in 
a spirit of fun, and not intended as a personal affront. But Tevis, of excit- 
able, nervous temperament, a Iventuckian with all the Southern notions of 
chivalry and lion )r. and of lierce courage, would listen to no explanations and 
told McDonald if he refused to publish his card on any terms he would hold 
him responsible, and he could prepare to choose his weapons. The card ap- 
peared in the Citizen next day. Dr. Lippencott was surprised; but had no 
thought of offering an apology. 

The intent of Tevis's card was so obvious the Doctor could not ignore it. 
Public sentiment in California at that era left him no option but to answer it 
with a challenge for a duel, at once; or be ostracized from his social circle, 
branded as a coward and be compelled to leave the country in disgrace. 
Without a moment's hesitation the challenge was sent and immediately ac- 
cepted by Tevis, who, by a strange f;itality, chose for the tight double-barrel 
shotguns loaded with ounce, balls, at thirty paces; the very weapon Dr Lip- 
pincott was most familiar with by long use in hunting deer in Illinois. 
Mutual friends offered their mediation for reconciliation, and at one time the 
trouble was thought to be amicably adjusted; but it was again renewed, it 
has been said, by the intermeddling of one William Spear, a lawyer from New 
York, then in Downievilie. The due; was fought on the 7th of July. The 
place of meeting selected was a desolate flat amid high rugged mountains, six 
miles south of the town— a spot overhung by the eterjial pall-like foliage of 
tall, sombre flrs, where the song of bird is never heard. Conveyed by sure- 
footed mules, the belligerents and their seconds were on the ground by day- 
light, prepared to take their appointed places for the final act; Tevis tall, 
thin and straight as a rail; Lippincott, short, robust and stocky: both pale, 
cool and determined. 

Just then the sheriff and his deputies, who had been apprised by inter- 
ested friends of the affair, were descried on a distant eminence approaching 
at break-neck speed. The dueling party, not to be thwarted in their object, 
moved hastily out of the officer's jurisdiction, by passing over into the ad- 
joining county. There, unmolested, the principals were placed facing each 
other, thirty paces apart. As the rays of the rising sun began to gild the 
lofty mountain peaks, the word "fire" was given and instantly both guns 
were discharged. Bob Tevis fell, shot through the heart, and the ball from 

- 245 - 

his gun cut a lock of hair from over Lippincott's left ear. To evade falling 
into the clutches of the sheriff vpho had pursued them, Dr. Lippincott fled to 
Nevada Territory, vphere he remained until assured of immunity from pros- 
ecution, and then returned to Downieville; not, however, as a victorious hero, 
but conscious-stricken like another Ishmael. The death of Tevis siiocked the 
community with a thrill of horror. At his burial next day theetitire populace 
followed his body to the grave, with mingled emotions of sorrow and indig- 

Spear, the intermeddler, left town as soon as the result of the encounter 
was known. He had been intrusted with some collections sent him by Wra. 
T. Sherman, then a banker in San Francisco, and proving unfaithful to tlie 
trust, ran away, to British Columbia. After several years he returned to 
California, harmlessly insane— either real or assumed. In 1860 he joined the 
volunteers to fight the Piutes. At the Pyramid Lake battle, where the Cal- 
ifornians were defeated, Spear, by the break of his saddle girth, while his 
mule was ascending the steep mountain in their flight, was caught by the 
Indians and burned at the stake. 

The Lippincott-Tevis tragedy wrought a sudden reaction in public senti- 
ment regarding dueling, and also in public estimation of Dr. Lippincott. 
Prior to tlie 4th of July his re-election to the state senate was considered 
sure: after July 7th he was dropped and his name no more mentioned in that 
connection. On his return from Nevada old friends extended their hands to 
him reluctantly, and others passed him by in silence. Then this man of fine 
sensibilities realized the enormity of his act, and henceforth was over-shad- 
owed by tiiat voiceless, horrible thing which made a coward of Macbeth. 
His ostracism and isolation were more intolerable than could have been the 
case had lie passed the flery denunciation of Tevis by unnoticed. Early in 
1857, he left California, going to Washington City with his friend Broderick, 
whom he saw admitted as a member of the U. S. senate, and then proceeded 
to Illinois. In after life he was always very reticent concerning that duel, 
and only to intimate friends he mentioned it, invariably as a "horrible affair" 
which public sentiment and the customs of the country left him no option to 

He arrived in Chandlerville no better off— and in one particular in far 
worse pliglit— than when he left it four years before. Bearing an unseen 
burden that no repentance, or expiation, could exorcise, he had sought refuge 
in the baneful habit that ultimately blighted his aspirations and wrecked 
his iroh constitution. His beloved old father had heard the details of the 
duel and its mournful results, and his hair whitened under the blow. Dur- 
ing his absence in California, his wife supported herself by school teaching, 
for which she was very competent, as she was indeed a very accomplished and 
amiable lady. When the location of her school permitted she resided with 
her parents, and when teaching farther away she invariably returned to their 
home every Friday evening to stay until the next Monday morning. Again 
at home tlie Doctor resumed the odious profession he had so cheerfully 
abandoned on his departure. He attempted to regain the patronage he de- 
tested, and wearily trudged the gloomy rounds of his compulsory vocation to 
earn subsistence. Casuistic introspection led him to resolutions of reform. 
The excesses of his strenuous career in California, ever present in memory, 


oppressed him as he strove to allay their fascination. Turning ag-ain to the 
church for spiritual aid, he renewed his membership, and trod anew the 
straight and narrow path. To strengthen his resolutions he occupied his 
leisure hours in writing a commentary upon the New Testament; said, by 
those who read it, to have displayed deep thought and surprising familiarity 
with the sacred Logos. It was, however, only fragmentary and never com- 
pleted. He could write with ease and fine show of erudition on almost any 
subject, so long as his interest in it was maintained, a period usually of un- 
certain duration. 

Dr. Lippincott passed the four years, from 1857 to 1861, in uneventful ob- 
scurity at his home in Chandlerville. As spiritless as a Uoman slave chained 
to the galley oar, he plodded along day by day in the dreary routine of his dis- 
tasteful task, apparently bereft of every aspiration, and of hope also. Con- 
centrating his mind for the time being upon each case he was called to treat, 
he acquitted himself as a medical practioneer fairly well^as any person of 
sound common sense and some learning can do; and as many succeed in doing 
who have but little of either. But his work was obviously of the tread wheel 
sort, lacking the inspiration of ardor and enthusiasm, with entire indifference 
to professional progress and advancement. His interest in politics and cur- 
rent public affairs was unabated, though held in abeyance for want of oppor- 
tunity to give it practical scope. The murder of his friend, Senator Broder- 
ick, by Judge Terry, in a so-called duel arranged for that purpose, deeply af- 
fected him. He closely studied the Douglas-Lincoln debate, in 1858, and re- 
joiced at its result in the re-election of Douglas to the senate. • Through all 
the turbulent political excitement of those lurid days his loyalty to Douglas 
never for an instant wavered, and he stoutly supported him on the stump and 
at the polls for the presidency. 

He was radically opposed to the institution of slavery, and yet, vehement- 
Ip antagonized the repubiican party whose sole object was its destruction. 
Perhaps his last public appearance as a partisan democrat was in the cam- 
paign of 1860, when he addressed the people in several precints of Cass county 
in support of the democratic ticket, and very decidedly against 1 he election 
of Lincoln. In June of that year he was one of the delegates from Chandler- 
ville precinct in the Cass county democratic convention, and exerted himself 
to secure the nomination of his wife's cousin Knowlton H. Chandler, for the 
office of circuit clerk, but failed, .Mr. Henry Phillips receiving the nomination 
on the third ballot. 

The constantly increasing tension of public discord and sectional hate, en- 
gendered by years of passionate discussion of the slavery question, culminated 
in 1861 in appalling forebodings of civil war. The magnitude of the impend- 
ing conflict, and its Inevitable awful consequences, tilled the land with dismay 
and horror. Brave men stood aghast in contemplation of the drea iful calam- 
ity about to overwhelm the country with death, devastation, and sorrow. But 
Lippincott hailed it with delight as a veritble Godsend. To him it was the 
harbinger of freedom— not alone of the southern slaves, but emancipation of 
himself from the soul depressing thral lorn of his environments; and the op- 
portunity to get away from himself; from the torture of his ever-present past. 

In response to the president's proclamation, of April 15, 1861, calling for 
75,000 volunteers to enforce the laws. Governor Yates issued a call on the next 

- 247 - 

day for six regiments of militia as the quota of Illinois, and at the same time 
called the legislature to meet in extra session to provide ways and means for 
their equipment and support. Dr. Lippincott was eager to offer his services 
at once; but domestic considerations caused him to hesitate. He had before 
left his wife to the care of her parents for four years of fruitless adventure in 
California, and the idea of again abandoning his home, and wife and two 
small children, to risk the fortunes of war, for an indefinite period— perhaps 
never to return, on serious reflection staggered his resolution. For some time 
his mind was racked by the conflicting claims of obligations to his family and 
duty to his country when in peril. The disasf rous defeat of the Union army, 
by the Confederates, at Bull Run, on Sunday, July 21, instantly decided his 
future course. Sundering all home ties, he appeared at Springfield on Mon- 
day, August 19, with forty-five men and reported to Gov. Yates as ready for 
service, that evening marching to Camp Butler The company subsequently 
designated as "Company K.," was there recruited to full strength, and, on 
the 26th of August, organized by election of officers. Dr. Lippincott being 
chosen as captain. In its ranks were Jas. H. Clifford, Wm. H. Weaver, John 
N. Kendall, Jos. D. Turner, James F. Raybourne. Allen Cunningham, Thos. 
S. Clmndler, Geo. M. Forsythe. Moses Dowler, James K. Monroe. Wm. Mur- 
ray, Henry C. Milner, James I. Needham, Wm. M. Summers, Calvin C. Wil- 
son and several other sterling young men of Cass county, since known as 
among its most substantial citizens. 

Again Dr. Lippincott cast aside the pills, lotions, syringes and other 
nasty insigniaof his uncongenial profession, together with his thin veneering of 
church afMliation, and was once more in his proper element— in the sphere of 
life for which nature designed him. and for which his vigorous minrl. robust 
manhood, unflinching courage and rugged patriotism so well fitted him. He 
was profoundly ignorant of military tactics, but overflowing with military 
spirit and enthusiasm for the great cause in which he had enlisted. 

The limits of this paper will not admit of a detailed account of Dr. Lip 
pincott's career as a soldier; nor is such an account here necessary; for the 
services he rendered his country in the Civil war, though not specially 
brilliant, are recorded among the most honorable and noteworthy achieve- 
ments of its history. They constitute a page of that record which will for all 
time perpetuate his name with those other patriotic Illinoians who won the 
lasting gratitude of a free and united people. Yet, a biographical sketch of 
Dr. Lippincott would not be complete without, at least, an outline of the 
part he played in that momentous conflict. 

His company was incorporated in the 33rd regiment of Illinois infantry 
upon its organization at Camp Butler, on the 30tii day of August, 1861 It 
was known as the "Normal" regiment, from the fact that it was largely made 
up of students, instructors and. professors of the State Normal University, 
near Bloomington, and its first colonel — by appointment of President Lincoln- 
— was Charles E. Hovey, president of that institution. The regiment left 
Camp Butler on the 19th of September, ordered to southeast Missouri to drive 
out the rebel bush rangers there commanded by M. Jeff. Thompson. Near 
Big River bridge, in Iron county, Missouri, they fortified a camp witli slight 
breastworks and called it Fort Elliott. On the 15th of October Capt. Elliott 
and forty of his men were surprised there about dayliglit, by a superior force 


of Genl. Thompson's men and taken prisoners with the loss of one man killed 
and seven wounded. Capt. Lippincott coming, too late, with his company 
to their assistance met the retiring Confederates about two miles from the 
camp and attacked them. In a hand to hand encounter Capt. Lippincott at- 
tempted to run a Confederate otficer through with his sword, which proved to 
be too blunt-pointed to pierce the butternut hunting-shirt of the Southerner, 
so, no material harm was done to either, and company K. discreetly retreated. 
On October 21, the 33rd regiment, joined by other troops, met 1500 of Thomp- 
son's men near Fredericktown in a lively skirmish, dignified in the war his- 
tories as the -'Battle of Fredericktown." A few on eacii side were killed, 
wlien the Confederates largely, outnumbered, hastily retreated. Detached 
companies of the regiment made several wild goose expeditions through the 
hills of southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas, then passed the 
winter in comparative inactivity in Iron county, Missouri. 

On March 1, 18(i2, the 33rd left its winter quarters for the South. Lieut. 
Col. Lockwood on that day resigned on account of disability, thereby creating 
a vacancy in tliat staff position. Col. Hovey ordered an election to be held by 
the regiment, on March 5, to supply tiie vacancy, which resulted as follows: 
Capt. Isaac II. Elliott 388 votes, for Major Roe 9-i, Capt. Lippincott 89, Ad- 
jutant Crandall 69, and for Capt. Potter 46. But Capt. Lippincott, at that 
time on leave of absence at Springfield, Illinois, had no difficulty in convinc- 
ing his old boyhood friend, Gov. Yates, that he was the proper man for Lieut. 
Colonel of the 33rd, also Col. Elliott's choice, and a few days later rejoined the 
regiment with the commission for that position in his pocket. After a long 
hard march tiie regiment reached Helena, Ark., on July 13, and went into 
camp twenty miles farther down the river, at Old Town, in the midst of pest- 
ilential swamps, wliere several of the soldiers died of virulent fevers. B^or 
three months their service was scouting on both sides of the Mississippi. "On 
September 26, a considerable force of infantry and cavalry, with two howitz- 
ers, all under command of Col. Lippfncott, crossed the river and moved into 
the country about fifteen miles, where 300 bales of cotton were discovered 
It required sixty wagons to move the cotton, and it was not loaded until well 
into the night." The name of the owner who was robbed of the cotton is not 
given; but on the return the escort was tired into from the brush, severely 
wounding Capt. Potter and four others, and killing Sergeant Mason. "But," 
Col. Elliott adds, "what matterl the 300 bales of cotton were brought in." 
On the 5th of Soptember, 1862, Col. Ilovey was raised to the grade of brigadier 
general, and Col. Lipdincott promoted to the rank ofcolonel. On October 5th, 
the regiment returned by boat to the vicinity of St. Louis, and from there 
back to Iron County, passing the winter in useless excursions about the bord- 
ers of Missouri and Arkansas, undergoing many hardships and much exposure. 
In his admirable history of the 33rd regiment. Col Elliott says: "For any re- 
suits that came from that campaign, we might far better have been disbanded 
and sent home on furlough." 

Tiie regiment left southeastern Missouri on the 10th of March, 1863, to 
join the forces under Genl. Grant then investing Vicksburg. From the nth 
of May to Pemberton's capitulation, on July 3rd, the 33rd regiment, as part of 
Genl. Eugene A. Carr's division, was in the thickest of the tight and did 
splendid service. At Champion Hill, Black River bridge, and assaults upon 

- 249 - 

the fortifications, no troops of that grand army excelled those Illinoians for 
desperate courage, marvelous enduranceand perfect discipline. Though many 
fell before the shot and shell of the enemy, not one wavered or faltered in his 
duty. Inspired by the loftiest sentiment of patriotism their heroism added 
lustre to the great state they nobly represented. Col. Lippincott was in his 
glory. Where the battle raged most fiercely he led his men on, as eager for 
the fray and as fearlessly as when hunting deer in the Sangamon bottom. In 
a general assault on the main defenses of the enemy, on the 22nd of May, he 
was wounded, but not so severely as to compel him to leave the field. 

After the surrender of Viclcsburg, the 33rd regiment was ordered to Jaclc- 
son, Mississippi, and left for that place on July 5th. Col. Lippincott, sicli and 
suffering from his wound, was left in the hospital for a few days. On August 
19th the regiment left Jackson for New Orleans. September 4th it crossed 
the river, and for more than two months engaged in another useless and fruit- 
less tramp in soutiiern Louisiana, returning to New Orleans on November 14. 
Tiie next day it left, on an ocean transport, for Texas, and landed at Corpus 
Christi. Together with the 8th Indiana it atta3l<ed, on November 2Sth, Fort 
Esperanza, a small Confederate defensive work near the entrance of Mata- 
gorda Bay, having but a nominal garrison. During the next night the fort 
was evacuated after its magazine was blown up by the retreating defenders. 
Col. Lippincott left for Illinois on December 17, on short leave of absence; and 
on the 23rd the regiment was taken, in steamboats, up the bay to Indianola, 
and went into winter quarters there. The event of most importance to the 
33rd occurring there during the winter was the re-enlistment "for the war" 
of the greater number of its members as "veterans," carrying with the change 
a furlough of thirty days to visit Illinois. Those who declined re-enlisting, 
or "veteranizing," were transferred temporarily to the 99th Illinois. The 
regiment was mustered into the veteran service on the 27th of January, 1864, 
and left that afternoon for New Orleans. It then proceeded, on Marcli 4tli, 
up the Mississippi to Cairo, arriving there on the 12th, and to Bloomington on 
the 14th, where it received a joyous and royal welcome. 

The month of resting and feasting fleetly passed, the regiment, with 
about eighty recruits, reassembled at Camp Butler, on April 16th, and 
started on its return south on the 18th, arriving at Brashear City, Louisiana, 
May 17th. There the detached companies were scattered along the raih-oad, 
and at other points among the swamps aad bayous, on local guard duty dur- 
ing the hottest months of the year. The non-veterans who had been as- 
signed to the 99 Illinois there rejoined the regiment, on July 4th, and were 
sent home on September nth, by way of New York as guard for Confederate 
prisoners. After their stay in Louisiana of nine months and thirteen days, 
the 33rd left, March 2, 1865, for duty at Mobile, where it took part in the in- 
vestment of, and attack upon, Spanish Fort, one of the principal defensive 
works there. After severe fighting, and stout resistance of several days the 
Confederates evacuated the fort on the night of April 4th. The ,33rd was in 
reserve when Fort Blakely was stormed and taken, on the 9th of April, that 
being the last siege of the war. General Lee surrendering to General Grant, 
at Appomattox, on that day. The next move of the 3.3rd was to Greenville, 
Alabama, on April 20th; then to Montgomery on the 23rd; and from there 
to Meridian, Mississippi, May 10th. wiiere Col. Lippincott was in command 


of the district until August 16th, when the regiment was ordered to Vicks- 
burg. Col Lippincott resigned on September 10, 1865, and went home, to 
permit the long deserved promotion of Col. Elliott to the rank of Colonel. 
The 3.3rd regiment was mustered out of service, at Vicksburg, on November 
24th, and immediately started for home. 

Col. Lippincott was promoted to Brevet Brigadier General on the 17th 
of February, 1865, and after the fall of Mobile was made Bigadier General of 
Veterans. He returned to Chandlerville much elated with the triumph of 
his cause, and his elevation to the high rank won by his faithful service and 
valor in the hard-fought struggle for unity of the nation. He was the local 
hero of the hour, greeted by the adulation of the populace and congratula- 
tions of his friends. He did not resume the practice of medicine, and only 
mentioned it with disdain; but, giving free rein to his natural proclivity, 
plunged into the cesspool of politics with all the ardor of his impetuous 
temperament. Unfortunately, the convivial habits contracted in California 
and reformed on his return from there, were again fostered by the unre- 
strained life of the camp, and fully contirmed by liis political associations. 

In 1866, General Lippincott received the nomination of iiis party for 
Congress, in the old ninth district, comprising the counties of Pike, Brown, 
Schuyler, Fulton, McDonougli, Cass, Mason and Menard, all strongly demo- 
cratic; and was defeated by Hon. Lewis W. Ross, the democratic candidate, 
who received 15,406 votes to 14,721 for the General. Upon organization of 
the 25th General Assembly, in January, 1867, Genl. Lippincott was elected to 
the position his father held in 1821, that of secretary of the state senate, 
which he resigned the next wintei- to accept the office of doorkeeper of the 
national House of Representatives. Tlie Republican State Convention, in 
1868, nominated him for State Auditor, and after an able and active canvass 
he was elected, receiving 249,654 votes, and his democrat opponent, John R. 
Shannon, 199,7.54. 

Tlie constitution of Illinois at that time required all state officials to 
tal<e the re^.ular oath of office, and the following oath in addition: "I do 
solemnly swear that I have fiot fought a duel, nor sent or accepted a chall- 
enge to tight a duel, the probable issue of which miglit have been the death 
of either party, nor been a second to either party, nor in any manner aided or 
assisted in such duel, nor been knowingly the bearer of such challenge or ac- 
ceptance, since the adoption of the constitution; and that I will not be so 
engaged or concerned, directly or indirectly, in or about such duel during 
m.v continuance in office; so help me God." Before assuming the duties 
of auditor Genl. Lippincott unhesitatingly took that oath without a blush or 
tremor. Tliose who liad known him long and well, and knew his integrity of 
character and innate nobility of soul, were astounded— as he himself was. 
However, he justified the perjury by an illustrious precedent; that of the 
first republican governor of Illinois, Wm. H. Bissell. Col. Bissell, it is true, 
had not fought a duel, but had accepted, in Washington City, the challenge 
of Jeff Davis to tight, and afterwards deliberately swore, at Springfield, that 
he had never "accepted a challenge to fight a duel." Bissell, like Lippincott, 
possessed an exalted sense of honor, and was in every respect a great man, 
and extremely sensitive. He meditated long before consenting to sacrifice 
his honor, and manhood, and burden his soul, by committing plain perjury. 

- 251 - 

to save the fruits of his party's victory; and then essayed to quiet the up- 
braidings of his violated conscience w^ith the vi^retched subterfuge that ac- 
cepting a challenge in Washington wa,s beyond the jurisdiction of the con- 
stitution of Illinois. His party was satisfied, but his three miserable years 
in the executive chair left no doubt that his peace of mind was wrecked. He 
could never convince himself that his false swearing was done beyond the 
jurisdiction of his own conscience; nor did General Lippincott. 

In 1872, Gen. Lippincott was again nominated for auditor, and was re- 
elected with 241,498 votes cast for him, 192,708 for Daniel O'Hara. and 2,459 
for C. W. Westerman. In his second installation as state auditor he was 
spared the humiliation of having to repeat his oath concerning dueling, as it 
was eliminated from the new constitution adopted in 1871. 

At that time Gen. Lippincott was one of the most prominent and popular 
politicians in Illinois. He was regarded by many leading managers of the 
republican party as a prospective candidate for governor, having every element 
of strength to insure success, and could very probably, in time, have secured 
the nomination— then and since equivolent to election— to that once exalted 
position, but for his own reckless folly. During the eight yeai-s he was state 
auditor the emoluments of the office, under the fee system then in vogue, 
were enormous, amounting to many thousands of dollars annually. While 
serving his tirst term he very prudently invested considerable of his salary in 
valuable real estate. Of Dr. Chandler he purchased the tine bottom farm ad- 
joining Chandlerville on the west, known as "Flat Meadows," of over 200 
acres, on which he built a barn and made other substantial improvements. 
He also bouglit the Estep tract of .360 acres lying a mile east of the village. 
His home in Springfield was always open to his friends, who were entertained 
there with regal hospitality— all his current expenditures keeping pace in 
prodigal liberality with the munificence of his income. 

All the country, north of Mason and Dixon's line, was then enjoying un- 
precedented prosperity; money was abundant; everything salable commanded 
higii pr ces, and a tendency to unwarranted expansion prevailed in all channels 
of trade and finances exerting unwholesome, demoralizing, influences on 
society. In his second official term Gen. Lippincott unfortunately caught the 
prevalent infection of wild, unreasoning extravagance, induced by sud'len ac- 
quisition of wealth. Charity would dictate that the veil of silence be thrown 
over that period of his life, and hide from public gaze his mistakes and 
frailties. And compassion may suggest, by way of their palliation, tliat 
ranklings of memory, with sensual excesses, had impaired liis judgment to the 
verge of irresponsibility. Only upon ttiat hypothesis can be reconciled the 
strange extremes of his course. Reared and disciplined in poverty, then man- 
fully winning his way to social distinction by pinching economy and such effort 
as manual labor on a farm for $12 per month, it is incomprehensible tiiat in 
maturer years he would squander a princely revenue by such imbecility as 
paying $17,500 for a bull and $10,000 for a cow; and the more inexcusable folly 
of chartering special railroad trains to convey his host of convivial friends 
from Springfield to royal champagne banquets and drunken orgies at his Flat 
Meadows farm on the Sangamon. 

The inevitable results soon followed. His festive habits and reprehensi- 
ble methods of electioneering alienated the confidence of tlie conservative and 

- 25V - 

sober element of his party. As a consequence his popularity waned to that 
extent that, in 1876, when he was presented to the republican state conven- 
tion as a candidate for re-election to a third term, he was set aside, and tlie 
nomination given to Tom Needles. That reverse was preceded by financial 
embarrassements that had compelled him to mortgage all his real estate for 
large amounts. Upon expiration of his term of office he left Springfield, mov- 
ing to Flat Meadows, where he continued to farm his lands witli hired labor, 
as before, until foreclosure of the mortgages, in 1884. His splendid herd of 
fine-bred cattle was sold to satisfy debts, and his many broad acres passed to 
the possession of others. Leaving Flat Meadows he reoccupied his old home 
he had built after his return from California, a neat two-story frame liouse 
perciied high up on the bluff side overlooking the entire village of Chandler- 
ville and an extensive view of the Sangamon bottom. Always in rugged 
health, about that time he had a slight stroke of paralysis, from which he 
soon recovered completely, as it seemed. His property all swept away by de- 
mands of creditors, he was again redueed to poverty and without resources 
and without credit. But thougli republics — and some republicans — may be 
ungrateful, such a man as Genl. Lippincott could never be witiiout friends. 

An act of the legislature, providing for establishing "a home and sub- 
sistence for honorably discharged soldiers and sailors wiio enlisted in the U. 
S. army and navy from Illinois," was passed in June, 1885. The commission 
appointed by Gov. Ogelsby, for tlie purpose, located tlie institution on 140 
acres of land just beyond the northern limits of Quincy, to which 82 more 
acres were subsequently added. The buildings were commenced in May, 
1886, and the "Home" formally opened in Marcli, 1887. It was placed, by 
provision of the law founding it, in control of three trustees, appointed by 
the governor, wiio were required to elect a superintendent— styled "Govern- 
or of tiie Home" — and other officers and assistants necessary for its manage- 
ment. When the trustees met to select the first "Governor," they decided 
unanimously to offer the position to General Lippincott — and certainly no 
better or more appropriate decision could liave been maae. In the severe 
school of adversity he had learned prudence and self-restraint; while public 
censure had wrought commendable improvements in his personal habits and 
improvidence. Witli due appreciation of the importance and dignity of the 
position, he entered upon its duties with spirit and enthusiasm, administer- 
ing the affairs of tlie Home with marked abiliry, and the same lofty sense of 
honor and justice that characterized every public act of his career. He was 
ttieie once more placed in genial employment to whicii he could apply the 
energies of his active mind free from his former incentives to dissipation. 

In stature General Lippincott was five feet, ten inches high, squarely and 
powerfully built, with broad shoulders and deep cliest, and full muscular de- 
velopment. He had tlie Scandanavian clearness of complexion, sandy-colored 
curly hair and piercing steel-blue eyes surmounted by heavy shaggy eyebrows. 
His features were regular, not of classic type, or specially handsome; but his 
face always wore a pleasant, smiling expression denoting his kind, genial and 
mirthful disposition. Of sanguine temperament he was an optimist, seldom 
gloomy or despondent, but always, with jolly good humor, making tlie best of 
his surroundings, and never so happy as when conferring happiness on others. 
Col. Elliott says of fnm. "Notwithstanding his inability to execute the 

- 253 - 

simplest maneuvre with the regiment, Col. Lippincott proved a valuable of- 
ficer, brave and generous and always alive to the welfare of his men. He was 
a man of fine ability, a rare conversationalist and story teller, and few could 
excel him in writing good English. He had a vast fund of stories and anec- 
dotes at his command and could embellish the most trivial incident with such 
interest as to hold the rapt attention of his auditors, and when he offered to 
speak no one questioned his right the floor." 

Had General Lippincott possessed the faculty of pemistent application he 
would have made his mark in the literary world as a writer. With quite a 
store of general information and lively perception, he expressed his ideas in 
clear, concise and elegant language. His graduating thesis at the mec'ica) 
college was a thoughtful, scholarly production, on "The Impalpable in Cure 
of Diseases." — or, as it would be styled at the present day, "The Psychic 
Factor in Overcoming Physical Disorders"— in which he clearly foreshadowed 
the subtle potetiality ot hypnotism as a remedial agent, and the mysterious 
force of that faith upon which the chimerical success of modern Christian 
Science depends. In 1884, importuned by his old military c mrades to write 
a history of his regiment, he consented to do so, and wrote two ohapters, 
graphic in style and accurate in detail, but there dropped the task, to be 
taken up later by Col. Elliott, who completed it admirably. 

Genl. Lippincott was a very ready off-hand speaker, not a flowery orator 
dealing in lofty flights of poetic imagery, but a strong, forcible talker and 
logical reasoner, with the peculiar power of eloquence to hold the interested 
attention of his audience indefinitely. In his campaign speeches, and in con- 
versation, just after the Civil war, when party animosities raged with intense 
fierceness, he refrained from abusive or disrespectful language when referring 
to his opponents, or old associates of the democratic party; often expressing.!' 
regret that the old party had gone astray, and claiming he was still a demo- 
crat himself, having the same general views of public policy lie entertained 
before the war. He was not an ardent admirer of Lincoln personally, but 
gave his administration unqualified support so far as pertained to maintain- 
ing the integrity of the Union and abolition of slavery. 

Although General Lippincott was brave, even to rashness, he was lament- 
ably wanting in that self-asserting force known as moral courage. To that 
weakness was due tiie many sad mistakes that tarnished his true nobility of 
character. Too deficient in selfishness for self-protection; too confiding in 
humanity to guard against deception and imposition, and exerting no check 
upon his generosity, made prosperity for him more a curse tlian a blessing. 
He would not have hesitated to fight single-handed a regiment of the enemy 
in battle, but was too weak to resist temptation thougii in the guise of the 
worst enemy of mankind. For honor, charity, big-hearted benevolence, and 
all the nobler traits tliat constitute sterling manhood, he was excelled by 
none In business transactions his word or promise needed no bond to secure 
it; in all social relations the same natural instincts of justice and rectitude 
guided his conduct. He was true and loyal to his friends; as an antagonist, 
unflinching, chivalrous and fair. 

The great mistake of Gen. Lippincott's life was his choice of the medical 
profession,— a calling admitting of no promotion; offering no avenues to liter- 
ary or other intellectual distinction; blighting to all higlier aspirations, and 


restricting the best mental energies to slavish drudgery. In the legal pro- 
fession he would have found incentives for full exercise of his fine mental 
powers, and a broad and encouraging field for aggressive ambition in harmony 
with his tastes and inclinations, and conducive to a happier condition of ex- 

In deference to his wife's connection with the church, though disgusted 
with it himself, he always contributed to its support as liberally as his means 
permitted. When quite a young man, at Marine, he joined the Odd Fellows, 
and later in life the Masonic Order, and finally was a member of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 

About the close of summer in 1887, when in robust health, and busily ad- 
ministering the responsible affairs of the Home, without premonition, he was 
suddenly stricken down and rendered helpless and speechless by a stroke Of 
paralysis. He was removed from Quincy to Springfield for better facilities of 
medical treatment, and in a short time rallied, with flattering indications of 
permanent improvement. In compliance with his urgent desire, he was tak- 
en back to his quarters at the Home in Quincy, hoping that his health would 
be restored sufficiently to enable him to resume his work there. For a short 
time after his return he was progressing toward recovery, as it seemed, very 
favorable, when a recurrence of the trouble, at 7 o'clock on Sunday morning, 
September 11, 1887, again rendered him helpless and unconscious He lingered 
in tliat condition, with labored breathing, until half-past 7 o'clock in tlie ev- 
ening when he quietly passed away, at the age of 62 years, 7 months and 16 

Announcement of his death was immediately telegraphed to his friend. 
Gov. Oglesby. who ordered the flags on the public buildings in the state to be 
lowered to half mast, and arranged for liis burial at Oak Ridge cemetery, near 
Springfield, on Wednesday, the 14th. When last in Springfield Genl. Lippin- 
cott, in anticipation of his probable death, requested, in that event, liis 
funeral obsequies should be conducted by Stephenson Post, G. A. R., of that 
city. Accordingly, Lincoln Dubois, post commander notified the members of 
the post to assemble at their hall on the morning specified, and issued a 
general invitation to other posts, soldiers and citizens to attend the funeral. 
When the Wabash train l)earitig the General's body arrived at the Springfield 
station, at 9:30 in the morning of the 14th, an immense concourse of people 
were there awaiting it, including the members of Stephenson Post and many 
from the V^irginia and other posts. The active pall bearers were Col. E. R. 
Roe, Wm. Sutton, Col. E. R. Higgins, Jos. Turner of Ashland, Chas. I. 
Haskell of Virginia, Captains J. M. Burnham, E. J. Lewis and J. W. Fifer of 
Bloomington, wiio carried the remains of their old commander from the car 
to the hearse. The column was then formed and moved to the Congrega- 
tional cliurch. Immediately following the hearse was the guard of honor, ten 
old veterans detailed from the Home at Quincy, with white heads and beards, 
and bent with the weight of years, in full field uniform, with arms reversed. 
Tlien followed the pall bearers, military band, Stephenson and other posts, 
veterans and a long retinue of citizens. 

The iionorary pall-bearers, who followed the casket into the church, were 
Gov. Oglesby, Gen. Palmer, Gen. McClernand, Gen. McConnell, Gen. John 
Cook, Col. Wickersham, Hon. Shelby M. Cullom and Hon. O. M. Hatch. In 

- 255 - 

the church, profusely decoratecl with draped flags, and other appropriate em- 
blems, services were conducted by Rev. R. O. Post, which with the grand 
dirge by the choir, were sublimely affecting. In the same order the proces- 
sion moved to Oak Ridge cemetery, and there the mortal remains of Charles 
E. Lippincott were interred with the solemn and impressive ritual of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. Col. Ewart then sounded "taps," and the cor- 
tege returned to the city. 

Gen. Lippincott left no estate. To provide for his wife, who survived 
him, the position of "Matron of the Home" was created specially for her. 
Where she had before done the honors of the Home as the wife of its Govern- 
or, she assumed the humble station of Matron, and discharged its duties with 
watchful care and uncomplaining fidelity. She was a refined, cultured lady, 
of gentle, amiable disposition, possessing in very marked degree the graces 
and virtues of the true Christian. Her beautiful character and simple do- 
mestic life commanded the respect and admiration of all who knew her. 
With due regard to her social obligations, devotion to her husband, family 
and church, and her many acts of charity and benevolence, filled tlie sphere 
of her sorrowful existence. Having followed to the grave her three children, 
husband, father, mother and a brother, and borne with patient resignation for 
years the burden of her grief, she died, at the Soldier's Home, on the 2Ist of 
May, 1895, having attained the age of (U years. 2 months and 8 days. In Oak 
Ridge her remains repose beside her loved ones who had preceded her to final 

The children of General and Mrs. Lippincott were: 
Linus C. Lippincott, born April 27, 1858, and died January 4, 1872. 
Winthrop G. Lippincott, born October 5, 1860, and died January 23, 1879- 
Thomas Lippincott, born August 5, 1872, died July 31, 1873. 
As a testimonial of their great respect and affection for General Lippin- 
cott and his wife, who had become so endeared to them by their unremit- 
ting attention and kindness, the old soldiers of the Home, by their individual 
contributions together with the profits of the Home store, erected upon the 
parade ground tlie handsomest building there, which is known as the Lippin- 
cott Memorial Hall. It is used as an assembly hall for religious services, lec- 
tures and entertainments, has a seating capacity of nearly 1000, and cost 



MARTIN Flarding was born on the tirst day of June in the year 1833 in 
a double log liouse on the farm of his father, Martin Harding, sr.. 
situated on tlie east half of the soutlieast quaiter of Sec. 32, T. 17, 
R. 9, iti what is now Cass county, Illinois, within a half mile of Morgan 
county. Tlie liouse stood near a small stream. 

His father, Martin Harding, sr , was born in tlie state of Kentucky in 
1T.)3, removed to Keutucky when ten years of age; married in tlie latter state 
and came to Illinois in lS2(i vvith his wife and tliree or four cliildren accom- 
panied by his wife's brother, wlio was 
an uncle of the late George A P.eard, 
of tliis city, and also by a man named 
.lohn Parr. Martin Harding, sr., was 
about 5 feet 8 inclies in heigiit, and 
weighed about one liundred and sixty 
pounds with dark hair and blue eyes. 
Was a life long democrat who voted 
three times for Andrew Jackson: an 
hononLble man, but not a churcli 
member: he died in 1855 at tlie age of 
()2 years: his wife survived liiui eleven 

In 18-t5 ^[r. Harding's father built a 
new house on his farm 16 feet by 37 
feet a story and a half in lieiglit of 
lumber hauled on wagons from St. 
Louis: Tins house was erected by An- 
drew Strubleand Wilson Phillip. Mr. 
Struble lived in Aforgan coutity near 
by and Mr. P. near Jacksonville, Mr. 
Struble later on moved to Newman- 
ville in the MuitliiM'st corner of this county: became a county commissioner 
and a wealthy and successi'ui farmer. This house was covered with home 
made shingles of oak: it was plastered by E 1 Clark, a Christian preacher, a 
brother-in-law to Joseph F. Black, who died in this city a few years since; 
Clark went to Southern Missouri before the civil war. A kitchen was built 
detached from the house, which was the fashion in those days. The new 
house had a lireplace in it, but no stoves, the cooking being done over the 

- 257 - 

open tire. Pies were made of liuge dimensions called "cobblers" and baked in 
a sort of oven placed upon blazing- coals, and covered with the same. 

Tlie scliool Mr. H. attended was about a mile soutli of his home in a log 
house in Morgan county voluntarily built by the neighbors kept by a man 
named Austin. It was warmed by an open fire, of wood contributed by tlie 
parents and cut by the pupils. The benches were of hewn logs without backs; 
tliere were about 25 pupils and the term was of three months duration. 

The first preacher Mr. Harding remembers was Jimmy Wyatt, wlio lived 
in the edge of Morgan county, a local preacher of the Methodist church, grand- 
fatlier of J. F. Wyatt, of this city. Tliere were Baptist meetings also held in 
the houses about the neighborliood. There was much sociability in those 
days; dancing parties were common. The liouse of one Creel who lived on 
land now owned by George Virgin was a favorite resort of the dancers, and 
one Ben Samuel, who lived on the Creel farm was the tiddler; Ben went off 
to Kansas or Nebraska and has been dead for many years. The people who 
attended these festive parties were quiet and orderlv. 

Mr. Harding's recollections of Virginia reach back to about 1843 wlien 
Col. West was the merchant prince of the city, keeping a general stock in a 
store on the west side of the public square. The family physician was Dr. 
Chandler who lived twelve miles away. The roads were neighborhood trails; 
tlie bridges over the streams built by nearby settlers to be swept off by the 
next flood. 

Mr. Jacob Bergen was keeping store at Princeton in 1845; he had a clerk 
named Montgomery, wlio went to California a Christian and came back bring- 
ing liis religion with him. the only man who was able to do this, so far as Mr. 
Harding ever knew. The nearest mill was six miles away, near Prentice. 
The grain, corn or whe it, was taken on the backs of horses, one third kept as 
toll. The flour was bolted by hand. Mr. Harding, when a boy, often assisted 
his mother with the family washing; in pleasant weather this work was 
done at a spring near the liouse, as cisterns were unknown in this country in 
those days; a smooth piece of wood called a "battle" was used in beating the 
clothing which had been put to soak over night and the "battling" busi. 
ness left a lasting impression upon the memory of our subject. 

The country was well stocked with deer, turkey and other wild game; 
money very scarce, atid prices unusually low. During the Harrison adminis- 
tration, O'llear, of near Jacksonville, bougiit large quantities of corn at 6i- 
cents per bushel. Jacob Strawn was the cattle man; he paid $11 to $12 per 
head for four year old steers and drove them across the prairies to St. Louis. 

Mr. Harding now resides in this city, having retired from active business. 
He enjoys good health and retains his physical and mental powers to a good 
degree. He is not dissatisfied with his present surroundings, but recalls the 
old pioneer days with great satisfaction. 



JOSEPH DYER was boni in a log house about one and one-half miles nortli 
west of the Morgan county courthouse, on the 23d day of April, 1840. 
Ills fatlier, William Anderson Dyer, was a native of East Tennessee, 
wliere lie was born in 1799. Ilis mother, Margaret Bridgman, was a native of 
the .state of Virginia, in which state the parents were married. 

This couple saw hard times in those days: Mr. Dyer, sr., walked five 
miles to chop dry elm wood for 25 cents a day In order to buy a cow for five 
dolhirs. He was a blacksmith and carpenter. In 18;]7, this couple with their 

four children started for Illinois, a 
brotlier of Mrs. Dyer liaving preceded 
them. The head of this family liad 
75 cents in money and a blind mare 
which lie hooked to a one-horse wagon 
and started out. He came through 
Southern Illinois, passing near Cen- 
tral ia. He was often compelled to 
keep watch by night to keep wolves 
away, whicli he accomplished by 
tlirowing fire brands among them. 

Jacksonville was then a town not 
half so large as Virginia now is The 
railroad ran directly througli tlie pub- 
lic .square from Springfield to the Illi- 
nois river. The cars were open boxes 
pulled by mules or hor.-es: often four 
or five pairs attached to a load of 
freight, whicli was covered by sheets 
for protection. 
The family first settled just out- 
side of the present city limits upon 
JOSEPH DYER. land of Joseph Deacon, a farmer and 
blacksmith, for whom William Dyer worked. Here they remained for sev- 
eral years. The family raised cotton a number of years as well as fiax and 
with these materials the mother made ttie cloth of which the family cloth- 
ing was made. The operators of tlie railroad often stopped their trains op- 
posite the Dyer cabin to get buttermilk to drink; a proceeding that would 
hardly be permitted these days. 

- 259 - 

The only store in Jacksonville Mr. Dyer remembers was kept by three 
merchants named Robb, Hook and Steel, whose names were not at all in- 
dicative of their character. 

After a few years the family removed to a place about three miles south- 
east of Arenzville, south of the county line. William Dyer entered 40 acres 
of barren land, riding a horse to Spring-field to make the entry. There was 
plenty of good prairie to be had on the same terms, but settlers in those days 
clung to the timber and brush patches. Here was built a house of logs IB 
feet square with loft over head. The floors and roof were hewed out of logs 
the clap boards held in place by logs piled on the roof. Mr. Dyer never saw a 
stove until he was 12 years old, when his father brought home a small heater 
purchased of Nolte & McClure, at Beardstown. The usual bill of fare was 
corn cake, fat meat and onions, with biscuits for Sunday dinners. The mill 
was near Arcadia, run by Muck Ogle; it was a water mill, and both wheat 
and corn were ground there, the flour taken home and the bran removed by 
running the ground product through sieves. The bread was not so white as 
modern bread, but it had more nutriment in it. Tlie plows were of wood 
with points of iron and did not scour worth a cent. The harness used was 
primitive; the traces of chains, the collars of corn husks, the hames hewed 
out of saplings, the lines were I'opes. Corn sold from 10 to 124- cents per 
bushel, delivered at Beardstown or Meredosia. Hogs were driven to tlie 
former place and sold from 2 to 2.i cents per pound dressed, often the owners 
waited with their droves two or three days for their turn to have the animals 
slaughtered and weighed. Sugar sold for 3^ cents per pound, wet and black 
in quality. Whiskey was plentiful, cheap and generally used. In 1864 or '05 
Joseph Dyer hauled a load of corn to a distillery at Meredosia, which he ex- 
changed for a barrel of whiskey at tlie rate of a bushel for a gallon; this he 
used as a harvest drink in his neighborhood. At the distillery was a tin cup 
tied witli a string, out of which the comers and goers drank as much whiskey 
as they cared to swallow, free of charge, "without miney and without, phce." 
What a popular resort such a place would be in Virginia to-day! Although 
the drink habit was very common it was considered a disgrace to be dnuiK', 
and drunken men seldom were seen. 

Mr. Dyer corroborates the often repreated statement that people were 
much more friendly and sociable in the early days in this country than 
now. If a man had to move his neighbors came with their teams to help, and 
would have been insulted had pay been offered. In the late winter and early 
spring the old settlers would go from one farm to another clearing land— work- 
ing together for sociability's sake and for the reason they could turn off more 
work by combination. 

Wild game was very plentiful: Mr. D. has seen as many as 28 deer together: 
sometimes these innocent looking creatures would make havoc of the crops. 
Wild turkey and prairie chickens were abundant. There was a famous pigeon 
roost near Arenzville about 1858 or 59. The birds would break down trees a 
foot in diameter by alighting upon them in such great numbers. People come 
from far and near and killed these birds by the hundreds. A cousin of Mr. 
Dyer then living in Indiana constructed a system of nets, by which he cauglit 
wild pigeons in great quantities and shipped them to eastern markets in car 
load lots. 


Wages were much lower in the pioneer clays than now; as late as 1862 
Joseph Dyer worl^ed with a threshing machine from 4 a. ni. till 9 p. m. for 50 
cents per day, he would work all day with his team for one dollar. One har- 
vest he cradled wheat 18| days for $1.50 per day and thought he was getting 
rich fast. 

Wlien Mr Dyer first knew Arenzville it was a hamlet of five or six houses. 
There was one store there owned by a man named Spears who kept a general 
stock of goods with plenty of whiskey which he sold for 15 cents per gallon; 
tills store room was about 16 by 20 feetipfj»ize. 

Tlie first school Mr. Dyer attended -was taught by a man named Elias 
Hammer. About 1852 this school was tauglit by Felix G. Farrell, who after- 
ward became a wealthy banker at Jacksonville. 

Tlie first preacher he remembers was William Crow, an old-fashioned Bap- 
tist preacher, who lived near Ashland. Meetings were held at the house of 
William Dyer, who was a faithful member of tlie church. Preachers of that 
denomination were not paid salaries in those days, but labored in the vineyard 
without hope or expectation of pecuniary reward. 

[Note William Crow was born in Kentucky, and came to Illinois in an 
early day and settled on the farm near Ashland long owned by Travis Elmore 
and now by V. C. Elmore There was a neck of timber on the land known as 
"Crow's point " He was a farmer and a preacher of the denomination known 
as "iron-sides."' When the civil war broke out he took a strong and decided 
stand in favor of prosecuting the war. He was a fearless, out-spoken man. 
A very large number of this denomination of Christians were bitterly opposed 
to the war and were called "copperheads," Their treatment of Mr. Crow was 
nol^ only unchristen, but shameful. This persecution combined with ill health 
caused him to desist from preaching. He died at IJrownsville. Nebraska in 1865 
while on a visit with his son, J. E. Crow, and was buried there. 

This statement concerning William Crow was fui'iiished me by his grand 
son, Mr. Edwin Keggs, of Ashland, Illinois. J. N. G.J 



THE subject of tliis sketch, was born in Oldham, Lancashire, England, 
on the 2r)th day of May, in tlie year 1812. His father, John Needham, 
born in England in the year 1779, was a cotton spinner, and his son 
James learned and followed the same trade. 

The parents of James Needham, were poor people, and schools for the 
poor were few indeed; but James had an intense thirst for knowledge, and 
found a "night school" that he closely attended, and on Sunday he went to 
Sunday School, twice each Sabbath, and in that way, he acquired tlie founda- 
tion for a fair education. It is said 
that on the eve of his wedding day, as 
soon as the ceremony was pronounced, 
he left his bride to take his place with 
the pupils of the night school, he was 
then a member of, and as late as 1856, 
when his son John was attending the 
district school kept by Archie Camp- 
bell, he took liome the higher arith- 
metic, to assist his father in master- 
ing it, in night lessons. 
In his youth, James Needham, was 
quiet boy having but little to say, 
avoiding tiie excesses of his compan- 
ions, and maintaining a straiglitfor- 
ward course His mother made a 
li(luor called ale for the use of her 
husband and sons, of wiiich James 
took his share, until the advent of 
a primitive temperance lecturer, and 
out of curiosity James went to "hear 
what the babbler would say" as he ex- 
REV. JAMES NEP^DHAM. pressed it. The arguments of tlie 

"babbler" convinced James Needham, of tlie follv of drink, and he resolved 
to quit its use; his mother severely cliided him, declaring that his health 
would suffer from his proposed abstinence, but James, with the native Ei]g- 
lish bull-dog tenacity that characterized him all the way tlirougli life, stoutly 
maintained his course, and at tlie end of six months, others of the family be- 
gan to follow the example of temperance that James had set for them. 


It was to be expected that a youth of this description would naturally in- 
cline to religion, and we find that he made a profession when but eighteen 
years of age, was soon made a class leader in the Methodist church and in a 
short time was licensed to preach to the Independent Methodists on Oldham 
Circuit in Lancashire. 

Martha Ogden, was born in Royton, England on the 5th day of May 1811, 
and was married to James Needham,on August 31st 1835, then being a few 
months older than twenty-four years, her husband, being a year her junior. 
Although .James Needham spent a part of his time in ministerial labor, he 
was obliged to continue his work in the cotton mills to support himself and 
family; he was not allowed to vote, because he did notown sufficient property, 
although they taxed him not only to pay civil taxes, but added something 
to the burden to be used in maintaining the Church of England: the payment 
of this tax to force James Needham to help to support a Church, the doctrines 
of which he was totally opposed to, caused him to often complain. 

In 1810,. he found himself with a wife and two cliildren, one three and the 
other one yearjold, with poor prospects for financial betterment; his sister Mary 
who had married piiarlesJSTicholson, with her husband and family had emV 
grated to Springlield in Illinois in the United States, and James Needham de- 
cided to follow them. Accordingly he and his family set sail from old England 
in September 1840, bound for the little faraway town in the Sangamon valley, 
and altho' he met with many hardships, he was never heard to utter a regret 
for having set out toward the western siui. He arrived in Springfield in Dec- 
ember of that year, and finding tliat Mr. Nicholson had gone on a few miles 
west to Jacksonville, lie followed after. 

In tills new and strange land .James Xeedhain looked about him for some- 
thing-anytliini);- to do to sustain, himself and those dependent on him. The 
first job he struck was a chance to earn a dollar per day and expenses in driv- 
ing hogs to St. Louis market, and gladly set off on foot toward his destination. 
He had not proceeded far, until the weather ciianged, and an old fashioned 
January thaw succeeded: the mud became something awful; the larger of the 
hogs could not make their way through it: teams and wagons were procured 
and tlie helpless animals bodily lifted into the wagons, and by slow and easy 
stages, the journey was completed by the end of twelve days, when the pork 
was sold, and the drovers came up the river by boat to Meredosia, and made 
the restof the distcince on foot. He nextgot a job tocut timber: he had never 
used an ax, but found one end of a cross-cut saw, and got on very well witli it. 
Hearing of the Haskel] carding mills in V[rgjnia,, Cass CountyT^ he came 
here to interview the proprietor, and soon madeii bargain to work at the wool 
business, his experience in the cotton mills of England, being of graat benefit 
to hlin. For a time iiis family remained in Jacksonville. Mr. Needham, took 
his young nephew, tlie son of Cliarles^Nicholson, to assist him in the work in 
the Il;iskell mill: this nephew was none other than John S. Nicholson, editor 
of the Illinoian-Star, and one of the oldest and most respected citizens of 
Beardstown. Mr. Needham, and John Nicholson would walk over to tlieir 
work, a distance of sixteen miles, on Monday, and ret urn in the same fashion 
at tlie end of tlieir week's labor. Incase the Mauvaisterre Creek was at a 
high stage, they would seek a tree that had been felled for a bridge, and crawl 
over on all fours. He soon rented a house on the east side of the sc^uare. near 

- 263 - 

the Dunaway hotel, and brought his family over to become permanent residents 
of Cass County. In 1843 he purchased a house on lot 128 now owned by Miss 
Patty Green, where he lived until he removed from the town in 1849. 

At tliat time the only church in Virginia had been built by the Protest- 
ant Methodists, on lot fi4 in the original Town which had been donated to 
them by Dr. H. H. Hall who laid out the town in May 183(i Rev. William IT. 
Collins, and Rev. Reddick Horn were preacliers of that denomination: the 
members comprised the Freemans, the Coxes, the Beadles, the Outtons and 
others. Virginia, Bluff Springs and Concord formed one circuit, -and of this 
church, James Needham became a member. 

In the sketch of Rev. William H. Collins, by his neice, Mrs. Emily Collins 
Brady, that lady said she did not know the distinction between the Protest- 
ant Methodists and the Episcopal Methodists. Very few people have any 
knowledge on this subject, and it may interest some to look a little into the 
history of Methodism to discover the difference, and how the division came a- 

A considerable number of the clergy and membership of the Methodist 
church, in an early day in this country, became dissatisfied with the mon- 
archial form of their church government In most respects their govern- 
ment was admirably adapted to the needs of a pioneer people. Francis As- 
bury, was the only bishop of that church up to 1796, at which time his healtli 
failing iiim, to the extent of disqualifying him for tull service, Thomas (]oke 
was chosen to assist him: at this time the United States and France and the 
West Indies were included in one jurisdiction. Asbury died in 181.5, more 
than 70 years of age, having served 55 years in the ministry, of which 45 were 
spent in the United States. Tiie bishop liad absolute power in the church: 
no man could be admitted as a travelling preacher, without his consent. P'or 
a longtime, Lorenzo G. Dow, a most able but eccentric man, was refused ad- 
mission to the travelling connexion because Bishop Asbury, did "not like his 
manner." lie sent ttie preachers here, there and yonder, according to his 
own sweet will, and many of them became tired of this tyranny. At length, 
a leader appeared in the person of Nicholas Snethen, wlio was born on Long 
Island, New York, in 17()9; was educated in country schools, studied Greek 
and Hebrew privately; converted when 20 years of age, began preaching at 
21. When but 25 was travelling on the Fairfield circuit in New England: 
was the first preacher formally appointed in the state of Vermont. In 1799, 
he was appointed to preach in Charleston, Soutli Carolina. In 1801-2, he 
travelled with Bishop Asbury, and later preached in Baltimore. Marylarir'. 
In 1828 lie presided at Baltimore at the convention of seceders to organize the 
Associated Methodist churches, later known as the Protestant Methodist 
church. Snethen was the leader of the convention which formed the articles 
of association of the new church, and was afterwards elected president of 
the Maryland annual conference district. 

These seceders were entirely satisfied with the doctrines of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, but were only dissatisfied with its form of government. 
These leaders adopted a form, very similar to that which now governs the M. 
E. church which later adapted lay representation, and made other changes, 
more nearly to correspond with the principles of the civil government of 
this country. 


As James Needham was an Independent Methodist in England, we may 
readily believe that the doctrines and government of the Protestant Meth- 
odists in the United States were entirely satisfactory to him. He at once be- 
came an active and zealous member of the little Virginia church, assisting 
it, in every way in his power. Here he remained in the employ of John E. 
Haskell, occasionally assisting neighborhood farmers with their work until 
the spring of 1849, when he removed from the town of Virginia. 

On August 6th, 1835, William Blair entered the east half of the south- 
east quarter of Sec 25 in T 18 R 10 and began improving it, and built thereon 
a double log-cabin. In June, 1836, Edward Direen entered the 80 next ad- 
joining on the west and built a cabin on it, and began clearing it for the 
plow. It may be a matter of surprise to some to learn that William Blair 
went so far into the barrens to make his entry, when he could have bought 
government land on the black prairie soutli of Virginia, but it should be re- 
membered that in those days it cost more to break the heavy prairie sod, 
than the price paid for the title to it, and timber was more accessible in this 
barren district. This 160 acres then entered by Blair and Direen now con- 
stitute the James Neediiam liomestead farm, and lies immediately west of 
the Anderson station on the C. P. & St. L. II. U James Needham rented 
the Blair 80, in 1849, and on Feb. 19th, 1851, he and his brother in-law, Thom- 
as Williamson, who had married Nancy Needham in England and emigrated to 
America in 1842, bought the Blair 80^ an3^he two families lived in the 
double cabin for about two years: in April, 1854, James Needliam purchased 
the interest of Williamson, and the following year he bought the Direen 80; 
Edward Direen moved over to the north a mile or two, and the Direen cabin 
was used as a church and school house, until the Needham schoolhouse was 
built by Williams. Douglas, in 1857, on the site of tha present Needham 
schoolhouse at Anderson station. 

A society of the M. E. Church of the Chandlerville circuit was formed in 
the Needham neighborhood in 1859 by Rev. Wingate .J. Newman, pi-eacher in 
charge, to which James Needham attached himself, and the following year he 
was ordained a deacon, by Bishop Baker and admitted as a local preacher of 
tiie Chandlerville circuit, and so remained to the end of his life. 

To form a proper estimate of the value of the character of an individual, 
one should know • if his surroundings. James Needham was a cool-headed solid 
man of great tenacity of purpose; he moved forward turning neither to the right 
nor to the left, guided solely by what he thought was right. As a preacher he 
made no pretensions to eloquence: liis sermons were plain, forceful and prac- 
tical. The morals of the people who came within his intluence were at a very 
low ebb. A few facts here related will fully demonstrate this to be true. 
Many of the settlers who lived in this section of the country regularly repair- 
ed to the little towns in order to get drunk and hunt for trouble. On one oc- 
casion a number of drunken brawlers, who were gathered at the south west 
corner of the west square assaulted an old Englishman. A much younger man 
there present protested against their conduct, and without further ceremony 
the mob turned from the old man to the younger one, who soon found him- 
self tlat on his back on the ground, with as many of the ruttians who could get 
near him, severely beating him. He succeeded in getting a knife from his 
pocket, and after opening it, plunged the blade into tlie side of the man direct- 

- 265 - 

]y over him, and broke off the blade in tlie body of his assailant, who immedi- 
ately set up the cry of "cold steel." The party at once sprang to their feet, 
and the young man succeeded in making his escape. The wounded man who 
knew not who had injured him soon began to lose his strength and flesh, and 
despaired of his life. After a season in a violent fit of coughing, the knive 
blade which had made its way into his lung, was ejected through his wind- 
pipe, and a rapid recovery at once followed. He exhibited the blade to the 
young man who had introduced it into his body and made him a full explana- 
tion of the circumstances, and it is needless to say that the listener appeared 
much interested in the recital, and made no claim to the ownership of his 
lost property. 

On a quiet Sabbath day in the year 1856, a man named Davis, who op- 
erated a water-mill a short distance northeast of the town came in on a horse, 
with a rifle, loaded for squirrels, on his shoulder. As he neared the north- 
west corner of the east square, lie was discovered by a lialf-dozen young men, 
who had previously agreed to "do Davis up," as soon as a convenient oppor- 
tunity presented itself; as they had nothing particular to do that afternoon, 
they concluded to attend to the matter then and there. One of them ran 
across the street to a pile of timbers, bricks and other building materials to 
get a brick or two, and Davis noticing wliat was going on, raised tlie rifle and 
fired; the man with the bricks dropped to the ground in the slielter of the 
timbers, and saved his head from the bullet by a scratch. Davis turned 
about and returned home. The young men hitched a team to a wagon and 
drove after him to complete their enterprize. Davis saw them coming and 
slipped out of sight; the party tied up their horses and passed through the 
waterway made of planks, in search of their victim, who seized a club, and 
stationing himself at the entrance of the waterway, felled his assailants one 
by one as they emerged from the waterway. By this time Davis had be- 
come so blood thirsty, tliat he might have committed murder liad he not 
been restrained by a neighbor, who happened to pass that way. Tlie sub- 
dued party slowly returned to the town, their heads swollen, and their cloth- 
ing besmeared with blood. One of tliem died soon after, and it was gener. 
ally believed that his death was the result of the blow upon his head re- 
ceived at the hands of Davis. The descendants of these drunken rtghters, 
still live among us, and are quiet and orderly people. As late as 1870, one or 
more Saturday street fights were weekly expected in Virginia; if none oc- 
curred it was a dull and disappointing day. Such scenes have disappeared 
from public view, but we have no reason to boast of our civilization. The 
first day the writer saw the town of Chandlerville in this county, a man with 
long legs, long hair and strong lungs, was walking down the middle of the 
. main street of the town swinging a revolver, and strenuously declaring that 
he could whip any man in town. Nobody seemed to pay any attention to him 
as he was not "doing anything." That was the middle of an October day in 
the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-three. What progress has 
been made toward civilization in that community since that date? 

In the Chandlerville Times of July 27, 1906, in a signed statement, Rev. 
Charles Coleman, pastor of the Christian church of that village, in speaking 
of the moral status of the community says: 

"Saloon-keepers run their saloons with back doors wide open during the 


better part of the day, Sunday, when, as an outcome of this, our Lord's day 
is turned into drunken carousals, brawls, tights and pistol-plays, and our girls, 
whose fond mothers' hearts are caused to ache, girls, many of whom, can 
scarcely be said to be in their 'teens, are seen to reel on the street, uttering 
oaths so vile as to bring a blush of shame to the cheek of our city's manhood 
and womanhood; drunk on liquor bought by their young men companions, 
who are even more drunk than themselves; bought, I say, by them, from 
our Sunday saloons." 

A few months ago, a woman, a grand-daughter of the late Victoria, 
Queen of England, upon her bended knees renounced the religion of her 
mother! For this act of treachery, she was made tlie Queen of the most per- 
fidious people of Europe. A few days later, this wretclied creature wit- 
nessed a Spanish bull-fight; here is an account of it: 

"The bulls, according to the testimony of an eye-witness, appeared to be 
peaceably disposed, and it needed many a sword thrust to rouse them into 
furious onslaught. High born cavaliers were the tirst to draw blood from 
them on tliis so-called Held of honor. Waving red Hags, and amid the roars 
of the wounded creatures, the buU-Hghters roused them, at last, to rip up 
the blindfolded horses of the picadors. The populace howled their applause 
at the sight, and pretty women breathed faster and rained influence, with 
warm glances upon their favorite cavaliers, and tiieir enthusiasm rose higher 
as the arena reddened with the blood of butchery. And the white blonde 
Queen, England's fresh and flower-like daughter, a woman brought up with 
all the cultivated tastes of aristocracy, was untiring in waving her veil as a 
signal for fresh bloodshed." 

How does this picture of 1906 compare with the spectacle of tlie bloody 
fighters returning from the Davis water-mill to the town of Virginia on the 
Sunday evening of 1856? Have we made progress during the past half cen- 
tury; or is it true that when human beings cast ofl' self-restraint, they are not 
one whit better tlian the savage maniacs of the Dark AgesV 

Men like James Needham were like lights in dark places fifty years ago. 
The Metliodist p'-eachers tlien believed in and boldly preached of a hell of fire 
and brimstone. Many of these preachers had no better records than had the 
renowned Peter Cartwright, who, in his early da3's, was a whisky drinker, a 
horse racer and a gambler. He knew there ought to be a hell and firmly be- 
lieved there was one. Tlie horse tliieves, counterfeiters and blacklegs, who 
crowded to his camp meetings, were easily convinced tliat there was a future 
of endless punishment for tliem if they pursued their evil ways, and great was 
the good resulting from tlie labors of the pioneer preachers of the M. E. 
church; they were more active and zealous than the clergy of other denomin- 
ations. To understand the debt we owe to the Methodist church a few his- 
torical facts are here set forth: 

Bishop Asbury was forced to travel with armed convoys, who kept watch 
by niglit, to protect the bishop from murderous assaults. The preachers pur- 
sued their travels in continual hazard of their lives. Their fare was the 
hardest; the habitations of the settlers were log cabins, clinging to the shelter 
of "stations," or blockaded block-houses. The preachers lived chiefly on corn 
and game: they could get little or no money except what was sent them from 
the eastern conferences. They wore the coarsest clothing, often tattered or 

- 267 - 

patched. Their congregations gathered at the stations with arms, with sen- 
tinels stationed around to announce the approach of savages, and were not 
unfrequently broken up, in the midst of their worship, by tlie clamor of the 
war whoop and the sound of muskets Bankrupt refugees from justice, de- 
serters of wives and childi'en, and all sorts of reckless adventurers came from 
the east to the western wilds. The preachers, many of wlioui had come from 
comfortable eastern families, some of whom were men of no little intelligence, 
shrank not from their mission. Methodism quickly pervaded the imperilled 
population and it is hardly too much to say effected the moral salvation of 
the west. 

The first Methodist preacher in Illinois was Joseph Lillard, who in 1793 
formed a class in St. Clair County and appointed Captain Ogle leader. The 
next Methodist preacher was John Clarke who originally travelled in South 
Carolina from 1791 to 1796, when he withdrew on account of Slavery. He was 
the flrst man who preached the gospel west of the Mississippi in 1798. 
Hosea Riggs was the flrst Methodist preacher that settled iu Illinois, and he 
revived and reorganized the class at Captain Ogles, formed by Lillard, which 
had dropped its regular meetings. 

The flrst three months of ministerial labor preformed by Peter Cartwright, 
during which he travelled a large circuit, preaching every day and every night, 
was paid for at tlie rate of two dollars per month, with board, of hominy and 
wild meat. Previous to 1800 the pay of Methodist preachers was fixed at 
sixty-four dollar per year and traveling expenses. At the general conference 
of 1800 the salaries were raised on account of the higiier prices of living as 
follows: to the preachers $80 per year; to the wives of the preachers $80 per 
year each; to each child of the preacher under seven years of age sixteen dollars 
per year; to each child between seven and fourteen years of age twenty-four 
dollars per year; for childrtn over fourteen nothing allowed. These rates pre- 
vailed until 1816 when the salaries of the preachers were fixed at $100 per year 
with the same provisions for their children. Up to this time, no parsonages 
were provided for them. 

When the great battle in Illinois ocuirred over tne question of making it 
a slave state, which battle began in 1822 and ended in 1824 nearly all the 
preachers of all the denominations arrayed themselves upon the side of free- 
dom, and but for their efforts Illinois would have been cursed with African 
slavery. For th's service, the memory of the pioneer preachers of Illinois, 
should ever be held in grateful remembrance. ; 

As late as 1860 the Methodist preacher in Virginia, named Webster was 
paid but $100 per year and board. The circuits were larger in those days and 
the travelling preacher could not get over liis territory in less than three or 
four week's time and in order to keep the societies together in a healthy con- 
dition the help of the local preachers was invoked, and but for tlie faithfulness 
of these loyal workers, the cause of Methodism would have languished. 

From 1860 on, the Rev. James Needham was a regular local preacher of 
the Chandlerville circuit, preaching regularly at tne various appointments 
tiiereof, with excellent success. He never received nor expected any pecuni- 
ary compensation for liis labor; he was only too glad to do all in his power for 
the advancement of the cause of religion. His character was without a blem- 
isli; he was never guilty of tlie use of tobacco, because lie believed it a sinful 


^abit. His even temper and strict intregrity and Ivindly disposition, made 
hosts of friends, and the rigliteonsness of his daily life gave great force to liis 
ministerial work. Such men have more influence in their respective neighbor- 
hoods, than the travelling preachers. For many years no preacher was re- 
tained by any charge for a longer term than two years, and the majority of 
them departed at the end of one. It was thus impossible for any such travel- 
ler to aquire a solid reputation and to gain profound confidence and respect, 
for no sooner were the people thoroughly aquainted with their pastor, than 
tliey were compelled to bid him goodbye. This was a great objection to the 
Methodist itineracy, which of late years has been much changed. Men like 
James Xeedham whose religion sustained them, amid tlie cares of a busy life, 
such as fell to the lot of their neighbors and friends, men who went in and out 
in the presence of the neighbors and acquaintances for a long term of years and 
who maintained tlieir christian integrity in spite of all their trials and tempt- 
ations would naturally acquire a greater influence than was possible for the' 
wandering preachers to acquire, who were here to-day, and gone to-morrow. 
The church has never sufficiently appreciated the value of their unassuming 
local preachers. 

Mr. Xeedham was a good farmer, and as time passed on he improved 13 
farm of one hundred and sixty acres, reared comfortable buildings thereon 
and added to its extent. An event occurred in October, 1858, which disturbed 
the monotony of farm life. The Needham schoolhouse, built by Wm. S. 
Douglas, in 1857, stood on the site of the present school buildihg at Anderson 
station. James R. Miles taught the first school in it, in 1857-8, and in the 
fall of 1858, Archie Campbell began as the teacher. A dangerous appearing 
cloud approaching, from the southwest caused him to send the children to 
their homes as fast as possible, but he remained in the schoolhouse. The 
storm began a mile or two west of Virginia, passed over the Col. West farm 
northwest of town, now owned by J. T. Robertson, and moved in a northeast 
direction felling the timber in its path. There were no houses along the 
route until the Xeedham neighborhood was readied. Xothing was left of 
the schoolhouse except the sills and floor and a few specimens of the painted 
siding mixed up with the startled but unharmed teacher. What became of 
the remainder of the building was never known although the school boys 
made a diligent search. The Jenkins house was wrecked, a little farther on 
to the northeast, and at that point the storm rose from the ground and spent 
its force in the air. James Needham happened to be near his home, and go- 
ing to the house attempted to close the door, which was wrested from its 
hinges, and with Mr. X'. clinging to it was carried several yards distant 
and left him badly frightened and somewhat bruised. His house was com- 
pletely unroofed, but no member of the family harmed. 

The wife of James Xeediiam dierl on the 19th day of August, 1851, aged 
■io years, 3 months, and 14 days. A year later Mr. Xeedham was married to 
Mrs. Cecilia Cooper, a widow: she was a sister of George Wilkie, who lost her 
first liusband in Scotland, and came to this country with her two young 
children: this second wife survived him. Of the first marriage there were 
born eight cliildren, as follows: 

Aim Needham, boi'ti May 21, lS;;(i, and died in England, January, 1837. 

John Xeedham. born in England. December 2(i, 1837, now a resident of 

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Virginia. Illinois, 

Rebecca Needham, born in England, October 26th 1839; married William 
Russell and died in Virginia, Illinois, on January 14th, 1905. 

Joseph O. Needham, born April 13, 1842, and died in Virginia at the age 
of six years. 

Horatio W, Needham, born in 1844, and died in 1849. 

George S. Needham, born March 18, 1846; now living on the Needham 

James H. Needham, born August 21, 1848; died in Cass county, Illinois, 
on January 24th, 1889. 

Mary J. Needham. born June 12th, 1850; married Henry Millner on Feb- 
uiryl2th, 1873; now living on a farm near Anderson station, Cass county, 

Of the second marriage there were born four children, as follows: 

David Needham, born September, 1853, died in 1855. 

Elijah Needham, born October 31, 1855; now living in Virginia, Cass 
county, Illinois. 

Mary E. Needham, born August 16, 1857; now a teacharof a Preparatory 
School, at Ep worth, Iowa. 

Cecilia Needham, born January 5, 1860; married John W. Miles, May 14, 
1891; now living in Champaign, Illinois. 

Professor James G. Needham, one of the faculty of Cornell University, 
New York, a man of national reputation in the educational world, is a grand- 
son of James Needham; his father is John Needham, of this city; he was born 
in this county in 1868. 

Elijah Needham was for several years a successful teacher; was once a candi- 
date for the office of County Superintendent of Schools of Cass County and ran 
ahead of his ticket. He is now, and for several years has been President of 
the Board of Education in this city; served the people as their postmaster 
with such entire satisfaction, that he was reappointed to the position with 
out opposition. 

James Needham's fatlier, John Needham was born in England in the year 
1779; as before stated he was a spinner in the British cotton-mills; his wife 
died, and was buried in the old country; when he was sixty-six years of age, 
became to America, with his younger son Samuel Needham who brought his 
wife over; when they got as far as Cape Gireaudeau, Missouri, they were 
stopped by the freezing of the Mississippi river; Thomas Williamson and 
Joseph Needham, then residents of Jacksonville Illinois, went after the im- 
migrants, and brought them into Morgan County on the first Saturday of 
January 1846; the wife of Samuel, being dissatisfied with this new country, 
soon left it, and proceeded to Brooklyn New York, where her mother was living 
soon after her husband followed her, but found that she had died before his ar- 
rival; he soon returned to his native land. John Needham, the father, re- 
mained, living with his children until the year 1852 when he died one month 
less than seventy-three years of age; he was buried in the Cunningham burial 
ground at Sugar Grove a few miles east of this city. In personal appearance 
Mr. James Needham was five feet six inches in height; hair and eyes dark; 
weight about one hundred and sixty pounds. 

Althougli his hearing was mucli impaired, James Needham retained the 


use of his mental faculties to the last; his health was quite good, up to a very 
short time before his death; he suddenly expired at his home on the 12th 
day of January, 1903, at the age of 90 years, 7 months and 16 days. The last 
words of this good man were: "But thanks be to God, which giveth us the 
victory through our Lord Jesus Christ." 

His widow survived him less than one year, expiring on December 14, 
1903; they lie side by side in the Walnut Ridge cemetery. 


BY CHARLES A. HASH. (l-^Ofi.) 

ZACHARIAH HASH was born in Oreen county, Kentucky, April 6, 1812. 
He is tlie oldest son and second cliildof Piiilip and Sarah (Nance) Hasli 
who were natives of A^irginia. Philip Hash was born in Virginia, 
January 31, 1790, and emigrated with his parents to Kentucky about iSOO, 
and died in Lawrence county, Missouri, August 5, 1848. 

Sarah (Nance) Hash was born near Richmond, Virginia, October 24, 1791, 
and died in Lawrence county, Missouri, February 24, 1847. It is quite worthy 
of note that she was one of two girls in a family of fifteen children, she 

weighing about ninety pounds wliile 
lier sister weiglied considerably more 
than 200 pounds. Her father, Zach- 
ariah Nance, was a man of giant 
frame, he weighing 244 pounds yet 
not being very corpulent. He was 
born in Charles City county, Virginia, 
May 5, 1760. While still a boy he was 
b()ur)d out to learn a trade, but the 
revolutionary war broke out and he 
was compelled to enter the army as a 
substitute for the son of the man to 
wliom he was bound. He served his 
t ime out and then re enlisted and re- 
mained in the army until the close of 
the war. He was in Gen. Wayne's 
command at the capture of Stony 
Point and was wounded in the knee, 
from tlie effects of which he was crip- 
pled for life. He emigrated to Ken- 
tucky in 1806, where he lived 26 years, 
then removed to Sangamon, now Men- 
ard county, III., wliere he lived on a 
farm until his deatli which occurred 
December 22, 1835. 
family, accompanied by his parents, re- 
moved to the southwestern part of Kentucky, which section proved un- 
healtliy for the elder Mrs. Hash, so the aged couple started back to Green 
county, but Mrs. Hash died on the way and the husband proceeded alone. In 


About 1820, Philip Hash and 


less than a year Philip Hash and family started back to Green county and 
while enroute they incidentally came to the pioneer's hut near where the 
elder Mrs. Hash was buried. Here they received the first news of the sad end 
of the aged lady. After hiring the pioneer to enclose the grave with a fence 
Mr. Hash and family proceeded on their journey to Green county. 

In 1822, Philip Hash and family accompanied by Eobert, Washington and 
Eaton Nance (brothers of Mrs. Hash) emigrated to Illinois and spent the 
first winter in Clary's Grove. The following spring Mr. Hash settled in a 
little grove about 2 miles from Clary's Grove. Atteni ion is called to the fact 
that nearly all pioneers from Kentucky settled in the timber: having come 
from a densely timbered country they naturally shunned the open prairie. 
The Hash family remained in the little grove about two years and then re- 
moved to a log house built by them on land now owned by Mrs. Matilda Dick, 
having planted 16 acres of sod corn here the preceding spring. The subject of 
this sketch says he believes this to have been the first liouse built between. 
Oakford and Beardstown. At this time about 50 or 60 of the PiJU^^w a Luuiiu.%^ 
Indians, under Chief Shick Shack were living in the Sangamon Valley. In 
the winter they camped in the timber near the river, but during the sum- 
mer months they lived on a hill near the present home of Wm. Lynn. This 
hill still bears the name of Shick Shack's Knob. Shick Shack was very soci- 
able and was a great friend of the Hash family. The subject of our sketch 
tells us that his father one time asked the chief why he camped on the hill in 
summer. The reply was: "The skeeters no bother. " Again he asked Shick 
Sliack how he got his water up on the hill and this time he replied: "H m-m 
.s(iuaw do that." The present generation were not first to sing "Let the 
women do the work." Our subject tells us that when the Indians left the 
Sangamon Bottom they went to Ft. Clark, now Peoria, and that Sliick Shack 
came to his father's house and bid them all a fond farewell. 

While tlie Hash family was living on the Bottom, Jane, the oldest daugh- 
ter was married to Zephaniah Gum, a cousin of the late J. B. Gumm, whose 
name is familiar to all around Cliandlerville. The young couple went to 
Knox county to live and lured by the glowing reports of that section of the 
state, Philip Hash removed liis family to a farm of 160 acres on the head 
waters of Spoon river within about seven miles of the present site of 
Galesburg. This territory was the home of the Sacs and Fox Indians and 
they numbered many moie tlian the whites. Fulton county at that time was 
a part of Ivtiox county and Lewiston the county seat. 

Mr. Hash was able to get no deed better than a tax-title and because of 
this and the hostility of the Indians, (the Black Hawk War was brewing) lie 
sold his one-fourth section of excellent land for the paltry sam of $400 and 
returned to Cass county. This time he settled in Big Puncheon Camp Grove 
neir the pres'^afjsite of Xevvm mvMile. Wnile living here the Black Hawk 
War broke out and Zachariah, who was reaching man-hood, wanted to 
enlist but his father denied him this privilege, but promptly enlisted him- 
self leaving our subject to look after the f;imi(y. 

Wlien Zachariah Hash reached the age of twenty-one his father told him 
that it would be a shame to turn him out on the cold world without some edu- 
cation: that if he would go to school he would buy his books and pay his tuition, 
but he must Ijoard liimself. Grasping the first opportunity to peep into the 

- 273 - 

realm of books as only the frontier youbli knew how, the young man worked 
for his board at the home of an uncle on Rock Creek (between Petersburg and 
Springfield) and attended the school of another uncle, Tiiomas Nance, for nine 
whole months, at the end of wiiich time he was compelled to sever his con- 
nection with the school and go to work for his home-spun clothing was giving 
out. He had started in the class of boys of about 8 yeairs of age and no doubt 
felt greatly Irumilated, but by close appHcation in nine short months he gained 
a practical knowledge of tlie "Tlu-ee Li's" and was beginning to study grammer. 
When he told his uncle that he must quit school and go to work, that kind 
man shed tears and told him he had just gotten the doors open; that lie could 
teach him more in the next three montlis than he had in the first nine. But 
these kind words could not be followed. There was a literary society in this 
school, of which Abraham Lincoln was a prominent member 

During all tliese years our subject liad been developing into a strong robust 
man. His muscles were not developed by loot ball and athletics but by liard 
frontier labor. He knew no clothing but home-spun and home-made; no shoes 
but home-made, leather liome-tanned and but one pair a year. Being the eld- 
est son in a family of tifteen children his shoulders were loaded with responsi- 
bility. Nevertheless Cupid also had been busy and wlien our subject reached 
the age of 22 he was married to Miss Mary Dick, also a native of Kentucky, 
born February 16, 1817. Soon after he entered 40 acres of land (now owned by 
Henry Schaad) borrowing the money and paying 25 per cent interest. While 
living" here, ''Uncle Zach," as lie is now familiarly known, purchased one of 
the first diamond plows manufactured by Wm. Sprouse, the inventor, on Rock 
Creek. This plow was stocked by Samuel ('ombes an uncle of our subject and 
the purchase price vvas $(> This was probably the first steel mould board plow 
ever stuck in the soil of Cass County. It was considered a wonder. Mr Hash 
continued entering land uutil he had 120 acres which he sold for $1200 and 
purchased the farm he now owns, consisting of about 200 acres, 30 acres of 
which was in cultivation, the rest being covered with brush and timber, of 
Charles and Peter Rickard and Socrates Smith. The purchasing price was 

Mrs. Hash died June 22, 1857, leaving the husband, four sons and three 
daughters to mourn her departure. The next five years of Mr Hash's lite were 
filled witli many trials and tribulations as he had his motherless children to 
Care for in addition to the farm work. 

On April 3, 1862, Mr. Hash was united in marriage to Mrs. Susan Shelton, 
a native of Teiuiesse, born March 17, 1825, died March 1, 1904. To this union 
were born two sons; botli dying in infancy. In the year 1862 Mr. Hash suffered 
a sorrow such as seldom comes to a parent, — the death of a child each day for 
three consecutive days. Two of his children are living: Peter, at home and 
Mrs. Jolni Plunkett, of Ashland. 

Mr. Hash has not been actively engaged in farming for the last thirty years 
altliough he has lived on his farm until last November when he removed to 
Chandlerville where he now lives. Mr. Hasli's brothers and sisters settled in 
several different states and territories. Three died in youth. Of those wlio 
reached maturity: Mrs. Jane Gum, Thomas Hasli, Mrs. Martha Taylor, Mrs. 
Polly Berry and Henry Hash settled in Missouri, all of whom are deceased ex- 
cept Mrs. Berry, wlio still lives in Lawerence county; John, Robert and Philip 


Anderson ITash died in Texas,. Mrs. Nancy Berry lives in Indian Ty. 

Thomas, Pliilip Anderson and Wm. Ilasli went to California 1848. Thomas 
and Philip returned east but William remained and lias not been heard of 
since 1874 when he was in Nevada. James ITash lived at Boswell, Ind., and 
has been dead a number of years. So that our subject and two sisters are all 
that remain of a family of fifteen. 

Our subject is the last of the 4G0 tirst voters of Cass county and perhaps is 
the oldest man in tlie coiinty. At the advanced age of 94 years he retains his 
faculties exceedingly well and is more supple than many men of three score 
years. That he may be permitted to reach the century mark is the earnest 
desire of all who know him. 



IN the spring- of 18.32 a steamboat came up the Illinois river from St 
Louis, bound for Fort Clark (now Peoria), and tied up at Beardstown, 
deterred from proceeding farther up stream by reports of Indian 
troubles: Black Hawk and his band of hostile Sacs and Foxes having invaded 
the state at Bock Island, and were said to be moving towards the upper Illi- 
nois river. Beardstown was just then a very lively place. As it was a border 
village on the northern frontier of the settlements, Governor Reynolds had 
selected it as the place of rendezvous for the volunteers he had called for to 

repel advance of the Indians The 
pati'iots responding to his call wei'e 
then coming in rapidly, and soon a 
force of nearly two thousand had 
collected there, a few afoot, but tlie 
greater number on horseback, each 
with a blanket or two, a rifle, pow- 
der horn and bullet pouch. A small 
number of tliem were armed with 
only hunting knives and tom;i 
hawks, but it so happened that 
Francis Arenz, the principal mer- 
chant there, had a lot of old Prus- 
sian muskets, made originally for 
the South American trade, whicli, 
with all other available supplies he 
had, were purchased by the Gov- 
ernor for his army. 

Among the passengers aboard 
the boat mentioned was Dr. Clias. 
Chandler, witli his wife and young 
DR. CHARLES CHANDLER. daughter, who, as an advance of a 

small Rhode Island colony, had come to Illinois with the intention of locating 
at Fort Clark. Unable to reach his intended destination, the Doctor con- 
cluded to explore the country he was in, and acquaint liimself with its general 
features and resources. He met many of the settlers from both sides of the 
river wlio were attracted to Beardstown by the gathering of the soldiers, or 
came with produce for sale or trade, from whom lie learned raucli concerning 
the soil, climate, and productions of that locality, and of the vacant lands 


and the laws regulating their entry. With the volunteers in camp from dif- 
ferent parts of the state he mingled freely, plying them, Yankee-like, with 
all sorts of questions to gain information; and by his pleasant, social conver- 
sation and good sense, was soon on the best of terms with them. 

While talking one day with Col. Enoch C. March, the Quartermaster 
General, and a group of "the boys," Mr. David Epler, a prosperous farmer 
living east of the present town of Arenzville, drove into Beardstown with a 
wagon loaded with grain drawn by a pair of large fine horses. Col. March at 
once proposed to "press" that team into the service of the army, which was 
much in need of draft horses for the baggage wagons. Mr. Epler straightway 
gave Col. March to understand he was not the sort of a man to permit much 
"pressing" of his property; and told him he could have the horses if he paid 
him a reasonable price for them, otherwise not to touch them; if he did it 
would be at his peril. Col. March wanted the team badly, and after parleying 
awhile they agreed that the Colonel should choose an arbitrator, Mr. Epler 
choose another, and the two select a third, the price the three agreed upon 
would be paid for the horses. Col. March chose Dr. Chandler, and Mr. Epler 
chose Bob Crawford who then owned the (present) Jake Ward farm three miles 
east of Virginia, and the two chose Capt. Allen F. Lindsey of Morgan County. 
In the west money was very scarce and horses low in price, vThile in the east- 
ern states the reverse was the case. Dr. Chandler, guided by eastern prices, 
thought the team worth $350; the other two, inisinuch as the state was to 
pay the bill, finally coincided with hira, much to Col. March's disappointment, 
as he had to pay Mr. Epler fu ly $1.5) more than the then western market price 
for the best liorses. 

The immediate surroundings of Beardstown at that time, and atthatsea- 
son, with but little in sight besides sand encircled by sloughs, was by no means 
prepossessing to a stranger just from tiie rocky hills of New England. But 
Dr. Chandler looked farther. He rode out east into the prairie as far as Sylvan 
Grove, the home of Archibald Job: and to Jacksonville, then up the Sangamon 
Bottom to Panther creek where it breaks through the bluffs to join the Sang- 
amon river. The natural beauty of that spot at the foot of the picturesque 
range of bluffs, and the marvelous productiveness and future possibilities of 
tlie splendid valley in which it was situated so favorably impressed him that 
lie decided to settle there and make it his home. 

Between Beardstowm and old Salem there were a few settlers scattered far 
apart along the edge of the Sangamon bottom next the bluffs, and others were 
almost daily coming in looking for places whereon to squat that combined the 
three essentials of pioneer life, timber, water and good land. Dr. Chandler 
"laid his claim" on 160 acres, described in the surveys as the E.^ of the the S. 
W, qr. and the W.^ of the S. E. qr. of Sec. 31, 7. 19. R. 9.; and proceeded at 
once to build a log cabin of roomy dimensions about in the center of it, on tiie 
mainly traveled road which followed closely the lower margin of the bluffs. 
Before he could finisii his cabin, and get settled with any degree of comfort, 
his professional services, required by settlers far and near, demanded his en- 
tire time and attention. But he was fortunate in securing reliable hired help 
to care for his family in his absence, to make his clearing and fences and put 
in a garden crop of buckwheat, tliat gave his premises a home-like 
appearance. In those days money was extremely scarce in Illinois, especially 

- 277 - 

in the frontier settlements. Tiie gold and silver coin brought into the state 
by immigrants quickly found its way into the land offices, and a system of bar- 
ter supplied its place in all ordinary business transactions. For some time 
Dr. Chandler received very little pay for his professional services apart from 
such products of the country as, his patrons could spare; but that supplied 
provisions and horse feed amply sufflcent to enable him to hospitably enter- 
tain those who traveled that way. 

He had been on his claim but a short time when a stranger named Eng- 
lish came there with the intention, he said, of entering land and settling there. 
The Doctor fed him and his horse, exerting himself to his utmost to accommo- 
date and assist him; telling him all he knew about the country and its pros- 
pects in order to aid him to select a suitable location. English looked around 
awhile, but could And no land that pleased him as well as the Docter's claim 
did. Thereupon Dr. Chandler very generously offered to let him enter one of 
his eighty acre tracts, or half of the claim. That did not seem to entirely 
satisfy English, who, however, said he would go to Springtieldnextday and en- 
ter it, if he saw that he could do no better. On a map he carried were marked 
several tracts of land, from which he said he might make another selection. 
After dinner he left to go and pass the night with another settler near by. 
Pie was scarcely out of sight when a friend of the Docter's hurriedly rode up 
to his cabin and told him that Englisti nad declared it his intention to go next 
day to the land office, at Springfield, and enter not only the eighty acres the 
Docter had offered him, but his entire quarter section, and that he 
had of plenty money for that purpose. The Docter, much siiprised, did not 
relish the idea of being ousted from his home in such a summary manner, but 
did not have money enough in specie to pay the government for the land at 
the fixed price of two dollars per acre. 

However, no time could be lost. None of his neighbors, so far as he knew, 
had the amount of "land office money" (gold and silver) that he could borrow, 
and he would not have time to go to BeardstOA-n and try to get it there. In 
that quandary he saddled his horse and rode away. No one he called on had 
any money until he came to the cabin of his friend, Wm. McCaulley, who 
happened to have the amount he needed, and wlien told by the Doctor in 
what exigency English had placed him, cheerfully let him have it. It was 
long after the sun had set when he got to his home. His two horses were 
very tired from constant traveling; but after a late supper he was again in the 
saddle, and taking his course by the stars, started through the woods to 
Springfield. Compelled to travel slowly, he was yet about ten miles from his 
destination at sunrise next morning. Three or four miles farther on he was 
overtaken by two young men mounted on spirited horses, who were also on 
their way to Springfield. Noticing the jaded condition of the Docter's horse, 
and his rider's evident desire to hasten on, they inquired the occasion of it. 
He told them who he was, and the predicament he was in; that he was trying 
to circumvent a "land shark," and thereby save his home and claim. One of 
the young men immediately dismounting, gave his horse to the Doctor, telling 
him to ride it to town as fast as he pleased to go, and when there to leave it 
at a certain livery stable he named; and in the meantime, as he was liimself 
in no hurry, he would follow slowly with the Docter's tired horse, and they 
would "swop back" at their leisure. 


Dr. Chandler g-ladly accepted tlie young stranger's generous offer, and ar- 
rived at the land office before it was opened for the day's business, on the 2d 
day of June, 1832. He beat English there about two hours, having the title 
to all his land secured before that worthy made his appearance. A few days 
later, on receivng a remittence from the east, he repaid the money borrowed of 
McCaulley, and going back to Springfield entered, on June thelith the forty 
acres adjoining his west eighty acres on the south, Having acquired perfect 
title to the land, he concluded to have it surveyed and its metes and bounds 
accurately established. Making enquiries for a surveyer to do the work, lie 
learned that a young man residing farther up the Sangamon bottom, at a place 
called Salem, had the reputation of a competent surveyer, snd was in every 
respect thoroughly reliable. Hesent for him by the first opportunity presented, 
and on his arrival at Panther Creek Dr. Chandler wassurprised and much grat- 
ified to find that he was the same young fellow who had so kindly furnished 
him a fresh liorse in his run to beat English to the land office. His name was 
Abraham Lincoln. From the date of that incident on through life the ''im- 
mortal Emancipator" never had a truer friend than Dr. Chandler. 

Dr. Chandler was fifth in order of birth of a family of ten children, five 
.sons and five daughters. He was born in Woodstock, Windham county, Con- 
necticut, on July 2nd, 180(5, and there received his preparatory education at 
the local schools, completing it at the Academy in Dudley, Massachusetts, 
over the state line not far from liis home. During the vacation that fol- 
lowed his last term at Dudley he commenced the study of medicine with Dr- 
Theodore Romeyne Beck an eminent author on Medical Jurisprudence. The 
next winter, then nineteen years of age, he taught a school near Woodstock. 
As he was i minor, his i'ar.hdr, it seems, e.xacted from him his earnings while 
teacliing— as he had a legal right to do. Bringing the money to him in a 
bowl, all in silver coin, he said, "Here, father, is what I have earned since 
last fall. Take it, but I now want the balance of my time, so that I may 
work my way through the medical college." It was granted to him, and he 
continued teaching, giving to his medical studies all his leisure time and va- 
cation intervals. The last school he taught was at King's Bridge, then a 
suburban village, now within the limits of New York City. In the fall of 
182() he was entered as a student in the medical college at Pittsfleld, Massa- 
chusetts; and such was the diligence with whicn he had pursued his studies, 
he passed the requisite examination and graduated, receiving his diploma in 
June, 1827. 

His next move was to open an office and commence the practice of his 
profession in the town where he was born, meeting with as fair success as a 
new begiinier might expect where he was so well known. Two years later, 
encouraged to believe he could take care, not only of himself but of another 
one too, he was united in marriage, on the 18th day of May, 1829, to the 
sweetheart of his school davs, Miss Mary Carroll Rickard, of Th mpson, Con- 
necticut, who also was born in Woodstock, on Jan. 6th, 1811. Never content 
witli the slow conservative policy of letting well enough alone. Dr. Chand- 
ler, with Yankee progressive spirit, always wanted to do better. Awhile 
after his marriage he concluded there were better prospects for the practice 
of medicine over in Rhode Island, where his wife's kinfolks lived: so, he 
moved there and located at Scituate, not far from tlie city of Providence. 

- 279 - 

He was prosperous there, and built a handsome two-story frame house with 
all essential conveniencas, establishing himself apparently for life. But he 
had not long enjoyed the comforts of his new home when he, and several of 
his associates and relatives, became very much interested in the accounts 
they received from Illinois— of its beauty and wonderful productive soil, and 
the many opportunities it offered to persons of limited means for success in 
all branches of business or industry. 

Discussing the matter for some time after obtaining all information they 
could, a small number of them decided to go with their families and settle as 
a colony on the Illinois river in the vicinity of Fort Clark. With that view 
they began their preparations to emigrate in the spring of 1832. Dr. Chand- 
ler's wife at first refused to go and leave her fine new house, and only con- 
sented to part with it upon the Doctor's promise to build her one exactly like 
it in Illinois just as soon as he was financially able to do so. When the time 
approached upon which they had agreed to set out for the far west, appalled 
by the magnitude of the undertaking, the dangers on the way, and reputed 
unliealthiness of the great prairie state, the colonists with a few exceptions, 
decided to remain at home. But Dr. Chandler, having sold his home and 
closed up his business, and eager to get to the new country where his spirit 
of enterprise and energy would be unhampered, took his departure, with his 
wife and little daughter, accompanied by about half a dozen of the would-be 
colonists, who, however, went with him no farther than St. Louis. Learning 
there of the Black Hawk uprising, which threatened to involve all central 
and northern Illinois in a protracted Indian war, they left the Doctor 
and returned to the east. 

By the time Black Hawk and his wretched lot of Indians had been driven 
out of the state, in July 1832, Dr. Chandler and wife were feeling very much at 
home, also much pleased with the country and their surroundings. They 
wrote to their friends and relatives in the east how they were situated, descrid- 
ing the region they were in, its people and productions, candidly admitting it 
was not altogether a paradise, but in many points of view possessed, for the 
man of enterprise and industry, far greater ad vantages than any presented by 
Connecticut or Rhode Island. Their accounts of the Sangamon county, liowev- 
er, failedtoinducethemembersof the original colony to carry out their former 
design of migrating westward. But in December, 18^3, they were joined by 
the Doctor's brother, Marcus Chandler, with his wife and son, Knowlton A., 
and Henry L. Ingalls and family, Mrs. Ingalls being a cousin of Mrs. Marcus 
Chandler, About the same time, in the spring of 1834, Mr. Hicks and fami- 
ly, Squire Bonny and family with a young nephew, George Bonny, arrived at 
the Panther creek settlement from the state of New York, with them also 
came DwightMarcy, wife and six children, from Connecticut, Mrs. Marcy be- 
ing the sister of Dr. Chandler. 

In those days the Sangamon bottom, from the bluffs to the timber along 
the river, was covered with a dense growth of native prairie grass from six to 
eight feet high, interspersed with clumps of wild rose bushes, blackberry briers, 
and thickets of crabapples and persimmons. The lower parts of it were sub- 
ject to anual overflow by the river, and during tlie summer and fall it was all 
infested with swarms of ravenous mosquitoes and greenheaded flies that made 
life a burden to both man and beast. Added to those unpleasant features, the 


bottom, reeking with malaria, was reputed very unhealthy and prolific of ague 
and other forms of fever. It was olso open to the prevailing objections to all 
prairie land, the difficulty of "breaking the sod" and putting it in cultivation, 
and the general belief that the soil was poor, and prairies unfit for anything 
but grazing stock in the spring after the old grass had been burned off. For 
those reasons incoming settlers for a long time shunnea the bottom, and laid 
their claims in the timber on higher gound. 

Tlius it was that the Panther Creek settlement increased so slowly as to 
contain but ten or twelve families a dozen years alter Dr. Chandler first 
settled there. It is difficult to conjecture why a man of Dr. Chandler's su- 
perior natural and acquired abilities, and force of character, should select for 
a home a spot in the brush near a muddy creek in an obscure malarial wild- 
erness, instead of locating in Jacksonville, Springfield, or some other one of 
the rapidly growing towns of central Illinois, where his achievements and in- 
fluence could have been commensurate with his robust intellect. But having 
fixed his home in that forlorn domain of the ague and insect pests— actuated 
by the motive attributed by ^Esop to the fox that had lost its tail in a trap; 
or by that sentiment of hu. canity that impels misery to love company— he 
offered flattering inducements, and otherwise exerted himself, to increase 
the population of his settlement. His cabin stood about where the Congre- 
gational church in Chandlerville is now situated. In 1834, he built a black- 
smith shop on the roal near by, and the next year had a small framed and 
weathar-boarded house put up on the site of Mr. Pilcher's present store 
building. In that little house he brouglit a stock of goods, adding mer- 
cliandising to his practice of medicine, farming, and trading. 

In 1835, Mrs. Henry Irigalls commenced school teaching at her residence, 
a cabin south of Dr. Ciiandler's place. Among her first pupils were Mary J. 
Chandler, now Mrs. Shaw, Nancy Leeper, who became the wife of Sylvester 
Paddock, Louis Bonny, Knowlton A. Chandler, Mary Wing, and Jeptha 
Plaster. Some of the children had to walk more than two miles to get to 
that schoo'. About that time Mrs. Ingalls, Mrs. Marcus Chandler and 
Robert A. Leeper organized at the Ingalls cabin a Sabbath school which was 
for a long time well maintained. Mr. Leeper, a very pious Methodist, came 
to that neighborhood from Kentucky, in 1830, and bought from A. S. West 
and Wm. Morgan a saw and grist mill on Panther Creek up in the hills which 
they had built there two years before. Panther Creek was always a stream 
of varying regimen, dry, or nearly so, for half the year, and again a raging 
torrent high ubove and beyond its banks, sweeping everything before it. Mr. 
Leeper operated tiie mill for several seasons when it was finally washed 
awav. He had not owned it long when Richard McDonald built another 
mill on the same creek half a mile farther up; and then Henry L. Ingalls 
built still another mill half a mile below it. They too, in course of time, 
were carried away by freshets leaving nothing to mark their sites but a few 
foundation stones. 

By 183(1, the population of Illinois was rapidly increasing, and the settlers 
were generally in prosperous condition. Not content, however, with the 
slow but substantial development of the country, the people were impatient 
for faster progress and better times. Responding to their demand the legis- 
lature authorized construction of of a grand system of internal improvements 

- 281 - 

to cost several millions of dollars, to be paid for by sale os state bonds. That 
folly instigated a spirit of wild speculation and extravagance among all 
classes. All over the settled portion of the state a mania for laying out nev*^ 
towns, beginning in 1833, became epidemic by 1836, the sale of town lots 
being regarded as a sure means of getting rich quickly. Dr. Hall laid out his 
town, Virginia, in 1836, and the next spring John Dutch laid out the town of 
Lancaster on an elaborate scale, at the "Half-way House"— half way between 
Beardstown and Springfield— now known as tbe Walker house, three miles 
west of Ashland. Dr. Chandler would no doubt have staked out a town at 
his place about that time but for his characteristic caution. Princeton, 
another town of Morgan county, had been platted in 1833, and in that year 
Thos. Wynn laid out named Richmond, on a slough five miles above 
Dr. Chandler's place. The Doctor shrewdly concluded to wait and see what 
progress Princeton and Richmond made before going into the town making 
business himself. ; ,i; • ; :, 


f\ ''^ 

T i I 




^k ^ 

f '^W 









Chandler Homestead, 1906: erected 
in 1836. 
Rut, in 1836, having caught the pervailing rage for improvement, he ful- 
filled the promise he made to his wife at Scituate in 1832, building a fine two- 
story liouse, the exact counterpart of tlie one Mrs. Chandler was so reluctant 
to leave there; which, as shown in the accompanying cut, is still standing in 
fair condition. Throughout the year 1836 tiie Doctor was very active in aid- 
ing the movement for organizing a new country in the northern part of Morgan, 
which culminated in the creation of Cass county, by the legislature on the 3d 
of March, 18,37. Closely following that event came a calamity that greatly 
dampened popular rejoicing in the new county, and exultion of the people of 
the state generally over their brilliant prospects of soon having improved 
means of transportation, and thereby material addition to their wealth. It 
was the sudden and unexpected suspension of specie payment by tlie banks, 
resulting in a financial panic that reacted disastrously on every enterprise and 
industry in the country. Foreseeing that result. Dr. Chandler again displayed 
his innate shrewdness by selling his stock of goods to Mr, C. J. Newberry, and 
investing the proceeds in more land. On the 29th of June, 1837, a postottice 
named Panther Creek was established, of which C. .T. Newberry was appointed 
Post Master. 


Marcus Chandler was a carpenter, but on coming to Illinois in 1833, en- 
tered a piece of land in the bottom two miles above the Doctor's place, on 
which he built a cabin and made a clearing. A brother and sister followed 
liim to the settlement in 1837. The brother, Thomas K. Chandler, following 
his example, entered eighty acres of land three miles farther up the bottom 
in what was in later years known as the Dick settlement. For four or Ave 
years he labored to put the land in cultivation, but having been educated for 
a teacher and minister, he became disgusted with his undertaking and moved 
to Mississippi. Therefor several years he successfully conducted a young 
ladies' seminary. A short time before the civil war he moved to Texas and 
engaged in raising cattle and cotton; and died therein 1868. The sister, Miss 
Emily Chandler, was installed as a member of the Doctor's family. She had 
been educated for a missionary, but in 1839 was married to Dr. .John Allen, 
of Petersburg, where she resided for many years. After Dr. Allen's death 
she removed, with one son and four daughters, to Jacksonville. There she 
died after having .seen two of her daughters consigned to the grave. One of 
her two surviving daughters became the wife of the noted physician and sur- 
geon of Jacksonville, Dr. W. IT. II. King. 

In politics Dr. Chandler was a wliig as long as that party existed, then a 
republicah: but at no time an active politician, as can well be inferred from 
the fact that he never held, or was a candidate for, a political office. Still he 
must have been unusually interested in the "coonskin campaign" of 1840, to 
name his son, born that year, Harrison Tyler Chandler, after Oenl. Wm. 
Ilein-y Harrison and .lohn Tyler, the successful whig candidates for president 
and vice president. But his rejoicing over the great whig victory in Novem- 
ber was turned the next month to heart-rending grief by the death of his 
wife on the 28th of December (ISIO). Held in the hig^hest estimation by all 
who knew her, Mrs Chandler's death was mourned by the entire community, 
to whom she had endeared herself by her amiable disposition,- her exemplary 
piety, benevolence and charity, and her kind sympathetic ministration to 
those in sickness and distress. Her funeral .sermon was preached by Prof. 
J. B. Turner, then recently admitted to the ministry. Only a short time be- 
fore that sad event, in 1840, Dr. Cliandler's sister, Mrs. Dwight Marcy, also 
died. Mrs. Chandler was survived by five children, namely; Mary Jane (Mrs. 
John Shaw), Emily Webster (Mrs. Genl. Lippincott). Maria Louisa (Mrs. 
David Frackelton), Charles Emmett and Harrison Tyler. 

Mr. Newberry who bought the stock of goods of Dr. Chandler in 1837 tried 
merchandising only a short time, and sold out to Mr. Chase, and he sold his 
store in 1841 to Dr. Cliandler and his brother, Marcus. With Elisha Alcott 
as their chief clerk and salesman, they did quite an extensive business for the 
next nine years. In connection with their regular retail trade they bought 
and shipped, by way of Beardstown. grain and other products of the country, 
and each winter engaged in pork packing, buying for that purpose as many as 
.3000 hogs during the season. In 1849 their establishment was destroyed by 
tire, entailing serious loss: but the buildings were immediately replaced and 
the business contiruied on a larger scale. In 1850 they sold out to Wm. Way 
and retired. From that time until his death in 1859, Marcus worked at the 
carpenter's trade. His wife having died he mirried Miss Sarah Perrin who 
was his first wife's sister. She survived him, with nine children. Knowlton 

- 283 - 

H. Chandler, the oldest son of Marcus, associate and warm frieud of Dr. Lip- 
pincott, was a Democrat. At the inception of the civil war Dr. Lippincott, 
commenced to raise a company of volunteers for the Uuion service; but deterred 
then from going to the front himself turned it over to Knowlton, who was 
elected Captian of the company subsequently designated as "Co.K." of the 19- 
the regiment of Illinois Infantry. Knowlton was killed at the head of his com- 
pany at the battle of Stone river in Tennessee, and his body was brought back 
and buried in the cemetery at Chandlerville. 

On the 10th of September, 1841, Dr. Chandler was again married. His 
second wife was Miss Clarissa Child, a native of Connecticut and sister of 
Mrs. Henry L. Ingalls; also a cousin of the two wives of Marcus Chandler. 
With the education and culture she had received at her home in the east, 
Nature bestowed upon her in high degree all the finer womanly qualities that 
constituted her an ornament to society, a model Christian, wife and mother. 
She died in Chandlerville on the 13th day of March, 1878, survived by her 
husband and two sons, John T. and Linus C; a daughter, Alice Child, hav- 
ing, at twelve years of age, preceded her to the grave several years before, in 
1854. "Not to be further bothered with schools in his residence. Dr. Chandler 
In 18.38 had a small frame house, twelve feet square, built a short distanoe 
farther east, and fitted up with seats and a rude desk or two, specially for a 
schoolhouse; for which it was used until found too small for the increasing 
number of children in the settlement, when the new Congregational church 
was substituted for school purposes. On completion of Dr. Chandler's new 
house, a Presbyterian church was organized there on the 16th of October, 
1836, by Professors Turner, Sturtevant and Baldwin, of Jacksonville, with 
five members, Mr. and Mrs. Sewell, Mr. Hicks, Mrs. Lavina Ingalls and 
Mrs. Marcus Chandler, the two latter, however, were members of the Congre- 
gational church before they came to Illinois. Religious services were held in 
the dining room of the Doctor's house once or twice each month. It was a 
room twenty feet square, with doors opening into other rooms, and a large 
porch on the south side, altogether sufficient to accommodate the large con- 
gregation of worshippers who always attended. On those occasions, Dr. 
Chandler, though himself not then a church member, would send his carriage 
to Springfield or Jacksonville for preachers and good singers, whom lie hos 
pitably entertained, until ready to return, sometimes several days. As time 
passed the Methodists of the settlement feeling they were strong enough to 
maintain an organization of their own, lield their meetings at Squire Bontiy's 
residence; but yet Dr. Chandler entertained their preachers, chief of whom 
was Peter Cartwright. 

In 1841, a church building, costing $700— more than half of which was 
contributed by Dr. Chandler— was commenced on a lot donated by him; and 
he donated all the lots on which churches and schoolhouses were built there 
up to the time of his death. The new edifice, completed in 1842, was dedi- 
cated as a Congregational church; and then Dr. Chandler was formally ad- 
mitted as a member of it, and elected a deacon, a position lie held for 
thirty years. 

Uuder the administration of President Polk, the Docter was appointed 
Post Master of the Panther Creek Postoffiiceon Sept. 13th, 1847, and the next 
year, 1848, he carried out his long intended design of laving out a town there, 


where there was already a cluster of tifteeii or twenty houses. He employed 
J. W. Swenev, the county surveyer, to survey and define the lots and streets, 
and then tiled the plat of the villaitfe of Cliandlerville in the County Recorder's 
office at Beardstown on April 29, 1848. He had that in contemplation in 1846 
when the settlement needinj>- a wag-on raal<:er, and he wrote to Levi McKee, an 
artisan in that line, then in Hancock County. 111., wliom he had known in the 
east, offering to give him lots for residence and shop fronting- on iMain street if 
he would come and locate in the village. Mr. McKee accepted the offer, and 
the Docter gave him lots oh the main wagon road northeast of his old cabin; 
but on making the plat two years later the miin street was located far- 
ther west, where it is now. Mr. McKee then complained to the Doctor that 
he had not complied with his agreement of placing him on Main street. It 
not being convenient to comply with his promise, the Doctor proposed to va- 
cate the lots between the McKee premises and main street, converting them 
into a park or public square, which was done to the entire satisfaction of all 
parties. .And thus the town got its park. 

The town, comprising as first projected scarcely forty acres, was enlarged 
b\ subsequent additions to the area of a square mile. By efforts of Dr. Lip- 
pincott the name of the fostoffice was ch.uiged in 1851 from Panther Creek to 
(Jliandlerville. Illinois had then seen the dawn of a new era, that of railroads 
and telegraphs. In 1853 the legislature enacted a charter for the Illinois 
Iviver Railroad, begituiing at Pekin, in 'l^azewell county, to run down the 
eastern side of the river ro .\lton as its ultimite terminus. The right of way 
was secured from Pekin to Bith. then Miecou:ity se it of Mason county, the 
sum of *10(),00() vvas sui)scrii)ed, and considerah e of the constructive work 
done bet ween the two poinis trimed when the enterprise was suspended for 
want of funds to further pro.secute it. Dr Ciiaiidierthen became interested 
ill it, and succeeded in getting .several .lacksonvnle men of capital also ini cr- 
ested in it. By his intluenee Mien the roiit^e of rhe proposed road was diverted 
from its original course to Beardstown and town the river valley, to a line di- 
rect ly south from Bath, through Chamilerville and Virginia to Jacksonville, 
In 1857 he was very instrumental in effecting a reorganization of the company 
with his frieiKls, 11. S. riiomas elected President, and Dr. M. II. L. Schooley 
Secret rry, the name of t h ^ r la Iciianged to the Peoria, Pekin and Jackson- 
ville, and savv itstinai completion in 18f)8. .\nd after all that exertion for the 
road, and his subscription of many hundreds of doilai'S t,o its capital stock — 
every cent of which he lost, as did all the other Cass county subscribers — with 
Ins characteristic diffidence he would except of no official position in its man- 

The genealogy of t)ie Chandler family extends back in English history to 
the advent of Williaui the Conqueror in the eleventh century. The first an- 
cestors of Dr. Ch.iiidler in ,Vinj.-ici William Chandler and wife Agnes, 
came over from England, not in the Vlayllowei- in 1620, but seventeen years 
later, arriving at Roxbury, Massachusetts, iti 16.37. Their oldest son, John, 
was one of the founders of Woodstock, Connecticut, and died there April 15, 
1703. Dr Chandler's father, Capt. John Cliaiidler, of thesixth generation of 
Chandlers in America, and wife Hulda Howard, were parents of ten children 
in the following order, all born in Woodstock: 

Pricilla, born Aug. fl, 1707. died,|unmarried. May 5th, 1842. 

- 285 - 

Lois Child, bom May 8th, 1799, married Dwight Marcey, died May 5th, 1840. 

Sophia, born May 18th, 1802, married Benjamin Webster, died May 12, 1858. 

Jolm, born August 23d, 1804, died in 1881. 

Charles, born July 2d, 1806, died April 18th, 1879. 

Marcus, born June 25th, 1808. died March .3d, T859. 

Marcia, twin sister of Marcus, died unmarried, April 28th, 1823. 

Emily, born March 7th, 1811, married Dr. John Allen, died in March, 1877. 

Thos. K , born Feb. 1st, 1813, died in Texes in 1868. 

David Howard, born Nov. 16th, 1819, died . 

The first born son, John, lived and died at Fredoiiia, N. Y. 

His eldest daughter was the second wife of Dr. David Prince, of Jack- 
sonville, 111. 

Dr. Charles Chandler was a highly creditable representative of the sturdy 
stock from which he was descended. He was a strong man physically, in- 
tellectually and professionally. In stature six feet tall, a Daniel Webster in 
figure, robust and well-proportioned, with dark auburn hair and hazel colored 
eyes, high broad forehead, and features expressive of his benign, unselfish 
nature. Animated by an indomitable spirit of progress and enterprize, he 
was remarkably active, energetic and industrious. Devoting himself for 
many years with zeal and efficiency to every professional duty in his sphere, 
he yet found time to plan, promote and prosecute various industries. His 
energy and power of endurance were marvelous; his labors being limited only 
by the limits of his fortitude. When called to relieve suffering or save en- 
dangered life he stopped neither for storms, mud or over-flowed streams, nor 
for excessive heat of summer or cold of winter. No fanatic was ever more a 
slave to the service of his religion than was Dr. Chandler to the duties of his 
profession. He never halted to enquire about the ability or honesty of those 
in sickness and distress who required his assistance, but went to their aid 
with his knowledge, skill, and all the strength of his active mind at any, 
and all, hours of the night or day. On horseback he rode day after day, often 
from fifty to eighty miles, and sometimes a hundred miles within twenty-four 
hours, always, in the sickly seasons, having relays of fresh horses at certain 
points awaiting him. 

He visited the sick in a radius of fifty or sixty miles from his home, trav- 
eling on dim trails through woods and across trackless prairies, frequently 
without food from morning to night, then sharing with the settler his plain 
fare of venison and corn bread or hominy; and later catching snatches of 
sleep in the saddle on his return, or slept soundly rolled up in a blanket on a 
few deer skins laid on the cabin floor. To the superstitious it seemed that 
some occult power shielded him from the many dangers he was subjected to, 
when riding at night over inundated bottoms, crossing raging unbridged 
streams, and continuous exposure to all extremes of weather. 

He was not in Illinois during "the winter of the deep snow;" but often 
related his recollection of the memorable "cold day,'' Monday, Dec. 20th, 
1836. The preceding day, Sunday, was warm, with showers of rain convert- 
ing the snow that had fallen a few days before into slush and mud. Monday 
morning was still warm and misty, the little snow remaining rapidly disap- 
pearing in pools and rills of water. About noon tlie Doctor, on horseback, 
was up the bottom road about eight miles from his place, on his return from 


a professional round of calls, when the sudden change of temperature began. 
A gentle wind had been blowing from the south, when a black cloud sudden- 
ly appeared in the northwest attended instantly by a piercing cold gale from 
that direction. In twenty minutes the puddles of water and mud in the 
road were frozen solid, and in an hour the temperature fell from 60 degrees 
above to 20 degrees below zero. It has often been told that the mud froze 
so quickly many pigs, sheep and chickens had their feet caught in it and 
were held fast until frozen to death. Not having prepared himself with 
Arctic clothing, the Doctor suffered severely from cold. In the eight miles 
he had to travel to reach his home he was compelled to stop at wayside farms 
four times to warm in order to escape freezing. When at last he arrived at 
home he was so chilled and benumbed that he was speechless and helpless, 
requiring assistance to dismount and get to the tire. The cold was so Intense 
that many birds and small animals, and even some horses and cattle, in poor 
condition, perished. 

When Dr. Chandler built his cabin on Panther Creek his nearest profes- 
sional competitors were Dr. Rew at Beardstown and Dr. Elder below Prince- 
ton. The miasmatic, germ-breeding exhalations from the prairie marshes and 
river bottom swamps were so profuse and malignant as to overtax the human 
organs of elimination, thus rendering the new country very unhealthy. Then 
too, many of the pioneer settlers were without the ordinary comforts of life, 
and without means, knowledge, or hygienic aids, to combat the prolific causes 
of diseases. Added to their privations in that respect, the then stereotyped 
treatment of malarial disorders by exclusion of fresh air and cold drinks, 
ementics, purgation, blistering, bleeding and drenching the hapless victims 
with vile, nauseating decoctions, rendered it scarcely possible for the fittest to 
survive. The coining of Dr. Chandler in that sparse community in that era, 
with his broad, enlightened views, sound judgement, and untiring activity 
seemed specially providential. With the most modern methods of Allopathic 
practice, he introduced several salutary reforms ih the prevailing barbarous 
modes of treatment, such as discarding indiscriminate blood-letting, exliaust- 
ing emetics, and other pernicious relics of primeval ignorance. 

Dr. Chandler was a very able, clear-headed pnysician, who would have been 
accorded a [losition in the front ranks of the medical profession anywhere. 
Well grounded in book lore and theoretical knowledge, his quickness and 
clearness of perception, and fine judgement in the analysisof symptoms rendered 
him almost infallible in diagnosis. Then, his treatment, based partly upon 
precedents and experience, but mostly upon the dictates of strong common 
sense, though not invariably successful, was always believed to be evidently 
the best that could be done under the circumstances. He was deservedly a 
very popular physician, not only because of his superior ability, but also be- 
cause of his kind sympathetic nature, his exalted humanity, and genuine 
Christian spirit. In the sick room he was an inspiration of hope and encour- 
agement, while his manipulation of the sick was as gentle as the touch of a 
mother. He expected, of course, to be paid for his services, but could not 
conceal the fact that in his laborious attentions to the sick and suffering, money 
was only a secondary consideration. 

As there is a limit to the endurance of all created things, not even the iron 
frame and constitution of Dr. Chandler could always withstand the cease- 

- 287 - 

less physical labor and mental strain of the strenuous life he led. In 184!) while 
asleep on his return home from a day's hard travel, he was thrown from the 
sulky in which he was riding and sustiiined serious injuries. An attack of 
pneumonia followed, from which he recovered very slowly. After that an oc- 
casional "sharp stitch" in the cardiac reunion with certain associated svmptoms, 
caused him to imagine that he was afflicted with some kind of heart disease. 
But many years later a sudden muscular movement of the chest, attended by 
an acute pain at the point where the "stitch" was located, resulted at once in 
its permanent removal. He then knew that his "heart disease" was merely a 
pleural adhesion which just then was broken apart. However, from the date 
of the sulky accident and sickness he never regained his former vigor. Com- 
pelled to abandon the active practice of medicine he turned his attention to 
other pursuits, as farming, trading, buying and selling: and finally built a 
substantial business house on Main street, and there engaged in the retail 
drug and hardware trade. The welfare of his family was the central object of 
all his efforts, and the care and education of his children his chief pride, to 
which he gave much thought and lavish expenditure of means. He had an 
aversion to public life, and n > aspir.u ions whatever for, fame or notoriety. 
His natural gifts and superior attai rniMMfs. under differen conditions, and in 
a broader field for their exercise, would have ace unplished greater results, and 
gained for him much higher distinction than he attained in Cass county. Hut 
he was content to expend the utm )st exertions of his life for the gond of others 
in the obscurity of a frontier settlement remote from the best opportiuiii h s 
for social progress arid personal advancement. 

The Doctor was not a public speaker, but witli clear, full voice he had 
fine command of language, and a smooth convincing way of talking that gen- 
erally carried his point in any argument or trade. His conversation was 
always entertaining, instructive, and never marred by slang or vulgarity. 
In all his dealings and business or prote.ssional t ransartiims his word or 
promise could be relied on with implicit confidence. Frum every point of 
view his integrity of character wis complete. His personal habits were 
most exemplary, with exception ot the mild vice of tobacco smoking, and a 
guarded, limited use of alcoholic stimulants, which latter indulgence was in 
his case justified; if at all excusable under any circumstances. 

Constantly occupied as he was f'>i- years with his extensive practice and 
multifarious personal interests he never neglected the liiglier obligations of 
citizenship incumbent upon him. As the patriarch of the community lie 
founded he was the vital force of its welfare and prosperit.v, and with parent- 
al vigilance watched over its health and morals. Always an enthusiastic 
friend to the cause of education, lie generously contributed to the support of 
its schools and churches; and gave freely of bis means for- opening roads, 
building bridges, and other public improvements. Deserving persons re- 
quiring his help could alwass depend upon getting it. By the tree use of bis 
mea/is many worthy settlers were enabled to secure, fr^m the government^ 
titles to their farms, and thereby save them from the clutches of rapacious 
speculators. Hopeful and sanguine himself he encouraged the desponding 
with his exampleand advice. His home in early days was a free tavern for 
all respectable strangers and wayfarers; and the victims of misfortune, the 
poor and friendless found in him a benefactor. He assisted young men to 


overcome tlie obstacles of poverty and est ablisli themselves in productive in- 
dustries. Young- Schooley, Rodgers, Hand, and some others, he took into liis 
home under liis personal care, gave them board and lodgings, free use of his 
books and instructions, furnished tliem horses to "ride" with him, and made 
of them respectable physicians and useful citizens. 

During all his forty-seven years of arduous mental and physical labor in 
Illinois, his home life was that of quiet domestic enjoyment, free from the 
vexations of petty ambition, envy, or sordid avarice. Ele was a sincere but 
not ostentatious Cliristian; and— be It said te his credit— was never a mem- 
ber of any secret society. With noble courage he devoted himself to what he 
believed to be right regardless of pul)lic opinion, and witli no thouglit of self- 
exaltation. But, above the great usefulness of his busy life— more admirable 
than his strong intellect, or his marvelous energy, untiring industry and 
broad philanthropy, was the basis of all, his pure character, his kind, humane 
nature, and sterling manhood. 

Dr. Ctiandler never reacheii during his life, the period for retiring from 
active work. He had earned sufficient to place him far beyond the necessity 
for further exertion, but ills liberal family expenses, numerous benefactions, 
and some unprofltable investmints, absorbed much of it, and left him 
pjs.^essed at last of only a moderate estate. Not from compulsion, however, 
but from force of habit, he could not be idle, and, so, remained in the harness 
to the end. On I he evening of April nth, 187f», having, as usual, been busy 
from early moiiiing, he retired to bed at his accustomed hour, in cheerful 
mood and apparently vigorous health, lie was always an early riser but on 
the next morning not appearing when breakfast was ready, a messenger was 
sent up to his room to awaken him, wiio immediately returned reporting tliat 
he was dead. It was evident from the placid expression of his face, his posi- 
tion of quiet, and not tin least derangement of the bed and bed-cloth- 
ing, that his life had ceased during sleep without pain or struggle. At his 
death Dr. Chandler had attamed the age of 72 years, 9 months and 15 days. 

The fimeral ceremonies at his burial were conducted by his venerable 
friend of many years. Rev. Albert Hale, assisted by the local Congregational 
minister. Through a driving rain an immense number of people followed the 
corpse to the grave, there to pay the last tribute of respect and affection to 
him wiiom they revered as a true friend, a public benefactor, and an eminently 
good, and great man. 



ON Saturdaj' the l'2th day of April eighteen liundred and seventeen, in 
the County of Greene in the State of Pennsylvania, was born to 
Matthew and Nancy Dunaway, a son whom they named Jacob. The 
parents had come from New Jersey to the wild mountainous district, where 
hard work and close economy were necessary to keep the wolf from the door. 
The boy grew up in this p or section of the United States, with small chance 
for learning or for anything better than a hard life. He acquu-ed wliat was 
then called a common school education, and as soon as he was old enough to 

look about him, and ley.rn of his sur- 
roundings he resolved that he would 
not live the life of a Pennsylvania 
farmer. He began trading in live 
stock, picking up animals from the 
scattered farms and driving them to 
Pittsburg or Baltimore to the mark- 
ets. He soon began to be successful 
in this business, when he lost all by 
making a sale to a Baltimore dealer 
wiio became bankrupt, and paid liis 
creditors nothing, a fashion which 
has survived to these days. Jacob 
Diuiaway then quit t liat business and 
made liis way to St. Louis, about 1842, 
and became a stage driver. Soon after 
he tirst saw the little straggling town 
of Vii'ginia, coming here as a stage 
driver but not to remain, as he I'e- 
turned to the east for a time. 

In 1S47, Cuthbert Ptobison, the 
JACOB DUNAWAY. fatiier of Alexander Kobison now a 

resident of this city, kept the best hotel in the town of Mount Healthy, Ham- 
ilton County Oliio. This town was midway between the cities of Hamilton 
and Cincinnati; a daily stage passed between tliese cities, making tlie noon 
stop at the hotel of Mr. Robison at Mount Healthy: Jacob Dunaway was tlie 
driver of the stage in this year of 1847, and ate his dinners at the Robison 
hotel. In IS;l(), Mr. Robison, removed with liis family to Morgan County, 


.>^ ' 

, '""^ 

^^' ^^% 


'" ^4 J 







Illinois, and three years later came to live in the town of Virginia: upon his 
arrival lie was immediately recognized by Jacob Dnnaway as his old Ohio 
landlord, and the two were good friends thereafter. 

About 1849 Jacob Dunaway made his second appearance in Virginia as a 
stage driver, and from thence forward remained here. For a year or two he 
drove the stage line between Virginia and Beardstown, and Virginiaand Jack- 
sonville. That he was a young man of enterprise, who soon impressed his ac- 
([uaintances with the fact that he was no ordinary man, is proven by the fact 
that although a newcomer, he was selected in 1850 by the democratic party of 
Cass County as their candidate for the office of sheriff of the County, receiv- 
ing at the election that year 448 votes out of a total of one thousand and forty- 
two cast; divided thus: John B. Fulks, 553; Jacob Dunaway 449; JohnE. Has- 
kell 22; Robert Gaines 19. 

Failing to become sheriff, which was very fortunate for him, he bought an 
interest in a mercantile establishment with D. M. Irwin, located inthe Pothi- 
cary building at the southeast corner of the square on lot 102 and began sell- 
ing goods foracluinge, in the meantime boardingatthe Virginia Hotel located 
on Lot 82 where the Mann House now is, owned by William Armstrong, leased 
by Thomas and Robert Thompson. A sister of the landlords Miss Jane Thomp- 
son, was living with, and assisting her brothers to manage the hotel business, 
and Jacob Dunaway finding her to be a woman of good sense and business 
ability, pleasing- and attractive, cultivated her acquaintance so well that they 
were married by the Rev. N. H. Downing on the 20th day of January 1852, and 
seven months later he purchased the Hotel property and livery barn op- 
posite, and went out of the mercantile business. 

Soon after he purchased of Fink the stage lines between this town and 
Beardstown and Jacksonville, and soon extended his lines from Beardstown to 
Rushville. Tiiis business in the liav.ds of Mr. Dunaway became a good one; 
and he soon branched out into handling live stock, making an arrangement 
with VVillian Stevenson to buy and sell hogs, which soon grew into a lai-ge and 
lucrative trade. 

Rich ird S. Thomas, the President of the Illinois River Railroad Company, 
liad succeeded in inducing the farmers and business men of Cass Couuty to be- 
lieve tli;it the stock in this enterprise would be a good paying investment, 
•lacob Dunaway may not have believed all that was said by way of argument 
in favor of this proposition, but he certainly believed thac- the building of the 
Rail Road into Virginia would add materially to the value of his business in- 
terests, all centered here. He, with the others was disappointed in this ex- 
pectation; the farmers gained nothing, and Dunaway gained but little. All 
people who lose feel like cursing somebody for their misfortune, and turn to 
the nearest object upon which to vent their spleen. Whether Thomas really 
believed all he preached, or whether he did not, made not the least difference, 
he soon found himself thoroughly hated, by leason of the fact that his glow- 
ing promises did not materialize. This v\as probably the beginning of the en- 
mity which so soon grew to great proportions, between R. S. Thomas and Jacob 
Dunaway. Thomas tried to effect an agreement with Dunaway by which 
tiie R. R. Co. should sell tickets over the Rail Road and also over his stage 
lines, and make periodical settlements with him for the portion of the sales to 
which he should be entitled. Perhaps Dunaway feared he might be a loser un- 

- '29\ - 

dersucli an arrangement, but, at all events he refused to make the deal. 
These men were also political rivals; Dunaway was a prominent and influen- 
tial democrat, while Thomas as a very active and noted whig. 

Thomas owned a newspaper, and to offset its influence, Dunaway pro- 
cured the establishment of an opposition journal, and the political warfare 
waxed hot through these sheets. As the bitterness increased Thomas de- 
vised a schexe to injure the business of Dunaway, and Henry S. Savage and 
Henry Murray, two warm friends of Thomas united to help him. Jesse Dun- 
away, a brother of Jacob Dunaway, was in his employ, in the conduct of the 
hotel and stage lines. A bargain was made with Jesse Dunaway, by wnicii 
the latter was installed in the old N. B, Thompson residence at the south- 
west corner of the west square, as the keeper of a rival hotel; a stage line svas 
then established with headquarters at the new hotel, :ind an effort began to 
take from Jacob Dunaway his business. Competition commenced and con- 
tinued until Thomas advertised to take passengers to Beardstown or to .lack- 
sonville over the stage line free of charge; this was met l)y the offer of Diina- 
v^ ay to take the passengers free and furnish them a, dinner in the bargain. 
As Dunaway had the contract to carry the U. S. mails, he soon broke down 
the Thomas effort to supplant him, and tiie west end hotel and stage LmisI- 
ness was short-lived. In the meantime the newspaper war became person;il 
l^etween these fighting characters; Dunaway began a series of articles against. 
Thomas, charging him with "stealing the widow's mite and tlie orphan's sub- 
stance," and inviting Tliomas to a controversy. After the second of these 
articles was published by Dunaway, Thomas replied with a charge tliat. 
.Jacob Dunaway had embezzled the proceeds of the sale of a drov^ of cattle be- 
longing to the father and br.'ther of .lacob Dunaway, and that he brought the 
money, a thousand dollars, to Illinois. Duiuxway replied to this by beginning 
an action for libel against Thomas at the December term 1860 of the Circuit 
Court of Cass County. Tiie suit was removed to Morgan County and tliere the 
case was tried, Dummer and Judge Logan of Springfield assisting Thomas, 
wlio was himself a lawyer, and Pollard and Ross appearing for Dunaway. 
Thomas produced .Jesse Dunavvay who swore that Jacob Dunaway got tlie 
money, but he did not know that he brought it to Illinois. As the story ran, 
the cattle were put in the hands of Jacob Dunaway to sell, and it was his 
business to get the money. Then Thomas offered to prove by Dr. Schooley 
that Jacob Dunaway brought money to Illinois shortly after the cattle trans- 
action, but the court would not admitthat testimony. Then Dunaway offered 
Dr. Tate as a witness who testified that .Jesse Dunaway had told him (Tate) 
after the Thomas article was published that the statements were all untrue. 
The next move in the case was to bring eleven witnesses to swear the charac- 
ter of Dr. Tate for truth and veracity was bad, and that the 11 witnesses would 
not believe him on oath. These witnesses were examined in the afternoon of 
one of the trial days, and that night Jacob Dunaway sent over to Virginia for 
additional witnesses; the next day seventeen witnesses appeared and testilied 
that the character of Dr. Tate for truth and veracity was good and that they 
(the seventeen men) would believe liim on oath. It may well be imagined that 
this was a most bitterly fought lawsuit. The jury found a verdict in favor of 
Dunaway for three thousand dollars, and the case was carried to the Supreme 
Court, which held that if Thomas believed the charges lie made were true, 


that tlie flamaj^es found against liim should be less, than tliey should be if the 
publication was made, Ivnowingthe charge to be untrue. Tliat view of the 
law was not made sufficiently clear to tlie jury, in the opinion of the higher 
Court, and the cause was sent back for a new trial. It wa^ not tried agahi, 
however, a compromise being effected, between the parties. 

About tlie year 18(i2, Jacob Dimaway entered into partnership with Jacob 
Ward for the buying and selling of cattle. Ward was a wealthy farmer, liv- 
ing some three miles south of Virginia on the Jacksonville road He was an 
old setrler, a man of excellent judgement and a successful money maker. He 
was a member of the Cass county commissioners court for a term and filled 
tlie office to the satisfaction of the people. Cattle were bought in large num- 
bers and brought into the county and delivered to the farmers, wlio fed them 
at an agreed price, per pound, for the gain the animals made and when fat- 
tened were shipped to market. Jacob Dunaway had in bis employ his neptiew 
Alien Dunaway, his brother James Dunway, his friend William Milstead, and 
others. Under this contract many tliousand cattle were bought and sold, and 
the business ran along until about 1865, when the partners disagreed and each 
began a law suit against the other. Before the time came to try these suits, 
the parties concluded to refer a settlement between tnem to the decision of 
William E. Milstead, wlio was a shrewd business man and a warm friend of 
each of the disputants, lie having been in the employ of Ward as a farmhand 
when he was a boy. Milstead heard the evidence, but before he made his de- 
cision, the parties concluded not to allow the matter to proceed farther and 
.lacob Ward be^';an a chancery proceeding for an accounting and settlement in 
the Ciicuit court. His attorney was Garland Pollard assisted by Henry E. 
Diimnier anil Diuiaway was represented by Henry B. Mc ilure, of Jacksonville, 
who was the most painstaking lawyer tlie writer ever knew. The case dragged 
on from yar to year. Edward P. Kirby, of Jacksonville, took the evidence. 
As Jacob Diuiaway had had the management of the business; had employed 
and paid the help, and knew all the details from beginning to end, while, on 
the other hand Mr. Ward had entrusted the managementto Dunaway, the re- 
sult might have been known to a certainty from the b3ginning; Mr. Ward was 
unable to establish anything wrong in the account: the case went against him, 
and the costs thousands of dollars, were saddled upon him, which were paid the 
year of his death. 

Gambling is the curse of this age. It has been denominated a disease by 
some philosophers; if they are right, the disease should be classed with cancer 
which it so much resembles. Its germs permeate all classes and conditions: 
it is found in all climes and among all people. The zealous female, inspired 
with the zeal of the christian to convert tlie world to Christ, sails over the 
high seas to the remote islands and finds prospective converts, without cloth- 
ing, and comtirmed gamblers. The common gambling dens exist in all cities 
and large towns, and in the smaller places the games are played in box cars 
and upon fair grounds, or in the lofts of livery barns. The merchant church- 
member, who stays out of gambling dens for fear of detection, will buy up 
pumpkins, and offer prizes to his liberal patrons if tliey can guess the number 
of the seeds within the shells. Christian women form clubs, and meet on 
periodical occasions to play cards for prizes, whic'i consist of plated ware and 
such like commodities: after they have settled the matter of the winning of 

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tliese prizes, it is in order for them to pass resolutions calling on the mayor of 
tlie town to enforce tlie ordinances against gambling, so that their losing hus- 
bands and brotliers will have more money which they can get to pay for the 
next set of prizes for their club. If their minister cries out against their sin 
of gambling, they get angry and wish liiin to resign his place or let him alone 
and "preach the gospel". Nearly every little town the size of Virginia has its 
"Board of Trade, headquarters" more properly denominated bucket-shops; 
here one may find a lot of farmers wiio ought to be in their fields like honest 
men, "buying" or "selling" oats, or corn, or short-ribs or some other commodi- 
ty, hoping some sucker at the otlier end of the line may guess wrong, and lose. 
Tiie Illinois November hog, standing amidst a surplus of corn, thinkshis mas- 
ter a most benevolent gentleman for dealing so generously witli him; within 
six weeks when the master has his knife in the throat of tie poor beast, his 
liberality is explained. The mastars of tlie iiead department of the backet- 
shop game, throw out the bait, which is grabbed up by ignorant suckers; when 
they get "fat" enough to suit the taste of the fellows wiio put prices up or 
down according to their own sweet will, they rake in the suckers and take all 
they have and strip off their skin, just as the hog feeders do with poor ignor- 
ant grunters. It is impossible to squeeze out a tear of sympathy for tliese 
vicbiins, for they W3r3 i )p n,'' o ■ >b io n; »t ler l';! oa^ i: t'le )t le • end. /V 
man wiio acquires the gambling habit, becomes worthless for any legitimate 
sober business; he wants something for nothing. Slow but sure gains are too 
dull for him, he craves excitement. A gambling merchant would not employ 
a gambler, as a clerk in his establishment, if he knew it. A careful man 
would not become the surety for a gambler, if he knew he liad the disease. 
Very like the gambler is the speculator or plunger. 

In 1870, Jacob Dunaway was a gentleman of leisure, out of active busi- 
ness life. He vvas the owner of tne Virginia Mills, the liotel, the livery barn, 
and other rent producing properties; in 1867, he built and completed a good 
and sabstantial two-story residence on lot 98 in the city, (now owned by 
James Graves) in which he and his family lived comfortably ;it their ease 
with an ample revenue to support them in excellent style. lie often told this 
writer, that any man who would begin and continuously follow up the busi- 
ness of buying and shipping cattle would become a bankrupt; in support of 
his opinion, he would cite the cases of many and many a man from John T. 
Alexander, the famous cattle-king, down to the small dealer. Then he would 
say that only the shrewd man knew wlien to quit the business; that lie and 
Ward who made money, quit at the right time. Bub Jacob Dunaway had the 
gambling or speculative fever in his blood. His disposition was so uneasy and 
nervous, that he could not content himself to take life easy, with a plenty for 
himself and family. He must get out once more into active life. He induced 
Phillip A. Buracker, a prosperous and wealthy farmer, and Samuel H. Pete- 
tish, a retired farmer and banker, both of whom should have known, and did 
know better, to engage with him in the cattle buying and shipping business. 
Dunaway took upon himself the management of it, and in a few short years 
he was landed into tlie United States Bankrupt Court, a ruined man. He 
was stripped of his property, and at his age could not hope to rise again. In 
disgust he went to the state of Kansas, but soon becoming dissatistied with 
life there, returned to Virginia, where he spent the remaining days of his life. 


in the house belonging to his wife, and dependent upon lier, forevery penny he 

From the time Virginia lost the county seat at the election held in the 

year , its people had hoped to one day regain it. Tiie fact that this town 

was very near the geographical center of the county, while Beardstown was 
at the extreme west end, served as an excellent argument in favor of its re- 
turn here, but several subsequent effjrts, had resulted in failure. In 1865, 
Jacob Dunaway and others established at Virginia the Farmer's National 
Bank, which brought to the town the business of many large farmers who 
had Icept their funds in the Jacksonville banks. Ttie time had come for an- 
other perioJical spell of building, as these building booms come and go in all 
towns; with the establishment of the bank, came the platting of the new ad- 
dition to the town of Barden and Wood; the rapid sale of town lots, and new 
buildings began to arise in rapid succession. At that time Beardstown had 
been suffering from a long period of financial depression; Judge Dummer and 
Garland Pollard the leading attorneys of the county had disposed of their prop- 
erty and left the place. Thg old time prosperity of the city which had been 
built up by reason of the river trade, had so fallen off, that many of the lead- 
ers in life had lost and gone. Tlie failure of the Leonard bank about 
that time was a severe blow to the place Tlie Park Hotel, which had been a 
good property had become so worthless, that the owner had turned it over to 
Andy Maxwell rent free with the furniture included, and as late as 18(57 and 
18()8, he was paying bit $300 per year rent for it. The boom occasioned by 
the establishment of the railroad siiops had not yet begun. The chance to 
get the county seat removed seemed to have arrived. In 1870, the new con- 
stitution of the state was adopted which provided that a county seat might 
be removeil to a point nearer tlie center if a majority vote of tlie county so 
determined, but to remove it to a point farther from the center a three-fifths 
vote sliould be re(iuired. This was encouraging to the Virginia people as 
they concludetl that incase they could effect a removal and the erection of 
county buildings, they could retain the seat of justice here indefinitely. 

An election was arranged to be held upon the 12th day of November, 
1872 Jacob Dunaway had been the Virginia leader in the battles with 
Beardstown He knew the strength of r,he t^nemy, better than any other 
man here. He formed a plan of battle; he proposed to build and offer to the 
people of thecoujity a court house. He knew that there was a court house 
and jail at Beardstown, which had answered the purpose for many years, and 
that, after the result of the prop )sed election should t)e a-inounce i, next 
move would be the preparation of county buildnu'-s: thao if Virginia 
would' prep ire the court h )use free t ) th )se outside of ttie town, that many 
voters near the half way mark between the two cities, would vote for removal 
who otherwise would vote against it. This plan of Dunaway m^t with little 
favor at first, it was objected that a citv uid no power to build a court house; 
to this Dunaway responded "yes, but wecan builda city hall and let the county 
use it." He kept to work hammering t tie idea into those who would listen 
to him; they knew that he was a far seeing and skillful tighter, and at length 
he had liis way. I'he building was contracted for and built in time to offer it 
to the people for their temple of justice for 99 years. The election was a ter- 
rible battle; the result was a majority upon the returns of but 128, but under 

- 295 - 

the law a majority of all the voters was necessary to effect a removal. Many 
who sliould have voted for removal voted against it. Even the election 
officers wlio resided in the adjoining- precinct of Monroe precinct refused to 
vote eitlier way, and were counted against Virginia. After the case had 
been tried in the Circuit Court and then went on to the Supreme Court; after 
all the sifting was done, there remained but eight majority in favor of Vir- 
ginia. But for the following in the lead of Jacob Dunaway tlie 
election would have been lost, and the succeeding growtli of the city of 
Beardstown would have resulted in the erection of permanent county build- 
ings in that city, and the people of this day and generation would have never 
seen the seat of justice in the town of Virginia. Except for .Jacob Dunaway, 
the seat of justice would liave remained in the city by the river. 

Wlien the people of Township Seventeen, Range Ten defeated the proposi- 
tion of taxing themselves the sum of $1.5,000 to aid in the extending of the 
Peoria Rail Road to Jacksonville in 18(58, it was Jacob Dunaway who was tlie 
loudest to object to this donation; after its defeat, the company refused to ex- 
tend the line through the city, but built along the section line, and erected the 
depot a half mile from town; a few years later, when the Springfield road was 
located and built through here Jacob Dunaway in order to prevent the estab- 
lishment of a union depot at tiie junction of the two roads, went to work, and 
persuaded tlie town to donate one thousand dollars toward the building of the 
present depot: since tliat time the Peoria R R. officials have proposed to the 
ofHcers of the other road, the consolidation of the business at tlie junction, 
the latter have refused for the reason that the town of Virginia had paid for 
the depot and it ought not to be moved For this enterprise tlie credit belongs 
to Jacob Dunaway, and to none other 

In appeai'aiice, Jacob Dunaway was tail, some six feet in lieight, weighing 
about 180 pounds; light hair and large light blue eyes. He was a very forceful 
man. He was a born leader. He had no use for the man who would not lis- 
ten to him, and be guided by his opinion; he was exact in his business methods; 
was prompt in the payment of his obligations; would never give up the pur- 
suit of anything he wished to accomplish, so longas there wasa ghost of ;i, 
chance to succeed. He was on several occasions chosen as the Treasurer of 
tlie city; at one time was the President of the Board of Trustees. In all these 
positions he discharged his duties with honesty and ability. 

His financial reverses, liereinbefore described, sorely affected him; lie be- 
came sour and morose in his manner, and shunned society. He certainly had 
reason to think that Fate had treated him harslily, and lie died a disappointed 
and unhappy man. 

In his family relations Jacob Dunaway was a model; lie was a 
kind indulgent husband and father. He was a good neighbor; he was an ex- 
ample of industry, perseverance, and economy. If he had been well educated 
he would have become a noted man, had his life been cast in a large city, in- 
stead of being spent in a small country town. 

Jacob Dunaway died in this city on Friday, March 13, 1891, aged one 
month less than 74 years; he was survived by his wife (still living) and by five 
sons and one daughter. He was buried at Walnut Ridge Cemetery, by a large 
gathering of his friends and neighbors. "After life's titful fever, he sleeps 




PRIOR to tlie organization of Cass county, in IS.n, it is doubtful if the 
Homeopathic maxim, Similia similibus curanter, liad ever been heard 
of on the sunset side of the Wabash. Nor 1^ it probable that the name 
of Hanneman, or the marvelous efficacy of his infinitesimal attenuations had 
been mentioned anywhere in the broad prairies or back-woods of Illinois. 
Bui before that period there had come into the Prairie State several practi- 
tioners of a system of medicine which, 
if not as elegant and harmless as 
Homeopathy, liad for its materia 
medica a, ]\ne of therapentical agents 
a good hotter and more energetic 
than Hauneman's. They were 
disciples of Dr. Samuel Thomson, of 
Boston, and were known as 'Ttiom- 
sonians," but designated by the regu- 
lar profession as "Root and Yerb Ped- 
dlers." They styled themselves 
"Botanic Doctors;" having as their 
motto. Finis coronat opus, employing 
only vegetable remedies, and ignor- 
ing calomel and all other medicines 
derived from the mineral kingdom 
as being incompatible with the 
juices and humors of the human 
s.\stem. To that school of practice 
Dr. McC'lure belonged. 
Samuel McCiure was born on a farm 
DR. SAMUEL McCLURE. not far from Versailles, in Woodford 

county, K'^n'uck^. oa the 5th of Qjitob^r, 1S03. His- father, Alexander Mc- 
Ciure, was of Scorch-Irish des'ent.the son of Alexander McClure a soldier in 
the Revolutiofiirv war who was one of the patriot army at the siege of York- 
town, and was present at the sur;euder of Lord Cornwallis. The Doctor's 
mother, as a girl, was Ann Dupuy, descended from an old French family of 
Huguenots who fled from Fni'ice to America atari early dav of relig- 
ious proscripri )n. The D^jror's father was a slaveh )lder and planter in af- 
fluent circa nstances, and sent tiim to .scliool while the niggers did the work 
on the farm. ('ons(iuently, the D.)Ctor acquired what in his day was consid- 

- 297 - 

ered a Hberbal education, not comprising the classics, bufc the main elemen- 
tary branches of learning then taught in the best scliools of the bluegrass re- 
gion of Kentucky. By the time his school days were ended he began tothinli 
seriously of engaging in something to msike his learning available for in- 
dependent subsistence. Too cultured and retined to continue work on the farm 
and make a field hand along with the slaves, and seeing nothing in his reach 
better tlian school teaching, he commenced that with the intention of adopt- 
ing it as a life profession. In that calling lie was quite successful, teaching 
several terms in both Kentucky and Mississippi, and earning the reputation of 
a good teacher and superior grammari in Thit reputation, h )A'ever, did not 
wholly satisfy his ambition. With aspirations for promotion to higher social 
standing than that of an ordinary country teacher, he devoted his spare time 
while teacliing in Kentucky to tlie study of medicine; or, more properly, to 
reading Dr. Thomson's books on Botanic medicine By the time he tinislied 
that course he felt himself competent to enter upon the active duties of tlie 
profession. Tiiereupon he abandoned the schoolroom, and for some years be- 
fore leaving his native state practiced liis new profession as a Docter, 
though not an M. D. He was in the practice during tlie epidemic 
of Asiatic cholera that swept througii the west in 1833, and 
his treatment of that awful scourge was as effectual as Miat of the old-sciiool 
physicians, tiie d sease yielding to his capsicum, lobelia, No. 6, & c, about as 
readily, or more so, than to any other class of remedies. There were other im- 
portant matters to occupy the Docter's mind that year apart from the prac- 
tice of medicine, altliougn that, during the epidemic of cholera along with 
the usual endemics of the country, was amply sufficient to keep any com- 
mon Doctor's tliinking organs reasonably busy. On tiie 13tii of March, 1833, 
Dr. Samuel McClure married Miss Louisa W. Graff, tiie daugliter of one of the 
most substantial farmers in that neighborhood. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Dr. McClure was accustomed from infancy 
to slavery in all its most favorable, as well as revolting aspects. He grew up 
in tlie belief tliat the institution was morally wrong, thougli sanctioned by 
the Scriptures,and siiould be abolished. So repugnant did tiie holding in liope- 
less bondage of an ignorant innocent race become to him that iie resolved 
after his marriage to leave tlie slave holding south, as soon as he could 
and seek a new home in the free north. Thereupon he set about making pre- 
parations to leave the land of his birth and his kinsman, to form new associa- 
tions and business relations among strangers. 

In 1832 the Asiatic cholera invaded the United States for the first time. 
It was brougiit from Europe by an emigrant ship to Halifax From there it 
rapidly traveled westward, overtaking on the great lakes, and overwhelming, 
the thousand United States troops General Winfield Scott was hurrying from 
Fortress Monroe to the Upper Mississippi to assist in the expulsion from 
Illinois of Black Hawk and his band of Indians. In the month of July it 
swept away more than half of those soldiers before General Scott's arrival at 
Prairiedu Chein. Held in abeyance there by the cold winter, the next spring 
it descended the Mississippi, spreading through its valley and up that of the 
Ohio, marking its track with dismay and death. In midsummer it reached 
Dr. McClure's locality in Kentucky affording him and other physicians there 
ample employment and novel experience. 


In the early spring of 1834, with a good team and wagon loaded with 
"household plunder," the doctor and his young wife set out for the promised 
land then Icnown far and nearasthe Sangamon country. Entering Illinois by 
crossing the Ohio at Shawneetown, he wended his way up into Morgan county 
to a point a few miles southeast of Jacksonville where some of his Kentucky 
acquaintences, wiio had preceded him, had settled. That summer and fall 
he found employment there as a farm liand in cradling wheat and oats and 
sowing wheat, by which he earned enough to pay current expenses 
When he came to Illinois in April, 18.34, John Reynolds was Governor of the 
state and Joseph Duncan, who resi led in Jacksonville, was the representative 
oftfiat district in congress. At the August election that summer he 
was elected governor, being succeeded in congress by William L. May, of 
Springfield, and Reynolds was elected to congress from the Bellville district. 
Illinos was rapidly tilling up with immigrants from the south and east and 
was in a highly prosperous condition. 

Dr. McClure taut;hta country sciiool in the winter of 1834-35, in the 
meantime looking around over the country, and gaining all the information 
he could respecting its vacant lands, resources, and its people. By the time 
the grass began to grow, and the timber line was tinged with green in the 
spring of 1835, he moved up into that part of Morgan wiiich two years later 
was cut olf from it and organized as Cass county, and laid a claim on the frac- 
tional S. W. qr. of Sec. 19, T 17, R. 10—140 70-100 acres— which he did not 
enter until Nov. 5th, 1835. There he established his home, and dwelled the 
balance of his life, rhe farm lie improved there— yet known as the "Dr. 
McClurefarm"— is situated in Monroe precinct a mile south of tlie Provi- 
dence church and schoolliouse, and five miles southwest of Virginia, the 
town Dr. Hall laid out the next year after Dr. McClure settled there. When 
established in Illinois ttie I))ctor became, to all intents and purposes, a 
farmer, directing his attention and labor mainly to improving his land by 
building a dwelling house, stable, fences, and putting in crops of oats and 
corn. While employed witli all that, however, he did not neglect iiis pro- 
fession, but attended the sick whenever iiis services were needed for that 
purpose. He also taugtit school in tiie winters wlien work on the farm was 
slack or suspended, and so, managed to be idle very little of iiis time. Tiiere 
was no public school system at tliat period, and the country was too new to 
attract many sciiool teachers, consequently the Doctor's schools were quite 
an accommodation and advantage to that neighborhood as well as a source of 
some protit to himself. A few gray-haired persois still living here who were 
then his sciiolars speak of him as an excellent teactier of mild, pleasant dis- 
position, and very patient and painstaking in his methods of instruction and 
enforcing necessary discipline. By his industry and frugality he was in a few 
years comfortably situated on his valuable farm well cultivated, with tine fruit 
orchards and an ample supply of horses, cattle and otlier live stock. 

He theti quit teaching, and a little later, meeting a case tiiat destroyed 
his contidence in the infallibility of the noble science, abrubtly retired from 
the practice of medicine. He was called one day a few miles west of his 
place to see Henry Schaetler, a neighbor for whom he entertained a high re- 
gard, who had a "congestive chill," which in those days were of frequent oc- 
currence. He treated him seeundum artem with tlie usual course of hot teas, 

- 299 - 

lobelia, No. 6, elecampane and comfrey, all of which failed to produce the de- 
sired reaction. Then resorting to heroic measures he gave the patient two 
tablespoonsful of pulverized Cayenne pepper— or capsicum— and went home. 
Prof. Joseph McDowell, of St. Louis, in his lectures to the students of his 
classes, often told of a case of tubercular consumption he cured by the liberal 
use of whiskey; but, unfortunately, about the time the cure was perfected 
the patient died of "jim-jams," or delirium tremens. Dr. McClure was 
alarmed by the serious condition of his friend Schaeffer, and so uneasy that on 
getting to his home he Could neither eat or sleep. To his wife who, in the 
middle of the night, asked him the cause of his agitation, he said, "Louisa, I 
believe that red pepper I gave to Henry Schaeffer will kill him. I have 
prayed to the Lord to spare his life; but whether he gets well or dies this is 
the last of my Doctoring." It is quite evident that the Lord obligingly 
granted his prayer; for Schaeffer got well, and often afterwards jocularly re- 
marked, "That handful of red pepper I took knocked the chill, but came 
mighty near knocking me too;" and considered himself peculiarly fortunate 
in having survived both the disease and the treatment. That case termi- 
nated Dr. McClure's professional career 

Henceforth he led tlie tranquil and uneventful life of a thrifty prairie farm 
er, attending strictly to his own business, and generally on good terms with 
himself and all his neighbors. ' lir figure he was somewhat rteshy, a little over 
medium height, usually weighing abont 180 or 190 pounds. His hair, when 
young was of light brown color, his eyes blueish gray, and his face expressive 
of a kindly nature with ample tirmness'and decision. With selflshnessenough 
to take good care of liis own interests, he possessed the noble qualities of can- 
dor, truthfulness and conscientious honesty.. Straightforward in all his deal- 
ings his word was as good as his bond— as good as any man's bond — , and though 
exacting all that was due him, he scrupulously met every obligation to the 
fraction of a-cent. Not particularly distinguished for liberality or generosity, 
he was kind-hearted and compassionate, always ready to accommodate a neigh- 
bor or help anyone in need or distress. In disposition he was social, compan- 
ionable and hospitable, generally ctieerful, and not given to anticipating 
trouble, or grieving about mishaps that could not be remedied. A good talker, 
always grammatically correct in his language, he spoke with the broad inflec- 
tion, and with many of the plirases and idioms, peculiar to the south. His con- 
versation plainly ihdicated'that he had been raised where plantatioa niggers 
abounded, and was not a Yankee. In party politics.however, he was decided- 
ly in accord with some of the New England ideas. At that period in Illinois 
the most extreme and detestable brawlers for the abolition of slavery were 
men trom southern states who had sold their slaves there, and with the pro- 
ceeds of that human, or inhuman, traffic secured land and homes here. Dr. 
McCure was in harmony with that class. His father, whodied when on a visit 
in Texas in 1839, owned a farm and several slaves in Kentucky, a part of which 
fell to the Doctor by inheritance. Two or three times he went back to Jven- 
tucky to see about the adjustment and distribution of his father's estate; and 
thougli lie entertained for the poor-downtrodden slaves of his share the most 
lieartfelt sympathy, he did not emulate the example of Gov. Coles, and bring 
them to Illinois in freedom and give them homesteads: but sold them witli 
the balance of his interests in the estate to some of the other heirs, and 


pocketed the money they brought. In February. 1847, he bought of David J. 
Moody, a land speculator of Massachusetts, the eighty acres adjoining his 
farm on the west, the E. i of the S. E. qr. of Sec. 2-i in T. 17 of R. 11, being 
part of an extensive scope of land in that neighborhood that Moody had ent- 
ered in the spring of 1835. 

He was personally acquainted witli Henry Clay,the idol of many Kentuck- 
ians, and was an ardent admirer and follower of that illustrious statesman. 
In Kentucky he earnestly endorsed and advocated Mr. Clay's proposed solu- 
tion of ttie vexatious slavery question by the gradual emancipation and coloni 
zation of all southern slaves, but in free Illinois, still azealous Whig and later 
a fervid republican, he concluded the policy of gradual emancipation was en- 
tirely too slow, and clamored for the immediate abolition of slavery every- 
where, and securing to the freed negroes all civil and political rights enjoyed 
by the wliite race. Consequently he saw in the results of the civil war the re- 
dressing of a stupendous national wrong by a kind and merciful Providence 
acting througli and directing tlie Union cause and its guiding spirit, the God- 
like Lincoln. Dr. McClure was, however, by no means a "pernicious partisan"" 
of the blustering, aggressive order. Fixed and immovable in his convictions, 
which believed to be riglit, he seldom obtruded them upon anyone unasked 
and accorded to others the riglit of individual judgment he claimed for 

Sometime after lie came to Illinois he was spiritually converted and 
joined the Presbyterian church, of which he became a fervent and orthodox 
member, subscribing without reserve to every tenet and dogma promulgated 
by John Calvin, but feeling reasonably sure that he was not himself one of the 
class of humanity foreordained from the beginning to be damned. Judged by 
the commonly accepted standard of correct moral deportment, and upright, 
honora )le conduct, Dr. McClure was a true Christian. People who are honest 
from the dictates of conscience alone are as scarce as four leaf clovers. His 
honesty was of tliat kind, not a mere matter of policy, but the prompting of an 
innate sense of right and justice. And honesty of that brand, like charity 
atones for a multitude of faults, lie was a straight Christian, but like the 
Indians' tree, so straight that he leaned a little to theother side.' That is 
he leaned a little toward Puritanism. Njt satisfied with p:)<sessing the spirit 
of true religion, he conformed, "with rigil feature anl canting whine," as 
precisely as he could, and compelled all under his control to do so, with the old 
formalitias of the church, which are now happily almost obsolete. He was 
one of t'lie founders of the Providence church in Mofiroe precinct and with 
Willam Nisbet, George Wilson, William Petetish and Jacob Bergen, served a 
long time as one of its trustees, and paid one-t liird of tiie cost of the church 
building still standing tiiere. In early life he joined the Independent Order 
of Odd E'ellows which for some reason failed to fulfill his expectations, and in a 
years he quietly dropped out of it. 

Dr. McClure was one of the substantial, reliable citizens of Cass county, a 
good neighbor, a good man, an affectionate and indulgent father and husband. 
He was the supporter and promoter of cluirches, schools and all other agencies 
of moderncivilization. While not at all a crank on the subject of social re 
forms his influence and aid were always given to sucli movements as tended 
to better the condition of society by improving its morals. Tliough a bigot 

- 301 - 

and zealot in a community of liberal, enlightened views, and an abolitionist of 
the Lovejoy type among people habitually voting the straight democratic 
ticket and with no disposition or desire to disturb the institution of slavery 
where it already existed, he retained the respect and esteem of all who knew 
him and particularly of his immediate neighbors. 

The doctor's wife, Louisa W. Graff, sister of Wash. Graff the widely known 
wealthy and enterprising farmer of the northeastern part of Morgan connty, 
was a typical sample of the Illinois pioneer matron reared in the south. De- 
voted to her family and her home, free from the narrow bigotry and immov- 
able prejudices of her husband, she possessed, with habits of industry and 
frugality, a kind, benevolent and charitable disposition, and all the highest 
excellence of Clu'istian character. She was born in Woodford county, Ken- 
tucky on the thirteenth of September, 1813 and died at her Cass county liome 
on July 7, 1849, at the early age of 35 years, 9 months and 2i days, leaving besides 
her husband, two daughters and a son to mournher loss and cherish her memory 

The eldest daughter, Parthenia M. McClure, was united in marriage to 
Andrew Jackson Petefish, the son of a neighboring farmer, in September, 1858 
and shortly thereafter the young couple sought for a new home in Kansas. 
The furious political upheaval preceding and ushering in the civil war impell- 
ed them to return to Cass county, and when the sons of Illinois were called to 
take up arms to maintain the integrity of the Quion, "Jack" Petetish— as he 
was familiarly known—, a patriotic Democrat— entered the military service as 
a corporal of Co. D. 101st regiment of Illinois volunteer infantry. In the Wa- 
hatchie valley, between Chattanooga and Bridgeport, in Tennesee, he was 
sturck by a confederate shell and fatally wounded. Taken to a field 
hospital near Chattanooga he lingered there awhile, and died on Nov. 3d, 1863. 
His wife is now the widow of her second husband, the late eminent physician. 
Dr. Macbeth, and resides in Denver, Colorado. 

The younger daughter, Ann Dupuy McClure, was married on Nov. 10th, 
1859, to Robert Hall, an enterprising young farmer, now the most extensive 
land owner, and best known citizen in Cass county. She died in the city of 
Virginia on July 2-4th 1892. 

The Doctor's son, Alexander McClure, served his country well and faith- 
fully during the civil war as a soldier of Co. K. 101st Illinois volunteer in- 
fantry. After his father's death he took charge of the farm, and the next 
year, 1866, married Miss Sarah Ellen Matthews, oneof the beautiful daughter's 
of a prominent pioneer farmer residing across the prairie three miles to the 
westward. Imagining that lie needed more elbow room for territorial expan- 
sion, he left Illinois in 1875, and is now a prosperous farmer, and highly re- 
spected citizen, of Page county, Iowa. 

Marriage is sometimes prompted by ideas of expediency as much as by 
impulse or passionate affection; and, as marriage is altogether a lottery, it 
may turn out as well as an expedient as when instigated by love alone. Per- 
haps that was the light in which Dr. McClure, in middle life, viewed it 
when left a widower with three young children to raise and no female hired 
help attainable. At any rate, after a mourning period of nearly two years 
had passed, he thought it expedient to look around for another helpmeet to 
replace the one he lost, to be a mother to his motherless children. He looked 
around until down in Morgan county, not far from the town of Waverly, he 


found a widow who consented to try her chances with him in Hfe's lottery. 
From the records at Jacksonville it is learned tliat on the first day of June. 
1851, Dr. Samuel McClure and Mrs. Marrina M. Warnack "were duly joined 
in the holy bonds of matrimony by W. S. McMurry a Minister of the Gospel." 
When Mrs. Warnack assumed the unenviable station of a step-mother in the 
McClure family, the Doctor's oldest daug'hter was a g'rown young lady of 18 
years, the next daughter was sweet sixteen, and the boy about 14 years old. 
She no doubt fared as well as the most of step-mothers do, and better than 
some, as the two girls soon married and left, and the boy was of such amiable 
disposition that he gave her no trouble. 

Dr. McClure was intensely interested in the progress and ultimate re- 
sults of the civil war, which afforded him at least two causes for heartfelt 
rejoicing; one of them was the safe return home of his soldier boy. Alec, wlio 
was discharged from service, in 18(33, on account of disability; and the other 
was the summary and final abolition of slavery. His rejoicing, however, was 
somewhat dampened by distressing failure of his health from the insiduous 
iiu'oads of Bright's disease. He was a hopeless invalid wlien he heard che 
startling account of President Lincoln's assassination; and contined to his 
bed when he received the joyous news that the war was ended and peace re- 
stored. With the advance of summer and its oppressive heat he failed rap- 
idly until his enfeebled system was exhausted, and death terminated his 
suffering on the :27th of August, 18(55, at the age of (il years, 10 months and 
8 days. 

No children came to bless the doctor's second marriage. His surviving 
widow sold her dower interest in his estate to Bob Hall for $2,000 and returned 
to Morgan county. There she was, two years later, married to a Mr. Dinwid- 
dle who survived thatevent but a few years and died, leaving her again a 
widow. Not satistied with three trials of the wedlock lottery, she was once 
more united in marriage by the ministration of Robert Clark, to Melzar 
Stowell of Cass county on April 28tli, 1885, that being Mr. Stowell's third ven- 
ture in the same lottery. In the peace and quietude of declining life they 
resided in the town of Virginia until death called her to everlasting rest at 
10 o'clock a. m. on^22d of January 1891, and he died on Sunday, December 29th 
of the same year. 




THE early settlers In this county, settled along- the edge of the timber, 
near streams or springs if possible. The primitive churches were 
log huts. The pioneers buried their dead upon their farms near their 
homes. In the neighborhood of Princeton thereareeightor ten burial grounds 
within a radius of two or three miles. After substantial church buildings were 
erected it became customary to establish churcli-yards for the burial of the 
dead adjacent to the church buildings. It seems to have been taken for 
granted that these church buildings would be used so long as they were suit- 
able for their intended use, after which they would be replaced by new and 
better ones. This expectation has not been realized, and in consequence 
many of these country burial places have become neglected. Some three miles 
south of Virginia, on the Jacksonville road a Methodist church was erected 
about 1850, by Mr. Yaple, the father of Matt Yaple of this city. A graveyard 
was established immediately north of the church building. The church has 
been torn away in this year (1906): tlie fence about the burial ground has gone 
into decay; Mr. William Price, his wife, and others are planning to remove 
the remains of tlieir departed friends ro the Walnut Ridge c^metery belong- 
4ng to the city of Virginia, which will doubtless be well cared for as long as 
the city exists. The same fate which has ovei'taken this Bethlehem churcli 
and graveyard will soon overtake many other country churches and grave- 
yards in this county. 

In Orleans county, in the western part of the State of New York, is located 
a town in which is a Presbyterian church, a Baptist church, a Methodist 
church and a Lutheran church. No church service has been held in either 
the Baptist church or in the Presbyterian church for more than sixty years. 
The Presbyterian church is used as a Temperance Hall and the Baptist church 
is used for no purpose whatever. The Lutheran church has been built during 
recent years by a large and wealthy membership. 

Some of the country grave yards in this county are still well cared for 
while others appear to have been entirely neglected for many years past. The 
Cauby grave yard, which is some five miles northwest of this city on the farm 
now owned by William Wubker is tilled with brush, weedsand brambles. One 
large slab has fallen into a sunken grave and was entirely covered with earth 
several inches in depth. A neat and expensive monument six feet or more in 
height is so surrounded by a dense growth of tall bushes that it can not be 
seen from any point a few feet distant. 

On the N. E. quarter of the S. E. quarter of section 34, Township 17, 

Range 11, less than tliree miles east of Arenzville. on a handsome elevation, 
lie the remains of Edward Fletcher and live of his children and grandchildren. 
These graves are in the middle of a pasture; the slab erected to the memory 
of Mr. Fletcher lies upon the ground broken in several pieces. From these 
may be read the following:— 

Edward Fletcher, Born June 11, 179—, died 184—, aged 52. From Probate 
IJecords of Morgan county it appe.irs Mr. Fletcher died on October 2nd, 18-1-1. 

Here is the sadly neglected grave of one of Cass county's old settlers: he 
entered this land on the 17 day of February 1836. He came here in 1830 from 
England: to his home John Buckley and Mark Buckley made their way in the 
year 1837 and were hospitably received by this pioneer, whom they hadkn own in 
England previous to his departure to this new and far off land. Edward Fletch- 
er was no ordinary man; in a few more years all traces of his last resting place 
on the land he redeemed from its primitive condition will be lost. There 
should be an Old Settlers Association to mark the burial places of these old 
pioneers by suitable monuments. On the forty acre tract west of that where 
lie the remains of Edward Fletcher, on the old Richards' Farm, is the sad 
remnant of a burial ground, among poison vines, thorn brush and timber; the 
fences have rotted away; many of the marble slabs lie broken upon the ground. 
No record is there to be found of a burial for the past quarter of a century. 

On the other hand, there are quite a respectable number of country grave 
yards that are well cared for. The (Jlark grave yard three miles west of Vir- 
ginia and north of the residence of Edward Davis is a most beautiful spot. 
The ground is tastefully laid out; the lots are marked by marble corner 
posts. The monuments and substantial slabs are numerous. The plat 
is well supplied with beautiful evergreen trees; in onecorner is a neat painted 
building, ceiled within, in wiiich are benciies and stove for the use of funeral 
parties in bad weather; a building for fuel has been provided; an excellent 
fence surrounds the ground which is free from all under growth and weeds. 
Tlie relatives of the dead that lie witliin the enclosure deserve great praise 
for the care they have taken of the last resting place of their friends who have 
gone before. 

A few pages of this volume of Historical Sketches may well be spared 
in describing some of the country grave yards, for no man can tell what the 
future has in store for them. If their decendants remain in the vicinity, 
they will be kept in respectable condition, if they sell out and leave the 
neighborhood, will strangers spend the money to keep the grounds fenced and 
in good condition? Not if these strangers prove to be as indilTerent in the 
matter as the people of to-day. A few weeks ago a letter was sent here in- 
quiring for the record upon the tombstone of the father of the writer who did 
not know where his parent was buried. Inquiry located the grave in the 
Bethlehem yard going to ruin; a few years hence, the son may not be able to 
discover any trace of his father's last resting place. 


This burial place is located four miles south west of this city on the North 
west quarter of the north east quarter of Section 19, Township 17, Range 10, 
and is near a church called the Providence church. Mr. Nisbet purchased 
this land of William Sommers in 1839. 

The first recorded death in this cemetery is that of Margaret Jane Nisbet, 

- 305 - 

who died on June 2(), 1840, aged 22 years. 

The remainder are as follows:— 

John McHenry, 1843—1903. 

Isabella McHenry, 1823—1896. 

Nancy McHenry, 1831—1896. 

James D. McHenry, died May 20, 1895, aged 73 years, 5 months, and 20 days. 

Jacob McHenry, died March 25, 1869, aged 76 years, 1 month, 8 days. 

Margaret, his wife, died January 10 1851, aged 59 years, 14 days. 

Mary McHenry, died August 20, 1847, aged 79 years. 

William McHenry, died November 18, 1845, aged 25 years. 

Margaret McHenry, died May 12, 1847, aged 15 years, 11 months and 
7 days. 

Margaret McHenry, died February 18, 1843, aged 35 years. 

Jane, daughter of J. and N. McHenry, died December 17, 1847, aged 2 years, 
3 months. 

John Glover, died February 18, 1842, ager* 47 years, 6 moiiths. 

Arminda, daughter of J. and N. Glover, died August 6, 1840, aged 2 years. 

Mary McHenry, 1810-1884. 

Nancy Glover, born December 22, 1797, aged 66 years. 6 months, 25 days. 

William McHenry, died December 14, 1865, aged 60 years, 11 montlis and 
22 days. 

James McHenry, died February 14, 1867, aged 65 years, 7 months, 2 days. 

Nancy, wife of James McHenry, died January 1, 1866, aged 59 years, 
11 months, 7 days. 

Rachel L., daughter of U. and J. Hutchings, died October 14, 1865, aged 
1 year, 10 months, 5 clays. 

Liddia A., daughter of U. and J. Hr.tchings, died May 10, 1874, aged 
7 months. 

Mary E., daughter of U. and J. Hutchings, died June 4, 1890, aged 23 
years, 1 month, 4 days. 

U. Hutchings, 1836.— Note: He died in 1906, in Oklahoma and is buried 
by his wife in this yard. 

His wife, Jane McHenry, 1833-1893. 

Belle N. Hutchings, 1869-1893. 

Hattie J. Hutchings, 1872-1897. 

Catharine V., daughter of Amos and Mary Woodward, died June 18, 1847, 
aged 17 months. 

Amos, son of Amos and Mary Woodward, died August 30, 1852, aged 
1 year, 5 months, 13 days. 

Margaret E., daughter of Amos and Mary Woodward, died August 31, 
1854, aged 1 year, 7 months, 20 days. 

Amos Woodward, died January 17, 1855, aged 41 years, 6 months, 2 days. 

His wife, Marv McHenry, 1817-1899. 

Hannah, wife of J. Dobson, died October 9, 1846, aged 37 years. 

John Dobson, died December 3. 1857, aged 50 years. 

Emma Elizabeth, daughter of J. E. and M. Lacey, died August 7, 1878, aged 
5 months. 

Eliza Ann Haslett, died August 25, 1852, aged 1 year, 3 months, 29 days. 

Samuel Haslett, died April 8, 1856, aged 3 years, 16 days. 


George C, son of W. and G. Abney, died Aagust 10, 1848, aged 1 month, 

Banister, son of W. and G. Abney, died November 5, 1848, aged 8 years, 
5 months, 21 days. 

Alonzo, son of A. C. and J. A. Edgar, died July 4, 1871, aged 3 months, 

15 days. 

Travis A. Edgar, iDorn August 16, 1869, died January 16, 1877. 

Julia A. Edgar, born June 5, 1848, died January 15, 1876. 

Gertrude L., daughter of J. B. and M. M. McKean, died January 13, 1885, 
aged 4 years 7 months, 24 days. 

Esther L., daughter of J. B. and M. M. McKean, died August 5, 1889, 
aged 3 years, 7 months, 25 days. 

Nancy J. Treadway, born April April 21, 1855, died January 22, 1897. 

Mary W. Treadway, died August 30, 1879, aged 59 years, 9 months. 

Sarah PL, wife of M. McHenry, died July 31, 1868, aged 56 years. 

James Mc Henry. 

M. McHenry. 

William W. Dale, Co. A. 140 Indiana Vol. Inf.. born May 16, 1849, died 
March 28, 1883. 

Sarah, wife of Joseph Pence, died August 19, 1878, aged 72 years, 7 days. 

Elizabeth Boyles, wife of J. Springer, born in Fayette county, Penn., in 
1813, died April 11 , 1883. 

.Job Spriuger, born in Fayette county, Penn., January 15, 1803, died April 
14, 1882. 

Ellen E., daughter of .lob and Elizabeth Springer, died February 20, 1865, 
aged 13 years. 

Mary Ann, wife of E. L. Chapman, born February 14, 1842, died September 
7, 1881. 

Tommie, son of E. L. and M. A. Chapman, born October 15, 1878, died 
March 5, 1880. 

Mary Jane, infant daughter of II. D. and C. II. Sweeney, died October 16, 
1850, aged 13 days. 

Elizabeth Sweeney, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Nisbet, died March 
3I, 1847, aged 32 years. 

Our mother, Elizabeth Nisbet, died May (i, 1864, age 82 years. 

John, son of Thomas and Lucilla Nisbet, died June 9, 1850, aged 7 months, 
29 days. 

Lilly Denny, daughter of T. J. and L. S. Nisbet, died March 6, 1872, aged 

16 years, 10 months, 18 days. 

Emmy R., wife of G. W. Mathews, and daughter of T. J. and L. Nisbet, 
born July 17, 1852, died September 30, 1877. 

John Marshal, died November (5, 1855, aged 43 year, 7 months, 4 days 

Mary L., wife of John Marshal and daugher of T. and E. Nisbet, died Oct- 
ober 24, 1852, aged 41 years, 9 months, 14 days. 

Elizabeth, wife of William Nisbet, born June 13, 1836, died January 27, 1903. 

William Nisbet,, born May 24, 1807, died March 28, 1892. 

Walter, son of Wm. and E. A. Nisbet, died November 26 1882, aged 19 
years, 8 months, 20 days. 

Chalmers W., son of Wm. andE. A. Nisbet, died December 9, 1888. 

- 307 - 

.years, 7 montiis, Ki days. 

George Wilson, born October 31, 17!)5, died September 3, 1872, aged 76 
years, 10 montlis, 2 days. 

Henrietta B., daughter of G. and J. B. Wilson, born September 11, 1841, 
died September 5, 1847. 

Jane B. Moore, wife of George Wilson, born June 25, 1798, died October 8, 
1877, aged 79 years, 3 months, 13 days. 

Thomas J. Nisbet, July 12, 1819; January 8, 1891. 

Lucilla S., wife of T. J. Nisbet, January 30, 1836, March 10, 1889. 

Eichard Graves, born in Woodford Co., Ky., died May 11, 1860, aged 75 
years, 5 months, 4 days. 

Nancy, wife of Richard Graves, born in Woodford Co., Ky., died May 14, 
1870, aged 73 years, 4 months, 14 days. 

Mary, wife of D. Long, died September 19, 1875, aged 54 years, 7 months, 
13 days. 

Sarah E., wife of G. L. Loar, died July 10, 1860, aged 23 years, 6 months, 
9 days. 

Rev. John Dale, born April 27, 1812, died November 15, 1871. A faithful 
and zealous minister of the gospel in the Presbyterian church for more than 
25 years. 

Luella Georgia, daughter of John and Sophia Dale, born February 22 1864, 
died January 11 1867. 

Sophia Alexander, wife of Rev. J.Dale, born March 28, 1820, diedf No- 
vember 3, 1871. 

Lelia Emma, wife of Edward L. Chapman, died December, 28, 1872, aged 
17 years, 4 months, 14 days. 

Mary E., infant daughter of E. L. and L. E. Chapman, died January 27, 
1873, aged 1 month, (i days. 

Amanda L. daughter of Alex and S. E. McClure, died July 2, 1869, aged 1 
year, 4 months, 13 days. 

Samuel McClure, died August, 27, 1865, aged 64 years, 10 months, and 22 

Louisa W., wife of Samuel McClure, died July 6, 1849, aged 36 years, 3 



TKe James Crtxm Graveyard. 


THE Union Chapel is located upon the southeast quarter of the south- 
east quarter of Sec. 36, T. 17, R. 11, at the southwest corner of tlie 
tract; the ground was donated by Oswell Thompson who purchased 
the land of Peter Karges in 1832. The James Cfum burial ground lies across 
the public road to the soutii in the edge of Morgan county upon the northeast 
quarter of the northeast quarter of Sec. 1, in T. 16, R. 11, which was entered 
by one Kirkpatrick. This church was erected by the Protestant Methodists 
and Episcopal Methodists and Baptists with the understanding that each 
denomination should have the use of the building one Sunday each month 
and the use of it tiie remaining Sunday to be determined by the trustees. 
The graveyard was donated by Mr. Crum. 

This burial ground is well located, and enclosed by a good and substantial 
fence and is evidently well cared for. The first recorded death in this cem- 
etery is that of Margaret, the wife of R. Mathews, who died on the 29th day 
of October. 1S34. aged 26 years. The remainder are as follows: 

Samuel Thornley, born January 30, 1822, died March 26, 1901. 

Hugo Thornley, born Augusi 18, 1831, died December 13, 1898. 

Anna May Thornley, 1860-1901. 

William Franklin, son of Hugo and Mary Thornley, died July 11, 1865, 
aged one year and 1 month. 

Emma Lou, daughter of Hugo and Mary Thornley, died September 19, 
L867, aged 1 year, 3 months, 3 days. 

Everett, son of A. M. and M. L. Thompson, died December U, 1883. aged 
5 months, 5 days. 

William H.. son of A. M. and M. L. Thompson, died June 21, 188.3. aged 
7 years, 6 months. 

Nellie E., daughter of A. M. and M. L. Thompson, born Aug. 1, 1874 died 
October 19, 1874, aged 2 months, 19 days. 

J. M. Richards, died April 2, 1872 aged 39 years, 1 month, 12 days. 

Hester A., wife of J. H. Richards, died March 12. 1876. aged 42 years, 7 
months 3 days. 

James D., son of T. and M. A. Richards, died July 28, 1877, aged 1 year, 4 
months, 20 days. 

Delilah, wife of .1. H. Richards' died Sept. 2, 1860, aged .58 years, 4 months. 

James H. Richards died June 29, 1866, aged 66 years. 

Nancy Rhineberger, born Dec. 23, 1841, died May 13, 1879, aged 37 years, 4 
months, 20 days. 

- 309 - 

Walter, born August 25. 1876: died March 28, 1880. 

Etta, born and died May, 1879— children of W. H. and N. Rhineberger. 

Infant of J. and M. E. Ater, died April 25, 1887. 

Elizabeth Ater, born October 10, 18:53, died July 12, 1890. 

Hannah H., wife of J. B. Kenworthy, died August 13, 1893, aged 80 years, 

7 months. 8 days. 

Joseph B. Kenworthy, died January 20, 1875, aged 64 years, 9 months, 21 

Joseph, son of J. T. and I. M. Cluuiesworth, died November 16, 1887. 

George - L., son of G. and M. Charleswortli, died March 28, 1871 aged 2 
years, 8 montlis, 13 days. 

Mary Lee, daugliter of G. and M. Cliarlesworth, died April 18, 1880, aged 

8 years, 6 months 26 days. 

John W., son of G. and M. Charleswortli, died December 23, 1887. aged 24 
years, 9 months, 18 days. 

Charles W., son of T. and M. Fozzard died December 17, 1857, aged 1 year, 
10 days. 

David, son of T. and M. Fozzard, died July 1. 1851, aged 7 months. 

Mary Fozzard, wife of Thomas Fozzard, died May 10, 1875, aged 51 years, 
3 months, 7 days. 

Thomas Fozzard, died July 5, 1880, aged 78 years, 1 month, 7 days. 

Eichard D., son of and M. Smart, died January 1, 1866, aged 4 

years, 9 montlis, 2 days. 

Margaret Thompson born Feb. 7, 1834, died July 23, 1878. 

Daisy, daugliter of Wm. T. and Nettie Webb, died Feb. 2, 1888, aged 2 
months, 12 days. 

Nettie, wife of Wm. T. Webb, died March 13, 1888, aged 23 years. 

Nancy Crowther, died May 31, 1880, aged 45 years. 

Catherine, daughter of S. and N. Crowther. died March 11, 1865, aged <i 
years, 11 months, 29 days. 

Oswell Tliompson, senior, died Sept 19, 1838, aged 55 years. 

Catherine, wife of Oswell Thompson, died Nov. 18, 1859 aged 88 years. 

Nancy Ater, died June 29, 1887, aged 81 years, 6 months, 27 days. 

Bassel Ater. died Oct. 5, 1866, aged (53 years, 10 months, 23 days. 

Martha E., wife of A. W. Butcher, died May 21, 1860, aged 31 years. 

Margaret, widow of G. Thompson, born in Ross Co., Ohio, Oct. 29. 1806, 
died at Beardstown, III., Sept. 7. 1884. 

George Thompson, died Dec. 4. 1868. aged 67 years. 

James B. Crowther. died Aug. 30, 1871. aged 68 years, 10 months. 

Eichard Mathews, died Nov. 17, 1874, aged 73 years, 3 months, (> days. 

Amanda F., wife of E. Mathews, died Sept. 1890, aged 75 years, 11 months 
20 days. 

Cyrus M., son of E. and M. Mathews, died October 27, 1839, aged 9 years, 
5 montlis, 17 days. 

Mary Ann, died April 9, 1858, aged (i years, 8 months, 29 days. 

Franklin E., died February 2, 1863, aged 19 years, 2 montlrs, 21 days: 
children of R. and A. F. Mathews. 

Lucy A., daughter of J. H. and E. G. Melone and wife of Rev. W. T. 
Beadles, died April 2, 1882, aged 28 years, 11 months, 4 days. 


Luella Belle, wife of T. E. Fox, 1861-1893. 

Plazel, daughter of T. E. and L. B. Fox, born January 22, 1893, died 
September 15, 1893. 

John H. Melone, 1815-1893. 

Mary C, daughter of J. H. and E. G. Melone, died January 18. 1881, aged 
33 years, 6 months, 28 days. 

George W., son of J. H. and E. G. Melone, died January 18, 1858, aged 2 
years, 3 months, 9 days. 

Ida Lee, daughter of J. H and E. G. Melone, died February 1, 1879, aged 
14 years, 5 months, 25 days. 

Sarah E., daughter of C. and M. Crum, died October Ki, 1847, aged 2 
years, 1 month 8 days. 

Margaret Jane, daughter of Christian and Mary Crum, died April 27, 
1859, aged 7 years, 2 months, 25 days. 

Amos, son of C. and M. Crum, died February 16, 1842, aged 8 months. 

Christian Crum, born May 11. 1803, died December 30, 1881, aged 78 years, 
3 months, 19 days. 

Mary Robertson, wife of Christian Crum, born May 17. 1813, died March 
9, 1882, aged 68 years, 9 montlis, 22 days. 

Jimmie Newton, son of W. H. and A. C. Thompson, died March 22, 1871, 
aged 7 days. 

Waiter, son of W. 11. and C. A. Fronk, born .July 27, 1887, died March 
27, 1902. 

William Marcellus, son of James and Ciiristine Crum, 1844-1895. 

Olive Crum, infant daughter of George A. and Jessie Phillips, died 
January 26, 1897. 

Little Maud, daugliter of W. M. and M. E. Crum, died November 15 
1878, aged 3 years, 9 months, 23 days. 

Clarissa, daughter of A. and C. A Pittner, died July 20, 1857, aged 

21 years. 

Fountain F., son of A. and C. A. Pitner, died August 13. 1866, aged 13 
years, 6 months, 5 days. 

James Crum, 1806-1899. 

His wife, Christine Ream, 1814-1878. 

Oscar R., son of J. and C. Crum, died September 9, 1858, aged 37 years 
and 4 months. 

David M. Crum, son of James and Chrisrine Crum, died October 4, 1851, 
aged 17 years. 9 months, 27 days. 

Anna B., daugliter of J. F. and S. 1. Crum, died March 6, 18(il, aged 
2 years, 6 montlis, 17 days. 

Amanda Ellen, daughter of Michael and Jemima Ream, died November 
21, 1861, aged 11 years, 1 da\s. 

George F.. son of M. and J. Ream, died January 11, 18.58, aged 4 months, 

22 days. 

Nettie B., died May 8, 1859, aged 5 montlis. 

James M., died June 21, 1859, aged 4 years, 12 days: son and daughter of 
M. and J. Ream. 

Michael Ream died Nov. 26, 1860 aged aged 48 years 7 days. 

Susannah, wife of Peter Buxton born in Montgomery county, Ohio, May 


19, 1802, died January 28, 1888. 

Elzabeth Lambert 1798-1880. 

Sarah, wife of George W. Ream, died Sept. 21, 1866, aged 29 years, 11 months 
17 days. 

George W, Ream, died April, 18 1861, aged 30 years, 1 month. 

Wilham Pitner, died March 22, 1875, aged 75 years. 

Catherine, wife Wm. Pitner, died February 9, 1851, aged 32 years. 

Michael Pitner, died April .30, 1840, aged 64 years, 3 months. 

Catherine wife of M. Pitner, died October 19, 1872, aged 94 years, 10 months. 

Thomas J. Shields, died October 1, 1880, aged 44 years 11 months, 17 days. 

Charles N., son of T. and F. E. Shields, died July 11. 1871, aged 3 months, 
21 days. 

Cecil and Cedilla, children of T. S. and and S. A. Crum, born and diea 
June 19. 1881. 

Davis, son of C. M. and S. Batis died December 16, 1868, aged 5 years, 9 
months, 11 days. 

Alexander Jordan, died Dec. 11, 1867, aged 50 years. 

John, died Oct. 13, 1865, aged 7 years, 8 months, 28 days: Joseph died Nov. 

20, 1860, aged 1 year, 7 months, 5 days: children of A. and C. Jorden. 

Louisa, wife of J. Dean, died Feb. 24, 1863, aged 34 years, 2 months 

Louise, daughter of J. and L. Dean, died Aug. 4, 1863, aged 6 months. 

Franklin, son of Samuel H., and Catherine Beach, born Feb. 8, 1872; 
died July 14, 1873, 

Laura Belle, daughter of E. H. and M. A. Richardson, died Sept. 13, 1868, 
aged 1 year. 5 months, 28 days. 

Enos E., son of E. H. and Mary A. Richardson, died July 12, 1876, aged 4 
months, 8 days. 

Patrick M. Shields died Aug. 28, 1870, aged ,30 years, 7 months and 28 days. 

James M. Shields, died Jan. 12, 1861, aged 23 years, 2 months and 5 days. 

Michael Shields died Aug. 20, 1841, aged 40 years. 

William C, son of A. and S. Pogue, died Feb. 22, 1861, aged 16 months and 
20 days. 

COUNTRY graveyards; 

TKe Karr Graveyard. 


THIS burial place is located upon tlie southeast quarter of southeast quar- 
ter, Sec. 12, T. 18, R. 11, onahighbluffl overlooking the Sangamon Val- 
]ey, and from which a most enchanting view is spread before the lover 
of Nature. Tlie place is named in honor of Elislia Karr, an early settler, who 
purchased the land of William Pelham, Aug. 21, Ls;]4. The ground is well 
eared for: there are many solid and expensive monuments therein, erected to 
Tlie memory of the dead who sleep within the inclosure. It is probable tliat 
tills burial place will be kept in good condition for many years. 

The tirst recorded death in this graveyard is that of Elizabeth Karr who 
died May 4, 18;:}.5 aged 28 years, ;> months. The remainder are as follows:— 

.Joseph N. Collins, born Aug. 22, 1S2S. died .Ian. 24, 190.) 

.J.Frank Emerick died August 8. Utoi). aged ;}3 years, 1 month, 22 days. 

Mary C. Hudnall born October 18. 1875. died June 2. l!)Ol. 

Trrace May, daughter of Wm. and Ada Iludnall. born November 1, liioo, 
died August 2, 1901. 

W. [{. Hudnall, May S, ISTI, April 2S. iDufi. 

•lames II. Slirev sbury, Co. F., ;)rd 111. Cav., died November 2(i, 18(1!), aged 31 
years, lo months. 2 days. 

Ileiu'v. so 
24, 1871 

Li Hie A.. 
20 days. 

Sophia E. 

•lames, so 
niont lis, 24 days. 

Infant son of T. and 11. McAllister, died August 2S, l>!(i4, aged 7 days. 

William son of T. and II. McAilister, died September, (I, I87(i, aged .5 years 
i) months, 27 days. 

Eliza A., daughter of W. W. and C. Hare, died April 11, 18S7, aged 35 years 
2 months, 11 days. 

Caroline, wife of W. W. Hare, died Sei)rember 7. l>!ss, aged -jS years, (i 
raontlis. 8 days, 

George W. Collins, died December 29, lS9(i aged 4:> year.s. 

Daisy, died October 7, 189(3, aged 13 years, 4 months, 12 days. 

Edward, died January 27, 1897, aged 18 years 21 days. 

Hattie, 1887-1897. Children of d. W. and :\I. Collins^ 

of D. and M. ri()senl)eigliei 

r, born February 2."), lS(i.7, died .Inly 

laughter of .1. and \I. Cjllii 

IS, died July 21. 1s;h;, aged 11 months 

wife of .loliii Tli()i-nsi)ury, ( 

lied April lo. IsiiO, aged 20 years, 4 

of T. and H.-McM lister, (i 

lied August 1. 18()3, aged 1 year, 9 

- 313 - 

Matilda M., wife of J. C. Schaad. died August 22, 1897, aged 33 years, R 
montlis, 10 days. 

Ciiarles Schaad, died February 1, 1878, aged 47 years, 1 month, 7 days, a 
native of Germany. 

Katrina, wife of John Schaad, born June 4, 1809, died February 20, 1870. 

Charles, son ofC. and A. Schaad, born August 15, 1869, died May 5, 1870 

Katrina, daughter of C. and A. Schaad, born August 17, 1867, died June 15, 

Margaret Baehr, born September 25. 1795, died Marcli 11, 1866, aged 70 
years, 5 montlis, 14 days. 

Glaus Theivaght, born in Province of Hanover, October 20, 1830, died Sept- 
ember 20, 1867. 

Cynthia A. wife of B. H. Wing, died April 16, 1863, aged 22 years, 6 months 
29 days. 

Isaiah S. Carlton, 1884-1900. 

Mary Ann, daughter of A. J. and N. Smith, born June 23, 1859, died Aug- 
ust 7, 1860. 

Roy E., son of J. G. and C. Kruse, born September 17, 1892, died August 4, 

Emily C, daughtei' of Samuel and Anna Smith, died August 6, 1860, aged 
17 years, 4 months, 16 days. 

Stephen R. son of S. and A. Smith, died September 6, 1854. aged 28 years, 
5 months, 28 days. 

John A. Wells, died January 11, 1852, aged 34 years, 6 months, 9 days. 

George W. Moore, died March 1, 1867, aged 46 years, L mouth, 2 days. 

Ervin, son of G. and H. M. Moore, born August 11, 1851, died March 1. 1867. 

William Blake, born April 5 180.5, died April 24, 1866, aged 6 1 years. 19(i;iys. 

R. B. Daugherty, died September 22, 1850, aged 45 years. 

Mary A. Hill, born June 18, 1828, died July 6, 1857,. 

Horace Hill, born February 4, 1828, died April 23, 1877. 

Mary Ann. wife of Amasa Hill, born August 11, 1832, died Novembei' 4, 

Amasa Hill died January 5, 1902, aged 71 years, 6 months, 4 days. 

Margaret J., daughter of R. and M. Blake, died July 21. 1867, aged lyeat, 3 
months, 19 days. 

Indiana, wife of L. L. Wartield. born February 14. 1822, died Ociober 29, 

Harriet, daughter of L. I^. and 1. Wartield aged 3 weeks. 

Frances, daugliter of L. L. and I. Wartield, died September 12, 1850, aged 
4 years, 9 months, 3 days. 

S. J. Shaeffer, son of C. C. and M. J. Shaeffer, died September 27, 18(i9, 
aged 17 days. 

J. E. ShaetTer. son of C. C. and M. J. Shaeffer, died April 15, 1866, aged (i 

Lizzie May, daughter of J. and E. Emerick, died January 12, 186(), aged 2 
years, 2 months, 14 days. 

Susanna, daughter of C. and R. Shaffer, died April 27, 1845, aged 9 years, 
22 days. 

Susannah, wife of -lacob Emerick, died December 12, 1858, aged 81 years. 


11 months, 3 days. 

Nancy, wife of Asher Heusted died April 12, 1857, aged 89 years, 8 months. 

William Lehmkuhl, born April 28, 1797, died July 21 1859. 

Sarah, wife of Seth Heusted, died October 1, 1875, aj^ed 71 years, 8 months, 
27 days. 

Seth Heusted, born September 12, 1802, died October 21, 1881, aged 79 years, 
1 month, 9 days. 

Emma, daughter of J. H. and S. R. Kinney, born May 2, 1871, died Sep- 
tember 21, 1872, aged 1 year, 1 months, 19 days. 

Infant daugliter of .John H. and S. R. Kinney, died November 2(i, 187«. 
aged 2 months, 18 days. 

Sacred to the memory of .Joshua C. Alexander jr., who died October 10. 
1851, a^ed 43 years (i months. 20 days and was married to Mary I31ack, .July 8, 

Eliza C. Alexander, died .January 8, 18.54 aged 4 years and 24 days. 

Mary, wife of .John Schaad, died December 11, 1883, aged 39 years, 10 
niontlis, 4 da.>s. 

Pierce Ryati, died .latiuary 14, 1894, aged 74 years, ,9 days. 

.John F., S')n of A. and M. A. Oiles, died September 15. 1S57. ;iged »i years, 
i) months. 

Mary F.. daughter of I). M. and E. S. French, died .!ime 25, 18()4, aged 5 
months. 25 days. 

.lames Logan, died May 5. 1847, aged .jO years. 

Emma Logan, died 3, 1865, aged 69 years. 

Christopher Sluieflfer, born in Rockbridge Co.. Va.. .luly 13, 1805: came to 
111., in 1829: married .hmuary 9, 18.30, and died April 22, ls71. 

Rachel Schaetfer. born ifi Biitlert'o.. Ohio, Nov. 27, IMl.'J: came to III., in 
1826: died February 12, 1897 

Benjamin F. E\^rs,\the, died Augu>t IS45, aged 24 yea,r.s, 7 months. 

Martin Van Buren. .son of .iereini;ili aiid Ellen Boweii, born February 4, 
1833, died May 2(i. 1848 

Rurli. (laughter of -lere. and Kllen P>ovven born October 28, 1815, died Sept. 
- 7, 1851, 

.ipi'emiah liowen, i oiti .laniiai-y 14. 1792 died Octobei- 25, 18.59. 

Ainancia .M., daughter of .1. A. atid .M. Dick died December 29 1855, aged 3 
yea lis 

Inlaiitson of .James A. and yi. Dick April 18. 1857. 

Infant son of .lames A., and Mary Dick. .May 8, ]8()0aged 1 day. 

Mary, daughter of .lames A. and .Mary Dick died October 11, IsiiO aged 10 
years, 9 months, 29 da\s. 

-James A. Dick, born .lune 10. ts23, died October 28, 1902. 
•I Mary Dick, born September 27. 1819, died .June 4, 1896. 

Sarah E. Bowen, born .lune 14, ISiiO, died October 25. 1879. 

.Jane, daughter of .T. and L. Bowen, born .January 9, 18()5. died February 
9. 1805. 

Pet. fkughter of .J. anfl L. Bowen, born August 13. 18.5N, died September 
29. 1858. 

Caroline, daughter of P. and M. Bowen, born September 10, 1848, died 
October 1, 1851. 

- 315 - 

Job A. Bosworth, son of Samuel aiul Patience Bosworth, of Barrington, 
R. I., died June 16, 1848. aged 42 years, 11 months. 

Nora Calif, daugliter of C. H. and S. E. Calif, died December 15, 1887, 
aged 15 years, 11 months, 15 days. 

Grace, daugliter of Daniel and Mary Bottrell, born August 13 1872. died 
August 17. 187:5. 

John K., son of W. and M. D. Sudbrink, born'October 3, 185!), died Janu 
ary 3, 1868. 

Henry Lewis, son of W. and M. D. Sudbrink, died August 23, 1864, aged 
12 years, 7 months, 28 days. 

William Sudbrink, died July 14, 1862, aged .38 years, 6 months. 17 days. 
Catherine Sudbrink, died November 6, 1887, aged 74 years, 3 weeks. 
Lewis Sudbrink, died July 10, 1857, aged 42 years, 10 months. 
Catherine, wife of John F. Sudbrink, died March 3, 1876, aged 84 years, 
9 months, 17 days. 

John F. Sudbrink, died October 9, 1848, aged 67 years, 1 month, 7 days. 
G. Henry Sudbrink, died November 29, 1849, aged 30 years, 10 montlis, 
18 days. 

Jemima, wife of John Waggoner, died August 23, 1856, aged .54 years. 
John, husband of Jemima Waggoner, died May 17, 18.54, aged (il years, 11 
months, 15 days 

Fielding, son of J. and G. Wagner, died March 15, 1857, aged 21 years. 11 
months' 29 days. 

Sarah Emeline, wife of David Wagner, died April 3, 1860. in the 3oth year 
of lier age. 

Mary Ann, daugliter of D. and E. .). Wagner, died Sept. 1, 1874. aged 12 
years, 8 months, 16 days. 

Charles, son of D. and E. .1. Wagner, died Feb. 2. 18SS, aged 14 years, 9 
months, 20 days. 

Mary S., wife of D J. Cole, born March 21, 1829. died Aug. 19. 18(i2, aged 
.33 years, 4 months 29 days. 

Daniel W., son of D. J. and H. E. Cole, born March 5, 1871, died .January 
23, 1872, 

William Taylor, born Feb. 10, 1S19, died Feb. 12. 1900. 
Florence McNeill, died Feb. 23, 188s, aged 48 years, 9 months, 25 days. 
Maggie, wife of David Carr, died May 21. 1890, aged 46 years. 
Chalmers McNeill, son of D. and M. Carr. died March 15 1S92. aged 5 years 
5 months, 26 days. 

W. David, son of David and Maggie Carr, borr) .lanuary 22. 1S75. died 
March 19, 1903. 

Oliver J., son of D. and M. E. Carr, bori' April 19, 18(i6, died Oct. 19, 1870. 
George N. Kendall, born Oct. 4, 1812, died August 24, 1902. 
Jane Carr, wife of Geo. N. Kendall, born Feb 7, 1829, died Jan. 23, 1892. 
David Cook, died April 4, 1885, aged 20 years, 28 days. 
E'annie Hoskinson, died June 3, 1837, aged 41 years. 

John Cook, born Sept. 1, 18.38. died Feb. 4, 1867. aged 28 years. 5 months, 3 

Sjeri-a Nevada, daughter of J. and -J. Cook, born April 8, 188(), died Oct. 
8, 18867age'd 6 months. 


Nelson Karr, died July 2i, 1835, aged 17 months, 23 days. 

Emily, wife of A. Sudbrink, died October 24, 1S()6, aged 28 years, 
2 months, 2 days. 

William Briar, died April 4 185!), aged 36 years, 7 months. 

Sarah Karr, consort of John Karr, died August 10, 18.36, aged — years. 

John Karr, died June 3, 1836, aged — years. 

(These are sand stone slabs, and a part of the figures are obliterated.) 
Mary A., daughter of David and Julia Ann Carr, died October 3, 184!), aged 
2 years, (i months, (i days. 

Sierra Nevada, daughter of David and .Julia Ann Carr, died October 3, 
1856, aged 5 years, 5 months, 10 days. 

David Carr, born May 1, 1811, died December 22, 185!), aged 48 years, 
7 months, 22 days 

Laura, daughter of David and Julia Ann Carr, died November 1, 1860, 
aged 1 year, 8 months, 10 days. 

Julia, wife of David Carr, died March 8, 1886, aged 73 years, 2 months. 
2.S days. 

Mary Alice, daughter of G. N. and F. Kendall, died February (i, 1878, 
aged 1!:! years, 11 months, 8 days 

Elisha Carr, born December 26, 1796, died July 9, 1837. 

William Wallace, son of Elisha and Mary Carr, died November 14, 1851, 
aged 16 years 10 months, 24 days. 

Andrew William, son of A. and F. Clark, died September 12, 1853, nged 
1 year, 3 months, 4 days. 

James Harry, son of Elisha and Mary Carr, died February 14, 1854, aged 
29 years, 21 days. 

William T. Clemraons, born February 16, 180(), died October 11, 1886. 

Sophia, wife of Wm. S. Clemmons. died April 14, 1860, aged 50 years and 
23 days. 

Lemon, son of J. and N. Plaster, died February 15, 1864, aged 20 years, 
(i months, 5 days. 

Little George, son of J. and R. Ilouck, died March 4, 1864, aged 1 year, 
() months. 

Peter Houck. died April 14, 1872, aged 3!) years, 3 months, 11 days. 

Elizabeth Ilouck, wife of Jacob Ilouck, died September 12, 1875, aged 
7!) years, 8 months, 15 days. 

Vincent C Carpe'-, died January 31, 1850, aged 23 years, 4 months, 2!) days. 

Eliza A. Carper, died August 18, 1852, aged 51 years, 11 months, 13 days. 

Charles, son of A. and M. Schaad, born December 9, 1871, died July 18, 1873. 

Neele, son of A. and M. Schaad, born September 21, 18(i9, died July 15, 

Maggie, daughter of A. and M. Schaad, born December 8, 1866, died Sep- 
tember 30, 1868, aged 1 year, 9 months, 22 days. 

Margaret, wife of Neal Taylor, born in Argylshire, Scotland, in 1814, died 
April 24, 1878, aged (i4 years. 

Angus Taylor, born in Argyleshire, Scotland, September 1799, died Feb- 
ruary 20, 1869, aged 69 years, 5 months. 

Niell Taylor, died June 10, 1851, aged 49 years. 

Alexander Tayior, born in Scotland, October 29, 1803. died April 17, 1864, 

- 317 - 

John Taylor, born in Scotland, September 30, 1813, died May 17, 1891, aged 
77 years, 7 months, 17 days. 

John H., son of A. and M. Rose, died October 17, 1854, aged 1 year, 
10 months, 18 days. 

Infant son of W. and M. E. Taylor, born and died May 19, 1865. 

Duncan McCrig, died August 1, 1857, aged 45 years. 

Katie, daugh.ter of R. and J. Taylor, born July 19, 1882, died October Ki' 

Flora, daughter of R. and J. Taylor, died September 8, 1884, aged .34 years, 
3 months, 12 days. 

Miza Josephine, daughter of R. and J. Taylor, born October 5, 1854, died 
May 28, 1882. 

Robert Taylor, 1816-1902. 

Helen, daughter of R. and J. Taylor, 1844-1903. 

Archibald Taylor, July 2, 1806, April 9, 1896. 

Mary, daughter of Neil and M. Taylor, died September 19, 1892, aged 49 
years, 8 months, 24 days. 

Robert, son of Neil and M. Taylor, died February 28, 1902, aged .56 years, 

5 months. 

Minnie, daughter of W. and Mary Blohm, died June 13, 1871, aged 5 years, 

6 months, 13 days. 

Mary Elizabeth, wife of John W. Blohm, died May 18, 1892, aged 62 years, 
10 months, 4 days. 

J. W. Blohm, born January 18, 1820, died July 6, 1897. 

Charles, son of John and M. L. Musch, born September 3. 18.50, died Feb- 
ruary 27, 1870. aged 19 years, 5 months, 24 days 

Duncan Taylor, died July 13, 1845, aged .34 years. 

Mizey, wife of Robert Taylor, born in Argyleshire, Scotland, died July 4, 
1845, aged 66 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Charles McNeil, of Scotland, died March 20, 1859, aged 
79 years, 7 months. 

Ldchlan McNeil, 1809-1901. 

His wife Florence Taylor. 1808-1859. 

Elizabeth, daughter of L. and F. McNeil, died January 30, 1872, aged 34 
years, 7 months, todays. 

Mizey, daughter of L. and F. McNeil, born July 5, 18,39, died; August 5, 

Jesse Livingston, born November 3, 1828, died February 2, 1891, aged 63 
years, 2 months, 19 days. 

Lillian May, daughter of F. and M. J. Coldwell, died March 14, 1873, aged 
5 months, 7 days 


Tfrie George H, BristoAV Graveyard. 


THIS buria,! ground is situated on tlie nortlieast quarter of the south- 
west quarter of Section 31, T. 17, R. 10, on the farm now owned by 
T. J. Crum, and near the corner, a short distance east of the Crum 
homestead. This tract of land was entered by William Breeden on November 
1!), 1827, and by him sold to (leorge H. Bristow in December, 1830. Mr, 
Bristow lived upon the tract and kept a small store, between the burial plat 
and wliere tiie Crum homestead stands. At this place the militia met to go 
tlirougli tlieir military drills, and iiere the stage coach made a stopping place 
in an early day. Upon the present site of tiiis burial ground stood a beautiful 
walnut tree, which was an object of pride of Mr. Bristow, who often called 
attention to it with the remark that he wanted to be buried under it when 
his time came. Bristow was fond of fishing and hunting and often went to 
the Sangamon river to gratify his love of these sports. Upon one of these 
periodical trips he sickened and died; his body was brought home and, in ac- 
cordance with his oft expressed request, was buried under the favorite tree. 
No trace of the tree can now be found. 

This information we get from Mr. T. J. Crum, to whom it was often told in 
his youth, but the date of his death can not be learned. His administrators 
sold tfie land to Henry Price in 1835 and his death and burial must liave oc- 
curred shortly before that time. His body was the Hrst buried at that plaee, 
and after the purchase of the land by Mr. Price he allowed the place to be- 
come a burial place by the people of the vicinity. 

The first recorded death in this graveyard is that of Matilda, daughter of 
P. and B. Cownover, who died December 8, 183(i, aged fi months and 10 days. 
Tiie others are as follows: 

Elizabeth, wife of J. Hammer, died June 19, 1855, aged 17 years. 

Amanda C, wife of O. M. Ross, died March 8, 1854, aged 27 years. 

Sarah, wife of Moses C. Price, died September 3, 1850, aged 21 years, 8 
months, 2(i days. 

Adam C, son of H. and M. A. Price, died March 1, 183!), aged 5 years, it 
months and 23 days. 

Sarali E., daughter of P. and B. Cownover, died May 25, 1839, aged 1 year, 
7 months. 

William T., son of P. and B. Cownover, died May 10, 1839, aged months, 
10 davs. 

David, son of P. and B. Cownover, died Marcli 22, 1837, aged 1 year, 10 
months, 14 days. 

- 319 - 

Mary J., daughter of P. and B. Cownover, died May 5, 1839, aged 6 years, 
5 months, 24 days. 

Beersheba, wife of P. Cownover, died January 2, 1853, aged 48 years, 4 
months, 23 days. The stone erected at the grave of this mother, who was 
laid by the side of her Ave children who had gone before her, lies flat upon the 

Ann Catharine, wife of G. W. Powell, died April 13, 1849, aged 57 years, 
7 months, 25 days. 

George W. Powell, died September 15, 1857, in the 6fith year of his age, 

Yancey Powell died September 21, 1852, aged 44 years, G months, 21 days. 

Samuel Napoleon, son of Joseph and Sarali Pence, died September 17, 
1847, aged 1 year, 5 months, 3 days. 

John Corn, son of Josepli and Sirah Peric?, die:l Da^ember 4, L81(i, aged 3 
years and 20 days. 

Mary, wife of J. Samuels, died August 31st, 1853, aged 47 years, 7 months, 
14 days. 

MaryEtty, daughter of Joseph C. and Sarali Pence, deid November 25, 
1846, aged 4 years, 4 montlis, 20 days. 

George W. House, died December 27th, 1853, aged 22 years, 23 days. 

Hugh R. Powell, died April 24, 1859, aged 60 years, 7 months, 3 days. 

Franklin, son of H. R. and S. Powell, died February 1, 1858, aged 14 years, 
3 months, 21 days. 

Susan F., daughter of H. R. and S. Powell, died October 14, 1845, aged 1 
month and 1 day. 

Mary C, daughter of H. R and S. Powell, died August 3, 1847, aged 13 
years, 24 flays. 

It will be noted that the last recorded death in this burial ground was 
that of Hugh R. Powell who died April 24, 1859. Several or the stones in this 
yard are broken and lying on the ground: some partly covered with earth: 
the plat lies in the field, next to Mr. Crum's orchard: from its appearance it 
has never been plowed over, but is neglected and fast vanishing: in a few 
years, all traces of it will have disappeared. 


This place of burial lies on the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter 
of Sec. 34, Tp. 17, R. 11, was entered by Jacob Lawrence in November 1829, 
and conveyed to Mr. Richards August 1, 1837. The ground is covered with 
trees, brush, weeds and vines: the fences have rotted away and the place is 
overrun with animals and in ruinous condition. 

The first recorded death is that of John Clegg who died December 29, 1844 
aged 42 years, 4 months, 15 daj's. The others are as follows: 

Martin Robertson, died April 2 1840, aged 74 years, 3 days. 

John H., son of E. and E. Treadway, died May 1, 1849. aged 29 years, 5 
months, 14 days. 

Sarah R., wife of C. Taylor, died April 26, 1849, aged 19 years, 8 months, 
25 days. 

William H., son of C. and S. R. Taylor, died August 6, 1849, aged 4 months. 

Elizabeth, wife of James Clark, died February 5, 1859, aged 60 years, 10 


Savah, wife of David Ilamaker, died October 3, 1855, aged 4i years, 
9 months, 23 days, 

David Hamaker, died August 29, 1863, aged 68 years, 5 months, 27 days. 

Aaron Ream, died December 19, 1856, aged 31 years, 9 months, 2 days. 

Mary A. Ream, wife of Aaron Ream, died July 8, 1853, aged 26 years, 4 
months, 21 days. 

Amos vv., son of Aaron and Mary Ream, died October 6, 1847, aged 1 
year. 7 months, 14 days. 

TKe MarsKall Graveyard. 

This graveyard was located near the soutii line of the soutlieast quarter 
of Sec. 33, Tp. 17, R. 10, which was owned by Jacob Petefish at the time of 
iiis death. Tlie bodies of the Marshall family were removed from this burial 
place many years ago. But one marked grave is left, that of William F., son 
of A. and A. McLin, who died October 24, 1850. aged 4 montns, 26 days. 
Other bodies were laid away at this place, but no traces of the graves are 
to be seen. 

In an early day a stranger with his family made his appearance in the 
neighborhood, bound for Iowa. The husband and father drove one team, and 
a son drove another. The wife and mother was too sick to pursue the 
journey; an empty house belonging to Mr. Marshall was offered to this 
stranger, and he carried his wife into it, and made her as comfortable as 
could lie done She died a few days thereafter, her body was buried in the 
Marshall graveyard, the grave left uumarked. The sad man loaded hischildren 
and effects into his wagons and resumed his journey to Iowa and was never 
heard from thereafter. 

Amanda M., daughter of G. W. and E. H. Thompson, died January 22, 
1853, aged 16 years, 3 months, 25 days. 

G. W. Thompson, died December 3, 1851, aged 48 years, 6 months, 21 days. 

John W., son of G. W. and E. U. Thompson, died October 27, 1852. aged 12 
years, 10 months, 13 days. 

Ellen Morrison, died March 10th, 1880, aged 58 years, 5 months, 8 days. 

Edward Morrison, died March 19, 1880, aged 73 years, 10 months, 7 days. 

Elizabeth Morrison, died May 1850, aged 36 years. 


This burial place lies upon the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter 
of Sec. 34, Tp. 17, R. 11, wiiich was entered by Mr. Fletcher, May 27, 1831. As 
was stated in Sketch No. 2, County Grave Yards, this burial ground is 
situated upon a ridge in the middle of a pasture. Mr. Fletcher was born in 
England June 11, 1792. The stone which was erected at the head of his grave 
is broken in numerous pieces: from them the date of his death cannot be 
made out, but it occurred on October 2nd, 1844, in the 53d year of his age. 
There are five other graves here marked as follows: 

Alice I, daughter of E and M. J. Fletcher, born June 28, 1856, died Nov. 
6. 1857. 

Susan E., daughter of D. B. and S. Wilson, died March 14, 1851, aged 2 
years, 8 months, 23 days. 

Mary A., daughter of D. B. and S. Wilson, died July 29. 1844, aged 4 
years, 10 months. 

John J. H., son of D. B. and S. Wilson, died July 16. 1847, aged 9 months. 

- 321 - 

12 days. 

J. Horatio, son of E. and M. Fletcher, born April 3, 1849. died May 3,1849. 
THe JoHii Ream Graveyard. 

This burial place is located upon the southwest quarter of the southeast 
quarter of Sec. 32, T. 17, R. 10, which was entered by James Sturgis, Decem- 
ber 10, 1827, who conveyed to William McCord, December 2;), 1827, who con- 
veyed to John Ream, June 14, 18.30. Upon a high wooded ridge on this tract 
stood a building, long ago, in which religious services were reglularly con- 
ducted, and here were buried nearly a hundred bodies of early settlers. 
Very few of these graves were marked and ail traces of most have 
entirely disappeared. Only nine graves are here found, which can bs identi- 
fied; all or nearly all the stones lie scattered about, upon the sod of a cattle 
pasture; all trace of a fence is gone if ever one existed. 

Theflrst recorded death, here found, is that of George E. Hamaker, son 
of David and Sarah Hamaker, who died January 5, 18.39, aged 7 months, 
15 days. The others are as follows: 

John Ream, died July .30, 1849, aged 70 years, 7 days 

Margaret, wife of John Ream, died February 17, 18.50, aged 69 years, 
10 days. 

Samuel Ream, died October 26, 1850, aged .32 years, 19 dn\s. 



IN the preparation of this sl'Cetch liberal use has been made of a most valu- 
able work entitled "Negro Servitude in Illinois." The autlior of this 

book is Dr. ;N. D. Harris, Professor of History in Lawrence University: 
it is published by A. C. McClurg &Co., Chicago, 1904. 

The control of the French colony, of La Louisiane, was conferred upon 
Sieur Antoine Crozat, on Sept. 14, 1712. He was authorized at the same time 
to open a traffic in negroes, with the coast of Guinea, provided slave labor was 
necessary for the development of the new country, and he was guaranteed a 
monopoly of the trade. 

M. Crozat. failed to make use of iiis rights and nothing came of the first 
suggestion of the French government concerning the introduction of slaves in- 
to Louisiana. • 

In August nn, the managementof the colony was transferred from him to 
a commercial company, called the "Compagnie de I'Occident:" and the inau- 
guration of the slave trade took' place on .Tune(), 1710, when the first merchant 
ship arrived from Guinea with five hundred blacks on board. Tliese negroes 
were destined for Lower Louisiana, that is, the region between New Orleans 
and Natchez. 

In the same year (1719) Philip Francis Renault, left France with two 
hundred miners and workmen, to pursue the mining industry in Upper Louis- 
iana, under the protection of the same organization. Enroute he stopped at 
San Domingo and purcliased five hundred slaves On reaching tlie continent^ 
he proceeded to the northern portion of Louisiana— then known as the Illinois 
country — and established himself near Fort Chartres, at a place which he 
named St. Philip. His venture, however, does not .seem to liave been a suc- 
cess, and in 1744, Renault sold his negroes to the inhabitants of the district 
and returned home. 

Slaveholding was thus early introduced into the French settlements on 
the upper Mississippi. During both the French and English occupancy, of 
that region, occasional additions were made to this nucleus, but they were 
neither frequent nor numerous. 

By the middle of the eigteenth century, the French had established five 
settlements in the alluvial district, wliich, beginning at Kahokia, extends 
along the east bank of the Mississippi to the mouth of the Kaskaskia 
river. These they named Kaskaskia, Kokokia, Fort Chartres, St. Philip, and 
Prarie du Rocher. 

M. Vivier, the French missionary to the Illinois Indians, thus describes 

- 323 - 

this region in June, 1750: "We have here Whites, Negroes and Indians^ to 

say nothing of cross-breeds There are Ave French villages and three 

villages of the natives within a space of twenty-one leagues In the 

five French villages there are perhaps eleven hundred whites, three hundred 
blacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The three Illinois towns do not 
contain more than eight hundred souls (natives) all told." It is seen by this 
that Indians as well as negroes, were held in bondage. 

Although the French king fixed the price of the blacks at "660 livres India 
currency" in 1721, and issued at Versailles, in March, 1724, under the title 
"LaCode Noir ou Recueil de Reglemenfcs," a severe system of rules, under 
which the slaves of Louisiana were held and managed, the Illinos settlements 
were not particularly affected- They were governed by a "major-comman- 
dant," residing at Fort Chartres, and appointed by tlie Governor of New Or- 
leans, but the settlers managed their plantations quite as tliey pleased. 

Slaves were regarded as "bien foncier" or real property: but they were 
treated every where witii much leniency and kindness. Tliey were fed chiefly 
on maize, and used both as laborers and iiouse-servants. On Sundays and 
feast-days they were allowed liberties, and their children were taught the 
catechism. There were a few large slave farms. The majority of the planters 
possessed but a small number of negroes. A man was well off if he owned 
three or four. The management of the plantations was just and liberal, and 
the relations existing between masters and servants were friendly: but the 
easiest service was doubtless on the lands of the Jesuit missionaries. 

The condition of the negroes in the soutliern district of Louisiana, of 
which New Orleans was tlie centre, was wretched in the extreme The "Code 
Noir" was rigidly enforced, the masters indifferent, the overseers often cruel, 
the district of country unhealthy, and the character of their work debilitating 
as well as degrading. 

When the Illinois country passed into the hands of the English (176.3), its 
total population was about three thousand. Of these a large porportion— 
about nine hundred were negro slaves. General Thomas Gage gave the Frfitich 
the alternative of selling without restraint their estates and removing with 
their personal property or becoming English subjects. A large number de- 
cided to leave, and disposed of their lands and slaves. Of these some went to 
New Orleans, but the majority crossed the river to St. Louis, St. Girardean, 
and neighboring towns. The Jesuits departed for New Orleans with forty- 
eight negroes, whom they sold, and then returned to France. 

This decrease in population was attended by a corresponding decline in 
the prosperity of the region— already noticeable when Captian Philip Pitt- 
man visited it in 1770. He gives and interesting picture of the towns and 
plantations, and mentions, among others, M. Beauvais, who owned "240 arpens 
of cultivated land and eighty slaves," a captian of milita at St. Philip possess- 
ing twenty blacks, and M. Balet— the richest man in Illinois— who resided at 
St. Genevieve, and controlled "a hundred negroes, besides hired white people 
constantly employed." 

The population of the district had decreased at that time to about sixteen 
hundred inhabitants, of whom about six hundred were slaves. By the end of 
the century migration from the east and south had begun, whereby the popu- 
lation of the Illinois country was considerably increased. 


The English government laid no restrictions upon tlie liolding of negroes 
as slaves by settlers of this region, and when it came under the control of the 
United States slavery still existed there unhampered, 

When Virginia ceded lier claims on the Territory of the Northwest to the 
government of the United States, she stipulated that tlie French, Canatlian 
and other inhabitants of Kaskaskia and the neighboring villages should be 
allowed to retain their ancient rights and liberties. The continuation of 
these privileges was guaranteed by Congress in the Ordinance of 1787, but a 
clause prohibiting slavery in the district "Northwest of the river Ohio" was 
inserted in the same instrument. 

The residents of the Illinois country were considerably disturbed by this 
latter provision, and many thought of moving across the Mississippi into 
Spanish territory. Governor St. Clair, however, chose to interpret the clause 
as intended only to prevent the introduction of slaves, and not as aiming at 
tlie einancipation of those already there; and the migration did not take 
place. All doubts gradually disappeared; the view of the governor was uni- 
versally accepted; and ere long the belief that article VI of the Ordinance of 
1787 in no way affected the existing relations between masters and servants 
became a settled conviction. 

Governor Ninian Edwards— one of the most distinguished lawyers in the 
territory, maintained in 1817 that the Ordinance of 1787 permitted "volun- 
tary" servitude; tliat is, the indenturing of negroes for limited periods of 
service. He advocated reducing the tenti to one year, ;uid advanced the be- 
li.*;f that such contracts were "reasonable within themselves, benelicial to the 
slaves, ar)d not repugnant to the public interests." Some of tlie less learned 
citizens advanced the argument, thiit since the French had obviously the 
right to retain their slaves, the otlier ST'ttlers of Illinois possessed the same 

No reference was made to tlie subjects of slavery in the first three General 
A^semblies of the Northwest Territory, otlier than the levying of a tax on all 
negroes over twenty-one years of age. 

By 1803, however, it was found necessary to provide some legal status for 
the numerous indentured i)lacks, .m I ro regulate the relations between 
masters and servants. The Governing Council of Indiana proceeded to draw 
up a slave cnde, tiie chief material for vvhic'i was obtained from the codes of 
\'irginia anrl Iveiitucky. This set oC laws was re-enacted, in the main, by tlie 
iiuliaiia. Territorial Assemblies of 18J5 and 1807; and it was regarded as a 
legal authorization of the existing system of indentures. 

Under the provisions of this code, all male negroes under lifteen years of 
age. either owned or acquired, must serve till the age of thirty-five: women 
till thirty-two. Children born to persons of color during the period of service 
could also be bound out— the boys for rliirty years and tlie girls for twenty- 
eight. All slaves brought into the Territory were obliged to serve the full 
term of their contracts; but all owners were required to register their ser. 
vants with the County Clerk within thirty days after entering the Territory. 
Transfers from one master to another were permitted, provided the slave 
gave his (or her) consent before a notary. 

Other provisions were added concerning the duties of masters to servants. 
Wholesome food, sufficient clothing, and lodging were to be provided for each 

- 325 - 

slave. The outfit for a servant was outlined as follovs's: "A coat, waistcoat, 
a pair of breeches, a hat, and a blanket." Not an abundant supply surely, 
but it did well for a beginning. No provision was made for a future increase 
of wardrobe. Nor was there any penalty connected with a failure to provide 
the original outfit; and no evidence is obtainable that masters generally com- 
plied with this enactment, or troubled themselves greatly concerning the 
servants' food or clothing. 

Lazy or indifferent servants might, on an order from the justice of the 
county, be punished by whipping. It is not to be inferred from this that the 
owners always went through the form of procuring a license before proceed- 
ing to the punishment of refractory negroes. In those free and easy days, 
when the administration of justice and the enforcement of the laws were no 
easy matter, owing to the isolation of the various communities and the lack 
of efficient machinery for carrying out the decrees of Governors and Legisla. 
tures, the letter of the law was not always closely adhered to. The land- 
owners were left unmolested in the management of their estates; and the 
question of the treatment of servants was very seldom, if ever, raised. 

Negroes who refused to work or who tried to run away must serve two 
days extra time for every idle or absent day; and the expenses of re-capture 
were to be worked out by the servant in extra service. Any person liarbor- 
ing a runaway slave must pay tlie master one dollar for each day he concealed 
the negro. It was forbidden under severe penalty to trade or deal with a 
servant without the consent of his master. Negroes or raulattoes might pur- 
chase servants provided these were not wliite. They could retain all goods 
or money acquired by gift or other lawful means during their servitude, if 
their master gave consent; and they might obtain certificates of freedom 
from the county courts on presentation of proof that they had served out; 
their time. 

An attempt was made to protect the servants from cruelty or unfair 
treatment on the part of the master. The county courts were to punish all 
owners guilty of ill treatment of their slaves; but we are left in ignorance as 
to how the masters were to be proved guilty of this misdemeanor. It is to be 
inferred, however, that it was through the testimony, of neighbors rather 
than by any complaint on the part of tlie negro. Since the latter was for- 
bidden to serve as a witness, save in cases wliere colored people alone were 
concerned. It was provided further that "all contracts between master ;ind 
servant during the time of service shall be void;" and masters who allowed 
any sick or lame negro to become a county charge were to be fined tliirty 

Servants of color were not allowed to serve in the state militia, to have 
bail when arrested, to engage in unlawful assemblies, or to absent themselves 
from the plantation of their owner without a special pass, or token. 

Finally, if any negro should refuse to serve Iiis master when brought into 
Illinois, the owner might remove to any of the slave states with his property 
within sixty days. 

The above code was by no means a dead letter; for the evidence is ample 
to prove that an extensive system of indentured servants was carried on 
under its protection. During the decade following 1807, a large number of 
negroes were brought in, and registered. In the four counties of Gallatin, 


St. Clair, Madison and Randolpli alone, there were over three hundred, and 
the whole number of slaves in the Territory increased from one hundred and 
thirty-five in 1800, to seven hundred and forty-nine in 1820. 

The greater proportion of the negroes came from Kentucky and Tennes- 
see, altliough numbers were brought also from Virginia, the Carolinas, iNIary 
land and even Louisiana. A considerable number of these servants were 
registered to serve till the age limit fixed by law was reached. This meant 
from ten to twenty years in most cases, as the majority of negroes brought 
into the territory were mere boys and g-irls. 

Most of the settlers owned slaves and were anxious to get as much service 
out of them as possible. Some, it is true, like Governor Coles, came into the 
state for the express purpose of freeing their negroes, but these were excep- 
tions. The majority purchased slaves when very young in order to secure the 
longest legal terms of service- Not satisfied with that, they registered them 
for periods of servitude far in excess of the legal limit, many being booked to 
serve from forty to sixty and even ninety-nine years. 

Ninian Edwards, the first governor of the territory, who knew the law 
well enough to register several slaves in strict accord with its provisions, felt 
quite free to register his servants: Rose, twenty-three years of age, for thirty- 
five years; Antony, forty years old, for fifteen years; Maria, fifteen years of 
age, for forty-five years; and Jesse, twenty-five years of age, for thirty-five 
years of service. 

The law was further evaded by registering the children of colored servants 
for thirty-live years, in place of thirty years of service, on the ground tliat 
they were not born in Illinois. A case in point is Ninian Edward's Joseph, 
whom' he registered at Kaskaskia on June 14, 1810, to serve thirty-five years. 
Joseph was tlien eighteen months old and had just been brought into the 
territory with his mother. 

All this the masters did knowingly, believing, quite rightly, that no one 
would take the trouble to prosecute them for holding their slaves to unlawful 
servi^-r. The negroes were deceived into believing that it was legal and just to 
bind themselves for such long periods. This deception was kept up until 1840: 
and one of the chief complaintsof the slaveholders against the lawyers who 
later defended the negroes iri the State Cjurts was, "von tell our slaves they 
are free." 

Transfers of colored servants were frequent. Tlie consent of the servant 
being legally necessary, it was customary to secure it by a commutation of the 
term of servitude, as in the case of Jane, whom Hezekiah Davis, of Jackson 
county, sold in .\ugust, 1817, to Samuel Cochran, and whose term of service 
was shortened from fifty to forty years. Judging from the bills of sale extant, 
it is evident that this formality was frequently overlooked, and masters dis- 
posed of their property vvithout consulting the wishes of the slaves themselves. 

Negroes were also bequeathed by will and sold at auction like any species 
of personal property. In making bequests some citizens evidently believed 
that they possessed their slaves, soul and body for all time. The majority of 
these were French, but some were men of genuine southern pioneer stock. 
Others, like Samuel Campbell and Benjamin West, although believing quite 
as firmly in the right of holding slaves, transferred to their descendants tlie 
"time" of their servants and made just stipulations for their freedom in the 

- 327 - 


No attempt was made to conceal the traffic in slaves. Frequent notices 
of desirable negroes "for sale" and "wanted" appeared in the "Western In- 
telligencer" of Kaskaskia. The "Missouri Gazette," published in St. Louis, 
and enjoying a considerable circulation in Illinois, contained, from 1808 to 
1820, many similar advertisements. The St. Louis Exchange and Land Office, 
owned by S. A. Wiggins, and dealing largely in slaves, not only advertised in 
the Illinois papers, but also had branch offices at Kaskaskia and Edwardsville. 
It was easy, howeve'-, for the settlers of southwestern Illinois to cross the 
Mississippi to St. Charles or St. Louis, and the inhabitants of Gallatin county 
to visit Kentucky, at any time to purchase slaves. 

The lot of the indentured servant was not so pleasant but that he was 
glad to escape from it. The first numbers of the "Western Intelligencer" 
contain rewards offered for runaway slaves; and similar notices continued to 
appear long after the territory became a state. Even at this early day, too, 
the practice of kidnapping had begun. Negroes whose terms of service were 
abouttoexpire were seized, carried off to New Orleans and the south, and 
sold into a servitude more wretched tiian before. The legislature laid the 
penalty of a thousand dollars tine on the abduction of a slave, but the practice 
continued unabated. 

Indentured servants were of course taxable property: and in two counties, 
at least, owners were taxed a dollar per year for each one held. Their worth 
depended largely upon the length of their term of service still to run. One 
year's time of a negro was sold for one hundred dollars. Tiie prices of boys 
and girls varied from three hundred to six hundred dollars, according to their 
physical qualifications and the period of servitude. They were used, more- 
over, as security for the payment of notes or the fulfillment of contracts, and 
if men had no use for their servants themselves they rented them out by the 
year to their neighbors. 

The commonest form of employment for the negroes was tilling the soil of 
the plantations, as the farms in southern Illinois were then called; but they 
were also used in all kinds of household work, and served as waiters in the 
taverns, as dairymen, as shoemakers, as cooks and as toilers in the salt mines. 
The hiring of negroes for the last named industry, legalized by statute in 1814, 
served as a pretext for the holding of slaves in other parts of the terrii or^ 

"To roll a barrel ofsalt once a year or to put salt into a salt ce lar was 
sufficient excuse," says Governor Flower, "for any man to hire a slaveatid raise 
a field of corn." This was not the only scheme resorted to in order to evade the 
law. The word "servant" was used to cover a multitude of sins. No matter 
under what names the farmers held their negroes-whet her as "servants," 
"yellow boys," or "colored girls"— the fact still remainec" that slavery ex- 
isted in the territory of Illinois, as completely as in any of the southern states. 
It was not limited to the settlements and towns along the Ohio and Mississip- 
pi rivers, but was practised all over the southern portion of what is now the 
state of Illinois, and as far north as Sangamon county, which wastlien just be 
ginning to be settled. 

The slavery question came into prominence as a political issue as early as 
December, 1817. It first appeared in connection with the framing of the con- 
stitution of 1818. The holders of colored servants felt reasonably secure in 


the possession of their property because of the territorial legislation support, 
ing the indenture system and of the publicly expressed opinions of Governors 
St. Clair and Ninian Edwards. Yet, as the time for the drawing up of the 
State Constitution drew near, the pro-indenture advocates began to lose con- 
fidence in the legal strength of their position. 

It was seen that in order to secure the admission of Illinois into the Uuion 
its constitution must express itself against slavery— nominally at least. This 
the pro-slavery leaders determined should be done. At the same time they 
believed the new state legislature could, if it so desired, legally re-enact 
later ail of the old territorial code of "Black Laws." In order not to arouse 
public suspicion, great secrecy was observed concerning their plans and ulti- 
mate object. 

The Constitutional Convention was to meet at Kaskaskia in August, 1818. 
As early as April 1st articles discussing tlie advisability of making Illinois a 
slave state and vice versa, be^an to appear in the ''Western Intelligencer." 
After the I7th of .fune there was scarcely an edition that did not contain one 
or more communications on the subject. 

Tiie main arguments advanced in favor of slavery were: that it would 
tend to increase the tide of emigration from the southern states toward Illi- 
nois, and thereby to promoie the speedy settlement and improvement of the 
country; that the slave labor was necessary to the opening up of new lands; 
that the liability of slave insurrections was less when the negroes were distri- 
buted over the nation; and that, to provide the colored people with a partial 
escape from the servitude of the south by the possibility of a transfer to tiie 
lighter indenture system of Illinois, would be an inestimable blessing to the 

All this was refuted with considerable force and skill by the anti-slavery 
supporters, who uiaintained tliat slavery was a great social and economic, as 
well as moral, evil; and that its perpetuation in Illinois would impede, rather 
than advance the progress of the new state. 

Several compromises were suggested, but only one was practical. This ap- 
peared in an art Icle signed "Paciticus" and addressed to the "Honorable Mem- 
bers of the Convention of the Illinois Territory " It advocated the incorpo- 
ration of tiie existing indenture system in the new constitution, provided tlie 
term of service was made forty years, the slaves were instructed in religion and 
the rudiments of education, and that a general emancipation should occur on 
January 1st, 18(50. This proposal met with little acceptance, partly because 
"Paciticus" was in advance of his times, and partly because of the oppositio/i 
to long term indentures, then becoming general. 

The election of delegates to the convention occurred early in July. The 
votes were all given viva voce, and there was but one polling place in each 
county. Although no organized political parties existed, the majority of the 
candidates were either professed opponents or well known advocates of 
slavery. Some, like Mr. Elisha Kane, of Randolph county, tried to evade the 
direct issue. 

Tlie constitutional convention met on the 3rd of August and completed 
its work on the 2()th of the same month. Thirty-three delegates were present 
representing fifteen counties. Among the prominent members were Jesse B. 
Tliomas, E. K. Kane, Ilezekiah West and James Hall, t^nfortunately the 

- 329 - 

minutes of the convention have been lost and the greater part of the records 
and newspapers of the time have disappeared. So it is extremely difficult to 
determine the real attitude of the various delegates regarding the slavery 
question. Note: Since the publication of Prof. Harris' booic, the minutes of 
the convention have been found and are now in the Illinois Historical Library, 

Mr. W. Kitchell informs us in the "Illinois Republican," of June 30, 1824, 
that there were "twenty-one members against the introduction of slavery 
and twelve in favor of it." This should be interpreted to mean, that there 
were twenty-one delegates opposed to putting any article in the constitution 
of 1818 that should legalize slavery in Illinois, and twelve who favored the in- 
troduction of such an article. 

There was no distinct division into pro-slavery and anti-slavery parties 
as these terms are generally used. The vote was decided more by policy than 
by principle; but it is possible to distinguish three classes of men in the con- 
vention of 1818. First, there were those who desired an out and out pro- 
slavery constitution; second, those who, opposed to slavery in any form, wished 
an entirely free constitution; and third, a set of •'compromisists" who preferred 
to maintain as far as possible the existing system of indentures, while at t he 
same time giving to the state the semblance of a free constitut'on. These 
last seem to have been numerically the strongest, for they succeeded in having 
their policy adopted. This tliey accomplished by securing the adherence of 
the men opposed to slavery solely on economic grounds, of those who feared 
that Congress would reject tlie constitution if it contained a distinct pro- 
vision admitting slavery, and finally, of those opposed to slavery on principle, 
who accepted the compromise in lieu of anything better. 

This state of affairs in the convention does not seem to have been clearly 
understood by outsiders. The general impression was that a strong move- 
ment—one likely to succeed— was being made to secure a constitution favor- 
able to slavery. 

It was to prevent this that thirteen of the prominent men of St. Clair, 
Madison, Monroe and Washington counties issued an "Address to the friends 
of Freedom in the State of Illinois," in which they declared that "strong 
exertions will be made in the convention to give sanction to that deplorable 
evil in our state," and earnestly solicited all "true friends of freedom in every 
section of the territory to unite in opposing it both by the election of a del- 
egate to Congress wlio will oppose it and by forming meetings and preparing 
remonstrances to Congress against it." 

The "compromisists" were however completely successful, as is well shown 
by Article VI. of the constitution of 1818, which embodies the work and the 
attitude of the convention on this subject. The first section reads as follows: 
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall hereafter be introduced into 
this state otherwise than for tlie punishment of crimes whereof the party 
shall have been duly convicted. Nor shall any male person arrived at the age 
of twenty-one years, nor any female person arrived at the age of eighteen 
years, be held to serve any person as a servant under any indenture hereafter 
made, unless such person shall enter into such indenture while in a state of 
perfect freedom, and on condition that a bona fide consideration received or 
to be received for tlieir service. Noi: shall any indenture of any negro or 
mulatto hereafter made and executed out of the state, or if made in this 


state, the term of where service e^cceeds one year, be of the least validity, ex- 
cept those given in case of apprenticeship." 

In the second section it is provided that slaves bound in other states 
shall not be hired for service in Illinois, except (until the year 1825) within 
the district of the salt works near Shawneetown. Such contracts were 
limited to one year, but were renewable. The third section provided that 
all contracts and indentures made before 1818 should be enforced, and all 
negroes and mulattoes should serve out the full term of years for which they 
had been bound under the Territorial laws. Children of indentured servants 
were to become free, males at twenty-one years of age, and females at eighteen 

All this, with a few modifications, was a conflrmation of the existing 
system. The poor negroes who were already indentured did not have their 
service lessened by a day. The limit of age at which colored people might 
be indentured was reduced from thirty-flve years in case of males, and thirty- 
two in case of females, to twenty-one vears and eighteen years respectively. 
This was a slight advance. 

The limiting of indentures to one year's service and making them appar- 
ently optional with the negro was supposed to have practically transformed 
the slavery in Illinois mto a pleasant sort of personal service. But it did not 
work out tliat way. Nor is it likely that the majority of the f-ramers of this 
article thought that it would do so. It was too early to force the negroes an- 
nually into a renewal of their indentures and the majority of the slave-holders 
were too anxious to retain all their property rights and the advantages of the 
pre-existing system of indentures, to allow such loosely defined regulations to 
hamper them much in the management of their colored servants. In fact, 
they seem never to have seriously entertained for a moment any intention of 
giving up the old system of indentures, to judge from the laws enacted the 
following March (1819) "concerning negroes and mulattoes." These com- 
prised the greater number of the Territorial "Black Laws," including the 
light of sale or transfer of a contract or indenture from one master to anotii- 
er. In addition, negroes were forbidden to settle or reside in the state with- 
out a certificate of freedom; and it was made unlawful to bring in slaves for 
the purpose of emancipating them. 

Still the one year limit placed on all the new contracts for service was an 
effectual check upon the bringing in of negroes .and indenturing them for 
long periods of servitude. By April, 1819, this custom seems to have been 
largely given up. At least there are no records of registrations of indentures 
after that date. This was greatly aided by the increasing revulsion in public 
opinion against the practice discountenanced by the new Constitution. 

Ttiere was considerable uncertainty as to whether congress would admit 
Illinois under this Constitution of 1818 or not. Tlie first legislature of the 
state met early in October, 1818, and proceeded to the election of United 
States senators, and of chief and associate justices for Illinois, and to the con- 
firming of the appointments to the governor's cabinet. When this little 
business had been transacted they adjourned, requesting the governor to call 
them together again when he should have ascertained that congress had ad- 
mitted the state into the Union. It is evident from this unusual action that 
the legislature was very much in doubt as to the actual outcome of the con- 
gressional deliberations in the matter. 

~ 331 - 

The question of slavery seems to have been the vital point. On November 
23, 1818, the report of thecomittee favoring the admission of Illinois was read 
in the house for the third time. Mr. Talmadge rose in opposition, "upon the 
ground that the constitution was not sufficiently conclusive in the rejection of 
slavery," the article in that instrument respecting slaves being by itself alone, 
in his opinion, sufficient to render the whole inadmissible. Mr. Poindexter, of 
Mississippi, took the lead in favoring the admission. He thought the measure 
relative to slavery "fraught with utility" and an "excellent safe guard to the 
negro." While slavery was an evil in his eyes, lie nevertheless did not believe 
general emanicipation a thing possible to obtain; and the provision in the Con- 
stitution of Illinois, relative to the negroesseemed to be well suited to the con- 
dition of things in that locality. 

Mr. Harrison, of Ohio, supported Mr. Poindexter. He maintained that 
the "compact," as he called it, of 1789, had no reference to the slaves already 
held in tlie Northwest Territory, He regretted that tiie people of Illinois liad 
not freed tlieir slaves as the citizens of Indiana liad done; but since iier people 
had tiie sovereign right to do as they chose witii their own negroes, he di 1 
not think the state should be excluded on a mere technicality 

This discussion was soon ended and and a vote taken, which resulted in 
the passage of the bill by 117 ballots for and only 34 against. The Senate ap- 
proved the bill without discussion on December 1, and Illinois became a state. 

Bv this ready acceptance of tlie Constitution of Illinois, Congress showed 
its approval of the theory advanced by Governor St. Clair and General flarri- 
son, that the Ordinance of 1789 did not apply to negroes already iield as slaves 
in the northwest at the time when it was enacted. 

The labors of tiie compromise party in Illinois were thus crowned with 
success. The state was admitted and the rigiit to retain negroes as "inden- 
tured servants" was recognized and secured. 

The question of the admission of Missouri into the Union was debated for 
the first time in Congress during tlie winter of 1818 to 1819. The people of 
Illinois took a lively interest in the matter. Many were outspoken in opposi- 
tion to the formation of another slave state on their border; and the Illinois 
Senators and Representatives in Congress were severely censured because they 
voted against the prohibition of slavery. In August, 1819, Mr. Daniel P. Cook, 
was elected Representative, largely because his opposition to slavery was well 

The Missourians felt that their cause had been injured by the attitude of 
the Illinoians and tiiey determined to retaliate. They and other southern 
leaders, desirous of striking a blow at the "Yankees" of Illinois, found ready 
sympathizers among the liolders of indentured negroes in Illinois, who were 
anxious to introduce into tiieir state an unlimited indenture system, or better, 
unrestricted slavery. A scheme was soon agreed upon, by which an attempt 
should be made to secure a slave constitution for Illinois through the calling 
of_a general convention for the purpose of revising the existing constitution. 

To carry out this plan it was proposed to establish a pro-slavery news- 
paper at Edwardsville, with General J. M. Street as editor, to advocate the 
introduction of slavery into Illinois, and to send Elias Kane, a pro-slavery 
sympathizer to Congress. The "Illinois Gazette" at Shawneetown was to be 
purchased, and other papers enlisted in tiie cause if possible. As soon as con- 


ditions seemed to favor, an attempt was to be made to secure a vote in the 
legislature for the calling of a convention to revise the constitution. 

Mr. Hooper Warren, editor of the "Edwardsville Spectator," and a strong 
opponent ot slavery, learned of the plan and exposed it in his paper on July 11, 
1820, asserting that an attempt would soon be made to force a slave constitu- 
tion upon Illinois. Mr. Kane answered the editorial in a personal letter to 
the "Illinois Intelligencer, in July 1820, denying the existence of such a plan, 
but strong evidence was brought out within the next few weeks to prove the 
existence of the plot. Mr. Kane was supported by the friends of slavery, but 
was defeated by Mr. Cook, on August 7, by the large majority of thirteen 
hundred and twenty-three, after wliich the advocates of the convention de- 
cided to postpone their plan until tlie excitement had quitted. 

In 1822 a Governor, a representative to Congress and a new State Legis- 
lature were to be chosen. Although there were four candidates for Governor 
the contest lay between Edward Coles an anti slavery man and Chief .Justice 
Joseph Pliillips, who was a pro-slavery sympathizer. Mr. Coles was elected by 
a small plurality of forty six votes, and Mr. Cook re-elected over Johh McLean, 
but a majority of pro-slavery men were chosen for the legislature. 

In his inaugural address on Dec. 5, 1822, Governor Coles made an urgent 
request for the repeal of the "Black Laws," but every attempt made in that 
direction met with signal failure. One of the most important questions which 
arose was the contested election case from Pike ('ounty. The candidates 
were Hansen and Shaw. There were but three voting places in Pike and on 
election day Shaw claimed there was no illegality in the appointment of some 
of the election judges and set up a second voting place at Colesgrove. The 
County Clerk rejected the returns from this unauthorized voting place and is- 
sued certiticate of election to Hansen. The contest was carefully tried and 
the election of Hansen confirmed by a vote of twenty to fourteen. When the 
vote for or against the calling of -i constitutional Convention was taken, the 
resolution for the convention failed' by two votes. A strong fight began, for 
gaining the r)ecessary votes; the pro-slavery element was determined to win at 
;iny cost, and adopted for its motto "The Convention or Death." Promises 
inducements and threats were freely indulged in. "Lobby members" from 
Kentucky, Tennessee and Missouri hung about the public places of the capital 
trying to help on the cause of slavery. Instructions began to pour in upon mem- 
bers and Mr. Ratteu, of Green County announced that he was authorized by 
his constituents to vote for the convention. Mr. McFatridge, of Johnson coun- 
ty was next won over to the slavery side by a promise to remove the county 
seat, of his county from Vienna to Bloom Held. 

The pro-slavery members now believing they had the necessary votes to 
carry their point on Feb. 11 took up the resolution and were greatly angered 
to find they lost by one vote: that Hansen, of Pike county had changed his 
vote. The rage of the conventionists was furious; a motion was carried to re. 
considered the vote granting him a seat and he was turned out, his opponent 
Shaw seated, and the motion favoring a convention was then passed with the 
aid of Shaw's vote. 

The struggle was now on: the slavery party was led by Ex-Governor Bond, 
Judge Philips, Ellas Kane, T. W. Smith and Benjamin Westand others, and 
and opposed to them were Governor Coles, Samuel D. Lockwood, Thomas 

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Mather, George Churchill, Rev. J. M. Peck, Rev. Thomas Lippincott, and 
Hooper Warren. A large number of ministers took part in the contest all 
against the convention. 

The legislature adjourned in Feb., 182.3, and the election could not be held 
until August, 1824. This delay worked in favor of those opposed to the con- 
vention. In 1823 three new counties were formed Morgan, Marion and Edgar, 
each being settled largely by anti-slavery men. Speeches were made in all 
the county seats and leading towns; thousands of pamphlets were printed and 
and distributed, the conventionists, boldly admitted they were in favor of 
slavery; personal encountors were frequent: liquor flowed freely, and the 
greatest excitement prevailed. 

Two events occurred which turned the scale in favor of the liberty partv. 
On Dec. 9, 1823, the State House at Vandalia was set on fire by a mob which 
paraded the street shouting "The State House or Death," and burned Gover. 
nor Coles in effigy. In the spring of 1824- the "Illinois Intelligencer," the 
chief organ of the convention party became financially embaressed, and fell 
into the hands of Judge Lockwood as editor. 

The election took place on August second: there were 4.972 votes for a 
convention and 6.fi40 against it, and Mr. Daniel Cook again elected to 
Congress, This settled the question for all future time. 

After this election, the population of Illinois rapidly increased: the num- 
ber of inhabitants in 1820 was 55,211; in 1825, 71,309; in 1830, 157,575. Within 
the same ten years thirty-four new counties were organized of which twenty- 
nine were settled chiefly by Eastern men and but five by men of Southern 

With the vote in August, 1824, the organi/.ation of those opposed to a con- 
vention fell to the ground. The discussion of slavery ceased in the news- 
papers. The courts sustained masters in their right to hold slaves, and the 
Legislation showed little disposition to repeal the "Black Laws" of 1819. In 
182.5, the freeing of negroes who had lately come into the state was made 
possible under certain conditions, but no law was enacted which altered in 
any way the existing contracts for personal service. In fact the disposition 
was to strengthen rather than to weaken the position of the master. 

In 1827 and 1829, laws were passed forbidding negroes to act as witnesses 
in the courts against any white person and prohibiting them from suing for 
their freedom. Judges were ordered not to grant freedom to slaves, but to 
turn them over to the sheriff, who should send them back to their owners. 
This last referred primarily to fugitives from the Southern states, but it ap- 
plied equally well to the Illinois servants. It was provided, in addition, in 
1826, that all slaves who attempted to escape must serve extra time in pay 
ment for the expenses of recapture. 

The number of negroes held in Illinois under the indenture system grad- 
ually decreased. In 18.30 there were only seven hundred and forty-six. Tliis 
was due to death, removals from the state, expiration of indenture contracts, 
and the granting of freedom papers. There were comparatively few persons, 
however, like J. S. Colton and Joseph Atwater, of Madison county, who freed 
their slaves on principle. They were too valuable property to be parted with 
easily. Usually we find masters granting freedom to their negroes, because, 
"he has compensated me by his labor and money for the amount I paid for 


him, viz., $825;" or, because "she has served out her time faithfully." 

Negroes were not only retained in servitude after 1824, but they vpere sold 
and transferred from master to master just as before the adoption of the new 
constitut on. There are bills of sale still preserved, dated as late as 1837, and 
one in 18-18. The newspapers contained advertisements of negroes for sale, or 
wanted until 1826. Colored persons found in the state witliout freedom 
papers and unclaimed by masters were arrested and sold at auction by the 
county sheriffs. Notices of these sheriff sales appeared as late as 185.3. In 
most cases of this kind, the negroes were bound out only for one month or 
a year. 

It is quite impossible to determine when the last of these indentured 
servants secured his (or her) freedom, owing to the great difficulty of procur- 
ing accurate knowledge regarding all the cases. It is safe to assume, how- 
ever, that many were not set at liberty till after the supreme court decision 
of 1845. 

For the most part they seem to have been well treated; yet, during the 
years from 1820 to 1826 a large; number of cases of runaway negroes were re- 
ported. They were pursued, and rewards were offered for their capture. 
Judging from the lengtii of time these fugitives were advertised, it appears 
more than likely that few, if any, were returned. There are no cases men- 
tioned after 182ti, and one may safely conclude that, either the lot of the 
negro was pleasanter after that date, or that he was more contented. 

At that time, liowever, there were two good reasons why the slaves 
should remain satistied with their lot. These were, the almost unbearable 
position of the free colored people in the state, and the barbarous practice of 
kidknapping all unattacked negroes. Two or three men were usually as- 
sociated together for this business. One would establish liiraself at St. Louis 
or atone of the other border towns, and work up a reputation as a seller of 
slaves. The others would move about the Illinois counties on the lookout 
for negroes— slave or free. The freebooters never stopped to inquire whether 
a colored person was free or not. The question simply was, could he be car- 
ried off in safety? The chances of pursuit were less if the negro had no owner 
or interested friends. The slave-hunters seized their victims secretly, or en- 
ticed them to accompany them under false promises, placed them in wagons, 
and drove as rapidly as possible to the borders of the state. They usually 
succeeded in getting several hours' start of the county sheriff, or other per- 
sons likely to pursue them, and escaped in safety. Occasionally, however, 
tliey were overtaken and compelled to release their prey. 

The kidnappers were, moreover, materially aided by the laws regarding 
colored people. No free negro or mulatto could settle or r