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Full text of "A history of Barrington township and vicinity, Shelburne County, Nova Scotia, 1604-1870; with a biographical and genealogical appendix"

presented) to 

library 

of tbe 

Tttniversit? of Toronto 



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A HISTORY 

OF 

BARRINGTON TOWNSHIP 
and VICINITY 

SHELBURNE COUNTY, NOVA SCOTIA 
1604 1870 

WITH A V _ 

IS II 3 3 
BIOGRAPHICAL and GENEALOGICAL 

APPENDIX 

BY 

EDWIN CROWELL, M. A., D. D. 

YARMOUTH, NOVA SCOTIA 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Preface. 

C HAPTER I The Old Inhabitants 7 

* II. Old Documents, etc 28 

a III. Province and Colony 47 

IV. The Township Settlements 62 

* V. The Township of Barrington 76 

u VI. Antecedents of Grantees, 1767 88 

u VII. Early Settlers and the Government 98 

VIII. Crossing the Flood 104 

u IX. Founders and Foundations 113 

u X Growth and Organization 136 

* XI. The Township Grant 149 

a XII. The Period of the First Division 158 

a XIII. Barrington and the Revolution 182 

" XIV. Peace and Readjustment 202 

XV. Military Affairs , 227 

XVI. Religion 241 

" XVII. Legislation re the Township 283 

XVIII. Social Service 305 

u XIX. Maritime Interests 334 

XX. Distribution of Population and Local 

Industry 361 

XXI. Boundaries, Topography, 

Geology, Forests and Climate 394 

Appendix (See Index) 405 

Biography and Genealogy 430-601 

Addenda 603 

Index. 



PREFACE. 



The book here offered to the public is the product 
of a half century of preparation. It was first conceived 
and made possible by Professor Arnold Doane who em- 
ployed his vacations in ferreting out the life-stories and 
relationships of the early settlers of Barrington. This 
work he continued until his death in 1911. Afterwards 
the subscriber, who had long felt the importance of pre- 
serving the history of his native township, acquired the 
memoranda left by Prof. Doane and has put them with 
many changes and extensive additions into their present 
shape. The Archives at Ottawa, Halifax, Liverpool 
and Yarmouth, as well as of Shelburne ard Barrington 
have been searched and the answers to many questions 
of general and local historical interest are here made known. 

Our story begins with the night when Champlain's 
shallop lay at anchor in Sable Bay, 1604. A few years 
later there was a trading post near Cape Sable, one of 
the four marked by Champlain in his map of the 
coasts of Western Nova Scotia in 1612. Since then 
there has been a continuous occupation here by people 
of European stock. About Cape Sable for 150 years 
French adventurers and their descendants carried on 
trade with the Indians or engaged in fishing. This Cape 
was the starting point in the bounds of the grant of King 
James to Sir William Alexander in 1621. And when the 
deportation of the Acadians had been effected, it was 
close by that Alexander McNutt intended to build his 
New Jerusalem. Here actually came the New England- 
ers whose descendants form the bulk of the present in- 
habitants. 

With the settlers from New England there was a con- 
tingent of Quakers whose fortunes are a part of our story. 
The Revolutionary war had few more harrowing experien- 



ces in the United States than were endured at Barrington. 
When it was over a period of political change, loyalist 
immigration, expansion of trade and prosperity followed, 
the last named somewhat broken however by the war of 
1812-14. 

Narrowed down in industrial opportunity mainly 
to seafaring, fishing and lumbering the youth of Barring- 
ton have responded more freely to the call of the neigh- 
boring centres of population and of the ocean; but to the 
most of them the old township is still the centre of the 
world. Many of the township genealogies link our people 
with distinguished antecedents both in America and 
Britain; the history will doubtless show unsuspected rela- 
tionships among those now living, and the part played 
by a worthy and godly ancestry in the development of 
township and province and the commerce of the Empire. 

Historians of Nova Scotia have generally, through 
ignorance or lack of perspective, ignored the earlier and 
more substantial pre^loyalist settlement and its impor- 
tance to the Province, while invariably featuring the 
refugee loyalists and their miseries. In Shelburne County 
in particular the older township was for the time complete- 
ly overshadowed by the new one. We have attempted 
to present these factors of township and provincial foun- 
dations in their true and proper proportions in this work. 

The author has with much labor and expense pre- 
pared genealogies of the early inhabitants, and with them 
biographical sketches of individuals of note. John Mor- 
ley has said that "a few sentences in a biography many 
a time mean long chapters in a life, and what looked 
like an incident turns out to be an epoch." The enhanced 
cost of publication now compels us to greatly abridge 
these records of descent by limiting them to about the 
third generation from the first proprietors. 

The chapter on the Indians and Acadians by Pro- 
fessor Doane, considerably altered, begins the book. 
He exemplified the motto which we quote from Freeman's 



"History of Cape Cod". In treasuring up the memorials 
of the fathers we best manifest our regard for posterity." 
It deepened the interest of the subscriber to learn that 
no less than five of the grantees of this township were his 
great-great-grandfathers. And their wives, all of diff- 
erent family names, being added, made for him, ten 
different ancestral connections with the New England of 
1760. Their part in the life of Harrington constitutes 
their memorial. Some of our contemporaries are still 
richer in this respect. 

Grateful acknowledgments are made to those who 
have assisted in bringing to light these memorials, many 
of whom have passed on to a better country. Space 
fails to name them, "the oldest inhabitants," the keepers 
of traditions and documents, the lovers of ancestral vir- 
tue, the students and public librarians, and all whose 
letters and sympathy and interest have helped to recall 
the past times and give our history a permanent form. 
A paper by Mr. B. H. Doane on "Traditions of Old 
Cape Sable," and a summary of major events after 1870 
are added in appendixes. 

And now, to the sacred memory of the grantees and 
their wives, herein named, and of their descendants and 
successors associated with them in the settlement and 
building up of Barrington, who through arduous toil and 
self-sacrifice have embroidered these shores with delight- 
ful homes and left us the legacy of an honorable and 
God-fearing ancestry, we dedicate this little history. 

Edwin Crowell. 







PROF. ARNOLD DOANE. 
1833 1911, Senior Author of this History. 



The Roman gathered in a stately urn 
The dust he honored while the sacred fire, 
Nourished by vestal hands, was made to burn 
From age to age. If fitly you'd aspire, 
Honor the Dead; and let the sounding lyre 
Recount their virtues in your festal hours; 
Gather their ashes higher still, and higher 
Nourish the patriot flame that History dowers, 
And, o'er the old men's graves, go strew your 
choicest flowers. 

From Hon. Joseph Howe's poem, 

"Our Fathers." 



CHAPTER I. 



THE OLD INHABITANTS. 



The Indians The one race of people who have inhabited 
the peninsula of Nova Scotia from imme- 
morial times is the Micmac Indian. In 1753 they were 
estimated by Governor Hopson at about three hundred 
families. Though later Acadian historians generally 
regard them as a branch of the Algonquin group of In- 
dians, Gesner described their language as a dialect of the 
Iroquois. The most of the provincial histories give 
ample and reliable accounts of their customs and beliefs, 
and all agree with Dr. Hannay in saying that "although 
savages in their mode of life, they were savages of the 
highest type, veritable Romans in spirit, eloquent, brave 
and honorable, with some of the highest qualities of 
civilization." 

Membertou was their great chief when the first Eur- 
opean settlers came. In 1607 he was at war with the 
Armouchiquois. In a battle at Saco, Maine, Pennoniac, 
a Micmac chief was killed, and his body was brought 
back and laid in a new grave near Cape Sable along with 
many pipes, knives, axes, otter skins and pots. This 
would imply that Pennoniac's hunting grounds were in 
the Cape Sable district.* 

After the capture of Louisburg and Quebec, the 
Indians, duly impressed by the victories of the English 
and the military display at Halifax and elsewhere, came 
under treaty, tribe by tribe, with the government. This 
extract from the speech of a chief, Atuash, 1761, sums up 
the situation from their point of view; 

"Our not doubting your sincerity has been chiefly ow- 

*There is near Arcadia on the Chebogue River at a place called Indian 
Point a mound and stone monument, which is evidently a, memorial of some 
Micmac Chief. 



HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 



ing to your charitable, merciful and bountiful behaviour 
to the poor French wandering up and down the sea- 
coasts and woods without any of the necessaries of life. 
Certain it is that they as well as we must have wretched- 
ly perished unless relieved by your humanity, for we 
were reduced to extremities more intolerable than death 
itself. You are now master here, such has been the will 
of God. Etc., etc." 

By these treaties the chiefs were made to assume the 
responsibility for the good behaviour of their people. 

Under the new conditions in which fighting for self- 
defence against hostile tribes was no longer necessary 
and a share in their own government was lost, they fell 
in their own estimation, and with other marks of deterior- 
ation, often succumbed to the influence of the pale-face's 
rum. Down to fifty years ago canoes with red men 
and their families were to be seen on our harbors, but now 
they have ceased to appear in their native costume and 
modes of travel. 

Unfortunately, Indian names of places, as frequently 
preserved in other parts of the Province, and always of 
considerable value in historical researches, have not been 
retained by us. The Indians themselves have preserved 
but few of these names within the bounds of our Township. 
Still in these, so far as known, I am disposed, whether 
fancifully or otherwise, to trace indications of points 
formerly of great importance to these people as portages, 
or as camping grounds in their regular itinerating move- 
ments backward and forward along our shores and over 
our lakes and streams. Let us attempt to follow them 
through one of their migratory rounds. 

Start with them at Oo-ne-gun-sook (Clyde) probably 
near Lyle's Falls, where in the spring, after descending 
the river at the close of the hunting season, they have 
made a temporary stand. They proceed down the harbor 
fo Cape Negro, crossing Kes-poog-witk (their "Lands- 
End," and our peninsula of Blanche) and launch their 



THE OLD INHABITANTS. 



canoes again on Port la Tour harbor. By its waters and 
a short portage they reach the Passage Ponds near Solid 
Rock, from which they are led to their next important 
stopping place, Ex-sad-dy-week-took, (the Beach) to 
feast upon the clams still so abundant in that locality. 
Thence they proceed over the smooth land-locked Mens- 
tu-gek (Barrington Harbor) to where the Mens-tu-gek- 
se-boo comes winding from the woods in the North and 
makes its last rush over a rocky bed to join the harbor, 
arriving perhaps when the kiak-cook are in season ; thence, 
when the salmon or trout can no longer tempt their blunt- 
ed appetities, in canoe and by portage to Cock-a-wick 
(Wood's Harbour) their next important resort, after 
which Poo-bem-cook (Pubnico) becomes the scene of 
their sojourn. From there as the season advances they 
return to their haunts near Lake Sebimm, where, amid 
sheltering nooks of the primeval forest, they hunt and 
feast through cold and storm until returning spring again 
draws them from their winter residence to the luxuries 
of the shore. 

It is not pretended that these were the only resorts 
or camping localities of the Red Man, for, on the contrary, 
the numerous arrow and spear heads with chippings of 
the same, also stone axes and fragments of rude pottery, 
not to speak of disinterred beds of clam shells, in various 
places all around Barrington harbor and probably through- 
out the Township, point to large numbers, extensive move- 
ments and a remote period of occupancy by these abori- 
gines. 

Since the time when they first became known to 
Europeans the Indians in our Province have never been 
very numerous, and from the earliest reference to their 
number in our own locality, in 1753, we learn that those 
in the Cape Sable district consisted of about 60 persons. 

Although at one time regarded as a menace to New 



HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



nd fishermen visiting these shores, and giving trou- 

o the newly established authorities at Halifax, they 

generally a good character; and after the French 

power was broken soon became friendly with the English 

settlers. A Treaty was made with the Indian chief in 

Halifax in 1760, and on Nov. 9, 1761 a treaty was signed 

with Francis Mius, chief at Lahave. 

But whatever qualities these sons and daughters 
of the forest may have possessed before they were first 
disturbed by Europeans, or when afterwards associated 
with the French occupants, in our day they wear the as- 
pect of a degenerated race. Not only are they wasted 
numerically, but their old customs and practices are laid 
aside; their dress is assimilated to that of their white 
associates; their dwellings are no longer wigwams, but 
huts or houses; their very language is becoming by degrees 
lost to them and their children are growing up to speak 
English rather than the Mic-Mac tongue. 

Notwithstanding the fact that, in point of comfort 
and of certain advantages connected with our civilization, 
the present Indians are greatly in advance of their ances- 
tors; and although we could never desire that these quiet 
shores should be again disturbed by the war whoop or 
wish to see them in their paint with tomahawk and scalp- 
ing knife reeking in the blood of their fellows, yet it is 
a melancholy spectacle to witness a people once independ- 
ent in character and habit, and distinct in mode of life 
and association, losing their nobler characteristics while 
feebly approximating to the civilization of their white 
countrymen. 

The French There is a tradition that the celebration 
of the first Catholic Mass in Nova Scotia 
took place on a large flat rock in Port la Tour harbor. 
The expedition of DeMonts in 1604 marks the first settle- 
ment of our peninsula by Europeans. He was accompan- 



THE OLD INHABITANTS. 11 

led by Champlain and other partners in the enterprise 
and embarked from France during the reign of the cele- 
brated Henri Quatre. Liverpool and Port Mouton 
harbors enjoy the distinction of having been visited by 
them; and at the last named place they disembarked, 
remaining for a month. DeMonts found Rossignol of 
Havre de Grace trading at Liverpool with the Indians 
and confiscated his vessel. In like manner he treated 
several Basque vessels at Canso on his return. On their 
complaints to the French King his powers were curtailed. 
DeMonts himself was a Protestant, but as the expedition 
consisted partly of Catholics, and we know there were 
priests on board, mass was no doubt celebrated at their 
first tarrying place. As they would after this, when on. 
their way westward, pass the harbor of Port la Tour, 
and as there is no record of their having put in there,! hen 
if the above tradition be correct some earlier date than 
1604 must be assigned to it.* 

Port la Tour, the most noted French post in this 
part of the Province of Acadie, is to us a place of great 
interest. That interest centres in a mound of earth on 
the western side of the harbor, which is all that remains 
of the fort once occupied and gallantly defended for his 
sovereign King Louis XIII of France by Charles De la Tour. 

Port Royal, now Annapolis, the earliest and most 
important French settlement and stronghold in our penin- 
sula, was principally indebted to M. DePoutrincourt of 
the expedition of DeMonts, for its establishment in the 
year 1605. And his efforts chiefly sustained it during 
the first eight years of its history. At the end of that 
time it was ruthlessly attacked and destroyed by Samuel 
Argal, belonging to the infant English colony at Virginia, 
at a time when the two nations were at peace.* 

fBourinot calls the Huguenot Missionaries with DeMonts Presbyterian minis 
ters, E. C. 

*See Hannay's History of Acadia, Chs. V. and VI. 



12 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

Poutrincourt was himself absent, and his son Bien- 
court, who had command, was not in a position to offer 
effective resistance. A complete destruction was there- 
fore made by the English, not only of the defences of the 
place, but to some extent also of the very traces of the 
settlement. 

Biencourt and a few of his companions took refuge 
in the woods, and associated with the Indians. Among 
them was a youth Charles de la Tour who came from 
Champagne in France with his father, Claude de la Tour, 
generally regarded as of noble birth, though Bourinot 
says that it is now impossible to verify that claim. They 
came in 1609 when Charles was fourteen years of age. 
These refugees would find in Membertou, "the grand 
sagamore of the Micmac nation from Gaspe to Cape 
Sable" the fullest information about European traders 
on the coast. That venerable chief had seen C artier 
in 1534, and has been described as the "greatest, most 
renowned and most formidable savage within the memory 
of man". During this period la Tour married "a squaw", f 
for his daughter Jeanne, who married Sieur de Arpenti- 
gny, figures in the census of 1686 as 60 years of age, and 
therefore was born in 1626. Biencourt and la Tour came 
to Port Lomeron near Cape Sable. Bourinot* says that 
Biencourt established a fort there and subsequently ced- 
ed his rights in Acadia to Charles de la Tour. This was 
on his return to France in 1620. Lomeron has been gen- 
erally regarded as the same as Fort St. Louis or Port La- 
tour but we shall show them to be quite distinct. 

In Vol. XI Roy. Soc. Can. Sec. 2,99 we find the fol- 
lowing striking comments by the historian, B. Suite. 

Acadia was peopled by a company of traders from 
1636-1670. No one has ever yet satisfactorily demon- 
strated where the French of that colony came from, 

tSee Rameau A Feudal Colony. 
*Builders of Nova Scotia. 



THE OLD INHABITANTS. 13 

though the dialect would indicate their origin to be in the 
neighborhood of the Bay of Biscay or mouth of river 
Loire. They are distinct from the French Canadians 
and not allied with the settlers of the St. Lawrence. Aca- 
dians and Canadians have lived apart for two and one- 
half centuries now. Men of Carder's time, 1535-1544, 
were all Bretons and town laborers unfit to cope with 
Canadian winters. Even Champlain depended on food 
and clothing from France. As late as 1627 they didn't 
provide fuel ahead for winter, etc. 

The origin of the name Lomeron is not known; but 
we are told that Joseph Amirault, the first of that name, 
came from Tours in France, which is quite in agreement 
with the comments of M. Suite and suggests the question 
whether this is not the Huguenot who planted this first 
trading station near Cape Sable. The similarity in 
sound of these names is indeed remarkable, and it often 
happened that places, as Port Rossignol and Port L'He- 
bert, were named from the traders. 

In those times it was not to be wondered at that an 
endangered Huguenot should seek safety in the new world. 
Champlain's map of 1612 shows a trading post near Cape 
Sable, which, with those at Lahave, Mouton and Port 
Royal, comprised those known by him in the western 
part of the Province. The reference to this place as the 
Vieux Logis or "Old House", and identified by its Indian 
name Pipegueniche in an early document and other- 
wise, indicates its locality, which was at the mouth of 
Shag Harbor brook. Here a high hill marks the place 
for those approaching from the sea, and its proximity 
to Cape Sable west-ward made it an easy mark for the 
voyager. On the Southern slope of this hill stood the 
house which was the temporary home of the first settler 
in our township and the refuge of Biencourt and la Tour. 

About 1627 Charles de la Tour was made Command- 
ant of the Coasts of Acadia, and having this authority 
from the French King strengthened the fort, probably 



14 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

already begun, at Port Latour. Trade now was centred 
about the fortified post, and the "Old House" is not 
afterwards mentioned except in the documents named. 
Difficulties were now arising for la Tour in another 
quarter. James I of England was desirous of extending 
the bounds of his dominions and in 1621 had granted to 
Sir Wm. Alexander the whole of Acadia now to be called 
Nova Scotia. Claude de la Tour returning from France 
with a larger commission for his son was captured by Sir 
William's forces and taken to England where he threw 
over his allegiance to France and married an English 
wife. Promising a like change of allegiance in his son, 
they were both made'Baronets of Nova Scotia/ and Claude 
was furnished with two men-of-war to sacure his son's 
submission. Charles refused compliance and success- 
fully defended himself against a vigorous attack. This 
was in 1630. The father now went to Port Royal where 
a Scotch settlement had been made and Charles was honor- 
ed with a larger grant at the mouth of St. John river. 
His father was now permitted to live near Fort St. Louis 
and when Charles removed to the fort at St. John in 1635 
his father remained in charge at Port Latour. In 1632 
the whole country had passed by treaty to the French. 
Before this time Charles de la Tour was wedded to a 
Huguenot wife who came from France, Francoise Marie 
Jacquelin. Accounts differ as to the time of her coming. 
Her religion is said to have brought to Latour the most 
of his troubles, as the Jesuits were paramount at the Court 
of France. As he is known to have turned to the Roman 
Catholic Church perhaps as early as 1632 his marriage 
must be placed much earlier. *His wife not prominent 
in affairs before this, took an active and heroic share in 
his strife with his great rival, D'Aulnay and her defence 
of the fort at St. John in her husband's absence was 

Whittier's poem, St. John, represents La .our as a Huguenot at the time of 
his wife's death, which he places in 1647. 



THE OLD INHABITANTS 15 

magnificent. But having to surrender the fort and to 
submit to D'Aulnay's brutality broke her heart. *These 
events and her death took place in 1645. 

With his wife and fort la Tour lost 10,000 and was 
much broken in fortune, but set vigorously at work to 
repair his cause. His large trade with Boston gave him 
great popularity there so that he was able in 1646 to 
charter a vessel of 35 tons, the Planter, from Sir David 
Kirk. Setting out, ostensibly on a trading voyage 
to the South Shore of N. Scotia, having a crew of 12 
men, 5 of them Anglo-American, he landed the five at 
Cape Sable, replaced them there with French and went 
on to Quebec. An Indian piloted the five back to Bos- 
ton. These were probably the first Britishers to make 
any stay at Cape Sable. 

In 1650 D'Aulnay was drowned and three years 
afterwards Latour married D'Aulnay's widow, a union 
which brought an end to the long conflict of interests 
between French governors in Acadia. 

For how long a time the elder LaTour continued 
to live in the neighborhood of Fort St. Louis we know 
not. The only additional fact revealed to us respecting 
him is that he died about the year 1650. 

His son, now making Fort Latour at the mouth of 
the river St. John still his head quarters had and contin- 
ued to have interests here, some of which interests were, 
as we shall see, subsequently transmitted to his children. 

The eventful story of Charles LaTour and his heroic 
wife at his fort on the St. John river is accessible to all. 
The reason for referring to it here is on account of the 
following item contained in the marriage contract with 
his second wife, the widow of his former enemy D'Aulnay 
Charnise, which took place in the year 1653: 

"It is agreed for the minor children, sons, of his 

*Hannay's History of Acadia. 



16 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

first marriage, he will leave for their subsistence Cape 
Sable with all its appurtenances", while the children 
of his second marriage (if any) are to "divide equally with 
the former, as well Cape Sable as all the other property 
which may belong to the said Seigneur De la Tour in 
this country and in Old France." 

In the year 1654 this country, so often changing 
owners, again came under English rule. The English 
were not disposed to disturb the French occupants. They 
not only for the most part allowed them to remain, grant- 
ing them favorable terms, but gave the government of 
the country to their late enemy, Charles la Tour, jointly 
with two Englishmen, under a commission from Oliver 
Cromwell. In their commission and other documents 
therewith connected, which are dated in 1656, there are 
mentioned five ports in what are now Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick, where there were already stations or 
settlements; and one of them is "Fort la Tour (formerly 
called L'Omeron or Cape Sable)." 

In a letter written eleven years later by Thomas 
Temple, the chief of La Tour's two associates in office, 
lie says: 

"I have built an indifferent strong fort at port la 
Tour, in that part of Nova Scotia called by the French 
L'Acady, and furnished it with men, provisions and am- 
munition." 

He also states that there had been expended by him 
1150 for repairing and building, chiefly at Port la Tour. 
From this it would appear that in the interval since de- 
serted by Charles la Tour, the defences of Fort St. 
Louis had fallen into decay. 

Temple's honors, and his prospects of gain were 
but short lived, as in the year 1668 the country was 
again ceded to the French; and he was compelled to 
yield the forts which he had so recently been at pains 
to repair and improve. La Tour had enjoyed a brief 
period, on the St. John river, under protection of the 



THE OLD INHABITANTS 



English; but he had sold his interest at Cape Sable to his 
partners, and his life so full of change and misfortune, 
had ended two years before the cession. 

In the terms of this treaty as before in the commission 
of La Tour and Temple, the five ports of Acadie are 
specified, one of which is Cape Sable. 

Under date of 1671 we have a census of the French 

living in four places of this province, two of which, "Pou- 

boncou", (Pubnico) and Cape Negro, are for the first 

time referred to as inhabited localities. In each of these 

places there was one family of seven persons. The family 

at Cape Negro was composed of one Armand Lalloue, 

Ecuyer,his wife Elizabeth, with children, Jacques,Armand, 

Arnault and two girls. As they cultivated only one acre 

of land, fishing and hunting must have furnished their 

means of subsistence. The family at Pubnico was 

that of Phillippe D'Entremont who had six acres 

under cultivation and kept twenty horned cattle and 

twenty-five sheep. Another census fifteen years later 

made no mention of either Pubnico or Cape Negro. But 

at Cape Sable there were living fifteen souls, mostly La- 

tours and D'Entremonts, with seven acres of tilled land, 

seventeen horned cattle and sixteen guns. The intimacy 

of these two families antedates 1653 when Charles Latour 

gave Phillippe D'Entremont a major's commission and 

made grants of land to him at Pubnico and Barrington. 

With common interests and noble lineage on both sides 

the bond was strengthened by the marriage of their 

children. Before 1686 Major D'Entremont had moved 

to Port Royal and his son Jacques, who had married Anne, 

daughter of Charles Latour, was the oldest of the name 

at Cape Sable. This was at Barrington Head. Another 

resident in the district at that date was Abraham Mius 

called Pleinmarais, probably a place name with refer- 

ence to the adjacent flat as the orrge meadows in the 



18 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

interior of Cape Island. At this time there were but 
915 French in all Acadia then including New Brunswick 
and part of Maine. Half a century later the French 
population of this district was distributed in little villages 
at The Hill, The Head of Barrington, Centreville, Cape 
Id, Doctor's Cove, Wood's Harbor and Pubnico. At 
the mouth of the Pubnico River the Castle of the D'Entre- 
monts stood, a reflection of the fendalism of old France. 
The peninsula of Nova Scotia came again and finally 
under the British Crown in 1713. The period is one of 
comparative obscurity respecting the French of Cape 
Sable. The population increased, especially at The 
Hill and The Head, and seem to have been contented 
and prosperous. A priest named Chevereux who had 
these families under his charge was summoned to Anna- 
polis to account for promoting disaffection. The people 
were generally law abiding and the D'Entremont name 
was held in esteem. Ramea estimates in 1768 at Minis- 
tiguesh or le Passage, 10 families, at Peaubomcoup or 
Cap de Sable, 20 families, at Tebok, 25 families. None 
however were allowed to escape the decree of exile. 

The Expulsion The deportation of the Acadians, 
whether we look upon it in the light of 
history with its extenuating causes, or in the light of 
poetry with its appeal to our human sympathies, was a 
very severe one. But many of the cruelties that have 
been charged upon those who carried it into effect were 
never contemplated; they were occasioned by circum- 
stances altogether unforeseen. Beyond this the dis- 
cussion of the expulsion, whether of necessity or mode, 
is outside the scope of this book. 

The inhabitants in the neighborhood of the Bay of 
Fundy, as being the most numerous, the best known and 
the most easily accessible, were removed first. No 



THE OLD INHABITANTS 19 

attempt was made to remove those in the Cape Sable 
district until the following year (1756). This was not 
then the object of a separately prepared expedition; but 
early in April of that year a battalion of New England 
soldiers who had served out their term of enlistment in 
the province commanded by Major Prebble on board a 
flotilla of schooners and sloops under convoy of H. M. 
Ship Vulture, were persuaded by Governor Lawrence to 
execute the task while on their way home. 

Prebble was directed to put into Cape Sable or some 
of the adjoining harbors; to land and seize as many of 
the Acadians as possible and carry them to Boston. His 
instructions were/' You are to burn and destroy the houses 
of said inhabitants, and carry their utensils and cattle 
ol all kinds, and make a distribution of them to the 
troops under your command as a reward for the per- 
formance of this service, and to destroy such things 
as cannot conveniently be carried off." 

The following letter gives the sequel. It was 
probably addressed to Governor Shirley of Massachusetts: 

"On board the Vulture, 

in Baccarow Passage, 

April 24th, 1756. 

Sir: I have the pleasure to inform Your Excellency 
that after a tedious passage we arrived in Port la Tour 
the 21st inst., landed 167 men, officers included, marched 
overland in the night, surprised the French people in 
their beds, and have since embarked them on one of the 
transports you were pleased to appoint for that purpose, 
the number and names of which I herewith send you 
enclosed. 

The number of buildings burnt was 44, in the execut- 
ing of which Capt. Scarft contributed everything in his 
power. Nor can I forbear mentioning to Your Excellency 
the kind treatment and respect I have received from that 
gentleman. In justice to Capt. Rogers, I must beg 
leave to say he has contributed everything in his power 
for the good of the service. Should have proceeded to 



20 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

Pubnico, but had advice that I could rely on that there 
were but two families there, and could not think it would 
be for the good of His Majesty's service to carry such 
a number of troops where there would be no prospect 
of doing any considerable service. I have the troops 
now all embarked and design to sail this night for New 
England. And am, may it please Your Excellency. 

Your Excellency's most obedient and much obliged 
humble servant, 

JEDIDIAH PREBBLE." 

We can follow this band of expatriated Acadians only 
a little way on their rough and bitter journey. They 
were taken to Boston, where, the government refusing 
to receive them, they were ordered to be sent to North 
Carolina. Capt. Church, who was in charge of the 
vessel engaged to transport them to a destination so dis- 
tasteful as to be kept a secret from them, was cautioned 
to prevent their rising. He had made all his preparations 
for the voyage and ordered the people to haul the vessel 
from the wharf, when according to his declaration after- 
wards made, *' There arose a great dissention among them 
and they all forced their way on shore with all their 
baggage, and it was not in my power to proceed the voy- 
age, as they said they would sooner suffer the pains of 
death upon the wharf in Boston than be carried to North 
Carolina, but they were very desirous and willing to be 
sent to the northward or stay in this province and work 
for their living." Their case was considered at a meeting 
of the council, held on May 14th, 1756, when it was ad- 
vised in accordance with the proposal of Capt. Church 
that the French families be allowed to remain the term 
of 14 days upon condition that he provide a vessel without 
any charge. 

But the work of transportation was not yet done; 
for those "two families" to whom Major Prebble referred 

*The D'Entremont's found a place of refuge in Roxbury and Walpole, Mass., 
what became of the rest does not seem to be known. 



THE OLD INHABITANTS 21 

in his dispatch, were more formidable than he, at any 
rate, could have anticipated, as they, together with others 
who are said to have escaped to the woods from the des- 
troyed settlement and the Indians of the district, be- 
came a source of serious trouble to the government dur- 
ing the two or three following years. For instance, the 
new German settlement at Lunenburg suffered from 
their attacks or their annoyances. About 100 of them 
fired upon a boat containing a party of New England- 
ers constituting a committee who proposed to settle 
a townshp at Cape Sable as they were about landing 
there to view the locality lately vacated. They were 
even said 'from land ruffians to have turned pirates", 
cruising in shallops on the coast; and about sixteen or 
seventeen vessels, some of them very valuable, had 
fallen into their hands. Rameau comments: in 1757 
those who remained were dispersed, principally (1) at 
Cap Sable under the direction of a missionary, M. Des- 
enclares who has hidden there with a few families who 
live as they can and are constantly obliged to hide in the 
woods for fear of the English. (2) At the Grand Riviere, 
etc. 

A certain Mark Haskell, of Marblehead, who was 
suspected of being engaged in trade with these enemies 
of His Majesty, brought a letter or petition addressed 
to Governor Pownal, of Massachusetts. This petition 
was dated September 15th, 1758, and was signed by Jos- 
eph L'Andree and Charles D'Entremont, who were 
stated by Haskell to be two of the principal men at Cape 
Sable. The petitioners in most piteous terms on behalf 
of forty families, 150 persons in all, prayed to be taken 
under Pownal's government and allowed to settle where 
they were then living; or, if not allowed to stay there, 
they would submit to His Excellency's goodness, to do 
with them whatever he thought best. 



22 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

At the time these unhappy Acadians were looking 
in one direction for succor, an effort was being made in 
another direction for their speedy removal. The very 
day on which their petition was written to the Massachu- 
setts Governor, an expedition commanded by Major 
Roger Morris, with a force of more than 300 soldiers, 
on board two transports and a Halifax pilot schooner 
under convoy of the "Squirrel" man-of-war, anchored 
in the "Bay ot Salt Ponds River", fully equipped for 
completing the work of expulsion. Their operations 
lay between what they called "Ponbincon River" (Pub- 
nico) and"Cape Forchu Harbor" (Yarmouth). There 
they surprised various Acadian villages, destroyed prop- 
erty and carried away the inhabitants. These were 
conveyed to Halifax, and confined for a time on George's 
Island. In the following spring a number who had con- 
cealed themselves from Major Morris's party sent deput- 
ies to Halifax with offers to surrender. The province 
vessels were dispatched for them, and in June of that 
year, Governor Lawrence reported their arrival. These, 
it would appear, together with those who were brought 
away by Major Morris and had been confined on 
George's Island during the winter, were all sent off 
to England by the ship "Mary the Fourth" on Nov. 9th, 
1759. There were 56 men, 46 women, and 49 children. 
What became of them finally we do not learn, but pro- 
bably from England they were conveyed to France. 
Here their lot was doubtless more congenial, and less 
calculated to awaken our commiseration than that of 
those who, during the years 1755 and 1756 were scattered 
up and down in the British colonies from Massachusetts 
to South Carolina. A remnant of the Cape Sable group 
of Acadians returned from Massachusetts in 1767 and 
settled on grants made to them at Pubnico and other 



THE OLD INHABITANTS 23 

places near their former homes, but not within the limits 
of the new Barrington township. 

Old Acadian We have already traced the history of 
Villages Port la Tour from its beginning; and while 

we have neither record, tradition or indi- 
cation that there was any actual settlement there, except 
the fort and the necessary buildings constituting a trad- 
ing post with the Indians, there are both traditions and 
facts in evidence that the locality of Barrington Harbor 
was occupied by at least two French villages; one near 
the Beach at the place named by our forefathers The Hill; 
the other by the mouth of the river at The Head. These 
two villages occupied by forty-four families, were des- 
troyed by Major Prebble on the night of the 21st of 
April, 1756. At Wood's Harbor there were a few French 
inhabitants. 

Another spot near what is now called Doctor's Cove 
is known as the French Settlement, but according to trad- 
ition, it was a place of only temporary occupation after 
the other villages were destroyed. 

After following the story of the Frerich at Cape 
Sable for more than a century, let us a century and a 
half later see what traces remain of that occupation. At 
Lower Port laTour opposite the best anchorage in the 
harbor, on a level block of ground not far from the school 
house, we may yet see the well-defined ruins of Fort St. 
Louis. From this proud outpost of feudalism in the new 
world, successfully defended once against a vigorous 
attack of British men-of-war, the glory has departed. 
Dependent upon the whims of the French court for their 
holdings, and fighting rival claimants both English and 
French, the nobility of New France had little chance of 
establishing their baronies of the European type in Acadia. 
Theirs was a court without retainers, for hunters and 



24 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

fishermen were both too free to attach themselves to a 
lord who traded in furs. The times had changed; he 
depended upon them; they did not need his protection. 

Near the outlines of this old fort numerous relics, 
such as hatchets and knives, cannon balls and bullets, 
have from time to time been found. 

Very few structures that are so old as this can be 
found in our country in such a state of preservation. 
While Ihe plough is allowed to wander freely over its 
surface, may its depths never be disturbed so far as to 
efface its outline. Let it remain as a nail securing the 
events of history, and clenching the traditions of an 
almost forgotten period to a spot which otherwise bears 
no token.* 

Just west of the school-house at Doctor's Cove is a 
tongue of land extending southwest and separated by a 
narrow passage from Ministerial Id. On this was the 
old French settlement. It is now grown up with trees, 
but, upon careful search, traces of occupation may still 
be found. The Cove on the west side of this tongue of 
land was well sheltered from observation, while from the 
eastern side the approach of enemies was easily discerned. 

On the west side of Fresh Brook near the post 
road are remains of masonry, indicating perhaps a more 
permanent settlement. 

Across the passage at Centreville there is reason to 
suppose the bricks were made, that were used at the Hill 
and the other French villages nearby. 

At Eel Bay the French meadows mark the 
"priest's garden," a site well chosen for communicating 
wth Acadians and aborigines and extending the influ- 
nice and authority of the Church. 

Shag Harbor was the oldest of all the French trad- 
ing posts, the Lomeron of the first settlers. 

*These sentences by the late Prof. Arnold Doane may well be commended to the 
attention of the N. S. Historical Society. E. C. 



THE OLD INHABITANTS 25 

During the period of war the villages were vacated 
for the shelter of the forts; in peace the traders ventured 
into the open again and the villages flourished; the flood 
of expulsion took them all away. Under the fleur de lis 
the French of Cape Sable were kept down by the heel of 
feudalism; under the British flag they followed fishing, 
trading and hunting with success, but they shared the 
fate of their more culpable compatriots in refusing alleg- 
iance. 

M. Poirier, in his "Deported Acadians," Vol. II, 
holds that these Cape Sable and Pubnico people were 
British citizens, sworn to allegiance, and well known as 
such in Boston, where they were accustomed to trade. 
Certainly the greater part of them had 'been born under 
our flag. Whether they had joined in the refusal to take 
the oath of allegiance we have no evidence. M. Rameau 
remarks that the tenants held to their seigneurs all through 
their exile. Together near Boston they built a ship and 
returned together to Pubnico. At the time of exile there 
were about 200 people. Thirty to forty were taken to 
Boston, more than 120 in 1758 to Halifax, then to Cher- 
bourg and were scattered in France. Eighteen Acadian 
families who returned to Pubnico received grants of land 
there in 1771, and in 1784 Benoni D'Entremont, Pierre 
Muise and others received additional grants in Argyle 
township with fullest rights of citizenship. 

Very remarkable also are the remains of the village 
at the "Hill". By far the most unusual and conspicuous 
natural feature in Barrington is the Sand Hills on the 
eastern side of the harbor. Thrown up during the cen- 
turies between the tides from the ocean and from the 
Passage, an extensive beach of sand has been formed, 
which runs southward a mile from the shore. From this 
beach the gales have blown the sand into hills lodged on 

rocky bluff. On the western slope of the bluff are 



26 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

to be seen heaps, walls and rectangular enclosures of 
stones or scattered bricks* and other materials which 
give evidence of a once compact village. Here some think 
that Claude de la Tour had his residence and was visited 
by Commandant Denys in 1635 1. The story goes that 
when the ships of war were reported to be near in 1756, 
the priest caused the vessels of that sanctuary to be taken 
from the chapel and hid in the woods. That, moreover, 
he at the same time pronounced a solemn curse upon who- 
ever should dare to desecrate that place of worship. 
This did not in any wise prevent the destruction of the 
buildings by Major Prebble. But it was only a few years 
later that a devastating storm accompanied by a tide 
six feet above the ordinary level visited the shores of 
Nova Scotia. Not only was there great damage to the 
dykes and shipping in other parts, but at the Hill the 
sand from the beach was driven and piled up over the old 
village site. The curse of worthlessness at least fell 
upon it; and only in recent years has its removal by the 
wind disclosed the exact position of part of the old foun- 
dations or defences. It has been held, also, that those 
altar vessels were afterwards taken to Halifax and depos- 
ited in St. Mary's cathedral and there remain today. 
This is denied however by those in authority there. 

Of the next Acadian village, four miles away, at the 
mouth of Harrington river little is known as to origin 
and history. We do know, however, that on the top of 
the hill near the big bridge, and on the west side of the 
river and river road once stood their chapel; a little to the 
north, in a slight hollow, was their burying ground. 
There were numerous remains here when the English 
settlers came; and for a long time after a cross was visible 
on the site of the chapel. Then, that ridge extending 

*Pieces of red and blue bricks found there are said to have come from France, 
t Claude de laTour's residence was across Fort Creek, southwest from Fort St. 
Louis, on the little bill where the house of the late James Bethel stands. 



THE OLD INHABITANTS. 27 

by the cove from opposite the post-office to Walker's 
Point was covered with apple trees which were all in 
bloom in the month of June when the New Englanders 
arrived. Between the residence of Dr. Wilson and the 
Methodist church was the barn in which the cattle were 
shut up and burnt. Jacques D'Entremont is said to 
have lived by the river's mouth on the east side. 

In the Methodist graveyard the digging of a grave 
in 1885 brought to light, at a depth of six or more feet, 
a piece of brick work properly laid and closely cemented; 
there was also a quantity of charcoal found immediately 
in connection with the bricks. These things may be 
taken to prove that this old village was of considerable 
extent. 



28 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



CHAPTER II 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS. 



Souvenirs of It must ever be an incentive to the study of 
Champlain history to know that the localities near 
one's own home have been connected with 
the enterprises of the great men of the past. 

What name more deservedly famous than ttiat of 
Champlain. The accounts he wrote of his voyages 
constitute a considerable part of the information we 
possess of Acadie in the first twenty-five years of French 
occupation. If, when we mention his name, we cannot 
all share in the pride of race, we at least have no jealousy, 
and readily confess our obligation to a human benefactor 
and hero. In Murdock, I, p. 80, his description of part 
of the coast of Acadie is given. He says: 

'There is a harbor, very good for vessels, and the head 
of jt a little river which runs from a distance inland, 
which I named the port 01 cap? Ne(jre, on account of a 
rock which at a distance resembles one, four leagues from 
it, and ten to Port au Mouton. The Cape is very danger- 
ous on account of the rocks Going further we passed 

a night in Sable Bay where vessels can lie at anchor with- 
out any fear of danger. Cape Sable, two fall leagues from 
Sable Bay is also very dangerous for certain rocks and 
reefs lying out a mile almost to sea." 

Then they proceed to the isle aux cormorants and to 
Seal Islands, which were also named by Champlain. 
These last 

"are 40 30' n. latitude, distant from the main land or 
Cape Sable four or five leagues." 

Champlain's first voyage to these parts was with 
DeMonts in 1604. The year before he had been at Tad- 
oussac on the St. Lawrence river with Pontgrave. Now 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS 29 

while DeMonts was waiting at port Mouton for a vessel 
of his little fleet, Samutel de Champlain proceeded west- 
ward in a shallop with orders to seek out a suitable place 
for the proposed settlement. Before this time there is 
no record of European exploration west of Canso, which 
was already a famous summer fishing station. 

Let us place ourselves in imagination with Champlain 
at this time in his expedition. Sailing from Cape Negro 
harbor, holding well outside the Half-moons he sweeps 
westerly with the flood tide past Baccaro. Then, met 
by the strong ebb he seeks and finds shelter in Sable Bay 
or Barrington harbor. The next day sounding carefully 
round the shoal waters off Cape Sable he finds that no 
longer to the westward but northward his course must 
be laid. Progress now will be slow during the ebbs, but 
he is taking observations meanwhile and making the 
first chart of these shores and waters. He will be amazed 
at the marvellous increase in height and speed of the tides 
as he advances; eagerly will his soul respond to 
the challenge flung at him from every nook and corner 
of this new world. Pushing northward coastwise, at 
last the Grand and Petite passages suggest a name for 
these mighty tidal waters, and he writes upon their doors 
the name Bay of Fundy. 

Soon he returns to DeMonts with the story of his 
wonderful explorations. Thenceforward Cape Sable with 
its beaches and hills of sand, Cape Negro with its bold 
approaches and beautiful river, Seal Islands accurately 
charted and described for the aid of mariners, and quite 
likely, Baccaro also with its prolific cod-fishery take their 
permanent places in the geography of the world. 

Other traders may have preceded Champlain in 
visiting these shores, but to him is the honor of making 
the first record of his voyages and blazing the way for 
European civilization. 



30 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

Just afterwards DeMonts continued his voyage, 
"doubled Cape Sable", and proceeded up the Bay of 
Fundy to Minas and Cape D'Or; and coming down the 
other coast explored the St. John river. Thence to St. 
Croix where he built a fort and spent the winter. After 
another expedition the next summer as far as Nauset, 
afterwards Chatham, at Cape Cod, and calling at 
Pentagoet, (Penobscot) the colonists were moved over 
to Port Royal, and here the first durable settlement of 
the French in N. America was founded in 1605. On this 
voyage were afterwards based the French claims to the 
territory visited. Their later settlements and posts on 
the St. Croix and the Penobscot brought them so near 
to Quebec as to make the possession of this coast very 
desirable. In the disputes which followed the name of 
Pentagoet is often linked with that of Cape Sable in 
negotiations and treaties. Before the end of that cen- 
tury the Bostonians, with contrary views, drove the 
French back as far as the St. Croix. 

Very interesting in this connection is a map pub- 
lished in Dix's "Champlain," and copied fromChamplain's 
report of 1612. The coast is rudely outlined, C. de Sable 
is named and to the S. W. of the Cape is the phrase, 
"ille ans tous marains" which we translate, this bend is 
all shoals. No island is shown at the Cape, but near it 
the usual symbol indical es that he knew a trader had es- 
tablished a post there. No other was nearer than Port 
Royal and Port Mouton. 

Charles de The individual whose name towers above all 
la Tour others in the history of the Cape Sable dis- 
trict is Charles de la Tour. The vicissitudes 
of his romantic career have been sympathetically traced 
by Hannay and other historians and must be more in- 
teresting to those who live near the scenes of his exploits 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS 31 

and adventures than the choicest fiction staged elsewhere. 
His picturesque character is illustrated by the nature of 
the high contracts and grants of this time in which he 
was a prominent party. In some of these his Cape Sable 
interests are recognized and confirmed. It is strange 
to find this champion of French rights as against his fath- 
er, later in life receiving a grant from Cromwell himself. 

At Westminster, 9 August, 1656, Cromwell grants 
to Charles de St. Etienne, sieur de la Tour, Thomas 
Temple and William Crowne 

"the country and territory called Acadie, and part of the 
country called New France, from Merliguesche on the 
Eastern coast, as far as the port and cape of La Have, 
following the sea coast as far as Cape Sable, and thence 
to a certain port called Port La Tour, at present named 
Port 1'Esmeron, and thence following the coasts and is- 
lands as far as Cape Fourchu, and thence along the Bay 

to the borders of New England No one is 

to reside in the country but Protestants."* 

Latour soon sold out his interests to the other part- 
ners knowing well that fighting might continue overseas 
when the French and British nations were nominally at 
peace. And when the treaty of Breda in 1667 gave back 
Acadia to the French, Temple fought for his interests, 
especially the valuable forts of Pentagoet, St. John, Port 
Koyal, Lahave and Cape Sable; urging upon king Charles 
II that these places were not in Acadie but in Nova Scotia, 
and therefore not conveyed by the treaty. He spent 
much money on the fort at Port Latour, but was com- 
pelled to hand it over. 

La Tour, Temple Prof. Doane secured from the Record 

and Crowne Office, London, some Nova Scotia 

documents. Among them is a State- 

*Prof. Doane notes that the boundaries of Nova Scotia in Cromwell's and other 
arrangements and treaties mention La Have, Cape Sable and Port LaTour, in this 
order coming from the east, and enquires why. The reason was plainly that the 
early navigators were guided by the great headlands which must be made first 
when seeking their neighboring ports. 



32 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

ment of Col. Sir Thomas Temple and William Crowne 
of how they became proprietors of N. Scotia. The follow- 
ing is his "Analysis of the Statement." 

"In the year 1656 when LaTour was compounding 
with Cromwell to get back his country of Nova Scotia, 
but not being able to pay what Cromwell required, he 
requested Temple and Crowne to undertake it for him; 
and so by the advice of Sir Orlando Bridgeman con- 
veyed by deed all his rights and title in Nova Scotia, 
with all his profits and privileges to said Temple and 
Crowne, and their heirs and assigns forever, in consider- 
ation of their paying 1800 pounds to Cromwell's soldiers 
then in LaTour's forts, 3376 pounds to the relict ofMaj. 
Gibbons of New England for redemption of mortgage on 
LaTour's fort of St. John, and the 20th skin of all furs 
taken within said country and the 20th part of the in- 
crease of the earth, free from all charge. Accordingly 
they took possession and built houses in doing which they 
expended the sum of 10,000 pounds and the lives of many 
men. LaTour's title is stated by them as follows: First, 
as a discoverer of the country when he built a fort on the 
River St. John where he continually dwelt. In 1621 Sir 
Wm. Alexander obtained a grant of all Nova Scotia and 
in 1630 conveyed part of it to LaTour and his father and 

their heirs and assigns forever and both were 

made Baronets of Nova Scotia To obtain funds to 

defend his fort at St. John LaTour mortgaged it to Major 
Gibbons. He regained the fort captured by D'Aulnay 
his rival by marrying D'Aulnay's widow. There he 
lived until Major Sedgwick, in Cromwell's service took 
his forts and made him a prisoner, but Cromwell released 
him on the terms stated at the outset." 

"In a letter from Sir Thomas Temple to the Com- 
mittee on Plantations, Dec. 10, 1667, he says: 

"My Lord: As to the state of affairs in that part 
of the country entrusted by His Majesty to my care I 
shall in short acquaint your Lordship that I have hitherto 
through God's blessing preserved it from divers small 
attempts made by the French, wherein we have been 
successful and have built an indifferent strong fort at 
Port de LaTour in that part of Nova Scotia called by the 
French L'Acady and furnished it with men and provis- 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS 



ions; and also drawn the French out of their several small 
forts and holds adjoining upon me by issuing commissions 
to divers Privateers and some surprises my own men 
made as far as Cape Britton, over against Newfoundland." 

As Port la Tour had been rebuilt and garrisoned by 
Temple while the other forts held by him were taken over 
from France with French inhabitants we may fairly 
regard Port Latour during this period 1657 to 1670, as 
the first English settlemenl in Nova Scotia. It's reno- 
vation shows clearly also the strategic importance of 
Cape Sable in the view of both the contestants. 

In 1668 the fort at Cape Sable was ceded to France 
as one of the five parts of Acadia. 

Pipegueniche The following is the translation of a 
document in the possession of Mr. 
Hilaire D'Entremont of West Pubnico, and is cherished 
as the memorandum of the former feudal title of the D'- 
Entremonts to Harrington, as received from Charles de 
LaTour. 

"There was present and personally certified the high 
and powerful seigneur Charles de St. Ettenne, Lord La- 
tour, Chevalier of the Orders of the King and his lieuten- 
ant General in all the stretch of lands, islands and coasts 
of Acadia, the country of New France, and proprietor 
of the place called the old house, otherwise Pipegueniche 
(vieux logis autrement Pipegueniche) following and con- 
forming to the grant of it which was dated January fif- 
teenth, 1636. He voluntarily acknowledged the receipt 
and avowed that he had by these presents given and relin- 
quished in perpetuity the title of baron and noble fief 
having the administration of justice, high mean and low, 
as relating directly to the said place, the vieux logis on 
the said coast of Acadia as paramount fief to the 
nobleman Philipe Muis Esquire, sieur of Entremont, and 
Madame Magdelaine Helis his wife and to the nobleman 
Pierre Farrant and Madame Mathurine Sicard his wife, 
who were present and accepted it for themselves and their 
heirs. And having authority in virtue of the power 



34 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

given us by his Majesty and the intention of his letters- 
patent dated the twenty-fifth of February, 1650, and 
also in consideration of the particular merit of the said 
Sieurs of Entremont and Farrant and of the good and 
faithful services which they have personally rendered to 
us, we have given and granted and do give and grant by 
these presents to the said Sieurs of Entremont and Farrant 
and to their said wives for equal participation the extent 
of one league in width and four in depth in the place call- 
ed Poboncoup to be enjoyed by the said grantees and 
their successors, and having authority with full owner- 
ship justice and seigneury perpetually to the said title 
of baron and noble tenure relevant to the said place of 
Vieux logis in consideration of and on condition of hom- 
age and a "quichipoly" of beaver with two bouquets on 
the days and feasts of St. John Baptist for each year ac- 
cording to the custom (prevante et yincintee) previous 
and prevailing at Paris. Also the said Sieurs d' Entre- 
mont and Farrant their heirs and successors shall enjoy 
and have rightful authority perpetually for hunting and 
fishing in all the extent of the said lands and forests 
above named, and on condition that they occupy 
and establish the said places as has been agreed. The 
said seigneur Latour as already named has today granted 
and placed in possession of the said siegneurs D' Entre- 
mont and Ferrant and their said wives the said lands, 
fief and barony of Poboncoupe, each one promising and 
binding himself accordingly. 

These renunciations were made and passed at the fort 
of Port Royal on July 17th, 1653. In the presence of the 
witnesses below named, they signed it. Charles de St. 
Etienne, Emanuel LeBorgne, de St. Mars (?), Phillipe 
Mius D' Entremont, Pierre Ferrant, Magdelaine Helis, 
Mathurine Sicard. L'Averdure; J. Bruneau, Avocat. 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS 35 

Monsieur Denys Selections from Chapter III of the'Geo- 

Royal Governor graphic and Historical Description of 

1674 the Coast of N. America by M. Denys, 

Governor. . . of all the lands and Islands 

from Cape de Campseau to Cape de Roziers, in 1672. 

(Translated by H.B. Doane) 

Between Cape Fourchu and Cape Sable, three or 
four leagues out to sea are several islands, some a league, 
others two, three or four leagues in circumference, which 
are named the Seal Islands. They are somewhat difficult 
of approach because of the ledges which are about them. 
They are covered with spruce (or firs), birches and other 
trees, which are not very large. They are called the Seal 
Islands because those animals choose the place to bring 
forth their young, who are large and strong. There are 
several species of them, of which I shall make a separate 
article. They give birth about the month of February, 
climb up on the rocks and lie around on the islands where 
they have their young, which at birth are larger than the 
largest swine, and longer. They remain on land but a 
little while before their father and mother lead them into 
the sea. They return at times to land or on the rocks, 
where the mother suckles them. Monsieur d'Aunay used 
to come there from Port Royal with a number of people 
in vessels for the seal fishery in the season, which is in 
the month of February, when the young seals are there. 
The men go all around the islands with big clubs; the 
father and mother flee into the water, and the young ones 
attempting to follow, are intercepted and killed by the 
blow of* a club on the nose. The men work as rapidly 
as possibly, for the father and mother, standing in the 
water, make a great noise, which, giving the alarm, causes 
them all to flee. Few, however, of the little ones escape, 
time not being given them to do so. Sometimes those as 
old as six, seven or eight years are killed. The little 
ones are the fattest, for the father and mother are thin. 
In the winter it takes only three or four young seals to 
make a barrel of oil, which when fresh is good to eat, and 
also as good for burning as olive oil. In burning it has 
not the odor of other kinds of fish oil, which are always 
full of thick dregs or of dirt in the bottom of the barrels, 



36 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

while this is always clear. On these Seal Islands are 
great numbers of birds of all kinds, especially in the spring, 
when they come there to make their nests. On anyone 
approaching them, they rise in such vast numbers as to 
make a cloud in the air which the sun cannot penetrate. 
To kill them it is unnecessary to use guns, but only sticks, 
as they are sluggish in rising from their nests. Of the 
young birds, as many are taken as desired to load the 
shallops, and the same with the eggs. 

Crossing Tusket Bay, we come to Cape Sable, which 
is an island making to a point that juts out into the sea. 
Between the main land and the island is a passage for 
vessels, but on the other side of the island towards the 
sea are rocks and shoals extending a good league out to 
sea. Having passed them by about two leagues, one 
comes to Sable Bay, which is very large. There ships 
can find secure anchorage. 

About the year 1635, I passed by there and went to 
see the young la Tour, who received me very well and 
gave me permission to see his father which I did. He 
received me well and pressed me to take dinner with him 
and his wife. They were very nicely furnished. While 
I was there, a Recollet Father arrived, to whom Madame 
la Tour expressed the joy she felt at seeing me. I then 
had a conversation with the Recollet, who told me about 
his garden and invited me to go and see it, which I accepted. 
I was curious to see and observe everything that was wor- 
thy of notice. He had me embark with him in his canoe, 
without making any comment on the danger to which 
I was exposing myself, not having yet had any experience 
in that species of navigation. The Father set 4 his sail 
and trimmed it by the wind. We traversed the bay for 
a good league and a half, and as in making a landing my 
conductor wished to lower the sail for fear of running 
aground too hard and staving his canoe, (from my posit- 
ion) in the bow where he had placed me I was prompted 
to look behind me and had almost turned around, but 
this slight movement put the canoe out of its equilibrium 
and it upset in an instant. Luckily for us we were near 
the shore. This kind of navigation is capricious, difficult 
and dangerous, especially when one is making his first 
experiments in it. We arrived at the garden. He told 
me he had cleared it up all by himself. It was perhaps 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS 37 

an acre and a half of ground. He had a great many white 
headed cabbage and of all other kinds of pot herbs and 
vegetables. There were some apple and pear trees which 
were well formed and very fine looking, but not yet in 
a condition to bear, having been brought from France 
when small and planted only the year previous. I was 
pleased to see all this, but more so when he showed me 
his peas and his wheat (!) which he had sown. It de- 
lighted me to see the height of the peas. They were poled 
but so covered with pods as hardly to be believed without 
being seen, and the wheat the same. 

The young de la Tour also had a garden near his fort, 
of wheat and peas, which was not so well taken care of as 
that of the Recollet. The land is flat at the head of this 
bay. The trees there are very fine, of the varieties that 
I heretofore named. There is not such a great number of 
spruces (or firs) . There are several brooks which flow 
into the said bay, in which (i. e. in the bay) can be caught 
small cod, mackerel, plaise de mer (flounders?) and other 
kinds of fish, and at the mouths of the brooks plenty of 
esperlan* in the spring. There is also a river where one 
may fish for salmon and trout; and drawing towards Cape 
Sable, there are to be found numbers of shell fish, such as 
cockles, bourgos (?) muscles, clams and other shells, and 
lobsters, which are the crawfish of the sea, of which the 
shell of the claw will hold a pint and more. A great 
deal of fine meadowland is found on ascending this river 
and along the brooks which flow into it. 

Coming out of Sable Bay. and continuing his route, 
one perceives a little cape or point and some islands along 
the shore, covered with trees and spruces. There are 
numerous birds all around, which come there to make their 
nests in the spring. The shore is also in like manner lined 
with them. The country does not appear to be moun- 
tainous. This coast is full of ledges extending into the 
sea, which makes it extremely dangerous to approach. 
Three or four leagues from there is a harbor, where there 
is a little river which penetrates rather far inland. The 
harbor is good, and vessels of reasonable size can anchor 
there in perfect safety. It is called the Port of Cape 
Negro. All the woods there are similar to the others that 
I have named, and the land is also good, so far as I could 



38 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

judge. The cod fishing there is very advantageous, 
although I have not seen any at all from the ship. 

Grants in Acadie "To Latour and his family, born in 
by Louis XIV, and always residing in Acadie, the 
2703. King gives Vieux Logis, at Cape 

Sable, with six leagues square and 
the islands in front; also port Latour, with four leagues 
on each side, and six leagues in depth. Both grants to 

be equally divided among" (Here follow the names 

of Latour's descendants, and other grants elsewhere). 
Of Charles de Latour's children Anne, married Jacques 
Mins D'Entremont, sieur of Pubnico,; Marguerite mar-, 
ried Abraham Mius D'Entremont called Pleinmairas 
Of Jacques D'Entremont's family, Jaques lived at the 
Head, Phillippe at Pubnico. Abraham had seven children, 
of whom two were Charles and Phillippe. He died before 
1703 and his widow married Sergeant Villate. The 
old house at Shag Harbor in sight of the Cape, or Centre- 
ville, Cape Id.,was probably the home of Abraham D'En- 
tremont. (See Murdock I, pp. 170, 261.) 

There has been much difference of opinion about the 
locality of Vieux Logis, the old dwelling, home or lodging. 
The same term was used at Minas to describe the place 
of a fort built by the English where a few old French 
houses were encompassed by a stockade. Professor 
Doane regarded it as the old fort at Port Latour. The 
terms of the grant do not seem to me to permit that 
explanation. In the decree quoted there are two grants, 
Vieux Logis with a block of land eighteen square miles, 
and port Latour with a block twenty-four by eighteen 
miles; and the points mentioned form the distinguishing 
features by which the grants are known. 

We see, then,, that Vieux Logis and Port Latour are 
different localities. 

In the grant of Latour to D'Entremont and Farrant 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS 39 

and their wives the Vieux Logis was clearly distinguished 
from Pubnico, and designated by its Indian name, Pipe- 
gueniche. Therefore it must have been between Pub- 
nico and Port Latour. Both the D'Entremont and the 
Micmac traditions agree that Pipegueniche is Barrington. 
It is not however, specifically Barrington Head or Har- 
bor, which is Meustugek. My aged Indian informant, 
on recalling the name as that of Barrington Passage, 
gave me at the same time the names of the various bays 
from the Tuskets to Cape Negro saying that those names 
in general applied from headland to headland as the 
Indians travelled in their canoes. From Stoddart's 
Island eastwardly through the Passage till perhaps at 
North East Point, Cape Island, when a new range of 
travel would open up to the voyager, we may place 
Pipegueniche, and somewhere on this shore was Vieux 
Logis. This is supported by the grant of Louis XIV 
quoted above which locates Vieux Logis at Cape Sable, 
and includes the islands in front. That the Latour grant 
to D'Entremont in 1653 had no reference to Port Latour 
is evident because the then well known name, Fort St. 
Louis would be the best description of the territory granted 
and because Barrington harbor is the separating physical 
feature of the two blocks. Latour was thus reserving 
the fort for himself as feudal lord. The D'Entremonts 
afterwards lived at the Head but never at Port Latour, 
so that we may take the East harbor line projecting North- 
ward at Hibbert's Brook as the approximate boundary of 
this grant. The Pubnico tradition respecting a large Acadian 
settlement on the west side of Cape Island cannot be disre- 
garded. There and also at Doctor's Cove aad Fresh Brook 
are remains of early settlements. Champlain's map of 1612 
shows a trading post near Cape Sable which was there at 
least fifteen years before the building of Fort St. Louis, and 
would thus naturally be regarded as the Vieux Logis. Like 



40 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

the trading posts at Port Mouton, Lahave and Port Royal 
it was situated near prominent and easily recognized 
headlands, accessible to friendly navigators and protected 
from enemies. In the census of 1686 Abraham Mius 
is said to reside at Cape Sable. He is called Pleinmarais. 
Rameau gives this as Plemarch which he says is a Breton 
name. It might well be derived from the large shallows 
about Cape Sable which Champlain and Denys had both 
described as characteristic of the place. 

Our own investigations have led to the discovery 
that this Old House, the Vieux Logis of these documents, 
was at Shag Harbor, in proof of which the following facts 
are submitted. 

The proprietors records show that the boundary of 
lots nine and ten of the Third Division of land made in 
1784 at the first English settlement of Shag Harbor is 
defined at the shore as "where the Old House stood". 
This line is about 500 yards west of Shag Harbor river 
and runs past the church on the hill, south eastwardly 
to the shore. The remains of old cellars are there, half- 
way up the hill somewhat above where David Kendrick's 
house was situated. This hill was from its height the 
first land to come into view of mariners passing the Cape 
towards the west. It would be in line with the Blue 
hills or Hio when the shoals were passed, and would nat- 
urally be the place where the explorer would direct his 
course. It is in full view of Cape Sable over eight miles 
away and has been from time immemorial a land mark 
for navigators and fishermen, and particularly because 
of the "Old House" which was placed on its seaward side. 
One range between Fish Island and the Hawk marks an 
"Old House ground"; another where the hill just opens 
out by Kendrick's Island, is on the line of a deep-water 
"House ground" west of Green Island. The names 
remain though the "old house", the "vieux logis", has 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS 41 

long disappeared. A European adventurer looking 
for a place for traffic with the savages in those days would 
wish to be near some conspicuous land mark (as at Canso, 
Lahave, Port Mouton) where harbor and river adjacent 
would be prime advantages. These were at Shag Harbor, 
and all the facts point to the conclusion that this was the 
trading camp marked on Champlain's map of 1612; that 
it was the Port Lomeron to which Charles Latour resorted 
after Argal destroyed Port Royal, and from which he 
removed to Port Latour after getting his commission 
from the French King. There is no other known place 
which he would call the Old House in his grant of 1653, 
and this place in full view of the Cape Sand Hills and of 
the later settlement at McGray's, Cape Island, was 
naturally the focus of the Cape Sable district. With 
the accession of Charles Latour to feudal authority the 
former independent trading posts would be subordinated 
to Fort St. Louis. This would account for the apparent 
identification of Lomeron with Port Latour. 

In 1686 only 16 souls are reported in the census for 
the Cape Sable district. La Liberte, a negro,was included. 
Before this, as we are told by Villebon, trade was under- 
taken only with the savages and neither farming nor 
fishing was carried on. The Protestant condition of 
Temple's grant tended to destroy the religious work 
carried on by the Franciscan priests under Latour's 
patronage and to scatter the French who had previously 
found shelter at Fort St. Louis. This was the period of 
beginning their more permanent settlements at Pubnico, 
The Hill , the Passage and Cape Sable, and their susten- 
ance was hereafter derived from industry. The census 
of 1701 gave forty residents at Pubnico and Cape Sable. 

This section began with a quotation from the grant 
of King Louis XIV to the descendants of Latour. 

The heirs of Latour were not long to enjoy the new 



42 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

title to their lands, for in ten years the country was ceded 
to the English, who did not recognize, or, at least, strongly 
contested, the feudal tenure of the former regime. The 
persistence of the seigneurial sentiment may possibly 
explain the fact of these families being distributed as 
at the Hill, the Head, Doctor's Cove and Pubnico. They 
were holding on and hoping that the lilies of France 
might again restore the honors of former days. On 
Major Prebble's fateful visit the resident Acadians were 
mostly at Baccareaux Passage. 

Official Report to the British governor in Annapolis. 
(Canadian Archives Series M. Vol. 395, p. 12, 175.} 

Sir: 

After the Letter writt to your Excellency from Port 
Rosway which contained the beginning of Our Voyage 
we gott under sail next morning being 22nd Instant with 
the wind att W. W. W. and gott beyond the length 
of Cape Negro butt the Wind coming a head and blowing 
very hard we strove to turn into Port La Tour butt were 
att last forc'd to bear back for Cape Negro. Here we 
also strove to turn into the Harbour, but to no porpos, 
for having splitt our Gibb we were obliged to come too 
in the Harbour's mouth, where we ridd all night tho' it 
blew very hard att W. & W. N. W. 

The next day 23rd we gott under sail again and 
Turn'd into Port La Tour. Here Capt. Southack thought 
it proper to send for an Inhabitant of Cape Sables, dwelling 
in the Passage call'd by the French of Baccareaux, 
(1) that if the Wind and weather should not admitt of our 
going round the Cape; we might go through the Passage, 
this man being a very good Pilott for that Place. He 
readily came butt brought along with him the most un- 
welcome News of the loss of the Schooner sent with cloath- 
ing and Provisions to Annapolis Royall. (2) He had 
a letter from. Capt. Savage to your Excellency, which 
had been left with him by an Indian who had orders to 
follow Monsr. Gaulin, (3) who was bound from Pomme- 
coup to the Eastward and had left our Pilotts house (as 
he told us) four or five hours before the Indian came with 
the Letter, who it seems could not be persuaded to pro- 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS 43 

ceed farther with it, we could hear no other particulars 
from our Pilot concerning the Disaster happen' d to the 
schooner butt that Eight Persons belonging to her had 
gott in a boat to Pommecoup, and that they were prepar- 
ing to go to Annapolis Royall in a sloop belonging to that 
Place. We consulted on this wether by oppening the 
letter which in all probability could contain no other 
than the relation of the said Disaster we might not thereby 
be enabled to give some assistance in our way to our In- 
tended Port and we unanimously agreed that we ought 
to open the Letter and that if even we did not we should 
be wanting in our Duty. We found as we expected no 
other than the Relation of the Shipwreck and were the 
more touched with it when we saw that they had left it 
without hopes of saving anything. 

Capt. Southack inclined if the Wind and Weather 
favoured us to go to Pommercoup to be more certain 
wether the People who were sav'd in the Schooner, were 
gone from thence, and if the wreck might not have been 
discovered since by the People of that Place and some of 
the Loading might not be sav'd. Monday 25th being 
the eighth day since the date of Capt. Savages Letter 
we steer 'd our course out of Port La Tour for the West 
passage. The Wind at S. E. and threatning foul wea- 
ther (as it proved afterwards) which made us the more 
inclinable to keep close to the shoar for a Harbour, and 
not go round the Cape. Our Pilott carried us very well 
through and we anchor 'd two leagues beyond it in a Rocky 
hole, butt good anchoring ground and pretty well shel- 
ter' d from the Impending Storm. It blew very hard all 
night to Wind att S. E. b. E. Next morning 26th att a 
Third flood tho' it continued to blow very hard Captn. 
Southack not liking the place where we were and the Pilott 
whom he had detain'd along with us assuring him that he 
could carrie the Vessell with ease to Pommecoup, being 
but about three leagues further we weighed anchor and 
under a storm of wind we went through several Islands 
and Ugly shoals having the advantage of smooth Water 
and witht any unhappy accident anchored in Pommecoup' 
harbour, being a very good one where we rid secure the 
remainder of the storm. We sent the Pilot the same 
day to the Habitations who return' d the next morning 



HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



27th and gaye us an Acct that all the young men were 
gone a Hunting, and only old Pommecoup, (4) left, some 
of his children being gone with the Sloop to carrie the 
People of the Wreck to Annapolis Royall. Two of us 
Col. Armstrong and Maj. Mascarene resolv'd to go up 
the same morning (the storm being ceased but the Wind 
continued att N.) to the Habitations; where we found no 
other man than the old Pomme coup by whom we under- 
stood not much more than was mentioned in Capt. Sav- 
ages letter and that one of his sons and his son in Law 
with some of the Inhabitants were sail'd in his Sloop, for 
Annapolis Royall to transport those who were cast away. 
That the Indians who happen' d to be in some number 
att this Place when the disaster happen' d understanding, 
that the wreck had been abandon'd and given over; were 
gone to see wether they could gett any thing; and that 
none of the gentlemen or people concern' d and cast away 
in the Schooner had left any claim on the wreck, or prom- 
ise of reward or Salvage for any of the Cargoe &c. that 
might chance to be sav'd. We soon return'd on board 
and unanimously agreed to write to following letter to 
the Sieur Pommecoup. 

Sir: Upon the relation we have of the Disaster hap- 
pen'd the 13th Instant 0. S. att the Tuskett Islands to 
a schooner bound to Annapolis Royall. We having the 
Honour to be of His Majesty's Councill for this Province, 
have thought fitt to lett you know that the loading of 
the said Schooner consisted of Provisions, cloathing and 
other effects for the Garrison of that Place, and that 
you are to acquaint the Inhabitants and Indians of these 
parts, that those who shall by their Industry and Pains 
save and secure for the Garrison the whole or any part 
of the said cargoe, shall be rewarded to one third of the 
value besides the approbation of the government for this 
their care and service and you are to collect whatever 
shall be thus sav'd that it may be transmitted to Annapolis 
Royall and to note the People who shall bring any part 
of the said Wreck that they may receive the said reward. 
Given under our hands on board the William Agustus 
Sloop in Pommecoup Harbour 27th day of Sept. 1721. 

The Wind proving fair the next day (28th) early in 
the morning and Capt. Southack having discharged his 



LEAVES FROM OLD DOCUMENTS 45 

Cape Sable Pilott, we gott under sail and reached the 
Tuskett Islands by the first of the Flood and got through 
that dangerous Pass, butt could see no body nor any marks 
of the Wreck, the wind freshening we steer' d for Grand 
Passage where we arriv'd as the Tide of Ebb was made 
strong against us and the Wind dying of a sudden we 
found ourselves insensibly driving on the Rocks off the 
great Pass, where we must Indubitably have lost our 
lives had not Captain Southack come to an anchor in 
an Eddy betwixt the two tides, where we rid secure the 
danger appear 'd dreadfull by reason of the nearness of 
the point of rocks and the wildness of the Tide coming 
out of the two Passes. In the Evening, the tide being 
spent we gott safe into the Harbour with a fresh gale at 
W. N. W. and was fair for us butt the seamen being very 
much fatigued from the last days toil Capt. Southack 
kept in the Harbour which we left the 30th the wind con- 
tinuing the same butt blowing very hard; we met with a 
prodigious Sea in the Bay,butt in four hours reached the 
Entry of the Bassin and anchor' d under the fort 
att one o'clock in the afternoon. 

We are Your Excellency's Most humble Servts. 

L. Armstrong, 
R. Mascarene, 
Cypryan Southac 
Annapolis Royall, 
Sept. 30th, 1721. 

Notes on letter, Canadian Archives, etc. 

1. Here IJaccareaux Passage is first named, and it 
would seem that the safe channel through the passage 
was before this known only to the French. Capt. South- 
ack, though already many years on this coast, would not 
venture to navigate the Passage without a pilot. At 
the same time it is evident that the term meant the whole 
channel inside Cape Sable island from Baccaro to the 
open sea to the westward. It is not possible to limit it 
to any particular village along this shore. 

2. This was the schooner Hannah, William Souden 



46 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

master, cast away on the "Tusketts". The vessel and 
cargo proved a total loss. 

3. M. Gaulin was a French priest to the Micmacs 
who had induced the savages to make incursions against 
the English and in 1711 commanded a formidable be r 
sieging force against Annapolis, over which Col. Vetch 
was in charge after its capture the previous year by Gen. 
Nicholson. After the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, in which 
Louis XIV ceded to Queen Anne and her crown forever 
all Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Hudson's Bay, we 
fall in with Gaulin again at Annapolis, where he comes 
under the displeasure of the Council for his "unpardonable 
insolence." 

4. This was Jacques Muis who married Anne, a 
daughter of Charles de la Tour. 

5. A letter of Capt. Southack, given in Murdock 
I., 269,dated "Maye the 10, 1702" and addressed to Gov. 
Dudly of Massachusetts begins thus: Sir: this morning 
at 4 o'clock I came to saille being dissatisfied in my 
dream last night, etc." In another letter to the same in 
1703, he mentions that the Gov't of Port Royal have 
been getting in all the Indians from Menness (Minas) 
and Cape Salles (Sable) and all the places agesant (adjac- 
ent) in expectation of the English attacking Port Royall. 



PROVINCE AND COLONY. 47 



CHAPTER III. 



PROVINCE AND COLONY. 

Port Royal's The latter half of the seventeenth century 
Governors contributed nothing to the advancement of 
settlement or civilization in Acadia. Brou- 
illan, one of the last of the French governors, said: "Aca- 
dia, a land of discord always". The jealousies and dis- 
sensions of the noble traders, the hostility of the New 
Englanders and the indifference of the French govern- 
ment were all alike obstacles to progress. La Borgne, 
creditor of D'Aulnay, came with authority to take over 
the estate of the deceased adventurer. He had hardly 
launched his ambitious enterprises when an armed expedi- 
tion from Boston compelled him to surrender Port Royal. 
King Charles II restored Acadia to France. La Borgne's 
son Belleisle who married a daughter of de la Tour found 
occasion for dispute with Grand-fontaine, who had estab- 
lished himself at Penobscot. Perrot and Menneval were 
the next governors, the last named being compelled to 
yield the fort to Sir. Wm. Phipps, who attacked it with a 
strong force from Boston in 1690. Re-captured the next 
year by Villebon, it was held until the treaty of Ryswick, 
1697, confirmed the French in possession. Brouillan be- 
came governor in 1700. Subercase, who succeeded in 
1706, was a man of great ability and made two successful 
defenses of the fort against New England expeditions be- 
fore he was beaten by Gen. Nicholson and Col. Vetch, 
when Port Royal, 1910, passed permanently to the British 
crown. Several futile attempts were made to recover it 
before the treaty of Utrecht was sealed in 1713. 

Annapolis In honor of the reigning queen the name of 

Royal this ancient seat of French government in 

Acadia was now changed to Annapolis Royal. 



48 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

British policy as to the retention of Nova Scotia had been 
influenced doubtless by the persistence of New England 
for its possession. The fort, which under Subercase had 
been greatly strengthened, was a valuable acquisition; and 
as there was no other English settlement in the province, 
Annapolis quite nkturally became the seat of government. 
Gen. Nicholson became Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief of he Forces in 1714. At the capitulation in 1710 
a proclamation had been issued to the effect that Anna- 
polis Royal was the Port of Commerce for the Province 
and trade was forbidden with any other portion. The 
irestriction was evidently made to keep the control of the 
Acadian and Indian trade. But now a new factor in the 
struggle for supremacy appears. If Acadia for the time 
is lost to the French that disadvantage must be offset in 
some way by that great power. Newfoundland also had 
been ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht. 
The colony at Placentia was therefore transferred to Eng- 
lish Harbor to which the name of Louisburg was given in 
honor of King Louis. The growing interest of the Grand 
Monarch in his American possessions was witnessed by 
the lavish supplies for the new fortress on Isle Royale. 
And as the stronghold grew its population and trade in- 
creased so that it soon became the chief market of the 
French along the whole coast. After the cession, however 
the New England fishermen immediately resorted to 
Canso as a fishing station, where their success may be es- 
timated by the report of Gov. Armstrong in 1725 that 197 
vessels were engaged that season in catching fish and car- 
rying them to foreign markets. The value of the fisher- 
ies was judged at $600,000 annually." Forty-nine families 
had already settled there. Amid the keen national rival- 
ries of the Whites the Indians had found incentives to 
plunder, and particularly from 1722 to 1725 they were on 
the war-path. Annapolis and the Canso fishermen were 



PROVINCE AND COLONY 49 

raided, and in consequence of the preponderating interests 
at Canso the Governor moved there with his Council and 
made it for several years the capital of the province. Four 
companies of infantry were maintained there as a garrison. 
A valuable whale fishery also made Canso its head-quar- 
ters. 

Indian In 1725 attempts were renewed by the authori- 
Treaty ties in Boston for a treaty with the Indians. 
Four sagamores representing many tribes, in- 
cluding those of St. John and Cape Sable visited Boston 
on this business. A treaty was drafted there and confir- 
med next year at Falmouth, Me., again in 1749 and in 
1760 also at Halifax. There is a minute of Council to the 
effect that when in 1737 a robbery by St. John Indians 
had taken place near Cape Split, a demand was made on 
that tribe for redress, and a note on the subject was / 
sent to Charles D'Entremont of Poubomcoup to be read 
to the Cape Sable Indians. 

Acadian For a score or two of years before the final 
Neutrality change of sovereignty the French people near 
Port Royal had increased in numbers and 
were prosperous. 

At the capitulation they had been given the option of 
becoming the subjects of Queen Anne or leaving the 
province within two years. They did neither, but under 
incitements of priests and other agents of sedition, refused 
various demands to take the oath of fealty from time to 
time, offering instead to compromise the issue by taking 
an oath of neutrality rather than an oath of allegiance. 
Under the more settled and peaceful English rule life went 
well with them, and in 1730 Gov. Phillips said of them, 
/'they spread themselves over the province like the des- 
cendants of Noah." The building up of Louisburg tend- 



50 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

ed to confirm the belief that France,instead of abandoning 
her interests in Acadia was preparing to assert and re-es- 
tablish them. The prospect of coming back shortly to 
their old allegiance seemed good to the Acadians. Nor 
were they allowed to merely dream about these things. 
In 1744 Canso was attacked and destroyed by a force 
under Du Vivier, a grandson of Charles de la Tour, sent 
from Louisburg as soon as the fact of war again between 
England and France was known. Du Vivier then led 
an attack against Annapolis which failed. 

During this war Louisburg was captured, a splen- 
did achievement due to the co-operation of Admiral War- 
ren and Gen. Pepperel, the former in command of the 
British fleet and the latter of the forces sent from New 
England. Another famous engagement of this war was 
the surprise of the British at Grand Pre on a winter night 
in 1747. Then the Canadian troops under Villiers were 
assisted by Acadians and Indians. The safety of the 
province had been assured for the time by the victory at 
Louisburg. On the other hand, comparing the situation 
with that of a generation past, there could be little satis- 
faction in the review. Annapolis stood alone; the Aca- 
dians had more than doubled in numbers, and were still 
as aloof in their attitude as ever. 

It is not surprising that the Acadians were kept under 
surveillance by the government. The following reference 
to some of the residents of Cape Sable shows plainly the 
tension then existing. A passport was granted at Anna- 
polis by Gov. Mascarene for the shallop Mary Joseph, 
Boudrot master, Melanson and Bourg mariners, and Mar- 
garet L'Andree wife of Charles D'Entremont of Pubnico 
or of Baccareaux Passage, returning home from a visit of 
friendship or otherwise, etc., This was in 1748, the year 
in which by the treaty of peace Louisburg was given back 
to France. 



PROVINCE AND COLONY 51 

Founding of The elation of the people of Annapolis and of 
Halifax New England was of short duration. Hardly 
had the troops returned home from their mag- 
nificent exploit when word came that the Isle Royal with 
all the fruits of toil and peril had been handed over to the 
enemy. The next year had a message of cheer and com- 
fort. Some real colonization had been taken in hand by 
the government. At Chebucto, on the Atlantic shore of 
the peninsula, Lord Cornwallis had arrived with a few 
thousand settlers. Soldiers and sailors, disbanded on ac- 
count of peace, were already making their homes in the 
new town named for Lord Halifax. Artisans from over- 
seas had come there, and it was evident that this capacious 
and safe Atlantic port would become a naval station and 
rendezvous for shipping. Immediately crowds of people 
flocked thither from Louisburg and New England for the 
promising opportunities of trade, and conspicuous among 
them were distillers and rumsellers. Lord Cornwallis 
had been empowered to take over the administration of 
government; and soon the transfer was made from Anna- 
polis, and Halifax became the capital of the province. 
This energetic ruler made provision for the housing and 
defences of the town, for the prevention of trading and 
other communication between the Acadians and the Can- 
adians, who were now trying to fortify the isthmus at 
Chignecto and shut the English in on the peninsula, and 
in order to crush the Indians and French spies, who swar- 
med around the settlements ready for any possible mis- 
chief. For these purposes garrisons were placed at Pizi- 
quid and Chignecto, and Gorham's New England rangers 
were brought into service. As to the Acadians all efforts, 
and they were continuous, found them obstinate as before 
in their refusal to take the oath of allegiance. Meantime 
Louisburg was being rebuilt and had a fine trade with the 
vessels from New England which made little difference 



52 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

between that port and Halifax if they found a good mar- 
ket. Lord Cornwallis returned to England in 1752. 

The Expulsion What has been said in this chapter indi- 
of the Acadians cates clearly that the whole policy and 
conduct of affairs had been influenced by 
Acadian sentiment respecting the oath of allegiance. In 
1725 Gov. Armstrong, while the Indian Treaty was under 
negotiation so that the relations to the question of Acadian 
allegiance were perhaps more pronounced than usual, 
asked the Duke of Newcastle for authority to oblige the 
French inhabitants to take the oath or to quit theprovince, 
"for we shall never be safe nor secure so long as they are 
permitted to be snakes in our bosom, that would cut our 
throats on all occasions". 

Afterwards it was remarked that the Acadians lived 
in rough sheds, with the scantiest furniture, but that they 
were lovers of specie which they hoarded. They were, 
like the Hebrews, girt and ready to move and carry their 
treasures with them. This unsettled state of mind which 
thus blighted their lives was the result of the persuasion 
of the agitators in the employ of Canada. 

It is indeed true that the settlement of Halifax had 
made a great difference in the position and security of 
British interests. The summary given by Murdock, II, 
195, embraces so much that I quote his words: 

"The fishery this year had produced 25,000 quintals 
and people from the west of England were expected to 
extend it. The close of this year, 1750, exhibits a great 
change in the condition of the province. From the con- 
quest of 1710 hitherto, the fort at Annapolis, as far as 
its guns could range was the only real possession of the 
British in this region and this even was dependent on aid 
from Boston to prevent its recapture. The post at Can- 
so could hardly be deemed secure at any time. As to 
the Indians and Acadians, they were as a general rule, 
much more the subjects of the governor and bishop of 



PROVINCE AND COLONY 53 

Quebec than of England. The building of a town at 
Chebucto, and the presence of several regiments of regu- 
lars, the establishment of forts at Grand Pre, Piziquid 
and Chignecto, gave the English an absolute possession 
and control, if not of the whole of Acadie, yet of the pen- 
insula; and in the event this dominion extended itself 
step by step until the whole continent became exclusively 
British." 

After Cornwallis, Hopson was governor for a y*ar, 
and then Lawrence was appointed. By this time, 1753, 
the security of the situation had been considerably modi- 
fied for Canada had almost 50,000 people. The French 
design was to possess the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and 
recover Nova Scotia. The non-swearing Acadians, under 
la Loutre and other agents of the "governor and bishop 
of Canada" were to be kept as a mine of explosive mater- 
ials under the English, and by their location in the finest 
parts of the province, to prevent English settlement. 
Louisburg was again a formidable fortress ready to play 
its part in the clash for western empire which thoughtful 
men saw to be impending. 

In these days v when we have been fighting for the 
liberty of our country it seems needless to urge that self 
preservation is a first law of nature; but we believe that 
such was the ground upon which Lawrence decided upon 
the expatriation of over half the people of the province. 
Without actual war between the nations, there was con- 
stant collision between the outposts all along the frontiers 
in America. Lawrence seized the occasion by the fore- 
lock and brought on the, removal of the ill-advised Aca- 
dians. It has been observed that at the time of the ex- 
pulsion 1755, Nova Scotia had been for over forty years 
consecutively under British rule. Therefore the greater 
part of the Acadians had been born under the flag. What- 
ever force there may have been in the plea of those who 
came under the capitulation of 1710 it seems to vanish in 



54 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

the light of this compelling fact. The discussion of the 
circumstances connected with the deportation constitute 
a good fraction of the historical literature of Nova Scotia, 
and it is not our intention to enlarge upon it, except to 
quote the words of W. M. MacVicar, who, in a fine para- 
graph in his Short History of Annapolis Royal, has these 
sentences, with which we heartily agree. "Their removal 
must not be looked on as the outcome of fixed and definite 
purpose, on the part of a government carrying out its or- 
dinary policy in the time of peace; but must be regarded 
as an act of expediency, necessary for self preservation, 
reluctantly determined upon by responsible leaders, in a 
dire emergency, amid the anxieties of impending war. 
Whatever opinion we may entertain concerning the right- 
eousness of the judgment that sent them into exile, few, 
in this land that has been watered with their tears, can 
withhold the meed of sympathy with those wretched pea- 
sants who suffered a tenfold retribution for their dogged 
refusal to accept the terms of the British governor/' 

The Appeal The year 1755 was a memorable one in 
to Arms many ways, but in particular on account of 

the war which then broke out on the boun- 
dary as expected. The defeat of Gen. Braddock in the 
Ohio Valley was a severe blow to the British. On the 
other hand, nearer home, the French fort at Beausejour 
had been captured by a strong force sent from Boston 
under Col. Moncton. This notable achievement really 
preceded and made easier the deportation of the Acadians 
by preventing interference which otherwise might have 
been given. 

The following year saw the great powers of Europe 
embroiled in what became known as the Seven years' war. 
At first the French cause prospered; but in 1758 Louisburg 
was taken, in 1759 Quebec shared the same fate. These 
events which comprised the splendid career of Gen. Wolfe 



PROVINCE AND COLONY 55 

broke down the French wall of defence, and soon the com- 
plete conquest of French Canada was effected. The am-' 
bitious scheme of uniting Canada with Louisiana was for- 
ever dispelled. The capture of Louisburg had cleared 
the coast of enemies and from that time trade and the 
plans for settlement went forward as if the world was at 
peace. 

Projects for The historians of the Expulsion have almost 
Settlement exclusively discussed the sufferings of the 
Acadians, and the justification, or otherwise, 
of the authorities responsible for their deportation. These 
things were outweighed in importance by the other pro- 
blems of that day. 

If we can imagine ourselves for a little in the place 
and circumstances of the Governor of the Province after 
his orders had been executed, there will be forced upon our 
view a remarkable picture of our country at this time. 
Except for Halifax and Lunenburg and the little garrisons 
at Annapolis, Beausejour, and a few other places, the 
whole territory was almost literally "waste and without 
in habitant. " A few Acadian fugitives and Indians roved 
the woods, but the desolation was appalling. To obtain 
the expected benefit from the removal just effected it was 
necessary to replace the unreliable Acadians by people of 
British blood; and that with despatch, for French policy 
and even the spirit of revenge might not long delay. The 
one British stronghold of Halifax was still flanked by two 
French Gibraltars, Quebec and Louisburg. This urged 
Gov. Lawrence to hasten the re-settlement of the province. 
But where were these colonists to be found? Where were 
Englishmen so badly off as to think it desirable to make 
their homes in the wilderness of Nova Scotia? It was de- 
termined to offer the inducement of grants of land in- 
cluding the districts formerly held and cultivated by the 
French. That which had so long been a province, a con- 



56 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

quered territory, must now be transformed into a real 
British colony as soon as possible. 

Whether Lawrence had any definite plans for re-set- 
tlement in his mind before the expulsion is hard to say 
but we know that long previously the matter of English 
colonization had been the subject of discussion between 
the Secretary of State and others. Gov. William Shirley 
of Boston by command of the King had sent a plan for 
civil government in Nova Scotia to the Secretary of State, 
and about the same time communicated to him an ela- 
borate project for English settlement there. He wished 
to avoid the hazards involved in a removal of the French, 
and considered it possible to introduce enough New Eng- 
land people among them to neutralize these "neutrals" 
and secure the country. This was in 1748-9 before the 
settlement of Halifax, which of course greatly altered the 
situation with which Gov. Lawrence had to deal. 

Lands at The Governor's convictions, at least after ex- 
Cape Sable perience in Halifax of the aptitudes of different 
sorts of settlers, led him to prefer the New Eng- 
landers, who, as Shirley had said, were familiar with cul- 
tivating new lands". And we find him already taking up 
the matter with especial reference to Cape Sable in a letter 
to the Lords of Trade under date of Nov. 1757. He says 
"How many the lands of Cape Sable would be capable of 
maintaining I cannot so well conjecture, having never had 
it in my power, on account of the remaining neutrals and 
Indians still infesting that country, either to see it myself 
or to send a proper person to visit and bring me any tol- 
erable account of it. But I have every reason to believe, 
from the earnest desire I perceive in the people of Cape 
Cod to settle there, that a considerable tract of land is now 
under actual improvement, and that Baccareaux Passage, 
Poubomcoup and the other French settlements on the 
Cape are more highly calculated for a flourishing fishery 



PROVINCE AND COLONY 57 

than any part of the coast of Nova Scotia we are yet ac- 
quainted with." 

French versus We must now call attention to a change 
British Land in the tenure of land which was of funda- 
Tenure mental importance to the future prosper- 

ity of the province. It was inevitable be- 
cause it was of the essence of British principles of govern- 
ment, but it displaced something as real in its way and as 
great an obstacle to advancement as the deported Aca- 
dians. When Nova Scotia became like a cleaned slate by 
the removal of the French, feudalism was abolished as 
well. The question of the rights of the seigneurs had often 
come into the Nova Scotia courts. What is meant is 
clearly stated in the language of a son of Barrington, 
Mr. B. H. Doane of New York. 

If any body of people were to be obtained as colonists 
from New England it was evident that the conditions as 
to the grants and the holding of property must be simple 
and satisfactory. This was a matter for the decision of 
the Crown. 

"This grant to the Plymouth Company the first of 
its kind relating to the new world, was the pattern for all 
subsequent English grants of lands in America. "The 
Great Patent of New England", issued in November, 
1620, to the Plymouth company, was in free and common 
soccage, for fealty only; the estate thus granted being 
of the highest nature that a subject could receive and hold, 
and the only link of tenure being that which maintained 
the relation of subject and sovereign between the Ameri- 
can immigrants and the English king. The grant being 
to the Company and its "assigns", purchasers from the 
original proprietors obtained an estate of the same des- 
cription. 

On the other hand, the French adventurers who were 
coming over here at the same time, De Monts,andCham- 
plain, and Poutrincourt, and Biencourt, and de Razilly, 
and de la Tour, and D'Aulnay and Denys, &c., &c., all 
held feudal titles to their lands from the King of France, 



58 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

with the right of sub-infeudation, i.e., the right to make 
grants to others, reserving lordship over their grantees. 
Thus De la Tour subinfeudated the Barony of Poubom- 
coup to D'Entremont, and again made another grant to 
his other son-in-law, Amiraut, subject to certain rights 
and powers of overlordship. These grants were to be 
sure, liberal and honorable; but it was in the overlord's 
power to make them onerous and base, and a gentleman 
of D'Aulay's saturnine instincts would be inclined to ex- 
ercise that power. Thus, the tenant of a French proprie- 
tor, under penalty of forfeiture of his holding, and at peril 
of his life, could be compelled to sacrifice his own interests, 
whether of tillage, hunting or fishing, to engage in the pri- 
vate quarrels of his lord with the adjoining proprietor; 
e.g., the private war waged by D'Aulnay against De la 
Tour. 

"Now the new world held out inducements to the ad- 
venturous and bold and daring. Men of that class were 
seeking to escape from the restraints of feudalism and were 
consequently not at all tempted to join the French grand- 
ees, but flocked to Virginia and New England, and in a 
generation or two grew into a nation of freemen, jealous 
of their rights,which the poorest could enforce in the court 
of justice, and any general encroachment upon which was 
made common cause of resistance by the whole colony 
against the offender, be he governor or king. Whereas, 
the French colonies were recruited only by a body of de- 
based peasantry, while the aristocratic proprietors were 
divided among themselves by the disputes that were 
bound to grow up where the rights of each depended upon 
his ability to maintain them by physical force. Thus the 
feudal canker gnawed the roots of la Nouvelle France, so 
that the disastrous end might have been reckoned with 
from the beginning. Denys seemed to have a perception 
of this condition, though he perhaps did not fully appre- 
ciate the cause; for, as he quaintly phrases it, after show- 
ing how D'Aulnay oppressed the people: "No good can 
be rendered to a country by a man who may be able to 
derive a benefit from it, if he is persecuted in his enter- 
prises", and "it is in vain to have talents, experience and 
skill in the management of affairs, if his hands are tied 
and he is prevented from benefiting himself by them." 



PROVINCE AND COLONY 59 

New England- It has been said that at the founding of 
ers in Halifax Halifax many Americans resorted there 
for purposes of trade. In our days the 
mushroom growth of a mining town attracts all sorts of 
people, and it was the same with Halifax. The report of 
Rev. Mr. Duffy, an episcopal missionary gave a bad name 
to Americans, but it was written the first season of the 
landing there, when order found its first expression in the 
licensing of a grog shop. It was found that the Americans 
were not behind- in enterprise and ability, and soon they 
constituted a good part of the population. A census of 
that period shows that more than one-half of the English 
speaking citizens were born in America. 

Of this class Dr. Allison says in his paper on the Gen- 
eral Return of 1767 that "it is well known that they chaf- 
ed under the irresponsible rule of the Governor and Coun- 
cil" after their experience of representative government 
in the colonies and that among them in Halifax was "or- 
iginated the agitation for a duly constituted legislature." 
On this subject also, Dr. Akins, as reported in "N. S. His- 
torical Papers," Vol. 8, p. 16, says, "The New England 
people soon formed the basis of the resident population 
and are the ancestors of many of the present inhabitants. 
They were better settlers than the old discharged soldiers 
and sailors who came in the fleet." Again, p. 19, "A num- 
ber of influential and industrious families from New Eng- 
land and other places had already become settlers and 
Halifax Harbor was the resort of a large number of fishing 
vessels." 

A Representa- These New Englanders were now making 
live Assembly their influence felt for a freer mode of 
Home Government, which, taking the 
highest legal opinion, concluded that the Governor and 
Council alone were not authorized to make laws. Mean- 



60 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

while, also, their desires for a representative government 
found powerful local support in a decision made by Chief 
Justice Belcher in 1757, that the Governor and Council 
had no authority to levy taxes. 

The Governor, who had persistently opposed the 
popular wish, now received peremptory orders from the 
Lords of Trade to call an Assembly. In January, 1757, 
a plan was formulated in the Council for the election of 
22 members for the province at large and the various 
townships, who, together with the Governor or Comman- 
der-in-Chief and His Majesty's Council, should be styled 
the General Assembly. This plan seems to have been 
submitted for the approval of their lordships, and it was 
not until January, 1758, that the scheme was brought to 
completion. 

By the resolutions of the Governor in Council, two 
townships were defined, Halifax, which was to have four 
members, and Lunenburg (settled in 1753 by German dis- 
banded soldiers) to have two. Sixteen others were to be 
elected for th Province at large. "Whenever a township 
shall have 50 qualified electors, i.e., freeholders, not Pap- 
ists, of 21 years of age, it shall be entitled to two represen- 
tatives in the Assembly. No elector is to give more than 
one vote for each member to be chosen, but giving his 
vote for one for the Province at large shall be obliged to 
vote also for the other 1.5." 

What took place has been concisely stated by Rob- 
erts in his History of Canada. "Meanwhile upon all the 
loyal inhabitants of the great Acadian province had been 
conferred the badge of Anglo-Saxon freedom, representa- 
tive government. In October, 1758, the Parliament of 
Nova Scotia met at Halifax. This was the first represen- 
tative assembly ever convened on Canadian soil. It con- 
sisted of 22 members, representing the districts of Halifax, 
Annapolis, Dartmouth, Lunenburg and Cumberland. 
Under the stimulus of this change, settlers began to come 



PROVINCE AND COLONY 61 

in from the hill districts of New England, exchanging their 
rocky farms for the rich meadowlands of the Cornwallis, 
Annapolis, Avon and Shubenacadie valleys. The popu- 
lation of Nova Scotia was increased by over 7,000 of these 
New England immigrants between 1759 and 1763. It is 
then to be carefully noted that the prospect of establish- 
ing a successful British colony depended on a mode of 
government in which intending settlers should understand 
that their liberties and rights would be thoroughly guar- 
anteed by an Elective Assembly. The first steps to this 
end were taken under pressure of opinion and petition by 
the New Englanders in Halifax. 

As it is a leading motive in the production of this book 
to recognize and estimate the contribution made by the 
New England immigration to this province, it may be fit- 
ting here to remark upon the scant recognition of that 
contribution by the most of our historians. Even Rob- 
erts has no more to say than we have quoted. But when 
it is remembered that the 7,000 New Englanders who had 
come over by 1763 constituted the great majority of the 
population of the province, that their settlement was pro- 
moted and carried into effect as a necessity of imperial 
policy at a period when Britain and France were in the 
strangle-hold for supremacy in North America, and that 
this breed of manly and godly men laid the foundation for 
the future of the province, we confess to astonishment at 
the oversight. 



62 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 



CHAPTER IV 



THE TOWNSHIP SETTLEMENTS. 



Factors in the We have found no word to express ade- 
Problem quately the next stage of Nova Scotian pro- 

gress. Reconstruction implies the use of 
materials preserved from the object destroyed. But 
for ten years at least the old Acadians had no place in 
the new provincial life. The dominant note in the plans 
for the elective Assembly was that of the township unit. 
The freeholder's franchise was limited only by a bar 
against the sort of political meddling which had caused 
the loss of the former population. Halifax town was 
Nova Scotia to all intents and purposes, and had no cor- 
porate government aside from that of the Provincial 
Governor and Council. To re-people the province, 
beginning with the vacated lands the fertility of which 
had received equal advertisement with the deportation, 
was the immediate task. Though the Lords of Trade 
had a scheme of their own it was far better than having 
no interest at all. They were to have their turn. At 
the outset Gov. Lawrence was in a position to make the 
first move, and he did it. A homesteader who first 
brings water from a brook, then digs a well near his door, 
may later lay a pipe from the hillside and find relief from 
labor by utilizing the law of gravity. The master builder 
of British Nova Scotia wisely availed himself of the 
supply of people which he found on the higher levels of 
the older colonies and trusted gravitation to do its work 
when the pipes were laid. 

The Spirit of It has been said that the French govern- 

Freedom ment moved their colony from Placentia, 

Louisburg. Why did not the British gov- 



THE TOWNSHIP SETTLEMENTS 63 

ernment re-settle Nova Scotia in a similar manner? The 
answer is found in regarding the progress already made 
by Britain towards liberty. 

Commonly the conquest or expulsion of a people 
was followed by an occupation of the territory by the 
conquerors. But while that was true as between British 
and French in the Province at large it did not apply to 
the people who actually entered upon the vacated lands. 
Even the soldiers who came from time to time as settlers 
came of their own free will. The new way was that 
men should come and make their homes here. Then if 
the need of military defence should arise, it would be pro- 
vided by their love of home and country. 

This was the spirit of old England, inculcated by 
the Puritan exaltation of the Bible until the revolution 
of 1688 established the nation in those free principles, 
which only a generation or two before had drawn persecu- 
tion upon all who avowed them. Now we shall see the 
plant, that was the hardier for its transplanting from old 
to New England, set again in a Province which was to 
remain under the old flag, and that without losing any 
of its vigorous life. Thousands of our people vaunt their 
descent from the U. E. Loyalists, and we acknowledge 
the force of their claim. We have come upon times 
however when we distinguish a note of excellence in the 
volunteer as compared with the man who yields only to 
compulsion. It agrees with the common way of judg- 
ment, that Latour, whose life was wasted in strife for 
a place in the New World, and whose plans resulted in 
failure, is accorded a place in the Hall of Fame because 
of the circumstances and arena of his exploits. But is 
it not fitting, rather that those pioneers should be honored 
whose humbler lives were spent in laying the foundations 
of a province to which their free steps were directed by a 
Providence which leads as truly by prospect of social 



64 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

betterment as by the fear of national disaster. There- 
fore it is of those early settlers and their antecedents, 
their modes of life and work, their town government and 
development, their virtues and achievements as faithfully 
transmitted through other generations that we are bold 
to inscribe the record. Those conditions and experiences 
which were common to all the early township settlers 
call first for consideration. 

The General In May 1758, i. e. before the Capture of 
Assembly Louisburg, His Majesty's instructions as 
to the representative assembly were con- 
sidered by the Governor in Council and resolutions adopt- 
ed to the following effect and approved by His Majesty, 
and on return were published as the law of the Province, 
and writs were accordingly issued for the first election of 
Representatives. 

"That a House of Representatives of the Inhabitants 
of this Province be the Civil Legislature thereof, in con- 
junction with His Majesty's Governor or Commander- 
in-chief for the time being, and His Majesty's Council 
for the said Province; the first House to be elected and 
convened in the following manner, and to be styled The 
General Assembly, viz: 

"That there shall be elected for the Province at large 
until the same shall be divided into Counties, sixteen 
members, and for the township of Lunenburg two and for 
the township of Halifax four. That when fifty qualified 
electors shall be settled at Pesiquid, Minas, Cobequid, 
or any other places which may hereafter be erected into 
townships, each of the said townships shall be entitled 
to send two representatives to the General Assembly, 
and shall also have a right to vote at the Election of 
Representatives for the Province at large; that the house 
shall always consist of at least eleven members present 
besides the speaker, before they enter upon business. 

"That no person shall be chosen a member of the 
said House, or shall have a right of voting, who shall be 
a Popish recusant, or shall be under the age of twenty- 



THE TOWNSHIP SETTLEMENTS 65 

one years; or who shall not, at the time of such election, 
be possessed in his own right, of a freehold estate, within 
the district for which he shall be elected or shall so vote. 
Nor shall each elector have more than one vote for each 
member to be chosen for the Province at large, or for any 
township, and that each free holder, present at such 
election and giving his vote for one member of the Prov- 
ince at large, shall be obliged to vote also for the other 
fifteen "That the precept for convening the first Assembly 
be made returnable on the 2nd day of October next." 

These resolutions constitute the charter and founda- 
tion of the Legislature of Nova Scotia. For a time each 
new township is to be accorded a status as a political 
unit for the purpose of representation. The later county 
organization was especially to facilitate the adminis- 
tration of justice in all parts of the province. From our 
standpoint the measure of power entrusted to the people 
may seem stinted. Events which followed a score of years 
later and stirred the continent will, on the other hand, 
tend to vindicate the retention of a virtual control of af- 
fairs in the hands of the non-electiveGovernor and Council. 
In war time the reins need to be held in a firm hand, and 
the staunchest democracy submits to heavy restraints, 
the better to defend its normal freedom. Nova Scotia 
was to pass through a long tutelage before arriving at 
the stage of Responsible Government. None the less, 
the establishment of the General Assembly of 1758 em- 
bodied ideas of immense importance, and the stock of 
Nova Scotia went up immediately with all home seekers 
of that time. Moreover between the call and meeting 
of the Assembly, Louisburg, the mighty, had been captured. 

That Nova Scotia could offer extraordinary induce- 
ments to British subjects seeking a home in the colonies 
was plain enough. It was no reason for objection that 
various grants of land in this territory had been made 
to great persons and corporations in the past ard all to 
little purpose. The beginniags of those attempted settle- 



66 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

ments had been blasted by the perpetual strife of parties 
seeking possession. It might now be confidently ex- 
pected that Britain would shield the province from foes 
without as it had been delivered from foes withir. Of 
this hope Halifax was itself a pledge. Its splendid har- 
bor ai)d convenience of location for the navy and other 
shipping were at once recognized and appreciated. It 
was evident that it had come to stay and play a chief 
part in the protection and development of British Amer- 
ica. The Governor could now say, "We have here foun- 
dations laid for a free and prosperous colony." The fact 
of a legislative assembly assures intending settlers of 
free institutions for those who come into her citizenship. 
At the first meeting in the Court house nineteen 
members were present, according to Murdock. On the 
tablet erected in Halifax in August, 1908, to commemor- 
ate this event we find twenty names, that of Mr. Malachy 
Salter being added to Murdock's list. One of the princi- 
pal votes of this session was that of one thousand pounds 
for a light house on Sambro island. Another was the 
explicit enactment of religious liberty, a matter in which 
the newAssembly voiced the sentiment of its constituency. 

Proclamation On October the twelfth 1758, the Gover- 
Issued nor in Council issued a Proclamation 

relative to the settlement of the Prov- 
ince. It recited that 

"by the reduction of Cape Breton and the destruction 
of the French settlements of Gaspe, Miramichi and St. 
John's river, the enemy who formerly disturbed and 
harassed the province and obstructed its progress had been 
compelled to retire to Canada, and thus a favorable 
opportunity now presents for the peopling and cultivating 
as well the lands vacated by the French as every other 
part of this valuable province. The Governor is pre- 
pared to receive proposals to that effect. There 
are 100,000 acres of plow lands, which have been cul- 



THE TOWNSHIP SETTLEMENTS 67 

tiyated for more than a hundred years past, and never 
fail of crops, nor need manuring. Also, more than 100,000 
acres of upland, cleared and stocked with English grass 
planted with orchards, gardens, etc.; an abundance of 
well-timbered woodland intermixed and convenient. Mr. 
Havelock of Boston and Messrs. Delancie and Watts of 
New York are agents and will receive and transmit pro- 
posals." 

The immediate results of the Proclamation were 
probably disappointing to Gov. Lawrence. Many ac- 
counts of enquiries for fuller information came from the 
American agents, information as to the constitution of 
the province, nature of the civil and religious liberties, 
the extent of the elective franchise. In a word the pro- 
clamation had been too meagre in its statements; it 
described only the quality of the land. That eminently 
wise friend and protector of N. Scotia, Gov. Shirley of 
Boston, had warned Gov. Lawrence that the Americans 
were "tenacious of representative institutions." Now 
he was to learn how much that term covered in their 
estimation.. 

It was evident that these New Englanders whom he 
considered as the best of all possible additions to the coun- 
try, had not forgotten the story of the civil wars in old 
England a century before, nor the lessons taught by grim 
experience to their fathers and then to themselves since 
that time. They were British, and some of them were 
ready loyally to embark in the new adventure on the wild- 
erness shore of Nova Scotia, but they must be assured 
of the old English liberties, civil and religious, in their 
new homes. 

And this so much the more, because the Colonial 
governors, far as they were away from the Home Govern- 
ment's offices of administration, were yet farther from 
the Commons of Great Britain, which there stood ever 
guarding the popular rights and liberties. Colonial 
administration at its best involved much exercise of ar- 



68 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

bitrary power, and tended to distinguish a governed and 
a governing class, the very sense of which on both sides 
provoked the struggle to bind or loose as the case might be. 

Gov. Lawrence promptly met the demands for in- 
formation by another Proclamation, in which, wherever 
possible, he showed that the interests, which they regard- 
ed as so vitally important to the settler, had been antici- 
pated by the Lords of Trade, the Governor in Council, 
and especially by the Act of the General Assembly in 
its first session. 

This comprehensive statement of the conditions 
and terms upon which the province was to be settled is 
here given, for it was read and discussed in every home 
in New England from which the settlers came. 

By his Excellency Charles Lawrence, Esq., Captain 
General and Governor in Chief, in and over His Majesty's 
Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia, in America, Vice 
Admiral of the same, etc. 

Whereas, since the issuing of the proclamation dated 
the 12th day of October, 1758, relative to settling the 
vacant lands in this Province, I have been informed by 
Thomas Hancock, Esq., Agent for the affairs of Nova 
Scotia at Boston, that sundry applications have been 
made to him in consequence thereof, by persons who are 
desirous of settling the said lands, and of knowing what 
particular encouragement the Government will give them, 
whether any allowance of provisions will be given at their 
first settlement, what quantity of land will be given to 
each person, what quit rents they are to pay, what the 
constitution of the Government is, whether any, and 
what taxes are to be paid, and whether they will be allow- 
ed the free exercise of their religion? I have therefore 
thought fit with the advice of his Majesty's Council, 
to issue this proclamation hereby declaring, in answer 
to the said enquiries, that by his Majesty's Royal instruc- 
tions, I am empowered to make grants on the following 
proportions: That townships are to consist of 100,000 
acres of land, that they do include the best and most 
profitable land, and also that they do comprehend 



THE TOWNSHIP SETTLEMENTS 69 

such rivers as may be at or near such settlement, 
and do extend as far up into the Country as conveniently 
may be, taking a necessary part of the sea coast. That 
the quantities of land -granted will be in proportion to 
the abilities of the planter to settle, cultivate and enclose 
the same. That 100 acres of wild woodland will be 
allowed to every person being master or mistress of a 
family, for himself or herself, and fifty acres for e very- 
white or black man, woman or child, of which such per- 
son's family shall consist at the actual time of making 
the grant, subject to a quit rent of one shilling sterling 
per annum, for every fifty acres; such quit rent to com- 
mence at the expiration of ten years from the date of 
each grant, and to be paid for his Majesty's use to his 
Receiver General at Halifax, or to his deputy on the spot. 

That the grantees will be obliged by their said grant 
to plant, cultivate, improve or enclose one third part of 
their lands within the space of ten years, another third 
part within the space of twenty years, and the remaining 
third part within the space of thirty years from the date 
of their grants. That no one person can possess more 
than 1000 acres by grant, on his or their own name. 

That every grantee, upon giving proof that he or 
she has fulfilled the terms and conditions of his or her 
grant, shall be entitled to another grant, in the proportion 
and upon the conditions above mentioned. That the 
Government of Nova Scotia is constituted like those of 
the neighboring colonies; the Legislature consisting of a 
Governor, Council, and House of Assembly, and every 
township, as soon as it shall consist of fifty families, will 
be entitled to send two Representatives to the General 
Assembly. The Courts of Justice are also constituted 
in like manner with those of the Massachusetts, Connec- 
ticut and the other Northern Colonies. That as to the 
article of religion, full liberty of conscience, both of his 
Majesty's Royal instructions, and a late act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of this Province is secured to persons of 
all persuasions, Papists excepted, as may more fully 
appear by an abstract of the said act, viz; Protestants 
dissenting from the Church of England, whether they 
be Calvinists, Lutherans, Quakers, or under what denom- 
ination soever, shall have free liberty of conscience, and 
may erect and build Meeting Houses for public worship, 



70 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

and may choose and elect ministers for the carrying on 
Divine service, and administration of the sacrament, 
according to their several opinions, and all contracts made 
between their ministers and congregations for the support 
of their Ministry are hereby declared valid, and shall 
have their full force and effect according to the tenor 
and conditions thereof, and all such Dissenters shall 
be excused from any rates or taxes, to be made or levied 
for the support of the Established Church of England. 

That no taxes have hitherto been laid upon his 
Majesty's subjects within this Province, nor are there 
any fees of office taken upon issuing the grants of land. 

That I am not authorized to offer any bounty of 
provisions; and I do declare that I am ready to lay out 
the lands and make the grants immediately, and under 
the conditions above described, and to receive and trans- 
mit to the Lords Commiss'rs for Trade and Plantations, 
in order that the same may be laid before his Majesty 
for his approbation, such further proposals as may be 
offered by any body of people for settling an entire town- 
ship, under other conditions that they may conceive 
more advantageous to the undertakers. 

That forts are established in the neighborhood of the 
lands proposed to be settled, and are garrisoned by his 
Majesty's troops, with a view to giving all manner of 
aid and protection to the settlers, if hereafter there should 
be need. Given in the Council-Chamber at Halifax, 
this llth day of January, 1759, in the 32nd year of his 
Majesty's reign. 

(Signed) CHARLES LAWRENCE. 

Township The publication of the second proclamation 
Grants -elicited a hearty response from many New 
England people who "were eager to adven- 
ture in the settlement of vacant lands in N. Scotia". 
During this year, 1759, applications were received 
from 'agents respecting lands at Horton, Cornwallis, 
Falmoutfr, Cobequid, Chignecto, and Granville, and 
township grants were made accordingly. Greater zest 
was given to the people interested by the gratifying news 
of the complete success of the British attack on Quebec 



THE TOWNSHIP SETTLEMENTS 71 

and the other French strongholds on the St. Lawrence. 
Quite naturally the expulsion of the Acadians had also 
incidentally served to advertise the exceptional value 
of the lands vacated by them, so that everything was 
favorable for the movement for re-settlement. There- 
fore in the new House of Assembly which was convoked 
in 1761, on account of the death of King George II in 
October 1760, the representation was made up of mem- 
bers of the counties of Halifax, Lunenburg, Annapolis 
and Kings, and the townships of Halifax, Lunenburg, 
Annapolis, Horton, Cornwallis, Falmouth and Liverpool. 
During the same year other townships were formed, of 
which mention may be made of Chester and Yarmouth. 

The records show that in the most of the instances 
named, aid was given by the government for the trans- 
portation of the settlers. The Gov. in Council, in its 
zeal for populating the Province, had, in reply to enquiries, 
enlarged upon the terms of the proclamations in several 
respects; e. g. that settlers shall have free assistance for 
transportation; that they shall be protected from impress- 
ment, and that a surveyor shall be sent to show the most 
convenient places for choosing a township. This under- 
taking had been especially given to a committee from 
Connecticut and Rhode Island in April 1759. The Lord 
of Trade at once when informed of this forbade further 
assistance and making any more grants as it was their 
policy to reserve large tracts of land in the province for 
disbanded soldiers. To this Lawrence replies in great 
distress at having incurred the displeasure of their Lord- 
ships, but assures them that lands equal to any in fertility 
and convenience and that will more properly constitute 
our frontier were none of them granted or engaged. 
Again in May 1760, he argues against the soldiers as least 
of all qualified for settlers, and that they will need supplies 
of provisions for a year at least, with tools for building, 



72 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

implements for farming, cattle and stock. A month 
later he writes their Lordships about the settlers at Liver- 
pool; and says of the expenses he has incurred, "the ut- 
most I hoped was that your Lordships might be induced 
to permit me to give some little aid towards transporting 
some of the most needy of the settlers into the 
country, particularly such as are remote from the water- 
side, and with no craft of their own, must sell their little 
stock to pay their passage. Their first and most dispirit- 
ing difficulty is that of their removal from home with 
their families and stock." 

We will cite yet another instance of the care with 
which the Governor watched over the project for which 
he labored so long. On October third, 1759 he caused 
a proclamation to be made concerning divers persons who 
as Agents "have exacted sums of money from certain 
persons for admitting them into shares of land to be to 
them granted." It declared that "such proceedings are 
altogether contrary to my intention, and an imposition 

upon the public and are hereby strictly forbid; 

and that such monies must be returned unless it appears 
that such have been voted these agents by the grantees 
at a general meeting." It may be observed that the 
powers of the groups of grantees as a body are here recog- 
nized. 

On a former page we have noticed Gov. Lawrence's 
estimate of the worth of the coast fisheries, particularly 
those of Cape Sable. A reason for the apparent delay 
in the arrival of settlers for this district may now be 
mentioned. In 1759 a committee of gentlemen from New 
England, who had come with Capt. Sylvanus Cobb in the 
Provincial sloop York to view these lands, were fired on 
by a number of neutral French and Indians, in number 
about a hundred. It is plain that one feature of the pro- 
tection to be afforded to the settlers, viz; that "forts 



THE TOWNSHIP SETTLEMENTS 73 

were established in the neighborhood, and garrisoned by 
the King's troops, was conspicuously wanting at Cape 
Sable. The ardor of the committee was evidently cooled 
by the reception given them, and the party they represent- 
ed never came. After this incident, the Governor, who 
was not in the mood to have his plans baulked by a rem- 
nant of these people who had evaded the grip of Major 
Prebble and were making common cause again in petty 
retaliation, sent Major Phillips from Annapolis to round 
up these "lands ruffians, turned pirates." Many of them 
were then carried off to Halifax by Capt. Gorham and his 
famous "Rangers". On June 29, 1759 there is mention 
in the Council Records of a "return of Province vessels 
from Cape Sable with the remaining French inhabitants 
that concealed themselves from the party sent thither last 
fall." If there should still be a fugitive straggler it would 
make no difference. The coast was now clear. Thence 
they went to England on the ship "Mary the Fourth", 
Wm. Daverson, master, in Nov. 1759. There were 56 
men, 46 women and 49 children. The settlement of the 
townships which have been named, as well as those sub- 
sequently formed, proceeded apace, with some variety of 
method owing to the facilities for transportation. The 
greater part were favored by government aid in 
this respect and arrived in shiploads. We shall see that 
the settlers at Barrington were left to their own resources. 

Halifax It has been observed that Halifax might be 
in 1759 regarded as a pledge of protection and pros- 
perity for the province. Its condition at 
this time may seem of moment. Ten years before, it 
was born in armor on a fleet of ships of war, and had 
drawn its nourishment from the breast of the Imperial 
navy all the while. On the other hand the enterprise 
of the merchants of Halifax had satisfied the demands 
of the navy, no trifling matter; and the cash from Old 



74 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

England flowed plentifully in the new naval station and 
attracted to the city all sorts of people from far and near. 
As a market for goods and services, as a rendezvous for 
the British Navy, in its aspect of prosperous fortune- 
making citizens and as a capital for a renovated province 
it seemed to justify the optimism of Gov. Lawrence in 
his address to the Assembly. He says " Applications for 
land are crowding in upon me faster than I can prepare 
the grants." and he expects that "the progress made by 
Nova Scotia in one year will exceed the growth of half 
a century in the most boasted of H. M. American domin- 
ions." 

Death of Gov. Regretfully we pass the place in our 
Lawrence history where the hand of Lawrence 

falls from the helm of government. 
He died in October 1760. An ardent Britisher, piloting 
his province at a time when prompt and vigorous action 
was demanded, and the shifting deckload must be either 
secured or jettisoned for the safety of the Ship, he decided 
on the latter course after vainly attempting the former. 
He saved the ship! Respecting his constructive work 
we must confess that his energetic measures for replacing 
the French population were of the first order, for he 
founded the new province on the hearty consent of the 
people. As we review his official life we sympathize 
with him in his difficulties and count him as a master 
builder whose work had stood so far the test of time. 
Like David, however his role had been to clear the ground 
and gather materials for other builders. 

A sidelight on the conduct of Lord Lawrence is given 
by Hon. Jas. S. McDonald in "Eminent Rulers of N. Sco- 
tia", p. 36. He delayed calling the Assembly at Hali- 
fax because it would enable Joshua Mauger and other 
Halifax merchants who were smugglers on an extensive 
scale to hamper him in his efforts for the Provincial 



THE TOWNSHIP SETTLEMENTS 75 

safety (1754), p. 49. He was regarded as authorized 
secretly by British authority to delay the Assembly. 
It was the Payzant tragedy at Mahone that led Irm to 
deal sternly with the marauding Indians. The offer of 
25 pounds for each Indian scalp or live squaw or papoose 
brought in resulted in the coming of the N. E. Rangers 
who soon reduced the Indians to complete subjection. 

The Great War It was left for Lawrence's succe ssor, 
Ended Governor Belcher, to give expre s sion 

to the satisfaction which had culminated 
in the completion of a glorious war. There was a board 
outlook in the terms of the Proclamation for "a publick 
Thanksgiving". 

"Whereasmuch as it has pleased Almighty God to 
bless and prosper His Majesty's arms under the com- 
mand of His Excellency, Major General Amherst in the 
total reduction of Canada, Therefore... that a general 
Thanksgiving to Almighty God for his mercy be observed 
on Thursday the 20th day of the month of November; 

and charging all H. M. subjects to observe on 

pain of suffering such punishment as may justly be inflic- 
ted on all such as shall contemn or neglect the perfor- 
mance of so religious and necessary a duty." 

(J. BELCHER.) 



76 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



CHAPTER V. 



THE TOWNSHIP OF BARRINGTON. 



The First Some time before the death of Gov. Lawrence 
Grants two grants had been issued for the erection of 
a Township of Harrington. The former of these 
is recorded in Book A,p. 61, of the Records in the Crown 
Lands office and dated September lst,1759. The latter is 
in the Records,Book 2,p.97, without date; but it contains a 
reference to the former showing that the 93 J shares 
and the 73 J shares respectively of the two documents 
are both included in the 200 shares of 500 acres each which 
constituted the 100,000 acres at which the Township 
was estimated. In other words the second grant contain- 
ed a supplementary list; and, as it says, the grantees 
were subject to the same terms and conditions as the 
committee had agreed to in their behalf. The text of 
these grants is given herewith excepting the names of 
the grantees, very few of who ever came to this part of 
the province, and these not as claimants under either of 
these grants. 

"A GRANT made by His Excellency Gov. Lawrence 
with the advice and consent of His Majesty's Council 
for this Province to John Johnson, Benjamin Pratt and 
a number of other persons, (hereinafter named) whom they 
represented as a committee passed under the Seal of the 
Province giving and confirming unto them ninety three 
and a half shares or rights being part of two hundred 
shares or rights whereof a Tract of land by this Grant 
erected into a Township by the name of the Township of 
BARRINGTONinthisProvincedoth consist whichNinety 
three and a half shares or Rights is to be divided accord- 
ing to the respective shares hereafter specified. The 
said Township is situate lying and being on the Sea Coast 
of Cape Sable Shore and is thus to be abutted and bound- 



THE TOWNSHIP OF BARRINGTON 77 

ed to begin at- Cape Negro and to include said Cape, 
and where the said Cape joins on the continent to measure 
from thence on the Westerly side of Cape Negro Harbour 
to the Head thereof, and from thence into the Country 
North West and by North to measure in the whole and 
in a Strait line eleven miles, and from thence West South 
West till it meets the ocean, and thence by the Sea shore 
to Cape Negro. Comprehending the Island of Cape 
Sable and all other Islands lying West or South of said 
limits within one league of the Shore containing in the 
whole by estimation one hundred thousand acres more or 
less, according to a plan and survey of the same to be 
herewith registered. 

The conditions of the Grant oblige Quit Rent to be 
paid. 

The Premises not to be alienated or granted within 
ten years without License. 

The Land granted to be improved or inclosed. 

Hemp planted, and such other Terms and Restric- 
tions to be observed and complied with in all respects 
as mentioned in the Grants of other Townships already 
made and entered in this Book. 

TWENTY-SIX of the said Grantees with their wives, 
children, servants and stock are to remove and settle 
themselves in the said Township on or before the last 
day of September next according to such shares and allot- 
ments as aforesaid, otherwise the Grant to be entirely 
void, but if performed and fulfilled to be good valid and 
effectual provided nevertheless that in case thirty-nine 
of the remaining Grantees with their families and stock 
as aforesaid, shall not remove and settle on the said prem- 
ises on or before the last day of September which will 
be in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred 
and sixty one then this grant to all the remaining grantees 
named in the Grant that shall not be so settled with their 
families and effects, on the said lands at that time shall 
be null and void, and in case the said Twenty six Grantees 
and the said Thirty nine Grantees with their families 
and effects as aforesaid shall be settled on the said lands 
at the several times hereinbefore limited then the last 
thirty-nine Grantees shall settle themselves with their 
families and effects on the said Lands on or before the last 



78 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

day of September which will be in the year of our Lord 
One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty two or 
the Grant shall be void to such of the said last mention- 
ed Grantees as shall fail to settle themselves at that time 
as aforesaid, and the Governor, Lieut, or Commander 
in Chief for the time being may at his pleasure grant 
the share or Right of all and every of the Grantees men- 
tioned in the Deed so failing to any other person or Per- 
sons whatsoever in the same manner as if this Grant 
had not been made: IN WITNESS &c. SIGNED, 
SEALED AND DATED AT HALIFAX in the Province 
aforesaid this first Day of September in thirty third year 
of His Majesty's reign Anno Domini One Thousand 
Seven hundred and fifty nine." 

"A Grant made by His Excellency, Gov. Lawrence, 
etc., etc., to James Williams, Esquire, James Keith and 
73 other persons hereafter named who were represented 
and in their behalf the conditions agreed to by John 
Johnson and Benjamin Pratt, Esquires of the Province 
of Massachusetts Bay in New England, their committee 
appointed for that purpose who are included in the first 
grant made of this Township hereafter mentioned dated 
1st September, 1759 passed under the Seal of this Prov- 
ince giving, granting and confirming unto them 73J 
shares or Rights whereof the said Tract of land already 
erected into a Township by the name of BARRINGTON 
doth consist. The said 73J shares are to be divided to the 
Grantees according to the respective shares hereafter 

specified which said tract of land is situate the 

boundaries set forth in the said premiere Grant. The 
Terms and Conditions on which this grant is made are 
the same and of like tenor in all respects as that in which 
the above mentioned John Johnson and Benjamin Pratt 
are proprietors, (a) 19 grantees ; (b) 28 grantees, etc., 1759" 
These Records of Grants were not signed. 

Professor Doane had the following memorandum 
on these grants which indicates that he had seen a list of 
which the author has no knowledge: 

"I find it extremely difficult to make out the probab- 
ilities of the case as to whether or not there were two 
grants of Barrington before the one that was carried out. 



THE TOWNSHIP OF BARRINGTON 79 

There are three lists given. The first and second are 
almost totally unlike. One name only is exactly the 
same, while there are about fifteen surnames alike. The 
third list nearly exactly combines both the others. A few 
names are included which are not in either of the former 
ones and a few names in one or other of the former ones 
are not found in this. The first contains 75 names, the 
second 104, and the third 180. There is a third list for 
"The Township of East Passage," headed; 'We the sub- 
scribers, Major John Johnson, Capt. Benj. Pratt, etc/' 

It would seem that this so-called third list was really 
the first containing the names of all the applicants for a 
township grant at the place then known as East Passage 
from which the deportation had taken place: probably 
also the people represented by the Committee who were 
fired upon by the fugitive French and Indians. This 
list would also antedate the grant of September 1, 1759 
in which Gov. Lawrence, after his fashion of honoring 
the English Nobility, named the new township for 
Lord Barrington, who was about that time a member of 
the King's Privy Council. 

Of all these names John Clements and Timothy 
Bryant were the only ones in the subsequent grant of 
1767; the name of James Williams which heads the second 
list was in the census of Barrington, 1762. 

These "subscribers" were residents of Bridge water, 
Pembrook, Raynham, Dighton, Kingston, Plymouth, 
Plimpton, Halifax, and Barrington, towns of the Prov- 
ince of Massachusetts Bay, who, according to the Grant 
had "undertaken to make a speedy and effectual settle- 
ment" in the township of Barrington. It may be inter- 
esting to note among the defaulting proprietors of the 
second list the name of Abram Lincoln. Was that the 
grandfather of the famous President looking towards the 
shores of Nova Scotia for a home? 



80 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

A Town with- As already implied, the project of settling 
out People at Barrington fell through. The few out 
of these groups who did come may have 
been the promoters of the Cape Cod and Nantucket 
movement just afterwards, but their names do not appear 
in such a way as to warrant belief in that explanation. 
These records are however worth preserving, as showing 
more particularly the nature and extent of the emigration 
fever at that time. They also indicate in the conditions 
agreed to, as for example, that of raising Hemp as a spec- 
ialty in Barrington, how little the unfitness of the soil 
for farming and the natural advantages of the place for 
a fishery were understood either by grantor or grantees. 
Surely a good and wise Providence was guiding in its settle- 
ment. 

Clearly stated in the proclamations and grants was 
the reasonable condition that forfeiture of the grant should 
follow upon failure or neglect of settlement by the grantee. 
There is no reason to suspect any interference with the 
townsmen of Massachusetts Bay in their plans for settle- 
ment. More likely would it be that the damage wrought 
by the great storm and tidal wave, mentioned in the first 
chapter as occurring in the autumn of 1759, would be 
so reported as to dishearten the grantees. The induce- 
ments for farmers to come to Cape Sable diminished as 
the facts became known. Though in general men think 
it easy to take up the work of a different calling, it is 
not the case that adult landsmen transfer easily to the 
ranks of fishermen. Having got the grant with what 
haste was possible, as against other applicants, the Yankee 
might now leisurely consider the situation before break- 
ing up his old home. So we suppose it was in this case. 
When it was seen that the dykelands had been taken 
up, and that the garrisons promised in the prospectus, 
were few and far bet ween, the hasty undertaking suffered a 



THE TOWNSHIP OF BARRINGTON 81 

fatal shock. For frontiersmen of New England it would 
be a jump from the frying-pan into the fire to venture 
among the now notorious Acadians and Indians of Cape 
Sable. We must also remember that further aid in trans- 
portation had been forbidden by the Lords of Trade. 
The frown of government, then, as now, was death to 
promoters, and therefore they soon lost their interest 
in the patriotic aims of the Governor. These factors 
of the problem of settlement affected the result so 
much that at the beginning of 1760 Harrington was still 
a township without a people. In that respect it was 
not alone. The circumstances of the settlement 
of Yarmouth furnish- an interesting parallel. There, 
too, grants were issued to a number of New England people 
in 1759 and 1760. These did not become settlers, for 
causes equally obscure. The real grant at Yarmouth was 
not made until 1767. 

"They the true- Nothing less pretentious can be imagined 
hearted came." than the coming of the first real home- 
seekers to the East Passage at Bar- 
rington. The most of those who preceded them, as to 
Minas, Liverpool and other townships, were conveyed 
in ships carrying some semblance of military pomp and 
power. It was not thus at Harrington. The news of 
the default of the first grantees would soon be carried 
coast-wise from Halifax to Boston. The facile commun- 
ication of news, at a period when there were no mails 
and special messengers were despatched by government 
for state matters, may be illustrated by a statement 
of Gov. Lawrence in 1760, in his report on the Liverpool 
township settled that spring. "Not only will there be no 
new demands from the Liverpool people but on the con- 
trary transient fishermen from Marble head and Cape 
Cod, who have put in there out of curiosity are so taken 
with the promising prospects of those people that they 



82 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

have all solicited strongly to be admitted into their town- 
ship." 

The very reason for abandonment by farmers was 
an inducement to fishermen. Already shallops from 
Cape God were fishing and harboring at Cape Sable in 
the summer. These men knew the waters and their 
wealth, heedless almost of what the land might yield 
to labor; and they had had no quarrel with the straggling 
French who would now be desiring peace and privileges 
of trade. It should be mentioned also that the Cape 
Cod people were not the only folks considering the 
Cape Sable proposition. In a letter to the Lords of 
Trade in 1760, the new Governor of Nova Scotia advises 
them that fishermen from Marblehead are ready to come. 
But Marblehead is on the northern shore of Massachu- 
retts Bay. One at least of the grantees of 1759 hailed 
from that famous port, which is hovered by Salem, the 
more famous mother of witch craft! Again Providence 
was propitious, and prompted the movement of the 
Plymouth people hither ward. 

Who then made up the company of the first settlers, 
and how was their arrival heralded? There were no illus- 
ions. Some people of Cape Cod and Nantucket, well 
informed about the conditions, both as to the opportunities 
for fishery and trade and also the difficulties to be expect- 
ed in making the transfer and living at Cape Sable 
canvassed the pros and cons of the question and decided 
to make the change. They determined to thrust out 
from the old colony and venture something in the hope 
of temporal betterment for themselves and their posterity. 
They doubtless shared in the general expectation of con- 
firming the British possession of the American Coast 
but the ruling idea was to establish their homes more 
conveniently for the prosecution of their business in life. 
To produce fish for food, oils for lighting purposes, and 



THE TOWNSHIP OF BARRINGTON 



to barter or market these and the spoils of their hunting, 
were fundamental occupations in the colonial life of those 
times, and to such they had been bred. The changes 
of residence which men make for business advantage 
are quiet and commonplace and make little commotion 
in the world. The emigration in this case was less ob- 
served or noted because small vessels were employed 
for the transportation and these brought but a few families 
at once. 

The following extract from the editorial of the first 
issue of the Yarmouth Telegram on Nov. 25, 1831, is 
very pertinent and instructive on this subject, though 
written especially regarding Yarmouth: 

"In the year 1761, several fishermen with their fam- 
ilies came from New England and made their home in 
this unbroken wilderness, whose whole fortune was their 
power to labor, their highest ambition to live on their 
own land in security and in peace with all mankind. 
When the first emigrants arrived here they brought a 
little food with them, but depended chiefly on the 
fish that they had to draw out of the ocean. The soil did 
not produce food for a single family. Whatever fish they 
caught more than they had use for they carried to settle- 
ments farther advanced in civilization ; but as winter set 
his Broad Seal on their great storehouse, so every spring 
for several years they were on the verge of star- 
vation; and their log houses were but a little superior 
to the Indians' Camps in the woods near the shore. 

The writer adds: 

"Estimate correctly all complaints of poverty, and 
fear it no more than you would fair wind at sea for pover- 
ty is the mother of labor." 

Barrington was born in the same cradle in much 
hardship amid wars and rumors of wars. Her people 
may today make a like appeal to experience. 

We have referred to the desire of the fishermen, who 
had been finding shelter in the harbors near Cape Sable 
in the summer, to establish their homes nearer to these 



84 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

prolific fishing grounds and to the Banks off the Nova 
Scotia Coast. To find a place for profitable employment 
in one's life work, and then to move the family there is 
perhaps the most familiar form of migration in our own 
times when facilities of travel have made the whole world 
a common labor market; and in this also Barrington- 
ians have had their share and spread abroad in the earth. 
We are fortunate in having some valuable accounts 
of the real settlers of the township from the very first 
given by people two or three generations earlier than 
ourselves, in some cases personally acquainted with the 
first comers. 

One of the principal and most reliable sources of 
information concerning those times is the diary of Dr. 
T. 0. Geddes, who practised medicine in Barrington from 
1825 until 1859 and became heartily attached to the people 
among whom he lived. He always thought and spoke 
of Barrington as home, and was never quite contented 
elsewhere. The following is from his diary. 

"The first settlement of Barrington was after this way. 
In the spring of a number of fishermen, who had been 
fishing on the Nova Scotia Coast from Cape Cod came 
down to Port Latour and brought with them punts to 
catch fish. One of the vessels at anchor went ashore at 
what was afterward Howe Snow's Point, with 1000 dry fish 
and a deck load of oil all lost. The master's name was 
Eldad Nickerson. Of those who came down, there were 
some who did not in the fall return again to their homes 
as follows: Solomon Smith, Archelaus Smith, Jonathan 
Smith, Thomas Crowell. Thesfc persons, after the others 
had gone back to Cape Cod, came by boat to Barrington 
and landed at the place where afterwards was the store 
of Mr. Watson; and where in the meantime, the families 
of Thomas Crowell and Archelaus Smith had arrived in 
August and built a log house. On October 2nd, a vessel 
left Chatham and was eight days on the passage, bringing 
the families of Solomon and Jonathan Smith. Capt. 
Nickerson was in charge of the sloop which brought them. 



THE TOWNSHIP OF BARRINGTON. 85 

This was in 1761. Again. "Twelve families came to 
Barrington, November 1761, from Cape Cod, chiefly 
Chatham and Harwich. It was too early in the season 
to have corn of that year's growth ground. They brought 
some of the year before, and that year's they brought in 
cob/' 

The late James S. Smith of Baccaro, a great-grandson 
of the Solomon Smith referred to by Dr. Geddes, received 
from his grandfather, Theodore Smith, the following 
account. 

"The people from Cape Cod were accustomed to come 
down to Barrington or Port Latour fishing and in 1761 
a vessel bound to Liverpool landed the families of Squire 
Smith and Thomas Crowell, who were the first settlers. 
The rest of the colony came later in the season." 

The late Mrs. James McGray, a grand daughter of 
Squire Archelaus Smith, related and confirmed a tradition 
that two families were in Barrington through the winter 
of 1760^-1. She said: 

"My grandmother Smith did stay in Barrington alone 
that winter. There was a family of Crowells came at 
the same time, a young man and his wife; they lived at 
a distance from her. She had four children. They had 
a log hut with a birch-bark door. The bears came and 
rubbed against the logs, she put the children up overhead 
on the boards and shouted at the bears and they went 
away." 

The Thomas Crowell referred to was known as 
Thomas Crowell, Jr. He settled at the eastern side of 
Sherose Island if we accept Mrs. McGray's version, and 
had his family there the first winter. The reason for 
staying there, so far away from the head of the harbor 
where the old French houses had been destroyed and 
where Mrs. Archelaus Smith spent the winter in the log 
house, would be that from the South end of Sherose Island 
both the eastern and western entrances to the harbor 
were under observation, and vessels passing through might 
he hailed arid boarded by the isolated settler. The iden- 



86 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

tity of this Thomas Crowell, as distinguished from the 
other grantee of the same name who settled at Moses 
Island, was never in any doubt, but we give a confirmation 
of the same by the late Mrs. Irene Kendrick, and espec- 
ially as connected with a disputed point about the birth 
of the first male child in Harrington. Mrs. Kendrick said, 

"I have been told that James Smith, son of Arche- 
laus was the first male child born here and that Squire 
Crowell was the second. Squire Crowell told me he was 
Thomas Crowell's eldest son, and Nathan was the young- 
est. Thomas, "Uncle Tommy" was the second son." 

This Squire Crowell was Ebenezer Crowell, who lived 
where the new bridge now crosses to Sherose Island. He 
died in 1837. Archelaus Smith sailed for Cape Cod the 
same day his wife arrived at Harrington, their vessels 
taking one the West, the other the East passage. Early 
winter prevented his return. The Smith family lived 
opposite the old meeting house for several years, until, 
in the time of the Revolutionary War, he moved to Cape 
Island. There he and his descendants occupied the 
shore facing the Passage, his own house being near the 
shore, opposite the Centreville Church. 

Other arrivals in 1761 brought up the number to 
twenty families with 180 souls. They were then reported as 
having 300 acres of cleared land. As this was the amount 
credited to the former Acadian inhabitants it is therefore 
not to be taken as an evidence of their farming industry 
in that season but of entering on the old French lands. 
As to the discrepancy in the accounts of the winter of 
1760-1, we believe the direct tradition at the mouth of 
Mrs. McGray is fully worthy of credence. Mrs. Archelaus 
Smith would seem to be a woman quite capable of 
taking passage with her children for Barrington where 
her husband was fishing in the summer if only to give him 
a surprise; and Mrs. Thomas Crowell would be easily 



THE TOWNSHIP OF BARRINGTON 87 

persuaded to keep her company, as a recent bride ventur- 
ing to meet her husband. 

Why deny the possibilities of romantic with business 
enterprise. To these women at all events must be given 
first of all, the honor of leadership in breaking with the 
old associations and planting the first English homes in 
desolate Barrington. The Capt. Eldad Nickerson men- 
tioned moved to Barrington and was one of the earliest 
traders of the new settlement. Solomon and Jonathan 
Smith were from Chatham. Both lived at the Head 
The former after some years moved to Indian Brook; 
the latter to Cape Negro. More arrivals from Cape Cod 
and a number from Nantucket came to reinforce the little 
colony in 1762. 




88 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 



CHAPTER VI. 



ANTECEDENTS OF GRANTEES, 1767. 



"I am a law-abiding citizen; 
I have a seat in the new meeting house, 
A cow-right on the commons, and besides, 
Am corporal in the Great Artillery." 

Act II., Sc.ii. N. England Tragedies, 

John Endicott: Longfellow. 

The People of Nantucket. 

"A certain Richard Gardner of Nantucket master and owner of 
a whaling vessel; he writes that he is coming down to see us. I hope 
you'll like him. Act II., Sc. i.- Giles Carey: Longfellow. 

The Plymouth or The story of Barrington, with what- 
Cape Cod People ever may be peculiar in its character 
and development, would be incomplete 
and misunderstood without some account of the antece- 
dents of the people who came from Cape Cod and Nan- 
tucket. 

First of all the landing and settlement of the Pilgrim 
Fathers at Plymouth was the result of accident or, as 
we believe, of special Providence. Their charter and 
grant of land designated Virginia as their colonial home, 
but the first vessel, the Mayflower, put in to Cape Cod, 
on account of contrary gales, and it became so late in 
the season that the Captain refused to carry them further 
South. Here they landed after organizing themselves 
on Nov. 11, 1620 into a "civil body politic by a solemn 
Covenant." 

Among the expeditions made to search out a suitable 
place for settlement was one by land on the 16th of Nov- 
ember, led by Miles Standish, and in which Stephen 
Hopkins, the ancestor of all of the Hopkins name and 
many others of Barrington, was one of the party. "Hop- 
kins' Cliff, some miles away, was named on this ex- 
cursion. By the middle of December they had selected 



ANTECEDENTS OF GRANTEES, 1767 89 

Plymouth as the place for their colony, and by Christ- 
mas day they were all ashore and had begun to build. 
This was the first permanent English settlement in New 
England. Virginia had already been founded and grants 
were now issuing in England for establishing the colon- 
ies of New England and New Scotland (Nova Scotia). 

The Puritans Though the Pilgrims are generally called 
Puritans, they differed so much from the 
Massachusetts type who began to arrive about ten years 
afterwards that it is important for the difference to be 
explained. While the Puritans of England in general 
held to the established Church of England and aimed to 
reform its errors and abuses, then prevalent, from within, 
the Pilgrims or Brown ists,as they were called in England, 
were so vehement in opposition to the practice and Epis- 
copal polity of the State church that they broke entirely 
away from its discipline. Persecution followed, and they 
fled to Holland; but were too English at heart to alienate 
their children, and therefore, with the rise of the coloniz- 
ing movement, sought and obtained permission to mi- 
grate to America. Their solemn covenant, subscribed 
at Cape Cod, asserts that they have "undertaken for the 
glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, 
and the honor of our King and Country, a voyage to plant 
the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia as loyal 
subjects of "King James." In their little band were 
men of scholarship. Some of them had been owners 
of good estates which had mostly been sacrificed for the 
common cause during their years of persecution and exile. 
Thus suffering together for an ideal, social distinc- 
tions faded away; their independent church ideas pro- 
moted the democratic spirit, and with all their hardships 
there naturally developed a hardness of temper well 
suited to a wilderness life. "We are well weaned," they 



90 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

say, "from the delicate milk of our mother country and 
inured to the difficulties of a strange and hard land. 
We are knit together as a body in a more strict and sacred 
bond and covenant of the Lord, whereof we make great 
conscience, etc.'* As they spread out from Plymouth 
during the next century the Church and town life of the 
old colony was modelled on their original, and was but 
little affected by the changes in the surging world around 
them. 

The Puritans, to use the name in the historic and 
not in the general sense, had had at first no quarrel with 
the state Church. They were a part of it, and sought 
to purify it from the Romish faults which persisted in 
the English establishment as well as from others not justly 
chargeable to Rome. It was in the clash of ritualism 
with puritanism in the reign of Charles I, that many of 
the latter came overseas and founded the Massachusetts 
colony. These were in general, people of education and 
property. They brought with them state church ideas 
modified by Presbyterian polity and put them into prac- 
tice in the most extreme and oppressive ways. During 
the civil war in England the Massachusetts colony became 
more independent in spirit and action and ignored the 
oath of allegiance to the King so that their charter was 
revoked and they became a crown colony. With this 
Puritan development Plymouth had little in common, 
but it was incorporated in 1692 with Massachusetts, 
along with Nova Scotia, Maine and other colonies. 

In England the puritan sentiment had ripened and 
found expression in the Civil War and Commonwealth. 
Brought overseas it underwent another change. Those 
who had fought for liberty of conscience for themselves 
denied it to Quakers, and in and about Boston, bigotry 
soon went to excess in procuring the execution of so- 
called witches and heretics. The power claimed by and 



ANTECEDENTS OF GRANTEES, 1767 91 

permitted to the local church was enormous. To be a 
citizen a man must be a member of the church. If the 
church excommunicated a member he became an outlaw; 
as Fisher says, in "Colonial Times": "The church and 
state were one, and the church was that one." The 
Plymouth colony did not carry their zeal in religion to 
such extremes; and, in general, the farther from Bos- 
ton the less the spirit of intolerance. "Miles Stan dish 
the Puritan Captain" of Longfellow's poem is described 
thus without regard for the outstanding distinction of 
the primitive communities. 

Political In 1685 Plymouth colony was divided into 
Relations three counties, Plymouth, Barnstable and 
Bristol. Barnstable included the eight towns 
of Sandwich, Barnstable, Yarmouth, Harwich, Eastham, 
Truro, Falmouth and Chatham. Cape Cod or Barn- 
stable County has been called the "right arm of Massa- 
chusetts" from its geographical shape and from the skill 
and enterprise of its seafaring men. The town of Chatham 
from which many of the grantees of Barrington 
came, lies on the eastern or ocean side of the "Arm". 
Nantucket is due South of it about 20 miles, a lonely 
guard on the great Atlantic. 

After the Revolution in England Massachusetts 
received a new charter from King William, and Plymouth 
was at that time united with the Massachusetts govern- 
ment. 

The influence of the church in the civil affairs had 
greatly waned at the time of the migration to Nova Scotia, 
but may still have been patent enough to make even good 
men more willing to settle where church organization 
might begin as with a clean slate. 

Nothing better illustrates the wisdom of the New 
Englander than the assiduity with which in general he 



92 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

fostered education, and sought to maintain the accepted 
standards of civilization. Though the life of pioneers 
demanded much isolation from society, yet both the tui- 
tion of the young and the higher education were counted 
as indispensable by him. Harvard College, begun in 
1638, less than ten years after Boston was founded, 
stood for intellectual training, and its influence permeated 
the whole country. If, as unhappily was the case, in- 
tolerance and the persecuting spirit were bred in those 
who suffered persecution for religious and political opin- 
ions, yet there were many who, like Roger Williams, 
bravely championed the cause of freedom and put the 
devil to shame. We should remember that conditions 
of life were not then as in our days. In times of danger 
men submit to severe restraint and discipline. The perils 
of colonial life may be appreciated from the fact that 
musket bullets were for a long time by the law of Massa- 
chusetts, regarded as current coin. Over a hundred years 
of rapid development followed, during which Indian and 
French wars were common, and Nova Scotia and Massa- 
chusetts were brought together by imperial policy, for 
mutual defence and advancement. By this cooperation 
the Capture of Louisburg was effected in 1745, and again 
in 1758. Then came the glowing proclamations of Gov. 
Lawrence which paved the way for the exodus of so many 
farmers, fishermen and ex-soldiers to our province. 

The Town- Attention must be given to the prevalence 
ship Unit of the town and village settlement in New 
England. It was necessary for protection 
against the savages, and against the inevitable tendencies 
to barbarism if the people should straggle apart. For 
defence, therefore, all the men must assemble for mili- 
tary duty, and at first they even came armed to church. 
In Virginia, the county was the unit of government; 



ANTECEDENTS OF GRANTEES, 1767 93 

in New England, it was the town. In Gov. Lawrence's 
plan for Nova Scotia, both were united, but the township 
was at the foundation. 

The New Englanders were supposed to be passion- 
ately attached to the independence associated with town- 
ship local control. Gov. Wilmot of N. Scotia in his 
report to the Lords of Trade in 1763 uses these words, 

"Upon application by the settlers from New England 
for townships to Gen. Lawrence, among other things to 
induce them to come, this was not the least prevalent, 
that they should be entitled to the same privileges they 
enjoyed in other colonies, and in particular that of 
being constituted into townships and having officers 
chosen by the respective towns to legislate their own 
affairs. This would be essential to establish peace and 
good order among them, and promote their welfare. 

Thus knowing the meaning, worth and exercise of 
erty these new citizens came to Barrington. 

We have seen that the Plymouth colony was started 
on a commercial basis. As detached settlements were 
formerly coincident with the increase of population and 
industry the right of private property was claimed and 
conceded. After a score or so of years of privation, famine 
and disease, a period of prosperity and progress followed. 
Except for catching the alewives abounding in the rivers 
lobsters and other harbor fish, no attention was given 
to fishing until about 1645, when the cod fishery was 
taken up as a community enterprise, and the profits were 
set apart for the maintenance of schools. Within fifty 
years Barnstable County with its eight towns, was itself 
the conclusive proof of the advancement made in the 
fishing business, its appropriate industry. 

Those days were "homespun days". While it took 
men with deep religious convictions to be successful colon- 
ists, they must feel and respond to environment as well 
as to creed. Clothing, shelter, food and other necessary 



94 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

goods must be provided. The lesson they had learned 
was how to draw from nature these supplies in summer 
so thart the winters might be spent in safety and comfort. 
It was the valuable experience in such tasks which our 
grantees brought with them. *Life then at Barrington 
was similar to contemporary life at Cape Cod, except 
for the necessary reversal to pioneer conditions. 

Cape Cod, like Cape Sable,has a sandy soil and is not 
famous for floral beauty. Yet in a book called "Redburn, 
His first voyage, 1869", the hero says when off Cape Cod, 
"On the shorebloom that came to us, methought I could 
almost distinguish the fragrance of the rose-bush my 
sisters and I had planted in our far inland garden at 
home. Delicious odors are those of our mother earth, 
which like a flower-pot set with 1000 shrubs greets the 
eager voyager from afar." Cape Cod still has its remind- 
ers of home. 

As the Nantucketers were a considerable factor 
both in the early and in the permanent settlement of 
Barrington we must glance at their previous history. 
From the diary of Dr. Geddes we have the statement; 

"In the spring of 1762 came the Quakers from Nan- 
tucket. Some of them settled at the Town and Hill, and 
others on Cape Island." 

That they were Quakers is our chief reason for mak- 
ing a distinction in referring to them, for we have no 
account of any other Quaker immigration into Nova 
S6otia and therefore their coming may be properly con- 
sidered as relating that sect to the history of our prov- 
ince. 

Information concerning Nantucket and its people 



*Apropog of the keen interest Barrington must ever take in the perfection of 
the fishing craft, is the statement in Harper's magazine, June 1873 p. 6. "The two- 
masted fore and aft rig was first adopted by the hardy Cape Cod mariners and 
the 'Schooner' is essentially a Yankee craft." 



ANTECEDENTS OF GRANTEES, 1767 95 

is furnished by a book, Quaint Nantucket" (W. R. Bliss) 
and from other sources. 

The island was first discovered in 1602, by Capt. 
Gosnold an English adventurer. In 1641 Thomas May- 
hew and his son of Martha's Vineyard obtained a British 
grant of the island which they sold in 1659 to Tristram 
Coffin, Thomas Macey, Christian Hussey, Richard Swain, 
Thomas Barnard, Peter Coffin, Stephen Greenleaf, John 
Swain and Wm. Pile. Macey became the first settler 
there the same year. He went from Salisbury with his 
family in an open boat having been fined there for harbor- 
ing Quakers, two of whom were hanged in Boston as 
heretics. Indians lived on the island, and Macey and 
other settlers bought from them also and obtained the 
Sachem's deed in 1664. TheFolgers came about that time. 
Whaling, the great enterprise of the islanders began in 
1672, 30-ton vessels being used and fitted for six weeks 
cruise. During the next hundred years shipping oil to 
England and making sperm candles came to be an im- 
portant industry. From 1762 to 1770 an average of 100 
Nantucket vessels engaged in whaling in all oceans, and 
the yearly production averaged 10,000 barrels of oil. 

The local history in the last part of the 17th century 
was a dispute between Tristram Coffin, magistrate, and 
John Gardner, champion of popular rights. Nantucket 
was joined to Massachusetts in 1693. 

In the clash between formality and spirituality in 
religion in England in the first half of the 17th century, 
a spark was thrown off more extreme in character than 
either Puritans or Brownists. This took shape in the 
society of Friends or Quakers, who soon found adherents 
in America, notably under the influence of William Penn, 
founder of Pennsylvania. The popular idea was crudely 
expressed a century later by Peter Folger of Nantucket 
in this stanza: 



96 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

"The cause of this. their suffering 
Was not for any sin, 
But for the witness that they bore 
Against babes' sprinkling." 

The Quaker mode of worship was introduced on the 
island in 1701. Such outposts were remote from the 
bigots of Boston and Salem and when persecuted Quakers 
came with a message of real religious import they received 
a hearty and general welcome. By 1775 there were 2000 
adherents including the richest people on the island. The 
new society in turn laid a hard discipline on its members 
and in time had its own share of dissenters. A record 
of the Quakers in 1760 includes an interesting reference 
as follows: 

"We have treated with Timothy Folger, and he says 
that he is bound over the sea and is determined before 
his departure to put his negro girl in a position of living 
free at twenty five years of age." Another memorandum 
without date, viz: "They called John Coffin to account 
for keeping in his house a musical instrument called a 
spinet and permitting his daughter to play thereon. The 
father stood up in meeting and confessed his disapproval 
of it, the mother, Keziah, approving it." 

Kelin Folger, whaleman, kept a journal of some of 
his voyages, 1751-7. These cruises were below the Bahamas 
and beyond the Grand Banks of Newfoundland; 
sperm whales were captured. The voyages were made 
in sloops which carried thirteen men and two boats. 
They would return with the oil obtained, and make three 
or four voyages a year. In 1754 the fleet from Nantucket 
consisted of 30 sail. These would employ the greater 
part of the grown up male population at that time. The 
work was dangerous work requiring skill, courage and 
sobriety. 

Of such were the men who formed the first contin- 



ANTECEDENTS TO GRANTEES, 1767 97 

gent of the New England emigration to Barrington. As 
with the men from Cape Cod, the ocean was their home; 
they heard their Maker's message, as by wireless, from 
everywhere; they brooded on questions of duty and 
Providence and carried to its extreme limit the idea of 
simplicity of worship. Away from the meeting house, 
and aboard ship, they did not claim that religion was an 
impracticable thing. By force of character they con- 
stituted a clean, strong strand in the life of this new Nova 
Scotia township, yet out of the 48 who came in 1762 not 
many made permanent homes here. Out of the 35 famil- 
ies mentioned in the "Return" only five were represented 
by more than one person, only eight brought cattle with 
them. These facts incline us to accept the statement 
of Dr. Geddes that they "Came on speculation". As. 
we have seen, it was particularly as whaleman that they 
came to exploit the Cape Sable waters. The experiment 
was made from a business standpoint. Already their 
voyages were calling them farther from the home waters. 
As they were seeking whales, there was no ill reflection 
in the current opinion repeated by Dr. Geddes two gener- 
ations afterward, "That they were not very good cod- 
fishers, not nearly equal to the Cape Codders." The 
greater part of the Nantucketers eventually moved away. 
It should be added that Cape Cod and Nantucket 
people had been through a disastrous period just before 
the settlement of Barrington. In the French war many 
whaling ships and fishing vessels were captured, and 
fishermen were impressed into naval service on British 
ships of war; for example, Henry Wilson, grantee, had 
seen service in the French and Indian wars and had been 
impressed in the navy also. To escape impressment, 
which was in the offer to settlers, and to obtain the better 
security afforded by the shore fishing at Cape Sable were 
their inducements to removal. 



98 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



CHAPTER VII. 



SETTLERS AND THE GOVERNMENT 



Some Individual From the Archives of Canada at 
Grantees. Ottawa we have some documents 

relating to the earliest English grantees 
of Barrington. The adventure of the first-comers al- 
ready mentioned was now to bear fruit. The Cape Cod 
towns were not so large nor so far apart but that the news 
about Archelaus Smith and Thomas Crowell and the 
advantages and feasibility of moving in on the defaulted 
township of Barrington would be thoroughly discussed 
during the winter of 1760-1. The tide of interest was 
rising. But prudence, of which these descendants of 
the Pilgrims had a fair endowment, suggested an appli- 
cation to the authorities before committing themselves 
to the expense and toil of emigration. Whether the 
application was made in person, by a committee, or by 
letter we do not .know, but the following Minutes of 
Council tell of the prompt and favorable answer given 
to their request. 
At a Council holden at Halifax on Wednesday, the 22nd July, 1 761 

Present. 

The Honble Jon Belcher, Esqr, President. 
The Honble 

Jno Collier 

Chas. Morris 

Richd. Bulkeley Councrs 

Jos. Gerrish. 

Alexr. Grant 

Advised upon the Petition of the following Persons, 
that they be admitted as grantees in the Township of 
Barrington at East Passage, Viz; Amos Knowles, James 
Rogers, Solomon Higgins, Lemuel Pearce, Seth Paine, 
Nathan Snow, Paul Seers, David Hopkins, Paul Crowell, 
Jonathan Crowell, Isaac Crowell, Nathaniel Nickerson, 



SETTLERS AND THE GOVERNMENT 99 

Joshua Snow, Samuel Wing, Junr., Isaac King, Prince 
Freeman, William Myrick, Theodore Harding, Archelaus 
Harding, Joseph Higgins, James Young, Gideon Higgins, 
Gideon Mayr. 

(Signed) J. BELCHER. 
(Signed) 

Jno. Duport 

Sec: Con: 

Attention may be called to the fact that the Higgins 
name, having three representatives in this paper, does 
not appear again; that the names of those who arrived 
in the early summer of 1761 are not on the list, and, in 
fact, that only ten out of the twenty-three petitioners 
are found in the subsequent lists of settlers or grantees. 
The ten who came are Amos Knowles, Seth Paine, Nathan 
Snow, David Hopkins, Jonathan Crowell, Joshua Snow, 
Isaac King, Prince Freeman, Theodore Harding, and 
Archelaus Harding. These all held the warrant of 
the council for freehold rights in the township, and were 
the first who settled with that warrant. Their appli- 
cation was certainly, as stated, made before emigrating, 
and may have been intended as a "feeler" of the views 
of the government in the interests of the Cape Cod people 
in general. 

Let us now see another Minute of Council of extra- 
ordinary importance in our history. 

At a Council holden at Halifax on Monday the 
3rd May, 1762. 
Present. 

The Honourable The Lieutenant Governor 
The Honourable 

John Collier 
Charles Morris 
Richard Bulkeley 
Alexander Grant Councellors 
Edmund Crawley 
Henry Newton 
The Lieutenant Governor laid before the Council, 



100 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

for their Advice an Application made by Ruben Folger, 
and Amos Knowles representing that Forty-Eight Per- 
sons being heads of Families were arrived at the Township 
of Harrington, from Cape Codd and Nan Tucket pro- 
vided with vessels and Every thing necessary to carry 
on the Cod and Whale Fishery that they would engage 
to have Fifty or Sixty Families from each of those Places 
to settle in the said Township by next September, and 
a sufficient number to fill up the whole Township by the 
Latter End of September 1763. Provided the same 
might be reserved for them till that Time That the Per- 
sons proposing to Settle there were men of Substance 
and required no Assistance from the Government either 
for Transportation, Provisions, or in any other manner 
whatsoever but would carry on the settlement Intirely 
at their own Expence. 

The Council having Taken the same into Consider- 
ation were of opinion that the proposals made by the 
said Ruben Folger and Amos Knowles appeared to be 
very Advantageous, and therefore did advise that the 
said Township should be reserved for the Persons whom 
they represent Provided that they do return a List of 
their names on or before the Last day of March next, 
and that they do Transport themselves with their Families 
and Effects to the said Township at their own Expence 
on or before the last day of September 1763 And the 
Council did further advise that Ruben Folger, Amos 
Knowles, Joseph Worth, Shubael Folger, David Hopkins, 
and Seth Knowles should be appointed a Committee to 
admit Settlers into the said Township under the regulat- 
ions and Instructions Established in Council on the 
Fifteenth day of August Last and that the above men- 
tioned Six Gentlemen be impowered to name a Seventh, 
to be of the said Committee. 

(Signed) J. BELCHER. 
(Signed) Jno. Duport, Sec: Con: 

Here it is evident that in the short interval, less 
than a year, since the application of Amos Knowles and 
22 others was granted, much progress had been made in 
actual settlement. The name of Ruben Folger of Nan- 
tucket is here joined with that of Amos Knowles represent- 



SETTLERS AND THE GOVERNMENT 101 

ing 48 persons, heads of families, already arrived at the 
Township of Harrington from Cape Cod and Nantuckett, 
etc. This is to be enlarged by the accepted tradition 
that the Cape Cod people came in 1761 and those from 
Nantucket in 1762. The reservation of the township 
for the other promised settlers under the conditions spec- 
ified implies that the grants of 1761, of 1762, and finally 
of 1767 were merely different stages in the pne township 
settlement. 

The committee named by the council for admitting 
settlers into the township was constituted of three men 
each of the Cape Cod and Nantucket people. It is to 
be observed that it was the intention of the Council to 
delegate to this Committee the power of completing the 
grantees list; and further, that the council did not appoint 
these men, but did advise that Ruben Folger, Amos 
Knowles, Joseph Worth, Shubeael Folger, David Hop- 
kins and Seth Knowles should be appointed" etc. The 
council was probably aware of the dissatisfaction in some 
of the other townships with the conduct of the appointees 
of the Government in local affairs, and which found ex- 
pression in a complaint from Liverpool a month or two 
later. We shall hear from this committee again; but we 
do not know who 'was chosen by the six named as the 
seventh member of the committee. Their work was to 
admit settlers under certain regufations and restrictions 
which had been established in Council on 15th August, 
1761. Murdock* has an interesting and illuminating 
sentence as to the action of Council on that date. 

On the 15th August a committee was appointed to 
divide the forfeited lands in the township of Cumber- 
land/' There, also, the settlement of previous but for- 
feited grants had been urgent and that was the time when 

*Vol. II, 406 



102 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

the following regulations were established as mentioned 
in the report of the Council. 

Regulations for admitting settlers. 

"Farmers having families consisting of more than 
seven persons in a family, stock and ability sufficient, 
to have one share and a half. Farmers having families 
of six, and under, and stock, to have one share. 

Farmers single, above twenty-one years of age, to 
have half a share. A return to be made to the Command- 
er-in-Chief, of persons so admitted, with their age, num- 
ber in family, stock and ability, by the first opportunity 
after each admission. 

And all other persons are to be admitted by the said 
Committee upon receiving orders from the Commander- 
in-Chief or others authorized by him, giving directions 
therefor. 

No minors to be admitted but by express directions 
from the Commander-in-Chief. 

That Fishermen, Ship-carpenters, and other pro- 
fessions belonging to the sea be admitted as well as farm- 



ers." 



The document which is next given indicates the 
careful supervision and assistance of the government in 
the settlements. These men with their families seeking 
homes were in no sense regarded or treated as "squatters" 
on vacant land as Campbell asserts of the Yarmouth 
settlers in his History, p. 41, but as welcome settlers. 
Not only were they permitted the fullest powers in divid- 
ing amongst them the available territory but they were 
to vote as freeholders in the County elections. The Chief 
surveyor was sent to their aid. His experience would 
be invaluable in determining base lines, establishing 
marks and boundaries, and estimating the comparative 
values of the lands to be divided. 

We may conclude this Chapter with the following 
extract: 

From JONATHANBELCHER,Lieut.Governor of Nova 



SETTLERS AND THE GOVERNMENT 103 

Scotia to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Planta- 
tions, dated at Halifax, Sept. 7, 1762. 

My Lords: 

In the course My Lords of this Summer, The Towns 
of Onslow and Truro at Cobequid and of Barrington, 
Yarmouth and another Township not named at Cape 
Sables, have been considerably increased by the arrival 
of Settlers, as will be stated to Your Lordships by the 
Returns of the Inhabitants and Stock herewith humbly 
presented. Most of these Settlers, especially at Barring- 
ton & Yarmouth are represented to be of Substance and 
Industry, and have transported themselves hither without 
the least charge to Government, or any application for 
Provisions. Mr. Morris the Chief Surveyor took the 
opportunity of his Visit for fixing these new Settlers 
at Barrington, to make the Soundings along the Coast of 
Cape Sables, Forchu, & Cape Negro, and has drawn an 
exact and authentic Chart of those Coasts and the Sound- 
ings which I have now the honor to present, with my 
humblest proposal to Your Lordships how far the publi- 
cation of his Chart may advance the Benefit of Navi- 
gation to this Province. 



M. 457. p. 11. 



104 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



CHAPTER VIII. 



CROSSING THE FLOOD. 



The experiences of sea-travel have from most an- 
cient times been a theme of writers seeking to arouse 
the sympathies of men. If in reading the names of those 
who with wives and children came to Barrington in 1760 
1761 and 1762, we have thought of them first as living 
at Cape Cod and Nantucket comfortably, settled 'among 
relatives and neighbors, and then as breaking up their 
wonted existence by a removal for good to a strange and 
wilderness land on board of little fishing vessels, we 
must perforce be interested in the voyages by which their 
homes were so tremendously changed. 

To us, well-used to modes of locomotion by sea and 
land which were not as much as thought of in the middle 
of the eighteenth century the difficulties and hardships 
involved in the migration from Cape Cod and Nantucket 
to Nova Scotia are almost inconceivable. This was 
peculiarly true for the women and children of those parties. 
First of all, it meant exile to those departing, and little 
prospect either to them or to those left behind of ever 
meeting again on earth. The motives for the change 
of home must have been of extraordinary force; and in 
the balancing of the motives for going against the affec- 
tions clamoring in opposition at such a time, we may well 
believe that the separation was heart breaking. Every 
act betokening removal was accompanied with tears 
and forebodings artd above all, prayers to their God and 
Father who holds the winds in His fist, for His protec- 
tion and blessing upon the departing or remaining kindred. 
Today, the sailor or soldier or traveller, the explorer or 
emigrant, even the foreign missionary looks for a definite 



CROSSING THE FLOOD 105 

furlough and time of reunion with his friends after a few 
years. To them the renewal of greetings could be looked 
for only in Heaven. The vicissitudes of the mariner's 
life constantly affect his family in a way conformable 
to that which war has in our times made universally known 
and they had learned that the only sure expectation in 
the time of earthly partings is that of reunion hereafter. 
Therefore the Gulf of Maine was regarded as a perilous 
and fixed gulf across which return was improbable for 
the most of these home seekers. 

But, after all, these emotions were outweighed in 
the event by the care and labor necessary for embarking. 
All such undertakings had their mishaps. Never had the 
dangers of the sea been better illustrated than in the 
history of the Pilgrims. The wife of William Bradford, 
the second governor of Plymouth, was drowned in the 
harbor at Cape Cod, before they had reached Plymouth 
in the Mayflower. An account is preserved of the remov- 
al of Edmund Doane to Barrington as follows: 

"When Edmund Doane formed the strange project 
of emigrating to Nova Scotia, he had his two story house 
taken down, the posts cut shorter to make it one story, 
and the roof made something like our present Mansard 
roofs. He hired a vessel, got his house frame and 
material on board with a quantity of grain and other 
vegetable products, some cows and heifers, a mare, some 
pigs, his furniture and effects and was about ready to 
leave when a gale sprung up, the vessel went on shore, 
and vessel and cargo were scattered along the beach. He 
saved what he could, got another vessel, embarked the 
remainder of his effects, and with his family soon left for 
Nova Scotia. This was in the autumn of 1761." 

Were it not that the Harrington settlers came in this 
quiet way a vessel at a time, as neighbors and kinsmen 
and owners of vessels could make it mutually convenient, 
the migration would have received more public notice. 
Yet, while the adventure was the more difficult on this 



106 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

account, under the circumstances there was a correspond- 
ing determination to succeed, and such cooperation was 
employed as was possible. In spite of all, the departure 
of each little vessel must have compelled the deepest 
sense of human isolation upon the great ocean as they 
consciously committed themselves to the sea-holding 
hollow of the hand of Omnipotence. 

The information which has come to us by way of 
history and tradition enables us in some sort to represent 
the grand adventure of these, our brave and pious an- 
cestors, crossing from Cape Cod to Cape Sable. True, 
it was hardly 300 miles in a direct line, but it was the 
same ocean which now on occasion is swept by boisterous 
gales; the tides on both shores are treacherous, fogs 
prevalent in the summer, and then there were no light- 
houses or fog alarms, or even buoys to aid the navigator. 
The daring and confidence with which those fishermen 
thrust out into the deep of the Western ocean, taking 
their families and their goods on little shallops of amateur 
construction is most marvellous. Theirs was all the 
courage of the explorer linked with the love of family 
and freedom and the flag of old England. But it must 
ever be remembered of them that they were fully aware 
that it was Providence to whom they were giving hostages 
as they sailed from port. And they all came safe to land. 

Let us more particularly regard that little fleet 
from Chatham bringing twelve families in the Spring of 
1761. 

We are here thrown entirely on our power of inference 
and imagination; for the names of the people in that 
company are not recorded. The cabins of each shallop, 
small and fitted only for a fishing crew, would be given 
over for the use of the women and children. Part of the 
hold would be stowed with various furniture and house- 
hold goods. A part might be fitted up with bunks for 



CROSSING THE FLOOD 107 

the men. On deck the fishermen's boats, implements, 
and gear that would not suffer from the spray, sheep and 
cattle, boards and planks, even frames of buildings taken 
down to be transported for prompt erection on the new 
homesteads. All this would be piled high to the safety 
limit. 

The vessels would sail in company, following a course 
agreed upon, and keeping together at night by signals 
as of torches or the blowing of conch shells. Adverse 
winds and fogs might separate them but each fearless 
skipper would, if necessary, sail by his own compass. 
With what thoroughness had all the contingencies been 
discussed before the start! 

It is a fair morning, and the signs are "set fair" 
when they determine to sail. By noon they are past the 
ledges and keeping the shore aboard as they sail north- 
ward to get their departure from Cape Cod before night 
shuts down upon them. That darkening night to these 
emigrants from their old homes, thus committing them- 
selves to the care of God, amid the rolling and pitching 
and dismal creaking of the timbers of these frail barks, 
accompanied also by the cries and alarms of the sea sick 
passengers, may serve to those who have had a like ex- 
perience to epitomize their circumstances in the days 
and years which were to follow. But the next morning, 
meeting the rising sun under their lee as they sped on 
before a fresh north wester, (as we love to think they did) 
the prospect of reaching port after another night would 
give the mariners a joy which would soon be communi- 
cated to all. 

Another morning and the practised fishermen find 
that they are on the shore soundings. Soon, low islands 
are seen and passed; and the main land rises ahead; first 
the highlands of Hio, where now the wireless station stands, 
and then the rugged shores terminating on the right in 



108 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

broken islands and the open sea. That most distant point 
is Cape Sable. By and by the opening of West Passage 
appears. The first who make the land, lying to, wait 
for the rest, who join them in a few hours; then they 
steer into the Passage and find anchorage for the night 
with Cape Island between them and the ocean. The dis- 
comforts of that night would be lightly rated; but the 
evening air would resound with hymns of thanksgiving, 
English hymns, such as never before echoed along that 
coast. The prayers of the leaders would be fervent and 
sincere; and the scene would be in miniature, a reproduc- 
tion of that so minutely recorded on the "Mayflower" 
arriving at Cape Cod 140 years before, Who can doubt 
that some of the restless lads would now launch their 
punts and go ashore, amply warned to keep in sight of 
the vessels and not be carried off by Indians; that ranging 
on the margin of the bush they would find the flower 
which "blooms amid the snows" bidding them welcome 
with its fragrance and beauty. On the morrow those 
who knew the harbor would serve as pilots, and at She- 
rose Island and the Neck and the Head the landing and 
location of these families would be made. What a cordial 
greeting would they get from the few old neighbors who 
had arrived before them, and how the humble roofs of 
Archelaus Smith and Thomas Crowell would ring with the 
voices of the women and children finding shelter there 
until their own roof-tree should be raised. 

They 'did not, like the Pilgrims of New England, 
prepare a fort or stockade with a cluster of homes close 
by, but spread out along the harbor front where conven- 
ience for fishing or the previous cultivation of land by 
the French attracted them. This distribution of the peo- 
ple, as it was afterwards endorsed by the proprietors 
meeting, was likely effected by some mode of concerted 
action at the time of the coming and doubtless under 



CROSSING THE FLOOD 109 

the supervision of the provisional committee named by 
the Governor-in-Council. 

But we have taken the most favorable supposition 
as to this voyage. With contrary winds or stormy wea- 
ther some of the vessels might have been a week or two 
on the passage; when the people, crowded and cooped 
up below with no deckroom, would experience many of 
the miseries of a slave ship; or, at least, such as were suff- 
ered by the Pilgrims crossing the Atlantic. Our delicate 
travellers of today, who shiver at the thought of crossing 
the Bay of Fundy in a 2000-ton passenger-steamer will 
do well to remember the 20-tonners of 1761 in which their 
great-great-grandmothers came over and ask themselves 
"if the old stock has degenerated with the increase of the 
comforts of life. 

Let us here notice again the story of Edmund Doane: 

"On the way to Nova Scotia in the autumn of 1761 
another gale was encountered, the vessel was driven past 
her port to Liverpool, and being shattered and the win- 
ter setting in, he concluded to winter there. In attempt- 
ing to get on shore their most necessary and valuable ar- 
ticles, the boat was upset by the restlessness of an old 
sow, and all but the crew was lost. Gathering up what 
they could they hired an old store, full of cracks and 
leaks and dwelt in it during the rigors of winter. About 
the first of June they again embarked for Barrington, 
then called "The Passage," where they arrived on the 
tenth of the month (1762) Of all their live stock only the 
old mare remained to them. The rest had died from 
starvation and exposure." 

There surely must have been great expectations 
from the change of residence to have led men to 
make such sacrifices. 

We are told also that "there were some who came in 
fishing boats. They coasted northward to Mount Desert 
and Grand Manan, thence shooting across to the Nova 
Scotia coast when the occasion favored." 



110 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

The Quakers were of course subject to similar tribula- 
tions in their crossing in 1762. As there were less women 
and children in their company the inconveniences would 
not be so serious. 

As to the men of both parties, the sea-voyage was 
all in the day's work. The divines and governors of 
Boston might well envy them their joy in the experiences 
of their calling. They would perhaps not dare nor wish 
to sing a song so secular as Dibdin's "A wet sheet and a 
flowing sea/' but their souls were attuned to the music 
of the wind in the rigging, the best Aeolian harp, and of 
the ocean spray. When on their customary fishing trips 
the dressing tables and decks were washed down after 
a hard day, they turned in and slept with pure conscien- 
ces holding the sincere belief that it was their Lord who 
was rocking them in the cradle of the deep. So they 
were brought to their desired haven. 

Though there is no account of any common plan 
beforehand by the Cape Cod and Nantucket people for 
moving into the same township; and, as we have seen, 
the opinion at government headquarters was at first that 
there were two" distinct settlements at Harrington, yet 
after their arrival we find them uniting in an application 
for the township to be reserved for those they represent. 

The island of Nantucket, south of the nearest towns 
of Cape Cod, was about twenty miles away. These 
Cape Cod folks were the nearest mainland neighbors 
of the Nantucketers and there would be a good degree 
of acquaintance, at least amongst the fishermen. 

There are some minutes in the Chatham records 
which throw a little light on the previous relations of the 
two classes of our settlers. (1). "In 1732 Mr. John 
Crowell was the school-master (At Chatham). The vexed 
question of the liabilities of assessors under existing laws 
came up, and the town chose Mr. Paul Crowell to go to 



CROSSING THE FLOOD 111 

Barnstable to see whether those who call themselves 
Quakers are clear of ministerial taxes." (2). Again 
in 1743 a committee was appointed by the town to as- 
certain and report who within the town limits were Qua- 
kers and who were Baptists. They reported Ephraim 
Crowell, etc., and their families." The leaven of Quaker 
sentiment was affecting its neighborhood. 

It may well be supposed that the free debates which 
enliven the leisure of fishing crews had tended to relax 
somewhat the doctrinal strait jackets of both parties 
and render some of them readier to practical fellowship. 
There was some estrangement from the strict church order 
or the rule of friend's society in either case; none of 
them were going as propagandists of a creed. Yet even 
after coming to Harrington where they had to cooperate 
in the township business they did not mix freely. The 
Quakers were disposed to keep by themselves and even 
to postpone the divisions of the common holdings. 

It was no easy matter for the Quakers to forget the 
Puritan persecutions nor for the Cape Cod people to over- 
come the distrust of the Quakers which had fceen preached 
into their minds for half a century; and therefore we 
find Quaker aloofness and New England intolerance 
but there is no record of serious friction or dispute in the 
township affairs; after a generation or two the lines of 
division were effaced. The Quakers did not keep up their 
religious society or distinctive worship, neither did they 
at first attend the services held by their neighbors in the 
houses of Archelaus Smith at the Head and Thomas 
Crowell on Sherose Island. Afterwards when meeting- 
houses were built and the younger people were growing 
up who had not felt such restraints of fellowship as their 
parents knew, but who were normally alive to the natural 
craving for friendly human intercourse or to the pricks 



112 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

of the arrows of Cupid, the old differences were forgotten 
and the breaches were healed. 

One feature of the permanent change of residence 
would have for many, especially the women, a profound 
and more lasting impression than even the physical 
discomforts of pioneer life or the perils of the voyage. 
The church could not be carried with them. Its influ- 
ence, permeating every part of the life of the people, 
could not be dropped and left behind. The souls which 
had responded to its fellowship or ministry or authority 
were in a measure cut adrift. At this point the pangs 
of removal would be the keenest. We do not mean 
that they were cut off from religion. The new experien- 
ces might be the means of its higher development. But 
the church associations were henceforth a precious memory, 
and a lifetime in the new township would not replace 
for a day that which had been the atmosphere of existence. 
They did not fail however to maintain the means of grace 
and having the root of the matter in them, the plant 
grew to a goodly tree in Barrington by the favor of God. 




(1) OLD MEETING HOUSE: 
The Head: Built in 176C. 

(2) TEMPERANCE HALL, c. 1850. 




THE ISLAND MEETING HOUFE, built c 1780, rebuilt 1811, enlarged in 1841 

See pago 272. 




SARGENT HOUSE, BARRINGTON HEAD. 

Main house built before 1769, by John Porter, grantee; sold at that date to Capt. David 

Smith, by him to John Sargent in 1783. It had an oak frame. The Porch was 

brought from Shelburne and added later. 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 



113 



CHAPTER IX. 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS. 



Returns and Relations In the first years of the new town- 
with the Government, ship, the people were naturally 

fully occupied with establishing 

comfortable homes while carrying on such remunerative 
work, chiefly .fishing, as would support their families. 
The drip of the cod-line and the chip of the woodsman 
are not the materials of written history though they tell 
in their own way the story of the life of man. Taking 
these essentials, that need no description, for granted 
we will bring into view some of the early events which 
were connected with the establishment and improvement 
of the community. And first of all is the Return sent 
to the Government and dated July 1st, 1762 by the Com- 
mittee named in a former document under date of May 
3rd the same year. 

COPY OF RETURN. 

A Return of the Inhabitants and Stock in the Town- 
ship of Barrington, July 1st, 1762. 



PLYMOUTH PEOPLE 


No. in 


Horses and 


Sheep 


Men's Names 


Family 


Neat Cattle 


and Hogs 


Nathaniel Smith 


1 


5 




Joshua Atwood 


4 


4 




Samuel Crosby 


5 


2 




Elisha Hopkins 


3 


2 




Thomas Cromwell 


3 






Thomas Cromwell, Junr. 


1 


2 




Solomon Smith 


5 


4 




Jonathan Smith 


3 


1 




Archelaus Smith 


4 


3 




Edward Doane 


9 


3 





114 



HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 



PLYMOUTH PEOPLE 

Men's Names 


Horses and 
Neat Cattle 


No. in 
Family 


Sheep 
and Hogs 


John demons 


5 






William Sparrow 


5 


1 




Theodore Harding 


3 


3 




Nathaniel Snow 


3 


1 




Jonathan Cromwell 


3 


2 




Elkanah Smith 


3 


1 




Judah Cromwell 


4 






Joshua Nickerson 


1 


3 




Simon Bearce 


1 






Solomon Kenwick 


5 


4 




Jonathan Sparrow 


1 


2 




Reuben Myrick 


1 


1 




Prince Freeman 


1 


1 




Seth Paine 


1 






George Webb 


1 






Stephen Nickerson 


1 






Sparrow Nickerson 


1 


1 




John Porter 


1 






Enos Snow 


1 






Archelaus Harding 


1 






Solomon Sparrow 


1 






John Sparrow 


1 






Isaac King 


1 






Josiah Badges 


1 






Reuben Hopkins 


1 






Henry Wilson 


1 






William Hage 


1 






Thomas Keny 


1 






Eldad Nickerson 


1 


2 




Ephraim Delan 


1 






David Hopkins 


1 






Seth Knowles 


1 






Amos Knowles 


1 


4 






94 


52 


73 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 



115 



NANTUCKET PEOPLE 


No. in 
Family 


Horses and 
Neat Cattle 


Sheep 
and Hogs 


Shubael Folger 


1 


1 




Joseph Worth 


1 






Reuben Worth 


1 






Joseph Worth, Junr. 


1 






Thomas Worth 


1 






Francis Worth 


1 






Charles Swain 


1 






James Williams 


1 


1 




Stephen Bernard 


1 






Simeon Coffin 


1 






John Coleman 


1 






Simeon Gardner 


1 






Andrew Gardner 


1 






Solomon Gardner 


1 






James Gardner 


1 


1 




Eliphalet Gardner 


1 






Benjamin Gardner 


1 






Solomon Coleman 


1 






Peleg Bunker 


1 


3 




Zaccheus Gardner 


4 


4 




Elisha Coffin 


5 


4 




Jonathan Coffin 


3 


2 




Jonathan Pinkham 


1 


1 




John Coffin 


1 


1 




Elijah Swain 


1 






Seth Paddock 


1 






Benjamin Folger 


1 






Shubael Folger, Junr. 


1 


1 




Samuel Russel 


1 






Chapman Swain 
Benjamin Barney 


1 
1 


2 




Reuben Folger 


3 


8 




James Bunker 


3 


5 




Timothy Baker 


1 


6 




Jonah Worth 


1 


1 




Nantucket People and Stock 


48 


41 




Plymouth People and Stock 


94 


52 


73 


Tnfnl TnVi5}Vi'l~5inf'<i unH ^Itn^lr 








.LULcll JLllildUl l/ctllLo clilv.1 Ol/UCJx 

in the Township of Barrington 


142 


93 


73 



116 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

Endorsed 

NOVA SCOTIA 
A Return of the Inhabitants and Stock in the Township 

of Barrington, July 1st, 1762. 
Reed, with Lt. Govrs. S're of 7th Sept. 1762. 
Received Nov. 1st 
Read Dec. 2nd 1762. 

L117. 

This "Return of the Inhabitants and Stock in the 
Township of Barrington, July 1st, 1762" is a state paper 
of great value in the records of our Township. It measures 
the extent of the immigration at that date and, in giv- 
ing the names of the men and their families, furnishes 
much data of importance for family history. Amos 
Knowles andSeth KnowlesandDavidHopkins, committee- 
men, have their names at the end of the Cape Cod list; 
Shubael Folger and Joseph Worth, committeemen, have 
theirs at the first of the Nantucketers. These lists were 
therefore made up by the committee. The name Ed- 
ward Doane should be Edmund Doane who is known 
to have arrived in the summer of 1762. The name Crow- 
ell is given as Cromwell, an error of transcription, possibly 
of doubling the letter w in the original, leading to the 
supposition that it was the more familiar name of history. 
The return, however, carries in itself the evidence that 
official forms at the capital had not yet been adjusted to 
the principal conditions in various parts of the country. 
While sufficient and suitable for the new agricultural 
townships, the return had no columns in which to exhibit 
the essential facts concerning the property of fishermen, 
whose boats and vessels were their implements of liveli- 
hood. Taken in connection with the provision made by 
the government for grants to settlers this Return of 1762 
is a paper of first rate significance. When, according 
to the terms of the agreement of May, 1762, the com- 
mittee should have finished their work, the proprietors 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS . 117 

would then be a corporation competent for the adminis- 
tration of the township business. That time limit, as 
we have seen, was the last of September, 1763. 

In a Return of 1763 showing "the State of the Settle- 
ments", Harrington is reported with 50 families and 500 
acres of cleared land. It would then be entitled to send 
a representative to the General Assembly. But the 
privilege of representation had already been anticipated 
by the act of the Council July 21, 1762, when the town- 
ships of Liverpool, Harrington and Yarmouth were erected 
into a county to be called Queens County, and it was 
ordered that writs be issued for the election of two mem- 
bers to represent this new county in the assembly. This 
does not appear to have been acted on until the fourth 
Parliament, in 1765, when William Smith and Simeon 
Perkins were elected for Queens County. Meantime 
the royal wish had been expressed against the further 
representation of new townships, possibly because the 
Colonial office was absorbed in the wars of Great Britain 
against France and Spain, wars which resulted in the 
annexation of the islands of St. John (Prince Edward) 
and Cape Breton to the government of Nova Scotia. 
The first member for the township of Barrington was Mr. 
Francis White, elected in 1767, the year in which the 
formal grant of the township was made to the settlers 
enrolled at that time. 

Along the Water- Before proceeding with the story of 
Front the division of lands and further 

organization of the township let us 
consider the point of view from which the settlers ap- 
proached their new places of abode. This is necessary that 
we may better understand the movements of settlers, 
and even the names of the various localities. The present 
generation looks out from a settled community adjusted 



118 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

to the conditions of trade, travel and occupation, and 
finds it difficult to realize the situation and problems of 
the pioneers. In fact, the geography of the township 
is back-foremost, compared with its aspect in those early 
days. For instance, the anchorage near the public wharf 
at the Passage was then called "The Back of the Island", 
a name in common use until a generation ago. To us 
it seems more correctly the Front of the Island, for it 
lies between the settled side of Sherose island and the 
village on the mainland. Why then its old name? Be- 
cause the settlers came from the sea, their occupation 
was seafaring, and the choice of their homes was deter- 
mined by the advantage offered for the use and protection 
of their boats and vessels. It will be seen that on Sherose 
Island the first division of the home lots was made, and 
all those homes were on the eastern side of the island. 
To them, at first, land had little value except it was near 
the shore and had a landing place for boats. Conven- 
ience of access to the fishing grounds and water to float 
the boat at low-tide were valuable privileges then for all 
as they are still to portions of our population. The most 
useful and necessary of all the belongings of the founders 
of the township was a boat. The harbor waters furnished 
the highway of communication. The boat was the uni- 
versal vehicle and carried its owner to the fishing grounds 
and brought back the treasures drawn from the deep. 
On "the rip" the occupants of near-by boats exchanged 
the gossip current in different parts of the harbor, at 
night the news was repeated in scores of homes after it 
had been well discussed at the common landings. When 
bad weather prevented the fishing trip there was some- 
thing to buy or borrow which called the boat into service. 
It would be a backward or awkward boy or girl who could 
not row or scull or sail the handy craft across the cove 
for an errand for the home. On Sunday, and especially 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 11 

when a minister was in town, a dozen boats filled with 
worshippers might be looked for from Cape Island, Sher- 
ose Island, The Hill and all intervening landings, many 
of which have been seen only at a distance by the present 
population. Barrington was at first simply a continuous 
water-front. Where the shore was upland there were 
homes, and from their kitchen windows the small craft 
were noted as they passed out in the morning to try the 
fortunes of the day and came in again with a fresh one 
for the chowder pot, and sometimes a quintal for the 
kench. Nor did they forget, reunited in the humble 
home, the Almighty who shielded their little boats in the 
troubled sea. But even the best boat privileges on the 
inner harbor were far from the best fishing grounds, and 
therefore it was common for the fishermen in summer to 
build shanties on the seaward islands where boats might 
then be sheltered, and thus less time be spent each day 
at the oars and more at the fishing line. After a genera- 
tion or two and when the first houses must be re-placed, 
conditions had changed, roads had been much improved, 
fishing and trading craft were built of greater tonnage, 
and schools and other public interests had been established 
so that living along the main thoroughfares was seen to 
be desirable. Then little by little the old sites were 
more or less abandoned. We must however recall the 
circumstances of the former days in order to understand 
how islands and points and inlets of the sea, now so out 
of the way, should have been at first the choice places 
of abode and trade and the chief centres of life and pros- 
perity. 

Summer Scenes In 1762 we find the tide of immigration 

and Scenery running steadily and rising fast. The 

action of the Council in nominating 

a committee of the settlers and in giving them the assis- 



120 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

tance of Surveyor Morris was timely and valuable. It 
would be difficult to imagine more gratifying scenes 
than would be presented on those summer days, when 
sites would be selected under the direction of the committee, 
temporary shelter provided for the people, enclosures 
made for the cattle, and cargoes landed on the barren 
shore. Where the French had lived, the ruins of their 
homes would still be evident. A little effort would change 
the ash heaps into garden spots, and soon the fruit trees, 
many of which survived Major Prebbles visit, and the 
grass growing on the old fields would cheer the most 
homesick of them all. When the place for the new home 
must be chosen for its position of advantage to the mariner, 
and new ground broken, and old forest growth attacked, 
these too would have their charm of novelty for the New 
Englanders. In the old Colony the people and the forests 
had been getting farther apart, and already the local 
supply of fuel had become scarce. At the Head it is 
true the French had cleared the lands near by, but else- 
where fuel was abundant. In the scarcity of beasts of 
burden proximity to the woods would be a strong induce- 
ment in choosing a home site. One who was brought 
up in a grantee's home left the statement that in his day 
Sherose Island was heavily wooded with oak and yellow 
birch. There is a similar account of the West side of 
Cape Island. After the hard toil of those first autumn 
days how these home-builders would feast their eyes 
upon the unaccustomed beauty lavishly surrounding 
them! 

But can we, looking back reconstruct the community 
and its surroundings so that the Pilgrim shall appear 
again removed but a short stage in time and character 
from the original, and that the name of his environment 
whether it be that of Green Hill or Solid Rock, Oak 
Park or Clam Point, or DanTs Head will revive the 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 121 

traditions of the life he lived and the good he did? Of 
this life which has so distinctive a character, we may 
safely leave the judgment to our readers after we have 
rehearsed the facts disclosed by a study of those early 
days. 

A Cruel Trading at first was almost entirely with Boston. 
Winter There was steady communication between 
Liverpool and Boston, for Liverpool soon be- 
came and long remained the second port in the province. 
But a sharp check was given to the prospects of Bar- 
rington in the winter of 1761-2. The weather was of 
unexampled severity, and the ice in Barrington harbor 
was three feet thick. Vessels could not move out of 
harbor or coastwise. A few trails connected the old 
French settlements of the township, but beyond this 
and the ice-sheet there was no way of communication 
and travel. The vessel upon which their supplies for 
the winter were coming was wrecked. The late A. C. 
White, grandson of Thomas Doane, grantee, has handed 
down some interesting particulars of that period. He 
says: 

The men were all fishermen and had to get their 
provisions from Boston. The first year in the fall two 
vessels went to Boston to get bread (flour) for the winter, 
but the winter setting in earlier than common, they got 
froze in and did not leave Boston until Spring. 

The people in Barrington not haying food, lived half 
of the winter on clams then they discovered that there 
were eels in the harbor and after that they lived in clover. 
Grandma Doane had a little child and she had one pound 
of sugar a little of which she would put in a bag and hold 
it in her mouth while nursing the child, to keep from 
fainting. 

About them in the forests were animals fit for food; 
but there was lack of ammunition, of rope, of implements. 
There was no law against killing the moose, but these men 



122 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

of the surf and foam, were unskilled in woodcraft; and the 
frequent signs of the presence of the King of the forest 
served only to mock them in their distress. A happy 
invention that first winter is credited to Elisha Hopkins 
whose house was on the Neck, near that of Henry Wifeon, 
opposite to Moses Island. They were all in great straits. 
The supply of potatoes and meal was exhausted. Mr. 
Hopkins went over to his neighbor and told him he had 
invented a machine for catching eels. It was the spear 
with sharp hooks on its prongs, a crude implement doubt- 
less, but since used for that purpose. After that until 
spring came eels served them as the staff of life. Similar 
hardships were experienced at Port Latour and Cape 
Island, and in the other townships also, though particular- 
ly aggravated in Harrington by the loss of the vessels 
which were bringing their supplies. There is an inter- 
esting story of this period, perhaps of the second winter, 
Some of the D'Entremonts who were in Boston after 
1759 had been trying to get passage on a New England 
fishing vessel back to Cape Sable, but were refused; 
until at last one was offered passage if he would show the 
fishermen where the best fishing grounds were off Cape 
Sable. This at last he agreed to if they would land him 
at the Cape with his gun and ammunition. So he came, 
and came to the house of Thomas Doane on Sherose 
Island. Mr. Doane was away but Mrs. Doane told 
D'Entremont that they had not enough food for them- 
selves. He begged to stay there, saying that he could 
kill food for them all with his gun. She kept him till 
Mr. Doane's return, when it was agreed that he might 
stay with them. His promise was so well redeemed that 
besides bringing in much food he had $40 worth of furs 
to sell when the traders arrived. This story and other 
traditions, for example, that the people from Cape Island 
went to Pubnico over the ice to get potatoes and there 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 123 

saw the French catching eels, so that on their return they 
tried and found them in the same kind of places, seems 
very good evidence that there were some of the French 
drifting back to their old Pubnico homes and enjoying 
peaceable neighborhood with the English long before the 
formal permission was given for their return and even 
before the peace of 1763. The sufferings of that first 
winter in the fishing townships were, in a less degree, a 
repetition of the history of the old Plymouth colony. 
Then they were not used to fishing and were often dis- 
tressed for food. Eleven years after Plymouth was 
settled the people were on half-food allowance. Lest 
any should form so shallow a judgment as to despise these 
founders of our township for their necessitous condition 
we will do well to remember the honor that has been 
accorded to the Pilgrim Fathers by the world. Fifty 
or more years ago many homes in our Barringtor fishing 
villages were bereft of their men by a gale on the fishing 
banks; our own times have brought all classes to face 
disaster through war. In these cases we have learned 
that privation and poverty in the home may go hand 
in hand with honor and heroism in its representative 
whether at home or on the battlefield. So with our an- 
cestors of those days, the slightest memorial of whose 
foundation work we count it our happiness to record. 

The Settler s As in other parts of the province at this 
Home time the first and temporary home of the 

ordinary settlers was a log-house. Some 
brought house frames, building materials, and valuable 
furniture, and all had household utensils such as were 
in common use in New England then. The first winter 
taught the necessity of a staunch warm house, and here 
the log-house with ample fire-place within and banking 
without supplied the need. When all day under the 



124 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

winter sky the proprietor had been cutting fuel or timber 
what a relief from the frost wind to sit by the roaring fire 
with his family; for one good thing was free for the getting 
and that was wood. Look around and see there the 
indispensable furniture of the kitchen and living-room; 
andirons, crane, pots and hangers, pans and baking kettle, 
the last of which lying in the hot ashes all night turns 
out the perfect loaf in the morning. The flax and spinning 
wheels are there, and in some houses a loom. Table 
and chairs are often home made. Ever here however 
may occasionally be seen the antique mahogany furni- 
ture which Pilgrim Fathers had brought from their Eng- 
lish homes. Books are not abundant but the Bible and 
Watt's Hymns for certain, a few classics, history, poetry 
and biography. As in other respects the pioneer exper- 
iences of the "Old Colony" had not been lost in the 
interval. There, demard for a structure capable of 
defense against Indians had led to the building of 
palisaded houses, in which the walls consisted of stakes 
or poles closely driven into the earth. One built by Mr. 
John Crowe of Yarmouth, Mass., lasted nearly two 
centuries. It had been plastered inside and out with 
shell mortar and afterwards clapboarded. 

The same inventive mother was brooding over 
this new swarm of pilgrims, and when necessary they 
followed no fashion of the past in their architecture. 
Their immunity from unusual mortality or plague in 
the first fierce winters bears testimony to the common 
sense which ruled them in the construction of their dwell- 
ings. 

Instead of attempting a more particular description 
of the log-house I will quote from Howe's beautiful poem 
Acadia, hoping some of our readers may be led to cultivate 
acquaintance with his writings. 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 125 



THE LOG HOUSE. 



Then rose the Log House by the water side, 

Its seams by moss and sea weed well supplied, 

Its roof with bark o'erspread its humble door 

Hung on a twisted withe the earth its floor, 

With stones and hardened clay its chimney formed, 

Its spacious hearth by hissing green wood warmed, 

Round which, as night her deepening shadows throws, 

The Hamlet's wearied inmates circling close. 

The sturdy settler lays his axe aside, 

Which all day long has quelled the forest's pride. 

The wooden cleats that from the walls extend 

Receive his gun, his oft tried faithful friend, 

Which crowns his frugal board with plenteous meals, 

And guards his rest when sleep his eyelids seals. 

Hon. Joseph Howe in "Acadia." 

As we turn away from the dwelling we pass through 
the garden planted among the stumps in the ashes of the 
brush and cultivated to good purpose by the women whose 
"men" folks early and late are tending the distant fishing 
grounds or in "leeward weather" transferring the salted 
fish from cask or kench to water-house, or building flakes 
for drying them. 

Trade and There is perhaps no better camera for record- 
Traders ing a picture of village life than the account 
book of the "general store". Edmund Doane 
already mentioned kept from 1762 to 1764 the only store at 
which goods were on sale in the winter. Trading vessels in 
the summer brought various consignments and generally 
had a small stock of staple articles suited to local needs. 
These vessels were handy shops which could be moved 
from one anchorage to another to accommodate all their 
patrons, and when the trader's flag was up, boats with 
fish to barter or ship away or laden with purchasers 
thronged her side. As it was the aim of every "good 
provider" to lay in sufficient food and other necessaries 



126 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

until the opening of navigation again, there was not 
much scope left for local trade. Mr. Edmund Doane, 
however, kept a store and served dinners as called for. 
The accounts in this, book of Mr. Doane's rightly inter- 
preted, reveal many things of interest about the people 
and their first experiences. Almost fifty different debtors 
are named. The number of people against whom entries 
are made increases with the years, and the following are 
specimens of the entries: 

6 Ibs plums 9/-, Peas (peck) 13/9, 13 Ib. 14 oz. flour 6/- 
Gill rum 2/-, Gill spirits 2/3, 1 oz. Sulphur 4/6, 2 oz Cop- 
eras 1/2, 1-2 bus. Salt 12-, 1-2 ppd Salt 4.10 /-, Quart 
wine 13/6, 3 pts Molasses 9/- use of plow 2 half days 7/6, 
Flip, dinner and breakfast 2.6.6., mose (moose) 6 Ibs. 
13/6, 1 oz. indigo 3/6, 9 Ibs beef, 1.1.4., 2 yds Check 
linen 2.5/-, 5 pks. lime 1.5/-, 5 Ibs Sugar 1.5/-, 700 
board nails 3.3/-, 4 Ibs butter L, 100 of hay 1/5-, 
Bal today 4/-, 11 Ibs Codfish ll/-, 3 cod hooks 4/6, 

4 Ibs rice 7/, making pair shoes 18/-, 2 Ibs pork 9/-, 

5 Bols 25/, half Bol 26/, Quart cider 6/6, Mog. 2/6, 
bus corn 27/-, yd osnaburg 13/ -, Ib shot 3/-, piece tape 9/-, 
etc. 

These would seem to be famine prices. Rev. Wm, 
Sargent, in a lecture given at the Court-house in 1863. 
quoting some of these figures, says: 

"With some probably it is a matter of wonderment, 
these enormous prices. It will be perfectly explicable 
when we know that with other New England usages and 
customs our forefathers brought with them that mode of 
estimating the value of money which was called lawful 
money, that is, the currency established by law in that 
country by which a pound "lawful money" was equal to 
more than three pounds sterling." 

This calls for further explanation how that mode 
of estimating the value of money took its rise, and 
how it affected Barrington. For a long time the wars 
with the French and Indians had drained the resources 
of the colonies. There was little gold or silver in the 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 127 

colonies and no export of goods for which bullion would 
be returned. The States resorted to issue of paper money 
to pay their debts. This method was discountenanced 
in England, where the merchants, to hold exclusively 
the Colonial market for their goods, were supported by 
the Lords of Trade who also forbade the coining of money 
in America. Banking business was yet in the exper- 
imental stage. Where, as we have seen, the principal 
part of the trading was with Boston, the Boston in- 
voices gave the prices in Boston currency, and all 
paper money was heavily discounted in consequence. 
Later, during the Revolution as in some European coun- 
tries today, much of the paper money became utterly 
worthless. Mr. Doane and other traders would there- 
fore need to guard themselves against loss, though their 
best security was the stock of fish taken in trade. It is 
interesting to see in the deeds registered in the seventies 
that "Halifax currency/' "Spanish coins" and mill dol- 
lars are in vogue as well as "currency" and "current 
money." As trade increased with Liverpool and Halifax 
during the war prices tended to come back to the pro- 
vincial level, and money was abundant owing to wages 
and supplies paid for soldiers and sailors. 

The accounts of sales of liquor in Edmund Doane's 
book, called by Prof. Doane the *'Mog"-book, indicate 
a quite prevalent custom of liquor drinking. It is a com- 
mon place remark and a true one that there was then no 
special stigma attaching to a dealer in intoxicants. It 
is however a mistake to believe that drinking was a uni- 
versal habit and drunkenness a prevalent vice of the 
first Barringtonians. In those days the stronghold 
of the liquor practice was the assurance supported by the 
medical profession as to the extraordinary medicinal 
value of spirits, a notion so much the more persistent 
as appetite has cordially endorsed it till our day. The 



128 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

writer remembers hearing fifty years ago at a Union 
Band meeting in the "Island Meeting House" an argu- 
ment against this notion by a lady citing her own ex- 
perience in child bearing both with and without the use 
of alcoholic liquor. 

In his lecture Mr. Sargent says that "the customs 
of the times rendered it imperative that a supply ample 
and freely distributed of the intoxicating beverage should 
be supplied" at weddings or frolics. He admitted, how- 
ever, that "he had never heard of an instance in which 
scenes of drunken riot and disorder and beastly intoxica- 
tion occurred." The fact is that Mr. Sargent's observations 
were long after the settlement. Between him and the 
first settlers there was a period of fifty years during which 
two business houses carried on an extensive trade with 
the West Indies and imported rum and brought from 
abroad into the place the class of people he mentioned, 
foreign sailors and other employees, who expected the 
"'leven o'clock" and "four o'clock'' drinks in the working 
day. The effect upon the younger generation was de- 
grading. The traders themselves became wealthy, es- 
pecially in mortgages upon the homesteads of their patrons 
which dangled at their belts like the scalps carried by 
an Indian brave. 

In Queens County and after 1784 in Shelburne 
County, when the Inferior Courts or Courts of Session 
exercised control of local matters, there was the power 
but no action taken to issue tavern licenses for Barring- 
ton. In Yarmouth it was different. In 1794 seven li- 
cences to sell spirituous liquor were granted there and 
afterwards the number was largely increased. It has 
taken over a century for Nova Scotians in general to 
learn that license or regulation is not a cure for the evil 
of liquor drinking. This correct conclusion was however 
evidently reached by the grantees of Barrington, whose 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 129 

aloofness from the license of the sale of drink has perpet- 
ually been endorsed by their descendants, so that never 
within the township has there been the licensed sale of 
liquor as a beverage! 

We are able to exhibit also in this connection some 
copies of Bills of Lading of goods shipped to the first 
Barrington merchant by the first Barrington coasters, 
all parties being grantees. 

SHIPPED by the Grace of God and in good order 
and well conditioned by JOHN HOMER OF BOSTON 
ON ACCOUNT AND RISK OF THE SHIPPER in 
and upon the good SCHOONER called the ROXBURY 
whereof is master under God for this present voyage, 
ELDAD NICKERSON and now riding at anchor in 
the HARBOR OF BOSTON, and by God's grace bound 
for NOVA SCOTIA 15 hhds. of Salt in bulk, 2 bbls 
pease, 1 bbl. New England Rum, 2 bbls. wine, 1 bbl. 
molasses, 2 bbls. Flour being marked and numbered as 
in the margin; and are to be delivered in the like good 
order and well conditioned at the EAST PASSAGE. 
(The dangers of the seas only excepted) unto EDMOND 
DOANE, or to HIS assigns, HE or they paying freight 
for the said goods as CUSTOMARY, with primage and 
average accustomed. In witness whereof the master 
or purser of the said SCHOONER hath affirmed to 
THREE bill's of lading all of this tenor and date, the 
one of which THREE bills being accomplished, the other 
two to stand void. And so God send the SCHOONER 
to her desired port in safety. Amen. 

Dated in Boston, MARCH 9, 1764. ELDAD 
NICKERSON. 

Another Bill of Lading is dated August 31, 1764. 
Goods on schooner Sherburne, Jonathan Clark, Master, 
shipped to Edmond Doane, Barrenton, Nova Scotia, 
on the account and risk of Edmond Doane. 1 bbl. N. E. 
Rum, 1 bbl. molasses, 1 bbl. flour, 1 small cask sugar, 
1 box men's shoes. marked E. D. Endorsed in Margin, 
John Homer of Boston, C. wealth of Massachusetts. 
There were also shipments by the sloop Swallow, 



130 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

Nathaniel At wood, master. This vessel was for a time 
making trips between Halifax and Boston. 

Queens Co. We introduce here as the most appropriate 
place a paper containing the first report on 
Queens County and bearing the name of the indefatigable 
Surveyor Charles Morris, Esq. In this the condition 
of the people is shown as decidedly worse than in the 
account and application of 1762. Was it the result of 
disappointment? Had they been deceived respecting 
the conditions under which they must build new homes 
for themselves? We do not think so. Two things are 
to be considered. First, the season for fishing had been a 
bad one and especially for the "want of fishing craft;" 
and the winter exceptionally severe; second, Morris's 
report is after the event. The prospectus had been 
aglow with hope, the ability of the immigrants was beyond 
question; but the time taken for moving and building 
and preparing for work was in the nature of an invest- 
ment, and they were not prepared for the terrible winter. 
There were others in the same boat with signals of distress. 
This is the only place where we find any occasion for gov- 
ernment assistance and even then they do not seem to 
have made application for it. 

And then, we must not forget that the people were 
aware before they came of the nature of the adventure. 
They must have expected a few years of hard work and 
difficulties. 

State and Condition of the Province of Nova 
Scotia together with some observations, etc., 29th 
October, 1763. 

Queens County. 

In this County are comprehended the Townships 
of Liverpool, Harrington and Yarmouth. Liverpool 
has about 100 families, more than one half Fishermen 
The others are Farmers, but get the principal part of 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 131 

their Substance from Lumber, such as Boards, Staves, 
Shingles and Clapboards, and they have no cleared Land 
They were in great Distress last year, especially in the 
months of February, March & April, till the Fish struck 
in. They have been more successful! this year in their 
Fishery than in the last year, but it is much to be feared 
that the poor will be in want this year also. They have 
a few cattle or other stock. Barrington has about 50 
Families. These are mostly Whalemen & Fishermen 
from Nantucket and Cape Cod in New England. There 
are but few persons of ability among them, and the want 
of Craft for fishing keeps them poor & necessitous. They 
suffered extreamly last Winter unless relieved. Yar- 
mouth has also about 50 families, few among them of 
ability. Are in the same situation as Barrington. 

About one Thousand Bushells of Indian Corn may be 
sufficient to supply these three Townships in their dis- 
tress: to be stored in Halifax and issued to each of the 
Towns according to their Distress. 

A Militia is established at Liverpool, but not yet at 
Barrington and Yarmouth. Justices have been nominated 
for this County but not yet Commissioned. This is much 
wanting was well as a Probate Office. 



M. 460. p. 90. 
The mention of Justices implies that the people 
may have made the nominations. Some time after this 
we see the magistrates entrusted with large responsibilities 
as constituting the Inferior Court or Sessions for County 
or Township administration. At first however the prin- 
cipal and happy duty of a magistrate, was in executing 
a license to marry desirous couples, a license that did 
not hold good however when a clergyman was in the 
place; i. e.; a clergyman of the Church of England. 
The magistrates who thus officiated in Barrington for a 
number of years were Isaac King, Jonathan Pinkham, 
Samuel Homer and Samuel 0. Doane. In other respects 
the County organization had little influence on the 
community. 



132 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

An Angel As with other new settlements, particularly 
of Mercy when remote from other towns and too few 
and scattered to attract . professional men, 
one of the great drawbacks was the lack of a physician. 
That need was practically met by the services of a woman 
of rare qualifications and courage, Mrs. Edmund Doane. 
She was a trained nurse, who, answering the calls for 
service, became for several years, the chief reliance of 
the community in lying-in-cases. When her husband, 
having lost his property and disposed of his business, 
was about to return to N. England, the Proprietors in 
consideration of her worth to the community made her 
a gift of a lot near Hibbert's Brook at what has since 
been known as "UncJe Ned's Hill." When her services 
were needed at a distance men would come to escort her, 
and carry her over brooks and other hard places in a 
basket. Herself the mother of a family which in each 
generation since has had worthy representatives, her 
benign presence was also a source of joy and life in the 
crises of the households throughout the township. Mrs. 
Doana was the grandmother of John Howard Paine, 
author of "Home Sweet Home". A comparison of the 
mortality lists in the first years of early colonial settlements 
will show that Barrington was remarkably exempt from 
loss through sickness or accident. Much must be credited 
to the prudence and skill of the people in the use of the 
remedies laid in store before leaving New England or 
derived from the fields and woods about their new homes 
A growth of tansy long marked the garden of old Chereau, 
and the now friendly Indians would gladly exchange 
their ancient medicines for the bonny-clabber at the log- 
house. The treaty made by the Government with the 
Cape Sable Indians in 1761 was duly regarded by them, 
excepting only for the occasional perversity which in- 
dividuals of all races show as against common sense 
and honor. 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 133 

The Ministry For the time religious worship found its 
of Religion expression at the family altar and in the 
homes of the more spiritual proprietors, 
who opened their houses, made big for the purpose, to 
meetings of the community. Ordinances and clergy 
were wanting but prayer and spiritual songs and testi- 
mony and exhortation, the primitive order of Chris- 
tianity, were not neglected, and so well they served the 
purpose, and so useful were the leaders who were pressed 
into the service, that by the time they were visited by 
ordained men, it had been proved that the possession of 
religion and its comfort did not depend upon orders and 
methods but on the people's trust in the presence and 
power of the Lord. Still, as we shall see, they did not 
deny the value of the ministry of the Word, but learned 
rather the worth of the cooperation of ministry and people. 
In the brief personal sketches of the first settlers 
mention will be made of free services rendered by these 
faithful Christian workers to the community, especially 
during two periods; the first for a few years before the 
arrival of Rev.Samuel Wood and again during the distress 
and isolation occasioned by the Revolutionary war. 

Family Life The most potent factor making for unity, 
stability and progress in the new community 
must receive some consideration, viz., that of family 
relationships. Marriage, by the blending of diverse 
families and the multiplication and complication of in- 
terests, lays and enlarges the framework of society. 

The custom in marriage until after the Revolution 
was evidently that any ordained minister might officiate 
and where none was available the magistrate might act. 
Rev. Samuel Wood, gr., for several years the Congre- 
gational minister in Harrington, may properly be credited 
with the solemnization of the most of the early marriages, 
though we have no mention of his name in connection 



134 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

with the marriage record. The intercolonial character 
of Nova Scotia and Massachusetts would sufficiently 
cover the legality of the transaction especially considering 
the close relation of Church and State. The registration 
of marriages was not compulsory, and as with us in the 
past generation or two, it was neglected much to the 
inconvenience and loss of posterity. 

About the time of Rev. Mr. Wood's removal to N. 
England, Isaac King was "nominated" and commission- 
ed as a Justice of the Peace. He married his own son 
Isaac to Lydia Smith in 1773; also Joseph, son of Solo- 
mon Kendrick, Sr., to Hannah Horner of Boston on 
Jan. 25, 1776. Soon after this Mr. King removed to N. 
England. It was not expected that many marriages 
would follow immediately upon the first settlement. En- 
gagements made before the time of removal to Nova 
Scotia would either be consummated in marriage that as 
new comers they might be better able to cope with the 
trying conditions of the new life, or the prospective bride 
would wait in New England until preparations were 
made for the home in Harrington, and then go to her 
lover or wait for him to come where the wedding might 
more conveniently take place among their old friends. 

First in the list of marriages is that of Jonathan 
Smith, Sr., and Jenny Hamilton, Sept. 24, 1764. The 
Proprietors* book contains the following: Paniel Hibbard 
and Hannah his wife were married in Barrington, Queens 
Co., Province of Nova Scotia, 23rd day of September, 
1765. This entry was made in 1769, and includes the 
birth date of their children (1) Rebecca b. June 23, 1766; 
(2) Martha b. June 16, 1768; (Later is that of Rozzel 
(Roswell) b. Oct. 17, 1770.) 

Solomon Smith, Jr., m. Mary d. Judah Crowell, gr., 
Nov. 30, 1765; Nathaniel Smith, Jr., m. Patience d. 
Chapman Swaine, Apr. 24, 1776; Joseph Atwood m. 
Susanna d. Archelaus Smith, gr., Aug. 10, 1767; Jonathan 



FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS 135 

Smith, Jr. m. Azuba Kendrick, Nov. 28, 1768; Solomon 
Kendrick Jr., m. Martha Godfrey, Nov. 30, 1769. 
William Laskey m. Thankful Swain, Jan. 14, 1768. 

We have given the tradition concerning the first 
born male child in a former chapter; let us now see what 
the records can tell us. 

Births 1. Nathan Crowell (s.Thomas and Sarah) b. 
May 17, 1761. 

2. James Smith (s. Archelaus and Elizabeth) b. 
Oct. 6, 1762. 

3. Tristram Coffin (s. John and Mary) b. 1762. 

4. Azuba and Jerusha (twin ds. Theodore and 
Martha Harding) b. Jan. 1, 1763. 

5. Elizabeth Hopkins (d. Elisha and Hannah) b. 
Mar. 24, 1763. 

6. Ebenezer Crowell (s. Thomas and Sarah) b, 
May 12, 1763. 

7. James Snow (s. Nathan and Mary ) b. Oct. 
8, 1763. 

8. Elizabeth Kenney (d. Heman and Mercy) b. 
Oct. 20, 1763. 

9. Elizabeth Gardner (d. Simeon and Sarah) b. 
Dec. 15, 1763. 

10. Zebulon Coffin (s. John and Mary) b. 1764. 

Deaths: (1) Nehemiah (s. Heman and Mercy Ken- 
ney) June, 1761. (2) Nathan (s. Thomas and Sarah 
Crowell) Oct. 13, 1777. 

The death of Nathan Crowell at 16 years of age 
opened the way for a later generation to urge the claim 
of later born children to the first place. 

A curious reminder of those days is in the appoint- 
ment of men by the Proprietors to hunt for the fugitive 
Acadians, and hand them over to Capt. Gorham for 
removal Two of these named in the records are Nath- 
aniel Knowles and Nathaniel Smith, Jr. There is no 
account of their success or otherwise. 



136 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 



CHAPTER X. 



GROWTH AND ORGANIZATION. 



The year following the Return of 1762 was marked 
by a steady increase in arrivals, who were assigned home- 
steads by the first committee with an amount of land 
equal to their predecessors. Now we may confidently 
describe the manner of distribution of the people who 
came uj> to the fall of 1763. There was a little group 
at Port Latour from the Old Fort to the Creek, a larger 
group at The Hill, some scattering houses from Baker's 
Run to Hibbert's Brook, a continuous settlement from 
there to the South End of Sherose Id., a group at Center- 
ville, Cape Id. The list, which will be given with the 
numbers of their respective lots at the time of First Divi- 
tion in 1767, will quite accurately indicate the hames 
of the individual settlers. There was as yet not a settler 
on the shore of the mainland from Brass Hill to the West- 
ward, except one or two at Bear Point; none as yet at 
Cape Negro. From a vessel at the Town anchorage 
almost all the houses would be in sight. The framework 
of the township was there. The power to clothe that 
frame was in the boats, which, moored or moving on 
the harbor, declared at once the industrial character of 
the community and the hopeful enterprise of its people. 

The County It has been said that the Government had 
of Queens in 1762 erected the townships of Liverpool, 
Barrington and Yarmouth into a County. 
What that means might be difficult to define, but there 
were certain outstanding advantages implied therein 
for the people. The County would have a Sheriff or 
Shire reeve, (the shire and county in England meaning 
about the same thing) and the people of the County 



GROWTH AND ORGANIZATION 137 

would not now need to go to Halifax for the services 
of a sheriff. He would be the Agent of the Government 
for any local requirements as at elections, etc. Sessions, 
i. e. regular sittings of the Courts of Justice would now 
be held in the new county, and a Registrar of Deeds and 
Probate would be established. In these respects the 
action of the Government was reasonably prompt, and 
no complaint could be made; although the great extent 
of the new County of Queens made the transaction of 
legal business slow and expensive except for those inLiver- 
pool, the County town. 

Township Or- The township organization was of a more 
ganization local and voluntary character. In Hali- 
fax, in 1759, the first Assembly and 
the Council had by a joint committee chosen the town 
officers for Halifax. Although this manner of proceeding 
was unusual yet the official list will give a fair idea of the 
scope of township action and control. There were "four 
overseers of the poor, two clerks of market, four surveyors 
of highways, two fence viewers and two hog reeves/' 
The self government of the town was not, indeed, of a 
sort conferred by the arbitrary action of the Provincial 
authorities as we might infer from the above. Certain 
rights and privileges were regarded as inherent in town or 
township organization even from Saxon times; and the 
town, whether connected with the industrial develop- 
ment of England, or as an offshoot of feudalism, but 
surviving the decay of that institution, had been a con- 
stant factor in the evolution of English government, 
and was always assertive of its rights. The promise of 
township rights had therefore a very great significance 
to the New Englanders amongst whom the proclamations 
of Gov. Lawrence had been circulated. It may be ob- 
served that the first proclamation inviting settlers em- 
phasized the potential benefits of the vacant lands of 



138 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

Nova Scotia for single farmers; the second one dwelt 
with great emphasis upon the township organization, 
a government similar to that of the other colonies, and 
the freedom of religion. 

Chamber's Encyclopedia says that township in 
English law means "a division of a parish in which there 
is a separate constable and for which there may be separ- 
ate overseers of the poor." An American writer has 
described the town of Revolutionary times as a consti- 
tuent of New England life. "The whole territory of 
New England was mapped off into areas of six miles 
square. Each town was a sovereign corporation. The 
population of the towns might average 2000 persons. 
They met once every year, and oftener if occasion required, 
in town meeting, to elect their town officers and to decide 
by popular vote any question the people in their sovereign 
pleasure, might bring before the town. The whole town 
was intersected by roads, laid off at right angles and in- 
closing squares of some 400 acres. In addition to the 
right-angled roads there were laid off great and leading 
thoroughfares and by-roads. The town was laid off in 
school districts, and in every district was a school-house, 
so located,as to fall within convenient distance from the 
extremes of the district. The school, supported by 
legal taxation on property, and open equally to the poor 
and the rich, was kept up for about three months in win- 
ter and three in summer. At the centre of every town 
was the church, or, as it was usually called, the meeting- 
house. Around it usually clustered a village often of 
only a few houses, but sometimes enlarg ing into a pros- 
perous city. For religious purposes each town consti- 
tuted a parish, etc." 

I have quoted the above passage, not as giving an 
exact picture of conditions at that time, but rather as 
presenting the New Englander's ideal of the town, and 
that which he would seek to reproduce in a new colony 



GROWTH AND ORGANIZATION 139 

as far as circumstances permitted. As might be expected, 
when the full number of fifty families requisite for the 
township had been settled in their Barrington homes, 
the fact would soon be commonly understood and the 
general wish be expressed for the due assumption of 
township rights. It is at this point, without doubt, 
that we have the last official act of the committee, six 
of whom were nominated by the government in 1762. 
When the fishing season of 1763 was ended and preparat- 
ions for winter were made the notice was issued for a 
Proprietors' meeting to be held on Feb. 3, 1764. We 
cannot doubt that the first committee were glad to be 
relieved of their responsibilities. The scanty records of 
the early proprietors' meetings mention this "former 
committee" only once, i. e., in the first meeting and that 
without giving their names; and not until 1918 have we 
been able to get their names and the account of their 
appointment. The minutes of the Council containing 
this account furnish the clue to many township matters 
quite obscure hitherto. We shall now see the pioneers 
taking up seriously the work of social and political organ- 
ization. Back of them for a century or two there was a 
record of struggle and sacrifice for free institutions. 
Their forbears might more easily have submitted to ab- 
solutism, or have migrated to an alien territory on leav- 
ing England, had they not been devoted to the flag and 
institutions of Britain. Some of these may have been 
indifferent to these things but the most of them knew 
they must pay the price of a like isolation to that of the 
Pilgrim Fathers and that in the wilderness the tendencies 
to barbarism must be countered by positive and deter- 
mined organization. Therefore they proceeded earnestly 
to the work in hand. In some respects it was not easier 
because their conduct of affairs must be' in harmony with 
the Provincial and Imperial authorities. But when they 
remembered that they too were part of the provincial 



140 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

population and sharers in the more general administra- 
tion of provincial affairs their sense of proprietorship 
would urge them to take their share of the common work. 
In this they as well as the Government illustrated a 
principle once stated by the Hon W. E. Gladstone that 
"No method of dealing with a civilized community can 
be satisfactory which does not make provision for its 
political action as well as its social state." 

Proprietors 1 The Records of Proprietors' meetings and 
Meetings allotments begin with an account of a 
meeting, Feb. 3, 1764, at the house of 
Timothy Baker, Esq., Timothy Baker, Moderator- 
John Porter, Proprietors' Clerk. 1st voted that the land 
as laid out by former Committee shall stand good to those 
who have settled thereon. Samuel Knowles, Jonathan 
Crowell, Thomas Worth, Barnabas Baker and Shubael 
Folger were appointed Proprietors committee Thomas 
Worth, Surveyor, Theodore Harding, Treasurer. Sec- 
ond meeting, Feb. 21, 1764. Met at the house of Edmund 
Doane, Zaccheus Gardner, Moderator. Voted that it 
be understood by vote of former meeting that all (lots) 
shall be made equal as to quantity and quality in land 
adjoining to them where it may be had without encroach- 
ing on any present settler; and where it cannot, is to be 
made up to them in land elsewhere and to be under the 
regulation of the committee. Sol. Kendrick and John 
Coffin were added to the committee. Voted to lay out 
the salt and fresh meadow around the harbor and as far 
west as Bear Point and the meadow on the east end of Cape 
Island and to be divided into two parts, that is, to lay 
out the one part for the people called the "Cape Codders" 
and th'e other for the people called the "Nantucketers". 
says, p. 460. We observe that (Benedict in his Baptist His- 
tory "Roger Williams in his first purchases of the Indians, 



GROWTH AND ORGANIZATION 141 

took special care to secure the natural meadows on the 
rivers and streams. Feed for the cattle in winter was 
then one of the most desirable things in a new country." 

These proprietors were careful to utilize and hon- 
estly divide the meadow lands; though, as the vote was 
repeated in 1766, it seems that their plans of 1764 were 
not then fully carried out). 

Voted to give the committee three shillings (a day) 
Voted that those called Nantucket people shall set off 
to those that have settled on their half -acre lots so much 
land as they shall see fit and reasonable joining to them 
in rear of said half-acre lots. 

Third meeting, March 4, 1765 at Edmund Doane's. 
Capt Samuel Knowles, Mod. adjourned to March 12 
at 10 a.m. Appointed officers. 

Meeting held April 24, 1766 at Edmund Doane's. 
Capt. Knowles M.odr. Voted to lay out the town Jots, 
one acre in each lot, beginning at a stake formerly set 
up and known as the dividing line between the people 
called "Cape Coders" and the people called Nantucket- 
ers. Cape Coders to get N. along the shore where it 
shall be most convenient to make up their part, and for 
the Nan tucket ers to get South from said stake along the 
shore to maKe up their part of said town lots. Voted to 
lay out fifteen-acre lots to those not yet provided for 
to lay out the salt and fresh meadow around the harbor, 
so much as the committee think proper to lay out roads 
where it shall be thought needful. Jonathan Crowell, 
John Clemmons and Jonathan Pirkham appointed a 
committee for the above said purposes Joseph Worth 
to be surveyor* 

Meeting Dec. 8, 1766 at Edmund Doane's. Isaac 
King, Modr. James ' Bur-ker, Proprietors' Clerk for the 
Day. Archelaus Smith, John Clemmons and Edmund 

*Above mentioned constituted "The Town" lying around the shores from 
Hibberts Brook to Coffinscroft. 



142 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

Doane as Committee and Joseph Worth as Surveyor. 
Committee to have 3/-a day till 20th March and 3/6 
till mowing time. Surveyor 3/6 till 20th March and 
4/-a day till mowing time. Com. to lay out all the mea- 
dow in the township. Meadow in 1st Division to be laid 
out from Bear Point eastward and on N. Side and E end 
of Cape Island and anywhere else in the harbor where 
they can find any. Proprietors at Port Latour to have 
their lots of meadow there equal to the rest of the Pro- 
prietors said Com. to lay out fifteen acre lots to 

those who have not already got them. Com. to lay out 
roads where they think proper. Lay out a road from 
Sherose Island to the mill. Lay out fish lots to each 
Proprietor. Lay out as much of the Fish Island to accom- 
modate the proprietors as they shall think proper for fish- 
ing. All the islands uninhabited shall be laid out for the 
use of the proprietors. To lay them out in the 2nd division 
or in ten-acre lots for an addition to their fifteen acre 
lots Ed. Doane and John Clemmons shall in behalf of 
the town keep off all that are not town dwellers from 
catching herring at the herring stream. Proprietors 
between this and 20th August to pay to Heman Kenney 
whatever charge shall arise in laying out lands and mead- 
ows. The request of a number of Proprietors, Sol. Gard- 
ner, James Bunker, Barnabas Baker, Shubael Folger, 
Benj. Folger, Jonathan Pinkham that the island ad- 
jacent to Baker's Point be left as a common landing for 
the Proprietors' use,as it hath been determined heretofore, 
and likewise to lay out a road across the said Baker's 
Point down to the said island. The above request voted 
clearly. Barrington Jan. 25, 1767 at Proprietors' meet- 
ing legally warned and met at the house of Archer Smith 
at which Jonathan Pinkham was voted Moderator. 
Thomas Doane voted a committeeman, James Bunker 
voted a Committeeman to help in laying out the land and 
Meadow. There is another (undated) memorandum 



GROWTH AND ORGANIZATION 143 

of a meeting held at the "Meeting-house" when Theo- 
dore Harding was appointed Proprietors' clerk. His 
receiving the proprietors' book is noted therein as June 
23, 1767. 

Some comments may be permitted upon these 
early records which precede the Grant of 1767. It is 
noteworthy that the committee nominated by the Gov- 
ernor-in-Council was one-half of the Cape Cod 
and the other half of the Nantucket people. That 
those appointed in the meeting of 1764 maintained 
this even balance. In 1766, however, the committee- 
men were all "Cape Codders". 

Prof. Doane has left the following notes on this period. 
"The work of laying out, seems to have all been done 
between the dates of Mar. 24, 1764 and Mar. 1, 1765. 
"The records are all made between those dates. The 
committee signing the division of each lot is Solomon 
Kendrick and Jonathan Crowell; one only, the first, has 
the additional signature of Samuel Knowles, and twice 
Solomon Kendrick's name appears alone. Why did 
matters stop here? Why was nothing done (apparently) 

until Jan. 1768? No land laid out to Nantucketers 

in this record no mention of their names as individuals 
in the division of lots. It would not appear that any 
misunderstanding or difficulty arose between the two 
parties. Why did they not proceed with laying out the 
lots? Was the surveying and setting-off stopped by the 
Grant, and other new proprietors, and by Government 
notices?" 

We cannot answer all these aforesaid questions, but 
as has been already stated, Prof. Doane had not our 
information about the "former committee." From his inti- 
mate knowledge of theRecords he tells us that there were 
20 lots laid out by that com.and that those who signed the 
reports were not the same as any of those appointed in 
the earliest Proprietors' meetings; also, that 17 lots not 



144 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

including those called "additions" were laid off by the 
Committee of the first proprietors in 1764-5. 

It must be said in spite of our desire to regard their 
primitive Barringtonian life as a model of Utopian unity 
and simplicity that we cannot overlook the fact that a 
number of Nantucket people, settled on Cape Island, peti- 
tioned the Council for a separate grant of the lots of land 
on the islands of Cape Sable. This is recorded in the 
Council Minutes of Nova Scotia, Nov. 13, 1764. "Elisha 
Coffin, Zaccheus Gardner, Joseph Worth, Thomas 
Worth, Jonathan Coffin, Daniel Vinson, Jonathan Worth, 
Simeon Gardner, John Collmine and Peleg Bunker mem- 
orialized the Governor-in-Council praying that the lots 
of land on the island (s) of Cape Sable where they have 
built houses and other conveniences and bestowed a 
great deal of labor may be granted to them, and the Cou* 1 - 
cil did advise that the said islands wera reserved in com- 
mon for the inhabitants and might be of great advantage 
to the said Township, the memorial should be rejected. 
As Thomas Worth was at the same time a mamber of the 
Proprietors Committee, and surveyor, but was not after- 
wards appointed, and did not become a grantee the petit- 
ion to the Council looks like an attempt to go over the 
heads of the proprietors and forestall their action. At 
the same time the Council had encouraged such applica- 
tions by making a grant, as follows: William Johnson, 
(whose name is not on any list of settlers), had made 
petition "for a grant of a point of land at the head of the 
Southern part of Barrington Harbor, called At woods 
Point, and of a small island of about 500 paces in cir- 
cumference opposite to said land. And the Council 
advised that the said point of land only should be granted 
to the petitioner." 

We come back to Elisha Coffin and his co-petition- 
ers. If their object was indeed to establish another 
Nantucket, a separate township consisting of Cape 



GROWTH AND ORGANIZATION 145 

Sable and the adjacent islands, it is little wonder 
that the business of the proprietors' meeting came to a 
standstill. If we may not go as far as that yet the fact 
remains that Ihe Cape Codders were holding out the olive 
leaf and offering Home rule to their neighbors. The 
uncertainty was over at last when in 1766 the petition 
of the people to the Council for a definite grant of 50,000 
acres to "cross the Bay" and comprehend Cape Sable 
and Cape Negro islands and the adjacent islands received a 
favorable reply. In the meantime, though first Thos. 
Worth, and then Joseph Worth, was surveyor, no allot- 
ments were taken by any of the Nantucket people. After 
that in Nov. 1767 a tract of land on the West side of Cape 
Island between Little Run (McGray's) and Cooks Point 
was laid out to seven of their number in commonalty. 
A tract at the Hill was also laid out to eight Nantucket 
men in company in 1768. Still later these men took their 
lots in severalty, but the evidence seems complete as to 
their agreement and determination to maintain a commun- 
ity distinct from the Cape Cod people, possibly hoping 
that their purpose might be in some way recognized by 
the grant when it should be issued. To what extent 
their Quaker sentiments affected their conduct can only 
be conjectured. The change in the committee would 
be due either to indifference and non attendance of the 
Nantucketers, or to the Cape Codders, who formed a 
large majority of the settlers, realizing the need of taking 
affairs into their own hands. The careful language in 
the record of the meeting Jan. 25, 1767 points to a sensitive 
and critical constituency. 

Among the items of the proceedings on Dec. 8, 1766 
it appears that fifteen acres is the standard adopted for 
the First division lots. The necessity for laying off the 
meadows, which mostly were in common, was to delimit 
them as against adjoining lots of other settlers. Some 
of the plans for laying out, etc., are hard to understand. 



146 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

The few years of residence had resulted in a clearer 
and more comprehensive knowledge of the territory. 
The value of the Cape Negro district was seen, as also 
that of the islands adjacent to the great Cape Sable island. 
The slow but steady influx of people was changing the 
wilderness into a substantial settlement. It was reason- 
able that the men on the spot should suggest to the gov- 
ernment in as effective a way as possible their convictions 
as to the requirements in the extent and bounds of the 
township as they ought to be defined in the formal grant. 
The date for issuing that grant was drawing near. The 
Council records show that on Feb. 28, 1766 "a memorial 
was presented from inhabitants of Harrington praying 
that in consideration of the badness of the lands in said 
Township they may have granted to them 50,000 acres 
of land to be bounded by Cape Negro and the river, 
and to cross the bay so as to comprehend the aforesaid 
quantity together with the Cape Island and Cape Negro 
Island and other adjacent islands. Granted." 

At this time according to the Return of Townships 
Barrington had 376 people of whom 36 5 were of American 
birth. The item of 2263 qtls. of dry fish shows also that 
the people are settling down to business. As the township 
plan was on the basis of 100,000 acres to 200 families, 
the grant which was made the next year must have corres- 
ponded closely to the number of settlers. The return 
made in 1766, certifying as to the people in the settle- 
ment, was signed by James Bunker and Eldad Nickerson, 
chosen by the proprietors. That of 1767 was signed by 
Jonathan Pinkham, Samuel Wood, Eldad Nickerson, 
James Bunker, Benjamin Folger, August 31. 

These Returns, as entered in the Council Book, make 
it clear that the Proprietors' records show but a trifling 
part of the active township life and business. It should 
be remembered that at this time two events took place, 
of prime importance to the people, and which must have 



GROWTH AND ORGANIZATION 147 

occasioned stirring and universal discussion. One of these 
was the passing of the "stamp act", the spark which kind- 
led the American Revolution. As to its enforcement 
in Nova Scotia, Gov. Wilmot reported Nov. 1765, that 
"The Act for laying on the stamp duties has takea place 
here without any opposition or obstruction, although 
I have heard that somj public marks of discontant were 
shown at a place called Liverpool in this province which 
is formed entirely of New England people, however with- 
out any violence or outrage." As we shall see afterwards 
a variety of factors entered into the question of the rela- 
tions between Great Britain and her American colonies. 
We may suppose that the Harrington folks, on the stage 
line of that day between Boston and Halifax, heard 
much that was going on, but were too busy with personal 
affairs to go into matters affecting the principles of taxa- 
tion, much less to get up a public demonstration on the 
subject. 

The other event was that of the representation of the 
people in the Provincial Assembly. This took place 
first when William Smith and Simeon Perkins were re- 
turned for Queens County in 1765; and again when Fran- 
cis White was elected for Barring ton township in 1767. 

In 1766 Ranald McKinnon of Argyle was appointed 
Collector of the Impost, Excise and License duties for 
the Towifships of Barrinpton and Yarmouth, vice John 
Crawley, resigned. When in 1771 the township of Argyle 
was erected he was appointed a Justice of the Peace for 
the Co. of Queens. Mr. McKinnon was closely identi- 
fied with affairs in Barrington for several years. Heman 
Kenney was the first magistrate appointed in Barrington 
by the Nova Scotia government. Those already named 
as such were commissioned by Massachusetts and acted 
in the same capacity here by consent. In 1772 Isaac 
King and Archelaus Smith were appointed for the County 
of Queens. In 1773 Seth Harding was made a J. P., and 



148 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

3rd Judge of the Inferior Court for Queens County. He 
was a Liverpool settler related to Theodore Harding gr. 
of Harrington. 

In 1767 an Act was passed which shows the public 
feeling respecting the worth and validity of the land grants. 
A fine of 50 pounds was imposed on any per so a who 
should presume to occupy ungranted lands in the Prov- 
ince without first obtaining permission in writing from 
the Governor or Commander-in-Chief. The advance- 
ment made on the South shore of the Province is seen 
also in the proposal made by Gov. Michael Francklin 
upon his appointment to office in 1766; "that main roads 
be immediately opened from Halifax to Cape Sable/' 
This practical undertaking was indicative of the interest 
taken by this eminent citizen though the scheme was not 
fully realized for several years. The next is that pursuant 
to an Act for raising a fund for making and repairing 
Roads and Bridges, the following Commissioners were 
appointed: for County of Queens, Simeon Perkins, John 
Frost, Jonathan Pinkham, Ranald McKinnon, and Wm. 
Johnstone, Esquires. 



CHAPTER XL 



THE TOWNSHIP GRANT*. 



Township The Grant was accompanied by a Map or 
Boundaries outline plan of the township on the scale of 
a league to an inch showing the "New Jeru- 
salem" grant as the Eastern boundary for one mile above 
the First Falls of the Cape Negro river. As the township 
was afterwards enlarged by the Oak Park grant it is suffi- 
cient to say that the "backline" of the township ran at 
first from New Jerusalem corner to the Gunning Rocks 
between Shag Harbor and Woods Harbor. A town site 
was marked in red ink between Hibberts Brook and 
Coffinscroft at about the geographical centre of the Grant 
and lying along the most extended front for anchorage 
for vessels in Harrington harbor. On the margin of the 
map was a description of the township corresponding to 
that in the text of the Grant except the last sentence 
which is as follows: "Containing fifty-one thousand Two 
hundred and fifty acres with allowance for Roads, Sunken 
Lands, etc., and being in general Broken Wilderness 
Lands and no ways, adapted to the Raising of Hemp; 
has a Commodious Harbour suitable for carrying on the 
Fishery." It is dated Halifax, 30 Nov. 1767. 

The Grant included a provision for a yearly Quit- 
Rents rent to the King of one shilling for every fifty 
acres. In Brown's "Yarmouth/ 7 Page 43, it is 
stated that 

"The terms of the Grant were never enforced; the 
rent of one shilling per annum for each 50 acres was not 
exacted, nor were the conditions of enclosure and cultiva- 
tion fulfilled from that day to this." 

A Government Return, however, in 1779 showed land 
tax (which we take to be the same) paid in Queens Co., 
Yarmouth 31.10.7; Barrington 16.9.10; Liverpool 51. 
14. 4; Argyle, nothing. 

*The text of the Grant, see Appendix. 

149 



150 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

The requirements as to cultivation and enclosure 
were unreasonable, but this would appear more clearly 
after the homesteading was completed. The Rebellion 
would also show the folly of trying then to enforce the 
terms of the Grant. 

Grantees We find that the Second and Third Divis- 
ions were made in due time to the Gran- 
tees, and have been held and conveyed ever since as free- 
hold property. The Proprietors as a body evidently had 
the duty and right of dividing to each Grantee his por- 
tion, one share being 500 acres. When the Grant came 
it was seen that the legal deeds or warrants must be based 
on this formal Grant by the Government. Moreover, the 
necessity of settlement before the last of 1769 under 
penalty of forfeiture would now tend to hasten the decis- 
ion of those who had not yet taken their individual 
holdings. 

The first thing then was to set off the lots for home- 
steads and fish lots, a First Division. The previous 
experience though of no value for titles to la ad, would 
serve to show which of these men gathered from various 
parts into a new township were best fitted for the new 
responsibilities of equitably dividing up these "Broken 
"Wilderness Lands" and fishing privileges. 

A Notable We can wall imagine that the first meeting 
Year of the proprietors after the reception of the 
Grant would have a full attendance. It was held on 
Jan. 7, 1768 just a month from the date of the Grant. 
From Port Latour, Cape Negro and Cape Islaad, as well 
as from the Hill, the Head and Sherose Island every 
settler would come to learn whether his name was there, 
what territory was included and what were the speci- 
fications respecting the division of the land. 

At this meeting, held in the new Meeting-house with 



THE TOWNSHIP GRANT 151 

possibly an adjournment to "Archer" Smith's dwelling 
oa account of the cold, Jonathan Pinkham was chosen 
Moderator and Benjamin Folger, Proprietors' Clerk. 
The report of the Committee appointed in 1767 to lay 
out land was adopted, but "all the former were declared 
to be void and of none effect. To make this certain we 
find that the former records of the Proprietors, about 
18 pages of the book, were crossed off; and immediately 
after is written, "The Standing Record of Proprietors' 
Meetings." The settlers, who had been hampered by 
the lack of the Grant, now have a clear warrant for com- 
munity or corporate action and proceed with the allot- 
ment of the land and other necessary work. Benjamin 
Folger was appointed to get up warrants (or deeds) in 
behalf of .the proprietors. (He was an excellent pen- 
man and several deeds and all the First Division lots are 
recorded by him. He was Clerk until 1773). Joshua 
Nickerson was appointed Keeper of the Town Grant. 
Two men were appointed as agents "to see that the 
town should not be oppressed." This may refer to 
thevquit-rents, enclosures and forfeitures or to impress- 
ment and other circumstances. Bounds were agreed 
upon between the Cape Cod and the Nan tucket people. 
This would enable the former to have their land set off 
while the latter might still hold theirs in common. A 
tract in common was set off to Daniel Vinson and others 
on Cape Island between Little Run (McGray's) and 
Cook's Point. Also 182 acres were "measured in 
company for the inhabitants mentioned, Nantucket 
people, at the place known by the name of the Hill where 
formerly was a French settlement." "Passage Harbor'' is 
mentioned in the record of the first meeting. 

The second meeting, Mar. 23, 1768 appointed four 
as agents for the proprietors to prevent cutting or any 
other trespass; Blanche Point was reserved for common 
use. 



152 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

The third meeting Oct. 8, 1768, records only the 
appointment of Isaac King to collect the money that is 
due Mr. White "our representative at Halifax." 

At the fourth meeting, Oct. 18, 1768, it was voted 
that deeds be granted to Jonathan Coffin, Sol Kendrick 
Junior, and Charles West according to the Grant. That 
is, they were admitted as Grantees, but thera is no record 
of a deed to any but Sol. Kendrick. Voted also that a 
Town house should be built on the Parade, 18 feet square, 
and that the proprietors are to be notified to appear the 
second Monday in January in said work, in building the 
House." The matter is not again mentioned. 

There were now about ninety proprietors in the 
township and the provision for public highways was ur- 
gent. In laying out the first lots to grantees, which was 
on Sherose Id., a margin of upland was left at the western 
end of each lot, except at the northern and southern ends 
of the island, to make a public highway. This was the 
first piece of road laid out under the Grant of 1767. 
In 1768, therefore, roads were laid out from Sherose 
Island to the Hill and Port Latour, from Sherose Island 
by the marsh to south of Clements addition (Clements 
Point) thence across a neck of land to Fresh Brook, 
above all other additions, thence West across Necks and 
Ponds to Shag Harbor, "Rodes 2 rods wide." 

The representatives at Halifax were now giving their 
services; later a law was passed placing the expenses of 
these members upon the Counties and Townships they 
represented. Mr. Francis White had taken his seat 
in Parliament, July 1, 1767 and we may well believe had 
urged upon the tardy officials of Government the issuing 
of the overdue Grant. Whether he was a relative of 
James White, one of the founders of St. John, N. B., and 
of Gideon White of Shelburne whom Mr. A. C. White 
tells us were his relatives pf Nantucket ancestry we do 
not know. That he should have lived in Halifax and 



THE TOWNSHIP GRANT 153 

represented Harrington, the Nantucket colony, favors 
that opinion. 

The County of Queens in 1765 elected William Smith 
and Simeon Perkins as members and thus Barring ton 
had its representatives in Parliament. 

We now give a list of the Proprietors under the Grant 
with the number of the lot assigned to each in the First 
Division. 

Names of Grantees in the Order of Their Grants, 
First Division. 

No. 

1. Samuel Hamilton. 

2. Thomas Lincoln. 

3 . Nathan Kenney . 

4. Thomas Doane. 

5 . Thomas Crowell Jr. 

6. Elkanah Smith. 

7. Reuben Cohoon. 

8. Samuel Knowles. 

9 . Anson (or Ansel) Kendrick. 

10. David Smith. 

(Numbers 1 to 9 and part of 10 were on Sherose Id., 
beginning at the Southern end.) 

11. Si meon C ro well . 

12. Eldad Nickerson. 

13. Solomon Kendrick. 

14. Richard Nickerson. 

15. Henry Wilson. 

16. Elisha Hopkins. 

17. Thomas Crowell, (The whole of Moses Id.) 

18. Judah Crowell, Senr. 

19. Judah Crowell, Jr. 

20. , Stephen Nickerson. 

' (Numbers 10| to 20 were on The Neck beginning 
South and extending to the Millstream). 

21. Solomon Smith, Jr., 

22. Heirs of Jonathan Crowell. 

23 . Joshua Nickerson. 

24. Solomon Smith Senr. 

25. Heman Kenny. 

26 . Archelaus Smith . 



154 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

Parade and burying ground. 

27. Samuel Wood. 

28. Isaac King. 

29. Nathaniel Smith. 

30. Jabez Walker. 

31 . Theodore Harding. 

(Numbers 21 to 31 reach from the Millstream to the 
river). 

32. Samuel Crosby. 

33. Edmund Doane. 

34 . Joshua Atwood. 

35. Solomon Kendricks. 

36. John Clement. 

37. John Porter. 

38. Joshua Snow. 

39. Jonathan Smith. 

40. Prince Nickerson. 

41 . Robert Laskey. 

42. William Laskey. 
Pound. 

43. Daniel Hibbard. 

(Numbers 32 to 43 extend from the river toHibbards' 

Brook). 

(Town lots from Long Cove to Town Cove). 

44. Jonathan Clark. 

45. John Swain. 

46. Benjamin Gardner. 

47. Jonathan Worth. 

48. John Coffin. 

49 . Isaac Annable. 

50. Elijah Swain. 

(Numbers 44 to 50 together with certain fish lots at 
Clash Point and Eel Cove Neck extend to Briant's 
Neck or Beach Point.) 

Nos. 51 to 56 were granted in Common to Shubael 
Folger, Jonathan Pinkham, Benjamin Folger, 
Solomon Gardner, James Bunker, Thomas Smith. 

57. Barnabas Baker. 

58. Thomas Smith. 

Numbers 51 to 58 comprised the French Settlement 
at the Hill. 

59. Nathan Snow, 

60 . Chapman Swain. 



THE TOWNSHIP GRANT 155 

61. Joseph Swain. 

62. Nathaniel Smith. 

(Numbers 59 to 62 were at Port Latour, Lower from 
North to South). 

63. David Crowell. 

64. Jonathan Crowell. 

65. Enoch Berry. 

66. Glebe Lot, Coffin's Id. 

67 . Joseph Atwood . 

68. Samuel Osborn. 

(Numbers 63 to 67 were at the Passage, going west- 
ward). 

69. George Fish. 

70. Jonathan Clark. 

71. Edmund Clark. 

Numbers 67 to 71 were at Bear Pt. 

72. Henry Tracey. 

73. Ministerial Lot. 

74. Prince Freeman. 

75. School Lot. 

76. Richard Worth. 

77. Zaccheus Gardner. 

78. John Davis. 

79. Simeon Bunker. 

(Numbers 72 to 79 were on Cape Island from N. E. 
Point to the Westward.) 

80. Philip Brown, Port La Tour. 

81. Governor's Lot, Port La Tour. 

82. Peleg Coffin. 

83. Zaccheus (or Sacco) Barnes. 

84. Timothy Briant, 

85 . Samuel Knowles. 

86 . Stephen Nickerson. 

(Numbers 82 to 86 were at Cape Negro.) 



Grantees and The distinction between "grantee" and 
Proprietors "proprietor" should be made because while 
the former term is the general description 
of all the persons named in the Grant, the latter indi- 
cates also the thing granted, namely, property or a title 
to a share of the township land under the condition 



156 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

specified. With some assistance from a deputy Provin- 
cial surveyor the land was divided and deeds or warrants 
given to each owner. The business of the body of pro- 
prietors was to divide the land and administer that which 
was held in common. All these properties, both common, 
and personal, were subject to state rights, which included 
the administration of justice, so that we see the proprie- 
tors' meeting becoming of less and less consequence as 
the land was distributed to individual owners whose rights 
were duly protected by the courts 

The common interests of the people however as in 
highways, fencing and care of public property, control 
of fishing streams, care of the poor are of a perpetual 
nature and call for constant attention. The regulation 
of these matters fell later to the magistrates, apart from 
their particular duties as Justices of the Peace, and then 
the civil matters were separated from the judicial by the 
organization of the Municipal Councils as we have them 
today. All these departments Of public business have 
their evolution in the life of any of our communities, and 
we are able to trace in the records of Harrington the var- 
ious stages of progress in all these respects. 

The state meantime was alive to its own more gen- 
eral interests and gave a sharp reminder of its claims 
and prerogatives when the Governor Council forbade and 
declared illegal any town meetings called for debating 
and resolving on several questions relating to the law and 
government of the province and threatened prosecution 
if this was persisted in. This was in 1770, a straw show- 
ing how the revolutionary wind was already rising. 

Administration The administration of justice or at 
of Justice least a suitable equipment for it, is 

a primitive necessity of society. It 
would seem that the relations between Massachusetts 
and Nova Scotia were so intimate that the King's com- 



THE TOWNSHIP GRANT 157 

mission to a magistrate in the former province was recog- 
nized in the latter. The absence of strife and litigation 
in the early years of the township leaves the magistrate's 
functions an entire blank except for the affirmations in 
a few deeds of transfer. A deed of Thomas Lincoln in 
1770 bears the affirmation and signature of Jonath. Pink- 
ham, Justice of the Peace, two years before his appoint- 
ment by the Government of Nova Scotia. The high 
moral character of these first settlers made the magis- 
trate's office almost a formality; and yet it was necessary 
so that in 1772 we have an account of proprietors' proceed- 
ings in which men are nominated for appointment by 
the Government for essential public duties. The first 
Justice of the Peace in Barrington appointed by the 
Nova Scotia government was "Hemman Kenney" accord- 
ing to the Council minutes of Sept. 27, 1767. As this 
antedated the Grant it may well be supposed to be on 
the recommendation of the new Representative of the 
township, Mr. Francis White. 



158 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



CHAPTER XII 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION. 



Because so much of history has consisted of accounts 
of battles and other performances of so-called* heroes, 
it has been said, 'Happy is the people that has no history*. 
The records of Harrington render but a too scant supply 
of materials for the rest of the 18th century. Three 
stages are evident in the life of the generation spanning 
that period; (a) Peaceful industry in home building, whe- 
ther of enlargement of the fishery and allied occupations 
or enclosirg and cultivating to the utmost the h'f teen- 
acre lots of the First Division, (b) The shadow of WAR 
when across the Bay the English colonies fought for and 
secured their independence. At this time the claims of 
kinship and of loyalty to the flag clashed violently in 
the breasts of our settlers who were unable to prosecute 
their calling as fishermen or to escape from th dr position 
on the edge of the arena of naval strife, (c) The re-ad- 
justment after the Revolutionary war when business 
could be resumed and when substantial additions were 
made to the population. 

Neighbors Were the first people at Barrington so iso- 
lated as to have no neighbors? It has been 
seen that the Grant was bounded on the north-east by 
New Jerusalem, this being the name of the township 
granted to Alexander McNutt, whose name has been 
preserved in McNutt's Id., opposite where he with some 
relatives and retainers had their quarters for a time. 
His regiments of settlers did not come and the grant was 
forfeited. 

To the westward it was different. The British power 
was now so well assured in North America that in 1767 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 159 

a number of the Acadian French families in Massachu- 
setts were allowed to settle again at Pubnico having taken 
the oath of allegiance. In 1771 the lands between Bar- 
rington and Yarmouth were erected into the township 
of Argyle. At the mouth of the Argyle River was the 
grant and establishment of Ranald. McKinnon who 
had frequent dealings with Barrington on government 
affairs. Steady intercourse was also kept up with Yar- 
mouth township settled at the same time as Barrington, 
and under almost exactly similar conditions at this period, 
the larger part of its founders hailing from Massachu- 
setts, but chiefly from the towns on the Northern side 
of the Bay. The kinship of many grantees in both 
townships, occasional intermarriages, and constant bus- 
iness relations then as now promoted good neighbor- 
hood. Simon, grandson of James D'Entremont, who 
returned to Pubnico was prominent in County deve- 
lopment, and intimately associated with the public 
men of Barrington. 



160 



HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 



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THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 161 



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HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 



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THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 



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164 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

The Census of Comparing with the Return of 1762 we 
1 770 see that many of the young men who came 
first had now gone away. The whale- 
fishery had been discontinued, for there is in the Census 
no account of either vessels or product in that industry. 
Their enterprise here never got much beyond the stage 
more familiar in the cod-fishery when vessels and crews 
came to convenient ports in Nova Scotia for the summer 
and returned to the home-base in Nantucket when the 
season ended. 

The average catch of cod-fish was not much over 30 
quintals per man engaged. Joseph Worth, Jonathan Clark, 
and Daniel Vinson had good flocks of sheep. Jonathan 
Clark with 50 sheep, 6 cattle and 1 1-2 vessels was the 
most considerable owner of personal property in the town- 
ship, that is, according to the census, which is glaringly, 
inaccurate and incomplete. The vessels and large boats 
were owned jointly and the owners members,of the crews, 
from 2 to 8 fishing in each craft. Building and repairing 
gave considerable work in winter. Joshua Nickerson 
by this time had a reputation as a ship-carpenter and 
mill-wright. The most enduring of his work was the fram- 
ing of the old meeting house. 

A significant section of the Return is that relating 
to the live stock. Almost every family was finding it a 
profitable thing to have a porker rooting for his living 
and clearing land for support of other stock. We can 
follow the work of the settler felling trees for wood and 
poles, burning the brush as it lay, building a hog enclosure 
with the poles, hauling off the wood to the cottage door 
with the team of steers. Thus year by year the men and 
boys with neighborly cooperation enlarged the home- 
stead and with it gained a measure of independence on 
the fishing industry; a change which was to be of immense 
advantage to them in the coming fratricidal war. The 
production of hay and potatoes,not named in the Return, 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 165 

would at this time exceed all the rest combined. It 
would seem that only the flax and grain for export or 
sale was reported, probably in view of the requirements 
of the Grant. Corn and rye were grown and ground 
for local use in the Mill built by Joshua Nickerson and 
in which he possibly owned the "third" not reported. 
Trading was carried on by Capt. Eldad Nickerson and Mr. 
Pitts of Boston who came in the summers. They had 
stores at Fish Point where they sold salt and other supplies 
and bought fish. Usually fish were worth about $4 a 
quintal and flour from $7 to $8 a barrel. At these stores 
the "shoresmen" retailed the current news as well as mer- 
chandise. The arrival of a trader would be the signal 
for a fleet of boats to come from all parts of the township. 
In the fine winter days the centres of attraction for re- 
plenishing the larder and for gossip were the eel beds 
which had become well known. 

Public With the completion of the outside of the 
Worship house in 1767 the public services of worship 
were held there and regularly maintained. 
There were in 1770 two ministers resident in the town- 
ship, Rev. Samuel Osborn and Rev. Samuel Wood, both 
proprietors. They were Congregationalists like the 
people. The former does not seem to have officiated in 
the religious meetings, but Mr. Wood was for some years 
after the Grant the minister in Harrington, and received 
a special grant of 1100 acres of land at Woods Harbor 
from the Government. Before coming to Barrington 
Mr. Wood had lived in Yarmouth and was for a time 
"Clarke" of that township. 

Religious In whatever references we have made to the 

Life religious heritage of our settlers from New 

England it has been clear that the affairs 

of the Soul were assigned a chief place by them as well as 



166 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

by their forefathers. Overseas and in America the 
church was the theme of controversy, the centre of influ- 
ence. Whether it was established or independent it 
ruled the lives of the people who sought homes in America; 
and those who found in the new settlements the oppor- 
tunity for escaping persecuting neighbors soon drifted 
into a condition of intolerance amongst themselves in 
which the humane and spiritual elements of Christianity 
were sadly lacking. 

The alarms of war in New England roused the Bar- 
rington minister Rev. Samuel Wood and found him ready 
to identify himself with the movement for independence. 
A man of education, versed in affairs and as capable as 
any of foreseeing the outcome of rebellion, his sympathies 
led him to return to New England. There he joined 
the Continental forces as Chaplain and was taken pris- 
oner, ending his life on the prison ship Asia in N. York 
harbor. The missionary spirit of the Congregational 
churches was stalled for the time at the barrier placed by 
war between Boston and Cape Sable. For a half dozen 
years we have no account of any minister there. 

Some account of the state of religion and public 
worship has been preserved by the diary of Dr. Geddes. 

"In the year 1766 the Cape Cod people finding they 
were increasing met together in the fall of that year and 
decided on building a house for public worship. They set to- 
gether to work and in the spring of the next year raised 
or boarded in the present "Old Meeting House." Joshua 
Nickerson was undertaker (contractor) and Elijah Swain 
worked with him. The front and west side were at that 
time finished as it stood lately (1867) and all the heads 
of families who then resided in Barrington were interested 
in the house as shareholders. They then hired a minister 
for six months who went home to Cape Cod in the fall. 
His name was Isaac Knowles. The people made him 
up 50, and found him for the six months. The next 
season they brought down a Mr. Sterns for six months 
on the same lay. Both these were young men. 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 167 

Afterwards they engaged Mr. Wood fromConnecticut. 
He got a grant of land of 1000 acres and remained 6 or 
7 years. He was an elderly man. After he left no other 
minister was engaged from New England. He lived 
at the Head close by the Meeting House. 

The frame of the old meeting house was brought 
from Cape Cod. When no preacher was present elder 
Solomon Smith and deacon Thomas Crowell conducted 
the services which were held twice on the Sabbath. When 
they had prayed, Mr. Pitts read the scripture lesson, 
Mr. King set the tunes. They sang the old psalms and 
Watt's hymns. In general the people wound up their 
household affairs by sundown on Saturday. The Sabbath 
was given to the services of worship and catechising their 
families. No visiting on the Sabbath, no cooking was 
allowed. The Nantucket people attended the services 
of the Church/' 

Samuel Osborn Doane, son of Edmond, proprietor, 
and himself proprietor's clerk for many years, left a note 
and text-book from which his grandson, Prof. Arnold 
Doane gleaned some instructive and interesting facts. 
In this book reference is made to "Mr. Molton " preach- 
ing in this place and to his text in 1763; to another ser- 
mon in June 1770, and that he preached on Sherose Id. 
He was the first Baptist preacher at Yarmouth, and 
from the date given, preached the first sermon in Bar- 
ringtoa. Jonn Chase in 1770 "preached lectures on week 
nights and sermons on Sunday". Mr. Isaac Knowles 
held services regularly from Nov. 1771 to March 22, 
1772, when in the afternoon he gave his farewell sermon 
from the text, "Finally brethren, farewell." "He preached 
from the words as they are placed one after an other, seemed 
very much affected so that he could scarcely speak: 
they are to pray for a minister and God will send them one 
who wiU teach them knowledge and understanding through 
our Lord Jesus Christ. He praises the people. No old 
town that ever he saw lived more loving together than 



168 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

they had for five months past. He ends with an exhor- 
tation and a hymn (No. 23) commencing: 

"Now blest be Israel's Lord and God, 

Whose mercy at our need 

Has visited his people's grief 

And them from bondage freed." 

Mr. Knowles sailed for Boston on tha Schr. "Bar- 
rington", Mar. 26, 1772. In 1773 Mr. Knowles visited 
Barrington again and preached on various occasions from 
June 13 to Oct. 3. Mr. Stearns arrived in Barrington, 
April 14, 1772. Memoranda were kept of his texts of 
April 19, on June 14 and August 16 and 30. Mr. Doane 
visited Boston in 1772 where he heard Rev. Mr. Allen 
preach in the first Baptist Church morning and afternoon, 
Dec. 3; Micah 7:3. was the text in the afternoon. The 
sermon was "concerning the excellency of having our 
liberty, and that the people in New England are in "a 
great measure deprived wrongfully of this great blessing 
by their own nation. He made quite an extraordinary 
piece of work of it and very reasonable." This shows 
the revolutionary spirit already working, the boldness 
of the preachers, and the intimate connection between 
Boston sentiment and the new townships in Nova Scotia, 
as also the spirit of dissent which led Mr. Doane to a Bap- 
tist Church when in Boston. Mr. Joseph Brown is the 
the next preacher referred to, the only date given 
being Feb. 1, 1784. He preached in dwelling houses, 
once at Mr. Theodore Harding's, once at Joshua Nicker- 
son's and once on a Wednesday evening on Sherose Id. 
His name is mentioned until Oct. 17, the same year., 
The preacher in 1792 was Mr. Regan. On Mar. 15. 
he married Hugh Spiers and Bethiah daughter of Theodore 
Harding. It will be observed that this account from 
a first hand document differs from that of Dr. Geddes 
who regarded Mr. Wood as the successor of Knowles 
and Stearns. 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 169 

Mr. Doane makes no mention of the New Light 
and Methodist preachers in the period which his notes 
cover. The more enduring results of their labors will 
be described in another chapter. 

Official The official records of the Township after the 
Records Grant were kept from Jan. 21, 1768 till Aug. 9, 
1773 by Benjamin Folger who was chosen at that 
first meeting. Those records are all in his handwriting 
as well as copies of the reports made by the Committees 
on laying out lands and roads. There were also fourteen 
copies of Deeds and a petition from Mrs. Elizabeth Doane, 
and records of marriages. The marriages in 1771 were 
solemnized by Rev. Isaac Knowles. It is not said who 
officiated at the marriages for 1766 to 1770, but that 
would not be regarded necessary when Mr. Wood was 
the settled minister. Mr. Samuel Homer who was Pro- 
prietor's clerk for a period, 1787 to 1795 recorded three 
marriages at which he officiated. As standing clerk of 
the township it would fall to him in the absence of an 
ordained minister. 

It was determined in Town meeting on Oct. 8, 1768 
to build a Town House on the Parade. It was to be eight- 
een feet square. It is not again referred to. It was the 
site afterwards chosen for the Court house which at first 
was called the Town House. 

On Feb. 24, 1769 a 'beginning was made on the Sec- 
ond Division of land, and a committee was appointed to 
lay out the Meadow lots. The next year March 23rd, 
permission was given to Thomas Doane and Company to 
build a Fulling Mill on "ye old French stream." Just 
a year later the feeding lots of the Second Division were 
sold at auction. Thus they were utilizing the natural 
grass in an equitable way for all interested. The same 
year resolutions were passed for laying off fifty-acre lots 
as a Second Division. This was not carried into effect. 



170 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

A very prominent grantee for several years was Jonathan 
Pinkham who was regularly selected as Moderator of 
the Town meeting from 1767 to 1774. He was appointed 
Judge of Probate in 1772 at the same time that Archelaus 
Smith and Isaac King became Magistrates. Before that 
as Justice of the Peace he attested the signatures 
of witnesses to deeds. He and Benjamin Folger dis- 
appear from the records about 1774. They were both 
men of ability and culture of the Nantucket section. 
August 9, 1773, "Voted and agreed that that arm of the 
harbor running on by Calash Point and lying between 
that point or necV and the settlement on the Hill, being 
very detrimental to the settlers in their fish making or 
their fish-lots, which inconveniency may be removed by 
damming the water of said arm, the privilege was granted 
to them or any other person whomsoever that will dam 
out the same. 

Mar. 6, 1775, Capt. Thomas Doane was chosen 
Town Treasurer, and Samuel Osborn Doane, Register 
of the Town after application duly made to the General 
Court. John Homer was appointed Town Clerk in 1777 
and Archelaus Smith as Proprietors clerk in 1778. 

The Shadow Though Great Britain had won unpreceden- 
of War. ted prestige and immensely enlarged her 

territory, yet the peace of 1763 saw her 
loaded with debt. This burden her statesmen tried to 
lessen by trade arrangements many of which affected her 
colonies and dependencies. Among other things a "Stamp 
Act'' was passed which was bitterly opposed in America. 
Protests were made and also offers from the colonies to 
contribute to the Empire if only the hateful tax might 
be removed. In 1766 the Stamp Act was repealed but 
the Home Government continued to affirm the right of 
taxing the colonies. An agitation arose in the Colonies 
for independence which was intensified by the imposition 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 171 

of duties on tea and other imports for the benefit of the 
British treasury. Opposition became so strong that the 
revenue laws were enforced by military aid. American 
merchants combined against purchasing dutiable goods, 
and in 1773 at the Boston "Tea-party" ship loads of 
tea were thrown overboard by armed citizens disguised 
as Indians. Gen. Gage was sent with authority to close 
the Port of Boston in 1774 upon which delegates from 
eleven colonies met in Philadelphia and formed them- 
selves into a Congress. Britain now forbade the exporta- 
tion of military stores to America and strengthened the 
forces of Gen. Gage. In various colonies the people 
seized arms and ammunition. The collision between 
the British troops and the colonists at Concord and Lex- 
ington in 1776 was the signal for the war which ended 
in the Independence of the United States of America 
in 1783. 

Throughout this whole period Nova Scotia was alive 
to every blow struck, whether of imposts and protests 
in the first stages or of the clash of arms. The Governor 
and the Council kept a firm hand on the administration 
of affairs in strictest loyalty to the Crown. The Assem- 
bly was more responsive to the American cause, as was 
natural enough from the fact that the Nova Scotian 
people were then almost all of American stock and only 
a few years away from their kindred of the older Colonies. 

The strength of the current of feeling and sympathy 
could not be prevented from showing at the surface. 
These matters were illustrated in a way connected with 
our township when its representatives William Smith 
for the County of Queens and John Fillis for the town- 
ship of Barrington were removed from all the offices which 
they held under the Government for having denounced 
the measures of the Government in connection with the 
landing of some tea in Halifax. Mr. Smith was a magis- 



172 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

trate, and they were both prominent merchants of Hali- 
fax. 

On the outbreak of war it was understood that the 
Congress had made plans to subdue Nova Scotia, and 
several vessels were captured by armed American vessels 
near Cape Sable. The British admiral was requested 
therefore to station a ship of war at Port Roseway. In 
1775 Governor Legge, who was very suspicious of the New 
Englanders in the province, says of Nova Scotia in writ- 
ing "home", "it is the only settled province on the sea- 
coasts which has preserved itself from the madness and 
contagion which has overspread all the other of H. M. 
Colonies." 

Murdock's statement may be taken as a correct 
judgment respecting the people of the province (II, 562) 
1776. This year opened under circumstances unfavorable 
in a high degree for the British interests in America and 
the prospects of Nova Scotia were then especially gloomy. 
In Halifax the general feeling of all ranks was eminently 
loyal, the exceptions being very few, and even those, it 
is believed, went no further than to desire that the Old 
Colonies should be successful in defending the privilege 
of self-government, the denial of which had given rise 
to the insurrection, without aiming to extend the area of 
the conflict to this province or disturb its existing con- 
nection with England. That such sentiments were to be 
found in some of the men in this colony who were born 
and reared in New England is not to be wondered at. 
In the Western Counties the families from New England 
who had settled on the vacated French lands, were at- 
tached to the crown and free from a spirit of innova- 
tion." (See M II 520-1.) 

It has been shown that the shadows of war fell upon 
Barrington shortly after the Grant was issued. Some of 
the effects plainly discernible were, first, that the flow 
of immigration from N. England ceased entirely. Then, 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 173 

for those already committed to residence in the new 
township, a serious check was given to their plans for 
development. Whatever advantage had been expected 
from the British conquest of America seemed in a fair 
way of being neutralized and the future of trade was all 
uncertain. The further division of land to the grantees 
by the body of proprietors was delayed, and altogether, 
even for three or four years before war was declared, 
there was a serious suspension of normal activity owing 
to the worse than fog which settled over the Cape Sable 
district. The withdrawal of the Nantucketers from the 
little colony was destined also to result in important 
changes of residence and transfers of property by the 
grantees and their heirs. But despite the many draw- 
backs it is probable that all losses of population were 
more than offset by the natural increase of the settlers 
families. At the same time, with the development of 
roads in the township new land came into occupation; 
and cultivation made progress especially by the sons of 
grantees, who from the age at which a fisherman's boy 
is taken for service into a fishing boat, had come to be 
of marriageable age by the time of the battle of Bunker 
Hill. The government's prohibition of removal from the 
Province without a passport would have little effect 
upon people so situated as our proprietors. 

The movement for change of residence grew out 
of these especial circumstances. First, some of the 
Quaker people before their departure had sold their 
rights in the township, in whole or in part, to old pro- 
prietors or newcomers. Others of them abandoned their 
places with whatever real improvements they had made. 
Again, the chief settlement at the Head, crowded about 
the first falls, though possessing the greatest attractions 
at the first, with its convenience of fishing privileges and 
cultivated land, was felt to lack in opportunity of expan- 
sion with respect to pasture, meadow and woodland which 



174 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

would be desirable when the next division of the town- 
ship land was made. For it must be remembered that 
the whole township was owned by the proprietors each 
of whom was entitled to the full 500 acres specified in the 
grant, subject only to the right of eminent domain. It 
was that right however which soon came into exercise 
in several instances when the government on account of 
the owner's violation of allegiance, confiscated their 
property. When this local outcome of the Revolution 
became apparent some of the grantees anticipated the 
event by moving to the abandoned places. Most notable 
in this as in much else in the first quarter century of the 
Township history was Archelaus Smith. From increas- 
ing age or greater inclination to the farmer's life, and wish- 
ing room for his family and a larger outlet for feeding sheep 
and cattle than was obtainable at the Head, he moved 
to Cape Island where only one of the old grantees re- 
mained, Daniel Vinson, at South Side; and where the 
sea walls of the island furnished a fence, and the large 
meadows since covered with water in the interior of the 
island offered abundant pasturage and hay. He fixed 
his residence at McGray's; his son Hezekiah took land 
near by and eventually his other children occupied the 
land right and left of their father's from N. E. Point to 
West Head. As Archelaus Smith and his son had 
occupied these lands eleven years when the list of for- 
feited lands was made up in 1784 we thus find a date 
for their removal to Cape Island namely, 1773. As this 
was two years before the Declaration of Independence 
light is thrown also upon the state of mind of the people 
before the war, and the time of the exodus of the Nan- 
tucket grantees. 

Tradition assigns the origin of a place-name in 
the Passage to this removal. Squire Smith went over 
from the Head in a Scow with his wife and a cow. Whe- 
ther from the tide turning against them or the Narrows 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 175 

being too choppy we cannot say, but the cow was landed 
on the bluff, west of the present ferry. In climbing the 
bluff, she slipped and fell back and was killed. Mrs. 
Smith told that the incident struck her with terror. 
Hence the place was called Point Terror. 

The practice of inserting copies of Deeds in the 
Proprietors records before a Registrar was appointed 
enables us to guage the activity of the real estate market 
at that time. Daniel Vinson or Vincent is the princi- 
pal purchaser. He got from Simeon Bunker in 1770 
his whole right in the township for four pounds. It was 
the place occupied by Isaac Kenney in 1784. Vincent 
bought also from Nathan Kenney, Daniel Hibbard, 
David Smith and Thomas Crowell, Jr., their rights on 
Cape Island, and from Elijah Swain, his son John and 
Isaac Annable their title to Gooseberry Neck Meadow, 
Cape Id., all in 1770. 

Thomas Lincoln sold his share on Sherose Id., to 
Josiah Sears, 1770. Samuel Hamilton sold his right 
on Cape Id. to Joseph Worth in 1770 and his first division 
of meadow on the main, near Sherose Id., to Benjamin 
Gardner in 1771. John Coffin mortgaged his whole 
share in the grant to Josiah Waters of Boston in 1772. 
The Deed of the Proprietors to Mrs. (Edmund) Elizabeth 
Doane of Johnson's Point was made in 1770 and recorded 
in 1772. This was in consideration of her valuable medic- 
al services to the community. 

Rev. Samuel Wood transferred his whole right in 
the township to Elizabeth Berry for 83 pounds, in 1772. 
Barnabas Baker deeded his fish lot at Bakers Point to 
Thomas Crandon in 1772. The proprietors, the same 
year, gave Sol Kendrick, Jr., the title to lot No. 13 at 
Hopkin's Neck, where he also bought and received a 
deed of Joshua Atwood's share of Meadow there. Ben- 
jamin Folger sold to John Coffin 1772 his whole right. 
In 1773 Henry Tracey's deed to Richard Worth of his- 



176 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON' 

half-share is recorded. It was lot No. 72 near N. E. 
Point, the consideration was six pounds, and the deed 
was dated at Nantucket, Oct. 19, 1770. Tracey is called 
a mariner and Worth a house wright. A number of these 
transfers were due to the people moving a way, Nathan Ken- 
ney went to Arcadia, several to N. England but the trans- 
fers were mostly from the wish to have property accessible. 
The Records of the Proprietors for this period give 
further information of value. In 1770 it was decided that 
the Committee might lay out as they saw fit shares of 
the meadow on Cape Island to proprietors living there, 
but all the common meadow otherwise was to remain 
in common. It was voted at the meeting Dec. 19, 1770, 
that no nor -proprietor should be allowed to dig clams 
on any of the flats belonging to the township and that 
Squires Heman Ketmey, Jonathan Pinkham, Eldad Nick- 
erson and Benjamin Folger be a committee to draw and 
send to the "General Court" (the Provincial Assembly) 
a memorial for the prohibition of clam digging, as above 
by non-proprietors. Here was manifested a new spirit, 
a sense of proprietorship, a common defense against the 
world, the germ of protection, of nationality. Froude 
says in discussing Ireland's history that the warrant for 
separate nationality is the power of a state to defend 
itself. By that test the late war would leave few nations 
able to justify their existence. To know one's rights 
and to stand up for them are prime factors in social 
development. The need for this memorial had probably 
other bearings. The habit of the N. England fisherman 
to harbor near Cape Sable and dig bait on the clam flats 
had brought them into collision with the new inhabitants 
and a wedge of self-interest was driven in which was not 
without its influence in the impending fratricidal war. 
The next meeting, Mar. 22, 1771 provides for "hunting" 
the sheep on Cape Id. Nathaniel Smith of Port Latour 
is the hunter who collects them for the shearing and is 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 177 

paid pro rata by the owners. Ownership is known by 
the stock marks which were registered with the Town 
Clerk commencing March, 1768. The next March a 
day was "Perfixed" for the shearing of sheep at the Head 
of the Cape and Hawk Inlet, East end of Cape Id., Fish 
Id. and Long Id., and the number of sheep to be kept in 
each place was determined. At the same time the Points 
which were lying in common were let for making fish. 
At this session Sol Kendrick was nominated as 
Coroner and he and Joseph Worth were appointed as 
agents for the town. How this differed from the stand- 
ing committee which since 1770 consisted of Sol Kendrick 
Benjamin Folger and Isaac King does not appear, but 
evidently the agents had some special duty assigned 
them. A road was to be laid out from the Hill to Port 
Latour. At the next sessions April 3, and Dec. 30, 1772 
and Aug. 9, 1773 Joseph Worth is the acting Clerk, 
though the records are all in the handwriting of Benjamin 
Folger, the "proper clerk." The 1773 meeting voted to 
enquire of the Government about the quantity of land 
for which the proprietors are to pay quit-rents. "It 
remains yet an absolute uncertainty." Sol Kendrick 
Jonathan Pinkham and Joseph Worth are a committee 
to address the Government. Voted, to prohibit "Bestial 
creatures" from running at large or feeding on Beach 
Point after it is legally enclosed; also, that liberty be 
granted for a Drift-way from Beach Point to Baccaro in 
order to enclose the same where it may be most effectual 
(i. e. the path along the shore is to be regarded as a public 
road and fenced wherever necessary to prevent animals 
having access to the Beach.) Barnabas Baker was 
appointed to be "Field Driver" to impound those crea- 
tures that are liable to damage the Beach Point; also, 
that he erect a pound at the Hill for that purpose. A 
committee was appointed to enquire into the circumstance 
of Thomas Crandon's name being introduced into the 



178 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

Grant or charter; seek out the author of the forgery, 
and to prosecute him, if found, and to remain and stand 
agents for the "Propriety" until others are chosen. 

Hannah, widow of the late James Bunker, applied 
for certain monies due her late husband from the Pro- 
priety and persons were appointed to collect the money. 

Meeting, Mar. 14, 1774 voted to apply to the Gen- 
eral Court to have a Register for the town. July 17, 1774, 
Isaac King was appointed Clerk Mar. 6, 1775, Capt. 
Thomas Doane was nominated for magistrate and Saml. 
0. Doane as Register. Daniel Vinson was Moderator. 

One of the most interesting features of the annual 
gatherings of the Proprietors must have been when the 
Glebe lots were "vandude." The grass and pasture 
on these lots was sold at auction. The lots named were 
at Shag Hr., Bear Pt., Coffins I'd., Back of , Sherose 
Id., and East End of Cape Id. The lot at the Head was 
in use, those at the Hill, Port Latour and Cape Negro 
were unproductive or too far away from the majority 
of proprietors to be worth discussing. This provision 
of a number of Glebe lots for religious use in different 
parts of the township had a strange outcome as recorded 
March 18, 1776. "The money for the sale of "Glib" 
lots, which this year amounted to 11 shillings, was voted 
to be laid out for Drink." At that meeting Thomas 
Doane was Moderator and Isaac King Proprietor's 
Clerk. 

The following synopsis of deeds from copies in the 
Yarmouth Registry illustrates the conveyancing of the 
period in the new townships with names still familiar. 

(1) Deed of Nathan and Lydia Kenney of Yar- 
mouth to Thomas Crowell and Heman Kenney for 25 
currency the "tract of land and meadow number, three, 
lying and being on Sholoirs (Sherose) Island, so called, 
being in the Harbour of Barrington and bounded as 
follows, Beginning at the Creek on the Marsh by Mr. 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 179 

Thomas Doane and runs west across the island, then 
southerly 30 rods, and thence east across the island to 
the Creek taking in one share of land and meadow and 
the privilege of a road of three rods wide being on the 
part of land of lot number two leading to the sea. To 
Have and to Hold, etc. Dec. 10, 1776. 

(2) Deed. Thomas and Phebe Lincoln of Barring- 
ton for 25 currency to Josiah Seairs of Barrihgton a 
certain house and lands and meadow situate in Barrington 
namely: fifteen acres on Soras (Sherose) Island and medo 
now laid out together with all other lands and medows 

in said Town of Bar,rington free from all incum- 

brances and mollistation whatsoever and will war- 
rant and defend, etc Signed and sealed in pres- 
ents of us at Barrington this 12th day of October, 1770. 

Anson Kincoruk 

Elizabeth Doane before Jonathan Pinkham, 

Ruben Cohoon Justice Peace. 

(3) Deed. Anodmi 1771, March 13. Josiah and 
Eunice Godfrey of Barringt&n in Queens County, meriner 
^or 25 to Joseph Atwood of the Town afrofcsaid one 
cartin share and half of land in the First Division of said 
township. No. 36 with the adishon as wilfully appear 
refrance being had to the records of the said Town with 
any dewling house and improvements thereon. Presents 
of Jonathan Pinkham and John Coffin. 

(4) Deed. Joshua Atwood of Barrington Tanner 
to Daniel Vinson, yeoman, for 15 shillings Currency one 
hole share and a half share at all the small islands lying 
to the west and to the southwards of the Green Cape 
Island in Barrington, Dec. 28, 1774. 

Heman Kenney Queens County 

Gamalal Kenny, Archelaus Smith, J. P. 

(5) Deed. Joseph Atwood, fisherman, to Thomas 
Doane, gentleman, for 3 current money, a tract which 
was laid out to John Clemmons, No. 36 in Barrington 
for an addishon lot to his first division lot Oct. 20, 1777. 

(Signed) Joseph Atwood, 

Archelaus Smith, , Susanna Atwood, 

Hezekiah Smith, Arch. Smith. 

(6) Deed. Samuel Osborn, gentleman, late of Bar- 
rington, now of Boston to John Homer of Boston, mer- 
chant, for 30, all my right to any lands in Barring- 



180 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

ton Receipt included for 10, one-forth part per my 

son, John Homer, Jr., mariner. 

Witnesses Joseph Homer, 
Sam Homer. 

(7) Deed. Robert and Darchy Lasky to John 
Homer, Feb. 1778, a lot of meadows adjoining lands of 
Thomas Crowell and David Smith. 

(8) Deed. Solomon and Patte Kenwruk to John 
Homer, Sep. 15, 1776, meadow 12 rods East side of Mill 
River near the Falls. 

Isaac King, J. P. 

(9) Deed. Thomas and Sarah Crowell to Thomas 
Doane, one-half of seartain first division lot of medow 
on Shorow's Island, formerly laid out to Nathan Kinney, 
No. 3, for 8 current money. 1778, Dec. 20. 

f Archelaus Smith, J. P. 
Witnesses: J Anson Kenwruck, 

I Josiah Sears. 

Note. Some of these deeds are * 'subject to quit rents." 
Some of this period give the "consideration" in 
"Spanish Coins" or "Spanish mill dollars." 

In 1771 Argyle became a township containing 187 
square miles. A general election had taken place in the 
spring of 1770. Before the regular time for the dissolu- 
tion of this House of Assembly the revolutionary move- 
ment was so far advanced that its period was extended 
and so continued until 1784 during which 17 sessions were 
held. During the most of this time no quit-rents were 
collected. An attempt made to increase the represen- 
tation of Halifax in 1775 in order to assure a quorum of 
the Assembly in the absence of the Country members 
was met by a strong protest by the Assembly against the 
absolutist designs of the Governor and Council. All the 
inhabitants of the province were required however to 
attend the County sessions and take the oath of allegiance, 
a tax was imposed by the Legislature upon the people 
for the maintenance of the militia, martial law was pro- 
claimed in the province and all intercourse with the 
revolted colonies was prohibited. Shortly after the close 



THE PERIOD OF THE FIRST DIVISION 



181 



of the war New Brunswick and Cape Breton were set 
off as two distinct governments. 




182 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



CHAPTER XIII. 



BARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 



Causes of the The war waged by the American colonies 
War for their independence resulted in a victory 

for free government, or what has since then 
been called, self-determination; of as much moment and 
now as precious to Britain itself as then to America. 

When after the treaty of 1763 the power of Britain 
was at its zenith, the administration seeing no rival which 
might dare to challenge her preeminence undertook to 
exploit her new colonial empire. With King George and 
his courtly ministers it seemed that the proof and enjoy- 
ment of power was in exaction of tribute. To lay a share 
of the burden of the great war debt upon the lands over- 
seas was a ready -to-hand mode of realizing their projects. 
The famous Stamp Act was passed in 1765. America 
resisted, but more on the ground of the right of the Col- 
onies to control their internal affairs than for the amount 
of the tax. The Stamp Act was repealed, but the right 
of the Home Government to tax the colonies was not 
abandoned. Soon other taxes were laid on glass, tea, 
paper and other objects of universal use. These burdens 
fell hard upon a people who had been building their homes 
in the wilderness and who had shared with British troops 
the task of fighting their French and Indian enemies con- 
tinually pressing them upon all sides. 

The movement for resistance arose among the people 
of Puritan Stock in N. England. Foolish impositions 
drove a people loyal to England and its ancient liberties 
back upon the memories of days when persecution and 
exile were connected with a Revolution and an English 
Commonwealth and impelled them to make good the free- 
dom their fathers crossed the seas to obtain. Crafty 



HARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 183 

agitators in America scattered firebrands which spread 
the mischief of rebellion before the "iniquity and folly" as 
Creasy terms it, of the "King's Ministry" could be replac- 
ed by the saner, better judgment of England at the helm 
of affairs. The military enforcement of the obnoxious 
regulations intensified the Colonial opposition, and the 
Houses of Representatives took up the cause which shap- 
ed itself into a War'for independence. The assembly of 
Nova Scotia was asked to join them. 

The history of the American revolution has been am- 
ply set forth by a hundred writers. They describe the 
rigorous measures of King George the Third's' ministry: 
the clash at Lexington and Bunker Hill: the muster of 
the Colonists at Boston: the British besieged and driven 
out of Boston by Washington: the grand attempts of Gen- 
erals Burgoyne and Clinton in 1777 to occupy the Hudson 
River and separate New England from the other colonies 
to the South: the use of Indians and other mercenaries by 
the British and the effect of Indian atrocities in rallying 
the colonists to more determined resistance: the defeat 
and surrender of Gen. Burgoyne at Saratoga; the prestige 
gained for the American arms and their General Wash- 
ington: the consequent recognition of the United States 
by France, Spain and Holland in defiance of England. 
Then followed a see-saw of military advantages between 
the Royal troops and those of the Revolution under Gen- 
eral Washington, until in 1781 Lord Cornwallis was dri- 
ven by famine to surrender. The war was brought to an 
end the next year by the acknowledgment of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States of America. In bitter 
travail England had become the mother of a nation. 

Barrington and The slight summary just preceding from 

the Belligerents common sources is intended to supply the 

background for a clear picture of the 

affairs of Barrington at that time. How did the people of 



184 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

the township behave during the disturbances and conflict- 
ing appeals made to them during the war. It is first of all 
important to remark that Nova Scotia was not invaded 
by any army of the Revolution; though Gov. Legge was 
alarmed by the reports that it was part of the rebel plan 
to send an army of 12,000 men for the conquest of Nova 
Scotia. His preparation for defence were however quite 
sufficient^ An expedition had been proposed by a Col. 
Thompson, but was vetoed by Gen. Washington, for the 
reason that no attack from Nova Scotia was to be appre- 
hended by the Americans; and that though an incursion 
into Nova Scotia might be successful, the force must be 
maintained to be of lasting effect. Besides, between Ma- 
chias, the point of departure, and Windsor, chosen as the 
first place of the intended attack in order to "captivate 
the Tories/' H. M. ships from Halifax or Boston (then 
still occupied by the British) might make this Down-east 
expedition an "easy prey/' 

But if there was no serious land attack there was for 
the seven years of the war an incessant patrol of the Nova 
Scotia western coast by privateers whose depredations fell 
most heavily upon the fishermen, and rendered their busi- 
ness a most precarious one. The documents show that 
they sometimes ventured to the fishing grounds, but it 
was certainly of greater permanent benefit, that, as we 
saw in the census of 1770, greater attention was continual- 
ly being given to cultivation of land and stock. There 
was certainly a spirit of political unrest and sympathy 
with the Americans in the new townships, a measure of 
disorder in a few places but no place more than in Hali- 
fax itself where a store of hay was burned. An inter- 
cepted letter from Halifax, September 1775 (Amer. Arch.) 
declares that for sometime the duties had not been collect- 
ed there, that the "liberty boys" had thrown overboard a 
consignment of two tons of tea from Bristol, and that the 
Assembly had declared itself friendly to the Continental 



HARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 185 

cause. I do not find any of these statements confirmed 
in Nova Scotia records, and suppose therefore that this 
letter was fabricated for a political purpose. It is found 
with many other papers to which we shall refer in Poolers 
Annals of Yarmouth and Barrington. The correspon- 
dence published throws light on the circumstances of our 
people during the war and reveals a degree of "trade and 
intercourse" certainly unusual between professed belli- 
gerents.- 

Mr. Poole, who recognizes the "extremely delicate 
position" of the Yarmouth and Barrington people, regards 
the ties of kinship and close trade relations between them 
and the parent colony as excusing such intimacies of trade 
and intercourse as were permitted. We cannot however 
with him reach the conclusion that "the fate of the whole 
Province hung by a very slender thread, and that its fu- 
ture was decided quite as much by chance as anything 
else." That is a view which seems to gratify our cousins 
in the United States, but which ignores Providence as well 
as the powder magazines and firm hand of Gov. Legge. 
Nova Scotia still British has had no ignoble part to play 
in the development of self-government and in the cause of 
liberty in the world. 

The most of these papers are petitions of the Nova 
Scotians and minutes of the Massachusetts Council re- 
specting them. Generally the petitioners are seeking the 
privilege of selling their fish and buying provisions, and 
they ask for friendly treatment on account of entertaining 
American prisoners who had escaped, and been assisted 
by them in getting home. The petition of S.S. Poole and 
others of Cape Forchu in Chapter XXVIII illustrates 
these common points of view. This passage deserves at- 
tention. "Their situation (inhabitants of the western part 
of the Province) is so incapable of defense, and so exposed 
to the depredations of either party, that they have ever 
been considered in a state of neutrality etc/' The records 



186 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

show that usually the people from the Province who 
brought escaped prisoners to Boston received favorable an- 
swers to their petitions and sometimes encouragement to 
come again with fish for the hungry Boston market. No 
depredations of the British have been discovered by us, 
nor can we agree with the suggestion that the Nova Scotia 
Government made any such concession as "a state of neu- 
trality" to the inhabitants of western Nova Scotia. A 
memorial to that end, as an alternative, was made to the 
government, from Yarmouth in 1775, but the Council 
unanimously rejected it. Nor indeed, while we must 
commend the just and sympathetic comments of Mr. 
Poole as to the difficulties and conduct of the New Eng- 
land settlers in Yarmouth and Barrington can we go 
with him in saying "There are no evidences that the gov- 
ernment at Halifax took any measures to effectually pro- 
tect them from the ravages of the almost piratical Ameri- 
can privateers etc." To quote from Murdock only. "Two 
armed vessels were fitted out in 1776 to defend the coast 
from Cape Sable to Halifax and soldiers were stationed at 
Liverpool and Yarmouth (11,576). In 1778 the situation 
was better understood for soldiers were sent to Liverpool 
Barrington and Yarmouth 50 to each place 
to prevent intercourse with the rebels and to protect the 
coast from their depredations." (II, 595). In 1779, 50 
pounds each was voted for blockhouses for Lunenburg, 
Liverpool and Barrington. The last was built at South 
West Pt., Sherose Id. If these measures were sometimes 
too tardy to prevent all the mischief threatened it must 
be remembered that the regular forces had been drawn 
off to New England where larger operations required their 
aid. Murdock notes an interesting fact when in 1775,100 
Acadians are enlisted in Clare and Yarmouth (Argyle) to 
come to the garrison at Halifax We observe that no call 
was made on the "New England" townships probably for 
one or all of these reasons ,'they were suspected of disloy- 



HARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 187 

ally, or it would be unwise to thrust them into the fighting 
against the New England army that was supposed to be 
about to make an attack on Halifax. By this time also 
some of the Nantucket families had moved away, and as 
we shall see, the distress of the Barrington people between 
the upper and nether millstones was making it likely that 
others would follow. There was little to prevent them 
all moving back again, and therefore the government 
did well to ignore the sort of intercourse and trade which 
helped to keep the Provincial people alive and held the 
settlements until the revolutionary storms should have 
passed by. Their attacking army did not arrive, partly 
it was said, because the small pox was prevalent in Hali- 
fax, but really because Gen. Washington would counten- 
ance no raids unless they could be backed up by a force 
adequate for permanent occupation, which the Continent- 
al Armies could not then spare. What did arrive however 
and more disastrously to the shore towns, was a mosquito 
fleet of privateers. This must be regarded as composed 
of two distinct classes. First, the larger craft of private 
ownership with Commissions or Letters of Marque au- 
thorizing them to make war on a hostile power. These 
probably adhered in general to the rules of war. The 
second c^ss consisted of smaller craft, mere open boats in 
some cases, without commissions, out for plunder, and 
quite regardless of letters or passports issued by their 
own government. These last were commonly known as 
"Shaving Mills." They were pirates, avoiding the arm- 
ed vessels or soldiers of their country's enemies in order 
that they might rob the non-combatant and defenceless 
settlements along the coast. Some men from one of 
these "shaving mills" came and stood in the door at Hez- 
ekiah Smith's, Cape Island. One of them said, "How are 
you, Aunt Nabby." It was one of her nephews from 
Cape Cod. 

But Aunt Nabby knew them too well to be daunted 



188 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

by the Yankee raiders. On one occasion after they had 
stripped her pantry and were going after her sheep, she 
seized the musket from the wall, and told them that the 
first who touched her sheep was a dead man. The lieu- 
tenant in charge called off his men telling them that she 
was crazy. 

In a letter prompted by a document in the "Annals", 
quoted herewith, which gives the name of Isaac Kenny 
among other petitioners, Mr. B. H. Doane tells of the sei- 
zure by a British party of a shaving-mill at Barrington, 
while the crew were visiting their folks ashore, the Cap- 
tain being hidden in said Kenney's house. This was "giving 
comfort to the enemy" to an unusual degree, for generally, 
as in the efforts to aid in the escape of prisoners, there is 
nothing more serious than practical expression of humane 
sentiment towards the distressed. 

We will now present some instances of trade and in- 
tercourse with Barrington, as noted in the "Annals/' 

Barrington, Nova Scotia, Oct. 19, 1776. 
Gentlemen: 

We the Subscribers, Inhabitants of Barrington in 
ye Province of Nova Scotia, having hired and partly 
loaded the Schooner Hope with Fish and Liver Oyl 
bound for Salem or Beverly In the Province of the Mas- 
sachusetts bay Earnestly Pray and Request of you the 
Honble Congress,or those whose business it may be to 
see to it, To permit and Suffer the said Loading to be 
disposed of by Heman Kenney and part of the amount 
to be Lay'd out in provisions for the Support of us the 
Subscribers which are entirely Destitute of any for 
the support of them or their Children and it is Impossible 
to get any Elsewhere. And a long Winter Approaching 
God only knows what will become of us; We look on 
ourselves as Unhappily situated as any People in the world 
being Settlers from the Massachusetts Bay, for whose 
welfare we Earnestly pray, having Fathers, Brothers, 
and Children living there; And we have in the Course 
of these Unhappy Times done everything in our power 
to Assist those Unfortunate people that have been Taken 



HARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 189 

and come into this place from Halifax, to ship them over 
the bay on their way home. And have not at any time 
Eigher (either) by Supplies or men to Injure our native 
places or Country. In the Vessel are Three Families 
with their Effects which have left this place and gone to 
the places in your province where they formerly came 
from, And we the Subscribers don't know but that we 
must follow them for we don't think we can Live Quietly 
here for our Employment is such for the Support of our 
families to Vizt as you look upon Dis-service to the great 
cause you are Imbarked in, and we cannot but follow 
it while we are thus Scituated; Therefore we Earnestly 
pray and Request of you in your Great Goodness and 
Wisdom to Assist us with provisions as we the Subscrib- 
ers shall want for this winter and till such time as we can 
remove ourselves from this place to our former homes 
unless these Tremendous Times are Stinted, Which God 
grant may be soon: We have Authorized and Appointed 
our Friend Mr. Heman Kenney to Answer and Reply to 
any Questions and to represent our Deplorable Situations 
to you the Honble Congress or others whom he may be 
called before; And we are ready to keep up a correspon- 
dence with the Inhabitants of your province to Exchange 
fish for other provisions if you should see fit to Incourage 
such a Trade until such Time as we can remove ourselves 
from this place provided you are Determined to prevent 
our fishing on this Shore. For the privateers have taken 
Severall of our Schooners from us and the fish caught in 
them to the great Distress of the fishermen which have 
not done anything but fishing to Injure you, which they 
could not help, being the only way they have to maintain 
their families. For all which causes and Reasons we 
cannot but flatter ourselves that you will receive this 
Memorial from us and answer our request which will 
Enable us to Support our Wifes and Children, and we 
cannot think the request being granted any Damage to 
you. We mean not to Offend you in anything but should 
be glad to know our Destiny if any of us should tarry at 
this place during these times for we have not seen nor 
heard from you anything who are in Authority but only 
from some of the men on board the privateers who tell 
us all the Dreadful Things that can befall any People, 
to jVizt That the Indians are commissioned to come on 



190 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

the back of us to kill burn and Destroy. A picture thus 

drawn by them that we the Descendants from America 

Cannot think ever Entered into the breasts of the free 

and Generous sons of America. We are, Gentlemen, 

your most humble petitioners and very humble Servants. 

Solomon Smith David Crowell 

Isaac King Elisha Smith 

Ths. Dpane William Greenwood 

Reuben Cohoon Solomon Smith Juner 

Theodore Smith Benjamin Kirby 

Stephen Nickerson Samuel Butman 

Elkanah Smith Joseph Smith 

Jonathan Smith Jonathan Smith, Jr. 

Isaac Kenney Joseph Atwood 

Gamaliel Kenney Timothy Covel 

Marcy Kenney Joshua Atwood 

Isaac King Juner John Reynolds 

Samuel Osborne Doane Joseph Kenwick 

Solomon Kenwrick, Jr. Edmund Doane 

Thomas Crowell. 

N. B. We hope and Desire you will not give this 
a place in your newspapers tho you may think it worthy 
Which may be of Damage to us if we should remain at 
this place. 

Mass. Archives, Vol. 211, p. 122. 

The petition of the inhabitants of Barringtown was 
acted upon by the General Court as follows: 

In the House of Representatives, Nov. 15,76. 

Whereas it appears to this Court that the within 
petitioners, inhabitants of Barrington in Nova Scotia 
have proved themselves firm friends to the United States 
of America, & on that account are determined as soon 
as may be . to transport themselves & their families from 
that province to this state in order to get out of the reach 
of British tyranny: 

And it being represented that the inhabitants of 
Barrington, from a determined refusal of trade with the 
enemies of America have exposed themselves to great 
hardships thro want of such provisions as are necessary 
to support them until they can be removed; therefore 
Resolved, that the prayer of the within petition be so 
far granted as that the within named Heman Kenney 
be & he hereby is permitted to purchase and export from 



HARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 191 

any town or place in this state to said Barrington, solely 
for the purpose of enabling the said inhabitants thereof 
to transport themselves from thence to this State, 250 
bushels of corn, 30 barrels of pork, 2 hogsheads of Mol- 
asses, 2 do. of rum, 200 Ibs. Coffee. 

J. Warren Spkr. 
In Council Nov. 16, 1776. 
Read & Concurred. 

John Avery, D. Scy. 

N. B. It is not easy to see in what respect the an- 
swer of the Court corresponds to the request of the peti- 
tioners. Whether Heman Kenney, evidently the son of 
the grantee of that name who died in 1775, enlarged upon 
the statements in the petition is not alleged; nor indeed is 
there evidence that he obtained the goods desired upon 
the terms expressed by the Court, That the inhabitants of 
Barrington had refused to trade at Halifax or with other 
"enemies of America" is altogether unlikely. It was their 
inability to do so while the coast was blockaded by priva- 
teers which made them turn to the Massachusetts Bay 
where control of the privateers was supposed to reside. 

None of the Nantucket names are on this petition. 

Next, in these Archives, come petitions, minutes of 
Council and Correspondence of John Pitts, who with his 
father and brother had stores and goods at Barrington. 
The father, Hon. James Pitts, was a leading citizen of Bos- 
ton and among the foremost of the "Sons of Liberty." 
Two vessels chartered by him to bring loads of fish from 
Barrington were captured by the American privateers and 
one of them with her cargo was condemned in the prize 
Court. William Pitts was at this time resident in Bar- 
rington and was regarded by the Prize Court as an "in- 
habitant of Nova Scotia" (though his name is not in any 
of our lists of proprietors). John Pitts secured an order to 
commanders of all armed vessels of the "united American 
States to allow Capt. Tutt of the Schr. "Flying Fish" to 
pass and repass, with such effects of said Pitts as he may 



192 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON 

bring from Barrington. It is remarkable that the "Con- 
trol of the sea" should have been so completely at this 
time in the hands of the United States privateers. We 
quote Mr. Poole's account of the rest of the Pitts affairs 
which introduces another of the principal merchants of 
early Barrington. It would seem from the age mentioned 
that the Mr. Pitts who assisted in the religious services 
was James Pitts whose provincial trade had doubtless con- 
tributed to his prosperity and distinction in Boston. The 
"Annals" give an interesting account of the Pitts family. 

"In accordance with the permit granted to William 
Pitts by the Council of Massachusetts July 17, 1778, 
his attorney, Capt. Joseph Homer, returned to Barrington, 
where he engaged a vessel, which he loaded with three 
hundred quintals of fish and other articles belonging to 
the Pitts estate. The vessel was not large enough to 
take all the merchandise belonging to the Messrs. Pitts 
and William petitioned the Council (Oct. 20, 1778,) for 
further permission for Capt. Homer to return for the 
remainder, which petition was granted. 

William Pitts never returned to Nova Scotia. He 
died in Boston Oct. 22, 1780, at the age of 36. The 
affairs of the family in Yarmouth and Barrington at ;the 
time of his decease were still in an unsettled condition, 
although Capt. Homer had been two years engaged in 
trying to adjust them. A few weeks prior to William's 
death his brother John assumed the management of the 
business, retaining Capt. Homer in his employ. He petit- 
ioned the General Court, Sept. 11, 1780, as follows: 
To the Honourable Council & House of Representatives of the State 
of Massachusetts Bay. 

The Petition of John Pitts humbly sheweth 

That in consequence of a large trade which was carried on by 
the late Father of your Petitioner in the Government of Nova Sco- 
tia, The Family now have a considerable Interest there, part of which 
consists of real Estate, as will appear by the Deeds and which is 
going to ruin every day. Your Petitioner prays your Honors that 
his Attorney, Joseph Homer may have the protection of this Court 
to bring up the proceeds of the real Estate, which he is ordered to 
dispose of, and also of several Securities in Money, Fish or such articles 



BARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 193 

as he can procure, to prevent a total loss of the Interest aforesaid 
great part of which has already been lost in a vexatious manner. 
And your petitioner as in duty bound will ever pray. 

JNO. PITTS. 

A good part of the trade and intercourse between 
Harrington and Boston was carried on by Capt William 
Greenwood of East Passage in his schooner "Sally", about 
45 tons. That he could play a man's part in these stirring 
times is evident from the records. In 1777 he brought 
Captain Libby and crew of 21 of a wrecked privateer to 
Boston and obtained permission to carry back provisions. 
The same year the "Sally" is again in the service as fol- 
lows: 

To The Honble Council & House of Representatives for the State of 

Massachusetts Bay. 
The Petition of William Greenwood humbly sheweth, 

That Your Petitioner has brought up from Nova Scotia, Mr. 
John Long, late Quarter-master of the Continental Ship Hancock, 
Amos Green of Salem and Ichabo Mattocks of Mt. Desert who were 
taken Prisoners & carried into Halifax Your Petitioner Prays he 
may have liberty to return to Nova Scotia to his family and to carry 
down for the support of them & four other families, the Heads of 
whom came up in the Vessel, & are in a suffering condition, Forty 
Bushels of Rye and three Casks of Flour & Your Petitioner as in 
duty bound shall ever pray &c. 

BOSTON, OCT. 7, 1778. WILLIAM GREENWOOD. 

This petition was granted a few days later, Capt. 
Greenwood being directed to give a bond to the Naval 
Officer of the Port of Boston, in the penal sum "of two 
hundred pounds that he will carry out of this State; such 
articles only, as he is permitted by this Resolve." At 
the same time a clearance was granted to his schooner 
the Sally. Mass. Archives, Vol. 219, p. 431. 

Next year he is robbed of his vessel and goods and in 
1780 his new schooner the "Flying Fish" is stolen along 
with clothes, money etc. 

To the Honoble the Council of the State of Massachusetts Bay. 
The Petition of William Greenwood 
humbly sheweth That he has brought 



194 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

up from Barrington in the Government of Nova Scotia 
50 Quintals of Cod Fish which he prays Your Honors he 
may have liberty to exchange for Corn Rye Sugar Mol- 
asses & Rum to supply eleven Families there who have 
an equal share in the Fish with himself, & whose dis- 
tresses for want of provisions are great. He also prays 
Your Honors protection from the rapacious practices of 
the little Privateers who infest that Shore on his return 
there, which he prays Your Honors to permit. And as 
in duty bound will ever pray. 

WILL. GREENWOOD. 

John Prince of Manchester & 
Wm. Smith of Cape Anne 
Prisoners on Parole have 
been brought up by ye Peti- 
tioner free of Expence. 

State of Massachusetts Bay, Aug. 12, 1780 

On the Petition of Wm. Greenwood praying for 
reasons set forth in his Petition that he may have liberty 
to exchange the amount of 50 Quintals of Cod fish for 
Corn, Rye, Molasses, Rum and Sugar and return to Nova 
Scotia with the protection of this Board from the Armed 
Vessels: 

Ordered that the prayer of the Petition be so far 
granted, that the said Wm. Greenwood be & hereby is 
permitted to purchase Fourty bushels of Corn, twenty 
bushels of Rye, 1 Tierce of Molasses 1 barrell of Rum and 
one Barrel of Sugar, provided he gives Bonds to the Naval 
Officer of the Port of Boston, in the sum of two thousand 
pounds that (he) will take nothing more on board his 
Vessel than the aforesaid articles. 

And Whereas it appears to this Board that the said 
Greenwood has been friendly to this State in the relief 
of Prisoners, Therefore it is hereby recommended to all 
Commanders of Armed Vessels belonging to the United 
States and requested of those of our Illustrious Ally* the 
King of France, and All Commanders of Armed Vessels 
& others belonging to this State are commanded not to 
molest or impede said Greenwood on his return as afore- 

*N. B. France has now acknowledged the "United States" and made war on 
England. 



BARklNGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 195 

said, but to afford him any aid & asistance in their power 
Attest 

John Avery, D. Secy. 

The foregoing petition and order-in- Council are in 
the handwriting of the Hon. John Pitts, whose deep 
hatred for the petty privateersmen plundering our people 
is evident in the language he uses. 

The last named vessel is recovered (by legal process) 
only to fall again into the hands of a naval officer in 1782 
with fish owned by 33 families of Harrington He suc- 
ceeds in getting his vessel back with the privilege of pur- 
chasing supplies for the Barrington families who are still 
accounted friendly to the American cause. 

New Jerusalem Greenwood's Schooner had a passenger, 

and Port Roseway John Caldwell, for New Jerusalem. 

Facing McNutt's island a few settlers 

had made their homes at a place named Port Roseway. 

The enterprise of one of these, a Barringtonian, is shown 

in am fragent of the Mass. Archives. So far as we have 

discoveredhe was the pioneer of the ship timber industry 

of Shelburne. 

Oct. 30, 1778. Archelaus Crowell, of Port Roseway 
petitions the General Court for leave to purchase a small 
quantity of pork and grain, with the proceeds of 35 qtls, 
of fish, 4 bbls of oil and 14 bushels of salt, brought to New- 
buryport by him in the shallop Elizabeth 8 ton burden 
and to export the same to Port Roseway fo* the relief 
of several of the inhabitants there who are wholly destitute. 
He states that the Continental Sloop-of-War "Provi- 
dence," Capt. Rathburn, which came into the harbor of 
Port Roseway in distress, was supplied with a new mast 
and bowsprit by the people there, in payment for which 
the petitioner was given a draft on Mr. John Bradford 
the Continental Agent, for $22, which the petitioner was 
desirous of investing in necessary supplies. Granted in 
Council, Nov. 3d, 1778. Mass. Archives, Vol. 169, p. 281. 

That the other inhabitants were also from Barrington 



196 HISTORY OF BARR1NGTON. 

making this an outpost for the fishing business is implied 
in the following record of a later date. 

Oct. 17, 1780. ArcheJaus Crowell, Benjamin Kirby. 
Eleazar Crowell & Obediah Wilson, all of Port Roseway 
petition the General Court, stating that while on 
their way from Port Roseway to Newburyport in 
their "Chaloupe' or schooner, the ''Betsey' burd- 
ened 8 tons, wth 80 quintals of fish on board, 
they were captured by an American privateer and 
taken into Salem, but that their captors have since 
generously restored their vessel to them. They pray that 
they may have permission granted them to return home 
with provisions and supplies, and further desire leave co 
return again with another cargo of fish. Their petition 
was granted in part, and they were permitted to sail for 
home with a portion of the goods petitioned for. 
See Mass., Archives, Vol. 177m., p. 208. 

Dr. Lockwood in his monograph on Shelburne Coun- 
ty says that Alexander McNutt wished the Government 
to allow his first settlers to occupy vacant lands in Barring- 
ton and Yarmouth townships together with Cape Negro 
Island. "The wish was quite characteristic of the land 
greed of that remarkable promoter. The Mass. Archives 
exhibit some of his difficulties and especially his protest 
at being treated in a "double capacity;" by the Americans 
as if he were a Tory, by the British as if he were a Whig. 
He complained that he was robbed by the privateers, ar- 
rested and detained over a year before he could obtain a 
passport to Nova Scotia to secure evidence in support of 
his claims. Again, his house at Port Roseway is looted 
and his brother and himself maltreated. He intercedes 
for Jonathan Lockj Thomas Hayden, John Matthews 
and William Porterfield of "Raged Island" whose goods 
were carried off in 1779 with a schooner of Capt. Green- 
wood of Barrington. Part of the fourteen families at 
Port Roseway were probably connected with his establish- 
ment. He would not underrate their needs in his applica- 
tion for supplies. 



BARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 197 

State of Massachusetts Bay, In the House of 
Representatives, June 22, 1780. 

On the Memorial of Alexander McNutt Praying Leave 
to Carry Certain Articles to Port Roseway in Nova Scotia. 
Resolved that Alexander McNutt be & he is hereby 
permitted to Export from this State to Port Roseway 
in Nova Scotia for the Benefit of fourteen families resid- 
ing there Sixty Bushells of Grain, One hogshead of Molas- 
ses, 1 barrel of Rum, one loaf of Sugar, and several small 
Articles of Crockery ware such as Milkpans, porrin- 
gers and Butter pots for said Families. 
Sent up for Concurrence. 

John Hancock, Spk. 
In Council June 22, 1780. 
Read & Concurred. 

John A very, D. Scy. 
Mass. Archives, Vol. 228, pp. 391-8 

Similar orders were given to Waitstill Lewis 1778 in 
the shallop, "Polly", John Swain, 1775, Thomas Green- 
wood 1778 and 1780, Freeman Gardner, 1780, and David 
Smith, 1780, all of Barrington. Capt. David Smith and 
Waitstill Lewis have flattering testimonials from the es- 
caped prisoners they bring. Freeman Gardner brought 
also in a small shallop a few dumb fish with which to pro- 
cure some West India Commodities, etc. 

Sept. 7, 1780. FREEMAN GARDNER, PETER 
COFFIN and SAMUEL HOPKINS, all of "Cape Sables" 
in Nova Scotia, petition for leave to exchange a quantity 
of fish for provisions and house-hold supplies. Their 
petition was granted on the llth, and they were given 
a permit, good until the 30th, to transact their business 
and leave the State. See Mass. Archives, Vol. 229, p. 1. 

The petition of Thomas Greenwood 1780 is on behalf 
of eighteen families at or near Barrington who have sent 
95 qtls. fish. It may be observed too that Swain, Coffin 
and Gardner, Nantucket names, are among the petition- 
ers. 

A glimpse of what may have been a quite extensive 



198 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

and profitable business is given from another angle of 
observation in the following certificate. 

This Certifies that to our certain Knowledge the 
Bearer hereof, OBEDIAH WILSON, & his Father for- 
merly of this State now of Harrington, Nova Scotia sup- 
plied the Brigantine Mercury Privateer, Stephen Hills 
Commander, when put in there in Distress for Provisions 
in the Month of December 1779, to the best of their Abil- 
ity with such Provisions & other Necessaries as we then 
stood in Need of, as witness our Hands with the Offices 
we then respectively bore on said Vessel affixed to our 
Names, Boston October the ninth 1780. 

J. R. Stevenson, Surgeon 
George Wheelwright, Clarke 
Charles Heath 
Thomas Kannadey 

Joshua Trefry and David Wood, of Yarmouth, are 
separately permitted to carry goods to Nova Scotia. Tre- 
fry asked for barrels of rum but got Cyder instead. His 
order was dated Oct. 13, 1780. These documents show 
clearly that the granting of aid to Barrington fishermen by 
the Massachusetts Court is not to be ascribed to pity for 
distress but to the benefit derived from the imports of fish. 
As the war went on with slow gains on the land the priva- 
teering business was worse. A petition from Salem de- 
manded the cessation of privileges to the Nova Scotians 
on the ground that thus the plans of Congress are disclos- 
ed and thwarted and it is asserted that a great part of the 
Massachusetts vessels and privateers have been destroy- 
ed. For the period covered, the concessions to the Bar- 
rington people are trifling indeed. 

Patriotism The question of patriotism has been exhaus- 
in 1776 tively discussed in our day with a growing 
conviction that the basis of defence for any 
country in war is the power of conscription for military 
training or service. And this after the most magnificent 
output of men and means in voluntary service. What is 



BARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 199 

the present definition of patriotism in Canada? With 
the Harrington settlers the question would have been 
the established constitutional monarchy, vs. secession and 
Democracy. There was, at the outset, no issue worth 
while and no warrant for raising the standard of rebellion. 
Britain had on her hands the fight of the Commons against 
the Court: and at the moment when the Court was in the 
ascendancy (a Court with German autocratic ideas) the 
grievances overseas were magnified, force used on Bri- 
tain's side instead of negotiation, and force in reply com- 
pelled the final settlement. 

The new settlements of N. Scotia were too few and 
scattered to have helped the other colonies except by con- 
certed, overt rebellion, of which we have no record; noth- 
ing more than local flashes of sympathy, provoked from 
without. There was no outburst against "British tyran- 
ny", a phrase forged in factories of actual revolution. 

When the war was over, one day in the summer of 
1783 Barrington people attending a funeral at the Head, 
saw the ships from New York sailing by to Port Roseway 
20 miles away, carrying the Loyalists to found the city of 
Shelburne. If one could have heard and committed to 
writing the comments made that day upon the causes and 
circumstances connected with that migration we would 
have a better estimate of that whole bitter estrangement 
than is now possible. The Revolution was doubtless a 
beneficial change for the Americans and the world at large. 
It was a vindication of democracy, still measuring 
itself against monarchy for the attainment of social and 
political ideals, and inviting all oppressed and enslaved 
people to strike for freedom. 

The capability of the people at large for government 
may be disputed, but the responsibility involved creates 
an ideal and promotes the education required. We have 
learned that the common man may share these responsi- 
bilities as well in a monarchy as in a republic. 



200 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

For the common man is the foundation of democracy 
and the enemy of privilege. His sense of equality leads 
him to seek and honor the flag under which that equality 
may be realized and his patriotic feelings take root and 
grow in that country. Patriotism was in the crucible for 
the New Englanders in Nova Scotia, but it was combined 
with patience, and the triumph of the Commons in Eng- 
land established in due time the principles of justice and 
freedom to our people without appeals to arms or disloyal- 
ty to king or Country. Lloyd George once quoted a state- 
ment, "It is dangerous to discuss the ethics of rebellion;" 
in which we see that a successful rebellion is taken to 
justify itself. That may satisfy a- public conscience; 
the Nova Scotian friends of freedom were not watching 
for the turning of the scale, but were listening to the dic- 
tates of conscience as individuals guided by the Book 
of Books; and in their patience they possessed their souls. 

The Quakers It was at this time that the Quaker com- 
munity, as such, came to an end in Barring- 
ton. Due in part to the disappointment in their whaling 
ventures, yet the reason must be assigned chiefly to the 
American revolution. With their views of war the whole 
prospect, beginning with the Stamp Act and down to the 
fight at Bunker Hill, would fill them with dismay. Their 
hearts turned to the old island home of Nan tucket, re- 
mote from the centres of agitation, as a haven of peace. 
And thither the most of them went. Nantucket people 
made their protest against war, demanding to be regarded 
as neutrals. The Continental Congress denied their pet- 
itions and included the young men of the island in their 
levies. A sort of consolation was found in the opportu- 
nities for trade in furnishing naval supplies to vessels of 
both sides at abnormal rates. 

None of the Nantucketers signed the first Barrington 



BARRINGTON AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 201 

petition to the Massachusett Court. In 1780 Freeman 
Gardner, Peter Coffin and Samuel Hopkins are in Boston, 
together on one of their trips, trading fish for supplies 
Of these three Gardner and Coffin are of the Quaker stock 
but have chosen to abide permanently in the township. 

The Nantucketers had come to Barrington originally 
as Dr. Geddes said on "speculation". The war clouds 
multiplied their hazards; and the prospect of a colonial 
success as it brightened, promised better conditions and 
more tolerance for religious dissenters. The return tide 
to Nantucket increased in strength. The most of them 
abandoned or sold their properties in Barrington. The 
census of 1770 showed about fourteen of the Nantucket 
families still there. 

John Coffin at the Town, Solomon Gardner at the 
Hill, Simeon Gardner of Cape Island, Chapman and Joseph 
Swain of Port La Tour, of the grantees; some of their 
children, and some of the Pinkhams and Covels did not 
go away. The younger stock intermarried with the other 
proprietors and the old distinction died out. As they did 
not in Barrington establish meetings for Friends, and but 
rarely were visited by their preachers, a departing from 
the strict discipline of the Society may be assumed. 

The removal of the Quakers community is to be re- 
gretted, for under our flag the friends have achieved an 
honorable name for probity of life as well as distinction 
in social and economic affairs. Their 's was the pacifist 
attitude practised more recently which exhausts itself 
in argument about the morality of fighting even while 
the bombs of the enemy are falling on their homes. 

Not. References to Barringtonians abound in Poole's "Annals" etc., see pp. 
25, 31, 32, 44, 47, 50, 52, 62, 75, 79, 88, 96, 99, 104, 126, 129. 



202 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



CHAPTER XIV. 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT. 



The next well marked stage in the life of Harrington 
gives us the history of the second generation, from the 
peace of 1783 to the war of 1812-14. During this period 
along with a normal development of population many 
changes were manifested as the people were released from 
the grip of military government and settled down to the 
pursuits of peace. Some of these circumstances are clear- 
ly disclosed from the available records of that time and 
form the subject of this chapter. 

Shelburne: the In the spring of 1783 an armistice was 
New Neighbor agreed upon by representatives of the 
British and United States governments, 
and followed by a treaty of peace in November. With 
the surrender of Lord Cornwallis's army at Yorktown all 
expectation of British success in the War had vanished 
and now the most of the Loyalists held very gloomy anti- 
cipations concerning the future. The fratricidal conflict 
had been possible because "the King of England was a 
German and George Washington was an Englishman." 
Good men and statesmen were now glad to be done with 
war and ready for peace. There was however an element 
in the United States, as in all victorious populations, 
whose cry is "woe to the conquered." Where the contin- 
ental interests had been in the ascendancy the property of 
loyalists had been confiscated and sold under state legis- 
lation and the extreme horrors of civil war had been en- 
dured by those who even dared to speak for the integrity 
of the Empire. For the latter now to live under the flag 
of the United States and to suffer the insults and per- 
secution which were certain to be vented upon them by 








MRS. (ABIGAIL) HEMAN CROWELL 
Married c. 1790. 



MRS. (LYDIA) PRINE DOANE. 

Born 1785: d. David and Mary 

(Hopkins) Wo o d., m. 1803. 




MRS. (SARAH) S. O. DOANE. 
m. 1774; d. T. S. Harding, gr. 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 203 

the winners was a most hateful prospect. Therefore in- 
stead of returning to their homes from New York and 
other places o'f refuge at the end of a triumphant cam- 
paign as they had hoped many were moved by a common 
impulse to remove to other British possessions. This 
determination was appreciated and seconded by the 
Military Chiefs who did not wait for the declaration of 
peace but undertooK the work of transportation forth- 
with. As a result of this exodus Upper Canada and 
New Brunswick in a short time leaped by access of 
population to the status of provinces. Nova Scotia was 
most favorably situated to receive those coming by water 
from the Atlantic ports and immediately the number of 
her citizens was greatly augmented. The largest settle- 
ment of all those made in the British provinces by the 
40,000 or more loyalists who xsame was that of Shelburne. 
The splendid harbor of Roseway about twenty miles east 
of Barrington had proved attractive to the leaders with 
whom naval advantages were of first importance. The 
little fishing village of Roseway at the mouth of the har- 
bor planted by fishermen from Barrington was then the 
only inhabited part of the harbor. Five or more miles 
iarther up the new town site was chosen and a city built. 
Though it proved to be of the skyrocket order, yet its 
existence had important and abiding consequences on the 
history of Barrington. 

New York was at the time of the surrender at York- 
town in the possession of the Britisk and thence a fleet was 
despatched in the spring of 1783 to Port Roseway with 
5000 loyalist refugees. Two ships of war with several 
transports in convoy passed Cape Sable and crossing Bar- 
rington Bay were watched by the people attending a fun- 
eral at Barrington Head with an interest we may only 
imagine. Those who were fishing off the harbor had more 
particular accounts to give of the great array of craft 
moving majestically by. A fisherman with pollock in his 



204 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

boat came close to a ship of war. An officer said, "My 
man, I see you have some fine salmon. What is your 
price for them?" Oh, these are not salmon, sir, they are 
pollok." "Don't contradict me", sirrah, "I know salmon 
when I see them." The fisher was not loth to make a bar- 
gain on that basis, and said he would take three dollars a 
piece, and so effected a sale. This is worth considering as 
a type of the superior airs and cocksureness of many Eng- 
lish officers which in several instances in American war- 
fare proved the undoing of their cause, both as against 
the French, the Indians and the "Continentals." Noth- 
ing could furnish a more lamentable illustration of this 
same temper than many of the circumstances connected 
with the founding of the town of Shelburne. 

Lumber had been brought for building operations 
and as soon as a location and plan had been determined on 
the work of clearing began, huts were put up and a divis- 
ion of land took place. 

This first contingent had barely realized the first 
miseries of their expatriation, due to lack of accommoda- 
tion and food supplies and the incapacity of the most of 
the people for the only useful work of the hour, namely, 
to provide houses against the coming winter, when an- 
other 5000 arrived in the late fall The necessity for 
abandoning New York had led to this addition to the 
Shelburne population. For the most of these the best 
shelter obtainable for the winter was in tents or on board 
of the vessels which remained. The government was, in- 
deed, furnishing supplies of food and funds, but the food 
was mostly abominable and like a Scotch laddies parritch, 
which was "sour and burnt and besides, there was not 
enough of it." The suffering of the poorer folks was ap- 
palling. The most were dazed and helpless. At the same 
time the needs of some hundreds of Slaves and a large 
settlement of other negroes at Birchtown (named for Col. 
Burch) intensified the troubles of the people. Rumsel- 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 205 

ling was the only thriving business. A great deal of row- 
dyism and rioting resulted and made it necessary the next 
summer to keep naval police on the station to maintain 
order. The building of the city was however pushed for- 
ward. There were many men of wealth, education, offi- 
cial rank and professional standing. Shops and newspa- 
pers were started and social life, reinforced by the men 
from the ships of war, was gayety itself. The descen- 
dants of the Pilgrims at Barrington, hearing of the doings 
among their new neighbors stood coldly aloof from the 
ungodly company and prophesied calamity for the "danc- 
ing beggars." 

As long as rations were supplied by government hopes 
were cherished that Shelburne would surpass Halifax and 
even become the capital of the Province. But the wiser 
part saw that there was no productive industry on which to 
build a prosperous town. Fishing and lumbering were 
carried on by labor, and the loyalists were not mainly of 
the laboring class. The people were soon on the wing 
seeking government jobs and land grants elsewhere; speed- 
ily the city shrivelled to hundreds where thousands had 
first swarmed and became a place of abandoned and half 
built and haunted houses. This was the situation when 
the next war with the United States was declared. The 
remnant, reduced like Gideon's band but growing in ex- 
perience and wisdom, and holding to the hope of better 
days took up the development of those industries appro- 
priate to the locality and out of which a new and more 
substantial Shelburne has arisen. 

For the first few years however the new city at Port 
Roseway* completely eclipsed its neighbors. At the re- 
quest of the Assembly Shelburne County was erected to 
include Shelburne town and the townships to the west- 
ward, Barrington, Argyle and Yarmouth and the next 

*The name was evidently a corruption of the French razoir, perhaps from the 
razor-shape of the harbor. 



206 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

year elected its representatives to the House of Assembly. 
The war of the Revolution had pressed hard upon the 
people of Harrington, both as to its causes and prosecution. 
Most Canadian writers have loyalist sympathies and al- 
low them free play. American writers generally justify 
the Revolution and ignore the abuses which marked its 
train. The Harrington people were like sufferers on the 
rack, drawn both ways at once. A balancing of argu- 
ments to date regarding that bitter strife would indicate 
that 

(1) Britain is not to be condemned for asking from 
America a contribution towards tha expense of the wars, 
carried on mostly by British regulars, which freed the col- 
onies from French aggression on the North and from the 
Indian menace on the West. 

(2) The inconsiderate demands, methods and spirit 
of the "King's Ministry," aroused justifiable resentment 
and opposition in America, and these were fanned into 
flame by agitators for independence taking advantage of 
the unrest and grievances of the people, particularly those 
restrictions of a commercial nature conceived in the inter- 
ests of home trade. 

(3) The wanton outrages perpetrated by the "Sons 
of Liberty" upon the persons and property of those re- 
maining loyal to the British cause, aside from the direct 
havoc of war, convinced the latter that their only hope of 
escaping a reign of terror, if the Revolution succeeded, 
was in departing from the Country. These, many of them 
now combatants, came over as "refugees." 

(4) When the scant measures of protection to loy- 
alists in the terms of peace were repudiated by the States, 
self -exile became a necessity to ward off utter ruin. The 
sufferings of the "refugees" and "loyalists" (for those who 
fought counted themselves in a different class from those 
who escaped the country while the war was on, and re- 
garded mere refugees with a degree of contempt) embit- 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 207 

tered the relations of the people of the new republic with 
those of the provinces to succeeding generations. 

Harrington had been harboring and assisting fugi- 
tives from British ships and prisons for many years; it was 
now thrown into intimate contact with its British neigh- 
bors of Shelburne. With people of such a distinct type 
it could hardly be expected that there could be very cord- 
ial relations. 

Business interests, as usual, came first to open com- 
munications. The manifold needs of the city made a 
market for fish and the various products of the older set- 
tlement, and here mutual interests were served. Soon 
followed a change into the County organization of Shel- 
burne, Barrington,Argyle and Yarmouth under the name 
of Shelburne. This union, in which Shelburne and Bar- 
rington still remain, called for adjustment of differences 
between people of decidedly extreme political convictions, 
which have hardly been obliterated in the four generations 
since that time. We shall have occasion to point out 
many ways in which our township was affected by Shel- 
burne. In the event, Barrington, though outnumbered 
and overborne for the time by their neighbors, was hos- 
pitable to the families and individuals who dribbled in 
from the new township to the eastward, and incorporated 
theminto her very life. On the whole, for a considerable 
time to come, the effect of the Revolution was to turn the 
face of Barrington from Massachusetts Bay the cradle of 
the township, to an entirely new field of relationships, 
social, commercial and political, in the opposite direction. 

The Proprie- As previously shown the division of the land 
tors' Records contained in the Township Grant of 1767 
was not made immediately after the Grant, 
only so far as was necessary to furnish each grantee with 
a homestead and fish lot. The rest of the land was held 
in common and it was not till 1784-5 that the balance, that 



208 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

is to say, the immensely larger part, was allotted to the 
individual owners. 

The description of these allotments forms a large and 
very important part of the Township records, and in order 
to insure them against destruction they were copied by 
order of the Proprietors in 1794 into a book which is still 
extant and from which the following account is taken. 

"At a Proprietors Meeting Legally Notified and 
holden in Barrington in the Year of Our Lord One Thou- 
sand Seven Hundred and Ninety four and on Tuesday 
the twenty fifth day of March at Ten O'clock in the Fore- 
noon at the dwelling House of John Homer in said Bar- 
rington when Archelaus Smith was unanimously chosen 
Moderator for the said Meeting and Firstly Voted Samuel 
Homer Proprietors Clerk for the ensuing year and was 
sworn by John Sargent Esq., on the Holy Evangelists of 
Almighty God to execute the office of Proprietors Clerk 
faithfully to the best of his skill and knowledge. Also 
Voted that the Book of Records of this Township shall be 
copied of into another Book and Kept in another House 
for safety and the Expense for buying a new Book and 
Copying of the same shall be paid out of the Public money 
in the Proprietors Treasurers Hands. 

Voted. That Samuel Homer Proprietors Clerk shall 
copy off the Records of this Township in a new book and 
shall receive Five Pounds of the Proprietors money when 
the said copy shall be finished. 

As there is no plan or chart showing the allotments 
or any reference to a plan of that character, it may be 
taken for granted that the specific descriptions and the 
boundary marks made by the various committees had a 
sacredness in the hearts of the Proprietors which was re- 
flected in the account of the oath administered to the 
Proprietors' Clerk. 

These records show that there were eighty four gran- 
tees in The First Division of the Main land in 1768: 
and of these, Samuel Knowles and Stephen Nickerson, 
who had lots 8 and 20 on Sherose Island and at the Mill- 
stream respectively, had additions at Cape Negro. The 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 209 

First Division was made by David Smith, surveyor, Ar- 
chelaus Smith, James Bunker and Thomas Doane, Com- 
mittee men. 

Next is a Record of the Roads laid out by the same 
Committee, extending from Lower Port la Tour to Shag 
Harbor. This main road follows the course of the present 
Post road except that it then crossed the Neck between 
Neal's Creek and the Millstream. 

A Record of the Division of a tract of land on the 
western part of Cape Island, which had been laid out in 
1767 to Daniel Vinson, Joseph Worth, Simeon Gardner, 
Peleg Bunker, Zaccheus Gardner, Elisha Coffin and Jona- 
than Coffin. This extended from Little Run Northerly 
to N.E. Point, thence South by East 660 rods along the 
shore, thence across the Island to the place of beginning; 
and a public highway 40 feet wide was reserved along the 
shore. *A piece of land 10 rods wide and running to the 
back line was also left in common adjoining Daniel 
Vinson's lot for a meeting house, school house and bury- 
ing place. 

A portion of the Marsh on Cape Island and at The 
Hill was divided for the Nan tucket People by a Commit- 
tee, Jonathan Worth, Simeon Gardner and John Coffin 
and the drawing for shares took place at the house of 
Thomas West at Clash Point, April 8, 1768. 

Marsh and meadow on the mainland were divided 
into eleven classes and laid out in shares for proprietors by 
David Smith, surveyor and Solomon Smith, Elkanah 
Smith and Archelaus Smith, committeemen. This First 
Division was completed in 1769 and was followed by a 
drawing for Town lots in which 66 grantees participated. 
A site for a town had been indicated in the Grant, prob- 
ably only a suggestion of the Provincial Surveyor. It 
lay near Hibberts Brook, to the Eastward. Ample room 

*Joseph Worth was the Surveyor, committeemen the same. 



210 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

was allowed for it in the First Division, but in 1769 it was 
divided to the Proprietors, and later was granted in part 
to Edmund Doane. 

The subdivision in 1773 of a tract of land at The Hill 
is particularly given with reservations for a burying ground, 
a pound and various roads. In this record the Hill is 
mentioned as on the "Town side of the Harbor." One of 
those signing this agreement was George Hussey a set- 
tler not otherwise named. The Records, as copied, now 
show a long gap indicating the unsettled conditions of af- 
fairs until after the war. All enterprise had been killed 
and even the allotment of land was in suspense. 

A Proprietors meeting was held in the Meeting house 
June 23rd 1783. Here the Second Division was arranged. 

1. Voted John Homer, Moderator. 

2. Voted, that all the main land shall be laid out 
in classes from the head of *Labaduce and down the 
Harbor to Point Blanch and so all around the shore to 
Port Latour, all that is worth laying out and as far back 
as the Committee shall think proper and to be laid out 
in 106 1-2 shares, and the Committee to reserve upland 
by the meadow for making hay and also to reserve roads 
where they think it will be needful. 

3. Voted, that Nathaniel Smith, Senr.,Nathan Nick- 
erson, Jonathan Smith, Elkanah Smith, Prince Nickerson, 
Joseph Swain and Solomon Kendrick Junior, each of them 
shall have their lots of land where their houses now stand 
equal with the rest of the Proprietors in that Division 
according to the judgment of the Committee. 

4. 5, 6, 7. Voted. That all the undivided meadow on 
the Main and land and meadow and the Great Sable Id. 
shall be laid out. 

8. Voted, that John Homer shall agree with Joshua 
Frost of Argyle or any other fit person to serve as Survey- 
or of Lands and meadow and to have his pay in 30 days 
after his work is done. 

9. Voted, that Jonathan Smith, Senr., Stephen 
Nickerson, Thomas Crowel, Archelaus Smith, Anson 

*The Narrows at Lyle's. 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 211 

Kendrick and Levi Nickerson shall be committee Men to 
lay out lands and meadows in said Town, ard all of them 
is sworn to act agreeable to the aforesaid Votes of the 
Proprietors, and but three of them to work at once and 
to have five shillings per day. 

10. Voted that Solomon Kendrick, Senr., John 
Homer and Solomon Kendrick, Junior, shall serve to 
assess the Proprietors for laying out Land and Meadow 
in said Town and to have five shillings per day and they 
are all sworn, etc. 

11. Voted, Josiah Sears, Collector to collect the 
money for the Surveyor and Committee and to have seven 
and a half per cent for his trouble and he is sworn to his 
office. 

12. Voted, that John Homer shall agree with some 
ft Persons to mend the Mill Bridge and to pay them out 
of the morey that hath been raised for the hire of the 
Glib Meadow*. 

13. Voted, that the above named Committee and 
Surveyor shall begin to lay out Land and Meadow by 
the fifth day of October next. Archelaus Smith, Pro- 
prietors Clerk. 

The lots of the Second Division measured from 16 to 
20 rods on the Back line, which ran S. 10 W. about 2J miles 
distant from the Cape Negro and Upper Port La Tour 
harbors. 

Following this Second Division of mainland is a Re- 
cord of the Second Division of Marsh at Cape Negro and 
Port La Tour. And the Second Division of Land and 
Marsh on Cape Sable Island. The Record also contains 
here the account of the First Division of Meadow made to 
the Nantucket People the former record of which had been 
lost. 

At another Proprietors Meeting legally warned and 
held at the meeting house Dec. 16, 1783, the same officials, 
among other things it was voted, that: There shall be 
another Division of Land in The Township; that all the 
undivided islands in the Township shall be laid out in Clas- 
ses, except the reserve made on the great Cape Sable Is- 



212 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

land and the Head of the Cape, and the other small is- 
lands adjacent to the great Island which are today in com- 
mon for the use of the Proprietors; that all the mainland 
in the Township shall be laid out from the most western 
bounds and back of the first division lots as far as the 
Committee shall think proper to lay out and to be laid 
out in 1 or J shares; that Joseph Homer shall be a sur- 
veyor and Stephen Nickerson, Thomas Crowell, Joseph At- 
wood and Joseph Kendrick shall be committee men, and 
to have six shillings per day etc. A Meeting of the 
Proprietors was held in the meeting house on January 
llth, 1785 and was adjourned (as the most of these 
meetings in winter) to the dwelling house of John Homer 
Esq. Moderator: 

"Voted clear, that the Third Division of Land and 
of Islands shall be put upon Record in the Proprietors 
book of Records in Said Town. 

Voted clear, that all the Proprietors shall if they 
see fit, have the Lots in the Third Division that are most 
convenient to their First Division Lots. 

The Record of the Third Division show that Arche- 
laus Smith was the Surveyor. Joseph Atwood does not 
appear to have served on the Committee; all the allotments 
are signed by Stephen Nickerson, Thomas Crowell, Anson 
Kendrick. Cape Negro Island was laid out for fifty shares, 
John's Island in Port Latour Habour for eighteen shares 
the small islands near French Settlement Cove count- 
ed for half a share and were drawn by Samuel Osborn, the 
islands South West from Bare Point were one share; the 
six islands between the Head of Bare Point and Shag Har- 
bor Brook were four shares, the three small islands West 
of Shag Harbor Brook were laid out to Jabez Walker for 
his share; Shag Harbor, northernmost inward island was 
laid off to Anson Kendrick, Solomon Kendrick Senior and 
ten others, Shag Harbor southernmost inward island was 
laid out in nine shares, and Shag Hr. outermost Island in 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 213 

eight shares, one half share of which was for the use of the 
Proprietors, probably for a public landing. 

The record of subdivision of some classes of land on 
Cape Island and of marsh from the Neck to the Passage 
completes the book. On its last page is a memorandum 
in 1795 by Andrew Collins, surveyor, respecting a road to 
the water on or near the premises of ThomasCrowell Senr. 
grantee. 

The subdivision of the Fourth Class of Marsh "in the 
First Division of Marsh" illustrates well the changes in 
property at that early date. It was mutually agreed in 
1795 by the subscribing grantees to accept the division 
made as a full and final settlement, viz: 

Gamaliel Kenney for Samuel Wood. 

Samuel Hopkins for Robert Laskey, John Porter and 

Thomas Crowell Junior. 
Joseph Kendrick for Reuben Cohoon. 
Henry Wilson for Joshua Atwood 
David Smith for Joshua At wood's half share. 

Glib Lot. 

Moses Crowell for Thomas Crowell, Senior. 

Thomas Crowell for Prince Nickerson. 

As titles to land in Harrington are still described by 
reference to these original divisions, classes and lots it is 
evident that too great importance cannot be attached to 
the careful work and records of the early settlers. 

The 2nd Division of land, though of little consequen- 
ce as to future occupation of those lots by the original pro- 
prietors or their immediate descendants, can now be seen 
to have a remarkable political significance. If recognized 
the permenance of the British connection for Nova Scotia 
The war was over and in The Revolution the United 
States had its birth as a new and independent nationality. 

The relations of Barrington with New England had 
been exceedingly intimate because of kinship, proximity 



214 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

and a common government. The political ties were now 
broken and this was bound to result in a degree of aliena- 
tion because of the new factors influencing life on both 
sides of the Bay. For the present however Halifax and 
Shelburne drew the minds of our people to the Eastward 
with the attractive power which is usual where business 
opportunities are involved. 

This Second Division, which gave to each grantee or 
his heirs or assigns a lot of land on the west side of Cape 
Negro River, all the way from Lyles Narrows to Blanche 
and thence to Port La Tour was the volte-face of Barring- 
ton under the new conditions of life. We can well believe 
that had the Shelburne settlement grown and prospered, 
the Barrington owners would have swarmed to their hold- 
ings on the eastern boundary of the township and there 
would have been an entirely different Barrington. 

Forfeitures It has already been observed that the war 
had been the occasion of many of the first 
settlers returning to New England, and that important 
property transfers and changes of residence had resulted 
thereby. It was inevitable that the government should 
take notice of such matters and the following statement 
seems typical of the investigations made. 

"Mar. 4* 1784- Joseph Pynchon, J. P. Queens 
County, Shelburne, to wit. Personally appeared before 
me Josiah Sears of Barrington, who being duly sworn, 
etc., said that he was well acquainted with Thomas 
Smith, a grantee in said Township of Barrington. That 
the said Smith did at the commencement of the rebellion 
in America, 1775, leave and abandon the same and joined 
the supporters of Congress in their contest against Gov- 
ernment. That since that period the land has been 
unoccupied and at present is in a wild situation. Never 
was a house built on it. Believes there are about two 
acres of cleared land belonging to said tract, and further 
saith not." 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 215 

Josiah Sears is also on record as a witness against 
Barnabas Baker, whom he believes to have between two 
hundred and three hundred acres of cleared land and a 
small house on it in a ruinous condition (the same date). 

Copy of a Certificate on the same subject: 

"We the subscribers do certify that the lots of land 
mentioned in the margin have been unoccupied for several 
years by the original proprietors having taken an early 
and active part in the Rebellion. That there are many 
more in the same predicament in this district of Barring- 
ton which is found to be of great prejudice to the settle- 
ment. That it is the will of the people in general that 
such lots should be re-settled and that they be granted 
to some of those people whose steady attachment to the 
interests of government have drove them from their 
native homes; and we do further certify that there have 
been no deeds granted for the above lands." 

This llth day of January, 1784. 

Anson Kendrick, Archelaus Smith, J. P, 

Sol. Kendrick, Jr. 
Nathan Snow, Josiah Sears. 

(The delinquents named in this certificate are Barna- 
bas Baker, Thomas Smith, Benjamin Gardner, Eleazor 
Kelly, Jon. Pinkham, James Bunker, Thomas West.) 

As Josiah Sears is not one of those who occupied any 
of the forfeited lands, it is to be inferred that he was not 
an informer but a witness subpoened in connection with 
a formal enquiry by the Government. 

We submit herewith the list of grantees whose lands 
were forfeited and their new occupants: 

Name. Acres. By Whom Taken Up. 

Barnabas Baker 750 Daniel Dunscombe, 6 mos. 

Thomas Smith 500 

Benjamin Gardner.... 500 

Elijah Swain 750 

Jon. Pinkham 750 Widow Jemima Gardner 

James Bunker 500 Timothy Covel, 4 years. 

Thomas West 500 Eleazar Crowell (?) 



216 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Name Acres By Whom Taken Up 

Isaac Amiable 500 Richard Pinkham, 4 years. 

Benj. Folger 750 

Isaac King 750 

Jon. Worth, Sr 750 Samuel Bootman, 9 years. 

Jon Clark, Jr 750 Thomas Greenwood, 7 years. 

Eldad Nickerson 500 

Richard Worth 500 Gideon Nickerson, 4 mos. 

Gardner (lot 77).... 500 

Simeon Bunker 500 Isaac Kenney, 1 year. 

John Davis 500 

John Swain 250 

Edmund Clark 500 

George Fish 500 

Enoch Berry 500 John Murray, pilot, 3 mos. 

Simeon Crowell 750 Nathaniel Knowles, 12 yrs. 

Jon. Coffin 750 Henry Newell, 4 years. 

Peleg Bunker * 750 Freeman Gardner 

Prince Freeman 500 Thomas Doane, Jr. 

Peleg Coffin 500 (Nathaniel Smith, Senr. ?) 

Haciah Barnes 250 

Jon. Worth, Jr 500 

Joseph Worth 750 Archelaus Smith, 7 years. 

Elisha Coffin 750 Hezekiah Smith, 7 years. 

This list represents about thirty per cent of the gran- 
tees of the township, and their removal was an unspeak- 
able loss to the little community. The dates of these cer- 
tificates, and the style and tenor of them as well, point to 
higher official inspiration. The principal agent was in 
Shelburne as appears in the memorial herewith, viz: 

"To Hife Excellency John Parr, General, Governor- 
in-chief in and over H. M. Province of Nova Scotia and 
it's dependencies. 

The memorial of Daniel Dunscombe in Shelburne 
humbly sh'eweth That your memorialist in exploring 
the country to fix on some spot of land as a permanent 
residence for himself and family touched at Barrington 
where Justice Smith and some more of the inhabitants 
strongly invited him to settle on a tract of land formerly 
the property of Barnabas Baker, but forfeited for reasons 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT. 217 

assigned in a certificate from the said Justice Smith and 
some more of the principal inhabitants; which they 
advised your memoralist to apply for; That in consequence 
of their friendly invitation and conscious of your Excel- 
lency's good disposition to forward the interest of every 
suffering Loyalist, he is emboldened to request your 
Excellency would grant him liberty to settle on the said 
tract until it is properly escheated, which your memorial- 
ist will bring proper proofs for, and then to receive a 
grant for the same; and your memorialist as in duty 
bound, will ever pray." Jan. 14, 1784. 

The long list seems to have been prepared for the in- 
formation of the Crown in making grants to Loyalists. 
There went with it an account of Crown lands between 
Shag Harbor and Pommeyco sufficient for ten or twelve 
persons. There the most of the new grants were made. 
Actual occupants in Barrington do not seem to have been 
disturbed. 

The Undivided It has been said that the lots in the Sec- 
Land ond Division of the township ran from 
the harbor of Cape Negro and the adja- 
cent marshes in a northwesterly direction, each one reach- 
ing inland two and one-half miles. This made the irregu- 
lar shore the base line and in consequence the parallel 
back line was irregular also. On a different method the 
Third Division lots were based on the back line of the 
township and ran to the shore excepting where First Div- 
ision lots had been laid off, this especially at The Head. 
On the East side of Barrington river the lots generally 
ran to Clement's Pond and its outlet. There remained 
therefore a stretch of undivided land back of the Second 
Division and in other parts of the township. The section 
between Lyle's and Queen's Falls was undivided, and 
when later the post-road to Shelburne was made, the near- 
by land at Clyde on either side of the road was taken up 
by Claimants advertising their intention and demanding 



218 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

a division, after which, if no notice was taken, they were 
entitled to their proposed enclosures. In this way many 
reservations, made originally around the shores and 
whereever the land offered inducements to settlers, fell 
into private possession. "At the Hawk", for instance, 
"people who settled there fenced in the land and cut wood 
anywhere on unfenced land, so that all the wood was cut 
off. If the fishermen wanted an island for fishing purposes 
they would buy the rights of a grantee and divide it into 
shares. When they wanted to settle, they would adver- 
tise for a division." The most of the undivided land is 
worthless for agriculture, but the increasing values of 
blueberries, firewood and small mill wood may yet make 
some of those ranges desirable property. 
Extension On the heels of the war we observe an ener- 
of Settlement getic purpose in the people to remedy its 
of the Third Division of land the way 
was clear for evils. With the completion extension 
of the settlements. Ownersof lots were now able 
to provide homesteads for their children, to exchange 
with other grantees or to give titles to purchasers. In 
consequence the whole shore line took on the show of pros- 
perity. Cape Negro Harbor, as nearest to Shelburne, 
was proportionately most enlarged by migrations from 
the moribund city. From Port La Tour to Shag Harbor 
along the main road, the sons and daughters of grantees 
made the most numerous additions to the homes of the 
people, while the west side of Cape Island became a fam- 
ily neighborhood with Archelaus Smith as patriarch. El- 
igible fishing privileges at South Side, Stony Island and 
Clarks Harbor were secured and improved as men real- 
ized the worth of proximity to the fishing grounds. 

Woods Harbor, Forbes Point and Pubnico Beach, 
afterwards incorporated with the township were laid out 
by the Government to Veterans of the British army and 
Navy. At the head of and above tide-water on Cape 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 219 

Negro or Clyde River there were beginnings of human 
habitation. The Shelburne grant, on the lines craftily 
defined by Alex. McNutt, embraced both sides of Clyde 
River, but the West side of the River afterwards fell to 
Barrington. At this time, the second generation was 
entering upon its heritage. 

In our discussion of the French occupation of Bar- 
rington attention was called to the strong desire for land 
ownership which led them, as families, to live consider- 
ably apart. It is impossible to avoid the conclusion that 
the ambition of many of the Barrington proprietors promp- 
ted them to the same line of conduct. Not from the 
habit of feudalism, but rather from the experiences of New 
England, where the worth of property in land had been 
realized and where space and freedom were of the soil it- 
self, they drew their inspiration. Granted that the land 
was mostly poor, yet the owner of 500 acres, including 
homestead sites, fishing privileges, woodland and pasture 
was no insignificant individual. After the Third Division 
he was able to choose for himself, or give to sons or daugh- 
ters substantial lots or portions in either part of theTown- 
ship preferred. Some became owners of several lots by 
purchase or the default of their neighbors; and certainly 
the holdings of several of the grantees became far from 
contemptible. John Coffin, for instance, after the Qua- 
kers removal, became owner of a mile or two of land 
along the shore above and below "The Hill." Obadiah 
Wilson came into possession of a number of First Division 
lots at the Neck and on Sherose Island. The sons of 
Elisha Hopkins made homes at Hopkinstown and Bare 
Point. The sons of Joshua Nickerson were also founders 
of new villages at Shag Harbor and Oakpark. The 
family of Archelaus Smith occupied the West side of 
Cape Island. It is said that when a stranger came there 
as a settler, when yet the homes of the Smiths averaged 
a mile from each other, the one nearest to the newcomer 



220 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

threatened that he himself would move away since the 
place was getting so crowded. Still there was land, 
enough for every one to have a generous allowance. 
One of the greatest of all the landlords was a newcomer, 
John Sargent, who by purchase and the incidents of trade 
acquired the titles of a dozen or two of the old proprietors. 
At Port La Tour the Smiths, Swains, and Snows, like the 
Doanes, Homers, Kennys, Smiths at the Head, the Crow- 
ells at the Neck and the Doanes, Crowell, and Kendricks 
of Sherose Island, held quite closely by the original grants, 
their progeny overflowing now and then to remoter parts. 

Time has shown that the families which have endured 
descended from the hardy producers, mostly toilers of 
the deep, who divided their substance with others, and 
not from those who added land to land and traded as 
middlemen. 

At Sherose Island there was an overflow of popula- 
tion to the other parts of the township. Thomas, son of 
Thomas Doane settled at N. E. Point, Cape Island; Nehe- 
miah at the Passage. Their brother-in-law, Michael 
Swim of Shelburne, was the first to make a home at Clarks 
Harbor. Thomas CroweH's sons, E^benezer, Paul and 
Nathan settled near the Island road on the mainland. 
Anson Kendrick and his son David went to Shag Harbor, 
Edward to the Head and John to the River. Of the son 
of David Smith, Aram settled at Doctor's Cove, Zarah at 
Shag Harbor; Elkanah Smith and his son Joseph moved 
to Lyle's Bridge. From the Neck Solomon Kendrick 
Jr., moved to Eel Bay after the Second Division. Of Henry 
Wilson's sons, Obediah, Seth and Nehemiah settled near 
their father at the Neck. Stephen Nickerson, gr., mov- 
ed to Clarks Hr. Eldad, Thomas and Sparrow went with 
their father, Prince Nickerson, gr., to Cape Negro and 
and vicinity. Eleazar, son of Judah Crowell Sr. became a 
neighbor of Daniel Vinson at South side, Cape Island, and 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 221 

later moved to Bare Point and built where Robert Ken- 
ney afterwards lived. His brother Ansel on his return 
from Roseway settled where his descendant, Capt. Alex, 
ander Crowellhad his home. Joseph Atwood chose 
Bare Point for his home site. 

Theodore and Elisha, sons of Solomon Smith, gr., 
settled at Indian Brook. Jonathan Smith gr., moved to 
Cape Negro. 

Newcomers It might be expected, that a settled township, 
as near to the revolting colonies as Bar- 
rington, would receive a generous share of the overflowof 
loyal blood. This did not happen, however; for the 
coastwise movements of the loyalists were conducted by 
government, and naturally they were held together by 
the bond of a common sacrifice. As at Shelburne it was 
the rule to form new communities on new land grants. 
On account of the speedy collapse of the Shelburne set- 
tlement and the need of many of its unfortunate people 
to find means of livelihood the Barrington population, 
owing to its proximity, had an accession of a dozen or two 
families who have contributed materially to its advance- 
ment and prosperity. The variety of apparent impulses 
directing their movements was so great that we can indi- 
cate the main features of this increase of population only 
by reference to some of the individuals and families con- 
cerned. In this we are choosing those who have been 
thoroughly identified with the township development. 

One of the first and most noted of the Newcomers 
was John Sargent. When he came in 1783 he was in his 
35th year. A son of Col. Epes Sargent of Salem, Mass., 
he had been an ardent Tory, and his opposition to the 
Revolution had been shown by his heading a testimonial 
in honor of Gen. Gage in 1774. Finding it necessary to quit 
Boston,he travelled in the loyal Colonies and in England, 
returned to New York and enlisted for a short period, 



222 HISTORY OF BARRING TON. 

and when the war was over selected Harrington for the 
seat of a fishing business. Here he bought from Capt. 
David Smith, a son of the grantee of that name, lot No. 
37, which Smith had obtained from John Porter in 1769. 
To this he added lot No. 30 originally granted to Joshua 
Snow. On lot 37 there was then a dwelling house, wharf 
and store and here Mr. Sargent carried on an extensive 
business for forty years. He became the representative 
of the township in the Provincial assembly where for 
many years he took a prominent part in legislation par- 
ticularly with reference to commerce and the fisheries. 
He bought from Jonathan Smith lot 39 when that grantee 
moved to Cape Negro river, where he had lot 11 in the 
2nd Division. That brought Mr. Sargent as next neigh- 
bor to Mr. Wm. Donaldson, a Shelburne Loyalist who had 
purchased lot No. 40 from Prince Nickerson, who also 
preferred Cape Negro for a home, having there lot 49 of 
the second Division. Donaldson also carried on business. 
These loyalists were not good neighbors but kept up a 
bitter feud as to boundaries on which an arbitration took 
place in 1797 the decision of which was signed by James 
Hamilton, Dep. Surveyor, and Arch Smith and Thomas 
Crowell, referees. Wm. Donaldson had been owner of an 
estate in Virginia before the Revolution. 

Capt. James Hamilton, just referred to, was a Shel- 
burne grantee on The Clyde river, near Hamilton's Branch 
on a road which had been opened up between Shelburne 
and the Head of Argyle river in 1785. This road had been 
built in part by subscription the warrant for it specifying 
that it should run W b. N. and not exceed 35 miles in len- 
gth. Subscribers were to have 50 acres of land, "butting 
and bounding on said road for every 20/ paid in money 
or work at 2/6 per day." The Residence of the Hamil- 
tons was called Wood Hull and later McGillis. Alex. 
Hamilton, the son of James moved down to the McLean 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 223 

grant, also on the West side of the river, now owned by 
Dr. J. G. Allen. 

Mr. McLea had been in the Commissariat of the Bri- 
tish Army. He and his wife were from Scotland. They 
lived on his grant, and died and were buried there. Their 
daughter Isabel married Peter Sutherland who settled 
at Queens Falls and whose sons James and David made 
their homes in the township at Clyde. Mary McLea 
married Hugh Morrison whose home was on the Messen- 
ger place near Alex. Hamilton. Margaret married James 
Geddes whose son Dr. Thomas 0. practised in Barring- 
ton for many years. Jean MeLea the oldest daughter 
married John Stalker, whose grant was at Stalker's Run. 
Of the twelve Stalker children, John settled at Barring- 
ton Passage, Susan married John, son of Wm. Robertson. 

The first white child born among the Shelburne gran- 
tees on the Clyde river was James Gibson whose sons Tho- 
mas and James settled near the post road. Andrew Gib- 
son had a grant above McLea's. Other familiar names 
found on the old location plans of the Shelburne grant 
are John Lyle, Michael Madden, James Cox, Richard 
Penney, John Robertson. These were on the West side 
and were for the time in the Shelburne township. On the 
East side by Morris Lake were Alex. Stephens, Wm. Squires, 
Henry Blades and Wm. Powell; and on the Clyde or 
Cape Negro river and harbor were Gavin Lyle, John Orr, 
James Nelson, Hugh Quinn (for whom Quinn's Falls were 
named) Alexander Forbes, Neil McCommiskey, Hugh 
Connor, Thomas Shaw, John Wilson, Paul Cunningham, 
and Richard Horton, the most of whom figured among the 
Barrington immigrants. In fact only a few of the num- 
erous grantees up Clyde river remained on their lands. 
At the harbor were now additional incentives to settle- 
ment in the markets and stores of Shelburne, all within a 
few hours sail from the fishing stages. These advantages 
had evidently been taken into account when the Second 



224 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

Division of land in Barrington was so promptly made, and 
the consequent tendency for the time was to repress local 
trading shops east of Baccaro. Two saw-mills are said to 
have been operated on the Clyde river between Coffin's 
mill and the tide water by those early settlers. Fuller 
reference will be made to these and other permanent set- 
tlers in our township in the Chapter on biography. At 
this time the most numerous of the additions to Bar- 
rington came in by purchase of lots or government grants 
of the forfeited lands. The war veterans, though ill 
adapted for pioneer work, in general, were mostly capable 
tradesmen and this made a valuable contribution to so- 
ciety. Shoemakers, masons, millmen, blacksmiths, coop- 
ers, blockmakers, carpenters, bakers, bricklayers, weavers, 
braziers, tailors and tanners are ready for service at their 
especial craft and turn with facility to the work of build- 
ing up their homes. 

Among the newcomers were a number of negroes. 
Owing to a proclamation in 1791 by a company called the 
"Sierra Leone Co." offering "free settlement on the coast 
of Africa," a large number of the negroes who had been 
landed at Burchtown in 1783 fell in with the proposal and 
were carried to Africa. They had endured at Burchtown 
the miseries of starvation for the Government rations had 
been stopped after two years. They therefore hailed with 
joy the prospect of homes in Africa. John Sargent met 
some of them footing it to Yarmouth to take ship for 
Sierra Leone "to be made majesties of". As ihe company 
took only those who were honest, sober and industrious" 
we may imagire how they would cull their passengers and 
the sort that would be left. Scattered from Burchtown 
numbers came to Barrington: Johnston's Hill at the Head, 
Guinea back of the Passage Schoolhouse, Brass Hill, The 
Town and Green Hill, Port La Tour, were their places of 
resort. It is said that one Johnston worked for John Sar- 
gent, and having employed other negroes to work for him 



PEACE AND READJUSTMENT 225 

was asked by Mr. Sargent how he expected to pay them. 
His reply was, "Oh, out ob de store, massa' . When his 
credit was gone a number of stores in the township were 
robbed and then Johnson was driven out of the place. 
Quite a settlement was made at Guinea (The Passage) 
but owing to their thievish practices, the young men of 
the place smoked them out of their huts. These went to 
Green Hill. In 1791 according to a memo, of Mr. Sargent 
there were 10 negro families in the township and to this 
may be added a large proportion of the 32 servants record- 
ed. There was Joshua and Nancy Berry at Cape Negro, 
Nathan and Esther Tasco, Solomon Batt, Joe Robertson, 
Argyle and Jane Keeling with a large family. (William 
born in 1795, Joseph, Moses, Grace, James, Cecilia, Aug- 
ustus, Nancy, Patience, John, Rebecca). Caesar Mc- 
Kenzie (born in Guinea and stolen by slavers, escaped in 
America and got with the British and came to Shelburne) 
and Lish his wife. John Brass (went fishing with Samuel 
Hopkins died and was buried on Brass Hill. His widow 
married Joe Dickson and moved to Green Hill). Isaac 
and Betty Blackstone, Robert and Sarah Warwick and 
Tony Davis. Later we have Abe King, Jacob Turner, 
John Fells, Henry Cuff. 

John son of Jane Keeling was a man of integrity and 
humility. Once speaking in church after a sermon by 
Rev. J. I. Porter,he bore testimony to Mr. Porter s char- 
acter; said he was a good man, and just as a good fishhook 
had T.P. on its back so Mr. Porter ought to have T. P. on 
his coat tail. The negro colony had many excellent citi- 
zens. Their general gift of song was well cultivated and 
afforded pleasure to all who heard their concerts. 

From Calendar Canadian Archives, New York. 

Sept. 30, 1783, Halifax, Parr to Sec. of State (North) 
Upwards of 13,000 persons have arrived at Halifax, 
Annapolis, Port Roseway, etc. Upwards of 5000 are at 



226 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

Port Roseway where he visited them, appointed magis- 
trates, and established order. Col. Cor, N. S. Vol XV, 
p. 102. 

May 1, 1784, Parr to Nepean. Jealousies at Shel- 
burn owing to some wishing to grasp more land than 
others. Fanning goes to make enquiry. Several who 
got lands at Shelburne sold them and moved off to New 
England, which makes him cautious. Col. Cor., N. S. 
Vol. XII, p. 118. 

May 12, 1784, Parr to Sidney (private). Dissentions 
among the Loyalists at Shelburne and the River St. John. 
The most liberal of the Loyalists would not go to Shel- 
burne and the River St. John, so he had to make magis- 
trates in these settlements of men whom God Almighty 
never intended for the office, but it was Hobson's choice. 
These disturbances do not hinder them from cultivating 
their land or improving their fisheries, p. 121. 

Is afraid that the magistrates at Shelburne have 
not conformed to thair oaths. 

June 27, 1792. Wentworth to Sec. of State (Dun- 
das) Report with depositions from Bruce, Coll. customs at 
Shelburne; depositions by Roderick McLeod and John 
McDonald of robberies by United States fishermen 
An armed vessel sent to protect the coast at Shelburne. 




MILITARY AFFAIRS 227 



CHAPTER XV. 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



The French and Indian wars both before and after 
the settlement of Barrington had furnished employment 
for some of its settlers, such naval and military expedi- 
tions as those against Louisburg finding ready recruits. 
We shall see that the people were not even after the Amer- 
ican revolution to settle down to conditions of peace. 

The Anglo- No proper account of Nova Scotia, and es- 
American pecially of its Western Coast, for the quar- 
War, 1812-4 ter century after the independence of the 
United States was acknowledged by Great 
Britain, can omit the relations of the mother country with 
France, Spain and the United States during that period. 
First of all, the French revolution had scared the monarch- 
ies of Europe and involved them in war with the new re- 
public. This revolution however found much sympathy in 
the United States. The rise of Napoleon and England's op- 
position to his ambitions led to mutual blockades in which 
American Trade interests suffered greatly. The urgency 
of England's position led to Acts maintaining the block- 
ade and to a practice of searching American ships for 
deserters from the British navy, which was resented by 
the American people and became the chief alleged reasons 
for a declaration of war by the United States against 
Great Britain in 1812, This war was carried on prin- 
cipally at sea and on the Canadian border and great lakes. 
The enemy had notable success in naval operations, offset 
however, by many gallant encounters in which the Brit- 
ish were victorious, including that of the capture of the 
"Chesapeake"by the "Shannon" in Boston Bay in 1813 . 
Privateers on both sides made havoc of merchant shipping 



228 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

and gave scope for the provincial youth to share the 
fight. Liverpool won notoriety in this respect as a head- 
quarters of privateers and Halifax was the prize court. 
A Liverpool despatch June 23, 1814, quoted by Murdock 
says, 

Privateer Retaliation brought in Schooner Armis- 
tice from Boston for Eastport with a cargo worth 3000. 
Arrived schooner Friends prize to the Shannon. A prize 
to the Liverpool Packet with 450 bbls flour is cast away 
on Cape Forchu; Cargo saved. Two prizes are in Bar- 
rington." 

Our references elsewhere show how other Barring- 
ton people were affected in person and property dur- 
ing this strife. The incentives to trade were great and 
the vicissitudes of war were experienced by those who 
made their ventures. In general, fishery a)nd the coasting 
trade were almost at a standstill on account of the opera- 
tions of American privateers. One sort of business was 
diligently prosecuted for the war was unpopular in New 
England from the first". Vessels trafficked to their ports 
carrying manufactured goods, much in demand there and 
bringing provisions with which the provinces could not 
yet fully supply themselves. The inevitable miseries of 
war were however ended by the treaty of Ghent, Decem- 
ber, 1814, by which there was mutual restoration of ter- 
ritory. The hands of Britain were now freed for the her- 
culean tasks of that year, culminating in the battle of 
Waterloo, June, 1815. 

Military One need only glance at early New England 
Service history to see that military service was a vital 
factor in Colonial life. As Nehemiah and his 
Jewish settlers rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem with sword 
in one hand and tool in the other, so the Pilgrim Fathers 
mustered at church with sword and musket and even 
planted their cannon for defence on the roof of the sanc- 
tuary. During Britain's wars with France men from Am- 



MILITARY AFFAIRS 229 



erica's coast towns were impressed into naval service and 
this was a source of irritation both promoting the revolu- 
tionary spirit and leading intending settlers in Nova Sco- 
tia after 1758 to demand freedom from impressment. Two 
at least of our grantees, Henry Wilson and Archelaus 
Smith, had been impressed for several months shortly be- 
fore removing to Harrington. 

When the Nova Scotia townships were first coming 
into being it was well understood that all the settlers of 
military age were liable to bear arms. A law to this effect 
had been passed at 'the first Assembly in 1758. 

"All males between the ages of 16 and 60 shall bear 
arms. And duly attend all matters and military exercises 
of their respective companies of allowing three months 
time to every son after coming to 16 years of age and every 
servant so long after his time is out to provide themselves 
with arms and ammunition.'* 

Nor had the conditions of life in America since the 
days of the Pilgrim Fathers enabled the inhabitants to 
regard this as other than a normal claim upon them. 
Dr. Eaton (History of Kings County p. 428) says that in 
every township militia regiments were found, the officers 
receiving their commissions from the government at 
Halifax. It was well established also that :"Colonial laws 
passed by their General Assemblies and Councils with 
concurrence of the governor are of the same validity in 
the Colonies as Acts of Parliament are in the Mother 
Country, unless repugnant to any law made in Great 
Britain relative to the Colonies/' 

In 1775 it was required of all grown men in the town- 
ships that they should take the oath of allegiance to the 
British Crown. This test naturally placed many of the 
settlers in a position corresponding closely to that of the 
Acadians, who not long before had been deported. Then, 
and in the few previous years while the Revolution had 
been developing, the most of the Quakers and some other 



230 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

of the Barrington proprietors returned to New England. 
There seems to be no tradition even as to any militia or- 
ganization in Barrington at that time. With the Shel- 
burne immigration came ships of war and imperial troops 
which in the long run were more of a menace than a pro- 
tection to the new city. At one time 4 companies of 
troops and a Frigate were stationed at the port to support 
the civil authorities. By 1795 the two townships were 
getting acquainted and many of the Loyalists had settled 
in Barrington. At that time an Act was passed for the 
enrolment of all male inhabitants from 16 to 60 years old. 
Shelburne Co. reported in 1796 a company of Volunteers, 
37; Shelb. Co. Reg. 1st Battalion 134; 2nd Battalion, 497. 

Six times yearly the militia was mustered for drill 
with such energy on the part of the administration that 
when the scare of an Irish invasion of Nova Scotia under 
the famous Emmett, then in New York, stirred the Pro- 
vince, there were 40,000 available militia. That was 
probably the only occasion on which outside regiments 
were called to Halifax until war was declared against 
England by the United States in 1814. Then the officers 
of the 12th Battn. of Militia in Barrington were as follows: 

John Sargent, Lt. Col. 

W. B. Sargent, Major. 

J. Harding,Capt. 

S. Kimball, 

J. P. Doane 

W. Kenney 

Prince Kenney " 

P. Crowell, 1st. Lieut. 

Edward Kendrick " 

M. Swain, 

D. Swain, " 

N. Doane, 

J. Sargent Jr. 2nd " 



MILITARY AFFAIRS 231 

S. Golden Jr. 2nd Lieut. 

J. Knowles " 

S. Wilson " 

S. Reynolds, Adjt. 

S. 0. Doane, Qr. Mr. 

In 1815 Prince Doane was Adjt. and J. Kenney is not 

on the list. In 1817 (changes.) The Earl of Dalhousie, 

C. 0.; Prince Doane, Adjt. In 1818 Prince Kenney, Capt. 

1827 Shelburne Militia, 4th Reg't. Sir James Kempt 

Lieut. Gov., Commander in Chief. 

W. B. Sargent, Lt. Col. 

Josiah P. Doane,Capt. 

David Swain, " 

James Smith " 

John Osborn " 

John Sargent, Adjt. and Capt. 

Gamaliel Kenney 1st Lt. 

Samuel Reynolds " 

Enos Knowles Jr. 

Jethro Co veil 

Joshua Atwood, " 

Thomas Coffin, 2nd Lt. 

Knowles Reynolds a 

John C. Crowell " 

S. 0. Doane, Qr. Mr. 

John Fox, Surgeon. 

In 1828, James Kenney and J. Crowell are 2nd Lts. 
The same names are given for 1830 except that Samuel 
and Knowles Reynolds are omitted. In 1833 K. Rey- 
nolds is Capt., John Lyle 1st Lt. and Wm. Patterson is 
2nd Lt. In 1834 Andrew Crowell is Capt. but no other 
changes have been made. In 1844, W. B. Sargent, Lt. 
Col.; Capts.' J. Doane, James Smith, And. L. Crowell, 
John Lyle, Wm. Patterson, John Crews, W. Nickerson, 
Samuel Nickerson, Samuel Snow. 1st Lts: Jas. D. 
Smith, D. Thomas Jr., Israel L. Crowell, J. Snow 3rd., 



232 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Dun. Cunningham, G. Kenney, Wm. Chetwynd, 
Jos. Kendrick Jr. ; 2nd Lts: Gavin Lyle, George Smith, 
Joseph Wilson, Thomas Coffin, S. Nickerson; Adjt., 
John Sargent; Q. M., S. O. Doane. 

The account of Josiah P. Doane, Major Comm'd'g, 
2nd. Sh. Co. Regt. from Dec. 31, 1856 to Aug. 30, 1858 
includes the following: 

To Storage, Cleaning and Keeping in order 

180 Stand of Arms 7.2.6 

"Breaking bayonets and preparing Arms etc for 1 

Sale 1.0.0 

"Remittance per Capt. Wm. Doane to Qr. Master 

Gen. H. Hartshorn 41.0.8 

49.3.2 
Cr. 
By proceeds Arms and accoutrements as per 

Acct. Sales 49.3.2 

This was evidently the wind up of the older system. 

N. S. Militia "The volunteer movement of 1859 was one 
of the events of the century, and revolu- 
tionized the habits, thoughts, health and aims of Britons 
young and old, in all parts of the Empire." 

We come now to the inception of the Volunteer move- 
ment. This has been ably discussed by Col. J. P. Ed- 
wards and appears in the Reports of the N. S. Historical 
Society XVII. 

It was introduced into N. Scotia in 1860. A com- 
bination of militia and volunteers was effected where 
possible and much enthusiasm was shown, but the de- 
pendence upon the Militia was more marked during the 
American Civil war and the Fenian raids. Gen. Laurie, 
afterwards Dominion representative for Shelburne Co. 
was one of the experienced officers under whom the 
development of the N. Scotia militia was made. The 
Shelburne Co. militia took a good place for efficiency. 
The Militia Services were in general gratuitous, only an 
adjustant receiving pay. 



MILITARY AFFAIRS 233 

One phase of the Civil War may be recalled as affect- 
ing our people whom the reciprocal trade relations of the 
time had brought into an unusual degree of intimacy with 
New England. This connection and the moral appeal in 
the conflict with slavery drew some ardent youth to enlist 
in the Northern Army while it must be confessed that the 
pay offered for substitutes for drafted Americans was 
sometimes an attraction. Of those who went but did not 
return was Charles, brother of the late Edwin Gondey. 

In 1864 a company of volunteers called the Port 
La Tour Rifles was organized with Frank H. White as 
Captain, W. H. Swain 1st Lt. and Wm. Sholds 2nd Lt. 
Wm. Sholds was afterwards Captain of this company. 

Meantime the Provincial Militia was organized for 
the township to which the company at East Clyde under 
Wm. McKay was afterwards added. Later, the Batta- 
lion was divided, the Clyde, N.E. Harbor, Cape Negro and 
Port La Tour companies meeting for Battalion drill at 
Cape Negro. Of this section Josiah Snow Esq. was Lt. 
Col; F. H. White was Major; Joshua Pierce and John 
Snow, Captains; John Greenwood, Leander Swain, Lts.; 
Leander Swain became Captain vice Webb Hogg, de- 
ceased, 1867. 

The first reorganization of the 3rd Regiment was 
made and training began in 1865 with the following offi- 
cers: 

James Colwell Smith, Lt. Col. 

Josiah Snow, W. A. Patterson Richard Kenney, 
Henry Doane, Thomas Banks, Wm. B. Smith, Isaac 
Smith and Gideon Nickerson, Captains. 

Freeman Nickerson, W. L. Crowell, J. C. Cunning- 
ham, John Thomas, W. H. Coffin, G. A. Crowell, Robert 
Nickerson, J. M. Brannen, 1st. Lts.; J. R. Kenny, J. K. 
Snow, M. D. McGray, Asa Nickerson, Cornelius Shep- 
herd, Albert Kenney, Leonard Nickerson, W. W. Hogg, 
Alex. Crowell, N. D. Nickerson, 2nd Lts. ; Prince McLar- 



234 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

ren, Adjt.; A. W. Doane, Q. M.; I. K. Wilson, Surgeon, 
Henry Kelly, Asst. Surg. After the Division, in 1868, 
F. H. White and Henry Doane were Majors, J. K. Know- 
les was added to the 1st Lts.; Prince McLarren, as Capt. 
and Adjt.; Thomas L. Crowell, J. D. Pinkham, Edwin S. 
Goudey, Frank Homer and George Wilson as 2nd. Lts. 

The great event of each military year until Confede- 
ration was Battalion Day, when the Companies of the 
township assembled, generally on Sherose Id. nearly op- 
posite the public wharf, and a thousand or more men were 
drilled in Battalion. One of these drills took place on the 
ice in Barrington Harbor. It is recalled by some of those 
veterans that Col. Milsom, C. 0. on one occasion gave a 
severe rebuke to certain companies who did not come in 
uniform, but with members in beaver hats and other Sun- 
day apparel. This was regarded as an indirect compli- 
ment to the Companies under Col. Josiah Snow. 

After Confederation Barrington was in the brigade 
district of the Western Counties of N. Scotia with Col. 
Milsom, C. 0. In 1869, however, conscription was discard- 
ed, and under the volunteer system there was no township 
organization until the issues of the great war in 1914 grip- 
ped the hearts of the present generation. 

We are indebted to the Shelburne Gazette and 
Coast Guard for the following, which we think is a com- 
plete list of Shelburne County men whose lives were de- 
voted even unto death to the protection of home, country 
and liberty. 

The pictures show only a part of the Barrington en- 
listments, but form a striking memento of the volunteer 
and heroic spirit of our township youth. 



MILITARY AFFAIRS 235 



SHELBURNE COUNTY'S FALLEN HEROES. 



Gallant Sons of Shelburne County Who Qave Their Lives In 
The Great Struggle 191413. 



LEO ALLEN CRAIG, of East Sable died in England. 
CLAUDE HARDING, formerly of Osborne killed in action. 
JONATHAN LOCKE, of Lockeport killed in action. 
FRANK ANDERSON, of Lockeport killed in action. 
GUNNER BURTON HARDING of Lockeport killed in action. 
JOHN RANDALL BRANNEN of Centreville, C. I. killed in 

action. 

HILBERT MESSENGER, of Clarks Harbor killed in action 
DELMER E. CROWELL, of Clarks Harbor killed in action. 
ARCHIE HARRINGTON, of Birchtown killed in action. 
KENNETH S. BANGAY, of Lockeport killed in action. 
CORP. GLAD WIN MacDONNELL, of Woods Harbor died of 

wounds. 

WILFRED THORBURN, of Shelburne died in Kentville. 
E. STANLEY BRUCE of Shelburne died of wounds. 
ROBERT NICKERSON, of Clarks Harbor killed in action. 
FLETCHER WILSON, of Barrington Passage died of wounds. 
ROY V. MURPHY, of Allendale killed in action. 
WARREN LESTER GODFRIED, of Little Harbor died in 

England. 

ARTHUR STONE, of Woods Harbor killed in action. 
HILBERT NICKERSON, of Woods Harbor killed in action. 
ROBERT IRWIN, of Middle Ohio killed in action. 
RALPH SNOW, of Upper Port La Tour killed in action. 
FRANK SWAINE, of Port La Tour, died in the U; S. Training 

Camp. 

ANTHONY MACLEAN, of Shelburne killed in action. 
R. DOUGLAS LOCKE, of Lockeport killed in action. 
LORAN MacKAY, of Middle Clyde died in Halifax. 
J. LEONARD CROWELL, of Port La Tour died in Halifax. 
WALTER L. NICKERSON, of Shag Harbor died in Halifax. 
FREDERICK ROSE, of Sandy Point died in England. 



236 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

HERSEY SMITH, of Smithville killed in action. 
FRANK F. HUNTER, of Shelburne died from wounds. 
WILLIAM WILLIAMS of West Green Harbor killed in action. 
OSCAR SNOW, of P ort La Tour died from wounds. 
ROBERT WELLSLEY CRO\VE, 9 f Shelburne killed in action 
ERNEST DIXON, of Lowe)- Woods Harbor killed in action. 
SPENCER MACKAY, of Jordan Falls killed in action. 
HUGH J. BOWER, of Sheiburne killed in action. 
BERTRAM FAY, of Shelburne killed in action. 
B. P. NICKERSON, of West Baccaro died of woufcds. 
CHARLES GARRON, of Shag Harbor killed in action. 
HUBERT CUNNINGHAM, of Stoney Island killed in action. 
BERTRAM NICKERSON, of B'efer Point died of wounds. 
LIEUT. RALPH U. PHALEN R.A.F., of Lockeport supposed 

to be killed in action. 

JAMES HIBBERT SWIM, of Clark's Harbor died of wounds. 
DON C. SMITH, of Woods Harbor killed in action. 
ALLEN M. LLOYD, of Port L'Hebert killed in action. 
SAMUEL S. LOCKE, of Lockeport killed in action. 
ERNEST CROWE, of Shelburne died of wounds. 
ELEAZER CUNNINGHAM, of North East Point, C. I., died 

of wounds. 

MORTON LOCKE, of Lockeport killed in action. 
BRUCE A. NICKERSON, of Clarks Harbor died in France. 
EBENEZER RYAN, of East Green Harbor killed in action. 
HAROLD DOANE, of Barrington killed in action. 
EtTGENE W. CROWELL, of Cape Negro Island killed in action. 
JOHNSTON DeMJNGS of North East Harbor killed in action. 
FRANK LEONARD PIKE, of Barrington died of wounds. 
FRANK HAROLD HARLOW, of Sable River, died in Halifax. 
EARLE H. KENNEY, of Clarks Harbor killed in action. 
BASIL DUNCAN, of Clarks Harbor killed in action. 
EARLE GOODWIN, of Clarks Harbor killed in action. 
W. TOWNSEND, of Lockeport killed in action. 
HIBBERT SWIM, of Clarks Harbor died of wounds. 
ARDEN MORASH, of Lower Ohio killed in action. 



MILITARY AFFAIRS 237 

CLARENCE OIKLE, of Jordan Bay killed in action. 

HARRY L. REYNOLDS, of Reynoldscroft killed in action. 

OSCAR CAMERON, of Shelburne died of wounds. 

HAROLD T. GOODWIN, of Clarks Harbor died at home. 

VERNARD OLSEN TOWNER, of Birchtown killed in action. 

IVAN L. McKAY, of M iddle Clyde killed in action. 

CAPT. JONATHAN L. JOHNSON, of Lockeport died in Eng- 
land. 

ROBERT SMITH, of Shelburne died in Shelburne. 

WILFRED LAURIE LLOYD, of Port L'Hebert died in Hali- 
fax. 

CLAYTON ATWOOD of Barrington died of wounds. 

RAY JONES of Lower Ohio killed in action. 

COURTNEY SMITH, of Clarks Harbor killed in action. 

FREEMAN K. REED, of Stoney Island killed in action. 

CAPT. HORATIO H. BRANNEN of West Head, C. S. I. killed 
in Halifax Explosion. 

ARTHUR D. HARLOW, of Sable River killed in action. 

VINCENT GUY, of Shelburne died of wounds. 

HARRY SAUNDERS, of Clarks Harbor died in England. 

OSCAR NICKERSON, of Clarks Harbor killed in action. 

WARREN D. CUNNINGHAM, of Lower Clarks Harbor died 
in Halifax. 

H. CECIL PHILLIPS, of Clarks Harbor killed in action. 

J. M. KING, of Clyde River died of wounds. 

ALBERT E. E. BOWER, of Shelburne killed in action. 

LEMUEL BEECHER PERRY, of Cape Negro Island died in 
Kentville. 

TERENCE C. LOCK WOOD, of Lockeport died in France. 

SERGT. HERBERT CHUTE, of Lockeport killed in action. 

ABIJAH NICKERSON, of South Side, C. I. died at home. 

LEONARD LARSSON of Jordan Falls killed in action. 

"In Flanders fields the poppies blow 

Between the Crosses row on row. 
That mark our place; and in the sky 

The larks still bravely singing, fly. 
Scarce heard amidst the guns below. 



HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



We are the dead. Short days ago 
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, 
Loved and were loved, and now we lie 
In Flanders fields. 

Take up our quarrel with the foe. 

To you from failing hands we throw 
The Torch be yours to hold it high ! 
If ye break faith with us who die, 

We shall not sleep, though poppies grow 

In Flanders fields." 



Privateering The Schr. Roebuck, 50 tons, Gideon White 
of Plymouth, master, in the N. S. govern- 
ment service was captured by the Privateer Brigt. Inde- 
pendence, Sampson, in Barrington Harbor and carried 
back to Plymouth. Capt. White was captured at the 
house of John Coffin at the Town. He was taken also to 
Plymouth and imprisoned for a time. After his removal 
to Shelburne he became the member for Barrington town- 
ship in the Provincial Assembly. 

Thomas Doane gr. of Barrington had bought a shal- 
lop from John Burgess of Yarmouth just before the de- 
claration of war in 1776. A few weeks after that she was 
taken off Cape Negro by one of the Yankee privateers cal- 
led "ShaVing Mills." The shallop had cost seventy-five 
guineas, a serious loss to an early settler. These boats, 
shaving mills and "Long Splices" were able to elude the 
war ships on account of their light draft and therefore 
preyed upon the people with the greater ease. Their 
rapacity knew no bounds so that the people hid their 
chests and everything of value in the woods. On one of 
these raids Mrs. Thomas Doane's pewter spoons were only 
saved by being hidden in the bed occupied by an old wo- 
man in the house. Theodore Smith, Hezekiah Smith 
and Nathan Snow are among those whose serious losses 
are remembered. Generally no resistance was made to 



MILITARY AFFAIRS 239 

the demands of these pirates, but in many cases even the 
fighting spirit of the women, as of Mrs. Hezekiah Smith 
threatening to shoot t N he man who laid a hand on her 
sheep, was sufficient to cow the robbers. 

William Greenwood owned the first vessel built in Bar- 
rington, the Sally. After she was stolen he had another 
which was taken by three 'shaving mills' from Heman 
Kenney's Wharf at the Head. Their crews landed at 
David Smith's wharf and went from house to house tak- 
ing every firearm and looting the houses while the fisher- 
men were away at the Cape. As it was Understood 
that the Massachusetts Court disapproved the conduct 
of these bogus privateers and even of any raiding of the 
emigrants from N. England, William Greenwood went 
in his boat to Boston to recover his vessel and a lot of fish 
which had been carried off, and was partially successful. 
During the revolt, when provisions were scarce, the 
men would sometimes go in boats as far as Halifax dod- 
ging into the harbors for shelter from bad weather or pri- 
vateers. 

Sometimes the defence was more energetic.. In an 
official report on the old inhabitants of St. John river it 
states that Robert Laskey "has bfeen loyal: took arms and 
helped take a rebel privateer crew, and was finally drove 
off by rebel privateers from Barrington in Nova Scotia". 
His son Robert was with his father in the above capture. 
This Robert Laskey was a Barrington grantee and the ac- 
count implies that these privateers made Barrington their 
headquarters. 

To aid in freeing our coasts thus infested with hostile 
craft the Government commissioned an armed schooner, 
the "Loyal Nova Scotian/'and issued letters of marque to 
many vessels, about eighteen of which hailed from Liver- 
pool. These of course were bound by the rules of war and 
were very successful against the larger craft. The "shav- 



240 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

ing mill" class was without any government warrant for 
their raids, on the non-militant population. John, son of 
John Reynold's senior, who had shipped in a Liverpool pri- 
vateer, Capt. Barss, was impressed for service on a Br. 
man of war and never returned "The eldest son of Sim- 
eon Nickerson (Reuben or Anson.) was lost in a privateer 
out of Liverpool. There were it is said 63 widows made 
in Liverpool by that disaster. Benjamin son of Mich- 
ael Swim, was in 1814 in command of a prize vessel with 
prisoners, who recaptured their vessel; and because he 
would not forswear the British allegiance threw him over- 
board. He seized hold on the vessel and then they cut 
off his hands with an axe and let him drown. 




MAJOR HARVEY EDWIN CROWELL. 

Born in Barrington, N. S., June, 1889. Enlisted in 29th Battery, 
11th Brigade, Can. Field Artillery; Joined 2,19th Bn., C. E. F. with 
Lieut's com'mn. in 1916; Capt's Com'mn oh Ifoing overseas; 85th Bn. 
N. S. Highlanders in France; wounded at Vimy Ridge, 1917, Apr. 9; 
mentioned in Despatches; Adjt. Reserve Bn., Bramshott; Rejoined 
85th; Major's Com'mn, 2nd i. c. in Belgium and until Bn. was muster- 
ed out at Halifax. 





Clark's Harbor Detachment 219th, N. S. Highlanders 1916. 






RELIGION 241 



CHAPTER XVI. 



RELIGION. 

The first act of explorers sent by Catholic monarchs 
on reaching the shores of the New World was always to 
set up a Cross; the ftf&t act of The Pilgrims was a service 
of Worship. Charles la Tour and his wife were both 
Huguenots, as were doubtless the people at Port L'Omeron 
with whom la Tour found shelter when first he came to 
Cape Sable. Recollet priests, as long as permitted, sought 
to convert the Indians, who had a religion of their own and 
were not too ready to accept that of the stranger. From 
what we know of Cheveraux's visits to Cape Sable the 
Jesuits had become the spiritual advisers of the Acadian s 
and Indians of Cape Sable long before the time of the Ex- 
pulsion. The stone Chapel at the Head and the Cemetery 
there bear witness to the strong hold of the Catholic faith 
upon these old-time inhabitants. Now it is clear that 
the religious idea was just as pronounced with the settlers 
from New England, but the wind was in a different quar- 
ter. This subject is so interwoven with all the conduct 
of the Barrington people as to call for a distinct and care- 
ful account. 

In Chapter XII mention has been made of the earl- 
iest meetings and ministers. Though generally regarded as 
constituting a Congregational Church the meetings at the 
old meeting house seem to have been conducted without 
either formal organization or discipline. Especially was 
there no interference by the proprietors as a body with 
freedom of worship, so that even from the first a decided 
break had been made with the New England type of Con- 
gregationalism. During the revolution no ministers of 
that order came to Barrington and the religious services 
depended mainly upon the local elders. 



242 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

The New A change took place with the arrival of Henry 
Lights Alline. The son of New England settlers at 

Falmouth, N. S., he had been moved in the 
spirit to engage in evangelistic work and followed the me- 
thods of the New Lights of New England, shouting the gos- 
pel message from horseback, or preaching in barns or pri- ' 
vated wellings when as usual,the churches were denied him.* 

He gave little heed to ordinances or organizations and 
after visiting other parts of the Province came to Barring- 
ton in 1780. Here the people, especially those at Sherose 
Id., welcomed him and a great revival of religion took place. 

As we have seen in the case of Rev. Mr. Wood so it 
was generally with the ministers of that day; political is- 
sues dominated their religious activities, and worldliness 
reigned in the Church. 

Henry Alline seemed all unaware of war except as 
between man and God, in which he was a herald of peace 
from the King. He came "not to baptize but to preach 
the gospel", which he did with the Holy Ghost sent down 
from heaven. T. W. Smith's Hist, of Methodism says: 
"At the close of 1781 the progress of the New Light move- 
ment was threatening to shake the churches of N. Scotia 
to their very foundations/' "Alline was opposed to the 
union of icicles, his was the other extreme of feeling." 

In 1782 at a meeting held by Henry Alline in Liverpool 
nearly 150 attended, a strange thing since the settlement 
of Liverpool. So in Harrington his portrayal of the real- 
ities of the everlasting Kingdom of heaven brought much 
to these isolated and troubled settlers and as a result some 
of the old Congregationalists and their grown-up sons and 
daughters became adherent's of his cause. The new wine 
of a religion which emphasized testimony and religious 
experience called for new bottles, which were thus sup- 
plied. This New Light movement is thus described by 
Dr. T. 0. Geddes. 

*See Hist, of the Baptists. Saunders. 



RELIGION 243 



"During the last part of the American war came Henry 
Alline and preached and a number of people joined with 
him viz., Old Mr. Thomas Crowell, his son Ebenezer, 
Eleazer Crowell, Joseph Kendrick, Obed. Wilson. This 
was the commencement of the New Lights, as they were 
called. In a few years after came Mr. Bailey, a convert 
of Henry Alline. He stirred up the people more than 
Alline, and his first text in Harrington was "The foxes 

have holes the Son of Man hath not where to lay his 

head." 

Such identification of himself with his Lord was 
masterly, and successfully appealed to his hearers, mak- 
ing the opposition of other clergymen an advertisement 
of his gospel work. 

The Evolution Of Rev. Mr. Bailey's work we have no 
of a Gospel other a'ccount than that of Dr. Geddes, 
Church About that time the people at Sherose Id. 

built a meeting house on the main near the 
Island road, and here Rev. Harris Harding of Yarmouth 
and other New Light ministers preached. It was about 
1795 when a church was organized there of which the list 
of members and the articles of Faith are extant. These 
articles were probably framed on a New England model 
for over there Baptist doctrine, mixed communion, New 
Lights and Quakers had been disturbing the "orthodox" 
churches, for several years. In Massachusetts it had 
been made illegal to hold meetings on the Lord's day from 
house to house. We cannot suppose that the New Lights 
escaped their share of persecution. They denounced 
formality and the vice and pride of life, and were despised 
by the world and maligned by their enemies. 

A curious reference to them is made by Bishop Inglis, 
who, in 1790, quotes what Mr. Reynolds, a school master 
at Wilmot, said about them. "They ascribe divine at- 
tributes to the Devil, believing him to be eternally co- 
existent with God; they pray to the Devil, deny the Res- 



244 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

urrection, etc/' It is little wonder they were persecuted 
under such misrepresentation. In Harris Harding' s 
"Life" one may see whence he chiefly derived fraternal 
cheer and inspiration in his early ministry. He however, 
did not meet Henry Alline, who died in 1784, but he con- 
tinued Alline's work and gave great assistance to the Bar- 
rington brotherhood. 

The Covenant We do now in the presence of the Great 
Eternal, and Omnipotent God, who knows 
the secrets of all hearts, and in the presence of Angels and 
Men, acknowledge ourselves to be under the most solemn 
Covenant with the Lord, to be for him and no other. 

First. We take this one only living and true God to 
be our God. 

Secondly. We take the Scriptures to be the ground 
of our faith and rule of our lives; promising thereby to 
walk and act both towards God and Man, as God by his 
grace shall enable us, acknowledging ourselves by nature 
children of wrath, and heirs of everlasting misery, and our 
hope of mercy with God is only in, and through Jesus 
Christ by faith. 

Thirdly We now call Heaven and Earth to Witness 
that without the least knowing reserve we give up oursel- 
ves soul and body, names and estate, all that we have and 
are or ever shall be to be at His disposal; promising to be 
faithful therein, in whatever our consciences, dictated by 
the Word and Spirit of God, dictates us to be duty, altho 
it be ever so contrary to the flesh and carnal mind. 

Fourthly We give up ourselves to each other, to act 
towards each other in love as brethren in Christ; to watch 
over each in love against all sin, even against foolish talk- 
ing and jesting that is not convenient, and everything 
that does not become the followers of the meek and lowly 
Jesus ; and to seek the good of each other, and church uni- 
versal; and to hold communion together in the worship of 
God, according to Christ's visible Kingdom, as far as the 
Providence of God admits of the same; and submitting 
ourselves to the discipline of this church as part of Christ's 
Mystical body: still to be looking for (and expecting) 
greater mysteries to be unfold, and light to shine into the 



RELIGION 245 



churches from the Word of God, than ever yet they have 
attained; looking and watching for the great and glorious 
day when the Lord Jesus Christ will take to himself his 
great power and reign from sea to sea and from the rivers 
to the end of the earth, and this Covenant we now make 
with the free and full consent of our souls, believing that 
through free and boundless grace is it owned of God before 
the throne and the Lamb; even so come Lord Jesus come 
Amen and Amen. 

Thomas Crowell Mary Crowell 

Eleazer Crowell Sarah Wilson 

Joseph Kendrick Elizabeth Hopkins 

Ebenezer Crowell Mercy Wilson 

Obadiah Wilson Sarah Knowles 

Thomas Crowell Elizabeth Doane 

Paul Crowell Sarah Kenny 

Thomas Doane Hannah Kendrick 

Daniel Hamilton Eunice Wilson. 

Rebekah Hopkins. 

Of those who signed this Covenant, Thomas Crowell 
was a grantee and Sarah Wilson the wife of a grantee; 
Thomas Doane, Eleazar Crowell, Joseph Kendrick, Eben- 
ezer Crowell, Paul Crowell, Daniel Hamilton were sons 
of grantees; Elizabeth Hopkins, Mary Wilson, Sarah Ken- 
ney, Eunice Wilson and Elizabeth Doane were unmarried 
daughters of grantees; and Mary Crowell, Sarah Knowles, 
Hannah Kendrick and Rebekah Hopkins were married 
women. The langu'age of the essentially New Light part 
of the Covenant is fragrant with the fresh dew of the re- 
vival times in which it was born. They were looking for 
still greater mysteries to unfold and light to shine into the 
churches from the Word of God. It is from these signa- 
tures that we have inferred the approximate date of the 
New Light Church organization in 1795. The Island 
meeting house was built long before that. 

Methodism The New Light movement, centreing at 

Sherose Id. where there was a meeting house 

provided, was soon followed by other inroads upon the 



246 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

old Congregational body. The case of Rev. Samuel Os- 
born, who had been tried and set aside for heresy in N. 
England, had elements typical of the general situation. 
The State church idea was not elastic enough to hold to- 
gether a people with an open Bible; and the efforts to 
secure conformity by drastic discipline met with no more 
success in the long run in New England then they had in 
the Motherland. The Wesleyan cause was now in full 
flood. With the exodus of the Loyalists from the revolt- 
ing colonies to N. Scotia and Upper Canada missions 
were promptly undertaken into their new settlements; 
and as the field of Wesley's operations was the world, the 
older inhabitants came also under the revival influences 
of the Methodist preachers. The Rev. Freeborn Garret- 
son having preached to a hard hearted congregation in the 
Old Meeting house, went out and sat by the wayside for no 
one had offered the stranger any hospitality "as if," said 
Garretson, "I had some infectious disease." "Not to mo- 
lest an invader of their religion would likely seem to them 
a charitable attitude. But Joseph Atwood was touched 
with pity and went back and invited the preacher to his 
home. Soon the minister, now at close quarters, had won 
in him his first Barrington convert. Freeborn Garretson 
had been a slave owner in Maryland. When converted 
under Methodist preaching he freed his slaves and be- 
came a preacher. He came to Halifax in 1785 and the 
next year visited Barrington. 

The policy of the Wesleyan superintendents in send- 
ing a missionary to the township soon had a measure of 
reward. At Cape Negro, where the isolation from pub- 
lic religious services had been severe, a hearty acceptance 
was given by many to the Evangel and there the first 
Methodist class was formed. Unlike Alline whose visits 
amid the alarms of war were opportune, the pioneers of 
Methodism came when the war was over. But with 
equal zeal following their adherents among the refugees, 



RELIGION 247 



they found a larger field of operations among the general 
loyalist body and a congenial soil for the seed of the King- 
dom in the older Pre-loyal settlements. Methodism jus- 
tified its name by its promptness in organization which 
in Barrington actually preceded that of the New Lights 
by a short* term. 

Smith, Hist, of the Methodist Church, I, 161, de- 
scribes Garretson's first visit to Barrington thus: 

"His route (from Burchtown) lay along the coast over 
rough and slightly trodden foot paths , over swamps 
without causeway, and over rivers and brooks, unbridged 
save by the windfall across the stream. After preaching 
at Roseway where there were a few members, and at Cape 
Negro, where he was hospitably entertained, Garretson 
waded through mud and water to Barrington. A New- 
Light minister had warned the people against him as 
"legal and destitute of faith,"and a Calvinist minister had 
written them that Garretson was a dangerous Arminian. 
He preached in the Old Meeting house an hour before 
sunset to 20 persons and on Sunday 100 listened to him. 
In spite of the cool reception he remained another Sunday 
when a revulsion of feeling took place in his favor, and 
before he left he formed a church of fifty members. At 
Cape Negro a class of 16 members was formed. On the 
first Sunday he had visited Cape Sable and Sherose Ids., 
where his "Arminian plan" found much acceptance. He 
wrote that there were many "Clear and powerful conver- 
sions" in Barrington and the neighborhood." 

When Garretson went away he sent James Mann, a 
Loyalist, who had been teaching school at Liverpool, but 
was now appointed to have charge of this new field of 
work. The Rev. James Oliver Cromwell was then labor- 
ing in Shelburne and included Cape Negro in his charge. 

The winter of 1786-7 saw a remarkable development 
of Methodist organization in the township. 

"Failing health had abridged Cromwell's power to 
work yet at Cape Negro he reported a blessed revival. 
At Barrington during the winter, James Mann,made full 
proof of his ministry. Thirty years later, when from the 
borderland he reviewed his life work, he wrote, "Here be- 
gan my gospel labor and in the first year of my itinerancy 



248 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 



not less than fifty members were added to the Society 
and the most have continued ornaments to their profes- 
sion to this day."* 

Rev. William Black seems to have been the Superin- 
tendent at this time and to have visited this township oc- 
casionally. The decline of Shelburne led to its union 
with Barrington as a circuit. In 1789 Rev. James Wray 
was missionary, Rev. Mr. Jessop in 1791 and Rev. Messrs. 
Stocket and Fidler succeeded them. Rev. James Mann 
was back in 1799. The total membership of the joint cir- 
cuit was then 158. Services in Shelburne were held in a 
sail-loft on Ann St. The old meeting house in Barrington 
had neither doors nor windows when Garretson came and 
it was not finished for several years. Meetings were held 
there in the summer, and in private houses in the winter, 
as was the practice in the other settlements. The cen- 
tury therefore ended without any Methodist Chapel in the 
township. These last years were marked by losses, 
evidently from the intermittent pastoral care and the 
conditions in Shelburne, so that in 1801 the members 
numbered 102. 

The Methodist Church of Barrington as already 
shown was among the first organized by that body in this 
province, and has been continually in active service, hav- 
ing the adhesion of a substantial part of the population. 
Each of the original societies at Cape Negro and at Bar- 
rington Head became the nucleus of an extensive circuit 
as at present. Under the leadership of the many talented 
ministers sent to the township Methodism has exerted a 
steady and beneficial influence upon the community, not 
only in its direct spiritual exercises but in promoting all 
matters connected with education and social reformation. 
The organization already elaborated which it brought and 
by which it was supported left little room for debate as to 
doctrine or method, matters engaging much of the time 
of their neighbors, especially of the Baptist faith. This 
completeness of method, however, is too favorable to a 
smooth course to contribute greatly to local history. The 
record is consequently one of church appointments, mar- 

*James Mann was ordained to the ministry in Philadelphia in 1789. He made 
Cape Negro his home and centre of circuit. T. W. Smith's Hist, of the Meth. 
Church. 1:19. 







METHODIST CHURCH, BARRINGTON HEAD. 



RELIGION 249 



riages (a very important series for almost a century, kept 
by the pastors) providing houses of worship, parsonages 
etc. as the cause demanded, and the names of the suc- 
cessive ministers laboring on the circuits. The rebuilt 
chapel at Lower Port La Tour is one of the finest public 
buildings in the County. The names of the later minis- 
ters are as follows: 

SHELBURNE AND BARRINOTON. 

Rev. John Pope... ...18235. 

G. Miller 18256. 

" Matthew Richey 18279 

" Thomas H. Davies 18302. 

HARRINGTON. 

William Webb.... ...18335 

" James Knowlan 18369. 

" Wm. Shenstone 18403. 

" I. M. Murray and 

" Henry Pope 18446. 

Roland Morton 18479. 

u William Wilson 184951. 

J. V. Jost 18515 

" J. Lockhart 18558. 

R. Duncan 185861. 

J. Buckley 18613. 

" E. Brettle 18636. 

Revs. Thomas Smith, C. W. T. Butcher. 

" Robert Wasson, J. Me C. Fulton. 

" Joseph Coffin, James R. Hart to 1882. 

Mrs. John Sargent, Mrs. Joseph (Mary Atwood) Ho- 
mer and Mrs. S. 0. (Sarah Harding), Doane formed a fa- 
mous trio of workers in the early Harrington Methodist 
Church. 



Winthrop son of John Sargent Sr. was a local preach- 
er and prominent temperance worker ftir 40 years. His 
son William was ordained to the Methodist ministry in 
1869 and died at Bear River in 1877. 



250 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Methodist Chapels Wm. Donaldson, a merchant at the 
Harrington Head Head, having provided for his widow 
bequeathed his property at the Head 
to the Methodist Church. They built a chapel there 
in 1816 which was enlarged about 1840. One piece of its 
furniture was a brass chandelier presented by the famous 
John Wesley. This was unsuitable for the lighting of 
the later Chapel, and it was laid aside, but with the in- 
troduction of electric lighting recently at the Head the 
Wesley Chandelier was found to serve the purpose and 
was accordingly installed again. The Donaldson resi- 
dence was used as a parsonage for many years until the 
present building gave needed relief. 

It is said that Mr. Donaldson's nephew who was 
contesting the will, nailed up the Chapel doors the night 
before the dedication; but John Sargent Sen' broke them 
open. The fine position and imposing steeple of the 
Chapel at the head of the harbor make a notable mark 
for mariners entering port. 

A mark of public spirit in the official Board of this 
Church is seen in the accounts of 1825 and 1826 when 
5/- was paid to Dr. Fox and Dr. Geddes respectively, 
presumably as a share in the guarantee given those men. 
Henry Watson, Elisha Atwood Sr., and Elisha Atwood, Jr. 
are named in the Steward's bboks as class leaders at the 
River and The Town from 1836 to 1849. 

Cape Negro has the distinction of erecting the first 
Methodist chapel in the township, unless we count Indian 
Brook with its overflow from Barrington as part and 
parcel of us. The log house at Cape Negro was built 
at the cross roads when Rev. James Mann was pastor. 
This gave place to a frame building on the same site as 
the present chapel, which served its turn, and then was 
moved to Port Latour for a dwelling. To the meetings in 
these first houses people used to go from Port Latour in 
their boats. The present chapel was built on the hill in 



RELIGION 251 



1853. Rev. Mr. Brettle was pastor; the pews were sold 
at auction. The following gentlemen wer6 the trustees: 
Samuel Smith, David Swain, Jr., John B. Swain, James 
Swain, Josiah Smith, James A. Nickerson, Wm. A. Pat- 
terson. At this time Cape Negro and Port Latour Metho- 
dist Churches were connected with the Barrington Cir- 
cuit. They became a separate circuit in 1869 
Port Latour The first meeting house here was a com- 
munity or Union house so called, near the 
old cemetery. Methodist services were held here and 
also held at the Baccaro school house until about 1850. 
when these services were combined in the new chapel 
built at Lower Port Latour, now re-built as an up-to- 
date and commodious public structure. 
Port Clyde After forming a society and maintaining 
regular services at the school house for years 
a chapel was built in 1880. 

Bear Point and There was an old Union Church at 
Shag Hr. Atwood's Brook with a wall pulpit 

and stairs. Here Methodist services were 
held for many years. A generation ago a Chapel was 
built at Shag Hr. 

The Passage A small house of worship was built in the 
days when the Sargent brothers were in 
business there. The house burned and was rebuilt about 
1850. It was for this that a good sister was soliciting 
funds, when she asked the late Ansel Crowell for a con- 
tribution to build a house for the Lord. His reply was 
that the Lord had more houses now than he had tenants 
for; a point perhaps still worthy of consideration in many 
communities. 

Upper Port After a long period during which a hall was 
Latour used for the services a commodious Chapel 

was built; and when the circuit was established as at pres- 
ent, the mission house was located at this central point. 



252 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

Baptist De- In a sermon preached by Rev. Dr. Cramp 
velopment before the Central Baptist Association June 
1855, we have an extended reference to Rev. 
Theodore S. Harding, 'deceased June 8th. Some of the 
statements throw light on religious conditions in Har- 
rington where Mr. Harding was born in 1773. He was 
awakened under the preaching of Henry Alline in 1781, 
but those impressions passed away and he attributed his 
conversion to the preaching of Rev. Freeborn Garretson 
in 1786. 

A few years later Revs. Harris Harding and Joseph 
Dimock made occasional Visits to Harrington, and the la- 
bors of these and itinerant Methodist preachers moved 
young Harding to preach. Discouraged by his mother 
and by John Sargent, who advised him to get education 
first, he held back, but in 1793 upon a fast day on account 
of the French War when the people assembled, but there 
was no minister, he stood up among them and gave a mes- 
sage which the people said was from the Lord,and they 
invited him to preach there again. In Shelburne he re- 
ceived credentials as a Methodist preacher that fall, and 
the next year was appointed to the Horton Circuit. 

Rev. Harris Harding who settled in Yarmouth in 
1797 was much attached to his Barrington friends whom 
he had visited now and then and called a "godly people." 

The New Light indifference to the mode of baptism 
was gradually giving way to an acceptance of immersion. 
The situation as to Baptist organization is indicated in 
Dr. Cramp's sermon. Theodore Harding' s views were 
Calvinistic which led him to separate from the Metho- 
dists after one year. Shortly after, he joined the Baptists 
at Horton and was baptized by Rev. John Burton at Hali- 
fax, and ordained by the same minister and two deacons 
in 1796. "Rev. John Burton," says Dr. Cramp, "was the 
only other Baptist minister in the Province." About 
1806 a great revival took place in Yarmouth in which 



RELIGION 253 



both the Hardings were engaged. At that time Rev. 
Theodore Harding visited Harrington, was admitted, 
though there was opposition, to the old meeting house, 
and conducted revival meetings there for three days. 
There was probably an unconscious partiality for his na- 
tive place, but Dr. Cramp reports Mr. Harding as saying 
that "he believed the Barrington sinners were as good as 
the Horton Christians". Rev. Joseph Cfandall was with 
Mr. Harding during this visit. It was their custom to 
make missionary tours together. Rev. Edward Manning 
was another Baptist minister, who preached in Barrington. 
It is doubtful if any other native of Barrington has made 
a deeper impression upon the religious and educational 
life of the Province than Rev. Theodore S. Harding. At 
this time the New Light church definitely assumed the 
Baptist character. 

Thomas son of Thomas Crowell, Jr., gr., a convert of 
Harris Harding, now became active in church work. In 
1807 a Rev. Peter Martin, ancestor of the Martins of Jor- 
dan, was ord t ained and was pastor for a short time. Then 
Nehemiah Doane and Ann (Kenney)his wife joined this 
church. Rev. Thomas Crowell was ordained and became 
pastor. 

In many other parts of the province during this per- 
iod Baptist Church organization was proceeding rapidly 
and along with the external opposition there arose a ques- 
tion within.as to the Scriptural ness and propriety of Baptists 
sitting at the Communion with unimmersed people. Even- 
tually the Baptist Associations adopted the rule of close 
Communion. 

The Free It was at this point that the Free Baptist or- 
Baptists ganization was introduced. Rev. Asa McGray 
a Free Will Baptist minister of New England, 
where the denomination so nicknamed had been estab- 
lished under the leadership of Rev. Benjamin Randall in 
1780, after a few years residence in Cornwallis came to 



254 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Cape Id. and while preaching in agreement with general 
Baptist doctrines opposed Calvinism and close commun- 
ion . At this time the Yarmouth and Barrington Chur- 
ches were both practising open communion and it is likely 
that Mr. McGray had been influenced by this fact in his 
choice of residence. 

About the same time Rev. Jacob Norton of the Chris- 
tian body came from Maine to Argyle and soon afterwards 
to Barrington. Their views prevailed with the majority 
of the Church and Rev. Thomas Crowell went with them, 
although there was much debate about doctrine and grief 
at separation from the Hardings and other old associates 
in church life and fellowship. Mr. McGray organized 
the first Free Will Baptist Church in N. Scotia Mar. 22, 
1821. The Baptist Church of Barrington took the name 
Free Baptist July 24, 1821, with Rev. Thomas Crowell as 
pastor. Nehemiah Doane had been opposed to the change 
but remained in the Barrington chutch and was a deacon. 
It had been a "period of theological dispute such as only 
undiluted Puritans can wage/' So said % an essayist. 
Being Pilgrims and not Puritans may have accounted in 
part for the result of the dispute, while the war of 1812-14 
may also have aroused latent sympathies and opened the 
way to the advances of the earnest Yankee ministers. 
From the F.C.B. Church book of 1847 we take the follow- 
ing summary of the previous history of the Barrington 
Church. 

"The first organization of the Church at Barrington is 
unknown but supposed to be about the year of our Lord 
1800. The first authentic record is dated May 30th, 1807 
when church regulations are recorded, also the ordination 
of Rev. Peter Marten. About which time there was a 
great revival in the Church and many added to her num- 
ber. In the year 1814 the church was again blessed with 
revival. In the summer of 1819 the church was again 
blest with reformation and many were added to the num- 
ber. Till the year 1821 the articles of the Church were 



RELIGION 255 



Calvinistic; but on July 24th of that year the church as- 
sembled together and renounced her Calvinistic articles 
and united or covenanted to take the Scriptures as their 
only and all sufficient rule of faith and practice. In the 
years 1828 and 1829 the Church was again blest with re- 
formation; but some were unreconciled which caused a 
division in the Church and it split into two churches and 
remained so till the year of our Lord, 1837, when all diffi- 
culties were amicably disposed of and both churches uni- 
ted again as one, and for a time enjoyed a good union and 
many blessings. But unforeseen difficulties again arose 
and after every means to produce union had failed the 
yearly Conference recommended that the church be again 
divided into two churches. 

The Free Chris- The minutes of that F.C B. Conference 
tian Baptist which was organized in 1837 on Cape 
Conference Sable Id. and composed of churches at 

Cape Sable Id., Argyle, Port La Tour, 
Port Medway, Caledonia, Cornwallis, Yarmouth, Kempt- 
ville, the First and Second Churches of Barrington throws 
light upon Barrington to wnship history. Very interesting 
are the reasons for adopting the denominational name. 

"We consider it an undoubted privilege to choose 
that name which best expresses our faith; and as we be- 
lieve in and practise baptism by immersion we must be 
Baptists; and if we are disciples of Christ, which we pro- 
fess to be, we must be Christians; but as no outward forms 
or rites of themselves can make us Christians, we must be 
made free by the Son of God, and if made free by the Son, 
we must be Free Christians. Hence the name of Free 
Christian Baptist. 

The arrangements for organizing this Conference 
were made "after deliberate consultation" in 1836, by pas- 
tors McGray of Cape Island, Thomas Crowell of First 
Barrington, Jacob Norton of Second Barrington, Charles 
Knowles of Yarmouth and Kemptville, and Edward Rey- 
nolds of Port La Tour, who met at Argyle; and their pro- 
posals were adopted unanimously the next year. The 



256 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

churches organized by Mr. Norton had been called "Chris- 
tian" churches. In 1830, Albert Swim, who had been 
converted under Rev. Thomas Crowell was licensed to 
preach . Joshua Nickerson was a licensed preacher in 
1837 and Samuel McKeown in 1840. Mr. McKeown was 
ordained in 1841 and on the death of Rev. Thomas Crow- 
ell, that year, became the pastor of the Barrington 
Church. 

The Free Will The attempt at union was however abor- 
Baptists tive. The ministers disagreed and the 

split in the Barrington Church was fol- 
lowed by the secession of some of the other churches. A 

F. W. Baptist minister from N. England, Elder Chaney, 
came and reorganized the Cape Island church under the 
F.W.B. name. Pastors McGray and Reynolds withdrew 
from the Conference. CunnabelPs Almanac of 1842 report- 
ed a F. W. Baptist body with ministers Asa McGray, Jos- 
hua Nickerson, Thomas Brady of Yarmouth and Asa 
Bent of Bridgetown. In 1845 the name of Rev. Moses 
Henderson is added and continues until 1851 when that of 
Edward Reynolds appears again; Mark Atwood and Isaac 

G. Davis are travelling missionaries and Joshua Nickerson 
is pastor at Wood's Harbor and Stoddart's Id. The next 
next year Rev. H. W. Harris is pastor at Cape Island; 
Revs. S. McKeown and W.W. Ashley at Barrington Head. 
Mr. McGray died in 1843. Port la Tour and Solid Rock 
are in the list of F. W. B. Churches. In 1851 the meeting 
house called the "Christian Bethel" was built on Brasses 
Hill by 42 proprietors, including Samuel McKeown. Mr. 
Charles Haskell was pastor of the Barrington Church and 
Rev. E. G. Eaton of the Cape Island Church in 1864. Mr. 
McKeown and Mr. Ashley had moved away and joined 
other denominations. 

The records of the F.C. B. Conference of the period 
show an earnest effort to improve their organization, but 



REV. CHARLES KNOWLES 




REV. THEODORE S. HARDING. 
1773-1855, son of grantee of the same name. 



RELIGION 257 



their attempt to secure fellowship amongst the ministers 
by Conference discipline failed and resulted in partisan 
feeling; so that at Barrington, Cape Id. and Wood's Hr. 
matters went to this extreme., that separate houses of 
worship were built. An effort was made for an amicable 
division on this basis: That such a part of the church as 
wish Bro. McKeown to be their pastor should have the 
privilege of doing so; that such a part as choose Bro. Kno- 
wles or any other brother may do so; that this choice of the 

parties form the line of division standing upon their 

first organization. 

The Conference Committee on this matter were 
Revs. Samuel Hartt, Edward Weyman and Calvin Cann 
and Deacons Benjamin Woodworth and Calvin Church- 
ill; the two first being F. C. B. visitors from N. Bruns- 
wick. Mr. Knowles, with Elder Albert Swim as assistant 
became pastor of the Western Church. 

Mr. Keowrfs supporters organized a church and with 
him joined the F. W. Baptists. 

Among the F.C. Baptist ministers these changes 
may be noted. In 1847 Rev. Henry A. Stokes was pastor 
at Wood's Hr. and Rev. J. B. Norton had removed to 
Cornwallis where he spent the rest of his life In 1857 
S. W. Bennison, in 1858 Walter Weston, Ezra Crowell and 
Samuel K. West and in 1861 J. I. Porter were ordained. 

In 1866, Nov. 29 the F. W. Baptists and F. C. Bap- 
tists were again united under the name of the Free Bap- 
tist Conference of N. Sdotia, and the two churches in each 
locality soon came together in fellowship and union. Rev. 
Mr. Porter wa's for many years pastor at Barrington and 
Clerk of the F. B. Conference. Rev. Theodore H. Crow- 
ell was ordained in 1867. 

More space has been given to the account of the Free 
Baptist Church than to others, because it was a new de- 
nomination in N. Scotia in framing which the native min- 
isters and pastors of the township churches bore the most 



258 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

important part. The names of Thomas Crowell, Asa 
McGray, Charles Knowles, Jacob Norton, Albert Swim, 
Edward Reynolds, S. K. West, Walter Weston J. I. Por- 
ter, Theodore Crowell and E. G. Eaton stand for the pion- 
eers of an organization which, though weak numerically, 
stood for the best things in Church and state and family 
life, taking for its sole guide the Word of God. 

Free Will Bap- "About the year 1836 Elder 'Edward 
list Church, Reynolds, a F. W. B. minister from Liv- 
PortLa Tour erpool country came among us; and with 
the blessing of God upon his labors a re- 
vival of religion commenced at which time the church was 
organized consisting of some fifteen or twenty members. 
He continued as their pastor for a number of years after 
which they were favored with the labors of a number of 
the F. W. B. brethren from the U. States; as Anderson, 
Atwood, Woodman and others. After which it became 
difficult to obtain F. W. B. preaching, and the church 
being in a scattered state it was thought best" to join the 
F. C. B. church. According to their wishes they were or- 
ganized a F. C. B. church by Elder Charles Knowles, 
after which he was chosen pastor. But for reasons best 
known to himself he never visited them. After the per- 
iod of two years they obtained the labors of Rev. Samuel 
McKeown for some eight or ten years at which time the 
Lord greatly blessed his labors in the conversion of many 
souls. But after considering the circumstances by which 
they were surrounded, they thought best to take their 
first name, viz., F. W. Baptist, by which Elder A. Harris, 
Elder Samuel McKeown, Brother Thomas Coffin and 
Brother Ebenezer Crowell, April 30, 1851 organized them 
into a F. W. B. Church. From that time till the present 
we have had about one -fourth of the time F. W. B. preach- 
ing." 



RELIGION 259 



The above was taken from the Church book, being a 
revision of the Records at a meeting held in Salem Chapel, 
Sep. 10, 1859. The Rev. Thomas Brown was minister 
there in 1860. This church maintained close relations 
with the F. W. B. church at Barrington and with these 
entered into the F. B. union in 1866. 

Free Baptists of The Book of Records for the Church of 
Cape Island Christ on Cape Island in the township 
of Barrington, organized March 22nd, 
1821 by Elder Asa McGray, Elder Thomas Crowell, as- 
sistant. Met and convened at Jethro Covell's March 22, 
thence proceeded and embodied the Brethren upon the 
gospel plan namely We are agreed in repairing to the 
Scriptures of Truth as our only and all-sufficient rule of 
faith and practice, believing that there is no man wise 
enough to revise the Laws of Christ, or to alter them for 
the better. Neither do we consider ourselves or any other 
society perfect in a strict sense so but that we are liable 
to errors and imperfections, and of course if any man or 
men fix a book of Discipline to govern the Church by it 
must be an imperfect one. The Lord Jesus Christ has 
given us a perfect Law of Liberty, and we are not willing 
to exchange a perfect Law for an imperfect one. We 
therefore consider that the Scriptures are sufficient for 
the church to make their appeal to on any and every oc- 
casion. For, saith Paul to Timothy 

"All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is pro- 
fitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruc- 
tion in righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, 
thoroughly furnished unto all good works." 

If we are thoroughly furnished we need nothing more 
than to consider the Scriptures of Truth as our only and 
all-sufficient Rule of Faith and Practice, hoping and pray- 
ing that we shall all be led by the same spirit by which 
they were written. Therefore under those considerations 



260 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

we not only consider it our duty, but esteem it our privi- 
lege to be embodied or united together as a Church; and 
having first given ourselves to God, we now give ourselves 
to one another by the Will of God, to watch over each 
other for good and build each other up in the most holy 
faith and so fulfill the law of Christ. 

And now, as brethren and sisters in Christ, children 
of one family, and heirs of the Grace of God, we covenant 
unite and agree to stand by each other, and do all we can 
to strengthen and encourage each other on our heavenly 
journey; and also to preserve a union and harmony in the 
Church by attending to the worship of God and all the 
ordinances of His House; and may the Lord grant us grace 
and wisdom that all may shine as lights in the world, and 
this Church be as a City set on a hill that cannot be hid. 
Therefore as an evidence of our thus uniting as above 
mentioned, we give orders to the Clerk to enroll our nam- 
es together John Cunningham, Junr., Albert Swim, 
Archibald Brannen, Levi Nickerson,^ James Smith, Senr., 
Peter Kenney, Mary Brannen, Parhel Covel, Elizabeth 
Newell, Ann Smith, David Smith, Collins Newell, Joshua 
Nickerson, Heman Kenney, Eleazar Crowell, Seth Smith, 
Archelaus Smith, 3rd., Joseph Purdy, Azuba Kenney. 

Mar. 28. Met in Conference and appointed Eleazor 
Crowell and Collins Newell deacons; then received the 
following members: Hezekiah Smith, Abigail Smith and 
18 others. 

June 17. Baptized James ' Smith Senr. and 4 
others. Sacrament of the Lord's Supper administered for 
the first time. 

Aug. 23. Baptized Michael and Lettice Swim. 

Aug. 30. Baptized Esther Swim and Albert Swim. 

1822, May 9. Chose 5 brethren, viz., Robert Brown 
James Kenney, John Cunningham, James Smith 3rd., 
Levi Nickerson to look up the strayed sheep. 

July 7. Brethren revisited at Cockewit. Baptized 



RELIGION 261 



Solomon and Lucretia Smith, Josiah and Elizabeth Sears. 

July 20. Conference meeting. Eleazor Crowell with 
others ordained deacons. 

July 21. Met in the Grove, Elder Wm. W. Ashley 
preached a sermon from Rev. 19: 9: and then assisted 
Elder Me Gray in administering the Sacrament to 90 com- 
municants. 

Oct. 29. Met at Nehemiah Crowell's to labour with 
j N u Found him guilty of drunkenness and falsehood. 

1824, Feb. 3. Met at Bro. Levi Nickerson's. Albert 
Swim appointed third deacon. 

Feb. 7- Met in Conference at Bro. Hezekiah 
Smith's. Appointed Hezekiah Smith treasurer. 

Dec. 16. M. P. excommunicated from the church 
for insufferable immorality: (Many cases of discipline are 
mentioned) . 

1825, Jan. 16. Departed this life Parnel Covel, wor- 
thy member of this church, aged 70 years and 4 days. 

Monday, June 20. Met in Council at the house of 
Jethro Covel Collins Newell, James Kenney, dea- 
cons; Ebenezer Crowell, Robert Brown, Clarks; Lumber 
Nickerson, Ziba Newell, and John Wilson, Superinten- 
dents; Elders Asa McGray and Thomas Crowell, assis- 
tants. Met for the purpose of receiving baptizing and 
ordaining Edward Reynolds as an evangelist preacher. 
1st. Heard him give a relation of the work of Grace upon 
his heart, voted satisfied. 2nd; Heard his call into the 
Ministry, voted satisfied. Then Elder McGray baptized 
him. Then ordained Edward Reynolds as an Evangelist 
preacher. Elder Thomas Crowell preached the sermon. 
Elder McGray gave the charge and made the ordaining 
prayer. Elder Crowell gave the right hand of fellowship. 

(In 1826 the records begin to be in the hand-writing 
of^Hezekiah Smith, appointed Clerk Nov. 4th. The 



262 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

earlier records seem to have been kept by Elder Mc- 
Gray, cases of discipline and death most frequent.) 

Copy of the This is to certify "all whom it may concern 
Certificate that Edward Reynolds of Cornwallis in 
Kings County and Province of Nova Scotia 
was on the 20th day of June in the Year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-five publicly and reg- 
ularly set apart by prayer and laying on of hands to preach 
the gospel as an evangelist and to administer the ordinan- 
ces of the Church of Christ in general, where God in the 
allotment of his Providences may call him. 

Administered by us in Barrington the 20th day of 
June, 1825 Asa McGray, Elder. 

Witness: Robert Brown, Thomas Crowell, Elder. 

Ebenezer Crowell. 

1827, Sep. 23. Joined the Church and baptized; 
Margaret Watson, Alexander Watson. 

Oct. 7. Heman Crowell baptized and joined the Church. 

Nov. 29. James Colwell Smith joined the Church. 

1829, April 1. Asa Bent of Annapolis received as a 
member and ordained as a minister, as "a member of the 
Free Will Baptist Church in Barrington." Certificate 
signed by Hezekiah Smith, Clerk. 

1829, Dec. 15. Met and convened at Elder McGray's 
dwelling-house for the purpose of ordaining James Mel- 
vin. Elders present: Asa McGray and Thomas Crowell. 
Sat in Council: Asa McGray, Thomas Crowell, Ebenezer 
Crowell, Collins Newell, James Kenney, Albert Swim, 
Hezekiah Smith, Thomas Doane, James Smith, Reuben 
Smith, Levi Nickerson, Eleazar Crowell. Heard Brother 
Melvin's experience: heard his call to the work of the min- 
istry: heard his views in regard to the doctrine of the gos- 
pel. Voted satisfied, and ordained him as a travelling 
preacher. 

Likewise received in Council a certificate from a num- 
ber of the inhabitants of Ragged Islands as follows: Nov. 
3rd, 1829. This may certify to whom it may concern that 



RELIGION 263 



Bro. James Melvin is a man of good moral character and 
a worthy brother in Christ and we approbate him as a 
preacher of the Gospel. Signed: William Hayden, Benj. 
Hayden, John Davis, John Williams, Joseph Hard/, Fred 
K. Fader, Peter Spearwater, Lot Hardy. . 

Jas. Melvin's certificate was signed by the Elders 
and by Ebenezer Crowell, deacon. 

1832, June 18. W. W. Ashley was received as a 
member of the Conference: 1836, July 19, he was ex- 
cluded from the connexion. 

In 1836 Albert Swim and Joshua Nickerson received 
licenses as preachers, both certificates signed by Phineas 
Nickerson, Clerk. 

In 1837 the Free Will Baptist and Free Christian 
Baptists united under the name of Free Baptists. During 
February and March of 1837 meetings were held at Mich- 
ael Swim's and a general revival took place and about 
175 names were added to the membership. On June 17 
the Annual Conference was held on Cape Island,the Bid- 
ders present being McGray, Crowell, Norton and Charles 
Knowles, a similar conference having been held in 1836 
"at Bro. CroweH's meeting-house" (evidently at Sherose 
Id.). Here "first a union constituted between us and 
Bros. Norton and Charles Knowles with the churches 
under their charge and we become one body under the 
name of Free Christian Baptist Church." Sacrament 
administered to 126 members. Met at Elder Crowell's in 
Council, Nov. 25, 1837 for the ordination of Albert Swim; 
above named ministers and Rev. Edward Reynolds pre- 
sent. Also deacons Aaron Nickerson, Elijah Nickerson, 
Crowell Smith, Joseph Atwood, Nehemiah Doane, Col- 
man Crowell, Alfred Kimball, Obadiah Wilson. Elder 
Norton preached the sermon. 

1838, Feb. 15. Conference at School house (the 
first record of a meeting any where but in a d wellinghouse) 

April 30. Sacrament at the South meeting house. 



264 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

June 3. Sacrament at Clark's Hr. meeting-house. 

1839, Feb. 18. Church meeting at the Centre meet- 
ing house. 

Aug. 29. After a meeting at Argyle on Aug. 3. Elder 
McGray withdrew from the Free Christian Baptist union 
and rallied the church to fall back on the original organi- 
zation. Elder Brady joined with him and Joshua Nick- 
erson was ordained 

In 1840 Elders John Chaney, Isaac Davis and Kins- 
man Davis, F. B. ministers from N. England, visited the 
island and the church joined the Free Baptist body of the 
U. States. The new church covenant (Art. 7) had a pledge 
against the drinking and sale of ardent spirits. 

1841. The church reports to the Farmington Quar- 
terly Meeting, Me. and votes a contribution to help the 
1st F. W. Baptist Church in Boston build a meeting house. 
Deacons reappointed: Harvey Doane, Jethro Covel, Levi 
Nickerson and George Smith: Smith and Nickerson to 
serve as under shepherds on the South part of the island, 
Doane and Covel on the North part; division to be Wil- 
liam Brannen's and Mud Bridge. 

1842, Oct. 6, Elder Mark Atwood arrived on the is- 
land from t'he U. States. 

1843, Feb. 4. Elder Reynolds was received to the 
Church, also Joshua Atwood Senr. and John Smith, 137 
communicants at the service. 

Departed this life, Dec. 30, 1843, our beloved friend 
and pastor, Elder Asa McGray. A discourse by Elder 
Reynolds on the occasion of the funeral, Text: 11 Sam. 3, 
38. 

1844 Jan. 27. Elder Moses C. Henderson was invit- 
ed to be the pastor. Elder John Jenkins visited the church : 
Mr. Henderson had just been ordained in 1842. He 
remained at Cape Island about three years. Kinsman 
R. Davis, who came in 1846 was a minister from N. Eng- 
land, who made a deep impression during his visit. 



RELIGION 265 



1848. Elder H. W. Harris succeeded Elder Hender- 
son as pastor. (For several years the records relate 
mainly to the death of members.) 

1856, May 1. Elder Thomas Brown came from 
Rhode Id. and commenced labor and was chosen pastor. 
"It appeared as if some good was to be done and the cur- 
tains of night were for a time to be withdrawn". Through 
the summer of 1856 a revival of religion took place .-Elder 
Brown was followed by Rev. E. G. Eaton, and during his 
term of office the reunion of Free Will and Free Christian 
Baptists took place. 

The Regular It has been shown how the Baptists of 
Baptists Barrington held aloof from the close,com- 

munion movement in the rest of the Prov- 
ince. The nearest regular Baptist Churches to Bar- 
rington for a generation were those of Argyle and Sable 
Rr. where Rev. L. Marshall was pastor in 1849. Seven 
years later Rev. P. F. Murray was pastor in Argyle and 
Barrington. The late Mrs. Irene Kendrick said that in the 
thirties a Rev. Mr. Baker, sent by the Baptist Home 
Mission Board came and found seven Baptists whom he 
organized as a church. They were old people and the 
most had passed away by about 1848 when Rev. Win. 
Burton of Yarmouth re-organized the Church with ten 
members mostly from other places. It was little past- 
oral care they enjoyed. Rev. T. C. Belong was in 
charge of this Church in 1861. 

The meeting-houses at Wood's Hr., and Barrington 
Pass., were built under the leadership of Rev. W. H. 
Richan who first taught school at Barrington Pass., 
then became school insp'r. for the Co., was married and 
ordained there in 1866 and for many years was the sole 
efficient and worthy pastor of the church. Once, at the 
Island meeting house when Squire Ebenezer Crowell had 
invited Rev. Mr. Burton of Yarmouth (Bapt.) to 
preach there, Rev. J. B. Norton, who was present, de- 



266 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

nounced the sermon as "damnable doctrine. " Years 
afterwards Rev. Percy Murray (Bapt.) preached at the 
Bethel by invitation of the church officials, from the 
text: "Let brotherly love continue." When Rev. Mr 
Ashley held his next service there, he said "Rather than 
that such doctrine should be preached here, it would be 
better for these walls to crumble to ashes and the winds 
of heaven to howl over its ruins." Mr. Ashley afterwards 
joined' a Baptist Church in the United States. 

In 1869 a Baptist Church was organized at Wood's 
Hr., and the meeting-house was built. Squire Chute 
was the clerk. This house was soon burned down; an- 
other was built in a few years. Port Clyde is the only 
other place in the township where the Regular Baptists 
have had a church and house of worship. In 1906 all 
the Baptists and Free Baptist Churches in the township 
entered the United Baptist denomination of the Mari- 
time Provinces. 

Church of The introduction of the Episcopal mode of 
England worship in Barrington soon followed the 
removal of the refugees from Shelburne into 
the township. By the reservation of a share for "glebe" 
purposes in the Grant and by the refusal of the Govern- 
ment to recognize as clergymen any ministers except 
those of the Church of England this body enjoyed a 
considerable preference. Before 1790 an allotment had 
been made for Church services in Barrington but had 
never been paid. Bishop Inglis emphatically disapproved 
of Divine Worship in public places used as ball-rooms, 
and thus promoted the building of Churches where needed 
in his diocese. 

The Archives containing his Reports throw light 
upon religious conditions in Barrington at that time. 
In 1790 the Bishop describes the Anglican Church in 
Shelburne, just finished, 64x42 feet, floor measurement. 



RELIGION 267 



He put on record the following information about the 
people along the coast to Yarmouth. Shelburne to Bar- 
rington 22 miles, no road; 120 families in Harrington 
township of whom 60 reside at the harbor; people 
much led away by Methodists and New Lights. Bar- 
rington to Argyle 22 miles, no road; 60 to 70 English 
families in Argyle besides 40 Acadians who are occasion- 
ally visited by a priest. Number of families professing 
Church of England at Barrington 6, at Argyle about 20, 
at Yarmouth about 12. Argyle the most eligible situation 
for a clergyman. 

In 1793-5 Rev. David Ormond was the Episcopal 
missionary at "Yarmouth, Barrington and parts ad- 
jacent" but we have found no local record of his work in 
Barrington. Not for several years afterwards was any 
regular service maintained, but probably some attention 
was given to the negroes at Upper Port Latour and else- 
where in the township as well as to the newcomers of the 
loyalists. 

Mrs. William Robertson was a Van Orden from 
Tusket. It was agreed that the sons of this family should 
be reared in the Presbyterian and the daughters in the 
Episcopal faith. Their daughter Sarah who married 
Thomas Crowell, was joined by the wives of George and 
Lovitt Wilson, and Rev. Dr. White came from Shelburne 
occasionally and conducted worship at their houses. 
About 1840 the Church at the Passage was built. Mr. 
Gray, Mrs. Banks, Mrs. Wrayton, Mrs. Crosby, teacher, 
and the members of the families already named formed 
the membership. Rev. Mr. Nichols was the first resi- 
dent pastor. A chapel was built at Port Latour at the 
junction of the Barrington and shore roads. This was 
afterwards removed to Green Hill for the greater conven- 
ience of the negro population. Rev. Mr. Stewart held 
the charge in 1854 and Rev. Mr. Tays in 1859. Rev. 



268 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Abraham Jordan was rector next when the parsonage 
was built. He was followed by Rev. F. M. Young about 
1866. 

During the intervals of missionary settlement visits 
were made and services held by rectors T. H. White and 
J. T. Moody of Shelburne and Yarmouth. 

In recent years the old meeting house at the Head 
has been occupied, Episcopal services being conducted 
by Rev. Gordon Lewis of Yarmouth. 

The negroes of the township came under the spiritual 
care of the Episcopal Methodists about 1857 when Rev . 
Joseph Smith, a man of their own race, was for a time 
their minister. 

The Presbyterian The tenacity of the Scotch for the 
Church faith of their fathers was well exempli- 

fied in the establishment of the Pres- 
byterian cause in Harrington. The most of the people 
resident on the West side of Clyde River were worshippers 
at the old church across the river near the head of tide- 
water; Dr. Geddes brought to Barrington Head an ardent 
interest in religion; Wm. Robertson at the Passage and 
Wm. Cunningham on Cape Island, with their numerous 
families, furnished in each place a nucleus for the organ- 
ization of a church. They enjoyed occasional visits 
from the Shelburne ministers; Rev. Mr. Dripps, 1826 
and Rev. T. Wishart, 1841. Rev. James Byers 1846- 
1851 was the first to hold regular services in Barrington. 
In 1854 Clyde and Barrington had Rev. George Clarke 
as minister. He was followed by Rev. Hugh McMillan 
in 1862. Rev. M. G. Henry had a long and fruitful 
ministry during which houses of worship were, built at 
Barrington Passage and Clyde River. The Church on 
Cape Island near the Ferry was built in the forties. 
Under the leadership of the late T. W. Watson, the old 
meeting house at the Head was repaired and used for 



RELIGION 269 



Presbyterian meetings. There is a tradition that the 
first Presbyterian meeting in this township was held at 
this old house by Rev. Mr. Donald who came from Shel- 
burne. Rev. Gavin Lang, father of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, was at one time the minister at Shelburne 
and Barrington. 

Change and The custom of the ministers of the Metho- 
Decay dist and New Light Churches down to fifty 

years ago was to give members of the con- 
gregation the privilege of testimony or exhortation after 
the sermon. The sermon thus was apt to appeal strongly 
to the emotions. Without doubt the variety tended to 
enrich the service, while opening the door to occasional 
abuse. This custom was referred to in a temperance 
meeting by Rev. Mr. Ashley who characterised a prom- 
inent sister of another church who would "listen to a 
few dry anecdotes, and then get up and witness, to the 
'everlasting' gospel." The writer has heard one of these 
old exhorters say in his testimony that he supposed the 
young preacher "did the best he could". 

The passing of "speaking in the preaching meeting" 
is indicative of the general changes in the church world 
since 1820. Then, disputation respecting theological 
differences was the rule and preachers were so insistent 
on doctrine and tradition that they and their lay follow- 
ers were apt to miss the law of love. As in Cornwallis 
where the Presbyterians stepped into the shoes of the Con- 
gregationalists who would not give up Watt's Hymns 
for the Psalms and Paraphrases, so in Barrington. The 
redeeming feature was in the appeal to the Word of God 
to which the people had access, so that now the churches 
and their ministers are in full view of the truth as to Christ- 
ian fellowship in the greatest common cause. 

Members of churches arrive and pass off the stage 



270 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

in succession. Though spirituality is the essential qual- 
ity in the church we are apt to discover this but slightly 
among the living and to attach it as a matter of course 
to the dead. The church is therefore as an organization 
hard to realize except in its present stage. 

On the other hand the houses men worship in serve 
often from generation to generation and make deep im- 
pressions on those who frequent them. There rang out 
the impassioned word of beloved religious teachers; there 
were enacted the events which live in memory, dedica- 
tions of persons and property to God, revival scenes, 
weddings and funerals; there the pews, the gallery, the 
pulpit and furniture, the very walls with finish perhaps 
antique and venerable are telling their story of devotion 
and sacrifice to sensitive minds and hearts because assoc- 
iated with religion. These houses are often the chief 
land marks, so to speak, of the community, ever speaking 
eloquently of the noblest aspirations as well as of the 
differing modes of life of former generations. . The new 
settlement, generally impecunious, may put its best into 
the house of worship. Even then decay, inconvenience 
of location, inroad of more modern ideas may bring about 
the demolishing of the sacred structure, and it is well to 
preserve the story and pictures of the building when 
possible, for the benefit of coming generations. Bar- 
rington has still some of these waymarks of its wor- 
shipping people. 

The Old Meeting The chief monument erected by the 
House Barrington grantees was the Old Meet- 

ing House built in 1766. Intended 
for public meetings of all sorts, it was unfit for use in 
winter at first, and in 1786 Garretson described it as 
without doors or windows. Soon af-ter that meeting 
houses were built at Cape Negro and Sherose Id., and 
doubtless, the people about the Head made some necessary 



RELIGION 271 



additions to the building. Thus, it was occupied by the 
Methodists, the KPew Lights and other preachers as a 
place of worship. 1 

The old meeting house originally had a door in each 
end, east and west. The pulpit was very high. There 
were benches with backs for the men and women who 
sat on opposite sides of the house and facing the pulpit. 
Children sat on a long piece of timber in front of the 
pulpit, and facing the people. The old women sat in 
frtfnt of them, facing the same way. 

About 1817 a number of the people joined in a sub- 
scription at forty shillings a share to repair and finish the 
house. They "pewed off and plastered" the inside having 
put the door in the side of the building and the pulpit 
opposite to the door. Thomas Coffin, Sr., Samuel Wat- 
son, Josiah Nickerson, Theodore Adams, Smith Atwood, 
Obediah W. Homer, Heman Crowell, Charles Doane, 
Osborne Doane, and Lendall Doane were leaders in this en- 
terprise. David Doane was chief carpenter. Their 
intention was to keep it fit and open as a place of worship. 

(Note : The writer remembers seeing in the subscript 
tion book many years ago the name of his grandfather 
John Hopkins, among many others. The cost of repairs 
was borne by many people in the township). 

This was done and Trustees were appointed who 
soon locked the house against a Township meeting which 
was called there. In spite of attempts made to secure 
the use of the house for town meetings and a petition to 
the N. S. Assembly in 1828 the new proprietors held the 
field in keeping and controlling the house for a place of 
worship. The Methodist Chapel was dedicated in 1816, 
and the old house was refitted by the non-Methodists 
whose ideas of propriety and self respect in the conduct 
of worship had been quickened by the new church home 
dedicated by the Methodists. With the increase of 
population and prosperity it was felt that cottages and 



272 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

barns were unsuitable places for public worship. As 
the proprietors throughout the township were devoting 
their energies to local needs they would not unite to keep 
up the old meeting house either for worship or for a town 
hall. About this time the Free Baptist organization 
took definite shape and the meetings of Revs. J. B. Norton 
and W. W. Ashley, and later of Rev. Samuel McKeown 
were regularly held in the Old Meeting house. When, 
in time, the township was compelled to provide a court 
house for its civic needs the meeting house was left to. 
exclusively religious uses. By the time the F.W.B. 
Bethel was built, in 1851, at Brass's Hill the old house 
had become quite dilapidated again. Probably the Rev. 
Charles Haskell,after identifying himself with Plymouth- 
ism was the last to hold regular meetings there before a 
thorough renovation of the building took place in 1892 
to provide a place for the Presbyterian meetings. This 
was not all smooth sailing, for in 1889 an Act of Parlia- 
ment had been passed to demolish the old church. To 
some people it was evidently an eyesore rather than a 
memorial of a worthy past. Not so the late Thomas 
Watson whose love of Barrington and its shrines found 
different expression. The bare timbers, the capacious 
gallery around three sides of the building, the Wall-pul- 
pit and ancient pews still remain and with bits of furni- 
ture of the olden time take the mind of the visitor to the 
scenes and people of old Barrington. 

The Island Meeting No house of worship in the town- 
House ship was so long or constantly in 

use as that two story structure 
standing near the Sherose Id. road. Under date of 
September 17, 1811 we have the following preamble to 
a subscription list and account showing 353.6.4 expend- 
ed by the building committee. 

"The old Island Meeting House being found too 



RELIGION 273 



small, inconvenient and uncomfortable for the number 
of people that generally attends divine service in that 
place, and being very much decayed and out of Repair, 

We the subscribers..^ call on our neighbors to 

join and build a meeting house for the public worship of 
God near where the old meeting house now standeth. 
To be open to all such preachers to preach in as occasion 
may call and such as profess to have a dispensation of 

the Gospel of Christ committed to their charge the 

subscribers to meet and agree on the most eligible mode 
for the Form and Size of said House and by a majority 
of votes to choose persons to superintend the construc- 
tion of and payments for the said House We do 

hereby promise to pay, etc." 

"At a meeting of the subscribers voted unan- 
imously that Mr. Obediah Wilson and Ebenezer Crowell, 
Esq., superintend the construction of and all matters 
relating to the said building and finishing the same." 

There were 48 subscribers. Thirty pews were set 
off of which ten were in the gallery; the prices ranged 
from 55. to 11. 

In the fall of 1827 a collection was made for a stove 
which was bought by Captain Isaac Hopkins in Halifax ; 
cost of stove and pipe 8.15. The pews in this house 
were "square" pews of the old fashion. 

In 1841 the meeting house was purchased from the 
proprietors and became the property of the F. C. Bap- 
tist Church. At the same time the house was greatly 
enlarged and pews sold to meet the cost. Josiah Coffin, 
Esq., Samuel Watson and Elisha Atwood were the ap- 
praisers of the property taken over. Obediah Wilson, 
Jr., Esq. and Messrs. John Kendrick and George Wilson were 
the committee to superintend the alterations, seven trus- 
tees were to be appointed annually, the first selection 
being John Kenney, Joseph Wilson, Joseph Crowell, 
Jesse Smith, Paul Crowell 2nd, Joseph Kendrick, Thomas 
West Wilson. Some twenty years after this the wall 
pulpit was taken down. It was not until the "Temple" 



274 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

was built in 1882 that the Island meeting house ceased 
to be the constant place of resort for the worshippers of 
a large community. It was then demolished. 

Cape Id. Houses Rev. Mr. McGray, who organized the 
of Worship F. W. Baptist Church on Cape Id. 

in 1821 made a room for religious 
meetings in the house which he bought at Centre ville, 
by opening a partition between the larger rooms and 
placing a platform instead. Here also he had a Sunday 
School some years before 1838 when the meeting house 
was built. This was a two-story building. It was 
changed to a public hall about the time of the union, 1866, 
and then a commodious Church was built on the same 
site, the original lot set apart for a meeting-house in 1767 . 

The second Sunday School on the Island was held in 
the log school-house at Newellton in 1832. The first 
meeting house, built in 1838 at Centreville, was situated 
on the West side of the post road a short distance from 
the commodious place of worship which took its place in 
the sixties. It was a two story building with galleries 
and afterwards was used as a hall and a meeting place 
for the Sons of Temperance for many years. 

The old Clark's Harbor meeting house, opened in 
1838, was just south of the later one which soon was 
occupied by the Adventists and then by the Salvation 
Army. The old house had side galleries and a wall 
pulpit which was reached by winding stairs. 

At Clark's Hr., and South Side the meetings for 
worship were held in dwelling houses until, in connection 
with the Free Baptist movement Rev. Albert Swim began 
to preach. He was ordained in 1837 but previously from 
the time of his license to preach in 1830, had conducted 
revival meetings there with great success. Himself 
a^ convert of Rev. Thomas Crowell, he and the C larks 
Hr. Church identified themselves with the F. C. Baptists, 



RELIGION 275 



when the temporary separation came. He had no stated 
salary till 1845, and then only $200 guaranteed, but sup- 
ported himself in part by fishing. He moved to Hear 
Point in 1848. A house had been built by the F. W. 
Baptists soon after Mr. McGray's arrival and was in use 
till about 1860 when a new and substantial house took 
its place on the same site. This shortly was abandoned 
to the Salvation Army. The Free Baptists then provided 
themselves with another place of meeting, the most cap- 
acious of any church in Shelburne County, which is now 
being replaced by a handsome building more central 
to the large congregation and a worthy recognition of 
the prosperity of the town under the divine blessing. 

Bear Pt. Meet- The first meeting house at Bear Pt. was 
ing House on the East side of Atwood's Brook. 

There was no local church organization 
but services were held by the ministers in the vicinity. 
A Sunday School was conducted there about the mid- 
century, of which Stephen Banks was teacher a long 
time. This house had a pulpit on the wall with stairs. 
One of the early ministers who used the weed was ac- 
customed to take up his spittoon for use there. (Other 
proprietors houses had their spittoon as a part of the 
regular furniture.) 

About 1861 the old house was torn down and a new 
one built on land bought from Joseph Atwood Senr., by 
Isaac Smith, Ensign Hopkins, Joshua Atwood, Samuel 
Atwood and Reuben Stoddart as a building committee. 
The F. C. Baptists built it as a proprietor's house and 
then sold one-quarter's interest in it to the Wesleyan 
Methodists, subject to use when convenient by "all Evan- 
gelical preachers". 

Adventist Owing to disagreements respecting the right 
Meeting of the Second Adventist preachers to conduct 
Houses their meetings in the various "proprietor's" 



276 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

houses, a number of meeting houses were built by this 
denomination in the township. Namely, at Bear Point 
on the West Side, at the Head of Woods Hr., at West 
Hd., Cape Id. and at Charlesville. The F. C. Baptist 
house at Clarks Hr., shortly after its erection was given 
up to the Adventists. Rev. Mr. Halliday settled at Bear 
Point and was the principal minister of the Adventist 
Churches for many years, a man greatly respected through- 
out the township 

The Christian Owing to a serious disagreement concern- 
Bethel ing their ministers and the use of the 

Island Meeting house a house for worship 
was built in 1851 at Brass's Hill and called the "Christian 
Bethel." Fifty one shares were taken by residents, 
mostly of West Barrington, although the names of Dr. 
Gecldes, Thomas Coffin Sr., Samuel McKeown and Isaac 
Goodwin are on the list. The building committee were: 
John Wilson, Paul Crowell 2nd, Paul Crowell 3rd, Isaac 
Hopkins Sr., and Isaac Hopkins 2nd. The finance com- 
mittee were Capt. Elijah Wood, Jonathan Smith and 
Rufus H. Crowell. Any minister that was employed 
by at least three-fourths of the proprietors had a pre- 
ference in appointments; otherwise the house was open 
to Evangelical preachers. A clear-toned church bell 
which rang out from this Church steeple, as far as Port 
Latour, was the first to be introduced into the township. 
The house was incorporated and insured. This house 
was regularly occupied by the Free Will Baptists. The 
Presbyterians held services here while their church at 
the Passage was building. After the Union of the Bap- 
tist bodies in 1866 their meetings alternated between 
the Bethel and Island Meeting House until the Temple 
took their place. A parsonage owned by the F. W. 
Baptists stood at the foot of the hill, northward, until 
destroyed by fire about 1870. 



RELIGION 277 



Port Latour Houses The people at first went to Barring- 
of Worship ton Head or Cape Negro for public 

worship. In the early part of the 
19th century a Union House was built on the Governor's 
lot in the vicinity of the union cemetery. Then in Elder 
Reynold's day Salem Church was built as a F. W. Bap- 
tist house of worship and continued in use until 1872, 
when the present church edifice was erected. The Metho- 
dists occupied the Union meeting house, and also held 
services for many years in the Baccaro school house until 
their present chapel was built. 

The Anglican Church had a house of worship at 
Nickerson's corner by the Barrington road. This was 
removed to Green Hill for the use of the negroes living 
there. 

Early Sunday Schools A Sunday School was organized 
at Centerville, Cape Id., by Rev. 
Mr. McGray in August 1827 under the auspices of the 
Free Will Baptist Church. It met in a small log dwelling 
house and was faithfully kept up, though regarded by 
some at first as a profanation of the Sabbath. Its influ- 
ence for good in the community was soon noted and as 
the people increased similar schools were established in 
every part of the island. 

About the same time Rev. Thomas Crowell started 
a Sunday School at the Passage. Concerning the first 
Sunday School at the Head there are various accounts. 
Mr. Wm. Watt, Mr. Bennison, Mr. Osborne Smith, Dr. 
Geddes, Mr. Thomas West and Mr. McAley are all 
credited with being pioneers in this work. The children 
were gathered on Sundays at the houses of Messrs. Watt, 
Bennison and West perhaps in turn, for one summer at 
least; afterwards the school was taken to the chapel 
when Mr. Sargent became the superintendent. Messrs. 
Bennison and David Atwood assisted also at the pri- 



278 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

vate houses. At this time about 1827, a number of fam- 
ilies were living at The River. Here . the story goes 
McAley on the second sunday boxed Louisa Doane's ears 
and that broke up the school. 

Native Preachers. As to the ministry and its supply 
from native talent, the picture is a 
pleasing one. The evangelical spirit of the Methodists 
bore good fruit. Theodore Seth Harding came first 
to the ranks of their ministry, but on his first circuit 
the ingrain Calvinist doctrine overflowed offensively, 
and his great evangelistic and organizing abilities were 
transferred to the Baptists. Winthrop Sargent 
Joseph Coffin, Howard Doane, Edwin Doane and David 
Smith were workmen who needed not to be ashamed. 
Rev. Joseph Coffin was a preacher of eminent ability, 
energy and courage, greatly beloved in the township 
which was' permitted for a time to enjoy his ministrations. 
Thomas Crowell, a convert of the New Light Order, 
having reached mature years, was drawn to the preacher's 
and pastor's life in order to combat the worldliness and 
sin about him. His was a name to conjure with through- 
out the township on account of his moderation and spirit- 
uality. Albert Swim, b. 1800, was an honored instrument 
in revival work. He had the gift of making plain the 
way of salvation in his exposition of the Word. Joshua 
Nickerson (Yankee) had a compelling manner of speech 
and an efficient though comparatively short ministry. 
Charles Knowles spent several years of his ministry 
in his native township and organized the First Yarmouth 
Free Baptist Church of which he was the influential pastor 
for many years. Pastor Knowles supplemented his 
scant schooling by carrying with him in his saddle books 
for study. Also as a preacher he arranged his matter with 
skill and cumulative force, and it may safely be said 
that no native preacher of his time in Western Nova Scotia 



RELIGION 279 



could compare with him in pulpit oratory, and that of 
the most genuine and spontaneous type. 

Samuel K. West was a more popular platform speaker 
than preacher, for his speech naturally teemed with 
striking similies which seemed to embarrass him in preach- 
ing. Two sons heard the call to the ministry, of whom 
Joseph spent several years with the F. B. Churches of 
Barrington and other parts of this province, a man of 
fine literary tastes and pulpit ability. S. W. Bennison, 
Theodore H. Crowell, James F. Smith,Ezra Crowell, John 
L. Smith, James W. Smith, and Edwin Crowell, all natives 
of Barrington served the Free Baptist Churches of this 
province. Joseph Hogg, Presb. attained distinction as 
a preacher and scholar and was minister at Moncton and 
Winnipeg. He is remembered in Barrington for his skill 
in the teacher's office. 

Witchcraft This seems the most appropriate place to 
introduce the subject of witchcraft. It was 
inevitable that a colony from New England in the middle 
of the 18th century should retain some traces of the sen- 
timents which had not long before dominated their social 
and religious world. The late James S. Smith, first 
keeper of Baccaro light, tells of the custom among the 
older folks when he was a boy, of conversing about ghosts 
and witches until he would be half frightened to death. 
Sable Island the scene of many wrecks was supposed to 
be their habnt, quite in line with the suggestion in Shakes- 
peare's "Tempest" of a place too remote for verification 
of the stories. The chief reference available on this 
subject is a lecture on Barrington by the Rev. Winthrop 
Sargent given in 1863. The lecturer was a son of John 
Sargent and his knowledge of Barrington in the first half 
of his century would be intimate and reliable; but he 
rested mainly upon tradition for the information which 
he incorporated in his lecture. With considerable rhe- 



280 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



torical power he portrayed the hardships and losses of 
New Englanders who migrated to Barrington, and says: 

"as it would appear, these afflicted people found 
the origin of their mishaps in influences and causes more 
onerous and subtle than anything arising out of the course 
of nature. It was an age and a country in which a firm 
persuasion was very prevalent of the existence of that 
obnoxious class of beings, who, claiming the attributes 
of humanity were nevertheless said to be endowed with 
those supernatural powers by which they were enabled 
to brave the terrors of the ocean and pass over its agitated 
surface comfortably ensconced in so frail and fragile a 
bark as an egg shell; yes and triumphantly to ride on the 
yielding air on their envenomed errands of mis- 
chief upon a steed of no less noble qualities than those of a 
broomstick. 

Yes, the fathers and mothers of Barrington, it is 

said, were maliciously assailed, and their plans for 

emigration not a little interfered with and injuriously 
affected by these reputed agents and accomplices of the 
enemy of all good. As I recollect the tradition these 
influences very materially interfered with the embarkation 
of their families and property." 

He cites some traditional instances in point, but 
admits that "if they had been free from the use of rum 
probably many things laid to the witches might not 
have happened." 

Here there is an obvious confusion of the first period 
of settlement, in which drunkenness was not prevalent, 
with a time half a century later when the West India 
business of John Sargent and Obediah Wilson was in full 
swing . Then rum was an ordinary return cargo, and its 
extension sale in the community brought a curse upon 
the younger families of the old stock as well as upon the 
newcomers with their more indulgent habits of life. 
The lecturer's viewpoint, it should also be remembered, 
was that of the newcomer's family, still somewhat aloof 
and superior in feeling, and inclined to be credulous of 
discrediting stories about their Pilgrim predecessors in 
the township. 




FREE BAPTIST CHURCH. 
Clark's Harbor. 




THE GEDDES HOUSE, THE HEAD 



RELIGION 281 



It is well known that witchcraft is one of the princi- 
pal superstitions held by the negro race. This know- 
ledge was used in the decay of Shelburne to protect pro- 
perty from depredation. One of the houses which had 
a reputation of being haunted was removed to Harrington 
and became the home and place of business of a mer- 
chant at the Passage about a hundred years ago. 

From such sources the few instances of reputed 
witchcraft seem to have been derived. That the old 
stories should reappear now and then amongst isolated 
settlers, especially a people so familiar with Boston Bay 
history was only to be expected. In one instance a vessel 
was missing from her moorings overnight and never found. 
That night a man whose love affairs were disappointing 
found a black cat on his bed and kicked it to death. At 
the same time a decrepit old woman given to muttering 
to herself, died. She was the mother of the owners of 
the vessel and had been blamed for bewitching the man 
and his sweetheart. Were all these happenings con- 
nected, and to be explained by the black art? How easy 
then to revive all the similar stories of the past. It would 
not take many believers in witchcraft to establish the 
character of a community in that regard, and it is an 
interesting fact that an old darkey named Sewell used 
to go about the township peddling charms against the 
power of witches. There is never a suggestion that the 
churches were ensnared in this folly as they had been in 
the Massachusetts Colony. As a religious superstition, 
it was left to those who did not take the better way of 
meeting the terrors of the unseen world. The writer in 
his youth heard from an aged neighbor, an account of 
his experience on a vessel long becalmed at sea, when 
the devil's picture was drawn on a board and shot through 
with slugs made of a silver sixpence. Of course a breeze 
soon folio wed! 

Superstition and witchcraft a reshadows of religion, 



282 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

which is rooted in human nature; when one considers 
the new world conditions of a century and more ago and 
the variety of people who at that time found citizenship 
in the township, the wonder is that so simple and intense 
a religious character should have survived. 



A PATRIOT'S PRAYER. 

1 O God, who Britain blest, 
On Canada's fair crest 
Shed ampler grace. 
Amid the world's fierce fray 
The Cross our flag shall stay; 
Ours, till the judgment day, 
A Nation's place. 

CHORUS A Nation's place we fill 

Within an Empire grand, 
Whence Freedom's dews distil 
O'er every land. 

2. It was Thy hand that wrought 
When Wolfe victorious fought 

And ended strife; 
And when our borders rude 
Received the loyal brood; 
And while the Union stood 

Through perils rife. Chorus A Nation's place, etc. 

3. Now may our Lord be praised, 
Who Freedom's son upraised 

To smite the Hun. 
Then the Canadian lance 
Flashed o'er the hills of France; 
Shared the Allied advance, 

The glory won. Chorus A Nation's place, etc. 

4. To Thy Canadian ward, 
Great Spirit, still afford 

Thy sheltering power; 
Where bravest races blent, 
On peaceful conquests bent, 
Rule half a continent, 

Thy regal dower. Chorus A Nation's place, etc. 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 283 



CHAPTER XVII. 



LEGLISLATION RESPECTING THE 
TOWNSHIP. 



1758. Acts were passed granting Bounties on Agriculture and the 
Fisheries, and also for the Better Observance of the Lord's Day. 
Also an Act for the establishment of religious public worship and for 
suppressing Popery. 

An Act for the Establish' This beside suppressing Popery, 
ment of Religious Pub- recognized that the rites and 
lie Worship and for ceremonies of divine worship 
Suppressing Popery according to the liturgy (of 

the Church of England) shall 

be deemed the fixed form of worship amongst us. Pro- 
testants, however, "whether they be Calvinists, Luther- 
ans, Quakers, or under what denomination soever, shall 
have free liberty of conscience, and may erect and build 
meeting houses for public worship and may choose and 

elect ministers and all such dissenters shall be 

excused from any rates or taxes to be made and levied for 
the support of the established Church of England." 

1. 1765. An Act was passed entitling the several 
counties and townships "to elect, in manner and form as 
has heretofore been accustomed in the county and town 
of Halifax the number of persons to sit in the General 
Assembly. 

2. Enacting that when the townships of Barrington, 
Yarmouth, Chester, Dublin, Amherst, St. John's, 
Windsor, Wilmot on the river Annapolis, Louisburg and 
Wilmot Town at Canso, shall consist of fifty families 
resident, and an authentic certificate thereof shall be 

laid before the Governor , each and every of the 

said townships shall be entitled to elect, in manner as 
aforesaid one person as a representative in General 
Assembly." 

(3) 1766 (a) A law was passed to prevent persons 
leaving the province without a passport, (b) School- 
masters must have a license by the minister or by two 
Justices of the Peace and six inhabitants of the town, 
and such schoolmaster must take the Oath of Allegiance. 



284 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Four hundred acres are to be vested in Trustees for the 
use and support of schools in each township, (c) Special 
sessions of the Peace were authorized at Yarmouth and 
Barrington, then in the County of Queens. 

(4) 1767. (a) An act prohibited trespass on the un- 
granted lands of the Province, (b) To remedy the in- 
action of absentee proprietors an Act of the Assembly 
provided for the partition of common lands by writ of 
the Supreme Court to the Provost-marshal; but "lands 
actually improved by proprietors shall be set off to them." 

(5) By enactments of 1768, (a) surveyors of high- 
ways are to be nominated by the GrandJury and appoint- 
ed by the Court of Quarter Sessions, (b) Provision is 
to be made for the poor in each township by the free hold- 
ers at meetings as directed, (c) Quit-rents are to be 
secured by the partition of land, etc. 

(6) 1770. (a) Assistance may be rendered by the 
government for the settlement of the poor in the Province 
(b) Toll for millers is established at one-sixteenth part 
and no more, (c) The Courts of General Sessions and 
Inferior Court of Common Pleas shall be held at Lver- 
pool in April and November each year, (d) No fish offal 
is to be thrown into the sea within three leagues of any 
of the shores of this province. The penalty for violation 
was five pounds. 

(7) 1772. (a) Deputy registrars were authorized 
for the different counties and districts of the Province. 

(b) Support of the poor to be provided for by assess- 
ment. 

(8) 1775. (a) To export powder, arms, ammunition, 
salt petre or to carry the same coastwise was prohibited, 
(b) Grand Juries shall anually nominate six fit persons 
out of whom the Court of General sessions shall appoint 
three assessors of all rates and taxes; also, collectors, 
surveyors and weighers. 

(9) In 1779 five thousand pounds were voted for 
coast protection by armed vessels. 

(10) 1783 The county of Shelburne was set apart be- 
ing"situate on the western border of Queens Co." The 
township of Shelburne was "situate on the harbor called 
Port Roseway." Both township and County were to 
elect representatives. 

(11) 1787. (a) Provision was made for a light- 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 285 

house at McNutt's Id. (b) Light dues are established 
for Shelburne and Sambro lights. 

(12) 1789 (a) Times were set for the Inferior 
Court and General Sessions in the township of Yarmouth. 

(b) A ten per cent duty was laid on various imports from 
the United States, the fines for violation to be for the 
poor of the district in which the fine was collected. 

(13) Marriages previously solemnized by magis- 
trates or others were made valid, in 1793. In 1795 per- 
sons were appointed to solemnize marriages where no 
clergyman of the established church resided. 

(14) 1796 (a) A lottery was authorized to raise 
two thousand pounds for roads and bridges (b) Courts of 
Justice for Yarmouth and Argyle are to be held at Tusket. 

(c) Tusket Bridge was built, (d) Town Pumps may be 
constructed. 

(15) 1799. (a) Justices of the Peace must attend 
the Quarter Sessions and also the Superior Courts in 
their respective counties. (b) Licenses for the sale of 
liquor may be granted. Licensees to be nominated by 
the Grand Jury and appointed by the Justices. The 
money for licenses to be applied to maintenance of the 
roads. 

16. 1802. A bounty was voted to entourage the 
codfishery. 

17. 1811. "Whereas overseers of the Poor are 
required to run out and establish once in three years the 
boundary lines of their respective townships, therefore 
the expense is to be assessed and collected the same as 
the Poor rates/' 

18. In the Road grant for 1816, ninety pounds 
is allowed from Clyde River to the Mill Bridge at Bar- 
rington and four hundred pounds from the Mill Bridge 
to Owen's at Pubnico, 

19. 1817 (a) Eight thousand pounds was distri- 
buted in the province for relief, owing to failure of the 
crops. In Shelburne County, Yarmouth and Argyle, 
five hundred pounds. No mention of Barrington es- 
pecially, (b) A grant was made to extend the post 
communication to Liverpool via Lunenburg. (c) Road 
grant,. 100 from Clyde to the bridge over the Mill 
Brook in Barrington; 350 from there to Owen's, Pub- 
nico; 60 from Owen's to John Nickerson's, Argyle. 



286 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

(d) An act to prohibit the export of corn, oats,potatoes, etc. 

20. 1818 (a) Road grant from Clyde River to 
Mill Brook 72; from Mrs. Brown's in Barrington to 
Clemmon's Pond in the same township 280. (b) Gram- 
mar Schools as established in Counties and Districts of 
the Province in the 54th year of George III are hereby 
continued for seven years, and no longer. 

21. 1819 (a) Bounty for encouragement of the 
cod and seal fisheries. 1600; (b) Postal service extended 
from Liverpool to Shelburne. 

22. Road grants; (a) 90 from Barrington Mill 
Brook to Mrs. Brown's (Head Oak Park) 40 from Mrs. 
Brown's to John Nickersons; 30 from Charles Amero's, 
Pubnico to Widow Andrews, Cockawit; 10 from Cocka- 
wit Lower settlement to Shag Hr. A grant also for a 
bridge over Clyde River, (b) Licenses to solemnize 
marriage were provided for dissenting ministers, (c) 
Schools which receive Provincial grants may give free 
tuition subject to the determination of the local Justices 
of the Peace. 

23. 1825 (a) Pay for members of parliament was 
set at 10 shillings a day. (b) A bounty was enacted for 
whalers to cross the equator. 

24. 1826 (a) Twenty pounds was voted to Wm. 
Robertson for provisions etc., for the relief of passengers 
and crew of brig New Active, wrecked at Seal Ids., July 
1823. (b) 30, bridge repairs at Barrington. (c) 50, 
opening and improving the road from Barrington to Cock- 
awit. (d) School districts established by Justices of 
the Peace, and Commissioners of Schools introduced. 

25. 1828. A keeper of the Fish and Timber gates 
of Barrington river is to be appointed annually by the 
Justices and Grand Jury. To prevent depredations 
these gates are to be subject to the Justices and the over- 
seer of the river fishery and the expenses are to be assessed 
on the inhabitants of the township. 

26 1829. At elections for the county the poll 
is to be opened in Shelburne and adjourned to the old 
meetinghouse in Barrington and thence to Tusket, thence 
to Yarmouth, but not hereafter at the French meeting 
house in Argyle. 

27. 1832. The Alewives fishery at Barrington 
Head is to be sold annually at auction so that twelve lessees 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 287 

inhabitants shall have the right and privilege of fishing 
and selling; all nets above the range of Blackberry Id., 
and the south end of Kirby Id., shall extend and be set 
North and South. Obediah Wilson, Ebenezer Crowell, 
John Homer, Wm. B. Sargent, John Bennison and Saml. 
0. Doane are appointed Commissioners. Indians shall 
not be barred from fishing. None but lessees may take 
more than fifty alewives in one day in said Barrmgton 
River. 

27. 1833 c. 33 Whereas it is expedient and nec- 
essary for the convenience of the inhabitants of Oak Park 
and Woods Hr., that these places should be annexed to 
the township of Barrington; and whereas difficulties have 
arisen between the inhabitants of Barrington and Argyle 
respecting the boundaries between those places, it is there- 
fore enacted for the accommodation of all parties and for 
avoiding difficulties. I. that the line of division between 
the said townships of Barrington and Argyle shall here- 
after be as follows: that is, to say, beginning on Pubnico 
Beach at a rock between the North west boundary of a 
tract of land granted to John Nickerson, Jr., and the 
South east boundary of a tract of land granted to the late 
Walter Larkin,and to run S 80 E along the line of said Lark- 
in to the South-east corner thereof; from thence a Northeast 
course to the Northwest angle of a tract of land lying on 
both sides of Barrington River, and bounded on the 
North by the Lake Sabimm granted to James Doane and 
others, thence along the Northwest line of said grant until 
it strike the Sabimm, thence a Northeast course across 
said lake until it strikes the Southeast angle of a tract of 
land granted to David Larkin and others, thence a North- 
east course till it comes to the Northeast angle of Bar- 
rington township. II. And further enacted, that the 
East boundary of Barrington township shall hereafter 
be as follows; to begin at the Southern end of Cape Negro 
Id., and include said island, and from thence up the West- 
ern side of said harbor by the several courses thereof 
to the head of the tide, from thence along the Western 
side of the river Clyde, till it comes near the house of 
William Watt, according to a plan of a grant of 52,000 
acres of land or thereabout made to the people of Bar- 
rington in or about the year 1768, from thence N. 260 



288 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

degrees W until it comes to the Northwest boundary 
line of said township. 

III. And that the said township shall also here- 
after include as part thereof all the islands lying and being 
within four miles of the sea coast thereof, on the southern 
and Western sides of the said township". 

(NOTE The Act defining the boundary of Argyle 
township gives 298 chains as the distance from the shore 
to the rear of Walter Larkin's grant, i. e. about 2 3-4 miles.) 

28. Members of Parliament are to get one pound 
per day. 

1832. The Shelburne County road grant was 775. 
60 pounds was granted for supplies to Seal Id., for sup- 
port of ship wrecked mariners. 50 pounds to Richard 
Hichens and Edmund Crowell for employing two men to 
reside with them on Seal Id., for the purpose oT assist- 
ing shipwrecked mariners. 50 for a buoy on West 
(Wesses) Ledge at Barrington Hr. 100 granted last 
session to erect an aboiteau across Baker's Inlet was 
changed and applied to a bridge across Mud Cove on the 
Western side of Cape Id. pursuant to the petition on 
condition that said petitioners furnish labor and materials 
toward said bridge to the amount of 30. 

29. 1833 (a) 50 are granted to the inhabitants 
of Barrington to aid them in building a grammar school 
house, when it is certified that the said inhabitants have 
subscribed or expended an equal amount for the like pur- 
pose, (b) 30 to Obadiah Wilson et al, Overseers of 
the Poor, to defray the expense in relief of Edward Stan- 
ley, a ship wrecked mariner, to be applied as per report 
of Committee; to T. Geddes, surgeon, 14; to Wm. Brown 
12, and Thomas Middleton (Middling (?) ) 4.18. 
(c) Road Grant, Shelburne Co. 1450. 

30. 1834. Quit rents were abolished upon con- 
dition of annual grant by the Province of 2000 stg. 
for the support of the Civil establishment of the Province. 

31. 1836. (a) Yarmouth County was set off from 
Shelburne. It is to contain, comprise and comprehend 
the two townships of Yarmouth and Argyle and also such 
part of the present County of Shelburne as lies to the 
North West of a line to run Northwest from the North- 
east corner of a grant on the east side of the Great Pub- 
nico Lake, made to David Larkins and others, to the 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 289 

bounds of the County of Annapolis." (b) Commission- 
ers were appointed for the' Sable Id., and Seal Id. estab- 
lishments. 

32. 1838. (a) An Act for dividing of John's, 
Id., or Isle John to the representatives of the original 
proprietors. (A grant had been made in 1771 to Philip 
rown [Harrington grantee?] Walter Larkin, Selly and 
Amoreau.) (b) A grant was made of 750 for a light 
house at Yarmouth, (c) 30 for spar buoys at West 
Passage, Beach Channel, and Cockawit Pass, (d) 100 
granted for the "great post road from Queens Co.,, to 
Barrington." 

33. 1839. (a) Grant of 3.15 to reimburse town- 
ship for expense of transient paupers, (b) 20 to Ed- 
mund Crowell, aid to shipwrecked mariners at Seal Id. 

(c) An act to prevent damage to the nets of fishermen 

(d) Inspection of fish and fish oil with scale of fees for the 
service. 

34. 1841. c. 53. (a) An Act to enable the township to 
erect a Town-house for holding of elections, town meet- 
ings, special sessions and other town purposes, and with 
a suitable apartment for a Lock-up house in the town- 
ship: And to authorize the Grand Jury to present and 
confirm any gam of money necessary for said building, 
to be in charge of the Grand Jury, (b) Grants for roads; 
Reuben Nickerson on road between Shelburne and Bar- 
rington, 15; for repairing old road from John Crowell's 
to Shag Hr., 48. 

35. 1844. (a) Grant of 25 for buoys in West Pass- 
age, (b) 500 for one Revenue Cutter in addition to 
the Schr "Sisters" during the fishing months on the 
Coast of N. Scotia. 

36. 1845. (a) Grant of 15 to Wm. Cunningham 
and John Knowles for ferry service at the narrows be- 
tween Cape Sable Id. and the mainland, (b) For tran- 
sient paupers in Barrington 9.11.9. 

37. 1846. c. 4 (a). Be it enacted that hereafter the 
Eastern boundary of Barrington township shall be as 
follows; that is to say. To begin at the southern head 
of Cape Negro Id., and include said island, arid thence 
up the western side of Cape Negro Hr., by the several 
courses thereof, to the head of the tide, thence along the 
Western side of the river Clyde until it comes near the 



290 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

house of William Watt, and thence in a straight line con- 
tinuous with the course of the said river up to that point 
until it strikes the county line between the Counties of 
Shelburne and Yarmouth, "(b) c. 20 "To define and 
settle more exactly the line of division between counties 
of Shelburne and Yarmouth, be it enacted: "that the 
County of Yarmouth shall comprehend and comprise 
such part of the former county of Shelburne as lies to the 
Northwest of a line to run in a Northeast direction from 
the Northeast corner of a grant on the east side of the 
Great Pubnico Lake made to David Larkin and others 
to the bounds of the county of Digby at the point where 
the same is intersected by the county of Queens." (c) 
Grant of 40 to John Crews Esquire, sub-collector of 
customs and collector of Colonial and Light duties for 
the township of Barrington, said duties having been 
destroyed by fire in October last, (d) 100 for a Beacon 
on West ledge at entrance of Barrington Hr., to be drawn 
and applied for that purpose when the public shall have 
subscribed or contributed enough for the purpose, (e) 
One term of the sessions of the Peace of the County is 
ordered to be held at Barrington at which the Grand 
Jury of the County shall appear and the town officers be 
appointed, licenses, if any for the sale of liquor granted 
and all other county business transacted. 

37. 1847. (a) To authorize the division of prev- 
iously undivided land on account of the absence of re- 
presentatives of grantees and that others are minors 
and therefore division is impossible by the ordinary 
legal tribunals. Therefore enacted, that John Lyle, Sr., 
John Homer and George Wilson be commissioners for 
making the partition. The award and plan to be made 
and registered at the office of the Registrar of Deeds 
for Shelburne County, (b) 20 to Edmund Crowell 
at Seal Id., for relief, etc. (c) 15 to- William Cun- 
ningham and John Knowles, Cape Id. ferry, (d) 12 
to Margaret Nickerson to enable her to keep a house 
of entertainment on the post road from Shelburne to 
Barrington. 

38. 1848. Road Grants for Barrington bridge 50; 
from Barrington to the Yarmouth line 50. 

39. 1850. (a) An Act for free trade with the United 
States in many articles as grain, vegetables, minerals,. 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 291 

lumber, oil, fish, to become effective by proclamation 
whenever the U. States shall enact free importation also 
(b) Grant of 2000 for light house at Cape Sable or 
Baccaro, and for beacons, (c) 20 for smallpox expense. 

40. 1851. 25 in aid of the canal (Haulover) be- 
tween Port Latour and Cape Negro to be paid when 
25 shall have been subscribed and expended thereon in 
addition to the 100 already expended, (b) 41.1.2 for 
expenses of Board of Health, including David Powell 5 
T. 0. Geddes, 10.15.9, Moses Keeling, 10, Josiah 
Snow, Sr., 12.8.9. 

41. 1858. (a) 10 in aid of schools for 
African children in Port Latour and Birchtown. (b) 
30 replacing buoys in Barrington Pass and at 
John's Id. (c) E. D. Taylor of Barrington was natur- 
alized. 

42. 1862, c.52 (a) Enacted: 1. The northern or rear 
line of the township of Barrington is defined and estab- 
lished as follows: commencing on the main post road lead- 
ing from Yarmouth to Barrington at an old boundary 
on such road known as the boundary of the Oak Park 
grant, and also recognized as a boundary mark on the 
rear line of said Barrington grant, thence N. 62 E by the 
magnet A D 1861, 732 chains or to a point on the Western 
margin of Clyde River indicated by a stake marked BL; 
then, to begin again at the Oak Park boundary before 
mentioned and to run S 60 30 ' W. by the,magnet A. D. 
1861, or by such a course as will meet the sea shore of 
Cockawit or Wood's Hr., at the point marked by Samuel 
Kimball in 1828 as the boundary of the township of Bar- 
rington, distance 596 chains, more or less, (b) An Act 
enabling (1) Jas C. Smith, Joseph A. Smith and William 
Cunningham of Cape Id., Esquires, to sell at auction 
school lot no. 75, in the First Division of lands on Cape 
Id. (2) They shall apply the net proceeds to purchase 
a site central and convenient for school districts 17 and 
18 on such island and the erection of a school house thereon. 

43. 1863. c 63. An Act enabling J. C. Smith, A. C. Ross, 
and Paul Brown to sell part of school lot No. 2 in the 
second Division of lands and apply the funds to complete 
the school house now being erected on lot No. 2. 



292 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

. Officialdom John Fillis, brewer, retained the position of 
representative for Barrington township in 
the Provincial Assembly until 1788 when Simeon Perkins 
held the same position for the County, i. e. Queens. 
With the erection of Shelburne Co., then including Yar- 
mouth, Joseph Aplin became the representative of Bar- 
rington. At that time, 1788, the magistrates of Barring- 
ton were Isaac King, Archelaus Smith, John Homer and 
John Sargent; S. S. Poole, Yarmouth and Gideon White,. 
Shelburne were County Magistrates Parr was gov- 
ernor of the Province. The Sheriff was James Clarke; 
the Judge of Probate, Martin Wilkins. In 1790 Gideon 
White became M. P. P. for Barrington. Eb. Parker was 
sheriff and Richard Cambauld (or Gambold) Judge of 
Probate. The sessions of the Peace and Assizes were 
held on the 1st Tues. of November. John Sargent was 
appointed a member of the Inferior Court (Co.) and in 
1793 was elected as M. P. P. for Barrington which office 
he filled until 1818. Colin Campbell was Judge of Pro- 
bate, Thomas Crowell was sheriff from 1798 till 1808. 
For the 19th century we will note the changes as 
they occur: 

1805. Edward Brinley, Coll. Light duty. 

1806. Jacob Van Buskirk, M.P.P., Sh. Co. 

1807. James Lent, M. P. P., Sh. Co. 

1810. William S. Snyder, Sheriff. 

1811. Ebenezer Crowell and Obadiah Wilson, J.P.'s. 

1812. Ebenezer Crowell, Sheriff. 

1813. Gideon White, John Sargent, Jacob Van 
Buskirk and Ebenezer Crowell were Justices of the In- 
ferior Court. William Cox was sheriff. 

1814. Colin Campbell, the only lawyer in the County 

1815. A. Cunningham, J. P., Clerk and Proth. 
1817. Lord Dalhousie, Governor of N. S. 

1819. Wm. Sargent, M. P. P., Joseph Homer, 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 293 

James Cox, J. P.'s. George Hunter, Sheriff, Joseph Homer, 
Preventive officer, Bar. 

1820 Thomas Crowell, J. P. 

1821. John Bingay and John McKinnon, M. P. P.'s 
for County. 

1822. Thomas Crowell, Just. Inf. Court. 

1823. W. B. Sargent, Commr. for facilitating the. 
location of Emigrants (E. Shelb.) 

1824. John Bingay, Sheriff. 

1826. Thomas Crowell, M. P. P. Sh. tp. (There 
are two Thomas Cro well's given in the Philo-Uran Al- 
manac as J. P.'s.) John Homer, M. P. P. Bar. 

1827. J. McKinnon, J. B. Moody, M. P. P.'s, Sh. Con 

1829. W. B. Sargent, Wm. Robertson and Johs. 
Homer, Commrs for encouraging the Prov. Fisheries. 

1830. John McKinnon and John Foreman, M.P.P.'s 
Sh. Co. 

1831. H. Huntingdon and John Foreman, M. P. P., 
Sh. Co. 

1832. John Homer and Wm. Sargent, J. P.'s. 

1833. John Homer, Agent (Hart.) Marine Insurance 

1834. Dr. Thos Geddes, Health Officer; Rev. Dr 
Rowland, Thomas Crowell, John Homer, Wm Robertson 
Joshua Snow, Commrs. Schools; Herbert Huntingdon 
and Abram Lent, M. P. P.'sSh. Co.; Joseph Homer, Coll. 
Light dues. 

1837. Wm. Robertson, Coll. Customs. 

1838. Winthrop Sargent, M. P. P., Sh. Co. 
John Sargent, M. P. P., Bar. 

1839. T. J. Crowell, Coroner; W. B. Sargent, Just, 
of In. Court. Winthrop Sargent, Josiah Coffin, S. Rey- 
nolds, D. Swain, Samuel Doane, James Smith and John 
Sargent, J. P.'s. 

1839. Revs. T. H. White and Dr. Geddes became 
Commrs. of Schools. 

1840. James Smith, Jr., J. P., John Crews, Coll. 



294 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

Customs; Alex Hamilton and S. Kimball, Prov. Land 
Surveyors. 

1841. Cornelius White, Sheriff and Regr. John- 
Sargent, Cor. White and James Hamilton. Commr. Crown 
Lands Sh. Co; 

1842. T. B. Crowell, G. H. Deinstadt, W. Sargent, 
Josiah Coffin and R. Curry, Just. Inf. Court.; T. Rit- 
chie, Gustos; Thos Crowell, R. Curry, Enos Churchill, 
Cornelius White, Jas. Geddes, W. B. Sargent, Thos. 
Johnson, G. Deinstadt, Obed, Wilson Jr., J. Coffin, S. 
Reynolds, David Swain, S. 0. Doane, Winthrop Sargent,. 
Jas. Smith Jr., and John Sargent, J. P.'s. (Full list for 
County, Dr. I. K. Wilson, Coroner.) 

1845. Obediah Wilson, M. P. P. Sh. Co., Paul 
Crowell, M. P. P. Bar. 

1846. G. McKerina, M. P. P., Sh. Co. 

1848. T. 0. Geddes, Notary Public; Wm. Robert- 
son, T. 0. Geddes, J< W. Homer, Paul Crowell, and Win- 
throp Sargent, School Commrs. (West Dist). 

1849. John W. Homer, M. P. P. Bar.; Richard 
Hichens, Notary Public. (The Inferior Court had given 
place to another mode of administration in which Justices 
had special commissions.) 

Solomon Kendrick, Thomas Coffin, Robert Robert- 
son (added) Board of Health. 

1850. J. C. Smith, W. Cunningham, Josiah Snow 
(added) J. P.'s.;R. Robertson, Tidewaiter. All Magis- 
trates and M. P. P.'s with Dr. Wilson as Health officers,. 
Board of Health. 

1851. T. J. Crowell and I. K. Wilson, Coroners; 
Thomas Crowell, Wm. Sargent and Josiah Coffin, Commrs. 
for Relief of Insolv. Debtors; T. 0. Geddes, Dep'y Post- 
master. John Robertson, U. S. Consular Agent; A. Hogg, 
J. C. Smith, J. Banks and Josiah Snow, Inspectors of 
Pickled Fish; Thomas Coffin, M. P. P., Sh. Co.; Josiah 
Coffin, M. P. P., Bar.; Thomas Johnston, Sheriff; A. 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 295 

Hamilton, R. Robertson, Josiah Snow, J. G. Allen, J. 
W. Homer, A. McNaughton, R. Mclntosh, Commrs. 
Crown Lands; P. McLarren, R. Robertson and Thomas 
Coffin (added) School Commr. 

1854. Andrew Barclay, Sheriff; N. Snow, Jr., 
Joseph Banks and Watson Nickerson, Cape Id., Seizing 
Officers; C. D. Randall; School Inspector, (Western Dis- 
trict of N. Scotia) ; G. Robertson, C. White, G. McKenna, 
W. Sargent and E. Churchill, Trustees of Sh. Academy; 
Josiah Snow (added) School Commr. 

1856 Robert Robertson, M. P. P., Bar; Cornelius 
White, M. P. P. Sh. Co; John W. Homer, J. P., Gustos 
Bar.; C. Stalker, Warden River Fisheries. 

1858. A. McNaughton, Judge Probate; Gabriel 
Robertson, U. S. Consul; J. W. Homer, Customs officer; 
John Crews, Surveyor of Shipping; Winthrop Sargent, 
Gustos; Thomas Crowell, Thos. West Wilson, Samuel 
Smith, Bartlett Covel, James Nickerson, Asa McGray, 
David Smith, James Smith, Thomas Banks, Henry Chute, 
Theodore Nickerson, Wm. Patterson (added) J. P.'s. 

1859. Daniel Sargent, Surveyor of Shipping; Joseph 
Banks, Nathan Snow, Joseph Trefry, Watson Nickerson, 
Seizing Officers; Rufus H. Crowell, Postmaster; John J. 
Schrage (added) Coroner; David Swain, Insp. Pickled 
Pish; Revs. C. Lockhart, Albert Swim and Henry Stokes, 
Winthrop Sargent, Robert Robertson, Prince McLarren, 
Andrew Crowell, David Thomas, John McGray, William 
Nickerson, Paul Brown, Commrs. of Schools; J. M. 
Doane, Clerk of School Commrs.; Cornelius White and 
Wm. Sargent, Trustees of Academy. 

1860. John Osborn, (Bar. Pass); Wm. Cunningham, 
<Cape Id.) Josiah Smith (Cape Negro), Wm. Greenwood, 
(Lyles Bridge), Jas. McKay (Clyde River), John Smith 
(P. Latour), Ephraim Nickerson (Woods Harbour), W. 
Nickerson (Shag Harbour) Way Office-Keepers. James 
Tays (added) School Commissioner; Dr. H. L . 



296 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Kelly (added) Board of Health; Daniel Sargent, Customs 
Officer. 

1861. Hon. John Locke, Executive Council, N. S.; 
Leonard Knowles (Pass.) George Sears(P.Latour) Way 
Office; Israel L. Crowell, 0. W. Homer(added) J.P.'s; R. 
H. Crowell, Tel Operator (Hd.). 

1862. I. K. Wilson, H. L. Kelly, John Schrage, 
Wm. Snow 2nd, Jos. A. Smith, Isaac Nickerson, Solomon 
Kendrick, George Wilson, Warren Doane, Board of 
Health. 

1863. Saml Snow, Rev. J. Buckley, School Commrs. 
Heman Kenney, (added) J. P. 

1865. Rev. G. M. Clark, School Inspector; G. A. 
Crowell, Vincent Nickerson, Michael Wrayton, J. P.'s; 
R. H. Crowell, Clerk of the Peace. 

1866. Seth Smith (Cape Id.) Customs Officer; Miss 
Deborah Wilson, Tel. Operator (Hd.) J. P. Johnson, 
Sheriff; R.' H. Crowell, (Hd.), John Snow, Wm. Green- 
wood, J. J. Clark, Ephraim Nickerson, Issuers Mar. 
Licenses; Wm. B. Smith (added) J. P., Rev. W. H. Rich- 
an, Arthur Doane, Judah Crowell, Sr., Commrs. of 
Schools, J. J. Clarke, Chmn. of Examiners (Schools) 
Way offices at Bear Pt., Clarks Hr., Charlesville and 
Shag Hr. (added). 

Politicians and John Fillis and those who preceded him, 
Politics Richard Gibbons, and Fr. White, as 

representatives do not seem to have 
been in any way identified with the local interests of the 
township. Fillis was a distiller who while member 
for Barrington in 1774 was charged with disaffection 
to the Crown but was vindicated by the Assembly. He 
had been a memb'er for Halifax and was evidently pop- 
ular there for he was elected there again. He and Fran- 
cis White were evidently New Englanders acquainted 
with settlers at Barrington and keeping in touch with 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 297 

those who came to Halifax sufficiently to act as spokes- 
men for them in any dealings with the government. 

Joseph Aplin and Gideon White, were both Shel- 
burne men. The seat of the former was vacated in 1789 
on account of his absence from the province for two 
years so that little benefit was felt from his election in 
1785. The votes reported by Murdock show Capt. 
White, as he calls him, to have favored the popular party 
in tfhe Assembly. His election in 1790 was an exciting 
time, his opponent being Richard Gambold. In Rob- 
ertson's sketch of Harrington he is called Attorney Gen- 
eral, and the description of the election is as follows: 

"Ninety-four persons were eligible to vote and all 
voted, White 62; Gambold, 32. John Sargent and Sim- 
eon Gardner proposed White. Squire Arch Smith and 
Thomas Crowell, Sr., proposed Gambold. Heman Kenney, 
Hopkins, Wilson and Nickerson were for White. Kenney 
kept open house for White where there was plenty of 
rum and fighting." 

The voting was in the Old Meeting House at the 
Head. By the next general election Barrington felt the 
need of having one of it own men as a member of the 
Assembly and John Sargent in 1793 was elected by accla- 
mation. In 1800 he was opposed by Mr. Jesse Lear of 
Shelburne of Cox and Lear, Sherose Id., but got in by 
^ small majority. Mr. Sargent is to be credited in his 
25 years of membership with promoting legislation, in 
1795. by which laymen might be empowered to solemnize 
marriages in townships where there was no regular clergy- 
man resident. Also, for obtaining public grants of 
money for the road through Oakpark to Pubnico, which 
was opposed by those who favored the road from Shel- 
burne to the Head of Argyle. This was carried through 
about 1807. Owing probably to the difficulty of travel 
in winter, he did not often attend the sessions of the 
Assembly until the spring; nor does Murdock give his 



298 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

name in any of the divisions which he reports on famous 
questions during the period of his appointment. He was 
a member of the Committee on Public Accounts in 1799. 
He was an ardent Tory To show his sympathy with 
the Council government was a course to be avoided in 
his fishing constituency. On their side the people had 
tasted the quality of the open election and were content 
to let politics alone for a long time. William B., and 
John Sargent M. P. P.'s for Barrington, and Winthrop 
Sargent M. P.P. for Shelburne Co., were his sons. 

In John Homer, for ten years, (1826-36) the town- 
ship member, we have a striking personality, a strong 
advocate of the rights of the working people and opponent 
of aristocratic government. He died in the harness, 
Mar. 3, 1836. He was a distinguished contributor to 
the "Acadian Recorder" and friend of education. In 
the house, Mar. 16, 1832 he made the following speech, 
as reported: 

I would go as far as any gentleman to encourage 
agricultural pursuits, particularly the growth of bread- 
stuffs. When we reflect for one moment and see that 
all the hard money brought into this Province is paid 
away to the people of the U. States for flour I think it 

is our duty to encourage growth of it here but I 

am not willing to do it at the expense of the fishermen. 
The fishermen's flour coming duty free is as great a hoax 
as was ever imposed on a people. Some 6 or 7 years 
ago the government of G. Britain made an alteration in 

the Navigation Laws The port of Halifax was 

opened to all parts of the world, and all the other ports 

of N. Scotia were closed as regards foreign trade 

The consequence is that if we in our outports, where the 
fishermen reside, have cargoes fitting for the U. States 
or any other foreign country where we could invest in 
breadstuff, instead of returning directly to the outport 
where the cargo is to be consumed we must come to Hali- 
fax, discharge our cargo, take it on again, and then clear 
out for the outport, thus subjecting the fishermen to 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 299 

double freight beside expenses and profitless commerce. 
Then where is the boon to the fisherman by having his 
flour duty free? I say it is a direct bounty to the mer- 
chants of Halifax. Let us strike at the root of the evil 

by petitioning to open all the ports of the Province 

where there are custom houses. As it now is, you take 
from the fishermen 7/6 per bbl. on flour and pay them 
5/." 

In 1845 Capt. Paul Crowell followed Mr. John Sar- 
gent as member and supported Mr. Howe during the 
closing years of the long and hard fight for responsible 
government. He was recognized as a valuable councillor in 
all marine and fishery questions. The elect ionof Thomas 
Coffin for the county took place in 1851, an office which 
he held until under confederation he went to the House 
of Commons, and became Receiver General in the Mc- 
Kenzie Cabinet. After short terms for John W. Homer 
and Josiah Coffin, Robert Robertson was chosen for Barr- 
ington in the election of 1856 and so remained for many 
years, during part of that time being Commissioner of 
Mines. Previous to Confederation no member from 
Barrington held a Cabinet Office in N. Scotia. Later 
representatives were N. D. McGray, M. H. Nickerson 
and Thomas Robertson in the Assembly and Wm. B. 
Smith in the council. 

Roads and Pub- It was clearly shown that generous 
lie Works provision for township roads was made 

by the Proprietors in 1768. In general 
three rods had been reserved for that purpose around 
the shores of the township. Dr. Geddes is our authority 
for the statement that no roads were made until 1798 
when "Thomas Crowell, High Sheriff of the County and 
a Jury of 12 men laid them off from The Gunning Rocks 
to Hibberts Brook." Up to this time the people had been 
.satisfied with conveyance by boat; or, at least, having 
convenient paths and the right of way, would not charge 
themselves with the construction of carriage roads for 



300 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

the better convenience of the few who might be able 
or be disposed to support such a luxury. 

A new factor in public affairs now appears. The 
new County of Shelburne, backed by the House of Assem- 
bly, undertakes to supply this public necessity. First 
of all a sharp stimulus was given in the movement to 
open a direct road between Shelburne, and Yarmouth. 
This crossed the Negro, now the Clyde River, at Hamil- 
tons, came out at Argyle, and promised more direct com- 
munication with settlers of the Loyalist stock on escheated 
and other lands at or near Tusket. It had a Provincial 
grant in aid of 450 pounds, and the authorities induced sub- 
scribers to assist by offering "50 acres butting and bound- 
ing on said road for every 20 shillings paid in money or 
work at 2 shillings and 6 pence per day "At the Argyle end 
it is still called the Nigger Road, but was then known 
as the Richard's Road. A Shelburne paper, The 
Gazetteer and Advertiser, had this item on July 13, 1786: 

"Arrived here yesterday from Yarmouth, which 
they left on Friday last, Mr. Poole, Mr. Butler and Capt. 
Richards. They came through the country to lay out 

the road and have not a doubt but that the 

road will be shortly accomplished/' Shoemaker's Al- 
manac, 1804, gives the "Road from Yarmouth to Shel- 
burne to Tennis Blovell's, Tusket, 9 1-2 miles; to John 
Nickersons, Boptick River, 8 miles; to Capt. Hamilton's, 
Cape Negro (River) 24 miles; to Shelburne, 13 miles." 

Hamiltons, the only stage in Barrington, has been always 
a point of interest and importance in the Clyde River 
section. The necessity for Provincial aid in making and 
repairing Roads and Bridges had been recognized in an 
Act in 1774 when Jonathan Pinkham, J. P. of Barrington 
was appointed one of the Commissioners of Queens Co. 
In 1785, Shelburne Co., having been set off from Queens 
Co., the previous year, John Sargent was elected to the 
Assembly. In 1786 a grant of 200 was made for the 
Barrington Road and in 1799 a "grant of 50 to 
assist the inhabitants of Barrington to rebuild 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 30 

the bridge over the Mill River, so called, in said Town- 
ship". With the decay of Shelburne Harrington influence 
comparatively increased and the road was opened for 
traffic and the carriage of the mails. 

"From Halifax to Yarmouth once a week; from 
Yarmouth to Shelburne every second week." 

In 1814 the route and stages are changed in the 
Almanac. 

"From Nickerson's, Abubtic River, to Spinneys, 
Apubtic Bay, 5 m.; to Larkin's Pubnico River, 10 m.; 
to Kendrick's, Barrington (Head) 13m.; to Powell's, 
Clyde River, 5m., to Hargraves, Shelburne, 16 m." 

Eleven years later a writer in the "Acadian Recorder" 
says of the road to Clyde River from Shelburne that 

"It is passable for a horse, but for no carriage of any 
description. In many places the path is scarcely per- 
ceptible, but the traveller is guided by the stumps of 
decayed trees being marked with red paint to guide his 
footsteps. The soil is extremely barren and the wood 
has nearly entirely disappeared. Not a house is to be 
seen between Burchtown and Clyde River " 

Such accounts may have resulted in increased grants . 
It could not have been much later than this that a house 
was removed entire from Shelburne to Wood's Hr., by 
the road. The Powell referred to above was David 
Powell whose place was on the West side of Clyde Falls, 
occupied afterwards by David Sutherland. The story 
is handed down that he scared away some troublesome 
Indians by pretending that some one there had the 
small pox. Before that time it was customary for people 
going from Barrington to Shelburne to cross the river 
at Lyle's or farther down and then via Roseway or else 
up Clyde River via Hamiltons. 

The old paths and trails were soon trodden by the 
increasing population into well defined roads which the 
axes and shovels of the settlers made fit for ox teams. 
Before the end of the century the roads between McGrays 
Stoney Id., South Side, West Head and North West 



302 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

Point were in serviceable shape, though for a long time 
to avoid road fences, the line fences extended to the 
shore by common consent. The old Wood's Hr. road 
which came out at the Island (Sherose) Road, and Swains 
Road, following a trail from Doanes Hill to the head of 
Clements Pond and thence to Cape Negro, were by that 
time in regular use. Swains road had branches to Lyle's 
and Thomasville. The shore and river roads now brought 
the pedestrian class at least into communication with 
the centres of trade and social interest. The Shelburne 
and Yarmouth mail was for years carried by Robertson 
on foot. When it was joined to a passenger service the 
horses were changed at Harding' s stable, and the passen- 
gers got refreshment at the Kendrick's house across the 
way, just above the mill bridge on the Harrington river 
road. 

Stock Marks Among the interesting survivals of the 
first half century of Barrington is the 
"Stock Marks Book; interesting for the light thrown 
on the administration of proprietor's business and for the 
registration of names of settlers. It was kept by Isaac 
King Esquire, Town Clerk from 1768 to 1776, by John 
Homer, Town Clerk till 1790, and then by S. 0. Doane, 
Senior. 

The First Division lots of about fifteen acres each 
gave little scope for the pasturage of cattle and there- 
fore an "Outlet" (the name has been handed down) was 
provided to the undivided lands. The cattle and sheep 
thus running at large were distinguished by marks which 
the owners registered at the town office. In the first 
list as kept by Isaac King fifty-nine names were entered. 
Some of these as William Stephens, Jethro Worth, Levit 
Taylor, Francis Gardner were temporary residents only. 

During Homer's term of office the following names 
were added showing the sons of grantees now becoming 



LEGISLATION RE THE TOWNSHIP 303 

householders and new comers drifting into the township. 
These were John Homer, James Smith, Stephen Smith, 
John Reynolds, Richard Pinkham, Tristram Coffin, 
Nathan Nickerson, Nathaniel Smith, S.O. Doane, Timothy 
Covel, Elkanah Smith, Elkanah Smith Jr., Smith Nick- 
erson, John Sargent, John Lewis, Michael Swim, Nehe- 
miah Kenney, John Cunningham; 1788 Daniel Kenney; 
1789, Seth Coffin, Josiah Coffin. Beginning with 1790 
we have the name of Joshua Nickerson; 1791 John Spin- 
ney, David Wood, Lemuel Horton; 1792, Samuel Smith, 
Eleazar Crowell; 1795, James Cohoon, John Stoddart, 
John Cameron; 1796, John McKillip, Mary and John 
Coffin, Wm. Burk; 1797 Parnall Pinkham,James Nicker- 
son whose wife was Rachel, John Orr, Jesse Lear; 1798, 
James Barss, Mary Ann Burk, Wm. Squires, Wm. Adams; 
1800 Isaac Blackston, Nathan Tasco, Joshua Barry, 
Joseph Robertson, Argil Keelin, Anthony Davis, David 
White, Archibald Brannen; 1801, David Thomas, Smith 
Pearce, S. 0. Doane, Jr., Gavin Lyle, Isaac Huskins; 
1802, Sally Coffin, Susannah Doane; 1803, Gorham Gar- 
dner, Saml. Reynolds; 1804, Ziba Hunt, John Spinney, 
1809, James Nickerson, Nathan Snow, Benjamin 
Snow, Abram Smith, John Fisk. Other names were 
added occasionally until the mid-century, including 
Francis Owens, 1873; Andrew White, 1822; Dr. John Fox, 
1823; Peter Conk, 1824; Alex McCondachie, 1825; Jos- 
eph Wickens, 1844; Matthew Quinley, James Bennett, 
1845; Wm. Bearse, 1847; John Fells, 1846; Bridget Mar- 
den, 1849; Thomas and Hugh Blades, 1850. 

Even after the second and Third Divisions there 
remained undivided lands, but the "outlet" evidently 
included all unfenced territory. The dates will indicate 
at what time the newcomers became really domesticated 
if not the time of their arrival. 

Connected with the stock marks was the necessity 



304 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

of collecting the sheep and herds. For the regular shear- 
ings, places were selected, and there were at least three 
of these on Cape Island, called shearpens; at the Hawk, 
at North East Point and at Stony Island. 

Car e of Before the end of the 18th. century the burden 
the Poor of providing for indigent people became quite seri- 
ous. The poor taxes increased from 6, 10 in 1798 to 
100 in 1827; and then fell off to 75 in 1835, a result of 
the temperance revival. Where town help was needed the 
poor were either boarded out or assisted with funds. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



SOCIAL SERVICE. 

Social Service To subordinate the idea of Education to- 
Education that of Social Service may seem unusual, 

but it is here determined from the viewpoint of education, 
not merely as the leading out of personal talent and char- 
acter in fuller development for the individual taught, but 
with the larger aim of advantage to Society. John Sar- 
gent's children return from boarding school with varied 
accomplishments. They are now consciously more aloof 
from their fellows or more serviceable to them. But in 
either case as far as the spirit of emulation is aroused in 
others and their way of progress made plainer there will 
be social benefit. The public school is a most unselfish 
mode of cultivating and multiplying the talents of society, 
which in any restricted area needs to employ its utmost 
energy to march abreast of the civilized world. 

No better index to the real character and progress of 
a community can be selected than that which is afforded 
by the facilities provided by the people for the education 
of their families. On the sparsely settled shores of the 
township, as already shown, difficulties were experienced 
much greater than in the towns for social enjoyment and 
betterment. For religious and other public meetings, 
adults might assemble in boats, but this mode of convey- 
ance was impossible for children and therefore schools 
were not to be then thought of. The foe of society, and so 
much the worse for its apparent want of hostile intent, i& 
ignorance. This has the inside track on child life, and 
must be persistently fought against by all interested in 
Social progress. 

Early Legislation From the settlement of Halifax school- 
ing had been entrusted to the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, a branch of the Church 
of England. 

, 305 



306 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

The Legislature, realizing its obligations, soon con- 
sidered what aids to education might be given, and under- 
took the promotion of schools in the country which should 
be subject to some form of government supervision. Ac- 
cordingly the Provincial Assembl 7, in 1766, enacted a law 
by which school teachers in this Province must have a 
license, to be given them on recommendation of the minis- 
ter or two magistrates; and the school grant of four hun- 
dred acres of land in each township must be vested in 
trustees and used for that purpose. This was practically 
a dead letter for half a century as relating to Barrington* 

Though advances toward popular education, were 
physically inhibited in Barrington at first, the people were 
not indifferent to the subject as urged by their sense of 
responsibility and advantage. Parents and preachers 
knew where duty lay, and any estimate that we might 
make by twentieth century standards of school mainten- 
ance would be far astray. The parents in general, were 
competent to give elementary instruction to their children 
and they did it, with the usual benefits to both teachers 
and taught. If the percentage of eighteenth century 
proprietors and their offspring who were good writers were j 
made the test of comparison with those of our generation 
it is doubtful whether we should feel complimented by the 
result. The early proprietors' records of Barrington give 
abundant evidence of skill in composition and a practical 
education for the times. This was valuable fruitage of 
that zeal for education which had led the Plymouth peo- 
ple a few generations before to apply the profits of their 
community fishing enterprise to the support of schools. 

By Cape Sable was constantly moving the machinery 
of European policy and conflict, and these humble propri- 
etors were not ignorant of the issues. In some measure 
from books, but more from knowledge of the world, and 
from the word and works of God they were keen and cap- 
able in the instruction of their offspring. The case of Rev.. 



SOCIAL SERVICE 307 



.Albert Swim, born in 1800, who received but a fortnight's 
'.schooling, but who became like his father Michael well 
'educated and an efficient public leader, may be cited to 
show how persistent was the dependence on parental in- 
struction in the remoter settlements. The revival of busi- 
ness and the increase of population after the war made 
necessary and possible the formation of schools. 

.Early Teachers From a statement of Nehemiah, son of 
Thomas Doane, grantee, we learn that 
Samuel Osborne Doane Sr. was the first school master in 
Barrington. He kept a day and night school and "almost 
every one" came to him. His son Harvey, who was lost 
;at sea in 1799, then twenty years of age, had also been a 
teacher, therefore we conclude that his father's work as 
ia pedagogue began long before that, possibly before the 
-arrival of the loyalists. The following story takes us back 
to the time when the first proprietor felt his power and 
when there was hardly universal agreement as to the bene- 
fits of Education. S. 0. Doane was making arrange- 
ments to open a school at the Millstream. He received a 
.message from Henry Wilson, grantee, to come and see him 
about it first. He went with trembling (he was married 
in 1774) and met a very stern reception. Possibly there 
v were some local jealousies involved. Mr. Wilson gave 
Doane a chance to explain his motives in invading the 
neighborhood, and before the interview was over the old 
.man was mollified, and the bottle was brought out. The 
'only other teachers of mark in the Eighteenth Century 
were Samuel Homer, whose schooling had been received 
'in Boston, and Michael Swim, who taught a while at the 
Passage before settling on Cape Island. S. 0. Doane's 
account book is extant and shows in 1789 two charges for 
^schooling, one to John Coffin his son Josiah, one pound; 
the other John Coffin his son Tristram 17/6. In 1801 
ischool bills were paid as follows: by Knowles At wood, 



308 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

28/-; Joseph Homer, 34/ ; David Cro well 3/ ; Josiah 
Harding 7/10; Joshua Nickersoh 8/3, paid by weaving; 
-Caleb Nickerson 13/4; Gamaliel Kenney 17/6; Samuel 
Westwood 19/7; Samuel Kendrick 117- ; Thomas Wat- 
lien; Edward Kendrick. In 1808 "Josiah Harding Dr. 
schooling two boys at 7|d per week, each for eight 
weeks/' 

The late Alexander Watson went to evening school 
to S. 0. Doane Sr. At the same time Allen Smith went, 
and he carried an old tin oil lamp for light. Once he spilt 
-some oil on his book, and the teacher made him lick it off 
as a punishment. It would be interesting to know whe- 
ther it was olive oil, seal oil or fish oil which was used to 
make learning palatable. 

This is the period at which schools began to be more 
generally diffused and a new class of teachers took up the 
work. William (1780-1817) son of Hezekiah Smith Sr., 
with a large family of his own was the first to open a school 
on Cape Island, probably in his own house. His brother 
Stephen was the first teacher of whom we have any ac- 
count at Clark's Harbor. 

When Seth Coffin's children were now of school age 
he was urgent to secure a permanent school on the public 
plan. At this time a Mr. McAley was teaching in the 
Donaldson house. The first need then was a school house. 
It was about 1821 when the first school house was built 
at the Head, close by the river. The first teacher is said 
to have stayed only nine months. His conduct was not 
exemplary. After that John Bennison an English clerk of 
good education, who had come to Barrington, and, en- 
couraged by the Coffins, had kept a private school, was 
engaged by subscription and carried on his work there for 
several years. Samuel Kimball who lived at Doctor's 
Cove, taught at Bunker Hill school house, Bear Point and 
other places. John Stewart taught in Seth Wilsons' house 
at Brass Hlli and also at Wood's Harbor. William Stew- 



SOCIAL SERVICE 309 



art was the first schoolmaster to teach in the log school 
house at Stoney Island, which a local school history tells 
us was built in 1811.* Joseph Wickens was the first to 
preside in the school house at the Island Road. He was a 
long time engaged in the work at Clark's Hr. and else- 
where on Cape Island. David Goodwin was at the River, 
'Thomas Taylor at Port Latour, Joseph Johnson and Wil- 
liam Chatwynd at Wood's Harbor; Jacob Dixon and 
Alexander Phillips on Cape Island; Richard Hichens at 
the Passage and Seal Island. Very few of those itinerants 
addicted to drink, who seemed to have ranged the Pro- 
vince a century ago, were employed as teachers in Barring- 
ton, f Some of these men we have named taught naviga- 
tion during winter evenings, and out of practical experien- 
ce initiated ambitious youth into the mysteries of chart 
and epitome. 

School-houses The order of school-house construction 

has been well remembered in Shag Harbor. 

First, a log house near the site of the present schoolhouse. 

That was torn down and a frame house built on the same 

;site. Afterwards a new one was built near Capt. Theo- 
dore Nickerson's, which becoming inadequate was hauled 
away and sold and the present building erected to take its 
place. A similar story of change and development might 
be told of all the settled parts of the township. It is an 
ancient and sound maxim that the teacher makes the 

: school. Other factors, however, must be understood. 
If President Mark Hopkins (of kin to the Harrington breed 
of Stephen Hopkins, Mayflower) sitting on one end of a 
log with a student on the other constituted a college, there 
have been few teachers so independent of material equip- 
ment. The schoolhouse, the children and the legal status 

-and support have been found valuable accessories. 

*Miss Beulah Ross fPublic Education in N. Scotia. Biugay. 



HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 



.School Law In 1811 an Act was passed by the N. S. legis- 
Outlines lature to "encourage the establishment of 
schools throughout the Province". Thirty 
freeholders in any place were now able lawfully to build, 
and equip school houses, and the Court of Sessions to ap- 
point Trustees to engage teachers and look after the pro- 
perty. The schools were to be free when the money was 
raised by assessment on the freeholders, and a maximum 
; subsidy of twenty-five pounds annually was furnished by 
the Government. Further to give direction to the good 
work thus promoted, an Act in 1826 provided for the Div- 
ision of the Province into School Districts, and the ap- 
pointment of School Commissioners, who were to examine 
and license teachers with a general power of inspection 
.and control. The next important step was taken in 1838 
when the licensing of women as teachers was legalized for 
elementary schools. That year the Provincial grant for 
schools in Shelburne County was two hundred pounds. 

In 1864 Free schools were established by law and the 
next year compulsory Assessment was enacted. In close 
accord with the legislation mentioned we find the develop- 
ment of the educational life of Barrington. New school 
houses and female teachers soon spread over the province. 
On Nov. 15, 1830 a license was given to James Mann 
Doane to teach a school in District, No. 25 in Barrington. 
It was signed by Thos. B. Rowland, LL.D., John Homer 
and William Robertson, Commr's. Dr. T. 0. Geddes was 
added to this Board in 1839 and J. H. Homer and Obadiah 
Wilson Jr., in 1842. 

The impetus given to elementary schooling by open- 
ing the door to the employment of female teachers is illus- 
trated by the following reminiscences of Mrs. Susan 
(David) Sholds. She is a daughter of the late Elijah 
Nickerson of Wood's Harbor. From babyhood she lived 
with Rev. Asa McGray of Cape Island twelve years. Then 
"Margaret, daughter of Rev. Edward Reynolds was teach- 



SOCIAL SERVICE 311 

ing at Centerville. When Susan Sholds was 19 years old, 
in 1838, she kept a school in the old Malone house, Upper 
Wood's Harbor. Joseph Johnston was then teaching at 
Lower Wood's Harbor. They went together to the Head 
and got teachers' licenses from Osborne Doane, Comm'r. 
Calling for special mention among the early female 
teachers was Mrs. Archibald Wilson, widow of a block- 
maker, who was drowned near Pubnico. She moved from 
Wood's Harbor to North East Point and taught school 
there, then at Stoney Island, where they built her a log 
house to live and teach in, then at Newellton where they 
also built her a house. Apropos of North East Point 
teachers, the story is told that one itinerant there used 
to send the boys down to the flats to dig clams which they 
would bake in the schoolhouse fire for immediate use, 
anticipating in part the Nature Studies of our day. For 
a long time teachers "boarded round" and received small 
tuition fees from their pupils. In the dame schools the 
subjects were the three Rs, spelling and needle work, par- 
ticularly the making of samplers. While the new oppor- 
tunity for women to enter the teaching profession increas- 
ed the number of available teachers and therefore of 
schools in operation, it tended as well to reduce salaries, 
and, in the prosperous times then enjoyed, to drive the 
male teachers into more remunerative employment. The 
constituency however, responded well to the incentive of 
inspector's visits and to the offered benefits of normal 
training, and a commendable public spirit in various sec- 
tions demanded experienced men for their teachers. An 
event which had quickened general interest in literature 
was the establishment of a Public Library, for which our 
authorities give credit to John Homer Sen., and John 
Bennison, teacher. This must be dated somewhat later 
than that founded in Yarmouth in 1822 and was in some 
way connected with the school system. McAley, who 
died in 1824 had a share in this Public Library. 



312 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

The books in circulation were generally on serious 
subjects and well adapted for intellectual improvement. 
Less than sixty years ag'o some of the numbers were in 
existence ranging from a translation of Homer to works 
on science and philosophy. In a community thus men- 
tally alert and informed we are not surprised that its 
representative, John W. Homer, M. P. P., should rank 
high among the Provincial orators, or be a champion of 
the commercial interests of the outports, or be the author 
of a book on the Corn laws of England, in which the reform 
principles were applied to the trade and industries of 
his own province. 

Interesting Reports A general view of school affairs in 
the township may be gathered from 
Dr. J. W. Dawson's Educational Report for N. Scotia, 
1850. District of Barrington. "The meeting in this Dis- 
trict was well attended and much interest in Education 
was expressed by the various speakers. I lectured in 
the evening to a large audience at the Head of Barrington, 
and on the following evening at the West side of the 
Harbor (Passage). The schools around Barrington are 

on the whole, well supported and creditable The 

commissioners in this district have tested the utility of 
district inspection by instructing their clerk, Mr. J. M. 
Doane to visit the schools and report on their condition. .. 
The information thus collected was found to be very 
useful. Barrington had in 1850, 37 schools supported 
by 369,7/8 from the people and 225.7/6 from the 
Province. The number of pupils was 700, the whole 
number of children being over 1000". 

At a meeting at the Court House Sept. 17, where Dr. 
Dawson, Supt, of Education, presided, it was 

"Resolved (1) That it is the opinion of this meeting 
that the only effectual mode of educating the children is 
by assessment, and that the Superintendent be requested 
to direct public attention to this important subject. (2), 



SOCIAL SERVICE 313 



That this meeting approves of the establishment of Nor- 
mal schools for the education of teachers." 

Following this visit a Teacher's Institute was held 
in Shelburne to which Mr. Arnold Doane, then teaching 
at the Town, acompanied the Superintendent, having a 
: few days vacation, and free conveyance for both supplied 
by Mr. James Cox, shipbuilder. The names of Robert 
Colquhoun of Glasgow, Scotland, who taught at Bar- 
rington Pass, Clark's Harbor, Newel ton and elsewhere 
in the township, of James Urquhart, licensed in 1843 and 
teaching at Sherose Island road, of J. B. Lawrence at the 
Millstream, of Daniel Matheson at Cape Negro are to 
be added to those already given, many of whom are still 
remembered along with the cultured young women who, 
then restricted to elementary work, laid the foundations 
for a sound education in those who came under their 
tuition. There are two of the township schools which 
during the mid-century past maintained an exceedingly 
high standard and were literally seminaries of educational 
value for the country by their contributions of young 
men for business and professional life and young women 
for the teacher's work. The Head school afterwards 
divided into Hibbert's Brook and West Barrington, and 
taught by James Mann Doane and A. C. A. Doane with 
great success was one, most prolific in its supply of teach- 
ers and thorough in the cultivation of the intellectual 
powers of its pupils. The school at Barrington Passage, 
continuing that at the Island Road, was also served by a 
superior class of men, beginning with A. C. A. Doane, 
and including Wm. H. Richan, Wm. Atwood, Joseph 
Hogg, Archibald, afterwards Chief Justice of Quebec, 
James H. Munro and John Godfrey. A. C. A. Doane was 
an alumnus of Dalhousie College, perhaps the first native 
-student from this township in any College. He and 
Messrs. Richan and Munro were also efficient school in- 
vspectors for their home district. 



314 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

The names in the following address are all of teachers 
winning distinction in different parts of the township, and 
giving fitting tribute to the first inspector whose field of 
labor as a clergyman had included a part of Barrington. 

Rev. G. M. Clark of Shelburne was appointed school 
Inspector in 1865. On his retirement in 1867 an address was 
presented to him by the following Barrington teachers 
in hearty appreciation of his work and character as in- 
spector. Signed: Jas. H. Munro, A. C. A. Doane, Jas. 
Brettle, Jas. H. Doane, Ebenezer Crowell, Wm. Sargent, 
Wm. H. Matheson, Theo. H. Crowell, Bartlett F. Covel, 
Elizabeth Coffin, Adeline Coffin, Aggie W. Homer, Letitia 
O. Crowell, Hattie A. Taylor, Carrie J. Doane, Letitia 
Wilson, Olivia Fox, Mary J. Van Orden, Drusilla Swaine. 
This address and his reply were printed in the Yarmouth 
Herald, Dec. 19, 1867. About the same time we find Char- 
les Fox, Alexander Hogg, Moses H. Nickerson, John 
Robertson and J. *H. Trefry, Margaret Crowell, Jane 
Doane and Emeline Swain serving their generation as 
pedagogues in different parts of Barrington. 

Temperance It has been said that the nation which has 
no history has most to be thankful for and 
the statement was doubtless made with reference to the 
ordinary content of human histories, viz., war and strife. 
The blankest and yet the most satisfactory department 
<of the Barrington records is its dealing with the liquor 
trade. No license for liquor selling was ever granted in 
Barrington township. That drunkenness is a vice was 
fully recognized by the grantees, but total abstinence as 
a Christian duty had not yet arrived. The occasional 
mse of intoxicants and free sale to meet that demand was 
a matter of course; not as in Halifax at its settlement when 
celling was forbidden without a license and licenses were 
issued at a guinea a month this revenue to be applied 
to the relief of the poor. The first Shelburne society 



SOCIAL SERVICE 315; 

was sufficiently like Halifax to call for "regulation" 
of the traffic according to the ideas of the time. Provin- 
cial legislation in 1799 made licenses imperative every- 
where that liquor was sold. The licensees were to be 
nominated by the Grand Jury and appointed by the Jus- 
tices of the Peace. The license fees must be applied to 
maintenance of the roads. Under this sort of local op- 
tion no licenses were ever granted in Harrington to the 
eternal credit and distinction of the magistrates who ex- 
ercised their right of inhibition of the trade under that 
law. It is not to be supposed, however, that the restric- 
tion was accepted with complete unanimity; for the vessels 
of John Sargent and Obediah Wilson in particular brought 
in much liquor on their return from the West Indies, and 
these men were both magistrates. Mr. Wilson had a 
heavy fine imposed on him in 1835 for selling liquor with- 
out a license, the case having great notoriety on account 
of the death of one James Kirby, who perished by the'road 
side, drunk. 

Before that time drunkenness had become quite 
prevalent for there had been no enforcement of the law.. 
Prof. Doane quotes Mr. Elisha Atwood as authority for 
the folio wing: 

"When a vessel was to be built one of the first things 
was to get a cask of rum. A pint was given to each man 
every morning. His father who worked 'for Gamaliel 
Kenney used to bring part of his allowance home Satur- 
day night. Sunday morning he would steep some tansy and 
mix the liquid with the rum and give a drink all around 
to the boys in the family. Mr. Obed. Wilson once a month 
had a vessel load of goods from the West Indies, among 
other things about thirty puncheons of rum. A good 
deal of this was sent off to St. John and sold there. The 
rest was sold to the fishermen and others. When the ves- 
sel arrived she anchored below the Beach for the first 
night. In the night the scow went down and was loaded 
with rum, chiefly, which was then brought up landed and 
stowed away in the store. The next day the vessel would 



316 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

come up and discharge the rest of her cargo. She would' 
then prepare for the next voyage to the West Indies while 
another vessel would take the rum to St. John. Although 
constantly measuring and dealing out rum Mr. Atwood 
drank it only once when prevailed upon by Mr. George 
Wilson: it made him very sick. For six years he lived! 
there and attended to this work." 

Similar conditions of intemperance prevailed through 
out the country and in 1831, October 24, the wave of 
reformation which had resulted at Beaver River in the 
organization of the first Total Abstinence Society in the 
Province struck Barrington with great force. The Bar- 
rington Temperance Society was then organized and by 
Nov. 30th had 175 members enrolled. The Yarmouth 
Telegram of Dec. 9 1831 gave the names of the officers: 
Pres. Rev. Thomas Davis; Vice Pres. Rev. Thomas 
Crowell, Rev. Jacob Norton, Ebenezer Crowell, Esq.; 
Sec. Mr. John Bennison; Executive: Ebenezer Crowell, 
James Doane, Nehemiah Doane, John Kenney, Elisha 
Atwood, Osborne Smith. A Cape Island Branch of this 
Society was instituted Oct. 1831: Pres Rev. Asa McGray; 
V. Pres. James Kenney; Sec. Jas. CT. Smith, members. 
71 males, 96 females. A Port Latour Branch, same 
date had as Pres. Rev. Thos. Crowell ;V. P. Samuel 
Reynolds; Sec. Thos. M. Taylor; members, 97 male, 
70 female. In 1835 April, Winthrop Sargent was Presi- 
dent of the Society and there were 300 male and 268. 
female members. Like good work was going in Shelburne 
and Sept. 13, 1836 a county convention of Temperance 
Societies was held in the old Meeting House at the Head. 

Besides the leaders already named was one, a visitor, . 
closely identified with the first Societies at Beaver River 
and Barrington, whose fervid appeals rescued many topers 
from the snare of the devil. This was Rev. W. W. Ash- 
ley who held two temperance meetings in 1833, one at 
the Old Meeting House, the other at the Island Meeting 
House. The first to take the pledge at this time were 



SOCIAL SERVICE 31T 



Mr. Fisher and Capt. Hichens. Twenty boys who signed' 
at the Head walked to the Island for the next meeting.. 
The place was turned upside down and never went back 
to its evil ways. The death knell of the liquor traffic in 
Barrington was rung. A dozen years later Mr. Ashley 
settled in Barrington and soon after organized Concord 
Division No. 5, of the Sons of Temperance. Here he 
lived several years at the Head, laboring in the F. W. Bap- 
tist ministry to which he had been ordained in the United 
States in 1817. The movement for total abstinence had 
had its effect upon the public conscience. The old Tem- 
perance Societies gave place to the Union Band, the 
Sons of Temperance and the Templar Lodges, which have 
more and more found in the ministers of all the churches 
their true fellow-workers and leaders. The watchword 
during this movement was "Moral Suasion." In the 
progress of the Confederation and Repeal excitements, 
and along with military drill and business extension it 
came to be noticed that some of the 'older magistrates 
had not given up tippling. Therefore illicit trade revived, 
and in high quarters at that, sellers counting on class- 
feeling to protect them from the courts. At last public 
feeling manifested itself in mass meetings and protests 
against the laxity of leading magistrates who refused to 
issue warrants. Rev. Joseph Coffin publicly declared 
that the justices were a lot of "putty-heads", and their 
courage broke. Convictions and the temperance revival 
followed. Since then Prohibition has been the watch- 
word. The tests of temperance sentiment upon the out- 
lawry of the liquor traffic, have ever found Barrington in 
the foremost place. The different stages of temperance 
legislation in the Dominion Parliament received strong^ 
support in the township, the Scott Act was adopted and 
enforced, and it was Mr. Thomas Robertson, M. P., who 
introduced the first resolution carried in Parliament as- 
serting the principles of Dominion Prohibition. A. 



318 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

staunch, convinced population of the township have de- 
manded of these representatives in Municipality, Prov- 
ince and Dominion the support of every effort to enact 
and enforce Prohibition. 

Medicine The practice of medicine was from the first, 
held in high esteem. So small and isolated a. 
community was unable for some time to support, as in- 
deed they did not require, the services of a physician. We 
have seen how Mrs. Edmund Doane, as midwife, filled a 
place of great importance. That Anson Kendrick, gran- 
tee, was a son of Dr. Jonathan Kendrick of Harwich, Mass, 
must be accepted as evidence that the medical science of 
the parent colony was the Harrington standard. Not 
that it would not always be in order to borrow many 
modes of treatment from the Indians, not that many of 
the old wives were not expert in the use of home remedies 
the more to be discussed and depended on by reason of 
the long break in communications during the war. 

It was about 1790, one of John Sargent's vessels ar- 
rived from the West Indies, and came to anchor. Theo. 
Harding and Reuben Cohoon went on board. James 
Walker was in charge of the deck. He shook hands and 
asked if they ever had small pox, and said that one of the- 
crew, Knowles (Jonathan ?) had died. The young men 
immediately went ashore and were vaccinated by Dr. Col- 
lins. Both took the disease, Cohoon light, but Harding's 
a severe case. There was general alarm; Edmund Doane 
was remembered as keeping both nostrils stuffed with 
pitch and his mouth with tobacco to ward off the disease.. 

An interesting sidelight on medical practice, even la- 
ter than this, is seen in Simeon Perkins' Diary under date 
of May 22, 1800. "Little Elkanah Freeman sick of a fever 
and worms; his life is almost despaired of; some angle 
worms are laid on his belly Child of Samuel Mann alsa 
sick of same disorder, same treatment, Dr. Woodbury ap~ 



SOCIAL SERVICE 319 

proved of it." In 1803, May 11, the Diary says, "Dr. 
Fait advised me to put my lame hand into the paunch of a 
cow or sheep," etc. "My hand feels the better, is more 
suple." Such good results from "experimental physics" 
at Liverpool would find some imitators wherever the news 
might be carried. Strange to say in spite of the lack of 
. good doctors it was a time of unusual prosperity and gen- 
eral health. There seems to have been no epidemic of 
disease, but occasionally small-pox of which the people 
had a mortal fear, found victims especially amongst those 
who went on voyages to the West Indies.. 

In the flotsam of that period a Dr. Collins drifted 
into Barrington. In 1785 he married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Simeon Gardner. Doctor's Cove took its name 
from his residence there. The Gardners had property 
there and it was a convenient place for crossing to Cape 
Island where already the settlement was increasing. He 
made Pubnico his headquarters for a while. He was re- 
garded as a skilful physician. 

We have fuller information about Dr. John Fox, who 
practised in Barrington from 1819 to 1826. Born in 
Oornwallis in 1793 he studied in Dublin and Westminster 
Hospital where he received a Diploma with certificates in 
Anatomy, Surgery and Physiology. He then served two 
years as Assistant Surgeon on H.M.S. "Majestic," spent 
a year in Middlesex Hospital and returned to Nova 
Scotia. After a short term practising at Chester he came 
to Barrington where a public subscription gave guarantee 
of support. His calls extended beyond the township to 
Argyle and Shelburne and he was often associated with 
Dr. Jamieson of the county town. He was an enthusias- 
tic mason and a member of Concord Lodge, No. 49. His 
generosity was great, refusing fees where poverty or un- 
usual distress was evident. 

Following the removal of Dr. Fox, we have the ar- 
rival of Dr. T. 0. Geddes. A Dr. Wilson is mentioned in 



320 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Dr.Fox's Day-book while the latter was still in Barrington. 
Dr. Fox is credited by the Wesleyan circuit steward with 
five shillings in 1825, and Dr. Geddes with the same a- 
mount in 1826. The diary of Dr. Geddes reveals some of 
the hardships of a physician's life. By horseback and 
boat or by trails through the woods in all weathers they 
served the people. Dr. Geddes bought a house to which 
he added an office and made his home there till 1858. 
This house was afterwards occupied by Dr. Henry Kelly. 
Dr. Geddes studied with Drs. Adamson and Stirling in 
Halifax, having had a classical education in Scotland. In 
Barrington he was a citizen of public spirit and was much 
attached to the people. His visits frequently extended 
to Tusket or Shelburne. See Genealogy. 

Dr. Israel Kelley Wilson in 1834 came from Philadel- 
phia where he had just graduated in medicine from Jeffer- 
son Med. College, a formal request having been made to 
him by prominent citizens of Barrington. It was prob- 
ably his older brother Thomas John, also a doctor, who 
had settled in Yarmouth about 1826, but lived only two 
years, who had been in consultation with Dr. Fox as men- 
tioned. 

Dr. I. K. Wilson was born in Miramichi in 1808; he 
.studied in New Brunswick University before going to 
Philadelphia. In 1836 he married Matilda Hopkins, 
daughter of Nehemiah Wilson ; he practised his profession 
until 1878 when his son Howard D. was taken into part- 
nership, and so continued until the death of Dr. Wilson, 
Senior, in 1885, after 51 years of professional service in the 
township. Father and son have 96 years to their credit. 
Dr. Wilson in his younger days had a full share of the 
;horseback,boat and pedestrian travel to visit his patients. 
Other physicians to whom tribute must also be paid for 
maintaining a high standard of professional work were 
Dr. Henry Kelley. Dr. Schrage, Dr. Dickey, Port Latour, 
.and Dr. McKay of Clyde. Further references may be 



SOCIAL SERVICE 321 

found to some of the doctors in Chapter XVII and Gen- 
ealogy. 

Morals Barrington fell heir to the ancient customs and 
severe manners and morals of the Massachu- 
setts Colony where the code and standards of the Old 
Testament were accepted. The emphasis was on right- 
eous dealings, calculated to a nicety, between man and 
man. In the home itself the manifestation of emotion 
was checked, if not smothered by discipline. This heir- 
loom, like forms of religion, could not perfectly survive the 
change of locality and trying circumstances of the early 
settlement, and there was a new sense of freedom from 
the uncompromising temper of the old colony. Just 
when our people were leaving Cape Cod it happened in 
Boston, as related by Burnaby in "Travels in America", 
that the captain of a Br.war ship,arriving in Boston kissed 
his wife in public, and was publicly whipped for it by the 
magistrates there. Some time after when about to sail, 
the captain invited the magistrates of the town on board, 
when these magistrates were seized and given 39 lashes 
each at the gangway. 

At Barrington the tyranny of former customs was 
considerable, but there was no attempt to control private 
conduct by regulation. The day was passing when, as 
described by Fisher in "Colonial Times/' "the thought of 
men and women were turned inward on themselves and 
they developed the faculties of introspection and self- 
analysis to the utmost extreme." This old fashion was 
modified greatly by the necessity for mutual aid and sym- 
pathy and by the manners of the people from the South- 
ern colonies and others, who came in after the war. The 
hard shell vanished when its period of utility ended; 
though novelty and utility sometimes clashed, as when 
the young bride disdained the wedding gift of a spinning 
wheel which her thrifty elders in their wisdom approved. 



822 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

It is argued by Fisher that the Pilgrims, as such, had 
"none of that fierce energy for development which charac- 
terized the Puritans" who really founded New England. 
Be that as it may, our proprietors brought with them and 
maintained that distinctive element which we call charac- 
ter. In this respect no loss came by the sea-change. 
It is nothing new to institute a comparison between the 
physical features of a country and the physical and moral 
attributes of its people. And men are never more tena- 
cious of home-land than when it is ruggedest. Along our 
shores Neptune shakes his trident and men follow his call. 
They are heroic men who go down to the sea in ships, and 
the flame of life animates the homes that send them out 
and wait their return. War does not scare them. They 
have faced the elements, proved that the heritage of the 
Pilgrim, the pioneer and the patriot was theirs. As we 
investigate the account of their intrepid lives we may find 
the answers to some of the enigmas of our own; from 
generation to generation these rugged souls enquired their 
duty from the God of their fathers and followed the path 
His Providence opened. 

After the war we perceive the progressive and tre- 
mendous break from the old New England type. En- 
vironment was moulding the provincial life, and perhaps 
most of all as the aftermath of war. The effects of war 
upon the morals of those engaged in it are incalculable. 
The massing of young men in military expeditions, on 
shipboard, in garrisons, camps and barracks and the ex- 
perience incident to fighting are inevitably attended by 
demoralization. Indirectly the whole community suffers. 
This is not to deny 'that many fine characters emerge from 
the furnace. 

One of the worst accompaniments of former colonial 
wars was Drunkenness. At Louisburg, for instance, after 
its capture the loss of men by drink was terrific, far ex- 
ceeding the casualties in battle. For the first half-century 



SOCIAL SERVICE 323 

and more in Barrington the tippling habit, though held in 
check by common opinion that it was proof of strong char- 
acter to drink and not get drunk, was reinforced by the 
custom of soldiers and sailors for regular rations. The 
check often failed; a deluge of rum flowed in from the West 
Indies trade and the victims of drunk were many. For a 
while sober people saw homesteads swallowed up by ap- 
petite, and blamed the weaklings rather than the vendors 
of liquor. The public conscience was blunted, indifferent. 
The chief dealers were prominent in church and philan- 
thropic work. Mortgages were taken for drink bills and 
foreclosed for the same by these wealthy importers; land 
added to land and house to house by illegal, unlicensed 
trading, and poverty and dissipation were alarming. The 
following story told by Josiah P. Doane illustrates the 
drink problem in Barrington a century ago from several 
viewpoints. In the spring of 1819 a man named Timothy 
Taylor, calling himself an American sailor came to him 
for a job. Mr. Doane was then fitting out the Schr. Dol- 
phin for a fishing trip and shipped Taylor as one of the 
crew. They moved the vessel down to the Island (Sher- 
ose) to take in salt from William and John Sargent's wharf. 
Taylor obtained there on Capt. Doane' s credit a half- 
gallon of rum (it was customary for the fishermen to carry 
a bottle apiece, at least) Having no boarding place Tay- 
lor stayed on board over Sunday and Monday was very 
drunk. Before the season was over he got S. 0. Doane Esq., 
to post up a marriage publishment between him and Peg- 
gy Madden. This was news to Peggy and immediately 
broke off their friendship. She became the wife of David 
Powell. Taylor was discovered cutting off the cod-leads 
from the crew's fishing lines for the purpose of selling 
them; then he went to Shelburne where he sold a new 
coat in his craze for drink. He did not return leaving 
all his bills to be settled by Capt. Doane. 

After a time the temperance revival came, the scourge 



324 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

of drink was seen in its real character and the traffic was 
driven out. 

As always, the liquor trade engendered Pauperism. 
The relation was understood but peculiarly expressed in 
the first legislation in Halifax, 1749, under which John Fil- 
lis, Harrington's first representative, received a license to 
sell liquor for a fee of a guinea a year which was to be ap- 
plied for the support of the poor. The "jingle of the gui- 
nea" even then diverted men's minds from the cause of 
poverty. John Fillis also was a pillar in a Halifax church. 
It was the son of a grantee of Barrington who having 
good education but an over mastering appetite, after a sol- 
dier's career, kept a school by spells when he could 
"board around, get grog, and die." It being necessary 
for each township to provide for its poor a poor tax was 
levied for that purpose regularly. In 1820 a widow (of a 
former wealthy merchant) was received on the town and 
"sold to the lowest bidder, 12 monthsforlO pounds." Great 
care was taken to keep out paupers from other districts, 
and Joseph Smith, as constable is said to have warned one 
such to "get off the face of the Earth." Legislation at 
Halifax established rates and overseers for the poor and 
now and then pro dded for extra cases as of shipwreck and 
distress. 

The most noticeable of the agencies affecting the 
social life of Barrington was that of Immigration, particu- 
larly of the soldier settlers. The Eastward outlook and 
preparations occasioned principally by the settlement of 
Shelburne took an unexpected turn. Instead of Shel- 
burne furnishing a market with the attractions of a great 
Commercial Centre, it was found that it had reached its 
zenith in the year after the building of the City and soon 
was in process of dissolution. Wise settlers there were 
looking for more stable if less pretentious places of abode, 
and soon the slight drift of a new immigration set towards 
Barrington. Nor were these people and others who came- 



SOCIAL [SERVICE 325* 



from Great Britain and the United States always content 
to acquire a holding where shares were for sale cheap in 
some remote part of the township. They were first of all 
concerned about a livelihood. Therefore the younger 
men joined themselves to men with established fishing or 
industrial interests; the older who had trades were drawn 
to the Head, to the Town and to Sherose Island where 
opportunities for work might offer. This will appear 
more particularly in the accounts given elsewhere of the 
individuals, who became members of the community, for 
in almost all cases there was intermarriage between the 
old stock and the new arrivals. Whatever antagonisms 
were manifested between old comers and new comers 
seem to have grown out of the relations introduced in the 
County organization in which Shelburne was the domi- 
nant factor for a time both on account of size and disposi- 
tion. Not that the strangers who came to Barrington 
seeking employment were readily taken into the social life 
of the people, though well accredited stories have been 
handed down of romantic girls and "stranger chaps" who 
gave much anxiety to steady-going parents and friends. 
The immigration included also men of means or gran- 
tees of the government who were able at once to take up 
land or engage in business. Thus, within a score of years 
after the Treaty of 1783 a new element was intermixing 
with the old Cape Cod and Nantucket families. The vi- 
tality of the latter was capable of absorbing the new addi- 
tions, though not without extensive modifications agree- 
able to the spirit of that revolutionary period. A similar 
spirit of antagonism has continued to the present but ad- 
justments are ever more favorable to the newcomers. 

Taverns Following the first tavern of Edmund Doane, 
arid perhaps called into existence by the shel- 
tering of American fugitives, we find a number of places 
of entertainment in different parts of the township short- 



326 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

ly after the close of the War. Mrs. Thomas Doane's was at 
Sherose Island; one McDonald kept the first inn at Clyde 
at the James Sutherland property; David Powell's tav- 
ern was later at David Sutherland's, both on the west side 
of the River. Powell was too much patronized by the 
Indians of the neighborhood but scared them away by a 
story of small pox at the house. Granny Snow's place at 
Liberty Point was the most famous of them all. 

Hamiltons, opened by the request of the Government, 
was the next place far up the Clyde River. An inn was 
kept also at Cape Negro; for here as well as at Lyle's, fer- 
ries provided transport across the river. Liquor was up 
to the time of the temperance revival a staple article in 
the hostelries. With the opening of the road through the 
nine-mile woods, c 1807, giving more direct communica- 
tion between Yarmouth and Barrington new places of en- 
tertainment were established, and in 1834, James T. C. 
Ensor advertised a weekly conveyance for passengers and 
freight between Yarmouth and Shelburne, both ways. 
This pioneer coach line soon fell through. And it was al- 
most twenty years afterwards that Oscar Davison started 
a tri-weekly service between Yarmouth and Barrington 
which was then extended to Shelburne and the Eastward 
by John Hogg and carried on with great regularity and 
efficiency until the steam horse came in. Kendricks at 
the Head, Roswell Brown at Head of Oak Park, and The 
Traveller's Home at the Passage at this period furnished 
excellent entertainment and later the Rock Cottage at 
the Passage won provincial notoriety for the hospitality 
provided by Mrs. Joseph Wilson. The advent of the 
commercial drummer made necessary the maintenance 
of one or more hotels with adequate equipment in the 
chief centres of business in the township, which are 
maintained with efficiency and ke^en regard for the com- 
fort of patrons. 



SOCIAL SERVICE 327 



Houses of Nothing is more picturesque than a log house 
Habitation by the river side and poets and hermits are 
lavish in its praise. The pioneer and his wife, 
desiring health and comfort for an increasing brood, has- 
ten to change the rough and scant accommodation of their 
primitive wilderness home for the space and convenience 
of a frame house. The revolution in the American colon- 
ies came at the time when the stage of evolution of the 
Nova Scotia settler as above mentioned was due. He 
had more leisure time at home but lacked building mat- 
erials and the means to purchase them. Therefore he 
must wait. When peace came war's ravages must be re- 
paired, and sustenance obtained at unprecedented prices. 
The first frame houses were consequently held down to 
actual requirements in size and style. Here and there 
about the township may be seen relics of the 18th century 
dwellings. We print a picture of the so-called Sargent 
liouse a part of which, moved from its original site,is still in 
use. The next generation made a great improvement. 
Some of the enterprising inhabitants brought substantial 
houses from Shelburne and rebuilt them, generally of the 
2-storey type. A better sort was the roomy residence 
put up by prosperous business men a century ago and la- 
ter. The local carpenters added the dormer window and 
Greek porch when the funds were available. The last 
half-century has seen the introduction of many showy and 
expensive houses on American patterns. In the main the 
housing of the people of the township is excellent and 
paint is in general use. Granite and concrete are univer- 
sally used under wooden dwellings. 

Recreation They were not a pleasure seeking people, who 
founded Barrington; and the natural tendency 
of youth for fun and gay companionship was checked by 
frequent pious counsels and stern warnings. It will al- 
ways be a wonder to watchful parents where, how and 



328 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

when their children learned to dance, play cards, smoke 
etc. S. 6. Doane's account book has a charge against 
John Cunningham of 15/ for a fiddle. If this seems due 
to a wave of loyalist dissipation, it will be well to go back 
to a charge of Prince Doane against Gamaliel Kenney on 
Mar. 15, 1779, "To cash lent at a dance, 6/." These 
descendants of the Pilgrims were not wholly wanting in 
pastimes during the war. In 1787 a dance had been post- 
poned waiting for "a new fiddle", when Garretson ap- 
peared on the scene and under his appeals the emotions of 
the young, for the time at least, found vent in spiritual 
concerns. 

The life of the early inhabitants was one of incessant 
toil and particularly dreary and monotonous for young 
people in the winter. With normal impulses for compan- 
ionship the opportunity for an evening's frolic now and 
then was welcomed as adding the proper spice to life. 
Books were rare and uninteresting; conversation, aside 
from the day's tasks turned on war, famine and heresy; 
the religious meetings depended for interest on astray 
preacher, but a dance was where you met the people you 
wished to see and joyousness and vivacity and love reign- 
ed. In those humble homes chastity was held in the high- 
est honor; it was rare indeed that any departure from the 
strictest code occurred, and even down to our own times 
any lapse from virtue would subject the sinner of either 
sex to general ostracism. 

Card playing has been looked on with disfavor from 
the first but it was so convenient and diverting a time- 
killer that it invaded forecastle, camp, and cookhouse as 
well as the travellers' rests and has made great inroads 
upon the home circles. 

It is needless to refer to the boating, skating, and driv- 
ing, the hunting and the fishing, which find here a"n arena 
for most delightful exercise. 

One phase of recreation finding votaries from the first 



SOCIAL SERVICE 329 

was the composition of verses. Most common are the 
"Lines" on the dead, of which the Hungarian shipwreck 
was the most prolific; but a great variety of pieces are ex- 
tant, most of which have rhyme and rhythm, and range 
from the lover's flattery in the acrostic to the enthusiastic 
depicting of local scenery or the satirical rehearsal of folly 
which has blabbed. If some of these attempts have been 
condemned as "just doggram", others have given great 
pleasure to readers and elicited a meed of praise, as e.g.,T. 
W. Watson's, Sebimm, set to his own music. M. H. Nick- 
erson's "Carols of the Coast" is the most ambitious publi- 
cation of that sort and exhibits great skill in verse making 
along with fine poetic taste and expression. Another self- 
educated writer was Jeremiah Atkinson whose essays in 
poetry ought not to be forgotten. The following is 
clipped from an old newspaper, in token of the spirit per- 
vading the temperance revival of 1827. 

TO A CAST OF RUM 

(By Z. Clyde River, Dec. 13, 31.) 

Here, only by a Cork controlled 
And slender walls of wooden mould, 
In all the pomp of death repose 
The seeds of many a bloody nose, 
The chattering tongue, the dismal oath, 
The hand for fighting nothing loath, 
The passions which no words can tame, 
That burst like nitre into flame, 
The face carbuncled, glowing red, 
The bloated eye, the broken head. 
The tree that bears the deadly fruit 
Of misery, mischief and dispute, 
The rage that innocence bewails, 
The images of gloomy jails, 
The evil thought on murder bent, 
The midnight hour in riot spent, 
All these within this cask appear 
With Dick, the hangman, in the rear. 



330 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Music With "hymns of lofty cheer" our ancestors pro- 
claimed their faith and comforted one another in 
their voluntary exile. Watt's Hymns were sung at the 
Sabbath services and the family altar; their echoes 
floated over the harbor from mothers cradling 
their children and from solitary workers on boat or 
shore. Joshua Atwood, gr., was long remembered 
from his habit of singing going home from the Old meeting; 
house. Song quickens the emotional life, and is never 
worth more than when the lone toiler makes it the instru- 
ment of praise to Him who gave the power to work and 
sing. A daughter of S. 0. Doane, Senior, tells how her 
mother sang the songs of Zion at her work. She had lived 
in Boston after 1783 and could bring to home and friends 
the benefit of her privileges there. During the seclusion 
of the rebellion the gift was cultivated so that the new 
hymns of the New Lights and Methodists made a telling 
appeal to the people. The intensity of the revival cam- 
paigns checked the current of secular music and for a time 
held Harrington as a psalm singing community. But the 
fiddler was abroad and found so much occupation that it 
was left to the flute to represent instrumental music in the 
churches. This at the Island meeting house was ably 
conducted by John Osborn, until he was displaced by the 
player of easy tunes on the Cabinet organ. Josiah Payne 
Doane, 1784-1875, was a passionate devotee of music.. 
After joining the Methodist Church in 1842 he employed 
his talent in the church choir and class meeting at the 
Head. Somewhat earHer was Samuel Kimball who at 
first lived at Rev. Thomas Cro well's and taught singing 
school during the winters at the Passage. About the 
same time John Taylor was teaching singing school at 
Port Latour and vicinity. Such interest attended the 
school instruction, such progress in reading the music 
score that house to house meetings became the custom for 
the practice of the tunes which books like the Vocalist and 



SOCIAL SERVICE 331 

Carmina Sacra contained. Individual talent was thus 
developed and many local leaders produced, conspicuous 
-among them being William L. Crowell at the Passage and 
Arnold Doane at the Head. The former was largely em- 
ployed in singing school and private instruction on instru- 
ments of music; and the cabinet organ then coming into 
use made possible the rehearsal and rendering of classical 
compositions, which, unsupported, the singers had not the 
confidence to attempt. 

In consequence church choirs were organized through- 
out the township, private instruction in instrumental 
music became general and the common interest found ex- 
pression in 1861 in the formation of "The Harmonic Soc- 
iety" at the Passage. "This was to promote the know- 
ledge of music by rehearsals, public concerts and lectures/' 
Sixty members were enrolled the first season. Wm. L. 
Crowell was President, John Osborn, Secretary, and James 
C. and Prince W. Crowell were with the officers the Musi- 
cal Directors. The first concert was held on the anniver- 
sary of Handel's death that summer, and the proceeds 
five pounds, were sent to the Deaf and Dumb Asylum. 
The society continued in active existence till 1870, when 
the death or removal of many of the prominent charter 
members and the lack of accommodation for public per- 
formances led to the determination to close up. Many 
musical and literary entertainments had been held of 
""immense benefit to the community." 

Arnold Doane studied in London where he obtained 
a diploma, and then settled in Halifax where he has been 
given the credit of laying the foundation of the musical 
taste of the Halifax of his day. In later life he returned 
to Barrington where by private teaching and singing 
schools throughout the township he brought up the exist- 
ing methods of music to the best standards. On those 
long tramps to and from his classes he obtained from the 



332 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

ancients along the road part of the information concerning 
people, events and places which this history presents. 

Cultivated, not "for art's sake" but for pure pleasure 
and enjoyment, music has been the perpetual passion of 
the people of this township. Much of its success has been 
due to teachers of day schools who have recognized its 
value in facilitating their work. 

Sepulture Now in the vicinity of each thrifty village is a 
well kept cemetery, which suggests the ques- 
tion, What were the ways of interment at first? In gener- 
al it may be said that when the necessity arose somewhere 
on a hill or slope of a homestead lot a place of burial was 
chosen which became the family plot. In the case of Levi 
Nickerson at Shag Harbor, as doubtless with others, that 
plot provided the resting place for some of the dead of 
every generation since. No motored hearses could have 
reached those lonely sacred spots. Only by the use of 
barrows or biers was the lifeless clay transferred to the 
grave which was fenced in and consecrated thus in the 
hearts as well as in daily sight of the mourners. These 
plots were mostly on the First Division lots, though now 
quite neglected or forgotten. At Upper Wood's Harbor 
there was a "Great Yard" burying ground, near the shore, 
where the most of the early interments were made. There 
was one burial there of a temporary nature. Jean or 
Jenny Andrews, whose husband, a grantee there in 1796, 
had died and was buried, disinterred his body and carried 
it to Halifax, all the way it is said in her arms, to have it 
laid in the consecrated ground. QT 

The assignment of lots for this purpose at the Head 
and at C enter ville set an example which in time was fol- 
lowed by the other growing neighborhoods, and about a 
century ago the churches began to establish their own 
burying grounds. In 1815 the Proprietors votedj tobuild 
a wall about the old burial-ground at The Head. 



SOCIAL SERVICE 333 

The old, old fashion of death and burial was never 
relaxed but rather became more insistent in colonist ad- 
venture. It may be recalled that on the expedition of 
DeMonts to the Bay of Fundy in 1604, the priest and the 
Recollet missionary died and were buried in the same 
grave, and that the sailors who had seen them come to 
blows in their doctrinal disputes wondered if they would 
now keep the peace. This may have been the first European 
burial in our Province. In Barrington there was little 
waiting,f or within a score or so of years Theodore Harding, 
Jonathan Crowell, Heman Kenney, Reuben Cohoon, 
Judah Crowell, Thomas Doane, Samuel Knowles and 
other grantees, as well as many women and children had 
entered into rest. The constant demand for action led 
eventually to the present mode of setting apart and incor- 
porating for community use a "God's acre", where rich 
and poor must meet on an equality. Most conspicuous 
for neglect is the graveyard at the old meeting house at 
the Head where substantial slabs mark the resting places 
of prominent citizens of the past, to care for which is no- 
body's business. Many foreign sailors have been drown- 
ed and buried in our graveyards; many of ours are at rest 
on foreign shores where disease and chance of battle or 
storm has left them. Befitting memorials to honor the 
* dead are a comfort and stay to the living. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



MARITIME INTERESTS. 

Fisheries In "Winslow's narration" of the causes of the 
Plymouth Plantation" there is a curious 
account of the application made by the Leyden church 
to King James I for his favor and protection in their 
proposed removal .to America. Sir Robert Naunton, 
then Secretary of State, interceded for them, and His 
Majesty admitted that their motion was a good and honest 
one. When he asked what profits might arise in that 
part we intended, 'twas answered, "Fishing." To which 
he replied, ' So God have my soul, 'tis an honest trade, 
'twas the Apostles own calling." The Providence which 
landed them on Cape Cod and not in Virginia was so 
much the better for them in realizing this first idea of 
self-support. Even at that time fishing vessels came from 
England to the American coasts and one of the first things 
provided for by the Pilgrim Fathers, in the planting sea- 
son, was that a part of the corn harvest should be set 
aside for the fishermen as well as for those engaged in 
the public service. We have already remarked on the 
fishing business as an important factor in the life of the 
Cape Cod and Nantucket antecedents of Harrington. 
This subject marches in the front rank through all the 
periods of our township history. For the century after 
the Grant fishing was the staple industry, for a citizen 
not to be connected with it was a notable exception. 
These men who had boats, vessels, gear of their own 
were in those ideal circumstances where labor and capital 
are represented in the same individual. Our fishermen, 
like the farmer-owner, were not dependent generally on 
the favor of corporation managers but had direct dealings 
with a Providence which has no respect of persons. Of 
this they were more sensible on account of the almost 

334 




CAPT. THOMAS COFFIN 
b. 1787. 



CAPT. SOLOMON KENDRICK. 
Born 1809. See Genealogy. 




HON. ROBERT ROBERTSON, 
b. 1817. Many years M.P.P. for Shelburne Co. 



MARITIME INTERESTS 335 

entire absence of schemes of insurance of life and property. 
When the storms of war were raging, the fishing grounds 
were abandoned and the older men enlarged their clearings 
while the younger joined the forces of defense generally 
afloat. Everywhere as we follow them we marvel at the 
heroism of these imperilled souls. Men and women 
with equal intrepidity went through life under conditions 
which their descendants, except the personal combatants 
in our Great War, have never experienced. Since Latour's 
time, in peace and war, in the flow and ebb of danger and 
conflict, the folk about Cape Sable have been aware of 
the conditions of their arduous life and met them with 
composure. And yet no occupation obtruded less on 
the world's ken a century ago than that of the fisher- 
man. Before the landsman was awake the fishing boat 
or shallop was stretching toward the fishing ground; 
it was generally after nightfall, even though the crew 
plied the oars with vigor, before she reached the mooring 
from which the weary men brought to the stage their 
catch in the dinghy, and then manned the splitting table, 
perhaps for hours, till with the cleavage of the last back- 
bone the ancient benediction "Ever more and never 
less" was pronounced. In our day the village is awakened 
by the motors of fishing craft speeding seaward, steamers 
and refrigerator cars are scheduled to connect with the 
arriving steam trawler, combines exploit consumers, 
fishermen and the government and maintain their"spread" 
both summer and winter. It is difficult now to estimate 
the preeminence then held by the fishery in providing 
subsistence for the people whose universal task was of 
such even and quiet tenor. In boats and vessels they 
communicated and mostly procured means of subsistence. 
The coasters of EJdad Nickerson, William Greenwood, 
David Smith and others were the chief instruments in 
the commercial life of the Community down to the close 
of the Revolutionary war. After that, Sargent's fishing 



336 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

schooners and a musquito fleet of shallops and schooners 
built and operated at various points of the coast line gave 
the means of production and traffic to the increased pop- 
ulation. A fishing craft of about 30 tons burden, and 
carrying half a dozen men would be expected to land 
500 or more quintals of fish for which three dollars a 
quintal might be realized when cured. Ten dollars a 
bbl. for oil and six dollars a bbl. for mackerel were average 
prices. The shoresman had an eighth and the vessel a 
quarter of the gross receipts. Two hundred dollars would 
be a good season's work for a fisherman who had no in- 
terest in the vessel's share. It is interesting to notice that 
the government in 1791 passed a law that all fishing 
boats in N. Scotia should be assessed 2/6 and owners, 
masters and mates of registered vessels 5/- for defraying 
the expenses of the government. 

From a lecture given at the Head by Rev. Winthrop 
Sargent in 1865 we copy the following summary: 

The greater portion of our population was engaged in 
the fisheries and coasting business until early in the pre- 
sent century, when a larger class of vessels was built and 
prosecuted a profitable business in the plaster trade 
from Windsor to Quoddy, Boston and New York. 
This in connection with carrying lumber from St. Andrew's 
to Halifax and Newfoundland gave ample and profitable 
employment for vessels of 30 tons and upwards. In 
process of time some of our sihip owners engaged in the 
West India business on their own account, procuring lum- 
ber from New Brunswick and filling up the cargo at this 
port with fish. The late Messrs. Wilson (sons of Henry 
gr.) and Joseph Homer, Jr., were the principal parties, I 
think, engaged in this business." (He alludes also to 
the effort made by John Homer, Sr., Esq., to establish 
a company to carry on an extensive bank fishery, which 
was doomed to failure; and to the laudable efforts of Mr. 
Thomas Coffin to establish a similar business.) "This 
in turn was supplemented by a larger and better class 
of vessels employed in West Indies and foreign voyages 
until Barrington vessels and Barrington commanders 



MARITIME INTERESTS 337 

may be found traversing the ocean to every quarter of 
the world; and wherever the latter are known they are 
I think, regarded among the most trustworthy and effi- 
cient of that class of men and are generally sought after.'' 

The close of the revolutionary war in freeing the 
harbors from the depredations of privateers brought at 
once a renewal of the Visits of the New England fishermen 
to our coasts. The treaty of 1763 had deprived France 
of her fisheries except on the shores of Newfoundland and 
her islands. That of 1783 with an astounding disregard 
of the value of the fisheries to the empire and their im- 
portance to the inhabitants conceded to the United States 
liberty to take fish in our coasting waters and to dry and 
'curefisfrm the unsettled bays of Nova Scotia, Magdalen 
Islands and Labrador. The opportunity thus given to the 
republic "to foster a race of seamen conducive to national 
wealth in peace and to defence and glory in war" was 
certainly an unparalleled surrender of British rights. It 
was estimated that in 1793 there were 2000 U. S. vessels 
fishing on the N. S. coast and the prevalence of conduct 
in violation of the treaty caused much dissatisfaction in 
our Province. Murdock quotes a complaint to the govern- 
ment from the magistrates about Annapolis, concerning 
the interference of U. S. fishermen who pay no heed to 
the fishery or customs regulations, throw the offal from 
their catches into the N. S. harbors and exceed their 
rights. They engaged in trading and smuggling in out 
of way ports with a demoralizing effect on the people. 
'These matters are treated in Gesner's History of New 
Brunswick and by Judge Wallace in Coll. Hist. Soc. No. 
XIV. It was during this period that Granny Doane 
had her Liberty Pole erected at Baker's Pt. (Liberty Pt.) 
and kept a little shop and place of entertainment much 
patronized by the American fishermen. Local regulation 
did not restrain them from the clam flats near by and the 
inhabitants resented their depredations. One night when 



338 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

some American vessels were lying inside the Beach and 
their men were dancing and carousing at Granny Doane's, 
and the Harrington vessels were riding outside the Beach, 
six young men from the latter, including Obed and Cole- 
man Crowell, John Osborne and S. 0. Doane, Jr., landed 
and approaching warily carried off the Liberty Pole which 
they reduced to firewood on their own vessels. Reg- 
ulations regarding the River Fisheries were enacted in 
1786 and left to the various courts of sessions in the Prov- 
ince for enforcement. These regulations applied to the 
alewives fishery on the Barrington river, and were an 
important factor in control and perpetuation of the fish- 
ery, both for the general market and the supply of bait. 
To encourage the fishery interests it was the custom 
for the government to grant either a bounty on tonnage 
of vessels engaged or on quintals of fish exported to Brit- 
ish ports. An exhibit is here made of the account for 
1806. 



MARITIME INTERESTS 



339 






00 



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g-ET^ P c+.a-s 3 < 2 . N 5 















GQ<J 

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OQ <T> 

(5 ^ t^ 



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P 



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CO 



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o 
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01 M 

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p 03 





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340 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

An embargo imposed at this time by the U. States on; 
shipping was intended to distress the Br. Colonies, but 
gave rather an impetus to home production. As for 
Barrington, her customs office was in Shelburne, her fish 
market there or Halifax or the British West Indies. The 
contingencies of her principal business are suggested in 
the contents of a Protest made April 10, 1806 at Antigua, 
by Capt. Ephraim Dean of Schr. Paria of Nova Scotia,, 
owner John Sargent, Esquire. 

Sailed from Barrington Feb. 2 with 'dried and pickled ' 
fish, oil and staves, bound to Trinidad. On 25th off Port of 
Spain was captured by a French privateer which took the 
Captain and carried him to Gaudeloupe, whence he got to- 
Dominique and then to Antigua where he learned that 
his vessel the Paria had been re-captured by the British. 
The Paria crew had been given the long boat to make 
what port they could. This formal Protest was made 
against the commander of the Privateer for all losses 
before the Notary Public G. W. White. 

The account is not complete as to recovery of the 
loss of vessel or cargo or the safety of the crew, but doubt- 
less the affair was a serious blow to the community. The 
"embargo" was followed in 1812 by a declaration of war 
by the United States. While this was in progress, the 
province, through a committee of Halifax merchants, 
(including Enos Collins) addressed a memorial to the 
Colonial Secretary urging among many changes that any 
new treaty with the U. States should guard against the 
fateful article of 1783 and exclude foreign fishermen from 
our narrow seas and waters, and thus prevent the detri- 
mental and ruinous intercourse. The British treaty 
commissioners in 1814 were therefore instructed not to 
renew the treaty in those respects but to this the U. S. 
Commissioners would not agree and the treaty of 1814-5 
was concluded without settling this point. Disputes 
followed and in 1818 a Convention was reached by the 






MARITIME INTERESTS 341', 

two countries. The U. States renounced for its in- 
habitants any right to take, dry or cure fish within three 
marine miles of the British American Coasts, but retained 
the rights of shelter, repairing damage, purchasing wood 
and obtaining water. This was in force until 1854, but 
enforcement was naturally slack from the extent of the 
coast line and the few protective craft employed by the 
government. Hence, a Yankee skipper said that the 
meshes of that convention net were big and a 100-ton 
schooner could easily get through it. His method was 
to "bow-peep the cutter." These matters were of vital 
moment to our people, who therefore watched with keen- 
est interest the negotiations by which their shore privil- 
eges were sacrificed to New England fishermen. Mean- 
time, the community was alive and prosecuting various 
branches of fishing with success. For a time mackerel 
drifting was a remunerative and popular method. 

It was not until a customs house was established at 
Harrington that a record of tonnage registered and value 
of imports and exports were available for the port. In 
1834 one brig and sixty seven schooners were listed, of 
which fifteen were over fifty tons; tonnage 2581. Im- 
ports 18267,15.6; exports 15281,18. Then and for 
many years a great deal of the trade with the fisherman 
was done by freighters who took fish, etc., on board their 
vessels anchoring in the vicinity of the fish stages. Thus 
they carried to market and brought back supplies as or- 
dered by the shippers. 

About 1836 an Act was passed relating to the Fisheries; 
and Illicit trade, which was ratified by the Imperial Order 
in Council, and more rigid enforcement was introduced. 
There were severe penalties imposed, which of course,, 
were met by sharp criticism across the border. Judge 
Graham points out, however, that these laws were but 
copies of English revenue enactments, such as were ac* 
tually in use in the United States.* 

*Hist. Soc..Papers. 



$42 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Much friction ensued in connection with captures 
and seizures for infraction of the laws. In 1852 the 
brigts. Halifax and Belle and schooners Daring and 
Responsible were placed in commission for fishery pro- 
tection; and thus continued until 1855. Paul, son of 
Ebenezer Crowell of Barrington, was in charge of one of 
these "cutters". The reciprocity treaty was then arrang- 
ed which lasted until Confederation. To ease down 
matters at the end of the reciprocal fishing privileges a 
system of licenses was adopted and the Dominion main- 
tained the Provincial laws. This township had its full 
share of the development of Canadian fisheries, and 
for a few years shared in the prosperity indicated by the 
statistics of production. I quote Hopkins in Can. Ency. 
V, p. 527: 1869, $2,501,507; 1872 $6,577,086. 

About this time for various reasons the proximity 
of the chief New England fishing ports attracted many 
of our younger fishermen, some of whom made their 
homes across the line. A principal reason for this was 
the prompt marketing of fares at those ports and the cash 
settlement with the crews. Barrington methods had not 
kept pace with the times. Commission was charged on 
money advanced to the crew before or during the trip, 
owners frequently kept cargoes waiting for a market and 
no settlement then could be obtained until months after 
a voyage was ended. The fisherman did not know whether 
his season's work would suffice to pay his outstanding 
accounts for his family. The idea that a business involv- 
ing so much capital and employing a dozen or more 
men should have a " wages fund" did not impress itself 
upon the owners until the crews had disappeared to take 
advantage of the cash system in the United States ports. 
An important result must, however be noticed. These 
movements kept our fishermen informed as to the most 
advanced methods, whether of the style of fishing craft, 
location of fishing grounds, times for tending them or 



MARITIME INTERESTS 34$ 

curing and marketing fish. So that while bank fishing 
dropped off boat fishing and trapping received a new im- 
petus, especially as steam and other motive power became 
available. The bait question assumed more importance* 
Boat building became a definite and valuable industry, 
and in a score or two of years, the whole fishing business 
underwent a revolution, assuming by stages the form in 
which it is carried on today. It is not necessary to 
attempt a description of the present day fishing industry. 

Fishing An innovation in fishing methods was made at 
Traps John's Island in 1868 by Capt. Isaac Kenney 
who set a fish trap at that place. In 1876 there 
were 8 traps in operation, expending for vessels $10,000; 
twine and gear $14,000; barrels, salt, etc., $5,000. The 
average catch was 700 barrels producing a gross income 
of $56,000. Bait was sold to fishermen, and vessels 
employed to carry the fish to the Boston market. With 
the improvement in transportation facilities the fresh 
mackerel and other fish from the traps as well as the 
live lobsters in their season found a ready market in Bos- 
ton. 

Shipping Some special consideration must now be 
given to the way in which the basic industry 
of fishing and transportation of fish and supplies was 
implemented. On the Sea of Galilee it was necessary 
for fishermen to have boats and nets. In a general way 
the fisherman is his own net maker, though machinery 
and division of labor have come to play an important 
part in the fishing outfit in our times. The vessel which 
provides his temporary home and base of operations on 
the fishing voyage is a larger and distinct proposition. 
When the fetters of the revolutionary war were 
slackened enterprise took this direction, and we may well 
believe that piles of shapen timber lay ready in the neigh- 



344 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

boring forest, awaiting the declaration of peace. Then 
Joshua Nickerson would feel that his day of leadership had 
arrived. All around the coast men faced their work as 
"if a great storm had passed by. 

We have seen that the Shelburne market attracted 
isome fishermen from Barrington to Roseway, and doubt- 
less gave for a time a fine stimulus to the fishing industry 
all over the township. Other important results and of 
a more permanent character must be noticed, and chiefly, 
that the few settlers at Cape Negro, already mentioned 
for exceptional treatment in the Second Division of land, 
were reinforced by a number of their former neighbors 
irom Barrington and Port Latour. The Cape Negro 
river had some advantages for industry in general, par- 
ticularly in the convenience of moving timber by rafting. 
Hence, in the general movement for ship building it was 
an economic advantage which was seized by Prince Nick- 
<erson, whose shipyard in the winter drew mechanics and 
helpers from all parts of the township and elsewhere. 
Surely Joseph Swain, a blacksmith, found an opportunity 
there to exercise his craft. 

Reference has been made in previous chapters to 
.'some of the vessels employed by the first settlers; Henry 
Wilson's "Pompey Dick" used also in transporting 
Yarmouth proprietors; Eldad Nickerson's "Sally", and 
"David Smith's packet maintaining constant intercourse 
during the Revolutionary war, though evidently without 
reporting to the officials of either government. Thomas 
Doane, Archelaus Smith and the Greenwoods, the Coffins, 
and the Hopkinses are ready for any enterprise of a coast- 
ing nature in which their vessels can engage. To be afloat 
and at work was for them the essence of life, and in general 
the same craft were used for fishing, freighting or trading 
as opportunity offered. When Mr. Sargent came, his 
possession of capital enabled him to bring with him vessels 
suited to his purposes. Lacking capital, the older settlers 



MARITIME INTERESTS 34 

applied the only remedy in their power and that was to- 
construct the craft needed. They had inherited their 
full share of that self confidence and practical talent 
due to their English ancestry, and British trade policy had 
compelled them to provide for themselves or go without.. 
They now found that the Jack-at-all-trades was on the- 
road to independence, and it was possible for him to build 
vessels as well as houses. Cooperation of brains and 
brawn opened to them the doors of the new era. 

Captain Eldad Nickerson had a schooner "Barring- 
ton," which traditionally heads the list of the home- 
built craft. 

A memorandum of S. 0. Doane, Sr., shows that on 
Dec. 19, 1786 he "entered on board the schooner 'Lucy'" 
at Barrington bound for Boston and was discharged here 
at Barrington, Jan. 29, 1787. His wages at 40/-a month. 
This schooner "Lucy" is one of a list of 15 veessels named 
in a memo-book used by Prince Doane and S. 0. Doane 
from 1777 to 1809. Among the 15 are the William, Maggot, 
Dove, Hannah, Sultan, Eagle, Encouragement, Swallow, 
Harmony, Barrington and Lucy none of which are named 
in the bounty fleet of 1807. 

The "Shelburne Gazetter" on Oct. 26, 1786, reports, 
the sailings of Schr. "Dolphin", Kenney, Barrington and 
"Lucy" Hobbs, for Argyle, and on Nov. 16, 1786, the 
"Harmony, Doane, Barrington." These are indications 
of the activity of Barrington shipping at this time. 

Coincident with the establishment of John Sargent's> 
fishing business there was a general expansion of shipping 
trade, corresponding in a manner to the list of owners 
receiving bounties, as already noted. Some of the larger 
vessels carried lumber and fish to the West Indies in the 
winter months. In Simeon Perkins's diary, Liverpool, 
we find items relative to our township. Schr. Hannah, 
Hopkins, sailed Apr. 29, 1799, on a fish voyage, chartered 
one-half from Stephen Smith of Barrington; Sept. 8, 1805. 



346 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

vessel from Boston owned by Thomas Crowell of Bar- 
rington laden with timber for Halifax dockyard, put into 
Liverpool (name of vessel not given) Capt. McDonald, 
of Yarmouth. Oct. 31, 1805 Capt. Freeman and Simon 
Fraser have bought a schooner about 36 tons from the 
Swains of Cape Negro at 142, said to be a good bargain; 
Jan. 26, 1806 Capt Kelley lost his vessel and most of 
his cargo at Green Island, near Cape Sable about Jan. 
15, on his way from Boston. Feb. 10, 1806 "Seamen in 
general do not like the voyage to Newfoundland." 

Various accounts traceable to family traditions 
have been given of the first vessel built in Barrington. 
The Hon. Thomas Robertson's essay on Shelburne 
gives that honor to Hezekiah Smith and his brothers 
of Cape Island. A list of shipping by Capt. J. F. Coffin 
assigns it to the schooner "Barrington" builder unknown, 
unless the claim of .Joshua Nickerson, grantee, to have 
built the first decked vessel is accepted. As the schooner 
""Dove" in which Joel Laskey and young Harvey Doane 
were lost was in company with a schooner of the Hopkins' 
in 1800 it is likely that these little crafts were a type of the 
vessels built before that time by about all the handy fisher- 
men of the township. Following this we have the class 
predominating in the bounty report given in this chapter. 
When S. 0. Doane was building the "Robin" at Hibbert's 
Brook, Thomas Coffin, Sr., was building at the Town and 
Eldad Nickerson at Cape Negro.. These vessels in this 
"bounty" list of 1807 were probably all built in Barring- 
ton. The "Robin" was built and owned by S. 0. Doane 
and his brothers, who sailed in her together and took turns 
as master, as they did in a sister craft, the "Caroline" 
-which was afterwards new topped in Gamaliel Kenney's 
shipyard and renamed "The Tigress." The "Brougham" 
built for the Homers, and said to be the last superintended 
'in construction by James Doane, and the "Wellington" 



MARITIME INTERESTS 34T 

built at The Town by Thomas Coffin, like the "Caroline" 
reflect in their names the influence of British connection 
for that period. The "Brougham" stuck on the ways, 
and it was said that enough rum was drunk in building 
her to float her; which would fairly account for her not 
taking to the water when the time of launching came.. 
This too was a sign of the times. Cox and Lear at about 
the turn of the century were building vessels at Sherose 
Island, but the privateers made havoc of their work and 
compassed their ruin. Their work here was apparently 
closely followed byEbenezer Crowell andNehemiah Doane. 
Doane's last vessel was the "Ocean" which was lost. 
These with Levi Nickerson at Shag Hr. made a business 
of shipbuilding. Mr. Nickerson' s first vessel was the 
topsail schooner "Hunter" and the last was the "Quick 
March". His son Levi continued the work, the last 
from his shipyard being the schooner "Loyal," One- 
of the most prolific shipyards was that of Gamaliel Kenney 
at the Town. Ten of his vessels were built for Snow and 
Smith of Port Latour or for James Snow or James Smith 
individually. There were many other owners, and one 
of these vessels bore the nickname of the "Forty 
Thieves." Three were built for Michael Wrayton, in- 
business at Doctor's Cove. The schooner Bonita built 
by Kenney for Capt Thomas Coffin, Sr., won first place 
and a government contract in a race from Halifax around 
Sambro Island and back. The '"Abigail" was lost at 
sea with all hands, and with a sister craft lost at the same 
time compelled a dissolution of the business of Snow 
and Smith. James Cox had also a shipyard at the Town 
where he built the "Borolona" for Obed Wilson, Capt. 
Albert Swim; the "Amaranth" for Capt. Peter Coffin;, 
the "Billow" for Capt Joseph Crowell; the "Topsy" for 
Capt. Nathan Crowell; the "Alert" for Capt. Thomas 
Coffin; the "Milo" for Capt James Reynolds, the "Flora" 
for Capt. James Smith. Meantime Eldad Nickerson at 



348 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Cape Negro and Alexander Nickerson of Wood's Harbor 
were putting off vessels frequently and getting a good 
reputation for their workmanship. The brig Sarah Ellen 
was built by Capt. James Hopkins and his brothers. 
She was wrecked on the Austrian Coast. At many other 
places where there was convenient timber and a good 
location men were putting their knowledge and winter 
labor into the construction of a substantial vessel. Some 
of these were Eben Smith, Jacob Kendrick, Archibald 
Hopkins, John Kenney, Colman Crowell. One vessel 
was built on Donaldson's wharf at the Head, and two at 
the River and hauled overland to the harbor. 
> The earliest shipyard at the head of navigation on 
the Clyde was owned by the brothers John and Gavin 
and Alexander Lyle for whom Gilbert McKenna was mast- 
er builder. Here a few small vessels were built. About 
1853 work was revived on a larger scale on the same spot 
by the brothers Captains Thomas and James D. Coffin 
who took up jointly with James Sutherland and sons, 
:some timber lands and milling interests up the river. 
James Cox spent 12 years here as master builder, and was 
followed by Reuben Stoddart in that capacity. Later 
Captain Wm. H. Coffin joined the firm and eventually 
became manager of the business. The first vessel, a 
barque of 424 tons, was launched in 1854, named the "T. 
and J." and commanded by J. D. Coffin. Other vessels 
followed, viz: 

1856. Barquentine "Sarah H. Bell", 200 tons, 
owned by George Wilson and Elijah Wood; Captain Wood, 
commander. 

1857. Barquentine Clyde, 215 tons, owned by T. 
Coffin & Co., commanded first by Thomas Coffin, then 
l>y James D. Coffin. 

1862. Barque Jessie Coffin, 865 tons, Capt. W. H. 
Coffin, commander. Paul Crowell, Theodore H. Crowell, 
James Cox, Nehemiah McGray, John Homer, Joseph 
Jlomer, Frank Cox, Thomas H. Coffin, Charles Seeley 



MARITIME INTERESTS 349 

and others began their responsibilities as officers on these 
ships. In 1863 the Coffins had the barque Helena built 
at Bell's in Shelburne. From their own yard the Schr. 
Racer 140 tons, and brigt. Mary E. Jones, 150 tons were 
put off about the same time. 

.1865. Barque Chancellor, 596 tons, owned by 
Coffins, Capt. John Homer; 1866 schooners Elvira, Start 
and J. T. Amiro. In 1867 schooners Alpine and Mary 
Jane, Barque Village Queen, 402 tons, Capt. N. McGray, 
who had previously been master of the barque Helena; 
J. F. Coffin was chief mate. 

fjtf 1870. Barque Vibilia, 556 tons. Owing to the death 
of Capt. Thos. H. Coffin, Capt. J. D. Coffin took charge 
for the first voyage with Thomas Powell as mate. Capt. 
J. F. Coffin was afterwards master. 

1872. Barque Ocean Express, Capt. S. 0. Crowell. 

1873. Ship H. W. Workman, 1080 tons, Capt. 
Nehemiah McGray, master, John Kenney, first mate 
^ 1875. Ship Hectanooga, 1100 tons, managed by 
Dennis & Doane, Yarmouth, Capt. Cereno Johnson. 

1875-6-7. Schooners Freddie M. Reynolds, Laura 
Douglass, Thomas Roy, Viola and Cod-seeker were 
-launched. 

After this the Schooner Dionis, the barque Fanny 
Cann and the brigt. Seretha were built at this yard, and 
then for a long while the sounds of axe, saw, adze and 
mallet ceased. 

On the Eastern shore at Port Clyde James Suther- 
landfand sons of Barrington township established a ship- 
yard about 1860 where they built the brigt. Samuel 
Muir, 180 tons; the brigt. Speed, 250 tons; schooner 
Lily, 50 tons; M. W. P. owned by Moses and Win. Perry; 
Hydra,45 tons, owned by David Swain and others; bar- 
que Annie Ada, 500 tons; schooner W. H. Dow. This 
^shipyard was destroyed by fire. 

The schooner Aldebaran was built in 1847-8 at the 

Head for Josiah Coffin, A.D. Crowell,0sborne and Charles 

Doane, David and Elisha Atwood, Samuel Westwood 

;and Ebenezer Smith. At Forbes Point, in 1853, the 



350 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

brig Ad valorem was launched and the schooner Willing 
Maid was put off soon afterwards. William son of Alex- - 
ander Forbes Sr., was a skillful master builder and was 
employed also at the Crowell yard near Sherose Island.. 
The revival of shipbuilding took place about 1850. 
Thomas Crowell succeeded to his father's place at Sherose 
Island and built several vessels, four of which were square- 
rigged viz., brig Depatch, for Capt. Thomas Wilson,. 
Sarah Crowell, Capt. S. 0. Crowell; Brig. Maria Crowell 
and Barque Tyrian, owned by Thomas Crowell et al. 
Warren Doane in 1849 built the brig Sebim wnich he first 
sailed as master and then sold to his brother Seth and 
others who had the Australia fever. This party, among 
whom was Arnold Doane, first Barrington historian, went 
in their ship to Australia and sold her there. Warren, 
Doane then devoted himself to ship-building until fifty- 
seven craft in all had been launched. Following are the 
names and owners of a part of this list: 

Brig. "Voyager", 13 7 tons, for Captain Elijah Wood, 
master. 

Brigt. "Onward", Captain Benjamin Banks, and 
others. 

1854. Brigt. "Conquest" G. H. Starr, J. S. Bel- 
cher and others; Barque "Voyager", 214 tons, Capt. 
John 0. Crowell; Brigt. "Starr", Capt. Isaac Hopkins; 
Schr. "Ranger' Capt. Martin Doane; Schr. "Barring- 
ton Packet", Capt. Josiah Hopkins; Topsail schooner, 
"Albert"; Brigt. "Alice"; schooner "Mary Alice", 
Capt. E. Wood; brigts. "Thomas Albert", "Iris", "Regatta 
"Ida", "Helen", "Ariel", "Reaper", "Elbe", "W. A. 
Henry" "Dottie", "Ich Dien", "Helen", "Eureka", "Al- 
bion", "Lillie Sleightholm", "Laura", "Zulu' , "Premier", 
"Bohemia" and "Stag". 

The "Stag" on her maiden voyage with a Barrington 
crew was never heard of after leaving Halifax. 

Shipwrecks A part of the attention which shipping interests 

have fixed upon this township has been due to 

the many shipwrecks which from time immemorial have- 






MARITIME INTERESTS 351 

marked its coast from the Half-moons to the Seal 
and Mud islands. The record of these wrecks as kept 
.at the Barrington agency of Lloyds from Mar. 1814 to 
1875 shows 36 ships, 74 brigs, 74 schooners and 3 steamers 
with a total tonnage of 36,686. Among the first of these 
in Jan. 1817 is the brig. Friendship, bound from St. 
Lucia to Halifax, 175 tons, Richard Hichens, master. 
This young captain became a citizen of the place where 
he found terra firma. Until 1850 there were but two years 
when one or more wrecks were not reported and doubtless 
many on this shore were like that of the schooner Ardent 
of Portland, 1828. "All hands lost." It may be stated 
too that the S. S. Hungarian, lost in 1860, is not named 
in the list I have quoted, and the list is evidently in other 
respects incomplete. Within the space of one year 
1822-3 three ships, the Martha, Mountaineer and Herald 
took bottom near the Gape Ledges. The names of Brig 
George, 1833, Brig Whitwell Grange, 1841, Brig Havre, 
July 1847, Ship Staffordshire, 1854, Bark Columbia, 1866, 
S S. St. George, 1869; S. S. Alhambra 1875, Barque Sabra 
Moses, 1875, are amongst the casualties. The brig 
"Eclipse" of Halifax was lost with all hands off Cape 
Sable in December 1831. Six bodies were afterwards 
found and buried on Cape Island when a funeral sermon 
was preached by Rev. Asa McGray. The Brig Sophia, 
>Stirling, partly owned in Barrington, and insured in 
the Barrington Marine Insurance Company, was wrecked 
in 1867 on the East side of Barrington Bay and her loss 
was attended by long litigation. The Brig Havre, a 
two decker of 296 tons, already mentioned, struck on the 
ledges at Mutton Isands, in July 1847 and floating, 
was run through Barrington Passage and beached at 
Robertson's. Here the hulk lay for thirty years. Roofed 
-over she was made into a warehouse and connected with 
the wharf. Her deck was used by the Volunteers in the 
^sixties as a drill-shed, and in many respects besides the 



352 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

"Old Brig" served a purpose, even to shelter a political' 
caucus. 

The port of Barrington was much disturbed by events - 
connected with the case of the Brig "Mary", Duncan 
master from Dublin, in the winter of 1831-2. She struck 
a shoal near the harbor, was got off and brought in. There- 
were a number of women and children among the passen- 
gers. The vessel was short of provisions, but the passen- 
gers were cared for by the inhabitants while the vessel 
was repaired. The captain then seized his papers from 
the collector and tried to get away without settling for 
the work. In this he did not succeed, but when released 
and he had reached St. John he published a scandalous- 
account of the treatment he received in Barrington. As, 
this gained circulation the magistrates of the place 
requested John McKinnon, Esq., of Argyle to go to Bar- 
rington and take depositions of parties there to be for- 
warded to the House of Assembly. Sworn statements 
were made accordingly by John C. Smith, pilot; Arche- 
laus Newell, Daniel V. Kenney, Eleazar Crowell, owners 
of a vessel rendering aid; M. Wrayton, a passenger; 
Gamaliel Kenney, ship wright; Dr. Geddes, Health officer, 
and Ebenezer Crowell, Obed Wilson, John Homer, Wm.. 
B. Sargent, magistrates. Messrs. S. W. DeBlois, W. H. 
Roach, Jas. Freeman, James Harris, Benj. De Wolfe,, 
M.P.P/s, a Committee of the House of Assembly, after 
examination exonerated the people from Duncan's char- 
ges and joined with it their opinion that a charge which 
had previously been made by a Capt. McKay, published 
in Purday's Sailing Directions and cited by Capt. Duncan, 
was both unfounded in fact and calumnious in character- 
It appears that when the "Mary" came off the shoal 
Duncan proceeded seven miles seaward with the salvage 
crew on board, and they were compelled to pump and bale 
all night to keep the brig from sinking. Then he offered 
the pilot ten pounds to take her in and she was grounded. 







SHIP HECTANOOGA. 
Built at Coffin's Shipyard, Port Clyde. 




TYPICAL TOPSAIL SCHOONER AND LAUNCHING. 
Harrington Rig, built at Warren Doane's Yard. 



MARITIME INTERESTS 353 

in the harbor and repaired. Phineas Nickerson, Reuben 
Nickerson, Nehemiah Crowell, Wm. Wathan, Thomas 
Bethell, Josiah Coffin and William Robertson were also 
participants in the affair. Mr. Wrayton became a residens 
of Barrington. Capt. Duncan had been starying hit 
passengers and tried to get rid of them in Barrington, and 
had charged the people who supplied their wants there 
with inhumanity in the St. John press. 

Incidental to life alongside this famous graveyard 
of the Atlantic were constant demands upon the people 
for efforts to rescue or relieve the distress of those imper- 
illed on that coast. 

On Jan. 1832 while Wm. Robertson was selling the 
cargo of the wrecked brig. George at the Passage, Michael 
Swim came over from Cape Island with the message that 
the brig Eclipse of Halifax, laden with flour, was lost with 
all hands, on a reef between West Head and Green Island. 
There was a high westerly gale with heavy sea. A light 
had been seen at 8 p.m., and answered from the shore. 

The transport ship "Martha" was wrecked near 
Cape Sable in 1783 and 99 perishsd. 

As to those who go down to the sea in ships the follow- 
ing illustrates experiences, too common indeed in the town- 
ship history. On the brig Avon, the master J. Payne 
Doane, having been sick on the voyage from London to 
Halifax, died during a hurricane in which the brig was 
dismasted. The mate, Bartlett Covell, took charge, and 
assisted by an Irish Catholic, prepared the body for burial. 
He was sewed up in canvas, and the burial service was 
read by the mate. The Irishman said, "Let him go, feet 
foremost, down to the blessed Jesus." The sea was calm 
and they watched the body go down, down in the clear 
still water. Fourteen days after that the brig arrived 
in Halifax. 



354 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

Our readers may wonder at the absence of the usual 
titles in our references to well known shipmasters of the 
township. The explanation is found in the almost uni- 
versal use of the term Captain for masters of vessels, and* 
the quite general attainment of that position by these sea- 
faring people. Little companies of men, often brothers, 
or a father and his sons, built and owned a schooner or 
brig, sailed in her together, and took turns in command. 
The harmony of capital and labor was complete and the 
younger men reached competency by thorough friendly 
discipline; once in command, the title of captain was a 
fixture. The fishing banks, the trips to West Indies 
or Spanish ports, the whaling cruise to the Pacific, all 
in home owned vessels, or the foreign voyage in the clipper 
sailing ship afforded almost the only variety in the man- 
ner of life to the ambitious youth of Barrington. And 
they made good. From all over the township they went, 
paying homage to Neptune, and they earned the trophies, 
the fair fame, the independence accorded them, and the 
love of the homes they generously maintained. 

The following compilation is made from statistics 
furnished in a lecture of Rev. Winthrop Sargent in 1863. 



MARITIME INTERESTS 355 



<D 
t* 
03 
JH 

O 



-23 <ji 

I 



v 

riiOCD 

iss:^ 



1 N 

o 

OH 





o 

iH 0* LO 10 l> TH E 

a5<MCO^t*OCD r^CDCD ^H^CD'^m 

i K. r^\ r**\ r^\ r^\ r^\ . _ \^\ rs^ r**\ f*f\ syr\ /y\ ^y\ rri * v ^-* 

rH TH rH 



356 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

Sable Island Along our Eastern Coasts there is no more 
desolate or dreaded spot than Sable Island. 
Its record of shipwrecks has been terrifying, yet numerous 
attempts were made from the first coming of Europeans 
to establish a colony there. These all failed, and individ- 
ual ventures on the prospect of obtaining treasure 
from the wrecks had a like result. In 1801 our Assembly 
made provision for government signalling stations there, 
and soon afterwards a superintendent was appointed. 
Barrington traditions are intimately connected with 
the story of Sable Island. The following accounts were 
handed down by J.P.Doane. "An American fishing vessel 
had called at Barrington and shipped two men Eldad 
Nickerson and Eleazer Crowell for a sealing trip to Sable 
Island. These men with Ziba Hunt, one of the crew, from 
Chatham, Mass., had landed on the island to hunt seals 
but a storm prevented them getting on board their vessel, 
which left them there. They got back to Barrington 
where Ziba Hunt remained. Later, in the spring of 1799, 
Ziba Hunt and Coleman Crowell of Barrington were left 
on Sable Island to look after wrecks. In the fall Capt. 
John Reynolds went to the island to take them off, but 
owing to bad weather could not land there and came away 
without them. They subsisted the most of the winter 
on cranberries and horseflesh, and then found some barrels 
of biscuit in the wreckage of a vessel there. This vessel 
was probably the "Frances" a Br. transport which was 
wrecked there in December and all hands lost (See Mur- 
doch III. 193). Capt. Reynolds' schooner came in the 
spring for the men and took on some wreck stuff, princi- 
pally liquor and clothing, which he brought to Barrington. 
The wreck was a government ship bringing out supplies 
for the garrison at Halifax. Only one body came on shore, 
that of a woman, the wife of an army doctor coming to 
join her husband. When they reached Barrington, with- 
out giving any report to government, they unwisely sold 



MARITIME INTEREST 357 

and distributed the wreckage stuff all about the place. 
'There were silk stockings, red coats and jackets, soldier's 
'Caps and all kinds of articles both for officers and pri- 
vates. Red coats and jackets were very common at 
meetings and elsewhere. Father said that grandfather 
bought him a coat. Uncle Tut Coffin kept lots of things 
for sale. He was somehow concerned in it (the owner 
of the vessel likely). Father remembered hearing Cole- 
man Crowell at the old mill bridge (made of round sticks) 
telling old Mr. Wilson about it. He said the woman 
lay on the Beach quite naked, except a ring on her finger. 
"Did you take it off, said Mr. Wilson. "No," was the 
reply. How did I know but it was some gift." Capt. 
Reynolds went to Halifax but escaped any punishment 
though quite notorious on account of the affair. The 
Duke of Kent, who was then in command, met him on 
the street and spoke to him, "Such conduct," he said, 
'might do very well for Americans but not for British 
subjects/ ' The Duke of Kent returned to England in 
1800. To the Superintendent of Sable Island who was ap- 
pointed the next year two assistants were given to man 
the signal stations and these were relieved half-yearly. It 
was customary for this relief to be effected by vessels 
and men from Barrington and Capt. Reynolds was still 
employed. When a generation later the waters about 
Sable Island were resorted to for mackerel fishing a Bar- 
rington fleet tended there in the season. It may be taken 
for granted that John Sargent, M. P. P., was active in 
getting the station for the island in 1801 and the return 
of 1804 is significant in its showing that up to that time 
41 persons from five vessels wrecked there had been saved 
together with property valued at 2300. Owing to the 
similarity of the names Cape Sable Island and Sable 
Island there has been a confusion in the minds even of 
educated people, especially in the stories of outrage and 
piracy connected with Sable Island history. This is 



358 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

particularly the case in a ghost story of Sam Slick, 
"Wise Saws",where the most gruesome details are related, 
but which Dr. Patterson has shown in his history of 
Sable Id., to be a mixture of gossip and invention. In the 
Collections of the N. S. Hist. Society No. IX, an article 
on "Ships of war wrecked" etc., gives the following story: 

"The Frances" a transport brig, of 280 tons was- 
bringing out from England for the Duke of Kent some 
valuable furniture and books and a number of horses 
all in charge of Mr. Copeland, a surgeon of the Duke's 
favorite regiment, the 7th Fusiliers, who had with him 
his wife and child. Having failed to arrive at Halifax 
H. M. cutter Trepassey was sent to Sable Island. The 
following is a summary of the report of Lieut-commander 
Scrambler: after landing on Sable Island the stock sent 
by Sir James Wentworth and seeing a schooner at anchor 
near the N. W. end I made sail and spoke her. It was, 
the "Dauphin" of Harrington laden with fish, sealskins 
and oil. She had several trunks very much damaged 
on board which appeared to have been washed ashore. 
One was directed to H. R. H. Prince Edward, another 
to Capt. Sterling, 7th Regt., both empty. Another with 
two overcoats, etc. The master told me he had two men 
on Sable Island during the winter connected with the 
sealing trade who had built a hut on the east end of the 
Island. From one of these I learned that about 22 Dec. 
last after a severe S. E. gale a woman was found washed 
ashore with the trunks, 12 horses, etc. The lady, whose 
ring they could not get off, they buried. 

The gun brig. Harriet was lost at Sable Island in May 
of the ^same year," 1800. 

The passage quoted will show the nature of the voy- 
ages made by Barrington vessels to the island at that 
time. Later, the mackerel fishery attracted many of 
the owners of vessels for a long period. Pauls. Thos. Crow- 
ell bore the title Governor of Sable Island. His name- 
sake, after representing the township in the Assembly 
was in command of a fishery protection schooner in the 
first stage of responsible government. The bank fisher- 



MARITIME INTERESTS 359 

men of today regard Sable Island only to give it a wide 
berth. 

Piracy Among the many perils to which men engaged 
in West India trade were exposed were encoun- 
ters with piratical craft operating among those islands. 
This continued well down to the middle of the 19th 
century for the father of the author was chased by a pirate 
at about that time and escaped through the rising of a 
friendly gale. One of the remarkable stories coming 
from that period is that of the fate of Capt. Cunningham, 
father of Mrs. Nehemiah Banks and Mrs. Michael Wray- 
ton. His brig was captured and robbed soon after leaving 
port where they had sold their cargo. They probably 
had the proceeds of the sale on board as was customary 
when going to another port for return cargo. The pirates 
then took Capt. Cunningham and a Shelburne man. 
Martin Peach in their boat; and as they rowed towards 
the shore, Peach, who was sitting in the bow, saw them 
cut Capt. Cunningham's throat. He immediately 
dived into the sea and as it was about dusk managed to 
elude them and get to land. He recognized among the 
pirates the men who bought the cargo in Cuba. Soon 
after from his place of hiding he swam to a British man- 
of-war which came into the Bay, and this ship pursued 
and recaptured the brig and executed the pirates. An- 
other vessel commanded by Capt. Lewis Crowell, with 
John, son of Bartlett Covell as mate, sailed from Cuba 
on her return voyage, and was never heard from. They 
had on board the money for the cargo sold, and were 
supposed to have been taken by pirates. 

In General Warren S. Doane from 1840 to 1849 
helped to build and commanded, the 
brigt. Reindeer, the Sch. Voyager and brig Sebim. 
On his first voyage in the Sebim they rescued a crew 
of eleven from a sinking Spanish ship in a storm. 



360 MARITIME INTERESTS 

On the same voyage they saved the crew of the Schr. 

Voyager, of which his brother Seth was master, their 

vessel having been abandoned. After this Warren. 

Doane began building vessels at the Head. The 
Sebim was sold in 1852 to a group of men who went 

in her to Australia where they sold her and went . to 
the "diggings". 

Reference has been made to West Ledge not far 
from Beach Point on the West Side of the Harbor ChanneL 
In 1865 a grant of $600 was made for building a beacon 
in the form of a square block of split stone upon the ledge. 
The name was changed conformably to a nickname 
given to a prominent citizen. In the gale of Oct. 1871 
the beacon, having previously been undermined, complete- 
ly collapsed. 

On Sept. 22, 1866, a terrific gale swept the Banks, 
and several fishing vessels were lost: (1) "The Elvira", 
Edmund Smith, master, built the winter before by T. 
Coffin & Co., Robert Hopkins washed overboard, the 
rest of the crew taken off. Loss to owner $7,600. (2) 
The "Veloz" lost with all her crew of fifteen. Eight 
widows and twenty-seven orphans in consequence in a 
small neighborhood. (3) The "Wide Awake" was lost 
with all her crew except two who had boarded the "Elvira" 
in their dory in the fog before the gale, and were saved. 
(4) The "J. P. Nickerson" and all her crew of fifteen men 
were also lost. These vessels belonged to citizens of 
Bear Point and Wood's Hr. Thirty-eight men perished, 
and there were 23 widows and 65 orphans. The schr. 
"Gen. Williams" James McCommiskey, master, was dis- 
masted and abandoned; the "Osprey" also of Wood's* 
Harbor was not heard of afterwards, The loss of 
property was estimated at $23,000. Much destitution 
followed and relief was given in many cases by the Prov- 
incial government. 



CHAPTER XX. 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION AND LOCAL 
INDUSTRY. 



Under the French regime we have seen the little 
"barons with spacious but precarious holdings. Their 
more numerous English successors, limited in the scope of 
their grants, soon spread their tenements over the whole 
coast. After the fashion of other colonizers the places 
marked by previous attempts at settlement were occupied 
as points of departure. More or less recent these remaind- 
ers indicated a choice of location which might still be of 
value. Though the buildings of the Acadians had per- 
ished, there were lands, conveniences and harbors still to 
be utilized. Charles Latour's fort had been a place for 
trade with Boston and Old France in the middle of the 
seventeenth century, and ever since the crews of passing 
ships had discussed the history and environment of the 
famous place. Now that war's alarms had died away, the 
old harbor's proximity to the fishing grounds made it a 
valuable base of summer operations for the New England 
fishermen. Along the upper harbor and at Cape Negro, 
as well as at Barrington, and Cape Island, there were 
similar inducements for a more permanent occupation by 
the grantees. 

Agriculture The most of the township consisted of forest 
land and marshes. The clearing of the wood- 
lands did not, as might have been expected, reveal land 
rich and clear to invite the labor of the farmer, but rather 
a rocky soil and a forbidding picture. The mineral map 
'of the township shows it as a great granite wedge with an 
'apparent dearth of cultivable soil. But even in Barring- 
ton the occasional farmer finds reward for diligence; there 
:is hardly any settled part but gives opportunity for gard- 

361 



362 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

erring and small farming; the agricultural society has 
found a place, and indeed, acre for acre, the fields among 
the boulders produce grass and vegetables and grain equal 
to the best. The soil is rich, but is at a disadvantage for 
economic cultivation since the introduction of machinery. 
Two generations ago some of our people lured by the ac- 
counts of Australian land, so rich in gold that stone fen- 
ces were built of gold quartz, visited that continent in 
quest of wealth, but came back without it, and lived long 
in Barrington in comfort, where no gold, so far, but the 
fool-gold of Bullhill has been exploited. 

In 1831, Dec. 29 an Agricultural Society was formed 
after the fashion then current in the Province. The Com- 
mittee comprised John Homer, President, Joseph Reynolds, 
Vice-Pres., S. 0. Doane, Treas., John Bennison, Sec., Rev. 
Asa McGray, Edward Kendrick, John Lyle, John JVEc- 
Killip, Wm. Patterson, Samuel Reynolds, James Snow, 
Josiah Coffin, Eton Crowell. At a meeting of the Com- 
mittee Jan 3, 1832 the following, among other resolutions,, 
were passed. 

(1) Agriculture as a source of wealth is too much 
neglected in this township. (2) We are convinced that 
the land of this township properly cultivated would be 
equally productive with uplands in any part of the Prov- 
ince. (3) The primary objects of this Society shall be to 
improve the quality of the grain of different kinds by 
procuring the best seed, to improve the breed of cattle 
and sheep, to encourage by all possible means the growth 
of a superior kind of oats, and to endeavor to obtain an 
Oatmill and Kilns. 

Trade and Aside from the basic fishing business, which 
Industry could be followed for a half-year at most, there 
was much to occupy the energies of the new settlers. The 
incident related concerning the fishermen, who met Mrs. 
Archelaus Smith at Barrington on her first arrival there 
after her husband had just sailed for Cape Cod, and who 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 363 

~built a log-house for her and her little family, shows the 
spirit of ready cooperation which prevailed among the 
first proprietors. Felling trees, dressing and laying logs 
and building vessels called for union and reciprocity of 
service. 

The barriers erected by English manufacturers again- 
st colonial production of goods which the old country 
could supply and which was a chief incitement to the Re- 
volution, led of course to home-made substitutes where 
native ingenuity could supply the necessary articles. The 
condition of affairs in this respect in New England was re- 
produced in Harrington . The jack of all trades was com- 
mon and mechanical skill was not rare. Money was 
scarce and trading and the employment of labor were 
chiefly a matter of barter whether in marketing fish 
and oil at Boston or in the extension of their planta- 
tions by the proprietors. 

After peace was declared, and Shelburne was settled, 
there was a general belief that this Star of the East was a 
herald of commercial salvation, so that the Second Divis- 
ion of township land was made to give every grantee a 
fair chance to profit by the proximity of a city market. 
That prospect was not realized; but, on the other hand, 
there came, in the new accession of population from the 
disbanded soldiers and loyalist home-seekers, a valuable 
contribution to the industrial development of the town- 
ship. Many of these newcomers were tradesmen whose 
skill found a market and supplemented the support other- 
wise available. The original settlers retained a distinct 
leadership to the end in the shipbuilding industry, but 
the community was enriched by the varied enterprises 
set on foot by the disbanded soldiers and other additions 
to the citizenship. 

Carpentry was a necessity from the outset. To secure 
a rooftree, either by rebuilding the materials brought 
from Massachusetts, or by constructing the ruder 



364 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

log house was the most urgent demand on the men of 
family. Broad axe and saw, hatchet and jack plane were 
brought and kept in use, and with the use came confidence 
and skill. Certain stages of development are traceable* 
First, that of the log-house, solid and comfortable but a 
makeshift after all. Hard times, war times and large 
families often deferred the fulfillment of plans for frame 
houses. For some time sawed lumber had to be im- 
ported as needed. The first local supply was from a 
mill at Hibbert's Brook. Then Joshua Nickerson built 
a mill about where the Woolen Mill now stands. The 
loss of population, fear of privateers and scarcity of 
money during the war made milling unprofitable so that 
until Mr. Sargent came and built another mill, builders 
were chiefly dependent on the whip saw and broad axe 
for the lumber required. 

The next stage was that of the revival of trade after 
the Revolution when the second generation founded their 
homes on the lands of the Second and Third Divisions. 
The frame houses then built were outwardly of the bung- 
alow type without the verandah. With the decay of 
Shelburne it became quite a fashion to bring the deserted 
houses, some of them two-storey, and set them up in Bar- 
rington. This led to the construction of larger houses by 
the younger men who had prospered in business, so that 
during the first half of the nineteenth century the primi- 
tive dwellings mostly disappeared and gave place to 
houses having ornate porticos and exterior finish, interior 
conveniences and elegance of furnishing. A great variety 
of styles came in and has since been maintained, the result 
in part of the impressions made upon our numerous mari- 
ners in the world's ports. 

In many parts of the township visitors are apt to ob- 
serve that the old houses do not lie in line with the nearest 
street. At West Head the houses face the shore, for the 
public highway lay originally along the margin of the up- 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 365 

land; and so with other places. When the men folks were 
in the shore fishing or coasting trade the most eligible 
house site was that overlooking the harbor. From the 
early morn when father and sons set sail for the fishing 
ground until they were on the home stretch for the land- 
ing at night, mother," wife and sisters followed them with 
watchings of weather, and frequent prayers, so true is the 
loving heart a reflex of the restless sea. 

We will attempt to follow the movements of these 
earlier settlers into the different localities and observe the 
sorts of industry increasing with the population and the 
growth and marks of prosperity and extension, or other- 
wise, of the settlements. 

Port Latour Nathaniel Smith, Senior, whose First Div- 
ision lot was at Barrington Head, No. 29, had 
his fish lot and first dwelling house at Port Latour. Here 
also his son Nathaniel, gr., Nathan Snow, gr., Chapman 
Swain and his son Joseph, grs., chose their homes; and 
their descendants still possess the land, and go down to 
the sea in ships. William Spinney was a notable early- 
addition; he secured for himself the Governor's lot. After 
the war the Taylors, Nickersons, Crowells and others; 
arrived. Always the fishery business was urgently prose- 
cuted, freighters were employed, excellent stores estab- 
lished and an ideal community grew up around the ruins, 
of old fort St. Louis. Snow and Smith were the first to 
carry on an extensive trade which was located at Lower 
Port Latour. They had several vessels built in which 
they had generally a controlling interest; they caught, 
cured, bought and marketed fish along with a general 
business. After the dissolution of this partnership Sam- 
uel Smith carried on an important trade and James Snow 
had a freighter, The Stranger. 

Then Asa D. Crowell with his Cash Store the original 
of which was Donaldson's shop moved from The Head; 



366 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

a Union Store, was organized by David Smith and others; 
these held the field along with Taylor's and Hopkins' 
packetsuntil after Confederation, when the rival stores 
the "Consolidated", and the packets were forced out of 
united as the running, as Capt. Taylor said, by the com- 
petition of subsidized coasting steamers. Steam and 
motor boats have completed the revolution of business in 
that section as in all other parts of the township. 

But the borders were extended towards Baccaro 
where the first light-house in the township was built in 
John, son of Nathaniel Smith Jr., David K. Smith 
1848 and first lit Jan 1. 1849 by Jas. S. Smith, 
and Joseph Reynolds made their homes on the Eastern 
side; on the West, Jacob Purdy, Jonathan and Jesse 
Crowell, Alexander Christie, Thomas Bethel, William and 
Isaac Huskins and Wm. Worthen were about the first. 
At the Ponds Elkanah and Joshua, sons of Caleb Nicker- 
son also settled at an early period. At Cat Point one of 
the first fishing traps was operated. Smith ville and Bac- 
caro East and West have figured in the front rank in 
fishing enterprise. 

On Upper Port Latour harbor Nathan Nickerson, 
formerly of Yarmouth, settled at Eel Bay, having bought 
lot 86 of the Second Division from Daniel Hibbert in 1784. 
This he sold to John Reynolds in 1793 who founded Rey- 
noldscroft there. Three sons of Nathan Snow gr., had 
their homesteads at Upper Port Latour and were reinfor- 
ced by Horton, Dowling, Powell, Sholds, Ross, Patterson 
and others. Patterson promoted the building of Mc- 
Dougall's bridge on which Joseph Purdy was head work- 
man. Col. McDougall, inspecting field officer paid three 
guineas to have the bridge named for him. 

Patterson and Knowles Reynolds carried on a large 
trade here for a while; Jonathan Smith had a general store 
on the East side of Eel Bay and sold salt, rum, and staple 
articles. Communications were improved not only by 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 367 

McDougall's bridge but also by the Patterson road opened 
through direct to Doane's Hill and by the bridge at North 
West Creek. 

Upper Port Latour received many negroes mostly 
from Burchtown, as settlers. One of these, Nicholas 
Thomson was brought from Shelburne by Solomon Ken- 
drick Jr., in a knapsack. This negro colony has scat- 
tered and vanished. 

Cape Negro At Cape Negro lots were laid off in the 
First Division to Peleg Coffin, Sacco Bar- 
nes, Timothy Bryant and Capt. Samuel Knowles. These 
all had houses there not far from Purgatory Point or 
Point William, as formerly known. McKillip bought out 
Peleg Coffin; Knowles was drowned. Meantime Joseph 
Swain from Port Latour and John Swain from The Town, 
grantees, had moved to Cape Negro; and with them Wil- 
liam Swain, Samuel and Benjamin Smith and Prince 
Nickerson are to be named as the founders of the com- 
munity. Thomas s. Isaac King and Nathaniel Smith Jr. 
also lived here for a time. Joseph Swain had skill as a 
blacksmith and John Swain as a boatbuilder. The junc- 
tion of the roads from Port Latour, Blanche and Clyde 
River formed a good business stand ; some opportunity for 
agriculture was offered also, but not as formerly for the 
ancient French, for the meadows nearby were fast disap- 
pearing into flats. John McKillip kept 40 head of cattle 
on his property. His son-in-law Capt. Longhurst, lived 
with him and when they died were among the first buried 
in the Chapel Cemetery which had been dedicated by 
James Barss of Blanche. After McKillip's death his son 
kept a tavern. 

Blanche The dominant lure of the fish-line drew settlers: 

to Blanche from the first. Nathan Nickerson, 

Elam Thomas, Samuel Bootman, Wm. Greenwood, John 

Coffin Jr., Chapman Swain, Frederick Slate and Michael 



368 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

Madden were pioneers. Steven Smith (s. Elisha) and 
James Obed, a wrecked mariner, came later. Barss's 
Cove at Blanche takes its name from Benjamin Barss, gr. 
whose wife was Mary, d. David Smith gr. Sherose Island. 
The family moved to Sambro and later to P. E. Island. 

Port Clyde Elkanah Smith gr., and his son Joseph set- 
tled at Lyle's Bridge after the Second Div- 
ision. They sold out to Lyle's and Greenwood on both 
sides of the river before 1800. The Smiths had planted 
their homes at Indian Brook. Gradually the western 
shore of Cape Negro Harbor was occupied, mainly by the 
descendants of those already named. The Lyles farmed, 
occupied Smoke Point and built some vessels. Capt. 
Eldad Nickerson was a famous ship builder setting the 
pace for the Coffin's and Sutherlands, who milled their 
ship timber on the river and rafted it to the harbor. Boyd's 
mill on the Creek was running in those days. 

Cape Negro Cape Negro Island, named by Champlain 
Island on his first voyage here, had for a first set- 

fc tier one Rogers. John McKillip stopped 

here a while when he first came from Shelburne. John 
Stoddart and his wife lived on the island for a year about 
1790. Freeman Burgess and his wife Sarah had a son 
born here in 1813. Burgess had a fishing stage at Black- 
smith Beach, a name due probably to the trade of Samuel 
Griswold, who came there from Halifax and was often 
employed in shipwork on the main. His son Capt. 
Emery married and settled in P. Latour. Thomas 
s. William Greenwood 1st., Samuel Whitney of St. John, 
Nathan Doane of Roseway, John Cook and Alfred Perry 
of Yarmouth, Thomas King and James Barss were also 
early residents. The island has been an excellent base for 
sea fishery, and has had fish packing establishments in 
recent times. John James Thomas 3rd bought a right 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 369 

from the proprietors of the island for one pound over a 
century ago. The island had been laid off in 50 shares in 
1785. It was then well covered with hardwood forest. 
As all had free access to the unfenced woodland the forest 
soon disappeared. John Snow Sr. lived for a time on the 
Island; Enoch Thomas son of John James was born there 
in 1839. A lobster factory was carried on for several 
years, and a schooner packet ran for a while from 
Cape Negro ports to Halifax. A light house was es- 
tablished there more recently. 

And here we must glance across the bounds of 
Cape Negro harbor and river and claim the right to recog- 
nize our intimate relationship so far back as the early 
years of settlement with some of the villages there. 
Port Roseway has been frequently mentioned in this 
history 1 . The name is probably a corrupt- 
ed form of the French razoir, a razor, by which the harbor 
of Shelburne was first known and due to its shape. The 
part occupied by the Barrington people seeking the Shel- 
burne fish market, includes Red Head, Kirby's Creek and 
Gunning Cove. The titles of the Snows and Doanes 
antedated those of the Shelburne grantees. Eleazer 
Doane and his wife Hannah and sons Nathan, Asa and 
Duncan came from Shepody to Roseway. The families 
of Asa Doane, who married the widow of Samuel Hamil- 
ton gr., of Joshua Snow gr., and of Duncan Doane became 
permanent settlers there. Nathan Doane removed to 
North West Harbor. 

Port Saxon is the old Indian Brook, an ancient Micmac 
resort, where graves and other relics perpet- 
uate their memory. Here William Greenwood of Virginia 
-came after a sojourn at the Millstream. His son Wil- 
liam afterwards bought 700 acres of Shelburne grant land 
near Lyle's bridge for a sovereign.* At the same time 

*The grant of all the land on the E. shore of Cape Negro river waa made 
4n 1786. 



370 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

Solomon Smith Sr., gr. and his sons Theodore and Elisha 
moved to Indian Brook. His brother Elkanah then lived 
across the stream at Port Clyde. Solomon's daughter 
Grace was Wm. Greenwood's wife. Theodore's wife was 
Patience daughter Thomas Crowell Sr. gr. Thus this 
village was begun by the Barrington proprietors and from 
"here there has been a steady overflow and mixture of 
blood with the pioneers of remoter settlements. William 
Greenwood kept the first public house on Cape Negro 
Harbor. Here also the first Methodist Chapel in Shel- 
burne Co. was built. Before that, meetings were held in 
the house of Solomon Smith. On both sides of the harbor 
they suffered the attentions of the privateers of the Revo- 
lution, and Wm. Greenwood even had his vessel carried 
off by them after peace had been declared. He knew the 
way to Boston as well as they did, and followed them 
there, and recovered this part of his plundered property.. 

The Hill The removal of the Quakers to Nantucket made 
almost a clean sweep of this early settlement.. 
Timothy Covel, who had signed the petition to the Mass- 
achusetts Court in 1776 remained in possession of James 
Bunker's lot after the war. His daughters married at the 
Hill and his sons moved to Cape Island. John Coffin ob- 
tained the property of several who went away; Hezekiah 
son of Nathan Snow, gr., Jesse and Barnabas Crowell,, 
Zebulon Gardner, Gorham Gardner, Obed. Smith and 
Coleman Crowell were permanent first settlers of the old 
comers. Thomas Black, Thomas Worthen, Joseph Purdy,. 
John Lamrock and Edward Reynolds were their new 
neighbors. Nathaniel, son of Morris Hobbs of Argyle, 
was the first to live on the Lamrock place at Solid Rock. 
The Town was an early participant in the ship building 
industry and its shipwrights, caulkers and smiths were 
men of fame. 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 371 

''The Head The Head was from the first a headquarters of 
the fisheries. Capt. Eldad Nickerson had a sub- 
tstantial business at Fish Point. Edmund Doane had a gen- 
eral store and tavern on the East side of the River at the 
Head of tide water. This was taken over by John Homer 
who came from Boston about 1775. Capt. David Smith 
had also an extensive trade at the wharf premises he 
afterwards sold to John Sargent. The waterpower of the 
River was speedily utilized for milling, and the alewive 
fishery and bait supply was a most important asset to this 
township centre. 

Changes were frequent in this section as many pro- 
prietors sold out and removed to other parts of the town- 
;ship. 

There remained representatives of Solomon Smith, 
Edmund Doane, who had removed to Doanes' Hill, Jos- 
hua Atwood, Theodore Harding, Heman Kenney, Joshua 
Nickerson, Samuel Wood and Jonathan Crowell. Joseph 
Homer had Edmund Doane's place of business, John 
Sargent had David Smith's, and Wm. Donaldson had a 
general store and cooperage. Jacob Glance, Samuel 
Westwood, Alexander Christie, Samuel Watson, Wm. 
Adams, Thomas West and William Watt moved in; James 
Cox, Thomas Middling, Dr. Geddes, Charles McLarren, 
'Thomas Jones, John Bennison, Edward Stanley, J. B. 
Lawrence, Robert Hogg and others took up vacant pro- 
perties. Ship building became active at the Town and 
the Head; the tannery, grist-mill and boot and shoe busi- 
ness flourished and there was work ashore for the many 
craftsmen who were tired of the roving life. The estab- 
lishment of the Separate Sessions of Barrington gave new 
importance to the Head as Headquarters of the Township. 
The River and Oakpark on the Yarmouth Post road fur- 
rnished homes for many both of the old and new comers. 

A. D. Crowell, Ebenezer Smith and later, J. B. Law- 
rence carried on extensive trade, as did John Ells' smithy 



372 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

and Powells and Watt's tailor shops shortly after the mid- 
dle of the century. There was no lack of enterprise. John 
Sargent attempted to start an axe factory; his West India 
trade was considerable. William and Theodore sons of 
William Adams settled at Oakpark along side of Simeon 
Nickerson's family. Thomas Worthen, Alex. Christie 
and Thomas Black lived at the River when first coming to 
the township. John Homer organized a Company for 
bank fishing and West India business on a large scale, but 
it did not at once succeed or satisfy some Halifax partners 
and was closed. Some use was always made of the water 
power on Harrington river and the Millstream in sawmills, 
grist and carding mills and tanneries to meet the local de- 
mand. Thomas West had a tannery at the Millstream ("Old 
French") and the water power there has been continuously 
utilized to the present day. 

Warren Doane's shipyard for many years sent out an 
excellent class of vessels generally owned in part or alto- 
gether in the place and thus provided an industry in keep- 
ing with the genius of the township. A number of residents 
here are named in the lists given elsewhere of public officials. 

Hibberts Brook and the Cove at its outlet was at 
first a place for business. The proprietors' records show 
that there was a mill there before the Grant. A number 
of fishlots were near, a sort of port for the Town projected 
just to the eastward. In later times the schoolhouse on 
Ned Doane's Hill was an important factor in the education . 
of two generations of people. 

The Head has remained the centre of the township 
business. When the old meeting-house was reserved for 
religious meetings it became necessary to have a Court 
house and jail for the District, and since then the general 
post office, telegraph office, the registry, the municipal 
offices, the first bank and central telephone have been lo- 
cated there. Edward Kendrick kept the chief house of: 
entertainment. 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 373: 

Sherose Island On Sherose Island, grantees Nathan 
Kenney and Lincoln sold out, the latter 
to Josiah Sears who afterwards moved to Shag Harbor. 
Samuel Hamilton was killed by a falling tree; his sons 
married and settled in Yarmouth Co. Anson Kendrick 
moved to Shag Harbor and Cox and Lear had a shipyard 
and store and wharf on that property. This through ex- 
cessive drink and the capture of Mr. Lear's vessels by pri- 
vateers fell into the hands of Obediah Wilson, whose son 
of the same name had it for his homestead; and later it 
was the home of Stillman Nickerson. Reuben Cohoon 
and his wife died and the family moved away. The sons of 
David Smith and Thomas Doane left the island; so that 
Paul son of Thomas Crowell, gr., and John Lewis on the 
Doane lot, were even 100 years ago the only representa- 
tives of the second generation of settlers there. These 
gave place to Andrew Crowell, Nehemiah and Obediah 
Wilson and John Sargent of the third generation. 

A causeway across the marshes and a bridge had 
been built to replace the boat ferry at the Creek where 
Nathan, son of Thomas Crowell had placed his home, 
and where his sons Nathan and James settled. Paul 
Crowell, Governor, built back on the Old Wood's Harbor 
road and Rev. Jacob Norton and Wm. Squires became 
their neighbors, while the family of Samuel Hopkins spread 
over Hopkinstown reaching northward to Brass Hill. 

Nehemiah son of Thomas Doane, gr. settled on the 
main at the Passage where he had a shipyard. Ebenezer 
son of Thomas Crowell, Sr. and his son Thomas after him 
built many vessels including a bark, the Tyrian, near the 
Island road. Cox & Lear's business went down and they 
went away. Obediah Wilson Jr. had a fish store at one 
end of the island and George and Lovitt Wilson at the 
other, the latter in competition with John and William, 
sons of John Sargent, when the growth at the Passage had 
moved the centre of trade in that direction. Obediah 



r374 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

Wilson built a wharf and store and made a fortune at 
The Neck in the West India business; Isaac Hopkins es- 
tablished a packet business to Halifax; Elisha Hopkins 
Jr's family built a brig at Neil's Creek; and the descen- 
dants of Judah Crowell gr. straightened out the road over 
Brass Hill and located their homes there with William 
Shepherd for a neighbor. A negro, Brass, occupied the 
top of the|hill which bears his name; Neil McCommiskey 
lived for a time by Neil's Creek and a bridge was built 
there on the new road. Ansel (Thomas A.) Crowell (Tac) 
3iad a clearing back of Daniel Sargent's; Nehemiah son of 
Thomas Doane was close by the Passage schoolhouse with 
Michael Swim for a time, as his neighbor; Rev. Thomas 
Crowell lived where the Railway Station now is; John Os- 
born and Enos Knowles nearer the old Cape Island ferry 
at Knowles Point. These till 100 years ago; when their 
'sons with others as John Butler, William Robertson, Alex- 
ander Hogg, Jesse and Josiah Smith, William Sargent 
Robert Hichens and John Stalker filled in the gaps along 
this road. 

Wm. Robertson started a forge, John Stalker was a 
calker, Osborne a boot-maker, Hogg a cooper. Business 
in winter was provided in the shipyards; in the spring 
men and boys took to boats and vessels amain. To 
'swing a broad axe, and make and use a pair of oars were 
branches of the technical education for the boys of that 
day. Schools were open here for the children of the sec- 
ond generation and held in private houses at the Mill- 
stream,then at Neil's Creek, then at the Island Road after 
^which a public school house was built at the Passage. 

The convenience of the landings at the Passage to 
the Cape Island ferry led to the erection of wharves by 
Sargents, Robertson, Hichens. Wm. Robertson, receiver 
of wrecks and agent for Lloyd's had plenty of business 
with the numerous wrecks occurring from the Half Moons 
to the Seal Islands, One day as he was selling the cargo 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. . 375- 

of the wrecked brig "George" Michael Swim came from 
Clarks Harbor with the tidings that the Brig "Eclipse" 
was wrecked on the Cape and the whole shore was covered 
knee-deep with flour. This was at New Years, 1832. 
Another day the people saw a large brig drive hard aground 
at Robertson's landing. Here she stayed forming with 
her built roof a huge shed for many years to which the 
wharf was suitably connected. She had struck at Mutton 
Id., and leaking badly was beached here remote from the 
ocean perils. Robertsons thus became more and more the 
centre for various small industries catering to shipping 
and domestic demands. At Hichens's wharf close by 
Solomon Kendrick, A. C. White and others engaged in 
canning halibut and lobsters, the first industry of this 
kind in the Province. 

Doctor's Cove From the Ferry to Bear Point facilities 
and Bear Point for shipping also dominated the progress 
of settlement. Near Bunker's Hill and 
Fresh Brook John and Joseph Kendrick had homes over- 
looking the harbor; Elias Banks moved from South Side 
to Fresh Brook and Heman Kenney 2nd, Jesse and Aram,, 
sons of David Smith gr; John and Ansel Crowell, Isaac 
and William Nickerson, Samuel Kimball and others oc- 
cupied home-sites east and west of Doctors 7 Cove and be- 
came neighbors of Joseph Atwood's increasing progeny. 
Bear Point was chosen by Elisha and Edward, sons of 
Elisha Hopkins, gr. and their large families were located 
there. On the west side of Bear Point a log school house 
waserected where Samuel Kimball was at times the teach- 
er. The junction of the East end of the Cross road with the 
road to Bear Point was chosen for the meeting house, one 
of the primitive sort, with the pulpit hanging on the Wall. 
Bear Point was the site of one of the first lobster factories, 
on the coast. Michael Wrayton established a wharf and 
stores for business at Doctor's Cove. Heman Kenney 2nd 



376 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

and William Nickerson carried on business near the post 

road. 

, In 1785 or just after the Third Division of 
h.( made in that yeai% an j mportant mi . 



gration to Shag Harbor took place from the older part of 
the township. Anson Kendrick, gr. settled on Kendricks' 
Island; his son David, and Levi, son of Joshua Nickerson 
'gr., close by on the mainland. To the westward of these 
was Zara son of David Smith, gr. and Eastward across 
the brook, was Josiah Sears. John Stoddart, who had 
T)een living a while on Sherose Island came to Stoddart's 
Island and afterwards the family moved to the West side 
of Bear Point. These formed the nucleus of a busy and 
prosperous community. In addition to fishing, ship- 
building was introduced. Levi Nickerson finding timber. 
near and abundant in the forest, set up a vessel, the top- 
sail schooner, Hunter. Many other vessels were built, 
the last being the Quickmarch, owned and manned by 
the men of the village, an ill-fated craft which perished 
with all hands a few months after the launching. David 
Kendrick had the first blacksmith shop. Log houses were 
the fashion until Zara Smith built a house of frame and 
boards. Other early settlers were James Greenwood a 
ship-carpenter, Zenas, brother of Levi Nickerson, who 
lived on the hill at the "Old House" line, ajid Benjamin 
Adams on the East side of the brook. On lot No. 9. set- 
tled on by Zenas Nickerson, and afterwards by Levi Nick- 
erson Jr., was selected a burying-ground for the family in 
which lie the bodies of Joshua Nickerson and his wife, 
their sons Levi and Zenas and their wives, and children of 
all the later generations. Sears Kendrick lived on the 
South side of Kendricks Island. Soon the road to Bar- 
rington Harbor, as planned thirty years before, was open- 
ed up and extended to Wood's Harbor. A log school 
house was put near the site of the present one on the West 
side of the Hill. Its successor was a frame house, after- 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 377 

wards used as a cooper shop. That was followed by a 
frame building, later converted into a Temperance Hall 
when the present house was built. A meeting house stood 
for a long time near the shop of Warren Crowell. Vessels 
freighted the fish products to city markets and brought 
back staple supplies, while shoppers went by boat to the 
general stores at the Passage. When Levi Nickerson got 
a horse, Jack by name, the stores at Harrington were more 
accessible; Isaac Nickerson had the first shop, near the 
public wharf. 

West Side The Records give a very specific division 
Cape Island of the land on the west side of Cape Sable 
Island to the following grantees, Daniel Vin- 
son, Joseph Worth, Peleg Bunker, Zaccheus Gardner, 
Elisha Coffin, Simeon Gardner and Jonathan Coffin, 
and Joseph Worth was the Surveyor. This division allow- 
ed 40 feet in width along the shore for a public highway. 
This was in 1767 before the grant but the division was 
reaffirmed after the grant by all parties in 1768. All 
these grantees except Daniel Vinson and Simeon Gardner 
abandoned and forfeited their holdings before or during 
the war. The pivotal point of that settlement was the 
commonage set apart for meeting-house, school house 
and burying-place, the place still occupied by the church 
and cemetery of Centerville. It is not known that Daniel 
Vinson ever had a house on his lot, the next to the North 
of the meeting-house lot. Next was the house of Joseph 
Worth. The Quakers who built houses brought their 
house-frames with them. Cook's Point, named before 
the Grant, was so-called from a Quaker who lived there 
in a log house, probably the first English dwelling on 
Cape Island. There is a tradition that the house of 
Joseph Worth, occupied during the war and later by Arche- 
laus Smith, had belonged to Thomas Smith, gr. If correct, 
Thomas Smith had first settled on the Island and then 



-378 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

moved with his brother-in-law, Barnabas Baker, to the 
Hill, where land was laid off to them from the "French 
Settlement". On or before the removal of the Quakers, 
Vinson had selected a place across the island at South 
Side known ever since as DanTs Head, for his home. 
Next to Joseph Worth's place lived Simeon Gardner. 
His was the first house built on Cape Island by any of 
the grantees, probably about 1764, the date given in the 
Yarmouth Herald's record for his removal to Cape 
Island. His name is, however, in the Barrington census 
-of 1762. His son Bartlett married Betsy d. Heman Kenney 
gr., in 1779 and moved to Chebogue in 1797. Simeon 
went there the same year, while his daughters, Parnel 
and Kezia, married to Jonathan and Timothy sons of 
Timothy Covel, remained on Cape Island, the former in her 
father's old home and the latter on the part of his grant 
farther south atMcGray's. This very house was afterwards 
bought and occupied by Rev. Asa McGray when he settled 
there. Gardner and Vinson's first new neighbors were 
Archelaus Smith and his son Hezekiah who took up the 
places vacated by Joseph Worth and Elisha Coffin. The 
motives for the removal of the Smiths from the Head 
were as follows: There was a shallop harbor at Baker's 
flats most convenient to the fishing grounds; close by 
were large fresh meadows (since submerged by the filling 
up of the Inlet); salt marshes lay by the shore toward 
West Head, and on the island the cattle were less liable 
to stray. About 1780, Henry Newell, son-in-law of 
.Archelaus Smith, took the place of Jonathan Coffin near 
Cook's Pt. or Further Bay. About this time James, 
Stephen and Archelaus Jr., the other sons of Archelaus 
'Smith, Jr., fixed their homes, Archelaus near his father, 
and the others across the Creek. Stephen who had 
brought a house from Shelburne was nearest to Hezekiah 
-and James towards West Head, where his sons James and 
Heuben were the first to build their houses. Collins, 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 379* 

son of Henry Newell, and William Atkinson, who married^ 
Abigail daughter of Hezekiah Smith, also laid the founda- 
tion of new villages on this part of the island. From Point 
Terror to N. E. Point John Cunningham, who married 
Mercy, daughter Archelaus Smith had a grant of land.. 
Thus the progeny of Archelaus Smith, gr., preempted 
the Western side of the island. John Fiske lived near 
the shore at Centre ville. In 1798 Stephen Nicker son 
moved from the Millstream to West Head. Thomas^ 
son of Henry Nickerson and Thomas Doughty were also- 
settlers there. 

Other forfeited lots near North East Point were 
occupied as follows: Prince Freeman's, No. 74, by Thomas 
Doane, gr.; Simeon Bunker's, No. 79, by Isaac Kenney- 
Peleg Bunker's by Freeman Gardner; Richard Worth's, 
No. 76, by Gideon Nickerson (the place afterwards owned 
by Robert Brown.) 

It would seem that the Government allowed bona 
fide occupants of estates forfeited to hold them and made- 
new grants of those forfeited and not already in the pos- 
session of proprietors. 

Stoney Island William Squires received a grant at 
Stoney Island and settled there. Three 
of the sons-in-law of Gideon Nickerson, namely, Robert 
Atkinson, Thomas Ross and Isaac Trott made their 
homes first at East End and later at Stoney Island. Two 
of the sons-in-law of Robt. Atkinson, viz., Archibald 
Brannen and Ziba Hunt., were among the founders here. 
James McCoy had established his family at Birch Point 
before the end of the century. The lot of Simeon Bunker, 
No. 79, was the last laid off on Cape Island in the First: 
Division. Bunker had sold this to Vinson; but evidently 
the right of sale was not allowed to men joining the Revol- 
ution. Isaac Kenney's title was recognized and he sold 
or swapped his land with Thomas Ross, who had come to< 



380 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

Cape Island with Michael Swim, and was living at North 
East point; and so they changed their places of residence. 
Ross and Atkinson had large families many of whom 
settled near by. Atkinson afterwards bought the Squires 
property. Daniel Cunningham and his brother-in-law 
Jacob Dixon and Robert Brown were of the next gener- 
ation in the order of their settlement. 

One of the first proprietors at Stoney Island was 
John Cameron. There is some account of him living at 
South Side but his name soon disappeared. It is said 
also, that he and his wife were buried at South Side, and 
John Wm. Squires and his wife at the same place. Thom- 
as Ross brought a house from Shelburne and rebuilt it, 
oak frame and all, at Stoney Island. 

South Side Daniel Vinson, first settler at South Side,, 
was a farmer. He raised and sold stock, 
having his grazing and hay lands remote from the shores. 
The boat harbor extending from his log house at Dan'ls 
Head inside the beach towards the Hawk induced fisher- 
men to locate there. The upland was laid off in 1784 
in classes and not divided. A newcomer would buy out 
a proprietor's right in an island or class of land, fence in 
a portion and advertise for a division, if he wished to 
settle. Unfenced land had little protection and the wood 
was cut off as by common right. 

Gideon Nickerson lived for some time at South 
side probably before he went to East End. He was a 
brother of Richard Nickerson, gr., whose widow Sarah, 
married Samuel Penney, and moved from the Head to 
"South Side before 1789, at which date her husband and 
two sons were drowned there. Daniel Penney, their 
son, took care of Daniel Vinson in his old age and had his 
property. Sarah Penney had a "house big enough to 
hold a loom" at which she worked and supported her 
infant children. Her older sons, Absalom and Moses 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION 381 



Nickerson became permanent residents at South Side. 
Elias Banks had his home there from. 1790 till 1803. 
Berry (Baruch) Crowell came about the same time. 
Willard At wood was of a later date. 

The Hawk Thomas, son of Archelaus Smith Jr., made 
the first home at the Hawk. John Smith, son of Heze- 
kiah, followed him there. Both were drowned soon after 
their arrival. Stephen, brother of John, and Duncan, 
son of John Cunningham came next. This is the point 
of communication with the Cape lighthouse, fog alarm 
and wireless station. 

Clark's Harbor Michael Swim is by common consent 
regarded as the first permanent resident 
at Clark's Harbor, and next to Vinson on that side of 
the island. Fishing and trading with the fishermen were 
-combined. It was not till after the birth of his daughter 
Letitia that he moved his family there from the Passage. 
Eleazar, son of Judah Crowell,Sr.,gr.,was probably the 
next in that neighborhood. His son Nehemiah settled 
at Swim's Point. To the westward, were Levi, Joshua 
and Judah, with their father, John, who was a son of 
John Nickerson, gr., of Wood's Harbor. At first 
the Clark's Harbor people were less favorably sit- 
uated than the rest, for shore privileges, such as wood- 
land and pasture were lacking, and communication 
was more difficult; but the proximity of the fishing grounds 
and the excellence of the lower harbor were turned to 
the best account. Not, however, until steam was used 
for coasting craft were they able to utilize the splendid 
natural advantage of their harbor for the fishing and 
coasting trade. The loss of the S. S. Hungarian in 1860 
emphasized the need, long urged by the inhabitants of 
the township, for a light house at the Cape, which was 
^completed in 1861 when Capt. Harvey Doane became 



382 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

light keeper there. After the Cape lighthouse and the 
fog whistle were in operation the advantages of the har- 
bor were much enhanced. Clark's Harbor became 
an incorporated town a few years ago. 

About the middle of last century the "Califor- 
ina" wharf was built at Clark's Harbor, about 
where the Scotia wharf now is. Later the Port- 
land Packing Co., built a wharf and conducted an ex- 
tensive business at the Lower Harbor. The traps for 
mackerel were introduced and Levi, Joshua and Peter 
Kenney at Clarks Harbor, the Kenneys at North East 
Pt., Wm. B. Smith at West Head and the Nickersons 
of Clark's Harbor were pioneers in this new branch of 
the fisheries. 

Woods Harbor and We will here give some account of 

Pubnico Beach communities which were growing 

to some importance just outside 

the borders of the old Barrington township and afterwards 
were incorporated with it. No event of those eventful 
times was of more moment to the township than the set- 
tlement of Woods Harbor and Pubnico Beach. This 
stretch of territory was more slowly occupied on account 
of being more open to the sea; and probably for that 
reason it retained in the grants and on the charts the 
Indian name of Coquewit. This is said to mean Old- 
squaw, a species of duck, and was likely given at first, 
as Shag or Cormorant Island was given by the French, 
to a particular place where such birds abounded. The 
name of Coquewit still denotes the narrow pass through 
which vessels enter the harbor from the north, a place 
where the Micmacs drew up their canoes while waiting 
for the turn of the tide. There were some French in- 
habitants once at Upper Woods Harbor, and Angel's 
Island was then named for a famous French hunter, Angel 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION 



383 



Amero, who had a hunting lodge there, before the English 
settlers arrived. 

Grants had been made of lands between Yarmouth 
and Barrington about ten years after the founding of 
Barrington. Col. Ranald McKinnon, excise officer, 
who lived at Argyle, had applied for and obtained an 
island of about 40 acres for a sheep run. It was pro- 
bably John's Island; so called, because he gave it to his 
son John. Rev. Samuel Wood, gr., of Barrington, whe- 
ther on his own application or not, but possibly to induce 
him to attend quietly to his ministerial work without 
stirring up the people to revolution, received a govern- 
ment grant of 1100 acres on the eastern side of Coquewit 
Harbor. These grants were in 1772. 

Abner and John Nickerson, brothers, were reputed 
as the first English settlers. Abner resided for a time 
at Pubnico Beach, John was in Barrington, at the Mill- 
stream, until after his second marriage. Abner bought 
the Wood grant in 1798. How long he had been settled 
on it before that we do not know. John obtained a grant 
adjoining this to the south. 

Some plans of Coquewit are extant. One undated, 
evidently the first, locates Wood's Grant and John "Nich- 
olson's" grant. Thirty five lots are laid off from the 
Barrington line northward on both sides of the harbor; 
Nicholson's was just south of Wood's grant. The lots 
are numbered and assigned to grantees, of whom only 
the names of Chatwynd and Rankin are among the later 
.settlers. Another plan drawn by Andrew Collins, sur- 
veyor, and signed by Arch. Smith, Sr., Thomas Crowell 
and Benoni D'Entremont as "a tolerably correct plan 
of the Harbor and marshland of Coquewit," is dated Dec. 
13,1794. This has the lots laid off, to McNevin, John 
Nicholson, Lonsdale, Wood's Grant, McGuire, Rankin, 
Chetwynd, McCommiskey and Wm. Andrews. For- 
foush and John Gorning have lots near the shore on the 



384 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON. 

East side of the harbor, marked, "held by improvements."' 
"Angle's Island" and Cameron's Point are laid down, but 
none of the later settlers besides those already named 
are mentioned. 

Another plan of the general grant numbers the lots: 
from the township line consecutively from 1 to 30 around 
the harbor to Forbes Point. Watson, Scotter, Sylvanus, 
Samuel, John Jr., and others of the Nickersons were at 
that time proprietors, as also Alexander Forbes, Matthew 
Donaldson, Dennis Lyons, John Garron, Dennis Connell 
and John McKinnon, all in addition to those holding 
under the former grants. 

In still another place, location is made of Angle's 
Island, Wood's Grant, John Nicholson's grant and Cam- 
eron's Point. John Nicholson's is south of Wood's 
grant, lots 1 to 5 are north of Wood's grant, lots 6 and 7 
extend across the north end of Forbes Point, 8 to 20 take 
in from the Barrington line to Nicholson's, lots 21 to 32' 
cross Forbes Pt. in order, beginning at the southern end,, 
34 and 35 are near Andrew's grant, which is at the upper 
end of the- harbor. 

In April, 1796, Wm. Andrews, a Scotch loyalist,, 
was granted a tract of land at the head of Coquewit 
Harbor. The conditions of the grant are interesting 
Quit-rent was to be paid yearly at the feast of St. MichaeL 
at the rate of 2/- for each 100 acres, after ten years. 
Three acres were to be cleared for every 50 granted,, 
three neat cattle to be kept for every fifty acres, a dwelling 
house 20x16 ft. to be built. Pine trees and mines of gold, 
silver, copper, lead and coals, were reserved for the crown.. 
The holding was in free and common soccage. William 
Andrew dyked the marsh on his grant. This property 
was bought by Harvey Doane and Jonathan Knowles. 
in 1828. Doane sold his interest to Barnabas Malone. 

We saw in one of the grants that only Chatwynd and 
Rankin of all who were named became permanent settlers,. 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 385 

This agrees with the outcome of the grants on the West 
of Clyde river. Very few grantees settled down to fulfill 
the conditions set. Men who had families faced heroically 
the hard conditions of the pioneer life, mindful of the 
horrors intervening between their flight as refugees and 
the time of acquiring a roof -tree of their own. Of the 
disbanded soldiers many drifted into the older township, 
some married there and were anchored by the kinship 
of their wives. These formed a chief increment of the 
population. Others went out seeking a better country, 
attaching little value to land grants on a sparsely settled 
coast. On the other hand it was a significant event 
when these Nickerson men with a dozen sturdy sons 
definitely begun to plant their homes at Wood's Hr. 

The first to settle at Forbes Point was John Lumsden, 
or Lonsdale, an Englishman, who married Abigail, the 
daughter of Samuel Hamilton, gr. No one but Angel 
Amero was then at Wood's Harbor. Alexander Forbes 
moved to Forbes Pt., in 1798; Dennis Lyons came there 
also from Woods Harbor. These with other settlers 
took up fishing and farming. In 1853 the brigt. Adval- 
orem was built here. Alexander Nickerson and the 
Forbes men were proficient in shipwork. As population 
increased two lines of industry advanced, catching and 
packing lobsters and the bank fishery. The Saxby 
hurricane on the banks brought desolation to the 
latter enterprise and to the homes represented in the 
crews. Since then the material prosperity has been 
retrieved. 

Soon after the first settlement a road was opened 
through the woods to Sherose Island, about six miles. 
Near the corner a log school house was built giving a 
degree of opportunity for the children of the widely scat- 
tered families. The union of Wood's Harbor and Pub- 
nico Beach with Barrington was next effected, being pro- 
moted by Messrs. Doane and Knowles for family interests 



386 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

and generally by the people for a share in the trade and 
River fishery. The new light houses at Outer Island, 
Pubnico Beach, Wood's Harbor and Emerald Island have 
also added much to the commercial advantages of this 
harbor. 

Pubnico Beach like Wood's Harbor has produced 
many skippers of fishing vessels, both of the Nova Scotia 
and the United States fleets. This position has not 
needed the seal of the British Board of Trade or Canadian 
Department of Marine for its exercise, but indicates the 
recognition by owners of a capacity for real seamanship 
and direction of a fishing voyage quite equal to that 
displayed by masters of larger power-propelled ships. 
The popular name, Charlesville, was given to the settle- 
ment at Pubnico Beach as a tribute to the popularity of 
Rev. Charles Oram whose interest in the welfare of the 
people had been marked. 

Seal Islands These islands described by Champlain 
on his first voyage to these parts have 
occupied a large place in the annals of shipwrecks down 
to our own times. Assigned by some miscarriage of 
boundaries to the County of Yarmouth, they yet belong 
to Barrington by every claim of settlement, kinship of 
people and business relations. Nature has itself pro- 
nounced upon this question, for the flood tide which 
provides for safe and convenient landing at highwater, 
brings the boats from Barrington as required and the ebb 
carries them back home. 

As ships passed more frequently by Cape Sable 
disasters increased in proportion, until it became cus- 
tomary for the early settlers to visit the islands in the 
spring to search for wreckage and to bury the bodies of 
those who had perished. The name of a Yarmouth 
man, Mr. Cann, is remembered as a leader in this good 
work; he had buried twenty-one corpses. In 1823 Capt. 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 387 

Richard Hichens moved to the island, and with him was 
Edmund Cro well and John Nickerson. These men and 
their wives were henceforth engaged in the work of rescue 
of the .ship-wrecked and prevention of the miseries so 
bound up with the past history of the islands. Captain 
Hichens had been master of the ship Union which was 
wrecked at Hichens Cove, west side of Cape Sable, Jan. 
17, 1816. This ship's name and the date were given to 
me by the late Benjamin Hichens. I find in the list of 
the receiver of wrecks copied for me by the late T. W. 
Robertson, the name of the brig. Friendship, Richard 
Hichens, master, with the date, Jan. 1817. Capt. Hickens 
remained in Barrington and a few years later, 1820, 
married Mary daughter of Rev. Thomas Crowell. She 
was greatly distressed by the stories which came to them 
about the wrecks on Seal Island; and particularly, that 
sometimes the corpses were found of those who had escaped 
from the wrecks only to die of cold and starvation ashore. 
One of these was found frozen while attempting to strike 
a spark with flint and steel. She urged her husband 
until he said "I was shipwrecked myself. I will build 
a hut there, and live there to rescue the shipwrecked/' 
She said, "I will go with you." Edmund Crowell 
went with them and made the island his home. He 
was a son of Ansel, and grandson of Judah Crowell Sr., 
gr.; his wife was a sister of the late Alex Nickerson of 
Wood's Harbor. When the ship Vivid was wrecked, 
she ran up high on Race Point in a snow storm in the night. 
All hands got safely ashore and into the woods for shelter 
not knowing where they were. Some found a path along 
which they crept until the light in Edmund CroweH's 
log hut was seen. When they reached the hut Crowell 
and Hichens went in search and found them all. 

Capt. Hichens, urged on by his wife, wrote to the 
Governor, Sir James Kempt, a Waterloo veteran, about 
the importance of having a lighthouse on Seal Island, and 



388 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

in consequence the Governor visited the island, and a 
lighthouse was built there in 1827. This was 40 years- 
after the erection of the Shelburne lighthouse. 

For keeping the light the Government paid 30 a. 
year, and the two men had it in turns of 6 months each 
during the 27 years that the Hichens family were on the 
island. Out of their salary they provided boats for the 
rescue as well as their fishing business, though once 
the Government advanced them one-half the annual 
salary on account of their building a boat. William and 
Richard Hichens, the sons of Richard, when grown up,, 
had built at their own expense by George Stoddart a 
life-boat, 16 ft. keel. They were presented with 7 inflat- 
ing life-preservers for the boat's crew by the Humane 
Society of England. 

The first Cunard ship ever lost was wrecked here in 
July 2nd, 1843. No lives were lost. In fact, there has 
been no loss of life in connection with the 95 wrecks 
at the island since Hichens and Crowell first occupied 
it. The last of this list was the SS. Ancor in 1918,. 
making one wreck a year on an average since the island was 
settled. Benjamin Hichens was in charge of the life-boat 
in 1866 and was many times engaged in work of rescue. 

As places of abode these islands are not so out-of- 
the-way and lonesome as might be supposed, lying a& 
they do halfway between Cape Sable and Yarmouth, 
and so far from the nearest mainland as just to be seen 
on the horizon on a fine day. It was soon learned that 
the young English captain was an expert navigator and 
many of the aspiring youth of Barrington went to Seal 
Island to be under his tuition, at one time bringing the- 
number of his family to twenty-two. Among these were 
Solomon Kendrick, William Kenney and Isaiah Smith. 

Many fishermen have frequented the island for the 
line, net and lobster fishing, and found shelter for their 
boats and facilities for lodging there. The crews of scores 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 389 

of ill fated ships have had entertainment while waiting 
means of conveyance to the main. For the last half- 
century or more Corning Crowell, a brother of Mrs. 
Richard Hichens, 1st, and his family have had charge of 
the light and whistle and other apparatus of the govern- 
ment. They have extensive property interests on the 
island including a valuable sheep run on which the scrub 
spruce are so dense as to form a complete shelter for those 
animals in the winter. 

Walpy's Cove and Churchill's Cove there are re- 
minders of disasters long past; the Devil's Limb and the 
Limb's Limb are guarding ledges on the west, while the 
famous Blonde Rock where H. M. ship of War, of that 
name, was lost in 1782, bears S. by W. four miles. The 
reader is referred to Champlain's description of these 
islands in the second chapter of this history. 

Place names in The names of various localities in prim- 
the Records itive Harrington are to be mentioned 
as recalling interesting circumstances 
of its history. Such names occur frequently in the records 
of surveys of lands and roads. Not to speak again of 
those of the Indian and French periods, yet before the 
grant many places had been definitely tagged by the 
settlers or the fishermen who preceded them. Thus, 
Port Latour, Sherose Island, Crosby's Island, (later Moses 
Island) Holbrook (now Brook) Island, Page's Island (on 
which half an acre of wood was reserved as a landmark 
for shipping) Holley's Point, Hallo wes Point, Ham- 
mond's Creek and Whitten's Island evidently antedate 
the Cape Cod settlements. Point Blanch and Labaduce 
are, like Cape Sable, Cape Negro, Baccareaux and La 
Passage, real French remains. In common use from the 
first were Indian Camp Hill, Indian Brook, (Indian 
Camp Hill was the place chosen for the cemetery at Lower 
P. Latour and Indian Camp paths ran thence westward 



390 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

to the Ponds and Indian Hill or Goose Point) The Hill r 
Atwood's Point, Fish Island, Fish Point, Bare Point (this 
is the uniform spelling in the early documents, except 
once, Bair Point), Bakers (later Liberty) Point, West 
Passage, The Head. The land and road records add aj 
long list in which are Shag Harbor, Coffin's Island, French 
Settlement Cove, Fresh Brook, Island Road, Hopkins 
Neck. Crowell's Neck, The Mill Stream, or The Old 
Mill River, Meadow Crick, Great Meadow, Little Mea- 
dow, Mill River or The River, Hog Island, Wood's 
Point and Long Cove. On the east side of the harbor 
are the Town plot, Blackberry Island, Swain's Point 
(where the houses of John and Joseph Swain, grs., stood) 
Beach Point, Baker's Neck, Clash or Class Point (so- 
called from a Calash landed there, but useless for want 
of carriage-roads) Eel Cove, Solid Rock. At Port Latour,. 
Joseph Swain had Gooseberry Island for a fish lot; Nat- 
haniel Smith still living at the Head, had Sheep Island; 
Crow Neck fell to Nathaniel Smith, junior; Bryants Neck 
was at Cape Negro. On Cape Island were Little Run, 
Great Run, Cook Point, Point Terror (it had this name in- 
1769 before Archelaus Smith moved to Cape Island) 
Gooseberry Neck, South Side, Further Bay, Duck Pond 
and Birch Point. Later as boundaries in the second and 
third divisions, especially of Marsh lands, in 1783-4, the; 
following are given. At Cape Negro, are Clam Creek,, 
The Thoroughfare, Fox Point, Cord wood Point, North 
East Meadow Creek, White Brook and Burnt Island; 
At Blanch are Boat Harbor, Hammond's Creek, French 
Meadows and Gooseberry Pond; on the South side of 
Cape Island are Burnt Woods, Sims Point, The Narrow 
Place, Swampy Cove, Shear-pen Neck; on the West side 
are West Head, West Creek, a Fresh Stoney Brook; 
On the East side are Baker's Inlet, Stoney Island, Long^ 
Fresh Pond, East Head, Clam Creek, and Drinking Place- 
Fish Inlet, Gardner's Island,Sand Hill Inlet, Island Thrum,, 






DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 391 

The^Falls, Smoke Point, Whitten's Island, Broad Marsh 
arefalso named. The Old Wharf, (to the East of Baker's 
neck) and the Hill meadow are well known, as are Clea- 
mon's Pond and Passage Harbor. The Indian Path on 
the South side of the "Great Savannah to the East side 
of the Pond that lieth aback of the Stoney Beach." (Port 
Latour). The Old Gunning House (Shag Harbor), 
Shag Harbor Northermost inward Island, Shag Harbor 
Southern most inward Island, these with Green Island, 
and the Island Bridge (Sherose) are also names in vogue 
at this period. 

On this subject also our Archives disclose a remark- 
able story. In the magnificent set of N. S. charts made 
by F. W. Desbarres, surveyor, from 1763 to 1773, and 
published about 1780, there is one of the Cape Sable 
coast. This distinguished engineer, who was afterwards 
Lieut. Governor of Cape Breton and P. E. Island, seems 
to have regarded this shore as a terra incognita and took 
the explorer's privilege of naming the parts observed. 
His success in this respect may be judged by the following 
examples. Cape Negro Harbor is Port Amherst, John's 
Island, in Port Latour Harbor, is Isle George. Port 
Latour is Port Haldimand, Blanche is Point Frederic, 
Stoddart Island is Hope Island, the Bear Point Ledges 
are the Hazards and Bear Point is Magdalen Point. West 
Head, Cape Island, is Port Lawrence, and near it to the 
South, perhaps the Lone Rock, but more likely, Green 
Island is Boneta. Clam Point is Wildman Point, Mc- 
Gray's is Favourite Cove, Baccaro is Cat Point and Cat 
Point is Hero Isle. A few houses are marked on the 
chart at Cook's Point, Sherose Island, the Neck, the Head, 
and the Town. Two sand cliffs at Dan'ls Head are "re- 
markable." 

The Cape Sable cliffs which Lockwood refers to later 
as sensibly decreasing are said by Des Barres to have 
been 120 feet high in 1760 but only 61 when this survey 



392 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

was made. He says they range WNW and ESE 2 miles 
in the shape of a half-moon; and on each point is a ledge, 
the Eastern called the Horse-shoe extends 2J miles 
SE by S, the western or Cape Ledge runs off 3 miles,form- 
ed by detached bodies of shingle and rock. "It is essential 
to those navigating the Bay of Fundy that it be clearly 

described etc The description will, if attentively 

read, remove from the minds of strangers the hideousness 
with which fancy and ignorance have gloomily clothed this 
excellent portion of America." 

With the progress of the township after the war 
new localities received fitting names, many of which 
remain and throw a strong side-light on the history. 
Doctor's Cove received its name from Dr. Collins, who 
lived there. He was connected with the Collins family 
of Liverpool, N. S., and in 1785 he married Elizabeth 
daughter of Simeon Gardner gr., of Cape Island who 
owned lot No. 42 at Doctor's Cove. Skeat's Cove, just 
to the Westward took its name from a settler who lived 
there as early as 1780. The Hawk, Cape Island, came to 
be so designated from a vessel of that name whose bulk 
lay on the sand there for a long time in the early days of 
South Side settlement. Guinea, Upper and Lower, 
was the appropriate nickname for the place occupied by 
the shanties of the negroes who came from Birchtown 
to get a living at the Passage. Dan'ls Head, or Uncle 
Dan'ls Head, derives from Daniel Vinson. Neil's Creek 
was first bridged by Neil McCommiskey during his resi- 
dence there. Purgatory Point was first called Point 
William, and was laid out for a ministerial lot in the 
second Division! Jonathan Smith, gr., first had a claim 
on it; then Burgess, afterwards of Port Hebert, occupied 
it; later it was purchased by the Perrys. Other places 
have been named in noting the larger settlements. Of the 
later names many have originated in an interesting man- 
ner e.g. Bear Thrum near South Side. Old Mr. Fiske was 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, ETC. 393 

in the vicinity shooting ducks when a bear approached 
which he fired at and wounded. The bear got into the 
woods on the thrum and died there. Clam Point was 
named from the piles of clam shells found there where 
the Indians had habitually come for the summer fishing. 
Indian Hill was across the harbor at what since then has 
been called Goose Point. Burke's Point in that neigh- 
borhood is where William Burke lived, at the Town land- 
ing. Privateer Ledge is in the Eastern Barrington Bay. 
A man- of- War was chasing a privateer which ran onto 
this ledge, but on account of the shoal water was able 
to approach only by boat; the privateer, having cannon, 
kept them off and escaped. 

As Indian place names are generally to be regarded 
as descriptive of the places or people named, it is to be 
regretted that more of them have not been retained. 
The custom of the Micmacs as told me by blind Charles, 
in naming each of the stretches made in their canoes 
from headland to headland, should be taken into account 
in interpreting their movements. Their later fashion 
of translating the names given by the white settlers into 
corresponding Micmac meanings has introduced much 
confusion. Of this sort were some of those- given me by 
blind Charles from Yarmouth to Cape Sable, as for in- 
stance, Nenkudescuk Seboo, i. e. Trembling or Shake 
(Shag) river; another was Mooinawa memkek, for 
Bear Point. These are evidently the Indian version of 
the English names. 



CHAPTER XXL 



BOUNDARIES, TOPOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, FORESTS 
AND CLIMATE. 



Boundaries The Township of Harrington occupies the 
extreme southern end of Nova Scotia. It 
was first laid off by name in 1759; then the Grant was 
issued in 1767 to the actual settlers, and enlarged to its 
present size many years afterwards when Wood's Harbor 
and Oak Park were incorporated with the original terri- 
tory. It is now bounded by Yarmouth County on the 
North-west, by Clyde River and Shelburne township 
on the North-east, and is washed by the Atlantic ocean 
on the South-east and South-west sides. 

The block of mainland taken with the numerous 
islands comprising the township resembles a diamond 
in outline of which Cape Sable is the homeplate, cape 
Negro Island and John's Island, the first and third bases 
respectively. Each side of the diamond is about fifteen 
miles; an ample "field" stretches northward to the apex 
of the township. About this home-plate the elements 
are continually at strife, and the changes in conformation 
of the adjacent coast with its islands, beaches, ledges 
and shoals are due to the storms and the eternal conflict 
between the tides of the Atlantic and those of the Bay of 
Fundy. The swift tides from the Northwest meet the 
more sluggish waters of the broad ocean, and at the slack 
the earthy matter brought down from the rivers sinks to 
the bottom or is returned shoreward on the flood. Har- 
rington harbor shows the effect of this action where 
its great beach and flats have risen between the river and 
the harbor and passage tides. 

It will be seen that the old township boundary leaves 
the Cape Negro river at the Falls and runs one mile N 
10 W. before turning Westward. This was due to the 

394 



BOUNDARIES, CLIMATE, ETC. 395 

fact that Alexander McNutt had a grant of land bounded 
by a line from the same Falls ten miles N 10 W. i. e. 
on the West of Clyde River. He therefore had all the 
land adjoining Clyde River on both sides above the Falls. 
His failure to settle a colony allowed the land to be granted 
subsequently to individual loyalists and opened the way 
for the later addition of the land West of Clyde River to 
Barrington. 

Cape Sable has ever been an important mark for 
navigators on the American coast and much of the geo- 
graphical distinction which has come to the township 
has been from the fact that the Cape was a natural point 
of departure for the early voyagers. In 1604 Champlain 
made a slight observation of its waters and in his voyages, 
1605-6 as far as Chatham, Cape Cod, he probably sighted 
it. Its appearance then was a good deal different, for 
the sand hills were much higher even a generation ago than 
now at the Cape; as also at South Side and even at the 
Hill and the Beach. Such changes are not infrequent 
on our sandy shores. The little island where the Cape 
lighthouse stands is however of solid rock and keeps its 
level. The reason for the change of level in those Stumpy 
Coves at the Hawk and Shag Harbor, where remains of 
tree trunks are in some places more than ten feet below 
the low water mark or at the Town, where the old sea- 
beach is higher than the road, must be explained probably 
from the nature of the local formation and seismic dis- 
turbances of the earth. 

The two outstanding geographical features of Bar- 
rington township are Great Cape Sable Island and Bar- 
rington River. At the first it was expected that the centre 
of population would be near the best anchorage for vessels 
and therefore the Town was located in the plan accom- 
panying the Grant about half-way between the mouth 
of the River and the Hill, these two places also affording 
good shelter for boats. But with the development of 



396 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

the coasting and fishing business convenience demanded 
a readier connection with the shipping movements through 
the West Passage. Besides this, the abundance of har- 
bors in the township favored the multiplication of fishing 
villages rather than the consolidation of the various 
business interests in one town. The importance of the 
River was recognized at the outset. It had a valuable 
alewive fishery which soon was brought under the regul- 
ation of the proprietor's meeting as a public property. 
The water power was also soon utilized as it had been by 
the French and continues to the present. Fish, wood, 
lumber and water power were valuable assets, and so 
connected with the control of the water supply that the 
accurate knowledge of the sources of the river would 
naturally seem of great consequence to the people. The 
Indians told them of Lake Sebimm (or Chebimk) the 
Great Lake to which they might easily ascend in their 
canoes, nor was it so far away that they could not readily 
confirm the accounts of the Indians. 

One of the things specified in the proclamation of 
Gov. Lawrence in 1759 respecting the proposed townships 
was that they "do comprehend such rivers as may be at 
or near such settlement, and do extend as far up into the 
country as conveniently may be, taking in a necessary 
part of the sea coast." The back line of the grant of 1767 
ran from Clyde Falls to Upper Shag Harbor and the 
First Division of the lands of the Grant was a mere fringe 
of the whole territory When, however, the time came 
for establishing the county line between Yarmouth and 
Shelburne the necessity of placing the outlet of Great 
Lake within the boundary of Barrington was more fully 
understood and expressed in the Act determining the 
county lines (1833, c. 33) in which Act also Wood's Harbor 
and Oak Park were annexed to Barrington township. 

The northern end of Great Lake is about four miles 
east of Pubnico; it has an average width of 2 miles and 



BOUNDARIES, CLIMATE, ETC. 397 

^extends 7 miles from North to South where it discharges 
into Harrington River. Its southern end is about 5 
miles north east of the half-way hill in the "nine-mile 
woods" i. e. between Oak Park and East Pubnico. In 
the Act referred to certain well known points were chosen 
<on both sides of Great Lake , so that a straight line be*- 
tween them would secure to Harrington the control of 
the water-supply upon which its industrial operations 
would so largely depend. From the rear of a well-de- 
fined grant to John Nickerson at Pubnico Beach, the 
line followed a North East course, almost identical with 
the "Great Lake road," from the half-way hill mentioned 
to Doane's grant, near Kenney's .Hill, thence following 
the west side of Doane's grant to the Lake Sebimm or 
Great Lake, thence crossing, the Lake to a well defined 
point on Larkin's grant on the East side of the Lake, 
and thence northeasterly to the apex of the township. 

The reason for describing this line so particularly 
is tbat the maps of Church, Rand-McNally, the Commis- 
>sion of Conservation on Forest- Distribution and Mineral 
Distribution in Nova Scotia are grossly incorrect, a Lake 
Sebimm having been invented several miles away from 
Great Pubnico Lake, across which the township boundary 
line is made to run instead of across Great Lake, the real 
Lake Sebimm. This line is even more explicitly des- 
cribed in Act. 1836, c. 88, and the Eastern boundary 
of the township in Act 1846, c. 20. : 

A curious custom is referred to in a Resolution of the 
House of Assembly in 1811, as follows: 

"Whereas overseers of the Poor are required to run out 
and establish once in three years the boundary lines of 
their respective townships,therefore the expenses are to be 
.assessed and collected the same as Poor rates." 

Since the Act of 1833 this ordinance has been more 
honored in the breach than in the observance. Perhaps 
because the-Ghupch'-s map threw doubt upon the position 



398 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

of the boundary, a few miles of the road through the "Nine 
mile woods" East of the "half-way hill" was called "No 
man's land," being neglected in county appropriations. 
About a generation ago P. L. Hatfield, surveyor, ran 
out the statutory boundary and a large grant of money 
was spent on" No Man's Land"under Hon. Robert Robert- 
son. The latest maps, however, perpetuate the error 
by which a valuable tract of hunting, fishing, meadow 
and timber lands in Barrington township is shown in 
Argyle. An accurate chart is much needed because "the 
topography of all this region as laid down in Church's 
county map is very incorrect." * 

It is of increasing importance to the township that 
this excellent territory for hunting and fishing should be 
described to tourists in a reliable way. 

Geological Two distinct formations are assigned by 
Formation geologists to the township; one, including 
all the mainland west of a line from near 
Hibbert's Brook to the outlet of Hamilton's Branch, the 
other, all to the East of that line including Cape Sable 
Island. The western section is granite, unconnected 
with any similar formation on either side, but in line with, 
though a little disjointed from, the granite backbone 
or axis of the province which reaches into the upper parts 
of Shelburne and Yarmouth counties. As laid down on 
the map the Granite area of Barrington has the appear- 
ance of a great arrow-head with its point at Shag Harbor, 
and slightly separated from the bent arrow which is the 
South mountain. Frequently the granite bed rock is 
exposed, sometimes, as near Shag Harbor, with markings 
of the glaciers which traversed the country when western 
Nova Scotia was on a higher level than now. Other 
indications of this formation are the immense boulders 
which appear like houses when seen at a distance. Here 

*Bailey S. W. N. Scotia, p. 64 (1898.) 



BOUNDARIES, CLIMATE, ETC. 399 

on this township shore is the end of the glacial dump, 
while the final direction taken by the glacier is shown 
by the parallel courses of the Clyde and Harrington rivers, 
the Mill stream, Fresh Brook and Shag Harbor brook, 
and the harbors into which they flow. 

The Eastern section has a quartzite formation, 
corresponding generally to that of the South shore as 
affected by upheaval and glacial action. River beds 
and harbors were scored, ponds and lakes scooped out, 
sand, gravel and boulders carried across country and 
deposited in forms, on the whole, prohibitory of agricul- 
tural enterprise. During these thousands of years, frosts 
and floods, fires and atmosphere have somewhat pulverized 
the remains of the glacial invasion and rendered them 
into fertile soil. The land of the township is low, hardly 
rising anywhere more than 200 or 300 feet above sea level; 
consequently the drainage seawards has been irregular, 
and swamps as well as lakes have been formed a plenty, 
the quartz and white felspar decomposing generally into 
white boulder clay. Despite the stony nature of the 
soil there is much cultivable land and that with great 
productivity. The humus from the forest growth and 
the clay just referred to are valuable elements in soil 
production and are so generally distributed as to account 
for the common combination of agriculture in a small 
way with the sea-faring life. The fisherman mooring 
his boat is often in sight of his own barn and cultivated 
fields. On every hand, however, are the monuments; 
of the marvellous events of the past ages, inviting the 
procession of native youth to join the ranks of those who> 
would decipher the history of the rocks. 

Forest Distribution The Forests of the township, and 

how they have been affected by 

geological changes are particularly described in "Forest 

Conditions of Nova Scotia," (1912, Com. of Conserv.) 



400 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

These forests abundantly supplied our mills and ship- 
yards in the past, but have been seriously devastated 
by fire within the last century leaving large rocky barrens. 
That the map of "Forest Conditions" should represent 
this whole township, as "barrens", excepting the part 
immediately bordering on Clyde River, is most repre- 
hensible in a Government work of reference. The wood- 
lands supply lumber, fuel and pulpwood, and the fringe 
of settlement consists of land highly and advantageously 
cultivated. The whole backland is however, a park for 
amphibians and waterfowl and a paradise for the hunter 
and fisherman. From the very first of European settle- 
ment in Acadia it was seen that here were combined ad- 
vantages of the hunt and the sea-fishery, and therefore 
the opportunity for trade. The Indian proprietor of 
the sixteenth century still has a few representatives 
possessing sufficient lore to guide the tourist sportsman 
to his quarry. 

Coast Guards Strung around the township coast-line 
are scores of islands and ledges stretching 
in echelon on either side of the great Cape, jointly sup- 
porting its resistless thrust against the ever- surging ocean. 
Port Latour Islands and Rocks, Brazil, Bantam, Shot 
Pouch, Stoney Island, the Horse race and the Hawk, 
stedfastly meet the shock troops of the Atlantic east- 
ward. On the other side John's Island, Mutton and 
Outer Islands, Kendricks and Stoddart's Islands, Bear 
Point ledges, Green Island, Fish Island, Clark's Harbor 
Islands, and the guard-arm of the Cape are holding the 
position westward; all faithful in fog or storm or night, 
and on the sunlight of a summer day forming a glittering 
zone as waves are turned back into breakers by their 
strength. Between Wood's Harbor and Brass Hill the 
road crosses a hill, the most conspicuous at a distance 
seaward of all the elevations in the township, known as 



BOUNDARIES, CLIMATE, ETC. 40ft 

Hio. Here a wireless station stood during the Great War 
and here still remain, over their granitic underpinning, 
many trees of the old-time forest. 

Climate Back of these numerous barriers to the ocean 
are harbors safe and commodious commonly 
so situated as to give shelter from the north winds and 
to modify the harshness of the fiercest gales. It would 
be difficult, without the experience, to describe the agree- 
able change of climate on passing from the exposed sea- 
board to the harbor shores where the highways connect 
the settlements. 

The map leads an intelligent stranger to expect in 
Barrington a milder climate than elsewhere in the Prov- 
ince. The wedge of the peninsula thrust into the Atlantic 
towards the Gulf stream promises a reduction of the 
rigors of winter, while a more equable summer temper- 
ature results from the embracing ocean . These advantages 
are at their best in Barrington. The north and west 
winds blow over the forest and are now drier and less, 
keen; the same screen of woodland prevents the fog pene- 
trating into the harbor; the harbors are rarely closed by 
ice. The winter is generally shorter and less severe than 
in the rest of the Province. Even then there are spells 
of intense and prolonged frost. Only so could we record 
this exceptional circumstance; on the wedding day of 
Captain He man Kenney and Helena, daughter of Samuel 
Kimball, Esq., teacher and surveyor, Jan. 24, 1834 at 
Mr. Kimball's home on Ministerial Island, Doctor's; 
Cove, they wanted milk and the groom and Thomas 
Kimball walked across Barrington Passage on the ice to 
Capt. Bartlett Covell's, each with a jug and got a supply. 
Rev. Thomas Crowell was the minister. The summer is 
especially delightful and supplies to citizen and tourist the 
ideal condition for the pursuit of health, recreation, rest 
and happiness out of doors. This climate is peculiarly 



402 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

favorable to agriculture, and in some measure offsets 
the stony nature of the soil. One of the remarkable 
things in the diary of Dr. Geddes was his testimony to 
the large quantities of flax raised here by the inhabitants 
the first seventy-five years after the settlement. This 
meant the expenditure of much labor, but was possible 
only with a strong, fertile soil. Grain, fruit, vegetables 
respond readily in selected places to the right cultivation ; 
the black marsh makes rich hayland. 

At the turn of Cape Sable the tides increase in speed 
and height towards the Bay of Fundy with its spectacular 
contrasts and its bore. In Barrington one may not see 
these wonders, but can do better; for the sheltered and 
roomy harbors invite the boat-man to safe and varied 
enjoyment. Rarely is the winter so severe as to impede 
the coasting steamers and motor fish boats at their calling. 

Scenery The beauty of Barrington does not lose its 
charm upon those who were nurtured in her 
homes. It is true that many years ago a traveller or two 
over the main post road between Clyde and Pubnico, 
who spent several hours in the woods with an interval at 
Barrington Head, wrote to the press grievous descriptions 
of their wilderness journey. But in any backwoods it 
takes a lover of nature to be interested. Scenery is much 
a matter of taste. If woodland and meadow pleasantly 
interspersed with comely homes, stretches of river or har- 
bor with mills, wharves, shipping, houses of worship, 
schools, halls and gardens of flowers, all under a genial 
sky are pleasing to the fancy, these are found in Barring- 
ton in abundance. For some the sight of gleaming tides 
among the islands on a summer day, is the ideal of rest- 
fulness; others have an absorbing interest in tracing the 
remains of French or Indian occupation; others follow 
the wood path with dog and gun, or rod, and others 
launch out with the fisherman to visit nets or pots miles 



BOUNDARIES, CLIMATE, ETC. 403 

off shore. Be sure that every hour will serve you with a 
portion of the spice of life. Boats, waterfalls, sand hills, 
beaches, sheltered harbors and haunted islands here invite 
nerve-racked men and women to forget themselves where 
^Nature is lavish of her beauty and her gifts. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 

South Shore Railway. 

In 1889 the people of the township became interested 
in a South Shore railway project. A charter had been 
obtained for the construction of a railway from near Wind- 
sor through the western part of the Province, via New 
Germany and Caledonia, toward Yarmouth with branch- 
es to Liverpool and Shelburne. This would involve sub- 
stantial subsidies from both the Provincial and Dominion 
governments. Barrington felt that in justice to tax- 
payers and in view of the greatest service to the public 
any subsidized railway should be built to accommodate 
the population. Therefore a meeting was held and a 
committee appointed at Barrington Passage to make ar- 
rangements for a public railway meeting at the Head. 
The committee included T. W. Watson, Esq., Capt. Har- 
vey Doane, Capt. Charles Seeley, Moses H. Nickerson,. 
Edgar H. Coffin, Rev. Edwin Crowell. A meeting was 
held at the Court house on Sept. 10th and was largely at- 
tended and fully reported in the Yarmouth Times. J, B. 
Lawrence Esq. was Chairman, Moses H. Nickerson Esq. 
Secretary. The Chairman explained that a Provincial 
subsidy for a railway in this county had been promised, 
and a Dominion subsidy was as good as promised. Rev. 
Edwin Crowell, as spokesman for the committee, moved 
and supported the following Resolutions, viz. 

"That the interests of Shelburne and Queens Counties de- 
mand that Railway facilities and connections be provided 
not later on the Western shore than in the Eastern part of 
Shelburne County, upon a line from Yarmouth, passing 
throu&h the shore settlements of Barrington township, as 
far as is practicable, and thence via Shelburne and Liver- 
pool in accordance with the resolutions of a recent mass 
meeting in Shelburne town." 

This was seconded and strongly advocated by Mr. 
M. H. Nickerson but opposed by the Hon. N. W. White 

[407 



408 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON; 

who argued that Shelburne must cooperate with Queens- 
or lose the road. Messrs. Frank Killam and J. R. Wy- 
man approved of the Resolution, citing the experience of 
the Western counties in running back of the settlements as 
a mistake. Messrs. Hon. Albert Gay ton, Coun. Eakins, 
Augustus Cann., J. R. Kenney, Wm. Fraser and other 
Yarmouth gentlemen were present. The Resolution was: 
passed, and a committee of twenty was appointed to con- 
fer and act with other committees in obtaining the end 
sought in the resolution. 

At a railway mass meeting at Pubnico, Oct. 1st the 
Barrington resolution was endorsed. T. W. Watson Esq. 
was one of the speakers. 

Mr. Thomas Robertson just before this had suggested 
the extension of the Western Counties railway from Yar- 
mouth coastwise to Lockeport as the proper solution of 
the problem. For a while the subject was agitated in 
party politics, rival companies being formed, one backed 
by the promise of a subsidy from the Conservative Dom- 
inion Government, the other with similar backing from 
the Liberal Provincial government. Mr. Robertson 
favored a narrow guage road as less expensive.. 
Both companies went so far as to grade their road- 
beds almost twenty miles out of Yarmouth when the 
access of the Liberals to power at Ottawa threw the cards 
into the hand of Mr. Robertson. His company then 
adopted the broad guage system and with both subsidies, 
proceeded with construction. One stage halted at East 
Pubnico, the next reached Barrington Passage in 1896 and 
the necessary negotiations having been completed to the 
Eastward the road was built and trains were running ta 
Halifax from Yarmouth in 1900 Mr. Robertson became 
President of the Company which built the Yarmouth 
and Barrington section, and which was afterwards taken 
over by the Provincial government and still later was in-- 
corporated with the Canadian National System. 



APPENDIX 409 



It will be seen that the Barrington railway meeting 
was the first to originate and take action upon the plan, 
which, following the line of Coast settlements, eventually 
became known as the Halifax and Southwestern railway. 



Traditions of Old Cape Sable. 

The leading families among the early French inhabi- 
tants of the Cape Sable section, as is historically establish- 
ed, were of noble descent, associates of Poutrincourt, 
Biencourt and Latour. Etienne d'Entremont is said to 
have been of the blood of Henry of Navarre, by whose 
royal favor he became a protege of Biencourt in the old 
-Colonie feudal of TAcadie, which he served as Procureur 
General; two of Charles Latour's daughters married, one 
a d'Entremont and the other an Amiro. The following 
incidents connected with the removal of these people from 
their native soil, and the coming in of the New England 
settlers, were gathered by the writer some fifteen years 
ago. Their authenticity rests principally in the vivid 
traditions carefully preserved among the French families 
now residing in that locality. Up to a generation ago a 
considerable number of original records on which they are 
based still existed. Little, however, now remains but a 
few relics and fragmentary documents. 

It is certain that in the spring of 1756, Major Jedediah 
Prebble of New England, on his way home from Louis- 
burg to Boston with a battalion of New England militia 
and a company of artillery, received orders at Halifax to 
put into Cape Sable or some of the adjacent harbors, to 
land troops, seize as many of the inhabitants as possible 
and carry them to Boston, and at all events to burn and 
-destroy the houses, to carry off the utensils and cattle of 
-all kinds, which were to be distributed as a reward for 
^that service among his troops, and to destroy such things 



410 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

as could not be conveniently carried off. These savage 
orders were apparently most literally obeyed, it being 
Prebble's business "not to reason why." 

Arrived off Cape Sable with two schooners and eleven 
sloops under convoy of H. M. S. "Vulture", he encounter- 
ed a number of French shallops and Indian canoes engag- 
ed in fishing. The shallops fell an easy prey. In one of 
them was the Seigneur Jacques d'Entremont of Poubom- 
>coup (Pubnico) with his eldest son Jacques. The latter, 
resenting the treatment accorded to his venerable father 
-was killed and scalped by his captors and his body taken 
.ashore for burial in a spot, identified until within recent 
years, on the lower end of Pubnico Point. The Indians 
an their canoes fled for shore and spread the alarm, and the 
inhabitants thus had time to escape to the woods. Among 
the refugees in the woods was Madeline d'Entremont, 
daughter of the Seigneur. Some time after Prebble's de- 
parture, while walking on the shore in the vicinity of her 
former home, she observed a French war vessel close in 
with the land. A boat from the ship came ashore, and to 
the officer in charge, Lieut. Granger, she discovered her 
presence. We may believe that beauty in distress made 
instant appeal of love to the heart of the French sailor 
lor he found means of rescuing the maid from her forlorn 
condition and conveying her to France, where after the 
war he returned and married her. Their descendants, 
offspring of this romantic union, living at Bordeaux, 
Trance, are still in correspondence with their kindred or 
""parents" on this side of the Atlantic. 

The chateau of the Seigneur on the east side of Pub- 
nico Harbor and the village that clustered around it were 
burned and the property destroyed or carried off. The 
^same fate befell the home of Pierre d'Entremont, son of 
Jacques, Sr., at Centreville, Cape Island, where the ruins 
of the old French brick kiln remained visible for a hundred 
years afterwards, and the occasional discovery of cannon 



APPENDIX 411! 



balls and other evidences of warfare in the vicinity of the 
earthworks on the shore of Centreville Harbor attested 
the violent nature of the removal of the French occupants.. 
The stone church, said to have been located at the "Sand 
Hills" on the east side of Barrington Harbor, was destroy- 
ed, but the altar vessels had been removed by the priest 
and are still said to be preserved at St. Mary's Cathedral, 
in Halifax. The wooden chapel and the considerable set- 
tlement at the head of Barrington Harbor shared in the' 
common destruction, including the house of Paul d'Entre- 
mont (another son of Jacques, Sr.) on a pleasant knoll at 
the mouth of Barrington River, opposite the present office- 
of the Canadian Bank of Commerce and now the site of 
the residence of the proprietor of the Barrington Woolen 
Mill. The grist mill at the mouth of the stream at Bar- 
rington West (in the writer's boyhood sometimes still re- 
ferred to by the older people as the "Old French Mill 
Stream") was burned. Years afterwards the millstones 
were taken to Argyle and set up in a mill, and they are 
said to be still in existence, though not in use. 

To return to the fate of the people themselves. Those 
who were captured at the time were taken to Boston and 
kept as military prisoners at Walpole, near Roxbury.. 
Practically all those who escaped to the woods surrendered 
about two years later and were removed, some being add- 
ed to the Roxbury prisoners, others transported beyond^ 
seas, eventually reaching the island of Rhe on the coast of 
Brittany, where the French king made some provision for 
them and there their descendants still dwell. Among 
the Roxbury group were the Seigneur Jacques d'Entre- 
mont and his sons, Pierre, Benoni and Paul. Jacques 
Sr., died at Roxbury. The sons would seem to have been 
well educated for the time, and earned their living by act- 
ing as bookkeepers for Boston merchants. 

At the time of Prebble's raid, Paul d'Entremont, who< 
as noticed resided at the head of Barrington Harbor, es- 



412 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

caped capture and spent the following winter in the Cape 
Sable vicinity. Late in the fall, while hunting on Bac- 
caro Point, he observed one morning a man on the beach 
who proved to be the captain and only survivor of a Mass- 
achusetts Bay vessel cast away the night before. Paul 
had little reason to love a New Englander, but the appeal 
of a stranger in distress, though an alien enemy, was too* 
much for his humanity. He sheltered the stranger for the 
winter and in the spring furnished him with a rude chart 
of the country, by the aid of which he reached the English 
settlements, whence he was able to return to Boston. La- 
ter, Paul himself was captured and taken to Boston, where 
as he landed on the wharf he was greeted by the man 
whom he had rescued the fall before and who had been his; 
winter-long companion. 

"Well, M'sieu Paul," said this friend, "have they got 
you at last? You saved my life last winter; it is my turn 
now to see what I can do for you." It would be extremely 
interesting if we could know the name of this individual, 
but it is now known only to the Rewarder of the just. He 
seems to have been a man of some consideration, however, 
for he at once proposed to take Paul before the Governor 
and intercede for his relief. But quite unexpectedly,, 
Paul made a difficulty. Though a prisoner, destitute and 
in rags, he was conscious that in his veins flowed the blood 
of the old grandees of France, and he refused to go volun- 
tarily before the Governor. 

"I am a French gentleman," he said; "if the Governor 
desires, let him send for me, and then my condition will 
not prejudice me, as it would if I went to him unsought.'* 

This scruple of pride his friend communicated to the 
Governor, who, appreciating the spirit of the man, sent 
Paul a present of a suit of clothes, a watch and a cane, and 
being thus made presentable, Paul accompanied by his 
faithful sponsor appeared before the Governor. The re- 
sult was highly beneficial to him and to his people as well,. 



APPENDIX 413' 



who thereafter were treated with something of the con- 
sideration which their innocency and misfortunes merited. 

As to the Governor's gifts, the suit of clothes yielded 
in time to the corruption of moth and rust; the watch, to 
the long recognised hazard that thieves will break through 
and steal it was stolen from one of Paul's descendants 
by a person of antiquarian taste about thirty years ago. 
The cane is still a family treasure, solitary mute testimon- 
ial to the truth of this tradition. It is a staff about 4| feet 
long, in the plain round metal head of which there is a 
close-fitting hinged covering. By pressure at a point on 
the side of the staff this cover would fly open and through 
it would spring with great penetrating force a steel spike 
about eight inches in length; an innocent appearing but 
really formidable weapon in the hands of a man not per- 
mitted to carry though trained to the use of side arms. 

The settlement of Barrington by people of English! 
race, as is well known, was begun in 1761. Fishermen 
from Nan tucket, Plymouth and Cape Cod had for un- 
known years previously visited Sable Bay (Baie des Sab- 
les) , as the French called Barrington Harbor, in pursuit of 
their calling, and after the removal of the French some- 
hundred families from those localities moved in and occu- 
pied the vacant lands, of which they had received a grant 
from the English Crown.* But it was one thing to resort 

*NOTE: An incident in the boyhood of Thomas Doane (hereinafter referred 
to) may here be cited to illustrate the care that New England fishermen were 
obliged to exercise in resorting for shelter to harbors in the Cape Sable vicinity. 
The French were friendly with the Indians and both were hostile to the English* 
and New Englanders, so that it behooved the Yankee fishermen to keep a good 
anchor watch and look out for night attacks. 

When the said Thomas was about fifteen years of age he was one of the crew 
of a Chatham fishing vessel which was making a harbor for the night in Sable Bay 
and snugly anchored in the Beach Point channel. Waking from sleep, he heard a 
tap-tap-tapping somewhere, he could not tell where, about the vessel. Creeping 
silently from his bunk and up on deck, he found the watch asleep, and crawling to 
the stern, whence the sound seemed to emanate, he peeked cautiously over. 
Through the fog and daikness he saw a canoe lying under the stern, with an Indian 
in one end holding a paddle to keep the canoe in position, while in the end toward 
the vessel was another Indian engaged in driving wedges around the rudder post. 
Immediately their scheme was apparent to the lad. After wedging the rudder, 
they meant to cut the cable and let the helpless vessel drift ashore, kill all hands 
and carry off the property. Indeed, unless their plan was invented for this occa- 
sion only, such may well have been the fate of several other vessels in the same 



414 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

to Sable Bay for an occasional refuge in the course of fish- 
ing voyages from Cape Cod, and quite another to avail 
of Barrington Harbor as a permanent starting point for 
such excursions. Accurate knowledge of bearings, courses 
and distances, and of the mysteries of the tides and safe 
avoidance of a thousand perils from ledge and shoal on, 
those uncharted shores, was necessary for a successful: 
prosecution of their industry; and that they did not pos- 
sess. Such secrets were locked in the breasts of the de- 
ported Frenchmen, to whom the accumulated experience 
of a century and a half of use had made the Cape Sable 
fishing grounds as familiar as their own neat dooryards. 

The "Half Century of Conflict" having terminated 
in favor of the English, and the Cape Sable French people* 
still lingering in the Boston vicinity, many requests were 
made of them that some Frenchman go back to Cape Sab- 
le and locate the fishing grounds for the newcomers. This: 
none was at first disposed to -do, mistrusting, with some 
remembered circumstantial grounds for the suspicion,, 
that having done so, they might then be thrown overboard 
in lieu of other compensation for their trouble. At last,, 
two Frenchmen, Pierre d'Entremont and L'Ange Amiro^ 
agreed to undertake such a mission on the following 
terms. 

Furnished with a boat, muskets and ammunition and 
other necessaries for hunting, fowling and trapping, they 
were to be taken over in the fall of the year, left for the 
winter to pursue the indicated occupations, and called for 
in the spring, when they would locate the fishing grounds. 

spot, and the secret only revealed by the washing away many years afterwards of 
thesand flat on the western side of that channel, which laid bare their bones. 

Crawling noiselessly forward again and arming himself with a fish-gaff which 
no Nova Scotian need be told is a pole about six feet long with a big iron hook in 
one end Master Thomas with a yell rushed to the stern and hooked the Indian 
who was at work on the rudder, right under the chin. The other Indian instantly 
paddled off out of sight in the darkness. The men below scrambled on deck at the- 
cry of alarm, to find the boy struggling with the gamest fish he ever encountered,, 
sticking to it, trying to land him, while the Indian on the other end of the gaff was 
flouncing and jerking and twisting away for dear life, and finally succeeded in 
wiiggling himself clear of the hook before anybody else could catch him. 



APPENDIX 415 

and impart the desired information, and then were to be 
taken back to Boston with the proceeds of their winter's 
labors. These conditions were accepted. In sight of 
Cape Sable they left the vessel in the boat provided for 
them with their equipment and sailed up through the 
West Passage until they came in sight of "The Town", 
now known as Coffinscroft, on the east side of Barrington 
Harbor. Not caring to throw themselves unannounced 
on the mercy of a strange people, late their enemies and 
now in possession of their native soil, some of whom pos- 
sibly had participated in their violent deportation, they 
hesitated before proceeding further. Seeing a house by 
itself on a hill near a diked field on Sherose (Chereau's) 
Island on the western side of the harbor, they landed and 
knocked at its door. Of the astonished woman who an- 
swered their summons, they asked if they could board 
with her for the winter. 

Now it has always taken more than "tickling with a 
hoe" to make the rough Barrington soil "laugh with a 
harvest", and in those earliest years hardship and priva- 
tion of many necessaries of life were the common experi- 
ence. The addition of two grown men to any family's 
daily mess would create economic conditions not to be 
: solved by theory alone, and a practical solution was not 
visible to the naked eye of this puzzled but kind hearted 
woman. The appearance of the strangers and a few in- 
quiries having satisfied her of their innocent character, she 
told them it was hard enough to find food for her own house- 
hold, and asked what provisions they had of their own. 
They answered, "We have a barrel of hardtack!" With 
.a shake of the head she expressed the fear that that would 
not go far to clear up the situation. 

"Oh, but", they replied, "we have the fusils," point- 
ing to the muskets they had laid on the ground near them, 
"'and we have the powder and the lead; and we will shoot 



416 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

for you the moose and the duck to eat, and soon we'll 
shoot you a feather bed!" 

This impressed her as an offer attractive enough for 
consideration by her husband, who, she informed them, 
would be home at night, when they could lay the matter 
before him. This accordingly they did. The husband 
referred to was Mr. Thomas Doane, native of Chatham, 
Cape Cod, and one of the Barrington grantees. Hearing 
their story, Mr. Doane admitted that though he had been 
a soldier and served in two campaigns against the French 
: in Nova Scotia, his own skill with the gun against game 
would be a poor dependence for support, and he made 
them welcome on their own terms. So they spent the 
winter as inmates of his family and faithfully carried out 
their bargain to mutual satisfaction. 

In the spring the vessel from Boston arrived, our 
iriends gave the promised information relative to the Cape 
fisheries, and returned in the vessel safely to their families 
with the pelts and feathers, proceeds of their winter's 
work, which they disposed of for the sum of eighty dollars. 

The return of a few of these exiles under the leader- 
ship of Benoni d'Entremont to the neighborhood of their 
mativity about 1767, is matter of history. Benoni settled 
at Barrington. He was a man of considerable attainment 
and intellectual force, served as a member of the Provin- 
cial Parliament, and died at a -very advanced age. When 
he was asked how he, a good Roman Catholic, would take 
the drastic oath then required of all public servants, he 
answered, "I will take it, as I would eat dogfish, head- 
first!" Paul d'Entremont settled at West Pubnico; 
L'Ange Amiro, at Woods Harbor, where "Angel's Island 
still perpetuates his name, which became popularly trans- 
formed on our perverse English tongues into "Angel 
Amen." 

Some years after their repatriation, a letter was re- 
ceived at Pubnico, via St. Pierre-Miquelon, from a female 



APPENDIX 417 



member of one of the families who had reached France. It 
requested the one receiving it to go to a certain spot care- 
fully described, near the site of the old chateau, at a cer- 
tain distance from "le sud roi de la cabane" ', and dig up the 
money, and at another spot the plate and other silverware, 
which had been buried on that awful day of terror and 
fire and blood; to keep the silver as compensation for the 
trouble involved, and by means indicated to remit the 
money to the writer of the letter, who was sorely in need. 
Following the directions given, the buried silver was re- 
covered, but someone had evidently been beforehand in 
the removal of the money. It was then remembered that 
shortly before, a Frenchman, whose name will never be 
forgotten, from St. Pierre, had been among them and sud- 
denly disappeared, and there is little doubt that he was 
accountable for the disappearance of the money. Of the 
silverware, dishonest toll has been so often taken by in- 
sinuating visitors to whom it was shown on the plea of 
their historical interest, that now there are left only a few 
spoons and a small antique vase. 

It would seem that Dante missed a great opportunity 
when he neglected to ascribe a specially fervent locality in 
his Inferno for the accommodation of souvenir thieves; 
though perhaps, after all, they would be included in his 
category of those "sorry souls who lived without infamy 
and without renown, displeasing to God and to His ene- 
mies," for whom he reserved his bitterest scorn. Among 
the documents ravished from their hereditary guardians 
only within the past twenty-five years was the original 
certificate of marriage of Charles Latour with the widow 
d'Aulnay; another was the grant by said Latour to his 
sons-in-law, d'Entremont and Amiro, of his lands extend- 
ing from the Chegoggin River to Cape Rosier. 

One hundred and fifty years of hardship and isolation 
but of great peace for this people have rolled into the past 
since the days to which we have given this brief attention; 



418 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

but that century and a half have only confirmed the vir- 
tues of the ancestors in the character of their descendants; 
and through all the years, the gentleness, dignity and grac- 
iousness inherited from the chevaliers of old France give 
to them to this day a unique charm of manner, and to 
their pure lives a sweetly wholesome savor. 

BENJAMIN H. DOANE. 
New York, October 7, 1918. 



Extracts From Letters of The Late A. C. White, 
Written Oct. 1891. 



I came to Harrington in Sept., 1814, in war time. 
In 1819 I married Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. Thomas 
Crowell. My grandfather was a Congregationalist 
minister in Nantucket and graduated at Harvard. 
William White who came over in the Mayflower in 1620 
had a son born the same day he landed at Plymouth, and 
as he was a stranger in a strange land, they called his name 
Peregrine. My father and Gideon White ofShelburne 
were descendants of Peregrine. My grandfather whose 
name was Timothy had three children while on Nantucket, 
two boys and a girl, the eldest named James and John was 
my father. The family afterwards removed to Haverhill 
my native place. My uncle James and two men named 
Hazen and Simonds went to St. John and were the first 
settlers in that town. They took up all the land, which 
they leased to other emigrants and still draw rent for some 
of the best land in the city. I visited my cousin there in 
1816 when he was High Sheriff of the City and County. 

My father was at the taking of Louisburg and went 
from there to Quebec under Gen. Wolfe and was lieuten- 
ant in the battle on the field when Wolfe was killed. After 



APPENDIX 419 



that he was in the war of the Revolution and was in the 
battle of Bunker Hill. 

While my grandfather lived on Nantucket a large 
whale was driven ashore and the people thought that as 
Jonah occupied a whale for several days, it would be no 
harm for them to occupy the whale's mouth for a short 
time; so they took the body and wheels off of an ox-cart, 
pried open the whale's mouth with the cart tongue and 
put the axle-tree across the roof of his mouth with the ton- 
gue resting on his jaw. They then carried in a table and 
six chairs and my grandmother (holding my father, then 
an infant, in her lap) and five other ladies went into the 
"whale's mouth" and drank tea. 

In Nov. 1815 two Barrington vessels loaded for Bos- 
ton to get provisions for the winter, but a cold storm set 
in and they did not go till spring. There was very little 
bread stuff for sale in Barrington. Flour sold at $26.00 
per bbl., corn at $3. per bus. The snow in the woods was 
3 feet deep. The men in companies of from 4 to 6 on 
snowshoes, with as many dogs, went into the woods for 
moose. A crust bore up the dogs and the moose which 
came out of . the woods could not escape them. Over 300 
moose were killed that winter, two of them in the road 
not 70 yards from where I lived. Had the moose not come 
out of the woods, the people would have been compelled 
to kill their cattle for food. Since then, I do not believe 
that 10 moose have been killed per annum. 

Old Mr. Pinkham (Richard,) who was living in Bar- 
rington when I went there was a very intelligent man. He 
told me he married his wife in Nantucket her name was 
Coffin. He was a member of the Quaker Society and his 
wife was not and they expelled him for marrying out of 
the Society. They said if he would come before the soc- 
iety and say he was sorry they would reinstate him, but 
this he would not do. He told of two men Coffin and 
Bunker, who came to get property of their fathers, who 



420 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON 

were grantees; but an Act had been passed so that after 
20 years absence they could not claim it. 

My grandfather Timothy White married a Gardner. 
All the Coffins and Pinkhams (of Harrington) were 
kinsmen to me. I am in my 87th year. 



Events Since 1870. 



Cape Id. Ferry One of the chief public services of the 
township for a century and a quarter is 
the ferry to North East Point, Cape Id. Begun as a mat- 
ter of accommodation by the Cunningham and Knowles 
families on opposite sides of the Passage, it was brought 
under regulation and charily subsidized by the Provincial 
Government from 1847 and developed with the general in- 
crease of population and trade. This difficult service has 
been carried on with remarkable freedom from accidents. 
One awful disaster took place about the mid-century when 
John and Samuel Knowles, father and son, were drowned 
while carrying Capt. Thomas Newell to the island in a 
sailing skiff during a snow storm. Capt. Newell swam to 
a ledge and was rescued; the body of the son, Samuel, a 
man with family, was never recovered. In 1855 the As- 
sembly made a grant to Mrs. Samuel Knowles of 25. In 
1876 the agitation for a steam ferry began and in a few 
years a company was organized and the service established 
to different parts of the island with a government subsidy. 
In 1871,the census credited one-sixth of the fishery of Shel- 
burne Co. to Cape Island. The boat ferry in 1875 car- 
ried 2431 persons and over 40 teams across. The amount 
of traffic was more than doubled by the steam ferry in the 
second year of operation. Public feeling about ferry faci- 
lities was shown at a meeting held in January 1894 when 
the vote of approval of the narrow-guage Coast Ry. pro- 
posals was connected with the condition that the Ry. 
should provide and operate a steam ferry with Cape Id. 



APPENDIX 421 






The question now is whether this popular service shall 
make way for a bridge across the Passage. 

The Municipality From early in the 19th century propri- 
etors' business became gradually sup- 
erseded by the Sessions of the Peace. In 1819 a pr. meet- 
ing held at Edward Kendricks' tavern took action to keep 
up the Township line. In 1836 and 1837 a quorum did 
not attend meetings for which notices were posted. The 
last meeting was held May 4th, 1838 in Heman Crowell's 
store with Eaton Crowell, Chmn. and Harvey Doane, 
acting Pr. Clerk. The last entry on the books is a notice 
by Watson Nickerson for the division of the undivided 
land on Hawk Pt. This was dated Jan. 5, 1839 and re- 
corded Oct. 3, 1840 by Sam'l. 0. Doane, P. Clerk. 

In 1854 Shelburne County was divided into two Dis- 
tricts, thereafter the Supreme Court was held in 
Harrington yearly, and jurors did not have to go to Shel- 
burne. The town-house became the court-house and the 
lock-up a county-jail. 

The transition of local control to the Harrington Ses- 
sions is seen in the action of the Sessions in 1855, April 
term, when there was enacted new fishery regulations 
for the township, a list of officials was appointed for the 
district and the township divided into 36 road districts. 
James M. Doane was Clerk of the Peace. 

In 1860 R. H. Crowell became Clerk of the Peace and 
so continued until the Municipal Act came into force in 
1880. The powers of Administration and Control were 
now put on a more popular and democratic basis by per- 
missive Provincial Statutes enabling counties and town- 
ships to become incorporated. The Council was there- 
fore organized Jan. 16, 1880 by deputy and sworn in by 
the Custos, Josiah Coffin Esq. J. B. Lawrence was elected 
Warden, R. H. Crowell, Clerk and F. W. Homer, Treas- 
urer. These all continued in office until 1891 when Win- 



422 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

throp Sargent was appointed Clerk. Wm. B. Smith was 
Warden for a term, and Paul E. Crowell was elected in 
1902. 

Inventory All histories, which consist of materials dug 
up from the past, should by comparison make 
for our admonition and betterment; as when the mer- 
chant in stock-taking gets suggestions for his future opera- 
tions. 

It has been a pronounced fashion of the Harrington 
fishermen from the very first to occupy temporary 
quarters during the season near the fishing grounds. Cer- 
tain places were held in common on the islands at Cape 
Sable convenient for anchorage and huts. Cat Point 
has also been a famous resort for the same purpose. Now- 
adays they go further, to Seal and Tusket Ids., Chebogue 
and Yarmouth Bar. There could be no better proof of 
the enterprise of these men, whose hardships are frequent- 
ly shared by their women-folks when they build huts and 
maintain their family life in close proximity to their ar- 
duous work. 

In our times applied science has changed the face of 
the World. On the day of Confederation the writer was 
in Halifax on his father's vessel then unloading a cargo of 
dry bank fish and to return to Barrington with merchan- 
dise. At that time the packets of Captains 0. Taylor, J. 
Hopkins and Israel Wilson were running out of Barrington 
to Halifax and Boston with steady employment. What 
now has become of the bankers, freighters, fish stores and 
flake-yards, then so striking a feature of the township 
life? We must go back to 1867 to answer this question. 

. After the Civil War in the United States (1861-5) in- 
dustrial expansion and a stiffer tariff made New England 
a better market for labor than for lumber and fish; and 
many of our people responded to the lure, especially fish- 
ermen who shipped in their bankers. At home, the use 



APPENDIX 423 



of the new lobster trap made winter fishing possible and 
resulted in stauncher and motored boats. Steamers, with 
more regularity of service, displaced sailing vessels in the 
coasting trade; and, when the railway, telephone and mo- 
tor cars were added, local business was completely mod- 
ernized, though in the main these services were manned 
from the community. The sewing machine, soon introduc- 
ed, drove out the local custom work in various industries 
by cheaper ready-made products, but opened a way for 
new enterprise in the manufacture of oilclothes which is 
still extensively carried on. A stimulus to boat building 
was also evident as the body of the people "whose busi- 
ness was on the great deep" hastened to keep pace with 
the movements of the world around them. 

Now also, convenient banks take on interest the 
money formerly invested in bank fishing and give posi- 
tions for local youths whose promotion and removal are 
generally rapid opening the way for others. The market 
for boneless fish and the efficiency of the motor-boat has 
given occupation to buyers and cutters as well as to shore 
fishermen. The horse is now less frequent than the motor 
car which here can be used with little interruption in or- 
dinary winter weather. 

In recent years some of our villages have greatly in- 
creased, others have lost in population. On the whole the 
changes are adaptations to a new enviroment. Only a 
small percentage of the living have their names in our 
genealogy, owing to the limits imposed on us, but when 
the book "Barringtonians Abroad" is published, we shall 
have no reason for shame concerning the part played by 
our people in the world's affairs. 

A seed bed is a small matter compared with the large 
gardens into which its products are transplanted, but its 
value is great indeed. The Key to past success has been 
the Key of Knowledge, the intelligence, and particularly, 



424 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

the good schooling of our youth. There will be no change 
in that indispensable condition of future prosperity. Let 
ample provision be made with due regard to the larger de- 
mands of society today, for upon our schools rests the re- 
sponsibility of qualifying prospective voters, male and 
female, for the exercise of the franchise. Then all can 
contribute to the solution of such vexed questions as how 
best to meet the burden entailed upon our country by the 
Great War; how to bridge the gap between the producer 
and the consumer, between labor and capital; when to* 
take away the pap from the "infant industries" of last 
century; how to develop our township resources, manu- 
facture our own raw materials and find the best markets; 
and not least in importance, how best to conserve the 
fisheries, the basic and vital industry of our community. 

We quote herewith a memorandum of the late Al- 
bert Doane, Municipal Clerk and son of Warren Doane, 
shipbuilder. It is of especial interest in the light it throws 
on the evergreen subject of debate as to the effect of Con- 
federation on our Provincial and Township affairs. He 
writes, "From 1850 to 1856, 1860 to 1866 and 1870 to 1876 
a maximum demand for vessels and rate of freights pre- 
vailed; in 1858, 1868 and 1878 the minimum. The first 
three periods mark the time of the Crimean, the American 
and the Franco-Prussian wars." This is in accord with 
our recent experiences concerning shipping and freights- 
and shows that many factors, some of them far removed, 
may enter into the questions which seem of only local 
consequence. 

Our stock-taking reveals a solvent and vigorous com- 
munity despite the changed conditions of our times; and 
by enterprise, industry and wise counsels Barrington may 
expect to retain the bulk of its native population, and 
draw to its delightful shores the worthy stranger. May 
the story of our township stimulate wholesome pride, a 



APPENDIX 425 



spirit of confidence in the future and a determination to 
emulate the heroic founders. 

The Old Fashion The schooner "Codseeker" was launched 
April 1877; on May 9th she capsized off the 
Half moons. Capt. Philip Brown and two men got aboard a 
dory and drifted to Cape Id. Ziba Hunt was drowned from 
the deck. The Schr. "Matchless," Capt. John Crowell,with 
a volunteer crew immediately went out in search of the 
*'Cod seeker"and about 12 hours after the disaster while 
the gale was still heavy, took off four men from the wreck 
being assured that there were no other survivors. Three 
days later the Schr. "Ohio", Capt. Dorr fell in with the 
"Codseeker" on her beam ends, west of Seal Id. On 
boarding her noises were heard and signals were made 
and answered; by cutting through the hull two men, 
Samuel Atwood and the adopted son of Reuben Stoddart, 
the owner, were rescued. These were carried to Shag 
Harbor. The derelict was towed in to Port Maitland, 
May 23rd, when three dead bodies were found on board. 



Shelburne a Hundred Tears Ago" 



(From an Old English Paper About 1885.) 
Six leagues North east of Harrington Bay is the town 
of Shelburne, built upon the harbor of Port Roseway lat. 
43 47N. long. 65 14 W. from London. Inhabited by a 
numerous Colony, perhaps the most so that any nation 
can boast of in modern times. 

The harbor is not exceeded by any one in America 
for goodness having everywhere six or seven fathoms 
water from the sea to the town. The distance not more 
than eight miles, with scarcely any current either in or out, 
while a large island lying in the entrance shuts it in so 
entirely from danger, that no wind whatever can do the 
least prejudice to ships riding at anchor. 



426 HISTORY OF BARRINGTON. 

The town is perhaps one of the largest in the new 
world, containing almost 3,000 houses regularly built, hav- 
ing 15 streets in right lines from North to South and 30 
from East to West crossing the former at right angles. The 
number of inhabitants amounts to 13,000. Opposite 
to Shelburne is Birdi town peopled by the negroes from 
New York about 1,400 whose labors have been found ex- 
tremely useful to the white inhabitants. 

The lands are greatly improved and have in several 
places produced fine crops of wheat, barley and oats, of 
garden herbs, and dwarf fruits as currants. The shipping 
nearly equals that of Halifax, being at least 300 sail of all 
sorts, some in the whale fishery and a still greater number 
to the West Indies and the rest in the cod fishery upon th e 
banks that are upon the west of the Province. 

The pilots who are employed by the British fleets in 
North America during the war are settled upon the harbor 
half way between the sea and town. 

Government, wisely considering how obnoxious these 
men have rendered themselves to the rebels have allotted 
them half pay during the rest of their lives, a measure 
equally just and necessary, most of them being formerly 
possessed of property in the United States. 

No people amongst the loyalists have exerted them- 
selves more successfully than they in rendering their pre- 
sent situation comfortable. 

All this country, for several miles about,is exceedingly 
populous particularly upon Indian River five miles east of 
Port Roseway, noted for its salmon fishery where large 
tracts of land are cleared and produce very good wheat 
and barley. The river itself is only fit for vessels of twelve 
feet draft of water to enter but there are three saw mills 
erected upon it by the new colonists that are kept going 
night and day for the merchants of Port Roseway who 
are constantly shipping off lumber to the West Indies both 



APPENDIX 427 



from these mills and two others lately erected above Shel- 
burne. From this place a creek communicates with a 
large fresh water lake several miles distant the borders of 
which are capable of feeding numerous herds of cattle and 
are clothed with fine woods consisting of birch, maple, 
spruce, pine and red oak; a great many loyalists convinced 
of the goodness of the lands are employed clearing the 
woods and converting them into lumber. Two churches 
are built at Port Rose way one for the people of the 
Presbyterian persuasion and the other for those of the 
Church of England. 

All kinds of fresh provisions are tolerably cheap; but- 
cher meat being upon an average at fourpence per pound, 
and flour and bread in proportion. 

Many large wharfs and convenient storehouses are 
erected for landing and securing goods, their trade par- 
ticularly to the British West Indies having increased very 
rapidly within the last eighteen months. Below the town 
and upon the same side of the harbor, the lands quite 
down to the sea have been divided into 30 acre lots; so 
that a large number of vessels have been built chiefly for 
the fishing business and some of them as large as 250 tons 
burthen. 70 sail were upon the stocks in October last and it 
is conjectured that near 400 sail will have been finished 
by this time since the evacuation of New York at this 
one settlement alone. 



From The Yarmouth Herald, May 15, 1923. 

"On April 26, 1783 the spring fleet set sail from New 
York with 7000 United Empire Loyalists who were landed 
at the Mouth of the St. John river then founding New 
Brunswick; and at Port Rose way at the Southwest end of 
the Nova Scotia peninsula. 

The Loyalists in the Maritime Provinces at that time 
were about 35,000. 



428 HISTORY OF HARRINGTON 

The 140th anniversary of the arrival of the first fleet 
at the mouth of the St. John River is now to be celebrated 
by the City of St. John/'* 



ADD ENDA TO CHAP. XVII. LEGISLATION, Section 40. 

(a) N. S. Acts, 1865, c 50 : Grant of 25 pounds for clearing and deepening 
Woods Hr. Out of the Grammar School monies of Barrington 20 pounds 
to provide globes, maps, apparatus for the School in Dist. No. 8, pursu- 
ant to the Report of the Com. on Education. 

(6) N. S. Acts, 1857, c 46 : An Act to empower the County members te 
borrow 100 pounds to aid in building a bridge over Mud Creek at Cape 
Sable Id. 



*The account of Old Shelburne was written about 1786. 







FIVE GENERATIONS. 

Left to right: (2) Mrs. Joseph Homer, m. 1779. (Mary d. Joshua Atwood, 
(1) Her d. Abigail m. 1798 James Doane. 

(3) Her d. Louisa m. Moses Crowell, b. 1802. 

(4) Her d. Louisa m. 1861, Rev. W. H. Richan. 

(5) Abigail gd. Louisa Crowell (3) m. F. A. Doane. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



FOREWORD. 

The order of the following titles is alphabetical, 
I.e., as to family names, as Atwood, Doane, Smith; 
and alphabetical also as to individual settlers with 
the same surname, as Archelaus Smith, David Smith, 
Jonathan Smith. 

Many references to individuals in the history are 
noted in its Index, so that these short sketches are often 
supplemented there. Descent is usually given under the 
father's name. The record of marriages and births falling 
within the past half-century is not attempted here. 

We make no pretence to completeness, but diligence 
has been given to obtain and present accurately the pedi- 
gree of those mentioned. Vital statistics have been little 
regarded in the township life, and hardly any authorities 
have been available except the marriage records of Metho- 
dist ministers and the memories of "oldest inhabitants." 
As to the ancestors of the grantees Prof. Doane' s corres- 
pondence was prolific of information, which we have used 
when within the purview of this book. The facts shown 
will probably contain much to surprise our readers and re- 
vive many forgotten relationships. Marriage of settlers 
and their descendants was the potent factor in blending 
the various racial elements, and there developed a strong 
community sentiment, a clean family life and a general 
regard for religion and mental culture. 

The author will gladly receive for possible future 
publication any corrections or additions to the contents 
of this section for the period named. 



430 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 43 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY. 



Abbreviations: b, born; m, married; s. son; d, daughter; ch. 
child or children; gr. grantee; unm. unmarried; w. widow. 

WILLIAM ADAMS. His father, William Adams, lived in 
New York or Old York, Ct. and died there. The widow Adams, 
whose maiden name was Martha Hallet came first to Halifax and 
then to Barrington with her sons, William and Benjamin, and her 
daughters, Phoebe and Mary. Here, the same year she married 
Stephen Nickerson, gr., Mar. 17, 1782. Of her children, Benjamim 
went to pilot a strange vessel and was never heard from; Phoebe nu 
Josiah Sears; Mary m. Henry Blades. 

WILLIAM ADAMS m. Bethiah d. Solomon Smith, gr. They 
lived at West Barrington.. 
Ch. I Hipsabeth b. 1786. 

II David b. 1788 ; lost at sea. 

III Solomon b. 1790, m. (a) Sarah d. Levi Nickerson; (6) Tab- 
itha (Kendrick) Johns. 

(a) Ch. (1) David m. Lucy d. Reuben Nickerson. 

Ch. 1 . Rosella m. Amos s. Alex Nickerson. 

2. Bethia m. Timothy Connell. 

3. Leonard m. Victoria d. John Stoddart. 

4. Lucy m. William Stoddart. 

(2) Martha m. David s. Reuben Nickerson 
Ch. Theodore, Dorcas, Delilah. 

(3) Mary m. Leonard Nickerson. 

(4) Samuel m. Mahala d. George Stoddart. 

IV Benjamin, b. 1794, m. (a) Mercy Goodwin, Argyle; (b) 
Naomi Goodwin, Argyle. 

Ch. (1) Benjamin m. Eleanor Powell. 

Ch. 1 . Eldad m. Euphemia Ross. 

2. Mary m. George Acker. 

3. William Henry m. Sarah Allen. 

4. Nora m. Prince s. William Adams. 

(2) Daniel m. Larkin Pubnico. 

(3) Cornelia m. Samuel Atwood, 0. Park. 

(4) Eldad m. Pubnico. 
Cha. Richard m. 

V Mary m. John s. Simeon Nickerson, 0. Park. 
VI William m. Elizabeth (Ellis) Stoddart. 

Ch. (1) Ezekiel m. Eliza d. Obed. Christie. 



432 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. (2) Mercy m. William Madden. 

(3) Solomon m. Mary Goodwin, Argyle. 

(M,ary, Naomi, and Mercy Goodwin were sisters.) 

(4) Tabitha m. James Madden. 

(5) Nelson m. Reliance d. Leonard Kenney, Shag Hr. 

(6) Elizabeth m. Samuel Worthen. 

(7) William m. Elizabeth d. John Pierce, Argyle Sd. 
Ch. 1. John m. Jane d. Solomon Nickerson. 

2. Prince m. Nora d. Benjamin Adams. 

3. William m. Hannah E. d. Joseph Nickerson. 

4. Sarah m. Alvarado Goodwin. 

5. Ruth m. Isaac Goodwin. 

6. Theodore m. M.argaret d. Josiah Blades. 
VII Sarah m. Roswell Brown, O. Park. 

Ch. (1) Roxana; (2) Maria; (3) Susan m. (a) Moses 

Nickerson; (6) George Hipson. 
VIII Tabitha m. Joel Worthen. 

IX Theodore, Oak Park, m. Susan d. Obed Smith, Solid Rock. 
Ch. (1) Nehemiah m. Letitiad. Samuel Nickerson. 

Ch. Henrietta m. Reuben Nickerson. 
(2) Matilda m. Josiah Blades, Pubnico. 
X Eldad, moved to Windsor. 



WILLIAM ANDREWS in 1796 received a grant of two hundred 
acres of upland and fifteen acres of marsh at Upper Woods Harbor. 
He was a farmer or gardener, from Edinburgh, Scotland, and his wife 
a woman of quality who married him against her parents' will. They 
obtained this grant and improved the land and dyked the marsh. Her 
name was Jean. Jenny Andrews had a large frame and a dauntless 
spirit. His skill with the flute not only relieved the lonliness of their 
home, for they had no children, but would make for pleasanter neigh- 
borhood with the few old country settlers around them. About 1824 
Andrews died and the widow, having tested her endurance by walk- 
ing to Shelburne for a doctor now carried his body to Halifax for 
burial in consecrated ground. She sold her property to Jonathan 
Knowles and Harvey Doane in 1828 and lived several years in Hali- 
fax. Her death took place on a ship on which she had taken passage 
for Scotland. 



ISAAC ANNABLE gr.,was a tailor from Dartmouth,Mass. His 
lot was No. 49, at the Town, next to John Coffin's, whose daughter 
Margaret, he married. In 1785 he sold his land with dwelling house 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 433 

to Richard Pinkham for 25. His 2nd Division lot, No. 97 was laid 
out to him in 1784 but drawn by Richard Pinkham. As his name is 
*not in the census of 1770 it is likely he had moved away previously. 
He was charged with fum frequently in Doane's Mog-book. His 
name survives in Annable's Shoal, west of Blackberry Island. 



JOSHUA ATWOOD, gr., had lot No. 34 at the Head. He was a 
tanner and had a tannery at the brook W. of Dr. Wilson's; his house 
"was on the Ridge. When an old man he m. the widow of Heman 
Kenney, gr. 

Joseph Atwood, gr. lived first at the Head in the "Clement's" 
house, and then at Bear Pt., on lot No. 67, his house being about one 
quarter mile S. of meeting house Cn. His was the third marriage 
on record in B. After the settlement increased he kept a little shop. 
He was the first convert to Methodism. Rev. Mr. Sargent said of 
him: "His reading was distinct, animated and unembarrassed." 
His home on the Sabbath and other occasions was converted into a 
^sanctuary for public worship which was conducted by himself in 
the absence of a minister. He died in 1833, his wife in 1838. They 
were buried at the Head. Knowles Atwood (s. Joshua) was one of 
the first to settle up the River on the Undivided land. David At- 
wood (s. Elisha) was a ship-carpenter and went to East Boston 
c. 1850 to work in the shipyard of Donald McKay. Benjamin (s. 
-Joshua) Atwood lived at Great Lake. 

JOSHUA ATWOOD, gr. m. Mary,d. Paul Knowles. 
Ch. I Joseph, gr., b. 1749; m. Susanna, 1753-1838, d. Arche- 

laus Smith, gr. 
Ch. (1) Bathsheba b. 1768 m. Aram s. Jonathan Smith, gr. 

(2) Elizabeth m. 1786 Thomas s. Thomas Doane, gr. 

(3) Tamsin b. 1770 m. Abner Curtis. 

(4) Susanna b. 1773 m. 1790 Jacob Spinney, Argyle. 

(5) Ruth b. 1775, m. Lombard Nickerson. 

(6) Mary b. 1777 m. Benjamin Roberts, Argyle. 

(7) Joshua b. 1779 m. Catherine Ellis, Cape Cod. 
vCh. 1. Ruth b. 1802 m. Freeman Spinney, Argyl 

2 . Joshua b. 1803 m. Mehitable d. Gideon Crowell. 
Ch. Hezekiah, Nathan, Prince. 
Charlotte m. Caleb Stoddart 
Ruth m. Jeremiah Stoddart. 
Jane m. Benjamin Nickerson. 
Mehitable m. William Kenney. 
Jemima m. Gideon Smith. 



434 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



Mary m. Joseph Rose. 

3. Samuel b. 1805 m. Jane d. Enoch Smith. 

Ch. Lydia m. Nehemiah Doane. 
Sarah J. m. Nehemiah Nickerson. 
Richard m. Eliza Robart, Lun. Co. 
Samuel m. Matilda McQuinn. 

4. Willard m. Sarah d. Nehemiah Crowell. 

Ch. Mark, Joshua, Willard, David, 
Tamsin, Esther, Wealthy m. Maxwell. 

5. Vincent m. Emma d. Nehemiah Crowell. 

Ch. Homer m. Mary Grovestein, Shelburne. 

Ch. Maud m. Bradford Smith. 
Leila m. Matthew Swain. 
Emma m. Albert Smith. 

6. Benjamin b. 1813 m. Deborah Nickerson. 

Ch. Benjamin m. Dorcas s. John Nickerson, 
Delina m. James C. Snow. 
Samuel m. Cornelia Adams. 
Ch. Evelina, Cornelia, Rosa, Angus, Mary. 
Curtis m. Tabitha d. Nathaniel Purdy. 
Gilbert m. Bethia d. John Worthen. 
Susan m. Joel, s. John Worthen. 
Elizabeth m. Jacob Blades, Pubnico. 

7. James m. Jane d. George Stoddart, Sr. 

Ch. Philip, James, Letitia. 
Catherine m. Eleazer Swain, P. Clyde. 
Maria m. James H. s. Joshua Nickerson, 
Shag Harbor. 

(8) Lettice, b. 1781 m. John s. Anson Kendrick, gr. 

(9) Hannah b. 1783 m. (a) Isaiah Nickerson, Wood's 
Harbor; (6) Aaron Nickerson, Wood's Harbor. 

(10) Mercy m. John Spinney, P. Latour. 

(11) Joseph m. Deborah d. John Spinney. 

Ch. 1 William b. 1811, m. Charlotte d. John Crowell. 
Ch. Isaac m. Abigail Stoddart. 
Caroline m. Jesse s. James Smith. 
Prince William. 

2. Bethia b. 1814 m. John Gammon. 

Ch. Richard, William, Mary Jane. 

3. Deborah m. (a) Stillman Crowell; 

(6) Seth Hopkins. 

4. Sarah b. 1816 m. Edward s. Edward Reynolds. 

5. Joseph m. Sarah Cowdey. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 435 

Ch. Joseph m. Adelia Porter. 

(12) Willard m. Mercy d. Moses Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Leonard m. Mary Greenwood. 

2. John m. Temperance d. Jos. Reynolds. 

3. Bethia m. Richard Gammon. 

4. Elizabeth m. Andrew Reynolds. 

5. Susan m. John Nickerson, P. Latour. 

6 . Alvin m. Delina Kenny (son Leander.) 

7. Freeman m. (a) Susan Collins, Nfld. 

(6) Emma Fraser, Lahave. 

8. Mary m. (a) Joseph Nickerson. 

(6) Nehemiah Kenney. 

9 . Jane m. John Savage, U. S. A. 

10 . Isabel m. (a) William Snow, P. Latour. 
(6) John Hamilton, Clyde. 

(13) Temperance b. 1794 m. 1813 Daniel Crowell. 

(14) Stephen b. 1795 m. Sarah d. Elisha Hopkins 2nd. 
Ch. 1. Henry m. Elizabeth d. Rev. A. Swim. 

Ch. James, Jeremiah, Henry, Stephen, 
Charles, Henrietta, Ella, Elizabeth. 

2. Elisha m. Elizabeth d. Barzillai Hopkins. 

Ch. William m. Susan d. John Smith. 
Samuel m. Anne Zwicker. 
Julia m. (a) Frank Swain; (6) Joshua Smith. 
Sarah m. Geo. Miller, Bear Pt. 

3 . Maria m. Edward H. s. Seth Kendrick. 

(15) Bethia, b. 1798, m. John Sweeny, Yarmouth 

(16) John b. 1791 (unm.) 
II S Mary m. Joseph Homer. 

Ill Temperance m. 1775 John Reynolds, P. L. 
IVj Knowles m. 1784 Rhoda d. John Nickerson, gr. 

Ch. (1) Elisha b. 1785 m. Mercy d. David Wood. 

Ch. 1 . David W. b. 1809 m. Hannah d. John Osborn. 
Ch. Joseph, Varnum, Osborn, Gilbert. 

2. Elisha, b. 1811 m. Ann d. John Knowles. 

Ch. Warren m. Julia d. Seth Doane. 
Angus m. Parker, Halifax. 
Elisha m. in U. S. 
Mercy m. Joseph Harlow. 
Amanda m. Arnold Doane. 

3. James m. Harriet d. John Osborn. 

Ch. Alfred, James, William, Arthur. 



436 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

4. Samuel W. m. (a) Bethiah d. Seth Wilson. 

(6) Jemima d. Nathan Crowell., 

(2) Mary b. 1787. (unm.) 

(3) Knowles b. 1789 m. Alethea d. David Wood.. 
Ch. Susan m. Samuel Westwood. 

John m. Lydia d. Nehemiah Wilson. 

Mary m. Zebulon Gardner. 

Joshua m. Sarah J. d. Crowell Smith. 

Ch. Laura m. Joseph Hipson. 
Joseph b. 1817. 

(4) John m. Elizabeth d. Moses Crowell. 
Ch. 1. John m. Isabel Swain. 

2. Thomas Hallet (unm.) 

3. Moses m. Sarah Goodwin. 

(5) Hannah m. Samuel Hopkins, 2nd. 

(6) Smith m. Lucretia d. Samuel Hopkins. 
Ch. 1. Sarah Ann. 

2. Rebecca m. Thomas s. Henry Watson. 

3. Rhoda m. Samuel s. Alex Watson. 



ROBERT ATKINSON of Dorchester, Eng. was Captain of the- 
main top and ship-carpenter in a man-of-war which came to Shel- 
burne. There he deserted, swimming ashore with his kit on a moon- 
light night, and kept in hiding until the ship left. He came through 
the woods to Barrington and went fishing with Richard Pinkham 
at the Town. About 1785 he married Hannah d. Gideon Nickerson 
and settled at East End, Cape Island. 

ROBERT ATKINSON m. 1785 Hannah d. Gideon Nickerson.. 
Ch. I Mary b. 1786 m. Archibald Brannen. 

II Susan b. 1787 m. 1806 Ziba Hunt. 

III William b. 1789 m. Abigail d. Hezekiah Smith. 

IV Elizabeth b. 1791, m. George Stoddart. 

V Sarah m. (a) Thomas s. Archelaus Smith 2nd. 

(6) Joshua s. Absalom Nickerson. 
VI Hannah m. Moses s. Absalom Nickerson. 
VII Zillah m. Curtis Spinney. 
VIII George m. Ruth Crowell, Shag Harbor. 
IX Joseph b. 1798 m. Elizabeth Purdy, Cat Pt. 
X Robert m. Jane Godfrey, Liverpool. 
XI Job. b. 1803 m. Janet d. Samuel Wood. 
Ch. (1) Moses. 

(2) Colman m. Emily d. George Smith. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 43T 

(3) Delilah m. Jethro McGray. 

(4) Mary m. Eleazer Crowell. 

(5) Samuel m. d. Henry Brown. 

(6) Sarah m. Joseph Penney. 
XII Delilah m. Smith. 

XIII Thomas, South Side, b. 1807 m. Mary d. Barry CrowelL 
Job Atkinson settled at Newellton. In his house one of the- 
first Sunday Schools on Cape Island is said to have been 
held in 1832. 



BARNABAS BAKER, gr., m. in 1754 Mehitable, d. Thomas 
Smith, gr. He was a "shoresman."" His name was in the Mog- 
book, 1763; moved to Barrington in 1764; was in census of 1769, 
with eight children; in 1773 bought Clash Pt.; in 1773 sold out his- 
land and dwelling-house at the Hill to James Pitts of Boston for 83 
pounds, 6 s. In 1774 he moved to Pownalboro, Me., and was 
killed during the Rebellion. He was a man of influence; Baker's 
Pt., was named after him. Children, born in Barrington: Eliza- 
beth, Judah, John, Desire, Reuben, Abner. 

In 1771 a Desire Baker, probably sister of Barnabas and d. of 
Judah and Mercy Baker, m. Elisha s. Solomon Smith (Rev. Isaac 
Knowles officiated). 

TIMOTHY BAKER, Esquire, was a proprietor in Barrington 
in 1764, when he was Moderator of the first proprietor's meeting, 
held at his house. His name is in the Mog-book, 1763; but he went 
away and had no share in the Grant, 1767. 



ELIAS BANKS the son of Joseph and Hannah (Stackpole)- 
Banks of Saco, Me., a descendant of Richard Banks of Scituate, 
Mass. He came to Barrington in a vessel with Capt. Isaac Kennejr 
about 1790. Here he remained and married Elizabeth d. Heman 
Kenney, gr., Their first child, Joseph was born July 23, 1792. 
He first settled at South side and engaged in fishing; about 1803 
they moved to Fresh Brook, The Passage. There were twelve chil- 
dren and many descendants. 

ELIAS BANKS m. Elizabeth d. Heman Kenney. 
Ch. 1 Joseph b. 1792 m. Bethiah d. Ebenezer Crowell. 
Ch. (1) Eliza m. Samuel s. Elisha Hopkins, 2nd. 

(2) Bethiah m. James s. James Atwood. 

(3) Hannah m. (a) Gamaliel s. John Banks. 

(b) Parker Smith. 

*A partner in a fishing business who stayed askare and looked after tho. 
business. 



438 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

(4) Benjamin m. Olivia d. John and Lucy Banks. 

(5) William m. Rhoda d. Samuel Hopkins. 

(6) Nehemiah m. Sophia d. Capt. Cunningham. 

II John b. 1794 m. Lucy d. Gideon Nickerson. 
Ch. (1) Gamaliel m. Hannah d. Joseph Banks. 

(2) Benjamin m. Amelia Gabriel of Halifax. 

(3) James m. (a) Sarah d. Nehemiah Nickerson. 

(6) Mary Eliza (Nickerson) Banks. 

(4) Zenos m. Mary Eliza d. Isaac s. Levi Nickerson. 

(5) Olivia m. Benjamin s. Joseph Banks. 

(6) Drusilla m. Solomon s. Ensign Nickerson. 

III Hannah b. 1796, m. (1823) James Spinney, Argyle. 

IV Susanna, b. 1798 Jesse Smith, Passage. 

V Isaac, b. 1800 m. Bethiah d. Reuben Nickerson, 0. Park. 
Ch. (1) James m. Lucy d. Ansel Crowell. 

(2) Simeon m. Adria d. David Nickerson. 

(3) Elias m. Tabitha d. Simeon Nickerson. 

(4) Esther m. Thomas Johns. 

(5) Susan m. Jonathan s. John Nickerson. 

VI Gamaliel m. Elizabeth d. Michael Swim. 

Ch. (1) Thomas m. Hannah d. Samuel Nickerson. 
Ch. 1 . Gamaliel m. Kenney. 

2. Harry m. d. Hezekiah Stoddart. 

3. Lettice m. Cedric Robertson. 

(2) Isaac, (3) Jesse' (both lost at sea.) 

VII Nehemiah (died at Labrador). 
VIII Aaron m. 1832 Lydia Reynolds. 

Ch. (1) Sarah Ann m. Robert Reynolds. 

(2) Hannah m. Reynolds. 

(3) Olive Jane m. Huskins. 

IX Stephen m. (a) Eleanor d. John Knowles. 
Ch. (1) Sarah in. Hiram Nickerson. 

(2) Olive (unm.); 

(3) Samuel (unm.) 

(6) Sarah (Cowdey) Atwood. 
Ch. (1) Augusta (unin.) 

(2) Deborah m. William Fraser. 

X Elias. 

XI^ Thomas in. Mary d. Samuel s. Levi Nickerson. 

Ch. (1) Elias in. Sophia d. Enoch Smith, P. Latour. 

(2) Mary in. Isaac s. Absalom Nickerson. 
XII Olivia in. John H. s. John Kendrick. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 439 



BENJAMIN BARSS (Bearce, Bierce or Bears). This early 
settler had his home at Cape Negro close by the burying ground, which 
was his gift to the public. He bought lot No. 38, at the Head from 
Joshua Snow, gr., and also Snow's Second Division lot at Cape 
Negro. He sold out to Joseph Swain, gr., and moved away to Sam- 
bro, and then to Guysboro. Some of this family reside at Murray 
River, P. E. Island. Benjamin Barss came back at last to Cape 
Negro and was buried there. |$ 

BENJAMIN BARSS m. (a) Mercy or Mary d. David Smith, gr. 
Ch. I Elizabeth b. 1771. 

II Benjamin, b. 1777 m. Sarah d. Caleb Nickerson. 
Ill James m. Abigail d. Nathaniel Smith, Jr., fgr. 
Ch. (1) Patience, b. 1796. 

(2) Benjamin, b. 1798. 
IV George m. d. Joseph Smith. 
V Mercy m. Nathan s. John Snow. 
VI David m. Thankful Cohoon, Canso. 
Ch. (1) David b. 1796. 

(2) William m. Mary d. Josiah Sears, Westport. 



HENRY BLADES an Englishman, who had served his time 
on a man-of-war, received a grant of 300 acres in Shelburne town- 
ship and an additional 600 acres in Pubnico. In Pubnico he married 
Mary d. .William Adams, settled there, and went fishing. He was 
impressed on the frigate "Shannon" and was on board when the fight 
with the "Chesapeake" took place. He returned to Pubnico and 
lived there. 

HENRY BLADES m. Mary sister of William Adams 1st. of 
Barrington. 

Ch. David m. Martha Seely. 

Ch. (1) William m. Hannah d. John Nickerson. 

(2) Walter m. Lucena d. Josiah Nickerson. 

(3) Josiah m. Matilda d. Theodore Adams. 

(4) Benjamin m. Armina d. Samuel Nickerson. 
Ch. David m. Letitia d. Josiah Nickerson. | 

(I- 

JOHN BENNI9ON, a native of Hull, England, of good edu- 
cation abandoned his mercantile occupation and worked his way 
as a sailor to Halifax. There he met Thomas Coffin, Sr., who per- 
suaded him to come to Barrington to open a school. The school 
began April 3, 1821. In the time of the temperance revival he be- 
came a teetotaler, and afterwards became secretary of the Society. 
He built a house up the River which was sold to Thomas Jones. Mr. 



440 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Bennison moved to Argyla township. The son Samuel taught school 
and became a preacher. 

JOHN BENNISON m. 1822, Huldah d. Anson Kendrick, gr. 
Ch. (1) Norman, b. 1823; (2) William; 
(3) Samuel m. Martha (Cann) Durkee. 
Ch. John lived in New Brunswick. 
Elizabeth, Charles, David. 
Edna m. Ramsay. 



ENOCH BERRY, lot No. 65, West Passage. Nothingis on 
record concerning this grantee. Two years after the Grant, there 
was a widow Elizabeth Berry named in the census having four sons 
and a daughter. In 1796 one Enoch Berry came from Yarmouth, 
Mass., and, claiming to be the only surviving heir of Enoch Berry, 
grantee, sold all the land of the said Berry in the township to John 
Sargent for 14. 10s. In 1785 this lot had been sold to John Sargent 
by Alexander Murray and his wife Betty for 25 currency. In 
1784 John Murray, pilot, had occupied Enoch Berry's place for three 
months. It was then in the list of places forfeited, and may have 
been again granted by the government to the pilot after the fashion 
of the times, with the pilots of transports of Loyalists. John Sar- 
gent, to avoid trouble, bought off the claimant. The second wife 
of Wm. Greenwood was a widow, Deborah Berry daughter of Samuel 
Bootman. It was a Berry who bought Rev. Samuel Wood's First 
division lot in Barrington. 



THOMAS BETHEL, a native of Herefordshire, England, was 
a baker. He came to Halifax and was employed there, last of all 
iat the Government House. He met in Halifax Mary d. William Snow 
and they were married. He and William Patterson were partners 
in a trading speculation once and were captured by privateers. 
Thomas Bethel moved to PortjLatour and was one of the first settlers 
^at West Baccaro. 

Ch. (1) Thomas b. 1816]m. (a) 1840 Deborah Swain; (6) 
1859 Mary Ann, d. Seth Reynolds. 
Ch. Joseph, Mercy, Hilton. 

(2) John b. 1818 m. 1841 Caroline d. Thomas Taylor. 
Ch. James, Marsden, John. 

(3) William b. 1820 m. Rhoda d. Paul Swain. 
Ch. William. 

(4) James |S. b. 1823. 

(5) Susan m. Isaac jGood win. 

(6) Manly, unm. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 44 



THOMAS BLACK came to B. about 1790. He lived with 
Alex Christie and m. his step daughter, Jane Mitchell. 

Ch. (1) Kate, unm.; (2) John Coffin m. Abigail d. Zebulon. 

Gardner. 
Ch. 1. Samuel m. Eunice d. Wm. Crowell. 

Ch. Andrew. 

2. Cornelius 3. William. 
4. Andrew 5. James. 

6. Mary Jane m. Samuel Crowell. 

J. C. Black had a log house at the Sand Hills on land originally 
laid out to Thomas West gr, lot No. 56. The early records mention 
a house on this land. 



SAMUEL BOOTMAN came from Marblehead during or after 
the Rebellion. His wife was from Virginia. They lived at Blanche. 
Their sons Jonathan and Samuel were fishermen, and were lost while 
thus engaged. 

Ch. (1) Jonathan; (2) Samuel; 

(3) Mary m. Thomas s. Wm. Greenwood. 

(4) Elizabeth m. John s. John Coffin, gr. 

(5) Deborah m. Wm. Greenwood, Sr. 



JAMES BOYD came to Barrington about 1850. He bought 
land off the rear of the Elkanah Smith lot on Goose Creek, at the 
post road, and built a small mill. His sons James, Thomas, Daniel, 
Elisha and Charles settled there. Lovitt Boyd is a son of James. Jr. 



ARCHIBALD BRANNEN came to Barrington when about 
15 years of age with Glance, a loyalist soldier. He went fishing 
with the Hopkins men and m. 1802, Mary d. Thomas Atkinson. 
Ch. I Reuben m. Martha d. Phineas Nickerson. 

Ch. (1) Melvin m. Jedidah d. Henry Stokes. 

(2) Smith m. Melinda ad. d. Andrew Malone. 

(3) Vincent m. Asenath d. Nelson Stoddart. 

(4) Phineas m. Sarah d. Joseph Nickerson,Shag Hr. 
II William m. Hannah Duncan, Roseway. 

Ch. (1) Jeremiah m. (a) Hannah d. JudahNickerson; no ch. 

(6) Eliza, d. John McGray. 
Ch. John m. Clissie d. Eldridge Newell. 
William m. Margaret d. W. H. Coffin. 
Francis m. Belle d. Dr. Dickie. 
George m. Edith d. Chas. Wickens. 



442 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



Susan m. Albert Swim. 

Mary E. m. Freeman s. Freeman Nickerson. 

Cassie m. Frank Cole. 

Minnie m. Arthur Creamer, Boston. 

(2) Catherine m. David Duncan. 

(3) Diana m. Eleazar s. Eleazar Crowell. 

(4) Eleanor m. Washington s. Solomon Smith. 

(5) Rebecca m. Joshua s. Judah Nickerson. 

(6) Wm. Thomas m. Virginia d. Amasa Nickerson. 

(7) Susan Jane m. Ezra Jeffrey, Wood's Harbor. 

(8) Lavinia m. (a) Jeffrey Sears; (6) Addison Sears. 

(9) Lydia Ann m. Elijah s. Amasa Nickerson. 
(10) Horatio (unm). (l) Samuel (m. in U. S.). 

III Abigail m. Smith s. Michael Swim. 

IV Henry m. (a) Mary Huskins, lived in Yarmouth; (6) Ellen 

d. Heman Nickerson. 
Ch. (1) Archibald (Sand Beach). 

(2) William m. Hipsabeth d. Reuben Nickerson. 
V Sophia m. Eleazar Penney. 

VI Rebecca m. (a) Samuel Penney; (6) Smith Swim. 
VII Susanna, b. 1811, m. Moses Ross. 
VIII Joseph m. Lettice Spinney. 
IX Jeremiah. X. Archibald; both went away. 
XI Robert, Clam Pt. m. 

Ch. (1) Archibald, went away. 
(2) m. Samuel Powell. 



PHILIP BROWN gr, Lot. No. 80, Port Latour. This grantee's 
name does not appear in any of the Returns or the "Mog-book". 
The Second Division lot No. 88 was laid off to him and drawn by 
Chapman Swain. In 1789 Samuel Homer acquired this lot from 
Nathan Nickerson and sold it to William Stevens and his wife Judith. 
Brown's Third Division lot, No. 9, was at Shag Harbor. The First 
Division lot No, 80, at Port Latour, was probably held by occupation 
by other parties before the second Division was made. 



ROSWELL BROWN, born c. 1825. came to Barrington and 
lived with Dr.Geddes. After that he taught school in Oak Park and 
married Sarah d. William Adams. His father, for whom he was 
named, came from Albany, N. Y., to Liverpool and taught school at 
Port Mouton having had a good commercial education in his youth. 
He then came to Birchtown and taught a church of England school 
there for the negro children. His wife was Mary Becker of Vermont; 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 443 

one daughter married an Acker of Birchtown. He died c. 1860. 
(See William Adams, Geneal.) 



TIMOTHY BRYANT, lot No. 84, at Cape Negro. This name 
is on the list of those engaged in removing the Acadians in 1755. 
Also on Col. Winslow's muster roll in the expedition against Louis- 
burg in 1758. He had a half-share on John's Island, Port Latour, and 
lived near Capt. Samuel Knowles at Cape Negro. He had no family 
and moved to Liverpool before 1780. As Bryant's Neck near the 
Beach must have been named on his account, it is likely he worked 
with the fishermen there. 



BUNKER. The Bunker name remained in Bunker's Hill 
near Fresh Brook, West Passage long after all the people of that name 
were gone. Of the three grantees, Peleg, (6), James, (55) and 
Simeon, (79). James was the most outstanding in public affairs. 
He was proprietor's Clerk in the last "early" proprietor's meeting, 
1766. He was lost at sea and administration was granted in 1771 in 
the Co. Probate Court, Liverpool, to Mrs. Hannah Bunker his 
widow. The appraisers were Jonathan Pinkham, John Coffin, and 
Solomon Kendrick. The widow who had five children, married Deacon 
Thomas Smith senior. Deacon Smith had his lot "pricked off separ- 
ately" as did his brother-in-law, Barnabas Baker, from the land of 
the Old French settlement at the Hill. He moved away to Litch- 
field. Though the lands were forfeited by removal of the heirs, 
Timothy Covel occupied that of James Bunker in 1780. There is 
a story of a house-joiner named Bunker -coming afterwards to Bar- 
rington and claiming a title to land in several places; including that 
of Jonathan Smith at the Head. 

Simeon Bunker, mariner, sold out his right on Cape Isand, to 
DanieJ Vinson in 1770 for 4. John Davis, Andrew Clark and 
Jonathan Pinkham, J. P., were witnesses. His place was after- 
wards occupied by Isaac Kenney. Peleg Bunker (6) moved away 
about the same time. He was one of the seven owners of the Tract 
of land at Centerville, Cape Island. 



WILLIAM BURKE, with his d. Mary came from Halifax and 
lived at The Town. Burke's Point retains his name. He married 
widow Sarah Barlow, whose husband had been a grocer in New York, 
and who came with her two daughters, to Shelburne, then to Rose- 
way, then to Barrington. There is a record of a sale of land at Rose- 
way by William and Sarah Burke to Dr. Walters, in 1788, which 



444 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



jnakes a near date for their marriage. Ann Barlow m. Seth Coffin, 
Sr., and Susan Barlow m. S. O. Doane, Jr., Wm. Burke's d. Mary 
-m. John Squires. Sarah Burke died July 6, 1803. 
Ch. (of William and Sarah Burke.) 

(1) William b. 1802, after his father's death. His 
mother d. July 6, 1803, aged 60. 



JOHN BUTLER came to Barrington when a boy of ten years 
with Paul Crowell (son of Paul) from Halifax by whom he was adopt- 
ed. He followed the sea and became master. He married Eliza- 
beth, d. Elisha Hopkins, 3rd and had one son, John, who married 
Maria, an Englishwoman. He also became master of a vessel and 
both were lost in vessels never heard from. John Butler Sr., lived 
first on the Colin Crowell place, back of the Island meeting-house; 
then opposite Lovitt Wilson's or Capt. Wood's and then again 
back of the meeting house. Caroline, the daughter of John Jr., 
married Fred, son of Henry Hopkins. 



THOMAS CHATWYND, a native of England, was a baker 
in the British army in America and ca:ne to Shelburne where he 
received a grant of land. He was a member of the Loyalist Assoc- 
iation of New York to settle at Shelburne and is styled a merchant 
(Sabine) and had a family of six persons. His son William who had 
been at school in England until 14, came to Barrington Passage 
and m. Elizabeth d. Abner Nickerson gr. It is said that Wm. Chat- 
wynd, Watson Nickerson and two others were being compelled to 
enlist in the Continental army when they stole a shallop (Hard Head) 
and came around the coast from New England to Barrington. 

William became a grantee of Wood's Harbor and settled on a part 
of the Wood's grant. In his later years he taught school from place 
to place, at one time in Yarmouth when he would walk home for- 
nightly. His oldest son William m. Phebe Blades of Pubnico. He 
was 94 when he died. The Chatwynds had their place of burial 
on the island in the marsh on the grant. 

WILLIAM CHATWYND m. Elizabeth d. Abner Nickerson. 
Ch. (1) Zaccheus m. Letitia (Crowell) d. Aaron Nickerson. 
Ch. Palmon, William, Thomas. 

(2) Shubael m. Elizabeth d. Elijah Nickerson. 

(3) Cornelius m. Mary Nickerson. 

(4) Thomas m. Dorcas d. Judah Kendrick. 

(5) William m. Phebe Blades, Pubnico. 

(6) Sarah m. Joseph W. Johnson. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 445 

(7) Elizabeth m. Abner Nickerson. 

(8) Nancy m. Levi Crowell. 

(9) Mary m. Alfred Nickerson. 



ALEXANDER CHRISTIE was from Edinburgh, his wife 
a widow Catherine Mitchell was from County Down, Ireland. He 
drew lands in Shelburne, but as work in his line (mason and brick- 
layer) failed there he came to Barrington with his family and did 
the mason-work for John Sargent's first grist mill. His son Obed 
at the age of 14 was apprenticed to Wm. Donaldson to learn cooper- 
ing. The father Alexander, lived at The Passage where Wm. Rob- 
ertson afterwards lived, and later moved to Tatamagouche and 
River John, N. S. His son Alex went to sea and died of sea sickness. 
Mrs. Christie had a daughters, Jenny Mitchell who m. Thomas 
Black. Obed Christie, once, in a fit, fell into the fire and burned his 
hand which had to be amputated. His death was due to falling in 
-shallow water, in another fit. 

ALEXANDER CHRISTIE m. Catherine Mitchell. 

Ch. (1) Obed m. Elizabeth d. Jacob Glance in 1805. 
Ch. 1. Alexander m. Elizabeth d. Jacob Purdy. 
Ch. Jacob m. Margaret Copeland. 
Christiana m. Rev. David K. Smith. 
Sarah m. Wm. Wilson. 
Martha Ann m. Samuel Fisher. 
Rhoda m. Charles M.cGray. 

2. Joseph m. Elizabeth Powell, P. Latour. 

3. Eliza m. (a) Ezekiel s. William Adams. 

(6) Johnson, Boston. 

4. Mary m. John Connell, Baccaro. 

5. Sarah m. John McLean, P. Saxon. 

6. Jane m. James Sholds. 

(2) Mary m. Gideon s. Zenos Nickerson, Shag Hr. 

(3) Alexander. 



HENRY CHUTE, the son of Silas Chute of Clarence, N. S., 
and grandson of James Chute one of the first English settlers of Anna- 
polis County. Henry Chute came to Barrington in 1842 and was 
builder of the lighthouse on the Outer Island, and afterwards of the 
iog whistle at Cape Sable. He built vessels, carried on a fishing 
business, settled fish voyages, and was a magistrate. He married. 
<"(a) Sarah d. Heman Nickerson, of Argyle; (6) Susan d. Alex Forbes. 



446 BIOGRAPHY AND GENERALOGY 



EDMUND CLARK. Of him little is known. He had his home 
on Lot No. 71, Bear Pt. afterwards occupied by Edward or Elisha 
Hopkins. The spirit of the Revolution led all these men back to 
New England. 

JONATHAN CLARK and JONATHAN CLARK, JUNIOR. 
These are names on the list of grantees of men of considerable prom- 
inence in the first years of settlement. The former had lot No. 
44 at the Town; the latter, lot No. 70 at Bear Point in the First 
Division. They may have been father and son as the older man had 
two sons. In 1768 he at the Town bought lot No. 47 from Jonathan 
Worth at the Hill. In 1774 he sold out to James Pitt of Boston, 
for 150, 750 acres, dwelling house, shop and the land and house, 
No. 47. In the deed he is called a "shoresman", so that the shop 
was likely his place of business. There is some difficulty in distin- 
guishing the two men, but Capt. Jonathan Clark is so often referred 
to in Bills of Lading and the Mog-book that he would hardly be desig- 
nated as "Shoresman" rather than "mariner" in a deed. He had 
lot No. 3 in Class 4, in the Second Division of land in 1784, this class 
containing 19 shares and running from Clark's Harbor to West Creek, 
(Newellton's). There is a tradition that he was the first to discover: 
the harborage, on that side of Island which was evidently used as 
a fishery base several years before a permanent settlement was made 
Jonathan Clark junior's name is among those whose lands were for- 
feited. His share had at that time, 1784, been occupied by Thomas 
Greenwood for seven years. It was doubtless the older man who was 
appointed Town Clerk in 1766. 



JOHN CLEMENTS (or demons) had lot 36, at the Head, 
East of Dr. Wilson's. His name is in the Mog-book, 1762 and 3. In 
April 1769 he sold out to Josiah Godfrey of Yarmouth for 40. 
His house and lot were between Sol. Kendrick's on the North and 
John Porter's on the South. There were five in his family in the 
census of 1762. He came from Raynham, Mass., and was one of 
the first applicants for the grant of the Township at Cape Sable. 
He removed to Yarmouth but his name survives in Clement's Pond 
and Clements Point, the latter in Barrington Passage. His share 
in the Second Division was bought by Josiah Godfrey. 



ELISHA COFFIN, one of the partners in the Tract of land 
Centreville, Cape Island, was bought out by Hezekiah, son of Arche- 
laus Smith. In the Mog Book he is called, Captain Elisha Coffin. 
About 1771 Elisha and Peleg Coffin of Nantucket settled as farmers. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 447 

in P. E. Island, where numerous descendants of the former are still 
living. 

JOHN COFFIN, gr., was the only one of the four grantees bear " 
ing this name who became a permanent settler. His lot, No. 48* 
was situated at the Town; Blackberry Island was his fish lot. He 
was a g. g. son of Tristram Coffin who bought Nantucket from the 
Indians in the 17th century. Some of the forfeited lands at the 
Hill were secured by John Coffin and altogether formed an extensive 
tract. His Third Division lot in consequence extended from near 
Solid Rock almost a mile southerly to the old fence that was made 
to keep the cattle on "Bakaro," and back to the Savannah. It was 
divided in 1818 to the heirs of John, Seth and Peter Coffin and Rich- 
ard Pinkham. 

The Coffins after their first arrival from Nantucket built and 
operated fishing vessels. The family of John Coffin have maintained 
a fine distinction in maritime business and public life. 

JOHN COFFIN, gr. b. 1727 m. Mary b. 1729 sister of John 
Davis, gr. all of Nantucket. 
Ch. I John b. 1752 m. Elizabeth Bootman, C. Negro. 

Ch. (1) Josiah. (2) Tristram. 
II Margaret b. 1756 m. Isaac Annable, gr. 
Ill Peter b. 1758 m. Esther d. Thomas Doane, gr. 

Ch. (1) Mary b. 1784 m. Whitcomb Rydner, CJ. S. 

(2) Thomas, b. 1787 m. Margaret d. Joseph Homer. 
Ch. 1. Thomas m. (a) Sarah d. Prince Doane. 

Ch. Thomas H. m. Sarah d. Warren Doane. 

Jessie m. H. Wilson Crowell. 

Fred A. m. Jessie Merrill. 

Edgar H. m. (a) Eva d. R. H. Crowell. 

(6) Nettie Burbidge. 
Harold m. (a) Mary B. Vrooman. 

(6) Adeline d. John Coffin. 
Hon. Thomas m. 

2. Esther b. 1812 m.(a) Geo. Doane; (6) James Cox. 

3. James D. b. 1814 m. (a) Mary W. (died 1853) 

d. J. P. Doane. 

Ch. James Fernandez m. Joanna Greenwood. 
(b) Jane Bennett. 

4. Abigail m. Col man Crowell. 

5. Joseph m. (in U. S.) 

6. Margaret m. Joseph Seely. 



448 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

7. William Henry m. (a) Abigail d. Jas. H.Doane_ 
(6) Kate Hemeon. 
(c) Sophia d. Rev. A. Jordan. 
Ch. William, Fanny, Margaret, Rev. Shirlejr 
B., Sophia. 

8. Mary Ann m. Richard Ashley. 

9. Joanna m. Prince McLarren. 

(3) Margaret b. 1790 m. Thomas s. John Spinney,, 

P. Latour. 

(4) Elizabeth b. 1795 m. John Loring, Yarmouth. 

(5) Ann b. 1793 m. Ebenezer s. Ebenezer Crowell. 

(6) Lettice b. 1798 m. Joseph Shaw. 

Ch.Gilbert, Jabez, Melinda, Mary. 

(7) Peter b. 1804 m. Esther d. Michael Swim. 
Ch. 1. Mary m. Herbert Harris, Halifax. 

2. Matilda m. Josiah Bent, Boston. 

3. Joseph (Rev.) m. (a) Ann d. Dr. Wilson; 

(6) Sarah (Doane) Coffin. 

4. Peter (unm). died on gold fields Australia, '83,, 

(8) Flavilla b. 1801 m. (a) William s. James Doane. 

(6) John s. Gamaliel Kenney_ 
Ch. William Doane b. 1826 m. Miriam d.. 

Chas. McLarren. 

IV Lydia b. 1760 m. Richard Pinkham. 
V Tristram b. 1762 m. Catharine Dexter, Roseway. 
Ch. (1) Tristram b. 1868; (2) Peleg, b. 1812; (3) Deborah^ 
b. 1806 m.- DeMings. 
The family moved to Whitehead, N. S. 
VI Zebulon b. 1764. 
VII Mary b. 1766 m. Barwise. 
VIII Seth b. 1768 m. Ann Barlow. 

Ch. (1) Josiah b. 1804 m. Maria d. James Doane. 
(2) John m. Azuba d. Thomas K. Smith. 
Ch. 1. John b. 1809 m. Josephine Kane. 
Ch. Florence m. Robert Doane. 
Charles m. Elizabeth Parmalee. 
Ida m. Elderkin. 
Manus m. Martha Pike. 

2. Elizabeth m. Marsden s. James Sutherland. 

3. Adeline m. Hon. Thomas Coffin. 

Ch. Leverett m. Abigail d. George King. 

Herbert (unm.) 

Roy m. Margaret Lyle Martin. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 449 

Kenneth m. Margaret d. George Snow. 

4. Susan m. William Holden Jordan. 

5. Maria (unm.) 

(3) Seth m. (a) Abigail Doane; (6) Caroline Doanc. 
Ch. 1 . Churchill m. Charlotte d. Nathan Snow. 

2. Sophia. 

3. Seth m. Tryphena Williams. 

Ch. Rosa, Josephine. 

4. Abigail. 

5. Anna m. John K. s. Rev. Charles Knowles. 
JONATHAN COFFIN had also a share in the Tract of land at 

Cape Island. He was not a grantee but was admitted in 1768 to 
a proprietary right. This right was declared forfeited in 1784 and 
Henry Newell was then in possession. Jonathan Coffin's name ap- 
pears in 1786 as shipmaster in an enterprise for whale fishery started 
in Dartmouth, N. S. 

PELEG COFFIN, lot No. 82, at Cape Ne^ro. He had a house 
there at the time of the Grant 1768. His name is in the Census, 1770, 
Then he had a daughter but no wife, He was one of the grantees 
of Liverpool, N. S., and one of the original proprietors of Coffin's 
Island, Liverpool., then called Bair Island. In 1789 he sold out 
his rights in Barrington township to John McKillip, who had been 
Captain of one of the Transports bringing the Loyalists to Shel- 
burne, where he remained for a time as a grantee. He was a bro- 
ther of Elisha Coffin, gr. 

REUBEN COHOON, gr, was a descendant of William Nicker- 
son. His parents were James and Mary Cohoon of Eastham, Mass. 
Mary, wife of Eldad Nickerson, gr., was his sister. 

REUBEN COHOON, gr., m. Eunice d. Solomon Kendrick, 
Sr., gr. Both died in 1777 and the children came under the care of 
their g. f. Kendrick. Their names were Daniel, Solomon, Reuben 
Asa, James and Moses. Two of them were residents of Barrington. 
Reuben after his second marriage moved to Canso. 
Ch. I Reuben b. 1770 m. (a) Hephsabah d. Thomas Crowell, Jr. gr. 

(6) 1799. Clarissa d. Israel Doane. 
Ch. (1) Hephsabah b. 1796 m. Isaiah s. Abner Nickerson,gr. 
(2) Solomon. (3) James. 

(4) Reuben m. 1825 Sarah Cox moved to Canso. 
His widow m. Capt. Martin Doane. 

(5) Prince, (6) John. 

(7) Eleanor m. (a) Barak Larkin; 

(6) Harvey s. Nehemiah Doane. 



450 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

(8) Desire 

(9) Asa. 

(10) Drusilla m. Rev. A. W. Barss. 

II James b. 1776, m. Thankful d. David Smith, gr. 

Ch. (1) Eunice b. 1797 m. 1815 Elisha s. Samuel Hopkins. 

(2) Reuben b. 1799, m. 1822 Azuba d. David Kendrick. 

(3) Elizabeth, b. 1802. 

III Eunice m. Benjamin s. Benjamin Kirby. 



PETER CONK came when a youth from Monmouth, Eng., and 
settled on the ministerial lot, the west side of Blanche. He married 
a daughter of Frederick Slate c. 1800 and had a large family. After 
his death they moved away to the Eastern part of the country. 

TIMOTHY COVEL. This settler came first to Rcseway prob- 
ably from Cape Cod about the beginning of the war. He undertook 
to move to Barrington but their vessel was captured by a privateer 
and he and his family were landed at Cape Negro. His wife's name 
was Mary. There they stayed two years and then came to the Hill. 
The lands left and forfeited by James Bunker for four years had been 
occupied by him for four years in 1784. The earliest date we can fix 
fbr his residence in Barrington is 1776 when he signed a petition to 
the Mass. Court. His son Timothy settled on Cape Id. at Centre- 
ville and afterwards moved to Liverpool, N. S.; Jonathan also lived 
on Cape Id. near Cook's Point. He was for a time in charge of John 
Sargent's mill at the Head. He was drowned in 1812, and his bro- 
ther Timothy died the same year. These were the last of the old 
race of Quakers who came to Cape Id. Tfce wives of these brothers 
were daughters of Simeon Gardner, gr., and they occupied lands 
granted to their father-in-law. The late Capt. Bartlett Covel and 
his son Bartlett, for several years a public school teacher, retained the 
names and sturdy qualities of their ancestors on the same premises. 

TIMOTHY COVEL m. (a) Thankful. 

(6) Mary. 
Ch. I Jonathan m. Parnel d. Simeon Gardner, gr. 

Ch. (1) Elizabeth b. 1787 m. Archelaus s. Henry Newell. 

(2) Margaret m. (a) Seth Freeman, Lost in a privateer 

out of Liverpool. 

(6) John Cheney a F. W. B. preacher. 

(3) Jethro m. Ruth d. Stephen Smith. 
Ch. 1 . Bartlett m. Mary d. James Smith. 

Ch. Bartlett m. Lydia d. William Newell. 
2. Sarah m. John C. Smith. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 451 

3 . Charlotte m. Heman s. Seth Smith. t 

4. Emeline m. B. Freeman s. James Kenny. 

5. John m. Elizabeth d. Harvey Doane. 
Ch. Sarah m. Whitman s. Moses Goodwin. 

Ruth m. J. P. Nickerson. John. 

6 . Deborah, unm. 

(4) Lydia b. 1792 m. (a) Isaac p. Isaac Kenney. 

(6) John Kendrick. 

(5) Sarah, unm., went to England with Judge Halibur- 

ton and died there. 

(6) Deborah m. Reuben P. James Smith Sr. 

II Timothy m. Keziah d. Simeon Gardner gr. 

Ch. (1) Matilda b 1789 m. 1808 John Fiske, Lockeport. 
Ch. 1. Matilda m. William Cunningham. 

2 . Delilah m. Lewis Crowell, lost at sea. 

3 . Mary m. Wm. McCoy, Centreville. 

4. Louisa m. George s. Archibald Wilson. 

5. Mary m. Nehemiah s. George Smith. 

6 . Amasa. 

7. Freeman, moved away. 

8 . Kate, unm. 

(2) Diana b. 1794, m. Edward Burke, Liverpool. 

(3) Maria m. 

(4) Thankful. 

(5) Elizabeth. 

(6) Cynthia. 

(7) Roxana. (all moved away.) 

III Thankful m. Zebulon s. Solomon Gardner, gr. 

IV Lydia, b. 1775 m. Hezekiah s. Nathan Snow, gr. 
V Mary m. (a) Barnabas Crowell, lost at sea, 1803. 

(b) Samuel Westwood. 



JAMES COX, who was partner and son-in-law of Jesse Lear of 
Shelburne, m. Jemima Lear and lived for a time on Sherose Id. They 
built vessels at the Anson Kendrick lot, but through drink and the 
capture of two of Mr. Lear's vessels by the French the business failed 
and the property fell into the hands of Obedia*h Wilson. Mrs. Cox 
died in 1819. Mr. Cox went away to the Southern States. The only 
son, James, was adopted by Mr. John Kenney and learned boat build- 
ing. James Cox Jr. became one of the leading ship-wrights in the 
township. For some time before and after 1851 he was building ves- 
sels near his own home at the Town Cove. 



452 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

JAMES COX m. Jemima d. Jesse Lear. 
Ch. Mary Ann b. 1808. 

James b. 1810 m. (a) Mercy Homer. 
(6) Esther Doane. 
(c) Hannah d. Ebenezer Crowell. 
Cornelia b. 1811. 

Sophia b. 1813 m. James s. Eldad Nickerson. 
Agnes m. O. W. Homer. 
Eleanor m. McGruber. 



LEMUEL CROSBY, gr. Lot No. 32 at the Head; descendant of 
Rev. Thomas Crosbie (Harvard, 1653). He married Sarah Wing 
and had children; Theophilus, Lemuel, James and Sarah. His 
name is given in the census of 1762 as Samuel. He died before 1770 
for his "widow" is named in the census that year. They were from 
Yarmouth, Cape Cod; and all moved from Barrington to Yarmouth, 
N. S. where his people had settled and lived for a time near the 7/ion 
church sit;e. The widow m. Elishama Eldridge in 1775, and the dau- 
ghter Sarah m. Henry Coggin in 1787. In the "Mog-book" is this 
reference by Edmund Doane. "This day settled with Samuel Crosby 
and paid the note that he had of George Webb. I fell in debt four 
pounds seven shillings and nine pence old Tenor." The name George 
Webb is in the census 1762 and in the "Mog-book". The late Enoch 
Crosby of Deerfield, 1884 was a son of the second Lemuel Crosby 
above mentioned. 



CROWELL. There were seven grantees of this name, one of 
whom, Simeon, went away after a few years, and we know nothing 
about hip family. Another, Jonathan, Jr., after some years m. Rhoda 
Roberts, Argyle and moved there. Thomas Jr. and his sons, Tho- 
mas, Ebenezer, Paul, Nathan lived on or near Sherose Id. Judah gr. 
and his sons, Judah, Jr. gr. and Thomas Sr. gr. were at Moses Id. and 
The Neck, and Jonathan gr. and his son David, gr. occupied Crowell's 
Pt. 

These three groups were all of the same stock, their ancestors 
John and Yelverton Crowe having come from England; John in 1635 
to Charlestown, Mas*, and Yelverton by 1638, when they both set 
tied in Yarmouth, Mass. Thomas and Judah, grs. were descendants 
of John Crowe,and Jonathan gr. of Yelverton. Judah's father, Tho 
mas (m. Elizabeth Jones) was a nephew of John (m. Bethia Sears) 
g. g. sire of Thomas, Jr. gr. Judah had a sister Dorcas. Reference to 
the genealogy will show how in each branch of these families, as with 
thers, favorite Christian names have been retained. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 453 



After the peace of 1783 some of Judah's sons went to Roseway for 
a time, but returned to make their homes at the Passage, Bear Pt. 
and Cape Id. Judah Sr. was drowned while gunning at Labaduce, 
1783, at Judah's Creek. Thomas Sr. was lost on a voyage to Boston 
and his widow m. Benjamin Kirby. Crosby's Id.,where they lived be- 
came known as Kirby's Id. and afterwards as Moses Id. Ansel (Ju- 
dah, gr.) settled N. of Passage sch. house; his sons, Judah and Eaton 
at Shag Harbor; Edmund on Seal Id. The house of Eleazar (Judah, 
gr.) was at Doctor's Cove. He had a notice of administration of his 
father's estate in Shelb. Gazette, Jan. 18, 1787. His son Nehemiah 
lived at South Side and Swim's Pt. Moses (Thomas Sr. gr.) had a 
large family living at or near Brass Hill; Coleman, Levi, Nehemiah 
(father of Capt. S. O. Crowell, Halifax) were sons. 

Jonathan Crowell Sr. gr. was in 1764 and 1766 one of the Proprie- 
tors Committee. He died about 1769. David and Jonathan Jr. grs. 
had their First Division lots at Doctor's Cove and together owned 
the "Easternmost Id. in the W. Passage." The Crowells of Glen- 
wood andDeerfield descended from Jonathan. Of David's family were 
Heman, Asa D., Freeman (of Lockeport) Jesse and the Crowells of 
Port Latour and Clyde. Henry Wilson, Head; the late George A., P. 
Latour; and Horatio, Halifax are of this branch of theCrowell family. 

Thomas Crowell Jr. gr. was one of the Committee on the Second 
and Third division of Lands, at one time member for the township 
and Sheriff of the County. Several of his descendants were also in 
public office, Ebenezer as magistrate and Paul as M.P.P. for Barring- 
ton and the late Paul E. Warden of Municipality (For Rev. Tho- 
mas (Thomas Jr.gr.) see chap, on Religion). 

The name Cromwell, as given in the return of 1762 is an error. 
Crowe and Croel are in the family records a hundred years before the 
emigration to Barrington, but Crowell has been for a long time the 
common mode of spelling the name. People of the same name in N. 
Carolina are said to claim descent from Oliver Cromwell explaining 
the change of the name as intentional in the period following the Roy- 
alist restoration to obscure the relationship. They were said to have 
made a Jonah of the m. and thrown it into the ocean coming over. 

BARNABAS CROWELL belonged to Chatham, Mass. He 
never lived in Barrington but met Mary Covel in Chatham and m. 
and lived there. His widow returned to Barrington with her children. 
(1) Samuel b. 1793 m. Mary d. Aram Smith. 
Ch. William, Barnabas, Ruth,m. Henry Hopkins,Theo- 
dosia m. Obed. Hopkins, Mary, Lydia, Rox- 
anna. 



454 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

(2) William Burke, b. 1797 m. Cynthia d. Edward 
Kendrick. 

Ch. 1. Joseph m. Jane d. T. B. Brown, Yarmouth. 
Ch. Rev. William B., Frank L., Harriet, Fred. 

2. Sarah. 

3. Susan, m. Harrison, Baccaro. 
4. m. Nickerson. 

5. Philip m. Alice Watt. 

(3) Theodosia b. 1795 m. Jesse s. David Crowell, gr. 



JONATHAN CROWELL, Sen. gr. s. Isaac and Ruth Crowell 

of Cape Cod m. (a) 1738 Anna d. William and Deliverance (Lombard) 

Nickerson. &*- 

(6) Elizabeth Parker. g| 

Ch. (a) David, Mary, Jonathan (b) Deborah, Joanna, Azu- 

bah, Ruth, Freeman, Sylvan us. On the death of this 

grantee, c. 1769, the widow Elizabeth returned with 

her children to Cape Cod. The children of the first 

wife, viz., Mary, David and Jonathan Jr. remained in 

Barrington. 

I Mary m. Prince Nickerson, gr. 

II David gr. m. Lydia Smith of Bears Pond, Cape Cod, a niece 

of Nathaniel Smith, gr. 

Ch. (1) David m. Susanna d. Asa Doane gr. Roseway. 
Ch. 1. Asa Doane m. Ellen (Lowther) McDonald. 
Ch. George A. m. Hannah d. William Snow, Jane, 
Isaline. 

2. Jesse m. Joanna 

Ch. Thomas, Melissa m. Samuel Smith, P. Saxon. 

3. David m. Sarah d. Rev. Edward Reynolds. 
Ch. Frank, Robert, Sarah Jane, Julia, John, Asa 

m. Emma d. Mrs. Susan (Conrad) Crowell 
Ch. Horatio. 

4. Heman m. Susan Nickerson. 

5. Edith m. George s. George Snow. 

6. Eliza unm. 

7. Lydia m. Thomas Jones. 

8. Azuba m. Doane, Roseway. 

(2) Stephen m. 1802, Grace d. Theodore Smith, gr. 

1 . Matilda m. Anthony s. John Hamilton. 

2. Barnabas. 

(3) Thebphilus m. 1807 Mary d. John Spinney. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 455 



Ch. 1 . James b. 1809 m. Matilda d. Howes Snow. 
Ch. James m. Mahala d. Seth Snow. 

(4) Jesse m. Theodosia (Daty) d. Barnabas Crowell. 
Ch. 1. Barnabas b. 1812 m. Harriet d. Joseph Purdy. 

Ch. Jesse m. (a) Eliza d. Nelson Purdy. 
(&) Naomi Nickerson. 

William m. Lucy Harris (Gray) Chegoggin. 

Leander m. Jane Ryer. 

Maria m. Alex. s. Prince Snow. 

Josephine m. Andrew s. John Brown. 

John and Rodman, unm. 
2. Jesse unm. 

(5) Heman m. Abigail Young. 

Ch. 1. William b. 1792 m. (a) Letitia d. Paul s. Tho- 
mas Crowell, Jr. gr. 

Ch. Henry Wilson m. Jessie d. Hon. Thos. Coffin. 
Eunice m. Samuel s. John C. Black. 
Benjamin lost at sea. 
m. (6) Mrs. Susan Jayne Crowell; no issue. 

2. Nathaniel m. Alethea d. Samuel Wood. 
Ch. Maria m. George Nickerson, Shag Hr. 

Abigail m. Isaac Raynes. 
Nathaniel m. Hipsabeth Middling. 
Eliza Jane m. John O., son of Jabez Crowell. 
Isaac (unm.) 

3. Heman m. Mary Eliza d. Paul Crowell. 
Ch. Mary Elizabeth, Andrew Murray. 

George Samuel, Sarah Ellen. 

4. Melvin m. Rhoda d. Seth Reynolds, P. Latour. 
Ch. Lucy m. Joseph Bethel. 

Thomas m. Emma Smith. 

5. Mary b. 1803 m. William s. Nathan Crowell. 

6. Abigail m. Isaac s. Samuel Nickerson, Shag Hr. 

7. Elizabeth b. 1813 m. Howes s. Howes Snow. 

8. Sophronia m. Rev. Samuel McKeown. 

(6) Freeman m. Lydia d. Nathaniel Horton lived at 

Green Hr. 
Ch. 1 . David (unm.) 

2. Conrad m. Susan Jayne. He was lost at sea 

1846. 
Ch. Emma m. Asa s. David Crowell. 

3. Nathaniel b. 1817; lost at sea. 



456 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

4. Nancy b. 1819 m. Hon. Samuel Locke. 

5. Sophia m. Sherard Kenney. 

6. Elizabeth m. George Scott. 

7. Samuel. 

(7) Mercy m. (o) Willis 

(6) Bambridge. 

(8) Jonathan m. Nickerson 0. Park. 

Ch. 1. Jonathan m. (a) Bathsheba d. Tr. Reynolds. 

(6) Emily d. John Snow. 
Ch. Jonathan m. Elizabeth d. Thomas West. 
Ch. Nathan m. Susan Swain. 

Thomas W. m. Susan d. James Nickerson. 
Freeman m. Susan d. John Bethel. 
Samuel m. Eliza d. John Sholds. 

Ch. Melvin. 

Edward K. m. Ann d. George McKay. 
Abigail (unm.) 
Jonathan m. Reynolds. 
Hannah m. David s. Joshua Nickerson. 
Olivia m. Absalom Nickerson. 
Freeman m. Rhoda d. Joseph Reynolds. 

Ch. Grace m. John Sholds. 
Sarah m. Allen Smith, Head. 
Annie m. Crowell Atkinson. 
Samuel m. 



III Jonathan *Crowell, gr. m. Elsie d. Daniel Nickerson, 
Roberts Id. 

Ch. (1) Jonathan m. Roberts (sister Allen and Wey- 

mouth) 
Ch. 1. Jonathan m. Ryder. 

2. John m. Hobbs. 

3. Solomon m. Hobbs (d. James) 

4. Daniel m Hobbs. 

5. Thomas, unm. 

(2) Edward m. Elsie Earl. 
Ch. 1. Jonathan, Kemptville. 

2. Edward, Deerfield. 
3. Enoch, Deerfield. 

^Jonathan Crowell and his brother-in-law, Israel Doane, bought 300 acres 
each of Hobbs on Roberts Id., who bought it of John Crawley of Chebogue. 
Roberts had a grant of the N. end of the island. 

A. A. Doane in "Doane Reunion," p. 20 states that Jonathan Jr., gr.,* m. 
Rhoda d. Elisha Nickerson, Sr., Apr. 28, 1769, and settled in Argyle. Tliia 
must have been a first wife. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 457 

4. David, Roberts Id. 

5. Abram, Roberts Id. 

6. Mary. T.Elsie. 

8. Deborah. 9. Rhoda. 
(3) Elsie, unm. 



JUDAH CROWELL, gr. b. Chatham, Mass, 1703 (Thomas, 
Thomas, John) was the son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Jones) Crowell. 
His wife was Tabitha Nickerson and they came from Dartmouth, 
C. Cod. His sons Judah and Thomas were also grantees their lots 
.-extending from the Millstream to the Neck and Moses Id. Near the 
old meeting house is a gravestone with the inscription "Tabitha wife 
of Judah Crowell, d. 1771." 
Ch. I Judah, gr. died of small-pox on Cape Id. 

II Elizabeth b. 1738 m. Thomas West gr. He died before 1772 
III Thomas Senior, gr. b. 1735 m. Martha Coleman, 1754, who 
was m. again in 1771 to Benjamin Kirby. 

Ch. (1) Moses m. 1782 Mary d. Henry Wilson, gr. 

Ch. 1. Sarah m. 1802 Theodore s. Solomon Smith, gr. 
2. Coleman b. 1786 m. Hannah d. Jabez Osborn. 
Ch. Mary m. Moses s. Theodore Smith. 

John Coleman m. Abigail d. Thomas Coffin. 
Ch. Mary m. Thomas Nickerson, Shag Hr. 

Ch. Ernest R. 

Nancy m. Warren s. Eaton Crowell. 
William O.m. (a) Mary d. Smith Kendrick. 

(6) Annie M. d. Ebenezer Crow- 
ell, 2nd. 

Rufus Hibbard m.(a) Laura Servant, Tusket. 
(6) Maria Servant. 
(c) Sarah d. Andrew Crowell 
Thankful m. Moses Smith. 

3. Levi b. 1788 m. Nancy d. William Chatwynd. 
Ch. Sarah. Moses. 

Levi b. 1848 m. Rebekah d. John Lyons. 
Ch. Horatio m. Amanda d. Jethro Nickerson. 
Mercy m. Richard Thomas; Louise. 
Jane m. Solomon s. Heman Nickerson. 
Andrew m. Lettice d. Abner Nickerson. 
Ch. Andrew m. Azuba d. Sargent Sears. 

Moses m. Marion d. Vincent Nickerson. 
Eliza m. Kinsman s. Eleazar Nickerson. 



458 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

4. Mary b. 1794 m. 1814 Thomas s. Elisha Hop- 

kins. 

5. Seth b. 1795 m. Nancy d. Michael Swim. 
Ch. Seth. 

Lewis m. Delilah Fisk, lost at sea. 
Ch. John m. Maria d. James Banks. 

6. Moses b. 1802 m. Louisa d. James Doane. 
Ch. Maria Louisa m. Rev. W. H. Richan 1861. 

7. Nehemiah b. 1806 m. Anna d. William Squires. 
Ch. Nehemiah, unm. 

Susanna m. William s. William Crowell. 
Samuel 0. b. 1838 m. Maria d. Charles Me- 

Larren. 
Ch. Maurice, Lovitt, Estella. 

8. Obediah m. 1804 Elizabeth d. Jabez Osborn. 
Ch. Jabez m. Elizabeth d. Josiah Harding. 

Ch. Sophia b. 1837 m. Charles Crowell. 

Samuel m. Mary Ryer, Shelburne. 

John O. m. Eliza Jane d. Nathaniel Crow- 
ell. 

James, Jabez, Obediah, all unm. 
Tabitha m. Edward Stanley. 
Hannah m. Lendall Doane. 
Edith m. Capt. Robert Harding. 
John O. m. (a) Matilda d. Smith Kendrick. 

(b) Kate Robinson, Halifax. 
Eliza Ann m. Gamaliel s. Josiah Harding. 
Maria m. James s. James Kenney. 
Sarah m. Dennison Hibbert. 

9 . Elizabeth b. 1799 m. John s. Knowles Atwood. 
Ch. John, Thomas Hallett. 

(2) Coleman m. 1792 Eliza d. Solomon Gardner gr. 
Ch. 1 . Jemima m. Michael s. Michael Swim. 

2 . Martha m. George Smith, The Hawk. 

3. Margaret m. David s. David Kendrick, Beaver 

Dam. 

(3) Ann m. Thomas Doty. 

(4) Patience m. Theodore s. Solomon Smith, Indian 

Brook. JU 

(5) Thomas West m. Sarah d. Thomas Doane,fgr.. 
moved to Digby Neck. 

IV Eleazar m. 1781 (a) Mercy d. Heman Kenney, gr. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 459 

(6) Sarah Crowell, widow d. Nathaniel Knowles. 

(1) Mercy b. 1782. 

(2) John (Skeat) b. 1784 m. Ruth d. Heman Kenney. 
Ch. 1 . Rozella b. 1809 m. Doane s. Michael Swim. 

2. Charlotte b. 1811 m. William s. Joseph Atwood. 

3 . Eldad b. 1813 m. Mary d. John Sholds. 

4. William K. b. 1815. 

5. Eliza b. 1819 m. (a) Lendall Lewis. 

(b) William Shepherd. 
Ch. Gilbert m. Maud d. Harvey Doane. 
Nathan m. (U. S.) 
Henrietta (unm.) 

6. Hannah b. 1822 m. (a) Lewis (bro. Andrew) 

Smith. 

(6) Rev. Albert Swim. 
Cb. Annie m. Geo. Phillips. 
Gideon m. Penney. 

7. Matilda m. John Gray. 

Ch. Wrayford m. Edna d. Harvey Trefry. 
Annie m. Wm. Hopkins. 

8. Abigail m. Edward s. Albert Swim. 
Ch. Jennie m. Clattenburg, Abbie. 

9. Sarah b. 1828 (unm.) 

10. John Robertson m. Rachel 
Ch. Sarah m. Wm. Eaton Kenney. 

Ann m. Marshall Jenkins. 
William m. (U.S.) 

(3) Eleazar m. 1807 Sarah d. Michael Swim. 
Ch. 1 . Abigail m. George s. Michael Swim 2nd. 

2 . Asa m. Thirza d. Peter Kenney. 

Ch. Eldredge m. Ellen d. Myrick Smith. 
Joanna m. Smith Messenger. 
George, drowned. 
Susan, m. Amon Kenney. 

3. Eleazar m. Diana d. William Brannen. 

Ch. Foster, Wilson, Lydia A., Jeremiah, Flossie, 
Delia m. Garland. 

4. Mercy m. Prince W. s. Barzillai Hopkins. 

5. Benjamin m. Hitty d. Thomas Nickerson. 
Ch. George, Coleman, 

Lewis m. Delilah Fiske. 
Ch. James m. d. Foster Crowell. 
Robert m. Phebe Hunt. 



460 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



6. Joseph m. Charlotte Watt, Sheet Hr. 
Ch. William m. Alice d. Peleg Nickerson. 

Charles m. Sarepta d. Eleazar Crowell. 
Lydia m. Peter s. Smith Swim. 
Edith m. Osborne Phillips. 
Matilda m. Ephraim Brown. 

7. Michael m. (a) Hester Nickerson. 
Ch. Obadiah, John L. m. Ruth Swim. 

William m. Delilah d. Daniel CrowelL 
m. (&) Ruth d. Nehemiah Crowell. 
Ch. Ruth A. m. John Duncan. 

Matilda m. Alfred Swim. Michael. 

8. Daniel m. Jemima d. Nehemiah Crowell. 
Ch. Freeman, Luther, Edmund, Phoebe. 

(4) Nehemiah m. 1808 (a) Jane Nickerson, Drs. Cove. 
Ch. 1. Eleazar m. Mary d. Job Atkinson. 

Ch. Caroline m. Wm. Churchill, Yarmouth. 
Stillman m. (a) Athaliah Penney. 

(5) Arietta Ross. 
Lydia A. m. Alfred Swim. 
Job m. Kezia d. Ephraim Newell. 
Sarepta m. Charles Crowell. 
Elizabeth m. Joseph Williams. 

2. Stillman m. Deborah d. Joseph Atwood. 
Ch. Sophia m. Robert s. Nehemiah Kenney. 

Sarah Jane m. Colwell Kenney. 

Mrs. Stillman Crowell m. (6) Seth s. Thomas Hopkins. 
Ch. Wm. m. (a) Mercy J. d. John Smith. 
(6) Ann d. John Gray. 
Deborah (unm.) 

3. Heman m. Lydia Duncan. 
Ch. David, Delia, Catharine. 

4. Sarah m. Willard s. Joshua Atwood. 

5. Ruth m. Michael s. Eleazar Crowell. 

6. Jemima m. Daniel s. Eleazar Crowell. 

7. Phebe m. John Dixon. 

8. Emma m. Vincent s. Joshua Atwood. 
(Nehemiah m.) (5) Nancy d. Michael Swim. 

Ch. Judah m. Zilpha d. Lewis Swim. 
Jane m. Luther d. Joseph Smith. 
Esther m. William Watt. 
(Nehemiah m.) (c) Edith Fiske, Cape Id. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 461 

(5) Daniel m. 1813 Temperance (1794-1854) d. Joseph 

Atwood. 
Ch. 1. and 2. Mary and Deborah, twins 1813. 

3. Uriah ch. George, Glen wood. 

4. Edmund. 

5 . Mercy. 

6. Catharine m. William Watt. 

7. Asa Knowles. 

8. Christina m. Isaac Hopkins, Bear Pt. 

(6) Ansel m. Hannah d. Jesse Smith. 
Ch. 1. Susan m. William Knowles. 

2. Lavinia m. Alex Nickerson, Cl. Hr. 

3 . Nancy J. m. Leonard s. Joshua Nickerson. 

4. Lucy m. James s. Isaac Banks. 

5. Louisa b. 1820 m. Josiah Crowell. 

Ch. Archelaus. 

6. Elmira m. William Atkinson. 

7. Samuel. 

8. John. 

(7) Tabitha. 

(8) Elizabeth m. Thomas Fisher 1808. 

(9) Abijah m. Elizabeth d. Judah and Sarah Crowell. 
Ch. 1 . Charlotte m. Doane Nickerson, S. Side. 

2 . Elizabeth m. Darius Nickerson (sons of Seth 

Nickerson.) 

3. Thomas m. Mary Ellen Swain. 
4 . Judah m. Sarah A. d. Eaton Kenney. 

5 . Isaac m. Eliza d. Lewis Smith. 

6 . Albert m. Hannah Perry. 

7 . Stephen (unm.) lost at sea. 

8 . Jane m. Alfred s. Daniel Kenney, 

9. Margaret m. Wm. Swain. 

10. Lydia m. John Nickerson, Shag Hr. 

11. Martha m. Nehemiah s. Leonard Kenney* 
Ansel m. 1772 Jedidah d. Edmund Doane, gr. 

Ch. (1) Jedidah b. 1774 m. David s. Anson Kendrick. 

(2) Ruth b. 1775 m. Nehemiah s. Heman Kenney, giv 

(3) Judah m. 1801 Sarah d. Gideon Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Mehitable m. Seth Nickerson. 

2. Mercy m. Levi s. Levi Nickerson. 

3. Ruth m. George s. Robert Atkinson. 

4. Martha m. Robert Brannen. 

5. Gideon b. 1804, m. Charlotte Smith. 



462 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



6. Jedidah b. 1806 m. A. Smith Swim. 

7. Edith b. 1809. 

8. Emily m. Edmund Ross. 

9. Elizabeth m. Abijah Crowell. 

10. Hannah m. James Smith, Bear Ft. 

(4) Edmund m. Jerusha d. John Nickerson, gr. 

Ch. 1. Ansel m. Delilah d. David and Margaret Ken- 
drick. 

Alexander m. Letitia d. Joseph Kendrick. 
Edmund (unm.) 
Margaret m. Edward Crews. 
Frank. 

2. Freeborn G. b. 1810. 

3. Jemima m. Corning Crowell. 

4. Urbane m. Vickery. 

5. John N. 

6. Thomas West. 

(5) Eaton m. 1804 (a) Elizabeth Goodwin. 

1808 (6) Susan d. Levi Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Philip m. Bethia d. Edward Hopkins. 

Ch. T. Doane m. Reliance d. Samuel Smith. 

2 . Levi m. (a) Sophia d. Moses Nickerson. 

(6) Thirza d. Zenos Nickerson. 

3. Warren m. Nancy d. Coleman Crowell. 

Ch. (adopted) Mary d. Coleman and Abigail 
(Coffin) Crowell, who m. Thomas Nickerson. 
Ch. Ernest R. 

4. Judah m. Jane Reynolds. 
Ch. Eliza J. m. Nelson Banks. 

5. Eaton m. Mary d. Thomas Fisher. 
VI Archelaus m. Mary 

Ch. (1) Robert Barry m. 1807 Sarah d. Samuel Penney. 
Ch. 1. Daniel P. m. Mary d. Nathaniel Smith. 
Ch. Nathaniel m. Sarah d. Joseph Johnson. 

Ch. Archibald, Mary Susan m. J. H. Trefry. 
Benjamin m. Melinda Huskins. 
Ch. Burton, Lewis, Thomas. 

2. Archibald m. Suzanna d. Nathaniel Smith. 

3 . William Spinney m. Hannah d. John Smith. 
Ch. Sophia m. Joseph s. John Kendrick. 

William Sherard m. Deborah Watt. 

4. Lucy m. Thomas Atkinson. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 463 



Ch. Stillman, Barry, William, Abram, Harrington, 
Bethia m. George Penney. 
Jane m. James s. George Smith. 

5. Mary b. 1787 m. Daniel Vincent Cunningham. 

6. Peleg m. Letitia d. Michael Swim 2nd. 
Ch. Margaret m. Thomas D. s. David Smith. 

Matilda m. David s. William Smith. 
Hannah m. Joel Worthen. 
James (unm.) 

7. Sarah m. John s. Nathaniel Smith, 

8. Huldah m. William Newell, Hawk. 

9. Hannah m. Stillman Newell, Hawk. 

10. Elizabeth m. James Obed. 

11. Jesse b. 1829 lost at sea. 

(2) Eldad, m. 1795, Sarah d. Nathaniel Knowles. 

(3) Huldah m. McLeod, Liverpool. 

THOMAS CROWELL Jr. gr., was a son of Paul and Rebecca 
(Paine) Crowell of Chatham, Mass, and had brothers Ezra and Hal- 
let. He married 1759 Sarah sister of Heman and Nathan Kenney, 
grs. Jonathan Crowell gr. of Liverpool,N.S. was his father's brother 
and Abigail, wife of Joseph Collins of Liverpool his father's sister. 

After John Crowe 1st were John (2) John (3) Paul (1) Paul (2) 
Thomas gr. Paul (2) m. Rebecca Paine g.g. d. of Thomas Paine whose 
wife was Mary,d. Nicolas Snow and Constance d. Stephen Hopkins, 
Mayflower Pilgrim. This grantee's first division lot was No. 5, of 
Sherose Id. where he lived, died and was buried. 
Ch. I Nathan. This birth May 17, 1761, is the first recorded in 
the township. There is however a persistent tradition that 
James s. Archelaus Smith, gr. was the first male child born 
in Barrington, and the discrepancy may be accounted for by 
the fact of Nathan's early death at about 16 years. The 
date and place are also from Notes gathered by Fred Crow- 
ell from N. E. documents. 

II Ebenezer b. 1763 m. (a) 1781 Jerusha d. T. S. Harding, gr. 
Ch. (1) Elizabeth b. 1788 m. Thomas K.s. Jonathan Smith. 

(2) Martha m. John s. Samuel Hopkins. 

(3) Ebenezer m. Ann d. Peter Coffin. 

Ch. 1 . Peter Coffin m. (a) Jane d. Samuel Wood. 

(6) Asenath Osborn. 
Ch. (a) Ebenezer. 

2. Norton, unm. 

3. Isaac, m. Kate McKay, Shelburne. 



464 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

4. Jerusha m. Colwell Smith. 

5. Ann Maria m. Wm. O. Crowell. 

6. Letitia m. Rev. Charles Haskell. 

7. Rev. Theodore H., unm. 

(4) Bethia m. Joseph s. Elias Banks. 

(5) Jerusha m. Andrew s. Bartlett Gardner. 

(6) Paul m. Deborah d. Seth Wilson. 

Ch. 1 . Seth Wilson m. Jerusha d. John Hopkins. 
Ch. Seth Wilson m. (a) Janet d. Elijah Wood. 

(6) Emma Sanders. 
Isaac Harvey, unm. 

Edwin m. S. Dove McQueen, Pictou Co. 
Deborah m. Joseph E. Trefry. 
Austin m. Jessie Waters, Mass. 
Paul E. m. Bertha d. Wm. S. Hopkins. 

2. Paul b. 1833 m. Mary Hamlin, N. York. 

3. Jerusha m. Michael Hayden. 

4. Janet m. Joshua s. James Trefry. 

Ch. Charles Israel m. Georgina Fillibrown, Boston. 
Andrew m. Laura d. Israel Wilson. 
Wilson m. Elizabeth d. Benj. Hichens. 
J. Hartley m. Mary d. Nathaniel Crowell. P.L. 
Adelbert m. Euphemia d. Thomas Taylor. 
Clifford m. N. York. 

(Ebenezer) m. (b) Hannah d. Andrew Lovitt, Yarmouth. 

(7) Lydia m. Nehemiah s. Nehemiah Wilson. 

(8) Andrew m. Sarah d. Nehemiah Wilson. 
Ch. 1 . Sarah Ann m. Ruf us H. Crowell. 

2. Letitia m. Thomas s. William Robertson. 

3. Andrew Lovitt, m. Elizabeth 

4 . Sophia m. Nathan s. Nathan Crowell. 

5. Henrietta. 

(9) Joseph m. Janet d. Seth Wilson.... 

Ch. 1 . Hannah m. Archibald s. Arch. Hopkins. 

2. Joseph, unm. 

3. Mary, unm. 

4 . Elizabeth m. Harvey s. James Trefry. 

5. Samuel m. Edna d. Bowman Corning. 

6. Ebenezer, unm. drowned. 

7. Henry m. Jane Cleland. 

8. Lydia (unm.) 

(10) Asenath m. Joseph d. Nehemiah Wilson. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 465 

(11) Thomas m. Sarah d. William Robertson. 
Ch. 1. Janet m. Lovitt Willett. 

2. Sarah m. Joseph s. Joseph Wilson. 

3. Gabriel. 

4. Charles. 

5. Lovitt, 

6. Maria. 

7. Margaret. 

(12) Israel m. Leah d. Samuel Wood. 

Ch. 1 . Emma m. Morton s. I. K. Wilson. 

2. Winifred. 

3. Janet. 

4. Annie, m. Case. 

5. Lovitt m. Louisa Wilson, Halifax. 

6. Joseph m. (in U.S.) 

(13) Hannah m. James s. James Cox. 
Ill Billah. 

-IV. Rebekah b. 1767, m. 1786 John s. Solomon Lewis. 
V Thomas (Rev.) b. 1768 m. 1790 Elizabeth d. Thomas Doane 
Ch. (1) Thomas b. 1792 m. 1814 Catharine d. Peter Rob- 
ertson. 

Ch. 1 . Peter Robertson b. 1814 m. Catharine McGray. 
Ch. Agnes m. Samuel S. Poole 

2. Agnes b. 1816. 

3 . Elizabeth m. (a) Alex. Black (6) W. S. Taylor. 

4. Catharine m. George K. s. George Trefry. 
Ch. Abigail m. W. F. Cutten, Amherst. 

Ch. Rev. George B. m. Minnie Brown; Lulu. 
Elisha P. m. Sarah d. Richard Hickens. 
Thomas m. Maria Homer; George, unm. 

5. Hallet m. Mary d. Francis Boyd. 

(d. at St. Thomas 1858 on Bark Cecilia) 
Ch. Joseph. 

6. Thomas. 

7. Charles m. (a) Sophia d. Jabez Crowell. 

(6) Hannah Stockman. 

(2) Drusilla m. Joseph s. Benjamin Redding. 
<Ch. 1. Benjamin m. Maria d. Jesse Shaw, M.P.P. 

2. Thomas C. m. Mary Anderson. 

Ch. Emma m. Saunders. 

3 . Joseph m. Sarah d. Elisha Eldridge. 

4. Arabella. 
-5. Harvey. 



466 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



6. Eliza W. m. John Churchill. 

7. Rebecca m. R. C. Cann. 

8. Sarah Ann m. G. N. Beckwith. 

9. George P. m. Mary d. Campbell Wyman. 

10. Lucy m. J. Howard Moses; 

11. Barbara. 

(3) Rebecca m. James s. Joshua P. and Elizabeth 
(Kinney) Trefry. 

Ch 1. Thomas C. m. Lydia Churchill. 

2. Catharine m. William Currier. 

3 . Joshua P. m. Janet d. Paul Crowell, M.P.P. 

4. Joseph m. 1848, Margery d. Jesse Smith. 
Ch. Joseph E. m. (a) Deborah d. Seth W. Crowell. 

(b) Ada Smith. 
Ann m. John Godfrey. 

5. Mary Agnes m. Jonathan Moulton. 

Ch. Edward, Dana, Ada. 

6. Jane m. John Gray. 

7. Andrew m. Cohoon. 

8. Hervey D. m. Elizabeth d. Joseph Crowell 
Ch. Albert H. m. (a) Winifred (Scott) Law. 

(6) Elizabeth Higgins. 
Edna m. Wrayford Grey. 

9. James m. Theodosia Hatfield. 

10. Richard m. (a) Mary d. Elkanah Trask. 
Ch. J. Melbourne m. Ora d. John Hogg. 

m. (6) Anne d. Timothy Smith. 

(4) Elizabeth b. 1797 m. 1819 A. C. White, Haverhill, 

Mass. 

Ch. 1 . Frank m. Letitia d. Alexander Hogg. 
2 . John m. Elizabeth J. d. Levi Smith. 

(5) Mary m. 1820 Richard Hichens. 

Ch. 1 . Richard m. Maria (Harrington) Knowles. 
Ch. Benjamin m. Jane d. Wm. Knowles. 
Edmund, Nehemiah. 
Mary Jane m. George McLeod. 
Abigail m. Lovitt Banks. 

2 . Mary Jane. 

3. William m. Margaret d. Harris Harrington. 

(6) William Myrick b. 1805 m. (a) 1826 Susanna Reid, 

Horton,N. S. came with Rev. J. B. Norton from 
Cornwallis). 
(b) 1854, Sophia Nickerson. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 467 



Ch. (a) William L. b. 1827, m. 1854 Sarah d. James 
Crowell. 
George M. b. 1829, m. (a) Sarah Dow 

(ft) Janet Smith. 

Charles H. b. 1832; Leander b. 1842; 
Mary Ann b. 1834, m. J. H. Palmer, U. S. 
Susan J. b. 1835, m. Wm. F. Palmer, U. S. 
Julia M. b. 1837, m. Wm. P. Dodge. 
Rebecca A. b. 1845, m. Thomas Brown. 
(6) Catherine b. 1855, m. John Crowell. 
Angus b. 1856, m. Dorcas Nickerson. 
Bradford b. 1858, m. Ada Hopkins. 
Israel b. 1859, m. Mina Mull. 
Laliah P. b. 1862, m. Wm. Durgin. 
Margery b. 1863, m. Page Allen, Yarmouth. 
Thomas C. b. 1865, m. Annie d. Loran Kenney. 
Charles L. b. 1869. 

(7) Corning m. (a) Jemima d. Edmund Crowell. 

(6) Emeline d. Nathan Hopkins. 
Ch. Thorndick m. Henrietta d. Israel Wilson. 
John m. Caroline Thomas. 
Jerusha m. Robert s. Alexander Hogg. 
Barbara m. Capt. Henry Webster. 
Jemima (unm.) 

(8) Sarah m. Isaac s. Enos Knowles. 

(9) Ann m. Nathan s. Nathan Crowell. 

(10) Abigail m. Harvey s. Prince Doane. 

(11) Reliance m. 1815 John Emerson s. John s. Nathan 
Kenney, gr. 

Ch. 1 . William m. Sophia d. David Grant. 

2 . Zilpha m. Henry s. David Grant. 

3. Emily Jane m. Enoch s. Isaac Titus. 

4. Isaac. 

5. John m. Celia Burns. 

6. Jesse m. Margaret Lent. 

7. Abram m. Lydia Sabine. 

8. Jacob. 

9. George. 
10. Margaret. 

VI Sarah b. 1770 m. Enos s. Nathaniel Knowles. 

VII Paul b. 1773 m. 1795 Eunice d. Henry Wilson, gr. 
Ch. (1) Colin m. Olivia d. Nathan Crowell. 



468 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. 1 . Ezra m. Sophia Wilson. 

2. James, unm. 

3. John unm. 

(2) Paul m. Sarah d. Samuel Hopkins. 

(3) Henry Wilson, drowned. 

(4) Ezra drowned (gunning). 

(5) Eunice unm. (6) Hannah unm. 

(7) Hephsabah m. James s. John Lewis. 

(8) Letitia m. William P. s. Heman Crowell. 

(9) Sarah m. Crowell s. Thomas K. Smith. 

(10) Mary Eliza m. Heman s. Heman Crowell. 

VIII John b. 1777 m. 1802 Mercy d. Heman Kenney. 

Ch. (1) Margery b. 1805 m. Alfred s. Samuel Kimball; 

(2) Mary Ann m. Wm. McConnell, Yarmouth. 

(3) Amelia m. Baker, Yarmouth. 

(4) Thomas b. 1818 m. Ann Naylor, Halifax. 

Ch. Eliza m. Fred Whiston, Halifax. 

(5) Isaac K. b. 1820, lived with Jesse Smith. 

IX Nathan b. 1779 m. Rebecca d. Samuel Hopkins. 

Ch. (1) Nathan b. 1813 m. Ann d. Rev. Thomas CrowelL 
Ch. 1. Nathan m. Sophia d. Andrew Crowell. 
Ch. Susan. 

2. Gilbert m. Lydia Spinney, Argyle. 
Ch. William, Ethel, Stella, Clara, Marion, Eliza- 
beth, Shirley. 

(2) James b. 1808 m. 1833 Chloe d. Josiah P. D.oane. 
Ch. 1 . Prince m. Caroline d. John Knowles. 

Ch. Charles D. m. Isabel d. Joseph Hopkins. 
William, Herbert, Orlando, Fanny. 

2. James m. Mary d. Elijah Wood. 
Ch. Fred, Percy, Horace, Bertha, Chloe. 

3. Josiah m. (a) Matilda d. John Wilson. 

(6) Williamary (Wilson) Hopkins.. 
Ch. James, Ella. 

4. Mary, (unm.) 

(3) William b. 1806 m. Mary d. Heman Crowell. 
Ch. 1 . Nathan m. Susan Shepherd. 

Ch. Josephine. 

2. Sophronia m. Fish, U. S. 

3. Michael m. Mary Hayes, Halifax. 

4. Olivia m. (a) Henry Swain. 

(6) David Smith, P. Latour.. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 469* 



5. William m. (a) Susan d. Nehemiah Crowell. 

(6) Abigail Nickerson. 
Ch. Thomas m. Garron. 
Clarence, unm. 

(4) Olivia b. 1803 m. Colin s. Paul Crowell. 

(5) Jemima b. 1810 m. Samuel s. Elisha Atwood. 
X Hephsabah b. 1775 m. Reuben s. Reuben Cohoon, gr. 



JOHN CUNNINGHAM son of Daniel and Mary Cunningham 
of Inverary, Scotland. He was a soldier in the war of the Revolu- 
tion and said to have been in the "Black Watch". Discharged for a 
wound on his hand, he came to Shelburne and had a grant there, but 
soon came to Barrington where he stayed at S. 0. Doane's and went 
fishing, about 1785. He was a tailor by trade, and a fiddler of some 
note. Afterwards he married Mercy d. Archelaus Smith, gr.,|and 
settled at N. E. Point, Cape Id. where he opened a store and develop- 
ed a large general business. His Cape Id. property extended from 
N. E. Point to Cape Terror. 

JOHN CUNNINGHAM (1755-1845) m. Mary d. Archelaus 
Smith, gr. 

Ch. I John b. 1788 m. Hannah d. Hezekiah Smith. *S 
Ch. (1) Nancy b. 1816 m. Nehemiah Crowell, Cl. Hr.. 
Ch. James, Charles, Israel, Harriet. 
(2) Cornelius (3) Jacob. 

(4) John m. Lydia d. Archelaus Newell. 

(5) Charles. 

(6) Mehitable. 

(7) Stephen m. Lydia d. Seth Cunningham.. 
Ch. 1. Clarissa m. John Cook, C. Negro. 

2. Cornelius m. Jane d. Simeon Nickerson.. 

3 . Annie m. (a) Lewis Ross 

(6) Richard Gray. 

4. Jacob m. Ruth Gray, Kempt. 

5. Asa m. Laura Jodry. 

6. Oliver m. Athalia d. Nathaniel Atkins. 

7. Luella m. Asa s. Amasa NewelL 

8. Lalia. 

II Nancy b. 1790 m. Jacob Dixon. 
Ill William, b. 1794, m. Jane d. James Smith. 
Ch. (1) James m. Deborah Allen, Yarmouth^ 
(2) William m. Matilda d. John Fkke. 



470 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. John, Charles, Matilda m. Enos Smith. 

(3) Jane (unm). 

(4) Eliza m. Elijah Wood. 

(5) Deborah m. Thomas Covert. 

(6) Sarah m. Harvey s. Harvey Doane. 

(7) Eleanor m. Charles Kelley. 

(8) Sophia m. Dr. Charles McKay. 

(9) Josephine m. Frank Beals. 

(10) Mary Ann m. Isaac Smith. 

(11) Susan (unm.) 

IV Alexander b. 1795 m. (a) Jane d. James s. Gideon Nickerson 

(6) Eunice Nickerson. 
Ch. (1) James m. Deborah Smith. 

(2) Rodney m. Sophia Nichols. 

(3) Margaret m. Ephraim Newell. 

(4) Orpha m. Handley s. Joseph Newell. 

(5) Mary Jane m. Jeremiah Smith. 

(6) Euphemia (unm.) 

(7) Maria (unm.) 

V Mercy m. James Spears, (lived in Eastport). 

Ch. Robert. 

VI Duncan McCallum m. Keziah d. Hezekiah Smith. 
Ch. (1) Israel m. Sophronia d. Phineas Nickerson. 

(2) Lewis m. Rachel* d. Michael Swim. 

(3) Abigail m. (a) Thomas Sinclair 

(6) John Wheeler. 

VII Daniel Vinson m. Eunice d. Absalom Nickerson. 
Ch. (1) Joseph m. Elizabeth Wilson. 

(2) Vincent m. Mary d. Barry Crowell. 

Ch. 1 Samuel m. Mercy d. Edmund Ross. 

2 Gardner m. Eunice d. James Stewart. 

3 Crowell m. Elizabeth d. Ziba Hunt. 

4 Clara m. Thomas s. Benjamin Ross. 

5 Nancy m. Barry s. Joshua Nickerson. 

6 Henrietta. 

7 William. 

(3) George m. Armina Newell. 

(4) Seth m. (a) Clarissa, sis. Merinda Smith and Ansel 
Smith. 

Ch. Obediah unm. Asa unm. Lydia m. Stephen 
Cunningham. 

*Rachel afterwards m. Dr. Clark from Halifax. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 471 



Arminella m. Stillman Newell. 
Linda m. Lorenzo Higgins, Brimson, M. 
Sarah Ann m. Wm. Marshall, Weymouth 
(6) Armina (Newell) Cunningham. 
Ch. George, Jane m. Chas. Tebeau. 

(5) Asa m. Jane Nickerson. 

(6) Esther 

(7) Letitia. 

(8) Reliance. 

VIII Malcolm (went abroad). 



JOHN DAVIS, gr. had a share No. 78 on Cape Island, near N. 
E. Point. He was born at Nantucket in 1732, May 10; was brother 
to Mary wife of John Coffin. He died in 1787 from a fall on the ice. 
In 1785 his share in the Third Division was "drawed" by Isaac Ken- 
ney. There is no account of his marriage. 



JACOB DIXON, b. in Scotland, went to sea from bis boyhood, 
and at 23 was second mate of the ship "Lass" bound to St. John, 
N. B. She was wrecked near the Hawk, Cape Id. Dixon stayed at 
the island where he taught evening school at times and having mar- 
ried bought land for a homestead from S. O. Doane, Sr. at the east 
end of the island. Part of the hull of the "Lass" came ashore in 1917 
and Mrs. J. A. Swim had a boat made of it. 

JACOB DIXON m. Nancy d. John Cunningham. 
Ch. I John m. Phebe d. Nehemiah Crowell. 
Ch. Jacob m. Belle Stewart. 
Heman m. Larkin. 
John m. Ann d. Heman Smith. 
Phebe m. Weymouth Crowell, Argyle. 
Margaret m. James A. s. Reuben Swim. 
II Alexander m. Jane d. Daniel Doane, Yarmouth. 

Ch. Joseph m. Elizabeth d. Solomon (Heman) Nickerson. 
William m. Sabra d. Solomon Nickerson. 
James m. Sophia d. Alfred Nickerson. 
Janet m. Jethro Nickerson. 

III Anabella m. James s. James McKay. 

IV Mercy (unm.) 



DOANE. The grantees of this name, Edmund and Thomas, 
were descendants of Deacon John Doane of Eastham, who in 1633 
was an assistant governor of Plymouth with Wm. Brewster and Ste- 
phen Hopkins of "Mayflower" fame.- The old colony records tell 



472 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

how Standish, Doane, Stephen Hopkins and others "devide the med- 
ow ground in the bay equally according to the proporcon of shares 
.formerly devided to the purchasers." etc. 

Rebecca Doane m. Elisha Paine whose mother Mary was d. of 
Nicholas Snow who came over in the "Ann", and a granddaughter of 
Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower. Rev. Elisha Paine, educated 
:for the law, became a Newlight or separatist minister of much influ- 
ence, and was persecuted and imprisoned for preaching without lic- 
ence. 

Israel father of Edmund Doane, gr. was (1704-22) constable, 
a*oad surveyor and selectman of Eastham. He m. Ruth d. Edmund 
Freeman. 



EDMUND DOANE gr. and his family are often referred to in 
'our Township history, John Howard Payne, the writer of "Home 
'Sweet Home", was a grandson of Mrs. Doane and a descendant of 
Jane Paine, wife of Thomas Mahew, Apostle to the Indians and son of 
Thomas Mahew first Governor of Martha's Vineyard. Mrs. Doane's 
son William in a letter to his half-brother, Samuel O. dated New York 
1797, April 9, says,"Ihave often wished that I had been permitted to 
go with you into that country. I have never yet forgotten my sen- 
sations when I saw the family pass 'the window, where I stood at- 
tending family prayers, on their way to embark at the landing by 
Mr. Nathaniel Mayo's. Providence overruled my wishes, and I am 
sure my mother used her best discretion in leaving me with that good 
clergyman, Rev. Joseph Crocker of Eastham, whose memory I revere, 
etc."This and the following glimpse of the family by the late school 
Inspector, A.C.A. Doane, help us to understand those early times. 
""Edmund Doane's family arrived at Barrington then called the Pass- 
age June 10, 1762. Of all their live stock only the old mare remained, 
the others had died from starvation and exposure. A suitable spot 
having been selected his house was erected, the first frame house in 
the place. 

Prince Doane of Yarmouth said that Edmund Doane's first 
house in Barrington was at Sherose Id. and that they had a small 
cannon with them which was placed for protection against the In- 
dians who then could easily cross from the main to Sherose Id. at low 
water. He,now greatly reduced by his losses,applied himself to fish- 
iing and farming; but adverse fortune still following him, he was oblig- 
ed to abandon his home and build a small house on the East side of 
iiong Cove, just opposite where we live only more on the Point. He 
purposed to go back to the States and sold out to John Homer in 1776 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 47 



for 132.6.5 f ; but his wife being skilled in medicine and mid-wifery, 
the people solicited him to remain, and at a Town meeting a piece of 
land was granted them as an inducement and on that they perman- 
ently settled. He is represented as a man of great strength, indomit- 
able perseverance and unflinching courage. His wife is spoken of as a 
woman of rare intelligence and very useful in the community. She j 
died May 24, 1798, aged 81." 

No name is more prominent in the records of the Township 
than tha'-j of Samuel Osborn Doane, for many years Proprietor's- 
Clerk and Registrar and the only Commissioner authorized to sol- 
emnize marriages. Once returning from that ceremony he told 

Mrs. Nehemiah Doane, "There was a marriage at Cana and: 

the Lord was there ; and there was a marriage at and the devil 

was there." Later representatives of the family were James Mann 
Doane, Warren Doane, James Harvey Doane, George Barlow Doane, 
Avard C. A. Doane, Rupert Doane, Arnold Doane and Robert D. 
Doane and shipmasters on all oceans. 

EDMUND DOANE, gr. 1718-1806 b. at Eastham, m. 1749 Eliza- 
beth (Myrick) Paine d. Samuel Osborn, gr. 

Ch. I Israel b. 1750 m. 1772 Desire d. Daniel Nickerson, Argyle. 
Ch. (1) DrusMla b. 1773 m. James Wyman. 

(2) Israel m. Mehitable d. Isaac Kenney. 
Ch. 1. Susan m. Josiah s. Jesse Smith. 

2. Israel m. 

Ch. George, Alfred, Nehemiah. 

3. Jane m. Martin Doane. 

(3) Daniel m. (a) Elizabeth d. Gideon Nickerson. 

(6) Mary Sphinks. 

(4) Clarissa m. Reuben Cohoon. 

II Samuel Osborn b. 1752 m. 1774 Sarah d. T. S. Harding, gr. 
Ch. (1) Samuel 0. b. 1775 m. Susanna d. Geo. Barlow. 
Ch. Samuel O. m. Mary d. David Thomas. 
(2) James m. 1798 Abigail d. Jos. Homer. 
Ch. 1. Wm. H. m. 1826 Flavilla d. Peter Coffin. 
2. James Hervey b. 1800 m. 1830j~Rosanna d. 
Richard Pinkham. He was in 1840 in com- 
mand of new brig "John Homer" when all the 
crew were lost. 
Ch. Abigail m. Wm. H. Coffin. 

James Hervey m. 1857 Margaret d. Winthrop 
Sargent. 



474 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. Herbert L. m. Annie S. Ells. 
Francis A. m. Abigail D. Coffin. 
Fannie Sargent m. Jackson Ricker, Argyle. 
John W. m. Elizabeth Harding. 

3. Maria m. Josiah Coffin, Esq. 

4. Louisa m. Moses Crowell. 

Ch. Louisa m. Rev. W. H. Richan. 

5. Samuel O. m. (a) 1834 Mary d. David Thomas. 

(6) 1840Elizabeth d. John Osborn. 
Ch. Samuel O.; Mary E.; J. Homer. 

6. John H. b. 1808 m. Esther Morris of Halifax. 

He was supercargo in brig "John Homer" 

when lost. 

Ch. Sarah, John, Atwood. 

7. Charles W. b. 1809 m. 1836 Maria Osborn. 

Ch. Leander, Thomas, 
Elizabeth m. Peter Sutherland. 

8. Joseph Homer b. 1811 m. Charlotte Moore. 

9. Thomas C. b. 1814 m. Maria Perry. 

10. Philip Henry b 1817. 

11. Adam C. A. b. 1821 d. 1886, (unm.) 

(3) Hervey b. 1779 lost in schr. "Dove." 

(4) Prince (1781-1822) m. 1803 Lydia d. David s. 

Rev. Samuel Wood, gr. 
Ch. 1. Lavinia m. Charles s. Chas. McLarren. 

2. Hervey m. Abigail d. Rev. Thomas Crowell. 
Ch. Cordelia m. Gilbert Shaw. 

Prince Rupert m. Sarah d. John Knowles. 

3. Lydia Ann m. John Knowles. 

4. George Barlow m. 1835 Esther d. Thomas Cof- 

fin. 

Ch. George Barlow, Yarmouth and Boston, 
m. (a) Eliz Wood, Richibucto. 
(&) Isabel Davison, London. 

5. David Wood b. 1815, m. Mary E. d. Matthew 

Pinkham; lived in E. Boston. 

6. Samuel O. b. 1816, m. Sarah Bagot, of Plain- 

field, N. J. 

7. Sarah m. Hon. Thomas Coffin. 

(5) Josiah Paine, b. 1784 m. (a) Mary d. David Wood. 

(6) Tamsin d. Edmund Doane 2nd. 
Ch. 1. Emma, (unm.) 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 475 

2 . Chloe b. 1809 m. James Cox, son Nathan Crow- 

ell. 

3. James Man b. 1811, m. 1839, Lydia d. David 

Larkin. 

Ch. Sophia m. M. Reuben Thomas. 
James M. m. Mary A. Ring. 
Mary Ann m. Jas. H. Swaine. 
Lydia Jane. 
Eva Maria m. J. Reuben Trefry. 

4. Harriet Augusta m. 1835 John s. John Homer. 

5. Warren Smith b. 1815 m. 1840 Sarah Wil- 

son d. Joseph Homer. 
Ch. Warren m. Mysie Hart. 
Albert m. Ada Browrigg. 
Sarah L. m. (a) T. H. Coffin. 

(6) Rev. Joseph Coffin. 
Ida Emma m. Arthur Smith, Truro. 
Wm. Arnold m. Emma K. Moore. 

6. Mary Wood m. James D. Coffin. 

7. Joseph Atwood m. Catharine d. Winthrop 

Sargent. 

8. Seth Coffin m. (a) Maria d. Winthrop Sargent. 
Ch. Julia m. Warren Atwood. 

(6) Elizabeth Waterhouse. 

9 . Josiah Paine m. Lucinda Pinkham. 

10. Arthur W. m. 1852 Elizabeth d. Winthrop Sar- 

gent. 
Ch. Robert Duncan b. 1864 m. Florence Coffin. 

11. Almira m. Jas. D. Pinkham. 

12. Arnold b. 1833 m. Amanda d. Elisha Atwood. 

13 . Israel m. in U. S. 

(6) Abigail 0. b. 1790 m. 1817 Seth son Seth Coffin. 

(7) Sarah b. 1793 m. 1818 John son John Sargent. 

(8) Martha Elvira m. 1826 Josiah C. Pinkham. 

III Prince b. 1753, lost at sea. 

IV Jedidah b. 1754 m. Ansel s. Judah Crowell, gr. 
V Ruth b. 1756 m. Heman s. Heman Kenney, gr. 

VI Abigail b. 1758 m. Hezekiah s. Archelaus Smith, gr. 
VII Edmund b. 1759 m. Tamsin d. Samuel Hamilton gr. 

Ch. (1) Elizabeth b. 1793 m. 1821 Theodore s. Josiah Hard- 
ing. 

(2) Miriam b. 1794 m. 1834 Zaccheus Churchill, Yar- 
mouth, N. S. 



476 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



(3) Tamsin m. Josiah P. Doane. 

(4) Edmund b. 1797 m. Margaret d. Josiah Harding. 
Ch. 1. Martha m. Nathan Churchill, Short Beach. 

2. Edmund. 

3. Matthew R. 

4. Thomas K. S. m. (a) Eleanor Churchill. 

(6) Lucy Bent. 
Lived at Lakeside, Yar. Co. 

(5) William Myrick m. 1831 Mahala d. Duncan 
Doane. 

Ch. Duncan, Wm. Myrick, Rhoda, Janet m. Lendal 
Harding. 

Elizabeth m. Wm. Whitney, N. E. Har. 
<6) Lendal b. 1802 m. 1835 Hannah d. Obediah Crow- 
ell. 

Ch. 1. Lendal Lewis m. Hannah Wallace. 
Ch. Margaret m. Andrew Hopkins. 

2 . Nehemiah Crowell m. Lydia d. Samuel Atwood. 

3. Hannah Jane m. Thomas Powell. 

4. George Henry m. (a) Helen Smith. 

(6) Ida Doane. 

(7) Prince b. 1804 m. Isabella Cameron Kendrick. 
Ch. Lydia m. Archibald M. Shaw. 

(8) Caroline b. 1806 m. Seth s. Seth Coffin. 
Ch. 1. Zaccheus m. Charlotte Snow. 

2. Anna m. John K. s. of Rev. Charles Knowles. 

3. Seth m. Tryphena Williams. 

4. Abigail. 

(9) Benjamin b. 1810 m. Letitia Harrington. 

Ch. 1. Rev. Edwin m. Orphema (Smith) Googing. 

2. Augusta m. James Lewis, Yarmouth. 

3. Rev. Howard P. m. Sarah Allison. 

4. Lillian m. Alfred N. Kimball, Yarmouth. 
Thomas C. a brother of the inspector took up photography and 

made a success of the daguerrotype process in 1842 and its subsequent 
developments. This was followed up by his nephews Samuel and 
Homer at the Head. 



THOMAS DOANE gr. had lot No. 4 on Sherose Id. He was a 
son of Thomas and Sarah (Barnes) Doane of Chatham, Mass. A 
sailor in his youth he was at one time made a prisoner by the Span- 
lards. He moved to Barrington in 1764. His wife Lettice Eldridge 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 477 

d. in 1766 and he m. Mrs. Elizabeth (Myrick) Lewis a d. of Mrs. Ed- 
mund Doane, gr. Mr. Doane was a committeeman for the First 
Division, 1768; Commissioner for the land-tax in 1775-6 and a magis- 
trate. He died in 1783. His son Nehemiah who lived at the Passage, 
was a shipbuilder. His sons Harvey, Martin, Benjamin and their pro- 
geny, whether on sea or land, have given distinction to the place of 
their nativity in the eyes of the world. F. W. W. Doane for many 
years City engineer of Halifax is a son of Capt. Harvey Doane 2nd. 

Reuben eldest son of this grantee when a young man, took small 
pox and died in Shelburne. He was buried at Dyke Hill on the home- 
stead lot. 

Thomas Doane 2nd lived at N. E. Point. He is said to have been 

a, preacher; probably of the New Light School and unordained. Mrs. 

Thomas Doane in her old age had a cottage at the Passage near her 

son-in-law, Rev. Thomas Crowell's. In the old graveyard at the 

iHead are these inscriptions: 

Here lies the body of 
Mrs. Lettice Doane 

wife of 

Mr. Thomas Doane. 

She died in childbirth 

and was buried with 

her child in her arirs 

July 26, 1766, aged 33 years. 



In memory of Thomas Doane 
who died May 3, 1783 
aged 46 years and 2 months. 

THOMAS DOANE gr. b. 1737 m. (a) Letitia Eldridge, 1759. 
Oh. I Thomas m. 1786 Elizabeth d. Joseph Atwood, gr. 

Ch. (1) Letitia m. Richard s. Absalom and Susan Nicker* 

son. 
II Letitia m. Michael Swim. 

III Esther m. Peter s. John Coffin, gr. 

(Thomas Doane) m. (6). Elizabeth Lewis. 

IV Reuben d. aet. 19. 

V Elizabeth m. Rev. Thomas s. Thomas Crowell, gr. 
VI Sarah m. Thomas West s. Thomas Crowell, Sr. gr. 
VII Mary m. Samuel Kimball. 

Nehemiah b. 1776 m. 1799 Ann d. Isaac Kenney. 
Ch. (1) Hervey m. (a) Sarah C. d. Rev. Asa McGray. 



478 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



Ch. 1 . William m. Annie Heffernan of Halifax. 
Ch. Harvey, Charles, Wm. McGray. 

2. Hervey b. 1826 m. Sarah d. Wm. Cunningham. 
Ch. Sarah Maud m. Gilbert s. Wm. Shepherd. 

F. William m. Alice Fisher, St. John, N. B. 
Josephine m. James Darby, Jacksonville. 

3. Elizabeth m. (a) John s. Jethro Covell. 

(6) Joseph s. Archelaus Smith. 

4. Thomas m. Frances Glasscut. 

5. Asa McGray m. Elizabeth d. Rev. Thos. Brown 

Hervey Doane,m.(6) Eleanor(Cahoon)Larkin. 

6. Isaac m. Mary Elizabeth d. Delancy Trefry. 

(2) Thomas, lost at sea on Schr. Ocean. 

(3) Maria m. Jonathan s. Nathaniel Knowles. 

(4) Isaac Kenney, lost on Schr. Ocean. 

(5) Eliza Ann m. Asa s. Rev. Asa McGray. 

(6) Erminia m. Seth s. David Kendrick. 

(7) Peter Martin m. (a) Jane d. Israel Doane. 

(6) Sarah Cahoon, Canso. 
Ch. 1. Caroline m. A. E. McGray. 
2. Clistianna m. George Hurbert. 

Capt. Martin Doane was lost in the Schr. 
Promenade, 1862. 

(8) Irene m. Joseph s. John Kendrick. 

(9) Benjamin m. Maria d. John Knowles. 
Ch. Eva m. Joseph H. Doane, Plainfield. 

Francis H. m. Janet d. Gabriel Robertson. 
Benjamin H. m. (a) Mary d. John Davis. 
(6) Alice Underbill . 

(10) Nehemiah, lost at sea. 

DOANE of Roseway. (See p. 368 and Hamilton.) 
Nathan and Abigail Doane. 
Ch. (1) Daniel b. 1791. 

(2) Hannah b. 1792. 

(3) Sarah b. 1793. 

(4) Samuel b. 1798. 
William and Gertrude Doane. 

Ch. (1) Maria m. 1814. 

(2) Elizabeth m. 1817. 



WM. DONALDSON, a loyalist of Scotch descent, came from 
Shelburne and bought the first division lots of Prince Nickerson and 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 479 

John Clements at the Head where he carried on an important trade. 
His wife was Sarah Wright. After her death he married a widow 
Young, nee Hamilton, of Cape Cod, in 1804. A Scotchman named 
Gall was his Clerk. He had no children but adopted a nephew Mat- 
thew Donaldson, who was to be his heir, and who married Betty d. 
Archelaus Smith, Jr. a niece of Mrs. Donaldson. Donaldson's step- 
daughter Abigail m. Heman, son of David Crowell, Sr. Disappoint- 
ed in his nephew, Donaldson left his property to the MethodistChurch 
which used the house for a parsonage and built a chapel on the land. 
Matthew lived for a while on Cape Island and Spero Donaldson was 
his grandson. William Donaldson and his wives were buried on the 
property in what is known as "Donaldson's tomb." 

THOMAS DOTY, came from Cape Cod to "Up the Bay", 
thence to Roseway where he was connected with the Cro well's in fish- 
ing for the Shelburne market. 

He m. Ann d. Thomas Crowell Sr. gr. and settled at Clark's Hr. 
Ch. Benjamin m. 1821 Penina Nickerson. 
Ch. Cynthia m. Stillman s. Henry Newell. 
Thomas m. Mercy d. Henry Newell. 
Reliance m. Jesse s. David Smith, gr. 
Eunice m. Robert Brown, N. E. Pt. 

WM. DOWLING, a Loyalist of Irish descent, came from Shel- 
burne and settled at Green Hill. He was captain of a vessel to the 
W. Indies and was lost. His wife died on hearing of his death. One 
son survived, William, who m. Mary d. Nathaniel Horton. 

DUNCAN. Daniel Duncan was a Scotchman, who settled in 
the state of N. York. His son David came to N. E. Harbor and m. 
Mary d. Samuel Perry. David was drowned near Roseway, and c 
1817 his widow m. (a) Isaac Kenney Sr., and (6) Ward, Sheet Hr. 

DAVID DUNCAN m. Mary Perry. 

Ch. (1) Hannah m. Wm. Brannen. 

(2) Mary m. Heman s. Isaac Kenney. 

(3) Elizabeth m. William Watt. 

(4) Thomas, went abroad. 

(5) Samuel d. 1860 m. d. Eleazer Crowell. 
Ch. 1 . John m. Susan d. Smith Swim. 

2. David m. Catharine Brannen. 
Ch. Estella, Thomas, James, Andrew. 

3. Horatio. 



480 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

4. Thomas m. Newell. 
Ch. David, Esther, Griselda. 

5. Mary m. Moses H. Nickerson. 

JOHN ELLS came to Harrington in 1838. He was on his way 
to Yarmouth by Enslow's Coach, but was left over in Barrington and 
there engaged for blacksmith work with Mr. Coffin. Here he stayed 
a few years and married Mary J.Homer in 1842. The family moved, 
to Horton then to Lockeport and then settled in Barrington again. 



GEORGE FISH, gr. had lot no. 69. near the end of Bear Pt., 
the last lot on the East side, and next to that of Jonathan Clark. In 
Nov. 1787 he sold out to Elisha, son of Elisha Hopkins, grantee. The 
witnesses were Gamaliel Kenney and Thomas Jenner Carnes. His 
name also is in the list of those forfeiting their property,his grant being 
then occupied by Simeon Gardner. He may have redeemed it and 
sold again. A few years ago traces of the old cellar were visible. He 
had two sons. 

THOMAS FISHER m. (a) Elizabeth d. Eleazar Crowell. 

(6) Elizabeth (Gardner) Crowell. 
Ch. (1) Mary m. Eaton s. Eaton Crowell. 

(2) John, moved to St. John river. 

(3) William b. 1814 m. (a) Dorcas d. Thomas Worthen, . 

lived at Baccaro. 
m. (6) Mrs. Nickerson, Shag Hr. 
Thomas Fisher's step daughter m. Reuben Nickerson, Oak Park. 

JOHN F1SKE was a cooper who came to Cape Island. A 
fisherman and famous duck shooter. He m. Mathilda d. Timothy 
Covel. (See Covel, Geneal.) 

THE FOLGER FAMILIES. The following short notices of 
the Folgers will serve to show them as men of excellent capacity 
whose removal must have been a serious loss to the new township. 

SHUBAEL FOLGER. First Division Lot No. 51. He was- 
one of the Committee nominated by the Government for locating 
settlers, and was first in the list of those having the tract of additional 
land at the Hill. He must have returned to the States before 1773 
when the land held in common at the Hill was divided. 

There was a Shubael Folger Junior in the census of 1762, and 
a Captain Reuben Folger, so called in the Mog Book, who was one oi 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 481 

the first locating committee. He had a family and stock of cattle. 
BENJAMIN FOLGER, First Division Lot, No. 53 brought his 
family and farm stock. He was Proprietors Clerk from the date of 
the grant to 1773 when he moved away with the rest of his name, 
having sold out to John Coffin. All the records of the First Division 
were made by him and he was appointed in 1768 to make the war- 
rants and draw the plan of the lots.Deeds, marriages and births were 
also recorded by him in the Proprietors' Book. Hi? name i? in a list 
of those whose lands were "forfeited", 1784. 



ALEXANDER FORBES, a Highlander. His mother died and 
he ran away from home at 18 and enlisted. After fighting in the 
Revolutionary war, seven years, he received grants of land in Shel- 
burne township and at Wood's Harbor. This last he exchanged 
with John Lonsdale at Forbes Point. At Barrington, in 1790, he 
married Phebe Dennis of Virginia, a soldier's orphan, who was living 
at Doctor's Cove with a Murray family. After living a year or two 
on Cape Island he moved to Forbes Point. He was 94 when he died 
in 1848. His sons were William, John and Alexander. One daugh- 
ter, Nancy b. 1791, married John, son of Dennis Lyons. Three 
daughters did not marry. 

ALEXANDER FORBES m. Phebe Dennis. 

Ch. (1) Nancy b. 1791 m. John s. Dennis Lyons. 

(2) Phebe; (3) John; (4) Mary; (5) Hugh; (6) Jenny 
Andrews. 

(7) William m. Margaret d. Barnabas Malone. 
Ch. Martin m. Maria d. Joseph Kendrick. 

(8) Alexander m. Lavinia d. James Goodwin. 
Ch. 1. Alexander m. Mary d. Morris Murphy. 

Ch. Minnie m. Austin s. Gideon Nickerson. 
Ella m. Salathiel s. Sam'l Smith. 
Amanda, Morris, Augustus. 

2. Julia m. Israel C. Watt. 

3. Susan m. Henry Chute. 

4. Johnm. 

Ch. Roland. 

(9) Thomas m. Sabra d. Alexander Nickerson. 
(10) George m. Susan d. Abram Van Orden. 

Ch. George. 



GARDNER RICHARD from whom the gran tees were descend- 
ed was a "Mayflower" passenger in 1620. Zebulon, son of Solo- 



482 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



mon, gr. and his sons Zebulon and Gorham, of that branch, and Bar- 
tlett and Freeman, sons of Simeon gr., were men of high character 
and influence in the community. The most of their numerous pro- 
geny are of the female descent and bear other family names 



BENJAMIN GARDNER, one of those to whom a tract of land 
was allotted at the Hill. He bought land from Samuel Hamilton, 
and in the Deed is designated as a "Cordwainer." He kept a num- 
ber of cattle and sheep. His name is among the forfeiting proprie- 
tors, at the end of the American rebellion, and his Second and Third 
Division lots were drawn by Peter Coffin. 

SIMEON GARDNER, whose name was third on the list of pro- 
prietors of the Tract of land on the West side of Cape Id. and describ- 
ed in the notes on Daniel Vinson, is said to have been the first settler 
on the island. He was born in Nantucket 1728 and died in N. Scotia 
Jan. 1817. His family came to Barrington after the census of 1762. 

SIMEON GARDNER son of Jonathan and Patience (Bunker) 
b. Nantucket 1728. m. (a) Sarah d. Samuel Long, Nantucket. 

(6) Mrs. Kemptcn. He came to Cape Id. 
in 1764 and removed to Chebogue in 1797; died 
there 1817. 
Ch. I Bartlett m. 1779 Betsy d. Heman Kenney, gr. 

He moved to Chebogue in 1797. 

Ch. (1) Simeon b. 1781 m. 1809, Dinah Paddock, moved 
to Liverpool. 

(2) Daniel b. 1790 m. EcUy d. Ere Knowles. 

(3) Maria b. 1794, d. 1813. 

(4) Heman m. Didamia Roberts. 

(5) Ruth m. Samuel Gowen. 

(6) Andrew m. Jerusha d. Ebenezer Crowell. 
Ch. 1-. Sarah b. 1819 m. Samuel Smith. 

2. Ruth Gowen b. 1821, m. Wm. L. Poole. 

3. Andrew b. 1828 m. (a) Lydia Hazzard. 

(5) Margaret (Murphy) widow Barak Larkin. 

4. Benjamin. 

(7) Lydia m. Lemuel Churchill. 

(8) Harvey m. (a) Mary Hunter 

(6) Maria Crowell. 

(9) Freeman m. Joanna Hunter. 

(10) Sarah m. John Weddleton. 

(11) Reuben m. Bethia Trask. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 483 

(12) Nelson m. Mary Jane Durkee. 
II Parnal m. Jonathan s. Timothy Covel. 

III Mary m. Reuben Wotrh; both died, 1784. 

IV Freeman m. Mary d. Solomon Gardner, gr. 

and moved to Liverpool, N. S. 
V Elizabeth b. 1763 m. Dr. Collins. 

VI Jonathan b. 1766 m. 1793 Margaret d. Solomon Gardner, gr. 

VII Keziah b. 1769 m. Timothy son Timothy Covel. 



SOLOMON GARDNER had lot No. 54. A tract of land at the 
Hill was granted in Common to several settlers in 1768. It was divid- 
ed in 1773. He was a Nantucketer,a boat builder and a master mari- 
ner. He was lost on a voyage from Halifax, so that hi? Second Div- 
ision lot No. 34, in 1784, was laid OUT; to "the heirs of Solomon Gard- 
ner." In 1773 he sold his rights at Clash Point to Barnabas Baker. 
Solomon was a cousin of Simeon Gardner. 

SOLOMON GARDNER gr. m. Jemima d. of Elisha or Peleg 
Coffin. 
Ch. I Zebulon d. 1809 m. Thankful d. Timothy Covel. 

Ch. (1.) Gorham b. 1787, d. 1823 m. Elizabeth d. Jesse 

Dexter. 
Ch. 1. Keziah b. 1813 m. Smith. 

Ch. Crowell of Yarmouth m. Matilda Nickerson. 

2. Sarah b. 1815 m. Atkinson. 

3. Stephen b. 1817 d. 1845. 

4. James Gorham b. 1822, m. Sarah d.Jerem. 

Frost. 

(2) James Covel b. 1790 m. Elizabeth d. John and 

Hannah Snow. 
Ch. Rebecca m. Bigelow Smith. 

(3) Abigail m. John Black. 

(4) Deborah m. Wm. Burke, N. Brookfield, Q. Co. 

(5) Elizabeth m. Peleg Murray, Brookfield, Q. Co. 

(6) Zebulon b. 1809 m. Mary d. Joshua Atwood. 

II Margaret m. (a) 1793, Jonathan s. Simeon Gardner, gr. 

m. (6) 1798, Sylvanus s. Abner Nickerson, 
Woods Hr. 

III Elizabeth (a) m. 1792 Coleman s. Moses Crowell. 

(6) Thomas Fisher. 

IV Mary m. Nickerson; moved to Liverpool. 



ZACCHEUS GARDNER. First Division Lot, No. 77. There 



484 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



were two Zaccheus Gardners, Senr. and Junr., in the First Division 
list of Grantees. One with lot, No. 77 near N. E. Point, Cape Island 
the other a partner in the Tract of land on the Western side of Cape 
Island to seven persons. In 1784 lot No. 77 was unoccupied and de- 
clared forfeited to the Crown. 



JOHN GARRON of County Kerry, Ireland, a British soldier in 
the Revolutionary war. He was with Forbes, McGuire and McCom- 
miskey in the same regiment, and when disbanded came to Barring- 
ton. Garron married Lydia Lacey sister of Mrs. McGuire and step- 
daughter of Dennis Lyons. It is said that they helped to cut the 
roads along the shore as they came. He was at first the nearest 
neighbor of Alexander Forbes at Forbes Point. 



JACOB GLANCE, of Dutch descent, a soldier in the Loyalist 
army, and a grantee of Shelburne township. In Shelburne he m. 
widow Martha Oxenden. They came to Cape Negro for a while, 
thence to Barrington River and settled there. His d. Elizabeth m. 
Obed Christie, Mary m. William Watt, Margaret m. Andrew Nicker- 
son. His wife's d. Catharine Oxenden m. Michael Madden. Mr. 
Glance worked in John Sargent's Mill. 



GODFREY. This name occurs frequently in the Barrington 
records. The wife of David Smith, gr. was Thankful Godfrey. Her 
brother Josiah bought out John Clemmons' grant in 1769 for forty 
pounds and sold it to Heman Kenney in 1770. Their sister Susan m. 
Nathan Nickerson, Eel Bay. Of Josiah's children, Sarah m. 1790, Alex- 
ander McKenna, Roseway, and Martha m. 1769 Sol Kendrick Jr. gr. 
In 1775 Isaac s. Heman Kenney gr. m. Sarah Godfrey of Liverpool. 
There was also a Moses Godfrey in the Mog-book. Josiah Godfrey 
is entered in the census of 1769 with a family of five daughters. Soon 
after that he moved to Yarmouth. 



DANIEL GOODWIN of Lower Argyle went to sea out of Bar- 
rington. He married 1824, Elizabeth d. Gamaliel Kenney and had 
two sons Lorenzo and Isaac and a daughter who married at Shag Hr. 
Daniel Goodwin is also remembered as the teacher of a winter school 
at Barrington. 

DANIEL GOODWIN m. Elizabeth d. Gamaliel Kenney. 
Ch. 1. Lorenzo m. Elizabeth Jeffrey, Argyle. 
2. Isaac m. Susan Bethel. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 485 

Isaac was a carpenter and was master builder of the F. B. meet- 
ing house at Shag Hr., and the Methodist Chapel at Port Saxon. 

GOODWIN. Thomas and Nicolas came from England to Shel- 
burne and Argyle. James s. Nicolas settled on Mutton Ids. 

NICOLAS GOODWIN m. Ruth d. Nathaniel Knowles. 
Ch. I James m. Susan d. Wm. Mathews a Br. bandsman. 

Ch. (1) James m. Mercy d. Dan'l McCommiskey. 
Ch. 1. George m. (a) Susan d. Gideon Nickerson. 
(6) Rebecca Barss. 

2. Maria m. Gideon s. Benj. Nickerson. 

3. Thomas m. (a) Rhoda d. Aaron Nickerson. 

(6) Maria d. John R. Swain. 

4. Ruth m. (a) Joseph s. Joseph Johnson. 

(6) Mitchell Madden. 

5. Mahala m. Palmon Chatwynd. 

6. Daniel m. Elsie Gordon, Canso. 

7. James m. Mary Reed, N. H. 

8. Amelia m. (a) Lawrence Shauffler. 

(6) Sylvanus Baker. 

9. Isaac m. Sarah d. Daniel Nickerson. 

(2) Weldon m. Dorothy d. Aaron Nickerson. 

(3) William m. Naomi d. Amasa Nickerson. 

(4) Noah m. Jerusha d. Amasa Nickerson. 

(5) Mary m. Ralph s. John Stoddart. 

(6) Lavinia m. Alexander d. Alex. Forbes. 

(7) Phebe Jane m. Harvey Goodwin, Argyle. 

(8) m. William Abbot. 

THOMAS GOODWIN m. Susan Grey d. Mrs. Susanna (Gray) 
Taylor. 

Ch. Matilda m. John Wilson. 



WM. GREENWOOD. When a youth William was ill-treated 
at home in Virginia and he ran away to Cape Cod and followed tho 
sea. There he married Grace a sister of Theodore Smith, gr. They 
brought in their vessels materials for a house which they built near 
the old Mill stream. After living there ten years Greenwood moved 
to Indian Brook bought land from Thomas son ofElkanah Smith, gr. 
near Lyle's Bridge and obtained a 700 acre grant on the east side of 
the harbor there for a sovereign. Here William Greenwood Jr. lived 
and was the first ferryman on that side. In the vicinity are to be 
seen remains of French cellars and orchards; Indian Brook was a 
famous rendezvous of the Micmac. The Greenwoods kept up a pac- 
ket service with Boston during the revolution. Wm. Greenwood 
kept the first public house in Cape Negro. 



486 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

WILLIAM GREENWOOD m. (a) Grace Smith. 
Ch. I William m. 1800 Mary d. Ephraim Swain, gr. 
Ch. (1) Rebecca b. 1811 m. David Swain. 
Ch. 1. James Leander. 
2. Charles. 

(2) William m. Eliza J. d. Jacob Selig, Halifax. 
Ch. 1. Joanna m. Fernandez Coffin. 

2. Agnes m. Charles McLarren. 

3. Charles. 

(3) Grace b. 1805 m. Eleazar Swain. 

(4) Cecilia b. 1806 m. Sparrow Nickerson. 

(5) Mary Ann m. George McGill. 
II Rebecca m. Reuben s. Joseph Swain gr. 

III Thomas m. (a) Polly d. Samuel Bootman. 

m. (b) Naomi d. John Swain, Indian Brook. 
Ch. (1) William m. Mrs. Thomas nee Repp. 

(2) Hugh m. Margaret Repp. 

(3) Deborah m. Joseph Mahaney. 
Ch. Olivia m. Eleazar Swain. 

IV Margaret m. Richard Nickerson, moved to Sambro. 
(William Greenwood) m. (b) Deborah (Bootman) Berry. 

V Henry m. 1809 Janet d. Alex. Reid, Surveyor, Shelburne. 

Ch. (1) Alexander m. Whitney, moved to N. E. Hr. 

(2) Robert Cameron b. 1818. 

(3) Janet Greenwood b. 1819. 

VI Grace m. Capt. Wm. Bell, man-of-war's-man. 

VII Jonathan m. 1820, Catharine d. Nathan and Mercy Snow, 

P. Latour. 

Ch. Sarah, David, Rosella, Phebe, James, William. 
VIII Samuel m. Mary d. Eldad s. Prince Nickerson, gr. 
Ch. (1) James m. Margaret d. Levi Nickerson. 
Ch. Susan m. Thomas Smith, P. Saxon. 

Joshua m. Evelina d. Joseph Nickerson, Shag Hr. 

(2) Matthias m. Charlotte Perry, N. W. Hr. 
Ch. Lewi?, Herbert, Arthur, Horace. 

(3) Mary m. Charles Bruce, Shelburne. 
IX Mary m. John Lyle. 

X Elizabeth m. George Irwin, Shelburne. 

XI John died aged 23. 

XII George. 

XIII James Mann m. 1798. 



SAMUEL GRISWOLD came from England to the U. States, 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 487 

thence to Halifax. There he and his brother Alexander married sis- 
ters, daughters of Doane, Red Head, Shelb. Co. Samuel's wife was 
Mary Doane. He was a blacksmith and had a forge on Cape Negro 
Id., where he settled. He did ship work at the yards of ship builders 
in the township. His son Capt. Emery married Drusilla d. Josiah 
Swain at Port Latour and made that his home. Their son Chapman 
is in the U. S. Customs service 'in Boston. 



JAMES HAMILTON was a captain in the Br. army. While in 
Shelburne he was commander of the Port Rose way military district 
and a prominent citizen. In 1785 he bought farm lots 151 and 152 
on Cape Negro river from Valentine McKenzie. When he paid the 
taxes on this land in 1787 the river was called "Clyde River". He 
settled at Hamilton's Branch where the road from Shelburne to Tusk- 
et crossed the river and was a county surveyor. Sabine says, 
"A man well versed in several languages, AlexanderHamilton, Loyalist, 
settled about 14 miles from Shelburne." He may be referring to Capt. 
Hamilton, or to his son, Alexander, also a surveyor, who had much to 
do with establishing property bounds in the township. Alexander 
lived first at Woodhull, the "McGill" property, and then moved to 
the McLea grant at Brae Maur. When the governor of N. Scotia 
went through by Hamilton's from Shelburne to Yarmouth, Alex, then 
a boy, ran into his home to tell that "the King was coming"; he knew 
him because he had a "diamond horse". At another time he remem- 
bered his father coming from a Shelburne election with black eyes 
from a drunken brawl. 

JAMES HAMILTON m. Anna McGeorgeof Scotland, where 
they were married. 

Ch. (1) John lived at Jordan. 

Ch. Anthony m. d. George Snow. 

(2) Thomas lived in Halifax. Joined the Mormons 
and asked his father to join, who said he wasn't 
such a fool as that. 

(3) James, settled first on the "manse" lot at Clyde, 
and then moved to St. John, N. B. 

(4) Robert lived at Shediac, N. B. 

(5) Alexander. 

Ch. Robert, John, Susan. 

(6) Agnes m. Alexander Hogg, Sr. 

(7) Elizabeth m. Alexander McKay. 

(8) m. Charles Bower. 

(9) Ann m. (a) Hardy. 

(6) Andrews. 



488 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

SAMUEL HAMILTON, gr. This proprietor was a son of Tho- 
mas Hamilton of Chatham, Mass., who contributed also several dau- 
ghters to the founding of homes in Harrington. Of these, Rebecca 
m. Solomon Smith Sr., gr.; Jenny m. Jonathan Smith, gr; Patience 
m. Archelaus s. Archelaus Smith gr.; and a widowed d. Mary Young 
to. Wm. Donaldson. The mother of T. S. Harding gr. was a sister 
of Thomas Hamilton aforenamed. Samuel Hamilton had lot No. 1 
Sherose Id. and was killed there by a falling tree c. 1780; his widow 
m. Asa Doane of Rose way. The wives of Daniel and William Ham- 
ilton were sisters. Lyle Cleveland, son of Dr. C. J. Fox, received the 
D. C. M. and M. M. for distinguished services in the war, 1914-8. 

SAMUEL HAMILTON, gr. m. Miriam s. Heman Kenney gr. 
Ch. I Daniel to. Nellie Morton, Argyle. 

II William m. Patience Morton, Argyle. 

Ch. (1) Sarah m. 1782 Levi s. Joshua Nickerson, gr. 

(2) Elizabeth m. John Garron. 

(3) Lydia m. Thomas McGuire. 

(4) William m. 

Ch. Miriam m. James (Thos.) Gayton. 

Ch. Hon. Albert m. Helen d. S. Hamilton. 

Annem. C. J. Fox, M.D. 
III Abigail m. John Lonsdale, Wood's Hr. 
IV Tamsin m. 1792 Edmund s. Edmund Doane, gr. 
V Rhoda m. Duncan s. Asa Doane, Roseway. 
Ch. (1) Elizabeth b. 1797. 

(2) George b. 1806. 

(3) John b. 1808. 

(4) Margaret b. 1810. 

(5) James Duncan b. 1813. 

VI Jerusha b. 1776 m. Charles McLarren, 1794. 
Ch. (1) Charles m. Lavinia d. Prince Doane. 
(2) Matilda m. Leonard Weston. 
Ch. Rev. Walter C. m. Louisa Wilson. 



THEODORE S. HARDING. The genealogy of the Hardings 
is published in pamphlet form. An error in its account of the family 
of Ebenezer Crowell who married Jerusha Harding may be here cor- 
rected. Paul, son of Ebenezer, married Deborah d. of Seth, son of 
Henry Wilson, gr. The parents of Martha (Sears) Harding were 
Josiah Sears and Azubah Knowles, the latter a descendant of Rev. 
John Knowles of the Old Colony. Theodore Harding was the first 
proprietor's Clerk after the grant in 1767 and remained in office for 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 489 



one year. He had a brother Joshua one of the first settlers in Liver- 
pool, who was killed by the Indians. 

Of the two sons, Josiah carried on a tannery and boot-making 
business and his sons Josiah, Theodore and Capt. Robert were pro- 
minent men in the town. Theodore Seth, the proprietor's son born 
after his father's death in 1771, was converted in the New Light re 
vivals and became a preacher of distinction. He was the first pastor 
of the Wolfville Baptist Church and held that office almost 60 years 
from 1796 until his death in 1855. Horton Academy and Acadia 
College owe much to him for their inception and the inspiration from 
his ministry. No native of Barrington has had a more distinguished, 
or influential career. His monument is in the old burying ground at 
Wolfville and bears this inscription: 

REV. THEODORE S. HARDING. 

Born at Barrington, Mar. 14, 1773. 
Ordained Pastor of the Baptist Church 

in this place, Feb. 13, 1796. 

In doctrine clear, in life blameless; in charity fer- 
vent in zeal untiring; in success honored above 
many. He was a faithful preacher of the Gospel, and 
a steady advocate of Missions, domestic and foreign; 
Education, Temperance and every other good work. 
On June 8, 1855, he entered into rest, in the 83 yr. of his 
age. 

A very extensive connection was established by the marriages of 
the members of this family. Rev. Robert Norwood is a descendant. 
THEODORE SETH HARDING, gr. m. 1756 Martha Sears of 
Eastham, Mass (d. 1823). 
Ch. I Sarah (1756-1843) m. Samuel O. s. Edmund Doane, gr. 

II Chloe m. Jeremiah Frost, Argyle. 

Ill Josiah (1761-1847) m. 1793, Sarah Barnard of Nantucket. 
Ch. (1) Josiah m. Sarah d. Gamaliel Kenney. 

Ch. 1. Jeremiah Frost m. Elizabeth d. Jonathan 
Crowell. 

2 . John Sargent m. Sarah d. Nathaniel Churchill. 

3. Gamaliel m. Eliza d. Obediah Crowell. 
Ch. Obadiah, Alvin, William. 

4. Josiah m. Sarah d. Thomas Smith. 

Ch. Thomas Middling m. Maria Swim (lost in 
S. S. Monticello in 1900) 

5. Jane. 



490 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



(2) Theodore b. 1796 m. Elizabeth d. Edmund Doane. 
Ch. 1 . Miriam m. Henry Swain, P. Latour. 

2. Theodore m. Mary Watrous. 

3. Lendall Lewis m. Janet d. W. M. Doane. 

4. Josiah b. 1831 m. Nora Gardner Liverpool. 

(3) Sophia m. Samuel s. Jabez Osborn. 

(4) Margaret m. (a) Edmund Doane. 

(6) Jeremiah Frost 2nd. 

(5) Sarah m. Thomas s. Jonathan Smith of Little 

River. 

(6) Elizabeth b. 1807 m. Jabez Crowell, Brass Hill. 

(7) Elvira m. Isaac s. Samuel Hopkins. 

(8) Robert b. 1811 m. Edith d. Obediah Crowell. 
Ch. 1. Robert Barnard. 

2. Frances. 

3. Edith M. m. Rev. Joseph Norwood. 
Ch. (Rev.) Robert. 

4. Lydia Ann m. (a) Joseph Batson. 

(6) John N. Mosher. 

(9) John S. b. 1813. 

(10) Jeremiah, b. 1816. 

IV Jerusha m. Ebenezer s. Thomas Crowell, Jr. gr. 
V Bethia m. Hugh Spiers, N. York. 

VI Mercy m. Zara s. David Smith, gr. 

VII Theodore Seth (Rev.) m. Zeruiah Fitch, Wolfville. 

Martha wife T. S. H. gr. d. 1823. 



HARRIS HARRINGTON was the son of Ebenezer and Sarah 
(Smith) Harrington of Liverpool, N. S. (Sarah Smith was a daughter 
of Stephen, brother of Archelaus Smith gr.) The fate of Ebenezer 
Harrington illustrates the vicissitudes of our people in war times. 
He was piloting a little vessel from Halifax to Liverpool in 1812. A 
British war ship hailed them; the captain being in liquor did not 
give a satisfactory reply when a shot was fired from the ship and kil- 
led Mr. Harrington. His son Harris married Mercy d. Enos Know- 
les, c. 1811, and moved to Barrington c. 1822. He settled at Doctor's, 
Cove, and followed the sea. Their children were Letitia m. Ben- 
jamin Doane; Sarah m. Robert Kenney, Margaret m. William Hich- 
ens, Maria m. (1) Samuel son John Knowles (2) Richard Hichens. 
Hannah m. Crawley, Whitman d. in Valparaiso. 



DANIEL HIBBARD, lot No. 43. He was a blacksmith. The 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 491 

Book of Records has the marriage of Daniel Hibbard and Hannah 
at Barrington, Sep. 23, 1764 and 

Ch. (1) Rebecca b. 1766. 

(2) Martha b. 1768. 

(3) Rozzel b. 1770. 

In Dec. 1770 he sold to Daniel Vinson a "complete share or two 
hundred ninths of all the Beaches and Meadows that now lie undivid- 
ed in Proprietorship on the Great Cape Island and all the islands that 
lie to the Southward and Westward or adjacent to the Great Cape 

Id. in Barrington with profits and privileges to said land except 

40 rods of land which I reserve for my own use for carrying on the 
cod-fishery and for nothing else." 

He sold in 1768 to Robert Laskey two acres of his First Division 
lot. He bought one-half the share of land laid out in Yarmouth to 
J. B. Moulton, and probably moved there as the Second Division lot, 
No. 86, laid out to Daniel Hibbard, was owned by Nathan Nickerson. 



ALEXANDER HOGG, was a native of Glasgow, Scotland, who 
fought for Britain in the American Revolution and at the close of 
the war settled on a grant on the West of Clyde River two miles above 
the head of tide waters. Of his sons Philip settled at Clyde River, 
East Side; Alexander at Barrington Passage. These were both 
coopers. Robert made West Barrington his home and was a shoe- 
maker. John Hogg remained at the old river homestead; Joseph 
was lost at sea. These men, as also their brothers Nathaniel of Yar- 
mouth and William of Shelburne were of rare integrity and intelli- 
gence. 

ALEXANDER HOGG m. Agnes Hamilton. 

Ch. (1) Robert m. Eliza Ann d. Isaac Kenney. 
Ch. 1. John in. Annie Chesley, Liverpool. 

2. Eliza m. Michael Stanley. 

3. William m. Effie d. Rev. J. I. Porter. 

(2) Alexander m. Zilpha d. Thomas K. Smith. 
Ch. 1. Webb, (unm.) 

2. Joseph (Rev.) m. Mary d. Henry Webster, 

Kentville. 

3. Robert m. Jerusha d. Corning Crowell. 

4. Alexander in. Tina d. Nathaniel Hogg. 

5. Zilpha Jane m. Thomas Sutherland. 

6. Letitia m. Frank White. 

(3) Philip. 

Ch. Horace, Solon, Pharamond, Margaret. 



492 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

(4) John. 

(5) William. 

(6) Nathaniel. 



HOMER. The first American ancestor of John Homer was 
Capt. John Homer who emigrated from Warwick Co. Eng. (or Wales) 
to Boston in 1676. There in 1678 he m. Margery Stephens. They 
had eight children of whom the second, Benjamin, m. Elizabeth sis- 
ter of Col. Paul Crowell, g.f. of Thomas Crowell, Jr. gr. Their son 
John was an early settler in Barrington. He had been a merchant 
in Boston but about 1772 came to Barrington and in 1776 bought out 
the property and business of Edmund Doane at the Head for 132 
pounds. Of his children, Joseph was for over 20 years clerk and 
bookkeeper for John Sargent, Samuel went fishing, taught school, 
settled fish voyages, and from 1787 to 1795 was Proprietors' Clerk. 
Joseph's son John was the township member in the Provincial Assem- 
bly from 1828 to 1836, an eloquent and valued representative. The 
late Obediah W. Homer was township treasurer for many years. 

JOHN HOMER, proprietor, married, 1749, Abigail d. Samuel 
Osborn, gr. She was mother of all his children, and died in Boston in 
1764 of small pox. Hannah Cairnes wasliis second wife (d. 1786). 
John Homer d. 1799. 

JOHN HOMER m. Abigail Osborn. 
Ch. I John b. 1755 d. at Mfrimichi 1812, unm. 

II Joseph b. 1757 m. 1779 Mary d. Joshua Atwood, gr. 
Ch. (1) Abigail m. 1798 James s. S. O. Doane. 

(2) John m. (a) 1812. Elizabeth s. A. C. White. 

Ch. 1. John W. (M.P.P.) m. 1835 Harriet d. J. P. 

Doane. 

Ch. Emma m. Winthrop Sargent. 
Eliza, John, Harriet. 
Francis W. m. Alice A. Sponagle. 
Arthur m. Annie d. T. H. Smith. 

2. Andrew W. m. (a) Hannah Durkee. 

(6) Maria (Porter) Brown. 

3. Francis (unm.) 

John (Joseph) m. (6) 1823 Nancy Crocker. 
Ch. 4. Edward b. 1826 m. in U. S. 

5. Eliza Ann m. Benj. Burgess, Providence. 

6. Joseph m. Ruth Burgess, Providence. 

7. Mary m. Joseph s. 0. W. Homer. 

(3) Joseph b. 1783 m. 1806 Mary d. Obadiah Wilson. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY - 493 



Ch. 1. Obadiah b. 1811 m. Agnes M. d. James Cox. 
Ch. Mercy and Agnes (unm.) 

Joseph m. Mary d. John Homer. 

Maria m. Dr. Charles Fox. 

2. Sarah m. Warren S. Doane. 

3. Mary m. John Ells. 

4. Nancy m. Wm. Robertson. 

5. Joshua m. Sophia d. George Wilson. 

6. Mercy W. b. 1813 m. James Cox. 

7. Joseph. 

8. Philip. 

(4) Mary b. 1792 m. Matthew Pinkham. 
Ch. 1. Tristram m. in U. S. 

2. Mary Eliza m. David Doane. 

(5) Margaret b. 1791 m. Thomas s. Peter Coffin. 

Ill Samuel b. 1759 m Sarah d. Capt. David Smith (was Pro- 
prietor's Clerk, 1787-1795, moved to Portland, Me). 
Ch. |Hannah and Elizabeth and one son burned to death 
age 7 years. 






HOPKINS STEPHEN an Englishman of good family, in 1609 
sailed in the fleet of Gates and Somers for Virginia. The expedition 
was shipwrecked off the Coast of Bermuda and Stephen Hopkins re- 
turned to his native land. In 1620 he came over in the "Mayflower" 
and was one of the signers of the celebrated "Mayflower Compact." 
With him came his wife Elizabeth and two children Giles and Con- 
stanta, both by a former wife, and two children by Elizabeth, named 
Damaris and Oceanus, the latter born at sea; also two servants, 
Edward Doty and Edward Lester. He was a man of property 
and associated with Miles Standish and other notable leaders as As- 
sistants to Gov. Bradford in the work of defense and settlement. The- 
Rings of Yarmouth are descendants of Deborah d. Stephen Hopkins- 
who m. Andrew Ring, of Plymouth. Elisha Hopkins, gr. settled at 
"Hopkins Neck" from which the family spread to Hopkinstown^ 
Bear Point and Cape Island. His son Samuel m. Rebecca Pannel, a 
ward of John Homer. Among the earliest accounts for schooling 
are the memoranda made by John Homer on account of Rebecca. 
When the settlers found that the harbor flats were tenanted by eels, 
Elisha Hopkins invented a spear for catching them, and this became 
a dependable winter fishery. In the census of 1769 he is credited 
with 16 cwt. flax, four cattle, ten sheep, one pig, 30 cwt. fish. He 
then had cleared a good place on his lot on the Neck of 22 acres. He 



494 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



and his sons had an interest in the fishing enterprise at Rose way after 
the Rebellion. The four generations of descendants of Elisha Hop- 
kins gr. have been sea- faring men, often building their own vessels 
for the fishing coasting and foreign going trade. Capt. Isaac s. of 
Samuel Hopkins and his son Josiah maintained a packet and freighter 
service to Halifax for a long period of last century. 



Giles s. of Stephen Hopkins m. 1639 Catharine Wheldon of 
Yarmouth, Mass. 

Ch. I Joshua m. 1681 Mary d. Daniel and Ruth Cole. 
Ch. Elisha b. 1741 m. Experience Scudder. 

Ch. Elisha gr. of Barrington m.1753 Hannah Wing 
II Abigail m. Wm. Myrick whose g. son Wm. Myrick m. Eliza- 
beth Osborn. 



ELISHA HOPKINS gr. m. Hannah d. Samuel and Mercy Wing 
of Harwich, Mass. 
Ch. I Samuel in. Rebecca Pannel of Boston. 

Ch. (1) Rebecca m. Nathan s. Thomas Crowell, Jr. gr. 

(2) Hannah m. John s. Nathaniel Knowles. 

(3) John m. Martha d. Ebenezer Crowell. 
Ch. 1. Rebecca, unm. 

2. Elizabeth m. Daniel Spinney, Argyle. 
Ch. Elsinora. 

3. Nathan m. Jane d. Archibald Hopkins. 
Ch. Emeline m. Corning Crowell. 

Margaret, unm. 

Nathan m. Mary R. d. Jonathan Smith. 
Thomas m. Eva d. Warren Smith. 
William S. m. Lucretia d. Samuel Hopkins. 
Ashton m. Marietta d. Thomas Hopkins. 

4. John m. (a) Mary d. Samuel Wood. 
Ch. John Eldridge m. Amanda Banks. 

Charles, Wallace. 

m. (&) Eliza Ann (Kendricks) Smith. 
Ch. Martin. 

Harriet W. m. Guilford Doane. 
Seth m. Gertrude d. Obediah Hopkins. 

5. Jerusha m. Seth Wilson s. Paul Crowell. 

6. Matilda m. John s. Seth Wilson. 

7. Isaac m. Ann d. William Brown. 

Ch. Rhoda Ann m. George s. John Wilson. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 495 



Louisa m. Jethro s. B. F. Kenney. 

8. Thomas m. Mary Ann d. Thomas Middling. 
Ch. Clifford m. Ada d. Chas Larkin. 

Marietta m. Ashton Hopkins. 

9. Martha m. Joseph s. Archibald Hopkins. 

(4) Elisha m. Eunice d. James Cohoon. 
Ch. 1. James m. Eliza d. Smith Kendrick. 

Ch. Smith unm. Elisha, unm. 

James m. Sarah Nickerson. 
2. Obediah m. Theodosia d. Samuel Crowelk 
Ch. Susan m. Michael Stanley. 

Oscar m. Sarah E. Banks, 

Gertrude m. Seth Hopkins. 
, 3. Samuel m. Eliza d. Joseph Banks. 
Ch. Ellen m. Wm. s. Stillman Nickerson. 

Lucretia m. William s. Nathan Hopkins. 

Sophia m. Wilson Sargent, Argyle. 

Anna m. Bowers, Shelburne. 

4. Elizabeth m. John Butler. 
Ch. John m. Maria. 

5. Thankful m. Moses s. Theodore Smith. 

6. Jemima m. Levi s. Allen Smith. 

7. Paul m. Ann d. Allen Smith. 

Ch. Prince. 
John Israel m. Maria Butler. 

8. Caroline m. (a) William H. s. Henry Wilson. 

(6) Abram s. Edmund Ross. 
(c) Matthew Snow. 

9. Benjamin m. Mary (Hamlin) Crowell. 
Ch. Franklin, Anetta, Mary, unm. 

(5) Samuel m. Hannah d. Knowles At wood. 
Ch. 1 . Rhoda m. William s. Joseph Banks. 

2. Knowles m. Mercy d. Doane Swim. 
Ch. Henrietta m. Bradford Crowell. 

Ada m. Marsden Swim. 

Joseph m. (a) Grace B. Hayes, Yarmouth. 

(6) Ada M.Raymond, Yarmouth. 

3. Andrew m. Annie d. Wm. S. Hopkins. 

4. Henry m. Ruth d. Samuel and Hannah Crowell. 
Ch. Fred m. Caroline d. John Butler. 

5. Colin m. Sarah d. Elisha Smith, Port Saxon. 

(6) Isaac b. 1803 m. 1829 Elvira d. Josiah Harding. 



496 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. 1 . Lucretia m. Smith s. Seth Wilson. 

2. Isaac in. (a) Miriam d. Charles McLarren. 

(6) Mrs. Kimball, Suncook, Me. 

3 . Josiah H. m. (a) Hannah d. Wm. Brown, Wood- 

stock, N. S. 

(6) Mrs. Amanda Mack, Mill Village. 
Ch. Robert, Hedley, Emma, Elizabeth. 

4. Lucinda, 1835-1895. 

5. Sarah Elizabeth m. David s. David Wilson. 

6. Wm. Brown 01. Victoria Porter, Cedar Lake. 

7. Thomas 0. G. 1846-1872. 

8. Mary Ann b. 1848 m. 1873 Smith Freeman. 

9. George b. 1850. 

(7) Lucretia m. Smith s. Knowles At wood. 

(8) Jemima m. Henry s. Seth Wilson. 

(9) Archibald m. Margaret Sherrod, Ireland. 
Ch. 1. James, unm. lost at sea. 

2. John m. Thankful d. Paul Crowell, M.P.P. 
Ch. Lovitt, Thankful, Elmer m. Mary d. David 

Wilson. 

3. Archibald m. Hannah d. Joseph Crowell. 
Ch. Joseph m. Williamary d. Seth Wilson. 

Arthur m. 

Janet, unm. 

Margaret m. Rev. W. B. Parker. 

James m. 

Edward. 

4. Joseph m. Martha d. John Hopkins. 
Ch. Frank m. Alice d. Smith Wilson. 

Isabel m. Charles s. William L. Crowell 
Jerusha m. John s. John Lyons. 
Mary Elizabeth. 

5. William S. m. Asenath Louisa d. Joseph Wilson. 
Ch. Bertha m. Paul E. s. Seth W. Crowell. 

Sarah m. George s. Rev. Wm. Richan. 

Morton m. 

Annie m. Andrew s. Knowles Hopkins. 

Susan. 

Helena m. Price Phillips. 

6. Jane m. Nathan s. John Hopkins. 

7. Mary m. (a) Moses s. Edward Stanley. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 497 

Ch. Clara m. Herbert Annis. 

(6) Charles Gushing, Caledonia. 
. Ch. Edward. 
II Mercy m. 1779 David s. Rev. Samuel Wood, gr. 

III Mary m. 1780 Gamaliel s. Heman Kenney, gr. 

IV Elisha b. 1765 m. Bethia d. Henry Wilson gr. 

Ch. (1) Edward b. 1792 m. Mary d. Moses and Susan Nick- 

erson. 
Ch. 1. Armstrong b. 1811 m. Sarah d. William Nick- 

erson. 
Gh. Israel m. Mary Eliza Nickerson. 

2. Ensign m. Susanna d. Absalom Nickerson. 
Ch. Levi m. Melinda d. Andrew Smith. 

Ch. Leslie m. d. Hezekiah Stoddart. 

Amelia m. Edgar McKinnon. 
Sophia m. Jacob Smith. 

3. Isaac m. Christina d. Daniel Crowell. 
Ch. Mary m. Ralph Ryer, Sand Beach. 

4. Bethia m. Philip Crowell. 

(2) Eunice b. 1794 m. Absalom s. Moses Nickerson. 

(3) Sarah b. 1797 m. Stephen s. Joseph Atwood. 

(4) Mercy b. 1801 m. Aram s. Aram Smith. 

(5) Matilda b. 1804. 

(6) Barzillai b. 1805, m. Eliza d. William Kenney. 
Ch. 1. Elizabeth m. Elisha Atwood. 

2. Samuel Kimball. 

3. Robert, unm. 

4. Jedidah m. George s. Robert Crowell. 

5. Prince William m. Mercy d. Eleazer Crowell. 
Ch. Samuel, Joseph, Jessie. 

Mary m. Andrew Swim. 

William m. Jessie d. Jethro Smith. 

David m. Sophia d. Andrew Smith. 

6. Freeman S. m. Eliza d. Clark Stoddart. 

7. Margaret m. George s. Leonard Crowell. 

8. Ruth Hannah m. (a) Braddock Swain. 

(6) Wm. E. Nickerson, Cl. Hr. 

9. Matilda m. Jonathan Smith, Cape Negro. 
V Edward b. 1767 m. Hannah Hinckley, N. England. 

Ch. (1) Isaac b. 1790. 

(2) Thomas m. Mary d. Moses Crowell. 



498 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. 1. Elizabeth b. 1815. 

2. Hannah m. David Sholds. 

3. John Coleman .n. Rebecca Tedford, Yarmouth. 
Ch. Richard m. Lucinda Sears. 

Lydia A. m. McCommiskey. 

4. Thomas b. 1822 

5. William b. 1830. 

6. Seth m. Deborah (At wood) Crowell. 
Ch. William O. m. (a) Mercy d. John Smith. 

(6) Annie Gray. 

7. Obediah. 

8. Tabithab. 1843. 

(3) Seth b. 1798. 

(4) Lydia b. 1801 m. David s. Jesse Smith. 

(5) Elisha b. 1804 m. Tabitha d. Eleazar Crowell. 

(6) William b. 1807 m. Mary d. William Nickerson. 
Ch. 1 . Sarah Ann. 2. Dorcas. 

3. Sophia m. William Larkin. 

4. Abigail m. Robert Barss. 

5. James. 

6. Isaac. 

(7) Nathan b. 1810. 

VI Isaac b. 1771 m. Ann Buck of New England. 
VII Elizabeth unm. 
VIII. Seth, unm. 

NATHANIEL HORTON was a Loyalist who came from Shel- 
burne to Upper Port Latour. His wife's name was Sarah: he had a 
brother, father of Jonathan Horton of Yarmouth who settled there at 
that time. 

Children: David m. 1817, Lettice Snow; Heman m. Temper- 
ance d. Joseph Swain Jr.; Frances m. Martin Ryer; Mercy m. William 
Dowling; Lydia m. Freeman s. David Crowell, gr., Baccaro; Cynthia 
m. Samuel Irving, Shelburne River; Dorcas m. George Langdon. 
After Mr. Horton's death his widow m. John Pierce (father of Joshua 
Pierce.) ' 

ZIBA HUNT of Chatham, Mass.^Went fishing to Sable Island, 
and in winter of 1800-1 was left on the island with Coleman Crowell, 
where they subsisted on cranberries and horseflesh until spring, 
when they obtained bread from the wreckage of a transport ship. 
He came to Cape Island and in 1806 m. Susan d. Robert Atkinson. 
Ch. (1) Desire m. Nelson Purdy. 
(2) Sarah (unm!). 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 499 

(3) David b. 1816 m. Eliza Nickerson, S. Side. 

(4) Mary b. 1817 m. Moses Nickerson, S. Side. 

(5) Dorcas b. 1820 m. Joseph Purdy. 

(6) Ziba b. 1823 m. Annie Huskins. 

Ch. Elizabeth m. Crowell s. Thomas Cunningham. 

(7) Catherine m. Zenos Trott. 

(8) Sophronia m. Peleg s. Moses Nickerson, S. Side. 

ELISHA HUSKINS was one of the first settlers at West Bac- 
caro. Isaac Huskins, probably EHsha's brother, m. 1794Sarah d. 
William Spinney, afterwards the wife of John Ly!e. 

The children of Elisha Huskins were: 

(1) William m. Sarah d. Hezekiah Snow. 

1 . Joseph m. Zilpha d. B. Atkinson. 

2. Warren m. Jane Banks. 

3. Elisha (m. 7 times.) 

4. Alexander (m 5 times). 

5. M.elinda m. Benjamin Crowe!!, P. L. 

6. Ann m. Ziba s. Ziba Hunt. 

(2) Isaac m. Parnell d. Hezekiah Snow. 
Ch. 1 . Sarah m. Howes Swain. 

2. Hezekiah m. Mary d. Jonathan Snow. 

3. William m. Sarah Kenney, Milton, Q. Co. 
Ch. Addison m. Abbie d. David Smith. 

Sarah m. Andrew Ronald, U. S. 

THOMAS JONES son of Thomas and Ann (Lewis) Jones was 
born in County Cardigan,S. Wales in 1791. He came with the Welsh 
Colony which arrived in Halifax in 1818 and were settled on the West 
side of Shelburne River. Thomas Jones was a bricklayer and stone- 
mason and worked at his trade in various places. In 1840 he married 
Lydia d. David Crowell. Susanna Jones was daughter of Thomas 
Jones and Annie Lewis Jones was his granddaughter. 

SOLOMON KENDRICK, the elder, was a son of Edward 
Kendrick a merchant of Harwick, Mass. His son, of the 
same name, was admitted a grantee by a vote of the proprietors, 
after the Grant, and moved to Eel Bay after the Second Division 
of land; one child, Eunice, m. Benjamin d. Nathaniel Smith, P. 
Latour; this First Division lot was No. 13 at the Neck. Both these 
grantees had lots at the Passage in the Third Division. 

Solomon Senior had two sons at the time of the Census, 1769. 
The other son, John, did not settle in Barrington. He was the 
first American Captain to circum-navigate the world and achieved 



500 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

fame as "Bold Kendrick" by his discovery of the mouth of the Col- 
umbia River and other daring enterprises. 

Solomon (John) established the first lobster and halibut can- 
nery at the Passage. 

SOLOMON KENDRICK (Edward) gr., m. Elizabeth d. Sam- 
uel Atkins. Elizabeth was a sister of Eunice who m. Solomon Collins. 
Ch. I John. "Bold Kendrick" became Captain of a privateer in 
the Revolution; afterwards in command of ship Columbia;: 
an explorer of the North Pacific. 

II Solomon, gr., m. 1769 Martha Godfrey of Chatham. 
Ch. Eunice m. Benjamin s. Nathaniel Smith, gr. 

III Benjamin m. Jedidah d. Nathan Nickerson. 

Ch. (1) Deborah m. 1792 Abraham s. Nathan Weston. 

Yarmouth. 
Ch. Leonard Weston m. Hannah Cook. 

Ch. Rev. Walter C. b. 1824 m. Louise d.. 
Nehemiah Wilson. 
Lydia m. M. Marshall. 
Martha m. Amos Scott. 
IV Joseph m. (a) 1776, Hannah Homer. 

Ch. (1) Hannah b. 1787 m. Samuel Reynolds,^P.fL. 

(2) Eunice m. Solomon s. John Lewis. 

(3) Elizabeth m. William s. Heman Kenney. 

(4) Hipsabeth, m. Isaac Barss, Canso. 

(5) John in. 1800 (a) Elizabeth d. Heman Kenney. 
Ch. 1. Elizabeth b. 1802 m. Nehemiah s. fHenrjr 

Wilson, gr. 

2. Sapphira b. 1812 m. Nathan Butler. 

3. Marsden lost at sea. 

4. Solomon b. 1809 m. Nancy d. Nehemiah Wilson. 

5. Hannah m. Rev. Albert Swim. 

6. John H. b. 1818m. (a) Olive d. Elias Banks. 

(6) Mary Ann Dunbar of Halifax^ 
Ch. George Geddes. 
Jessie m. Wm. Whiston. 
Elizabeth m. R. B. Boak. 

7. Benjamin, lost at sea. 

8. Jacob N., lost at sea. 

9. Joseph b. 1803 m.(o) Rachel d. Michael Swinu 

Ch. Athaliah m. Seth Smith. 

Marsden, lost at sea. 

Esther, John Albert. 

(m) (6) Lettice d. Nehemiah Wilson 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 501 

10. Eunice b. 1816. 

(5) John m. (6) Lydia (Covel) Kenney. 

(c) Rhoda (Pinkham) Knowles. 
Ch. Enos m. (a) Lydia d. Samuel s. Barnabas 
Crowell. 

(6) Roxanna d. Samuel s. Bar- 
nabas Crowell. 
IV Joseph m. (6) Hannah (Hibbert) Osborn. 

(c) Deserta d. James and Drusilla Wyman. 

(6) Emily m. Rufus Churchill, Yarmouth. 

Ch. 1. Delilah m. Samuel Corning, Chegoggin. 

Ch. Belle, Sarah, Rufus N. Edgar, Lila M. 

2. Norman m. Sarah Jellis, Montreal. 

3. Aaron F. m. Lois Churchill, Darling Lake. 

4. Major W. m. Francis Derwain, Mass. 

Ch. Alice, Raymond, Walter, Aaron, Mary. 

5. Maria, 6 Margery; 7, Emmeline; 8, Annie. 

(7) Sarah m. John Harris, Yarmouth. 
Ch. Lydia. 

(8) Joseph, unm. 

W. ANSON KENDRICK gr., was a nephew of Sol. senior. He 
was a soldier at the taking of Louisburg. and unhurt, though in the 
thick of the fight. His family had slaves when living at Cape Cod. 
He moved from the Sherose Island lot to Shag Harbor and occupied 
part of Kendricks Island. His wife, Azubah Sears, was a sister 
of Mrs. Theodore Harding and of Josiah Sears another early settler 
at Shag Harbor- The name in the Return of 1769 is spelled K&n- 
wick. Prof. Doane says, "Many of the names in this census are 
spelled carelessly or ignorantly." Documents bearing the signature 
of Solomon Sr., have Kenwrick. Anson Kendrick in a deed of 1770 
signs Kincoruk. 

Solomon Kendrick, Sr., gr. had been engaged in the whale fishery. 
His descendants settled chiefly at the Passage, where his namesake, 
son of John Kendrick, continued the whaling voyages to the middle 
of last century, and as master of ships in that industry circum- 
navigated the world three times. 

Solomon Jr., gr., was a surveyor. He moved away to the East- 
ward. 

Anson Kendrick lost his life in a shocking accident. His daugh- 
ter Abigail (Mrs. Bradford) with her husband and two children were 
going to one of the Shag Harbor Islands to get birds' eggs. The 
boat was capsized on a bar and all were drowned but Mrs. Bradford, 
who succeeded in righting the boat and bringing her to the shore. 



502 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

When arrived home they asked her where the others were. She 
said, "They are in eternity." This was about 1815. A year or two 
before this, when the men of the place were all absent on militia 
duty, a privateer came into Shag Harbor. Anticipating a raid at 
night Abigail Bradford gathered the women of the place for defence, 
and when a boat was about to land, those on board heard her in a 
gruff voice giving directions to fire upon them, and immediately 
put off again to their vessel. In 1819 Mrs. Bradford married Thomas 
West of Liverpool, N. S., whom she reformed to sobriety by her self 
sacrifice, fortitude and energy. 

WARREN ANSON KENDRICK, gr., m. 1765 Azubah d. 

Josiah Sears. 
Ch. I Edward, b. 1768, m. Rebecca d. Jonathan Smith, gr. 

Ch. (1) Jonathan Smith, b. 1791, m. Sarah d. Seth Coffin. 
Ch. 1. Eliza b. 1817 m. James s. Elisha Hopkins. 

2. Sarah m. Edward s. Rev. Edward Reynolds. 

3. Matilda, b. 1819, m. John O. son Obed Crowell. 

4. Azubah m. in Boston. 

(2) Abigail, b. 1797 in. Joshua s. Zara Smith (no issue). 

(3) Elizabeth, b. 1809. 

(4) Cynthia m. William Burke s. Barnabas Crowell. 
Ch. 1. Joseph m. Jane Brown, Yarmouth. 

2. Sarah m. Albert s. Rev. Asa McGray. 

3. Susan; 4. m. Nickerson. 

5. Philip m. Alice d. Charles Watt. 

(5) Edward (kept an inn) b. 1813, m. Maryd. 

Jonathan and Azuba Smith." 

Ch. 1 . Smith m. Rosanna d. Josiah Pinkham. 

2. William, unm. 3. Agnes, unm. 

4. Charles in. Mahaney, Port Clyde. 

5. Eliza m. John Hatfield, Tusket. 

(6) Tabitha m. Philip Johns. 
Ch. 1. William. 2. Thomas. 

II David m. Jedidah d. Ansel and Jedidah Crowell. 
Ch. (1) David ;.n. Margaret d. Coleman Crowell. 
Ch. 1. Coleinan m. Sarah Savage, Mass. 

2. Samuel m. in Mass. 

3. Mary Ann, m. in Vermont. 

4. Rebecca m. George Shaw, Shelburne. 

5. Jemima m. Joseph s. Heman and Lois Kenney. 

6. Delilah m. Ansel s. Edmund Crowell. 

7. Elizabeth m. Rice. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 503 

(2) Judah m. Elizabeth d. Eleazar s.Judah Crowell, gr 
Ch. 1. Palmon b. 1818, m. Isabella Cameron. 

2. David m. Elizabeth Brown, Halifax. 

3. Samuel m. Hepsibah d. Rev. Albert Swim. 

Ch. Delmar. 

4. Dorcas m. Thomas s. William Chatwynd. 

5. Griselda m. Robert s. James Nickerson. 

6. Jedidah m. Daniel s. Levi Nickerson. 

7. Mercy m. David s. David (Jesse) Smith. 

8. Priscilla m. (a) Jacob s. Jacob Kendrick. 

(6) De Mings. 

(3) Seth m. Erminie d. Nehemiah Doane. 

Ch. 1 . Eliza Ann. m. (a) Seth s. Osborn Smith. 

(6) John s. John Hopkins. 

2. Abigail m. Martin s. Asa McGray. 

3. Edward Harvey m. Maria d. Stephen Atwood. 

4. Nehemiah (unm.) 

(4) Anson (lost at sea, unm.) 

(5) Samuel m. Susan d. Samuel s. Levi Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Isaac m. 

2. Eliza (unm.) 

3. Jane m. Joseph s. Joshua Nickerson. 

(6) Edward, b. 1818, m. (a) Ruth d. Samuel Nickerson. 

(6) Zervia d. Eaton Crowell. 

Ch. 1. Amanda m. Andrew s. Rev. Wm. Downey. $| 
2. Louise m. Elias s. Edmund gs. Jesse Smith. 

(7) Rebecca m. Samuel s. Jesse Smith. 

(8) Azubah m. Reuben s. James Cohoon. 

(9) Zeruiah m. Alexander s. Samuel Watson. 
(10) Eliza m. (a) James s. Samuel Watson. 

(6) Miner Spinney, Argyle. 

Ill John b. 1776, m. Letitia d. Joseph Atwood, gr. 
Ch. (1) Jacob b. 1804, m. Lorina Worthen. 

Ch. 1. Jacob m. Priscilla d. Judah Kendrick. 

2. John m. Martha d. William Watt. 

3. Smith m. Zeruiah d. Alex Watson. 

4. Joanna m. Davis s. Joshua Smith. 

5. Thomas (unm). 6. Joseph, died young. 

(2) Anderson m. Letitia d. SimeonNickerson (no issue) 

(3) John m. Catherine i of N. B. 
Ch. 1. Mary Ann. 

2. Catherine. 



504 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



3. Joseph m. Sophia d. William and Hannah 
Crowell. 

(4) Joseph b. 1819, m. Irene d. Nehemiah Doane. 
Ch. 1. Maria jn. Martin s. William Forbes. 

2. Letitia Ann m. Alexander s. Ansel Crowell. 

3. Amelia m. George s. John Wilson. 

(5) Hepsibah m. John Fisher. 

(6) Tamsin m. Joshua s. Zara, s. Warren Smith. 

(7) Diana m. Osborn s. Zara s. Warren Smith. 

(8) Mary Ann m. Rev. Samuel West. 

(9) Hannah m. Rev. Albert Swim. 
(1(V) Mercy, b. 1808. 

IV Tabithab. 1766m. (a) Joshua s. Joshua Nickerson, gr. 

(6) James s. James s. Archelaus Smith, gr. 
V Anson b. 1772 A man of war's man d. in Eng. hospital. 
VI Martha b. 1774 m. Simeon s. Joshua Nickerson, gr. 

VII Azubahm. (a) 1802 Jonathan s. Jonathan Smith. 

(6) Samuel Watson. 

VIII Sears m. Lydia Allen, Argyle. 

Ch. (1) David m. Abigail d. James s. Zenas Nickerson. 

(2) William m. in Mass. Master builder Chelsea 
bridge. 

(3) Huldah. 

IX Huldah, b. 1786 m. John Bennison. 

Ch. (1) William.; (2) Norman; (3) Samuel. 
X Phebe b. 1788 m. Joshua s. Gideon Nickerson, gr. 
XIAbigail b. 1794 m. (a) Edward Bradford. 
(6) Thomas West. 
Ch. Elizabeth b. 1819. 



KENNEY. Pamphlets have been published with the genealog- 
ies of Heman Kenney and Nathan Kenney, grs. Heman and Na- 
than were brothers of Sarah (Mrs. Thomas Crowell, gr.) and Miriam 
(Mrs. Samuel Hamilton, gr.). Heman Kenney gr. was a magistrate 
in Cape Cod. His First Division lot was No. 25 at the Head. It 
was his son Heman, who was master of the schr. Hope which went to 
New England in Oct. 1776 with five families of settlers returning as 
passengers and a load of "fish and liver oil". He also carried a peti- 
tion with a piteous appeal from 29 settlers to the "Congress" of Mass. 
Bay to permit the sale of the cargo and purchase of supplies. The 
numerous descendants of Heman Kenney have had a large place in 
the trade and varied industry of the township. Wm. Sherard s. 
Isaac was the builder of the Court house. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 605 



There was a Thomas "Keny" in the Barrin^ou census of 1762. 



HEMAN KENNEY, gr. m. 1752 Mercy d. William Nickerson 
Chatham, Mass, and sister of Joshua and Stephen Nickerson, grs. 
Ch. I Heman m. Ruth d. Edmund Doane, gr. 

Ch. (1) Abigail b. 1775 m. Aram s. David Smith, gr. 

(2) William b. 1777 m. Elizabeth d. Joseph and Han- 

nah Kendrick. 
Ch. 1. Jedidah m. Samuel s. Samuel Kimball. 

2. Eliza m. Barzillai Hopkins. 

3. Lavinia m. (a) Archelaus Crowell. 

(6) Joshua P. Trefry, Yarmouth. 

4. Heman m. Helena d. Samuel Kimball. 
Ch. Lavinia m. James Cunningham. 

Albert m. Eliza d. Richard Kenney. 
Benjamin m. Jane Nickerson. 
James A. m. Anna Godfrey. 
Maria m. Charles Edmund Ross. 
William. 
6. Ruth m. Wm. s. Heman Kenney, Argyle. 

(3) Prince Doane m. Susannah d. Israel Doane. 

(4) Betsey m. John s. Joseph and Hannah Kendrick. 

(5) Heman m. Lois d. Nathaniel Knowles. 

Ch. 1. Nehemiah m. Matilda d. Absalom Nickerson. 
Ch. Robert m. Sophia d. Stillman Crowell. 

2. Joseph m. Jemima d. David Kendrick. 

3 . William m. Ruth d. William Kenney. 

4. Robert m. Sarah d. Harris Harrington. 

5. Heman b. 1831. 

(6) Mercy m. John s. Thomas Crowell, Jr. gr. 
Ch. Margery m. Alfred Rimball. 

Mary Ann. 
Amelia. 
Thomas. 
Isaac. 

(7) Ruth b. 1790. 

(8) Susannah b. 1792 m. Solomon s. John Lewis. 

(9) Jedidah b. 1796. 

II Isaac m (a) 1775 Sarah d. Joseph and Mehitable *Godfrey, 
Liverpool, N. S. 

* Mehitable Kenny was m. again to Robert Placeway of Liverpool, and had 
Issue, a daughter, who was the mother of Janet McLearn (Mrs. James Smith) 
and Elizabeth McLearn, wife of James Kenny. 



506 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. (1) Mehitable m. Israel s. Israel Doane. 

(2) Ann m. Nehetniah s. Thomas Doane, gr. 

(3) Joseph m. Mary d. Archelaus Smith. 

Ch. 1. Delina b. 1807 m. Ellis s. Edward Baker. 
Ch. Loran E. m. (a) Mary d. Dr. Joseph Bond. 
(6) Frances d. Dr. H. G. Pariah. 
(c) Mary Creighton, Halifax. 

2. Mary Jane m. Eaton s. Nehemiah Kenney. 

3. Daniel Vincent m. Dorcas d. John Nickerson 

gr. 

Ch. Mahala m. Isaiah Smith. 
Esther m. George Smith. 
Azuba m. Crowell Smith. 
Daniel Vincent m. Margaret Newell. 
Mary m. Levi Kenney. 
Loran B. m. Nancy d. Berj. Newell. 
Ch. Annie m. Thomas C. s. Myrick Crowell. 
Nelson Baker m. Mary d. T.R. Jolly, Yarm. 

4. Sarah m. James Col well Smith. 

(4) Isaac m. Lydia d. Jonathan Covel. 

Ch. 1 . Mehitable m. Simeon s. James Smith. 

2. Joseph Godfrey m. Eliza Burns, St. John. 

3. Andrew C. m. Margaret d. James Smith. 

(5) James b. 1787 m. Elizabeth d. James McLearn. 
Ch. 1 . Maria m. John s. Stephen Smith. 

2. Louisa m. (a) Walter Smith. 

(6) Stillman Nickerson. 

3. Nancy m. Matthew Donaldson. 

4. James Rodman m. Lydia d. Seth and Anna 

Smith. 

Ch. Elvina m. Edward Snow. 
John m. Almira McGray. 
Bessie m. George Hobbs. 
Wm. Wallace m. Frances d. Dr. I. K. Wilson. 
Sarah m. John Cunningham. 
Adria m. Harvey Atkinson. 

5. Sarah McGray m. Seth s. Seth and Anna (Larkin) 
Smith. 

6. Bartlett Freeman m. Emeline d. Jethro Covel. 
Ch. Julia m. Rev. C. B. Atwood. 

Jethro m. (a) Rhoda A. Beck. 

(6) Louisa d. Isaac Hopkins. 
James. Emma. Bartlett. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 507 

7. Isaac m. Esther d. A. Smith Swim. 

8. Aurilla m. Henry s. Paul Brown. 

(6) Sarah m. William s. Moses Nickerson. 

(7) Heman b. 1796 m. Mary d. David Duncan. 
Ch. Sarah m. (a) Israel s. Ensign Nickerson, moved 

to Whitehead, N. S. 
(6) Charles s. William Richan. 

(8) Solomon m. Penina d. William (John) Smith. 
Ch. Elsie m. Charles Smith. 

Lydia m. John Greenwood. 
Janet m. Samuel Greenwood. 
Eliza A. m. Hallet Smith. 

Isaac Kenney m. (6) Mary (Perry) widow David Duncan. 
Ch. (9) Joanna m. James Creighton. 
(10) David (a) m. Mary Sharpe. 

(6) Matilda d. Wm. Spears. 

Capt. David Kenney died at Sheet Hr. in 1919, aged 103 years. 
Ch. 1. William, N. York. 

2. Samuel, Sheet Hr. 

3. John, Sheet Hr. 

4. Mrs. Mary Burgess, Windsor. 

5. Mrs. Hammel, N. York. 

6. Mrs. Geo. Shean, Isle of Wight. 

7. Mrs. A. Burchell, French Village. 

8. Mrs. Whitman, Port Dufferin. 

Ill Gamaliel b. 1760 m. 1780 Mary d* Elisha Hopkins, gr. 
Ch. (1) John m. (a)Pernal d. Richard Pinkham. 
Ch. 1. Anna m. Rev. Chas. Knowles. 
Ch. John K. m. Anna Coffin. 

2. Almirab. 1804 

3. Lydia b. 1806. 

m. (b) Flavilla d. Peter Coffin, widow Wil- 
liam Doane. 

(2) Isaac m. Esther d. Seth Coffin. 
Ch. 1. Eliza Ann m. Robert Hogg. 

2 . William Sherard m. (a) d. Cro well, Lockeport. 

(6) Patience d. David Smith, Port Latour. 
Robert m. Gibbie. 

3. Catharine m. John B. Lawrence. 

(3) Sarah m. Josiah s. Josiah Harding. 

(4) Gamaliel m. Deborah d. Richard Pinkham. 

Ch. 1 . Richard b. 1811 m. Adra d. James Cunningham 



508 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



Ch. Emily A. m. Matthew s. Stephen Snow. 
Eliza m. Albert s. Heman Kenney. 
Sophia m. Richard Holden. 

(5) Rhoda m. 1818 Robert Colin s. JohnMcKinnon. 

(6) Elizabeth m. 1824 Daniel Goodwin, Argyle. 

(7) James m. 1822 Elizabeth d. Seth Wilson. 
Ch. 1. James m. Maria O. d. Obadiah Crowell. 

Ch. Bertha m. Andrew W. Whitehouse. 

James A. m. Blanche d. Rev. Wm. Downey 

(8) Esther m. T. Harding Frost, Argyle. 
IV Mercy m. 1781 Eleazar, s. Judah Crowell, gr. 

V Betsy m. 1779 Bartlett s. Simeon Gardner, gr. 
VI Susanna b. 1767 m. Moses s. Richard Nickerson, gr. 

VII Nehemiah m. 1792 Ruth d. Ansel Crowell. 

Ch. (1) Tabitha m. Samuel s. Levi and Jane Nickerson. 

(2) Mary b. 1793 m. David s. Paul Gowen, Yarmouth. 

(3) Jedidah m. Nehemiah s. Levi Nickerson. 

(4) Sarah m. Joshua s. Zenas Nickerson. 

(5) Eliza m. Simeon s. Reuben Nickerson. 

(6) Eaton Crowell m. Mary Jane d. Joseph and Mary 
(Smith) Kenney. 

Ch. 1 . Sarah A. m. Judah Crowell. 

2. Jedidah m. (a) George Wilson. 

(&) Henry Baker, 
(c) Wm. Matthews. 

3. Delina m. Alvin Atwood. 

4. William m. Harriet A. Atwood. 

5. Timothy m. Amelia Harris, St. John. 

6. Colwell m. Sarah d. Stillman Crowell. 

Ch. Joseph Deborah. Stillman, Wallace. 
Seraphina, Margaret, Charlotte, Georgiana. 

(7) Jerusha, b. 1809, unm. 

(8) Susanna m. Joseph s. Levi Nickerson 2nd. 

(9) Leonard m. Priscilla d. Levi Nickerson 2nd. 
Ch. Nehemiah m. (a) Martha d. Abijah Crowell. 

Ch. George, Loran, Howard. 
(6) Mary (Atwood) Nickerson. 

(10) William m. Catharine Manning. 

VIII Daniel m. Esther Goodwin, Argyle. 
IX Elizabeth m. Elias Banks. 

X Mary m. 1792 Aaron s. John and Joanna (Roberts) Spinney, 
Argyle. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 509 



NATHAN KENNEY lot No. 3, Sherose Id. He sold out to 
Daniel Vinson in 1770 his complete share or lot, or two two hundred 
and ninths of all the lands, beaches and meadows that now lie un- 
divided or in proprietorship on the Great Cape Id., etc for 4. 

He is called a fisherman in this Deed. (See also Deeds, Ch. XIII; 
deed to Heman Kenney and Thomas Crowell of land at Sherose Id.) 
He removed to Little River, Yarmouth County where his descend- 
ants abound; they spell the name Kinney. 

SAMUEL KIMBALL, son of Samuel and Mary (Holmes) 
Kimball of N. England, was born Oct. 11, 1777. He m. Mary Lewis 
d. Thomas Doane, gr. about 1801. He lived first at the Passage, 
then on Coffin's Island, Doctor's Cove and finally at Wood's Harbor. 
He was school master, surveyor and music teacher. At the old 
school-house, Bunker's Hill, his report in 1846 shows Neh. Nickerson 
charged with 11 weeks day school at 6d per week; evening do. at 3d. 
Sol. Adams and Reuben Cohoon at the same rate. Mr. Kimball 
ran out the old township lines and Stoney Island lines. On the 
wedding day of his d. Helena to Heman Kenney, Jan. 24, 1834, 
his son Thomas and the groom walked across Barrington Pass, on 
the ice from Carroll's Island to get a supply of milk from Bartlett 
CJovells on Cape Island. 

SAMUEL KIMBALL, d. 1854, m. Mary Lewis, d. 1866. 
Ch. (1) Samuel m. Jedidah d. Heman Kenney. 

(2) Alfred m. Margery Crowell. 

(3) Lydia m. Benjamin s. Zenos Nickerson. 

(4) Helena m. Heman Kenney. 

(5) Thomas Eldridge m. Mary Jane Hichens. 

(6) Benjamin m. Mary A. Williams, Yarmouth. 
Ch. 1 Benjamin. 2 Alfred N. m. Lilian d. Capt. 

Benj. Doane. 3 Abigail. 4 Cecilia. 

(7) Mary m. Campbell, Boston. 
() Sarah m. Richard Hichens. 

(9) Lettice m. Reuben Trefry, Yarmouth. 



ISAAC KING, gr., owned lot No. 28 at the Head and a Fish lot at 
Xiong Cove. He was proprietor's clerk for some time and as a mag- 
istrate performed the ceremony of marriage for his son Isaac in 1773. 

The addition to his First Division lot near Sherose Island was 
sold to Ebenezer Crowell in 1788; his property at the Head had been 
taken for debt by the Estate of Heman Kenney and was sold to 
Joshua Nickerson, farmer, in 1791. In the census of 1769, Isaac 
King has a family of eight children. In those trying times the bur- 



510 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

den of the large family was great and this is an example of the hard- 
ships endured by many. Isaac King, Jr., has many worthy des- 
cendants on both sides of Cape Negro harbor. 

ISAAC KING, gr., s. John and Mary (Bangs) King m. Lydia 

d. Joseph Sparrow. He and his family, except his son Isaac, 

moved to Mass., in 1776 where he died before 1783. The Record 

shows that his Second Division lot at that time was laid out to "heirs 

of Isaac King." 

ISAAC KING, Junior m. 1773, Lydia d. Samuel Smith, 

Chatham, Mass., and g. d. Jonathan Smith, gr. 

Ch. I Thomas b. 1775 m. (a) 1802 Elizabeth d. John McKillip. 

(6) Isabella 

Ch. (1) William m. Martha Perry, Blanche. 
Ch. 1. Archibald. 2. Benjamin. 

3. Alexander m. Deborah Lewis. 

4. James 5. Jane m. Frank s. Paul Swain. 

6. Margaret m. Hugh Kelly. 

7. Martha. 

8. Elizabeth m. Alex. Perry. 

(2) Samuel m. Sarah d. Benjamin Smith. 
Ch. 1. Elizabeth m. 1856 Orlando Taylor. 

2. Letitia m. William H. Snow. 

3. Jane m. Frye. 

(3) John m. Rebecca Whitney. 
Ch. 1. Bethia m. Henry Lavers. 

2. James H. 

(4) Thomas, unm.; (5) Letitia. 

(6) Catherine. 

(7) Alexander m. Hannah Perry. 
Ch. 1. Harriet m. David Thomas. 

2. Hannah m. D. Manthorn. 

3. Isabel m. James Nichol. 

4. Robert m. Louise Chatwynd. 

5. Alexander m. Margaret Perry. 

6. William; 7. Edward; 8. John. 

(8) Richard b. 1819 m. Margaret. 

(9) Benjamin b. 1823 m. Mary Ann Noble. 

Ch. Albert. 

II Enoch, b. 1777. 

III Isaac, b. 1779 m. Martha Ketch. 

Ch. (1) Sarah b. 1806 m. De Mings. 

(2) Sophia b. 1804 m. James Perry. 

(3) Mary b. 1808 m. Whitney. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 511 



(4) Lydia b. 1813 m. Samuel Whitney. 

(5) Sylvia m. Enoch King 

(6) Margaret m. John Aikens. 

(7) John, unm. (8) Hannah m. John Pierce. 
(9) Benjamin m. Margaret , Shelburne. 
Ch. 1. Colin m. Amanda Zwicker. 

2. George m. Purney. 

3. Abigail. 

IV John b. 1782 m. Letitia Rice. 

Ch. (1) Lydia Matilda b. 1811. 

(2) Isaac b. 1814. 

(3) Mary E. b. 1816. 

(4) Hannah b. 1819. 

(5) Ann McKillip b. 1821. 

V Hannah m. 1804 Benjamin Perry, N. E. Hr. 
Ch. (1) Benjamin. 

Ch. Thomas, Oliver, I. King, Edward. 
(2) Elson; ('3) Isaac; (4) Thomas. 

VI Lydia b. 1791 m. Thomas, no issue. 

VII Richard m. 1814 Lydia Stevens. 

Ch. (1) Eliza b. 1815 m. John J. Thomas. 

(2) Enoch m. Sylvia d. Isaac King. 

(3) Isaac m. Elizabeth Hagar. 

(4) Sarah m. William Goodwin. 

(5) Rebecca m. Abram Van Orden, P. Latour. 

(6) James Rice m. Clarissa Perry. 

Ch. 1 . Emily Jane m. Ebenezer Salisbury. 

2. Emeline m. Chandley Smith, V. Dale. 

3. Elmira m. Josiah Adams. 

4. Rebecca m. (a) Williams. David Swain. 

(6) James Tedford. 

5. Isaac m. Emeline Nelson, Clyde. 

6. Elson m. (a) Lilian Thomas; 

(6) Janet McRae. 
(c) Ada Cameron. 

7. Samuel. 8. William. 

(7) Richard b. 1832 m. Dorothy d. Rev. E. Reynolds. 

(8) Almira m. Amos H. Pitman, Yarmouth. 
VIII Benjamin m. Lydia 

Ch. Benjamin b. 1812. 



BENJAMIN KIRBY, a widower, who married Martha, widow 
Of Thomas Crowell Sr., gr., in 1771, Rev. Isaac Knowles officiating. 



512 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



He was a cooper and fisherman. They moved to Roseway at Kirby 
Cove, but came back to The Neck and built a house on Kirby's Id^ 
His son Benjamin m. Eunice d. of Elkanah Smith, gr. The Kirbys, 
moved to Sambro, and again to New Harbor, N. S. Another son 
David was frozen to death at Gray's Id. Moses Crowell, Kirby's 
step-son then occupied the Kirbyld. afterwards known as Moses Id. 



NATHANIEL KNOWLES, was a grantee of Liverpool tp. 
in 1766 and sold out and came to Barrington where he afterwards 
owned the lot No. 11 granted to Simeon Crowell, his brother-in- 
law, who died before 1769. In 1784 N. Knowles had occupied this- 
lot 12 years. He had been in the French and Indian wars; was once 
captured by Indians who had tied him to a tree and were building 
a fire around him when they got quarrelling anxL he managed to es- 
cape. He was crippled by their tortures and became a merciless 
hunter of redskins. To one who begged him to spare an Indian 
prisoner he said, "No nits, no lice," and acted accordingly. He 
was at the capture of Louisburg. Not the least of his exploits was 
his moving from Cape Cod to Liverpool in a whaleboat. His daugh- 
ter Mercy m. Obed Wilson who took his property for debt so that 
he was, as he said, "shot with a grey goose-quill." He was employed 
"hunting for Frenchmen." who were evading the deportation. His 
death took place March 31, 1824, aet. 80. It was Phebe, wife of 
Nathaniel Knowles 2nd, who prayed for the Lord to "slue the wind, 
a little" when the forest fire was threatening to destroy the house of 
her son Leonard. 

NATHANIEL KNOWLES m. Lois Holmes. 
Ch. I Mercy b. 1766 m. 1785 Obediah s. Henry Wilson, gr. 
II Nathaniel m. Phebe d. Nathan Kinney, gr. 

Ch. (1) Mercy b. 1797 m. Sargent s. Josiah Sears. 

(2) Jonathan b. 1799, m. Maria d. Nehemiah Doane.. 
Ch. 1. Benjamin m. Elizabeth d. Warren Smith. 

2. Lydia m. William s. John Lyons. 

(3) Nathan m. Lydia d. James McCommiskey. 

(4) Charles (Rev.) m. (a) Ann d. John Kenney. 
Ch. 1. John K. m. (a) Anna d. Seth Coffin. 

m. (6) Caroline d. James HatfiekL 

2. Ann m. John Blauvelt. 

3. Thomas (unm.); 

4. Charles (unm.) 

5. Bessie m. Dr. A. J. Fuller. 

(5) Leonard m. Susan d. Aram Smith. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 513 

(6) Mahala m. Caleb s. Zenas Nickerson. 

(7) Lydia m. Freeman Smith, Cape Island. 

III Jonathan b. 1772, lost at sea. 

IV Elizabeth b. 1774. 

V Sarah b. 1776 m. (a) 1795, Eldad s. Archelaus Crowell. 
(b) Eleazar Crowell. 

VI John m. Hannah d. Samuel Hopkins. 
Ch. (1) Mary m. David s. Seth Wilson. 

* (2) Eleanor m. Stephen s. Elias Banks. 

(3) Ann m. Elisha s. Elisha At wood. 

(4) Samuel m. Maria d. Harris Harrington. 

Ch. 1. Agnes; 2. Fanny m. Daniel Allen, Yarmouth. 

(5) William m. (a) Bethanie d. David Wood. 

(b) Susan d. Ansel and HannahCrowell. 
Ch. 1. Jane m. Benjamin Hichens. 

2. Mary m. Richard Fuller. 

3. William (unm.) 

4. Martha m. Samuel s. Stillman Nickerson. 

5. Ann m. Fred s. Isaac Smith. 

6. James m. (a) Eleanor Wyman. 

(b) Bessie d. Joseph Trefry. 

7. Thomas (unm.). 

VII Enos m. Sarah d. Thomas Crowell, Jr., gr. 
Ch. (1) Enos m. Rhoda d. Richard Pinkham. 

(2) Isaac m. Sarah d. Rev. Thomas Crowell. 

Ch. 1 . Benjamin m. (a) Abigail d. Richard Hichens. 
(b) Susan d. Alex Hamilton. 
Ch. Alexander, Annetta, Addie, Ina. 

2. Joseph. 

3. Jane m. John s. John Osborn. 

(3) Mercy m. c. 1811 Harris Harrington, Liverpool, 
Moved to Doctor's Cove. 

(4) Elizabeth 'm. Daniel s. Bartlett Gardner. 

(5) Maria m. John Rogers, Yarmouth. 

(6) Sarah m. Joseph Rogers, Yarmouth. 

(7) Elsie m. Benjamin Rogers, Yarmouth. 

(8) John b. 1802, m. 1828, Lydia Ann d. Prince Doane. 
Ch. 1. Enos b. 1829. 

2. Maria Rogers m. Benjamin s. Nehemiah Doane. 

3. 'Caroline mi Prince s. James Crowell. 

4. Lydia m. Rupert Doane. 

5. Sophia m. Edwin s. Andrew Goudey. 



514 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



6. John Angus m. Minnie 

7. George Barlow. 
(9) Angus. 

VIII Asa b. 1783 m. Betsey d. Christopher Sholds. 

Ch. (1) Nathaniel m. Susan d. Levi Nickerson, Shag Hr. 

IX Ruth, b. 1785 m. Nicholas s. Nicholas Goodwin, Argyle. 

X Lois b. 1788 m. Heman s. Heman s. Heman Kenney, gr. 

SAMUEL KNOWLES, lots Nos. 8 and 85, Sherose Island and 
Cape Negro. He was an active and influential citizen, a prominent 
committeeman and Moderator at two Proprietors' meetings. A 
man of this name was captain of a company of militia in the French 
war in 1756 and 1758. His home was near the Haulover and he 
was drowned while driving cattle across the Clyde river. This was 
before 1769 for the census of that year refers to heirs of Samuel 
Knowles. His wife's name was Sarah and they had a son Charles, 
b. April 7, 1767. 

The names of Amos and Seth Knowles are in the census of 1762 
but they evidently were not settlers. The efforts of the former in 
obtaining the grant and locating grantees were of great value to the 
community. He was one of the committee named by the Govern- 
ment for assisting and locating proprietors. 



JOHN LAMROCK was a weaver of muslins in Belfast, Ireland. 
He was emigrating to St. John, N.B., on the Brig "Proud Ardent" 
which was stranded on the Half-moons in 1823. Half the passen- 
gers were landed and the brig, came off. About a dozen including 
John Lamrock, his wife Letty and year old child stayed ashore at 
Blanche and all but the Lamrocks went on towards Yarmouth. 
He found work farming and weaving, especially for Seth Coffin, Sr., 
and S. O. Doane Jr., living the while at the Town. After three years 
he moved to Goose Point, then called Indian Hill; he was the first 
settler there. His son James was born in Tyrone, Ulster, May 7, 
1822, a daughter Lydia in 1827. James lived at the homestead. 
John's sons, Mark and John settled at Clyde River and were engaged 
in lumbering for several years. 



ROBERT LASKEY. His lot No. 41, was that afterwards 
occupied by Mrs. Sarah Kenney and her sons and became the prop- 
erty of James Hervey Doane. In 1785 he sold land at Port Latour, 
"whereon his dwelling house stood," to Thomas Smith, as well as 
other lands on Great Cape Island. There is a record of the sale of 
his lands of Great Cape Island to Joseph Worth in 1771. "Bob's 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 515 

Hill" at Upper Port Latour is about where Wm. Laskey, his brother 
had a fish lot. Robert Laskey moved away, first to Chebogue, 
then to St. John River and later to Brooklyn, Yarm. Co. Mr. Las- 
key was a joiner. He m. Dorcas Spaulding who came with him 
from Marblehead, Mass. 

Chi Idren Robert, Nathaniel, John, Jacob, William, Thomas, 
Joseph, Oliver, Mary and Hannah. Hannah m. Oram, father of 
Revs. David and Charles Oram. 

WILLIAM LASKEY, lot No. 42. His lot had several fish 
lots adjoining, his own being nearest, and the others going Eastward 
belonged to John Clements, Solomon Kendrick, Edmund Doane 
and Isaac King. Each of these lots was 20 rods by 6p rods. Wm. 
Laskey m. Thankful Snow, sister of Mrs. Rachel (Joseph) Swain, 
Jan. 14, 1768. 

Children (1) Ann m. Thomas Worthen, (Wathen); (2) Joel, 
lost at sea, 1799. 

Mr. Laskey seems to have died early. His wife lived alone on 
the fish-lot for a while and afterwards with her sister at Port Latour. 



JOHN LEWIS, b. 1765 was the son of Solomon and Elizabeth 
(Myrick) Lewis of Eastham, Mass. When his widowed mother m. 
Thomas Doane, gr., he came to Barrington and in 1786 m. Rebecca 
d. Thomas Crowell, Jr., gr. He shared in the division of Thomas 
Doane's property, and built the house afterwards occupied by John 
Sargent Jr., on Sherose Island. In 1793 he was appointed on a 
Proprietors' Committee to have the Care of the Glebe lots and Com- 
monage and to regulate the stinted islands. John Lewis and his 
wife moved to Belfast, Me., about 1812, where he died in 1835 
and she in 1852. Their son Solomon m. 1811, Susanna d. Heman 
Kenney of Doctor's Cove and moved to Port Matoun. Their chil- 
dren married in Queens County. Mary d. John Lewis :n. Rev. Jacob 
B. Norton. 



THOMAS LINCOLN lot No. 2, (Sherose Island). In the census 
of 1769 the name is spelled Linkhorn. He sold out to Josiah Sears 
for 25 all his rights in the Township; deed dated, Oct. 12, 1770. 
Thomas Lincoln, son of Nathaniel, of Brewster, Cape Cod, m. Phebe 
Godfrey of Chatham, 1758 . The lot 2 was sold by Sears to John 
Sargent and was known as Sear's field, the place where the Battalion 
drill of the township militia was held just before Confederation. 



JOHN LONSDALE was a disbanded English soldier, son of a 



516 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

soldier killed at Bunker's Hill. He and Duncan McNevin Were 
living at Forbes Point when Alexander Forbes moved there. It was 
at that time that Lonsdale moved to Lower Woods Harbor. 
John Lonsdale m. Abigail d. Samuel Hamilton, gr. 
Ch. (1) Thomas 

(2) James. 

(3) Barnabas m. Rosanna, 
Ch. 1. Michael. 

2. Barnabas. 

3 . Rosanna. 

4. Matilda 

5 . Stillman. 

(4) Jerusha m. Ziba s. Henry Newell. 

(5) Rhoda m. John s. John Stoddart. 

(6) Deborah m. Zaccheus s. Abner Nickerson, gr. 

DENNIS LYONS, a loyalist, came from Kerry, Ireland to 
New York, thence to Lahave. He married Mrs. Lacy (nee Cox) 
and came to Wood's Harbor. His son John afterwards moved to 
Charlesville, where he swapped holdings with Wilsons of Forbes Pt. 
Ch. I John m. Nancy d. Alex Forbes. 

Ch. (1) John m. Mary d. Barnabas Malone. 

Ch. George, Jairus, Silas, John, Uriah, William, 
Dennis, Janet m. Stillman Malone, Eliz- 
abeth m. Rupert Larkin. 

(2) William m. Lydia d. Jonathan Knowles. 
Ch. 1. Annie (unm.); 

2. Lois (unm.). 

3 . Rebecca m. Prince W. Nickerson. 

4. William; 5. Thomas; 6. Stanley m. Scoville 

(3) Dennis m. Mary E. d. Alex Forbes 2nd. 
Ch. 1. D'Arcy McGee. 

2. Kate m. Angus Spinney. 

3. Elizabeth m. John Cann. 

4. Edna m. Samuel Malone. 

(4) Silas m. Mary d. Freeman Larkin. 

(5) Alexander m. Emily d. Phineas Nickerson. 

(6) Olive (unm.); 

(7) Nancy (unm.). 

(8) Rebecca m. Levi s. Leyi Crowell. 

MICHAEL MADDEN, a disbanded Irish soldier, came with 
Shelburne loyalists and settled at "Michael's Point," Cape Negro. 
His wife was drowned with a Mrs. Thurston and two children cross- 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 517 

ing the harbor to attend a meeting at Indian Brook. Madden then 
m. widow Catharine Oxenden, d. Mrs. Glance. They had six child- 
ren. Mr. Madden fell from a large rock on the shore from which 
he was watching his boys eeling, and died there. His widow 
took another husband, Timothy Mahaney. The sons Benjamin 
and Michael moved to Cat Point. 

Ch. (1) Benjamin Madden m. Thankful Worthen. 
Ch. 1. Thomas m. Martha Worthen. 

2. Henry m. Kelley, Woods Harbor. 

3. Michael m. Mary E. Fisher, Baccaro. 

4 . Benjamin m. Martha d. Caleb Nickerson of 

Yarmouth. 
Ch. He*iry. 

(2) Michael m. Rhoda d. Joseph Purdy. 
Ch. 1 . William m. Mercy d. Wm. Adams. 

2. James m. Tabitha Adams. 

(3) Isabella m. Wm. Worthen. 

(4) Margaret m. David Powell. 

(5) Rebecca m. James Robertson, Churchover. 

(6) Catharine m. John Robertson, Churchover. 

TIMOTHY MAHANEY was a shoemaker from Munster, 
Ireland. He worked at Annapolis and Pubnico. After he came to 
Barrington he worked with Josiah Harding and settled at The Hiver. 
His son Joseph lived at Clyde where he bought land from David 
Thomas who brought him up. 

TIMOTHY MAHANEY m. Catherine (Oxenden) Madden. 
Ch. Joseph b. 1816. 
Mary b. 1816. 
William b. 1819. 
Maria m. Eleazar s. David Swain. 



BARNABAS MALONE was a soldier of the Shelburne migra- 
tion, and the son of a soldier who was killed in the battle of 
Bunker Hill. His wife was Mary Welch, a native of Ireland. 
He first removed from Shelburne township to East Pubnico, near 
the Willetts place, and then to Upper Wood's Harbor on the hill 
near the Ry. Station, where he bought the N. end of the Andrews 
Grant from Capt. Harvey Doane. 

BARNABAS MALONE m. Mary Welch. 

Ch. (1) Thomas m. Remembrance Goodwin. 
Ch. 1. Jane m. Aaron s. Abner Nickerson. 

2. Samuel m. Rosanna d. Barnabas Malone. 



518 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



(2) Barnabas m. Rosanna d. Michael Hubbard. 
Ch. 1. Michael m. Salome d. Stillman Nickerson. 

2. Barnabas m. Matilda d. Josiah Sears. 

3. Rosanna m. Samuel s. Thomas Malone. 

4. Matilda m. Reuben s. Stillman Nickerson. 

5. Joseph m. Elmira d. Stillman Nickerson. 

6 . Andrew. 

(3) James 

Ch. 1. Susan m. James s. Abner Nickerson. 
2. Sarah m. Nathan s. Abner Nickerson. 

(4) Mary m. Wm. s. Alexander Forbes. 
Clarissa Malone m. Wm. s. Knowles Nickerson. 

JOHN NEIL McCOMMISKEY, a native of County Devon, 
Ireland. Enlisted in the British army at 18 and served in the Revol- 
utionary War. Came to Shelburne and drew land at Clyde. He 
married Mercy, sister of Mrs. David (Smith) Crowell, gr., and lived 
at Neil's Creek, near Brass Hill, and built the first bridge over that 
Creek. After a time he moved to Charlesville. 

*NEIL McCOMMISKEY m. Mercy Smith. 
Ch. (1) Daniel m. Azuba d. Josiah Sears. 

Ch. 1. James m. Christiana d. Robert Wilson. 

2 . Joseph. 

3. Mercy m. Charles O'Connor. 

(2) James m. Elsie d. V. Nickerson. 

Ch. 1 . John Neil m. Rebecca d. Rev. A. McGray. 

2. Daniel. 

3 . James Freeman. 

4. Jeremiah. 

(3) Lydia m. Patrick Devine. 



JAMES McCOY was a book-carrier in Scotland, and came to 
join his brother, a carpenter, in Shelburne. The brother died and 
James lived with Mr. Jesse Lear. From there he went with Isaac 
Kenney to Cape Island and about 1788 m. Martha Eldridge of Cape 
Cod. McCoy settled at Birch Point. He had a good wharf and 
store and accumulated a good property. Martha McCoy died in 
1808, James McCoy in 1841. Their son James lived at Birch Pt. 

JAMES McCOY m. Martha Eldridge. 
Ch. (1) Alexander 1789-1808. 

(2) Mercy b. 1791 m. Samuel s. David Wood. 

*This spelling is in the record of Neal's Brook school house in 1827. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 519 

(3) Martha b. 1796 m. David s. David Wood. 

(4) Rosanna b. 1798 m. Paul Brown. 

(5) Rebecca b. 1793 m. James Smith, W. Head. 

(6) James b. 1801 m. Anabella Dixpn. 

(7) Stephen. 



REV. ASA McGRAY was born in N. Yarmouth, Me., Sept 
18, 1780. He married Susanna Stoddard of Charlestown, Mass., 
in 1801; joined the Methodist church in 1805, and was licensed to 
preach. About 1814 he joined the Free Will Baptists and was or- 
dained by them that year. In 1816 he moved to Windsor, N. S., 
and there and at Canning worked at his trade as a wheelwright 
(a skillful mechanic who had the Governor's patronage) and preached 
as occasion offered. He was the first F. W. B. preacher in the Prov- 
ince. In 1821 he moved to Centerville, Cape Island; lived first 
in the old Archelaus Smith house, then bought Timothy Covel's 
place, and having organized a F. W. B. church, remodelled and en- 
larged his house so as to hold meetings in it. He preached without 
salary, working on his land and taking freewill offerings for his sup- 
port. He established the first Sunday School there in 1827 and the 
first in the log school house at Newellton, c 1832. The whole island 
was his parish. He was a promoter of everything for the public 
good; the bridge across the Creek particularly being the result of 
his efforts. Mr. McGray was also interested in schools. His wife 
supported him in his useful activities. She was a competent mid- 
wife and used to go on horseback around the island for such duty. 

ASA McGRAY m. Susanna Stoddard. 

Ch. (1) Jethro (did not settle in Nova Scotia.) 

(2) Rebecca m. Neil McCommiskey. 

(3) John m. Elizabeth d. Steven Smith. 
Ch. 1. Colby m. Sophia d. Moses Ross. 

2. Jethro m. Delilah d. Job Atkinson. 

3. James C. m. Norah d. Alfred K. Smith. 

4. Eliza m. Jeremiah s. Wm. Brannan. 

5. Cynthelia (unm.). 

(4) Albert m. Sarah d. Joshua Nickerson, (lived at 

Port Latour). 
Ch. 1. Charles 2. James. 
3. George 4. Angelina 

(5) Asa m. Eliza A. d. Nehemiah Doane. 

Ch. 1 . Nehemiah m. Mary J. d. Col well Smith. 
2. Martin m. Abigail d. Seth Kendrick. 



520 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



3. Susan m. Seth s. Seth Smith. 

4. Asa Ellsworth m. Caroline d. Martin. Doane. 

5. Elmira m. John s. Rodman Kenney 

6. Eliza A. m. David s. Edmund Ross. 

(6) Ruth -.-n. Joseph s. Archelaus Smith. 

(7) William m. Letitia (moved to Kempt.) 
Ch. 1. William; 2. Asa; 3. Benjamin. 



JOHN McKILLIP of New York came to Shelburne in com- 
mand of a transport ship. There he received a town lot and settled 
with his family. In 1789 he bought out the property of Peleg Coffin 
at Cape Negro and kept a herd of 40 cattle there. 

JOHN McKILLIP m. Letitia (tfice.) 

Ch. (1) Mary m. Wm. McQuay, Jordan. 

(2) Letitia m. 1806 Samuel Locke, Lockeport. 

(3) Eliza m. 1802 Thomas King. 

(4) Kitty m. Capt. Longhurst, N. Y. 

(5) Nancy b. 1796 m. Joseph Palmer, Conn. 

(6) John m. Mary Hall (moved to N. Y.). 
Ch. 1. James Rice b. 1827. 2. Nancy. 

McLARREN. The late Charles McLarren, the first of the 
name in Barrington, was grandson of a British officer, who was killed 
in the Am. Revolution, and whose widow soon died leaving a son 
who was brought from the Bahamas to New York. From there he 
came to Shelburne in the second Loyalist ship in the company of 
Charles Campbell. He moved to Argyle, and used to come to Bar- 
rington and go fishing with Samuel Hopkins. There he married 
Jerusha d. Samuel Hamilton, gr. His son Charles m. Lavinia d. 
Prince Doane and, later, settled at the town; a daughter, Matilda, 
m. Capt. Leonard Weston of Yarmouth, father of Rev. Walter C. 
Weston. Other sons were John, William and Herbert. The children 
of Charles were Prince W., Charles, Thomas, Mrs. Pickford, and 
Mrs. S. O. Crowell of Halifax and Mrs. Isaac Hopkins. Prince W. 
kept a store at The Head and at Clyde, was purser of the first coast- 
wise steamer, and later became manager of the Can. Life Assurance 
Co. in Halifax. Sarah McLarren m. Nathan Seeley, Brighton, N. 
S., whose son, Joseph, m. Margaret d. Thomas Coffin. 

THOMAS MIDDLING was an English seaman on board the 
brig of which Richard Hichens was master, and at the time of the 
wreck c.1816 was eighteen years of age. He lived and worked with 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 521 

Mr. Josiah Harding, and married Mary d. Theodore Smith, c 1824. 
Ch. (1) Mary Ann, b. 1825. m. Thomas s. John Hopkins. 

(2) Sarah m. Josiah Harding. 

(3) Hepsabeth m. Nathaniel s. Nathaniel Crowell. 
Capt. Thomas Harding, in command of the ill fated S. S. Monticello, 
foundered off Yarmouth in 1900, was the only child of Josiah and 
Sarah Harding. 

HENRY NEWELL was the son of a Bostonian who sent him 
to Cape Cod to learn the cooper's trade; but he was put on a fishing 
vessel and landed at Cape Island, where he met and married Eunice 
d. Archelaus Smith, gr., in 1776. 

Another current version of the affair is that Eunice Smith went 
to Boston to learn dressmaking and there met and married Henry 
Newell returning later to Nova Scotia. The township record of mar- 
riages says: "Married in 1776 Henry Newhall, sen of Henry Newhall 
of Boston in Mass. Bay to Eunice Smith d. to Archelaus Smith 
Esq., and Betty his wife, both of this township." Henry was son 
of Henry and Elizabeth (Grouard) Newell of Boston. 

HENRY NEWELL m. 1776 Eunice d. Archelaus Smith, gr. 
Ch. I Mercy b. 1779- m. (a) 1798, James s. Gideon Nickerson. 

(6) Thomas Doty. 

II Archelaus b. 1781, m. Elizabeth d. Jonathan Covel. 
Ch. (1) Thomas m. Zilpha d. Judah Nickerson. 

Ch. 1. Harvey m. Sarah d. Seth Smith. 

(2) William m. (a) Huldah d. Barry Crowell. 

(6) Jane Smith. 
Ch. 1 . Deborah m. Benjamin Goodwin. 

(3) Lydia m. John (John, John) Cunningham. 

(4) Sophia m. Thomas s. James Smith. 

(5) Freeman m. Sarah d. Eleazar Crowell. 
Ch. 1. Timothy m. Cynthia Copeland. 

2. Jethro m. Augusta d. J. Robertson Smith. 

3. Ruth m. (a) Abner Newell. 

(6) John Smith. 

4. Elizabeth m. Edmund Smith. 

5. Margery m. Crane Cunningham. 

6. Emma m. Charles Atkinson. 

' 7. Seppora m. Thomas s. Samuel Smith. 

III Henry b. 1783 m. Eunice d. Stephen Nickerson, gr. 
Ch. (1) William B. m. Tabitha d. Levi Nickerson. 

Ch. 1. Amanda m. Thomas. Kenney. 






522 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



2. Alice m. Ephraim Murphy. 

3. Elizabeth m. Stillman Smith. 

4. Roberta m. Freeman Goodwin. 

5. Emma m. Lorenzo Goodwin. 

6. Levi m. Alice Jollimore. 

7. William m. Rebecca d. Hallet Goodwin. 

(2) Fields m. Tamsin d. James Smith. 
Ch. 1. Naomi m. Thomas Blades. 

2. Eldredge m. Viola d. Judah Kenney. 

3. Henry m. Zeruiah Goodwin. 

4. Bartlett m. Margaret d. Freeman Smith. 

5. Stillman m. Ellen d. Seth Cunningham. 

6. Edward m. Viena d. Solomon Newell. 

7. Smith m. Maria d. Josiah Swain. 

8. Esther m. Thomas Blades. 

(3) Amasa m. Elizabeth d. Collins Newell. 

Ch. Downs, Asa, Cornwell, Melissa, Alberta, 
Cora, Addie m. Eleazer s. Eleazar Crowell. 

(4) Stillman m. (a) Hannah d,. Barry Crowell. 

(6) Cynthia d. Benjamin Doty. 
Ch. 1. Charles 2. Stillman. 

3. Hannah m. Vincent Nickerson. 

4. Eunice m. James Newell. 

5. Jane m. Thomas Smith. 
IV Elizabeth b. 1787. 

V Collins b. 1791, m. 1811 Elizabeth Brown. 
Ch. (1) Robert b. 1812. 

(2) Benjamin m. Dorcas d. Reuben Smith. 
Ch. 1. Nelson m. Maria d. Wm. B. Smith. 

2. Alfred m. Rosanna d. Wm. Dobbin. 

(3) Gruard b. 1813 m. Margaret d. Samuel Watson. 
Ch. Andrew, Isaiah, Priscilla. 

(4) Solomon m. Sophia Nickerson, Wood's Harbor. 
Ch. Moses, Calvin, Virginia. 

Viena m. Edward s. Fields Newell. 

(5) Melissa m. Asa s. Levi Nickerson, ClarksjHarbor. 

VI Hezekiah, b. 1793 m. Martha d. Joshua s. Joshua Nickerson. 
Ch. (1) Zephaniah Newell m. Asenath d. James Smith. 

(2) Crowell, unm. (3.) Martha. 

(4) Cynthia. (5) Roxana. (6) Sarah. 

VII Ziba, b. 1798 m. (a) Jerusha d. John Lonsdale. 

(6) Lovina d. Stephen Smith. 
Ch. (1) Joseph m. Phoebe d. Freeman Smith. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 523 

(2) Ephraim m. Margaret d. Alex Cunningham. 
Ch. 1. Benjamin m. Janet d. Eleazar Crowell. 
Ch. George. 

2. Keziah m. Job Crowell. 

3. Jessie m. (in U. S.). 

(3) Cornelius; (4) Oran; (5) Hiram; (6) Mary. 
(7) Eunice; (8) Fanny; (9) Elizabeth. 
VIII Joseph b. 1803 m. Lucinda d. Wm. Smith. 

Ch. (1) Meritt m. Mary Jane d. Henry Brown. 

(2) Handley m. Orpha Cunningham. 

(3) Abner m. Ruth d. Freeman Newell. 

(4) Abram (unm.). 

IX Hannah m. David s. Wm. (Hez.) Smith. 

NICHOLS. About the middle of the 19th century George 
Nichols came to Clyde River and settled on the West side a mile 
below the post road. 

GEORGE NICHOLS m. Ellen Patterson. 
Ch. Elizabeth m. John Peterkin, Lt. 

William m. Jane d. John Shand. 

George m. (in Scotland). 

Jane m. George Newell, Cape Island. 

Sophia m. Rodney Cunningham. 

Frank m. Lydia Lohnes. 

Joan m. Hugh McDonald. 

James m. Isabel d. Alex King. 

Thomas m. Emma Schnar. 

Sarah m. Christian s. Conrad Ryer. 

Charles (drowned at Seattle.) 

THE NICKERSON FAMILIES. William (nicknamed "Red 
Stocking") and Anne (Busby) Nickerson came to New England 
in 1637 and were among the founders of Chatham, Mass. They 
were the ancestors of the Nickersons of Barrington. 

Stephen, gr., and Gideon were sons of William Nickerson, g. 
son of the founder of that name and his wife, Sarah; their sisters 
Mary and Elizabeth were the wives of Joshua Atwood and Archelaus 
Smith, respectively, grs.; their niece, Sarah (d. Absalom )was the 
wife of Richard Nickerson, gr., who was a son of Caleb Nickerson of 
Chatham. Joshua Nickerson gr., who m. Esther Ryder, was a 
brother of Richard and one of the first to arrive at Barrington. 
Eldad Nickerson, gr., was brother of Wm., the father of Stephen 



524 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



and Gideon, and his wife was Mary a sister of Reuben Cohoon, gr., 
of Eastham. The parentage of Prince Nickerson, gr., is not cer- 
tainly known. He has been called a brother of Eldad, but that is 
denied by Josiah Paine of Harwich a correspondent of Prof. Doane. 
His first wife was Lydia Cohoon of Eastham, a sister of Eldad's 
wife, Mary. The nearest we have come to the family of Nathan 
Nickerson is a statement that a Nathan Nickerson had a sister 
Dorcas who m. Stephen Nickerson, gr. 

The possessors of this name are very numerous in New England 
and in 1897 held a reunion at Chatham, Mass., when Wm. E. Nick- 
erson Esq., of Cambridge, Mass., read a poem from which the follow- 
ing stanzas are copied. 

"The virtues of pur ancestors 

We now recount with pride; 

We know their hearts were stout and true, 

Their courage well was tried. 

Their memory to perpetuate 

We come from far and wide, 

And celebrate the day. 

While here upon our native heath 

Our joyous songs we sing, 

And round about us Chatham hills 

Their echoes backward fling, 

We'll shout the name of Nickerson 

Till earth and sky shall ring, 

And celebrate the day." 

The account given of the Nickersons who came to Barrington 
warrants a full measure of eulogy. They were, like the rest, exper- 
ienced, energetic, resourcefull men, well fitted for the pioneer life. 
We surmise that some of them had felt the pinch of persecution 
before leaving the Cape Cod coast for this couplet has been preserved 
from some verses composed on the occasion of their removal: 

"Ye highlands of Chatham, we bid you adieu, 
As Lot came out of Sodom, so we came out of you." 

ABNER NICKERSON, gr., m. 1765 Elizabeth Baker, d. 1811. 
Ch. I Scott m. Lucretia d. John Nickerson, gr. 

Ch. (1) Isaiah m. Hipsabeth d. Reuben Cohoon. 
Ch. 1. Reuben; 2. George; 3. Resolve. 

4. Scott m. Jerusha d. Alex. Nickerson. 

5. Hezekiah - m. Susan d. Elijah Nickerson. 

Ch. Sarah m. Israel Nickerson. 

6. Amasa; 7. Clarissa; 8. Olivia. * 
9. Sarah m. Amasa s. Elijah Nickerson. 






BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 525 

10. Ldreha m. Josiah s. Josiah Sears. 

(2) Lucretia m. Solomon s. Stephen Smith, gr., Liver- 

pool. 

(3) Temperance m. Thomas Garron. 

(4) Roxana m. fcephaniah Hatch. 
Ch. Isaiah, Joseph. 

(5) Sarah m. Phineas s. Phineas Nickerson. 

II Isaiah m. (1800) Hannah d. Joseph Atwood, gr. 
Ch* (1) Heman m. Sabra d. Mrs. Sarah Nickerson. 
Ch. 1; Watson m. Lavinia d. Sargent Sears. 

Ch. John W., James, Lovitt, Moses, Nathaniel, 
Sarah, Mercy, 

2. Solomon m* Jane d> Levi Crowell. 

Ch. Alfred, Sabra, Rebecca, Louisa, Leander, 
Augusta, Mary Eliza. 

3. Sarah m. Henry Chute. 

4. William m. (a) Eliz. Cook; (6) Louise Swain. 

Ch. Susanna m. Samuel Nickerson. 

5. John m* (a) Irene Smith; (6) Zeruiah Crowell. 

6. Eleanor m. (a) Richard Fitzgerald; (6) Wm. 

Brannen. 

7. Jethro m. (a) Martha Nickerson; (6) Sarah 

Nickerson. 

8 . Asa m. Mary Chatwynd. 

9. Jeremiah m, Emeline d. John Garron. 
10. Heman m. Martha Nickerson. 

(2) Isaiah m. Matilda d. Watson Nickerson. 
Ch- 1 . Vincent m. Margaret d. John Stoddart. 

Ch. John, Colman, Freeland, Miriam, Alice, 
Emma. 

2. Delilah m. S. K. Mood. 

3. Joseph m. (a) Sarah Nickerson. 

(6) Jane Stoddart. 

4. Susan m. George Goodwin, Charlesville. 

(3) Hezekiah m. Susan d. Elijah Nickerson. 
Ch. Olivia m, Nathaniel Crowell, P. Latour. 

Ill Sylvanus Baker m 4 (1798) Margaret d. Sol. Gardner, gr. 
Ch. (1) Asa m. Sarah d. Watson Nickerson. 

Ch. 1. Sylvanus m. Elizabeth d. Edward Larkin. 
Ch. Eleazer, m. Bethia Watt, John E. m. 
Jane Forbes. 
2, Elijah; 3. Stillman; 4. Cornelius; 5. Amasa. 



526 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



(2) Josiah m. Ruth d. Aaron Nickerson. 

Ch.Jethro, Ebenezer, Stephen, William, Josiah. 

(3) Margaret m. Amasa s. Watson Nickerson. 

IV Samuel m. 1815 Mary d. Mrs. Asa Nickerson, Cape Cod. 
Ch. (1) Stillman m. (a) Dorcas d. Phineas Nickerson. 
(6) Louise, widow Walter Smith. 
Ch. 1. Aldenm.(a) Rebecca d. Thomas Garron. 
(6) Eliz. Stoddart, widow, 
(c) Olivia Waybrat. 

2. Solomon m. Eusebia d. Walter Smith. 

3. Reuben m. Matilda Malone. 

4. Elmira m. Joseph Malone. 

5. Salome m. Michael Malone. 

6. Samuel m.(a) Mary d. William Knowles. 

(6) Elizabeth Ring. 

7. William m. Ellen d. Samuel Hopkins. 

(2) Asenath m. Rev. Henry Stokes. 
Ch. 1. Jedidah m. Melvin Brannen. 

2. Colby m. Brannen. 

3. Hipsabeth m. Ephraim Nickerson. 

(3) Phineas m. Rosa d. Aaron Nickerson. 
Ch. Merinda m. (a) John Malone. 

(6) Sylvanus Nickerson. 

(4) Heman m. Martha d. Reuben Nickerson. 
V Elijah m. Cynthia d. Mrs. Phineas Nickerson. 

Ch. (1) Susan m. (a) Hezekiah Nickerson. 

(6) Wm. Goodwin, (c) David Sholds. 

(2) Amasa m. Sarah d. Isaiah and Hipsabeth Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Elijah m. (a) Lydia A. d. of William Brannen. 

(6) Matilda d. Samuel Nickerson. 

2. Thomas m. Elizabeth d. Joseph Johnson. 

3. Charles m. Alice d. George Nickerson. 

4. Lovitt m. d. Alden Nickerson. 

(3) Elizabeth m. Shubael Chatwynd. 

(4) Samuel m. (a) Deborah Swaine. 

(6) Delina d. John Nickerson. 
(c) Susanna d. William Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Sarah m. R. Waterhouse. 

2. Edgar m. Clara Dempsey. 

3. George m. Amelia Dawe. 

4. Elijah m. Inez Butterfield. 

5. Edward G. m. Lilian Mood. 

6 . Letson m. Ella d. Ezra Jeffrey. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 527 

7. Matilda m, Elijah s. Amasa Nickerson. 

(5) Mary m. Heman Goodwin, Argyle. 

(6) Abigail m. Nelson Stoddart. 

(7) Anne m. George Nickerson. 

(8) Sarah m. Ephraim Stoddart. 

(9) Louise m. (a) Reuben Swain; (6) Wm. Nickerson*. 
(10) Mahala m. Levi Goodwin, Argyle. 

VI Elizabeth m. William s. Thomas Chatwynd. 

VII Aaron m. Hannah (Atwood) widow Isaiah Nickersonv 
Ch. (1) Abner, b. 1803, d. 1900 m. Elizabeth Chatwynrf. 

Ch. 1. Aaron m. Jane d. Thomas Malone. 

Ch. Lyman, Abram, Nehemiah, Mahala, 
Estella m. Charles Hubbard. 
Annie m. William Berry, Yarmouth. 

2. James m. Susan d. James Malone. 

Ch. Clarence m. Drusilla Pierce. 
Eusebia m. Nathaniel Pierce. 
Josephine m. Roland Sholds. 
Jethro m. Peterson, Canso; William. 

3. Curtis m. (a) Eusebia d. Eben Nickerson. 

(6) Sarah (Goodwin) Atwood. 
Ch. Moses m. Phebe Pierce. 
Melissa m. James O. Nickerson. 
Lois m. Rupert Hines. 

4. Nathan m. Sarah d. James Malone. 

Ch. Annie m. Angus Phalen, Ont. 
Gertrude m. Thomas s. Wm. H. Harding. 
Ella m. Benjamin s. Andrew Nickerson. 

5. Ruth m. Josiah Crowell (of Bar). 
(2) Sophia m. Robert Wilson. 

Ch. 1. Samuel m. Deborah Hatfield. 

2. William m. Emeline d. Josiah Nickerson. 

3. Lewis m. Mercy d. Patrick Devine. 

Ch. Wylie m. Eva Spicer; Adelbert m. Hip- 
sabeth Nickerson. 

4. Archibald. 5. Thomas Wilson. 

6. Christiana m. James s. Daniel (Neil) McComisky 

Ch. Eliza m. Calvin s. Samuel Mood. 
Mercy m. Charles O' Conner. 
Thomas m. Rochet d. Jas. Nickerson. 
Rufus m. Annie d. Lovitt (Abram) Malone. 
Arthur m. Margaret d. Thos. Hubbard. 

7. Robert m. Frances d. David Morrisey. 



528 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

(3) Letitia m. Zaccheus s. Wm. Chatwynd. 

(4) Ruth. 

VIII Zaccheus m. (a) Deborah Lonsdale. 

(6) Rebecca d. John Garron. 
Ch. (1) Joanna m. Thomas Murphy. 

(2) Thomas m, Mehitable d. Benj. Nickerson. 

(3) Hannah m. (Liverpool). (4) Joseph (unm.). 
IX Shubael (lived in Halifax; was lost at sea). 

ELDAD NICKERSON, lot No, 12. This grantee was from 
the very first of the migration to Barrington engaged in carrying 
freight and passengers in his schooners the "Sally and the"Roxbury". 
He was a Justice of the Peace. His first Division lot was No. 12 
at The Neck, opposite Sherose Island, but he lived at Fish Point 
where he had an "Additional" lot. He died there before 1784, the 
time of the second Division when his share fell to "Heirs of Eldad 
Nickerstfn." In the census of 1769 he has three sons, five daughters 
and property in cattle, sheep, fish and shipping. The wife of this 
grantee was Mary Cohoon; and their children Ann, Mary, Eldad, 
b. 1751, James, Jesse and Elizabeth, who all seem to have moved 
away. 

ELDAD NICKERSON gr., b. 1723, m. 1744 Mary s. Reuben 

Cohoon, gr. 

Ch. Anna, Mary, Eldad, James and others who all moved 
away probably after their father's death during 
the Rebellion. 



GIDEON NICKERSON was a brother of Stephen. He came 
after the Grant, 1767, and was not in the Census of 1769. The first 
account we have of him, is in connection with the "forfeitures" when 
he had been for four months residing on lot No. 76 at N. E. Point, 
Cape Island. On these premises afterwards occupied by Robert 
Brown he settled and brought up a family of 12 children all but one 
of whom married in the township. Lombard, James and Joshua 
were his sons. His wife was Sarah Bearse. The name Lombard 
handed down in the Nickerson family, was the maiden name of 
Deliverance, first wife of Ensign William Nickerson of Chatham. 

GIDEON NICKERSON, s. William and Sarah Nickerson of 
Chatham, Mass. m. 1764 Sarah Barss. 

Ch. (I) Lombard m. Ruth d. Joseph Atwood, gr. 

Ch. (1) Heber m. Elizabeth d. Joshua Nickerson, S. S. 
Ch. 1. Enoch, unm. 

2. James m. Fitzgerald, V. Dale. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 529 

3. Ephraim m. Jame Griffin, Shelburne. 

4. Colman. 

5. Raymond m. Sarah Purdy. 

6. Nehemiah m. Mary d. Martin Trott. 

7. Ruth m. Ephraim Stoddart, S. Side. 

8. Mahala m. Robert Hunt. 

(2) Joshua m. Rebecca d. Thomas Ross. 
Ch. 1. Joshua m. (a) Sarah d. Moses Nickerson. 
(6) Charlotte d. Wm. Purdy. 

2. Theodosia m. James Purdy. 

3 . Abigail m. Watson Chase, Harwich 

4. Jacob m. Jedidah d. George Ross. 

5. Rachel; 6. Joseph; 7. Eliza. 

II James m. 1798 Mercy d. Henry Newell. 
Ch. (1) Thomas B. South Side. 

(2) Jane. 

(3) Henry m. Mercy Doty. 

(4) Eunice m. McKinnon. 
Ch. Randall. 

(5) James. 

(6) Collins m. Doty. 
Ch. Vincent. 

III Joshua m. 1806 Phebe d. Anson Kendrick, gr. 
Ch. (1) Absalom m. Olivia d. Jonathan Crowell. 

Ch. 1. James m. Hannah Pierce, Argyle Sd. 

2. Phebe m. John Pierce, Argyle Sd. 

3. Mahala m. Joseph Goodwin, Argyle Sd. 

4. Dorcas m. Jacob Blades, Pubnico. 

(2) Kendrick m. Bethia d. Joseph Worthen. 

Ch. 1. Azuba m. William E. s. Joseph Nickerson. 

2. Sarah E. m. Wm. Edward Goodwin, Pubnico. 

3. Mary m. Charles s. William Jones. 

4. William Davis m. Susan d. Reuben Nickerson. 

(3) Abigail m. John s. Anson and Margaret Nickerson. 

(4) Varlina m. Robert s. Robert Thurston, Yarmouth. 
Ch. Levi, Jane, Isabella, et al. 

(Moved to Plymouth, Mass.) 

(5) JHipsabah m. William Acker, Birchtown. 

(6) David m. Hannah d. Jonath Crowell. 

Ch. Steven m. Martha d. Solomon Nickerson. 
Joseph m. Louisa d. Solomon Nickerson. 
Ada m. Simeon Banks. 



530 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Patience m. William K. s. John. Nickerson. 
David m. Hannah d. Solomon Nickerson. 
Jonathan m. Roxana d. John Worthen. 
William m. in U. States. 

(7) Patience m. Mullins. 

(8) Martha m. Connell. 

(9) Henry m. Sophia d. Isaac Banks.... 
(10) William, lost at sea. 

IV Elizabeth m. Daniel Doane, moved to Yarmouth. 

V Mary m. 1798 William s. Hezekiah Smith, Cape Island. 

VI Hannah m. Robert Atkinson. 

VII Mercy m. 1793 Samuel Trott, Cape Island. 
VIII Abigail m. Thomas Ross, Cape Island. 

IX Sarah m. Judah Crowell, Shag Harbor. 

X Jane m. Nehemiah Crowell, Cape Island. 

XI Susan m. Absalom Nickerson, Cape Island. 

XII Martha m. Zenos Nickerson, Shag Hr. 

JOHN AND ABNER NICKERSON were sons of John and 
Dorcas (Bassett) Nickerson, son of William and Sarah Nickerson. 
Their families are regarded as the first permanent settlers at, Wood's 
Harbor. They were Loyalists who got safely across the Bay from 
Chatham about 1780. John was living at the Millstream at the 
death of his wife, Rhoda, a niece of Elkanah Smith of Cape Cod, after 
which he married Jerusha, widow of Judah Crowell, gr., and moved 
to Wood's Harbor, where he had a grant of land. When the county 
line between Yarmouth and Shelburne was established the line of a 
grant to John Nickerson at Pubnico Beach was made the county 
boundary for about two miles. The Nickersons of Clarks Harbor 
are mostly descendants of John Nickerson, Jr. His brother Smith 
was the ancestor of a branch of the Nickersons at Port Clyde. Moses 
H. Nickerson, politician, poet and linguist is descendant of John, gr. 
Abner bought the Wood's Grant, and his large family occupied it. 
He for a time sailed in a privateer from Liverpool, N. S. 

JOHN NICKERSON, gr., m. (a) 1764 Rhoda Smith, d. John 
and Elizabeth Smith of Chatham; (6) Jerusha, widow Judah Crowell, 
Jr., gr. 
Ch. I Rhoda m. (c. 1784) Knowles s. Joshua Atwood, gr. 

II Smith m. Martha d. Theodore Smith,, Indian Brook. 
Ch. (1) Richard m. Bethiah d. Samuel Smith. 

(2) Caleb m. Mary d. Thomas Worthen, Baccaro. 
Ch. 1. Martha m. Benj. Madden. 

2. Mary m. John s. Joel Worthen. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 531 

3. John m. Susan Atwood. 

4. Benjamin m. Lavinia d. Sam'l Nickerson. 

5. Jeremiah; 6. Dorcas; 7, Sarah. 

(3) John b. 1813 m. Louisa d. Thomas. 
Ch. Barbara, William, Rhoda, Elisha. 

(4) Elisha, b. 1807 m. Ann d. Samuel and Ruth Smith. 

(5) Jeremiah m. Mary d. Jos. Johnson, Woods Hr. 
Ch. 1. Zephaniah m. Ophelia d. Reuben Swim. 

Ch. Everett, Fred, Avery, Effie, May, Flor- 
ence, Beatrice. 

2. Joseph m. Abigail d. John Nickerson, Clyde. 

3. John m. Louisa d. Clark Stoddart. 

4 . Charles. 

(6) Rhoda b. 1795 m. Peter s. Zephaniah Swain. 

(7) Patience b. 1798 m. Zephaniah Swain. 

(8) Mahala (unm.); (9) Theodore, (unm.). 

(10) Mary m. Samuel Sholds. 

(11) Knowles m. Lydia Nickerson, Woods Harbor. 
Ch. 1. Richard m. Mary Thomas. 

2. Isaac m. Eliza Knowles. 

3. Mahala m. (a) Andrew Nickerson. 

(6) Jenks. 

4. Patience m. (a) Goodwin. 

(6) Thos. Montague. 

5. Lydia m. Matthews. 

Ill Phineas m. Sarah d. Asa Nickerson, Cape Cod. 

Ch. Mrs. Sarah Nickerson had four daughters the issue of a 
former marriage, viz. 

(1) Sabra m. Heman s. Isaiah Nickerson. 

(2) Cynthia m. Elijah s. Abner Nickerson, gr. 

(3) Abigail m. Alexander s. John Nickerson, gr. 

(4) Mary m. Samuel s. Abner Nickerson, gr. 
Phineas and Sarah had one son, Phineas, who on his father's 

death was brought up by Watson Nickerson, his uncle who then 
married his mother Sarah. 

(5) Phineas m. Sarah d. Scott Nickerson. 

Ch. 1. Dorcas m. Stillman. s. Samuel Nickerson. 

2. Martha m. Reuben s. Archibald Brannen. 

3. Emily m. Alexander s. John Lyons. 

4. Scott m. Jerusha d. Alex Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Cyrus m. Maria d. Eleazar Nickerson. 

2. Lyman m. Asenath d. Rev. Henry Stokes. 

3. Delilah m. Chatwynd. 



532 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

4. Asenath m. Nickerson. 

5. Ata villa m. Thomas s. Alfred Nickerson. 

6. Mercy Jane m. Smith Swain. 
IV Watson m. Sarah, widow Phineas Nickerson. 

Ch. (1) Sarah m. Asa s. Sylvanus Nickerson. 

(2) Amasa m. Margaret d. Sylvanus Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Samuel m. (a) Rachel d. Seth Nickerson. 

(6) Deborah Blades. 

(c) Margaret Goodwin. 
Ch. Rachel, John, Woodbury, Warren, Frank, 
Deborah. 

2 . Naomi m. William 'Goodwin. 

3. Jerusha m., Noah Goodwin. 

4. Asa m. Azuba McCommiskey. 

(3) Alfred m. Mary Chatwynd. 
Ch. 1. Edmund m. Tamsin Watt. 

2. Thomas m. Ata villa Nickerson. 

3. Sophia m. James Dixon. 

4. Melissa m. Wm. H. Nickerson, Yarmouth. 

5. Eliza m. George s. Eleazar Nickerson. 

6. Reliance m. Israel Chute. 

(4) Eleazar m. Catherine d. Archibald Wilson. 
Ch. 1. William m. Susan d. Wm. Chatwynd. 

2. Kinsman m. Eliza J. Crowell. 

3. Dorcas m. Abijah Garron. 

4. Maria m. Cyrus s. Scott Nickerson. 

5. Martha m. Jethro s. Heman Nickerson. 

(5) Matilda m. Isaiah Nickerson. 
V West lived up the Bay; was lost at sea. 

VI Jerusha m. Edmund s. Ansel (Judah) Crowell. 

VII Alexander m. Abigail d. Mrs. Sarah Nickerson. 
Ch. (1) Ephraim m. (a) Agnes d. Joseph Johnson. 

(6) Hipsabah d. Henry Stokes. 

(2) Freeman m. Isabel d. Joseph Johnson. 

(3) Amos m. (a) Rosella d. David Adams. 

(6) Louisa d. John Langthorn. 

(4) Jacob m. (a) Mahala d. Sargent Sears. 

(6) Elizabeth d. Joshua Nickerson. 

(5) Sabra m. Thomas s. Alexander Forbes. 

(6) Jerusha m. Scott s. Isaiah Nickerson. 

(7) Cynthia m. Winthrop Murphy, Argyle. 

(8) Jemima m. (a) P. W. Nickerson. 

(6) Henry Brannen. 






BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 533 

VIII Lucretia.m. Scott s. Abner Nickerson, gr. 
IX John m. Dorothy James of Ireland. 

Ch. (1) Watson, m. Abigail d. Henry Newell. 
Ch. 1. Dorcas J. m. James Mood. 

2 . Sarah Ann m. (a) Martin Nickerson. 

(6) Johnson. 

3 . Ebenezer, lost at sea. 

4. McCallum m. Rebecca d. Levi Kenney. 

5. Lewis m. Margaret d. Sylvanus Nickerson. 

6. David m. Elizabeth d. Reuben Smith. 

(2) Judah m. Elizabeth Smith. 

Ch. 1. Freeman m. Lucinda d. Solomon Smith. 

2. Ephraim m. Matilda d. Reuben Smith. 

3. Zilpha m. Thomas s. Archelaus Newell. 

4. Irene m. William B. s. Reuben Smith. 

5. Susan m. Lovitt s. Lewis Swim. 

6. Joshua m. Rebecca d. William Brannen. 
Ch. Smith, Freeland, Lilla. 

7. William Edw. m. (a) Sarah d. Samuel Penney. 

(6) Matilda d. Ensign Hopkins 

8. John G. m. Susan Worth. 

9. Matilda m. Robert Colquhoun. 

10. John Lendall m. Ruth d. John E. Nickerson. 

11. Thomas m. Judith d. John E. Nickerson. 

12. Mahala m. Thomas Duncan. 

(3) John b. 1797, d. 1815, buried at Wood's Harbor. 

(4) Merinda m. Levi s. Joshua Nickerson. 

(5) Knowles m. Elizabeth. 

Ch. 1. Cyrus m. Martha d. Zephaniah Newell. 

2. William m. Clarissa Malone. 

3. John m. Jemima d. Nehemiah Crowell. 

4. Jane m. Anthony McKay, Clyde. 

5. Eliza unm. 

(6) Phineas m. Jane d. John 0. Smith. 

Ch. 1 . Moses H. m. Mary d.Samuel Duncan,Sheet Hr. 
Ch. Morris, Francis, Charlotte. 

2. John E. m. Elizabeth d. George Smith. 

3. Harvey m. Lucinda Goodwin. 

4. Sarah m. Parker Smith. 

5. Abigail m. George Swim. 

6. Sophronia m. Israel Cunningham. 

(7) Joshua m. (a) Sarah d. James Smith. 

(6) Hannah Goodwin, Pubnico. 



534 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. 1. Thomas m. Sophia d. William Smith. 

2. Edward m. Emma Goodwin. 

3. Mary m. James Simmonds. 

4. Judah m. Mary J. Nickerson. 

5. Naomi . 6. Burton. 

(8) Dorcas m. Vincent Kenney. 

Ch. 1. Loran. 2. Vincent. 3. Mrs. Benjamin Newell 

(9) Esther m. Simeon s. Archelaus Smith. 

JOSHUA NICKERSON, gr., first div. lot No. 23 came in 
one of the first vessels. His reputation stands chiefly as a builder, 
for he framed the old meeting house, built the first decked vessel 
and the first grist mill. His six sons were active in local enterprise 
and extended the borders of the township; Levi and Zenos at Shag 
Harbor, and Simeon at Oak Park. Levi built vessels for the coasting 
and foreign trade. One of these, a brig, made a record voyage from 
Cape Sable to Cape Clear in 14 days. Simeon after living at Shag 
Harbor proposed to settle at the forks of the Pubnico and Barrington 
(River) road. He was advised to go up further where the Oaks were. 
This was partly back of the township line. He took out a grant for 
five persons at "Provost Town", now Oak Park where many of his 
descendants live. 

JOSHUA NICKERSON, gr., m. Esther Ryder. 
Ch. I Levi m. (a) Sarah d. Samuel Hamilton, gr. 

Ch. (1) Levi b. 1786 m. Christiana d. James Gibson, Clyde. 
Ch. 1 . Joseph m. 1823, Susan d. Nehemiah Kenny. 
Ch. Christiana, Mary, Evelina. 

2. Samuel m. (a) Christiana Nickerson. 

(6) Mary d. Daniel Crowell. 
(c) Elizabeth d. Michael Swim. 
Ch. Hannah m. Thomas Banks. 
Isaac m. 

3. Levi m. Mercy d. Judah Crowell. 

Ch. Gilbert m. Ida Doane. 

Jeremiah m. Emma d. Lorenzo Goodwin. 

4. Priscilla m. Leonard s. Nehemiah Kenney. 

5. Daniel m. Jedidah d. Judah Kendrick. 

Ch. Mary Ellen m. Ephraim Larkin. 
Sarah m. Isaac Goodwin, Canso. 
David m. Alice Gowen, Yarmouth. 
Charles m. Cl. Hr. 

6. Joshua m. Sarah d. Jonathan Doane. 

7. Wilson m. Reliance McLean, P. Saxon. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 535 

8. John m. Fanny d. Benj. Snow. P. Latour. 

9. Margaret m. James Greenwood. 
Ch. Susan m. Thomas Smith, P. Saxon. 

Joshua m. Evelina d. Joseph Nickerson. 
I Levi m. (6) Jane d. Henry Wilson, gr. 

Ch. (2) Isaac m. Abigail d. Nathaniel Crowell, 

Ch. 1 . James Melvin m. Hipsabeth d. Rev.Albert Swim 
Ch. Isaac m. Rebecca d. Watson Smith. 
Emma m. Howard Shand. 
Jessie m. William Swim. 

2. Mary Eliza m. (a) Zenos Banks; (6) James 

Banks. 

3. William m. Abigail d. Joshua Nickerson. 

4. Abigail Junm. 

(3) Joshua m. Hipsabeth Smith. 

Ch. 1. Theodore m. Lydia A. Goodwin. 

Ch. Charles m. Sophronia Larkin. 
2. Abigail m. William s. William Crowell. 

(4) Nehemiah m. Jedidah d. Nehemiah Kenney. 
Ch. 1. George m. Maria d. Nathaniel Crowell. 

2. Sarah m. James Banks. 

(5) Sarah m. Solomon s. Wm. Adams. 

(6) Susan m. (a) Nathaniel s. Asa Knowles. 

(6) Eaton s. Anse.1 Crowell. 

(7) Zeruiah m. Ensign s. Moses Nickerson. 

(8) Esther m. David s. Theodore Smith. 

(9) Bethia m. Zenos s. Zenos Nickerson. 

II Zenos b. 1767 m. Martha b. 1770 d. Gideon Nickerson. 
Ch. (1) Reuben b. 1790 m. Martha d. Josiah Sears. 
Ch. 1. David m. Martha d. Solomon Adams. 

Ch. Deborah m. Hezekiah Smith.; Eaton m. 
Adra d. Andrew Larkin; Mary m. Israel 
s. Armstrong Hopkins; Sarah m. Nathan- 
iel Horton; Delilah m. (a) Asa Nickerson; 
(6) David Horton; (c) Leander Swaine; 
Dorcas m. Thomas McLeod; Theodore m. 
Mary d. Scott Nickerson. 

2. Leonard m. Mary d. Solomon Adams. 

Ch. Solomon m. Ruth H. d. Samuel Nickerson. 
Rachel m. Joseph Atkinson; Lovitt m. Sarah 
Nickerson; Tabitha, unm. 

3. Lucy b. 1813 m. David Adams. 

4. Huldah m. Samuel Smith. 



536 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



5. Sarah m. Valentine Nickerson. 

6. Martha m. (a) Heman s. Samuel Nickerson. 

(b) Samuel s. Benj. Nickerson. 

(c) James Nickerson, Cape Island. 

7. Jerusha b. 1815. 

(2) Zenos b. 1793 m. Bethia d. Levi Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Bethia m. James Nickerson. 

2. Valentine m. Sarah d. Reuben Nickerson. 

Ch. Charles, Lydia. 

3. Absalom b. 1818. 

4. John; 5. Thirza m. Levi s. Eaton Crowell. 
6. Mary b. 1815. 

(3) Benjamin b. 1802 m. Lydia d. Samuel Kimball. 
Ch. 1 . Benjamin m. Ripley, Annapolis. 

2. Joshua m. Eliza d. J. G. Allen, Lockport. 

3. Jeremiah m. Margaret d. Wm. Fisher. 

4. Judah, unm. 

5. Gideon m. Maria d. James Goodwin. 

6. Mehitable m. (a) Thomas s. Zaccheus Nicker- 

son. (6) Hugh Greenwood. 
Ch. Joseph A. 

(4) Joshua m. Sarah d. Nehemiah Kenney. 

1. David Gowen m. Sarah d. Gideon Crowell. 

2. Leonard m. Nancy d. Ansel (Ansel) Crowell. 

Ch. Eugene. 

(5) Caleb m. Mary Connell. 

(6) James m. Mercy d. Elkanah Smith, gr. 

(7) Mehitable. 

(8) Gideon b. 1788 m. Mary Christie, P. Latour. 
Ch. 1. Susanna b. 1807 m. George Goodwin. 

2. William b. 1813. 

3. Martha b. 1814. 

(9) Lucy b. 1795. 

(10) Wm. Andrew. 

(11) James b. 1797. (12) Valentine, b. 1804. 

Ill Joshua m. Tabitha d. Anson Kendrick gr. He lived on 
his father's First Division at The Head. His widow m. James s. 
Archelaus Smith, gr. 

Ch. (1) Esther b. 1786 m. Samuel Watson. 

(2) Edward b. 1787, went abroad. 

(3) Joshua m. Mary of Cape Cod. 

Ch. Seth (unm.); Sarah m. Barry Nickerson, S. Side. 

(4) Tabitha. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 537 

1 _____ _ , 

(5) Martha b. 1794 m. Hezekiah Newell. 

(6) Azuba m. Peter Kenney. 

(7) Levi m. Miranda d. John Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. John E. m. Naamah d. Reuben Smith. 

2. Azuba m. Harrington Messenger, Clyde. 

3. Thomas m. Jane Daley, Argyle. 

4. Smith m. Sarah d. Reuben Smith. 

5. Seth m. Mary Daley, Argyle. 

6. Elizabeth m. (a) Edward Pierce. 

(6) Jacob Nickerson. 

7. Tabitjia m. William Newell. 

8. Asa m. Melissa d. Collins Newell. 

9. Susan m. Reuben d. Reuben SmitJh. 
10. Merinda m. Watson s. John Goodwin. 

IV Simeon m. Martha d. Anson Kendrick, gr. 

Ch. (1) John b. 1799 m. Mary d. William Adams. 

Ch. 1. Jonathan m. Susan d. Isaac Banks. 

2. Theodore m. Lucena d. Josiah .Nickerson. 

3. Samuel m. Abigail d. Scott Nickerson. 

4. Elmira m. Ephraim Pierce. 

5. Bathsheba m. Jonathan s. David Crowell, 

P. Latour. 

6. Eliza m. James Warren s. Josiah Nickerson. 

(2) Josiah m. (a) Delilah Swain. 

(6) Rebecca (Kendrick) Shaw. 
Ch. 1. Joseph m. Mary Ann Larkin. 

2. James Warren m. Eliza d. John Nickerson. 

3 . Wm. Edward m. Azuba d. Kendrick Nickerson. 

4. Letitia m. David Blades, Pubnico. 

5. Lucena m. (a) Theodore Nickerson. 

(6) Walter Blades. 
Ch. Rhoda m. Charles Crowell. 
Delilah m. Prince Nickerson. 
Jemima m. Darling 
Sophronia m. Frank Smith. 
Snadden m. (a) Ann Jones; (6) Eva Worthen. 
Charles m. Ella Worthen. 

6. Mary Jane m. George Goodwin, Pubnico. 

7. Cordelia m. Jethro s. Solomon Nickerson. 

8. Emily m. Josiah Adams. 

(3) Anson b. 1792 m. Margaret Glance. 

Ch. 1. John m. 1835 Abigail d. Joshua Nickerson. 



538 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



Ch. Margaret m. William s. Nelson Purdy. 
Hannah m. William Blades. 
Bennison m. Reliance d. Joshua Nickerson. 
Jacob m. Sarah d. Henry Watson. 
William m.(a) Patience d. David Nickerson. 

(6) Irene Stoddart. 
Donald m. (a) Ellen Swift, Cedarville, Mass. 

(6) Esther Goddard, N. H. 
Henry (unm.); Charles (unm.). 
Abigail m. Andrew Acker. 
James m. Hannah d. Joseph Nickerson. 
Susan m. Ann d. Joseph Nickerson. 
Joseph m. Seretha d. Joseph Sears. 

2. Martha b. 1816. 

3. Philip m. Lucy Trott. 

Ch. Julia m. Goodwin. 

4. Simeon m. Esther Acker. 

Ch. Jane m. Cornelius Cunningham. 

(4) William b. 1802 m. Hannah Crowell (lived at 

Jordan.) 
Ch. 1. David; 2. Padmon; 3. Hannah. 

(5) Letitia m. Anderson s. John Kendrick. 

(6) Phebem. (a) Henry Watson. 

(6) Joshua Kenney, Cl. Hr. 
Ch. (a) Thomas W. Watson. 

(6) Sarah m. Jacob s. John Nickerson. 

(7) Samuel b. 1794; 

(8) Elizabeth b. 1795. 

V Caleb m. Lucy d. Elkanah Smith, gr. 

Ch. Richard, Steven, Caleb, Asa, Joshua, Smith, Elkanah, 
Sarah, Hetty. (The family moved to Sambro and 
Eastward, but Joshua and Elkanah returned to W. 
Baccaro. 

(1) Joshua b. 1799 m. (a) Ann d. Zephaniah Swain. 

(6) Mary Nelson. 
Ch. 1. William (unm.); 

2 . Lydia m. Caleb s. Steven Nickerson. 

3 . Sarah m. Albert s. Asa McGray 

4 . Jemima m. Nathan s. James Perry. 

5. Mary m. Samuel s. Richard Smith, C. N. 

(2) Elkanah m Catharine d. Chapman Swain, Jr. 
Ch. 1. James m. Margaret d. John Lyle, Sr. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



539 



Ch. John m. Estelle d. Andrew Snow. 

Arthur; Dawson; Josiah; George m. 
(a) Rebecca Robertson; (6) Mrs. Ross; Susan 
m. Thomas s. Jonathan Crowell; Adeline; 
Margaret. 

2. Harvey m. Margaret d. David Watt. 

3. Matthew m. Martha d. James Perry. 

4. Sophia m. James s. Benjamin Snow. 

5. Sophronia m. Isaac Van Emburg, Argyle. 

6 . Josiah. 

VI Reuben m. (a) Tabitha d. Solomon Smith, Jr., gr. 

(6) Margaret (Crowell) Kendrick. 
Ch. (1) Mary m. Samuel s. David Wood. 

(2) Bethiah b. 1797 m. Isaac Banks. 

(3) Simeon b. 1799 m. 
Ch. 1. Reuben m. Armina. 

2. Sophia. 

3. Tabitha m. Elias Banks. 

(4) Solomon b. 1810 m. Ann d. Jesse Smith. 
Ch. 1. Smith (unm.) 

2. Martha m. Steven, s. David Nickerson. 

3. Louise m. Joseph s. David Nickerson. 

4. Hannah E. m. David s. David Nickerson. 

5. Teresa m. Charles Lowell. 

6. Jethro m. Delia d. Josiah Nickerson. 

NATHAN NICKERSON. Brown's History of Yarmouth tells 
of a Yarmouth grantee of this name for whom Nickerson's Island 
was named and who was a Surveyor of salt marsh in 1767. There 
were disputes about marsh lands but no further mention of Nathan 
Nickerson. He was likely the Barrington settler who bought the 
Hibbert lot, third division at Eel Bay and lived there. He had been 
Captain of a Br. transport as far back as the capture of Louisburg. 
It is remembered that he claimed that what he didn't know about 
law, his wife "knew, and what she didn't know, the deil knew." 
His wife was a widow Godfrey nee Cole. His father was Eben Nick- 
erson of Chatham. 

He moved from Eel Bay to Blanche and then the old folks spent 
their last days at the home of their son-in-law Chapman Swain. 

He had a varied collection of implements of war and navigation. 
His sister Dorcas m. Stephen Nickerson, gr. 

There was a SPARROW NICKERSON among the residents 



540 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

of Barrington at the census of 1762. Daniel Nickerson (wife Mercy) 
lived in Barrington about the same time. 

NATHAN NICKERSON s.Eben m. 1761 Susan (Godfrey), Cole, 
d. Josiah Godfrey, at Chatham. He obtained Lot No. 86, second 
Division and lived at Blanche. 
Ch. I Charles m. (a) Susan d. Elkanah Smith, gr. 

(6) Elizabeth. 
(1) Nathan b. 1798. 
II Sarah m. Isaac s. Elkanah Smith, gr. 

III Susan m. Chapman s. Chapman Swain, gr. 

IV Jedidah m. Benjamin s. Solomon Kendrick, gr. 

PRINCE NICKERSON, lot No. 40, at the Head, where he 
lived several years. In 1768 he was one of a committee to lay out 
Town lots. In 1783 the Proprietors voted that Prince Nickerson 
with five others shall have their lots of land where their houses stand 
equal with other Proprietors in the (Second) Division. That was at 
Cape Negro, and he had already moved there. Donaldson obtained 
his land at the Head and his interest on Cape Island was sold to Ste- 
phen Nickerson. One son, Eldad Nickerson, built many vessels at 
Cape Negro. Sparrow and Thomas also and their families contri- 
buted greatly to the development of the community. 

PRINCE NICKERSON, gr., m. (a) Lydia d Reuben Cohoon, 
gr., (6) Ruth Atkins. They both died before he left Cape Cod. He 
m. (c) Mary d. Jonathan Crowell, Sr., gr. 
Ch. I Ansel, a pilot of warships; had a grant at Marie Joseph, N. S. 

and lived there. 
II Eldad b. 1772 d. 1854 m. Mercy d. Theodore Smith. 

Ch. (1) Sparrow m. Cecilia d. Wm. Greenwood, 2nd. 
Ch. 1. Andrew m. Mahala d. Knowles Nickerson. 

2. James m. Mary Lane, Gloucester. 

3. William, lost on the Banks. 

4. Josiah m. Matilda Stoddart. 
(2)' James m. Sophia d. James Cox. 
Ch. 1. William, unm. 

2. Alexander died young. 

3. Henry m. Jemima d. Enoch Smith. 

(3) Prince m. Widow Tait (Bannister). 
Ch. 1. William. 

2. Mary. 

(4) Mary m. Samuel s. Wm. Greenwood, 1st. 

(5) Deborah b 1797 m. Alexander fe. John Lyle. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 541 

Ch. Deborah, Mercy, Barbara, Margaret, Isabel, 

Alexander, John, James. 
(6) Mercy m. Howes s. Jonathan Smith. 
Ch. 1. Prince m. Mary d. Thomas Nickerson. 

2. Esther m. Joshua Pierce. 

3. Deborah. 

4. Mary m. Heman Swaine. 

III Sparrow m. Tabitha d. Theodore Smith. 
Ch. (1) John b. 1809 m. Hannah Swain. 

Ch. 1. Charles 2. David. 3. Elizabeth 4. Abigail. 

5. Anne m. William McKay. 

6. George?. William. 8. Alice 9. Ida. 

(2) James m. Mary Thomas. 
Ch. 1. Moses. 

2. Seth m. Thomas. 

(3) Eldad m. Alice d. Thomas s. Elisha Smith. 

(4) Esther m. Samuel Swain. 

(5) Mercy m. Seth Reynolds. 

(6) Mary Ann m. Nathan Smith. 

(7) David S. b. 1813. 

(8) Martha b. 1817. 

IV Lucena m. David Thomas. 

(1) Mary b. 1807 m. 1834 S. 0. Doane 3rd. 

V Thomas m. Sarah Doane, Roseway. 

Ch. (1) Susan m. Heman s. David Crowell. 

(2) Lydia m. Samuel Smith, Village dale. 

(3) Mary m. Prince Smith, Me. 

(4) William. 

VI Anna m. John s. Nathaniel Smith, Jr., gr. 

(1) David Kirby m. Susan d. Wm. Snow. 
VII Esther m. Samuel s. Joseph (Joseph) Swain. 
VIII Elizabeth, unm. 

RICHARD NICKERSON, Lot No. 14, This grantee was a 
brother of Joshua Nickerson, gr. His wife was Sarah d. Absalom 
Nickerson of Chatham and niece of Stephen. Richard died in 1774 
and his widow m. Samuel Penny in 1786. They moved to South 
Side, Cape Island where Richard's sons, Seth and Richard were 
drowned in 1789; Absalom and Moses married and settled there. 

RICHARD NICKERSON, gr., m. Sarah (Spinks) d. Absalom 

and Sarah Nickerson. 
Ch. I Absalom, b. 1767 m. Susan d. Gideon Nickerson. 

Ch. (1) Richard m. Lettice d. Thomas Doane, 2nd. 



542 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. 1. Thomas m. Sarah d. Zara Smith. 

Ch. James m. Nancy d. Theodore Smith 

P. Latour. 

Richard m. Mary d. Wm. Burke Crowell. 
Joseph m. Mary d. Willard Atwood. 
Elias m. Sophia d. John Smith. 

2. Seth; 

3. Moses; 

4 . Heman. 

5. Lucy m. Jethro Trott; 

6. Eunice (unm.) 

(2) Seth m. Mehitable d. Judah (Ansel) Crowell. 
Ch. 1. Doane m. Charlotte d. Abijah Crowell. 

2. Darius m. Elizabeth d. Abijah Crowell. 

(3) Joshua m. Sarah (Aktinson ) Smith. 

Ch. 1. Ann m. Nehemiah s. Coleman Crowell. 

2. Leonard m. Nancy d. Ansel Crowell. 

3. Elizabeth m. Heber s. Lombard Nickerson. 

4. Barry m. Nancy d. Vincent Cunningham. 

(4) Mercy m. George s. James Smith. 

II Moses b. 1769 m. Susanna d. Heman Kenney, gr. 
Ch. (1) William b. 1789 m. Sarah d. Isaac Kenney. 

Ch. 1. Richard m. McGill. 

2 . James. 

3. Mary. 

4. William. 

5. Sophia. 

6. Ensign m. Margery d. Wm. McConnell, Yarm. 

(2) Absalom m. Eunice d. Elisha Hopkins, 2nd. 
Ch. 1. Isaac m. Mary d. Thomas Banks. 

Ch. Effie; Horace; Ann m. Wm. Kenney. 

2. Mercy m. Edward s. Ensign Nickerson. 

3. Matilda b. 1818 m. Nehemiah Kenney. 

4. Susanna m. Ensign s. Edward Hopkins. 

(3) Mary m. Edward s. Elisha Hopkins, gr. 

(4) Ensign m. Zeruiah d. Levi Nickerson. 

Ch. 1. Edward m. Mercy d. Absalom Nickerson. 
Ch. Arthur m. Adelaide d. W. H. Swim. 
Bethia m. Alfred s. Nehemiah Banks. 

(5) Mercy m. Willard s. Joseph Atwood, gr. 

(6) Sophia m. Levi s. Eaton Crowell. 

III Seth b. 1771. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 543 

IV Richard b. 1774, drowned. After this grantee's death, 

his widow m. Samuel Penney Aug. 1786, who was 
drowned with his wife's sons Seth and Richard. 
V Eunice m. Daniel V. s. John Cunningham. 
VI Ensign moved to the Passage. 

STEPHEN NICKERSON, gr., lot No. 20, lived for several 
years on his First division lot at the Millstream, but afterwards 
moved to West Head, Cape Island. He was one of the Proprietors' 
Committee for laying the second and third Division lots. His wife 
was Martha Adams. They had six daughters. The rock which 
crosses the post road by the Old Mill Stream used to be called Uncle 
Stephen's Rock, and some remains of his house cellar and an apple 
tree of his day and name were there a few years ago. Stephen Nick- 
erson had a fish-lot, No. 80 at Cape Negro. When only twenty 
years of age he went on the military expedition against Louisburg 
and was present when it was surrendered to the British. 

STEPHEN NICKERSON, gr., m. 1782 Martha (Hallett) 

Adams, widow, mother of William Adams, Sr. 
Ch. I Elizabeth, b. 1782, m. John Osborn s. Hezekiah Smith. 
II Martha b. 1786, m. Gideon Crowell, Cape Cod. 

III Eunice b. 1787, m. Henry Newell, 2nd. 

IV Sarah b. 1791 m. Archelaus Smith, 3rd. 

V Phebe m. Benjamin Goodwin, Pubnico. 
VI Mary m. Henry Blades. 

Stephen died in 1801, his wife in 1830. 

JAMES OBED was in a vessel from Sweden and wrecked at 

Cape Sable about 1820. He settled at South Side and married 

daughter Barry Crowell. They moved to Blanche and lived on the 
ministerial lot there with James, father Anthony Perry, Peter Conk, 
and Reuben> son Jonathan Smith. He was drowned in 1883. 

MORTIMER O'CONNOR m. Lucinda d. John Garron. 
Ch. (1) Joan m. George Wright. 

(2) Jane m. Joshua Atwood. 

(3) Lydia m. Joshua Atwood. 

(4) Patrick (5) William (6) John 

(7) Michael (8) George (9) Alexander 

(10) Charles m. Mercy d. James McCommiskey. t 

JABEZ OSBORN m. Hannah d. Eleazar Hibbard. 



644 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. I. Samuel m. Sophia d. Josiah Harding and moved to Eastport. 
II. John m 1811 Elizabeth d. David Wood. 
Ch. (1) Hannah m. David Atwood. 

(2) Maria m. James s. James Doane. 

(3) Elizabeth m. Osborn s. James Doane. 

(4) John m. Jane d. Isaac Knowles. 
Ch. Bertha m. Marion, Mass. 

(5) Harriet m. James s. Elisha Atwood. 
Ill Elizabeth m. 1804 Obed. Crowell. 

Ch. Sarah m. Dennison s. David Hibbert. 
IV Hannah m. Colman s. Moses Crowell. 

V William m. Lydia d. Jacob Kelley Yarmouth. 
VI Nancy m. Joshua Baker, Eastport. 

Mrs. Jabez Osborn came a widow to Barrington after the death 
of her husband in Yarmouth,where they first came from N. England. 
She afterwards married Joseph s. Solomon Kendrick gr. 



SAMUEL OSBORNE gr. was born in Ireland of Scotch parents; 
a graduate of Dublin University, educated for the ministry. In 1712 
he was teaching at Sandwich, Mass., at a salary of 25 pounds. From 
1718 to 1737 he was the settled minister at Eastham, but was 
"ejected" from his office as not sufficiently Galvinistic. He became 
a grantee of Barrington, but fared hard in pioneer work: said that 
"never anywhere else did the Lord rain porridge but he sent also a 
dish to put it in.*' He left the Province about 1770 and died in Bos- 
ton when over 90 years of age. His First Division lot was No. 68. 
He did not exercise his ministry in Barrington. John Howard 
Paine, author of "Home, Sweet Home" was his g. g. son. 

SAMUEL OSBORN gr. m (a) Jedidah d. Benjamin and Jedidah 
(Mayhew) Smith. (6) Experience, widow Elisha Hopkins, Chatham. 
Ch. I Elizabeth m. (a) Capt. Myrick, d. at Louisburg. 
Ch. (1) Elizabeth m. (a) Solomon Lewis. 
Ch. 1 John m. Rebecca Crowell. 

(6) Thomas Doane gr. 
(6) William Payne. 
(2) William Payne. 

Ch. John Howard Paine. 
(c) Edmund Doane, gr. 
II Abigail m. 1749 John Homer, prop'r. 



WILLIAM PATTERSON, was of Irish descent. He came to 
Port Latour, c. 1810 from the U.S. with Knowles Reynolds, and car- 
ried on business at Reynoldscroft first in company with one Fielding 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 545 



and then on his own account. He promoted the building of the brid- 
ges at Eel Bay and the opening of Patterson's Road. 



WILLIAM PATTERSON m. d. Mrs. James Snow. 

Ch. (1) William m. Eleanor d. Samuel Smith, C. N. 
Ch. Samuel, Effie. 

(2) Eliza m. William Horton. 

(3) Sarah m. James Nickerson, Prospect. 

(4) Mary m. Freeman s. Joseph Swain gr. C. N. 



SAMUEL PENNEY, a soldier of English parentage who after 
the Revolution received a grant of land at Port L'Hebert. He came 
to the Head and married Sarah widow of Richard Nickerson, gr. in 
1786, and lived first on the Robert Laskey lot, No. 41 and then at 
South Side. Here in 1789 the boat in which he and his step-sons 
Seth and Richard were fishing was upset by a squall and they all were 
drowned. The two Penney children Daniel and Sarah were sup- 
ported by their mother's loom. 

(1) Daniel m. 1808, Elizabeth d. Ansel Crowell, Shag 
Harbor. 

Ch. 1. Samuel m. (a) Brannen (6) Swim. 

Ch. Rachel m. Job s. George Swim. 

2. Jacob m. Duncan (d. Samuel) 

3. Prince. 

4 . John. 

5. Leonard m. Mary Nickerson. 

6. Abijah m. Salome d. Smith Swim. 

7. Abram m. Zeruiah d. Albert Swim. 

8. Eleazar m. Brannen. 

9. Daniel m. (a) Mehitable Ross. 

(6) Sarah Smith, W. Hd. 

10. Joseph m. Sarah Atkinson. 

11. Sarah m. 1827, John Lewis Swim. 

12. Mary m. Benjamin s. Thomas Ross. 

13. Elizabeth Ann m. Doane Nickerson. 

(2) Sarah m. Barry s. Archelaus Crowell. 

PERRY. Samuel Perry of Long Id. and his sons, Samuel and 
Silas, were in active service for the King in a privateer of their own 
during the Revolution. They had grants in Shelburne, but moved 
to Black Point later and settled there. The children of Silas were: 
(1) Hannah m. (a) Elisha Dexter, 
(6) Abial Hagar. 



546 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

(2) Nancy m. Dr. Littlewood, Ingomar. 

(3) James m. Sophia d. Isaac King, C. Negro. 
Ch. 1. Edward m. Ellen Kelley. 

Ch. James m. Alice d. Wm. Thomas. 

2. Anthony m. (a) Matilda d. Caleb Nickerson. 

(6) Hannah d. Wm. Sholds. 

3. Martha m. Matthew s. Elkanah Nickerson. 

4 . Eliza Ann m. Alvin Rathburn, Noank, N. Y. 

5. Sarah m. Andrew Snow. 

6. Rebecca m. David Aiken. 

7. Mercy m. Samuel Snow U. P. Latour. 

8 . Nathan m. Jemima d. Joshua Nickerson, Ponds 

9. John. 

ALEXANDER PHILLIPS was an officer of the brig "Whitwell 
Grange" which struck on the Cape Ledges in 1841 and was disabled 
and taken into Barrington for repairs. He left the brig, and settled 
first at Doctor's Cove, then at Clarks Hr. For several winters he 
taught school and many young men studied navigation under him. 
His wife, like himself, a native of Scotland, died, and he married 
Susanna d. Stephen Smith. Afterwards he moved to Halifax. 
Ch. (1) Alexander m. Priscilla Hebb. 

(2) Osborn m. Edith d. Joseph Crowell. 

(3) George m. Anne L Rev. Albert Swim. 

(4) Abigail m. Smith. 

(5) Susan m. Adams, Halifax. 

JONATHAN PINKHAM, lot No 51. His name appears often 
in the Proprietors' Records where he was Moderator for seven years 
in succession after the Grant. He was a magistrate. His property 
was forfeited like that of others for conduct at the Revolution. After 
he went away, about 1775, it was occupied by Mrs. Jemima Gardner, 
widow of Solomon Gardner and d. Coffin and drawn by her in the 
Second and Third Divisions. He with four others had land in com- 
mon on the West side of Bryant's Neck, "known as the Hill, where 
the French Settlement was". His wife's name was Hepsibah. 



RICHARD PINKHAM was a Quaker of Nantucket, who was 
whaling far North during the Revolution, and whose vessel was cap- 
tured and he and others compelled to do duty. At Halifax Pinkham 
and others escaped and he and a companion named Coffin reached 
Barrington. Here he married and in 1784 drew the Second Division 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 547 

lot of his brother-in-law, Isaac Annable, whose house andjlands he 
bought in 1785 for 25 pounds. 

RICHARD PINKHAM, b. 1752, s. Richard Pinkham of Nan- 
tucket, descendant of a first settler of Dover, N. H. of the same name. 
Richard Pinkham m 1777 Lydia d. John Coffin gr. 

Ch. I Rhoda, b. 1778, d. 1782. 

II Parnel b. 1780 m. John s. Gamaliel Kenney. 

III Deborah b. 1787 m Gamaliel s Gamaliel Kenney. 

IV John Davis b. 1790, m. 1812 (a) Catherine Ryer, Shelburne. 

(6) Ann Firth, widow,|Shelb. 
Ch. (1) John Coffin m. (a) Nickerson. 

(6) Deborah Smith, P. L. 
Ch. Edward m. Mary E. d. Archelaus Crowell. 

(2) Lydia m. Addison Parsons. 

(3) Conrad b. 1819, m. (a) Ann Etherington. 

(6) Margaret Crowell, Lockeport. 
Ch. 1 Elmira m Chase, W. Harwick, Mass. 

2. Conrad. 

3. Walter m. Frances d. Wm. L. Crowell. 

(4) Richard b. 1824 m. Anna Collins. 

(5) Parnel. 

(6) Catharine. 

(7) Deborah m. Jabez Snow. 

(8) Mercy m. William Rap. 

(9) George Henry m. Ellen Lewis. 

(10) William Wallace b. 1836 m. Harriet d. Charles 
Firth. 

V Matthew b. 1792 m. Mary d. Joseph Homer. 
Ch. (1) Tristram. 

(2) Mary Eliza m. David Doane. 
VI Rhoda m. (a) Enos s. Enos Knowles 

(6) John s. Joseph Kendrick. 
VII Josiah m. (a) Martha Elvira d. Prince Doane. 

(6) Sarah Harding. 
Ch. (1) Samuel m. Laura March. 

(2) James Doane m. 
Ch. Emma 

(3) Rosanna m. J. Smith s. Edward Kendrick. 

(4) Sarah m. William s. Allen Smith. 
VIII Rosanna m. James H. s. James Doane. 

JOHN PORTER was a grantee of Barrington. His wife's 



548 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



name was Mehitable. He had two sons. He sold out his proprie- 
tor's rights, First Division No. 37, to Capt. David Smith in 1769 and 
moved away. Except that he came among the Cape Cod people we 
do not know his antecedents, nor where he went. He was the first 
Proprietor's clerk and wrote and spelled well. 

JOHN POWELL an English soldier, who came from New York 
to Shelburne at its settlement. He m. Betsy Hamilton of Shelburne 
River, and after living there some time moved to Upper Port Latour. 
Their son John m. Eliza d. James Snow; one d. Betsy m. 1805 John 
Hamilton, Shelburne River; another, Mary m. Robert Andrews, 
Tusket Lakes. John Powell was one of the first settlers at Cat 
Point. His son Wm. Powell lived at Port Latour and was for a period 
keeper of the Poorhouse at Barrington. 

PURDY. Joseph and Nathaniel Purdy were brothers from 
"Katskill on the Hudson," N. York. Nathaniel was born there. 
He was in the British army in the Revolution, and went overseas and 
fought at Waterloo; he was never wounded. At Granville, N. S. he 
married and went to Brier Id. and to Port Latour. Joseph came to 
St. Mary's Bay and married there after which c. 1825, he came to 
Barrington, and lived at Solid Rock. Joseph was a good carpenter 
and head workman in building McDougalFs bridge. 
JOSEPH m. Mary Lycett, St. Mary's Bay. 

Ch. Nelson, Joseph, Daniel, Christopher, Rhoda, Harriet, 
Mary, Fanny, Sarah. 

NATHANIEL PURDY m Christine Worcester, Granville. 
Ch. (1) Jacob m. Rhoda Huskins. 

(2) Abram m. Jerusha Worthen. 

(3) Nathaniel 1828-1919. 



MATTHEW QUINLAN was a man-of-war's man, who had set- 
tled in Pubnico at the conclusion of the Napoleonic and American 
wars. He came to Cape Id. and married Roxanna d. Thomas Ross. 
His sons were: George, Aaron, Jeremiah, Norman, and William; his 
daughters, Susan, Rebecca, Mary and Alice. Mr. Quinlan regarded 
no man as a sailor unless his fingers would serve him as a marlinspike. 

REV. EDWARD REYNOLDS, Irish sergeant-major in the British 
army in The Peninsular War, was sent to England to drill re- 
cruits. Converted in the army he became a Methodist preacher. 
His wife's family, name Townsend, probably of Bolton, Lancashire 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 549 



bought his discharge and he came to St. John, N. B. with his family. 
While there his Regiment came to the city and crowds of his old com- 
rades came to hear him preach and made a generous collection for 
him, which the church steward refused to give him. As his term of 
service hardly warranted a pension his colonel had promised to get 
him a grant of land up St. John river, but, dying soon after, nothing 
was done. Mr. Reynolds moved to N. Scotia, first to Cornwallis, 
then to Annapolis, then to Caledonia, then to Barrington, about 
1824. He lived at Port Latour a while on the Morris place, and then 
settled at Goose Point adjoining Mr. Lamrocks. Soon after arriving 
he was ordained a F. W. B. minister by Revs. Asa McGray and Tho- 
mas Crowell, June 1825. Mr. Reynolds had a soldierly bearing, an 
original and striking style of preaching, and was greatly beloved by 
the people. A service, which he called a "Bethel" service, on board 
a vessel at Sherose Id. revealed his power to succeed against difficul- 
ties, and probably, suggested the name for the meeting-house after- 
wards built by his denomination on Brass Hill. 

Margaret taught school at Rev. Asa McGray's on Cape Id. Mrs. 
Reynolds was a capable energetic woman. It is said that on a Satur- 
day a sheep was sheared and the wool cleaned, carded, spun and wo- 
ven into cloth and a pair of trousers made all in time for her husband's 
use on the following day. Mr. Reynolds died of asthma. He was 
generally known as "Daddy" Reynolds. 

EDWARD REYNOLDS, m. Townsend. 

Ch. (1) Josiah m. Martha d. John Snow. 

(2) Mary Ann m. Gideon Thomas, Village Dale. 

(3) Eliza m. J. J. Thomas. 

(4) Sarah m. David Crowell, V. Dale. 

(5) Jane m. Judah Crowell, Shag Hr. 

(6) Margaret m. Samuel Smith, Port Saxon. 

(7) Edward m. Sarah Kendrick. 

(8) Dorothy m. Richard King, Jr. 



JOHN REYNOLDS, son of John (Londonderry and Boston) 
and Thankful (Godfrey) Reynolds came to Barrington when 18 years 
of age. His widowed mother m. David Smith gr. John bought the 
Walker lot No. 30, but sold out in 1793 and moved to Port Latour 
(Reynoldscroft) 

JOHN, m. 1775, Temperance d. Joshua Atwood, gr. 
Ch. I Temperance, b. 1776, m. Joseph s. Joseph Swain, gr. 
II Fanny m. Paul s. Zephaniah Swain. 
Ill Joshua, lost at sea, 1803. 



550 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

IV Samuel b. 1781, m. Lydia d. Zephaniah Swain. 
Ch. (1) Tristram m. Letitia Smith. 

Ch. 1. Euphemia m. Augustus Bowers. 

2. Lydia m. Charles Bowers. 

3. Knowles m. Elizabeth Reynolds. 

4. Harriet m. Harvey Nickerson. 

5. Tristram, lost at sea. 

6. Bathsheba m. Jonathan Crowell. 

7. Letitia (unm.) 

8. Abram (unm.) 

9. Samuel m. Dorcas Newell. 

(2) Joshua b. 1806. 

(3) Elizabeth b. 1813 m. James Swain, C. N. 

(4) Samuel (5) Sarah Ann (unm.) 
(6) Lydia m. Aaron Banks. 

V John b. 1779 m. Margaret Ryer. 

Ch. (1) Elizabeth m. Knowles Reynolds. 

(2) Margaret m. Cornelius Snow. 

(3) John Samuel m. Olivia Sholds. 

(4) Robert m. Banks. 

(5) William. 

(6) Mary Jane (unm.) 

John was impressed on a Liverpool privateer, Capt. Barss, and 
lost at sea. 

VI Joseph b. 1785 m. Rhoda d. Benjamin Snow. 
Ch. (1) Joseph b. 1808 m. Catherine Worthen. 

(2) Rhoda m. Freeman s. Jonathan Crowell. 

(3) Seth. b. 1811 m. Mercy d. John Nickerson, C. N. 

(4) Joshua m. Eleanor d. Wm. Swain. 

(5) Sarah, b. 1816 m. Isaac s. Seth Snow. 

(6) Samuel. 

(7) Esther m. Samuel s. Chapman Swain. 
VII Thankful b. 1791, m. Richard s. Abram Smith. 

VIII Susanna b. 1793 m. Chapman Swain. 
IX Mary m. Benjamin Snow. 
X Knowles, b. 1796 m. Mary d. Jonathan Smith. 

WM. ROBERTSON was born in Renfrew, Scotland in 1765. At 
14 years of age he came to N. York and was a clerk there until the 
war ended and then came to Shelburne with the Loyalists. Here he 
carried on business for some time going as supercargo in vessels with 
his ventures and trading with Newfoundland. He moved to Yar- 
mouth and there married Sarah Van Orden of Tusket of a family o 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 551 

Shelburne Loyalists. He was appointed as notary public and 
settled at Barrington Passage in 1814 for the Cape Sable Coast was 
noted as a ships' graveyard. Here he established a blacksmith 
business in which his sons were associated with him. He be- 
came a justice of the Peace for the County in 1792, was noted for a 
marvellous memory, and was esteemed and influential in the life of 
the township. Himself Presbyterian, his wife Episcopalian, they 
both held tenaciously to their modes of worship and the home thus 
became the nucleus of the two churches of those denominations in 
the township. Mr. Robertson had a brother John, who was a weav- 
er in Scotland and who came to Barrington for a time and carried 
the mailis afoot from Shelburne to Yarmouth. John s. William Rob- 
ertson carried on a general trade at the Passage. 

WM. ROBERTSON 1765-1854 m. Sarah d. Gabriel Van Orden. 
Ch. (1) John b. 1811 m. Susan Stalker. 

(2) Sarah b. 1813 m. Thomas s. Ebenezer Crowell. 

(3) William b. 1815 m. Nancy d. Joseph Homer. 

Ch. Charles m. Helen Penney, Halifax. 

(4) Robert m. Sarah d. William Richan, Yarmouth. 
Ch. 1. T4)omas (Hon.) m. Josephine d. J. G. Allen 

Lockeport. 

2. Ann. 

3. Robert. 

4 . Henry. 

(5) Gabriel m. Isabella d. John Stalker. 

Ch. 1 . John 2. Gabriel m. Ella d. Prince Crowell. 

3. Janet m. Francis Doane. 

4. Allen. 

(6) Charles (unm.) 

(7) Thomas m. Letitia d. Andrew Crowell. 
/ Ch. 1. Andrew. 

2. Cedric m. Lettice Banks. 

3. Janet m. Nehemiah Wilson. 

(8) Maria m. Daniel s. John Sargent. 

THOMAS ROSS. His parents were Scotch settlers in New 
York and died there. He was adopted by people named Lickmicut 
who came to Shelburne and brought him with them, then only 4 or 5 
years of age. When older he went to sea, staying when ashore with 
Prince Kenney of Argyle and Michael Swim. He brought from Shel- 
burne and rebuilt at Stoney Id. on land obtained by exchange with 
Isaac Kenney, a house in which his adopted mother lived with him 



552 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

until his marriage. He had twenty-one children of whom several 
died in childhood. 

THOMAS ROSS m. (a) Abigail d. Gideon Nickerson 
Ch. (1) James m. Ann d. Archelaus Smith, 2nd. 
Ch. 1. Elizabeth m. Penney, S. Side. 
2. Kinsman. 

(2) Moses m. Susan d. Abram Brannen. 

(3) Edmund m. (a) Emily d. Crowell Shag Hr. 

(6) Zeruiah d. David Larkin. 
Ch. 1. David m. Eliza McGray. 

2. Charles m. d. Heman Kenney. 

(4) Benjamin m. Mary d. Daniel Penney. 

(5) George m. (a) Bethanie d. Seth Nickerson. 

(6) Mary Jane d. Smith Swim. 

(6) Thomas m. 

(7) Rebecca m. Joshua Nickerson, Clam Pt. 

(8) Roxanna m. Matthew Quinlan. 

(9) Susan m. Isaac Hunt. 

(10) Maria (unm.) 

(11) Sarah (unm.) 

(12) Jane (unm.) 



JOHN s. Epes and Catharine (Winthrop) (Browne) Sargent. 
JOHN SARGENT a native of Salem, Mass. m. Margaret, widow 
Barnard, whose daughter became the wife of Josiah Harding. 
Ch. 1 Sophia m. Rev. Mr. Bennett. 
II William Browne m. Elizabeth Burbidge. 

Ch. (1) Winthrop m. Emma d. John W. Homer. 

(2) Margaret (unm.) 

(3) Mary Ann m. Glover, Mass. 

Ill Winthrop m. 1819, Mary Jane d. John and Nancy (Whid- 
den) Allison, Newport. 
Ch. (1) Margaret m. James H. Doane. 
Ch. 1 . Herbert L. m. Annie Ells. 

2. Francis A. m. Abigail D. Coffin. 

3. Fannie S. m. Jackson Ricker, Argyle. 

4. John W. m. Elizabeth Harding. 

(2) Catharine m. Joseph s. J. P. Doane. 

(3) Ann m. Joseph s. J. P. Doane. 

(4) Mary Jane m. Capt. Seth Doane. 

(5) Elizabeth m. Arthur Doane. 

Ch. Elizabeth, Mary. 






BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 553 

IV John m. Sarah d. S. 0. Doane. 

Ch. (1) Daniel m. (a) Maria d. Wm. Robertson. 

(b) Charlotte sister Sir John Thompson. 
Ch. Fitzwilliam, Charles, Joseph, Arthur, Charlotte. 

(2) Sarah m. Elisha Atwood. 

(3) Abigail m. James D. Coffin. 

(4) Eliza (unm.). 

(5) Sophia (unm.) 

JOSIAH SEARS was an early arrival from Cape Cod though 
not a grantee. He was a brother of Mrs. Theodore Harding gr., and 
married (a) Anna Crowell of Chatham and (6) Phebe, sister of Wm. 
Adams, Sr. He lived for a while on Shercse Id. where he owned the 
Lincoln lot; but sold it and moved to Shag Hr. about 1792. Mr. 
Sears was the ostensible informer against the absconding grantees 
whose titles were forfeited in 1784. In the Third division Josiah 
Sears Sr. drew lot 89, laid off to Prince Freeman, near Brass Hill. 

JOSIAH SEARS m. Phebe sister of Wm. Adams, Sr. 
Ch. I Martha m. Reuben s. Zenos Nickerson, Shag Hr. 

II Jerusha b. 1798 m. John Stoddart, Shag Hr. 

III John Sargent m. Mercy d. Nathaniel Knowles 2nd. 
Ch. (1) Josiah m. Elizabeth Barss, Canso. 

(2) Lavina m. Watson s. Heman Nickerson. 

(3) Nathaniel m Connell. 

(4) Winthrop. 

(These sons were lost in the gale on the Banks in 

the Schr. Velox, which they owned.) 
(5) Mahala m. Amos s. Alexander Nickerson. 

IV Mary m. Barss, Canso. 

V Phebe m. Langton, Argyle. 

VI Hulda b. 1807 m. Richard Nickerson, Yarmouth. 
VII Azuba b. 1791 m. Daniel Neil McCommiskey. 
VIII Elizabeth b. 1809 m. Elnathan s. Hezekiah Smith Cape Id. 
IX Josiah b. 1812 m. Lorena d. Isaiah Nickerson. 
Ch. (1) Jacob m. Brannen. 

Ch. 1. Cora m. Norman Devine. 
(2) Josiah m. Lorena d. Scott Nickerson. 
Ch. James, and Josiah. 

(Josiah with his son Josiah was lost on the Banks in the Schr. 
"J. P. Nickerson" a new vessel which they owned. 

JOSEPH SEE LEY (s. Nathan and Sarah (McLarren) of 
Argyle and Brighton N, S.,) m. Margaret d. Thomas Coffin 1st. 






554 9 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

Ch. Charles m. Louisa Ells; Louisa m. Alfred Hood; Lil- 
lian m. A. W. Eakins ; Julia m. Fred L. Clements ; Henry m. 
Annie Classon. 

WILLIAM SHEPHERD. His father was an Englishman, who 
came to Halifax and died there of small pox. William b. c. 1790, was 
8 years old and was brought up by Wm. Donaldson, at Barrington. 
After Donaldson's death he went to sea. 

In 1817, he m. Susanna d. David Wood, She died in 1827. 
Ch. (1) William m. (a) 1845 Elizabeth (Crowell) Lewis. 
Ch. 1. Harvey. 

2 . Henrietta. 

3. Gilbert m. Maud d. Capt. Harvey Doane. 

(b) Sarah Ann d. John Stalker 

(2) Alfred b. 1820 lost at sea. 

(3) Harvey b. 1826 settled in Virginia. 

In 1828 Wm. Shepherd Sr. m. Sarah d. Samuel Smith. 

Ch. (4) Cornelius, b. 1829 m. Hannah d. David Wilson. 
Ch. Everett. 

(5) Susan m. Nathan s. Wm. Crowell 
Ch. Josephine. 

(6) Nathan m. in U. States. 

SHOLDS. Christopher and Frederick Sholds were sons of 
John Sholds, a Dutch soldier, who was wounded in the battle of Bun- 
ker Hill, had land grants at Pubnico and Shelburne >and lived after- 
wards in Halifax, pensioned. He was a mason and plastered the 
Old Meeting House when the interior of it was first finished. Christo- 
pher lived at Doctor's Cove; his brother at Bear Pt. and Cape Negro. 
I. CHRISTOPHER SHOLDS m. Elizabeth Banners of N. York. 
Ch. (1) Nathaniel m. Hannah d. Seth Snow. 

Ch. 1 . George m. (a) Mary Ann d. James Crowell. 

(6) Hannah Pierce. 
Ch. Mary, Howard. 

(2) John m. Mrs. Tabitha Hopkins. 
Ch. 1. John. 

2. Joseph. 

3. Mary m. Eldad Crowell. 

(3) James m. Elmira Dowling, P. Latour. Ch. Roland. 

(4) Agnes, b. 1808, m. David Horton, P.fLatour. 

(5) William m. Deborah Dowling. gjjjfj 
Ch. 1. David m. Catharine d. Wm. Dowling. 1 f 4 

2. William m. Deborah d. Winthrop Snow. 

3 . Christopher m. Mary d. Wm. Smith,|P.JLatour 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 555 

4. Mercy m. Wm. Matheson. 

5. Hannah m. Anthony Perry. 

(6) Christopher b. 1812 m. Jemima Nickerson, Wood's 

Hr. 

(7) David Fletcher m. (a) Hannah d. Thomas Hopkins 

(6) Susan d. Elijah Nickersen. 

(8) Elizabeth b. 1814 m. Asa s. Nathaniel Knowles, 

Bear Pt. 
II Frederick m. 1808 Charity d. Zeph. Swain P. L. 

Ch. (1) Samuel m. Mary d. Smith Nickerson, C. N. 
t (2) Zephaniah, moved to U. States. 

(3) Peter, drowned (unm.) 

(4) Ann b. 1812, moved to U. States. 

(5) Charity (unm.) 

FREDERICK SLATE came from LaHave to Blanche about 
1800. His son Martin was married when he came. One daughter 
m. Goulding, a settler there; Barbara was Elam Thomas' first wife, 
1809; Catharine d. of Martin Slate was the second wife; her sister 
went back to LaHave. 

THE SMITH FAMILIES. The connection of the grantees of 
this name, as far as possible, will be given in the Chapter on geneal- 
ogy. Nine in number, the Smith grantees had an easy precedence 
in the township in that respect, which has probably been maintained 
ever since. 

ARCHELAUS SMITH'S family has the distinction of being 
one of the two first family arrivals. His descendants, very num- 
erous on Cape Id. have been men of leading as seen in the elective 
offices of the community and in the ranks of shipmasters and busi- 
ness men. 

Archelaus Smith was a leading spirit in the new township. A 
man of imposing stature and general capability, fisherman, tanner, 
shoemaker, surveyor, magistrate, exhorter, his gifts were a boon to 
the settlement. After making his home a score of years at the Head 
just where the Barrington House now stands he moved to Centre- 
ville, Cape Island, and with his family occupied about all the forfeited 
lands from N. E. Point to West Head. Mercy was at N. E. Point. 
Archelaus Junior was next, then Stephen, Hezekiah and James in or- 
der. The father was called a good, quiet, easy, patient man. Mrs. 
Smith had a more energetic temper and is described as a tall, mascu- 
line woman. He officiated at religious meetings and burials when 
there was no preacher in the settlement. 



556 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

A story of Aunt Nabby, "Uncle Kiah's" wife, will illustrate the 
life and capabilities of our settler? in the Eighteenth Century. When 
her husband was away she used sometimes to take the boat and with 
one or two of her children row down the Passage (from Cook's Point) 
on the ebb tide, meet the early flood and with it go up to her old 
home at the Head. She would return taking the benefit of the tides 
in the same way. 

The following account given of the coming of Archelaus Smith 
and family to Barrington may be added here. Archelaus Smith had 
sent for his family to come from Cape Cod to Barrington, but owing 
to evil reports about the Indians sent a message to the contrary. When 
however he was departing through West Passage, his wife and four 
children were coming in the East Passage in Capt. Eldad Nickerson's 
vessel. Some fishermen, making fish at the Head, helped Mrs. 
Smith and made a log house for her and left her what provisions they 
could when they went away. He was storm-stayed and unable to 
get back that winter with food and his house frame. The Indians 
helped her at times and she fought off the bears with fire brands. 

Hezekiah was six years old when his father came to N. Scotia. 
Haliburton's history (II. 186) makes reference to the patriarchal 
character of Squire Archelaus Smith in the township. He was son of 
John, s. of Samuel Smith and Mary Hopkins whose father Gyles Hop- 
kins was son of Stephen Hopkins of the Mayflower. 

ARCHELAUS SMITH gr. son of Stephen and Bathsheba 
(Brown) of Chatham (d. 1821 posterity then,356) m. Elizabeth sister 
of Joshua and Stephen Nickerson, grs. 
Ch. I Susanna m. Joseph Atwood, 1767. 

II Hezekiah m. Abigail d. Edmund Doane, gr. 

Ch. (1) Hezekiah b. 1775 m. Mercy d. Eleazar Crowell. 
Ch. 1. Mehitable b. 1803 m. Joshua Atwood. 

2. Charlotte b. 1805 m. Gideon Crowell, Bear 

Point. 

3. Anna Maria b. 1807 m. Henry Nickerson. 

4. Elnathan D. b. 1812, m. Elizabeth Sears. 

Ch. Charlotte, Hezekiah. 
(2) John Osborn b. 1777, d. 1823, m. Elizabeth d. 

Stephen 'Nickerson, gr. 
Ch. 1. Sarah b. 1802. 

2. Cunningham b. 1803, m. Sarah d. Jon. CoveL 

Ch. Marinda m. Stillm Goodwin. 

3. Pamelia b. 1806. 






BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 557 

4. Jane Vincent b. 1808 m. Phineas s. John Nick- 

erson. 

Ch. Moses H., John Edward, Harvey. 

5. Clarippa b. 1813 

6. Ansel Crowell b. 1817, m. Esther d. Hezekiah 

Newell. 
Ch. John 0, Pubnico. 

7. Marinda N. b. 1820 m. Wm. s. Wm. Smith.- 

8. George b. 1822 (unm.) 

(3) William b. 1780 d. 1817 m. Mary d. Gideon Nick- 

erson. 

Ch. 1 . Freeman b. 1799 m. Lydia d. Nathaniel Knowles. 
Ch. Parker m. (a) (6) Hannah Banks. 
Ch. Rev. James W., Adelia. 
William m. Isabella d. Paul Brown. 
Isaiah, Caleb, Zilpham. Rodney Cunningham; 
Jane; Charles m. (a) Eliza Crowell, (6) Mrs. 
Vanhorn. 

2. David m. Hannah. 

3. Peninah m. Solomon Kenney. 

4. Lucinda b. 1807 m. Joseph Newell. 

5. Desire Doane. 

6. Hannah b. 1811 m. Joseph K. Smith. 

7. William m. Merinda d. John 0. Smith. 

8. Prince D. m. Sarah d. John O. Smith. 

Ch. Amaziah, Hallet, Isaac, Kinsman. 

9. Hezekiah b. 1817 m. Susan Donaldson. 

Ch. Moses m. Lydia Penney; Mercy m. Emery 
Smith. 

(4) James (1782-1842) m. Jane McLearn, P. Mouton. 
Ch. 1 . Simeon F., b. 1807, m. (a) Esther 

(6) Naomi d. Corn. 
Newell. 

2. James Colwell, b. 1813, m. Sarah d. Joseph 

Kenney. 

Ch. Mary Jane m. Nehem. McGray; Sarepta 

m. Mark Smith. 

3 . Wm. Placeway, m. Sarah d. Seth Smith. 

Ch. Harris, John, Isaac, Edmund m. Eliz. 
Newell. 

4. Harris m. Whitehouse St. John. 
5 . Edmund D. 

6 . Harrington. 



558 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



7 . Margaret m. Andrew s. Isaac Kenney. 

(5) Stephen, b. 1786, m. 1812 Elizabeth Spinney. 
Ch. 1. Abigail, b. 1813, m. Eleazar Crowell. 

2. Reliance m. (a) Brown (6) Benj. Smith. 

Ch. John, Samuel. 

3. Stephen. 

4. Elias. 

5. Nathaniel. 

6. Rachel. 7. Susanna m. Alexander Phillips. 

8. Osborne D. b. 1829 m. Lucy Nickerson, Drs. 

Cove. 

(6) Hannah b. 1788 m. John Cunningham. 

(7) Israel b. 1790 m. Maria Brooks, Granville, N. S. 

(8) Abigail b. 1792 m. William Atkinson, Newelton. 

(9) Edward b. 1794 m. Susanna Gardner. 
Ch. 1. Diadamia b. 1822. 

2 . John Osborne b. 1824. 

3 . Bethana b. 1826. 4. Gorham Gardner b. 1829. 
5. Israel b. 1831. 

6 . Deborah b. 1833. 

7. Edward b. 1836. (unm.) 

(10) Elizabeth b. 1795 d. 1814. 

(11) Charles b. 1802 (unm.). 

(12) Keziah b. 1799 m. Duncan Cunningham. 
IIIj Mercy m. John Cunningham, N. E. Point. 

IV t James b - 1762 m -( fl ) Sarah d - Henr y Wilson, gr.(She d. 1800) 
(6) Tabitha, (Kendrick) widow Joshua 

Nickerson. 

Ch. (1) [James b. 1787 m. Rebecca d. James McCoy. 
Ch. 1. Samuel Watson b. 1810. 

2. Sarah b. 1812 m. Joshua s. John Nickerson. 

3. Tamsin b. 1817 m. Fields Newell. 

4. Mary Hall b. 1819 m. Bartl. Covell. 

5. Reuben b. 1822. 

6 . Delilah b. 1825. 

7. Martha b. 1829. 

8. Asenath b. 1832, m. Zephaniah Newell. 

9. Deborah Covel b. 1835 m. (a) Jas. s. Alex. 

Cunningham; (6) James Nickerson, S. Side. 
(2) Reuben b. 1792 m. 1815 Deborah d. Jonathan 

Covel. 
Ch. 1. Mary Jane b. 1816 m. Samuel Stoddart. 

2. Dorcas b. 1818 m. Benjamin s. Collins Newell. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 659 

3. Ruth b. 1820, m. James Swim. 

4. William Black b. 1823 m. Irene d. Judah 

(John) Nickerson. 

Ch. Maria m. H. Nelson Newell. 

Judah m. Rowena Smith. 

J. Grant m. Adria Newell. 

Maud m. Byron H. Smith. 

Susan m. Edgar O. Smith. 

5. Naamah b. 1825, m. John E. s. Levi Nickerson. 

6. Alfred Kimball b. 1828 m. Nancy J. d. Geo. 

Smith, Hawk. 

Ch. Norah m. James C. s. John McGray. 
Olivia m. Nathaniel s. George Swim. 

7. Sarah Covel b. 1831 m. (a) Asa s. Levi Nicker- 

son (6) Daniel Penney. 

8 . Matilda b. 1834 m. Ephraim s. Judah Nickerson. 

(3) Jane m. William Cunningham. 

(4) Thomas b. 1804 m. 1825 Sophia d. Archelaus New- 

ell. 
Ch. 1 . Samuel b. 1828 m. Libamia d. Paul Brown. 

2. Jethro b. 1832 m. Augusta d. Paul Brown. 

3. George b. 1833 m. d. Vincent Kenney. 

4. Jeremiah Vincent b. 1835 m. Lois d. Collinp 

Nickerson. 

5. John Robertson m. Caroline d. Job. Atkinson. 
Ch. Joshua, James, Nancy. 

(5) Susanna b. 1805 

(6) Geerge b. 1807 m. Mercy d. Absalom Nickerson. 
Ch. 1. Emily m. Colman Atkinson. 

2. James m. Jane d. William Atkinson. 

3. George Beverly, m. Elizabeth d. LewisJSwim. 

4. Nehemiah m. Mary d. John Fisk. 

5. John C. m. Margaret d. Henry Brown. 

6. Elizabeth m. John E. Nickerson. 

(7) Elizabeth (d. Ja. and Tabitha,) m. Judah p. John 

Nickerson, gr. 

Vj Stephen b. 1764 m. (a) Sarah Hinckly, Cape Cod. 
Ch. (1) Seth m. Ann Larkin. 
.. Ch. 1. ,Seth m. (a) Sarah d. James Kenney. 
(6) Susan d. Asa McGray. 
Ch. Edgar O. m. Susan d. W. B. 
Smith. 
Sarah m. Harvey Newell. 



560 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 



Ch. Frank H., Felicia, Emma. 
(c) Athalia d. Joseph Kendrick. 

2. Isaac m. Mary Ann d. Wm. Cunningham. 

Ch. Fred m. Ann d. Wm. Knowles. 

3. Heman m. Charlotte d. Jethro Covel. 

Ch. Rowena m. Judah Smith; Amanda (unm.) 

Annie m. John s. John Dixon. 

Byron H. m. Maud d. W. B. Smith. 

Amy m. Ezra Atkinson. 

Mary m. Charles s. Enos Smith 

Maria m. Frank Carpenter. 

4. Sarah m. Placeway ?. James Smith. 

5. Lydia m. Rodman s. James Kenney. 

6. Eleanor m. Smith Atkinson. 

7. Zeruiah m. James McKinnon. 

8. Eunice m. Lewis Nickerson. 

(2) Ruth m. Jethro Covel. 

(3) Eunice m. Peter Patterson, Liverpool. 
Stephen V. m. (6) Mary d. Walter Larkin, Pubnico. 
Ch. (4) Walter L. m. Louisa d. James Kenney. 

Ch. 1. Enos m. Matilda Cunningham. 
Ch. Charles m. Mary d. Heman Smith. 
2 . Walter L. m. Annie Bolton, England. 

(5) John m. Maria d. James Kenney. 

(6) Elizabeth m. John s. Rev. Asa McGray. 

(7) Phebe m. Henry s. Robert Brown. 

(8) Lavinia m. (a) Ziba s. Henry Newell. 

(6) Nathan Doane. 
(c) David Cook. 

(9) Jane m. (a)James s. Robert Brown. 

(6) John Dixon. 
(10) William Andrew m. Margaret Irel. 

1. Louisa m. Ira Brown. 

2. Joanna. 

3. Sophronia m. Sydney Covert. 

4. Stephen (unm.) 

5. Cornelia m. Kinsman Smith. 

6. Sarepta m. Arthur McGray. 

7. Andrew m. Mary (Whitehouse) Smith. 
VI Archelaus m. Patience d. Thomas Hamilton, Chatham. 

Ch. (1) Elizabeth (2) Reliance, b. 1792. 

(3) Samuel b. 1795 m. Patty (Crowell) Smith. 
Ch. Mary. 



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 561 

(4) Archelaus b. 1790 m. Sarah Gran ville. 
Ch. 1. Benjamin m. Delilah Newell. 

Ch. Crowell m. (a) Delina d. Joseph Newell. 
(b) Sophia (Smith) Banks. 
Ch. Mitchell m. Minnie d. Nath. Smith. 

2. Joseph K. m. Hannah d. William Smith. 

3 . Simeon m. Esther d. John Nickerpon gr. 

Ch. Archelau? m. Elizabeth d. Stewart Smith. 

4. Ezra m. Annapolis. 

5. Mahala m. Wm. Atkinson, West Hd. 

Ch. Edward, Samuel, Ezra. 

6. Lorena m. Stephen Phinney. 

7. Archelaup. 

8. Crowell. 

(5) Thomas b. 1797 m. Sarah Atkinson Hawk. 
Ch. Freeman. 

(6) George Andrew m. Martha d. Coleman Crowell. 
Ch. Ruhama, Elizabeth, Caroline, Nancy Jane, 
Stewart, Coleman, Delina. 

(7) Mercy b. 1789 m. Moses Perry, Cape Negro. 

(8) Anna m. James s. Thomas Ross. 

(9) Mary m. Joseph s. Isaac Kenney. 

(10) Joseph m. Ruth d. Rev. Asa McGray. 
Ch. 1. Luther m. Jane d. Nehem Crowell. 

2. Jane m. Amaziah Smith. 

3. Joseph m. Isabella d. Placeway Smith. 

4. Isaac m. Matilda d. Doane Swim. 

5. Thomas m. Margaret d. Placeway Smith 

6. Leonard. 

(11) Matthew Donaldson m. Delilah d. Samuel Wood. 
Ch. 1. Elijah, unm. 2. Matthew, unm. 3. John unm. 

4. Mark m. Sarah d. Colwell Smith. 

5. Catharine m. Lewis Fuller. 

(12) Stewart m. Kezia d. Zebulon Gardner. 
Ch. 1 . Judah C. m. Matilda d. Walter Smith. 

2. Elizabeth m. Archelaus s. Simeon Smith. 

(13) Israel. 

VII Hannah m. (a) Daniel Vincent, nephew of D. Vincent gr. 

(6) Coffin, Martha's Vineyard. 
VIII Eunice m. Henry Newell. 

DAVID SMITH, gr. lived at the N. end of Sherose Id. His 
descendants of the Smith name are at The Passage, Shag Hr., The 



562 BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY 

River and Sambro. In 1793 David Smith, carpenter, sold lot No, 95 
of the Second Division at Green Hill to Isaac Wilson. The deed was 
witnessed by his son, Jesse. He died in 1795; his widow, Thankful, 
in 1815. David Jr. called Capt. David Smith bought John Porter's 
lot and house at the Head in 1769, sold it to John Sargent in 1783 and 
then moved to Liverpool and Portland, Me. He ran to Boston from 
this Province all through the Revolutionary war in safety. 

DAVID SMITH gr. m. Thankful Reynolds, a sister of Josiah 
Godfrey and widow of Capt. John Reynolds of Cape Cod. By a for- 
mer marriage to Sarah Hamlin of Cape Cod he had a son David, b. 
1742, generally called "Captain David" and three other children. 

Ch. I David b. 1742 m. Sarah Cape Cod. 

Ch. 1 . Sarah m. Samuel s. John Homer. 
II Nancy b. 1744. 

III Mary b. 1747 m. Benjamin Bearse (Barss). 

IV Sarah b. 1750. 

V Warren m. Mercy, d. Reuben Cohoon, gr. 

They removed from Bear Pt. to P. Medway, and thence to 

Sambro. 

Ch. Enos, b. 1780; Warren, Moses and seven others. 

Heman Smith, who lived at Doctor's Cove was a son of 
Warren 2nd. 

VI Zara b. 1768 m. 1791 Mercy d. Theodore S. Harding gr. 
Ch. (1) Elizabeth Barss b. 1796 m. Fitzgerald 

(2) Joshua Harding b. 1798 m. (a) Tamsin d. John 
Kendrick.; (6) Abigail d.- Edward Kendrick. 
Ch. 1. Bethiah, b. 1822, unm. 

2. Lucena, m. Charles s. William Watt. 

Ch. Bethia m. Eleazar Nickerson. 
Alice m. Philip Crowell. 
Mary m. Charles s. Warren Smith. 
Tamsin m. Edmund s. Alden Nickerson. 
James m. Hannah Phillips. 

3 . Obed b. 1826 m. Maria d. Jonathan Knowles. 
Ch. Charles, Mary, Nellie, Ann. 

4. Joshua m. Emily d. Stephen Snow. 
Ch. Charles, Isaac, Augustus, Lottie, Ella. 

5. Th