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Copyright, 1882, by Louis H. Everts. 

A RUN AH S. A BELL, Esq., 






the model newspaper of the United States. This great Structure, as it was Mr. Abell'-s creation, will also 
become his monument. It is a Perfect Piece of Work, "not built by envious show," yet symmetrical in all 
its Parts, and the Pride of the Generous Architect swells chiefly at the Fact that, as it was reared with no 
man's ruin and to no man's hurt, so there are none who witness its Prosperity with Envy or wish its .solid 
columns less stately in their vista. It is so built that there is always not only encouragement, but neces- 
sity, for its expansion ; its influence in the community, always large and strong, and always increasing, must 
ever be on the side of virtue, honor, justice, and enlightenment, since the public will never believe it 
capable of utterance or suggestion on any other side. 

The Founder's Sons may be expected to maintain in its pristine integrity, develop, enlarge, and beautify 
the original work ; but neither They nor the Public will ever fail to uphold him for its creating and per- 
fecting should he depart now, or should his life be spared to us for multiplied years, which all trust and 

prav, none more ferventlv than 




The preparation of such a work as the " History of Western Maryland" imposes a vast 
responsibility and an immense amount of labor. Years of study devoted to the subjects embraced 
in it, the encouragement of friends, and the enterprise of the liberal publisher induced the 
author to undertake the work. 

In the compilation of this history no authority of importance has been overlooked. The 
author hiis carefully examined every source of information open to him, and has availed himself 
of every fact that could throw new light upon, or impart additional interest to, the subject under 
consideration. Besides consulting the most reliable records and authorities, over fifteen thousand 
communications were addressed to persons supposed to be in possession of facts or information 
calculated to add value to the work. Recourse has not only been had to the valuable libra- 
ries of Baltimore, Annapolis, Frederick, and Hagerstown, but the author and his agents have 
visited personally the entire territory embraced in the six counties of Western Maryland, spend- 
ing much time in each district, examining ancient newspapers, musty manuscripts, family, church, 
and society records, conversing with the aged inhabitants, and collecting from them orally many 
interesting facts never before published, and which otherwise, in all probability, would soon have 
been lost altogether. In addition to the material partly used in the preparation of his " Chroni- 
cles" and " History -of Baltimore City and County" and " History of Maryland," the author has 
consulted an immense number of pampiilets, consisting of county and town documents, reports of 
societies, associations, corporations, and historical discoui-ses, and, in short, everything of a fugi- 
tive character that might in any way illustrate the history of Western Maryland. From these 
and a large collection of newspapers (more particularly a nearly complete file of the Hagerstown 
Torcldight, Mail, Spy, and Herald, which were kindly loaned by Messrs. Mittag, Bell & Wil- 
liams, and E. W. Mealey) great assistance has been derived. 

With the aid of Prof. Philip R. Uhler, the topography and geology, as well as the geog- 
raphy, of Western Maryland have received the attention which their importance demands. 
Sketches of the rise, progress, and present condition of the various religious denominations, pro- 
fessions, political parties, and charitable and benevolent institutions, societies, and orders form a 
conspicuous feature of the work. Manufacturing, commercial, and agricultural interests have 
also a prominent place. An account of the county school system is also given, and a history of 
the various institutions of learning of which Western Maryland has every reason to be proud. 
Many of the facts recorded, both statistical and historical, may seem trivial or tediously minute 
to the general reader, and yet such facts have a local interest and sometimes a real importance. 

An honest effort has been made to do justice to both sections in the relation of such events 
of the civil war as come within the proper scope of a purely local history. The author has made 
1 5 


no attempt to obtrude his own political views upon the reader, and has constantly kept in mind 
the purpose that has guided his labors, — to present a work free from sectional or partisan bias 
which shall be acceptable to the general public. 

Considerable space has been given to biographies of leading and representative men, living 
and dead, who have borne an active part in the various enterprises of life, and who have become 
closely identified with the history of Frederick, Washington, Montgomery, Allegany, Carroll, and 
Garrett Counties. The achievements of the living must not be forgotten, nor must the memories 
of those who have passed away be allowed to perish. It is the imperative duty of the historian 
to chronicle their public and private efforts to advance the great interests of society. Their deeds 
are to be recorded for the benefit of those who follow them j they, in fact, form part of the his- 
tory of their communities, and their successful lives add to the glory of the Commonwealth. 

A distinguishing feature of the work is its statistics of the various districts into which the 
six counties of Western Maryland are divided. In them the reader is brought into close relation 
with everv part of Western Maryland. The advantage of this method of treatment is obvious, 
embracing, as it does, narratives of early settlements, descriptions of interesting localities, and per- 
sonal reminiscences. The maps, views, and portraits are a prominent accompaniment, and add 
interest and attractiveness to the subjects which they are designed to illustrate and explain. Our 
acknowledgments are due to many friends, not only for a kindly interest shown in our labors, but 
for much valuable information, furnished in many cases without solicitation. 

In presenting the " History of Western Maryland" to the public the author feels conscious 
that he sends it forth with many imperfections. In the preparation of a work of this char- 
acter many minor inaccuracies and errors are almost unavoidable, the existence of which it is 
impossible to discover until the book has been exposed to the light of general criticism. It may 
not be considered presumptuous, however, to express the hope that its general conception and 
execution will be satisfactory to the community for which it has been written, and that it will 
prove useful and interesting to all classes of readers. 

J. Thomas Schaep. 

Baltimore, Feb. 10, 1882. 




Topography and Geology 13 

The Aborigines 46 

The Early Settlers 58 


The French and Indian War 74 

Logan and Cresap 101 

Boundary Lines Ill 

The War for Independence 121 


The Constitution and Union 161 


The War of 1812 174 

The Civil War 194 

First Year of the Civil War 211 

Maryland Campaign of 1862 227 

The Gettysburg Campaign 262 

Close of the Civil War 283 

Record of Maryland Volunteers in the Union Army in the 
War of 1861-65 298 

Record of Maryland Commands in the Confederate Army 
during the Civil War of 1861-65 329 

Political Progress 340 

Frederick County 358 



Land Grants and Resurveys 371 

The Bench and Bar 380 


Early Court Proceedings 416 

Public Schools, Internal Improvements, and Agricultural 
Societies 432 

Distinguished Men of Frederick County 449 

County Officers 476 

Frederick City 483 

Religious Denominations and Cemeteries of Frederick 
City 501 


Press of Frederick 527 


Banks and other Financial Institutions 538 


Secret Orders, Benevolent Societies, etc 545 


Prominent Institutions and Events 562 


Frederick County Districts and Villages 565 


Montgomery County 640 


Courts and County Officials 657 


Educational and Miscellaneous Matters 669 


The District of Columbia 686 


Internal Improvements in Montgomery County 696 


Montgomery County Districts 717 




Arms of William Penn and Lord Baltimore 116 

Baker, Daniel facing 568 

Baltimore City in 1800 166 

Barney, Commodore Joshua ISS 

Barnsley, Wm. B 780 

Battle of South Mountain 234 

Baughman, John W 532 

Biggs, Joshua facing 580 

Bowie, Richard J " 754 

Braddock, Gen 81 

Brooke, Roger facing 774 

Brown, H. C, Residence of " 573 

Barnside's Bridge 246 

Cashell, Hazel B facing 719 

Calvert, Charles. Fifth Lord Baltimore " 113 

Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton " 125 

Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton " 439 

Chase, Samuel " 384 

Clagett, Thomas, with Residence " 544 

Clemson, John 603 

Clemson, John, Residence of facing 603 

Congress Hall 62 

Cooke, Nathan facing 785 

Culler, John 580 

Davis, Allen B., Residence of facing 771 

Davis, Eli '• 606 

Davis, Henry W 387 

Deaver, Capt. H. T., Residence of facing 622 

Downey, William " 609 

Dulany, Danie! " 382 

Dunker Church 239 

Feaga, Wm. M 559 

Frederick, Sixth Lord Baltimore facing 360 

Gaither, Henry C " 600 

Gorman, Arthur P " 713 

Gott, B. C " 730 

Griffith, H " 737 

Griffith, Lebbeus, Sr 604 

Hanson. Alex. C 142 

Hanson, John 450 

Hobbs, Edward facing 601 

Hopkin.o, Johns 681 

Houck, Ezra facing 539 

Houck, Geo, Residence of " 571 

Howard, Gen. John E 176 

Hughes, Hon. C, Jr 192 


Hutchinson, H. M., Residence of facing 644 

Johnson, Reverdy 386 

Johnson, Governor Thomas facing 389 

Kenly, John R " 304 

Key, Francis S " 399 

Kunkel, Jacob M " 554 

L.akin, D. T " 435 

Lee, Gen. Henry 165 

Lewis, C. M., Residence of facing 623 

Lewis, Jacob, with Residence ** 572 

Lynch, John A " 404 

Map of Battle of Antietam " 240 

Map of Western Maryland between 12, 13 

Martin. Luther 383 

McElfresh, John H facing 415 

McMahon, John V. L 386 

McMurray, Louis facing 492^ 

McSherry, James 413 

O'Donnell, John C, Residence of facing 620 

Palmer, William P " 778 

Peter Cooper's First Locomotive 440 

Peter, M.ij. George facing 732 

Phillips, Lycurgus " 615 

Pinknoy, William 384 

Ray, Alfred facing 763 

Riley, P. C " 783 

Rouzer, John *' 630 

Schaeffer, William A " 735 

Scharf, J. Thomas Fronthpiece. 

Schley, Fairfax facing 448 

Shriner, E. A., with Residence " 624 

Smallwood, Gen. William " 138 

Smith, Gen. Samuel 167 

Staley, Cornelius facing 557 

Steiner, L. H " 488 

Stocks and Pillory 420 

Strieker, Col. John . 168 

Taney, Roger B 394 

Thomas, C. K., Residence of facing 574 

Thomas, John H 341 

Trail, Charles E facing 540 

Urner, Milton G " 409 

Williams, John T " 607 

Winder, Gen. William H 187 

Wirt, William 385 

Young, Isaac facing 727 


Sjtefraved ejepressli^ for Sclxcwi's Ki^taru 

'RiiilTa\ed expi'essli) th]- Schnrfy HistoTy 






The section of country embraced in the following 
descriptive outline is a long strip, running from east 
to west, widened on the ends, and extending from 
the western boundary of Baltimore County to the 
extreme limits of Maryland next to West Virginia. 
It consists of six large counties, among the most fer- 
tile, varied, and populous in the State. These are 
Frederick, Montgomery, Washington, Allegany, Car- 
roll, and Garrett Counties. This region is bounded 
on the north by Mason and Dixon's line, which 
separates it from Pennsylvania, and on the south by 
the Potomac River, whose bending channel breaks the 
outline into a series of long and short curves, and cuts 
it oflF from West Virginia and Virginia. It might 
be regarded as of the form of a low bridge or arch, 
the keystone of which would be placed at Hancock 
(where the county is narrowed to a breadth of only one 
and a quarter miles) ; the wider end would rest on 
the District of Columbia, and the narrower end would 
stand on the source of the north branch of the Poto- 
mac River. The length of this strip is about one 
hundred and forty miles, and the width is about fifty 
miles, from north to south, across the east, and nearly 
thirty-six miles, in the same direction, across the west 

It embraces almost every variety of surface within 
the State, the lowlands at tide-water and the ocean 
shores only being excepted. For convenience, the 
region may be divided into four great sections, 
marked by well-distinguished features of the surface, 
and coinciding sufficiently with the groups of rocks 
upon which it rests. 

' Contributed by Prof. Philip R. Uhler, president of the 
Maryland Academy of Sciences. 

As no part of the Tide-water Belt strictly oc- 
curs within this territory, the first to be noticed is the 
Midland Belt. It begins about five miles back 
of the inner limits of the tides in the rivers, such as 
the Potomac and Patuxent, and extends westward to 
an oblique line running from the mouth of the 
Monocacy River to the sources of Piney Creek, in 
Carroll County. 

The second is the Blue Ridge Belt, which runs 
from the basin of the Monocacy and the head-waters 
of Piney Creek to the west side of the summit of the 
Blue Ridge, or South Mountain range. 

The third is the Great Valley, extending from 
the western side of the summit of South Mountain to 
the corresponding part of the summit of North Moun- 
tain. It is occupied chiefly by the extension of the 
Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania, which is widely 
known as the Hagerstown Valley, and which, south- 
west of the Potomac River, becomes the great Valley 
of Virginia. 

The fowth is the extensive Appalachian Belt. 
This is pre-eminently the mountain region, and ex- 
tends from the summit of North Mountain to the 
western boundary of the State. 

Each of these divisions includes smaller belts and 
tracts of country, which may be recognized by a dif- 
ference in the quality or color of the soil, and by the 
kinds of native rocks which rest near the surface. 

Midland Belt. — This embraces the greater part of 
the two most eastward counties, Montgomery and 
Carroll. The lowest lands occurring within its limits 
belong to the southern extremity of Montgomery 
County, where the primitive rocks dip beneath the 
soil to stretch off under the deep basin of the Chesa- 
peake Bay. These are tracts of clay, gravel, and 
sand, the former resting directly upon the eroded 
surfaces of granite, gneiss, and hornblende, and the 



latter spread over the surface of the low hills of clay 
and rock by floods and by the retreating tides of a 
former ocean. Several of these areas reach back into 
the country for a distance of nearly seven miles, while 
the more gravelly portions are confined to a belt vary- 
ing in width from two to five miles. The clay area 
extends through the District of Columbia and Prince 
George's County into this region, chiefiy along the 
ancient valleys of the streams, spreading more broadly 
from thence, and covering parts of the adjacent hills. 
On the northwest of the former the surface rises grad- 
ually by a series of rounded plateaus, until it cul- 
minates about twenty miles back in the folds and 
crest of Parr's Ridge. An altitude of about nine hun- 
dred feet is now attained, and the backbone of this 
range is seen to stretch away from near the Potomac 
River on the southwest in a wavy line, through the 
eastern part of Carroll County in a north-northeast 
direction, then wi'h a backward bend as Westminster 
is reached, and acioss the boundary into Pennsylvania. 
It forms a high fold in the talcose slates, which, de- 
composing, serve to furnish a fairly light and kind 
soil, capable of being made very productive of all the 
cereals and fruits of temperate eliiuates. A fine agri- 
cultural tract is also seen to spread away on both sides, 
presenting large farms of real fertility, and attesting 
the thrift of the inhabitants, whose ample barns and 
well-kept houses greet the eye on every hand. The 
soils belonging to this system of rocks extend as far 
as to the base of the Sugar-Loaf Mountain on the 
west, interrupted in the west corner by the red sand- 
stone soils, and on the east extend as far as to the 
boundary of the archrean lands on Rock Creek. They 
also send ofi' two tongues of the same kind of soil, the 
one reaching to near the northern . angle of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and the other running parallel 
with the Putuxent River as far as to the source of 
Paint Branch. The ridge forms the dividing line 
between the creeks and rivers which flow towards the 
east and south and those which course southwest and 
west. • In most parts the scenery offers a pleasing va- 
riety, but the wildest and most romantic spots are to 
be met with in the thinly-settled section on the head- 
waters of the various tributaries of the Patuxent River. 
There the hills are abrupt, high, and broken, flanked 
along the sides by lower and more rounded knobs, 
which have lost their former angular summits by 
reason of the softer and less resisting materials of which 
they are composed. Deep, sudden ravines, set with 
angular and piled-up rocks, are seen at frequent in- 
tervals, and through these the limpid waters of the 
rivulets and branches leap with never-ceasing activity 
over moss-covered bowlders, amid the tangled branches 

of flowering bushes and creeping vines. On these 
ridgy hills, too, the principal forests still remain. 
Second-growth trees of various kinds — oaks, hickory, 
walnut, beech, maples, sour-gum, dogwood, tulip-pop- 
lars, elm, hazel, a few pines, and numerous chestnut- 
trees — still serve to cover the wilder places and store 
: the moisture to feed springs and rivulets. 

As usual, the dark-gray and silvery minerals com- 
posing the rocks of this region are attacked by the at- 
mosphere, frost, and heat ; they crack into slaty joints, 
I change to a rusty color, and then disintegrate into a 
pale-yellowish micaceous and aluminous soil. Moisture, 
supplied by the morning and evening vapors, creeps 
into these, in common with many other kinds of cleav- 
j ing, cracking rocks, carries carbonic acid and other 
! solvents into the interstices between the grains, and 
j sets up chemical activities which rapidly reduce them 
to powder. 

Commencing in Montgomery, on the southeast, the 
country rises by series of water-worn plateaus, or hills, 
with shallow, narrow depressions intervening, giving 
I the effect of interrupted table-lands. The roads in- 
< tersect ledges and masses of granite, gneisses, horn- 
[ blende schists, and, at the lowest levels, the black 
hornblende rocks. As in Baltimore and Howard, so 
here, this latter seems to be the bed-rock which un- 
j derlies, holds, or gives rise to all the later ones of the 
j formation. It crops out in the beds of the streams, 
I such as Rock Creek, Paint Branch, and the tributaries 
of the Potomac south of the Great Falls, and is also 
indicated in places adjacent to the Patuxent. It un- 
derlies the mica schists where in most places their 
lower exposures are visible, and it forms bowlders on 
! the sides of the hills and partly in the drift of the 
I lower and central parts of this county. 
I Crossing the rolling slope which descends immedi- 
I ately west of Parr's Ridge, the valley of the Monocacy 
River is reached, and the talcose slates become more 
aluminous. Here and there chains of high domes 
I stretch from the northeast towards the southwest, aud 
L the higher swellings are seen to be composed of the 
I tougher beds of the rock, while the lower undula- 
. tions appear more shattered, broken next the surface 
into small fragments, and exhibit marked evidences of 
decay. Near the mouth of the river erosion and 
frequent washings have opened out a wide basin, 
I which is now covered by the alluvium of this stream. 
i It has thus brought some of the best fertilizing ingre- 
dients of the distant rocks within the reach of the 
agriculturist, who has thus been enabled to profit by 
the opportunity to secure most abundant crops of In- 
dian corn, clover, hay, etc. On the northwestern side 
of this county a broad belt of red sandstone hills runs 



down to the bed of the Potomac River. They begin 
a little east of Seneca Creek, and extend to within a 
few rods of the mouth of the Monocacy River. These 
rise in their more central parts in majestic piles, like 
huge ranges of masonry, swelling to a height of more 
than one hundred and fifty feet above the basin of the 
Potomac. Colossal chimney-rocks stand up like tall 
sentinels on the dark-brown walls of precipitous sand- 
stone, and craggy peaks jut out at various angles over 
the vast piles of overthrown blocks, which join to at- 
test the power of the forces that have snapped them 
apart and pitched their shattered fragments upon the 
buttresses below. This is a section full of delightful 
scenery, and beset with a multitude of surprises for 
the attentive eye. It abounds in objects of the weird 
and grotesque, and is quite unlike any other part of 
the great triassic framework to which it belongs. The 
great river itself spreads away in a silvery sheet 
through solitudes broken only at distant intervals by 
the lonely bird or the more fearless hunter or fisher- 

Montgomery County has an area of five hundred 
and eight square miles ; it is the most southern of the 
counties included in the present notice, and 
in an eminent degree those peculiarities of surface, 
soil, and climate which contribute to the health and 
prosperity of the inhabitants. It is about twenty- 
eight miles long from northwest to southeast, by 
about twenty-three miles wide on its northern bound- 
ary, and seventeen miles across its southern ex- 
tremity. No mountain ranges actually exist within 
its limits, but, instead, the system of high hills known 
as Parr's Ridge crosses it diagonally a few miles from 
its northern border. The hills and plateaus already 
described occupy the chief parts of its surface, and 
serve to separate the numerous rivulets, branches, and 
creeks which so abundantly water almost all sections 
of its territory. Although large tracts of uncleared 
lands appear on the uplands and undulations next 
these water-courses, yet large farms have been cleared 
in most parts of the county, and others of even greater 
size form the larger part of the area in the more north- 
ern and central divisions. The upper part of the great 
plateau around Sandy Springs, which was originally 
but little better than a sandy waste, has been almost 
turned into a garden by the energy and intelligence 
of the inhabitants. An almost endless variety of soils 
appears as the different parts of the country are ex- 
amined, and in nearly all the natural quality is well 
adapted to the purposes of agriculture. The north- 
ern and western portions are especially the home of 
the grasses and cereals ; the warm hillsides promote 
the growth of the grape and fruit-trees ; the small 

fruits succeed well on the more loamy and sandy de- 
pressions of the midlands and more southern sections, 
and in the bottoms the native bushes, flowering shrubs 
and plants form a varied and comprehensive collec- 

In the expanded portions of the old beds of the creeks 
the decaying leaves and other vegetable matter, drifted 
down from the higher levels, joined to the washings 
brought down by freshets and overflows, lias placed 
vast beds of humus and rich soil within easy reach of 
the florist and horticulturist. The more rocky streams 
are decorated by the kalmia, or common laurel, which 
grows in thickets between the gray rocks, in the loose, 
rich soil. In the spring the golden blossoms of the 
leatherwood, the sassafras, the clear lilac of the Hous- 
tonia, and the delicate pink of the Chiytonia add a 
cheerful brightness to the tender verdure of the open 
woods, while the advancing summer is made rich by 
the fragrant flowers of the magnolia and azaleas, the 
showy sepals of the dogwood, the clustering bloom of 
the snowy viburnum, the odor of the wild grape, and 
the splendor pf the native lily. The waters, too, are 
studded with the huge, fragrant rosettes of the pond- 
lilies, and teem with the numerous varieties of pickerel 
plants, water plantains, arrow-heads, and a host of 
others too numerous to mention. Alders group them- 
selves on the damp spots of the basins, the swamp- 
maples spread their broad limbs over the pools, and 
the greenbrier binds the crown of the bushes in a 
maze of perpetual green. 

Between the mouth of the Monocacy River and 
Seneca Creek the brown sandstone hills were formerly 
covered with a luxuriant growth of the sugar-maple. 
An abundant supply of sugar was obtained from the 
trees, and this industry was one of great importance 
to the inhabitants. But now these forests are re- 
placed by other kinds of trees, forming a later growth 
of uncommon variety. Chestnut, red, black, and 
other oaks, ash, hickory, elm, walnut, and, most of 
all, false locust grow in thick woods, set with a dense 
undergrowth of bushes, creepers, and grape-vines. 
At intervals, where the hills are eroded to near the 
water-level, wide lowlands stretch back into the coun- 
try, the margins of which are occupied by large speci- 
mens of the sycamore, sour -gum, and occasionally the 
tulip-poplar. The vistas across these broad plains are 
broken here and there by low spurs of hills, which 
stand out like islands. These are usually wooded, 
fade out imperceptibly into the lowlands, and form a 
rich relief of dark color to the paler and yellower 
greens of the grasses and cereals of the wide-spreading 
fields. Usually the remote background, two or more 
miles away, is formed by higher hills of similar dark 



green, rendered more soft and blue by the distance, 
while in the interval are large farms of high culture, 
with excellent houses, immense barns, and numerous 
haystacks. Herds of cattle, groups of horses, and 
flocks of sheep have their appropriate places on the 
open undulations and in the meadows, giving a pleas- 
ant air of animation to the scene, and adding to the 
enjoyments of rural life. Milk is abundant, and the 
water is soft, pure, and plentiful. Little rills pursue 
their way in unbroken steadiness through these 
meadows, or burst with impetuosity from the rocky 
hillsides to plunge into the creeks beyond. 

Much of the successful farming of this county has 
been due to the free use of lime. The soils being 
naturally sour, require the addition of this sub- 
stance or plaster of Paris. Some of the farmers 
along the high-roads leading into the Frederick Val- 
ley, or near the line of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal, transport the limestone to their farms, where 
they burn it in kilns, and then oifer the surplus for 
sale to their neighbors. The stone is brought either 
from the western section of the red sandstone or from 
the valley of the Monocacy, in Frederick, and is partly 
of the variety known as calico-rock, or Potomac 

The region around Brookville and the valley of 
Hawling's River have likewise been enriched by the 
intelligent use of lime. Although naturally thin, and 
being composed in part of the magnesian minerals de- 
rived from serpentine and talcose slates, they have 
been transformed into some of the richest and most 
productive lands in the county. The region west of 
this gradually changes into the ophiolite, or serpentine 
formation. It consists of a series of rounded hills, 
running from the ridge on which Damascus, Cracklin- 
town,etc., are situated, and continued in sloping spurs 
towards the basin of the Patuxent River. This belt 
of country, which widens as it enters the county, pro- 
ceeds southwestward, and maintains a breadth of about 
three miles, until it fades out before reaching the Po- 
tomac River. A wide strip of pine woods stretches 
along the greater part of its length, occupying a chain 
of low hills, on which the soil is the poorest and thin- 
nest in the county. 

The whole country is abundantly supplied with 
streams of water, which rise in the uplands, and 
stretch away towards the creeks and rivers by passing 
through the bottoms and around the hills. Five prin- 
cipal systems of drainage are found within its limits, 
— the Patuxent on the east, the northwest branch of 
the Potomac and Rock Creek on the south, Seneca 
Creek on the west, and the Monocacy on the northwest. 

The Patuxent Eiver rises in the corner of Parr's 

Ridge next to Howard County, in a region of high 
hills, very picturesque, and full of rugged rocks, dis- 
posed in almost endless variety. More than a dozen 
of its little tributary branches start from springs in 
the dark rocks, push their way in tortuous threads, as 
twisted as the arms of an octopus, leap over sharp 
bowlders, and whirl along as rapids in the wider gaps, 
until they have settled to a level low enough to unite 
with the waters in the deeper trough of the river. 
At first the river proper is a comparatively narrow 
creek, forcing its way into deep ravines between the 
hills, rushing violently through cracks in the rocks, 
and forming cascades by plunging from the bowlders 
which stand in its path. But after leaving the bar- 
riers west of Triadelphia it rapidly widens, and be- 
comes a strong, full stream, running with great rapid- 
ity in a more steeply-cut channel. At occasional 
intervals it spreads (where the softer rocks have given 
way) into shallow basins, in the midst of a fine over- 
growth of white and other oaks, and through almost 
impenetrable thickets of bushes, shrubs, and vines of 
various kinds. East of Sandy Spring the river has 
piled up for hundreds of feet back beyond its present 
channel vast areas of clay and reddish micaceous soil, 
which stand like cliifs and barriers on either side. 
From a remote period it has been the great sewer for 
the drainage of a large part of this and the adjoining 
(Howard) county. 

During the great ice ages the amount of solid rock, in 
the form of bowlders, gravel, mineral paste, grit, and 
mud that it has contributed to the estuaries of the 
former Atlantic Ocean is only to be estimated by the 
enormous beds and deep deposits of these substances to 
be seen in crossing the counties of Prince George and 
Anne Arundel. Along the border of Montgomery 
County it can only be estimated as a broad, rapid 
creek ; but at a distance of twenty-five miles south of 
this limit it becomes a large river, navigable for 
schooners and vessels of moderate size. 

The Potomac River bounds the whole length of 
the western side of this county, and receives numerous 
tributaries from the adjoining hills, but its description 
properly belongs to the general belt of counties, in 
and where it will be found. 

The northwest branch of the Potomac River is but 
a small creek in this county. It rises in two princi- 
pal branches, fed by several small brooks in the re- 
gion southwest and south of Sandy Spring. It runs 
in a somewhat zigzag southeast course between the 
sandy and clay hills, through a ratlier depleted coun- 
try in which the red clay and heavy soil abounds. 
After having pursued a course of about twelve miles 
amidst the tangled bushes and low woods, it passes 



beyond the boundary, two miles south of Burnt 

Kock Creek, — The next system of drainao-e to be 
noticed is that of Rock Creek. This is an important 
stream, carrying a large body of water, fed by several 
tributaries along both bank.s, and supplying water- 
power to numerous grist and saw-mills. It rises in 
the region northwest of Brookville, in the midst of 
craggy masses of talcose schists, which are traversed 
by innumerable veins of white quartz. The rills 
which form its source leap down from the silvery 
rocks in frequent cascades, cool and limpid, shaded by 
bushes, tangled vines, and canopies of ferns ; then 
breaking into rapids as they strike the bowlders in 
their path, they finally spread out in a broad, active 
stream as the vicinity of Rockville is reached. The 
creek passes through a pleasantly diversified country, 
uncovering here and there along its margins the ledges 
of hornblende, gneiss, steatite, and sienite which un- 
derlie the soil. Along its banks the decomposing 
rocks yield red and yellow lands of decided fertility ; 
a large part of these have been cleared, and while 
some parts have been worn out by crops of tobacco, 
others now comprehend some of the best-tilled farms 
in the county. The copious supply of water afforded 
by this stream and its tributaries has fed the trees and 
contributed towards the growth of a luxuriant vegeta- 
tion. The original forests which here covered the 
land were formed of the grand old white oaks, with a 
numerous company of other oaks, of several kinds of 
hickory, of walnuts, tulip-trees, maples, gums, syca- 
more, and dogwood, with a varied retinue of bushes, 
flowering shrubs, and creepers. Now their successors, 
of less impressive size, still luxuriate in the rich allu- 
vial soils of the bottoms, or spread along the misty 
summits of the hills. Everywhere the horizon is 
bounded by a stately belt of verdure, which gives 
variety and freshness to the dull uniformity of the 
plowed fields and denuded hillsides. After running 
in a southwestern course for about fifteen miles, the 
creek crosses into the District of Columbia, and finally 
buries itself in the Potomac River within the limits 
of Georgetown. A great part of its bed is clogged by 
the bowlders of hornblende and gneiss which have 
been torn from the sides of the uplands by the furious 
floods which have penetrated the region. 

Seneca Creek next claims attention as forming 
another separate outlet for the waters of the county. 
It rises by numerous tributaries in the high country 
bordering the fork of Parr's Ridge, and is separated 
from the head-waters of the Patuxent River by only 
the outlying barrier of talcose slates which curves 
from the vicinity of Damascus to Cracklintown, and 

continues thence to Mechanicsville and beyond. Some 
of its sources start in the dark mounds of serpentine 
rocks which contain the chrome-iron ore. The tribu- 
taries at its head bend in almost countless curves to 
evade the frequent hills and swells of surface studding 
that section. On the eastern side it receives three 
large branches, — the Whetstone, Long Draught, and 
Dawes' Branch, and on the western side the Little 
Seneca and the Dry Seneca, all of which are fed by 
copious and constant springs. Taken altogether, it is 
a long and wide-reaching stream, extending nearly 
across the entire width of the county, bending into 
sudden loops towards the west until Dawsonville is 
reached ; next with equal abruptness it stretches south 
with fewer bends, and then straightening out, it emp- 
ties into the Potomac River. It passes in most parts 
through a country abounding in round-top single hills 
and short knobs, although the whole system of swells 
belongs to a broad fold of the surface whicli. runs 
almost to the Potomac River, and includes two minor 
folds, known as Oak Ridge and The Pines. This 
higher district is peculiar to the eastern side of the 
creek, and is chiefly built into the magnesian rocks, 
with thin and lean soils. On the western side, north 
of the Little Seneca, the rocks are chiefly talcose 
slates of green and red tints, largely invaded by veins 
of white quartz, and extensively shattered into joints 
inclosing angular fragments. " Between the Little 
Seneca and Buck-lodge branch the quartz is more 
porous, the pores lined with black oxide of manga- 
nese, and occasionally inclosing specular oxide of iron. 
In this direction the talcose slate varies in color from 
red to grayish and blue, assuming a more decidedly 
slaty character, and finally passing into the true clay- 
slate. About the region of the Dry Seneca, and 
stretching to the mouth of the Seneca proper, the 
rocks are red and gray sandstones and shales, whilst 
near the mouth of the Monocacy River, and between 
it and the Little Monocacy, the sandstone varies in 
color from gray to red." This rock also assumes a 
difference in texture and composition, ranging from a 
fine-grained, uniform sandstone to a gritty and uneven 
conglomerate. The creek, including its numerous 
windings, has a total length of about twenty-six miles, 
ar>d, together with its tributaries, drains an area of 
more than one hundred and thirty-six square miles. 
At its head-waters the country is wilder, much diver- 
sified, and well pervaded with ledges and beds of 
broken rocks, but as the creek widens and takes on 
its well-settled form the region is more extensively 
cleared, farms appear on every hand, and the wood- 
lands are more restricted to the tops of the hills and 
to the rocky alluvial basins of the stream. After 



crassing the Rookville turnpike it becomes a creek 
fully thirty feet wide, runuiiig through a well-defined 
trough, extensively bounded by alluvial banks, and 
continuing in a slowly widening channel until, near the 
splendid aqueduct which crosses it and carries the 
water of the canal, it becomes a full stream at least 
sixty feet wide, and almost equaling the Monocacy in 
its volume of water. The brown soil through which 
it passes in its lower division imparts some of its color 
to the creek, so that the stream is usually seen to have 
a rusty brown tint. 

Besides the larger streams already described, a mul- 
titude of small branches pour into the Potomac River 
from the ravines opening out on that side of the 
county, and thus an abundant supply of water is seen 
to be secured. But here as elsewhere the injudicious 
clearing away of the forests has laid the surface open 
to the sun, and the springs which formerly supplied 
the rivulets that fed the creeks and rivers have become 
dry, and a great volume of water has accordingly 
disappeared from the larger streams. 

The Monocacy River has several small tributaries 
which rise in the slate-lands within the western part 
of this county. But the only considerable one of these 
is Bennet's Creek. It starts from many sources among 
the broad, round, clay-slate hills southwest of Damas- 
cus, and bending westwardly, passes behind the Sugar- 
Loaf Mountain to empty into the river. Like most 
of the other branches which have their sources in the 
slates, it bursts forth from cavities in the midst of the 
shattered rocks, and pursues its course in deep chan- 
nels along narrow ravines, expanding but little in its 
course, and finally passing out into the wider stream 
through alluvial beds of its own construction. 

The resources of Montgomery County are adequate 
to the wants of a large and varied population. In- 
dustries of nearly all kinds possible to an inland 
country can be successfully conducted within its 
limits. As already noticed, ample water-powers for 
driving mills and machinery are present in nearly all 
the larger streams. The Great Falls of the Potomac 
pours the heaviest volume of water to be found in the 
State. Broad belts of alluvial soil suitable for mea- 
dows and fitted for the grazing of stock are present in 
the northern and western sections, and the mild cli- 
mate, pure water, and fresh air of the higher districts 
supply the first requisites for a healthy and thriving 
population. Gold, copper, and chrome occur in the 
metalliferous range of formations bordering the central 
belt of magnesian rocks ; brown sandstones, granites, 
etc., for building purposes, abound within easy access 
of the canal, and fruit culture can be conducted to an 
immense extent. 

The native animals of the region have been the 
black bear, gray wolf, panther, wild-cat, gray and red 
fox, raccoon, opossum, mink, marten, weasel, field hare, 
ground-hog, skunk, fox-squirrel, gray squirrel, flying 
squirrel, chipmunk or ground squirrel, common mole, 
star-nosed mole, shrew, white-footed mouse, jumping 
mouse, and several others of this group, the hoary and 
two other kinds of bats, the otter and muskrat in the 
waters, and the common rat and mouse in the barns 
and houses. The wild beasts have been exterminated, 
and so have the elk and caribou, but the red deer is 
said to be still a casual visitor of the wilder sections 
near the Potomac River. 

The birds still form a numerous assemblage, rich 
in species, attractive in habits and song, and finely 
varied in plumage. The famous mocking-bird, with 
the brown thrush and meadow-lark, are at home here, 
with more than twenty varieties of warblers ; several 
kinds of wading birds, and the belted kingfisher, the 
blue heron, the white egret, the bittern, lesser heron, 
night heron, fly-up-the-creek, and several other kinds 
find congenial hunting-grounds along the shores of 
the streams. The birds of prey, such as the golden 
and bald eagle, the fish-hawk, and a score of hawks 
and owls, add to the list, while the various swallows, 
martins, swifts, pigeons, doves, and woodpeckers 
serve to furnish a catalogue of forms of great diver- 
sity and eminent beauty. 

The reptiles and fish likewise comprise numerous 
species of curious appearance or of value for food. 
Among the former, the great snapping-turtle, the 
slider, two kinds of mud-terrapins, the musk-turtle, 
the land-tortoise, the gray swift, and six-lined skink 
may be mentioned as conspicuous and well-known 
creatures. Of the worm-shaped reptiles, the dreaded 
rattlesnake and the copperhead still occur among the 
low rocks in the wilder parts of the back country, 
besides which three kinds of water-snakes, four vari- 
eties of garter-snakes, the blowing viper, the chain 
and milk-snakes, the great horse-runner and common 
black snake, the delicate green snake, and a dozen 
other species aflFect most parts of the region where 
vegetation grows thickly. Of frogs, most of the kinds 
common to the Atlantic region occur in moderate 
numbers. Thus two forms of toad, two tree-toads, 
the bull-frog, leopard frog, woods frog, savannah 
cricket, and spring frog are numerous in most of the 
low grounds and wet meadows. The Crustacea are 
represented by four kinds of crayfish, the fresh-water 
shrimp, and a host of sow-bugs, besides the minute 
forms peculiar to the streams and ponds. 

The insects form an almost countless assemblage of 
both noxious and useful forms. Beautiful butterflies 



of large size and brilliant colors abound in the fields of 
clover, fly swiftly along the edges of the open woods or 
settle upon conspicuous flowers standing by the river's 
brink. Gay sphinxes protrude their long beaks into 
the throats of the tubular flowers, and four kinds of 
large silk-worm moths find a home in the forest or 
field. Attractive but noxious wood-boring beetles 
destroy the hickory, walnut, and oak trunks or limbs; 
and the fruit-trees are sometimes attacked by the 
^Eycri'a, plumb weevil, apple-moth, or web-weavers, 
and measuring caterpillars of many varieties. Of horse- 
flies more than a dozen kinds are more or less known ; 
mosquitoes aflTect the country along the Potomac 
River and larger creeks, and the other flies, many of 
them studded with golden and silvery markings, make 
a host too great to enumerate. The broad-winged 
dragou-flies dash with unapproachable swiftness over 
the surface of every pond and creek, and the crimson- 
winged Httxrina balances itself over the waters of 
Rock Creek and the canal. 

The next part of this belt which claims attention 
lies in Carroll County. It forms a triangular tract in 
the southeastern corner of the county of about ten 
miles from northeast to southwest, and of about six 
miles from northwest to southeast. On the east it is 
bounded by the north branch of the Patapsco River, 
and on the south by the west branch of the same 
river. It forms a part of the great archjean belt of 
rocks which, crossing from Baltimore County, passes 
through Howard into Montgomery. Here, however, 
it is built into higher uplands, and is characterized by 
the prevalence of granitic rocks. These rise in high, 
broad domes, reaching to an altitude of more than 
four hundred feet above the level of the sea. The 
granites and gneiss are exposed in fine sections along 
the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad near 
Sykesville, standing at high angles in great dark, for- 
bidding masses. These form but a few hills between 
the serpentine formation on the northeast and the 
metalliferous belt on the west. Taken altogether, it 
constitutes a wedge of country embracing types of 
most of the mineral aggregations belonging to the 
oldest formations of the State. Within this small 
area may be found copper, soapstone, limestone, white 
quartz, and the minerals of the magnesian and chlo- 
ritic series, in great abundance. Soapstone has been 
excavated in considerable quantities from a large 
quarry, and copper has been worked in the Spring- 
field and adjoining mines. The limestone valley which 
runs in a line continuous with Marriottsville is a valu- 
able addition to the resources of the neighborhood in 
supplying the lime as a fertilizer where it is much 
needed. Crossing the ore-bearing belt, the talcose 

and slaty rocks are reached, which characterize the 
region in general. 

Carroll County, of which the preceding tract forms 
but a small corner, is one of the medium-sized but 
very productive sections of the State. It possesses 
an area of about four hundred and fifty square miles, 
and has a form somewhat like that of an anvil with 
the point broken off. On the north it is bounded by 
Pennsylvania, on the east by Baltimore County, on 
the west by Frederick, and on the south by Howard 
County. The surface of the country is broken by 
hills in ridges and domes, becoming higher towards 
Parr's Ridge, and then decreasing in height after the 
ridge is crossed. The hills are often very wide and 
rather blunt on top, grouped more or less in chains 
having a general southwest direction. Broad valleys 
lie between these, usually running from the direction 
of Pennsylvania, and intersecting smaller valleys and 
ravines at frequent intervals. A very large proportion 
of the county consists of cleared lands, on which are 
located extensive and highly productive farms. Large 
barns are to be seen in almost every section, surrounded 
by numerous outhouses, and with comparatively small 
dwelling-houses placed a few rods away, usually on 
some hillside or slight swell of the ground. In the 
near vicinity of these large hayricks or numerous 
stacks are conspicuous, and in the adjacent fields or 
meadows groups of well-kept cattle show the industry 
and care of the inhabitants. Grazing farms are es- 
pecially numerous near the public roads which inter- 
sect the country in every direction, and along the 
railroads; and a vast supply of milk, cream, and butter 
is continually being transported to Baltimore and other 
cities and towns. Ice cream is also one of the manu- 
factures of the country near the Western Maryland 
Railroad, and promises to become a great source of 
income in the near future. 

Meadow-lands, derived from the decomposition of 
slate rocks, and, to a smaller extent, from limestone, 
spread away in broad tracts near the brooks and rivu- 
lets which intersect most parts of the county. The 
entire region is watered by long streams of medium 
width, but whose tributaries are so numerous that 
large sections are charged with a network of con- 
stantly running pure water. Almost every extensive 
farm between Parr's Ridge and the new red sand- 
stone has one or more springs, sending forth a steady 
stream from a depression in the hillside or from the 
head of a ravine. As many of these descend from 
altitudes far above the general level of the surface, 
they acquire a force which drives them over the rocks 
in torrents and small cascades, and affords ample power 
for the numerous mills, factories, and tan-yards. Parr's 



Ridge divides the county into two sections, the larger 
and more irregular one of which lies on its west side, 
stretching away to Sam's Creek and the Monocacy 
River. Several very wild tracts still remain to point 
out the original condition of the country. These are 
chiefly on the head-waters of the branches of the Pa- 
tapsco River, on the east side of the county, among 
the outlying spurs of the ridge, but also in a few 
places at the source of Bear Creek and Big Pipe 
Creek. Approaching the ridge from that side, a 
high backbone of hills appears, which bends into 
broad curves and incloses wide, open basins of 
alluvial soil, inclosed like amphitheatres. Through 
these the various rivulets and brooks pass swiftly 
over bottoms but little interrupted by the broken 
rocks. But nearer their sources they pass through 
the gaps, reach the ledges of dark and hard hydro- 
mica schists, and at once begin to contend with the 
rugged barriers that would arrest their farther ad- 
vance. Here a scene of great attractiveness presents 
itself Huge masses of angular rocks rest against the 
sides and ends of the broken ridges, while above them 
project the remnants of former ledges, sharp and 
craggy, disposed at every angle. In the old bed of 
the stream stand the great broken pieces which have 
fallen from the crest above, and a scattered heap of 
fragments of all sizes lies along the depression below. 
Trees of numerous varieties, chief of which are the 
oaks, maples, birches, and hickories, range in unbroken 
lines along the upward slopes, casting deep shadows 
over the sunny nooks, and giving shelter to a host of 
shrubs, phints, and vines that intertwine and mix in 
deep confusion among their piercing branches. On 
every sheltered rock the green, gray, and purple lichens 
have painted frescoes of marvelous elegance and beauty, 
and, crowning all, a dozen forms of ferns have woven 
their graceful chaplets of exquisite green over the 
crown of each dripping bowlder. Sparkling little 
springs sprinkle drops of limpid water upon the 
slender grasses and delicate creepers, keeping all moist, 
and adding their quota to the brook which aids to 
swell the vigorous river. All the streams of water 
in this region rise high up the slopes, rush down rocky 
channels choked with loose fragments of stone, form 
rapids, torrents, and cascades at frequent intervals, 
and display unceasing activity in wearing their chan- 
nels ever deeper as they descend. During times of 
heavy rain they carry down immense quantities of 
sediments, in conjunction with the washings from the 
hills, and spread them in layers over the flat lowlands. 
Thus the bottoms of these basins are rising year by 
year, and the best ingredients of the forest humus 
and the mineral soil are carried into these natural 

meadows, to feed the grasses and wild plants. The 
open spaces are covered deeply with the soft soil which 
has been poured upon them through untold ages, and 
in the dim, far-back past they formed a great chain of 
fresh-water lakes, which stretched from beyond the 
Pennsylvania boundary away down into Baltimore 
County. While these were pent up within their rigid 
bounds of earth and stone, broad marshes spread along 
the edges of the barrier of archsean mountains on 
the southeast that kept back the oceanic waters a few 
miles north of Baltimore. Later, the melting of the 
great ice mass, reaching through the broad, deep val- 
leys farther north, sent such vast floods of water into 
the midst of these lakes that an opening was made at 
their southern end, through which the waters found 
an outlet into the lower levels farther south. Thus 
the surface features of this region have been toned 
down near to the proportions that appear to-day, the 
tops of the ridges have been broken away, and the 
summits of the softer spurs washed into the form of 
rounded domes. 

The region in which Carrollton PostOflice is situ- 
ated discloses a scene of uncommon wildness. There 
the branches of the Patapsco River pursue their course 
in bewildering complexity, bending and turning back 
at unexpected intervals, and seeming to be ever in the 
way of the traveler. They drain the country 
a width of more than ten miles, and carry a large vol- 
ume of water into the north branch of the river. The 
ridges here are narrow and abrupt, everywhere set 
with broken rocks, some of the ledges of which stand 
like huge piles of ruined masonry on the edges of pre- 
cipitous heights. Viewed from a distant hill, these 
broken ridges and spurs produce an efiect of grandeur 
and variety. They stand in broken series, which 
seem to fade into others at lower levels, while those at 
the end terminate in spurs, which taper oif and become 
lost in the general surface of the flat valleys. Crowned 
with trees of every variety of green, they roll away 
into the distance like the broken caps of huge waves 
in a sea of boundless verdure. Proceeding northward 
and westward, valleys of larger size appear in view. 
These are usually long depressions between the higher 
hills, underlaid by limestone, with deep soil of the 
highest fertility, and well supplied with springs and 
rivulets in which the water is clear, pure, moderately 
hard, and delightfully refreshing to the taste. Baugh- 
man's Valley is one well known for the fine farms 
and well-kept homes of an industrious and thrifty peo- 
ple. All the cereals and crops of the most favored 
portions of the adjoining States grow here in excellence 
and abundance. Fruit-trees of various kinds grow 
with ease, and yield fine crops of the best quality, and 



the smaller fruits are grown with equal facility. 
Grazing is practiced to a large extent, and large 
quantities of produce, added to the butter and milk, 
are transported from thence to the Baltimore market. 
The soil on the hills is derived from the mica-slates 
and talcose rocks, which, being decomposed, yield a 
light and deep stratum, which readily admits of high 

Between Westminster and Union Bridge is the 
garden part of the county. Talcose schists form the 
higher hills, the country rolls away in broad, flat- 
tened domes, and the bottoms and ravines are always 
traversed by streams of spring-water. The hills are 
to a great extent cleared of woodland, and large farms 
spread over uplands which are as carefully tilled as 
the meadows below. Limestone ledges project from 
the sides of the hills, and yield inexhaustible supplies 
of the richest fertilizing lime. 

The country between Little and Big Pipe Creeks, 
and northwest of the latter, in which Middleburg and 
Taneytown are situated, forms a strong contrast to all 
the preceding districts. It rests upon and is derived 
from the new red sandstone rocks. The latter jut out 
in picturesque variety along the banks of the streams 
just mentioned, and lie scattered in indescribable con- 
fusion down the ravines through which they flow. 
Heavy rains and freshets grind these rocks into fine 
mud, which marks a trail wherever the floods carry 
the waters, and which stains the streams for many 
hours after they have subsided. 

These sandstones, being soft and easily acted upon 
by the atmosphere, have been extensively denuded by 
moving water, consequently much rather flat coun- 
try occurs where formerly the high domes uplifted 
their summits. The hills now generally appear low, 
wide, and separated by shallow bottoms. But along 
the Little Bear branch and on the upper sections of 
the Big Pipe Creek the hills are mixed with talcose 
slates, remain much more elevated, and furnish valu- 
able water-powers from their more abrupt flanks. 
Taneytown occupies the centre of a tract about six 
miles square, based upon a red sandstone, somewhat 
mixed with slate. The resulting soil is thin, sandy, 
and sour, but little valued, and which has commanded 
relatively but a low price in the market. Careful 
limeing has, however, worked wonders with some of 
these depauperated lands, and brought them back to 
their original flourishing condition. 

Limestone aad Marbles. — These are so valuable, 
occur in such vast quantities and in so many places west 
of Parr's Ridge that they demand more than a pass- 
ing notice in this place. Beginning with the section 
a little northwest of Manchester, they continue south- 

west towards the Frederick County line, and across it 
to a short distance below New Market. At first they 
seem to occupy but a narrow belt of country, but 
gradually widen, until, near the line of the Western 
Maryland Railroad, they stretch over more than one- 
half the width of the county. Within this range an 
extraordinary number of varieties may be found. 
Every color between plain white and black veined 
with white occurs. Most of them are stratified, while 
a very few are so much contorted as to hide all trace 
of their type of deposition. In general they are very 
fine-grained, of close texture, strong, durable, and sus- 
ceptible of a very high polish. Samples taken from 
the exposed surfaces of beds in about fifty localities 
have shown what a great treasure Carroll County pos- 
sesses in these remarkable deposits. The weathered 
superficial parts of the beds form good stones for burn- 
ing, and when these are cleared away to a depth of a 
few feet, varying according to the situation, new, 
clean surfaces of the massive marble are reached, suit- 
able for dressing, trimming, and decorating buildings. 
On the western outskirts of Westminster large and 
deep quarries of limestone have been opened and 
worked to great advantage. Here they form the 
flanks of prominent hills, and are accessible for twenty- 
five or more feet above the level of the ground. These 
are much cracked and jointed, and probably do not 
yield large slabs or long monoliths, but they are very 
prettily veined and variegated with black or . red 
through the white body, and take a polish sufiiciently 
good for out-of-door work. Some of these have been 
used for doorsteps in the city of Baltimore, and they 
have proved both acceptable and durable. But it is 
chiefly as a fertilizer that these are most highly prized. 
Vast quantities have been broken into small blocks 
and transported in that form to great distances, or 
have been calcined in the kilns near at hand and 
shipped in the condition of lime. It is, however, a 
few miles farther west that the marbles are found in 
their finest and richest development. In the region 
around Avondale and in the vicinity of New Wind- 
sor the beds of marble seem to vie with each other in 
putting on their most splendid dress. Several quar- 
ries of wine-red rock, exceedingly close and fine- 
grained, capable of a very high polish, marked with 
veins or wavy lines of either black or white, resting 
on massive layers of great extent, invite the builder 
to employ that which in point of beauty and fineness 
is one of the most admired of building stones. About 
three-quarters of a mile north of Avondale, and in 
the same beautiful valley, a quarry of the deep rich 
red marble has been opened and excavated below the 
surface of the ground. It forms a large and very com- 


pact bed, of remarkably uniform texture. Blasting 
the surface has shattered and cleft much of the ex- | 
posed upper part, but from the general appearance and 
disposition of the mass it seems capable of yielding 
very large monoliths, and might also be worked into 
slabs of almost any desired size. This bed seems to 
be more uniform in color than most of the others, i 
Its ground tint is of the richest wine- red, toning in a | 
few points to almost madder purple. It takes an ex- 
ceedingly fine polish, and is admirably adapted for | 
pedestals, altar bases, mosaic pavements, and for the ! 
most elegant decorations of churches and palatial resi- j 
dances. Another quarry, belonging to this same belt 
of rock, and only a few rods distant from the former, 
yields a bluish-purple or mauve-purple marble of sim- 1 
ilar character and quality. It takes a surface as fine 
as glass, and is varied by veins and wavy lines of , 
brown, gray, or black. Large blocks can be easily se- | 
cured, and it deserves to be held in high esteem for 
the richness and purity of its combinations of color. 

From this point to New Windsor many other beds 
of marble occur, chiefly of white, streaked, veined, or 
spotted with some tint of gray, pink, red, or purple. 
But a particularly marked quarry is a large one, ex- 
tensively worked for lime, on the property of Mr. 
Chew, in the first range of hills south of New Wind- 
sor. There the strata dip at a moderately high angle, 
spread from three to five feet in thickness, are quite i 
long, and run deep into the earth. The upper layers ' 
are more or less stained with red, in many devices and ! 
patterns, while the more deeply-colored blocks are I 
largely invaded by purple, somewhat mixed with green, 
in zigzag and wavy combinations. These fade out 
into greenish tints, becoming more blackish as they 
descend, until the extreme reached is dark gray, varie- 
gated, waved, and dappled with black, accompanied by 
some white. The next very prominent quarry occurs 
on the farm of Mr. Myers, situated about one mile 
south of the former. The stone there is of the same 
excellent quality, takes an equally good polish, and 
while varj-ing somewhat as to the proportions of red, 
purple, and pink, presents some wonderfully beautiful 
patterns of color-figures on either a light or tinted 
ground. These latter are somewhat noted for the red 
pipe-clay which passes through them in belts between 
the layers of marble. This is of the kind that was 
formerly so much prized by the Indians, and tradition 
points to their having resorted to these places for their 
supply of the unwrought material. 

From New Windsor to Big Pipe Creek the beds of 
marble are both numerous and varied. Some of them 
are small, and set into the earth rather than protruded 
from the hillsides. But they are none the less rich 

in stone of fine quality, and of peculiar and curious 
patterns of deep colors. So little has been the de- 
mand for these in the arts of construction and deco- 
ration that they have shared the fate of the coarser 
limestones in being broken and burnt for fertilizers. 
The farms next to the boundary of Frederick County, 
along Big Pipe Creek, are well provided with the finer 
marbles of the Tennessee variety. These have com- 
monly a mixture of reddish brown, with purple, red, 
and white. Two patterns closely resemble the col- 
ored Castile soap, the one having the smaller diagonal 
spots arranged in loops and bends, while the other has 
purplish waves of different shades disposed in belts 
and irregular streaks. Some extremely fine, pure 
white marbles also occur in this neighborhood, and 
this region shares with the adjoining parts of Fred- 
erick in these treasures which nature has depo.sited so 
bountifully for the use of its inhabitants. 

The limestones are properly the coarser and softer 
rocks of the marble group, and often invade the ledges 
of the more valuable and harder beds, but in general 
they occupy the outward limits of the belt, more par- 
ticularly on the, and yield lime of great strength 
and permanence as a fertilizer. They are also much 
used for plaster and building, giving a good surface in 
plastering of rooms, and forming a tough and durable 
cement in the construction of brick walls. 

Iron Ores. — Every natural division of the State has 
its peculiar types of iron ore, which are in general not 
to be met with in places outside. Thus the ores of 
the mica-slate and talcose belt of Parr's Ridge occur 
in quartz veins in the hard rocks. The brown hfema- 
tites of the midland belt belong to the earthy series, 
and are confined, rather narrowly, to depressions in 
the body of the limestone valleys. The carbonates 
of iron of the hone series are peculiar to the clays of 
the tide-water belt, while the carbonates of the coal- 
fields are of the black band and ball type. Dozens 
of other kinds occur within the limits of Western 
Maryland, but these have not yet proved to be in suf- 
ficient quantities nor of the proper quality for com- 
mercial purposes. The midland belt possesses im- 
mense deposits of brown hsematites and smaller ag- 
gregations of specular oxide, and of magnetic oxide. 
Brown hfematites abound in Baughman's Valley, and 
on the west side of Parr's Ridge from the Pennsyl- 
vania line to a point five or more miles south of 
Westminster. This form of ore accompanies the 
limestone formations, and generally occurs along the 
margins of the valleys, near the point of contact of the 
former with the talcose slates. It lies bedded in the 
brownish or reddish clay soil overlying the lime- 
stone. It has attracted a new attention within the 



last few years, aud in consequence the old localities 
have been revisited, profitable deposits have been re- 
opened, high prices have been realized for neglected 
ore-banks, and a wide-spread remunerative industry 
has become established in this region. This widely- 
known and highly-prized hematite is of the limonite 
series, dark brown or blackish where oxydized, often 
ochreous when freshly broken, and with a chalky or 
earthy aspect when dried. It occurs in nodules, 
chunks, and masses, varying from the size of a large 
egg to that of a bushel measure. Pieces, and espe- 
cially nodules, or shell-like lumps of about the size of 
a quarter-of-a-peck measure, are quite common and of 
great interest. These are apt to be mixed with the 
least portion of earthy or foreign matters, and to yield 
about sixty-one per cent, of pure iron. They are 
composed of an outer shell of brown iron ore, simple 
and clean, more or less rounded, and set all around 
inside with sharp-edged loops, with bunches of knobs, 
with slender, tapering, tubular stems, or with black- 
berry-like lumps arranged in groups. Some of these 
are of great beauty from the fine gloss and splendid 
iridescence of their rich, deep purples, blues, greens, 
and bronze. Frequently they are filled with a series 
of chambers of a cavernous pattern, coated with a film 
of glossy deep black. This ore is apt to be arranged 
in more or less spherical shells, which exhibit a circle 
or circles of denser minerals wherever the surface is 
broken across. The lumpy masses partake also more 
or less of this shelly character, and most of this class 
of ores show that their development has proceeded 
in somewhat concentric lines. Most of the diggings 
thus far pursued have been superficial, very few of 
them having penetrated below a depth of from 
thirty to forty feet. The ore is extracted. from beds, 
seams, or pockets in the limestone, or from spaces in 
the talcose slates where the limestone formerly existed. 
These ores seem to be inseparably connected with the 
limestones. They were originally derived in part 
from them, and in some places fade into them by 
almost insensible degrees. Persistent search is con- 
stantly revealing new localities in which these ores 
occur, and wider experience is determining with in- 
creased certainty the probability of their presence in 
large deposits. Similar localities in Pennsylvania 
have displayed practically inexhaustible stores of this 
same class of ores, and doubtless some of the beds re- 
cently opened in the central parts of Carroll County 
will prove equally extensive. 

A variety of this iron ore has been raised for several 
years past from a deep shaft opposite Avondale, on the 
line of the railroad. It has now penetrated to a depth 
of over one hundred feet, and seems to be incalculably 

productive. It is placed on the side of a limestone 
basin, directly next to a high hill of shattered talcose 
slate. A stream of water runs through the alluvial 
basin which overlies the white and variegated lime- 
stone. The ore is rather less nodular than that from 
the northern part of Baughman's Valley, and is some- 
what lumpy and less coherent than the former. It is, 
however, a rich ore, and is shipped from the railroad 
station in large quantities. The same kind of ore has 
likewise been taken in large quantities from the sec- 
tion lying about two and a half miles west of West- 
minster, and also near the suburbs of that city. It 
contains a certain proportion of manganese, and has 
been worked from almost the first settlement of the 
region. A brown hajmatite belonging to the same 
group has also been found near Brighton, in Mont- 
gomery County. The samples thus far exhibited are 
rather extensively mixed with a gangue rock which 
holds pockets and seams of the ore in close embrace. 
It occurs in the metamorphic rocks, and has narrow 
wedges and layers of limestone spread through the 
mass. The deposits need deeper excavation in order 
to prove the value and extent of the metal there 

The specular oxide (or red oxide of iron") also is 
found within the limits ■ of Carroll County. The 
metalliferous range which courses along the east side 
of Parr's Ridge is the natural resting-place of this 
form of the metal. The heavy talcose schists near 
their line of contact with the older archaean rooks 
are charged with great seams and beds of quartz. In 
these the pockets and veins of this somewhat silvery- 
looking oxide occur in great variety and beauty. The 
highly-polished surface of the metal, as it branches 
and spreads out through the milk-white quartz, presents 
a very attractive appearance. Exposure to the atmos- 
phere renders it more black and destroys the lustre of 
its surface. No very extensive deposits of it have thus 
far been reported, although it is quite widely distrib- 
uted. It accompanies the copper-bearing veins at 
Mineral Hill, it has been broken from quartz near 
Sykesville, and is not infrequent in the rocks near 
Carrollton Post-OIBce and southeast of Manchester. 
It is a difficult and expensive ore to work, because of 
the hard matrix in which it is imbedded, and has yet 
to be found in larger in order to prove a prof- 
itable metal here. 

The magnetic oxide of iron is a black or black- 
gray mineral, often quite massive, and turning to a 
black powder when crushed in the mill. It is one of 
the richest of our iron ores, and sometimes yields as 
much as seventy per cent, of the metal. Much of it 
is mixed with the oxides of titanium and of manga- 



nese, whicli lessen its purity and lower its value. 
Some varieties are highly magnetic, and hence the 
name magnetic is given to such as possess that prop- 
erty. It belongs to the copper-bearing series of rocks, 
is most extensively mined in the vicinity of Sykes- 
ville, and is smelted at the furnace near that place. 
The talcose rocks along the eastern side of Parr's 
Ridge form its chief resting-place, but it has been 
neglected or overlooked in most of the other localities 
in this region. It is found in masses or pockets in 
the metamorphic rocks, and occurs there also in the 
form of grains or octahedral crystals. 

Copper has been mined at the Springfield, Florence, 
and Mineral Hill veins, and near Finksburg. It has 
been at various times actively carried on at all of these 
places, as well as at a few others in the neighborhood 
of Sykesville, but since the rediscovery and opening 
of the vast deposits at Lake Superior operations have 
ceased at all of these mines. Other metals, such as 
gold, silver, zinc, and lead, have been found in small 
quantities in the metalliferous belt of both Carroll and 
Montgomery Counties, but not as yet in profitable 
quantities. Gold ore has been found near Brighton, 
in the latter county, and a gold-mine is now being 
worked west of Brookville, about two miles from the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 

Frederick County. — The Blue Ridge Belt consists 
of Frederick County alone. It forms a tract of country 
extending from the Monocacy River and Little Pipe 
Creek on the east to the summit line of the South Moun- 
tain range on the west. The total area is about seven 
hundred square miles. It is about thirty-two miles 
in length from north to south, by twenty-five miles 
from east to west. In form it is somewhat of an ir- 
regular trapezoid, with an uneven triangle taken from 
its eastern side next the north. The South Moun- 
tain ridge separates it from Washington County, 
while the Potomac River forms its southern bound- 
ary. Montgomery County touches it along the south- 
east, Carroll County stands next to it on the east, and 
Pennsylvania on the north. The Catoctin range of 
mountains runs through its whole length from north 
to south, and forms the dividing line between two 
great valleys of great beauty, diversity, and fertility. 
That on the west is the Middletown Valley, while the 
other on the east is the Frederick, or Monocacy Val- 
ley. The former is not a deep trough scooped down 
to the base of the mountains, but it is a series of in- 
tervening foot-hills, which originally constituted the 
minor elevations of the great group of ranges con- 
necting the Blue Ridge with the Catoctin. At the 
northern extremity these swellings rise to equal alti- 
tudes with the primary ranges, and fade into them 

by imperceptible degrees. The effect is to build there 
one great mountain mass, with three principal ridges 
rising only a few hundreds of feet above the inner de- 
pressions, but inclosing minor valleys of enchanting 
beauty, and throwing off spurs at intervals of from 
one to three or more miles. 

The valley slopes from the central part of Hauver's 
District, widening as it runs towards the south, and 
gradually expanding and lowering as it gets nearer to 
the swellings of the Catoctin range. It is traversed 
throughout two-thirds of its length by Catoctin Creek, 
and is plentifully watered in all parts by rapid brooks 
and branches originating in springs. An unlimited 
supply of the purest mountain water, poured from the 
sandstones and slates, is ever present, as well for run- 
ning mills and factories as for the direct uses of man 
and animals. Farmers are thus enabled to place their 
dairies upon streams of perpetual cool water, and 
every home is accordingly supplied with an abundance 
of well-kept milk, cream, butter, and cheese. The 
valley is one of great loveliness, and ranges over a 
large tract. It is about thirty miles in length by 
nine miles in its greatest breadth. Beginning at the 
northern end, it seems to be contracted out of exist- 
ence by the spurs of abrupt high ridges which press 
into it from the right and left. But as it is followed 
towards the south the hills gradually open, become 
round-top broad swellings, falling lower at every 
grade, until near the Potomac River they rise to 
scarcely more than one hundred feet above the allu- 
vial lowlands. 

The soils are derived from the decomposition of 
sandstones next the mountains, or of slates, talcose 
schists, quartz, and trap rocks upon the more central 
lines. On the north, and in a few places along the 
flanks of the South Mountain, decomposing epidote 
adds another ingredient to the soil, and contributes to 
its fertility. The Catoctin Creek has built for itself a 
path of surprising variety, with a tortuous channel 
cut out of the hard sandstone and slate rocks. It 
rises by half a dozen brooks of great activity, high 
up the eastern flank of the South Mountain, in Catoc- 
tin and Hauver's Districts. In the midst of untamed 
grand scenery, where high peaks rise to an altitude 
of more than two thousand feet above the level of the 
sea, where the great white sandstone rock-masses have 
been split and riven asunder with titanic violence, and 
the dark heavy slates have been pitched into craggy 
piles of threatening aspect, there the little streams 
come creeping out of the clefts in the rocks, and leap- 
ing, as freed spirits just escaped from prison, to the 
terrace below, dash against the fragments and bowlders 
which stand in their way, and force a deep and rugged 



cliannel, ever widening as they run. Their advance 
is strangely attractive. Not by one even and contin- 
uous line of water do they quietly press along, but 
basin by basin, as every new stage is reached, dashing 
with impetuous force against broken ledges, leaping 
over huge bowlders which have pitched from the 
frightful chasm above, creeping between the tangled 
branches of broken, fallen trees, then roaring beneath 
the overlapping jaws of the precipice farther down, 
and then bounding along still lower until the distant 
valley is reached. Tributary rills add their quota to 
these at every stage, running out of the mossy and 
vine-clad banks, from the midst of dense thickets of 
graceful shrubs and flowering bushes. Here the 
beech grows, with its fresh lichen-painted gray and 
white bark, its neighbor being the fringe-fingered 
spruce, clad in scaly bark of deep brown, with its 
companions, the birch, peeled by the tearing winds, 
the chestnut, oak, the maple, and the tulip-tree. 

Other branches come rolling into the widening 
creek from between the sharp mountain spurs, bend- 
ing around their rocky flanks to find a more peaceful 
path, and distributing nourishment to the rank under- 
growth in the little valleys which they have helped to 
cut. The Catoctin riJns over a course of more than 
twenty miles from its farthest source, becomes a moder- 
ately wide, rapid creek after reaching the base of Mid- 
dletown Hill, and thence continues widening and bay- 
ing out in the bottoms until finally it enters the 
Potomac River through an alluvial basin. Besides 
the tributaries of the Catoctin, there are two long 
branches, which rise, likewise, in the South Mountain 
ridge, flow southeast, and empty into the Potomac. 
The longest of these is the Little Catoctin. It is a 
narrow but vigorous creek, with a full body of water 
running swiftly between the rolling hills, and furnish- 
ing power for several flour and saw-mills. That nearer 
the mountain is an active little brook which runs 
over the bowlders in the ravines of the farms next the 
ridge, and conies out bright and clear along the road 
running through Knoxville. All of these were origi- 
nally the native places of the speckled trout, that found 
a congenial home in the little gravelly basins and 
deeper trenches in the dark sandstone or slate rocks. 
At present the valley is mostly cleared, and belts of 
trees rest here and there in rocky places, where the 
surface is more abruptly broken, or where the soil is 
too full of large surface bowlders to be made readily 
available for tillage. The greatest proportion of the 
Middletown Valley is covered by large farms in a high 
state of cultivation. Wheat, rye, oats, Indian corn, 
and forage plants are raised in vast quantities, and 
large stores of hay, placed in stacks near immense 

barns, indicate the extensive provision made for the 
numerous horses and cattle kept by the industrious 
inhabitants. Large distilleries have also been settled 
in various parts of the valley, and the production of 
whisky from the abundant cereals of the region fur- 
nishes immense quantities of liquor for exportation. 
Grazing is also carried on to a fairly large extent, and 
extensive droves of beef-cattle may at all times be seen 
in the fields fattening for home consumption, but 
chiefly for transportation to Baltimore, Washington, 
and other markets. The greater part of the region 
is based upon the talcose slates. These are largely 
invaded by veins of quartz, some of which are of 
enormous thickness, and the surface of the fields in 
many places is so full of the fragments of this white 
rock as to be a great hindrance to the rapid cultivation 
of the soil. Decomposition of the talcose rocks and 
the less ready disintegration of the quartz yields a 
soil more or less chocolate colored, but light, porous, 
easy to till, and well supplied with the natural nourish- 
ment of the cereals. 

Wells cut into this rock to a depth of thirty feet or 
more generally furnish a permanent and abundant 
supply of water. This is often rendered a little hard 
by the presence of magnesia ; but the taste is sweet, 
and no unhealthful influences have been attributed to 
its permanent use for drinking. 

This is not one of the limestone valleys, such as 
these on the other side of the ridge. It belongs to 
an older system of rocks, and the only limestone yet 
discovered within its limits is a small bed situated at 
the western base of the Catoctin range, on the canal, 
near the mouth of Catoctin Creek. Viewed from one 
of the more central spurs at the entrance to some of 
the gaps leading over the South Mountain, the valley 
presents a picturesque and highly-attractive scene. 
Instead of a monotonous trough with nearly level bed, 
curving at the sides directly from the mountains, a 
series of bold reliefs appear, varying in proportion 
and arrangement as one or other side of the Catoctin 
Creek is observed. At the upper end it forms an 
acute triangle, and becomes lost in the high spurs 
which stand in wavy lines to unite the Blue Ridge 
with the Catoctin. Here the forests cover the prin- 
cipal part of the higher ridges ; wave after wave of 
varying green leads oif the perspective, until the dis- 
tant horizon blends into the universal blue of earth 
and sky. On the south the beautiful groups of 
houses composing Middletown, with its white spires 
standing up in the midst, rise out of the hollow and 
from behind the hills, like a bird ready to take its 
flight. Bolivar, Burkittsville, and a dozen other vil- 
lages and little towns nestle between the rolls of sur- 



face, almost buried in the sea of waving grain, or only 
half disclosed among the belts of tall oaks and other 
woods which decorate the fields, while still more 
southward the broad opening valley spreads its wide 
mouth to receive the Potomac, and becomes lost to 
view in the spreading channel of the mighty river. 
North of this valley, but placed at a much higher 
level, the truly mountain-valleys, but of small size, 
find a place. The larger and nearer one of these 
is Harbaugh's. It is situated to the east of the ex- 
tremity of the former, and is separated from it by a 
scalloped ridge, or series of knobs, terminating in 
spurs. These taper acutely on their inner ends, and 
thereby open a passageway for the streams and roads. 
It is a diagonal eroded basin, having a northeast by a 
southwest direction. Its base is only a few hundred 
feet below the summit of the general high levels of 
the Catoctin range. It has a length of about seven 
miles by a width of one mile. In crossing its lower 
end abrupt spurs appear on both sides. These rise in 
terrible majesty, loaded with heavy projecting ledges 
of gray, greenish, and blackish rocks, threatening to 
fall at any moment from the startling precipices into 
the road below. The mountains are heavily wooded 
with numerous varieties of trees, of which the chest- 
nut and oaks predominate. Chestnut-oak is here a 
fine, abundant, and conspicuous tree. In the gap of 
Owen's Creek, leading up to this beautiful valley, some 
of the most romantic scenery in the county is to be 
found. The Catoctin Mountain is cleft in a sinuous 
line, broken at intervals by the downfall and erosion 
of sandstones and slates ; huge masses of cracked and 
pointed rocks slant off at every angle, or form beetling 
cliffs of enormous size far overhead ; wide, open 
spaces, strewn with fragments of rock and bowlders, 
appear at frequent intervals, in the midst of which 
the busy little creek comes tumbling down from the 
terraces above, broken into foam by striking against 
the ledges in its way, or pouring in cascades over the 
sandstones blocking its path. The limpid water of 
the stream shines like molten silver where the sun- 
light strikes it in the openings between the trees, and 
many a moss-covered bank projects from the terraced 
slopes, where the beech-trees lend their graceful 
branches to shade the pools in the quiet bayed-out 
nooks. In the wider openings a few pines lend var- 
iety to the woods, groups of hemlock offer a still 
stronger contrast of fringy foliage in the midst of 
broad-leaved trees, and the cucumber-magnolia deco- 
rates the rich spots on which vines, creepers, and 
ferns form luxuriant masses of fresh green. 

The purity and coolness of the atmosphere in this 
region, combined with the moist exhalations from the 

tangled growths along its basins, offer most refreshing 
retreats from the heat and dryness of the summer 
temperature. A considerable part of the valley and 
adjoining slopes is already occupied by farms of prom- 
ising fertility, and the deep alluvium of the lower 
levels is well watered and rich in elements most im- 
portant to the growth of cereals and grasses. On the 
very rocky ridges the trees grow far apart in the .soil 
which has accumulated in the cracks and cavities, and 
from these places the lumbermen and tanners derive 
ample supplies of wood and bark. Leaving this re- 
gion and passing towards the east, four other small val- 
leys, running in the same general direction, occupy 
the deep depressions between the spurs of the Catoc- 
tin. These are Eylers, Hampton, and two smaller 
ones which stretch off for a mile or more in the direc- 
tion of Pennsylvania. The two former are the larger, 
and are two miles or more in length by about a half- 
mile in width. All of them are highly picturesque, 
and placed in the midst of startling and romantic 
scenery. They occupy the old cracks in the mountain 
summits, where the floods and streams of past ages 
have widened the gaps and ground the slate, sand- 
stone, and epidote rocks into rich alluvial soil. Ac- 
cordingly, pockets of rich earth along the sides of the 
ridges, kept in place by ledges and fragments of rock, 
support copious forests of many kinds of trees, while 
the trough below receives the richest supply of plant 
food in the transported sands, clays, and humus, and 
responds in a vigorous outgrowth of ash, oaks, hick- 
ory, maple, tulip-trees, etc., and an endless accom- 
paniment of bushes, plants, vines, ferns, mosses, and 
lichens. Leaving the valleys of the Catoctin side of 
the mountain mass, proceeding towards the west, and 
crossing the upper end of the Middletown Valley, the 
roads traverse the eastern flank of the Blue Ridge. 
Rising by steep grades the summit is reached, in the 
midst of farms growing abundant crops of Indian 
corn and well supplied with orchards of apples and 
other fruits. A few straggling peach-trees have at- 
tempted to develop in the corners of the fences, but 
at best have only been able to struggle for existence, 
and to yield small, unpalatable peaches of uninviting 
aspect. A high, broad plateau stretches out before the 
eye at this point, and the view is limited by the forest- 
covered high knobs, connected with ridges, which 
form the horizon. After ascending to the top and 
going beyond the flat cultivated lands, the side of the 
mountain slopes rather steeply into a lovely, well-tilled 
basin, known as Mount Zion Valley. The common 
milk-weed grows in astonishing abundance over the 
cleared slopes, and showers its silky, plume-like seeds 
all over the region reached by the drift of the winds. 




A descent of about one hundred and forty feet readies 
tlie bed of the valley, in the midst of clover-fields and 
fertile meadows. This depression, placed so high in 
the great chain of the South Mountain, is about two 
and a quarter miles long by three-quarters of a mile 
wide. The boundary line separating Frederick from 
Washington County passes along the eastern flank of 
this valley from north to south, consequently the 
depression is all in the latter county, although still 
within the limits of the Blue Ridge Belt. Several 
fine brooks rise in the bed of the valley, and lend a 
delightful moisture to the air while contributing to the 
fertility of the soil and stimulating a most varied 
growth of valuable timber-trees, such as hickory, oaks, 
walnuts, and maples. A deep dark soil fills the moist 
woods, where, in the midst of lichen-covered and 
fern-set bowlders, a thousand bright flowers, rustic 
vines and creepers adorn the varied scenery. Wild 
grapevines grow luxuriantly here in the rich depres- 
sions, and yield ample supplies of the native grapes. 
A great gorge leads out between two high abrupt 
spurs, traversed by an active stream of limpid water. 
Crossing this stream a few rods farther on, in a south- 
ern direction, the mouth of the gorge is passed and 
another valley, of character very similar to the last, 
is reached. Its bed is, however, rather more flat, and 
the bounding ridges are very steep. 

On the eastern side of this trough, known as the 
Bull-Tail Valley, away up near the summit, stands the 
celebrated Raven Rock. It is not black in color, but 
derives its name from the ravens which made their 
homes upon it when the country was first occupied. 
These birds have long since changed their habitations, 
and have fled away from the face of man by degrees 
farther west, until not one seems left to represent the 
species among the ranges of our eastern mountains. 
The rock is an immense swelling of jointed white 
Potsdam sandstone, projecting from the flank of the 
abrupt mountain spur, in the midst of the thin chest- 
nut forest. It has been rounded off by the heavy 
storms and rains which have driven against its faces 
and broken oif the sharp cliffs of its upper corners. 
Time has softened the glaring whiteness of the rock, 
and gray tints have been added by the fringes of ferns 
and the patches of lichens which have settled in every 
inequality of its surface. This little valley is scarcely 
more than three miles long, by a half-m'ile wide, but 
it is full of romantic scenery, shady dells, immense 
craggy rocks of white, gray, green, and black, dis- 
posed in the wildest confusion, in the greatly varied 
forests or woodless gaps. Dogwood and pawpaw are 
common growths in the lower parts of the basin, and 
laurel abounds in thickets along the watered hillocks. 

Coal has been dug from a bed of blackish slate in a 
hillside near the northern end of this valley. It 
served well for blacksmith's uses, and was reported to 
resemble anthracite in its hardness and general ap- 
pearance. Unfortunately, only a single deposit has 
been discovered, but nowhere else than in the shaly 
slate, and this was only excavated in a quite small 

Mountains. — The mountain ranges of the Blue 
Ridge Belt deserve especial mention because of the 
important influence which they exert upon the ad- 
jacent country. Standing up as barriers to the clouds, 
they aid in giving direction to the masses of moisture 
which form areas of precipitation of rain and snow. 
On the western faces they rise in general quite precip- 
itously, wliile on the eastern they mount by a series 
of gradual slopes of fairly easy ascent. Only in the 
most northern divisions are the roads excessively 
steep, and there the gaps or chasms between the 
spurs and knobs generally open out in a series of ter- 
races, forming resting-places at occasional intervals. 
Frequently an avenue rises gently along the project- 
ing flank of a ridge, leading up to a chasm nearer the 
summit, through which it passes to the next stage 
above. The highest summits of the South Mountain 
range, as it appears in this State, are met with on the 
western side, overlooking the Hagerstown Valley. 
There at the most northern extremity the well-known 
High Rock rises beyond Pen Mar Park to an altitude 
of two thousand feet above the level of the sea. The 
view from this peak is very extensive, and takes in 
a vast range of country, reaching out into the three 
States of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. A 
charming country lies spread out before the eye from 
this point, including the richest regions in the great 
valley which crosses the three States before men- 
tioned, and takes in to the southward the most varied 
and romantic parts of the Shenandoah basin. The 
mountain-side is here strewn with huge bowlders and 
fragments, the shattered remnants of colossal rocks of 
the Alp that once rose far above any point now reached 
by the loftiest pinnacle of this region. On this side 
of the range, also, two or three high knobs, only a 
few miles farther south, rise to altitudes of two thou- 
sand two hundred to two thousand three hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. Some of these are almost 
flat on top, the shattered rocks which formerly rested 
there having been carried away by the torrents and 
tempests, and the summits thereby worn oflf and lev- 
eled. On the outer limits of the chain short spurs 
and ridges have been split off" from the ancient mass, 
and these form the outliers from which the foot-hills 
swell away into the broad valleys. The South Moun- 



tain range, when viewed alone, appears to form an 
undulating line of nearly horizontal ridges, sloping 
gradually, for a few miles, to be successively more 
rounded, and then by more abrupt summits, until the 
whole series of swells is lost in the misty blue of the 
distance. It is a series of high and very narrow par- 
allel folds, which become a single ridge on the south, 
and having a general width of less than a mile in 
that part of its course. This view is, however, some- 
what deceptive, since it presents only that part of the 
system which rises above the beds of the high ad- 
joining valleys. It forms what appears to be only the 
larger western division of a great fan-shaped syn- 
clinorium. or series of depressions, of which the Elk 
Ridge is the extreme western member and the Sugar- 
Loaf group the eastern. Both of these outer divi- 
sions are superficially detached from the great central 
body of upfolds, but formed of the same rocks, having 
•continuity throughout along lines below the surface, 
and produced by the same set of continental forces as 
those which let down the valleys. The same tre- 
mendous agencies have likewise squeezed together the 
two great chains on the north, breaking enormous 
cracks and chasms along and across their course, 
throwing them into curving spurs running nearly east 
and west, forcing the underlying older rocks, such as 
the epidotes, porphyries, and amygdaloids, to the sur- 
face in huge ranges, and twisting the whole series of 
strata far out of place. At the southern end of the 
South Mountain the ridges rise generally to a height 
from eleven to thirteen hundred feet above the level 
of the adjoining valley, while farther north several 
of the more single knobs reach an altitude of nearly 
five hundred feet higher. 

The Catoctin forms a less elevated but wider, alter- 
nately contracted and expanded ridge, sloping in gen- 
eral rather gently along its eastern side, and, as usual, 
more abrupt on the western. It is well buttressed by 
swelling hills along its whole length, and rises very 
slowly from the domes, which roll away and become 
lost in the valley of the Monoeacy. It forms a highly 
picturesque body of mountains as the upper part of 
its course is pursued ; but the lower end, near the 
Potomac, is rather monotonously blunt and flat, ex- 
cept where relieved at the Point of Rocks by the 
r.igged black slate mas^^es which have been torn 
asunder by the terrific forces that opened a way 
through them for the great river. The high billows 
of the range are succeeded at occasional intervals by 
sharp ridges and knobs. These rise with some irreg- 
ularity from a height of about nine hundred feet 
above the level of the sea, until nearly half-way up 
the chain, at High Knob, an altitude of fifteen hun- 

dred and thirty feet is reached, while two or three 
outstanding knobs towards the north are reported to 
rise to a height of sixteen hundred to seventeen hun- 
dred feet. Probably the highest of these is Round- 
Top, which towers in magnificent altitude at a distance 
of about three and a half miles southwest of Emmitts- 
burg. Eagle Mountain is another single spur, stand- 
ing out from the great body of the range, on the right 
of the grand gap of Owen's Creek. On the side of 
the gap through which the turnpike runs from Fred- 
erick to Middletown the Catoctin becomes lowered to 
a level of about eight hundred and seventy feet above 
tide. At least seven openings between the spurs 
make easy entrances for the roads which cross into 
the Middletown Valley. These rise through compar- 
atively easy grades, are remarkably even and well 
kept, and open out broadly wherever the swelling 
terraces of the mountain permit. Only in the most 
northern division, where the two ranges unite, are the 
roads steep and difficult, and even there they are so 
wide and excellent as to greatly facilitate the crossing 
of such sudden heights. The most conspicuous rock 
on the higher surfaces, and which lies broken and 
scattered in endless confusion, is the Potsdam, with 
its related sandstones. It forms enormous beds above 
and in the gaps, and crops out at frequent intervals in 
scattering crags and beetling summits. Hard, com- 
pact talcose slates, grading into aluminous sandy rocks, 
constitute the body of the mountain, while its central 
core and inner base is found to be filled up with the 
metamorphosed slaty porphyries, epidote, amygdaloids, 
and quartz. These hard, almost volcanic rocks have 
been so distorted and torn by the expansive power of 
heat that their broken and disjointed fragments are 
spread around in all directions, and in part may be 
found in masses lying all along the flank of the higher 
levels. At intervals of every few miles, and occasion- 
ally near the gaps, spurs and knobs stand ofl", as if 
monster sentinels to guard the approaches to the peace- 
ful valleys below. These aflFord a wide view of the 
lowlands beyond, each having its own peculiar pano- 
rama, and no two presenting precisely similar features. 
At the southern extremity the Potomac basin and 
Sugar-Loaf Mountain bound the distance ; viewed 
from nearer the middle of the range, the broad valley 
and its many villages and towns, besides the pictur- 
esque city of Frederick, form the central group, 
while the Linganore hills, the winding Monoeacy, 
and Parr's Ridge fill out the picture ; likewise towards 
the north an almost interminable collection of short 
ridges, hills, belts of forest, villages, and hamlets, 
half concealing the network of slender streams, creeps 
away into the red sandstone and gray slates on the 



horizon. The lovely valley of the Monocacy lies in 
full view from several of the high central prominences. 
In the spring and early summer it is a country full of 
beauty and bloom. Rich soils, more varied than can 
be found in any other equal area within the State, 
yielding abundant crops of all the cereals, fruits, and 
products of the farm, luxuriant meadows, and exten- 
sive dairies characterize the whole of this favored 

In addition to these, a healthful climate, an exhil- 
arating atmosphere, and a permanent supply of pure 
water in springs and streams renders the region best 
calculated to support a large, healthy, and thriving 
population. The valley is not a simple depression 
between two ranges of heights, but is a broad, water- 
worn basin, flat and rolling by turns, less elevated than 
its counterpart on the other side of the mountains. 
Swells of highlands and a few ridges push into it from 
the Catoctin, and high billows range along the eastern 
side of the Monocacy until they meet the higher up- 
lift of the Sugar-Loaf It constitutes an area having 
a width of ten to fifteen miles, and a length of about 
thirty miles, the lowest level being in the bed of the 
river, at an altitude of about two hundred and eighty 
feet above tide. The general average of the surface 
may be computed to be about four hundred feet above 
the sea, with a gentle downward slope from the north 
towards the south, and with a more decided pitch from 
the sides towards the middle line. This causes the 
drainage of the whole country to descend into the 
river, which in its turn empties into the Potomac. 
The Monocacy is the principal stream in the region. 
It is a small but long river, not more than a creek in 
the upper part of the county, but which becomes more 
than one hundred feet wide in the part near its mouth. 
It is a moderately sluggish stream in its lower divi- 
sions, but rapid and full near its sources. In the 
great springs near Gettysburg, Pa., are its principal 
heads, and from thence it bends among the rocks and 
hills in perpetual windings, until it finally has cut a 
more decided channel out of the red sandstones of 
Frederick County. After entering fully into that 
system of rocks, it spreads out in frequent alluvial 
basins, into which it has poured the sediments appro- 
priated throughout its upper course. After receiving 
the waters of Double Pipe Creek it becomes much 
wider, and passes through a wide channel, bordered by 
thick bushes, scattered trees, and thickets of green- 
brier. It receives a greater number of tributaries 
than any of the smaller rivers of Maryland, and thus 
contributes an endless supply of moisture to the whole 
valley through which it runs. Some of these creeks 
are of large size and drain wide areas of country. 

The principal ones on the east are Piney, Little and 
Big Pipe, Israel's, Linganore, and Rennet's ; and on 
the west Tom's, Owen's, Hunting, Fishing, Big and 
Little Tuscarora, Carroll's, and Ballenger's Creeks. 
Those of the latter division are chiefly rapid mountain 
streams of great beauty and clearness. Most of the 
northeasterly tributaries pass through the new red 
sandstone soils, and carry down large quantities of red 
sediment, which discolors their waters and stains the 
country through which they flow. In the northern 
part of the valley the red sandstone stretches across 
its whole width, and on the east passes over into Car- 
roll County. But after reaching the vicinity of Fred- 
erick City it lies to the westward, becomes narrowed 
to a width of about two miles, and finally thins out as 
the Point of Rocks is approached. One of the prin- 
cipal factors in producing the fertility and capabilities 
of this charming valley is the boundless store of lime- 
stone which rests beneath so much of its surface. On 
the west side of the Monocacy a strip of blue, with 
some white limestone begins near the Potomac River 
(having a general breadth of two miles), and runs 
north by a little east several miles, crossing the Mon- 
ocacy at the mouth of Israel's Creek, and tapering to a 
point in the vicinity of Woodsboro'. Besides this, the 
beautiful breccia, or calico-marble, starts at Mechan- 
icstown, in the midst of the red sandstone, runs south 
for more than three miles, disappears, then reappears 
in a new guise southwest of Frederick City, and 
spreads out in a broad area reaching to the banks of 
the Potomac River. In this southern end of the 
valley it has become more silioious, includes larger 
fragments of coarser rocks, and is not so homogeneous 
in texture, and not always having the pebbles so firmly 
cemented together as in that from the upper end. 
East of the river Frederick County shares with Car- 
roll in the beds of fine marble which pass southwest 
across Sam's Creek to the vicinity of Union Bridge. 
These form quarries of all possible dimensions, are 
abundantly supplied with marbles which take a fine 
polish, and which can be taken out in monoljths of 
large dimensions. Only a few of them have been 
opened deep and far enough to show their capabilities, 
but such as have had enough of the surface mass re- 
moved show bodies of generally solid, broad, and long 
blocks in even strata. These are often of marvel- 
ously beautiful colors and combinations of patterns. 
Bright reds occur almost plain, and often veined or 
variegated with black, brown, and white. 

Salmon-colored or orange-yellow marbles also occur 
of similar patterns, likewise the varieties commonly 
known as Tennessee and Vermont marbles, and others, 
such as the clear black veined with white, lead color 



or mauve traced with black, and mottled, spotted, and , 
waved with brown, purple, liver-color, etc. Besides 
these, there is a pure white statuary marble of fine 
grain, massive and free from grit. Near Emmitts- 
burg a green variety, resembling verd-antique, occurs in 
large quantities ; while in and below Mechanicstown a 
bewildering range of varieties of breccia, composed of 
deep and clear-colored fragments of purple, yellow, 
drab, brown, white, etc., and of all sizes, are easily ob- 
tainable. These can be selected in pieces of almost 
any useful size, and the supply seems to be practically 

For many years these choice marbles have been 
broken to fragments for burning in the lime-kilns. 
Fashion has not yet called them into her celestial 
train amidst the favored beauties of the decorative arts. 
Builders send abroad for the blocks and slabs which 
are to adorn palatial mansions, while these elegant ob- 
jects, so cheap and easily obtained, are made to do the 
service of coarse limestones in supplying nourishment 
to the soil. 

Iron, Copper, and Other Metals. — Iron ore is 
found in large quantities in many parts of the valley. 
It is chiefly some form of brown hsematite or limonite 
which overlies the limestone and is imbedded in the 
clay or in the ochreous soil. About three miles south 
of Mechanicstown, near the foot of the Catoctin 
Mountain, the fibrous and chambered variety occurs 
in beds and deposits of vast extent. This has been 
dug and smelted for a period of more than eighty 
years, and still sustains a good reputation for quality 
and for tractability in the furnace. The crude much 
resembles that found in the limestone regions of Wash- 
ington County. It has the same flaky layers, twisted 
and rolled back in every direction, and a purplish 
tinge to the fracture of the more solid parts. A 
rusty powder rests between the layers or fills the 
cavities of the cellular portion. It is also accompa- 
nied in the beds by nodules of phosphate of iron 
associated with brown ochre. In this region particu- 
larly the ore is characterized by being mixed with an 
appreciable amount of the carbonate of zinc, which 
melts when the metal is being fused, and forms a coat- 
ing on the inside of the furnace. This makes an 
available form of the oxide of zinc, but it becomes a 
serious obstacle in the manufacture of the iron unless 
removed from the walls of the stack. The close 
proximity of limestone for the flux, and of large 
bodies of wood for the charcoal, make this deposit of 
ore immediately available for smelting. A similar 
deposit of brown hasmalite is found under almost 
equally propitious circumstances near the base of the 
same ridge of mountains, not far from the Point of ' 

Rocks. The primitive forests no longer remain, but 
ample supplies of the ore might still be obtained from 
the same set of beds. Much of this latter is of the 
variety known as " pipe ore," the cavities of which are 
more or less occupied by the earthy phosphate of iron. 
A very compact and rich brown hematite is found in 
quantities near the Monocacy, about four miles north- 
east of Frederick City. It has a more metallic aspect 
than those previously mentioned, is very heavy and 
dense, and often incloses small crystals of opaque white 

Specular oxide of iron also occurs east of the Mon- 
ocacy River, in the metalliferous belt passing through 
the country from jMiddleburg, in Carroll County, to 
New Market. Very rich specimens of this beautiful 
ore have been extracted from pockets in the talcose 
slates in the neighborhood of Liberty and New Lon- 
don. These have not yet, however, been fully opened, 
nor sufficiently laid bare to determine the amount of 
ore possibly present. The absence of large tracts of 
woodland from this section seems to prevent iron 
manufacturers from erecting furnaces on the spot, 
and a lack of active local interest hinders the develop- 
ing of the mines, and so no attempt is made to trans- 
port the ore to localities favorable for smelting. A 
similar specular oxide has likewise been found along 
the summit of the Catoctin ridge. These ores are rich 
in iron, and would form important additions to the re- 
sources of the county if they were shown to be present 
in large quantities. The magnetic oxides of iron 
have also been found in the copper-bearing belt which 
passes to the south of New Market. These also occur 
in pockets or masses in the talcose and slaty rocks, and 
in the joints of the limestone. Some of the varieties 
are very rich in metal, and might prove very profit- 
able if discovered in large quantities. Copper is very 
widely distributed through the quartz and next the 
limestone beds in the talcose slates and new red sand- 
stone formations east of the Monocacy and south of 
Little Pipe Creek. It sometimes accompanies the 
magnetic oxide of iron which enters with steatite 
into the masses of mica-slate. The silicates and car- 
bonates of copper are found near Middleburg, New 
London, Liberty, etc., and between the two branches 
of Pipe Creek. But the most promising region for 
this metal is that drained by the Linganore Creek. 
The principal rock there is the talcose slate, em- 
bracing numerous detached beds and ledges of lime- 
stone set into the strata. The latter are always asso- 
ciated with the ore, and wherever they are found 
stains of copper appear on their surface or in the 
cracks. Good ore generally has a position between 
these two kinds of rocks, but is commonly most abun- 



dant near the outer limits of the limestone. Rich 
ores have been extracted from the Dolohyde mine, 
near Liberty, and at other points in this vicinity, 
also near New London, in the same formation. The 
oldest of these workings was begun as early as the 
time of the Revolution, and has been continued at 
intervals ever since. A lack of minute information 
with regard to the relations and form of the masses 
or pockets has proved an obstacle in the successful 
development of these mines. New and particular ex- 
periences with this class of deposits will alone deter- 
mine how far these formations will prove profitable, 
and to what extent the metal can be worked. Cop- 
per exists also in the older rocks of the Catoctin sum- 
mit. Pieces of the native ore have been picked up in 
Harbaugh's Valley, one of which weighed fourteen 
pounds. It is not to the native metal, however, that 
attention need be called, since it is quite improbable 
that deposits of it can be found in the class of rocks 
prevailing in this part of the country. More reliance 
may be placed upon the indications of sulphurets and 
carbonates of copper, which here may prove to be 
stored away in the central division of the mountain 

Sulphuret of lead, or galena, has been detected in 
the limestone region near Unionville; but only small 
pieces have thus far been secured. It occurs, also, in 
the Dolohyde copper-mine in small quantities. Oxide 
of zinc is found associated with the brown haematites 
of the Catoctin region, and it is obtained in large 
quantities as a furnace product from the Catoctin 
Iron- Works. 

Gold and silver have been detected as minute 
particles in some of the older slates and metamorphic 
rocks, both of the metalliferous belt and mountain 
range. The structure of these regions, however, 
renders it very unlikely that either of these metals 
will be found there in profitable amounts. 

Roofing slates of good quality are present in several 
localities within the talcose schist region on the eastern 
side of the county. Among the Linganore hills 
several quarries of chiefly local interest have been 
opened, but near Ijamsville, directly on the line of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, large beds of even 
texture and dark-blue color have been worked for 
many years. These produce excellent thin plates of 
good quality, which improve in size and firmness as 
the beds are worked to greater depths. Slates of an 
entirely different character occur both in the Catoctin 
and Blue Ridge Mountains, next the roads leading 
towards Hagerstown. These are tough and very 
strong, easily and naturally split into slabs of four 
inches or more in thickness, may be obtained in 

pieces of the largest size, and are of a nature particu- 
larly well fitted for pavements, caps of walls, sills, and 
for the outside of buildings generally. 

A remarkable feature of the county, and one of its 
most curious monuments, appears in its southeastern 
corner, near the Monocacy River. At that point 
representative rocks of three great geological periods 
centre, and a great fold of the surface has built an 
isolated group of mountains. These are merely the 
lateral outliers of the great upthrust produced by the 
contracting force which raised the Catoctin and Blue 
Kidge. But here it has assumed a mere local eleva- 
tion, and constitutes a triple-crested mountain, with a 
short ridge flanking it on the west. The summit 
called distinctively Sugar-Loaf is the most south- 
westerly, the intermediate one is called Round Top, 
and that at the other end, or northeasterly, is Mount 
Airy. About three-quarters of a mile to the west 
stands the nearly straight hog-back called Green 
Ridge, while beyond its northern end may be seen 
three minor single knobs of much less altitude. This 
section forms the place of junction of the primordial 
series with the new red sandstone and rocks of the 
Azoic formation, the former being represented by 
the Potsdam sandstone, constituting the uppermost 
layers of rocks and overlapping the talcose slates, 
while the brown sandstone fills the intervening 
valley, and conceals the ends of the great layers of 
white sandstone. The grand Sugar-Loaf rises in 
magnificent prominence to a height of thirteen hun- 
dred and seventy feet above the level of the sea, and 
gives a commanding view of all the country lying 
east and south to nearly as far as Washington. It is 
most appropriately named Sugar-Loaf, since it is built 
from base to summit of the plain white sandstone, 
which glistens with crystalline brightness in the sun- 

The white rock is set together in vast walls of im- 
mense thickness, forming a curved front bristling with 
crags and rugged butttesses, like the torn flank of a 
huge fortress. On top great piles of the rock stand 
detached from the main mass, and project in frightful 
crags over the abyss beneath. In spite of the solid 
masonry which forms the whole body of the peak, it 
is covered everywhere, even upon the summit, with 
a growth of trees, which in the distance lends a rich 
contrast to the white rocks and spots of brown soil. 
Green Ridge is likewise well named, for it is a ver- 
dant billow, standing with refreshing brightness in 
bold relief beside the dark soils and light stream of 
the Blonocacy. On the southwest side of the group 
colored sandstones and silicious conglomerates form 
large beds, and offer beautiful building-stones, which 



would make superb substitutes for the much-used 
Scotch granites. 

Fauna and Flora. — Great diversity obtains in the 
natural productions of the Blue Ridge Belt. Every- 
where it has at some time supported a varied popula- 
tion of great beasts, of the smaller animals and birds, 
and of the unnumbered host of creeping things, while 
a rich and abundant representation of the floral tribes 
has added grace and beauty to the picturesque land- 
scape. The great American elephant at one time 
roamed over the fertile valleys, while the elk, caribou, 
and red deer grazed in the open areas of the forests. 
Besides those, the bear, panther, wild-cat, gray wolf, 
two kinds of foxes, raccoon, opossum, ground-hog, and 
most of the small animals now common to the eastern 
side of the United States found a home in one or the 
other parts of this varied region. The beaver espe- 
cially was formerly abundant here, and built dams 
across the creeks and river. Unhappily, with the in- 
crease of population new demands for cleared lands 
drove away many of the interesting animals, such as 
the beaver and elk, and the cupidity of thoughtless 
men caused the extermination of all the animals most 
valued in the chase. Of the birds, a vast assemblage 
once tenanted the lands where now only a few scores 
can be met with in the longest trip. The wild pigeon 
still returns in diminished numbers to the vicinity of 
its former " roosts," but the great birds have chiefly 
been destroyed, together with the raven, the Carolina 
parrot, the large white heron, the fish-hawk, and a 
large company of the sweet warblers and bright-feath- 
ered songsters of smaller size, but of inestimable value 
and gratification. Butterflies and brilliant insects 
abound, the injurious as well as the useful. But the 
removal of the forests has opened the way for a thou- 
sand crawling enemies to agriculture, while the 
thoughtless impulses of the population have destroyed 
numerous species useful and ornamental. 

Flora has been lavish in the beauty and variety of her 
gifts, but the loose rich humus resting in the shadows 
of the heavy old forest has been swept away, and with 
it the primitive fairies which charmed the senses on 
the mountain-side and in the open valley. In their 
stead, however, still remain a remnant of the azaleas, 
magnolias, kalmias, orchids, asters, and sunflowers, in 
company with the blossoming thorns, viburnums, spi- 
raeas, dogwoods, and other showy bushes. Judicious 
planting of trees year by year will bring back some of 
these lost beauties, but will do even more in retaining 
and supporting the moisture so much needed to keep 
the little streams, and through them the creeks, in 
their former more active condition as sewers of the 

Coal, — Indications of the presence of coal have 
been met with in various parts of the new red sand- 
stone formation in the valley of the Monocacy. But 
the chief localities which have given promise of de- 
posits of this important fuel have been in the ridge of 
hills at the foot of the Catoctin Mountain, sometimes 
described as the red hills. This is at the head-waters 
of the Tuscarora Creek, runs oiF in a southeast direc- 
tion, and constitutes the Chapel Ridge. It is formed 
chiefly of the breccia, or calico-marble, associated with 
shale of the reddish- brown sandstone, penetrated more 
or less by broken blocks of the blackish hornblendie 
trap. The region extends to near the Point of Rocks, 
where it blends with the talcose slates and becomes 
lost. Specimens of anthracite coal have been exhib- 
ited which were reported to have been taken from 
some outcrops of blackish shale in these hills. Great 
doubt has, however, been thrown upon the authentic- 
ity of these deposits by the attempts of unscrupulous 
persons to pass ofi' unquestionable specimens of foreign 
coal as the products of this section. Carbonaceous 
shales do undoubtedly occur at the Yellow Springs, 
six miles northwest of Frederick City, between the 
branches of Big and Little Tuscarora Creek, but these 
do not belong to the true coal-bearing series of rocks. 
The breccia and blue limestone, associated with mica- 
ceous sandstone, inclose a bituminous shale, which is 
charged with impressions and remains of carbonized 
plants, including thin seams of apparently real anthra- 
cite coal. This shale sometimes outcrops at the sur- 
face of the ground, and elsewhere seems to be envel- 
oped by the limestone and micaceous sandstone. The 
ledges of breccia form extensive outcrops on the more 
elevated places, and inclose a band of blue bituminous 
limestone. The general direction of this formation 
concurs with that of the adjoining mountain, and the 
strata dip in a northerly direction at an inclination of 
about forty-five degrees. It has been traced through- 
out a length of three miles, and proved to have a width 
of about one mile. Excavations have been made in it 
to a depth of twenty feet, and the adjoining gray sand- 
stone has been penetrated about forty feet. Horizontal 
drifts have been run through various distances to the 
belts of coal, but the thickest reached has not exceeded 
two inches. Fuel of such a nature being so very 
valuable in the vicinity of a large city might naturally 
attract the attention of capitalists, but a very thorough 
examination has shown that these beds do not belong 
to the carboniferous, or true coal formation, and that 
accordingly no large important deposits of this min- 
eral need be expected in this region. The specimens 
examined from other parts of the new red sandstone 
belt have been fragments of calamites or other plants. 



having the black color and somewhat the appearance 
of coal, but possesising none of its most valuable 

Washington County, and the Great Valley. — 
This couuty is proportionally the longest and narrowest 
in the State. It extends from the summit line of the 
South Mountain chain to the western base of Sideling 
Hill ; the creek of that name separating it from Alle- 
gany County. It stretches from east to west over a 
distance of forty-four miles, and its greatest length 
from north to south is about twenty-eight miles. Penn- 
sylvania bounds it on the north, and the Potomac 
River separates it from Virginia on the south. Its 
general outline suggests the shape of a boot, the heel 
being at the bend of the South Mountain near its 
northern extremity, the toe at the Potomac River next 
to Elk Ridge, and the top of the leg at Sideling Hill. 
The entire area of the county is about four hundred 
and sixty-three square miles, of which more than three- 
fourths are included in the Hagerstown Valley. At 
Hancock the county is contracted to a width of about 
one mile and a quarter by the great bend in the 
Potomac River. 

The county may be properly divided into two natu- 
ral sections, of which the smaller and most western 
belongs to the Appalachian Belt, while the eastern 
and larger, forming one of the grand divisions closely 
connected with the Blue Ridge Belt, is the Great 

The Great Valley. — This great feature of the cen- 
tral mountain .system forms the most important part of 
the territory of Washington County. It is a broad de- 
pression lying between the SouthMountain range on the 
east and the North Mountain on the west. Its breadth 
between these two ridges is from twenty to twenty- 
three miles, while its length from north to south is about 
twenty-eight miles. That part of it within these limits 
is known as the Hagerstown, or Antietam Valley. No 
natural boundary separates this from its northern ex- 
tension, called the Cumberland Valley, in Pennsyl- 
vania, but on the south it is detached from the Shen- 
andoah Valley by the basin of the Potomac River. 
No depression of the surface of equal magnitude, 
beauty, and fertility exists on the eastern side of the 
United States. It forms also the principal valley 
within the State of Maryland, and yields to none in 
productiveness of the soil and in the grandeur and 
variety of its scenery. It is not a simple trough cir- 
cumscribed by two great elevations of surface, but 
minor waves of uplift traverse it in various parts, 
running mainly from north to south. Nor is it a 
single hydrographic basin, for the Antietam River 
runs through its principal depression on the east, and 

the Conococheague River drains the section on the 
west. On the northern end the eastern division is set 
with high swells of surface, some of which rise into 
spurs running parallel to the main body of the South 
Mountain. The general level of the valley is prob- 
ably somewhat more than five hundred feet above the 
level of the sea, and in the more northern parts rises 
to about seven hundred feet, while its southern ex- 
tremity, near the Potomac River, slopes down to about 
two hundred and seventy-five feet. 

On the west the Conococheague River winds in 
great loops through a somewhat less elevated basin, 
but where the country rises into an abrupt ridge along 
the belts of slate rocks. Almost the whole valley is 
spread with large farms of unsurpassed fertility. 
Being so generally underlaid by limestone, the soil is 
particularly well adapted to raising cereals and grasses, 
and accordingly it produces the largest crops of wheat 
and other grain to be met with in the State. 

The limestone is chiefly of the strong, compact, 
dark-blue variety, invaded by seams and veins of 
white; but in certain sections,. as between Sharpsburg 
and Boonsborough, drab, yellowish-red, pale blue, and 
white occur in large beds. Many of the varieties 
from this section are very fine and massive, they take 
a fine polish, and can be taken out in monoliths of 
almost any required dimension. Between Keedys- 
ville and Boonsboro' a very hard, dense, bluish, 
wavy limestone forms a belt about five hundred feet 
wide, running from northwest towards the southeast, 
which may be removed in large slabs, and is highly 
esteemed for pavements and for buildings. It is 
called knuttle, is easily wrought, and proves to be 
an attractive and most enduring building-rock. In 
the neighborhood of Keedysville many varieties of 
stone suitable for industrial purposes are quarried. 
About one-half mile south of this place a species of 
fine-grained calcareous rock, white or yellowish in 
color, marked with wavy lines and zigzag streaks of 
brown or black, is extensively quarried, sawed into 
blocks, and dressed. It is a most novel variety, is 
easily worked, takes a good surface, and may be taken 
out in thick slabs of immense size. The ledges, an- 
gular hills, and masses of limestone rock, particularly 
in this part of the valley, are so striking as to arrest 
the attention, and give a highly picturesque effect to 
the landscape. A white, coarse-grained, distinctly 
crystalline limestone also occurs in this vicinity. It 
is really a hard marble, and is said to take a good 
polish. South of Boonsboro' a fine variety of this 
white marble abounds, which is remarkably free from 
impurities and foreign elements. It equals the Tus- 
can statuary marble in purity of color and evenness 



of texture, while it takes a fine polish, and readily 
admits the chisel of the sculptor. As these latter 
rocks have not yet been sufficiently developed, it will 
be necessary to penetrate deeper into their mass to 
reach the large blocks best adapted for fine monu- 
ments and sculpture. The auroral blue limestone, 
which forms the underlying bed of nearlj' the whole 
valley, the chief exceptions being the slates of the 
Conococheague belt and of the base of the Elk Ridge 
and South Mountain, belongs to the most extensive 
formation of this rock in North America. 

Caves and Caverns. — A great variety of curious 
cavities occurs in this limestone, which lines the basin 
of the Great Valley. This is of the same kind of rock 
as that in which the Mammoth Cave, the Luray 
caverns, and all the celebrated caves of the Eastern 
United States occur. No correct idea can yet be 
formed of the number and extent of the cavernous 
spaces which lie concealed in the almost fathomless 
rock which underlies this valley. Sink-holes and 
openings in the surface of many farms, and particu- 
larly in the neighborhood of Williamsport and Hagers- 
town, attest the presence of a former deep underground 
drainage ; and even now small streams of water are 
said to disappear beneath the surface and become lost 
to further observation. In the vicinity of Keedysville 
the yellowish calcareous rocks are cavernous, and cav- 
ities of a few feet in diameter are frequently discov- 
ered. These have usually been excavated by currents 
of spring and rain-water, carrying a certain amount of 
carbonic or other acids in solution, and softening and 
transporting the materials of the rock into which they 
find an entrance. 

The most considerable and well-known caves at 
present accessible in this valley are those at Cave- 
town, on the Western Maryland Railroad, about 
seven miles east of Hagerstown. They are situated 
in a ridge, along the flank of which the railroad runs, 
the summit of which rises more than eighty feet 
above the track. The limestone composing the hill 
is of two kinds. The upper, or sandy strata, called 
" rocklime" by the quarrymen, mixed with silicious 
and other impurities, is from five to fifteen feet in 
thickness; the lower and bed-rock of the country is 
the well-known blackish-blue compact limestone, so 
rich in lime, which is the most highly-prized fertil- 
izer to be found in Washington County. 

The entrance to the larger, or Bishop's, cave is a 
hole formed by the falling in of the wall of rock, 
leaving an aperture ninety-two feet wide and eight 
feet high. It is entered at a point about twenty-five 
feet above the level of the railroad, and is nearly one 
hundred feet west of Cavetown Station. A great deal 

of debris has fallen into the mouth of the cave, occu- 
pying an area of at least one hundred feet wide by 
thirty feet long and thirty deep. The first cavern en- 
tered forms a large hall, fairly well illuminated by 
daylight, sloping inward about twenty feet to a nearly 
level floor. It is almost circular, has a diameter from 
north to south of two hundred feet, a length of two 
hundred feet from east to west, and a height varying 
from thirty-five to forty-five feet. Formerly the walls, 
ceiling, and floor were studded with an endless variety 
of stalactites and stalagmites of almost every pattern 
and peculiarity. Unfortunately, the easy access to 
this cave made it ever open to the vandalism of curi- 
osity-seekers, and accordingly it has been rifled of all 
the smaller-sized specimens which once belonged to 
it. Possibly by the planting of trees upon the hill, 
and by the consequent return of dripping moisture, 
it may be once more restored to its pristine beauty 
and splendor. Fortunately, two objects of interest 
still remain. The principal one of these is in the 
southwest corner of this first hall. It consists of a 
series of Venus' baths, arranged in terraces, rising to 
a height of about twenty-five feet next the wall, and 
covering an area of more than nine hundred square 
feet. The larger basins composing the group are 
placed above and behind , they are in the form of oval 
rosettes, with a raised rim about one foot high form- 
ing the borders, and the cavities in them about six to 
nine inches deep, filled with limpid water. The 
smaller ones gradually extend forward from these at 
lower levels, and become shallower as they advance 
stage by stage. 

They are also scalloped, and taken together form a 
piece of fountain-work only excelled by the great 
basins of similar shape which adorn the valley of the 
Yellowstone, in the United States National Park. In 
this cave, however, these baths have been made by the 
deposit of layers and rims of calcareous matter, while 
in the latter the material deposited is partly silicious. 
This group of basins is now badly disfigured by dirt 
and mud-stains, which hide its chief beauties, but it 
is capable of being made as clear and pure as it was 
originally. The other object is a large stalagmite, 
cylindrical, somewhat tapering, standing erect, and 
being about six feet in diameter and ten feet in height. 
It stands on the right, beyond the middle of the hall, a 
solitary column, the sad and silent witness of the ravages 
of the past. Going to the end of this first chamber, a 
bole is reached, about four by seven feet in diameter, 
leading into an uneven cavern, varying in width from 
ten to forty feet, with a rising floor, the summit of which 
contracts the cavity at a point two hundred feet from 
its entrance, and forms a narrow passage with a down- 



ward slope into the next room beyond." The floor of 
this third cavern is somewhat scooped out, but has a 
general downward slope towards the rear or western 
end. The roof at this point descends, slopes nearly 
concurrently with the floor, and thus produces a nar- 
rower passage, which leads down to a cavern with a low 
ceiling. This latter is situated about three hundred 
and twenty-one feet from the mouth of the cave, and 
is mostly occupied by a pond of clear and motionless 

Apparently this water occupies the whole basin of 
this inner chamber ; it has no visible outlet, and the 
rocks of the ceiling descend to within a very few feet 
of its surface. Its bed slopes downward very rapidly 
at an angle of scarcely less than 45°, so that it ap- 
pears to be very deep at only a few feet from its first 
accessible margin. The temperature of the water was 
55°, while that of the air in the first hall was 59°, 
and that outside of the cave 84°. In the second 
chamber, and on its north side, is a hole leading to a 
cavern a few feet distant, which runs parallel to the 
large cave. This is a long, narrow chamber, which 
descends and terminates at each end, like the bag of 
a purse. It is one hundred and fifty feet long, about 
thirty feet high, and from ten to fifteen feet wide. 
Here, as in the larger one, the walls and floor have 
been denuded of all their objects of interest, and now 
only the stumps and vestiges of stalactites and stalag- 
mites remain to indicate their former presence. 

Close by this scene of wreck and ruin one almost 
unmolested cavern still remains to attest the beauties 
of these wonders of nature. It is entered from above 
at a point above three hundred and fifty feet south of 
Bishop's Cave, and is entirely disconnected from the 
latter. The opening into it has been artificially en- 
larged, and a series of steps broken into the limestone 
to render the descent into it less diSicult. Upon enter- 
ing, it is seen to be an enlarged horizontal crack in 
the rock, about two hundred and forty feet in length, 
but contracting so rapidly at intervals that a person 
can hardly squeeze through into the open spaces be- 

Although small, it is a perfect gallery of splendid 
objects. In every direction the eye rests on beautiful 
and bright forms of crystalline groups, which only re- 
quire adequate illumination to bring them out in in- 
describable brilliance. This gem-studded chamber 
might well be styled the Crystal Grotto, for it is lit- 
erally a cabinet of crystals of almost endless variety 
and great expressiveness. 

The fauna and flora of the caves are very limited. 
In the first chamber of Bishop's Cave the common 
striped squirrel, Taniias striatus, runs about in the 

area reached by the light, and here, too, may be found 
a few of the insects which belong to the limestone 
region outside. But in the dark chambers the hoary 
bat, Lasiurus cinereas, is the only animal occupant ; 
while in the damp humus a few insects of the Th^- 
sanuran, or springtail group are found in the vicinity 
of a meagre growth of minute lichens. No living ob- 
jects have yet been found in the waters of these cav- 
erns, and they appear to be destitute of the wingless 
crickets and various blind insects which occur in the 
Mammoth and other caves. 

Water-courses. — -The valley is well supplied with 
brooks and rivulets running from springs or bursting 
from fountains in the rocky hillsides. The latter are 
remarkable for the large and strong volume of water 
formed so near their sources. To this circumstance 
the inhabitants are indebted for the superior water- 
powers which drive their mills so near the heads of 
the streams. As the porous nature of parts of the 
limestone rocks forming the hills allows the formation 
of large cavities, the underground drainage is caught 
and .stored in places above the general level of the 
region, and these pour a perpetual outflow through 
the avenues worn along the old cracks, until an outlet 
is reached in some ravine or depression at the point 
of least resistance. 

The xintietam River, which rises in Pennsylvania, 
near Gettysburg, has its source in one of these vigor- 
ous outbursts from the side of a hill. At all seasons 
of the year, and in times of drought as well as during 
the periods of rain, this class of streams supplies the 
same abundance of limpid water, while similar 
sources which simply swell up from the ground are 
sensitive to prolonged changes of weather, and either 
fail or flush, in conformity with prevailing physical 
conditions. The former are evidently supplied in 
large measure from the nearer mountains, and form a 
portion of the surplus of the permanent underground 
water-system. This supply is not derived chiefly from 
the rainfall, although it may be increa.sed beyond the 
average measure by additions from such sources. But, 
as the water comes from distant localities, and from 
considerable heights, it is found to rise high above its 
external source, and to be steady in its supply. " The 
Cold Spring, in the immediate vicinity of Ilagerstown, 
possesses in these respects sufficient interest to deserve 
the attention of tourists. It pours forth a large 
steady volume of cold, clear water, sufficient to supply 
the needs of a large bathing resort, and it is noted for 
its purity and mineral strength. When exposed to 
the influence of the sun, the excess of carbonic acid 
which it contains, and which renders it a solvent of 
the limestone rocks, escapes, and an eftlorescence of 



neutral carbonate of lime is precipitated along its 
course. It is probable that formerly these streams 
were still more abundant than at present, for on both 
sides of their actual course there are broad and deep 
deposits of this calcareous sediment. Moreover, in 
consequence of the copiousness and temperature of 
the streams of this kind, they never freeze ; and the 
Antietam, which is supplied in this way at every stage 
of its progress through the country, furnishes a very 
large amount of never-failing water-power." ' The I 
tributaries of this river which belong to Washington 
County rise chiefly between the outlying spurs of ; 
South Mountain, the few branches that rise on the 
west side being only two or three of quite small size, 
and of little importance. On the northeast, however, 
a large tributary, proceeding from the mountain chain 
by several branches, passes through the Fourteenth and 
Ninth Districts, and makes a fork with the main branch 
of the river below Leitersburg. Next, and most im- 
portant of them all, the rapid, romantic Beaver Creek 
rushes from the mountains through more than a dozen 
channels, drains a tract of coun'ry thirteen miles long, | 
and carries a large stream of water into the river at ; 
a point three miles north of Keedysville, The only 
other tributary of much importance is the interesting, 
but short. Little Antietam, It rises in several sources 
from the limestone hills northeast of Rohrersville, 
bends around to the northwest, and passing Keedys- 
ville through a wide, stony channel, glides into the 
greater Antietam. Probably the most romantic stream 
in the valley is Israel's Creek. It rises in the ridges 
adjacent to Rohrersville, pursues its way south be- 
tween high ledges of broken rocks, over rapids and 
miniature cascades, and finally rushes down the em- 
bankment beneath the canal to enter the Potomac 
River. The nest large water-system has its outlet 
through the Conococheague River. It is not so broad 
and extensive as the Antietam ; much of its course 
lies in Franklin County, Pa., and it rises in that re- 
gion. That part of it in Washington County is broad, 
rapid, intensely winding, and full of sediment in its 
lower course. It follows in part the division between 
the limestone and the slate ; but in its upper division 
it is not confined to either, and is deflected out of a 
direct course by the hard layers in the limestones 
with which it comes in contact on its way towards the 
south. Abundantly supplied by short branches from 
both sides, at intervals of every two or three miles it 
is reinforced by new volumes of water, and after pass- 
ing through the town of Williamsport it empties into 
the Potomac River. The Little Conococheague is a 

1 J. Ducatel, Geol. Report, 1S40. 

small, long creek, which rises in a gap of the North 
Mountain, receives another branch from the region of 
Clear Spring, flows south, and also empties into the 
Potomac. It runs through a picturesque region, in a 
basin of its own construction, at an average distance 
of about three miles from the base of the mountain 
ridge, and receives several small tributaries at its head- 
waters near the Pennsylvania line. 

Williamsport is situated in the vicinity of a rich 
agricultural region, where the limestone soils spread 
out widely, where also the fertile bottom-lands of the 
old bed of the Potomac stretch along the canal ; but 
also next the slate ridge, where the surface soils are 
thin and of less agricultural value. Timber of large 
size and superior quality formerly covered the greater 
part of the ridges and bottoms in this section ; but it 
has been greatly thinned out within a quite recent 
period, and is now replaced in part only by second- 
growth trees of less value than their predecessors. 
An important production of this region is the massive 
black slate, which abounds at a distance of about five 
miles below the town. It is compact, strong, of fine 
texture, breaks into even slabs, and takes a high polish. 
The choice limestone rocks of this vicinity share the 
characteristics of some of those found on the eastern 
side of the valley. They are white, or of some tone 
of drab or yellow, appear fine-grained, take a good 
polish, and are accessible in fairly large slabs. The 
principal rock, however, is the blue limestone, which 
rests in immense beds of unmeasured depth, and shows 
evidences of being extensively cavernous. No large " 
caves have yet been actually discovered there, but the 
numerous sink-holes which exist in the farms extend 
to unknown depths, and indicate a connection with an 
extensive system of underground cavities, at present 
apparently too dangerous for exploration. One of 
these larger sink-holes, at the base of South Moun- 
tain, near Cavetown, is remarkable for not being con- 
nected with any visible outlet beneath, and accordingly 
for being always nearly full of water. It consists of 
a circular, funnel-shaped cavity in the limestone, about 
one hundred feet in diameter, of unknown depth, filled 
with clear water, which keeps an almost uniform level 
regardless of the variations in the seasons. 

The central parts of the valley are rolling, and the 
folds of surface rise higher on both sides until the 
mountain regions are reached. At the southeastern 
extremity Elk Ridge rises in majesty, and forms the 
western boundary of the narrow but charming little 
basin known as Pleasant Valley. It is an old crack 
between the two mountain uplifts, which has been 
eroded and scooped out until it slopes down into a de- 
pression somewhat lower than the Great Valley, of 



which it is but a minor outlet. On the east the South 
Mountain builds its boundary wall of the flinty sand- 
stone, chert, and slate, while on the west Elk Ridge 
piles its huge walls of white sandstone in a ridge 
seven miles long, and then bends in a few rods to 
contract the upper end of this romantic little inclo- 
sure. Along these high walls of jointed rock bee- 
tling cliffs stand out in threatening attitudes, while the 
mountain base is buttressed by masses of heavy ma- 
sonry. In the valley great bodies of dark slates and 
cherty limestones raise their heads in startling atti- 
tudes ; the surface is strewn with fragments of rock 
which once fitted into the cliffs beyond ; the stream 
threads its way with audible murmur among the sharp- 
cornered .slates and sandstones, and the bowlders are 
overhung by the branches of graceful shrubs and 
trailing creepers. It is a fruitful corner, set in the 
peaceful solitude of the mountain embrace. Daily 
the mist curtain of early morn rests over it ; the dark 
shadows of growing daylight deepen as the mountain 
walls are brought into sharp relief; and later every 
rock, spur, and cliff is lighted into glorious splendor 
by the glowing flashes of the midday sun. Lovely 
vistas delight the eye, both in the valley and on the 
mountain-top. Towards the north the frowning brows 
of the precipitous ridge project in severe contrast to 
the open expanse of the widening valley, which 
stretches off in endless variety of reliefs until lost in 
the dim blue of the distant horizon. While away 
off southwards the opening gap guides the eye out 
to the basin of the broad Potomac, then up the wind- 
ing gorge of the opposite mountains, until the scene 
glides into the swelling waves of the hills beyond and 
is lost in the dark borders of the far-reaching forests. 
On the west the imposing summit is crowned by Mary- 
land Heights ; here in the midst of crags and rugged 
sandstone masses the eye takes in long miles of charm- 
ing perspective on the channel of the shining river, 
and over roll after roll of mountain and hill, resting 
in peaceful sublimity and beauty, until distance levels 
all into one universal tender gray. 

The minerals of the valley are of but few kinds. 
No copper, gold, or silver need be expected in profit- 
able amounts, but iron ore of the brown haematite 
variety abounds near the Potomac River, about two 
miles west of Sandy Hook. It is of the species 
called pipe ore, or sometimes limestone ore, and yields 
metal of excellent quality, well adapted to the manu- 
facture of bar-iron. 

The animals of the county are essentially those of 
the Blue Ridge Belt. The elephant, elk, caribou, and 
beaver were formerly residents of the valleys and up- 
lands, but they have long since disappeared. Among 

the vegetable productions, the cucumber magnolia 
and rhododendron are conspicuous, while the golden 
lilies, asters, sunflowers, and the generally known 
flowers and flowering shrubs of the eastern slope 
of the continent are well represented. The usual 
trees of the same region belong here, while on the 
higher and more expo.sed mountain summits the 
spruces and pines of a more northern climate begin 
to appear. 

Appalachian Region. — This great belt of coun- 
try extends from the summit of the North Mountain 
chain to the western extremity of the State. It in- 
cludes the western end of Washington County and 
the whole of Allegany and Garrett Counties. It 
stretches from east to west in a direct line over a dis- 
tance of eighty-five miles, and its greatest breadth 
from north to .south is on its western boundary, and is 
about thirty-six miles ; while on the east it is about 
eight miles in Allegany, and narrows to one and 
a quarter miles in the western part of Washing- 
ton County. No less than fifteen mountain ranges 
cross this long strip of country, and those in the 
western division form the highest lands in Maryland. 
The lowest levels appear next the basin of the Poto- 
mac River at Cumberland, where they grade down to 
a point scarcely five hundred feet above the sea. The 
highest altitude attained is on the summit of the 
Great Savage Mountain at Altamont, which rises to 
an elevation of more than two thousand seven hun- 
dred feet above high tide. West of Sideling Hill 
until the city of Cumberland is passed the mountain 
ridges are all broken into spurs or backbones of vari- 
able length. They have been generally compressed 
with great force, and are consequently high, narrow, 
and abruptly elevated. The surface between them 
forms elevated valleys of moderate simplicity, broken 
only by slight swells, and traversed by water-courses 
which have cut their' way through winding ravines 
in deep channels, often encumbered by broken masses 
of slate and sandstone. Every valley is supplied 
with its stream of water, usually rapid and pure, run- 
ning from the north over a rocky bed, increased by 
several small tributaries near its source, and emptying 
into the Potomac River. Some of these have cut 
their way through gorges in the spurs, in the midst 
of great rocky ledges, overhung by heavy cliffs, over- 
grown with bushes, ferns, and trailing vines. Near 
their sources they tumble in wild confusion over the 
remnants of shattered rocks, in torrents and cascades, 
and run through wild spots of indescribable attrac- 

The beginning of the Appalachian region forms 
the small western division of Washington Coutity. 



After crossing the Hagerstown Valley and proceeding 
towards the west, up the side of the North Mountain, 
a point is reached on the summit near Fair View, at 
an altitude of sixteen hundred feet above the level of 
the sea. Here the eye may roam almost unobstructed 
from the region of sunrise to where the sun sinks 
below the western horizon. Viewed during the early 
morn, the mist is seen hovering over valleys and 
hiding in the water-courses ; a few purple and orange 
clouds streak the sky beyond the mountains, and the 
green foliage of the nearer forests seems moistened by 
a bath of dew ; but as the sun lifts his golden face 
above the edge of the higher uplands, the smoky fleece 
rises from the streaks of water, the mountains unveil, 
and the foliage glistens as if studded with countless 
gems. On the west, in the nearer valley, the narrow 
chasm of Licking Creek lies beneath the eye ; across 
the broad, high valley, raised into swells and low 
ridges, the town of Hancock now crops out on the 
rounded hillsides and then settles down into the ad- 
jacent ravine ; as the view is lifted a stage higher the 
heavy back of Tonoloway Mountain, flanked by Round 
Top beside the canal, arises ; and then still higher, be- 
hind them all, the great lofty backbone of Sideling 
Hill ridge sets up a forest-fringed barrier, beyond 
which the vision cannot penetrate. A few miles to 
the left the placid bosom of the Potomac River 
gleams like molten silver in the clear light, while 
along its margins the tall, spreading sycamores and 
branching maples join with the dark oaks and glossy- 
leaved gum-trees in tracing their images down into 
the limpid water. In the neighborhood of Hancock 
broken rocks, and occasionally bowlders of white sand- 
stone, lie scattered over the flanks of the hills or rest 
in piles along the beds of the ravines. Ridges of 
brown, gray, and olive sandstones and slates project 
with massive front from places where the torrents of 
by-gone periods have torn their channels, while on 
the precipitous sides of the ridges, and from the walls 
of the frequent gaps, pale cliffs stand out with for- 
bidding sharpness, or threaten to foil from the over- 
hanging heights. 

On the Virginia side of the Potomac the country 
is very rugged, and broken by frequent low ridges of 
the shattered sandstones and slates ; but it is wonder- 
fully picturesque, and the hills are covered by forests 
and verdure as far as the eye can reach. Frequent 
shallows in the river open good fords, which form the 
principal avenues of travel across the country. The 
absence of bridges, which appears a serious obstacle to 
the progress of the stranger, is apparently but little 
felt by the inhabitants of the region. At most times 
the stream seems to be only moderately rapid, and not 

at all too swift to be crossed by horses and cattle ; but 
when heavy rains fall on the mountains beyond, it 
becomes a roaring flood which carries everything be- 
fore it. Three miles west of Hancock the remarkable 
knob called Round Top stands at the southeastern 
angle of Tonoloway Ridge. It rises on that side 
somewhat in the form of a rounded cone, but from 
heights in the rear it is seen to be a short backbone 
extending back in a gradual slope for more than a mile. 
This detached dome is notable for the singular manner 
in which its rocky mass has been folded, and for the 
superior cement limestone that it contains. Here the 
heavy limestone and sandstone layers forming the 
roeky skeleton of this huge dome have been bent 
back and up three times in the lower half of the mass. 
The result has been to force the cement layers into 
closely compressed loops, doubling and increasing its 
thickness accordingly. At the same time the eastern 
side of the beds has received a diagonal twist, which 
has thrust them off in a projecting keel at nearly 
right angles to the rest, and opened a seam along that 

These cement limestones are mainly of a bluish or 
drab color, interstratified with other limestones, and 
with drab and olive sandstones and slates. The ce- 
ment rock is now excavated from nearly horizontal 
drifts or tunnels, ranging from eight to twelve feet in 
height, and fully as much in width, one of which 
has been pursued quite through the end of the moun- 
tain. A part of the great thickness of these layers 
is owing to a double fold of the thickest portion of the 
rock being brought in close contact with a second and 
shorter one. The rock is closely bent together, and 
fully exposed in at least six outcrops within a dis- 
tance of scarcely more than six hundred feet along 
the canal. It appears to be present in practically 
inexhaustible quantities. The hydraulic cement is 
calcined, ground, and prepared in a large mill, situ- 
ated on the spot, and is sent from thence by canal and 
railroad to all parts of the country. It has a high 
reputation with United States engineers and master- 
builders in various part of the country, who have 
used it extensively in the construction of large build- 
ings for the government, and for various public works, 
besides those of the aqueducts, locks, and walls of 
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Nearly half-way 
up the steep front of this mountain there is a thick 
layer of calcareous spar of great purity. It is chiefly 
ribbed with parallel series of narrow, columnar crys- 
tals, remarkable for their length. Above this stratum 
of spar, a nearly square hole leads into a cavern hol- 
lowed out of the upfolded limestone by the tre- 
mendous forces which have crushed the mountain 



and split wide open the beds of stone. This cave 
lias never been adequately explored. It is reported 
to have been the abode of a family of black bears, which 
were traced into it and finally destroyed. It is sup- 
posed to be of enormous length, and to be formed in 
part of vast fissures extending to fearful depths. 

This region varies greatly as to its capacities for 
agriculture. On the sides of the slate hills the soil 
is thin, and not supplied with the moisture necessary 
for the production of large crops. This is also the 
case in a less marked degree of the blunt ridges 
capped by the white conglomerate. But on the lime- 
stone bottoms and throughout the alluvial basins a 
deep fertile soil prevails, which yields abundant crops 
of clover, cereals, and Indian corn. The streams here 
are of small size, although springs are numerous, and 
send forth little brooks in many directions. Three 
creeks wind in tortuous channels across this narrow 
belt of country, and contribute their quota of fertil- 
izing elements to the narrow vallej's through which 
they run. They are the Big and Little Tonoloway 
and Deep Creek. Like all the other streams of this 
region, they run in deep channels through the wind- 
ing gullies and ravines between the hills, are mod- 
erately rapid, and flow for the most part over broken 
rooks and scattered bowlders. 

The majestic Sideling Hill ridge, which forms the 
most westward summit .of Washington County, is a 
grand, high backbone of red and brown sandstone, 
capped and flanked by the Oneida white sandstone, 
and is picturesque, precipitous, and in places almost 
inaccessible. Its summit near the turnpike rises above 
an altitude of sixteen hundred feet, and affords some 
of the finest views of scenery to be had in this country. 
Looking east the eye takes in the whole range of the 
Potomac Valley as far as North Mountain, and rests 
successively upon three or more prominent and beau- 
tiful mountain groups set in the intervening landscape. 
The minerals of this section are' of few species, and 
have not yet been discovered in large quantities. 
Most important of them all is the specular oxide of 
iron, which occurs near Sideling Hill, in the calca- 
reous shales. It has not yet been properly developed, 
but future investigations may determine its presence 
in profitable amounts. The general color of«this ore 
is red, while bright scales of the dark metal project 
from the surface of the lumps. 

Coal has always been an object of special interest 
to the people of this part of Washington County. It 
has been frequently reported as occurring in various 
places where the black shale crops out at the surface 
of the ground. Notwithstanding the adverse reports 
of several competent geologists, extensive drifts were 

pierced into the precipitous flank of Sideling Hill, next 
to where the grand, picturesque gorge of the creek 
opens into the basin of the Potomac River. Several 
of these have been excavated at a great height above 
the bed of the creek, and at a heavy expenditure of 
money and time. The result has been an accumula- 
tion of large piles of black, bituminous, decomposed 
slate and shale, which has proved but a poor substitute 
for the much-coveted anthracite coal. No true coal- 
measures exist in this county ; the position of the geo- 
logical scries would place them above all the formations 
found within its limits, and hence they would occur 
upon the surface and not below. 

Sulphuret of iron is met with in small pieces, or in 
crystals bedded in the slate and limestone rocks, but 
it has not been found in masses or quantities large 
enough for commercial purposes. 

Gold, silver, zinc, copper, and lead have not thus far 
been discovered in useful amounts, and the formations 
peculiar to the country are not in favor of their being 
so found. 

Limestones suitable for agricultural purposes, 
besides the cement rock, appear in immeasurable de- 
posits, but no true marbles belong to this region. 
Purple, brown, olive, and white .sandstones of compact 
texture and fine grain abound, and can be obtained of 
any workable size. Glass-sand of pure white color is 
found, both in the rock and disintegrated, in vast beds 
along the western flanks of Tonoloway and of Side- 
ling Hill. 

Allegany County has an area of about five hun- 
dred square miles, and extends from Sideling Hill 
Creek on the east to the ridge of the Great Savage 
Mountain on the west. Its general outline is some- 
what that of a bent gourd, with the bowl on the east 
and the handle running diagonally on the west. It is 
bounded on the north by Pennsylvania, and separated 
on the south from West Virginia by the Potomac 
River. Its length from east to west is about thirty- 
two miles, and its greatest width from north to south 
is twenty miles. The surface of the country on the 
east is frequently broken by abrupt, moderately ele- 
vated mountain ridges, with intervening narrow val- 
leys ; but on the west it rises to nearly the highest 
elevation reached in the State. 

The first stream reached after crossing Sideling 
Hill is the romantic Sideling Hill Creek. It rises in 
Somerset County, Pa., runs along the base of the 
mountain, and has pierced through numberless ob- 
structions of rock, bluff', and bowlder until it has con- 
quered a deep wide channel all the way to the Poto- 
mac. At intervals along its path masses of the 
heavy-jointed brown sandstone stand in solid masonry 



as majestic bluffs, while next beyond a broad bayed- I 
out basin rests as it has been worn from the strata by 
the power of the rushing floods. Occasionally the ' 
great mountain swells push into its channels, throw- 
ing out huge buttresses of rock, and forming tre- 
mendous precipices of the jointed white Oneida sand- 
stone, where the struggling creek labors to force its 
way through the labyrinths of stone. For wild, un- 
disturbed solitude the basin of this stream has scarcely i 
a counterpart in the State of Maryland. Id the midst 
of half- concealed hollows, from which there seems no 
outlet, Nature has lavished unnumbered gifts. On 
the one side a glen appears, overgrown with the lithe 
forms of varied shrubs, penetrated by alleys bordered 
with richly-colored flowers. Beyond this, the green I 
banks, which bend over the ledges of rocks, overflow 
with the fringy ends of trailing vines, while water, trick- 
ling down through the tangled moss, feeds the roots 
of broad tufts of graceful ferns. In the open avenues 
whole beds of the rich rhododendron grow, next to 
where the groves of maple and birch luxuriate in the i 
moisture-laden breezes. There, too, on the slopes of i 
rich humus, along the ravines, the kalmias and azaleas 
grow in company, and interlace their branches in end- 
less confusion. [ 

A broad, gradually rising valley stretches from this i 
creek to Town Hill, a distance of about five miles. 
The bed of the whole section is brown sandstone, 
yielding a soil productive of ample crops of Indian 
corn and oats. The ridge is a repetition of Sideling 
Hill, but rather less elevated. Beds of black decom- 
posing shale, similar to those previously mentioned, 
are also met with in this ridge, and have likewise 
tempted adventurers to dig for coal. But these do 
not belong to the coal-bearing series, and will not be 
found to yield that mineral. 

Beyoml this .several ranges of lower mountains, of 
similar character, enter the county from Pennsylva- 
nia, and cross this entire width of region. Of these. 
Green Ridge, Polish Mountain, and Warrior Moun- 
tain stand in close proximity to each other beyond 
Town Hill, and between these narrow, high, uneven 
valleys rest, through which small creeks run and 
transport the drainage of the country into the Poto- 
mac. The ridges are composed of closely-pressed strata 
of the same blue and drab limestones, red sandstones, 
and variously colored slates as those previously no- 
ticed, and on their summits occurs the white sand- 
stone or gray conglomerate. Most of the valleys are 
two miles or less in width, while that between War- 
rior and Martin's Mountains is expanded to a breadth 
of about four miles. 

In the latter the red slaty sandstones prevail, and 

they are also found in the succeeding valleys until the 
city of Cumberland is reached. 

Warrior Mountain is largely built of the massive 
cavernous limestone, and contains numerous species of 
fossils peculiar to this formation. 

The caverns are known to form subterranean reser- 
voirs of large size, storing the water which finds an 
outlet at the base of some ridge or hill. In such 
cases vigorous and permanent springs burst forth, and 
produce streams which afford the only reliable water- 
power of the region. Usually the temperature of 
these springs during the cold season is higher than 
that of the surrounding atmosphere, and accordingly 
they are rarely found to freeze, even in the severest 
weather. This important condition permits the run- 
ning of the mills throughout the whole winter, at 
times when it is found impossible to do so in many 
other localities. Murley's Branch is one of the 
streams which rises under similar conditions at the 
western base of Warrior Mountain. After supply- 
ing power for several mills, and flowing through a 
flourishing region, it bends around to the east to pass 
through the gap in that mountain, then winds south 
and unites with Town Creek in the pleasant valley 
below Gilpintown. The upper parts of this and the 
next two adjoining valleys are distinguished by the 
presence of mineral springs, both sulphur and chalyb- 
eate. Adjoining Flintstone, at the base of the gap in 
Warrior Mountain, a white sulphur spring of ample 
volume and of great clearness and mineral strength 
appears. Several others of the same type are also 
present between Green Ridge and Polish Mountain, 
particularly on the Carroll estate. Four of these issue 
from a fossiliferous slate rock which forms the bed 
of the valley, and although appearing limpid and free 
from sediment, nevertheless precipitate all along their 
margins the deposit known as " white sulphur." The 
temperature of these springs is 47° or 48° F., and a 
chemical analysis by experts establishes the presence 
of carbonic acid gas in large proportion, of sulphuret- 
ted hydrogen, and of useful proportions of magnesia, 
muriate of soda, sulphate of lime, carbonate of lime, 
and of chlorides in small quantities. 

Situated as these springs are in the fertile and 
beautiful valley of Fifteen-Mile Creek, at a distance 
of about sixteen miles east of Cumberland, in the 
midst of a region of invigorating and pure air, to- 
gether with the facilities offered by the proprietor of 
the establishment there, should make the locality one 
of the chief resorts for invalids and tourists who seek 
for health and pleasure in more distant and far less 
accessible places. Most of the valleys are seated at 
an elevation of seven hundred to seven hundred and 



fifty feet above the sea. These and the cleared parts 
of the ridges are covered with farms, on which good 
crops of wheat, rye, Indian corn, oats, and potatoes 
are commonly raised. Apples, pears, and the common 
kinds of small fruits succeed well, and the alluvial 
bottoms are adapted for the grazing and raising of 
cattle and farm-stock. Springs are numerous along 
the flanks of the ridges, where they usually give rise 
to active little brooks which transport their waters to 
tlie larger creeks. The mountains are still overgrown 
with ample forests on their summits and sides, and 
these are composed of the yellow and spruce pines, 
with some groves of white pine and large areas of 
chestnut. On the deeper and moister soils the white, 
chestnut, and other oaks, together with the magnolia 
or cucumber-tree, the sycamore, sour-gum, tulip-tree, 
linden, walnut, hickory, maples, and especially the 
false locust, grow luxuriantly. 

The sugar-maple still grows abundantly in some 
localities, from which the farmers obtain their 'annual 
supply of the maple-sugar. Various flowering trees 
and small shrubs abound in the sheltered parts of the 
mountain gaps and in the ravines, among which the 
dogwood, fringe-tree, hawthorn, haw, Judas-tree, and 
calico-bush are very conspicuous. But the most mag- 
nificent of all, the great rhododendron, forms extensive 
thickets in the avenues among the trees, and adds its 
massive bloom to the sweet scent of the delightful 
azaleas. Along the alluvial levels of the Potomac the 
region is made gay by groups of bright heads of the 
native yellow lily, and by numerous varieties of pink, 
purple, and golden crowns of the ever-present asters 
and sunflowers. The Virginia creeper, clematis, green- 
brier, and other cli'nbing and trailing vines overspread 
the rocky nooks with waves of refreshing verdure. 

Beyond Evitt's Mountain the city of Cumberland 
rests in an open amphitheatre, set around with high 
hills and prominent blunt mountain-domes. The Po- 
tomac Eiver in making its long bend to pass around 
Knobby Mountain touches this city and receives the 
waters of Will's Creek. The latter occupies the bed 
of the great and startling gap in Will's Mountain, on 
the western side of Cumberland. This tremendous 
chasm has a width of five hundred feet at its base, 
and the abrupt mountain flank on its east side rises to 
a height of eight hundred feet above the creek. On 
this side the red sandstone lies at the base and stands 
up like a great wall, while on the opposite shore the 
white sandstone is seen in long, heavy walls of im- 
mense thickness, which are continuous with the side 
of the mountain and curve over its summit. The 
blue limestone forms the end of this ridge next the 
city, and crops out at various points on the hill beyond 

the creek. At this point, also, a large bed of the 
black magnesian limestone stands out prominently, 
and is quarried for the purpose of making hydraulic 
cement. This is calcined in kilns near the spot, and 
is then packed in barrels for exportation. Some of 
the limestones are slightly bituminous, and are often 
crossed by wide seams of quartz, which more strongly 
resist the atmosphere and elements, and are thus left 
standing in prominent belts, while the adjoining rock 
is worn away. Such features often constitute great 
buttresses of fantastic shapes, extending down from 
great elevations, and always form attractions to the 
observant and curious. One of these, of more than 
usual interest, is situated on the northwest slope of 
Wills Mountain, only a few miles beyond Cumber- 
land. It has been a standing object of awe to the 
ignorant and superstitious, who dread to be near it 
during the evening or night, and who have given it 
the significant name of Devil's Sliding-place. 

Crossing Will's Mountain through the valley of 
Braddock's Run, the higher ridge of Davis Moun- 
tain is reached, and then a descent is made into the 
great Potomac and Allegany coal-basin. It is an 
oval valley, sloping from the north towards the south, 
with the rocky sides curving upwards to form the 
crests of the mountains. On the western boundary 
the great Savage Mountain forms the highest ridge, 
while on the eastern side Dan's Mountain rises to a 
somewhat less elevation. Between these the pre.sent 
general surface of the valley drops down to a depth 
of five hundred feet below the summits of the ridges. 
In this county, between the Pennsylvania line and the 
Potomac River, it has a length of about twenty miles 
and a width of five to six miles. This is the centre 
of Allegany's greatest activity, and along its slopes 
and swells the miners' houses crop out at frequent 
intervals, where the rugged surface has been denuded 
of the forests which once gave shade and moisture to 
the earth. In the midst of the rocks, on the hard, thin 
soil, the miner's family lives and manages to raise a 
few potatoes and some vegetables to eke out the scanty 
fare which the region supplies. All summer long, and 
until the icy cold of winter has stopped the canal, he 
works beneath the ground, cutting out the black min- 
eral for transportation to other and distant places. 
Square holes in the sides of the mountains and in the 
ravines, kept open by supports of timber, lead to the 
beds from which the coal is taken. About twenty- 
seven square miles of area were originally occupied by 
the seams of this fuel, of which the main stratum, or 
great bed, fourteen feet in thickness, is the eighth in 
the descending order, and rests at a distance of about 
two hundred and seventy-seven feet below the surface. 



Enormous quantities of this important mineral are 
being removed every year, and tlie rate of excavation 
is so rapid as to make it appear likely that this prin- 
cipal bed will be exhausted within the next half-cen- 
tury. The coal is of the semi-bituminous kind, con- 
taining from seventy-two to eighty-three per cent, of 
■carbon, is jet-black and glossy, and is taken out in 
blocks often as large as a man can handle. 

The valley is traversed by a number of streams, the 
■principal of which is a fine large one, the George's 
Creek, that winds and bends in a deep channel from 
north to south, and empties into the Potomac River. 
The other streams are chiefly its tributaries, and gen- 
erally rise on the mountain flanks, both east and west, 
wearing their way though deep channels in the hard 
sandstones and shales, until they finally become merged 
with the creek. Towards the northern end of the 
valley Jennings' Creek and Braddock's Run have cut 
their way in deep channels through gaps in Dan's and 
Will's Mountains, and dashing over broken rocks in 
the midst of startling scenery, they unite with Will's 
Creek in the great chasm a few miles from Cumber- 
land. The mountains of this region are all quite mas- 
sive, have been folded into chains of high, broad 
domes by the enormous pressure which raised them 
into the air chiefly after the coal period ; but before 
that time marshes bordering the ancient ocean per- 
mitted the growth of a dense and rank vegetation, 
which supplied the material for the beds of carbona- 
ceous mineral, since proved to be such useful fuel. 
This part of the country is of little interest as to its 
agricultural capacities, but it is full of remarkable 
scenery, and contains an ample store of carbonate of 
iron in connection with its coal-measures. 

Garrett County. — Upon crossing the summit of 
the great Backbone Mountain, Garrett County is 
reached. It is the most elevated and compact moun- 
tain region in the State ; the surface is all greatly ele- 
vated, and its outline is that of a broad triangle, whose 
hypothenuse is on the southeast, and is bounded there 
by the Potomac River. Its western boundary is a 
straight line, about forty miles long next to West Vir- 
ginia ; on the north it is equally straight, stands next 
to Pennsylvania, and is about thirty-two miles long. 
It has an area of about six hundred and seventy 
square miles, and is traversed from northeast to south- 
west by six long chains of mountains and two or three 
spurs running off from their sides. The country is 
■ supplied with great numbers of small brooks, most of 
which are torrents ; and its principal river is the 
Y'^oughiogheny, a rapid stream that rises at the fork of 
the Little Savage Mountain, and winding northwest 
. through Pennsylvania, empties into the Monongahela 

River. At least two important coal-basins occur in 
this region, both of which are now being developed. 
The most easterly lies between Meadow Mountain and 
Negro Mountain, forming a long triangular trough, 
whose widest part is on the north, next Pennsyl- 
vania, and the narrow end is on the south, intersected 
by the valley of Deep Creek. It is about seventeen 
miles long by from two to five wide ; and, like the 
coal-bearing valley of Allegany, is a downward curve 
of broad and narrow strata of shale, sandstone, coal, 
limestone, conglomerate, and iron, resting one above 
the other in a regular series. The same is the case 
with the deeper and wider coal-basin which occupies 
the northwestern section of the country between Key- 
ser's Ridge and Briery Mountain. It is an extremely 
uneven basin, broken into many .small divisions by 
Winding Ridge and various spurs and knobs, and is 
traversed from south to north by the Youghiogheny 
River. This valley extends across the boundary lines 
of both Pennsylvania and West Virginia ; but within 
the limits of Garrett County it varies in width from 
five to eight miles, while its length is co-extensive with 
the width of the western boundary of the State. 

The former of these valleys is known as the 
Meadow Mountain coal-field, and the latter derives 
its name from the Youghiogheny River, which runs 
through its lowest level. Neither of these basins 
contains strata of coal at all comparable to the great 
fourteen-fect bed of the Allegany Valley, and in 
some parts of each of the former the eroding waters 
have carried away vast sections of the coal-rocks ; but 
at least four strata of coal have been detected in both, 
three of which beds average four or more feet in thick- 
ness. Besides the coal .strata so important to this sec- 
tion, argillaceous iron ore occurs in large quantities. 
On Bear Creek a good quality of the oxide of mangan- 
ese is present, apparently in large quantities, and on the 
western flank of Winding Ridge an extensive deposit 
of clay contains nodules of the carbonate of iron in 
connection with a layer of calcareous earth. At the 
.same place may also be found a mineral composed of 
lime, clay, and the oxide of iron, well adapted for the 
production of a strong hydraulic cement. 

The country is one of great attractiveness, from the 
fine resorts for health and pleasure which abound 
everywhere in the midst of fine scenery and pure air 
and water. Beautiful meadows of fresh green called 
glades are present almost everywhere along the moun- 
tain-tops, and the speckled trout still lives in the 
limpid streams which course through these uplands. 
During the warm seasons these glades are decked 
with a numerous collection of showy and bright flow- 
ering plants, which delight the eye and continually 



attract the attention. Among these the yellow lily, 
cardinal flower, phlox, asters, and smaller sunflowers 
may be cited, together with the fine flowering shrubs 
and trees, such as the cucumber magnolia, collinso- 
nia, senothera, monarda, and rudbeckia. The sugar- 
maple also flourishes upon the mountain-sides, and yields 
its annual supply of syrup to the farmers who collect 
it. Wild beasts were formerly numerous in the rugged, 
rocky ravines and forests of the mountain-sides, but 
these have been mostly exterminated ; and now in 
their stead may be occasionally found the red deer, 
raccoon, opossum, rabbits, and several varieties of 
squirrels. The wild turkey and pheasant are still 
tenants of the more secluded woods, and small game 
is yet to be found in the wilder spots. The glades 
produce rich grasses in great abundance, upon which 
the sheep and cattle are fed, and consequently the 
country is noted for the superiority of its mutton, as 
it is, also, for the fine quality of its well-named 
" Glades butter." Rattlesnakes are still to be found 
in the wild rocky parts of the ravines, and a general 
list of the reptiles of the region would include most of 
those common to the Allegany belt at large. But 
the tops of the highest ridges are tenanted by crea- 
tures, although becoming more uncommon, such as 
the Canada porcupine, the white rabbit, and some 
mice, which belong properly to the Canadian fauna. 
The flora also, as represented by its trees, has much 
the same character, and may be distinguished by the 
northern spruces, hemlocks, and pines which grow in 
the exposed woods. Fish formerly abounded, among 
which the native trout was the most beautiful and de- 
sired, but over-fishing and neglect of the rivulets have 
depleted the streams, so that only small numbers can 
now be found where formerly the waters were almost 
overstocked with them. Rye, buckwheat, and oats 
are leading productions of the farms, and tobacco is 
raised to some extent on newly-cleared lands. Cattle 
are raised in large numbers for export, and may be 
seen grazing in herds on the wide-spreading meadoivs, 
while long trains of cars are continually being sent ofi' 
loaded with well-fattened stock from this county. 
Thus, with ail its peculiarities of surface and soil, 
built upon and out of the massive rocks which lie but 
a few feet beneath ; with bracing breezes, pure air, 
good water, and extensive ranges of grandly pic- 
turesque scenery along the valleys and across the 
mountains, joined to its immense mineral resources, 
Garrett County possesses first-class advantages for at- 
tracting and sustaining a large and healthy popula- 
tion, while capable of receiving and providing for the 
ever-increasing number of summer residents and tour- 
ists who crowd thither for health and pleasure. 

Potomac River. — Connecting all the counties 
which form the principal body of this great western 
tract, the historic and celebrated Potomac is at once 
the grandest and most remarkable surface feature of 
Maryland. It is in most respects both a river and a 
bay. Two great divisions, marked by peculiar indi- 
vidualities, distinguish it into the Upper and Lower 
Potomac. The former lies outside of the territory 
included within the foregoing description ; but it may 
be briefl}' noticed as the estuary or bay-portion of the 
river, or that subject to the rise and flow of the tides 
of the ocean. It extends from the city of George- 
town to Chesapeake Bay, a distance of one hundred 
and twenty-five miles. 

Below Alexandria it expands to a width of nearly 
two miles, and all along its winding course receives 
the waters of wide creeks, which increase its breadth, 
and spread out into broad, picturesque estuaries upon 
the lower levels. Some of these bodies of water are 
from three to five miles wide in conjunction with the 
river, while the outlet of the Potomac at its mouth 
forms a bay nearly eight miles wide, which stretches 
from Point Lookout to the opposite shore in Virginia. 
In the first part of its course below Washington the 
banks are composed of clay and sand blufl"s, which 
rise to a height of fifty or sixty feet; but as it pro- 
ceeds the high border lands gradually slope and wave 
lower, and finally fade out in points and bars. Before 
entering this bay-like division the river has left the 
region of primitive rocks, and from that point to its 
mouth passes only through alluvial and earthy beds 
of the upper secondary and tertiary periods. 

But that part of it which belongs to the region 
included in the western counties is the river proper, 
usually called the " Upper Potomac." It remains at 
present all beyond the reach of the tides, and probably 
it has never been affected by them. 

Swift and powerful, it rushes in imperturbable 
grandeur through a channel of its own construction, 
cut out of the largest mountains in the State. In 
forming almost the entire western boundary of Mary- 
land, it constitutes also the water border of the west- 
ern counties. Away up among the high mountain 
summits where West Virginia touches the great Back- 
bone range, marked by the Fairfax stone, this youngest 
of our great rivers bursts forth from the sandstones 
and shales of the carboniferous strata. The region is 
one of marked interest from the variety of striking 
objects which it presents. Hilltops of mountain 
height, and loftier than the Blue Ridge, shaped by 
the tremendous floods of past periods, stand between 
the crests of the summit ridges. Broad belts of hem- 
lock, spruce, and the northern pines bound the highest 



horizon, and form a dark background for the oak, 
chestnut, maples, birches, and poplars of the less 
elevated positions. A most picturesque scene stretches 
out before the eve as it takes in the winding valley 
with its silvery thread of water, here and there ar- 
rested by a ledge of dark rocks, then flashing the 
sunlight from the torrent or rapid, or leaping in foam- 
stirring cascade to the basin scooped in the rocks be- 
low. In the deep solitude of the wilderness, where 
broken masses of rock lie spread around in endless 
confusion, where the forests are choked with the trunks 
and branches of the fallen trees, and the moistened slopes 
are covered with the matted foliage of the vines and 
creepers ; there, too, where the flowering shrubs and 
sweet-scented ferns weave chaplets and plumes of the 
tenderest green over the crowns of the weather-worn 
bowlders, this bright streak of water pursues its on- 
ward course, ever forward and downward, with a 
ceaseless impulse towards the sea. It is the great out- 
let for the waters which reach the surface in a terri- 
tory nearly two hundred miles in length, while its 
tributaries on the north side cross nearly or quite the 
entire width of the State, its great South Branch in 
Virginia, with the Shenandoah and a dozen smaller 
rivers and creeks, draining an area fully twice as great. 
Indeed, the South Branch is the principal member of 
the upper river, and to it is largely due the wide ex- 
panse of water which it discloses before passing be- 
yond the high mountains. Soon after leaving the 
head-waters it has worn a deep trough into the firm 
rocks, torn away huge pieces from the hard ledges, 
and resistlessly rasped and dug its way downward along 
the flank of the huge Backbone Mountain until the 
foot of the great coal-basin has been reached. Its 
course has hitherto been northeast, it has spread out 
into a broad creek with shallow but limpid water, 
running over a strong and pebbly bed, now it makes 
a broad curve around to the west, then resuming the 
former course and bending north it receives the waters 
of a fine branch, the Savage River; another bond is 
made and the George's Creek adds its narrow stream 
to the quickened flood which rushes on with new 
energy. It is now a vigorous and strong creek, able 
to contend with the obstructions that press in its way. 
Two miles above the former it had taken a new direc- 
tion, going in a general southeast course ; this is pur- 
sued for a distance of about eight miles, during which 
tearing its way across the end of Dan's Mountain, 
and then flows on to New Creek. The slope of the 
country now favors another change of direction, and 
accordingly the river rushes away northeast through 
its shallower trough, interrupted by frequent rapids 
between the ridges of Dan's and Knobby Mountains, 

a distance of twenty miles, when it bends abruptly 
around the spur of the latter mountain and touches 
the city of Cumberland. Will's Creek now adds its 
quota of water, and the river passes down on the east 
side of Knobby Mountain. Here it is charged with 
islands near the Virginia shore, and soon bends into 
the form of the letter S, to pass through the gorge in 
Evitt's Mountain. It is now in the very heart of 
high, abrupt ridges, where barriers must be crossed at 
right angles. Running in a straighter line towards 
the southeast, it rushes through the gorges of Mar- 
tin's, Warrior, and Town Hill Mountains, surrounded 
by most romantic scenery, decorated in all directions 
by a boundless stretch of verdure-clad hill and dale. 
In the interval it has been joined by the great South 
Branch, and the two have united their waters to dash 
on with renewed energy in rending the hills and dis- 
tributing nourishment into the valleys farther away. 
Having passed Town Hill, it flows in long uneven 
loops towards the northeast, cutting its way through 
the dense body of Sideling Hill, and gliding in per- 
fect silence over the wreck of mighty ledges of rock, 
now lying as scattered bowlders over its bed, it bends 
once more and runs down the valley of the Tonoloway 
to where the little town of Hancock stands out upon 
the hills. 

The beautiful dam which feeds the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal has been passed, the arched rocks 
and the cement-beds of the Round Top have been left 
behind, and the beautiful, clear river, as smooth and 
placid as a lake, glistens in the sunshine, and reflects 
the images of the grand old sycamore-trees that line 
its banks. Still broad and shallow, pursuing its 
course over the planed edges of the saudstones, slates, 
and limestones that lie across its path, it makes a long 
sweep towards the east, by a little south, until the 
spurs of the North Mountain are reached. At this 
point it has broken through a deep gorge, in the 
midst of a wild, rugged, and most romantic country, 
to become involved in diflBculties which it could only 
surmount by passing suddenly around the unyielding 
rocks and forming a long narrow loop. After bend- 
ing twice more, it strikes the heavy slates at Wil- 
liamsport, admits the copious current of the Cono- 
cocheague River, is unable to penetrate farther in the 
same direction, and is obliged to turn west and retrace 
nearly three miles of the distance previously gained. 
A great struggle for mastery now goes on between the 
river and the limestone-beds, with their layers of chert 
and strata of dense slate. Thus the river is com- 
pelled to run diagonally in a general southeast direc- 
tion, and to bend back upon itself six times before its 
conflict with these hard rocks is over. Through an 



expanse of country more than twenty-five miles in 
length it has gained and lost, and at best has been 
obliged to follow the course of the Great Valley, and to 
submit to its conditions. But now, after Harper's 
Ferry is reached, the great rapid stream is favored by 
the tremendous down-slide which split the South 
Mountain from summit to base, and an avenue is 
open into the region on the east. Objects of fresh 
interest now appear on every hand. On the north 
side the majestic pile of castellated rocks, chimney 
peaks, the profile of the giant face, and the great 
arching strata of Maryland Heights rise in overpow- 
ering grandeur overhead. On the opposite shore the 
town of Harper's Ferry is seen straggling up, as if to 
reach the summit of the mountain bluffs, on the side 
of which the celebrated Jefferson's Rock is perched. 
Across the Shenandoah, more than a quarter of a 
mile distant, the spur called Short Ridge slants pre- 
cipitously to the brink of the rapids, covered to the 
very top with close-set trees, between which huge 
piles of the mountain sandstone lie in indescribable 
disorder. As far as the eye can reach in this direc- 
tion spurs, ridges, and peaks stand thrust together in 
close proximity, hiding all but the two lovely valleys 
through which the waters of the two great rivers find 
their outlet. An enormous but unimproved water- 
power now appears in view, the Potomac becomes 
fully one-third of a mile wide, and a heavy flood 
passes over a sloping but nearly flat channel. 

The prospect down the river is now indescribably 
beautiful. The South Mountain, rock and tree clad, 
stands in silent majesty in the foreground ; the Point 
of Rocks rises as a rocky bluff upon which to rest 
the eyes ; the opposite shore waves away in vast, 
rounded swells of upland ; the mighty river rolls in 
silvery brightness, losing itself in the mist-softened 
verdure of the fiir-off landscape, while all the features 
of hill, valley, woodland, and plain blend into the 
tender blue of the scarce bounded distance. Still 
gradually widening as it runs, and preserving a south- 
east direction, the river receives the Monooacy at the 
outlet of the delightful Frederick Valley. A wide, 
open tract enlarges the view of a luxuriant and 
picturesque region. The splendid viaduct for the 
canal over the Monocacy, the highly-cultivated hills 
on the borders of Montgomery County, and the triple 
crown of white sandstone of the Sugar-Loaf Moun- 
tain stand out as if sculptured monumental objects 
in the midst of the soft-toned landscape. The river 
now makes a wide bend in passing the hard slate 
rocks, and then enters the brown hills of the new red 
sandstone formation. From this point the slopes 
gradually increase in steepness, and for a distance of 

eighteen miles rise and fall in long serpentine waves. 
About four miles from the beginning of this sandstone 
its extreme altitude is reached in rocks which rise 
abruptly to an altitude of more than one hundred fee 
above the river. A new surprise now bursts upon the 
senses. The summits of the ridge are made of up- 
lifted crags and chimney-rocks, reaching far above 
the tops of the tallest trees, resting upon long lines of 
natural brownstone masonry, and decorated at every 
turn by tufts, plumes, and festoons of lovely plants, 
ferns, and creepers. Long wall-like ridges of this 
pictures((ue rook, set in a background of far-reaching 
foliage, appear at frequent intervals along both shores 
of the river, and here its waters are interrupted at 
three or four stages by islands which have settled in 
its path. After passing the new red sandstone a 
region in strong contrast with the former is reached. 
The uniform wall-like structure of the hills gives place 
to the bent, twisted, and upturned ridges of silvery 
gray or blackish rock. Tremendous forces have been 
at work here on a grand scale. For a distance of two 
miles the whole bed and surface of the country has 
been pressed together with such violent force that the 
former body of a huge mountain has been shattered 
into jointed fragments, in part carried away, and only 
its broken base left in the trough of the river. 
Throughout this distance rapids succeed each other 
in such quick succession that the bed of the stream 
is gradually lowered to a depth of eighty feet. 

The Great Falls of the Potomac now appear at the 
lower end of this scene of ruin. A fall, thirty-five 
feet in height, now precipitates an enormous volume 
of water ; this is divided into three principal cascades 
of uncommon grandeur, which, after boiling and 
chafing amidst the terrible rocks of the deep basin 
beneath, dash with uncontrollable violence through 
canons of their own digging, and sweep out in a 
broad torrent through the channel below. 

On either shore of this great scene of desolation 
piles of shining rock thrown on end project high into 
the sky, and send off craggy ledges from the base of 
every towering peak. The jointed rock fills the 
whole region as far as the eye can reach, and the 
prospect is rendered still more wild and impressive by 
the thinly spread-out forests which straggle over the 
broken ledges. Nowhere else in the State, if indeed 
anywhere on the eastern side of the continent, can a 
more sublime and awe-inspiring spectacle be seen. It 
is of such an unusual type in this part of the United 
States, and so remarkable, that the mind is directed 
first to the region of the Rocky Mountains to find its 
counterpart in structure and sublimity. The remain- 
der of this division of the river keeps on for fourteen 



miles, which take it to Georgetown. In this part of 
its course it has steadily forced its way through the 
granitic rocks, spread out into a deep channel nearly 
three-quarters of a mile wide, until, after gathering 
into a series of cascades at its lower falls, and gliding 
along over bowlders and broken stones, it finally be- 
comes lost in the waters of the alluvial basin at the 
head of tide-water. 

The most characteristic expressions of this river 
are in the freshness, vigor, and variety which it every- 
where displays. It crosses the Appalachian region in 
a direction which brings it in direct contact with every 
geological formation that belongs to the eastern slope 
of the continent. It winds its way through them all, 
or only yields where harmony is indispensable, in con- 
formity with unalterable physical conditions. As a 
continental force its career seems but of yesterday. 
The ages had been steadily preparing for its advent. 
Cool morn of a long geological day, succeeded by the 
glowing heat of an equally protracted noontide, had 
been followed by the long evening twilight of the 
carboniferous era. Heavy mists and long periods of 
rainfall had saturated the low hills and set rivulets to 
running in the ravines and bottoms. But now the 
mighty mountains are upfolded, an axis separating 
the basins of the east from those of the west is built 
high into the air, and cracks have opened in its flanks 
to let loose the imprisoned waters of the subterranean 
cavities. From the end of one of these the young 
giant arose and burst fortli with all the energy of a 
new life. Pushing aside the deep soil which rested 
around, and forcing apart the bits of rock that stood 
in the way, it soon worked a deep path out and along 
the dark mountain-side. Plunging, butting, and leap- 
ing against the ridges standing in its path, a narrow 
trough was cut away up in the midst of the highest 
uplands, and then gradually working, forced its way 
down to the lower levels, until the sea was reached 
beyond the lower hills. As the ages have rolled on 
it has pursued its onward course in nearly the same 
direction, ever deepening its channel and spreading so 
wide that it has been at one time a roaring flood of 
more than two miles in breadth. 

From the time of Washington to the present it has 
been recognized as the great avenue leading to the 
West, and its great usefulness in the future will de- 
pend upon the skill and judgment with which it is 
employed to facilitate commercial relations between 
the two sides of a continent. 



The Algonquin Stock — The Iroquois — Warlilie Susquehan- 
noughs — Capt. Fleet's Expedition — The Jesuit Mission.aries 
— Treachery of Trueman and Washington — Murder of Sus- 
quehannough Chiefs and Bacon's Rebellion — The Senecaa 
and Shawnees of Western Maryland — Indian Manners and 

The Indians anciently occupying the vast expanse 
of country lying between the Atlantic and the Mis- 
sissippi, and reaching from the St. Lawrence to the 
Gulf, have been classified by ethnologists, according 
to the aSinities of language, into three great stocks. 
The first was the Algonquin stock, the most numerous 
and wide-spread of all, whose territories extended 
north as far as Hudson's Bay, and south to Pimllco 
Sound, and from the coast to the Mississippi, and in 
the northwest as far as Lake Winnipeg. The tribes 
of this stock were numerous. Among the most im- 
portant were the great nation of Lenni Leoape, or 
Delawares, the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, 
Mohegans, and Shawnees. To them also belonged 
all the New England tribes, and most of those of 
Maryland and Virginia. South of the Algonquins, 
occupying part of North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, and the Gulf region, was the Muscogee 
stock, comprising the Natchez, Uchees, and Creeks, 
forming the Muscogee Confederacy, and the Yamas- 
sees, Cherokees, Choctaws, Chiekasaws, and Seminoles. 
In the midst of the Algonquin territories, thrust in 
like a wedge, its base resting on the St. Lawrence and 
Lake Huron, and its apex reaching North CaroHna, 
was the powerful Iroquois stock, comprising the fa- 
mous confederacy of the Five Nations, the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Onondagoes, Cayugas, and Senecas. To the 
same stock, though not confederate with them, be- 
longed the Hurons, the Susquehannoughs, and the 
Tuscaroras, which last tribe in 1712 joined the con- 
federacy, which was thenceforth known as the Six 

The Iroquois, though less numerous, were the bravest, 
the fiercest, and the most intelligent of all, and were 
the terror of the surrounding tribes. It is these who 
have furnished the typical Indian of romance ; grave, 
taciturn, patient in sufi'ering, untiring in action, 
fiant in death ; faithful to friends, remorseless to foes ; 
adroit in all the arts of the chase ; cunning in strategy, 
surprises, and ambuscades ; fierce and vindictively cruel 
in war. They possessed a higher degree of political and 
military genius than the rest ; and their famous league 

1 See the writer's " History of Maryland," vol. i. p. 83, et seq^ 



or confederacy of the Five Nations was far more firmly 
organized than the loose Algonquin federations, and 
carried dismay as far west as Lake Superior, and as 
far south as North Carolina. The Iroquois were of a 
nobler and more martial appearance than their neigh- 
bors, and all early travelers were struck with the tall, 
sinewy forms, stern but commanding features, and 
majestic demeanor of their warriors. Those whose 
personal knowledge of the Indian is confined to the 
degraded remnants still lingering in the North, or the 
wretched savages of the far West, can form no idea 
of a Mohawk or Cayuga chief as he was seen two 
hundred years ago. Native tradition assigns the 
origin of this people to the far Northwest, whence 
they removed to the upper waters of the St. Lawrence 
and the mountainous region about the Saranac Lakes. 
As they increased in numbers they spread over the 
high forest country in Northern and Middle New 
York, where game was abundant, and a fertile soil 
and a milder climate yielded them an ample supply of 
maize. Skillful boatmen, their war-fleets descended 
the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susquehanna, and 
carried fire and slaughter among the coast tribes, 
many of whom they subjugated, and among the rest 
the once powerful Delawares, whom — probably in 
mockery of their proud name of Lenni Lenape, or 
" Manly Men" — they reduced to the condition of 
" women," — that is, forbidding them to undertake wars, 
meddle with military matters, or alienate the soil. 
Some confusion has arisen from the various names 
they bore; they were called Mingoes in some regions, 
and in others Nadoues, Nattoways, or Nadowassies, a 
name said to signify " cruel." Smith mentions one 
of their nations, probably the Mohawks, under the 
name of Massawomekes. 

" Beyond the mountains, from whence is the head of the 
liver Patawomeke (Potumac), the Salvages report inhabit their 
iiK'st mortall enemies, the Massawomekes, upon a great salt 
water, which by all likelihood is either some part of Cannada, 
some great lake, or some inlet of some sea that falleth into the 
South Sea. These Massawomekes are a great nation and very 
populous. For the heads of all those rivers, especially the Pat- 
towamekes, the Pautuxuntes, the Susquesahanocks, the Tock- 
woughes, are continually tormented by them : of whose cruel- 
ties they generally complained, and very importunate they were 
with me and my company to free them from these tormentors. 
To this purpose they offered good conduct, assistence, and con- 
tinuall subjection." 

The importance of the Iroquois was so great that 
they were included in all the early treaties made by 
the white colonists. During the English and French 
wars they were almost constantly allied with the 
English, who sought their friendship to use them 
against the Chippewas, Ottawas, Sbawnees, and other 
tribes of Algonquin stock who were the firm allies 

of the French. Although the Susquehannoughs, the 
most powerful tribe in Maryland, belonged to this stock, 
they were not members of the Iroquois confederacy, 
but, on the contrary, were their fiercest enemies. 

It is probable that the Susquehannoughs separated 
from the Iroquois about the time when the latter mi- 
grated eastward from the far northwest, and coming 
south, established themselves on the fertile and well- 
wooded shores of the great river that still bears 
their name. The Susquehannoughs being hunting 
Indians changed their abodes as game grew scarce, 
and so scattered themselves over a large extent of 
country. When Capt. John Smith in the summer 
of 1608 penetrated the territory of Baltimore County, 
he found it inhabited by the Susquehannough Indians, 
whose chief settlement was about twenty-one miles 
northward from the mouth of the Susquehannough 
River. At this time the tribe numbered about fifteen 
hundred fighting men, and exercised dominion over a 
considerable part of the eastern and western shores 
of the Chesapeake Bay, being the lords of some and 
the allies of other tribes and confederacies. The Sus- 
quehannoughs were one of the fiercest and most war- 
like nations on the Atlantic coast, and kept all the 
tribes within their reach in a state of almost continual 
alarm. Their warlike appearance, grave and haughty 
carriage, and sonorous speech seem to have strongly 
impressed the early voyagers, for Smith describes 
them as very noble specimens of humanity. He 
speaks of them as a race of giants. " Such greate 
and well-proportioned men are seldome seene, for they 
seemed like giants to the English, yea, and unto their 
neighbours." He speaks of them as in other respects 
the " strangest people of all those countries." They 
were of a simple and confiding temper, and could 
scarcely be restrained from prostrating themselves in 
adoration of the white strangers. Their language 
seemed to correspond with their proportions, " sound- 
ing from them as avoyce in a vault." They were clad 
in bear and wolf-skins, wearing the skin as the Mex- 
ican his poncho, passing the head through a slit in the 
centre, and letting the garment drape naturally around 
from the shoulders. 

" Some have cassocks made of beares' heads and skinnes 
that a man's head goes through the skinne's neck, and the 
eares of the beare fastened to his shoulders, the nose and teeth 
hanging down his breast, another beare's face split behind him, 
and at the end of the hose hung a pawe ; the halfe sleeves com- 
ming to the elbowes were the necks of the beares, andthearmes 
through the mouth with pawes h.anging at their noses. One 
had the head of a wolfe hanging in a chaine for a Jewell, his 
tobacco pipe three-quarters of a yard long, prettily carved 
with a bird, a deere, or some such devise at the great end, suf- 
I ficient to beat out one's braines." 



Smith has given us a spirited slcetch of one of 
these gigantic warriors, " the greatest of them,"' thus 
attired : 

'*The calfe of whose leg was three-quarters of a yard about, 
and all the rest of his Itmbes so answerable to that proportion, 
that he seemed the goodliest man we ever beheld. His hayre, 
the one side was long the other shave close, with a ridge over 
his crowne like a cock's combe. His arrows were five quarters 
long, headed with the splinters of a white chrystall-like stone, 
in forme of a hearte an inche broad, and an inche and a balfe 
or more long. These he wore in a wolve's skinne at his baeke 
for his quiver, his bow in the one band and his club in the 
other, as is described." 

All the territory now comprised in Cecil, Harford, 
Baltimore, Howard, Carroll, Frederick, and Blont- 
gomery Counties was the favorite hunting-ground of 
this formidable tribe, which scoured all the country 
between the Delaware and the Potomac, and spread 
terror and dismay through the distant and less warlike 
tribes of Southern and Western Maryland and parts 
of Virginia. i 

About the year 1621 the pinnace ''Tiger." with i 
twenty-six men, was sent from Jamestown, under the i 
direction of an experienced trader named Spilman, to 
trade for corn with the Indians near the head of nav- 
igation on the Potomac. Arriving opposite the present 
site of Washington City, Spilman left five men on 
board of his vessel, and with the remainder landed 
among the Nacostines, or Anascostan Indians, who 
lived in that vicinity.' Soon after, he was attacked 
by the Indians, and all of his party were either killed 
or taken prisoners, and among the latter was Capt. 
Henry Fleet. Remaining in captivity for several 
years. Fleet returned to England, where a contempo- 
raneous writer thus mentions him : 

"Here is one, whose name is Fleet, newly come from Vir- 
ginia, who being lately ransomed from the Indians, with whom 
he hath long lived, till he hath left his own language, reporteth 
that he hath oftentimes been within sight of the South Seas; 
that he hath seen Indians besprinkle their paintings with 
powder of gold; that he had likewise seen rare precious stones 
among them, and plenty of black fox, which of all others is the 
richest fur." 

By his flattering representations he induced, in 
September, 1627, William Cloberry, a prominent 
merchant of London, to place the pinnace " Para- 
mour," of one hundred tons burden, under his charge.^ 
He returned to the Indian town of Yowaccomoco 
(afterwards St. Mary's City), where he had lived with 
the Indians, and traded largely with them for furs. 
He made a number of voyages across the Atlantic 

1 The suburb opposite the navy-yard is now called Anacostia, 
and Mason's Island is often called Analostan, both designations 
derived from the name of this tribe. 

2 Bruce's " British State Papers." 

with cargoes of fur, and, with Gov. Leonard Calvert, 
before landing his company, made a reconnoissance of 
the Potomac as far as Piscataway. From his "Jour- 
nal of a voyage made in the bark ' Virginia' to Vir- 
ginia and other parts of the continent of America," 
it is evident that his tradiug operations brought him 
into communication with many of the most powerful 
Indian tribes of Southern and Western Maryland.^ 
Arriving at Yowaccomoco, he learned that one Charles 
Harman had been trading with the Indians of that 
region for furs during his absence, and had succeeded 
in securing three hundredweight of beaver-skins by 
representing that Fleet was dead. 

"This relation," he says, "did much trouble me, fearing 
(having contrary winds) that the Indians might be persuaded 
to dispose of all their beaver before they could have notice of 
my being in safety, they themselves having no use at all for it, 
being not accustomed to take pains to dress it and make coats 
of it. Monday, the 21st of May (1632), we came to an anchor 
at the mouth of the river, where hastening ashore I sent two 
Indians in company with my brother Edward to the Emperor, 
being three days' journey towards the Falls." 

By the 26th of May he " came to the town of 
Patomack" (Potomac Town, supposed to be, at the 
mouth of Potomac Creek, in Virginia), and on the 
1st of June, "with a northwest wind, we set sail, and 
the 3d we arrived at the Emperor's." There was but 
little friendship. Fleet relates, between the Emperor 
and the Nacostines, ■' he being fearful to punish 
them, because they are protected by the Massomacks, 
or Cannyda Indians." The 13th of June Fleet 

"had some conference with an interpreter of Massomack, and 
of divers others Indians that had been lately with them, whose 
relation was very strange in regard to the abundance of people 
there, compared to all the other poor number of natives which 
are in Patomack and places adjacent, where are not above five 
thousand persons, and also of the infinite store of beaver they 
use in coats. Divers were the imaginations that I did conceive 
about this discovery, and understanding that the river was not 
for shipping, where the people were, not [nor] yet for boats to 
pass, but for canoes only." 

The neighboring Indians endeavored to dissuade 
Fleet from his design of penetrating into this new 
country, but he declined to listen to their representa- 
tions, and sent his brother and two trusty Indians 
with presents to the chiefs of this region. 

"I find the Indians of that prosperous place," he says, "are 
governed by four kings, whose towns are of several names, — 
Tonhoga, Mosticum, Shaunetowa, and Moserahak, — reported 
above thirty thousand persons, and that they have palisades 
about the towns, made with great trees, and with scaffolds 
upon the walls. On Monday, the 25th of June, we set sail for 
the town of Tohoga, where we came to an anchor two leagues 
short of the Falls,* being in the latitude of 41°, on the 26th of 

3 This voyage was commenced on the 4th of July, 1631. 
* Nine miles above Washington, 



June. This place, without all question, is the most pleasant 
and healthful plnce in all this country, and most convenient for 
habitation, the air temperntc in summer and not violent in 
winter. It aboundeth with all manner of fish. The Indians, 
in one night commonly, will catch thirty sturgeons in a place 
where the river is not above twelve fathoms brood. And as for 
deer, bufifaloes, bears, turkeys, the woods do swarm with thera, 
and the soil is exceedingly fertile, but above this place the 
country is rocky and mountainous like Cannida, The 27th of 
June I manned my shallop and went up with the flood, the 
tide rising about four feet in height at this place. 

" We had not moved above three miles, but we might hear 
the Falls to roar about si.x miles, by which it appears that the 
river is separated with rocks, but only in that one place, for 
beyond is a fair river. The 3d of July my brother with the two 
Indians came thither, in which journey they were seven days 
going and five days coming back to this place. They all did 
aCBrm that in one palisado, and that being the last of thirty, 
there were three hundred .houses, and in every house forty skins 
at least, in bundles and piles." 

On the 11th of July he received a visit from 
"seven lusty men, with strange attire," of haughty 
language and demeanor, who called themselves Mos- 
tikums, but who, as Fleet afterwards learned, 

*' were of a people three days* journey from there, and were 
called Herecheenes (Iroquois?), who .with their own beaver, 
and what they get of those that do adjoin upon them, do drive 
a trade in Cnnnida at the plantation, which is fifteen days 
journey from this place." 

The Susquehannoughs, or Minquas, or Andastes, 
or Conestogues, or Gaudastogues, as they were some- 
time.s called, were engaged in active hostilities against 
the colonists and friendly tribes from the first settle- 
ment of the colony on March 27, 1634. The policy 
of the early settlers of Maryland was to treat the In- 
dians with justice, moderation, and kindness, and to 
buy the land from them. The settlement of St. 
Mary's was purchased by Leonard Calvert for a quan- 
tity of axes, hoes, and broadcloth, articles of real value 
to the Indians, who, indeed, were the more ready to 
part with the territory from the fact that they were 
suiFering from the continued inroads of the fierce Sus- 
quehannoughs, who had harassed them so cruelly that 
they had already determined to abandon their lands 
and seek safer homes elsewhere.' Some were allowed 
to remain on part of the purchased territory, and their 
wives and children were employed as servants in the 
settlers' families; others were allotted reservations, 
with full rights of hunting and fishing in the woods 
and streams. They very cheerfully submitted to the 
dominion of the whites for the sake of the protection 
against the Susquehannoughs, which their ancestors 
tried to purchase from Smith with the offer of per- 
petual subjection. The friendly Indians were pro- 
tected against their enemies and secured in the en- 

1 Father White's Narrative, pp. 36, 37. 

joyment of their rights, and many of them, such as 
the Yaocomicos, Potopacos, Piscataways,^ Patuxents,' 
and others, rarely wavered from their amicable rela- 
tions. The two strong and warlike tribes of Mary- 
land — the Nanticokes and Susquehannoughs — pre- 
served an independent existence, and at the time of 
the first settlement of the province there was a 
feud between them, and the former, as well as the 
latter, were often invaded by the Iroquois. As if 
this were not enough, the Nanticokes were frequently 
embroiled with the whites, and war was several times 
declared against them. Under this double pressure 
they yielded at last, and requested to be put on the same 
footing as the Piscataways. The Iroquois, however, 
continued to harass them, and finally brought them 
under subjection. About the middle of the eighteenth 
century, by advice or command of the Six Nations 
(who stipulated in a treaty with the province that the 
Nanticokes should be permitted to leave Maryland 
and settle where the Six Nations should appoint), a 
portion of the tribe left the province, carrying with 
them the bones of their ancestors, and removed to 
Otsiningo (now Binghamton, N. Y.), where they 
joined some fragments of the Shawnees and Mo- 
hickanders, and made a league under the name of the 
Three Nations. Others seem to have settled in Wy- 
oming, Pa., and others again, if the theory be correct 
which identifies the Conoys, or Kanawhas, with the 
Nanticokes, to have removed to the vicinity of the 
rivers which now bear their name. As late as 1852 
a remnant of the tribe (about one hundred) was living 
on Grand River, north of Lake Erie, in Canada 

The interposition of the colonists in behalf of the 
peaceable and friendly tribes of Piscataways, Patux- 
ents, and Yoamaeos had from the first secured the hos- 
tility of the Susquehannoughs, who took occasion as 
they followed the war-path against their savage ene- 
mies of the south, or the back settlers of Virginia, to 
strike a blow at the unprotected Marylanders ; and at 
times they organized expeditions with the express 
purpose of surprising the frontier plantations, mur- 

^ Mr. Davis, in his " Day-Star," says " the territory of the > 
Piscataways, whose prominent chief bore the title of emperor, 
was bounded in one direction by the country of the Susquehan- ' 
Doughs, in another by the region of the Patuxents. It also 
embraced a part of the country bordering upon the Patapsco , 
and upon the Potomac, including Piscataway Creek, and prob- 
ably the sites both of Washington and of Baltimore." The 
confederates of the Piscataways were the Doags, Mattawomans, 
Chapticos, .and the Mattawas. The latter tribe inhabited the 
lands near Baltimore. 

3 The Patu,xents, whose principal seat was upon the river of 
that name, included a large number of smaller tribes, remark- 
able for their friendliness towards the whites. 



dering their occupants and plundering their dwellings. 
Even the devoted and fearless Jesuit missionaries who 
were engaged in converting the Indians to Chris- 
tianity began seriously to think of abandoning their 
station on the Patuxent River and establishing them- 
selves at Potupaco (Port Tobacco), which was less 
exposed to the ravages of this cruel and warlike tribe. 
Friendly relations having been re-established in the 
beginning of 1639 with the Patuxent Indians, the 
Jesuit missionaries immediately improved the favora- 
ble circumstance by dispersing themselves among the 
Indians in such places as seemed to be most favorable 
for the general diffusion of Christianity. The annual 
letter of 1639 says, — 

''Father Andrew White is distant" from St. Mary's City 
"one hundred and twenty miles, to wit: at Kittamaquindi, tlie 
metropolis of Paseatoe, having lived in the palace of the king 
himself of the place, whom they call Tayac, from the month of 
June, 1639. . . . The salvation of Maquacomen being despaired 
of, Father Andrew White betook himself to him [the Tayac], 
and being treated by him very kindly at the first interview, so 
attached the man to him that he was afterwards held by him 
in the greatest love and veneration; of which thing this is the 
strongest proof that he was unwilling that the father should 
use any other hospitality than of his palace. Nor was the 
queen inferior to her husband in benevolence to their guest, for 
with her own hands (which thing the wife of our treasurer also 
does willingly) she is accustomed to prepare meat for him and 
bake bread, with no less care than labor. 

"So not long after the coming of Father White to his palace, 
the Tayac was in danger from a severe disease; and when forty 
conjurers had in vain tried .every remedy, the father, by per- 
mission of the sick man, administered medicine, to wit: a cer- 
tain powder of known efficacy mixed with holy water, and took 
care, the day after, by the assistance of the boy whom he had 
with him, to open up one of his veins for blood-letting. After 
this ihe sick man began daily to grow better; not long after 
became altogether well. Restored from the disease entirely, of 
himself he resolved, as soon as possible, to be initiated in the 
Christian rites; not himself only, but his wife also and two 
daughters; for as yet he has no male offspring. Father White 
is now diligently engaged in their instruction; nor do they 
slothfully receive the heavenly doctrine, for, by the light of 
heaven poured upon them, they have long since found out the 
errors of their former life. The king has exchanged the skins, 
with which he was heretofore clothed, for a garment made in 
our fashion ; he makes also a little endeavor to learn our lan- 

"Having put away his concubines from him, he lives con- 
tent with one wife, that he may the more freely (as he says) 
have leisure to pray to God. He abstains from meat on the 
days in which it is forbidden by the Christian laws; and men 
that are heretics who do otherwise, or are of that name, he 
thinks ought to be called bad Christians. . . . But the greatest 
hope is, that when the family of the king is purified by bap- 
tism, the conversion of the whole empire will speedily take 

The writer then proceeds to describe the execution 
of an Indian convicted of the murder of an English- 
man. The culprit was converted to Christianity be- 
fore his death, which he met with fortitude, and his 

remains were buried with the solemn rites of the 
Catholic Church. The writer adds, — 

" No one, however, was more vehemently moved at the sight 
of the dying neophyte than the Tayac, who afterwards earn- 
estly insisted that he too should receive the gift of baptism. 
The thing being considered in council, it appeared that it would 
be for the greater glory of God if it be deferred a little until it 
could be performed with splendid display, in the greatest solem- 
nity, and in the sight of his countrymen ; his wife also, and 
his children, coming to a participation of his joy and gladness. 
The king, at length, won over by the attentions of the Catho- 
lics, and greatly delighted with their prolonged hospitality, 
returned home, the same Father White being his attendant, 
whither as soon as he came he gave command to his people to 
prepare the church by next Pentecost, the time appointed for 
the next baptism. On that day, at Kittamaquindi, the Gov- 
ernor and other distinguished men of the colony contemplated 
honoring by their presence, and by whatever other means they 
can, the Christian sacraments and the second better birth of the 
Tayac, a merciful God causing this thing to turn out to the 
good of all, — to his glory, to our reward, and to the salvation 
of the whole tribe," 

The Tayac mentioned in the last letter as king or 
emperor of Piscataway was also called Chitomacon, 
or Chitomachen. The latter appears to have been 
his proper name, and Tayac an appellation expressing 
his rank or dignity. He had been represented as a 
chief of great power, exercising authority over several 
of the neighboring tribes. His capital, called Kit- 
tamaquindi, was at or near tlie present village of 
Piscataway, about fifteen miles from Washington City. 

The annual letter of 1640 gives an account of the 
baptism and marriage of this barbaric prince. So im- 
portant was the event considered, that we find Gov- 
ernor Calvert and others of the principal men in the 
colony making a journey into the wilderness to be 
present at it. As an incident in history it may be 
placed beside the baptism of Pocahontas, which has so 
often inspired the artist's pencil. As that ceremony 
secured for Virginia the friendship of the great 
chief Powhatan, so the baptism of the Tayac gained for 
the infant colony of Maryland the good will and alli- 
ance of the most powerful of the neighboring chief- 
tains, without whose friendship its existence would 
probably have been seriously imperiled. The letter 

" In this mission this year have been four priests and one 
coadjutor. We stated last year what hope we had conceived 
of converting the Tayac, or the emperor of what they call Pas- 
eatoe. From that time, such is the kindness of God, the event 
has not disappointed the expectation, for he has joined our 
faith, some others also being brought over with him, and on the 
5th of July, 1640, when he was sufficiently instructed in the 
mysteries of the faith, in a solemn manner he received the 
sacramental waters in a little chapel, which, for that purpose 
and for divine worship, he had erected out of bark, after the 
manner of the Indians. At the same time the queen, with an 
infant at the breast, and others of the principal men, whom he 



especially admitted to his councils, together with his little son, 
were regenerated in the baptismal font. To the emperor, who 
was called Chitomachen before, was given the name of Charles ; 
to his wife, that of Mary. The others, in receiving the Christian 
faith, had Christian names allotted to them. The Governor 
was present at the ceremony, together with his secretary and 
many others; nor was anything wanting in display which our 
means could supply. 

" In the afternoon the king and queen were united in matri- 
mony in the Christian manner; then the great holy cross was 
erected, in carrying which to its destined place the king, Gov- 
ernor, secretary, and others lent their shoulders and hands; 
two of us in the mean time chanting before them the litanj' in 
honor of the Blessed Virgin." 

Id the mean time the Susquehannough Indians con- 
tinued their depredations, for the reeords exhibit for 
many years lamentable accounts of the murders, 
house-burnings, and robberies committed by them 
upon the inhabitants of the territory now embraced in 
Montgomery, Ann Arundel, Prince George's, Balti- 
more, Harford, Cecil, and Kent Counties. In 1662 
the colonists were at peace with the Susquehannoughs, 
but both of these were at war with the Senecas, who 
were devastating the few scattered settlements of the 
English along the western tributaries of the Chesa- 
peake Bay. 

In the spring of 1662 they penetrated as far south 
as the head of South River, which seems to have 
alarmed the Council, for they ordered all the powder 
and shot to be seized for the use of the colony, and 
that scouts should be sent to the head-waters of all 
rivers emptying into the head of the bay, with orders 
to arrest or kill all Indians found there. The troubles 
with the Senecas grew worse, and on July 4, 1663, 
the Council was informed by the inhabitants of Balti- 
more County at the head of the bay that the Indians 
had recently murdered two of the settlers, and another 
near Patapsco River, with two youths whom it was 
believed they had either killed or carried off. For 
nearly twelve years a fierce war was kept up between 
the Susquehannoughs and Senecas, success being 
mostly on the side of the former tribe ; but a more for- 
midable enemy than even the Senecas had by this time 
invaded them, — the smallpox, which first appeared 
among them in 1661, and whose ravages became i 
terrible. In 1673 they only numbered about three I 
hundred warriors, while ten years before they had 
been able to muster seven hundred ; and probably the 
mortality was even greater among the women and 

When the Hurons, who were of Iroquois stock, 
were finally overthrown, the survivors fled for refuge 
to the Andastes, or Susquehannoughs, from whom they 
had before received promises of assistance. The pro- 
tection thus afforded seems to have been resented by 

the Iroquois Confederacy, or Five Nations, and war 
being declared between them and the Susquehan- 
noughs in 1662, the warriors of the latter tribe car- 
ried such devastation into the land of the Senecas (one 
of the Five Nations) that these were forced to seek the 
aid of the French. The Dutch writers, under date of 
1661-62, relate that the Susquehannoughs, or Min- 
quas, though they had suffered severely from the 
smallpox, had engaged in a war with the Senecas, 
and that " in May, 1663, an army of sixteen hundred 
Senecas marched against the Minquas and laid siege 
to a little fort defended by a hundred men, who, 
armed with firearms and even cannon, relying, too, on 
speedy aid from their countrymen, and from the 
Marylanders, with whom they had really made peace, 
defended themselves vigorously, and at last compelled 
the Senecas to raise the siege." The war between the 
Andastes and Iroquois oontiuued for many years, with 
almost constant victory for the former. But disease 
accomplished what the Five Nations could not, and 
the reduced tribe was finally defeated, the Relation of 
1676-77 speaking of the Andastes as utterly exter- 
minated after a resistance of twenty years. That 
Maryland took part in the final defeat of this heroic 
nation is evident from the language of the Iroquois 
deputies at the treaty of Lancaster in 17-1-I:. " We 
do not remember," they say, " that we have ever been 
employed by the Great King to conquer others ; if it 
is so, it is beyond our memory. We do remember 
we were employed by Maryland to conquer the Con- 
estogues (Susquehannoughs), and that the second time 
we were at war with them we carried them' off." 

The Susquehannoughs having been reduced by dis- 
ease and warfare to about three hundred warriors, 
in 1674 were terribly defeated by the Senecas, and 
driven from their homes at the head of the Chesa- 
peake to the territory formerly occupied by the Pis- 
cataways, near the Maryland and Virginia boundary, 
the latter tribe having been removed by the Assem- 
bly to lands on the Potomac River, near the present 
site of Georgetown, afterwards in Frederick County. 
Here they establislied themselves in an old Indian 
fortification. Here the Senecas pursued them, and 
did some damage to the plantations on both sides of 
the river. 

In the summer of 1675 a white man was found 
lying covered with wounds at the door of his house 
near Stafford, Va., and the corpse of a friendly In- 
dian by his side. Before dying he declared that In- 
dians had been the murderers. Col. Mason and Capt. 
Brent at once collected a party of militia, and followed 
the trail up the Potomac and across that river into 



Here the party divided ; the detachment under 
Brent found a wigwam belonging to some of the 
Doage tribe, surrounded it, and summoned the inmates 
to come forth. A chief obeyed, and was at once shot 
dead by Brent. The others within rushed forth, and 
all, ten in number, were shot down, only a boy being 
spared. In the mean time Mason's party had also 
found and surrounded a wigwam, and as the Indians 
came out at his summons they were fired on and four- 
teen killed, the firing only ceasing when a chief run- 
ning up to Mason called out that they were Susque- 
hannoughs and friends. The survivors denied all 
knowledge of the murder, which they said had been 
done by a marauding band of Senecas. Shortly 
after this several other murders were committed on 
both sides of the river, and terror and excitement 
prevailed. Disbelieving the innocence of the Susque- 
hannoughs, or desirous of ridding themselves of their 
neighborhood, the Marylanders and Virginians organ- 
ized a joint attack upon their fortress, the Virginia 
troops being led by Col. John Washington (great- 
grandfather of Gen. George Washington), Col. Mason, 
and JLij. Alderton, and the Marylanders by Maj. 
Thomas Trueman, one of the Governor's Council. The 
Maryland force wei'e assisted by Piscalawaj', Chaptico, 
Matawoman, Pamunky, and Nansemy Indians. On 
Sunday morning, Sept. 25, 1G75, the Maryland troops 
appeared before the fort, summoned the chiefs to a 
parley, and charged them with the recent murders, 
which they solemnly denied, laying the blame on the 
Senecas. These, they said, were now near the head 
of the Patapsco, and they ofi'ered guides for their pur- 
suit. Duiing the conference the Virginians had 
joined the Marylanders, and their commanders reiter- 
ated the charges, which the Indians persisted in de- 
nying, insisting that they were friends, and as proof 
of their assertions showing a silver medal with a 
black and yellow ribbon — the Baltimore colors — and 
certain papers which had been given them by Gov- 
ernor Calvert as a safe-conduct and pledge of amity. 
Trueman, it is said, professed himself satisfied of their 
innocence, and promised that no harm should befall 
them. On the following morning, however, Capt. 
Allen, who had been sent to one of the scenes of 
recent murder, returned, bringing with him the bodies 
of the victims, and arrived at the camp while the con- 
ference was being hell with the chiefs. The passions 
of the militiamen were roused to fury by the sight of 
the mangled bodies, and the Virginia officers demanded 
the instant execution of the chiefs. Col. Washington, 
according to the testimony of a witness, being par- 
ticularly furious, shouting, " What ! should we keep 
them any longer? Let us knock them on the head." 

Despite the reluctance of Trueman, five of the chiefs 
were bound, led away, and tomahawked, one only 
being spared. The remainder in the fort bravely de- 
fended themselves for six weeks, after which time, 
their provisions giving out, they made their escape by 

For this breach of faith Maj. Trueman was cited 
before the bar of the Lower House, and Robert Car- 
ville, attorney-general, Messrs. Burgess, Cheseldyn, 
Stephens, and others brought in articles of impeach- 
ment against him, addressed to the proprietary, and 
supported by affidavits. These charge, first, that he 
caused the chiefs to be seized and executed after they 
had come out under assurance of safety, and had 
shown the paper and medal as evidence of their being 
friends to Maryland. Secondly, that he caused the 
execution without previously obtaining the proprie- 
tary's authority. Thirdly, that he failed to procure a 
signed declaration of the Virginia officers that the 
execution was by their advice and consent. They 
therefore conclude that Trueman had broken his com- 
mission and instructions, and pray his lordship and the 
Upper House " to take such order with the said Maj. 
Thomas Trueman as may be just and reasonable." 

These articles and depositions being laid before 
the Upper House, Trueman was brought to trial on 
May 27, 1G76, before the Lord Proprietary, Col. 
Samuel Chew, chancellor and secretary, and Cols. 
Wharton and Tailler, sitting as a court of impeach- 
ment, and it was voted, nemiiie confradicetite, that 
the accused was guilty of the first article of im- 
peachment, and the Upper House was requested to 
send a message to the Lower House, desiring them to 
draw a bill of attainder against him. The bill was 
at once drawn and sent to the Upper House, which 
on the 1st of June responded by a message saying 
that the penalties therein prescribed were far too light 
for " so horrid a crime" and breach of the public 
faith. That if Trueman escaped so lightly the jus- 
tice and dignity of the province would be brought 
into contempt, and the Indians set an example of bad 
faith likely to have disastrous consequences. That, 
moreover, the Assembly will be looked upon as coun- 
tenancing rather than abhorring the acts of Trueman. 

To this the Lower House replied that circumstances 
were shown at the trial that extenuated the conduct 
of the accused ; for instance, " the eager impetuosity 
of the whole field, as well Marylanders as Virginians, 
at the sight of the Christians murdered at Mr. Hin- 
son's," the identification of several of the chiefs as 
the murderers, and the necessity of the act to prevent 
a meeting. They therefore refused to recede from 
their former position. 



The Upper House on the 12th answered that the 
bill was an attainder only in name ; that they never 
would consent " to inflict a pecuniary punishment 
upon a person accused of murder by one house and 
condemned by the other; and that it was against 
their privileges for the bill to be pressed on them any 
further." The Lower House unanimously decided that 
Trueman, though guilty of the charge, was not de- 
serving of death, and the Upper House remaining 
firm, he escaped his deserved punishment. He was, 
however, dismissed from the Council. 

It has been said that the Indians left in the fort 
after the massacre of the chiefs defended tliemselves 
until their provisions gave out and then escaped by 
night. They went with the fires of rage and revenge 
burning in their hearts, and marked their southward 
march by a track of devastation and slaughter. At 
least sixty settlers paid the penalty of that deed of 
treachery and cruelty. One of them was a servant of 
Nathaniel Bacon, of Virginia; and this aroused Bacon, 
a man of bold and adventurous spirit, to apply for a 
commission to raise and command a force against the 
Susquehannoughs, the consequences of which were 
the utter crushing of the tribe and the revolt which 
bears Bacon's name in Virginian history. 

A remnant of the Susquehannoughs that had been 
carried off by the Iroquois in a war with that nation 
must have maintained a separate existence, for we find 
that Penn,in 1701, entered into a regular treaty with 
Conoodagtok, king of the Susquehannoughs, Min- 
quays, or Conestoga Indians ; but it would seem that 
on this occasion a representative from the Onondago 
tribe was present. As a subject tribe we meet with 
the Susquehannoughs for many years in the negotia- 
tions of the league, and though some of them appear 
to have been removed to Onoghguage, a little band 
remained at Conestoga, where, joined by some Nanti- 
cokes, they formed a small village. In 1763, we are 
told, " they were still at their old castle, numbering 
only twenty, inhabiting a cluster of squalid cabins, 
living by beggary and the sale of baskets, brooms, and 
wooden ladles. An Indian war (Pontiac's) then deso- 
lated the frontier, and the Paxton boys, suspecting 
these poor wretches, and finding in the Bible sufficient 
commission to destroy the heathen, attacked the vil- 
lage, and killed six of them, the only occupants at the 
time. The fourteen survivors were taken to Lancas- 
ter by the sheriff, and shut up in the jail-yard for pro- 
tection, but they could not escape the Paxton boys, 
who, while the townspeople were at church, burst into 
the jail and hiassacred the helpless objects of their 
fury." Thus perished at the hands of a cowardly mob 
the last remnant of that once powerful and noble tribe 

which had lorded it over the whole of Maryland, and 
which had often vanquished the fiercest and most for- 
midable of the Indian confederacies. 

The Indians that roamed over the upper counties 
of Western Maryland belonged to the Shawancse 
tribe, a subdivision of the Algonquin group. Ac- 
cording to a tradition of recent origin, the Shawnees, 
or Shawancse, were primarily identical with the Kick- 
apoo nation ; but they moved eastward, and a part are 
said to have remained in 1648 along the Fox River, 
while the main body, mot south of Lake Erie by the 
Iroquois, were driven to the banks of the Cumberland 

The basin of the Cumberland River is marked by 
the earliest geographers as the locality of the Shaw- 
nese, who connected the southeastern Algonquins with 
the western,' and there is authority for the statement 
that they were inhabitants of this territory before the 
settlement of the Europeans on the continent. In 
1682, when Penn made his celebrated treaty with the 
Indians, in the neighborhood of the present city of 
Philadelphia, the Shawnees were a party to the treaty 
in common with other tribes who composed the great 
nation of Algonquins, and they must have been con- 
sidered a very prominent band from the fact of their 
having preserved the treaty in their own po.ssession, as 
we are informed that at a subsequent conference held 
with them and the Mingoes many years afterwards, 
probably in 1701, by the Governor of Pennsylvania, 
the Shawnees produced this treaty written on parch- 

It would seem that after the treaty of 1682 a part 
of the Shawnees lived near Winchester, Va , but that 
the principal band removed from their hunting-ground 
in Kentucky, on the Cumberland River, to the head- 
waters of one of the great rivers of South Carolina, 
perhaps the Congarec ; and at a later day four hun- 
dred of them who had wandered in the woods for 
four years were found a little north of the head-waters 
of the Mobile River, on their way to the country of 
the Muscogees, or Creeks. 

In the year 1684, La Salle, a, Frenchman, set out on 
a second expedition for the discovery of the mouth of 
the Mississippi, but before he had effected his object 
he was murdered by the Indians. In 1694, M. Iber- 
ville set out on a voyage of the same character, and 
on the 14th of August a basket was found in the 
possession of some Indians containing a paper upon 
which the names of many individuals belonging to La 
Salle's expedition were written, and a letter addressed 
to M. D. Zanti, from which it was learned that he had 

^ Harvey's "History of the Shawnee Indians." 



descended to the sea with twenty Canadians and thirty 
Shawnee Indians from the river Wabash. This ap- 
pears to have been on the first expedition of La Salle, 
whicli was of course prior to the one above mentioned, 
which was in the year 1684, but how long before is 
unknown. Thus it seems that previous to the year 
1G84 some of the Shawnees lived on the Wabash, 
but what became of the thirty Shawnees who accom- i 
pauied La Salle we are not informed ; it is thought, 
however, that they made their way into Florida or , 
Texas, and never returned to the Wabash country. I 
About 1678 seventy families of the Shawnees removed 
from South Carolina and settled on the Susquehanna 
River, in Pennsylvania. Others of the same tribe 
soon followed, so that the number of fighting men of 
this tribe in Pennsylvania in 1732 amounted to seven I 
hundred, half of whom were from the South. This [ 
number, it is presumed, only included the band that 
had gone to South Carolina ; but as it is evident that 
these seven hundred warriors did not include all the 
Shawnees, the remainder can be accounted for by } 
another band, referred toby Cadwallader Colden, who, 
after remarking, in 1745, that the Shawnees were the 
most restless of all the Indian tribes, says that one 
tribe of them had gone to New Spain (now Florida). 
This band of four hundred and fifty, who were found 
north of the head-waters of the Mobile River, prob- 
ably never returned to Pennsylvania, while the band 
which had lived near Winchester probably removed 
to the Alleghany, near Fort Duquesne, and afterwards 
to Cape Girardeau, between the Whitewater and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers. 

The Iroquois claimed sovereignty over the Shaw 
nees, and drove them to the West, where they took 
active part in the various Indian wars that from time 
to time broke forth in vain attempts to stay the prog- 
ress of white civilization. In 1731, rejecting the 
English missionaries, they negotiated with the French, 
and gave early aid to them in the final struggle ; but 
in 1758 they were won over by the appearance of 
Gen. Forbes. After the fall of Canada they joined 
Pontiac, and were actiye in hostilities till subdued by 
Bouquet. In 1774 they participated in the battle of 
Point Pleasant, and in 1771) twice repulsed the attacks 
of Col. Bowman. They joined in the peace of 1786, 
but under English influence took part in the Miami 
war, in the campaigns against Gens. Harmar and St. 
Clair, till they were finally reduced by Gen. Wayne, 
and submitted under the treaty of Greenville in 1795. 
The main party were at this time on the Scioto, but 
some had crossed into Missouri, where the Spaniards 
gave them land. Another band moved South. In 
the war of 1812 some of the bands were won by the 

English. Urged by Tecumseh and his brother, the 
Prophet, they endeavored to unite all the Indians of 
the West against the Americans, but those in Ohio 
remained faithful. The Missouri band ceded their 
lands to the government in 1825, and the Ohio band 
in 1831. In 1854 the band of Shawnees proper in 
that part of the Indian Territory now included in 
Kansas numbered nine hundred, on a reservation of 
one million six hundred thousand acres ; but by treaty 
the tribal relation was ended, and the lands were di- 
vided in severalty. Besides these, there were in 1872 
ninety in the Quapaw agency, and six hundred and 
sixty-three in the Sac and Fox agency. 

Of the region bordering on the Upper Potomac, 

"there is no history," says a distinguished writer, "either writ- 
ten or oral, to enlighten us as to the events of an epoch earlier 
than about 1728. 

" At that date there was located in the province of Maryland, 
at the junction of two streams known as the Cuhongaronta and 
the Caiuctucuc, an Indian town, which also bore the latter name. 
The town of Caiuctucuc was built on the ground lying between 
these streams, from their confluence to a point some distance up 
the river Cohongaronta, the greater portion of the town being 
located upon the site of the west side of the present city of 
Cumberland. Other towns were dotted along the river's bank 
for a distance of more than forty miles, the most easterly being 
the present site of Oldtown, Allegany Qo., Md. A century 
ago the settlement at that point was called ' Shawanese Old- 
town,' but of late years the explanatory prefix has been entirely 
dropped, and the place is now simply known as Oldtown. Other 
villages were scattered about between the Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania lines, two of which were not far distant from Caiuc- 
tucuc. One of these was located in the narrow valley, three 
miles westward, on the banks of Braddock's Run, on what is 
now known as the Eckles' place, and within a few yards of the 
line of the present National read, just where it is crossed by 
the Eckhart Railroad. Within the memory of men now living 
there were many relics of this village in existence, 

" The ground was heavily timbered throughout that valley, 
and a clearing of several acres had been made there, in which 
were still to be seen the remnants of the small huts used by the 
natives. Just across the ridge, in Cash Valley, was another 
village of the same character, and still another of greater di- 
mensions was situated near the spot on which Cresaptown 
stands, probably a little nearer the river. The date of the de- 
cline and fall of the town of Caiuctucuc is left to conjecture, 
but it was abandoned prior to 1751, as is shown by the earliest 
map of this region, made in that year, which simply marks the 
I territory in question as ' Abandoned Shawanese Lands,' and 
at that time ' many bands of Indians of other tribes, with scat- 
tered lodges, were found here by the hardy pioneers, whose 
venturesome spirits led them so far beyond the limits of civil- 
ization, while the Shawanese thickly peopled the hanks of the 
; Ohio and the Monongahela west of the AUeghanies.' " i 

In its day and generation, however, Caiuctucuc was 
a town of respectable dimensions, built after the fash- 
ion of Indian villages in general. It was simply an 

I 1 Lowdermilk's " History of Cumberland." 




aggregation of cabins or wigwams, constructed by fix- 
ing saplings in the ground in a circle and tying the 
flexible ends together at the top, so as to form a con- 
ical cage or frame-work, which was covered with skins 
or sheets of bark. A better style of house, such as 
the chiefs used, was constructed by inclosing an ob- 
long space in the same manner. Holes were cut in 
the sides for windows, and an opening left at the top 
to allow the smoke to escape, the fireplace occupying 
the centre part of the floor. Mats of grass or rushes 
were sometimes used to partition ofi' an apartment. 
The mode of fortification was by inclosing the whole 
town, or a part of it, including the chief's house, with 
a strong and close stockade. Within this stockade 
was the council-fire, around which they gathered to 
discuss public matters or for religious ceremonies. 

The land about the village was held in common, 
but to each family a portion was allotted for cultiva- 
tion, the agricultural tasks devolving upon the women. 
Each family delivered a part of the crop to the chief, 
and it was placed in a general store-house to be used 
for the chief's subsistence, for the entertainment of 
guests, and as a reserve in case of scarcity or siege. 
They cultivated maize, beans, tobacco, and several va- 
rieties of the melon and gourd. The confederate 
tribes exercised common rights of forestry over the 
surrounding wilderness ; but certain natural bounda- 
ries, such as rivers and streams, distinguished the 
territory of each from its neighbors. 

The tribe was subject to its chief, who had absolute 
power over his people, and whose authority descended 
in the female line. When the chief died he was suc- 
ceeded by his brother of the same mother, or failing 
a brother, by his sister's son ; the alleged reason being 
that descent derived through the mother is certain, 
while that through the father was uncertain. This 
custom would seem to point to a time when conjugal 
fidelity was rarer among the women than the early 
writers represent it. Next to the chief, or " king," of 
the tribe was the werowance, or general, who had com- 
mand of all expeditions, whether peaceful or hostile. 
Such warriors as had distinguished themselves in 
council or battle were honored with a title which the 
early travelers and historians give as cockaroiise, and 
these, with the chief, the werowance, and a " medicine- 
man," or conjuror, formed the ordinary council of the 

This medicine-man was a person of great impor- 
tance, combining in himself the functions of physician 
and magician, as is generally the case among savage 
tribes, who look upon disease as the result of a hostile 
incantation or the anger of a malignant or offended 
spirit. They were usually initiated into their profes- 

sion by a long period of preparation, including pro- 
tracted fasting, solitude, severe penances, and fre- 
quently the administration of narcotic drugs. This 
regimen produced hallucinations, in which medicines 
or charms were revealed to them by spirits, and a hys- 
terical or epileptic tendency superinduced, which, 
under nervous excitement, readily gave rise to parox- 

Their modes of poimoowiiii/ were various, but 
usually began with drum-beating, shaking of rattles, 
and chanting by the assistants, and furious dancing 
and gesticulation on the part of the conjuror, until he 
was seized with convulsions, real or simulated, and 
rolled upon the ground with face distorted and mouth 
foaming. Sometimes he howled forth his oracle in 
this condition, and then it was understood to be a 
spirit that possessed him speaking with his voice ; at 
other times he fell prostrate and apparently lifeless, 
and did not deliver his oracle until he recovered his 
senses, when he announced that his soul had quitted 
his body and journeyed to the world of spirits, 
whence it brought the desired answer. In their med- 
ical practice they combined these conjurations with 
treatment of a more orthodox sort, administering 
drugs, using scarification, cauterization, and other 
remedies ; and in both capacities they were regarded 
with great veneration. These medicine-men also took 
a prominent part in the religious ceremonies, solemn 
fasts, and other rites. These had mostly reference to 
the change of seasons and other events, the chief 
feast being at the maize-harvest, while others signal- 
ized the return of certain sorts of migratory game, 
the ripening of certain fruits, etc. Their festivals 
were celebrated with various ceremonies of a symbol- 
ical character, with singing, dancing, and a grand 

Neither at these festivals nor in their ordinary life 
did these Indians use any beverage but water, some- 
times sweetened with the sap of the sugar-maple, 
unti^ after they had learned the use of spirituous 
liquors from the whites ; and to these, Father White 
tells us, the Maryland Indians had at first a great re- 
pugnance, though afterwards drunkenness became a 
prevalent vice with them. The custom of smoking 
tobacco was universal among the tribes at the time of 
the first arrival of the whites. It was regarded, how- 
ever, in a far di3"erent light from the same practice 
among ourselves. Tobacco was a sacred herb, a 
precious gift of the Great Spirit to his children, and 
the act of smoking had always something of a cere- 
monial or even religious character. In some tribes 
the chief, standing at the entrance of his cabin at sun- 
rise, saluted the first appearance of the solar disk 



with solemn wafts of smoke from his pipe. In coun- 
cils and other ceremonies the calumet played an im- 
portant part. It was solemnly lighted by the chief, 
who gave a few whiffs, sometimes directing these to 
the four cardinal points, and then opened the matter 
for consideration ; the pipe was next handed to the 
second in rank, who in turn took two or three whiffs, 
and then delivered his opinion, and thus the pipe 
made the circuit of the assembly. A large and or- 
namental pipe was kept in each village for the cere- 
monious reception of strangers, whose peaceful or 
hostile intentions were known by their reception of it. 
The chief of the village filled and lighted the peace- 
pipe in the presence of the visitors, and after smoking 
a little handed it to their principal men. If he re- 
fused to smoke, it meant that their intentions were 
hostile, but if he received and smoked it, it was a 
sign of peace, and it was passed alternately according 
to rank between hosts and guests. These pipes were 
adorned with feathers and wings of birds, and what- 
ever other ornament their fancy could devise, and 
served also as credentials to traveling ambassadors, 
and, like the herald's tabard of feudal times, was a 
safe-conduct even among foes. 

At the time of the arrival of the first colonists the 
Maryland Indians clothed themselves in skin, mostly 
of the deer, which the women had the art of dressing 
extremely soft and pliant. Some, according to Smith, 
used ingeniously-woven mantles of turkey-feathers. 
Their weapons were bows and arrows, pointed with 
pieces of deer-horn, the spurs of the wild turkey, or 
flints skillfully chipped to the requisite shape and keen- 
ness ; hatchets of hard grit-stone ground to an edge 
and grooved for the attachment of a handle, and War- 
clubs of hard wood, sometimes edged with flints. As 
defensive armor they had shields of bark, and Smith 
mentions a kind of light target used by the Massa- 
womekes, made of small sticks woven between strings 
of hemp and silk grass, and proof against arrow-shots. 
The introduction of firearms, however, rendering 
these simple contrivances useless, they were grad- 
ually abandoned. They soon learned to buy improved 
arms. Implements, and clothing from the Europeans, 
giving in exchange furs and peltries, and getting 
coarse, heavy cloths, hatchets and knives of steel, 
guns and ammunition, and pieces of iron out of which 
they cut lighter and better heads for their arrows. 
Though iron ore was abundant, none of the Indians 
had the art of melting it, their skill in metallurgy 
being limited to the manufacture of rude articles out 
of native copper, and occasionally gold. Penn's de- 
scription of Indian manners and customs is as graphic 
as it is accurate. 

"Of their manners and customs," he says, "there is much 
to be said. I will begin with children. So soon as they are 
born they wash them in water, and while very young, and in 
cold weather to choose, they plunge them in the river to harden 
and embolden them. Having wrapped them in a cloth, they- 
lay them on a straight thin board, a little more than the length 
and breadth of the child, and swaddle it first upon the board 
to make it straight, — wherefore all Indians have fiat heads, — 
and thus they carry them at their backs. 

*' The children will go very young, at nine months old com- 
monly. They use only a small cloth round their waist till they 
are large. If boys, they go a-fishing till ripe for the woods, 
which is about fifteen ; then they hunt, and after giving some 
proofs of their manhood, by a good return of skins, they may 
marry, else it is a shame to think of a wife. The girls stay 
with their mothers and help to hoe the ground, plant corn, and 
carry burthens ; and they do well to use them young, which they 
must do when they are old, for the wives are the true servants 
of their husbands. Otherwise the men are very affectionate to 

" When the young women are fit for marriage they wear some- 
thing on their heads for an advertisement, but so as their faces 
are hardly to be seen but when they please. The age they 
marry at, if women, is about thirteen or fourteen ; if boys, 
seventeen or eighteen ; they are seldom older. 

" They are great concealers of their own resentments, brought 
to it, I believe, by the revenge that hath been practiced among 
them; in either of these they are not exceeded by the Italians. 
In sickness they are impatient to be cured, and for it give 
everything, especially for their children, to whom they are ex- 
tremely natural. They drink at those times a teran, or concoc- 
tion of roots in spring water ; and if they eat any flesh, it must 
be the female of any creature. If they die, they bury them 
with their apparel, be they men or women, and the nearest of 
kin fling in something precious with them as a token of true 
love ; their mourning is blacking of their faces, which they con- 
tinue for a year. They are choice of the graves of their dead, 
lest they should be lost by time and fall to common use. They 
pick off the grass that grows upon them, and heap up the fallen 
earth with great care and exactness. These poor people are 
under a dark night in things relating to religion ; to be sure the 
traditions of it they have only, yet they believe in a God and 
immortality without the help of metaphysics; for, say they, 
there is a great king that made them, who dwells in a glorious 
country to the southward of them, and that the souls of the 
good shall go thither, where they shall live again. Their wor- 
ship consists of two parts, sacrifice and cantico ; their sacrifice 
is their first fruits, the first and fattest buck they kill goeih to 
the fire, where he is all burnt, with a mournful ditty of him 
that performeth the ceremony, but with such marvelous fer- 
vency and labor of the body that they will even sweat to a foam. 
The other part is their cantico, performed by round dances, 
sometiines words, sometimes songs, then shouts; two being in 
the middle tent begin, and by singing and drumming on a 
board direct the chorus. 

" Their postures in the dance are very antique and diS'ering, 
but all keep measure. This is done with equal earnestness and 
labor, but great appearances of joy. In the fall, when the corn 
Cometh in, they begin to feast one another. There have been 
two great festivals already, to which all come that would. I 
was at one myself. Their entertainment was a great seat by a 
a spring, under some shady trees, and twenty fat bucks with 
hot cakes of new corn, both wheat and beans, which they make 
I up in square form, in the leaves of the stem, and bake them in 
the ashes, and after that they fall to dancing. But they that 
I go must carry a small present in their money ; it may be six- 



pence, which is made of the bone of a fish; the blnck is with 
them as gold, the white, silver. They call it all wampum. 
The justice they have is pecuniary; in case of any wronger evil 
fuct, be it murder itself, they atone by feasts and presents of 
their wampum, which is proportioned to the otfense or person 
injured, or of the sex they are of; for in case they kill a woman, 
they pay double, and the reason they render is that she can 
raise children, which men cannot do. It is rare that they fall 
out if sober, and if drunk forgive it, saying it was the drink 
and not the man that abused thetn." 

Their mode of warfare was altogether of the guerrilla 
sort, consisting chiefly of surprises and ambuscades, 
in which they displayed great skill and cunning. 
Such a thing as a pitched battle between two 
armies in the open field was contrary to all their 
notions of good strategy. When a hostile expedi- 
tion had been determined on by the chief and leading 
warriors in council, it was made known to the tribe, 
who celebrated the occasion by a solemn dance, in 
which the warriors, bedizened in paint and feathers, 
stated their past or projective exploits, and imitated 
in expressive pantomime the shooting, tomahawking, 
and scalping of their foes. On the appointed day 
they set out in one or more parties, moving, as they 
approached their destination, with extreme 
to prevent discovery, marching often by night in sin- 
gle file, slipping from shadow to shadow, or gliding 
through the forest so stealthily that hardly a twig 
snapped or leaf rustled under tlie tread of a moo- 
casined foot, until at a given signal they burst upon 
the village with terrific war-whoops. Those of their 
foes who survived after the rage of slaughter was 
glutted they made prisoners, and reserved for death by 
the most cruel tortures their ingenuity could devise ; 
in inventing and enduring which the Iroquois — who, 

indeed, have the credit of introducing the custom 

•seem to have surpassed all others. Instances are 
'recorded of the tortures of distinguished warriors 
I lasting for days, a sort of contest arising between the 
(power of cruelty to inflict and that of fortitude to en- 
dure. In the intervals of torment the victim would 
I sometimes smoke his pipe and talk on indifferent 
[matters with his tormentors; while amid his suffcr- 
jing he sang his own exploits, or derided tlie unskill- 
I fulness of his torturers, and taught them devices for 
[inflicting more exquisite pain. Women were some- 
j times tortured, but usually they were tomahawked 
i or shot, unless the captors wanted women, in which 
I case they were adopted into the tribe. 
j One of the most noted species of ornament, which 
I answered all the purposes of a circulating medium 
jamong the Eastern Indians, was wampum. This 
consisted of small circular bits of sea-shell, smoothly 
ground and polished, with a hole drilled through the 

centre of each, by which it might be strung or attached 
ornamentally to the belt or other parts of the dress. 
The " quahog," or round clam, fiirnished the principal 
material for this coin, the variegated purple portions 
of the shell being much the most valuable. The 
great labor in preparing it was the boring, which was 
efl^ected by a sharp flint.' 

" The wompompeague," says Gookin, " is made principally by 
the Block Islanders and Long Island Indians. Qpon the sandy 
flats and shores of those coasts the wilk shells are found. With 
this wompompeague they pay tribute, redeem captives, satisfy 
for murders and other wrongs, purchase peace with their potent 
neighbors, as occasion requires; in a word, it answers all occa- 
sions with them, as gold and silver doth with us." 

To effect a clearing and secure a crop with such 
rude implements of stone as they possessed appears to 
us almost an impracticable undertaking ; but we are 
assured by early writers that they obtained as large a 
yield from a given quantity of ground as can be pro- 
duced by the assistance of all modern conveniences 
and contrivances.' 

Two dishes greatly in vogue among the Indians, 
says Brownell, have maintained their popularity amono- 
their European successors. Green corn, the ripening 
of which was celebrated by a national dance, is sought 
as eagerly as when it supplied a grateful refreshment 
to the red men, emaciated, as Smith describes them, 
by their spring diet of fish and roots. A preparation 
denominated " succotash," consisting of maize boiled 
with beans and flavored with fat bear's meat or fish, 
still remains a favorite dish. 

It is a singular fact that the use of milk should 
have been entirely unknown before the advent of the 
whites, although there were various animals in the 
country from which it might have been procured. 
This fact has been adduced as a strong an'ument 
against the hypothesis that immigrants from the 
nomadic tribes of Tartary have mingled with the red 
race in comparatively modern times. 

A favorite article of diet was a cake made of maize 
beaten as fine as the means at command would per- 
mit, mixed with water, and baked upon a flat stone, 
previously heated in the flre. These cakes, it is said, 
were called " Shawnee cakes," the name, in the course 
of a few years, being corrupted into the " Johnny- 
cake" so well known in the South and other sections 
of the country at thep resent day.^ 

1 Brownell's " Indian Races of North and South America " 

2 Ibid. 

3 Lowderniilk. It must be confessed, however, that this deri- 
vation is more plausible than probable, and will scarcely stand 
the test of criticism. "Johnny-cake" is more probably a 
corruption of "Journey-cake," an article cooked hastily for 
travelers, or upon the spur of a hurried and une.xpected 



"The lands in the vicinity of Cumberland,'' says Lowdermilk, 
" are rich in Indian relics, and an interesting collection of stone 
pipes, tomahawks, rings, tablets, quoits, etc., has been made by 
F. M. OfFutt. These were taken from graves which were opened 
by various persons. Along the banks of the Potomac the curious 
may still find these graves, and the writer has himself assisted 
in the exploration of a number of them. The custom of the In- 
dians was to lay their dead upon the surface of the earth, and 
to deposit beside them their bows, arrows, tomahawks, and 
food in jars or crocks of pottery made of clay mixed with finely- 
crushed flint, and burned. The friends then deposited such 
articles as they chose, and the bodies were afterwards covered 
with stones, which were laid on to the height of about two feet. 
Usually the stones used were bowlders from the bed of the 
river. It is probable that the graves thus constructed were 
those of parties who were on the war-path, or traveling from 
one place to another, as usually not more than two or three 
graves are found together. This is rendered more probable 
from the fact that few such graves are found in the vicinity of 
their towns. At Brady's Mills a number of skeletons were 
unearthed some years ago by workmen who were excavating 
the ground for the production of a distillery built there by 
Samuel Brady. These were, beyond doubt, the remains of In- 
dians, and were buried in a sitting posture some depth below 
the surface. This was doubtless the burial-ground of the In- 
dian village which lay between that place and Cresaptown. 
On the farm of Mr. Christopher Kelly, fourteen miles below 
Cumberland, one of these stone-piles was opened recently, and 
a beautiful serpentine pipe of green tinted stone, besides rings, 
etc., taken therefrom. In that neighborhood, and on the op- 
posite side of the river, are several^ other graves of a similar 
character, while in the valley of the South Branch they have 
been discovered in great numbers, and hundreds of relics taken 
from them have found their way to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute. The articles thus recovered were all of stone or bone, the 
latter being used freely as ornaments." 



The First Pioneers — German Immigration — Herman anil the 
Labadists — Germans in the Revolution — Palatine Refugees — 
Their Religious Character— The English and Scotch— Irish ' 
Settlements — Primitive Manners and Customs of the Early ( 

It was many years after the first settlement of 
Maryland before the advance of white civilization 
reached the western section of the province. The ' 
population of that region was so sparse that it was not 
until 1748 that it was considered suiBcient to justify 
the formation of another county, and even then the 
new county of Frederick was so thinly settled that it 
was made to embrace the whole territory now included 
in Montgomery, Washington, Allegany, Garrett, and 
part of Carroll Counties, besides that comprised at 
present within its own limits, forming about three- 
fourths of the land area of Maryland. Although i 
traders and hunters had penetrated the wilds of West- ' 

ern Maryland as early as 1715, and perhaps fifteen 
years earlier, few attempts at white settlements were 
made in the remoter portions of this region for 
many years afterwards. In 1732, Joist Hite, with 
his family and his sons-in-law, George Bowman, 
Jacob Chrisman, and Paul Froman, with their fami- 
lies, accompanied also by Robert McKay, Robert 
Green, William Dufl^, Peter Stephens, and several 
others, numbering in all sixteen families, removed 
from Pennsylvania, cutting their road from York, 
and crossing the Cohongoronton about two miles above 
Harper's Ferry. Hite settled on Opequon, about five 
miles south of Winchester, on the great highway 
from Winchester to Staunton. Peter Stephens and 
several others settled at Stephensburg and founded 
the town ; Jacob Chrisman, at what was afterwards 
called Chrisman's Spring, about two miles south of 
Stephensburg; Bowman, on Cedar Creek, about six 
miles farther south ; and Froman, on the same creek, 
eight or nine miles northwest of Bowman. Robert 
McKay settled on Crooked Run, eight or nine miles 
southeast of Stephensburg. Hite and his party were 
probably the first immigrants who settled west of the 
Blue Ridge, but it was not long before they were fol- 
lowed by others.' 

Benjamin Allen, Riley Moore, and William White 
had settled upon the Monocacy, in Maryland, prior 
to 1734, and in the same year Richard Morgan ob- 
tained a grant for a tract of land in the immediate 
neighborhood of Shepherdstown, on or near the Co- | 
hongoronton. Among the first settlers on this water- 
course and its vicinity were Robert Harper (from 
whom Harper's Ferry derives its name), William 
Stroop, Thomas and William Forester, Israel Friend, 
Thomas Shephard, Thomas Swearengen, Van Swear- 
engen, James Forman, Edward Lucas, Jacob Hite, 
John Lemon, Richard Mercer, Edward Mercer, 
Jacob Vanmeter and brothers, Robert Stockton, Rob- 
ert Buckles, John Taylor, Samuel Taylor, Richard 
Morgan, and John Wright. The first settlers on 
the Wappatomaka (South Branch) were Coburn, 
Howard, Walker, and Rutledge. 

The more southern part of Western Pennsylvania 
(Greene, Washington, Fayette, and part of Somerset, 
which were supposed to be within the boundaries of 
Virginia) was visited by adventurous settlers from 
Maryland prior to 1754. Among them were Wendel 
Brown and his two sons, and Frederick Waltzer, who 
settled four miles west of Uniontown, Pa. David 
Tygart had settled in the valley which bears his name 
in Northwestern Virginia, and several other families 

^ Kercheval's " History of the Valley of Virginia." 




joined him a few years afterwards. These, with those 
of Gist, Cresap, and several others, of whom more 
will be said hereafter, were probably the only settle- 
ments (west of the Blue Ridge Mountains) attempted 
prior to Braddock's defeat, and those made immedi- 
ately afterwards or before 1760 were repeatedly mo- 
lested by the Indians, and alternately abandoned and 

William Jacob settled at the mouth of Redstone 
Creek in 1761, but was obliged to remove on account 
of the Indians in 1763, and in 1769 applied for a 
location. James Gondin erected a house at Eleven- 
Mile Run in 1762, and in the same year William 
Shearer and Harry Shrihack made improvements in 
this region by order of Col. Bouquet. From the ap- 
plication of James Burd, in 1769, we learn that a 
house had been erected at a place called Somerset, five 
or six miles from Fort Pitt, as early as 1760, and in 
1762, Casper Toup, by permission of Col. Bouquet, 
improved land four miles from the present site of 
Pittsburgh. Among the early settlers of this territory, 
then claimed by Virginia, was Col. Crawford, who 
was the intimate friend of Washington. He settled 
in the valley of the Youghiogheny, on the river, pre- 
cisely at the place where Braddock's army had crossed. 
Whether Col. Crawford fixed upon this location by 
design or accident is not known ; but it was un- 
doubtedly an excellent selection. It was then on the 
only road leading to this remote section of the country, 
and he was thus enabled to see all travelers visiting 
the Indian country ; and being an intelligent and hos- 
pitable man, his house was made the stopping-place 
of the weary pioneer. Gen. Washington was fre- 
quently an inmate of his humble dwelling during his 
frequent visits to the western country, and more than 
once refers to him in his journal. A considerable 
number of emigrants from Maryland, about 1768, 
settled on the Youghiogeny, Monongahela, and its 
several tributaries, and the settlements in West- 
ern Pennsylvania, Western Maryland, and Western 
Virginia began to attract attention. " The forts at 
Redstone, now Brownsville, and at Wheeling were 
among the first and most conspicuous ; the route the 
settlers pursued was the scarce practicable path called 
' Braddock's trail,' which they traveled with no better 
means of conveyance for their furniture and provi- 
sions than that offered by pack-horses.^ The great 
object of most of these persons was to obtain posses- 
sion of the lands, the title to which cost little more 
than the payment of office fees. The Indian title was 
not then considered by individuals as presenting any 

' Hall's " Sketches of the West," p. 193. 

obstacle, and Virginia (whose charter, it was then 
supposed, embraced this region of country) confirmed 
the titles of settlers with no other restrictions than 
such as were necessary to prevent the confusion of in- 
terfering claims. At an early period that colony ap- 
pointed three commissioners to give certificates of set- 
tlement rights, which were sent with the surveyor's 
plot to the land-ofiice, where they remained six months 
to await the interposition of caveats by other claimants 
to the same land. If none were offered within that 
period the patents were issued. There was an in- 
ferior kind of title invented by those rude borderers 
called a ' tomahawk-right,' which was made by dead- 
ening a few trees near a spring, and marking others 
by cutting in the bark, by the person who thus took 
pftssession. This ceremony conferred no legal prop- 
erty, but was respected by the settlers as establishing 
a priority of claim with which it was thought dis- 
creditable to interfere. These rights were, therefore, 
often bought and sold, because those who wished to 
secure favorite tracts of land chose to buy the toma- 
hawk improvements rather than quarrel with those 
who had made them." 

To the German immigrants from Pennsylvania and 
the Palatinate, however, must be ascribed the largest 
share of honor in that wonderful development of the 
fertile plains and valleys of Western Maryland which 
has added so much to the general growth and prosperity 
of the State. As in other portions of the country so in 
Western Maryland, the German element has played an 
important part from the earliest period of colonial 
history, and at the present day, woven in by time 
with the general prosperity and progress, forms one 
of the chief constituents of the industrial, agricultural, 
moral, and iutellectual well-being of Western Mary- 
land, as well as of other portions of the State. Even 
before Penn and his followers made their settlement 
upon the Delaware, certain German Protestants, in 
quest of a refuge from religious oppression, had come 
into the province and had been hospitably received. 

Among the earliest German emigrants was Augus- 
tine Herman ( Harman, Heermans, as the name is 
variously spelled), a Bohemian surveyor, a man of 
culture and influence, a native of Prague, and very 
probably a sectary of the school of Huss or Jerome. 
In early youth he had left his native country and set- 
tled in Holland. From Holland, in 1647, he emigrated 
to New York as clerk to John and Charles Gabry, 
of Amsterdam. He acquitted himself so well that 
he soon got to be a member of the Dutch Council, 
and in that capacity was sent to St. Mary's to confer 
with the provincial Governor in regard to the claims 
of Maryland to the territory on the Delaware Bay. 



After this mission had been completed he removed 
to Maryland, and in 1663 took up land on Elk River, 
novF Cecil, but then Baltimore County, where " Bohe- 
mia Manor" and " Port Herman" still preserve his 
memory. Various reasons have been assigned for his 
removal from New York, but the true cause seems to 
have been some disagreement with Governor Stuyves- 
ant. At all events, it is certain that about 1661 he 
proposed to Lord Baltimore to make an exact map of 
the country, if his lordship would be pleased to grant 
him " a certain tract of land as an inheritance to his 
posterity, and the privileges of a manor." This offer 
was accepted, and the land patented to him Oct. 12, 
1663, under the name of Bohemia, or Bohemia 
Manor. By subsequent additions it was increased to 
nearly twenty thousand acres, lying in both Maryland 
and Delaware and just east of Elk River. In 1666 
he and his family were naturalized by an act of As- 
sembly, the first act of the kind passed in the colonies. 
In 1670 his map was published, and copies of it are 
still extant. It is adorned with his portrait, represent- 
ing a gentleman of about fifty years of age, of rather 
saturnine but not unpleasing features, set off bj' the 
full-bottomed periwig of Charles the Second's time, 
the whole surrounded by the legend, " Augustine 
Hermann, Bohemensis." 

Herman seems to have taken up his residence on 
what is now known as the Ferry farm, near the pres- 
ent Bayard mansion, but no trace of his house now 
remains, nor can even its site be definitely located. 
It cannot have been fiir from the stream, however, for 
Dankers and Sluyter tell us in their journal that the 
screeching of the geese and other wild fowl in the 
Bohemia River, before the door, greatly disturbed 
their rest at night. Herman probably resided on the 
manor for more than twenty years, during which time, 
it is said, he once rode to New Y'ork on the back of 
his favorite horse to reclaim his long-neglected posses- 
sions there. He found his land occupied by " squat- 
ters," who not only declined to vacate it, but impris- 
oned him in their round-house, which was built with 
high steps for better protection against the Indians. 
He was sentenced to death, but " a short time before 
he was to be executed he feigned himself to be de- 
ranged in mind, and requested that his horse should 
be brought to him in prison." The horse ascended 
tlie steps without difiBculty, much to the astonishment 
of Herman's captors, and was mounted by his master, 
who, while pretending to be performing military exer- 
cises, suddenly " bolted through one of the large win- 
dows that was some fifteen feet above ground, leaped 
down, swam the North River, ran his horse through 
Jersey, and alighted on the bank of the Delaware 

opposite New Castle, and thus made his escape from 
death and the Dutch." This daring feat, tradition 
says, he had transferred to canvas, himself represented 
as standing by the side of his charger, from whose 
nostrils the blood was flowing. It is said a copy of 
this painting still exists. Herman never suffered this 
liorse to be used afterwards, and when he died had 
him buried, and honored his grave with a tombstone. 
Herman's death is said to have occurred in 1686 ; 
but two years before, on Aug. 11, 1684, he conveyed 
by deed to Peter Sluyter a/ias Vorsman, Jasper 
Dauckeats alias Schilders, of Friesland, Petrus Bay- 
ard, of New York, and John Moll and Arnoldus de 
la Grange, of Delaware, jointly, three thousand seven 
hundred and fifty acres of land, bounded on the west 
by Long Creek, north by the great cart-road leading 
to Reedy Island, in the Delaware, east by the Appo- 
quinimink path leading from the great cart-road to the 
head of Bohemia River, and south by Bohemia River, 
known afterwards as the Labadie tract. The whole 
of this tract, with the exception of a few acres, lay in 
Cecil County, the line between Delaware and Mary- 
land crossing its eastern extremity just before reaching 
the Bohemia River. The grantees in the deed from 
Herman were members of a religious community at 
the small village of Wieward, in Friesland. The sect 
was founded by and named after Jean de Labadie, a 
French enthusiast, who had left the order of the 
Jesuits and founded this new " Evangelical Church" 
in Amsterdam about 1669. Owing to the opposition 
met with in Amsterdam, De Labadie and his adher- 
ents removed to Erfurt, from whence they removed in 
1672 to Altona, where De Labadie died. From this 
point they were compelled to remove to Wieward, in 
Friesland, and at length, in the hope of securing a 
safe and permanent retreat, they turned their eyes 
towards America. Jasper Dankers and Peter Sluyter, 
two of the leading members of the community, were 
sent in advance on a tour of observation, and to select | 
a proper location for a colony, and being attracted by ' 
the situation and advantages of Bohemia Manor, they 
resolved to settle there, and accordingly obtained from 
Herman the tract of land which has been mentioned. ' 
A company of men and women, including several 
families, shortly afterwards arrived from Wieward, and 
were joined " by a few persons from New York. • 
Sluyter declared himself bishop, and sent to Friesland 
for his wife, whom he installed as a kind of abbess 
over the female portion of the establishment. The 
members belonging to this community did not at any 
time greatly exceed one hundred men, women, and 
children. They had all their possessions in common, 
so that none could claim any more right than another 



to any part of the property. They worked at different 
employments in the house or on the land, such as the 
manufacture of linen, the cultivation of corn, tobacco, 
flax, and hemp. Their meals were eaten in silence, 
the men by themselves and the women by themselves, 
the former with their heads covered, exSept during a 
short season spent in inaudible thanksgiving. They 
slept in the same or adjoining buildings, but in diflFer- 
€nt rooms, which were not accessible to each other. 
Their dress was plain and simple. Gold and silver 
ornaments, jewelry, carpets, lace, and other fancy work 
were prohibited. But the seeds of dissolution were 
developing themselves, and as early as 1698, Peter 
Sluyter, who had become sole proprietor of the lands 
of the colony, resolved to divide the property. He 
conveyed three of the four necks of land embraced in 
the tract to Herman van Berkels, Nicholas de la 
Montaigne, Peter de Koning, Derrick Kolckman, 
John Moll, Jr., Hendrick Sluyter, and Samuel Bay- 
ard, and retaining one of the necks himself, became a 
wealthy man in his own right." In the year 1722 
Sluyter died, and the Labadist colony expired about 
the same time. 

It was, however, in the western portion of the State 
that the first considerable settlement of German refu- 
gees was made. In common with the neighboring 
province of Pennsylvania, Maryland was the favorite 
goal of the Protestants, who were forced to flee from 
the relentless persecution which devastated some of 
the fairest portions of France and Germany in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. During the 
reign of Queen Anne many of these exiles were at- 
tracted to Penn.sylvania, not only by the promise of 
religious toleration, but probably through the kindly 
intervention of the queen her,self, who displayed so 
keen solicitude for them, and contributed so liberally 
to their relief, as to provoke the criticism that she was 
encouraging pauperism. The reproach was most un- 
just, for these exiles were skillful artisans, who after- 
wards contributed immensely to the development of 
British manufactures in the colonies. At first the 
German immigrants settled in the vicinity of Phila- 
delphia, but gradually advancing westward, soon 
spread over the southern counties of Pennsylvania, 
and crossed the border into Maryland. The en- 
viable reputation which the latter province had en- 
joyed, by reason of its. toleration of different religious 
creeds, had been seriously marred by the proscription 
of the Catholics, which followed the Puritan revolu- 
tion, and which was revived under William and Mary, 
Anne, and the first two Georges. In the reign of 
William, on the other hand, the Dissenters had en- 
joyed especial favor and immunity, and under George 

II. we find Methodism making rapid headway in 
Maryland, though here and there antagonized and 
threatened by occasional outbursts of fanaticism on 
the part of individual members of the Established 
Church. To this, however, must be opposed the 
fact that Methodist ministers were permitted, and 
even invited, to preach in the Anglican (Episcopalian) 
churches in various portions of the province. To 
the special toleration thus accorded Protestants, to- 
gether with their remoteness from the centres of cleri- 
cal and legislative authority, the German settlers in 
Western Maryland doubtless owed the immunity from 
persecution which they enjoyed from the first. Doubt- 
less, too, the authorities of the province were wise 
enough to see that it would be impolitic in the high- 
est degree to molest the brave pioneers, whose axes 
were constantly ringing in the western forests, clear- 
ing through the hitherto untrodden wilderness a path 
to the virgin plains of the Ohio and Mississippi Val- 
leys. Whatever the reason, the German settlements 
were permitted to worship God in their own fashion 
without let or hindrance, and new sects sprang up 
among them on every side. The Germans who had 
settled chiefly in the vicinity of Lancaster and York 
drifted westward and southward, dotting the fertile 
country with smiling and thrifty settlements, and as 
early as 1748 had taken possession of many valuable 
tracts along the Monocacy River and the Catoctin 
Creek. They were also very numerous in the north- 
ern part of Frederick County, and in a few years had 
established settlements in various portions of what are 
now the election districts of Hauver's, Mechanicstown, 
Catoctin, Creagerstown, and Emmittsburg. In 1735 
the Schleys, with about one hundred families from 
Germany, Switzerland, and France, established them- 
selves on the Monocacy, the first house in Frederick 
Town being erected by Thomas Schley. The younger 
members and descendants of these families were the 
pioneer Germans in Baltimore, and contributed more 
largely towards building up that city than any other 

In the words of one of Baltimore's representative 
German citizens, it may be said that " Germans were 
among the founders of this city, Germans sat at her 
cradle, German merchants helped to develop her com- 
merce, German industry contributed to establish her 
renown abroad, and the thrift and enterprise of our 
German mechanics have done much to secure for 
Baltimore the prosperity she enjoys. I can assert 
with pride to-day that German blood flows in the 
veins of every second resident of our city, that every 
third name in our city directory is of German origin, 
that every fourth Baltimorean is descended in one 



way or the other from Germans, that every fifth one 
understands German, and every sixth can read and 
speak that language." ' 

Among the Germans who removed to Baltimore 
from Frederick County were the Schleys, Steiners, 
Shrivers, Slingluffs, Warners, Pipers, Raborgs, Rine- 
harts. Lurmans, Miltenbergers, Yeisers, Littigs, May- 
ers, Ramsburgs, Hoifmans, Mantzes, Baltzells, Gists, 
Baers, Harbaughs, Strickers, and Amelungs. Peter 
Hoffman, founder of the well-known HoflFman family 
of Baltimore, came from Frankfort-on-the-Main and 
settled in Frederick, whence he removed to Baltimore 
in 1778 and established a flourishing dry-goods«trade. 
Peter Hofi"man was a commissioner of Baltimore Town 
along with Engelhardt Yeiser and George Linden- 
berger, and was one of the founders of Calvert Street 
Spring, at one time a fashionable resort. About the 
time of Hoffman's arrival there was an important ac- 
cession of young and enterprising immigrants, who 
came direct from different portions of Germany, and 
fi-om the towns of Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfort, etc. 
They were attracted by the fact that the Germans of 
Frederick imported largely of German goods by way 
of London. Baltimore was the port for the arrival 
and shipment of goods to and from the rich and floiir- 
ishing settlements of Western Maryland, Southern 
Pennsylvania, and the Cumberland Valley, and many 
of the immigrants accordingly located there, while 
others decided to push their fortunes in the interior 
towns of the province. 

This was in 1774, on the eve of the Revolution, 
and we find the well-known names of Frick, Dif- 
fenderfer, Raborg, Leypoldt, Schultze, Heide, and 
Schaeffer as among Germans who came to us from 
Europe just as the war broke out. The part which 
our German fellow-citizens took in that great strug- 
gle was manly, patriotic, distinguished. They fur- 
nished a great many soldiers, and the Baltimore, 
Frederick, and Lancaster Germans fought face to face 
with the Hessians on many a bloody field. The ma- 
jority of the battalions of sharpshooters which Daniel 
Morgan and Michael Cresap took to Cambridge as 
soon as Bunker Hill was fought was recruited from 
among the Germans in Frederick, Conococheague, and 
the Valley of Virginia. Maryland had nearly a full 
German regiment in service during the whole war, and 
Western Maryland always had one company and 
sometimes two in this regiment. These brave fellows 
were among the steadiest and sternest fighters under 
the banners of Smallwood and Gist. Among the 
officers of the Second Brigade we find the names of 

1 Sesqui-Centennial Oration of Col. Frederick Raine. 

Lieut.-Col. George Strieker, Maj. Ludwig Weltner, 
Captains George Hubley, William Keiser, Henry 
Fisher, Philip Graybill, Peter Boyer, Charles Baltzell, 
William Keeports, Bernard Hubley, Michael Boyer, 
and Martin Schugardt, and Lieuts. Christian Meyers, 
Adam Hoops, Jacob Reybold, Jacob Gomath, George 
Lora, Jacob Kotz, Samuel Gerock, Adam Smith, Wil- 
liam Ritter. 

But the Germans who did not draw the sword did 
the civil state quite as valuable and indispensable ser- 
vice. In Baltimore, John Deaver, Barnet Eichelber- 
ger, Isaac Griest, and George Lindenberger were on 
the first Committee of Safety and Correspondence ; 
Isaac Griest and Isaac Van Bibber were on the com- 
mittee to watch vessels in port, and both these gen- 
tlemen were particularly active in keeping up the 
patriot spirit and in making it " hot" for the Tories. 
Griest and Loudenslager were appointed to build the 
water-battery on Whetstone Point, now Fort Mc- 
Henry, and Peter Hoffman, Anthony Houck, and 
George Warner, new-come Germans, were full of 
zeal. Jacob Fite lent his new building, southwest 
corner of Sharpe and Baltimore Streets, thence called 

Congress Hall, to the Continental Congress in 1776, 
and some of his descendants still own the property. 
In the militia home guards of Baltimore we find 
George Lindenberger, Isaac Griest, and Henry Schae- 
fer among the commissioned officers. 

In 1782 Baltimore had a sort of municipal gov- 
ernment set up, the first she had ever enjoyed, and 
of the seven commissioners composing the board, 
three — Engelhart Yeiser, George Lindenberger, and 
Peter Hoffman — were Germans. In this year an- .' 
other German, Gabriel Vanhorn, established a stage- - 
line to Philadelphia. 

After the war everybody went to work with intense j 
energy, immigration flowed in in a full tide, and the ', 
State advanced on wheels. There was a most valua-' 
ble influx of young merchants from the towns in the,' 
Hanseatic Bund and the other commercial cities of i 
Germany and Holland. We had flour and tobacco.; 
to export in immense quantities, and JIaryland to- 
bacco was just what the Germans wanted. We had 



potash also, roasted bark, raw-hidos, hemp, flax, lumber, 
hard-wood, etc., to export. It was at this time that 
our intimacy with Bremen and Bremen merchants, 
so long and so honorably sustained, was first estab- 
lished. A great number of merchants came in from 
other parts of the country, among whom we find the 
names of Van Wyck, StouflFer, Slubey, Kimmell, 
Starck, Solomon, etc ; while among those who came 
from Bremen and Hamburg, etc., occur the honored 
names of Brune, Brantz, Schroeder, Von Raps', See- 
kamp, ZollicofiFer, Leib, and Konig. Among the jus- 
tices of the peace of the day are named the leading 
Germans who took part during the Revolution. 

It is a significant fact that nearly all the German 
immigrants who came into Maryland soon established 
themselves in permanent homes, and in almost every 
instance took rank at once as thrifty and enterprising 
citizens. The greater number were skilled in agricul- 
ture, but there was a large percentage of first-rate me- 
chanics, harness-makers and saddlers, weavers, tailors, 
tanners, shoemakers, paper-makers, butchers, watch- 
makers, bakers, smiths, iron-workers, etc. It is a 
generally recognized fact that the Protestant popula- 
tion of France and Germany supplied the best class 
of workmen in the various branches of manufacture. 
Thus we are told by the historian Lecky that " twenty 
thousand Frenchmen, attracted to Brandenburg by the 
liberal encouragement of the elector at the time of 
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, laid the foun- 
dation of the prosperity of Berlin and of most of the 
manufactures of Prussia." The same is true in a 
greater or less degree of all the Protestant refugees, 
and it would be difficult to overestimate the industrial 
value to our own country of the successive immigra- 
tions of whole communities from the different German 

At first the immigration of Germans into Pennsyl- 
vania was confined to the sectaries, the Quietists, and 
the other religious denominations who, on account 
of their extreme views, found it difficult to get along 
with their more conservative Protestant brethren. 
The Labadists, for instance, were followed by the 
Menoonites, who took up much land and formed 
many communities in York, Lancaster, and Adams 
Counties; by the Seventh-day Baptists, who estab- 
lished their monastery at Ephrata ; by the Voetists 
and the Cocceians, and by the hundred other sects of 
the day. But after these sectaries came the deluge. 
The Germans had found out that there was a land of 
peace on the other side of the Atlantic, and they 
knew by sad experience that their own country was 
a land of war. The peace of Westphalia had turned 
out to be only a hollow truce after all, as far as Prot- 

estant Germany was concerned. A man was not only 
deprived, practically, of the enjoyment of his own 
religion, he was robbed also incessantly of the fruits 
of his labor. No matter how forehanded, how indus- 
trious he might be, he could not certainly lay aside 
anything again.^t a rainy day. This was a state of 
things which he naturally rebelled against, and emi-. 
gration afforded him a relief. 

The religious fanaticism of Louis XIV., which so 
long desolated the Low Countries, and which deprived 
that monarch (when he revoked the Edict of Nantes) 
of half a million of his best and most thrifty sub- 
jects, broke in upon the Palatinate in the shape of 
the most desolating war of which we have any au- 
thentic record in history. What is told of Tamer- 
lane was practiced by the "enlightened" monarch and 
his able but savage lieutenants. Turenne, Saxe, Ven- 
dome, Villars, Villeroy, Taillard, Marsin, Berwick, 
Noailles, Luxembourg, each in his turn helped to 
desolate the Palatinate and to contribute immigrants 
to the colonies. The homeless and ravished peoples of 
Germany sought and found homes in the new land of 
peace and plenty. At one time the immigration of 
German Palatines into Pennsylvania and Maryland 
was in excess of all other immigration. 

In " A Memorial of the Case of the German Emi- 
grants settled in the British Colonies of Pennsj'lvania 
and the Back Parts of Maryland, Virginia, etc.," pub- 
lished iu London in 1754, it is stated that 

"by the most authentic accounts, for many years last past 
very large numbers of Germans have transported themselves 
into these British provinces of North America; the greatest part 
of them from Svvitzerland and the Palatinate, many from WUr- 
temberg, Swabia, Julien, and Berg, and other places along the 
Rhine, and some few lately from the lower Saxony; above 
thirty thousand of them within the last ten years, and in one 
single year, 1760, more than ten thousand. 

"The causes of their removal from their native countries 
were various. Some of them fled from the severe persecutions 
they were e.Kposed to at home on account of their being 
Protestants; others from the oppressions of civil tyranny and 
attracted by the pleasing hopes of liberty under the milder in- 
fluence of the British government; others were drawn by the 
solicitations of their countrymen, who had settled there before 
them; but for the greatest part by the prospect they had of 
relieving themselves under their deep poverty, and providing 
better for themselves and their families, in the provinces to 
which they respectively retired. In the single colony of Penn- 
sylvania the inhabitants, exclusive of the Indian natives, are 
reckoned to be about one hundred and ninety thousand ; amono-st 
these are above one hundred thousand Germans, or Hi^h Dutch 
of whom about thirty thousand are of the Pi-otestant Reformed 
religion, near as many of them Lutherans, above twelve thou- 
sand papists, and the rest of them Baptists, Hereuhutters, and 
of various other sects and denominations." 

As a rule, the Germans brought their own means 
with them, but sooner than not immigrate they were 



glad to indenture themselves as redemptloners. Many 
hundreds thus came into Maryland, many thousands 
into Pennsylvania. They came chiefly from the har- 
ried Palatinate, but also from Alsace, Suabia, Saxony, 
and Switzerland. There vpere Wittenbergers, and 
people from Darmstadt, Nassau, Hesse, Eisenberg, 
Franconia, Hamburg, Mannheim, — all classed as 
" Palatines." They brought the Heidelberg Cate- 
chism with them, even if they brought nothing else, 
and many of them were so plundered hi transitu that 
they were not able to bring anything else. 

The number of these immigrants was prodigious. 
In 1731 there were fifteen thousand members of the 
German Reformed Church in Pennsylvania from the 
Palatinate. Rupp and Kapp note, in order to show 
the rapid rate of the depopulation of these provinces 
on the Rhine, that in 1709, from the middle of April 
to the middle of July, there arrived in London eleven 
thousand two hundred and ninety-four German Prot- 
estants, males and females, who were vine-dressers and 
husbandmen, bakers, masons, carpenters, shoemakers, 
tailors, butchers, millers, tanners, weavers, locksmiths, 
barbers, coopers, saddlers, lime-burners, glass-blowers, 
hatters, brick-makers, smiths, potters, turners, etc. 
More than one-half of these came to this country. 
In 1790 there were one hundred and forty-five thou- 
sand Germans in Pennsylvania, the total population 
not exceeding four hundred and thirty-five thousand. 
These included the sectaries above referred to, the 
Palatines, the Dunkers, and the Hessian soldiers who 
preferred not to be exchanged after the Revolution. 
These German huel/s truppen, or subsidiary troops, 
were bought in Brunswick, Hanau, Anspach, Wal- 
deck, Anhalt, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Bran- 
denburg, etc., in large numbers. They cost George 
III. eight million one hundred thousand dollars, and 
eleven thousand of them died or perished in battle. 
A great many of these people settled in Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and the Valley of Virginia after the war. 
The other immigrants were German Calvinists, Mora- 
vians, Schwenkenfelders, Omishites, Dunkers, Men- 
nonites, and Separatists (or Seventh-day Baptists). 

Up to about 17G0 the Germans in Maryland were 
supplied from these plentiful sources. A good many 
Palatines came in by direct consignment to Chesa- 
peake Bay, but the great majority of the Germans 
drifted down from York and Lancaster. They came 
into Baltimore County in small parties, but they 
settled in Frederick County and the Valley of Vir- 
ginia by the wholesale. It was the custom in Ger- 
many for all young mechanics to make a " peregri- 
nation" of one or more years in order to perfect 
themselves in their trades, and this and other regula- 

tions of the trade-guilds produced a class of workmen 
of a very superior character. But this must be ap- 
parent at once when we reflect that the German im- 
migrants in many cases reached our shores with little 
or nothing, and often so destitute that, as previously 
stated, they were forced to bind themselves and their 
children to masters for a term of years in order to ob- 
tain the money to pay for the passage over. " Many 
who at home," says Rupp, the Pennsylvania historian, 
" had owned property and converted it into money, 
were robbed in transitu by ship owners, importers, 
sea-captains, and Neulaender. The emigrants' chests, 
with their clothes and sometimes their money, were 
put on other vessels or ships and left behind. These 
chests were rifled of their contents. The German 
immigrants thus treated, on their arrival at Philadel- 
phia, were obliged to submit to being sold as Loskaeu- 
flinge Redemptioners, they and their children, to pay 
the passage-money. In not a few cases persons who 
still had means were held responsible to pay the pas- 
sage for the poorer. This was the practice for more 
than fifty years. In this way persons of substance 
were necessitated, and did become very frequently 
common beggars." According to Dr. Benjamin Rush, 
in his " Manners of the Germans of Pennsylvania," 
" a few pieces of silver coin or gold, a chest with 
clothes, a Bible and Prayer or Hymn Book, consti- 
tuted the whole stock of most of them. ... A 
clergyman always accompanied them when they came 
in large bodies." Dr. Rush also gives a vivid de- 
scription of the customs and characteristics of the 
early Germans of Pennsylvania, which answers for 
the Germans of Western Maryland. " The Ger- 
mans, ' he says, " taken as a body, especially as far- 
mers, are not only industrious and frugal, but skillful 
cultivators of the earth." " The German's farm," 
says Rupp, " was easily distinguished from those of i 
others by good fences, the extent of orchard, the ,' 
fertility of soil, the productiveness of the fields, the J 
luxuriance of the meadows." They always provided I 
the best accommodations for their horses and cattle, 
and paid special attention to the cultivation of grass. ' 
They were great economists in the use of wood, and ' 
almost invariably lived frugally with respect to diet, ; 
furniture, and apparel. They seldom permitted them- : 
selves to get in debt, and saved considerable sums by j 
the cultivation of a variety of vegetables, which en- { 
abled them to be sparing consumers of meat. The ' 
work on the farm was done almost exclusively by the, 
family, the women often assisting the men. 

The German mechanic possessed the same char-: 
acteristics of frugality and industry, and his first! 
object was to save up suflicient money to purchase.a; 



home of his own. As merchants the early Germans 
of Pennsylvania and Maryland were also very success- 
ful. In fact, whatever they essayed to do was done 
thorouj;hly and well. It was one of their distin- 
guishing traits to settle as near one another as possi- 
ble, not only from a kindly fellow-feelinp;, but in order 
that they might enjoy the advantages of proximity to 
a common place of worship and to a school-house. 
" Their churches," says Dr. Rush, " are . . . large, 
and furnished in many places with organs. The 
clergy belonging to these churches have moderate 
salaries, but they are punctually and justly paid. . . 
The Lutherans and Presbyterians (German Reformed) 
live in great harmony with each other, insomuch that 
they preach in each other's churches, and in some 
instances unite in building a church, in which they 
both worship at different times." Dr. Rush sums up 
the general character of the German population in 
the following pregnant sentence: " If it were possible 
to determine the amount of all the property brought 
into Pennsylvania by the present German inhabitants 
of theState and their ancestors, and then compare it 
with the present amount of their property, the contrast 
would form such a monument of human industry and 
economy as has seldom been contemplated in any age 
or country." Among the German .sects the Mennon- 
ites, Moravians, German Brethren, German Seventh- 
day Baptists, and Schwenkfelders held war to be un- 
christian and unreasonable, and it is worthy of note 
that the German Friends of Germantown, as early as 
1688 (ten years before the passage of the act by the 
British Parliament for the encouragement of the 
slave-trade, by throwing it open to all British subjects 
and exempting cargoes of negroes from the African 
military tax), addressed the Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting, protesting against buying, selling, and hold- 
ing men in slavery, and declaring it in their opinion 
an act irreconcilable with the precepts of the Christian 

Of these denominations, the first to emigrate to 
America appears to have been the Mennonites. This 
sect had been persecuted in Switzerland, and forced to 
leave that country. Some bad fled to Alsace, above 
Strasburg, and others to Holland. A number of those 
about Strasburg, with other Germans, attracted by the 
toleration extended to all religions by William Penn, 
set out for Pennsylvania in 1683, and on reaching the 
colony on the Delaware located themselves at what is 
now the suburb of Germantown. The greater part 
were naturalized in 1709. A few years previous the 
people of Heidelberg and vicinity had just been 
delivered from the persecutions of the French army, 
which had twice destroyed the town, only to be made 

the victims of still more cruel oppression by the Cath- 
olic Elector Palatine, their prince. To the number of 
six thousand they fled to England, drawn thither by a 
proclamation of Queen Anne offering them protection 
and aid. Many more had determined to seek a refuge 
in America. Christopher de Graffenried and Louis 
Michelle were sent out by the canton of Berne, with 
instructions to inspect the unoccupied districts of 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Carolina. Michelle had 
previously visited America, and is believed to have 
built a fort not far from Connejahera, "many miles 
above Conestoga," in Penn.sylvania. In 1709 the 
refugees from Berne sailed for America. They landed 
in New York, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina. In 
the same year a company of Mennonites left Stras- 
burg and sailed for America. Those who emigrated 
to Pennsylvania came from the cantons of Zurich, 
Berne, and Schaffhausen, in Switzerland. In their 
new homes they not only enjoyed toleration, but prac- 
ticed it towards other denominations, resembling in 
this respect the early colonists of Marylaud and the 
followers of Roger Williams and of Penn. Before 
leaving Europe they had made an agreement with 
William Penn for lands to be taken up. Several 
families from the Palatinate emigrated to America and 
settled in Lancaster County in 1709. In the same 
year a Swiss company procured a grant of ten thou- 
sand acres on the north side of Pequa Creek, in Lancas- 
ter County, and settled there. Among the settlers at 
Pequa we find the familiar Maryland names of Fonts, 
or Foutz, Zimmerman, Funk, Hoover, Stouffer, Boyer, 
Hostater, Darby, Miller, Mayer, Witmer, Kaufl'man, 
Faber, Boehm, Kaufmann, Baughman, Steiner, and 
Beatty. So well pleased were the settlers with the 
country around them that they decided to send one of 
their number back to Europe to induce others of their 
denomination to share their fortunes. Martin Kendig 
was selected, and embarked at Philadelphia. Return- 
ing from Europe, he brought with him a number of 
immigrants, who joined the colony at Pequa. The 
settlers were surrounded by Indians, but were not 
molested, and " mingled with them in fishing and 
hunting." So successful was the little colony (num- 
bering some thirty families in all) that German and 
French refiagees were attracted to it. Among these 
were the Ferrees, Isaac Lefevre, and the Slaymakers, 
who had been driven by religious persecution from 
the Palatinate. The mother of Hon. Abraham 
Schriver, of Frederick County, was a Ferree. Her 
name was Rebecca, and she was the wife of David 
Schriver. The name is variously spelled, in the early 
colonial records, Ferree, Ferrie, Ferie, Fiere, Fierre, 
and Firre. In the wake of these two companies 



came numerous bands of German, Swiss, Dutch, and 
Huguenot immigrants, who scattered themselves over 
Southern Pennsylvania and crossed the border into 
Maryland. During 1727 twelve hundred and forty 
Palatines arrived in Pennsylvania. In the two years 
that followed, however, the number of German immi- 
grants was greatly diminished. 

Among those who came over about this time was 
Michael DiefFenderfer, father of David Dieffenderfer, 
and one of the earlier settlers of Lancaster. David 
Dieffenderfer served in the Revolutionary army under 
Col. George Strieker, father of Gen. Strieker, who 
was prominent in the defense of Baltimore in the 
war of 1812. In 1725 or 172G was commenced the 
Dunker or Tunker settlement of Kphrata, in Lancas- 
ter County. The Dunkers were seceders from the 
German Baptists, and one of their distinctive tenet.s 
was the practice of baptism by immersion. In 1725 
a number of them, under the leadership of Conrad 
Beissel, separated from the others owing to their con- 
viction that there was an error among the Dunkers in 
the observance of the Sabbath, and that the seventh 
day was the true Sabbath. In 1732 a monastic so- 
ciety was established by Beissel and his followers, and 
the habit of the Capuchins, or White Friars, was 
adopted by both brethren and sisters. In 17-tO there 
were thirty-six single brethren and thirty-five sisters 
in the cloister, and the community, including mem- 
bers living in the vicinity, numbered nearly three 
hundred. A school was established, which attracted 
general attention, and which numbered among its 
pupils young men from Philadelphia and Baltimore. 
The sect was known to the outside world as the Sev- 
enth-day Baptists. George Thomas, an Antigua 
planter, who was appointed Governor of Pennsylvania 
in 1737, visited Ephrata in 174:1. He was accom- 
panied by " a retinue of twenty horses and a large 
number of distinguished gentlemen from Maryland 
and Virginia ; they were all honorably received by 
the brethren." Among the descendants of members 
of the society are the Urners, the Negleys, the Funks, 
the Hoehns, the Weisers, and the Gorgases. 

Among the Germans and other foreigners who set- 
tled in Lancaster County prior to 1735 were the 
Hoffmans, Bezores, Byerlys, Owens, Emmets, Snevelys, 
Newcomers, Longneckers, Stakes, Zieglers, Snyders, 
Koenigs, Graafs, Herseys, Templemans, Fultons, 
Meixells, Baughmans, Haineses, Lightners, Mc- 
Kimms, Boyds, Alexanders, Lloyds, Buchanans, 
McUlures, and Hugheses. All these names have 
long been familiar in different portions of Maryland. 

About 1732 and subsequently the people living 
along the border in Pennsylvaula and Maryland be- 

came involved in a serious quarrel, arising out of the 
boundary difficulties. The first difficulty was occa- 
sioned by the arrest of Daniel and William Lowe, 
two Marylanders who had settled in Pennsylvania, by 
a Pennsylvania constable for killing a horse which 
had strayed to their farm. Capt. Thomas Cresap, the 
famous Indian-fighter and scout of Frederick, pur- 
sued the constable and attempted to rescue the pris- 
oners. His party wounded John Hart, one of the 
constable's assistants, but were forced to desist, and 
the Lowes were carried safely to Lancaster. This 
affair was followed by more " unhappy frays," which 
finally culminated in a formidable raid of the Lancas- 
ter people against Cresap and other Marylanders. 
According to Rupp, Cresap's party were beaten and I 
driven out of Pennsylvania. At this time Lancaster 
County embraced the present boundaries of York, 
Adams, Franklin, Cumberland, and Perry Counties, 
or, in other words, the whole of Pennsylvania border- 
ing on Western Maryland. The boundary between 
Maryland and Pennsylvania had not been accuraiely 
defined as yet, and the absence of such definition 
gave rise to serious disputes, which are treated more 
at length in this work in the chapter on " Bounda- 
ries." A large number of Germans had settled in 
what is now York County, Pa., under Pennsylvania 
titles, but in order to avoid paying taxes imposed by 
that province they accepted titles from Lord Balti- 
more, but subsequently becoming satisfied " that ad- 
hesion to him might ultimately prejudice their inter- 
ests, they formally renounced their allegiance and 
sought protection from Pennsylvania." The Maryland 
settlers across the border were greatly incensed at 
this and determined to eject the " miscreants" from 
their holdings. " The German settlers," says Rupp, 
" were harassed perpetually, in many instances driven 
from their farms, and in others deterred from any 
attempt to plant or improve." 

In 1738 a number of Swiss and Germans in Lan- 
caster County were naturalized upon their own applica- 
tion. Among them were Michael and William Albert, 
Jacob Bare, or Baer, Casper Stump, George Klein, or 
Kline, and Frederick Eighelberger, or Eichelberger, 

The immunity of the German settlers both in Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland from Indian attacks was sen- 
sibly increased by the treaty with the Six Nations, 
which was signed by representatives of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and Virginia at Lancaster in 1745. The 
Six Nations, or Iroquois, engaged to prevent the 
French and Indians from marching through their 
country to attack the English settlements, and to give 
the earliest information of the enemy's design. They 
also surrendered their titles to the lands settled by the 



English in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. 
Six hundred pounds were paid by the thi'ee colonies 
in consideration of the concessions made by the In- 
dians. This treaty did not, however, secure the set- 
tlers from the attacks of Indians who had been 
wronged or defrauded by traders and unprincipled 
men ; and while free from organized incursions up to 
the period of the French and Indian war, they were 
compelled to be continually on the alert, especially in 
the more exposed and isolated frontier settlements. 
They found ample time, however, to thoroughly cul- 
tivate the rich virgin soil on which they had settled, 
and to develop the manufacturing industries which 
are mentioned elsewhere as those most successfully 
undertaken by the German colonists in Maryland. 
The same distinguishing characteristics of the Ger- 
mans in Pennsylvania, as noted by Dr. Rush and Mr. 
Rupp, were conspicuous among the Maryland Pala- 
tines. Like their neighbors and brethren over the 
border, they preferred to build the most modest dwell- 
ings in order that they might erect commodious and 
comfortable quarters for their stock. Usually the 
settler in the Monocacy region was content to live in 
a log cabin, the spaces between the logs being closed 
up with mortar or clay, and the chimney built outside 
the structure and of the rudest materials. " The 
favorite style of building of the stout Germans and 
Palatines of Frederick County and Western Maryland 
contemplated a house that was seldom more than one 
story high, but had large garret-rooms and a deep 
cellar well filled. The chimney, an immense stack, 
was in the middle of the building to accommodate the 
kitchen, which was also the liviug-room, and had a 
great fireplace, furnished with pot-hooks and cranes 
of massive construction. . . . The bedrooms in these 
houses were not very elaborately furnished, . . . but 
the housekeeping was always neat and clean, and the 
larder liberally supplied." The German farmers were 
prudent, far-seeing men. They never spent more 
than they could afford, and while they lived in com- 
fort, were careful not to indulge in excess of any kind. 
The result was that their lands and cattle soon waxed 
fat, and they were enabled to transmit to their chil- 
dren the heritage not only of material prosperity, but 
of an unblemished reputation for honest dealing and 
patient industry and thrift. Their descendants at the 
present day are scattered all over Western Maryland, 
and the old methods, except where they have had to 
be discarded in obedience to the necessities of modern 
improvement, are still adhered to with the best re- 
sults. To the German housewife and maiden of 
these early times is due a large portion of the credit 
attaching to the immigrants as a class, for the women 

of the family did not hesitate to lend a hand in the 
field, and were always busy within-doors, either at the 
spinning-wheel or in the dairy, or at the kitchen fire. 
The productive capacity of the Germans was therefore 
immense, and as they were economical and cautious, 
though seldom niggardly where liberal expenditure 
was advisable or when their benevolent impulses were 
appealed to, it was inevitable that they should outstrip 
the rest of the province in prosperity. 

Of the religious denominations among the Germans, 
the Lutherans and German Reformed were the most 
numerous and influential, and, as in Pennsylvania, 
these two bodies fraternized cordially, and while main- 
taining their distinctive principles and tenets, wor- 
shiped in meeting-houses erected by the joint efforts 
of both congregations. Besides these there were the 
Moravians and the other sects already enumerated. 
As a rule, the members of all these denominations 
were strict in the observance of their religious duties, 
and to this fact doubtless is to be ascribed in great 
part the preservation of the virtues of morality, tem- 
perance, and industry which have always distinguished 
the population of Western Maryland, and which have 
contributed so much to its prosperity. 

" Frederick," says one of its distinguished citizens, " was laid 
out by an English gentleman, but its lots and the rich farms 
immediately surrounding it were soon taken up by a host of 
honest, thrifty, laborious German emigrants, who had fled from 
the oppressive restrictions of their own fatherland to seek a 
refuge here for themselves and their families, and whose names 
underwent many a distortion and mutilation at the hands of 
the English representatives of the Lord Proprietor, as they 
labored to write them down from sound upon the pages of our 
early records. The (5erman was spoken one hundred years ago 
more freely and frequently upon the streets of Frederick than 
the English, two of their congregations had their service en- 
tirely in that language, the children were instructed in both 
languages in the schools, the style of houses and barns intro- 
duced was that of German rather than of English origin, and, 
in various degrees of modification, had so held its place here 
that strangers who have had the opportunity of European 
travel invariably notice how much Frederick resembles a con- 
tinental town. But these emigrants brought with them more 
than their mother-tongue and familiar forms of worship and 
architecture. They brought also German thrift, industry, and 

j honesty, with ardent love of home — wherever it might be, 
whether native or adopted, — they brought laborious habits, 
virtuous lives, truthful tongues, unflinching courage, and an 
intense longing to do their duty to their families, the commu- 

I nity, and the State. And of such ancestry a large number of 
this assembly may proudly boast, — a nobility of origin worth 
more than that which is based upon deeds of violence and 
unrestrained lawlessness. Says a German traveler who vis- 
ited this place, May 6, 1747, of one of its congregations, 'It 
appears to me to be one of the purest in the whole country, and 
one in which I have found the most traces of the true fear of 

1 Address by Dr. Lewis H. Steiner at the Frederick Centen- 
nial Celebration, June 28, 1876. 


In the immense and constant stream of emigration 
which the Old World is pouring into America, no 
element forms a larger or more important part than \ 
that which is contributed by the German race. In 
all the splendid empire of territory which stretches 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Canadian 
border to the remotest southern limits, there is not a 
city, a town, or hamlet of the United States which 
lias not been vitalized by the energizing and quicken- 
ing influences of German enterprise and industry. 
The brief and imperfect recital that has been given of 
the part which the German population of Western 
Maryland have borne in the development of this rich 
and important section of the State, is but a poor tri- 
bute to the all-pervading influence which they have 
exercised in every period of its history and at every 
stage of its progress. In the limited space of a notice 
like the present it is impossible to do justice to a 
theme so rich in facts as well as suggestions, and the 
writer must dismiss this portion of the subject with 
the hope that the time may not be far distant when 
some more eiScient chronicler will record at the length 
and with the careful detail they deserve the history 
and achievements of the German population of West- 
ern Maryland. But until that task has been accom- 
plished they can at least draw some measure of satis- ' 
faction from the reflection that their history has already 
been written in enduring characters in the progress 
and prosperity of the section in which they live. 

While the large majority of the early settlers in 
Western Maryland were of German origin, other , 
nationalities were not unrepresented. Settlers of i 
English birth or descent had made their way towards 
the western boundary of the province in small num- 
bers at a comparatively early period, and, like Cresap 
and other pioneers of the same nationality, soon made 
themselves prominent in the new section by their bold 
and adventurous dispositions, and the courage and de- 
termination with which they addressed themselves to 
the difficult and dangerous duties of border life. From 
Pennsylvania also flowed in a considerable stream of 
Scotch-Irish emigrants, many of whom passed into 
the Valley of Virginia, settling along Back Creek, the 
North Mountain, and Opequon, while many others 
remained to try their fortunes in Western Maryland. 

The ancestors of the Glasses, Aliens, Vances, Ker- 
foots, etc., were among the earliest settlers on the 
upper waters of the Opequon. The ancestors of the 
Whites, Russells, etc., settled near the North Moun- 
tain. There was a mixture of Irish and Germans on 
Cedar Creek and its vicinity, the Frys, Newells, Black- 
burns, and Wilsons being among the number. The 
proximity of these early Scotch-Irish settlements in ' 

the Valley of Virginia to settlers of the same nation- 
ality and religious creed in Western Maryland natur- 
ally caused more or less communication between them, 
and by frequent intermarriages families which origi- 
nally settled on one side of the border have since been 
transferred to the other, and have now their represen- 
tatives both in Maryland and Virginia. 

By the treaty of Paris, in 1763, a large territory 
was ceded to England, within which it became neces- 
sary to organize colonial governments. For this and 
other purposes the king, on the 7th of October, 1763, 
issued a proclamation, by which the colonial govern- 
ments generally were prohibited from granting any 
lands lying west of the sources or heads of any of the 
rivers flowing into the Atlantic from the west and 
northwest. On the 16th of April, 1764, instruc- 
tions were issued to the judges of the land-office, 
setting forth that the proprietary was desirous of 
having reserved for him ten thousand acres of land 
in the western part of Frederick County, to be held 
as a manor ; and that he had therefore directed the 
surveyor of that county not to execute any warrant 
on any lands lying beyond Fort Cumberland until 
this reserve had been selected. In the mean time 
Governor Sharpe thought proper to survey five 
diflFerent tracts of land, aggregating one hundred 
and twenty-seven thousand six hundred and eighty 
acres, from which his lordship might make his selec- 
tion. This general interdict of the crown, and the 
reserve to the proprietary, each had a tendency to 
check the progress of settlements in the direction of 
the debatable territory. In March, 1774, the sub- 
ject of the reserve on the lands lying westward of 
Fort Cumberland being brought before the proprie- 
tary's board of revenues, it determined that the object 
of the reserve had been accomplished in the surveys 
actually made for the proprietary, and therefore took 
off the reserve. Large grants of land on the reserve 
were immediately made, and continued to be made 
until October, 1774, when instructions were received 
from the proprietary directing the judges of the land- 
office to suspend all further grants of the reserved 
lands. Two years later the proprietary's rights and 
reservations were swept away by the Revolution, and 
Washington and Montgomery Counties were created. 
When the barriers erected by the crown and the pro- 
prietary had been removed, new settlements at once 
began to be made in the territory thus thrown open. 
Among those who flocked into what had been the for- 
bidden land were a number of the representatives of 
some of the oldest families of Maryland. Among them 
were Samuel Ringgold, who patented a tract of twenty 
thousand acres in Washington County ; William Fitz- 



hugh, who also purchased a large estate ; Nathaniel 
Rochester, after whom Rochester, N. Y., was called; 
Charles Carroll, of Duddington ; Otho H. Williams, 
who owned all the land in the neighborhood of the 
present town of Williamsport ; Frisby Tilghman, of 
the noted Eastern Shore family of that name ; and 
many others whose descendants are now among the 
most prominent citizens of Western Maryland. 

Manners and Customs of the Early Settlers. — 
Most of the early settlers were an industrious, fru- 
gal, and temperate people, and especially well qualified 
for the dangerous and difiBcult task of subduing the 
splendid but wild territory upon which they had en- 
tered, and of driving out before them the savage tribes 
which they encountered. 

As has been truly said, the task of making new 
establishments in a remote wilderness in time of pro- 
found peace is sufficiently difficult, but when the farmer 
must be at the same time both a warrior and a hunter, 
must earn his bread not only with sweat but with 
blood, and must constantly defend by force what his 
energy and enterprise have won, his position is one 
which demands the highest degree of human courage 
and fortitude. Such was the condition of the first 
settlers of Western Maryland; making their way into 
the very heart of a hostile country and in the face of 
a savage foe, far from friendly succor and exposed to 
constant danger of Indian attacks, they reared their 
humble structures in the wild wastes with the pride 
and confidence of monarchs, and with the rifle in one 
hand and plowshare in the other, — the weapons of 
war side by side with the implements of peace, — went 
forth into forest and field to make good the sovereignty 
which they claimed. 

Their buildings were generally of the rudest char- 
acter, but were substantially constructed, and were 
not without a sort of solid comfort. When after a 
painful and dangerous journey of weeks, and perhaps 
months, the emigrant had reached his destination, he 
selected a spot for his new residence, and calling to- 
gether his neighbors, if he had any, proceeded at once 
with its erection. If he were the first settler in the 
neighborhood, he had to rely upon his own skill and 
resources, and upon the aid of the male members of 
his family. But the early emigrants generally traveled 
in parties, so as to render each other mutual assistance 
in the tasks and difficulties of their new life, and if 
there was no one to help them in their forest homes, 
they were men who could help themselves. The first 
step in the erection of their dwelling was the felling 
of trees of proper size and character for the purpose, 
and while this was being done, and the logs were being 
hauled or carried to the place selected, the carpenter 

of the party would be in search of a straight-grained 
tree for making clapboards for the roof The boards 
were split four feet long with a large frow, and as 
wide as the timber would allow, and were used without 
planing. While this work was in progress others 
were employed in getting puncheons for the floor of 
the cabin ; this was done by splitting trees eighteen 
inches in diameter, and hewing the faces of them with 
a broad-axe. They were half the length of the floor 
they were intended to make. These were the usual 
preparations for the first day. The second day the 
neighbors collected, raised and finished the house. 
The third day's work generally consisted of "furni- 
turing" the house, — supplying it with a clapboard 
table, made of a split slab, and supported by four raised 
legs set in auger-holes. Some three-legged stools 
were made in the same manner. Some pins stuck in 
the logs at the back of the house supported some clap- 
boards, which served for shelves for the family furniture, 
consisting of a few pewter dishes, plates, and spoons, 
but mostly of wooden bowls, trenchers, and noggins. 
If these last were scarce, gourds and hard-shelled 
squashes made up the deficiency. The iron pots, 
knives, and forks were brought from the east side of 
the mountains, along with salt and iron on pack- 

A single fork, placed with its lower end in a hole 
in the floor, and the upper end fastened to a joist, 
served for a bedstead, by placing a pole in the fork, 
with one end through a crack between the logs of the 
wall. This front pole was crossed by a shorter one 
within the fork, with its outer end through another 
crack. From the first pole, through a crack between 
the logs of the end of the house, the boards were put 
on which formed the bottom of the bed. Sometimes 
other poles were pinned to the fork a little distance 
above these, for the purpose of supporting the front 
and foot of the bed, while the walls were the support 
of its back and its head. A few pegs around the 
walls for the display of the coats of the women and 
hunting-shirts of the men, and two small forks, or 
buck's horns, to a joist, for the rifle and shot-pouch, 
completed the carpenter-work. The cabin being fin- 
ished, the nest ceremony was " the house-warming," 
which consisted of a dance of a whole night's dura- 
tion, prior to the occupation of the new abode. Hog 
and hominy, johnny-cake and pone, milk and mush, 
with such wild meats as the forests ofi^ered and the 
trusty rifle supplied, was the diet upon which the 
early settlers mainly lived, and which made strong 
men and buxom women. 

^ Doddridge, chap. v. p. 134. 



Their dress partook both of the Indian and the 
European styles, and, like their lives, was a combina- 
tion of the savage and the civilized. The hunting- 
shirt was in universal use, and was a sort of loose 
frock, coming half-way down the thighs, with large 
sleeves, open before, and so wide as to lap over a foot 
or more when belted. The cape, which was large, 
and sometimes handsomely fringed with a raveled piece 
of cloth, added to the comfort of the wearer as well 
as to the appearance of the garment. The bosom of 
this convenient dress furnished a receptacle where the 
hunter might deposit a small stock of provisions, his 
tow for cleaning the barrel of his rifle, and any other 
article necessary in a short march or journey. To the 
belt, which held the shirt closely to the body of the 
wearer, were suspended the tomahawk and scalping- 
knife, the former on the right side and the latter on 
the left, while the bullet-bag sometimes hung from 
the front. The hunting-shin was made of various 
materials, generally of linsey, sometimes of coarse 
linen, and occasionally of dressed deerskin, which 
latter, however, were cold and uncomfortable in wet 
weather. The shirt and jacket were made after the 
common fashion, while the drawers or breeches and 
leggings, with the moccasins, of dressed deerskin, 
with cap or hat of various form and material, com- 
pleted the attire. 

The moccasins were generally made of a single 
piece, with a gathered seam along the top of the foot, 
and another from the bottom of the heel without 
gathers, reaching as high as the ankle-joint, or a little 
higher. The moccasin was lined with deer's hair, or 
dry leaves in cold weather, and flaps on each side 
reaching some distance up the legs, and tied with 
deer-thongs, gave warmth to the extremities, and pro- 
tected the feet from the entrance of dust, gravel, and 

In the latter part of the French and Indian war 
many of the young whites adopted the Indian costume 
in its entirety, with the exception of the match-coat. 
" The drawers," Dr. Doddridge tells us, " were laid 
aside, and the leggings made larger, so as to reach the 
upper part of the thigh. The Indian breech-clout was 
adopted. This was a piece of linen or cloth, nearly 
a yard long and eight or nine inches broad. This 
passed under the belt before and behind, leaving the 
ends for flaps hanging before and behind over the belt. 
These flaps were sometimes ornamented with some 
coarse kinds of embroidery work. To the same belt 
which secured the breech-clout, strings, which sup- 
ported the long leggings, were attached. When this 
belt, as was often the case, passed over the hunting- 
shirt, the upper part of the thighs and part of the hip 

were naked. The young man, instead of being abashed 
by his nudity, was proud of his Indian-like dress. In 
some instances I have seen them go into places of 
public worship in this dress. Their appearance, 
however, did not add much to the devotion of the 
young ladies." 

The women wore linsey petticoats and bed-gowns, 
going barefooted in warm weather, and in cold cov- 
ering the r feet with moccasins, overshoes, or shoe- 

The wardrobes of the family were hung in full 
view upon the walls of the cabin, and while often 
serving to stop a crack and keep the wind away, also 
proclaimed the wealth or poverty of the occupants. 

" Many of the early sports were imitations of the 
exercises and stratagems of hunting and war. Boys 
were taught the use of the bow and arrow at an early 
age ; but, although they acquired considerable adroit- 
ness in the use of them, so as to kill a bird or squirrel 
sometimes, yet it appears to me that, in the hands of 
the white people, the bow and arrow could never be 
depended upon for warfare or hunting, unless made 
and managed in a diiferent manner from any speci- 
mens of them which I ever saw. One important 
pastime of our boys was that of imitating the noise 
of every bird and beast in the woods. This faculty 
was not merely a pastime, but a very necessary part 
oi education, on account of its utility in certain cir- 
cumstances. The imitations of the gobbling and 
other sounds of wild turkeys often brought those 
keen-eyed and ever-watchful tenants of the forest 
within reach of the rifle. The bleating of the fawn 
brought its dam to her death in the same way. The 
hunter often collected a company of mopish owls on 
the trees about his camp, and amused himself with 
their hoarse screaming. His howl would raise and 
obtain responses from a pack of wolves, so as to in- 
form him of their neighborhood, as well as guard him 
against their depredations. This imitative faculty was 
sometimes requisite as a measure of precaution in war. 
The Indians, when scattered about in a neighborhood, 
often collected together by imitating turkeys by day 
and wolves or owls by night. In similar situations 
our people did the same. I have often witnessed the 
consternation of a whole neighborhood in consequence 
of a few screeches of owls. An early and correct use 
of this imitative faculty was considered as an indica- : 
tion that its possessor would become in due time a 
good hunter and a valiant warrior. 

" Throwing the tomahawk was another boyish sport 
in which many acquired considerable skill. The tom- 
ahawk, with its handle of a certain length, will make 
a given number of turns in a given distance. Say in 



five steps it will strike with the edge, the handle down- 
wards ; at the distance of seven and a half, it will strike 
with the edge, the handle upwards, and so on. A 
little experience enabled the boy to measure the dis- 
tance with his eye when walking through the woods, 
and strike a tree with his tomahawk in any way he 
chose. The athletic sports of running, jumping, and 
wrestling were the pastimes of boys in common with 
the men. A well-grown boy at the age of twelve or 
thirteen years was furnished with a small rifle and 
shot-pouch. He then became a fort soldier, and had 
his port-hole assigned him. Hunting squirrels, tur- 
keys, and raccoons soon made him expert in the use 
of his gun. Dancing was the principal amusement of 
our young people of both sexes. Their dances, to be 
Bure, were of the simplest forms, — three or four-handed 
reels and jigs. Country-dances, cotillons, and minuets 
were unknown. I remember to liave seen once or 
twice a dance which was called ' The Irish Trot,' 
but I have long since forgotten its figure. Shooting at 
a mark was a common diversion among the men when 
their stock of ammunition would allow it. This, 
however, was fiir from being always the case. The 
present mode of shooting oiF-hand was not then in 
practice. This mode was not considered as any trial 
of the value of a gun, nor indeed as much of a test of 
the skill of a marksman. Their shooting was from a 
rest, and at as great a distance as the length and 
weight of the barrel of the gun would throw a ball on 
a horizontal level. Such was their regard to accuracy 
in those sportive trials of their rifles, and of their own 
skill in the use of them, that they often put moss or 
some other soft sub.stance on the log or stump from 
which they shot, for fear of having the bullet thrown 
from the mark by the spring of the barrel. When 
the rifle was held to the side of a tree for a rest, it was 
pressed against it as tightly as possible for the same 
reason. Rifles of former times were different from 
' those of modern date ; few of them carried more than 
I forty-five bullets to the pound. Bullets of a less size 
I were not thought sufilciently heavy for hunting or 
1 war. 

i " Dramatic narrations, chiefly concerning Jack and 
the Giant, furnished our young people with another 
source of amusement during their leisure hours. 
Many of these tales were lengthy, and embraced a 
considerable range of incident. Jack, always the 
hero of the story, often encountering many difficul- 
ties and performing many great achievements, came 
off conqueror of the Giant. Many of these stories 
were tales of knight-errantry, in which some captive 
virgin was restored to her lover. These dramatic 
narrations concerning Jack and the Giant bore a strong 

resemblance to the poems of Ossian, the story of the 
Cyclops and in the ' Odyssey' of Homer, 
and the tale of the Giant and Greatheart in ' Pil- 
grim's Progress.' They were so arranged as to the 
different incidents of the narration that they were 
easily committed to memory." 

Singing was another but not very common amuse- 
ment among our first settlers. Their tunes were rude 
enough, to be sure. Robin Hood furnished a number 
of our songs, the balance were mostly tragical. These 
last were denominated " love-songs about murder ;" as 
to cards, dice, backgammon, and other games of chance, 
we knew nothing about them. As a general rule, the 
early settlers married young. There was no distinc- 
tion of rank, says Dr. Doddridge, and very little of 
fortune. On these accounts the first impression of 
love resulted in marriage, and a family establishment 
cost but a little labor and nothing else. In the first 
years of the settlement of the country a wedding en- 
gaged the attention of a whole neighborhood, and 
the frolic was anticipated by old and young with eager 
expectation. This is not to be wondered at when it 
is told that a wedding was almost the only gathering 
which was not accompanied with the labor of reaping, 
log-rolling, building a cabin, or planning some scout 
or campaign. On the morning of the wedding-day 
the groom and his attendants assembled at the house 
of his father for the purpose of reaching the home of 
his bride by noon, which was the usual time for cele- 
brating the nuptials, and which for certain reasons 
must take place before dinner. Let the reader imagine 
an assemblage of people without a store, tailor, or 
mantua-maker within a hundred miles, and an assem- 
blage of horses without a blacksmith or saddler within 
an equal distance. The gentlemen dressed in shoe- 
packs (tanned leather), moccasins, leather breeches, 
leggings, linsey hunting-shirts, and all home-made. 
The ladies dressed in linsey petticoats, and linsey of 
linen bed-gowns, shoes, stockings, handkerchiefs, 
and buckskin gloves, if any. If there were any buckles, 
rings, buttons, or ruflles, they were the relics of olden 
times, family pieces from parents or grandparents. 
The horses were caparisoned with old saddles, old 
bridles or halters, and pack-saddles, with a bag or / 
blanket thrown over them ; a rope or string as often 
constituted the girth as a piece of leather. 

The march, in double file, was often interrupted by 
the narrowness and obstructions of our horse-paths, 
as they were called, for we had no roads, and these 
difficulties were often increased, sometimes by the good 
and sometimes by the ill will of neighbors, by fallen 
ti'ees, and tying grapevines across the way. Some- 
times an ambuscade was formed by the wayside, and 



an unexpected discharge of several guns took place, 
so as to cover the wedding-party with smoke. Let 
the reader imagine the scene which ollowed this dis- 
charge : the sudden spring of the horses, the shrieks 
of the girls, and" the chivalrous bustle of their part- 
pers to save them from falling. Sometimes, in spite 
of all that could be done to prevent it, some were 
thrown to the ground. If a wrist, elbow, or ankle 
happened to be sprained, it was tied with a handker- 
chief, and little more was said or thought about it. 
The ceremony of the marriage preceded the dinner, 
which was a substantial backwoods feast of beef, pork, 
fowls, and sometimes venison and bear-meat, roasted 
and boiled, with plenty of potatoes, cabbage, and 
other vegetables. During the dinner the greatest 
hilarity always prevailed, although the table might be 
a large slab of timber hewed out with a broad-axe, 
supported by four sticks set in auger-holes, and the 
furniture some old pewter dishes and plates, the rest 
wooden bowls and trenchers; a few pewter spoons, 
much battered about the edges, were to be seen at 
some tables. The rest were made of horns. If knives 
were scarce, the deficiency was made up by the scalp- 
ing-knives, which were carried in sheaths suspended 
to the belt of the hunting-shirt. Every man carried 
one of them. After dinner the dancing commenced, 
and generally lasted till the next morning. The 
figures of the dances were three and four-handed 
reels, or square sets and jigs. The commencement 
was always a square four, which was followed by 
what was called "jigging it off;" that is, two of the 
four would single out for a jig, and were followed by 
the remaining couple. The jigs were often accom- 
panied with what was called "cutting out;'' that is, 
when either of the parties became tired of the dance, 
on intimation the place was supplied by some other 
person without interruption to the dance. In this 
way a dance was often continued until a musician was 
heartily tired of his situation. Towards the latter part 
of the night, if any of the company, through weari- 
ness, attempted to conceal themselves for the purpose 
of sleeping, they were hunted up, paraded on the floor, 
and the fiddler ordered to play " Hang Out Till To- 
Morrow Morning." About nine or ten o'clock a depu- 
tation of the young ladies stole off the bride and put 
her to bed. In doing this it frequently happened that 
they had to ascend a ladder instead of a pair of stairs, 
leading from the dining and ball-room to the loft, 
the floor of which was made of clapboards lying loose. 
This ascent, one might think, would put the bride 
and her attendants to the blush ; but as the foot of 
the ladder was commonly behind the door, which was 
purposely opened for the occasion, and its rounds at 

the inner ends were well hung with hunting-shirts, 
dresses, and other articles of clothing, the candles 
being on the opposite side of the house, the exit of 
the bride was noticed by but few. This done, a dep- 
utation of young men in like manner stole off' the 
groom, and placed him snugly by the side of his bride. 
The dance still continued ; and if seats happened to 
be scarce, which was often the case, every young man, 
when not engaged in the dance, was obliged to offer 
his lap as a seat for one of the girls, and the offer 
was sure to be accepted. In the midst of this hilarity 
the bride and groom were not forgotten. Pretty late 
in the night some one would remind the company that 
the new couple must stand in need of some refresh- 
ment ; black Betty, which was the name of the 
bottle, was called for, and sent up the ladder ; but 
sometimes black Betty did not go alone, but was ac- 
companied by as much bread, beef, pork, and cabbage 
as would afford a good meal for half a dozen hungry 
men. The young couple were compelled to eat and 
drink more or less of whatever was offered. It often 
happened that some neighbors or relations not being 
asked to the wedding took offense, and the mode of 
revenge adopted by them on such occasions was that 
of cutting off the manes, foretops, and tails of the 
horses of the wedding company. 

On returning to the infare, the order of procession 
and the race for black Betty was the same as before. 
The feasting and dancing often lasted several days, at \ 
the end of which the whole company was so ex- 
hausted with loss of sleep that a long rest was neces- 
sary to fit them to return to their ordinary labors.^ 

The custom of stealing the bride's shoe while at 
dinner, though perhaps of later date, was one which 
long prevailed, and which afforded great amusement 
to the wedding guests. She was protected fi'om the 
attacks by the waiters (or, as we call them nowadays, \ 
groomsmen and bridesmaids), and to succeed in accom- 
plishing the theft the greatest dexterity was required ; j 
and if they failed to defend her successfully, they 
were in honor bound to pay a penalty for the rederap- , 
tion of the shoe. This penalty was a bottle of wine i 
or one dollar, which was commonly the price of a : 
bottle of wine ; and as a punishment to the bride, she ' 
was not permitted to dance until the shoe was re- ■ 
stored. The successful thief on getting the shoe held 1 
it up in triumph to the view of the whole assemblage, \ 
which was generally pretty numerous. This was al- ; 
most exclusively a German custom, but that of throw- I 
ing the stocking was also known to the Irish, and is 
celebrated by an Irish poet in his " Irish Wedding." ; 


' Dr. Doddridge. 



After the bride and groom had been put to bed, the 
young people were admitted to their room, and a stock- 
ing rolled into a ball would be given to the young 
women, who one after the other would go to the foot 
of the bed, stand with their backs towards it, and 
throw the stocking over their shoulders at the bride's 
head ; and the first that succeeded in touching her 
cap on her head was the next to be married. The 
young men then took up the stocking and threw it at 
the groom's head, the greatest earnestness and eager- 
ness being shown by both sexes to prove successful.' 

The race for the bottle, already alluded to, was one 
of the most interesting and exciting incidents of the 
•wedding. A bottle of the best spirits that could be 
obtained was prepared at the bride's residence and 
ornamented with a white ribbon, and when several 
miles distant the competitors in the race would start, 
on even terms, and with their horses at full speed, 
disdaining rocks, stumps, and ravines, and disregard- 
ing all impediments, would dash madly forward for 
the tempting prize. The father, or next friend of the 
bride, expecting the racers, stood, bottle in hand, ready 
to deliver it to the successful contestant. On receiv- 
ing it, he immediately returned to meet the bridal 
party, and presented the bottle first to the bride, next 
to the groom, and then to the rest of the company, 
all of whom, both men and women, were required to 
give it a hearty salute. 

In the earlier days of the settlements, and upon 
the frontiers, and in positions especially exposed to 
attack, self-preservation required the erection of places 
of defense, to which the harried inhabitants might 
retire upon the approach of hostile Indians. The 
forts of these early days were, however, not simply 
fortified points of refuge, but often the residence of a 
small number of families of the same neighborhood. 
As the Indian mode of warfare was an indiscriminate 
slaughter of all ages and of both sexes, it was as re- 
quisite to provide for the safety of the women and 
children as for that of the men.^ The fort consisted of 
cabins, block-houses, and stockades, a range of cabins 
commonly forming at least one of its sides, divisions 
or partitions of logs separating the cabins from each 
other. The walls on the outside were ten or twelve 
feet high, the slope of the roof being wholly inward. 
The block-houses were built at the angles of the stock- 
ade inclosure, and projected about two feet beyond the 
outer walls of the cabins and stockades. Their upper 
stories were about eighteen inches larger in every way 
than the lower, leaving an opening at the beginning of 
the second story, so that the inmates could shoot from 

' Kercheval's •' History of the Valley of Virginia." 
» Dr. Doddridge. 

above upon an enemy attempting to climb the walls. 
But one door opened into these rude structures, and 
that was always very strong, so as to defy entrance by 
any ordinary means of assault. In some cases the 
angles of the stockades were furnished with bastions 
instead of with block-houses. A large folding-gate, 
made of thick slabs, nearest the spring, closed the 
fort. The stockades, bastions, cabins, and block-house 
walls were provided with port-holes at proper heights 
and distances, and the whole of the outside was made 
completely bullet-proof The whole of this work was 
accomplished without the aid of a single nail or spike 
of iron, and for the very good and sufficient reason 
that there were none to be had.' 

In some places less exposed a single block-house, 
with a cabin or two, constituted the whole fort. Such 
defenses, though wholly insufficient for protection 
against artillery, answered all the purposes of the 
times, and were seldom attacked and scarcely ever 
taken by the Indians. 

Although, according to a distinguished writer, 
" there was, for many years after the settlement of the 
country, neither law nor gospel" among the frontier 
communities, there was an unwritten code, both of 
morals and property, to which general obedience was 
cheerfully accorded. The want of legal government 
in the extreme western frontier was due to the dis- 
pute as to sovereignty between Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania, and for a long period the people of that section 
knew nothing of courts, lawyers, magistrates, sheriffs, 
or constables. Public opinion was the sole and the 
supreme tribunal, but it was one which was univer- 
sally respected, and whose decrees were always en- 
forced. " The punishment," says Dr. Doddridge, 
" for idleness, lying, dishonesty, and ill-fame gener- 
ally was that of ' hating the offender out,' as they ex- 
pressed it. This mode of chastisement was like the 
atiniia of the Greeks. It was a public expression in 
various ways of a general sentiment of indignation 
against such as transgressed the moral maxims of the 
community to which they belonged. This commonly 
resulted either in the reformation or banishment of 
the person against whom it was directed. At house- 
raisings, log-rollings, and harvest-parties, every one was 
expected to do his duty faitlilully. A person who did 
not perform his share of labor on these occasions was 
designated by the epithet of ' Lawrence,' or some 
other title still more opprobrious ; and when it came to 
his turn to require the like aid from his neighbors, 
the idler soon felt his punishment in their refusal 
to attend to his call. Although there was no legal 

' Dr. Doddridge. 



compulsion to the performance of military duty, yet 
every man of full age and size was required to do his 
full share of public service. If he did not do so he 
was ' hated out as a coward.' Even the want of 
any article of war-equipments, such as ammunition, a 
sharp flint, a priming-wire, a scalpiug-knife or toma- 
hawk, was thought highly disgraceful. 

" Debts, which make such an uproar in civilized life, 
were but little known among our forefathers at the 
early settlement of the country. After the deprecia- 
tion of the Continental paper they had no money of 
any kind ; everything purchased was paid for in prod- 
uce or labor. A good cow and calf was often the 
price of a bushel of alum salt. If a contract was not 
punctually fulfilled, the delinquent's credit was at an 
end. Any petty theft was punished with all the in- 
famy that could be heaped on the offender. The first 
settlers had a kind of innate or hereditary detestation 
of the crime of theft, in any shape or degree, and their 
maxim was, ' a thief must be whipped.' If the theft 
was of something of some value, a kind of jury of the 
neighborhood, after hearing the testimony, would con- 
demn the culprit to Moses' law, that is, to forty stripes 
save one. If the theft was of some small article, the 
offender was doomed to carry on his back the flag of 
the United States, which then consisted of thirteen 
stripes. In either case some able hands were selected 
to execute the sentence, so that the stripes were sure 
to be well laid on. This punishment was followed by 
a sentence of exile, the offender being told that he 
must decamp in so many days on penalty of having the 
number of his stripes doubled. 

" If a woman was given to tattling and slandering her 
neighbors, she was punished by common consent with 
a kind of patent right to say whatever she pleased 
without being believed. Her tongue was then said to 
be harmless, or to be no scandal. 

" With all their rudeness, these people were given to 
hospitality, and freely divided their rough fare with a 
neighbor or stranger, and would have been offended 
at the offer of pay. In their settlements and forts 
they lived, they worked, they fought and feasted or 
suffered together in cordial harmony. 

" They were warm and constant in tlieir friendships. 
On the other hand, they were revengeful in their re- 
sentments. And the point of honor sometimes led 
to personal combats. If one man caljpd another a 
liar, he was considered as having given a challenge, 
which the person who received it must accept or be 
deemed a coward, and the charge was generally an- 
swered on the spot with a blow. If the injured per- 
son was decidedly unable to fight the aggressor, he 
misrht get a friend to do it for him. The same thins; 

took place on a charge of cowardice or any other dis- 
honorable action. A battle must follow, and the per- 
son who made the charge must fight either the person 
against whom he had made the charge or any cham- 
pion who chose to espouse his cause. The mode of 
single combat in those days was dangerous in the ex- 
treme. Although no weapons were used, fists, teeth, 
and feet were employed at will ; but, above all, the 
detestable practice of gouging, by which eyes were 
sometimes put out, rendered this mode of fighting 
frightful indeed. Instances of seduction and bastardy 
did not frequently happen in our early times." 



The Ohio Company — The Cresaps — Frontier Forts — Braddock's 
Defeat — Indian Outrages — Capture of Fort Du Quesne — 
Pontiae's War. 

Difficulties between England and France had 
arisen at intervals since the peace of Utrecht (1713), 
though not assuming the character of war. In the 
North and East, France was sparing no effort to ex- 
tend her power and crush that of England. This 
vexatious contest was continued witli feeble efforts and 
various success almost down to 175G. It came at last 
to be distinctly understood, or fully believed, that a 
preponderating ascendency in America must decide 
the long and arduous contest between those rival 
powers. It was a singular phenomenon, that a great 
question of national aggrandizement between the 
courts of London and Paris should be decided in the 
interior of America. Such, however, was the fact; 
and the banks of the St. Lawrence, and the shores of 
the American lakes, and the borders of Maryland and 
Virginia were destined to be the theatre on which 
the great prize was to be contended for. The vigor of 
the contest was proportionate to the magnitude of the 
stake. The efforts of England wore cheerlully and 
promptly seconded by those of her colonies through 
four successive years, until at length the Plains of 
Abraham witnessed the triumph of their united valor, 
and the gallant and lamented Wolfe planted the cross 
of St. George upon the ramparts of Quebec. The 
peace of Fontainebleau, which soon followed, secured 
the conquest which valor and perseverance had won.' 
France relinquished her pretensions, and left Great 
Britain without a rival upon this great field of glory 
and enterprise. The first signal of alarm to the 
French was the grant of five hundred thousand acres 



of territory on the south side of the Ohio, between 
the Monongahela and Kanawha Rivers, and west of 
the AUeghanies, made by the English government in 
1749 to a small number of Marylanders and Virgin- 
ians of wealth and influence, styling themselves the 
" Ohio Company." 

By its charter the company was required to select 
a large portion of its lands immediately, to settle 
upon them one hundred families within seven years, 
to erect a fort, and maintain a garrison against the 
Indians. They at once set about the exploration of 
the country, and employed for the purpose Christo- 
pher Gist, of Maryland, an energetic, fearless pioneer, 
and a man of considerable intelligence. Gist was 
instructed to examine the quality of the lands, keep 
a journal, draw plans of the country, and report in 
full. He arrived at Will's Creek in October, 1749, 
and on the 31st started on his mission, following an 
Indian trail, his only guide through the wilderness. 
His explorations occupied several months, and took 
him almost to the falls of the Ohio, near the present 
site of Louisville, Ky., and included the region bor- 
dering on the Miami River. Gist also succeeded in 
obtaining from the Indian tribes friendly assurances, 
which, by his influence and that of George Croghan, 
a popular trader, were reiterated at the Council held 
at Logstown in 1752.^ 

^ " Christopher Gist was of English descent. His grandfather 
of the same name was one of the earliest settlers of Baltimore 
County, where he died in 1691. His grandmother was Edith 
Cromwell, whose death occurred in 1694. Their only child, 
Richard, was surveyor of the Western Shore, one of the com- 
missioners appointed to lay off Baltimore Town, and presiding 
magistrate in 1736. In 1705 he married Zipporah Murray, 
and Christopher, the alile agent of the Ohio Company, was one 
of three sons. He married Sarah Howard; his brother Na- 
thaniel married Mary Howard ; and Thomas, the third brother, 
married Violetta Howard, aunts of Gen. John Eager Howard. 
From either Nathaniel or Thomas descended Gen. Gist, who was 
killed at the battle of Franklin, Tenn., near the close of the late 
civil war. Christopher had three sons— Nathaniel, Uichard, and 
Thomas — and one daughter, — Nancy, — none of whom, e.xcept 
Nathaniel, were married. Because of his knowledge of the 
country on the Ohio, and his skill in dealing with the Indians, 
Christopher Gist was chosen to accompany Washington on his 
mission in 175;',, and it was from his journal that Sp.arks and 
Irving derived their account of that expedition. With his sons 
Nathaniel and Thomas he was with Braddock on the fatal field 
of Monongahela, and for his services received a grant of 12,000 
acres of land from the king of England. Richard was killed 
in the battle of King's Mountain. Thomas lived on the plan- 
tation, and was a man of note in his day, presiding in the 
courts till his death, about 1786. Nancy lived with him until 
his death, when she joined her brother Nathaniel, and removed 
with him to the grant in Kentucky about the beginning of the 
present century. Nathaniel, the grandfather of the Hon. 
Montgomery Blair, of Maryland, married Judith Carey Bell, of 
Buckingham County, Va., a grandniece of Archibald Carey, the 
mover of the Bill of Rights in the House of Burgesses. Na- 

In 1750 the Ohio Company built a small store-house / 
at Will's Creek, and stocked it with goods for the \ 
purpose of trading with the Indians, and in the fol- / 
lowing year, 1751, Col. Thomas Cresap, wlio still [ /'^/./l 
lived at Oldtown, laid out and marked a road from 
Will's Creek to the mouth of the Monongahela, the 
present site of Pittsburgh. He was assisted by a 
friendly Indian named Nemacolin, and the work was 
so well done that Gen. Braddock with his army after- 
wards pursued the same route, which thenceforward 
took the name of Braddock's road. Col. Cresap was 
one of the earliest settlers of Western Maryland, and 
it may be said without exaggeration was one of the 
most remarkable men of his day. He emigrated to 
America from Yorkshire, England, when only fifteen 
years of age, and about fifteen years afterwards married 
a Miss Johnson, and settled on the Susquehanna River, 
either at or near Havre de Grace, in Harford County. 
He subsequently removed higher up the river, to 
Wright's Ferry, opposite the town of Columbia, where 
he proceeded to take passession of a tract of five hun- 
dred acres of land obtained under a Maryland patent. 
The land, however, was part of the debatable ground 
claimed by both Penn and Lord Baltimore, and Cre- 
sap soon found that it was necessary to make good his 
title by force of arms. He appears to have been no- 
thing loath to engage in the border troubles that 
ensued, and took so active a part in defense of Lord 
Baltimore's claim that he soon came to be regarded 
as an especially dangerous enemy by the Pennsyl- 
vanians, who resorted to the basest means to compass 
his destruction. " An Indian was hired to assassinate 
him in his own house ; yet, won by his kindness and 
hospitality, the savage disclosed the plot and was par- 
doned for his meditated crime." At length, however, 
a regular battle took place between the factionists, and 
Cresap's party having wounded several of Penn's par- 
tisans, gained the day and kept the field. 

The Pennsylvanians, however, soon returned to the 
attack, and coming upon Cresap by night laid siege to 
his house, which he defended with his customary 
boldness and vigor. 

thaniel was a colonel in the Virginia line during the Revolu- 
tionary war, and died early in the present century at an ad- 
vanced age. He left two sons, Henry Carey and Thomas Cecil. 
His eldest daughter, Sarah Howard, married the Hon. Jesse 
Bledsoe, United States senator from Kentucky, and a distin- 
guished jurist; his grandson, B. Gratz Brown, was the Demo- 
cratic candidate for Vice-President in 1872. The second daugh- 
ter of Col. Gist, Anne (Nancy), married Col. Nathaniel Hart, a 
brother of Mrs. Henry Clay. The third daughter married Dr. 
Boswell, of Lexington, Ky. The fourth daughter married 
Francis P. Blair, and they were the parents of Hon. Montgom- 
ery Blair and Francis P. Blair, Jr. The fifth daughter mar- 
ried Benjamin Gratz, of Lexington, Ky." — Lmcdennllk, p. 28. 


Finding they were unable to carry the position by 
assault they set fire to the house, and Cresap being 
forced to leave the burning building, was taken pris- 
oner after a desperate struggle, in which one of his 
assailants was wounded. 

His captors carried him in triumph to Philadelphia, 
where, as he was marched through the streets before 
the assembled citizens, he taunted the crowd by ex- 
claiming, half in derision, half in earnest, " Why, 
this is the finest city in the province of Maryland !" 
After more than a year's confinement he was re- 
leased by the king's order, and returning to Mary- 
land removed to Antietam, to a valuable farm called 
the Long Meadows, afterwards owned by the Sprigg 
family, in Washington County. Here he built over 
a spring a house of stone, which was designed not 
only for a residence, but as a fort, as the locality 
was then on the frontier, in advance of white popu- 
lation and exposed to the danger of Indian attack. 
Obtaining a loan of five hundred pounds from Mr. 
Dulany, he commenced to trade in skins and furs, 
and shipped a large quantity to England, which, 
however, were captured by a French vessel on the 
way over, to the financial ruin of the unfortunate 
trader. But he was not the sort of man to be frowned 
down by fortune, and so settling his indebtedness to 
Mr. Dulany by transferring to him his farm of four- 
teen hundred acres, he removed to what is now known 
as OldtowD, in Allegany County, but which he called 
Skipton, after the place of his nativity, where he took 
up his permanent residence, and where he acquired an 
immense landed estate, lying in both Maryland and 
Virginia. Col. Cresap having thus made his way to 
the extreme outposts of civilization, soon became one 
the most distinguished pioneers of the West, and his 
name was a household word not only among the whites, 
but the Indians as well. 

"In early times," says Jacob, "when there were but few 
taverns, and these few were very indifferent, his house at Old 
Town was open and his table spread for all decent travelers, 
and they were welcome. His delight was to give and receive 
useful information; nor was this friendly disposition limited to 
the white people only. The Indians generally called on him 
in pretty large parties as they passed and repassed from north 
to south in their war expeditions, and for which special purpose 
he kept a very large kettle for their use; and he also generally 
gave them a beef to kill for themselves every time they called, 
and his liberality gained for him among them the honorable 
title of the 'Big-spoon.' " 

In person Col. Cresap was not large, but firmly set, 
and of very great muscular strength ; he had a sound 
constitution, and lived to the age of one hundred and 
five or six. When seventy years old he made a 
voyage to England, where he was commissioned by 

Lord Baltimore to run the western line of Maryland, 
in order to ascertain which of the two branches of the 
Potomac was the larger, and which was actually the 
fountain-head of that river. On his return home he 
employed surveyors to uin the line, and flie map of 
this work, prepared by Col. Cresap, was the first ever 
made to show the course and fountains of the north 
and south branches of the Potomac River. When 
more than eighty years of age he married his second 
wife, and at the age of one hundred performed a jour- 
ney, partly by sea and partly by land, from his resi- 
dence at Oldtown to an island near the British 
province of Nova Scotia, and returned in safety. 
When ninety years of age he " conceived and digested 
a plan to explore as far west as the Pacific, and no- 
thing but his advanced years prevented the accom- 
plishment of an enterprise which he described with 
the enthusiasm of an early borderer."' From this his 
enthusiastic biographer is justified in declaring, — 

*' that had Providence placed Col. Cresap at the head of our 
army, or state, or kingdom, he would have been a more con- 
spicuous character. He was not inferior to Charles XII., of 
Sweden, in personal bravery, nor to Peter the Great, of Russia^ 
— whom in many things he much resembled, — in coolness or 
fortitude, or that peculiar talent of learning experience from 
misfortune, and levying a tax upon damage and loss to raise 
him to future prosperity and success." 

Col. Thomas Cresap had five children, three sons — 
Daniel, Tliomas, and Michael — and two daughters, — 
Sarah and Elizabeth.^ 

Michael, the youngest son of Col. Thomas Cresap, 
was no less distinguished than his father in the early 
history of Western Maryland. He was born in that 
part of Frederick which is at present Allegany County, 
on the 29th of June, 1742, and was sent to the cele- 
brated school of Rev. Thomas Craddock, in Baltimore 
County. Not fancying the restraints of school-life, 

' Jacob's " Life of Cresap." 

* On the 14th of September, 1751, Christopher Gist, Michael 
Aldridge, and James Martin made affidavit "that four captains 
of Indian warriors, with their men, consisting of fifty or there- 
abouts, camped in said Col. Thomas Cresap's pasture. They 
killed several of his hogs, took his corn, his flour, and bread, 
which made the said Cresap fall into a passion .and threaten to 
load his guns and shoot among them at night." They persuaded 
him not to do so, but to complain to the Governor. 

Several Indians made affidavit about the same time that 
"Brother Cresap" of late seemed angry, and "did not give us 
victuals so cheerful as usual. Our young men went out and 
killed sundry of his hogs, at which he flew into a passion. 

" 'As the white people has killed up the deer, buffaloes, elks, 
and bears, there is nothing for us to live on but what we get 
from the white people ; and having no white people on the road 
from Onondaga to our brother Cresap's house, we are often very 
hungry, and stays three or four days to rest ourselves, and our 
young men very unruly goes into the woods and kills our 
brother Cresap's hoggs and sometimes cattle." 



young Cresap left his preceptor and made his way 
back to his father's house, traveling alone one hun- 
dred and forty miles through a dangerous wilderness 
to reach his destination, where, however, he received 
only a flogging for his pains, and was returned to his 
teacher, with whom he remained until the completion 
of his studies. 

Soon after leaving school he married Miss White- 
head, of Philadelphia, and set up as a trader. His 
operations were not successful, however, and "urged 
by necessity as well as a laudable ambition," early in 
1774 he engaged six or seven active young men, and 
" repairing to the wilderness of the Ohio commenced 
the business of- building houses and clearing lands, 
and being among the first adventurers into this ex- ! 
posed and dangerous region, he was enabled to select 
some of the best and richest of the Ohio levels."' 

Here, on or near the present site of Brownsville, 
Ky., he built himself a house of hewed logs, with a 
shingled roof nailed on, which is believed to have 
beeu the first shingled house west of the Alleghany 
Mountains. He retained the title to this land for 
years, and at last disposed of it to Thomas and Basil 
Brown, two brothers from Maryland, from whom the 
present town of Brownsville takes its name. This 
point became an attractive place to the whites as it 
had evidently been to the savages, as we may judge 
from the ingenious works with which they for- 
tified it. This post, known in border history as Red- 
Stone Old Fort, became the rallying-point of the pio- 
neers, and was familiar to many an early settler as his 
place of embarkation for the " dark and bloody 
ground." In the legends of the West, Michael Cresap 
is connected with this Indian stronghold. In those 
mountains Cresap is spoken of as remarkable for his 
brave, adventurous disposition, and awarded credit for 
often rescuing the whites by a timely notice of the 
savages' approach, a knowledge of which he obtained 
by unceasing vigilance over their movements. This 
fort was frequently Cresap's rendezvous as a trader, 
and thither he resorted with his people, either to in- 
terchange views and adopt plans for future action, or 
for repose in quieter times when the red men were 
lulled into inaction, and the tomaliawk was temporarily 

Michael Cresap was prominently engaged in all the 
border conflicts with the Indians, and has been por- 
trayed in a celebrated piece of Indian rhetoric as the 
instigator if not one of the chief actors in the massa- 
cre of Logan's family, — a charge which has been suf- 

ficiently refuted by Jacob in his " Life of Cresap," 
and by Brantz Mayer in his " Taj-Gah-Jute, or Logan 
and Cresap." Nevertheless the war of 1774 has often 
been called " Cresap's War," and although was 
entirely guiltless of all connection with the butchery 
which brought it on, he rendered good service while 
it was in progress, under a captain's commission from 
the Governor of Virginia. After its conclusion, Cre- 
sap returned to Maryland, spending the autumn of 
1774 and the following winter with his family, and 
early in the spring of 1775 proceeded again to the 
Ohio to complete the work begun the preceding year. 
Ill health, however, compelled him to retrace his steps 
to Maryland, and while on his way he was met by a 
messenger, who informed him that he had been ap- 
pointed by the Committee of Safety at Frederick to 
take command of one of the two rifle companies re- 
quired to be raised in Maryland by a resolution of the 
Continental Congress. In spite of bad health Cresap 
accepted the commission, and joined Washington at 
Boston in August with the first company of riflemen 
raised in Maryland. His illness increased, and after 
about three months' service he was compelled to leave 
the army, with the intention of returning to his home ; 
but he was unable to proceed farther than New York, 
where he died of fever on the 18th of October, 1775, 
at the early age of thirty-three. His remains, at- 
tended by a vast concourse of people, were interred with 
military honors in Trinity churchyard. New York. 
His tombstone bears the following inscription, beneath 
the rude sculpture of a winged head : 


In June, 1752, Mr. Gist, as agent of the Ohio Com- 
pany, with Col. Fry and two other gentlemen, went to 
Logs-town, about seventeen miles below the Forks,' and 
made the treaty with the Indians to which allusion 
has been made By this treaty the Indians bound 
themselves not to disturb any .settlement on the south- 
east side of the Ohio. After the treaty at Logstown 
Gist was appointed surveyor for the company, and 
was directed to lay ofi' a town at Shutee's Creek, a 
little below the present site of Pittsburgh, on the east 
side of the Ohio, and four hundred pounds were 
appropriated to pay for the construction of a fort. 
Gist, with several other families, then settled in the 
valley of the Monongahela, not far from the creek 
above named. During the same year the company 
erected another post on the Virginia side of the river, 
which was known as the " New Store-house," and was 

1 Jacob's *' Life of Cresap." 

2 M.ayer's *' Logan and Cresap.' 

3 Pittsburgh. 



located " at the foot of the bluff on which now stands 
the beautiful residence of Capt. Roger Perry, very 
near the point occupied by the abutment of the Po- 
tomac bridge at Cumberland." The first store-house 
was located on the west side of Will's Creek, north of 
the river, and the ground on both sides of the creek 
was surveyed and laid off into a town, with streets, 
lines, etc., and called Charlottesburg in honor of Prin- 
cess Charlotte Sophia, afterwards wife of George III.' 

The territory granted to the Ohio Company, how- 
ever, was claimed by the French, and the establish- 
ment of the trading-posts described was followed by 
prompt and decisive measures of reprisal on the part 
of the French military commanders. Some of the 
English traders among the Indians were seized and 
imprisoned, and several of the trading-posts of the 
company were reduced and pillaged. Indignant at 
these outrages, Governor Dinwiddle introduced upon 
the theatre of aifaire a youth — George Washington — 
to perform an important and hazardous mission for 
his native colony, and to prepare himself to serve the 
whole country. Col.. Washington was dispatched to 
the French commandant to protest against his pro- 
ceedings and to demand the evacuation of the terri- 

On the 30th of October, 1753, Washington set oif 
from Williamsburg on his dangerous mi.ssion through 
a hostile Indian region with that courage, zeal, and 
perseverance which afterwards, in a higher station, 
made him the savior of his country. He reached 
Will's Creek on the 14th of November, where he 
engaged Col. Nathaniel Gist, the intrepid pioneer, to 
accompany him on the expedition. The demands of 
Virginia were rejected, and nothing was left but a 
recourse to hostilities. In the war which ensued 
Maryland became involved simply in self-defense and 
for the assistance of the sister colonies, while Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania were contending for the 
acquisition of a large and fertile territory. 

The intentions and movements of the French being 
understood, the Governor of Virginia prepared for 
immediate war. He summoned the House of Bur- to meet at an early day, and also wrote letters 
to the Governors of the other provinces calling on 
them for aid, drawing a vivid picture of the common 
danger, and making moving appeals to their patriotism ! 
and sense of duty to their sovereign. The English 
government recognized the dangerous consequences 
likely to result to her possessions from these encroach- 
ments unless they were instantly repelled, and re- 
sponded fully to the spirit of Virginia. Upon repre- 

1 Lowdermilk. 

sentations made by Governor Dinwiddle to the Earl 
of Holderness (then Secretary of State) circulars 
were addressed to the English colonies to repel by 
force all attempts by the French to intrude upon the 
settlements within the colonies. That addressed to the 
province of Maryland was submitted to its Assembly, 
October session, 1753, but its requisitions, although 
sustained and urged by its Executive, were without 
elFect. The Lower House assured the Governor 
" that they were resolutely determined to repel any 
hostile invasion of the province by any foreign power, 
and that they would cheerfully contribute to the defense 
of the neighboring colonics when their circumstances 
required it, but they did not deem, this a pressing 
occasion." At the next session of the Assembly, held 
in February, 1754, the Upper House expressed its 
willingness to concur in proper measures of defense. 

In the mean time the French had not been idle. 
In the spring of 1753 they had built at Presque Isle, 
on Lake Erie, a strong fort, and, leaving a large gar- 
rison there, they marched to the Riviere aux Boeufs, 
where they erected another fort, cutting a wagon-road 
twenty-one feet in width between the two. Here gar- 
risons were maintained during the winter of 1753-54, 
and here a strong force gathered in 1754, fully pre- 
pared to march to and occupy the head of the Ohio. 
On the 17th of April, 1754, M. de Contrecceur, the 
French commander, at the head of from five hundred 
to a thousand men, with eighteen pieces of artillery, 
captured the defenseless works afterwards known as 
Fort Du Quesne, which occupied the spot where now 
stands the city of Pittsburgh. Washington was at 
Will's Creek (now Cumberland, Md.) when the news 
reached him of the surrender of the fort. He resolved 
to proceed to the mouth of Red Stone Creek (Browns- 
ville, Pa.), and there to erect a fort, and await the ad- 
vancing foe. He arrived at the Great Meadows on 
the 28th of May, and encountered a detachment of 
thirty-five men, under M. de Jumouville, sent out 
from Fort Du Quesne as ambassadors, as was alleged 
by M. de Contrecoiur, to warn him to witiidraw. 
W^ashington, however, mistook their character, and a 
sharp skirmish ensued, in which M. de Jumonville 
and several of his men were killed, and the rest sur- 
rendered, and were sent under guard to the Governor 
of Virginia. Having heard of large reinforcements at 
Fort Du Quesne, and expecting an attack, Washing- 
ton retreated to the Great Meadows, where he com- 
menced the erection of a fort, to which was given the 
suggestive title of Fort Necessity. While thus en- 
gaged, they were surprised by the approach of a supe- 
rior French force, and, after a conflict of some hours, 
obliged to surrender on honorable terms. On the 4th 




of July, 1754, tlie little garrison evacuated its feeble 
fort and retreated to Will's Creek, and the unprotected 
frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia were 
exposed to the plundering bands of French and In- 
dians. Leaving his force at Will's Creole under the 
command of Col. Innes, Washington hastened to Wil- ; 
liamsburg, to communicate in person to Governor 
Dinwiddle the result of his expedition, while mes- 
sengers were dispatched with letters to the Governors 
of Maryland and Pennsylvania, explaining his weak ; 
and exposed situation, and soliciting aid. Governor 
Sharpe, however, aware of the situation of affairs, had I 
already convened the Assembly, which met in An- 1 
napolis on the 17th of July. The news of the defeat 
of Col. Washington reached Annapolis the day after 
the Assembly had met. and created great surprise and 
alarm, and it had the effect of hastening the action of 
the Legislature, which, on the 25th of July, appro- 
priated six thousand pounds 

*' to his excellency Horatio Sharpe, Esq., for his majesty's use, 
towards the defence of the colony of Virginia, attacked by the 
French and Indians, and for the relief and the support of the 
wives and children of the Indian allies that put themselves 
under the protection of this government." 

Immediately upon the passage of this act. Gov- 
ernors Sharpe notified Governor Dinwiddle, who rec- 
ommended that a company of one hundred soldiers be 
raised in the province, to act in conjunction with the 
forces then gathering at Will's Creek, to serve under 
the command of Col. Innes. Governor Sharpe issued 
a commission to Capt. Thomas Cresap, who had be- 
haved himself on all occasions as a good servant to 
the government, " to raise a company of riflemen to 
serve beyond the Allegany Mountains." In August 
the Governor gave orders that two additional com- 
panies should be raised to join Col. Innes, and on the 
15th the Gazette announced that we "are now raising 
recruits to go against the French on the Ohio" The 
privates were to receive eight pence a day, and clothes, 
arms, and accoutrements. On the 23d of September 
a part of' a company left Annapolis, under the charge 
of Capt. Forty, on their way to Frederick, and on the 
30th another detachment marched for the same place, 
under the command of Lieut. John Bacon. John 
Ross also enlisted a company. All were to serve 
under the command of Capt. Dagworthy. 

Col. Innes, who commanded a few companies of 
North Carolina troops, was ordered, after the battle 
of the Great Meadow;-, to march to Will's Creek, and 
to construct a fort, which would serve as a rallying- 
point and a defense to the frontiers. 

On his arrival at Will's Creek he commenced the 
construction of fortifications, and selected for the 

purpose the hill lying between the Potomac River 
and the creek, near the mouth of the latter. This 
work, which was commenced on the 12th of Septem- 
ber and completed about the middle of the following 
month, was built of stoccadoes, and called by Col. 
Innes " Fort Mount Pleasant." Log houses were 
then built for the men, which were finished by the 
25th of December, and soon after their completion 
Governor Dinwiddle received instructions from Eng- 
land to erect a fort at Will's Creek " of such dimen- 
sions and character of construction as the importance 
of the position seemed to require." Gov. Dinwiddle 
transmitted these instructions to Col. Innes without 
delay, and the fort was erected and garrisoned during 
the winter of 1754-55. At the request of Gen. 
Braddock it was named Fort Cumberland, in honor 
of the captain-general of the British army. The 
troops engaged in its construction were Rutherford 
and Clarke's independent companies of foot from New 
York, Demerie's independent company from South 
Carolina, and three independent companies under the 
command of Col. Innes from North Carolina, assisted 
by a Maryland company, which arrived on the ground 
in November. Fort Cumberland stood upon the bank 
of Will's Creek, near its junction with the Potomac, 
" opposite to the new store," ' on the site of the pres- 
ent city of Cumberland, in Allegany County. " The 
citizens of our city," says Lowdermilk, in his interest- 
ing history of Cumberland, 

•'have for generations past pointed out the spot upon which 
this fort was located, but they bad no information or conception 
of the size, shape, and character of the work or its surround- 
ings. Fortunately a sketch of the fort was found by the author 
among the king's manuscripts in the library of the British 
Muceum in London. A photograpliic copy of this sketch was 
secured. It was drawn by one of the officers in the fort at the 
time of Gen. Braddock's arrival. The fortifications were drawn 
to a scale, but the proportions were not preserved in mapping 
out the river, creek, and surrounding grounds. This fact made 
it somewhat difficult to establish the exact lines of the work, 
and compelled a resort to the memory of our oldest inhabitants. 
Mr. Jesse Korns has a distinct recollection of climbing over the 
remaining earth-works when a boy, and he fi.ves the easterly 
line of the fort — that portion of it which runs to a point nearest 
Will's Creek— some forty feet east of Emmanuel Church. The 
conformation of the ground at that spot is strongly confirmatory 
of his opinion, as well as other circumstances, which fi.\ the 
western line near the boundary of Prospect Street. The greater 
portion of Fort Cumberland was a palisado work, — all of it, in 
fact,, except the small bastioned work on the western end. The 
palisades were logs cut to a length of eighteen feet, and planted 
ill the earth to a depth of six feet, forming a close wooden wall 
twelve feet in height. These logs were spiked together with 
strips and pins on the iuner side, and the wall was pierced with 
openings for musketry along its entire face. Two water g.ates 
are shown in the plot, and from each of these a trench was ex- 
cavated leading to the creek, so that the men might secure 

' Pennsylvania Colonial Records, vi., p. ISO. 



therefrom a supply of water without being exposed to the fire 
of the enemy. In 1756, after Braddock's defeat, the Indiana 
became so numerous and so bold as to approach near enough to 
shoot those who ventured to the water's edge, and in conse- 
quence tjaereof a well was sunk inside of the palisade near the 
main gate on the south side. This well was in use not many 
years since, and is still in existence on the property of Hon. 
Hopewell Hebb. It was about eighty feet in depth, and within 
the memory of the writer was furnished with an immense wheel 
and two buckets, by which excellent cold water was drawn from 
it. About the year 1799 this well was first cleaned out after 
the abandonment of the fort, and the father of Mr. John B. Wide- 
ner was present when part of a gun-carriage, a wheel, and a 
large quantity of cannon-balls, musket-balls, etc., were taken 

*' Inside the stockade were built barracks sufficient to furnish 
quarters for two hundred men and the company officers. Be- 
sides, there was a parade or drill-ground for the companies. 
At the west end of the stockade was built a fort with bastions, 
parapets, and ditches, where sixteen guns were mounted, which 
commanded all the ground north, west, and south, as well as 
the north and south lines of the stockade. These guns were of 
different calibre, four of them being twelve-pounders and twelve 
four-pounders. Besides these there were several swivels. A part 
of this armament was ships' guns, brought from Admiral Kep- 
pel's fleet. On the west face was a sally-port, and inside the fort 
were the houses used as quarters for the commanding officer, 
for storing provisions, and for the guard details while on duty. 
The entire work was four hundred feet in length and one hun- 
dred and sixty in width, extending from the point indicated 
below Emmanuel Church to within a short distance of Prospect 
Street, the northern line extending along nearly the centre of 
Washington Street. The fort proper occupied almost the iden- 
tical spot on which now stands the residence of Mr. James A. 
Millholland, known as the * Hoye House.' This fortification 
was of considerable strength, and commanded the approaches 
from the north, east, and south. The ground to the northwest 
was somewhat higher, but a small earth-work of a temporary 
character was constructed on the crest, on the site of the resi- 
dence of the late James W. Jones, Esq. The ground on the 
south side of the river, opposite the fort, was high enough to 
overlook the work, and somewhat interfered with its efficiency. 
The company parade and drill-ground was inside the pali- 
sades, but the dress parades were held on the ground now occu- 
pied by the court-house and academy. Quite a number of log 
houses for barracks were built near the crest, and as far back 
as Smallwood Street, but these were made use of only when 
there was present a greater force than could be accommodated 
in the fort and the barracks immediately adjoining.'' 

In October, 1754, the Virginia House of Burgesses 
made an appropriation of twenty thousand pounds for 
the public service, and with the grant of ten thousand 
pounds and supply of arms made by the home gov- 
ernment. Col. Washington contemplated an extensive 
expedition against Fort Du Quesne. At the same 
time, '• for settling the ranks of the officers of his 
majesty's forces when serving with the provincials in 
North America," the king directed, — - 

•' That all oflicers coQimissioned by the king or his general 
should take rank of all officers commissioned by the Governors 1 
of the respective provinces; and further, that the general and j 
field officers of the provincial troops should have no rank when 
serving with the general and other commissioned officers com- 

missioned by the Crown, but that all captains and other infe- 
rior officers of the royal troops should take rank over provincial 
officers of the same grade having senior commissions." 

The effect of these instructions was to reduce 
Washington from the rank of colonel to that of cap- 
tain. This humiliation he was not content to submit 
to, but resigned his commission and retired to private 
life. The Duke of Newcastle, upon learning of the 
resignation of Col. Washington, issued a commission 
to Governor Horatio Sharpe, appointing him com- 
mander of the provincial forces at Fort Cumberland. 
Immediately on the receipt of the information that 
the vessel bearing it had arrived, Governor Sharpe 
proceeded to Williamsburg and " received his majesty's 
commission appointing him comniander-in-ehief of all 
the forces that are or may be raised to defend the fron- 
tiers of Virginia and the neighboring colonies, and to 
repel the unjustifiable invasion and encroachments of 
the French on the river Ohio." 

After an interview with Governors Dinwiddle and 
Dobbs, of North Carolina, who brought out the com- 
mission, he returned to Annapolis, November 3d. It 
was concluded to raise immediately seven hundred 
men, with whom and the independent companies the 
French fort should be attacked and reduced before 
reinforcements could be brought from Canada or 
Louisiana. This eflFected, that post and another, 
which he thought would be necessary to erect on a 
small island in the river, were to be held for the kino-. 
To garrison these and Fort Cumberland would require 
all his forces, and he concluded it would be useless for 
them to attempt anything further against the enemy 
on La Riviere aux Boeufs and Lake Erie " with- 
out they be supported with such a body of troops 
from home as he dare not presume to hope for the 
direction of" 

Governor Sharpe, who was now commander-in-chief 
of all the forces against the French, with instructions 
to make his headquarters in Virginia, attended by 
some officers of the Virginia regiment and a few per- 
sonal friends, set out from Annapolis on the 12th of 
November to take command of the army. Durin^ 
the occasions of his absence in visiting the military 
posts and in attending to his official duties as Gov- 
ernor, Col. Fitzhugh, of Virginia, was to have charge 
of the forces. 

Knowing the value of Col. Washington's experi- 
ence and reputation, Sharpe at once took steps to in- 
duce him to reenter the army, and before he left An- 
napolis he requested Col. Fitzhugh to induce him to 
change his resolution. Washington, however, who 
was deeply wounded at what he thought an act of 
deep injustice, was not to be persuaded. 



An officer writing from Fort Cumberland on No- 
vember 21st, thus speaks of the arrival of Governor 
Sharpe at that place : 

" We now have got a fort completed, with barracks for our 
men at the back of it, well built, comfortable for the winter. 
We had the pleasure of being joined three days ago by his Ex- 
cellency Col. Sharpe, with one company from Maryland. Mr. 
Sharpe appears to be a stirring, active gentleman, and by his 
method of proceeding I believe a very good soldier; cheerful 
and full of good conduct, and one who won't be trifled with. In 
the spring, if we have a good body of men, I make no doubt 
but we shall be able to do something to the puri>ose. By the 
present situation of the French, they are not to be driven out 
of their forts unles.s our numbers are greatly increased." 

Governor Sharpe now carried on with vigor the 
preparations for the spring campaign. Military stores, 
ordnance, etc., were collected in Frederick and Alex- 
andria, and the militia were properly organized and 

Indeed, an unwonted energy seems at this time to 
have inspired the people of the province. Finding 
the militia law defective, the Governor convened the 
Assembly on December 24th, when they passed an act 
to levy troops for the following campaign. As an in- 
ducement to the enlistments, they enacted •' that if 
any citizen of the province shall be so maimed in the 
service as to be incapable of maintaining himself, he 
should be supported at the public expense." In the 
ensuing session of February, 1775, they regulated the 
rates of transportation of military stores, and the 
mode of quartering soldiers in the province, and pro- 
hibited by severe penalties any inhabitant from sup- 
plying the French or their Indian allies with stores, 
ammunition, or provisions. Governor Sharpe, how- 
ever, did not find it difficult to procure volunteer sol- 
diers, for he had more applications than he could pro- 
vide for. As an instance, the Maryland Gazette of Feb. 
6, 1755, says, " We are assured that in Chestertown, in 
Kent County, several men enlisted immediately upon 
the arrival of the officer in that town, before the drum 
was beat, and that the officer, who wanted but thirty 
men, got his complement and marched with them." 
The Gazette adds, — 

" Such is the commendable spirit of that place." " They are 
gone for Will's Creek, and some young Maryland gentlemen 
(patriots) are gone from thence as volunteers; the mother of 
one of them at parting took leave of him, saying, ' My dear 
son, I shall with much greater pleasure hear of your death than 
your cowardice or ill conduct,' and Governor Sharpe, in a letter 
to Lord Baltimore, dated Jan. 12, 1755, also says, — 

'* ' As to levying any number of men, I conceive we shall not 
find it difficult . . . but the difficulty will be to get money from 
the Assemblies after they are raised for their support; indeed, 
this I look upon as impracticable, or not to be expected without 
the Legislature of Great Britain shall make a law to be binding 
on all these several colonies, and oblige them to raise such a 

fund as may be thought expedient for the support of their 
own troops." 

The appointment of Governor Sharpe to the chief 
command was but a measure of temporary expediency. 
His friends would have persuaded the king to have 
retained him, urging in his behalf his exceeding 
honesty, while compelled to admit he was not pos- 
sessed of remarkable ability. " A little less honesty," 
replied the king, " and a little more ability might, 
upon the present occasion, better serve our turn." 
The government, although still amusing the French 
with their professions of peace, had decided to main- 
tain vigorously all its pretensions on this continent, 
and with this view to .send out an adequate force 
under one of the bravest and most accomplished sol- 
diers of the empire. Such, in the opinion of the 
Duke of Cumberland, captain-general of the army, was 
Maj.-Gen. Edward Braddock, whom Horace Walpole 
describes as " desperate in his 
fortune, brutal in his bthiv 
ior, and obstinate in his sen 
timents," but admits that he 
was still " intrepid and oipi 
ble." Gen. Braddock was 
ordered to proceed to Vii 
ginia, as commandor-in thief 
of all the British troops \u 
North America, on Sept 24 
1754, but did not sail until 
the 21st of December. He 
set sail in the " Norwich," 
convoyed by the " Centurion,' 
dore Keppel, and arrived in Hampton Roads on the 
20th of February. He was soon followed by the rest 
of the fleet, with two regiments, each of five hundred 
men, one under Col. Sir Peter Halket, and the other 
under Col. Thomas Dunbar. Two more regiments, 
each of one thousand men, were to be raised in the 
colonies at the king's expense, and commanded by Sir 
William Pepperell and Governor Shirley, of Massa- 
chusetts. These, with the independent companies, 
the levies expected of the several colonies, and such 
Indians as enlisted, it was thought would make up 
an eifective force of not less than twelve thousand 
men. When Governor Sharpe received information 
of the appointment of Gen. Braddock, he proceeded, 
on the 13th of January, 1755, on a tour of inspection 
to the scene of anticipated operations, in the neighbor- 
hood of Will's Creek. In one week after his arrival 
he was joined by Sir John St. Clair, lieutenant-colonel 
of O'Farrell's Twenty-second Regiment of Foot, and 
quartermaster-general of all the British forces in 
America, who was then actively engaged in visiting 


flag-ship of Commo- 



military posts, making contracts for supplies, and ac- 
quainting himself generally with the scene of his 
future operations.^ Having procured from every 
source all the maps and information that were ob- 
tainable respecting the country through which the 
expedition was to pass, he and Governor Sharpe de- 
scended the Potomac River two hundred and fifty 
miles in a canoe, and reached Annapolis on the 2d of 
February, whence they went to Williamsburg, Va., 
to await Gen. Braddock's arrival, which was hailed 
with great joy by the people of Virginia, Maryland, 
and Pennsylvania, as they looked forward with con- 
fidence to the defeat of the French and the early ter- 
mination of the war, and possibly thought that the 
cost of the undertaking would mainly fall where it 
justly belonged, upon the mother-country. 

On the 10th of March Gen. Braddock forwarded 
letters to the Governors of the diflFerent colonies, de- 
siring them to meet him at Annapolis on the 1st of 
April for consultation and to settle a plan of opera- 
tions. On the 26th, accompanied by Governor Din- 
widdle and Commodore Keppel, he arrived at Alex- 
andria, where the troops were encamped, and issued 
his first general order the next day. Here Governor 
Sharpe paid him a visit on the 28th. On the 3d of 
April the general, with a numerous suite, arrived at 
Annapolis, but, owing to the absence of Governors 
Shirley, De Lancey, and Morris, the council was post- 
poned till the 14th, the place of meeting being changed 
to Alexandria. On the 11th and 12th, Governors 
Shirley, of Massachusetts, De Lancey, of New York, 
and Morris, of Pennsylvania, arrived at Annapolis, 
and, in company with Governor Sharpe, proceeded to 
the general's headquarters at Alexandria, where, on 
the 14th, he laid before them his instructions and his 
plans for the summer's operations. He proposed to 
proceed in person against Fort Du Quesne, while 
Shirley commanded an expedition against Niagara, 
and Sir William Johnston one against Crown Point. 
The plan having been agreed upon, and the details 
arranged, the council broke up, and Governors Shir- 
ley, De Lancey, and Morris returned to Annapolis on 
the 17th with Governor Sharpe, whose hospitality 
they enjoyed for several days. 

Gen. Braddock had written to the Duke of New- 
castle from Williamsburg on the 1st of March, that 
he should be beyond the Alleghanies by the end of 
April ; and, in compliance with this promise, he now 
hurried his arrangements for a forward movement. 

By Col. St. Clair's advice, it was decided to march 

1 Sir John's Station on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and 
Sir John's Run and Sir John's Road, in Berkeley County, Va., 
are named after Sir John St. Chiir. 

from Alexandria in two divisions : one regiment and 
a portion' of stores were to be sent to Winchester, Va., 
whence a new road was nearly completed to Fort Cum- 
berland, and the other regiment, with the remaining 
forces, were to move by the way of Frederick, Md. 
Accordingly, on the 8th and 9th of April the pro- 
vincials and six companies of the Forty-fourth Regi- 
ment, Sir Peter Halket, set out for Winchester, Lieut.- 
Col. Gage and four companies remaining to escort the 
artillery. On the 18th of April the Forty-eighth 
Regiment, under Col. Dunbar, marched for Frederick, 
detaching a company to the mouth of the Conoco- 
cheague Creek fa large stream which flows into the 
Potomac in Washington County) to hasten the for- 
warding of the stores gathered there. Arriving at 
Frederick, Col. Dunbar found there was no road 
through Maryland to Fort Cumberland, and he ac- 
cordingly, on the 1st of May, crossed the Potomac at 
the mouth of the Conococheague, and took the Win- 
chester route. For the purpose of expediting the ne- 
cessary preparations for transporting the supplies. Gov- 
ernor Sharpe, on the 22d of April, went to Frederick, 
where a portion of the army was then quartered. At 
this point, on the 24th of April, he met Gen. Brad- 
dock, Col. Washington, and Benjamin Franklin, the 
two latter having met for the first time. Washing- 
ton had been invited by Gen. Braddock to serve as 
one of his aides-de-camp in the campaign. Franklin, 
then the British postmaster-general of the colonies, 
had met Braddock here for the purpose of concerting 
apian for forwarding supplies, and learning the scarcity 
of wagons, undertook to furnish them from Pennsyl- 
vania. By adroit means he succeeded in obtaining 
from the counties of Lancaster, York, and Cumber- 
land one hundred and fifty wagons with four horses 
to each, and fifteen hundred pack- or saddle-horses 
needed for the expedition. Besides this assistance, 
Governor Sharpe tells us Gen. Braddock did 

" not scruple in enlisting and taking away a good many servants 
from the inhabitants of Frederick, Prince George's, and Balti- 
more Counties, as well as impressing their wagons, horses, team- 
sters, carriages, and carriage horses." 

To such an extent were the seizures made that the 
contractors for the new court-house, which was then 
being erected in Frederick, found it impossible to ob- 
tain horses to haul the materials to the site of the 
building. " He was extremely warm and angry" at 
this time, " and stormed like a lion rampant." 

Braddock, while at Frederick, purchased of Gov- 
ernor Sharpe an English chariot, with six horses, in 
which he rode, and on the 1st of May, accompanied 
by his stafi" and guard of light-horse, he left Freder- 
ick for Will's Creek, by the way of Winchester, the 



road along the north side of the Potomac not being 
yet made. The discomforts of the rough road were 
increased for Gen. Braddock by his mode of traveUng, 
which was not suited to the mountainous country 
through which he was passing. Accompanied by his 
staff, he overtook Dunbar's division near Will's Creek, 
his body-guard of light-horse galloping on each side 
of his chariot, the drums beating the Grenadier's 
March as he passed. In this style, too, he arrived at 
Fort Cumberland on May 10th, amid a thundering 
salute of seventeen guns. 

By this time he discovered that he was not in a 
region fitted for such display, and his traveling 
chariot was abandoned at Fort Cumberland ; other- 
wise it would soon have become a wreck among the 
mountains beyond. 

On arriving at the fort on the 10th of May, 
Braddock found Sir Peter Halket already there, with 
six companies of the Forty-fourth, with which he had 
marched from Alexandria. The remaining four com- 
panies of his regiment, which had been left with 
Lieut.-Col. Gage to escort the artillery, were still de- 
layed, but by the 22d of the month all the forces 
were assembled at the appointed rendezvous, with the 
exception of a North Carolina company, which did 
not reach there until the 30th. Braddock now mus- 
tered two thousand effective men. 

The regiments of Dunbar and Halket, originally 
one thousand strong, were now increased to fourteen 
hundred by volunteers and conscripts, principally pro- 
cured in Maryland ; and besides these there were the 
two independent companies from New York ; five com- 
panies of rangers, and two of carpenters and pioneers, 
principally from Virginia; one company of rangers 
from Maryland, two companies of rangers from North 
and South Carolina, and thirty seamen, under a lieu- 
tenant of the navy, furnished by Admiral Keppel, 
having four pieces of cannon, which they were to 
assist in dragging over the mountains. Among the 
officers present who afterwards distinguished them- 
selves in the Revolution were Thomas Cresap, Hugh 
Mercer, George Washington, Daniel Morgan, Thomas 
Gage, and Horatio Gates.' 

^ The route of march of the army after leaving Frederick, on 
the 28th of April, was as follows : On the 1st of May, Col. Dun- 
bar, after building a bridge over the Antietam, crossed the Po- 
tomac at the mouth of the Conocooheague, so as to strike the 
Winchester road. On the 5th he crossed the Little Cacapon, 
and on the Sth was again ferried over the Potomac to Mary- 
land from a spot near the mouth of Cacapon, which has since 
that day borne the name of the Ferry Fields. Thence along 
the riverside, through Old Town, the dwelling place of Col. 
Thomas Cresap, it passed through the narrows at the foot of 
Will's Mountain into Cumberland. The house of Cresap, the 

Being at last ready to undertake the long and tedi- 
ous journey that was before him. Gen. Braddock gave 
orders for the army to advance. On the 30th of May, 
Sir John St. Clair, with Maj. Chapman and six hun- 
dred men of the Forty-fourth Regiment, were sent 
forward to clear the road to the Little Meadows, on 
the Youghiogheny, thirty miles distant, where they 
were to erect a fortified camp. The army followed in 
three divisions: the first, under Col. Halket, on the 
7th of June ; the next, under Liout.-Col. Gage, on 
the Sth ; and the third, under Col. Dunbar, on the 
10th, when Braddock also set off, with his aides- 
de-camp and others of his staff and his body-guard of 
light-horse. Fort Cumberland, with the hospital 
filled with invalids, was left under the care of Col. 

Braddock's army consisted of the Forty-fourth 
Regiment of (English) Infantry, Col. Sir Peter Hal- 
ket ; the Forty-eighth, Col. Thomas Dunbar; sundry 
independent (colonial) companies ; a company of 
horse, another of artillery, a company of marines, 
etc. ; in all, two thousand one hundred and ninety, 
besides the usual train of non-militants who always 
accompany an army. The other field-officers were 
Lieut.-Cols. Burton and Gage (of Bunker Hill noto- 
riety) ; Majs. Chapman and Sparks ; Maj. Sir John 
St. Clair, deputy quartermaster - general ; Matthew 
Leslie, his assistant; Francis Halket, brigade-major ; 
William Shirley, secretary ; and Robert Orme, Roger 
Morris, and George Washington, Esqs., aides-de-camp 
to the general. Among the captains were : Stephen, 
Lewis, Poison, Hogg, Peyronie, Mercer, and Wag- 
oner. These commanded provincial troops, chiefly 
from Virginia. The New York independent compa- 
nies were commanded by Capts. Rutherford and Ho- 
ratio Gates, the Gen. Gates to whom Burgoyne sur- 
rendered at Saratoga. Christopher Gist and his son 
Nathaniel accompanied the army as guides ; George 
Croghan, the Indian agent of Aughwick, with Mon- 
tour, interpreter, also accompanied the army, trying 
to be useful in the Indian department, aided by Mo- 
nacatootha and Capt. Jack, the " wild hunter of the 

Among the Virginia surgeons were Drs. James 
Craik and Hugh Mercer, men of imperishable fame. 

ruins of which are still standing near the canal, was half dwelling 
and half fortress. To this strongly fortified cnstle the settlers 
in this section of the province repaired whenever there was 
danger of an Indian attack. Cresap then called the place Skip- 
ton, after the place of his nativity in England. It is situated 
on the north fork of the Potomac, a few miles above the junc- 
tion of the north and south branches of the Potomac. The 
residence of his son, Michael Cresap, a large stone building, is 
still standing in the centre of the town. 



They were both Scotchmen, the latter having fled to 
Virgijiia from the fatal field of CuUoden. Dr. Craik 
had followed Washington in his campaign of 1754, 
was his companion in his journey to the West in 
1770, and was his physician at his death. Dr. Mercer 
became a field-officer in the Revolution, and fell at 
Princeton in January, 1777. 

Some idea of the difficulties Braddock's forces en- 
countered may be had when it is stated that they 
spent the third night only five miles from the first. 
The place of encampment, which is about one-third 
of a mile from the toll-gate on the National road, is 
marked by a copious stream bearing Braddock's name. 
For reasons not easy to divine, the route across Will's 
Blountain, first adopted for tbe National road, was 
selected, instead of the more favorable one through 
the narrows of Will's Creek, to which the road was 
subsequently changed for the purpose of avoiding 
that formidable ascent. The traces are very distinct 
on the east and west slopes, the modern road crossing 
it frequently. From the western foot the route con- 
tinued up Braddock's Run to the forks of the stream, 
where Clary's tavern now stands, nine miles from 
Cumberland, when it turned to the left in order to 
reach a point on the ridge favorable to an easy descent 
into the valley of George's Creek. It is surprising 
that having reached this high ground, the favorable 
spur by which the National road accomplishes the 
ascent of the Great Savage Mountain did not strike 
the attention of the engineers, as the labor requisite 
to .surmount the barrier from the deep valle}' of 
George's Creek must have contributed greatly to those 
bitter complaints which Braddock made against the 
colonial government for their failure to as.sist him 
more effectually in the transportation department. 

Passing then a mile to the south of Frostburg, the 
road approaches the east foot of Savage Mountain, 
which it crosses about one mile south of the National 
road ; and thence by very favorable ground through 
the dense forests of white pine peculiar to this region, 
it got to the north of the National road, near the 
gloomy tract called the " Shades of Death." This 
was the 15th of June, when the dense gloom of the 
summer woods, and the favorable shelter which these 
enormous pines would give an Indian enemy, must 
have made a most sensible impression on all minds of 
the insecurity of their mode of advance. This doubt- 
less had a share in causing the council of war held at 
the Little Meadows next day. To this place, distant 
only about twenty miles from Cumberland, Sir John 
Sinclair and Maj. Chapman had been dispatched on 
the 30th of May to build a fort, as we have already 
seen, aud the army having been seven days in reaching 

it, it follows, as the line of march was upwards of three 
miles long, the rear was just getting under way when 
the advance were lighting their evening fires. 

Here it may be well enough to clear up an ob- 
scurity which enters into many narratives of these 
early events from confusing the names of " Little 
Meadows" and " Great Meadows," " Little Crossings" 
and " Great Crossings," which are all distinct locali- 

The " Little Meadows" have been described as at 
the foot of Meadow Mountain ; it is well to note that 
the " Great Meadows" are about thirty-one miles 
farther west, and near the east foot of Laurel Hill. 
By the " Little Crossings" is meant the ford of 
Casslem:in's River, a tributary of the Youghiogheny 
itself The Little Crossing is two miles west of the 
Little Meadows, and the Great Crossing seventeen 
miles farther west. 

The conclusion of the council was to push on with 
a picked force of twelve hundred men and twelve 
pieces of cannon, and the line of march, now more 
compact, was resumed on the 19th. 

While these events were occurring in the western 
part of Maryland, the Governor and the Lower House 
of Assembly were quarreling over the requisitions 
made by Gen. Braddock for supplies for his army. 

On June 28th the Governor sent to the Lower 
House the following message : 
"Gentlemen op the Lower House of Assembly: 

" I have just received letters from Col. Innes at Fort Cum- 
berland, and from the back inhabitants of Frederick County, 
advising me that a party of French Indians last Monday morn- 
ing (June 23) fell on the inhabitants of this province, and killed 
two men and one woman (who have been since found dead), eight 
other persons they have taken prisoners and carried off. The 
names of the persons who were murdered and left are John 
Williams, his wife, and grandson, and with their bodies also was 
found that of a French Indian. The persons carried off are 
Richard Williams (a son of John who was murdered), with two 
children, one Dawson's wife and four children. Richard Wil- 
liams' wife and two brothers of the young man that is killed have 
made their escape. This accident, I find, has so terrified the dis- 
tant inhabitants that many of them are retiring and forsaking 
their plantations. Another letter from Winchester, in Virginia, 
informs me that a party of Indians have also attacked the back 
inhabitants of that province, of whom they have killed eleven 
and carried away many captives. Apprehending the French 
would proceed in this manner as soon as Gen. Braddock and the 
troops under bis control should have passed the mountains, and 
being confirmed in my opinion by an intimation in the gen- 
eral's letter, I issued a proclamation near a month since, 
cautioning the distant and other inhabitants of this province 
to be on their guard, and unite for their common defence and 
safety. At the same time I sent peremptory orders and in- 
structions to the ofiicers of the militia of Frederick County 
frequently to muster and discipline their several troops and 
companies, once a fortnight at least, and in case of alarm that 
the enemy was approaching or had fallen on the inhabitants, to 
m.arch out and act either offensively or defensively, and use all 



means to protect and defend the inhabitants from the devasta- 
tions of the French or Indians. However, I find neither the proc- 
lamation nor instructions will be effective unless the militia can 
be assured that they shall receive satisfaction, and be paid for 
the time they are out on duty. I should consider it highly proper 
for us to have about one hundred, or at least a company of men, 
posted or constantly ranging for some time on the frontiers for 
our protection. In this I desire your advice, and that you will 
enable me to support such a number. 

" Gentlemen : 

"At the general's request, and that I might receive early 
intelligence at this time from the camp and back inhabitants, 
I have engaged several persons between here and Will's Creek 
to receive and speedily convey any letters that shall come to 
them directed for the general or myself. I doubt not that you 
will be convinced of the necessity of such a measure, and pro- 
vide for the expense thereof." 

The House, on the same day, took into consider- 
ation the Grovevnor's message, and immediately passed 
the following resolutions : 

'^ lieHolved, That this House will make suitable arrangements 
for the maintaining of eighty men, including ofSccrs, for four 
mouths (if occasion) for ranging on the frontiers of this prov- 
ince, to protect the same against the incursions or depredations 
that may be attempted or made by the French or their Indian 

" Resolved, further, That this House will defray the reasonable 
expense of conveying intelligence from Will's Creek to An- 
napolis and back thither for four months." 

With some slight amendments the Upper House 
agreed to the resolutions, and two thou.sand pounds 
were appropriated for the purposes therein mentioned. 

On the 5th of July the Governor sent another 
message to the Lower House informing them that 
bands of hostile Indians were entering the province, 
and that fifteen persons in Frederick County on their 
way to Fort Cumberland for protection had been 
killed or captured by the savages. 

During all this time the possibility of Braddook's 
defeat had been as little dreamed of by the colonists 
as by that confident commander himself. The im- 
mense superiority of the English over French troops 
had become, since Marlborough's time, an article of 
the British creed, and to the regulars at least their 
Indian allies, who knew nothing of drill or discipline, 
who never met a foe in the open field, and carried 
into warfare the tactics and strategy of the forest 
hunter, seemed beneath contempt, and only formidable 
to sentinels, stragglers, and " raw militia-men." The 
colonists, however, knew them better, and the general 
had been warned of the possibility of a surprise, and 
had received the caution with the scorn he had be- 
stowed on the militia and all their doings. But even 
of the provincials, only a few who were with the army 
thought any disaster possible ; elsewhere victory was 
regarded as settled. Preparations were made in 
Philadelphia and Annapolis for celebrating the as- •' 

sured triumpli, and money was freely subscribed for 
illuminations and general festivities as soon as the 
couriers should bring the joyful news. 

Resuming the march, and passing over ground to 
the south of the Little Crossing and of the village of 
Grantsville, which it skirted, the army spent the night 
of the 21st of June at the Bear Camp, a locality 
supposed to be about half-way to the Great Crossings, 
which it reached on the 23d. The route thence to 
the Great Meadows, or Fort Necessity, was well 
chosen, though over a mountainous tract, conforming 
very nearly to the ground now occupied by the Na- 
tional road, and keeping on the dividing ridge between 
the waters flowing into the Youghiogheny on the one 
hand, and the Cheat River on the other. Having 
crossed the Youghiogheny, the army was now on the 
classic ground of Washington's early career, where 
the skirmish with Jumonville and the battle of Fort 
Necessity had occurred the year before. About one 
mile west of the Great Meadows, and near the spot 
now marked as Braddock's Grave, the road struck off 
more to the northwest, in order to reach a pass 
through Laurel Hill, that would enable them to strike 
the Youghiogheny at a point afterwards known as 
Stewart's Crossing, and about half a mile below the 
present town of Connellsville. This part of the route 
is marked by the farm known as Mount Braddock. 

One month was spent in the march from Fort Cum- 
berland to the fatal field. The route as far as Gist's 
was that of Washington the year before ; and although 
Washington had marched from Will's Creek to the 
Meadows in twenty-three days, making the road as 
he went, yet it took Braddock eighteen days to drag 
his slow length along over the same distance, and 
Duubar eight days longer. Truly did Washington 
say that " instead of pushing on with vigor, without 
regarding a little rough road, they were halting to 
level every mole,-hill and erect bridges over every 
brook." This needless delay, like everything else in 
this campaign, contributed its share to the disastrous 
result ; for while Braddock was halting and bridging the 
enemy was collecting a force for resistance and attack 
which three days' prompter movement would have an- 
ticipated. At the Little Meadows (Tomlinson's) a divi- 
sion of the army in the march was made : the general 
and Col. Halket, with select portions of the two regi- 
ments and of the other forces, lightly incumbered, going 
on in advance, being in all about fourteen hundred. 
Col. Dunbar, with the residue, about eight hundred 
and fifty, and the heavy baggage, artillery, and stores, 
were left to move up by " slow and easy marches," an 
order which he executed so literally as to earn for 
himself the sobriquet of " Dunbar the tardy." When, 



on the 28th of June, Braddock was at Stewart's 
Crossing (Connellsville), Dunbar was only at the Lit- 
tle Crossings. Here Washington, under a violent 
attack of fever, had been left by Braddoek, under the 
care of his friend Dr. Craik and a guard, two days 
in advance of Dunbar, to come on with him when 
able, the gallant aide requiring from the general a 
" solemn pledge" not to arrive at the French fort until 
he should rejoin him ; and as Washington did not re- 
port himself until the day before the battle, this pledge 
may be some apology for Braddock having consumed 
eighteen precious days in marching about eighty miles. 
According to Capt. Orme's journal, the encampments, 
etc., of Braddock in Fayette County, Pa., were as fol- 
lows : 

On the 24th of June he marched from Squaw's 
Fort (near Somerfield) six miles to a camp east of the i 
Great Meadows, near the " twelve springs." He 
crossed the Yough without bridging about half a 
mile above where the National road now crosses it. 
In this day's march they passed a recently-abandoned 
Indian camp, indicating by the number of huts that 
about one hundred and seventy had been there. 
" They had stripped and painted some trees, upon 
which they and the French had written many threats 
and bravadoes, with all kinds of scurrilous language." 
This encampment of Braddock was between Mount 
Augusta and Marlow's road, south of the National 

June 25th. The army moved about seven miles, 
and encamped in what is now the Old Orchard, near 
and northwest of " Braddoek's Grave," called then, 
two miles west of Great Meadows, — the general riding 
in anticipated triumph over the very spot which in 
twenty days was to be his last encampment. The 
army seems to have passed the ruins of Fort Neces- 
sity without a halt or a notice. It is singular they 
did not encamp there, for Orme says they were late 
in getting to their ground, because that morning, 
about a quarter of a mile after starting, they had to 
let their carriages down-hill with tackle. In this 
day's march three men were shot and scalped by the 
enemy, and the sentinels fired upon some French and 
Indians whom thej' discovered reconnoitering their 
camp, — an annoyance now become so frequent that on 
the next day Braddock offered a bounty of five pounds 
for every scalp that his Indians or soldiers woiild 

June 26th. They marched only about four miles 
by reason of the " extreme badness of the road," 
arriving at what Orme calls Rock Fort, on Laurel 
Hill, a place now known as the Great Rock, near 
Washington Spring and the Half King's old camp. 

being a little more than two miles southward of Dun- 
bar's camp. " At our halting-place," says Orme, 
" we found another Indian camp, which they had 
abandoned at our approach, their fires being yet burn- 
ing. They had marked in triumph upon trees the 
scalps they had taken two days before, and many of 
the French had written on them their names and 
sundry insolent expressions. We picked up a com- 
mission on the march, which mentioned the party 
being under the command of the Sieur Normanville. 
This Indian camp was in a strong situation, being 
upon a high rock, with a very narrow and steep 
ascent to the top. It had a spring in the middle, and 
stood at the termination of the Indian path to the 
Monongahela at Redstone. By this pass the party 
came which attacked Mr. Washington last year, and 
also this which attended us. By their tracks they 
seem to have divided here, the one party being 
straight forward to Fort Du Quesne and the other 
returning by Redstone Creek to the Monongahela. 
A captain's detachment of ninety-four men marched 
with guides, to fidl in the night upon the latter divis- 
ion. They found a small quantity of provisions and 
a very large batteau, which they destroyed, but saw 
no men, and the captain joined the general the next 
day at Gist's." 

June 27th. " We marched from the camp at Rock 
Fort to Gist's Plantation, which was about six miles, 
the road still mountainous and rocky. Here the ad- 
vancing party was relieved, and all the wagons and 
carrying horses with provision belonging to that de- 
tachment joined us." This advanced party consisted 
of about four hundred, under Lieut.-Col. Burton, who, 
with Sir John St. Clair, had been sent in advance to 
cut and make the road, taking with them two six- 
pounders, with ammunition, three wagons of tools, 
and thirty-five days' provisions, all on pack-horses. 

June 28th. The army marched from Gist's, where 
the encampment was near Washington's of the pre- 
vious year, to a camp near to and west of Stewart's 
Crossing of the Yough, a short half-mile below New 
Haven, on land subsequently belonging to Daniel 
Rogers, formerly Col. William Crawford. It has been 
commonly supposed that a division of the army here 
took place, the English troops, etc., crossing the river 
and bearing northward, while the Virginia or colonial 
forces went down the river and crossed at the Broad 
Ford, thenc&bearing more to the west, crossing Jacob's 
Run at Stouffer's mill, the two divisions reuniting at 
Sewickley, near Painter's Salt- Works. Orme's jour- 
nal has no notice of any such division. The Broad 
Ford route may be that which was traversed by the 
detachments or convoys of provisions, etc., from Dun- 



bar's divisioD, which were from time to time sent up 
to the main army ; one of which, Orme says, came up 
at Thicketty Run, a branch of Sewickley, on the 5th 
of July. Another detachment of one hundred men, 
with pack-horse loads of flour and some beeves, ac- 
cording to Washington's letters, left the camp west of 
the Great Meadows on the 3d of July, with which 
he went, joining the army on the 8th, the day before 
the battle, " in a covered wagon." This convoy took 
up the one hundred beeves which were among the 
losses in the defeat. It is a noticeable fact that 
Washington, enfeebled by a consuming fever, was so 
invigorated by the sight of the scenes of his discom- 
fiture the previous year as to seize the opportunity of 
celebrating its first anniversary by hastening on to 
participate in an achievement which, as he fondly 
hoped, would restore to his king and country all that 
had been lost by his failure. 

June 30th. The army to-day crossed the Yough at 
Stewart's Crossing or Ford in strict military style, 
with advanced guard first passed and posted. There 
is here a little confusion in Capt, Ornio's journal. Not 
only does he make the west to be the east side of the 
Yough, but he says, " We were obliged to encamp 
about a mile on to the west (east) side, where we 
halted a day, to cut a passage over a mountain. This 
day's march did not exceed two miles !" It would 
seem the halt was on the 29th, before crossing the 
river, for the march is resumed on the 1st of July. 
This " mountain" is the bluff known as the " Nar- 
rows," below Davidson's mill. The camp is not cer- 
tainly known, probably on land late of Robert Long, 
deceased; perhaps south of the Narrows, on Mr. Da- 
vidson's land. 

July 1st. Says Orme, " We marched about five 
miles, but could advance no farther by reason of a 
great swamp, which required much work to make it 
passable." The course was northeastward. The 
swamp can be no other than that fine-looking cham- 
paign land above the head-waters of Martin's Creek 
and Jacob's Creek, north and east of the Old Chain 
Bridge, embracing lands formerly belonging to Col. 
Isaac Meason, and afterwards to George E. Hogg and 

July 2d. The army moved in the same direction 
(east of north) about six miles, to " Jacob's Cabin." 

The localities of this and the last preceding camp 
cannot be precisely fixed, and the curious reader and 
topographer is left to his own conclusion fiom the 
data given. Jacob's cabin was doubtless the abode 
of an Indian, who gave his name to the creek on which 
he trapped and hunted. 

July 3d. " The swamp being repaired, we marched 

about six miles to Salt-lick Creek." This Salt-lick 
Creek is Jacob's Creek, and the camp at the end of 
the day's march was near Welshouse's mill, about a 
mile below Mount Pleasant. From's mill 
the course was northward, passing just to the west of 
Mount Pleasant ; thence crossing Sewickely (Thick- 
etty) Run near Painter's Salt- Works ; thence bearing 
a little westward, it crossed the present tracks of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and turnpike, west of Greens- 
burg, to the Bush Fork of Turtle Creek'. Here Brad- 
dock abandoned his wise design to approach the 
French fort by the ridge route, or Nemacolin's path, 
being deterred by the difiieulties of crossing the deep 
and rugged ravines of the streams. Turning, at 
almost a right angle, westward, he got into the valley 
of Long Run at or near Stewartsville, and went down 
it past Samson's mill, encamping on the night of the 
8th of July, where Washington joined him, about two 
miles east of the Monongahela. The army moved 
from this encampment early next morning, turning 
into the valley of Crooked Run, which they followed 
to its mouth, and crossed the river at " Braddock's 
upper ford," below McKeesport; thence down the 
river on the west side about three miles to Braddock's 
lower ford, just below the mouth of Turtle Creek and 
Dam No. 2, where they recrossed to the fatal encounter 
of the 9th of July. This double crossing of the river 
was to avoid the intervening narrows. 

Braddock had conducted the march hitherto with 
most commendable care and with signal success; and 
now, as he neared the object of his labor and ambition, 
he took all the precautionary measures to avoid sur- 
prise and disaster which his military education sug- 
gested. But, unfortunately, he knew nothing of In- 
dian strategy or backwoods tactics. He was sensible 
that his near approach was known at the French fort, 
and that all his movements were closely and secretly 
watched. Hence at the crossings of the river he had 
his advanced guards well posted, and having caused 
his soldiers to be well appareled and their arms bright- 
ened, he made a display well calculated to strike terror 
into the enemy. Washington was wont to say that 
he never saw a more animating sight than the army's 
second crossing of the Monongahela. Nevertheless, 
Sir Peter Halket, Mr. Secretary Shirley, and Maj. 
Washington were not without anxious forebodings. 
Controcoeur, the commandant of the fort, frightened 
at the exaggerated reports of the numbers of the Eng- 
lish, had prepared to surrender or to fly, as his suc- 
cessor did before Gen. Forbes in 1758. Indeed, he 
reluctantly yielded assent to any resistance. And 
when, on the 8th, MM. Beaujeau, Dumas, and De 
Lisneris sought a detachment of regulars and Indian 


aid, it was merely to dispute the river passes, and to 
annoy and retard the march of the English. They had 
caused the ground to be thoroughly examined, and 
knew well the ravines, or natural trenches, which so 
well served them for attack and protection in the con- 
flict. To comprehend the nature of the action and 
the inevitableness of Braddock's defeat one must visit 
the ground. He will there, even yet, see the two 
ravines, dry, with almost perpendicular banks, just 
high enouifh to conceal, protect, and fire from, capable 
of containing an army of two thousand men. And if 
he will imagiae the second bank to be densely wooded, 
and covered with a thick and tangled web of pea-vine 
and other undergrowth, with a newly-cut road, twelve 
feet wide, passing about midway between the ravines, 
and at no place more than eighty yards distant from 
one or the other, he will have fully before him the 
scene of the disaster. The French and Indians were 
about nine hundred strong, the latter being more than 
two-thirds of the force. They arrived on the ground 
too late to dispute the passage of the river. The army 
had crossed, formed its line of march, and was moving 
— marching into the snare — when the enemy appeared 
right in front, and near the heads of the ravines. 

As if by magic, at a preconcerted silent signal from 
M. Beaujeau, the chief in command, the Indians at 
once disappeared right and left into the excavations, 
leaving only the little French line visible. These 
were engaged with spirit and success by Lieut.-Col. 
Gage, and until the Indians began to pour in their 
invisible deadly shots fortune seemed to incline to the 
English. It soon changed, and no eflForts could re- 
store it. Even tree-fighting could not have saved the 
doomed English soldiery, who held their ground, 
fought well, and obeyed their officers as long as they 
had ofiicers to command them. They were in the 
jaws of death, and nothing could have delivered them 
except perhaps a raking fire of grape or round-shot 
up and down the ravine. The excuse for not essay- 
ing this expedient is that the ravines were unknown 
and invisible. Even yet, when all is clear around 
them, you do not discern them until you are almost 
upon them. 

In the narrow road, but twelve feet wide, the men 
were huddled into a confused mass, firing at random 
into the trees, while the enemy, whom they could not 
see, but whose numbers seemed multiplied tenfold by 
their hideous yells and whoopings, mowed them down 
by a well-directed fire. Frantic with rage and excite- 
ment, Braddock endeavored to restore order and ex- 
tricate his force from this slaughter-pen ; and four 
horses were shot under him as, reckless of his own 
life, he flew from point to point. His officers dis- 

mounted and formed into platoons, to set their men 
an example, and thus made themselves fair marks for 
the Indians' rifles, but their self-devotion was fruit- 
less. The provincials, skilled in forest-fighting, at 
once sheltered themselves behind trees, and the regu- 
lars would have followed their example had Braddock 
allowed it, but he refused to give the order ; and such 
was the force of discipline, or the bewildering effects 
of panic, that the men were mowed down as they 
stood, neither flying or taking cover. Many were 
slain by the fire of their own comrades, who had lost 
the power of distinguishing friend from foe. 

Thus for hours the slaughter went on. The am- 
munition was giving out ; the officers were nearly all 
killed or wounded, not a .single aide but Washington 
being left ; more than half the army had fallen, and 
the rest could do nothing where they were but die. 
Braddock gave the order for retreat, and almost at 
the same moment a ball pierced his right arm and en- 
tered his lungs, inflicting a mortal wound. The 
retreat became a headlong flight, which the dying 
general in vain attempted to check. A few men 
gathered around him, bore him from the field, and 
obeyed his orders ; and despite his agonies he em- 
ployed every remaining moment of his life in endeav- 
ing to provide for the safety of the survivors, repair 
in what slight measure he could the disaster his rash- 
ness had caused, and bring back the shattered remnant 
of his great army to Great Meadows, where he died.' 

Of the fourteen hundred and sixty, besides women 
and other camp-followers who crossed the Mononga- 
hela, four hundred and fifty-six were killed, four hun- 
dred and twenty-one wounded, many of them mortally. 
Out of eighty-nine commissioned ofiicers, sixty-three 
were killed or wounded. 

i It is uncertain whether Braddock was killed hy the enemy 
or by one of liis own men. There is a strong probability that 
he was killed in revenge by Thomas Foss-it, a Pennsylvania 
provincial, whose brother Joseph, it is said, Braddock struck 
dead with his sword fcr having taken shelter behind a tree dur- 
ing the battle. Braddock was buried about two miles west of 
Fort Necessity, near the banks of a small stream, immediately 
in the road, a short distance from the present National road. 
About 1824, says Lowdermilk, a party of workmen, engaged in 
repairing the old road, came upon the remains of a human 
skeleton, supposed to be that of Braddock. The remains were 
carried to a point about one hundred and fifty yards eastwai-d, 
and buried in a field at the foot of a large oak-tree, some 
twenty-five yards from the National road. By the direction of 
Hon. Andrew Stewart the spot was marked by a board, upo^ 
which was inscribed the fact that this was the last resting-place 
of Maj.-Gen. Edward Braddock, and this board was nailed to 
the tree. Some twelve years ago the tree was blown down, 
leaving nothing but a portion of the trunk to mark the place. 
In 1871 a party of English visitors had the spot inclosed with 
a strong board fence. 


The Gentleman s Magazine, of August, 1755, gives 

the following list of officers who were present, and of 

those who were killed and wounded in this disastrous 

engagement : 


Edward Braddock, Esq., General and Commander-in-Chief, 
mortally wounded. 

Hobert Orme, Esq., Roger Morris, Esq., George Washington, 
Esq., Aides-de-Camp ; wounded. 

William Shirley, Esq., Secretary; killed. 

Sir John St. Clair, Deputy Quartermaster-General; wounded. 

Matthew Leslie, Gent., General Assistant Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral ; wounded. 

Francis Halket, Esq., M.^jor Brigade. 

Officers' Names. Kank. Killed or Wounded. 

Sir Peter .Halket Colonel Killed. 

Gage, Esq Lieut. -Colonel Wounded. 

Tatton Captain Killed. 

Hobson " 

Beckworth " 

Githins " Killed. 

Falconer Lieutenant. 

Sittler " Wounded. 

Bailey " 

Dunbar " Wounded. 

Pottenger " 

Halket " Killed. 

Treby " Wounded. 

Alien ' " Died of wounds. 

Simpson " Wounded. 

Lock *' ;. '* 

Disney Ensign " 

Kennedy " " 

Townsend " Killed. 

Preston " 

Clarke *' 

Nortlow " Killed. 

Pennington " 


Burton, Esq Lieut. -Colonel Slightly wounded. 

Sparks, Esq Major. 

Dobson, Esq Captain. 

Cholmondeley ** Killed. 

Bowyer, Esq " Wounded. 

Ross, Esq " " 

Barbult, Esq Lieutenant. " 

Walsham, Esq ** 

Crymble, Esq " Killed. 

Widman, Esq " " 

Hansard, Esq " *' 

Henry Gladwin, Esq... " Wounded. 

Hotham, Esq ** 

Edmund Stone, Esq.... " Wounded. 

Cope, Esq " 

Brereton, Esq " Killed. 

Stuart, Esq " " 

Montresore Ensign Wounded. 

Dunbar " 

Harrison " 

Colebatt " 

Macmullen ** Wounded. 

Crowe " " 

Stirling " *' 




Stevens Captain 

Waggoner " 

Poison " 

Peyronie " 

Stewart ** 

Hamilton Lieutenant Killed. 

Woodward ■' 

Wright " Killed. 

Spittdorph " " 

Stewart " Wounded. 

Officers' Names. Bank. 

Waggoner Lieutenant., 


Killed or Wounded. 


Gates Captain 

Sumani Lieutenant 


Haworth " 

Grey ** 



Orde Captain. 

Smith Capt. -Lieutenant.. ..Killed. 

Buchanan Lieutenant Wounded. 


McCuIlor '■ Wounded. 


McKeller. Esq Major Wounded. 

Gordon, Esq Captain *' 

Williamson, Esq Capt. -Lieutenant.... " 


Spendelowe Lieutenant Killed. 

Haynes Midshipman. 

Talbot " Killed. 



Stone Captaiu 

Hager " 

Capt. Evan Shelby's name was omitted by the 
Gentleman's Magazine, by mistake no doubt. He 
was a captain of rangers, and participated in the bat- 
tle. He was a Welshman by birth. He subsequently 
served in Forbes' expedition with great honor, and 
was the father of Gen. Isaac Shelby, a distinguished 
Revolutionary officer. Lieut. Henry Gladwin, of the 
English Forty-eighth Regiment, afterwards was deputy 
adjutant-general in America. 

All the artillery and ammunition, baggage, pro- 
visions, wagons, and many horses were lost. The 
general lost his military chest, containing, it is said, 
£25,000 in specie (§125,000) and all his papers. 

Washington also lost many valuable papers. In 
short, the officers and soldiers who escaped the car- 
nage lost nearly everything except the clothes on 
their backs and the arms in their hands, many aban- 
doning even the latter. Capt. Orme saved his journal, 
now almost the only authentic continuous record of 
this most disastrous campaign. 

Braddock displayed, in the perplexing circumstances 
of the action, great activity and courage. He had 
four horses shot under him, and after having mounted 
a fifth, while in the act of issuing an order, near the 
head of one of the ravines, and near the end of the 
conflict he received a mortal wound, the ball shatter- 
ing his right arm and passing into his lungs. He fell 
to the ground, " surrounded by the dead and almost 
abandoned by the living ;" and had it not been for the 
devoteduess of his aide, Capt. Orme, and the almost ob- 
stinate fidelity of Capt. Stewart, of Virginia, who com- 



niauded the light-horse, the fallen general would have 
had his wish gratified, — that the scene of his disaster 
should also witness his death. He was borne from 
the ground at great risk, at first in a tumbril, then on 
a horse. Every ofiBcer above the grade of a captain 
was now either killed or disabled except Washington, 
who escaped unhurt, though two horses were shot under 
him and his clothes pierced with balls, so feeble and 
emaciated that day (from his late sickness with the 
fever) that he had to ride upon a pillow. The drums 
had beat a retreat before Braddock fell, and now 
Washington undertook to give it whatever of order it 
was susceptible of, for it was a headlong flight. 

The retreat was by the same route as the advance, 
crossing the river at the same fording. The enemy 
did not pursue, but remained to riot in scalps and 
plunder. Braddock was carried with the little rem- 
nant of his army that could be held together. It is 
not probable that the panic-stricken fugitives all re- 
turned to Gist's by the same path, many, through 
fear of pursuit, betaking themselves to the woods and 
by-ways. The Pennsylvania wagoners, it is said, es- 
caped to a man, astride their fleetest horses. Certain 
it is, by ten o'clock next morning several of them 
were in Dunbar's camp, on Laurel Hill, nearly forty 
miles distant, with the tidings, and one or two 
wounded ofiicers were carried into the camp before 
noon of that day. 

After crossing to the west side of the river in the 
flight, a rally was eflFected of about one hundred men, 
with whom were Braddock, Burton, and Washington. 
From this point Washington was sent to Dunbar for 
aid and wagons to convey the wounded. The road 
was then new, and hard to find in the night. There 
had been a coldness between the general and Dunbar, 
hence it was deemed necessary, to insure obedience, 
that Washington, as aide-de-camp, should go with 
orders. Weak and exhausted as he was, he shrank 
not from his duty. He set out with two men, in a 
night so wet and dark that frequently they had to 
alight from their horses and grope for the road. 
Nevertheless, they reached Dunbar's camp about 
sunrise. Braddock and his followers reached Gist's 
about ten o'clock that evening. 

Nathaniel Gist, son of Christopher, with " Gist's 
Indian," were dispatched from the battle-field to Fort 
Cumberland with tidings of the overthrow, but with 
instructions to avoid passing by or disturbing the re- 
pose of Dunbar. They traveled afoot and through 
unfrequented paths to avoid the Indians. While 
snatching some repose during the first night of their 
journey, in a thicket of bushes and grapevine on 
Cove's Run, a branch of Shoutis Run, within view of 

the camp-fires of Dunbar, they mistook the noise of 
the movement of some bird or beast for Indians, and 
taking to flight, became separated in the darkness. 
But each wended his way cautiously alone. When 
nearing their destination, upon emerging from the 
bushes into the open road. Gist saw ahead a few rods 
his long-lost Indian, who had also just taken to the 
highway. Although the sufferings of Braddock in 
mind and body were intense, he was not unmindful 
of his wounded soldiers. Upon the arrival, on the 
morning of the J.lth, at Gist's of some wagons and 
stores from Dunbar, he sent off' a convoy of provisions 
for the relief of those supposed yet to be behind, and 
ordered up more wagons and troops from the camp, 
to bring off" the wounded. 

It is probable these humane provisions were avail- 
able but to few, except the general officers, and per- 
haps a few others. All the badly wounded were left 
on the bloody field to the merciless cruelties of the 
savages, or perished in its vicinity. In after-years 
human bones were found plentifully all around, some 
as far off" as three miles. Having made these arrange- 
ments, had their wounds dressed, and taken some 
food, Braddock and the remnant of his command, on 
Friday, the 11th, moved up to Dunbar's camp. 

Dunbar, as will be remembered, was at the Little 
Crossings on the 20th of June, with about eight hun- 
dred and fifty of the army, and the heavy artillery 
and the stores. On the 2d of July he passed the 
Great Meadows, and on the 10th is found at his 
camp on the top of Laurel Hill. How long he had 
lain there is uncertain, probably several days. 

It is, perhaps, ample apology for the slow move- 
ments of Dunbar that, besides the rugged and steep 
passes of the mountains, the troops he had with him 
were the refuse of the army, very many of whom 
sickened and died on the way with the flux and for 
want of fresh provisions. 

The Indians and French constantly annoyed his 
march and beset his camps, and having got in his 
rear, cut off" much of his scanty supplies. But the 
great cause of delay was the want of horses to move 
his heavy train. After one day's toil at half the 
wagons and other vehicles, the poor jaded beasts had 
to go back the next day and tug up the other half, 
often moving not more than three miles a day, and 
consuming two days at each encampment. So ex- 
hausted were the horses that an officer of the train es- 
timated it would require twenty-five days for Dunbar 
to overtake Braddock from the Great Meadows. 
And in the council of war held by Braddock at 
Jacob's Creek, on the 3d of July, to consider Sir 
John St. Clair's suggestion to halt and send back all 



their horses to bring up Dunbar's division, it was | which had been brought hither at such great labor and 
adjudged that with this aid he could not be brought : expense, were destroyed. Nothing was saved beyond 
up in less than eleven days, so weak were all the ', the actual necessities of a flying march. These in- 
horses. Besides, it was never designed that Dunbar ' eluded two six-pounders and some hospital stores, 

ht>rses and light wagons for the sick and wounded, of 
whom there were three hundred. The rest of the 
artillery, cohorns, etc., were broken up, the shells 
burst, the powder thrown into the spring basin, the 
provisions and baggage scattered, and one hundred and 
fifty wagons burned. A few days afterwards some of 
the enemy came up and completed the work of de- 

It has been a current tradition, based upon contem- 
porary statements, that some of the field-pieces and 
other munitions of war, and even money, were buried 
or concealed near the camp, and much time and labor 
have been spent in fruitless search for them. This 
story, it seems, reached the ears of Dunbar while on 
his retreat from Will's Creek through Pennsylvania, 
and he and all his officers, in a letter to Governor 
Shirley, dated Aug. 21, 1755, expressly contradict it 
in these words : " We must beg leave to undeceive 
you in what you are pleased to mention of guns being 
buried at the time Gen. Braddock ordered the stores 
to be destroyed, for there was not a gun of any kind 
buried." However, such things as cannon-balls, bul- 
lets, brass and iron kettles, crowbars, files, some shells, 
irons of horse gears and wagons, etc., have been found 
by the early settlers and other explorers. 

The remains of the reunited army encamped on 
the night of the 13th of July at the old orchard 
camp, " two miles west" of Fort Necessity. Here 
Braddock died, having, before he expired, it is said, 
but rather apocryphally, bequeathed to Washington 
his favorite charger and his body-servant. Bishop. 
Mr. Headley has endeavored to give to Braddock's 
funeral the romantic interest of the burial of Sir John 
Moore, — " darkly, at dead of night," by the light of 
a torch, instead of "' lanterns dimly burning," and with 
the addition of Washington reading the funeral ser- 
vice. But he was buried in daylight, on the morning 

should overtake Braddock until the fort was captured 
And this setting apart of him, his officers, and sol- 
diers to an ignoble service — making it a " foregone 
conclusion" that they were not to share the honors 
or spoils of victory — soured their tempers and relaxed 
their exertions. 

Dunbar's camp was situated southeast of the summit 
of Wolf's Hill, one of the highest points of Laurel 
Hill Mountain, and about three thousand feet above 
the level of the ocean. The site is in full view of 
Uniontown, to the eastward about six miles distant, 
and is visible from nearly all the high points in Fayette 
County and the adjacent parts of Greene and Wash- 
ington Counties, Pa. The camp was about three hun- 
dred feet below the summit, and about half a mile's 
distance on the southern slope. It was then cleared of 
its timber, but has since become much overgrown with 
bushes and small trees. Near it are two fine sand 
springs, below which a dam of stones and earth, two 
or three feet high, was made to afford an abundant 
supply of water. This dam is still visible, though 
much overgrown by laurels. Into this spring, pool, 
or basin, it is said, when Dunbar's encampment was 
broken up, fifty thousand pounds of powder, with 
other material of war, were thrown, to render them 
useless to the enemy. Old Henry Becson, of Union- 
town, used to relate that when he first visited this 
locality, in 1767, there were some six inches of black 
nitrous matter visible all over this spring basin. 

The Turkey's Foot, or " Smith's road," from Bed- 
ford, crossed Braddock's, or Nemacolin's road just at 
this camp. Both are yet plainly visible, and the re- 
mains of an old stone chimney near the cross-roads 
indicate the site of an ancient tavern, where many a 
pioneer halted and many an old emigrant and settler 
took his ease. 

When the remains of Braddock's division rejoined 

Dunbar here, on the 11th of July, the camp was i of the 14th, in the road near the run and old orchard, 

found in great confusion and disorder. Many had 
fled the day before on the first tidings of the slaughter 
of the 9th, and as had been the case upon that dis- 
aster, the wagoners and pack-horse-drivers were among 
the first to fly, and were the earliest messengers of the 
defeat to Governor Morris, of Pennsylvania, then at 
Carlisle superintending the forwarding of supplies. 

Orders still continued to be issued in Braddock's 
name, though his life was fast ebbing away. Retreat 
became inevitable. The camp was abandoned on the 
12th. All the stores and supplies, artillery, etc.. 

id the march of the troops, horses, and wagons passed 
over the grave to obliterate its traces, and thus pre- 
vent its desecration by the enemy. The tree labeled 
" Braddock's Grave" indicates the place, near by, 
where were reinterred, about 1820, some of the bones 
of a man supposed to be Braddock. The military 
accompaniments said to have been found with them 
indicate that they were. They had been dug out of 
the bank of the run in 1812, in repairing the old 
road. These may or may not have been the bones of 
Braddock. Several of the bones were carried off be- 



fore the reinterment at the tree, many of which, it is 

said, were afterwards collected by Abraham Stewart 

(who was the road supervisor when they were dug 
out) and sent to Peale's Museum at Philadelphia as 
curiosities. Col. Burd says he found the spot of his I 
interment about " twenty rods from a little hollow," 
etc., when he came out in 1759. But Washington 
says that when he buried him " he designed at some 
future day to erect a monument to his memory, which 
he had no opportunity of doing till after the Revolu- 
tionary war, when he made, in 1784, a diligent search 
for his grave, but the road had been so much turned, 
and the clear land so extended, that it could not be 

On July 11th, Col. Innes, who had been appointed 
by Braddock governor of Fort Cumberland, received 
the first unfavorable news of a great reverse to the 
army, and hurried away expresses to the neighboring 
provinces. On the 16th the tidings reached Annap- 
olis, and on the next day Governor Sharpe set out for 
Fort Cumberland, accompanied by his secretary, Mr. 
Ridout, Lieut. Gold, and Ensign Russel, of His Ma- 
jesty's forces, and a band of volunteers who had taken 
up arms to aid in the defense of the frontier. When 
the Governor reached the fort all was alarm and con- 
fusion. Numbers of the terrified inhabitants had 
hastened to its walls for safety from the now defense- 
less frontier, and to complete their misery Col. Dun- 
bar had announced his intention of abandoning every- 
thing and retreating to Philadelphia, a resolution 
which he carried into effect in spite of all the remon- 
strances and pleadings of the Governor.' 

This pusillanimous retreat excited the greatest in- 
dignation and alarm throughout the colonies, for it 
left the whole frontier uncovered, and the enemy now 
harried at his pleasure all the western borders of Mary- 
land, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, plundering and 
murdering everywhere. To add to the alarm, the 
Shawanese and Delaware Indians, who had hitherto 
continued faithful, now went over to the French side, 
and began to ravage and slay the unhappy colonists. 
The outposts were everywhere driven in, some of the 
smaller forts taken, and universal panic prevailed. 
Fort Cumberland was still held by the provincials, 
under Capt. Dagworthy, but this isolated post could 
afford no protection against the roving bands of sav- 
ages, who plundered the country round, and the gar- 
rison themselves were subject to frequent annoyance. 
There are two high knobs of the mountain, one on 

1 On the return of the Maryland troops from their expedition 
against the Indians, under Braddoclt and Washington, Capt. 
Evan Shelby, who commanded a company of Frederick County 
Rangers, was received with every demonstration of joy. 

the southern or Virginia side of the Cohongornton, 
and the other on the Maryland side, within a short 
distance of the fort, from which the Indians fre- 
quently fired into it. On one occasion a rather large 
party of savages were posted on the knob on the 
Maryland side, and had given considerable annoyance, 
when a captain and seventy men volunteered to dis- 
lodge them. On a very dark night they sallied out 
from the fort, surrounded the knob, and cautiously 
ascending until they were within musket-shot of the 
foe, waited for daybreak. As soon as it was light 
they opened a brisk fire upon the Indians from all 
quarters, which threw them into utter confusion. 
Not knowing which way to escape, they were killed 
almost to a man, and the knob to this day bears the 
name of " Bloody Hill." Shortly after this " Kill- 
buck," a distinguished chief, attempted to take the 
fort by stratagem. He approached it at the head of 
a large force of warriors, and pretending that they 
came as friends and allies, asked to be admitted. The 
commander appeared to be deceived by the stratagem 
and opened the gates, but no sooner had the chief and 
his principal warriors entered than the gates were 
closed and the wily savage caught in a trap. The 
commander charged him with his treachery, and as a 
punishment dressed his prisoners in women's clothes 
and drove them from the fort, a humiliation which, 
to the haughty savage, was more bitter than a tortur- 
ing death. 

The alarm which the disaster on the Monongahela, 
the flight of the British troops, and the advance of 
the enemy occasioned spread over the whole prov- 
ince. Many of the inhabitants of the western settle- 
ments fled to Baltimore, and preparations were even 
made by the people of that town to place the women 
and children on board the ves.sels in the harbor and 
send them to Virginia, while some of the Virginians 
were so alarmed as to think there was no safety short 
of England itself. But there were others of firmer 
temper who proposed to meet the coming danger. In 
September, Lieut. Stoddert, assisted by fifteen pio- 
neers from the surrounding settlements, erected a 
stockade fort, which served as a rallying-point for 
the settlers around. All those who lived beyond Ton- 
alloway Creek abandoned their habitations, and the 
country, as far east as thirty miles east of Col. 
Cresap's, who lived about five miles west of the 
mouth of the South Branch of the Potomac, was de- 
serted. Col. Thomas Cresap himself moved down the 
river to the plantation of his son, Michael Cresap, 
who lived near the Conococheague. The two Cresaps 
were distinguished among the hardy frontiersmen for 
courage, intelligence, and skill in Indian warfare. 



They were always on the alert, and their timely warn- I 
ings saved many of their neighbors from massacre, i 
Their block-bouse, which was strong enough to resist 
the savages, served as a place of refuge in case of an 
invasion, and as a rendezvous for the settlers in more 
peaceful times, where they met to hear and tell their 
news, to try their skill as marksmen, or engage in 
friendly trials of strength or dexterity, and at night, 
seated around a huge log fire, they would tell adven- 
tures of war or the chase, and if by good luck any i 
of them possessed a jewsharp or fiddle, and had the 
cunning to awaken its harmony, the evening wound 
up hilariously with a dance. 

So now the frontiersmen gathered at Cresap's and 
strengthened his block-house for defense ; others 
sought protection at Fort Cumberland and Frederick. 
Governor Sharpe, as we have already seen, had raised 
a' number of volunteers at this town when on his way 
to the fort, and to defray their expenses subscriptions 
were raised throughout the province, Annapolis and 
the surrounding country alone furnishing in a very 
few days one thousand pounds. The people of Bal- 
timore raised a large sum, with which they purchased 
arms and ammunition, and established a public armory 
in the town. The news from the frontiers, telling of 
Indian raids and massacres, kept up the alarm. In 
the Blari/land Gazette of October 9th we have the 
following account of affairs in the West : 

" By a person who arrived in town last Monday {October 6th) 
from Col. Cresap's, we are told that last Wednesday (October 
1st) morning the Indians had taken a man prisoner who was 
going from Frazier's to Fort Cumberland, and had also carried 
off a woman from Frazier's plantation, which is four miles on 
this side Fort Cumberland. The same morning they fell in 
with a man and his wife who had left their plantations, and 
were retiring into the more populous part of the country; they 
shot the horse on which the man was riding, but as it did not fall 
immediately he made his escape. The woman, it is supposed, 
fell into their hands, as neither she or the horse on which she 
was riding have been seen since or heard of. The same party 
of Indians also have carried off or killed Benjamin Rogers, his 
wife, and seven children, and Edmund Marie, one family of 
twelve persons, besides fifteen others, all in Frederick County. 
On Patterson's Creek many families have within this month 
been murdered, carried away, or burnt in their houses by a party 
of these barbarians, who have entirely broke up that settlement. 

" Another person, who left Stoddert's fort last Sunday, ac- 
quaints us that the inhabitants in that part of the country were 
in the greatest consternation. That near eighty persons were 
fled to the said fort for protection, and many more gone off in 
the greatest confusion to Pennsylvania. This, it seems, had been 
occasioned by a dispatch sent to Lieut. Stoddert and the 
neighborhood by Col. Cresap, advising them that a party of 
seventeen Indians had passed by his house and had cut off some 
people who dwelt on the Town Creek, which is a few miles on 
this side of Cresap's. One Daniel Ashloff, who lived near that 
creek, is come down towards Conococheague, and gives the 
same account. He says also that as himself and father, with 

several others, were retiring from their plantations last Saturday 
they were attacked by the same Indians, as he supposes, and 
all but himself were killed or taken prisoners. It is said that 
Mr. Stoddert, who has command of fifteen men, invited a few 
of the neighbors to join him and to go in quest of the enemy, 
but they would not be persuaded, whereupon he applied him- 
self to Maj. Prather for a detachment of the militia, either to 
go with a party of his men in pursuit of the savages, or gar- 
rison his fort while he made an excursion. Wo hope there will 
he no backwardness in the militia to comply with such a rea- 
sonable request, especially as any party or person that shall 
take an enemy prisoner will be rewarded with si.i pounds cur- 
rency, and the person who will kill an enemy, with four pounds, 
provided he can produce witnesses, or the enemy's scalp, in 
testimony of such action." 

In consequence of these outrages. Governor Sharpe, 
on the 18th of October, called out the militia of the 
province. At the same time Capt. Alexander Beall 
and Lieut. Samuel Wade Magruder with thirty vol- 
unteers from the lower part of Frederick County, and 
Col. Henry Ridgely with tliirty more from Anne 
Arundel County, hastened to the invaded district. 
A few days afterwards sixty more volunteers, fully 
armed and equipped, went from Prince George's 
County to the West at their own expense. They ar- 
rived too late to punish the marauders, who had al- 
ready made off' with their booty and prisoners, but 
they remained to protect those who were left from 
further outrage. 

Meanwhile, the alarm increased, and the wildest 
rumors were afloat. It was reported early in Novem- 
ber that a large body of French and Indians were ad- 
vancing upon the interior settlements, and this rumor 
reaching Frederick Town on Sunday, November 2d, 
the inhabitants, expecting an immediate attack, rang 
the bells as an alarm, and dispatched messengers to 
Baltimore and Annapolis for help. Several companies 
of volunteers at once mustered in Baltimore and the 
neighborhood, and marched without delay. The In- 
dians came to within about fifteen miles of Frederick 

Governor Sharpe ordered ioto service the militia of 
Frederick, Prince George's, Baltimore, Cecil, Anne 
Arundel, Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's Counties, to 
rendezvous at Frederick, Oct. 10, 1755. The troops 
were to march to Frederick, where James Dickson was 
to furnish them with provisions for five days ; thence 
they were to march to the mouth of the Conoco- 
chearrue, where George Ross was to furnish provisions 
to subsist them for eight days, or till they could reach 
Col. Cresap's, where they were to assist in the pro- 
tection of the frontier. 

In Aut^ust, 1755, Col. Nathaniel Wickham com- 
manded the militia of Frederick County, and ordered 
all to be called to the protection of the frontier. Some 



of the sealping-parties approached within thirty miles 
of Baltimore, and though many of them were killed, 
terror spread from the very fact of their approach ; 
but in the West the peril was real and constant ; 
scarce any out-door labor was carried on except under 
the protection of the troops, or of armed bodies of 
settlers. It was at the risk of life that any one ven- 
tured a few rods away from his door ; women visiting 
their sick neighbors were shot down or carried off; 
children bringing in the cattle from the field were 
tomahawked and scalped by the ambushed murderers. 
The plantations were being deserted, and homes and 
property abandoned to plunder or the torch, and all \ 
the remoter settlements were fast becoming a wilder- 
ness. Washington, harassed by want of sufficient 
support, and deeply pained by the scenes which he 
witnessed, wrote to Governor Dinwiddle, April 16, 

" I have done everything in my power to quiet the minds of [ 
the inhabitants by detaching all the men I have any command , 
over to the places more exposed. There also have been large 
detachments from Fort Cumberland in pursuit of the enemy 
these ten days past, yet nothing, I fear, will prevent the people 
from abandoning their dwellings and flying with the utmost 

Six days later he writes, — 

"The supplicating tears of the women and moving petitions 
of the men melt me into such deadly sorrow, that I solemnly 
declare, if I know my own mind, I could offer myself a willing 
sacrifice to the butchering enemy, provided that would con- 
tribute to the people's ease." 

On the 24th he writes, — 

''The deplorable situation of this people is no more to be 
described than uiy anxiety and uneasiness for their relief. You 
may expect by the time this comes to hand that, without a con- 
siderable reinforcement, Frederick County will not be mistress 
of fifteen families. They are now retiring to the securest parts 
in droves of fifties." 

In consequence of this state of things, Governor 
Sharpe authorized Prather to organize all the forces 
on the frontiers, except those at Fort Cumberland, 
and operate between the Potomac and the Pennsyl- 
vania line. By the 11th of March, Prather had 
under his command one hundred and fifty efficient 
and hardy backwoodsmen skilled in Indian fighting. 
Capt. Alexander Beall, who commanded a company 
of volunteers, was also authorized to raise a force of 
one hundred men and join Maj. Prather. Extracts 
from the papers of the times will show the state of i 
afiairs and the public excitement. The Maryland ' 
Gazette of the 4th of March says, — ■ 

" Our accounts from the westward are truly alarming. All > 

the slaughters, scalpings, burnings, and every other barbarity ! 

and mischief that the mongrel French, Indians, and their i 

chieftain, the devil, can invent are often perpetrated there, and I 

approach us nigher and nigher. ' 

I "By a person come to town this day from Frederick County 

we are told that last Sunday two boys, near Lawrence Wilson's, 

in that county, were killed and scalped, and a son of one Mr. 

j Lynn was found dead and scalped, himself and three more of 

! his family missing. At the Little Cove all the houses were 

; burned last week. The house of Ealph Matson, about half a 

I mile from Stoddert's Fort, was burned on Tuesday, last week. 

Some sheep which were in the pen near the house the Indians 

j flung in the fire alive, others they killed, and some they scalped." 

And on March 11th the Gazette published this 
extract from a letter dated Conococheague, February 

" My last was of the 26th instant. On our march to Toonalo- 
ways, about five miles this side Stoddert's Fort, we found John 
Meyers' house in flames, and nine or ten head of large cattle 
killed. About three miles and a half farther up the road we 
found a man (one Hynes) killed and scalped, with one arm cut 
oflT and several arrows sticking in him ; we could not bury him, 
having no tools with us for that purpose. Half a mile farther 
(within a mile of Stoddert's Fort) we found Ralph Watson's 
house burnt down, and several hogs and sheep killed. When 
we came to Stoddert's Fort we found them all under arms, ex- 
pecting every minute to be attacked. From thence we went 
to Combe's Fort, where we found a young man about twenty- two 
years of age killed and scalped ; there were only four men in 
this fort, two of which were unable to bear arms, but upwards 
of forty women and children, who were in a very poor situation, 
being afraid to go out of the fort, even for a drink of water. 
The house caught fire during the time the Indians were sur- 
rounding the fort, and would have been burnt down, but luckily 
there was some soapsuds in the house, by which they extin- 
guished it. The young man mentioned above was one Lynn's 
son, and was sitting on the fence of the stockyard with Combe's 
son, when they discovered the Indians, upon which they ran to 
get into the fort, and before they reached it Lynn's sou was 
shot down, and an Indian pursued the other man with a toma- 
hawk within thirty yards of the fort, but he luckily got into 
the fort and shot the Indian. We searched the woods to see if 
we could discover where the Indian was buried (as they sup- 
posed him to be mortally wounded). We found in two places 
great quantity of blood, but could not find the body. We saw 
several creatures shot, some dead, and others going around with 
arrows sticking in them. About half a mile on this side Mr. 
Kenney's (in Little Toonaloways) we found a load of oats and 
a load of turnips in the road, which two boys were bringing 
to Combe's, and it is imagined the boys are carried off by the 
Indians. When we came to Mr. Kenney's we saw several 
sheep and cattle killed. From thence we went to one Lowther's, 
about two miles farther, where we found his grain and two 
calves burnt, two cows and nine or ten hogs killed, and about 
fifty yards from the house found Lowther dead and scalped, and 
otherwise terribly mangled; his brains were beat out, as it is 
supposed, with his own gun-barrel, which we found sticking in 
his skull, and his gun broken ; there was an axe, two scythes, 
and several arrows sticking in him. From here we returned 
to Combe's and buried the young man, and left ten of our men 
here to assist them to secure their grain, which soon as they 
have done they purpose to leave that fort and go to Stoddert's, 
from hence we went to Stoddert's Fort, where we laid on Friday 
night and yesterday. On our way down here we buried the 
man we left on the road. 

" Isaac Bakek." 

Under date of March 11th the Gazette reports that 
" one Mrs. Inglis, who was taken prisoner by the 



Shawanese when Col. Patton was killed, had made a 
wonderful escape from the Lower Shawnee Town, and 
that she was fourteen days in the woods on her way 
home, was naked all the time, and lived on chestnuts." 
The murders and burnings continued without abate- 
ment, and on April 8th the Gazette recites the " dep- 
osition" of James Tucker, who related that he was 

" at Capt. Waggoner's Fort in Virginia, and heard some of Capt. 
Waggoner's company say that Mr. John Bacon, lieutenant of 
Capt. Dagworthy's company, was killed and scalped by the In- 
dians about four or five miles from Cumberland Fort, and also 
that two men with Lieut. Bacon were wounded, but made their 
escape to the fort. That he had heard that five men under the 
command of Capt. Ashby were killed by the enemy, and that 
the Indians had attacked one Cox Fort, but were repulsed. By 
the same express we have deposition of Aaron Ryley, taken 
yesterday (April 7, 1756), to the following efTect : that he was 
at Adam Hoop's on the 5th in.stant, where he saw an express 
who broujiht letters to several people there, which he did not 
hear read, but was told by the man who brought them that on 
the 1st instant William M. Coard's Fort, within about five miles 
from Col. Chambers' Fort, which he thinks is about thirty miles 
from Fort Lyttleton, was taken, and thirty people were there 
killed and taken. Upon the news of this, Capt. Alexander 
Culverson marched from among the inhabitants with a party of 
men in pursuit of the Indians, and were joined by another 
party from Fort Lyttleton, the whole amounting to about fifty 
men. That the Indians were about twelve miles from Fort Lyt- 
tleton. That they came up with the Indians, fired upon them 
and killed several, and at length put them to flight; that they 
were so eager in pursuit that, though Indian Isaac, our friend, 
advised them to cut loose some of the prisoners which they had 
tied to trees, yet they omitted it. That the party had not pur- 
sued far before the Indians were joined by fifty more, as they 
supposed, who soon routed the white men, and of the whole 
fifty only fifteen were returned to Fort Lyttleton .Sunday night 
last (April 4th)." 

At the burning of Coard's Fort " one of the young 
women was very big with child, whom they ripped 
open, and scalped the infant." 

While the Indians were thus laying waste the 
frontier settlements, a heartless attempt was made by 
some white adventurers on the border to turn the 
general alarm to their own advantage by pillaging 
the distres.sed inhabitants. In March (1756), 

"Thomas Mills, who came from Conococheague the beginning of 
last week, says that the inhabitants of that part of Frederick 
County were lately thrown into the greatest consternation by 
some parties firing guns and b.Tllooing, with a design to terrify 
the inhabitants and make them desert their habitations. He 
further says that upon the people's flying, the villains went and 
robbed their houses, and some of them have been since ap- 
proached, and confessed what is above mentioned." 

In the mean while the people of Frederick, Prince 
George's, and Baltimore Counties assailed the Lower 
House of Assembly with petitions. A memorial 
from Frederick Town urged them to decline unneces- 
sary disputes, and deiuanded that means should be 
afforded them to defend their lives and protect their 

property, as the destructive inroads of the enemy 
were now compelling them to desert their homes. 
On the 25th of April, 175G, forty-one persons, — six 
men, five women, and thirty children, — with a small 
portion of their cattle, to avoid the fury of the enemy 
deserted their cabins and clearings near Conoco- 
cheague and came to Baltimore. Their houses were 
destroyed and their cattle killed. And on the 23d of 
April, 1756, Thomas Cresap, Jr., and Daniel Cresap, 
sons of Col. Thomas Cresap, with sixty riflemen, 
" dressed and painted like Indians," with " red caps," 
started on an expedition " to kill the women and 
children in the Indian towns and scalp them, while 
the warriors are committing the like destruction on 
our frontiers." The result of this expedition is given 
in the Maryland Gazette as follows : 

" On the 23d of April, as Thomas Cresap, Jr., lay in ambush 
near the Little Meadow, they saw a party of Indians coming 
by them, but one of the party firing too soon alarmed them, 
and they fled as fast as possible into thickets, leaving their 
horses and baggage, which our people took and brought off 
with them. Among their baggage one scalp was found. One 
of the Indians taking a different course from the rest, Mr. 
Cresap and two others ran after him near a mile; when the In- 
dian found that Jlr. Cresap gained on him and would overtake 
him, he dodged behind a large tree, and Mr. Cresap stopped 
behind one smaller, and they fired at one another so near to- 
gether that it could not be distinguished which fired first. 
Cresap was shot with large shot in the breast, and the others of the 
party coming up, he told them not to mind him, he was a dead 
man, but to pursue the enemy, and then dropped down dead. 
The Indian was shot through the right breast, but was not 
dead when they came up to him, so they dispatched him with 
a tomahawk and scalped him. Mr. Cresap's body they buried 
as privately as they could. He was a young widower, and left 
two little children, and his death was lamented by all who 
knew him." 

This account was not quite correct. Cresap was 
shot with a bullet and seven buckshot, the ball going 
through his breast, and he was not shot behind a tree, 
but in an open space while he was pursuing his foe. 

Col. Cresap's men were dressed in red caps, and in 
July " four Indians dressed in the same made a foray 
among the inhabitants near Conococheague, and killed 
and scalped two persons and then made off. A party 
of forty-six men started in pursuit, but were unable 
to overtake them." 

Col. Cresap soon got together another band of vol- 
unteers, " and with his two surviving sons, Daniel 
and Michael, and a negro of gigantic stature, 
marched acain, taking the same route on Braddock's 
road. They advanced this time as far as Negro 
Mountain, where they met a party of Indians. A 
running fight took place; Cresap's party killed an 
Indian, and the Indians killed the negro ; and it was 
this circumstance — the death of the negro on the 



mountain — that has immortalized his name by fixing 
it on this ridge forever." ' 

On the 30th of June, 1756, Col. Cresap, with a 
party of thirteen young men, had a skirmish with 
the Indians, in which Abraham Johnson, Jacob Ash- 
croft, and James Lowry were killed, the Indians 
losing two of their number. 

After the defeat of Braddock, the inhabitants of 
Western Maryland inaugurated for their defense a 
series of private forts or block-houses, which were 
occasionally garrisoned by companies of rangers. 
Each of the forts were generally in charge of a few 
men, but they only afforded protection to those who 
fled to them for safety. Separated as they were from 
each other by so great a distance, the Indians in their 
incursions readily avoided them, and still found a 
wide field for their inhuman warfare, where they 
could strike a deadly blow and retreat to the moun- 
tains before the settlers could be gathered together in 
pursuit. The butchery continued for seven long years, 
and the Indians boasted that they had killed fifty 
white people for every Indian killed. While there 
was great truth in the boast, it scarcely conveys an 
accurate impression of the prowess of the red men, 
for they always avoided equal and honorable combat, 
and butchered men, women, and children in cold 
blood, for whose scalps they were liberally paid by 
the French. It is scarcely possible to convey in 
words a correct idea of the deplorable condition of 
Western Maryland at this period. Families were 
surprised in their dwellings at midnight, every mem- 
ber murdered and scalped, their houses and crops 
burned, and their cattle gathered together in the 
lurid light of the fiames, and driven off to the moun- 
tains. Delicate women were carried into captivity 
worse than death ; little children, driving cattle to the 
fields, were killed and scalped in sight of their homes. 
The ground was plowed, the seed sown, and the 
harvest gathered in constant dread of the tomahawk 
and rifle. Scarcely any out-door work was attempted, 
unless some of the laborers carried arms in their 
hands ; and the men usually plowed or harvested 
in companies, that they might defend each other. 

In November, 1755, a band of Indians, under 
Shingas, the Delaware chief, attacked the frontier 
settlements of Western Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
burned the houses, and murdered or made prisoners 
of those of the inhabitants who did not escape. 
Shingas was the most cruel and blood-thirsty warrior 
of his tribe. His exploits form a sickening record of 
the murder and torture of innocent victims, equaled 

1 Jacob's "Life of Cresap." 

in fiendish malignity by those of no other human 
being on the North American continent. He is said 
to have been small in stature, but in point of courage 
and activity and in savage prowess was equaled by 
few. A settler speaking of this inroad of Shingas, 
said, " Last night I had a family of upwards of 
one hundred women and children, who fled for suc- 
cor. You can form no just idea of the distress and 
distracted condition of our inhabitants, unless you 
saw them and heard their cries." Another says, 
" The cries of widows and fatherless children were 
heart-rending, while those who escaped with their 
lives had neither a mouthful to eat, nor a bed to lie 
on, nor clothes to cover their nakedness or keep them 
warm ; all they had being consumed in their burning 
dwellings." Fifty persons at this time were killed or 
taken prisoners, twenty-seven houses were burned, 
a great number of cattle were killed or driven off, 
and out of ninety-three fomilies on the borders of 
Maryland and Pennsylvania who settled in what was 
called the two " coves," members of forty-seven fami- 
lies were either killed or captured, and the remainder 
deserted their homes, so that the settlements were en- 
tirely broken up. One woman, over ninety years of 
age, was found lying dead with her breasts torn off 
and a stake driven through her body. The infuriated 
savages caught up little children and dashed their 
brains out against the door-posts in presence of their 
shrieking mothers, or cut off their heads and drank 
their warm blood. 

The cold indifference of the Lord Proprietary, who 
refused to allow his immense estates to bear a share of 
the tax demanded for the purpose of raising troops 
and money for the defense of the frontier, awoke the 
deepest indignation throughout Western Maryland 
against him and the Assembly. The patience of the 
western settlers was worn out with the interminable 
disputes between the Governor and Assembly, and 
they threatened to adopt the emphatic measures of 
their friends in Pennsylvania.^ 

The resolute men of Western Maryland, under the 
leadership of Col. Thomas Cresap, who appears to be 
at this time the guardian genius of the frontier set- 
tlements, assembled in Frederick Town and threatened 
to march with guns and tomahawks to Annapolis and 
compel the Assembly to cease their unseasonable 

2 The dead bodies of three people that had been murdered 
and scalped by the Indians were brought down to Philadelphia 
by the distant inhabitants and hauled about the streets, with 
placards announcing that these were victims of the Quaker 
policy of non-resistance. A mob of four thousand people sur- 
rounded the House of Assembly, placed the dead bodies in the 
doorway, and demanded immediate relief for the people on the 
frontier, which was granted. 



wranglings and come to their relief. The Assembly 
immediately acquiesced in their demands, and not- 
withstanding the prognostications of the Governor, 
appropriated £40,000 for purposes of defense. Of 
this sum £11,000 were to be applied to the erection 
of a fort and block-houses on the frontier, and for 
raising, arming, and maintaining a body of two liun- 
dred men to garrison them ; £3000 were appropriated 
for engaging the services of the Southern Indians, for 
which purpose two commissioners, Col. Benjamin 
Tasker and Charles Carroll the younger, were ap- 
pointed to take charge of the fund and conduct the 
negotiations. One thousand pounds were allotted as 
bounties for Indian scalps or prisoners, at the rate of 
£10 for each ; £25,000 were set apart for the pro- 
posed joint expedition against Fort Du Quesne. Wil- 
liam Murdock, James Dick, and Daniel Wolstenholme 
were appointed agents to pay out these sums, with a 
commission of two and a half per cent. 

Though England and France had kept up hostili- 
ties in the colonies since 1754, the peace was not 
openly broken in Europe until the 17th of May, 
1756, when a formal declaration of war was made. 
New exertions were now made to put the frontiers in 
a state of defense. Under the act passed at the pre- 
vious session (1755-56) of the Assembly, Governor 
Sharpe purchased one hundred and fifty acres of land 
near the present town of Hancock, and began to erect 
a substantial stone fort, which he named Fort Fred- 
erick. It had barracks for the accommodation of two 
hundred men, and on an emergency could contain 
twice that number. It had bastions and curtains 
faced with stone, and on each bastion was mounted a 
six-pounder. It was built upon an elevated plateau 
about a quarter of a mile from the Potomac, which 
was navigable from thence almost to Fort Cumberland. 
The fort was quadrangular in shape, its walls being 
strengthened with earth embankments, and each of 
its exterior lines was three hundred and sixty feet in 
length. It was expected to cost only about two thou- 
sand pounds, but cost three times that sum when 
completed. By the middle of August, 1756, it was 
so far completed as to receive a garrison of two hun- 
dred men, under command of Capt. Dagworthy. The 
walls of this fort are still standing, firm and strong, 
covered with wild vines. It is thirteen miles'east of 
Hancock, and may be seen from the railroad cars in 
passing over the Baltimore and Ohio road, near Green 
Spring Run station. 

During this time the audacity of the Indians had 
increased with their success. A party of Indians ad- 
vanced within a short distance of Frederick, and em- 
boldened by the success of their confederates on the 

head-waters of the Ohio, the forks of the Mononga- 
hela and the Alleghany, made their way even to the 
neighborhood of Emmittsburg, assailed that then 
thinly-settled region, and after shooting a man named 
Alexander McKeasy near his own house, and cap- 
turing his sou, made good their escape without any 
loss. At this critical juncture, according to Wash- 
ington's report to Lord Fairtiis, the whole settlement 
of Conococheague had fled, and there only remained 
two families between that point and Frederick Town." 
" That the Maryland settlements are all abandoned," 
says Washington, "is certainly a fact, as I have had 
the accounts transmitted to nie by several hands, and 
confirmed yesterday by Henry Brinker, who left Mo- 
nocacy the day before, and who also afiirms that three 
hundred and fifty wagons had passed that place, to 
avoid the enemy, withi^i the space of three days." In 
consequence of this alarming condition of aiFairs, the 
people below Conococheague raised a subscription suf- 
ficient to arm and equip a patrol of twenty men, under 
Lieut. William Teagard, of Capt. Bench's company of 
militia, for their protection. Their services were soon 
demanded, for on August 18th the enemy plundered 
the settlers near Baker's Ridge, and on the 20th at- 
tacked a funeral train, killing two persons (George 
Hicks and Lodovick Claymour). They were followed 
by a party of thirteen of Teagard's men, under Luke 
Thompson, until they came within two miles of the 
mouth of Conococheague, on the Pennsylvania road, 
when five shots were heard about three hundred yards 
in advance, which threw the pursuing party into some 
confusion ; but Matthias NichoUs, " a young lad of 
eighteen, iusi.sted they should run up and come upon 
the enemy while their pieces were unloaded, and set 
off immediately." The others, however, ran off, but 
he continued the pursuit, and rescued William Postle- 
waite, who had been seriously wounded by the In- 
dians, and conducted him in safety to Col. Cresap's. 
An effort was made at this time by Washington to 
secure the consent of Governor Dinwiddle to the 
abandonment of Fort Cumberland, the former regard- 
ing the post as of no value in a military point of view, 
and as a source of useless expense and anxiety. After 

1 A beautiful young lady, well known in those days as a 

daring heroine, was taken prisoner by the Indian freebooiers 

on the farm where Henry Vf. Dellinger now lives, and after a 

desperate struggle broke loose from her captors. After running 

for some distance, with the Indians in close pursuit, she dodged 

behind a tree to escape the arrows of her pursuers, when her 

I flowing hair caught in the bark and stopped her flight. At 

! this moment one of the Indians threw his tomahawk at her 

, head, but the weapon, missing its aim, severed her hair and set 

her free, when she again took to flight and 
' escape. 



considerable correspondence on the subject, however, 
Washington's advice was rejected, and by Dinwiddie's 
order the garrisons were withdrawn from the smaller 
frontier posts and sent, with most of the troops from 
Winchester, to Fort Cumberland, which was made the 
headquarters of the army. On the 29th of i\pril, 
1757, a body of Cherokee Indians arrived at Fort 
Frederick and offered their services to Governor 
Sharpe, and the Governor's secretary, John Ridout, 
and Daniel Walstenholme were sent as commissioners 
to Fort Frederick to treat with these Indians, carry- 
ing with them a wagon-load of presents and two hun- 
dred pounds in goods for the scalps of four hostile 
Indians, whom the Cherokees had killed while waiting 
for an answer. 

The enemy, however, still kept up their forays, 
almost under the walls of the forts, and the settle- 
ments west of the Blue Ridge were well-nigh deserted. 
In the summer of 1757 there was a general flight 
from the upper waters of the Potomac, and on the 
18th of June the report came that a large force of 
French and Indians, with artillery, were advancing on 
Fort Cumberland. Sharpe immediatelv called out the 
militia, and gathering a body of volunteers, started to : 
relieve the threatened post, but on reaching Frederick 
fo.und that it was a false alarm. 

William Pitt, appointed Secretary of State the 
previous June, resolved that the campaign of 1758 ' 
should be conducted after a different fashion, and it 
was determined that another expedition should be 
sent against Fort Du Quesne, under Gen. Forbes. In i 
June the forces of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Vir- ' 
ginia received orders from Gen. Forbes to begin their 
march upon Fort Du Quesne. The troops destined 
for this expedition numbered between six and seven 
thousand, of whom Maryland furnished a contingent 
of about five hundred, under Lieut.-Col. Dagworthy. 
Early in July the Maryland and Virginia troops were 
assembled at Fort Cumberland, and the Pennsylvanians 
at Raystown (now Bedford), in their own province, 
about thirty miles from the fort. An army of seven 
thousand men had now assembled under the command 
of Gen. Forbes, who, disregarding the advice of 
Washington to advance by the road already opened 
by Braddock, ordered a new road cut from Raystown. 
The working-party, under the command of Col. Bou- 
quet, to whom this task was assigned, had early in Sep- 
tember arrived at Loyal Hanna, ten miles beyond Laurel 
Hill, and on the 21st of September Maj. Grant, of 
Montgomery's battalion, with eight hundred High- 
landers, a part of Washington's regiment, eighty-one 
Marylanders, and a number of Pennsylvanians were 
detailed from this advanced post to reconnoitre the 

enemy's position at Fort Du Quesne. The French 
commander of that fort, observing the want of pre- 
caution with which Grant executed his orders, took 
speedy measures to punish him. Having posted 
Indians in ambuscade on his enemy's flank, he made 
a sudden sally from the fort, and soon spread dismay 
and confusion among the ranks of the British soldiers. 
With gleaming knives and brandished tomahawks the 
Indians rushed yelling from the thickets, and fell 
upon the astonished Highlanders with terrible effect. 
Hand to hand they fought until, overpowered, the 
whole detachment fled in dismay, pursued by the 
furious savages. The Highlanders for a time stood 
their ground well, but the Marylanders and Virginians 
bore the brunt of the battle, the Pennsylvanians 
breaking at the first fire. The Slarylanders behaved 
with the greatest gallantry, and gave evidence of the 
thorough manner in which they had been trained for 
border warfare. Out of eighty-one men, their loss 
was twenty-seven privates and one ofiScer — Lieut. 
Duncan McRae — killed, and nearly one-half of their 
whole force missing. 

" The Marylanders," .says the Maryland Gazette, 
" concealing themselves behind trees and the brush, 
made a good defense, but were overpowered by num- 
bers, and not being supported, were obliged to follow 
the rest." The total loss . was two hundred and 
seventy killed and forty-two wounded. 

The fugitives were rallied by Capt. Bullitt, who 
checked the enemy until the whole force could retreat 
out of danger. Capt. Ware, Lieut. Riley, and Ensign 
Harrison brought ofi' in safety the remaining Mary- 
landers. On the 12th of October the enemy, who 
had watched the movements of the army, thinking it 
a favorable time to strike another blow and complete 
their victory, attacked Col. Bouquet at Loyal Hanna. 
After a few hours' struggle, during which the English 
lost sixty-seven officers and men killed and wounded, 
the enemy were repulsed. In this engagement Lieut. 
Prather and two privates of the Maryland troops were 
killed. Ensign Bell and six privates wounded, and 
eleven missing. In another skirmish, on the 12th of 
November, near Loyal Hanna, Capt. Evan Shelby, of 
Frederick County, killed with his own hand one of 
the greatest chiefs of the enemy. With fifty miles of 
road to" open across the forests, the winter rapidly 
approaching, and the disheartened troops beginning to 
desert, it was decided that it was inexpedient to pro- 
ceed further in the campaign. Fortunately, Capt. 
Ware, of the Maryland troops, with a scouting-party, 
brought in three prisoners, from whom information 
was obtained of the actual condition of Fort Du 
Quesne. They learned the weakness and distress of 



the French garrison, and nerved by this intelligence, 
Gen. Forbes determined to make a vigorous effort to 
gain pos.session of the place before it could be rein- 
forced. Leaving their tents and heavy baggage at Loyal 
Hanna, they advanced within a few hours' march of 
the fort, when the French garrison set fire to the works 
and retreated down the Ohio. Gen. Forbes took 
possession of the abandoned fort, caused the works 
ii'Vto be repaired, and gave it the name of Fort Pitt, in 
^Konor of the prime minister, assigning a garrison of 
four hundred and fifty men, taken from the Maryland, 
Pennsylvania, and Virginia troops, for its defense. 

The contest which commenced in America between 
England and Prance was ended by a treaty signed at 
Paris on the 10th of February, 1763, and as there 
appeared to be safety for settlers west of the moun- 
tains, emigration began to move over those hitherto 
impassable barriers of civilization. These encroach- 
ments aroused Pontiac, a sagacious Ottawa chief, who 
went secretly from tribe to tribe among the Indians, 
and obtained their solemn pledges to a confederation, 
whose object was the expulsion of the English from 
all the forts and settlements on the frontier. So 
adroitly were their plans matured that the commanders 
of the Western forts had no suspicion of the conspiracy 
until it was ripe and the first blow had been struck, 
in June, 1763. Their plan was that the border set- 
tlements were to be invaded during harvest, the men, 
corn, and cattle to be destroyed, and the outposts to 
be reduced by famine. Pursuant to these plans, the 
Indians massacred traders whom they had invited 
among them, and seized their property ; and large 
scalping-parties advanced to the frontiers of Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, marking their way 
with blood and devastation. The most remote out- 
posts were attacked about the same time, and within 
a fortnight all those west of Oswego, except Niagara, 
Fort Pitt, and Detroit, fell into their hands. The 
whole country west of Fort Frederick became the 
prey of the savages, who burned barns and houses, 
and surprised and massacred the settlers in the fields 
or asleep in their dwellings. " Another tempest has 
arisen upon our frontiers," Washington wrote to a 
friend, " and the alarm spreads wider than ever. In 
short, the inhabitants are so apprehensive of danger 
that no families remain above the Conococheaguo 
road, and many are gone below. The harvests are, 
in a manner, lost, and the distresses of the settlements 
are evident and manifold." 

On the 15th of July, 1763, Col. Thomas Cresap 
wrote from Old Town to Governor Sharpe, as follows : 

*' I take this opportunity in the highth of Confu.sion to ac- 
quaint you with our unhappy and most wretched Situation at 

this time, being in Hourly E.xpeotation of being ninnsacrcd by 
our Barberous and Inhumane Enemy the Indians, wo having 
been three days successively attacked by them, viz. : the 13, U, 
and this Instant. On the 13th, as 6 men were shocking some 
wheat in the field, 5 Indians Bring on theui us they came to do 
it and others Running to their assist,ance ;— on the Nth 5 In- 
dians crept up to and tired on about 16 men who were silting 
and walking under a Tree at the entrance of my Lane, about 
100 yards from my House, but on being fired at by the white 
men, who much wounded some of them, they Immediately Run 
off, and were followed by the white men about a mile, all which 
way was a great Quantity of Blood on the (iround. The white 
men got three of their Bundles, containing sundry Indian Im- 
plements it Goods. About 3 Hours after several gunns were 
fired in the woods, on which a party went in Quest of them and 
found 3 Braves Killed by them. The Indians wounded one 
man at their first fire, the' but Slightly. \ 

"On this Instant, as Mr. Samuel Wilder was going to a 
house of his about 300 yards Distant from mine with four men 
and several women, the Indians rushed on them from a rising 
Ground, but they perceiving them coming, Hun towards my 
House hollowing, which being heard by those at my house, 
they run to their assistance, and met them and the Indians at 
the entrance of my lane, on which the Ifldiaus Immediately 
fired on them to the amount of 18 or Twenty, and Killed Mr. 
Wilder. The party of white men Returned their fire, and killed 
one of them dead on the Spot antl wounded .^Jeverall of the 
others, as appeared by Considerable Quantity of Blood strewed 
on the Ground as they Run off, which they Immediately did, 
and by their leaving behind them 3 Gunns, one pistole, and 
Sundry other Emplements of warr, Ac., &c. I have Inclosed a 
List of the Desolate men. Women, and Children who have fled 
to my house, which is Inclosed by a small stockade for safety, 
by which you'll see what a number of poor Souls, destitute of 
Every necessary of Life, are here penned up and likely to be 
Butchered without Immediate Relief and assistance, and can 
expect none, unless from the province to which they Belong. 
I shall submit to your wiser .ludgemcnt the Best and most 
Effectu.^1 method for such Relief, and shall conclude with 
hoping we shall have it in time."^ 

The inhabitants of Frederick Town did all in their 
power to relieve the unhappy fugitives, a large part 
of whom were women and children, who had lost their 
all, and crowded the streets in a state of destitute 
misery. Their immediate necessities were relieved by 
food and shelter, and a considerable sum for their re- 
lief was subscribed throughout the province. An in- 
teresting contemporary account of the state of things 
in and about Frederick is given in the following letter 
published in the Gazette, written from Frederick 
Town, under date of July 19, 1763 : 

" Every day, for some time past, has offered the melancholy 
scene of poor distressed families driving downwards through 
this town with their effects, who have deserted their plantations 
for fear of falling into the cruel hands of our savage enemies, 
now daily seen in the woods. And never was panic more 
general or forcible than that of the back inhabitants, whose 
terrors at this time exceed what followed on the defeat of Gen. 

1 The Maryland Gazette of July 21, 1763, informs us that the 
colonel was nbt yet cut off by the savages, though it is feared 
he would be if not quickly relieved. Subsequent accounts show 
that ten men were sent to Cresap's assistance. 



Braddock, when the frontiers lay open to the incursions of 
both French and Indians. Whilst Conococheague settlement 
stands firm we shall think ourselves in some sort of securitj 
from their insults here. But should the inhabitants there give 
way, you would soon see your city and the lower couniies 
crowded with objects of compassion, as the flight would in that 
case become general. Numbers of those who have betaken 
themselves to the fort, as well as those who have actually fled, 
have entirely lost their crops, or turned in their own cat- 
tle and hogs to devour the produce, in hopes of finding them 
again in better condition should it hereafter appear safe for them 
to return. The season has been remarkably fine, and the har- 
vest iu general afforded the most promising appearance of 
plenty and goodness that has been known for many j-ears. 
But alas! how dismal an alteration of the prospect! Many 
who expected to have sold and supplied the necessities of others 
now want for themselves, and see their warmest hopes defeated, 
the fruits of their honest industry snatched from rhem by the 
merciless attack of these blood-thirsty barbarians, wliose treat- 
ment of such unhappy wretches as fall into their hands is ac- 
companied with circumstances of infernal fury, too horrid and 
shocking for human nature to dwell upon even in imagination. 
We were so sensible of the importance of Conococheague set- 
tlement, both as a bnlwark and supply to this neighborhood, 
that on repeated notice of their growing distress Capt. Butler, 
on Wednesday last, called the town company together, who ap- 
peared under arms on the court-house green with great una- 
nimity. Just as the drum beat to arms we had the agreeable 
satisfaction of seeing a wagon sent up by his excellency ^ whose 
tender care for the security of the province raised sentiments 
of the highest gratitude in the breast of every one present) 
loaded with powder and lead, — articles of the greatest impor- 
tance at this critical juncture, when the whole country had been 
drained of those necessary articles by the diligence of our In- 
dian traders, who had bought up the whole for the supply of 
our enemies, to be returned, as we have dearly experienced, in 
death and desolation among us. A subscription was then set 
on foot and cheerfully entered into, in consequence of which 
twenty stout young men immediately enlisted under Mr. Peter 
Grush to march immediately to the assistance of the back 
inhabitants, and with other volunteers already there raised, 
to cover the reapers, in hopes of securing the crops. Had 
not the Governor's supply arrived so seasonably it doubted 
whether the whole town could have furnished ammunition 
sufficient for that small party, half of which marched back- 
wards in high spirits on Thursday, and the remainder on 
Friday morning. And on Sunday subscriptions were taken 
in the several congregations in town for sending up further as- 
sistance. On Sunday afternoon we bad the pleasure of seeing 
Mr. Michael Cresap arrive in town with mokosins on his legs, 
taken from an Indian whom he killed and scalped, being one-of 
those wh<) had shot down Mr. Wilder, the circumstances of whose 
much-lamented murder and the success of Col. Cresap's family 
you no doubt have received from other hands. Money has 
been cheerfully contributed iu our town towards the support of 
the men to be added to Col. Cresap's present force, as we 
look upon the preservation of the Old Town to be of great im- 
portance to us, and a proper check to the progress of the 
savages; but notwithstanding our present efforts to keep the 
enemy at a distance, and thereby shelter the whole province, 
our inhabitants are poor, our men dispersed, and without a 
detachment from below it is to be feared we must give way, 
and the inundation break upon the lower counties." 

In consequeuce of these outrages, the Governor 
convened the Assembly on the 4th of October, 1763, 

and further provision was made for the protection of 
the frontiers. The commissioners of the loan-office 
having £2120 still unexpended of the several sums 
appropriated by the act of 1756, were directed to pay 
to Daniel and Michael Cresap, John Walker, Nathan 
Friggs, William Young, Abraham Richardson, and 
Ezekiel Johnson fifty pounds fur the scalp of an In- 
dian taken by them in July, and the same amount to 
James Davis, of Virginia, who, in August, with a 
party of frontiersmen, had pursued a party of Indians 
from Cape Capon, on the south side of the Potomac, 
to George's Creek, in Maryland, where they overtook 
the savages, killing one, and rescuing James Coniston 
and his wife, whom they were carrying off as pris- 

On July 25, 1764, two women were killed by the 
Indians near Fort Loudon, and on the following day, 
at a school-house near Capt. Potter's, in Conococheague. 
Kobert Brown and nine children were scalped by four 
Indians, and four children carried off prisoners. Two 
of the nine children scalped were left living. The 
schoolmaster was killed. 

Fort Pitt was in the mean time surrounded and cut 
off from all communication with the interior. In 
July, Gen. Amherst directed Col. Bouquet to proceed 
with five hundred men to reinforce it and drive back 
the savages. At Bushy Run Bouquet's command 
was attacked by Indians on the 5th of August, and 
the fight continued all day without decisive result. 
On the next day the contest was renewed, and the 
Indians were put to flight. Four days later Bouquet 
reached Fort Pitt. 

In Col. Bouquet's expedition against the Mingoes, 
Delawares, and Shawuees in 1764 there were two 
companies of Maryland volunteers, one consisting of 
" forty-three brave woodsmen, besides officers, all of 
them well equipped with good rifles, and most of them 
born and bred on the frontiers of Frederick County," 
under Capt, William McClellan, and the other under 
the command of Capt. John Wolgomatt. In his 
letter to the Governor, dated Forks of Muskingum, 
Nov. 15, 1764, after giving a detailed account of his 
expedition. Col. Bouquet says, " As such a public spirit 
ought to be encouraged in our colonies, I beg leave 
to recommend them to your notice, that they may 
obtain pay, if possible, from your Assembly. Their 
conduct has given me great satisfaction, and it would 
be very agreeable to me if they could receive some 
gratification, as they (Capts. McClellan and Wolgo- 
matt) have put themselves to considerable expenses to 
equip the men."^ 

1 The following are the muster-rolls of the two companies : 
Wm. McClellan, captain ; John Earl, James Dougherty, lieu- 



Although the scenes of 1763 were never a^ain re- 
peated within the limits of Maryland, it was many 
years before the settlements on the western frontiers 
of the province were entirely relieved from the danger 
of savage inroads. In 1778 the Indians commenced 
hostilities on the frontiers, and it was found necessary 
to call into service the Washington County militia, 
under Col. Beatty, in conjunction with the militia of 
Virginia and Pennsylvania. In the following year 
(1779) we learn by a letter from Washington County, 
dated April 20th, that the Indians about two weeks 
previously " struck the settlement of the Yock 
[York?] Glades, about ten or twelve miles within the 
State line. It appears that as five men were covering 
a cabin they were fired on ; four were killed on the 
spot, the other escaped, and says the number of In- 
dians was about thirty-five. A large number of sav- 
ages were discovered lurking about the Horse-shoe 
Bottom, no doubt with hostile intentions."' 



Logan's Speech — Murder of his Family — The Cresaps — Massa- 
cre at Baker's Fort — Jefferson's Charge Refuted — He Re- 
tracts — Vindication of Capt. Michael Cresap. 

The massacre of the family of the great Indian 
chief, Logan, in the early part of the year 1774, has 
been so frequently discussed from the time when Mr. 

tenants; Joseph Hopewell, Henry Grajbill, sergeants; David 
Blair, John Moran, Edmund Moran, ensigns; Privates, David 
Shelby, George Rout, Wm. Beadles, John Dean, Richard Ar- 
sheraft, Nicholas Carpenter, Thomas Vaughan, James Ross, 
Isaac Flora, Joshua Young, George Mattison, Isaac Wilcocks, 
Wm. Hanniel, John Dougherty, Wm. Colvin, Wm. Flora, 
Thomas Edington, James Bradmore, Richard Coomore, Wm. 
Sparks, Thos. Clemens, John Sealon, John Doughland, 
Patrick O'GuUen, Robert Ford, Joseph Clemens, James Small, 
Wm. Lockhead, James Ware, Thos. Williams, John Masters. 
John Murray, Felix Leer, Bartholomew Pack, Charles Hays, 
and Wm. Polk. 

John Wolgomatt, captain; Matthew Nicholas, lieutenant; 
John Blair, ensign ; Privates, James Booth, .lames Dulany, 
Wm. Fife, Wm. Dunwidie, Peter Ford, Thomas Davis, David 
Johnson, Samuel McCord, Robert Blackburn, Abraham Knocks, 
James Myres. Wm. Marshall and James Fo.\. 

1 The Maryland Journal of June 26, 1789, contains the fol- 
lowing : " Last week a person passed through this town on his 
way from Kentucky, who informs us that on the 22d of May 
last he and eleven persons were in company, at the distance of 
four days' .journey from the Crab Orchards, in the wilderness, and 
were fired upon by a party of Indians. Five of the company 
were killed; the rest made their escape, but lost all their horses 
except two. A young man by the name'of Funk, from Funk's 
Town, another of the name of Lewis Myers, from Pike Creek, 

Jefferson first sought to place the responsibility upon 
Col. Michael Cresap, that the evidence and argument 
have grown too voluminous to be presented in full in 
such a work as the present. 

The narrative of the Indian wars in Western Mary- 
land and on the frontier would be incomplete, how- 
ever, without at least a brief reference to a subject 
which has become one of the celebrated questions of 
Indian history, and which is closely connected with 
one of the most prominent figures in the early settle- 
ment of this portion of the State. The charge as 
originally made by Mr. Jeiferson in his " Notes on 
Virginia," published in 1787, was as follows : 

" Col. Cresap, a man infamous for the many murders he had 
committed on those much injured people (the Indians), collected 
a party and proceeded down the Kanhaway in quest of ven- 
geance. Unfortunately, a canoe of women and children, with 
one man only, was seen coming from the. opposite shore un- 
armed, and unsuspecting an hostile attack from the whites, 
Cresap and his party concealed themselves on the bank of the 
river, and the moment the canoe touched the shore singled out 
their objects, and at one fire killed every person in it. This 
happened to be the family of Logan, who had long been distin- 
guished as a friend of the whites. This unworthy return pro- 
voked his vengeance. He accordingly signalized himself in 
the war which ensued. lu the autumn of the saiue year a de- 
cisive battle was fought at the mouth of the Great Kanhaway, 
between the collected forces of the Shawnees, Mingoes, and 
Delawares and a detachment of the Virginia militia. The In- 
dians were defeated and sued for peace. Logan, however, dis- 
dained to be seen among the suppliants. But lest the sincerity 
of a treaty should be distrusted from which so distinguished a 
chief absented himself, he sent by a messenger the following 
speech to be delivered to Lord Dunmore : 

■* ' I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered 
Logan's cabin hungry and he gave him not meat, if ever he 
came cold and naked and he clothed him not. During the 
course of the last long and bloody war Logan remained idle in 
his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the 
whites that my countrymen pointed as they passed and said, 
" Logan is the friend of white men." I had even thought to 
have lived with you but for the injuries of one man. Col. 
Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered 
all the relations of Logan, not sparing even my women and 
children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of 
any living creature. This called on me for revenge. I have 
sought it; I have killed many; I have fully glutted my ven- 
geance. For my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. But 
do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy c)f fear. Logan 
6eTer felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. 
Who is there to mourn for Logan ? Not one.' '' 

The charge thus brought by Mr. Jefi'erson was not 
known to the Cresap family until 1797, when Luther 

and a Mr. Blayer, from near Harper's Ferry, were among the 
unfortunate victims. As this fact is to be depended upon, it 
induces us to credit the many various reports that have been 
lately so much circulated respecting the horrid murders and 
depredations committed by the Indians upon the frontiers, and 
makes humanity shudder at thehleaof the bloody consequences 
which must ensue from a war with those barbarians." 



Martin, who married a daughter of Michael Cresap, | 
published his defense, and since his day many- able 
writers have taken up the pen in answer to Mr. Jef- 
ferson, and in vindication of the character of Cresap.' 
Cresap himself could make no answer to the charge, for 
he had yielded up his life in defense of his country at 
the very outbreak of the Revolutionary struggle ; but 
fortunately he left behind him many friends and wit- 

1 Thomas Cres.ip, the father of Col. Michael Cresap, was 
named in the treaty between the Six Nations and the province 
of Maryland, dated the 30th of June, 1744, as having " a hunt- 
ing or trading cabin, about two miles above the uppermost fork 
of Congorontan, or Potomac, on the north branch of said fork." 
This Thomas Cresap, usually called "the English colonel," was 
a much trusted agent of Charles, Lord Baltimore (the fifth of 
that title), and was .sent to that portion of the province to guard 
the interest of Lord Baltimore against the claim of Lord Fair- 
fax. The family of Col. Cresap was therefore one of the oldest 
Maryland families in that section of the State, and from the 
time of "the English colonel" to the present have occupied a 
high position among "the first families" of Western Mary- 
land. "The English colonel" built a stone house, since known 
as Cresap's Fort, where his trading cabin stood, opposite the 
Green Spring Run, a station of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
Company, which is still standing and occupied, and can be seep 
from that station. At an early day settlers built around it, and 
so near that on any alarm being given all fled to the fort for 
protection. Col. Thomas Cresap called the place "Skipton," 
after the place or village of his residence in England. The 
village is now called "Old Town," situated on the Potomac, 
about sixteen miles east of Cumberland. Col. Michael Cresap (in 
Mr. Jefferson's " Notes on Virginia"), said to be '* a man infu- 
nwHK for hiH many Indian mnrders," had three daughters and 
two sons. At the time of this publication the eldest daughter 
was the wife of the celebrated Luther Martin, a lawyer of whom 
Maryland has always been justly proud. He was one of the 
counsel for Aaron Burr, who was tried for treason, and was de- 
nounced by Jefi'erson as " the Bulldog of the Federal Party." 
The second daughter married his brother, Lenox Martin, a 
lawyer of that portion of Maryland, who raised a large and 
respectable family, still residing in Allegany County. The 
third daughter married Osborn Sprigg. Their children were 
the Hon. Michael Cresap Sprigg, a member of Congress from 
Allegany County, and whose descendants now hold "a first 
position" in society in this State. Michael C. Sprigg was also 
at one time president of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Com- 
p.any. There was no higher-toned gentleman or man of fairer 
character in Western Maryland in his day than Michael C. 
Sprigg. The Hon. James C. Sprigg, his brother, was a mem- 
ber of Congress from Kentucky. His son, James Cresap, w;ls 
a man of high standing, who married (his second wife) the 
widow of Capt. Van Bibber, a most accomplished and excellent 
lady, by whom he had one son, Luther Martin Cresap, a worthy 
and respectable gentleman, who now resides near Old Town, in 
the old family residence. A man of unexcentionable character, 
with a liberal education, and, Cresap-like, of a mild and amiable 
disposition. The widow of Col. Michael Cresap married John 
I. Jacobs. Their son, Hon. J. J. Jacobs, ex-Governor of West 
Virginia, is a man of no ordina.ry ability, and now holds a high 
position among the citizens of that State. Such was, has 
been, and now is the position of the Cresap family in Western 
Maryland for over a century. — Thtnnas J. McKvitj, hi his MS. 
noteii to the author. 

nesses, who came promptly forward to defend his name 
from the infamy with which it was sought to be asso- 
ciated. Falsehood and slander, however, run at a 
swifter pace than truth, and it was long before the 
latter was enabled to overtake the false charge and 
nail it to the counter. Thus for many years the war 
which followed the massacre of Logan's relatives was 
known as " Cresap's war," and be was represented as 
guilty not only of butchering in cold blood and unpro- 
voked cruelty an unprotected party of women and 
children, but as responsible for all the horrors of the 
Indian hostilities which followed. Of both counts in 
this historical indictment it has been demonstrated 
beyond the shadow of a doubt that Michael Cresap 
was wholly guiltless ; but it is clear from the history 
of that period that even were it possible to fix upon 
Cresap the guilt of the massacre, it could not be shown 
that the war which ensued was the result of that deed 
of blood. In point of fact, hostilities had already com- 
menced before Logan's family was slaughtered, and 
although that piece of indefensible barbarity may have 
added fresh fuel to the fires of Indian animosity 
and vengeance, war had been declared in the fashion 
of that period by such overt acts as shooting and scalp- 
ing, and would inevitably have followed whether Lo- 
gan's relatives had fallen or not. " During the ten 
years," says Mr. Mayer, "subsequent to the treaty 
made by Bouquet, the gradual advance of the whites 
to the West had been a constant source of alarm to the 
Indians. Collisions and violent disputes were the 
natural and necessary results. The slow, eager, resist- 
less encroachments of civilization brought the two un- 
congenial and incongruous races face to face in con- 
tact, and the slightest breath was sufficient to fan into 
conflagration the fire that smouldered in the hearts of 
each. Besides this, there had been no scrupulous ful- 
; fiUment of Bouquet's treaty on the part of the Indians ; 
I and I am informed by one of our ablest border histo- 
rians and scholars that in these ten years of nominal 
peace, but in truth of T(uasi-war, more lives were sac- 
rificed along the Western frontiers than during the 
! whole outbreak of 1774, including the battle of Point 
Pleasant." So lightly did the Indians regard this 
treaty that the Shawanese refused to surrender their 
white prisoners. Red Hawk, one of that tribe, insult- 
ing Col. Bouquet with impunity, and another Indian 
j killing the colonel's servant on the very day after the 
nominal peace was concluded. In the following year 
further murders were committed by the Indians on 
New River, and not long afterwards others were way- 
laid and killed while on their way to Illinois ; and fol- 
lowing these outrages, "a number of men employed 
' in slaughtering cattle for Fort Chartres were slain, and 



their rifles, blankets, and accoutrements carried to the 
Indian villages." And thus, as it has been well 
pointed out, " the Indian hatchet was never buried. 
The summer after Bouquet's treaty the savages killed 
a white man upon the Virginia frontiers ; the next 
year eight Virginians were butchered on the Cumber- 
land, and their peltries brought to the Indian towns, 
where they were sold to Pennsylvania traders. Some 
time after, Martin, a Virginia trader, with two com- 
panions, was killed by the Shawanese on the Hock- 
hocking, only, as it was alleged by Lord Dunmore, 
because they were Virginians, at the same time that 
the savages allowed a certain Ellis to pass simply be- 
cause he was a Pennsylvanian. In 1771 twenty Vir- 
ginians and their party of friendly Indians were robbed 
by savages of thirty-eight horses, as well as of weapons, 
clothes, and trappings, which they delivered to Cal- 
lender and Spears, and certain other Pennsylvania 
traders, in bheir towns. In the same year, within the 
jurisdiction of Virginia, the Indians killed two remote 
settlers, and in the following year Adam Stroud, an- 
other Virginian, with his wife and seven children, fell 
beneath their tomahawks and scalping-knives on the 
waters of the Elk. In 1773 the savages were still 
engaged in their work of destruction. Richards fell 
on the Kanawha, and a few months after, Russell, an- 
other Virginian, with five whites and two negroes, 
perished near the Cumberland Gap, while their horses 
and property were borne oflF by the Indians to the 
towns, where they fell a prey to the Penn-sylvania 
traders. These and many other butcheries and rob- 
beries of a similar character were committed in the 
savage raids and forays anterior to the year 1774, and 
long before Shawanese blood was wantonly shed in 
retaliation by the irritated people. A Dutch family 
was massacred on the Kanawha in June of 1773, and 
the family of Mr. Hog and three white men on the 
Great Kanawha early in April, 1774. 

" On the 25th of April, 1774, the Earl of Dunmore, 
at Williamsburg, his seat of government in Virginia, 
issued his proclamation, which, as dates are of great im- 
portance in this narrative, we should regard as unveiling 
other causes of border difficulty besides the Indian 
hostilities which were then occurring. In this proc- 
lamation of the 25th of April, 1774, before there 
could have possibly been a communication of any re- 
taliatory murders on the Ohio, committed by the 
whites upon the Indians, the British earl, then at 
Williamsburg, declares, that inasmuch as there is 
trouble within his jurisdiction at Pittsburgh, and the 
authorities in that place and its dependencies will en- 
deavor to obstruct His Majesty's government thereof 
by illegal means, and inasmuch as that ' settlement 

is in danger of annoyance from Indians also,' he has 
thought proper, with the advice and consent of His 
Majesty's counsel, to require and authorize the militia 
officers of that district to embody a sufficient number 
of men to repel any assmdt wJialrver. The events 
that caused the is.suiDg of this proclamation must 
necessarily have occurred both among the white and 
the red men a considerable time before, so as to have 
allowed the messenger to cross the mountains prior to 
the 25th of April." 

Withers, in his " Chronicles of Border Warfare," the decided opinion that the hostilities of 
1774 were not the result of the outrages of that year 
alone, but of injuries repeated and continued through 
a long period of time, and the following letter from 
Lord Dunmore to Gen. Haldimand, written from 
Williamsburg on the 24th of December, 1774, " isgood 
authority at least for the fact that it was no ' Cre- 
sap's war,' as it has been called by some writers :" 

" You have been very much imposed upon by the account 
given you, which you have thought fit to transmit to his 
Majesty's minister. There is no other Col. Cresap than an 
old man of ninety years of age, who has not removed from his 
habitation for many years, — for some from my own knowledge, 
and for the rest from incontestable authority. There is, in- 
deed, one Michael Cresap (not a colonel, but a trader), who 
with others Is said to have killed those Indians (not on a scout, 
but) returning from the back settlements, where he hadheen on 
hia private business, and where he found the Indians ravaging 
the country, and murdering every white man they could lay their 
hands on, and, there/ore, very far from being the cause of a war 
as you suggest, or even of hostilities. It was the consequence 
of repeated hostilities committed by the Indians on the peojile 
of our frontiers; and both these Cresaps are not Virginians, 
or even inhabited Virginia, but belonging to Maryland ; with 
respect, however, to which, or the cause of the war with the 
Indians, I conceive it not necessary for me to send you 

Early in 1774, Michael Cresap, who had emigrated 
from Maryland to the new lands of the Ohio with 
the hope of mending bis broken fortunes, was en- 
gaged, with the help of laborers brought from his 
native province, in opening and locating farms in the 
vicinity of Pittsburgh and Wheeling. His errand was 
an eminently peaceable one, and his course through 
all this exciting period .shows that he was especially 
anxious to avoid hostilities with the Indians. While 
thus engaged he " suddenly received a summons 
which terminated his agricultural projects in the 
West. After this region had been explored in 1773, 
a resolution was formed by a band of hardy pioneers, 
among whom was George Rogers Clark, who after- 
wards, as a general officer, became so celebrated in the 
annals of Kentucky, to make a settlement during 
the following spring ; and the mouth of the Little 
Kanawha was appointed as the place of general ren- 



dezvous, whence the united party should descend the i 
river. Early in 1774 the Indians had done some of 
their habitual mischief. Reports of further and per- 
haps meditated dangers were rife along the river, as 
coming from the Indian towns. Many of the prom- 
ised settlers, alarmed by the news, remained at their 
homes, so that at the appointed time not more than 
eighty or ninety men assembled at the rendezvous. 
In a few days the anticipated troubles with the sav- 
ages commenced. A small party of hunters, en- 1 
camped about ten miles below Clark's emigrants, was 
fired on by the Indians ; but the red men were re- 
pulsed, and the hunters returned to camp. This 
hostile demonstration, coupled with the rumors already ; 
spoken of, satisfied the Americans that the savages 
were bent on war. Accordingly, the whole band was 
enrolled for protection ; yet it was resolved to adhere 
to the original project of settling in Kentucky, inas- 
much as the camp was amply furnished with every- 
thing needful for such an enterprise. An Indian 
town called the Horse-head Bottom, on the Scioto, near 
its mouth, lay in the pioneers' way, and they forth- 
with resolved to cross the country and surprise it. 
But when the question arose who should command 
so perilous an adventure, it was found that in the 
whole band no one possessed sufficient experience in 
Indian warfare to be intrusted confidently with the 
fortunes of his companions. It was known, however, 
that Michael Cresap dwelt on the river about fifteen 
miles above the camp, engaged with certain laborers 
in settling a plantation, and that he had resolved to 
follow this band of pioneers to Kentucky as soon as 
he had established his people. His experience of 
frontier life was notorious. The eager settlers with 
one voice resolved to demand his services in the hour 
of danger, and a messenger was forthwith dispatched 
to seek him. lu half an hour he returned with 
Michael, who learning of the unwise resolution to at- 
tack the Indian town, had already set out to visit the 
pioneer camp. The emigrants at once thought their 
army, as they called it, complete, and the destruction 
of the savages certain. But a council was called, and 
to the surprise of all, the intended commander-in-chief 
promptly dissuaded his companions from the medi- 
tated enterprise." In his address to the pioneers he 
especially called their attention to the fact that though 
outrages had been committed, war had not actually 
commenced, and that the course they meditated would 
unquestionably provoke an outbreak of hostilities. 
Cresap's advice was considered so wise that it was de- 
termined to return to Wheeling and await further in- 
telligence. On their way to this point they met Kill- 
buck, a celebrated Indian chief, who had been con- 

cerned in many of the previous Indian wars, and had 
" a long but unsatisfactory" interview with him in 
regard to the anticipated trou'oles. During this in- 
terview Cresap remained on the opposite side of the 
river, " declaring that he was afraid to trust himself 
with the Indians, especially as Killbuck had frequently 
attempted to waylay and murder his father in Mary- 
land, and tiiat if they met his fortitude might forsake 
him, and he might put the savage to death.'' All 
this shows how anxious Cresap was to avoid every- 
thing which might give the Indians a pretext for the 
inauguration of a regular war. When the party 
reached Wheeling, they found the inhabitants of that 
section greatly alarmed by the apprehension of an 
Indian attack, and Cresap's party was soon greatly 
augmented by the large numbers of farmers, hunters, 
and woodsmen who flocked to the camp, both to 
obtain and aiford protection. The general apprehen- 
sion was soon increased by an express from Connolly, 
Lord Dunmore's representative at Pittsburgh, to Capt. 
Cresap, informing him that messengers returned from 
the Indian country announced war to be inevitable, 
that the savages would begin operations as soon as the 
weather permitted, and " begging him to use his in- 
fluence with the party to cover the country with 
scouts until the inhabitants could fortify themselves." 
This message was received about the 21st of April, 
and its reception, says Gen. George Rogers Clark, a 
member of the party, 

" was the epoch of open hostilities with the Indians. The War 
Post was planted, a Council Called and the Letter and the 
ceremonies used by the Indians on so important an occasion 
acted, and War was formally declared. The same evening two 
scalps were brought into camp. The following Day some 
Canoes of Indians were discovered descending the River, 
taking advantiige of an Island to cover themselves from our 
View. They were chased by our men 15 miles down the River, 
they were forced ashore and a Battle ensued, a few were 
wounded on both sides and we got one scalp only ; On examin- 
ing their Canoes we found a considerable quantity of ammuni- 
tion and other Warlike .Stores. On our return to Camp a 
Resolution was passed to march next Day and attack Logan's 
Camp on the Ohio, about 30 miles above Wheeling. We actu- 
ally marched about live miles, and halted to take some Re- 
freshment, here the Impropriety of executing the proposed 
Enterprize was argued, the Conversation was brought forward 
by Cresap himself; it was generally agreed that those Indians 
had no hostile Intentions, as it was a hunting Camp composed 
of Men, Women & Children with all their StuflF with them. 
This we knew iis I myself and others then present had been at 
their Camp about four weeks before that time on our way down 
from Pittsburg ; In short every Person present particularly 
Cresap (upon reflection) was opposed to the projected Measure. 
We returned and on the Same evening Decamped and took the 
Road to Red-Stone. It was two Days after this that Logan's 
Family was killed."' 

1 Some time before these events, William Butler had sent off 
' a canoe loaded with goods for the Shawanese towns, and on the 



But while Cresap and his men had thus abandoned 
the proposed attack, his prudent and friendly advice 
was not heeded by others, and on the 30th of April, 
1'774, the murder of Logan's family was committed.' 

Logan's camp, as has been said, was about thirty 
miles above Wheeling, near the mouth of Yellow 
Creek, and on the opposite side of the Ohio, near the 
river-bank, was the cabin of a certain Baker, " who 
sold rum to the Indians, and of course received fre- 
quent visits from them. This man had been particu- 
larly desired by Cresap to remove his liquors, and 
seems to have prepared to take them away at the time 
of the murder." 

In the latter part of April, 1774, Michael Myers 
and two companions, who had been called forth to 
guard the frontier at Baker's Bottom, crossed the 
Ohio in order to examine the country along the banks 
of Yellow Creek. While thus engaged tjiey discov- 
ered an Indian endeavoring to steal their horse, 
whereupon Myers fired upon and killed him. A sec- 
ond Indian appeared and shared the same fate, when 
the whites, fearing to remain longer in this dangerous 
neighborhood, recrossed the Ohio and took refuge in 
Baker's cabin. The evening or night before the trag- 
edy a squaw came over to Baker's from the Indian 
camp on the opposite side of the river, and after some 
reluctance confessed that the Indians had resolved to 
kill the white woman and her family the next day. 

16th of April, some ten days before the formal declaration of 
war by the whites, it was attacked about forty miles below 
Pittsburgh by three Cherokees, who killed one of the white men 
composing the party and wounded another, the third maliing 
his escape, and the boat falling into the hands of the assailants. 

1 There is some contiict of testimony as to the date of the 
massacre. Benjamin Tomlinson, in his testimony, in Jacob's 
" Life of Cresap," places it on " the third or fourth of Mt\y ;" but 
John Sajipington's statement in the 4th appendix to .Jefferson's 
" Notes on Virginia" fixes it on the 24th of May. Mr. Mayer, 
to whose "Tah-Gah-Jule" the author is indebted for much of 
the information contained in this sketch, says, ** I am satis- 
fied the massacre occurred on the 30th of April, 1774, and that 
Sappington's date of the 24th May, given from memory, after 
a lapse of twenty -six years, is inaccurate. An examination of 
Washington's MSS. in the archives of the State Department at 
Washington has disclosed a letter from Valentine Crawford to 
Col. G. Washington, from Jacob's Creek, on the Monongaheln, 
and dated ' May 7, 1774.' " The following is an extract from 
it. After describing some of the Indian and pioneer tights 
before the Yellow Creek massacre, he adds, — 

"And on Satnrdai/ last, about twelve o'clock, there was one 
Greathouse and about twenty men fell on a party of Indians at 
the mouth of Yellow Creek, and killed ten of them, and brought 
away one child a prisoner, which is now at my brother William 
Crawford's." By reference to the almanac for 1774, it will be 
seen that the Saturday before the 7th of May of that year, the 
date of Valentine Crawford's letter, was the 30th of April. 
Valentine Crawford was Washington's land agent in the 

In consequence of this information. Baker, says Mr. 
Mayer, "summoned a number of his neighbors, who 
all reached his house before morning, when it was 
resolved the strangers should conceal themselves in a 
back apartment, whence the assailing Indians miuht 
be watched. It was also determined that if they de- 
meaned themselves peaceably they should not be mo- 
lested, but if hostility was manifested they should 
show themselves and act accordingly. Early in the 
morning a party of eight Indians, composed of three 
squaws, a child, and four married men, one of whom 
was Logan's brother, crossed the river to Baker's 
cabin, where all but Logan's brother obtained liquor 
and became excessively drunk. No whites except 
Baker and two of his companions appeared in the 
cabin. After some time Logan's relative took down 
a coat and hat belonging to Baker's brother-in-law, 
and putting them on, set his arms akimbo, strutted 
about the apartment, and at length coming up ab- 
ruptly to one of the men, addressed him with the 
most oifensive epithets and attempted to strike him. 
The white man, Sappington, who was thus assailed 
by language and gesture, for some time kept out of his 
way, but becoming irritated, seized his gun and shot 
the Indian as he was making to the door, still clad in 
the coat and hat. The men, who during the whole of 
this scene had remained hidden, now poured forth and 
without parley slaughtered the whole Indian party ex- 
cept the child. Before this tragic event occurred, two 
canoes, one with two and the other with five Indians, 
all naked, painted, and completely armed for war, 
were descried stealing from the opposite shore, where 
Logan's camp was situated. This was considered as 
confirmation of what the squaw had said the night 
before, and was afterwards alleged in justification of 
the murder of the unarmed party which had first ar- 
rived. No sooner were the unresisting drunkards 
dead than the infuriated whites rushed to the river- 
bank, and ranging themselves among the concealing 
fringe of underwood, prepared to receive the canoes. 
The first that arrived was the one containing two war- 
riors, who were fired upon and killed. The other 
canoe immediately turned and fled, but after this two 
others, containing eighteen warriors, painted and pre- 
pared for conflict as the first had been, started to as- 
sail the Americans. Advancing more cautiously than 
the former party, they endeavored to land below 
Baker's cabin, but being met by the rapid movements 
of the rangers before they could effect their purpose, 
they were put to flight with the loss of one man, 
although they returned the fire of the pioneers."' 

' All accounts appear to agree in representing the victims of 
this massacre to have been under the influence of "fire-water" 



According to the statement of John Sappington, 
the only relative of Logan killed at Baker's was his 
brother ; none of the squaws slain was his wife ; two 
of them were old women, while the third, whose infant 
was spared, was the wife of Gen. Gibson, who was at 
that time an Indian trader, " and subsequently took 
care of the child as if it had been his own." It is 
probable, however, that his mother and sister wore 
also among the slain. Logan's wife was a Shawanese 
woman, was not present at Baker's on the day of the 
tragedy, and lived for many years afterwards. She 
never had any children by Logan. Tod-kah-dohs, or 
" The Searcher," and probably a son of Logan's sister, 
did not die until about 1844, at the Cold Spring, on 
the Allegany Seneca reservation ; " so that, in spite 
of Logan's speech, some of his ' blood' still ' ran' in 
human veins ninety years after the Yellow Creek 

Such, as far as they can now be learned, were the 
circumstances connected with this famous, or rather 
infamous, incident in border warfare. It fully mer- 
ited all the indignation which it aroused at the time 
and all the denunciation which it has since received, 
and excited a universal feeling of horror even at a 
period when deeds of violence and death were of 
€very-day occurrence. But the truth of history as 
well as the demands of justice require that the re- 
sponsibility for the deed should be clearly placed 
where it belongs, and that the character of an inno- 
cent man should not be made the victim of posthu- 
mous vengeance. In considering the evidence on 
which Mr. Jefferson based his charge against Michael 
Cresap, it is impossible to repress surprise at the in- 
sufficiency of the testimony on which he made it. In 
point of fact, the only evidence against Cresap is. the 
unsupported statement of Logan, who at the time of 
the massacre was on the other side of the Ohio, and 
who based his belief in Cresap's guilt solely upon the 
fact that he had recently been at the head of a large 
war-party of white settlers. Of the fact that Logan [ 
considered Cresap the chief actor in the tragedy there 
cannot be any reasonable doubt. Apart from the 
statement of Gibson, in whose presence Logan pro- 
nounced his celebrated speech, and who declares that 
Logan insisted in charging Cresap with the murder, : 

at the time of its occurrence; is it not just possible that the 
whites may have been in the same condition? This would ac- 
count for and to a certain e.xtent palliate the wanton and bar- 
barous murder of. the women. It should be remembered also, 
in considering the weight of the provocation or excuse for the j 
attack upon the unarmed and helpless party of Indians, that 
we have only the testimony of lohite witnesses to the occurrence, I 
who would naturally endeavor to put the best face upon the 1 

the Indian chief himself left unmistakable record of 
his conviction in another place and another way. 
During the open war which blazed forth without con- 
cealment or disguise after the affair at Yellow Creek, 
Logan destroyed the family of a settler named John 
Roberts, and left in the house of the murdered family 
the following note, written in " gunpowder ink," and 
attached to a war-club : 

" Capt. Ceesap, — What did you kill my people on Yellow 
Creek for ? The white people killed my kin* at Conestoga a 
great while ago, and I thought nothing of that. But you 
killed my kin again on Yellow Creek, and took my cousin a 
prisoner. Then I thought I must kill too, and I have been 
three times to war since ; but the Indians are not angry, only 

" Captain John Logan. 

"July 21, 1774." 

Against this unsupported statement of a man who 
had no possible opportunity of obtaining the real facts 
in the case there is a large mass of positive evidence 
showing the entire innocence of Cresap. 

Gen. George Rogers Clark, to whom reference has 
already been made, and who was one of the party 
which had sought the advice of Cresap, and under 
his command returned from their projected expedition 
against Logan's camp, in response to inquiries on the 
subject wrote as follows, under date of June 17, 1798 : 

" I was of the first and last of the active Ofiicers who bore 
the Weight of that War, and on perusing some old Papers of 
that Date I find some Memoirs, but independent of them I 
have a perfect Recollection of every Transaction relative to 
Logan's Story. The Conduct of Cresap I am perfectly ac- 
quainted with; be was not the Author of that Murder, but a 
family of the Name of Greathouse. But some Transactions 
that happened under the Conduct of Capt. Cresap a few days 
previous to the murder of Logan's Family gave him sufiBcient 
Ground to suppose it was Cresap who had done him the Injury." 

After relating the " incidents which gave rise to 
Logan's suspicions" — Cresap's command of the party 
of proposed emigrants to Kentucky, which returned at 
his suggestion to Wheeling — Gen. Clark continues, — 

"The war now raged with all its Savage Fury until the fol- 
lowing fall, when a Treaty of Peace was held at Dunmore's 
Camp within five Miles of Chilicothe, the Indian Capital on 
the Siotho. Logan did not appear. I was' acquainted with 
him, and wished to be informed of the Reason of his absence 
by one of the Interpreters. The Answer he gave to my En- 
quiry was ' that he was like a Mad Dog, that his Bristles had 
been up and were not yet quite fallen — but that the good Talks 
now going forward might allay them.' Logan's Speech to Dun- 
more now came forward, as related by Mr. Jetferson, and was 
generally believed, and indeed not doubted to have been genuine 
and dictated by Logan. The Army knew it was wrong so far 
as it respected Cresap, anti'afforded an Opportunity of rallying 
that Gentleman on the subject. I discovered that Cresap was 
displeased, and told him that he must be a very great Man, that 
the Indians shouldered him with every Thing that had hap- 
pened — he smiled, and said he had a great mind to tomahawk 



Greathouse about the iDatter. "What is here related is Fact. T 
was intimate with Cresap, and better acquainted with Logan 
at that Time than with any other Indian in the Western Coun- 
try, and had a Knowledge of the Conduct of both Parties. 
Logan is the Author of the Speech, as related by Mr. Jefferson, 
and Cresap's Conduct was such as I have related." 

The testimony of Jacob Tomlinson, the brother-in- 
law of Baker, is of the same positive character. " The 
attacliing party at Baker's Bottom," he says, " had no 
commander. I believe Logan's brother was killed by 
a man named Sappington ; who killed the others 1 
know not, but this I know well, that neither Capt. 
Michael Cresap nor any other person of that name 
was there, nor do I believe within many miles of the 
place." The testimony of Col. Gibson, to whom Lo- 
gan's speech was delivered, of Gen. John Minor, Dr. 
Wheeler, and, in short, of every one who has been 
called upon to give evidence in this celebrated histori- 
cal cause, completely exonerates Cresap from all con- 
nection with the Yellow Creek tragedy. 

Col. Thomas J. McKaig, of Allegany County, who 
was born in 1804, at Steubenville, Ohio, about thirty 
miles below the place of the murder, in a recent com- 
munication to the writer, furnishes some interesting 
i'acts bearing upon this subject. 

" Baker's Fort, as it was called," says Col. Mc- 

" was nothing more than a comfortable, well-built log cabin, 
in which Mr. Baker and his wife resided at the time of the 
murder. The house remained standing for many years, and 
'Could be seen from steamboat or rail-car in passing up or down 
the river. When I was but a small boy my father removed 
from Steubenville and made him a home on the West Forli of 
Beaver, some fourteen miles from where it empties into the 
■Ohio, below Wellsville". I resided with my father until I was 
over twenty years of age. I was therefore well acquainted 
with the 'settlers' both on the Ohio and Virginia sides of the 
river. I was familiar with the story of the murder of Logan's 
family from my earliest recollection, and had heard it told and 
retold by those who at the time of the murder lived in our 
neighborhood. I have heard all the particulars of the murder 
when a boy from Adam Poe, who resided at the time of the 
murder a few miles farther up the river. I spent a night with 
his elder brother, Andrew Poe, who resided at the old homestead 
in the Virginia Neck, some few miles above Baker's house,'where 
■the murder was committed. In the course of the evening he 
gave me the particulars of his terrible tight, on the banks of the 
Ohio, with the Indian ' Big Foot' and his companion. He 
also, on that evening, told me the story of the murder of Lo- 
gan's family, the same as I had heard it frequently from his 
brother Adam, who lived, from my earliest recollection, within 
a mile of my father's house in Ohio. The fact is unquestion- 
able that all the particulars of the murder of Logan's family, 
and who was responsible for that murder, and who were present 
when the murder was committed were perfectly and univer- 
sally known to all the settlers of that region of country, 
and there was no dispute about who were the perpetrators for 
they were all known. Benjamin Sappington and his party, 
from Buffalo Creek, in Washington County, Pa., about fifteen 
miles from ' Baker's Fort,' perpetrated the murder. This 

was the universal understanding, denied by none in that region 
of country. The veracity of the Poes was unquestioniTblc. 
They were men of large size and of unusual bodily strength, 
and he would have been a bold man that dared to question the 
truth or veracity of cither, for they were men of unimpeach- 
able character. 

" Adam Poe was the grandfather of the Rev. Adam Poe, who 
with the eloquent Bascum, opened with prayer the convention 
at Baltimore in 1840 that ratified the nomination of 'Tippe- 
canoe and Tyler too.' 

" But more especially have I heard ' Old Pew' (for I forget 
his Christian name, everybody called him 'Old Pew') defend- 
ing himself and the party who was with him. He lived, when 
I knew him, in the ' Virginia Neck,' not far from Andrew Poe. 
He was old and poor, but I never heard his veracity questioned. 
When a boy I had a great admiration for ' Old Puw,' for his In- 
dian stories, for his fights, and his hairbreadth escapes from 
the rifle-ball and the tomahawk of the Indian. Whilst I 
listened I could have e.\olaimed with Horace, 'Oh, that the 
first earth had borne me amongst those heroes !' 

"The old man. Pew, told me he was one of Ben Sap- 
pington 's party ; was present at the murder, and knew every 
man of the party, and I know he lived in that neighborhood 
until his death at a very advanced age. He never denied his 
presence at the murder, nor his participation in it. I well re- 
member his justification of the act. The Sappington party 
were residents of a portion of the country that lay some fifteen 
miles distant from the Ohio River, and on that account had 
but little intercourse with the Indians, for the public highway 
of the Indian, 'the trail,' as we called it, was by the valley of 
the Ohio River. Nor did those pioneers of Buffalo Creek un- 
derstand the absolute necessity that lay upon the sparse ."cttlcrs 
of the Virginia side of the Ohio River to cultivate the friend- 
ship of the Indian. A quarrel with the Indian was denth to 
the sparse settler un the banks of the Ohio. The settlers 
were but few, the Indians were numbered by the hundred. 
The settlers could make no resistance if the Indians, for any 
offense or outrage by the whites upon one or more of these 
people, were e.fcited to revenge. This party from Buflfalo, not 
understanding the position of the settlers on the Ohio, thought 
that the killing of Logan's family was justifiable in anticipation 
of the reported attack on Baker's Fort. 

" Mr. Pew said it was reported that an attack would be made 
that morning upon the fort; that it was said and believed that 
it was the custom of the Indians to send the families of their 
chiefs before the attack was made to the point to be attacked, 
that they might be the first to share the plunder. That morn- 
ing the family of Logan, the Mingo chief, came to the fort, and 
they e.\pected every moment to see the boats of the attacking 
party push off from the opposite side of the river. There was no 
time for consultation. They considered the danger imminent, 
and they killed those that had arrived, knowing that they were 
the family of their chief. Mr. Pew, therefore, to the day of his 
death insisted that they were justified in the act under all the 
circumstances. Unfortunately for the whites, they killed their 
friends, and brought upon themselves the swift vengeance of 
all the surrounding savages, the Indian war of the summer 
of 1774. I never heard Mr. Pew or the Poes speak of Michael 
Cresap, nor do I believe that Mr. Pew ever knew or saw him. 
Cresap's settlement was at Grave Creek, more than seventy 
miles below Baker's Fort, and in the West I never heard Cre- 
sap's name connected with the murder of Logan's family. 

" In October, 1826, after receiving my baccalaureate from 
Washington College, Pennsylvania, I came to Cumberland, Md., 
where I obtained the position of principal of the Allegany 
County Academy. Being poor but proud, I was fortunate 



enougli to ]irocure board with Mrs. Mary Cresap, the widow of 
James Cresap, the son, as before stated, of Col. Michael Cresap, 
one of the most amiable and accomplished ladies I ever met. 

^' I was admitted into the family, not because her circum- 
stances required her to take boarders, but because she wanted 
her son, the present Luther Martin Cresap, of Allegany 
County, to be under my personal control in the academy. At 
Mrs. Cresap's house I made the acquaintance of all the Cresaps, 
* much ])eople,' for the connection was a large one, and in 
point of rank and character second to none in Western Mary- 
land. Among the many, not the least, was that excellent old 
man, the Rev. J. J. Jacobs, the father of ex-Governor Jacobs, 
of West Virginia. 'Father Jacobs,' as everybody called him, 
had been brought up from boyhood in the family of Capt. 
Michael Cresap, was his man of business, knew, I might 
say, all the acts of his life, and after bis death married his 
widow, and had then in the press his defense of Capt. Cresap, 
a small volume of about one hundred and twenty pages, now on 
my desk. Here I first saw Jefferson's ' Notes on Virginia,* and 
heard Capt. Michael Cresap's name in connection with the 
murder of the Logan family. To charge that * Col. Michael 
Cresap/ as my ancestors would have said, 'the chief and hero 
of the clan,' after he had given his life for his country, and 
after he had rested over twenty years in an honored grave, ' was 
a man famous for his many Indian murders' was certainly a 
cruel and grievous charge, and was so regarded by his friends 
and by all the community who had known him. It is there- 
fore not ' wondrous strange' that it was resented with so much 
bitterness. It was utterly repugnant to the well-known char- 
acter of Col. Cresap, and to every trait of character that be- 
longed to the Cresap family. 

'■ Some short time after I came to Cumberhind to reside I 
paid a visit to Benjamin Tomlinson, an old gentlei 
then resided on his farm some four miles north of Cui 
Mr. Tomlinson at that time (the close of the year 
would say, from bis appearance, must have been ov 
years of age, of fine personal appearance, large statu 
great dignity of character ; his character for truth and vei 
' unimpeached und unimpeachable.' No man in that commu- 
nity stood higher than Benjamin Tomlinson. l>uring the 
course of our conversation it occurred to me that in passing 
and repassing from my home in Ohio to Washington College, 
Pennsylvania, I had frequently crossed a run in the ' Virginia 
Neck' which old Mr. Pew called ' Tomlinson's Run.' I asked 
him if he knew anything about it, or how it got its name. lie 
answered, ' Oh, yes ; when I was a young man I had my hunting 
camp on that run, and it was called after me.' I then said to 
him, as that run is but a few miles from ' Baker's Fort,' you may 
know something of the murder of the Logau family. His answer 
was emphatic. * I know all about it. I know every man who 
was present at the murder. Mr. Baker was my brother-in-law. 
He built the house called Baker's Fort, and resided in it with 
his wife, my sister, at the time of the murder. He had settled 
at that place and built the house for a permanent home. 

or fifteen miles. I cannot now recall the names of any of tbe 
party except the names of Benjamin Sappington, Daniel 
Greathouse and his two sons, and Mr. Pew, ray old acquaint- 
ance, " Old Pew." They were much excited, and said that it 
was reported in th^r settlement that " Baker's Fort" would be 
attacked by the Indians that morning.* 

"Mr. Tomlinson said he assured Sappington and his party 
that he did not think that there was any danger of an attack, 
that there had been some uneasiness felt amongst them on ac- 
count of the killing of an Indian in a canoe down the river 
towards Steubenville, but the Indians knew that the settlers had 
nothing to do with it. The Indian was shot in his canoe by some 
strolling hunters out of mere wantonness. For the conse- 
quences the passing huntsmen cared nothing. The vengeance 
of the Indians could not affect them, and that the Indian knew 
this as well as the settler. They seemed, as Mr. Tomlinson 
said, to be much relieved, and said thej' would return to their 
homes. Mrs. Baker said as they had come so far to defend 
them, they must not go until she had prepared breakfast. To 
this all agreed. Mr. Baker, my brother-in-law, said Mr. Tom- 
linson, was very near-sighted, and could not see an animal at 
any time in the forest, so he asked me to go with him to 
bring in the horses while my sister got the breakfast. We were 
but a short time in the forest, not far distant from the house, 
when we heard the report of several rifles towards the house. 
We ran with all our speed for the house. When we got there 
we found Sappington and his party had shot the Logan family. 
When I heard their story I drew my rifle on Ben Sappington, 
and would have killed him had not others interfered. It ap- 
peared, said Mr. Tomlinson, that within a few minutes from 
the time we left, a canoe pushed off from the Ohio side contain- 
ing Logan's mother, brother, and sister, the wife of a renegade 
who ^white man, Simon Girty, who had a child in her arms that 
I was not killed. Their object apparently was to visit Baker's 
I house, and they crossed the river directly, went to the house, 
I and sat down, when Sappington's party shot and killed the 
\ mother, brother, and sister, believing, as they said, that they 
were the advance of the attacking party. There was no break- 
, fast that morning, Sappington and his party left, and we knew 
I that it was death to the settler or instant flight. We took with 
i us the child and what we could convemently carry, and fled for 
: an unexposed settlement that saoie morning.* That this is a 
! correct statement of the facts and circumstances under which 
the murder was committed, I have no doubt. It agrees with 
I what was universally believed, and held to be the truth in all 
I that portion of the country where the murder was perpetrated. 
I I asked, * was Michael Cresap present at the murder V Mr. 
' Tomlinson said he was not, nor was he at that time in that por- 
i lion of the country. If on the Ohio at all, he was at his settle- 
ment at the flats of Grave Creek, seventy-four miles lower 
I down the river. No settler would have done a deed of that 
I kind, for the settlers on the Ohio at that time were too few to 
I defend themselves against the Indians on the opposite bank of 
the Ohio." 
'* ' I made my home with my sister at that time. On the I ™, . , • p p /-, it 

• wuf^i, 1 ^ A c y ' T ' The evidence in favor or Cresap was so overwheim- 

night before the murder, as was my usual mode of sleeping, I . v.<'l^^v- ^^ if 

lay down before the fire, with my rifle at my side on the floor, ing that Mr. Jefferson felt it necessary to substantiate 

wrapped in my blanket. At early dawn I was awakened by a or correct his statement, and on the 21st of March, 

knock at the door. I sprang up, seized my rifle, and called jgQQ ^iQ addressed a letter to Col. Gibson, in which 
out, ** Wbo is there?" A voice from without answered, "Is 

thatjou, Ben?" The voice w,is familiar, and I proceeded to "^ ^^^^i 

1826), I 
er eighty 
*e, and of 

he voice wa; 

open the door by removing the cordwood which was placed 
with the end of the wood against the door. When the door 
was opened I found at the door Benjamin Sappington and a 
party, some fifteen in number, who lived at a settlement on 
Buffalo Creek, in now Washington County, Pa., distant fourteen 

"I was within a day or two of putting into the press the 
evidence I had collected on this subject. I have been long in 
collecting it, because of the distance and dispersion of those 
acquainted with the transaction. However, I have at length 
that of a dozen or fifteen persons who clear up the mystery 
/ . ■ ' 

:^ K-i ^H'^^-'^ K ^ i^j^ft^ |tt*i>^ JVisui^^*^ ^ ^ 



which threw doubt on this piece of history. It appears that 
instead of one, there were four diiferent murders committed on 
the Indians. The first by Cresap and his party, a little above 
"Wheeling, on two Indians. The second by the same persons, on 
the same or the next day, on a party of Indians encamped 
below Wheeling, at the mouth of Grave Creek, among whom 
were some of Logan's relatives. The Indians here returned 
the fire, and wounded one of Cresap's party. The third by 
GrealJiouae and Toiullmoii, a few days after. Thli wne a huntinij- 
party of Indian men and women, encamped at the mouth of Yel- 
low Creelc, opposite to Baker's Bottom. Grreathouse went to their 
camp as a friend, found them too strong, and invited them over 
to Baker's to drink. They came over, were furnished with as 
much rum as they would drink, and, when the men were quite 
drunk, Greathome's paitij fell on and massacred the whole ex- 
cept a little girl, Logan's cousin, whom they made prisoner. 
Here his sister was murdered and some of his relations. The 
Indians over the river, alarmed at the guns, sent over two canoes 
of men to seek for their friends. Greathouse and his party re- 
ceived them as they approached the shore with a well-directed 
fire, and killed and wounded several. The pojiuliir report at a 
distance from the scene had blended all these together and 
made only one transaction of it; and passing from one to 
another unacquainted with the geography of the transaction, 
the Kanhawa had been substituted for the Ohio. Hence, too, 
arose tlie doubt whether it was not Greathouse instead of Cresap 
who killed Logan's relations. Tiie prli}eipal murder wna by 
Greathouse, at Yellow Creek, but some of them had been killed 
a few days before, by Cresap, at Grave Creek." 

In this letter Mr. Jeiferson directly acquits Cresap 
of all participation in the Yellow Creek massacre, but 
endeavors to support his previous assertion that Cresap 
had been concerned in the murder of Logan's relatives 
by reference to the aifair at Grave Creek, where he 
alleges some of Logan's relatives had been killed a few 
days before by Cresap's party. As a matter of fact 
there is no proof that any of Logan's relatives were 
killed in that encounter. Logan, in the note left at 
the house of John Roberts during the war, charges 
that the murder of his people occurred " on Yellow 
Creek," and refers to that alone as the cause of his 
anger. As regards the two Indians killed " a little 
above Wheeling," it appears from a contemporaneous 
account published in Philadelphia, that a man of the 
name of Stephens with two Indians were descending 
the Ohio in a canoe, in which one white man had been 
killed and another wounded a few days previous by 
three Cherokees, as he (Stephens) alleged ; that they 
saw another canoe with some persons in it, whom he 
supposed to be Indians ; that he tried to avoid them 
by crossing the river, and was fired upon and the two 
Indians killed. To this account Stephens added that 
" he suspects the murder was committed (not by Cresap 
himself), but by persons in confederacy with him." 
That was the first case of " murder" referred to by 
Mr. Jefferson, and yet Stephens does not charge Cre- 
sap with any participation in it, but " suspects it was 
doneby some persons in confederacy with him." Even 

if this murder was committed by members of Cresap's 
party, could he be held responsible for the acts of a 
set of wild borderers, among whom the restraints of 
military discipline were not recognized ? 

The second afi'air mentioned by Mr. Jefferson in 
his letter of " confession and avoidance" was a fight 
between Cresap and fifteen men with fourteen Indians, 
who were concealed at the mouth of a creek " with 
the expectation of being attacked." Certainly there 
is no resemblance between a fair battle between men 
and the treacherous and bloody massacre of unarmed 
women and children. In the last edition of his " Notes 
on Virginia," Jefferson substituted the following in 
place of the original charge made against Cresap : 
" Capt. Michael Cresap and a certain Daniel Great- 
house, leading on these parties, surprised at different 
times traveling and hunting-parties of the Indians, 
having their women and children with them, and 
murdered many. Among these were unfortunately 
the family of Logan, a chief celebrated in peace and 
in war, and long distinguished as a friend of the 
whites." This, as Mr. Mayer observes, " is certainly 
a mitigation of the charge against Capt. Cresap, but 
it leaves altogether indefinite the fact as to whether 
Greathouse and Cresap conjointly directed these par- 
ties, or which of the two murdered Logan's relatives. 
It relieves Cresap, however, altogether from the charge 
of murdering the Logan family in canoes on the Ka- 
nawha." As already pointed out, .Mr. Jefferson, in 
his letter to Col. Gibson, had previously abandoned 
the charge that Cresap had committed the murders at 
Yellow Creek, and had shifted his ground to the as- 
sertion that a party under his command had killed a 
brother of Logan in an open fight at Grave Creek. 

The authenticity of Logan's speech has often been 
called in question, and its genuineness may, perhaps, 
still admit of doubt. While it is unnecessary in this 
connection to enter into a full discussion of the 
probability or improbability of its being the produc- 
tion of the person to whom it is credited, it is not 
irrelevant to the subject under consideration to call 
attention briefly to the evidence which tends to es- 
tablish it as the original production of Logan, and to 
that which has been collected against its authenticity. 
The first witness oh this point is John Gibson, who 
on the 4th day of April, 1800, twenty-six years after 
the event occurred, made affidavit that while the 
treaty of peace was under consideration by Lord 
Dunmore and the Indian chiefs, Logan "came to 
where this deponent was sitting and asked him to 
I walk out with him ; that they went into a copse of 
wood, where they sat down, when Logan, after shed- 
I dino- abundance of tears, delivered to him the speech 



nearly as related by Mr. Jefferson in his ' Notes on the 
State of Virginia;' that he, the Ae^oxxant, told him then 
that it was not Col. Cresap who had murdered his 
relatives, and although his son, Capt. Michael Cresap, 
was with the party who had killed a Shawanese chief 
and other Indians, yet he was not present when his 
relatives were killed at Baker's, near the mouth of 
Yellow Creek, on the Ohio ; that this deponent, on his 
return to camp, delivered the speech to Lord Dun- 
more ; and that the murders perpetrated as above ivere 
considered as ultimately the cause of the war of 1774, 
commonly called Cresap's war." The testimony of 
Gen. George Rogers Clark, on the same side, has 
already been given, and according to his evidence it 
appears that Cresap's name was in Logan's speech as 
read by Lord Dunmore. James Dunlap, of Pitts- 
burgh, in a letter to Mr. Brantz JMayer, declares that 
he frequently heard Col. Gibson give the same account 
of the speech as contained in his affidavit, with the 
addition that Gibson stated '' he returned at once to 
his friends and wrote down the language of Logan 
immediately, and delivered it to Lord Dunmore in 
council." " The message or speech," says Mr. Mayer, 
" was circulated freely at Williamsburgh immediately 
after Dunmore's return from his campaign in the 
winter of 1774, and was published then in the FtV- 
giiiia Gazette on the 4th of February, 1775, and in 
New York on the 16th of February, 1775." William 
McKee testifies in the IVth Appendix to Jefferson's 
" Notes," that being in the camp on the evening of the 
treaty made by Dunmore, he heard " repeated con- 
versations concerning an extraordinary speech made 
at the treaty, or sent there by a chieftain of the In- 
dians named Logan, and heard several attempts at a 
rehearsal of it." 

Against the authenticity of the speech, there is, in 
the first place, the argument of Luther Martin, son- 
in-law of Capt. Michael Cresap, dated the 29th of 
March', 1797, which maybe found in the Olden Time 
Magazine, vol. ii. p. 51. Withers, in his " Chroni- 
cles of Border Warfare," says, " Two interpreters 
were sent to Logan by Lord Dunmore, requesting his 
attendance ; but Logan replied that ' he was a warrior, 
not a counselor, and would not come.' " Mr. Withers, 
commenting on this, says, " Col. Benjamin Wilson, 
Sr., then an officer in Dunmore's army, says that 
he had conversed freely with one of the interpreters 
(Nicholson) in regard to the mission to Logan, and 
that neither from the interpreter, nor from any other 
one during the campaign, did he hear of the charge 
preferred in Logan's speech against Capt. Cresap as 
being engaged in the affair at Yellow Creek. Capt. 
Cresap was an officer in the division under Lord 

Dunmore; and it would seem strange, indeed, if 
Logan's speech had been made public at Camp 
Charlotte, and neither he (who was so naturally in- 
terested in it, and could at once have proven the 
falsehood of the allegation it contained) nor Col. 
Wilson (who was present during the whole conference 
between Lord Dunmore and the Indian chiefs, and at 
the time when the speeches were delivered sat im- 
mediately behind and close to Dunmore) should have 
heard nothing of it until years after." Mr. Neville 
B. Craig, in the second volume of the Olden Time, 
says, " We will state that many years ago, Mr. James 
McKee, the brother of Alexander McKee, the deputy 
of Sir William Johnson, stated to us distinctly that 
he had seen the speech in the handwriting of one of 
the Johnsons, whether Sir William or his successor, 
Guy, we do not recollect, before it tvas seen by Logan." 
The following testimony of Benjamin Tomlinson, of 
Allegany County, Md., and a brother-in-law of Baker, 
given in Cumberland on the 17th day of April, 1797, 
twenty-three years after the occurrence to which it 
relates, is of the same positive character : 

'' Logan was not at the treaty. Perhaps Cornstalk, the chief 
of the Shawanese nation, mentioned among other grievances 
the Indians killed on Yellow Creek; but / believe neither 
Cresap nor any other person were named as the perpetrators ; 
and I perfectly recollect that I was that day otBcer of the guard, 
and stood near Dunmore's person, that consequently I saw and 
heard all that passed ; that also, t'Do or three days before the 
treaty, when I was on the outguard, Simon Girty, who was 
passing by, stopped with me and conversed; he said he was 
going after Logan, but he did not like the business, for he was 
a surly fellow ; he, however, proceeded on, and I saw him re- 
turn on the day of the treaty, and Logan was not with him; at 
this time a circle was formed, and the treaty began. I saw 
John Gibson, on Girty's arrival, get up and go out of the circle 
and talk with Girty, after which he (Gibson) went into a tent, 
and soon after returning into the circle drew out of his ])ocket 
a piece of clean new paper, on which was written in his own 
handwriting a speech for and in the name of Logan. This I 
heard read three times, once by Gibson, and twice by Dunmore, 
the purport of which was that he, Logan, was the white man's 
friend; that on his journey to Pittsburgh to brighten this friend- 
ship, or on his return thence, all his friends were killed at Yel- 
low Creek ; that now when he died who should bury him, for 
the blood of Logan was running in no creature's veins; but 
neither was the name of Cresap or the nnme of any other person 
mentioned in this speech. But I recollect to see Duumore put 
this speech among the other treaty papers." 

There are many letters and documents of a highly 
interesting character throwing further light upon the 
subject, but more than enough has been adduced to 
convince the reader of Cresap's entire innocence of 
all participation in the massacre at Yellow Creek. 
That some Indians may have been killed by the party 
under Cresap's command is not denied, but they were 
killed after the commission of similar outrages by the 
Indians themselves, after information from the most 



reliable sources that the Indian tribes had determined 
upon and were about inausuratiug hostilities, after the 
formal declaration of war by the whites, and in a fair 
encounter between men, in which there was no sur- 
prise or treachery, and for which both sides were 

In regard to Logan's speech, Mr. Mayer, after an 
impartial consideration of all the testimony, expre.sses 
the opinion that " Gen. Clark's letter seems to prove 
conclusively that Cresap's name was in the message 
when read in the camp, for he jeered him with his 
asserted importance in originating the war, whereupon 
Cresap broke forth in bitter invective against Great- 
house ; and, moreover, it is evident that Logan had 
previously charged Cresap with the murder, as will be 
seen by reference to the note addressed to ' Capt. 
Cresap,' which the Indian left in the house of 
Roberts, whose family he had murdered in 1774." 

Col. Gibson, upon whose testimony the authenticity 
of the speech mainly rests, " was always regarded," 
says Mr. Mayer, " as an honest and truthful person. 
He enjoyed the confidence of Washington, who in 
1781 intrusted him with the command of the Western 
military department. In 1782, when Gen. Irvine 
had succeeded him, Gibson was intrusted with the 
command during the general's absence, which con- 
tinued for several months. Jefferson, Madison, and 
Harrison respected him. He was a major-general of 
militia, secretary of Indian territory under the adminis- 
trations of Jefferson and Madison, member of the Penn- 
sylvania Convention in 1778, and an associate judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas of Alleghany County, 
Pa. Chief Justice Gibson and Gen. George Gibson, 
sons of Col. George Gibson, who was mortally wounded 
at St. Clair's defeat, are his well-known and esteemed 

In a letter dated " Alleghany, March 8, 1848," 
addressed to J. W. Biddle, of Pittsburgh, fte*-. Wil- 
liam Robinson, Jr., says, " I knew Gen. Gibson from 
my earliest childhood. He was one of the most art- 
less and unsophisticated men in the world, and the 
last man on earth that would make a false statement 
in narrating events. He was a pretty good English 
scholar, with a remarkable memory, yet without any 
fancy or imagination, though watchful and observant 
of all around him." 

In a letter to Lyman C. Draper, written in Novem- 
ber, 1846, John Bannister Gibson, chief justice of 
Pennsylvania, and a nephew of Col. John Gibson, 
says, — 

'* At his return to camp, Mr. Gibson made an accurate trans- 
lation of it (Logan's speech), which, as it was much admired, 
was probably preserved by Lord Dunmore among the archives 

of the government. After the lapse of almost half a century, 
Gen. Gibson would not assert that the speech published by Mr. 
Jefferson was a literal copy of his translation ; but he was sure 
it contained the substance of it. Here it is proper to remark 
that he was as competent as Mr. Jefferson, or any one else, tu 
give it the simple dress in which it appears. But whoever was 
entitled to the merit of it, Gen. Gibson said it was a poor pic- 
ture of the original, uttered, as it was, in accents dictated by 
an abiding sense of his wrongs, and in tones expressive of the 
hopeless desolation of his heart. It was its last passionate 
throb. The man was done with impulses, even of revenge. Ho 
sunk into apathy from intemperance, and in the course of a 
year was murdered in a drunken fray." ' 




Dutch and Swedes on the Delaware — Border Warfare — Penn- 
sylvania Squatters — Capture of Col. Thomas Cresap — Wm. 
Penn's Duplicity — Mason and Dixon's Boundary Line — 
Southwestern Virginia Boundary — Mason and Dixon's Line. 

The territory granted by Charles I. on June 20, 
1632, to Cecilius Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, 
under the name of the province of Maryland, was 
bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and Dela- 
ware Bay and river, on the north by the fortieth 
parallel of north latitude, on the west by a line 
drawn from the northern boundary southward to the 
most western source of the Potomac River, and 
thence down the southern bank of that river to the 
Chesapeake Bay, and on the south by a line running 
from the last point to Watkins' Point, on the Eastern 
Shore of the bay, and thence east to the ocean. It . 
will at once be perceived that these boundaries of the 
province are not those which now define the limits of 
the State. By examination of the original boundary 
of Maryland, it will be seen that the State has been 
deprived of the whole State of Delaware, and a strip 
of territory about twenty miles wide now forming 
part of the State of Pennsylvania, including in its 
limits the present city of Philadelphia, and a great 
part of Che.ster, Delaware, Lancaster, York, Adams, 
Franklin, Fulton, Bedford, and Somerset Counties. 
The whole number of acres of territory lost to Mary- 
land may be summed up thus : to Delaware, one and 
a quarter millions ; to Pennsylvania, two and a half 
millions ; and to Virginia, half a million ; making a 
total loss of four and a quarter millions of acres, be- 
sides about one hundred and fifty thousand acres 

1 The precise manner of Logan's death seems involved in 
some obscurity. By one account he is represented as having 
been killed by bis nephew, Tod-kah-dahs. 




" left out" between Onancock River and the Scar- 
borough line on the Eastern Shore. 

Of the most of this valuable territory Maryland 
was deprived on the alleged ground that the Swedes 
and Dutch had established settlements in Delaware 
before Lord Baltimore's charter was obtained ; and 
this plea was not only urged by the Penns, but has 
been repeated by historians, without any authentic 
proof of the assertion on which it is founded.' It is 
certain no settlements of any kind had been made 
upon the territory granted to Lord Baltimore down 
to the time he received his charter, eithei* under the 
authority of the crown or of the charter governments, 
except the trading-post established by Claiborne on 
Kent Island and the unauthorized settlements of the 
Dutch on the Delaware in 1631, which were aban- 
doned in Blarch of the following year. No perma- 
nent settlements were made upon the Delaware until 
the arrival of the Swedes in 1638, when disputes 
arose between them and the Dutch at Manhattan 
(now New Yoik), who in 1655 finally succeeded in 
conquering " New Sweden." A number of the 
Swedes fled to Maryland, where they were kindly 

Lord Baltimore, hearing of the proceedings of the 
Dutch, ordered Col. Nathaniel Utie, of Baltimore 
County, to notify the settlers on the Delaware within 
the limits of his grant that they must depart the prov- 
ince or submit to his government. This proceeding 
led to considerable negotiations between the contending 
parties for the settlement of their difficulties, without 
any definite result. On the 19th of October, 1659, 
the government of Maryland gave an answer to the 
Dutch ambassadors appointed by Governor Stuyvesant 
to wait upon the Maryland authorities at Patuxent, 
insisting on the right of the proprietary to the terri- 
tory on the Delaware, and refusing to submit the 
matter in dispute to the governments of England and 
Holland. This refusal of Maryland to recognize the 
authority of the Dutch to treat with the province 
about the disputed territor}* bordering on the Dela- 
ware was Ibllowed by constant collisions between the 
Dutch and Maryland settlers near the disputed land. 

In the mean time doubts had arisen in the Council 
of Maryland whether the Dutch settlement at New 
Amstel, on the Delaware, was really below the fortieth 
degree of north latitude, and as the Dutch West In- 
dia Company appeared determined to maintain their 
possessions by force, while tliere was no prospect of 
any aid from the colonies should a forcible reduction 

1 See a full review of the boundary troubles in the writer's 
" History of Maryland," vol. i. pp. 230, 395, etc. ' 

be attempted, all further action was deferred until the 
will of the proprietary could be ascertained. Lord 
Baltimore, however, took care to obtain from the 
king, on July 21, 1661, a confirmation of his patent. 
Charles II., provoked by the continued encroach- 
ments of the government of New Netherlands, deter- 
mined to effect the conquest of the whole settlement. 
To accomplish this, on the 12th of March, 1664 (0. 
S.), he granted to his brother James, Duke of York 
and Albany, all that tract of country extending from 
the west banks of the Connecticut River to the east- 
ern shore of Delaware Bay (including Long Island). 
The duke took possession in September, not only of 
the settlement on the Hudson, but of those on the 
Delaware south of forty degrees of north latitude, 
which, as we have seen, were within the limits of Lord 
Baltimore's charter. By the terms of capitulation 
the Dutch colonists were admitted to all the rights 
and privileges of English subjects. Under the new 
government the name of the town of New Amstel 
was changed to that of New Castle, and Altona to 
that of Christiana, while the river and the bay into 
which it flows lost their old names, and received the 
English name of Delaware. From this period until 
the grant by Charles II. to William Penn, on the 4th 
of March, 1681 (0. S.), of the territory of Pennsyl- 
vania, the settlements on the Delaware were depen- 
dencies of the government of New York, although 
clearly within the limits of Maryland. The singular 
definition of the southern boundary in Penn's charter, 
which left open the question whether the boundary 
circle was to be a circle of twelve miles in circum- 
ference, or to be drawn around a diameter of twelve 
miles passing through New Castle, or with a radius of 
twelve miles beginning at New Castle, was the origin, 
of the present boundary line (" Mason and Dixon's ") 
dividing the North and South, and was one of the 
principal sources of the contention between Baltimore 
and Penn. The latter soon discovered that if his 
province extended no farther south than the fortieth 
degree he would not have a good port for ships ; so 
he managed to have the southeast corner of his 
province fixed at twelve miles north of New Castle, 
and thus within Lord Baltimore's land. He then 
further obtained from the Duke of York the grant 
of the counties south of New Castle, or what is now 
the State of Delaware, which the duke had no right 
to convey, as these also were included in the charter 
of Maryland. Penn, however, claimed this territory 
on the ground that Baltimore's charter called for " un- 
cultivated land," whereas a portion of this, he asserted, 
was cultivated by the Dutch at the time that charter 
was granted. This, as we have seen, was not the case. 




The Board of Trade, however, decided in favor of 

On the 20th of April, 1681, Penn commissioned 
his cousin, William Markham, as deputy governor, and 
in May following he was dispatched to the province. 
He arrived at Upland, now Chester, Delaware, about 
July, 1681, and in December, 1682, Penn, who had 
arrived on the 27th of October, had an interview with 
Lord Baltimore at the house of Col. Thomas Tailler, 
in Anne Arundel County, to settle the disputed ques- 
tion of their boundaries. Though both charters fixed 
the fortieth parallel of north latitude as the line be- 
tween Maryland and Pennsylvania, Penn tried hard 
to persuade Lord Baltimore to let the line be run 
farther south, so as to give him a tract of land about 
twenty miles wide running along the northern border 
of Maryland, while Lord Baltimore was to repay him 
self by taking from Virginia a small strip of the nar 
row peninsula below what is now Worcester County, 
Lord Baltimore naturally refused to make such an un 
fair bargain as this, or to rob Virginia for the benefit 
of Penn, and so the matter remained unsettled until 
1732, when John, Richard, and Thomas Penn by some 
means succeeded in obtaining from Charles, fifth 
Lord Baltimore, a writteri agreement conceding to the 
Penns all their claims. 

A large strip of territory about twenty miles wide, 
now forming part of the State of Pennsylvania, and 
running westward along the northern border of West- 
ern Maryland, was a portion of this disputed region, 
and in the troubles which arose from the antagonistic 
claims of the two provinces many of the principal 
citizens of this section of the province were involved. 
As early as December, 1732, Lord Baltimore, who 
had come to Maryland to settle the disputes, wrote to 
Governor Patrick Gordan, of Pennsylvania, calling 
his attention to the fact that " a most outrageous riot 
had lately been committed in Maryland by a great 
number of people calling themselves Pennsylvanians." 
John Lowe, of Baltimore County, his wife and family, 
were the victims of this border raid, which seems to 
have been entirely without justification or excuse, as 
far as Lowe, at least, was concerned. The dwellers 
on the Maryland side of the border, as may be sup- 
posed, were not slow in retaliating, and in May, 1734, 
John Hendricks and Joshua Minshall from their set- 
tlements on the Susquehanna, and two others from 
the borders of New Castle County, were carried off by 
the Maryland authorities and confined in the Annap- 
olis jail. These troubles, however, would seem really 
to have begun with Penn s first settlement in the 
province, for we learn from the Pennsylvania records 
that at a council held at Philadelphia in 1684 a 

letter from one Samuel Lands was read " concerning 
Col. George Tallbot's goeing with three musqueters 
to y" houses of Wm. Ogle, Jonas Erskin, and 
Andreis Tille, and tould them if they would not 
forthwith yield Obedience to y" Lord Baltimore, and 
Own him to be their Proper, and pay rent to him, he 
would Turne them out of their houses and take their 
Land from them.'" And from the same source we 
learn that, in 1686, " y" Marylanders have lately re- 
inforced their fort at Christina, and would not suffer 
John White to cut hay, but thrittcnd those he im- 
ployed to do it with their gunns presented against 
them, and that what hay they had cut y'' Marylanders 
sayd they would throw it into river." Moreover, 
it appears that about this same time one Maj. English 
"came into y' county of New Castle with about fourty 
armed horsemen ; left them at John Darby's whilst 
Maj. English and a Marry Land Capt. came to New 
Castle, where John White meeting him, made com- 
plaint to him of the abuses don him byy' Mary Landers 
at y" fort. Maj. English tould him that if thou wilt 
say 'you drunken dogg, Ned EJnglish, lett me cutt hay,' 
I will give you leave." 

Inroads and exasperations of this character con- 
tinued on both sides for a long period, and appear not 
to have ceased even after the king himself had com- 
manded the peace. In 1717 we hear complaints of 
"certain persons from Maryland who had lately sur" 
veyed out lands not far from Conestoga, and near the 
thickest of our settlements to the great disturbance of 
the inhabitants there ;" and in 1722 " the secret and 
underhand practices of persons" from Maryland are re- 
ferred to with virtuous indignation in the minutes of 
the Pennsylvania Councils, — " these secret and under- 
hand practices" consisting apparently in an attempt to 
survey and take up lands on the west side of the Sus- 
quehanna. In the same year Governor Keith sent 
a letter to the Governor of Maryland, in which he 
refers to a report that " two magistrates of Pennsyl- 
vania, with some others, had been taken prisoners by 
a party of men in arms from Cecil County and carried 
before the justices of Kent County, who detained 
them in custody two days, and afterwards dismissed 
them upon a verbal promise to appear there next 

In 1735, William Rumsey, a surveyor of Mary- 
land, was apprehended by the sheriff of New Castle 
County and taken before the Governor of Penn.syl- 
vania, charged with committing and causing others to 
commit great abuse and violence against several in- 
habitants of Chester and Lancaster Counties, for no 
other reason " than that those persons asserted the 
jurisdiction of this province [Pennsylvania] in those 



parts where they live." In 1736, Governor Ogle 
directed Thomas White, deputy surveyor, to lay out 
two hundred acres of land in the disputed territory 
of Baltimore County, and lying on the west side of 
the Susquehanna, for each of the following persons : 
Henry Munday, Edward Leet, Charles Higgin- 
botham, James Kaine, John Smith, Hugh Kaine, 
James Nickleson, Robert Trotter, Robert Rowland, 
William Miles, William Greenlee, Stephen White, 
John Cross, John Kaine, Sr., John Kaine, Edward 
Ryly, Patrick Savage, Arthur Browlee, James Love, 
Anthony Dixon, Benjamin Dixon, James Morrow, 
Thomas King, Ralph Higginbotham, John McNabb, 
James McGee, Barnibe Clarke, Thomas Moore, Rich- 
ard Ryan, George Bond, Thomas Linass, William Li- 
nass, John Linass, John Coats, Robert Jesson, George 
Moore, Robert 3Ioore, Gibbons Jennings, Thomas 
Scarlet, William Carpenter, Richard Pope, Thomas 
Charlton, John Charlton, Sr., Edward Charlton, John 
Charlton, Thomas Charlton, Jr., Arthur Charlton, 
Henry Charlton, Jr., Richard Sedgwick, William 
Betty, William Betty, Jr., William Webb, Thomas 
Dawson, and John Dawson. Henry Munday and 
Edward Leet, however, were arrested by the Penn- 
sylvania authorities, and the design to occupy the 
debatable land fell through. Among those who suf- 
fered in these border frays was Elisha Gatchel, a 
member of the Society of Friends, and a justice of 
the peace for the county of Chester, who was car- 
ried off by a party of Marylanders under Capt. Charl- 
ton, taken across the line, and made to give bail to 
answer the charge of speaking disrespectfully of Lord 
Baltimore. The most striking incident of these 
border feuds was the attack upon the house of 
Thomas Cresap, a citizen of Maryland, which was 
made by a body of armed men from Pennsylvania, 
who set fire to the house in which himself and family 
and several neighbors had taken refuge, and attempted 
to murder them as they made their escape from the 
flames. In this sharp contest one of Cresap's men 
was killed and himself wounded. He was also made 
prisoner, and conveyed to Philadelphia, where he was 
lodged in jail. 

The Governor of Pennsylvania, in his report to his 
Council, gives the following account of the arrest of 
Cresap, who lived at this time at Wright's Ferry, op- 
posite the town of Columbia, now Pennsylvania, 
where he obtained a Maryland title to five hundred 
acres of land : 

'' The sherif of Lancaster, having called to his assistance 
twenty-fuur persons, went over Susquehannah on Tuesday 
night, the twenty-third of Xovember [1736], in order to be at 
Cresap's early next morning and to have taken him by surprise, 

but they being discovered, Cresap secured himself in his house, 
and having six men with hira he stood on his defense ; that the 
sherif read the warrant to Cresap and required him to sur- 
render, but he and those with him swore they would defend 
themselves to death; that the sherif finding all persuasive 
means ineffectual sent for more assistance, but Cresap had so 
fortified his house and fired so furiously on the sherif and his 
company that they could nut storm the house without the ut- 
most hazard, there being near a hundred firearms in it ; that 
they had taken an oath to stand by one another, with a resolu- 
tion to kill any one that offered to c.apituliite ; one, however, 
found means to desert him by getting out at the chimney; 
that the sherif and his assistants having waited till near sun- 
set and finding they must either return without executing 
their warrant or destroy the house to come at him, they set fire 
to it, but offered to quench it if he would surrender ; he never- 
theless obstinately persisted in his refusal, neither would he 
suffer his wife or children to leave the house, but fire at those 
who proposed ; that when the fire prevailed and the floor was 
ready to fall in, those with him rushed forth loaded with arms, 
which as they fired at the sherif and his assistants they threw 
away, and in the confusion one of Cresap's men, Jlichael 
Reisner, shot down by mistake another of the gang, named 
Lauchlan Malone, on whose body the coroner was taking an 
inquisition ; that Cresap was at length apprehended." 

Cresap before his capture had formed, with the 
knowledge of Governor Ogle, an association of about 
fifty men for the purpose of driving out the German 
settlers on the west side of the Susquehanna, and in 
the prosecution of their design they killed one Knowles 
Dant, who had resisted them. Cresap was then at- 
tacked, as related, made prisoner, and carried to 
Philadelphia, where the streets and doors were 
thronged with spectators to see the " Maryland ]\Ion- 
ster," who taunted the crowd by exclaiming, half in 
earnest, half in derision, " Why. this is the finest city 
in the province of Maryland !" 

Before the formation of Cresap's association the 
sheriff of Baltimore County, with the sanction of the 
Maryland authorities, had marched with three hun- 
dred men at his back to eject the German settlers 
from their possessions, but was persuaded to relinquish 
his design on a pledge from the Germans that they 
would consult together, and give an answer to Lord 
Baltimore's requisition to acknowledge his authority. 
The attack upon Cresap added fresh fuel to the bitter 
feeling already prevailing, and Governor Ogle, after 
in vain demanding the release of Cresap, " ordered 
reprisals, and four German settlers were seized and 
carried to Baltimore, and a band of the associates, 
under one Higginbotham, proceeded forcibly to expel 
the Germans. Again the Council of Pennsylvania 
ordered out the sheriff of Lancaster and the power of 
his county, with directions to dispose detachments in 
proper positions to protect the people ; when the 
sheriff entered the field the invaders retired, but re- 
turned as soon as his force was withdrawn. Captures 



were made on both sides ; the German settlers were 
harassed perpetually, in many instances driven from 
their farms, and in others deterred from every attempt 
to plant or improve." In October, 17.37, sixteen 
Marylanders, under the leadership of Richard Lowder, 
broke into the jail at Lancaster and released Lowdor's 
brother and a number of others who had been appre- 
hended by the sheriff of Lancaster County. 

This fierce border warfare at len2;th attained so 
alarming a character that the Governor and both 
Houses of Assembly of Maryland found it necessary 
to make a true representation to the king and the 
proprietary " of the impious treatment which this 
Province in general, and more particularly your Ma- 
jesty's subjects residing on the northern borders 
thereof, have of late suffered from the Government 
and inhabitants of the Province of Pennsylvania." 

Prom this address it appears that the German set- 
tlers, of whom so much has been said, had in the 
first place applied to the authorities of Maryland for 
permission to settle on the land in dispute, that con- 
siderable quantities of land had been allotted to them 
(in what is now York County, Pa.), and that for a 
time they had paid taxes to the government of Mary- 
land, and in every other way acknowledged its juris- 
diction. The address charged, however, that they 
had been seduced from their allegiance by emissaries 
from Pennsylvania, who had promised them lighter 
taxes under that province, and they had accordingly 
refused to yield any further obedience to Maryland, 
under the pretense that their lands were within the 
limits of Pennsylvania. It was to reduce these people 
to submission and to maintain the proper authority 
of Maryland that Cresap's association was formed, 
and it was in the attempt to defend her territory 
from encroachment that he was subjected to the 
violence and imprisonment for which the Gover- 
nor and Assembly now sought redress. This ad- 
dress had the effect of drawing from the King an or- 
der in Council, dated Aug. 18, 1737, in which the 
Governors of Maryland and Pennsylvania were com- 
manded, on pain of His Majesty's highest displeas- 
ure, to put a stop to the tumults, riots, and outrageous 
disorders on the borders of their respective provinces. 
The dangerous situation of affairs in the two prov- 
inces at this time, and the desire to conciliate the 
crown, produced a ready compliance with this order, 
and an agreement was made in 1738 providing for the 
running of a provisional line between the provinces, 
which was not to interfere with the actual possessions 
ofthe settlers, but merely to suspend all grants of the 
disputed territory as defined by that line until the 
final adjustment of the boundaries. Col. Levin Gale 

and Samuel Chamberlaine on the part of Maryland, 
and Richard Peters and Lawrence Snowden on the 
part of Pennsylvania, were appointed commissioners 
to run the line, and began operations in the spring of 
1739, when Col. G:ile was called away by sickness in 
his family, and Mr. Chamberlaine declining to pro- 
ceed in the absence of his colleague, the Pennsylva- 
nia commissioners, by the order of Governor Thomas, 
continued the work alone, and ran the line westward 
of the Susquehanna " to the most western of the 
Kittochtinny hills" (now called North Mountain). 

Though this provisional line put a stop to the bor- 
der troubles, the boundary question remained a subject 
of contention until the 4th of July, 1760, when it 
was finally determined by an agreement between the 
Penns and Lord Baltimore. In 1763 the east-and- 
west line between Maryland and Pennsylvania, known 
as Mason and Dixon's line, from the names of the 
surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, was 
established. Mason and Dixon, whose services had 
been secured by Lord Baltimore and Thomas and 
Richard Penn in London, arrived in Philadelphia on 
the 15th of November, 17C3, and having settled upon 
their " tangent point, they proceeded to measure on 
its meridian fifteen miles from the parallel of the 
most southern part of Philadelphia, the north wall 
of a house on Cedar Street, occupied by Thomas 
Plumstead and Joseph Huddle." They thus deter- 
mined what was to be the northeastern corner of 
Maryland, the beginning of the parallel of latitude 
that had been agreed upon as the boundary between 
the provinces. 

On the 17th of June, 1765, the survej'ors had 
carried the parallel of latitude to the Susquehanna 
River, and thereupon received instructions to continue 
it " as far as the province of Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania were settled and inhabited." On the 27th of 
October they had reached North Mountain, and they 
record in their journal that they got Capt. Shelby to 
go with them to its summit, " to show them the course 
of the Potomac," when they found that they could 
see the Allegany Mountains for many miles, and 
judged it " by its appearance to be about fifty miles' 
distance, in the direction of the line." On the 4th 
of June, 1766, we find them on the summit of the 
Little Allegany, and at the end of that summer's 
work. The Indians were now troublesome, and the 
surveyors and their assistants began to feel alarmed 
for their safety. In 1767 the surveyors began their 
operations late in the season. A negotiation with the 
Six Nations was necessary, which Sir William John- 
son had promised to conduct ; but this was not con- 
cluded before May, so that it was not until the 8th 



of June that the surveyors reached their halting-place 
of the preceding year, on the summit of the Little 
Allegany Mountain. On the 14th of June they had 
advanced as far as the summit of the Great Allegany, 
where they were joined by an escort of fourteen In- 
dians, with an interpreter, deputed by the chiefs of 
the Six Nations to accompany them. On the 25th 
of August the surveyors note that " John Green, one 
of the chiefs of the Mohawk nation, and his nephew, 
leave them in order to return to their own country." 
The roving Indians of the wilderness, regardless of 
the escort, began also to give the white men uneasiness, 
and on the 29th of September twenty-six of the as- 
sistants quit the work for fear of the Shanees and 
Delawares. Mason and Dixon had now but fifteen 
axemen left with them ; but, nothing disheartened, they 
sent back to Fort Cumberland for aid, and pushed for- 
ward with the line. At length they reached a point 
two hundred and forty-four miles from the river Dela- 
ware, and within thirty-six miles of the whole distance 
to be run. And here, in the bottom of a valley, on 
the borders of a stream marked Dunkard Creek on 
their map, they came to an Indian war-path winding 
its way through the forest. And here their Indian 
escort told them that it was the will of the Six Nations 
that the surveys should be stayed. There was no alter- 
native but obedience, and retracing their steps, they 
returned to Philadelphia, and reporting all these facts 
to the commissioners under the deed of 1760, they 
received an honorable discharge on the 26th of De- 
cember, 1767. Subsequently, and by other surveyors, 
the line was carried out to its termination. A cairn 
of stones some five feet high, in the dense forest not 
far from the Board Tree Tunnel on the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad, now marks the termination of Ma.son 


and Dixon s line, calling by that name the southern 
boundary of Pennsylvania. 

The boundary line thus run between Maryland and 
Pennsylvania was directed by the agreements of the 
parties to be marked in a particular manner, and the 

surveyors accordingly planted at the end of every 
fifth mile a stone, graven with the arms of the Penns 
on the north side, and of Frederick, sixth Lord Bal- 
timore, on the south side. The intermediate miles 
were marked with smaller stones, having a P on the 
north side, and an M on the south. The stones with 
the sculptured arms were all sent from England. 
These were planted on the parallel of latitude as far 
as Sideling Hill ; but here, all wheel transportation 
ceasing in 1766, the further marking of the line was 
the vista of eight yards wide, with piles of stone on 
the crests of all the mountain ranges, built from six 
to seven feet high, as far as the summit of the Alle- 
gany, beyond which the line was marked with posts, 
around which stones and earth were thrown, the better 
to preserve them. 

The Southern and Western Boundary. —Having 
adjusted lier eastern and northern boundaries, Mary- 
land next turned her attention to the settlement of 
her southern and western boundaries. This related 
to, and grew out of, the description of " the first 
fountain of the Potomac," as the terminus of the 
western and southern boundaries of Maryland. This 
was predicated upon a grant made by Charles II., in 
the first year of his reign, to Lord Hopton, Lord Jer- 
myn, Lord Culpeper, Sir John Berkeley, Sir Wil- 
liam Morton, Sir Dudley Wyatt, and Sir Thomas Cul- 
peper, of " all that tract of land lying and being in 
America, and bounded within the heads of the rivers 
Rappahannock and Quiriough. or Potomac (the 
courses of the said rivers as they are commonly called 
and known by the inhabitants), and the Chesapeake 
Bay." The validity of the grant was subsequently 
drawn in question, when it was surrendered, and a 
new one given in May, 1669, to the Earl of St. 
Albans, Lord Berkeley, Sir William Morton, and 
John H. Trethaway; Subsequently the title of this 
grant was vested in Thomas, Lord Culpeper, to whom 
a new patent was granted of the northern neck of 
Virginia by King James II. in the fourth year of 
his reign, and from him it descended to his daughter 
and only child, who was married to Lord Fairfax, and 
thus passed into the Fairfax family. This grant of 
the northern neck called for the lands lying on the 
south side of the Potomac to its head, while the 
charter of Lord Baltimore called for all the land to 
the fountain or source of the Potomac, which was of 
course its head. At first there were no disputes 
about the true location of the common call, but as 
soon as the settlements began to extend towards the 
head of the Potomac, jealousies and difficulties broke 
out between the two proprietaries. Lord Baltimore, 
who claimed from the head of the South Branch of the 



Potomac, its first fountain, remonstrated at a very 
early period with the Virginians, who had undertaken 
to define his limits by granting lands to the North 
Branch. Notwithstanding these protests, from the 
year 175.3, Fairfax continued to adhere to the line 
as adjusted by him, and the proprietary of Maryland 
continued to assert his claim to the first fountain as 
provided by his charter. 

For some years after the controversy was opened 
the attention of the government of the province was 
wholly engrossed with its internal concerns, and its 
efforts, in common with the other colonies, in the 
prosecution of the French and Indian wars ; but these 
being terminated by the definitive treaty of peace, 
concluded at Paris in February, 1763, it is probable 
that the settlements of Maryland would soon have 
been pushed to its extreme limits. Had this occurred, 
there would soon have ensued a collision between the 
grants of the proprietary and of Fairfax, and this col- 
lision would at once either have brought about an 
amicable adjustment of the boundaries, or have forced 
it for determination before the King in Council. At 
this moment, when the conflict seemed inevitable, two 
causes for its suspension arose, which held this differ- 
ence in abeyance until the Revolution came to convert 
it into a contest between free and independent States. 

By the treaty of Paris, in 1763, a large territory 
was ceded to the English, within which newly-ac- 
quired territory it became necessary to organize 
colonial governments. For this and other purposes a 
proclamation was issued by the king on Oct. 7, 1763, 
by which, and to enable the English government to 
carry into effect its engagements to the Indians, the 
colonial governments generally were prohibited from 
granting any lands lying west of the sources or heads 
of any of the rivers flowing into the Atlantic from 
the west and northwest. On the 16th of April, 1764, 
instructions were issued by Governor Sharpe to the 
judges of the land-office, which set forth that the 
proprietary was desirous to have reserved for him ten 
thousand acres of land in the western part of Fred- 
erick County, to be held as a manor ; and that he had 
therefore instructed the surveyor of that county not to 
execute any warrant on any lands lying beyond Port 
Cumberland until that reserve was taken oft'. Until 
the manor of Lord Baltimore should be ascertained. 
Governor Sharpe thought proper to survey, in lieu 
thereof, five different tracts, containing in the whole 
127,680 acres. This general interdict of the Crown, 
and the reserve to the proprietary, each tended to 
check the progress of the settlements in the direction 
of the debatable territory, and the proprietary and his 
officers now waited for the first favorable opportunity 

of bringing the question before the council which 
might present itself. In 1771 the first actual exam- 
ination and survey of the two branches of the Poto- 
mac was made by Col. Thomas Cresap, under the di- 
rection of the proprietary, and he decided that the 
South Branch was the most western source, and there- 
fore the first fountain. 

In March, 1774, the subject of the reserve, on 
the lands lying westward of Fort Cumberland, being 
brought before tlie proprietary's board of revenue, 
which had been organized in 1766-67, that board 
determined that the object of the reserve had been 
accomplished in the surveys actually made for the 
proprietary, and therefore took off the reserve. This 
determination led to a correspondence between them 
and Daniel (of St. Thomas Jenifer), his lordship's agent 
and receiver-general, which fully establishes the fact 
that Lord Baltimore always claimed the South Branch 
of the Potomac as the most western source, and there- 
fore the first fountain, and the point at which the 
meridian for the western boundary ought to start, and 
that he was only waiting for a favorable opportunity 
of bringing it before the King in Council. The board, 
however, still adhered to their determination, and 
large grants of land on the reserve were immediately 
made, and continued to be made, until October, 1774, 
when instructions were received from the proprietary 
directing the judges of the land-ofiice to suspend all 
further grants of the reserved lands, and to prepare 
and transmit to his guardians an accurate list of all 
warrants issued under the order of the preceding 
March; and of all settlements and locations made 
within the territory thrown open by that order since 
the year 1763.' 

From the year 1753 to the Revolution the pro- 
prietary and liis government continued to assert the 
Maryland claim, and were restrained from making 
grants of the disputed territory- only through the 
apprehension of the interference of the Crown, and 
because of the adjustment between the Crown and 
Lord Fairfax. And if any doubts could arise from 
the possession of Fairfax, anterior to the Revolution, 
they are all removed by the constitution of Virginia 
adopted in June, 1776, which in its twenty-first ar- 

1 " The titles acquired under warrants issued between the 22d 
of March and the 6th of October, 1774, to affect lands lying 
westward of Fort Cumberland, were saved by the act of 1784, 
chap. Ibr—McMahm's Hlntwy ofMunjUiml. 

' At the time of the Revolution the following manors belong- 
ing to Lord Baltimore were undisposed of in Western Mary- 
land : Monocay manor and the reserves (hereon, as returned 
by the surveyor of Frederick County, 13,143 acres ; My Lord's 
two manors and reserves, westward of Fort Cumberland, Alle- 
gany County, 125,130 acres. 



tide, after making certain reservations as to the navi- 
gation and use of the Potomac and Pocoraoke, etc., 
expressly cedes and confirms to the State of Maryland 
" all the territory contained within its charter, with all 
the rights of property, jurisdiction, and government, 
and all other rights whatsoever, which may at any time 
heretofore have been claimed by Virginia." Thus, 
then, at the Revolution, by the express conce.ssion of 
the State of Virginia, the claims of Maryland to her 
charter limits existed in their full force, and are sus- 
tained by an express surrender of all counter-claims 
which Virginia might have. On the 6th of October, 
1777, after the recognition by Virginia of the right 
of Maryland "to all the territory contained within its 
charter," by a resolution of the Assembly of Mary- 
land Daniel (of St. Thomas) Jenifer, Thomas Stone, 
and Samuel Chase were appointed commissioners on 
the part of Maryland for the purpose of adjusting with 
the commissioners on the part of Virginia (George 
Mason and Alexander Henderson) " the navigation 
of, and jurisdiction over, that part of the Chesapeake 
Bay which lies within the limits of Virginia, and 
over the rivers Potomac and Pocomoke," subject to 
the ratification of the General Assembly. The result 
of the conferences of these commissioners was a com- 
pact, formed at Mount Vernon on the 28th of March, 
1785, which accomplished all the purposes of their 
appointment, and which received the ratification of the 
Legislatures of both States at their next session.' 

The compact contains a series of commercial regu- 
lations, constituting a treaty of commerce predicated 
upon the basis of free and equal rights in the naviga- 
tion of these rivers, to be maintained for their com- 
mon benefit by their common eflTorts, and at their 
joint expense, and securing these in a manner emi- 
nently calculated to promote and establish an harmo- 
nious and beneficial intercourse. These regulations 
have been superseded by the adoption of the Consti- 
tution of the United States, which devolved upon 
Congress the power of regulating commerce with 
foreign nations, and among the several States ; but 
they are worthy of all commendation-, says McMahon, 
and deserve to be the most cherished part of our his- 
tory, when we remember that to these may be traced 
the germ of the causes which called that Constitution 
into being. 

Thus by this compact, irrevocable, except by the 
a.sseut of both States, all diff'erences were ended which 
could arise about the rights reserved by Virginia 
under her constitution ; and Maryland was now, by 

^ See a full review of this question in the writer 
of Maryland," ii., p. 529, etc. 

' History 

the concessions of that very constitution itself, as well 
as by the intrinsic efficacy of her charter, confessedly 
entitled to all the territory which fell within her 
chartered limits, subject to the compact. Had she 
known and pursued her interests, this compact would 
never have been formed without making the adjust- 
ment of the western boundary a part of it ; and had 
the consideration of it been introduced into the negotia- 
tion, and its .settlement insisted upon by Maryland, it 
would doubtless have been conceded. Virginia was 
too much alive to the deep interests which she had 
staked upon that negotiation, and which might be 
lost by its failure, to have hazarded all for an interest 
comparatively so unimportant as her claim to mere 
jurisdiction over a portion of what was then her re- 
mote territory. That it should have been pa.ssed by 
whilst a subject so intimately connected with it was 
under consideration, and that it should not have been 
brought up, even as a subject-matter for negotiation, 
until 1795, is truly surprising. In that year, by a 
resolution of the General Assembly of Maryland, 
Messrs. William Pinkney, William Cooke, and Mr. 
Key were appointed commissioners on the part of 
Maryland to meet such commissioners as might be 
appointed on the part of Virginia, with power to adjust, 
by compact between the two States, the western and 
southern limits of Maryland, and the dividing lines 
and boundaries between it and Virginia, and also any 
claim of either State to territory within the limits of 
the other ; and in the event of agreement, the com- 
pact was to be reported to the Legislature for its con- 
firmation. Delay still followed delay, Mr. Pinkney 
having left the province, and Mr. (^ooke having de- 
clined acceptance. In 1796, Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton and J. T. Chase were appointed in their stead. 
Mr. Key removed from the State, and Messrs. Carroll 
and Chase declined acceptance, and thus the State 
was again left without commissioners until 1801, 
when, by a resolution of that year, the power of ap- 
pointment was given to the Governor and Council. 
Messrs. Duvall, McDowell, and Nelson were now ap- 
pointed commissioners, and a correspondence upon the 
subject took place between Governors Mercer and 
Monroe. The result of it was that a resolution was 
passed by Virginia authorizing the appointment of 
commissioners to meet those appointed on the part of 
Maryland, but limiting their powers to the adjust- 
ment of the western line. Virginia was unwilling 
even to enter into a discussion of her right to the ter- 
ritory between the two branches, whilst Maryland 
went upon the broad principle of referring the whole 
subject to the commissioners. The power of the 
Virginia commissioners being thus restricted. Gov- 



ernor Mercer deemed it unnecessary to request a 
meeting, and the negotiation ended. At December 
session, 1803, this correspondence and the acts and 
resolutions of the two States to which it related 
were referred to the consideration of a committee 
of the House of Delegates of Maryland, by whom 
a report was made recommending the running of 
a provisional boundary line (by agreement with 
Virginia), to start from the extreme western source 
of the North Branch, which should be held to be 
the boundary line of the two States until further 
and definitive measures could be taken to ascertain 
the southern boundary. This report was not acted 
upon, and the subject does not appear to have been 
revived until 1810, when another resolution was 
passed similar to that of 1801, under which nothing 
was done, and the subject again slept until it was re- 
vived by Maryland in the act of 1818. 

Maryland had now become wearied with her efforts 
to reclaim the territory south of the North Branch, 
and hence this act of 1818, in proposing to Virginia 
the appointment of commissioners, agrees to adopt the 
most western source of the North Branch as the point 
from which the western boundary shall start. At 
December session, 1821, of the Assembly of Virginia, 
an act was passed which purported to meet and recip- 
rocate this proposition of the State of Maryland, but 
was, in fact, materially variant from it. The Virginia 
act did, in fact, beg the whole question, and left nothing 
open for negotiation. The act itself undertook to 
determine the point from which the line should start, 
and left nothing to the commissioners but the power 
of locating it, in conformity to its instructions. They 
were specially instructed to commence the western 
boundary at a stone planted by Lord Fairfax on the 
head-waters of the Potomac, and thus they were tied 
down to the old adjustment between Fairfax and the 

' "This adjustment, which was the only one that ever took 
place, was one growing out of controversies between Fairfax 
and the government of Virginia, having reference solely to the 
conflictipg territorial claims, and concluding by proceedings 
to which Lord Baltimore was in nowise a party, and of the 
existence of which he and his government appear to have had 
no knowledge before they were terminated. It appenrs that in 
173.3 a petition was preferred by Fairfax to the King in Coun- 
cil, praying that a commission might issue for running and 
marking the dividing line between his grant and the province 
of Virginia, and that the commission was accordingly issued, and 
the survey made and reported in August, 17.37. In December, 
1738, the several reports were referred to the consideration 
of the Council for plantation affairs, by whom a report was 
made in 1745, which determined the head-springs of the Rap- 
pahannock and Potomac, and directed that a commission should 
issue to extend the line. The report was confirmed by the 
King in Council; and the line being adjusted in conformity to 

The Virginia act was, therefore, entirely different 
from that of Maryland, which directed the commis- 
sioners to begin at the most western source of the 
North Branch, be that where it might, and being dis- 
similar, it did not justify the appointment of commis- 
sioners on the part of Maryland. The Maryland act 
of 1818 expressly directed that the appointment, on 
the part of this State, should be made only after Vir- 
ginia had embraced its propositions by the passage of 
a similar act ; and no act could be considered similar 
which did not confide to their commissioners the same 
powers of adjustment and adopt the same basis of 
settlement. This was, however, overlooked by the 
Executive of Maryland, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed on the part of both States, who assembled on 
the head-waters of the North Branch in the summer of 
1824. The commissioners who acted on this occasion 
on the part of Maryland were Ezekiel Chambers and 
James Boyle. 

Chancellor John Johnson, who was joined with 
them in the commission, died at Hancock, Wash- 
ington Co., when on his journey to the place of as- 
.semblage, to the deep regret of his fellow-citizens, 
among whom he was conspicuous for his abilities as 

it, an act was passed by the General Assembly of Virginia in 
the year 1748 which adopts the order in Council, and confirms 
all previous grants made by the Crown of lands lying within 
the limits of the Fairfax grant. The line thus settled adopted 
the North Branch of the Potomac as the first head of that river, 
by which location of it, thus pi\ssing over the Fairfax grant to 
this branch, without even considering, much less respecting, 
the claims of the proprietary of Maryland, each of these in- 
terested parties were to be benefited at his expense. On the 
one hand the territory subject to the jurisdiction of Virginia 
was enlarged, and on the other Fairfax gained a more valuable 
territory lying between the North and South Branch thiin that 
which he lost lying east of the head of the South Branch, and 
between it and a meridian passing over the head of the North 
Branch. During all this period the situation of the propri- 
etary of Maryland afi'orded to those parties the most favorable 
opportunity for practicing the usurpation of his rights. His 
petition for the confirmation of his grant, so as to exclude the 
claims of the Penns, was then pending before the King in 
Council, to await the issue of the proceedings in chancery upon 
the agreement of 1732, which was all the while progressing. 
The momentous character of that proceeding was well calcu- 
lated to engross his attention, and to divert it entirely from 
these ex-jntite transactions on the part of Fairfax, which did 
not upon their face even profess to interfere with his grant, 
and to the purpose of which he was awakened only by the 
knowledge of the actual location from the North Branch. His 
death shortly afterwards prevented the proprietary from adopt- 
ino- any decisive measures for the vindication of his rights, 
but the instructions of his successors in 1753, immediately after 
his accession to the proprietaryship, excluded all inference of 
acquiescence in these unwarrantable acts, and manifested a 
full determination on his part to exclude all settlements which 
might be attempted under them upon his territory."— JtfcA/a- 
hnna AfarjUaid, p. 54. 



a lawyer and his worth as a man. His body is buried 
in a marble tomb in the cemetery at Hancock. 

Upon the instant of the assemblage of the boundary 
commissioners, it was discovered that the positive 
instructions to the Virginia commissioners would 
operate as a bar to all further proceedings. The Mary- 
land commissioners came instructed to locate the west- 
ern line from the most western source of that branch, 
whilst those on the part of Virginia were limited to 
Fairfax's location, without regard to the inquiry 
" whether it was or was not so located." Fairfax's 
stone is not, in fact, planted at the extreme western 
source ; and even had it been so situated, it was scarcely 
consistent with the rights and dignity of Maryland 
to have entered into an adjustment with commis- 
sioners who were thus restricted without regard to 
the question of right. Maryland having by her act 
offered to relinquish all claim to the territory south 
of the North Branch, it was not to be expected, after 
this concession, that she should adopt as the source 
of that branch a point determined as such by her in- 
terested adversaries during the progress of the contro- 
versy. The spirit of amity and concession which had 
characterized all her proceedings in her repeated efforts 
to close this controversy had been met at every step 
by one of obstinate adherence on the part of Virginia 
to the full extent of her pretended claims, and it did 
not become her dignity as a State to submit herself 
implicitly to any terms which the latter might dictate. 
Her commissioners, therefore, properly insisted that 
the whole question as to the true source of the North 
Branch should be thrown open for investigation, and 
this being declined the negotiations ended. 

So rests the controversy even to this day, and the 
proffer of Maryland to confine herself to the North 
Branch, as contained in her act of 1818, being thus 
rejected by Virginia, she is remitted to her original 
rights. Hitherto the course of Maryland has never 
contemplated aught but an amicable adjustment, and 
she has already made every advance towards this ex- 
cept that of unqualified submission to the demands of 
Virginia. Every effort has failed, and the inhabitants 
of our western borders begin to feel more sensibly 
every day the consequences of the protracted struggle. 
It is a matter of reproach to the two States that this 
boundary, so extensive and important, should be un- 
settled to this day ; and to Maryland it especially be- 
longs to redeem herself from this reproach by adopting 
on the instant some legal or equitable decisive meas- 
ures to bring about its adjustment. Our citizens 
would deeply regret the necessity of an adversary 
proceeding against a sister State which has held so 
high a place in our affections, yet in reviewing the 

conduct of our State they will find no cause for 
censure. As to the chartered extent of Maryland 
there can be little room for doubt. " The first foun- 
tain of the Potomac' is evidently a descriptive term 
intended to designate the most westerly source, and 
applies to the South Branch, the source of which lies 
considerably west of that of the North Branch. The 
extent of territory lying between the two branches is 
estimated at half a million of acres, including some of 
the most fertile lands in Mineral, Grant, Pendleton, 
and Hampshire Counties in West Virginia. In the 
event of adversary proceedings, the claims of Mary- 
land will of course extend to her chartered limits, and 
the sovereignty over this extensive country will be the 
high prize for the victor. The citizens of our sister 
State will, perhaps, smile at pretenisions so extensive, 
yet that they were once well founded can scarcely be 
doubted, and if so, it will be difEcult to show in what 
way they have been lost. If this be admitted, Vir- 
ginia can rest her claims only upon prior occupancy 
and long-continued possession, and these will avail her 
but little in such a case as the present.' 

1 The distinguished lawyer and historian, John V. L. Me- 
Mahon, in summing up this question, says, " The claim of 
Maryland, as the successor to the proprietary rights, extends 
both to the right of soil and the jurisdiction, and it seems to be 
now well settled that where there is a controversy between 
States involving the right of soil the Supreme Court of the 
United States has original jurisdiction over it, and one State 
may in that court enforce such a right against another State of 
the Union. It has been doubted whether, upon such a right as 
that of mere sovereignty or jurisdiction, a State could proceed 
at law, but even in such a case it has been held that there is at 
least an equitable remedy by bill praying to be quieted as to 
the disputed boundaries. Besides this direct mode of bringing 
the question to an issue, there is also an indirect mode of pro- 
ducing a decision of it which would eventually be equally as 
efficacious. It is but necessary for the State of Maryland to 
make a grant within the disputed territory, upon which a suit 
could immediately be instituted against those claiming it under 
a Virginia grant, and the question of superior right to grant 
would at once come u]j. It being then a case of conflicting 
claims under grants of different States, it might be at once 
transferred to the proper Circuit Court of the United States, 
and thence (if of suflicient value) to the Supreme Court for 
final determination. These are the modes of proceeding open 
to Maryland, and if she t^till retains and intends to adhere to 
her original claim, she should be prompt in the prosecution of 
it. All further hopes of obtaining it by concession are at an 
end, and whatever course she may resolve to adopt should be 
at once determined upon. 117ia( the boundary line may be is 
not a matter of such moment to her citizens as that it ahould be 
definite and nndinputed. In any issue of the contest, it would 
be the duty of Maryland to confirm all the anterior grants from 
the proprietaries of the neck. No attempt would be made to 
disturb titles so derived, and the contest would be mainly for 
the sovereignty of the territory. Thus respecting and proteet- 
I ing private rights, her claim would be stripped of all its harsh- 
ness, and, if successful, whilst it enlarged and enriched her ter- 
ritory, would be a monument of her justice." 





The Stamp Act — Declared Unconstitutional in FreJerick — The 
Sons of Liberty — Cresap's Riflemen — The Maryland Line — 
Connolly's Treason — Hanging of Tories in Frederick — Peace I 
and Independence. 

The treaty of Paris of Feb. 10, 1763, gave to 
Great Britain all the territory east of the Mississippi, 
from the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson's Bay, and to the 
American colonies peace along the western borders 
with the savage enemies who had for nearly a century 
made them the scenes of pillage, devastation, and 

In their joy and exultation it is not wonderful that 
the colonists believed that a brighter day was about to 
dawn, and that a future of happiness and prosperity 
was opening before them. Patriotic and loyal ad- 
dresses were sent to the king, and public sentiments 
of gratitude were offered. Yet in the midst of all 
their happiness and hope lay the amarum ah'quid, the 
drop of bitterness which was in time to turn all the 
sweetness to gall. 

The main objects of the parliamentary measures 
which followed the peace of 1763, were to relieve the 
financial embarrassments of Great Britain, and to pun- 
ish the colonies for the reluctance and insubordination 
they had shown in meeting her demands. The man- 
ner in which the royal requisitions had been canvassed 
in the provincial Legislatures, and particularly in that 
of Maryland, had exhibited a growing spirit of free- 
dom in the colonial governments which was by no 
means pleasing to the mother-country, and which it 
was now resolved to repress before it should be too 

It had long been the avowed right as well as the 
policy of England to keep to herself the colonial 
trade, and many acts of Parliament had been framed 
with this view. The Navigation Act of 1651 has 
been generally supposed to have been the beginning 
of that system which bad for its object the suppression 
of the colonial carrying trade ; but this is an error. 
Long before this period, in consequence of the heavy 
duties and impositions levied by the Crown, the South- 
ern planters sent their tobacco to Holland, to the con- 
siderable detriment of English revenue and commerce. 
To counteract this an order was issued by the King in 
Council " that no tobacco or other productions of the 
colonies should thenceforth be carried into any foreign 
ports until they were first landed in England and the 
duties paid." This was the beginning of a system 
of commercial monopoly which continued until the 
American Revolution. 

But though the system of monopoly proved as 
prejudicial to those who bore its restraints as it was 
profitable for those for whose benefit it was imposed, 
it was yet professedly for the regulation of trade 
and not for the acquisition of revenue. The funda- 
mental principle of exemption from the taxation of 
England was not only established by the express words 
of the charter of Maryland, but had been the uninter- 
rupted practice of the colony from the first settlement. 
The war with France in 1754, however, revived the 
proposition to tax the colonies; and it was accordingly 
resolved -'to raise funds for American affairs by a 
stamp duty and a duty on products of the West In- 
dies imported into the continental colonies." A tax 
upon " stamped paper" was also suggested, and these 
projects were pressed upon Pitt immediately upon his 
accession to the ministry, but he " scorned to take an 
unjust and ungenerous advantage" of the colonies. 
Others with less lofty ideas of national principle and 
policy were found to carry out these purposes, and on 
the 22d of March, 1765, the Stamp Act received the 
royal assent. 

It provided that all bills, bonds, leases, notes, ships' 
papers, insurance policies, and legal documents, to be 
valid in the courts, must be written on stamped paper, 
which was to be sold by public officers at prices that 
constituted a tax. In America the announcement of 
the passage of the Stamp Act aroused a strong spirit 
of indignation and determined resistance to its man- 
dates. Public assemblies put forth protestations the 
most eloquent, resolves the most determined in oppo- 
sition, while the merchants of the larger cities, whose 
patriotism preferred the public weal to private emolu- 
ment, entered into engagements not to import goods 
from England until the act should be repealed ; and 
from one end of the continent to the other the love 
of civil liberty strengthened the nerve and animated 
the hearts of the colonists. The Elnglish ministry 
selected as stamp distributor lor Maryland, — Zachariah 
Hood, a native of the province, and a merchant of 
Annapolis. In no section of the province was more 
determined opposition manifested to the obnoxious 
measure than in Western Maryland, and on Aug. 29, 
1765, the new stamp distributor was burnt in effigy 
by tlie people of Frederick Town. While public feel- 
ing was thus agitated, the Governor called the As- 
sembly together to take such measures as might be 
deemed advisable, and Frederick County, which at that 
time constituted the whole of Western Maryland, 
sent as her representatives in the important delibera- 
tions of this body, Thomas Cresap, Joseph Chaplaine, 
Fielder Gantt, and James Smith. 

The Assembly appointed delegates to the Conti- 



Dental Congress proposed by Massachusetts, and 
adopted resolutions protesting against the Stamp Act; 
but the bold and a^jgressive temper of the hardy fron- 
tiersmen of the western section of the province did 
not suffer them to await the uncertain result of peti- 
tions, protestations, and deliberations. An opportu- 
nity of manifesting their spirit and determination was 
soon presented. The fall term of the Frederick 
County Court commenced on the 1 5th of November, 
1765, and among those present were the worshipful 
justices Thomas Beatty, William Luckett, Charles 
Jones, Thomas Price, and David Lynn ; Sheriff, George 
Murdoch, and Clerk, John Darnall. On the 18th 
Justices Joseph Smith, David Lynn, Charles Jones, 
Samuel Beall, Joseph Beall, Peter Bainbridge, Thomas 
Price, Andrew Hugh, William Blair, William Luckett, 
James Dickson, and Thomas Beatty were present, and 
ordered the following resolution and opinion to be re- 
corded among the minutes of the court : 

'' Upon application of Michael Ashfurd Dowden, bail of 
James Veach, at the suit of a certain Stephen West to surrender 
said James Veach in discharge of himself, which the court or- 
dered to be done, and an entry of the surrender to be made ac- 
cordingly, which John Darnall, Clerk of the Court, refused to 
make, and having also refused to issue any process out of his 
office, or to make the necessary entries of the Court proceed- 
ings, alleging that he conceives there is an Act of Parliament 
imposing stamp duties on all legal proceedings, and therefore 
that he cannot safely proceed in exercising his office without 
proper stamps, 

'' It is the unanimous resolution and opinion of this Court that 
all the business thereof shall and ought to be transacted in the 
usual and accustomed manner, without any inconvenience or 
delay to be occasioned from the want of Stam^jed Paper, Parch- 
ment, or Vellum, and that all proceedings shall be valid and 
effectual without the use of Stamps, and they enjoin and order 
all Sheriffs, Clerks, Counsellors, Attorneys, and all officers of the 
Court to proceed in their several avocations as usual, which 
Resolution and Opinion are grounded on the following and 
other reasons : 

*' 1st. It is conceived that there has not been a legal publica- 
tion yet made of any Act of Parliament whatever imposing a 
Stamp Duty on the Colonies. Therefore thisCourt are of opinion 
that until the existence of such an Act is properly notified, it 
would be culpable in them to permit or suffer a total stagnation 
of business, which must inevitably be productive of innumer- 
able injuries to individuals, and have a tendency to subvert all 
principles of civil guvernment. 

" 2d. As no Stamps are yet arrived in this Province, and the 
inhabitants have no means of procuring any, this Court are of 
opinion that it would be an injustice of the most wanton op- 
pression to deprive any person of a legal remedy for the re- 
covery of his property for omitting that which it is impossible 
to perform." 

The clerk of the court, apprehending damage to 
himself if he made any entry or issued any process 
without stamped paper, refused to comply with the , 
order of the court, upon which it passed the ibllow- I 
intr order : ' 

I " Ordered, that John Darnall, clerk of this Court, be com- 
mitted to the custody of the sheriff of this county for a con- 

I tempt of the authority of this court, he having refused to com- 
ply with the foregoing order of this Court relative to the 
execution of his office in issuing processes and making the 
necessary entries of the Court's proceedings; and that he 
stands committed for the above offense until he comply with 
the above mentioned order." 

' The clerk then submitted to the order of the court, 
and upon paying the costs was discharged. 

The decision of the court was celebrated in Fred- 
erick Town on the 30th of November in a manner 
most ch-aracteristic of the times. 

The following amusing description of it is pub- 
lished in the Maryland Gazette. o? Dec. 16, 1765: 

" The Stamp Act having received a mortal wound by the 
hands of justice on Saturday last gave up the ghost, to the 
great joy of the inhabitants of Frederick County. The lifeless 
body lay exposed to public ignominy till yesterday, when it 
was thought proper, for preventing infection from its stench, 
to bury it in the following manner: The Sons of Liberty assem- 
bled at the house of Mr. Samuel Swearingeu in the afternoon, 
and the coffin was taken up exactly at three o'clock. 

" Form of the Funeral. 

" 1. The colors of the Town Company. 

"2. Drums. 

"3. The banner displayed with this inscription in large 
characters : * Constitutional Liberty asserted by the Magis- 
trates of Frederick County, 22d Nuvember, 1765.' 

"4. The Cap of Liberty mounted on a staff with the several 
following inscriptiuns : * Magna Charta, Charter of Maryland, 
Trials by Juries Restored, Oppression Removed, Liberty and 

" 5. Conductors. 

•'6. The coffin with this inscription on the lid: * The Stamp 
Act expired of a mortal stab received from the genius of lib- 
erty in Frederick County Court, 23d November, 1765, Aged 22 
days.' On the ends, sides, and ledges of the coffin appeared 
several inscriptions, which were all together deposited in the 
ground as appendages to the Stamp Act, viz.: 'Tyranny,' — 
' Villeuage,' — ' Military Execution,' — 'Soldiers quartered in 
Private Houses,' — 'Court of Vice-Admiralty,'^* Guarda de 
Costas to Prevent Corruption in North Americans from a Re- 
dundancy of Spanish dollars,* — * Britons Employed in Fasten- 
ing Chains on the Necks of British Subjects.' — 'Fines,' — ' Im- 
prisonment,' — ' Ruin,' — ' Desolation,' — ' Slavery taking Posses- 
sion of America in order to Extend Her Dominion over Great 

"7. Z H , Esq. (Zachariah Hood), as sole mourner, 

carried in an open chariot. His countenance pale and dejected, 
his dress disorderly, unsuitable to his rank, and betraying 
great inward distraction of mind, and his tottering situation 
(being scarce able to keep his seat) demonstrated the weak- 
ness to which he was reduced, and plainly indicated the mel- 
ancholy catastrophe which shortly ensued. 
"8. Sons of Liberty, two and two. 

"During the whole procession, which marched through the 
principal streets till it arrived at the gallows erected ou tbe 
Court-house Green, the bells continued ringing; and on every 

huzza by the crowd, or loud laugh of female spectators, Z 

H , Esq., was observed to nod, or drop his head into his 

bosom, in token of the utmost sorrow and confusion. 

" On their arrival at the gallows, under which the grave was 



dug, the drums ceasing, and proclamation made for silence, 
Z H , Esq., was observed to be struck with such aston- 
ishment that tho' he seemed to demand audience by a weak 
motion of his head, he was not able to utter a word, and hia 
features were fixed as death. Being asked whether he had 
anything to say, he made no answer, but a paper iijipearing in 
his bosom, was taken out j and it being demanded whether that 
paper contained the substance of what he had to say on the oc- 
casion, ho continued silent, but was seen to make a faint nod 
of approbation. 

" The paper, which was ordered to be read, contained the 
following words, and appears to have been composed by him 
by way of funeral oration or lamentation over the body of that 
beloved act which had engrossed his whole mind and affec- 
tions: 'Good people, — for countrymen I dare not call you, 
having forfeited all claim or title to that appellation, — wonder 
not at my hesitation of speech, or my sighs and groans on this 
sad occasion, the powers of utterance being, in a great meas- 
ure, taken from me by the sight of that mournful object! 
Cursed be the day, that direful day, in which my eyes beheld 
the fatal cjitastrophe of the beloved of my soul ! May the 23d 
November be struck out of the Calendar, and never be reck- 
oned in the future annals of time ! And shall a record appear 
to eternize the downfall of my beloved, naked and unadorned 
with the beautiful stamp which ouglit to have been annexed 
hy my influence ? Can I possibly survive the dreadful thought ? 
And must all my hopes perish, my schemes for advancing my 
fortune at the ex])ense of my country be blasted, and public 
emolument triumph over private gain ? Shall Maryland freely 
export her wheat and corn and find out markets for her flour 
and provisions without my participation in the fruits of the 
toil and sweat of her laborious t^ons ? Shall the press continue 
free, and exist only to publish my disgraces, and instill notions 
of constitutional rights and liberties into the minds of North 
Americans? Shall the power of taxing the poor (who are 
chiefly involved in the duties of the Stamp Act), by imposing 
an arbitrary price on stamped paper, be wrested from me? and 
instead of lording it over my countrymen, must I need be re- 
duced to the state of an exile, a fugitive, and a vagabond on 
the face of the earth ? Forbid it, all ye black infernal powers 
of tyranny, avarice, and oppression ! For to you have I de- 
voted myself! But, soft! Your powers are enervated and 
your dominiofi blasted by the bold Sons of Liberty, before 
whom I now stand. Pardon, good people, this last testimony 
of my afi'eetion to the deceased. For her I despised country 
humanity, friendship, kindred, and all the ties of honor, nature, 
gratitude, and honesty. For her was every motive of justice, 
benevolence, piety, and compassion banished from my breast, 
For her could I have sacrificed the good of the public, the hap 
piness of individuals, and (encircled in her embnicesj have 
smiled at the curses of the poor, the tears of the orphan, the 
cries of the widow, the groans of the oppressed, and without 
one pang of remorse have viewed the hind of my birth gnash- 
ing her teeth under the load of bondage, whilst I enjoyed the 
sunshine of ministerial influence, and decked myself in the 
spoils of the wretched and unfortunate! Dear object of my 
warmest wishes ! thou art now expired under the hand of Jus- 
tice. The same spirit animated us both, and the cold grasp 
of fate is now upon me ! My faculties sink together with thee, 
and death freezes my stagnating fluids I Let me be buried to- 
gether with thee, and one grave receive our breathless re- 
mains! I hope, good people, you will not refuse this last re- 
quest of a dying person. And, Ob ! Oh! Oh !' 

" No sooner had the person appointt'd to read it come to the 
*0h! Oh!' Jcc, than Z H , Esq., was seen to sink sud- 
denly down and tumble out of the chariot, his body becoming 

instantaneously cold and stifi', so violent an assault had grief 
made on all his vital faculties, and left him a lifeless figure 
scarce resembling humanity. As he was falling, a Son of Lib- 
erty, with a voice like thunder, cried out, 'Let him die like a 
dog!' A loud huzza and roll of the drums immediately fol- 
lowed, and, according to his own request, his corpse was depos- 
ited in the earth together with thut of his beloved. 

"The grave being filled up, and acclamations repeated, the 
comi)any marched in their former order, with colors, banner, 
^c, to the house of Mr. Samuel Swearingen, where an elegant 
supper was prepared, and a ball given to the ladies, who made 
a brilliant appearance on the occasion. Many loyal and patri- 
otic toasts were drank, and the whole concluded with the utmost 
decorum !" 

The opposition against the government was now 
organized into a compact and enterprising party, 
strengthening itself throughout the province, and 
making itself known by its influence over the action 
of representatives in the Assembly. In Maryland its 
more aggressive members, under the name of " Sons of 
Liberty," — a phrase used by Barre in his celebrated 
speech in Parliament in February, 1765, — by a series 
of bold and defiant attacks upon the government of 
the province, soon increased their power and steadily 
sapped the reverence for British law and legislative 
authority. In October (1765) the Sons of Liberty 
in Frederick County formed an organization under 
the leadership of Col. Thomas Cresap, and in Decem- 
ber about three or four hundred of them, "armed 
with guns and tomahawks," assembled at Frederick- 
town, and threatened to " march down in companies 
to Annapolis, in order to settle the disputes between 
the two Houses of Assembly." ^ 

The bold example of Frederick Court, and the firm 

^ Dr. David Ross, in his deposition, submitted to the Assem- 
bly, said that about the 27th or 29th of October a " writing 
addressed to the Lower -House of Assembly" was circulated in 
Frederick County for signatures, which was in substance as fol- 
lows: "It expressed a satisfaction of the conduct of the Lower 
House in opposing the Stamp Act, and intimated a reliance 
that they would endeavor, like the renowned, true, ancient Ro- 
man Senate, to suppress any future attempts to deprive them 
of their liberty; it also expressed that the signers were in- 
formed that a very large unjust claim in tobacco was made 
against the public by particular gentlemen in Annapolis [al- 
luding to the Governor and his Council, who insisted on the col- 
lection of the twelve pence per hogshead on tobacco exported 
under the act of 1704, and which the Lower House, since 1739, 
had constantly and ineffectually declared that his lordship had 
no right to collect], preventing the payment of other just claims, 
and desiring that if the said unjust and dishonorable claim 
should still be insisted upon the Lower House would give speedy 
intelligence, in order that the signers might come down and 
cause justice to take place." These threats produced consider- 
able excitement in Annapolis, as it was rumored at one time 
that some of the "Sons" were already at Elk Ridge, on their 
march to the capital. The Governor became alarmed, and im- 
mediately summoned his Council together, and laid the whole 
matter before them. (See House Journal, Dec. 11, 1765.) 



and determined spirit of the yeomanry of Western 
Maryland, inspired the Sons of Liberty in other sec- 
tions, and on the 31st of March, 1766, the Provincial 
Court at Annapolis, yielding to the stern demands of 
these representatives of the people, passed the follow- 
ing order, which was at once obeyed by the public 
officers, and the detested Stamp Act was in Maryland 
forever null and void : 

'' It is by the court here ordered that the clerk of this court 
from henceforth issue all manner of process, file all pleadings, 
give copies, and transact all business whatsoever in his office 
for which application shall be made to him by any inhabitant 
of this province, as usual, without stamped paper,^' 

The universal opposition in the colonies provoked by 
the Stamp Act, and the injury resulting from it to 
English commerce and manufactures, caused its re- 
peal on the 18th of March, 1766, and the news of its 
repeal, which was received in Annapolis on the 22d 
of May, was celebrated with every manifestation of 
private and public delight in Western Maryland and 
every other part of the province. 

The first exultation that followed the repeal of the 
Stamp Act was not destined to be of long duration. 
In May, 1767, Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, introduced in Parliament a series of rev- 
enue acts, the principal of which passed and received 
the royal assent on June 29th, to go into effect on the 
20th of November. These acts, in brief, imposed 
duties on glass, paper, pasteboard, white and red lead, 
painters' colors, and tea imported into the colonies ; 
established a board of customs at Boston to collect 
tlie revenue throughout America, and legalized writs 
of assistance. This new scheme of taxation at once 
revived the spirit of resistance in Maryland, and led 
to the reorganization oi the non-importation associa- 
tions which had sprung into existence during the pre- 
vious agitation. The Maryland non-importation as- 
sociation was sustained in vigorous operation by special 
committees, appointed by kindred associations in each 
of the counties, who were charged with the duty 
of inquiring into and reporting the facts of every case 
of actual or suspected violation of the agreement, 
and was continued up to the breaking out of the Rev- 
olutionary war. In October, 1769, a number of 
wagons of contraband goods, valued at three hun- 
dred pounds, were shipped from Pennsylvania to 
Frederick, and not being accompanied with the 
proper certificates, they were stored at the risk and 
cost of the owners. Meetings were held in all parts 
of the province to give expression to the popular 
feeling in regard to the despotic course of the govern- 
ment. The first meeting held in Frederick County, 
as published in the Marijland Gazette at Annapolis, 

was convened at the old school-house, not far from 
Troxell's mill, on Tom's Creek, on Sunday, the 28th 
of August, 1770. The meeting was largely attended 
by the old inhabitants, who were deeply impressed by 
the situation. There were present on that occasion 
William Blair, an old resident of Scottish descent, 
James Shields, Sr., William Shields, Charles Rob- 
inson, Patrick Haney, Robert Brown, Henry Hock- 
ersmith, William Elder, son of Guy, Samuel West- 
fall, Moses Kennedy, Alexander Stewart, William 
Curran, Jr., Charles Carroll, William Koontz, Chris- 
tian Hoover, John Smith, Daniel McLean, John 
Faires, John Long, Arthur Row, John Crabs, Moses 
Ambrose, George Kelly, Walter Dulany, Thomas J. 
Bowie, James Park, Robert Agnew, John Corrick, 
Frederick Troxell, Rudolf Nead, Octavius S. Taney, 
George Ovelman, Dominick Bradley, Thomas Hughes, 
Philip Weller, Jacob Valentine, William Brawner, 
Thomas Martin, Daniel Morrison, William Munroe, 
Henry Brook, and others. It was agreed by a "show 
of hands" that William Blair should be called to the 
chair, and John Faires appointed secretary. The 
meeting was then addressed by Walter Dulany and 
William Elder, son of Guy, who concluded by offering 
the following resolution : 

" Resolved, by (he inhabitants of Tom's Creek, Frederick 
County, in the province of Maryland, loyal to their king and 
country, that we reaffirm the great Magna Charta of our Civil 
and Keligious Rights, as granted by Charles of England to Lord 
Baltimore and the inhabitants of this colony, as reaffirmed on 
the first landing of the Pilgrim Fathers of Maryland, that there 
shall be a perfect freedom of conscience, and every person be 
allowed to enjoy his religious and political privileges and immu- 
nities unmolested." 

The resolution was read and re-read and adopted by 
a " showing of hands." It was further 

'* Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published 
in the Annapolis Gazette 3.ui Bradford's paper at Philadelphia." 

In the mean time local causes of complaint served 
to intensify public feeling and increase the general 

The Assembly having failed to provide for the fees 
of public officers, or for the assessments for the sup- 
port of the clergy. Governor Eden undertook to regu- 
late the former by proclamation, leaving the latter to 
be collected under an old act of 1702, which he 
claimed had been revived by the failure of the As- 
sembly to legislate on the subject. Governor Eden's 
action was a virtual assumption of the legislative pre- 
rogative of taxation, and involved in a measure the 
principle at stake in the contest with the mother- 
country. It immediately gave rise to great public 
excitement, warm advocates appeared on either side 
of the question, and the discussion assumed a tone of 





much bitterness and animosity. Among the cham- 
pions of the proclamation appeared a writer who put 
forth his views in a dialogue between two citizens, 
one of whom attacked the obnoxious measure, and the 
other defended it, the victory being given to the 
" Second Citizen," its defender. The great ability 
and adroitness of his article marked it as the produc- 
tion of no common mind, and called forth an antagonist 
of corresponding strength. Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton stepped forward on February 4tb, and assumed the 
cause and the signature of the " First Citizen," where- 
upon Daniel Dulany, the provincial secretary, and the 
ablest lawyer in the province, became Mr. Carroll's 
antagonist, under the signature of " Antilon." The 
elections held in May, 1773, during the progress of 
this discussion, were attended with great excitement, 
#nd resulted in the complete triumph of the anti- 
proclamation party. Immediately after the result had 
been announced the people of Frederick and other 
counties celebrated the victory with great rejoicings ; 
and at a public meeting the thanks of the people of 
Frederick were ordered to be formally presented by 
their delegates to the " First Citizen" for the patri- 
otic service which he had rendered to the popular 
cause in his discussion with "Antilon," which was 
accordingly done in the following communication : 

"May 25, 177.3. 
" To THE First Citizen : 

"Sir, — The freemen of Frederick County (to so few of whom 
you are personally known) are generally acquainted with your 
merit. The service you have done your country in plainly and 
clearly stating and evincing the illegality of the late proclama- 
tion for ofKcers' fees appears to them justly to claim their thanks, 
they have therefore directed us, their representatives, to make 
known their sentiments to you, and we with pleasure take this 
early opportunity of returning you the thanks of the freemen 
of Frederick County for your spirited, manly, and able opposi- 
tion to that illegal, arbitrary, and unconstitutional measure. 

'* We are, Sir, with the greatest respect, your most obedient 

" Thomas Sprigg Wootton, 
" Charles Beatty, 
" .Jonathan Hagar, 
"Henry Griffith." i 

• On Saturday, May 22, 1773, the polls closed in Frederick 
County, and Messrs. Thos. Sprigg Wootton, Charles Beatty, 
Jonathan Hagar, and Henry Griffith were declared duly elected. 
On the afternoon of that day a numerous and very respectable 
body of the freemen of the county assembled at the coffee-house, 
when the proclamation was read, and unanimously declared il- 
legal, unconstitutional, and oppressive, and sentenced to be car- 
ried to the gallows and hanged thereon, and afterwards to be 
buried face downwards, that by every ineffectual struggle it 
might descend still deeper into obscurity. The proclamation 
was then put in a coffin prepared for the purpose and carried to 
the place of execution, attended by a large concourse of at least 
• one thousand people, who moved in slow and regular order, at- 
tended with drums, lifes, bag-pipes, playing slow music suitable 

The non-importation policy of tlic colonists had 
been so generally adopted and so fiuthfully observed 
that very little tea (upon which article alone the duty 
had been retained) was imported into the country. 
One of the great markets of the East India Company 
being thus closed, a heavy stock of tea accumulated 
in their warehouses. To relieve them of this, while 
at the same time maintaining the principle of taxa- 
tion, seemed to the government a master-stroke of 
policy ; and it was proposed to accomplish this by allow- 
ing the company on tea exported to America, a draw- 
back of the duties paid in England. As soon as it 
was announced in America that the Tea Act was to 
be carried into effect, it was generally denounced as a 
scheme to establish the right of Parliament to tax the 
colonies and to give the East India Company the 
monopoly of their trade. On the 28th of November, 
1773, a vessel containing the tea arrived in the har- 
bor of Boston, and in a few days was followed by two 
others. On December 16th a party disguised as In- 
dians went on board the vessels, and warning their 
officers and those of the custom-house to keep out of 
the way, opened the hatches, hoisted the chests of tea 
on deck, cut them open, and hove the tea overboard. 
This action provoked the " Boston Port Bill," intro- 
duced in the House of Commons on the 14th of 
March, 1774, which interdicted all commercial inter- 
course with Boston, and prohibited after the 1st of 
June following the landing or shipping of any goods, 
wares, or merchandise whatsoever at that port. On 
the arrival of the news of the passage of these meas- 
ures, the people of Maryland made common cause 
with those of Massachusetts, and in various ways ex- 
pressed their sympathy for the inhabitants of Boston. 
Frederick County, which had been foremost in the 
opposition to the Stamp Act, was not slow at this 
crisis in giving expression to her sentiments of sym- 
pathy for Bo.ston and hastility to the oppressive course 
of the British government. On the 11th of June a 
large meeting of the inhabitants of the lower part of 
Frederick County was held at Charles Hungerford's 
tavern, at which Henry Griffith was chosen modera- 
tor, and the following resolutions adopted : 

" Resolved, unanimonsti/. That it is the opinion of this meet- 
ing that the town of Boston is now suffering in the common 
cause of America. 

"Resolved unanimously. That every legal and constitutional 
measure ought to be used by all America for procuring a repeal 
of the act of Parliament for blocking up the harbor of Boston. 

" Resolved, unanimously, That it is the opinion of this meet- 
ing that the most effectual means for the securing American 

to the occasion. The sentence was executed, to the universal 
joy and satisfaction of the spectators, under a general discharge 
of small-arms. 



freedom will be to break oflf all commerce with Great Britain 
and the West Indies until the said act be repealed, and the 
right of taxation given up on permanent principles. 

''Resolved, unanimous} }j, That Mr. Henry Griffith, Dr. 
Thomas Sprigg Wootton, Nathan Magruder, Evan Thomas, 
Richard Brooke, Richard Thomas, Zadok Magruder, Dr. Wil- 
liam Baker, Thomas Cramphin, Jr., and Allen Bowie be a com- 
mittee to attend the general committee at Annapolis, and of 
corresp<mdence for the lower part of Frederick County, and 
that any six of them shall have power to receive and commu- 
nicate intelligence to and from their neighboring committees. 

'' JieJiohed, unanimomltf, That a copy of these our senti- 
ments be immediately transmitted to Annapolis, and inserted 
in the Maryland Gazette. 

"Signed per order. 

" Archibald Orme, Clerk.'' 

On the 20th of June a meeting of the citizens of 
Frederick County was held at the court-house in 
Frederick Town, at which the following resolutions 
were adopted, John Hanson presiding: 

"I. ReBolved, That it is the opinion of this meeting that 
the town of Boston is now suffering in the common cause of 
America, and that it is the duty of every colony in America to 
unite in the most efiectual means to obtain a repeal of the late 
act of Parliament for blocking up the harbor of Boston. 

** II. That it is the opinion of a great majority of this meet- 
ing that if the colonies come into a joint resolution to stop all 
imports from, and exports to. Great Britain and the West Indies 
till the act of Parliament for blocking up the harbor of Boston, 
as well as every other act oppressive to American liberty, be re- 
pealed, the same may be the means of preserving to America 
her rights, liberties, and privileges. 

*'III. That, therefore, this meeting will join in an associ- 
ation with the several counties in this province and the prin- 
cipal colonies in America to put a stop to all exports to, and 
imports from, Great Britain and the West Indies, shipped after 
the 26th day of July next, or such other day as may be agreed 
on, until the said acts shall be repealed, and that such associ- 
ation shall be upon oath. 

" IV. That we, the inhabitants of Frederick County, will not 
deal or have any connections with that colony, province, or 
town which shall decline or refuse to come into similar reso- 
lutions with a majority of the colonies. 

" V. That no suit shall be commenced after the stop shall be 
put tu imports and exports for the recovery of any debt due to 
any person whatsoever, unless the debtor be about to abscond, 
or being appealed to shall refuse to give bond and security. 

"VI. That Messrs. John Hanson, Thomas Price, George 
Scott, Benjamin Dulany, George Murdock, Philip Thomas, 
Alexander C. Hanson, Baker Johnson, and Andrew Scott be 
a committee to attend the genersil congress at Annapolis, and 
that those gentlemen, together with Messrs. John Gary, Chris- 
topher Edelen, Conrad Groth, Thomas Schley, Peter Hoffman, 
and Archibald Boyd, be a committee of correspondence to re- 
ceive and answer letters, and in any emergency to call a general 
meeting, and that any six shall have power to act. 

''Ordered, thai these resolves be immediately sent to Annap- 
olis, that they may be printed in the Maryland Gazette. 
"Signed per order. 

"Archibald Bovr, CI. Com." 

Another meeting was held at Elizabeth Town on 
the 2d of July, of which the Maryland Gazette 
gives the followin": account : 

"On Saturday, the 2d of July, 1774, about eight hundred of 
the principal inhabitants of the upper part of Frederick 
County, Md., assembled at Elizabeth Town, and being deeply 
impressed with a sense of the danger to which their niUural 
and constitutional rights and privileges were exposed by the 
arbitrary measures of the British Parliament, do think it their 
duty to declare publicly their sentiments on so interesting a 
subject, and to enter into such Resolutions as may be the means 
of preferring their freedom. After chosing John StuII, Esq., 
their Moderator, the following resolves were unanimously en- 
tered into : 

" I. That the Act of Parliament for blocking up the harbor 
of the Town of Boston is a dangerous invasion of American 
liberty, and that the town of Boston is now suffering in the 
common cause, and ought to be assisted by the other Colonies. 

" II. That the stopping all commercial intercourse with 
Great Britain will be the most effectual means for fixing our 
Liberties on the footing we desire. 

" III. That a general congress of Delegates from the several 
colonies to effect a uniform plan of conduct for all America is 
highly necessary, and that we will strictly adhere to any meas- 
ure that may be adopted by them for the preservation of our 

"IV. That the surest means for continuing a people free and 
happy is the disusing all luxuries, and depending only on their 
own fields and flocks for the comfortable necessaries of Life. 

" V. That they will not, after this day, drink any Tea, nor 
suffer the same to be used in their Families, until the Act for 
laying duty thereon be repealed. 

" VI. That they will not, after this day, kill any sheep under 
three years old. 

"VII. That they will immediately prepare for manufactur- 
ing their own clothing. 

"VIII. That they will immediately open a subscription for 
the relief of their suffering Brethren in Boston. 

" After choosing John Stull, Samuel Hughes, Jonathan Hager, 
Conrad Hogmire, Henry Snebley, Richard Davis, John Swim, 
Charles Swearingen, Thomas Brooke, William McGlury, and Elie 
Williams as a committee, they proceeded to show their disap- 
probation of Lord North's Conduct with regard to America by 
Hanging and burning his Effigy, after which a subscription was 
opened for the relief of the Poor of Boston. In consequence of 
the Fifth Resolve, a number of mercantile Gentlemen solemnly 
declared they would send off all the Tea they had on hand, 
and that they would not purchase any more until the Act laying 
a duty thereon be repealed, among which number was a certain 
John Parks." ^ 

1 As indicating how the poor, out of their limited means, 
contributed to these subscriptions, we append an interesting 
memorandum : 


"April 3, 1775. 
" As much for the satisfaction of the subscribers to this paper, 
as the contradicting malicious reports lately propagated in this 
county to the detriment of the character of the collector of this 
place, he has thought proper to give the public a state of his 
collections, with the receipt of the treasurer (appointed by the 
committee for said county) for the money, as may appear below. 
A copy of the subscription paper, with the subscribers' names 
affixed to it, as followeth : ' We. the subscribers, inhabitants of 
Frederick County, have paid to David Moore the sums of money 
affixed to our names, in consequence of an unanimous resolve 
of the committee for the middle part of said county, to make 
up, by the first Monday of next January, the sum of one hun- 
dred dollars currency, to be sent immediately to Boston, there 



The following correspondence, which occurred a 
few months later, shows how generously these prom- 
ises of assistance were redeemed : 

" Frederick Town, Frederick Co., Md., 
"17th February, 1775. 
"To the Hon. Thomas Cushing, Esq.: 

"Sir, — We, the Committee for the middle part of Fredericli 
County, Maryland, have this day forwarded £200 currency to 
Messrs. William Lux and Samuel Purviance, of Baltimore, who 
are directed to forward the same to you for the relief of the 
poor of your place, either specie or bills, as mny appear to 
them most advisable. A line from you acknowledging the re- 
ceipt of the money will oblige the Committee, as it will serve 
to convince the people from whom it was collected that it had 
been applied to its proper use. 

"Signed for order and in behalf of the Committee. 
"John Hanson, /' 

NSON, I'resideiit.' 
N, M'ch 15, 1775 

" Boston, 
"To Mr. John Hanson, in Frederick Town, Md. : 

" Sir, — I am to acknowledge your letter of the 17 of Febru- 
ary last, directed to Mr. Cushing, who is a member of the com- 
mittee appointed by the Town to receive and distribute the 
donations from our friends to the sufTerers by Act of Parliament, 
commonly called the Boston Port Bill, and to acquaint you 
that agreeable to your directions Mr. Samuel Purviance, Jr., 
has remitted in a bill of exchange the sum of two hundred 
pounds, your currency, being a contribution from the gentle- 
men of the Middle Division of Frederick County, in Maryland, 
for that charitable purpose. You will be pleased to return the 
hearty thanks of our committee to those gentlemen for their 
generous donations, and to assure them it will be applied 
to its proper use. 

"It will doubtless afford them satisfaction to be informed 
that their brethren in this place endure the sufferings inflicted 
upon them by that unrighteous and barbarous edict with pa- 
tience and fortitude, and that they continue to bear oppi 

to be divided among the families whose means of sustenance 
have been so long and cruelly cut off by an Act of British Par- 
liament. We consider the people of Boston as standing in the 
gap, where tyranny and oppression are ready to enter, to the 
destruction of the liberties of all America, and that therefore 
it is the duty of every individual in America to contribute as 
largely as his circumstances will admit to their support. 

"'Nov. 30, 1774. 

" ' Wm. Winchester, 7«. 6d. ; John Chamberlain, 7«. 6^. ; .John 
Chrisman, lOs.; William Carey, Is. 8rf. ; Christian Efrey, 
3s. 9rf.; William Kende, Is. 3d.; John Becrast, 4s.; John 
Weaver, 5s.; John Umsteat, 5«.; J. McDaniel, Sr., 7». 6rf. ; 
Charles Wood, 7s. 6(/. ; James Frazer, 98.; Sol. Longworth, 5s.; 
Enoch Moore, 3«. 9d.; Francis Mathews, 7s. 6d.; John Lind- 
sey, 2s. 6rf. ; John Henckle, 2s.; James Hoops, 2». ; Conrad 
Carkess, 38. ; Peter Kemp, 58. ; Gerrard Davis, 28. 6rf. ; Jacob 
Hosier, 28.; Green Shurcar, Ss. ; Anthony Linscy, 5s.; Edward 
Hodgskiss, 5s.; John Chamberl.iin, 5s.; W. AVinchester, Jr., 
5s.; James Winchester, bs.; Hugh McKniel, 2s.; Thomas 
Wheeler, 5s.; Joshua Grimes, 28. 6d.; Aran Richards, 5s.; 
Geo., 58. 4rf. ; John Lawrance, £1 ; Joseph Wood, Sr., 
5«. 8rf. ; J. McDaniel, Jr., 5s. 8d.; Edward Evans, 5s. Sd.; 
Francis McDaniel, as. ; William Condon, 3s. 9d. ; Amos Wright, 
38. 9d.; David Moore, £1 68. 5c/. Total, £11 lOs.' 

"Received, Jan. 26, 1775, of Mr. David Moore, the sum of 
£11 IDs., a sum collected by him for the support of the poor in 

and count it all joy so to do, rather than to stain (heir reputa- 
tion by a base compliance with the demands of arbitrary 

"With very great regard, I am, in behalf of the committee, 
your obliged and affectionate friend and countryman, 

"S. Adams, Chairman." 

On the 22d of June, 1774, deputies from all the 
counties assembled in -general convention at Annapo- 
lis and adopted nonimportation resolutions of the 
strongest character. The convention adjourned on 
the 25th, but it was not long before a seriou.s inliinge- 
ment of the non-importation agreement occupied pub- 
lic attention. In August the brigaiitine " Mary and 
Jane," Capt. George Chapman, arrived in St. Mary's 
River from London with eleven chests of lea, con- 
signed to Robert Findlay, a merchant of Biadensburg, 
Robert Peter, of Georgetown, and several other mer- 
chants at Norfolk, Va. In consequence of this 
" alarming" intelligence the Committee of Correspond- 
ence of Frederick County held a meeting on the 11th 
of August, and requested these gentlemen to appear 
before them. After hearing their statements the 
committee unanimou.sly resolved " that the importa- 
tion of any commodity from Great Britain liable to 
the payment of a duty imposed by an Act of Parlia- 
ment is in a high degree dangerous to our liberties, as 
it implies a full assent to the claim asserted by the 
British Parliament of a right to impose la.xes for the 
purpose of raising a revenue in America." And in 
order " to discourage the pernicious practice" the 
committee determined that the '' detestable plant" 
should not be landed in America, but that " it should 
be sent back in the same ship."' 

On the 5th of September, 1774, the Continental 
Congress, which was first proposed by Maryland, and 
to which she elected the first set of delegates, as- 
sembled at Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, and adopted 
a plan " for carrying into effect the non-importation, 
non-consumption, and non-exportation" association. 

At a meeting of the inhabitants of Frederick 
County " qualified to vote for representatives," held 
at the court-house, on Friday, the 18th of November, 
the following resolutions were adopted : 

"Resolved, That Charles Beatly, Henry Griffith, Thos. Sprigg 
Wooton, Jacob Hunk, Nath. Miigruder, Richard Thomas, Evan 

■ The women of Wistern Maryland were by no means be- 
hind the men in patriotic support of all the measures looking 
to the protection of American rights and liberties. Madeline 
Sheffey, a woman of fine mind and strong chanicter, and the 
mother of the celebrated D.aniel Sheffey, of Staunton, Va., 
speaking for the women of Frederick County, said, "We have 
resolved to drink no more tea for years to come, — not until Ihe 
war is ended ; but we will eat mush and milk, drink water, and 
live frugally until our fathers, sons, husbands, and brothers 
achieve a brave victory." 



Thomas, Richard Brooke, Zadock Magruder, ■William Baker, 
Thomas Cramphin, Jr., .John Murdock, Thomas Jones, Allen 
Bowie, .Jr., William Deakins, .Jr., Bernard O'Neal, Brook Beall, 
Edward Burgess, Charles G. Griffith, Henry Griffith, Jr., Wm. 
Bajley, Jr., Samuel W. Magruder, Xath. Offutt, Archibald 
Orm, Joseph Threlkeld, Walter Smith, Thos. Beall of George, 
Richard Crab, William Luckett, William Luckett, Jr., Green- 
bury Griffith, Samuel Griffith, John Hanson, Thomas Price, 
Thomas Bowles, Conrad Grosh, Thomas Schley, Jonathan Wil- 
son Francis Deakins, Casper Schaaff, Peter Hoffman, George 
Scott, Baker Johnson, Philip Thomas, A]e."cander C. Hanson, 
Archibald Boyd, Arthur Nelson, Andrew Scott, George Strieker, 
Adam Fisher, Wm. Ludwick, Weltner Van Swearengen, William 
J. Beall, Jacob Young, Peter Grosh, jEneas Campbell, Elias 
Bruner, Frederick Kemp, John Haas, John Romsburg, Thomas 
Hawkins, Upton Sheredine, John Lawrence, Basil Dorsey, 
Charles Warfield, Ephraim Howard, Joseph Wells, David 
Moore, Joseph Wood, Norman Bruce, William Blair, David 
Schriver, Roger Johnson,fHenry Cock, Robert Wood, William 
Albaugh, Jacob Mathias, Henry Crawle, Jacob Ambrose, 
David Richards, Wm. Winchester, Philip Fishburn, William 
Hobbs, Thomas Cresap, Thomas Warren, Thos. Humphreys, 
Richard Davis, Jr., Charles Clinton, James Prather, George 
Brent, James Johnson, James Smith, Joseph Chapline, John 
Stull, Samuel Beall, Jr., William Baird, Joseph Sprigg, 
Christian Orendorf, Jonathan Hager, Conrad Hogmire, 
Charles Sweareno-en, Henry Suavely, Richard D.avis, Samuel 
Huo-hes, Joseph Perry, John Jugerhorn, Joseph Smith, 
Thomas Hog, Thomas Prather, William JlcClary, John Swan, 
Eli Williams, Stophall Burkett, and Thomas Brooke be a com- 
mittee to represent this county to carry into execution the as- 
sociation agreed on by the American Continental Congress, and 
that any five have power to act. 

"Jiesohecl, That Charles Beatty, Thos. Sprigg Wooton, John 
Hanson, Thomas Bowles, Caspar Shaaff, Thomas Price, Baker 
Johnson, Philip Thomas, George Murdock, Alexander C. Han- 
son, Thomas Cramphin, Jr., William Bayley, Jr., Evan Thomas, 
RichardBrooke, Thomas Johns, Walter Smith, William Deakins, 
John Murdock, Bernard O'Neal, John Stull, Samuel Beall, Jr., 
James Smith. Joseph Chapline, Joseph Sprigg, Charles Swear- 
engen, Rich. Davis, Jonathan Hager, and Joseph Perry be a 
committee of correspondence for this county, and that any 
five have power to act. 

"Beaoh-ed, That Charles Beatty, Henry Griffith, Thos. Sprigg 
Wooton, Jacob Funk, Evan Thomas, Richard Brooke, Upton 
Sheredine. Baker Johnson, Thomas Price, Joseph Chapline, 
and James Smith attend the provincial meeting on the 21st 
inst. according to appointment, and that any five have power 
to act and represent this county " 

This convention, after an adjournment from the 
21st of November to the Sth of December, adopted 
resolutions encouraging the colonies to rely upon the 
products of their own fields and their own industry, and 
recommending "such of the inhabitants of this prov- 
ince as are from sixteen to fifty years of age to form 
themselves into companies of sixty-eight men ; to choose 
a captain, two lieutenants, an ensign, four sergeants, 
four corporals, and one drummer for each company, 
and to use their utmost endeavors to make themselves 
masters of the military exercise. That each man be 
provided with a good firelock and bayonet fixed 
thereon, half a pound of powder, two pounds of lead, 

and a cartouch-box or powder-horn, and a bag for 
ball, and be in readiness to act in any emergency." 
It was further recommended that £1333 should be 
raised in Frederick by subscription to be expended 
by the committee of the county in the purchase of 
arms and ammunition. 

At a meeting of the inhabitants of Frederick 
County, held at the court-house, on Tuesday, the 24th 
of January, 1775, John Hanson, chairman, Archibald 
Boyd, clerk, the association and resolves of the Amer- 
ican Congress and the proceedings of the last Provin- 
cial Convention were read and unanimously approved. 
It was also 

" I. Resolved, That Messrs. Charles Beatty, Henry Griffith, 
Thomas Sprigg Wooton, Jacob Funk, and Nathan Magruder, 
Richard Brooke, Zadock Magruder, William Baker, Thomas 
Cramphin, Jr., Alexander Bowie, .Jr., William Deakins, Jr., 
John Murdock, Thomas .Johns, Bernard O'Neal, Brooke Beall, 
Edward Burgess, Charles G. Griffith, Henry Griffith, Jr., Wil- 
liam Bayley, Jr., Samuel Magruder, Nathaniel Offutt, Archibald 
Orme, Joseph Threlkeld, Walter Smith, Thomas Beall of 
George, Richard Crabb, William Luckett, William Luckett, 
Jr., Greenbury Griffith, Samuel Griffith, John Hanson, Thomas 
Price,Thomas Bowles, Conrad Grosh, Thomas Archley. Jonathan 
Wilson, Francis Deakins, Caspar Schaaff, Peter Hoffman, George 
Scott, Baker Johnson, Philip Thomas, Alexander C. Hanson, 
Archibald Boyd, Arthur Nelson, Andrew Scott, George Strieker, 
Adam Fisher, Wm. Ludwick, Weltner Van Swearingen, Wm. M. 
Beall, Jacob Young. Peter Grosh, ^Eneas Campbell, Elias Brun- 
ner, Frederick Kemp, John Haas, John Remsburg, Thomas 
Hawkins, Upton Sheredine, Basil Dorsey, John Lawrence, 
Charles Warfield, Ephraim Howard, Joseph Wells, David 
Moore, Joseph Wood, Norman Bruce, William Blair, David 
Schriver, Roger Johnson, Henry Cock, Robert Wood, William 
Albaugh, Jacob Mathias, Henry Crawle, Jacob Ambrose, 
David Richards, William Winchester, Philip Fishburn, Wil- 
liam Hobbs, Thomas Cresap, Thomas Warren, Thomas Hum- 
phreys, Richard Davis, Jr., Charles Clinton, James Prather, 
George Bent, James Johnson, James Smith, Joseph Chapline, 
.John Stull, Samuel Beall, Jr.. William Baird, Joseph Sprigg, 
Christian Orendorff, Jonathan Hager, Conrad Hogmire, Chas. 
Swearingen, Henry Suavely, Richard Davis, Samuel Hughes, 
Joseph Perry, Joseph Smith, Thomas Hog, Thomas Prather, 
AVilliam McClary, John Swan, Eli Williams, Christopher 
Burkett, Thomas Brooke, Michael Raymer, Tice, John 
Adium, Samuel Norwood, Bartholomew Booth, Jacob Buyer, 
Michael Grosh, Jacob Miller, Andrew Bruce, John Darnall, 
John Remsburg, William Dorran, John Key, John Beall, John 
McCallister, Charles Beall, Lewis Kemp, John Stoner, Thomas 
Beatty, Thomas Gilbert. Abraham Hoff, P. Henry Thomas, 
Jacob Good, Westel Ridgely, Samuel Carrick, Abraham Hos- 
teler, Baltzer Kelcholumer, Samuel Emmet, John Gary, Chris- 
topher Edelin, Amos Riggs, John Grimber, Leonard Smith, 
Nicholas Hower, Richard Northcraft, John Herriot, Richard 
Smith, Zacharias Ellis, Azel Waters, JIartin Cassil, James 
Johnson, George Bai'e, Benjamin Johnson, and Abraham Paw 
be a committee of observation, with full powers to prevent any 
infraction of the said institution, and to carry the resolves of 
the American Congress and of the Provincial CoDvention into 
execution ; that any seventy-five of those gentlemen have power 
to act for the county, and any five in each of the larger dis- 
tricts be authorized to act in any manner that concerns such 
Division only. 



" ir. Resolved, That the gentlemen appointed at the last 
meeting of this County a committee of Correspondence be hereby 
continued, and that the duration of their authority be limited 
to the second Tuesday in October next. 

" III. lieaolvedf As the most convenient and effectual method 
of raising the sum of $1333, being this County's proportion of 
the $10,000 which the provincial convention has appointed to 
be raised for the jjurchaseof arms and ammunition, that a sub- 
scription be immediately opened in every part of the County, 
and the following gentlemen be appointed to promote such sub- 
scriptions in their several Hundreds : 

" For Salisbury Hundred, .Jonathan Hager, Henry Suavely, 
and Jacob Sellers. 

" For Upper Catoctin, Peter Bainbridge, Benjamin East- 
burn, Caspar Smith, and Thomas Johnson. 

" For the Lower part of New Foundland, Edward Burgess, 
Walter Beall, .Joseph Perry. 

'• For Skipton, Thomas Cresap, Moses Rawlings, and Richard 
Davis, Jr. 

"For Georgetown, William Deakins, Thomas Johns, Walter 

" For Sharpsburg, Joseph Chapline and Christian Oren- 

" For Lower part of Potomack Hundred, William Bayley, 
Samuel Wade Magruder, Andrew Hugh, and Charles Jones. 

" For Tom's Creek Hundred, William Blair, William Shcales, 
and Benjamin Ogle. 

" For Catoctin Hundred, George Strieker, William Luekett, 
Jr., and Westel Ridgely. 

" For Upper Antietam Hundred, Jacob Funk, Conrad IJog- 
mire, Joseph Perry, John Ingram. 

"For Linton Hundred, Martin Johnson and Joseph Flint. 

" For Cumberland Hundred, Charles Clinton. 

"For Middle Monooacy, Thomas Beatty, Malhias Ringer, 
Christopher Stull, and T. Flemming. 

"For Rock Creek Hundred, Thomas Cramphin, Zadock Ma- 
gruder, W. Baker, and Allen Bowie. 

"For Sugar Loaf Hundred, Francis Deakins, R. Smith, L. 
Plunmer, Z. Waters, and Z. Linthicum. 

" For Burnt Woods Hundred, Ephraim Howard, Charles War- 
field, David Moore, John Lawrence, Henry Crowle, and William 

" For Lower Antietam Hundred, Thomas Hog, Henry Butler, 
and Thomas Cramphin. 

" For Linganore Hundred, John Beall, Charles G. GriiBth, 
Nicholas Hobbs, Basil Dorsey, and William Duvall. 

"For Conococheague, David Jones, Isaac Baker, and Jacob 

"For Piney Creek Hundred, Jacob Good, John McCallister, 
Samuel McFarren, Abraham Hiter, and John Key. 

" For Lower Monocacy Hundred, Lewis Kemp, John Darnall, 
Thomas Nowland, and Leonard Smith. 

" For Northwest Hundred, Samuel Harwood, Peter Becraft, 
and Richard Beall, of Samuel. 

"For Marsh Hundred, Charles Swearingen, Eli Williams, 
James Smith, Richard Davis, and George Swimley. 

" For Upper Part of Potomac Hundred, Brooke Beall, Samuel 
West. Nathaniel Offutt, and Alexander Clagett. 

"For Seneca, Charles Perry, Richard Crabb, Gerard Briscoe. 

" For Pipe Creek Hundred, Andrew Bruce, William Win- 
chester, David Schriver, and Nathaniel Norris. 

"For Manor Hundred, William Beatty, Joseph Wood, Jr., 
Azel Waters, John Remsbury, Abraham Hoff, and Valentine 

" For Upper Part of Monocacy Hundred, Henry Co.\, Roger ; 
Johnson, Richard Butler. I 

"For upper part of New Foundland Hundred, Henry Grif- 
fith, Richard Brooke, nnd Henry Gaithcr, Sr. 

" For Elizabeth Hundred, John Stull, Otho Holland Williams, 
John Swan, and John Bench. 

"For Fredericktown Hundred, Phil. Thomas, Thomas Price, 
Baker Johnson, Peter Hoflfman, and Ludwick Weltner. 

"For Fort Frederick Hundred, Ezekial Co.\. 

" For Sugar Land Hundred, .^ncas Campbell, John Fletcher, 
John Luekett, Alexander Whitaker, and Solomon Simpson. 

"The said gentlemen are instructed to apply personally, or 
by Deputy, to every freeman in their respective Districts, and 
to solicit a generous contribution. 

"They are ordered to state accounts of money received, and 
pay it to the Committee of Correspondence, which is hereby 
appointed to meet at Fredericktown, the 23d day of March next : 
and they are further ordered to report to the said Committee the 
names of persons (if any) who shall refuse to subscribe. 

"IV. That Messrs. Thomas Johnson, William Deakins, 
Charles Beatty, George Murdock, John Stull, and John Swan, 
or any one of them, be empowered to contract, in behalf of the 
Committee of Correspondence, for any quantity of powder and 
Lead, to be paid for on the said 23d day of March. 

" V. In order that a committee of observation may be more 
conveniently chosen, and a more proper representation of the 
people may be had, the several collectors in each Hundred are 
desired to give notice to those qualified by their estates to vote 
for Representatives of some time and place of meeting in the 
Hundred, to elect members for a Committee, agreeably to the fol- 
lowing regulation : 

"When the number of taxables exceed two hundred, and 
amounts to not more than four hundred, the District shall elect 
three members. The Collectors are ordered to return such Repre- 
sentatives to the Committee of Correspondence on the said 23d 
day of March; the Committee so chosen shall then meet, and 
the authority of the present Committee of Observation shall be 

" VI. Resolved, That Messrs. John Hanson, Charles Beatty, 
Upton Sheredine, Baker Johnson, Philip Thomas, Jacob Funk, 
Samuel Beall, Joseph Chapline, John Stull, James Smith, 
Henry Griffith, Thomas Sprigg Wootton, Richard Brooke, Wil- 
liam Deakins, and Thomas Cramphin, or any five of them, shall 
represent this County to any Provincial convention to be held at 
the city of Annapolis before the second Tuesday of October 
next. A petition from the People called Dunkers and Menno- 
nists was read. They express a willingness freely to contribute 
their money in support of the common cause of America, but 
pray an exemption from the Military Exercise on the score of 
their Religious Principles. 

"Resolved, That this petition be referred to the Committee 
to be chosen agreeably to the fifth Resolve. In the mean time 
it is strictly enjoined that no violence be offered to the person 
or property of any one, but that all grounds of complaint be 
referred to said Committee. 

" Arch. Bovn, Clerk." ^ 

On the 15th of June, 1775, Col. George Washing- 
ton, one of the Virginia delegates in Congress, was 
nominated by his friend and associate, Thomas John- 

• As arms became necessary, a gun-lock factory was ordered 
by the convention in December, 1775, to be erected in Frederick, 
and the land was purchased. (Land Record B. D., No. 2, folio 
471.) The site of the factory is now occupied by the coal-yard 
of Mr. Groshon, Messrs. Tyson & Son's warehouse, and J. E. 
Gifl'ord's marble-works. By the act of 1778, ch. 4, it was 
ordered to be sold. 



son, of Frederick, to be commander-in-chief of the 
Continental forces, and he was unanimously chosen. 
Havinj; accepted his commission from the " United 
Colonies," Washington left Philadelphia on the 21st 
of June to take command of the army. 

On the 17ih of June the battle of Bunker Hill 
was fought, and from this hour the colonists were 
fully roused. In Maryland all was vigilance and 
activity. The manufacture of gunpowder, arms, and 
ammunition of every kind was encouraged. The two 
companies, assigned as the quota of the province under 
the resolution of Congress, were raised witli the utmost 
spirit and dispatch in Frederick County, which then 
embraced, besides its present territory, all of Wash- 
ington, Montgomery, Allegany, Garrett, and part of 
Carroll Counties. x\t a meeting of the Committee 
of Observation of Frederick, held in the court-house 
in Frederick Town on the 21st of June, a letter was 
read by John Hanson, chairman, from the delegates 
of Maryland in Congress, accompanied by the resolu- 
tion passed on the 14th. The latter represented that 
two companies of expert riflemen were required of 
the county to join the army at Boston, " to be there 
employed as light infantry." The committee there- 

" liesoh-ed. That agreeable to the resolution of the Congress, 
and on the terms by ihem proposed, two companies of expert 
riflemen be forthwith raised and officered hv the following gen- 
tlemen : Of the first company — Michael Cresap, captain; 
Thomas Warren, Joseph Cresap, Jr., Richard Davis, Jr., lieu- 
tenants. Of the second company — Thomas Price, captain; 
Otho Holland Williams, John Ro?s Key, lieutenants; another 
lieutenant to be chosen by Capt. Price and approved by the 

By the terms of enlistment the captains were to 
receive S20 per month; the lieutenants, S13i ; the 
sergeants, $8; the corporals, §7}; the drummers, 
STi; and the privates, S6|- ; "that they find their 
own arms and clothes ; that each company consist 
of a captain, three lieutenants, four sergeants, four 
corporals, a drummer, and sixty-eight privates; that 
the form of enlistment be as follows: 

**I, A. B., have this day of voluntarily enlisted 

myself as a soldier in the American Continental Army for one 
year, unless sooner discharged. I do bind myself to conform 
in all instances to such rules and regulations as are or shall 
hereafter be established for the government of the said Army."' 

The character and appearance of the riflemen^ and 
their skill as marksmen, excited the curiosity of a 
gentleman in Frederick, who, in a letter to a friend 
in Philadelphia, dated Aug. 1, 1775, thus describes 
them before they left Frederick : 

" Notwithstanding the urgency of my business, I have been 
detained in this place by an occurrence truly agreeable. I 
have had the bajipiuess of seeing Capt. Michael Cresap march- 

ing-at the head of a formidable company of upwards of 130 
men from the mountains and backwoods, painted like Indians, 
armed with tomahawks and rifles, and dressed in hunting 
shirts and moccasins; and though some of them had traveled 
near eight hundred miles from the banks of the Ohio, they 
seemed to walk light and easy, and not with less spirit than at 
the first hour of their march. Health and vigor, after what 
they bad undergone, declared them to be intimate with hard- 
ships and familiar with danger. Joy and satisfaction were 
visible in the crowd that met them. Had Lord North been 
present, and could have been assured that the brave leader 
could raise thousands of such to defend his country, what think 
you? — would the hatchet and block have intruded upon his 
mind? I had an opportunity of attending the captain during 
his stay in town, and watched the behavior of his men and 
the manner in which he treated them; for it seems that all 
who go out to war under him do not only pay the most willing 
obedience to him as their commander, but in every instance of 
distress look upon him as their friend or father. A great part 
of his time was ?pent in listeulng to and relieving their wants 
without any apparent sense of fatigue and trouble. When 
comphiints were before him he determined them with kindness 
and spirit, and on every occasion condescended to please with- 
out losing his dignity. 

"Yesterday the company were supplied with a small quan- 
tity of powder from the magazine, which wanted airing, and 
was not good for rifles. In the evening, however, they were 
drawn out to show the gentlemen of the town their dexterity 
at shooting. A clapboard, with a mark the size of a dollar, 
was put up; they began to fire off-hand, and the bystanders 
were surprised, so few shots being made that were not close to 
or in the paper. 

** When they had shot for a time in this way, some lay on their 
backs, some on their breast or side, others ran twenty or thirty 
steps, and, firing, appeared to be equally certain of the mark. 
With this performance the company were more than satisfied, 
when a young man took up the board in his hand, not by the 
end, but by the side, and holding it up, his brother walked to 
the distance, and very coolly shot into the white; laying down 
his rifle, he took up the board, and, holding it as it was held 
before, the second brother shot as the former had done. 

"By this exercise I was more astonished than pleased. But 
will you believe me. when I tell you, that one of the men took 
the board, and placing it between his legs, stood with his hack 
to the tree, while another drove the centre? What would a 
regular army of considerable strength, in the forests of Amer- 
ica, do with one thousand of these men, who want nothing to 
preserve their health and courage but water from the spring, 
with a little parched corn, with what they can easily procure 
in hunting, and who, wrapped in their blankets, in the damp 
of night, would choose the shade of a tree for their covering and 
the earth for their bed ?" 

At the time Cresap was appointed to command the 
Western Maryland Rifles, he was returning to his 
home at Old Town, now Washington County, from his 
settlement on the Ohio. He was met, it is said, 
near Cumberland, by a faithful friend with the mes- 
sage that he was chosen to command one of the two 
rifle companies. 

**When I communicated my business," says the messenger, 
"and announced his appointment, instead of becoming elated, 
he became pensive and solemn, as if his spirits were really de- 
pressed, or as if he had a presentiment that this was his death- 



warrant. He said he was in bad health and his afiairs in a 
deranged state, but that, nevertheless, as the committee had 
selected him, and as he understood from nie his father had 
pledged himself that he should accept of this appointment, he 
would go, let the consequences be what they might. He then 
directed me to proceed to the west side of the mountains, and 
publish to his old companions in arms this his intention. This 
I did, and in a very short time collected and brought to him, 
at his residence in Old Town, about twenty-two as fine fellows 
as ever bandied a rifie, and most, if not all, of them completely 

The rifleiBen set out from Frederick Town on the 
18th of July, 1775, on their march to Cambridge, 
Mass., and after traveling five hundred and fifty miles 
over the rough and difficult roads of that period, they 
arrived on the 9th of August at their destination, 
thus making the journey in twenty-two days without 
the loss of a man.' 

Cresap's company was the first from the South to 
reach Cambridge, and although in bad health, ho 
marched on the 13th of August with Capt. Daniel 
Morgan's company of Virginia riflemen to Roxbury, 
on the south side of Boston, where they joined the 
American army under the command of Gen. Wash- 
ington. Mr. Thatcher in his military journal of 
August, 1775, in noticing their arrival, says, — 

" They are remarkably stout and hardy men, many of them 
exceeding six feet in height. They are dressed in white frocks, 
or rifle shirts, and round hats. These men are remarkable for 
the accuracy of their aim, striking a mark with^great certainty 
at two hundred yards' distiince. At a review, a company of 
them, while on a quick advance, fired their balls into objects of 
seven inches diameter at the distance of two hundred and 
fifty yards. They are now stationed on our lines, and their 
shot have frequently proved fatal to British officers and soldiers, 

^ Extract from a letter from a gentleman in Frederick Town 
to his friend in Baltimore Town, dated July 19, 1775: 

" On Monday last, July 17th, Capt. Morgan, from Virginia, 
with his company of riflemen {alt chosen), marched through 
this place on their way to Boston. Their appearance was truly 
martial, their spirits amazingly elated, breathing nothing but 
a desire to join the American army and to engage the enemies 
of American liberties. They were met a mile out of town by 
three companies, viz. : Capt. Price's company of riflemen, Capt. 
Grosh's and Capt. Beatty's companies of militia, and escorted 
a few miles out of town, amidst the acclamation of all the in- 
habitants who attended them. And yesterday Capt. Price with 
his company also marched, and surely never were two finer 
companies raised in any country more determined to conquer 
or die than those two companies are. Capt. Cresap also with 
his brave company have marched. I need not say anything of 
Capt. Cresap's undaunted couriige. Not an American but 
knows him to be an intrepid warrior, and of course he knows 
his men, and has culled them from the many. We are also in 
hourly expectation of Capt. Stinson with his company in this 
town, on his way to Boston. Gnd grant him a speedy and 
happy arrival there. So many oifered to join the above com- 
panies, that not one of them but might have had one hundred 
men at least." 

who expose themselves to view, even at more than double the 
distance of common musket-shot." 2 

McCurtin's journal gives some interesting particu- 
lars of the earlier experiences of these representatives 
of Western Maryland in the theatre of war. On the 
15th (of August'), he says, " we had a most amazing 
shout of cannon thunders, which at this time seemed 
strange and shocking to our young soldiers, during 
this our first alarm." Tiiree days later he relates that 
as " he was at breakfast in the former dwelling-house 
of Dr. Williams they (the British) fired four thirty- 
two-pounders at the house, one of which rushed 
through the room and dashed one side out of the 
chimney, broke two partitions, and filled our dishes 
with plastering, ceiling, and bricks. George Switcher, 
Sergt. Torrel, and William Johnson were in the room 
when this happened. Any man may judge whether 
or no this did not surprise us four young heroes ; 
however, as I cannot say for the minds of them who 
were in company with me, but I know, to the best of 
my thinking, that I went down two pair of stairs of 
three strides without a fall, and as soon as I was out 
of doors ran to the breastwork in great haste, which 
is our place of safety, without the least concern about 
my breakfast, to James McCancie's amazement." ' 

In 1776 these companies were incorporated in a 
rifle regiment, of which Stephenson, of Virginia, was 
appointed colonel, Moses Rawlings, of Old Town, 
Frederick (now Washington) County, lieutenant- 
colonel, and Otho Holland Williams, of Frederick 
(now Williamsport, Washington County), major. 
Upon Stephenson's death the command devolved 
upon Rawlings, and the regiment formed part of the 
garrison of Fort Washington, in the State of New 
York, at the time it was attacked by Sir William 
Howe. In this attack the rifle regiment behaved with 
splendid courage, but were made prisoners of war 
with the rest of the command on the capture of the 

2 Capt. Cresap, as we have before stated, after about three 
months' efficient service in the neighborhood of Boston, was forced 
by continued illness to obtain leave to return home ; but, finding 
himself too sick to proceed, stopped in New York, where he died 
of fever on the 18th of October, 1775, at the early age of thirty- 
three. On the following day his remains, attended by a large 
concourse of people, were buried with military honors in Trinity 
Churchyard. Mr. Brantz Mayer says that on a visit to the 
churchyard of Trinity on the 2d of June, ISGd, he discovered 
the long-neglected grave and gravestone of the pioneer imme- 
diately opposite the door of the north transept of the church. 
It was of sandstone, and when last seen, in 1865, was broken 
off near the ground and propped up. 

3 On the 30th of August William Norris, a member of one of 
the rifle companies, died " with a long sickness, .and was buried 
in as genteel a manner as we could get it done." 



In the mean time the citizens of Frederick were 
not idle. At a meeting of the freeholders and others 
of the freemen of the middle district of Frederick 
County at the court-house in Frederick Town, the 12th 
of September, 1775, agreeable to the resolve of the 
last Provincial Convention, the following gentlemen 
were chosen a Committee of Observation of said dis- 
trict, viz. : George Strieker, Charles Beatty, Christo- 
pher Edelin, Upton Sheredine, Baker Johnson, Wil- 
liam Blair, Dr. Adam Fisher, Conrad Grosh, John 
Hanson, George Murdock, John Adlum, Michael 
Raymer, Dr. Philip Thomas, William Luckett, John 
Haas, Joseph Wood, Jr., John Stoner, and made 
choice of Messrs. Charles Beatty and Baker Johnson, 
by a ballot, to attend the Provincial Convention. 

At a meeting of the middle district committee of 
Frederick County, the 14th of September, 1775, there 
were present Messrs. George Strieker, Charles Beatty, 
Christopher Edelin, Upton Sheredine, Baker John- 
son, William Blair, Adam Fisher, William Beatty, 
Conrad Grosh, John Hanson, George Murdock, John 
Adlum, Michael Raymer, Dr. Philip Thomas, William 
Luckett, John Haas, Joseph Wood, and John Stoner. 

On the 12th of September a meeting of the free- 
men of the upper district of Frederick County was 
held for the purpose of choosing a Committee of Ob- 
servation and delegates to the Provincial Convention, 
and the following persons were elected : for the Com- 
mittee of Observation, John Stull, Charles Swearingen, 
Andrew Rench, Jonathan Hager, John Sellars, Col. 
Cresap, James Smith, John Rench, Ezekiel Cox, 
Samuel Hughes, William Baird, Joseph Smith, Wil- 
liam Yates, Conrad Hogmire, Christian Orendorff, 
George Zwingly, Joseph Chaplain, and Col. James 
Beale. Delegates, William Beard and John Stull. 

The committee met for the first time on the 14th 
of September, 1775, when the following members 
were present: John Stull, Esq., president; Samuel 
Hughes, secretary ; James Smith, John Rench, Con- 
rad Hogmire, William Rench, Z. Cox, George Zwingly, 
C. OrendorflF, Andrew Rench, John Sellars, W. Baird, 
Charles Swearingen. 

A letter being received from the Committee of Cor- 
respondence for the middle district of the county rela- 
tive to the raising of two companies of minute-men. 
the committee of the upper part of the county met 
for that purpose on Monday, the 18th of September 
1775, at Elizabethtown (now called Hagerstown) with 
the following persons present : John Stull, Esq, presi- 
dent ; Samuel Hughes, secretary ; Capts. Hogmire, 
Smith, Hager ; Messrs. John Rench, John Sellars. 
Andrew Rench, George Zwingly, Charles Swear- 
ingen. It was 

"Resolved, That Messrs. Henry Shryock and James Chap- 
lain be appointed to enroll two companies of minute-men, being 
the number allotted for this district; and they are hereby ap- 
pointed for that purpose." 

The committee then adjourned to the first Monday 
in October, 1775. 

The following persons were also appointed to serve 
as a committee for licensing suits in Frederick County : 
James Smith, Samuel Hughes, Conrad Hogmire, Col. 
Beall, John Rench, John Sellars, and Charles Swear- 
ingen. Capt. Jonathan Hager was appointed to re- 
ceive all sums of money that might be voluntarily 
given for the public good. It was also 

" Ordered, That the following persons carry the association 
to all freemen resident in this district, and require their sub- 
scription to the same : Linton Hundred, Thomas Hynes; Fort 
Frederick, Benj. Johnson ; Conococheague, Thomas Swearin- 
gen, David Jones, Isaac Baker; Salisbury, Doct. Schnebly, 
Henry Cellar; Elizabeth Town, Danl. Clapsadle, Ludwick 
Young, Andrew Link : Upper Antietam, Daniel Perry, Chris- 
tian Lantz, Geo. Dement; Lower Antietam, Tbomas Crampton, 
Conrad Schnebly ; Sharpsburg, Doct. Cruse, John Reynolds, 
Jr. ; Marsh Hundred, Richard Davis, Ignatius Sims, Peter 
White. Application being made to the committee by the com- 
mittee of George's Creek, on the Monongahela, for Ammuni- 
tion, it was 

"Ordered, That Mr. Stull deliver unto Mr. J. Swearingen, for 
the use of the said committee, seventy-four pounds of gun- 
powder, at .Ss. 6(/. per pound, and eighty pounds of lead, at 
6f/. per pound, and receive the money for the same, and keep it 
until further directions from this committee. 

" Resolved, That each member of this committee shall pay 
5». fine for each day's non-attendance without a lawful excuse; 
Col. Cresap excepted. 

" Resolved, That each member pay his club of the expense* 
attending this committee, present or absent." 

The committee then adjourned to the first Monday 
in October, 1775. 

From the proceedings of the Committee of Observa- 
tion for Elizabethtown (now Hagerstown) district we 
make the following interesting extracts, which show 
that the hearts of the colonists of this section of the 
province were full of sympathy for the patriotic cause, 
and that their hands were full of aid: 

" The committee met according to adjournment. Present, 
.loseph Smith, Esq., in the chair; Samuel Hughes, secretary; 
James Smith, C. Orendorff, Z. Cox, C. Swearingen, Capts. 
Hager and Stull, C. Hogmire, G. Zwingly, J. Sellars, W.Yates, 
W. Rench, and W. Baird. 

" It appears to this committee (from the representation of 
some of the members who have endeavored to get their neigh- 
bors to enroll in companies of militia) that the greatest number 
refuse in consequence of several religious sects being excepted by 
the resolves of the convention. 

" Resolved, That this committee is of opinion that it is highly 
reasonable that every person who enjoys the benefit of their 
religion and protection of the laws of this free country ought 
to contribute, either in money or military service, towards the 
defence of these invaluable rights. 



'^Resolved, That two shillings and sixpence, currency, per 
week (for all those who are constrained by religious principles 
from contributing their proportion in military service) would 
be equal to mustering, agreeable to the directions of the con- 

*^ Resolved, That a remonstrance be sent to the next conven- 
tion, setting forth the cause and substance of the above resolve. 

" Ordered, That the commissioned officers of the militia com- 
panies in this district attend at Elizabeth Town on the third 
Monday of this month, in order to vote for persons to be rec- 
ommended to the council of safety, as field-officers. 

"The committee adjourns till the 16th October, 

" The committee met according to adjournment. Present, 
John Stull, Esq., in the chair; Samuel Hughes, secretar}'; 
George Zwingly, James Smith, J. Rench, C. Orendorff, C. 
Swearingen, and W. Rench, Capt. Hager, W. Baird, John Sel- 
lars, Z. Cox. 

'* On a motion being made and seconded, it was 

" Ordered, That a letter should be written to the committee 
of correspondence in the middle district that it is the opinion 
of this district that the battalion of minute-men for this county 
would receive great advantage by being kept together and in- 
structed, and that this committee are desirous such a plan 
should be adopted, and that a meeting of the three districts of 
this county Would be advisable; and, in case such meeting 
should be appointed, Messrs. James Smith and Samuel Hughes 
are appointed to attend at said meeting, with full power to act 
for this committee in the aforesaid busines3\ 

" Ordered, That all those who have enrolled with Mr. Brook 
and Mr. Dement, do join and form one company, and immedi- 
ately proceed to the choice of officers. 

"On motion of Mr. Thomas Frinck, Sr., of the Upper Dis- 
trict of Frederick County, that he hath been often jostled by 
the residents of the upper part of Frederick County by re- 
fusing to pay their public dues, it is the opinion and advice of 
this committee that they ought to pay their levies and all their 
public dues for the support of the civil government. 

"A motion being made by a member of the committee that 
as sundry companies of the militia that are not yet made up 
and ordered according to the directions of the provincial con- 
vention, and as the numbers of the said companies appointed 
to be raised do not amount to make up two battalions, it is 

*^ Resolved by the committee, in order to satisfy the popu- 
lace, that an election be held for the Hagerstown battalion on 
the 22d day of October, 1775, and for the lower battalion on 
I the 30th day of October; and that the said lower battalion 
shall transmit a full and clear copy of their election to the 
committee of correspondence for the said district, in order that 
they may transmit the same to the Council of Safety of this 
province that they may take order therein. 

" Committee adjourns to 23d. 

"The committee met on the 11th of November, 1775, Col. 
Joseph Smith in the chair. 

" Agreed, That Capts. Stull, Hogmire, Baker, Rench, Hughes, 
Kershner, Shryock, Clapsadle, be the first battalion; Capts. j 
Orendorff, Shelley, Williams, Davis, Smith, Demond, Swear- , 
ingen, Walling, be the second battalion. I 

" Whereas it hath been represented to this committee by Mr. 
John Swan that his character has been much aspersed by a i 
certain John Shryock, as having said that he suspected the said j 
Mr. Swan of having been an enemy to America, the said John , 
Shryock being called to this committee, and making nothing 
appear against him, the said John Swan is honorably acquitted 1 
by this committee of said charge. 

"The committee adjourns to Monday the 20th inst. 

*'At the meeting of the committee on the 20th of November, I 

1775. Present, Mr. James Smith, president; Messrs. Stull, 
Baird, Swearingen, A. Rench, Zwingly, John Rench, and S. 
Hughes. Doct. John C [Connolly], of Fort Pitt, and cer- 
tain persons called Doctor S [Smith], and M. C [Cam- 
eron] were bro't before the committee and accused of being 
inimical to the liberties of America. 

''Resolved, unnnhnousli/. That the said doct. C (from cer- 
tain papers produced to this committee, and acknowledged to 
have been written by bim) is a dangerous enemy to the colo- 
nies, and as such shall be sent to the council of safety or con- 
vention for further trial. 

" It was also ReHolved, That the aforesaid Doctor S and 

M. C being found guilty of many equivocations, and com- 
ing in company with the aforesaid Doct. C from the dan- 
gerous councils of Lord Dunmore, that it is the opinion of this 

committee that the said S and C shall be sent to the 

council of safety or convention for further enquiry. The com- 
mittee adjourns till the 1st Monday in December. 

"The committee met accordingly. Present, Mr. Jas. Smith 
in the chair; Christian Orendorff, John Uonch, Andrew Rench, 
C. Swearingen, George Zwingly, S. Hughes. By order the 
committee appointed Daniel Ileaster to arbitrate and award on 
an affair of controversy now depending betwixt William Sits- 
ster and Christian vShneakenberger, in the room of Capt. Jona- 
thnn linger, dec'd. 

" Ordered, That Samuel Hughes and Andrew Rench do attend 
at Mr. Harry's on Thursday next, in order to receive the ac- 
counts of necessaries supplied the rifle companies, and trans- 
mit the same to the treasurer in Philadelphia for payment. 

"The committee adjourn till the fourth Monday in this 

"December the 18th, 1775, the committee mot: Jos. Smith 
in the chair. 

"Christian Orendorff, Andrew W. Rench, George Zvvingly, 
John Rench, John Sellars, Conrad Hogmire. 

'^Agreed, That Capt. Shryock is to have one pound of pow- 
der and four pounds of lead, for which he was out in taking 
C . 

" Agreed, That each captain of the two battalions is to have 
two pounds of powder and six pounds of lead, to be applied 
only to the use of the public in case of an invasion, and to be 
returned if demanded. 

''Agreed, That if Capt. H comes home before the first 

day of .January next, and does not come to this committee upon 
the complaint of Lieut. William Hyser, Adam Smith, and John 
Oster, he then shall be sent for. 

"The committee was called on the 10th of January, 1776, 
Samuel Hughes in the chair. 

" Capts. Hogmire, Smith, Swearingen, aud Rench, Messrs. 
Zwingly, Sellars, John Rench. Dr. S , who made his es- 
cape from Frederick Town, was brought before the committee, 
and several letters of consequence from Dr. C to the ene- 
mies of America in the back country were found with him. 

" Resolved, That the said Dr. S be sent under safe guard 

to the congress. 

"The committee adjourns till Monday next. 

"The committee met, according to adjournment, January 15. 
Present, Joseph Smith in chair; John Rench, C. Hogmire, 
James Smith, A. Rench, John Sellars, C. Orendorff, G. Zwingly, 
S. Hughes. 

" Ordered, That Henry Yost be supplied with six pounds of 
powder to prove his muskets with. 

" The committee adjourned until the first Monday in Febru- 

"The committee met, according to adjournment, on Mon- 
day, Feb. 5, 1776. Present, John Stull, Esq., in the chair; A. 



Rench, John Sellars, C. Hogmire, C. Swearingen, G. Zwingly, 
Saml. Hughes. John Rench, E. Cox, Win. Yates, Win. Baird. 

" Orderctf. That Thomas Brooke be clerk to this committee. 

The committee proceed to the trial of Capt. S- H . and 

after examination of the evidence do honorably acquit him, 
they not being able to make anything appear against him. 

Henry Y having been charged with making use or eelling 

the powder allowed him by this committee to prove his mus- 
kets, is honorably acquitted, as be has fully satisfied the com- 
mittee he is clear of the charge. 

*' Ordered, That Basil Prather be recommended by this com- 
mittee as a captain, and Henry Prather as lieutenant, to the 
Continental Congress. 

*' The committee adjourns to the third Monday in this month. 

"The committee met, according to adjournment, the 19th 
February. Present, Maj. Joseph Smith, in chair; Col. John 
Stull, Majs. C. Swearingen and A. Rench, Capts. J. Sellars, C. 
Orendorff, C. Hogmire, Mr. John Rench. 

" Capt. John Sellars and Lieut. M'Laughlin appointed to 
enquire what number of the country's arms are in the bands 
of Capt. Baker, and to know what order they are in. 

** Ordered, That Capt. S. Hughes have nine pounds of powder 
to prove one of the cannon. 

'^Ordered, That Mr. Moses Chapline be recommended by this 
committee to the Continental Congress as a fit person to take 
the command of a company as a captain in the service of his 

" Ordered, That Lieut.-Col. Smith, of the Thirty-sixth Bat- 
talion, be recommended to the council of safety or convention of 
this province as first colonel to said battalion in the place of 
Col. Beall, who has refused his commission ; and Capt. Oren- 
dorff as lieutenant- colonel to said battalion, and Jno. Rey- 
nolds captain, and George Kefer first lieutenant to Capt. Oren- 
dorff's company. 

"The committee adjourns to the first Monday in March. 

" The committee met, according to adjournment, the 4th 
March, 1776. Present, Capt. Conrad Hogmire in the chair; 
Col. John Stull, Capt. J. Sellars, John Rench, Capt. Samuel 
Hughes, Col. A. Rench, G. Zwingly. 

" Orderedj That the following persons hand about the asso- 
ciations: Thomas Brooks, George Demont, John Charlton, 
Joshua Barnes, Jas. Walling, J. Rench, J. Sellars, David 
Jones, John Barnett, J. Stull, Saml. Hughes, Peter Shelley, 
Daniel Perry, John Reynolds. 

" Ordered, That the captains of each hundred take an asso- 
ciation paper and present it to the inhabitants of their hundred 
for signing, and make an exact account of those that sign and 
those that refuse, with their reasons for refusing, Conocheague 
hundred excepted, David Jones, J. Barnett, Balsar Mondy, and 
Matthias Oats being appointed for that purpose. 

" Ordered, That Col. J. Stull, Capt. S. Hughes, and Col. 
Joseph Smith be judges of the election for the choice of six 
members in the place of Capt. Hager (deceased). Col. Samuel 
Beall, Col. Thomas Cresap, Mr. Joseph Chapline (who refused), 
Messrs. Cox and William Yates, who are taken into the upper 

** Ordered^ That Henry R be kept under a guard of six 

men until sent to the Council of Safety for trial ; but, in case 
be shall sign the association, enroll into some company, ask 
pardon of this committee, and give good security for his good 
behavior for the futui-e, to be released. 

" Ordered, That the sheriff of Frederick County obtain a 
general warrant on his list of public levys and clergy for the 
last year. 

"The committee adjourns to the third Monday in this 

"The committee met on Monday, the 18th March. Present, 
William Baird in the chair; John Stull, Conrad Hogmire, A. 
Rench. Michael Foekler, William Heyser. 

"The committee was called the 6th uf April. Present, Henry 
Shryock in the chair; Col. A. Rench, Capts. Michael Foekler, 
J. Sellars, William Heyser, Messrs. J. Rench, C. Lantz. Was 

brought before this committee E and P 6 , for 

speaking unbecoming word against the association, acknowl- 
edged their fault, and signed. 

"The committee adjourns to the 8th of April, nine o'clock. 

*'The committee met. according to adjournment, on the 8th 
of April. Members present. Col. Beall in the chair; Charles 
Swearingen, M. Foekler, A. Rench, J. Sellars, C. Orendorff, 
W. Heyser, Henry Shryock, John Rench, G. Zwingly, C. 
Lantz, .John Stull, Joseph Smith, C. Hogmire, J. Chapline, 
William Baird. 

"'In Council of Safety, Annapolis, 
"•March 2.% 1776. 

*^' Gentlemen, — The great diffirulty we find in providing 
blankets for the regular fnrces raised for the defence of this 
province obliges us to apply to the committee of oliservation 
for the several counties and districts, earnestly requesting that 
they would use thejr endeavors to procure from the house- 
keepers in their respective counties and districts all the 
blankets or rugs that they can with any convenience spare, for 
which the council will pay such prices as the committees 
shall agree on, as well as auy expense that may arise in col- 
lecting them together: and when you have procured any quan- 
tity, you will send them to Anna])olis, to Col. Smallwood, or, 
in his absence, to the commanding officer on this station, who 
will receive the same, and give orders on the council for the 
payment thereof. 

" * We hope that the friends to our cause in the county will 
contribute everything in their power to the comfortable sub- 
sistence of the soldiery in this respect; it will be an act of great 
humanity, and render an essential service to the public. 

" ' We are. Gentlemen, your most O'^' servants. By order. 
" ' Daniel, of St. Thos., Jennifer, P.' 

"In consequence of the preceding letter from the honorable 
the council c'f safety of this province, we have, agreeably to their 
request, furnished them with what quantity of blankets and 
rugs the inhabitants of this district can with any convenience 
spare, and a price estimated on them bj' this committee as fol- 

Wm. Baird, 1 blanket 

John Parks. I rug 

Andrew Rench, 1 blanket 

Simon Mver. " 

Philip Rymeby, 3 coverlets 2 

Geo. Fry, 1 blanket 

Felty Safety, 1 blanket 

Jacob Lazear, " 

Joseph Birely, 1 coverlet 1 

1 blanket 

Richard Davis. " 

Thos. Prather, " 

Ch'n Rhorer, " 

Leonard Shryock, " 

Robci't Guthrie, 1 coverlet 1 

Christian Miller, " 1 

Jacob Prunk, I blanket 

Jacob Rohrer, " 

Eilen Miller. " 

Chas. Swearingen, 1 blanket 

Ch'n Eversole, " 

" " 1 quilt 

" " 1 covt-rlet 

John Ingram. 1 blanket 

Adam Grimer, 2 blankets 1 

Wm. Douglatfs, 1 blanket 



Mntthias Need, 1 blanket., 
Michael Ott, " 

Jdhn Feagen, " 

Jerentiah Well.s, " 
.Joseph Rench, " 

Zfich'h Spires, *' 

Mntthias Neiul, " 
Henry Startzmnn, ** 
Geor-e Swingly, " 
Genrge Hoff'rann, " 
Jnenb Brumbaugh, " 
Michaol Miller, 
George Hartte, '• 
Jnhn Roltrer, " 

Chrisl'r Burgnrd, " 

Jnenb Gon.l. 1 rug 

.John Rench. 1 blanket 

John Stull, " 

"Received of Conrad Sheilz forty-four blankets for the use 
of this province, which were delivered him by the committee of 
Observation of Elizabeth Town district. 

"Received by me this 12th day of April, 1776. 

"Geo. Stricker. 

"Col. John Stull, Received the remaining seven blankets, for 
the use of the province. Col. Stull delivered 112 lbs. Powder 
(belonging to the public) to Capt. Burgess, in order to prove 
the cannon at D. & S. Hughes* works. 

^'Ordered, That the said quantity remain in the possession 
of D. & S. Hughes until this committee gives further order 

"The committee adjourns till Saturday next, two o'clock. 

"The committee met according to adjournment. Present, 
Col. Samuel Benll in the chair; Joseph Smith, John Keller, 
Mich'l Fockler, Wm. Heyser, John Stull, Henry Shryock, A. 
Rench, Christian Lantz, G. Zwingly, J. Rench, Conrad Hog- 

" The committee orders that Major Henry Shryock and Capt. 
Michael Fockler shall receive of Mr. Daniel Heister what 
money is in his hands, for arms and other necessaries pur- 
ohased here for Capt. Mich'l Cresap's company, signed and 
ordered by the committee. 

"The committee adjourns to the 29th day of April. 

"April the 29, 1776, the committee met according to adjourn- 
ment. Present, Col. J. Smith, Geo. Swingly, S. Hughes, Wm. 
Baird, John Rench, Saml. Boall, Jr., C. Swearingen, Ch'n 
Lantz, Wm. Heyser, Christian Orendorff, John Sellars, John 
Stull, Conrad Hogmire. Samuel Beall, Jr., chosen chairman, 
and James Clark appointed clerk. Appeared Maj. Henry 
Shryock and Joseph Chaplin. 

" Resolred, That this committee do pay the clerk seven shil- 
lings and si.\pcnce for each day that he shall attend, and 
that he consider himself under the ties of honor not to disclose 
or reveal the secrets of the said committee. 

"The committee adjourns to three o'clock in the afternoon. 

"The committee met according to adjournment. On motion. 
Resolved, That the several returns of non-enrollers and non- 
associators be considered [here follow sundry li.sts of the names 
of persons who refused to enroll or associate]. On motion 
that the committee sit at Sharpsburg once in three times, the 
committee concurs therewith. 

"The committee adjourns until the first Tuesday in May. 

"May 7, committee met according to adjournment. Mem-, 
bers present. Col. S. Beall in Ihe chair; Andrew Rench, G. 
Chaplin, Henry Shryock, C. Hogmire, P. Hughes. Wm. Heyser, 
John Sellars, Chs. Swearingen, George Swingly, John Stull. 
James Clark continued as clerk. It was resolved that no per- 

sonal disputes and reflections should pass in committee. No 
questions to he put and voted to without a motion being made 
and .seconded. The committee adjourn. 

" Reenlneil, That con.siderntion be had of the summonses 
issued at the last committee for the appearance of sundry per- 
sons before them this day, to show cause why they do not en- 
roll and ns.sociatc, and deliver up their arms, in which the com- 
mittee concurred, and proceeded to examine the returns made 
thereon, when it appeared that sundry persons had due notice 
accordingly, and were called in turn. 

"And as such as have appeared not, or are not able to 
give any satisfactory reasons to this committee, why they did 
not or do not enroll and associate, and deliver up their arms, 
according to the resolve of the late convention in December 
last, be fined and proceeded against, 

" The committee adjourned for half an hour, met accordingly, 
and adjourns to the morrow, to meet at 9 o'clk A.M. 

"Wednesday, 8 May. 1776. The committee met according to 
adjournment. — all the members ])resent as on yesterday, except 
Capts. Hughes, Hogmire. and Sellars. Appeared Mr. John 

"Ordered, That the sundry persons do pay the sums annexed 
to their name? in one month from the date hereof, and deliver 
up their fire arms immediately, if they have any, except pistols, 
to the several persons appointed to receive the same." [Here 
follows a long list of names, with the lines annexed.] 

"This day Col. J. Stull made known to this committee that 
he received from the treasurer, Thomas Harwood, by order of 
the council of safety, £137 9«. 6d. current money, it being the 
sum due for 51 blankets purchased by the committee for the 
use of the province, by order of the council of safety. 

"Ordered. That Captains Jtimes Walling, P'r. Reed, Basil 
AA'illiams, Michael Fockler, Martin Kershncr, John Sellars, S. 
Hughes, and C. Hogmire be empowered by Warrant to receive 
the sundry .sums of money heretofore assessed by this commit- 
tee against the several persons, as per lists to be made and an- 
nexed thereto, who have not enrolled, and the fire arms they 
may have from those who liave not associated, agreeably to the 
resolution of this convention in December last, within each of 
their districts, to he made out in manner and form following: 

" ' You are hereby authorized or empowered to receive from 
sundry persons the sums of money annexed to each of their 
several names, as per list hereunto annexed, at the end of one 
month from the date hereof, and such fire arms immediately, 
except pistol.s, that are or may be in their possession, or other- 
wise may be their or either of their properties, whenever found, 
and make return thereof; to sit next after the time afore- 
said, being the sums levied and assessed on them and each of 
them for not enrolling and associating, agreeably to the direc- 
tions of the convention of December last. And this shall be 
your authority. Given under my hand this 8 of May 1776, by 
order of the committee.' 

"The above warrant, with the separate lists of names and 
sums annexed to the several gentlemen appointed for that pur- 
pose, to be by them collected, agreeably to the order of the 

" The committee adjourned to the first Tuesday in June."' 

> Great difliculty v^is experienced at the beginning of the 
war in obtaining supplies ; the arsenal at Annapolis was almost 
empty. To overcome these dilEcuUies Ihe convention gave 
encouragement and gratuities for the manufacture of saltpetre, 
materials for clothing, and munitions of war. Powder-mills 
were erected, and Col. Hughes, of Washington County, agreed 
to furnish cannon for the province, and established a foundry 
on the Potomac River, one mile above Georgetown, where the 




While lier sons were rendering gallant service to 1 
the cause of American liberty in a distant section of 
the country, Frederick itself was threatened with a 
formidable danger. As early as July, 1775, John 
Hanson, Jr., wrote to Peyton Randolph, of Virginia, 
the first president of the " Continental Congress :" 
" There is too much reason to believe that, an expedi- 
tion will be set on foot by the British and Indians in 
Canada against the western frontiers of this State 
(Maryland), Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Agents and 
allies of the king and parliament, of Gen. Gage and 
Lord Dunmore, it is believed in this place, are now 
operating with the Delaware and Shawnese Indians in 
Ohio, and bands in Kentucky and Canada, with a 
view to destroy our frontier towns and desolate our 
homes and firesides. We are determined to keep a 
vigilant eye on all such agents and emissaries, but it 
would be highly prudent to take early measures to 
supply the arsenal and barracks at Fredericktown with 
arms and ammunition, to enable the male population 
to defend all the inhabitants, in case the emergency 
should arise in which it will become our solemn duty 
to act." These fears were not without foundation. 
Governor Dunmore, of Virginia, who had been mak- 
ing ineffectual elForts to maintain the royal authority 
in that colony, being at length forced to fly from 
Williamsburg, sought refuge on board an English 
man-of-war, and inaugurated a predatory warfare upon 
the coast, extending his operations to Maryland. In- 
stigated by a ferocious spirit of revenge he reduced 
the town of Norfolk to ashes, and with the double 
design of cutting ofi" communication between the 
Northern and Southern colonies, and of compelling a 
division of the Continental army under Washington, 
employed Dr. John Connolly, a native of Lancaster, 
Pa., to incite the Indians to a war upon the fron- 
tier and to raise an army at Detroit, which was to 
seize Pittsburgh, and from this base invade the back 
settlements of Virginia and Maryland. After estab- 
lishing a strong post at Cumberland it was proposed 
to seize Alexandria, where Governor Dunmore was to 
meet them with a fleet and a body of runaway slaves 
from the lower part of the Potomac. Alexandria was 
to be strongly fortified, and communication cut oif be- 
tween the Northern and Southern colonies. 

first cannon were made in this country. A portion of the old 
stone building still remains, while broken fragments of cannon 
are at this time to be found in the stream of water that flows 
at the base of the building. Daniel and James Hughes, of 
the Antietam Iron-Works, in Washington County, and John 
Yoast, of Georgetown, also made cannon for the Revolution. 
Shells and cannon were also manufactured at Catoctin Furnace, 
in Frederick County, by James and Thomas Johnson during 
the Revolution, and some were used at the siege of Yorktown. 

Connolly was born and bred near Wright's Ferry, 
Pa., and according to Ormsby, led a roving life 
in the Illinois country " till he could subsist there 
no longer." He appeared at Pittsburgh a few years 
before the commencement of the Revolution, where 
he was introduced to Lord Dunmore, " who traveled 
through the western country to sound the inclinations 
of the inhabitants as well as the Indians. Connolly, 
like a hungry wolf, closed with Dunmore a bargain 
that he would secure a considerable interest among the 
white inhabitants and the Indians on the frontier. 
In consequence of this agreement my lord made him 
a deed of gift of two thousand acres of land at the 
Falls of Ohio." Connolly showed himself a service- 
able agent in the border troubles between Virginia and 
Pennsylvania, and when the struggle with the mother- 
country began, willingly lent himself to the designs of 
Lord Dunmore. On the 25th of July, 1775, Con- 
nolly, who had been stationed at Fort Pitt, joined Lord 
Dunmore on board the " Fowey" man-of-war, where 
the plan of attack already described was formed. Lord 
Dunmore feeling that it was necessary to secure the 
indorsement and authority of Gen. Gage, sent him to 
Boston, where Connolly presented the following pro- 
posals to the British commander : 

" Proposals for raising an Army to the Weatioardf and for eifeji-t- 

uaUy obstructing a Communication between the Souther it and 

Xortheru Governments. 

" As I have, by direction from his Excellency Lord Dunmore, 
prepared the Ohio Indians to act in concert with me against 
his Majesty's enemies in that quarter, and have also dispatched 
intelligence to the different olficers of the militia on the fron- 
tiers of Augusta County, in Virginia, giving them Lord Dun- 
more's assurances that sucli of them as shall hereafter evince 
their loyally to his Majesty by putting themselves under my 
command, when I shall appear among them with proper au- 
thority for that purpose, of a confirmation of titles to their 
lands, and the quantity of three hundred acres to all who 
should take up arms in the support of the constitution, when 
the present rebellion subsided, I will undertake to penetrate 
through Virginia, and join his Excellency Lord Dunmore at 
-Alexandria early next spring, on the following conditions and 
authority ; 

" 1st. That your Excellency will give me a commission to act 
as Major-commandant of such troops as I may raise and em- 
body on the frontiers, with a power to command to the west- 
ward and employ such serviceable French and English parti- 
sans as I can employ by pecuniary rewards or otherwise. 

" 2d. That your E.tcellency will give orders to Captain Lord 
on the Illinois to remove himself, with the garrison under his 
command, from Fort Gage to Detroit, by the Aubache, bringing 
with him all the artillery, stores, ic, itc, to facilitate which 
undertaking he is to have authority to hire boats, horses, 
Frenchmen, Indians, &c., &e., to proceed with all possible ex- 
J)edition on that route, as the weather may occasionally permit, 
and to put himself under my command on his arrival at De- 

"3d. That the commissary at Detroit shall be empowered to 
furnish such provision as I may judge necessary for the good 



of the service, and that the commanding officer shall be in- 
structed to give every possible assistance in encouraging the 
French and Indians of tiiat settlement to join nie. 

"4th. That an officer of artillery be immediately sent with 
me to pursue such route as I may find most expedient to gain 
Detroit, with orders to have such pieces of light ordnance as 
may be thought requisite for the demolishing of Fort Dunmore 
and Fort Fincastle, if resistance should be made by the rebels 
in possession of those garrisons. 

" 5th. That your Excellency will empower me to make such 
reasonable presents to the Indian cliiefs and others as may urge 
them to act with vigor in the execution of my orders. 

" 6th. That your E.xcellency will send to Lord Dunmore such 
arms as may be spared, in order to equip such persons as may 
be willing to serve his Majesty at our junction, in the vicinity 
of Alexandria, Ac, Ac. If your Excellency judges it expedient 
for the good of the service to furnish me with the authority 
and other requisites I have mentioned, I shall embrace the 
earliest opjiortunity of setting off for Canada, and shall imme- 
diately dispatch Lord Dunmore's armed schooner, which now 
awaits my commands, with an account of what your Excellency 
has done, and that I shall be ready, if practicable, to join your 
Lordship by the twentieth of April, at Alexandria, where the 
troops under uiy command may fortify themselves under the 
cover of the men of war on that station. 

•' If, on the contrary, your Excellency should not approve of 
what I propose, you will be good enough to immediately honor 
ine with your dispatches to the Earl of Dunmore, that I may 
return as early as possible." 

Gen. Gage approved the design, and on the I4th 
or 15th of September, Connolly left Boston, and in 
October again joined Dunmore, who, in accordance 
with the instructions of Gen. Gage, on the 5th of 
November granted him a commission as lieutenant- 
colonel commandant of the Queen's Royal Rangers, 
to be raised " in the back parts and Canada." About 
the 13th of November he left Lord Dunmore on his 
way to Detroit, where he expected to meet his com- 
mission and instructions. He was accompanied by 
Allan Cameron and Dr. John Smith. The former, a 
native of Scotland, had left his country on account of 
an affair of honor, and had come to Virginia with the 
intention of purchasing lands in that colony ; but 
finding it difficult to pass through the back country, 
encouraged by Lord Dunmore and the promise of ad- 
vancement, he agreed to accept a commission as first 
lieutenant in the regiment to be raised by Connolly. 
Dr. Smith, also a native of Scotland, had left Charles 
County, Md., for political reasons, intending to go to 
the Mississippi, but finding it impracticable he re- 
turned to Norfolk, where he was induced by Lord 
Dunmore by promises of preferment to accept the 
appointment of surgeon under Connolly. 

The party, consisting of Connolly, Cameron, Smith, 
land a servant, departed from Norfolk on a flat-bot- 
jtomed schooner, intending to proceed in this vessel 
I up the Chesapeake into Potomac River, and laud if 
possible near to Dr. Smith's house (about two miles 

below Cedar Point), on Port Tobacco Creek, and to 
pass through the country on horseback until they 
reached Detroit. 

Fortunately, the people of Frederick County were 
on the alert, and to their vigilance was duo the dis- 
covery and frustration of this well-conceived plot. 
Patrols and minute-men were constantly scouring the 
country, ready to apprise the inhabitants of the first 
signs of danger, and Connolly and his companions 
happening to fall in with one of these parties near 
Hagerstown, and not being able to give a satisfactory 
account of themselves, were arrested on suspicion and 
taken to Frederick. Connolly had concealed his papers 
in the mail pillion-sticks, which were hollow, encased 
in tin plates covered with canvas. 

"When we arrived at Frederick," says Smith, "wo were 
stripped and searched again, and examined separately before 
the committee, where one of the most illiberal, inveterate, and 
violent Rebels, named Samuel Chase (son of a respectable and 
very worthy clergyman of this Province), a lawyer and a member 
of the Congress, presided. At this place we were not a little 
alarmed lest they should discover our instructions, papers, Ac., 
as they examined everything so strictly as to take our saddles 
to pieces, and take out the stuffing, and even rip open the soles 
of our boots, in vain, for the object of their search was not 
found, although they so frequently handled what contained it. 
However, by some neglect of Col. Connolly's servant, an old 
torn piei^e of paper was found in his portmanteau, which dis- 
covered some part of our design; and then Col. Connolly, to 
prevent our falling immediate sacrifices to a fr.antick mob, ac- 
knowledged our commissions. The servant, however, who was 
faithful to his trust, being allowed to go at large from the first 
of our confinement, took care to destroy the mail pillion-sticks 
containing the papers, commissions, and instructions, which 
we dreaded so much being discovered, as soon as he could effect 
it with safety, which put an end to our anxiety and alarms on 
that account." 

On the following day John Hanson, Jr., chairman 
of the Committee of Observation, transmitted to the 
president of Congress copies of the examinations of 
the prisoners, a letter to John Gibson, an early resi- 
dent of the region, a speech of Lord Dunmore to 
White-Eyes, an Indian chief, and Connolly's pro- 
posals to Gen. Gage. 

In the latter part of December, Connolly was sent 
to Philadelphia under guard of Dr. Adam Fisher and 
ten privates. Smith made his escape just before this, 
but was recaptured in January, 1776, at Little Mead- 
ows, with a number of letters from Connolly to British 
ofiicers and others, which he had written while in con- 
finement at Frederick. Connolly was kept imprisoned 
for more than a year in Philadelphia, and was after- 
wards removed to Baltimore. He was subsequently 
released on parole, but remained a prisoner until near 
the close of the war. 

Among the companies raised in Frederick County 
in 1775 were those of Capts. William Blair, William 




Shields, Jacob Ambrose, and Benjamin Oiile. The 
" game-cock" company of Capt. Blair, which went 
first to the front, was officered as follows : 

William Blair, captain ; Jncob Hockersmith, ensign; George 
Hockersmith, first lieutenant; Henry Williams, second lieuten- 
ant; William Curran, Jr., George Kelly, John Smith, Christian 
Crabbs, sergeants ; John Crabbs, George iUatihcws, Arthur Row, 
James Park, corporals; Daniel McLean, drummer; and fifty- 
four priv;ites. 

The Second Company, raised in 1775, William Shields, cap- 
tain ; John Faires, first lieutenant: Michael Hockersmith, sec- 
ond lieutenant; John Shields, ensign; Charles Kobinson, 
James Shields, Sr., Patrick Haney, Robert Brown, sergeants; 
Moses Kennedy, John Hawk, John Long, Thomas Baird, cor- 
porals; and fifty-two privates. 

The Third Company, raised in 1775, Jacob Ambrose, cap- 
tain: Peter Shover, first lieutenant; Henry Biizell, second 
lieutenant; John Weller, ensign; Martin Bartz, Frederick 
Schultz, John Gump, Casper Young, sergeants; John Pr^itz- 
nian, George Kuhn, Dominick Bradley, Lawrence Creager, 
corporals; John Shaw, drummer; Philip Weller, fifer; and 
fifty privates. 

The Fourth Company, raised in 1775, Benjamin Ogle, cap- 
tain ; Henry Matthews, first lieutenant : George Nead, second 
lieutenant; James Ogle, ensign; John Syphers, Lawrence 
Prutzman, Peter Leonard, Conrad Matthews, sergeants; Jacob 
Valentine, Adam Knautf, Daniel Protzman, William Elder, son 
of Guy, corporals; John Roche, drummer; Daniel Linebaugh, 
fifer; and fifty-two privates. 

These companies formed portions of the battalions 
which were raised in Frederick County, and they were 
conspicuous during the war for their ardent devotion 
and steady valor.' 

On the 7th of December, 1775, the Maryland Con- 
vention assembled, and immediately set about the 
formation of a military force for the protection of the 
province. After appointing Messrs. Charles Beatty, 
James Johnson, and John Hanson, Jr., a committee 
to establish a gun-lock manufactory at Frederick, they 
resolved on the 1st of January, 1776, that fourteen 
hundred and forty -four men should be raised for the 
defense of the province, that eight companies of the 
troops, of sixty-eight privates each, should be formed 
into a battalion, and that the remainder should be 
divided into companies of one hundred each. Wil- 

1 On the Sih of December, 1775, the Convention, by resolu- 
tion, appropriated two hundred pounds currency for building a 
strong log jail in Fredcricktown, thirty feet long, twenty 
broad, to be lined with two-incli planks, two stories, with split 
logs and plank floors, the upjier story to be divided into three 
rooms, with a stove in each. That a small house be built lor a 
keeper and guard, and that the treasurer of the Western Shore 
pay to James Johnson and Thomas Beatty the said sum. The 
jail was huilt as directed on Second Street, a few perches east of 
the present Meeh.inics' Bank, and the logs were fastened by 
iron bolls made by Frank M.antz, a Tory blacksmith, and was 
used as such during the continu.ance of the war, after which it 
was converted into a stable, a part of which remained standing 
in 1846. 

Ham Smaliwood was elected colonel of the first bat- 
talion, Francis Ware lieutenant-colonel, Thomas Price 
(who commanded the second company of Frederick 
riflemen) first major, and Mordecai Gist (of Balti- 
more) second major. The province was then divided 
into districts, and a brigadier-general was assigned to 
the command in each. Frederick County constituted 
the Third District, and was placed under the command 
of Thomas Johnson, Jr., who ranked as the first 
brigadier-general. The officers of militia for Frederick 
County were as follows : 

^trst BaUalinn. — Charles Beatty, colonel ; William Beatty, lieu- 
tenant-culonel; Ludwick Weltner, first major; Benjamin 
Johnson, second; Louis Bush, quartermaster. Second 
Bnti'illun. — James Johnson, colonel ; Joseph Wood, lieu- 
tenant-colonel ; Benjamin Ogle, first major; Roger John- 
son, second; Azel Waters, quartermaster. Third Bat- 
taluni. — Jacob Good, colonel ; William Blair, lieutenant- 
colonel ; Samuel Shaw, first major; William Shields, 
second; Joseph McKillip, quartermaster. Fourth But- 
tati'on. — Baker Joiinson, colonel ; AVilliam Luckett, lieu- 
tenant-colitnel ; Jacob Miller, first major; Henry Darnall, 
second ; Nicholas Tice, quartermaster. Lower District 
— L''VJ€r Bntial'im. — John Murdock, colonel ; Thomas 
Johns, lieutenant-colonel; Richard Brooks, first major; 
William Deakins, second; Richard Thompson, quarter- 
master. Vp2>er BattaUun. — Zadock Miigruder, colonel; 
Charles G. Gi-iflith, lieutenant-colonel; Francis Deakins, 
first miijor; Richard Crabb, second; Samuel Duvall, 
qu;irterraaster. Upper District— J^('rs( Battalion. — John 
Stull, colonel : Andrew Rench, lieutenant-colonel; Henry 
Sbryock, first major; George Woltz, seoimd ; Elie Wil- 
liams, quartermaster. Second Botfa/ion. — Dr. Samuel 
Beall, colonel: Joseph Smith, lieutenant-colonel; Rich- 
ard Davis, first major; Charles Swearingen, second; James 
Chapline, quartermaster.^ 

Independence of Great Britain was not generally 
desired at the beginning of the troubles. All the con- 
ventions of the province had, down to June, 1776, 
met and adjourned without the expression of a single < 
opinion in its favor. Time was requisite to convince i 
the great mass of the people of the necessity of a , 
complete separation from the parent-country andj 
the establishment of independent governments. The 
ablest pens were employed throughout the colonies in i 
the winter and spring of 1776 on this momentous 
subject. In Maryland, under the influence of Chase, 
Paca, Johnson, and Robert Goldsborough, the strong-; 
est opposition was gradually waning.' 

2 In March, 1776, powder belonging to the province was 
stored in the m:irket-house at Frederick. The first prisoners 
confined in Frederick arrived there from North Carolina in* 
May, 1776. 

' As an illustration of the determined spirit which animated' 
the representative men of Western Maryland at this period 
the following incident is worthy of preservation. Sometime 
after the commencement of hostilities, but long before the 
Declaration of Independence, Mr. Eden, the last proprietary 




On the 7th of June, 17*76, Richard Henry Lee, of 
Virginia, submitted to Congress a resolution declaring 
" Tliat the United Colonies are and ought to be free 
and independent States; that they are absolved from 
all allegiance to the British crown ; and that all polit- 
ical connection between thera and the State of Great 
Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved." On 
the 11th of June, Matthew Tilghuian, Thomas Stone, 
and John Rogers wrote to the Council of Safety for 
instructions, and asking that the county committees 
call the people together to express their sentiments 
on the question of independence. In response the 
freemen of Fiederick County, June 17th, unani- 
mously resolved, " That what may be recommended 
by a majority of the Congress, equally delegated by the 
people of the United Colonies, tee. will, at the hazard 
of our lives and fortunes, support and maintain ; and 
that every resolution of the Convention tending to 
separate this Province from a majority of the colonies, 
without the consent of the people, is destructive to 
our internal safety and big with public ruin." The 
freemen of the upper district of Frederick County 
"resolved unanimously" that they would "support 
the union of the colonies" with their " lives and for- 

The same spirit was manifested in all the counties, 
and urged forward by these expressions of the popular 
will, the Convetjtion repealed its former resolutions 
and authorized the Maryland representatives in Con- 
gress to concur with the other United Colonies in 
such measures as should be "adjudged necessary for 
securing the liberties of America." These iustruc- 

Goveinor of Maryland, requested Barrister Carroll to invite 
Thomas Juhnsim, afterwards of Frederick, and Samuel Chase, 
to dine at the Government House. Wr. Chase and Mr. 
Johnson were among the most distinguished of the Whig 
leadiTs of the time, and the invitation oecasioned some little 
embarras.-ment. The diiScult.y was finally solved by invit- 
ing the Governor, Messrs. Johnson and Chase, and other 
distinguished gentlemen to Mr. Carroll's. Shortly after the 
oouiiiany sat down to dinner the Governor said, ''It is un- 
dersiuod in Enghmd that ihe Congress are about forming a 
treaty of alliance with France" A momentary silence pre- 
vailed, when Mr. Johnson answered, "Governor, we will an- 
swer your question, provided you will answer one for us." The 
Governor assenting to this proposition, Mr. Johnson said, 
"Well, sir, we will candidly acknowledge that overtures have 
been made to France, but that they are not yet accepted. 
N..W, sir, we under.-tand that the king, your master, is about 
subsidizing a large body of He.-sians to Join his forces to come 
over to cut our throats." He answered that he believed the 
report was true Mr. Johnson immediately rejoined in the fol- 
lowing words, " The first Hessian soldier that puts his foot on 
the American shore will ahsoh e me from all allegiance to Great 
Britain. ' Chase exclaimed, " By G— d, 1 am declaring our- 
selves independent." The Governor immediately dropped his 
knife and fork, and did not eat another mouthful. 

tions were followed on the 4th of July by the adop- 
tion by Congress of the Declaration of Independence, 
and the decisive step having thus been taken, Mary- 
land at once proceeded to strengthen her military 
force. The Convention determined to raise 3405 
men — the proportion authorized by Congress — to form 
a flying camp to act with the militia of Pennsyl- 
vania and Delaware in service in the Middle Depart- 
ment (from New York to Maryland, both included) 
until the 1st of December following. This force was 
to be divided into four battalions of nine companies 
each, of which nine were to be furnished by Frederick 
County, five by Anne Arundel, four by Baltimore, 
three by Prince George's, two each by Charles, Har- 
ford, Cecil, Kent, Queei: Anne's, and Caroline, and 
one each from St. Mary's, Calvert, and Talbot ; the 
whole to be commanded by Brig.-Gen. Thomas John- 
son, Jr.' 

On the 4th of July, the Convention " being of the 
opinion that it is of very great importance to the wel- 
fare of this province that it should not be deprived of 
the advice and assistance of the said Thomas John- 
son in the public councils of the United Colonies, and 
that his place can be supplied with less inconvenience 
in the military than in the civil department, therefore, 
resolved, that a brigadier-general should be elected by 
ballot in the room of the said Thomas Johnson, Esq.," 
and John Dent was elected to fill the vacancy. He 
resigned shortly afterwards, and Gen. Beall was 
chosen. Otho H. Williams was elected colonel of 
the Frederick County battalion, but declined the ap- 
pointment, because of his previous acceptance of a 
commission as major in a United States rifle bat- 

The battalion composing Frederick County's con- 
tribution to the Flying Camp was largely composed of 
Germans, and rendered valuable service in the en- 
suing campaign. - 

In addition to this battalion, the Convention by 
another resolve, in obedience to a requisition of Con- 
gress, passed on the 27th of June, directed two com- 
panies of riflemen to be raised, one in Harford County, 
and the other in Frederick, and four companies of 

1 The parade-ground and place of rendezvous of the Frederick 
County troops was Gantt's Common, near Frederick Town. 

2 Many of the descendants of the brave soldiers composing 
the battalion are to be found in Frederick, Washington, and 
Carroll Counties. Jacob Sheets, who built Sheets' mill on 
Piney Creek, in Carroll County, was a priv.ate in Capt. Balt- 
zell's company. His descendants reside in the Tom's Creek 
Valley, near Emmittsburg. Among the German families promi- 
nent in the Revolutionary annals of Western Maryland are the 
Hoekersmiths, the Williamses, the Baltzells, the Creagers, the 
Steiners, and the Millers. 



Germans, two in Baltimore County and two in Fred- 

In the battle of Harlem Heights, on the 16th of 
September following, Griffith's and Richardson's regi- 
ments, of Gen. Beale's brigade of the Maryland Fly- 
ing Camp, with Maj. Price's three independent compa- 
nies, greatly distinguished themselves. A letter from 
headquarters, dated September 17th, says, "Never 
did troops go to the field with more cheerfulness and 
alacrity, when there began a heavy fire on both sides. 
It continued about one hour, when our brave South- 
ern troops dislodged them from their posts ; the enemy 
rallied, and our men beat them the second time. 
They rallied again ; our troops drove them the third 
time, and were rushing on them, but the enemy got 
on an eminence, and our troops were ordered to re- 
treat, the general considering there might be a large 
number of the enemy behind the hill concealed, which 
was the case." 

On the 1 9th of September, by a general order, the 
sis independent companies under Maj. Price were 
attached to the battalion. By the army returns of 
September 21st, Gen. Beale's brigade of militia, con- 
sisting of Griffith's, Hall's, Richardson's, and Ewing's 
regiments, had a total rank and file of 2189 men, 
of which number only 1717 were present and fit for 
duty. At this time over half the Maryland troops 
were sick and unfit for service, but those who were 
able to take part in the campaign did not fail to 
render a good account of themselves in every enirage- 
ment with the enemy. After the battle of White 
Plains, in which Beale's brigade displayed great nerve 
and steadiness, Col. Moses Rawlings' rifle regiment 
was sent to reinforce Fort Washington. 

This regiment was composed of four companies of 
Virginians and four of Marylanders, and were at first 
commanded by Col. Stephenson, of Virginia, who was 
succeeded by Lieut.-Col. Rawlings. Two of the com- 
panies were those raised in Frederick by Cresap and 
Price at the beginning of hostilities, and were subse- 
quently commanded by Capt. Philemon Griffith and 
Capt. Richard Davis. The other two companies were 
commanded by Capt. Thomas Beale and Capt. Smith, 
and were raised the former in Frederick, the latter in 
Harford County. Fort Washington was attacked on 
the 16th of November (1776) by a large force of the 
enemy, and captured after a struggle, in which the 

1 The four companies of Germans raised were commanded 
respectively by Capts. Heiser, Graybill, Fister, and Keeports. 
Together with four companies raised in Pennsylvania they 
formed a regiment, and were oflicered by Col. Hansegger, of 
Pennsylvania, and Lieut.-Col. Geo. Strieker and Maj.Weltner, 
of Frederick County. 

Frederick County riflemen displayed all the nerve 
and courage of veterans. About four hundred Mary- 
landers were taken prisoners, among whom were Col. 
Rawlings, Maj. Otho H. Williams, and Lieut. Peter 
Contee Hanson, who died a prisoner in New York. 
Lawrence Everhart, of Frederick, and some of his 
men escaped in a boat after the surrender. The loss 
of the enemy was nearly nine hundred killed and 
wounded, more than half of which was sustained in 
the attack upon Rawlings' riflemen. Some authori- 
ties put the loss even higher. Gordon in his " His- 
tory of the American Revolution," says, " it cost 
Knyphausen ' near upon eight hundred men' to force 
the 'single regiment of Rawlings' back.' " 

In Green's " Life of Greene" the author says, " Had 
Rawlings been supported, Knyphausen could not have 
gained the north lines. But the men refused to man 
them, and crowded into the redoubt, where they be- 
came a compact mass for the enemy's guns. The de- 
fense on the east was still more irresolute, and there 
are questions connected with that on the south which 
will, it is probable, never be solved. But had it been 
like that of Rawlings' riflemen it would have well- 
nigh crippled the enemy." Gen. Washington, in a 
letter to his brother, John A. Washington, dated Nov. 
19, 1776, in referring to the capture of Fort Wash- 
ington, only mentions the services rendered by Raw- 
lings' regiment. He remarks, " The enemy have 
suffered greatly on the north side of Fort Washington. 
Col. Rawlings' regiment (late Hugh Stephenson's) 
was posted there, and behaved with great spirit." 

While the representatives of Western Maryland 
were thus winning distinction where the soldiers of 
some other sections only earned disgrace, many im- 
portant events had occurred at home. The shadow 
of the proprietary government having vanished by 
the departure of Governor Eden, the Convention, in 
pursuance of instructions from the several counties, 
resolved upon the establishment of a permanent form 
of government. For this purpose a new Convention 
was to be elected, consisting of four representatives 
from each district of Frederick County, four from 
each of the other counties, and two each from An- 
napolis and Baltimore Town. In pursuance of these 
resolutions, elections were held throughout Maryland 
on the 1st of August, 1776, for delegates to a Con- 
vention, which assembled at Annapolis on the 14th of 
the same month, for the purpose of framing a State 
constitution and bill of rights. On the 6th of Sep- 
tember the Convention divided Frederick County, and 
erected out of parts of it the new counties of Wash- 
ington and Montgomery ; the former named after the , 
commander-in-chief of the army, and the latter after 



Gen. Richard Montgomery, who was killed in the at- 
tack on Quebec. The declaration of rights and the 
constitution having been formally adopted, the new 
government was organized on the 13th of February, 
1777, by the election of Thomas Johnson, afterwards 
of Frederick County, as the first Governor of the State. 
In the mean time Congress, dismayed by the successive 
disasters which had overtaken the American arms, had 
adjourned to Baltimore, and a general feeling of de- 
spondency prevailed. Washington's troops were re- 
duced to a mere handful, and it was uncertain whether 
he would be able to obtain reinforcements. Disap- 
pointed in his hopes from New Jersey, where the 
spirit of disaffection was prevalent, he could not tell 
what reliance could be placed on Pennsylvania and 
Maryland. In the latter State he was not disap- 
pointed, and so soon as intelligence was received of 
bis retreat through the Jerseys every preparation was 
made to sustain him. Congress dispatched Col. 
Ewing, of the Maryland Flying Camp, on the 9th of 
December, to the Maryland Council of Safety with 
the news of the disasters that had overtaken the 
army, and immediately the militia of Cecil, Balti- 
more, Harford, and Frederick Counties were put in 
motion for the seat of war. 

On the 1st of December (1776), the term of en- 
listment of Gen. Beall's Maryland Brigade of the 
Flying Camp expired, and, owing to the unpopularity 
of their commander, Washington was compelled to 
discharge the greater portion in the face of the enemy. 
Some few remained as volunteers, and many re-enlisted 
after their return to the State. Maj. Gist's regiment, 
however, the seven independent companies, and the 
two artillery companies, with the Maryland part of the 
rifle and German regiments, — four companies in each, 
— making a total of 2280 men, all re-enlisted for three 
years on the Continental plan. On the 19th of Janu- 
ary, 1777, Washington made another appeal for rein- 
forcement, and on the 25th the militia of Frederick and 
other counties, under the command of Thomas Johnson, 
were ordered to join Gen. Washington at once in the 
Jerseys. The Legislature also immediately took steps 
to raise recruits, and barracks were ordered to be 
erected in Frederick and at other points for their ac- 
commodation while preparing for the army. In con- 
sequence of an apprehended attack, all the powder 
and military stores were removed in February from 
Annapolis to Frederick, and the prisoners confined at 
Baltimore were sent to the same point, and placed in 
charge of Lieut. William Beatty.' 

As the spring of 1777 opened the urgent necessity 
of reinforcing the army became apparent, and in ac- 
cordance with Washington's request Maryland raised 
five full regiments of infiintry, in addition to the two she 
already had in the field. These seven regiments, with 
the German battalion, part of which had been raised 
in Frederick County, were divided into two brigades; 
one, composed of three regiments and the German 
battalion, was placed under the command of Chevalier 
Deborre, and the other, formed of the four remaining 
regiments, was assigned to Gen. Smailwood.' 

These troops all participated in the campaign of 
1777, and well sustained the reputation of the Mary- 
land line. 

Early in the following year, 1778, in accordance with 
the earnest request of Congress, the Legislature pa.ssed 
an act to 2902 men, including the two artillery 
companies already in camp and the volunteers already 
on hand within the State. To insure their speedy 
enlistment, the Legislature apportioned to each county 
the number of men required according to the number 
of militia in each. The proportion assigned to Fred- 
erick was 309, to Washington 120, and to Montgomery 

About this period hostilities broke out along the 
Western frontier with the Indians, Tories, refugees, 
and other border desperadoes. To suppress the out- 
rages committed by them, Washington fitted out three 
expeditions, — the first from Fort Schuyler, under 
Col. Van Schaick, the second under Gen. Sullivan, 
and the third under Col. Brodhead, from Pittsburgh, 
up the Allegany, — against the Mingo, Muncey, and 
Seneca tribes. The force under Brodhead consisted 
of the militia of Washington and Montgomery Coun- 
ties, in Maryland, under the command of Col. Beatty, 
and the militia of Virginia and Pennsylvania. To 
supply this force with provisions Maryland pressed 
into service fifty wagons, and on the 5th of August 

' In August, Lieut. Beatty was promoted to a captaincy in 
the First Maryland Regiment, and joined the army under 

Washington. He was succeeded by Col. Rawlings, and in 
August the prisoners were removed to Sharpsburg and placed 
in charge of Lieut. Charles Hughes. 

2 Late in December, 1T77, the commander of Frederick, CoL 
Beatty, received one hundred prisoners, whom he was com- 
pelled to confine in jail until Fort Frederick was filled up for 
their reception. Late in the afternoon of Christmas-day they 
set fire to the jail, and upon the alarm being given the colonel 
ordered every man to arm himself as quick as possible, and 
upon reaching the jail-yard the gate was opened by the jailer, 
and about one-third of the prisoners attempted to make their es- 
cape, which compelled the small party of militia to charge them 
and knock them down with their arms, which had the effect of 
driving them back. They were finally removed lo the Tory 
House and the fire put out, with little damage. A few days 
after this they threatened to break out, but were lold that they 
would be sacrificed, which put an end to the disturbance. 



(1778) loaded them with stores, etc., in Washington 
County, and sent them to Carlisle, Pa.' 

Early in December, 1778, Washington distributed 
his troops in winter-quarters in a line of cantonments 
from Long Island Sound to the Delaware. The Mary- 
landers, under Lord Stirling, were near Middlebrook, 
in the Jerseys, and Frederick and Hagerstown were 
occupied by Baylor's regiment of cavalry. In May, 
177y, Col. Moses Rawlings was ordered to march to 
Fort Pitt,*and in consequence of the refusal of Gen. 
Washington to place the German regiment under his 
command he resigned, and Capt. Beale was placed in 
command at Frederick. The German battalion and 
Rawlings' rifle regiment during the same year were 
merged into one regiment, known as the Eighth 
Maryland. The Frederick troops were actively en- 
gaged in the campaign of 1779, and were transferred 
with the rest of the Maryland line in 1780 to the 
South, where they once more illustrated the quality 
of Maryland courage.' 

After the defeat of Gen. Gates and the advance of 
Lord Cornwallis into the interior of North Carolina, 
on the 16lh of October, 1780, Gen. Leslie sailed 
from New York with about three thousand troops, 
with orders to penetrate into Virginia and await the 
orders of Lord Cornwallis. Leslie entered the Ches- 
apeake, and took possession of Norfolk and Ports- 
mouth. His expedition formed part of a design to 
invade the Western frontier and to release a large 

J After the Maryland militia returned from New Jersey, a 
draft was ordered of one company from each regiment in the 
State. The regiment commanded by Col. James Johnson, in the 
up[ier part of the county, was mustered on the appointed day, 
when a sufficient number of men turned out, and double the 
required number of officers, among whom were two captains 
named Smith and Creager. The question now arose who should 
tiike command of the company, and it was agreed to be decided 
by throwing up a dollar. Accordingly it was done, and Creager 
was the fortunate winner. With a magnanimity worthy of im- 
itation he addressed himself to Smith: *' Sir, I have won the 
command, but, as you are the oldest and most experienced offi- 
cer, you must take the command, and I will act as your lieu- 
tenant." The arrangement was reluctantly agreed to, and the 
company so otJicered marched to headquarters. 

2 In March, 1778, Gen. Greene accepted the appointment of 
quartermaster-general of the army, and soon after established 
his department in Maryland for the collection of military sup- 
plies fur the army. On the 10th of September, 1779, he ap- 
pointed Thomas Richardson assistant commissary of purchases 
for Montgomery, Prince George's, Charles, and St. Mary's; 
George Murdock for Frederick ; and Moses Rawlings for Wash- 
ington County. On September 13th, Gen. Greene appointed 
Charles Beatty deputy quartermaster-general for Frederick 
County ; on the following day, Richard Butler and Nicholas 
Tice deputy quartermasters for Frederick j on the 17th, John 
Greer assistant deputy quartermaster-general for the lower part 
of Frederick and the upper part of Baltimore Counties, and 
Henry Shryock the same for Washington County. 

number of British prisoners who were confined at 
this time in Winchester, Strasburg, Leesburg, Sharps- 
burg, Fort Frederick, and Frederick. Gen. Johns- 
ton, with a large force of the enemy, was to operate in 
the neighborhood of Pittsburgh, while Col. Connolly, 
who had been exchanged for Lieut.-Col. Nathaniel 
Ramsey, with the aid of Gen. Leslie and the Tories 
and refugees on the frontiers and the Eastern Shore, 
was to co-operate with him. And to procure the aid 
and assistance of the loyalists in the campaign of 
1781, in pursuance of instructions from the king, Sir 
Henry Clinton in February issued a commission to 
William Franklin, Governor of New Jersey, Josiah 
Martin, Governor of North Carolina, Timothy Rug- 
gles, Daniel Coxe, George Duncan Ludlow, Edward 
Lutwyche, George Romer, George Leonard, Anthony 
Stewart, and Robert Alexander, constituting them a 
board of directors for the control and management of 
tlie '■ Associated Loyalists of America." The board 
of directors of this association were authorized to 
employ " such of his majesty's faithful subjects in 
North America as may be willing to associate under 
their direction, for the purpose of annoying the sea- 
coasts of the revolted provinces and distressing their 
trade, either in co-operation with his miijesty's land 
and sea forces, or by making diversions in their favor 
when they are carrying on operations in other parts." 

Large numbers of the Tories were enrolled on the 
frontier, on the Eastern Shore, and in the neighbor- 
ing States to execute the royal commission of robbing 
and murdering the inhabitants, when the conspiracy 
was providentially discovered at Frederick. It is 
stated that a disguised British officer was to meet a 
messenger of the enemy at a designated place, to put 
him in possession of all the plans relating to the con- 
spiracy. The watchfulness of the Americans deterred 
the officer from fulfilling his 
appointment, and the papers 
fell into the hands of a patri- 
otic officer, " who, by a sin- 
gular coincidence, was at that 
moment standing where the 
Tory messenger expected his 
correspondent." The plot and 
the names of the prominent 
conspirators were at once dis- 
closed, and secret and efficient 
measures were instantly taken ^lkxander coxTiiF. hassox 
to put them under arrest. 

Numbers were accordingly arrested and imprisoned, 
and on the 25th of July, Peter Sueman, Nicholas 
Andrews, John George Graves, Yost Flecker, Adam 
Graves, Henry Shett, and Casper Fritchie were 



brought to trial before a special court at Frederick- 
town, consisting; of Alexander Contee Hanson, after- 
wards Chancellor of the State, Col. James Johnson, 
and Upton Sheredine. After an impartial trial they 
were found guilty of high treason, in " enlisting men 
for the service of the king of Great Britain and ad- 
ministering an oath to thein to bear true allegiance to 
the said king, and to obey his officers when called on.'' 
The following sentence was delivered by Judge 
Hanson : 

" Peter Sueman, Nicholas Andrews, John George Graves, 
Yost Flecker, Adam Graves, Henry Shett, Casper Fritchie, at- 
tend. It has been suggested to the court that notwithstanding 
your guilt has been ascertained by an impartial jury, you con- 
sider the proceedings against you notliing more than solemn 
mocltery, and have adopted a vain idea, propagated by the 
enemies of this country, that she dare not punish her un- 
natural subjects for engaging in the service of Great Britain. 
From the strange nsensibilily you have heretofore discovered, 
I was iudeed led to conclude that you were under a delusion, 
which might prove fatal to your prospects of happiness here- 
after. I think it is my duty, therefore, to explain to you your 
real situation. The crime you have been convicted of, upon 
the fullest and clearest testimony, is of such a nature that you 
cannot, ought not, to look for a pardon. Had it pleased 
heaven to permit the full e.'cecution of your unnatural designs, 
the miseries to be experienced by your devoted country would 
have beeu dreadful even in the contemplation. The ends of pub- 
lic justice, the dictates of policy, and the feelings of humanity 
all require that you should exhibit an awful example to your 
fellow-subjects, and the dignity of the State, with everything 
that can interest the heart of man, calls aloud for your punish- 
ment. If the consideration of approaching fate can inspire 
proper sentiments, you will pour forth your thanks to that 
watchful Providence which has arrested you at an early state 
of guilt. And you will employ the short time you have to 
live in endeavoring, by a sincere penitence, to obtain pardon 
from the Almighty Being, who is to sit in judgment upon you, 
upon me, and all mankind. 

■* I must now perform the terrible task of denouncing the 
terrible punishment ordained for high treason. 

''You, Peter Sueman, Nicholas Andrews, Yost Plecker, Adam 
Graves, Henry Shett, .lohn George Graves, and Casper Fritchie, 
and each of you, attend to your sentence. You shall be carried 
to the gaol of Fredericktown, and be hanged therein ; you shall 
be cut down to the earth alive, and your entrails shall be taken 
out and burnt while you are yet alive, your heads shall be cut off, 
your body shall be divided into four parts, and your heads and 
quarters shall be placed where his e-xcellency the Governor 
shall appoint. So Lord have mercy upon your poor souls." 

Three of the number were executed in the court- 
house yard at Frederick, the remainder having been 

^ At various times judgment of outlawry for treason was 
i rendered in the General Court at Annapolis against about one 
I hundred leading Tories, among whom were Daniel Dulany, of 
Daniel, Daniel Dulany, of Walter, Lloyd Dulany, Jonathan 
Boucher, Henry Addison, William Edmiston, John Montgom- 
ery, Bennett Allen, Anthony Stewart, Walter Dulany, Philip 
Key, of Frederick County, and William Dickson, of Mont- 
gomery County. 

The Southern campaign of 1781 under Gen. 
Greene turned the tide of war in favor of the Amer- 
ican cause. The brunt of this campaign was borne 
by the Maryland line, and although it does not come 
within the scope of the present work to follow in de- 
tail the operations which resulted in the virtual recov- 
ery of the South from the British armies, it can be 
said without exaggeration that no troops contributed 
so largely to the accomplishment of these important 
ends as tliose from Maryland. The Maryland line 
was the " Stonewall" legion of every contest, and 
came out of every conflict with fresh honors and dis- 
tinction. In the battle of Eutaw Springs, which was 
one of the most desperate battles of the war, they 
displayed a gallantry that drew from Gen. Greene the 
highest expressions of admiration, and to their charge 
" exceeding anything he ever saw," he a.scribed the 
success which attended the Americans in the earlier 
part of the day. The following letter from a gallant 
soldier who took part in that engagement will be found 
interesting in this connection : 

" High Hills, Santee, Sept. 25, 1781. 
"Dear Brother, — I expect before this reaches you you 
will hear of the severe action happened on the 8th instant 
with a body of British troops at the Eutaw Springs, com- 
manded by Col. Stewart I also expect you will have the par- 
ticulars of the action before this reaches you, so shall say noth- 
ing concerning it, only inform you of the loss of officers killed and 
wounded in our Line. I have the misfortune myself to be one 
of the latter. We had 4 killed, which are as follows: Capts. 
Dobson and Edgerly, of the 2d Regiment, Lieuts. Duvall and 
Gould, of the 1st Regiment. Wounded: Lt.-Col. Howard, Lt. 
Ewing, Lt. AVoolford, Lt. Moore, and myself, of the 2d Re^i- 
ment,*of the 1st, Capts. Gibson and Hugon. My wound is in 
the left leg and has much shattered the big bone. Its between 
the calf and ankle. I have had no fevers these several days. 
The Doctor has taken, I believe, at least forty pieces of bone 
out of it, though the most of them were very small. The 
wound has a very good appearance, and I have not the least 
doubt but that I shall be able to go upon crutches in the course 
of two months. Col. Howard's wound is through one of his 
shoulders, and is mending fast; Capt. Gibson's through the 
right arm, and like to do well ; Capt. Hugon's in the right 
groin, and like to do well ; Lt. Ewing has two of his ribs broke, 
was shot through the left thigh, and, I believe, will do well • 
Lt. Moore has the end of his right thumb shot off, and is doing 
well. We were brought here upon litters from near the field of 
action, which is 50 or 60 miles from this place, and are to move 
again to-morrow to the Warsaw Settlement, about 70 miles 
from this place, — a very healthy country, where I expect we 
shall Btay till we get well. If you can possibly send me some 
hard cash do it, for I am in great want of it. I have had no 
money since last fall. I shall want as much as will purchase 
mc a horse. If I could ride I have no horse ; and I have no 
hat, and had none to wear all the summer but an old borrowed 
one. If you can procure me one, do send it by the first safe 
hand, and two or three pairs of stockings. You will please ex- 
cuse the incorrectness of this letter, for I can write no other 
w.ay than as I lie upon my side. I can't sit up with any ease. 
Y'ou'U make my love to my Mother and Sisters, and George, 



to Col. Brooke and Little Nancy, and to all the neighbours. 
Tell them I expect to be with them in the course of this winter. 

"¥■■ Affect" Brother, J.Lynn. 

" P. S. — Tell my Mother not to make herself uneasy upon 
my account. For I would not regret the other leg being broke 
to give the enemy such another drubbing. 

" To Capt. David Lynn, Montgomery County, Maryland. 
•' By Capt. Bruff." 

In compliance with the request of Congress, Wash- 
ington, on the 20th of February, 1781, directed La- 
fayette to march southward for the purpose of cap- 
turing Arnold and checking the enemy's operations 
in Virginia, and he accordingly set out on his march 
two days later. To expedite his progress, Thomas 
Beatty, of Frederick, George Murdook and Thomas 
Beall, of Montgomery, and the lieutenants of other 
counties were instructed to seize all the salt and fresh 
meats in their districts, and impress all the wagons, 
carriages, teams, drivers, etc., and send them to the 
head of the Elk for the purpose of transporting the 
troops, cannon, stores, and baggage to Virginia.^ 

This assistance was promptly rendered, but after a 
short campaign in Virginia Lafayette was obliged to 
abandon Richmond and retreat towards Fredericks- 
burg before the superior forces of Lord Cornwallis. 
Continuing his retreat, he crossed the Rapidan, where 
he was joined on the 7th of June by Gen. Wayne, 
who had passed through Frederick on the 31st of 
May with about one thousand troops to join him. 
The retreat of Lafayette towards Maryland excited 
apprehensions of invasion, and on the 4th of June 
the lieutenant of Frederick County was ordered 
immediately to arm and equip five hundred militia, 
the lieutenant of Montgomery two hundred and 
fifty, and of Prince George's two hundred and 
fifty, and march with them to Georgetown. The 
troops of horse in Frederick, Baltimore, and Kent 
Counties received similar orders, and such was the 
alacrity of the people that two new regiments were 
formed in a few day.?, the third under Lieut.-Col. 
Peter Adams, and the fourth under Lieut.-Col. 
Thomas Woolford. The Frederick troop of horse 
was commanded by John Ross Key, who, on the 10th 
of June, 1781, transmitted the following letter to 
the Governor : 

"SiR^ — I have the Honor and S.atisfaetion to inform Your 
Excellency that the Frederick Co. Troop of Horse under my 
Command are now on their Rout to George Town, where I ex- 
pect to arrive this evening. We are tolerably well mounted 
and Equipped, and with pleasure Assure you I find a Desire 

1 On the 29th of June, 1777, the General Assembly appointed 
Charles Beatty lieutenant of Frederick, Daniel Hughes lieu- 
tenant of Washington, and Charles Greenbury Griffith lieuten- 
ant of Montgomery. 

and Anxiety prevails among the men that compose the Troop 
to render every Service in their Power to their Country, and 
wish to join the acting Army should your Excellency think it 

" I am with every Sentiment of Respect and Esteem your 
Excellency's Most Ob« S« 

" Jn" Ross Key. 

"Road to George Town, 10' June, 1781." 

In company with the " Baltimore Light Dragoons," 
under Capt. Nicholas Ruxton Moore, the " Frederick 
Light Dragoons" crossed the Potomac on the 18th of 
June, and joined Lafayette on the 6th of July. 

About the time Lafayette was encamped near the 
Rapidan, intelligence was received that Tarleton was 
on his way to Winchester to liberate the British pris- 
oners who, to the number of several hundred, were 
then confined in the place. By order of Lafayette 
they were removed without delay to Fort Frederick, 
in Maryland, and placed in charge of Col. Moses 
Rawlings, deputy commissary-general of prisoners.^ 

On the 30th of August, when Washington was on 
his southward march towards Yorktown, the Gov- 
ernor called upon the commissaries of the several 
counties, directing them to purchase supplies, and to 
procure from each county a certain number of cattle, 
the quota of Frederick being 400, of Montgomery 
300, and of Washington 300. At the same time war- 
rants were issued to Thomas Beall, at Georgetown, 
and other quartermasters throughout the State, di- 
recting them to impress all vessels capable of trans- 
porting troops or military stores ; and James Calhoun 
was ordered to impress all the wagons and teams in 
Frederick and Washington Counties to haul flour and 

* " A meeting was called in Frederick County, at the court- 
house in Frederick Town, on Friday, the 17th of August, 1781, 
in consequence of public notice for that purpose (Col. Thomas 
Price in the chair). The resolutions entered into by the meet- 
ing on the 7th, respecting the new paper money, were read and 
approved. It being represented from the chair that Messrs. 
James Smith, John Neil, and Adam Jacobs were refusing the 
same paper money, they were sent for, and appeared, and on ex- 
amination acknowledged they had for some days stopped re- 
ceiving it, from a persuasion that it did not circulate freely in 
Baltimore Town, but declared they were not aware that such 
conduct would be considered a breach of the resolutions of the 
first meeting, whereupon they were dismissed upon promising 
respectively to comport themselves in future as good citizens, 
and to receive the paper money aforesaid at par with silver and 
gold in all future transactions until, by some future meeting of 
the people, agreeable to the said resolutions of the 7th instant, 
they shall be authorized to discontinue so doing. 

•'On motion, Resolved unanimously, that we will exert our 
utmost endeavors in supporting the credit and circulation of 
the said new paper money at par, and we will punish by Tar- 
ring and Feathering, and expulsion from the county, any per- 
son who shall hereafter be so hardy as to act contrary to the 
tenor of the aforesaid mentioned resolutions of the 7th instant, 
and that these proceedings be published in the newspapers." 



military supplies to Georgetown. At this time all 
was activity in Maryland. The arrival of Washing- 
ton, and the prospect of capturinn; Cornwallis, re- 
awakened the spirit of the people, and measures of co- 
operation were effectually and promptly carried out. 
The third regiment of Continentals was speedily com- 
pleted and dispatched to the scene of action, while the 
fourth regiment, under Maj. Alexander Roxburgh, 
mustering upwards of six hundred men, rank and 
file, and " said to contain the best men who had 
enlisted from this State since the war," marched from 
Annapolis on the 4th of September to join Lafayette. 
, After the surrender of Cornwallis the Maryland 
Continentals were sent to the support of Gen. Greene 
in the South, and the British prisoners were marched 
to Fort .Frederick, Md , and Winchester, Va. Those 
confined at the former point were subsequently re- 
moved to Lancaster, Pa. The triumph at Yorktown 
virtually ended the war and freed the people of Mary- 
land from further serious apprehension. No section 
of the State contributed more generously to the com- 
mon defense than Western Maryland, and none were 
represented in the armies by braver or better soldiers.' 

The declaration of peace was celebrated with 
public demonstrations of joy in Frederick Town and 
in all parts of the western section of the State. 

On the 25th of April (1783) it is related that a 
number of the people living on Israel's Creek 

"met at Kocky Hill Chapel, having previously engaged a 
clergyman, instead of the Hesaian Bond, thinking it their duty 
before they gave loose to the effusions of joy, so natural on being 
relieved from the calamitous circumstances under which they 
had so long labored, to pay the tribute due to the Supreme Dis- 
penser of all good by offering up their most grateful and hearty 
thanks for blessed interference in favor of the American cause, 
and for his having been pleased to conduct us through the war 
in so miraculous a manner, and at the conclusion of the same to 
make us free, sovereign, and independent States. To pray for 
bis Divine blessings, etc., after which there was delivered an 
o.xcellent sermon, much to the purpose. Upon leaving the 
chapel they were all most kindly invited to Col. Wood's, where 
there was a most elegant entertainment prepared. After dinner 
the following toasts were drank : 

' In looking over the old records of the clerk's office of Freder- 
ick County the following criminal proceedings, among others, 
were discovered in the prosecutions of Tories, instituted near the 
close of the Revolutionary war: State against one A. C. pre- 
sented for saying " he wished all persons who went about warn- 
ing people on militia duty might be .all hanged, not by the necks 
but by the heels." Fined £25 specie. State against J. H., 
presented for "damning Gen. Washington and the Congress of 
the United States of America." Fined £15 specie. Slate 
against E. L., presented for "drinking health to King George, 
and damnation to Gen. Washington." Fined £5 specie. The 
minutes of the court show numerous orders passed by the court 
appropriating money for the support of the wives and the 
children of the soldiers in the Maryland line. 

" 1. The United States of America. 

"2. Gen. Washington and the Northern army. 

" 3. Gen. Greene and the Southern army. 

"4. The King of France. 

" 5. The King of Spain. 

" C. The United Provinces. 

" 7. The Marquis de Lafayette. 

"S. Count de Grasse and his fleet. 

" 9. Count Rochambeau and his army. 

"10. The American ambassadors in Europe. 

"11. The French ambassadors at Congress. 

"12. I'eace, Liberty, and Independence. 

" 13. May the peace now concluded be perpetuated. 

"During the times the toasts were going around there wor« 
fired thirteen platoons, and as many cheers given by nearly 
two b'lndred people, in whose countenance you might see joy 
and gladness. In the evening the colonel's (Wood) house was 
illuminated and bonfires made. The whole was concluded with 
propriety and decorum." 

The Soldier Lands. — To discharge the engage- 
ments of the State towards its officers and soldiers for 
their services during the Revolution, the General 
Assembly, at the November session of 1781, appro- 
priated all the vacant lands westward of Fort Cum- 
berland (within the present limits of Allegany and 
Garrett Counties), reserved or otherwise, except so far 
as they were fairly covered by warrants, etc., to fulfill 
these obligations. By this act it was also provided 
that there should be a land-office for the Western 
Shore at Annapolis, and another on the Eastern Shore, 
where the General Court was held. In April, 1787, 
the Legislature passed a resolution authorizing the 
Governor to employ a competent person to lay out the 
vacant lands belonging to the State westward of Fort 
Cumberland, in lots of fifty acres each. In pursuance 
of this resolution, Francis Deakins was appointed, 
and at the November session of the Legislature of 
1788, having finished a general plat of the lands, he 
reported to the General Assembly, whereupon an act 
was passed " to dispose of the reserved lands west- 
ward of Fort Cumberland." To each of the Mary- 
land officers who had served in the Revolution were 
assigned four lots, and to each private one lot, as 
follows : 


Bank. Names. Numbers. 

Captain George Armstrong 2367, 2368, 2.395, 2396 

Captain Richard Anderson 3249, 3252, .3253, 3221 

Lieutenant.. ..William Adams 2379, 2.380, 2381, 2.382 

Captain James BrulT. 2711, 2712, 2713, 2714 

Colonel Peter Adams, 1st Regt 2312, 2313, 2314, 2317 

Major Archibald Anderson 2391, 2392, 2393, 2394 

Chaplain Armstrong 2589, 2590, 2591, 2592 

Major Benjamin Brooks 2383, 2.384, 2385, 2386 

Captain William Beatty 2421, 2422, 242.3, 2424 

Captain Lloyd Beall 2773, 2774, 2767, 3310 



Bank. Names. 

Captain Jacob Brice 3222, 

Major William Brown 1664, 

Captain Joseph Burgess 2603, 

Major William Dent Beall 2489, 

Captain William Bruce 2387, 

Captain Perry Benson 1635, 

Lieu tenant.... Thomas Boyd 2599, 

Captain Michael Boyer 2268, 

Lieutenant.. ..Henry Baldwin 3200, 

Captain John Sprigg Belt 3258, 

Captain Richard Bird 1454, 


Joshua Burgess 2493, 

Samuel B. Beall 2347, 

Basil Burgess 3237, 

Henry Baker 2777, 

Thomas Beatty 1666, 

Malachi Bonham 2734, 

Jacques Bagues 1660, 

Captain Charles Baltzell 2607, 

Lieutenant.... Joseph Britain 2498, 

Lieutenant. ....John Brevett 3331, 

Lieutenant.... Joseph Cross 1683, 

Captain Horatio Claggett 2954, 

Lieutenant.... Henry Chapman 2258, 

Lieutenant.. ..John Cary 2709, 

Surg.-(3en James Craig 2781, 

Lieutenant — John Chever 2326, 

Lieutenant Jacob Crawford 2355, 

Lieutenant.. .. Edward Compton 3202, 

Lieutenant.. ..Henry Clements 2359, 

Captain .John Carlile 3191, 

Lieutenant.. ..John Carson 2280, 

Ensign Peter Cockey 2272, 

Captain Charles Croxall 2363, 

Major John Davidson 2875, 

Captain Rezin Davis 3345, 

Major Richard Dorsey 3600, 

Lieutenant.. ..Isaac Duvall 2293, 

.Surgeon Levin Den wood 2322, 

Lieutenant.... Robert Denny 2575, 

Captain Henry Dobson 2189, 

Lieutenant.. ..Thomas A. Dyson 2620, 

Lieutenant.. ..Edward Duvsill 2950, 

Lieutenant.. ..Walter Dyer 3203, 

Major John Deane 3234, 

Captain Edward Dyer 3218, 

Lieutenant Richard Donovan 3615, 

Major John Eccleston 3611, 

Captain Edward Edgerly 3607, 

Captain James Ewing 3603, 

Surgeon John L. Elbert 2621, 

Captain Elijah Evans 3063, 

Lieutenant. ...Samuel Edmiston 3055, 

Lieut.-Col Benjamin Ford. 6th Regt..3206, 

Lieut.-Col Uriah Forrest, 1st Regt 2715, 

Lieutenant Samuel Farmer 3266, 

Captain Ebenezer Finley 2214, 

Lieutenant.... Benjamin Feckel 2660, 

Lieutenant.. ..Hezekiah Ford 3274, 

Brig.-Gen MorJecai Gist 2209, 

Captain Edw.ard Gale 2208, 

Colonel John Gunby, 7th Regt 2266, 

Captain v.. Jonathan Gibson 3242, 

Major J. ..Henry Gaither 2136, 

Captain John Gassaway 3338, 















































































































































































, 2669 















, 1679 



, 2139 




Kank. Names. Numbers. 

Captain John Gale 2300, 2301, 2290, 2291 

Lieutenant. ...Henry Gassaway 2876, 2893, 2894, 2895 

Lieutenant.. ..Richard Grace 2470, 2471, 2472, 2473 

Captain James Woolford Gray 2765, 2768, 2775, 2776 

Lieutenant.. ..Benjamin Garnett 2059, 2115, 2117, 2152 

Captain John Gist 2225, 2226, 2227, 2228 

Lieutenant.. ..Jacob Gromith 2736, 2737, 2738, 2739 

Lieutenant. ..James Gould 3137, 2964, 2966, 2968 

Lieutenant.. ..William Goldsborough 3099, 4147, 4148, 1677 

Lieutenant. ...Nicholas Gassaway 3241, 4143, 4144, 1681 

Lieutenant.. ..John H.ardman 3079, 3080, 3081, 3082 

Lieutenant.. ..John Hamilton 3214, 3215, 3216, 3217 

Cajitain George Hamilton 1570, 1571, 1572, 1573 

Lieut.-Col John E. Howard. 5th Regt..3243, 3244, 4149, 4138 

Colonel Josiah C. Hall, 4th Regt. ..3083, 3084, 3085, 30SS 

Lieutenant Philip Hill 4136, 3273, 3272, 3271 

Lieutenant.. ..Robert Hatkerson 2060, 2061, 2066,-2067 

Lieutenant Samuel Hanson 2294, 2295, 2296, 2297 

Lieutenant .\rthur Harris 3305, 3306, 3307, 3313 

Captain John A. Hamilton 2482, 2483, 2484, 2485 

Lieutenant.. ..Rignel Hillery 3193, 4134, 4139, 4132 

Lieutenant.. ..Isaac Hanson •. 2611, 2612, 2613, 2614 

Lieutenant Edward Hamilton 2286, 2287, 2288, 2289 

Captain George Handy 3267, 3268, 3369, 3270 

Lieutenant Henry Hawkins 2318, 2319, 2298, 2299 

Lieutenant William Hanson 2252, 225.3, 2255, 2257 

Surgeon Ezekiel Haynie 2248, 2249, 2254, 2256 

Captain Thomas B. Hugon 2701,2703,2704,2698 

Surgn's Mate.Elisha Harrison 2343, 2344, 2345, 2346 

Major David Hopkins 2351, 2352, 2353, 2354 

Lieutenant John Hartshorn 2468, 2469, 2449, 2450 

Major Henry Hardman 2997, 2998, 2999, 2883 

C;iplain Edward Hall 2302, 2303, 2315, 2316 

Captain Adam Hoops 2478, 2479, 2480, 2481 

Captain John Courts Jones 2702, 2705, 2708, 2699 

Captain John Jordan 3303, 3304, 3314, 2871 

Lieutenant.. ..Adam Jamison 1565, 1670„1672, 1673 

.Surgeon William Kilty 2454, 2455, 2456, 2457 

Captain John Kilty 2140, 2141, 2142, 2128 

Surgn's Mate.Samuel Y. Keene 2118, 2129, 2130, 2131 

Major Thomas Lansdale 3210, 3212, 3231, 3233 

Captain David Lynn 2375, 2376, 2377, 2378 

Major John Lynch 1578, 1579, 1580, 1632 

Captain James M. Lingan 4124,4125,4126,4127 

Lieutenant.. ..John Tolson Lowe 2593, 2594, 2496, 2497 

Lieutenant.. ..John LeNashu 2132, 2133. 2321, 2320 

Lieutenant John Lynn 2474, 2475, 2476, 2477 

Captain Thos. H. Luekett 2428, 2430, 2434, 2435 

Captain AVilliam Lamar 2444, 2443, 2447, 2427 

Captain David Luekett 2671, 2673, 2674, 2675 

Captain Samuel McPherson 1498, 1671, 1676, 1678 

Captain John Mitchell 3194, 3195, 3196, 3197 

Captain John Morris 2062, 2063, 2064, 2065 

Captain Thomas Mason 2058, 2071, 2072,2079 

Captain Nicholas Mangers 2124, 2125, 2126, 2078 

Captain Joseph Marberry 2073, 2074, 2076, 2077 

Lieutenant Mark McPherson 2276, 2277, 2278, 2279 

Captain Christian Myres 2075, 2114, 2116, 2119 

Captain James McFadden 2676, 2677,2680, 2681 

Captain Walker Muse 2461, 2462, 2491, 2480 

Lieutenant John McCoy 2700, 2689, 2688, 2697 

Lieutenant Zedekiah Moore 2690, 2685, 2684, 2682 

Ensign Caleb Mason 2595, 2596, 2597, 2598 

Lieutenant Lawrence Myers 2465, 2466, 2492, 2495 

Lieutenant David Morgan 2304, 2306, 2308,2309 



Kank. Names. Numbers. 

Captain Jacob Norris 2582, 2586, 2587, 2683 

Lieutenant Roger Nelson 2845, 2847, 2849, 2868 

Lieutenant John Nel.son 23.')6, 2337, 2338, 2436 

Captain Edward Oldliam .3302, 3279, .3280, 4119 

Lieutenant.... Thomas Price 2881,2882, 2888,2889 

Captain Edward Prall 1574, 1575, 1576, 1577 

Captain Benjamin Price 2110, 2111, 2143, 2145 

Lieutenant.. ..William Pendergast 2112, 2113, 2135, 2292 

Surgeon Richard Pindell 4120, 4121, 4122, 4123 

Colonel Nath'l Ramsey, 30th Regt.2127, 2144, 2146, 2147 

Captain" Christopher Richmond 2740, 2741, 2742, 2743 

Captain William Riley 1457, 1458, 1459, 1460 

Captain Philip Reed 2096, 2097, 2098, 2099 

Major Alexander Roxburgh 3230, 3232, 3226, 3227 

Lieutenant.. ..Isaac Rawlings 3184, 3185, 3186, 3187 

Major John Rudolph 3225, .3245, 3247, 3250 

Lieutenant,.. ..Joshua Rutledge 2691, 2692, 2693, 2694 

Lieutenant.. ..Jacob Raybolt 2846, 2848, 2850, 2896 

Captain Francis Revely 2728, 2729, 2730, 2731 

Lieutenant.. ..Nicholas Ricketts 2870, 2873, 2873, 2874 

Lieutenant.. ..Thomas Rouse 2401, 2402, 2403, 2404 

Lieutenant.. ..William Raison 2405, 2406, 2407, 2408 

Captain Michael Rudolph 2764, 2766, 2726. 2727 

Maj.-Gen'l....William Smallwood 2409, 2410, 2411, 2412 

Colonel John H. Stone, 1st Regt... 2399, 2400, 2334, 2335 

Major Alex. L. Smith 2721, 2722, 2724, 2725 

Major Jonathan Sellraan 3894, 3895, 3893, 2525 

Captain Edward Spurrier 2987, 2988, 2989, 2990 

Captain John Smith, 3d Regt 2958, 2959, 2961, 2963 

Captain James Somerville 2962, 2960, 2949, 2945 

Captain Clement Skerrilt 2723, 2732, 2733, 2735 

Lieut.-Col John Stewart 2756, 2757, 2753, 2759 

Lieutenant.. ..John Sears 2748, 2749, 2750, 2751 

Major John Swan 2706, 2707, 2695, 2696 

Lieutenant.. ..William Smoot 3315, 3316, 2869, 2867 

Surgn's Mate.Alex. Smith 2975, 2976, 2977, 2978 

Lieutenant.. ..Martin Shugart 2983, 2984, 2985, 2986 

Captain John Smith, 6th Regt 2969, 2071, 2973, 2974 

Lieutenant.. ..Edward M. Smith 2441, 2442, 2460, 2463 

Captain James Smith, Artillery 2970, 2972, 3138, 3139 

Lieutenant.. ..William T. Stoddart 2413, 2414, 2415, 2416 

Captain Joseph Smith 4131, 4133, 4135, 4137 

Ensign Jacob Shoemaker 3188, 3189, 3190, 3192 

Major Alexander Trueman 2617, 3263, 3264, 3619 

Lieut.-Col Edward Tillard 1566, 1567, 1568, 1569 

Captain Adomson Tannehill 2371, 2372, 2373, 2374 

Lieutenant.. ..Josiah Tannehill 2887, 2890, 2891, 2892 

Lieutenant.. ..John Trueman 3180, 3181, 3182, 3183 

Captain Lilburn AVilliams 2615, 2616, 2618, 2619 

Brig.-Gen'I ...Otho Holland Williams 2687, 2686, 2678, 2679 

Colonel Thomas Woolford 1656, 1657, 1658, 1659 

Captain William Wilmot 2752, 2753, 2754, 2755 

Lieutenant.. ..William Woolford 2979, 2980, 2981, 2982 

Captain Richard Waters 2946, 2947, 2944, 2879 

Lieut.-Col Levin Winder 2884, 2885, 2886, 2996 

Captain James Winchester 2760, 2761, 2762, 2763 

Lieutenant.. ..Robert Wilmot 2744, 2745, 2746, 2747 

Surgn's Mate.Gerrard Wood 2148, 2149, 2150, 2151 

Lieutenant.. ..Francis Ware 2952, 2953, 2965, 2967 

Surgn's Mate.William Wate 2339, 2340, 2341, 2342 

Lieutenant.. ..Gassaway Watkins 2244, 2245, 2246, 2247 

Surgeon Walter Warfield 2837, 2842, 2843, 2844 

Lieutenant.. ..Nathan Wright 2092, 2093, 2094, 2095 

Lieut.-Col Lud'ck Weltner, Ger. Rgt.3254, 3255, 3256,3257 

Lieutenant.. ..George Winchester 2451, 2452, 2453, 2448 

Rank. Names. Numbers. 

Lieutenant.. ..Young Wilkinson 2305, 2307, 2310, 2311 

Captain Nathan Williams 2330, 2331, 2332, 2333 

Lieutenant.. ..Basil Waring 2445, 2446, 2464, 2467 

Lieutenant.. ..William Towson 2431, 2432, 2433, 2429 

Captain Peregrine Fitzhugh 3335, 3336, 3332, 3339 

Lieutenant.. ..William Fitzhugh 2940, 2941, 2942, 2943 

Lieutenant... .William Murdoch 2417, 2418, 2419, 2420 


Names. Rank. 

Adam Adams Private. 

Ignatius Adams '* 

John Alvey " 

John Appleby " 

Daniel Anderson " 

James Allen '' 

Thomas Ayres " 

Emanuel Allen " 

John Andrews " 

William Ayhern " 

John Armstrong (1) " 

John Ashmore " 

George Abbot " 

Cuthbert Able Sergeant. 

John Adams Corporal. 

Thomas Arthur Private. 

John Auber " 

-John Ashbury " 

John Armstrong (2) " 

Harris Austin " 

Josias Alvey " 

.Jacob Adams " 

John Adams (2) " 

John Anderson (1) *' 

Peregrine Asque M. 

William Allen " 

Thomas Adams Private. 

James Ashley " 

William Absolum " 

Travers Alvey " 

I Nathan Aldridge " 

John Anderson 

Henry Austin " 

Thomas Aspin " 

Frederick Ayres " 

Thomas Allison " 

Michael Anderson " 

Barnet Alley " 

James Arrants '* 

James Addy, or Eddy " 

Thomas G. Alvey " 

Daniel Basil Fifer. 

John Baker Private. 

George Bateman " 

John Brookbank " 

Levy Burk " 

Thomas Buckley Sergeant. 

William Brookes Private. 

Barruch Butt 

Thomas Butt " 

Edward Butt " 

Frederick Bennett Fifer. 

Solomon Brittenham Private. 

Levy Button 

Levin Bramble 

Regiment. Nunil.c 
















1 1 i;o 









































Recruit 81. 

Lee's Legion. 




Names. Rank. 

John Blades Private. 

Thomas Brown Corporal. 

John Brown (I) Private. 

Richard Butler " 

John Barrett " 

Basil Brown " 

George Brown " 

Zachariah Burch " 

Leonard Bean Corporal. 

Gabriel Brand Private. 

John Bean " 

Thomiis Bird " 

Benjamin Boyd " 

John Blair (2) " 

Peter Bochard '• 

Thomas Bailey " 

John Buckley " 

Joshua Barret Sergeant. 

George Bradley Corporal. 

Peter Bowler Private. 

Joshua Batchley ** 

Robert Bowen Fifcr. 

Philip Bailey Private. 

John Beach Drummer. 

John Buchanan " 

Daniel Buckley Private. 

James Biass " 

John Barnelt " 

Perry Burtham " 

John Brent Fifer. 

George Blackham Private. 

James Barron " 

James Bailey ** 

Abram Bowen " 

John Bantham , ** 

Solomon Barrett " 

James Burk (1) " 

John Brown (2) Sergeant. 

Henry Billop Private. 

Thomas Bear " 

George Bumgardner " 

Benjamin Burch (2) Corporal. 

Thomas Brady Private. 

Joseph Blaize " 

Joseph Botts ** 

Moses Barney " 

Richard Boone " 

Joshua Brown " 

Josiah Burgess " 

Humphrey Beckett Sergeant, 

Laurence Brannan " 

George Brown Private. 

George Buck " 

Abijah Buxton " 

Jesse Barnett Fifer. 

Thomas Bowser Private. 

James Baber '* 

Daniel Bulger " 

Jesse Boswell Corporal. 

Joseph Barton Private. 

Martin Bowles " 

John Brewer *' 

John Branson.. " 

Jeremiah Brown " 

Richard Biddle " 


















James Bigwood 


Thomas Baker 

James Balip 

J. Berriman, or Banneman.. 

James Brannan 

John Brian 

John Biggs 

Jacob Blake 

John Brown (3) 

Benjamin Burch 

George Bough 

Samuel Boswell 

William Batten 

Zachariah Berry 

James Bryan 

John Bayley (1) 

William Burgess 

George Belfast 

Charles Bucjiliss 

John Brady 

James Barrow 

Thomas Baxter 

James Blewer 

John Butcher 

Nathan Bateman 

John Bennet 

Joseph Burch 

Thomas Bishop 

William Braithwait 

Richard Blansford 

Thomas Brown 

Isaac Burton 

Thomas Brown 

Edward Berry 

Thomas Bowler 

John Brady 

Thomas Barber 

Thomas Barclay, or Bartley. 

William Bruflf. 

David Bramble 

John Burnes 

Benjamin Bough 

John Boudy 

John Boody 

John Britton 

John Briley 

Benjamin Belcher 

Thomas Burch (2) 

Nathaniel Barley 

Andrew Bramble 

John Baxter 

James Bowen 

Joel Baker 

William Brady 

John Blair (1) 

George Bowers 

James Bayley 

James Berry 

Robert Britt 

Luke Burnes 

William Bowles 

Daniel Boyles 

Ezekiel Burnes 

John Burnes 



Corporal. Rawlings'. 
Sergeant. " 

Private. German. 

" Rawlings'. 

Recruit 1781. 









Names. Rank. 

Zachariah Butt Private. 

Charles Byrn " 

James Banny " 

Hugh Burns " 

Thomas Buttery " 

William Bolton " 

James Brown " 

John Benny " 

Alexander Beck " 

Michael Burns " 

Hugh Batton " 

Eobert Body Fifer. 

John Brown Private. 

James Boyle " 

Harvey Burnes " 

John Batton " 

William Brown " 

[ Nehemiah Barns " 

\ Kichard Basset " 

i George Bowe " 

John Bennet ** 

James Brown " 

i: Thomas Broome " 

I William Bright 

I Robert Burnet " 

William Clary ._. " 

DavidCaile " 

I John Carroll (1) " 

I JamesCollard Fifer. 

' Wm. Clements (2) Private. 

' Michael Cole ** 

I Thomas Campher " 

Patrick Cavenaugh " 

1 William Cato " 

I Hugh Cain " 

j David Conner (1) " 

j Morris Citizen " 

! William Ohatland " 

j William Cutler " 

I John Camphen ** 

I Hampton Coursey *' 

j William Conner (!) " 

j George Childs Corporal. 

1 Daniel Claney Private, 

j John Craig " 

Barton Cecil " 

Charles Clements " 

Luke Carter " 

IJohn Clnggett " 

i Thomas Clark (I) " 

I Heze. Carr Drummer. 

John Courts Private. 

I Michael Clark " 

(John Colin Sergeant. 

I Thomas B. Clements Private. 

I William Cartro (2) " 

! Emanuel Carthagone " 

Abram Catchsides " 

JThomas Clinton Fifer. 

(Michael Callahan Private. 

lAseph Colegate " 

(Andrew Crummy " 

John Carr " 

Robert Cornick " 

John Carroll (2) " 

Regiment. Number. 

2 1934 

2 190.S 

3 1181 
3 1154 
3 1536 

3 1172 
5 1742 
5 4096 
5 8S7 

5 1537 

6 1981 
6 3008 
6 3064 
6 1918 

Hazen's. 1115 

" 29 

" 4103 


Lee's Legion. 1763 

" 1267 

" 434 

" 1207 


4 953 
German. 1740 

1 4153 

1 2397 

1 2504 

1 4044 

1 1182 

1 1178 

2 ' 493 
State. 1266 

2 1675 

2 1063 

2 1092 

2 1095 

2 1922 

2 1910 

2 2369 

2 821 

2 193 

3 79 
3 1832 
3 3094 
3 90 
3 4165 
3 4152 
3 3161 
3 123 
3 472 

3 1604 

4 1931 
4 4157 

Recruited 81. 1911 

4 1135 

4 1020 

4 4022 

4 1108 

4 158 

4 1919 

2 1132 

3 911 

5 191 
5 459 


Charles Crouch 

Augustine Cann 

Thomas Carney 

Michael Claney 

Thomas Cahoe, Sr 

Thomas Cahoe, Jr 

Benjamin Cleaver 

Christopher Cusick 

Robert Callahan, or Clem- 


William Cook 

William Craile 

Darby Crowley 

John Cheshire 

William Casey 

Adam Crow 

William Cummins 

Aquilla Chitham 

Owen Carey 

f Ignatius Compton 

James Curren 

Stephen Carr 

Edward Claney 

John Cochran 

William Collis 

Jonathan Chubb 

William Chapman 

Henry Crook 

William Cox 

Henry Craine 

George Clarke 

Thomas Cooper 

Bennet II. Clements 

James Casey 

Lewis Cunningham 

Calothile Carmile 

David Crady 

Michael Casner 

Samuel Callahan 

John Cooper (1) 

George Craigs 

Dominick Coins 

Benjamin Cole 

John Connelly (1) 

Isham Coleman 

William Carter (1) 

James Crozier 

Peter Carberry 

Samuel Chappie 

Michael Curtis 

William Clements (1) 

Kindall Cobb 

Thomas Cannady 

Valentine Clapper 

Charles Cooper 

John Carson 

Elijah Cockendall 

John Crosby (1) 

Dennis Cragan 

Joseph Cooley 

Thomas Craig 

Edward Cosgrove 

John Clancey (2) 

James Crawford 

William Civill 













Recruited 81. 

































































Recruited 81. 












Recruited 81. 























Names. Rank. 

Timothy Cahill Private. 

Jacob Carnant 

John Carter 

Owen Cofl5eld 

George Collins 

Bryan Carroll 

Michael Coyle 

Edward Cain 

Joseph Crouch 

Thomas Cardiff. 

John Cole 

Jacob Collins 

James Chambers 

John Collins 

Thomas Clarke 

Thomas Condron Corporal. 

Arthur Cams 

Hugh Chaplin M. 

Timothy Connelly Sergeant. 

AVilliam Cornwall '' 

Samuel Carter *' 

John Clark Gunner. 

Michael Conner M. 

John Compton " 

Robert Campbell *' 

James Clarke " 

John Curl Private. 

John Cleverdence " 

Arthur Coffin " 

Joshua Cox '.. " 

Edward Chambers " 

James Chard " 

James Cochran " 

John Cannon " 

Thomas Compton " 

James Collins Sergeant. 

William Cork Private. 

George Carney " 

Robert Carnes " 

Matthias Cyphart " 

James Clements " 

William Coe " 

James Crasbury " 

William Cann " 

Zachariah Clark Fifer. 

Samuel Clark Private. 

Robert Campbell " 

John Campbell (2) " 

John Connelly (2) " 

William Coursey " 

Patrick Conner " 

Peter Casey " 

Michael Carr's Adm'r 

Benjamin Cams " 

JohnCurritt " 

Thomas Chapman " 

Samuel Chinn " 

Robert Cooley " 

John Cole " 

John Cornish " 

Joseph Cullamine '* 

Rennet Cbeser " 

Barney Cassaday *' 

John Cox " 

Justinian Carter *' 

Kegiment. Number. 





















Recruited 81. 




Recruit 81. 






























Recruited 81. 


















Recruit 81. 




















Recruit 81. 






Recruit 81. 





















Names. Bank. 

William Collier Private. 

William Cougleton " 

Simon Cbappoik " 

James Conner " 

John Caves " 

Michael Claney, Sr Sergeant. 

Peter Carwell 

Michael Corr " 

John Crozier " 

Peter Cunningham Private. 

John Clarke " 

Richard Clarke '* 

Nichohis Campbell " 

Hugh Connelly " 

John Craig " 

John Coomy, or Kumy " 

JohnCollins " 

Jessie Crasbie " 

Robert Crouch " 

Wm., or Benj, Chesnut " 

Charles Dawkens Sergeant. 

Dennis Dunning Drummer. 

John Dixoo (1) Private. 

Francis Dunar " 

William Dortch " 

Henry Dixon " 

John Denson " 

George Dixon " 

William Dixon " 

John Dyer " 

Aquilla Deaver ** 

Luke Dempsey " 

Thomas Drudge ** 

John Donovan " 

William Downes " 

Thomas Doyle " 

Peter Degazoon " 

James Daffin Corporal. 

Edmund Dougherty Sergeant. 

Francis Dunnington Private. 

James Doyle " 

John Duhague " 

John Downey " 

Elijah Deane " 

Robert Davis " 

Richard Duvall " 

Patrick Doran Sergeant. 

John Denson Drummer. 

James Devereux Sergeant. 

George Devit Private. 

Robert Dunkin " 

Samuel Davis (1) Sergeant. 

Samuel Denny Private. 

James Dyer (1) '* 

John Delanaway '* 

Matthias Dyche " 

John Deakins " 

Edward Dominick " 

Joseph Donahoe " 

James Davidson " 

William Deaver " 

James Due " 

AVilliam Devine ■ " 

James Dyer (2) " 

John Donaghan " 

Regiment. Number. 

Lee's Legion. 




Names. Rank. 
Wm. Duunington, or Der- 

rington Private. 

Joseph Deford " 

Alexander Downej " 

Richard Dixon ' " , 

Francis Duvist " 

James Dowden " 

Butoc Deveaus " 

John Dent " 

John Dove Sergeant. 

Beryer Dominick Private. 

Juiucs Denison " 

Richard Downs " 

Pearce Dcakon " 

William Day " * 

James Davidson " 

Thomas Dutton " 

Charles Davis " 

William Davis M. 

William Dixon B. 

Peter Davis D. 

John Davis (1) Private. 

William Dawson " 

Barnaby Dorothy " 

Jacob Duders " 

Terrence Duffy " 

John Deane ** 

John Dobson " 

James Drian " 

Thomas Duffy " 

Thomas Davis (1} ** 

Abram Dugan " 

Thomas Dickison " 

Charles Deane " 

Richard Dolvin " 

Richard Dunby *' 

James Dawson " 

Timothy Donovan M. 

Thomas Dutton's Adm'r Private, 

Thomas Daley " 

John Davis /. " 

John Davis, of Bailey's Co. " 

James Douglas, ** " " 

James Divine, " ** '* 

Michael Duffy ** 

John Deford " 

Patrick Durgan '* 

Peter Dunston " 

Thomas Disharoon ** 

George Dice, or Dias " 

Francis Duffy S. 

Jeremiah Driskill Private. 

George Dyer " 

John Davis " 

Piitrick Dennison " 

William Deakins " 

Thomas Deavor *' 

William Duuley 

William Dowdle '^ 

Joseph Deale " 

Michae! Dowlan " 

Henry Evans " 

Edward Ellicott '* 

Peregrine Evans Sergeant. 

Bartholomew Esom Corporal. 

Regiment. Number. 
































Recruit 81. 








Recruit 81. 






Recruit 81 . 




Recruit 81. 




Recruit 81. 












































Recruited 81. 






Recruited 81. 










Lee's Legion. 




N. Gist's. 


Recruited 81. 








Names. Kank. 

Michael Ellis Fifer. 

Thomas Evans (2) Private. 

Thomas Ellicott (2) " 

William Ellis " 

Edward Evans (1) " 

William Evans " 

Thomas Edwards Sergeant. 

Jnrvis Eccleston Private. 

Joseph Ellicott " 

George Elm.'* Fife-Mnj. 

.John Ellicott (1) Private. 

Edward Evans (2) Sergeant. 

William Elkins Private. 

Thomas Ellis (1) " 

Enork Ennis " 

Leonard Ennis ** 

John Ennis " 

John Edwards " 

Peter Equidowney " 

James Evans " 

Thomas Elliott (1) " 

Samuel Evans Corporal. 

Thomas Evans (1) Private. 

Healhcsat Edwards " 

Emanuel Ebbs " 

Euel Evans " 

Thomas Ellison " 

.Tohn Edwards Sergeant 

Richard Ellis' Adm'r 

Frederick Eyen 

John Evans M. 

Benjamin Evans 

John Etheridge 

Richard Ellison Private. 

.James Ervine " 

Nicholas Elliott " 

James Edes " 

Edward Ervine " 

Jacob Flora " 

Francis Fairbrother ** 

John Franeway " 

Stephen Fresh " 

Joseph Fowler " 

William Fisher " 

Jonathan Fowler " 

Geo. Fellason, or Fenlayson. " 

Henry Fisher (2) " 

James Farrel " 

.James Fitzjerald " 

Francis Freeman " 

John Ferguson " 

Edward Furriner " 

James Forster " 

Alexander Francis " 

Richard Freeman " 

Wm. R. Franklin " 

John Farrell " 

Richard Farraby " 

Frederick Flinon " 

Stafford Fosdale " 

Peter Fountain " 

Benjamin Folliott " 

Rigby Foster " 

Wm. Foreman Sergeant. 

Wm. Farrell Drummer. 

Regiment. Numlier. 



















or. 6 
















Recruited 81. 


































Recruited 81. 

























































Names. Rank. 

John Fulham Private. 

Edward Flowers " 

Mark Forster " 

Benjamin Fitzgerald Sergeant. 

Absolom Fardo Private. 

John M. Funner " 

Doras Filmont " 

Nicholas Fitzgerald " 

Moses Forster '* 

Samuel Filson Sergeant. 

Stephen Fluhart 

Dennis Flanagan M. 

Emanuel Farara Private. 

Philip Fisher " 

John Foiling " 

Robert Farrel " 

Jeremiah French " 

Philip Fitzpatrick " 

Charles Fitzgerald " 

AVm. Fitzgerald " 

John Frawney " 

Oeorge Finlay Sergeant. 

Robert Folger Private. 

Peter French Corporal. 

Thomas Foxjill Private. 

Edward Fincham " 

John Fosset " 

Walter Farrel " 

David Foxall " 

Stephen Fennell " 

George Ford " 

John Fulford " 

George Fields Sergeant. 

Robert Firth " 

Thomas Flamming " 

Joseph Fisher " 

John Fennel ** 

Charles Fulham Corporal. 

John Franklin Private. 

Joseph FoHiott " 

Thomas Frumley ^' 

Henry Fisher (1) " 

William Fairburn , " 

Jeremiah Fitzjerald " 

Richard Fenwick " 

Andrew Fernan " 

Thomas Fanning M. 

John Fitzjerald, Jr " 

Benjamin Freshwater 

Robert Ford Sergeant. 

John Fairbank 

William Fountain 

Edward Fennel 

Massey Fliiart 

Samuel Frazier 

James Flood 

William French 

Edmund Flowers 

Robert Freemoutt 

James Flack Sergeant. 

Peter Farrell Corporal. 

Benjamin Gray Sergeant. 

Amos Green Private. 

Abraham Garcena " 

Samuel Green " 























1 anil 7 
















Recruited 81. 




























Recruited 81. 












Recruited 81. 





























Lee's Legion. 


















Nauiea. Rank, 

John Green (1) Private. 

William Griffin Fifer. 

Tliomiis Glover Private. 

Andrew Garnet Fifer. 

William Gould Private. 

Mark Griffin " 

Nathan Griffin " 

Rubin Goostry " 

Henry Green ** 

Thomas Gossage " 

Anthony Geohagan Drummer. 

Jesse Grace " 

John Gibson Private. 

Isaac Green " 

William Glascow .-... " 

Charles Goldsborough " 

John Gordon (1) " 

William Gates Drummer. 

John Goddard Private. 

Hugh Gainer " 

James Garth " 

John Gwynn Sergeant. 

James Gray (1) Private. 

John Gorman (1) " 

Thomas Gillon '' 

Henry Gilby 

Abraham Gamble " 

James Greenwood Drummer. 

Moses Grabame Private. 

Isaac Graves " 

Edward Garrish " 

Paul Grenard " 

Richard Gee " 

Samuel Gerry " 

Joseph Gordon " 

Henry Goldsborough *' 

John Gordon (2) " 

William Glory " 

William Groves " 

John Green (2) " 

Benjamin Gilbert " 

Thomas Gadd " 

Philip Graham ** 

Bennet George ** 

Lambert Goody " 

John Gee " 

Amos Griffith... " 

John Graham Fifer. 

Charles Girdler Private. 

Thomas Gilham " 

Solomon Greene *' 

Charles Goff " 

John Gregory ** 

James Gravey " 

William Grecnage " 

Smart Greer " 

Samuel Gray " 

William George " 

Southey George " 

Joseph Green " 

William Gudgeon " 

John Gather " 

Jacob Games '* 

Benjamin Gater '* 

William Gillespie " 















































































Recruited 81. 

Recruited 81. 

Recruited 81. 



Recruited 81. 

Recruited 81. 



Names. Rank. 

Marshall Galloway Private. 

James Goodwin " 

William Grant " 

Vincent, or "Willson Gray.... '* 

Michael Grosh " 

Robert Gelhampton *' 

Thomas Gray " 

Jacob Gray Sergeant. 

Bicbard Gray Private. 

John Giles " 

Moses Graves " 

Jonathan Gill M. 

Mark Goldsborough 

Charles Groom M, 

Thninas Gleeson " 

"William Grimes " 

Kiiucb Ganet Private. 

H.uvey Gray " 

Sylvester Gatting " 

John Gordon " 

Walter Glasgow " 

William Hutton Corporal. 

William Hellen B. 

Cornelius Harling M. 

Michael Hughes " 

Willifim Hallen B. 

John Howard M. 

1 James Hendrickson M. 

1 Robert Hiirding Private. 

I Thomas Hart '* 

I William H;irper " 

I John Hall " 

i Conrad Hodibuck " 

Joseph Hoole " 

t John Ilackctt •' 

Jeremiah Hooper " 

John Hulls " 

Isaac Hines " 

Josiiah Hurley ** 

Richard Harper ** 

John Hall " 

Charles Heath " 

Richard B. Haslip " 

Thomas Hutchcraft " 

Richard Hayes " 

William Hartuian " 

James Humphries " 

Hercules Hutchings " 

John Hannan " 

Charles Hickey " 

John Hutson (2) " 

Calib Haley " 

John Hol.-toD " 

Samuel Hughes " 

William Hamilton D. 

Henry Harris Private. 

Lawrence Hurdle '' 

Michael l[awke Corporal. 

Henry Higgs M. 

Daniel Harvey " 

John Head , " 

James Hutton Sergeant. 

James Hammond Corporal. 

William Herringtou Private. 

Raphael Hagan " 

Begimeut. Number. 
3 1760 



Recruited 81. 
































Lee's Legion. 
















































Becruited 81. 












Recruit 81. 




Recruit 81. 






















Names. Rank. 

John Head Drummer. 

John Hughes (I) Private. 

Richard Harper " 

James Hill << 

John Howard « 

John Holmes « 

Edward Hurley " 

William Harris " 

Elias Hardy « 

Isaac Hill Drummer. 

Josias Harris Private. 

John Howell " 

William Howe " 

Jacob Hines " 

Nathaniel Hull " 

Henry Hines " 

Ziidock Harvey " 

Charles Hill " 

Wm. Harris (1) " 

Nicholas Huster " 

Thomas Hoye " 

AValter Hagan " 

Randolph Hoskins " 

Lazarus Higgs '* 

James Hagan Corporal. 

George Haden ** 

Thomas Harrison (2) Sergeant. 

George Holton " 

George Hagarthy " 

John Hood, or Wood Private. 

Vachel Hayes Drummer. 

James Hare Private. 

Samuel Hughes " 

Cornelius Howard Sergeant. 

John B. Haslip Private, 

Isaac Holliday '* 

Leonard Hagan " 

Wm. Hughes " 

John Higgens " 

John Hare " 

Peter Howard " 

John Hood (2) " 

John Hillary " 

John S. Hunt " 

Edward Hennisee " 

Pompey Hollis " 

James Halleron " 

John Haynes *' 

David Hatton " 

AVm. Hamston " 

Samuel Harrison " 

John Haney " 

Austen Howard " 

Joseph Horsfleld " 

Joseph Hukell " 

Barney Haney " 

Richard Hall " 

John Hamilton " 

Peregrine Howard " 

Charles Harvey Sergeant. 

John Hyde Private. 

Robert Harpham Sergeant. 

Thomas Harris (1) Private. 

Francis Hopkins " 

John Holder " 

Recruit 81. 

Beglment. Number, 

2 1378 

2 368 

2 4032 









































Recruited 81. 



Name. Rank. 

John Harris (1) Private. 

Wm. Homey " 

Jolin Hull Drummer 

John Holliday Private. 

John Housley " 

John Hall (2) Corporal. 

Jacob Hunt Private. 

Frederick Harty " 

Wm. Hurley " 

John Hulet " 

John Harrell " 

Joseph Hall " 

John Haden ** 

Wm. Hillman " 

Walter Howe " 

Edward Holland Drummer, 

William Hicks Private. ■ 

Geoi-ge Hamilton " 

Philip Huston " 

Nathan Harper.. " 

Samuel Hamilton " 

t>amuel Harper " 

Lazarus Harman '* 

Nehemiah Hadder " 

Ed. Hammond " 

John Hancock " 

Elijah Hutt " 

Pialph Hope " 

Wm. Hill (1)" " 

James Hewelt " 

James Harris (2) " 

Thomas Hawson " 

Stephen Hancock " 

John Hickens " 

Daniel Howe " 

Richard Huggens Sergeant. 

Thomas Hill Private. 

William Hope " 

John Hurley " 

Leonard Holt " 

Nicholas Hiner " 

Richiird Harrington *' 

Levin Harrington " 

AVilliam Harper " 

Daniel Holdman " 

John Hudson (1) " 

Samuel Hurst " 

James Hudson (1) " 

William Hedge " 

William Hutcheson " 

William Harrison (t) " 

Michael Hartman " 

John Hopkins " 

William Hammond " 

Henry Harley " 

James Homes " 

Joseph Harper ** 

John Harris (2) " 

Thomas Hammond " 

Daniel Hall " 

William Harris (2) " 

John Holliday, Sr " 

James Hopkins 

James Heaton 

David Henderson 

Beg;iment. Number. 

5 1093 

5 3115 

5 1775 

6 1609 
6 1906 

6 1837 

7 1836 
7 379 
7 1621 
7 400 
1 136 

1 36 

7 1379 

5 981 

State. 1395 

" 1517 

" 134 

" 402 

" 481 

" 334 

" 11 

" 4116 

" 209 

" 249 

" 1278 

Recruited 81. 190 
5 60 



2 1521 

1 1165 

State. 1243 


Rawlings'. 43 



Joshua, or Matthew Harvey 

Abijah Hickell 

George Hill 

Joseph Hemphill 

: Samuel Huggins 

William Haney 

William Hickenson 

Benton Harris 

' Thomas Harrison (1) 

Robert Johnston 

Thomas Jones (2) 

Zachariah Jacobs 

Thomas Jones (3) 

John Johnston (3) 

Isaac Johnston 

William Johnston 

William Johnston 

Robert Issable 

David Jones 

j John Johnston 

I William Joice (2) 

; William Joice (1) 

I Archibald Johnston 

Edward Ervin 

I Joseph Jenkins 

! Henry .Jacobs 

Nealy Jones 

Joseph Jones (1) 

William Jinkins 

John Jones (1) 

James Jackson 

Benjamin Johnston 

Thomas Jones (1) 

Joseph Johnston 

Adam Jameson 

Lee's Legion. 









" 331 

" 1541 

4 1917 

Recruited 81. 444 

" 163 

" 3039 

" 169 

" 489 

" 1053 

2 299 
4 3887 
1 1806 
1 1702 

German. 1045 

7 1927 

7 1250 

3 1323 
1 1317 

Recruited 81. 1289 

" 1241 

" 1403 

7 1315 

6 4035 

6 495 

Hazen's. 381 

" 959 

Lee's Legion. 318 

John Johnston (1) 

William Ingles 

Aaron Jones 

Jesse J.acobs 

Daniel Jarvis, or Javins.. 

Joseph Jeans 

John Jones, Sr. (3) 

William Jones (1) 

William Jones (2) 

Jacob Jeflfers 

Thomas Johns 

Robeit Johnston 

John Jones (2) 

Ed. Jackson 

Frederick Ijams 

George Jennings 

John Jackson 

Joseph Isaacs Irvine 

Thomas Jones (2) 

Charles Jones 

George Jones 

Thomas Jones (4) 

John Irons 

James Isaacs 

Francis Johnston 

John Ireland 

Philip Jones 

Benedict Johnston 

John Jordan 

















Recruited 81. 









Recruited 81. 






State and 1. 



Recruit 81. 






Recruit 80. 






Recruit 81. 












Q. M. S. 





Names. Kank. 

William Jones Private. 

John Jarvis 

Samuel Jenkins 

Thomas Johnston 

Dennis Kelly Sergeant. 

Edward Killman Private. 

James Kelly " 

John King " 

Michael Kernon ** 

William Kindle " 

Walter Keeeh " 

Jacob Kiser " 

John Knox (1) 

Joseph Kerrick Corporal. 

Francis Kitely Private. 

Peter Kinkade " 

Stephen Kemble '' 

William Kellow Sergeant. 

Thomas King Private. 

Adam Kephart " 

Jiicob Knight " 

John Kidd ** 

John King " 

William King " 

David Kelly " 

George Kelson " 

Benjamin H. Kerrick " 

James Kelly Corporal. 

James Keckland Private. 

John Kildee " 

.larnb Kelly " 

Tliomas P. Kittle " 

Benjamin Karns 

Edward Kearsey " 

Jiimes Knott *' 

Edward Kirk " 

Francis Kearns " 

David Kettle " 

Abram Kettle " 

Matthew Kelly " 

John Knox (2) " 

James Killagan " 

Nathaniel Knott ** 

William Kennedy " 

Richard Kisby " 

David Kennedy 

John Kennard 

John Kincade 

Thomas Kearns 

George Laws " 

William Lettman " 

William Lee " 

William Lilly " 

Jiilm Loveday " 

AVilliam Lucas " 

Kinsey Lanham *' 

John Lonass " 

Zachariah Lyles " 

TlMimas Lewis " 

.Tnliii Lowry " 

Ihnby Lanahan " 

Charles Leago " 

Jacob Lowe Sergeant. 

.lnn;ithan Lewis Private. 

Mirhael Lloyd 

Begimeut. Number. 
7 1156 

1 1321 


Lee's Legion. 






4 ■ 

1733 ! 



































Recruited 81. 








State and 1. 
























Lee's Legion. 


















Recruit 81. 




















Namee. Bank. 

William Laws Private. 

Roger Landers ** 

John Lucas (1) " 

Benjamin Loffuian " 

Levi Lord " 

Henry Laws 

AVilliam Lynch >' 

John Love (1) " 

John Lee(l) " 

Michael Lawler " 

John Lynch (2) " 

Ale.xander Levi " 

Robert Legg " 

John Linkon " 

Joseph Long " 

Joshua Leister " 

William Lcakins " 

David Love Sergeant. 

Francis Long Private. 

John Lewin ** 

Christopher Lambert " 

George Linton " 

Paul Lapine " 

Dudley Lee " 

Theophilus Lindsay " 

Thomas Larrimore ** 

Joseph Lewis (2) " 

John Lynch (3) " 

John Lesley " 

William Lee (2) 

Thomas Long " 

Nehemiah Lingard " 

Timothy Langrel " 

Jesse Locker " 

William Little " 

Theophilus Loma.v Sergeant. 

Edward Legg Private. 

Thos. Loveday, or Lovely... D. 

Dennis Leary Private. 

Robert Livingston M. 

Joshua Lovely " 

Richard Lewis Sergeant. 

Peter Laurence M. 

Jacob Lion Sergeant. 

Daniel Longest Private. 

John Lavender '* 

James Lowry 

John Luton " 

John Lindsay " 

Barney Lemmon " 

Peter Ledington " 

Jeremiah Lee " 

Thomas, or John Luff. " 

John Majors " 

Richard Mudd Sergeant, 

Walter Miles Corporal. 

Gilford Minikee Private. 

William Mann " 

James Magraw " 

Frederick Miles Corporal. 

.John Morris *' 

Valentine Murray " 

Jonathan Mayhew " 

John Miles il) " 

James Matthews 

Keglment. N 













































State and 1. 








Recruit 81. 




Recruit 81. 






Recruit 81. 






























































Name. Bank. 

William Marshal Corporal. 

Robert Matthews " 

Thomas McCernjio " 

John .Mantle Sergeant. 

.Joseph Mattingly Private. 

Arthur McCIain Sergeant. 

Samuel MeConnell " 

Joseph McNamara Private. 

Jeremiah .Mudd Sergeant. 

John M.atthew.s (2) " 

John Moore (3) " 

Hezekiah Massey " 

John McCay (1) " 

John McDonald Fifer. 

Michael Maguire Private, 

Thomas Mahoney ** 

Stephen Magraw " 

Jacob Moses (2) " 

Bennet Mudd Sergeant. 

Humphrey Miniken Private. 

Benjamin McHaffee " 

Benjamin Moran ** 

John Martin (2) 

Christian Myers ** 

John M. Laughlin " 

Andrew Moore " 

William Martin Corporal. 

Timothy JIcLamar Private, 

Michael McGower " 

Joseph McAtee " 

Thomas Mahoney " 

Thomas Maloney '* 

Michael Miller " 

Darby McNamara " 

John Martindale Fife-Major. 

Peter McNaughton Sergeant. 

John Morrison Fifer. 

Wm. McLoughlin Private, 

Christopher Magraw Drummer. 

James Mason Private. 

Wm. Moore (1) 

Richard Mitchel " 

Wm. Moore (2) " 

John Martin (1) *' 

Cornelius McLaughlin " 

Charles Murphy Sergeant. 

Wm. McGee Private. 

John Matthews (1) " 

Charles McGee " 

Matthew Moore (1) " 

Wm. Mitchell " 

JohnMcCann " 

Patrick Mahorn " 

Matthew Moore (2) " 

Thomas Murphy " 

Christopher ^IcAway " 

Hugh McMillan Sergeant. 

James Mead Drum-Major. 

John McCoy Private, 

George Mantle " 

Michael McCann " 

James Maxwell Corporal. 

Wm. Moore (3) Private. 

Boston Medler Drummer. 

Wm. Mann (1) Private. 





























Recruit 81, 
































































































Names. Rank. 

John Moore (1) Private, 

Charles McNable Sergeant. 

Joseph Mtinaga Private, 

Joseph Murphey " 

Peter Maguire " 

John Macanally " 

Enoch McClain Sergeant. 

John Maxwell (1) Private. 

William Moade " 

John Mick " 

Neal Xorris " 

John Mills (2) " 

Nicholas Milburn " McNeal Corporal. 

James McDonald Private. 

Thos. Matthews Corporal. 

John McGuinis Private. 

Isachea Mason Corporal. 

William Manly Private. 

Henry Mansfield " 

John Moore (2) " 

John C.Miller " 

Jesse McKinsey " 

John McNeill ** 

John Moore (4) " 

Adam Mushier " 

John McGall " 

David Meadows " 

Roderick McKinsey " 

Aaron Michel! " 

Aleard Melville " 

Robt. Mitchell " 

Daniel Murphy " 

Francis McCann " 

John Morris (2) " 

John Mills (3) " 

John Murray (1) " 

John McDonald Sergeant. 

John MoNight Fifer. 

Edward Mahoney Private. 

Benjamin Marsh " 

Wm. Marlow Sergeant. 

Luke Merriman Private. 

John McCaliff Drummer. 

Wm. Mansfield Private. 

John Maglin " 

Daniel Mann '* 

Peter Melvin " 

John McCIain " 

John Moore (6) " 

Thomas Matthews (2) " 

Joshua McKinsey " 

Moses McKinsey " 

Francis McGauran Sergeant. 

Patrick McKinsey Private. 

John McBride " 

Thos. McKinsey " 

Zachariah Mills " 

Abraham Manning " 

Thomas Mie " 

John Milstead " 

James Moore G. 

Peter Maynor Fifer. 

Charles Muiritt M. 

Robert Myers M, 






Recruit 81. 

Recruit 81. 

Recruited 81. 

Recruited 81. 

1 \i 

Artillery. 13^ 




Dennis MoCormiok 

Philip Masterson 

Hugh McDowell 

Peter Maynor, Sr 

James McGowen 

Cruise Moser 

James Murjihy 

John McDougle 

John McConnikin 

John McGran 

John Murray (Bugley's Co.) 

John Miller 

Richard Maxwell 

Archibald Morton 

John Mcintosh 

Thomas Morgan 

Dennis Murley 

Wm. MoKinley 

Barney McManus 

Jacob Moses 

William Matthews 

Jacob Myers 

Timothy McMahon 

Patrick Mollohon 

Wm. McPherson 

George Miller 

Nicholas McManiard 

James Mclntire 

John McColgan 

Charles March, or Marsh.... 
Alex. Mutthewson 

George McDonald 

Martin Mulloy 

Jamer MeCrakin 

John Manley 

Hugh McCoy 

Marmaduke McDonald 

James McCarty 

Nicholas Nicholson 

John Neary 

Asael Nicholls 

John Neighbours 

John Newton (2) 

Michael Noland 

Richard Nelson 

Patrick Nolan 

Thomas Neill 

Henry Nicholson 

Stephen Nicholson 

Wm. Newton 

Morris Neagell 

Wm. A. Needhand 

Joseph Nabb 

Wm. Nailor 

James Narvel 

Isaac Nicholls 

Basil Norman 

Wm. Niblet 

John Newton (1) 

Charles Nabb 

John Nelson 

John Nevit (2) 

Joseph Neale 

John Nicholson 

-John Nave 





Begiment. Number. 

Artillery. 1349 

" 860 



























































State and 2. 






Recruit SI. 







Lee's Legion. 



















































Recruit SI. 









Recruit 81. 













Recruit 81. 





James Neale 

Daniel Neal 

Martin Noble 

Nathaniel Nott 

George Nicholson 

Samuel J. Nelme 

Leonard Outerbridgc. 

Samuel Oram ,. " 

John O'Brian " 

John Osburn " 

Joseph Overereck " 

Daniel O'Quinn " 

Stephen Owens " 

James Owens " 

Charles Orme ** 

Henry Osten, or Austin " 

John Onion Fifer. 

Peter Outhouse Private. 

Samuel Owens " 

Michael O'Brian Bugler. 

Philip O'Brian Corporal. 

Michael O'Farrol M. 

Jacob Owens " 

John Owens Private. 

Richard O'Quynn " 

Elijah Oakley " 

Joseph Owens " 

James Onants " 

George Parker *' 

Nathan Peak Sergeant. 

Henry Phillips Private. 

Cupid Plummer 

George Patrick " 

Gabriel Peters " 

John Purdy " 

Henry Purdy " 

George Phillips " 

John Pease Sergeant. 

Jesse Powers Private. 

Obadiah Plummer " 

Thomas Phipps " 

Samuel Pleasants " 

James Phillips " 

George Plumley " 

Thomas Pollhouse " 

Thomas Peacock " 

John Pickering " 

William Poland 

Simon Perry " 

William Pherson " 

Aquilla Pearoe D. 

William Purchase Corporal. 

John Peany D- 

Stephen Preston Private. 

Richard Proctor " 

William Peters " 

William Pursell " 

William Prior " 

William Pecker . " 

Joseph Purdy D.Major 

James Poole Private. 

George Pierce 

Neal Peacock 

Stephen Price Sergeant. 

Elijah Pepper Private. 















































Recruit 81. 


Lee's Legion. 















































































Names. Rank. 

Thomas Pinder PriTate. 

Thomas Pennyfield " 

Lambert Phillips " 

Thomas Patterson " 

Nathaniel Price " 

Thomas Perry " 

Joshua Pierce " 

Michael Pilkerton " 

Joseph Pherson Corporal. 

William Prather Fifer. 

William Paul Private. 

Thomas Porter " 

pLobert Pennington " 

William Porter " 

William Pagram " 

Thomas Pettit " 

Arthur Pritchet " 

Joseph Pogue M. 

Thomas Potter Fifer. 

John Prout M. 

John Paine " 

Francis Popham " 

John Pearson " 

Jonas Phillips " 

Benjamin Phelps Private. 

Joseph Peters 

James Pritchard 

Andrew Preston 

Emanuel Polston 

James Paivel 

James Paek 

Thomas Price 

Jacob Plaine 

John Parkinson Private. 

John Parsons " 

Edward Purdy " 

John Quick Sergeant. 

Joseph Quinn Private. 

William Quintin " 

Patrick Quinn " 

John Quinn M. 

James Quay Private. 

William Rowles " 

William Roberts (1) " 

Andrew Riggs " 

Edward Richardson " 

John Rock " 

William Rock " 

Jeremiah Rodes " 

Adam Raines " 

John Robertson " 

Robert Richardson " 

Thomas Redman " 

Benedict Reynolds " 

Bennet Rawlings " 

Robert Rise " 

Michael Rhytmire " 

Edward Riely " 

Alexander Rutherford " 

William Richardson " 

John Radly Sergeant. 

James Ryly Private. 

Charles Reynolds Sergeant. 

Charles Riddle Private. 

Horatio Roberts " 

Regiment. Number. 

State. 2567 



Recruit 81. 












Recruit 81. 








Recruit 81. 




Recruit 81. 


































jee's Legion. 










































3 or 4. 














Recruit 81. 




Names. Rank. 

William Rogers Private. 

Cristian Ross *' 

William Smith " 

Thomas Sanders " * 

William Smith " 

John Snelling 

Anthony Smith D. 

David Smith Private. 

Leonard Swan " 

.Jesse Simons Corporal. 

Thomas Smith Private. 

Andrew Stewart " 

Thomas Sappington Sergeant. 

William Sharp Corporal. 

William Simmons Private. 

John Stackhouse " 

Michael Sours " 

Aquilla Smith " 

William Sly Corporal. 

Jeremiah Sullivan Private. 

Richard Smith Sergeant. 

Alexander, or Andrew Smith Private. 

Samuel Scott " 

Benjamin Smith " 

James Stewart (1) " 

John Smith " 

Leonard Smith " 

Nathan Speak ** 

Frederick Stoffee " 

Edward Sute Corporal. 

Murphy Shee Private. 

George Silver " 

Joseph Smith " 

John Smithard " 

Robert Shipley " 

William Sherley " 

Ignatius Smith " 

Jonathan Short Sergeant. 

Josiah Smith " 

Charles Schoudrick Corporal. 

Robert Scriviner Sergeant. 

Thomas Stokes Private. 

Noah Sears " 

James Stewart (2) " 

Reuben Smith " 

Abraham Schockee " 

Peter Smith Sergeant. 

William Sykes Private. 

Charles Scott " 

John Smith (2) " 

Humphrey Spencer Sergeant. 

Jesse Suite 

John Salmon Private. 

James Sbaur " 

John Shouell " 

Aaron Spalding Sergeant. 

James Smith (2) Private. 

John Smith (4) Corporal. 

John Scott Drummer. 

William Smith (2) 

Conrad Smith Private. 

Thomas Slade " 

Elijah Smith " 

William Sinclair " 

Levy Smith Sergeant. 


Dt. Number. 



t81. 1158 
















Recruit 80. 



Recruit 81. 

Recruit 81. 





Daniel Smith (1) 

William Sullivan 

John Smith (1) 

Perry Sullivan 

Koger Shorter 

Solomon Summers 

George Sanders 

Kobert Sharpless 

Alexander Stephenson 

John Summers 

William Stonestreet 

Joseph Sloop 

James Sewall 

Thomas Smith (1) 

Michael Standly 

George Steem, or Stumm 

James Smith (?) 

Christopher Simpkins 

Abraham Stallings 

Peter Stephens 

Daniel Smith (2) 

Christopher Seymore 

James Sullivan 

John Smith (3) 

John Shanks 

Bennet Sherley (2) 

Job Sylvester 

Levi Scott 

Robert Streets 

William Sterling 

John Smallwood (2) 

John Smallwood (1) 

John Starkey 

James Shepherd 

John Spire '. 

Charles Sickle 

Solomon Sullivan 

Richard Spires 

John Sheffer 

Solady Stanley 

Thomas Smith (2) 

Luke Sanson 

Thomas Summers 

William Silwood 

(Benjamin Steward 

[Laurence Simpson 

William Steward 

John Stoffle, or Stoffe 

Philip Savoy 

Samuel Street 

Joseph Sidney, or Sidmer... 

Blias Smith 

Michael Smith (2) 

Christopher, or Christian 

I Smith 

[Michael Smith (1) 

iSamuel F. Shoemaker 

jJohn Stanton 

lOliver Stephens 

Cato Snowdeu 

jBasil Shaw 

Thomas Scoudrick 

iJoseph Southall 

jThomas Sheridan 

Walter B. Smallwood 


















Recruited i 

ivate. 6 

Recruited 1 



Recruited 81. 


Recruited 81. 












!1. 1054 









!1. 61 
SI. 1731 





William Standley 

James Sappington 

James Smith (I) 

Jacob Standley 

James Scott 

George Seone 

William Sizeland 

Joseph U.Spencer 

Henry Slack 

John Slack 

Charles Sutton 

John Sillinan 

William Stalker 

Robert Smith 

Reuben Scott 

Thomas Smith 

James Simnionds 

Andrew Shrink 

John Sandall 

John Standley, Jr 

.lohn Smith 

Thomas Standley 

Rawling Spinks 

Valentine Smith 

Thomas Salsbury 

Nathaniel Smith 

Richard Sweeny 

John Smith 

James Sweeny 

Thomas Sergeant 

Charles Snow 

Charles Simpson 

John Sanders 

James Sheridan 

Joseph Spinks 

Jeremiah Scrabbles 

John Spriggs 

James Simms 

Thomas Sylvester 

Darby Sullivan 

Robert Sturton 

Noble Simmons 

William Spyers 

John Sloop 

John Shaw 

Patrick Scott 

Peter Shoemaker 

John Sankey 

William Smith 

William Smith 

Bartholomew Sheridan 

George Summerville 

John Straban 

Abraham Sutton 

Tamerlane Spencer 

Philip Shoebrick 

Edward Timms 

John Tucker 

Dennis Tramwell 

William Townscnd 

Richard Taylor 

Francis Thompson 

Solomon Turner 

Giles Thompson, or Thomas. 
Samuel Trigg 



RegiuioDt. Numbor. 



Recruited 81. 



Lee's Legion. 





































































Names. Bank. 

John Tomlin Private. 

Peter Tippet " 

John Trusty " 

Samuel Taylor " 

Thomas Tanner " 

James Tite 

Anthony Tucker " 

Christopher Touchstone " 

William Taylor " 

Natley Tippet 

William Tolanri " 

Lambert Tompson " 

John Taylor (1) " 

James Thomas, Jr " 

John Turner {?>) " 

Bartholomew Tompson " 

Richard Tasco " 

Henry Townley 

Thomas Thompson 

Peter Topping 

John Taylor (2) " 

Evin Tumbleson 

Robert Taylor (2) Sergeant. 

Cornelius Tomson Private. 

George Taylor 

John Turner 

James Terry 

William Taylor (2) " 

William Taylor, Jr. (3) " 

James Thomas, Sr Sergeant. 

Allen Townsend Private. 

Levin Thomas 

James Tigner 

John Thomson (1) " 

Edward Tanner 

Thomas Thomas 

JohnD. TuUy " 

John Thomas (2) 

George Twench Sergeant. 

Henry Tucker (2) " 

John Turner (2) 

John Thomas (1) " 

Samuel Tindall " 

Joseph Thompson 

Thomas Tyack 

John Turner M. 

Rezin Thacknill Private. 

James Trego 

William Tutten 

John Tuff 

John Thomas 

Aaron Townsend 

John Turner (of Morris' Co.) " 

Francis Taylor 

Evan Thomas 

Dennis Ternan 

Francis Tycowit 

John Towlin 

John German Thomas 

Jesse Thompson Sergeant. 

Cornelius Vaughan Private. 

Stephen Varlow 

John Varlow 

Edward Vickers 

William Vaughan 































































Recruit 81. 


















Recruit 81. 




























Recruit 81. 








Lee's Legion 
















Names. Bank. 

John Vincent Private. 

.John Vanzant " 

Samuel Vermillion " 

George Vernon 

John Vaughan Sergeant.* 

James Veazy 

Thomas Woolford Private. 

Daniel Williams " 

John Williams " 

George Ward (l).: " 

David Williams " 

William Wheatley " 

Andrew Wingate " 

York Waters " 

Samuel B. White " 

George Windham " 

William West " 

William Wilkeson " 

Charles Williams (1) " 

George AVillson " 

Jonathan Windell " 

Michael Wiser " 

Motley Whitcomb " 

Gabriel Williams Sergeant. 

Richard Wheeler CorporaL 

John Whitcomb Private. 

Walter Watson " 

Benjamin Ward Sergeant. 

Joseph White Private. 

Sylvester Wheatley " 

Jonathan Weeden " 

Alexander \Vest ** 

William Willson 

Edward Wright " 4 1262 

William Wedge " 7 982 

John Willing " Recruit 81. 2425 

Philip Welsh " " 4th Reg. 2548 

John Wilkerson " " 119 

Samuel Wright " German. 1988 

George Watson " State. 1322 

Charles Willett " Recruit 81. 1552 

John Willing (formerly of Artillery.) 998 

John Wade (1) " 

Edward Wade (2) " 

William Whaland " 

John Willis " 

Nicholas Welch " 

Benjamin Williams (3) 

Thomas Wood 13) " 

Thomas Wiudom Sergeant. 

John T. West Fifer. 

Jonathan White Private. 

Jesse Wright..., " 

John Welch (1) " 

Thomas Wood (1) " 

James Willson (1) " 

Thomas Wimber " 

Thomas Wate, or Wyatt " 

Robert Walker " 

Michael Woolford " 

Frederick Willmott " 

Thomas Watson ** 

John Williams (1) " 

Barney Willson " 

Robertson Wood "* 













Lee's Legion 

. 3047 



























































Recruit 81. 











1412 ; 


1558 1 


1986 1 


2087 ' 
















1268 J 



Names. Kank. 

Thomas Wood (2) Private. 

Jeremiiiii Williams Corporal. 

James Wood (2) Private. 

Daniel AVillis D. 

David Willson Private. 

John Wilkenson Sergeant. 

Daniel Warrior D. 

Michael Wiery Fifer. 

Benjamin Williams (2) Private. 

Absalom Wright 

William Willson (2) " 

Samuel Wedge " 

James White " 

Michael Waltman *' 

John Wells " 

Richard Wiely " 

•Tohn Wilson (1) " 

Rhody Woodland " 

John Walker (3) Sergeant. 

Banks Webb Private. 

John West (2) 

William Watkins Drummer. 

James Willson (2) Private. 

Charles Wheeler " 

George Afilliams Sergeant. 

Humphrey Wells Private. 

Wm. Willson (1) 

James West " 

James AVood (1) Serge.ant. 

.lohn Wright Private. 

Zadoek Whaley " 

Anthony Weaver " 

Benjamin Williams (1) " 

Wm. Whitton, or Whittaker. " 

•John Walker (1) " 

.Tohn Welch (2) " 

James Williams " 

Samuel Willson Sergeant. 

Edward Walter Private. 

Jarvis Williams *' 

James Welch B. 

James Whaling G. 

James Welch M. 

Thomas Williams Drummer. 

Wm. Withorm, or Whitton.. M. 

David White " 

David Welch Sergeant. 

John Wheeler 

Thos. Webster 

Wm. Willson 

James Welch 

Peter Ward 

Zachariah Williams 

.Tames Williams 

Abraham Waters 

Solomon Watts 

David Woods 

John Waters 

Thos. Wheeler 

Garret Welch 

Beujamin Willson 

Edward White 

Edward Wall 

John Wyshara , 

'John Ward 

Eegimeut. Number. 




































State, late 1st. 










Recruit 81. 




















Recruit SI. 






Recruit 81. 




Recruit 81. 
































Recruit 81. 








Lee's Legion. 


Names. Rank. 

William Wade.. M. 

Samuel Young Private. 

John Young (2) Corporal. 

Godfrey Young Private. 

Jacob Yeast, or Yost " 

Henry Young " 

John Young (1) " 

David Young M. 

Richard Yates 

William York 

Jacob Young Drummer. 

Thos. Yeates 

Regiment Number. 
Artillery. 1469 







Recruit SI. 












Recruit 81. 






The Society of the Cincinnati — Unha]>py Political Divisions — 
Whisky Insurrection — Washington in Cumberland — Militia 

After the conclusion of the Revolutionary war, 
the remnants of the Maryland regiments returned to 
their native State to be disbanded. Many of 
veterans bore honorable scars, still more had their 
health broken down by hardship and disease, and 
nearly all were penniless and in rags. The Maryland 
line, now numbering about five hundred men, under 
the command of Brig.-Gen. Gist, embarked at Charles- 
ton, S. C, on transports, and arrived at Annapolis 
late in July, 1783. They soon after marched to 
Baltimore, arriving there on the 27th. Before their 
departure. Gen. Greene, in a letter to Governor Paca, 
thus referred to the Maryland troops in the Southern 
army : 

" Many of your officers are on their return home. I should 
be wanting in gratitude not to acknowledge their singular 
merit and the importance of their services. They have spilt 
their blood freely in the service of their country, and have 
faced every danger and difficulty without a murmur or com- 
plaint. I beg leave to recommend Col. Williams, who has 
been at the head of your line, to the particular notice of your 
State, as an officer of great merit and good conduct. A very 
considerable number of these (Maryland line) returned are 
not, nor ever will be, fit for service again. They are incapable 
of doing active duty, and ought to be turned over to the In- 
valid Corps." 

The British prisoners confined at Frederick and 
Winchester, numbering about fifteen hundred, were 
marched to Baltimore in May, 1783, and embarked 
in vessels sent to transport them to New York. By 
a proclamation of Congress, dated October 18th, all ofii- 
cers and soldiers absent from the army on furlough 
were discharged from further service, and all others 
who had engaged to serve during the war were to be 



discharged from and after the 3d of November. On 
the 25th of November the British troops under Sir 
Guy Carleton evacuated New York, and Washington, 
accompanied by Governor Clinton, immediately took 
possession. A few days afterwards Washington took 
an affectionate leave of Gen. Knox and his compan- 
ions in arms, and then set out for Annapolis, where 
he resigned his command on the 23d of December, 

While Congress was sitting in Annapolis, on the 
14th of January, 1784, it ratified the definitive treaty 
which had been concluded and signed at Paris on the 
3d of the preceding September ; and on the 20th of 
January, Governor Paca issued his proclamation an- 
nouncing the same to the people of the State. 

The Society of the Cincinnati. — Before the dis- 
solution of the army on the Hudson, Gen. Knox, 
" ever noted for generous impulses," suggested as a 
mode of perpetuating the friendships which had been 
formed, and keeping alive the brotherhood of the 
camp, the formation of a society composed of the 
officers of the army. The suggestion met with uni- 
versal concurrence and the hearty approbation of 
Washington. On May 10, 1783, a meeting of the 
general officers and one officer from the line of each 
regiment was held at the headquarters of Baron Steu- 
ben, at the cantonment on Hudson River. Baron 
Steuben presided, and proposals for establishing " The 
Society of the Cincinnati" were considered. They 
were referred to a committee composed of Maj.-Gen. 
Knox, Brig.-Gen. Hand, Brig.-Gen. Huntington, and 
Col. Shaw. After three days they made a report 
which was unanimously adopted, and the plan as re- 
vised by them was carried into complete efiect with 
little opposition, and is still in force. The next pre- 
liminary meeting was again held at the cantonment 
on June 19, 1783, when Gen. Washington was elected 
temporary president-general; Maj.-Gen. McDougall, 
treasurer-general; and Maj.-Gen. Knox, secretary- 
general. The first general meeting after the disband- 
ing of the army took place at the City Tavern, at Phil- 
adelphia, in May, 1788, when permanent officers were 
elected. On the 15th, Washington was unanimously 
chosen president; Maj.-Gen. Gates, vice-president; 
and Maj.-Gen. Knox, secretary. The Mari/land 
Gazette, on the 6th of November, 1783, published 
the following notice : 

" Oct. 30th, 1783. 
"The officers of the Maryland Line, upon the present and 
half-pay establishments, are requested to meet at Annapolis on 
the 20th of November, where several matters very interesting 
to the line in general will be communicated and necessarily 
brought under consideration. 

"W. Sm.illwood, M.-G." 

In pursuance of this notice a large number of the 
officers of the Maryland line assembled at Mann's 
Tavern, in Annapolis. In consequence of the absence 
of Maj.-Gen. Smallwood and Brig.-Gen. Gist, the two 
senior officers of the Maryland line, the meeting was 
adjourned until the following morning at eleven 
o'clock. The two officers not appearing, the meeting 
was again adjourned until the afternoon at three 
o'clock, when it was organized by selecting Brig.-Gen. 
Otho H. Williams, of Washington County, as tempo- 
rary chairman, and Lieut.-Col. Eccleston secretary. 
The institution of the Order of Cincinnati was read 
and adopted, and afler each officer had signed the con- 
stitution they adjourned until the next day. Upon 
reassembling they proceeded to the election of offi- 
cers, whereupon Maj.-Gen. Smallwood was elected 
president ; Brig.-Gen. Gist, vice-president ; Brig.-Gen. 
Williams, secretary ; Col. Nathaniel Ramsay, treas- 
urer ; and Lieut.-Col. Eccleston, assistant treasurer. 
After the transaction of some minor business, the 
society then elected Gen. Smallwood, Gen. WilHams, 
Governor Paca, and Col. Ramsay delegates to the 
general society.' 

The Indians on the frontier, as has been seen, had 
given more or less trouble all through the Revolu- 
tionary war, and still continuing their hostile demon- 
strations, Congress on the 29th of September, 1789, 
authorized the President to call out the militia for the 
protection of the border settlements, and '' to break 
the power of the savages." On the 6th of October 
in the same year Gen. St. Clair, then Governor of the 
Northwest Territory, was directed by Washington to 
collect fifteen hundred men from the western counties 
of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, and march 
against the hostile Indian towns on the Maumee. 
Col. Henry Lee, of Virginia, was to command one 
regiment of levies to be raised in Maryland, Virginia, 
and Pennsylvania. These troops assembled in the 
vicinity of Fort Washington (now Cincinnati) early 

1 While The Society of the Cincinnati was in session at An- 
napolis, on the 24th of November, 1783, Governor Paca sent the 
following brief message to the General Assembly : '* This morn- 
ing one of the oflBcers of the Maryland Line called upon me and 
gave information that a number of soldiers had collected in the 
city and expressed a design of surrounding the General As- 
sembly, and of making use of some violence to obtain satisfac- 
tion of their claims on the public." As a matter of precaution, 
he ordered Col. James Brice to hold in readiness to march at a 
moment's warning one company of the Annapolis militia, to 
protect the treasury and suppress any violent proceedings. It 
is scarcely necessary to add that the rumor was false. Great 
as was the need of these veterans, and however just their cause 
of complaint at the dehays of Congress in settling their long 
arrears of pay, they showed no turbuleht disposition, but pa- 
tiently returned to their farms and workshops. 



in September, and consisted nominally of two thousand 
regulars and one thousand militia, including a com- 
pany of artillery and several squadron^ of horse. On 
the 4th of November, being reduced to fourteen hun- 
dred eifective men, after penetrating to a tributary of 
the Wabash, fifteen miles south of the Miami villages, 
and almost a hundred from Fort Washington, they 
were fiercely attacked by a large number of Indians. 
For two hours and a half the Indians, concealed in 
the woods, slaughtered the troops from every point, 
when they fled in disorder, leaving their artillery, bag- 
gage, etc., in the hands of the enemy. 

The entire loss was estimated at six hundred and 
seventy-seven killed, among whom was Gen. Butler, 
and two hundred and seventy-one wounded.^ 

Ensign George Chase, of Baltimore, was killed, and 
Capt. William Buchanan and a number of Mary- 
landers were wounded. 

This defeat produced great alarm on the borders, 
and Congress took prompt and immediate action by 
authorizing an army of five thousand men to be 
equipped for frontier service. Various obstacles, how- 
ever, prevented a speedy organization of this force, and 
it was not until the spring of 1794 that an army 
strong enough to strike a decisive blow could be col- 
lected. Gen. Anthony Wayne was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief, and Col. Otho H. Williams, of Wash- 
ington County, and Col. Rufus Putnam brigadier- 
generals under him. 

In May, 1791, Henry Gaither, of Western Mary- 
land, was " appointed commandant of levies now rais- 
ing in this State," vice Col. Rawlings, who declined ; 
and Capts. William Lewis and Benjamin Price were 
appointed to the command of two companies. 

Among the Maryland troops engaged in this expe- 
dition were the companies of Capt. Campbell Smith, 
of Baltimore, and of Capts. Lewis, Carberry, and 
Benjamin Price, of Frederick. The entire force con- 
sisted of two thousand regular troops, fifteen hundred 
mounted volunteers from Kentucky, and some other 
volunteer organizations, and assembled at Greenville. 
On the 20th of August, 1794, Gen. Wayne met the 
Indians at the foot of the rapids on the Maumee, and, 
after a short but sanguinary struggle, completely de- 
feated them. In this battle Capts. Smith and Price 
were severely wounded. 

In September, 1790, Thomas Sprigg was authorized 
to collect all the arms in Washington County belong- 
ing to the State, and persons having arms in their 
possession were directed to deliver them to Capt. Ott, 
at Hagerstown. 

' Included in the killed were thirty women. 

In October, 1790, M. Lacassagne, to encourage 
twenty families to emigrate and improve a tract of 
land which he possessed on the northwest side of the 
Ohio, in sight of Louisville, at the rapids, off'cred to 
give, among other inducements, two hundred acres of 
land in fee-simple to each family. Col. Thomas 
Sprigg, Col. John Barnes, and Dr. Henry Schncbely, 
near Hagerstown, Col. Wm. Bentley, near Frederick, 
and James Chapline, near Sharpsburg, were his agents. 

The Hagerstown Spy of Oct. 18, 1793, says that 
on " last Saturday marched from this town, in order to 
join the main army in the Western country, a detach- 
ment of troops, under the command of Lieut. Whistler. 
The most of this corps was raised in this town, and 
too much praise cannot well be bestowed on Lieut. 
Whistler for his indefatigable a.ssiduity in disciplining 
his men, and rendering them orderly and inofiensive 
to the inhabitants. We wish them an agreeable 
march and successful campaign." 

While these events were occurring on the border, 
the country was agitated by apprehensions of war 
with foreign powers, and by actual insurrection at 
home. On the 1st of February, 1793, the French 
National Convention declared war against P]ngland 
and Holland. One of their first acts was to appoint 
a representative to the United States to solicit the 
support of the sister republic, and to claim the privi- 
leges to which they considered France to be entitled 
under the two treaties made with Benjamin Franklin 
on the 6th of February, 1778. Under Articles XVII. 
and XXII. of the first treaty of friendship and com- 
merce the French assumed that they might claim the 
exclusive right to arm and commission privateers 
within American ports, to bring into them their 
prizes, to cause the prizes thus brought in to be con- 
demned by French consuls and sold, and even to cap- 
ture vessels of the enemy within the limits of the 
maritime jurisdiction of the United States. At least 
such were the pretensions of their envoy. Monsieur, 
or, as he styled himself. Citizen Genet, a Girondist 
of the most radical type, whose avowed object was 
to excite the people of the United States to a war with 
Great Britain. 

On the other hand, Washington, then entering on 
his second term of ofiioe as President, was determined 
to preserve the neutrality of his country, and imme- 
diately on receiving intelligence of the outbreak of 
war, hastened from Mount Vernon to Philadelphia, 
summoned his cabinet together, and soon after, on the 
22d of April, 1793, issued a proclamation of neu- 
trality. The sympathies of the people of the United 
States were warmly engaged on the side of France, 
and Genet was so much encouraged by the popular 



sentiment that on his arrival in Charleston, in April, 
1793, he at once proceeded to disregard the Presi- 
dent's proclamation and to organize ^ system of priva- 
teering. He had not been in the country a week 
before he had commissioned four vessels to sail as 
privateers. He also authorized the French consuls in 
one town to hold prize-courts and condemn and sell 
vessels captured by his privateers, and he then made 
a triumphant progress from Charleston to Philadel- 
phia, organizing red republican clubs and preaching 
hostility to England. In consequence of the depre- 
dations committed by the American privateers under 
the French flag against British commerce in 179-4, 
and the extraordinary pretensions and naval power of 
the British government, the President recommended 
serious preparations both for offense and defense, and 
the fortifications at Baltimore and other exposed 
points were put in readiness to repel attack. In com- 
pliance with the act of Congress and the provisions 
made by the Legislature, Governor Thomas Sim Lee 
reorganized the militia of the State, and appointed as 
major-generals John E. Howard, John Hoskins Stone, 
and Levin Winder. John Davidson was appointed 
brigadier-general for Calvert and Anne Arundel Coun- 
ties ; John H. Briscoe for St. Mary's and Charles ; 
Uriah Forrest foi' Prince George's and part of Mont- 
gomery ; Jeremiah Crabb for part of Montgomery 
and Frederick ; Mountjoy Bailey for Fredericktown ; 
Moses Rawlings for Washington and Allegany Coun- 
ties ; Samuel Smith for Baltimore Town ; Charles C. 
Ridgely for Baltimore County ; Josias C. Hall for 
Cecil and Harford ; James Lloyd for Kent and 
Queen Anne's ; John Eccleston for Dorchester; Car- 
oline, and Talbot ; and Alexander Roxburgh for Som- 
erset and Worcester. 

For Washington County ; Lieut. -Cols. Thomas 
Sprigg, Rezin Davis, William Van Leer ; Majs. 
Josiah Price, Charles Carroll, William Fitzhugh, Jr., 
Adam Ott, Hanson Briscoe, Christopher Orondors. 

Allegany County : Lieut.- Col. Daniel Cresap ; Majs. 
John Lynn, Gabriel Jacobs. 

Frederick County : Lieut. -Cols. George Murdock, 
Edward Tilyard, William Lucket, John Ross Key, 
Joshua Gist, William Lamar ; Majs. John McPher- 
son, Stephen Shelmerdine, Philemon Griffith, Thomas 
Darnall, Thomas Hawkins, John Thomas, Michael 
Bayer, Joseph Sim Smith, Stephen Winchester, 
Francis Brown Sappington, Nicholas Randall, Robert 

Montgomery County: Lieut.-Cols. Francis Dea- 
kins, Richard Anderson, William Deakins ; Majs. 
Davis Lucket, Benjamin Murdock, Aquila Johns, 
Thomas Plater, John Mason, Lloyd Beall. 

The Whisky Insurrection. — While these mili- 
tary preparations were in progress some of the west- 
ern counties of .Pennsylvania lifted the arm of defiance 
against the Federal government, and acts were com- 
mitted to defeat the execution of the laws imposing 
duties upon spirits distilled within the United States. 
These treasonable measures called for the prompt in- 
terference of the executive authority, and hence arose 
the episode in our history known as the " Whisky 
Insurrection." Distillers, who resided in Allegany, 
Fayette, Washington, and Westmoreland Counties, 
Pa., who were willing to comply with the excise 
laws passed by Congress, were abused ; mails were 
robbed, outrages committed on the government rev- 
enue ofiicers, and Gen. Neville, the chief inspector 
of revenue, was twice attacked and his house burned 
to the ground by these lawless insurgents. The gov- 
ernment of Maryland watched with interest the efforts 
of Pennsylvania to suppress this rebellion, and pre- 
pared to furnish help if necessary. On -Ms^ 19th the 
Secretary of War directed Governor Lee " to organize, 
arm, and equip, according to law, and hold in readi- 
ness to march at a moment's warning 5418 of the 
militia of Maryland, ofiicers included." In the mean 
time the rebels were making preparations to seize Fort 
Fayette in Pennsylvania, and the insurrectionary spirit 
seemed to be spreading into the adjoining counties 
of Maryland and Virginia. One Bradford, a native 
of Maryland, who had assumed by common consent 
the position of commander-in-chief of the insurgents, 
issued a call for the assembling of the militia on 
Braddock's Field on August 1st, with arms and ac- 
coutrements, and provisions for four days. Within 
three days seven thousand men assembled, the greater 
part with the determination to follow Bradford in re- 
sistance to the Federal and^ State governments wher- 
ever he might lead. Mr. Lossing says, " It was 
Bradford's design to seize Fort Pitt and its arms and 
ammunition ; but he found most of the militia officers 
unwilling to co-operate in such an overt act of trea- 
son. But they readily consented to the perpetration 
of outrages against excise officers, and the whole 
country in that region was governed for the moment 
by the combined powers of mobocracy aod military 
despotism." Upon the receipt of this intelligence 
the President immediately called his cabinet together 
to take the necessary measures for the preservation of 
peace and the enforcement of the laws. It was agreed 
in the cabinet council that forbearance must now end, 
and the effective power of the government be put 
forth to suppress the rising rebellion. Accordingly, 
on August 7th Washington issued a proclamation 
warning the insurgents to disperse, and declaring that 



if tranquillity should not be restored in the disturbed 
counties before September 1st an armed force would 
be employed to compel submission to the laws. At 
the same time the President made a requisition on the 
Governors of Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and 
New Jersey for militia sufficient to compose an army 
of twelve thousand men. This number was subse- 
quently increased to fifteen thousand. The troops of 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania were directed to ren- 
dezvous at Bedford, and those of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia at Cumberland. The command of the expe- 
dition was conferred by Washington on Governor 
Richard Henry Lee, or " Light Horse Harry," as he 
was generally called, of Vir- 
ginia. Governor Mifflin, of 
Pennsylvania, and Governor 
Howell, of New Jersey, com- 
manded the militia of their 
respective States. Gen. Dan- 
iel Morgan commanded the 
militia of Virginia, and Gen. 
Samuel Smith, the hero of 
Fort Mifflin in 1777, and at 
this time the able representa- 
1.1 \ iii\i;tlee. tiveof Baltimore in Congress, 

commanded those of Mary- 
land. The latter took command August 17th, and 
immediately proceeded to organize his forces. Vol- 
unteers flocked to Baltimore from all portions of the 
State to await marcliing orders to the seat of war. 

The friends of the government in Western Mary- 
j land were in the mean time taking steps for their own 
I protection and for the maintenance of the laws. The 
I following notices published in the newspapers of the 
j period .show that in spite of its proximity to the dis- 
I affected region the spirit of loyalty was still strong 
I in this section : 

"The different Companies of jVIilitia in Hagerstown are re- 
quested to assemble at the Court-House, on .Saturday next, at 
two o'clock, at which time the troop will beat. 

" Dasiel Sti'll, Caj^l. 
" Robert Douglass, Capt. 
" JoH.v Geiger, Capt. 
" JoHS Lee, Cnpt. 
"Casper Siiaffner, Oipt. 
"Hagerstown, Aug. 27, 1794,. 

I " All those Gentlemen who are desirous of joining the voliin- 
Iteer company of Light Horse of Washington County, will 
please make application to Jacob Schnclby, captain. 
■Aug. 27, 1794." 

"Elizabeth Tows, Maryland, September 3. 
i " The following Citizens are Draughted in Col. Thomas 
pprigg's Regiment, viz. : From Capt. Joseph Hurst's Comp.any. 
jficorge Fuls, Peter Miller, Robert Mills. Clark Linn, and Snmuel 
jHenry ; Captain Ankeny's Company, Jacob Fiery, Jacob 
IHaynes, Henry Praither, Philip Miller, and Andrew Walker i 

Captain Bowles' Company, David Butterbough. John .Murry, 
Samuel Bowles, and Christian Mettz; Cnpt. Thomas Allen's 
Company, J„hn Kee, Joseph Wolganiott. Robert Chnlmbcrs, 
Edmond Norris, Basel Berry, and Henry Ensmouscr; Cnptnin 
Lantz's Company, John Schriver, William Thompson, and Frcil-' 
erick Shoop ; Captain Downey's Company. Isaac Young, John 
Raby, Casper Henry, Charles Carroll, 6! Dudington, and John 
Howard ; Captain Zellers' Company, John Newoanscr, Jacob 
Orendorff, John Schnebely. and John Fisher: Cnpt. James 
McClain's Company, James McClain,.iun , Henry Moudy, Archi- 
bald T.albot, and Robert McClain. The subsequent gentlemen 
of Capt. John Johnson's Company offered (henisclvcs as volun- 
teers on the present important crisis, viz. : Captain John John- 
son, Lieutenant David Miskimnian, Ensign Samuel Thomas, 
David Roberts, Gaas Roberts, Henry Proizman, Soloman Tay- 
lor, William Johnson, Joseph Johnson, Peter Johnson, Joshua 
Johnson, William Donncll, James McCallislcr, John Sowdcrs, 
John Smith, Benjamin Berry, Robert Boyd, Jeremiah Dugan, 
William Flint, Owen Dougherty, William Lanioy, and William 

On the Gth of September a meeting of such of the 
inhabitants as were exempt by law from military 
duty was held at the court-house in Frederick, 
Thomas Johnson in the chair, " to consider of the 
steps necessary to be taken to quiet the alarm occa- 
sioned by the insurgents. Besides the military guards 
on duty, it was unanimously agreed that a company 
should be formed of persons thus exempt to serve as 
guards at this place, whenever it may be necessary to 
act in support of the constitutional civil authority, or 
to repel any attempt that may be made to disturb the 
peace of the town or neighborhood. It was further 
resolved that as soon as fift^ persons should enroll 
themselves, a meeting should be held to choose the 
proper officers to command the company, and on the 
same day they were enrolled ; but the evening being 
then too far advanced to complete the business, they 
adjourned till Monday, eleven o'clock, when Sir. 
Johnson was unanimously chosen captain. Col. Price 
lieutenant, and Maj. Miller ensign." 

The forces assembled at Baltimore were joined by 
various military organizations of the town and its 
vicinity, among which were Capt. Mackenheimer's 
" First Baltimore Light Infantry," Capt. Strieker's 
" Independent Company," Capt. Coulson's" Mechanical 
Company," Capt. James A. Buchanan's " Baltimore 
Sans Culottes," Capt. Jcsup's rifle company, Maj. 
Lowry's " First Baltimore Battalion," in which were 
included Capt. Hugh Thompson's company of grena- 
diers, and Capt. William Robb's company of light 
infantry, and two troops of horse under Capt. John 
Bowen and Capt. Ruxton Moore. 

Most of these organizations had been formed pre- 
vious to this time. Capt. Mackenheimer's company 
was raised about 1787. Its uniform was light blue 
faced with white, and its parade-ground was on the 




present site of the Front Street Theatre, in Baltimore. 
The Independent Company, the Mechanical Company, 
the Baltimore Sans Culottes, and Capt. Jessup's rifle 
•company are said to have been organized about 1792. 
These, when the State militia was organized, consti- 
tuted the Fifth Regiment. The First Baltimore Bat- 
talion was raised about the same time, and comprised 
Capt. Hugh Thompson's company of grenadiers, two 
companies of batmen, as they were called, wearing 
cocked hats, and Capt. Robb's company of light in- 
fantry. The uniform of the organization was blue 
coat faced with red and edged with white, white vest 
and breeches, black knee-bands, short-laced boots, and 
white cotton hose. Capt. J. Bowen's troop of horse 
was associated with them ; uniform, green faced with 

i;\.LiIMul L tll\ IN laoi 

This body on parade made a splendid appearance, 
and were drilled twice a week in citizens' dress, on the 
west side of Harford Run, near old Trinity church, 
— this afterwards became the Twenty-seventh Regi- 
ment. The first rifle company adopted the dress of 
Morgan's riflemen of the Continental army, — huntinp:- 
shirt, with a profusion of fringe. The second rifle 
company was raised by Capt. Reese, father of John 
Reese, who was for many 3'ears president of the Fire- 
men's Insurance. Company of Baltimore; uniform, 
green faced with yellow. The uniform of Capt. 
Moore's company was blue and bufl". In this troop 
were several jrentlemen who had belonged to Pulaski's 

Legion. The uniform of the Sans Culottes, after- 
wards called the Independent Blues, was copied from 
the marine uuiform of the frigate " Astrea," then 
lying at Baltimore. It was worn buttoned close to 
the body, with the cartouche-belt inside. It was the 
first company that adopted pantaloons, breeches and 
stockings being then universally worn. 

Messrs. Daniel Cresap, John Lynn, and Gabriel 
Jacob, in a letter to Governor Lee, dated Cumberland, 
Sept. 2, 1794, say, — 

" We are very sorry to add, but we conceive it to be our indis- 
pensable duty to inform your Excellency that the spirit of insur- 
rection is not confined to the western counties of Pennsylvaniaj 
those to the eastward of the Allegany mountains are infected 
with the contagion ; and unless speedily prevented, may rise to a 
formidable height, and, perhaps, end in our destruction. Cum- 
berland both been threatened, an attempt hath been made there 
to raise a liberty-pole {which is the in- 
signia or badge by which the insur- 
-^=^ gents are now discriminated), but by 

the exertions of the most respectable 
citizens it was prevented. In other 
parts of the country they have suc- 
ceeded. The papers of the excise 
officers have been demanded. We are 
threatened with the Peunsylvanians, 
whom, the disaffected h^re say. they 
will call to their assistance. Should it 
take place, God only knows what will 
be the event; however, let the event 
be what it may, our exertions, friended, 
we trust, b}'^ the most respectable of the 
country, will not be wanting. In our 
situation, we think it our duty to re- 
quest of you to forward to us arms and 
accoutrements, these we will distribute 
amongst the men in whom we may con- 
fide. Those who are willing to support 
the measures of the government have 
it not in their power. Should you be 
l^^^^KjC-'^'^^^^'^^^^^^^^^ able to obtain the approbation of coun- 
cil, you will please forward us two 
hundred stand of arms, and order to I 
" our protection a small detachment of ] 

*" ~" militia, consisting of cavalry and in- j 

fantry, to be selected from those coun- 
ties which are well disposed to the I 
laws of the Union, and particularly the Excise law. We hope [ 
the example of Baltimore Town will sanction the transmittingof 
public arms, and that your conduct will, on thi-s occasion, as it 
then did, meet with the approbation of the Legislature." 

On September 6th, Secretary Hamilton wrote to 
Governor Lee, — 

"War Department, Sept. 6, 1794. 
"Sir, — I am directed by the President to notice to your Ex- 
cellency that information has been received that some riotous 
proceedings have taken place in the upper part of Baltimore, 
County and in the neighborhod of Hagerstown, connected with 
the insurrection in the western counties of Pennsylvania. He 
instructs me to observe that it appears to him of the highest 
iuiportiince that efficient measures should be pursued to sup- 
pre:-s the first beginning of this spirit in your State, and thereby 





to cheek the progress of an evil which radically threatens the 
order, peace, and tranquillity of the country. Much depends, 
in such a crisis as the present, on an early display of energy 
under the guidance of the legal precaution. It is understood 
that the magazine of arms of the State is at Frederick. Ade- 
quate means no doubt will be used to prevent the possibility 
of these falling into bad hands. 

'' With great respect, I have the honor to be your Excellency's 
most obedient and humble servant, 

"A. Hamilton. 
"His E.iceellency Thomas S. Lee, Esq., Governor of Mary- 

Again on September 15th, Hamilton wrote to Gov- 
ernor Lee tliat 

'*it is the President's desire that no time should be lost in 
j uniting the whole of the militia of Maryland at Fort Cumber- 
I land. If the commanding officer has not already taken the 
I field, it is desirable that he should do so without delay, in order 
j to combine, arrange, and accelerate their ulterior movements." 

On September 15th the Governor sent by express a 
requisition for Baltimore troops, in consequence of a 
report that the insurgents had assembled in consider- 
able numbers near Cumberland, with the intention of 
marching to Frederick to 
seize the State arms de- 
posited in the ar.senal. 
The order reached Balti- 
more on Sunday, while 
the people were at their 
several places of worship. 
General Smith was at the 
time attending service at 
the First Presbyterian 
church, and was imme- 
diately sent for. He at 
once ordered the drums 
to beat and the troops to a.ssemble on the parade- 
ground near Harford Run. A correspondent in the 
Maryland Gazette of the 18th gives the following 
graphic description of this call to arms : 

"A more warlike apjiearanee, perhaps, our town has not ex- 
hibited since the year 1776 than it did yesterday, in conse- 
quence of an express from the Governor to General Smith. 
The militia of this town were requested to meet on the parade, 
near the old theater, at 4 p.m. They met accordingly, when a 
circle was formed, and Gen. Smith, in a short but energetic ad- 
dress, informed them of the object of their meeting; that it 
was in consequence of an intended attack by the insurgents 
beyond the mountains upon the arsenal at Frederick Town, 
with a view of taking off all the arms, etc., and that three 
(hundred volunteers of infantry, besides artillery and cavalry, 
j were required immediately to march under the command of Col. 
I Strieker and secure it. ' It is not,' said he, ' against an enemy 
tthat we have to march, but a set of men more daring than 
the rest, a lawless banditti, who set themselves up to govern. 
1 Shall we permit them to seize our arms and give us laws, or 
shall we keep them and give laws to ourselves ?' (We could 


not hear the whole of the general's speech.) He concluded his 
harangue by putting the question, ' Will you go as volunteers 
or will you be drafted V Melancholy as the circumstances arc, 
it is with pleasure we have it in our power to inform the pub- 
lic that they turned out voluntarily to nearly treble the requi- 
sition, and that the unanimity displayed on the occasion could 
hardly be surpassed. This is the test of patriotism." 

The Fifth Regiment was ordered to parade at the 
court-house on Monday morning following at nine 
o'clock, in marching order, and at the time appointed 
took up the line of march for Frederick under the com- 
mand of Col. Strieker, being twenty-five cavalry and 
two hundred and twenty-five infantry. The Twenty- 
seventh Regiment set out on Tuesday morning, fol- 
lowed by a company of volunteers from Worcester 
County. On the 18th over three hundred more 
marched, and later in the week six hundred additional 
men. On the 15th a part of the volunteer militia of 
Annapolis marched to Frederick, and on the succeed- 
ing day a detachment of light dragoons. In a letter 
dated from Frederick a few days later, after the arrival 
of part of the militia, a correspondent writing to a 
friend in Baltimore says, — 

" I know your anxiety to hear from us. Reports have, I 
fear, pictured our situation dreadful. The march of the troops 
from both Baltimore and Georgetown has been singularly ex- 
peditious. Capt. Moore and his troop, that would do honor to 
any army, arrived about the middle of yesterday. Col. Strieker 
and a most beautiful corps of fine young fellows are now re- 
freshing themselves at Monocacy. The troops from George- 
town left that place at five o'clock Sunday evening, and arrived 
here Monday before night. The grenadiers from the city of 
Washington, and other troops from the neighborhood, came in 
yesterday. The militia of the county have behaved truly 
praiseworthy, and as becomes freemen they are returning to 
their homes ; for,. rest assured, we shall never see the face of an 
insurgent unless he is sought for in the mountains, as you 
would a wolf. We are not, nor ever have been, in any danger. 
A number of idle reports have alarmed some of our citizens 
without cause." 

On the 19th twenty men on horseback arrived in 
Frederick from Hagerstown with an account " that 
the deluded people of Allegany and Washington 
Counties were embodying, and might be expected to 
attack Frederick the next day." There were then, 
according to contemporaneous accounts, five hundred 
troops at Frederick, " well armed, in high spirits, and 
desirous that the insurgents would make the attack ; 
and besides, the Baltimore horse were within a few 
miles ; the first detachment of foot would be at New 
Market on Tuesday evening ; the second detachment 
were apprised of the alarm." 

The following letter from Elizabeth Town, Wash- 
ington County, under date of the 24th of September, 
fives an interesting account of the condition of afiairs 
in that locality at this crisis ; 



"Saturday last bis Excellency the Governor of this State 
arrived here, and returned on Monday morning. The opposi- 
tion of the excise law grew, by progression, as well to an oppo- 
sition to all law and authority as to a personal enmity to 
individuals in this town, inasmuch as the pole, which had been 
erected in this town by the rabble, was secretly cut down, per- 
haps by one of themselves, in order to have a colorable pretext 
again to insult the peaceable citizens, and wreak vengeance on 
those to whom they had at any time hitherto taken umbrage. 
As a prelude to another affray, some dark assassin put a hand- 
bill at the market-house, ordering, by name, some of the prin- 
cipal citizens of the town to erect another pule or they should 
be put to death. This order and threat was valiantly despised 
by those worthy citizens. In the mean time a party were as- 
sembling along the verge of the South Mountain, in order, as 
was said, to attack the magazine and town of Frederick. That 
expedition, however, failed. At this stage of the business, and 
finding the tui'bulence of faction still increase, some volunteers 
of our cavaliy and infantry mounted guard, patrolled the streets, 
sent detachments into the country, apprehended some of the 
principals, and brought them to justice. The vigilance and 
alacrity of our citizens on this occasion to support government 
was too conspicuous to be passed over in silence, and, without 
detracting any merit from the many distinguished patriots of 
this town, the names of Capts. Lee and Schnebly are honorably 
mentioned. At this juncture, on last Friday, a detachment of 
volunteers and drafts arrived in town, under the command of 
Gen. Bailey, consisting of seventy cavalry and two hundred 
and fifty infantry, from Baltimore, Georgetown, and Frederick- 
town. Their presence had a good effect; . . . they assisted in the 
work which had been begun of bringing the culprits to justice ; 
... a tribute of gratitude is due to those troops for their kind and 
prompt assistance, . . . but finding there remained little occasion 
for them here they returned home on last Monday morning, . . . 
about which time arrivtd two hundred volunteers and drafts, 
under the command of Maj. Lynn, who are destined for the 
Western country, but are to remain here till further orders, and 
are now under the command of that old veteran soldier, Maj. Ott. 
Those fascinated oppositionists, who defied the arm of govern- 
ment, have at length tamely submitted to the law, . . . even 
sixteen of them surrendered to five of the cavalry. They in 
general plead ignorance as their shield, notwithstanding that 
incomparably eloquent and persuasive oration delivered by Mr. 
Mason two days before the riots began, and notwithstanding 
the expostulation and exertions of Col. Spring, Col. Shryock, 
]Maj. Price, and others, at the risk of their lives, when they 
were about erecting the pole in the town. 

" The Hon, Judge Craik, and some of the magistrates of the 
county, have been busily employed in the examination of the 
culprits, and have, we understand, admitted sundry to bail. 
Upon the whole, we doubt not that justice will be done, and 
that every species of unnecessary severity will be avoided on 
the occasion, . . . well knowing that affection as well as sub- 
mission is requisite to the security of a Republican government, 
. . . and that affection arises from a sense and experience of 
the blessings of liberty and order." 

On the morning of the 23d September the volun- 
teers who had marched froiu different parts of the 
State to Frederiektown to act against the insurgents, 
met on the grand parade in Baltimore, and having 
performed the manual, were drawn up in a large 
circle, when Col. Strieker, accompanied by the Gov- 
ernor himself, read the following address from his 
Excellency : 


"The commander-in-chief feels it incumbent on him, on this 
occasion, to present on the part of the State, whose character, 
peace, and security were so largely endangered, and for him- 
self, his warmest acknowledg- 
ments to all the officers and sol- 
diers who had given their ser- 
vices under this requisition, and 
who by so doing have not only 
effected the restoration of order 
and safety in their own State, 
but have given a material check 
to the views of the insurgents in 
Pennsylvania, who will despair 
hereafter of aiding their wretched 
designs by the seduction of their 
neighbors. Thus, conceiving that 
an important service has been 
rendered by the militia serving 
under his orders, the commander- 
in-chief, with congratulations and thanks, discharges them from 
the present service. 

''Thomas S. Lee," 

At a meeting of a number of the people of Wash- 
ington County held at the court-house in Elizabeth 
Town, on Friday, the 26th of September, 1794, Col. 
Henry Shryock, chairman, and John Thomson Mason, 

"it was proposed and agreed to, that Messrs, Nathaniel Roch- 
ester, Henry -Scbnebely, Samuel Ringgold, William Clark, 
and John Thomson Mason be requested to prepare an address 
from the meeting to Col. Thomas Sprigg, who prepared the fol- 
lowing, which was read, approved, and ordered to be printed in 
Washington, Frederick, and Baltimore newspapers: 

"*To Col. Thomas Sprigg: 

"*i??V, — By the unanimous voice of the persons present at 
this meeting you are solicited once more to permit us to cast our 
suffrages upon you as the person, in our opinion, most proper 
to represent this district in Congress. We beg leave to re- 
turn you our thanks for your past services in that station, and 
to manifest our approbation of your conduct as our representa- 
tive. We beg leave, more particularly at this time, to thank 
you for your late constant, unremitted, prudent, and spirited 
exertions in endeavoring to suppress those unhappy tumults 
that have disturbed the peace and threatened the safety of the 
well-disposed citizens amongst us. The manner in which cer- 
tain reports have been secretly and industriously circulated, 
and the inexcusable misrepresentations that have been made, 
excite our highest indignation, antl we feel ourselves injured 
in the attem])ts made to calumniate you. But whilst we assure 
you of our determination to support you at the ensuing elec- 
tion, we hope, and confidently trust, that every honorable and 
manly exertion will be made on your part to gratify the wishes 
and effectuate the endeavours of your friends. 

"'Signed, by order of the meeting. 

*''H. Shryolk, Chairman. 

"^ John T. Mason, Secretary.' 

** We do certify that, in company with Mr. George Price and 
others at Col. Sprigg's, it was mentioned that the Frederick 
ligjit-horse intended to march to Hagerstown to cut down the 
liberty-pole which a mob had some days before erected. In an- j 
swer to which Col. Sprigg observed, he was very sorry to hear it; 
that, if it was necessary, he could cut the pole down himself^ 
and that, if he knew when they intended to come up, he would i 



oppose their cutting it down ; that he had seen a very disagreeable 
diiy in Ilagerstown. and that if the pole wns cut down, nnd no 
force remained in that place to prevent its being set up again, the 
mob would return more enraged than before, set up the liberty- 
pole, and insult the inhabitants, who were not in a situation to 
protect themselves. That it would reflect, too, upon Washing- 
ton County, and that it would be better to suspend cutting the 
pole down for a short time, until a force sutiieient to prevent 
its being set up again should arrive in Hagerstown to protect 
the inhabitants, and bring those to justice who had thus of- 
fended against the laws of their country. 

"William Fitzhi'gh, .Tr., 
"William Fitziiugh, Sr. 
"Sept. 28, 1794." 

"N.B.— Capt. Hunter, from Baltimore, Capt. William Camp- 
bell, and Maj. Taylor, and some others, were present when this 
conversation took place. I am satisfied that the above state- 
ment represents the substance of Col. Sprigg's conversation 
therein alluded to, and, although it is not probably in his 
words, it fully conveys the ideas recei\'ed from his expressions. 
" George Price. 

"Sept. 28, 1794." 

" Wo certify that we were present in Hagerstown on the 1st 
day of September, 1794, when the mob so much talked of hap- 
pened. We also certify that Col. Thomas Sprigg was then 
present, and that he exerted himself in a most singular and 
spirited manner to prevent the erection of the liberty-pole, that 
Wiis then raised, and to disperse the mob. We were witness to 
many insults that he received from the mob in consequence of 
his exertions, and we often supposed his person in danger. We 
have also been witness to the active and decided part which 
Col. Sprigg has since taken to bring those insurgents to justice, 
and do think this county under particular obligations to that 
Gentleman for the part he has acted. 

"Adam Ott, 
" H. Shrvock, 
" Rezin Davis, 
" Wm. Lee, 
" Bexj. Clagett, 
"N. Rochester, 
" JosiAH Prick." 

At the time Washington issued his first proclama- 
tion he appointed Senator Ross, Mr. Bradford, the 
Attorney-General, and Mr. Yates, a judge of the Su- 
preme Court of Pennsylvania, commissioners on the 
part of the Federal government to visit the insurgent 
counties with discretionary powers to offer lenient 
terms to the oiTenders, and, if possible, induce them 
to submit to the laws, and disband before the 14th of 
September. They were joined by Chief Justice Mc- 
Kean and Gen. Irvine, commissioners appointed on the 
part of Pennsylvania. These commissioners visited 
the insurgents, who refused all compliance, and they 
returned to Philadelphia and reported the failure of 
their mission. The President then issued his procla- 
mation of the 25th of September, in which he vividly 
described the defiant spirit with which the lenient 
propositions of the government had been met, and de- 
clared his determination to reduce them to submission 
by coercive measures. As if anticipating the result 

of the commissioners' mission, Alexander Hamilton 
had previously addressed the following letter to Gov- 
ernor Lee : 

" Waii Dei'Ahtmknt, Sept. 17, 1794. 

"Sir, — The intelligence received from the western counties 
of Pennsylvania, which comes down to the lath instant, and 
announces, as far as it was then known, the result of the meet- 
ings of the people in the several townships and district.^ to ex- 
press their sense on the question of submission or resistance to 
the laws, — while it shows a great proportion of the inhabitants 
of these counties disposed to pursue the path of duty, shows, 
also, that there is a large and violent party which can only be 
controlled by the application of force. This being the result, 
it is become the more indispensable and urgent to press for- 
ward the forces destined to act against the insurgents with all 
possible activity and energy. The advanced season leaves no 
time to spare, — and it is extremely important to alTord speedy 
protection to the well disposed, and to prevent the preparation 
and accumulation of greater means of resistance and the ex- 
tension of combinations to abet the insurrection. The President 
counts upon every exertion upon your part which so serious and 
eventful an emergency demands. 

" With perfect respect, I have the honor to be, sir, your obe- 
dient servant, 

"Alexander Hamilton. 
" His Excellency Tiios. S. Lee, Governor of Maryland." 

In October Washington left Philadelphia, deter- 
mined to lead the army in person, and, accompanied 
by the Secretary of War, he proceeded to Fort Cum- 
berland, the place of rendezvous for the Maryland 
and Virginia troops, where he arrived on the 16th.' 

1 The following notices throw light upon some of the local 
military movements at this time in progress in Western Mary- 
land : 

" A Tnoop OF Horse. 

" Those persons who are desirous of joining a troop of Horse 
will apply to Samuel Ringgold, he being autjioriz.ed by the Field- 
officers to raise a troop. 

" Hagerstown, Oct. 1, 1794." 

"Battalion Orders. 
" The Captains of companies composing my Battalion, in 
the Twenty-fourth Regiment of militia of this State, will meet 
on the parade at the court-house, on Thursday, the 30th, to 
march to Cannon Hill for exercise. 

" Adam Ott, 
"Major Twenty-fourth Regiment M. M. 
" Washington County, October 28th." 

" Elizabethtown, October 28th. 
" Capt. John Lee's company of infantry is desired to parade 
on Thursday next at one o'clock. A full attendance is ex- 

"A meeting of Capt. Schnebly's troop of Horse is requested 
at Mr. Kagan's tavern, on Friday evening next, at six o'clock, 
in order to consult upon the most eligible method of having the 
said troop equipped." 

"Elizabeth Town, Maryland, October 7th. 
"Accounts from all quarters mention the marching of the 
militiaagainst the Western insurgents . . . thetroops which were 
stationed here, as well as the quota of this place, marched yes- 
terday in order to join the other troops of the State at Wil- 
liamsport, under the command of Gen. Smith." 



The Pennsylvania and New Jersey troops had 
moved from Carlisle on the 10th of October. A 
large number of the Maryland and Virginia troops 
were assembled at Cumberland. Upon Washington's 
arrival he received such information as convinced him 
that the spirits of the insurgents were broken, and 
hastened on to Bedford, thirty miles distant, and there 
this intelligence was confirmed. " The assembling of 
the militia from Maryland and Virginia at Cumber- 
land created great excitement in the village. How 
long they remained here is not exactly known, but on 
the 18th of October Washington arrived, and spent 
several days inspecting the condition of the men and 
their supplies. On the 19th he appeared in full uni- 
form, and held a review on the old parade-ground of 
Fort Cumberland, at which the entire population of 
the town was present. This was the last occasion 
upon which he wore his uniform. The troops had 
been encamped along Will's Creek, on what was 
known as the ' Island,' where they had good water 
from a spring near by. On the 19th the command 
was marched up to the parade-ground, where the 
court-house now stands, and drawn up for inspection. 

" Gen. Washington rode along the line, from the 
right to the left, and was loudly cheered by the men. 
Afterwards the command marched in review, and 
Washington raised his hat as a salute while they 
passed. Gens. Lee and Morgan were both present 
and participated. Hon. Alexander R. Boteler has in 
his possession an oil-painting representing this review. 
It was the work of an amateur artist, and upon its 
completion passed into the hands of Gen. Daniel 
Morgan." ' 

Satisfied that his presence would be no longer 
needed with the army. Gen. Washington returned to 
Philadelphia, leaving Governor Lee, of Virginia, in 
command. The troops crossed the Allegany Moun- 
tains in a heavy rain, marching sometimes in mud up 
to their knees, and the two wings formed a junction 
at Union Town. As they advanced into the insur- 
gent country all signs of rebellion disappeared, aod 
the leaders fled. After the adoption of a few pre- 
cautionary measures, most of the troops were sent to 
their homes, and thus, without the shedding of a drop 
of blood, ended a rebellion which at one time threat- 
ened the very existence of the Union. 

The following letter was addressed by Alexander 
Hamilton to Governor Lee shortly after the suppres- 
sion of the insurrection : 

'■War Departmext, Nov. 24, 1794. 
" Sir, — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a 
letter of the 18th instant from the Executive Council of Mary- 

^ Lowdermilk. 

land, and to congratulate you and them on the disappearance of 
the insurrection in Maryland. 

" The President has seen with great satisfaction the laudable 
vigor with which it was met by the (iovernment, the excellent 
disposition manifested by the citizens, and the speedy termi- 
nation of the disturbance. Such an example cannot but have 
the best effect. 

** Though severity towards offenders is to be avoided as much 
as can consist with the safety of society, yet impunity in such 
cases is apt to produce too much promptitude in setting the 
laws at defiance. Repeated instances of such impunity in 
Pennsylvania are perhaps the principal cause of the misfortune 
which now afflicts itself, and through it the United States. The 
disturbers of the peace familiarly appeal to the past experience 
of unpunished offences as an encouragement to the perpetra- 
tion of new ones. This general reflection will no doubt be duly 
adverted to by the judiciary and other authorities of Maryland. 

" With great respect and esteem, I have the honor to be, Sir, 
your most obedient servant, 

" Alexander Hamilton. 

"His Excellency Thomas Sim Lee, Governor of Maryland." 

Upon the return of the Maryland troops, Gen. Lee 
acknowledged their services in the following letter to 
the Governor : 

"Headquarters, Nov. 26, 1794 
"Sir, — The period having arrived when the army entrusted 
to my direction by the President of the United States, having 
accomplished the object of their advance into this country, are 
about to return home, I should commit violence on my own 
feelings were I not to express to your Excellency my very high 
ideas of their merit. Suddenly brought into the field, they 
were unprepared for the hardships which they encountered. 
Nevertheless, disregarding the distress to which they were con- 
sequently in a greater degree exposed, they continued to evi- 
dence, with firmness and zeal, the purity of the princijiles by 
which they were moved, and terminated their campaign in 
perfect corresjiondence with the patriotism which impelled them 
to exchange domestic enjoyments for the toils and privations 
inseparable from military life. To all is due the tribute of ap- 
plause which ever attends the faithful and animated discharge 
of duty, but to one class something more is due. Those inesti- 
mable and friendless citizens who fill the ranks seem to have 
been scarcely noticed in the legal provisions for compensation. 
" If the example exhibited by* my companions in arms is 
deemed worthy of attention, I derive great consolation from 
my hopes that the State Legislature will take into consideration 
the inequality which at present exists in the pay allowed to the 
officers and to the soldiers, and, so far as respects the fliithful 
army under my orders, will be pleased to manifest their sense 
of the conduct of the troops by rendering the pecuniary com- 
pensation of the soldiers proportionate to that given to the 
officers. The justice and policy of such interposition are alike 
evident, and will be peculiarly acceptable, 

" Another point, in which both officers and soldiers are inter- 
ested, claims, in my humble oj)inion, legislative notice. Al- 
though the wise and temperate system adopted by the President 
of the United States averted the heaviest of all human calami- 
ties, and saved the effusion of blood, yet the sufferings which 
the army experienced from the extreme severity of the weather 
have deprived many families of their dearest friend and chief 
support. To alleviate their miseries, by extending to them, 
with equity and liberality, the public aid, is the only possible 
retribution which can be made by the community, and I flatter 
myself it is only necessary to make known the existence of 
such cases to secure to the sufferers the requisite legal provision. 




" I forbear to gratify my affectionate attachment to my fel- 
low-citizens in arms with me, by yielding to my solicitude for 
their welfare, and subjoiniug the many observations which my 
knowledge of their virtue and sufferings crowds upon my mind, 
in the confidence that their conduct best bespeaks their worth, 
and that the General Assembly will take pleasure in manifest- 
ing their respect to real merit. 

" I have the honor to be, with great respect, your most obe- 
dient servant, "RcH. Hy. Lee." 

And as a further recognition of their services, the 
General Assembly, on the 24th of December, 1794, 

" Resolved, uvauimously. That the thanks of this Legislature 
be given to the officers and privates of the militia of this State, 
who on the late call of the President rallied round the standard 
of the laws, and in the prompt and severe services which they 
encountered bore the most illustrious testimony to the value of 
the Constitution and the blessings of internal peace and order; 
and that the Governor be requested to communicate the above 
vote of thanks in such manner as he may judge most accept- 
able to the patriotic citizens who are its subjects." ^ 

The Encroachments of England and France. — 

The war between France and England transferred a 
large portion of the laboring population of the former 

I The military revival caused by the Whisky Insurrection and 
the anticipated trouble with France did not die out with the 
suppression of the outbreak in Western Pennsylvania, but con- 
tinued with increasing force until after the conclusion of the 
war with England in 1812. Such Washington County notices 
as the following show that the militia laws were strictly en- 
forced, and the military organizations carefully maintained and 
kept in a state of preparation and discipline: 

"The different companies forming Maj. Ott's battalion are 
desired to attend parade on Saturday, the 25th instant. It is 
expected every member will be punctual. 

" Daniel Stcll, Captuiu. 
" John Geyer, Captain. 
" Robert Douglass, Captain. 
" Casper Shaffner, Captain. 
"John Lee, Captain. 
" Elizabethtown, April 14, 1795." 

"The companies commanded by Capt. Bowles, Ankeny, Mc- 
Clain, Hurst, and Johnston are desired to meet at the lower 
Quarter of John Barnes, Esq., on the third Saturday in August 
next, at one o'clock, in order to exercise in battalion, agreeable 
to law. JosiAH Price, 

"1st Major Eighth Eegt., Washiiir/lun Couiilt/ Militia, Marijlnnd. 
"July 28, '95." 

"The companies commanded by Capt. Wellar, Lantz, Rench, 
and Allen are desired to meet at Gen. Sprigg's quarter, on Sat- 
urday, the 29th instant, to exercise in battalion, agreeably to 
law. Charles Carroll, Major. 

"Elizabethtown, Aug. 18, 1795." 

Battalion Orders. 
"The different companies forming my Battalion are desired 
to meet in Mr. Ringgold's Lane, on the third Tuesday in this 
month, to exercise in Battalion, agreeably to law. 
"Aug. 11, 1795." 

"The different companies forming Maj. Ott's Battalion, are 
desired to attend parade on Saturday, the 30th instant. It is 
expected every member will be punctual. 

"Daniel Stoll, Captain. 
" Casper Shaffner, Captain. 
"John Geyer, Captain. 
" Robert Dodglass, Captain. 
"John Lee, Captain. 
"Elizabethtown, April 14, 1796." 

Regimental Muster. 
"The officers with their companies composing the Eighth 
Regiment are requested to attend regimental muster on the 
last Saturday in this month, precisely at twelve o'clock, at Mr. 
Rowland Chambers's tavern, near Mr. Jacques's Furnace. 
"JosiAH Price, 
■•Culoncl Eighlh n,j,jimail, Mari/l,nnl Militia. 
" Oct. 6, 1796." 

April 9, 1797, M. Bartgis was captain of the Fredericktown 
riflemen, and August 9th, same year, Valentine Brother was 
captain-commandant of the Fredericktown battalion. 

"Hagerstown, Aug. 2, 179S. 
"The Companies commanded by Capts. Klinger, Rutledge, 
Davis, Langley, Able, and Brookbank, and Maj. David Funk, 
will meet at the cross-roads at Capt. John Langley'.'i, on Satur- 
day, the 11th inst., precisely at twelve o'clock." 

"Georgetown, Jiin. 13, 1799. 
" The following army officers from Maryland have just been 
appointed: Capls. William Spencer, John C. Beatty, Thomas 
Beatty, Jr., Lloyd Beall, Gerard Briscoe, Rezin Davidge, 
Bradley Beans, Isaac Spencer, William Nicholson, .Jacob Nor- 
ris, Lieuts. Richard Tilghman, William Elliott, Edward A. 
Howard, Richard W, West, John B. Barnes, Ninian Pinkney, 
Levi Alexander, Matt'hew Tilghman. Henry C. Neale, Aquilla 
Beall ; Ensigns, Alexander Cooper, John Brengle, Enos Noland, 
Thomas Dent, Levi Hillary, John AVarrcn, William Swan, Levi 
G. Ford, Daniel Hughes; Cornet, Richard Cook; Lieut.-Col., 
Josias C. Hall." 

"Hagerstown, April 18, 179 
" The Volunteer Troop of Washington Blues are requested 
to attend at their usual place of parade on Saturday, the 27th 
inst., precisely at one o'clock in the afternoon. Every member 
is requested to be punctual and in full uniform. 
" By order of the Captain, 

"George Price, Secrelart/." 

" Hagerstown, Apr. 25, 1799. 
"In consequence of the resignation of Lieut.-Col. Rezin 
Davis, the Governor and Council have been pleased to appoint 
me to command of the 24th Regt. of the Maryland Militia. 
The officers commanding companies in the 24th Regt. are there- 
fore requested, on or before the first day of May next, to make 
returns thereof, as directed by the 14th section of the supple- 
ment to the Militia act, passed at November session, 1798. 
"William Fitzhugh, 
" Lieut.-Col. 2ith Regt. Militia." 

" Hagerstown, Aug. 1, 1799. 
" All persons between the ages of twenty-one and thirty 
years, belonging to the 8th Regiment, are requested to meet at 
Kersner's Tavern, at the Cross roads (where said Regiment an- 
nually meets), on the third Saturday in August next, at 12 
o'clock, for the purpose of completing the Select Company of 
said Heginient agreeably to Law. It is expected that those 
Captains who have not yet returned their lists to me, will bring 
them to the above place, in proper time for business. 

" Joseph Price, 
"Lieut.-Col. Sth Jlegl., Washington County, Manjiand." 

"Hagerstown, Sept. 19, 1799. 
" Ordered, that the 8th Regiment of the 2nd brig.ide of 
Militia, be paraded on Saturday, the 19th day of October next. 



from their usual avocations to the armies, and this, 
with other causes, produced a scarcity of provisions 
in France. Induced by this state of things, France 
opened her ports to neutral commerce, while Great 
Britain, in the hope of reducing her enemy by famine, 
determined to cut off all external supplies. Instruc- 
tions were accordingly issued on the 8th of June, 
1793, and renewed on the 6th of November, 1794, 
by the British Privy Council to the commanders of 
British ships-of-war and privateers, directing them 
" to stop and detain all ships laden with goods, the 
produce of any colony belonging to France, or carry- 
ing provisions or other supplies for the use of such 
colonies, and to bring the same, with their cargoes, to 
legal adjudication in our Courts of Admiralty." 

This Order in Council, which was a most lawless in- 
vasion of neutral rights, in a few weeks swept the seas 
of our commerce. Hundreds of our vessels engaged 
in the French West India trade were without pre- 
vious notice captured, and many of our merchants 
were reduced to bankruptcy. The intelligence of this 
procedure excited universal indignation throughout 
the United States. There was a general clamor for 
war among all parties. Several violent measures were 
moved and debated in Congress, — among the rest, the 
sequestration of all British property in the United 
States for the purpose of indemnifying our merchants. 
While Congress was engaged in debating on various 
modes of procuring redress for the outrages committed 
on American commerce by the English and French 
nations. President Washington arrested its career by 
the appointment of Chief Justice John Jay, of New 
York, as ministej; extraordinary to the British gov- 
ernment. He embarked from New York on the 12th 
of May, 1794, and on the 19th of May, 1795, he 

the 10th Regiment on the 22nd, and the 24th Regiment on the 
26th day of the same month, each at nine o'clock in the 

"T. Sprigg, Br!y.-Gen. 2nd Brigade. 
"Sept. 19, 1799. 

" The Lieutenant-Colonels are requested to let me know where 
they intend to parade their respective Regiments. 

"J. Buchanan, Brigade Major 2nd Brigade. 
"Hagerstown, Sept. 19, 1799." 

" Hagerstown, Oct. 31, 1799. 
" The members com()Osing the Troop of "Washington Blues 
are requested to meet at their usual place of parade, on Satur- 
day the 9th of November nest, at one o'clock precisely, in com- 
plete uniform, and si.x rounds of blank cartridges. It is ex- 
pected that the troopers will be punctual in their attendance, 
as there is some business to be laid before them. 

" By order, 0. H. Williams, .S'ec." 

"Hagerstown, Aug. 21, 1800. 
" Captain Schnebly's Troop of Horse are requested to parade 
on Saturday next, the 23rd instant, at 9 o'clock in the morning 
with the Batallion." 

concluded a treaty with Lord Grenville in London, 
which was submitted to their respective governments 
for ratification. 

This celebrated treaty, which bears Minister Jay's 
name, was defective in many parts and very objection- 
able in others ; but owing to the troubled state of 
Europe, it was the best that he could obtain. The 
ratification of it disturbed the political atmosphere to 
such an extent that it shook the Union to its founda- 
tion, and pi'oduced intense excitement throughout the 
country. On the 1st of June, 1796, at the close of 
the exciting session of Congress in which Jay's treaty 
had been the chief topic of debate, Washington re- 
tired for partial repose to his home at Mount Vernon. 
While there he determined to leave public life at the 
close of his term of oflBce in Blarch following ; and, 
with this object in view, he prepared his " Farewell 
Address to the People of the United States," to be 
published in time to enable them to his suc- 
cessor at the appointed season. As this hour was 
drawing near, the President's enemies did everything 
in their power to prejudice him in the public mind. 
His most intimate friends knew that he would not 
consent to a re election ; but his reserve on the sub- 
ject and the long delay of making public announce- 
ment of his determination puzzled the politicians. 
However, while political and partisan abuse of the 
grossest kind was being heaped upon the head of the 
President, his " Farewell Address" appeared. It was 
made public about the middle of September, 1796, 
and produced a great sensation throughout the coun- 
try. For a time the ribald voice of party spirit was 
subdued in tone, and to detraction and attack suc- 
ceeded expressions of veneration and love for the 
author of the Address. 

At the Presidential election which succeeded, John 
Rousby Plater, Francis Deakins, George Murdock, 
John Lynn, Gabriel Duvall, John Archer, John 
Gilpin, John Roberts, John Eccleston, and John 
Done were chosen electors for Maryland. The votes 
of the i]lectoral College for President of the United 
States were opened and counted in the United States i 
Senate on the 8th of February, 1797, and resulted in i 
the election of John Adams as President, and Thomas ; 
Jefferson as Vice-President. 

The difficulties with France still continued, and 
created no little public excitement and agitation, i 
Meetings were held in all sections of the country ' 
demanding a vigorous policy against France, and ap- I 
proving the firmness with which the new adminis- 
tration seemed about to deal with the important . 
questions involved. Many meetings of this character , 
were held in Western Maryland. 



"At a numerous meeting of the citizens of Fredericktown 
and county, held at the court-house in Fredericktown on Sat- 
urday, the 2Sth of April, 179S, after public notice being given, 
Thomas Johnson in the chair, Valentine Brother was appointed 
secretary, and the following resolutions were adopted and or- 
dered to be published; 

"1st. lieaohed unnnimoiitlj/, That the President of the United 
States is entitled to tlie thanks of his fellow-citizens for his 
wise, firm, and patriotic conduct in endeavoring to bring our 
differences with France to a speedy, amicable, and honorable 
adjustment; that his instructions to our ministers and their 
powers of negotiations were ample, candid, and liberal; and 
that our envoys ought to have experienced a reception very 
different from the one they liave met with. 

"2d. Remlved unaiiimoitsli/, That our envoys have discharged 
their duty in a manner calculated to impress their fellow-citi- 
zens with the greatest respect for their ability and patriotism, 
and with gratitude fur their services. 

"3d. JiesoUed unainmomli/, That it is our fixed determina- 
tion to support the Constitution of the United States as now 
established, and the liberty and independence of America 
against all foreign nations whatsoever; and we view with the 
utmost detestation the attempts made by foreigners to divide 
the citizens of this country, and to set them at variance with a 
government of their own choice. 

"4th. Resolved, That the chairman be requested to inclose 
the foregoing resolutions to the representative of this district, 
to be by him laid before the President and the Congress of the 
United States." 

The following reply was received from the Presi- 
dent : 


State of Maryland: 

" Gentlemen, — A copy of your resolutions of the 23d of April 
has been presented to me by your Representative in Congress, 
Mr. Baer. 

"The honorable testimony of your thanks to me, of your ap- 
plause of our envoys, of your determination to support the 
Constitution and independence of America against all foreign 
nations, your detestation of the attempts made by foreigners to 
divide the citizens of this country, and to set them at variance 
with the government of their choice, would be highly pleasing 
under all circumstances, and are increased in value to me by 
having been passed and certified under the auspices of one of 
the few who remain of my ancient and most respected col- 
leagues in the first councils of the nation. 

"John Adams. 
• "Philadelphia, May 8, 1798." 

Washington did not remain long in retirement, for 
on the 2d of July, 1798, owing to the attempts of 
the French to degrade the United States into a trib- 
utary of France, the indignities offered to the repre- 
sentatives of our government, and the injuries inflicted 
upon our commerce. President Adams nominated and 
the Senate confirmed him as " lieutenant-general 
and commander-in-chief of all the armies raised and 
to be raised in the United States." At the same time 
Congress ordered the army to be increased by twelve 
regiments, four of which were to be raised in Mary- 
land. The diiBculties with France were, however, 
arranged in a manner satisfactory to both govern- 

ments, and there was no immediate necessity for the 
services of the troops which had been culled for by 

The unfsettled state of our foreign relations, how- 
ever, served to keep alive the military spirit of the 
country, and each new difficulty with England or 
France added fresh fuel to the military ardor of the 
times. The hardy inhabitants of Western Maryland, 
always ready for combat, and by reason of their ex- 
posed position rather more accustomed to war than 
peace, needed no urging to prepare themselves for 
hostilities, and the large number of military organiza- 
tions in existence at this period in that section of the 
State shows the eagerness with which they had re- 
sponded to the calls of patriotism. Prominent among 
these organizations during the years immediately suc- 
ceeding 1800 were the companies of horse known 
as the -'American Blues," at Hagerstown, Capt. Otho 
H. Williams' commanding, and the " Washington 
Hussars," at Williamsport, commanded by Capt. 
Frisby Tilghman. Hagerstown at the same time 
also boasted of two infantry companies, viz., the " Se- 
lect Volunteers" and anotlier commanded by Capt. 
Timothy Jlonahan, the battalion being commanded 
by Maj. John Reynolds. Besides the frequent militia 
parades, the people were often gratified by visits from 
detachments of the United States army as they 
marched westward via Hagerstown, Cumberland, and 
Wheeling. Among the frequent references to the 
passage of troops through Western Maryland at this 
period we find the following paragraph in the columns 
of the Herald, under date of April 26, 1805: "On 
Wednesday morning last a small detachment of sol- 
diers, under the command of Capt. McClellan, marched 
through this town on their way to St. Louis, in Up- 
per Louisiana." In December of the year, " Passed 

' " Fbedericktows, May 28, 1800. 

" On Saturday evening last arrived in this town, on his way 
to the city of Washington, the President of the United States. 
He wiis met near Monocacy by the troop of horse belonging to 
Frederick County, headed by our Republican Elector, Dr. Tyler, 
and by Capt. Brother's company of infantry belonging to the 
Provincial army. Every respect due the office of Chief Magis- 
trate was paid him by our citizens. 

"On Sunday the President .attended divine worship, per- 
formed by the Rev. Mr. Samuel Knox, in the Lutheran Church 
(it being more spacious than his own), .and the subject was 
happily adapted to the occasion, while a negotiation is pending 
with France. The happiness and advantages of peace were 
fully portrayed, and contrasted with the misery and destruction 
of war the curse of any nation. The text was Matthew 5th 
and 9ch, ' Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be called 
the children of God.'" 

2 The other original officers of this troop were First Lient. 
Isaac S. White, Second Lieut. John I. StuU, and George Beltz- 
hoover, cornet. 



through this town on their way to Washington a de- 
tachment of troops and a deputation of twenty-two 
Indian chiefs, who attended the treaty lately held at 
St. Louis by Gen. Wilkinson and Governor Harri- 
son. They consist of five of the Little Osage nation, 
two Missouris, seven Sacs and Foxes, one Canzas, 
two Ayowas, one Poutowatamis, one Sioux, two 
Panis, and one Altooes." 

During the winter of 1S06-7 a company of the 
Second United States Infantry, Lieut. John Miller 
commanding, was stationed at Hagerstown. 



The Aggressions of Great Britain— Ortlers in Council— Attack 
upon the Chesapeake — Declaration of War — Campaign in 
Canada — Battle of Bladensburg — Muster-Rolls — War Songs. 

President Jefferson was inaugurated the second 
time as President of the United States on the 4th of 
March, 1805, and on the 2d of December of the same 
year the Ninth Congress opened its first session. The 
message of the President was chiefly devoted to our 
foreign relations, which it represented as being in an ; 
unfavorable condition, owing to the proceedings of 
France and England, which were then at war. He 
said, — 

"Our coasts have been infested and our harbors watched by | 
private armed vessels, some of them without commissions, ' 
some with illegal commissions, others with those of legal form, 
but committing piratical acts beyond the authority of their 
commissions. They have captured in the very entrance of our 
harbors, as well as in the high seas, not only the vessels of our 
friends coming to trade with us, but our own also. They have 
carried them off under pretence of legal adjudication, but not 
daring to approach a court of justice, they have plundered and 
sunk them by the way, or in obscure places where no evidence 
could arise against them, mivltreated the crews, and abandoned 
them in boats in the open seas or on desert shores without food 
or covering." ^ 

^ The following is a correct statement of the returns from the 
different districts of Frederick County, at an election held on ' 
Monday, the 12th Isovember, 1S04, for Electors of President 
and Vice-President of the United States; 

District. John Tyler. Frisby Tilgbman. 

No. 1 33 .S3 

" 2 278 276 

" 3 410 410 

" 4 127 127 I 

" 117 117 

" 6 130 130 

" 7 208 208 I 

" 8 101 100 

" 9 119 120 

1523 1521 ^ 

In the new European war, France, Holland, and 
Spain were allied against Great Britain, and the ex- 
posure to capture of the merchant vessels belonging 
to these nations had caused their withdrawal from the 
ocean. The L'nited States and other neutral nations 
from this cause were enjoying an immensely profitable 
carrying trade, not only with the colonies of the 
belligerents, but with the mother-countries, and on 
principles recognized by Great Britain and the estab- 
lished rule of international law, " that the goods of a 
neutral, consisting of articles not contraband of war, 
in neutral vessels, employed in a direct trade between 
a neutral and belligerent country, are protected, except 
in ports invested or blockaded." In conformity to 
this principle a direct trade was carried on with the 
enemies of Great Britain and their colonies, and chiefly 
by American vessels ; and not well pleased to see 
American merchants so rapidly amassing fortunes, 
and her enemies receiving by American ships the 
productions of their own colonies without the hazard 
which would attend transportation in vessels of their 
own, Great Britain ordered the capture of our vessels, 
alleging that the trade was unlawful, on the principle 
that " a trade from a colony to its parent country, not 
being permitted to other nations in time of peace, 
cannot be made lawful in a time of war." 

The Attack on the Chesapeake. — While the 
depredations on our commerce were j'et under discus- 
sion, three of the crew of the British frigate " Me- 
lampus," engaged with the British squadron in watch- 
ing some French frigates blockaded at Annapolis, 
de.serted, and enlisted on the United States frigate 
" Chesapeake, " lately built in Baltimore, and destined 
to compose part of an American squadron against the ; 
Barbary powers. Four separate demands were made 
for these men, but without success, — one on Lieut. 
Sinclair, of the " Chesapeake," one by the British | 
consul on the mayor of Norfolk, one on Capt. Deca- I 
tur, and one by Lord Erskine, the British minister, 
on the Secretary of State. The government, willing 
to be just and anxious for honorable peace, instituted 
inquiries concerning the deserters, and Commodore i 
Barron, in a letter to the Secretary of the Navy, 
dated April 7, 1807, thus gives an account of the 
men : 

"William Ware, pressed from on board the brig 'Neptune,' 
Capt. Crafts, by the British frigate ' ilelampus,' in the Bay of 
Biscay, has served on board the said frigate tifteen months. 

"William Ware is a native American, born on Pipe Creek, 
Frederick County, .State of Maryland, at Bruce's Mills, and i 
served his time at said mills. He also lived at Ellicott's Mills, 
near Baltimore, and drove a wagon several years between Ha- 
gerstown and Baltimore. He also served eighteen months on 
board the United States frigate ' Chesapeake,' under the com- 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


mand of Commodore Morris and Cupt. James Barron. He is 
an Indian-looking man. 

"John Strachan, born on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, 
Queen Anne's County, between Centreville and Queenstown. 
Strachan sailed in the brig ' Martha Bland,' Captain Wyvill, 
from New York to Dublin, and from thence to Liverpool, lie 
then left the brig and shipped on board an English Guineaman. 
He was pressed off Cape Finislerre." 

The other, a colored man named Martin, was a 
native of Massachusetts, and was pressed at the same 
time and place with William Ware. Ware and 
Strachan had protections, but Martin had lost his. 
The " Chesapeake" sailed with these men on board, 
and on the 21st of June, 1807, when at sea, not far 
from the Capes of Virginia, was overtaken by the 
British frigate " Leopard," of fifty-six guns, com- 
manded by Capt. Humphreys. The " Chesapeake" 
carried forty-four guns. Capt. Humphreys sent his 
boat with a note to Commodore Barron informing him 
that his commanding officer, Vice-Admiral Berkeley, 
by instructions dated June 1st, had directed him to 
take any British deserters on board the " Chesapeake," 
by force if necessary, and to allow on his part a search 
for American deserters. Barron, astonished at the 
insolence of Humphrej'S and the assumptions of 
Berkeley, refused permission to search, and stated that 
he had no deserters on board the " Chesapeake," and 
that his crew should not be mustered except by their 
own officers. On the receipt of this answer the 
" Leopard" opened fire upon the " Chesapeake," and 
the latter being taken by surprise, and unprepared for 
action, did not return the fire, and immediately struck 
her flag. Three men were killed and eighteen 
wounded upon the unresisting ship. When the 
American ensign was lowered, several of the British 
officers went on board, mustered the crew, arrested the 
three deserters from the " Melampus," and took a 
fourth named John Wilson, who had deserted from 
the " Halifax." ^ 

Capt. Humphreys refusing to receive the " Chesa- 
peake" as a prize, she returned to Norfolk. John 
Hayden, of Baltimore, was wounded in the attack 
upon the " Chesapeake." 

This outrage excited the utmost indignation 
throughout the United States, and for a time united 
all parties in the common clamor for reparation of the 
insult and injury, or for war. Public meetings were 
held in all the principal cities from Boston to Norfolk, 

^ " The unfortunate deserters were taken to Halifax and sen- 
tenced to be hung. The three Americans were reprieved on i 
condition that they should re-enter the British service, but 
Wilson, the English subject, was hauged. One of the Ameri- 
cans died in captivity in the English navy, and the others, after 
five years' hard service, were restored to the deck of the ' Ches- 
apeake.'"— ios»,«;/, "ir.(<- uf 1812." 

in which the feelings of the people were vehemently 

The citizens of Western Maryland were in nowise 
behind their fellow-countrymen, and at a meetiu"- 
held at the court-house in Hagerstown, July 14 
1807, for the purpose of expressing their sentiments 
" upon the dastardly outrages committed by the Brit- 
ish squadron stationed on our coast on the flag and 
citizens of the United States," Dr. llichard Pindell 
was called to the chair, and Upton Lawrence was ap- 
pointed secretary. 

After the proclamation of President Jefferson had 
been read, it was resolved, "That Col. Nathaniel 
Rochester, Gen. Thomas Sprigg, Samuel Hughes, Jr., 
Esq., Dr. Richard Pindell, Col. William Fitzhugh, 
Maj. Charles Carroll, Dr. Frisby Tilghman, Col. 
George Nigh, Dr. Christian Boerstler, Upton Law- 
rence, Esq., Dr. Jacob Schnebly. Col. Daniel Hughes, 
Col. Adam Ott, Mr. William Keyser, and Mr. Alex- 
ander Neill be appointed a committee to report reso- 
lutions expressive of the abhorrence in which this 
meeting holds the recent conduct of the British 
squadron near Norfolk, and our determination to sup- 
port the constituted authorities of our country, in all 
such measures as they may think proper to adopt 
for obtaining satisfaction for the insult and murders 

The committee having retired for a short time, re- 
turned and reported several vigorous resolutions, which 
were unanimously adopted ; and it was ordered that the 
chairman and secretary of the meeting transmit copies 
of the resolutions to the President of the United 
States and the Governor of Maryland, and that they 
be published in the newspapers of Hagerstown. 

The critical situation of our foreign relations in 
duced the President to convene the Tenth Congress 
on the 25th of October, 1807, and in a special mes- 
sage on the 18th of December he recommended to 
that body the passage of an act laying an embargo on 
all vessels of the United States. The subject was 
immediately discussed in Congress in secret session, 
and an embargo bill pa.ssed on the 22d of December, 
1807. At this session of Congress measures of de- 
fense were adopted, and on the 6th of July the Presi- 
dent made a requisition on the States for one hundred 
thousand men to take the field at a moment's warn- 
ing. Of this number the Governor of Maryland was 
authorized to furnish a quota of five thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-three men, and such was the en- 
thusiasm of the people that double that number vol- 
unteered their services to the government.^ 

2 Among the volunteers was the Third Regiment, commanded 
by Levy Philips, Montgomery County. 



On the 17th of July, in response to the call of the 
President, the following notice was published in the 
newspapers of Hagerstown : 

"THE SPIRIT OF '76 ! ! ! 

"When our country demniids our aid it is a species of trea- 
son to be deaf to her call. 

"A meeting of the young men of Washington County is re- 
quested at Mr. Smith's tavern on Saturday evening next at 
four o'clock, for the purpose of forming a volunteer corps, 
whose services are to be at the command of the President as 
exigencies may demand, or as the public good may require." 

As a result of this meeting, a company known as 
the " Hagerstown Volunteer Rifle Company" was 
formed, and the officers chosen were as follows : ' John 
Ragan, Jr., captain; Thomas Post, first lieutenant; 
and William B. Rochester, second lieutenant. This 
company was soon after mustered into the United 
States service for a period of six months, but was not 
called upon to perform any active duty. 

Besides the companies already mentioned, there 
were in existence at that time those of the Eighth 
Maryland Militia, commanded respectively by Capts. 

^ These officers all became prominent in subsequent years. 
Col. John Ragan, Jr., was appointed a captain in the United 
States army in 1 SU8, and served in that capacity at New Orleans 
and Camp Terre au BcEuf about eighteen months. In ISIO he 
returned to his native place (Hagerstown), and upon his mar- 
riage resigned his commission in the regular service. He was 
afterwards appointed by the Executive of Maryland lieutenant- 
colonel of the Twenty-fourth Regiment of militia, and during 
the war of 1812 was in command of a regiment of militia at 
the battle of Bladensburg, where, although his command early 
in the engagement broke and fled in the utmost disorder, he 
particularly distinguished himself in his brave efforts to rally 
his raw and panic-stricken troops, but in the fruitless attempt 
was thrown from his horse, severely injured, and finally taken 
prisoner by the enemy. In private life Col. Ragan was gener- 
ous and upright, a valuable neighbor, and a most worthy, mem- 
ber of society. lie died at his residence in Hagerstown, May 
4, 1816, in the thirty-fourth year of his age. 

Capt. Thomas Post, besides serving as sheriff of Washington 
County for a number of years, commanded a company of Wash- 
ington County militia during the war of 1812, and filled most 
creditably many other public positions. 

William B. Rochester was the eldest son of Col. Nathaniel 
Rochester, and was born in Washington County. He removed 
to the Genesee country with his father in 1810, and afterwards 
became one of the most prominent citizens in Western New 
York. During the war of 1812-14 he served as captain of a 
company of New York State Volunteers, and with his command 
was present at Buffalo and its vicinity during the series of war- 
like operations carried on there. He held many important 
civil positions in the State of his adoption, and was a man of 
fine legal acquirements, and much respected for his ability. He 
was a representative in Congress from New York from 1821 to 
1823, and subsequently held the ofiice of circuit judge in New 
York, but resigned to compete with De Witt Clinton for the 
office of Governor. He was lost, with many others, off the coast 
of North Carolina, by the explosion of the steamer " Pulaski," 
June 15, 1838. 

Daniel Hughes, Jr., Henry Lewis, John Abel, 
Jo.seph Chapline, George Binkley, John Harry, and 
others ; and this regiment was placed in as efficient 
condition as possible, as is shown by the following 
order from its veteran commander. Col. John Carr: 

"The officers commanding companies in the Eighth Regi- 
ment are requested to make out rolls of their respective com- 
mands and attend with them at Hagerstown on Saturday, the 
15th inst., which will enable me to make out a regimental re- 
turn to forward to the brigadier-general. 2 I hope the officers 
will be accurate in their returns and punctual in their attend- 
ance at this interesting crisis, as their injured country calls 
aloud for the exertions of its citizens. 

"JoH?( Carr, 
" Lieut.-Col. Eiyhth Regiment. 

"Aug. 5, 1807. "3 

In May, 1808, Gen. Thomas Sprigg's brigade, — 
composed of Col. John 
Carr's Eighth, Col. Sam- 
uel Ringgold's Tenth, and 
Lieut.-Col. Jacob Schneb- 
ly's Twenty-fourth Regi- 
ments of Maryland Mili- 
tia, — together with Capt. 
Otho H. Williams' com- 
pany of American Blues, 
Capt. Frisby Tilghman's 
company of Washington 
Hussars, and Capt. John 
Ragan's company of vol- 
unteer riflemen, was re- 
viewed at Hagerstown by Gen. John E. Howard, of 

Great exertions were then being made to raise, by 
volunteering, Maryland's quota of the one hundred 
thousand militia required for national defense, but it 
was not until December, 1808, that the requisite 
number of volunteers was obtained in Washington 
County. At that time, however, from among the 
organizations just mentioned, many more than were 

' Thomas Sprigg, who died in December, 1809, and was suc- 
ceeded by Col. Samuel Ringgold, who assumed command in 
July, 1810. 

^ Aug. 12, ltf07, the volunteer company in Frederick was 
officered by Capt. Henry Steiner, Lieut. John Ritchie, and 
Ensign Lawrence Brengle. 

Aug. 17, 1809, Henry Kemp was elected captain of the first 
Frederick troop of cavalry. April 19, 1810, Stephen Steiner 
chosen lieutenant-colonel of Sixteenth Regiment Militia. June 
13, 1811, the Governor appointed John Cook captain, Otho 
Sprigg first lieutenant, Nicholas Hall, Jr., second lieutenant, 
and Joshua Johnson cornet of a troop of horse attached to the ! 
Seventh Brigade, Frederick County ; Oct. 26, 1811, John Cook \ 
chosen captain of New Market Light Dragoons ; May 9, 1812, j 
Ezra Mantz was appointed major First Battalion Maryland : 
Militia, and John Ritchie lieutenant-colonel of the Sixteenth I 
Regiment Militia. ; 


THE WAR OF 1812. 


wanted signified their readiness to march at a mo- 
ment's notice. The members of the Washington 
Hussars met at Rockh\nd, and listened to a spirited 
address from their commander, Capt. Frisby Tilgh- 
man, in which he ably proved the necessity of rally- 
ing around the country's standard. He then drew 
his sword, as a token that he was ready to obey 
her call. His patriotic example was instantly fol- 
lowed by the rest of the officers, and almost' unani- 
mously by the whole of the troopers present. The 
following resolutions were also adopted by the troop : 

" Resolved, That though fully sensible of the blessings of 
peace where they can be enjoyed without the sacrifice of na- 
tional honor, yet we consider war a lesser evil than submission i 
to any foreign power under any form or pretence whatever. ^ 

"Resolved, That we are ready and willing to ofier up our all t 
in defense of the rights or of avenging the wrongs of our much '■ 
injured country, and therefore make a voliintary tender of 
our services as a part of the quota called for from Maryland by ! 
the President of the United States." j 

Capt. Tilghman's company enlisted on the 9th of ' 
December, and on the 17th of the same month Col. 
Schnebly's regiment, also Capt. Williams' company | 
of horse, tendered their services to the general gov- , 
ernment. The editor of the Herald speaks of the 
event as follows in his issue of the 23d : 

" On Saturday, the 17th inst., the Twenty-fourth Regiment of 
Maryland Militia, under the command of Col, Jacob Schnebly, 
assisted by Mnjs. Beard and Reynolds, paraded on their cus- 
tomary ground in the neighborhood of this town. The call 
by Brig. -Gen. Sprigg was for volimteera, to the end that a draft 
might not be made on the citizens whose will might urge them 
to the field, but whose peculiar circumstances (for the present) 
admonished them to remain at home. It was with heartfelt 
gratification we witnessed the patriotic spirit of our regiment 
in volunteering the whole, and more than the whole, of their 
proportionate numbers. We will not make invidious distinc- 
tions, but we were pleased in noticing some of the companies 
turning out with Spartan mind a number uncalled for from 
among them. 

"Capt. 0. H. Williams* troop, called 'American Blues,' be- 
haved as we had expected, — all his men on parade (thirty-seven 
in number) tendered their services. It is said that Capt. Wil- 
liams is not an admirer of the present administration ; but we 
know that he is friendly to American Independence and honor. 

*' The times were which tried men's souls, — the times may 
shortly come which will try men's souls; but, be it as it may, 
happy and safe are we in our defense." 

Capt. George Binkley, of the Twenty-fourth Regi- 
ment, in addressing his company previously to their 
volunteering, spoke as follows : 

" Citizens ! soldiers ! You have appeared on this ground to- 
day in obedience to the commands of your general, but more 
especially in obedience to the call of patriotism. 

" Fellow-soldiers ! we have a triple call, — our general, our 
country, but most of all a lively sense of honor and independence 
sounds the alarm. Shall we be heedless to these calls ? No ; 

^ Thirty-one out of thirty-four members who were present. 

as a band of brother patriots we will erectaproud crest against 
every foe, foreign or domestic. 

"S<iUliers! your captain and other officers of this company 
now tender their services to their country. Will you follow 
them ? I know many of you will; then those who are so dis- 
posed advance forty paces in front. The God of battles is on 
our side.'' 

Thereupon twenty-two men of the forty-one present 

Before the date last mentioned, however, Capt. Ra- 
gan's company of riflemen was mustered into the 
service of the United States as part of its regular 
force, and in October, 1808, marched from Hagers- 
town to the barracks at Carlisle, Pa. From thence 
the company was soon after sent forward to New 
Orleans, La. 

Thus did the people of Western Maryland attest 
their devotion to their country during the years 1807, 
1808, and 1809 ; but, although British naval officers 
still continued to impress our seamen, and to oflFer 
indignities to the American flag wherever encountered 
on the high seas, the crisis, as regarded an open rup- 
ture with Great Britain, was, in the summer of 1809, 
considered passed, and the volunteers under pay of 
the general government were mustered out of service. 

There was another feature connected with the 
history of the period mentioned deserving of notice, 
perhaps, in this connection, — the original poetic effu- 
sions which appeared in the " Poet's Corner" of the 
newspaper prints of that time. The following were 
published in the Martjlnad Herald. Some were writ- 
ten by the Hon. Thomas Kennedy, of 
(afterwards of Hagerstown), who was (if we may use 
the term) the poet-laureate of Washington County 
in his day, as well as one of the ablest and best-known 
writers in the State of Maryland. He also repre- 
sented Washington County many years in the State 
Legislature, where he distinguished himself in debate, 
but more particularly as the originator and champion 
of the bill abolishing the " religious test," an old law 
which denied to the Hebrews political rights in com- 
mon with all other citizens." 

2 In ISIO he published a volume entitled 


" Composed on several occasions, 

"III sundry places and in divers manners. 

"By Thomas Kennedy, 

"Washington Cou.nty, Md." 

" Ye generous sons of lov'd Columbia's soil, 
'Tis yours to recompense the poet's toil, 
'Tis yours to give or to withhold applause, 
To weigh bis merits and to judge his cause." 

Prologue to the Poems. 

The prospectus likewise stated that " the Poems will be 
printed on good paper, and decently bound and lettered. They 





'Tune.— '/oAji Anders 


'The Volunteers of Hagers-town, 

Great praise to them is due, 
They've tender'd down their services 

To face old Britain's crew. 
And every other warlike tribe 

That dares to be our foe ; 
With courage great, fair steps we'll take 

Their schemes to overthrow. 

'When Britain's host, some years ago, 

Did try us to enslave, 
The sons of freedom forward came, 

With courage stout and brave: 
Though undisciplin'd ns they were, 

Undauntingly did go 
Into the field where none would yield, 

Resentment for to show. 

'' Old Georgy's crew they try'd their best, 

Their plans were made to nought, 
The Hessian crew, and Dunmure's too, 

They all against us brought; 
The savages and all their aids 

Were soon reduced so low, 
That home they flew, with part their crew, 

To let old Georgy know. 

are now preparing for the press, and will form a volume of a 
handsome size. The price to subscribers two dollars each copy, 
payable on delivery. Those who procure ten subscribers and 
become responsible for the payment shall have one copy gratis." 
In conclusion be said, — 

" When an author makes bis first appearance before the 
public he is apt to think it necessary to state some reasons by 
way of excuse for his presumption; in the present instance 
this must be dispensed with. Nor is it now necessary to enter 
into any commendation of the intended work, its merits are 
yet to be examined and its worth decided by an impartial tri- 
bunal. Suffice it therefore to say that, in the humble opinion 
of the author, the publication will be found deserving all the 
encouragement it may receive, and hope promises as favorable 
a reception as it deserves. If in this he is disappointed, if the 
present generation treats the labors of his Muse with neglect, 
like other authors, he must enter an appeal on his behalf to the 
supreme court of posterity. 

" The charms of beauty and the love of liberty first awakened 
bis Muse, and with honest pride he can say that there are none 
among the numerous pieces in the volume that owe their origin 
to mean or mercenary motives, and may he cease to be ere he 
becomes a flatterer, ere he prefers fortune to fame, or the private 
to the public good. 

" Those who intend to become subscribers are requested to do 
so immediately. And let them all remember that the author 
does not pretend to the sublime in poetry, his verse is un- 
polished and clad in homely attire. But if — ■ 

" And flattering hope does this presage — 

If in some future time, some distant age, 

These strains shall some sweet pleasing thrills impart, 

E'er sorrow soothe, or cheer a drooping heart, 

E'er stop a struggling sigh, or check a tear, 

He will be blest ; such fame is truly dear, 

And such the hmrels that lie longs to wear." 

"Now they've begun the second time 

Our courage for to try, 
So, Volunteers, we'll all rouse up. 

And fight them till we die; 
And every tender-hearted soul 

That with us cannot go, 
May keep behind, some kind of blind, 

While we do face the foe, 

"America has oft received 

Insults of every kind. 
But Jefferson, that worthy man, 

For peace was still inclined; 
So their abuse did still increase. 

For which we'll let them know 
That we're prepar'd, and on our guard, 

To give them blow for blow. 

" So here's a health to all the Greens, 
And every Volunteer 
Who is intent, and fully bent 

With honor for to steer; 
We'll to a man join hand in hand 

To meet our trencherous foe, 
With fire and ball we will them maul. 
And drink before we go. 
* Hagerstown, Dec. 21, 1808." 

' Mr. Printer : 

'Be 80 
[/• Poet'i 

I to let the followintf epigram have a pla 


•' God in his wrath may often change 
A Whig into a Tory ; 
The circumstance is nowise strange, 

'Tis on record in story. 
But no such instance can we show, 

Thro' all the Tory race, 
A Tory once, will still be so, 
In spite of God and Grace. 
"Washington County, August, 1809." 


"Tune.—' The Soldier's Return: 

' Rouse, rouse, ye brave, ye gallant souls, 

Who cherish Independence, 
That country you so dearly love 

Demands your quick attendance. 
Injured, insulted, she has been 

By Britain — haughty nation; 
Then haste to arms, for honor calls 

Aloud for reparation. 

* Remember your forefathers bold, 

For freedom who contended, 
Who nobly dear Columbia's cause 

AVith their best blood defended. 
! do not sully their fair fame ; 

! tarnish not their glories; 
Discard the deeds, despise the name 

And actions of old Tories. 

' In infant days Columbia bore 
The storms of war unmoved, 
For tyrant's wrath and deep designs 
More than a match she proved; 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


! who can think upon those times 
Nor feel his bosom glowing, 

Nor feel sensations, sweet, sublime, 
His patriot soul o'erflowing. 

"And if in infancy she foiled 

The plans of wild ambition, 
To her united youthful might 

Vain will be opposition. 
In Him who rules the hosts of Heaven 

Her hope, her stay, and trust is, 
He will with victory crown the cause 

Of liberty and justice. 

"Too long has our lov'd country sought, 

By mild negotiation, 
To have her rights restored in peace. 

For wrongs, some compensation. 
But patience hitherto has made 

Her claims be more neglected. 
The last resort then must be tried, 

She then may be respected. 

^'Though war we never do desire, 

We do not dread its terrors. 
Columbia's thunder shall once more 

Show kingcraft all its errors. 
Her Volunteers will rally round 

The starry flag of freedom. 
Nor shall Quebec arrest their march, 

If heroes only lead 'em. 

^'Then beat the drum, the trumpet sound, 
And let the cannons rattle ; 
Gird on your swords, your muskets seize, 

Be all prepared for battle. 
Go forth to conquer or to die. 

The cause is good, is glorious, 
And sacred Union will ensure 
The final end victorious. 
■'Washington County, Jan. 16, 1810." 


* As the blush of the rose in the dew of the morn, 

As the beautiful blossoms of Spring, 
When snow-drops and hyacinths sweetly adorn 
The fields and the forests, and from every thorn 
Wild warblers their sonnets do sing, 

*So sweet's the remembrance of virtue most dear, 

Of valor with wisdom combin'd, 
Of the patriot sage, whose great name we revere, 
Whose praises with pride and with pleasure we hear, 

Whose worth is impressed on each mind. 

"0 ! Washington, when recollection recalls 

Thy noble, illustrious deeds, 
The tear of warm gratitude glistens and falls, 
Sublime admiration each bosom enthralls, 

And in pleasing captivity leads. 

" Thy courage, thy prudence, thy patriot zeal, 
Thy constancy in truth's great cause, 
Thy attention alive to America's weal. 
Will furnish forever, while freemen can feel, 
Fit themes for their love and applause. 

'And 0! may foul factions thy hallowed name 

To cloak their designs ne'er assume; 
Ye assassins pollute not the shrine of his fame, 
Lest the blaze of his glory burst forth in a flame 

And you with just vengeance consume. 

'For who are his friends? Not all they who pretend. 

But those who his precepts obey, 
Who cherish firm Union, who nobly contend 
For the rights of Columbia, aud them to defend 

Are ready to act in his way. 

'Immortal his actions, his name shall descend 

To ages unknown, distant climes ; 
Far and wide as the earth or the sea does extend, 
The friend of his country — the friend of mankind. 

Shall be honored in all future times. 

'Applauding historians his worth shall recite, 
The muses his praise in sweet strains, 
His example will fire future warriors to fight, 
And patriot statesmen shall read with delight 
The in.-^truction his maxims contain. 

'But chiefly Columbians his deeds shall inspire. 
And their bosoms with ardor inflame, 
His story shall pass from the son to the sire, 
Even innocent infants will learn to admire, 
And prattling lisp his dear name. 

' For he was the friend of their forefathers brave, 
And for them, ! what toils he endured. 
His greatest ambition bis country to save, 
Or find in her wreck and her ruin a grave — 
How blest when his aim was secured ! 

'And sooner shall sink in the midst of the main 

Columbia, earth's favorite spot. 
Of old Allegany no vestige remain, 
And time to eternity yield up the rein, 

Ere Washington can be forgot. 

'Yea, even when time and when space are no more, 
When the sun and the stars cease to shine, 
His fame, like the sovereign eagle, shall soar 
Bright worlds unknown, and immortal explore, 
And rank high in the regions divine." 


" A SONG. 
•'Ti:xE— ' Hail Cubimhia: 
'Ye brave Hussars who nobly stand, 
Prepar'd to guard with sword in hand 
The laws and rights you hold so dear, 
The laws and rights you hold so dear, 
Who bear the high, immortal name 
Of Washington, the great in fame, 
Like him, undaunted, meet the foe, 
Like his, may all your bosoms glow 
With liberty's celestial fire. 
The go'ddess freemen admire. 

" Chorus. — When the trumpet sounds attend. 
Your lov'd country to defend ; 
Fear not danger, death, nor scars, 
Act like Washington Hussars. 

1 An organization that was composed of residents of Wil- 
liamsport and its vicinity. 



"With Honor, Friendship full in view, 
The path of glory still pursue, 

! cherish union's sacred ties, 

! cherish union's sacred ties, 
For freedom ev'ry danger dare, 
Your country's weal your constant care, 
For her no perils ever shun, 
For her no duty leave undone, 
For her no sacrifice refuse, 
Nor life itself regret to lose. 

** Chorus. — When the trumpet, etc. 

"Your fathers bold, they knew not fear, 

Their names, their deeds will long be dear. 
Hark ! from the tomb their spirits cry, 
Hark ! from the tomb their spirits cry, 

'Shall coward sons our glory stain, . 

And have we bled and died in vain ?' 

No. Rest in peace, ye truly brave, 

And let green laurels round you wave, 

The flame of freedom still inspires. 

The sons are worthy of their sires. 

" Chorus. — When the trumpet, etc. 

" Hussars, in arms you're not alone, 
The Blues are, too, of Washington, 
And they, like you, are volunteers, 
And they, like you, are volunteers. 
With you as friends they will unite 
At the feast or in the fight ; 
With you, the foe they will engage, 
And in the battle's hottest rage 
Hussars and Blues shall firmly join 
And force the enemy's strongest line. 

" Chorus. — To the charge when trumpets call. 
On each side, when thousands fall, 
Laugh at danger, death, and sears, 
Act like Blues, and like Hussars. 

" And ! how blest, the battle o'er, 
When war's alarms are heard no more. 
When beauty bids you welcome home, 
When beauty bids you welcome home, 
And with approving, sweetest smiles, 
Repays your troubles and your toils. 
From your lov'd country then you'll hear 
Such praise as this to charm your ear : 
'None were distinguished in the wars 
More than the Washington Hussars.* 

" Chorus. — When the trumpet sounds attend, 
Tour dear country to defend; 
And in love, in peace, or wars 
Act like Washington Hussars." 


'* A SONG. 
'*TUNE.— ' To Anacreon w Heaven.' 
'Ye American Blues, who have gallantly drawn 

Your swords in defense of the rights of the Union, 
Whose glory is bright as the sun at 'he dawn, 

Whose souls are all joined in sweet, sacred communion. 
Let honor still guide, 
With truth at her side ! 
May valor and wisdom with pleasure preside, 
And furnish for ages a theme for the Muse, 
Be worthy the name of American Blues ! 

iCapt. 0. H. Wi 

s' company of Hagerstown. 

' The rich vale you inhabit receiv'd its dear name 
From Washington, he who in arms was victorious, 
Whose actions immortal, whose talents and fame 

Shine brightly and pure, with a lustre most glorious, 
That loved name when you hear 
Will banish all fear. 
Like him, . . . may yours be a noble career. 
And furnish for ages a theme for the Muse 
Deserving the name of American Blues! 

'Remember the heroes in liberty's cause. 

Who fought and who bled with a brave resolutioH, 
Their patriot names with deserved applause 

Will be gratefully honor'd till Time's dissolution. 
Like them, ! be brave, 
Independence to save, 
And swear that no despot this soil shall enslave. 
And furnish for ages a theme for the Muse 
Deserving the name of American Blues! 

* The tyrants of Europe, e'en should they combine, 

Can ne'er conquer freemen whose bosoms are glowing 
With liberty's flame, and whose hands ever join 

In supporting the cause . . . with a zeal overflowing. 

Then let Britain or France, 

Or both, e'er advance, 
They will fall 'neath the stroke of America's lance, 
And furnish for ages a theme for the Muse 
And prove that Americans all are True Blues ! 

^ And, troopers, see where a brave squadron appears, 

The Hussars who bear Washington's name, too, assemble; 
Should war e'er approach, you are all volunteers, 
And united will make every enemy tremble. 
AVhen the trumpets do sound. 
And your foes bite the ground, 
The Blues and the Hussars shall together be found, 
And furnish for ages a theme for the Muse 
Deserving the name of Hussars and of Blues ! 

'Returning with glory, received with regard, 

As troopers who faithfully have done their duty; 
How blest when enjoying the noble reward 

That you'll meet from the eye, from the sweet smile of 
beauty ! 

The fav'rites of Mars, 
All covered with sears, 
The American Blues will return from the wars, 
And furnish for ages a theme for the Muse 
Deserving the name of American Blues ! 

* Columbia, our country, oh, pure be thy peace ! 

Thy freedom be lasting as old Allegany ! 
The bonds of thy Union in strength still increase, 
Thy foes few and feeble, thy friends firm and many. 

While foremost among 

The patriot throng 
May the Blues be seen rushing undaunted along, 
And furnish for ages a theme for the Muse 
Deserving the name of American Blues!" 


" Come, all ye hearts of temper'd steel. 
Come, leave your flocks and farms, 
Your sports, your plays, and holy-days, 
And haste away to arms. 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


A soldier is a gentleman, 

His honor is his life, 
And he that won't stand by his post 

Will ne'er stand by his wife! 

And he that won't, etc. 

"Sure, love and honor are the same, 
Or are so near allied 
That neither can exist alone, 

But aourish side by side. 
Then farewell, sweethearts, for awhile, — 

Our sweet, dear girls, adieu. — 
But when we've drove those foes away, 
■ We'll come and stay with you ! 
But when, etc. 

" We'll chase our foes from post to post, 
Attack their camp and lines. 
And by some well-concocted schemes 

We'll baffle their designs. 
No foreign power shall make us slaves. 

No British tyrant reign, 
'Twas our fathers' prowess made us free, 
And freedom we'll maintain. 

'Twas our fathers' prowess, etc. 

" In shady tents, by curling streams, 

With hearts both firm and free. 

We'll drive the cares of life away 

With songs of liberty; 
And when the wars are over, boys, 

We'll sit us down at ease. 
We'll plow, we'll sow, we'll reap and mow. 
And do just as we please. 

We'll plow, we'll sow, etc. 

" This rising world shall sing of us 
Ten thousand years to come. 
And children to their children tell 

The wonders we have done; 
Brave, honest fellows, here's my hand, 

My heart, my very soul. 
With all the joys of liberty, 
Our sweethearts and our bowls, 
AVith all the joys of liberty. 
Our good wives and our bowls ! 
" Washington County, 1810." 

During the days of Federalism Washington County 
was one of the Republican strongholds of Maryland, 
and upon the inauguration of President Madison, 
March 4, 1809, a large number of her citizens con- 
vened at the court-house (which then occupied the 
present public square in Hagerstown) for the purpose 
of rejoicing and celebrating the event. 

The day was ushered in by the ringing of bells, 
martial music, and the firing of cannon. At twelve 
o'clock William L. Brent delivered an address to the 

' meeting, and recommended the propriety of adopting 

i resolutions expressive of their sentiments upon the 
political situation of the country. Col. Nathaniel 

i Rochester was appointed chairman, and William L. 

j Brent secretary of the meeting, when, upon motion, it 

; was 

"Resolved^ That Col. David Schnebly, Dr. Christian Boerst- 
ler, Mr. H. Gaithor, Mr. M. Collins, Col. Samuel Ringgold, 
Col. Adam Ott, Col. Jacob Schnebly, Col. N. Rochester, and Dr. 
Wm. Downey be a committee to prepare and report resolu- 
tions for the consideration of this meeting. All of which 
having been done, and a resolution passed that the full pro- 
ceedings of the meeting be transmitted to Mr. Madison, Presi- 
dent of the United States, it was further resolved. 

"That William L. Brent, Esq., Maj. Martin Kirshner, Col. 
Jacob Schnebly, Capt. Henry Lewis, and Col. Nathaniel 
Rochester be a committee to prepare and report a suitable ad- 
dress to the late President of the United States, Thomas Jeffer- 
son, upon his retiring from office." 

Having expressed their sentiments as to the situa- 
tion of their country, the vast concourse present then 
partook of a feast prepared for the occasion. The 
table was furni.shed with the best viands and vegeta- 
bles that the season would afford ; and among many 
excellent meats which were dressed, a large bullock 
was spitted and roasted whole. After dinner the 
following toasts were drank amidst the loud acclama- 
tions of the people and the roaring of cannon, fired 
at intervals between the toasts : 

" 1. The day we celebrate, which placed the destinies of this 
country, eight years ago, in the hands of our worthy and be- 
loved fellow-citizen, Thomas Jefferson, late President of the 
United States, and a Republican majority in Congress, and this 
day in the hands of James Madison, his successor, and a 
greater Republican majority in Congress. 

"2. James Madison, President of the United States, the 
patriot, statesman, and uniform friend of the people, may h& 
show to the world, and particularly to disorganizers and 
traitors, that a republic is not only the best but the strongest 
government in e.xistence. 

" 3. The patriotic members of the late Congress who would 
not barter their country's rights for a tributary commerce, nor 
be driven from their duty by a weak and unprincipled faction. 

" 4. The heads of departments, superior in wisdom and in- 
tegrity to the ministers and councils of European potentates. 

" 5. The militia of the United States, the grand bulwark of 
American liberty and independence. 

" 6. The army and navy of the United States, composed of 
patriots and not mercenaries. 

"7. The memory of Gen. George Washington, the father of 
his country, may his valedictory address be ever remembered, 
and the advice therein given to his countrymen be better ob- 
served than it recently has been by the Essex Junta and other 
British advocates in the United States. 

" 8. Thomas Jefferson,—' well done, thou good and faithful 
servant,' — may your patriotic and useful labors for our common 
country be a guide to present and future statesmen in conduct- 
ing the political affairs of this happy land of freedom, and 
m.ay your remaining days, in the retirement you have chosen, 
be peaceful and happy, until you partake of the joys above 
with other benefactors of mankind. 

" 9. The patriotic Governor of Massachusetts (Levi Lincoln) 
and other friends to their country in that State, who have de- 
clared their determination to support the laws and reduce to 
order a daring faction that has reared its head in favor of an- 
archy and confusion, with a view to dissolve the union of these 
United States. 

"10. John Quiney Adams, William Gray, and William L. 
Smith who have proved themselves friends to their country by 




seceding from their party and supporting the measures of their 
government when they discovered tiie machinations of the Es- 
sex Junta, in conjunction with a foreign power, were pxciting 
opposition to the laws, with a view to destroy the best govern- 
ment in the world. 

" 11. The agriculture of the United .States, may it never pay 
tribute to a foreign power to gratify the avarice or ambition of 
the dishonest part of our merchants. 

" 12. The manufactories of the United States, may they soon 
be capable of furnishing substitutes for those of foreign powers. 

" 1.3. Commerce, unshackled by foreign orders or decrees, but 
no foreign commerce subject to tribute. 

" 14. Peace with all the world, if to be had on honorable 
terms, but no alliance with any power while they disregard the 
law of nations, and war, with all its privations and other evils, 
rather than disgraceful submission to French decrees or British 
Orders of Council. 

**15. The friends of the government throughout the United 
States, their numbers and firmness, will support the laws and 
appall the spirit of faction. 

"16. A speedy passage to Europe of Tories and apostate 
Whigs, where they may enjoy their favorite government of 
master and vassals. 

" 17. The fair daugliters of America, may they smile on the 
defenders of their country's liberty and laws, and leave in the 
forlorn state of celibacy cowards and the enemies of their own 

In the evening a more brilliant illumination took 
place than had ever been witnessed in Hagerstown 
upon a like occasion. A band of music paraded the 
streets with a large lantern, exhibiting on the four 
sides a portrait of President Madison and figures 
emblematic of agriculture, commerce, and manufac- 
tures, which was carried by some of the most promi- 
nent men of the county. However, among the many 
individual illuminations and displays of transparent 
paintings, the one which attracted universal attention 
and applause was an elegant full-length portrait of 
James Madison, which was displayed in a large door 
in the second story of Capt. Henry Lewis' residence. 

During the years of Madison's administration, from 
March, 1809, to June, 1812, the English continued 
their insults, aggressions, and depredations. Our 
harbors were insulted and outraged, our commerce 
swept from the ocean, our seamen impressed into 
British fleets, scourged and slaughtered, fighting the 
battles of those who held them in bondage, and 
studied indignities were ofi"ered to our national fiag 
wherever displayed. All efibrts for redress from the 
British government had failed, and at length (acting 
in accord with a majority^ of the Senate and House 

^ The final vote was carried in the Senate by nineteen to 
thirteen, and in the House of Representatives by seventy-nine 
to forty-nine. In the House of Representatives the Maryland 
delegates voted as follows: In the afiirmative — Stevenson 
Archer, Joseph Kent, Peter Little, Alexander McKim, Samuel 
Ringgold, and Robert Wright. In the negative — Charles 
Goldsborough, Philip Barton Key, and Philip Stuart. In the 

of Representatives of the United States) the President 
issued his proclamation declaring war against Great 
Britain on the 18th day of June, 1812. 

Anticipating this event, however, and determined 
to place the militia of the State in as effective con- 
dition as possible, the Legislature, by an act approved 
Jan. 18, 1812, provided that the State be divided 
into eleven regimental (cavalry) districts and one ex- 
tra squadron. In the formation of these districts, 
Washington and Frederick Counties were to consti- 
tute the first, while Allegany County was to furnish 
the extra squadron, which (for the time being, or 
until a regiment could be formed in that county) was 
attached to the first regimental district. 

In February following, Capt. Frisby Tilghman was 
appointed lieutenant-colonel in command of this regi- 
ment, while Capt. 0. H. Williams was appointed 
major of the same. Thereupon, to fill the vacancy in 
the " Blues " occasioned by the promotion of Capt. 
Williams, a meeting was held at Strauss' tavern, in 
Hagerstown, Feb. 25, 1812, when Moses Tabbs was 
elected captain, Jacob Barr first lieutenant, David 
Clagett second lieutenant, and David Newcomer cor- 
j net. At about the same time Edward Greene Wil- 
I Hams (brother of Maj. 0. H., and both sons of Gen. 
Otho H. Williams, of Revolutionary fame) was ap- 
pointed to the command of the Hussars, vice Capt. 
Frisby Tili;hman promoted. 

To add to the military excitement, Lieut. John 
Miller, of the United States army, established a re- 
cruiting station at Hagerstown during the same month. 
The inducements held out by him to encourage enlist- 
ments were as follows : 

" Every able-bodied man from the age of eighteen to thirty- 
five years who shall be recruited for the army of the United 
States for the term of five years will be paid a bounty of six- 
teen dollars ; and whenever he shall have served the term for 
which he enlisted, and obtained an honorable discharge, he will 

I be allowed, in addition to the aforesaid bounty, three months' 
pay and one hundred and sixty acres of land ; and in case ho 

' should be killed in action or die in the service his heirs and 

j representatives will be entitled to the said three months' pay 
and one hundred and sixty acres of land. 

J "John Miller, Lieut. 

i "Hagerstown, Feb. 18, 1812. 

" N.B. — Pay, Five Dollars per month." 

I Col. J. P. Boyd,^ one of the heroes of the battle of 

Senate, Gen. Saml. Smith voted aye, and Philip Reed voted no. 
Those voting in the negative were Federalists; and Philip Bar- 
ton Key, of their number, though an American, was a British 
officer under half-pay during and for many years succeeding the 
war of the Revolution. 

I ^ Col. Boyd, then about forty years of age, was born at Bos- 
ton, Mass. Having qualified himself for a military life at the 
place of his nativity, be emigrated to the East Indies with but 

' little more than his sword and his personal bravery. He soon 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


Tippecanoe, visited Hagerstown, Friday, Feb. 28, j 
1812, and as a mark of respect due to him for his [ 
undaunted conduct in that battle a dinner was given 
by the citizens. After drinking to seventeen regular 
toasts, the following " volunteers" were added: 

By Col. Boyd ; 1 

"The Militia of Maryland — Energetic Men and Measures." 

After Col. Boyd had retired, Maj. O. H. Williams 
gave the following : 

" Col. John P. Buyd — a hero of Tippecanoe. His services 
are recorded in our hearts, and may his example stimulate the 
bosom of every soldier." 

By Col. John Ragan : 

"The New Army— 

" Be the sword of our vengeance erected on high, 
And forever be it waved for Columbia's woes ; 
May its bright, dazzling beam when flash'd to the sky 
Be quenched in the blood of her foes." 

In leaving the town on his way to the seat of gov- 
ernment Col. Boyd was escorted a short distance by 
the American Blues and the command of Capt. 

As a rule the county gave a warm support to the 
war, aUhough a majority was evidently against its 
declaration ; but when once begun the great body of 
the people rallied in its favor. Still there were some 
who steadily opposed it as unwise and unnecessary. 
At a district-meeting of the friends of peace, at New 
Windsor, now Carroll County, on July 28, 1812, it 
was recommended that each district in the county 
appoint a committee to meet in general committee at 
the " Washington Hotel," August 12th. Col. Joshua 
Gist, Curtis Williams, and John Mittens were ap- 
pointed for Westminster. At a similar meeting in 
Liberty (Frederick County) District, of which F. B. 
Sappington was chairman and Samuel Thomas was 
secretary, the following were appointed a committee, 
to meet in general committee: Gen. R. Cumming, 
Col. Henry Barrick, D. D. Howard, John Duddem, 
Joshua Delaplane, Sebastian Groff, Dennis Poole. 
Until the third week of August, 1812, the people of 
Frederick Town witnessed but little of the war 
I movements. On August 17th a troop of cavalry, 
enlisted in Virginia and commanded by Capt. White, 

obtained a position in the military service there, and rapidly 
I rose to the rank of general. In 1802 he returned to America 
! with fame, honor, and fortune ; and though rich, sought and 
obtained military employment in the service of the United 
States. How well he deserved the confidence of his country 
I was amply attested by his conduct during Harrison's campaign 
I against Tecumseh and the Prophet in the fall of 1811, and the 
I war with Great Britain in 1812-14. 

passed through en. route to Trenton, N. J. ; and on 
the 20th, Capt. Worthington's company of drafted 
militia from the town and neighborhood marched for 
Annapolis. These men were to supply the place of a 
part of the Fifth United States Regiment ordered to 
the North. Capt. Worthington was e.scorted out of 
town by the companies commanded by Capts. Henry 
and Stephen Steiner. On August 25th there arrived 
in Frederick the Hagerstown Volunteers, under Capt. 
Thomas Quantrill, who two days later left for the 
front. They were a part of the State's ((uota ordered 
in compliance with the Secretary of War's request 
for three hundred and fifty men for the defense of 

Meantime the most strenuous exertions were being 
put forth by the executive (Governor Winder) to place 
upon a war footing the infantry commands of the 
State militia ; also to furnish the State's quota of six 
thousand men, and to organize, arm, and equip the 
latter ready for service at a moment's warning. Gen. 
Samuel Ringgold's Second Brigade of the Third Di- 
vision (Maj. Thomas B. Pottiuger, Brigade Inspector) 
was at this time composed of Lieut. -Col. David 
Schnebly's Eighth Regiment (Majs. John McClain 
and Christian Hager), Lieut.-Col. Daniel Malott's 
Tenth Regiment, Lieut.-Col. John Ragan's Twenty- 
fourth Regiment, and Maj. 0. H. Williams' squadron 
of horse, — i.e., the " Blues" and " Hussars." Among 
the company commanders of militia infantry were 
Capts. Thomas B. Hall (of the " Washington Ran- 
gers"), David Cushwa, Joseph Hunter, Wherritt, 
Stonebraker, Miller, Stevens, Chapline, Lewis, and 

Volunteering progressed favorably during the sprifig 
and summer mouths of 1812, and the quota of Wash- 
ington County was filled without resorting to a draft. 
On Monday, Aug. 21:, 1812, the •' Homespun Volun- 
teers" of Hagerstown, under command of Capt. 
Thomas Quantrill, marched en route to Fort Madison, 
Annapolis, escorted for several miles by Capt. Tabbs' 
troop (the " Blues") and many enthusiastic citizens; 
and on the 31st of the same month Capt. Parker's 
detachment of United States troops passed through 
VVilliamsport and Hagerstown on their march to Al- 
bany, N. Y. They viere/eted at Williamsport, Gen. 
Samuel Ringgold, Col. Frisby Tilghman, and Capt. 
E. G. Williams forming the reception committee, and 
the " Hussars" doing escort duty. The general gov- 
ernment was then concentrating all of its available 
regular force on the Canadian frontier, and in April, 
1813, a detachment of three hundred and twelve reg- 
ulars from Virginia, under command of Lieut.-Col. 
James Preston, passed through Hagerstown on their 



march to Black Rock, in the vicinity of Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

In March, 1813, Maj. Williams' squadron, the 
" Blues" and the " Hussars," were ordered to Annap- 
olis, where they performed duty for a brief period ; 
and in May of the same year companies of volunteers, 
under the command of Capt. Wherritt, of Funks- 
town, Capt. Miller, of Sharpsburg, Capt. Stevens, of 
Hancock, and Capt. Bell, of Allegany County, pro- 
ceeded to Baltimore. 

On May 8, 1813, Capt. Steiner's artillery and Capt. 
Dawson's infantry companies left Frederick for Balti- 
more to aid in the defense of that city, then threat- 
ened by the British. Two days previous Capt. Plant's 
rifle and Capt. Samuel Ogle's infantry companies had 
gone to the same rendezvous. On the 9th two other 
companies from Washington and Allegany Counties 
pas.sed through Frederick for Baltimore. On the 7th 
thirteen wagons loaded with specie arrived at Fred- 
erick from Baltimore. On the 16th of May thirty- 
seven regulars left Frederick under Ensign W. G. 
Shade, who had all been recruited in the county. On 
May 19th about a hundred militia from various parts of 
Frederick County went to Annapolis. On the 3d of 
July a general discharge took place of the troops called 
for the defense of Baltimore, who were highly ex- 
tolled in a general order, particularly Capt. Henry 
Steiner's company of artillery, which arrived home on 
the 5th. On the 6th the companies of Capt. Samuel 
Dawson and of Capt. Miller, of Sharpsburg, and also 
most of the troops of Washington and Allegany 
Counties, returned. On the 16th of September, Capt. 
Marker's fine company of " Mountain Rangers," which 
had been summoned to Annapolis, passed through 
Frederick en route home. On October 21st there was 
a grand illumination in Frederick in honor of the 
victory of the American arms in Canada. In 1814 
the entire militia of the county went again to the de- 
fense of Baltimore, and many participated in the 
bloody engagement at North Point. Large numbers 
of the citizens of Frederick County entered the reg- 
ular service of the United States, and served with 
honor on the Western frontiers and the Canada line.' 

While these events were transpiring in the State 
the sons of Western Maryland were winning fame on 
the Canadian frontier. The projected invasion of 
Canada in 1812 resulted in the battle of Queenstown, 
in which the Maryland troops under Col. Winder 
bore a conspicuous part. The expedition resulted in 
a failure, however, which Gen. Smythe attempted to 

atone for by organizing another for the same object. 
He gave orders on the 25th of November, 1812, for 
" the whole army to be ready to march at a moment's 
warning" Everything being in readiness, an ad- 
vance was embarked near Buffalo, in two divisions, at 
three o'clock on the morning of the 29th. 

The first division, under the command of Lieut.-Col. 
Charles G. Boerstler,^ with about two hundred men of 
Col. Winder's regiment, in eleven boats, was to cross 
the river at a point about five miles below Fort Erie, 
capture the guard stationed there, kill or take the ar- 
tillery horses, and with the prisoners, if any, return to 
the American shore. The second division was under 
the command of Capt. King, wTio with one hundred 
and fifty regular soldiers, and seventy sailors under 
Lieut. Angus, in ten boats, was to cross higher up the 
river at the " Red House," and storm the British 
batteries. Col. Winder was to remain on the Ameri- 
can side to give directions. 

At the appointed hour the boats started for their 
respective destinations. King's division, when within 
about a quarter of a mile from the shore, was discov- 
ered by the enemy, who opened upon him with such 
good effect as to compel six of his boats to return. 
The other four made good their landing, and forth- 
with carried the British batteries by storm. But the 
enemy came upon them from distant stations, and 
with no more help from Gen. Smythe, these gallant 
men were soon overpowered, Sailing-master Watts 
killed, and their commander taken prisoner, the rest 
getting back to the American side of the river in great 

Col. Boerstler and his party mean time had been 
placed in great danger. The firing upon King had 
aroused the enemy all along the river-bank, and they 
were moving rapidly to the attack. Mr. Lossing, the 
historian, in his account of this movement, says, — 

*' Boerstler's boats became separated in the darkness. Seven 
of them landed above the bridge to be destroyed, while four 
others that approached the designated landing-place were 
driven off by a party of the enemy. Boerstler landed boldly 
alone, under fire from a foe of unknown numbers, and drove ij 
them to the bridge at the point of the bayonet. Orders were <| 
then given for the destruction of that structure, but owing to 
the confusion at the time of landing, the axes had been left in 
the boats. The bridge was only partially destroyed, and one 
great object of this advance party of the invading army was 
not accomplished. 

" Boerstler was about to return to his boats and recross the. 
river, because of the evident concentration of troops to that 
point in overwhelming numbers, when he was compelled to 
form his lines for immediate battle. Intelligence came from 
the commander of the boat-guard that they had captured two 

1 Middletown contributed a fine company of volunteers under I 2 jje was a son of Dr. Christian Boerstler, of Funkstown, and 
Capt. Jacob Alexander. died while stationed at New Orleans, La., Nov. 21, 1817. 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


British soldiers, woo informed tliein that the whole garrison at 
Fort Erie was approaching, and that the advance guard was 
not five minutes distant. This intelligence was correct. Dark- 
ness covered everything, and Boerstler resorted to stratagem 
when ho heard the tranij) of the approaching foe. He gave 
commanding orders in a loud voice, addressing his subordinates 
as field-ofKcers. The British were deceived. They believed 
the Americans to be in much greater force than they really 
were. A collision immediately ensued in the gloom. Boer- 
stler ordered the discharge of a single volley, and then a bayo- 
net charge. The enemy broke and fled in confusion, and Boer- 
stler recrossed the river without annoyance." 

Disaster awaited the gallant Boerstler, however, for 
in June, 1813, he encountered an overwhelming force 
of the enemy at Beaver Dam, Canada, and after an 
engagement of three hours' duration was forced to 
surrender, or sacrifice the lives of the survivors of his 
brave command. The following letter, written the day 
after the fight, and addressed to his father, will prove 
interesting : 

" Head of Lake Ontario, 
"Upper Canada, June 25, 1813. 

"Dear Father,- — It becomes my unfortunate lot to inform 
yuu that yesterday I was taken prisoner with a detachment 
under my command amoimting to near five hundred men, after 
an engagement of about throe hours. I lost not many killed, 
about forty wounded, and five or six officers, — myself a flesh- 
wound of no consequence. I am on my way to Kingston, and 
shall write to you every opportunity. The officers under my 
command must say whether your son did his duty. I need 
only state to you that I was se\enteen miles from Fort George, 
and surrounded on all sides by more than my numbers, and the 
enemy's force increasing, while mine was constantly diminish- 
ing ; ammunition nearly exhausted, men wearied with a march 
of ten miles without a mouthful of refreshment; then the en- 
gagement, and then to fight our way back the whole distance 
surrounded by woods filled with Indians. On the score of hu- 
manity I determined to capitulate, as it was extremely doubt- 
ful whether a man of us would reach Fort George. What I say 
above will be sufficient for youj my country must apply to 
those under my command. 

*' Your son, 

" Charles. 

" Col. Scott will please seal and forward the above." 

"Dear Sir, — I pray you to believe that your son is not 
condemned for being unfortunate. 

" Respectfully, sir, 

■"Your most obed't scrv't, 

" W. Scott. 
"Dr. C. Boerstler." 

On the 20th of July, 1813, the Buffalo Gazette 
i published the following account of Col. Boerstler's 
fight at Beaver Dam : 

"On Wednesday night last, Maj. G. Chapin arrived in this 
village, having, together with his company, escaped from the 
enemy on Monday preceding. The major has given us the 
following narration of the action at Beaver Dam, which we now 
lay before the public. 

" On the 23d of June last a party of the regular troops, consist- 
ing of five hundred infantry and twenty light dragoons, under 
the command of Lieut. -Col. C. G. Boerstler, together with forty- 

four mounted riflemen, composed of militia from the country, 
under Maj. Chapin, were detached from the American encamp- 
ment at Fort George, for the purposoof cutting oft' the su)>plie.s 
of the enemy, and breaking up the small encampments they 
were forming through the country. On the 24th, about nine 
miles west of Queenstown, they wore attacked by a body of above 
five hundred Indians and nearly one hundred British regulars, 
who lay concealed in the woods near the road they were pass- 
ing. The attack commenced on the dragoons, who were placed 
in the rear. The infantry was soon brought into a position to 
return the enemy's fire to advantage, and succeeded in driving 
them some distance into the woods. 

" In a short time the Indians, having taken a circuitous 
route, appeared in front, and opened a fire upon the mounted 
riflemen who were stationed there. Here they uiet with so 
warm a reception that they were conipelled a second time to re- 
treat in much haste. After this every exertion was made to 
draw the Indians from the woods to the open ground, but with- 
out much effect. The few who were bold enough to venture 
were handled so roughly that they soon returned to their lurk- 
ing-places. Meanwhile the encuiy were receiving considerable 
reinforcements, which at length gave them a grejit superiority. 
A retreat for a short distance was ordered, and effected with 
very little loss. The Indians soon made their appearance upon 
our right and left, the British regulars and some Canadian 
militia in front. Our troops were formed into close columns 
for the purpose of opening themselves a way through the 
enemy's lines with their bayonets. 

" At this juncture a British officer rode up and demanded the 
surrender of the American party. The demand was made, he 
said, to prevent the further effusion of blood. He asserted 
upon his honor, and declared in the most solemn manner, that 
the British regular force was double that of the American, and 
that the Indians were seven hundred in number. Lieut. -Col. 
Boerstler, under a belief of these facts, and thinking it imprac- 
ticable to get off" the wounded, whom he was unwilling to 
abandon to the mercy of the savages, and deeming it extremely 
uncertain whether a retreat could be effected, thought proper 
to agree to terms of capitulation, which were at length signed 
by himself on the one part, and Lieut. Bishop on the other. 
By these it was stipulated that the wounded should betaken 
good care of, the officers permitted to retain their side-arms, 
private property to be respected, and the militia j)ermitted to 
return home immediately. 

" The articles of capitulation were no sooner signed than they 
were violated. The Indians immediately commenced their 
depredations, and plundered the officers of their side-arms. 
The soldiers, too, were stripped of every article of clothing to 
which the savages took a fancy, such as hats, coats, shoes, etc. 
It is impossible to give any correct account of the killed and 
wounded, as the enemy did not furnish a list. The loss of the 
enemy is supposed to be much greater than ours. Between 
thirty and forty Indians were counted that lay dead on the 
field, and from their known practice of carrying off their killed 
and ivounded, it is believed they have suffered severely. 

" The regular troops were in a few days sent (o Kingston, 
from whence it is probable they have proceeded to Quebec. 

"Maj. Chapin and his corps were detained under guard at 
the head of Lake Ontario, a