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Sauk Valley College 

in Memory of 

Oscar Lindquist 



? OF 










History of the Northwest, History op Illinois, 
Map of Carroll Coltsity, Constitution op the United States, 






LRC 43598 


While the contents of this History ob" Carkoll County were beinaj prepareel for the 
press, the writer had occasion to visit one of the public schools, and during that visit one 
of the teacliers remarked that a few days before one of the scholars had asked the follow- 
ing questions : 

'' When and at what point was Carroll Count}- firit settled? " 

" Who was the first seltler ? " 

" When was the county organized V 

The teacher in question, a very thorough and competent one in all the branches usually 
taught in tlie common and graded schools of the country, and a lady of more than ordinary 
intelligence, admitted to the scholar, as she admitted to the writer, that she could not 
answer these questions until slie had consulted her parents, and that even they could not 
answer all of them. This teacher, wliile conversant with the general history of the United 
States, with all the incidents of the late war, and familiar with the physical geography of 
the old world, humilia.ingly confessed lier ignorance of the history of the county in which 
she was born and raised and educated — a subject that bears ilie same relation to the history 
of the state that the alphabet does to orthography and the higher branches of ordinary edu- 
cation. And this is not an isolated case-. More than twenty men were asked, "When Avas 
Carroll County organized?" and not one could tell. To supply such deficiencies in the 
Ixistorical literature of the county is the object of this volume. 

That this volume will ho, perfect in all its details, the publishers do not expect, for per- 
fection is yet to be attained by llie most experienced book-makers. But it has been the 
purpose to render it not only readable, but to make it a standard book of reference — to pre- 
serve to those who will come to succeed the present population in the not verj- distant by- 
aud-by the annals and incidents pertinent to pioneer life. 

In the absence of writ' en records recourse has been iuid to the memories -of the '' Old 
Setilers"as have survived the years that have died since 1828. Volumes of history have 
been made in X\\Q?,(i forty nine ye-dv-s,, and strong, indeed, would be the mind that could retain 
it all and remit it intact to printed pa^jes. The tooth of time leaves its impress'on upon 
ev^ery thing — upon the minds of men, as well as upon the prairies, the hillsides, the rocky 
blufi's, and the majestic forests. So names, dates, incidents, and liappeniugs will pass from 
tlie minds of men as their phj'sical vigor wastes beneath accumulating years. But without 
the aid of these patriarchal pioneers this offering would not be so complete. Among the 
many citizens to whom the publishei's would tender their obligations are Dr. Elias Wood- 
ruff and Dakiel H. Bowex, of Savanna; Norman D. French, of York; Samuel Pres- 
ton, Nathaniel Hai-derman, Hon. J. F. Ch.apman, Ma.ior R. M. A. Hawk, Voi^ney 
Armour, James Hallett and Hon. James Shaw, of Mount Carroll ; Levi Warner, of 
Elkhorn Grove; Hon. D. W. Dame, of Lanark ; and many others whose names are none 
the less worthy of mention. To make personal mention of all these would be to make a 
preface of many pages. In the progress of the work proper credit is given to all them — 
and all of whom are an honor to the community in which they are honored and respected 

To them must be ascribed a part of the merit that may- be accorded to this grouping 
together the history of that County of the great State of the Illini* which was named in 
honor of one of the boldest fathers of American Independence — Charles Carroli,, of 
Carroll ton. 

Fully app: eciating and acknowledging the uniform kindness and courtesy extended to 
our representatives and agents, l)y the newspaper press and the people, and thanking them 
for their very liberal patrt>nage, 

We remain, with seniiments of sincere regard, 

. H. F. KETT ct CO., 
Chicago, 18'<8. Publishers. 

*Tribe of men. 




History Northwest Territory.. 19 

Geogr'iphical Position 19 

Early E.xplorations 20 

Discovery of the Ohio 'i'i 

English Explorations and 

Settlements 35 

American Settlements... HO 
Division of the Northwest 

Territory 66 

Tecumseh and the War of 

1813 TO 

Black Hawk and the Black 

Hawk War 74 

Other Indian Troubles 79 

Present Condition of the 

Northwest 87 

Illinois 99 

Indiana 101 

Iowa 103 

Michigan 103 


Wisconsin 104 

Minnesota 106 

Nebraska 107 

History of Illinois .109 

Coal 133 

Compact of 1787 117 

Chicago 132 

Early Discoveries 109 

Early Settlements 11.5 

Education 129 

French Occupation 113 

Genius of La Salle 113 

Material Resources 134 

Massacre at Ft. Dearborn, 141 

Physical Features 121 

Progress of Development. 123 

Religion and Morals 128 

War Record 130 

History of Carroll Co 221 

Physical Geography 230 


History of Carroll Co. 

Township Organization... 260 

Agricultural Society 367 

War Record ... .. 277 

Old Settlers' Association. 298 

Swamp Lands 313 

Criminal Mention 316 

Educational 320 

Railroads 323 

Miscellaneous 330 

Vote of County.. 334 

Property Statement 335 

History of Towns : 

Mt. Carroll 336 

Savanna 359 

Thomson 365 

Lanark 367 

Shannon .379 

Milledgeville 383 

Elkhorn Grove .384 


Mouth of the Mississippi 31 

Source of the Mississippi 21 

Wild Prairie 23 

La Salle Landing on the Shore 

ofGreenBay 25 

BuflaloHunt 27 

Trapping 39 

Hunting 33 

Iroquois Chief. .34 

Pontiac, the Ottawa Chieftain. 43 
Indians Attacking Frontiers- 
men 56 

A Prairie Storm 59 

A Pioneer Dwelling 61 

Breaking Prairie 63 

Tecumseh,the Shawnoe Chief- 
tain 69 


Indians Attacking a Stockade, 72 
Black Hawk, the Sac Chieftain 75 

Big Eagle 80 

Captain Jack, the Modoc Chief- 
tain 83 

Kinzie House 85 

Village Residence 86 

A Representative Pioneer 87 

Lincoln Monun^nt, Spring- 
field, 111 88 

A Pioneer School House 89 

Farm View in the Winter 90 

Spring Scene 91 

Pioneers' First Winter 93 

Apple Harvest 94 

Great Iron Bridge of C, R. I. 

and P. R. R , Crossing the 
Mississippi at Davenport, 

Iowa 96 

A Western Dwelling 100 

Hunting Prairie Wolves in an 

Early Day 108 

Starved Rock, on the Illinois 

River, La Salle Co., Ill 110 

An Early Settleii ent ..116 

Chicago in 1833 133 

Old Fort Dearborn, 1830 136 

Present Site Lake St. Bridge, 

Chicago, 1833 136 

Ruins of Chicago. 143 

View of the City of Chicago.. 144 
Shabboua _ . 149 

i.itho<;raphic portraits. 


Dame,D. W 183 

Dunn. S. S 391 

French, N. D 363 

Hollinger, J. V 3S1 

Hughes, W. D 399 

Hunter, J. M 201 


McDowell, F. IT 417 

Mackay, D 337 

Millard, J. E 309 

Meleudey, G. S 273 

Moffett, G 355 

Patch, B. L. 165 


Sessions, P. J 435 

Shinier, Mrs. F. A. Wood 337 

Shinier, Henry 34.5 

Shaw, Jas.. 147 

Thorp, L. S.. 453 



Infantry 285 

15th 285 

34th 287 

45th 288 

65th 290 

7Iet.. 290 



92d 290 

143d 294 

146th 295 

153d 295 

Miscellaneous Infantry x95 


Cavalry 39H 

7th 296 

8th 296 

12th 297 

Artillery 297 



Csrroll Township 403 

Cherry Grove 470 

Elkhorn _ . _ 482 

Freedom 479 

Pair Haven 464 


Lima 498 

Mt. Carroll City 385 

Rock Creek 449 

Savanna .427 

Salem ._ 489 


Shannon 475 

Washington 493 

Woodland 495 

W^ysox 43:j 

York 414 





Adoption of Chiklicu IbO 

Bills of Excliange and Prom- 

ipsory Notes 151 

County Courts 155 

Conveyances 164 

Church Organization 189 

Descent 151 

Deeds and Mortgages 157 

Drainage . 163 

Damages from Trespass 169 

Definition of Corn'rcial TermslT^ 
Exemptions from Forced Sale, 156 

Estrays 157 

Fences . . 168 

Forms : 

Articles of Amcement 175 

Bills ot Purchase 174 

Bills of Sale 176 

Forms: Page. 
Bonds 176 

Chattel Mortgages 177 

Codicil 189 

Lease of Farm and B'ld''g8,179 

Lease of House 180 

Landlord's Agreement 180 

Motes 174 

Notice Tenant to Quit 181 

Orders 174 

Quitclaim Deed 185 

Keceipt... 174 

Real Estate Mortgage to 
secure paym't of Aloney,181 

Release !..1K6 

Tenant's Agreement 180 

Tenant's Notice to Quit.. 181 

Warranty Deed 182 

Will 1-7 

Game 158 

Interest 151 

Jurisdiction of Courts 154 

Limitation of Action 155 

Landlord and Tenant 169 

Liens 172 

Married Women 155 

Millers 159 

Marks and Brands 1.59 

Paupers 164 

Roads and Bridges 161 

Surveyors and Surveys 160 

Suggestion toPersons purchas- 
ing Books by Subscription .190 

Taxes 154 

Wills and Estates 152 

Weights and Measures 158 

Wolf Scalps 164 


Map of Carroll Co Front. 

Constitution ot United Statesl92 

Electors of President and 
Vice-President, 1876 206 

Practical Rules for every day 
use 207 

U. S. Government Land Meas- 
ure 210 



Surveyors Measure 211 

How to keep accounts 211 

Interest Table 212 

Miscellaneous Table 212 

Names of the States of the 
Union and their Significa- 
tions 213 

Population of the U. S 214 

Population of Fifty Principal 

Cities of the U. S 214 

Population and Area of the 

United States 215 

Population ol the Principal 

Countries in the World 215 

Population Illinois. .. .216 & 217 
Agricultural Productions of 
Illinois by Counties 1870 ...218 

Ottaway & Colbert, 

147 & 149 Fifth Av., Chicago, 111. 

The Northwest Territory. 


When the Northwestern Territory was ceded to the United States 
by Virginia in 1784, it embraced only the territory lying between the 
Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that portion of 
Minnesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The United 
States itself at that period extended no farther west than the Mississippi 
River; ))ut by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary 
of the United States was extended to the Rocky Mountains and the 
Northern Pacific Ocean. The new territory thus added to the National 
domain, and subsequently opened to settlement, has been called the 
" New Northwest," in contradistinction from the old ^ Northwestern 

In comparison with the old Northwest this is a territory of vast 
magnitude. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles ; being greater 
in extent than the united areas of all the Middle and Southern States, 
including Texas. Out of this magnificent territory have been erected 
eleven sovereign States and eight Territories, with an aggregate popula- 
tion, at the present time, of 13.000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one third of 
the entire population of the United States. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, and the larger rivers of the continent 
flow for a thousand miles through its rich alluvial valleys and far- 
stretching prairies, more acres of which are arable and productive of the 
highest percentage of the cereals than of any other area of like extent 
on the globe. 

For the last twenty years the increase of population in the North- 
west has been about as three to one in any other portion of the United 




In the year 1541, DeSoto first saw the Great West in the New 
World. He, however, penetrated no farther north than the 35th parallel 
of latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than 
half his army, the remainder of whom found their way to Cuba, thence 
to Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. DeSoto founded no 
settlements, produced no results, and left no traces, unless it were that 
he awakened the hostility of the red man against the white man, and 
disheartened such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery 
for better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready to seize 
upon any news from this extensive domain, and were the first to profit by 
DeSoto's defeat. Yet it was more than a century before any adventurer 
took advantage of these discoveries. 

In 1616, four years before the pilgrims "moored their bark on the 
wild New England shore," Le Caron, a French Franciscan, had pene- 
trated through the Iroquois and Wyandots (Hurons) to the streams which 
run into Lake Huron ; and in 1634, two Jesuit missionaries founded the 
first mission among the lake tribes. It was just one hundred 3'ears from 
the discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto (1541) until the Canadian 
envoys met the savage nations of the Northwest at the Falls of St. Mary, 
below the outlet of Lake Superior. This visit led to no permanent 
result; yet it was not until 1659 that any of the adventurous far traders 
attempted to spend a Winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, 
nor was it until 1660 that a station was established upon their borders by 
Mesnard, who perished in the woods a few months after. In 1665, Claude 
Allouez built the earliest lasting habitation of the white man among the 
Indians of the Northwest. In 1668, Claude Dablon and James Marquette 
founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two 
years afterward, Nicholas Ferrot, as agent for M. Talon, Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada, explored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as far south as the 
present City of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations to meet him at a 
grand council at Sault Ste. Marie the following Spring, where they were 
taken under the protection of the king, and formal possession was taken 
of the Northwest. This same year Marquette established a mission at 
Point St. Ignatius, where was founded the old town of Michillimackinac. 

During M. Talon's explorations and Marquette's residence at St. 
Ignatius, they learned of a great river away to the west, and fancied 
— as all others did then — that upon its fertile banks whole tribes of God's 
children resided, to whom the sound of the Gospel had never come. 
Filled with a wish to go and preach to them, and in compliance with a 




request of M. Talon, who earnestly desired to extend the domain of his 
king, and to ascertain whether the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico 
or the Pacific Ocean, Marquette with Joliet, as commander of the expe- 
dition, prepared for the undertaking. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, the explorers, accompanied by five assist- 
ant French Canadians, set out from Mackinaw on their daring voyage of 
discovery. The Indians, who gathered to witness their departure, were 
astonished at the boldness of the undertaking, and endeavored to dissuade 
them from their purpose by representing the tribes on the Mississippi as 
exceedingly savage and cruel, and the river itself as full of all sorts of 
frightful monsters ready to swallow them and their canoes together. But, 
nothing daunted by these terrific descriptions, Marquette told them he 
was willing not only to encounter all the perils of the unknown region 
they were about to explore, but to lay down his life in a cause in which 
the salvation of souls was involved ; and having prayed together they 
separated. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan, the 
adventurers entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox River and 
Lake Winnebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here Mar- 
quette was delighted to find a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, 
which these good people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank him for the pity he had bestowed on them during the Winter in 
giving them an abundant " chase." This was the farthest outpost to 
which Dablon and Allouez had extended their missionary labors the 
5'ear previous. Here Marquette drank mineral waters and was instructed 
in the secret of a root which cures the bite of the venomous rattlesnake. 
He assembled the chiefs and old men of the village, and, pointing to 
Joliet, said : " My friend is an envoy of France, to discover new coun- 
tries, and I am an ambassador from God to enlighten them with the truths 
of the Gospel." Two Miami guides were here furnished to conduct 
them to the Wisconsin River, and they set out from tlie Indian village on 
the 10th of June, amidst a great crowd of natives who had assembled to 
witness their departure into a region where no white man had ever yet 
ventured. The guides, having conducted them across the portage, 
returned. The explorers launched their canoes upon the Wisconsin, 
which they descended to the Mississippi and proceeded down its unknown 
waters. What emotions must have swelled their breasts as they struck 
out into the broadening current and became conscious that they were 
now upon the l)Osom of ths Father of Waters. The mystery was about 
to be lifted from the long-sought river. The scenery in that locality is 
beautiful, and on that delightful seventeenth of June must have been 
clad in all its primeval loveliness as it had been adorned by the hand of 



Nature. Drifting rapidly, it is said that the bold bluffs on either hand 
" reminded them of the castled shores of their own beautiful rivers of 
France." By-and-by, as they drifted along, great lierds of buffalo appeared 
on the banks. On going to the heads of the valley they could see a 
country of the greatest beauty and fertility, apparently destitute of inhab- 
itants yet presenting the appearance of extensive manors, under the fas- 
tidious cultivation of lordly proprietors. 


On June 25, they went ashore and found some fresh traces of men upon 
the sand, and a path which led to the prairie. The men remained in the 
boat, and Marquette and Joliet followed the path till they discovered u 
village on the banks of a river, and two other villages on a hill, within a 
half league of the first, inhabited by Indians. They were received most 
hospitably by these natives, who had never before seen a white person. 
After remaining a few days they re-embarked and descended the river to 
about latitude 33°, where they found a village of the Arkansas, and being 
satisfied that the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, turned their course 


up the river, and ascending the stream to the mouth of the Illinois, 
rowed up that stream to its source, and procured guides from that point 
to the lakes. " Nowhere on this journey," says Marquette, ''did we see 
such grounds, meadows, woods, stags, Imffaloes, deer, wildcats, bustards, 
swans, ducks, parroquets, and even beavers, as on the Illinois River." 
The party, without loss or injury, reached Green Bay in September, and 
reported their discovery — one of the most important of the age, but of 
which no record was preserved save Marquette's, Joliet losing his by 
the upsetting of his canoe on his way to Quebec. Afterward Marquette 
returned to the Illinois Indians by their request, and ministered to them 
until 1675. On the 18th of May, in that year, as he was passing the 
mouth of a stream — going with his boatmen up Lake Michigan — he asked 
to land at its mouth and celebrate Mass. Leaving his men with the canoe, 
he retired a short distance and began his devotions. As much time 
passed and he did not return, his men went in search of him, and found 
him upon his knees, dead. He had peacefully passed away while at 
prayer. He was buried at this spot. Charlevoix, who visited the place 
fifty years after, found the waters had retreated from the grave, leaving 
the beloved missionary to repose in peace. The river has since been 
called Marquette. 

While Marquette and his companions were pursuing their labors in 
the West, two men, differing widely from him and each other, were pre- 
paring to follow in his footsteps and perfect the discoveries so well begun 
by him. These were Robert de La Salle and Louis Hennepin. 

After La Salle's return from the discovery of the Ohio River (see 
the narrative elsewhere), he established himself again among the French 
trading posts in Canada. Here he mused long upon the pet project of 
those ages — a short way to China and the East, and was busily planning an 
expedition up the great lakes, and so across the continent to the Pacific, 
when Marquette returned from the Mississippi. At once the vigorous mind 
of LaSalle received from his and his companions' stories the idea that by fol- 
lowing the Great River northward, or by turning up some of the numerous 
western tributaries, the object could easily be gained. He applied to 
Frontenac, Governor General of Canada, and laid before him the plan, 
dim but gigantic. Frontenac entered warmly into his plans, and saw that 
LaSalle's idea to connect the great lakes by a chain of forts with the Gulf 
of Mexico would bind the country so wonderfully together, give un- 
measured power to France, and glory to himself, under whose adminis- 
tration he earnestly hoped all would be realized. 

LaSalle now repaired to France, laid his plans before the King, who 
warmly approved of them, and made him a Chevalier. He also received 
from all the noblemen the warmest wishes for his success. The Chev- 



alier returned to Canada, and busily entered upon his work. He at 
once rebuilt Fort Frontenac and constructed the first ship to sail on 
these fresh-water seas. On the 7th of August, 1679, having been joined 
by Hennepin, he began his voyage in the Griffin up Lake Erie. He 
passed over this lake, through the straits beyond, up Lake St. Clair and 
into Huron. In this lake they encountered heavy storms. They were 
some time at Michillimackinac, where LaSalle founded a fort, and jjussed 
on to Green Bay, the " Bale des Puans " of the French, where he found 
a large quantity of furs collected for him. He loaded the Griffin with 
these, and placing her under the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors. 


started her on her return voyage. The vessel was never afterward heard 
of. He remained about these parts until early in the Winter, when, hear- 
ing nothing from the Griffin, he collected all his men — thirty working 
men and three monks — and started again upon his great undertaking. 
By a short portage they passed to the Illinois or Kankakee, called by 
the Indians, " Theakeke," ivolf^ because of the tribes of Indians called 
by that name, commonly known as the Mahingans, dwelling there. The 
French pronounced it Kiakiki^ which became corrupted to Kankakee. 
"Falling down the said river by easy journeys, the better to observe the 
country," about the last of December they reached a village of the 
Illinois Indians, containing some five hundred cabins, but at that moment 

LRC 43598 


no inhabitants. The Seur de LaSalle being in want of some breadstuffs, 
took advantage of the absence of the Indians to help himself to a suffi- 
ciency of maize, large quantities of which he found concealed in holes 
under the wigwams. This village was situated near the present village 
of Utica in LaSalle County, Illinois. The corn being securely stored, 
the voyagers again betook themselves to the stream, and toward evening, 
on the 4th day of January, 1680, they came into a lake which must have 
been the lake of Peoria. This was called by the Indians Pim-i-te-tvi, that 
is, a place where there are many fat beasts. Here the natives were met 
with in large numbers, but they were gentle and kind, and having spent 
some time with them, LaSalle determined to erect another fort in that 
place, for he had heard rumors that some of the adjoining tribes were 
trying to disturb the good feeling which existed, and some of his men 
were disposed to complain, owing to the hardships and perils of the travel. 
He called this fort " Crevecoeur"' (broken-heart), a name expressive of the 
very natural sorrow and anxiety which the pretty certain loss of his ship, 
Griffin, and his consequent impoverishment, the danger of hostility on the 
part of the Indians, and of mutiny among his own men, might well cause 
him. His fears were not entirely groundless. At one time poison was 
placed in his food, but fortunately was discovered. 

While building this fort, the Winter wore away, the prairies began to 
look green, and LaSalle, despairing of any reinforcements, concluded to 
return to Canada, raise new means and new men, and embark anew in 
the enterprise. For this purpose he made Hennepin the leader of a party 
to explore the head waters of the Mississippi, and he set out on his jour- 
ney. This journey was accomplished with the aid of a few persons, and 
was successfully made, though over an almost unknown route, and in a 
bad season of the year. He safely reach'jd Canada, and set out again for 
the object of his search. 

Hennepin and his party left Fort Crevecceur on the last of February, 
1680. When LaSalle reached this place on his return expedition, he 
found the fort entirely deserted, and he was obliged to return again to 
Canada. He embarked the third time, and succeeded. Seven days after 
leaving the fort, Hennepin reached the Mississippi, and paddling up the 
icy stream as best he could, reached no higher than the Wisconsin River 
by the 11th of April. Here he and his followers were taken prisoners by a 
band of Northern Indians, who treated them with great kindness. Hen- 
nepin's comrades were Anthony Auguel and Michael Ako. On this voy- 
age they found several beautiful lakes, and "saw some charming prairies."' 
Their captors were the Isaute or Sauteurs, Chippewas, a tribe of the Sioux 
nation, who took them up the river until about the first of May, when 
they reached some falls, which Hennepin christened Falls of St. Anthony 



in honor of his patron saint. Here they took the land, and traveling 
nearly two hundred miles to the northwest, brought them to their villages. 
Here tliey were kept about three months, were treated kindly by their 
captors, and at the end of that time, were met by a band of Frenclnnen, 


headed by one Seur de Luth, who, in pursuit of trade and game, had pene- 
trated thus far by the route of Lake Superior ; and with these fellow- 
countrymen Hennepin and his companions were allowed to return to the 
borders of civilized life in November, 1680, just after LaSalle had 
returned to the wilderness on his second trip. Hennepin soon after weni 
to France, where he published an account of his adventures. 


The Mississippi was first discovered by De Soto in April, 1541, in his 
vain endeavor to find gold and precious gems. In the following Spring, 
De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, and worn out with his wander- 
ings, he fell a victim to disease, and on the 21st of May died. His followers, 
reduced by fatigue and disease to less than three hundred men, wandered 
about the country nearly a year, in the vain endeavor to rescue them- 
selves by land, and finally constructed seven small vessels, called brigan- 
tines, in which they embarked, and descending the river, supposing it 
would lead them to the sea, in July they came to the sea (Gulf of 
Mexico), and by September reached the Island of Cuba. 

They were the first to see the great outlet of the Mississippi ; but, 
being so weary and discouraged, made no attempt to claim the country, 
and hardly had an intelligent idea of what they had passed through. 

To La Salle, the intrepid explorer, belongs the honor of giving the 
first account of the mouths of the river. His great desire was to possess 
this entire country for his king, and in January, 1682, he and his band of 
explorers left the shores of Lake Michigan on their third attempt, crossed 
the portage, passed down the Illinois River, and on the 6th of February, 
reached tlie banks of the Mississippi. 

On the 13th they commenced their downward course, whicli they 
pursued with but one interruption, until upon the 6th of March they dis- 
covered the three great passages by which the liver discharges its waters 
into the gulf. La Salle thus narrates the event : 

" We landed on the bank of the most western channel, about three 
leagues (nine miles) from its mouth. On the seventh, M. de LaSalle 
went to reconnoiter the shores of the neighboring sea, and M. de Tonti 
meanwhile examined the great middle channel. They found the main 
outlets beautiful, large and deep. On the 8th Ave reascended the river, a 
little above its confluence with the sea, to find a dry place beyond the 
le-Mih. of inundations. The elevation of the North Pole was here about 
twenty-seven degrees. Here we prepared a column and a cross, and to 
the column were affixed the arms of France with this inscription : 

Louis Le Grand, Roi De France et de Navarre, regne ; Le neuvieme Avril, 16S2. 

The whole party, under arms, chanted the Te Deum, and then, after 
a salute and cries of " Vive le Roi" the column was erected by M. de 
LaSalle, who, standing near it, proclaimed in a loud voice the authority of 
the King of France. LaSalle returned and laid the foundations of the Mis- 
sissippi settlements in Illinois, thence he proceeded to France, where 
another expedition was fitted out, of which he was commander, and in two 
succeeding voyages failed to find the outlet of the river by sailing along 
the shore of the gulf. On his third voyage he was killed, through the 



treachery of his followers, and the object of his expeditions was not 
accomplished until 1699, when D" Iberville, under the authority of the 
crown, discovered, on the second of March, by way of the sea, the mouth 
of the " Hidden River." This majestic stream was called by the natives 
'•'• Malhoueli'u^^ and by the Spaniards, "■ Za Paliasade,''' from the great 

\\ J 




number of trees about its mouth. After traversing the several outlets, 
and satisfying himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its 
western outlet, and returned to France. 

An avenue of trade was now opened out which was fully improved. 
In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled l)y some European colon- 
ists. In 1762, the colony was made over to Spain, to be regained by 
France under the consulate of Napoleon. In 1803, it was purchased by 


the United States for the sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territorv 
of Louisiana and commerce of the Mississippi River came under the 
charge of the United States. Although LaSalle's labors ended in defeat 
and death, he had not worked and suffered in vain. He had thrown 
open to France and the world an immense and most valuable country ; 
had established several ports, and laid the foundations of more than one 
settlement there. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia, are to this day monu- 
ments of LaSalle's labors ; for, though he had founded neither of them 
(unless Peoria, which was built nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecceur,) 
it was by those whom he led into the West that these places were 
peopled and civilized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of 
the Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and honored." 

The French early improved the opening made for them. Before the 
year 1698, the Rev. Father Gravier began a mission among the Illinois, 
and founded Kaskaskia. For some time this was merely a missionary 
station, where none but natives resided, it being one of three such vil- 
lages, the other two being Cahokia and Peoria. What is known of 
these missions is learned from a letter written by Father Gabriel Marest, 
dated " Aux Cascaskias, autrement dit de I'lmmaculate Conception de 
la Sainte Vierge, le 9 Novembre, 1712." Soon after the founding of 
Kaskaskia, the missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia, while 
Peoria arose near the ruins of Fort Crevecoeur. This must have been 
about the year 1700. The post at Vincennes on the Oubache river, 
(pronounced Wa-ba, meaning summer cloud moving swiftly) was estab- 
lished in 1702, according to the best authorities.* It is altogether prob- 
able that on LaSalle's last trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia. In July, 1701, the foundations of Fort Ponchartrain 
were laid by De la Motte Cadillac on the Detroit River. These sta- 
tions, with those established further north, were the earliest attempts to 
occupy the Northwest Territory. At the same time efforts were being 
made to occupy the Southwest, which finally culminated in the settle- 
ment and founding of the City of New Orleans by a colony from England 
in 1718. This was mainly accomplished through the efforts of the 
famous Mississippi Company, established by the notorious John Law, 
who so quickly arose into prominence in France, and who with his 
scheme so quickly and so ignominiously passed away. 

From the time of the founding of these stations for fifty years the 
French nation were engrossed with the settlement of the lower Missis- 
sippi, and the war with the Chicasaws, who had, in revenge for repeated 

•There Is considerable dispute about this date, some asserting it was founded as late as 1742. When 
the new court house at Vincennes was erected, all authorities on the subject were carefully examined, and 
1702 fixed upon as the correct date. It was accordingly ongraveil on the corner-stone of the court house. 


injuries, cut off tlie entire colony at Natchez. Although the company 
did little for Louisiana, as the entire West was then called, yet it opened 
the trade through the Mississippi River, and started the raising of grains 
indigenous to that climate. Until the year 1750, but little is known of 
the settlements in the Northwest, as it was not until this time that the 
attention of tlie English was called to the occupation of this portion af the 
New World, wliich they then supposed they owned. Vivier, a missionary 
among the Illinois, writing from " Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort 
Chartres, June 8, 1750, says: '"We have here whites, negroes and 
Indians, to say nothing of cross-breeds. There are five French villages, 
and three villages of the natives, within a space of twenty-one leagues 
situated between the Mississippi and another river called the Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias). In the five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred 
whiles, tlnee hundred l)lacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The 
three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight hundred souls all 
told. Most of the French till the soil; they raise wlieat, cattle, pigs and 
horses, and live like princes. Three times as much is produced as can 
be consumed ; and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to New 
Orleans." This city was now the seaport town of the Northwest, and 
save in the extreme northern part, where only furs and copper ore were 
found, almost all the products of the country found their way to France 
by the mouth of the Father of Waters. In another letter, dated Novem- 
ber 7, 1750, this same priest says : " For fifteen leagues above the 
month of the Mississippi one sees no dwellings, tlie ground being too lew 
to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans, the lands are only partially 
occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and red, not more, I 
think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come all lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease ; and above all, pork 
and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, as forty 
vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans, 
plantations are again met with ; the most considerable is a colony of 
Germans, some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty -five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five 
or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues farther 
up is the Natchez post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners 
through fear of the Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee, they raise 
excellent tobacco. Another hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, 
where we have also a fort and a garrison for the benefit of the river 
traders. * * * From the Arkansas to the Illinois, nearly five hundred 
leagues, there is not a settlement. There should be, however, a fort at 
the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which the English can reach the 
Mississippi. In the Illinois country are numberless mines, but no one to 




work them as tliey deserve." Father Marest, writing from the post at 
Vincennes in 181 2, makes the same observation, Vivier also says : " Some 
individuals dig lead near the surface and supply the Indians and Canada. 
Two Spaniards now here, who claim to be adepts, say that our mines are 
like those of Mexico, and that if we would dig deeper, we should find 
silver under the lead ; and at any rate the lead is excellent. There is also 
in this country, beyond doubt, copper ore, as from time to time large 
pieces are found in the streams." 



At the close of the year 1750, the French occupied, in addition to the 
lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, one at Du Quesne, one at 
the Mauniee in the country of the Miamis, and one at Sandusky in what 
may be termed the Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the Northwest 
they had stations at St. Jt)se]jh's on the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 
at Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit), at Michillimackanac or Massillimacanac, 
Fox River of Green Bay, and at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of 
LaSalle were now fully realized. The French alone were possessors of 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settlement. Another 
nation, however, was now turning its attention to this extensive country, 


and hearing of its wealth, began to lay plans for occupying it and for 
securing the great profits arising therefrom. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, namely, the 


This " Beautiful" river was discovered by Robert Cavalier de La- 
Salle in 1669, four years before the discovery of the Mississippi by Joliet 
and Marquette. 

While LaSalle was at his trading post on the St. Lawrence, he found 
leisure to study nine Indian dialects, the chief of wliich was the Iroquois. 
He not only desired to facilitate his intercourse in trade, but he longed 
to travel and explore the unknown regions of the West. An incident 
soon occurred which decided him to fit out an exploring expedition. 

While conversing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea, but at such a 
distance that it required eight months to reach its mouth. In this state- 
ment the Mississippi and its tributaries were considered as one stream. 
LaSalle believing, as most of the French at that period did, tliat tlie great 
rivers flowing west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to 
embark in tlie enterprise of discovering a route across the continent to 
the commerce of Cliina and Japan. 

He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the approval of the Gov- 
ernor. His eloquent appeal prevailed. The Governor and tlie Intendant, 
Talon, issued letters patent authorizing the enterprise, but made no pro- 
vision to defray the expenses. At this juncture the seminary of St. Sul- 
pice decided to send out missionaries in connection with the expedition, 
and LaSalle offering to sell his improvements at LaChine to raise money, 
the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two thousand eight hundred 
dollai's were raised, with which LaSalle purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the outfit. 

On the 6th of July, 1669, the party, numbering twenty-four persons, 
embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence ; two additional canoes 
carried the Indian guides. In three days they were gliding over the 
bosom of Lake Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity of the present 
City of Rochester, New York. Here they expected to procure guides to 
conduct them to the Ohio, but in this they were disappointed. 

The Indians seemed unfriendly to the enterprise. LaSalle suspected 
that the Jesuits had prejudiced their minds against his plans. After 
waiting a month in the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian 



from the Iroquois colony at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured them 
that they could there find guides, and offered to conduct them thence. 

On their way they passed the mouth of the Niagara River, when they 
heard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract. Arriving 



among the Iroquois, they met with a friendly reception, and learned 
from 1i Shawanee prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks. 
Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready to resume 
their journey ; hut just as they were about to start they heard of the 
arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring village. One of them proved 
to be Louis Joliet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West. He 


had been sent by the Canadian Government to explore the copper mines 
on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his way back to Quebec. 
He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the 
lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Indians in 
that quarter. This induced the priests to determine on leaving the 
expedition and going to Lake Superior. LaSalle warned them that the 
Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet 
with a cold reception. Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and 
after worship on the lake shore, parted from LaSalle. On arriving at 
Lake Superior, they found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, 
Marquette and Dablon, occupying the field. 

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted 
no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him their patron 
saint ; and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal the following June 
without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian. 

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois 
village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a 
tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far 
as the falls at Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the 
persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669. 

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anony- 
mous paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle 
himself during a subsequent visit to Paris. In a letter written to Count 
Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he 
discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls. This was regarded as 
an indisputable fact by the French authorities, who claimed the Ohio 
Valley upon another ground. When Washington was sent by the colony 
of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec 
replied : " We claim the country on the Ohio by virtue of the discoveries 
of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English. Our orders are to 
make prisoners of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio Valley." 


When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Father of Waters 
and the Great Northwest, all was still wild save at the French posts 
already described. In 1749, when the English first began to think seri- 
ously about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were yet 
under the dominion of the red men. The English knew, however, pretty 


conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds. As early as 
1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had commenced movements to 
secure the country west of the Alleghenies to the English crown. In 
Pennsylvania, Governor Keith and James Logan, secretary of the prov- 
ince, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the neces- 
sity of securing the Western lands. Nothing was done, however, b}'- that 
power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain 
to this unexplored wilderness. 

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a 
discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, her grants 
to the colonies extended " from sea to sea." This was not all her claim. 
She had purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of land. This lat- 
ter was also a strong argument. As early as 1684, Lord H oward. Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations. These were the 
great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Afterward the Tuscaroras were 
taken into the confederacy, and it became known as the Six Nations. 
They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in 
1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed 
was drawn up and signed by the chiefs. The validity of this claim has 
often been disputed, but never successfully. In 1741, a purchase was 
made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the " Colony of 
Virginia," for which the Indians received X200 in gold and a like sum in 
goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel 
William Beverly. As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was 
called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the mountains with 
presents to appease the savages. Col. Lee, and some Virginians accompa- 
nied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings 
regarding the English. They were not satisfied with their treatment, 
and plainly told the Commissioners why. The English did not desire the 
cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In 
1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant 
of land beyond the Alleghenies. This was granted, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hun- 
dred thousand of which were to be located at once. Upon the 12th of 
June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was 
made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 
acres were given to the Greenbriar Company. All this time the French 
were not idle. They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in tlie 
West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French 


settling upon it, but in time would come to the lower posts and so gain 
possession of the whole country. Upon the 10th of May, 1774, Vaud- 
reuil, Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the 
consequences thatmnst arise from allowing the English to build trading 
posts in the Northwest, seized scime of their frontier })Osts, and to further 
secure the claim of the French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis Cel- 
eron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, })lat(!S of lead, on which 
were inscrii)ed the claims of France. These were heard of in 1752, and 
within the memory of residents now living along the " Oyo," as the 
beautiful river was called l)y the French. One of these plates was found 
with the inscription partly defaced. It bears date August 16, 1749, and 
a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the 
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, 
among whose journals it may now be found.* These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and 
though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and 
it was only a question of time when the storm would burst upon the 
frontier settlements. In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio 
Company to examine its lands. He went to a village of the Twigtwees, 
on the Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles above its mouth. He 
afterward spoke of it as very populous. From there he went down 
the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, 
and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands. Dur- 
ing the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for the 
Greenbriar Company. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also sent a small party 
of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having heard of tlie Eng- 
lish post on the ISIiami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and 
Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of 
the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
(They were probably garrisoned in a block house). The traders were 
carried away to Canada, and one account says several were burned. This 
fort or post was called by the English Pickawillany. A memorial of the 
king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in the center of the terri- 
tory between the Oliio and the Wabash. The name is probalily some 
variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written b}- Rev. David Jones 

♦ Tlie following is a translation of the Inscription on the plate: "In the year 1749. relRn of Louis XV.. 
King of France, we. Celeron, commandant of a detachment by Monsieur the Manjiiis of (lallisoniere, com- 
mander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in certain Indian villaKt-s of these cantons, have 
buried this plate at the confluence of the Toradakoin, this twenty- ninth of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise 
Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession whicli we have talcen of the said river, and all its 
tributaries; inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by their arms and 
treaties; especially by those of Uyswick, Utrecht, and Aix La Chapelle." 


This was the first blood shed between the French and English, and 
occurred near the present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at a point about 
forty-seven miles north of Dayton. Each nation became now more inter- 
ested in the progress of events in the Northwest. The English deter- 
mined to i)urchase from the Indians a title to the lands they wished to 
occupy, and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washing- 
ton at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and 
Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty bf Lan- 
caster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June, 
these Commissioners met the red men at Logstown, a little village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the site of Pitts- 
burgh. Here had been a trading point for many years, but it was aban- 
doned by the Indians in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize 
the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour, 
the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a 
chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in their 
favor. This he did, and upon the 13th of June they all united in signing 
a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a 
settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should 
not be disturbed by them. These were the means used to obtain the first 
treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trj'ing to out-manoeuvre 
each other, and were professing to be at peace. The English generally 
outwitted the Indians, and failed in man}^ instances to fulfill their con- 
tracts. They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further 
increased the feeling by failing to provide them with arms and ammuni- 
tion. Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1758 : " The Indians on the Ohio 
left 3^ou because of your own fault. When we heard the French were 
coming, we asked you for help and arms, but we did not get them. The 
French came, they treated us kindly, and gained our afi'ections. The 
Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when 
we wanted help, forsook us." 

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by 
title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannon 
and military stores to be in readiness for the expected blow. The Eng- 
lisli made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until 
the Summer could the Indians be gathered together to discuss the plans 
of the French. Tliey had sent messages to the French, warning them 
away ; but they replied that they intended to complete tlie chain of forts 
already begun, and would not abandon the field. 

Soon after this, no satisfaction being obtained from the Ohio regard- 


ing the positions and purposes of the French, Governor Dinwiddle of 
Virginia determined to send to them another messenger and learn from 
them, if possible, their intentions. For this purpose he selected a young 
man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank 
of major, and who was thoroughly posted regarding frontier life. This 
personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, wlio then 
held considerable interest in Western lands. He was at this time just 
twenty-two years of age. Taking Gist as liis guide, the two, accompanied 
by foul* servitors, set out on their perilous marcli. They left Will's 
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and on the 22d reached the Monon- 
gahela, about ten miles above the fork. From there they went to 
Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations. From them he learned the condition of the French, and 
also heard of their determination not to come down the river till the fol- 
lowing Spring. The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to 
turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on to 
Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek. Here the 
French had a fort, called Fort Machault. Through the rum and flattery 
of the French, he nearly lost all his Indian followers. Finding nothing 
of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 
11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek. Here 
he delivered Governor Dinwiddie's letter, received his answer, took his 
observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one 
but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians who still remained true to him, 
notwithstanding the endeavors of the French to retain them. Their 
homeward journey was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, yet 
they reached home in safety on the 6th of January, 1754. 

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by 
Washington to Governor Dinwiddle, it was learned tliat the French would 
not give up without a struggle. Active preparations were at once made 
in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, while the French 
finished the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications, 
and gathered their forces to be in readiness. 

The Old Dominion was all alive. Virginia was the center of great 
activities ; volunteers were called for, and from all the neighboring 
colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac 
men were enlisting under the Governor's proclamation — which promised 
two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent 
had come for assistance for his little band of forty-one men, who were 


workini^ away in hunger and want, to fortify that point at the fork of 
the Ohio, to which hoth parties were looking with deep interest. 

" The first birds of Spring filled the air with their song ; the swift 
river rolled by the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting snows of 
Spring and the April showers. The leaves were appearing ; a few Indian 
scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at liand ; and all was so quiet, 
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, who had been left by Trent 
in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten 
miles up the Monongahela. But, though all was so quiet in that wilder- 
ness, keen eyes had seen the low intrenchment rising at the fork, and 
swift feet had borne the news of it up the river ; and upon the morning 
of the 17th of April, Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw 
upon the Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink — sixty batteaux and 
three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and 
stores. * * * That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecoeur, 
and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men 
and tools, marched up the Monongahela." 

The French and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narrated show the 
French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries ; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue 
of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New- 
foundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the 
English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted 
disastrously to them. The French and Indians immediately completed 
the fortifications begun at the Fork, which they had so easily captured, 
and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek when the news of the capture of the fort arrived. 
He at once departed to recapture it. On his way he entrenched him- 
self at a place called the " Meadows," where he erected a fort called 
by him Fort Necessity. From there he sui-prised and captured a force of 
French and Indians marching against him, but was soon after attacked 
in his fort by a much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the 
morning of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The Englisli Government immediatel}^ planned four campaigns ; one 
against Foit DuQuesne ; one against Nova Scotia ; one against Fort 
Niagara, and one against Crown Point. These occurred during 1755--6, 
and were not successful in driving the French from their possessions. 
The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General 
Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 


acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered such an inglorious defeat. This 
occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle 
of Monongahela, or " Braddock's Defeat." The war continued with 
various vicissitudes through the years 1756-7 ; when, at the commence- 
ment of 1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then Secre- 
tary of State, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to 
carry on the war. Three expeditions were planned for this year : one, 
under General Amherst, against Louisburg ; another, under Abercrombie, 
against Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third, under General Forbes, against 
Fort DuQuesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg surrendered after a 
desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the 
Canadian possessions fell into the hands of the British. Abercrombie 
captured Fort Frontenac, and when the expedition against Fort DuQuesne, 
of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it was 
found in flames and deserted. The English at once took possession, 
rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the 
name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of 
Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; Amherst was to 
reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to 
capture Niagara. This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant 
Prideaux lost his life in the attempt. Amherst captured Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point without a blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memor- 
able ascent to the Plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated 
Montcalm, and on the 18th, the city capitulated. In this engagement 
Montcolm and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's successor, 
marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of 
defeating the English, and there, on the 28th of the following April, was 
fought one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War. It 
resulted in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the City of Montreal. 
The Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Can.ida was 
surrendered to the English. This practically concluded the war, but it 
was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that year, and 
under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of 
the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England. At the same 
time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. 

On the 13th of September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers was sent 
from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post 
m the territory. He arrived there on the 19th of November, and sum- 
moned the place to surrender. At first the commander of the post, 
Beletre, refused, but on the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the 


French arms, surrendered. Rogers remained there until December 23d 
under the personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to whom, 
no doubt, he owed his safety. Pontiac had come here to inquire the 
purposes of the English in taking possession of the country. He was 
assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not 
desire their country. This answer conciliated the savages, and did much 
to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while 
on their journey home. 

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one 
month on the way. His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence 
across the present State of Ohio directly to the fort. This was the com- 
mon trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of 
the Ohio. -It went from Fort Sandusky, where Sandusky City now is, 
crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to " Mohickon 
John's Town" on Mohickon Creek, the nortliern branch of White 
Woman's River, and thence crossed to Beaver's Town, a Delaware town 
on what is now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's Town were probably one 
hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of 
cleared land. From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across 
Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork. 

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under the English rule. 
New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large 
trade was speedily manifested. Had the British carried out their promises 
with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpe- 
trated, and the country would have been spared their recital. 

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these 
atrocities. We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading 
events in his life. The earliest authentic information regarding this 
noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader named 
Alexander Henry, who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as 
far as Missillimacnac. Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, 
but a bitter foe of the English, whom he considered as encroaching on his 
hunting grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian 
to insure safety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached 
him and tlie English for their attempted subjugation of the West. He 
declared that no treaty had been made with them ; no presents sent 
them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation. 
He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was 
civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatamies. 

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carolina, 
were united in this feeling, and at tlie time of the treaty of Paris, ratified 
February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly 





upon the frontier British posts, and with one blow strike every man dead. 
Pontiac was the marked leader in all this, and was the commander 
of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares 
and Mingoes, who had, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unite 
in this enterprise. 

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 1768. 
Nine British posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped up in the hollow 
of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton. 

Poutiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit. 
Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing 
the plot the evening previous to his arrival. Everything was carried out, 
however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when 
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indian 
chiefs, suddenly drew aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed 
musket. Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled. He 
saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared. He 
endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions ; but the guilt 
was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a severe 
reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post. 

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort, and until the treaty of peace 
between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August, 1764, 
continued to harass and besiege th6 fortress. He organized a regular 
commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark, 
which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed. At 
the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went 
further south, living many years among the Illinois. 

He had given up all hope of saving his country and race. After a 
time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis 
in a war with the whites. His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a 
quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom soon 
afterwards killed him. His death was, however, avenged by the northern 
Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed. 
Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan 
for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly 
have been carried out. 

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alex- 
ander Henry went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest 
feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and 
were doing nothing to conciliate the natives. Here he met the chief, 
Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in a speech the idea that their 
French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said : 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 


yet conquered us ! We are not your slaves ! These lakes, these woods, 
these mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, like 
the white people, can not live without bread and pork and beef. But you 
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided 
food for us upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

He then spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, 
no presents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war. 
Such were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after 
the English took possession of their country. These feelings were no 
doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the 
French arms might prevail. The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the 
English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going 
on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments. 

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to pre- 
vent it falling into the hands of the English, who were becoming masters 
of the entire West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fon- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States 
and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great 
Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these 
sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States ; and 
twenty years still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to 
France, and by France sold to the United States. 

In the half century, from the building of the Fort of Crevecoeur by 
LaSalle, in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French set- 
tlements had been made in that quarter. These have already been 
noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on the American Bottom, a large tract 
of rich alluvial soil in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St. 

By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including 
all these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England; 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 1765, when 
Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty of England, established him- 
self at Fort Chartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, 
dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Cath- 
olics who worshiped here, and a right to leave the country with their 
effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen. 
It was shortl}^ after the occupancy of the West by the British that the 
war with Pontiac opened. It is already noticed in the sketch of that 
chieftain. By it many a Briton lost his life, and many a frontier settle- 


ment in its infancy ceased to exist. This was not ended until the year 
176-1, when, failing to capture Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confed- 
eracy became disheartened, and, receiving no aid from the French, Pon- 
tiac abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom 
he afterward lost his life. 

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began 
rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation. During the 
year 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces 
explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Mononga- 
hela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha. This 
was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washing- 
ton was a party. The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford 
and others, on the 20th of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pitts- 
burgh to the mouth of the Kanawha; ascended that stream about fourteen 
miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which 
were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort. 

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clus- 
tered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders. This 
same year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages. 
He found there about sixty-five resident families, and at Cahokia only 
forty-five dwellings. At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and 
at Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong. For a year 
or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally 
Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still main- 
tained some feelings of hatred to the English. The trade from the posts 
was quile good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of pork and 
flour found their way to the New Orleans market. At this time the 
policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension 
of the colonies west. In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal 
proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the 
sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. At the instance 
of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement 
without the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy 
reach of Great Britain. 

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 1769 : " In the 
course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they 
extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for 
themselves, and when all connection upheld by commerce with the mother 
country ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow." 

In accordance with this policy. Gov. Gage issued a proclamation 
in 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their set- 
tlements and join some of the Eastern English colonies. To this thej 


strenuously objected, giving good reasons therefor, and were allowed to 
remain. The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its 
change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French 
population. In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned 
the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which 
was granted, and Parliament passed an act on June 2, 1774, extend- 
ing the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

In consequence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Govern- 
ment toward the French settlers in the West, they were disposed to favor 
that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies ; but the 
early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side 
of the war for independence. 

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration 
to the Western lands. He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the 
pretense that the fort was under the government of that commonwealth. 
One of these justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the 
Ohio Valley, gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it 
Fort Dunmore. This and other parties were formed to select sites for 
settlements, and often came in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed 
portions of the valley, and several battles followed. These ended in the 
famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and 
driven across the Ohio. 

During the years 1775 and 1776, by the operations of land companies 
and the perseverance of individuals, several settlements were firmly estab- 
lished between thy Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a council held 
in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of English traders, calling 
themselves the " Illinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on 
the east side of the Mississippi River south of the Illinois. In 1775, a mer- 
chant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincennes 
as the agent of the association called the ^ Wabash Land Compan3\" On 
the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 
37,497,600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, attested 
by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in 
the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia. This and other land com- 
panies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all 
were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution. On the 20th of 
April, 1780, the two companies named consolidated under the name of the 
" United Illinois and Wabash Land Company." They afterward made 


strenuous efforts to have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all 
signally failed. 

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky was an unor- 
ganized country, though there were several settlements within her borders. 

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated that at that time 
" Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 white and black in- 
habitants — the whites being a little the more numerous. Cahokia con- 
tains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were 
east of the Mississippi River, about the year 1771 " — when these observa- 
tions were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and 
nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a report 
made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778. From it the following 
extract is made : 

" Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which 
appears to have contained nearly eighty families from the beginning of 
the late revolution. There are twelve families in a small village at la 
Prairie du Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village. There 
are also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philips, which is five 
miles further up the river." 

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time con- 
tained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all the country 
west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained so until 
ceded again to Spain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the 
country including New Orleans to the United States. At Detroit there 
were, according to Capt. Carver, who was in the Northwest from 1766 to 
1768, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled for more 
than twenty miles, although poorly cultivated — the people being engaged 
in the Indian trade. This old town has a history, which we will here 

It is the oldest town in the Northwest, having been founded by 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701. It was laid out in the form of an 
oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width. 
As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent 
resident of the place, in 1778, it comprised within its limits that space 
between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block) and Capt. Perkins' house 
(near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, 
and was bordered in front by the Detroit River. It was surrounded by 
oak and cedar pickets, about fifteen ft- et long, set in the ground, and had 
four gates — east, west, north and south. Over the first three of these 


gates were block houses provided with four guns apiece, each a six- 
pounder. Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and in a 
parallel direction with the block houses. There were four streets running 
east and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and the rest fifteen 
feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from ten 
to fifteen feet in width. 

At the date spoken of by Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the 
enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the present 
northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street. The citadel was 
inclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two 
stories high, sufficient to contain ten officers, and also barracks sufficient 
to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick. The 
citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house. The old town of 
Detroit, in 1778, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, 
with a few a story and a half in height. They were all of logs, some 
hewn and some round. There was one building of splendid appearance, 
called the " King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east 
gate. It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned 
by the British. There were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and 
the other near the Government House. Each of the guards consisted of 
twenty-four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning 
between nine and ten o'clock. Each furnished four sentinels, who were 
relieved every two hours. There was also an officer of the day, who per- 
formed strict duty. Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset ; 
even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all the keys were 
delivered into the hands of the commanding officer. They were opened 
in the morning at sunrise. No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter 
town with any weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife. It was a stand- 
ing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of 
every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were 
restored to them on their return. No more than twenty-five Indians were 
allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only 
at the east and west gates. At sundown the drums beat, and all the 
Indians were required to leave town instantly. There was a council house 
near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians. 
The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two 
hundred males and one hundred females. This town was destroyed by 
fire, all except one dwelling, in 1805. After which the present " new " 
town was laid out. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of 
importance in the West. Kentucky was formed as a component part of 
Virginia, and the sturdy pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, 


and recognizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the trade in 
this part of the New Workl, held steadily to their purposes, and those 
within the commonwealth of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their 
civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Richard Gallaway^ 
burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state. 
Early in September of that year (1777) the first court was held 
in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, Avho had arrived 
in August, was made the commander of a militia organization which 
had been commenced the March previous. Thus the tree of loyalty 
was growing. The chief spirit in this far-out colony, who had represented 
her the year previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
unequaled in its boldness. He had been watching the movements of the 
British throughout the Northwest, and understood their whole plan. Ht 
saw it was through their possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy 
access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British 
intended to penetrate the country from the north and south, and annihi- 
late the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic man was Colonel, 
afterwards General, George Rogers Clark. He knew the Indians were not 
unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could 
the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives 
might be easily awed into neutrality ; and by spies sent for the purpose, 
he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements 
might easily succeed. Having convinced himself of the certainty of the 
project, he repaired to the Capital of Virginia, which place he reached on 
November 5th. While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th, 
Burgoyne had been defeated, and the spirits of the colonists greatly 
encouraged thereby. Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at 
once entered heartily into Clark's plans. The same plan had before been 
agitated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the 
scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, having satisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility of his 
plan, received, on the 2d of January, two sets of instructions — one secret, 
the other open — the latter authorized him to proceed to enlist seven 
companies to go to Kentucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three 
months from their arrival in the West. The secret order authorized him 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand 
at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather 
to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew all were needed 
in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. W. B. Smith to Hoi- 


ston for the same i^urpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required 
number of men. Tlie settlers in these parts were afraid to leave their 
own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to 
join the proposed expedition. With three companies and several private 
volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he 
navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified 
Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, 
Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of this fortification may 
yet be found. At this place he appointed Col. Bowman to meet him 
with such recruits as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and 
as many as could be spared from the station. Here he announced to 
the men their real destination. Having completed his arrangements, 
and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the island, and on the 
2-J:th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured 
no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with 
his chosen band, fell down the river. His plan was to go by water as 
far as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. 
Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to 
Cahokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he 
intended to march directly to the Mississippi River and cross it into the 
Spanish country. Before his start he received two good items of infor- 
mation : one that the alliance had been formed between France and the 
United States ; and the other that tlie Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to 
believe by the British that the " Long Knives" or Virginians, were the 
most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped a foe. With 
this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would 
cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from grati- 
tude would become friendly if treated with unexpected leniency. 

The march to Kaskaskia was accomplished through a hot July sun, 
and the town reached on the evening of July 4. He captured the fort 
near the village, and soon after the village itself by surprise, and without 
the loss of a single man or by killing any of the enemy. After sufficiently 
working upon the fears of the natives, Clark told them they were at per- 
fect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the 
great conflict they would, also he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foe. This had the desired effect, and the inhab- 
itants, so unexpectedly and so gratefully surprised by the unlooked 
for turn of affairs, at once swore allegiance to the American arms, and 
when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accom- 
panied him, and through their influence the inhabitants of the place 
surrendered, and gladly placed themselves under his protection. Thus 


the two important posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the English 
into the possession of Virginia. 

In the person of the priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain possession 
of the Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians within its boun- 
daries, he must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. 
St. Vincent, the next important post to Detroit, remained yet to be taken 
before the Mississippi Valley was conquered. M. Gibault told him that 
he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to throw off its connection 
with England. Clark gladly accepted his offer, and on the 14th of July, 
in company with a fellow-townsman, M. Gibault started on his mission of 
peace, and on the 1st of August returned with the cheerful intelligence 
that the post on the " Oubache " had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the Old Dominion. During this interval, Clark established his courts, 
placed garrisons at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his 
men, sent word to have a fort, which proved the germ of Louisville, 
erected at the Falls of the Ohio, and dispatched Mr. Rocheblave, who 
had been commander at Kaskaskia, as a prisoner of war to Richmond. 
In October the County of Illinois was established by the Legislature 
of Virginia, John Todd appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor, 
and in November General Clark and his men received the thanks of 
the Old Dominion through their Legislature. 

In a speech a few days afterward, Clark made known fully to the 
natives his plans, and at its close all came forward and swore alle- 
giance to the Long Knives. While he was doing this Governor Hamilton, 
having made his various arrangements, had left Detroit and moved down 
the Wabash to Vincennes intending to operate from that point in reducing 
the Illinois posts, and then proceed on down to Kentucky and drive the 
rebels from the West. Gen. Clark had, on the return of M. Gibault, 
dispatched Captain Helm, of Fauquier County, Virginia, with an attend- 
ant named Henr}^, across the Illinois prairies to command the fort. 
Hamilton knew nothing of the capitulation of the post, and was greatly 
surprised on his arrival to be confronted by Capt. Helm, who, standing at 
the entrance of the fort by a loaded cannon ready to fire upon his assail- 
ants, demanded upon what terms Hamilton demanded possession of the 
fort. Being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, he surrendered to 
the British General, who could scarcely believe his e3'es when he saw the 
force in the garrison. 

Hamilton, not realizing the character of the men with whom he was 
contending, gave up his intended campaign for the Winter, sent his four 
hundred Indian warriors to prevent troops from coming down the Ohio, 


and to annoy the Americans in all ways, and sat quietly down to pass the 
Winter. Information of all these proceedings having reached Clark, he 
saw that immediate and decisive action was necessary, and that unless 
he captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Clark received the 
news on the 29th of January, 1779, and on February 4th, having suffi- 
ciently garrisoned Kaskaskia and Cahokia, he sent down the Mississippi 
a " battoe," as Major Bowman writes it, in order to ascend the Ohio and 
Wabash, and operate with the land forces gathering for the fray. 

On the next day, Clark, with his little force of one hundred and 
twenty men, set out for the post, and after incredible hard marching 
through much mud, the ground being thawed by the incessant spring 
rains, on the 22d reached the fort, and being joined by his " battoe," at 
once commenced the attack on the post. The aim of the American back- 
woodsman was unerring, and on the 24th the garrison surrendered to the 
intrepid boldness of Clark. The French were treated with great kind- 
ness, and gladly renewed their allegiance to Virginia. Hamilton was 
sent as a prisoner to Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement. 
During his command of the British frontier posts, he had offered prizes 
to the Indians for all the scalps of Americans they would bring to him, 
and had earned in consequence thereof the title '•'' Hair-buyer General," 
by which he was ever afterward known. 

Detroit was now without doubt within easy reach of the enterprising 
Virginian, could he but raise the necessary force. Governor Henry being 
apprised of this, promised him the needed reinforcement, and Clark con- 
cluded to wait until he could capture and sufficiently garrison the posts. 
Had Clark failed in this bold undertaking, and Hamilton succeeded in 
uniting the western Indians for the next Spring's campaign, the West 
would indeed have been swept from the Mississippi to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and the great blow struck, which had been contemplated from 
the commencement, by the British. 

"But for this small army of dripping, but fearless Virginians, the 
union of all the tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies might 
have been effected, and the whole current of our history changed." 

At this time some fears were entertained by the Colonial Govern- 
ments that the Indians in the North and Northwest were inclining to the 
British, and under the instructions of Washington, now Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colonial army, and so bravely fighting for American inde- 
pendence, armed forces were sent against the Six Nations, and upon the 
Ohio frontier, Col. Bowman, acting under the same general's orders, 
marched against Indians within the present limits of that State. These 
expeditions were in the main successful, and the Indians were compelled 
to sue for peace. 


During this same year (1779) the famous " Land Laws" of Virginia 
were passed. The passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the Northwest than the gaining of a few Indian 
conflicts. These laws confirmed in main all grants made, and guaranteed 
to all actual settlers their rights and privileges. After providing for the 
settlers, the laws provided for selling the balance of the public lands at 
forty cents per acre. To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature 
sent four Virginians westward to attend to the various claims, over many 
of which great confusion prevailed concerning their validity. These 
gentlemen opened their court on October 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and 
continued until April 26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided 
three thousand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, who 
came in the person of Mr. George May, and assumed his duties on the 
10th day of the month whose name he bore. With the opening of the 
next year (1780) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Spanish Government exacted such measures in 
relation to its trade as to cause the overtures made to the United States 
to be rejected. The American Government considered they had a right 
to navigate its channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. The settle- 
ments in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by emigrants. It was dur- 
ing this year that the first seminary of learning was established in the 
West in this young and enterprising Commonwealth. 

The settlers here did not look upon the building of this fort in a 
friendly manner, as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. Spain had 
been friendly to the Colonies during their struggle for independence, 
and though for a while this friendship appeared in danger from the 
refusal of the free navigation of the river, yet it was finally settled to the 
satisfaction of both nations. 

The Winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusually severe ones 
ever experienced in the West. The Indians always leferred to it as the 
"Great Cold." Numbers of wild animals perished, and not a few 
pioneers lost their lives. The following Summer a party of Canadians 
and Indians attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possession of it 
in consequence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolting 
colonies. They met with such a determined resistance on the part of the 
inhabitants, even the women taking part in the battle, that 'they were 
compelled to abandon the contest. They also made an attack on the 
settlements in Kentucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable 
manner, they fled the country in great haste. 

About this time arose the question in the Colonial Congress con- 
cerning the western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachusetts 


and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this subject finally led New 
York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to pass a law giving to the dele- 
gates of that State in Congress the power to cede her western lands for 
the benefit of the United States. This law was laid before Congress 
during the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until Sep- 
tember 6th, when a resolution passed that body calling upon the States 
claiming western lands to release their claims in favor of the whole body. 
This basis formed the union, and was the first after all of those legislative 
measures which resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of the same 
year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The conquest might 
have easily been effected by Clark had the necessary aid been furnished 
him. Nothing decisive was done, yet the heads of the Government knew 
that the safety of the Northwest from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important j)ost, the only unconquered one in the 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into the Coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Fayette and Jefferson, and the act establishing the Town 
of Louisville was passed. This same year is also noted in the annals of 
American history as the year in which occurred Arnold's treason to the 
United States. 

Virginia, in accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d 
day of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the United 
States upon certain conditions, which Congress would not accede to, and 
the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old Dominion, failed, nor was 
anything farther done until 1783. During all that time the Colonies 
were busily engaged in the struggle with the mother country, and in 
consequence thereof but little heed was given to the western settlements. 
Upon the 16th of April, 1781, the first birth north of the Ohio River of 
American parentage occurred, being that of Mary Heckewelder, daughter 
of the widely known Moravian missionary, whose band of Christian 
Indians suffered in after years a horrible massacre by the hands of the 
frontier settlers, who had been exasperated by the murder of several of 
their neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to humanity, 
a deed which forever afterwards cast a shade of shame upon their lives. 
For this and kindred outrages on the part of the whites, the Indians 
committed many deeds of cruelty which darken the years of 1771 and 
1772 in the history of the Northwest. 

During the year 1782 a number of battles among the Indians and 
frontiersmen occurred, and between the Moravian Indians and the Wyan- 
dots. In these, horrible acts of cruelty were practised on the captives, 
many of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of the notorious 



frontier outlaw, Simon Girty, whose name, as well as those of his brothers, 
was a terror to women and children. These occurred chiefly in the Ohio 
valleys. Cotemporary with them were several engagements in Kentucky, 
in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, often by his skill 
and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved the outposts from cruel destruc- 


tion. By the close of the year victory had perched upon the American 
banner, and on the 30tli of November, provisional articles of peace had 
been arranged between the Commissioners of England and her uncon- 
querable colonies. Cornwallis had been defeated on the 19th of October 
preceding, and the liberty of America was assured. On the 19th of 
April following, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 


proclaimed to the army of the United States, and on the 2d of the next 
September, the definite treaty which ended our revolutionary struggle 
was concluded. By the terms of that treaty, the boundaries of the West 
were as follows : On the north the line was to extend along the center of 
the Great Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Superior to Long Lake ; 
thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi 
River; down its center to the 31st parallel of latitude, then on that line 
east to the head of the Appalachicola River ; down its center to its junc- 
tion with the Flint ; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and 
thence down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several posts 
were still occupied by the British in the North and West. Among these 
was Detroit, still in the hands of the enemy. Numerous engagements 
with the Indians throughout Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whose 
lands adventurous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by 
the proper treaty. 

To remedy this latter evil. Congress appointed commissioners to 
treat with the natives and purchase their lands, and prohibited the set- 
tlement of the territory until this could be done. Before the close of the 
year another attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in the Northwest 
she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, having on the 20th of 
December preceding authorized the whole of her possessions to be deeded 
to the United States. This was done on the 1st of March following, and 
the Northwest Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To Gen. Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract of one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situated any where nortli of the 
Ohio wherever they chose to locate them. They selected the region 
opposite the falls of the Ohio, where is now the dihipidated village of 
Clarksville, about midway between the Cities of New Albany and Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana. 

While the frontier remained thus, and Gen. Haldimand at Detroit 
refused to evacuate alleging that he had no orders from his King to do 
so, settlers were rapidly gathering about the inland forts. In the Spring 
of 1784, Pittsburgh was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur 
Lee, who passed through the town soon after on his way to the Indian 
council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very prepossessing in 
appearance. He says : 

" Pittsburgh is inhabited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who 
live in paltry log houses, and are as dirty as if in the north of Ireland or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, the goods being 
bought at the vast expense of forty-five shillings per pound from Phila- 


delphia and Baltimore. They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and 
money. There are in the town four attorneys, two doctors, and not a 
priest of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
was beginning to discuss measures for a separation from Virginia. A 
land office was opened at Louisville, and measures were adopted to take 
defensive precaution against the Indians who were yet, in some instances, 
incited to deeds of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
.1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, although no 
entries were recorded until 1787. 

The Indian title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished. Tliey 
held large tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Congress 
adopted means for treaties with the original owners and provided lor the 
surveys of the lands gained thereby, as well as for those north of the 
Ohio, now in its possession. On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made 
with the Wabash Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made 
in 1784. That at Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and through these much land 
was gained. The Wabash Indians, however, afterward refused to comply 
with the provisions of the treaty made with them, and in order to compel 
'their adherence to its provisions, force was used. Daring the year 1786, 
the free navigation of the Mississippi came up in Congress, and caused 
various discussions, which resulted in no definite action, only serving to 
excite speculation in regard to the western lands. Congress had promised 
bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, but owing to the 
unsettled condition of affairs along the Mississippi respecting its naviga- 
tion, and the trade of the Northwest, that body had, in 1788, declared 
its inability to fulfill these promises until a treaty could be concluded 
between the two Governments. Before the close of the year 178G, how- 
ever, it was able, through the treaties with the Indians, to allow some 
grants and the settlement thereon, and on the 14tli of September Con- 
necticut ceded to the General Government the tract of land known as 
the " Connecticut Reserve," and before the close of the following year a 
large tract of land north of the Ohio was sold to a company, who at once 
took measures to settle it. By the provisions of this grant, the company 
were to pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a deduction 
of one-third for bad lands and other contingencies. They received 
750,000 acres, bounded on the south by the Ohio, on the east by the 
seventh range of townships, on the west by the sixteenth range, and on 
the north by a line so drawn as to make the grant complete without 
the reservations. In addition to this. Congress afterward granted 100,000 
acres to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under the 
resolutions of 1789 and 1790. 



While Dr. Cutler, one of the agents of the company, was pressinf]^ 
its claims before Congress, that body was bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. When the 
cession was made by Virginia, in 1784, a plan was offered, but rejected. 
A motion had been made to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition 
of slavery, which prevailed. The plan was then discussed and altered, 
and finally passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By this proposition, tlic Territory was to have been divided into states 


by parallels and meridian lines. This, it was thought, would make ten 
states, which were to have been named as follows — beginning at the 
northwest corner and going southwardly : Sylvania, Michigania, Cher- 
sonesus, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Illenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Poly- 
potamia and Pelisipia. 

There was a more serious objection to this plan than its category of 
names, — the boundaries. The root of the difficulty was in the resolu- 
tion of Congress passed in Octolier, 1780, which fixed the boundaries 
of the ceded lands to be from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles 


square. These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts, they desired a change, and in July, 1786, the 
subject was taken up in Congress, and cJianged to favor a division into 
not more than five states, and not less than three. This was approved by 
the State Legislature of Virginia. The subject of the Government was 
again taken up by Congress in 1786, and discussed throughout that year 
and until July, 1787, when the famous "Compact of 1787" was passed, 
and the foundation of the government of the Northwest laid. This com- 
pact is fully discussed and explained in the history of Illinois in this book, 
and to it the reader is referred. 

The passage of this act and the grant to the New England Company 
was soon followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, for a grant of the land between the Miamis. 
This gentleman had visited these lands soon after the treaty of 1786, and, 
being greatly pleased with them, offered similar terms to those given to the 
New England Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury 
Board with power to act, and a contract was concluded the following 
year. During the Autumn the directors of the New England Company 
were jn-eparing to occupy their grant the following Spring, and upon the 
28d of November made arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, 
under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Putnam, to set forward. Six 
boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of January the sur- 
veyors and their assistants, twenty-six in number, were to meet at Hart- 
ford and proceed on their journey westward ; the remainder to follow as 
soon as possible. Congress, in the meantime, upon the od of October, 
luid ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western settlers, and 
to prevent unauthorized intrusions ; and two days later appointed Arthur 
St. Clair Governor of the Territory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of the Northwest Territory was now com- 
plete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of Indian affairs, settlers from 
the East began to come into the country rapidly. The New England 
Company sent their men during the Winter of 1787-8 pressing on over 
the Alleghenies by the old Indian path wliich had been opened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since been made a national turnpike 
from Cumberland westward. Through the weary winter days they toiled 
on, and by April were all gathered on the Yohiogany, where boats had 
been built, and at once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived 
on the 7th of that month, and unless the Moravian missionaries be regarded 
as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly claim tliat honor. 



Gen. St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the Northwest, not having 
yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, written out, and publislied by 
being nailed to a tree in the embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed 
to administer them. 

Wasliington in writing of this, the first American settlement in the 
Northwest, said : " No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at Muskingum. 
Information, property and strength will be its characteristics. I know 
many of its settlers personally, and t|;iere never were men better calcu- 
lated to promote the welfare of such a community.'" 



On the 2d of .July a meeting of the directors and agents was held 
on the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpose of naming the new- 
born city and its squares." As yet the settlement was known as the 
"Muskinpim,"' but that was now changed to the name Marietta, in honor 
of Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the block -houses stood 
was called "■ Campus Martins ;'' square number 19, '' Cajntolmm ;"" square 
number 61, "- Cecilia f and the great road through the covert way, " Sacra 
Via.'' Two days after, an oration was delivered by James M. Varnum, 
who with S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong had been appointed to tlie 
judicial bench of the territory on the 16th of Octol)er, 1787. On July 9,' 
Gov. St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume form. The act 
of 1787 provided two district grades of government for the Northwest, 


under the first of which the whole power was invested in the hands of a 
governor aiid three district judges. This was immediately formed upon 
the Governor's arrival, and the first laws of the colony passed on the 25th 
of July. These provided for the organization of the militia, and on the 
next day appeared the Governor's proclamation, erecting all that country 
that had been ceded by the Indians east of the Scioto River into the 
County of Washington. From that time forward, notwithstanding the 
doubts yet existing as to the Indians, all Marietta prospered, and on the 
2d of September the first court of the territory was held with imposing 

The emigration westward at this time was very great. The com- 
mander at Fort Harmer, at the mouth of the Muskingum, reported four 
thousand five hundred persons as having passed that post between Feb- 
ruary and June, 1788 — many of whom would have purchased of the 
"Associates," as the New England Company was called, had they been 
ready to receive them. 

On the 26th of November, 1787, Symmes issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his contract and the plan of sale he intended to arlopt. In 
January, 1788, Matthias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest 
in Symmes' purchase, and located among other tracts the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one-third of this locality, he 
sold the other two-thirds to Robert Patterson and John Filson, and the 
three, aboiLt August, commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which 
was designated as being opposite Licking River, to the mouth of which 
they proposed to have a road cut from Lexington. The naming of the 
town is thus narrated in the "Western Annals " : — " Mr. Filson, who had 
been a schoolmaster, was appointed to name the town, and, in respect to 
its situation, and as if with a prophetic perception of tlie mixed race that 
were to inhabit it in after days, he named it Losantiville, which, being 
interpreted, means : ville, the town ; anti^ against or opposite to ; os, the 
mouth ; L. of Licking." 

Meanwhile, in July, Symmes got thirty persons and eight four-horse 
teams under way for the West. These reached Limestone <^now Mays- 
ville) in September, where were several persons from Redsto^^e. Here 
Mr. Symmes tried to found a settlement, but the great freshet of 1789 
caused the " Point," as it was and is yet called, to be fifteen feet under 
water, and the settlement to be abandoned. The little band of settlers 
removed to the mouth of the Miami. Before Symmes and his colony left 
the " Point," two settlements had been made on his purchase. The first 
was by Mr. Stiltes, the original projector of the whole plan, who, with a 
colony of Redstone people, had located at the mouth of the Miami, 
whither Symmes went with his Maysville colony. Here a clearing had 


been made by the Indians owing to the great fertility of the soil. Mr. 
Stiltes with his colony came to this place on the 18th of November, 1788, 
with twenty-six persons, and, building a block-house, prepared to remain 
through the Winter. They named the settlement Columbia. Here they 
were kindly treated by the Indians, but suffered greatly from the flood 
of 1789. 

On the 4th of March, 1789, the Constitution of the United States 
went into operation, and on April 30, George Washington was inaug- 
urated President of the American people, and during the next Summer, 
an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north of the Ohio. The 
President at first used pacific means ; but these failing, he sent General 
Harmer against the hostile tribes. He destroyed several villages, but 


was defeated in two battles, near the present City of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events were 
the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 1796, General St. Clair 
was appointed in command, and marched against the Indians ; but while 
he was encamped on a stream, the St. Mary, a branch of the Maumee, 
he was attacked and defeated with the loss of six hundred men. 

General Wayne >vas now sent against the savages. In August, 1794, 
he met them near the rapids of the Maumee, and gained a complete 
victory. This success, followed by vigorous measures, compelled the 
Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, the following year, the 
treaty of Greenville was signed by the principal chiefs, by which a large 
tract of country was ceded to the United States. 

Before proceeding in our narrative, we will pause to notice Fort 
Washington, erected in the early part of this war on the site of Cincinnati. 
Nearly all of the great cities of the Northwest, and indeed of the 


whole country, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer structures, 
known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, Washington, Pon- 
chartrain, mark the original sites of the now proud Cities of Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Detroit. So of most of the flourishing cities east and west 
of the Mississippi. Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a 
rude but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a number of 
strongly-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for soldiers' barracks 
were a story and a half high, while those composing the officers quarters 
were more imposing and more conveniently arranged and furnished. 
The whole were so placed as to form a hollow square, enclosing about an 
acre of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 

The logs for the construction of this fort were cut from the ground 
upon which it was erected. It stood between Third and Fourth Streets 
of the present city (Cincinnati) extending east of Eastern Row, now 
Broadway, which was then a narrow alley, and the eastern boundary of 
of the town as it was originally laid out. On the bank of the river, 
immediately in front of the fort, was an appendage of the fort, called the 
Artificer's Yard. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by 
small contiguous buildings, occupied by workshops and quarters of 
laborers. Within this enclosure there was a large two-story frame house, 
familiarly called the " Yellow House," built for the accommodation of 
the Quartermaster General. For many years this was the best finished 
and most commodious edifice in the Queen Cit}'. Fort Washington was 
for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military governments 
of the Northwestern Territory. 

Following the consummation of the treaty various gigantic land spec- 
ulations were entered into by different persons, who hoped to obtain 
from the Indians in Michigan and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. 
These were generally discovered in time to prevent the outrageous 
schemes from being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States and Spain 
was signed, whereby the free navigation of the Mississippi was secured. 

No sooner had the treaty of 1795 been ratified than settlements began 
to pour raj)idly into the West. The great event of tlie year 1796 was the 
occupation of that part of the Northwest including Michigan, which was 
this year, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated by the British 
forces. The United States, owing to certain conditions, did not feel 
justified in addressing the authorities in Canada in relation to Detroit 
and other frontier posts. When at last the British authorities were 
called to give them up, they at once complied, and General Wayne, who 
had done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and who, before 
the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, transferred his head- 


quarters to the neighborhood of the lak«s, where a county named after 
him was formed, which included the northwest of Ohio, all of Michigan, 
and the northeast of Indiana. During this same year settlements were 
formed at the present City of Chillicothe, along the Miami from Middle- 
town to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers and speculators 
began to appear in great numbers. In September, the City of Cleveland 
was laid out, and during the Summer and Autumn, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the first manufactory of paper — the " Red- 
stone Paper Mill" — in the West. St. Louis contained some seventy 
houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along the river, contiguous 
to it, were more than three thousand inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, 
Indians and half-breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that 
part of the Northwest. 

The election of representatives for the territory had taken place, 
and on the 4th of February, 1799, they convened at Losantiville — now 
known as Cincinnati, having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and 
considered the capital of the Territory — to nominate persons from whom 
the members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance with 
a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, the Assembly 
adjourned until the 16th of the following September. From those named 
the President selected as members of the council, Henrj' Vandenburg, 
of Vincennes, Robert Oliver, of Marietta, James Findlay and Jacob 
Burnett, of Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. On the 16th 
of September the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 24th the two 
houses were duly organized, Henry Vandenburg being elected President 
of the Council. 

The message of Gov. St. Clair was addressed to the Legislature 
September 20th, and on October 13th that body elected as a delegate to 
Congress Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, who received eleven of the votes 
cast, being a majority of one over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of 
Gen. St. Clair. 

The whole number of acts passed at this session, and approved by 
the Governor, were thirty-seven — eleven others were passed, but received 
his veto. The most important of those passed related to the militia, to 
the administration, and to taxation. On the 19th of December this pro- 
tracted session of the first Legislature in the West was closed, and on the 
30th of December the President nominated Charles Willing Bryd to the 
office of Secretary of the Territory vice Wm. Henry Harrison, elected to 
Congress. The Senate confirmed his nomination the next day. 



The increased emigration to the Northwest, the extent of the domain, 
and the inconvenient modes of travel, made it very difficult to conduct 
the ordinary operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible. To remedy this, it was deemed advisable to 
divide the territory for civil purposes. Congress, in 1800, appointed a 
committee to examine the question and report some means for its solution. 
This committee, on the 3d of March, reported that : 

" In the three western countries there has been but one court having 
cognizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which offenders 
experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned crim- 
inals, and at the same time deters useful citizens from making settlements 
in such society. The extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assist- 
ance is experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * Xo 
minister a remedy to these and other evils, it occurs to this committee 
that it is expedient that a division of said territory into two distinct and 
separate governments should be made ; and that such division be made 
by a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary between the United States 
and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance with its 
suggestions, that body passed an Act extinguishing the Northwest Terri- 
tory, which Act was approved May 7. Among its provisions were these : 

" That from and after July 4 next, all that part of the Territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north 
until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a 
separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territory." 

After providing for the exercise of the civil and criminal powers of 
the territories, and other provisions, the Act further provides: 

"That until it shall otherwise be ordered by the Legislatures of the 
said Territories, respectively, Chillicothe on the Scioto River shall be the 
seat of government of the Territory of tlie United States northwest of the 
Ohio River ; and that St. Vincennes on the Wabash River shall be the 
seat of government for the Indiana Territory." 

Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison was appointed Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and entered upon his duties about a year later. Connecticut 
also about this time released her claims to the reserve, and in March a law 


"was passed accepting this cession. Settlements had been made upon 
thirty-five of the townships in the reserve, mills had been built, and seven 
hundred miles of road cut in various directions. On the 3d of November 
the General Assembly met at Chillicothe. Near the close of the year, 
the first missionary of the Connecticut Reserve came, who found no 
township containing more than eleven families. It was upon the first of 
October tliat the secret treaty had been made between Napoleon and the 
King of Spain, whereby the latter agreed to cede to France the province 
of Louisiana. 

In January, 1802, the Assembly of the Northwestern Territory char- 
tered the college at Athens. From the earliest dawn of the western 
colonies, education was promptly provided for, and as early as 1787, 
newspapers were issued from Pittsburgh and Kentucky, and largely read 
throughout the frontier settlements. Before the close of this year, the 
Congress of the United States granted to the citizens of the Northwestern 
territory the formation of a State government. One of the provisions of 
the "compact of 1787" provided that whenever the number of inhabit- 
ants within prescribed limits exceeded 45,000, they should be entitled to 
a separate government. The prescribed limits of Ohio contained, from a 
census taken to ascertain the legality of the act, more than that number, 
and on the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed the act defining its limits, 
and on the 29th of November the Constitution of the new State of Ohio, 
so named from the beautiful river forming its southern boundary, came 
into existence. The exact limits of Lake Michigan were not then known, 
but the territory now included within the State of Michigan was wholly 
within the territory of Indiana. 

Gen. Harrison, while residing at Vincennes, made several treaties 
with the Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of lands. The next year is 
memorable in the history of the West for the purchase of Louisiana from 
France by the United States for $15,000,000. Thus by a peaceful mode, 
the domain of the United States was extended over a large tract of 
country west of the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction 
of the Northwest government, and, as has been mentioned in the early 
part of this narrative, was called the "New Northwest." The limits 
of this history will not allow a description of its territory. The same year 
large grants of land were obtained from the Indians, and the House of 
Representatives of the new State of Ohio signed a bill respecting the 
College Township in the district of Cincinnati. 

Before the close of the year. Gen. Harrison obtained additional 
grants of lands from the various Indian nations in Indiana and the present 
limits of Illinois, and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at 
St. Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of lands were obtained from the 


aborigines. Measures were also taken to learn the condition of affairs in 
and about Detroit. 

C. Jouett, the Indian agent in Michigan, still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, reported as follows upon the condition of matters at that post : 

" The Town of Detroit. — The charter, which is for fifteen miles 
square, was granted in the time of Louis XIV. of France, and is now, 
from the best information I have been able to get, at Quebec. Of those 
two hundred and twenty-five acres, only four are occupied by the town 
and Fort Lenault. The remainder is a common, except twenty-four 
acres, which were added twenty years ago to a farm belonging to Wm. 
Macomb. * * * A stockade incloses the town, fort and citadel. The 
pickets, as well as the public houses, are in a state of gradual decay. The 
streets are narrow, straight and regular, and intersect each other at right 
angles. The houses are, for the most part, low and inelegant." 

During this year. Congress granted a township of land for the sup- 
port of a college, and began to offer inducements for settlers in these 
wilds, and the country now comprising the State of INIichigan began to 
fill rapidly with settlers along its southern borders. This same year, also, 
a law was passed organizing the Southwest Territory, dividing it into two 
portions, the Territory of New Orleans, which city was made the seat of 
government, and the District of Louisiana, which was annexed to the 
domain of Gen. Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was formed, 
Wm. Hull was appointed governor, with headquarters at Detroit, the 
change to take effect on June 30. On the 11th of that month, a fiie 
occurred at Detroit, which destroyed almost every building in the place. 
When the officers of the new territory reached the post, they found it in 
ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the country. Rebuild- 
ing, however, soon commenced, and ere long the town contained more 
houses than before the fire, and many of them much better built. 

While this was being done, Indiana had passed to the second grade 
of government, and through her General Assem'bly had obtained large 
tracts of land from the Indian tribes. To all this the celebrated Indian, 
Tecumthe or Tecumseh, vigorously protested, and it was the main cause 
-of his attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with the 
settlers. To obtain a full account of these attempts, the workings of the 
British, and the signal failure, culminating in the death of Tecumseh at 
the battle of the Tluxmes, and the close of the war of 1812 in the Northwest, 
we will step aside in our story, and relate the principal events of his life, 
and his connection with this conflict. 






This famous Indian chief was born about the year 1768, not far from 
the site of the present City of Piqua, Ohio. His father, Puckeshinwa, 
was a member of the Kisopok tribe of the Swanoese nation, and his 
mother, Methontaske, was a member of the Turtle tribe of the same 
people. They removed from Florida about the middle of the last centur}' 
to the birthplace of Tecumseh. In 1774, his father, who had risen to be 
chief, was slain at the battle of Point Pleasant, and not long after Tecum- 
seh, by his bravery, became the leader of his tribe. In 1795 he was 
declared chief, and then lived at Deer Creek, near the site of the 
present City of Urbana. He remained here about one year, when he 
returned to Piqua, and in 1798, he went to White River, Indiana. In 
1805, he and his brother, Laulewasikan (Open Door), who had announced 
himself as a prophet, went to a tract of land on the Wabash River, given 
them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos. From this date the chief 
comes into prominence. He was now about thirty-seven years of age, 
was five feet and ten inches in height, was stoutly built, and possessed of 
enormous powers of endurance. His countenance was naturally pleas- 
ing, and he was, in general, devoid of those savage attributes possessed 
by most Indians. It is stated he could read and write, and had a confi- 
dential secretary and adviser, named Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, who 
afterward became chief of the Pottawatomies. He occupied the first 
house built on the site of Chicago. At this time, Tecumseh entered 
upon the great work of his life. He had long objected to the grants of 
land made by the Indians to the whites, and determined to unite all the 
Indian tribes into a league, in order that no treaties or grants of land 
could be made save by the consent of this confederation. 

He traveled constantly, going from north to south ; from the south 
to the north, everywhere urging the Indians to this step. He was a 
matchless orator, and his burning words had their effect. 

Gen. Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, by watching the move- 
ments of the Indians, became convinced that a grand conspiracy was 
forming, and made preparations to defend the settlements. Tecumseh's 
plan was similar to Pontiac's, elsewhere described, and to the cunning 
artifice of that chieftain was added his own sagacity. 

During the year 1809, Tecumseh and the prophet were actively pre- 
paring for the work. In that year. Gen. Harrison entered into a treaty 
with the Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians 
and Weas, in which these tribes ceded to the whites certain lands upon 
the Wabash, to all of which Tecumseh entered a bitter protest, averring 


as one principal reason that he did not want the- Indians to give up any 
lands north and west of the Ohio River. 

Tecumseh, in August, 1810, visited the General at Vincennes and 
held a council relating to the grievances of the Indians. Becoming unduly 
angry at this conference he was dismissed from the village, and soon after 
departed to incite the southern Indian tribes to the conflict. 

Gen. Harrison determined to move upon the chiefs headquarters at 
Tippecanoe, and for this purpose went about sixty-five miles up the 
Wabash, where he built Fort Harrison. From this place he went to the 
prophet's town, where he informed the Indians he had no hostile inten- 
tions, provided they were true to the existing treaties. He encamped 
near the village early in October, and on the morning of November 7, he 
was attacked by a large force of the Indians, and the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe occurred. The Indians were routed and their town broken 
up. Tecumseh returning not long after, was greatly exasperated at his 
brother, the prophet, even threatening to kill him for rashly precipitating 
the war, and foiling his (Tecumseh's) plans. 

Tecumseh sent word to Gen. Harrison that he was now returned 
from the South, and was ready to visit the President as had at one time 
previously been proposed. Gen. Harrison informed him he could not go 
as a chief, which method Tecumseh desired, and the visit was never 

In June of the following year, he visited the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Here he disavowed any intention to make a war against 
the United States, and reproached Gen. Harrison for marching against his 
people. The agent replied to this ; Tecumseh listened with a cold indif- 
ference, and after making a few general remarks, with a haughty air drew 
his blanket about him, left the council house, and departed for Fort Mai- 
den, in Upper Canada, where he joined the British standard. 

He remained under this Government, doing effective work for the 
Crown while engaged in the war of 1812 which now opened. He was, 
however, always humane in his treatment of the prisoners, never allow- 
ing his warriors to ruthlessly mutilate the bodies of those slain, or wan- 
tonly murder the captive. 

In the Summer of 1813, Perry's victor}^ on Lake Erie occurred, and 
shortly after active preparations were made to capture Maiden. On the 
27th of September, the American army, under Gen. Harrison, set sail for 
the shores of Canada, and in a few hours stood around the ruins of Mai- 
den, from which the British army, under Proctor, had retreated to Sand- 
wich, intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the Valley of 
the Thames. On the 29th Gen. Harrison was at Sandwich, and Gen. 
McArthur took possession of Detroit and the territory of Michigan. 



On the 2d of October, the Americans began their pursuit of Proctor, 
whom they overtook on the 5th, and the battle of the Thames followed. 
Early in the engagement, Tecumseh who was at the head of the column 
of Indians was slain, and they, no longer hearing the voice of their chief- 
tain, fled. The victory was decisive, and practically closed the war in 
the Northwest. 



Just who killed the great chief has been a matter of much dispute ; 
but the weight of opinion awards the act to Col. Richard M. Johnson, 
who fired at him with a pistol, the shot proving fatal. 

In 1805 occurred Burr's Insurrection. He took possession of a 
beautiful island in the Ohio, after the killing of Hamilton, and is charged 
by many with attempting to set up an independent government. His 
plans were frustrated by the general government, his property confiscated 
and he was compelled to flee the country for safety. 


In January, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michisj^an Territory, made a 
treaty with the Indians, whereby all that peninsula was ceded to the 
United States. Before the close of the year, a stockade was built about 
Detroit. It was also daring this year that Indiana and Illinois endeavored 
to obtain the repeal of that section of the C()m})iict of 1787, whereby 
slavery was excluded from the Northwest Territory. These attempts, 
however, all signally failed. 

In 1809 it was deemed advisable to divide the Indiana Territory. 
This was done, and the Territory of Illinois was formed from the western 
part, the seat of government being fixed at Kaskaskia. The next year, 
the intentions of Tecumseh manifested themselves in open hostilities, and 
then began the events already narrated. 

While this war was in progress, emigration to the West went on with 
surprising rapidity. In 1811, under Mr. Roosevelt of New York, the 
first steamboat trip was made on the Ohio, much to the astonishment of 
the natives, many of whom fled in terror at the appearance of the 
" monster." It arrived at Louisville on the 10th day of October. At the 
close of the first week of January, 1812, it arrived at Natchez, after being 
nearly overwhelmed in the great earthquake which occurred while on its 
downward trip. 

The battle of the Thames was fought on October 6, 1813. It 
effectually closed hostilities in the Northwest, although peace was not 
fully restored until July 22, 1814, when a treaty was formed at Green- 
ville, under the direction of General Harrison, between the United States 
and the Indian tribes, in which it was stipulated that the Indians should 
cease hostilities against the Americans if the war were continued. Such, 
happily, was not the case, and on the 24th of December the treaty 
of Ghent was signed by the representatives of England and the United 
States. This treaty was followed the next year by treaties with various 
Indian tribes throughout the West and Northwest, and quiet was again 
restored in this part of the new world. 

On the 18th of March, 1816, Pittsburgh was incorporated as a city. 
It then had a population of 8,000 people, and was already noted for its 
manufacturing interests. On April 19, Indiana Territory was allowed 
to form a state government. At that time there were thirteen counties 
organized, containing about sixty-three thousand inhabitants. The first 
election of state officers was held in August, when Jonathan Jennings 
was chosen Governor. The officers were sworn in on November 7, a.nd 
on December 11, the State was formally admitted into the Union. For 
some time the seat of government was at Corydon, but a more central 
location being desirable, the present capital, Indianapolis (City of Indiana), 
was laid out January 1, 1825, 


On the 28th of December the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, was 
chartered, with a capital of $300,000. At this period all banks were 
under the control of the States, and were allowed to establish branches 
at different convenient points. 

Until this time Chillicothe and Cincinnati had in turn enjoyed the 
privileges of being the capital of Ohio. But the rapid settlement of the 
northern and eastern portions of the State demanded, as in Indiana, a 
more central location, and before the close of the year, the site of Col- 
umbus was selected and surveyed as the future capital of the State. 
Banking had begun in Ohio as early as 1808, when the first bank was 
chartered at Marietta, but here as elsewhere it did not l)ring to the state 
the hoped-for assistance. It and other banks were subsequently unable 
to redeem their currency, and were obliged to suspend. 

In 1818, Illinois was made a state, and all the territorj' north of her 
northern limits was erected into a separate territory and joined to Mich- 
igan for judicial purposes. By the following year, navigation of the lakes 
was increasing with great rapidity and affording an immense source of 
revenue to the dwellers in the Northwest, but it was not until 1826 that 
the triMe was extended to Lake Michigan, or that steamships began to 
navigate the bosom of that inland sea. 

Until the year 1832, the commencement of the Black Hawk War, 
but few hostilities were experienced with the Indians. Roads were 
opened, canals were dug, cities were built, common schools were estab- 
lished, universities were founded, many of which^ especially the Michigan 
University, have achieved a world wide-reputation. The peo[)le were 
becoming wealthy. The domains of the United States had been extended, 
and had the sons of the forest been treated with honesty and justice, the 
record of many years would have been that of peace and continuous pros- 


This conflict, though confined to Illinois, is an important epoch in 
the Northwestern history, being the last war with the Indians in this part 
of the United States. 

Ma-ka-tai-rae-she-kia-kiali, or Black Hawk, was born in the prineijnil 
Sac village, about three miles from the junction of Rock River with the 
Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa or Pahaes ; 
his grandfather's, Na-na-ma-kee, or the Thunderer. Black Hawk early 
distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted 
to paint and was ranked among the braves. About the year 1783, he 
went on an expedition against the enemies of his nation, the Osages, one 





of whom he killed and scalped, and for this deed of Indian bravery he was 
permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years after he, at the 
head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the 
Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children l)elonging to 
his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the latter tribe lost one-half their nuni])er. The 
Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees 
for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them, near the present City 
of St. Louis, his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of 
the " Medicine Bag," at once announced himself chief of the Sac nation. 
He had now conquered the Cherokees, and about the year 1800, at the 
head of five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and a hundred lowas, he waged 
war against the Osage nation and subdued it. For two years he battled 
successfully with other Indian tribes, all of whom he conquered. 

Black Hawk does not at any time seem to have been friendly to 
the Americans. When on a visit to vSt. Louis to see his " S[)anish 
Father," he declined to see any of the Americans, alleging, as a reason, 
he did not want two fathers. 

The treaty at St. Louis was consummated in 1804. The next year the 
United States Government erected a fort near the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who 
at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of 
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Des Moines River. The fort was 
garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. Tiie difficulties 
with the British Government arose about this time, and the War of 1812 
followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, by 
giving them arms and ammunition, induced them to remain hostile to the 
Americans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on 
his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn Massacre 
had a few days before occurred. Of his connection with the British 
Government but little is known. In 1813 he with his little band descended 
the Mississippi, and attacking some United States troops at Fort Howard 
was defeated. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United States 
and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Bhick Hawk did not 
sign any treaty, however, until May of the following year. He then recog- 
nized the validity of the treaty at St. Louis in 1804. From the time of 
signing this treaty in 1816, until the breaking out of the war in 1832, he 
and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and Fox 


Indians were urged to join the lowas on the west bank of the Father of 
Waters. All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of 
which Black Hawk was leader. He strenuously objected to the removal, 
and was induced to comply only after being threatened with the power of 
the Government. This and various actions on the part of the white set- 
tlers provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his 
native village now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and 
his actions were undoul^tedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been 
acquiesced in at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would 
have been prevented. 

Black Hawk was chief now of the Sac and Fox nations, and a noted 
warrior. He and his tribe inlial)ited a village on Rock River, nearly three 
miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, where the tribe had lived 
many generations. When that portion of Illinois was reserved to them, 
they remained in peaceable possession of their reservation, spending their 
time in the enjoyment of Indian life. The fine situation of their village 
and the quality of their lands incited the more lawless white settlers, who 
from time to time began to encroach upon the red men's domain. From 
one pretext to another, and from one step to another, the crafty white 
men gained a foothold, until through whisky and artifice they obtained 
deeds from many of the Indians for their possessions. The Indians were 
finally induced to cross over the Father of Waters and locate among the 
lowas. Black Hawk was strenuously opposed to all this, but as the 
authorities of Illinois and the United States thought this the best move, he 
was forced to comply. Moreover other tribes joined the whites and urged 
the removal. Black Hawk would not agree to the terms of the treaty 
made with his nation for their lands, and as soon as the militarv, called to 
enforce his removal, had retired, he returned to the Illinois side of the 
river. A large force was at once raised and marched against him. On 
the evening of May 14, 1832, the first engagement occurred between a 
band from this army and Black Hawk's band, in which the former were 

This attack and its result aroused the whites. A large force of men 
was raised, and Gen. Scott hastened from the seal)oard, by way of the 
lakes, with United States troops and artillery to aid in the subjugation of 
the Indians. On the 24th of June, Black Hawk, with 200 »\'arriors, was 
repulsed by Major Demont between Rock River and Galena. The Ameri- 
can army continued to move up Rock River toward the main body of 
the Indians, and on the 21st of July came upon Black Hawk and his band, 
and defeated them near the Blue Mounds. 

Before this action. Gen. Henry, in command, sent word to the main 
army by whom he was immediately rejoined, and the whole crossed the 


Wisconsin in pursuit of Black Hawk and his band who were fleeing to the 
Mississippi. They were overtaken on the 2d of August, and in the battle 
which followed the power of the Indian chief was completely broken. He 
fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes and delivered to the whites. 

On the 21st of September, 18-32, Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds con- 
cluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sacs and Foxes by which they 
ceded to the United States a vast tract of country, and agreed to remain 
peaceable with the whites. For the faithful performance of the provi- 
sions of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it was stipulated that 
Black Hawk, his two sons, the prophet Wabokieshiek, and six other chiefs 
of the hostile bands should be retained as hostages during the pleasure 
of the President. They were confined at Fort Barracks and put in irons. 

The next Spring, by order of the Secretary of War, they were taken 
to Washington. From there they were removed to Fortress Monroe, 
"there to remain until tlie conduct of their nation was such as to justify 
their being set at libert}"." They were retained here until the 4th of 
June, when the authorities directed them to be taken to the principal 
cities so that they might see the folly of contending against the white 
people. Everywhere they were observed by thousands, the name of the 
old chief being extensively known. By the middle of August they 
reached Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, where Black Hawk was soon 
after released to go to his countrymen. As he passed the site of his birth- 
place, now the home of the white man, he was deeply moved. His village 
where he was born, where he had so happily lived, and where he had 
hoped to die, was now another's dwelling place, and he was a wanderer. 

On the next day after his release, he went at once to his tribe and 
his lodge. His wife was yet living, and with her he passed the remainder 
of his days. To his credit it may be said that Black Hawk always re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among 
the Indians, living with her upward of forty years. 

Black Hawk now passed his time hunting and fishing. A deep mel- 
ancholy had settled over him from which he could not be freed. At all 
times when he visited the whites he was received with marked atten- 
tion. He was an honored guest at the old settlers' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and received many tokens of esteem. 
In September, 18-38, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his 
annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted 
in a fatal attack of bilious fever which terminated his life on October 3. 
His faithful wife, who was devotedly attached to him, mourned deeply 
during his sickness. After his death he was dressed in the uniform pre- 
sented to him by the President while in Washington. He was buried in 
a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. " The 


body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture, upon a 
seat constructed for the purpose. On his left side, the cane, given him 
by Henry Clay, was placed upright, with his right hand resting upon it. 
Many of the old warrior's trophies were placed in the grave, and some 
Indian garments, together with his favorite weapons." 

No sooner was the Clack Hawk war concluded than settlers began 
rapidly to pour into the northern parts of Illinois, and into Wisconsin, 
now free from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown to a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into prominence. 
In 1835, the formation of a State Government in Micliigan was discussed, 
but did not take active form until two years later, when the State became 
a part of the Federal Union. 

The main attraction to that portion of the Northwest lying west of 
Lake Michigan, now included in the State of Wisconsin, was its alluvial 
wealth. Copper ore was found about Lake Superior. For some time this 
region was attached to Michigan for judiciary purposes, but in 183() was 
made a territory, then including Minnesota and Iowa. The latter State 
was detached two years later. In 1848, Wisconsin was admitted as a 
State, Madison being made the capital. We have now traced the various 
divisions of the Northwest Territory (save a little in Minnesota) from 
the time it was a unit comprising this vast territory, until circumstances 
compelled its present division. 


Before leaving this part of the narrative, we will narrate briefly the 
Indian troubles in Minnesota and elsewhere by the Sioux Indians. 

In August, 18(;)2, the Sioux Indians living on the western borders of 
Minnesota fell upon the unsuspecting settlers, and in a few hours mas- 
sacred ten or twelve hundred persons. A distressful panic was the 
immediate result, fully thirty thousand persons fleeing from their homes 
to districts supposed to be better protected. The military authorities 
at once took active measures to punish the savages, and a large number 
were killed and captured. About a year after. Little Crow, the chief, 
was killed by a Mr. Lampson near Scattered Lake. Of those captured, 
thirty were hung at Mankato, and the remainder, through fears of mob 
violence, were removed to Camp McClellan, on tiie outskirts of the City 
of Davenport. It was here that Big Eagle came into prominence and 
secured his release by the following order : 





" Special Order, No. 430. "■ War Department, 

" Adjutant General's Office, Washington, Dec. 3, 1864. 

" Big Eagle, an Indian now in confinement at Davenport, Iowa, 
will, upon the receipt of this order, be immediately released from confine- 
ment and set at liberty. 

" By order of the President of the United States. 
" Official : " E. D. Townsend, Ass't Adft Gen. 

" Capt. James Vanderventer, Corny Sub. Vols. 

" Through Com'g Gen'l, AVashington, D. C." 

Another Indian who figures more prominently than Big Eagle, and 
who was more cowardly in his nature, with his band of Modoc Indians, 
is noted in the annals of the New Northwest: we refer to Captain Jack. 
This distinguished Indian, noted for his cowardly murder of Gen. Canby, 
was a chief of a Modoc tribe of Indians inhabiting the border lands 
between California and Oregon. This region of country comprises what 
is known as the " Lava Beds," a tract of land described as utterly impene- 
trable, save by those savages who had made it their home. 

The Modocs are known as an exceedingly fierce and treacherous 
race. They had, according to their own traditions, resided liere for many 
generations, and at one time were exceedingly numerous and powerful. 
A famine carried off nearly half their numbers, and disease, indolence 
and the vices of the white man have reduced them to a poor, weak and 
insignificant tribe. 

Soon after the settlement of California and Oregon, complaints l)egan 
to be heard of massacres of emigrant trains passing through the Modoc 
country. In 1847, an emigrant train, comprising eighteen souls, was en- 
tirely destroyed at a place since known as '' Bloody Point."' These occur- 
rences caused the United States Government to appoint a peace commission, 
who, after repeated attempts, in 1864, made a treaty Avith the Modocs, 
Snakes and Klamaths, in which it was agreed on their part to remove to 
a reservation set apart for them in the southern part of Oregon. 

With the exception of Captain Jack and a band of his followers, who 
remained at Clear Lake, about six miles from Klamath, all the Indians 
complied. The Modocs who went to the reservation were under chief 
Schonehin. Captain Jack remained at the lake without disturbance 
until 1869, when he was also induced to remove to the reservation. The 
Modocs and the Klamaths soon Ijecame involved in a quarrel, and Captain 
Jack and his band returned to the Lava Beds. 

Several attempts were made by the Indian Commissioners to induce 
them to return to the reservation, and finally becoming involved in a 


difficulty Avith tlie commissioner and his military escort, a fight ensued, 
in which the chief and his band were routed. They were greatly enraged, 
and on their retreat, before the day closed, killed eleven inoffensive whites. 

The nation was aroused and immediate action demanded. A com- 
mission was at once appointed by the Government to see what could be 
done. It comprised the following persons : Gen. E. R. S. Canby, Rev. 
Dr. E. Thomas, a leading Methodist divine of California ; Mr. A. B. 
Meacham, Judge Rosborough, of California, and a Mr. Dyer, of Oregon. 
After several interviews, in which the savages were always aggressive, 
often appearing with scalps in their belts. Bogus Charley came to the 
commission on the evening of April 10, 1873, and informed them that 
Capt. Jack and his band would have a '•'• talk " to-morrow at a place near 
Clear Lake, about three miles distant. Here the Commissioners, accom- 
panied by Charley, Riddle, the interpreter, and Boston Cliarley repaired. 
After the usual greeting the council proceedings commenced. On behalf 
of the Indians there were present : Capt. Jack, Black Jim, Schnac Nasty 
Jim, Ellen's Man, and Hooker Jim. They had no guns, but carried pis- 
tols. After short speeches by Mr. Meacham, Gen. Canby and Dr. Thomas, 
Chief Schonchin arose to speak. He had scarcely proceeded when, 
as if by a preconcerted arrangement, Capt. Jack drew his pistol and shot 
Gen. Canby dead. In less than a minute a dozen shots were fired by the 
savages, and the massacre completed. Mr. Meacham was shot by Schon- 
chin, and Dr. Thomas by Boston Charley. Mr. Dyer barely escaped, being 
fired at twice. Riddle, the interpreter, and his squaw escaped. The 
troops rushed to the spot where they found Gen. Canby and Dr. Thomas 
dead, and Mr. Meacham badly wounded. The savages had escaped to 
their impenetrable fastnesses and could not be pursued. 

The whole country was aroused by this brutal massacre ; but it was 
not until the following May that the murderers were brought to justice. 
At that time Boston Charley gave himself up, and offered to guide the 
troops to Capt. Jack's stronghold. This led to the capture of his entire 
gang, a number of whom were murdered by Oregon volunteers while on 
their way to trial. The remaining Indians were held as prisoners until 
July when their trial occurred, which led to the conviction of Capt, 
Jack, Schonchin, Boston Charley, Hooker Jim, Broncho, alias One-Eyed 
Jim, and Slotuck, who were sentenced to be hanged. These sentences 
were approved by the President, save in the case of Slotuck and Broncho 
whose sentences were commuted to imprisonment for life. The others 
were executed at Fort Klamath, October 3, 1873. 

These closed the Indian troubles for a time in the Northwest, and for 
several years the borders of civilization remained in peace. They were 
again involved in a conflict with the savages about the country of the 





Black Hills, in which war the gallant Gen. Custer lost his life. Just 
now the borders of Oregon and California are again in fear of hostilities ; 
but as the Government has learned how to deal with the Indians, they 
will be of short duration. The red man is fast passing away before the 
march of the white man, and a few more generations will read of the 
Indians as one of the nations of the past. 

The Northwest abounds in memorable places. We have generally 
noticed them in the narrative, but our space forbids their description in 
detail, save of the most important places. Detroit, Cincinnati, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia and their kindred towns have all been described. But ere Ave 
leave the narrative we will present our readers with an account of the 
Kinzie house, the old landmark of Chicago, and the discovery of the 
source of the Mississippi River, each of which may well find a place in 
the annals of the Northwest. 

Mr. John Kinzie, of the Kinzie house, represented in the illustra- 
tion, established a trading house at Fort Dearborn in 1804. The stockade 
had been erected the year previous, and named Fort Dearborn in honor 
of the Secretary of War. It had a block house at each of the two angles, 
on the southern side a sallyport, a covered way on the north side, that led 
down to the river, for the double purpose of providing means of escape, 
and of procuring water in the event of a siege. 

Fort Dearborn stood on the south bank of the Chicago River, about 
half a mile from its mouth. When Major Whistler built it, his soldiers 
hauled all the timber, for he had no oxen, and so economically did he 
work that the fort cost the Government only fifty dollars. For a while 
the garrison could get no grain, and Whistler and his men subsisted on 
acorns. Now Chicago is the greatest grain center in the world. 

Mr. Kinzie bought the hut of the first settler, Jean Baptiste Point au 
Sable, on the site of which he erected his mansion. Within an inclosure 
in front he planted some Lombardy poplars, seen in the engraving, and in 
the rear he soon had a fine garden and growing orchard. 

In 1812 the Kinzie house and its surroundings became the theater 
of stirring events. The garrison of Fort Dearborn consisted of fifty-four 
men, under the charge of Capt. Nathan Heald, assisted by Lieutenant 
Lenai T. Helm (son-in-law to Mrs. Kinzre), and Ensign Ronan. The 
surgeon was Dr. Voorhees. The only residents at the post at that time 
were the wives of Capt. Heald and Lieutenant Helm and a few of the 
soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and a few Canadian voyagers with their 
wives and children. The soldiers and Mr. Kinzie were on the most 
friendly terms with the Pottawatomies and the Winnebagoes, the prin- 
cipal tribes around them, but they could not win them from their attach- 
ment to the British. 



After the battle of Tippecanoe it was observed that some of the lead- 
ing chiefs became sullen, for some of their people had perished in that 
conflict with American troops. 

One evening in April, 1812, Mr. Kinzie sat playing his violin and his 
children were dancing to the music, when Mrs. Kinzie came rushing into 
the house pale with terror, and exclaiming, " The Indians ! the Indians ! " 
"• What? Where? " eagerly inquired Mr. Kinzie. " Up at Lee's, killing 
and scalping," answered the frightened motlier, wlio, wlien the alarm was 
given, wasAittending Mrs. Burns, a newly-made motlier, living not far off. 


Mr. Kinzie and his family crossed the river in boats, and took refuge in 
the fort, to which place Mrs. Burns and her infant, not a day old, were 
conveyed in safety to the shelter of the guns of Fort Dearborn, and the 
rest of the white inhabitants fled. The Indians were a scalping party of 
Winnebagoes, who hovered around the fort some days, when they dis- 
appeared, and for several weeks the inhabitants were not disturbed by 

Chicago was then so deep in the wilderness, that the news of the 
declaration of war against Great Britain, made on the 19th of June, 1812, 
did not reach the commander of the garrison at Fort Dearborn till the 7th 
of August. Now the fast mail train will carry a man from New York to 
Chicago in twenty-seven hours, and such a declaration might be sent, 
every word, by the telegraph in less than the same number of minutes. 




Preceding chapters liave brought us to the close of the BLack Hawk 
war, and we now turn to the contemplation of the growtli and prosperity 
of the Northwest under the smile of peace and the blessings of our civili- 
z:'-.tinn. The pioneers of this region date events back to the deep snow 


of 1831, no one arriving here since that date taking first honors. The 
inciting cause of the immigration which overflowed the prairies early in 
the '30s was the reports of the marvelous beauty and fertility of the 
region distributed through the East by those who had participated in the 
Black Hawk campaign with Gen. Scott. Chicago and Milwaukee then 
had a few hundred inhabitants, and Gurdon S. Hubbard's trail from the 
former city to Kaskaskia led almost through a wilderness. Vegetables 
and clothing were largely distributed through the regions adjoining the 



lakes by steamers from the Oliio towns. There are men now living in 
Illinois who came to the state wlien barely an acre was in cultivation, 
and a man now prominent in the business circles of Chicago looked over 
the swampy, cheerless site of that metropolis in 1818 and went soutli- 
ward into civilization. Emigrants from Pennsylvania in 1830 left behind 


them but one small railway in the coal regions, thirty miles in length, 
and made their way lo the Northwest mostly Avith ox teams, finding in 
Northern Illinois petty settlements scores of miles apart, although the 
southern portion of the state was fairly dotted with farms. The 
water courses of" the lakes and rivers furnished transportation to the 
second great army of immigrants, and about 1850 railroads were 
pushed to tliat extent that the crisis of 1837 was precipitated upon us, 



from tlie effects of which tlie Western country had not fully recovered 
at the outbreak of the war. Hostilities found the colonists of the prairies 
fully alive to the demands of the occasion, and the honor of recruiting 



the vast armies of the Union fell largely to Gov. Yates, of Illinois, and 
Gov. Morton, of Indiana. To recount the share of the glories of the 
campaign won hf ciiv Western troops is a needless task, except to 
mention the fact that Illinois gave co the nation the President who saved 



it, and sent out at the head of one of its regiments tne general who led 
its armies to the final victory at Appomattox. The struggle, on the 


whole, had a marked effect for the better on the new Northwest, giving- 
it an impetus which twenty years of peace would not have produced. 
In a large degree this prosperity was an inflated one, and with the rest 
of the Union we have since been compelled to atone therefor by four 





years of depression of values, of scarcity of employment, and loss of 
fortune. To a less degree, however, than the manufacturing or mining 
regions has the West suffered during the prolonged panic now so near its 
end. Agriculture, still tlie leading feature in our industries, lias been 
quite prosperous through all these dark years, and the farmers have 
cleared away many incumbrances resting over tliem from tho period of 
fictitious values. The population lias steadily increased, tlie arts and 
sciences are gaining a stronger foothold, the trade area of the region is 
becoming daily more extended, and we have been largely exempt from 
the financial calamities wliicli have nearly wrecked communities on the 
seaboard dependent wholly on foreign commerce or domestic manufacture. 

At the present period there are no great schemes broached for the 
Northwest, no propositions for government subsidies or national works 
of improvement, but the capital of the world is attracted liitlier for the 
purcliase of our products or the expansion of our capacity for serving the 
nation at large. A new era is dawning as to transportation, and we Ijid 
fair to deal almost exclusively with the increasing and exj)anding lines 
of steel rail running througli every few miles of territory on tlie prairies. 
The lake marine will no doubt continue to be useful in the wai-mer 
season, and to serve as a regulator of freight rates; but experienced 
navigators forecast the decay of the system in moving to tlie seaboard 
the enormous crops of the We^t. Within the past five years it has 
become quite common to see direct shipments to Europe and the West 
Indies going through from the second-class towns along the Mississippi 
and Missouri. 

As to popular education, the standard has of late risen very greatly, 
and our schools would be creditable to any section of the Union. 

More and more as the events of the war pass into obscurity will the 
fate of the Northwest be linked with that of the Southwest, and the 
next Congressional ai)portionment will give the valley of the Mississippi 
absolute control of the legislation of .the nation, and do much toward 
securing the removal of the Federal capitol to some more central location. 

Our public men continue to wield the full share of influence pertain- 
ing to their rank in the national autonomy, and seem not to forget that 
for the past sixteen years they and their constituents have dictated the 
principles which should govern the country. 

In a work like this, destined to lie on the shelves of the library for 
generations, and not doomed to daily destruction like a newspaper, one 
can not indulge in the same glowing predictions, the sanguine statements 
of actualities that fill the columns of ephemeral publications. Time may 
bring grief to the pet projects of a writer, and explode castles erected on 
a pedestal of facts. Yet there are unmistakable indications before us of 



the same radical cliange in our great Northwest which characterizx's its 
liistory for the past thirty years. Our domain has a sort of natural 
geographical border, save where it melts away to the southward in the 
cattle raising districts of the southwest. 

Our prime interest will for some years doubtless be the growth of 
the food of the world, in which branch it has already outstripped all 
competitors, and our great rival in this duty will naturally be the fertile 
plains of Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, to say nothing of the new 
empire so rapidly growing up in Texas. Over these regions there is a 
continued 2)rogress in agriculture and in railway building, and we must 
look to our laurels. Intelligent observers of events are fully aware of 
the strides made in the way of shipments of fresli meats to Europe, 
many of these ocean cargoes being actually slaughtered in the West and 
transi)orted on ice to the wharves of the seaboard cities. That this new 
enter j)rise will continue there is no reason to doubt. Thei-e are in 
Chicago several factories for the canning uf prepared meats for European 
consumption, and tlie orders for this class of goods are already immense. 
English capital is becoming dail}-^ more and more dissatisfied with railway 
loans and investments, and is gradually seeking mammoth outlays in 
lands and live stock. The stock yards in Chicago, Indianapolis and East 
St. Louis are yearly increasing their facilities, and their jjlant steadily 
grows more valuable. Importations of blooded animals from tlie pro- 
gressive countries of Europe are destined to greatly imjirove tlic quality 
of our beef and mutton. Nowhere is there to ])e seen a more enticing 
displa}- in this line than at our state and county fairs, and the interest 
in the matter is on the increase. 

To attempt to give statistics of our grain production for ISTT would 
be useless, so far have we surpassed ourselves in tlie (piantity and 
(|uality of our product. We are too liable to forget that we are giving 
the world its first article of necessity — its food suppl3\ An opportunity 
to learn this fact so it never can be forgotten was afforded at Chicago at 
tlic outbreak of the great panic of 1878, when Canadian purchasers, 
fearing the prostration of business raightbring about an anarchical condition 
of affairs, went to that city witli coin in bulk and foreign drafts to secure 
their supplies in their own currency at first hands. It may be justly 
claimed by the agricultural community that their combined efforts gave 
the nation its first impetus towaid a restoration of its crippled industries, 
and their labor brought the gold premium to a lower depth than the 
government was al)le to reach by its most intense efforts of legislation 
and compulsion. The hundreds of millions about to be disbursed for 
farm products have already, by the anticipation common to all commercial 



nations, set the wheels in motion, and will relieve us from the perils so 
long shadowing our efforts to return to a healthy tone. 

Manufacturing has attained in the chief cities a foothold which bids 
fair to render the Nortliwest independent of the outside world. Nearly 

our whole region has a distribution of coal measures which will in time 
support the manufactures necessary to our comfort and prosperity. As 
to transportation, the chief factor in the production of all articles excep*" 
food, no section is so magnificently endowed, and our facilities are yearly 
increasing beyond those of any other region. 


The period from a central point of the war to tlie outbreak of tiie 
panic was marked by a tremendous growth in our railway lines, but the 
depression of the times caused almost a total suspension of operations. 
Now that prosperity is returning to our stricken country we witness its 
anticipation by the railroad interest in a series of projects, extensions, 
and leases which bid fair to largely increase our transportation facilities. 
The process of foreclosure and sale of incumbered lines is another matter 
to be considered. In the case of the Illinois Central road, which formerly 
transferred to other lines at Cairo the vast burden of freight destined for 
the Gulf region, we now see the incorporation of the tracks connecting 
through to New Orleans, every mile co-operating in turning toward the 
northwestern metropolis the weight of the inter-state commerce of a 
thousand miles or more of fertile plantations. Three competing routes 
to Texas have established in Chicago their general freight and passenger 
agencies. Four or five lines compete for all Pacific freights to a point as 
as far as the interior of Nebraska. Half a dozen or more splendid bridge 
structures have been thrown across the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers by 
the railways. The Chicago and Northwestern line has become an aggre- 
gation of over two thousand miles of rail, and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul is its close rival in extent and importance. The tliree lines 
running to Cairo via Vincennes form a through route for all traffic with 
the states to the southward. The chief projects now under discussion 
are the Chicago and Atlantic, which is to unite with lines now built to 
Charleston, and the Chicago and Canada Southern, which line will con- 
nect with all the various branches of that Canadian enterprise. Our 
latest new road is the Chicago and Lake Huron, formed of three lines, 
and entering the city from Valparaiso on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
and Chicago track. The trunk lines being mainly in operation, the 
progress made in the way of shortening tracks, making air-line branches, 
and running extensions does not show to the advantage it deserves, as 
this process is constantly adding new facilities to the established order 
of things. The panic reduced the price of steel to a point where the 
railways could hardly afford to use iron rails, and all our northwestern 
lines report large relays of Bessemer track. The immense crops now 
being moved have given a great rise to the value of railway stocks, and 
their transportation must result in heavy pecuniary advantages. 

Few are aware of the importance of the wholesale and job])iiig trade 
of Chicago. One leading firm has since the panic sold 824,000,000 of 
dry goods in one year, and they now expect most confidently to add 
seventy per cent, to the figures of their last year's business. In boots 
and shoes and in clothing, twenty or more great firms from the east have 
placed here their distributing agents or their factories ; and in groceries 



Chicago supplies the entire Northwest at rates presenting advantages 
over New York. 

Chicago has stepped in betweerv New York and the rural banks as a 
financial center, and scarcely a banking institution in the grain or cattle 
regions but keeps its reserve funds in the vaults of our commercial insti- 
tutions. Accumulating here throughout the spring and summer months, 
they are summoned home at pleasure to move the products of the 
prairies. This process greatly strengthens the northwest in its financial 
operations, leaving home capital to supplement local operations on 
behalf of home interests. 

It is impossible to forecast the destiny of this grand and growing 
section of the Union. Figures and predictions made at this date might 
seem ten years hence so ludicrously small as to excite only derision. 




Length, 380 miles, mean width about 156 miles. Area, 55,410 square 
miles, or 35,462,400 acres. Illinois, as regards its surface, constitutes a 
table-liind at a varying elevation ranging between 350 and 800 feet above 
the sea level ; composed of extensive and highly fertile prairies and plains. 
Much of the south division of the State, especially the river-bottoms, are 
thickly wooded. The prairies, too, have oasis-like clumps of trees 
scattered here and tliere at intervals. The chief rivers irrii^atinff the 
State are the Mississippi — dividing it from Iowa and Missouri — the Ohio 
(forming its soutli barrier), the Illinois, Wabash, Kaskaskia, and San- 
gamon, with their numerous afllnents. The total extent of navigable 
streams is calculated at 4,000 miles. Small lakes are scattered over vari- 
ous parts of the State. Illinois is extremely prolific in minerals, chiefly 
coal, iron, copper, and zinc ores, sulphur and limestone. The coal-field 
alone is estimated to absorb a full third of the entire coal-deposit of North 
America. Climate tolerably equable and healthy ; the mean temperature 
standing at about 51° Fahrenheit As an agricultural region, Illinois takes 
a competitive rank with neighboring States, the cereals, fruits, and root- 
crops yielding plentiful returns ; in fact, as a grain-growing State, Illinois 
may be deemed, in proportion to her size, to possess a greater area of 
lands suitable for its production than any other State in the Union. Stock- 
raising is also largely carried on, while her manufacturing interests in 
regard of woolen fabrics, etc., are on a very extensive and yearly expand- 
ing scale. The lines of railroad in the State are among the most exten- 
sive of the Union. Inland Avater-carriage is facilitated by a canal 
connecting the Illinois River with Lake Michigan, and thence with the 
St. Lawrence and Atlantic. Illinois is divided into 102 counties ; the 
chief towns being Chicago, Springfield (capital), Alton, Quincy, Peoria, 
Galena, Bloomington, Rock Island, Vandalia, etc. By the new Consti- 
tution, established in 1870, the State Legislature consists of 51 Senators, 
elected for four years, and 153 Representatives, for two years ; which 
numbers were to be decennially increased thereafter to the number of 
six per every additional half-million of inhabitants. Religious and 
educational institutions are largely diffused throughout, and are in a very 
flourishing condition. Illinois has a State Lunatic and a Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum at Jacksonville; a State- Penitentiary at Joliet ; and a Home for 




Soldiers' Orplians at Normal. On November 30, 1870, the public debt of 
the State was returned at $4,870,937, with a balance of 81,808,833 
unprovided for. At the same period the value of assessed and equalized 
property presented the following totals: assessed, 8840.031,703 ; equal- 
ized 8480,664,0')8. The name of Illinois, through nearly the whole of 
the eighteenth century, embraced most of the known regions north and 
west of Ohio. French colonists established themselves in 1673, at 
Cahokia and Kaskaskia, and the territory of which these settlements 
formed the nucleus was, in 1763, ceded to Great Britain in conjunction 
with Canada, and ultimately resigned to the United States in 1787. 
Illinois entered the Union as a State, December 3, 1818; and now sends 
19 Representatives to Congress. Population, 2,539,891, in 1870. 




The profile of Indiana forms a nearly exact parallelogram, occupy- 
ing one of the most fertile portions of the great Mississippi Valley. The 
greater extent of the surface embraced within its limits consists of gentle 
undulations rising into hilly tracts toward the Ohio bottom. The chief 
rivers of the State are the Ohio and Wabash, with their numerous 
affluents. The soil is highly productive of the cereals and grasses — most 
jnirticularly so in the valleys of the Ohio, Wabash, Whitewater, and 
White Rivers. The northeast and central portions are well timbered 
with virgin forests, and the west section is notably rich in coal, constitut- 
ing an offshoot of the gre^t Illinois carboniferous field. Iron, copper, 
marble, slate, gypsum, and various clays are also abundant. From an 
agricultural point of view, the staple products are maize and wheat, with 
the other cereals in lesser yields ; and besides these, flax, hemp, sorghum, 
hops, etc., are exteusivel}' raised. Indiana is divided into 02 counties, 
and counts among her principal cities and towns, those of Indianapolis 
(the capital), Fort Wayne, Evansville, Terre Haute, Madison, Jefferson- 
ville, Columbus, Vincennes, South Bend, etc. The public institutions of 
the State are many and various, and on a scale of magnitude and 
efficiency commensurate with her important political and industrial status. 
Upward of two thousand miles of railroads permeate the State in all 
directions, and greatly conduce to the development of her expanding 
manufacturing interests. Statistics for the fiscal year terminating 
October 31, 1870, exhibited a total of receipts, •$3,896,541 as against dis- 
bursements, $3,532,406, leaving a balance, $364,135 in favor of the State 
Treasury. The entire public debt, January 5, 1871, $3,971,000. This 
State was first settled by Canadian voyageurs in 1702, who erected a fort 
at Vincennes ; in 1763 it passed into the hands of the English, and was 
by the latter ceded to the United States in 1783. From 1788 till 1791, 
an Indian ware fare prevailed. In 1800, all the region west and north of 
Ohio (then formed into a distinct territory) became merged in Indiana. 
In 1809, the present limits of the State were defined, Michigan and 
Illinois having previously been withdrawn. In 1811, Indiana was the 
theater of the Indian War of Tecumseh, ending with the decisive battle 
of Tippecanoe. In 1816 (December 11), Indiana became enrolled among 
the States of the American Union. In 1834, the State passed through a 
monetary crisis owing to its having become mixed up with railroad, 
canal, and other speculations on a gigantic scale, which ended, for the 
time being, in a general collapse of public credit, and consequent bank- 
ruptcy. Since that time, however, the greater number of the public 


works wliich hud brought about that imbroglio — especially the great 
Wabasli and Erie Canal — have been completed, to the great benefit of 
the State, whose subsequent progress has year by 3'ear been marked by 
rapid strides in the paths of wealth, commerce, and general social and 
political prosperity. The constitution now in force was adopted in 1851. 
Population, hQ80,6Sl. 


In shape, Iowa presents an almost perfect parallelogram ; has a 
length, north to south, of about 800 miles, by a })retty even width of 208 
miles, and embraces an area of 55,045 square miles, or 35,228.800 acres. 
The surface of the State is generally undulating, rising toward the 
middle into an elevated plateau which forms the '•' divide " of the 
Missouri and Mississippi basins. Rolling prairies, especially in the south 
section, constitute a regnant feature, and the river bottoms, belted with 
woodlands, present a soil of the richest alluvion. Iowa is well watered ; 
the principal rivers being the Mississippi and Missouri, which form 
respectively its east and west limits, and the Cedar, Iowa, and Des 
Moines, affluents of the first named. Mineralogically, Iowa is important 
as occupying a section of the great Northwest coal field, to the extent of 
an area estimated at 25,000 square miles. Lead, copper, zinc, and iron, 
are also mined in considerable quantities. Tiie soil is well adapted to 
the production of wheat, maize, and the other cereals ; fruits, vegetables, 
and esculent roots; maize, wheat, and oats forming the chief staples. 
Wine, tobacco, hops, and wax, are other noticeable items of the agricul- 
tural yield. Cattle-raising, too, is a branch of rural industry largely 
engaged in. The climate is healthy, although liable to extremes of heat 
and cold. The annual gross product of the various manufactuies carried 
on in this State aj)proximate, in round nunil)ers, a sum of |!20,000.000. 
Iowa has an ininicnsc^ I'ailroad system, besides over 500 miles of water- 
communication by means of its. navigable rivers. The State is politicalh' 
divided into '.>9 counties, with the following centers of population : Des 
Moines (capital), Iowa City (former capital), Dubuque, Davenport, Bur- 
lington, Council Bluffs, Keokuk, Muscatine, and Cedar Rapids. The 
State institutions of Iowa — religious, scholastic, and i)hilanthropic — are 
on a par, as regards number and perfection of organization and operation, 
with those of her Northwest sister States, and education is especially 
well cared for, and largely diffused. Iowa formed a portion of the 
American territorial acquisitions from France, by the so-called Louisiana 
purchase in 180-), and was })olitieally identified with Louisiana till 1812, 


when it merged into the Missouri Territory; in 18;^4 it came under the 
Michigan organization, and, in 183G, under that of Wisconsin. Finally, 
after being constituted an independent Territory, it became a State of 
the Union, Doeembor 28, 1846. Population in 1800, 074,013 ; in 1870, 
1,191,792, and in 1875, 1,353,118. 


United area, 56,243 square miles, or 35,995,520 acres. Extent of the 
[Jpper and smaller Peninsula — length, 316 miles; breadth, fluctuating 
between 36 and 120 miles. The south division is 410 miles long, by from 
50 to 300 miles wide. Aggregate lake-shore line, 1,400 miles. The 
Upper, or North, Peninsula consists chiefly of an elevated plateau, 
ex[)anding into the Porcupine mountain-system, attaining a maximum 
height of some 2,000 feet. Its shores along Lake Superior are eminently 
bold and picturesque, and its area is rich in minerals, its product of 
copper constituting an im})ortant source of industry. Both divisions are 
heavily wooded, and the South one, in addition, boasts of a deep, rich, 
loamy soil, throwing up excellent crops of cereals and other agricultural 
produce. The climate is generally mild and humid, though the Winter 
colds are severe. The chief staples of farm husbandry include the cereals, 
grasses, maple sugar, sorghum, tobacco, fruits, and dairj'-stuffs. In 1870, 
the acres of land in farms were : improved, 5,096,939 ; unimproved 
woodland, 4,080,146 ; other uuimproved land, 842,057. The cash value 
of land was -$398,240,578 ; of farming implements and machinery, 
$13,711,979. In 1869, there were shijjped from the Lake Superior ports, 
874,582 tons of iron ore, and 45,702 of smelted pig, along with 14,188 
tons of copper (ore and ingot). Coal is another article largely mined. 
Inland communication is provided for by an admirably organized railroad 
system, and by the St. Mary's Ship Canal, connecting Lakes Huron and 
Superior. Michigan is politically divided into 78 counties ; its chief 
urban centers are Detroit, Lansing (capital), Ann Arbor, Marquette, 
Bay City, Niles, Ypsilanti, Grand Haven, etc. The Governor of the 
State is elected biennially. On November 30, 1870, the aggregate bonded 
debt of Michigan amounted to $2,385,028, and the assessed valuation of 
land to .$266,929,278, representing an estimated cash value of $800,000,000. 
Education is largely diffused and most excellentl}^ conducted and pro- 
vided for. The State University at Ann Arijor, the colleges of Detroit 
and Kalamazoo, the Albion Female College, the State Normal School at 
Ypsilanti, and the State Agricultural College at Lansing, are chief among 
the academic institutions. ^Michigan (a term of Chippeway origin, and 


signifying " Great Lake), was discovered and first settled by French 
Canadians, who, in 1G70, founded Detroit, the pioneer of a series of trad- 
ing-posts on the Indian frontier. During the " Conspiracy of Pontiac," 
foUowing the French loss of Canada, Michigan became the scene of a 
sanguinary struggle between the whites and aborigines. In 1796, it 
became annexed to the United States, which incorporated this region 
with the Northwest Territory, and then with Indiana Territory, till 1803, 
when it became territorially independent. Michigan was tlie theater of 
warlike operations during the war of 1812 with Great Britain, and in 
1819 was authorized to be represented by one delegate in Congress; in 
1887 she was admitted into the Union as a State, and in 1869 ratified the 
loth Amendment to the Federal Constitution. Population, 1,184,059. 


It has a mean length of 260 miles, and a maximum breadth of 215. 
Land area, 53,924 square miles, or 34,511,360 acres. Wisconsin lies at a 
considerable altitude above sea-level, and consists for the most part of an 
upland plateau, the surface of which is undulating and very generalh'' 
diversified. Numerous local eminences called mounds are interspersed 
over the State, and the Lake Michigan coast-line is in many parts char- 
acterized by lofty escarped cliffs, even as on the west side the banks of 
the Mississippi form a series of high and picturesque bluffs. A group of 
islands known as The Apostles lie off the extreme north point of the 
State in Lake Superior, and the great estuar}' of Green Bay^ running far 
inland, gives formation to a long, narrow peninsula between its waters 
and those of Lake INlichigan. The river-system of Wisconsin has three 
outlets — those of Lake Superior, Green Bay, and the Mississippi, which 
latter stream forms the entire southwest frontier, widening at one point 
into the large watery expanse called Lake Pepin. Lake Superior leceives 
the St. Louis, Burnt Wood, and Montreal Rivers ; Green Ba3% the 
Menomonee, Peshtigo, Oconto, and Fox ; while into the Mississippi 
empty the St. Croix, Chippewa, Black, Wisconsin, and Rock Rivers. 
The chief interior lakes are those of Winnebago, Horieon, and Court 
Oreilles, and smaller sheets of water stud a great part of the surface. 
The climate is healthful, with cold Winters and brief but very warm 
Summers. Mean annual rainfall 31 inches. The geological system 
represented l)y the State, embraces those rocks included between the 
primary and the Devonian series, the former containing extensive 
deposits of copper and iron ore. Besides these minerals, lead and zinc 
are found in great quantities, together with kaolin, plumbago, gypsum, 


and various clays. Mining, consequently, forms a prominent industry, 
and one of yearly increasing dimensions. The soil of Wisconsin is of 
varying quality, but fertile on the whole, and in the north parts of the 
State heavily timbered. The agricultural yield comprises the cereals, 
together with flax, hemp, tobacco, pulse, sorgum, and all kinds of vege- 
tables, and of the hardier fruits. In 1870, the State had a total number 
of 102,904 farms, occupying 11,715,321 acres, of which 5,899,o43 con- 
sisted of improved land, and 8,437,442 were timbered. Cash value of 
farms, $300,414,064 ; of farm implements and machinery, $14,239,364. 
Total estimated value of all farm products, including betterments and 
additions to stock, $78,027,032 ; of orchard and dairy stuffs, -ij;!, 045, 933 ; 
of lumber, $1,327,618 ; of home manufactures, $338,423 ; of all live-stock, 
$45,310,882. Number of manufacturing estal)lishments, 7,136, employ- 
ing 39,055 hands, and turning out productions valued at $85,624,966. 
The political divisions of the State form 61 counties, and the chief places 
of wealth, trade, and population, are Madison (the capital), Milwaukee, 
Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, Prairie du Chien, Janesville, Portage City, 
Racine, Kenosha, and La Crosse. In 1870, the total assessed valuation 
reached $333,209,838, as against a true valuation of both real and personal 
estate aggregating $002,207,329. Treasury receipts during 1870, $886,- 
696; disbursements, $906,329. Value of church property, $4,(49,983. 
Education is amply provided for. Independently of the State University 
at Madison, and those of Galesville and of Lawrence at Appleton, and 
the colleges of Beloit, Racine, and Milton, there are Normal Schools at 
Platteville and Whitewater. The State is divided into 4,802 common 
school districts, maintained at a cost, in 1870, of $2,094,160. The chari- 
table institutions of Wisconsin include a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, an 
Institute for the Education of the Blind, and a Soldiers' Orphans' School. 
In January, 1870, the railroad system ramified throughout the State 
totalized 2,779 miles of track, including several lines far advanced toward 
completion. Immigration is successfully encouraged by the State author- 
ities, the larger number of yearly new-comers being of Scandinavian and 
German origin. The territory now occupied wilhin the limits of the 
Slate of Wisconsin was explored by French missionaries and traders in 
1639, and it remained under French jurisdiction until 1703, when it 
became annexed to the British North American possessions. In 1796, it 
reverted to the United States, the government of wliich latter admitted 
it within the limits of the Northwest Territory, and in 1809, attached it 
to that of Illinois, and to Michigan in 1818. Wisconsin became independ- 
ently territorially organized in 1836, and became a State of the Union, 
March 3, 1847. Population in 1870, 1,064,985, of which 2,113 were of 
the colored race, and 11,521 Indians, 1,206 of the latter being out of 
tribal relations. 



Its length, north to south, embraces an extent of 380 miles ; its 
breadth one of 250 miles at a maximum. Area, 84,000 square miles, or 
54,760,000 acres. The surface of Minnesota, generally speaking, con- 
sists of a succession of gently undulating plains and prairies, drained by 
an admirable water-sj'stem, and with here and there lieavil}^- timbered 
bottoms and belts of virgin forest. The soil, corresponding with such a 
superlices, is exceptionally rich, consisting for the most part of a dark, 
calcareous sandy drift intermixed with loam. A disti .guishing physical 
feature of this State is its riverine ramifications, expanding in nearly 
every part of it into almost innumerable lakes — the whole presenting an 
aggregate of water-power having hardly a rival in the Union. Besides 
the Mississippi — which here has its rise, and drains a basin of 800 miles 
of country — the principal streams are the Minnesota (384 miles long), 
the Red River of the North, the St. Croix, St. Louis, and many others of 
lesser importance ; the chief lakes are those called Red, Cass, Leech, 
Mille Lacs, Vermillion, and Winibigosh Quite a concatenation of sheets 
of water fringe the frontier line where Minnesota joins British America, 
culminating in the Lake of the Woods. It has been estimated, that of 
an area of 1,200,000 acres of surface between the St. Croix and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers, not less than 73,000 acres are of lacustrine formation. In 
point of minerals, the resources of Minnesota have as yet been very 
imperfectly developed; iron, copper, coal, lead — all these are known to 
exist in considerable deposits ; together with salt, limestone, and potter's 
clay. The agricultural outlook of the State is in a high degree satis- 
factory ; wheat constitutes the leading cereal in cultivation, with Indian 
corn and oats in next order. Fruits and vegetables are grown in great 
plenty and of excellent quality. The lumber resources of Minnesota are 
important ; the pine forests in the north legion alone occupying an area 
of some 21,000 square miles, which in 1870 produced a return of scaled 
logs amounting to 313,116,416 feet. The natural industrial advantages 
possessed by Minnesota are largely improved upon by a railroad system. 
The political divisions of this State number 78 counties ; of which the 
chief cities and towns are : St. Paul (the capital), Stillwater, Red Wing, 
St. Anthony, Fort Snelling, Minneapolis, and Mankato. Minnesota has 
already assumed an attitude of high importance as a manufacturing State ; 
this is mainly due to the wonderful command of water-power she pos- 
sesses, as before spoken of. Besides her timber-trade, the milling of 
flour, the distillation of whisky, and the tanning of leather, are prominent 
interests, which, in 18G'J, gave returns to the amount of ;b>14,831,043. 


Education is notabl}^ provided for on a broad and catholic scale, the 
entire amount expended scholastically during the year 1870 being $857,-- 
816 ; while on November 30 of the preceding year the permanent school 
fund stood at $2,176,222. Besides a University and Agricultural College, 
Normal and Reform Schools flourish, and with these may be mentioned 
such various philanthropic and religious institutions as befit the needs of 
an intelligent and prosperous community. The finances of the State for 
the fiscal year terminating December 1, 1870, exliibited a balance on the 
right side to tlie amount of $136,161, being a gain of $11,000 over the 
previous year's figures. The eailiest exploration of Minnesota l)y the 
whites was made in 1680 by a French Franciscan, Father Hennepin, who 
gave the name of St. Antony to the Gi'eat Falls on the Upper Missisippi. 
In 1763, tlie Treaty of Versailles ceded this region to England. 
Twenty years later, Minnesota formed part of the Northwest Territory 
transferred to the United States, and became herself territorialized inde- 
pendently in 1819. Indian cessions in 1851 enlarged her boundaries, and, 
May 11, 1857, Minnesota became a unit of the great American federation 
of States. Population, 139,706. 


Maximum length, 112 miles ; extreme breadth, 208 miles. Area, 
75,905 square miles, or 18,636,800 acres. The surface of this State is 
almost entirely undulating prairie, and forms part of the west slope of 
the great central basin of the North American Continent. In its west 
division, near the base of the Rocky Mountains, is a sandy belt of 
country, irregularly defined. In this part, too, are the " dunes,'' resem- 
bling a wavy sea of sandy billows, as well as the Mauvaises Terres.a tract 
of singular formation, produced by eccentric disintegrations and denuda- 
tions of the land. The chief rivers are the Missouri, constituting its en- 
tire east line of demarcation ; the Nebraska or Platte, the Niobrara, the 
Republican Fork of the Kansas, the Elkhorn, and the Loup Fork of the 
Platte. The soil is very various, but consisting chiefly of rich, bottomy 
loam, admirably adapted to the raising of heavy crops of cereals. All 
the vegetables and fruits of the temperate zone are produced in great 
size and plenty. For grazing purposes Nebraska is a State exceptionally 
well fitted, a region of not less than 23,000,000 acres being adaptable to 
this branch of husbandry. It is believed that the, as yet, comparatively 
infertile tracts of land found in various parts of the State are susceptible 
of productivity by means of a properly conducted system of irrigation. 
Few minerals of moment have so far been found within the limits of 



Nebraska, if we may except important saline deposits at the head of Salt 
Creek in its southeast section. The State is divided into 57 counties, 
independent of the Pawnee and Winnebago Indians, and of unorganized 
territory in the northwest part. The principal towns are Omaha, Lincoln 
(State capital), Nebraska City, Columbus, Grand Island, etc. In 1870, 
the total assessed value of property amounted to $53,000,000, being an 
increase of $11,000,000 over the previous year's returns. The total 
amount received from the school-fund during the year 1869-70 was 
$77,999. Education is making great onward strides, the State University 
and an Agricultural College being far advanced toward completion. In 
the matter of railroad communication, Nebraska bids fair to soon place 
herself on a par with her neighbors to the east. Besides being inter- 
sected by the Union Pacific line, with its off-shoot, the Fremont and Blair, 
other tracks are in course of rapid construction. Organized by Con- 
gressional Act into a Territory, May 30, 1854, Nebraska entered the 
Union as a full State, March 1, 1867. Population, 122,993. 


Early History of Illinois. 

The name of tliis beautiful Prairie State is derived from lUim, a 
Delaware word signifying Superior Men. It lias a French termination, 
and is a symbol of how the two races — the French and the Indians — 
were intermixed during the early history of the country. 

The appellation was no doubt well applied to the primitive inhabit- 
ants of the soil whose ])rowess in savage warfare long withstood the 
combined attacks of the fierce Iroquois on the one side, and the no less 
savage and relentless Sacs and Foxes on the other. The Illinois were 
once a powerful confederacy, occu[)ying the most beautiful and fertile 
region in the great Valley of the Mississippi, wliich their enemies coveted 
and struggled long and hard to wrest from them. By the fortunes of 
war they were diminished in numbers, and finally destroyed. "Starved 
Rock," on the Illinois River, according to tradition, commemorates their 
last tragedy, where, it is said, the entii'e tribe starved rather than sur- 


The first European discoveries in Illinois date back over two hun- 
dred years. The}^ are a part of that movement which, from the begin- 
ning to the middle of the seventeenth century, brought the French 
Canadian missionaries and fur traders into the Valley of the Mississippi, 
and which, at a later period, established the civil and ecclesiastical 
authority of France from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and from the foot-hills of the Alleghanies to the Rocky Mountains. 

The great river of the West had been discovered by DeSoto, the 
Spanish conqueror of Florida, three quarters of a century before the 
French founded Quebec in 1608, but the Spanish left the country a wil- 
derness, without further exploration or settlement within its borders, in 
which condition it remained until the Mississippi was discovered by the 
agents of the French Canadian government, Joliet and Marquette, in 1673. 
These renowned explorers were not the first white visitors to Illinois. 
In 1671 — two years in advance of them — came Nicholas Perrot to Chicago. 
He had been sent by Talon as an agent of the Canadian government to 





call a great peace convention of Western Indians at Green Bay, prepara- 
tory to the movement for the discovery of the Mississippi. It was 
deemed a good stroke of policy to secure, as far as possible, the friend- 
ship and co-operation of the Indians, far and near, before venturing upon 
an enterprise which their hostility might render disastrous, and which 
their friendship and assistance would do so much to make successful ; 
and to this end Perrot was sent to call together in council the tribes 
throughout the Northwest, and to promise them the commerce and pro- 
tection of the French government. He accordingly arrived at Green 
Bay in 1671, and procuring an escort of Pottawattamies, proceeded in a 
bark canoe upon a visit to the Miamis, at Chicago. Perrot was there- 
fore the first European to set foot upon the soil of Illinois. 

Still there were others before Marquette. In 1672, the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries. Fathers Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, bore the standard 
of the Cross from their mission at Green Bay through western Wisconsin 
and northern Illinois, visiting the Foxes on Fox River, and the Masquo- 
tines and Kickapoos at the mouth of the Milwaukee. These missionaries 
penetrated on the route afterwards followed by Marquette as far as the 
Kickapoo village at the head of Lake Winnebago, where Marquette, in 
his journey, secured guides across the portage to the Wisconsin. 

The oft-repeated story of Marquette and Joliet is well known. 
They were the agents employed by the Canadian government to discover 
the Mississippi. Marquette was a native of France, born in 1637, a 
Jesuit priest by education, and a man of simple faith and of great zeal and 
devotion in extending the Roman Catholic religion among the Indians. 
Arriving iu Canada in 1666, he was sent as a missionary to the far 
Northwest, and, in 1668, founded a mission at Sault Ste. Marie. The 
following year he moved to La Pointe, in Lake Superior, where he 
instructed a branch of the Hurons till 1670, when he removed south, and 
founded the mission at St. Ignace, on the Straits of Mackinaw. Here 
he remained, devoting a portion of his time to the study of the Illinois 
language under a native teacher who had accompanied him to the mission 
from La Pointe, till he was joined by Joliet in the Spring of 1673. By 
the way of Green Bay and the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, they entered 
the Mississippi, which they explored to the mouth of the Arkansas, and 
returned by the way of the Illinois and Chicago Rivers to Lake Michigan. 

On his way up the Illinois, Marquette visited the great village of 
the Kaskaskias, near what is now Utica, in the county of LaSalle. The 
following year he returned and established among them the mission of 
the Immaculate Virgin Mary, which was the first Jesuit mission founded 
in Illinois and in the Mississippi Valley. The intervening winter he 
had spent in a hut which his companions erected on the Chicago River, a 
few leagues from its mouth. The founding of this mission was the last 


act of Marquette's life. He died in Michigan, on his way back to Green 
Bay, May 18, 1675. 


The first French occupation of the territory now embraced in Illi- 
nois was effected by LaSalle in 1680, seven years after the time of Mar- 
quette and Joliet. LaSalle, having constructed a vessel, the " Griffin," 
above the falls of Niagara, which he sailed to Green Bay, and having 
passed thence in canoes to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, by which 
and the Kankakee he reached the Illinois, in January, 1680, erected Fort 
Crevecceur, at the lower end of Peoria Lake, where the city of Peoria is 
now situated. The place where this ancient fort stood may still be seen 
just below the outlet of Peoria Lake. It was destined, liowever, to a 
temporary existence. From this point, LaSalle determined to descend 
the Mississippi to its mouth, but did not accomplish this purpose till two 
years later — in 1682. Returning to Fort Frontenac for the purpose of 
getting materials with which to rig his vessel, he left the fort in charge of 
Touti, his lieutenant, who during his absence was driven off by the Iro- 
quois Indians. These savages had made a raid upon the settlement of 
the Illinois, and had left nothing in their track but ruin and desolation. 
Mr. Davidson, in his History of Illinois, gives the following graphic 
account of the picture that met the eyes of LaSalle and his companions 
on their return : 

" At the great town of the Illinois they were appalled at the scene 
which opened to their view. No hunter appeared to break its death-like 
silence with a salutatory whoop ot welcome. The plain on which the 
town had stood was now strewn with charred fragments of lodges, which 
had so recently swarmed with savage life and hilarity. To render more 
hideous the picture of desolation, large numbers of skulls had been 
placed on the upper extremities of lodge-poles which had escaped the 
devouring flames. In the midst of these horrors was the rude fort of 
the spoilers, rendered frightful by the same ghastly relics. A near 
approach showed that the graves had been robbed of their bodies, and 
swarms of buzzards were discovered glutting their loathsome stomachs 
on the reeking corruption. To complete the work of destruction, the 
srowino; corn of the villasje had been cut down and burned, while the 
pits containing the products of previous years, had been rifled and their 
contents scattered with wanton waste. It was evident the suspected 
blow of the Iroquois had fallen with relentless fury." 

Tonti had escaped LaSalle knew not whither. Passing down the 
lake in search of him and his men, LaSalle discovered that the fort had 
been destroyed, hut the vessel Avhich he had partly constructed was still 


on the stocks, and but slightly injured. After further fruitless search, 
failing to find Tonti, he fastened to a tree a painting representing himself 
and party sitting in a canoe and bearing a pipe of peace, and to the paint- 
ing attached a letter addressed to Tonti. 

Tonti had escaped, and, after untold privations, taken shelter among 
tlie Pottawattamies near Green Bay. These were friendly to the French. 
One of their old chiefs used to say, " There were but three great cap- 
tains iu the world, himself, Tonti and LaSalle." 


We must now return to LaSalle, whose exploits stand out in such 
bold relief. He was born in Rouen, France, in 1643. His father was 
wealthy, but he renounced his patrimon\^ on entering a college of the 
Jesuits, from which he separated and came to Canada a poor man in 1666. 
The priests of St. Sulpice, among whom he had a brother, were then the 
proprietors of Montreal, the nucleus of which was a seminary or con- 
vent founded by that order. The Superior granted to LaSalle a large 
tract of land at LaChine, where he established himself in the fur trade. 
He was a man of daring genius, and outstripped all his competitors in 
exploits of travel and commerce with the Indians. In 1669, he visited 
the headquarters of the great Iroquois Confederacy, at Onondaga, in the 
heart of New York, and, obtaining guides, explored the Ohio River to 
the falls at Louisville. 

In order to understand the genius of LaSalle, it must be remembered 
that for many years prior to his time the missionaries and traders were 
obliged to make their way to the Northwest by the Ottawa River (of 
Canada) on account of the fierce hostility of the Iroquois along the lower 
lakes and Niagara River, which entirely closed this latter route to the 
Upper Lakes. They carried on their commerce chiefly by canoes, pad- 
dling them through the Ottawa to Lake Nipissing, carrying them across 
the portage to French River, and descending that to Lake Huron. This 
being the route by wjiich they reached the Northwest, accounts for the 
fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions were established in the neighbor- 
hood of the Upper Lakes. LaS.ille conceived the grand idea of opening 
the route by Niagara River and the Lower Lakes to Canadian commerce 
by sail vessels, connecting it with the navigation of the Mississippi, and 
thus opening a magnificent water communication from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. This truly grand and comprehensive 
purpose seems to have animated him in all his wonderful achievements 
and the matchless difficulties and hardships he surmounted. As the first 
step in the accomplishment of tliis object he established himself on Lake 
Ontario, and built and garrisoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the present 


cAly of Kingston, Canada. Here be obtained a grant of land from tbe 
French crown and a body of troops by which he beat back the invading 
Iroquois and cleared the passage to Niagara Falls. Having by tliis mas- 
terly stroke made it safe to attempt a hitherto untried expedition, his 
next step, as we have seen, was to advance to the Falls with all his 
outfit for building a ship with which to sail the lakes. He was success- 
ful in this undertaking, though his ultimate purpose was defeated by a 
strange combination of untoward circumstances. The Jesuits evidently 
hated LaSalle and plotted against him, because he had abandoned them 
and co-operated with a rival order. The fur traders were also jealous of 
his superior success in opening new channels of commerce. At LaChine 
he had taken the trade of Lake Ontario, which but for his presence there 
would have gone to Quebec. While they were plodding with their bark 
canoes through the Ottawa he was constructing sailing vessels to com- 
mand the trade of the lakes and the Mississippi. These great plans 
excited the jealousy and envy of the small traders, introduced treason and 
revolt into the ranks of his own companions, and finally led to the foul 
assassination by which his great achievements were prematurely ended. 

In 1682, LaSalle, having completed his vessel at Peoria, descended 
the. Mississippi to its confluence with the Gulf of Mexico. Erecting a 
standard on which he inscribed the arms of France, he took formal pos- 
session of the whole valley of the might}' river, in the name of Louis 
XIV., then reigning, in honor of whom he named the country Louisiana. 

LaSalle tlien went to France, was appointed Governor, and returned 
with a fleet and immigrants, for the purpose of planting a colony in Illi- 
nois. They arrived in due time in the Gulf of Mexico, but failing to 
find the mouth of the Mississippi, up which LaSalle intended to sail, his 
supply ship, with the immigrants, was driven ashore and wrecked on 
Matagorda Bay. With the fragments of the vessel he constructed a 
stockade and rude huts on the shore for the protection of the immigrants, 
calling the post Fort St. Louis. He then made a trip into New Mexico, 
in search of silver m.ines, but, meeting with disappointment, returned to 
find his little colony reduced to forty souls. He then resolved to travel 
on foot to Illinois, and, starting with his companions, had reached the 
valley of the Colorado, near the mouth of Trinity river, when he was 
shot by one of his men. This occurred on the 19th of March, 1687. 

Dr. J. W. Foster remarks of him : " Thus fell, not far from the banks 
of the Trinity, Robert Cavalier de la Salle, one of the grandest charac- 
ters that ever figured in American history — a man capable of originating 
the vastest schemes, and endowed with a will and a judgment capable of 
carrying them to successful results. Had ample facilities been placed by 
the King of France at his disposal, the result of the colonization of this 
continent mischt have been far different from what we now behold." 



A temporary settlement was made at Fort St. Louis, or the old Kas- 
kaskia Tillage, on the Illinois River, in what is now LaSalle County, in 
1682. In 1690, this was removed, with the mission connected with it, to 
Kaskaskia, on the river of that name, emptying into the lower Mississippi 
in St. Chiir County. Cahokia was settled about the same time, or at 
least, both of these settlements began in the year 1690, tliough it is now 
pretty well settled that Cahokia is the older place, and ranks as the oldest 
permanent settlement in Illinois, as well as in the Mississippi Valley. 
The reason for the removal of the old Kaskaskia settlement and mission, 
was probably because the dangerous and difficult route b}- Lake Michigan 
and the Chicago portage had been almost abandoned, and travelers and 
traders passed down and up the Mississippi by the Fox and Wisconsin 
River route. They removed to the vicinity of the Mississippi in order 
to be in the line of travel from Canada to Louisiana, that is, the lower 
part of it, for it was all Louisiana then south of the lakes. 

During the period of French rule in Louisiana, the population prob- 
ably never exceeded ten thousand, including whites and blacks. Within 
that portion of it now included in Indiana, trading posts were established 
at the principal Miami villages which stood on the head waters of the 
Maumee, the Wea villages situated at Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, and 
the Piankeshaw villages at Post Vincennes ; all of which were probably 
visited by French traders and missionaries before the close of the seven- 
teenth century. 

In the vast territory claimed by the French, many settlements of 
considerable importance had sprung up. Biloxi, on Mobile Bay, liad 
been founded by DTberville, in 1699 ; y\ntoine de Lamotte Cadillac had 
founded Detroit in 1701 ; and New Orleans had been founded by Bien- 
ville, under the auspices of the Mississippi Company, in 1718. In Illi- 
nois also, considerable settlements had been made, so that in 1730 they 
embraced one hundred and forty French families, about six hundred " con- 
verted Indians," and many traders and voyageurs. In that portion of the 
country, on the east side of the Mississippi, there were five distinct set- 
tlements, with their respective villages, viz. : Cahokia, near the mouth 
of Cahokia Creek and about five miles below the present city of St. 
Louis ; St. Philip, about forty -five miles below Cahokia, and four miles 
above Fort Chartres ; Fort Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia ; 
Kaskaskia, situated on the Kaskaskia River, five miles above its conflu- 
ence with the Mississippi ; and Prairie du Rocher, near Fort Chartres. 
To these must be added St. Genevieve and St. Louis, on the west side 
of the Mississippi. These, with the exception of St. Louis, are among 




the oldest French towns in the Mississippi Valley. Kaskaskia, in its best 
days, was a town of some two or three thousand inhabitants. After it 
passed from the crown of France its population for many years did not 
exceed fifteen hundred. Under British rule, in 1773, the population had 
decreased to four hundred and fifty. As early as 1721, the Jesuits had 
established a college and a monastery in Kaskaskia. 

Fort Chartres was first built under the direction of the Mississippi 
Company, in 1718, by M. de Boisbraint.a military officer, under command 
of Bienville. It stood on the east bank of the Mississippi, about eighteen 
miles below Kaskaskia, and Avas for some time the headquarters of the 
military commandants of the district of Illinois. 

In the Centennial Oration of Dr. Fowler, delivered at Philadelphia, 
by appointment of Gov. Beveridge, we find some interesting facts with 
regard to the State of Illinois, which we appropriate in this histor}^: 

In 1682 Illinois became a possession of the French crown, a depend- 
ency of Canada, and a part of Louisiana. In J.765 the English flag was 
run up on old Fort Chartres, and Illinois was counted among the treas- 
ures of Great Britain. 

In 1779 it was taken from the English b}- Col. George Rogers Clark. 
This man was resolute in nature, wise in council, prudent in policy, bold 
in action, -uul heroic in danger. Few men who have figured in the his- 
tory of America are more deserving than this colonel. Nothing short of 
first-class ability could have rescued Vincens and all Illinois from the 
English. And it is not possible to over-estimate the influence of this 
achievement upon the republic. In 1779 Illinois became a part of Vir- 
ginia. It was soon known as Illinois County. In 1784 Virginia ceded 
all this territory to the general government, to be cut into States, to be 
republican in form, with " the same right of sovereignty, freedom, and 
independence as the other States." 

In 1787 it was the object of the wisest and ablest legislation found 
in any merely human records. No man can. study the secret history of 


and not feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eye these unborn 
States. The ordinance that on July 13, 1787, finally became the incor- 
porating act, has a most marvelous history. Jefferson had vainly tried 
to secure a system of government for the northwestern territory. He 
was an emancipationist of that day, and favored the exclusion of slavery 
from the territory Virginia had ceded to the general government; but 
the South voted him down as often as it came up. In 1787, as late as 
July 10, an organizing act without the anti-slavery clause was pending. 
This concession to the South was expected to carry it. Congress was in 


session in New York City. On July 5, Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cutler, of 
Massachusetts, came into New York to lobby on the northwestern terri- 
tory. Everything seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. 

The state of the public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, 
the basis of his mission, his personal character, all combined to complete 
one of those sudden and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that 
once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the 
breath of the Almighty. Cutler was a graduate of Yale — received his 
A.M. from Harvard, and liis D.D. from Yale. He had studied and taken 
degrees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divi'nit}'. He 
had thus America's best indorsement. He had published a scientific 
examination of the plants of New England. His name stood second only 
to that of Franklin as a scientist in America. He was a courtly gentle- 
man of the old style, a man of commanding presence, and of inviting 
face. The Southern members said they had never seen such a gentleman 
in the North. He came representing a company that desired to purchase 
a tract of land now included in Ohio, for the purpose of planting a colony. 
It was a speculation. Government money was worth eighteen cents on 
the dollar. This Massachusetts company had collected enough to pur- 
chase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in New York made 
Dr. Cutler their agent (lobbyist). On the 12th he represented a demand 
for 5,500,000 acres. This would reduce the national debt. Jefferson 
and Virginia were regarded as authority concerning the land Virginia 
had just ceded. Jefferson's policy wanted to provide for the public credit, 
and this was a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the northwestern 
region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught the inspira- 
tion, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The English minister invited him to 
dine with some of the Southern gentlemen. He was the center of interest. 

The entire South rallied round him. Massachusetts could not vote 
against him, because many of the constituents of her members were 
interested personally in the western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends with the South, and, doubtless, using all the arts of the lobb}-, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convictions, he 
dictated one of the most compact and finished documents of wise states- 
manship that has ever adorned any human law book. He borrowed from 
Jefferson the terra "Articles of Compact," which, preceding the federal 
constitution, rose into the most sacred character. He then followed very 
closely the constitution of Massachusetts, adopted three years before. 
Its most marked points were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a seminary, 


and every section numbered 16 in each township ; that is, one-thirty-sixth 
of all the land, for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or the 
enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 

Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " Religion, 
morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall always 
be encouraged." 

Dr. Cutler planted himself on this platform and would not yield. 
Giving his unqualified dechiration that it was that or nothing — tliat iinhjss 
they could make the land desirable they did not want it — he took his 
horse and buggy, and started for the constitutional convention in Phila- 
deli)hia. On July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was 
unanimously adopted, every Southern member voting for it, and only one 
man, Mr. Yates, of New York, voting against it. But as the States voted 
as States, Yates lost his vote, and the compact was put beyond repeal. 

Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wis- 
consin — a vast empire, the heart of the great valley — were consecrated 
to freedom, intelligence, and honesty. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared for a year and a day and an hour. In the light of these eighty- 
nine years I affirm that this act was the salvation of the republic and the 
destruction of slavery. Soon the South saw their great blunder, and 
tried to repeal the compact. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee 
of which John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact, and opposed repeal. Thus it stood a rock, in the way 
of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

With all this timely aid it was, after all, a most desperate and pro- 
tracted struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. It Avas 
the natural battle-field for the irrepressible conflict. In the southern end 
of the State slavery preceded the compact. It existed among the old 
French settlers, and was hard to eradicate. The southern part of the 
State was settled from the slave States, and this population brought their 
laws, customs, and institutions with them. A stream of population from 
the North poured into the northern part of the State. These sections 
misunderstood and hated each other perfectly. The Southerners regarded 
the Yankees as a skinning, tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the 
country with tinware, brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The North- 
erner thought of the Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy creature, burrowing 
in a hut, and rioting in whisky, dirt and ignorance. These causes aided 
in making the struggle long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy 
with slavery that, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of the 
deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French settlers to 
retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States might bring their 


slaves, if they would give them a chance to choose freedom or years 
of service and bondage for their children till they should become 
thirty years of age. If they chose freedom they must leave the State 
in sixty days or be sold as fugitives. Servants were whipped for offenses 
for wliich white men are fined. Each lash paid forty cents of the fine. A 
negro ten miles from liome without a pass was whipped. These famous 
laws were imported from the slave States just as they imported laws for 
the inspection of flax and wool when there was neither in the State. 

These Black Laws are now wiped out. A vigorous effort was made 
to protect slavery in the State Constitution of 1817. It barely failed. 
It was renewed in 1825, when a convention was asked to make a new 
constitution. After a hard fight the convention was defeated. But 
slaves did not disappear from the census of the State until 1850. There 
were mobs and murders in trie interest of slavery. Lovejoy was added 
to the list of martyrs — a sort of first-fruits of that long life of immortal 
heroes who saw freedom as the one supreme desire of their souls, and 
were so enamored of her that they preferred to die rather than survive lier. 

The population of 12,282 that occupied the territory in A.D. 1800, 
increased to 45,000 in A.D. 1818, when the State Constitution was 
adopted, and Illinois took her place in the Union, with a star on the flag 
and two votes in the Senate. 

Shadrach Bond was the first Governor, and in his first message he 
recommended the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. 

Tlie simple economy in those days is seen in the fact that the entire 
bill for stationery for the first Legislature was only $13.50. Yet this 
simple body actually enacted a very superior code. 

There was no money in tlie territory before the war of 1812. Deer 
skins and coon sldns were the circulating medium. In 1821, the Legis- 
lature ordained a State Banlc on the credit of the State. It issued notes 
in the likeness of bank bills. These notes were made a legal tender for 
every thing, and the bank was ordered to loan to the people -$100 on per- 
sonal security, and more on mortgages. They actually passed a resolu- 
tion requesting the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States to 
receive these notes for land. The old French Lieutenant Governor, Col. 
Menard, put the resolution as follows: " Gentlemen of the Senate : It is 
moved and seconded dat de notes of dis bank be made land-office mone}'. 
All in favor of dat motion say aye ; all against it say no. It is decided 
in de affirmative. Now, gentlemen, I bet you one hundred dollar he 
never be land-office money ! " Hard sense, like hard money, is always 
above par. 

This old Frenchman presents a fine figure up against the dark back- 
ground of most of his nation. They made no progress. They clung to 
their earliest and simplest implements. They never wore hats or cap? 


They pulled their blankets over their heads in the winter like the Indians, 
with whom they freely intermingled. 

Deraagogism had an early development. One John Grammar (only 
in name), elected to the Territorial and State Legislatures of ISIG and 
1836, invented the policy of opposing every new thing, saying, " If it 
succeeds, no one will ask Avho voted against it. If it proves a failure, he 
could quote its record." In sharp contrast with Grammar was the char- 
acter of D. P. Cook, after whom the county containing Chicago was 
named. Such was his transparent integrity and remarkable ability that 
his will was almost the law of the State. In Congress, a young man, 
and from a poor State, he was made Chairman of the Ways and Means 
Committee. He was pre-eminent for standing by his committee, regard- 
less of consequences. It was his integrity that elected John Quincy 
Adams to the Presidency. There were four candidates in 1824, Jackson, 
Clay, Crawford, and John Quincy Adams. There being no choice by the 
people, the election was thrown into the House. It was so balanced that 
it turned on his vote, and that he cast for Adams, electing him ; then 
went home to face the wrath of the Jackson party in Illinois. It cost 
him all but character and greatness. It is a suggestive comment on the 
times, that there was no legal interest till 1830. It often reached 150 
per cent., usually 50 per cent. Then it was reduced to 12, and now to 
10 per cent. 


In area the State has 55,410 square miles of territory. It is about 
150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in latitude from Maine to 
North Carolina. It embraces wide variety of climate. It is tempered 
on the north by the great inland, saltless, tideless sea, which kee})s the 
thermometer from either extreme. Being a table land, from 600 to 1,600 
feet above the level of the sea, one is prepared to find on the health 
maps, prepared by the general government, an almost clean and perfect 
record. In freedom from fever and malarial diseases and consumptions, 
the^ three deadly enemies of the American Saxon, Illinois, as a State, 
stands without a superior. She furnishes one of the essential conditions 
of a great people — sound bodies. I suspect that this fact lies l)ack of 
that old Delaware word, lUini, superior men. 

The great battles of history that have been determinative of dynas- 
ties and destinies have been strategical battles, chiefly the ({uestion of 
position. Thermopylse has been the war-cry of freemen for twenty-four 
centuries. It only tells how much there may be in position. All this 
advantage belongs to Illinois. It is in the heart of the greatest valley in 
the world, the vast region between the mountains — a valley that could 


feed mankind for one thousand years. It is well on toward the center of 
the continent. It is in the great temperate belt, in which have been 
found nearly all the aggressive civilizations of history. It has sixty-five 
miles of frontage on the head of the lake. With the Mississippi forming 
the western and southern boundary, with the Ohio running along the 
southeastern line, with the Illinois River and Canal dividing the State 
diagonally from the lake to the Lower Mississippi, and with the Rock and 
Wabash Rivers furnishing altogether 2,000 miles of water-front, con- 
necting with, and running through, in all about 12,000 miles of navi- 
gable water. 

But this is not all. These waters are made most available by the 
fact that tlie lake and the State lie on the ridge running into the great 
valley from the east. Within cannon-shot of the lake the water runs 
away from the lake to the Gulf. The lake now empties at both ends, 
one into the Atlantic and one into the Gulf of Mexico. The lake thus 
seems to hang over the land. This makes the dockage most serviceable ; 
there are no steep banks to damage it. Both lake and river are made 
for use. 

The climate varies from Portland to Richmond ; it favors every pro- 
duct of the continent, including the tropics, with less than half a dozen 
exceptions. It produces every great nutriment of the world except ban- 
anas and rice. It is hardly too much to say that it is the most productive 
spot known to civilization. With the soil full of bread and the earth full 
of minarals ; with an upper surface of food and an under layer of fuel ; 
with perfect natural drainage, and abundant springs and streams and 
navigable rivers ; half way between the forests of the North and the fruits 
of the South ; within a day's ride of the great deposits of iron, coal, cop- 
per, lead, and zinc ; containing and controlling the great grain, cattle, 
pork, and lumber markets of the world, it is not strange that Illinois has 
the advantage of position. 

This advantage has been supplemented by the character of the popu- 
lation. In the early days when Illinois was first admitted to the Union, 
her population were chiefl}'^ from Kentucky and Virginia. But, in the 
conflict of ideas concerning slavery, a strong tide of emigration came in 
from the East, and soon changed this composition. In 1870 her non- 
native population were from colder soils. New York furnished 133,290 ; 
Ohio gave 162,623; Pennsylvania sent on 98,352; the entire South gave 
us only 206,734. In all her cities, and in all her German and Scandina- 
vian and other foreign colonies, Illinois has only about one-fifth of her 
people of foreign birth. 



One of the greatest elements in the early development of Illinois is 
the Illinois ami Michii^an Canal, connecting the Illinois and Mississippi 
Rivers with the hikes. It was of the utmost importance to the State. 
It was recommended by Gov. Bond, the first governor, in his first message. 
In 1821, the Legislature appropriated 110,000 for surveying the route. 
Two bright young engineers surveyed it, and estimated the cost at 
1600,000 or $700,000. 'it finally cost -$8,000,000. In 1825, a law was 
passed to incorporate the Canal Company, but no stock was sold. In 
1826, upon the solicitation of Cook, Congress gave 800,000 acres of land 
on the line of the work. In 1828, another law — commissioners appointed, 
and work commenced with new survey and new estimates. In 1834-35, 
George Far(|uliar made an able report on the Avhole matter. This was, 
doubtless, the ablest report ever made to a western legislature, and it 
became the model for subsequent reports and action. From this the 
Avork went on till it was finished in 1848. It cost the State a large 
amount of money ; but it gave to the industries of the State an impetus 
that pushed it up into the first rank of greatness. It was not built as a 
speculation any more than a doctor is employed on a speculation. But 
it has paid into the Treasury of the State an average annual net sum of 
over $111,000. 

Pending the construction of the canal, the land and town-lot fever 
broke out in the State, in 1834-35. It took on the malignant type in 
Chicago, lifting tlie town up into a city. The disease spread over the 
entire State and adjoining States. It was epidemic. It cut up men's 
farms without regard to locality, and cut up the purses of the purchasers 
without regard to consequences. It is estimated that building lots enough 
were sold in Indiana alone to accommodate every citizen then in the 
United States. 

Towns and cities were exported to the Eastern market by the ship- 
load. There was no lack of buyers. Every up-ship came freighted with 
speculators and their^ money. 

This distemper seized upon the Legislature in 1886-37, and left not 
one to tell tlie tale. They enacted a system of internal improvement 
without a parallel in the grandeur of its conception. They ordered the 
construction of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all direc- 
tions. This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. 
There were a few counties not touched by either railroad or river or 
canal, and those were to be comforted and compensated by the free dis- 
tribution of $200,000 among them. To inflate this balloon beyond cre- 
dence it was ordered that work should be commenced on both ejids of 


each of these railroads and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the 
same time. The appropriations for these vast improvements were over 
$12,000,000, and commissioners were appointed to borrow the money on 
the credit of the State. Remember that all this was in the early days of 
railroading, when railroads were luxuries ; that the State had whole 
counties with scarcely a cabin ; and tliat the population of the State was 
less than 400,000, and you can form some idea of the vigor with which 
these brave men undertook the work of making a great State. In the 
light of history I am compelled to say that this was only a premature 
throb of the power that actually slumbered in the soil of the State. It 
was Hercules in the cradle. 

At this juncture the State Bank loaned its funds largely to Godfrey 
Gilman & Co., and to other leading houses, for the purpose of drawing 
trade from St. Louis to Alton. Soon they failed, and took down the 
bank with tliem. 

In 1840, all hope seemed gone. A population of 480,000 were loaded 
with a debt of $14,000,000. It had only six small cities, really only 
towns, namely : Chicago, Alton, Springfield, Quincy, Galena, Nauvoo. 
This debt was to be cared for when there was not a dollar in the treas- 
ury, and when the State had borrowed itself out of all credit, and when 
there was not good money enough in the hands of all the people to pay 
the interest of the debt for a single year. Yet, in the presence of all 
these difficulties, the young State steadil}'- refused to repudiate. Gov. 
Ford took hold of the problem and solved it, bringing the State through 
in triumph. 

Having touched lightly upon some of the more distinctive points in 
the history of the development of Illinois, let us next briefly consider the 


It is a garden four hundred miles long and one hundred and fifty 
miles wide. Its soil is chiefly a black sandy loam, from six inches to 
sixty feet thick. On the American bottoms it has been cultivated for 
one hundred and fifty years without renewal. About the old French 
towns it has 3'ielded corn for a century and a half without rest or help. 
It produces nearly everything green in the temperate and tropical zones. 
She leads all other States in the number of acres actually under plow. 
Her products from 25,000,000 of acres are incalculable. Iler mineral 
wealth is scarcely second to her agricultural power. She has coal, iron, 
lead, copper, zinc, many varieties of building stone, fire clay, cuma clay, 
common brick clay, sand of all kinds, gravel, mineral paint — every thing 
needed for a high civilization. Left to herself, she has the elements of 
all greatness. The single item of coal is too vast for an appreciative 


handling in figures. We can handle it in general terms like algebraical 
signs, but long before we get up into the millions and billions the human 
mind drops down from comprehension to mere symbolic apprehension. 

When I tell you that nearly four-fifths of the entire State is under- 
laid with a deposit of coal more than forty feet thick on the average (now 
estimated, by recent surveys, at seventy feet thick), you can get some 
idea of its amount, as you do of the amount of the national debt. There 
it is ! 41,000 square miles — one vast mine into which you could put 
any of the States ; in which you could bury scores of European and 
ancient empires, and have room enough all round to work without know- 
ing that they had been sepulchered there. 

Put this vast coal-bed down by the other great coal deposits of the 
world, and its importance becoriies manifest. Great Britain has 12,000 
square miles of coal ; Spain, 3,000; France, 1,710; Belgium, r)7S ; Illinois 
about twice as many square miles as all combined. Virginia has 20,000 
square miles; Pennsylvania, 16,000; Ohio, 12,000. Illinois has 41,000 
square miles. One-seventh of all the known coal on this continent is in 

Could we sell the coal in this single State for one-seventh of one cent 
a ton it would pay the national debt. Converted into power, even with 
the wastage in pur common engines, it would do more work than could 
be done by the entire race, beginning at Adam's wedding aiul working 
ten hours a day through all the centuries till the present time, and right 
on into the future at the same rate for the next 600,000 years. 

Great Britain uses enough mechanical power to-day to give to each 
man, Avoman, and child in the kingdom the help and service of nineteen 
untiring servants. No wonder she has leisure and luxuries. No wonder 
the home of the common artisan has in it more luxuries than could be 
found in the palace of good old King Arthur. Think, if you can conceive 
of it, of the vast army of servants that sluml)er in the soil of Illinois, 
impatiently awaiting the call of Genius to come forth to minister to our 

At the present rate of consumption England's coal supply Avill be 
exhausted in 250 years. When this is gone she must transfer her dominion 
either to the Indies, or to British America, which I would not resist ; or 
to some other people, which I would regret as a loss to civilization. 


At the same rate of consumption (which far exceeds our own) the 
deposit of coal in Illinois will last 120,000 years. And her kingdom shall 
be an everlasting kingdom. 

Let us turn now from this reserve power to the annual productn of 


the State. We shall not be humiliated in this field. Here we strike the 
secret of our national credit. Nature provides a market in the constant 
appetite of the race. Men must eat, and if we can furnish the provisions 
we can command the treasure. All that a man hath will he give for his 

According to the last census Illinois produced 30,000,000 of bushels 
of wheat. That is more wheat than was raised by any other State in the 
Union. She raised In 1875, 130,000,000 of bushels of corn — twice as 
much as any other State, and one-sixth of all the corn raised in tlie United 
States. She harvested 2,747,000 tons of hay, nearly one-tenth of all the 
hay in the Republic. It is not generally appreciated, but it is true, that 
the hay crop of the country is worth more than the cotton crop. The 
hay of Illinois equals the cotton of Louisiana. Go to Charleston, S. C, 
and see them peddling handfuls of hay or grass, almost as a curiosity, 
as we regard Chinese gods or the cryolite of Greenland ; drink your 
coffee and condensed milk ; and walk back from the coast for many a 
league through- the sand and burs till you get up into the better atmos- 
phere of the mountains, without seeing a waving meadow or a grazing 
herd ; then you will begin to appreciate the meadows of the Prairie State, 
wherg the grass often grows sixteen feet high. 

The value of her farm implements is $211,000,000, and the value of 
her live stock is only second to the great State of New York. in 1875 
she had 25,000,000 hogs, and packed 2,113,845, about one-half of all that 
were packed in the United States. This is no insignificant item. Pork 
is a growing demand of the old world. Since the laborers of Europe 
have gotten a taste of our bacon, and we have learned how to pack it dry 
in boxes, like dry goods, the world has become the market. 

The hog is on the march into the future. His nose is ordained to 
uncover the secrets of dominion, and his feet shall be guided by the star 
of empire. 

Illinois marketed $57,000,000 worth of slaughtered animals — more 
than any other State, and a seventh of all the States. 

Be patient with me, and pardon my pride, and I will give you a list 
of some of the things in which Illinois excels all other States. 

Depth and richness of soil ; per cent, of good ground ; acres of 
improved land ; large farms — some farms contain from 40,000 to 60,000 
acres of cultivated land, 40,000 acres of corn on a single farm ; number of 
farmers ; amount of wheat, corn, oats and honey produced ; value of ani- 
mals for slaugliter ; number of hogs ; amount of pork ; number of horses 
— three times as many as Kentucky, tlie horse State. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in miles of 
postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, and in the amount of 
lumber sold in her markets. 


Illinois is only second in many importaVit matters. This sample list 
comprises a few of the more important : Permanent school fund (good 
for a young state) ; total income for educational purposes ; number of pub- 
lishers of books, maps, papers, etc.; value of farm products and imple- 
ments, and of live stock ; in tons of coal mined. 

The shipping of Illinois is only second to New York. Out of one 
port during the business hours of the season of navigation she sends forth 
a vessel every ten minutes. This does not include canal boats, which go 
one every five minutes. No wonder she is only second in number of 
bankers and brokers or in physicians and surgeons. 

She is third in colleges, teachers and schools; cattle, lead, hay, 
flax, sorglium and beeswax. 

She is fourth in population, }'n children enrolled in public schools, in 
law schools, in butter, potatoes and carriages. 

She is fifth in value of real and personal property, in theological 
seminaries and colleges exclusively for women, in milk sold, and in boots 
and shoes manufactured, and in book-binding. 

She is only seventh in the production of wood, while she is the 
twelfth in area. Surely that is well done for the Prairie State. She now 
has much more wood and growing timber than she had thirty years ago. 

A few leading industries will justify empliasis. She manufactures 
$■205,000,000 worth of goods, which places her well up toward New York 
and Pennsylvania. The number of her manufacturing establishments 
increased from 1860 to 1870, oOO per cent.; capital employed increased 350 
per cent., and the amount of product increased 400 per cent. She issued 
5,500,000 copies of commercial and financial newspapers — only second to 
New York. She has 6,759 miles of railroad, thus leading all other States, 
worth $636,458,000, using 3,245 engines, and 67,712 cars, making a train 
long enough to cover one-tenth of the entire roads of the State. Her 
stations are only five miles apart. She carried last year 15,795,000 passen- 
gers, an average of 36^ miles, or equal to taking her entire population twice 
across the State. More than two-thirds of her land is within five miles of 
a railroad, and less than two per cent, is more than fifteen miles away. 

The State has a large financial interest in the Illinois Central railroad. 
The road was incorporated in 1850, and the State gave each alternate sec- 
tion for six miles on each side, and doubled the price of the remaining 
land, so keephig herself good. The road received 2,595,000 acres of land, 
and pays to the State one-seventh of the gross receipts. The State 
receives this year $350,000, and has received in all about $7,000,000. It 
is practically the people's road, and it has a most able and gentlemanly 
management. Add to this the annual receipts from the canal, $111,000, 
and a large per cent, of the State tax is provided for. 



of the State keep step with her productions and growth. She was born 
of the missionary spirit. It was a minister who secured for her the ordi- 
nance of 1787, by which she has been saved from slavery, ignorance, and 
dishonesty. Rev^ Mr. Wiley, pastor of a Scotch congregation in Randolph 
County, petitioned the Constitutional Convention of 1818 to recognize 
Jesus Christ as king, and the Scriptures as the only necessary guide and 
book of law. The convention did not act in the case, and the old Cove- 
nanters refused to accept citizenship. They never voted until 1824, when 
the slavery question was submitted to the people; then they all voted 
against it and cast the determining votes. Conscience has predominated 
wljenever a great moral question has been submitted to the people. 

But little mob violence has ever been felt in the State. In 1817 
regulators disposed of a band of horse-thieves that infested the territory. 
The Mormon indignities finally awoke the same spirit. Alton was also 
the scene of a pro-slavery mob, in which Lovejoy was added to the list of 
martyrs. The moral sense of the people makes the law supreme, and gives 
to the State unruffled peace. 

With $22,300,000 in church property, and 4,298 church organizations, 
the State has that divine police, the sleepless patrol of moral ideas, that 
alone is able to secure perfect safety. Conscience takes the knife from 
the assassin's hand and the bludgeon from the grasp of the highwayman. 
We sleep in safety, not because we are behind bolts and bars — these only 
fence against the innocent ; not because a lone officer drowses on a distant 
corner of a street; not because a sheriff may call his posse from a remote 
part of the county ; but because conscience guards the very portals of the 
air and stirs in the deepest recesses of the public mind. This spirit issues 
within the State 9,500,000 copies of religious papers annually, and receives 
still more from without. Thus the crime of the State is only one-fourth 
that of New York and one-half that of Pennsylvania. 

Illinois never had but one duel between her own citizens. In Belle- 
ville, in 1820, Alphonso Stewart and William Bennett arranged to vindi- 
cate injured honor. The seconds agreed to make it a sham, and make 
them shoot blanks. Stewart was in the secret. Bennett mistrusted some- 
thing, and, unobserved, slipped a bullet into his gun and killed Stewart. 
He then lied the State. After two years he was caught, tried, convicted, 
and, in spite of friends and political aid, was hung. This fixed the code 
of honor on a Christian basis, and terminated its use in Illinois. 

Tiie early preachers were ignorant men, who were accounted eloquent 
according to the strength of their voices. But they set the style for all 
public speakers. Lawyers and political speakers followed this rule. Gov. 


Ford says: "Nevertheless, these first preachers wore of incalculable 
l)enefit to the country. They inculciited justice and morality. To them 
are we indebted for the first Christian character of the Protestant portion 
of the people." 

In education Illinois surpasses her material resources. The ordinance 
of 1787 consecrated one thirty -sixth of her soil to common scliools, and 
the law of 1818, the first law that went upon her statutes, gave three per 
cent, of all the rest to 


The old compact secures this interest forever, and by its yoking 
raoralit}'- and intelligence it precludes the legal interference with the Bible 
in the public schools. With stich a start it is natural that we should have 
11,050 schools, and that our illiteracy should be less than New York or 
Pennsylvania, and only about one-half of Massachusetts. We are not to 
blame for not having more than one-half as many idiots as the great 
States. These public schools soon made colleges inevitable. The first 
college, still flourishing, was started in Lebanon in 1828, by the M. E. 
church, and named after Bishop McKendree. Illinois College, at Jackson- 
ville, supported b}^ the Presbyterians, followed in 1830. In 1832 the Bap- 
tists built Shurtleff College, at Alton. Then the Presbyterians built Knox 
College, at Galesburg, in 1838, and the Episcopalians built Jubilee College, 
at Peoria, in 1847. After these early years colleges have rained down. 
A settler could hardly encamp on the prairie but a college would spring 
up by his wagon. The State now has one very well endowed and equipped 
university, namely, the Northwestern University, at Evanston, with six 
colleges, ninety instructors, over 1,000 students, and $1,500,000 endow- 

Rev. J. M. Peck was the first educated Protestant minister m tne 
State. He settled at Rock Spring, in St. Clair County, 1820, and left his 
impress on the State. Before 1837 only party papers were published, but 
Mr. Peck published a Gazetteer of Illinois. Soon after John Russell, of 
Bluffdale, published essays and tales showing genius. Judge James Hall 
publislied The Illinois Monthly Magazine with great ability, and an annual 
called The Western Souvenir^ which gave him an enviable fame all over thie 
United States. From these beginnings Illinois has gone on till she has 
more volumes in public libaaries even than Massachusetts, and of the 
44,500,000 volumes in all the public libraries of the United States, she 
has one-thirteenth. In newspapers she stands fourth. Her increase is 
marvelous. In 1850 she issued 5,000,000 copies ; in 1860, 27,590,000 ; in 
1870, 113,140,000. In 1860 she had eighteen colleges and seminaries; in 
1870 she had eighty. That is a grand advance for the war decade. 

This brings us to a record unsurpassed in the history of any age, 



I hardly know where to begin, or how to advance, or what to say. I 
can at best give you only a broken S3'nopsis of her deeds, and you must 
put them in the order of glory for yourself. Her sons have always been 
foremost on fields of danger. In 1832-33, at the call of Gov. Reynolds, 
her sons drove Blackhawk over the Mississippi. 

When the Mexican war came, in May, 1846, 8,370 men offered them- 
selves when only 3,720 could be accepted. The fields of Buena Vista and 
Vera Cruz, and the storming of Cerro Gordo, will carry the glory of Illinois 
soldiers along after the infamy of the cause they served has been forgotten. 
But it was reserved till our day for her sons to find a field and cause and 
foemen that could fitly illustrate their spirit and heroism. Illinois put 
into her own regiments for the United States government 256,000 men, 
and into the army through other States enough to swell the number to 
290,000. This far exceeds all the soldiers of the federal government in 
all the war of the revolution. Her total years of service were over 600,000. 
She enrolled men from eighteen to forty-five 3^ears of age when the law 
of Congress in 1864 — the test time — only asked for those from twenty to 
forty-five. Her enrollment was otherwise excessive. Her people wanted 
to go, and did not take the pains to correct the enrollment. Thus the 
basis of fixing the quota was too great, and then the quota itself, at least 
in the trying time, was far above any other State. 

Thus the demand on some counties, as Monroe, for example, took every 
able-bodied man in the county, and then did not have enough to fill the 
quota. Moreover, Illinois sent 20,844 men for ninety or one hundred days, 
for whom no credit was asked. When Mr. Lincoln's attention was called 
to tlie inequality of the quota compared with other States, he replied, 
" The country needs the sacrifice. We must put the whip on the free 
horse.'' In spite of all these disadvantages Illinois gave to the country 
73,000 years of service above all calls. With one-thirteenth of the popu- 
lation of the loyal States, she sent regularly one-tenth of all the soldiers, 
and in the peril of the closing calls, when patriots were few and weary, 
she then sent one-eighth of all that wer.3 called for by her loved and hon- 
ored son in the wliite house. Her mothers and daughters went into the 
fields to raise the grain and keep the children together, while the fathers 
and older sons went to the harvest fields of the world. I knew a father 
and four sons who agreed that one of them must stay at home ; and they 
pulled straws from a stack to see who might go. The father was left. 
The next day he came into the camp, saying : " Mother says "she can get 
the crops in, and I am going, too." I know large Methodist churches 
from which every male member went to the army. Do you want to know 


what these heroes from Illinois did in the field ? Ask any soldier with a 
good record of his own, who is thus able to judge, and he will tell you 
that the Illinois men went in to win. It is common history that the greater 
victories were won in the West. When everything else looked dark Illi- 
nois was gaining victories all down the river, and dividing the confederacy. 
Sherman took with him on his great march forty-five regiments of Illinois 
infantry, three companies of artillery, and one company of cavalry. He 
could not avoid 


If he liad been killed, I doubt not the men would have gone right on. 
Lincoln answered all rumors of Sherman's defeat with, " It is impossible ; 
there is a mighty sight of fight in 100,000 Western men." Illinois soldiers 
brouglit home 300 battle-flags. The first United States flag that floated 
over Richmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and nurses to 
every field and hospital, to care for her sick and wounded sons. She said, 
'' These suffering ones are my sons, and I will care for them." 

When individuals had given all, then cities and towns came forward 
with their credit to the extent of many millions, to aid these men and 
their families. 

Illinois gave the country the great general of the war — Ulysses S. 
Grant — since honored with two terms of the Presidency of the United 

One other name from Illinois comes up in all minds, embalmed in all 
hearts, that must have the supreme place in this story of our glory and 
of our nation's honor ; that name is Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois. 

The analysis of Mr. Lincoln's character is difficult on account of its 

In this age we look with admiration at his uncompromising honesty. 
And well Ave may, for this saved us. Thousands throughout the length 
and breadth of our country who knew him only as " Honest Old Abe,*' 
voted for him on that account ; and wisely did they choose, for no other 
man could have carried us through the fearful niglit of the war. When 
his plans were too vast for our comprehension, and his faith in the cause 
too sublime for our participation ; when it was all night about us, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us ; when not one ray 
shone upon our cause ; when traitors were haughty and exultant at the 
South, and fierce and blasphemous at the North ; when the loyal men here 
seemed alinost in the minority ; when the stoutest heart quailed, the bravest 
cheek paled ; when generals were defeating each other for place, and 
contractors were leeching out the very heart's blood of the prostrate 
republic: when every thing else had failed us, we looked at this calm 
patient man standing like a rock in the storm, and said: "Mr. Linfnin 


is honest, and we can trust him still." Holding to this single point with 
the energy of faith and despair we held together, and, under God, he 
brought MS through to victory. 

His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With such 
certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate effects, that his 
foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic. 

He is radiant with all the great virtues, and his memory shall shed a 
glory upon this age that shall fill the eyes of men as they look into his- 
tory. Other men have excelled him in some point, but, taken at all 
points, all in all, he stands head and shoulders above every other man of 
6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the perils of 
unparalleled civil war. A statesman, he justified his measures by their 
success. A philanthropist, he gave liberty to one race and salvation to 
another. A moralist, he bowed from the summit of human power to the 
foot of the Cross, and became a Christian. A mediator, he exercised mercy 
under the most absolute abeyance to law. A leader, he was no partisan. 
A commander, he was untainted with blood. A ruler in desperate times, 
he was unsullied with crime. A man, he has left no word of passion, no 
thought of malice, no trick of craft, no act of jealousy, no purpose of 
selfish ambition. Thus perfected, without a model, and without a peer, 
he was dropped into these troubled years to adorn and embellish all that 
is good and all that is great in our humanity, and to present to all coming 
time tlie representative of the divine idea of free government. 

It is not too much to say that away down in the future, when the 
republic has fallen from its niche in the wall of time ; when the great 
war itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the horizon; 
when the Anglo-Saxon language shall be spoken only by the tongue of 
the stranger ; then the generations looking this way shall see the great 
president as the supreme figure in this vortex of history 


It is impossible in our brief space to give more than a meager sketch 
of such a city as Chicago, which is in itself the greatest marvel of the 
Prairie State. This mysterious, majestic, mighty city, born first of water, 
and next of fire ; sown in weakness, and raised in power ; planted among 
the willows of the marsh, and crowned with the glory of the mountains ; 
sleeping on the bosom of the prairie, and rocked on the bosom of the sea; 
the youngest city of the world, and still the eye of the prairie, as Damas- 
cus, the oldest city of the world, is the eye of the desert. Witli a com- 
merce far exceeding that of Corinth on her isthmus, in the highway to 
the East ; with the defenses of a continent piled around her b}' the thou- 
sand miles, making her far safer than Rome on the banks of the Tiber ; 






with schools eclipsing Alexandria and Alliens ; with liberties more con- 
spicuous than those of the old republics ; with a heroism equal to the first 
Cartilage, and with a sanctity scarcely second to that of Jerusalem — set 
your thoughts on all this, lifted into the eyes of all men by the miracle of 
its growtli, illuminated by the flame of its fall, and transfigured by the 
divinity of its resurrection, and you will feel, as I do, the utter impossi- 
bility of compassing this subject as it deserves. Some impression of her 
importance is received from the shock her burning gave to the civilized 

When the doubt jof her calamity was removed, and the horrid fact 
was accepted, there went a shudder over all cities, and a quiver over all 
lands. There was scarcely a town in the civilized world that did not 
shake on the brink of this opening chasm. The flames of our homes red- 
dened all skies. The city was set upon a hill, and could not be hid. All 
eyes were turned upon it. To have struggled and sufl'ered amid the 
scenes of its fall is as distinguishing as to have fought at Thermopylae, or 
Salamis, or Hastings, or Waterloo, or Banker Hill. 

Its calamity amazed the world, because it was felt to be the common 
property of mankind. 

The early histor}^ of the city is full of interest, just as the earh^ his- 
tory of such a man as Washington or Lincoln becomes jjublic property, 
and is cherished by every patriot. 

Starting with 560 acres in 1833, it embraced and occupied 23,000 
acres in 1869, and, having now a population of more than 500,000, it com- 
mands general attention. 

The first settler — Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a mulatto from the 
West Indies — came and began trade with the Indians in 1796. John 
Kinzie became his successor in 180-1, in which year Fort Dearborn was 

A mere trading-post was kept here from that time till about the time 
of the Blackhawk war, in 1832, It was not the city. It was merely a 
cock crowing at midnight. The morning was not yet. In 1833 the set- 
tlement about the fort was incorporated as a town. The voters were 
divided on the propriety of such corporation, twelve voting for it and one 
against it. Four years later it was incorporated as a citjs and embraced 
660 acres. 

The produce handled in this city is an indication of its power. Grain 
and flour were imported from the East till as late as 1837. The first 
exportation by way of experiment was in 1839. Exports exceeded imports 
first in 1812. The Board of Trade was organized in 1848, but it was so 
weak that it needed nursing till 1855. Grain was purchased by the 
wagon-load in the street. 

I remember sitting with my father on a load of wheat, in the long 


line of wagons along Lake street, while the buyers came and untied the 
bags, and examined the grain, and made their bids. That manner of 
business had to cease with the day of small things. Now our elevalois 
will hold 15,000,000 bushels of grain. The cash value of the produce 
handled in a year is $215,000,000, and the produce weighs 7,000,000 
tons or 700,000 car loads. This handles thirteen and a half ton eacli 
minute, all the year round. One tenth of all the wheat in the United 
States is handled in Chicago. Even as long ago as 1853 the receipts of 
grain in Chicago exceeded those of the goodly city of St. Louis, and in 
1854 the exports of grain from Chicago exceeded those of New York and 
doubled those of St. Petersburg, Archangel, or Odessa, the largest grain 
markets in Europe. 

The manufacturing interests of the city are not contemptible. In 
1873 manufactories employed 45,000 operatives ; in 1876, 60,000. The 
manufactured product in 1875 was worth $177,000,000. 

No estimate of the size and power of Chicago would be adequate 
that did not put large emphasis on the railroads. Before they came 
thundering along our streets canals were the hope of our country. But 
who ever thinks now of traveling by canal packets ? In June, 1852, 
there were only forty miles of railroad connected with the city. The 
old Galena division of the Northwestern ran out to Elgin. But now, 
who can count the trains and measure the roads that seek a terminus or 
connection in this city? The lake stretches away to the north, gathering 
in to this center all the harvests that might otherwise pass to tlie north 
of us. If you will take a map and look at the adjustment of railroads, 
you will see, first, that Chicago is the great railroad center of the world, 
as New York is the commercial city of this continent ; and, second, that 
the railroad lines form the iron spokes of a great wheel whose hub is 
this city. The lake furnishes the only break in the spokes, and this 
seems simply to have pushed a few spokes together on each shore. See 
the eighteen trunk lines, exclusive of eastern connections. 

Pass round the circle, and view their numbers and extent. There 
is the great Northwestern, with all its branches, one branch creeping 
along the lake shore, and so reaching to the north, into the Lake Superior 
regions, away to the right, and on to the Northern Pacific on the left, 
swinging around Green Bay for iron and copper and silver, twelve months 
in the year, and reaching out for the wealth of the great agricultural 
belt and isothermal line traversed by the Northern Pacific. Another 
branch, not so far north, feeling for the heart of the Badger State. 
Another pushing lower down the Mississippi — all these make many con- 
nections, and tapping all the vast wheat regions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, and all the regions this side of sunset. There is that elegant road, 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, running out a goodly number of 






branches, and reaping the great fields this side of the Missouri River. 
I can only mention the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis, our Illinois Central, 
described elsewhere, and the Chicago & Rock Island. Further around 
we come to the lines connecting us with all the eastern cities. The 
Chicago, Indianapolis & St. Louis, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago, tlie Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Michigan Cen- 
tral and Great Western, give us many highways to the seaboard. Thus we 
reach the Mississippi at five points, from St. Paul to Cairo and the Gulf 
itself by two routes. We also reach Cincinnati and Baltimore, and Pitts- 
burgh and Phikaflelphia, and New York. North and south run the water 
courses of the hikes and the rivers, broken just enough at this point to 
make a pass. Through this, from east to west, run the long lines that 
stretch from ocean to ocean. 

This is the neck of the glass, and the golden sands of commerce 
must pass into our hands. Altogether we have more than 10,000 miles 
of railroad, directly tributary to this city, seeking to unload their wealth 
in our coffers. All these roads have come themselves by the infallible 
instinct of capital. Not a dollar was ever given by the city to secure 
one of them, and only a small per cent, of stock taken originally by her 
citizens, and that taken simply as an investment. Coming in the natural 
order of events, they will not be easily diverted. 

There is still another showing to all this. The connection between 
New York and San Francisco is by the middle route. This passes inevit- 
ablv through Chica^ro. St. Louis wants the Southern Pacific or Kansas 
Pacific, and pushes it out through Denver, and so on up to Cheyenne. 
But before the road is fairly under way, the Chicago roads shove out to 
Kansas City, making even the Kansas Pacific a feeder, and actually leav- 
ing St. Louis out in the cold. It is not too much to expect that Dakota, 
Montana, and Washington Territory will find their great market in Chi- 

But these are not all. Perhaps I had better notice here the ten or 
fifteen new roads that have just entered, or are just entering, our city. 
Their names are all that is necessary to give. Chicago & St. Paul, look- 
ing up the Red River country to the British possessions ; the Chicago, 
Atlantic & Pacific ; the Chicago, Decatur & State Line ; the Baltimore & 
Ohio; the Chicago, Danville & Vincennes; the Chicago & LaSalle Rail- 
road ; the Chicago, Pittsburgh & Cincinnati ; the Chicago and Canada 
Southern ; the Chicago and Illinois River Railroad. These, with their 
connections, and with the new connections of the old roads, already in 
process of erection, give to Chicago not less than 10,000 miles of new 
tributaries from the richest land on the continent. Thus there will be 
added to the reserve power, to the capital within reach of this city, not 
less than $1,000,000,000. 


Add to all this transporting power the ships that sail one every nine 
minutes of the business hours of the season of navigation ; add, also, the 1 
canal boats that leave one every five minutes during the same time — and 
you will see something of the business of the city. 


has been leaping along to keep pace with the growth of the country ] 
around us. In 1852, our commerce reached the hopeful sum of . 
$20,000,000. In 1870 it reached $400,000,000. In 1871 it was pushed ! 
up above $450,000,000. And in 1875 it touched nearly double that. I 

One-half of our imported goods come directly to Chicago. Grain ] 
enough is exported directly from our docks to the old world to employ a ' 
semi-weekly line of steamers of 3,000 tons capacity. This branch is 
not likely to be greatly developed. Even after the great Welland Canal 
is completed we shall have only fourteen feet of water. The great ocean 
vessels will continue to control the trade. 

The banking capital of Chicago is 824,431,000. Total exchange in 
1875, $659,000,000. Her wholesale business in 1875 was $294,000,000. 
The rate of taxes is less than in any other great city. 

The schools of Chicago are unsurpassed in America. Out of a popu- 
lation of 300,000 there were only 186 persons between the ages of six 
and twenty-one unable to read. This is the best known record. 

In 1831 the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who went 
on foot to Niles, Mich., once in two weeks, and brought back what papers 
and news he could find. As late as 1846 there was often only one mail 
a week. A post-office was established in Chicago in 1833, and the post- 
master nailed up old boot-legs on one side of his shop to serve as boxes 
for the nabobs and literary men. 

It is an interesting fact in the growth of the young city that in the 
active life of the business men of that day the mail matter has grown to 
a daily average of over 6,500 pounds. It speaks equally well for the 
intelligence of the people and the commercial importance of the place, 
that the mail matter distributed to the territory immediately tributary to 
Chicago is seven times greater tliau that distributed to the territory 
immediately tributary to St. Louis. 

The improvements that have characterized the city are as startling 
as the city itself. In 1831, Mark Beaubien established a ferry over the 
river, and put himself under bonds to carry all the citizens free for the 
privilege of charging strangers. Now there are twenty-four large bridges 
and two tunnels. 

In 1833 the government expended $30,000 on the harbor. Then 
commenced that series of manoeuvers with the river that has made it one 


of the world's curiosities. It used to wind around in the lower end of 
the town, and make its way rippling over the sand into the lake at the 
foot of Madison street. They took it up and put it down wliere it now 
is. It was a narrow stream, so narrow that even moderately small crafts 
had to go up through the willows and cat's tails to the point near Lake 
street bridge, and back up one of the branches to get room enough in 
which to tui-n around. 

In 1844 the quagmires in the streets were first pontooned by plank 
roads, which acted in wet weather as public squirt-guns. Keeping you 
out of the mud, tliey compromised by squirting the mud over you. The 
wooden-block pavements came to Chicago in 1857. In 1840 water was 
delivered by peddlers in carts or by hand. Then a twenty-five horse- 
power engine pushed it through hollow or bored logs along the streets 
till 1854, when it was introduced into the houses by new works. The 
first fire-engine was used in 1835, and the first steam fire-engine in 1859. 
Gas was utilized for lighting the city in 1850. The Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association was organized in 1858, and horse railroads carried them 
to their work in 1859. The museum was opened in 1863. The alarm 
telegrapli adopted in 1864. The opera-house built in 1865. The city 
grew from 560 acres in 1833 to 23,000 in 1869. In 1834, the taxes 
amounted to $48.90, and the trustees of the town borrowed 160 more for 
opening and improving streets. In 1835, the legislature authorized a loan 
of $2,000, and the treasurer and street commissioners resigned rather than 
plunge the town into such a gulf. 

Now the city embraces 36 square miles of territory, and has 30 miles 
of water front, besides the outside harbor of refuge, of 400 acres, inclosed 
by a crib sea-wall. One-third of the city has been raised up an average 
of eight feet, giving good pitch to the 263 miles of sewerage. The water 
of the city is above all competition. It is received through two tunnels 
extending to a crib in the lake two miles from shore. The closest analy- 
sis fails to detect any impurities, and, received 35 feet below the surface, 
it is always clear and cold. The first tunnel is five feet two inches in 
diameter and two miles long, and can deliver 50,000,000 of gallons per 
day. The second tunnel is seven feet in diameter and six miles long, 
running four miles under the city, and can deliver 100,000,000 of gal- 
lons per day. This water is distributed through 410 miles of water- 

The three grand engineering exploits of the city are : First, lifting 
the city up on jack-screws, whole squares at a time, without interrupting 
the business, thus giving us good drainage ; second, running the tunnels 
under the lake, giving us the best water in the world ; and third, the 
turning the current of the river in its own channel, delivering us from the 
old abominations, and making decency possible. They redound about 


equally to the credit of the engineering, to the energy of the people, and 
to the health of the city. 

That which really constitutes the city, its indescribable spirit, its soul, 
the way it lights up in every feature in the hour of action, has not been 
touched. In meeting strangers, one is often surprised how some homely 
women marry so well. Their forms are bad, their gait uneven and awk- 
ward, their complexion is dull, their features are misshapen and mismatch- 
ed, and when we see them there is no beauty that we should desire them. 
But when once they are aroused on some subject, they put on new pro- 
portions. They light up into great power. The real person comes out 
from its unseemly ambush, and captures us at will. They have power. 
They have ability to cause things to come to pass. We no longer wonder 
why they are in such high demand. So it is with our city. 

There is no grand scenery except the two seas, one of water, the 
other of prairie. Nevertheless, there is a spirit about it, a push, a breadth, 
a power, that soon makes it a place never to be forsaken. One soon 
ceases to believe in impossibilities. Balaams are the only prophets that are 
disappointed. The bottom that has been on the point of falling out has 
been there so long that it has grown fast. It can not fall out. It has all 
the capital of the world itching to get inside the corporation. 

The two great laws that govern the growth and size of cities are, 
first, the amount of territory for which they are the distributing and 
receiving points ; second, the number of medium or moderate dealers that 
do this distributing. Monopolists build up themselves, not the cities.' 
They neither eat, wear, nor live in proportion to their business. Both 
these laws help Chicago. 

The tide of trade is eastward — not up or down the map, but across 
the map. The lake runs up a wingdam for 500 miles to gather in the 
business. Commerce can not ferry up there for seven months in the year, 
and the facilities for seven months can do the work for twelve. Then the 
great region west of us is nearly all good, productive land. Dropping 
south into the trail of St. Louis, you fall into vast deserts and rocky dis- 
tricts, useful in holding the world together. St. Louis and Cincinnati, 
instead of rivaling and hurting Chicago, are her greatest sureties of 
dominioi. They are far enough away to give sea-room, — farther off than 
Paris is from London, — and yet they are near enough to prevent the 
springing up of any other great city between them. 

St. Louis will be helped by the opening of the Mississippi, but also 
hurt. That will put New Orleans on her feet, and with a railroad running 
over into Texas and so West, she will tap the streams that now crawl up 
the Texas and Missouri road. The current is East, not North, and a sea- 
port at New Orleans can not permanently help St. Louis. 

Chicago is in the field almost alone, to handle the wealth of one- 


fourth of the territory of this great republic. This strip of seacoast 
divides its margins between Portland, Boston, New York, Philadelpliia, 
Baltimore and Savannah, or some other great port to be created for the 
South in the next decade. But Chicago has a dozen empires casting their 
treasures into her lap. On a bed of coal that can run all the machinery 
of the world for 500 centuries ; in a garden that can feed the race by the 
thousand years; at the head of the lakes that give her a temperature as a 
summer resort equaled by no great city in the land ; with a climate tliat 
insures the health of her citizens ; surrounded l)y all the great deposits 
of natural wealth in mines aud forests and herds, Chicago is the wonder 
of to-day, and will be the city of the future. 


During the war of 1812, Fort Dearborn became the theater of stirring 
events. The garrison consisted of fifty-four men under command of 
Captain Nathan Heald, assisted by Lieutenant Helm (son-in-law of Mrs. 
Kinzie) and Ensign Ronan. Dr. Voorhees was surgeon. The only resi- 
dents at the post at that time were the wives of Captain Heald and Lieu- 
tenant Helm, and a few of the soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and 
a few Canadian voyageurs^ with their wives and children. The soldiers 
and Mr. Kinzie were on most friendly terms with the Pottawattamies 
and Winnebagos, the principal tribes around them, but they could not 
win them from their attachment to the British. 

One evening in April, 1812, Mr. Kinzie sat playing on his violin and 
his children were dancing to the music, when Mrs. Kinzie came rushing 
into the house, pale with terror, and exclaiming : " The Indians ! the 
Indians!" "What? Where?" eagerly inquired Mr. Kinzie. "Up 
at Lee's, killing and scalping," answered the frightened mother, who, 
when the alarm was given, was attending Mrs. Barnes (just confined) 
living not far off. Mr. Kinzie and his family crossed the river and took 
refuge in the fort, to which place Mrs. Barnes and her infant not a day 
old were safely conveyed. The rest of the inhabitants- took shelter in the 
fort. This alarm was caused by a scalping party of Winnebagos, who 
hovered about the fort several days, when they disappeared, and for several 
weeks the inhabitants were undisturbed. 

On the 7th of August, 1812, General Hull, at Detroit, sent orders to 
Captain Heald to evacuate Fort Dearborn, aud to distribute all the United 
States property to the Indians in the neighborhood — a most insane order. 
The Pottawattamie chief, who brought the dispatch, had more wisdom 
than the commanding general. He advised Captain Heald not to make 
the distribution. Said he : " Leave the fort and stores as they are, and 
let the Indians make distribution for themselves ; and while they are 
engaged in the business, the white people may escape to Fort AVayne." 


Captain Heald held a council with the Indians on the afternoon ot 
the 12th, in which his officers refused to join, for they had been informed 
that treachery was designed — that the Indians intended to murder the 
white people in the council, and then destroy those in the fort. Captain 
Heald, however, took the precaution to open a port-hole displayin*' a 
cannon pointing directly upon the council, and by that means saved 
his life. 

Mr. Kinzie, who knew the Indians well, begged Captain Heald not 
to confide in their promises, nor distribute the arms and munitions araonc 
them, for it would only put power into their hands to destroy the whites. 
Acting upon this advice, Heald resolved to withhold the munitions of 
war ; and on the night of the 13th, after the distribution of the other 
property had been made, the powdef, ball and liquors were thrown into 
the river, the muskets broken up and destroyed. 

Black Partridge, a friendly chief, came to Captain Heald, and said : 
" Linden birds have been singing in my ears to-day: be careful on the 
march you are going to take." On that dark night vigilant Indians had 
crept near the fort and discovered the destruction of their promised booty 
going on within. The next morning the powder was seen floating on the 
surface of the river. The savages were exasperated and made loud com- 
plaints and threats. 

On the following day when preparations were making to leave the 
fort, and all the inmates were deeply impressed with a sense of impend- 
ing danger, Capt. Wells, an uncle of Mrs. Heald, was discovered upon 
the Indian trail among the sand-hills on the borders of the lake, not far 
distant, with a band of mounted Miamis, of whose tribe he was chief, 
having been adopted by the famous Miami warrior, Little Turtle. Wlien 
news of Hull's surrender reached Fort Wayne, he had started with this 
force to assist Heald in defending Fort Dearborn. He was too late. 
Every means for its defense had been destroyed the night before, and 
arrangements were made for leaving the fort on the morning of the 15th. 

It was a warm bright morning in the middle of August. Indications 
were positive that the savages intended to murder the white people ; and 
when they moved out of the southern gate of the fort, the march was 
like a funeral procession. The band, feeling the solemnity of the occa- 
sion, struck up the Dead March in Saul. 

Capt. Wells, who had blackened his face with gun-powder in token 
of his fate, took the lead with his band of Miamis, followed by Capt. 
Heald, with his wife by his side on horseback. Mr. Kinzie hoped by his 
personal influence to avert the impending blow, and therefore accompanied 
them, leaving his family in a boat in charge of a friendly Indian, to be 
taken to his trading station at the site of Niles, Michigan, in the event oi 
his death. 




The procession moved slowly along the lake shore till they reached 
the sand-hills between the prairie and the beach, when the Pottawattamie 
escort, nnder the leadership of Blackbird, filed to the right, placing those 
hills between them and the white people. Wells, with las Miamis, had 
kept in the advance. They suddenly came rushing back, Wells exclaim- 
ing, " They are about to attack us ; form instantly." Tliese words were 
quickly followed by a storm of bullets, which came whistling over the 
little hills which the treacherous savages had made the covert for their 
murderous attack. The white troops charged upon tlie Indians, drove 
them back to the prairie, and then the battle was waged between fiftv- 
four soldiers, twelve civilians and three or four women (the cowardlv 
Miamis having fled at the outset) against five hundred Indian warriors. 
The white people, hopeless, resolved to sell their lives as dearly as possible. 
Ensign Ronan wielded his weapon vigorously, even after falling upon his 
knees weak from the loss of blood. Capt. Wells, who was by the side of 
his niece, Mrs. Heald, when the conflict began, behaved with the greatest 
coolness and courage. He said to her, "■ We have not the slightest chance 
for life. We must part to meet no more in this world. God bless you." 
And then he dashed forward. Seeing a young warrior, painted like a 
demon, climb into a wagon in which were twelve children, and tomahawk 
them all, he cried out, unmindful of his personal danger, " If that is your 
game, butchering women and children, I will kill too." He spurred his 
horse towards the Indian camp, where they had left their s([uaws and 
papooses, hotly pursued by swift-footed young warriors, who sent bullets 
whistling after him. One of tliese killed his horse and wounded him 
severely in the leg. With a yell the young braves rushed to make him 
their prisoner and reserve liim for torture. He resolved not to be made 
a captive, and by the use of the most provoking epithets tried to induce 
them to kill hi^n instantly. He called a fiery young chief a srpiaw, when 
the enraged warrior killed Wells instantly with his tomahawk, jumped 
upon his body, cut out his heart, and ate a portion of the warm morsel 
with savage delight ! 

In this fearful coml)at women bore a conspicuous part. Mrs. Heald 
was an excellent equestrian and an expert in the use of the rifle. She 
fought the savages bravely, receiving several severe wounds. Though 
faint from the loss of blood, she managed to keep her saddle. A savage 
raised his tomahawk to kill her, when she looked him full in the face, 
and with a sweet smile and in a gentle voice said, in his own language, 
" Surely you will not kill a squaw ! " The arm of the savage fell, and 
the life of the heroic woman was saved. 

Mrs. Helm, the step-daughter of Mr. Kinzie, had an encounter with 
a stout Indian, who attempted to tomahawk her. Springing to one side, 
she received the glancing blow on her shoulder, and at the same instant 


seized the savage round the neck with her arms and endeavored to get 
hold of his scalping knife, which hung in a sheath at his breast. While 
she was thus struggling she was dragged from lier antagonist by another 
powerful Indian, who bore her, in spite of her struggles, to the margin 
of the lake and plunged her in. To her astonishment she was held by 
him so that she would not drown, and she soon perceived tliat she was 
in the hands of the friendly Black Partridge, Avho had saved her life. 

The wife of Sergeant Holt, a large and powerful woman, behaved as 
bravely as an Amazon. She rode a fine, high-spirited horse, which the 
Indians coveted, and several of them attacked her with the butts of their 
guns, for the purpose of dismounting her ; but she used tlie sword wliich 
she had snatched from her disabled husband so skillfully that she foiled 
them; ami, suddenly wheeling her horse, she dashed over the prairie, 
followed by the savages shouting, '' Tiie brave woman ! the brave woman ! 
Don't hurt her ! " They finally overtook her, and while she was fighting 
them in front, a powerful savage came up behind her, seized her by the 
neck and dragged her to the ground. Horse and woman were made 
captives. Mrs. Holt was a long time a captive among the Indians, but 
was afterwards ransomed. 

In this sharp conflict two-thirds of the white people were slain and 
wounded, and all their horses, baggage and provision were lost. Only 
twenty-eight straggling men now remained to fight five hundred Indians 
rendered furious by the sight of blood. They succeeded in breaking 
throuoh the ranks of the murderers and gaining a slight eminence on the 
prairie near the Oak Woods. The Indians did not pursue, but gathered 
on their flanks, while the chiefs held a consultation on the sand-hills, and 
showed signs of willingness to parley. It would have been madness on 
the part of the whites to renew the fight ; and so Capt. Heald went for- 
ward and met Blackbird on the open prairie, where terms of surrender 
were soon agreed upon. It was arranged that the white people should 
give up their arms to Blackbird, and that the survivors should become 
prisoners of war, to be exchanged for ransoms as soon as practicable. 
With this understanding captives and captors started for the Indian 
camp near the fort, to which Mrs. Helm had been taken bleeding and 
suffering b}' Black Partridge, and had met her step-father and learned 
that her husband was safe. 

A new scene of liorror was now opened at the Indian camp. The 
wounded, not being included in the terms of surrender, as it was inter- 
preted by the Indians, and the British general. Proctor, having offered a 
liberal bounty for American scalps, delivered at Maiden, nearl}^ all the 
wounded men were killed and scalped, and the price of the trophies was 
afterwards paid by the British government. 










This celebrated Indian chief, whose portrait appears in this work, 
deserves more than a passing notice. Although Shabbona was not so con- 
spicuous as Tecumseh or Black Hawk, yet in point of merit he was 
superior to either of them. 

Shabbona was born at an Indian village on the Kankakee River, now 
in Will County, about the year ITTo. While young he was made chief of 
the band, and went to Shabbona Grove, now DeKalb County, where they 
were found in the early settlement of the county. 

^r t\i3 '^var of -•?j'2 ^haVb:::.^. -v'^';!" hi? warriors ^clDf^d Tecunn.^eh ■ 


iiid to tliat great chief, and stood by liis side when lie fell at the battle of 
the Thames. At the time of the Winnel)ago Avar, in 1827, he visited almost 
every village among the Pottawatomies, and by his persuasive arguments 
prevented them from taking part in the war. By request of the citizens 
of Chicago, Shabbona, accompanied by Billy Caldwell (Sauganash), visited 
Big Foot's village at Geneva Lake, in order to pacify the warriors, as fears 
were entertained that they were about to raise the tomahawk against the 
whites. Here Shabbona was taken prisoner by Big Foot, and his life 
threatened, but on the following day was set at liberty. From that time 
the Indians (through reproach) styled him " the white man's friend," 
and man}' times his life was endangered. 

Before the Black Hawk war, Shabbona met in cotmcil at two differ- 
ent times, and by his influence prevented his people from taking jjart with 
the Sacs and Foxes. After the death of Black Partridge and Senachwine, 
no chief among the Pottawatomies exerted so much influence as Shabbona. 
Black Hawk, aware of this influence, visited him at two different times, in 
order to enlist him in his cause, but was unsuccessful. While Black Hawk 
was a prisoner at Jefferson Barracks, he said, had it not been for Shabbona 
the whole Pottawatomie nation would have joined his standard, and he 
could have continued the war for years. 

To Shabbona many of the early settlers of Illinois owe the pres- 
ervation of their lives, for it is a well-known fact, had he not notified the 
people of their danger, a large portion of them would have fallen victims 
to the tomahawk of savages. By saving the lives of whites he endangered 
his own, for the Sacs and Foxes threatened to kill him, and made two 
attemjjts to execute their threats. They killed Pypeogee, his son, and 
Pyps, his nephew^ and hunted him down as though he was a wild beast. 

Shabbona had a reservation of two sections of land at his Grove, but 
by leaving it and going west for a short time, the Government declared 
the reservation forfeited, and sold it the same as other vacant land. On 
Shabbona's return, and finding his possessions gone, he was very sad and 
broken down in spirit, and left the Grove for ever. The citizens of Ottawa 
raised money and bought him a tract of land on tlie Illinois River, above 
Seneca, in Grundy County, on which they built a house, and supplied 
him with means to live on. He lived here until his death, which occurred 
on the ITth of July, 1859, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, and was 
buried with great pomp in the cemetery at Morris. His squaw, Pokanoka, 
was drowned in Mazen Creek, Grundy County, on the 30th of November, 
1864, and was buried by his side. 

In 1861 subscriptions were taken up in many of the river towns, to 
erect a monument over the remains of Shabbona, but the war breaking 
out, the enterprise was abandoned. Only a jjlain marble slab marks the 
resting-place of this friend of the white man. 

Abstract of Illinois State Laws. 


No promissory note^ check, draft, hill of exchange, order, or note, negO' 
tiahle instrument payable at sight, or on demand, or on presentment, shall 
be entitled to days of grace. All other bills of exchange, drafts or notes are 
entitled to three days of grace. All the above mentioned paper falling 
due on Sunday, New Years'' Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas, or any- 
day appointed or recommended by the President of the United States or 
the Governor of the State as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed 
as due on the day previous, and should two or more of these days come 
together, then such instrument shall be treated as due on the day jjrevious 
to the first of said days. No defense can be made against a negotiable 
instrument (^assigned before due') in the hands of the assignee without 
notice, except fraud was used in obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, 
due diligence must be used by suit, in collecting of the maker, unless suit 
would have been unavailing. Notes payable to person named or to order, 
in order to absolutely transfer title, must be indorsed by the payee. Notes 
payable to bearer may be transferred by delivery, and when so payable 
every indorser thereon is held as a guarantor of payment unless otherwise 

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month 
shall be considered a calendar month or twelfth of a year, and for less 
than a month, a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes 
07ily bear interest when so expressed, but after due they draw the legal 
interest, even if not stated. 


The legal rate of interest is six per cent. Parties may agree in writ- 
ing on a rate not exceeding ten per ce7it. If a rate of interest greater 
than ten per cent, is contracted for, it works a forfeiture of the ivhole of 
said interest, and only the principal can be recovered. 


When no will is made, the property of a deceased person is distrib- 
uted as follows : 


First. To his or her children and their descendants in equal parts ; 
the descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking the share of 
their deceased parents in equal parts among them. 

Second. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and 
no widow or surviving husband, then to the parents, brothers and sisters 
of the deceased, and their descendants, in equal parts, the surviving 
parent, if either be dead, taking a double portion ; and if there is no 
parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their 
descendants. • 

Third. When there is a widow or surviving husband, and no child or 
childre7i, or descendants of the same, then one-half of the real estate and 
the whole of the personal estate shall descend to such tvidoiv or surviving 
husband, absolutely, and the other half of the real estate shall descend as 
in other cases where there is no child or children or descendants of the 

Fourth. When there is a ividoiv or surviving husband and also a child 
or children, or descendants of the latter, then one third of all the personal 
estate to the widow or surviving husband absolutely. 

Fifth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or descendants of 
either of them, and no widow or surviving husband, then in equal parts 
to the 7iext of kin to the intestate in equal degree. Collaterals shall not 
be represented except with the descendants of brothers and sisters of the 
intestate, and there shall be no distinction between kindred of the ivhole 
and the half blood. 

Sixth. If any intestate leaves a widoiv or surviving husband and no 
kindred, then to such widozo or surviving husband ; and if there is no such 
widow or surviving husband, it shall escheat to and vest in the county 
where the same, or the greater portion thereof, is situated. 


iVb exact for m of words are necessary in order to make a will good at 
law. Everg male person of the age of tiventy-one years, and eYevy female 
of the age of eighteen years, of sound mind and memory, can make a valid 
will ; it must be in writing, signed by the testator or by some one in his 
or her presence and by his or her direction, and attested by tlvo or more 
credible witnesses. Care should be taken that the witnesses are not inter- 
ested in the will. Persons knoiuing themselves to have been named in the 
ivill or appointed executor, must within thirty days of the death of 
deceased cause the will to be proved and recorded in the proper county, 
or present it, and refuse to accept; on failure to do so are liable to forfeit 
the sum of twenty dollars 'per month. Inventory to be made by executor 
or administraior within three months from date of letters testamentary or 


of administration. Executors' and administrators' compensation not tp 
exceed six per cent, on amount of personal estate, and three per cent, 
on money realized from real estate, "with such additional allowance a;* 
shall be reasonable for extra services. Appraisers compensation $2 pei " 

Notice requiring all claims to be presented against the estate shall l)f 
given by the executor or administrator tvithin six months of being quali- 
fied. Any person having a claim and not presenting it at the time fixed 
by said notice is required to have summons issued notifying the executor 
or administrator of his having filed his claim in court ; in sucli cases the 
costs have to be paid by the claimant. Claims should be filed within two 
gears from the time administration is granted on an estate, as after that 
time they ave forever barred, unless' other estate is found that was not in- 
ventoried. Married women, i)f ants, persons insane, imprisoned or without 
the United States, in the employment of the United States, or of this 
State, have two gears after their disabilities are removed to file claims. 

Claims are classified and paid out of the estate in the following manner : 

First. Funeral expenses. 

Second. The widow's award, if there is a widow ; or children if there 
are children, and no widow. 

Third. Expenses attending the last illness, not including phj^sician's 

Fourth. Debts due the common school or toivnship fund . 

Ffth. All expenses of proving the will and taking out letters testa- 
mentary or administration, and settlement of the estate, and the phgsi- 
cians bill in the last illness of deceased. 

Sixth. Where the deceased has received moneg in trust for any pur- 
pose, his executor or administrator shall pay out of his estate the amount 
received and not accounted for. 

Seventh. All other debts and demands of whatsoever kind, without 
regard to qualitg.or dignitg, which shall be exhibited to the court within 
two gears from the granting of letters. 

Award to Widow and Children, exclusive of debts and legacies or be- 
quests, except funeral expenses : 

First. The familg pictures and ivearing apparel, jewels and ornaments 
of herself and minor children. 

Second. School books and the familg librarg of the value of $100. 

Third. One sewing machine. 

Fourth. Necessarg beds, bedsteads and bedding for herself and family. 

Fifth. The stoves and pipe used in the family, with the necessary 
cooking utensils, or in case they have none, $50 in money. 

Sixth, household and kitchen furniture to the value of •'SIOO. 

Seventh. One milch cow and calf for ev erg four members of her family. 


Eighth. Two sheep for each member of her family, aud the fleeces 
taken from the same, and one horse, saddle and bridle. 

Ninth. Provisions for herself and family for one year. 

Tenth. Food for the stock above specified for six months. 

Eleventh. Fuel for herself and family for three months. 

Twelfth. One hundred dollars worth of other property suited to her 
condition in life, to be selected by the widow. 

The widoiv if she elects may have in lieu of the said award, the same 
personal property or money in place thereof as is or may be exempt from 
execution or attachment against tlie head of a family. 


The owners of real and personal property, on the first day of May in 
each year, are liable for the taxes thereon. 

Assessme7its should be completed before the fourth Monday in June, 
at which time the town board of review meets to examine assessments, 
hear objections, and make such changes as ought to be made. The county 
board have also power to correct or change assessments. 

The tax books are placed in the hands of the town collector on or 
before the tenth day of December, who retains them until the tenth day 
of March following, when he is required to return them to the county 
treasurer, who then collects all delinquent taxes. 

No costs accrue on real estate taxes till advertised, which takes place 
the first day of April, when three weeks' notice is required before judg- 
ment. Cost of advertising, twenty cents each tract of land, and ten cents 
each lot. 

Judgment is usually obtained at May term of County Court. Costs 
six cents each tract of land, and five cents each lot. Sale takes place in 
June. Costs in addition to those before mentioned, twenty-eight cents 
each tract of land, and twenty-seven cents each town lot. 

Meal estate sold for taxes may be redeemed any time before the expi- 
ration of tivo years from the date of sale, by payment to the County Clerk 
of the amount for wliich it was sold and twenty-five per cent, thereon if 
redeemed within six months, fifty per cent, if between six and twelve 
months, if between twelve and eighteen months seventy-five per cent., 
and if between eighteen months and two years one hundred per cent., 
and in addition, all subsequent taxes paid by the purchaser, with ten per 
cent, interest thereon, also one dollar each tract if notice is given by the 
purchaser of the sale, and a fee of twenty-five cents to the clerk for his 


Justices have jurisdiction \n all civil cases on contracts iov the recovery 
of moneys for damages for injury to real property, or taking, detaining, or 


injuring personal property ; for rent; for all cases to recover damages done 
real or personal property by railroad companies, in actions of replevin^ and 
in actions for damages for fraud in the sale, purchase, or exchange of per- 
sonal property, wlien the amount claimed as due is not over $200. They 
have also Jurisdiction in all cases for violation of the ordinances of cities, 
toivns or villages. A justice of the ^^eaeg may orally order an officer or a 
private person to arrest any one committing or attempting to commit a 
criminal offense. He also upon complaint can issue his warrant for the 
arrest of any person accused of having committed a crime, and have him 
brought before him for examination. 


Have jurisdiction in all matters of probate (except in counties having a 
population of one hundred thousand or over), settlement of estates of 
deceased persons, appointment of guardians and conservators, and settle- 
ment of their accounts ; all matters relating to apprentices ; proceedings 
for the collection of taxes and assessments, and in proceedings of executors, 
administrators, guardians and conservators for the sale of real estate. In 
laiv cases they have concurrent jurisdiction with Circuit Courts in all 
cases where justices of the peace now have, or hereafter may have, 
jurisdiction when the amount claimed shall not exceed $1,000, and in all 
criminal offenses where the punishment is not imprisonment in the peni- 
tentiary, or death, and in all cases of appeals from justices of the peace 
and police magistrates; excepting when the county judge is sitting as a 
justice of the peace. Circuit Courts have unlimited jurisdiction. 


Accounts five years. Notes and written contracts ten years. Judg- 
ments twenty years. Partial payments or new promise in writing, within 
or after said period, vfiWrevive the debt. Absence from the State deducted, 
and when the cause of action is barred by the law of another State, it has 
the same effect here. Slander and libel, one year. Personal injuries, two 
years. To recover land or make entry thereon, tiventy years. Action to 
foreclose mortgage or trust deed, or make a sale, within ten years. 

All persons in possession of land, and paying taxes for seven consecu- 
tive years, with color of title, and all persons paying taxes for seven con- 
secutive years, with color of title, on vacant land, shall be held to be the 
legal owners to the extent of their paper title. 


May sue and be sued. Husband and ivife not liable for each other^s debts, 
either before or after marriage, but both are liable for expenses and edu- 
cation of the family. 


She may contract the same an if unmarried^ except that in a partner- 
ship business she can not, without consent of her husband, unless he has 
abandoned or deserted her, or is idiotic or insane, or confined in peniten- 
tiary ; she is entitled and can recover her own earnings, but neither hus- 
band nor wife is entitled to compensation for any services rendered for the 
other. At the death of the husband, in addition to widow's award, a 
married woman has a dower interest (one-third) in all real estate owned 
by her husband after their marriage, and which has not been released by 
her, and the Imsband has the same interest in the real estate of the wife 
at her death. 


Horne worth $1,000, and the following Personal Property : Lot of ground 
and buildings thereon, occupied as a residence by the debtor, being a house- 
holder and having a family, to the value of $1,000. Uxemption continues 
after the death of the householder for the benefit of widow and family, some 
one of them occupying the homestead until youngest child shall become 
twenty-one years of age, and until death of ividow. There is no exemption 
from sale for taxes, assessments, debt or liability incurred for the purchase 
or improvement of said homestead. No release or waiver of exemption is 
valid, unless in writing, and subscribed by such householder and wife (if 
he have one), and acknowledged as conveyances of real estate are required 
to be acknowledged. The following articles of personal property owned 
by the debtor, are exempt from execution, writ of attachment, and distress 
for rent : The necessary loearing apparel. Bibles, school books and family 
pictures of every person ; and, 2d, one hundred dollars worth of other 
property to be selected by the debtor, and, in addition, when the debtor 
is the head of a family and resides with the same, three hundred dollars 
worth of other property to be selected by the debtor ; provided that such 
selection and exemption shall not be made by the debtor or allowed to 
him or her from any money, salary or wages due him or her from any 
person or persons or corporations whatever. 

When the head of a family shall die, desert or not reside with the 
same, the family shall be entitled to and receive all the benefit and priv- 
ileges which are by this act conferred upon the head of a family residing 
with the same. No personal property is exempt from execution when 
judgment is obtained for the wages of laborers or servants. Wages of a 
laborer who is the head of a family can not be garnisheed, except the sum 
due him be in excess of $25. 



To he valid there must he a valid consideration. Special care should 
be taken to have them signed, sealed, delivered, and properly acknowl- 
edged, with the proper seal attached. Witnesses are not required. The 
acknoivledgement must be made in this state, before Master in Chancery, 
Notary Puhlic, United States Co7n,missioner, Circuit or Courity Clerk, Justice 
of Peace, or any Court of Record having a seal, or any Judge, Justice, or 
Clerk of any such Court. When taken before a Notary Puhlic, or United 
States Commissioner, the same shall be attested by his official seal, when 
taken before a Court or the Clerk thereof, the- same shall be attested by 
the seal of sucli Court, and when taken before a Justice of the Peace resid- 
ing out of the county where the real estate to be conveyed lies, there shall 
be added a certificate of the County Clerk under his seal of office, that he 
was a Justice of the Peace in the county at the time of taking the same. 
A deed is good without such certificate attached, but can not be used in 
evidence unless such a certificate is produced or other competent evidence 
introduced. Acknowledgements made out of the state must either be 
executed according to the laws of this state, or there should be attached 
a certificate that it is in conformity with the laws of the state or country 
where executed. Where this is not done the same may be proved by any 
other legal way. Acknowledgments where the Homestead rights are to 
be waived must state as follows : " Including the release and waiver of 
the right of homestead." 

Notaries Puhlic can take acknowledgements any where in the state. 

Sheriffs, if authorized b}^ the mortgagor of real or personal property 
in his mortgage, may sell the property mortgaged. 

In the case of the death of grantor or holder of the equity of redemp- 
tion of real estate mortgaged, or conveyed by deed of trust where equity 
of redemption is waived, and it contains power of sale, must be foreclosed 
in the same manner as a common mortgage in court. 


Horses, mules, asses, neat cattle, swine, sheep, or goats found straying 
at any time during the year, in counties where such animals are not allowed 
to run at large, or between the last day of October and the 15th day of 
April in other counties, the owner thereof heing unknown, may he taken up 
as estrays. 

No person not a householder in the county where estray is found can 
lawfully take up an estray, and then only upon or about his farm or place 
of residence. Estrays should not he used hefore advertised, except animals 
giving milk, which may be milked for their benefit. 


Notices must be posted up within five (5) days in three (3) of the 
most public places in the town or precinct in which estray was found, giv- 
ing the residence of the taker up, and ■ a particular description of the 
estray, its age, color, and marks natural and artificial, and stating before 
what justice of the peace in such town or precinct, and at what time, not 
less than ten (10) nor more than fifteen (15) days from the time of post- 
ing such notices, he will apply to have tlie estray appraised. 

A copy of such notice should be filed by the taker up with the town 
clerk, whose duty it is to enter the same at large, in a book kept by him 
for that purpose. 

If the oivner of estray shall not have appeared and proved ownership, 
and taken the same away, first paying the taker up his reasonable charges 
for taking up, keeping, and advertising the same, the taker np shall appear 
before the justice of the peace mentioned in above mentioned notice, and 
make an affidavit as required by law. 

As the affidavit has to he made before the justice, and all other steps as 
to appraisement, etc., are before him, who is familiar therewith, they are 
therefore omitted here. 

Any person taking up an estray at any other place than about or 
upon his farm or residence, or without complying with the law, shall forfeit 
and pay a fine of ten dollars with costs. 

Ordinary diligence is required in taking care of estrays, but in case 
they die or get away the taker is not liable for the same. 


It is unlawful for any person to kill, or attempt to kill or destroy, in 
any manner, any prairie hen or chicken or woodcock between the 15th day 
of January and the 1st day of September ; or any deer, faivn, ivild-turkey, 
partridge or pheasant between the 1st day of February and the 1st day 
of October ; or any quail between the 1st day of February and 1st day of 
November ; or any wild goose, duck, snipe, brant or other water fowl 
between the 1st day of May and loth day of August in each year. 
Penalty : Fine not less than fo nor more than $25, for each bird or 
animal, and costs of suit, and stand committed to county jail until fine is 
paid, but not exceeding ten days. It is unlaufid to hunt with gun, dog 
or net within the inclosed grounds or lands of another without permission. 
Penalty: Fine not less than $3 nor more than $100, to be paid into 
school fund. 


Whenever any of the following articles shall be contracted for, or 
sold or delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be made to 
the contrary, the weight per bushel shorll be as follows, to-wit : 




Stone Coal, 

- 80 

Buckwheat, - 

- 52 

Unslacked Lime, 

- 80 

Coarse Salt, 

- 50 

Corn ill tlie ear, 

- 70 

Barley, - - - 

- 48 


- 60 

Corn Meal, 

- 48 

Irish Potatoes, 

- 60 

Castor Beans, 

- 46 

White Beans, 

- 60 

Timothy Seed, - 

- 45 

Clover Seed, - 

- 60 

Hemp Seed, - 

- 44 

Onions, _ = _ 

- 57 

Malt, - - - - 

- 38 

Shelled Corn, 

- 56 

Dried Peaches, 

- 33 

Rye, - - - - 

- 56 

Oats, - - - - 

- 32 

Flax Seed, 

- 56 

Dried Apples, 

- 24 

Sweet Potatoes, - 

- 55 

Bran, - - - - 

- 20 


- 55 

Blue Grass Seed, - 

- 14 

Fine Salt, - - - 

- 55. 

Hair (plastering), 


Penalty for giving less than the above standard is double the amount 
of property wrongfully not given, and ten dollars addition thereto. 


The owner or occupant of every public grist mill in this state shall 
grind all grain brought to his mill in its turn. The toll for both steam 
and water mills, is, for grinding and bolting ivJieat, rye., or other grain, one 
eighth part; for grinding Indian corn., oats, barley and buckwheat not 
required to be bolted, one seventh part; for grinding Tnalt, and chopping all 
kinds of grain, one eighth part. It is the duty of every miller when his 
mill is in repair, to aid and assist in loading and unloading all grain brought 
to him to be ground, and he is also required to keep an accurate half 
bushel measure, and an accurate set of toll dishes or scales for weighing 
the grain. The penalty for neglect or refusal to comply with the law is 
$5, to the use of any person to sue for the same, to be recovered before 
any justice of the peace of the county where penalty is incurred. Millers 
are accountable for the safe keeping of all grain left in his mill for the 
purpose of being ground, with bags or casks containing same (except it 
results from unavoidable accidents), provided that such bags or casks are 
distinctly marked with the initial letters of the owner's name. 


Owners of cattle, horses, hogs, sheep or goats may have one ear mark 
and one brand, but which shall be different from his neighbor'' s, and may 
be recorded by the county clerk of the county in which such property is 
kept. The fee for such record is fifteen cents. The record of such shall 
be open to examination free of charge. In cases of disputes as to marks 
or brands, such record is prima facie evidence. Owners of cattle, horses, 
JioS^s- Si^sep or ^oa;^ :/-i. :_/;?.• :&v^ .^r': craBCoCi Dj v/io j-jr-muT owner., 


may be re-brand erl in presence of one or more of his neighbors, who sliall 
certify to the facts of tlie marking or branding l)eing done, when done, 
and in wliat ])rand or mark they were re-branded or re-marked, which 
certificate may also be recorded as before stated. 


Children may be adopted by any resident of this state, by filing a 
petition in the Circuit or County Court of the county in which he resides, 
asking leave to do so, and if desired may ask that the name of the child 
be changed. Such petition, if made by a person having a husband or 
wife, will not be granted, unless the husband or wife joins therein, as the 
adoption must be by them jointly. 

The petition shall state name, sex, and age of the child, and the new 
name, if it is desired to change the name. Also the name and residence 
of the parents of the child, if known, and of the guardian, if any, and 
whether the parents or guardians consent to the adoption. 

The court must find, before granting decree, that the parents of the 
child., or the survivors of them, have deserted his or her family or such 
child for one j^ear next preceding the application, or if neither are living, 
the guardian ; if no guardian, tlie next of kin in this state capable of giving 
consent, has had notice of the presentation of the petition and consents 
to such adoption. If the child is of the age of fourteen years or upwards, 
the adoption can not be made without its consent. 


There is in every county elected a surveyor known as county sur- 
veyor, who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official acts he is 
responsible. It is the duty of the county surveyor., either by himself or 
his deputy, to make all surveys that he may be called upon to make within 
his county as soon as may be after application is made. The necessary 
chainmen and other assistance must be employed by the person requiring 
the same to be done, and to be by him paid, unless otherwise agreed ; but 
the chainmen must be disinterested persons and approved by the surveyor 
and sworn by him to measure justly and impartially. 

The County Board in each county is required by law to provide a copy 
of the United States field notes and plats of their surveys of the lands 
in the county to be kept in the recorder's office subject to examination 
by the public, and the county surveyor is required to make his surveys 
in conformity to said notes, plats and the laws of the United States gov- 
erning such matters. The surveyor is also required to keep a record 
of all surveys made l)y him, which shall be subject to inspection by any 
one interested, and shall be delivered up to his successor in office. A 


certified copy of the said surveyor's record shall be prima facie evidence 
of its contents. 

The fees of county surveyors are six dollars per day. The county 
surveyor is also ex officio inspector of mines, and as such, assisted by some 
practical miner selected by him, shall once each year inspect all the 
mines in the county, for which they shall each receive such compensa- 
tion as may be fixed by the County Board, not exceeding $5 a day, to 
be paid out of the county treasury. 


Where practicable from the nature of the ground, persons traveling 
in any kind of vehicle, must turn to the right of the center of the road, so 
as to permit each carriage to pass without interfering with each other. 
The penalty for a violation of this provision is $5 for every offense, to 
be recovered by the party injured ; but to recover, there must have 
occurred some injury to person or property resulting from the violation. 
The oioners of any carriage traveling upon any road in this State for the 
conveyance of passengers who shall employ or continue in his employment 
as driver any person who is addicted to drunkenness, or the excessive use of 
spiritous liquors, after he has had notice of the same, shall forfeit, at the 
rate of $5 per day, and if any driver while actually engaged in driving 
any such carriage, shall be guilty of intoxication to such a degree as to 
endanger the safety of passengers, it shall be the duty of the owner, on 
receiving tvritten notice of the fact, signed by one of the passengers, and 
certified by him on oath, forthwith to discharge such driver. If such owner 
shall have such driver in his employ ivithin three months after such notice, 
he is liable for $5 per day for the time he shall keep said driver in his 
employment after receiving such notice. 

Persons driving any carriage on any public highway are prohibited 
from running their horses upon any occasion under a penalty of a fine not 
exceeding $10, or imprisonment not exceeding sixty days, at the discre- 
tion of the court. Horses attached to any carriage used to convey passen- 
gers for hire must be properly hitched or the lines placed in the hands of 
some other person before the driver leaves them for any purpose. For 
violation of this provision each driver shall forfeit twenty dollars, to be 
recovered by action, to be commenced within six months. It is under- 
stood by the term carriage herein to mean any carriage or vehicle used 
for the transportation of passengers or goods or either of them. 

The commissioners of highways in the different tov/ns have the care 
and superintendence of highways and bridges therein. The}^ have all 
the powers necessary to lay out, vacate, regulate and repair all roads? 
build and repair bridges. In addition to the above, it is their duty to 
erect and keep in repair at the forks or crossing-place of the most 


important roads post and guide boards with plain inscriptions, giving 
directions and distances to the most noted places to which such road may 
lead ; also to make provisions to prevent thistles, burdock, and cockle 
burrs, mustard, yellow dock, Indian mallow and jimson weed from 
seeding, and to extirpate the same as far as practicable, and to prevent 
all rank growth of vegetation on the public highways so far as the same 
may obstruct public travel, and it is in their discretion to erect watering 
places for public use for watering teams at such points as may be deemed 

The Commissioners, on or before the 1st day of May of each year, 
shall make out and deliver to their treasurer a list of all able-bodied men 
in their town, excepting paupers, idiots, lunatics, and such others as are 
exempt by law, and assess against each the sum of two dollars as a poll 
tax for highway purposes. Within thirty days after such list is delivered 
they shall cause a written or printed notice to be given to each person so 
assessed, notifying him of the time when and place where such tax must 
be paid, or its equivalent in labor performed ; they may contract with 
persons owing such poll tax to perform a certain amount of labor on any 
road or bridge in payment of the same, and if such tax is not paid nor 
labor performed by the first Monday of July of such year, or within ten 
days after notice is given after that time, they shall bring suit therefor 
against such person before a justice of the peace, who shall hear and 
determine the case according to law for the offense complained of, and 
shall forthwith issue an execution, directed to any constable of the county 
where the delinquent shall reside, who shall forthwith collect the moneys 
therein mentioned. 

The Commissioners of Highways of each town shall annually ascer- 
tain, as near as practicable, how much money must be raised by tax on real 
and personal propetty for the making and repairing of roads, only, to any 
amount they may deem necessar}^ not exceeding forty cents on each one 
hundred dollars' worth, as valued on the assessment roll of tlie previous 
year. The tax so levied on property lying within an incorporated village, 
town or city, shall be paid over to the corporate authorities of such town, 
village or city. Commissioners shall receive $1.50 for each day neces- 
sarily employed in the discharge of their duty. 

Overseers. At the first meeting the Commissioners shall choose one 
of their number to act General Overseer of Highways in their township, 
whose duty it shall be to take charge of and safely keep all tools, imple- 
ments and machinery belonging to said town, and shall, by the direction 
of the Board, have general supervision of all roads and bridges in their 


As all township and county officers are familiar with their duties, it 
is only intended to give the points of the law that the public should be 
familiar with. The manner of laying out, altering or vacating roads, etc., 
will not be here stated, as it would require morfe space than is contem- 
plated in a work of this kind. It is sufficient to state that, the first step 
is by petition, addressed to the Commissioners, setting out what is prayed 
for, giving the names of the owners of lands if known, if not known so 
state, over which the road is to pass, giving the general course, its place 
of beginning, and where it terminates. It requires not less than twelve 
freeholders residing within three miles of the road who shall sign the 
petition. Public roads must not be less than fifty feet wide, nor more 
than sixty feet wide. Roads not exceeding two miles in length, if peti- 
tioned for, may be laid out, not less than forty feet. Private roads 
for private and public use, may be laid out of the width of three rods, on 
petition of the person directly interested ; the damage occasioned thereby 
shall be paid by the premises benefited thereb}'-, and before the road is 
opened. If not opened in two years, the order shall be considered 
rescinded. Commissioners in their discretion may permit persons who 
live on or have private roads, to work out their road tax thereon. Public 
roads must be opened in five days from date of filing order of location, 
or be deemed vacated. 


Whenever one or more owners or occupants of land desire to construct 
a drain or ditch across the land of others for agricultural, sanitary or 
mining purposes, the proceedings are as follows: 

File a petition in the Circuit or County Court of the county in which 
the proposed ditch or drain is to be constructed, setting forth the neces- 
sity for the same, with a description of its proposed starting point, route 
and terminus, and if it shall be necessary for the drainage of the land or 
coal mines or for sanitary purposes, that a drain, ditch, levee or similar 
work be constructed, a description of the same. It shall also set forth 
the names of all persons owning the land over which such drain or ditch 
shall be constructed, or if unknown stating that fact. 

No private property shall be taken or damaged for the purpose of 
constructing a ditch, drain or levee, without compensation, if claimed by 
the owner, the same to be ascertained by a jury ; but if the construction 
of such ditch, drain or levee shall be a benefit to the owner, the same 
shall be a set off against such compensation. 

If the proceedings seek to affect the property of a minor, lunatic or 
married woman, the guardian, conservator or husband of the same shall 
be made party defendant. The petition may be amended and parties 
made defendants at any time when it is necessary to a fair trial. 


When the petition is presented to the judge, he shall note therein 
when he will hear the same, and order the issuance of summonses aad 
the publication of notice to each non-resident or unknown defendant. 

The petition may be heard by such judge in vacation as well as in 
term time. Upon the trial, the jury shall ascertain the just compensation 
to each owner of the property sought to be damaged by the construction 
%{ such ditch, drain or levee, and truly report the same. 

As it is only contemplated in a work of this kind to give an abstract 
of the laws, and as the parties who have in charge the execution of the 
further proceedings are likely to be familiar with the requirements of the 
statute, the necessary details are not here inserted. 


The County Board of any county in this State may hereafter alluw 
such bounty on wolf scalps as the board may deem reasonable. 

Any person claiming a bounty shall produce the scalp or scalps with 
the ears thereon, within sixty days after the wolf or wolves shall have 
been caught, to the Clerk of the County Board, who shall administer to 
said person the following oath or affirmation, to-wit: '■'You do solemnly 
swear (or affirm, as the case may be), that the scalp or scalps here pro- 
duced by you was taken from a wolf or wolves killed and first captured 
by yourself within the limits of this county, and within the sixty days 
last past." 


When the reversion expectant on a lease of any tenements or here- 
ditaments of any tenure shall be surrendered or merged, the estate which 
shall for the time being confer as against the tenant under the same lease 
the next vested right to the same tenements or hereditaments, shall, to 
the extent and for the purpose of preserving such incidents to and obli- 
gations on the same reversion, as but for the surrender or merger thereof, 
would have subsisted, be deemed the reversion expectant on the same 


Every poor person who shall be unable to earn a livelihood in conse- 
quence ot any bodily infirmifif, idiocy, lunacy or unavoidable cause, shall, 
be supported by the father, grand father, mother, grand-mother, children, 
grand-children, brothers or sisters of such poor person, if they or either 
of them be of sufficient ability; l)ut if any of such dependent class shall 
have become so from intemperance or other bad conduct, they shall not be 
entitled to support from any relation except parent or child. 



The children shall first be called on to support their parents, if they 
are able ; but if not, the parents of such poor person shall then be called 
on, if of sufficient ability ; and if there be no parents or children able, 
then the brothers and sisters of such dependent person shall be called 
upon ; and if there be no brothers or sisters of sufficient ability, the 
grand-children of such person shall next be called on ; and if they are 
not able, then the grand-parents. Married females, while their husbands 
live, shall not be liable to contribute for the support of their poor relations 
except out of their separate property. It is the duty of the state's 
(county) attorney, to make complaint to the County Court of his county 
against all the relatives of such j)aupers in this state liable to his support 
and prosecute the same. In case the state's attorney neglects, or refuses, to 
complain in such cases, then it is the duty of the overseer of the poor to 
do so. The person called upon to contribute shall have at least ten days' 
notice of such application by summons. The court has the power to 
determine the kind of support, depending upon the circumstances of the 
parties, and may also order two or more of the different degrees to main- 
tain such poor person, and prescribe the proportion of each, according to 
their ability. The court may specify the time for which the relative shall 
contribute — in fact has control over the entire subject matter, with power 
to enforce its orders. Every count}^ (except those in which the poor are 
supported by the towns, and in such cases the towns are liable) is required 
to relieve and support all poor and indigent persons laivfully resident 
therein. Residence means the actual residence of the party, or the place 
where he was employed ; or in case he was in no employment, then it 
shall be the place where he made his home. When any person becomes 
chargeable as a pauper in any county or town who did not reside at the 
commencement of six months immediately preceding his becoming so, 
but did at that time reside in some other county or town in this state, 
then the county or town, as the case may be, becomes liable for the expense 
of taking care of such person until removed, and it is the duty of the 
overseer to notify the proper authorities of the fact. If any person shall 
bring and leave any pauper in any county in this state where such pauper 
had no legal residence, knowing him to be such, he is liable to a fine of 
$100. In counties under township organization, the supervisors in each 
town are ex-officio overseers of the poor. The overseers of the poor act 
under the directions of the County Board in taking care of the poor and 
granting of temporary relief; also, providing for non-resident persons not 
paupers who may be taken sick and not able to pay their way, and in case 
of death cause such person to be decently buried. 

The residence of the inmates of })Oorhouses and other charitable 
institutions for voting purposes is their former place of abode. 



In counties under townsliip organization, the toivn assessor and com- 
missioner of highways are the fence-viewers in their respective towns. 
In other counties the County Board appoints three in each precinct annu- 
all}'. A lawful fence is four and one-half feet high, in good repair, con- 
sisting of rails, timber, boards, stone, hedges, or whatever the fence- 
viewers of the town or precinct where the same shall lie, shall consider 
equivalent thereto, but in counties under township organization the annual 
town meeting may establish any other kind of fence as such, or the County 
Board in other counties may do tlie same. Division fences shall be made 
and maintained in just jDroportion by the adjoining owners, excej^t when 
the owner shall choose to let his land lie open, but after a division fence is 
built by agreement or otherwise, neither party can remove his part of such 
fence so long as he may crop or use such land for farm purposes, or without 
giving the other party one year's notice in writing of his intention to remove 
his portion. When any person shall enclose his land upon the enclosure 
of another, he shall refund the owner of the adjoining lands a just pro- 
portion of the value at that time of such fence. The value of fence and 
the just proportion to be paid or built and maintained b}' each is to be 
ascertained by two fence-viewers in the town or precinct. Such fence- 
viewers have power to settle all disputes between different owners as to 
fences built or to be built, as well as to repairs to be made. Each party 
chooses one of the viewers, but if the other party neglects, after eight 
days' notice in writing, to make his choice, then the other party may 
select both. It is sufficient to notif}' the tenant or party in possession, 
when the owner is not a resident of the town or precinct. The two 
fence-viewers chosen, after viewing the premises,- shall hear the state- 
ments of the parties , in case they can't agree, they shall select another 
fence-viewer to act with them, and the decision of any two of them is 
final. The decision must be reduced to writing, and should plainly set 
out description of fence and all matters settled by them, and must be 
filed in the office of the town clerk in counties under township organiza- 
tion, and in other counties with the county clerk. 

Where any j^erson is liable to contiibute to the erection or the 
repairing of a division fence, neglects or refuses so to do, the party 
injured, after giving sixty da3's notice in writing when a fence is to be 
erected, or ten da3^s when it is only repairs, may proceed to have the 
work done at the expense of the party whose duty it is to do it, to be 
recovered from him with costs of suit, and the party so neglecting shall 
also be liable to the party injured for all damages accruing from such 
neglect or refusal, to be determined by any two fence-viewers selected 
as before provided, the appraisement to be reduced to writing and signed, 


Where a person shall conclude to remove his part of a division fence, 
and let his land lie open, and having given the year's notice required, the 
adjoining owner may cause the value of said fence to be ascertained bv 
fence-viewers as before provided, and on payment or tender of the 
amount of such valuation to the owner, it shall prevent the removal. A 
party removing a division fence without notice is liable for the damages 
accruing thereby. 

Where a fence has been built on the land of another through mis- 
take, the owner may enter upon such premises and remove his fence and 
material within six months after the division line has been ascertained. 
Where the material to build such a fence has been taken from the land 
on which it was built, then before it can be removed, the person claiming 
must first pay for such material to the owner of the land from which it 
was taken, nor shall such a fence be removed at a time when the removal 
will throw open or expose the crops of the other party ; a reasonable 
time must be given beyond the .six months to remove crops. 

The compensation of fence-viewers is one dollar and fifty cents a 
day each, to be paid in the first instance by the party calling them, but 
in the end all expenses, including amount charged by the fence-viewers, 
must be paid equally by the parties, except in cases where a party neglects 
or refuses to make or maintain a just proportion of a division fence, when 
the party in default shall pay them. 


Where stock of any kind breaks into any person's enclosure, the 
fence being good and sufficient, the owner is liable for the damage done ; 
but where the damage is done by stock running at large, contrary to law, 
the owner is liable where there is not such a fence. Where stock is 
found trespassing on the enclosure of another as aforesaid, the owner oi 
occupier of the premises may take possession of such stock and keep the 
same until damages, with reasonable charges for keeping and feedino- and 
all costs of suit, are paid. Any person taking or rescuing such stock so 
held without his consent, shall be liable to a fine of not less than three 
nor more than five dollars for each animal rescued, to be recovered by 
suit before a justice of the peace for the use of the school fund. Within 
twenty-four hours after taking such animal into his possession, the per- 
son taking it up must give notice of the fact to the owner, if known, or 
if unknown, notices must be posted in some public place near the premises. 


The owner of lands, or his legal representatives, can sue for and 
recover rent therefor, in any of the following cases : 

First. When rent is due and in arrears on a lease for life or lives. 


Second. When lands are held and occupied by any person without 
any special agreement for rent. 

Third. When possession is obtained under an agreement, written 
or A^erbal, for the purchase of the premises and before deed given, the 
right to jjossession is terminated by forfeiture on con-compliance with the 
agreement, and possession is wrongfully refused or neglected to be given 
upon demand made in writing by the party entitled thereto. Provided 
that all payments made by the vendee or his representatives or assigns, 
may be set off against the rent. 

Fourth. When land has been sold upon a judgment or a decree of 
court, when the party to such judgment or decree, or person holding under 
him, wrongfidly refuses, or neglects, to surrender possession of the same, 
after demand in writing by the person entitled to the possession. 

Fifth. When the lands have been sold upon a mortgage Or trust 
deed, and the mortgagor or grantor or person holding under him, wrong- 
fully refuses or neglects to surrender possession of the same, after demand 
in writing by the person entitled to the possession. 

If any tenant, or any person who shall come into possession from or 
under or by collusion with such tenant, shall willfully hold over any lands, 
etc., after the expiration the term of their lease, and after demand made 
hi tvriting for the possession thereof, is liable to pay double rent. A 
tenancy from year to 3'ear requires sixty daj^'s notice in writing, to termi- 
nate the same at the end of the year; such notice can be given at any 
time within four months preceding the last sixty days of the year. 

A tenancy by the month, or less than a year, where the tenant holds 
over without any special agreement, the landlord may terminate the 
tenancy, by thirty days notice in writing. 

When rent is due, the landlord may serve a notice upon the tenant, 
stating that unless the rent is paid within not less than five days, his lease 
will be terminated ; if the rent is not paid, the landlord may consider the 
lease ended. When default is made in an\' of the terms of a lease, it 
shall not be necessary to give more than ten days notice to quit or of the 
termination of such tenancy ; and the same may be terminated on giving 
such notice to quit, at any time after such default in any of the terms of 
such lease ; which notice may be substantially in the following form, viz: 

To , You are hereby notified that, in consequence of your default • 

in (^here insert the character of the default), of the premises now occupied 
by you, being etc. (here describe the premises), I have elected to deter- 
mine your lease, and you are hereby notified to quit and deliver up pos- 
session of the same to me within ten days of this date (dated, etc.) 

The above to be signed by the lessor or his agent, and no other notice 
or demand of possession or termination of such tenancy is necessary. 

Demand may be made, or notice served, by delivering a written or 


printed, or j)artly either, copy thereof to the tenant, or leaving the same 
with some person above the age of twelve years residing on or in posses- 
sion of the premises ; and in case no one is in the actual possession of the 
said premises, then by posting the same on the premises. When the 
tenancy is for a certain time, and the term expires by the terms of the 
lease, the tenant is then bound to surrender possession, and no notice 
to quit or demand of possession is necessary. 

Distress for rent. — In all cases of distress for rent, the hindlord, by 
himself, his agent or attorney, may seize for rent any personal property of 
his tenant that may be found in the county where the tenant resides ; the 
property of any other person, even if found on the premises, is not 

An inventory of the property levied upon, with a statement of the 
amount of rent claimed, should be at once filed with some justice of the 
peace, if not over $200 ; and if above that sum, with the clerk of a court 
of record of competent jurisdiction. Property may be released, by the 
party executing a satisfactory bond for double the amount. 

The landlord may distrain for rent, any time within six months after 
the expiration of the term of the lease, or when terminated. 

In all cases where the premises rented shall be sub-let, or the lease 
assigned, the landlord shall have the same right to enforce lien against 
such lessee or assignee, that he has against the tenant to whom the pre- 
mises were rented. 

When a tenant abandons or removes from the premises or any part 
thereof, the landlord, or his agent or attorney, may seize upon any grain 
or other crops grown or growing upon the premises, or part thereof so 
abandoned, whether the rent is due or not. If such grain, or other crops, 
or any part thereof, is not fully grown or matured, the landlord, or his 
agent or attorney, shall cause the same to be properly cultivated, harvested 
or gathered, and may sell the same, and from the proceeds pay all his 
labor, expenses and rent. The tenant may, before the sale of such pro- 
perty, redeem the same by tendering the rent and reasonable compensation 
for work done, or he may replevy the same. 

Exemption. — The same articles of personal property which are bylaw 
exempt from execution, except the crops as above stated, is also exempt 
from distress for rent. 

If any tenant is about to or shall permit or attempt to sell and 
remove from the premises, without the consent of his landlord, such 
portion of the crops raised thereon as will endanger the lien of the land- 
lord upon such crops, for the rent, it shall be lawful for the landlord to 
distress before rent is due. 



Any person who shall by contract^ express or implied, or partly both, 
with the owner of any lot or tract of land, furnisli labor or material, or 
services as an architect or superintendent, in l)uilding, altering, repairing 
or ornamenting any house or other building or appurtenance thereto on 
sucli lot, or upon any street or alley, and connected with such improve- 
menis, shall have a lien upon tlie whole of such lot or tract of land, and 
upon such house or building and appurtenances, for the amount due to 
him for such labor, material or services. If the contract is expreis8ed,i\,n(\. 
the time for the completion of the work is beyond three yearn from the com- 
mencement thereof; or, if tlie time of payment is beyond one year from 
the time stipulated for the completion of the work, tlien no lien exists. 
If the contract is implied^ then no lien exists, unless the work be done or 
material is furnished within one year from the commencement of the work 
or delivery of the materials. As between different creditors having liens, 
no preference is given to the one whose contract was first made ; but each 
shares pro-rata. Incumbrances existing on the lot or tract of the land at 
the time the contract is made, do not operate on the improvements, and 
are only preferred to the extent of the value of the land at the time of 
makimj the contract. The above lien can not be enforced unless suit is 
commenced within six months after the last payment for labor or materials 
shall have become due and payable. Sub-contractors, mechanics, workmen 
and other persons furnishing any material, or performing any labor for a 
contractor as before specified, have a lien to the extent of the amount due 
the contractor at the time the following notice is served upon the owner 
of the land who made the contract: 

To , You are hereby notified, that I have been employed by- 

(here state whether to lal)or or furnisli material, and substantially the 
nature of the demand) upon your (here state in general terms description 
and situation of building), and that I shall hold the (building, or as the 
case may be), and your interest in the ground, liable for the amount that 

may (is or may become) due me on account thereof. Signature, 


If there is a contract in writing between contractor and sub-contractor, 
a copy of it should be served with above notice, and said notice must be 
served within forty days from the completion of such sub-contract, if there 
is one ; if not, then from the time payment should have been made to the 
person performing the labor or furnishing the material. If the owner is 
not a resident of the county, or can not be found therein., then the above 
notice must be filed with the clerk of the Circuit Court, with his fee, fifty 
cents, and a copy of said notice must be published in a newspaper pub- 
lished in the county, for four successive weeks. 


When the owner or agent is notified as above, he can retain any 
money due the contractor sufficient to pay such cLaim ; if more than one 
claim, and not enough to pay all, they are to be paid pro rata. 

The owner has the right to demand in writing, a statement of the 
contractor, of what he owes for labor, etc., from time to time as the work 
progresses, and on his failure to comply, forfeits to the owner $30 for 
every offense. 

The liens referred to cover any and all estates, whetlier in fee for 
life, for years, or any other iuterest which the owner may have. 

To enforce the lien of sub-contractors, suit must be commenced within 
three months from the time of the performance of the sub-contract, or 
during the work or furnishing materials. 

Hotel, inn and boarding-house keepers, have a lien upon the baggage 
and other valuables of their guests or boarders, brought into such hotel, 
inn or boarding-house, by their guests or boarders, for the proper charges 
due from such guests or boarders for their accommodation, board and 
lodgings, and such extras as are furnished at their request. 

Stable-keepers and other persons have a lien upon the horses, car- 
riages and harness kept by them, for the proper charges due for the keep- 
ing thereof and expenses bestowed thereon at the request of the owner 
or the person having the possession of the same. 

Agisters (persons who take care of cattle belonging to others), and 
persons keeping, yarding, feeding or pasturing domestic animals, shall 
have a lien upon the animals agistered, kept, yarded or fed, for the proper 
charges due for such service. 

All persons who may furnish any railroad corporation in this state 
with fuel, ties, material, supplies or any other article or thing necessary 
for the construction, maintenance, operation or repair of its road by con- 
tract, or may perform work or labor on the same, is entitled to be paid as 
part of the current expenses of the road, and have a lien upon all its pro- 
perty. Sub-contractors or laborers have also a lien. The conditions and 
limitations both as to contractors and sub-contractors, are about the same 
as herein stated as to general liens. 


$ means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was formerly 

placed before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now, 
United States Currency. 

£ means pounds, English money. 

@ stands for at or to. lb for pound, and bbl. for barrel; '^ ior per or 
5y the. Thus, Butter sells at 20@30c ^ ft, and Flour at $8@12 ^ bbl. 

^0 for per cent and # for number. 

May 1.— Wheat sells at $1.20@1.25, "seller June." Seller June 


means that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering 
it at any time tinring the month of June. 

Selling short, is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain or 
stock, at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the seller 
has not the stock on hand. It is for the interest of the person selling 
"short," to depress the market as much as possible, in order that he may 
buy and fill his contract at a profit. Hence the " shorts " are termed 
" bears." 

Buying long, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain or 
shares of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, 
expecting to make a profit by the rise of prices. The " longs " are 
termed "bulls," as it is for their interest to "operate " so as to "toss" 
the prices upward as much as possible. 


Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the 
amount and time of payment are mentioned. 

$100. Chicago, 111., Sept. 15, 1876. 

Sixty daj^s from date I promise to pay to E. F. Brown, 
or order, One Hundred dollars, for value received. 

L. D. LowRY. 

A note to be payable in any thing else than money needs only the 
facts substituted for money in the above form. 


Orders should be worded simply, thus : 

Mr. F. H. Coats: Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall, Twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. SiLVA. 


Receipts should always state when received and what for, thus : 

$100. Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Received of J. W. Davis, One Hundred dollars, for services 
rendered in grading his lot in Fort Madison, on account. 

Thomas Brady. 

If receipt is in full it should be so stated. 


W. N. Mason, Salem, Illinois, Sept. 15, 1876. 
Bought of A. A. Graham. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat^ at $1.50 - - - - $6.00 

2 Seamless Sacks " .30 - - .60 

Received payment, $6.60 

A. A. Graham. 



An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain 
thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always 
reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunder- 
standings and trouble. No particular form is necessary, but the facts must 
be clearly and explicitly stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a 
reasonable consideration. 


This Agreement, made the Second day of October, 1876, between 
John Jones, of Aurora, County of Kane, State of Illinois, of the first part, 
and Thomas Whiteside, of the same place, of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, that the said John Jones, in consideration of the agree- 
ment of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and 
agrees to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver, in 
good and marketable condition, at the Village of Batavia, 111., during the 
month of November, of this year. One Hundred Tons of Prairie Hay, in 
the following lots, and at the following specified times ; namely, twenty- 
five tons by the seventh of November, twenty-five tons additional by the 
fourteenth of the month, twenty-five tons more by the twenty-first, and 
the entire one hundred tons to be all delivered by the thirtieth of 

And the said Thomas Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt 
fulfillment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, 
contracts to and agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five 
dollars per ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parties hereto, it is 
hereby stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall pay to the 
other. One Hundred Dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the day and 
year first above written. John Jones, 

Thomas Whiteside. 


This Agreement, made the first day of May, one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-six, between Reuben Stone, of Chicago, County 
of Cook, State of Illinois, party of the first part, and George Barclay, of 
Englewood, County of Cook, State of Illinois, party of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, that said George Barclay agrees faithfully and dili- 
gently to work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for 
and during the space of one year from the date hereof, should both 
live such length of time, without absenting himself from his occupation ; 


during which time he, the said Barchi}^ in the store of said Stone, of 
Chicago, will carefully and honestly attend, doing and performing all 
duties as clerk and salesman aforesaid, in accordance and in all respects 
as directed and desired by the said Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered l)y the said 
Barclay, the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of 
one thousand dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each 
upon the lust day of each month ; provided that all dues for days of 
absence from business by said Barclay, shall be deducted fiom the sum 
otherwise by the agreement due and payable by the said Stone to the said 

Witness our hands. Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay. 


A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a consider- 
ation to convey his right and interest in the personal property. The 
purchaser must take actual possession of the property. Juries have 
power to determine upon the fairness or unfairness of a bill of sale. 


Know all Men by this instrument, that I, Louis Clay, of Princeton, 
Illinois, of the fii'st part, for and in consideration of Five Hundred 
and Ten dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the same place, of the 
second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, and 
by this instrument do convey unto the said Floyd, party of the second 
part, his executors, administrators, and assigns, my undivided half of 
ten acres of corn, now growing on the farm of Thomas Tyrrell, in the 
town above mentioned ; one pair of horses, sixteen sheep, and five cows, 
belonging to me, and in my possession at the farm aforesaid; to have and 
to hold the sam« unto the party of the second part, his executors and 
assigns, forever. And I do, for myself and legal representatives, agree 
with the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, to 
warrant and defend the sale of the afore-mentioned pro])erty and chattels 
unto the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, 
against all and every person whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand, this tenth day 
of October, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

• Louis Clay. 


A bond is a written admission on the part of the maker in which he 
pledges a certain sum to another, at a certain time. 



Know all Men by this instrument, that I, George Edgerton, of 
Watseka, Iroquois County, State of Illinois, am firmly bound unto Peter 
Kirchoff, of the place aforesaid, in the sum of five hundred dollars, to be 
paid to the said Peter Kirchoff, or his legal representatives ; to which 
payment, to be made, I bind myself, or my legal representatives, by this 

Sealed with my seal, and dated this second day of November, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-four. 

The condition of this bond is such that if I, George Edgerton, my 
heirs, administrators, or executors, shall promptly pay the sum of tw^o 
hundred and fifty dollars in three equal annual payments from the date 
hereof, with annual interest, then the above obligation to be of no effect ; 
otherwise to be in full force and valid. 
Sealed and delivered in 

presence of George Edgerton. [l.s.] 

William Turner. 


A chattel mortgage is a mortgage on personal property for payment 
of a certain sum of money, to hold the property against debts of other 
creditors. The mortgage must describe the property, and must be 
acknowledged before a justice of the peace in the township or precinct 
where the mortgagee resides, and entered upon his docket, and must be 
recorded in the recorder's office of the county. 


This Indenture, made and entered into tliis first day of January, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, 
between Theodore Lottinville, of the town of Geneseo in the County 
of Henry, and State of Illinois, party of the first part, and Paul Henshaw, 
of the same town, county, and State, party of the second part. 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in consider- 
ation of the sum of one thousand dollars, in hand paid, the receipt whereof 
is hereby acknowledged, does hereby grant, sell, convey, and confirm unto 
the said party of the second part, his heirs and assigns forever, all and 
singular the following described goods and chattels, to wit : 

Two three-year old roan-colored horses, one Burdett organ. No. 987, 
one Brussels carpet, 15x20 feet in size, one marble-top center table, one 
Home Comfort cooking stove. No. 8, one black walnut bureau with mirror 
attached, one set of parlor chairs (six in number), upholstered in green 
rep, with lounge corresponding with same in style and color of upholstery, 
now in possession of said Lottinville, at No. 4 Prairie Ave., Geneseo, 111.; 


Together with all and singular, the appurtenances thereunto laelong- 
ing, or in any wise appertaining ; to have and to hold the above described 
goods and chattels, unto the said party of the second part, his heirs and 
assigns, forever. 

Provided, always, and these presents are upon this express condition, 
that if the said Theodore Lottinville, his heirs, executors, administrators, 
or assigns, shall, on or before the first day of Januar}-, A.D., one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six, pay, or cause to be paid, to the said Paul 
Ranslow, or his lawful attorney or attorneys, heirs, executors, adminis- 
trators, or assigns, the sura of One Thousand dollars, together with the 
interest that may accrue thereon, at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, 
from the first day of January, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-five, until paid, according to the tenor of one promissory note 
bearing even date herewith for the payment of said sum of money, that 
then and from thenceforth, these presents, and everything herein con- 
tained, shall cease, and l)e null and void, anything herein contained to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

Provided, also, that the said Theodore Lottinville may retain the 
possession of and have the use of said goods and chattels until the day 
of payment aforesaid ; and also, at his own expense, shall keep said goods 
and chattels; and also at the expiration of said time of payment, if said 
sum of money, together with the interest as aforesaid, shall not be paid, 
shall deliver up said goods and chattels, in good condition, to said Paul 
Ranslow, or his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns. 

And provided, also, that if default in payment as aforesaid, by said 
party of the first part, shall be made, or if said party of the second part 
shall at any time before said promissory note becomes due, feel himself 
unsafe or insecure, that then the said party of the second part, or his 
attorney, agent, assigns, or heirs, executors, or administrators, shall have 
the right to take possession of said goods and chattels, wherever they 
may or can be found, and sell the same at public or private sale, to the 
highest bidder for cash in hand, after giving ten days' notice of the time 
and place of said sale, together with a description of the goods and chat- 
tels to be sold, by at least four advertisements, posted up in public places 
in the vicinity where said sale is to take place, and proceed to make the 
sum of money and interest promised as aforesaid, together with all reason- 
able costs, charges, and expenses in so doing ; and if there shall be any 
overplus, shall pay the same without delay to the said party of the first 
part, or his legal representatives. 

In testimony whereof, the said party of the first part has hereunto 
set his hand and affixed his seal, the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in 

presence of Theodore Lottinville. [l.s.] 

Samuel J. Tilden. 



This Indenture, made this second day of June, 1875, between David 
Patton of the Town of Bisbee, State of Illinois, of the first part, and John 
Doyle of the same place, of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said David Patton, for and in consideration of 
the covenants hereinafter mentioned and reserved, on the part of the said 
John Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, to be paid, kept, 
and performed, hath let, and by these presents doth grant, demise, and 
let, unto the said John Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, 
all that parcel of .land situate in Bisbee aforesaid, bounded and described 
as follows, to wit : 

\_IIere describe the 

Together with all the appurtenances appertaining thereto. To have 
and to hold the said premises, with appurtenances thereto belonging, unto 
the said Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, for the term of 
five years, from the first day of October next following, at a yearly rent 
of Six Hundred dollars, to be paid in equal payments, semi-annually, as 
long as said buildings are in good tenantable condition. 

And the said Doyle, by these presents, covenants and agrees to pay 
all taxes and assessments, and keep in repair all hedges, ditches, rail, and 
other fences ; (the said David Patton, his heirs, assigns and administra- 
tors, to furnish all timber, brick, tile, and other materials necessary for 
such repairs.) 

Said Doyle further covenants and agrees to apply to said land, in a 
farmer-like manner, all manure and compost accumulating" upon said 
farm, and cultivate all the arable land in a husbandlike manner, accord- 
ing to the usual custom among farmers in the neighborhood ; he also 
agrees to trim the hedges at a seasonable time, preventing injury from 
cattle to such hedges, and to all fruit and other trees on the said premises. 
That he will seed down with clover and timothy seed twenty acres yearly 
of arable land, ploughing the same number of acres each Spring of land 
now in grass, and hitherto unbroken. 

It is further agreed, that if the said Doyle shall fail to perform the 
whole or any one of the above mentioned covenants, then and in that 
case the said David Patton may declare this lease terminated, by giving 
three months' notice of the same, prior to the first of October of any 
year, and may distrain any part of the stock, goods, or chattels, or other 
property in possession of said Doyle, for sufficient to compensate for the 
non-performance of the above written covenants, the same to be deter- 
mined, and amounts so to be paid to be determined, by three arbitrators, 
chosen as follows: Each of the parties to this instrument to choose one, 


and the two so chosen to select a third ; the decision of said arbitrators 
to be final. 

In witness whereof, we have hereto set our hands and seals. 
Signed, sealed, and delivered 

in presence of David Patton. [l.s.] 

James Waldron. John Doyle. [l.s.] 


This Instrument, made the first day of October, 1875, witnesseth 
that Amos Griest of Yorkville, County of Kendall, State of Illinois, hath 
rented from Aaron Young of Logansport aforesaid, the dwelling and lot 
No. 18 Ohio Street, situated in said City of Yorkville, for five years 
from the above date, at the yearly rental of Three Hundred dollars, pay- 
able monthly, on the first day of each month, in advance, at the residence 
of said Aaron Young, 

At the expiration of said above mentioned term, the said Griest 
agrees to give the said Young peaceable possession of the said dwelling, 
in as good condition as when taken, ordinary wear and casualties excepted. 

In witness whereof, we place our hands and seals the day and year 

Signed, sealed and delivered Amos Griest. [l.s.] 

in presence of 

Nickolas Schutz, Aaron Young, [l.s.] 

Notary Public. 


This certifies that I have let and rented, this first day of January, 
1876, unto Jacob Schmidt, my house and lot. No. 15 Erie Street, in the 
City of Chicago, State of Illinois, and its appurtenances ; he to liave the 
free and uninterrupted occupation thereof for one year from this date, at 
the yearly rental of Two Hundred dollars, to be paid monthly in advance ; 
rent to cease if destroyed by fire, or otherwise made untenantable. 

Peter Funk. 

This certifies that I have hired and taken from Peter Funk, his 
house and lot. No. 15 Erie Street, in the City of Cliicago, State of Illi- 
nois, with appurtenances thereto belonging, for one year, to commence 
this day, at a yearly rental of Two Hundred dollars, to be paid monthly 
in advance ; unless said house becomes untenantable from fire or other 
causes, in wliich case rent ceases ; and I further agree to give and yield 
said premises one year from this first day of January 1876, in as good 
condition as now, ordinary wear and damage by the elements excepted. 

Given under my hand this day. JACOB Schmidt. 



To F. W. Arlen, 

Sir : Please observe that the term of one year, for which the house 

and land, situated at No. 6 Indiana Street, and now occupied by you, 

were rented to you, expired on the first day of October, 1875, and as I 

desire to repossess said premises, you are hereby requested and required 

to vacate the same. Respectfullv Yours, 

P. T. Barnum. 

Lincoln, Neb., October 4, 1875. 


Dear Sir : 

The premises I now occupy as your tenant, at No. 6 Indiana Street, 
I shall vacate on the first day of November, 1875. You will please take 
notice accordingly. 

Dated this tenth day of October, 1875. F. W. Arlen. 

To P, T. Barnum, Esq. 


This Indenture, made this sixteenth day of May, in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, between William 
Stocker, of Peoria, County of Peoria, and State of Illinois, and 011a, his 
wife, party of the first part, and Edward Singer, party of the second part. 

Whereas, the said party of the first part is justly indebted to the said 
party of the second part, in the sum of Two Thousand dollars, secured 
to be paid by two certain promissory notes (bearing even date herewith) 
the one due and payable at the Second National Bank in Peoria, Illinois, 
with interest, on the sixteenth day of May, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-three ; the other due and payable at the Second 
National Bank at Peoria, 111., with interest, on the sixteenth day of May, 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and sevent^^-four. 

Now, therefore, this indenture witnesseth, that the said party of the 
first part, for the better securing the payment of the money aforesaid, 
with interest thereon, according to the tenor and effect of the said two 
promisst)ry notes above mentioned ; and, also in consideration of the fur- 
ther sum of one dollar to them in hand paid by the said party of the sec- 
ond part, at the delivery of these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby 
acknowledged, have granted, bargained, sold, and conveyed, and by these 
presents do grant, bargain, sell, and convey, unto the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, forever, all that certain parcel of land, 
situate, etc. 

\_Describing the premises.'\ 

To have and to hold the same, together with all and singular the 
Tenements, Hereditaments, Privileges and Appurtenances thereunto 


belonging or in any wise appertaining. And also, all the estate, interest, 
and claim whatsoever, in law as well as in equity which the party of 
the first part have in and to the premises hereby conveyed unto the said 
party of tlie second part, his heirs and assigns, and to their only proper 
use, benefit and behoof. And the said William Stocker, and Olla, his 
wife, party of the first part, hereby expressly waive, relinquish, release, 
and convey unto the said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, 
administrators, and assigns, all right, title, claim, interesi, and benefit 
whatever, in and to the above described premises, and each and every 
part thereof, which is given b}' or results from all laws of this state per- 
taining to the exemption of homesteads. 

Provided always, and these presents are upon this express condition, 
that if the said party of the first part, their heirs, executors, or adminis- 
trators, shall well and truly pay, or cause to be paid, to the said party of 
the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns, the afore- 
said sums of money, with such interest thereon, at the time and in the 
manner specified in the above mentioned promissory notes, according to 
the true intent and meaning thereof, then in that case, these presents and 
every thing herein expressed, shall be absolutely null and void. 

In witness whereof, the said party of the first part hereunto set their 
hands and seals the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and deliveij^d in presence of 

James Whitehead, William Stocker. [l.s.] 

Fred. Samuels. Olla Stocker. [l.s.] 


This Indenture, made this sixth day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, between Henry Best 
of Lawrence, County of Lawrence, State of Illinois, and Belle, his wife, 
of the first part, and Charles Pearson of the same place, of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in consideration 
of the sum of Six Thousand dollars in hand paid by the said party of the 
second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have granted, 
bargained, and sold, and by these presents do grant, bargain, and sell, 
unto the said party of the second part, his heirs and assigns, all the fol- 
lowing described lot, piece, or parcel of land, situated in the City of Law- 
rence, in the County of Lawrence, and State of Illinois, to wit: 
[^Here describe the property.'] 

Together with all and singular the hereditaments and appurtenances 
thereunto belonging or in any wise appertaining, and the reversion and 
reversions, remainder and remainders, rents, issues, and profits thereof; 
and all the estate, rignt, title, interest, claim, and demand whatsoever, of 
the said party of the nrst part, either in law or equity, of, in, and to the 





above bargained premises, with the hereditaments and appurtenances. 
To have and to hold the said premises above bargained and described, 
with the appurtenances, unto the said party of the second part, his heirs 
and assigns, forever. And the said Henry Best, and Belle, his wife, par- 
ties of the first part, hereby expressly waive, release, and relinquish unto 
the said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators, and 
assigns, all right, title, claim, interest, and benefit whatever, in and to the 
above described j)i"emises, and each and every part thereof, which is given 
by or results from all laws of this state pertaining to the exemption of 

And the said Henry Best, and Belle, his wife, party of the first 
part, for themselves and their heirs, executors, and administrators, do 
covenant, grant, bargain, and agree, to and with the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, that at the time of the ensealing and 
delivery of these presents they were well seized of the premises above 
conveyed, as of a good, sure, perfect, absolute, and indefeasible estate of 
inheritance in law, and in fee simple, and have good right, full power, 
and lawful authority to grant, bargain, sell, and convey the same, in 
manner and form aforesaid, and that the same are free and clear from all 
former and other grants, bargains, sales, liens, taxes, assessments, and 
encumbrances of what kind or nature soever ; and the above bargained 
premises in the quiet and peaceable possession of the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, against all and every person or persons 
lawfully claiming or to claim the whole or any part thereof, the said party 
of the first part shall and will warrant and forever defend. 

In testimony whereof, the said parties of the first part have hereunto 
set their hands and seals the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered 

in presence of Henry Best, [l.s.] 

Jekry Linklatek. Belle Best. [l.s.] 


This Indenture, made the eighth day of June, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, between David Tour, 
of Piano, County of Kendall, State of Illinois, party of the first part, 
and Larry O'Brien, of the same place, party of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in considera- 
tion of Nine Hundred dollars in hand paid by the said party of the sec- 
ond part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and the said party 
of the second part forever released and discharged therefrom, has remised, 
released, sold, conveyed, and quit-claimed, and by these presents does 
remise, release, sell, convey, and quit-claim, unto the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, forever, all the right, title, interest, 


claim, and demand, which the said party of the first part has in and to 
the following described lot, piece, or parcel of land, to wit : 

\_IIere describe the land.^ 
To have and to liold the same, together with all and singular the 
appurtenances and privileges thereunto belonging, or in any wise there- 
unto appertaining, and all the estate, right, title, interest, and claim 
whatever, of the said party of tlie first part, either in law or equity, to 
the only proper use, benefit, and behoof of the said party of the second 
part, his heirs and assigns forever. 

In witness whereof the said party of the first part hereunto set his 
hand and seal the day and year above written. 

Signed, sealed and delivered David Tour, [l.s.] 

in jjresence of 
Thomas Ashley. 

The above forms of Deeds and Mortgage are such as have heretofore 
been generally used, but the following are much shorter, and are made 
equally valid by the laws of this state. 


The grantor (here insert name or names and place of residence), for 
and in consideration of (_here insert consideration) in hand paid, conveys 
and warrants to (here insert the grantee's name or names) the following 
described real estate (here insert description), situated in the County of 
in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


The grantor (here insert grantor's name or names and place of resi- 
dence), for the consideration of (here insert consideration) convey and 
quit-claim to (here insert grantee's name or names) all interest in the 
following described real estate (here insert description), situated in the 
County of in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


The mortgagor (here insert name or names) mortgages and warrants 
to (here insert name or names of mortgagee or mortgagees), to secure the 
payment of (here recite the nature and amount of indebtedness, showing 
when due and the rate of interest, and whether secured by note or other- 
wise), the following described real estate (here insert description thereof), 
situated in the County of in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


Know all Men by these presents, that I, Peter Ahlund, of Chicago, 
of the County of Cook, and State of Illinois, for and in consideration of 
One dollar, to me in hand paid, and for other good and valuable considera- 


tions, the receipt whereof is hereby confessed, do hereby grant, bargain, 
remise, convey, release, and quit-claim unto Joseph Carlin of Chicago, 
of the County of Cook, and State of Illinois, all the right, title, interest, 
claim, or demand whatsoever, I may have acquired in, through, or by a 
certain Indenture or Mortgage Deed, bearing date the second day of Jan- 
uary, A. D. 1871, and recorded in the Recorder's office of said county, 
in book A of Deeds, page 46, to the premises therein described, and which 
said Deed was made to secure one certain promissory note, bearing even 
date with said deed, for the sum of Three Hundred dollars. 

Witness my hand and seal, this second day of November, A. D. 1874. 

Peter Ahlund. [l.s.] 

State of Illinois, ) 

Cook County. j * I, George Saxton, a Notary Public in 

and for said count}^ in the state aforesaid, do hereby 

certify that Peter Ahlund, personally known to me 

as the same person whose name is subscribed to the 

foregoing Release, appeared before me this day in 

[ ^^IkaI!"^ ] person, and acknowledged that he signed, sealed, and 

delivered the said instrument of writing as his free 

and voluntary act, for the uses and purposes therein 

set forth. 

Given under my hand and seal, this second day of 
November, A. D. 1874. 

George Saxton, N. P. 


I, Charles Mansfield, of the Town of Salem, County of Jackson, 
S'ate of Illinois, being aware of the uncertainty of life, and in failing- 
health, but of sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be 
my last will and testament, in manner following, to wit: 

First. I give, devise and bequeath unto my oldest son, Sidney H. 
Mansfield, the sum of Two Thousand Dollars, of bank stock, now in the 
Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned by myself 
in the Town of Buskirk, consisting of one hundred and sixty acres, with 
all the houses, tenements, and improvements thereunto belonging ; to 
have and to hold unto my said son, his heirs and assigns, forever. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to each of my daughters, Anna 
Louise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two Thousand dollars in 
bank stock, in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, and also each 
one quarter section of land, owned by myself, situated in the Town of 
Lake, Illinois, and recorded in my name in the Recorder's office in the 
county where such land is located. The north one hundred and sixty 
acres of said half section is devised to my eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 


Third. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank Alfred Mans- 
field, Five shares of Railroad stock in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 
and my one hundred and sixty acres of land and saw mill thereon, situ- 
ated in Manistee, Michigan, with all the improvements and appurtenances 
thereunto belonging, which said real estate is recorded in my name in the 
county where situated. 

t'ourth. I give to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, all my 
household furniture, goods, chattels, and personal property, about my 
home, not hitherto disposed of, including Eight Thousand dollars of bank 
stock in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, Fifteen shares in 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, pos- 
session, and benefit of the home farm, so long as she may live, in lieu of 
dower, to which she is entitled by law; said farm being my present place 
of residence. 

Fifth. I bequeath to my invalid father, Elijah H. Mansfield, the 
income from rents of my store building at 145 Jackson 'Street, Chicago, 
Illinois, during the term of his natural life. Said building and land there- 
with to revert to my said sons and daughters in equal proportion, upon 
the demise of my said father. 

Sixth. It is also my will and desire that, at the death of my wife, 
Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, or at any time when she may arrange to 
relinquish her life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same 
may revert to my above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

And lastly. I nominate and appoint as executors of this my last will 
and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, and my eldest son, 
Sidney 11. Mansfield. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shad 
be paid from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of Salem, the 
residue of such moneys to revert to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, 
for her use forever. 

In witness whereof, I, Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and 
testament, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of April, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-two. 

Signed, sealed, and declared by Charles 

Mansfield, as and for his last will and 

testament, in the presence of us, who, 

at his request, and in his presence, and 

in tlie presence of each other, have sub- > 

scribed our names hereunto as witnesses 

Peter A. Schenck, Sycamore, Ills. 
Frank E. Dent, Salem, Ills. 

Charles Mansfield, [l.s.] 



Whereas I, Charles Mansfield, did, on the fourth day of April, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, make my last will and testa- 
ment, I do now, by this writing, add this codicil to my said will, to be 
taken as a part thereof. 

Whereas, by the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Anna 
Louise, has deceased November fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-three, 
and whereas, a son has been born to me, which son is now christened 
Richard Albert Mansfield, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, 
and all right, interest, and title in lands and bank stock and chattels 
bequeathed to my deceased daughter, Anna Louise, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth 
day of March, eighteen hundred and seventy-five. 

Signed, sealed, published, and declared to^[ 

us by the testator, Charles Mansfield, as 

and for a codicil to be annexed to his 

last will and testament. And we, at 

his request, and in his presence, and in 

the presence of each other, have sub- 
scribed our names as witnesses thereto, 

at the date hereof. 
Frank E. Dent, Salem, Ills. 
John C. Shay, Salem, Ills. 

Charles Mansfield, [l.s.] 




May be legally made by electing or appointing, according to the usages 
or customs of the body of which it is a part, at any meeting held for that 
purpose, two or more of its members as trustees, wardens or vestrymen, and 
may adopt a corporate name. The chairman or secretary of such meeting 
shall, as soon as possible, make and file in the office of the recorder of 
deeds of the county, an affidavit substantially in the following form : 
State of Illinois, 

County. j ^^• 

I^ , do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be), 

that at a meeting of the members of the (here insert the name of the 
church, society or congregation as known before organization), held fit 

(here insert place of meeting), in the County of , and State of 

lUinois, on the day of — , A.D. 18—, for that purpose, the fol- 
lowing persons were elected (or appointed) [here insert their names'] 
trustees, wardens, vestrymen, (or officers by whatever name they may 
choose to adopt, with powers similar to trustees) according to the rules 
and usages of such (church, society or congregation), and said 


adopted as its corporate name (here insert name), and at said meeting 
this affiant acted as (chairman or secretary, as the case may be). 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, tliis dav of , A.D. 

18- -. Name of Affiant" 

whieli affidavit must be recorded by the recorder, and shall be, or a certi- 
fied copy made by the recorder, received as evidence of such an incorpo- 

No ce7-tijicate of election after the first need be filed for record. 

The term of office of the trustees and tlie general government of the 
society can be determined by the rules or by-laws adopted. Failure to 
elect trustees at the time provided does not Avork a dissolution, l)ut the 
old trustees hold over. A trustee or trustees may be removed, in the 
same manner hy tlie society as elections are held by a meeting called for 
that purpose. The property of the society vests in the corporation. The 
corporation may hold, or acquire by purchase or otherwise, land not 
exceeding ten acres, for the purpose of the society. The trustees have 
the care, custody and control of tiie property of the corporation, and can, 
when directed by the society, erect houses or improvements, and repair 
and alter the same, and may also when so directed by the society, 
mortgage, encumber, sell and convey any real or personal estate belonging 
to the corporation, and make all proper contracts in the name of such 
corporation. But they are prohibited by law from encumbering or inter- 
fering with any property so as to destroy the effect of any gift, grant, 
devise or bequest to the corporation ; but such gifts, grants, devises oi 
bequests, must in all cases be used so as to carry out the object intended 
by the persons making the same. Existing societies may organize in the 
manner herein set forth, and have all the advantages thereof. 


The business of publishing books by subscription having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations 
not authorized by the publisher ; in order to prevent that as much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the fol- 
lowing statement is made : 

^ A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work described ; 
the consideration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the booh 
named, and deliver the same, for wliich the subscriber is to pay the price 
named. The nature and character of the work is described in the prospectus 
and by the sample shown. These should be carefully examined before sub- 
scribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, 


and not the too often exaggerated statements of the agents who is merely 
employed to solicit subscriptions^ for which he is usually paid a commission 
for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter the conditions 
upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the publisher. 
Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription conditional or 
modify or change the agreement of the publisher, as set out by prospectus 
and sample, in order to bind the principal, the subscriber should see that 
such conditions or changes are stated over or in connection ivith his signa- 
ture, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or 
any other business, should remember that the law as to written contracts is^ 
that they can not be varied, altered or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, 
must be done in writing. It is therefore important that all persons contem- 
plating subscribing should distinctly understand that all talk before or after 
the subscription is made, is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a 
prescribed mode, and have no authority to do it in any other wav to the 
prejudice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other 
matter. They cannot collect money, or agree that payment may be made 
in anything else but money. They can not extend the time of payment 
beyond the time of delivery, nor bind their principal for the payment of 
expenses incurred in their buisness. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is ; if they can not read themselves, 
should call on some one disinterested who can. 



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, 
establish Justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common 
defense, promote the general welfare, and secwe the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution 
for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem- 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the 
electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall b}' law direct. The 
number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, 
but each state shall have at least one Representative ; and until such 
enumeration shall be made the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plan- 
tations one, Connecticut five. New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylva- 
nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten. North Carolina five, 
and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years ; 
and each Senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 


tion of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that 
one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by 
resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any state, 
the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty years and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he 
shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall liave no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro 
tempore^ in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise 
the office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States ; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Sen- 
ators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the Legis- 
lature thereof; but the Congress ma}^ at any time by law make or alter 
such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its 
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house 
on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journal. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, 


felony, and breach of the ]ieace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house 
they shall not be questioned in any oiher place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during such time ; and no person holding any office 
under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments 
as on ( ther Bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President 
>.. the United States; if he approve he shall sign it ; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their jouinal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If. after such I'econsideration two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if 
approved by two-thirds of that liouse, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by }eas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned 
by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Rei)resentatives may be necessar}- (except on a 
question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the 
United States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by 
him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and lim- 
itations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 
•States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
Str.tes, and with the Indian tribes ; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; 

To coin money, regulate the value tliereof, and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures ; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States; 

To establish post offices and post roads ; 


To promote the progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing, 
for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their 
respective writings and discoveries ; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ; 

To define and punisli piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and oifenses against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water ; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
use shall be for a longer term than two years ; 

To provide and maintain a navy ; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and 
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the disci- 
pline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the 
consent of the Legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings ; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any dej^art- 
ment or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight liundred and eight, 
but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may 
require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion 
to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev- 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of 
the receipts and expeditures of all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 


No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, ■without the 
consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confeder- 
ation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills of 
credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of 
debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts 
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
Treasur}' of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the Congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on 
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Aeticle II. 

Section 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term 
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same 
term, be elected as follows : 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress; 
but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

[*The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of 
the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the 
persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Pres- 
ident of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, 0})en all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. 
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors a])pointed; 
and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal 
number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have a ma- 
jority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like 
manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote 
shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one 
vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members 
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, 

• This clause between .brackets bas been superseded aud auuullcd by the Twelfth.amendinent. 


the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be 
the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have 
equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-Presi- 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and 
the da}^ on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the office of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that 
office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been 
fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said 
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-Puesident, and the Congress 
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inabil- 
ity, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall 
then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the dis- 
ability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any other emolument from the United States or any of 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, 
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and 
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective 
offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardon for offenses 
against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present con- 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice of the Senate, 
shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of 
the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose 
appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in 
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which 
shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information 
of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such mea- 
sures as he shall judge.necessary and expedient; he may on extraordinary 


occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagree- 
ment between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may 
adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper ; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers ; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the ofiBcers of the United 

Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and con- 
viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III. 

Section I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases 
affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states ; 
between a state and citizens of another state ; between citizens of differ- 
ent states ; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants 
of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shali 
have been committed ; but when not committed within an}'' state, the 
trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levy- 
ing war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the tes- 
timony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, 
except during the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV. 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And 


tlie Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state witli treason, felony, or other crime, 
who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand 
of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdicCon of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on the claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this Union ; 
but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, 
or parts of states, without the consent of the Legislatures of the states 
concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful 
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging 
to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Execu- 
tive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against domestic vio- 

Article V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the ap- 
plication of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call 
a convention for proposiiig amendments, which, in either case, shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution, when rati- 
fied by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by con- 
ventions in three-fotirths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratifi- 
cation may be proposed by the Congress. Provided that no amendment 
which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth 
section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall 
be deprived of its equal suffixige in the Senate. 

Article VL 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under 
this Constitution as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land ; and the Judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in 
the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem- 




bertj of the several state Legislatures, and all executive and judicial offi- 
cers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound 
by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution ; but no religious test 
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
the United States. 

Article VII. 

The ratification of the Conventions of nine states shall be sufficient 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying 
the same. 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the 
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our names. 

President and Deputy from Virginia. 

New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

Nathaniel Gorham, 
RuFus King. 

Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 
Roger Sherman. 

Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. Broom, 
Gunning Bedford, Jr., 
Richard Bassett. 

James M' Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer. 

New York, 
Alexander Hamilton. 

Neiv Jersey. 
WiL. Livingston, 
Wm. Paterson, 
David Brearley, 
JoNA. Dayton. 

John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Williamson, 
Rich'd Dobbs Spaight. 

B. Franklin, 
RoBT. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, 
Geo. Clymer, 
Jared Ingersoll, 
Godv. Morris. 

South Carolina. 
J. Rutledge, 
Charles Pinckney, 
Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney, 
Pierce Butler. 

William Few, 
Abr. Baldwin. 



^^ ^^^/^^^^^..^^^^x^ 



Articles m Addition to and Amendatory op the Constitution 
OF the United States op America. 

Proposed hy Congress and ratified hy the Legislatures of the several statei, 
pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

Article I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Article II. ' 

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free 
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Article IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated ; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things to be seized. 

Article V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

Article VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to 9 
speedy and pul)lic trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and 
cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; 
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fp^^t 


tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in an}^ court of the United 
States than according to the rules of the common law. 

Article VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX. 

The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, 
or to the people. 

Article XI. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one 
of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or sub- 
jects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same state with themselves ; they shall name in their 
ballots the person to be voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the 
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- 
President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign 
and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the 
highest number not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall clioose immediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to 
a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a Presi- 
dent whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as 
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be the majority 
of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a major- 


ity^ then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose 
the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds 
of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible 
to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Article XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

Article XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to 
vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice- 
President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the execu- 
tive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the Legislature 
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 
twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way 
abridged except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the num- 
ber of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twenty-one years of age in such state. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, 
or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or 
military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previ- 
ously taken an oath as a Member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any state Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any state to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, 
by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be ques- 
tioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall pay any debt 
or obligation incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States, or any loss or emancipation of any slave, but such debts, 
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 



Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this act. 

Article XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

November 7, 1876. 


•3 ^ 

s = a 

O C3 

c — 



■Jl c 

< o 



■3 - 

c5 a; u 

>•> — 

It'' 1 

= — 

^ = £ 


S 9 








































































































Clark. .. 



ciincoii . 



Crawfciril .... 













































Rock Island 













St. Clair 

















■ "3 

















La Salle 




Lee ■■.'.■.■.....: 






Practical Rules for Every Day Use. 

Ho^v to find the gam or loss per cent. ivhe7i the cost and selling price 
are given. 

Rule. — Find the diifei-euce between the cost and selling price, which 
will be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost 
price ; the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Mow to change gold into currency. 

Rule. — ^Multiply the given sum of gold by the price of gold. 

How to change currency into gold. 

Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

How to find each partner's share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quo- 
tient will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent., the result will be 
each one's share of the gain or loss. 

Hoiv to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 

A short and simple method for finding the net weight., or price of hogs, 
when the gross weight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note. — It is generally assumed that the gross weight of Hogs diminished by 1-5 or 20 per cent, 
of itself gives the net weight, and the net weiglit increased liy K or 25 per cent, of itself equals the 
s;ross weiglit. 

To find the net weight or gross price. 

Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross iveight or net price. 

Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin,'or wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the number of cubic feet by 
6308, and point off one decimal place — the result will be the correct 
answer in bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

For 07ily an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one decimal place. 

Hoiv to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or 



by 4J ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the result will 
be the answer in l)iishels. 

Note.— In estlm;itiiij,' corn in the ear, the quality and tlie time it lias been cribbed must he taken 
intocoiisi(UTation, since corn will shrink consi(leral)ly during tlie Winter and Spring. Tliis rule generally holds 
good for corn measured at the time it is cril)l)ed, provided it is sound and clean. 

How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (all 
in feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off one 
decimal place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 31^ gallons. 

How to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length 
(all in inches) in reversed order, so that its units will fall under the 
TENS ; multiply by short method, and this product again by 430 ; point 
off one decimal place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

How to measure boards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and 
divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

How to measure scantlings., joists, plariks, sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together 
(the width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide 
the product by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

Ho'W to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods), and divide the 
product by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if there is a 
remainder) ; the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, 
add them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

Ho2V to find the number of square yards in a floor or wall. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), and 
divide the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

Hoiv to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22^. 

The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height 
and thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inclies long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick ; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, 
but it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the apace. 

How to find the number of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if the 
shingles are exposed 4i inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of scpiare feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the length of the rafters. 


To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply the 
width of the building by .56 (hundredths) ; at one-third pitch, by .6 
(tenths) ; at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths) ; at one-half 
pitch, by .71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from 
the apex to the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be 
taken into consideration. 

Note.— By K ov % pitch is meant that the apex or comi) of the roof is to be J^ or J^ the width of the 
buiUling liig'her than the walls or Ijase of the rafters. 

Hoiv to reckon the cost of liay. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, 
and remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

How to measure grain. 

Rule. — Level the grain ; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic 
feet ; multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to 
the left. 

Note.— Exactness requires the addition to every three hundred bushels of one extra bushel. 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2, to find 
the number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of eai 
corn to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring la7id 'without instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square j^ards ; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, 
an ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on 
the average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to 
walk in a straight line ; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in a line 
straight ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote ; and, in walk- 
ing, keep these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others hy adopting the following simple and ingenious con- 
trivance, may always carry with them the scale to construct a correct yard 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger of 
the left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the 
left arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length tvill make an acre, the width being given. 
Rule. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. 


Hoiv to find the number of acres in any plot of land, the number of rods 
being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 5, 
and remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the cirrumference. 

Rule. — Multiply the diameter 1)y 3 1-7. 

Hoiv to find the diameter, when the circumference is given. 

Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find how many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thick- 
ness throughout will coiitain when squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply 
by the length in feet, and divide the product b}' 144. 

Greneral rule for measuring timber, to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule. — Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and 
then multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

To find the number of feet of timber in trees ivith the bark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference in 
inches, by twice the length, in feet, and divide by ^.44. Deduct 1-10 to 
1-15 according to the thickness of the bark. 

Howard's 7iew ride for computing interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest 
on any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal 
point two places to the left; for ten times that time, remove the point 
one place to the left; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three 
places to the left. 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

Note.— The reciprocal of the lato is found by inverting t lie rate ; tliiis 3 per ceiil. per iiiontli, in- 
verted, liecoines J<; of a montli, or 10 days. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus: 3-1, 
three ones. 

Rule for converting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, 
by 400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 


A township — 36 sections each a mile square. 
A section — 640 acres. 

A quarter section, half a mile square — 160 acres. 
An eighth section, half a mile long, north and south, and a quarter 
of a niile wide — 80 acres. 

A sixteentii section, a quarter of a mile square — 40 acres. 


The sections are all numbered 1 to 36, commencing at the north-east 

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the 
cardinal j)oints. The quarters are divided in the same way. The de- 
scription of a forty acre lot would read : The south half of the west half of 
the south-west quarter of section 1 in township 24, north of range 7 west, 
or as the case might be ; and sometimes will fall short and sometimes 
overru]! the number of acres it is supposed to contain. 

The nautical mile is 795 4-5 feet longer than the common mile. 


7 92-100 inches make 1 link. 

25 links " 1 rod. 

4 rods i " 1 chain. 

80 chains " 1 mile. 

Note. — A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or Q6 feet. 

Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the inch called a barley- 
corn ; three of which made an inch. 

Horses are measured directly over the fore feet, and the standard of 
measure is four inches — called a hand. 

In Biblical and other old measurements, the term span is sometimes 
used, which is a length of nine inches. 

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 24.024 incnes in length. 

The common cubit of the Jews was 21.704 inches in length. 

A pace is equal to a yard or 36 inches. 

A fathom is equal to 6 feet. 

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is strictly 
speaking a nautical term, and should be three geographical miles, equal 
to 3.45 statute miles, but when used on land, three statute miles are said 
to be a league. 

In cloth measure an aune is equal to li yards, or 45 inches. 

An Amsterdam ell is equal to 26.796 inches. 

A Trieste ell is equal to 25.284 inches. 

A Brabant ell is equal to 27.116 inches. 


Every farmer and mechanic, whether he does much or little business, 
should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and systematic man- 
ner. For the benefit of those who have not had the opportunity of ac- 
quiring a piimary knowledge of the principles of book-keeping, we here 
present a simple form of keeping accounts which is easily comprehended, 
Hud well adapted to record the business transactions of farmers, mechanics 
and laborers. 











March 8 








To 7 bushels Wheat at $1.25 

By shoeing' span of Horses 

To 14 bushels Oats at $ .45 

To 5 lbs. Butter at .25 

By new Harrow 

By. sharpening 2 Plows . 

By new Double-Tree 

To Cow and Calf 

To half ton of Hay 

By Cash 

By repairing Corn-Planter 

To one Sow with Pigs ._ 

By Cash, to balance account 


























March 21 

" 21 

" 23 









Sept. 1 

Bv 3 days' labor . at 11.25 

To 2 Shoats at 3.00 

To 18 bushels Corn at .45 

By 1 month's Labor 

To Cash 

By 8 days' Mowing at $1.50 

To 50 lbs. Flour 

To 27 lbs. Meat at S .10 

By 9 days' Harvesting at 2.00 

By G days' Labor .. at 1.50 

To Cash... - 

To Cash to balance account 


20 00 
18 20 











A Simple Rule for accuuatelt CoMPtTTiNG Interest at Anv Given- Per Cent, for Any 

Length op Time. 
Multiply the principal (amount of money at interest) by the time reduced to days; then divide this product 
by the qitofiP/itolttained liy <iivi(linR360 ftlie numl)er of days in tlie interest year) by the per cent, of interest, 
audt/ie quotient thus obtained will be ilie re(iaii"ed interest. 


Require th'Miiterest of $463..50 for o'le month and eighteen days at 6 per cent. Xi\ $462.50 

interest niontli is 30davs; oiio month and elRliteen days eiiual 48 days. $462.50 raulti- .48 

plied by .48 jrives S2-,J2'0000; 360 divided by 6 (the per cent, of interest) gives HO, and „^^^^ , 

S222.0t)()0ilivided by 60 W.I 1 Kive voii the exacr interest, whim is ,$3.70. Iffhe rare of 3.0000 

interest in the above example were 12 per cent., we would divide the $222.0000 by 30 6)360 \ 185000 

(because 360 divided by 12 gives 30); if 4 per cent., we would divide by90;if8per 

cent., by 45: and in like manner for any other per cent. 60/ $222. 0000(53.70 

' 180 



12 units, or things, 1 Dozen. I 196 pounds, 1 Barrel of Flour, 
12 dozen, 1 Gross. | 200 pounil.s, 1 Barrel of Pork 

20 things, 1 Score. 

i4 sheets of paper. 1 Quire. 
iO quires paper 1 Ream. 
56pounds,'l Firkin of Butter. | 4 ft. wide, 4 ft. high, and 8 ft. long, 1 Cord Wood. 



Virginia. — The oldest of the States, was so called in honor of Queen 
Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made 
his first attempt to colonize that region. 

Florida. — Ponce de Lepn landed on the coast of Florida on Easter 
Sunday, and called the country in commemoration of the day, which was 
the Pasqua Florida of the Spaniards, or " Feast of Flowers." 

Louisiana was called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one time 
owned that section of the country. 

Alabama was so named by the Indians, and signifies " Here we Rest." 

Mississipjn is likewise an Indian name, meaning " Long River." 

Arkansas^ from Kansas, the Indian word for " smoky water." Its 
prefix was really arc, the French word for " bow." 

The Carolinas were originally one tract, and were called "Carolana," 
after Charles the Ninth of France. 

G-eorgia owes its name to George the Second of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. 

Tennessee is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e., the 
Mississippi which forms its western boundary. 

Kentucky/ is the Indian name for " at the head of the river." 

Ohio means '" beautiful ; " loiva, " drowsy ones ; " Minnesota, " cloudy 
water," and Wiscorisin, " wild-rushing channel." 

Illinois is derived from the Indian word illini, men, and the French 
suffix ois, together signifying " tribe of men." 
K Michigan was called by the name given the \2ike, fish- weir, which was 

so styled from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap. 

Missouri is from the Indian word " muddy," which more properly 
applies to the river that flows through it. 

Oregon owes its Indian name also to its principal river. 

Cortes named California. 

Massachusetts is the Indian for " The country around the great hills." 

Connecticut, from the Indian Quon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long 

Maryland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, of 

New York was named by the Duke of York. 

Peniisylvania means " Penn's woods," and was so called after William 
Penn, its orignal owner. 



Delaware after Lord De La Ware. 

Neiv Jersey^ so called in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was 
Governor of the Island of Jersey, in the British Channel. 

Maine was called after the province of Maine in France, in compli- 
ment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province. 

Vermont^ from the French word Vert Mont, signifying Green 

Neiv Hampshire, from Hampshire county in England. It was 
formerly called Laconia. 

The little State of Rhode Island owes its name to the Island of 
Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to greatly 

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name by which all that 
section of the country was called before it was ceded to the United States. 


Statks and Terkitoeies. 



Calif .ruia ... 



















New Hampshire. 


New Yorlc 

Noitli Carolina .. 




Rliode Island 

Soutli Carolina... 





West Virginia 


Total States. 




District of Columljia. 



New Mexico 




Total Territories ... 
Total United States. 














74 8 




New York. N. Y 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

St. Lonis, Mo 

Chicago, 111 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Cinciiniati, Ohio 

New Orleans, La. .. 
San Francisco, Cal,. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Washington, I). 0... 

Newark, N.J 

Louisville, Kv 

Cleveland, Ohio 

I'ittshurg, Pa 

Jersev Citv, N. J ... 

Detroit, Mich 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Alhany, N. Y 

Providence, R. I 

Rochester, N. Y 

Allegheny, Pa 

Riclimond, Va 

New Haven, Conn., 

Ch irleston, S. C 

Indianapolis, Ind... 

Troy, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Worcester, Mass 

l.,owetl. Mass 

Meniiihis, Tenii 

(Cambridge, Mass... 

Hartford, Conn 

Si'ranton, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Paterson. N. J 

Kansas Citv, Mo 

Mobil.', .\la 

Toledo. Ohio 

Portland. Me 

Oilnmiuis, Ohio 

WilmingtoM. Del... 

Dayton, Ohio 

Lawrence, Mass 

Utica, N. Y 

Charlesiown, Mass 

Savannah, Ga 

Lvnn. Mass 

Fall River, Mass... 























































Area in 
States and square 
Tekritoriks. Miles. 
























New Hampshire. 

New Jeisey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 


























318 300 






R. R. 

1875. 1872. 









Last Census of Michigan taken in 1874. 

State.s and 



Rhode Island 

.South Carolina.. 

Tennessee , 




West Virginia 


Total States. 





Dist. of Columbia. 



New Mexico 




Total Territories. 

Area in 























R. R. 
1875. 1872. 










Aggregate of U. S.. 5,915,203 38,555,983 60,852 

* Included in the Railroad Mileage of Maryland. 

] Population and Area. 



British Empire 


United States with Alaska. 


Austria and Hungary 


Great Britain and Ireland. 

German Empire 






Sweden and Norway 






■>• ew Grenada 





Argentine Republic 











San Salvador 


Nicaragua , 

Uruguay , 


San Domingo 

•"■osta Rica 



446,500 000 














.5,931 500 





3,688. 300 























165 000 


Date of 









Area in 












3,253 029 

































to Square 

















St. Petersburg. . 









Kio .Janeiro 

(Constantinople . 









Santiago , 


Jyi ma , 


Buenos Ayres.. 











Sal Salvador ... 
Port au Prince 


Monte Video... 


San Domingo... 

San .Jose 







1.835. 30 





















177 800 





















By Counties. 



Alexander. - 








Christian . . 



CHnton . 




Cumberland . 

De Kalb 

De Witt 


Du Page 



Effingham — 




Fulton . 







Henderson .. 







Jo Daviess.. 



Kankakee. .. 




La Salle 


Lee , 

Livingston . 


1870. 1860. 1850. 1840. 1830. 1820 
















1 1248 
















1 094 1 







1 1 189 

























































































McHenry .. 













Pope -. 




Richland ... 
Rock Island 


Sangamon . . 





St. Clair 










Whitesides .. 

Will.. , 


Total. . . 


1870. 1860. 1850. 1840. 1830. 1830 






























































1 1492 




































































Cumiisrland ... 


















Henderson. ... 















Lawrence ... . 









Mason . 










Moultrie , 










Koclc Island. .. 







St. Clair 



Union , 













19 .329.95!. 

Numijci . 


287, 92t) 




241. 47--' 

334, 50U 








156. 51'; 



134. Ha 
222 80^) 



233 785 



110 764 


421. 74i- 




177 592 

•:-i9 809 





83 606 
27 294 



Jtlu-r un- 












































































2 025 







1 931 








19 99.5.198 













































' '26.3'82 












"44; 806 





368 625 












154. 4S5 






















































357, 52:^ 






1 057,497 



79 b 



2 ■*7't 




266 105 


i,'562 6'21 














2 456.578 










2 772' 









14, 79s 


11 540 
























5 16: 



2 40-1 

3 68: 











157. .504 
















:iO 53 i 






















1.367 965 






813 257 





















172 651 
















656, 3ii: 













3. 723 37'. 

1.973 8.>< 

2,05 4.96:. 

543.7 1^ 



1.753 141 





1. 399.1 Sb 





482. 594 


.531.51 ( 




2,082. 57« 

1,119 878 

1,423 121 








1 179.291 


2.162 943 





History of Carroll County. 

In January, A.D. 1818, the territorial legislature of Illinois petitioned 
Congress for the admission of the territoiy into the Union as an inde- 
pendent state. At that time Nathaniel Pope was territorial representative 
(delegate) in Congress, and it was through him the petition was presented 
to Congress. By reason of a pressure of other business, the petition was 
allowed to remain in abeyance until the following April, when, with certain 
amendments prepared by Mr. Pope, it became a law, and Illinois was de- 
clared to be a sovereign and independent state of the American Union. 
The amendments proposed by Mr. Pope were, lirst, to extend the northern 
boundary ot the new state to the parallel of 42 degrees, 30 minutes north 
latitude; and second, to apply the three per cent.' fund, arising from the 
sales of the public lands, to tlie encouragement of leaving instead of to 
the inaking of roads leading to the state, as had been the practice on the 
admission of Ohio and Indiana. 

"These important changes," says Ford's History of Illinois, "were 
proposed and carried through" both houses of Congress, by Mr. Pope, upon 
his ow^n responsibility. The territorial legislature had not petitioned for 
them — no one at that time having suggested or requested the makino- of 
them, but they met the unqualified approbation of the people of the stale." 

Under the ordinance of 1787, there were to be not less than three, nor 
more than Hve, states, erected out of the territory northwest of the Ohio 
River. The boundaries of these states were defined by that ordinance. 
The^ three states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, were to include the whole 
territory, and were to be bounded by the British possessions on the north. 
But Congress reserved the right, if they thereafter found it expedient, to 
form one or two states in that part of the territory which lies north of 
an east and west line drawn through the southern beiid of Lake Michigan. 

"That line, it was generally supposed," continues Mr. Ford, "was to 
be the north boundary of Illinois." Judge Pope, seeing that the port of 
Chicago was north of that line, and that it would be excluded by it from 
the state, was led to a critical examination of the ordinance whicli resulted 
in a clear and satisfactory conviction that it was competent for Congress to 
extend the boundaries of the new state as far north as they pleased, and 
he found no difficulty in convincing others of the correctness of his views. 

The same ordinance vested Congress with the power, if they should 
lind it expedient, to establish a state north of Illinois, in that part of the 
northwestern territory which lies north of the parallel running through 
the southern^ bend of the lake. " Under this provision, Wisconsin, at one 
time, laid claim to certain part of the porthern section of Illinois, includ- 
ing," said Mr. Ford, at the date of his writing (1847), "fourteen counties, 
embracing the richest and most populous part of the State." 

When Illinois was admitted into the Union in 1818, the whole people 
numbered only about forty-five thousand souls. Of these, some two thou- 
sand were the descendants of the old French settlers at Kaskaskia, Prairie 



du Roclier, Prairie du Pont, Caliokia, Peoria and Chicago. These ])eop]e 
lived in the style of the French peasantry of more tlian two hnndred years 
ago. They had made no improvements in anything, nor had they adopted 
any of the improvements made by others. The other forty-three thonsand 
were made up by people from Kentucky, Tennessee, JS^orth Carolina, Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania. In that year (1818) the settled ])art of the state 
extended a little north of Edwardsville and Alton; south, along the Missis- 
sippi to the mouth of the Ohio; east, in the direction of Carlysle, in 
Clinton county, to the AVabasli, and down the Wabash and the Ohio to the 
confluence of the Ohio with the Mississippi, where Cairo has since been 
built. But the country included within these boundaries was not all occu- 
pied at that time. Between the Kaskaskia River and the Wabash, and 
between the Kaskaskia and the Ohio there was a large wilderness that could 
not be traversed in less than three days. The entire northern part of the 
state was a trackless prairie. But gradually the settlements extended north- 
ward. Year by year immigration increased, but, as a rule, the early settlers 
selected homes in the timbered districts, leaving the prairies as worthless 
for agricultural uses, because of the scarcity of timber for fencing and other 
purposes. Gradually, however, a change came over the minds of men in 
regard to these things, and the prairies were sought after and put under 
cultivation; and as their easy subjection to farm tillage and rich returns 
came to be known, their fame spread abroad, and Illinois began to be 
regarded as a very YaljMraiso.''' But with all their wealth and productive- 
ness the prairies of Northern Illinois remained comparatively unknown, 
and almost entirely unoccupied by white men until after the close of the 
Black Hawk Indian troubles, in 1832. 

The first iiart of Northern Illinois to be permanently occupied by white 
men, so far as any records can l)e found, seems to have been La Pointe 
(now Galena). As to who made the tirst settlement the authorities differ. 
Ford's history ascribes that honor to Colonel James Johnson and a party of 
miners, from Kentucky, who located there in 1824, and commenced mining 
operations about one mile above the present site of the city. Another 
authority gives the honor to Ira Barker, who went from Terre Haute, Indi- 
ana, with an exploring party in the Summer of 1824. This party made 
the entire journej- across the state without seeing a single white man or 
sleeping in a house until they reached La Pointe, which, on their arrival, 
only boasted three or four log huts. The same authority from which this 
information is derived says that in the same Summer three other men. Smith, 
Meeker and Harris, also arrived at the same place. La Pointe. AVhatever 
the differences of opinion as to ^inho were the first settlers there, all agree 
as to the time — the Summer of 1824. These men, it is fair to jiresunie, 
were all mining adventurers, and the extraordinary success that attended 
their ventures induced a great rush there in 1825; while in 1826 and 1827 
fortune hunters poured in by thousands. In 1825 Galena was mapped out, 
and February 17, 1827, Jo Daviess County was organized. With the ex- 
ception of the Galena miners of 1824, and a few scattered fur traders, there 
were no white settlers in all of Northern Illinois at that time. 

The first settlements made in Carroll County were at Savanna, in 1828. 
In November of that year, George and Vance L. Davidson, Aaron Pierce 
and Williani Blundle, and their families, who had gone to the lead mines 

* Spanish for Vule of Paradise. 


at Galena during the great exciteiaent attending tlieir earlj discovery and 
development by white men. removed from the mining district and settled 
at what was then known as the "Council Bluffs of the Upper Mississippi." 
This name w^as derived from the high, rocky bluffs that overlook the river 
at Savanna, and from the fact of an Indian council house having been built 
tiiere. This house was built of poles and the bark of trees, and was two 
stories high, and sufficiently large to hold 1,000 persons. This old council 
house was still standing when the above named families came there, and 
was occupied by the Pierce family as a frontier hotel, and may be recog- 
nized as the first hotel or tavern opened in C-Jirroll County. The Pierce 
family continued to occupy this old council house as a residence and house 
of entertainment until a log cabin could be built. 

Settlements in Western and Northwestern and JS^orthern Illiu' is at that 
date were few and far between — the Galena mining district being by far the 
largest,, as it was the nearest to the new settlement made at the ''Council 
Bluffs of the Upper Mississippi" by the Davidson, Pierce and Blundle 
families. Westward across the Mississippi and far away towards the setting 
sun the country was unknown to white men, and uninhabited save by Indian 
tribes. It was one vast wild, the stillness of which had never been broken 
by the voice of civilization and the resounding strokes of industry as they 
fell upon river, forests and flowery prairies. Eastward to Dixon's ferry, the 
prairie was just as wild as that from wdiich it was divided by the Father of 
Waters, and the nearest settlement on the south was at Albany. Thus 
situated the new settlement was an isolated one — almost entirely shut out 
from civilization and civilizing influences, and to the hardy and resolute 
men and women who commenced it belongs the honor and the glory of 
being the advance guard of that large multitude of intelligent, refined and 
wealthy men and women who came after and swept on before them even to 
the golden slopes- of the mighty Pacific ocean. 

In a historical sketch of the county, prepared by Hon. James Shaw, of 
Mt. Carroll, and read by that gentleman at Lanark, July 4, 1876, there is 
the following reference to some of the surroundings of these j^ioneers, which 
we transfer to these pages as a part of the county's Past : 

''The Indians were numerous and friendly. Game and fish were 
abundant, and so were musquitoes, flies and raccoons, also blackbirds, crows 
and other birds of pi'ey. In fact, the first corn fields had to be guarded from 
the depredations of the latter. * * * liiver navigation was then 
done mostly by keel boats, by cordeling, poling, sailing and rowing, and the 
usual time from St. Louis to Galena was 30 days. Skiff voyages were often 
made to St. Louis. In July, 18'28, Aaron Pierce and Marshal B. Pierce, 
his son, went to Bond County, this state, where they first niade a temporary 
settlement on coming to the West, and drove their horses and cows to their 
new home at (now) Savanna." Thes&, it is to be assumed, were the first 
domestic horses and cows known to the territory now embraced in the present 
County of Carroll. 

The Winter of 1828-9 was spent in building cabins, making and haul- 
ing rails and preparing the ground for spring crops. These pioneer families 
had moved from the mines in wagons drawn by oxen, and, coming in 
November, when the season was too far advanced to make hay, the oxen 
were subsisted upon the green grass that was protected and sheltered from 
frosts and snows by the thick growth of wild rushes that grew abundantly 
along the bottom lands. 


From November, 1S28, to the Spring of 1830-1, these families lived 
alone, but about the latter date John Bernard and three other men, named, 
respectively, Hays, Corbin and Robinson, joined the little colony, and set 
about making farms on claims they selected. Says Mr. Shaw in the paper 
already quoted: "John Bernard settled on the place now known as the 
'Ilatlield' place, and Hays tind Kobinson on the farm now owned by 
George Fish. Corbin took up the farm now owned by Xoah ]\IcFarland. 
Corbin built his house or ne^t in a tree, eight feet from the ground, to keep 
away from the snakes that abounded there." These men were all bachelors 
when they first settled here, but all of them subsequently became convinced 
that it was not good for num to l)e alone, and took wives unto themselves. 

Up to the breaking out of the Black Hawk War, in 1S32, the families 
of George and A'^ance L. Davidson, Aaron Pierce and William Blundle, and 
the " old bachelors," Bernard, Hays, Robinson, Goss and Coi'bin. and a man 
named Upton, constituted the entire population of the lower river part of 
Jo Daviess County. When Black Hawk and his tribe of P(jttawatomies 
declared war against the whites who had settled on various parts of tluiir 
hunting grounds, the women and children of the settlers at the " Council 
Bluffs of the Upper Mississippi," were removed to Galena for safety, while 
the men remained to take care of their stock, cultivate their crops, etc. '' To 
provide for their own safety," continues Mr. Shaw, " they built a small 
block-house fort of logs, near the point of the bluffs and not far from where 
the residence of Mr. M'Dupuis now stands. In this fort they withstood the 
fire of the Indians all of ()ne afternoon without the loss of life, but their 
horses and cattle were not so fortunate. During that afternoon attack. 
Upton, who was a wild, daring, generous man, but of intem])ei'ate habits, 
and withal a kind of favorite with the settlers, had quite an adventure. 
When the attack commenced, he was out hunting, and not far from the 
site of the " Whitton farm " had shot a deer and was in the act of cutting 
its throat when he saw a band of Indians advancing in a circle towards 
him, with the evident intention of making him a prisoner. He didn't stop 
to finish the slaughter of the deer, but, re-loading his rifle, he struck out 
for the fort at a pace that has never since been e(pialled on the Upper Mis- 
sissi})pi savannas.'" Bullets flew thick and fast from the Indian guns, but 
Upton ran so fast they did not I'eacli him, or dodged so quick as to esca])e 
their range, and escaped unharmed, although it was said that one ball did 
cut off the strap of his powder horn. Ashe neared the fort he heard the 
firing, and, turning from his course, sought concealment and safety in a 
cave, about half a mile above the present village site, which has ever since 
been known as " Upton's cave." He remained in the cave until darkness 
came on. The besieged men remained in the fort until nightfall, when, 
nnder cover of darkness, they made their escape to the river and started for 
Galena in a skiff. From his place of concealment Upton could hear the 
plashing of the skiff's oars and the murmuring voices of the occupants, and 
hailed tliem and thus escaped with tlie rest. It was said that, as the little 
boat was rounding to take him on board, the occupants urged him to juni]) 
in before it had got within forty feet of the shore. During the afternoon, 
when the Indians were after him, Upton had done some pretty good jump- 
ing as he thought, but forty feet was a little more than he was willing to 
undertake, particularly as the night was dark and lie didn't know the depth 

*An open, grassy plain of large extent, and destitute of trees. 


of the water. He was particularly anxious to keep his powder dry. It was 
also said before leaving the fort the men drew lots to see who should first 
o-o out and reconnoitre the surroundings and hunt up their boat. The lot 
fell upon Aaron Pierce, who, though his hair almost lifted his hat from his 
head, did his duty like a brave man. Mr, Goss happened to be outside of 
the fort when the attack commenced and was shut off from the main 
entrance by tlie Indians, but climbed up on the top and let himself down 
through the chimney. 

The Black Hawk War was not of long duration, and in 1833 the influx 
of settlers to this part of the state was pretty large, and many accessions 
were made to the " Upper Mississippi Council Bluffs " colony, the first 
settlers having returned as soon as the danger had passed. In 1832 
Luther H. Bowen, a surveyor, after assisting in establishing the boundary 
line between Illinois and Wisconsin, settled at Galena, where he engaged 
as a clerk in some of the heavy smelting works. In 1835 he came down to 
the ''Council Bluffs of the Upper Mississippi," and bought the claim inter- 
ests of George Davidson and Aaron Pierce, in sections four and nine, where 
the village of Savanna was founded. In 183tj he returned and laid off the 
town, and soon after commenced business by opening a store, and where he 
continued to live until his death, lamented by all. May 5, 1876 — a period 
of forty years, during which time he was recognized as one of the most 
public-spirited men of the county, and in which he was called to fill several 
positions of trust and honor, in all of which he was approved by his fellow- 
citizens as a good and faithful servant. 

When Mr. Bowen subdivided his land into town lots, he named the 
place Savanna, by which name it will hereafter be called in these pages. 
The name was suggested by the marshy plains lying south of and adjoining 
the town site, which were supposed to resemble the savannas tliat abounded 
along the course of the lower Mississippi river. 

The first post-office in this part of the Galena or Joe Daviess territory 
— for it was a territory then, embracing all the country north of the 41st 
parallel of latitude and west of Cook County — was established at 
Savanna, in 1836, and Mr. Bowen was appointed postmaster. 

Soon after Mr. Bowen opened his store, another was opened by Pierce 
& Davidson, and still others followed from time to time, for the Savanna 
settlement was the only one of importance between the villages of Galena 
and Rock Island, and a few years later became of almost as much imjtort- 
ance as either of those places, a prominence it maintained until towns and 
trading places grew up with the settlement of the country east to Rock 
River and the Kishwaukees. Freeport then — although a prominent trade 
and railroad center now — was known as Winnisheik (Indian) village. 

In August, 1837, Dr. Elias Woodruff came from Orange County, New 
York, and took up liis residence here. John W. Fuller and David L. 
Bowen had also become Savannans, and, ])eing men of spirit and enter- 
prise, became prominently identified with the town and its subsequent his- 
tory. Dr. Woodruff, John Fuller and David L. Bowen are still living, at 
the date of this writing. [November, 1877.] Dr. Woodruff in 1851 opened 
a drug store in a small frame building on the main street of the village, and 
in which he has continued business without interruption to the present. 
About the same time, Aaron Pierce, who had, in 1828, occupied the old 
council house as a residence and hotel, or tavern, built a frame hotel on the 
site now occupied by the home of John B. Rhodes, but it w^as afterwards 

226 msTORY OF carroll county. 

moved further down town, and is now known as tlie Chambers House. In 
1837, Mr. L. II. Bowen also erected a liotel building, which was chi'istencd 
the Mississippi House, but the name was afterwards changed to the AVood- 
ruif House. This building of forty years ago is still standing and occupied 
as a hotel. 

Miss Fuller, a sister of John W. Fuller, taught the first Sa\anna school 
in the Summer of 1837. In the Winter of 1S37-S Dr. Woodruff taught the vil- 
lage school in a log l)uildiiig that stood down toward the lowerend of town, 'le 
was the first male teacher and likewise the first physician to prescribe and 
administer fever and ague remedies, then, as in all new countries, the pre- 
vailing diseases. And north of the 41st parallel of latitude he was the 
frontier physician. West to the Pacific Ocean, the^e was no other one, and 
no need of one, for that vast region of country, now so full of life and civ- 
ilization, was a wild, uninhabited b}^ white men. It is said to the credit of 
Dr. Woodruft* that he never failed to respond promptly to all calls, whether 
rich or poor, and that no settler was ever allowed to sufter and languish for 
want of medical treatment and medicine, no matter how poor he might be; 
that fees did not concern him nearly as much as the health of those among 
whom he had cast his fortunes. 

The first saw-mill was erected in 1833, by Captain Craig, at Bowen's 
mill site, on Plum River, about two and a half miles to the east of the main 
part of the village. A year later, the Bowen Brothers (Luther H. and John 
L., the last named having joined the settlement in 1835-6) came in posses- 
sion of this property and continued to <.)perate it for some _years. A powder 
mill was built at the same place in the course of the early history of Savanna, 
but both it and the old saw-mill went down long ago. Perhaps it ought 
to be written that the powder mill went up, as, in 181:5, two of these mill 
buildings blew up, killing a young man named Balcom, and seriously 
injuring Elinathan Jacobs and one or two others. The mill was immedi- 
ately rebuilt, and the manufacture of blasting powder for the mines (for 
which they were originall}^ built) continued. In time, they ceased to be 
sufficiently remunerative to justify their continued operation, and the enter- 
prise was abandoned. Idle and untenanted, some fishermen encamped in 
them, and in attempting to light a pipe, another exjilosion of powder that 
had been embedded in the loose soil succeeded, instantly killing one of the 
party, named Hicks, terribly burning another one, named Smith, and badly 
injuring a third one. The mills were originally built by Porter Sargent in 
1839, but a man named l^emis and some other eastern ca])italists subse- 
quently became interested in the enterprise, and at one time, when the 
Galena and other up])er river lead mines were in the zenith of their success, 
proved a profitable investment. The site of these mills is now occupied by 
the large flouring mills of Messrs. Wood <k Kitchen. 


While Savanna was building up as a village, settlements had been 
making and extending back into the countrj^ and the people found it incon- 
venient and expensive in time and money to go to Galena to attend to 
county business, the distance being about forty miles by river, and about 
the same distance across the country and the hills. As the settlements 
increased, this inconvenience began to be a subject of general com])laint, 
and ways and means came to be considered by which these inconveniences 
might be obviated. After mature deliberation, the formation of a new 


county was conceded to be the surest and quickest means of emancipating 
themselves from tlie inconveniences against whicli the settlers had just cause 
of complaint. The necessary measures were inaugurated to carry out their 
purpose, and the eleventh session of the General Assembly of the State, 
which convened at Yandalia on the third day of December, 1838, passed 
the following act defining the boundaries of Carroll County, and providing 
also for the manner of choosing a seat of justice. 

Section 1. Be it enacted hy the ^teojjle of the State of Illinois^ repre- 
sented in the General Assemhly^ That all that tract of country contained 
within the following boundaries, to- wit: Beginning at the northeast corner 
of town 25 north, range 2, east of the fourth principal meridian; thence 
east, bn said township line, to the middle of range 7; thence south on the 
section line, to the north boundary of Whiteside County; thence west along 
the north boundary of Whiteside County to the middle of the channel of 
the Mississippi River; thence up the middle of the channel of the Mississippi 
River to a point opposite the place of beginning; thence east to the place of 
beginning, shall constitute the County of Carroll. 

Sec. 2. That, for the purpose of fixing the permanent seat of justice 
of the said county, it shall be lawful for the legal voters within the above 
named boundaries to meet on the second Monday in April next, at the 
several places of holding elections, and vote for the place where the county 
seat shall be located, and the place receiving a majority of all the votes 
given shall be the permanent seat of justice of said county; and if no one 
place shall have received a majority of all the votes given, then it shall be 
lawful for the said legal voters to meet at the several places of holding 
elections on the second Monday of July, 1839, and then and there select 
and vote for one of the two places only heretofore voted for in April having 
the two highest number of votes, where the county seat shall be located; 
and that place having a majority of all the votes given, shall be the per- 
manent seat of justice of said county. 

Sec. 3. The county seat shall be located on lands belonging to the 
United States, if a site for said county seat on such lands can be found 
equally as eligible as upon lands owned by individuals. If such location 
shall be made upon lands claimed by any individual in said county, or any 
individual having pre-emption right or title to the same, the claimant or 
proprietor upon whose lands, claim, or pre-emption right, the said seat of 
justice may be located, shall make a deed, in fee simple, to any number of 
acres of said tract, not less than twenty-five, to the said county; or, in lieu 
thereof, such claimant, owner or owners, shall donate to the said county at 
least three thousand five hundred dollars, to be applied to the building of 
county buildings, in six, twelve and eighteen months after locating said 
county seat. If the town of Savanna, in said county, should receive the 
majority of all the votes given, the proprietors or owner of said town are 
hereby required to donate to said new county, for the purpose of erecting 
public buildings, a sufiicient number of lots, in the town of Savanna, for 
the accommodation of the necessary public buildings, and three thousand 
five hundred dollars in cash, payable in three equal instalments, say in six, 
twelve and eighteen months, from the time the location of said county seat 
is established. 

Sec. 4. An election shall be held on the second Monday in April, 
next, at the different election precincts, for the purpose of electing county 
officers, who shall hold their offices until the next general election, an4 



until their successors are qualified; wliicli said election shall be conducted, 
in all respects, agreeably to the provisions ot the law rec^ulatino^ elections. 
Returns of said election shall be rnade by the judges and clerks to the 
justices of the peace vvirhin said county. Said justices of the peace shall 
meet at the town of Savanna within seven days after said election and 
proceed to open said returns, and in all things perform the duties required 
by law of the clerks of county commissioners' courts and justices ot the 
peace in like cases. 

Sec. 5. That the county commissioners shall meet at the town of 
Savanna, within ten days after their election, and being firt^t duly sworn, 
shall proceed to lay off the county into justices districts, and shall order an 
election to be held for the purpose of electing additional justices of the 
peace and constables within said county; shall provide means for raising 
county revenue, lay off" the county into road districts, appoint supervisors, 
assess the amount of road labor, and perform such other duties as are 
required by law; Provided^ That nothing in this section shall be so con- 
strued as to repeal out of office any justice of the peace or constable now 
entitled and residing within the limits of said new county. 

Sec. 6. The courts of said county shall be held at the town of Savan- 
na until a suitable preparation can be made of the county seat; said county 
shall constitute a part of the sixth judicial circuit, and the circuit court 
shall be held for said county twice a year, at such time as may be iixed by 
the judge of said district, until otherwise provided by law. 

Sec. 7. The qualified voters of the County of Carroll, in all elections, 
except county elections, shall vote with the district to which they belong; 
and the clerk of the county commissioners' coui-t of said county shall com- 
pare the election returns of said county with the clerk of the County of Jo 
Daviess, and shall make returns of elections to the Secretary of State, as is 
now required by law. The provisions of this section shall be observed until 
the next apportionment, or until otherwise provided by law. 

Sec. 8. The east half of the seventh range lying north of Whiteside 
County and South of Stephenson County, in towns 23, 24 and 25 north, 
shall be attached to and form a part of Ogle County. 

Approved, February 22, 1839. [Lmos 1838-9,^9/?. 160-1-2.] 

In those days there was perhaps as much political figuring, according 
to the population, as there is now, and men who had county seat aspirations 
to gratify were no less wily and watchful than are the politicians of 1877. 
The founders of Savanna were naturally and creditably ambitious to have 
that point made the county seat of the new count3\ but thei-e M^ere some in- 
fluences inimical to their interests to overcome. These influences, in the 
main, were confined to the three eastern townships. At Elkhorn Grove, 
a settlement almost as large as that at Savanna had grown up, which, 
united Avith the other influences op])osed to Savanna, would overcome and 
defeat the last named place for the county seat. If that influence could be 
divided, the Savannans felt assured of success. These influences were 
fully considered, and plans matured for their division or removal. In pre- 
paring the bill for the erection of the county it was so drafted (as the reader 
will see by reference to the first section) as to split the eastern tier of town- 
ships in the centre from north to south. This legal maneuvering crippled 
Savanna's opposition and rendered the choice of that place as the county- 
seat certain beyond doubt, and accounts for the three half townships of] 
Lima, Elkhorn Grove and Shannon, on the east. 


As will be seen by reference to section four of the law under which 
Carroll County was organized, it was made the duty of the voters to elect 
a full board of county officers at the same time they voted for the location 
of the seat of justice, and that the returns of the election should be certified 
to by the judges and clerks of the election in the several precincts, and 
transmitted to the justices of the peace within the county by virtue of their 
election under the jurisdiction of Jo Daviess Coimty, who should open the 
poll books, count the ballots and declare the result. The law further pro- 
vided that these justices should meet at the town of Savanna within 
seven days after the election, for the discharge of this duty, and on Thurs- 
day, the 11th day of April, they so met, and, after examining the returns, 
made the following certificate: 

We, the undersigned, acting justices of the peace in and for the original county of 
Jo Davie.-s, now within the limits of Carroll County, do hereby certify that the town of 
Savanna received the greatest number of votes for the county seat of the said county of 
Carroll, being one hundred and twenty-six votes, at an election held in said county, on the 
8th iust. 

Given under our hands and seals this 11th day of April, A. D. 1839. 

John Knox. [Seal.] 

Leonard Goss. [Seal.] 

Alvin Humphrey. [Seal.] 

J. C. OwiNGS. [Seal.] 

Benjamin Church. [Seal.] 

This certificate was returned to the County Commissioners' Court and 
ordered to be spread upon the record, and is to be seen on the 6th page of 
the old journal. 

Within the territory of the county there were only three precincts or 
voting places — Savanna, Plum Iliver and Elkhorn Grove. Only two 
places for the county seat were voted for — Savanna, and Section 9 in town- 
shi]) 34 north, range 5 east, about three miles to the southeast of Mount 
Carroll. The vote in the three precincts was as follows: 

Precincts. Savanna. Section 9. 

Savanna 108 19 

Plum River 4 30 

Elkhorn Grove,-. 14 37 

Total for each place 126 86 

Aggregate number of votes cast 212 

Majority in favor of Savanna 50 

Of the 2V2 votes cast (and this was a full county vote) only eighteen 
were given for Savanna outside of that ]3recinct. 

Thus far we have traced the history of the settlement of the territory 
within the limits of Carroll County, from its first occu];)ancy at Savanna 
by George and Yance L. Davidson, Aaron Pierce and William Blundleand 
their families, in November, 1828, to its organization as a separate and 
independent county and the location of the seat of justice, in 1839. Now, 
from the fact of its coming within the range of the Galena district, a brief 
synopsis of its Physical Geography and Geological Formations will not be 
without interest, after which the political, commercial and social history will 
be resumed. 




The followino^ is taken from the Geological Survey of Illinois, and 
written by IIox. Jamks Shaw : 

Carroll County is situated in the northwestern part of the State of 
Illinois, and is bounded north by Jo Daviess; east by Stevenson; south by 
Ogle, Lee and AYhiteside, and west by the ]\[ississippi Eiver. It contains 
an area of about 450 scpiare miles. By surveys of the Illinois Central 
Ilailr{>ad, its elevation above Lake Michigan is abont 40U feet, and al)Ove 
tlie mouth of the Ohio Piver at Cairo about 800 feet. About one third of 
the county, the northwestern, is somewhat rough, being mineral or "'lead- 
bearing" land. The surface of this is hilly and sparsely timbered, but in the 
vallej's along the streams of this part of the county, many excellent farms 
have been opened. The usual alluvial bottom skirts the Mississippi, being 
from half a mile to four miles in width. Immediately adjoining the river 
there is a belt of heavy timber, but the rest of this bottom is composed of 
drifted sand banks, marshy swamps and rich tracts of the best pasture and 
farming lands. The sontliern and eastern parts of the county are composed 
ot gently rolling praiiies, with here and there an island-like grove, as if the 
lingers of the retiring ocean had stroked the soft surface into swelling undu- 
lations. The agricultural portions of the county are j^erfect garden spots — 
rich in their almost virgin soil and manifold resources of wealth. Nor is 
the county wanting in ]ncturesqne scenery. Carroll Creek flowing west 
through its center, and Plum River running through its mineral land, have 
each cut channels deep into the underlying rocks. These are piled about 
in massive gi-andeur — are crowned with evergreens; and are in many cases 
the abodes of wonderful echoes. Above Savanna, along the l\[ississi})])i 
River, the huge, towering Niagara rocks lift their heads like a Cyclopean 

Geological Formation. — This country lies deep down in the Geological 
world, almost in the line of union between the upper and lower Silurian 
systems. Three distinctly marked groups of the rocks outcrop in Carroll 
County. These are the Galena Limestone, Cincinnati Group and Niagara 
Group. Above these are the usual deposits belonging to the quaternary 

The Galena Limestone. — This is a massive grayish, yellowish or 
brownish drape colored Magnesian linjestone — friable and coarse grained 
near its union with the clays, but very solid in its lower stratitication. In 
Jo Daviess County it is estimated to be about 250 feet thick: in this county 
it has never been accurately measured, but is perhaps somewhat thinner, as 
we are on the edge of the lead basin. Its heaviest outcrop commences 
near the geographical center of the county. Thence, westward, heavy ledges 
*of it outcrop along the banks of the Carroll Creek almost to Savanna. 
North of this little stream similar outcrops may be found, and the banks 
of Plum River. The f )rmer of these streams, especially, has cut its channel 
deep into this rock. Along this stream an anticlinal axis seems to run as 
tlie rocks dip slightly in' both directions from the creek, and a slight 
upheaval must have oiice taken place here. Along the ridge of elevation 
thus formed, a fissure naturally would be left. The frost, the rains, and the 
tooth of old Father Time disintegrated, wore down and gnawed away the 


rocks, until the fissure became partially fille.l. This, in process of time, 
formed the little valley in which Carroll Creek now runs. 

This is the famous "lead- bearing rock" of the Northwest. The ore 
occurs in fissures and caverns running through the rock in the form of what 
miners call " sheet" and "log," or crystalized mineral, the common sulphuret 
of lead. In the reddish clay overlying the rock and formed by the decom- 
position of its upper beds' "float," ore is found, never, however, in very 
large (quantities. Mining operations have never been carried on, on a large 
scale or on scientific principles. The diggings extend for several miles north 
and west of the town of Mt. Carroll. The pick, spade, common windlass 
and bucket are the only machinery in use. Little more than a livelihood 
has ever been made by these primitive miners. For a long time it was 
thought a system of deep mining would reveal heavy deposits of the ore. 
In two instances companies were formed and a considerable amount of 
capital invested. In one instance, water compelled the abandonment of the 
mine, and in the other nothing was found to repay a tithe of the expenses 
ot the company. This surftice mining will still go on as a temporary 
employment for those whose other employments are not steady. But no 
one will probably l-e found willing to spend money enough to thoroughly 
test a system of deep mining. The deepest section of this rock measured 
by me is one hundred and fifty feet, but the bottom was not exposed and 
extended down indefinitely. The early writers have been trea,ting the 
Galena limestone as a separate system. We believe it is now coming to be 
regarded ao a member of the Trenton limestone, none of which latter rock 
outcrops in this county, although it is reached in sinking deep wells in the 
southeastern part, and one quarry of the real blue Trenton limestone is now 
worked in Ogle County, two or three miles from the county line. Of the 
characteristic fossils, the Receptaculities sulcata^ or "Sunflower coral," of 
the miners is the most usually observed, and very perfect specimens are 
sometimes found. The Mxn'cJiisonia oljtusa and Lingula quadrata also 
abound. Opthocera several feet long, several species of the Orthis, corals 
of a number of species also abound. A very interesting species of trilobite 
has left its remains in these rocks, and we firmly believe that many new 
fossils will be found when the quarries in this rock are carefully and scien- 
tifically examined. Of the economic value of this rock we will speak again. 
It is the underlying rock in perhaps two thirds of the county, embracing 
the central, northern and eastern parts, being our chief building stone. 

The Cincinnati Gh'ouj)- — -The gentle slopes from the Mississippi bottom 
lands up to where the blufls are capped with the castellated crags of the 
Niagara Rocks, if exposed would reveal outcrops of this group. Some of 
the small streams have cut down into this formation through the overlying 
Niagara. Johnson Creek, winding in a sinuous course from the central to 
the southwestern portion of the county, shows the same rocks, sometimes 
near the surface. One half of the southern part of the county has this as 
the immediate underlying formation. About one mile belo\^' Savanna, 
there is a fine outcrop, where the county road cuts the side of the hills. 
About one mile above Savanna, there are considerable quarries opened in 
this formation on the side of the bluffs. Here the formation, a» near as we 
can measure, is 80 feet thick. This is the best place in the county to make 
a selection. At some large springs just at the level of the Mississippi, in 
a full stage of water, the group begins resting solidly on the Galena lime- 
stone as a foundation. Far up the hillside the oVerlying Niagara rocks are 


just as distinctly marked. In the railroad cut on the Tomlinson farm, some 
four miles southwest of ]\[t. Carroll, may be found another and perhaps the 
finest exposure in the county. At HhitlVille, also, it is exposed by (piarries. 
There are, however, few natural exposures of this rock. It soon disinte- 
grates and crumbles away. Gentle hills and slopes and graceful undulations 
are characteristic of its physical geography. 

Many springs burst out from the bases of these hills, and marshes and 
swampy places are not infrequent. Shales and shaley limestones compose 
a large ])art of the rocks of this group, but its lower beds are sometimes 
solid and massive enough foi- a building stone, and even contain lead in 
small quantities. These shales are of a bluish-white color, their particles 
are finely comminuted, as if deposited in deep, peaceful seas. A vast 
amount of carbon is contained in the black shales of this group. Speci- 
mens taken fiom near Savanna and from near the Beers Tomlinson farm, 
are almost as black as cannel coal and burn with an oily, bright flame for a 
considerable time. Misled by this, s<')nie capital has been expended at the 
latter place boring for coal, and nothing but experience will convince those 
eng^ao^ed that such a search is useless. One of our citizens also succeeded in 
extracting some oil, which he pronounced petroleum, out ot similar speci- 
mens. When the great oil excitement arose in this country, an oil com- 
pany was formed here, and but for the advice of the geologists, this company 
would now be spending its money in a vain effort to strike oil. The geolo- 
gist of Iowa, Prof. AVliitney, estimates that the carbon of these rocks, if 
gathered into one strata, would form a be<l twenty-five feet thick. 

AVhence comes this mass of combustible in these old silurian rocks i' 
No geologist, to my knowledge, has undertaken to answer this (piestion. 
Is it of organic origin — the remains of an ancient vegetation? Is it the 
result of animate life i The ('oral Halls Iowa Report states that no trace of 
vegetation has as yet been observed in the widely distributed shales of this 
group, except a few traces of fucoids in the Ttica slates of New York. This 
makes him doubt the vegetable origin of this bituminous matter. In this 
countj^ however, we have discovered fucoids woven all over the tops of some 
of the strata in this formation. May it not be that a condition of things 
similar to that of the Cai-boniferous eras existed over the broad basin in 
which these shales were deposited ? The vegetation consisted of the lowest 
orders — such as would decay and leave few traces of their existence. The 
disorganized remains would alone remain in the form of carbon, or coaly 
shale. The day may come when this substance, whatever it is, will be of 
economic value for light, or even fuel. With this brief notice, we must 
dismiss, for the ]u-esent, this very interesting (piestion. 

This foriuiition is ])rolific of fossils. Countless renniins. with occa- 
sional perfect s])ecimens of the splendid lai-ge trilol)ite, the Axajylms (/igi'S 
are the most noticeable. Orthls occidentalis and O. lestudhurna abound. 
Some of these shales are covered with beautifully marked dendrites. 
Fucoids are also found. Orthoceratites and a large Lituites have been found 
in it, together with numerous other fossils. 

T/k' N'K.Kjdra Lhnei<tone. — This is Owens' '' pentemerus beds " of the 
upper Magnesian limestone. It is next in order above thegrou]) just con- 
sidered. The traveller on the Upper Mississippi must have been struck 
until its bold and pictures(|ue appearance, as he passed between Fulton City 
and Dubuque. Now the blufts sweej) down to the water's edge, now they 
trend ofl:' in a semi-circular direction, as if for the site of a colossal amphi- 


theatre. Their bases indicate the gentle slopes of the Cincinnati shales, 
but their summits are caj3ped with tlie Niagar.i rocks. 

Like vast mural structures, they rise along the highest elevations, 
weather worn into all kinds of fantastic shapes, and displaying in their 
escarped cliffs resemblances to old forts and ruined cathedrals, time-worn, 
castellated l)attlements, or distant spires and minarets of some old town. 
Such is the appearance of these rocks along the river bluffs above Savanna, 
and towards the southern line ot the county. The beholder, especially if he 
be a geologist, feels a strange spell stealing over him. Mighty visions of 
the old geologic ages enrapture his soul. A leaf from the old stone book is 
upturned before him, and he reads in the great Jjible of Nature hersul)lime 
truths. He has discovered hard senile — common sense, in the rocks. But 
enough ot dream and fancy sketching. Leaving the river, we do not iind 
exposures of this limestone. Over the northern and northwestern portions 
of the county all the highest portions are covered with it, in broken, frag- 
mentary masses. (Jnce it doubtless covered n large part of the county, but 
it has been denuded and carried off, leaving chert beds, corals and fragments 
of the rock itself, as memorials of where it once existed as the surface rock. 
The frost, the ram and the atmosphere pulverize the Niagara rocks, and the 
chert beds in them, being harder, settle down like a crop of white flints, 
sown over farm, field and hill. These chert beds show that the water of the 
old Niagara seas contained much silica in solution. 

The Niagara limestone abounds in f<)ssils. The most common and 
characteristic is the beautiful Pentamerus ohlo7igus, or ''petrified hickory 
nut " of the miners. But the old Niagara seas were particularly the homes 
of the coral builders, and these minute animals swarmed in countless myri- 
ads everywhere, leaving their fossil monuments. Among the most charac- 
teristic are the Favosltes favosa^ F. Niagerensis^ Stromatopora concen- 
trica, Haly sites calewalatus^ and many other species and genera, contaiii- 
ing, doubtless, new and undescribed corals. 

This brings us through the Illinois rocks as developed in this county. 
Sometimes traces of the Trenton proper are found in the southern part, but 
they hardly deserve a place in the surface geology of Carroll County, The 
rocks of all three of these formations possess value as building stone. The 
Galena ranks first and the Cincinnati group last in economic value. 

The Quaternary System. — Alluvium. The Mississippi bottom, from 
Savanna to the south line of the county, in width averaging nearly five 
miles, is composed of this 'recent river deposit. The same deposit also 
exists north of Savanna on the Mississippi, and along some of the small 
streams in the interior. Some of it is a rich, deep black and rather wet 
soil, much of it consists of sandy deposits, while a portion forms our very 
best agricultural lands. The loess or bluff formation does not exist to a 
great extent in Carroll County, unless the soil and sub-soil of our productive 
prairies belongs to this deposit. Some of our l)luffs, as, for instance, where 
Johnson Creek breaks through to the Mississippi bottom^ are composed of 
the loess clays. The drift formation is also manifest in our county, to a 
considerable extent, although some seem to argue that it is undetected in 
the Galena lead basin. Deposits of drift in our county can be found resting 
immediately on the Galena rocks. All our little streams almost have cut 
down into deposits of boulders and gravel beds. 

The following section, made in a well in ihe town of Mount Carroll, 
might be taken as a fair type of the superficial deposit resting upon our 
rocks, beginning at the top and measuring do wm wards: 


Bliick prairie mnUL. 2 feet. 

Yellow, line-grained claj' 18 " 

Cnnimon bhie clay 2 " 

Keildish clay and gravel .-. 15 " 

Tough blue clay. 2 " 

Coarse, slralitied gravel bed 3 " 

Pure yellow sand bed 11 " 

Black mucky clay 5 " 

~)'d feet. 

Another well, some three miles distant, paesed throuo^h a second soil 
some fifteen feet below the surface, and immediately thereafter a deposit of 
timber or wood, two or three feet in thickness, many of the pieces havinir 
tenacity enough to hold together for months after exposure to the atmos- 
phere. This well is on the farm of Felix O'Neal, and at the time of its 
opening was considered an object of much interest. 

We can not leave this part of our subject without again adverting to 
the boulders. For us they have a peculiar charm and interest. These 
" nigger heads," " hard heads," or lost rocks, abound in many places where 
the streams and rains have carried the soils away. Oftentimes they are asso- 
ciated with gravel beds of the transported drift. Among them have been 
found several nuggets of copper, one of which was found lodged in a crev- 
ice of one of our Oalena (piari'ies. Some ot these boulders are striated and 
furrowed by the glacier or the iceberg. Quartz, feldspar, granite, gneiss 
hornblende, porphyry syenite, anvl various combinations of these and other 
minerals make up these travelled rocks. Would that we could have the true 
history of one of these lost rocks — real old cosmopolitans in a primal world. 
What a wonderful interest would cling around its wanderings from the 
time when it left its home among the Plutonic rocks of Lake Superior until 
some iceberg dropped it into its present bed, through gently-moving cur- 
rents towards the southwest I Ocean streams rolled these uncouth stones 
for ages at the bottom of the " vasty deep." Frozen into glaciers, they 
have been pushed along their snail-like i3ace. Adhering to icebergs and 
ice lields and ice tioes, they floated hither and thither through Northern 
seas, until the ice dissolved in its genial warmth. Could we know their 
true liistory, the masquerade of the elements, the lost history of the world, 
would be made as plain as a well-conned lesson. The associated pieces of 
water-worn copper are " linger boards," telling from whence they both 
came, and the direction of the ocean currents which deposited our drift. 


]\Ionday, April 8, 1839, the county seat was estciblished at an election 
ordered and held for that purpose. At the same election and under the 
same special law, the people voted for a full board of county officers. At 
that time politics did not cut much of a figure in the selection of candi- 
dates, although it is reasonable to suppose that the election was full of 
interest to the settlers, as from that day they were to be recognized in the 
manac-ement ot the affiiirs of the state as a separate and independent 
county, and entitled to all the rights and privileges of the other and older 
counties. For judicial purposes, the county was made to form a part of the 
sixth district, of which Dan Stone, of Galena, was the presiding judge. 
Courts were to be held twice a year at such times as the judge should des- 


ignate, and the earlj records show that Judge Stone appointed these terms 
for May and September. The county olficers elected were: 

County Commissioners, Samples M. Journey, Garner Molfett, and 
Luther H. Bo wen; County Clerk, AVilliam B. Goss; Shetijf\ llezekiah 
Francis; Probate Justice of the Peace, John C. O wings; Coroner, Mason 
C. Ta3dor; Recorder, Royal Cooper; Surveyor, Levi Warner. 

On the 3 3th day of April, iive days after their electioi], two of the 
county comraissionei's. Samples M. Journey and Lulher II. Bowen, met and 
organized as a county commissioners' court. The tirst entry made on their 
journal of proceedings was the oath of oltice administered to William B. 
Goss as county clerk, which is in these words, to-wit: 

'■'State of IlUiiols, Garroll County. — I, the undersigned, being duly elected clerk of the 
couuty commissioners' court for said county, do heret^y swear that I will support the con- 
stitution of the United iStatcs, and of this state, and that I will I'ultil the duties of my oftice 
as clerk of said court truly and faithfully to the best ot my knowledge and ability; so help 
me God. 

" Subscribed and sworn before me this 13th day of April, 1839, at Savanna. 

Benj. Church, J. P. [Seal.] " 

The next entry was the oath of office administered to each of the two 
commissioners, and in the same words, except that " county commissioners" 
is substituted for "county clerk." The oath of office was administered by 
the same jtistice, Benjamin Church. 

The court then proceeded to business, and 

'■'■Ordered, That Elijah Bellows and Alva Daiues be appointed assessors for CaiToU 
County, for the year 1839. 

*' Ordered, That Norman D. French be appointed for collector for the above county, 
for the 3'ear 1839. 

" Ordered, That there shall be four days' road work required of each man, if nec- 

This was the style of their orders. There was no waste or unnecessary 
use of words. "Short, qtiick and sharp" was their method — a rule of 
action that characterized Luther LI. Bowen, the guiding and controling 
spirit of the board, in all his business transactions, and each order was 
signed by the commissioners, as they were written by the clerk. At this 
session the commissioners divided the county into ten road districts and 
appointed a supervisor for each district, etc. Having thus started the 
county machinery, the commissioners adjourned until the 3d day of June 

At this session the first business appearing of record was the appoint- 
ment of C. Grant and Jno. Ankeny, of Elkhorn Grove, and Herman 
Downing, of the Preston Settlement, to review the road from " Stoney Creek 
to the county line in the direction to Buffialo Grove, touching Elkhorn 
Grove," which appears to be the first road viewed in the county. There is 
no record of any petition having been presented "prajdng" for the estab- 
lishment of this road, and hence there is a probability that the road was 
petitioned for before Carroll County was set ofi" from Jo Daviess, or that 
the commissioners ordered it without petition. 

Two petitions follow this order — one for a road leading from " Savanna 
in said county to Knox mill on Elk Horn creek, and also a road diverging 
from the first named road at or near Johnson Creek to the county line, in a 
direction to Harrisburgh on Eock River." The viewers ajDpointed for 
these roads were Yance L. Davidson, A. L. Knox and Thomas Francis. 

The second petition "prayed " for the location of a road " from Savanna 
ma Bowen's ferry to the south line of the county in the direction of Fulton 


City, and that a road diverge from said road on or about two miles from 
Savanna and intersect the road leading from the Savanna Mill to Prophets- 
town, near the farm now occupied by Elijah Stearns." The viewers 
appointed for this road were Elijah Stearns, Asa Pati'ick and Andrew 

At this session of the Board of County Commissioners the regulation 
and formation of election precincts claimed attention, and it was "ordered 
that the Cherry Grove Precinct include all of Cherry Grove, the iidial)itants 
'vithiu the limits of range 5, G and 7 in township 25, and that Garner Mof- 
fitt, G. W. Harris and John C. Owings be appointed judges of elections 
and the elections be held at the house of John C. Owings.'' 

"Ordered. That the inhabitants within the limits of townships twenty-tiiree and twenty- 
four, east of ihe center of range four and west of Little Rock liiver or creek, be recognized 
as the Preston Precinct, and that Samuel Preston, Ileman Downing and Daniel Cristian be 
the juilges of elections, and thut the elections be held at the house of Samuel Preston." 

Ordered, That the inliabitants of all that i)art of Carroll County laying west of the 
middle of range 4, in townsliii)S 23 and 24, and all west of range 5 in township 25, be in- 
cluded in the Savanna Precmct, and thai N. D. French, Vance L. Davitlson, and John A. 
Waketield be appointed judges of elections, the election to be held at Wm. L. B. Jinks' tav- 
ern, in Savanna. 

The following named settlers were selected as grand and petit jurors for 
the first term of the Circuit Court, which was expected to convene in Sep- 
tember of that year: 

Grand Jurors. — John Knox, A. Painter, Iliram McNemur, Daniel 
Stormer, Thos. I. Shaw, E. AV. Todd, Francis Garner, John C. ( ) wings, Geo. 
Swagert, Nathan Fisk, Samuel Preston, Sr., David Masters, J>. Tomlinson, 
Aaron Pierce. Thos. lloof, John Eddowes, John Barnard, John Laswill, 
Stephen N. Arnold, Elijah Stearns, Wm. Dyson, Jr., Wm. Dyson, Sr., and 
Daniel Cristian — 23. 

Petit Jurors. — Wm. Ayers, Aaron Bobble, Wm. Jenkins, Israel Jones, 
John Isler, Sumner Downing, Nelson Swaggert, Irwin Kellogg, Vance L. 
Davidson, Alonzo Shannan, John Orr, David Ashby, Geo. W. Brice, Wni. 
Eaton, J^evi Newman, John Johnson, Jonathan Cummings, Geo. Christian, 
P. D. Otis, Elias P. Williams, Royal Cooper, Davidi L. Bowen, Wm. 
Blundle and John W. Fuller— 24. 

The term of court for which these jurors were selected was not held, 
and conse([uently the p^rescribed oath was not administered to them. A 
second selection was equally useless because of infoi'uiality in the manner of 
selection, and when the court met, on the first Monday in June, ]S40, they 
were dismissed by Judge Stone, in the words following, as entered of 
record : 

It being made manifest to the court thatr no legal summons had been issued by the 
clerk of the Countj' Commissioners' Court to the Sheritf of the County of Carroll, command- 
ing him to summon the persons selected by said Commissioners' Court, at their April term, 
in the year nf our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty, as grantl and ])etit jurors, to 
appear before said Circuit Court on the first daj' of said term; and, it further api)earing 
that the Sheriff of said county had summoned, without any legal venise or summons, 
twenty-three persons as grand jurors, and twenty-four persons as i)etit jurors, to a]ipear oa 
the first diiy of said term, wliicJi said i)ersons were in attendance as grand and petit jurors, 
not having been summoned according to law, it is ordered that they be discharged from 
further attendance on said court. 

The County Commissioners, at this term of court, also 

Ordered, That the sum of seven dollars be granted to Alva Dainesfor three and one 
half days' services as assessor, and the sum of seventeen dollars be granted to f]lijah Bel- 
lows for eight and one half days' services as assessor. And that the above be paid out of 
any moneys in the treasury not otherwise appropriated. 




It was further 

Ordered, That Messrs. Smith and Journey should have a license for the term of one 
year from this date to_ keep a grocery in Savanna, by paying twenty-five dollars into the 
county treasury and giving bonds according to law. 

This last onler conchided the second session of the Commissioners' 
Court, wlien tliey adjourned. Ad interim, County Clerk Goss made the 
lollowing entry: 

. In pursuance of the law in regard to the County Commissioners drawin-r tickets for 
their term ot service the tickets were presented by the clerk of the said court lU their June 
term, _lbo9 and Luther H. Eowen drew the ticket which had the word one year written 
upon It, and S. _M. Journey drew the ticket which liad the word three years wrilten upon it 
and the remaining ticket which had the word two years written upon it was left for Garnet 
Motbt who was absent at the time. . Wm. B. Goss, Clerk 

A special term of the court was held on the sixth day of July when 
^le following claims were audited and ordered to be paid out of the County 
Treasury: % "^ 

To Benjamin Cluirch,J.P., forswearing in Clerk and County Commissioners 75 

cK '^S 7^ wf ;; a'V'^ r"' *'-S 7'^^^^^■'^ '"''^'^ '''''^'' '' '-^^^^ ^'^^'«- ' »" Thomas Fkn 
CIS Wo and to A. L. Knox, |3 7.), tor same services. Six dollars were allowed to John 
Eaton and son for three days' services as chainmen in opening a road, etc. Nine cS 
were ordered to be paid to L. H. Bo wen, for three days' services of himself aiTtc'm in 
assisting to open a road. Eight dollars and seventy-five cents were allowed to Le vi Warne" 
for hree and a halt days' services as road surveyor, and $8 were allowed to W B Gosi for 
books and stationery turnished the county up to date. 

The next session of the court was held in September. An election had 
been held on Mond^iy, the 5th day of August, and AVm. B. Goss had been 
re-elected to the ofhce ot County Clerk, and had tiled his bond in the T3enal 
sum ot one thousand dollars, with Vance L. Davidson as his l.ondsman for 
the taithtul discharge of the duties of the oftice. John Eddowes had been 
cliosen at the same election as County Commissioner, to succeed Luther H 
Lowen (who, at the first term of the court, in April, had drawn the short- 
term ticket), and had qualifaed accordingly. 

For a nuniber of years the settlePs whose names figure so conspicu- 
ously in the early affairs of the county continued to be prominent charac- 
ters m the public interests. Some of them were repeatedly elected to places "' 
ot trust, and made faithful, honest servants of the people" 

in ,,^^^?,f'"f ^S'"'^l•^w'^^''f"^^'^'^'^''^^^^^^ ^''^'S (a captain 

in the Bhxck Hawk War), for $10.50, in payment for a copy of the law 

und-r which the county was organized. Craig was a member of the House 

of ivepresentatives, from Jo Daviess County, and had introduced the bill 

and secured its passage. 

,-. M^^'%^Mn ^^'r^^ ""i t!f,.C^^cuit Court commenced on the first Monday 
m May IbiO The building used as a court house was a frame structure 
situated on block forty at the upper end of town. It was owned by a rail- 
road or steamboat engineer, and was untenanted. Besides servino- as a 
court house, it was used as a school house, cliurch, and such other ''meet- 
ings as the times and occasions demanded. 

When court was called, Leonard Goss presented his appointment from 
Judge Stone as clerk, together with his ofiicial bond in the sum of $2 000 
tor a faithful discharge of the duties of the office. John Bernard 'and 

tZT. 1 ""^ ^""If ' V ^r^'^''^"- ^^■^^'^ subscribing to the oath of office, 
he entered upon the discharge of its duties. . 

«T.d ^^^^f^5^^^^^P"cis filed ills commission from Governor Carlin, as sheriff, 
and albo his official bond m the sum of $10,000, with John Bernard, AYilliam 


R. Craig, Aaron Pierce, D. H. Whitney, John Laswell and Y. L. Davidson 
as bondsmen. His bond was approved, the oath of office administered, and 
he entered upon the discharge of the duties of sheriff. 

Mason C. Taylor, coroner elect, also presented his official bond in the 
sum of S2,O00, and took the oath of office. His bondsmen were Milus C. 
Robinson and John Bernard. 

After the dismissal of the grand and petit juries as already stated, the 
approval of the several bonds, and administering tlie oath of office to the 
clerk, sheriff and coroner, as above noted, the business of the court com- 

The old docket shows that twelve cases liad been entered for trial. 
Martin P. Sweet, Judge Drummond (now U. S. Circuit Judge), a ]\Ir. Chase 
and a Mr. Iloge, wei'e present as attorneys. Judge Drummoml had two 
divorce cases — the first of the kind in the county. They were entitled 
Jeremiah Humphrey vs. Hannah Humphrey, and Dudley C. Humphrey r«. 
Lavina liuniphre3\ Of the other ten cases, two were slander suits, brought 
by the same man — Robert Ashby vs. Peter Bashaw and Oliver Bashaw. 
Biith cases were dismissed from the docket without trial. 

Among the lawyers who attended the early courts of Carroll County, 
quite a number attained prominent distinction in the judicial and other 
departments of public affairs. Among these, in addition to those already 
mentioned, were E. B. Washburne and Judge Heaton. The nam.e of "Wash- 
burne is as familiar as household words, not only here where he lirst came 
into notice as a young lawyer, but from one end of our common country to 
the other. 

For jury rooms in those days, some of the rooms in Pierce's Hotel were 
brought into requisition, for which the county commissioners usually made 
an appro] iriation of tifteen dollars for putting the rooms in oi'der for each 
term of the coui-t. 

Judge Dan Stone was succeeded by J udo;e Browne, also of Galena, since 
when the succession has been Wilkinson, Drury, Eustace and Heaton. 

The third selection (^and the first to serve) for grand and petit juries 
was as follows: 

Grand Jurors. — Alvah Dains, Henry Hunter, John Ankeny, Hurry 
Smith, Tilson Aldrich, IsraelJones, Francis Garner, Joseph Taylor, Edward 
C. Cochran, John Knox, Samuel Preston, Sr., Joshua Bailey, Col. Beers 
Tomlinson, Amos Leonard, Elijah Stearns, William Dyson, Sr., James M. 
French, Roval Jacobs, Vance L. Davidson, Milus C. Robinson, James Kim- 
ball— 21. 

Petit Jurors. — Joshua McKillops, Stephen N. Arnold, David L. 
Bowen, W, L. B. Jenks, M. W. Hollingsworth, Jonathan Cummings, 
Samuel L. Bayless, John B. Christian, Rezin Everts, Squire Garner, Alfred 
JNewman, Henry Jenkins, John Fuller, Richard Wright, William Blundell, 
M. B. Pierce, David Ashby, l^)enjamin Church, David Masters, (4arner 
Moffett, Samuel Toutz. Joseph Hire, Daniel Stormer — 28. 

Early Resident Attorneys. — ''When the first term of the Circuit Court 
was held," says Volney Akmouk, Esq., in 'A Glance at the Early History 
of Carroll County,' "there was but one resident attorney — John A. "Wake- 
feld. John Wilson came about 1841." 

In the same pa])er Mr. Armour says: "I wonder what our present race 
of hotel kee])ers would say to legislation such as the following, passed March 
5, 1844, by Beers Tomlinson, Henry Smith and John C. Owings, county 


commissioners, to-wit: 'Ordered, that the followin^^ be the tavern rates in 
the County of Carroll np to March, 1845: Each' person, per meal, not 
exceeding 25 cents; horse to hay and grain per day, 50 cents; lodging, one 
person, 12^ cents; all kinds of liquor, per drink, 6J cents.' " 


As settlements increased and spread out to different parts of the county, 
the question of removing the county seat from Savanna to a more con- 
venient or central location began to be discussed, and finally took definite 
shape. The removal was hastened, perhaps, by the neglect 'or inability of 
the Savanna interests to comply with the provisions of Section 3 of the 
law under which the county was organized. These provisions were to the 
efiect that the town of Savanna should "donate to said new county, for the 
purpose of erecting public buildings, a sufficient number of lots,' in the 
town of Savanna, for the accommodation of the necessary public buildino-s, 
and three thousand five hundred dollars in cash, payable in three eqiTal 
instalments, say in six, twelve and eighteen months from the time the loca- 
tion of said county seat is established." At the September term, 1840. of 
the County Commissioners Court, Porter Sargent, Esq., was appointed 
agent " to confer with the proprietors of the town of Savanna on the sub- 
ject of the money donated by them for the purpose of erecting buildings 
for the county, and in conjunction with them to devise means for assessing 
thetown property and making out a 'pro rata list and collecting the obli^ 
gations or money accordingly, and return the same to the County Court by 
their next meeting in December, or sooner, the obligation, if taken, to be 
made payable in instalments, as called for by the commission." In Decem- 
ber there was no meeting of the court, and consequently no report made by 
Mr. Sargent. ]S'or do we find any report, whatever, in regard to this mat- 
ter, although the record of the Commissioners' Court has been carefully 
examined. But, on Monday, the 6th of December, 1841, at a regular ses- 
sion of the court, a special session of the court was ordered to be held on 
the first Monday in February, 1842, to receive proposals for building a jail. 
At that special session Messrs. L. H. Bo wen and Vance L. Davidson were 
appomted a committee to confer with the property owners of the town of 
Savanna "to see what measures they would take in regard to the donation 
required by law of the proprietors of said town," etc. ^o proposals appear 
to have been received for building the jail, and the court adjourned until 
the next term in course. On the second day of the March term, 1842, the 
following entry was made: "On the report of L. H. Bowen and Yance L. 
Davidson -■>-** it is hereby ordered that Beers Tomlinson and Norman 
D. l^rench be appointed a committee to contract with the propi'ietors of the 
town of Savanna for a building for the use of the countv, to be used as a 
court house and offices for countv officers, to be donated as a part of the 
bonus ^^"^ etc. 

_ Several_ orders of this kind were entered, but thev seem to have been 
without avail. No decided and decisive steps were taken, further than to 
get out some timber for a kind of block jail, but it was never used for the 
purpose for which it was intended. 

Some time in 1836, Paul D. Otis, a driver, and Granville Mathews, 
superintendent of the Winter's stage line from Peoria, via Dixon's Ferry 
and Cherry Grove, to Galena, made a claim of the lands coverino- the mill 
site and lands at Mount Carroll. In 1837, Daniel Christian,' Nathaniel 


Swingley, Samuel L. Hitt and George Swaggert formed themselves into a 
mill company, and bought the Otis and Mathews claim, for which they paid 
$1,400, but did not enter upon its improvement. In 1841, Nathaniel Hal- 
derman and David Eiumert entered into an arrangement to build a mill 
somewhere in the county, and for a time had their attention called to the 
site now occn})ied by the mills- of Messrs. Wood & Kitchen, on Plum Kiver, 
then known as the I](jwen mill site. Negotiations, however, were not com- 
pleted, and they purchased the interest of Daniel Christian, Nathaniel 
Swingley, Samuel L. llitt and George Swaggert in and to the Mt. Carroll 
property, for which they were to pay $3,000. The original company had 
dissolved its partnership arrangement some time prior to this, and had made 
a division of the property. The new company M'as known by the firm name 
of Emmert, U alderman cV: Co., and soon afrer the purchase of the property 
was completed, they commenced operations — making excavations for the 
mill foundations, starting the dam, etc., etc. In the Spring of 1842, their 
enterprise was well under way and the centre of attraction to new comers. 
The removal of the county seat to a more central location was a general 
theme of conversation and interest among the settlers, and by reason of its 
nearness to the geographical centre of the county, the new mill came to be 
regarded as the legitimate and only rival of Savanna. And it is not un- 
reasonable to suppose that the managers of the new enterprise availed them- 
selves of every possible opportunity to keep the advantages of their site for 
county seat honors before the people. 

In 1837, George W. Christian had come in possession of that tract of 
land now embraced in the farm of Sherman Cole, a tract of ten acres owned 
by Hon. J. M. Stowell, and extending north to the Baptist Church and east 
to Clay Street. Of this tract, Christian proposed to give thirteen acres to 
the county if the seat of justice should be located here. Emmert, Haider- 
man & Co., the mill company, likewise proposed to donate forty acres on 
the east side of the present town site, on the same condition. Both j^arties 
— i. <?., Christian, and Emmert, llalderman & Co. — ke])t their faith and did 
convey to the county commissioners and their successors in office, the lands 
referred to. 

Savanna, had failed up to this time to comply with the requirements 
of the law under which the county had been organized, and during the ses- 
sion of the legislature of 1842-3, an act entitled " An act to re-locate the 
.county seat of Carroll County" was passed, and "John Dixon, of Lee 
County, Moses Ilallett, of Jo Daviess County, and Nathaniel Belcher, of 
Kock Island County, were appointed commissioners to select a site for the 
re-local ion of the county seat. * * -s?- And the said commissioners, or a 
majority of them, shall meet at Savanna, in the County of Carroll, on the 
first Monday in May next (1843), or wiJiin fifteen days thereafter, and after 
being duly sworn to the faithful discharge of their duties, shall pi'oceed to 
examine such parts of said county as they may think pr(iper to enable them 
to select such a site as in their opinion shall give the greatest amount of 
good to the greatest number of inhabitants of said county, as a county seat; 
and said commissioners, after having made such selection, shall report to 
the clerk of the Count}' Commissioners' Court of said county a certificate 
thereof, which cei-tificate of said selection shall be recorded by the clerk of 
said County Commissioners' Court; Promded, always, that such selection 
so made shall not be the town of Savanna." 

Section 2, of the same act, provided as follows: " That an election shall 


be held in the County of Carroll, on the first Monday in Angnst next, at the 
nsnal place of holding elections in said county, for the removal of the seat 
of justice of said county; at which election the clerks thereof shall open two 
columns, one for Savanna, the present seat of justice, and one for the place 
which shall be designated by the commissioners hereinbefore appointed, and 
shall receive and record the votes of each qualified voter for one of the 
aforesaid places as the seat of justice thereafter for said county. * "' 

'" '^ The clerk of the County Commissioners' Court shall immedi- 
ately after the receipt by him of the returns of said election, in the presence 
of two justices of the peace, open said election returns, compare them, and 
certify the same to the County Commissioners' Court, and the place having 
the greatest number of votes shall be and remain the seat of justice in said 

Pursuant to their appointment under this law, two of the commissioners, 
John Dixon, of Lee County, and Moses Hallett, of Jo Daviess County, pro- 
ceeded, within the time specified, to examine the grouuii, etc., and on the 
17th day of May, 1843, made the following report : 

The iiudei'signed (who cfmstitute a majority of the commissioners so appointed to 
select a site as a county seat for said county), who, after having examined said county witli 
a view of tlie best interests of the greatest number of inhabitants of said county, and alter 
talcing into consideration the liberal donation to be secured to the county commissioners of 
said county for the use of the people thereof, do, by these presents, make known and declare 
that the site selected, as aforesaid, is the south lialf of the east half of the southeast quarter of 
section one (1), townshi]) twenty-four (24) noi'th, range four (4) east of the fourth principal 
meridian, and that a sulistantial stake has been set in the place selected as a public square, 
to which site we have given the name of Mount Carroll. 

As witness our hands and seals this seventeenth day of May, A.D. one thousand 
eight hundred and fort} -three. 

John Dixon. [Seal.] 

Moses Hallett. [Seal.] 

The returns of the August election show that 421 votes were ]3olled on 
the county seat question, of which Mt. Carroll had 231, and Savanna 190. 
There were only four precincts, or voting places, at each of which votes were 
cast as follows: * 

Precincts. Mt. Carroll. Savanna. 

Savannah. 6 130 

Cherry Grove 46 16 

Elkhorn Grove. 78 38 

Preston 101 6 ' 

231 190 
Majority for Mt. Carroll 41 

The report of the commissioners to re-locate the county seat was entered 
upon the journal of the County Commissioners Court at their September 
session, 1843. In August the people had voted and the result was known, 
so that at this session the commissioners inauo^urated measures lookinsr to a 
removal ot the county offices from Savanna. John Wilson was apj^ointed 
as an agent for the county to demand the execution of a warranty deed from 
George W. Christian to the countv for the land he had ao^reed to donate to 
the county if the county seat was located at Mt. Carroll, and also to super- 
intend the division of the Emmert, Halderman & Co. tract into town lots, 
etc., and to give public notice of the sale of lots and to sell on such terms 
and conditions as the county commissioners should direct, to receive notes, 
execute title bonds and deeds to purchasers under his proper hand and seal, 
for and in behalf of the county," etc. 

244 HISTORY OF carroll county. 

The immediate site designated by the locating commissioners by driv- 
ing a stake into the gronnd, was at or near the west line of Main Street, on 
the toj) <tt' the hill near the Baptist Church. Upon the tii-st organization of 
the county, the choice of a name was left to the settlers in Chei-rv Grove 
Precinct, the most of whom were Marylauders. and they named the new 
county in honor ot that grand old patriot who wrote his name to the Decla- 
ration of American Independence, "Charles Carroll, of Carrollton." From 
the point where this stake was driven in the earth, the ground sloped in all 
directions, and was elevated above the surrounding country. The name of 
Mount Carroll was given to the new county seat — a ]ilace before unknown 
by any name except Emmert, II aMerman & Co.'s Mill Site. 


December 5, 1843, Col. Beers Tomlinson, one of the members of the 
Board of County Conaiiissioners, was "appointed agent for the County of 
Carroll to contract for the building of a courthouse of the following descrip- 
tion, to-wit: Thirty feet by forty on the ground; a basement of stone sixteen 
inches above the surface of the earth, two feet thick. The tirst story to be 
eight feet and nine inches high in the clear, divided into four rooms, 
entrance and one liight of stairs as marked on ])lat number one on plan on 
Hie in this office. The timbers of the lower floor to be good substantial 
sleepers; the joists of the second story floor to be ten inches deep and two 
inches thick and twenty inches a])art from centre to centre. The second 
story to be ele\-en feet high, to be finished according to a S])ecified plan in 
this office. Roof, cupola, cornice, and frontispiece all to be finished accord- 
ing to the last above named specified plan. The walls of the building above 
the basement to be brick; first story walls to be sixteen inches thick or the 
length of two brick; flues suitable to receive stove pipes prepared in each 
room; doors to each room containing six panels each and one and a half 
inches thick; outside doors to be two inches thick. Floors to be of good 
white oak, tongued and grooved, one and a (juarter inches thick. The roof 
covered with good merchantable pine shingles. The building to be painted 
throughout — outside and inside — the whole building to be finished on or 
before the October term of Circuit Court of Carroll County, A.D. 1844, in 
accordance throughout with the plan on file in this office, to be built of 
good sound material, and built in a workmanlike manner. If it shouhl be 
necessary, our agent, in entering into a contract with builders may make 
such slight changes in the above specified plan as may be deemed j)roper.'' 

A sale of lots was advertised for the 2Uth of November, A.D. 1843, at 
one third cash in hand, one third in six months, and the remaining one 
third in twelve months from the day of sale, secured by the notes of pur- 
chasers, the county commissioners giving title bond for deed when last 
payments were made, the county commissioners sti])ulating to receive 
specie, current i)aper and county scrip in payment for lots, etc. The day of 
sale came, but in consequence of objections raised by the Mill Company, no 
sales were made. In agreeing to donate forty acres of land and one thou- 
sand dollars in money to the county, if the seat of justice were located 
adjacent to their mill property, the company understood and expected that 
the site for the court house would be selected near the line dividing their 
land from the forty acres they would deed to the county, that they might 
be equally benefitted by the nearness of the public buildings co them. J3ut, 
when Mr. Wilson, the county clerk and special agent for the county to 


superintend the division of that forty acres of land into town lots, selected 
the site for the court house, etc., instead of locating the court house square 
on the northwest corner of the land donated by the Mill Company, he 
selected the county S([uare near the centre of the forty acres, and hence the 
olvjections of the company. That company not only objected to the meas- 
ures, so far as they had been prosecuted by Mr. AVilsoii, and to the sale of 
lots as a violation of the agreement entered into when they donated the 
land, but refused to pay the thousand dollars which they had offered in addi- 
tion to the land. The county needed public buildings. The treasury was 
empty, the people were poor, and to raise a sum sufficient to build a court 
house, etc., by taxation, would have imposed a heavy burden upon the set- 
tlers — a burden tlie\^ could not carry. A thousand dollars in those days 
was a " bonanza " to Carroll County, and it was to the public interest to 
secure the money olfered by the Mill Company, as well as the forty acres 
of land. A compromise was made on terms offered by Emmert, Ilalderman 
& Co., to this end: that, if the county commissioners would deed back to 
the company the forty acres which they had donated to the county and 
release them from the payment of the one thousand dollars they had offered, 
and also deed to them the Christian tract of thirteen acres, they would give 
a sufficient number of acres of ground near their mill, and build thereon a 
court house, and deed the same to the county. The terms were accepted, 
and the present public square was surveyed out and the erection of a stone 
court house commenced and completed on the northwest corner of the 
square, which served the county until the present handsome brick temple of 
justice was completed, in 1S5S. Afterwards, with a trame addition built 
on the north side, it was used and occupied by Messrs, Blake & Stowell as 
a hardware store. It was burned down in October, 1872. 

iSTathaniel Ilalderman, of the firm of Emmert, Halderman tfc Co., seems 
to have been the representative, or business man, of the Mill Company, and 
to have conducted all their business matters, particularly in arranging and 
adjusting the differences that came up between his company and the county, 
and to no one man, perhaps, is there due a greater degree of credit 
for the inauguration and management of the public interests of Mount 
Carroll than to ISTathaniel Halderman, who, though now nearing the last of 
the years allotted to man, is remarkably well preserved, intellectually and 
physically, and one of the most active business men of the communit}', and 
highly respected not only at home, but abroad. 

March t>. 1844, while the county commissioners were in session, Beers 
Tomlinson, building agent for the county, submitted his first report, in the 
words folloM'ing, to-wit: 

To the Honorable County Commissioners Court, of Carroll County, III. — Gentlemen: 
In conformity to required duties, on the first day of January, '44, I presented a blank bond, 
received from tlie clerk of said court, to ^lessrs.' Emmert, Halderman & Rinehart, lo be exe- 
cuted by them to the people ot said county, which they refused to sign, stating that the bond 
required more of them than they agreed to pertorm, which was the addition of a cupola, 
bell, frontis and elevation of the upper floor. With that alteration they would sign said 
bond. Accordingly a bond was drawn, copied trom the original, with the above exceptions, 
and signed by David Emmert, X. Halderman and S. M. Hitt, for the completion of said 
house as required in the original blank bond. At a subsequent period, I made a verbal 
contract with the said Emmert & Halderman, to put up the said house with stone instead of 
brick. The last named alteration was, that the building should be 31 by 41 feet, instead of 
30x40. I am informed b}" said E. & H. that about oue half the stone is now on the building 
spot. Thus far I have gone and no further. 

^ Very respectfully your humble servant, 

B. Tomlinson. 
Sav.vnna, 5th March, 1844. 


Second. Report. — At the June session of the County Commissioners 
Court, Mr. Tomlinson presented his second report, as follows: 

To the Honorable County Commissioners Court of Carroll County, III. — Gentlemen: 
Since my last report, I have made no alteratioa in the coast ructioQ of the court house. 
The men who are engaged in putting up tlie building are progressing as fast as can be ex- 
pected. The walls are stone instead of brick, as was calculated in the first place, when the 
contract was made. The first story of the wall is laid, and the work appears to be done in 
a good, substantial, workmanlike manner, and the house will be completed by the first of 
October next, and I see no reason why the next Circuit Court should not be held at Mount 
Carroll. All of which is respectfully submitted. 3d June, 1844. 

B. Tomlinson. 

Tuesday, June 4, 1844, the County Commissioners Court 

Ordered, That the several officers of this county who are I'equired to hold their offi- 
ces at the county seat, move their offices from Savanna to Mount Carroll on the first Mon- 
day of September next, and that Henry Smith, Esq., be required to procure suitable offices 
at said Mount Carroll, to be occupied by said officers, etc. 

Careful inquiry fails to locate the offices after their removal here any- 
where except in the court house. As it was only about one month after 
their removal here until the court house was finished, if they occupied any 
other quarters, it must have been in Mr. Wilson's private residence — a 
house that stood on the corner now occupied by the bank block, at the cor- 
ner of Main and Market Streets. 

■ When Eramert, Halderman & Co. entered into a contract to build the 
court house, they exacted a guaranty from the county authorities that, when 
completed, it sliould be open for a period of ten years to religious meet- 
ings and such other public gatherings as occasion and the necessities of the 
time demanded. July 4, 1844, the building had so far advanced towards 
completion that it was fitted np and decorated with evergreens, etc., for a 
celebration of our nation's birthday, which was the first time the day had 
been publicly observed and respected in Mt. Carroll. Hon. Thomas Hojme, 
then of Galena, but now of Chicago, and at one time not long ago ma_yor 
de jure of the latter city, was orator of the day, and althongh there have 
since been thirty-three recurrences of the day, nearly all of which were pub- 
licly observed, none of them were more happily spent. In pioneer life 
there is a soul and a feeling — a genuine spirit of hospitality and sociability 
that is comparatively unknown when a country grows older and richer. 
Pent-up conventionalities aud self-constituted castes do not interfere to crip- 
ple the truer inwardness of the human soul. Distinctions and fashions do 
not turn up their noses at their neighbors. The people more fully believe 
in the truth of the sentiment that " all men are created free and equal " than 
they do in later years, when farms have been opened and made remunera- 
tive, line houses made to take the places of log cabins, cities to supersede 
wayside post-offices, and finely-constructed church edifices, with their cush- 
ioned pews, to supplant the old log school houses and primitive dwellings 
as houses of worship. These modern achievements are well enough in their 
way, but they cripple rather than develop the grander and nobler attributes 
of the human heart, and dwarf that genuine hospitality and sense of 
humanity that obtains among pioneers everywliere. 

The first session of the County Commissioners Court held in Mt. Car- 
roll, commenced on Monday, the 2d day of September, 1844. There were 
present of the old board, Henry Smith and John C. Owings. Beers Tom- 
linson had been succeeded at the August election by Henry B. Harmon, 
who presented to the board his certiUcate of election, when the oath of 


office was administered to him by Leonard Goss, P.J.P., and he entered 
upon a discharge of the duties of a county commissioner. 

During this session of the commissioners (on Wednesday, the 4:th), the 

Ordered, That the debt of Carroll County in the liands of Emmert, Halderman & 
Co., amounting to six hundred dollars, is this day funded as follows: Said indebtedness to 
be paid at the expiration of two j^ears, in six equal instalments, with interest payable half 
yearly, at the rate of eight per cent per annum ; and the clerk of this court is authorized 
and required to give bonds in accordance with the above agreement, the evidence of the 
oiiginal indebtedness, as above, having been given up in open court and paid over to the 
treasurer. Also 

Ordered, That John Wilson, clerk of this court, be our agent to procure suitable 
furniture for the court house, and to see that the same is put in readiness for holding court 
in October next. 

The next session of the County Commissioners Court was held in De- 
cember, the recorded proceedings of wliich show that Emmert, Halderman & 
Co. were allowed $50 for two stoves and seventy pounds of pipe, including 
three elbows, and that Leonard Goss was appointed to take possession of the 
stoves on behalf of the county, and directed to appropriate one to the use of 
his office (Circuit Clerk) and the other to the use of the ro3m designed for 
the use of the County Commissioners Court. From these several orders last 
quoted, it would seem that the court house had been cimipleted and turned 
over to the uses of the county, but, in hunting over the journal, the writer 
could find no record of the fact — an omission that should not have occurred. 
Btit oral evidence, as well as an order directing County Clerk Wilson to 
procure the necessary furniture and prepare the building for the fall term 
(1S4L) of the Circuit Court, the completion of the court house is fixed about 
the first of October of that year. In the completion of the building, Em- 
mert, Halderman & Co., as shown by an order made at the March term 
(1845) of the County Commissioners Court, had done extra work to the 
amount of one hundred and fifty-six dollars, to secure the payment of which 
the following contract was entered into by and between the county com- 
missioners and Emmert, Halderman &Co. : 

They (Emmert, Halderman & Co.) shall be permitted to rent out that part of the 
court hou^e used as a school room, at a reasonable price, until the above amount ($150) is 
raised, j^rovided such time shall not exceed a term of ten years h'om the lOlh day of Octo- 
ber, 1844; and unless the above amount is raised as aforesaid, then the above order to be 
void, and no liability resting upon the county. It is also understood that said room is at 
all times to be open for count}^ purposes, free of charge. The said Emmert, Halderman & 
Co. are further i-equired to report semi-annually the an^ount received as above, which shall 
be creditetl on this order. 

On the margin of this order appears this endorsement: 

This contract cancelled and contract given up, March 4, 1847. 

This, it seems, completed in good faith, all matters between Emmert, 
Halderman & Co. and the county commissioners, in relation to the build- 
ing of the court house. 

Xearly six years had come and gone since the county was organized 
and the first election of county officers in April, 1S39. The county had in- 
creased largely in population and wealth, and, so far, its public affairs had 
been carefully and economically managed. The liberality and enterprise of 
Emmert, Halderman & Co. had provided for the county a court house 
amply sufficient and commodious for any new county, and one that 
answered well for nearly twenty years, thus enabling the people to avoid 
making a debt, or subjecting them to heavy taxation for public building 


purposes. This liberality and public spirit of the founders of Mt. Carroll, 
Emmert, Halderinan & Co., provided the means by which the county could 
prepare themselves against the day when a larger and better court house 
would be needed. 


Thus fai' only the first settlement at Savanna, the history of the or- 
ganization of the county, the re-location of the county seat, the building of 
the first court house, etc., etc., have been followed. To render our under- 
taking more complete and comprehensive, the settlement of the different 
parts of the county will now be taken up, that the names of the first settlers 
and some of the pioneer incidents may be preserved. 

Taking these settlements in their regular order, we return to Savanna, 
to add a few additional items that were omitted in the beg-innino^ of these 
pages for want of the proper data. After the work had been commenced, 
the writer visited Dr. E. Woodruff, of Savanna, to solicit his aid in mak- 
ing some corrections and supplying some important dates, etc. While on 
that visit, that very courteous and intelligent gentleman kindly consented 
to "hunt up " sundry items of Savanna's early days, without which this 
history would be incomplete. True to his word, as he has ever been to all 
his promises, Dr. Woodruff remits to these pages the missing links in the 
history of that part of Carroll County of which he has been an honored, 
respected and useful citizen and representative man for over forty years. 

Savanna, III., Nov. 19, 1877. 

H. F. Kett ifc Co. — Beitr Si7-s : I wrote to Mr. Pierce, at Hampton, IlL, for items of 
interest to your praiseworthy undertaking — the " History of Carroll County," but, owing to 
the death of his sister, Mrs. Rhodes, his attendance at her funeral, etc., I did not receive an 
answer until this morning, when I received the following: 

"Mrs. Mary Jane Rhodes, whose death is referred t(^ above, was the first wliite child 
born in what is now Carroll County. She was born May 8, 1829, and died Nov. 14, 1877. 

"The principal tribes of Indians here when the settlement at Savanna was com- 
menced were, the Foxes, Keokuk, chief; the Sacs, Black Hawk, chief; and a few Winne- 
bagoes and Pottawatomies." 

Tlie first marriage occurred (I think) in 1835, when Vance L. Davidson was married 
to Harriett M. Pierce. They subsequently moved to California, where they were still living 
at last accounts. 

Marshall B. Pierce, (now of Hampton, 111.,) and Julia A. Baker procured the first 
marriage license after the county was organized, and were married by Benjamin Church, 
Justice of the Peace, Aug. 25, 1839. 

ij; :•; ^ ^ :■; ^ ^; :Jc ^ :{: :J: 

We had occasional preaching, as a preacher happened among us. No church record 
prior to 1858 is known, to my knowledge, although there was an M. E. Church organization 
as early as the Spring of 1838, but I can not give you any definite information about it. 

The first death of which I have any positive knowledge was in the family of Luther 
H. Bowen, when they an infant sou. The second death was in the same family, in the 
Fall of 1837, when the wife and mother followed the infant son to a home beyond the skies. 

The first church edifice was erected by the Methodist people, in 1849. 

The first steamboat to land at Savanna was the "Red Rover," Captain Throckmor- 
ton, that stopped to take on wood — red cedar, cut along the blutts above town. In these 
days, when cedar posts, for fencing posts, etc., are worth twenty-five cents each, that kind of 
fuel would be rather expensive. 

The land upon which the town of Savanna was built was patented by A. Pierce 
and George Davidson. I thmk Vance L. Davidson also patented some, but I can not say 
now what part, or how much. 

M. B. Pierce says iuliis letter to me: "Father's house was a hospital for the sick of 
the whole country for several years, whicli was the cause of Savanna bearing the name of 
being a sickly place, bilious fever and ague being the principal diseases." And again he 
says: " Rattlesnakes were very plenty and denned in tlie bluffs above town. For the first 
few years we used to go snaking, and killed hundreds of them as they came out of their 
dens in the spring." Since my acquaintance with him, I have often heard him relate snake 
stories of his boyhood's days. 


James Craig built the first saw mill. It was built on Plum River, about two miles 
east of town, at the site now occupied by Messrs. Wood & Kitchen's flouring mills. 

The Winter of 1842-o was a long and cold one. Snow commenced falling in October, 
and did not entirely disappear until late in April. On the lUth of April, 184:^, we crossed 
the Mississippi River on ice, with four yoke of cattle, hauling bridge timber. During the 
Winter, owing to the severe and uiteuse cold and deep and continued snow, stock of all kinds 
suffered severely, and a great many cattle starved and froze to death. The like of that Win- 
ter has never since been experienced. 

Very Respectfully and Truly Yours, 

E. Woodruff. 

The 4tli of July, 1876, was celebrated by the Mt. Carroll people in 
right royal stjde. Jn perfecting their arrangements, C. B. Smith, Esq., was 
selected as orator of the day, and Yolney Armour, Esq., was appointed to 
prepare and read a historical sketch of the early history of the county, 
which was subsec[uently reproduced in the Carroll County J/ ^'/T6'r, running 
through several numbers of that paper. While compiling thifi book, these 
papers were placed in possession of the writer, and very materially assisted 
him in perfecting his chain of history, and especially in regard to fixing the 
dates and names of the settlers in the diiferent parts of the county — facts 
now under consideration. lieferring to the condition of Savanna when 
the first settlers came there, in the Fall of 1828, Mr. Armour said: 

Above the place where the Irvine Saw Mill used to stand, extending from the blnfls 
nearly to jMaiu Street, the timber was splendid. The trees, however, were all dead, having 
been girdled by the Indians a year or two prior to the arrival of the settlers. Some of these 
trees were more than ten feet in circumference. The near neighbors were the few settlers 
at A.lbau}", Whiteside County, Dixon, Lee County, and Hanover, Jo Daviess County. Each 
of the first settlers brought with them a pair of cattle, with which they did their logging 
and breaking. They planted the first crop ever cast into the bosom of the prolific earth of 
Carroll County in the Si)ring of 1829, and while they planted, the Lord watered ; yet the 
earth would have brought no increase except that the boys and girls had been kept by day 
scaring the countless millions of birds of every kind and hue from devouring the germinat- 
ing seed in the Spring, and the ripening corn in the Fall ; and the men and boys had kept 
in clieck the hundreds of raccoons that came upon their fields, like the plagues of Egypt in 
the night. But perseverance and industry conquered, and the settlers gathered a harvest of 
golden grain, that gave proof of the fatness of the land. M. B. Pierce saj^s that we of to-day 
have no idea of the throngs of birds that filled the groves and made vocal the solitudes 
around, nor of the wild fowl that swam in the sloughs and creeks at that time. I gather 
from what he says that they swarmed around Savanna then like the grasshoppers on the 
plains and prairies of Colorado. * * * * The Indians at that time were 

numerous and friendly, and, for a trifling compensation, shared the products of the chase 
and fish from the streams. These substantials, as well as delicacies, the mere thought of 
which, at this late day, makes our stomachs hunger, and our mouths water, consisted of 
venison, wuld turkeys, prairie chickens, and ducks, geese, woodcock and snipe, in their sea- 
son ; and occasionally buftalo meat, as countless herds of bison then roamed the prairies 
of Iowa and Minnesota. Whether these settlers hankered after the flesh-pots of Egypt, such 
as hog meat, I do not know, but certainly the grunt of the porker was yet unheard in 
Carroll County. And I know they sighed for milk and butter, for of these they had none 
until M. P. Pierce and his fatlier went down to Bond County in the Summer and came back 
in August, 1829, with a few cows. They also brought up a few horses. While these settlers 
had so much to gladden tiieir stomachs, tlie county was not without its jmll-backs or draw- 
backs, for the v^oracious musquito sang and hummed about the unsilent couches, and wood 
ticks, buffalo gnats and horse flies sought their life blood in revenge for being disturbed in 
their hitherto quiet domain. * * * * ^ * * * 

In the Spring of 1830-1, John Bernard settled in what is now Washington Township, 
at the Hartficld place. Hayes and Robinson settled on the George Fish farm, the same 
Spring. Corbin (heretofore mentioned) on the land now included on the Noah jNIcFarland 
farm. Corbin's liouse or hut was built in a tree about ten feet from the ground, to avoid 
snake bites, rattlesnakes then abounding in all this region. An idea of how numerous were 
some of the fur-bearing animals around the Dyson neighborhood, in York, may be reached 
by a statement of the fact that M. B. Pierce and another man, in five weeks, 'killed l,t)00 
muskrats, the skins of which brought them the snug little sum of $2U0 per man. 

Mr. Arinour next referred to the breaking out of the Black Hawk War 
and the attack made by the Indians upon the Savanna settlement, an ac- 


count of which we have already written, and the statements are so nearly 
alike that a further mention would he entirely superfluous, hence the omis- 
sion of this part of his address. Resuming an examination of the address 
from which we are copying, the speaker continues: 

Aaron Pierce was Savanna's first tavern keeper; he even commenced entertaining 
strangers while living in the old council 'house, and still continued afterwards. He built 
the present Chambers House in 1836-7. Luther H. Bowen built the Woodruti"'House, which 
was first called the Mississippi House. These hotels were built in anticipation of a glorious 
future for Savanna. During the Winter of 1835-6, the Legislature of Illinois inaugurated 
its grand scheme of internal improvements, embracing about 1,350 miles of railroad. One 
of these contemplated lines was intended to terminate at Savanna, and had this road been 
built at that time, Savannawould, no doubt, have become one of the most important cities 
of the state. What Quincy is, may be safely regarded as a fair representation of what 
Savanna might have been. It was in anticipation of this supposed luture that these hotels 
were built. They w^ere then the best hotels in all this region of country. It is sad, even at 
this late day, to contemplate what possibilities for Savanna were blasted by the financial 
tornado of 1837. 

The late Luther H. Bowen, probably the most enterprising citizen Savanna ever 
had, came to the state in 1832, and assisted in the early surveys of the northwestern teiri- 
tory. Although he came to Savanna several j'ears after the Pierces, Davidsons and Blun- 
dells, he became the original proprietor of the town, in connection with some Quakers by 
the name of Murray, of Philadelphia. Settlers came in slowly until 1833 and 1834, when 
there was a very noticeable increase. Stephen N. Arnold, wlio gave his name to the laud- 
ing above Savanna, settled on what subsequently became the farm of John Robinson, came 
about this time. Royal Cooper came about 1835, and was an active participant in the early 
aftairs of the county. Nathan Lord and Elijah Bellows settled in the Savanna district 
about the same time. At the April election, 1839, when the first board of county officers 
was elected, Savanna precinct cast 127 votes, of wdiich CO were residents of the village. 
This, according to the established rule of estimating five persons to each voter, would tix 
Savanna's population at that time at 800 men, women and children. 

Cherry Grove. — This settlement next claimed Mr. Armour's attention: 
"The hrst settlement of any locality is always around a grove, if there he 
one, or along roads of travel, if there be any. Carroll County was not an 
exception to the rule, for we find that our first settlers, except those at 
Savanna, who came there to found a village, settled at Elkhorn Grove, 
Chambers' Grove, which, in fact, is a part or branch of Elkhorn Grove, and 
Cherry Grove, in the immediate vicinity of tlie route of travel from Dixon's 
Ferry to Galena, but as Chambers' Grove is almost entirely in Ogle County, 
we will have but little to say about that old-time land mark. At which 
particular grove the first settler marked his claim and reared his hut or 
cabin, is not very clear, as no record of the event seems to have been kept. 
But, from the best and most reliable data to be had, the first settlement is 
credited to Cherry Grove, and was made by Thomas Crane; and from the 
fact of his having built a log or block house in the grove, a little east of the 
Garner Moffett House, he must have had some companions or associates. It 
is also presumable that he had some knowledge of Indian character, for he 
surrounded his house by an abatis* to protect its inmates from surprise. 
The walls of the house were pierced with post holes, and the abatis was 
large enough to include within it a small garden. For many years this old 
house offered shelter and protection to all new-comers and wayfarers. Geo. 
W. Harris and family found shelter within it in 1837; David Emmert and 
family in 1840; and the father and family of W. A. J. Pierce in 1841. 
Numerous other families whose names are not remembered at this late day, 
also found temporary homes beneath the old house's friendly roof and 
within its protecting walls. 

* A species of fence placed in front of a breastwork, or on a glacis, for the purpose of 
impeding the advance of an attack. It is usually made of felled trees, with the branches 
pointed outward. 


" Sliortlj after the close of the Black Hawk War, Thomas Crane sold his 
claim to Samuel M. Hitt, of Maryland, who afterwards became prominently 
identified with the public affairs of Ogle County, and Crane removed to 
what was subsequently known as Crane's Point, in Steplienson County. 
Francis Garner, wife and family, including five or six children, came here 
from Southern Illinois soon after the Indian troubles were conquered. His 
youngest daughter, Mary, and probably Jane, also (but of this I am not 
certain), was born in Carroll County, Garner had been one of the army 
against the Indians, and he selected his claim when he was en route home, 
after his discharge at Galena. 

" In 1833, Wm. Thompson settled either at Cherry Grove or Arnold's 
Grove. If at Cherry Grove, he soon sold out and took np the claim of the 
old Arnold and Henry Strickler places. Levi Walden (or Walker) took up 
a claim the same year. George Swaggert came the next year, and soon 
after his arrival his wife died. She had selected the place for her burial, 
and hers was the first grave in the Cherry Grove graveyard. Garner Moffett 
came in 1835, and purchased a claim, pi-obably Swaggert's. Moffett lived 
in the original log house until 1840 or 1848. Wm. Daniels came in 1837, 
and made a claim on the creek near Lanark, where George Kansover now 
lives. This was the pioneer claim — away out beyond the frontier line of 
settlement, and was considered a bold move on the part of Mr. Ransover. 
In 1837, George W. Harris, another Marylander, came to the Grove, more 
to look after and take care of Hitt's interests than as a settler. He first 
lived in the old, fort-like house built by Crane, and kept a kind of tavern 
therein for three years, when he built the old Cherry Grove House for 
Hitt, which he also occupied for a time, as did also IJavid Enimert in 
1840 and 1841. Emmert was succeeded by a Mr. Pierce. John Her and 
Peter Meyers came about the same time that Harris came. Some time 
about 1835 or 1836, a line of stage coaches was established between Galena 
and Peoria, via Dixon's Ferry. The line was kept up until 1846, and made 
a station with Harris as long as he remained at Cherry Grove, and when he 
removed to Plum liiver, his place there was made a station, also. Emanuel 
Stover afterwards came into the ownership of the farm on which the Cherry 
Grove House stood, and either Mr. Stover, or some one to whom he sold it, 
removed it to Lanark, and it now makes a part of the Taber House barn. 

Sarah, daughter of Garner Moffett (now the wife of Emanuel Stover), 
was born in 1837, and is the oldest native resident of that vicinity. 

When 1 1 arris left the Grove, he took the claim that is now covered by 
the farm of Samuel Ludwick, on Plum River. In 1847, he moved to Mt. 
Carroll, where he was postmaster from 1853 to 1861 — eight years, and jus- 
tice of the peace for a much longer period. He died in 1875. Jas. Mark 
came without money or property in 1837. In 1841 he was living in an 
8 by 10 pole shanty on his claim, east of where H. F. Lowman now lives. 
Nathan Frisk, Israel Jones, and Bradstreet Robbins made claims about 
1838-9. Frisk located on the north side of the Grove, Jones at the Big 
Springs near Shannon, and Robinson east of the Grove^Jones venturing 
further out than anj^ settler had ever attempted before. Some time previons 
to these last-named accessions to the Cherry Grove settlement, the father of 
John Laird either selected or bouo-ht a claim. When George Swao-o^crt left 
the Grove, he bought the claim of Wm. Thompson, who in turn took np 
the Shnltz farm in Woodland, which, a few years later' he sold to Daniel 
Arnold and Henry Strickler, and in 1838, together with S. M. Hitt and 


Daniel Christian, bought the Otis and Mathews claim to Mt. Carroll and 
vicinity, and in 1841-2 lived where Hartnian now resides. In later years, 
he took up the farm two miles southeast of Mt. Carroll, where he died in 
1856 or 1857. 

" John C. Owings came to the county in 1834, from some one of the 
Southern States, and settled a little to the southwest of the Grove. He was 
a man of energy and influence, and a kind of leader or representative man, 
and served for a number of years as a justice of the peace, and also as post- 
master. He removed from the county in 1868, and now lives in Iowa. 

" Garner Moffett, of whom mention has heretofore been made, was a 
kindly, genial gentleman, of fair talents and some degree of culture. He 
tilled several offices ot trust and honor, always being elected by large 
majorities, notwithstanding he was a Democrat, and the county decidedly 
Whig. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1848, and 
died .in 1856, respected and regretted by every citizen and acquaintance." 

Elkhorn Grove. — This settlement dates back to 1830, at which iieriod 
John Ankeny and Thos. Parish built cabins on the east side of the Grove, 
both near, if not both on, the Harry Smith place, bat both left about the 
time of the breaking out of the Black Hawk War, in 1832. So far as 
known, neitiier one of them ever returned to their claims — in fact, Parish 
was never heard of afterwards, while Ankeny turned his attention to keep- 
ing a hotel or tavern at Buffalo, a few months after leaving his claim. This 
beginning excepted, Elkhorn Grove remained an unbroken, undisturbed 
wild until about 1834, when Levi Warner settled on the south side of the 
Grove. A surveyor by profession, he was elected county surveyor at the 
first county election, in April, 1839, and re-elected for several successive 
terms. He came here a bachelor, and remained in " single blessedness " for 
a number of years. John H. Hawes now lives where Warner first settled. 
In 1835 Alvin Humphrey settled at the northeast corner of the Grove, and 
Caleb Dains and Thos. Ilughes at the southeast corner. Humphrey was a 
great wag, and a great many of his "jokes " are still remembered with 
broad faces. John Knox and family, including Geo. W. Knox, came about 
1834 or 1835, and made a claim on the south side of the Grove, where he 
" set out " tlie first orchard planted in the county. Geo. W. Knox now occu- 
pies the old home place. In 1835, John Ankeny returned to the Grove. 
Uncle Harry Smith and Samples M. Journey settled at the Grove in 1834 — 
the first-named on the land where he now resides, and the latter a little 
further to the east, on the farm on which Ransom Wilson died a short 
time ago. Miles Z. Landon, Elder John Paynter, Joseph Steffins, Manasas 
Neikerk and Lyman Hunt came soon afterwards. A rapid tide of immi- 
gration now set in, and among them came a number of our now most prom- 
inent citizens. In 1837, Elijah Eaton built a saw mill — the first in the 
township. The same year the people of the Grove celebrated the 4tli of 
July with great pomp and ceremony, at the place of Alvin Humphrey. 
Felix Connor delivered the oration, and a right good one it is said to have 
been. In 1834, a millwright named Peters settled on Elkhorn Creek bottom, 
near the present village of Milledgeville, but, falling sick, he gave up his 
claim to Jesse Kester, who improved it with a saw mill. Kester subse- 
quently sold out his claim to Adam Knox, who built the grist mill. In 
1839, his daughter, Eliza J., was born, which was the first birth. Soon 
after, his son Albert died, which was the first death at or near Milledge- 
ville. In 1844, a post-office was established there, and Jacob McCourtie 


was appointed postmaster. At that time, Milledgeville (it is said) was a 
larger place than Mt. Carroll . In 1839, Simeon Johnson and his son, J. B. 
Johnson, Bjron and Nelson Fletcher, and Abel Eastabrooks, the father of 
L. F., and the other Eastabrooks boys, settled in the present town of Wysox. 
Abont this tinie — some a little before and some a little afterwards — the fol- 
lowing named persons had settled in the Elkhorn Grove neighborhood, in 
which are included the towns of Lima and Wysox : Tilson Aldrich, John 
Eichardson, I. II. AVoodrulf, Hiram McNamer, Geo. G.Colton. N. Spencer, 
Alvah Dains, Henry Hunter, E. W. Todds, Chas. Redman, Stephen Jen- 
kins, Philetus Peck, several by the name of Grant, and D. Stormer. 

'' With but few exceptions, these settlers hugged the Groves, only the 
boldest of them venturing out on the prairie. The sweep of the winter 
winds, it was thought by some, would render the prairie practically uninhab- 
itable. Others could not bear the idea of removing so far away from the 
timber. Two gentlemen who had sold their farms in Pennsylvania, came 
to Milledgeville in 1840, with the intention of investing tlieir means in 
lands thereabouts, and rearing stately homes on the broad lields nature had 
cleared. Some parties had accompanied them to show them the beautiful 
prairie between Milledgeville and Cherry Grove, etc. After ti-aversing the 
broad and undulating expanse, vaster than anything of the kind their imag- 
ination had ever pictured, they came to the conclusion that the prairie was 
and must forever remain worthlens^ because it could never be inhabited to 
any extent for want of timber. So they repacked their dollars, turned their 
backs upon that garden-spot of nature, and re-invested their wealth in 
rocks and mountains and hills and timber of Pennsylvania. 

"A Mr. Ingalls was the first school teacher in the Elkhorn Grove 
neighborhood, and taught in what is now known as the Centre School House 

Mount Carroll. — " Samuel Preston, Sr., made the first claim and was 
the first settler in Mt. Carroll Township. His claim covered the water 
power of Fulrath's Mill and what has ever since been known as ' Preston's 
Prairie.' The same day, Paul D. Otis and Granville Mathews made a 
claim of the land and water power at Mt. Carroll, which afterwards became 
the property of Emmert, Halderman & Co. These claims were made some 
time in 1836 and in 1837. Messrs. Otis and Mathews built a cabin near 
what subsequently became the Christian homestead, and into which Mr. 
Mathews removed his father. As already stated in these jjages, Otis and 
Mathews sold their claim to Geo. Swaggert and others, and they in turn 
sold it to Emmert, Halderman & Co., who were the real founders of Mt. 

" In the Fall of 1836, Nathan Downing took a claim that is now known 
as Kinney's Farm. Nathan Downing sold his claim to his brother, Heman 
Downing, within a year afterwards, who continued to occupy and improve 
it until 1856, when he sold the farm to John Kinney. 

" The first white child born in the Mt. Carroll settlement was a daugh- 
ter to Nathan Downing, born in the Spring of 1837. When this daughter 
grew to womanhood, she was given in marriage to Gideon Carr. This 
same Spring, Pezin Everts took up the land now known as the Trail Farm; 
and Samuel S. Bayless claimed a part of section 12, at the present fair 
grounds. He laid off a town there, which, in honor of the capital of his 
native state, Virginia, he cfdled Richmond. He made liberal offers of lots 
to settlers, and two small houses were built, but the financial troubles of 


1837 killed Richmond, and blasted the hopes and expectations of its founder. 
Otis and Mathews, like a great many other claim-takers, were g-reedj and 
tried to 'slide ' their claim over on to Bayless', but he ' didn't scare worth 
a cent,' and wisely held on to his claim. In 1839, a post-office was estab- 
lished at Richmond and was entered on the post-office records at Washing- 
ton under that name. When the Whigs came into power under Harrison, 
in 1811, tlie ' Richmond, Carroll County, Illinois ' post-office was stricken 
from the listot LI. S. P. O.'s, and has never since been known by that name. 
A little circumstance in connection with the appointment of the lirst post- 
master at Richmond is worthy of preservation. A part of the settlers 
wanted old 'Squire Chas. G. liawley for postmaster, and another part of 
them wanted Heman Downing. Both were Whigs. The appointing power 
(Yan Bureu's) was Democratic, so Downing's friends ventured to assert in 
their petition that l,e was a Jeffersonian Democrat, thinkiug that would be 
an irresistible and unanswerable argument in his favor, and sure to settle 
the question — and it did. Both parties handed their petitions to Luther 
H. Bowen, postmaster at Savanna, who was a Democrat. He looked over 
the petitions and made this simple endorsement on Downing's : "He is a 
Whig." He said nothing about Hawley's politics, but Hawley got the 

" In the Spring of 1838, Daniel Christian moved on to the Otis and 
Mathews claim and built the old saw mill down the creek. Wm. Mackay 
(the elder brother of Duncan Mackay) and John George leased and ran the 
mill for some time. This year Heman Downing built the first frame barn 
of any size in the county. Its sills and posts and beams and girders were 
made of hewn oak timber, and, as was the practice in those days, they were 
large and heavy, and required the united strength of all the settlei's between 
Plum River and Cherry Grove to raise it. It was th(; model barn of the 
county in those days, but its glory departed before many j-ears. 

'• In 1838, Geo. W. Stewart settled on the Samuel Hayes farm, on the 
Savanna road, and a man by the name of Hinckley settled on the land now 
covered by the Dani( 1 Crouse farm. 

" Somewhere about 1838 (the exact date is unknown), John Kinney, 
Joseph Ferrin, Rezin Everts and others were Ushing down Carroll Creek, 
early in the Spring, and all at once they heard a hissing and rattling noise, 
and, looking around, they found themselves overtaken by hundreds of rat- 
tlesnakes that had come out from their dens to sun themselves. The}^ quit 
fishing and went to snake-killing, and wdien none but dead ones were to be 
seen, they took an inventory of the stock on hand, and found that they had 
disposed of one hundred and ninety, and they didn't think it was a very 
good day for snakes, either ! They had more snakes than fish. 

" In 1839, Mr. Whipple, a travelling Presbyterian minister, preached 
the first sermon on the prairie. The first school was taught the same year, 
by Sarah J. Hawley, in the upper part of the senior Preston's house. 

" Pre\'ious to the time which we have reached in the history of the 
county, Sidney and Lewis Bliss, John O'JSTeal, Benj. Church, Jos. Ferrin, 
John Kinney and a few others had settled on Preston Prairie, and David 
Masters a half a mile south of the Mt. 'Carroll depot. 

"A man named Leonard built a grist mill in 1838-9, at the site of the 
mill now owned by Adam Fulrath. The mill-stones were quarried from 
the Galena Limestone that crops out along the creek, one of which may still 
be seen at the Fulrath mill." 

^n^^r^^C^- t^/6^y^^^^^ 


Mount Carroll. — "David Emmert and family, of Pennsylvania, came 
to Clierry Grove in May, 1840, and kept the Cherry Grove House for a 
while. In the Fall of 1841, N. Halderinan, also, came into the county, and, 
stopping at Cherry Grove, made Emmert's acquaintance, and entered into 
an arrangement with him to build a mill somewhere in the county. Their 
attention was directed to the Mount Carroll mill site, which lialderman 
examined some time in the month of November, and being fully satisfied 
with its advantages, a mill company was formed, the site purchased, and 
operations commenced. The company was composed of David Emmert, 
N. lialderman, John Kinewalt, and Thomas Eobinson, of the hrm of 
Irvine & Robinson, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A log house was built 
at " Stags' Point," on the ground now occupied by the residenc«; of I. P. 
Sheldon, and in January, 1842, the Emmert family moved in and occupied 
it. About this time lialderman fell in with Daniel Hurley, at Cherry 
Gro\'e, who, with Hugh Slowey and one or two other men, were en route 
for Galena hunting a job of work. Halderman entered into a contract with 
Hurley to build the dam and lay the foundation of the mill building. 
Some twenty men were employed on this work, quarrying the stone for the 
mill, etc., all of whom boarded with Emmert. The next dwelling houses 
were built by some of the men employed in the mill enterprise. J esse and 
Thomas Rapp settled here in 1842, intending to unite their fortunes with 
the mill company, but subsequently changed their minds. Jesse Rapp 
built the first house south of the stone hotel (now the Chapman House), 
soon after the town was laid out, some two or three houses having been 
built in advance of the survey. The first season after the survey, a man 
named Goltman built a house on the lot subsequently occupied by John S. 
Miller's store. The same year a house was built on the first corner south 
of that now occupied by the Chapman House. Until 1844, when the 
Chapman House was built, this was the largest and beist house in town, and 
was used as a boarding-house by Thomas Rapp. Soon after the completion 
of this (then) somewhat aristocratic house, Harlan Pyle built another one 
just west of the mill-race, which was afterwards rebuilt by Evan Rea." 
Thus commenced the settlement of Mount Carroll, and here the settlement 
will be left to be taken up again in a local history of the growth and pros- 
perity of the city. 

York. — To JS'orman D. French belongs the honor of pioneering the 
settlement in this division of the county, where he made a claim in 1835; 
broke up some ground in 1836; built a cabin in 1837, and raised his first 
crop in 1838. Mr. Armour says he had, by his early experience among the 
hills and mountains of Yermont, become disgusted with them, and while 
assisting in the United States' survey of the lands along the Mississippi, 
selected the site of his present home. William Dysen, Sr., and his sons, 
William, Jr., and Hezekiah; his son-in-law, Russell Colvin, and George 
Helms, a relative, came in 1836. These new settlers, because of the numer- 
ous gushing springs to be found there, made their claims along the blufis. 
A year or two later, a man named Edgerly settled near French, and William 
St. Ores and Jacob Potter settled just west of the centre of town 23, range 
4 — -probabl}' on section 9. No other settlements are recorded until 1838, 
when Col. Beers Tomlinson located on the lands now occupied by his son, 
Beers B. Tomlinson. When Col. Tomlinson came to Carroll County to 
locate a new home his attention was directed to York by Samuel Preston, 
Sr., who says of him : " Colonel Tomlinson was a man of dignified presence, 


and would at once be recognized as a man born to lead and not to follow. 
Yet he had none of those airs of loftiness suggestive of the great ' I ' and 
little 'U' that characterize some men. His nature was social and jovial, 
and he relished a joke equal to the best in that line. His wife was a 
Bailey, and he was so^n followed to his new home by that family and their 
kindred, the Balcoms. His brother, Seymour Tomlinson, and the Athertons 
came afterwards, but only Daniel B. Kenyon and his sons, and Joshua 
Bailey, came prior to 1841. Col. Tomlinson was a captain in the war of 
1812, and was born almost in sight of old Fort Ticondcroga, and, no doubt 
had some of the Ethan Allen spirit in him." Levi Kent was York's first 
school teacher and taught at Bluffviile. 

Fekedom. — This township has but little history that is not included in 
that of Cherry Grove settlement. Owen's Point, as it was called, where 
John C. Owen resided, was in the limits of Freedom, as were the farms of 
the Moffetts, Marks and Lairds. The Indians were numerous for several years 
after the Black Hawk War, and as late as 1835-6 a trading post was main- 
tained at Owen's Point, wdiere guns, ammunition, calico, blankets, whisky, 
red handkerchiefs, beads, etc., were exchanged to the Indians for peltries, 
etc. The Indians were a source of annoyance and fear, especially to the 
women and children. 

Salem. — The earliest settlers of Salem, of whom any trace has been 
kept, were David Masters, George Swaggert, Seymour Downs, William 
Mackay, Duncan Mackay, and Henry Peynolds, David Masters being the 
first settler, having selected a claim and built a cabin, in 1837. 

Rock Creek's first settlers were David Becker and Zachariah Kinkaid. 
Becker sold to Daniel Belding. Pichard A. Thompson was an early settler, 
and the first to introduce cheese-making in the county. 

Lima. — John Chambers and Philetus Peck were the first white occu- 
pants of this beautiful and naturally rich and attractive section of the 
county. Peck came some time previous to 1840. 

Woodland. — This is the most heavily timbered part of the county, and 
was first occupied by William Thompson and Moses Wooten. The Hen- 
dersons and Gills came in 1842 or 1843, and Uriah Green came about 
the same time. 

These notes on the first settlements in the different parts of the county 
bring us back to the general history of the county, at the point from which 
we digressed. A first court house had been erected and was occupied by the 
various county officers. The first term of the Circuit Court in the new 
building was held in October, 1844 — Judge Thomas C. Browne, presiding. 
The following named citizens were the 

Grand Jurors. — Alvin Humphrey, Samuel Drain, David Becker, 
James McCourtie, James Webster, E. Longsdon, Poyal Cooper, David B. 
Hartsough, James Burnett, Thomas B. Rhodes, Vance L. Davidson, Francis 
Garner, Israel Jones, John Johnson, Peter Atherton, Griffith Carr, G. W. 
Dwinnell, R. R. Brush, Harlan Pyle, Beers Tomlinson, William Harmon, 
Alexis Bristol, B. C. Baily— 23. 

Petit Jurors. — David L. Bowen, Nathan K. Lord, William Blundell, 
Anson Closson, Butler E. Marble, John P. Garr, Walton Thomas, Jared 
Bartholomew, Samuel McHoes, Stephen Goff', Thomas Hough, Benjamin 
Church, William Owings, John Pierce, Jr., Robert Beatty, John Fosdick, 
Hiram McNamer, J. C. Shottenkirk, William Lowry, Cyrus Kellogg, Lyman 
Kent— 24. 


I. B. Wells, the attorney for the people, not being present, the Court 
appointed James M. Strade attorney for the people lyro tern. There were 
eight criminal cases — one for perjury, on a change of venue from Jo Daviess 
County, one for assault with intent to kiU; one for contempt of court as a 
grand juror; one on forfeiture of recognizance; one for riot; one for larceny, 
on a change of venue from Jo Daviess; one on indictment against a super- 
visor; and one on indictment for malicious mischief — shooling a mare. 

It is to the credit of the people of the county that but few really had 
or desperate characters ever found an abiding place in their midst. The 
criminal docket, as compared with other counties, shows a lower percentage 
of convictions than most of them — not because evil-doers have not been 
prosecuted, but because crimes were not committed. 

In 1845, six years after the county was organized, the total amount of 
county tax was $935.27. The old journal of the county commissioners 
court, under date of AVednesday, June 3, 1846, shows that the " following 
settlement was made with the collector, Sumner Downing : 

Cr. for amount of tax paid into treasury -.|841 39 

" " " " delinquent list 49 60 

" " " " collector's percentage 44 28 

Total $935 27 

which being the amount of receipts for county tax-list, 1845, the same were 
ordered canceled and satisfied." 

Compared with the annual tax-lists for the last seven years, this amount 
of $935.27 is very insignilicant, indeed. From 1870 up to and including 
1877, the amount of county tax is as follows: In 1870, $12,135.63; 1871, 
$14,332.86; 1872, $17,339.58; 1873, $15,250.50; 1874, $17,927.02; 1875, 
$17,542.64; 1876, $15,222.95; 1877, $17,452.88. Total, in seven years, 

In 1840 the population was 1,023. In 1850 it was 4,586; in 1860, 
11,733; in 1870, 16,705; increase from 1860 to 1870, 4,792, or a little over 
twenty-hve per cent. Since the last census, in 1870, the iiicreaf~-e, according 
to the best sources of information, has not been more than ten per cent. 


In October, 1846, the commissioners ordered the county clerk to adver- 
tise for sealed proposals for building a jail, the " walls to be of stone, each 
two feet in thickness, and not less than one and a half feet long and one foot 
deep, jointed and coupled top and bottom with iron pins, three quarters 
inch rod; the walls to commence four feet below the surface of the earth, 
and to raise twelve feet above the surface; the building to be 16 by 20 feet 
on the outside; the first floor to be made of solid hewn timber, ten inches 
thick, and to be firmly set in the outside walk}, and to be covered with well- 
seasoned, two-inch, merchantable oak plank, jointed, the top of the floor to 
be two feet above the surface of the ground, and spiked to the hewn timber 
four inches apart. Also, a floor at the height of the top of the wall, of 
solid hewn timber, jutting over sufiiciently to give eave, and to be covered 
on the inside with well-seasoned one-and-a-half-inch oak plank, and spiked 
the same as the lower floor," etc. The inside of the building was to be 
divided, according to the plans, into three apartments, or sections, by strong, 
thick oaken walls, made of seasoned two-inch oak plank, three thicknesses, 
firmly bolted and spiked together. The outside door was to be a heavy 


oaken one, covered with sheet iron. Tlie inner one was to be of equal thick- 
ness, and same kind of material." Bids were solicited through the adver- 
tising columns of the Jejfersoriian and Gazette, of Galena, and bj three 
written notices put up in the three most conspicuous places in the count^y, 
etc. The records, however, do not show that any bids were ever received. 
But this is not surprising, for it is a subject of universal regret, if not of 
complaint, among the people of the count}', that the records in the county 
clerk's office were very indifferently and negligently kept until Major Hawk 
succeeded to the office, in December, 1865. When he came into the office 
many of the important papers had not been filed in regular succession, but 
had nearly all been tumbled into boxes, without any regard to order, and it 
was many months before they were resurrected from chaos and confusion 
and arranged in any thing like decent shape. Now, there is a place for 
every thing and every thing is in its place.* 

Whether any bids were received for the building of a jail or not is a 
matter of but little consequence, since it is known that no jail, such as pro- 
posed in the plans quoted above, was ever built. In those days there were 
not many evil doers in the county, and what few there were, were of the 
])etty order, and in cases where they were unable to give bail, they were 
placed in the keeping of some citizen. Sometimes a pretty hard customer 
would " turn up," that couldn't be trusted to the keeping of any citizen, 
and such characters would be taken to the jail at Galena. This practice 
prevailed until about 1850, when one of the lower rooms of the old court 
house was converted into a jail and divided off into cells, and continued to 
be so used until the erection of the present county buildings. That jail 
was none of the strongest, and when, perchance a desperate character, 
tramping through the country, would commit some of the higher grades of 
crime, and would be arrested and held to answer, he would be transferred to 
the jail of Jo Daviess County, to await trial at the next term of the circuit 
court. But with the erection of the present court house and jail — the 
latter being considered the strongest and best in the state — the county 
became thoroughly independent in this regard, and fully competent to take 
care of the worst of ''jail birds." 


From the organization of the county in 1839, up to November, 1849, 
the management of county affairs had been under the control of three 
county commissioners. The law under which they were elected provided 
that one of them should serve for one year, one for two years, and one for 
three years, so that one commissioner only should be elected annually. At 
the first session of the County Commissioners Court, terms weie drawn for 
in the manner following: Three tickets were prepared, on one of which was 
written "one year," on another one "two years," and on a third one, "three 
years." These slips of paper were put into a hat or box, and passed to the 
commissioners, when each one of them would draw out a ticket. The one 
who drew the "one year" ticket would serve one year; the one who drew 
the "two year" ticket was entitled to serve two years, and the one drawing 
the " three year " ticket would hold his office for three years. Under this 

* R. G. Bailey was Major Hawk's immediate predecessor, and had made great im- 
provements in the management of the records. Tlie real fault belongs to the early county 
clerks, and the carelessness of county judges, prior to Judge Patch, in not enforcing order. 


law there were always two members of the court familiar with the routine 
of business and the condition of the county. 

Elijah M. Haines, in his "Laws of Illinois, Eelative to Township 
Oro^anization," says, the county system "orii^inated with Virginia, whose 
early settlers soon became large landed proprietors, aristocratic in feeling, 
living apart in almost baronial magnificence on their own estates, and own- 
ing the laboring part of the population. Thus the materials for a town 
were not at hand, the voters being thinly distributed over a great area. 
The county organization, where a few influential men managed the whole 
business of the community, retaining their places almost at their pleasure, 
scarcely responsible at all except in name, and permitted to conduct the 
county concerns as their ideas or wishes might direct, was moreover conso- 
nant with their recollections or traditions of the jaidicial and social dignities 
of the landed aristocracy of England, in descent from whom the Yirginia 
gentlemen felt so much pride. In 1834, eight counties were organized in 
Virginia; and tlie system, extending throughout the state, spread into all 
the Southern States, and some of the Northern States, unless we except the 
nearly similar division into 'districts' in South Carolina, and that into 
'parishes' in Louisiana from the French laws. 

" Illinois, which, witli its vast additional territory, became a county of 
Virginia on its conquest by Gen. George Rogers Clark, retained the county 
organization, which was formally extended over the state by the constitu- 
tion of 1818, and continued in exclusive use until the constitution of 1848. 
Under this system, as in other states adopting it, most local business was 
transacted by three commissioners in each county, who constituted a county 
court, with quarterly sessions. During the period ending w^ith the consti- 
tutional convention of 1847, a large portion of the state had become filled 
up with a population of New England birth or character, daily grownng 
more and more compact and dissatisfied with the comparatively arbitrary 
and inefficient county system." It was maintained by the people that the 
heavily populated districts would always control the election of the com- 
missioners to the disadvantage of the more thinly populated sections — in 
short, that under that system " equal and exact justice " to all parts of the 
county could not be secured. The township system had its origin in Mas- 
sachusetts, and dates back to 1635. The first legal enactment concerning 
this system provided that, whereas, "particular towns have many things 
which concern only themselves, and the ordering of their own affairs, and 
disposing of business in their own town," therefore, " the freemen of every 
town, or the major part of them, shall only have power to dispose of their 
own lands and woods, with all the appurtenances of said towns, to grant 
lots, and to make such orders as may concern the well-ordering of their own 
towns, not repugnant to the laws and orders established by the General 
Court." "Tliey might, also (says Mr. Haines) impose fines of not more 
than twenty shillings, and 'choose their own particular officers, as constables, 
surveyors for the liighwa3^s, and the like.' Evidently, this enactment 
relieved the ^general court of a mass of municipal details, without any 
danger to the powers of that body in controlling general measuies or public 

* The New England colonies were first governed by a " general court," or legislature, 
composed of a governor and a small council, which court consisted of the most influential 
inhabitants, and possessed and exercised both legislative and judicial powers, which were 
limited only by the wisdom of the hnklers. They made laws, ordered their execution by 
officers, tried and decided civil and criminal causes, enacted all manner of municipal regu- 
lations, and, in fact, did all the public business of the colony. 


policy. Probably, also, a demand from the freemen of the towns was felt, 
for the c(>ntrol of their own home concerns." 

Similar provisions for the incorporation of towns were made in the first 
constitution of Connecticut, adopted in 1639; and the plan of township 
organization, as experience proved its remarkable econom3\ efficacy and 
adaptation to the requirements of a free and intelli<^ent people, became 
universal throughout New England, and went westward with the emigrants 
from New England, into New York, Ohio, and other Western States, 
including the northern part of Illinois. 

Under these influences, the constitutional provision of 1848, and sub- 
sequent law of 184:9, were enacted, enabling the people of the several 
counties of the state to vote "for" or "against" adopting the township 
organization system. The question was submitted to the people at an elec- 
tion held on the first Tuesday after the first Monda}' in November, 1849, 
and was adopted by all of the counties north of the Illinois Kiver, and by 
a number of counties south of it. 

February 12, 1849, the legislature passed a law creating a county 
court. Section one of this law provided " that there should be established 
in each of the counties of this state, now created and organized, or which 
may hereafter be created or organized, a court of record, to be stjded ' the 
County Court,' to be held by and consist of one judge, to be styled the 
'County Judge.' Section seventeen of the same act [see pp.307-10, Statutes 
of 1858] provided for the election of two additional justices of the peace, 
whose jurisdiction should be co-extensive with the counties, etc., and who 
should sit with the countv iudg^e as members of the court for the transac- 
tion of all county business and none other. 

Tuesday, September 4, 1849, the county commissioners 

Ordered, That the question of "town organization" be submitted to the voters of Car- 
roll County at the next general election, to be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday 
in November next, and that a vote by ballot be given for or against a "town organization." 

At the general election on the " first Tuesday after the first Monday in 
November," a majority of the votes were cast in favor of "a town organiza- 
tion," and in April, 1850, the township organization law went into effect. 

The last meeting of the county commissioners was held on Saturday, 
December 1, 1849. The board at that time consisted of H. Smith, D. L. 
Bowen and J. Bartholomew. Their last business M-as the examination and 
allowance of sundry bills to judges, clerks of election, etc. The three last 
orders were in these words: 

Ordered, That two dollars and fifty cents be allowed Henry Smith for one day special 

Also, that David L. Bowen be allowed the same for the same. 
Also, that Jared Bartholomew be allowed the same. 

These orders were numbered respectively 1327, 1328 and 1329. The 
" court adjourned without day." And thus passed away and out of jDractice 
the old system of managing county affairs. 

At the election held on the "first Tuesday after the first IMonday in 
November," 1849, under the provisions of the law creating the county 
court, George W. Harris was elected County Judge. Turning to the 
records, we find the following entry: 

"Mt. Carroll, Carroll Co., III., Dec. 3, 1849. 

"The County Court of Carroll County, Illinois, this day convened at 
the court house, according to law, for the transaction of business. Present: 


George W. Harris, County Court (Judge?) and ISTorman D. French and G. 
W. Knox, associate justices of the peace, when the following orders were 

" The commission of George W. Harris, County Judge, was presented 
and ordered to be placed on file." This commission bore the signature of 
Aug. C. French, as governor, and H. S. Cooley, as secretary of state, and 
was dated at the City of Springfield, November 19, 1849. On the back of 
the commission was the prescribed oath of office, and was subscribed by 
Mr. Harris before Thomas T. Jacobs. 

Reuben W. Brush, having been elected to the office of county clerk, at 
the same election, also presented his commission as such officer from Gov. 
French, and was sworn into office by Leonard Goss, probate justice of the 
peace. His official bond in the sum of three thousand dollars, with Aaron 
Belding and John Irvine, Sr., as bondsmen, was also presented, approved 
and place on file. 

The court then proceeded to business, taking up and disposing of 
petitions for roads, passing upon claims against the county, etc., and in a 
general way discharging nearly the same duties as those confided by law to 
the county commissioners. Among the other business transacted, R. H. 
Gray, John Wilson and Rollin Wheeler were appointed commissioners 
under the "act to provide for township organization, passed and approved 
February 12, 1849," to divide the county into towns or townships, and 
make their report according to law. 

The county court remained in session two days, and then adjourned until 
the next term in course, which, by law, was the first Monday in March, 
1850, that day being the fourth day of the month. This term the court 
remained in session only two days, adjourning on Wednesday, the 6th of 
March. During this session of the court a large number of orders were 
passed, sundry accounts examined and ordered to be paid, etc. 

The following month — April — the first board of supervisors was elected. 
The first record under the new order of county management is as follows: 

Mount Carroll, April 8, 1850. 
In pursuance of an act approved February 13, 1849, authorizing "township organiza- 
tion in the several counties of Illinois," the board of supervisors of Carroll County met on 
this day, at the court house in Mount Carroll, as provided in the second section of the six- 
teenth article of said act, to-wit: Jared Bartliolomew, Henry L. Lowman, and Daniel P. 
Holt. A quorum not being present, the board adjourned, to meet on the 15th inst. (Monday), 
at 10 o'clock A. M. 

E. W. BRUSH, Clerk. 

Monday, the 15th, ptirsuant to adjournment, the first active session of 
the board was commenced. There were present Jared Bartholomew, Daniel 
P. Holt, Ryllin Wheeler, Sample M. Journey, George Sword, Monroe Bailey, 
Henry F. Lewman, John Donaldson — 8. 

Jared Bartholomew was chosen chairman of the board. 

At this meeting of the board the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved. That a committee of three be appointed as commissioners to locate a quarter- 
section of land, out of the funds raised by a tax for that object on the taxable property for 
1849, for the purpose of erecting a poor-hoiise. 

The chairman appointed Henry Smith, R. M. Brush and Porter Sar- 
gent as such committee. 

Tdx Levy. — Ordered by the board that a tax of four mills on the dollar's worth of tax- 
able property in the county be assessed, for the year 1850, for county revenue; also, that a 
tax of five and eight tenths mills be assessed on the same as a state tax. 


At this meeting of the board of supervisors, the commissioners 
appointed to divide the county into towns or townsliips made their report, 
establishing the townships as follows: 

Commissioners' lieport Showing the Boundary Lines of the several Towns laid off in 
Carroll County. — Wo, the undersigned, commissioners appointed by the County Court of 
Carroll county, under and by virtue of an act of tiie legislature of the State of Illinois, 
approved February 12, 1849, entitled "An act to provide for township and county organiza- 
tion, under which any county may organize whenever a majority of the voters of such 
county, at any general election may determine," do hereby establish the following-named 
boundai'ies for the following described towns in Carroll County, laid off by us in pursuance 
of the act aforesaid, to-wit: 

Lost Grove— W. \4 T. 2o, R. 7, and, for the time being, added to T. 25, R. 6. 

Cherry (?m?5e— Tr25, R. 0, including, for the time being, the W. Y^ of T. 25, R. 7. 

Freedom—^. 25, R. 5. 

Woodland—^. 25, R. 4. 

Bush Creek — Fractional T. 25, R. 3, added to fractional T. 24, R. 3, for the time being. 

Portsmouth — Fractional T. 25, R. 2, for the time being, added to fractional towns 24 and 
25, R. 3. 

Savanna — Fractional T. 24, R. 3, including, for the time being, T. 25, ranges 2 and 3. 

Mount Carroll— T. 24, R. 4. 

Salem— T. 24, R. 5, and, for the time being, the W. i^ of T. 24, R. 6, and the N. E. % 
of T. 23, R. 5. 

Bock Creek— T. 24, R. 6, and, for the time being, the W. % shall be added to T. 24, R. 
5; theE. J.^ (o T. 24, R. 7. 

Limn—W. % T. 24. R. 7, including the E. Yz T. 24, R. 6, for the time being. 

Elkhorn Grove— W. M of T. 23, R. 7. 

Enterprise— T. 23, R. 6, and, for the time being, including the S.E. }^ T. 23, R. 5. 

Harlem-T. 23, R. 4, including, for the time being, the W. % of T. 23, R. 5, and frac- 
tional T. 23, R. 3. 

Bluffyille—FYiiciionnX T. 23, R. 3, and, for the time being, added to T. 23, R. 4. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals, this 12th day of February, 
A. D. 1850. 

RoLLiN Wheeler, [Seal.] 
John Wilson, [Seal.j 

R. H. Gray, [Seal.] 

Changes^ etc. — Lost Grove continued a part of the town of Cherry 
Grove until Sept. 13, 1864, when, by the action of the board of super- 
visors, it was erected into the present town of Shannon, named from the 
village of Shannon, within its limits. Its se]Darate life commenced April 
1, 1865. 

In 1855, the territory designated for the town of Rush Creek was 
erected into the town of Washington, including, also, the territory of 

Enterprise lost its name, and Wysox was substituted, at the time the 
report of the committee was acted upon. 

Harlem was changed to York upon motion of Mr. Bailey, supervisor 
of that town, on the 14th day of ISToveraber, 1850. Subsequently it was 
changed to Argo by the legislature, but was re-christened York at the next 
meeting of the board of supervisors after the change. This second change 
to York was through the influence of the same Mr. Bailey. 

Bluifville has never had an existence as a town, its territory having 
always constituted a part of York. 


The first committee appointed to locate a quarter-section of land for a 
poor farm do not appear, by the records, to have made any report, so, on 
Monday, Dec. 24, 1851, another committee, consisting of Messrs. R. "W. 
Brush, David Becker and David Emmert, were appointed to that duty, and 
" authorized to view out and purchase a suitable tract of land on such 


terms as they might deem expedient, and to apply tlie money then in the 
treasury, and that to be collected tliat year," to the payment thereof. Feb- 
ruary 12, 1852, this committee reports tliat they had purchased tlie farm 
formerly owned by Samuel S. Bayliss, containing two hundred acres, for 
the sum of eleven hundred dollars. "Tlie money in the treasury appropri- 
ated to that object, and that to be collected in 1851 (amounting in all to 
about five hundred dollars) is to be paid on the execution by said Bayliss 
of a sufficient deed, and the remainder in county orders, to be issued, bear- 
ing interest at the rate of six per cent per annum from the date of purchase." 

February 13, Henry F. Lowman, Jesse Rapp and David Becker were 
appointed a committee to contract with some person to take charge of the 
poor farm for one year, and to direct such improvements as the committee 
might deem necessary to the reception of paupers, etc. March 1, this com- 
mittee reported a contract, signed by themselves and Jacob Strickler, for 
the term of one year from that date, which was accepted and placed on file. 
The same day the board of supervisors ordered that " the house purchased 
of Samuel S. Bayliss be established as a poor house " from that date. The 
house referred to was a kind of double concern— half frame and half log. 
Improvements were soon after commenced, and continued from year to year, 
as the county had means, until in 1872 a handsome, commodious and con- 
venient brick house, of two stories and basement, was commenced and com- 
pleted. In the basement are three rooms a cellar. On the first floor there 
are five rooms and two cells. On the second floor there are seven rooms — 
all well ventilated, and sufficiently roomy for all practical purposes. The 
contract was originally awarded to Karn <fe Rhinedollar, carpenters and 
builders at Mount Carroll. They sub-let the masonry part of the building 
to Mr. James Hallett, also of Mount Carroll. The contract price was 
SP),050, but by the time the building was completed extra work had been 
done that increased its cost to about $6,200. 

When the poor farm was first purchased, R. W. Brush was appointed 
a special " agent to put into operation, and take a general supervision of 
the poor house in Carroll County for the ensuing year." 


For several years after the management of the aftairs of the county 
passed from the commissioners to supervisors, a good deal of their time 
was taken up in road and bridge matters, l^ew roads were laid out, old 
ones straightened and re-located to conform to the greater interests and 
convenience of the people. March T, 1853, a bridge was ordered to be built 
across Flum River, near Savanna, on the road leading southeastwardly to the 
Town of York, and Monroe Bailey, Reuben H. Gray andXorman D. French 
were appointed a committee to act with the road commissioners of Savanna to 
locate and superintend the building of the said bridge. Previous to the 
erection of this bridge, the only means of crossing Plum River at that 
point, in times of high water, was by ferry. In June, 1851, the supervisors 
granted license to AVade H. Eldridge to keep a ferry therefor three months, 
on the condition that he would not obstruct the ford, give bond in the sum 
of fifty dollars, and pay into the treasury of the county the sum of one 
dollar — all of which requirements were filled. The rates of toll were: 

Footmen, 5c. ; do. going and returning the same day. Man and horse and horse and 
buggy, 10c. ; do. going and returning same day, 15c. ; wagon and two horses, or two oxen, 
15c.; do. going and returning same day, 25c. ; wagon and four horses, 25c.; do. going and 
returning same day, 20c. each way. 


These rates were established by the board of supervisors, and may be 
found under their proceedings of June 3, 1851. 

May 6, 1853, the board passed an amended order directing the com- 
missioners appointed March 7, 1853, to superintend the building of the 
bridge, not to exceed the sum of $2,000 in all their charges against the 
county for that purpose. September 13, 1853, Supervisor D. P. Holt 
offered the following resolution : 

That the orders heretofore passed in relation to building a bridge across Plum River, 
near Savanna, be sustained and approved, and that' the sum, not exceeding $2,000, be appro- 
priated for that purpose. 

The ayes and nays were called for, and C. VanVeghten, E. Brock, 
David Becker, G. Denny, D. P. Holt and H. B. Puterbaugh voted in the 
affirmative, and James Linke, Joseph Steffins, R. J. Tomkins and H. B. 
Loman voted in the negative. 

The records do not show very clearlj^ to whom the contract for build- 
ing this bridge was awarded, but, from the following entry in the super- 
visors' records, under date of Thursday, January 12, 1851:, we are led to 
conclude that D. P. Holt was the builder. The entry reads: 

That the clerk of the supervisors be and is hereby authorized to issue a counly order 
to the amount of three hundred and sixty-nine dollars, to D. P. Holt, as balance on his con"- 
tract for building Plum River Bridge, on his filing an order of the committee of the acceptr 
ance of the said contract. 

Then there comes a subsequent entry, in the course of the proceedings 
of that meeting, wherein the board is petitioned by the supervising commit- 
tee to direct the clerk to issue an order for one thousand live hundred 
dollars to D. P. Holt, in part payment for the Plum River bridge, on his 
filing his bond, with good and sufficient security, etc. — from all of which 
it aj)pears that Mr. Holt was the contractor and builder of the Urst bridge 
across Plum River at that point. 

This bridge and the one at Bowen's old mill, on Plum River (now 
Wood & Kitchen's), were the largest and most costly in the county. They 
were wooden structures, and went down from time, before floods and 
constant use. But at last they are succeeded by strong iron bridges, that 
defy the force of floods and ravages and decay of time. There are other 
bridges in the count3\ but they are wooden ones and of minor importance. 
These bridges are kept up and repaired from time to time by the several 
townships in which they are situated. 

From the time of the permanent location of the county seat at Mt. 
Carroll, and the removal of the count}' offices from Savanna, in ]814, until 
the breaking out of the war, in 1861, there was bat little to disturb the 
industrial pursuits of the people. As a rule, the people were of a sober, 
industrious character who had come to the county to secure homes they 
had not the means to secure in their native states, and possessed but little 
money to help them in their new location. But " where tliere is a will, 
there is always a way," and, careful and prudent, and, by education and 
force of circumstances, economical, they succeeded in conquering the hard- 
ships incident to pioneer life. And, although they were sometimes " hard 
run " for the necessaries of life, thej" kept up brave hearts, and in two or 
three years had reduced their claims to remunerative farms — at least, they 
had been made to produce enough to support their family occupants, and 
something to spare. As the years increased, the productions of their farm 
and stock increased, and the memories of the scanty meals and scanty 


wardrobes, physical hardships, etc., of their pioneer days were sweetened in 
the coiiteinphition of farms and houses and barns and other surroundings 
of comfort their industry and perseverance had brought forth from the 
praii'ies and foi'csts, tliat but a few years ago had been the grazing phices 
of the buffaU),'" the elk and other animals natural to the wilds of the north- 
west, and the undistui'bed hunting grounds of the red men. 

Nature seems to have designed certain localities of our common coun- 
try for certain purposes. The rock-bound rivers and creeks of the New 
England states pre-eminently suit that part of the countrj^ for manufactur- 
ing purposes. But the Great Architect that unfolded the beautiful prairies 
and reared the grove-covered hillsides of Carroll County seems to have 
intended it for agricultural and stock-growing purposes, and to these ends 
the people directed their energies and their industries. 


Was organized in 1853. On the 3d day of September of that year, in ])ur- 
suance of a call signed by Manasses Neikisk, Harry Smith, David Emmert 
and one hundred and twenty others, a meeting was held at the court house 
for the purpcjse of organization. Garner Moffett was chosen chairman of 
the meeting, and Luther H. Bowen and II. G. Grattan were appointed sec- 
retaries. After a general interchange of views and opinions, Messrs. L. 
Tomlinson, M. Bailey, R. H. Gray, B. R. Frohock, John Her, II. Smith, T. 
Aldrich, E. Brock and H. G. Grattan were appointed a committee to pre- 
pare a business programme, etc. The committee retired and, after a brief 
absence, returned and reported 

That a society be formed in Carroll County to represent the interests of Au:ricnlture, 
Horticulture and Mechanics, and that a committee be appointed by tliis meeting to prep;ire 
a constitution and by-laws, preparatorj^ to the permanent org'auizaUon of this society, to be 
submitted at an adjourned meeting to be held on the second Tuesday of September, inst., 
and that said commitiee consist of tlie following named persons: Garner Moftelt, Benjamin 
R. B^rohock, H. G. Grattan, R. H. Gray, E. Brock. 

After some other business of rather an unimportant character, the 
meeting adjourned until the second Tuesday in September. 

Tuesday, Septemher 13, 1853, the meeting re-assembled, and was called 
to order by the chairman. Garner Moffett. 

The committee on constitution and by-laws submitted a constitution 
and by-laws, each article of which was acted upon and adopled separately. 

After the adoption of the constitution, the society proceeded to the 
election of officers, with the following result: 

Pi evident — John Keach. 

Vice President — Henry Smith. 

Treasurer — R. J. Tompkins. 

Secretary — H. G. Grattan. 

Executive Committee — Tilson Aldrich, Ephraim Brock, Benj. R. Fro- 
hock, D, P. Holt and Monroe Bailey. 

Monroe Bailey was chosen as a delegate to represent the society at the 
state fair, to be held at Springfield, on the 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th of 
October, 1853; and Tilson Aldrich, Henry Smith, and Henry G. Grattan 
were selected to represent the society at the Fruit Growers' Convention, to 
be held at Chicago, on the 14th, 15th, and 16th days of October, 1853. 

* Some authorities have maintained that the buffalo never appeared east of the Missis- 
sippi River, but recent discoveries have proved the contrary, slieletons of this animal having 
been found in this section of the state. 

268 msTORT OF carroll county. 

The secretary was directed to " furnish printed copies of the constitu- 
tion to be distributed throughout the country for signatures,'- when it was 
voted to adjourn. 

The next meeting relating to the interests of the society, of which there 
is any record, was held by the executive committee, on Monday, April 24, 
1854. That meeting adopted a resolution requiring the treasurer of the 
society to give bonds in the sum of one thousand dollars; that the first 
annual fair be held on the first Thursday of October, and that the Board of 
Supervisors of Carroll County be petitioned for an appropriation of five 
hundred dollars, to be expended in fencing and arranging the lair grounds 
for the use of the society. The first bill that seems to have been presented 
against the society was by H. G. Grattan, the secretary, for "printing and 
stationer3%'" and he was ordered to "■ draw on the treasurer for the same." 

The first fair commenced on the first Thursday of October, 1854, and 
was held on the farm of A. Monroe Bailey, about seven miles south of Mt. 
Carroll, and was rather a primitive ?iifair. It is related of the president 
that he took a sow there to be shown and put her in a pen, but that he did 
not know that the rules of the society required all stock and articles 
intended for exhibition to be entered upon the books of the secretary. His 
ignorance of the rules was not discovered until the fair closed, when he 
loaded his female porker into his wagon and hauled her home, a wise?' man 
than when he dumped her into the pen in the morning. 

The writer of this history was unable to find any record of that first 
fair — the number of entries, the premium list, award of premiums, or any- 
thing of the kind, so he is unable to present any of the particulars. Only 
the first report of the treasurer has been preserved among the records, and 
this is presented in full: 

Carroll Coxtnty Agricultural Society, 

In Account icith R. J. Tompkins. 

Sept. 25 By amount received from members to date $104 00 

Sept. 25 " " " " state " " 50 00 

Sept. 29 " " " for membership " " -- 74 00 

Sept. 29 " " " " tickets of admission to fair grounds.. 57 25 

Sept. 29 " " " from Pierce for grocery permit. - 5 00 

Oct. 1 " " " for membership 1 00 

Oct. 29 " " of interest on money received to date 13 57 

1304 82 

1853. Dr. 

Dec. 10, 1 blank book for Grattan 50 

Dec. 10, 1 qr. paper " " 25 

Dec. 16, 8 " '• " " 75 

Aug. 19, Paid Grattan bill for printing 8 80 


Sept. 28, " Ed. Phillips for attending gate 150 

Sept. 28, " Ira Bailey for watchers of tent and contents 

atfair.. 4 00 

Sept. 28, " Wheeler on account of printing... .30 00 

Sept. 28, " Mrs. Ferrin premium on Rug 1 00 $46 80 

Balance of cash in hands of treasurer.. .$258 02 

R. J. ToMKixs, Treasurer. 
Mt. Carroll, Oct. 29, 1855. 

The second fair was held in the Fall of 1855. The ground selected was 
on the hill on the east side of Dog Kun, and a little west of the present 


residence of Nathaniel Halderman, Esq. The records fail to show where 
it was held in 1856, and the old settlers with whom the writer talked were 
at fault as to its location that year, but it is ])robal)le it was held on the 
same ground it occupied in 1855. 

June 8, 1854, a petition was presented to the board of supervisors, 
asking for help from the county in the sum of $500. The petition was not 
acted upon at that time, but on motion, was laid over until the next meet- 
ing of the board, but a close following of the record fails to reveal any fur- 
ther action in regard to the petition, or at least the appropriation of the 
sum asked, until Tuesday, May 5, 1857, when the board of supervisors 

Resolved, That five hundred dollars (|500) be appropriated out of the County 
Treasury to be expended by the Executive Committee of the Carroll County Agricultural 
ISociety in the puichase and fitting up of Fair Grounds to be used at the annual exhibition 
of Agricultural, Horticultural and Mechanical Fairs in said count}', and that the title to 
said grounds shall stand in the name of the Board of Supervisors of Carroll County and 
their successors in office. 

Pending the consideration of this resolution, the following amendment 
was presented, to- wit: 

Resolved, That tlie board accept the proposition of J. Wilson to build a court house, 
jail, etc. 

Upon which substitute the ayes and nays were taken, as follows: 

Ayes — James Flallett, Peter Markley, IST. Stephenson — 3. 

JSfays—lsL Bailey, O. S. Beardsley, James DeWolf, M. C. Taylor, E. 
Chamberlain, J. R. Shelby, M. ISTeikerk, Albert Healy, H. L. Lowman — 9. 

And the substitute was lost. 

On motion, the original resolution was then passed. 

May 29, 3857, Joseph Warfield and wife deeded to the board of super- 
visors a little over five and a half acres of ground in the southwest quarter 
of section twelve, town twenty-four, range four east, in consideration of 
$550. October 4, 1858, Jackson Beaver and wife also conveyed to the board 
one acre and sixty one-hundredths, adjoining the Warfield tract, for $125. 
This increased the domain of the society to about seven acres, which served 
the purjDoses of a fair ground for several years, and until the population and 
growth of the county had so increased that a larger area became a necessity. 
April 15, 1865, the executive committee appointed a committee of three, 
consisting of John Nycum, Daniel Becker and Elijah Bailey, to ascertain 
whether the old fair grounds could not be sold, and larger and more com- 
modious grounds be purchased, the committee to report at the next meeting. 

At the same meeting, the executive committee caused the following 
entry to be spread upon the journal: 

Whereas, Certain friends of agriculture and members of the executive committee 
believe the prosperity of the agricultural society would be enhanced by moving the fair 
about to different parts of the county; therefore. 

Resolved, That propositions will be received at the next meeting of tlie executive com- 
mittee as to such removal, by any portions of the county interested in having the fair lield 
in theii midst. 

May 20, 1865, a meeting of the executive committee was held at 
Lanark, when the committee appointed at the last previous meeting, in 
regard to selling the old fair grounds and purchasing a larger area, reported 
that additional ground could be purchased from Joseph Warfield to enlarge 
the old fair grounds; also, that new and suitable grounds could be pur- 
chased from William T. Miller, north of the town of Mt. Carroll, and that 


the old fair grounds could readily be sold at a ftiir value. The report of the 
committee was received and the committee discharged. 

A committee of Lanark citizens appeared at this meeting to ask that the 
fair be removed to that place, but had no definite propositions to make in 
regard to the removal. After some conversation relating thereto, they asked 
for further time to canvass the matter, which was granted. A committee 
of five, John Kridler, M. Z, Landon, John Keach, R. M. Cook and Elijah 
Bailey, was appointed to receive such propositions as might be presented, 
and to report thereon at the next meeting of the executive committee, when 
final action would be taken on the subject. 

The next meeting of the executive committee was held at the office of 
the secretary of the society, in Mount Carroll, on June 3, 1865, when the 
committee on the location of the fair grounds submitted a report, which 
was accepted. The report embraced the proposition of the people of 
Lanark, and was substantially as follows: 

The people of Lanark, on condition that the Carroll County Fair be held in the town 
of Rock Creek, at or near the village of Lanark, for 18G5 and 18G6, will furnish grounds, 
suitably fenced, and the necessary buildings, free of expense to the society; provided that 
the executive committee will give the use of the old lumber on the old fair ground (the 
posts and buildings excepted), and the net proceeds of the fair for the j'ear 1865. (Signed) 
M. D. Welch, Z. B. Kinkaid, M. Z. Landon, committee; M. Z. Landon, chairman. 

This proposition was amended b}^ requiring the Lanark people to enter 
into a lease of the grounds to the society lor two years, when it was 
accepted, and the fairs for 1865 and 1866 were held thei-e. 

January 6, 1866, a meeting of the executive committee was held to 
consider the proposition of purchasing additional grounds of Mr. Warfield. 
The proposition was fully discussed, and a vote finally taken npon the sub- 
ject. Those voting in favor of the purchase were, Messrs. Bailey, 
Beardsley, Pierce, Hathaway and Funk. Those voting against the pur- 
chase were, Messrs. Stover, Reasoner and Davis. The proposition was 
accepted, and Septembei- 17, 1866, Joseph AVarfield and wife deeded to the 
board thirteen and nine one-hundredths acres, adjoining the old grounds, 
for the sum of $823.12, making a little over twenty acres, the whole cost of 
which was $1,498.13. All of this tract was put in one enclosure in time 
for the fair of 1867, since when the fairs have been regularly held thereon. 

The last fair was held September 4, 5, 6 and 7, 1877. The total nnm- 
ber of entries were 1,554; total amount of premiums ofitered, $2,148; total 
amount of premiums paid, $2,006.15. The number of shareholders or 
members is 436. The cash value of real estate and the improvements 
thereon is $3,000. 


Amount in treasury last report $154 70 

Amount received 1877 : Fees (gate and entrance), 1,514 60 

Booth rents, permits, etc 308 40 

kSale membership tickets.- :. 415 00 

State appropriation 100 00 

Amount paid in 1877: In premiums.. $2,006 15 

For current expenses other than 

premiums 655 10 

Amount deficit, net (including debt covered by mortgage). 168 55 

$2,661 25 $2,661 25 
Indebtedness secured by note and mortgage $1,485 00 


Officers, elected Septemhery 1877. — President, H. C. Blalce, ]\roimt 
Carroll; Vice President, L. E. Byiiigton, Lanark; Treasurer, O. P. Miles, 
Mount Carroll; Secretary, E. T. E. iJeeker, Mount Carroll. 


From October, 1841-, to 1853, the court house erected by Messrs. 
Emmert, Haldennan & Co. was sufficiently commodious to furnish accom- 
modations to the circuit court, the county offices, jail, etc. But population 
and business had been steadily increasino^, and in the last nanied year the 
people began to agitate the building of a larger and better building — one 
in keeping with the importance and wealth to which the county had 
attained. In September of that year, the agitation of the subject had 
grown so general that, on the 13th of that month, the board of supervisors 

Ordered, That R. J. Tomkins bo a committee to obtain a draft of a court house, and 
ascertain the probable expense of building one. 

A careful examination of the record fails to discover any report 

made by Mr. Tumkins, and it is fair to presume that he never made any 

report, or that, if he did, it was not a written one. The next entry in regard 

to the contemplated building is found under date of November 9, 1855, 

when the board of supervisors 

Resolved, Tliat a good and sufficient building or buildings be constructed, suitable for 
the uses and purposes of a jail and court house for the Count}' of Carroll, said building to 
cost not less than $12,000 nor more than -$20,000. 

The ayes and nays being called upon the above resolution, the vote 
stood as follows: 

Ayes — K. Wheeler, Philetus Reck, George Denny, Leonard Pratt, 
William Carroll, M. W. Hollingsworth, Nathan Stevenson, W. A. Shoe- 
maker— 8. 

Nays — None. 

November 30, 1855, the supervisors "resolved that M. W. Hollings- 
worth be appointed to procure a draft *f some competent architect for acourt 
house and jail, with suitable rooms for sheriff, juries, clerk, recorder, and 
jailor, with specifications as to the size, material, finish and cost, and report 
to the next session of the board." 

Tuesday, March 11, 1856, Mr. Hollingsworth presented his report, 
together with a draft and plan of a court house, which was accepted, 
when the board appointed M. W. Hollingsworth, R. II. Gray and Leonard 
Pratt '• a building committee, to superintend the construction of said build- 
ing, upon the plan and in the manner designated; and also that the com- 
mittee, or a majority of them, be authorized to let the same to the lowest 
bidder therefor, and to enter into contrac-t with any person or persons to 
construct the same upon the plan aforesaid, upon such terms as may be for 
the best interests of said County of Carroll, at the point heretofore desig- 
nated by said board." The board also adopted the following: 

Resolved, That said committee be required to take from the contractor or contractors of 
said building good and sufficient bonds to secure the completion of the work and materials 
furnished in the manner and form described ; also, upon entering into contract, giving bonds 
as aforesaid, said committee be authorized to draw orders upon the county treasujy, m favor 
of said contractors, in the sum of five thousand dullars; and, upon the covering m of said 
building, said committee are authorized to cause bonds, drawing ten per cent interest, to be 
executed, paj-able in equal instalments, in one, two and three years, for one half the bal- 
ance of contract price. And, upon the completion of said building, to cause bonds for the 
balance' remaining unpaid to be issued, at ten per cent, as aforesaid, payable iu two, three 
and four years from date, in equal sums. 


The " draft and specifications " were drawn by Olmsted & Nicholson, 
architects, Chicago. 

Tuesday, September 9, 1856, the following resolution was presented to 
the board: 

Resolved, That the committee for building court house, jail, etc., be, and they are hereby 
instructed to let the contract for building court house, etc., in accordance with a resolution 
of the board of supervisors, of March term, A.D. 1H56. 

To which an amendment was offered as follows, to-wit: 

So far as to erect and cover in said buildin£ and finish the basement story. 

And, on motion, a vote by ayes and nays was taken on said resolution 
as amended, w'hich vote resulted as follows: 

Ayes — Garner Moffett, Daniel Hurley, K. Stephenson, Peter Markley, 
M. "VV. Ilollingsworth — 5. 

Nays — James Lewker, M. Neikirk, E. Chamberlain, E.obt. Artt, M. 
C. Taylor, Asahel Aldrich— 6. 

The resolution did not pass. The following resolution was then pre- 
sented : 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to obtain a draft and specifications for a 
jail and county oftices, the same to be fire-proof buildings — the offices and jail to be separate 
— said committee to report at some future meeting. 

The resolution was adopted, by the following vote : 

Ayes — James Lewker, A. Aldrich, Kobt. Artt, E. Chamberlain, M. C. 
Taylor, K. Stephenson — 6. 

A^«ys— Garner Moffett, M. Xeikirk, M. W. Tlollingsworth, D. Hurley, 
P. Markley. 

B. R. Frohock, Asahel Aldrich, and Garner Moffett were appointed as 
such committee. 

Friday, November 7, Leonard Pratt tendered his resignation as a 
member of the building committee, which resignation was accepted. 

Saturday, the Sth, the committee appointed at the September terra to 
obtain draft and specifications for a jail and county offices, reported that, 
owing to the death of Garner Moffett (a member of the board), and other 
circumstances, they were unable to attend to their duties as they would 
like to have done. A draft for a jail was presented by the committee, 
which was examined by the board. 

The same day, John Wilson, Esq., appeared before the board, and 
stated in substance as follows: 

" That if the county would loan its credit to the amount of $100,000 
for a term of years (perhaps ten), in consideration thereof he would build 
the court house for the county according to the plan and specification now 
(then) belonging to the county, then in the hands of M. W. UoUingsworth, 
and would secure the county in double the amount of the bonds the county 
might issue against the payment ot said bonds or any interest thereon." 

Messrs. Artt, Stephenson and Aldrich were appointed as a committee 
to consult with Mr. Wilson with regard to the matter, "to procure from 
him a contract, or form, or statement in writing, of his proposition to 
build the same; also, to ascertain what kind ot security the count}^ had 
best receive for the fulfillment of any contract that may be made,'- etc. 

In the afternoon of that day the committee reported that they had met 
Mr. Wilson, but that they were unable to present a contract or statement 
from him at that time, but would do so in future, whereupon Daniel Hur- 

'^ ^df^iiA.. 



ley and D. R. Frohock were appointed for tlie purpose of receiving and 
consulting with Mr. Wilson in regard to entering into a contract witli him 
to build a court house, jail and lire-proof connty offices, etc., and to report 
upon what terms and in what time said Wilson would build said court 
house, jail and iire-proof connty offices, and how payment should be made 
for the building thereof; also, the nature, kind and amount of security that 
would bs given for the peiformance of said work, the amount of bonds .to 
be issued by the county, the rate of interest, time and manner of payment 
of interest and princi])al. 

February 20, 1857, this committee reported that they had consulted 
with Mr. AVilson, and that he had no proposition to make, whereupon the 
committee was discharged. 

Tuesday, May 5, 1857, Mr. Wilson again presented a proposition for 
building a court house, jail, etc., which was received. This proposition 
was, in substance, as follows: That he would so far complete the jail the 
first year as to render it available and secure, and also provide jailer's 
rooms — the year to commence March 1. The second year to have the 
offices ready for occupancy; the third year to so far complete the whole 
building that it could be occupied for offices, jail and court purposes, 
and the fourth year to have the whole building entirely completed in 
accordance with the j^lans furnished. He asked payment to be made as 
follows : 

1st. Five thousand dollars to be paid in hand; $5,000 to be paid 
March 1, 1858; $5,000 Mareh 1, 185*J; $5,000 March 1, 1860; $5,000 
March 1, 1861, with ten per cent on fifth payment twelve months; and 
$5,000 payable March 1, 1862, with ten per cent interest per annum, paya- 
ble annually for two years, and to enter into bonds with sufficient security 
to carry out his propositioiL Upon the reading of this proposition, the fol- 
lowing resolution was offered : 

Resolved, That the board accept the proposition of J. Wilson to build court liouse, 
jail, etc. 

Upon which the ayes and nays were taken, with the following result: 
Ayes — Jas. Hallett, Peter Markley, N. Stephenson — 3. 
Nays—^L Bailey, O. S. Beardsley, Jas. DeAVolf, M. C. Taylar, E. 
Chamberlain, J. R. Shelby, M. Neikirk, Albert Healy, H. L. Lowiiian — 0. 
So Mr. Wilson's ].>roposition was rejected. 
The following resolution was then offered: 

Resolved, Tliat a committee of three be appointed by the board, who shall have 
power to let a contract for the building of a court house upon the public square in the 
town of Mt. Carroll, in accordance with the specifications and profiles of a plan now in the 
hands of Mahlon Hollingsworth, provided such contract is let to such parlies as will agree 
to build the same within four years. ******* 

Upon which the ayes and nays were taken : 

Ayes — James Hallett, Peter Markley, O. S. Beardsley, IST. Stephenson, 
H. F. Lowman — 5. 

]VmJS—^¥. Bailey, Jas. DeWolf, M. C. Taylor, E. Chamberlain, J. R. 
Shelby, M. Neikirk, Albert Ilealey— 7. 

The resolution was lost. 

The board then resolved — 

1. That it is necessary for the convenience and interest of Carroll Countj' that a jail, 
county offices and jury rooms should be built at the earliest practical day. 

2. That, in the opinion of the board, the most economical plan of building the same 
is to combine them with the court house. 


3. That measures be now taken by the board to secure that object. 

4. That a couimittee of three be appointed to let a contract upon the most favorable 
terms, in accordance with tlie specitications and profiles of a plan of a court house now in 
the hands of Mahlon W. Hollini^sworth, aud that such contract, before it is filed and in 
binding, sliail be submitted to tiu; board and supervisors at as early a day as the said com- 
mittee shall think proper to call a meeting of said board. 

M. Neikirk, M. Bailey and J. P. Emmert were appointed as tlie com- 
mittee to carry into effect the above resolutions. 

Wednesday, May 27, 1857, the board again met, when the above- 
named committee presented their report, setting forth that they had exam- 
ined all the proposals for the l»uilding of said court house, and presented 
for the consideration of the board the proposal of Wm. T. Miller, the said 
proposal being, in the opinion of the committee, the most favorable for the 
county, said proposal being as follows: 

I propose to build the court house in accordance with the specifications, profiles and 
plans furnished by Olmsted aud Nicholson, of Chicago, for thirty-one thousand five hun- 
dred dollars, in the following payments, to-wit: 

In hand, $4,500; March 1, 1858, $4,500; March 1, 1859, $4,500; March 1,1860, 
$4,500; March 1, 1861, $4,500; March 1, 1862, $4,500; March 1, 1863, $4,500; interest at ten 
per cent on each payment after due, if not paid at maturity. I propose for the above pay- 
ments to put the whole building under roof, finish jail and jailer's ro'jms, county ofiices and 
fire-proof vaults by March 1, A. D. 1859; finish court room for court purposes by March 1, 
1860; and complete the building by March 1, A. D. 1861. And I propose further that, 
should said proposition be accepted, I will enter into good and sufficient bonds for the ful- 
fillment of my part of the contract. 

• By J. P. Emmert. 

A motion was made to accept the above proposition, npon which the 
yeas and nays were called: 

Yeas—M. Bailey, P. Markley, J as. Hallett, Albert Healey, O. S. 
Beardsley, N. Stephenson, H. F. Lowman — -7. 

JVays—E. Chamberlain, M. Neikirk, J. R. Shelby, Jas. DeWolf, J. M. 
Manning — 5. 

The motion prevailed, and Miller's proposition was accepted. 

Tuesday, May 28, David Emmert, Abraham Beeler and Philander 
Seymour were appointed a committee to enter into a contract on the part 
of the county with Wm. T. Miller, in accordance with his proposition. The 
committee were fully instructed, and required to take a good and sufficient 
bond from Mr. Miller for a faithful performance of his undertaking, etc. 
Several resolutions of instruction to the building committee were spread 
upon the journal, with a view to the protection of the interests of the tax- 
payers of the county. The contract was duly drawn up and signed by the 
contracting parties, and all the preliminaries arranged to commence 
building the present very handsome, commodious and convenient county 
buildings, Mr. Miller being required to enter into bond in the sum of 
$6,000, with good and sufficient secnrity, etc. 

August 3, 1857, the first instalment, as provided in Mr. Miller's 
proposition, was paid to him in county orders, the numbers commencing 
with 1804 and ending with 1834 — thirty-one in all — and representing 
$4,500. . 

September 15, 1857, the board ordered that " W. T. Miller and Jacob ■ 
P. Emmert be allowed the exclusive nse and occupation of the court house 
square, in the Town of Mount Carroll, during the time they are engaged in 
building and finishing the court house thereon, for all purposes connected 
with the erection of said court house." 


June 1. A. D. 1857, a contract was entered into by aiid between David 
Emniert, Philander Seymour and A. Beeler, building committee, on the 
part of Carroll County, and State of Illinois, as party of the lirst x)art, and 
William .T. Miller and Jacob P. Emmert, party of the second part, etc., 
by which the last named undertook the building of the courthouse, on the 
terms proposed in Miller's proposition by Emmert, May 27. Work was 
at once commenced. The building of the stone basement walls were let to 
Mr. James Watson, and were completed that year. In May, 1858, James 
and B. II. Hallett, masons, commenced the brick walls, which were fully 
completed, and the building enclosed, by the beginning of Winter. In the 
Spring of 1859, Sherilf Nase'was ordered by the judge of the circuit court 
to occupy the jail department, but the building was not accepted by the 
county until Tuesday, June 4, 1861, when the board of supervisors ordered 
"• that the clerks and sheriif l)e instructed to remove, occupying the offices 
in the new court house.'" 

The delay in occupying the new building grew out of the fact that a 
controversy had grown up between the county authorities and the contract- 
ors. The former maintained that the terms of the contract had not been 
filled, and that, in many respects the plans and specifications had not l)een 
followed,,. The main sources of difference arose in regard to the roof 
(which w^as claimed to be imperfect and leaky) and the fire-]U'oof vaults. 
Committees of investigation were appointed, and suifs against the con- 
tractors for damages, etc., were threatened, but the differences between the 
parties in interest were finally satisfactorily settled, without resort to the 
courts of law. However, the vaults were overhauled and remodeled, and 
the roof repaired. These expenses were incurred by the county, for the 
reason that the building committee had accepted the contract as completed. 


If there is any one thing more than another of which the people of 
the jS^orthern States have reason to be proud, it is of the record they made 
during the dark and bloody days of the War of the Rebellion. When the 
war w^as forced u|)on the country, the people were quietly pursuing the 
even tenor of their ways, doing whatever ti.eir hands found to do — making * 
farms or cultivating those already made, erecting homes, founding cities 
and towns, building shops and manufactories — in short, the country was 
alive with industry and hopes for the future. The people were just recov- 
ering from the depressions and losses incident to the financial panic of 1857. 
The future looked bright and promising, and the industrious and patriotic 
sons and daughters of the Free Stat(!S were buoyant with hope — looking 
forward to the perfecting of new plans for the ensurement of comfort and 
competence in their declining years, they little heeded the mutterings and 
.threatenings of treason's children in the Slave States of the South. True 
sons and descendants of the heroes of the "times that tried men's souls '' — 
the struggle for American independence — they never dreamed that there 
was even one so base as to dare attempt the destruction of the Union of 
their fathers — a government baptized with the best blood the world ever 
knew. While immediate!}' surrounded with peace and tranquility, they 
paid but little attention to the rumored plots and plans of those who lived 
and grew rich from the sweat and toil, blood and flesh of othei's — aye, oven 
trafficked in the oftspring of their own loins. Nevertheless, the war came, 
with all its attendant horrors. 


April 12, 1S61, Fort Sumter, at Charleston, South Carolina, Major 
Anderson, U. S. A., commandant, was iired upon by rebels in arms. Although 
basest treason, this Urst act in the bloody reality that followed, was looked 
upon as the mere bravado of a few hot- heads— the act of a few fire eaters 
whose sectional bias and freedom hatred was crazed by excessive indulgence 
in intoxicatinir potations. When, a dav later, the news was borjie alonir 
the telegraphic wires that Major Anderson had been forced to surrender to 
what had at lirst been regarded as a drunken mob, the patriotic people of 
the North were startled from the d)-eams of the future — from undertakings 
half completed — and made to realize that behind that mob there was a dark, 
deep and well organized purpose to destroy the government, rend the Union 
in twain, and out of its ruins erect a slave oligarchy, whej-ein no one would 
dare question their right to hold in bondage the sons and daughters of men 
whose skins were black, or who, perchance, through practices of lustful 
natures, were half or quarter removed from the color that God, for His 
own purposes, had given them. But they " reckoned without their host." 
Their dreams of the future — their plans for the establishment of an inde- 
pendent confederacy — were doomed from their inception to sad and bitter 

Immediately upon the surrender of Fort Sumter, Abraham Lincoln — 
America's martyr president — who, but a few short weeks before, had taken 
the oath of office as the nation's chief executive, issued a proclamation 
calling for 75,000 volunteers for three months. The last word of that proc- 
lamation had scarcely been taken from the electric wires before the call 
was tilled. Men and money were counted out by hundreds and thousands. 
The people who loved their whole government could not give enough. 
Patriotism thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The 
farm, the workshop, the office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, the 
school house — every calling offi^red its best men, their lives and their for- 
tunes in defense ot the government's honor and unity. Party lines were, 
for the time, ignored. Bitter words, spoken in moments of political heat, 
were forgotten and forgiven, and, joining hands in a common cause, they 
repeated the oath of America's soldier statesman — " By the Great Eternals 
the Union must and shall he 'preserved ! " 

Seventy-five thousand men were not enough to subdue the rebellion. 
Nor were ten times that number. The war went on, and call followed call, 
until it began to look as if there would not be men enough in all the Free 
States to crush out and subdue the monstrous war traitors had inaugurated. 
But to every call, for either men or mone3% there was a willing and a ready 
response. And it is a boast of the people that, had the supply of men 
fallen short, there were women brave enough, daring enough, patriotic 
enough, to have offered themselves as sacrifices on their country's altar. 
Such were the impulses, motives and actions of the patriotic men of the 
North, among whom the sons of Carroll made a conspicuous and praise- 
worthy record. Of the offerings made by this people during the great and 
final struggle between freedom and slavery, it is the purpose now to write. 

April 14, A. D. 1861, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States, issued the following 


Whereas, The laws of the United States have been, and now are, violently opposed in 
several states by combinations too powerful to be suppressed in the ordinary waj', T there- 
fore call for the militia of the several states of the Union, to the aggregate number of 75,000, 


to suppress said combiuatioa and execute the laws. I appeal to all 103'al citizens to facili- 
tate and aid in this effort to maintain the laws and the inte.i^rity of the perpetuity of the 
popular government, and redress wrongs long enougii endured. The first service assigned 
to the forces, probably, will be to repossess the forts, places and property which have been 
seized from the Union. Let the utmost care be taken, consistent witli the object, to avoid 
devastation, destruction, interference willi the property of jjcaceful citizens in any part of 
the country; and I hereby command persons composing the aforesaid combination to dis- 
perse within twenty days from date. 

I hereby convene both houses of Congress for the 4th day of July ne.\t, to determine 
upon measures for public safety which the interest of the subject demand. 


Wm. H. Seward, President of the United States. 

Secretary of State. 

The gauntlet thrown down by the traitors in the Sotith was accepted — 
not, however, in the spirit with which insolence meets insolence — but with 
a firm, determined spirit of patriotism and love of country. The duty of 
the president was plain under the constitution and the laws, and above and 
beyond all, the people from whom all political power is derived demanded 
the suppression of the rebellion, and stood ready to sustain the authority 
of their representatives and executive officers. 

The first war meeting held in Carroll County convened at the old court 
house on Wednesday evening, April IT, 1861, for the purpose of taking into 
consideration the propriety of organizing a military company to act in con- 
junction with other companies for the defense of a common country. T. T. 
Jacobs was chosen as -oresident of that meeting, and S. C. Hays was 
appointed to act as secretary. Yolney Armour stated the object of the 
meeting, when stirring speeches were made by J. P. Seedy and Hon. B. L. 

Y. Armour, B. L. Patch, A. Kase, Samuel Preston, of Mount Carroll, 
and Monroe Bailey, of York, were appointed to prepare a series of resolu- 
tions expressive of the sense of the meeting, and during their absence, 
short and enthusiastic speeches were made by Messrs. Hays, Colehower, 
Chapman and others. After an hour's absence, the committee returned 
and reported the following, which were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, The people of several states of the Union are in open and armed rebellion 
against the Government of the United States, and have, without any reasonable excuse or 
any invasion of their rights by the general government, seized the forts, arsenals, and prop- 
erty of lhe government, and to crown their outrageous acts, have actually levied war upon 
the government, by their late attack on and forcible occupation of Fort Sumter; tlierelore, 
be it 

Resolved, 1. That we, the citizens of Mount Carroll and vicinity, without distinction of 
party, hereby declare our unalterable attachment to the Union and Constitution as it is, 
and that we will stand by the stars and stripes, and support the administration in its 
measures to vindicate the riglitful authority of the government in suppressing treason and 
enforcing the laws in all the states. 

2. That we deem it our duty to organize a military company in this county, to meet 
any call that may be made by the government of the state, for the purpose of supporting 
the general government in the present emergency. 

Yolney Armour was then appointed as recruiting officer, when the 
meeting adjourned to meet again on Saturday evening, the 20th. 


Pursuant to adjournment, the meeting re-assembled in the new court 
house, for the purpose of commencing the organization of a volunteer com- 
pany to be tendered to the governor of the state. Judge Wilson presided 
at this meeting, and J. P. Emmert acted as secretary. Upon taking the 
chair. Judge Wilson electrified the audience with a manly and patriotic 


speech, which was frequently interrupted with heart-swelling cheers. Judge 
Wilson was followed by Hon. AV. T. Miller, Dr. B. L. Miller, H. A. Mills, 
C. B. Smith, Henry Asliway, James Shaw, Y. Armour, N. Halderman, 
William T. Frohock, and others, with warm and patriotic speeches, which 
were heartily cheered. • 

Mr. Armour presented a roll for the signatures of volunteers, and the 
work commenced. While the roll was being signed, a delegation from 
York Township, headed bv a martial band, entered the court house and were 
gi-eeted with wildest applause. As soon as quiet was restored. Monroe 
Bailey, the chairman of the delegation, announced "that York Township 
was all on lire for the cause of their country — that nine of her sons had 
already enrolled themselves, and that at least as many more would before 
the Carroll County company was filled." This announcement created an 
enthusiasm that could not be restrained, and cheer after cheer greeted Mr. 
Bailey as he resumed his seat. The York boys were also greeted with 
hearty shouts as ihey filed forward to enroll their names. 

During the recei>tion of the names of volunteers, the following agree- 
ment was presented for signatures, which was promptly and unhesitatingly 
signed by a large number of prominent citizens: 

We, the undersiijned citizens of Carroll County, Illinois, do hereby agree to support, 
maintain and protect the taniilies of all persons who may volunteer from our county for the 
defense of the honor and j^erpetuity of our beloved government, so long as said volunteers 
shall be engaged in such defense. For the performance of this agreement we i)ledge our 
sacred honor. 

A subscription was then started for the purpose of raising money to 
defray the contingent expenses of the volunteers while completing their 
organiz'ition, and two hundred and fifty dollars were subscribed before the 
meeting adjourned. 

Thus was awakened the war spirit in Carroll, and thus it continued till 
the w;ir was ended. 

Wednesday, April 2-i, the Carroll County Weekly Mirror^ Messrs. I. 
Y. HoUinger and A. Windle, publishers ; Jame!> Shaw, Esq., editor, 
sounded the key note to the war feeling in Carrc>ll County, in the following 
editorial : 


The whole country is in a flame of exciement; ihe tires of patrintism are being lighted 
in millions of Norihern hcarls ; while tiie dark tires of a hellish and infernal 
fanaticism are crazing the Souihern mind. Sumter has fallen — the flag of our glorious 
counirv is trailed in the dus. — -])uiuetl, si)it upon, insulted b}' Southern mutineers. Arsen- 
als and forts are taken bj' storm. Norihern men are insulted, endangered, slain for no 
crime. The lebels are marching upon Washington. There is danger that the capital of 
our country will fall inio their vandal hands. Virginia has seci'ded. Gov. Hicks, of 
ISIaryland, has proved a traitor. The bridges are broken down ; ihe railroad track is torn 
up; every thing is being done to hold back the forces of the Union, until Washiugton|shall 
tall into tlie hands of those marching upon it. 

Men of the great North, of the mighty West, must these things be ? Are we to 
tamely sit in inactivity until the whole country shall be overrun with a military usurpa- 
tion? Is the nigger-driver to possess our government, make our laws, reduce us to 
bondacre V 

Millions will answer — No! by the everlasting God, No! — Never! Next to our fire- 
sides and heartustones, the City of Washington is dear to the loyal American heai't. 

Let the old tires of the Revolution once again be lighted. Let patriotism and self- 
sacrificing devotion to our country warm every heart, and lead to promptness in action. 
Let all wiio can, volunteer. Let all who can not do this, give their prayers, their means, 
their sympathies, to the holy cause of freedom. Silence traitors and tories at home; stop 
the Soul hern boats on the upper Mississippi River. Keep our lead at home, until we give 
it to them in the shape of bullets ; keep our ircm until we can send it in the shape of swords, 


rifles, and cannou. Keep our provisions until tliey go to our armies in the South. Proclaim 
liberty to the slave everywhere. Let Ihe power of the nation be summoned to crush out 
the rebellion jusl inaugurated. Let those be honored who assist in fighting their country's 

We hope " Little Carroll " will furnisli a hundred good men as licr first instalment; 
and when others are needed, let them be ready. 

Others were needed, and they were ready. 

The First Company. — In the Mirror of May 1, we find the follow- 
ing : " Our large new eonrt house is turned into barracks for the Carroll 
County volunteers now awaiting the Governor's orders to go to Springfield, 
or any other point. The company is under the command of Captain Nase. 
The boys are exceedingly anxious to be off. They ai-e a fine-looking com- 
pany, and will fight like tigers and bull-dogs. Woe to the equal number of 
rebels that tail into their hands. * * * * * * * 

" Below is a list of the names of the officers: 

" Captain, Adam Nase; first lieutenant, R. J. Heath; second lieutenant, 
James O'Brien; first orderly sergeant, John W. Puterbaugh; second orderly 
sergeant, P. D. Kenyon; third orderly sergeant, James A. Shaffer; fourth 
orderly sergeant, Charles W. Wilcox; first corporal, Milo Cummings; 
second corporal, Albert P. Rapp; third corporal, George Kridler; fourth 
corporal, Henry McCall, Jr." Then follow the names of ninety-four of 
the sons of Carroll who were ready to march to the field of danger, courage 
and strife — all of whose names will be found in another place. 

While the men were busy polling up this company, the ladies of Mount 
Carroll were not idle, but their deft fingers had fashioned a handsome flag, 
which, on Monday evening, April 29, was presented to the company, with 
proper ceremony, at the court house. Rev. O. D. W. White represented 
the ladies, and on their behalf made a very appropriate presentation speech. 
Dr. Miller received the flag for the company, and responded to Mr. White's 
remarks in fitting terms, when Captain Nase, whose modesty had kept him 
in the background, was called out, and "made an excellent, solid, short, 
impromptu speech. Others of the volunteers also pledged themselves and 
comrades to stand by, defend and return the flag to the fair hands from 
which they received it." 

This company cotild not be received at once, in consequence of the 
quota of the six regiments assigned to Illinois being so quickly filled, and 
on Saturday, the -tth of May, were dismissed for the time, but ordered to 
hold themselves in readiness to be summoned at any time. The boys were 
disappointed, but their turn came ere long. Before a week had passed, 
Captain Nase received orders to march his company to Freeport, and go 
into camp as a part of a regiment for this congressional district. The 
evening before their departure, they assembled in the court house, where 
they were feelingly addressed by Rev. C. M. Woodward and John Irvine, 
Sr. Early on Saturday morning, the 11th, the boys marched away, escorted 
to the outskirts of the town by the Carroll Cornet Band and a large number 
of citizens of both sexes. 

This company was raised under the call for volunteers for three months, 
but, as before stated, the quota of Illinois was filled before the company 
was ready. When it reached camp at Freeport, the alternative of being 
mustered into service for three years or during the war, or of being dis- 
missed, was presented. The choice was with the men, and they nearly 
unanimously accepted the situation, and were sworn in accordingly. The 
informal election of oflScers, held before the company left Mount Carroll, was 


confirmed, and the duty of camp life on the tented field commenced in 
good earnest. Shortly after, the company was ordered to Alton, whither it 
was soon followed with a uniform provided by the people from whose 
midst the men C(unposing its rank and tile had been raised. 

May 14, the board of supervisors elected for 1861 — H. Smith, L. 
Plefflefinger, J. J. Eaeker, Samuel Sheller, A. Moffett, J. F. Chapman, 
John Ililhnan, E. Hathaway, D. W. Dame, and D. L. Bowen — met for 
the transaction of business. After the examination of their certificates of 
election, as shown by tiieir journal entries, the following ]-esolution was 
offered and passed unanimously — all the supervisors voting aye: 

Resolved, Thai the sum of five tliousand dollars, or so much thereof as maybe sufficient, 
be approjiriated for the purpose of uniforming and equippini; the volunteers from this 
county who have, or who may hereafter enlist in" the service of the state or of the United 
Sta es, and supporting the families of the same, as may be necessary from time to time. 

Resolved, That the said sum be raised by special tax on all the ta.xable property of the 
county; and, further, be it 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed, with power to draw orders through 
the clerk on the treasury, to be paid out of the funds arising from such special tax, in such 
amounts as, in their discretion, the same may be needed to carr}^ out the object ot the fore- 
going resolution. 

Supervisors Chapman, Hefilefinger, Bowen, Moffett and Hillman were 
appointed as the committee provided for in the last resolution abov^e quoted. 
This committee appointed a sub-committee, consisting of Messrs Chapman 
and Pleffiefinger, to negotiate the orders thus provided for, and superintend 
the purchase of a uniform for Captain Nase's company. Captain Nase 
was advised by Mr. Chapman of the action taken by the county, and that 
the sub-committee would visit Chicago to carry out the object expressed in 
the first resolution — to procure a uniform for his coinpanj^ and that they 
w^ished him to have the measure of every man of his company taken by the 
time they reached Freeport on their way to Chicago, naming the day when 
they would stop at the camp to receive the list. Arrived there, Captain 
JSTase expressed a desire to accompany Messrs. Chapman and Heiffetinger 
on their mission, and was made an honorary member of their committee, 
but defraying his own expenses. The dealers in Chicago did not liave much 
faith in the credit and honor of the Carroll County taxpayers, and declined 
to accept the orders in exchauire for their goods at any price. The}" did 
not seem to regard them as worth ten cents on the dollar. The conimittee 
came home somewhat disappointed, but not discouraged. Mr. Chapman 
then sought the agency of Mr. H. Asliway, and tried to sell the orders to 
Mr. James Marks. At that immediate time that gentleman was not pre- 
pared to cash them, but agreed to do so in two months, when he should dis- 
pose of a lot of cattle he was fattening for market. As soon as these were 
sold he would take the orders at a discount of twenty-five per cent. Re- 
ceiving this assurance, Mr. Chapman, who was then in the mercantile 
business, returned to Chicago, and, on his individual faith and credit, con- 
tracted with a house of which he bought goods for a sufficient quantity of 
cloth and ifs manufacture into uniform suits, which cost $1,200 — the net 
amoimt of cash realized from an issue of $1,600 in county orders, at a dis- 
cotint of twenty-five ])er cent. Two months later, when Mr. Marks shipped 
his cattle to Chicago, Mr. Chapman met him there, turned over the county 
orders, received the money, and paid the debt he had contracted to- uniform 
the first company sent out from Carroll County to help defend the life and 
maintain the perpetuity of the government. The uniforms were forwarded 


to Captain Nase at Alton, where the boys were dressed out in blue. From 
there they went wherever the fortunes of war directed. 

In this connection it is but an act of justice to remark tlint to Mr. J. F. 
Chapman, a true patriot and an houest man — the noblest work of God — 
belouf^s the credit of uniforming the first company. It is true tlie faith of 
the county was at liis back, but that could not be made immediately avail- 
able, and but for his energy, tact and credit among the business men and 
wliolesale dealers in Chicago, the uniforming of Captain Nase's company 
would have been much longer delayed. While the war lasted — or, at least, 
for a large part of the time — the county looked after the interests of the 
soldiers' families, as the people had pledged themselves to do at the first 
war meeting. Mr. Chapman was the trusted and faithful agent for the dis- 
tribution of money and supplies, as they were needed, and not a dollar of 
the means thus entrusted to him failed to find its way to those for whom it 
had been provided. And many is the mother and soldier's child that has 
occasion to remember with grateful heart his honor and goodness. Mr. 
Chapman was succeeded in this duty by Mr. O. S. Beardsley, another patriot 
and honest citizen, whose record is without blemish. 

The war went on and recruiting continued. A second company was 
soon after raised, which met at the court house on Saturday evening. May 
18, and proceeded to the election of officers. Abram Beeler was elected 
captain;" S. S. Dunn, iirst lieutenant; James Watson, second lieutenant; 
J. P. Beebe, first sergeant; and D. W. Price, second sergeant. This com- 
pany was christened the " Hickory Rifle Guards." While there was a hand 
raised against the government, the people of Carroll were alive and active. 
Men, women and children were busy — the men in the more arduous duties 
of recruiting and providing " ways and means " for equipping the volun- 
teers and sending them forward, and the women and children in providing 
and shipping to the " Boys in Blue " a thousand and one things that car- 
ried gladness and joy to hundreds of tents. 

The first appropriation made by the board of supervisors was in the 
sum of $5,000, a part of which was used for the purpose of uniforming 
Captain Nase's company. The balance was applied to similar purposes and 
for the support of such of the families of the volunteers as might need 
assistance. ]^o one then imagined that the war would be of long duration, 
or that instead of $5,000, millions would be needed before the rebellion was 
conquered. And so it came, as the war was prolonged, call after call was 
made for men. As these men enlisted, money was needed for their equip- 
ment, for the payment of bounties, th^ support and maintenance of wives 
and families; but there was no stinginess attending. Appropriation fol- 
lowed appropriation from public sources. Thousands were multiplied by 
tens and twenties. Tax was added to tax, but the people bowed willingly 
to the increased burdens. Never were taxes more willingly paid. About 
their payment there was no grumbling, for the life of the nation was at 
stake. Now, in times of peace, when the people have time to think, the 
large amount of money contributed by them from township and county 
sources seems almost wonderful. But few have even an approximate idea 
of the immense sums they helped to pay. Nothing can be presented in 
letters and figures fuller of interest than the actual sums thus provided. 

The following is a statement of the money expended by Carroll County 
durinof the War of the Rebellion: 


Disbursed as county bounty $131,525 00 

Disbursed for support of families of soldiers, by J. F. Chapman 16,835 00 

Disbursed tor uniforms for volunteers by " " _.. I,(i00 00 

Disbursed for support of families of soldiers by O. S. Beardsley..- 12,975 00 

Total -. $162,935 00 

Of the fotirteen townships in the county, Afoiint Carroll is the only one 
included in the above statement, it being the township in which the city of 
Mount Carroll is located. The township authorities were equally liberal, and 
to their several clerks we are indebted for the fol'owing statement, as we 
are indebted to Thomas D. Davis, deputj' county clerk, for the above state- 

Besides the county appropriations, each of the outside townships were 
equally liberal and patriotic. So far as it has been possible to obtain these 
several amounts, they are respectively as follows: 

Rock Creek $16,031 79 

Fair Haven 11,691 29 

q ( Private subscriptions to pay volunteers.. $3,528 00 

'^'"'^""^ "( Town tax 3,500 00—7,288 00 

Elkhorn Grove 3,500 00 

Woodland 7,000 00 

Salem 7,086 00 

Lima 2,000 00 

^x_, ( Principal.. , 53,800 00 

^°'^"(i Interest on same 15,326 00—69,326 00 

$123,923 08 

These are only eight of the fourteen townships, not including Mount 
Carroll. Efforts were made to secure the amounts paid by the other town- 
ships — Shannon, Washington, Freedom, Cherry Grove and Wysox — but 
our postal cards either went amiss, or the township clerks did not answer, 
or, if they did answer, their answers failed to reach us. AVe would like to 
present the exact figures, but can not for want of the proper data. The 
above sum of $123,'J23.0S, added to the county appropriation heretofore 
quoted, and making a liberal and fair estimate for the live townships not 
heard from, would swell the grand total to very nearly $325,000, contrib- 
uted by this people to aid in the suppression of the Avar of the rebellion. 

Besides these public appropriations, individual citizens contributed 
and paid larije sums toward the payment of bounties to avoid the humilia- 
tion of a draft, and to help the needy families of those who had gone out 
with their lives in their hands. The actual amounts of these contributions 
can not possibly be known, but it is safe to assume that they were ecjual to 
one fourth of the county and township appropriations, M^hich would swell 
the grand total to the enormous sum of ,$400,250! 

In concluding this section of the History of Carroll County, what 
more fitting tribute can be ])aid — what greater halo of glory cast about 
their deeds of valor than a full and complete War Record, embracing the 
names, the terms of enlistments, the battles in which they engaged, and 
all the minutifB of their soldier lives? It will be a wreath of glory encir- 
cling every brow, and a memento which each and every one of them earned 
in defence of their country's honor, integrity and unity. 

Carroll County War Record. 


Adjt Adjutant 

Art Artillery 

Bat Bafalion 

Col Col.mel 

Capt ---- Captain 

Corpl - Corporal 

Comsy Commissary 

com ..commissioned 

cav - - cavalry 

captd - • - captured 

desrtd deserted 

disab disabled 

disd - discharged 

e enlisted 

excd - - exchanged 

inf- - infantry 

kid killed 

Lieut Lieutenant 

Maj ^ Major 

m.o mustered out 

prmtd promoted 

pri^r - pri--oner 

Regt --- - Regiment 

re-e re-enlisted 

res resigned 

Sergt Sergeant 

trans transfered 

vet veteran 

wd.. - wounded 

Hon discd honorably discharged 

IMh Infaiitrif, 

The Fifteenth R giment Infantry Illinois Volunteers 
was organized at Freeport, Illinois, and mustered into 
the United States service May 2^. 1861 — being the first 
regiment organized from tlie state for the three years' 
seivice. It then procefded to Alton, III., remaining 
there six weeks for instruction. Left Alton for St. 
Charles, Mo.; thence by rail to Mexico, Mo. Marched 
to Hannibal, Mo ; thence by sleamboat to Jefferson 
Barracks; then by rail to RoUa, Mo. Arrived in time to 
cover Gen. Sieg^^l's retreat from Wilson's Creek; thence 
to Tipion, Mo., and thence joined Gen. Fremont's 
army. Marched from there to Springfield, Mo.; thence 
'oack to Tipton; then to Sedalia, with Gen. Pope, and 
assisted in the capture of 1,300 of the enemy a few 
miles from the latter place; th^n marched to Otterville, 
Mo., where it went into winter quarters Dec. 26, i86r. 
Remained there until Feb. i, i8b2. Then marched to 
Jefferson City; thence to St. Louis by rail; embarkel 
on transports for Fort Donelson, arriving there the day 
of the surre ider. 

The regiment was then assigned to the Fourth Di- 
vision, Gen. Hurlbut commanding, and maiched to 
Fort Henry. Then embarked on transports for Pitts- 
burg Landing. Participated in the battles of the 6th 
and 7th of April, losing 252 men, killed and wounded. 
Among the tormer were Lieutenant-Colonel pj. F. W. 
Ellis, ivlajor Goddard, Captains Brownell and Wayne. 
and Lieutenant John W. Puter 'augh. Captain Adam 
Nase, wounded and tak'^n prisoner. The regiment then 
marched to Corinth, participating in various skirmishes 
ajid the siege of that place, losing a number of men 
killed and wounded. 

After the evacuation of Corinth, the regiment marched 
to Granil Junction; thence to Holly Springs; back to 
Grand Junction; thence to Lagrange; thence to Mem- 
phis, arriving there July 21, 1862, and remained there 
until September 6th. I'hen marched 10 Bolivar; thence 
to the Hatchie river, and p.\rticipated in the battle of 
the Hatchie. L^st fifty killed and wounded in that en- 
gagement. Then retiirnetl to Bolivar; from thence to 
Lagrange; thence, with Gen. Grant, down through 
Mi>sissippi to Coffeeville, returning to Lagrange and 
Memphis; I hence to Vick^burg, taking an active part 
in the siege of place. After the surrender of 
Vicksburg, ma;ched with Sherman to Jackson, Miss.; 
then returned to Vicksburg and embarked for Natchez; 
Marched thence to Kingston; returned to Natchez; 
then to Harrisonburg, L.i., capturing Fort Beauregard, 
on the Washita river. Returned to Natchez, remained 
there until Nov. 10, 1863. Proceeded to Vicksburg and 
went ino winter quarters. Here the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans, remaining until Feb, i, 1864, when 
it moved with Gen. Sherman through Mississippi On 
Champion Hills had a severe engagement with rebel 

Carney. Marched to Meridan; thence south to Enter- 
prise; thence back to Vicksburg. Was then ordered to 
Illinois on veteran furlough. On expiration of furlough 
joined Seventeenth Army Corps and proceeded up 
the Tennessee river to Clifton; thence to Huntsville, 
Ala.; thence to Decatur and Rome, Ga.; th nee to 
Kingston; and joined Gen. Sherman's army, marching 
on Atlanta. 

At AUatoona Pass the Fifteenth and the Fourteenth 
Infantry were consolidated, and the organization was 
known as the Veteran Battalion Fourteenth and Fif- 
teenth Illinois Infantry Volunteers, and numbering 625 
men. From AUatoona Pass it proceeded to Ackworth, 
and was then assigned to duty, uuarding the Chatta- 
nooga and Atlanta Railroad. Whilst engaged in this 
duty, the regiment being scattered along the line of 
road, the rebel Gen. Hood, 1, arching north, struck the 
road at Big Shanty and Ackworth, and captured about 
300 of the command. The remainder retreated to Ma- 
rietta, were mounted and acted as scouts for Gen. Van- 
dever. They were afterwards transfered to Gen. F. 
P. Blair, and marched with Gen. Sherman through 

After the capture of Savannah, the regiment pro- 
ceeded to Beaufort, S. C; thence to Salkahatchie river, 
participating in th^- various skirmishes in that vicinity 
—Columbia, S. C. Fayetteville, N. C. battle of Ben- 
tonville — losing a number wounded; thence to Golds- 
boro and Raleigh. At Raleigh, recruit? .sufficient to 
fill up both regiments were received, and the organiza- 
tion of the Veteran Battilion discontinued, and the Fif- 
teenth reorganized. The campaign of Gen. Sherman 
endrd by the surrender of Gen. Johnson. The regi- 
ment then marched with the army to Washington, D. 
C via Richmond and Fredericksburg, and participa- 
ted in the grand review at Washington, May 24, 1865; 
remained there two weeks. Proceeded, by rail and 
steamboat, to Louisville, Ky.; remained at Louisville 
two w eks. The regiment was then detached from the 
Fourth Division, Seventeenth Army > orps, and pro- 
ceeded by steamer to St. Louis; from thence to Fort 
Leavenworth, Kan., arriving there July i, 1865. 
Joined the army serving on the Plains. Arrived at 
r'ort Kearney, August 14th; then ordered to return to 
Fort Leavenw .rth, Sept. i, 1865, where the r-giment 
was mustered out of the service and placed en route for 
Springfield, HI., for final payment and discharge — hav- 
ing served four years and four months. 

Number of miles marched - 4^99 

Number of miles by rail - 2403 

Number of miles by steamer 43'° 

Total miles traveled 11,012 

Number of men joined from organization 1963 

Number of men at date of muster-out 640 



15th Infantry. 

Maj. Adam Nase, com. capt. Co. K, April 25, 1861, 

prmtd. maj. Nov. 2,'62, res. July 7. '63. 
Quartermaster Ahiman V. Bohn, com. Nov. 21, '61, 

m. o. at consolidation. 
Sgt.-Maj. A. H. Hershey, e. Sept. 12, '61, Enorsu 

Hershey, Field and Staff Veteran Battalion. (See 

15th Regt. Reorg inized.) 
Hospital Steward Lyman P. Clark, C'im.Jan.i,'64, trans. 

to Field and Staff Veteran Battalion. 

Company E. 

Wiser Solomon W. e. Jan. i,'64, trans, to Co. E, Veteran 
Battalion, m. o. Slay 30, '65. 

Company H. 

ist Lieut. J. F.Allison r. Af ril 22, '61, prmtd. Scrgt. 
M.iy 24, '61, prmid. 2d lieut. Jan. 12, '63, trans, to 
Veteran Reserve Corps June 18, '64, m. o. as ist I eut. 
Jan. I, '63, w . at Hatchee river, Qjt. 5, '62, lost 
left h.Tnd and part of right, wd. March 4, '64, in 
right leg. 

Backes John, e. Jan. (,'64, vet. m. o. May 30, '65. 

Tourtelott N. H. e. Nov. 26, '63, m. o. July 2o.'65. 

Company K. 

Capt. Phinias D. Kenyon, e. as sergt. May 24,'6i, 
prmtd. ist lieut. April 16, '62, prmtd. capt. Nov. 
2, '62, honorably disd. May 15, '65. 
ist Lieut. Jas. O'Brien, com. April 25, '61, res April 

16, '62. 
ist Lieut. \Vm. \V. Wheelock, e. as private May 24, '61, 
prmtd. 2d lieut. April 7, '62, prmtd. ist lieut. Nov. 
2, '62, m. o. at consolidation. 
2d Lieut. John VV. Puterbaugh, com. June 6,'6i, kid. in 

battle Pittsburg Landing. 
2d Lieut. Chas. \V. Wilcox, e. as Sergt. May 24,'6i, 
prmtd. 2d lieut. Nov. 2, '62, m. o. at consolidation. 
Sergt. Jas. A. Schaffercom. May 24, '61, disd. for long 

absence. May 11, '62. 
Corpl. Cummings M. A. e. May 24,'6i, m. o. May 24, '64. 
Corpl. Rapp Albert P. e. May 24, '61, disd. Aug. 

10, '63, disab. 
Corpl. KridlerGeo. H. e. May 24, '61, died May 10, '62, 

of wounds received at Pittsburg Landing. 
Corpl. McCall (Jr.) Henry, e. May 24, '61, disd. Oct. 

20, '61, disab. 
Corpl. Sautbin Jesse W.e. May 24,'6i, m.o. May 24, '64. 
Corpl. Schaffer Jno. M. e. May 24, '61, kid. Shiloh, 

April 6, '62. 
Wooden C. S. e. May 24, '61. prmtd. corpl. 
Allison Henry, e. May 24, '61, disd. May 11, '62, long 

Allyn Daniel L. e. May 24, '61, disd. Feb. 7, '62, worth- 

Bristol Perry, e. May 24, '61, disd. Jan. 14, '64. 
Blattenburger James, e. May 24, '61, m. o. May 24, '64. 
Burnett Joshua, e. May 24, '61 , died of wounds in Hos- 
pital, at Covington, Ky. 
Burnett R. B. e. Jilay 24, '61, disd. May 11, '62, long ab- 
Barlow, M. S. e. May 24, '61, m, o. May 24, '64. 
Bohart John E. '.. JNIay 24, '61. 

Bacon J. R. e. May 24, '61, disd. May 19,!62. disab. 
Brown Wm. e. May 24, '61, disd. May ig.'62, long ab- 
Carter Wm. H. e.May 24, '61 disd. Nov. io,'62, wd . 
Cloiiser John, e. May 24, '61, kid. at Shiloh. April 6, '62. 
Cain tdward M. e. May 24, '61, m.o. May 24, 62. 
Calkins Stephen, e. May 24, '61. m o. M^y 24, '62. _ 
Cady Samuel A. e. May 24. '61, disd. Feb. 7, '62, disab. 
Dullebon H. K. e. May 24, '61, disd. Oct. iS,'62, wd. 
Davis Thos. J. e. May 24, '61. died May 23, '63. 
Deiirick David S. e. ftlay 24, '61, died Oct. 4, 61. 
Ferguson Richard S. e. May 24, '61, m.o. May 24, '64. 
Ferguson las. D. e. May 24, '61, vet. m.o. May30,'65. 
Ferguson Benj. F. e. May 24, "6t. 
Gallagher Jos. e. May 24, '61, vet. m.o. May 30,'65. 
Griswold I). J. e. May 24, '61, m.o. May 24,'64. 
Grim Oiis, e. May 24, 61, m.o. May 24, '64. 
Geisz H. R. e. May 24, '61, m.o. May 24, '64. 
Howe Lewis, e. Mav 24, '61, vet. m.o. Sept. 16, '65. 
Horner Geo. e. May 24, '61, vet. m.o. Mav 30, '65. 
Harrison Wm. e. May 24, '61, vet. m.o. July 3, '65. 
Holt Henry H. e. May 24, '61, vet. m.o. Sept. 16, '65. 
Hallock James T. e. May 24, '61, disd. Nov. 9, '61, disab. 
Heierodt Jas. E. e. May 24,'6i, kid. at Shiloh, Apl.6,'62. 

Hicks Newton, e. May 24, '61, m.o. May 24, '64. 
HoUingshead Samuel C. e. May 24, 1861, disd. Aug. 

20, 1862, disab. 
Humbert David L. e. May 24,'6i, m.o. May 24, '64. 
Johnson John, e. May 24, '61, disd. May 2, '62, disab. 
Jackson Hiram, e. May 24, '61, disd. Sept. 30, '63. 
Jackson Jas. e. May 24, '61, m.o. May 24, '64. 
Kenyon 1 'elancy, e. ISlay 24, '61, disd. May 11, '62, 

long absence. 
King Thomas, e. May 24, '61, kid. at Shiloh, Apl. 6,"62. 
King Jas. A. e. May 24, '61, disd. Jan. 4, '64, disab. 
l^eister Geo. W. e. May 24, '61, disd. Aug. 20, '62, disab. 
Lyttle A. D. e. May 24, 1861. 
Lychel Henry, e. May 24, '61, vet. prisr. of war. 
Lee James A. e. May 24, 1861. 
McFadden John, e. May 24, 61, died Apl. 4, '62. 
Miles Geo. B. e. May 24, '61. m.o. May 24, '64. 
Myers Henry, e. May 24, '61, vet. 
Mitchell Wm. R. e May 24. '61, m. o. May 30, '65. 
Nichols Wm. H. e. May 24, '61, disd. Nov. 7, '62, wd. 
Price David R. e. May 24, '61. m.o. May 24, 1864. 
Palmer John S. e. May 24. 1861. disd. Oct. 26, '61, disab. 
Pettit F. R. e. May 24, 1861. vet. m.o. May 30. 1865. 
Parker A. W. e. May 24, 1861, m.o. May 24. 1864. 
Price John, e. May 24, 1861. m.o. May 24, 1864. 
Rule John R. e. May 24, 1861. disd. Oct. 18, 62. wd.^ 
Ransom Chas. M. e. iNlay 24, '61, vet. m. o. Sept. 16. '65. 
.Reynolds Robt. e. May 24, 1S61, mo. May 24, 1864. 
'Root Thos. S. e. May 24, 1861, died Sept. 7, 1861. 
Richmond Henry, e. May 24, 1861, vet. m.o. May 30'65 
Rush Jas. e. May 24, 1861, vet. m.o. Sept 16, 1865. 

Rinedollar Mark, e. May 24, 1861, m. o. May 24, 1864. 
Robinson Jonathan, e. May 24, 1S61, m.o. May 24, '64. 
Smith Wm. F. e. May 24, 1861. m.o. ISlay 24, 1864. 

Strickler Benj. F. e. May 24,1861, died Sept. 13, 1861. 
Siddles Jas, e. May 24, i86i,m.o. May 24, 1864. 

Smith Jos. P. e. May 24, 1861, disd. Dec. 16, '62, disab. 

Smith John, e. May 24, 1861, m. o. May 24, 1862. 
Turner Burton J. e. May 24, 1861, kid. at Shiloh April 
6, 1862. 

Todd Jabez W. e. May 24, 1861, m. o. May 24, 1864. 

Vanrechten Harman, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Nov, 10, 
1862, disab. 

Weider Jacob A. e. May 24, 1861, vet. m. o. Sept. 16, '65. 

Weston Hugh, e. May 24, '61, died May 6, '62, wd. 

Wall Wm. J. e. May 24, 1861, disd. May 11, 1862, long 

Willfong Wm.H. e. May 24, '61, disd. Aug. 20,'62, disab. 

Winters Perry, e. May 24, 1861, m. o. May 24, 1864. 

Wheelock Chas. W. e. May 24, 1861, kid. at Shiloh, 
April 6, 1862. 

Wilson Chas. A. e. May 24, '61, disd. Feb. 7, '62, disab. 

Ames Simon, e. Dec. 10, 1863, m. o. May 30,1865. 

Berge Robt. J. e. June 18, '61, disd. Oct. 5, '62, disab. 

Bennett Eh, e. Sept. 12, 1861, m. o. Sept. 23, 1864. 

Bosworth Geo. e. Sept. 12. 1861, m. o. Sept. 23, 1864. 

Brown Daniel, e. Dec. 19, 1863, m. o. May 30, 1865. 

Bradley Horace S. e. Dec. i,'63, disd. March 27. 1865. 

Crawford Wm. J. e. May 24, '61. disd. Oct. i8,'62, di.sab. 

Eastwood Thos. e. Dec. 10, 1S63, deserted July 16. '65. 

Hunter Wm. H. e. March 24, 1S61, disd. Oct. 13, 1863, 
for promotion in 6th Regt. U. S. C. T. 

Hiesrodt Jos. B. e. Jime 8, 1861, disd. Jan. 19. 1864. 

Holroyd ) . 3. e. Jan. i, 1S64, m. c. Aug. 9, 1865. 

Hall John S. e. March 31, 1864, m. o. July 31, 1865. 

Irvin Lott VV. e. Feb. 26, 1862, vet., m.o. May 30, 1865. 

Lowell Chas. W. e. Jan. i. 1864, m. o. May 30, 1865. 

Steffins Jas. e. May 24, 1861, m. o. May 24, 1864. 

Tebs Caleb F. e. Sept. 12, 1861, m. o. Sept. 2j, 1864. 

Thomas Edw. e. Sept. 12, 1861. disd. Jan. 7. 62, disab. 

Thompson W. F. e. April 28, 1864, m. o. May 30, 1865. 

Welfong G. W. e. Dec. 10, '63, vet. m. o. Sept. 16, '65. 

Wilco.x Daniel J. e. Dec. 10, '63, m. o. May 31, '65. 

15th Heovffanixed Infantry 

(three years.) 

Company A. 

Sergt. John W. Keithley, e. March i, 1865. m. o. Sept. 

16, 1865. 
Corpl. Chas. T. Robinson, e. Mch. i, 1865, m. o. Sept. 

16, 1865. 
Corpl. Barzila Morris, e. Feb.24,'6s, m. o. Sept. 16, '65. 
Kryson Jas. e. March i, 186-, deserted June a^^, 1865. 
Chapman H. W. e. March i, 1865, m. o. July 28. 1865. 
Fade Geo. T. e. March i, 1865, m.o. June 12, 1865. 
Farrell Jas. e. March i, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Griffen Pat'k, e. March i, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 



Haskings Jos. e. Feb. 23, 1863, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Howarth Thos. e. March i, 1865, sick at m. o. 
Havnes Martin, e. March i, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Holland John H. e. Feb. 22, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Ives S. D. e. March 3, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Lucas Wm. e. Match 3. 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Leonard D. H. e. March 3, 1805, m. o. July 10, 1865. 
Mace )o^. e. March i, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Morris Joseph, e. Feb. 20, 1865, in. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Noble Jas. e. March i, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Noble Wm. F'. e. .\l.irch i, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Phillips Isaac, e NL*rch i, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Smith Jas. e. Mai:ch 3, 1865, m. o. June 28, 1865. 
Shimmiii Philip, e. Feb. 22, 1865, deserted June 25, "65. 
Sheridan John, e. Feb. 2:;, 1865, m. o. ^h^y 30, 1865. 
Stadel Wm. e. Feb. 17, 1865, m. o. July 31. 1865. 
Smith Wm. R. e. Feb. 25, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
White Henry, e. March 3, 1865, m. o.Sept. 16, 1865. 

Company C. 

Captain And. A. Hershey, e. Sept. 12, '61, com. adjutant 
July 20, 1S64. Promoted captain Aug. 21, 1865. 
Mustered out (as adjutant) Sept. 16, 1865. 

Brown Daniel, e. Dec. 19, 1S63, m. o. May 30, 1865. 

Company H. 

First Lieutenant Thos. C. Shelby, com. March 17,1865. 

Mustered out Sept. 16, 1865. 
Second Lieutenant Wm. Dodds, com. March 17, 1865. 

Mustered out Sept. 16, 1865. 
First Sergt. John J. Boyer, e. Feb. 251 1865, m.o. Sept 

16, 1865. 
Sergt. Jas. iVI. Willfong, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. July 3, '65 
Sergt. R. W. Healey, e. Feb. 25, ^6~y m. o. Sept. 16, '65 
Corpl. Jas. Aurand, e. Feb. 25, '65, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865 
Corpl. Robt. 'I'empleman, e. Feb. 25, 1865, m. o. Sept 

16, 1865. 
Corpl. Jacob H. Shugart, e. March 7, 1865, m. o. Sept 

16, 1865. 
Corpl. Jerry Klechner, e. Feb. 25, '65, m.o. June g, 1865 
Corpl . Robt. B. Carr,e.Feb.25, '65, deserted June 27, '65 
Corpl. Harry Cressinger, e. Feb. 25, '65, m.o. Sept. 16, '65 
Corpl. Clark Jol-.nson, e. Feb. 25, '65, died Apl. 30, 1865 
Corpl. J. R. Truckenmiller, e. Feb, 25, 1865, m.o. Sept 

.16, 1865, private. 
Wagoner. Aug. Anderson, e. Feb. 25, '65 m.o. July 3, '65 
Carter John li. e. Feb. 25, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Cannon Michael, e. Feb. 25, i86s, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865 
Callon Edw. e. Feb. 25, 1865, deserted June 27, 1865. 
Cook John, e. Feb. 25, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Dunman John, e. March 7, 1865, m. o. Aug. 8, 1865. 
Hay Samuel, e. Feb. 25, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Koch Henry, e. May 25, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Lashell D. H. e. March 7, 1865, m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Meyers Louis, e. Feb. 2=;, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Parneby Thos. e. Feb. 25, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Snyder Henry, e. Feb. 25, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Straus Reuben B. e. March 7, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, '65. 
Wagerly Jacob, e. Feb. 25, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1805. 
Wood Hugh, e. Feb. 25, 1865, deserted July 16, 1865. 

34t7i Infantry, 

The Thirty-fourth Infantry Illinois Volunteers was 
organized at Camp Rutler, Illinois, September 7, 1861, 
by Colonel E. N. Kirk. Moved, October 2, to Le.-^ing- 
ton, Kentucky, and from thence to Louisville, and 
then to Camp Nevin, Kentucky, where it remained 
until February 14, 1862. Marched to Bowling Green, 
and thence, via Nashville, Franklin and Columbia, to 
Savanna, on the Tennessee River. Arrived at Pitts- 
burg Landing, April 7. 1862, and was hotly engaged in 
that battle, losing Major Levanway and 15 men killed, 
and 112 wounded. From thence moved to Corinth, and 
was engaged on the 291 h of May, losing one man killed 
and five wounded. From Corinth, moved to lukaand 
Florence, Alabama. Crossed theriverat that place, and 
moved to Athens, Huntsville and Stevenson Ala- 
bama. Was encamped over a month at Battle Creek. 
From thence marched, z'la Pelham, Murfreesboro and 
Nashville, to Louisville, Kentucky, arriving September 
27, 1862. 

October i, 1862, left Louisville for Frankfort. Regi- 
ment commanded by Lieut. Col. H. W. Bristol, Brigade, 
by Col. E. N. Kirk, and Division, by Brig. Gen. Sill. 
October 4, was engaged in a skirmish at Clayville, 
Kentucky. From Frankfort, moved, via Laurensbu-rg, 
Perryville, Danville, Crab Orchard, Lebanon and 
Bowling Green, to Nashville. November 27, had a 

skirmish at Lavergne. Regiment remained in camp 
five miles southeast of Nashville until December 26, 


December 27, Right Wing moved to Triune, and, 
after a sharp fight, drove the enemy from town. On 
the 29th, moved, viu Independence Hill, toward Mur- 
freesboro. On the 30th, took position as e.xtreme right 
of Union lines. On the 31st, the enemy attacked the 
regiment in overwhelming force, drivuig it back on the 
main line. Following the advantage gained by his 
infantry, the eni my's cavalry charged the line, and 
captured many of the Regiment. Loss — killed 21, 
wounded 93, missing 66 Gen. Kirk was mortally 

While at Murfreesboro, the Right Wing, Fourteenth 
Army Corps, was organized into the Twentieth Army 
Corps, and Major Gen. .McCook assigned t'l command. 

June 24, 1863, the Twentieth Corps moved by the 
Shelbyville Pike, toward Liberty Cjap. On the 25th, 
the Second Brgade was ordered forward, anil advano (I 
across an open C'.<nfield, eighty rods in width, lately 
plowed and softened by the rains which fell the day 
ai)d night before, until the men sunk half way to the 
knee in mud at eveiy step. Without help, and in the 
face of a rebel brigade advantageously posted, they 
drove the enemy from his position — the Second Arkansas 
Infantry leaving their battle flag on the lull, where they 
fought in front of the Thirty-fourth. The regiment 
losing 3 killed and 26 wounded. 

Moved, on 26th, 71111 beech Grove, to Manchester, 
enteri.ig Tullahoma on the morning of July i. 

August 16, moved via Larkin's Valley, to Bellefonte, 
Alabama. The Thirty fourth was here detailed as 
Provost Guard. On the 30th, moved to Caperlan's 
Ferry, on Tennessee River. Here the regiment was left 
to guard the pontoon bridge. 

Sepiember 18, moved the boats to Battle Creek. 

October 20, 1863, moved, under command of Brigadier 
General J. D. Morgan, to Anderson's Cross Roads, in 
Sequatchie Valley. 

November 8, moved to Harrison's Landing, on 
Tennessee River. November 14, ordered to to report 
Brigadier General John Beatty, commanding Second 
Brigade, Second Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, 
Jeff C. Davis commanding Division. Arrived at 
Chattanooga 15th, and camped on Moccasin Point. 

November 25, ordered to join the Brigade on the 
battle field of Chattanooga. Arrived 11 o'clock P. M. 
Moved at i o'clock A. M. of 26th, and moved via Chic- 
amauga Station. 

On the 28th, moved back to Chattanooga, where 
those unable to march were put in camp, the remain- 
der of the regiment moving on the expedition into East 
Tennessee, as far as Loudon, where the Thirty-fourth 
were detailed to run a grist mill, grinding corn and 
wheat for the Division. Returned to Chattanooga, 
arriving December 19, 1863. 

December 22, the Thirty-fourth was mustered as a 
veteran organization, and January 8, 1864, started for 
Springfield, Illinois, for veteran furlough. 

Received veteran furlough, and rendezvoused at 
Dixon, Illinois. February 2S, moved, z'ia Chicago, 
Louisville and Nashville, arriving at Chattanooga 
March 7, 1864, and moved out to join the Second Bri- 
gade, Colonel John G. Mitchell, One Hundred and 
Thirteenth Ohio, commanding, in camp near Rossville, 

Mustered out July 12, 1865, at Louisville, Kentucky. 
Arrived at Chicago July 16, 1865, for final payment 
and discharge. 

Quarter Master Abram Beeler, com. Aug. 15, 1861. 
Resigned March 21, 1863. 

Company A. 

First Lieutenant Richard J. Heath, e. as sergt., Sept. 
7,1861. Re-enlisted as vet., Dec. 23, 1863. Pro- 
moted first sergeant, then second lieutenant, 
April 2, 1864. Promoted first lieutenant, Sept. 13, 

1864. Mustered out July 12, 1865. 

Bradley Robt. e. Sept. 7, i86i,kld. at Shiloh, Apl. 7,'62. 
Miller Samuel T. e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet., m. o. July 12, 

1865, as sergt. 

Company B. 

Gardner Geo. W. e. Sept. 7, i86i, vet., m.o. July i2,'6s. 

Company I. 

Captain Lewis HeflFelfinger, com. Aug. 15, 1861. Re- 
signed April 18, 1862. 



Captain Amos W. Hostetter, com. first lieutenant, 
Aug. 15, 1861. Promoted ciptain, April 18, 1862. 
Died of wounds July 26, 1864. 

Captain Jos. Teeter, e. as corporal, Sept. 7. 1861. Pro- 
moted first ser>;eant, then second lieutenant, 
June 2g, 1863. Promoicd ciptain, April 20, 1865. 
Mustered out July 12, 1865. 

First Lieutenant Jackson Heaver, e. as first sergeant, 
Sept. 7, 1861. Promoted first lieutenant, April 
18, 1862. Resigned Jan. 2q, 186^. 

First Lieutenant Mason C Fuller, e. as sergeant, Sept. 
7, 1861. Promoted first sergeant, then second 
lieutenant, May 4, 1862. Promoted fii-t lieuten- 
ant, Jan. 29. '63. Honor. ibly discharged, Feb. 25, '65. 

First Lieutenant Jas. A. Wells, com. May 5, 1865. Died 
of wounds, M ly 14, 1865. 

First Lieutenant Isr lel Solt, e. ascorporal, Sept. 7, 1861. 
Re-e lis'ed as veter.m, Dec. 23, 1863. Mustered 
out July 12, 1865, as sergeant. 

Second Jas. Watson, com. Aug. 15, 1861. 
Resigned April 28, T862. 

Sergt. Jas. Wills, e. Sept. 9, i86i, vet. 

Ser^t. Willis Ray, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet. 

Corpl. Jos. McKee, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet. July i2,'65,wd. 

Corpl. John C. Gelwick, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet. 

Corpl. John H. Scoit, e. Sept. 7, i86t, disd. as private. 

Corpl. S. D. Walley, e. Sept. 7, 1861, trans, to Invalid 
Corps, Aug. 22, 1863. 

Corpl. Isaac Sco;t, e. Sept. 7, '61, vet. m. o. July 12, "65, 
as sergt. 

Corpl. Ja'ies Masters, e. Sept. 7, 1861. 

Musician Henry Lego, e. Sept. 7, '61, m. o. July 12, '65, 
as cofpl. 

Solt Israel, e. Sept. 7, '61, vet. m.o. July 12, '65, as sergt. 

Wagoner Philip Queckbranner, e. Sept. 7, 1861, right 
thumb I'efective. 

Backman Christian, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet., m. o. July 
12, 1865, as corpl. 

Benefield Geo e. Sept. 7, i86r. 

P.order David M. e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet., m. o. July 12, '65. 

Clark Thos. e. Sept. 7. '61, vet., died June 27, '64, wd. 

Crab C. e. Sept. 7, 1861, disd. 

Carr Mark, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet., missing in acti m 
June 27, 1864. 

Farrell Peter, e. Sept. 7, 1861. 

Fleming Geo. e. Sept. 7, 1861. 

French Wrn.H. e. Sept. 7,1861, vet., m.o. July 12,1865. 

Forsyth Wm. e. Sept. 7,1861, died at Camp Wood, Ky. 

Grinfield M. e. Sept. 7, 1861. 

Gregisor, Levi, e. Sept. 7, 1861, died at Louisville. 

Harold D. P. e. Sept. 7, i86r, m. ■>. Aug. 12, 1865. 

Heglem Jacob, e. Sept. 7,1861, vet., m.o. July 12, 1865. 

Heglem Jnn. F. e. Sept. 7,1861, vet., m.o. July 12,1865. 

Heath W.H.e. Sept. 7, '61, vet. m.o. July 12, '65, as corpl. 

Harvev Chas. W e.Sept. 7,1861, vet., trans, to ist LT.S. 
V. V. Eng., July 30, 1864. 

Hager Wm. e. Sept. 7. 1861, vet. m.o. luly 12, 1S64. 

Hartman Henry, e. Sept. 7, 1861, disd. Dec. 27, 1863, 
as corpl. di-ab. 

Houghtailing Henry, e. Sept. 7,1861, m.o. Sept. 12, '64. 

Ikeman F. e. Sept. 7,1861, vet., m.o. July 12, '65, corpl. 

Johnson S. e. Sept. 7 1861. 

Kinvon J. B. e, Sept. 7, 1861. 

Kuhler Adam, e. Sept. 7,1861, vet., trans, to Vet. Res. 
Corps, Dec. 21. 1864. 

Knox Robt.S. e. Sept. 7,1861, died at Nashville, Tenn., 
Feb. II, 1864. 

Lauver Adam, e. Sept. 7, i85i, vet., m.o. July 12, 1865. 

Lagrant Wm. e. Sept. 7,1861, vet., m. o. July 12, 1865. 

Lump John, e. Sept. 7,1861. 

Lower Levi, e. Sept. 7, 1861, m. o. Sept. 12,1864. 

Maynard Hiram H. e. .Sept. 7, 1861. 

Miller Chas. H. e Sept. 7, 1861, vet., disd. Sept. 29, 
1864, as sergt. disab. 

O'Donnell Edw. e. Sept. 7, 1861, deserted June 30, '64. 

Ortman John, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet., trans, to U. S. V. 
V. En?., July 30, 1864. 

Robbins Geo. e. Sept. 7, 1861. 

Russell Jas. P. e. S pt. 7, 1861. 

Ransom C.deb. e. Sept. 7, i86t, left eye defective. 

R ce Wm. H. e Sept, 7, 1861, died at Louisville. 

Sauer Peter, e. Sept. 7, '61, vet., m.o. July 12, '65, corpl. 

Smith Elias W. e. Sept. 7, 1861. 

Sawer Jos. e. Sept 7, 1861. 

Stormer Sam'l, e. Sept. 7, 1861, disd. at Chicago. 

Traum Henry, e. Sept. 29, 1861, disd. Oct. 16, 1864. 

Wood John W. e. Sept. 7, 1861, m. o. Sept. 12, 1864. 

Wilson Henry S. e. Sept. 29, 1861, m. o. Oct. 15, 1864. 

Wa lace Isaac, e. Sept. 29, '61, died at Camp Wood.Ky. 

Willis Austin, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet., m.o. July 12, 1865. 

Ward Alfred, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet., m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Yonson Nels, e. Sept. 7, 1861 vet., m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Zimmer Peter, e. .Sipt. 29, 1861, vet,, m.o. July 12, '65. 
Corning N. R. e. March 19, 1865. .n. o. July 12, 1865. 
Dinehart Wm. H. e Feb. 10, 1864, vet. recruit, died at 

Atlanta, Oct. 29. 1864. 
Forsyth Thos. e. Feb. 10, 1864, vet. recruit, kid. at 

Reseca, May 14, 1864. 
Gallup Andrew, e. Jan. 27, 1864, m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Meisner Wm. H. e. Feb. 10, 1864, vet. recruit, disd. 

June 16, 1865, wd. 
Manning N. W. e. March ig, 1865, m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Sullivan C.e. Dec. 30, i86:t.m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Scott Sam'l, e. March 9, 1865. m. o. July 12, 1865 
Wells Geo. W e. March 9, 1865, m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Willis Leman, e. March 2, 1865, m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Brooks Jas. e. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. July 12,1865, as first 

Canady B. F. e. Dec. 23, '63, m.o. July 12, '65, as sergt. 
Clark Thos. e. Dec. 23, 1863, died [une 27, 1864. wd. 
Gelwicks John C. e. Dec. 23, 1863, disd. March 19, 

1864, as sergeant, wd. 
Hills T. e. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. July 12, 1865, as corpl. 
Johnson A. A. e. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. Julv 12, 1865. 
Marion Geo. W. e. Dec. 23, 1863, m.o. July 12. 1865. 
McKee Jos. N. e. Dec. 23, 1863. m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Smith Geo. W. e. Dec. 23, 1863, kid. near Marietta, 

Ga., June 27. 1S64. 
Willis Jas. A. e. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. July 12, '65, corpl. 
Winchester H. C. c. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. July 12, 1865. 

doth Infaiitrj/. 

The Washburne Lead Mine Regiment was organized 
at Chicago, 111., Dec 25, 1S61, by Col. John E. Smiih, 
and mustered into the United States service as the 
Korty-fifth Infantry Illinois Volunteers. January 15, 
1862, moved to Cairo, III.; February ist, assigned to 
Brigade of Col. W. H. L. Wallace, Division of Brig. 
Gen. McClernand ; February 4th, landed below Fort 
Henry, on the Tennessee, and on the 6th marched into 
the fort. It having been surrendered to the gun-boats. 
February nth, moved toward Fort Donelson, and dur- 
ing the succeeding days bore its part of the suffering 
and of the battle. The flag of the Forty-fifth the 
first plantel on the eneii.y's works. Loss — 2 killed and 
26 wounded. March 4th, moved to the Tennessee 
River, and nth, arrived at Savinnah. Was engaged 
in the evpedition to Pin Hook. March 25th, moved to 
Pittsburg Landing, and encamped near Shiloh Church. 

The Forty-fifth took a conspicuous and honorable 
part in the two days' battle of Shiloh, losing 26 killed 
and 199 wounded and mis>;ing — nearly one-half of the 
regiment. April 12th, Col. John E. Smith, of the 
Forty-fifth, took command of the Brigade. During the 
siege of Corinth, the regiment was in the First Brigade, 
Third Division, Reserve Army of the Tennessee and 
bore its full share of the labors and dangers of the cam- 
paign. June 4th, the regiment w.hs assigned to Third 
Brigade, and moved towards Purdy, fifteen miles. On 
the 5th, ma ched to Bethel ; 7th to Montezuma, and on 
the 8th to Jackson, Tennessee, the enemy flying on its 

During the months of June and July, engaged in 
garrison and guard duty. August nth, pssigned to 
guarding radroad, Toon's Station. On the 31st, 
after much desperate fighting, c mpanies Cand D were 
captured. The remainder of the regiment, concen- 
trating at Toon's Station, were able to lesist the attack 
of largely outnumbering forces. L"ss — 3 killed, 13 
wounded, and 43 taken prisoners. September 17th, 
moved to Jackson ; November 2d, to Bolivar, and was 
assigned to First Brigade, Third Division, Right Wing, 
Thirteenth Army Corps. Nov. 3, 1862, marched from 
Bolivar to Van Buren ; 4th, to Lagrange, and were as- 
signed to provost duty ; 28th, marched to Holly Springs ; 
Dec. 3d, to Waterford ; 4th, t • Abbeville ; 5th, to Ox- 
ford, to Y' cona river, near Spring Dale. 

Communications with the North having been cut off, 
foraged on the country for supplies. Dec. 17th, notice 
rei eived of the promotion of Col. John E. Smith, to 
Biigadier General, ranking from Nov. 29th. Dec. 22d, 
returned to O.vfod ; 24th, moved to a camp three miles 
north of Abbeville, on the Tallahatchie river, where the 
regiment remained during the month. Mustered out 
July 12, 1865, at Louisville, Ky., and arrived at Chicago, 
July 15, 1865, for final payment and discharge. 
Major Leander B. Kisk, com. captain Co. E, Sept. 14, 
1861. Promoted major. May 22, 1863. Killed in 
battle, June 25, 1863. 



First Assistant Surgeon Francis Weaver, com. Nov. i8, 

1861. Died. 
Sergeant Major Louis G. Comparte, com. Oct. 5, i86i. 

Mustered out Jan. 16, 1865. 
Hospital Steward \Vm. S. Stansbury, com. Sept. 18, 

1861. Discharged Sept. 29, 1864. Term expired. 

Company A. 


Captain Abraham Polsgrove, com. Aug. 30, 
sii;ned Jan. 2t, 1863. 

Captain Wni. T. Frohock, com. first lieutenant, Aug. 
30,1861. Promoted adjutant, Oct. 31, 1861. Pro- 
moted c.iptain, Jan. 21, 1863. Pr >moted colonel 
Fourth ALssissippi Colored Troops, Jan. 12, 1864. 

Captain las. P. Beattie, e. as corporal, Nov. 4, 1861 
Re-enlisted as veteran, Jan. 5, 1864. Promoted 
first lieutenant, Oct. 15, 1864. Promoted captain 
April 20, 1865. Mustered out July 12, 1865. 

First Lieutenant Geo. Moore, com. second lieutenant 
Aug. 30, 1861. Promoted first lieutenant, Nov 
I, 1861. Died. 

First Lieutenant Jos. Myers, e. as first sergeant, Aug 
30, 1S61. Promoted second lieutenant, Dec. i 
1861. Promoted first lieutenant, April 9, 1862 
Resigned Oct. 15, 1S64. 

First Lieutenant Baley Cleranger, e. as corporal, Aug 
30, 1861. Re-enlisted as veteran, Dec. 24, i 
INListered out July 12, 1865, as Sergeant. Commis- 
sioned first lieutenant, but not mustered. 

Second Lieutenant Jacob Febs, e. as private, Aug. 30, 

1861. Ke enlisted as veteran, Jan. 5, 1864. Mus- 
tered out July 12, 1865, as sergeant. Commissioned 
sec >nd lieutenant, but not mustered. 

Sergt. Louis LaBrush, e. Aug. 30, 1861, disd. Dec. 15, 

1863, as private, to receive promotion in colored 

Sergt. Chas. E. Rose, e. Aug. 30, 1861, vet., m. o. 

July 12, 1865. 
Sergt. John Mack, e. Aug. 30, i86i, m. o. Sept. 29, 1864, 

term ex. 
Sergt. Mollis M . Kurd, e. Aug. 30, 1861, kid. at Shiloh, 

April 6, 1865. 
Corpl. \Vm. T. Dougherty, e. Aug. 30, 1861, trans, to 

Invalid Corps, Sept. 15, 1863. 
Corpl. Henry Kernnaghan, e. Aug. 30, 1861, m.o. Sept. 

29, 1864, term ex. 
Corpl. John H. Botts,e. Aug. 30, 1861, missing in action 

May I, 1863. 
Corpl. John Mahood, e. Aug. 30, 1861, disd. July 12, 

1862, wounded. 

Corpl. Robert Morehead, e. Aug. 30, 1861, m. o. Sept. 

29, 1864, term ex. 
Musician Henry Winters, e. Aug. 30, 1861, trans, to V. 

R. C. May i, 1864. 
Wagoner Paul D. Otis, e. Oct. 3, 1861, died at Savan- 
nah, Tenn. 
Bristol S. W. e. Aug. 39, 1861, died at Ft. Donelson. 
Bennett Porter, e. Aug. 30, i8bi, vet., m. o. July 12, 

1865, as Corpl. 
Benefield Wm. C. e. Aug. 30, i86i,kld. atMenden Sta. 

tion, Tenn., Aug. 31, 1862. 
Corrigan Barnhard, e. Aug. 30, 1861, disd. April 27, 

1862, wd. 
Eddy Wm. H. e. Aug. 30, 1861, kid. at Vicksburg, 

June 21, 1863. 
Frazer Alex. e. Aug. 30, 1861, vet. 

Fulton Wm. e. Aug. 30, '6i. vet., m. o. July 12, '65, Sergt. 
Guy Louis, e. Aug. 30, rS6i, died May 22, 1863. 
Gill Phillip C. e. Aug. 30, 1861, m. o. Sept. 29, 1863. 
Galliger Hugh, e. Nov. i, 1861, disd. July 13, '62, wd. 
Hilbert Christian, e. Aug. 30, '61, vet., m.o. July 12, '65. 
Hardin Wm. H. e. Oct. 15, 1861, vet., died at Rome, 

Ga., June 15, 1864. 
Jarvis Francis, e. Aug. 30, 1861, died at Savannah, 

Tenn., April 27, 1862. 
Kenyon H. C. e. Aug. 30, 1861, vet., m. o. July 12, 

1865, as Corpl. 
Kenyon E. R. e. Aug. 30, 1861, vet., m.o. July 12, 1865. 
Kimmins Henry, e. Aug. 30, 1861, m. o. Sept. 3, 1864, 

Meyers Franklin, e. Aug. 30, 1861, missing in action 

May 22, 1863. 
McGrinty Michael, e. Aug. 30, '61, dropped Aug. 18, '62. 
Noble Wm. e. Aug. 30, 1861, vet., m. o. July 12, 1865. 
O'Sullivan Timothy, e. Aug. 30, '61, vet., m.o. July 12, '65. 
Patten Robert, e. Aug. 30, 1861, dropped Aug. 18, 1S62. 
Rowley Louis, e. Aug. 30, 1861, died at St. Louis, Oct. 

30, 186 !. 
Rowland M. e. Nov. 20, 1861, disd. Jan. 8, 1862. 

Smith John M. e. Aug. 30, i86i, disd. June 26, '62, wd. 
Smith John A. e. Aug. 30, 1861, kid. Shiloh, Apl. 6, '62. 
Smith John C. e. Aug. 30, 1861, kid. Feb. 13, 1862. 
Smith Jas. B. e. Aug. 30, 1861, trans, to Lwalid Corps, 

Sept. 15, 1863. 
Shilling David, e. Aug. 30. 1861, disd. April 14, 1862. 
Scott E. E. e. Aug. 30, 1861, disd. Feb. 17, 1864, disab. 
Taylor H. A. e. Aug. 30, 1861, trans, to Invalid Corps, 

Sept 15, 1863. 
Wolfiey Wm. e. Aug. 30, '61, kid. at Shiloh, Apl. 6,'62. 
Wootan Daniel, e. Aug. 30, 1861, vet., m. o. July 12, 

1865, as corpl. 
BalliU S. A. e. Jan. 5, 1864, disd. June 9, 1865, disab. 
Lillibridge R. L. e. Jan, 5, 1864, m. o. Jnly 12, 1865. 
liean M. M. e. Dec. 16, 1861. disd. Nov. 2, '63, disab. 
Brown Wm. M. disd Jan. i, 1862. 
Collier S. M. e. Aug. 29, 1S62, died March 18, 1863. 
< 00k J. H. e. Sept. 20, 1864, m. o. Jnne 3, 1864. 
Fuller E. L. e. Dec. i, 1863, m. o. July 12. 1865. 
Gill John M. e. Aug. 26, 1862, m. o. June 22, 1865. 
Gill W. C. e. Aug. 18, 1862, died April 13, 1863. 
Gill Jas. e. Oct. 10, 1864, m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Henderson Thos. J. e. Oct. 10, 1864, m. o. July ia,'65. 
Keeger Wm. e. Nov. 24, 1862, trans, to Inv. Corps, 

Aug. 14, 1863. 
McKee John, e. Aug. 26, 1862, died at St. Louis, April 

9. 1863. 
Mell m Jas. e. Aug. 20, 1862, m. o. June 3, 1865. 
Ray Wm. P. e. Nov. 17, 1862, trans, to Inv. Corps. 
Roggenthine F". e. Oct. 8, 1864, absent, sick at m. o. 
Smith H. J. e. Dec. i, 186?, m. o. May 26, 1865. 
Wilson Alfred, e. Oct. 3, 1863, trans, to V. R. C. May 

I, 1864. 

Company E. 

Captain John M. Adair, e as first sergeant S'-pt. 14, 

1861. Promoted second lieutenant Dec. i, 1861. 
Promoted first lieutenant Nov. 4, 1862. Promoted 
capiain May 22 1863. Mustered out Nov., 1864. 

Second Lieutenant Oliver Swartz, e. as corporal Sept. 
14,1861. Re-enlisted as veteran Jan. 5,1864. Com- 
missioned second lieutenant, but not mustered. 
Mustered out July 12, 1865. 

Sergt. Jos. A. Wallace, e. Sept. 24, 1861, disd. Sept. 2, 

1862. disab. 

Corpl. Wm. Robee, e. Sept. 24, 1861. 

Corpl. Jas. L. Carroll, e. Sept. 24, 1861, m. o. Sept. 29, 

1864, term ex. 
Wagoner D. M. Hewett, e. Nov. 12, '6r, disd., term ex, 
Beatie Samuel P. e. Sept. 14 1861. 
Brown B. B. e. Sept. 24, 1861, disd. June 16, 1862. 
Coats Benj. e. Sept. 18, 1861, died at St. Louis, April 

28, 1862. 
Carr John N. e. Sept. 18,1861, died at Quincy,Ill., April 

28, 1862, wd. 
Carpenter H. B. e. Sept. 18,1861, died Dec. 15, 1861. 
Carpenter Jas. E. e. Sept. 24, 1861, m. o. Sept. 29, 

1864, term ex. 
Edwards Albert, e. Sept. 18, i86i, m. o. Sept. 29, 1864, 

term e.\. 
Edwards Osca. , e. Nov. 6, 1861, m. o. Nov. 8, 1864, as 

sergeant, term ex. 
Everhart John, e. Sept. 14, 1861, trans, to Inv. Corps, 

Sept. 15, 1863. 
Frederick Conrad, e. Sept. 24, '61, disd.Sept. 26,'62,wd. 
Gleaso > Solon F. e. Sept. 24,1861, m. o. Sept. 29, 1864, 

term ex. 
Goddaid Levi W. e. Sept. 24, 1861, disd. April 5, 1862. Daniel J. e. Sept. 24, '1861, died at Mound 

City, April 4, 1862. 
Hill Geo. e. Sept. 18, 1861. vet.,Tm. o. July 12, 1865. 
Mathison A. e. Sept. 14, 1861, vet., m. o. July 12, 1863 

as sergeant. 
Mullarky Hugh, e. Sept. 14, '61, vet., m.o. July 12, '65. 
Mason Sam'l, e. Sept. 18, 1861, disd Nov. i8,'6i,disab. 
Powers John, e. Sept. 18, i86t, disd. July 25, '62, wd. 
Sisler Benj. e. Sept. 14, 1861. vet., m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Simmons David, e. Sept. 18, 1861, died at Mt. Carroll, 

111., April 23, 1862. 
Simmons John, e. Oct. 2, 1861, died March 27, 1862. 
Stansbury W. S. e. Sept. 18, 1861, appointed Hospital 

Smith Benj. e. Oct. 4. 1861, m.o. Nov. 8,1864, term ex. 
Watson Daniel, e. Sept. 14, 1861, disd. or died at 

Quincy, Oct. 23, 1862. 
Wills Heniy B. e. Sepi. 18, 1861, died at Quincy, July 

9, 1862. 
Carter John E. e. Jan. 5, 1864, m. o. Ju'y 12, 1865. 
Carter M. F. e. Jan. 5, 1864, disd. July i, 1864, disab. 



Dales B. H. e. Dec. 30, 1863, m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Lindsay L. F. B. e. Jan. 17, 1862, disd. Oct. 27, 1863, 
to receive promotion in col'd regt. 

65th Infantry, 

Company B. 

Booth Alfred R. e. Oct. 6, 1862, trans, from 92d I.V.I. 

m. o. July 13. 1865. 
Brown Henry J. e. Oct. 28,1863, tran^;. from 92d I.V.I. 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Brown Benj. B. e. Oct. 28, 1863, trans, from g2d I.V.I. 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Black Jas. B. e. Dec. 30, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V. I. 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Clark Louis A. e. Oct. 31, 1863, trans, from 92d I.V.I. 

m. o. July 13, T865. 
Smith Sam'l H. e. Oct. 28, 1863. trans. from92d I.V. I. 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 

Company C. 

Barrett Arthur, e. Dec. 29, iS'^3, trans, from 92d I.V.I. 

m. o. July 13, 1S65, was prisr. 
Chase Francis M. e. Oct. 31, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V 

I., m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Chapins Geo. e. Oct. 31, 1S63, trans, from 92 d I. V. I. 

m. o. July 13. 1865, was prisr. 
Davis John C.e. Oct. 30, 1863, trans. from 92d I.V.I.,m.o 

July 13, 1865. 
Elliott Jas. e. Jan. 4, 1864, trans, from g2d I.V. I., m.o 

July 13, 1865. 
Eymer E. D. e. Oct. 31, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V. I 

m. o. July 13. 1865. 
French Jas. e. March 23, 1865, trans, from 92 i I. V. I. 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
French Wm. e. March 23, 1865, trans, from 92d I.V.I. 

m. o. luly 13, 1865. 
Fuller John A. e. Oct. 31, 1863. trans, from 92d I.V.I. 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Hollingshead N. e. March 23,1863, trans, from 92d I.V 

1., m. o. July 13. 1865. 
Hurlbut Jas. W. e. Dec. 29, 1S63, trans, from 92d I.V 

I., m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Lester J. L. e. Oct. 31, 1S63, trans, from 92d I. V. 1. 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Mularkey Jas. e. Dec. i, 1863, trans, from 92d I.V. I. 

m. o. July 13, :865. 
Mowery H. T. e. Dec. 31, 1863, trans, from 92d I.V.I. 

m. . . July 13, 1865. 
Malen Robt. J. e. Jan. 5, 1864, trans, from 92d I.V. I. 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Marsh Jasper N. e. Occ. 31,1863, trans, from 92d I.V.I. 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Nettleton Sam'l, e. March 23, 1865, trans, from 92d 

I.V I., m. o. July 13, 1865. 

Company D. 

Davis John, e. Dec. 30, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V. I., 

HI. o. July 13, 1865. 
Hitchcock Thos. A. e. Oct. 30, 1863, trans, from 92d I. 

V. I., m.o. July 13, 1865. 
King Daniel, e. Dec. 30, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Mills Dan'l A. e. March 2^, 1865, trans, from 92d I. V. 

I., m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Nelson A, B. e. Oct. 31, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Ray Geo. W. e. Jan. 5, 1864, trans, from. 92d I. V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Sleer John A. e. Dec. 30, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V.I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Smith Thos. J. e. Dec. 30, 1863, trans, from 92d I.V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1S65. 

Company E. 

Fidler Geo. E. e. Feb. 18, 1864, trans.' from 92d I.V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Gillidott Miles S. e. Oct. 6,1862, trans.from 92d I.V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
'Wilder R. I,, e. Oct. 31, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Walker Wm. L. e. Oct. 28, 1863, trans, from 92d I.V. I., 

m. o. July 13. 1865. 
Will ams Henry C. e. Oct. 28,1863, trans, from 92d I.V. 

I., m. o. July 13, 1865. 

Company G. 

Apple Balsar, e. Oct. 3, 1S62, trans, from 92d I. V. I., 
m. o. July 13, 1865. 

Free Francis A. e. Oct. 31,1863, trans, from 92d I.V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Galush.T I>. E. e. Jan. 5, 1864, trans, from 92d I. V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
McCord Eathan, t. Feb. 17, 1865. trans, from 92d I.V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Merchant Van Burcn, e. March 27, 1865, trans, from 92d 

I. V. I., m. o July 13, 1865. 
Rhodes Ale.v. e. Dec. i, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V. I., 

m. o. July 13, 1S65. 
Shilling Wm. W. e. Dec. 31, 1863, trans, from 92d I. V. 

I., m. o. July 13, 1S65. 

71st Inffrutvff (three inos.) 

Company B. 

Second Lieutenant Emanuel Stover, com. July 22,1862. 

Muster»d out. 
Sergt. Matthew F. White, e. July 9, 1862. 
Corpl. Jas. K. Howell, e July g, 1862. 
Corpl Jas. \V. Humphrey, e. July 9, 1S62. 
Corpl. Geo. W. Zook, e. July 11, 1862. 
Boyd Geo. e. July 9, 1862. 
Bundy Chris, e. July 9, 1S62. 
Badger Wm. e. July 9, 1862. 
Bean Alanson, e. July 1, 1862. 
Chasm Thos. e. luly 9, 1862, 
Everhart Jacob, e. July 10, 1862. 
Grant Hiram, e. July 9, 1862, 
Green John L. e. July 9, 1862. 
Granger Chas. e. July g, 1862. 
Lindsay Wm. O. e. July 8, 1862. 
Lovelady H. W. e. July 10, 1862. 
Meredith Wm. e. July g, 1862. 
Noel Jacob J. e. July 11, 1862. 
Owings G. C. e. July 10, 1862. 
Renshaw Alfred, e. July g, 1862. 
Renshaw Elisha, e. July g. 1862. 
Renner Laac, e. July q, 1862. 
Ritter Franklin, e. July g, 1862. 
Sturdevant Wm. e. July 14, 1862. 
Swartz Sam'l W. e. julyg, 1862. 
Slew John A. e. July 14, 1862. 
Umphrey S. B. e. July g, 1S62. 
Wilson Taylor, e. July 9, 1862. 

92 d Infantry. 

The Ninety-second Regiment Infantry Illinois Vol- 
unteers was organized at Rockford, Illinois, and mus- 
tered into United States' service September 4, 1862. It 
was composed of five companies from Ogle County, 
three from Stephensi-n County, and two from Carroll 

The Regiment left Rockford. Octcber 11, 1862, with 
orders to report to General Wright, at Cmcinnati, where 
it was assigned to General Baird's Division, Army of 
Kentucky. It marched immediately into the interior 
of the state, and, during the latter part of October, was 
stationed at Mt. Sterling, to guard that place against 
rebel raids, and, afterwards, at Danville, Kentucky. 
On 26th January, 1863, the Regiment, with General 
Baird's Division, was ordered to the Army of the Cum- 
berland. Anivingat Nashville, the command moved 
to Franklin, Tennessee, and was engaged in the pursuit 
of the rebel General Van Dorn. Advanced to Murfrees- 
boro, and occupied Shelbyville, June 27. On July 5, 
Regiment was engaged in rebuilding wagon bridge over 
Duck River. Ju y 6, was ordered by General Kosen- 
crans to be mounted, and, armed with the Spencer rifle, 
and attached to Colonel Wilder's Brigade of General 
Thomas' Corps where it remained while General Rosen- 
crans had command. The Regiment crossed the moun- 
tains at Dechard, Tennessee, and took part in the 
movements opposite and above Chattanooga, when it 
re-crossed the mountains, and joined General Thomas, 
at Trenton, Alabama. 

On the morning of gth September, it was in the ad- 
vance to Chattanooga, and pirticipated in driving the 
rebels from Point Lookout, and entered the rebel strong- 
hold, unfolding the Union banner < n the Crutchfield 
House, and kept in pursuit of the rebels. At Ringgold, 
Georgia, was attacked by a Brigade of Cavalry, under 
commar d of General Forrest, and drove them from the 
town, killing and wounding a large number. 

During the Chicamauga Battle, the Regiment to^~ 
part in General Reynolds' Division, of General Thomas' 

\ 'o> 




In April, 1864, it was again at Ringgold, Georgia, 
doing picket duty. 

April 23, Captain Scovil, with twenty-one men, were 
captured at Nickaj ick Gap, nine miles from Ringgold, 
and one n:an killed. Of the men thus taken prisoner-, 
twelve were shot down, and six died of wounds, after 
being taken prisoners. The remainder weie taken to 
Andersonville ; and very few ever left that place, h v- 
ing died from the cruel treatment received there. 

From Ringgold, May 7, 1864, the Regiment entered 
upon the Atlanta Campai'jn. and was assigned to Gen- 
eial Kilpatrick's command, and participated in the bat- 
tles lif kcsaca, raid anaind Atlanta, Bethesada, Fleet 
River Bridge, and jonesboro. 'I'he Regiment lost, at 
Jonesboro, one fifth of the men engaged. From Mount 
Gilead Church, wtst of Atlanta, October i, the Regi- 
ment moved, and took active part in the operations 
against Hood's Army. At Powder Springs, it had a 
severe engigement, loing a large number of men, killed 
and woundeti. The Regiment then returned to Mari- 
etta, and participated in the various engagements and 
skirmishes in Sherman's march to the sea. At Swift 
Creek, N . C., Captain Hawk, Company C, was severely 
wounded, losing a leg. 

The Regiment, during its term of service, was in some 
forty battles and skirmishes. It was mustered out at 
Concord, North Carolina, and paid and discharged 
from the srrvice at Chicago, Illinois, July 10, 1S65. 
Major Jno. H. Bohn, com. Sipt. 4, 1862. Resigned 

April 21, 1864. 
Second Assistant Surgeon Nathan Stephenson, com. 

Oct. II, 1862. Mustered out June 21, 1865. 
Quarter-MasterSergeant Wm. M. Gerhart. Mustered 

out June 21, 1865. 
Chaplain O. D. White, com. Sept. 4, '62, resigned at 

Danville, Ky. 
Commissary Sergeant Geo. W. Fouke, e. Sept. 4, 1862. 

Mustered out June 21, 1865. 
Principal Musician Collan Bawden, e. Sept. 4, 1862. 

Mustered out June 21, 1865. 

Company C. 

Captain Wm. Stouffer, com. Sept. 4, 1862. Died Jan. 

21, 1863. 
Captain Robert M. A. Hawk, com. first lieutenant, 

Sept. 4, 1862. Promoted captain, Jan. 21, 1863. 

Mustered out June 21, 1865. 
First Lieutenant Norman Lewis, com. second lieuten- 
ant, Sept. 4, 1862. Promoted first lieutenant, Jan. 

21, 1863 Transferred to Co. G, 65th Regiment. 
Second Lieutenant Geo. P. Sutton, e. as sergeant. Aug. 

7, 1862. Promoted second lieutenant, Jan. 21, 

1863. Mustered out June 21, 1865. 
First ^lergt. Jacob Kettle, e. Aug. 7, 1862, disd. April 

13, 1863. 
Sergt. Chas. H. Jones, e. Aug. 7, 1862, m. o. June 21, 

186;, as first sergt. 
Sergt. John Hitchcock, e. Aug. ^, 1862. m.o.June 21, '65. 
Sergt. Geo. R. Stoddard, e. Aug. g, '62, disd. Feb. 4. '63. 
Corpl. C. B. White, e. Aug. 9, 1802, disd. Jan. 12, 1863. 
Corpl. Nicholas Fagan, e. Aug. 5, 1862, disd. May 8, '63. 
Gorpl. Thos. F. Elliott, 1:. Aug. g, 1862, m. o. June 21, 

1865, as sergt. 
Corpl. John L. Strock, e. Aug. 6, 1862, m. o. June 21, 

1865, as sergt. 
Corpl. Thomas M. Hawk, e. Aug. 6, 1862, m. o. June 

21, 1865, as sergt. 
Corpl. Geo. Gray, e. Aug, g, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865, 

as private. 
Corpl. Oscar E. Ritter, e. Aug. 7, 1862, m. o. June 21, 

1865, as private. 
Corpl. F. W. Carpenter, e. Aug. 7, '62. disd. June 18, '63. 
Musician W. F. Balcom, e. Aug. 7, 1862, m. o. June 21 , 

1865, as private. 
Musician Geo. W. Clark, e. Aug. 16, 1862, m. o. June 

21, 1865. 

Wagoner \Vm. B. Rea, e. Aug. g,'62, disd. Mch. 11, '63. 
Atkinson Evan, e. July 30, 1862, disd. May 5, '63, disab. 
Adair Thos. C. e. Aug. 7, 1802, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Allen Truman, e. Aug. 7, 1862. m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Bohn Jos. H. S. e. July 24, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Bevins N. R. e. Vug. 7, 1862, died March 3, 1865. 
Biown James H. e. Aug. 7, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Brown J. C. e. Aug. g, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Bowers Jos. e. Aug. 9, 1862, m. o. June 21, i86s. 
Church C. W. e. July 28, 186?, disd. lune 9, 1863. 
Carey Wm. R. e. July 30, 1862, m. o. June 21, '65, corpl. 
CooUe D. G. e. Aug. 6, 1S62, disd. Sept. i, 1863, for 
promotion in colored regiment. 


Clevidence Jno. T. e. Aug. 6, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865, 

Christian A. J. e. Aug. 6, 1862, disd. Feb. 2, 1863. 
Collins Geo. W. e. Aug. 6, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Densmore iS . e. July 30, 1862, disd. Oct. 24, 1863. 
Davis C. e. July 6, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
hyson Jas. H. e. .'Vug. 9, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Dunshee Geo. W, e. Aug. 18, 1862, died at Danville, 

Ky., Jan. 25, 1863. 
t.mbrick Daniel, e Aug. 8, 1862, disd. March 6, 1863. 
Edmunds Wm. e. July 26, 1862, trans, to naval service 

June 30, 1864. 
Engler Thomas, e. July 29, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Etuyre Daniel, e. Aug. 8, i 62, m. o. June, 2i, 1865. 
Ehithorp Chas. M. e. Aug. 9, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Fife Newton, e. Aug. 4, 1862. died July 25 1863. 
French Ralph, e. Aug. 5, 1862, m. o. J une 21, 1865. 
Fuller Geo. W. e. Aug. 6, 1862, trans, to Invalid Corps 

Aug. 6, 1864. 
Ferris R. W. e. Aug. g, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Frank Geo. M. e. Aug. 9, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Green J . H . e. Aug. i, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865, corpl. 
Goddard John, e. Aug. i, 1862, disd. Feb. 2, 1863. 
Goddard Levi W. e. Aug. i, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865, 

as corpl. 
GettN' Robert e. Aug. 6, 1862, m. o. June 21. 1865. 
( .earhart Wm. M. e. Aug. 7, 1862, prmid. Q. M. sergt. 
Halleck Jas. T. e. July 30, 1862, kid. Sept. 19, 1863. 
Hitchcock N. e. Aug. 6, 1862, disd. Feb. 4, 1863. 
Hum ert F. e. .Aug. 6, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865, corpl. 
Henry Rudolph, e. Aug. 7, i8'-2, m. o.June 21, 1865. 
Helsinger Jacob, e. Aug. 15, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Johnson Win. e. Aug. 7, 1862, m. o. Juns 21, '65, corpl. 
Kirby Geo. M. e. Aug. i, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Kenyon S. D. e. Aug. i, 1862 died at Danville, Ky. 
Kearney Francis, e. Aug. 2, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
King Amos, e. Aug. g, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Lawrence Leo, e. July 26,1862, died at Danville, Ky. 
Lasher Wm. J. e. Aug. i, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Lawrence L. e. Aug 7, '62,m.o. July 25, '65. prisr.war. 
Miller W. A. e. July 30 1862, to Inv Corps,Jan. 

23, 1864. 
Marcue Jos. e. Aug. i, 1862, disd. June i, 1863. 
Mar.h E. E. e. Aug. 2, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
McClure Allen, e Aug. 7, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Myers Maroni, e. Aug. 7, 1862, died April 24, 1863. 
McCulloch Chas. e. Aug. 7, '62, m.o June 21, '65, corpl. 
Magee Thos. e. Aug. 8, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Milligan Wm. e. Aug. 9, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Nichols N. e. Aug. 7, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Nagle John, e. Aug. 7, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
OhPey D. E. e. Aug. i, 1862, disd. Feb. 2, 1863. 
Oakley Thos. D. e. Aug. 9, 1862, m. o. June 24, 1865, 

was prisr. 
Perry Henry C. e. Aug. 7, 1862, disd. June 3, 1863. 
Reinhart J. F. e. July 26, 1S62, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Skidm re V. e. July 24, 1862, m. o. June 21, i86s. 
Stacey Jas. F. e. July 28, 1862, disd. April 4, 1863. 
Summey Dan'l C. e. Aug. 30, 1862, trans. Sept. 11, '63 
Strong Jas. C. e. Aug. i, 1S62, first sergt., disd. Apr 

27, 1864, to accept commission in colored regt. 
Shay John J. e. Aug. 6, 1862, det.iched at m. o. 
>ouders Wm. e. Aug. 6, 1862, disd. May 16, 1865. 
Stacey John H. e. Aug. 9, 1S62, disd. Jan. 19, 1863. 
Tuckery Cyrus, e. Aug. g. 62, missing in action, Sept. '64. 
Vaughn David, e. Aug. 6, 1862, died at Nashville, 

Tenn., March 5, 1863. 
Wolfey John K. e. Aug. 4,1862, absent at m.o. of regt. 
Wells A. e. Aug. 5. 1862, disd. Sept. 8, 1863. 
Watson O. e. Aug. 6, 1862, m.o. June 21,1865, ^s corpl. 
Whitney Luther, e. Aug. 7, '62, m.o. June 21, '65, corpl. 
Yates Edw. e. Aug. 7, 1862, sick at m. o. 
Bennett C. C. e. Sept. 16, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Emory Edw F. e. Sept. 20, 1862, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Glamon Chas. e. Sept, 26, '64, detachea at m.o. of regt. 
Gunn Luther, e. Sept. 20, 1864, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Goodell Cyrus, e. Sept. 20, 1864, m. o. June 21, 1865. 
Gadbois John B. disd. March 3, 1863. 
Golshell VV. S. e. Oct. 31, 1063, died June 18, 1864. 
Jackson Ale.\. e. Oct. 31, 1863, kid. April 12, 1865. 
Marcoux Peter, e. Aug. 30, 1864, m. o. June 21, 1865. 

Company I. 

Captain E. T. E. Becker, com. Sept. 4,1862. Mustered 

out June 21, 1865. 
First Lieutenant David B. Colhour, com. Sept. 4,1862. 

Died .March 17, 1863. 
First Lieutenant Alex. M. York, com. second lieutenant 

Sept. 4, 1862. Piomoted first lieutenant March 17, 

1863. Resigned April 4, 1864. 



First Lieutenant Joshua S. McRea, e. as sergeant Aug. 

15, 1862. Promoted sergeant major. Promoted 

second lieutenant March 17, 1863. Promoted first 

lieutenant April 18, 1864. ftlustered out June 

21, 1865. 
ist Sergt. O. B. Edson. e. Sept. 15. '62, desrtd. Oct. 2, '62. 
Sergt. Edw. Engli-.h, e. Aug. 12, '62, m.o. ;une 21, '65. 
Sergt. Wm. H. Hollinger, e. Aug. 15, 1862, disd. Aug 

17, 1863, for promotion. 
Sergt. Dan 1 H Stouffer, e. Aug 13, 1862, m. o. June 

21, 1865. 
Corpl. N. Stephenson, e. Aug. 13, 1862. disd. Oct. 8, 

1862, for yiromotion as second as>t. surgeon. 
Corpl. Wm. H. Price, e. Aug. 6, 1862, m. o. June 21, 

1865, as sergt. 
Corpl. John M. Noyes, e. Aug. i_ , 1862, m. o. June 21, 

1865, as serg'. 
Corpl. Jas. A. Bigger, e. Aug. 11, '62, kid. Sept. ig,'63. 
Corpl. Henry Ba^haw, e. Aug. 15, 1862, m. o. June 21, 

1865, as sergt. 
Corpl. Robt. Gunn, e. Aug. 12, '62, m. o. June 21,1865. 
Corpl. Jas. A. Colhour, e. Aug. 9,'6[, m.o. June 21, '65. 
Corpl. John K. Burgess, e. Aug. 15, '62, di>d.Mch 11, '63. 
Musician Jas. C. Wheat, e. Aug. 15, 1862, di^d. Oct. 

24, 1863. 
Musician Frederick Deihl, e. Aug. 14,1863, m. o. June 

21, 1865. 
Wagoner John H. Miller, e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 

21, 1865. 
Aldrich Warren, e. Aug. 15, 1862, died Mt. Sterling, 

Ky. Feb. 18, 1863. 
Ashley John W. e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Arnold Simon, e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Bennett Edgar, e. Aug. 13, 1862, died Feb. 19, 1863. 
Bauden Collin, e. Aug. 14, 1862, prmtd. prin. musn. 
J?eattie Wm. e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Barbar las. e. Aug. 15, 1862, sick at m.o. 
Carroll Wm. e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Carter Wm. H. e. Aug. 13, 1862, sick at m.o. 
Church Harvey, e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21. 1865. 
Curry Abner, e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Eshleman B. F. e. Aug. 15, 1862, died Kentucky, Jan. 

19, 1863. 
Eshleman Abraham, e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, '65 
Forbe, James, e. Aug. 12, 1862, m.o. Aug. 25, 1865, 

prisr. war. 
Finlayson Geo. e. Aug. 9, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Eraser D. R. e. Aug. 9, 1862, m.o. July 15, 1865, prisr. 

Focht Anthony, e. Aug. 13, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Gaylord A. e. Aug. 15, 1862, disd. Feb. 3, 1863. 
Goodell W. H. H. e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, '65. 
George J. H. e. Aug. 14, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Gotshall Geo. A. e. Aug, 15, 1S62, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Green Thomas, e. Aug. i8, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Gray L\ man C. e. Aug. 14, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Hollowell Jas. e. Aug. 9, disd. Oct. 17, 1863. 
Hollman I. F. e. Aug. 12, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Higgins Michael, e. Aug. 11, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Hayward H. F. e. Aug. 13, 1862, m.o. lune 21, 1865. 
Honsell Chas. R. e. Aug. 12, 1862, desrtd. Feb. i,'63. 
Hobart M. H. e. Aug. 15, 1862, disd. June 25, 1863. 
Hooves Jno. (Jr.) e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865, 

as wagoner. 
Johnson Samuel H. e. Aug. 5, 1862, died Feb. 15, '63. 
Keech John H. e. Aug. 15, 1862, disd. Mar. 11, 1863. 
Kingery A. J. e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Larkins Korn, e. Aug. 13, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Lower M. L. e. Aug. 9, 1862, died Tenn. Feb. 20, 1863. 
Miller S. H. e. Aug. 9, 1862, ra. o. June 21, 1S65. 
Markley Jos. e. Aug. 15, '62, trans, to Vet. Rts. corps. 
Michael Isaacs, e. Aug. 11, 1862, died "-ept. 16, 1863. 
McCracken Thomas, e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, '65 
Minnich Wm. e. Aug. 13, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Metz Saml. e. Aug. 14, 1862, m.o. June 21. 1865. 
McGill Frank W. e. Aug. 12, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
McWorthy Henry A. e. Aug. 13, 1862, m.o. June 21, '65 
McWorthy Wm. P. e. Aug. 22, 1862, died Sept. 25, 

1864, Andersonville prison. 
Morris Isaac e. Aug. 13, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
O'Neal Dudley, e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o, June 2r, 1865. 
O'Neal Jas. e. Aug. 9, 1862, died Ky. Jan. 17, 1863. 
Pitman Robt. e. Aug. 9, 1862, died Ky. Jan. 6, 1863. 
Rinedollar N. e. Aug. 15, 1862, disd. to e. as hospital 

Reynolds Wm. H. e. Aug. 15, 1862, kid April 23, 1864. 
Reynolds Chas. W. e. Aug. 11, 1862. m.o. June 21, '65. 
Rhodes Jas. W. e. Aug. 14, 1862, kid. Apl. 23, 1864. 
Richardson Sam'l e. Aug. 14, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865, 

as corpl. 

Snyder (.as. H. e. Aug. 15, 1862, disd. April 24, 1B65. 
.Schick Jones, e. Aug. 14, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Schreiner John, e. Aug. 11, 1862, disd. May 26, 1864. 
Stcinman Bariihart, e. Aug. 11, 1862, died Jan. 21, '64. 
Smith John K. e. Aug . i, 1862, died Feb. 26, 1863. 
Smith John P. e. Aug. 9, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Salsbury Saml. e. Aug. 15, 1862, corpl. sick at m.o. 
Statemiller |acob (Jr.) e. Aug. i5,'62, m.o. June 21. '65. 
Swaggart E. M. e. Aug. 13, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Shore T. M e. Aug. 14, 1S62, died at Ky. Feb. 9, 1863. 
.Sheimer Wm. C. e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
1 himas Henry, e. Aug. 15, 1862, died Dec. 10, 1862. 
Vandagrift VV m. Q. e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, '65. 
Willis J. Pratt, e. Aug. 13, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865, as 

Willis S. C. e. Aug. 13, '62, m.o. June 21, '65, as corpl. 
Winter John C. e Aug. 11, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Walker Solomon, e. Aug. 13, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Weber John, e. Aug. 14, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Weber Henry, e. Aug. 14, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Weaver L. J. e. Aug. 15. 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Walker James, e. Aug. 22, 1862, disd. Feb. 3, 1863. 
Yeager H. H. e. Aug. 15, 1862, m.o. June 21, 1865. 
Downs Geo. W. e. Sept. 15, '62, kid. at Ga. Dec. 4,'64. 
Fo.x Geo. e. Dec. 16, '63, m.o. June 24, '65, prisr. war. 
Lang Peter, e. Oct. 7, 1864, kid. at S.C. Feb. 11, 1865. 
Short Wm. e. Sept. 20, 1864, m.o. June 21, 1865. 

142d Iftfantry (100 days.) 

The One Hundred and Forty-second Infantry Illinois 
Volunteers was organized at Freeport, 111., by Colonel 
RoUin V. Aukney as a battalion of eight companies, 
and ord' red to Camp Butler, 111., where two companies 
were added and the regiment mustered, June i8, 1864, 
for 100 days. 

On June 21st, the regiment moved for Memphis via 
Cairo and the Mississippi river, and arrived on the 24th. 
On 26th, moved to White's Station, 11 miles from Mem- 
phis, on the Memphis and Charleston railroad, where it 
was assigned to guarding railroad. 

Mustered out of the U. S. service, Oct. 27, 1864, at 

Quarter-Master Wm. D. McAfee, com. May 21, 1864. 
Mustered out Oct. 27, 1864. 

Company G. 

Captain Hyatt Sinclair, com. June 18, 1864. Mustered 

out Oct. 27, 1864. 
First Lieutenant I\i. J. Boyle, com. June 18, 1864. 

Musteied out Oct. 27, 1864. 
Second Lieutenant Caleb S. Ransom, com. June 18, 

1864. Mustered out Oct. 27, 1864. 
Sergt. Chas. P. Sutton, e. May 15, '64, m.o. Oct. 26,'64. 
Sergt. John Heffelfinger, e. May 15, '64, m.o. Oct. 26, '64. 
Corpl. Chas. Hollingsworth, e. Alay 15, 1864, m.o. Oct. 

26, 1864. 
Corpl. L. R. Pritchard, e. May 15, '64, m.o. Oct. 26, '64. 
Corpl. Rodney S. Wells, e. May 15, '64, m. O.Oct. 26, '64. 
Corpl. Benj. C. Bohn, e. May 15, '64, m.o. Oct. 26, '64. 
Corpl. Chas, W. Bohn, e. May 15, '64, m. o. Oct. 26, '64. 
Corpl. Wm. R. Wood, e. May 15, '64, m. o. Oct. 26, '64. 
Corpl. Valentine Nelson, e. I\lay 15, '64, m.o. Oct. 26, '64. 
Byrne Hugh, e. June 12, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1S64. 
Barns Wm. e. May 15, 1864, ni. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Badger Win. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Bowman Geo. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864, for 

Bullett Chas. B. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26. 1864. 
Cook Nelson, e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Clifford Chester, e. May 15, 1864 m. o. (let. 26, 1864. 
Fo.x Dennis, e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Jenkins Chas. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Keller Chas. J. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864 
Kennedy W. H. e. May 15, 1S64, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Lascomb Wm. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Lines Frank, e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Livingston W. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
McNicholas Jno. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
McNitholas Wm. M. e. May 15, 1864. m. o. Oct. 26, '64. 
O'Brien Jas. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
O'Marrow Stephen, e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Pratt U. A. e. May 15, 1S64, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Ransom Thos. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Rose Warren C. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Shaffer Daniel, e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Spaulding S. W. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Simmons Chas. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864, for 




Sheets David, e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Simpson Win. e. May 15, i8'i4, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Stall Geo. M. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26, 1864. 
Tribeau Edw. e. May 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 26. 864. 
Winters Isaac, e. May 15, 1864, m. o Oct. 26, 1864. 
White Clark, e. June i, 1864, m. o. Oct, 26, 1864. 

146th Infantry (1 year,) 

Was org.cnized at Camp Butler, 111., Sept. 18, 1864, 
for one year and Henry H. Ue;in a()pointed colonel. 

Companies C and B were ordered to Brighton, 111.; 
companie- D and H to Quincy , 111., and Cn. F to Jack- 
sonvUle, 111., and were assigned to duty guarding 
drafted men and substitutes. The remaining companies 
were assigned to similar duty at Camp Butler, 111. 

On 5tli July, 1865, the regiment was mustered out of 
service, at Camp Butler, 111. 

Company A. 

Captain John M. Lingle, com. Sept. 18, 1864. Mus- 
tered out July 8, 1865. 
First Lieutenant Wm. Graham, com. Sept. 18, 1864. 

Mustered out July 8, 1865. 
Second Lieutenant Geo. R. Stod.lard com. Sept. 18, 

1864. iMustered out July 8. 1865. 
Q. M. Sergeant Lyman G.irratt, e. Aug. 29, 1864, disd 
Feb, 20,1865, for promotion to Q.M. of I52d I.V. I 
Sergt. A. Windle, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865 
Sergt. Jas. M . Pecker, e. Aug. 29, '64, m.o. July 8, '65 
Sergt. ]. B. Ciishman, e. Aug. 29, '64. m.o. July 8, '65 
Sergt. Peter Ramer, e. Aug 30, 1864, m. o. July 8. '65 
Corpl. C. Mennert, e. Aug. 30, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865 
Corpl. E. M. Heffelfinger, e. Aug. 29, 1864, disd. i^^^ 

17, 1865. disab. 
Corpl. I. V. Hollinger, e. Aug. 30, '64, m. o. July 8, '65. 
Corpl. John R. Ruthrauff, e. Aug. 29, '64, m.o. July 8. '65. 
Corpl. John Hild, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 
Corpl. lienj. F. Aikens, e. Aug. 29, '64 m.o. July 8, '65. 
Corpl. Dan'l R. Miller, e. Aug. 29, '64, m.o. July 8, '65. 
Corpl. John C.RinedoUar, e. Aug. 29, '64, m.o. July 8, '65. 
Musician Thos. J. Masters, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. 

July 8, 1865. 
Musician 1 felaney Kenyon, e. Aug. 29,1864, m.o. July 

8, 1865. 
Wagoner Carlos St. Claire, e. Aug. 29, 1864, disd. June 

14, 1865, for re-enlistment. 
Atherton Ralph B. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o.July 8, 1865. 
Albright Jos. T. e. Aug. 29, 1864, died at Camp Yates, 

111., Occ. 20, 1864. 
Albright John S. e. Aug. 30, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Butterb.tugh Sam'l H. e. Aug. 29, '64, m.o. July 8, '65. 

Barklow Wm. e. Aug. 29, 1S64, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Baker Philemon, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Clendening 'I'hos. C. e. Aug. 29, '64, m.o. July 8, 1865. 

Clifford Proctor M. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Dill Henry, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Dimbolton Jos. W. e. Aug. 29, 1S64, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Dersham David, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 

EUithorpe Lyman P. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, '65. 

Eisenbise P. W. e. Aug. 29, 1804, m.o. July 8, 1864. 

Emmett Daniel, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July. 8, 1865. 

Etnyre Sam'l, e. Aug. 30, 1S64, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Frazey Geo. M.e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8 1865. 

Frazey Wm. D. e. Aug. 30, 1864, m. o. Jul. 8. 1865. 

Fisher Geo. W. e. Aug. 30, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 

Fisher Elhanom, e. Aug. 29, 1864. m.o. July 8, 1865. 

Flannigan John H. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Grim Mahlon, e. Aug. 30, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Grim Sam'l, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Garratt Richard, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 

Gelwicks Geo. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 

Gettmucher Aug. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8. 1865. 

Harden B. D. C. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

HoUingsworth H. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Kremer John .\I. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 

Kennedy Milford, e. Aug, 29, 1861, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Kechler Harrison, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Kettle Jacob, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8. 1865. 

Leavitt Jos. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 

Lawler Philip, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Long Geo. W. e. Aug 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Moore Jos. B. e. Aug. 29, 1864, mo. July 8, 1865. 

Mower Sam'l B. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 

McCall Elliott, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Miller John M. e. Aug. 29 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Miller Elias, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Miller los. B. e. Aug. 29, 1864, disd. Feb. i4,'65, disab 

Miller Wm. F. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8. 1865. 

Mcllyaton John,e. Aug.29,'64, disd. June 17, '65, disab. 
Manning (leo. L. e. Aug. 29. 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
ivloore Geo. A. e. Aug. 30, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 
Myers Sam'l, e. Aug. 30, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 
Nichols 'I'hos. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Palmer F. D. e. Aug. 29, 1064, m. o. July 8, 1865. 
Price John T. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 186;. 
Palsgrovc Jacksoh, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Pearse Jas. 'I', e. Aug. 29. 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 
Picki-t Danl. e. Aug. 29. 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Price Jonas K. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Rupright Geo. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 
Rupiight Henj. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July8. 1865. 
Rowley Gro. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8. 1864 
Ruthrauff U. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m. o. July 8, 1865. 
Rover David B. e. Aug. 29. 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Rule John R. e. Aug. 29, 1864, in.r'. July 8, 1865. 
Ripper Philip, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Stoddard rohn.e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1805. 
Schnee I'heo. T. e. Aug. 30, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Steel H. C. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Schirner John, e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Strickler Saml. K. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8. 1865. 
Switzer W. H. e. Aug. 29. 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Sword M. V. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m o. July o, 1865. 
StoufTer John B. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Tyson John W. e. Aug. 29, 1864. m.o. July 8, 2165. 
Whaley Danl. W. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Wallace Jos. A. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Wayman Jacob, e. Aug. 30, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
Waters Geo. W. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 
White E. C. e. Aug. 29. 1864, m.o. July 8. 1865. 
Weaver Jos. E. e. Aug. 29, 1864, m.o. July 8, 1865. 

lo3d Infantry (one year,) 
Company D. 

Second Lieut. Alonzo W. Fuller, com. Feb. 27, 1865, 

res. May 29, 1865. 
First Sergt. Thos. B. Davis, com. Feb. 15, 1865, m.o. 

Sept. 21, 1865. as sergt. 
Sergt. Wm. J. Wood, com. Feb. 15, 1865, m.o. Sept. 

21, 1865. 
Corpl. Elijah Johnson, com. Feb. 17, 1865, m.o. Sept. 

21, 1865. 
Corpl. Joseph B. Sage, com. Feb. 17, 1865, m. o. July 

25, 1865. 
Artt Jas. J. e. Feb. 13, 1865, m.o. July 25, 1865. 
Atherton L. W. e. Feb. 22, 1865, sick at m.o. 
Bohn Henj. C. e. Feb. 15, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21, 1865. 
Brock Wm. e. Feb 17, 1S65, m.o. Sept. 21, 1865. 
Balcom T. H. e. Feb. 13, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21, 1865. 
Bohn Chas. W. e. Feb. 22, 1865, m.o. ^ept. 21, 1865. 
Church Robt. A. e. Feb. 17, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21, 1865. 
Coats Jas. e. Feb. 15, 1865, m.o. Sept 21, 1865. 
Cormany John, e. Feb. 17, '65, disd. May 30, '65, disab. 
Delano Wm. B. e. Feb. 13, 1865, m.o. May 24, 1865. 
Hulett John, e. Feb 14, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21, 1865. 
Sperry Wm. O. e. Feb. 13, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21, 1865, as 

Tuttle Francis L. e. Feb. 13, 1865, m.o. July 20, 1865, 

as corpl. 
Wolf Jacob, e. Feb. 25, 1865, m.o Sept. 21, 1865, as 


Company F. 

Ferringer Wilson, e. Feb. 25, 1865, sick at m.o 
Kaufman John G. e. Feb. 25, 1865, m.o Sept. 21, 
Tibbie Lewis, e. Feb. 6, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21, 1865 


, 1865. 

' 1865. 

Company I. 

Brown Luther D. e. Feb. 20, 1S65, m.o. Sept. 21 
Bristol Peleg, e. Feb. 20, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21, 186 
Bristol Augustus, e. Feb. 20, 1865, m.o. .Sept. 21 
Gholson John E. e. Feb. 18, 1865, m.o. June i, i£ 
McClatchey John, e. Feb. 18, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21 
McCauley John. e. Feb. 18, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21, i 
Ranslow S. e. Feb. 20, 1865, disd. Aug. 31, 1865. 
White Eli E. e. Feb. 18, 1865, m.o. Sept. 21, 1865. 

Miscellaneous Infantry. 
I4th and 15th Inf., Vet. Bat. Vol. 

Hitchcock John A. e. Feb. 6, 1864, m. o. Sept. i5, 1865. 
Preble Hiram, e. April 4, 1865, recruit, m.(.'.Sept.i6,'6s. 
Welch John, e. April 3, 1865, m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 



75th Infantry. 

Brewer Marada, e. I\L-irch 27, 1865, trans. 

Bronson Chas. S. e. Jan. 5. 1864, trans. 

Jones Richard, e. Marc 1 27, 1865, m^ o. Sept. 26, 1865. 

Miller H. J. e. May 27, 1865, tran-. 

Tobyne John, e. Jan. 5. 1864, died Feb. 24, 1864. 

Smith Jos. e. .Aug. s, 1S62, sick at ni. o. 

Isenhart F. M e. iNLirch 27, 1865, m. o. M y 23, 1865. 

156th Infantry (I year ) 

Corpl. Frank Whitman, e. Frb. 22, '65, m.o. Sept. 20, '65. 
Akers Wm. H. e. Feb. 22, 1865, m o. Sep-. 20, 1865. 
Fohn Jos. e. Feo. 23, 1865, ilesertcd March 14, 1865. 
Fitch Hiram, e. Feb. 28, 1865, sick at m. o. 
Hanson James, e. Feb. 23, 1865, m. o. Sept. 20, 1865. 
Jenkins Cleo. H. e Feb. 18, 1865, m. o. Sept. 20, 1865. 
Larish Wm. K. e. Feb. 22, .865. in. o. Sept. 20, 1865. 
Miller Martin, e. Feb. 22, i36s. m- o. Sept. 20, 1865. 
Rennar Samuel J.e. Feb. 22, 1865, m. o. Sept 20, 1865. 
Sc.ienur Bernard, e. Feb. 23, 1865, m. o. Sept. 20, 1865. 
Cummings Wm e. Feb. 23, 1865, m. o. Sept. 20, 1865. 
Fox Daniel, e. Feb. 24, 1865, ni. o. Sept. 20, 1865. 

Was organized by Col. Wm. Pitt Kellogg, at Camp 
Butler, and mustered into United States service, Oct. 
13, 1861, having 1,141 officers and men. Its operations 
wereat'Cape Girardeau, I'.irds' Point, New Madrid, 
Mo., and Island No. 10, after which it moved by Ten- 
nessee river to Hamburg Landing, Tenn. It partici- 
pated in the siege ot Corinth and battle of Far.iiington. 
After the evacuation of Corinth, it guarded railroad. 
It was at battles of luka and Corinth. It was in pur- 
suit of Price on several occasions, capturing prisoners 
and having skirmishes, several of which amounted to 
real battles. The Seventh was on Grierson's celebrated 
raid through the enemy's country to Baton Rouge, La 
After capture of Fort Hudson and Vicksburg, moved to 
Memphis, and thence into Tennessee, having several 
encounters with the rebel Gens. Chalmers and Forrest. 
Sept. 30, 1864, was assigned to Gen. Hatche's cavalry, 
and for months was on the njost active duty in central 
Tennessee and northern Alabama, first against For- 
rest's cavalry, and thence against Hood's fleeing army. 
Jan. 13, 1865, 199 men and officers only reported for 
duty. Thirty days before 450 men reported for duty. 
In three weeks the regiment was swelled to 1,600 men 
by recruits. Oct. 20, 1865, was mustered out at Nash- 
ville. Discharged at Springfield, 111., Nov. 17, 1865. 
Major Geo. A. Root, e. as sergeant, Sept. 5, 1861. Pro- 
moted second, Jan. 16,1862. Promoted 
adjutant, Oct. i, 1862. Promoted Major, May 10, 
1865. Mustered out Nov. 4, 186=;. 
Musician Harvey Fisher, e.Sept. 8, '61, m.o.july 2i,'62. 
Musician Sam'l Moore, e. Sept. 8, 1861, m.o.july 2i,'62. 
Musician Sam'l Sprecher, e.Sept. 8,'6i, m.o.july 2i,'62. 

Company B. 

First Lieutenant Jos. O'Kane, e. as private, Sept. 5, 
1861. Promoted first sergeant, th.n second lieuten- 
ant, Oct. I, 1862. Promoted first lieutenant, Feb. 
10, 1863. Honorably discharged (as second lieuten- 
ant) March 10, 1865. 

First Lieutenant Chas. Cross, e. Dec. 30, 1863. Pro- 
moted sergeant, then first lieutenant, April 20, 1865. 
Mustered out Nov. 4, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant H. A. Van Epps, e. as private, 
Sept. 5, 1861. Re-enlisted as veteran, Feb. 10, 
1804. Promoted first sergeant, then second lieuten- 
ant, April 20, 1865. Mustered out Nov. 4, 1865. 

Corpl. W. M. Sturdevant, e. Sept. 5, 1861, m. o. Oct. 
15, 1864, as sergt. 

Buffington Wm. e. Sept. 5,1861, kid. by guerrillas April 
24, 1863. 

Bennett Chas.H. e. Sept. 5,'6i, disd. July 20, 62,disab. 

Crampton Martin, e. Sept. 5, 1861, died at Mound 
City, 111. 

Campbell Geo. W. Sept. 5, 1861, m.o. April 25, 1865, as 
corpl., prisr. war. 

Cross Edwin, e. Sept. 5, 1861, died July 18, 1862. 

Davis Theo. e. Sept. 5, 1861, m. o. Sept. 21,1864. 

Dennis Cornell A. e. Sept. 5, 1861, m. o. Nov. 4, 1S65. 

Fraker John W. e. Sept. 5,'6i, vet., m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 

Hughes Levi, e. Sept. 5, 1861, kid. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Hemmingway Chas. T. e. Sept. 5, 1861, disd lor pro- 
motion Jan. 26, 1863. 

Halt Geo. S. e. Sept. 5, 1861, died Oct. 27, 1864. 

Lockhart Jos. C. e. Sept. 5, '61, m.o. Oct. i5,'64, sergt. 

Moulding John, e. Sept. 5, 1861, vet., sick at m.o. 
Noble Chas. B. e. Sept. 5,1861, trans, to V. R.C., Feb. 

15, 1864. 
Robinson Isaac E. e. Sept. 5, 1861, m.o. Oct. 15, 1864. 
Shorpe Andrew, e. Sept. 5, 1861, died in Miss., June 

28, 1862. 
Allen Thos. e. Sept. 30, 1864, m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Bartley D. I. e. Oct. i5,'6i, disd. Oct. 19, '62, disab. 
Birge Robt. e. Nov. 17, 1863, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865, vet. 
B.irtron Sylvester, e. Jan. 4, 1864, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Boyer Dan'l W. e. Dec. 29, 1863, m. o. Nov. 4 1865. 
Baker Geo. W. e. Jan. 5. 1864, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Buffington Jonas, e. Sept. 26, 1864, m.o. July 12, 1865. 
Bowman John, e. Oct 4, ii;64, m. o. Oct. 19, 1865. 
Cady Sam'l P. e. Nov. 17, '63, vet., m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Carmony Abraham, e. March 9, 1865, m.o. Nov. 4, '65 
Dyer Edgar A. e. Sept. 9, 1861, disd. for wds. rec'd 

Marcn 28. 1863. 
Dorman Christian, e. Nov. 5, i?6i, disd. for wds. rec'd, 

Nov. 5, 1862. 
Davis Jos. M. e. Oct. 4, 1864, m.o. Oct. 19, 1865. 
Day Squire, e. Sept. 30, 1864, ra. o. July 12, 1865. 
Dyer Edgar A. e. Dec. 30, '63, vet., died in prison, Miss. 
Everhart Jacob, e. Dec. 31, 1863, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Fifield John C. e. Jan. 4, 1864, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Ferrin Alber , e. Dec. 30, 1863, deserted 
Herrington Marshal, e. Jan. 5,1864, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865, 

as fir- 1 sergt. 
Herrington Ellsworth, e. Jan. 5, 1864, m. o. Nov. 4, 

1865, as sergt. 
Hodgdon Isaac H. e. Oct. 30, 1863, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865, 

as corpl. 
Harner Elias, e. March 9, 1865, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Hough Jas. e. Sept. 26, 1864. m.o. July 12,1865. 
Johnson Jas. B. e. Nov. 5. 1861, m.o. Dec. 17, 1864. 
Johnsonjas. e. Nov. 5, 1861. kid. Aug. 20, 1862. 
Keeney Ira W. e. Jan. 4, 18^4, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Lines Wesley F. e. Dec 31, '63, disd. May 22,'65,disab. 
1 igo John, e. Dec. 29, '63. disd. Nov. 4, '65, as sergt. 
Miller Sam'l E. e. Dec. 30, 1863, disd Nov. 4, 1865. 
McCauley Pat'k, e. Dec. 29, 1863, disd. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Miller Henry, e. Oct. 4, 1864, m. o. Oct. 19, 1865. 
Monroe Henry, e. Sept. 26, 1864, m. o. July 12, 1865. 
Pratt Calvin, e. Dec. 30, 1863, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Pratt A. B. e. Dec. 30, 1863, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Rogers D. e. Jan. 5, 1864, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Rose Warren C. e. March 4, 1865, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Rowland M. D. e. Dec. 29, 1863, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Rhan Peter, e. Oct. 4-, 1864, m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Siiiith Uavid. e. Dec. 29, 1863, deserted July 23, 1865. 
Shultz Abraham, e. Feb. 22, 1865, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Stull Wm. e. March 4, 1865, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Selemier Henry, e. Oct. 6, 1864, m. o. Oct. 19, 1865. 
Schriner Fred'k, e. Oct. 11, 1864, m.o. Oct. 19, 1865. 
Tibbetts Theo. e. Dec. 31, 1863, m.o. Nov. 4, 1805. 
Tiffany David, e. Sept. 26, 1864, m.o. July 12. 1865. 
Williaiis Wm. T. e. Jan. 5, '64, m.o. Sept. 27, '65, sergt. 
Zuck or Buck Jno. e. Jan. 5, 1864, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 

Company H. 

Fordeck Lewis B. e. Feb. 27, 1S65, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
He ly Fred F. e. Feb. 27, 1865, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. ^ 
Horton Retzemond, e. Feb. 27, '65, m. o. Sept. 23, '65. 
Jenkins Jas. H. e. Feb. 27,1865, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Rogers Geo. A. e. Feb. 27, 1865, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 
Smith Garlant F. e. Feb. 27, 1865, m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 

Company M. 

Ayres Wm. S. e. Feb. 27, 1865, m.o. Oct. 6, 1865. 

Dupue Wm. H. e. Mar. 15, 1865, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 

Gaylord A. C. e. Mar. 4, 1864, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 

Winter Isaac, e. May 4, 1864, m.o. Nov. 4, 1865. 

Divelbliss Jas. W. e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Donnelly Bernard, e. Sept. 26, 1864. 

Gore Jno. e. Feb. 22, 1865. 

Heiner Elias, e. Mar. 9, 1S65. 

Moore Wm. J. e. Feb. 22, 1865. 

Martin Francis, e. Mar. 8, 1865. 

Nelson Andrew J. e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Rice Wm. e. Oct. 7, 1864. 

Steele Wm. e. Mar. 4, 1865. 

8th Cavalry. 

Company A. 

Downing Chas. A. e. Nov. 17, 1863, m.o. July I7.'65. 
Dunning N. H. e. Nov. 17. iS6<, died July i, 1864. 
Long Porter, e. Nov. 17, 1863, m.o. July 17, 1865. 
Renshaw Elisha, e. Nov. 17, 1863, m.o. July 17, 1865. 



clisd. July io,'62, disab. 

Renshaw Levi, e. Nov. 17, 1863, m.o. July 17, 1865. 
Renshaw Alfred, e. Dec. 15, 1863, m.o. June 19, 1865. 

Company C. 

Baker Francis H. e. Jan. 4, '64, m.o. June 24, 1865. 
Emal VVm. A. e. Sept. 6, 1862, m.o June 21, 1865. 
Fox Geo. C. e. Sept. 2, 1862, m.o. Jun ■ 21, 1865. 
Griffin Geo. W. e. Sept. 6, 1862, vet. m.o. July 17, '65. 
Rhan Jacob O. e. Feb. 18, 1864, m.o. July i,, 1865. 
Slining John, e. Sepi. 9, 1862. 

Company G. 

Bowman John H. e. Sept. 14, '61, m. o. Sept. 29, '64, 

as corpl. 
Emmest I'hos. H. e. Sept. i4,'6i, died Va. Jan. 15, '62. 
Humphrey Wm. T. e. Sept. 14, 1861, disd. Aug. 25, 

1S62, disab. 
Morgan S. e. Sept. 7, '61, m.o. S pt 28, '64, as sergt. 
Vanderipe Peter, e. Sept. 14, 1861, vet., trans, to U. S. 

Wherit G. M. e. Sept. 14, 18 
Briggs Charles, e. Oct. i, 18 
Drum Michael, e. Oct. 4, 1S64. 
Mehan Patrick, e. Oct. 14, 1864. 

12th Cavalry (3 years.) 
Company C 

Burrows John, e. Dec. lo, 1861, vet., m. o. May 29, "66. 
•Carr Geo. W. e. Feb. 22, 1861, trans, to Invalid Corps, 

March 31, 1864. 
Heicock Joel R. e. Feb. 19, 1862, vet., m. o. May 29, 

1866, as sergt. 
Houser Jeremiah, e. Feb. 25, 18 2, vet., refu-ed to be 

mustered. - 
Jones Francis M. e. Jan. i, 1862, vet., refused to be 

McKay D. J. e Jan. t, 1862, vet., died at Houston, 

Te.\as, Sept. 23, 1865. 
Putnam J. D.e. Jan. i, 1862, deserted. 
Thomas Henry, e. Feb. 25, 1862, kid. Sept. 20, 1862. 

Company K. 

Dulebon Hiram, e. Dec. i, 1863, deserted Mch. 14, 1866. 
Lytle Arthur D. e. D c. i, 1863, promoted hospital 

Dulebon H. E. e. Dec. i. 
Edwards A. M. e. Jan. 4, 1864. 

Johnson John, e. Dec. 30. 

Kiney Geo. A. e. Aug 9, 1864, m. o. Aug. 8, 1865. 

McCarty Thos. e. Jan. 4. 1864. 

Russell Jas. P. e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Russell Wm. F. e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Sorter Jas. \.. e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Smith Jus. P. e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

12t1i Cavfdry Consolidated, 

Captain Wm. H. Redman, com. second lieutenant May 
17, 1865. Promoted first lieutenant Aug. 21, 1865. 
Promoted captain Feb. 15, 1866. Mustered out 
May 29, 1866. 

1st Artillerjf, 

Company A (Consolidated) 

Captain Samuel S. Smith, com. second lieutenant, Feb. 
25, 1862. Promoted junior first lieutenant Sept. 2, 
1862. Promoted captain Co. A. July 23, 1864. 
Term expired March 28, 1865. 

Company F. 

Bradway A. J. e. Nov. 27, 1861, disd. Jan. 4, '65, term ex. 

Bramhall Jno. e. Nov. 27, 1861, deserted. 

How A. I\I. e. Nov. 27, i85i. disd. Jan. i, 1863, disab. 

Menchin Henry, e. Nov. 25, 1861, vet. 

Williams Thomas, e. Dec. 28, 1861, died at Memphis, 

Nov. 14, 1862. 
Wittee Henry, e. Nov. 26, 1861, vet. 
Welstead John H. e. Nov. 27, 1861, disd. Jan. 4, 1865, 

term ex. 
Cormany Jacob E. e, Dec. 31 1863, m. o. July 6, 1865, 

as bugler. 
Colton Josiah, e. Oct. 7, 1864, m. o. July 15, 1865. 
Connellon Owen, e. Oct. 7, 1S64, died July i, 1865. 
Chaffee Wm. W. e. Oct. 7, 1864, m. o. July 26, 1865. 
Daily Thomas, e. Jan. 5, 1864, m. o. July 26, i86s. 
Eminert A. R. e. Dec. 30, 1863, m. o. July 26, 1865. 
Hunter H. C. e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Kenner Wm. H. e. Oct. 10, 1864, m. o. July 26, 1865. 
Lindsey Wm. O. e. Jan. 5, 1S64, m. o. JuJj' 26. 1865. 
Miller Silas, e. Jan. 5, 1864, m. o. July 6, 1865. 
Mead Chas. A. e. Dec. 29, 1863, died Sept. 8, T864. 
Pettit Daniel, e. Oct, 7, 1863, m. o. July 26, 1865. 
Taylor Lewis, e. Dec. 29, 1863, m. o. July 6, 1865. 
Winters John, e. D-c. 30, 1863, m. o. July 6, 1865. 

The war ended and peace restored, the Union preserved in its integrity 
those sons of Carroll who had volunteered their lives in defence of their 
government, who were spared to see the array of the Union victorious, 
returned to their homes to receive grand ovations and tributes of honor 
from friends and neighbors who had eagerly and jealously followed them 
wherever the fortunes of war called. Exchanging their soldiers' uniforms 
for citizens' dress, they fell back to their old avocations — on the farm, at 
the forge, the bench, in the shop, and at whatever else their hands found 
to do. Brave men are honorable always, and no class of Carroll's citizens 
are entitled to greater respect than the volunteer soldiery, not alone because 
they were soldiers in the hour of their country's peril, but because in their 
associations with their fellow-men their walk is upright, and their honesty 
and character without reproach. 


In 1863, D. W. Dame, of Lanark, was chosen to represent the people 
of Carroll County in the popular branch of the general assembly of the 
state. On the 18th day of January, 1865, Mr. Dame introduced the fol- 
lowing series of resolutions, which are copied into these pages as showing 
the true spirit of the people of the county he represented. These resolu- 
tions are clear and expressive, and the sentiment they represented in 1865 


is just as full and strong in 1878 as when first spread upon the house 
journal : 

EesolverJ, hi/ the Sen/it e and House of Representatives, representiiu/ the people of the State 
of Illinois in Generttl Assembly. That the deepest sympathies of tlie whole people of lUiuois 
are with the families and friends of the following brave and gallant officers. [Then fol- 
lowed a statement of numljer of regiment, names of officers, rank, date of death, cause of 
death]. And with tln'se of the numerous line oflicers, and the host of non-cou)missioned 
officers and private^, who have gloriously fallen upon the battle-tield, during the progress of 
the present war, in defence of their imperileti country and its free institutions; and we 
hereby tender to them, one and all, the assurance that their noble dead are not and shall not 
be forgotten; and that we shall ever tenderly cherish their memories and be proud of their 
noble deeds, whilst we deeply and sincerel}* condole with those who mourn for their loved 
and lost. 

Resolved, That our soldiers in the field, who so nobly responded to their country's call 
in the hour of her peril are entitled to the gratitude of the state. Living, they shall know 
a nation's gratitude; wounded, a nation's care; and, dj-iug, they shall forever live in the 
memory of eveiy true patriot, their widows and children become the objects of the nation's 
guardianship and watchfnl care, while posterity shall delight to erect monuments to per- 
petuate the remembrance of their names and virtues. 

Resolved, That the secretary of state transmit to the officers commanding the several 
regiments and other organizations from this state now in the service of the country, copies 
of the foregoing resolutions, with a request that they be read to their respective commands; 
and that copiesbe also transmitted to the families of the field officers named in these res- 

Mr. Payne submitted the following amendment : 

That the name of every line officer of Illinois regiments killed in the service, or who 
has died at home from diseases or wounds received in the service, be added to said roll. 

Which amendment was accepted by Mr. Dame, 
Mr. Streville moved to further amend by inserting: 

That the secretary of state be directed to send a copy of said resolutions to Illinois 
soldiers wherever found ; and 

On motion of Mr. Ford, the said resolutions, with the pending amend- 
ments were referred to the committee on militia. 


Oh ! a wonderful stream is the river of time, 

As it runs through the realm of tears, 
With a faultless rhythm, and a musical rhyme, 
And a broader sweep, and a surge sublime, 

As it blends in the ocean of years. 

—B. F. Taylor. 

It is not strange that among the pioneer settlers of any new country 
a dee|)-seated and since friendship should spring up, that would grow and 
strengthen with their years. The incidents peculiar to life in a new country 
— the trials and hardships, privations and destitutions — are well calculated 
to test not only the physical powers of endurance, but the moral, kindly, 
generous attriliutes of manhood and womanhood. They are times that try 
men's souls, and bring to the surface all that there may be in them of 
either good or bad. As a rule, there is an e([uality of conditions that recog- 
nizes no distinctions. All occupy a common level, and, as a natural conse- 
quence, a brotherly and sisterly feeling grows up that is as lasting as time, 
for "a fellow feeling makes us wondrous kind." With such a community 
there is a hospitality, a kindness, a benevolence aud a charity unknown and 
unpracticed among the older, richer and more densely populated common- 
wealths. The very nature of their surroundings teaches them " to feel each 


other's woe, to share each other's joy." An injury or a wrong may be 

ionored, but a hindhj, generous, charitahle act is never forgotten. The 
memory of old associations and kindly deeds is always fresh. Kaven locks 
may bleach and whiten; full, round cheeks sink and hollow; the fire of 
intelligence vanish from the organs of vision; the brow become wrinkled 
with care and age, and the erect form bowed with accumulating years, but 
the true friends of the ''long ago " will be remembered as long as life and 
reason endure. 

The surroundings of ])ioneer life are well calculated to test the " true 
inwardness " of the human heart. As a rule, the men and women who first 
occupy a new country — who go in advance to spy out the land and prepare 
it for the coming of a future people — are bold, fearless, self-reliant and 
industrious. In "these respects, no matter from what remote section or 
country they may come, there is a similarity of character. In birth, educa- 
tion, religion and language there may be a vast difference, but, imbued 
with a common purpose — the founding and building of homes — these differ- 
ences are soon lost by association, and thus they become one people, united 
by a common interest, and, no matter what changes may come in after 
years, the associations thus formed are never buried out of memory. 

In pioneer life there are always incidents of peculiar interest, not only 
to the pioneers themselves, but which, if properly preserved, would be of 
interest to posterity, and it is a matter to be regretted that the formation of 
" Old Settlers' Associations " has been neglected in so many parts of the 
country. The presence of such associations in all the counties of our 
common country, with well kept records of the more important events, such 
as dates of arrivals, births, marriages, deaths, removals, nativity, etc., as 
any one can readily see, would be the direct means of preserving to the 
literature of the country the history of every community, that, to future 
generations, would be invaluable as a record of references and a ready 
method of settling important questions of controversy. As important as 
these associations are admitted to be, their formation has not yet become 
general, and there are many counties in the Western country whose early 
history is entirely lost because of such neglect and indifference. Such 
organizations would possess facts and figures that could not be had from 
any other source. Aside from their historic importance, they would serve 
as a means^of keeping alive and further cementing old friendships and renew- 
ing among the members associations that were necessarily interrupted by 
the innovations of increasing population, cultivating social intercourse, 
creating a charitable fund for the benefit of such of their members as might 
become victims of misfortune or adversity. 

Actuated by such motives as those above outlined, and in pursuance 
of a call published in the Carroll County newspapers in June, 1874, a large 
number of the old settlers met under the tent on the Carroll County Agri- 
cultural Fair Grounds, on the 2d day of September following, for the purpose 
of organizing an Old Settlers' Association. D. W. Dame stated the 
object of the meeting. Luther H. Bowen was made temporary chairman, 
and John Irvine was chosen temporary secretary. The secretary read the 
names of over two hundred old settlers then living in the county, which he 
had collected from the best sources of information. The meeting then pro- 
ceeded to the election of permanent officers, resulting as follows: 

President — Luther H. Bowen, of Savanna, by acclamation. 

Secretary — Samuel Preston, of Mount Carroll, also by acclamation. 


On motion of Dr. E. Woodruff, of Savanna, it was agreed that all per- 
sons who were residents of the county previous to 1850, should be recog- 
nized as old settlers and entitled to membership of the association. [This 
proposition was subsequently amended, and in the adoption of the consti- 
tution and by-laws, section two declared any one entitled to membership 
who had been a resident of the county twenty-one years.] 

On motion of Mr. Monroe Bailey, it was 

Resolved, That in order to make the association a progressive institution, tliat a residence 
of twenty-five years shall be held to constitute an Old Settler, and a member of this asso- 

The following gentlemen — one from each township — M-ere then elected 
vice presidents of the association. 
Washington — S. S. Hodges, 

Rock Creel: — C. Hegerman. 
Wysox — Byron Fletcher. 

FreedoTYi — David Teeter. 

Elkhorn — Harry Smith. 

Cherry Grove — J. G. Garner. 

Salem — Duncan McKay. 

York — N. D. French. 

Fair Haven — C. McMullen. 

Lima — A, Cheesman. 

Nelson Fletcher, Monroe Bailey and Elias Woodruff were elected as 
an Executive Committee, and John Irvine, N. Fletcher and D. W. Dame 
were chosen to draft a constitution and by-laws for the government of the 

The meeting then adjourned to meet again on the Fair Grounds on 
Thursday, October 8, 1874. 

The meeting of Thursday, October 8, 1874, was a vei-y large and 
pleasant one — the Old Settlers and their friends to the number of live hun- 
dred being present. The exercises of the day were commenced by a 
quartette of the Mount Carroll Glee Club singing a song composed for the 
occasion by Dr. George JR.. Moore, and set to music by Mr. James Irvine, 
as follows: 

Sing, oh ! sing of the days when all was new. 
Ere the plowshare had vexed the sod ; 
When the hills and plains lay full in view, 
As they came from the hand of God. 

When the fruitful earth 

Gave a willing birth 

To a sea of nodding bloom. 
As the rolling swell of the prairie green, 
Danced up to the wood in its summer sheen. 
Like a bride to a fairy groom. 

As we spoke with a trill, 

And worked with a will. 

And thought with a thrill, 
Of the homes we would build. 
In a land where all was new. 
What a happy trill, a resolute will, and a joyous thrill, 

In the homes we would build, 
, For the sunliuht to gild. 

In a laud where all was new. 

Gaily sing of the days when all was new, 
When the wood heard the echoing swell 
Of the shining ax of builders true, 
As the pride of the forest fell. 


When the log heap grew 

To a cabin new; 

And tliat cabin all our own. 
While the dimpling smile of a bright-eyed wife. 
Smoothed down all the cares and sorrows of life, 
And we made it a happy home — 

With its rough puncheon floor, 

And its low latchless door, 

And the mud chimneys roar; 
In the homes we had built, 
In a land where all was new. 
Oh, the puncheon floor, and the welcome door, and the chimney's roar 

In the homes we had built, ' 

And wiih happiness filled. 

In a land where all was new. 

Sadly sing of the days when all was new, 
When He bid us pass under the rod ; 
When our loved and lost lay dead to view — 
Their souls on the bosom of God. 

When the angel of death, 

With his parching breath. 
Strode in silence round our homes; 
Took the father's pride with his sunlit hair; 
Bewedded the bride to her own despair; 
Filled our ears with a mother's moans. 

As we whispered low. 

Of the pale-faced foe. 

And the terrible blow, 
To the homes we had built, 
In a land where all was new. 
Let us whisper low, of the dreaded foe, and the fearful blow, 

To the homes we had built, 

That a shadow had chilled, 

In a land where all was new. 

Proudly sing of the days when all was new, 
When our trials and troubles had flown; 
When the shadowy angel fled from view, 
And the blessings of God rained down; 

When the seeded mould 

Brought a thousand fold. 

Of the riciiest golden grain. 
And the harvest song in a gushing thrill. 
Was a Pean to God— to man good will ; 
Rolling on over hill and plain. 

Then our eyes caught sight. 

By a Heavenly light. 

Of a future so bright. 
For the homes we had built. 
In a land where all w^as new. 
Oh! the happy sight, by prophetic light of a future bright 

For the homes we had built. 

That the future would gild. 

In a land where all was new. 

The acting president, i^orman D. French, followed in some very 
appropriate reinarks. although he said he was no speaker, from the fact of 
his opportunities for obtaining an education being very limited, and that 
he would rather undertake to make a new farm thaii to make a speech. 
JNone ot the people had come there, he continued, to make long speeches, 
but to brighten up old memories. In the early days of Carroll County, 
settlers who lived within twenty miles of eacli other were called neighbors. 
in 1832, when he came to the northern part of the state from Yerinoiit, he 
crossed Eock Kiver at Dixon's Ferry, kept by Mr. Dixon. Proceeding 


northwardly, he found a few settlers at Elkhorn Grove, and two or three 
at Cherry Grove. In 1833, he hired out as a farm hand. In the Fall of 
that year, and in 183-4, he helped to survey the county into townships. At 
one time in 1833 he became lost in a fog, and after two days' wanderings 
he found himself in Savanna. He made the claim on which he then lived 
in 1835; broke up a part of the land in 1836; built a cabin in 1837, but 
raised no crop until 1838, and had raised a crop ever}" year since. Mr. 
French gave this as the origin of the term "Suckers" as applied to 

" In those days it was customary for people living in the south part 
of the state to take their teams and some milch cows, in the Spring of the 
year, and go up to the lead mines near Galena, work at mining during 
the Summer, sell out their stock and trapping in the Fall, and return home 
by following down the rivers. The sucker fish of the Mississippi and its 
tributaries go up stream in the Spring to deposit their spawn, but always 
return down stream on the approach of the Fall and Winter months. 
Hence the name of ' Sucker ' State." 

Mr. Preston being called upon said, he would not attempt to make a 
speech, but would read a poem he had prepared for the occasion, entitled : 


The second of September 

In this proud " Sucker " State ; 
Let all of us remember, 

That we convened to make 
A gath'ring of " Old Settlers," 

From city, tow^ns, and plains; 
From liills, and valleys fertile, 

That Carroll County claims. 

To form a social festive. 

As each successive year, 
Shall draw from those can best give 

Bounteous stores to cheer. 
And now at this first meeting, 

(We'll not detain you long;) 
We ofter yi u this greeting, 

A new and simple song. 

Ho ! pioneers of freedom. 

Who broke the prairie sod ; 
With who! haw Bright! gee Tom! — • 

Strange sounds, to those who trod 
In stealth, their pathway seeking 

For game ; or warriors blood 
From some poor scalp a reeking ; — 

The former was their food. 

But pardon tliis digression; 

We thought it would not harm. 
To mingle savage custom, 

With how we made a farm. 
But all those days are ended, 

Tlie whoop! and words profane; 
With crack of whip, both blended, 

The sluggish ox to pain. 

* Another version is given thus: In very early times, when emigrants from Virginia 
and Kentucky, to Missouri, were crossing the lower end of the state — going through 
"Egypt" — water was sometimes scarce, and the only means of obtaining it in certain 
localities was by sucking it up from craw-fish holes through hollow weeds or reeds. 
Whether this be true, the writer sayetli not. 


With some it was a query — 

(Had they the spurious leaven) — 
i. To drive an ox, and carry 

Their souls up into lieaven. — 
Now to " Old Settlers " cabin, 

We give a passing word ; 
For since we've got to hlahhinri ; 

The truth it must be heard. 

The style wasn't counted much on; 

Just so there was a door 
To get upon the puncheon, 

Which oft composed the floor. 
A fire-place was important, 

And put at the end ; 
The chimmey oft reluctant, 

To hold the fiery fiend. 

To guard against combustion. 

Of all our meagre stores; 
We followed Southern custom. 

And built them out of doors. 
Those crackling fires were cheerful; — 

Me-thinks I hear them yet; 
Though oft the flames looked fearful, 

But comfortable; — " You bet!" 

And mother Garner's hoe cake, 

To eat we did not tire; 
('Twas on a board so well baked, 

Set up before the fire) 
When finished ofl' with pastry, — 

The pies, when made of mince, , 

T'make " taters" apply tasty. 

The mixture wasn't quince. 

The cost of children's schooling. 

Was burdened on the sire; 
For such was then the ruling 

Of legislation; dire! 
The school house was some hovel, 

Forsaken by its lord; 
The teacher ruled with ferrule, 

And went around to board. 

Boast not, ye modern critics, 

Tliat you've a better dawn ; 
Without you learned cosmetics. 

Our Presidents have grown. 
And now, my song is ending. 

Let all this gathered throng. 
In turn, their voices blending; 

To roll this ball along. 

In the afternoon, Mr. Fletcher, chairman of the committee on consti- 
tution and by-laws, presented the committee's report, which, after an 
amendment to section two, making the annual fee twenty -five cents, instead 
of fifty cents, was adopted. 

Constitution. — We, the undersigned citizens of Carroll County and 
State of Illinois, feeling and knowing that many of our early settlers' have 
passed away, and with them much valuable information has been lost ; and 
now wishing to preserve as much as possible the early incidents attending 
the first settlement of Carroll County, by gathering together her pioneer 
fathers, forming them into an association, cementing and renewing old 
triendsliips, bringing to light and recording old, and in many cases almost 
forgotten, reminiscences, thereby perpetuating and giving to our children 


and the world a true and leliable history of the first settlement of Carroll 
County, in the great State of Illinois, therefore, resolved: 

Skction 1. That we, the old settlers of Carroll County, do, this day, 
form ourselves into a permanent organization, under the name and style of 
the Old Sktt[,ers' Association of Carroll County, to exist as long as 
any of its members shall be permitted to exist. 

Sec. 2 provides that any one who has been a resident of the county 
twenty-one years prior to October 8, 1874, can become a member upon the 
payment of twenty-five cents. 

Sec. 3 provides that the association shall meet annually. 

Sec. 4 and 5 relates to the elections of ofiicers. 

Sec. 6 defines the duties of the president and vice president, and 
section 7 of the secretary ; sections of the treasurer, and section 9 of the 
executive committee. 

After the adoption of the constitution and by-laws, the following old 
settlers appended their names, and the year of their settlement in the 

1829— Mason C. Taylor. [Mr. Taylor, at this writing, Dec. 28, 1877, 
is the oldest surviving pioneer settler.] 

1833— Norman D. French. 

1835— William Carroll, L. H. Bowen, D. L. Bowen. 

1836 — George Holmes, Harry G. Smith, Samuel Preston, John Orr. 

1837 — William Dysen, David Masters, Elias Woodrufi", John Painter, 
John A. Robinson, Peter Bashaw, Lydia E. Bashaw. 

1838 — C. W. Tomlinson, Munroe Bailey, Sumner Downing, J. C. 
Christian, M. Z. Landon, William Bashaw, Uriah Green. 

1839.— Nelson Fletcher, J. II. Deeds, C. C. Shoemaker, L. F. Easter- 
brooks, Byron Fletcher, Elijah Bailey, Mrs. P. French, Aneel Bailey, B. S. 
Day, A. T. Esterbrooks, John O'Neal, Felix O'Neal, A. Spencer, O. D. 
O'Neal, John Kinney, A. G. Easterbrooks, J. B. Johnson, Henry Hunter, 
John P'ish. 

1840. — John H. Ilawes, Charles Pulford, Amos Shoemaker, Fisher 
Allison, J. F. Allison, Stephen Kneale, T. Johnson, Duncan McKay, A. H. 
Healy, Heman Edgerly. 

1841— G. W. Dwinnell, W. A. J. Pierce, J. S. O'Neal, Jesse Yan 
Buskirk. Elnathan Jacobs. 

1842— M. Ft. Davis. 

1843 — George Cole, David Becker, William Finlayson, Joseph Graham, 
John A. Mellendy, E. H. Phillip, D. F. Holmes, William Petty, E. T. E. 
Becker, L. E. Galusha, P. R. Kenyon, James Petty, Mrs. M. Kenyon, Jos. 
Welty, Thomas Lambert, Alexis Bristol, Thomas C. Pyle. 

1844. — John Irvine, H. L. Atherton, Ithiel Goodell, W. C. Jacobs, 
Lucius Douglass, M. Patterson, E. C. Lamb, H. L. Downing, W. F. Ather- 
ton, Justus Bailey, Marcus Atherfon, Morgan Price, Alonzo Taylor. 

1845 — John L. Ilostetter, Samuel Mitchell, Henry Teachut, Philander 
Seymour, Daniel Teeter, Seymour Downs, Samuel Puffenbarger, T. T. 
Jacobs, Charles Atherton, John Grove, Peter Shrader. 

1846— William II. Hawk, Thomas Moffett, R. M. A. Hawk, William 
B. Ray, J. Sheldon, Frank Trail, Nicholas Hart, Hugh Howell, Nancy 
Howell, W. A. Shoemaker. 

1847 — Cornelius Hegeman, John Hegeman, James Hallett, R. J. 
Tomkins, John A. Smith. 


1848 — James H. Iden, J. A. Smith, Peter Sbrader, H. M. Ferrin, J. 
A. Garr. 

1849— W. (). Phillips, John Cole, M. F. Mellendy, Michael Markley, 
James Beatie, George Havs, liobert Graham, Fmmaniiel llepler, W. O. 

1850 — N. S. French, A. M. French, John Lambert, Willai-d Wicks, I. 
J. Pettit, John N. Keech, John Campbell. 

1851 — A. H. Lichty, Henry Routli, G. P. Sutton, Samuel Stake- 
miller, Andrew Hershey, John C. Rinedollar, Daniel R. Frazer. 

1852 — Nicholas Stabler, Jose])h Deitrich. 

1853 — Yolney Armour, Charles Atherton, R. G. Bailey, William il. 
Long, Henry Ashway, Joseph Cushman, B. Cushnum, B. L. Patch, Francis 
Craig, Emanuel Stover, Henrv H. Gordon. 

1854— J. C. Durham, D. W. Dame, Mrs. D. W. Dame, Luther 
DeWolf, William F. Loup, Thomas McGee, Charles W. Dame. 

1855 — Miles L. Smith, George W. Howland, Allen McClure, William 

1856— E. C. Sinclair, L. L. Stewart. • 

1857 — E. O. Eymer, Richard Dame, G. M. Backer. 

1867 — Simon Greenleaf. 

The second annual meeting of the association was held on the fair 
grounds, Thursday, September 23, 1875, and was very largely attended. 
The meeting was called to order by Mr. L. H. Bowen, the president, in a 
few very appropriate remarks, among which he referred to the arrival of 
himself and wife at Savanna, in an ox-wagon, his horses having "gave out" 
about two miles before he reached the site of his future home and business 
operations. The forenoon of the day was mostly passed in greeting, hand- 
shakings, renewing old acquaintances, and reviving old memories. 

The leading feature of the afternoon's exercises was the reading of a 
poem entitled ''The Pioneers," by Andrew Downing, Esq., editor of the 
Boone County (Iowa) Repuhlican, who was the tirst male child born in 
Mount Carrofl Townsliip, and the son of Heman Downing and wife, who were 
among the early settlers of the county, locating here in 1837. This poem 
is so descriptive of the scenes and incidents of pioneer life, that we trans- 
mit it to these pages for preservation to the people who will come in the 
by-and-by to occupy the homes that pioneer hands fashioned out of forests 
and prairie plains: 



Westward, over the emerald plains 

In early Autumn, before llie rains 

Of tlie "Equinox had swollen the rills 

Till they kiss'd the feet of the neighboring hills, 

Onward they journeyed, side by side — 

Sturdy husband, and loving bride. 

Ever before them the narrow road 

Only its dark, gray outlines showed. 

There in the tall, rank grass it lay, 

Wending ever its tortuous way. 

Over the prairie lands, level and wide, 

Down by the shimmering lakelet's side, 

Up the long hillside, rocky and steep, 

Down through the valleys, broad and deep. 

Under the forest-trees' shady arch — 

This is the track of their toilsome march ; 


This is tiie path their footsteps press'd, 
Out of the East-hind into the West, 
Journeying (niward, day by day, 
To a land that was liundreds of miles away. 

He was a genuine son of tlie soil, 

Horny-handed and used to toil ; 

Broad his shouldeis, and brown his face; 

Strength, and vigor, and manly grace 

Marked his movements; his dress was rough, 

And made of the strongest homespun stuff, 

Woven from threads that his mother spun. 

From the carded tleeee, for her favorite son; 

Fashioned from cloth that his sister wove, 

In the far-off home of his youth and love. 

This was the very suit he wore 

Only a few short weeks before. 

When the woman who walks by his side, 

Took his hand and became his bride. 

She was a farmer's girl, buxom and fair. 

Willing his home and his fortune to share; 

Wise, and modest, and patient, and good, 

Strong in the strength of her womanhood : 

Ready to follow him anywhere, 

And help him the burden of life to bear. 

Thus they travel together in quest 

Of a happy home in the distant West. 

All their dower and earthly hoard 

Safe in a big, red wagon was stored, 

Under a canvas, broad and white — 

This their shelter by day and night. 

Drawing a wagon, perchance, was a yoke 

Of sleepy oxen — a team well broke 

To "Gee! " or " Haw! " when the master spoke, 

To " Back ! " or " G'long! " and always know 

Enough to halt at the sound of " Whoa! " 

And this is the way the settlers went 

Through hamlet, and town, and settlement. 

One bright morning at last they came 

Full in sight of their little " claim " — 

Fertile acres as ever lay 

Out of doors, in the light of day; 

And the bright spot seemed to the woman's eyes 

A very vision of paradise. 

There, by the edge of the dense, dark wood, 

Was the'litttle Ciibin, homely and rude, 

Built by the husband's ready hands. 

And overlooking the pleasant lands. 

Safe in the welcome haven at last. 

The " prairie schooner" her anchor cast — 

Lay at her moorings just before 

The little log cabin's open door; 

While, freed from the yoke, the cattle pass 

To their ev'ning feast in the tender grass; 

And the household goods, a meagre store, 

Lie scattered about on the puncheon floor ; 

Water, anon, from the spring is brought, 

And an armful of seasoned fuel sought 

Wherewith to kindle a blazing tire, 

And the yellow flames rise high, and higher 

In the chimney's throat, and the black pot swings 

On the long, dark crane, and the tea-kettle sings 

Its cheery song. And the bright young wife 

Begins the work of her frontier life; 

Spreads the board for her plain repast. 

And when the darkness shuts in at last, 

Weary and drowsy, repairs to her rest — 

The queen of a home in the glorious West ! 


Brightly the morn of the morrow broke 

In the rosy Etist, and the twain awolie, 

And gazed without on tlie new, strange land — 

Bright and beautiful, broad and grand! 

And the wide expanse of the tiow'r-gem'd sod 

Seemed fair as the garden wliere Adam trod, 

When he and Eve, the primal pair. 

Went into the apple-business there. 

Clear, in the forest near by, they heard 

Song of sparrow and brown mockmg bird ; 

Chirp of robin, and Iwiiter of wren, 

And a boisterous bob-o-link, now and then. 

Caroling, chorusing, going it strong. 

And flooding the air wiih a torrent of song. 

They breathed the sweet oelors wafled up 

From many a blossom's honey cup; 

Saw that the sky was cloudless and blue, 

Saw that the silver, scintillant dew 

Had strung its rosary, bead by bead, 

On grass-blade, floweret, bush and weed. 

Brighter than diamonds. But, listen! these 

Were only something to cheer and please — 

Were only the blessings, goodly and fair, 

That came just ahead of trouble and care. 

Winter was hurrying on apace; 

Work was needed all over the place — 

Work was needed to make their home 

Snug and warm, ere the storms should come. 

Stables and sheds to shelter the stock — 

Though little their wealth in herd or flock. 

And so the settler labored away, ' 

Made long ricks of the prairie hay. 

Hauled huge logs for the winter fire. 

Toiled with an energy naught could tire; 

And his good wife, though often alone, 

Never was heard to murmur or moan. 

Or sigh for a brighter, happier lot. 

Or a fairer home than the log-built cot. 

Their nearest neighbor was miles away, 

And seldom a stranger chanced to stray 

To the cabin door, who might require 

Rest, and shelter, and food, and fire ; 

But if he came — Ah! who can doubt? — 

He found the latch-string always out. 

And a welcome within from the youthful pair, 

And old-time hospitality there. 

Even the red-skins prowling around 

Only kindness and friendship found. 

Swiftly the Autumn with woods aflame 

With red leaves went, and the Winter came. 

Seldom the wife and her husband heard 

From friends in the far-ofl" East a word. 

Thus the long, cold Winter was passed, 

And the cheerful Spring returned at last ; 

The song-birds caroled on bush and bough, 

And the man went forth with team and plow ; 

Traced dark lines in the prairie mould, 

For the Summer to print in letters of gold; 

And, up with the sun, in the glorious morn. 

He scattered the wheat, and planted the corn. , 

And the harvest came, though the yield was small, 

And the bearded wheat was garnered all. 

And the corn grew ripe and was gathered in, 

And safely sheltered in crib and bin. 

The settler thrives, and his cattle increase, 

His wealth grows larger in flock and fleece. 

In spite of the lost cow gone astray, 


And the hungry wolves that sometimes prey 

Upon the sheep. And other men come 

And build their cabins, and make their homes. 

High from their chinmeys the smoke-wreaths rise, 

Blue, to blend with the blue of the skies, 

In sight of the little log-cabin; but still, 

It was miles and miles to the nearest mill ; 

And the doctor lives so far away 

That the patient got well, the old folks say. 

Before he could come, with his powder and pills, 

And his saddle-bags — from over the hills. 

Other j^ears in-tlieir coming brought 

Growth and weillh as the settlers wrought — 

Blessings and comforts, and babies came. 

Each year adding another name 

Of daughter or son, to the family roll. 

The boys were rugged in botly and soul. 

Honest and true; and the fair young girls 

Were precious and pure as a cluster of pearls. 

Fingers taper and white as wax. 

Eyes as blue as the bloom of the flax, 

Or brown, or hazel, or black as jet — 

Bright as the brightest you ever have met. 

School-houses rose, and the settlers saw 

The reign of social order and law; 

Churches were built, and sermon, and psalm, 

And organ peal, broke the Sabbath calm; 

Lawyers came, also, and politics, 

And demagogues, with their dirty tricks. 

Worming and twisting, and turning their coats, 

To gull the people and catch their votes. 

By-and-by comes that all-conquering force, 

Steam, and the neigh of the iron horse. 

Waking the echoes wherever he goes. 

And making the wilderness bloom like the rose. 

Some of the men of that olden time 

Listen to-day to my idle rhyme; 

Some of the women who found their " sphere " 

In life as the wife of the Pioneer, 

Have met with their old-time neighbors here. 

Blessings be showered on them ever and aye, 

As swiftly the days and the years hurry by; 

Honor and fortune their footsteps attend, 

And comfort and peace, till their pilgrimage end. 

These are the toilers who moulded a state ! 

These are the heroes who triumphed o'er fate! 

These are the soldiers who laughed at defeat! 

This is the army that would not retreat! 

These are the crusaders, sturdy and strong, 

Worthy of places in story and song ! 

These the " Old Settlers" who came to the West! 

Your fathers and mothers; Oh, give them the best 

Of all the good gifts it's yours to bestow. 

In the fair garden state where the broad rivers flow, 

And cherisii and honor, in all coming years, 

Every name on the roll of the brave Pioneers ! 

After the reading of this poem, T. T. Jacobs, a settler of 1855, and a 
gentlemen of worth and merit, was called otit for a speech, but, more poet 
than orator, he preferred to read a poem. This poem covered the growth 
and prosperity of Motint Carroll, as M^ell as nearly all its btisiness avoca- 
tions, and was considered so applicable that a copy of it was requested to 
be spread upon the journals of the association. 

After the reading of this poem, Mr. Monroe Bailey was called out, and, 



instead of making a speech, gave a description of the farming implements 
in use when he came here, in 1838, as compared with the farm machinery 
of 1875; soon after which the meeting adjourned until the first Thursday in 
September, 1870. 

Third Annual Meeting. — The third annual meeting of the Old Set- 
tlers of Carroll County was held on Thui'sday, September 7, 187G. Like 
those which had preceded it, this meeting was held on the fair grounds, 
which had been put in order for the occasion by Mr. Wm. J.- Pierce, the 
superintendent of the fair grounds. At two o'clock in the afternoon, Samuel 
Preston, secretary of the association, called the meeting to order, and said: 

Fellow Citizens and Old Settlers — Since our last meeting, deatli has entered our 
ranks and taken away our chief head, our president, Luther H. Bowen. Altliough he 
needed but a few more mouths to fill up tlie measure of years allotted to man on earth, yet 
when he met with us one year ago, moving about with his usual e]a>tic steps, little did we 
think — little did he tliink — it would be the last time lie would meet with us. I have here a 
biographical sketch of his life, prepared bj^ some of his immediate friends in Savanna, and 
when we are duly organized, and at the proper time, if desired, the secretary will read 
it to you. 

By a provision of the constitution, the association, in the absence of the president, 
must select from among the vice presidents one to serve as president. Please nominate 
some one to till the position made vacant by death. 

Mr. Munroe Bailey nominated D. McKaj^, who was duly chosen to the 
position. On taking the chair, Mr. McKay paid a handsome tribute of 
respect to the virtue, worth, intelligence and enterprise of the association's 
deceased president, when the regular order of business was taken up. 

Mr. Munroe Bailey called for the reading of the names of the Old 
Settlers to see who else had died during the year. This reading elicited 
the fact that Henry L. Atherton, of the male members, and Mrs. John 
Kinney and Mrs. John O'Neal, of the female members of the association 
had passed away since the last meeting. 

Tiie reading of the biographical sketch of the life of Luther H, Bowen 
was then called for and ordered to be spread upon the minutes, after which 
the reports of seven of the vice presidents of the early incidents in their 
several townships were presented and ordered to be recorded. 

Treasurer'^ s Report. — Nelson Fletcher, treasurer of the association, 
presented an itemized statement of money received and paid out, as follows: 

Cash on hand at last meeting ,f 5 85 

Cash receiveil 17 75— 123 60 

Amount paid out _ . 20 75 

Amount on hand $2 85 

The association then proceeded to the election of oificers for the ensuing 
year, after which the meeting adjourned until the first Thursday in Septem 
ber, 1877. 

Fourth Annual Meeting. — September 13, 1877, the association met 
in the Fine Art Hall on the fair grounds, and was called to order by the 
president, D. McKay, Esq., at whose request Rev. George S. Young engao-ed 
the assembly in prayer. 

At this meeting the treasurer's report was submitted, showing the 
following statement: 

Amount received.. |20 35 

Amount expended 16 55 

Balance on hand $3 70 



A reading of the names of tlie Old Settlers elicited the fact that Dr. 
John L. Hostetter had died since the last meeting, and death's mark was 
affixed opposite his name. 

Upon the announcement of this fact, D. W. Dame was called upon 
and paid a very coraplimciitary eulogy to the many good qualities of the 

The afternoon exercises opened with a song by the glee club, entitled 
the " Prairie Land," which was happily rendered. 

A paper on the trials of pioneer settlers, based upon the experiences 
of Mrs. JSTancy Bennett, of York Township, and written by that lady her- 
self, and covering her residence at Grand de Teur, Ogle County, in 1834 
and 1835, was read and ordered to be recorded. 

Speeches were made by Hon. D. W. Dame, of Rock Creek ; Joseph 
Cushman, Esq., of York, and Rev. Mr. Yourg, the latter of whom said that 
"he had attended old settlers' meetings in other counties in the North- 
west, but had come to the conclusion, after a three years' residence in Car- 
roll County, that it was the very centre of the Northwest, and that the 
Northwest was the centre of civilization." He paid a graceful tribute to 
labor and capital, saying there should be no war between them — that the 
same door was open for the laborer to become a capitalist to-day as when 
the pioneers who sat before him commenced converting these prairies and 
forests into capital, and where they had become rich, respected and happy. 

Secretary Preston stated (by request) that in February, 1836, his lather 
and himself made a claim in Mount Carroll Township, and that on the 20th 
of December following, while moving the family up from near Princeton, 
Bureau County, with ox teams, they encountered the most sudden and 
severe change from warm rain to exceeding cold that ever swept over the 
State of Illinois. The historian of Sangamon County had chronicled it as 
the " Great Storm." He gave a very vivid description of the families' suf- 
ferings from the sudden change in the temperature of the atmosphere, as 
well as of the sufferings of the first settlers hereabouts in early times from 
fever, ague, etc. 

The election of officers followed in order, after which Samuel Preston, 
Monroe Bailey, Joseph Cushman, D. W. Dame and Simon Greenleaf were 
appointed a committee to revise the constitution, with instructions to report 
at the next meeting. The meeting then adjourned subject to the call of 
the executive committee. 

When the fifth annual meeting of the Old Settlers' Association of Car- 
roll County shall have met and organized, it will be the duty of its presiding 
officer to announce the sudden and sad death of another one of their mem- 
\)QYS, — Captain David Becker, who died on the evening of the 2r)th of 
December, 1877, the particulars of which are gathered irom the Carroll 
County Herald of the 2Sth December: 

Yesterday morning our city was startled by the intelligence that the lifeless body of 
Captain David Becker had been found in the street, in the eastern suburb of the city, at a 
late hour AVednesday niglit. 

The circumstances of his death are somewhat clouded in uncertainty, but so far as 
known, they are detailed below: 

Wednesda}- afternoon the deceased went to his home from the city about four o'clock, 
and soon after ate quite a hearty supper. When he arose from the table he told his wife that 
he was going to hunt his cow, and that he would return soon. This was about five o'clock. 
He did not return, and liis absence at dark alarmed his family, who went to Mr. Joseph 
Forbes, late business partner of the deceased, and told him of their fears, and he at once 
commenced to search for him, but being unable to find him, he came to the home of Capt. 


E. T. E. Becker, on Clay Street, and informed him of tlie fears entertained concerning his 
father. Tlie son, accompanied by several others, joined in the search, but it was not until 
half-past ten o'clock, after a large number of men and boys had continued looking for him 
for some hours, that the lifeless body of the old gentleman was found lying near the resi- 
dence of Adam Nelson, at the corner of Broad and Halderman Streets, only two or three 
blocks away fi'om his own home. The Ijody was discovered l)y some boys. Dr. G. R. Moore 
and Sheritt" Sutton were the tirst men upon the spot. Dr. Moore tells us that the body was 
prostrate upon the ground, face downwards, the forehead and ujiper part of the face slightly 
imbedded in the mud, and the limbs drawn up under the bodf^ as though deceased had 
settled down while reaching to the fence for supitort. From appearances it is judged tiiat 
he had expired instantly without a struggle. The body was cold and stiff, and had probably 
laid from four to live hours. The remains were taken up and lemoved to the late home of 
the deceased and tenderly prepared for burial. For some time back, deceased had com- 
plained of dizzy spells, and had been graduallj^ failing in health, iiul as he kept about his 
usual duties his condition excited no alarm in the minds of his friends. Medical men are 
of the opinion that the cause of his sudden death was rupture of the heart, which was 
brought about by fatty degeneration of that organ. 

Captain David Becker was the first white settler in Rock Creek Town- 
ship, where he settled about 1844, and made a claim of the land now owned 
by Daniel Belding, and was the first postmaster in that township. He 
lived there until 1850, when he removed to Salem Township, and remained 
there until 1860, when he sold out his farm interests and moved to Mount 
Carroll. His funeral obsequies took place Friday, December 28, 1877, from 
the Mount Carroll M. E. Church, where an appropriate sermon was preached 
by Rev. D. M. Reed, of Rockford. 

One by one the " Old Settlers " are goino^ home, but their lives here 
have been such as to warrant the belief that they go to a haven of rest and 
everlasting happiness beyond the skies — the sure reward of well-spent, 
honest, useful lives. 

Many others yet remain, nearl}^ all of whom are surrounded with 
homes of comfort and contentment, the accumulations of their own indus- 
tries and economy. The prairie and forest wilds long since gave way before 
their well-directed energies and industries. Many of them saw the last of 
the native red men as tliey disappeared silently and sadly towards the set- 
ting sun. On their favorite camping places they have seen villages, towns 
and cities, schools, colleges and churches spring up as if by the touch of 
magic. In the midst of these accumulating accomplishments, these patri- 
archal pioneers have grown in the respect and confidence of increasing 
population until they have come to be regarded as very fathers and mothers. 
Soon, however, in the very nature of things, they, too, will be called to 
join the immortal throng on the haj^pj^ shores of the eternal beyond for 
which they are ready and waiting. 



The history of the county in connection with its swamp and over- 
flowed lands is a matter of a good deal of interest in any general resume of 
county affairs. 

In September, 1850, the Congress of the United States passed an act 
to enable the State of Arkansas, and other states having these lands, to 
drain and reclaim the same. Lists and plats were to be made out from 
the government surveys, and transmitted to the respective governors of 
the states, in which the lands were situated ; and upon the I'equest of the 
governors patents were to issue to the states. The act contained a pro- 


viso that the proceeds of the sale of these lands should be applied to re- 
claiming them by means of ditches and drains. The courts, however, 
subse(|uently held that this proviso onl_y amounted to a wish expressed on 
the part of Congress, and did not afitect the validity of the grant. They 
further held that the act itself, when the proper selections had been made 
under it, and plats and lists sent to the governors, and patents issued on 
their requests, passed an absolute fee simple title to the states, and left 
their legislatures to dispose of the lands, or the funds arising from their 
sale, exactly as they saw tit, untrammelled by any condition in the original 

^ The legislature of this state, by an act passed in 1852, granted these 
lands to the respective counties in which they were located, for the purpose 
of reclaiming them by making ditches and drains, with certain options on 
the part of the purchasers to pay the purchase money in labor, to be 
expended in making these ditches and drains. The balance of the lands, 
after so reclaiming them, were apportioned to the townships, for the benefit 
of schools and roads and bridges.. This part of the law was modified in 
1854 to some extent. Still the policy was a drainage of the lands; and all 
the machinery supposed to be necessary to carry it out to a successful ter- 
mination was set in motion and kept up. 

Under these acts it became the duty of the auditor of state to certify 
to the counties a list of the swamp and overflowed lands within their 
borders. These lists were to be recorded in the oftices of the county clerks. 
Certified copies of such lists were made evidence of title ; and vested in the 
counties an absolute title to the lands described in them. In this way the 
ownership of the swamp lands passed to the respective counties. These 
lists became chains of title w^ith the same force and efiect as patents for 
school lands. 

The drainage policy, however, did not work to the satisfaction of the 
people; and various amendatory acts were passed, mostly local in their 
nature, and applicable to particular counties. At length, in 1859, the pro- 
ceeds arising tr(jm the sale of these lands were made subject to the disposi- 
tion of the various county courts, in such manner as the county authorities 
saw fit to indicate. In this way the proceeds of these sales passed into the 
county treasuries, and became a part of the general funds. The original 
policy in regard to these lands became entirely changed ; and attempts to 
question the power of the legislature to make this change have repeatedly 
been made, and always failed. Judicial decisions have at length settled 
and laid the controversy at rest. 

The number of acres of these swamp lands,patented by the United States 
to the State of Illinois, under the act of 1850, and granted by the state to 
the County of Carroll by the act of the legislature of 1852, was, in round 
numbers, 9,110 acres. 

For a number of years after the act of 1852, the policy of this county 
was to sell her swamp lands, and turn the proceeds into the school fund. 
This was the disposition made of the money arising from these sales, dur- 
ino- the administrations of Reuben H. Gray and James DeWolf as school 
commissioners. Most of the lands were sold in the years 1854, 1855, and 
1856. The school fund derived ten or twelve thousand dollars in this way. 
Since that the proceeds of these sales have been applied in attempts to drain 
the lands, and make them more valuable, and in paying expenses incident 
thereto. It is a fact, we believe, that the general fund of the county has 
never been increased from this source. 


The swamp lands are situated mostly in the Towns of Savanna, York, 
Washington and Mount Carroll, with a few pieces scattered through some 
of the other towns. 

In the years 1867 and 1868, this county, in connection with "Whiteside 
County, joined in a drainage scheme, to reclaim lands lying around Willow 
Island Lake, and south of 'that body of water into the other county. It 
was at this time the county ditch was dug. The enterprise was a success, 
and some of the best farming lands in the county were thus reclaimed. 
The large farm of George S. Melendy, Esq., is partly made up of these 
reclaimed lands, and the vast corn crops he now annually raises on some of 
these low meadows testify to their amazing fertility. 

The money realized from the sale of these reclaimed and drained swamp 
lands paid all the attendant expenses of the big ditch, and left a large sur- 
plus. The ditch cost a little over three thousand dollars. 

Encouraged by the success of this venture, the board of supervisors of 
the county began to agitate the question of draining the Doty or Suniish 
Lake, situated partially in the Towns of York and Mount Carroll This 
led to quite a controversy in the board. Outsiders also took a lively part 
in it. It was shown that this lake was one of the most beautiful bodies of 
water in Northern Illinois, full of the very best food fishes, and alibrded 
the very best resort for all kinds of Avild fowl — rendering it, in short, a per- 
fect sportsman's paradise. One party contended that the lake was of more 
value to the citizens of the county than the land after it was drained. It 
was even surmised that the county, after such drainage, might not obtain a 
title to the lands; but this essential point seems not to have been considered 
with proper care. 

The result of the controversy was that the drainage scheme was car- 
ried. In 1871, the contract was let, and the ditch to Plum River was 
finished, or nearly finished, that Fall. The water was let out of the lake, 
at all events, late in the Fall, Some finishing work was done the next 

This drain cost, in round numbers, six thousand, six liundred dollars. 
About four thousand dollars- of this cost was realized from the sale of the 
Willow Island drained lands. Tlie balance was realized out of the sale of 
some lands around the Doty Lake which had been swamp lands before that 
body of water was drained. No money was taken from the county treasury 
in these enterprises, except a small amount for salaries of supervisors and 
some other incidental expenses. 

The drainage of the Doty Lake has not proved a great success. The 
fall in the ditch is very slight, and a stream called Deer Creek is constantly 
bearing sand and flood nuiterials into the drain. It is already partially 
filled, and the water, which at first was greatly reduced in the lake, is again 
accumulating, and in wet seasons covers most of its old bed. Unless pro- 
visions are made to keep the ditch open, it will gradually close up, and the 
fish again accumulate. 

An interesting litigation sprang up soon after the opening of this 
ditch. As soon as the county commenced selling the reclaimed lands around 
this body of water, the adjoining land owners, acting under legal advice, 
began to claim the new-made lands. They were advised that tlie lands made 
by the recession of the waters did not belong to the county, but to the 
adjoining proprietors. Several suits were instituted against the board of super- 
visors to test this interesting question. Two of these cases were at length 


brought to trial, at the January term, A. D. 1876, of the Carroll County 
Circuit Court. The cases were argued with learning and ability, and many 
authorities were cited. 

Tlie ]:)root' showed that the lake had been meandered, when the lands 
were originally surveyed. Consequently no lists or plats had been 
returned to the Governor by the Secretary of the Interior, and no patent 
issued to the state for them. The auditor had certified no lists to the 
county clerk. Mo title as swamp lands had, therefore, passed to the state, 
nor from the state to the county. The principle of accretion was held to 
a])ply to these receding waters, at least to the extent <if ])ermitting adjoin- 
ing hind owners to till out their governmental subdivisions. This, when 
clone, took all the land made by the partial drainage of the lake. 

Judge Heaton's decision was I'endered, after careful examination, and 
was considered so sound and well backed by the authorities, that the attor- 
ney for the county did not advise an ap])eal to the Supreme Court; and the 
controversy seems now to be settled. 



The Mathews Case. — The first murder case that appears upon the 
docket of the Carroll County Circuit Court is that of The People vs. James 
Mathews, on change of venue from Jo Daviess County. It was first docketed 
for the October term, 1841. At the October term, 18-12, the indictment 
was dismissed for want of witnesses. 

The next was an indictment for murder m. Thomas J. Standifer and 
Samuel Thompson Wheeler (also on a change of venue from Jo Daviess 
County), docketed at the October term, 1843. Wheeler was tried and 
acquitted, October 14, 1843. Standifer died on the 20th day of October, of 
the same year. 

In 1845, John Baxter, indicted with John Long et al.^ in Rock Island, 
for murder, took a change of venue to Carroll County. The case, however, 
was sent back to Rock Island County, by agreement of parties. 

In 184(!, James Monnie alias Jake Monie, was indicted for murder in 
Jo Daviess County. This venue was changed to Carroll, but was afterwards 
changed to the county court of Jo Daviess County, by consent. 

Jesse W. Helden was indicted, at the September term, 1851, for a 
murder committed in the then Village of Savanna. He was a steamboat- 
man or raftsman, and while on shore at Savanna was attacked by a com- 
rade. In self defence, Ilelden picked up a club and struck his opponent a 
single blow, which ]jroved instantly fatal. The name of the man who was 
killed is not remembered, and we have been unable to find the indictment 
on file. The criminal papers belonging to the circuit clerk's oflice prior to' 
about 1856 seem to be where they cannot now be found — at least, the writer 
has been unable to find them. The following named were jurors in the 
Ilelden case: William II. Hawk, Morris Saxton, Michael Siser, William 
Owings, John B. Christian, Daniel R. Christian, Simeon Johnson, Ransom 
Wilson, George W. Knox, Peter Hagaman, Elijah Bailey and Daniel 
Forney. The trial was had September 27, 1851, and on the same day was 
concluded, with a verdict of not guilty. 

The Dorseij Case. — The first murder trial in the county, where the 
murder was committed in the county, was that of Edward J. Dorsey. He 


was tried at the March term of the Carroll County Circuit Court, 1859. 
Hon. John Y. Eustace, jndge, presiding; Eobert C. Burchell, state's 
attorney; Adam Nase, sheriff, and Vohiey Armour, clerk. Dorsey was 
indicted at the October term of this court, 1858, for the murder of one 

, a deck hand on a Mississippi River steamboat. Dorsey assaulted 

the deceased when the boat was just above Savanna, hitting him several 
i)lows on the head with brass knuckles. The injured man left the steam- 
boat at Savanna, and made his way down in the neighborhood of Albert 
Stead man. Here he was found, dead or dying, near a straw stack. After 
death, o. post-mortem examination was made by Dr. Edward C. Cochran, of 
Savanna, who used a saw borrowed from a wagon shop in Savanna, to saw 
the skull, to open the brain to inspection at the points of injury. There 
was no dispute about the facts of the case, except as to whether the injury 
was inflicted in Iowa or Illinois, and as to whether the deceased died of 
injuries received at the hands of Dorsey, or from other cause. As there 
was a chance of a reasonable doubt whether the assault was in the east or 
west side of the main channel of the river, and the post-mortem examina- 
tion was so clearly a bungling one, and the failure to examine the other 
organs of the body, besides the brain, left Dorsey's lawyers a chance to con- 
tend that, for all the jury knew, the deceased might have come to his death 
from other causes than the injury produced by Dorsey. It is enough to 
say that the surgeon gained no reputation in that post-mortem case. It 
served, however, to show his ignorance of his profession, and he soon sought 
other business for a living. 

Dorsey was defended by W. E. Leffingwell, of Lyons, Iowa; Walling- 
ton Weigley, of Galena, 111.', and Hon. Wniiam T. Miller, then of Carroll 
County." Dorsey was acquitted. The river men furnished the money for 
Dorsey 's defence. A Eock Island woman, of more than doubtful character, 
was imported to act the part of Dorsey's wife. She personated that char- 
acter well, and at the close of the trial, Col. B. E. Frohock, one of the 
acquitting jurors, had Dorsey and his supposed wife to supper with him, 
and treated them in royal style. 

Charles Sloweij and Mary J. Ramsey Cases. — At the March term, 
1860, Charles Slowey was indicted for the murder of a fellow-Irishman, 
named Welch; and Mary Jane Eamsey, a colored girl, was indicted for the 
murder of an infant child of John Shirk. 

Slowey had been for some time engaged in mining for lead ore, with his 
v^ictim as a partner. They had sunk two shafts near their shanty, about two 
miles west of Mount Carroll, had taken out some ore, and had a prospect 
of getting more. At this time they both got on a drunken spree, and a 
few days "thereafter the victim was found dead in one of the shafts. Inves- 
tigation showed plainly that death was not the result of accident or suicide, 
as the death wound was evidently inflicted by a miner's pick. After a post- 
mortem examination by Dr. B. P. Miller and Dr. John L. Hostetter, Slowey 
was arrested and committed for the murder, and indicted, as above stated. 
The case was continued to the September term, 1860, of the Circuit Court, 
when a change of venue was taken to Ogle County. He was tried in the 
Winter or Spring of the next year, at Oregon, and convicted of murder in 
the first degree. "The Court, Judge Eustace, for some reason, having m-anted 
a new trial, the people accepted the proposition of William T. Miller, 
Slowey's counsel — Slowey to plead guiltj^ to manslaughter, and a sentence 
to the penitentiary for life. This \yas accordingly done. Slowey died a few 


weeks after gettini^ to the penitentiaiy, the information being that his 
brain was badlj diseased. The general impression, however, came to pre- 
vail that his disease of the ])rain was the result of cold head-baths, emj^loyed 
as punishment for breach of discipline. 

Mary Jane Kamsej's trial was the lirst ti-ial that took place in the 
present court house. It had not yet been seated, or furnished in any man- 
ner, and the space between the raised platform and the main floor was open. 
Such con\'eniences as could be readily improvised were arranged, and on 
Saturday, the 10th day of March, ISOO, the trial commenced. R. C. Bur- 
chell represented the people, and Martin P. Sweet and AVilliam T. Miller 
appeared for the defendant. 

The girl, who was about a half idiot, in order to avoid taking care of 
the child, which was peevish, hunted up some strychnine that Shirk had 
left over after the Spiing's gopher poisoning, and fed it to the child. She 
acknowledged what she had done, and it was discovered where she had placed 
the tin cup in which she had mixed the jioison previous to administering it. 

The learned counsel's defence of the prisoner was that the defendant 
was so low in the scale of intelligence that she was not responsible for her 
criminal acts — in other words, that she did not know right from wrong. 
The soft-hearted jury came to the same conclusion, after the eloquent 
appeals of counsel. I have listened to many eloquent speeches in murder 
cases, by the counsel of defendants, but I think 1 never listened to a more 
eloquent speech than that delivered by Martin P. Sweet in his defence of 
that poor, black, ignorant, imbruted, despised girl. He pictured the wrongs 
of her race, and her ignorance, and concluded by claiming that the Shirk 
family were, in a measure, responsible for their great sorrow by their neg- 
lect to properly look after the w^elfare of the girl, who had been reared in 
their family. There were several democrats on the jury, but politics had 
no influence in shaping the minds of that jury. They were either swayed 
by Sweet's eloquence, or the influence of the counsel. Miller, who was a 
democrat of the strictest faith. The girl was but about thirteen years of 
age at the time she committed the crime. The names of the jury in that 
case were: Benj. R. Frohock, Luther IT. Bowen, Jabez S. Bush, Leonard 
Hall, James R. Howell, Peter Holman, Joseph C. Christian, Franklin 
Sisler, republicans; John Johnston, Jr., Seymour Downs, Hiram S. Palmer, 
democrats, and Martin Eshelman, of no politics, perhaps. 

Pease Case. — In the year 1868, Warren S. Pease was indicted, at the 
October term of the Circuit Court, for manslaughter, for the killing of one 
Amos L. Zuck. 

Zuck had insulted a daughter of Pease, and, incensed at the fact, Pease 
had sought an encounter with him. and having met him just after getting 
off the cars at Thomson, Pease struck him with his fist. The 1)low, in con- 
sequence of the diseased condition of Zuck's skull, proved instantly fatal. 
No person ever supposed that Pease intended to do more than give Zuck a 
deserved whipping. The jury very readily pronounced a verdict of not 
guilty — a verdict with which the whole population of the county was 

Goddard Case. — At the March term, 1869, Adaline Goddard was 
indicted for the murder of a Miss Cole. It was an unprovoked, brutal 
murder. It occurred at the barn on the premises now owned and occupied 
by George Pope, Esq., in York Township. The girl being at the barn for 
some purpose, Mrs. Goddard followed her there with a butcher knife, and 


plunged it to her heart. A change of venue was taken to Whiteside County. 
Hon. David McCartne_y, state's attorney, tried the case for tlie people. W. 
E. Leffingwell and William T. Miller, two of the attorneys in the Dorsey 
case, defended. At the first trial, the jury found her guilty of manslaughter, 
and sentenced her to the penitentiary for four years. Judge Ileaton, pre- 
siding, had instructed the jury, for the people, that if the jury believed, 
from the evidence, that any one of the defendant's witnesses had sworn falsely 
any material fact, they were at liberty to disregard the whole of such wit- 
ness' evidence; that the maxim of the law was — "False in one thing, false 
in all things." After the trial and conviction, the court's attention was 
called to a decision of the supi'eme court, just announced, holding that 
such an instruction was in error unless it was accompanied with the quali- 
fication, after the w^ord evidence, "unless corroborated by other evidence 
which the jury does believe." The rule announced by Judge Ileaton has 
always been the rule in England, and, I think, in all of the states up to that 
time. Most of our lawyers consider the qualification senseless, for, if rightly 
considered, it leaves the matter just as it stood before. If a false witness 
is corroborated by a truthful witness, you do not have any more faith in the 
ftict sworn to by the truthful witness because the false witness has also 
sworn to it; you believe it because the truthful witness says so, and not 
because a false witness is corrohorated. The result of this decision was a 
new trial for the murderess. At the next trial, twelve fools said, under 
their oaths: "We, the jury, find the defendant, Adaline Goddard, not 
guilty." If any or many of the jury who pronounced that verdict of not 
guilty had fallen by similar means, few acquainted with the circumstances 
of the murder mentioned could have said otherwise than that the doom 
was in some measure merited. 

O'Neil Case. — The latest trial was that of Joseph O'Neil and Thomas 

O'iSleil, indicted in the County of Whiteside, for the murder of one 

Rexford, in September or October, 1872. The murder occurred at the 
house on the island below Fulton, in Whiteside County. Joe O'JSTeil was 
the principal, and Thomas, who is a dwarf, was accessory before and after 
the fact. A change of venue brought the case to Carroll County, and it 
was tried at the April Term of the Circuit Court, 1873. The crime grew 
out of jealousy. On the day of the murder, the O'Neils took a boat at the 
island and went over to Clinton, low^a, and brought Rexford back to the 
island, under the pretense that he was needed there to do some painting, 
which, perhaps, w\as the fact. Kexford had just commenced work, when 
Joe O'jN^eil assaulted him with a piece of board, and literally knocked his 
brains out. The circumstances of the murder were of the most brutal and 
heartless character, and produced a great excitement in the vicinity. 

The case was prosecuted by Y. Armour, state's attorney for Carroll 
County, and D. McCartney, state's attorney of Whiteside County. The 
defence was conducted by E. F. Dutcher, of Ogle County, by appointment 
of the court. The proof of the murder was clear and certain. The only 
show of the defence was to claim that the brutality of the crime, in its 
manner of perpetration, showed the defendant such a moral monster that 
it was sufficient of itself to establish insanity — that no sane man could 
become so brutal. 

The jury in this case was made of sterner stuff than some of the prior 
juries of which we have spoken. They found both defendants guilty. Joe's 
punishment was to be hanging, and Tommy's fifteen years in the penitei;' 


tiarj. Tommy got a new trial, and the next jury gave him fourteen years. 
Joe was sentenced by Judge Heaton, to be hanged by the neck until 
dead, on May 16, 1873, on which day, Sheriff George P. Sutton carried the 
sentence into effect. The gallows was erected between two poplar trees, 
north of the court house. Joe was prepared for the occasion by three 
Catholic priests. Jlo visible injury was done to either of the poplar trees 
spoken of, but neither of them leaved out that season, and, becoming appar- 
ently dead, they were cut down and removed. Though several of that kind 
of trees were growing upon the court house square at the time, none others 
have sin(.'e died or shown symptoms of decay. Judge Patch saj's they were 
cursed by the priests. Since the killing of these trees, the writer has seen 
a similar circumstance published as to trees near some other ])lace' of execu- 
tion. While the writer has no faith in the notion that the trees died by 
reason of the tragedy enacted at their sides, he is willing any religionists 
should conjure up any reasons they may choose. The writer's own theoi'y, 
however, is that the severe frosts of th<; preceding "Winter had impaired the 
vitality of the trees, situated, as they were, on the cold north side of the 
court house, and hence they were backward in putting forth their foliage; 
that the opinion that they were dead was not well founded, and it would 
have been so demonstrated if they had been left standing a few weeks 

Ever}' person entitled under the law to witness the execution, did so, 
excopt V. Armour, Esq., state's attorney of Carroll County. He refused to 
witness the horrible spectacle, his presence being unnecessary, so far as the 
legality of the proceeding was concerned. O'Xeil's neck was broken at the 
base of the skull by the fall, so that his death must have been painless. His 
remains were taken to Clinton, Iowa, that same da}', by wagon, and interred 
at that place. 

This was the only case in which the death penalty Avas inflicted in the 
history of the county, from the time it was organized, in May, 1839, to 
January 1, 1878. 


The first schools taught in Carroll County were private or subscription 
schools. Their accommodations, as may readily be supposed, were not 
good. Sometimes they were taught in small, round log houses, erected for 
the purpose. Stoves and such heating apparatus as are in use now were 
unknown. A mud and stick chimney in one end of the building, with 
earthen hearth, and a fire-place wide enough and deep enough to take in a 
four feet back log, and smaller wood to match, served for warming purposes 
in AYinter and a kind of conservatory in Summer. For windows, part of a 
log was cut out in either side, and may be a few panes of eight- by-ten glass 
set in, or, just as likely as not, the aperture would be covered over with 
greased paper. Writing benches were made of wide planks, or may be 
puncheons, resting on pins or arms driven into two-inch augo^r-holes bored 
into the logs beneath the windows. Seats were made out of thick plank or 
puncheons. Flooring was made of the same kind of stuff". Every thing 
was rude and plain, l)ut many of America's great men have gone out 
from just such school houses to grapple with the world and make 


names for themselves, and names that come to be an honor to their country. 
Among these might be named Abraham Lincoln, America's martyred pres- 
ident, and one of the noblest men ever known to the world's history. In 
other cases, private rooms and parts of private houses were utilized as 
school houses, but the furniture was just as plain. 

But all these tliino:s are changed now. A log school house in Illinois 
is a rarity. Their places are filled with handsome frame or brick structures. 
The rude furniture has also given way, and the old school books — the 
"Popular Reader," the "English Eeader" (the best school reader ever 
known in American schools), and "Webster'sEleraentary Spelling Book" — 
are superseded by others of greater pretensions. The old spelling classes 
and spelling matches have followed the old school houses, until they are 
remembered only in name. Of her school system, Illinois can justly boast. 
It is a pride and a credit to the adopted home of the great men the great 
state has sent out as rulers and representative men — men like Lincoln, 
Douglas, Grant, Shields, Lovejoy, Yates, Wasliburne, Drummond, and hun- 
dreds of others whose names are as familiar abroad as they are in the his- 
tories of the counties and neighborhoods where once they lived. While 
the state has extended such fostering care to the interests of education, the 
several counties have been no less zealous and watchful in the manage- 
ment of this vital interest. And Carroll County forms no exception to the 
rule. The school houses and their furnishings are in full keeping with the 
spirit of the law that provides for their maintenance and support. The 
teachers rank high among the other thousands of teachers in the state, and 
the several county superintendents, since the office of uuperintendent was 
made a part of the school system, have been chosen with especial reference 
to their fitness for the position. 

The present superintendent is Mr. J. E. Millard, of Lanark, an educator 
of experience and learning. Mr. Millard is now serving his eighth year, 
having been first elected about 1869 or 1870. From his last report, the 
following facts and figures in relation to the condition of the schools under 
his care are selected : 

Number of males under 21 years of age. --- -- 4389 

Number of females " " " " " .4306 

Total 8695 

Number of males between 6 and 21 years -. - .3089 

Number of females " " " " " ...3088 

Total-... 6177 

Number of school districts 114 

Number having school five months or more 113 

Average number of months school sustained 7.37 

Number of male pupils enrolled 2730 

Number of female " " 2600 

Total... 5330 

Number of male teachers employed 92 

Number of female " " 123 

Total 215 

Grand total number of days' attendance, 438,848, being equal in school time {i. e., nine 
months of four weeks each and five days to a week) to 2,43y years and eight days. 


Hio:liest monthly wages paid to any male teacher. $135 00 

Highest " " " " " female " 60 00 

Lowest " " " " " male " 25 00 

Lowest " " " " " female " 16 00 

Avei'age " " " " " male teachers 42 65 

Average " " " " " female " 30 80 

Value of school libraries 2,143 00 

Total receipts during the year 72,730 17 

Total expenditures during the year 58,407 38 

Balance in hands of treasurers... 14,322 79 

Estimated value of school property. 119,618 00 

Estimated " " " apparatus — 1,786 00 

Principal of township fund 66,05() 66 

Principal of county fund 15,037 87 

Number of applicants for certificates examined 144 

Number of first grade certificates granted 8 

Number of second grade certificates granted 69 

Total number of certificates granted 77 

Number of applicants rejected. 67 

During the eight years that Mr. Millard has been superintendent, 
twenty-five new school buildings have been erected in the county, costing 
from $700 to §20,000 each. These have all been seated with modern 
improved seats, and many of the old buildings have been seated in like* 
manner. These improvements, and the higher grade to which the schools 
have attained, are largely due to the interest which has been awakened on the 
subject of education by the holding of meetings in various localities of the 
county by the superintendent calling the citizens together to listen to sug- 
gestions and discuss educational matters, as \vell as by holding institutes and 
the hearty co-operation of teachers, etc. The first county convention of 
school officers ever held in the state was called by Mr. Millard, at Mount 
Carroll, in 1871, and was the inauguration of similar conventions through- 
out the state. 

A county paper thus speaks of the efficiency and industry of Mr. Mil- 
lard as a school superintendent : 

Mr. Millard is and always has been held in the highest estimation by the citizens of 
our township as a thorough, accommodating and efliicientofficer. He has visited our schools 
much more than we could expect. He has criticized, made suggestions, and assisted our 
schools, so that Salem Township now, in educational facilities, stands second to none in the 


A county Sunday-school association was organized at Mount Carroll, 
in May, 187G, through the efforts of Eev. Terrell, of Chicago. Sev- 
eral meetings of the association have been held, and much intei'est has been 
awakened in the cause' of Sunday-schools through their influence. Associ- 
ation meets semi-annually, in May and October. 

The following are the officers of the association : President, J. E. 
Millard, Lanark; Secretary, S. C. Cotton, Mount Carroll; Treasurer, S. H. 
Piiterbaugh, Shannon; Vice Presidents: P. M. Cook, Shaimon; Pev. R. L. 
. Chitty, Cherry Grove; William P. Laird, Freedom; W. E. Hall, Wood 
land; Rev. C. H. Mitchell, Washington; Simon Greenleaf, Savanna; James 
Hallett, Mount Carroll ; John Mackay, Salem ; Charles A. Mastin, Rock 
Creek; William Fleisher, Lima; Rev. Fisher Allison, Elkhorn Grove; W. 
O. Millard, Wysox; Elijah Bailey, York; — , Fair Havep. 




The Savanna Branch Raih-oad Company was organized under the pro- 
visions of an act of the legishitnre of the State of Illinois, and approved 
b}^ the governor of said state, ^ii the lifth day of November, A.D. 1849, 
and entitled " An Act to provide for a General System of Railroad Incor- 
porations,'- and a further ''Act supplement to the aforesaid act," approved 
JS'ov, 6, A.D. 1849 — with articles of association adopted at Savanna, Illinois, 
the 21st day of January, A.D. 1851, and Hied in the office of the secretary 
of state, according to the provisions of the aforementioned acts. 

The western terminus of said road is to be at Savanna, Carroll County, 
Illinois, on the bank of the Mississippi River, and to go thence in an 
easterly direction, by the best and most practicable route, through a part of 
the Counties of Carroll and Stephenson, and to intersect the Chicago & 
Galena Union Railroad at some point in Stephenson County, not exceeding 
jSfteen miles from the town of Freeport. The capital stock of said company 
shall be $300,000, with the privileire of increasing the same to $600,000. 

First Board of Directors — Luther H. Bowen, John B. Rhodes, Porter 
Sargent, ISTathaniel Ilalderman, David Emmert, Henry Smith, Monroe 
Bailey, Norman D. French, and Enoch A. Wood. 

Elias Woodruif, Cyrus Kellogg, John L. Hostetter, John A. Melendy, 
and Reuben W. Brush, shall be commissioners for receiving subscriptions 
to the capital stock of said Savanna Branch Railroad Company. 

The Racine & Mississippi Railroad Company was organized under the 
laws of the State of Wisconsin by an act entitled "An Act to Incorporate 
the Racine, Janesville ifc Mississippi Railroad Company." Approved April 
17, 1852. The route of the road to be located and constructed from the 
City of Racine, in the State of Wisconsin, via the Yillage of Janesville, to 
the Mississippi River. 

By an act of the legislature of the State of Wisconsin, approved 
March 19, 1853, the Racine, Janesville & Mississippi Railroad Company 
was authorized to construct their road in divisions. 

By an act of the legislature of the State of Wisconsin, approved June 
27, 1853, the Racine, Janesville ifc Mississippi Railroad Company was 
authorized to build a branch railroad from the main line of said road, at any 
point west of Fox River and Beloit, and, also, to connect said railroad and 
operate the same with other railroads, and consolidate the capital stock of 
the said company with the capital stock of any railroad company with which 
the road of the said companies shall intersect. 

By an act of the legislature of the State of Wisconsin, approved July 
9, 1853, the Racine, Janesville & Mississippi Railroad Company are hereby 
authorized to connect their railroad at Beloit with any railroad or branch 
railroad in the State of Illinois ; and shall, also, have power to consolidate 
the capital stock of said Racine, Janesville & Mississippi Railroad Com- 
pany with the capital stock of any such road, now or hereafter chartered by 
the State of Illinois with which said company may connect at Beloit. 

By an act of the legislature of the State of Wisconsin, approved 
March 31, 1855, the name of the Racine, Janesville & Mississippi Railroad 
Company was changed to that of the " Racine & Mississippi Railroad 


The legislature of the State of Wisconsin passed an act, and approved 
April 1, 1863, to facilitate and authenticate the formation of a cor])oration 
by the purchasers or future owners of the Racine tt Mississippi Railroad 
Company, and provided that said new corporation, when so organized, shall 
have full power to consolidate their capital stock with that of the Racine & 
Mississippi Railroad Company, in the State of Illinois, or its successors, or 
that of the Northern Illinois Railroad Company, or both, and thereby to 
form a new company. 


By an act of the legislature of the State of Illinois, entitled "An 
Act to Incorporate the Rockton & Freeport Railroad Company," approved 
Feb. 10, 1853, the said company was authorized and empowered to locate 
and operate a railroad from a point on the north line of the County of 
"Winnebago, through the Yillage of Rockton to the Village of Fieeport, in 
the County of Stephenson. 

An act passed by the legislature of the State of Illinois, entitled 
" An Act to enable railroad companies and plank-road companies to con- 
solidate their stock," approved Feb. 28, 1854, provided: That all railroad 
companies and plank-road companies now organized, or hereafter to be 
organized, which now have or hereafter may have their termini fixed by 
law, whenever their said road or I'oads intersect by continuous lines, be, and 
the same are hereby, authorized and empowered to consolidate their property 
and stock with each other, and to consolidate with companies out of this 
state whenever their lines connect with the lines of such companies out of 
this state. 

By act of the legislature of the State of Illinois, entitled "An Act to 
amend an Act to incorporate the Rockton & Freeport Railroad Company," 
approved Feb, 1853, provides "that the name and style of the Rockton & 
Freeport Railroad Company be, and the same is, hereby changed to that of 
the 'Racine & Mississippi Railroad Company.' " Approved Feb. 14, 1855. 

By act of the legislature of the State of Illinois, entitled "An Act 
to amend an act entitled 'An Act to authorize the construction of the 
Savanna Branch Railroad,'" passed Feb. 12, 1851, provides "that the time 
for expending ten per cent of the capital stock upon the Savanna Branch 
Railroad be, and the same is, hereby extended three years. 

By act of the legislature of the State of Illinois, entitled " An Act 
to amend an act entitled 'An Act to amend an act to incorporate the Rock- 
ton & Freeport Railroad Company, confirming the consolidation of the 
Savanna Branch Railroad Company with the Racine & Mississippi Railroad 
Company, and for other purposes," provides that the name and style of 
the Savanna Branch Railroad Company be, and the same is, hereby chaiiged 
to that of the " Racine & Mississippi Railroad Company." Approved Feb. 
14, 1857. 


The Northern Illinois Raih'oad Company was organized under a 
charter granted by the legislature of the State of Illinois, passed and ap- 
proved Fel)ruary 24, 1850. 

The said company thereby authorized and empowered to locate, and 
fully to finish and maintain a railroad, commencing at a point on the 
north line of the Countv of Winnebago, at or within one mile from its 


intersection with Rock River ; thence by the way of Freeport, in the 
County of Stephenson; Mount Carroll, in the County of Carroll, to Sa- 
vanna, on the Mississij)pi River, in said County of Carroll. 

By an act of the legislature of the State of Illinois, passed and ap- 
proved, February 21, lb03, the Northern Illinois Railroad Company, and 
the Racine & Mississippi Railroad Company, shall have full power to con- 
solidate their capital stock, and also with that of any other connecting rail- 
road, and thereby to form a new company, which consolidated company may 
take any name it may agree upon, and shall have all of the powers of each of 
the consolidated companies. 


The Mississippi Railroad Company was organized under an Act of 
Incorporation granted by the legislature of the State of Illinois, approved 
February 15, 18G5. 

The said company was authorized to locate and construct and maintain 
a railroad from tlie City of Galena, in Jo Daviess County, to Rock Island, 
in Rock Island County, in this state. Said company has the power to 
unite their railroad in whole or in part, with any other railroad or railroads 
now constructed, or which may liereafter be constructed, either in this state 
or in the State of Wisconsin, coming in contact therewith. 


At a meeting of the directors of the Rockton & Freeport Railroad 
Company, held in the Village of Rockton, on the 23d day of February, 
1S5'1, on motion, unanimously adopted a resolution to consolidate the capi- 
tal stock, powers and franchises of this company, with capital stock of the 
Racine, Janesville & Mississippi Railroad Company. Articles of agree- 
ment were made and concluded this 23d day of February, 1854, by and be- 
tween the Rockton & Freeport Railroad Company, and the Racine, Janes- 
ville & Mississippi Railroad Company, fully merging and consolidating the 
capital stock, powers, and franchises of tlie Rockton and Freeport Railroad 
Company, with the Racine, Janesville & Mississippi Railroad Company. 

On the 23d day of January, 1856, articles of agreement were made and 
concluded by and between the Savanna Branch Railroad Company, and the 
Racine & Mississippi Railroad Company, merging and consolidating the 
capital stock owned and held by them, together with all of the powers 
and franchises now held by them, by virtue of their acts of incor|)oration. 

On the 9th day of JSTovember, i860, the sheriff of Racine County, Wis- 
consin, by his deed, conveyed to Morris K. Jessup, of the City of New 
York, the following described premises and property, to wit : The Eastern 
division of the railroad of the Racine & Mississippi Railroad Company, 
extending from the City of Racine to the City of Beloit, w^ith all its tracks, 
rails, appurtenances, right of way, etc. 

February 5, 1863, Circuit Court, by David Noggle, judge, ratified and 
confiumed the sale made by the sheriff of Racine Co., Wisconsin. 

On the 6th day of January, A. D. 1865, Morris K. Jessup, by his deed, 
conveyed to Richard Irvine and G. A. Thomson, all the Eastern,'division of 
the railroad of the Racine & Mississippi Railroad Company, extending from 
the City of Racine to the City of Beloit, with all its right of way, and all 
other appurtenances. 


On tlie 13tli day of April, A. D. 1865, Elicliard Irvine, of the City of 
New York, by bis deed, conveyed to G. A. Tbomson, of Eacine, in tbe State 
of Wisconsin, all tbe rigbt, title and interest wbicb said Ricbard Irvine bas 
in and to all tbe Eastern division of tbe railroad of tbe Hacine and Missis- 
sippi Kailroad Company, extending from tbe Citv of Kacine to tbe City of 

On tbe 7th day of February, A. D. 1865, Henry "W. Bishop, Jr., as 
Master in Chancery of the United States Circuit Court for tbe Xortbern 
District of Illinois, by bis deed, conveyed to George A. Tbomson all tbe 
railroad of tbe Racine et Mississippi Railroad Company extending from tbe 
line between tbe States of Wisconsin and Illinois, in the Town of Rockton, 
in tbe County of Winnebago, and tlie State of Illinois, to tbe Western ter- 
mination of said road, in tbe Town of Savanna, in Carroll County, in said 
State of Illinois. 

Febrnary 20, 1865, tbe Circuit Court of tbe United States for tbe 
Northern District of Illinois in Chancery ratified and confirmed the sale 
made by Henry W, Bishop, Jr. 

June 5, 1865, G. A. Tbomson filed, in the ofiice of the Secretary of 
State of the State of Wisconsin, his certificate of organization of tbe West- 
ern Union Railroad Company in the State of Wisconsin. Said certificate 
specifies as follows : 

First. Tbe name of tbe said corporation shall be " Tbe Western 
Union Railroad Company." 

Second. The number of directors shall be thirteen. 

Third. Tbe names of tbe directors for tbe tirst year are herein desig- 
nated as follows : Richard Irvine, Jacob S. Wetmore, S. P. Nash and R. G. 
Ralston, all of tbe City of ISTew York; S. C. Tuckerman, Henry T. Fuller, 
Darwin Andrews and George A. Tbomson, all of tbe City of Racine, AYi^- 
consin; E. P. Barton, of Fi-eeport, Illinois; H. A. Mills, of Mount Carroll. 
Illinois; D. W. Dame, of Lanark, Illinois; Wm. Shannon and Elijah 
\Nortbey, of Shannon, Illinois. 

June 16, A. D. 1865, G. A. Tbomson filed in tbe ofiice of the Secretary 
of State of the State of Illinois, his certificate of organization of the West- 
ern Union Railroad Company in tbe State of Illinois. Said certificte 
specifies as follows: 

First. Tbe name of the said corporation shall be " The Western Union 
Railroad Company." 

Second. Tbe number of directors shall; be thirteen. 

Third. The names of the directors for the first year are herein desig- 
nated as follows : Richard Irvine, Jacob S. Wetmore, S. P. Nash, and R. 
G. Ralstc»n, all of the City of New York; S. C. Tuckerman, Henry T. 
Fuller, Darwin Andrews, and G. A. Thomson, all of the Citj' of Racine, 
Wisconsin; E. P. Barton, of Freeport, Illinois; II. A. Mills, of Mount 
Carroll, Illinois; D. W. Dame, of Lanark, Illinois; Wm. Shannon and 
Elijah Northey, of Shannon, Illinois. 

Articles of agreement made and concluded tbe 13tb day of June A. D. 
1865, by and between the Mississippi Railroad Company and the Northern 
Illinois Railroad Company, mutually merge and consolidate the capital stock 
owned and held by them, and each of them, and that the name of tbe com- 
pany formed by this consolidation shall be "^ Tbe Northern Illinois Railroad 
Company," and that tbe whole management of the affairs of such new com- 
pany shall be under the management and control of a board of directors, 




consisting of the following named persons, to wit : Richard Irvine, Elijah 
JS^orthey, Enoch Chamberlain, L. H, Bowen, H. A. Mills, Duncan McKay, 
Edward P. Barton, Wm. Shannon, D. W. Dame, G. A. Thomson, E,. A. 
Knapp, S. C. Tnckerman and Henry T. FliUer. 

January 16, A. D. 1S66, articles of agreement were made and con- 
cluded by and between "The Western Union Railroad Company, a corpora- 
tion created and existing in the State of Illinois," and " The Western 
Union Railroad Company, a corporation created and existing in the State 
of Wisconsin," there% mutually merging and consolidating the railroad 
and property owned and held by them, and each of them, and all the powers 
and franchises now held, owned and possessed by them, and each of them, and 
that the nauie of the company formed by this consolidation shall be " The 
Western Union Railroad Company," and that the whole management of 
the affairs of such new company shall be under the management and con- 
trol of a board of directors, consisting of the following named persons, to 
wit: Richard Irvine, S. P. IS'ash, R. G. Ralston, Jacob S. Wetmore, Elijah 
Northey, H. A. Mills, Edward P. Barton, Wm. Shannon, D. W. Dame, G. 
A. Thomson, Darwin Andrews, S. C. Tnckerman and Henry T. Fuller. 

Articles of agreement were made and concluded the 17th day of Jan- 
uary, A. D. 1S06, by and between " The Western Union Railroad Com- 
pany, a corporation existing under, and by virtue of, the laws of the States 
of Illinois and Wisconsin," and " The IsTorthern Illinois Railroad Company, 
a corporation created and existing under, and by virtue of, the laws of said 
State of Illinois," thereby mutually merging and consolidating the railroads 
and property owned and held by them, and each of them, and all the powers 
and franchises now held, owned and possessed b}^ them, and each of them, 
and that the name of the corporation formed by this consolidation shall be 
"TheWestern Union Railroad Company," and that the whole management 
of the affairs of such new company shall be under the management and con- 
trol ai' a board of directors, consisting of the following named persons, to 
wit: Richard Irvine, Jacob S. Wetmore, S. P. JNash, R. G. Ralston, S. C. 
Tnckerman, Henry T. Fuller, Darwin Andrews, G. A. Thomson, E. P. 
Barton, H. A. Mills, D. "W. Dame, Wm. Shannon and Elijah Nurthey. 

An act to authenticate and confirm the incorporation of the Western 
Union Railroad Company, and the consolidation thereof with certain rail- 
road companies in Illinois, and to grant rights of transportation by water, 
was passed and approved April 11, 1860. 

To aid in constructing the Western Union Railroad, thus consolidated 
and legally perfected in its organization, farmers along the entire line from 
Racine to Rock Island contributed in subscriptions ranging from ^300 to 
$15,000 each, for which they never received one dollar in return, many of 
the farmers losing their farms in consequence of encumbeiing them to 
meet the obligations thus assumed. The present management obtained 
possession and control of the road by direct purchase, receiving no contri- 
butions or local aid. Through the influence of this road, Carroll County 
has been placed on an equal footing with the other counties of the state, and 
has developed her resources, which are ample, as the business resources of 
the road for the current year, given in another place, fully testify. 

With the completion of the Chicago & Pacific Railroad through to 
Lanark — now completed to within about 30 miles — and forming a junction 
there with the Western Union Road, a new era of prosperity will open 
before this people. Extended on to Sabula, and there uniting; with the 



Sabula, Ackley & Dakota Railroad, and extending on to the Mi'^^nri Kiver, 
tapping the Iowa granaries, the pastnn^s of Nebraska, and fiially reaching 
the mineral and pine Jaiid regions of the Black Hills, by way ot Yankton 
and the valley of the river that comes down from that district and dis- 
charges its waters into the Missouri at Brule City, and Carroll County will 
be on one of the great highwaj's of the American Continent. And that con- 
summation is only a question of time. 



Carroll County was named in honor of " Charles Carroll, of Carroll 
ton," one of the signers of the Declaration of American Independence. 
Mount Carroll was named by the commissioners who located tlie county 
seat here, in 1843. They drove the stake designating the location on the 
highest point of ground here, a point that had sometimes been called Baby 
Mountain, and christened the place Mount Carroll. 

Elkhorn Grove and Elkhorn Creek take their names from the large 
number of elks' horns found there when the first settlers came. 

Eaffle Point derives its name from an eao-le's nest haviiio' been found 
there in early times. 

Rock Creek and Rock Creek Township, from the rock}^ stream that 
flows through that township. 

Lanark was named after Lanark, Scotland, the home of the capitalists 
who furnished the money to aid in building the Western Union Rail 

Buffalo Grove, from " Nanusha," Indian for buffalo, large herds of 
which orrazed around there until white men drove them away. 

York Township was named in honor of New York State, the nativity 
of many of the early settlers. 

Wysox, from a town of the same name in Pennsylvania, the early home 
of a number of the first settlers. 

Woodland, from its forests and tangled woods. 

Cherry Grove, from the wild cherry and plum trees that grow along its 
creek bottoms. Plum River derives its name from the same source. 

Shannon Township arid the Village of Shannon, from the name of the 
founder of the village— William Shannon. 

Savanna, from the low, grassy character of the land upon which the 
village was commenced. 

Straddle Creek, now Carroll Creek, derives its name from a pioneer 
incident. A man named Chambers, who was the first settler at Chambers' 
Grove, was a man of about sixty years, short and rather corpulent. At one 
time in early days, he was assisting some surveyors, when they came to the 
banks of the creek, which rises in Ogle County. When the surveyors 
reached it, it was small and narrow. It was necessary to cross the stream, 
but they didn't exactly know how to do it without wading, when Mr. Cham- 
bers remarked that he could straddle it, as short as his legs were. Some of 
the party offered to wager him that he could not even jump it. He did not 
like to take such a banter, and did straddle it — planted one foot on each 
bank. But he could not master the situation. He could neither go over 
nor come back. The banks were pretty high, and, in his struggles to right 


himself, he fell sprawling into the water, mncli to the amusement of the 
party, who at once named it Straddle Creek. It was universally known to 
the people by that name until some of the younger ones became too reiined 
to use the name in polite society, and they named it Carroll Creek. The 
old settlers still call it Straddle Creek. 

Stag's Point. "When the building of the mill was first commenced 
here, there were no women in the party. On one occasion, there being a 
good tiddler among the men, they improvised a dance. The ball-room was 
within a cabin that stood where Sheldon's house now stands. The male 
dancers had males for partners. For a long time afterwards the place was 
known all over the country as *' Stag's Point.*' 


From the report of the several vice presidents of the Old Settlers' 
Association, published in the Carroll County Mirror^ September 22, 18T6, 
we glean the following record of firstlings in their respective townships : 

Report of Dr. E. Woodruff., Savanna. — A. Pierce, George and Y. L. 
Davidson, and Wm. Blundell were the first settlers. They settled here in 
the Fall of 1828. They built the first houses. 

The first orchard was planted by Aaron Pierce, on the site of his old 
home on block 33 in the village of Savanna, in 1838. 

E. Woodrufi' was the first male school teacher, as well as the first physi- 
cian. He taught school in the Winter of 1837-8. Miss Hannah Fuller was 
the first female teacher, and taught in 1836-7. 

The Methodist people built the first church edifice. It was commenced 
in 1848 and finished in 1849. Rev. Mr. Oliver was the pastor or circuit 

The first white child born in the county was born at Savanna. 

Report of L. E. GalusJia, Fair Haven. — The first settlement was 
made on the JST. E. quarter of section 15, bv L. E. Galusha, December 
10, 1844. 

Planted out a few fruit trees in 1845. James McMnllen, the next on 
the N. W. quarter of section 35. 

The first school was taught in a small log house belonging to Samuel 
Geer, on the N. E. quarter of the N. W. quarter of section 23. Miss M. J, 
Healy, from Elkhorn Grove, was the teacher. The first school house was 
built on the S. E. quarter of section 15, in 1854. 

The membership of the German Evangelical Association built the first 
church, in 1864. 

Report of Henry Smithy Elklioi'n. — The first settlement was made on 
the north side of the Grove, on sections 7 and 8, by John Ankeny, in 1831. 

Elijah Eaton built the first saw mill, now Thorpe's Mill, in 1837."" The 
first grist mill was built in 1857, by G. W. Landon, 

John Knox planted the first orchard, in 1835. 

* The first saw mill was built on Plum River, about two miles east of Savanna, in 
1835, by L. H. and J. L. Bowen. J. L. Bowen was in charge of this mill up to the time of 
his death, in 1844. 

In a letter from Dr. E. Woodruff, under date of November 19, 1877, to the publish- 
ers, to be found on page 248, the building of this mill is credited to James Craig. Dr. Wood- 
ruff, at a subsequent date, but too late for the printer, called attention to the error, and 
hence the reader's attention is here called to the correction. 


The first school was built on section 17, in 1835, now known as Center 
District or school house. A man luinied Ingalls was the teacher. 

The first church built was the South Elkhorn (Methodist). James 
Mclvean was the first pastor. 

In 1832, the first settlers had to leave their claims, in consequence of 
the Black Hawk Indian AVar troubles. Ankeny returned in 1833. 

Reijort of C. liegeman^ Hock Creelc. — David Becker was the first set- 
tler. In ISllr, he settled on land now owned by Daniel Belding. The 
prairie was broken by E. Spaulding and L. T. Easterbrook. Becker gave 
the town its name. 

Tlie first machinery introduced in the township was an old threshing 
machine — simply a horse power and C3'linder — owned by a man named 
Smith, and generally employed by Becker. The first thresher and cleaner 
was operated by S. Dunn and Cline, in 1847.. 

David Becker planted the first orchard. 

The first school was taught by Phebe Humphry, in the Winter of 
1849-50, in an old log house rented for the occasion. The first school 
house was built in 1853. Asa Belding was the first teacher to occupy it. 

The first church was built by the Methodist people, near the present 
site of Lanark. 

The first marriage was that between Wellington Jenkins and Mary 
Becker. The first death was a Mr. Seamon. 

Report of Sumner Doicning, of Mount Carroll. — The first settler 
was Samuel Preston, senior. 

The first saw mill was built about one mile west of Mount Carroll, in 
1837-8, by Messrs. Hitt, Swingley. Christian and Swaggart. 

The first orchard was planted by Heman Downing, on section ten, 
in 1840. 

The first school was taught in the upper part of Mr. Preston's house, 
in 1840. Miss E. Downing was the teacher. 

The first church was erected in 1851, by the Presbyterians. Kev. C. 
Gray was the pastor. 

Report of N. D. French, of York. — N. D. French was the first set- 
tler. He settled here in 1835. William Dyson, senior, and Kussell Colvin 
came in 1837, 

The first saw mill was erected in 1846, on Johnson's Creek, by Pussell 

]Sr. D. French planted a nursery in 1851, but did not set out an orchard 
until] 871. 

Two schools were taught in the Winter of 1835-6. Elizabeth Thorn- 
ton and Emmert Ingham were the teachers. 

The first church was built in 1851, in the Bailey neighborhood. It 
was erected by the Baptist people. Emmert Ingham was the pastor. 

The first meeting of school trustees was held in 1843. 

Report {rerhal) of Duncan Mackay, Salem. — The first settlement 
was made by Mr. Daggart, in 1830. There were but fourteen families in 
the townshij-* when Mr. Mackay came. A man by the name of Walker 
undertook to build a mill, but never finished it. The first school house was 
built near where Mr. Kingery now lives. The school house was built and 
the school maintained by private subscriptions. The teacher was D. B. 
Shattenkirk. The first orchard was set out in 1843. 

Report of M. C. Taylor, Washington. — The first settlement was 



made by John Bernard, in the year 182S or 182!), on the farm now occuj)ied 
by Edward Hatfield, four miles north of Savanna, on what is known as the 
Savanna and Hanover road. 

The first orchard was planted by M. C. Taylor, on the farm now owned 
by John Kelley. 

The first school was established about the year 1842. It was taught 
by Miss Susan Noel. 

The first church was built about the year 1845, by the Presbyterians. 
The pastor was Rev. Mr. Harslia. It was located at what is known as 
Center Hill. 

First birth, Mary Bernard, daughter of John and Ellen Bernard. 

First marriage, Mr. Albert Henry to Miss Elizabeth Doner. 

First death, Hays, in 1843. 

In the years 1830-1, James Temple and John Bernard opened a tan- 
yard on the land now owned by Benjamin Hatfield. It was successfully 
operated until the Spring of 1832, when the Black Hawk War breaking 
out caused a sudden dissolution of the partnership, which was never again 
resumed, so the first and only tan-yard was of short duration. 

The first and only mill w^as a saw mill, built by Joseph McCollipps. 
It was erected entirely by himself, and was commenced about 1841, but was 
not finished for several years. It was located on Rush Creek, about five 
miles north of Savanna. 










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Showiaii; the Totals of the Footins^s of the several columns of each of the Assessment Books 

of Personal Property of the County of Carroll and State of Illinois, and the Grand 

Totals of all said Books for the year 1877. 

Grand Summary — Personal Property. 






Horses of all ages . . 















$35 59 

10 56 
44 67 

1 84 
3 21 

206 25 
39 17 

33 33 
23 36 

2 89 

11 55 
62 34 
32 90 

22 17 













Cattle of all ages 

Mules and Asses of all ages_ _ 

Sheep of all ages 

Hogs of all ao'es . 

Steam Engines, including Boilers 

Fire or Burglar-Proof Safes 

Billiard, Pigeon-Hole, Bagatelle, or other similar 

Carriages and Wagons of whatsoever kind . . 

Watches and Clocks .- .. ..- 

Sewing or Knitting Machines 

Piano Fortes 

Melodeons and Organs. - 

Steamboats. Sailing" Vessels, Wharf Boats, Barges 
or other Water Craft 


Merchandise on hand.. 

Material and Manufactured Articles on hand 


Manufacturers' Tools,Imprts and Machinery (other 
than Engines and Boilers, which are so listed).. 

Agricultural Tools, Implements and Machinery . 


Gold and Silver Plate and Plated Ware. 


Diamonds and Jewelry 


Moneys ot Bank, Banker, Broker or Stock .Jobber 


Credits of Bank, Banker, Broker or Stock Jobber- 


Moneys of other than Bank, Banker, Broker or 
Stock Jobber _. . 


Credits of other than Bank, Banker, Broker or 
Stock Jobber 


Property of Companies and Corporations other 
than hereinbefore enumerated .. 


Property of Saloons and Eating Houses .._ 


Household or Office Furniture and Property 


Investments in Keal Estate and Improvements 
thereon (see Sec. 10) 


All other Personal Property required to be listed _ 


Shares of Stock of State or National Banks 


Total Yalue of Personal Property . .. 


Improved Lands (in acres) .. 


18 00 
6 34 


Unimproved Lands (in acres) 

Total Value of Lands 



Improved Town and City Lots (in acres) 

Unimproved Town and Citj- Lots (in acres) 


344 42 
39 10 


Total Value of Town and City Lots 



Lands other than "Railroad Track," (7 acres) 




Lots other than "Railroad Track," (65 lots).. 

Personal Property other than " Rolling Stock " 


Total Value of all Property as assessed 


Acres of Wheat, 16,6.55; of Corn. ■;6,619: of Oats. 32.151 ; of Meadow, 38,856; of other Field Products 
21,426; of Inclosed Pasture, .57,538; of Orchard, 2,550; of Wood Land, 41,280. 

Dated Mt. Carroll, III., December 6, A.D. 1877. 

R. M. A. HAWK, Clerk. 



The history of Mount Carroll dates back to the Fall of 1841, when Emniert, 
Halderman & Co. commenced the erection of the flouring mills at this point. 
However, nothing was done towards " laying off" a town site until it became a 
settled fact, that a majority of the people of the county were in favor of re- 
moving the county offices from Savanna. In August, 1843, the people voted 
upon the question of removal. Four hundred and twenty-one votes were 
polled, of which 231 were for the removal of the county seat to Mount Carroll, 
and 190 in favor of retaining the county offices at Savanna, a majority of 41 in 
favor of Mount Carroll. A full history of the removal question, selection of 
a site for the new county seat, etc., already appears in these pages, so that fur- 
ther reference to the subject here is unnecessary. The names of the first set- 
tlers, a reference to the first houses built, etc., have likewise been written, so 
that but little remains to be written of the " county seat." The history of the 
county and of Mount Carroll are so intimately blended since the re-location of 
the county seat, in 1 843, that it would be a work of supererogation to attempt any 
thing like an extended separate history. 

The building of the mill was followed by the erection of a few scattered 
houses. Then came the building of the old court house, in 1844, and the 
removal of the county offices and records from Savanna. This necessitated the 
removah of the county officers here as well, who, with their families and the 
few families of men engaged in building the mill, may be regarded as the 
beginning of a population that, on the ist day of January, 1878, numbers very 
nearly 2,500. The growth of the town has not been rapid, neither in wealth nor 
population, but in both respects it has been solid and substantial. 

The first store or trading place opened here was by the Mill Company soon 
after they commenced operations, probably in 1842. The company had built 
a kind of three-tier log house on " Stag's Point," now occupied by the resi- 
dence of I. P. Sheldon, for the accommodation of the mill hands, and one of 
these rooms was converted into a store room. 

The first house built exclusively for hotel purposes, was the stone house now 
occupied by J. F. Chapman, which was erected in 1844, and has been so used 
without interruption up to the present writing. 

The first saloon building was the middle part of what is now the Daniel^ 
Palmer Building. This old "rum mill" was built in somewhat of a hurry. 
The materials out of which it was made were standing in Arnold's Grove in the' 
morning, were cut down, hauled to town, and reduced to proper dimensions, 
and, plastering excepted, the building was com])leted before sundown. 

Joe Miles was the first lawyer to " hang out a shingle." He came in 1844,] 
and for a while worked at his trade, that of a cari:)enter, on the old court house. 

Anna Mary, daughter of Jesse Rapp, was Mount Carroll's first-born, and] 
Milford Kennedy was the second. 

The post-office was established in 1844, and John Wilson was the first post- 
master. The mail was supplied from Cherry Grove by carrier until the Fall of j 
1846, when the tri-weekly stage coach, which had plied between Galena andj 
Dixon via Cherry Grove for a number of years, was taken from the old route! 
and a new one established through Mount Carroll. When the first " stagej 
coach and four" made its appearance in Mount Carroll, it was made an occasion j 
of sreneral rejoicing. The people went wild with enthusiasm, and the old| 
" Concord " was received with as much glee and good feeling as the first traiaj 


of cars that ))ut in an appearance on the Western Union Railroad, some thirty or 
more years later. 

The first teachers of common schools were Anderson, Paul, Turner, J. P. 
Emmert, and some others, whose names have escaped the memory of the "old- 
est inhabitants." The last one before the free school system was adopted, was 
H. Bitner. These schools were supported by subscriptions at so much per 

The completion of the mill here made quite a home demand for wheat, 
and during the years 1844 and 1845, it was not only the wheat market for Car- 
roll County, but for Stephenson and other adjacent districts, where a surplus 
was raised. Throngs of teams lined the streets, and the mills were kept busy 
night and day, and a number of teams were constantly employed in hauling 
flour to Savanna for shipment to St. Louis. 

The next stores to be opened after the Company store, were by William Hal- 
derman, R. R. Brush, R. J. Tomkins, Thorp & Lull, Nathan Blair, John Irvine 
&: Son, etc. 

The first physician to open an office was Dr. Judd, a brother of Norman 
B. Judd, of Chicago. Soon after, Dr. Hostetter and Dr. White came, and in 
1852 or 1853, Dr. B. P. Miller located here and hung out his sign. 

The next lawyers after Joe Miles, already mentioned, were Barker, 

John Wilson and William T. Miller. 


M. E. Church, Mount Carroll. — The Methodist Episcopal Church of Mount 
Carroll, Illinois, was organized in 1839. Rev. Philo Judson was the preacher 
in charge, and Rev. B. Weed, presiding elder. 

The first service was held about two miles down the creek in a Mr. Martins' 
log cabin. 

The original members were a Mr. and Mrs. Patterson, Nathan Jacobs and 
wife, the latter is still a member of the church, Mr. and Mrs. Martin, Davis 
Newall and a Mr. Leonard. 

Mr. Stubbs, an Englishman, was the first class 'leader, and Mr. Petty class 
leader number two. 

Shortly after the organization, Revs. Buck and G. L. S. Stuff, the latter still a 
member of the Rock River Conference, came on as missionaries, and the ser- 
vices were removed to the house of Mr. H. Preston, two miles southwest of 
where the town now stands. Subsequently the services were moved to the 
house of Mr. David Christian, still nearer the village, and thence to a cooper 
shop in Mount Carroll. 

Soon after this the court house was erected and became the regular preach- 
ing place. 

The circuit, including Mount Carroll, was organized in 1847, Rev. S. Smith 
being the pastor, and Rev. Hooper Crews, now pastor in Rockford, was presid- 
ing elder. 

The first Sabbath-school was organized in 1S47. John Irvine was superin- 

On Mr. Irvine's arrival in the place, in 1845, stopping at the hotel, he in- 
quired if there were any Methodists in the place. He was told of one by the 
name of Bennett. He soon found him, and the two held the first class meet- 
ing ever held in the place. 

Under the administration of Rev. Miles F. Reade, a very extensive revi- 
val of religion occurred, and soon after, in the year 185 1, the first M. 
E. Church building was erected. The present fine brick edifice was built in 
1867, when Rev. Joseph Odgers was pastor. Rev. E. W. Adams is the present 


pastor. There are now about two hundred communicant members, and a 
Sabbath-school of about two hundred scholars. F.J. Sessions, superintendent. 

Prcsbyteriati. — In the latter part of 1S45, or beginning of 1846, the 
Presbyterian Home Missionary Society sent Rev. Calvin Gray to labor in this 
county. He first stopped in Savanna, but subsequently removed to Mt. Car- 
roll. They built a very handsome brick church edifice, which was dedicated 
November 7, 1861. 

The organization of the Presbyterian Church dates from the 30th ofj 
August, 1844, when Rev. Aratus Kent, of Galena, came here to assist Rev. H. G.j 
Warner in the organization. Eight persons united themselves together under] 
the name of the First Presbyterian Church of Mount Carroll. The first ser- 
vices, and until about 1852, were held in the old court house. In the latter 
year. Rev. Mr. Gray built an L addition to his residence, when their meeting 
place was removed there, where services continued to be held until about 1858. 
For two years, about that time, no regular; services were had in consequence of 
want of a pastor. In i860, the society undertook to erect a house ot worship, 
which was completed and dedicated at the date above quoted. During the 
year this house was building, the Baptist brethren permitted the Presbyterians 
the use of the basement of their house of worship. After occupying their 
house until about 1865, some thirty of the members residing in the Mackay 
neighborhood conceived and carried out the idea of building up an organiza- 
tion at Oakville, which reduced the ability of the parent society to maintain a] 
pastor in Mount Carroll without m ssionary help. That help was withheld, and 
the society succumbed to the inevitable and abandoned the attempt to keepi 
up regular services, although the organization is still maintained. February: 
19, 1873, the church edifice was sold under mortgage to B. L. Patch for H. A. 
Mills. April 25, 1876, James Hallett purchased it back from Mills, and in May, 
1876, Hallett sold it to the Lutheran Church Society, who now own and occupy] 
it as their house of worship. 

Church of God. — The Mount Carroll representatives of this branch of the 
Christian Church (sometimes irreverently called Winebrenarians, because 
John Winebrenner was the founder of it), have maintained an organization 
since 1849. In that year Rev. D. D. Wertz was sent out here by the Pennsyl- 
vania Board of Missions, and collected the scattering members together as ai 
church organization. He remained a year or two and was succeeded by Rev.' 
Mr. Klein. About 1859 or i860, they built a small church edifice on the east' 
side of Dog Run, in what is now Halderman's addition. In the Fall of 1866 it 
was removed to its present site, on Main street, opposite the Union School- 
house, and is known as the Bethel Church. Until the last two months of the 
year 1877, the society maintained regular services, with but rare intervals. At 
the last meeting of the conference eldership, held at Pleasant Valley, in Jo 
l)aviess County, in October, Rev. I. E. Boyer, an old pastor of the society was 
appointed to the work for the ensuing year, but in consequence of other press- 
ing engagements, was not able to enter upon the work at once. The member-' 
ship is not large, but very earnest, and include some of the best men and women 
of the city. Their Sunday-school organization has always been maintained 
and is well conducted. Daniel Palmer is its superintendent. 

The First Baptist Church of Mouut Carroll. — Among the early settlers of Car- 
roll County were a {^w Baptists who made their home in Mount Carroll. When, 
these Baptists numbered fourteen they resolved to organize a church to bei 
known as the First Baptist Church of Mount Carroll. This church was organized! 
Aug. 28, 1853. Five of the fourteen constituent members are now ronnectedi 
with the church. The first meetings were held in the old Presbyterian Church 
which stood upon the ground now occupied by S. J. Campbell's residence. 
Here the society met until May, 1854, when it removed to the old court house. 
This it continued to use until it removed to its present site. The Sabbath- 



school met the first few months in the Seminary building, situated on the cor- 
ner of Market and Clay streets, now known as the Ashway Building. Oct. i, 
the Sabbath-school was moved to the court house till the Autumn of 1855, 
when church and Sabbath-school began to occupy the basement of their present 
house. Rev. J. V. Allison was the first pastor of the church, and remained 
from the organization of the church until the Autumn of 1859. During his 
pastorate the present house of worship was commenced and the basement fin- 
ished. Rev. T. P. Campbell succeeded him and remained till Aug. i, 1864. 
During his pastorate the upper part of the house was finished and dedicated. 
Nov., 1864, Rev. Carlos Svvift became pastor, and remained three years. He 
was succeeded by Rev. C. K. Colver, who was pastor from Jan., 1868, to the 
Spring of 1870. In June, 1870, Rev. C. T. Tucker became pastor, and re- 
mained until Oct. I, 1872. In December of the same year, Rev. H. B. 
Waterman became pastor, and remained until the following Dec. May, 1874, 
Rev. Geo. W. Wesselius was called to the pastorate and remained until July i, 
1875. July 25, 1875, Rev. J. H. Sampson, the present pastor, began his pas- 
torate. During his pastorate the house of worship has been completely re- 
modeled, refurnished, and a baptistry has been put in, making the main audience 
room home-like and attractive. The Sabbath-school is a marked feature in the 
work of the church and has an attendance of about two hundred. The aggre- 
gate membership of the church is 352, the present membership, 163. 

Lidheran. — The First Evangelical Lutheran Church of Mount Carroll is in 
connection with that branch of the Lutheran Church of America known as the 
General Synod of the United States, and to the District Synod known as the 
Synod of Northern Illinois. There is still a body within this body, to which 
this church belongs, viz.: The Northern Conference of the Synod of Northern 
Illinois. There is but one congregation connected with the charge or pastor- 
ate. Their church is situated in the City of Mount Carroll, on Clay Street, and is 
a brick building once owned by the Presbyterian Society, now disbanded, and 
having been purchased by the Lutherans in the Spring of 1876, was thoroughly 
repaired at a cost of about $1,200, and re-dedicated under the name of the 
First Evangelical Lutheran Church of Mount Carroll, Illinois. The building 
stands on two beautiful lots, in a good location, and together with the parson- 
age, this property is worth about $8,000. 

The congregation was organized on the 7th of August, 1858, by the adop- 
tion of a constitution and electing Mr. George Miller, elder, and Mr. John 
Rhodes, deacon. The following is a list of persons who signed the constitution 
at that time : George Miller, John Gelwicks, John Rhoades, John Erb, Mar- 
garet Miller, Elizabeth Gelwicks, John Tridel, Hannah Rhoades, Catherine Erb, 
Catherine Rinedollar, Adna Windle, Mary Tridel. Rev. J. M. Lingle, pastor. 
A church was built (still standing) in the year i860, the corner stone of which 
was laid on the 5th of July, the sermon upon the occasion being preached by 
Rev. D. Schindler. The church having been at last completed, it was dedi- 
cated on the nth of November, i860, while the Conference of the Synod was in 
session in this place. Rev. C B. Thummel, D.D., preached the dedication ser- 
mon. The congregation had a severe struggle until this was accomplished, 
Mr. George Miller and John Gelwicks, sacrificing much and laboring hard with 
their own hands until it was completed. The church cost about $2,000. It 
was sold by the society sixteen years afterwards, being at the time when the 
Presbyterian Church was purchased, as above stated, for $1,500. The society 
grew gradually in numbers, and while the record shows that a great number 
have removed from Moiint Carroll, there still is an active communing member- 
ship of eighty persons. The Sabbath-school connected with the congregation 
numbers about 150. The congregation is at present in a flourishing condition, 
carrying but a trifling debt, which might be wiped out in a few days. The fol- 
lowing is a list of pastors who have served the congregation during its history. 


Rev. Jolin M. Lingle was pastor six years. He was succeeded by Rev. D. 
Beckner, who remained one year and six months. Rev. Charles Anderson was 
the next pastor, who remained two years and nine months. He was succeeded 
by Rev. J. F. Probst, who remained but one year. Rev. C. Baird followed him, 
remaining four years and nine months. Rev. Charles Fickinger, the present 
pastor, took charge on the 19th of September, 1875, making his labors thus far 
nearly two and a half years. 

The record of the congregation for the year ending Sept. 1877, is the fol- 
lowing: Received into the church — 3 by infant baptism ; 3 by adult baptism ; 
12 by confirmation; 4 by profession of faith; 2 from other denominations. 
Removed, i by death ; i by letter; communicants, 80. 

The Sunday-school numbers 140 scholars, and 12 teachers, that dur- 
ing the last year contributed $40 for Sunday-school purposes. In its contribu- 
tions for religious interests, this church is very liberal, the records show the fol- 
lowing : 

For treasury of the District Synod, ^6.50; Home Missions, $13.65 ; For- 
eign Missions, $13.65 ; Education, $12.20; Church Extension, $6.50; Pastors' 
Salary, $700; Local objects, $700; Extra objects, $27. Total, $1,519.50, or 
an average per member of $18.99. Rev. E. Fickinger is the present pastor. 

Dtinkard or German Baptist. — This branch of the Christian Church has a 
very handsome house of worship and regular services, further mention of which 
will be made in a history of that church work in this county, to be found else- 
where in these pages. 


Masonic. — Cyrus Lodge, A. F. and A. M. commenced under dispensation 
December 5, 1855, and was chartered October 6, 1856. 

The members mentioned in the charter are J. H. Bohn, W. T. Miller, 
Peter Holman, Joseph Warders, Allen Sinclair, John Brown, Jackson Lucy, and 
others. These others consisted of B. L. Patch, B. P. Miller, Stoughton Cooley, 
E. Marsh and Geo. W. Coulter. The first officers were: J. H. Bohr. W. M.; 
W. T. Miller, S. W.; Peter Holman, J. W.; Joseph Warders, Treas.; Allen Sin- 
clair, Sec; Jackson Lucy, S. D.; Geo. W. Coulter, J. D. 

The dedication ceremonies were conducted by Rev. John Brown, who was 
acting Grand Master; Rev. Robert Beatty, acting as Deputy Grand Master; 
B. L. Patch, acting as Senior Grand Warden ; J. Lucy, acting as Junior Grand 
Warden ; E. Marsh, as Grand Tyler. 

The last return to the Grand Lodge reported 59 working members. The 
Lodge is in good working condition, and receiving many additions. 

Caledonia Encampment., No. 43, was instituted Tune 17, 1857, by J. B. 
Schlichter, D. D. G. P.; B. W. Marble, D. H. P.; J. C. Smith, D. G. S. W.: 
Wm. Fowling, D. G. J. W.; S. S. Winall, D. G. Scribe, all of the Encampment 
at Galena, 111. Charter members : Henry Shimer, B. L. Patch, Wm. Siouffer, 
D. E. Stovir, B. Lepman, Henry Page, and D. H. Stouffer. 

First officers : Henry Shimer, C. P.; B. L. Patch, H. P.; Wm. Stouff'er. S. 
W.; D. H. Stouff'er, S.; B. Lepman, Treas. 

Whole number that have belonged to the Encampment since its organiza- 
tion, 77 ; present membership, 45. 

/. O. O. F. — Carroll Lodge, No. 50, was instituted March 31, 1849, by 
John G. Potts, D. D. G. M., of Galena. The charter was issued July 25, 1849. 
The charter members were Geo. W. Harris, Evan Rea, Geo. Pyle, Jas. M. 
Stacy and Harlan Pyle. The following were initiated at the same meeting: R. 
P. Thorp, Geo. C. Thorp, A. Beeler, Benjamin McElroy, T. T. Jacobs and 
William Powers, 


First officers : Evan Rea, N. G.; Geo. R. Pyle, V. G.; Geo. W. Harris, 
Sec; Jas. M. Stacy, Treas.; T. T. Jacobs, Warden ; Robt. Knight, C.; Wm. 
Powers, I. G.; A. Beeler, O. G.; R. P. Thorp, R. S. N. G.; Geo. C. Thorp, L. 
S. N. G. 

The Lodge is prosperous and occupies a finely furnished hall in Keystone 

This Lodge has held regular meetings every Monday night since its or- 
ganization, in 1849. 

Admissions by card and initiations to the present time (Dec, 1877), 310. 
Present membership, no. The following named brothers have served the 
Lodge as Deputies and Representatives: R. G. Bailey, J. E. Frost, John 
Irvine, Geo. W. Stiteley, and Flenry Shiner. 

Hill City Lodge, No. 8, was instituted Sept. 28, 1874, by W. L. Sweeny, P. 
D. G. M., of Rock Island. 

Charter members : T. T. Jacobs, I.J. Petitt, D. Weidman, O. P. Miles, 
A. H. Sichty, S. Stakemiller, H. G. Fisher, Ethanan Fisher, C. D. Austin, C. 
Rosenstock, Oliver Swartz, J. M. Keiter, B. F. Aikens, A. H. Nyman, C. Hol- 
man, Jones Schick, S. Moore, R. B. Hallett, J. H. Stakemiller and L. D. Lee. 

First officers: H. G. Fisher, N. G.; Stakemiller, V. G.; L. D. Lee, R. S.; 
O. F. Reynolds, P. S.; Jones Schick, Treas. 

This Lodge holds regular meetings every Monday night, in their hall, in Bank 
Block. The charter members of this Lodge belonged to Carroll Lodge, No. 50, 
but withdrew therefrom and took their No. 8, from a defunct lodge at Spring- 
field, 111. 

A. H. Sichty and Ethanan Fisher have been Representatives to Grand 
Lodge, the former gentleman having also been Grand Representative to the 
Grand Lodge of the U. S., and also M. W. Grand Patriarch of the Grand En- 
campment of the State of Illinois. 

T. T. Jacobs, of Hill City Lodge, is the only surviving member of those 
who were present at the institution of Carroll Lodge, No. 50, and is the oldest 
Odd Fellow in the county. 

A. O. U. W. — This society was instituted Nov. 24, 1876, with 30 mem- 
bers. P. M. W., H. M. Ferrin ; M. W., H. G. Fisher; F., Seaborn Moore ; O., 
A. B. Nelson; R., W. D. Hughes; F., J. W. Miller; R., Thomas Squire; G., 
Solomon Lohr; I. W., C. D. Austm ; O. S. W., Sample Mitchell. The society 
is in a flourishing condition. 

Sons of Temperance. — Between 1845 and 1847, a division of the Sons of 
Temperance was organized, and was the means of accomplishing a great deal 
of good. For a while the organization was prosperous. About 185 1-2 the 
Hydraulic Company was organized, and under the impression that it was to dis- 
till alcohol, and that its products would not get into the market as whisky, 
almost every body took stock in the enterprise — some of the Sons of Temper- 
ance as well as others, and it is maintained by many of the old members that 
the temperance distillery killed the order in Mount Carroll. Father Irvine was 
not a friend of alcoholic distillery, but opposed it from its inception, and 
fought it with unyielding courage. For a time he infused a little new life 
into the temperance element of the community, but it was sickly at best. In 
1863-4 a Good Templars Lodge was organized, flourished only a little while, 
and gave up the ghost. In 1874, the present division of the Sons of Temper- 
ance was organized, and has maintained its organization to the present, accom- 
plishing much good. 

In November, 1877, under che direction of Dr. McCallister and Major 
Cooper, a great temperance revival was inaugurated, and a large number of the 
citizens donned the Red Ribbon. A hall was leased and fitted up, and the 
movement vitalized in every way. As the work of writing this history is being 
brought to a close, the members are thoroughly and effectively organized and 
promise great usefulness. 




The graded school system was organized about 1857 or 1858, under the 
management of Miss Witt. She was succeeded by Hayes, Long, Smith, et al. 
The i^resent fine brick Union school building was erected in 1866, at a cost of 
^16,000. The school has met the expectations of the people in every particular. 
The very best educational system has been maintained, and the best educational 
talent of the country has always been employed. The school is now supplied 
with an excellent library and all the modern appurtenances to aid the pupils 
in the prosecution of their studies. 

Present Corps of Teachers. — Principal, Prof. J. H. Ely ; Assistant, Miss 
Mary Mooney; Room No. i, Miss Mamie Irvine; No. 2, Miss Clara Fisher; 
No. 3, Miss Mattie Lumm ; No. 4, Miss Emma H. Tomlinson ; West Mount 
Carroll, J. Charles Ferrin. Prof. Ely has the reputation of being one of the 
ablest and most thorough teachers in the country, while his aids-de-camp pos- 
sess all the requisite qualifications to make good teachers — well educated, indus- 
trious and energetic. 


Among the numerous educational institutions that have been built up in 
the land of the ////;;/ and other parts of the Great West, there are not many, if, 
indeed, there are any, tliat suipass in influence, usefulness and capacity the 
Mount Carroll Seminary. The history of this place of learning dates from 
1852, and forms so important a part of the history of the county being written 
that it demands separate and distinct mention. 

About the year 1840 or 1841, Judge Wilson came to Savanna from Macoupin 
County, and was elected the second clerk of the county commissioners court, 


William B. Goss being the first one, elected in April, 1839. Mr. Wilson was 
the clerk of this court when the county offices were removed from Savanna to 
Mount Carroll, in September, 1844, and thus became thoroughly identified with 
the early interests of the county. He was a warm and ardent friend of educa- 
tion, and belonged to that class of men who would make education a compul- 
sory measure, as is the practice in Germany and some of the other European 
countries. He was a graduate of Yale College, and consequently possessed a 
collegiate education. Aside from this, he was a man of enlarged views and 
liberality, and warmly attached to that system and diffusion of education that 
would fit the lowest and humblest, as well as the richest and greatest, for any 
duty or position in life. 

In 1850, William T. Miller, of Mount Carroll, was elected to represent 
Carroll County in the state legislature. In 1852, there was an extra session of 
that body, when Mr. Miller presented and secured the passage of a bill, pre- 
pared by Mr, Wilson, incorporating the Mount Carroll Seminary. John Wilson, 
Nathaniel Halderman, Calvin Gray, Leonard Goss, David Emmert, B. P. Miller, 
James Hallett, James Ferguson and John Irvine, senior, were named as the 
incorporators. From the early records of this seminary, the following agree- 
ment is transcribed, as showing the plans and purposes of the incorporators : 

Whereas, It is intended to purcliase grounds, not exceeding one liundred and sixty 
acres, for seminary purposes ; also to erect a seminary building, within a distance of one 
lialf mile of the Town of Mount Carroll, in accordance with the provisions of a charter 
entitled "An Act to Incorporate the Mount Carroll Seminary," passed at the special session 
of the legislature, 1852 ; now, therefore, 

We, the undersigned, agree to take the number of shares of stock in the said sem- 
inary set opposite to our names, to pay therefor to the treasurer of the board of trustees of 
said seminarv the sum of live dollars for each and every share of said stock set opposite to 
our names, lespectively, in manner and proportion as follows, viz.: Five per cent upon 
receiving public notice, in some newspaper in Carroll County, that two hundred shares have 
been subscribed, and the remainder in instalments, not exceeding ten per cent during any 
subsequent period 01 three months; and provided, also, that any subscriber may, at_ his 
option, pay at any li me, after two hundred shares are taken, the full amount subscribed 
by him. 

And it is furtlier stipulated that the amount paid on the stock hereto subscribed shall 
bear interest, from tlie date of payment, at the rate of six per cent per annum, ]3ayable at 
the office of the treasurer of the board of trustees, in Mount Carroll, on the first Monday of 
July and January each year, until dividends shall be declared by the board of trustees, out 
of the protiis arising from said seminary. 

And it is further agreed that a failure to pay any instalment called upon our shares 
of stock respectively, for sixty days after the same shall have become due, and of which 
due notice of a call thereof shall have been given, shall authorize the board of trustees, at 
their option, to declare the stock upon which instalments shall have been called and shall 
remain due and unpaid, and allsumspreviouslypaid thereon, forfeited to said incorporation. 

Shares of stock were placed at five dollars each, and the old stock book 
shows that five hundred and forty-eight shares were taken, ranging from one to 
fifty shares to each individual subscriber, and, omitting the Misses Wood and 
Gregory — of which, more hereafter — representing eighty-three different indi- 
viduals. These 548 shares, at five dollars each, were supposed to be equal to 
$2,740, but the authority from which we are quoting shows that out of the 
entire eighty-three different subscribers, only six of them paid up their stock in 
full. These six were: R. G. Bailey, 5 shares, $25 ; E. Funk, 5 shares, $25 ; 
William Halderman, 10 shares, $50; T. W. Miller, 10 shares, $50; H. B. Puter- 
baugh, 2 shares, $ro; Thomas Rapp, 10 shares, $50. Total paid up shares, 42 ; 
total cash receipts from this source, $210; from partly paid up shares, etc., 
$750.75, making the grand total of cash receipts only $960.75. 

Synoptical. — Whole number of shares subscribed, omitting Wood and 
Gregory's, 548; supposed cash value, $2,740, Of this sum only $960.75 was 
ever realized in cash. Settled by notes, $300.75, on which but a very small per 
cent was ever paid. 


Such were the surroundings of the seminary, now so prosperous and popu- 
lar, in its early days. By means of a business correspondence with Isaac Nash, 
a wealthy farmer of Saratoga County, New York, Mr. Wilson learned of two 
young ladies of that county, graduates of the Normal School at Albany, who 
were desirous of coming West to engage as teachers, for which profession they 
had qualified themselves, intending to make it the business of their lives. These 
young ladies were Miss Frances A. Wood (now Mrs. Shinier) and Miss Cinder- 
ella M. Gregory. When the seminary was chartered by the legislature, Mr. 
Wilson opened a correspondence with these ladies, and, in May, 1853, they 
came to Mount Carroll as teachers, under the patronage of the seminary inter- 
ests. Soon after their arrival, they commenced their engagement in the second 
story of the building now known as the Ashway Building, and then the only 
brick building in town. At that time the land where the seminary buildings 
have been erected, down as far as the Baptist ChXirch, on Main Street, was a 
wheat field, valued at only $7.50 per acre, and considered away out of town. 
Although it was generally understood that these teachers were employed in the 
semmary interests, they were thoroughly independent of the board of seminary 
trustees. Only the influence of the seminary incorporators was behind them. 
They made all the necessary arrangements, provided the school room, paid all 
the bills, and collected all tuition fees. Their first term commenced on the 
nth of May, 1853, with eleven pupils, but closed with forty This select 
school (for it was ni reality "nothing more) was continued down town about one 
year and three months. 

When the Board of Trustees came to select a site for the contemplated 
seminary building, there was a remarkable vigilance on the part of land-owners, 
and the movements of the board were carefully watched. Wherever they per- 
ambulated, lands suddenly and rapidly increased in value. As an example : 
When the Misses Wood and Gregory came to Mount Carroll, in the Spring of 

1853, the lands from the depot down as far as the Baptist Church were held, as 
previously stated, at $7.50 per acre. But when a site was selected there for the 
seminary building, they jumped up in price to $100 per acre. The magical 
charms of Aladdin's lamp, as related in the tales of the Arabian Nights, were 
lost as compared with the touch of these trustees. But five acres were pur- 
chased for $500, and in 1854 a brick building 42 by 46 feet on the ground, two 
stories and a half in height, with basement, was erected thereon. This building 
was erected under contract at a cost of $4,500, not including window blinds, 
etc. It contained twenty rooms, and as soon as finished, which was in October, 

1854, the seminary formally organized under the charter, and the Misses Wood 
and Gregory emi)loyed as teachers at a stated salary of $300 per year each. 

About the time the building was finished, the teachers were enjoying a 
vacation, and had gone back home to Saratoga County, New York, on a visit 
to their friends. Money was borrowed to furnish the building, and forwarded 
to Misses Wood and Gregory with instructions to expend it in the purchase of 
such furniture as, in their judgment, was necessary. At the end of six months 
the creditors began to clamor for their money, and it was found that a new 
financial management was necessary to the success of the institution. The 
expenses exceeded the income. The stock subscribers became dissatisfied, and 
the corporators began to devise ways and means to shift the responsibility of 
the enterprise. At last an arrangement was made by which the two New York 
women agreed to pay the cost of the building, $4,500; the trustees to donate 
the furniture on condition that they (Misses Wood and Gregory) would continue 
the school for a period of ten years, and Rinewalt and Halderman donated five 
acres of ground. Subsequently, claims for money borrowed, etc., were pre- 
sented, which the plucky and enterprising teachers likewise assumed, on the 
condition of their being released from their ten years' obligation. All of this 
indebtedness, however, was not paid in money. Mr. Rinewalt, who had always 





been a firm and fast friend of the institution, as well as of the teachers, assumed 
and paid the furniture debt, in turn for which a life scholarship in the seminary 
was issued to his son. Thus it will be seen, as the history of this institution pro- 
gresses, that the seminary owes all of its successes, merit and popularity to the 
Misses Wood and Gregory — the former of whom was the financial and business 
manager, and the latter the school worker. All the help they ever had from the 
community in which the seminary has been built up, was the donation of the 
five acres of ground and about one thousand dollars of money paid in by the 
stockholders. In this connection it is proper to remark thatwh'en these women 
came to Mount Carroll, all their cash capital was about |8o, belonging to Miss 
Gregory — her sole savings of three years' teaching after their graduation. This 
was all that Miss Gregory ever put into the enterprise in money, either directly 
or indirectly — /. <?., nothing through her home friends as a loan or otherwise. 
Miss AVood had nothing at the time in her own right, but an indomitable will 
and determination. But with such a heavy debt hanging over them, without 
help from some source, their undertaking would have fallen. In the person of 
Isaac Nash, betore mentioned, who married a sister of Miss Wood, the institution 
had a friend in whom there " was neither variableness norshadow of turning," and 
he came to the relief of his sister and her co-laboror when relief was most needed. 
To his generosity, liberality and confidence in her ability, honesty and man- 
agement, Miss Wood acknowledges her obligations. To his help, when all other 
sources failed, she accords a larg^e share of the success that at last crowned the 
seminary of which she is now the sole manager and principal. Whatever of 
honor and fame attaches to this seminary, and it is wide-spread, should be 
equally divided between the Misses Wood and Gregory, and Isaac Nash, the 
financial and liberal farmer of Milton, New York. 

Referring to Isaac Nash, the seminary's best friend, Mrs. Wood Shimer 
says in her own language : 

"While true I came at the time empty-handed, my brother-in-law, Isaac 
Nash, coming with us and defraying my expenses, etc., I afterwards put into 
this enterprise a small patrimony received on the settlement of my father's 
estate, of about two thousand dollars. This, of course, was a little help, but 
quite inadequate to meet the exigencies liable to arise in such an undertaking, 
and here came in the valuable aid, as backer, of Mr. Nash, who not only stood 
ready to relieve any business emergency, but did so many things to contribute 
to our comfort and pleasure, and as one instance of his thoughtfulness, indulge 
me in giving you the history of my first horse and carriage in the West. In the 
Summer of 1S54, while I was East purchasing the furniture for the new semi- 
nary building put up by the trustees (for they entrusted this all to us) Mr. Nash 
said to me : ' You have always enjoyed driving so much, you must have a horse 
and carriage at Mount Carroll. Go to Saratoga with your Cousin David (whom 
manv of the citizens will remember spending the Winter of 1854-5 here) and 
select as handsome a carriage as you choose, and order a harness to match. 
Cousin David shall break Franky (a very fine young horse Mr. Nash had raised) 
to go single, and then he shall take the entire rig out to Mount Carroll for you.' 
All was done according to orders, and a few weeks after our return here in Sep- 
tember, 1854, Cousin David arrived with horse, carriage and harness. This is 
but one of many examples I might give of the thoughtful kindness of my 
brother-in-law. Mrs. Nash, my only sister, who was some twenty-one years my 
senior, and more as a mother to me, was also constantly mindful of our wants, 
and contributing with a liberal and untiring hand to our necessities and to our 
pleasure. To me it seems that such another noble, generous couple as my sister 
and her husband can rarely be found, and such untiring benefactors as they 
proved through all those years of labor and trial which must be met in the 
pioneer work of such an enterprise, but few are blessed with. That noble sister 
has gone to her reward. The brother-in-law, though now eighty years of age, con- 


tinues to pay me annual visits. I am now (December, 1877) in daily expectation 
of his arrival. That he enjoys witnessing the success that has crowned our 
enterprise, I need not say. 

"One other couple, 7/<?/ residents of this county, to whom I am indebted 
for much of encouragement in this work, I would name — Rev. Thomas Powell 
and wife, of Ottawa, Illinois. Mr. Powell became pastor of the church to which 
my parents and sister belonged (m Saratoga County, N. Y.) when I was a babe 
six months old, and thus the first ten years of my life, though not of a very 
appreciative age, I sat under his preaching, and to me he was the model i)reacher. 
Mrs. Powell I recollect as one of my very earliest teachers — the first teacher of 
whom I have any distinct recollection, as I began my school life at two and a 
half years of age (quite too young, by the way, for sensible children to go to 
school), and one for whom 1 entertained the greatest admiration (I had almost 
said adoration) of any teacher I ever had, and the lapse of over forty-five years 
has in no measure diminished the feeling, but matured it into the highest regard 
for both as friends and counsellors. Over forty years ago Mr. Powell came to 
Illinois under the auspices of the Mission Board, and the great pioneer work he 
so successfully achieved renders him peculiarly susceptible to, and appreciative 
of, sacrifices in others. Thus have I had a most valued adviser and sincere 
sympathizer in all my work here, and when he shall be called to his reward, 
Mount Carroll Seminary will lose a most valued friend. Long may that day be 

In 1857, the managers felt justified in undertaking an addition to their 
building, and, acting as their own architect and draughtsman — or draughts- 
woman — Miss Wood prepared the plans and specificaiions for an addition 21 by 
60, to the southeast part of the original building. This addition was all completed 
under her own immediate supervision. Mechanics were employed and paid by 
the day, and the closest economy exercised in every particular. This addition, 
like the original building, was raised two and a half stories above the basement, 
embraced twenty-three rooms, and cost the same as the first — $4,500. 

Success and popularity attended the seminary from the time it passed under 
the exclusive management and control of Misses Wood and Gregory. When 
it was formally opened by the trustees and incorporators, in October, 1854, the 
salary paid these ladies was only $300 each. When the original management 
grew discouraged, their united savings did not exceed $500, but they had con- 
fidence and faith in the enterprise, and they determined to make it a success, 
and when a woman once wills to do a thing, she generally does it. But here 
were two women with one will to accomplish the one purpose, and they suc- 
ceeded. The debt hanging over the institution when they assumed its manage- 
ment, and which they agreed to pay, was only an incentive to greater energy 
and determination. Seven out of every ten men would have shrunk from the 
undertaking, but these women seemed to accept the situation as a harbinger of 
success, and from April, 1S55, to the present, success has attended its every 
step. As its patronage increased, the debts were paid off, and new plans 
devised for its enlargement and improvement. Miss Wood planned and 
schemed and worked outside — in the school-room, when necessary; in the 
kitchen, when occasion required — superintended the building of the additions — 
painted (the cornices excepted) and papered some of them entire; contracted 
for the material wherever the most favorable terms could be had, and managed 
everything with a skill that defied opposition, while it commanded admiration. 
Miss Gregory was no less earnest among the pupils, and thus the work 
went on. 

Up to 1864, the seminary had been open to both sexes, but in that year it 
was closed against young men and boys, and devoted exclusively to the educa- 
tion of girls and young women. This was not because the management was 
opposed to educating the sexes together, but because the accommodations were 


not sufficient. On the contrary, the principal is in favor of the co-education of 
the sexes, and hopes, at no distant day, to be able to re-open tlie seminary to 
boys and young men. This year another addition was undertaken. This addi- 
tion was built on the west side of the first addition, was thirty feet in vvidth and 
seventy feet long, extending ten feet south of and taking in the first addition. 
Both additions were raised to a uniform height with the old building, which 
was unroofed, and the whole placed under one cover, presenting the appearance 
of one building. This last addition added thirty-eight rooms to the institution, 
all of which were larger than any previously provided. These enlargements 
and improvements cost about $ii,obo. 

A third addition of 40 by 100 feet at the northeast corner of the buildings 
already erected, was commenced in 1865 and completed in 1867. It has 
four stories and a fifteen-room attic — adding, all told, seventy-one rooms, 
and increasing the other conveniences in like proportion, and costing about 
$30,000. As in the construction of the other additions, so in this one. Miss 
Wood superintended the building from its commencement to its completion. 
She contracted for the lumber with Minnesota Mills, and had it delivered in 
strings of rafts at Savanna. There she contracted with planing mills to receive 
it, reduce it to proper dimensions for particular purposes, to dress it and deliver 
it on the cars, having also contracted with the railroad authorities to deliver it 
from Savanna at the Mount Carroll depot. In this way she maintains that she 
saved fully, if not more than half in the cost of the lumber as compared with 
the price asked by dealers here. Lime, glass, paint, paper, etc., were bought 
the same way. The stone used was taken from her own quarries by men hired 
by the day. 

'When the seminary was located, the owners of the lands thereabouts laid 
off an addition to Mount Carroll, and the town commenced to grow up that 
way. When the financial panic of 1857 fell upon the country, these improve- 
ments were materially checked. Wishing enlarged grounds, steps were taken 
to secure the vacation as a town plat of that addition, and the seminary inter- 
ests, by purchase, at $100 per acre, increased its domain there to twenty-five 
acres. These grounds were enclosed by a substantial fencing and planted with 
trees, shrubs, vines, etc., until it has become a garden of beauty, as well 
as an ornament, not only to the seminary, but to the town at which it is 

Retrospective. — From October, 1854, to April, 1855, the seminary was under 
the control of the incorporators. The last board ot trustees were Hon. John 
Wilson, president; J. P. Emmert, Esq., secretary; H. G. Gratton, treasurer; 
Nathaniel Halderman, William T. Miller, Garner Moffett, John A. Clark, Rev. 
W. W. Harsha and John Rinewalt. From April, 1855, to December, 1857, under 
the control of Miss F. A. Wood and Miss C. M. Gregor) . From December, 1 85 7 to 
July 18, 1870, under the management of Mrs. F. A. Wood Shinier (Miss Wood 
having married Dr. Henry Shimer). July 1870, the partnership between Mrs. 
Wood Shimer and Miss Gregory was dissolved, and the former lady became sole 
manager of the institution. Miss A. C. Joy, of Maine, an accomplished lady 
and thorough educator, is now associate principal. Besides her accomplish- 
ments as a teacher, she is a valuable business aid-de-camp to Mrs. Shimer in 
the management of the large and increasing business of the seminary. Dr. 
Shimer's present connection with the school is that of a lecturer, although he 
has, at times, served as one of the teachers, generally in the mathematical 

When he and Miss Wood were married, he did not assume any of the 
business duties of the institution, but preferred to leave its entire control in the 
hands of the one who had fashioned, shaped, guided and directed it to such 
magnificent success. A great student of Natural History, he has collected a 
choice cabinet for the use of the school. Competent judges assert that his 


ornithological collection is not equalled in any public institution in the 

Through the influence of Hon. E. B. Washburn, this institution was made 
one of the depositories of copies of all the public documents published at 
Washington, of which there are thirty to forty volumes of every session of Con- 
gress. Besides these, there is a library of about 3,000 volumes that is con- 
sidered very complete. The music rooms are furnished with the best of pianos 
and organs, as well as with the most proficient teachers. In all its details the 
Mount Carroll Seminary ranks among the best institutions in the country. It 
has ample facilities for the accommodatien of 180 pupils, and has turned out 
about sixty graduates since the adoption of a regular course of study, in i860. 
For the last ten years, it has maintained an average yearly attendance of 175 
pupils, coming from all the Western states. 

This great institution has been built up in a quarter of a century, and in 
the main is the work of one woman. When likely to fail under the manage- 
ment of men, this woman of the great head and iron will, aided and sup- 
ported by a no less determined sister, put her whole soul into the work, and has 
wrought out a position for the seminary that is an honor, not only to the state 
in which it has been built up, but to that national government, which is based 
upon the intelligence and virtue of its people. 

Referring to another one of the early friends of the seminary, Mrs. Shinier 
says : 

"When we came to Mount Carroll, Henry G. Grattan was editor and 
proprietor of the Carroll County Repicblican^ and deserves honorable mention 
for the aid he gave to this enterprise. He had no money to give, but gave 
space freely in the editorial columns of his paper, and through these, with the 
enthusiasm with which he worked for every enterprise that looked towards the 
improvement of the town, he gave more true aid to this institution in its incipi- 
ent year than all the money paid by the citizens of this county, which, as else- 
where shown, amounted to about one thousand dollars. Mr. G. long since 
retired from the editorial chair and is now a well-to-do farmer in Alamakee 
County, Iowa." 

The Normal Department is a valuable feature of the school. The princi- 
pal being a graduate of the New York Normal School, and thoroughly imbued 
with the value of that system of instruction for those having teaching in view, 
naturally has given prominence to this department. Hundreds of teachers 
have been educated here, and from their ranks many prominent positions in 
public and graded schools, in seminaries, academies and colleges, are being 
most successfully and honorably filled. The teachers from this institution com- 
mand a decided preference and the demand exceeds the supply. Of those in 
attendance the past year, over twenty-five had good positions secured within a 
month from the close of the school year. 

A second charter was obtained under date of February 25, 1867, which 
named Mrs. F. A. Wood Shimer and Miss Cinderella M. Gregory, as sole incor- 
porators. This charter granted full college powers of conferring degrees. 
Hon. Elijah Funk, one of the oldest and most honored citizens of the county, 
was the representative at that time, and gave his influence to the measure. 

Under the liberal management of the seminary, provision is made (ox free 
tuition to one teacher from each township of Carroll County, and one also from 
each county in the state. 

The Alanual Labor Department is another valuable feature of this school, 
affording the means to scores of the most worthy young women of securing an 
education and fitting themselves for positions of usefulness. This is not an 
Industrial School, as none are required to work. The object is merely to give 
the opportunity to those who could not otherwise enjoy the advantages of a 


seminary; to young women of energy and character, to work their way, earning 
their own education. There are, at this writing, above forty in this depart- 
ment doing all the manual labor of the institution, except the work of one 
laundry woman, one cook, and a matron. Thus, with the " Teachers' Pro- 
vision," giving time to those needing, and the manual labor provision, the way 
is open at this institution for any young lady of good ability, with energy and 
perseverance, to secure an education to fit herself for a sphere of usefulness. 

A Department of Telegraphy was established in January, 1878, largely for 
the benefit of a class of young women who wish to prepare for something that 
may enable them to be self-sustaining. A competent and experienced tele- 
graph operator has charge of this department, and makes the course not only 
complete, but tJwroughly practical, thus fitting a class for some other sphere of 
usefulness of business than teaching. 

In 1859, the Neosophic Society of the seminary established the first literary 
periodical of the school. It was to be sustained by the voluntary contributions 
of the students and conducted by a corps of editors elected by the students, 
and to be issued monthly; eight pages, each page 14 by 16 inches, of four 
columns to each page. The printing was done in the office of the county paper 
for about a year, at the end of which time the principal bought the office and 
complete fixtures and removed the same to the seminary, where the Seminary 
Bell was printed by the students, George R. Shaw, of Galena, a practical 
printer and student of the school, being foreman. The war was in progress, 
and during 1862 the call for volunteers took away the foreman. The expenses 
of running a paper v/ere largely increased. War news was about all the public 
cared for, and a complication of circumstances led to the suspension of the 
Seminary Bell. The war still raged and there was no certainty when it could 
be resumed. The press and material would deteriorate in value if kept, and 
the principal decided to sell the entire office while prices were high. For six 
years the school was without a printed paper. In 1868, the Oread Society 
established a monthly journal, quarto form, of 16 pages, which has steadily 
grown till it now comprises 28 pages, including a neat cover. The exchanges 
furnish ample matter for a reading room. 

A fact worthy of note is that this school has never resorted to the practice 
of nearly all others, in employing agents to solicit pupils and funds. Never 
have the principals asked a person for his or her patronage. Never has an 
agent been employed for such a purpose. Never has a dollar been donated 
to the enterprise by the public except the sum of about one thousand dollars in 
stock, elsewhere noted, and the original five acres of ground where the semi- 
nary stands. Of this the principal and present proprietor really had very 
little benefit, except of the five acres of ground, from the fact, as elsewhere 
shown, they paid the full cost, as per contract price, of the building, and the 
larger part of the cost of the furniture. 

Industry and economy were necessary to these accomplishments. These 
were exercised without stint. Not a tree, a shrub, or a vine, was planted on 
the grounds that was not planted under the supervision of the wonderful 
genius, whose magic touch made the Mount Carroll Seminary rise from chaotic 
confusion unto magnificence, splendor and usefulness. 


F. A. Wood Shimer, principal; A. C. Joy, associate principal and teacher 
of senior classes ; H. Shimer, A.M., M.D., lecturer on natur.'d sciences, anat- 
omy and physiology, and teacher of taxidermy; Caroline White, German and 
English; Ruth C. Mills, A.B., Latin, French and literature; Fannie L. Bulk- 
ley, A.B., mathematics; Virginia Dox, English; Sarah Clark, penmanship and 
class drawing ; S. B. Clark, painting, drawing, etc. ; L. M. Kendall, musical 


director; B. F. Dearborne, principal of vocal department ; Denise Dupuis, Clara 
A. White, Isabella F. Jones and Elizabeth A. Barber, music; Virginia Dox, 
singing class; C. A. White, elocution. Additional teachers in music employed 
during the year. Mr. W. F. Browning, department of telegraphy; Mrs. F. A. W. 
Shimer, financier; Mrs. S. M. Howard, matron; Mrs. A. M. Faulkner, house- 



There are four buildings, as has been elsewhere described, all so connected 
as to give the appearance of one building, presenting a west and north front 
of 256 feet. The first or original building gives a dining room, 42 by 46 feet, 
on the first floor. The second floor is used for library, office, reception room, 
and music room. Third floor for society and reading room, and private rooms. 
Fourth floor for private and trunk rooms. 

The second and third buildings give, on the first floor, school and recitation 
rooms, 32 by 70 feet, and four private rooms for young men, some six or eight 
being received in the manual labor department, for the convenience of their 
work about the buildings and grounds, all the advantages of the school being 
afforded them, the same as to the young ladies. The second and third floors 
are occupied for private rooms, and the fourth floors for studio and for music 
practice rooms. 

The fourth building, which is just being completed, has on the first floor a 
kitchen, wash room, dry room, ironing room, furnace room, foul air room, work 
shop, private rooms for employees, six dry earth closets, slop closet, and dry 
earth vault and closet, the whole ventilated by the same system as the entire 
building, and thus kept perfectly free from offence, as any part of a well ventilated 
building need be. The value of these arrangements, in a sanitary point of 
view, can not well be overestimated. The second floor has conservatory, princi- 
pal's rooms, sick and nurses' rooms, bath rooms, and water closets and slop closets 
on one side of main hall. On the opposite side, the entire length of the building 
(100 feet) is devoted to parlors and rooms for the musical conservatory, the space 
being divided into five rooms, each communicating by folding doors, making a 
most spacious music hall, when thrown into one room. The third and fourth 
floors are devoted to private rooms for students, all of which are neatly fur- 
nished, carpeted throughout with Brussels and three-ply carpets, beds (all with 
best woven wire mattresses), and all the possible conveniences of drawers, 
closets, cupboards, etc. Bath rooms, water and slop closets on each floor. The 
fifth floor has eleven practice rooms for music, ^sun-bath room, five trunk rooms, 
and tank rooms, furnished with a thirty-five barrel tank for hard or well water, 
and the same for cistern water. The water supply is complete, and of the best 
and purest water. The hard water is from a well one hundred and thirty feet 
deep, about fifty feet being in solid rock and the remaining eighty feet tubed 
with heavy galvanized iron. Thus there is no possibility of surface water or 
any impurities whatever getting into the well. The cistern water supplied to 
the soft water tank is from nine very large cisterns, connected by pipes at the! 
bottom. The two cisterns receiving the water from the different buildings are! 
furnished with the most complete filters, built in of brick covered with charcoal,] 
gravel, sand, etc. Thus the soft water tank is supplied with pure filtered water. 
The water is raised by pumps worked by wind power. The wind mill, with a| 
sixteen feet wheel, is built immediately over the well, and near the line of the! 
cisterns The pumps are so set that the mill works both pumps at the samej 
time, thus quickly forcing an abundant supply of water to the fifth floor of the! 
building described. The wind-mill house is a neat octagon structure, allj 


enclosed, with siding painted, and furnished with windows and bHnds. It is 
separated into three stories, making; convenient rooms for tools, etc. From the 
tanks in the attic, the water, both hard and soft, is carried to closets on each 
floor, thence to the basement, where the soft water is heated in two eighty-gal- 
lon circulating boilers, connected with the kitchen range, and, by its own 
pressure, returned (both the hot and cold soft water) to the bath rooms on each 
floor and to the rooms of the first building erected. The different bath rooms 
are furnished with metallic and rubber tubs for plunge baths, wood tubs for 
Sitz baths. Brown's steam tub for electrical vapor baths, and a complete shower 
bath, hot or cold, as may be desired. The system of plumbing is complete — no 
lead or galvanized pipes being allowed, to convey impure water to poison stealth- 
ily, but surely, those using such water-:— the warming, ventilating and sewerage 
all being as nearly perfect as is often found. The well water is also carried 
under ground to the gardens, supplying fountains and hydrants for all needed 
garden uses. The warming and ventilating is on the Ruttan improved system. 
The furnaces being so constructed, it is impossible to make the outer casings 
red-hot, and consequently the air is never " burned'"' thus obviating the objec- 
tion urged against heating by furnaces. 

The supply of pure air from direct outside flues is abundant. This is 
amply warmed (not burned) by contact with outer cases of furnaces, and from 
this goes direct to an iron reservoir, about eight}' feet long by five feet wide and 
two feet deep, and from this reservoir supplied to the nine stacks of brick flues, 
each stack having seven or eight independent flues, each of which supplies heat 
to a room. Every flue has a damper in the basement, which system of dampers, 
in connection with the registers in each room, gives perfect control of the heat- 
ing of the building. Every room is furnished with a thermometer, which the 
occupants are expected to observe, and when the temperature is seventy degrees 
Fahrenheit, the register is to be closed. If it falls to sixty-five degrees with reg- 
ister open, the occupant can report to fireman and more heat will be supplied. 
Thus, a very nearly even temperature (conducive alike to health and comfort) 
may with very little air be enjoyed at all times. 

The system of ventilation deserves special mention. All the floors througl^ 
the building are hollow, as also the main partitions from attic to basement. 
Under every window is a space of perforated base, which gives an opening from 
every room and hall to the hollow under the floor, which communicates with 
the hollows in the partitions, and is thus carried down to the foul air room in 
the basement, which opens directly to a ventilating chimney, some three by six 
feet in capacity, opening out at the apex of the roof. Thus, the draft of this great 
chimney upon the entire volume of air in the building naturally tends to exhaust 
the same from the building. The ventilating openings being at the base^ of 
room, where the coldest air and foulest air tends to accumulate, this is, of 
course, the first to be drawn off, and the pure air from outside, freshly warmed, 
is drawn upon to supply the air exhausted. 

Thus, as the rooms warm, which they do verv rapidly (almost instantane 
ously on opening the registej), and warm air is drawn off by this great chimney 
draft and passes through the hollows under the floors and down the hollow par- 
titions, the warmth is given out to the floors and partitions, till the entire build- 
ing is of an equal temperature, the floors and ceilings of the rooms being within 
a degree or two of the same temperature — a great improvement on the old plan 
of stove-heated, unventilated rooms, where the " head is baked and the feet 
frozen." With this system of complete ventilation, capable of changing the 
entire atmosphere of the building every thirty to sixty minutes, it is apparent 
that there is no need of open windows, exposing to cold currents, but on the 
contrary, however closely the windows and doors are kept closed, the more 
perfect will be the ventilation. Hence, every means are used ta make the 
building close. The walls of brick are thick and hollow, and then furrowed 


and lathed, to secure warmth and dryness. The windows are all furnished 
with double sash and outside blinds, all of which contribute to the warmth. In 
short, this system of warming and ventilating can scarce be improved upon. 

The sewerage, as well as closet arrangement, should be noticed, as the 
healthfulness of a large number together is so directly dependent on the success- 
ful arrangement of these details. The slops from kitchen, laundry, bath rooms 
and private rooms are all emptied into iron sinks in the different closets, etc. 
suitable, and thence conveyed by iron pipes down from the building into 
cement sewer pipes laid deep under ground, and thence to a ravine some fifty 
rods from the building. The waste water pipes are all abundantly supplied 
with stench traps, and, to make the whole more secure, ventilated by carrying 
a tin flue from the upper end of the waste pipe out by chimney to top of build- 
ing. Thus, there is no possible offence, no poisQning the air or earth to be con- 
veyed into the water, at some remote time to cause epidemics, etc. 

With such complete sanitary arrangements, may not the Mount Carroll 
Seminary continue to enjoy the immunity from sickness it is already noted for ? 
An elevator conveys all baggage from basement to any floor required. Clothes 
flues and dirt flues convey all clothes to the laundry, and all dirt to the dirt 
closet in the basement. Thus, with the added conveniences of water and slop 
closets on every floor, very much of the runnmg up and down stairs, often ob- 
jected to, is avoided. The entire buildings are fitted for gas. The gas house 
of brick is about eight rods from the seminary, v/here the gas is manufactured 
for lighting. It may be added that the first (oldest) building is also fitted with 
furnace and with water supply, and it is the principal's plan to have either fur- 
naces or steam introduced into the first and second additions, another year. 

For exercise, in addition to the ample grounds and the floored grape arbor 
300 feet long, we will notice the piazzas running the length and width of the 
first building, and length and width of last building, giving 500 feet for prome- 
nade, which is thoroughly enjoyed by the young ladies. 

We have been thus minute in our description, because it is a//, except the 
first of the four buildings, the work of a woman, she being the financier, the 
architect, the contractor, the builder, or superintendent of the entire work 
from day to day, nothing done "by contract," all by day's work, in every 
department, from the quarrying the rock for the foundation to the finishing 
stroke of the painter and the final furnishing. No board of trustees to advise — 
no male adviser in any department or any way. Let women learn to be self- 
reliant, and go and do likewise. In addition to the buildings, the same woman 
has made the grounds what they are. Beginning with five acres of naked 
ground, not a tree or shrub upon it, not even a fence to enclose it, she added to 
it till now there are 25 acres, enclosed with hedges and ornamental borders of 
evergreens and varieties of deciduous trees ; planted with vineyards and 
orchards, embracing every variety of fruits grown in this latitude; flower 
gardens laid out and planted; walks, play-grounds, and game grounds provided 
for; macadamized and graveled drives laid ; arbors, with shady seats ; fountains 
set; all projected; material procured, and work done under the immediate 
supervision of this same woman. Her own landscape gardener, orchardist and 
planter, every tree and shrub and plant passed through her hands, placing 
nearly every root in the ground herself, with, in most cases, inexperienced 
boys to do the digging, etc. During these years of laying out grounds, and 
planting hedges and trees, being at all times financier, book-keeper, secreiary, 
treasurer, steward and general overseer, this same woman must carry on her 
improvements out of doors through the day, and attend to the duties of her 
various other offices at night, thus much of her life taking only four or five 
hours' sleep of the twenty-four. If a change of cooks was necessary at any 
time, this same woman filled the vacancy for weeks, or till suited with a new 
one. If the cook was sick, as sometimes may happen, this same woman became 


cook and nurse. Such was the experience of the many of the early years of 
this enterprise. Say not that women are dependent. Every girl in our country 
should be educated to be self-reliant, and capable of being self-sustaining. 
Till this is the aim of every school for young ladies, our institutions are sadly 


Have never been encouraged or fostered to any extent. The organization 
of the Hydraulic Company, about 1851-2, had foritsobject the manufacture of 
alcohol. About that time spirit lamps were generally in use, and it was claimed 
by the projectors and managers of the Hydraulic Company, that an alcoholic 
distillery here would afford the farmers a profitable market for their surplus 
corn, while the distillery would prove a regular "bonanza" (the term was not 
in use then, however) to those who would invest therein. Investments were 
made, and the distillery was started, but by some sort of hocus pocus arrange- 
ment, the alcohol manufactured was not confined to the purposes claimed when 
the company was being organized. There were a few good men, among them 
Father Irvine, who had a suspicion from the start that it would not end well — 
that the distillery would be diverted to other uses than the making of alcohol 
— or, that at least the alcohol would not all go towards supplying the spirit-lamp 
demand. So a watch was kept on the establishment, and some of its barrels 
tracked away from the distillery and back again, and it turned out that the 
alcohol was taken to distant refineries, re-handled, turned into a good article of 
corn whisky, brought back and sold to different individuals — some of it, per- 
haps, returning to the farmers who had raised the corn from which it was made. 
This discovery created a furore of excitement. Good men — members of 
churches — were interested in the concern as stockholders, and to excuse them- 
selves, they claimed that after the production left the distillery, and was sold to 
other parties, they were not responsible for the uses to which it was put. But 
the excitement could not be controlled. It increased and extended. Friends 
of long standing became alienated, and finally the concern was abandoned, 
after having involved the Mill Company and some others in financial troubles 
that bore them down. 

In 1853, John Tridel started a foundry and commenced the manufacture of 
stoves, plows, etc. In 1854, a Mr. Kellogg became a partner, and afterwards, 
John Nycum and Henry McCall, Senior, were admitted as partners. The 
business was continued up to 1866, when the enterprise was abandoned. 

Messrs. Widney and Walker started a fanning mill factory, in 1855, and 
did a good business for five years, when, the outlook becoming somewhat 
clouded, they " shut up shop." 

The old mill is now under the proprietorship and management of Jesse M. 
Shirk, Owen P. Miles, and Nathaniel Halderman, under the firm name of 
Shirk, Miles & Co. This firm was organized in September, 1864. 

J. P. Smith, wagon maker and blacksmith, commenced operations 1854 or 
1855, and with the exception of the time he was in the army — going out with 
the first company and coming back with the last — has been in the business all 
the time. He is a good workman, employs none but number one mechanics, 
and turns out the best of work. 

J. W. Miller, carriage maker, commenced operations about the year 1872. 
He is said to be a superior workman, and that carriages of his make bear 
favorable comparison with those of any other establishment in the state. His 
shops are small, but steadily increasing in size and capacity. 

H. C. Blake, a son of Orleans County, Vermont, came here in 1864, and 
after engaging six and a half years in carrying the mail and staging it between 
Mount Carroll and Polo, in 1870, commenced a general blacksmithing busi- 


ness, making to order any thing needed in that line. His business is steadily 
increasing, and enlarged shops, greater capacity, and more workmen, are neces- 
sities of the near future. 

P. B. Cole is well established as a blacksmith and woodworker, and when 
times were good conducted a large and lucrative business. At one time his 
business was the largest in the Plum River country. For the last few years his 
attention has been more directed to the improvement and culture of his farm 
than his shops. 

Brickmaking. — This is the largest manufacturing industry prosecuted in 
Mount Carroll. James Hallett, practical brick maker and mason, came here in 
1847, and at once engaged in the business of making brick, and has continued 
in the business to the present without interruption. In the Spring of 1848, his 
brother, B. H. Hallett, became a partner with him, and until 1867, they re- 
mained together as brickmakers and builders. In April, 1867, the partner-^ 
ship was dissolved, B. H. Hallett withdrew from the business, and James con-™ 
tinned to operate in that line. His kilns are located in the northern part of the 
city, where an abundance of good clay is of easy access. All of the prominent 
buildings in the county are built of Hallett's make of brick, including the 
Seminary, Court House, Public School Buildings, etc. In 1863 and 1864, he 
operated a yard at Lanark. Since the last-named date, he has confined his 
operations in Carroll County to his Mount Carroll yard. His average produc- 
tions amount to 500,000 per year. In season he gives employment to twelve to 
fifteen operatives. 


The first newspaper started was the Mount Carroll Tribune, by Dr. J. L. 
Hostetter in 1851. It was printed at Freeport, although it bore date and pur- 
ported to be published here. It only lived a few months. 

In 1852, J. P. Emmert started the Mount Carroll Eepublican. Emmert 
sold out to H. G. Grattan, in the Winter of 1853. Grattan was a good news- 
paper man and gave the people a most excellent news journal. To his sagacity 
the people are indebted for the inauguration of many of their early enterprises 
and their prosperity. In 1855, Grattan sold the Republican establishment to D. 
H. Wheeler, and is now a successful and prosperous farmer in Alamakee County, 
Iowa. Wheeler continued the paper until 1857, when he sold out to D. B. 
Emmert. Emmert in turn sold to Dr. J. L. Hostetter, and emigrated to Kan- 
sas [where he again embarked in the newspaper business — his first venture in 
that line after arriving there being the Auburn Docket. Subsequently, he be- 
came editor of the Fort Scott Monitor, and a member of the Kansas Legisla- 
ture, and in 1869-70-71 was Receiver of the United States Land Office, at Hum- 
boldt]. Dr. Hostetter sold an interest in the Republican office to Dr. E. C! 
Cochran. In the meantime, George English had started the Home Intelli- 
gencer^ and soon after Hostetter and Cochran became associated as partners in 
the Republican^ an arrangement was made by which that paper and the Intelli- 
gencer were consolidated. Dr. Hostetter retired from the business, and was 
succeeded by Messrs. English & Cochran, who named the consolidated papers 
\\\t Republican and Intelligencer. This arrangement did not last long, the part- 
nership was dissolved. English renewed the publication oi \\\q Intelligencer, 
and Dr. Hostetter returned to the Republican. Mrs. Shimer and Miss Gregory 
bought the office of the Republican from Dr. Hostetter, and one of their teachers, 
named Silvernail, and a printer student, named Ladd, edited the paper a while, 
when it ceased to exist. 

Mr. English kept his paper alive during the election campaign of i860, 
during which time Volney Armour, Esq., was its editor. Soon after the elec- 
tion, however, its light died out, and the Intelligencer became a part of the his- 
tory of the past. 


The Carroll County Mirror was commenced in 1858, by Alexander 
Windle and I. V. Hollinger. Soon after the close of the war, Windle & HoUin- 
ger sold out to Captain J. M. Adair, who continued to publish tlie Afirror up 
to Sept., 1874, when he sold out to Joseph F. Allison, county treasurer. On 
January 14, 1875, Mr. Allison sold the office to W. D. Hughes and A. B. Hol- 
linger. In a few months thereafter, Mr. Hughes, who was a practical printer, 
and who had been foreman for Adair & Allison, bought out the interest of 
Mr. Hollinger, and has since continued to manage the paper in the interest of 
the republican party. The Mirror is a very excellent news journal and adver- 
tising medium. It maintains a large circulation, and is devoted largely to the 
local interests of the community in whose midst it is published. Mr. Hughes 
is not only an industrious man, but a worthy representative of the "art preser- 
vative " — a republican in whom there is neither variableness nor shadow of 
turning. He deserves and should receive a largely remunerative support. Mr. 
Hughes has been ably assisted in his editorial duties since Jan., 1877, by D.R. 
Frazier, Esq., a young man of more than ordinary ability and energy. Septem- 
ber 4, 1875, Frank A. Beeler, started the Mount Carroll Nnvs. This venture did 
not turn out well, and the 6th of April, 1876, the establishment passed into the 
hands of J. William Mastin, who changed the name to the Herald, and hung 
out an independent banner. At a later period, he issued a democratic pronun- 
ciamento, and gave the support of the Herald to the candidates of that party, in 
1876. January i, 1877, Mr. Mastin sold the office to Messrs. Hollinger & Ses- 
sions, who made it republican in politics, and by whom it continues to be man- 
aged. The Herald is an eight-column folio journal and is managed with credit- 
able ability. Mr. Hollinger is a practical printer of large experience, while 
Frank J. Sessions, the editor, is a young man of brilliant promise for usefulness 
in the journalistic and political fields. In all matters pertaining to the public 
good, X.\\G Herald is, fearless and outspoken. Locally, it is spicy and vivacious. 
The energy and enterprise of its management has commanded such respect as 
to secure for it a very large circulation, which steadily increases with the 
Herald'' s age. Mr. Sessions commenced newspaper work as local editor of the 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Daily Times. From that paper he went to the Weekly 
Times of the same city, so that he brought with him to the Herald vaXwahXt ex- 
perience. With Hollinger at the case, the make-up, the press, the stone, and 
Sessions to editorially shape the Herald's ends, the people of Carroll County 
have only themselves to blame if they do not have a newspaper that would do 
credit to any county in the state. 

Banking Interests. — In the Spring of 1853, Emanuel Stover and J. P. 
Emmert, under the firm name of E. Stover & Co., commenced a brokerage 
business. They transacted a small exchange business up to some time in 1856, 
when the firm was dissolved and the business discontinued. 

The first banking house proper, was commenced by Dr. A. Hostetter, in 
1855. Dr. Hostetter was a graduate of the Pennsylvania Medical College, and 
came here in 1845, bringing with him a large stock of drugs, and opened the 
first (exclusively) drug store in Mount Carroll, occupying a two story 
frame house on the site now occupied by the Minor Block, the lumber for 
which was hauled from Galena. After his bank had been in operation about 
one year (in 1856), he admitted a man named Riest as a partner, and the firm 
was known as Hostetter, Riest & Co. The business was discontinued in 1863. 

The third bank was started in the Fall of 1856, by H. A. Mills and M. L. 
Hooker, under the firm name of Mills & Hooker. It was called the Carroll 
County Bank. It was a private bank of exchange, and its transactions were 
confined exclusively to that line of business. About 1860, Mr. Hooker re- 
tired, but the bank continued under the firm name of H. A. Mills & Co., the 
"Co." being Mills' wife. This arrangement continued until April, 1864, when 
it lost its individuality in the First National Bank. 


This bank was organized April 2, 1864, with a capital of ^50,000. James 
Mark, president; H. A. Mills, cashier, and W. H. Long, teller. April 8, 1865, 
the capital was increased to ^60,000, and in October of the same year to 

January 11, 1870, D. Mackay was elected president, and H. Ashway vice 
president. January 10, 187 1, the capital was increased to $100,000. August 
I, 1874, H. Long was elected assistant cashier. 

Present capital, $100,000; surplus, $20,000. The average deposits range, 
from $50,000 to $60,000. 

Present Officers. — D. Mackay, president ; \\. Ashway, vice president ; O. 
P. Miles, acting cashier; D. R.Miller, teller; Miss R. E. Roberts, book-keeper. 
Directors — D. Mackay, H. Ashway, Uriah Green and John Kridler. 

Hotels. — The Chapman House, a stone building, is the oldest hotel build- 
ing. It was built in 1844, and has been so often mentioned in these pages that 
further mention is unnecessary. It is now owned by Mrs. James E. Taylor, J. 
F Chapman, lessee and manager. 

The Pratt House was built about 1845 or 1846, by James O'Brien. The 
original building was not large — in keeping with Mount Carroll's outlook at the 
time. In 1856, the present proprietor, A. L. Pratt, bought the property, and 
about 1870 built an addition, increasing it to its present size and capacity. 

The Jones House, in the Bank building, was opened in 1877 by A. Jones. 
For two years previous to this date, Mr. Jones had occupied a part of the rooms 
now used as a hotel, as a restaurant and boarding house. 

Mount Carroll was first incorporated under the general law of the state, in 
December, 1855. February 26, 1867, the present city charter was granted. 
The first election under the new charter was held in April following. Nathaniel 
Halderman was chosen niayor. 

The temperance question was the dividing issue — license or anti-license, 
The anti-license ticket was elected by 33 majority. In 1868-9 the license peo- 
ple controlled a majority of the votes, and saloons were opened. In 1870-1-2 
the anti-license people gained a majority, and the saloons were closed. In 
1873-4 the license party again triumphed, and saloons were permitted. Again, 
in 1875-6-7, the anti-license people came to the front, and the saloons were 
compelled to close up. 

Charles Phillips is the present mayor. 

Suspension Bridge. — Straddle Creek — Carroll Creek to ears polite — cuts a 
deep channel from east to west, through the northern part of the city. On the 
north side of it are handsome residence grounds, and when they began to ex- 
tend out that way where the deep, rock-bound channel cuts off a near approach 
from the business part of town, the residents over there were forced to go down 
Main Street via the mill, cross the creek below the mill dam, and then climb a 
bluffy pathway to their homes. When J. F. Allison became circuit clerk, and 
settled over there, he proposed to remedy the inconvenience, and inaugurated 
measures that secured the building of a suspension foot-bridge. Together with 
Mr. M. A. Fuller and H. C. Blake, they raised means, these three men pro- 
viding the most of it, and built the footway, shortening the distance between 
business and their homes nearly half a mile. The bridge is 267 feet long, 40 
feet above the water, 4 feet wide, and is suspended by two galvanized iron wire 
cables one and a half inches in diameter. Its original cost was about $800. It 
is kept in repair by private subscriptions, assisted in part by the city. 

Market Fair. — A monthly market fair association was organized in the 
early Fall of 1877, and the first fair held on the 15th of December, which was 
a very fair success, both in point of numbers in attendance, stock shown, etc. 




The first settlement by white people within the territory of Carroll 
County, was made on the land now occupied by the village of Savanna, in the 
Fall of 1828. That settlement was made by George and Vance L. Davidson, 
Aaron Pierce and William Blundell and their families, a full history of which 
will be found in the first pages of this book. Commencing there, settle- 
ments extended out in every direction. For many years Savanna was as noted 
as Galena. Before the days of railroads, it was an important shipping point, 
and hundreds of the pioneer settlers in this and adjoining counties found their 
way from their old homes by steamboats to Savanna. After their claims and 
future homes were selected, it was the point from which they received their sup- 
plies, and when they began to raise a surplus of farm products, a market was 
found by way of Savanna and the Mississippi River. In those days, the farmers 
from Rockford, Freeport and other points in that direction, came here to dis- 
pose of their commodities and buy their lumber, a^d such other necessities as 
their wants demanded. It is one of the oldest tow ^s on the Upper Mississippi 
and as such has a history within itself. Much of th at history has already been 
written, but there are many things yet to speak about. 

Until 1836, no steps were taken towards building a town at this point. In 
that year, however, Luther H. Bowen, having one year before bought the claim 
interests of George Davidson and Aaron Pierce, laid off the town of Savanna, 
and soon after opened a general store. Other trading places soon followed, 
and in 1839, when Carroll County was organized, Savanna became the county- 
seat, a distmction it maintained until the re-location of the county seat by a 
vote of the people, in August, 1843, and the removal of the county offices to 
Mount Carroll, in September, 1844. 

As the population increased, schools were commenced and church services 
soon followed. The first teacher was Miss Hannah Fuller, who taught a pri- 
vate or subscription school, as early as the Winter of 1836-7. In the Winter of 
1837-8, Dr. Elias Woodruff taught the " young idea how to shoot," and admin- 
istered healing remedies to such of the settlers as fell victims to the diseases 
incident to life in a new country. 

The Methodist people had religious services as early as 1836. These ser- 
vices were rendered by circuit riders — a circuit then extending over the terri- 
tory now embraced in perhaps a half a dozen counties. Meeting-houses there 
were none, but the doors of the settlers' cabins were thrown open, and every 
body went to church. The most active members of that denomination were 
George Davidson and wife, and William Blundell and wife. In 1838, the Ashby 
family, ardent and devoted Methodists, came in, and soon after their arrival, a 
class was formed and preaching became more frequent. In the Fall ot 1839, a 
camp meeting was held in the grove about one mile east of town, on land now 
owned by William L. B. Jenks. The presiding elder was Rev. Mr. Weed. 
Such were the beginnings of Methodism at Savanna, but the building of a 
church was not undertaken until 1849. In that year steps were taken to build 
a house of worship, and a small frame house was erected on lot No. 6, block 
No. 41, which, when completed, served until a larger and better one was com- 
menced, in 1868, and completed in 1869. The old church passed into the 
ownership of the school district, and was used for a school house. In time the 
scholars increased so that a larger house was a necessity, and it was sold to the 
Catholic Society, by whom it was re-fitted, and by whom it is used as a house of 
worship. The first religious services held in this building were conducted by 
the Universalist people before its final completion, and the first held in the 
present Methodist Church edifice, and before it was fully completed, were con- 
ducted by Rev. Mr. Edson, an Episcopal clergyman of Galena. 


In 1854, the Congregational people built a house of worship on lot No. 12, 
block No. 28. Rev. James Hill was the pastor at the time the church was built, 
and to his management belongs the credit and the honor of its erection. 
Regular services were continued by this people until 1867, when they were 
abandoned. After the walls of this house were up and enclosed, it fell into the 
nominal control of the school district and was used as a school house. At one 
time the old M. E. Church Building (now the Catholic), the Congregational 
Church, and two other houses, were used for educational purposes. Removals, 
etc., rendered the Congregational people too weak to maintain a pastor, and the 
undertaking was given up. 

The Presbyterians at one time had a small organization, and held their 
services in the Congregational Church. Rev. Mr. Harsha was their first pastor, 
and Rev. Mr. Hildreth the second. Neither the Congregationalists nor the 
Presbyterians now attempt to maintain regular pastors, although they both have 
occasional preaching. 

The Free Methodists have an organization, as have also the United 
Brethren, but neither are sufficiently able to maintain regular pastors. 

The Episcopal people, of whom there are quite a number, inaintain an 
organization, although not a legal one, and occupy the position of a missionary 
station. In 1872, they had a clergyman about one third of the time, as he could 
spare the time from his other posts of labor, and in 1876, Mr. C. Gibson, a 
preacher of their faith, labored among them. Bishop McLaren visited this 
station in May, 1877, and confirmed four persons. There are at present some 
twentv-five to thirty baptized members, including children. 

In the Fall of 1875, the friends of this church leased from the school dis- 
trict the building known as the Stone School House, and put it in complete 
repair, putting in new windows, floors, etc. 

The society now have a lease of the building for three years to come. 
Lay reading is kept up regularly every Sunday morning by Mr. Greenleaf, and 
preaching by transient clergymen, perhaps on an average of once a month. 

The Catholic Church was organized November 19, 1870, and bought the 
building first erected for a Methodist house of worship, but subsequently used 
as a school house, and which, at the time they purchased it, was the property of 
the school district. The society numbers about forty members. The society 
was organized and the church property purchased under the ministration of 
Rev. P. J. Gormley. Rev. Father Kilkenny, of Fulton, is now the officiating 
priest, and comes about once a month to administer spiritual consolation to the 
Catholic residents. The society is in good condition. 

Educational. — The present graded school building is a model of architect- 
ural beauty and convenience. It was completed and occupied in the Spring of 
1869. David L. Bowen was the contractor and builder, as well as the archi- 
tect and draughtsman that fashioned it. It rises three stories above the base- 
ment, is surmounted by a Mansard or French roof and heated by furnaces. It 
cost, including furniture, furnace, etc., about ^20,000. Four thousand five 
hundred dollars more were expended for the grounds, fencings, etc. A school 
of five departments is maintained about nine months of each year. George C. 
Mastin ib the present principal. Miss V. P. Batterton presides in the grammar 
department ; Daniel Stewart in the intermediate ; Miss Hattie Van Bebber in 
the second primary, and Miss Mary Northey in the first primary. 

The City Hall Building was erected by the corporation authorities in 1873, 
at a cost of about $r,6oo. The lower story is used for a city jail and fire-engine 
house. The upper part is fitted up for a public hall. It will seat about 200 
persons. The engine is the private property of the Germania Fire Company. 
This company has no legal organization. It is maintained as an independent 
volunteer company. 

Savanna'was made a point — and the only point named — between Cairo and 


Galena, in the original charter of the Illinois Central Railroad. Work was 
commenced on that line between Galena and Savanna, and the grading and 
culverts of twenty miles of the track completed. The embankments, fills, etc., 
are still traceable between Galena and Apple River. 

The Western Union Railroad was completed to Savanna in the Fall of 
1862. A grain elevator was built by the railroad authorities in 1863, with a 
capacity of 80,000 bushels. It is operated by steam. This year the company 
has made a good many improvements on their buildings here. 

The Rhodes Brothers are completing another elevator, to be operated by 
horse power. It will have a capacity of 40,000 bushels. 

The Savanna Exchange Bank, of Jeremiah Wood, was established in 1877. 

The W. U. R. R. Co. maintain repair shops here, that give employment to 
quite a number of men. 

Manufacturing Industries. — In 1865, Messrs. S. J. Herman and J. A. 
Stransky established wagon making and machine shops on a pretty large scale, 
and gave employment to quite a number of mechanics. Their wagons, etc., 
were of the best quality, and soon won for their makers a proud reputation. 
Their business prospered from the commencement, but mis'ortune overtook 
them and crippled the shops for a time. November 27, 1873, their entire 
establishment was burned down, carrying into ruins the machinery and tools 
that had been added from time to time during the eight years they had been 
established. A dissolution of partnership followed this disaster to the firm's 
business and hopes, and Mr. Stransky succeeded to the entire control and 
management of a business once so prosperous and promising, and immediately 
commenced re-building. The new buildings cost ^3,000, and, with the steady 
employment of seven men, he is rapidly "coming to rights" again. He could 
find room and facilities for the employment of twenty men, if the times would 
justify their engagement. These shops are devoted to the manufacture of 
plows, wagons, carriages, steam engines, and all kinds of agricultural machinery 
needed by the farmers of the adjacent country. Stransky's facilities for repair- 
ing all kinds of machinery are good, and, with his manufactures, his business 
reaches an aggregate of $10,000 a year. 

Messrs. Morse & DeWolf have an extensive planing mill, that, in ordinary 
times, is well sustained. Their machinery is ample and of modern make. 
They are energetic, industrious, pushing men, and their mills are valuable to 
the community in which they are established. 

M. DTuis' steam saw, shingle and lath mills are of long standing and suc- 
cessful management. They are located immediately on the banks of the 
Mississijjpi River, and when the mill is running logs are snaked out of the 
water by steam machinery, carried to the carriage-way, where they are soon 
made into lumber. Logs are bought in rafts or strings from Black River, 
Chippewa, Stillwater and Minneapolis log men. In former years, Mr. D'Puis 
has bought and made into lumber as much as 25,000,000 feet, and until within 
the last year the mills have been kept busy. Before the "hard times " set in, 
he often sold as much as $30,000 to $40,000 worth of lumber per year. In 
1852, his sales amounted to $50,000. But that was before the days of railroads 
in Northern Illinois, when people came all the way from Rockford, Freeport, 
and other interior points, for lumber. In 1853 and 1854, he had a lumber yard 
at Freeport, where his sales were large. 

Two breweries are located here. One is owned by J. Bogue, and the other 
one by Joseph Keller. The former is of small capacity. The Keller establish- 
ment is of larger capacity, and is in satisfactory operation. It was built in 1868. 

The abundance of timber here affords remunerative employment to a large 
number of industrious wood-choppers, especially in the winter season. 

Fishing. — About twenty-five men, whose homes are in Savanna, are con- 
stantly engaged in this industry. They operate with seines, and their employ- 


ment is highly remunerative. As many more men are indirectly engaged in 
the business as peddlers through the country. 

Cholera. — In 1853, this fearful scourge made its appearance in Savanna. 
During that year the cases were only occasional, but in 1854 its presence was 
quite general, and a large number of citizens were attacked with it. Some 
twenty cases proved fatal. Its first appearance in 1854 was in the month of 
July, lasting through August. The cholera, says Dr. Woodruff, was connected 
with congestive chills, and was followed by typhoid where the victims passed 
the congestive form. 

Newspapers. — The first newspaper was the Savanna Register. It was com- 
menced in 1854, by Charles Allen, as printer, assisted editorially by Smith D. 
Atkins, now of Freeport. A few months after it was commenced, the projectors 
of the enterprise sold the office to Mr. Grattan, who removed the material else- 

While Howlitt was publishing the Lanark newspaper, he printed a small 
sheet for Savanna, but it was more of an advertising sheet than newspaper. 

The first issue of the Savanna Weekly Times was a seven-column folio, 
printed at the office of the Shannon Gazette. It was dated June 19, 1875. J- 
. William Mastin was the publisher of the Gazette, as also of the 'limes. The 
local matter and advertisements were written up at Savanna, and sent to Shan- 
non to be put in type. This arrangement continued only ten weeks. Septem- 
ber II, 1875, was the date of the first issue of the Times, printed in Savanna., a. 
six-column folio, by Greenleaf & Mastin. The material of the Shannon Gazette 
was purchased and brought to Savanna at that time. This arrangement con- 
tinued until the following March, when Mr. Mastin retired, Mr. Greenleaf pur- 
chasing the entire office, etc., and continuing the paper as editor and proprietor. 
The Times has a bona fide circulation of about eight hundred copies, liberally 
supported by the business men of the city. The Times goes to all parts of the 
county, and is a creditable publication, not only to its manager and the town 
in which it is published, but to the county at large. 

As a matter of reference, it may be said that no one of the several papers 
published in Carroll County is designated by the authorities as an official organ, 
but each of them is paid a small sum for publishing the proceedings of the 
board of supervisors. 

The Savanna Circulating Library Association was organized in 1875. It has 
a library of 303 volumes. 

Savanna was first incorporated as a town in 18 — . It remained under that 
government until 1874, when a city charter was obtained. The first mayor 
under the city charter was Medard D'Puis. The present mayor is Jeremiah 
Wood. At the first election under the new charter, there was an animated con- 
test between the license and anti-license people. The contest was very close, 
but the license ticket was elected by a small majority, which has ever since been 

Monthly Fair. — An effort is making to establish a monthly fair and market 
for the exhibition and sale of stock. An organization for this purpose is already 
formed, with Munroe Bailey, of York Township, as president. The experiment 
was undertaken about six months ago, and two very creditable exhibitions have 
taken place. 

Business^ etc. — All told, there are about fifty business houses in Savanna. 
There was a time, anterior to the building of railroads, when there were many 
more. In those days, people came from Winnebago, Stephenson. Ogle and 
other counties to Savanna for their supplies — groceries, flour, etc. — and the 
merchants and traders drove a thriving and prosperous business. In the years 
1837-8, especially. Savanna was a kind of general depot, a grand trading point, 
and those interested there planned great things for the future, and expected to 
see their village become a city of tens of thousands ; but the building of rail- 





roads blasted their hopes, disappointed their expectations. As an instance of 
the immense trade of those days, it is recorded that one single merchant, Luther 
H. Bovven, sold two thousand barrels of flour during the year 1837. It must be 
remembered that there were other merchants doing a proportionate share of 
busmess, and that the population then was very meagre as compared with the 
population of the present day. 

Nestled down on a level plateau or savanna of land, at the foot of towerin^^ 
bluffs, crowned with a heavy growth of timber, Savanna has a very handsome^, 
if not picturesque, location. The business houses are, in the main, confined to 
one street, running parallel with the river, and extending nearly two miles in 
length. Some of the business houses are large, and carry heavy stocks They 
are supported by local trade, and carefully managed. Many of the residence 
houses are handsome and commodious. They are nearly all built of wood and 
brick, although the bluffs afford inexhaustible quarries of the best of building 
stone. The first brick house was erected in 1838, by Mrs. Harford It is now 
owned by Miss Ewing, of Clinton, Iowa. 

Such is the history of Savanna at the close of the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven, dating from the Fall of 1828 and 
compiled from data furnished by Dr. E. Woodruff, D. H. Bowen, John Orr and 
Simon Greenleaf, Esq., editor of the Savanna T/wes, and respectfullv dedi- 
cated to tne memory of Luther H. Bowen, the founder of the village, the first 
merchant, and for over forty years a useful and influential citizen. 


The Village of Thomson is an outgrowth of the Western Union Railroad 
It is situated on sections 24 and 25, York Township, in the centre of a very 
beautiful valley, hemmed in by the Mississippi River on the west, and a high 
range of bluffs on the east. At this point, the valley is very nearly four miles in 
width between the bluffs and the river, and Thomson is about midway between 
them. North and south the level prairie, dotted all over with well-cultivated 
farms, handsome houses and large barns, stretches away as far as the eve can 
reach. ■' 

The first house erected on the ground now occupied by Thomson was built 
by Norman Judson. It was of the kind known as a " grout house," and is still 
standing and occupied by Dr. Saund,ers. At the time Mr. Judson was building 
this house, there was an unmarried man here, and who remained for some time, 
but his name had escaped the memory of those from whom these data were gath- 
ered. That gentleman is now a resident of Morrison. Herman Worthington 
bougtht out Judson's interest ; Worthington sold to a Mr. Hoover, and Hoover 
sold o the railroad company. This tract of land is described as the west half 
of thf- southeast quarter of section 24. 

The village site was laid off by Messrs. Thomson and Smith, of the railroad 
company, in 1864. In 1868, Norman D. French bought out Thomson's inter- 
est, and March 6, 1867, Smith transferred his interest to Noah Green. 

The first buildings erected after the town was laid off were the Thomson 
House, now under the management of D. W. Herman, and the store rooms 
occupied by Mrs. Stephenson and J. O. Vallette. For two years after the sale 
of lots commenced, building was active. 

January 12, 1865, the first regular train of cars passed Thomson. In the 
middle part of this Winter, an old warehouse was moved down from Savanna, 
by Enoch Chamberlain, and re-erected near the depot buildings. Chamberlain 
occupied this building about one year, and then sold it to Noah Green. A 
little later, Dr. Snyder built an addition to this old building, which, in a short 



time, also fell into Green's hands. The warehouse is now occupied jointly by 
Noah Green and Norman Lewis, although they are not partners in business. 
Last year (1877) their bu iness amounted to $120,000. 

Green continued to manage the business alone for about two years after he 
bought out Enoch Chamberlain, when he admitted Mr. John A. Melendy as a 
partner. This partnership continued about two years, when Melendy retired. 

Educational. — In 1865, the first school was taught in Thomson. A Miss 
Brown, daughter of Noah Brown, was the teacher. When the building of a 
school house was undertaken, there were only five legal voters in the district, 
three of whom were school directors. The building was commenced in 1865. 
The house then fashioned answered the demands of the district until 187 i, when 
an addition was made for graded school purposes. The school is now com- 
posed of three departments, accommodating 150 scliolars, who are under 
charge of Professor McKay, as principal. 

Churches. — Two church edifices grace the Village of Thomson — the Chris- 
tian and the Methodist Episcopal. The Christian Church was built in 1866-7, 
at a cost of $2,000. The present membership is about fifty. There is no reg- 
ular pastor, but the organization is kept up. and services held whenever occa- 
sion presents for securing a preacher. Its Sabbath-school is in good condition, 
and numbers fifty scholars. John Murphy is the superintendent. 

The M. E. Church was built under tlie pastorate of Elder Campbell, in 
1870, at a cost of $2,500. The society numbers about seventy-five communi- 
cants, with a flourishing Sabbath-school of fifty scholars, of which Homer Judd 
is superintendent. Rev. J. S. Best is the preacher in charge of this work, and 
is serving his second year. 

Masonic. — Thomson Lodge, No. 559, A. F. and A. M., was chartered in 
1868-9. The following named brothers were the first officers of the Lodge : 
W. M., Peter Holman ; S. W., Noah Green ; J. W., R. D. Smith ; Treas., John 
A. Melendy; Sec, D. T. Hobart ; S. D., John Green; J. D., H. E. Osgood; 
Tyler, James Green. This lodge now numbers about fifty members, but is des- 
titute of a hall. 

On the evening of December 14, 1877, Volney Armour, Esq., and hiSj 
daughter. Miss Capitola Armour, of Mount Carroll, began a temperance work! 
in Thomson that continued until the evening of the i6th, that had a marked' 
efi"ect among the people. It was a Red Ribbon movement, and took in over 
three hundred persons — among them several hard and almost confirmed ine- 
briates. The older citizens of Thomson and the surrounding country took an 
active interest in the work, and the New Year (1878) dawned upon a happier 
state of things at Thomson than had been known for many a long day before. 

Thomson numbers about twenty business houses of various kinds, all of 
which seem to do a good business. It is a ship])ing port for a district of coun- 
try of ten by fifteen miles in extent, that is rich and well improved. To Captainj 
Dunn, a true patriot, an old settler, ex-sheriff of the county, and an enterprisingj 
and pushing business man, the readers of this book are indebted for the follow- 
ing statistics as showing the business transacted through the railroad stationj 
at this point for the last year, ending December 31, 1877: 

Stock— Hogs 113 cars. 

Sheep - 1 " 

Cattle 38 " 

Grain - - -412 " 

Total. - --- - 564 cars. 

Amount of freight received 2,186,580 pounds. 



Lanark is situated on section five, in Rock Creek Township. The first 
settler in this township was David Becker, who settled here in 1844, and made 
a claim of the land now included in the farm of Daniel Belding. Until Mr. 
Becker settled here, the primitive stillness had never been disturbed nor the 
soil broken by the innovations of civilization. The settlements, as elsewhere 
noted, had been confined to the shadows of the groves, and when Mr. Becker 
selected his claim and expressed his determination to settle "away out on the 
prairie," it was supposed he was making a very hazardous and foolish experi- 
ment — that no civilized white man or wliite woman could withstand the expo- 
sures and winds of an open, unobstructed prairie plain. But he only laughed at 
such objections, and ventured upon the trial. Time and industry proved his 
wisdom. His cabin was built, and while his neighbors in the groves were grub- 
bing, cutting and mauling away to make farms, he was enjoying the ease of a 
farm already made, the enclosures alone excepted. Soon after the selection of 
his claim, the virgin soil was turned over by the breaking team and plow of E. 
Spaulding and L. T. Easterbrook. The next settlers were Z. B. Kinkade, John 
Kinkade and Nathaniel Sutton, who came in the Spring of 1846, and located 
on section seven. Z. B. Kinkade was the next man after Becker to commence 
making a tarm by breaking up the prairie. Settlements in the townships were 
slow for a number of years, and until there was a prospect for a railroad, after 
which immigration was rapid. In locating the town, John Nycurn donated 80 
acres to the railroad company, and they purchased 80 acres more — making them 
owners of 160 acres. The company has contributed liberally, in lots, to most 
of the church societies. After the lands granted to the Illinois Central 
Railroad were selected, land entries were rapid, and nearly all were taken up 
for farms and homes — but very little being entered for purposes of speculation. 

From 1845 to 1850, the people of Northern Illinois were considerably inter- 
ested in devising ways and means for building railroads. Almost every neigh- 
borhood had a scheme of its own. Every settlement wanted a railroad, and 
many men who owned land that was intersected by cross-roads imagined that, 
if railroads were built, they couldn't fail to centre at his particular place. In 
some instances, magnificent plans were based on small prospects. Many towns 
were laid off — on paper. High-sounding names were given them and their 
streets and avenues, but their glory and prosperity didn't last long. They went 
down before more fortunate rivals, and are now only known in name. Among 
such towns in this part of Carroll County was Georgetown — about four miles 
north of Lanark, of which Messrs. Stanton, Turner and Puterbaugh were the 
proprietors. At one time, when the Racine & Mississippi Railroad bade fair 
to be a completed success, Georgetown had a promising future, but when that 
enterprise failed, Georgetown's glory departed. 

The first house built in Lanark was a small one-story frame structure, 16 by 
96,5intended for a boarding house, for the accommodation of the men employed 
in building the Lanark Hotel, now occupied by Samuel Deitrich. The old 
boarding house was built under the direction of D. W. Dame, and, when com- 
pleted, was put in charge of Daniel H. Stouffer and wife, the first family to claim 
an abiding place in the new town. That shanty-like structure has undergone a 
good many changes and alterations since that time, and is now included, for the 
piost part, in the building occupied by C. E. Wales & Co., as a hardware store, 
on the east side of Broad Street. 

When it was known beyond question that the railroad would be built, there 
was a rapid influx of aspiring business men. Situated in the centre of as grand 
a farming district as there is in Illinois, Lanark was conceded to be the "coiiiing 
town " in this part of the state, a concession that has been fully sustained by 


time and its developments. Building didn't drag, but men of brains, money 
and muscle, went to work with a will, and it was not long until all the promi- 
nent corners were taken and occupied. Where, but a few months before, there 
was nothing but an undisturbed prairie, with no really productive and remuner- 
ative farms within sight, all became hurry and bustle. Stores and trading places 
were opened just as fast as accommodations could be secured. The country 
around began to liven up, farms ^o be made, houses and barns to be built, 
every month adding some new improvement, until now, look out in any direc- 
tion, and evidences of wealth and comfort and progress rise up to relieve the 
eye's wanderings. From the old boarding shanty of a few years ago, Lanark 
has grown into a well regulated and well governed town of 1,500 people, whose 
homes and business houses give token of intelligence, thrift and comfort. Many 
of the business houses are large ones, their annual transactions reaching far up 
into the thousands. The founders of the town were wise and liberal in their 
establishment of the streets and avenues. They are not narrow, pent up, alley- 
like concerns, but wide and convenient, and, as they come to be occupied with 
residence houses, have been handsomely shaded, while wide, substantial plank 
walks line their sides from one end of the town to the other. With all the streets 
and avenues macadamized, as is the purpose of the citizens, Lanark will become 
as popular among non-residents for its attractive beauty as it is dear to the 
people whose homes are within its limits. 

The Lanark House was commenced on the first day of July, A.D. 1861, 
under the patronage of the railroad company. It may be regarded as the first 
house of more than one story completed in Lanark. Others soon followed, but 
it is the pioneer building of more than one story. 

The first business house was a small establishment, opened by " Uncle " 
Chauncy Grant and his one-armed son, William. Their stock was small, and 
did not exceed $150 in value. However, they prospered, and made some money 
and accumulated some property. Their old business stand is now occupied by 
Mishler, as a grocery establishment. 

Among the first houses erected here, was a one and a half story building, 
now owned by Andrew Tomlinson, the lower part of which is occupied as a fire 
engine house, and the upper part as a dwelling that has a history within itself. 
It stands on the east side of Broad Street, between Carroll and the railroad track. 
This building was first erected in New Orleans out of live oak lumber and timber 
for a warehouse. In later years it was taken apart, moved up to St. Louis, and 
re-erected on the levee at that city. When the steamboat interest became 
strong, and demanded the tearing away of the small warehouses, this building 
was again taken down and moved up to Savanna, and again re-erected as a 
warehouse. When the Western Union railroad track was established, it ob- 
structed the proposed track, and was condemned and ordered removed. Henry 
Pierce then became its owner and when the railroad was completed, the com- 
pany gave him free transportation for it, and he removed it to Lanark. Here 
it was again re- erected, and in the upper part two or three rooms were fitted 
up for family use, and were occupied by A. M. York, in whose family occurred 
the first birth and first death in Lanark. York came here as a young attorney, 
and hung out his shingle from this building, and used it both as a residence and 
a law office. When the war came on, he enlisted, and in due course of time, 
became manager of the Freedman's Bureau, at Paducah, Kentucky. After the 
war closed, he found his way to Independence, Montgomery County, Kansas, 
and was elected as State Senator from that district. While serving as such 
senator, an election of United States Senator occurred, in which York took an 
active part, and won a national reputation, by exposing the means (as he 
alleged) by which Pomeroy proposed to secure his re-election to the United 
States Senate, and sent up to the speaker a package of $7,000, which he declared 
Pomeroy had given him for his vote. He also acquired some notoriety by 


tracking up the murderer of his brother, Dr. York, and fastening it upon the 
Benders, who lived near Thayer, in Kansas. 

Since the time when these buildings were first erected in Lanark and the 
first business house opened, there have been many changes. Business houses 
increased in number and importance as the country around was developed and 
improved, until there are now about seventy-five establishments of various 
kinds — dry goods stores, clothing stores, grocery and provision stores, millinery 
establishments, grain elevators, lumber yards, etc. The aggregate business, is, 
perhaps, larger than the business of any other town in the county. The annual 
shipments of grain and stock are large — a statement of which will be found in 
another place. Besides the stores and other trading places, there are a num- 
ber of shops of various kinds, devoted exclusively to the demands of the farmers 
of the country surrounding. Among them all there are none that rise to the 
dignity of manufacturing establishments as compared with those of larger towns 
and cities, and which are the life and support of the communities in which they 
are located. But this is no fault of the Lanark mechanics. They are just as 
industrious, just as competent as the mechanics of larger places, and the only 
reason their shops are not larger is because the same practices exist here that 
exist in many other localities, to wit : people prefer to go abroad for a manu- 
factured article — a wagon, a plow, a cultivator, or whatever else they may need, 
to buying of their own home manufacturers. 

Of their church edifices and school building, the peo])]e of Lanark have 
just occasion to be proud. When the town was four years old, the people moved 
for the erection of a school house, the style and architecture of which should 
be in keeping with the character of the town that had been named in honor of 
the home county of the Glasgow (Scotland) banker who had advanced the 
money to build the line of railroad on which it was situated. In laying off the 
town, the railroad company, through Mr. Dame, as their agent, had designated 
one entire square or block, for the uses of a public park, and another square 
for the uses of a public school house. When the people came to consider the 
building of the school house, a controversy arose between them and the com- 
pany's agent, that resulted in the building of the house in an entirely different 
location. This controversy enters so largely into the history of Lanark, that 
the following proceedings of the board in relation to it are deemed essential: 

At a meeting of the board held on the 13th of May, 1863, notices were 
issued for a special school meeting to be held at the school house on Wednesday, 
May 25, 8 o'clock P. M., for the following purposes: "First, to vote upon the 
number of months school shall be kept the following school year; second, to 
vote upon building a house for a graded school upon the block of ground 
donated for that purpose by the Railroa