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astor, lenox and 

tiloln foundations 

R 1915 L 


Throujrh all the liistoiy of Kansas and of AVyandotte rminty there 
runs a thread of romance. 'I'here is an odd fascination in the accounts 
of those old explorers who came this way in the three centuries preced- 
inp: the coming of the white men to dwell here. There is a c|niet charm 
about the old Indian legends and in the stories of the wars and wander- 
ings of these ancient tribes. There is something delightfully interest- 
ing in the tales of the old steamboat days told by the men and women 
who came up the ^Missouri and Kansas rivers in the Territorial days. 
The long struggle for statehood, the Border strife and the tinal conquest, 
one of the most thrilling periods in our nation's history, appeal to the 
author as well as to the reader. 

The early history of Kansas and of Wyandotte county interwoven 
and inseparable, is a repetition of the old story of the liattle of civiliza- 
tion with the forces of the wilderness. The passing of the savage Red 
Man, the education of his more enlightened brother, the Emigrant 
Indian from the east, the beginning of the future's development, and 
the final victory of peace, are in harmony with the history of Kansas 
and of Wyandotte county, which is a story crowded with vicissitudes 
and leading through a phenomenal growth to a promise of splendid 

It has been the aim of the author to present something of all this 

in this work. And it should not be a colorless summary of dry facts 

and figures. The personal reminiscences of men and women of the 

early days who are still living have been used to give life and realism 

;i to the work. Here is undertaken a record of the progress of Wyan- 

^ dotte county, its people and its institutions up to the close of the first 

I^ decade of the twentieth century. It is a story full of absorbing 

""^ interest and it has been the endeavor of the author and those with whom 

\ he has been associated to tell it in an accurate but attractive manner. 

"^ In this work the author, having been a citizen of the eountv for more 

•^ than twenty-five years, has accumulated in that time much of that which 

appears in these two volumes. Also he has had access to a fund of 

historical information from the Kansas State Historical Society and in 

Vf the public library of Kansas City, Kansas. Many others have con- 

^ tributed information, for which the author, the publisher and the reader, 

as well, are indebted. 

Perl W. Morgan. 





Early French and Spanish Explorers — When Father Mar- 
quette Came — Father Hennepin's Wonderful Map — Explorations 
OP Lewis and Clark — First Fourth op July Celebration in Kansas 
— Captain Pike's Expedition — Major Long's Expedition — French- 
men Our First Merchants — The Fur Traders — The Great American 
Desert — The Fremont Expeditions — Scenes of Rare Beauty — Phys- 
ical and Geographical Features, Etc. 1-16 



Whence Came the Name.^ — Here Three Centuries Ago — Kan- 
sas, the Dominant Tribe — Moncachtape, the Interpreter — Early 
Kansas Villages — Kansas Indian Lodge — The Kansas Home Life — 
Old Fool Chief — An Honest Indian — The Famous Kansas Orator — 
A Chief Who Was a Warrior — At War With Their Brothers — 
Depredations of the Kansas — The Kansas Treaties — Abandoned 
THE Kansas River — Beginning of a New Era. 17-28 



Their Wars and Wanderings — Their Last Stand — The Death 
op Tecumseh — Their Coming to Kansas — The Shawnee Prophet — 
The Great Chief, Blue Jacket — Captain Joseph Parks — Clung to 
Old Customs — FARE-n^ELL to Kansas. 29-38 

vi Contents 



Their Wars on the Pawnees — As Irving Saw Them — Civiliza- 
tion's Advance Agents — Visited by Parkman — Not Given Alone to 
Fighting — The Delaware Chiefs — The Death of Chief Ketchum — 
The Last of a Noble Race — The Treaty op 1866. 39-46 



The Shawnee Methodist Mission — Where the Legislature Met 
— The Mission Graveyard — The Shawnee Baptist Mission — A News- 
paper FOR the Indians — A Visit to the Missions — The Shawnee 
Quaker Mission — Social Life About the Missions — Delaware Metho- 
dist Mission — Delaware Baptist Mission. 47-58 



The Wyaxdots — Early History of the Nation — Romances and 
Polk Lore — Wvandots' Version of the Creation — Their Allegiance 
TO the French — Their Wars at an End — Became a Civilized Nation. 




Wyandots Purchase a Home from the Delawares — Founded the 
ViM.AGi; OF Wyandotte — Romances of Old Wyandot Families — The 
Heroism of Elizabeth Zane — Captain Pipe. 68-78 



Burial Place op the Wyandots — Reminiscences of the Early 
Days — (Mrs. Lt'cy B. Armstrong). 79-86 

Contents vii 



When the White Settlers Came — The Catfish Hotel — Resi- 
dents IN 1855-6 — Isaac Zane's Perpetual Motion Machine — When 


Town Lot Sale — A Rush of Population — Pour Broad Avenues — A 
Famous Old Hall — When Wyandotte Became a City — A Forbidding 
Looking Place — Those Ready-Made Houses — The Blue Goose Saloon 
— Officers for Twenty-Eight Years. 87-101 



Free State Boomers Started Quindaro — Other River Ports Out- 
distanced — Kansas Merchandise Landed There — A Town of Real 
Live Men — What Killed Old Quindaro — Early Kansas Politics — 
How Qtundaro Lost Out. 102-107 



Families There Ninety Ye.yrs Ago — Westport a Great Trade 
Center — When the Town Was Born — A Real Estate Boom — An 
Unpromising Town — When Cholera Struck the Place — The First 
Mayoralty Election — Benton's Famous Prophecy — A Traveling 
Post Office — Steamboat and Trail Trade — First Public Improve- 
ments — The Civil War Brought Ruin^Return to Peace — Hotels on 
the Levee — The Hannibal Bridge Helped — Benton's Prophecy 
Verified. 108-117 



First Glimpse op Kansas — When the Yankee Free State Men 
Came — Delights of Pioneer Travel by Steamboat — When Governor 
Reeder Came and Went — First Steamboats to Navigate the Kansas 
River — The "Emma Harmon's" Famous Trip — The "Lightpoot" 

viii Contents 

Built in Kansas — A Not.\ble Voyage up the Kansas River — Quin- 
DARo's Famous Side- Wheeler — Kansas River Steamboats — Steam- 
boats That Went Down — When Boats Were Operated for the Rail- 
roads — An End to Steamboating. 118-128 



Wyandot Indians Pioneers in the Movement — The First Elec- 
tion — A "Bolting" Convention — Kansas-Nebraska Bill Passed — 
Welcome to Governor Reeder — Orders an Election — Candidates for 
Territorial Delegates — The First Invasion — Eyes op a Nation on 
Shawtnee Mission — The Bogus Laws — Three Makers op Kans.^ His- 
tory — Governor Shannon to the Frontier — The Topeka Constitu- 
tion — The Wakarusa War — Emigrant Aid Societies — The Capital 
at Lecompton — Governor Geary on the Scene — Governor Robert J. 
Walker — The Lecompton Constitution — Leavenworth Convention 
. — Governor Medary — Elections Before Statehood. 129-145 



The Roll of the Convention — A Convention of Young Men — 
Republican "Whips," Ingalls and Simpson — The Organization — 
Ohio Constitution Followed — Resolutions to Congress — Closed the 
Door to Slavery — Refused to Include Part of Nebraska — Woman's 
Influence in the Convention — Democratic Members Refused to 
giGN — Constitution Approved by the People — Congress Slow to Act 
— When the News Reached Kansas — Thirty-Five Years op State- 
hood. 146-159 



Senator Bristow's Address — Governor Stubbs on "Kansas" — 
Henry J. Allen's Eloquence — Congressman Madison's Tribute — 
William Allen White on "The Old Insurgents" — John H. At- 
wood's Speech. 160-166 

Contents ix 



The East Boundary of Kansas — The North Boundary — South- 
ern Boundary — When Colorado Was a Part op Kansas — Wyandotte 
Convention Cut Off Colorado — Debate on the Western Boundary 
— To Cut Off "Short Grass" Country — Objected to the Mining 
Regions — A Pathway to the Mountains — Part op Nebraska Wanted 
TO BE in Kansas — Nebraska's Many Capitals — Would Make the 
Platte the Boundary — Nebraska's Delegates to Wyandotte — 
Defeat of the Plan — Kansas Papers Indifferent — A Missouri 
Opinion of Kansas — Stephen A. Douglas' Speech — Ben Simpson's 
Defense op the Boundaries — The Convention Did Right — Kansas 
City Lost Its Opportunity — Kans.\s the "Middle Spot" of North 
America. 167-183 



R.VN Out of Provisions — Threatened by Pawnee Indians — A 
Long Tramp — Working in a Blizzard — The Journey to Wyandotte — 
Border Ruffians at Work. 184-188 



The First Infantry Regiment — At the Battle op Wilson's 
Creek — A Famous Cavalry Regiment — The Fifth Kansas Cavalry. — 
The Eighth Infantry — Ninth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry — A Con- 
solidation of Kansas Regiments — Young Tom Ewing's Regiment 

The Twelfth Infantry — Fourteenth Infantry — One Hundred Day 
Men — The Negro Regiments — The Third Battery — The Record of 
Kansas. 189-200 



The County's Record — First Regiment Kansas Volunteer In- 
fantry — Our Boys in the Second — Indians in the Fifth Cav.u^ry — 
Those Who Joined the Sixth — Colonel Weir's Men — The Ill-Fated 
Twelfth— A Fighting Cavalry— The Sixteenth's Roll of Honor — 

X Contents 

The Kansas Colored Regiments — The Battles They Fought — 
Fighting in the Ozarks — Powell Clayton's Command — Protectors 
OP the Southern Border — When Colonel Clarkson was Captured — 
The Twelfth Cavalry's I\Iany Battles. 201-212 



General Price's Bold Plan — The Fight on the Little Blue — 
Situation Before the Big Battle — The Dash for Kansas — The 
Crossing at Byrom's Ford — Colonel Veale's Heroic Stand — As a 
Participant Saw It — The Rebel Yell — Fighting to the Death — The 
ToPEKA Battery's Loss — As General Deitzler Told It. 213-226 



"Silence and No Questions Asked" — Some Valuable Freight — 
The Kidnappers op Lawrence — Stories op AVar-Tijie Days — A Night 
OP Terror — The Negro Exodus — When Colonel Moonlight Guarded 
the Town — Soldiers Guarded a Steamboat Captain. 227-233 



The Approach op War — Peace Relations End — The Call for 
Volunteers — Kansas to the Front — The Camp in San Francisco — 
First Smell of Powder — The Day' on the Firing Lines — Where 
Their Spirit Originated — The Night Attack — The First Real Bat- 
tle — A Skirmish March — Malolos Is Taken — Calumpit, Next Stop 
— Trembly and White in Swimming — The Campaign Continues — 
Outposts Are Annoyed — Back to Manila — The Boys Who Gave Up 
Their Lives — The Muster Into Service — The Boys From Kansas 
City, Kansas. 234-231 



The "Pill Box" and Dr. Root — Alfred Gray' — Governor Robin- 
son — State Geologist Mudge — Byron Judd — The Doctors Speck — 
Mrs. C. I. H. Nichols — Governor McGrew — Otis B. Gunn — Colonel 

Contents xi 

A. C. Davis— Judge Isaac B. Sharp— Colonel G. W. Veale— Last to 
Desert Quindaro — Mary Tenney Gray — Judge Jesse Cooper — Cap- 
tain Thomas Crook— Samuel W. Day— Frank H. Betton— Tabitha 
N. Thomas— James G. Dougherty— A Kansas Artist— Literary and 
Artistic Women — Rev. Alexander Sterrett — "jMother" Sturges — 
Three Wyandotte Founders — James R. Parr and Others. 252-270 



Creative Act — First Election of County Officers — Machinery 
IN Motion — Beginning of Road Building — The Old Southern Bridge 

Law Enforcement in 1859 — The First Jurors Drawn — Senators 

and Representatives — County Officers in Fifty-two Years — The 
County Seat — First Taxes Levied — Commissioner Districts Estab- 
lished — Township Organization — Wyandotte County Statistics. 




An Execution in Wyandotte — Three Judicial Districts — Colo- 
rado IN the Wy'andotte Districts — Second and Third Districts — 
Courts Under Statehood — The First Term — An Early Day Court 
Scene — Dramshop Cases — Early Members of the Bar — A Judge Who 
Played Poker — The Court House Blown Down — The Judges Who 
Followed — The Growth of Litig.\tion — The District Court Judges 
--Lawyers of the Early Days. 284-294 



The First Movements — Kansas City Town Company — City In- 
corporated — When Armourdale Got a Start — Platting of Argen- 
tine — Public Improvements — Kansas Patriotism Aroused — Call for 
A State Mass Meeting — A Great Civic Demonstration — Colonel 
Cobb's Logical Addres.s — Governor's Consolidation Proclamation- 
First City Officers— Established Ward Boundaries — First Regular 
Municipal Election — The JIetropolitan Police — Officials of the 
City — Government nv Commission. 295-311 

xii Contents 



— A Picturesque Little City — Rosedale Schools — Church History- 
— A City op Homes — A Gre.vt Medical School and Hospital — Rail- 
road Terminals — The Old Rolling Mill — Other Industries — A 
Pioneer for Kansas Good Roads — Bonner Springs, the Ancient 
QuiviRA — The First Commercial Center — The Famous Four Houses 
— The Tiblow Ferry' — The Celebrated Springs — Town Organized — 
City Organized — Discovery of Natural Gas — Lakes and Parks — 
Churches and Schools — First Rural Mail Delivery There — Other 
Towns in Wyandotte County. 312-325 



Figures Show Substantial Growth — An Era op Improvement — 
The Flood op 1903 — The New City Hall — Municipal Water Works 
— A Municipal Electrical Plant — Parks and Boulevards — Kansas 
City Post Office — New Post Office Building — Street Railway 
Facilities — First Interurban Railway — Financial Strength — Ho- 
tels OF Old Wyandotte — The Mercantile Club — Other Civic Organ- 
izations — Charit.\ble and Christian Organiz.vtions. 326-342 



Wyandots, the First Methodists — When the Methodists Were 
Divided — Expelled the Rev. Mr. Gurley — Returning to the Old 
Church — The Methodist Churches Burned — The Old Church Re- 
Organized — The Methodist Episcopal Church South — Other 
Methodist Churches — A Church of War Time Days — The Organiza- 
tion OF the Church — Soldiers Attended Prayer Meeting — As a 
Pastor's Wife Told It — The Drought of 1860 — When the Old 
Church Bell Rang — The Burning of Lawrence — The Old Church 
on Fifth Street — Episcopal Churches — The Presbyterians — The 
Baptist Churches — The Methodists Protestant — Christian 
Churches — Christian Science Organizations — Other Religious 
Organizations — Sunday Schools. 343-360 

Contents xiii 



Arrival of Father Kuhls — Catholic Families — The Town op 
Wyandotte — Site for a Church — The School — A Silver Jubilee — 
The New Church — St. Thomas' Church — St. Anthony's Church — 
Blessed Sacrament Church — St. Benedict's Church — St. John's 
Croatian Church — St. Rose of Lima Church — St. Joseph's Polish 
Church — St. Bridget's Church — St. Peter's Congregation — St. 
Cyril and Methodius Church — St. John's Church, Argentine — St. 
Patrick 's Parish — Catholic Convents — Shawneetown — Eudora — 
Removal of the Bishop's Residence — Reminiscences of Father 
Kuhls. 361-379 



The First Public Schools — The Old Palmer Academy — City 
School History — Cost of the Schools — Officers — The City's 
Forty School Buildings — Night Schools — High Schools — Manual 
Training and Industrial Education — Play Grounds and School 
Yards — Wyandotte County Schools — Districts Organized — School 
Statistics — Parochial Schools — The City's Great Public Library 
— Dogs Bought the Books — Club Women Took the Lead — "Offi- 
cial Dog Enumerator" — Growth of the Library — Uses of the 
Library — Books in the Schools — Boys' and Girls' Department — 
Story Hour— The Staff. 380-396 



Kansas City University — Dr. Mathers' Offer Accepted — 
Death of the Founder — The Corner Stone Laying — To Become a 
Great University — Descendant of the Puritans — A Journey to 
THE West — Gifts to the Young — Kansas City Baptist Theological 
Seminary — Its Courses — Western University and Industrial 
School — Teaching the Negroes Trades — Frugality the Chief Aim — 
Effect of School Training — Thoroughness in the Courses — The 
Kansas School for the Blind. 397-410 

xiv Contents 



St. Margaret's Hospital — Bethany Hospital — University of 
Kansas School and Hospital — Other Hospitals. 411-416 



Act to Incorporate the Kansas Medical Society — The State 
Organization — First Annual Meeting — Then Came the Civil War 
— Reorganization — The Society's Influence — The Wyandotte 
County Medical Society. 417-421 



Correspondents of Long Ago — The First Newspaper — The 
"Wyandotte Register" — The "Gazette's" Founder — A Friend op 
the Indians — The "Wyandotte Herald" — The "Argentine Repub- 
lic"— The "Weekly Sun"— The "Press"— Cabebr op Mark 
Delahay. 422-433 



First Kansas Masonic Lodge — Organizers of the First Lodge — 
Other ^[asonic Bodies — The Scottish Rite Masons — Building the 
Temple — The Odd Fellows — Knights op Pythias — The A. 0. U. W. 
Lodges — Grand Army of the Republic — The Elks Lodge — The 
Eagles — Other Secret Societies. 434-440 



First Railroads Ch.vrtered — The Atchison Ten Years in Build- 
ing — The Granger Lines — Pacific Lines — The Santa Fe System — 
The "Joy Roads"— The "Katy" System— The "Frisco" Built— 
First Railroads St.vrted from Wyandotte — When the "K. P." 
Reached Lawrence — Assassination of Hallett — Hallett's Visit to 

Contents xv 

President Linx'oln — Eastern Capitalists Interested — Hallett a 
Railway Genius — First County Grant to the Missouri Pacific — 
Building the Santa Fe — When the Memphis Was Built — The 
Northwestern — When the Rock Island Came — The Chicago-Great 
Western — Railroad Values and Trackage — Great Railway Shops 
and Terminals — The Great Stilwell Enterprise. 441-459 



A Buffalo Stampede — Waiting for an Attack by Indians — A 
Night of Terror — Some of the Men of the Old "K. P." — The Early 
Day Paymaster — The State Line Depot — Slow Trains in the 
"Sixties" — Every Clerk a Politician — A Preacher-Conductor's 
Yarn — The Famous Muncie Holdup — Seventeen Days in a Snow 
Bank — Curious Things in the M.\il — The California Fast Mail — 
The Pioneer Railroad Telegrapher — A "Holdup" on the Trail. 




The Beginning of Flour Milling — Elevators — The Live Stock 
Market — INIeat Packing Industry — Great Soap Manufactories — 
Cooperage and Bo.x Factories — Foundries and Machine Shops — Im- 
ple.ment Factories — The Cotton Industry — Manufactutre of Cotton 
Products — The Cement Industry — An Oil Distributing Center — A 
Great Steel Plant — United Zinc & Chemical Company — Where Fire 
Engines are Made — Baking Companies — Ice Manufacturing Com- 
panies — Other Manufactories — Future Possibilities. 472-487 



Crop Conditions — Trees and Native Flora — Types of Soil — 
Limestones — Early Farm Methods — Barns and Fences — Fall Work 
— The Grasshoppers — The Centennial Display — Modern Farming — 
Cereals — Grasses — Clovers — Field, Forage and Silo Plants — Farm 
Truck — Vegetable Gardening — F.\rm and Crop Statistics — Expense 
OF Raising Corn in Kansas — Horticultural Statistics. 488-502 


Act admitting I'iaiisas into the Union, 287 

Act creating county of Wyandotte, 272 

Act to ineorporate'tlie Kansas Medical Society, 417 

Address of Senator Bristow, 160 

Agers, Laura G., 792 

Agers, Moses, 793 

Agreement between the Wyandots and Delawares, 69 

Agriculture and horticulture, 488 

Ainsvvorth, Elizabeth L., 68") 

Ainsworth. John M., 685 

Akesson, Ola, 738 

Alden, Frank R., 845 

Alden, Henry L., 652 

Algire, Russell A., 694 

Allen, Edward, 705 

Allen, Henry J., eloquence of, 162 

"American Citizen," 427 

American Foreign Missionary Society, 50 

American Fur Company, 11 

Ancient Order of United Workmen, 438 

Ancient C>)uivira, Bonner Springs, 318 

Ancient Wyandot nation. 59 

Anderson, Charles A., 573 

Anderson, Emmett F., 940 

Anderson, Gustaf A., 787 

Anderson, John E., 767 

Anderson, Nels A., 929 

Anderson, Otto, 903 

Anderson, William W., 822 

Annexation of Argentine, 308 

Annual output of first mart of trade in Kansas, 11 

Annual rainfall, 16 

Antoine, Louis, 993 

Approach of «ar, 234 

Area of Wyandotte county, 15 

Argentine mayors, 300 

"Argentine Republic" 428 

Argentine State Bank, 338 

Arkansas Indians, 4 

Armourdale got a start, 298 

Armourdale State Bank, 338 

Armstrong, Lucy B., 84 

Armstrong, Russell Biglow. 426 

Arnold, Henry J., 935 

Arrival of Father Kuhls, 362 

As a pastor's wife told it, 350 

Assassination of Hallett, 450 

Assessed valuation of taxable property, 16 

Assessed value of property subject to taxation, 283 

Assessors, city. 310 

Atchison ten years in building, 442 

Atkinson, William T.. 709 

Attorneys, city, 309 

Attorneys, county, 276 

Atwood, John H.. speech of, 165 

Babcock, Luke, 670 
Back to Manila, 245 
Badger, Lewis M., 721 
Bailey, James if., 530 

Baird, Justus N., 901 

Baker, John J., 587 

Baking companies, 486 

Ball, William, 702 

Baltz, Paul C, 891 

Banking interests of Kansas City, 337 

Banking Trust, 338 

Banks, Kansas City, 337 

Banning, William R., 640 

Baptist church, 356 

Baptist churches. Rosedale, 315 

' ' Baptist Mission Press, ' ' 50 

Baptist Temple, 356 

Bar, early members of, 290 

Barben, Gus, 739 

Barclay, William, 1030 

Barker, Albert A., 800 

Barker, James T., 800 

Barker, Thomas J., 984 

Barnett, Benjamin M., 803 

Barney, Louie F., 539 

Bartlett, Frank W., 713 

Battle between the "Pottawatomie" and the "Wy 

dotte," 470 
Battle of Little Blue, 215, 220 
Battle of the Big Blue, 221 
Battle of the Blue, 213 
Battles of colored regiments, 207 
Battle of Wilson 's Creek, 190 
Bauer, Alfred, 954 
Baum, Jacob, 773 
Beagle, Dode V., 1021 
Beattie, Samuel, 927 
Becker, Albert L., 631 
Beddow, James H., 675 
"Bee," 439 
Beggs, William, 813 
Beginning of a new era, 28 
Beginning of flour milling, 473 
Beginning of road building. 274 
Bellamy, Gervas, 658 
Bell, Dr. Simeon B., 317 
Bell, Simeon B., 883 
Belter, Hermann, 552 
Bemarkt, George, 861 
Bench and bar. 284 

Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 439 
Benevolent societies, 434 

Ben Simpson's defense of the boundaries, 179 
Benton, Arthur S., 811 
Benton's famous prophecy, 113 
Benton's prophecy verified, 117 
Benton, Thomas H., 113 
Berger, Albert L., 854 
Bethany Hospital, 413 
Bethel," 324 

Betton, Frank H., 264 
Big town lot sale, 93 
Biscomb, William H., 678 
Bishop Fink, 376 




Bjorkmaii, John F., 536 

Ti'lanz, Jacob, 814 

"Blind Isaac." 91 

ISlnmquist, Charles, 928 

I'.liimquist, John, 798 

"Blue Goose" saloon. 98 

Blue Jacket, 31 

Blum, Edward F., 925 

Boats were operated fur the railroads. ]27 

"Bogus" Laws, 135 

"Bolting" Convention. 131 

Bonner Springs. 11; churches, 322; first rural mail de- 
livery, 322; lakes and parks, 322; organized, 320; 
schools, 322; the Ancient Qnivira. 318 

' • Bonner Springs Chieftain, ' ' 429 

Bonner Springs Sanitarium. 849 

Books in the schools, 394 

Boone, Daniel Morgan. 108 

Border ruffians at work, 188 

Border, southern, protectors of the, 210 

Boundaries, Ben Simpson's defense of. 179 

Boundaries of Kansas, 167 

Boundary amendment, 175 

Boundary' line fight. 167 

Boundary of Wyandotte county. 16 

Boys' and girls' department, library, 39.-) 

Boys who gave up their lives, 245 

Brandt. Frank F.. 886 

Bridges in Wyandotte county, 283 

Bristow 's. Senator, address. 160 

Brokaw. Charles L., 623 

Brown. John, 228, 230 

I'.rown. Kate K., 545 

Brown, Oscar, 545 

Brown, Robert L., 808 

Browne. Kenneth L.. 833 

Brugh, Andrew T., 638 

Brus, Jules C. 996 

Buckland. David, 725 

Budy, John, 986 

Buffalo stampede, 460 

Bugbee, George E., 832 

Building the Santa Fe, 454 

fiunn, Asa M., 527 

Bunyar, Edward, 979 

Bunyar. Emily. 979 

Burgar, John J., 749 

Burial place of the Wyandots, 81 

Burkard, George, 521 

Burnett, William E., 766 

Burning of Lawrence, 352 

Butler, Joseph A., 567 

Byrom's ford, 217 

Cabin of Tiblow, 320 

Cable. Ebert S., 834 

Cable, James A.. 902 

Cadden. John H., 755 

California fast mail. 468 

Call for a state mass meeting, 301 

Call for volunteers. 235 

Calumpit, next stop, 241 

Cameron, Thomas F., 969 

Campaign continues, 243 

Camp in San Francisco, 237 

Candidates for territorial delegate. 133 

Caples, John. 723 

Captain Pipe. 77 

Career of Mark Delahay, 429 

Carlisle, Jay L., 846 

Carlson, John A., 562 

Carnegie Library, 391 

Carno House, 339 

Carr, John, 978 

Carter, Lee 0., 923 

Cassidv. John J., 973 

Catfish Hotel, 89, 339 

Catholic churches and institutions, 361 

Catholic church. Rosedale, 315 

Catholic convents. 372 

Catholic school. 363 

Catley, James W., 608 

Cavalry regiment, famous, 191 

Celebrated Springs. 319 

Cement industry. 483 

Census figures for Kansas City. 327 

Centennial di.splav. 496 

Central Avenue State B:ink. 338 

Central high school, 381 

Cereals, 496 

Charitable and Christian organizations. 341 

Charles Blue Jacket. 31. 35 

Chicago Great Western Railroad. 455 

Chief Ketehum 's death. 44 

Chiefs of fire department, 309 

Giiefs of police, 310 

Chief who was a warrior. 24 

Children's Home, 341 

Childs. Wesley R., 828 

Cholera, 112 

Chouteau, August. 11. 319 

Chouteau Brothers. 41 

Chouteau Family. 11 

Chouteau. Pierre. 11. :'>19 

Christian church, 357 

Christian Science organizations. 3.")8: schools, cost of. 

Christy. James M.. 542 
Chroni'ster. Bert. 931 
Churches, Bonner Springs, 322 
Churches. Rosedale, 314 
Church of war time days, a. 349 
Circuit court clerks. 277 
Circuit court Judses. 277 
"Citizen" 424 

Citizens State Savings Bank. 338 
City assessors. 310 
CitV attorneys, 309 
City clerks. 309 
City counsellors. 309 
City engineers. 309 
City Hall in Kansas City. 331 
Citv organized. Bonner Springs. 32] 
City Park, 330 
City school history, 382 
City treasurers, 309 
City's forty school buildings, 384 
City's great public library. 390 
Civic organizations. 341 
Civil government, struggle for. 129 
Civil war brought ruin. 115 
Civilization's advance agents, 41 
Claflin, Oliver Q., 644 
Clarke. Samuel. 1016 
Clark, Philo M., 874 
Clark. William. 6 
Clarkson, Colonel, captured. 211 
Oasen. Samuel. 873 
Clayton Powell, command of. 209 



Clerks, circuit court, 277 

Clerks, city, 309 

Clerks, common pleas court, 277 

Clerks, county, 277 

Clerks, district court, 277 

Clopper, David E., 611 

Closed the door to slavery, 154 

Glotfelter, A. Lloyd, 576 

Clovers, 498 

Club women took the lead, 392 

Cobb, Colonel, logical address, 302 

Coffey, Christopher F., 633 

Coleman, James B., 576 

Colonel Moonlight guarded the town, 232 

Colonel Veale 's heroic stand, 218 

Colonel Weir's men, 204 

Colorado in the Wyandotte district, 285 

Colorado was part "of Kansas, 170 

Colored Methodist churches, Rosedale. 315 

Coming of Wyandots to Kansas. 60 

Commercial National Bank, 338 

Commercial State Bank, Rosedale, 338 

Commissioner districts established, 280 

Commission form of government. 310 

Commissioners of election, 310 

Commissioners, police, 310 

Commissioners, street, 310 

Common pleas court clerks, 277 

Common pleas court judges, 277 

Congregational church, 349 

Congregational church, Rosedale, 315 

Congressman Madison's tribute, 163 

Congress slow to act, 156 

Connelley, William Elsey, 62 

' ' Conservative ' ' 157 

Consolidated Kansas City Refining Company, 299 

Consolidation of Kansas regiments, 195 

Constitution approved by the people, 156 

Convention did right, 180 

Convention of young men, 148 

Convention roll, 148 

Cooke, George H., 949 

Cook, Wylie W., 581 

Cooperage and box factories, 481 

Cooper, Judge Jesse, 264 

Cornell, Dudley E., 857 

Cornerstone laying, 400 

Coronado, 182 

Coroners, 277 

Correspondents of long ago, 423 

Cost of the schools, 383 

Cotton industry, 483 

Counsellors, city, 309 

County attorneys, 276 

County clerks, 277 

County farm and crop statistics, 500 

County machinery in motion, 273 

County officers in fifty-two years, 276 

County, organization of, 271 

County seat at Wyandotte. 278 

County superintendents of public instruction, 277 

County surveyors, 277 

County treasurers, 277 

County's war record, 201 

Courses of Kansas City Baptist Theological Seminary, 

Court house blown down. 291 
Court house, first, 279 
Court house, Wyandotte county, 278 

Courts under statehood, 286 

Coy, William A.. 963 

Craft. Carlis C, 569 

Crawford. William E., 583 

Creative Act, 272 

Croatian church, 369 

Crockett, J. D. M., 914 

Crooks, Captain Thomas. 264 

Crooks, Julia F.. 548 

Crooks, Thomas, 546 

Crop conditions, 489 

Crossing at Byrom's ford, 217 

C'rossley, George W.. 728 

Cruise, John D., 469 

Cubbison, James K., 559 

Cunningham, Rev. •!., 378 

Curious things in the mail. 467 

Curran. Robert, 627 

Cut off the "Short Grass" country. 172 

Dague, A. B. C, 856 

"Dailv Evening Globe" 427 

Dana.'j. W.. 1048 

Daniels, William IT.. 732 

Darin-. Harry. 966 

Darn'all, Charles D.. 831 

Dash for Kansas. 217 

Davis, Colonel A. C. 261 

Davis, .TeflFerson A., 807 

Davis, William D., 541 

Day on the firing lines, 238 

Dean, Henry E., 597 

Death of Chief Ketchum, 44 

Death of Tecumseh, 30 

Death of the founder, 399 

Debate on the western boundary, 171 

DeBover, Camiel, 994 

Debus, George, 817 

Debus, John, 594 

Debus, William F., 989 

Defeat of the plan, 176 

Deitz, James N., 524 

Deitzler, General, 222 

Delahay, Judge Mark W.. 424. 429 

Delaware Baptist mission, 57 

Delaware chiefs, 43 

Delaware Methodist mission, 55 

Delaware township, 281 

Delawares, 39 

Delawares as Irving saw them, 40 

Delawares not given to fighting only, 43 

Delawares treaty, 46 

Delawares visited by Parkman, 41 

Delawares wars on Pawnees, 39 

Delights of pioneer travel by steamboat, 121 

Democratic members refuse to sign, 155 

Depredations of the Kansas, 25 

Descendant of the Puritans, 402 

Description of Indian village, 21 

"Die Fackel," (The Torch) 426 

Discovery of natural gas, 321 

District court clerks, 277 

District court judges, 277, 293 

Doctor Mather's offer accepted, 398 

Doctors Speck, 257 

Dogs bought the books, 392 

Dougherty, James G., 265 

Douglas, Stephen A., speech of. 179 

Drake, Joseph F., 523 



Dramshop eases, 289 
])raper, Everett D., 722 
Drennon, Edward, 627 
Drought, Edward S. W., T18 
Drought of 1860, 351 
Dudley, John, 778 
Duffels, Bernard, 816 
IJimhip, Doniphan, 830 

Eager, John L. B., 888 

Earliest railroads, 449 

Earlj' day court scene, 288 

Early day paymaster, 464 

Early farm methods, 493 

Early French and Spanish explorers, 2 

Early history of Wyandot nation, 60 

Earl}' Kansas politics, 106 

Early Kansas villages, 20 

Early members of the bar, 290 

Early time characters, 252 

East boundary of Kansas, 168 

Educational interests, 380 

Edwards, Ninian, 27 

Edwardsville, 323 

Edwardsville State Bank, 338 

Effect of school training, 407 

Egan, Lewis M., 528 

Etcholtz, Edward J.. 670 

Eighth Infantry, 193 

Einhellig, William E.. 819 

Eldridge House, 339 

Eleanor Taylor Bell Jlemorial Hospital, 316, 415 

Election commissioners. 31U 

Elections before statehood came, 144 

Eleventh Kansas Infantrv, 196 

Elliott, Samuel J., 995 

Ellis. Flovd C, 808 

Ellis. Frank S.. 904 

Ely, Louis L., 981 

Embry, Earnest H., 797 

Emigrant Aid societies, 140 

"Emma Harmon's'' famous lirst trip. 123 

End to steamboating, 128 

Engineers, city, 309 

Enright, Edward A., 1015 

Enright, Timothy J., 936 

Ensley, Charles "C, 606 

Episcopal church, 353 

Era of improvement. 327 

Era of railroad building, 456 

Erhardt, Philip, 1033 

Espenlaub. (iottlieb F., 657 

Every mail clerk a politician, 466 

Ewing's, Young Tom. regiment, 196 

Exchange State Bank, 338 

Excitement in Wyandotte, 451 

Execution in Wyandotte, an. 284 

Kxodus, negro, 232 

Expense of raising corn in Kansas. 501 

Explorations of Lewis and (lark, 6 

Explorers, early French and Spanish, 2 

Explorers, trails of the, 1 

Extensive railway yards, 457 

Eyes of a nation on Shawnee mission, 134 

Falconer, .lohn ('., 804 

Falk, Henry, 682 

Families in Kansas City, Jlissouri, ninety years ago, 109 

Famous cavalry regiment, 191 

Famous "four houses" 319 

Famous Kansas Indian orator, 24 

Famous Muncie holdup, 466 

Famous old hall, 95 

Farm and crop statistics for the county, 500 

Farmers State Bank, Bonner Springs, 3*38 

Farm methods, early. 493 

Farm truck, 499 

Farrow Tiera. 965 

Father Hennepin's wonderful map, 4 

Father Kuhls' personality, 378 

Father Kuhls silver jubilee, 364 

Father Marquette, 2, 19 

Faust, John W., 698 

Fennell, James, 835 

Ferguson, Roscoe W., 890 

Ferguson, Winfield S., 575 

fidelity State Bank, 338 

Field, forage and silo plants. 498 

Fifth Kansas Cavalry. 193 

Fifth Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, 203 

Fifth street, old church on. 353 

Fifth ward, 307 

Fifty years under the Constitution. 160 

Fighting Cavalry, 206 

Fighting in the Ozarks, 208 

Fighting to the death. 220 

Fight on the Little Blue, 215 

Figures show substantial growth, 327 

Financial strength, 337 

Fink. Bishop. 376 

Fink, Samuel F., 784 

First annual meeting of Kansas Medical Society, 419 

First commercial center, 318 

First county grant to the .Alissouri Pacific, 453 

First court house, 279 

First election, 130 

First election of ccnuity officers, 273 

First execution in Wyandotte, 284 

rirst Fourth of July celebration in Kansas, 7 

First glimpses of Kansas, 119 

First governor of Kansas, 135 

I'irst industrial movements, 295 

First Infantry Regiment, 190 

First intcrurban railway. 337 

First invasion, 134 

First jurors drawn. 274 

First Kansas Masonic lodge, 434 

First Kansas Volunteer Battery. 199 

First land agent, 256 

First locomotive in Kansas, 448 

F'irst marriage in Wyandotte county, 74 

First mart of trade in Kansas, annual output, 11 

First mayoralty election in Kansas City. Missouri, 112 

F'irst mention of the Prophet. 33 

F'irst Methodist Episcopal church. Rosedale, 314 

First Methodists in Wyandotte, 344 

F^irst National Bank. Bonner Springs, 338 

First newspaper. 423 

F'irst newspaper in Kansas. 50 officers of consolidated city. 306 

First permanent white settler in Wyandotte, 88 

F'irst public improvements, 115 

First public school, 381 

F'irst railroad started from Wyandotte. 448 

F'irst railroads chartered. 442 

First real battle in Philippines, 239 

First Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry, 202 

F'irst regular municipal election, 308 



First rural mail delivery. P.nnner Spriiiijs, 322 

First session of Wyandotte district court, 287 

First smell of powder, 238 

First State Banl<. Argentine, 338 

First steamboat that ascended tlie Missouri. 9 

First steamboat to navifjate the Kansas river. 122 

First taxes levied, 279 

First ward, 306 

First white child born in Kansas, 13 

Fisette. Rush L., 1009 

Fleminff. Pettis. 806 

Flood of 1903. 327 

Flour millin<j. beginnine; of, 473 

Folk lore of the Wyandots, 62 

Forbidding looking place. 96 

Forsberg, Gustoff, 664 

Foi-t Henry. 76 

Fort Osage, 9, 11 

Fort Riley, 14 

Fort Sumter, 189 

Foundries and machine shops. 481 

Four broad avenues. 95 

"Four Houses." 11. 319 

Fourteenth Infantrv, 197 

Fourth ward, 307 

Fraternal Order of Eagles, 439 

Freedman University, 405 

Free Jfasons, 43 

Free State boomers started (>)uindaro. 102 

Free Soilers, 176 

Fremont expeditions, 13 

Fremont, John C, 13 

Frenchmen, first merchants, 10 

Friedman, David. 774 

Friend of the Indians. 426 

Frisbie, L. G., 602 

"Frisco" built. 447 

Fromholtz, Adam, 523 

Frngalitv and chief aim, 406 

Frye. William E.. 580 

Fulclier. Benjamin W.. 619 

Fulton, .Tames A.. 876 

Fur traders, 11 

Future possibilities of Kansas City, 487 

(ialvin. James. 605 

Garleck. William 1!.. 563 

Gaulke, Gustav, 716 

"Gazette's" founder, 425 

"Gazette Globe," 84, 426 

Geary, Governor, on the scene. 141 

General Deitzler's official report, 222 

(ierlecz. James, 555 

Gerner. George, 626 

Glasscock, Samuel S.. 759 

"Globe." 426 

Goehel, Peter W., 801 

Gonser, Karl, 735 

Gosling. Lake. 7 

Gottesburen. Henry L.. 747 

Government by commission. :;10 

Governor's consolidation juoclaniation, 304 

Governor Geary on the scene. Ill 

Governor Medary, 143 

Governor of Kaiisas. first, 135 

flovenior orders an election. 132 

Governor Reader came and went, 121 

Governor Robert J. Walker, 142 

Governor Shannon to tlie frontier. 137 

Governor Stubbs on "Kansas," 161 

Grafke, Henry 0.. 990 

Grain elevators. 475 

Grand Army of the Eepublic. 439 

Grand View Sanitarium, 759 

Granger lines. 443 

Grasses, 497 

Grasshoppers. 495 

Gray. Alfred, 253 

Gray. George M.. 330. 1012 

Gray. Homer B., 973 

Gray, JIary Tennev. 262 

Great Battle of the Blue. 213 

Great civic demonstration. 301 

Great medical school and hospital. 316 

Great railway shops and terminals, 457 

Great smelter, a. 299 

Great soap manufactories. 480 

Great steel plant, 485 

Great Stilwell enterprise, 459 

Great trade center, 100 

Green, Charles W.. 641 

Greenman. Sarah J., 396, 663 

Grinter, Ann, 88 

Grinter, Moses, 88 

Growth of litigation, 292 

Growth of the library, 393 

Grubel. Edward J.. 786 

Grund Hotel, 339 

Gunn, Otis B., 260 

Guthrie, Mrs. Quindaro. 103 

Guver, U. S., 843 

Haff, John, 641 
Hafner, George, 582 
Haines, Derapsev S., 849 
Hale, John A., "893 
Hallett a railway genius, 452 
Hallett assassination. 450 
Hallett. Samuel. 452 
Kannibal bridge, 117 
Harrod, Otho N., 588 
Hartig, Frank, 748 
Hartman, Henry E., 598 
FTaskell, William H.. 580 
Hauber. Frank J., 1044 
Hays. Henrv C, 849 
Heislcr, E. F., 1050 
Henry. Minerva, 785 
"Herald of Freedom," 424 
Heroism of Elizabeth Zane, 76 
Hewlett, Charles B., 599 
Hierarchy of Kansas, 375 
Higgins. 'Richard J.. 898 
Hiii-h schools. 386 
Hilliard. .Tames W., 947 
Hinman, Aaron P., 630 
Hippie. .Jacob B.. 513 
Historic St. Mary's. 365 
Hogin, James L.,' 1035 
Holcomb, Frank M., 895 
"Holdup" on the trail, 469 
Hollingsworth, Frank, 648 
Holmes, Alexander, 659 
Holmes. Herbert J., 809 
Home Guards, 202 
Home life of T'Cansas Indians, 22 
Home State Rank, 338 
Honest Indian, 23 



llortsinnii. (_'liii.-.tiiui !•'., 596 
l[(prtieiiltiii;il statistics, 502 
llospitals and medical schools, 411 
Ih.tcds ol Old Wyandotte, 339 
llutols on the levw, 116 
Hough, IJairy C, 878 
llove.v, (ieorge U. S., 634 
llovey, .John P. J., 634 
How Qiiindaro lost out, 107 
Hoxie, ilrs. Vinnie Ream, 267 
iru^hes, Peter D., 733 
Huron cemetery', 81 
llunclbrink, William, 649 
Hutchings, Frank 1)., 1038 
Hutchison, John B., 938 
llvnes. Michael, 930 
llyoort, Oscar, 762 

Ice manufacturing companies, 486 

Ill-fated Twelfth, 205 

Implement factories, 482 

Indian lodge, 21 

Indian Manual Labor School, 48 

Indian missions, old, 47 

Indian regiments, 200 

Indians in the Fifth Cavalry, 203 

Indian springs, 319 

Industrial statistics, 487 

Industries, 472 

Ingalls, John J., 149 

International Sunshine Society, 341 

Interstate National Bank, 338 

Inlerurban railway, first, 337 

living;, \\'ashington, 40 

Isaac Johnnycake, 44 

Isaac Zane's Perpetual Jlotion Machine, 91 

Isenburg, August, 740 

Jackson, John L., 775 
Jacks, Warden T.. 531 
Jacks, William, 532 
James, A. R., 674 
.lenkins, Caius, 269 
Jennings, Francis H., 746 
.lohnnycake. Chief Charles, 44 
jQhnnycake, Isaac, 44 
J/)hnson, August, 771 
Johnson Brothers, 665 
•lohnson, Charles, 665 
Johnson, Dave, 665 
Johnson, Fred, 665 
Johnson, Ola, 743 
Johnson, Thomas, 47, 48 
Johnston, Anthony, 999 
Jidiet, Louis, 3 
Jones, J. Arthur. 992 
Jons, Marx, 786 

'•Journey through Kansas," 14 
Jipurney to the west, 402 
lournev to Wvandotte, 188 
•Mov Roads,'' 446 
Jndii, Byron, 256, 661 
Judges, circuit court, 277 
Judges, common pleas court, 277 
Judges, district coiu-t. 277 
Judges, ])rol>ate, 277 

Judges, second division district court, 277 
Judges who followed Pettit, 298 
Judges who played poker, 291 

Kansas admitted to statehood, 157; colored regiments, 
in, 207; expense of raising corn in, 501; lirst Fourth 
of July celebration in, 7; lirst glimpses of, 119; first 
white child born. 13: in the reliellion, 189; made 
a free state, 154; smallest county in, 15; the 
"Middle .Spot of North America," 182; to the 
front, 236; early villages of, 20 

Kansas, a dominant tribe, 19; Indian home life, 22; 
Indian lo<lge, 21 ; Indians here three centuries ago, 

Kansas artist, a, 266 

"Kansas Catholic" 427 

Kansas City, Kansas, 295; banking interests, 337; in- 
corporated, 297; lost its (jpportunit.y, 180; an oil 
distributing center, 484; parks and boulevards, 329; 
post office, 323; .stock yards, 476 

Kansas City Baptist Theological Seminary, 403 

Kansas City Cut Stone Company, The, 972 

Kansas City, (Kansas) boys, 250 

Kansas City of today, 326 

Kansas City, Missouri, 108 

Kansas City Savings Association, 116 

Kansas City Structural Steel Company, 299 

"Kansas City Times," 181 

Kansas City Town Company, 296 

Kansas City LTniversity, 397 

' ' Kansas Free State, ' ' 424 

Kansas Medical Society, act to incorporate, 417 

Kansas merchandise landed at Quindaro, 104 

Kansas-Nebraska Act, 130 

Kansas-Nebraska bill passed, 131 

Kansas Osages at war, 25 

Kansas Osages treat}' of peace, 25 

Kansas papers indifferent, 176 

Kansas patriotism aroused. 300 

"Kansas Pilot," 426 

"Kansas Post," 426 

"Kansas Real Estate Herald,' 

Kansas River, abandoned by 
boat to navigate on. 122; 

Kansas Rolling Mill Company. 

Kansas School for the Blind, 

Kansas State Bank, 338 

Kansas State Editorial Association, 

Kansas treaties, 26 

Kansas Trust Bank, 338 

Kansas war-time senator, 136 

Kapka. Carl J., 1005 

' ■ Katy ' ' System, 446 

Kaufman, Frederick C, 704 

Kaufman, Joseph R,. 676 

Kay, William S., 538 

Keiehner House, 339 

Keller, John .1., 753 

Kelly, David C, 835 

Kelly, William Jr., 826 

Kennedy, (ieorge D., 960 

Keplinger, Lewis W., 1014 

Kern, Henry H., 488, 1014 

Kerr. Han ford L.. 566 

Kidnappers of Lawrence, 230 

Killmer. .lames M., 823 

Kindred. Joel C, 691 

Klamm Park, 330 

Kline, Calvin E.. 672 

Knights of Pythias, 438 

Kopp, Christian, 750 

Kuhls, Father, arrival of. 


Indians, 27; first steam- 
scene at. 10; steamboats, 

408, 409 


362 ; reminiscences of, 373 


■ • Labor Record, ' ' 429 

Liidd, Walter L., 777 

La Grange, Isaac, 743 

Laird, Otho E., 972 

Lakes and parks of Bonner Springs. 322 

Lallier, Eugene. 757 

Lallier, Frank, 7.58 

Landry, .Joseph L., 1042 

Lane, "".Jim, " 136, 230 

Lane, Vincent J., 505 

Lapse of six years, 420 

Larson, Fred, 1024 

La Salle, 4 

La Salle discovers mouth of Mississippi. 4 

Lasley, .Jonathan H., 695 

Last of a great family of warriors. 35 

Last of a noble race, 44 

Last stand of Shawnees, 30 

Last to desert Quindaro. 262 

Latter Day Saints church. F^osedale, 315 

Laverie, William, 643 

Law enforcement in 1859, 274 

Lawrence, burning of. 352 

Lawrence kidnapi^ers. 230 

''Lawrence Republican.'' 177 

''Lawrence Tribune.'' 124 

Laws. John A., 677 

Lawyers of the early da.ys, 393 

Leading chiefs of the Wyandots. 73 

Leavenduskey. Valentine. 632 

Leavengood, D. .J.. 655 

Leavenworth, Colonel Henry, 12 

Leavenworth convention. 143 

"Leavenworth Herald," 177, 423 

Lecomjjton Con.stitution, 142 

" Jjecompton Democrat." 177 

Leefrom, .Joseph, 615 

Leinbach, Cliarles N., 704 

Lewis and Clark explorations, 6 

I^ewis, Meriwether, 6, 20 

Library, boys' and girls' department. 395 

Library, growth of, 393 

Library staff, 396 

Library, uses of, 394 

"Lightfoot" built for Kansas, 124 

Limestones, 493 

Lind, Olander, 680 

Lindberg, Heming, 97] 

Link, Michael, 753 

Lisa, Manuel de, 11 

Literary and artistic women, 267 

Little Blue, Itattle of, 215 

I^ittle Blue, fight on the. 215 

Littick. George W., 906 

Live stock market, 475 

Lloyd, John, 736 

Locomotive, first in Kansas. 448 

Longfellow, Jacob W.. 865 

Long, Stephen H., 9 

Long tramp, a. 186 

Loring, 323 

I^ouisiana I'urchase, 12 

IjOvelace, Charles, 955 

Ijovelace, Charles W., 918 

Lovelace, Eldridge H., 919 

I>ust, Edward, 756 

Luther, Belton J., 731 

Lutz, Earnest J., 899 

Lvons, T. J.. 943 

.Macadam roads in Wyandotte county, 283 

.Madison, congressman, tribute, 163 

.Maher. Daniel J., 916 

.Mailand, .lep H.. 701 

Mail, curious things in the, 467 

.Major Long's expedition, 9 

.Malolos taken. 241 

.Maloney, Matilda. 644 

.Maloney. Thomas. 644 

Mank, John, 883 

Manual training and indiiNtiial education, 387 

.Marty, Samuel C. 881 

Marxen, Adam, 776 

Marxen, Ilenr}' A., 770 

Masonic lodge, first in Kansas, 434 

Mason, Lawrence J.. 1037 

.Mather, Doctor. 398, 399; death of, 399; gifts to the 

young, 403; oH'er of accepted, 398 
"Mather Hall." 400 
Mather. Samuel F., 402 
ilatney. David B., 618 
Matney, .John R.. 1007 

Mayoralty election, first in Kansas City, Missouri, 112 
Mayors of Argentine, 300 
Mayors of Ivansas City, 309 
Mayors of Rosedale f<i'r thirty-four years, 313 
Maywood, 324 
McClean, James A., 589 
McCleery, .John A., 897 
McClung, Charles L., 570 
McDonald. Ernest. 752 
McDonald, James M., 942 
McDonald, John, 751 
McFadden, John E., 016 
McFarland, Robert J., 754 
McGeorge, William, 686 
MeGrew, Governor, 260 
McGrew, Henrj-, 872 
McGrew, James. 867 
Mclvay, Austin T., 553 
McKenzie, Frank, 792 
McKenzie, Robert, 793 
McKeown, James F.. 976 
McMurray, Charles E.. 980 
McNarrey, John, 896 
-McWilliams, Charles A., 933 
.Meat packing companies, 480 
Meat packing industry, 477 
Medary, Governor, 143 
Medical school and hospital, great, 316 
Medical schools, 411 
Medicine and surgery, 417 
Meek, James M., 941 
Menager Junction, 324 
Mendenhall, Harry A., 855 
Mercantile Club, 339 
Merchant, John W., 739 
Merriam. Willard. 590 
Merriweather, Frederick W., 679 
Meseraull, Samuel I.. 534 
Methodist churches burned. 346 
Methodist Episcopal church, 343 
Methodist Episcopal church South, 348 
Methodist ilission of Shawnees, 47 
Methodist Protestant church, 357 
Metropolitan Hotel, 339 
Metropolitan police, 308 
Meyers, Albert J., 727 
Meyn, Frederick, 953 
Mid-continental industrial center, 472 



"Middle Spot of Ndtli America" 182 

Miller, A. F., 796 

Miller, Charles A., 922 

Miller, Henry, 969 

Miller, Houston, 812 

Miller, John H., 813 

Miller, Orrin L., 912 

Millspaugh, Harris K., (164 

Milner, John 0., 797 

Mindedahl. Peter S., 671 

Misenlielter, Thomas J., 1027 

Mission graveyard, 49 

Missions, social life about, 53 

Missouri, first steamboat tliat aseeniled the, 9 

Missouri Fur Company, 11 

Missouri opinion of Kansas, 178 

Missouri Pacific, first county grant to, 453 

Modern farming, 496 

Jlonahan, George, 688 

Moncachtape, The Interpreter, 19 

Moonlight, Colonel, guarded the town, 232 

Moonlight, Colonel Tom, 232 

Moore, James W.. 561 

Moore. John M., 511 

Morgan, Perl W., 1052 

Morris, 323 

Morris, William A., 848 

Morton. Isaiah L., 663 

"Mother" Sturges, 268 

Mountains, pathvvay to tlie, 173 

Mudge, Benjamin Franklin, 255 

Muncie, 323' 

Municipal electrical plant, 329 

Municipal water works, 329 

Murray, James P., 549 

Muster into service, 248 

Myers, Thomas E., 1017 

Myers, William H., 558 

Naschold, John J., 950 

leasehold's Steam Bakery, 950 

Xason, Zaehariah, 967 

Xatural gas, 493 

"Nebraska City News," 176 

Nebraska's Delegates to Wyandotte, 175 

Nebraska's many capitals. 174 

Nebraska, part of, wanted lo be in Kansas, 174 

Needles, William, 909 

Negro exodus, 232 

Negro regiments, 198 

Nelson, Andrew, 747 

Nelson, ,Tohn P., 568 

Neudeck, Irvin R., 997 

New Bethany Hospital, 414 

New city hall, 330 

New era, 28 

Newhall, .Sarah W., 790 

Newhall, Martin H., 789 

New Home Hotel, 339 

New movements. 459 

New post office building. 334 

"News," 429 

New St. Mary's church. 364 

Newspaper first to be pul)lishc(l in Kansas. 423 

Newspaper for the Indians. 50 

Newspapers, 422 

Newspapers favored annexation, 181 

New Terminal railway plans, 458 

Newton, .Tulia D., 795 

Newton, Periander C 795 

Nicholas. Harrv J., 654 

Nichols. Mrs. C. T. H.. 259 

Night and Dav State Bank, 338 

Niglit attack, 239 

Night of terror, 231 

Niglit schools, 385 

Ninth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, 195 

Kortli lioundary of Kansas, 169 

Northrop. Stephen A.. 1001 

Northrup Banking Company. 338 

Northwestern Railway. 455 

Notable voyage up the Kansas river. 124 

Objected to the mining regions. 173 . 

O'Connell. Paul J.. 954 

Odd Fellows. 437 

Officers for twenty-eight years. 98 

Official dog enumerator. 393 

Official report of General Deitzler, 222 

Officials of Kansas City. 309 

Oliio Constitution followed. 151 

Oliio Reservation of the Wyandots. 67 

Oil distributing center. 484 

Olander. John W., 998 

Old church on Fifth street, 352 

Old cliureh re-organized. 347 

Old Indian missions. 47 

Old Fold Chief. 23 

(till Palmer Academv. 382 

old (,)nindaro, 102 

Old rolling mill, 31B 

Old steamboat days. 118 

Old Wyandotte's "early days. 87 

Old Wyandot family romances. 74 

Oldest church organization in Kansas. 346 

Oldest house in Wyandotte countv. 320 

Olson. Oscar M.. 6S4 

(Overland trails. 441 

One hundred day men. 198 

Organizers of the first ilasonic lodge, 435 

Organization of the countv, 271 

"Oregon Trail," 41 

Origin of name Kansas. 18 

Other civic organizations. 341 

Other hospitals. 410 

Other industries of Rosedale. 317 

Other nuinufactorios. 4S6 

Other Masonic bodies, 435 

Other Methodist churches. 348 

Other religious organizations. 358 

Other river ports nut-distanc'cd. 103 

Other secret societies. 440 

Oth<>r towns in Wvandotte countv. 323 

Ott. :\[ilcs W.. 770 

Our boys in the Philippines. 234 

0>u- boys in the Second. 203 

Outposts annoyed, 244 

Outside of Kansas City. 312 

Pacific lines, 443 

I'acking houses, 479 

Painting of the Battle of the Big Blue. 220 

I'aradowsky. .Toseph. 545 

Parkman, 41 

Parks and boulevards. Kansas City. 329 

Parks. Captain .Joseph. 36 

Parochial schools. 390 

Parr, James R. and otlicrs, 270 


Part of Nebraska wanted to W in Kansas, 174 

Pathway to the Mountains, 173 

Pawnee Indians. IS.t 

Peace relations end. 235 

Pearson, Matthew E.. 1013 

Pennington Hotel, 339 

Peoples National Bank, 338 

Perkins, George A., 687 

Perkins, John S., 958 

Perkins, Robert H., 959 

Peters, George A., 639 

Peterson, August, 711 

Phelps, Frank N., 646 

Philippines, our boys in, 234 

Physical and geographical features, 15 

Physicians, 417 

Picturesque little city, 313 

Pike, Zebulon Jlontgomery, 8 

Pike 's expedition, 7 

Pike's instructions, 8 

Pike's Peak region, 178 

Pill Box, 417 

"Pill box" and Dr. Root, 252 

Pioneer missionary, 57 

Pioneer for Kansas good roads, 317 

Pioneer railroad telegrapher, 469 

Pioneer tales of rail and trail, 460 

Piper, 324 

Platte the boundary, 174 

Platting of Argentine. 299 

Play grounds, 388 

Poiiidexter, E. W., 926 

Police commissioners. 310 

Police department, 308 

Police judges, 310 

Polish church, 369 

Political history of Wyandotte county. 271 

Pollock. John C.. 517 " 

Pollock, Thomas A.. 667 

Pomeroy, 325 

Population of Wyandotte county. 283 

Porter, James E.. 516 

Post ofHce building, 332 

Post office building, new, 334 

Post office of Kansas City, 332 

Powell Clayton 's command, 209 

Prairie township, 281 

Prather, Van P.., 519 

Pratt-Journeycake Memorial Libr:ir\-. 404 

Pratt. Rey. John (,'.. 57. 422 

Preacher conductor's yarn. 466 

Presbyterian church, .354 

President Jeft'erson, 6 

Press of the county. 422 

Price, General, bold plan of, 214 

Price, Sterling, 214 

Probate judges, 277 

Proclamation, goyernor's consolidation, 304 

Prophet, 31 

Prophet's death, 34 

Pro-slavery part.y. 181 

Protectors of the southern border, 210 

Protestant churches of the county, 343 

Public improvements, 300 

Public Library, 663 

Public library, city's great, 390 

Pnlir, A'ictor W., 742 

^Hiaker mission. 53 

<,)uakers. 52 

Quantrell, 210, 228 

(,)uindaro cemetery. 592 

(.Uiindaro township, 282 

C^uiiularo 's famous side-wlieeler, 125 

Quivira, 318 

Race to the coast, 444 

Rail and trail, pioneer tales of. 460 

Railroad building in Kansas, 441 

Railroads, earliest, 449: extension of, 302; first chart- 
ered, 442 

Railroad shops, 481 

Rnilroad telegi'apher, pioneer, 469 

Railroad terminals, Rosedale, 316 

Railroad values and trackage, 456 

Railsback, T. Forest. 707 

Railway yards, 457 

Rainfall, annual, 16 

Randall. Horace G., 961 

Ran out of provisions, 185 

Reader, S. .1., painting by. 220 

Read.v-made houses, 97 

Real estate boom. 110 

Rebel Yell. 219 

Record of Kansas regiments. 200 

Reeder, Governor, came and went. 121 

Reeder. Governor, welcome to. 132 

Refused to include a part of Nebraska, 154 

Registers of deeds, 277 

I?eminiscences of Father Kuhls, 373 

Removal of the bishop's residence, 373 

Reminiscences of the early days, 84 

Re-organization of Kansas City Medical Society. 420 

Representatives, 275 

Republican "Whips," Ingalls and Simpson, 149 

Residents in 1855-6, 90 

Resolutions to Congress, 152 

Return to peace, 116 

Rice, William J., 510 

Richart, Mrs. Sarah A.. 390 

Rieke, Charles, 982 

Riley, James T., 1022 

Riverview State Bank, 338 

Roberts, William V., 268 

Robinson, Governor Charles, 135, 254 

Robinson, Sarah T. D., 51 

Rock Island Railniad. 455 

Rohrbach, Frank C, 772 

Roll of the convention. 148 

Romances and folk lore of the Wyandots. 62 

Romances of old Wyandot families. 74 

Root, Dr. Joseph P., 252. 417 

Rosedale, an independent city, 312; churches, 314; 
schools, 314; secret societies, 315; first start, 313; 
mayors for thirty-four years, 313 

Rosedale State Bank.' 338 

Rose. Jacob, 794 

Rose, Louis H., 945 

Rose. William W.. 878 

Ross, Edward P., 535 

Rush of population, 94 

Faish of white settlers 

Rushton. George. 921 

Russell, Rov R., 793 

in 1854. 295 

St. Anthony's church. 367 

St. Margaret's Hospital. 411. 412 

St. Paul Hotel. 339 


St. Peter's high school, 372 

St. Thomas church, 366 

Santa Fe system, 445; building of, 454 

Saner, Anthonj- P., 574 

Sayers, Ray, 775 

Scanhvn, John, 624 

Scenes of rare beauty, 14 

Schaible, .John L., 556 

Scheiilt, .Jacob, 815 

Scheller, Charles W., 983 

Sclienck. Eugene A., 781 

Schleifer, Fred, 1025 

School districts organized, 389 

School officers, 384 

School stati.stics, 389 

School yards, 388 

Schools', 380; books in the, 394; high, 386; medical, 411; 

night, 383; parochial, 390 
Schools, Bonner Springs, 322 
Schools, Rosedale, 314 
Schools, Wyandotte countv, 388 
Schubert, Carl, 830 
Schuetz. William E., 710 
Scottish Rite Masons, 435 
Scottish Rite Temple, 436, 437 
Scott, Larnion E., 609 
Scroggs, ilargaret E., 957 
Scroggs, John B., 956 
Second and tliird districts, 286 
Second division district court judges, 277 
Second Kansas Volunteer Battery, 199 
Second Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry, 203 
Second ward, 307 

Secret and benevolent societies, 434 
Secret societies of E'osedale, 315 
Seifert, Joseph, 948 
Seminaries, 397 

Senators and representatives, 275 
Seutter map of Louisiana, 5 
Seuttcr, JIatthew, 4 
Seven departments. "The Kansas City University," 

Seventeen days in a snow bank, 467 
SLWard, Atwell C, 548 
Seward, Nancy L., 549 
Shannon, Governor, to the frontier, 137 
Sharp, Benjamin T., 932 
Sharp, Judge Isaac B., 261 
Shawnee Baptist mission, 50, 422 
Shawnee Light or ,Sun, 50, 422 
Shawnee llethodist Mission, 47 
Shawnee prophet, 31 
Shawnee (Quaker mission. 52 
Shawnee township, 282 
Shawnees clung to old customs, 37; coming to Kansas, 

31; farewell to Kansas, 38; first emigrants, 29; 

last stand, 30; wars and wanderings of, 39 
Sliawneetown, 372 
SlicaiL John M., 604 
Shepherd, Orrin W., 1034 
Sheriffs, 276 
Shore, .Joseph L., 814 
"Short drass" countrv cut ofl', 173 
Shively, Delbert M., 525 
SIhh'r,' Charles J., 937 
"Silence and no questions asked," 328 
Si hey, .James M., 737 
Simmons, Ave, 761 
Sinims. Charles H., 831 

Simpson, Benjamin P., 149, 179 

Simpson, Samuel N., 836 

Simpson, William A., 910 

Sims, John T., 506 

Sisters of St. Francis, 411 

Site for a church, 363 

Site of Kansas City, 70 

Situation before battle of the Blue, 216 

Sixteenth Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, 206 

Sixteentli Volunteer Cavalry, 198 

Sixteenth 's roll of honor, 206 

Sixth Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalrv, 203 

Sixth ward, 307 

Skirmish march, 240 

Slavery, closed the door to, 154 

Sloan," Joseph IL, 1023 

.Slow trains in the sixties, 465 

Smallest county in Kansas, 15 

Smaller, James L., 637 

Smith, "Daniel JL, 656 

Smith, Ceorge C, 864 

Smith, Hugh J., 975 

Smith, Walter D., 1052 

Smith, William II., 763 

Smith, William S., 049 

Smyth, .lolui E., 717 

Snell, William D., 907 

Sn_vder, Kimble P., 850 

Sn_yder, Samuel H., 655 

Soap manufactories, great, 480 

Social life about the missions, 53 

Societies, benevolent and secret, 434 

Societies, Emigrant Aid, 140 

Soil, types of, 490 

Soldiers attended prayer meeting, 350 

Soldiers guarded a steamboat captain, 333 

Some of the men of the old "K. P.." 463 

Some valuable freight, 229 

Sonntag, Carl H., 952 

Southern Boundary line of Kansas, 169 

Southwick, Albert, 550 

.Southwick, .Susan P., 552 

Speck, Frederick, 258, 857 

Speck, .Joseph, 357, 857 

Speckled Eye, 24 

Speech of John H. Atwood, 165 

Speech of Stephen A. Douglas. 170 

Splitlog. Mathias, 72 

"Splitlog's Hill," 73 

Stark, John A., 863 

State geologist Mudge, 355 

State line depot, 465 

State line, surveying a, 184 

State mass meeting, 301 

State organization, 418 

Statistics, horticultural. 502 

Statistics, school, 389 

Statistics of Wyandotte county, 283 

Steamboat captain guarded by soldiers, 233 

Steamboat da^s, old, 118 

Steamboat trail trade, 114 

Steamboats of Kansas river, 126 

Steamboats that went down, 126 

Steel plant, great, 485 

Sterrc tt, Kev. Alexander, 268 

Stevens, C. B., 690 

Stilwell enterprise, great, 459 

Stine, Benjamin L., 882 

Stockton, Cora M., 267 



Stockliofl'. G. Herman, 521 

Stocklioff, Henry, 579 

Stories of war-time days, 230 

Story hour, 393 

Storv of two bishops, 374 

Stotier, Joseph J., 1036 

Stover, Harvey L., 660 

Street commissioners, 310 

Street railway facilities, 335 

Strohmyer, John J., 611 

Struggle for civil government, 129 

Stubbs, Governor on "Kansas,'' 161 

Sturges, "Mother," 268 

Studt. Charles F., 683 

Studt. John H., 594 

Sturtz, Adam L., 730 

Sunflower State, 14 

"Sunny Kansas," 162 

Supreme judges, 286 

Superintendents of public instruction, 277 

Surveyors, county, 277 

Surveying a state line, 184 

Sutherland, Thomas W., 537 

Sutton, William B., 621 

Svvope, Thomas Hunton, 269 

Synopsis of reports of Kansas regiments, 200 

Tabler, Charles M., 805 

Taggart. Joseph, 628 

Talbott. Ingram J.. 692 

Tanner, William C, 799 

Tavlor, Charles S.. 703 

Taylor, John C, 543 

Taylor, Richard Baxter, 423 

Teaching the negroes trades, 406 

Tecumseh, 30: death of, 30 

Temperature. 16 

Tenth Kansas Veteran Regiment, 196 

Theden, Herman, 825 

"The Great American Desert," 12 

Then came the Civil war, 419 

Theno, ifathias A., 620 

Thomas, Taliitha N., 265 

Thomas, William B., 668 

Thompson, Charles E., 1011 

Thompson, .John A., 847 

Thornhill, Arthur, 734 

Thoroughness in the courses, 408 

Those who joined the Sixth. 203 

Threatened by Pawnee Indians. 183 

Three judicial districts, 285 

Three makers of Kansas history. 136 

Three Wyandotte founders. 2.58 

Third Kansas Batterv, 200 

Third ward, 307 

Thirteenth Kansas Infantry. 197 

Tiblow. 320 

Tiblow ferrv. 320 

Tiblow, Henry. 320 

Tiinmerman, William. 891 

To become a great imiversity. 401 

Topeka battery's loss, 221 

Topeka Constitution. 138 

"Tiipeka Tribune," 177 

Total volunteers for Wyandotte county, 202 

Town of real live men. 104 

Town of Wyandotte. 362 

Town organization. 92 

Townships, 281 

Township organization, 281 

Townsite boomers, 92 

Trails of the explorers, 1 

Trant, James, 854 

Traveling post office, 113 

Travels of Moiicachtape, 19 

Treasurers, city. 309 

Treasurers, county, 277 

Treaty of 1866. 46 

Trees and native flora, 490 

Trembly and ^^'hite in swimming, 243 

TremblV. William B., 243 

Trower', Oliver B,, 988 

True, Lewis C„ 508 

Turner, 323 

Turner, R, L,, 736 

Twelfth Cavalry's many battles, 211 

Twelfth Infantry, 197 

Twelfth Regiment Volunteer Cavalry, 205 

Twentieth Kansas Volunteers, 248 

Twenty-five years of statehood, 157 

Twist. 'John R., 788 

Twist, William S., 832 

Types of soil, 490 

" Undergi-ound " and war stories, 227 

" Undergi-ound Railroad." 227 

Union Volunteers from Kansas, 189 

United Zinc &. Chemical Company, 485 

Universities and seminaries, 397 

University of Kansas School and Hospital, 415 

Unpromising town, an. 111 

Uses of the library, 394 

Utilization of lands along the Kansas river. 295 

^'ance. 324 

Veale, Colonel G. W., 261 

Veale, Colonel, heroic stand of, 218 

Vegetable gardening, 499 

Venard. Edward E., 714 

Vermillion Sea, 3 

\'isit to the missions, 51 

Wahlin, Anders L,, 741 

Waiting for an attack by Indians, 461 

Wakarusa war, 139 

Walker, Governor Robert J., 142 

Wallula. 324 

M'alsh, Dennis, 769 

Ward boundaries established, 306 

Ward Hall and Industrial building. 407 

Wards, 306 

War stories, 227 

Wars and wanderings of Shawnees, 29 

Washington Boulevard Methodist Episcopal church, 346 

Waters, James D., 868 

Watson, Joseph F„ 651 

Webb, William H., 681 

"Weekly Press." 428 

"Weekly Spy," 427 

' ' Weekly Sun. ' ' 428 

Weir, Colonel, men, 204 

Welcome to Governor Reeder, 132 

Wells, Charles K., 314 

West, John W,. 950 

West, Owen M., 612 

"Western Argus," 424 

Western boundarj-. debate on, 171 

Western Terra Cotta Company, The, 891 



Western University ami Industriiil ScIkioI. 40.i 

Westport a great trade center. 10(1 

Westport Landing, 110 

What Icilled old Qiiindaro, lOG 

Wlien Cliolera struck Kansas City. Missouri. 112 

Wlien Colorado was a part of Kansas, 170 

Wlien Kansas City was born, 110 

\\nieu tlie Metliodists were divided, 344 

Wlien tlie news of stateliood readied Kansas, 157 

Wlien the old church bell rang, 351 

When the townsite boomers came, 92 

When the white settlers came, 88 

When the Yankee Free State men came. 120 

AVlien Wyandotte became a cit.v, 96 

Whence came the name Kansas, 18 

Where the Legislatuie met, 48 

Where their spirit (iriginated, 231) 

White church, 324 

White, Edward, 243 

White, George H., 1030 

White, William Allen, on "The Old Insurgents," 164 

Whitlock, Edna E., 889 

\Miitlock. .John W.. 889 

Wiegers. August, 1043 

Wiehe, (ius F., 554 

Wilcoxen, ilelinda, 44 

Wiles, James P., 790 

Wilkinson, Hugh, 584 

Williams, Ernest D., 1029 

Wilson's Creek, battle of, 190 

Wilt, Anderson S., 592 

Wiiiship, William L., 892 

Winters. William H., 1019 

Woestemever. Henry F., 617 

Wolcott. 324 

Wolcott, Mary H. S.. 267 

Woman founder of library, 390 

Woman's influence in the convention, 155 

Wonderful map of Father Hennepin, 4 

Wood, DeWitt C. 989 

Wood, Watson F., 1006 

Wood, William L., 844 

Woodcock, Grant A.. 699 

Working in a blizzard. 187 

Would make the Platte the boundary, 174 

Wray, Thomas W., 960 

Wulf. Henry F., 601 

Wyandots, 59, 60; pioneers in the movement, 130; na- 
tion, ancient, 59; allegiance to the French, 65; he- 
came a civilized nation, 66; become citizens, 79; 
chiefs. 73; come to their promised land. 6S: culti 
vated farms. 72; the first Methodists, 344; founded 
the village of Wyandotte. 70; purchase a home from 
the Delawares, 69; sold their Ohio Reservation, 68; 
version of the creation, 63; wars at an end, 66. 

Wyandotte, the name, 1 

Wyandotte, county seat, 278; excitement in. 451; in 
the Civil war, 201; officials, 98; pioneers. 268 

' ' Wyandotte City Register, ' ' 424 

Wyandotte Constitution, 146 

Wyandotte convention, 146 

\\'yandotte convention cut olf Colorado, 171 

Wyandotte county, 16; area of. 15; bridges, 283; court 
house, 278; first in material wealth, 16; macadam 
roads in, 283; political history of. 271; population. 
283; schools, 388; statistics, '283 

Wyandotte County Women 's Club, 259 

Wyandotte County Women's Columbian Club, 259 

Wyandotte district court, first session. 287 

"Wyandotte Democrat." 427 

"Wyandotte (iazette, " 84. 424 

"Wyandotte Herald." 427 

Wyandotte Hotel, 339 

AVyandotte Medical Society, 421 

Wyandotte township, 281 

V^'yandotte Wagon and Carriage Works, 555 

Yankee Free State men, 120 

Y'oung, Arch A., 593 

Young Tom Ewing's regiment, 196 

Young Women 's Christian Association. 342 

Yunglians, Oscar, 783 

Zane, Elizabeth, 76 

Zane, Isaac, 91 

Zugg, Clarence L., 577 

THE NEW '1 1 

_,, ^•^i Lenox 

r J o hr 

c o 1/ fJ T y 




Early French and Spanish Explorers — When Father Mar- 
quette Came — Father Hennepin's Wonderful Map — Explorations 
OP Lewis and Clark — First Fourth of July Celebration in Kansas 
— Captain Pike's Expedition — Major Long's Expedition — French- 
men Our First Merchants — The Fur Traders — The Great American 
Desert — The Fremont Expeditions — Scenes of Rare Beauty — Phys- 
ical and Geographical Features, Etc. 

The annals of the state of Kansas and of the county of Wyandotte, 
reaching far back into the shadowy realms of romance and tradition, are 
so closely entwined that to write of the one also is to write of the other. 
Kansas, a mighty republic of itself, stretching from the Missouri river 
almost to the foot hills of the Rocky mountains, takes its name from the 
dominant tribe of North American Indians first found dwelling here ; 
whileWyandotte, the Gateway or Open Door to that great empire, bor- 
rowed its name from the tribe of Indians that brought civilization to 
the region lying west of the Missouri river. Linked to these two is 
a history of development, of progress, of achievement, as romantic as any 
that ever has been told in song or story; for no other community in 
America has been brought up from a desert plain and made to blossom 
as a rose in so short a period of time. 

Through the long years of colonial times when this nation was 
young, even to the beginning of the first half of the century that pre- 
ceded this one, the land that now is embraced in the state of Kansas 
was a field of exploration and adventure. When the white people came 
to make their homes here they found this country checkered over with 
the trails of these bands of explorers and adventurers; and — as the 
railroads now meet at the place where the Kansas river joins the 
Missouri river to flow down to the sea — so these old trails, the marks of 
which have not been entirely obliterated in the years that have passed, 
generally started from this point and struck out across the plains to 
the west, the southwest and the northwest. 



Early French and Spanish Explorers. 

Barring the expedition in 1541 of that Spanish grandee, Coronado, 
who came up from New Spain, or Mexico, to search for the fair land 
of Qnivira and its fabled cities of gold, it might well be recorded that 
the landscape of Wyandotte county was the first in Kansas to be looked 
upon by the eye of a white man, and its soil the first to receive the 
impression of the foot of a white man. Coronado did not come this 
way, else he might have told a diffei'ent story. He crossed Kansas 
going from the southwest to the northwest, reaching the Missouri river 
near the site of the city of Atchison. There he gave up the search, 
caused a cross to be erected out of a pile of stones bearing the inscrip- 

"Thus Far Came Francisco de Coronado," 
"General of an Expedition." 

and returned to New Spain, sick, sore and disgusted. He did not come 
to W.yandotte county, and the record he left behind was of no practical 
value to the generations upon generations that were to follow him. 

When visited by Coronado in 1.541, the Pawnees were undoubtedly 
controlling the country drained by the Kansas river and its numerous 
affluents, certainly as far east as Topeka, while the Kansas Indians were 
dwelling along the Missouri. At the time of Governor Onate's visita- 
tion, sixty j'ears later, the advance guard of the Pawnees seem to have 
progressed northward as far as the Platte river, though they had not 
actually taken final posses.sion of any considerable area, as the greater 
portion of them .seem to have fondly lingered in Kansas, apparently 
reluctant to part entirely from the pleasant conditions there once en- 
joyed. Between the coming of Governor Onate (1601) and the massa- 
cre of Villazar with his command (1720) upon the Platte river, a few 
miles east of the junction of the north and south forks of that stream, 
the Pawnees had taken full possession of all the desirable land within 
the valley of the state, except a small district adjacent to the Missouri, 
which the small tribes of the Otoes (Otontanta), Omahas (Mahas) and 
Poncas, who had contended, or at unsuccessfully disputed, the 
suzerainty of the Pawnees over the domain. The point in the distant 
south whence the Pawnees first begun their remote northern migration 
is indicated by the Paniassa village, near the northern margin of Red 

When Father Marquette Came. 

It is a question not altogether free from doubt as to who was the 
first to come up the Missouri river to explore the country that now is 


Kansas; yet it is the opinion of nian.v of the most trastworthy authori- 
ties that the first one was Patiier Jaeques Marquette, the Jesuit mis- 
sionary and explorer. In 1673, two years after the founding of the 
mission at St. Ig-nace, Father ^Marquette and Louis Joliet, with the 
sanction and active aid of Talon, the intendant of Canada, and under 
direct orders from Louis de Baude, Conte de Frontenae, governor gen- 
eral of Canada under Louis XIV, were, sent on a long contemplated 
exploration of the country west of the great lakes. That was the 
most important of all of the expeditions of the good Father Marquette. 
In birch bark canoes the expedition proceeded across the head of Lake 
Michigan, passed through Green bay, thence up the Fox river, and 
crossed the portage to the Wisconsin river, down which they floated 
into the Mississippi river. Frontenae had written to his king that 
he would in all probability prove once for all that the great river flowed 
into the Gulf of California. He, no doubt, was disappointed with his 
disillusionment when Father Marquette reported that his expedition 
floated down the Father of Waters far enough to be convinced that it 
must empty into the Gulf of Mexico and not into the Pacific ocean. 
What disappointment Father Marquette may have experienced is of 
little consequence in this article. He promptly transferred all hopes 
of that nature to the Missouri river on the theor;\^ that the Western ocean 
could be reached by ascending the Missouri. When Marquette saw the 
Missouri river debouching with such terrific force into the placid Mis- 
sissippi he was struck with awe, for it was at the time of the June flood. 
The Indians among whom he went to establish missions for their con- 
version knew little geography beyond their own hunting grounds. 
Those who dwelt along the Mississippi or Missouri rivers knew not 
whence these streams came nor whither they went. He inciuired of the 
natives through his interpreter about this wonderful- stream, which 
white men had not seen before. The natives informed him, so he 
recorded in his journal, that: "By ascending this river for four or five 
days one reaches a fine prairie, twenty or thirty leagues long. This 
must be crossed in a northwesterly direction, and it terminates at 
another small river, on which one may embark. This second rivei 
flows toward the southwest for ten or fifteen leagiies, after which it 
enters a lake, which flows toward the west, when it falls into the sea. 
I have hardly any doubt it is the Vermillion Sea." That was the 
name of the Gulf of California in Father Marquette's day. 

Just how far Father Marf|uette's expedition ascended the Missouri 
river above its mouth is a matter of speculation. Certainly it is that 
he came as far up as one hundred miles and the Indians among whom 
he mixed freely told him that which was of great value concerning the 
beaiitiful country bordering on the Missouri and Kansas rivers and 
their numeroiis tributaries. And the maps and records he left behind 
are now carefully preserved in the great library at St. Mary's College 
in Montreal. 


It is noticeable that, though the Arkansas Indians dwelt upon the 
river of the same name, and were thoroughly conversant with its general 
direction, the location of the villages of their tribe upon it, as well as 
the general character of the country upon either side, Indian-like they 
made no disclosures relative to either of these topics, while concerning 
districts more remote they were ever ready to speak precisely and 
fully. The explanation of this attitude was that they were not yet 
fully satisfied as to the precise purpose of the two strangers in coming 
thither, and so for the time they simply refrained from imparting 
further information. 

This map, crude though it may be, serves to present with surpass- 
ing accuracy the domain now constituting the states of Arkansas, 
Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, together with the designation and 
location of the several tribes then (1673) known to be occupying terri- 
tory within the northern and southern limits as marked by Marquette. 
The unoccupied country in the central region may naturally have been 
a common and convenient hunting ground for the various tribes. 

La Salle, who was the first to discover the mouth of the Mississippi 
river, where he planted the flag of France, the standard which 
still waved over the land when Jefferson purchased the country of 
Napoleon, also was disappointed. Like Father Marquette, he trans- 
ferred his hopes to the Missouri river. He "conceived the hope of 
reaching the South Sea by the Missouri river." 

Father Gabriel Mausest wrote a letter from Kaskaskia in 1712, 
which di.splays the prevailing misconception as to geographical matters. 
He wrote: "We are but thirty leagues from the mouth of the Mis- 
souri or Pek-i-tan-oni river. This is a large river which flows into 
the Jlississippi, and they pretend to say that it comes from a still 
greater distance than that river. It comes from the northwest very 
near where the Spaniards have their mines in Jlexico. and it is very 
convenient for the French to travel in this country." 

Father Hennepin's Wonderful Map. 

It was Father Hennepin, a Franciscan missionary, who explored 
the country in 1687, fourteen years after Father Marquette, and ac- 
quired the wonderful knowledge of the west that resulted in the making 
in 1723 of a map that could la.y claim to any degree of authenticity. 
This wonderful map made from Father Hennepin's notes was by 
that German geographer, Matthew Seutter, and his co-laborer, John 
Baptist Hamann, both of Nuremburg, Germany, in those days the 
center of the world's mapmaking industry. The Seutter map of 
Louisiana was made before St. Louis was founded and before there 
were any towns along the Mississippi river. The rivers are laid down 
with remarkable accuracy and practically all of them large and small. 


le5"lM2kba (ODiaba) 



(X shows location of what is now Kansas City, Kansas, and Wyandotte county.) 


are showu. The Indian villages are indicated by groups of dwellings. 
The Kansas river appears on the maps as "Grand Riviere Causez." 
The Chicago river is "Chigogon." 

Several Frenchmen came up tlie ilissouri river in the eighteenth 
century on exploration expeditions and made trips through Kansas, 
but there was nothing done to change the existing conditions. The 
Indians were not disturbed, the soil was not stirred by the plow, the 
rich valleys brought forth no harvest other than the luxuriant vegeta- 
tion of nature's planting. It was only when the United States govern- 
ment, under the leadei'ship of Thomas Jefferson, became the owner of 
the vast area that had been shifted back and forth between Prance 
and Spain that systematic effort began to be made to find out its real 
extent and possibilities for future development. 

The Explor.\tions op Lewis .\nd Cl.vrk. 

President Jefferson himself had l)\it a vague conception of the pur- 
chase he had made, but he w-as keen to know, and for that reason en- 
couraged and urged the fitting out of an expedition to explore the 
country, if possible, to the Pacific coast. This expedition, led by those 
two brave captains, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, was one ol 
the most marvelous journeys ever undertaken or accomplished by man. 
It was ditTerent from the explorations conducted by the Spanish ana 
French adventurers in that Lewis and Clark made careful note of 
everything they saw, and were able on their return to give a compre- 
hensive and intelligent description of the vast region they had traversed 
between St. Louis, the starting point, and the Pacific ocean. On the 
14th day of May, in the 3'ear 1804, the Lewis and Clark expedition 
set out from St. Louis. For nearly seven weeks the explorers pursued 
their slow and toilsome way across what is now the great state of 
Missouri. On June 26th the expedition camped on the bank of that 
river, near the mouth of the Kansas river near what is now known as 
the old Wyandotte levee. Here we have the meeting point of these 
two rivers described in the Lewis and Clark journals : 

"June 26, 1804. — We encamped at the upptT point of the mouth of the 
river Kansas. Here we remained two days, during which we made the neces- 
sary observations, recruited the party and repaired the boat. The Kansas river 
talces its rise in the plains between the Arlcansas and Platte rivers and pursues 
a course generally east till its junction with the Missouri, whicli is in latitude 
38 degrees, thirty-one minutes, and 13 seconds. Here it is 34014 yards wide, 
though it is wider a short distance above the mouth. The Missouri itself is 
about .500 yards in width. The point of union is low and subject to inundations 
for 250 yards. It then rises a little above high water and continues 
so as far back as the hills or highlands which come witliin one mile and a 
half of the river. On the north of the Missouri river they do not approach nearer 
than several miles, but on all sides the country is fine. The comparative specific 
gravities of the two rivers is for the Missouri 78 and for the Kansas 72 degrees. 


The waters of the latter have a very disagreeable taste. The former has risen 
iliiriiifj; yesterday and to-day about tvro feet. On the banks of the Kansas reside 
the Indians of the same name. On the 29th we sot out late in the afternoon and 
having passed a sandbar, near whicli the boat was almost lost, and a large island 
on the north, we encamped at seven and a quarter miles on the same side in the 
lowlands where the rushes are so thick that it is troublesome to walk through 
them. Early the next morning, 30th, we reached at five miles distance the mouth 
of a river coming from the north and called by the French Pettit Riviere Piatt, 
or Little Shallow river. It is about sixty yards wide at its mouth." 

First Fourth op July Celebration in Kansas. 

Leaving the beautiful hills in what is now Wyandotte county be- 
hind the bold explorers proceeded on the journey up the Missouri river. 
On the morning of the 4th of July, 1804, at the mouth of a little stream 
which empties into the Missouri river, near where the city of Atchison 
now stands, the Stars and Stripes were flung out upon the breeze, a 
swivel gun boomed out its note of sovereignty and trimiiph and the first 
Fourth of July Celebration was held on Kansas soil. All day long the 
little band rested and celebrated, no doubt contemplating what the 
future had in store for this fair land. As the sun was sinking low in 
the west the gim boomed again and the soil of Kansas was dedicated 
to freedom and the republic. Here is what is recorded in the LeA\ds 
and Clark journals for that glorious day: "The morning of the 4th 
was announced by the discharge of our gun. At one mile we reached 
the mouth of a bayeau or creek coming from a large lake on the north 
side of which appears as if it had once been the bed of the river, to 
which it runs parallel for several miles. The water of it is clear and 
supplied by a small creek and several springs, and a number of goslings 
which we saw on it, induced us to call it the Gosling lake. It is about 
three-fourths of a mile wide, and seven or eight miles long. One of 
our men was bitten by a snake, but a poultice of bark and gim powder 
was sufficient to cure the wound. At ten and one-fourth miles we 
reached a creek on the south about twelve yards wide and coming from 
an extensive prairie, which approached the borders of the river. To 
this creek, which had no name, we gave that of Fourth of July creek. 
Above it is a high mound, where three Indian paths center, and from 
which is a very extensive prospect. After fifteen miles sail we came to, 
on the north a little above, a creek on the southern side, about thirty 
yards wide, which we called Independence creek, in honor of the day, 
which we could cele])rate only by an evening g-un, and an additional 
gill of whiskey to the men." 

Captain Pike's Expedition. 

Two years after Lewis and Clark had gone on to blaze a way across 
the plaias and mountains, another gallant captain, leading twenty-two 


stalwart, fearless wliite men ;uul some fifty Indian allies, started on 
another tramp across the plains. Among all the American soldiers 
who have dared to endure privations and dangers at the command of 
their country, many have commanded larger armies, and some have 
wrought greater things, hut no one is better entitled than Captain 
Zebulon Montgomery Pike to place in history or to the encomiums of 
his own and succeeding generations. With a determination that over- 
came every difficulty, and a spirit that quailed at no danger, he pushed 
on across the prairies until he had reached the snow-capped Rockies and 
scaled the peak which stands as an everlasting mouiuuent to perpetuate 
his name. In what is now the county of Republic, in Kansas, he found 
at the Pawnee village the Indian had not learned that there had been 
a transfer of authority. The Spanish flag was still floating above the 
camp. A less intrepid man than Pike would have passed by with 
his twenty-two men, but such an action was not in keeping with the 
bold and loyal nature of the young captain. AVithout a moment's 
hesitation he ordered the emblem of Spanish authority to be hauled 
down, and, elevating the Stars and Stripes in its stead, he proclaimed 
the sovereignty of the republic. 

The Pike expedition was to promote peace and friendship among 
the people of the plains. He was told to take the captive Osages in 
the cantonment of Missouri back to their tribe ; then he was told by 
General Wilkinson to turn his attention to bringing about a perfect 
peace between the Kansas and Osage Indians, and lastly to effect a 
meeting and establish a good understanding between the latans and 
the Comanehes. His instnictions read : 

"Should you succeed in this attempt, and no pains must be spared to effect 
it, you will endeavor to make peace between that distant powerful nation and the 
nations which inhabit the country between us and them, particularly the Osage; 
and, finally, you will endeavor to induce eight or ten of their distinguished chiefs 
to make a visit to the seat of government next September, and you may attach 
to this deputation four or five Panis and the same number of Kansas chiefs. A.-» 
your interview with the Comanehes will probably lead j-ou to the head branches 
of the Arkansas and Red rivers, you may find yourself approximated to the settle- 
ments of New Mexico, and there it will be necessary you should move with gieat 
circumspection, to keep clear of any hunting or reconnoitering parties from that 
province, and to prevent alarm or offense; because the affairs of Spain and the 
United States appear to be on the point of amicable adjustment; and, moreover, 
it is the desire of the president to cultivate the friendship and harmonious inter- 
course of all the nations of the earth, and particularly our near neighbors, the 


The story is familiar to all, of Pike's arrival, September 25th, at 
the Pawnee village, and the call for a grand council on the 29th. On 
that day the flag of Spain floated before the chieftain 's tent. Standing 
here on the plains, a little handful of men, far away from their own 


kinsman, faced 400 men of alien blood. Pike, armed with a sublime 
faith in God and his western mission, demands that the flag of Spain 
be taken down. It is a dramatic moment. He says every face was full 
of sorrow. The plain, unassuming band of Americans made but a tame 
impression on these children of the prairies, beside the memory of the 
gay chevaliers of Spain so recently departed; but the might of the 
spirit prevailed. 

The manhood of Pike and his men struck a spark from the man- 
hood of the Indians, and an old man took the flag of Spain and meekly 
laid it at his feet. In its place he ran up the American flag, the symbol 
of our national life. The Indians put their faith in the strength and 
righteousness of men who came to them for the sake of brotherhood, 
rather than in the material grandeur and military display of Spain. 
And to-day there are a million and a half of people dwelling in harmony 
and plenty in the shadow of this sublime beginning. 

Following in the wake of Pike went Major Stephen H. Long and 
other explorers, giving to Jefferson and other leading statesmen of 
that period some idea of the magnificent extent and possibilities of 
the empire that had been acquired for what would now be considered a 
paltry sum, a financial burden which could now be easily assumed by 
the least wealthy of all the states in this Union. 

Major Long's Expedition. 

The expedition headed by Major Stephen H. Long, under direction 
of John C. Calhoun, secretary of war, left Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
May 5, 1819, on board the steamer "Western Engineer," which had been 
constructed for the expedition. It consisted of a party of scientific 
men. The boat passed down the Ohio river, up the Mississippi to 
the mouth of the Missouri, and up the Missouri to the mouth of the 
Kansas river. The report in part reads: "The 'Western Engineer,' 
being the first steamboat that had ever ascended the Missouri above 
Chariton, great numbers of the settlers were attracted to the banks of 
the river, on both sides, to witness our progress. Arrived at Ft. 
Osage, fifty-five miles by water from the mouth of the Kouzas, August 
1st. This fort was established in 1808 and was then the most military 
settlement. The party consisted of Mr. Say, examining and assembling 
the objects in zoology and its branches, classifying land and sea animals, 
insects, and particular description of animal remains, and commanding 
the expedition; Jessup, geologist, relating to earth minerals and fossils; 
Peale, assistant naturalist; Seymour, painter of the expedition, furnish- 
ing sketches of landscapes, paintings of Indians and Indian scenes; 
Cadet Smith J. Dougherty, guide and interpreter; five soldiers, pack 
horses and provisions. Examined the river between Ft. Osage and 
Kouzas river, also between that river and the Platte." 


Major Long in liis report to tlie secretaiy of war, thus describes 
the scene at the mouth of the Kansas river, which he called "Kouzas:" 
"Between Fort Osage and the mouth of the Kouzas river, a distance 
of about fifty-two miles, are many rapid places in the Missouri. We 
were able to ascend all these, except one. Without some difficulty we 
supplied our furnace with wood of a suitable quality. The forests of 
Missouri are filled with fallen trees, whose wood is soft and porous like 
that of the linden and cotton tree, and absorb much moisture from the 

"The mouth of the Kouzas river wa.s so filled with mud, deposited 
by the late flood in the Missouri, as scarcely to admit the passage of our 
boat, though with some difficulty we ascended that river about a mile, 
and, then returning, dropped anchor opposite its mouth. The spring 
freshets subside in the Kouzas, the Osage and all those tributaries that 
do not derive their sources from the Rocky mountains, before the 
Jlissouri reaches its greatest fullness; consequently the waters of the 
latter river, charged with mud, flow into the mouths of its tributaries, 
and there becoming nearly stagnant, deposit an extensive accumulation 
of nuid and slime. The Kouzas river has a considerable resemblance 
to the Missouri ; but its current is more moderate and the water less 
turbid, except at times of high floods. Its valley, like that of the Mis- 
souri, has a deep and fertile soil, bearing similar forests of cottonwood, 
sycamore, etc., interspersed with meadows; but in ascending, trees be- 
come more and more scattered, and at length disappear almost entirely, 
the coiintry at its source becoming one irmuense prairie." 

Frenchmen Our First Merchants. 

The Spanish people, who came this way while the Indian country 
was under the dominion of Spain, were a lot of adventurers, dazzling 
with the splendor of military trappings, their minds filled with fairy- 
tale visions of cities with streets paved with gold, trees whereon golden 
ajiples grew, sti-eams in which golden fishes swam and on whose banks 
children romped and played in golden slippers. They did nothing for 
the Indians — and less for themselves. The French did little to en- 
courage the development of the soil, but they did establish the commerce 
of the Indian country. 

After the visit of Bourgmont to the Kansas "capital," in 1724, 
nearly two hundred years ago, the Indians occupying this country had 
a place in the commercial circles of the French. So it was Kansas, 
an outpost of the progressive French and one of their frontier towns, 
where white men lived in houses and carried on business almost twc 
hundred years ago. Here was a depot for all the commercial supplies 
of that day, the merchandise from distant France and the valuable skins 
and furs which were here stored for sale and exchange. It seems that 


the annual (lutput of this first mart of trade in Kansas was one hundred 
bales or bundles of furs. When we realize that a bundle, or bale of 
furs represented 100 otter skins, 100 wolf skins, or 100 badger skins, 
or it might be made up of 40 deer skins, or 500 nuiskrat or mink skins, 
we ean see that the trade at Kansas was considerable. 

The Fur Traders. 

In the last quarter of the eighteenth century Pierre Laclede Siquest, 
witli August and Pierre Chouteau, emigrated from France and settled 
in the Mississippi valley. They had an exclusive right from Napoleon 
to trade with the Indians of Louisiana territory. In 1799 a post was 
established near St. Joseph's and in 1800 another at Randolph Bluffs, 
three miles below the mouth of the Kansas river. The whole Chouteau 
family was engaged in the trade at the time the United States took over 
Louisiana territory in 1803. Previous to that time they virtually had 
a monopoly of the business. After the change of government, however, 
the monopoly was broken, government trading posts were established 
and the trade among the Western Indians increased rapidly ; but the 
Chouteaus, pioneers, did a great business. The Missouri Fur Company 
was organized in 1808, with Manuel de Lisa at its head. August and 
Pierre Chouteau were among the eleven other members. Expeditions 
were sent out and posts were founded among the Indians of Missouri, 
Kansas, Nebraska and Arkansas. The company was dissolved in 1812, 
but the Chouteaus continued in business, organizing independent houses 
to prosecute the trade and also to outfit trapping and hunting, as well 
as exploring expeditions. 

One of the largest trading posts of that period was on the Kansas 
river nearly twenty miles above its mouth at the site of Bonner Springs 
in Wyandotte county. It was called "Four Houses," so named from 
being built on the four sides of an open .square, the trading houses of 
Francis and Cyprian Chouteau. They were built sometime between 
1812 and 1821. Cyprian Chouteau's trading house on the north side 
of the Kansas river at the old Grinter ferry, .six miles west of the 
Missouri state line, also in Wyandotte county, was built for trading 
with the Delaware and Shawnee Indians. It was located at a point 
where the military road from Ft. Leavenworth to Ft. Scott crossed the 
Kansas river. John C. Fremont's expeditions in Kansas, beginning 
in 1842, were outfitted there. Another great trading post established 
by the Chouteaus was on the Missouri river at Fort Osage, thirty-five 
miles below the mouth of the Kansas river, which was a depot for sup- 
plies for the trade with the Osages. In 1825 the Chouteaus, or prop- 
erly, the American Fur Company, established an agency on the south 
side of the Kansas river in Wyandotte county, about one mile from 
the old Shawnee Methodist mi.ssion and seven miles from Westport. 


It was this house that became famous as an outtitting point for the 
expeditions across the plains over the old trails. 

"The Great American Desert." 

Tlie reports of the explorations by the trusted representatives of 
the United States government, however, did not thoroughly satisfy all 
of the statesmen and leaders of the young republic as to the value of 
the Louisiana Purchase. There was in New England a sentiment of 
unfriendliness toward the west and a belief that the country then known 
as "the Great American Desert" was practically worthless. There 
was for many years continued opposition to every movement instigated 
to improve the country west of the Mississippi river. The people of 
the east had no faith in the possibilities of the western country. It was 
regarded as a hopeless waste. Daniel Webster never believed in the 
west, and in the United States senate, in 1827, during a famous debate 
with Senator Hayne, of South Carolina, on the public land quastion, 
he bitterly opposed any step on the part of the government toward the 
development of "The Great American Desert." Webster was in con- 
stant opposition to Senator Thomas H. Benton, who had made the 
Trans-Mississippi country a study and its development his great aim in 
life. In one of his eloquent speeches in opposition to Senator Benton's 
advocacy of the policy of encouraging the settlement of western lands 
Webster said: "What do we want with this vast and worthless area, of 
this region of savages and wild beasts, of deserts, of shifting sands and 
whirlwinds, of dust, of cactus and prairie dog? To what use could 
we ever hope to put these great deserts, or those endless mountain 
ranges, impenetrable and covered to their very base with eternal snow? 
What can we ever hope to do with the western coast, a coast of three 
thousand miles, rock-bound, cheerless, uninviting and not a harbor on 
it? Mr. President, I will never vote one cent from the public treasury 
to place the Pacific coast one inch nearer to Boston than it is now." 

Benton, however, lived to see the beginning, at least, of the ful- 
fillment of his great plans and purposes. As Jefferson had had faith 
in those intrepid explorers, Lewis and Clark, and Captain Pike, so 
Benton, with tlic knowledge he possessed of the vast country west of 
the Mississippi I'iver, battled on — and won for the west. So it was that 
the Lewis and Clark expedition was the forerunner of the achievements 
of sucli explorers and travelers as Fremont and Gilpin and Bridger. 
These were the practical geographers of our country. What Jefferson 
and Benton saw in visions, these saw with their eyes and touched with 
their feet. 

The time had come when the United States government deemed it 
necessary to be prepared to sustain its authority. Colonel Henry 
Leavenworth was sent out in 1827 to establish a fort in the new terri- 


tory. It had been suggested that the fort be located on the Missom*i 
river just below the mouth of the Kansas river. Colonel Leavenworth, 
however, rejected the location in the river bottom because it was too 
low and unhealthy for soldiers. He went up the river and selected 
the present site above the city of Leavenworth, and for more than three- 
quarters of a century the place he selected has been one of the most 
important military posts in the republic. 

The territory roundabout the mouth of the Kansas river, the ex- 
plorers say, abounded with game, which fact probably induced the son of 
old Daniel Boone, with the hunter blood of his ancestor running 
strong in his veins, to seek the place of farmer for the Indians, which 
led up to the further fact that the grandson of the great Kentucky 
hunter and Indian fighter was the first white child to be born on Kansas 

The Fremont Expeditions. 

Colonel John C. Fremont made five trips across Kansas between 

1842 and 1848, for the purpose of exploring the country west of the 
Missouri river. In June, 1842, he entered Wyandotte county on his 
first trip and fitted out his expedition at the trading post of Cyprian 
Chouteau, located on the Kansas river six miles west of the Mis.souri 
state line at the old Closes Grinter ferry at Secondine, now Muncie. 
He crossed over the old ferry and after leaving Wyandotte county 
went west through the counties of Johnson. Douglas and Shawiiee. In 

1843 his second expedition followed the Kansas river from Wyandotte. 
His third started from the same place, and pursuing a different route, 
returned over the Sante Fe trail. His fourth start was from Westport 
in October, 1848, following the Kansas river on the south side. The 
fifth and last was from Westport for the purpose of surveying, at his 
own expense, the Kansas Pacific railroad, now the Union Pacific. 

The explorers who ascended the Missouri and Kansas rivers were 
charmed with the landscape of hill and valley, though little did they 
know what the future held for it when in after years it was to be 
known as Wyandotte county. They found the general surface undu- 
lating, high bluffs rising on either side of the two great rivers meeting 
here, the valleys lying between those bluffs varying in width from one 
to two miles. In the valleys and on the uplands was a growth of timber 
reaching far back from the Missouri to where the prairie begins. All 
of the trees common to lands bordering on the middle west streams were 
represented — the oak, elm, cottonwood, walnut, honey locust, mulberry, 
hickory, sycamore, ash, and, along the creeks and branches, clumps of 
willows. But unlike the great forests of tall trees in the teiTitory lying 
between the Mississippi river and the Allegheny mountains through 
which the explorers passed on their way to the Indian country, the trees 
here were of a low spreading growth. Out of the hillsides gurgled 


streams of clear, pure water, sometimes eharged with life-giving miner- 
als, while branches and creeks wonntl their way down from the up- 
lands through the little valleys that grew wider and wider as they 
approached the river valleys. Pew of these were pretentious streams, 
yet they were necessarily a part of Nature's plan of perfect drainage. 

Scenes op Kark Beauty. 

The explorers opened the way for the settlement of the Indian 
country. Their business chiefly was to treat with the Indians and to 
make maps and charts for their government. The real beauty of 
Kansas was not appreciated till the white men came this way. Note 
the joy that took possession of the Reverend John G. Pratt, missionary 
to the Delaware Indians in Wyandotte county as thus he writes of his 
impre.ssions to Franklin G. Adams, under date of January 12, 1889 : 
"My first introduction to Kansas was in 1837. Leaving Boston in 
April with my wife we reached the then territory May 14th, being about 
tonv weeks in slow but interrupted travel. The territory at that time 
was in perfect quiet, and a most beautiful country it was. Coming 
from the Atlantic, my first look at an open green prairie on a sunny 
day seemed to be a look at the ocean, with which I was so familiar, but 
this was also Flora in her gayest attire, the eye was too limited in its 
capacity to take in such wide and far extended area of beauty — the 
like will never be seen again in Kansas. The coming of dwellers has 
spoiled all this. Though still the Sunflower state, the earlier dress 
was more comely — it was nature's beauty." 

In 1853, Percival G. Lowe, of Leavenworth, went ont with Major 
E. A. Ogden when Fort Riley was located, and here is his first impres- 
sion : "Of all charming and fascinating portions of our country, prob- 
ably there is none where nature has been so la\ash as within a radius of 
one hundred and fifty miles, taking Port Riley as the center. In 
rich soil, building material, in beauty of landscape, wooded streams and 
bubbling .springs, in animal life, in everything to charm the, gladden 
the heart, yield to the industry of man — here was the climax of the 
most extravagant dream, perfect in all its wild beauty and productive- 
ness; perfect in all that nature's God could hand down to man for his 
improvement and happiness." 

The Reverend Charles Brandon Boynton made an exploration in 
the fall of 1854, which was published under the title "Journey Through 
Kansas." He says: "But the first hour's ride over the prairies of 
Kansas spread before us such a picture, varying every moment and 
beautiful in every change, as we had no previous conception of, and 
drew from us continued expressions of a delight that would not be 
suppressed. One can form no correct idea of the prairies of Kansas 
by a jircvious knowledge of those of Indiana and Illinois; and residents 


in Iowa add the same remark of theirs. How, without the majesty of 
mountains or lakes, or broad rivers, and with so few colors as here 
are seen, such effect can be produced, is worthy the study of artists. 
It is a mag-nitieent picture of God, that stirs irresistibly and inexpli- 
cably the soul of every beholder. Young and old, the educated and the 
unlearned, alike feel the influence of its spell, and each in his own 
laiiii:uag-e gives utterance to his delight and wonder, or stands breathless 
and mute. There are many scenes in Kansas that can scarcely be 
remembered even without tears. The soul melts in the presence of 
the wonderful beauty of the workmanship of God." Max Greene was 
another early-day explorer, in 1855. He also published a book, in 
which he says: "Here, through the exliilarating crystal air, on every 
hantl are scenes of natural glory, the sublime of loveliness, whose only 
appropriate description would be a passionate lyric to flicker along the 
nerves like solemn hannonies of mighty bards." 

Physical and Geographical Features. 

The Indians had occupied the lands as their hunting grounds for 
ages and little could these explorers tell of the nature of the soil and 
of what lay hidden beneath the .surface. Could they have waited to 
witness the development of this country to its present state, however, 
they would have been rewarded amply for their time. The soil of 
Wyandotte count.w as we now find it, is that fine black loam that is 
common to the western states, with predominating limestone enriching 
by disintegration its fertility. On the uplands the .soil is one to three 
feet in thickness, while in the valley.s its depth often has been found to 
measure twenty feet. Hidden beneath the soil and cropping out of 
the sides of the hills along the rivers are many kinds of limestone suit- 
able for building, paving, for the construction of heavj' bridge piers, 
for making lime, and for many other purposes, more particularly along 
the valley of the Kansas river — eight to fifteen feet in thickness — in 
quantities sufficient to keep our great cement manufacturing plants in 
operation for a hmidred years. Veins of coal also are to be found, 
but not of such thickness as ito justify an attempt to mine then on a 
large scale. And, deep down under the soil and stone, gas is found 
in extensive fields along the north of the Kansas river, the flow from 
many wells sufficient to supply gas for domestic uses in the small 
cities and town.s in that section and a limited supply left over for 

The portion of the "Indian Country" discovered by the early ex- 
plorers from which the old trails ran that, many years after, became 
Wyandotte county, contains an area of 153 square miles. It is the 
smallest county in the state of Kansas, but only in area. It has a larger 
population than any other county, with a density of 717 2-3 persons 


to the square mile — and that means li^ person for every one of its 
97,920 acres. Also does Wyandotte county rank first among the coun- 
ties of Kansas in material wealth, the assessed valuation of property 
taxable being seven times as large as the $15,000,000 the United States 
paid Prance for the entire Louisiana territory of 1,160,577 square miles. 

Leavenworth county, of which Wyandotte county was once a part, 
now forms the western and a part of the northern boundary of Wyan- 
dotte county. The Missouri river, flowdng southeasterly, from the 
greater portion of the northern boundary, and the same river, together 
with the state of Jlissouri, supply the eastern boundary. The northern 
line of Johnson county and the Kansa.s river for a distance of seven 
miles supply the southern boundary of Wyandotte county. Tech- 
nically, or legally, the boundary lines of Wyandotte county are thus 
described: "Commencing at a point on the west line of the state of 
Missouri, opposite the mouth of the Kansas river thence south on the 
west line of the state of ilissoui-i to the south line of township 11 south, 
being the northeast comer of Johnson county ; thence up the said river ; 
in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the intersection with the 
east line of range 22, east ; thence north on said range line to the old 
Delaware reservation line, the same being the dividing line between the 
original Delaware reservation and Delaware trust lands ; thence east 
on said line to the west jjoundary line of the state of Missouri ; thence 
southeasterly with the said western boundary line of the state to the 
place of beginning." 

Lying in the .southern part of the fortieth degree of north latitude, 
and the western part of the ninety-fiftli degree of longitude west from 
Greenwich. England, Wyandotte county is fortunatel.v situated as to 
climatic conditions, having neither tropic heat nor artic cold. The 
record.s of the United States weather service for Kansas, covering a 
period of seventeen .vear.s, show the following : 

Average temperature diiring the three winter months — December, 
January and February — 30.9 degrees. 

Average temperature during the three summer months — June, July 
and August — 76.9 degrees. 

Average annual temperature for tlic state, 54.2 degrees. 

The average annual rainfall in the eastci-n third of the state for 
seventeen years approximates 35 inches, gradually decreasing further 
west. For the whole state, the annual precipitation has averaged 27.12 
inches ; for the three winter months — December. January and February 
— 0.91 inch per month; for the three summer months — June, July and 
August — 3.55 inches per month. 



Whence Came the Name.«' — Here Three Centuries Ago — Kan- 
sas, THE Dominant Tribe — Moncachtape, the Interpreter — Early 
Kansas Villages — Kansas Indian Lodge — The Kansas Home Life — 
Old Fool Chief — An Honest Indian — The Famous Kansas Orator — 
A Chief Who Was a Warrior — At War With Their Brothers — 
Depredations of the Kansas — The Kansas Treaties — Abandoned 
the Kansas River — Beginning of a New Era. 

The first dwellers in the wilderness whose identity is established 
and whose right of occupancy is recognized were the Kansas Indians. 
The early explorers, the Spanish and French, found them here at the 
place where the waters of these two great rivers meet. It is from this 
ancient tribe, therefore, that recorded the history of Kansas and of 
Wyandotte county had a beginning. Back of them, even to the begin- 
ning of time, no book, or parchment, no thing of any kind, has been 
left accurately to tell what manner or man, or beast, once roamed 
these beautiful hills and valleys and the plains of our Kansas. And 
it matters little that we are in ignorance. The world that we know 
has little feeling of concern for the people of a past so remote that 
the record of their achievements is of no practical value to mankind. 

It never will be known exactly when the Kansas Indians first came 
to live on the banks of the river that bears their name. According 
to their language and traditions many hundreds of years ago the Five 
Tribes, the Kansas, Osage, Omaha, Ponka and Kwapa, were one people 
and lived along the Wabash and far up the Ohio. There even was a 
tradition that their home at one time was near the shores of "the sea 
of the rising sun," whence came the mysterious sacred shells of the 
tribe. For some reason they worked westward, probably pressed by 
the encroachments of tribes of superior forces. Coming to the mouth 
of the Ohio there was a separation. The Osage and the Kansas tribes 
were left behind, probably in the year 1500. The Osages passed up 
the river that took their name. The Kansas, coming to the junction 
of the Missouri and Kansas rivers, established themselves in a permanent 
settlement within the forks and took possession of the valley of the Kan- 
sas river as their heritage and became a distinct Indian nation. 


Vol. 1—2 


Whence Came the Name? 

During the past three hundred years since the name was first 
written there have been numerous methods of spelling the designation 
of this tribe, originally called the "Kansa. " To follow the many 
changes through which the word has passed to its present form, "Kan- 
sas," would within itself be an interesting study. Probably no historic 
name in America has gone through so many changes, with so frequent 
variation on maps and in books. In the ninth volume of the Kansas 
Historical Collections, Professor Hay's article on the name Kansas, 
prepared in 1882, gives twenty-four ways of spelling the word. And 
other ways of spelling it have been suggested. Whence comes the word 
and what is its meaning? Most historians have stated that it was 
an Indian word of doubtful meaning. Others have attributed to the 
word meanings which are clearly erroneous. Richardson, in "Beyond 
the IMississippi." 1857, says that it signifies smoln*. Several histor- 
ians, like Ilolloway, have accepted this definition. Dorsey, an author- 
ity on Siouan language, says the word refers to \nnds, or -^vind-people, 
but that its exact meaning is not knowii. In recent years many persons 
have thought it wise to preserve the French-Canadian name "Kaw" 
in referring to the Kansas river; but it is a nickname, a misnomer, 
mean.s nothing, has no good foundation, and it should not be applied to 
the tribe, for it was not its name. "Kansa" is the ancient and expres- 
sive word, according to the leading authorities of the past three hundred 
years. But, officially, it now is "Kansas," the name that is borne by 
our state, the principal river ^^^thin its borders, and its largest city. 

Here Three Centuries Ago. 

The earliest accounts of explorers represent the Kansas Indians as 
owners of that vast territorv- now called Kansas. Here they were 
born. Here they lived, acted and pas.sed on for many generations. 
Here they hunted, fished and fought. Here was their home with all the 
sacred associations of home: and though an Indian home, what an em- 
pire to these first native sons of Kansas! 

The first recorded mention of the Kansas nation is found in the 
account of the exploration of Juan de Onate, who met them on our 
plains in 1601, in his attempt to reach, as Coronado did in 1541, the land 
of Quivira. Onate had first colonized New Mexico and settled many 
valleys of that Spanish province ^vith the one hundred and thirty 
families and four hundred soldiers accompanying him, and the many 
immigrants that followed. Farms were cultivated, towns builded, con- 
vents established, and civilization was thus brought to New Mexico, 
where with little change it exists to-day. After gaining the friend- 
ship of the native Indians, Onate became fired with other ambitions — 


other fields to conquer. Remembering that Coronado had penetrated 
far to the northeast only sixty years before, and had crossed the plains 
to the noted Qnivira — what more daring and ini-iting field could be 
presented ? 

While there is some doubt as to the exact location of Quivira — 
whether it was in the Kansas valley or on the Missouri — in either event 
it must have been in the region of the hunting-grounds and habitant of 
the Kansas nation, when first visited many years later by French ex- 

Kansas, the Dominant Tribe. 

Father Jacques Marquette, that greatest of French explorers and 
missionaries, in the most important of all his Indian expeditions, made 
in 1673, shortly before his death, found the country now called Kansas 
occupied principally by four great tribes of Indians: Osages, Kansas, 
Pawnees, and a nomadic tribe called the Padoucas, that in the eighteenth 
century completely lost itself as if it had vanished from the face of 
the earth. But greatest of these, "the leading prodigious nation," 
the good Father Marquette would have us know, was the Kansas tribe. 

In their ^ild and free state the Kansas Indians are described as 
being independent. They enjoyed their liberty without being jealous, 
or bothering themselves about the affairs of the neighboring tribes. They 
were not distinguished as among the great warring tribes of North 
American Indians. They preferred to be let alone. But once roused 
they were as brave as the bravest, and they could fight. Their \vigwams 
were made of poles stuck in the ground and tied together with straps 
of bark, and covered witli earth. They raised some corn, but lived 
principally on game, fish, fruits and nuts. The men were good hunters, 
likewise good fishers, and spent much of their time in the woods, on the 
plains, or on the rivei-s in their wooden canoes. 

Moncachtape, the Interpreter. 

Little was Imown to the outside world of the Kansas Indiaas until 
Moncachtape, the Indian interpreter, visited them. He was a Yazoo 
Indian, his name indicating "one who destroys obstacles and overcomes 
fatigue," and a very odd character. According to the memories of 
Dumont, the French traveler and historian, Moncachtape, about 1700, 
traversed the continent from ocean to ocean visiting numerous Indian 
tribes and learning their languages. It seems that he desired informa- 
tion regarding the origin of his race, and went from tribe to tribe in 
his search. At first, he pa.s.sed to the east, thinking the cradle of the 
race was toward the rising sun. He traveled until he came to the 
lower lake regions and learned of the falls of Niagara and the wonderful 
high tides of the Bay of Fundy. Afterward he traversed the far 


west, passinjr along the Ohio and ]\lLSsissippi to the mouth of the 
Missouri, which stream he minutely described. Following the ■Missouri 
river, he came to the Missouri Indian nation, and, staging with them 
all of one winter, learned their language. When spring opened he 
went further up that stream till he came to the great village of the 
Kansas, near the present site of Doniphan, Atchison county, and stopped 
for some time. From these Indians he first learned of the great divide 
beyond which was a river that flowed toward the west, supposed to be 
the Columbia. Continuing his journey, Moncaehtape passed down 
that stream to the sea, where he saw a strange ship manned by strange 
people, which had come to shore for cargoes. After wandering for 
five years, he returned to the Mississippi valley and his home near the 
Gulf of Mexico. He was known as "The Intrepreter, " from his 
ability to acquire different Indian languages, learning from one tribe 
something of the language of the next one to be visited. 

E.\RLY Kansas Villages. 

Wliilc the Kansa.s Indians, occupying the banks of the river that 
bears their name, hunted on the hills and in the valleys of the now 
Wyandotte county, their council fires did not blaze here. Captain 
Meriwether Lewis, in 1804, found two of their villages, one of about 
twenty, the other forty leagues from the mouth, and numbering about 
three hundred men. Captain Lewis adds: "They once lived twenty- 
four leagues higher than the river Kanzas (he spelled the name with a 
"z") on the south bank of the Missouri and were then more numeroiis, 
but they have been reduced and bani.shed by the Sauks and Ayauways. 
who, being better supplied with arm.s, have an advantage over the 
Kanzas, though the latter are not less fierce or warlike themselves. 
This nation is now hunting on the plains for buffalo which our hunters 
have seen for the first time." Their \dllages along the Kansas river 
were occupied at different times, and their sites are found from its 
junction with the Missouri as far west as the mouth of the Blue river 
at Manhattan. One of them at least is prehistoric, and can only be 
pointed out by archaeologists, while the others were occupied by the 
tribe since its movements were laio\\ai to the historian. Probably the 
most ancient site in Kansas is that found in Wyandotte county, a little 
east of White Church on the old William Malotte farm. The many 
relics recovered there by the late George U. S. Hovey, and the extensive 
outlines of this village, prove it to have long been an important center, 
and it probably was while living there that the stream received from 
this people the name Kansas. 

Professor Thomas Say, of Major Long's expedition, visited the vil- 
lage of the Kansas on the Kansas river in 181!). It is from him we 
learn much of the Indians, the genera] appearance of their village, their 


government and their ciLstoms. The report of Major Long says: "As 
they approached the village they perceived the tops of the lodges red 
with the crowds of natives. The chiefs and warriors came rushing 
down on horseback, painted and decorated, and followed by a great 
number on foot. Mr. Say and his party were received with the 
utmost cordiality and conducted into the village by the chiefs, who went 
before one on each side to protect them from the encroachments of the 
crowd. On entering the village the crowd readily gave way before the 
party, but followed them into the lodge assigned to them, and com- 
pletely and most densely filled the spacious apartment, with the excep- 
tion only of a small space opposite the entrance where the party seated 
themselves on the beds, still protected from the pressure of the crowd 
by the chiefs, who took their seats on the ground immediately before 
them. After the ceremony of smoking with the latter, the ob.ject 
which the party had in view in passing through the territories was ex- 
plained to them and seemed to be perfectly satisfactory. At the lodge 
of the principal chief they were regaled with jerked bison meat and 
boiled corn, and were afterwards invited to sis feasts in immediate 
succession. ' ' 

The Kansas Indian Lodge. 

Mr. Say, gifted as a descriptive writer, tells of the Kansas lodges. 
He says: "The village consists of about one hundred and twenty lodges 
placed as closely together as convenient and destitute of any regularity 
of arrangement. The ground area of each lodge is circular, and is 
excavated to the depth of from one to three feet and the general form of 
the exterior may be denominated hemispheric. The lodge in which we 
reside is larger than any other in the town, and being that of the grand 
chief, it serves as the council house of the nation. The roof is supported 
by two series of pillars, or rough vertical posts, forked at the top for 
the reception of the transverse connecting pieces of each series; twelve 
of these pillars form the outer series, placed in a circle, and eight longer 
ones, the inner series, also describing a circle; the outer wall, or rude 
framework, placed at a proper distance from the exterior series of 
pillars, is five or six feet high. Poles, as thick as the leg at the base, 
rest with their butts upon the wall, extending on the cross piece&, 
which are upheld by the pillars of the two series, and are of sufficient 
length to reach nearly to the summit. These poles are very numerous, 
and agreeable to the position which we have indicated, they are placed 
all around in a radiating manner and support the roof like raftei-s. 
Across these are laid long and slender sticks or twigs attached parallel 
to each other by means of bark cord ; these are covered by mats made of 
long grass or reeds, or with the bark of trees ; the whole is then covered 
completely with earth, which, near the ground, is banked up to the eaves. 
A hole is permitted to remain in the middle of the roof to give exit to 


the smoke. Around the walls of the interior a continuous series of 
mats are suspended ; these are of neat workmanship, composed of a soft 
reed, united by bark cord, in straight or undulated lines, between which 
lines of black paint sometimes occur. The bedsteads are elevated to 
the height of a common seat from the ground and are about six feet 
wide; they extend in an uninterrupted line aroiuid three-fourths of the 
circumference of the apartment, and are formed in the simplest man- 
ner of numerous sticks or slender pieces of wood, resting at their ends 
on cross pieces, which are supported by short notched or forked posts 
driven into the ground. Bison skins supply them with a comfortable 
bedding. Several medicine or mystic bags are carefully attached to 
the mats on the wall; these are cylindrical, and neatly bound up. 
Several reeds are usually placed upon them, and a human scalp serves 
for their fringe and tassels. Of their contents we know nothing. The 
fireplace is a simple, shallow ca\'ity in the center of the apartment, 
with an upright and a projecting arm for the support of the culinarv- 
apparatus. The latter is very simple in kind and limited in quantity, 
consisting of a brass kettle, an iron pot and wooden bowls and spoons. 
Each person, male as well as female, carries a large knife in the girdle 
of the breech-cloth behind, which is used at their meals, and sometimes 
in self defense. During our stay with these Indians, they ate four 
or five times each day, invariably supplying us with the best pieces, 
or choice parts, before they attempted to taste the food themselves." 

The Kansas Home Life. 

The food of the Kansas Indians is described as of bison meat and 
various preparations of Indian corn or maize. One of the favorite 
"dishes" was called "lyed corn," known among white people as home- 
made hominy. They also grew pumpkins, muskmelons and water- 
melons, which they cooked after their owti style. A soup of boiled 
sweet corn and beans seasoned with buffalo meat was a substantial food. 

Like other Indian tribes the Kansas believed in a Great Spirit, and 
they had vague ideas of the future life. Their family relations were 
more honorable than those of many of the eastern tribes. Marriage 
was celebrated with such ceremony as served to render the tie more 
binding. Chastity was one of the requisites to fit a woman for the 
wife of a chief, a brave warrior and a good hunter. ilen and women 
of the tribe were taught from infancy to sufl:'or pain without com- 
plaining. They were faithful to their ties of friendship. One of 
their fine traits was their care of the sick and disabled. The women 
manaii:ed tlie domestic affairs without the interference of the men. 


Old Fool Chief. 

Kah-he-gah-wa-ti-an-gah, who was the hereditary chief of the Kan- 
sas Indians, also bore the proud distinction of being Old Fool Chief. 
For a long time he was the head chief. He ruled over the village near 
North Topeka which bore his name. When sober he was peaceable, 
but always felt his authority and coveted the attention of younger 
braves, who brought him choice portions of game. The Methodists, 
who had a mission near the mouth of Mission creek near the other two 
villages of the tribe, once took him to the general conference at Balti- 
more, where he embarrassed them by appearing, as was customary at 
home, stark naked on the streets one hot, sultry morning. Afterward 
he fell further from grace, and when under the influence of drink always 
became crazy. In one of these spells, while on his way over to Mis- 
souri with a band of warriors, he was killed by one of his own braves, 
Wa-ho-ba-ke, whose life he was attempting to take. 

Al-le-ga-wa-ho was the head chief who presided at the Cahalu 
Creek village in the Neosho valley near Council Grove, the last to be 
occupied by the Kansas Indians while in Kansas. He had succeeded 
old Hard Chief, the great warrior of the tribe whose name was Kah- 
he-ga-wah-che-ha, meaning a chief who was hard or severe. Al-le- 
ga-wa-ho, was a remarkable character, long trusted as the wisest leader 
of the tribe. He was elected head chief when Kah-he-gah-wah-ti-an- 
gah the Second, Fool Chief the Younger, lost his position for having 
killed a noted brave without cause. 

An Honest Indian. 

Al-le-ga-wa-ho was tall and stately, about sis feet six and was long 
noted as the most eloquent orator of the tribe. He was considered safe 
and honest in his dealings, and one of the few noted Indians of his day 
who could not be bribed. He had three wives, one of whom was his 
special favorite, as will be seen by the following incident: It was 
always a disputed ciuestion whether she or the wife of his cousin, Fool 
Cliief the Younger, was the finest looking. At one time she had been 
sick for weeks and at last was convalescent, but was very particular and 
dainty about her diet. She turned away from all kinds of flxed-up 
dishes for the sick, and longed for that prized Indian dish of dog meat. 
To gratify her appetite Al-le-ga-wa-ho came to Council Grove and beg- 
ged for a fat dog, stating that it was the only thing that would satisfy 
and cure his wife. He found that one could be bought for two dollars, 
but, having .spent all of his annuity money, had to borrow the price 
from a friend and hastened back rejoicing to his village with the doomed 
canine. Around Council Grove, when a fat dog disappeared, it was 
always known where it went. Al-le-ga-wa-ho lived to be a very old 
man, and died in the Indian Territory years ago. 


The Famous Kansas Orator. 

Ish-tah-le-sah (Speckled Eye), was a brother of Hard Chief and 
second iu rank as a ruler. He was a man of strong and positive per- 
sonality and was sober and alert. He was the famous orator of the old 
triumvirate, and was always put forward on important occasions when 
government officers visited the tribe, because of his ability to make a 
great speech. He died from eating too much "store trash" the same 
day he received his annuity money. He had been living on short 
rations and the change was too sudden. He was tall, spare of flesh and 
very dignified, and had a prominent Roman nose between very high 
cheek-bones. He had far more influence in tribal matters than his 
elder brother, Hard Chief. At his death, his nephew, Fool Chief the 
Younger, took his place and became head chief of the tribe, but lost the 
position by an unworthy act — killing a brave without cause, and canit 
very near to suffering the death penalty. He was tried by the triDe 
and only saved himself by paying as a fine a number of ponies, blankets, 
robes and other valuables, and assigning his annuity for a time; all of 
which went to the mourning widow, who at last was appeased and went 
away rejoicing with the -abundance of her possessions. This incident 
took much from the former prestige of this chief and soured his later 
years. While most of the Kansas chiefs had several wives, he had but 
two. His second wife was his by custom, being his deceased brother's 
wife. His real wife was long considered the beauty of the tribe, 
which did not have many handsome squaws. She was noted for her 
intelligent coimtenanee, was tall, of fine physique and a rich dresser. 
Her family did not belong to that village, but he stole her by a shrewd 
and sensational elopement from the neighboring village nearer Council 
Grove. Fool Chief went to the Territory with the tribe, and was the 
last of the "Fool" chiefs, as the name died with him. 

A Chiep Who Was a Warrior. 

Peg-gah-hosh-she was the firet chief to rule at Big John village. 
He was a brother of Hard Chief and Speckled Eye, and one of the three 
big chiefs who came with the tribe from their home on the Kaw. He 
belonged to the old d.^-nasty, the old crowd, and was a man of much force, 
stubborn and set in his iiiling. Of the three chiefs he was considered 
the most skilled and trusted warrior of the three brothers. He died 
about 1870, and was succeeded by his nephew, Wah-ti-an-ga, a son of 
Speckled Eye. 

Wah-ti-an-ga was a cimning and rather tricky fellow, and was given 
to the use of liquor, much to his disgrace and the safety of those around 
him. Under one of these spells caused by pie-ge-ne (whisky) he fol- 
lowed Mr. Huffaker around all one afternoon, .seeming to want to keep 


right at his side. Mr. Huffaker suspieioned nothing, but a friend 
by the name of Ching-gah-was-see (Handsome Bird) did a handsome 
thing by watching his chance and telling ilr. Huffaker that the drunken 
chief had made his boasts that he would not leave town till he had taken 
the life of Tah-poo-skah, that being the Indian name of Mr. Huffaker, 
meaning teacher. Wah-ti-an-ga claimed that it would be a great deed 
to kill so important a personage. It wa.s fortunate that Handsome Bird 
informed him, for it is never safe to trust an Indian crazed or foolish 
with liquor, for sometimes they will kill their best friend. Wah-ti- 
an-ga was still a chief when the tribe went to the Territory, where he 
lived for a long time. Ching-gah-was-see was a good Indian and noted 
brave, and had the honor of ha\'ing a spring named for him. This 
spring is a few miles north of the city of Marion and is noted for its. 
medicinal qualities. 

At War With Their Brothers. 

The Kansas and Osages were of the same nation and their govern- 
ment, customs and language were almost similar,' yet these two tribes 
were almost constantl.v at war with each other from the time they were 
first known, until Captain Pike and Lieutenant Wilkinson brought them 
together on terms of peace. It was in a grand council held September 
28, 1806, at the village of the Pawnee Republic, in which the chiefs of 
the Kansas and Osages prepared the treaty of peace which follows : 

"In council held by the subscribers, at the village of the Pawnee Republic, 
appeared Wahonsongay with eight principal soldiers of the Kansas nation on the 
one part, and Shin-ga-wasa, a chief of the Osage nation, with four of the warriors 
of the Grand and Little Osage villages on the other part. After having smoked 
the pipe of peace and buried past animosities, they individually and jointly 
bound themselves in behalf of and for their respective nations to observe a friendly 
intercourse and keep a permanent peace, and mutually pledge themselves to use 
every influence to further the commands and wishes of their great father. We, 
therefore, American chiefs, do require of each nation a strict observance of the 
above treaty, as they value the good will of the great father, the President of 
the United States. Done at our council fire, at the Pawnee Republican village, 
the 28th day of September, 1806, and the thirty-first year of American Indepen- 

(Signed.) Z. M. PIKE. 


This treaty was never broken b.v either of the Indian nations. 
The common hostility of the Kansas and Osages was henceforth directed 
mainly to the Pawnees and marauding tribes that infested the west- 
ern plains. 

The Depredations op the Kansas. 

It was not many years after the visit of Captain Pike that the 
Kansas Indians made trouble for the traders and explorers who came 


among them. They caused mueh annoyance both to those who sought 
to pass up the ^Missouri river and those who desired to cross the plains, 
as Pike did, to the Rocky Mountains. Their depredations became 
serious. In 1819 they fired o^ an Indian agent and attacked and 
plundered soldiers attached to the command of Captain Martin, who was 
sent up the Missouri river with a detachment the preceding autumn 
and was obliged to camp and hunt on their ground during the winter. 
Major O 'Fallen, the Indian agent who had been attacked, to prevent 
a recurrence of troubles, summoned the chiefs and principal men of the 
Kansas nation to a council which was to be held on an island in the 
Missouri river near Atchison, August 18, 1819. The Indians were 
absent on a hunting expedition when a messenger arrived at their vil- 
lage on the Kansas river. But they appeared at the council which was 
held on the 24th of that month at the place designated. At this 
council were one hundi'ed aud sixty-one Kansas and thirteen Osages, 
inchuling Na-be-da-ba, or Long Neck, one of the principal chiefs of the 
Kansas. Ka-he-ga-wa-la-ning-na, Little Chief, was second in rank. 
Shen-ga-ne-ga, an ex-chief ; Wa-ha-chera, Big Knife, a war chief ; and 
Wom-pa-wa-ra, or White Plume, were among them. Ma.ior 'Fallen 
had with him the officers of the garrison and some of the members of 
Major Long's exploring expedition. He set forth plaiuly the griev- 
ances of the white men, telling of the Indian attacks and the depreda- 
tions. He convinced the Indians of the error of their ways. A 
promise of reconciliation and forgiveness was held out to them, condi- 
tioned on future good behavior. The chiefs recognized the justice of 
the charges against them and gladly they accepted the terms of peace. 
Then the old cannon belched forth a blast of powder and shell, flags 
were hoisted, and the Indians for once in their lives saw a military 
demonstration that caused them to sneak back to their village quaking 
with fear and resolved to be good Indians ever afterward. 

The Kansas Treaties. 

For more than two centuries explorers had been coming and going, 
but the Kansas Indians were not disturbed. The accjuisition by the 
United States of the Louisiana territory, however, meant a change of 
conditions along the banks of the Kansas river. The expeditions of 
Lewis and Clark, of Pike and of Long, gave the government at 
Washington some idea of the extent and value of the newly acquired 
territory. All the lands east of the Mississippi river were rapidly 
passing into the possession of the white people, and settlers then were 
beginning to cross the Mississippi river. 

A policy of removing the Indian tribes from the middle states to 
the territory west of the Mississippi river, to a country they could call 
their own, was adopted by the United States government. The Kansas 


Indians saw what was coming. Claiming to have been vietorions in 
their interminable wars with the Pawnees and entitled to the lands, they 
were ready to make treaties with the United States government for the 
sale of their lands. 

The first treaty was concluded in 1815 between Ninian Edwards 
and August Chouteau, conmiissioners for the United States, and certain 
chief.s and "warriors of the Kansas tribe. It was a treaty of peace in 
which the past was forgiven and friendly relations were established. 
The Indians accepted the assurance of the protection offered and swore 
allegiance to the United States. 

The treaty by which the Kansas Indians parted with a large part 
of their hunting grounds, however, was made June 3, 1825, in St. Louis. 
General Clarke, superintendent of Indian affairs, without previous au- 
thority of the government, but on the advice of Senator Thomas H. 
Benton of Missouri, concluded the treaty, which was duly ratified by 
the United States senate. The treaty described the lands that were 
sold in this language: "Beginning at the entrance of the Kansas river 
into the Missouri river ; thence north to the northwest corner of the 
state of Missouri ;thence westerly to the Nodaway river, thirty miles from 
its entrance into the Missouri river; thence to the entrance of the 
Nemeha into the Missouri river, and with that river (the Nemeha) to 
its source ; thence to the source of the Kansas river, leaving the old vil- 
lage of the Pania (Pawnee) Republic to the west; thence on the ridge 
dividing the waters of the Kansas river from those of the Arkansas, to 
the western boundary line of the state of Missouri ; and with that line 
thirty miles to the place of beginning. ' ' This treaty reserved for the 
use of the Kansas nation, a tract of land to begin twenty leagues up the 
Kansas river, and to include the village on that river. Here, a few 
miles west of North Topeka, they lived more than twenty years, receiv- 
ing their annuities from the United States, usually paid at the mouth 
of the Kansas river. 

Abandoned the Kansas River. 

On January 14, 1846, the Kansas Indians ceded to the United States 
"two million acres of land on the east part of their country embracing 
the entire width and ruiuiing west for ([uantity. " By this treaty they 
abandoned forever their home on the Kansas river. They then moved 
to a new reservation in the Neosho valley near Council Grove. Here 
they lived until 1873, when they departed for the Indian Territory, 
now Oklahoma. During their early history the Kansas were a power- 
ful tribe, both in nixmbers and in influence. But their race had run 
its course. Five years ago there w^ere fewer than two hundred of the 
Kansas Indians left, and of these less than one hundred were full bloods. 


The Beginning of A New Era. 

The Shawnees and the Delawares came to dwell in the lands that 
formerly were occupied by the Kansas tribe. The wars and conquests, 
victories, defeats and the romances of these two tribes fill many pages of 
the history of North America. They were much further advanced in 
civilization than were their predecessors who, when they moved away 
from Kansas, as Noble Prentis once wrote, "left nothing except mounds 
of earth, rings on the sod, fragments of pottery, rude weapons and ruder 
implements. ' ' 

The coming of the Delawares and Shawnees was the beginning of 
a new era. It was the beginning of Kansas. The Delawares were 
given the lands west of the ]\Iissouri river and on the north side of the 
Kansas river, the lands of the Shawnees were on the south side of the 
Kansas river, including the lower part of Wyandotte county and John- 
son county, reaching out into Kansas. 



Their Wars and Wanderings — Their Last Stand — The Death 
OP Tecumseh — Their Coming to Kansas — The Shawnee Prophet — 
The Great Chief, Blue Jacket — Captain Joseph Parks — Clung to 
Old Customs — Farewell to Kansas. 

Most remarkable in many particulars among the tribes of the North 
American Indians were the ShawTiees. They represented one of the 
eleven or twelve branches of the extensive and powerful Indian family, 
the Algonquins, which included also the Delewares, Ottawas, Miamis, 
Sacs and Foxes, Chippewas, Pattawatomies, Powhatans, Mohegaus, Nar- 
ragansetts, and Pequods, all speaking different languages. These Al- 
gonquin Indians, in the early period of American history, occupied the 
territory .stretching from New England west to the Mississippi river 
and south to the Gulf of Mexico. In the early part of the century 
preceding this one they were nearly all located in the territory lying of the Mississippi river. Their bitter foes, with whom they were 
in constant warfare, were the Iroquois or Five Tribes, embracing the 
Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas and Mohawks, to which after- 
wards was added a sixth tribe, the Tuscarawas.. The tribes of the 
Iroquois occupied Canada, Upper New York and the south shore of Lake 

Their Wars and Wanderings. 

The Shawnee-s were the most warlike of all the Algonquin tribes. 
From them sprang many of the most noted warriors and chiefs known 
in the annals of the North American Indians. From their wanderings 
through centuries and the difficulty of identification they seem to have 
had no fixed habitat. They were seen almost everywhere, always turn- 
ing up in unexpected places. Writers have referred to them as "Gyp- 
sies," or as "Bedouins of the American Wilderness." They were with 
the Delawares in the treaty with William Penn. Later they were driven 
westward across the Allegheny mountains by the fierce and relentless 
Iroquois. They wandered farther .south than any others of the Algon- 
quin tribes, venturing even to the Gulf of Mexico. Sometimes they were 
designated as "southerners." At another time they were found in the 



Ciuiiherlaml valley and along the Upper Savannah river in South Caro- 
lina. Toward the middle of the eighteenth century they were in Ohio, 
at war with the whites. First they aided the Freneh, but later the 
British won them over. Always they were warring against the white 
settlers who were coming to take their lands, their homes and their 
hunting grounds. 

Their Last St.\nd. 

Aroused to a frenzy by the "land greed" of the white settlers, as 
the Indians called it, and fii-ed with both real and fancied wrongs, only 
leaders were needed to caixse an uprising. And those leaders were 
found among the Shawnees. the great chief Tecumseh, and his brother, 
the Shawnee Prophet. Tecumseh, in 1805, planned the formation of a 
great confederacy of the tribes of Indians of the west and south that he 
hoped might be strong enough to resist further encroachments on the 
part of the white .settlers. At the same time the Prophet went among 
them, arousing their religious enthusiasm and appealing to their passions 
and prejudices by his mysterious charms and his sacred strings of beans, 
to forever put down the whites. The poison of British influence also 
was manifested and the Indians were found in full s.\nnpathy with the 
English against the Americans. On the morning of November 7, 1811, 
the Americans were fiercely attacked and many were massacred by the 
Indians assembled at Prophettown on the banks of the Wabash near the 
mouth of the Tippecanoe. In their savage hatred for the white settlers 
the mouths of those who were slain were stuffed with clay as evidence of 
the real cause of the Indians' displeasure. Governor Harrison, however 
([uickly rallied his forces of American soldiers and the Indians were com- 
pletely routed. 

The battle of Tippecanoe was the most important that ever took 
place on Indiana soil. Through the victory for the Americans, the 
future of the northwest was assured. The spirit of the confederacy 
of Indians was broken and the great scheme of Tecumseh was over- 
thrown. The warrior himself was absent at the time visiting tribes in 
the south. It is recorded that he became angry with his brother, the 
Prophet, for bringing on the engagement prematurely. 

The Death of Tecumseh. 

Filled with sorrow because his braves had thus been forced into 
battle before they were ready and realizing that his plans had been frus- 
trated. Tecumseh joined the British with his faitliful followers. In the 
battle of the Thames in Canada, October 5, 1813, not far from the city 
of Detroit, Tecumseh, "Shooting Star," as his name indicated, fell. 
And the most illustrious Indian statesman and warrior that ever battled 
for the rights of his people and for the lands they held dear, passed 
from the stage of action at the most dramatic period of American his 


The Shawnees were scattered like leaves of the forest before an 
autumn wand. No longer were they to hold out against the white set- 
tlers. One band, given lands by Baron de Carondelet, located in Mis- 
souri near Cape Girardeau. Only a remnant of the once great tribe 
remained in Ohio. 

Their Coming to Kansas. 

In 1825 the Missouri band of the Shawnees moved to Kansas, and 
six years later they were joined by the Ohio band. But always the 
Shawnees were seeking new homes. In 1854 a treaty was signed dis- 
posing of all their lands except 200,000 acres which was allotted to mem- 
bers of the tribe, and it was "move on" for the last time. The Shaw- 
nees that then found refuge in the Cherokee country in the Indian 
Territory, now Ohlahoma, had been reduced to a veiy small band. 

Descendants of a long line of mighty warriors, reaching back cen- 
turies almost to the time of Columbus, came to Kansas with the 
Shawnees. But the white man's civilization was at work among them. 
The fight was all gone out of them. One of their chiefs was Charles 
Blue Jacket, descended from the great Blue Jacket who with Little 
Turtle, the Miami chief, led the Indians against the whites in 1790 in 
the great uprising. 

The Shawnee Prophet. 

And then the Prophet, brother to the warrior 
Tecumseh, strangest of all strange characters in In- 
dian history. George Catlin, the artist, saw him here 
in Wyandotte county at Prophettown on the south 
side of the Kansas river, while making a tour of the 
Indian tribes. He painted the Prophet's picture and 
it now hangs in the famous Catlin Indian gallery. It 
is Catlin who gives us a clear insight into the charac- 
the SHAWNEE ter and personality of the Prophet and tells ils how, 
PROPHET. witli liis sacred string of beans, he tempted thoiLsands 

of warriors of other tribes to join his brother, Tecumseh, in a war for 
the extermination of the whites. The sketch appears in the Smithsonian 
Institution reports under date of July, 1885, and is as follows: 

" Ten-squat-a-way (The Open Door), called the Shawnee Prophet, is perhaps 
one of the most remarkable men who has flourished on these frontiers for some 
time past. This man is a brother of the famous Tecumseh, and quite equal in 
his medicines or mysteries to what his brother was in arms; he was blind in his 
left eye, and in his right hand he was holding his medicine fire and his saered 
string of beans in the other. With these mysteries he made his way through 
most of the northwestern tribes, enlisting warriors wherever he went to assist 
Tecumseh in effecting his great scheme of forming a confederacy of all the In- 


dians on the frontier to drive back the whites and defend the Indians' rights, 
which he told tliem could never in any other way be protected. His plan was 
certainly a correct one, if not a very great one, and his brother, the Prophet, 
exercised his astonishing influence in raising men for him to fight his battles and 
carry out his plans. For this purpose he started upon an embassy to various 
tribes on the upper Missouri, nearly all of which he visited with astonishing suc- 
cess; exhibiting his mystery fire, and using his .sacred string of beans, which every 
young man who was willing to go to war was to touch, thereby taking the solemn 
oath to start when called upon, and not to turn back. 

"In this most surprising manner this ingenious man entered the village of 
most of his inveterate enemies, and of others who had never heard of the name of 
his tribe, and maneuvered in so successful a way as to make his medicine a safe 
passport for him to all their villages; and also the means of enlisting in the 
different tribes some eight or ten thousand warriors, who had solemnly sworn 
to return with him on his way back and to assist in the wars that Tecumseh was 
to wage against the whites on the frontier. I found, on my visit to the Siou.v, 
to the Puncahs, to the Ricarres, and the Mandans, that he had been there, and 
even to the Blackfeet; and everywhere told them of the potency of his mysteries, 
and assured them that if the}' allowed the fire to go out in tlieir wigwams, it 
would prove fatal to them in every case. 

' ' He carried with him into every wigwam that he visited the image of a dead 
person of the size of life, which was made ingeniously of some light material, 
and always kept concealed under the bandages of thin white muslin cloths and 
not to be opened; of this he made great mystery, and got his recruits to swear 
by touching a sacred string of white beans, which he had attached to its neek or 
some other way secreted about it. In this way, by his extraordinary cunning. 
he had carried terror into the country as far as he went, and had actually enlisted 
some eight or ten thousand men, who were sworn to follow him home; and in a 
few days would have been on their way with him, had not a couple of his political 
enemies in his own tribe followed on his track, even to those remote tribes 
and defeated his plans by pronouncing him an imposter and all of his forms and 
plans an imposition upon them, which they would be fools to listen to. 

"1m this manner this great recruiting-officer was defeated in his plans for 
raising an army to fight his brother's battles; and to save his life he discharged 
his medicine as suddenly as possible, and secretly traveled his way home, over 
those vast regions, to his own tribe, where the death of Tecumseh and the oppo- 
sition of enemies killed all his splendid prospects and doomed him to live the rest 
of his days in silence and a sort of disgrace, like all men in Indian communities 
who pretend to great medicine, in any way, and fail, as they all think such failure 
an evidence of the displeasure of the Great Spirit, who always judges right. 

"This, no doubt, has been a very shrewd and influential man, but circumstances 
liave destroyed him, as they have many other great men before him; and he 
now lives respected, but silent and melancholy in his tribe. T conversed with him 
a great deal about his brother Tecumseh, of whom he spoke frankly, and seemingly 
with great pleasure; but of himself and his own great schemes he would say 
nothing. He told me that Tecumseh 's plans were to embody all the Indian tribes 
in a grand confederacy, from the province of Mexico to the Great Lakes, to unite 
their forces in an army that would be able to meet and drive back the white 
people, who were continually advancing on the Indian tribes and forcing them from 
from their lands towards the Rocky mountains; that Tecumseh was a great general, 
and that nothing but his premature death defeated his grand plan. 

"The Prophet possessed neither the talents nor the frankness of his brother. 
As a speaker he was fluent, smootli and plausible, and was pronounced by Governor 
Harrison the most graceful and accomplished orator he had seen amongst the In- 


dians; but he was sensual, cruel, weak and timid. He never spoke when Tecum- 
seh was present. At the council at Vincennes, in 1810, the Prophet stood unmoved 
while his brother Tecumseh objected to a former land treaty, saying: 'What! 
Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the clouds, and the great sea, as well as 
the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?' " 

IIow He Became a Prophet. 

The first mention in history of the Prophet was at the beginning of 
the nineteenth eentnrv, about 1808. The reservation in which he and 
his distinguished brother niled was a Mecca to which discontented red 
men made pilgrimages. By some means he had come into possession 
of astronomical predictions of the eclipses of that year. He boldly an- 
nounced the great eclipse of the sun that year, and offered to give the 
untutored Indians proof of his supernatural powers by bringing dark- 
ness over the earth at midday. "When the day and the hour arrived the 
eclipse occurred as foretold. The Prophet, standing in the gloom 
of darkness surrounded by his followers, who were stricken with fear, 
said to them: "Did I not prophesy truly? Behold darkness has 
shrouded the sun." The eclipse produced a strong impression on the 
minds of the Indians. It increased their belief in the sacred character 
(if the Prophet. 

The Prophet spent his last days in a house that stood on the side of 
tlie hill overlooking the beautiful valley of the Kansas river near the 
western part of the city of Argentine which now is a district of Kansas 
City, Kansas. The old man, ill and enfeebled, who had lived a life of 
seclusion after his charms had failed, desired not to be disturbed by the 
noise of the children in Prophettown. The Reverend Isaac JlcCoy, who 
went from the Shawnee Baptist mission visited lum .just before his death. 
Mr. McCoy writes: "I went accompanied by an interpreter who con- 
ducted me by a winding path through the woods till we descended a hill 
at the bottom of which, secluded apparently from all the world, was the 
Prophet's town. A few huts built in the ordinary Indian style consti- 
tuted the entire settlement. The house of the Prophet was not distin- 
guished at all from the others. A low portico, covered with bark, under 
which we were obliged to stoop in passing in, was erected before it, 
and a half starved dog greeted us with a growl as we entered. The 
interior of the house which was lighted only by a half open door showed 
at first view the taste of one who hated civilization. I involuntarily 
stopped for a minute to view in silence the spectacle of a man whose 
word was as a law to numerous tribes, now lying on a miserable pallet, 
d>ing in poverty, neglected by all but his own family. 'He that exalt- 
eth himself shall be abased.' I approached him. He drew aside his 
blanket and disclosed a form emaciated in the extreme, but the broad 
proportions of which indicated that it had once been the seat of great 

Vol. 1—3 


strength. His countenance was sunken and haggard, but appeared — it 
might have been a fancy — to exhibit something of the soul within. I 
thought I could discover, spite of the giiards of hypocrisy, something of 
the marks which pride, ambition and the workings of the dark, designing 
mind had stamped there. I inquired of him his symptoms, which he 
related particularly. I then proposed to do something for his relief. 
He replied that he was willing to submit to medical treatment, but just 
then was engaged in contemplation, or 'study,' as the interpreter called 
it, and he feared the operation of medicine might interfere with his 
train of reflection. He said his 'study' woidd continue three days 
longer, after which he would be glad to see me again. Accordingly, in 
three days I again repaired to his cabin, but it was too late. He was 
speechless, and evidently beyond the reach of human assistance. The 
same day he died." 

An unmarked grave on the side of the hill in Gibbs and Payne's 
addition to Argentine, now Kansas City, Kansas, near the old hoi;se in 
which he spent his last years in sorrow and remorse, is the final resting 
place of the Shawnee Prophet. It frequently has been sought, but in 
vain, by a few of the Prophet's descendants from the Indian Territory, 
now Oklahoma, who have adopted Prophet as the fainily name. Charles 
Blue Jacket, the last of the Shawnee chiefs to bear the name, located 
the grave in 1897, when he was induced by Mr. E. F. Ileisler, editor of 
the Weekly Sun in Kansas City, Kansas, to come from his home in the 
Indian Territory for that purpose. Chief Blue Jacket told stories and 
related incidents concerning the Prophet and the mysterious power he 
exercised over the Indians. The chief, then tottering with age, pointed 
out the place where stood the house in which the Prophet spent his last 
days and in which he died. A chill damp wind swept down the Kansas 
river valley on the day of that visit. Chief Blue Jacket returned to his 
people and died with pneumonia within a week. 

The Great Chief, Blue Jacket. 

An interesting sketch of the old chief Blue Jacket and his descend- 
ants was written, in 1877, by Thomas Larsh, of Ohio, a personal friend 
of the family and a mis.sionary among the Indians in the early part of 
the nineteenth century. A part of the information was supplied by 
Mrs. Sally Gore of Blue Jacket, Indian Territory, a daughter of the 
Reverend Charles Blue Jacket, the last chief to bear the illustrious 
name. It was published in the Kansas Historical Society's Collection, 
as follows: 



"It seems to have dropped out of the memory of the present generation of 
men, if indeed it was ever generally known, that Chief Blue Jacket was a white 
man. He was a Virginian by birth, one of a numerous family of brothers and 
sisters, many of whom settled in Ohio and Kentucky at an early day, and many 
descendants of whom still reside in this state (Ohio). His name was Marmaduke 
Van Swerangen. I cannot now recall the given name of his father, of the place 
of his nativity, except that it was in western Virginia. He had brothers, John, 
Vance, Thomas, Joseph, Steel and Charles, and one sister, Sarah, and perhaps more. 
Marmaduke was captured by the Shawnee Indians when out with a younger brother 



on a hunting e.xpedition, sometime during the Revolutionary war. He was about 
seventeen years of age when taken. He was a stout, healthy, well-developed, 
active youth, and became a model of manly activity, strength and symmetry when 
of full age. He and a younger brother were together when captured, and he 
agreed to go with his captors and become naturalized among them, provided they 
would allow his brother to return home in safety. This proposal was agreed to 
by his captors, and carried out in good faith by both parties. 

"\Vlien captured Marmaduke, or Duke as he was familiarly called, was dressed 
in a blue linsey blouse, or hunting-shirt, from which garment he took his Indian 
name of Blue Jacket. During his boyhood he had formed a strong taste or 
predilection for the free savage life as exemplified in the habits and customs of 
the wild American Indian, and frequently expressed his determination that when 
he attained manhood he would take up his abode with some Indian tribe. 

"I am not able to fix the exact date of this transaction except by approxi- 
mating it by reference to other events. It is traditionally understood that Mar- 
maduke was taken by the Indians about three years before the marriage of his 
sister, Sarah, who was the grandmother of the writer of this article, and she was 
married in the year 1781. Although we have no positive information of the fact, 


traditional or otherwise, yet it is believed that the band or tribe with which 
Blue Jacket took up his residence lived at that time on the Scioto river, somewhere 
between Chillicothe and Circleville. 

"After arriving at his new adopted home, Marmaduke, or Blue Jacket, entered 
with such alacrity and cheerfulness into all the habits, sports and labors of his 
associates that he soon became very popular among them. So much was this 
the case that before he was twenty-five years of age he was chosen chief of his 
tribe and as such took part iu all the councils and campaigns of his time. He took 
a wife of the Shawnees, and reared several children, but only one son. Tliis son 
was called Jim Blue Jacket, and was rather a dissipated, wild and reckless fellow, 
who was quite well known on upper Miami river during and after the War of 1812. 
He left a family of several children, sons and daughters, who are now living in 
Kansas, with one of whom, Charles Blue Jacket, the writer of this has long kept 
up a correspondence. 

"I first saw Charles at the time the Shawnee nation was removed from Ohio 
to Kansas under the conduct of the national government, in 1832. He is a well 
educated, intelligent and highly intellectual gentleman, and in all respects — feature, 
voice, contour and movement — except as to his darker color, is an exact facsimile 
of the Van Sweragens. Charles Blue Jacket has been a visitor at my home in 
Ohio not above eleven years ago, and exhibits all the attributes of a well-bred 
polished, self-possessed gentleman. 

"Chief Blue Jacket, Wet-yah-pih-ehr-selin-wah, commanded the allied Indian 
forces that were defeated by General Wayne in 1794. This defeat was so crushing 
that the Shawnees sued for peace and never aftrwards as a nation made war on 
the whites. His name is signed to the treaty of peace made with the United 
States by the Wyandottes, Delawares, Shawnees and others, in August, 179.5. 

"Chief Jim Blue Jacket was a friend of Tecumseh, and one of his bravest war- 
riors. He was in the battle of the Thames, in 1813, when his illustrious leader 
was slain. He was evidently a man of great bravery and ability, and had the 
full confidence and esteem of the great chief. 

"Charles Blue Jacket was born in what is now the state of Michigan, on the 
banks of the Huron river, in 1816. Late iu the }'ear 1832 he came with his people 
to their new home in what is now the state of Kansas. He was educated at a 
Quaker mission school before coming to Kansas. At an early daj' he was con- 
verted from heathenism to Christianity and united with the Methodist mission. 
During his long Kfe he was a faithful, consistent, and courageous Cliristian. No 
one ever knew a better or more honorable man. His brother Henry was also a 
member and an official in the Methodist church, but he died at an early age and 
there is little information concerning him. Charles Blue Jacket moved from Kan- 
sas to the Indian Territory in 1871, and died there October 29, 1897, aged eighty- 
one years. ' ' 

Captain Joseph Parks. 

This, the head Shawnee Indian ehief, was born iu 1792, probably 
in Michigan. He knew little of his parents, bnt according to his owti 
account he lived in the family of General Lewis Cass for some years. 
It was through the interest General Cass took in the boy that he ob- 
tained educational advantages not enjoyed by other youths of his tribe. 
General Cass used him as an interpreter when he was in the Indian serv- 
ice, and the office of tribal interpreter he filled for many years. 

In the spring of 1833 Captain Parks was commissioned by the 


United States government with the removal of the Ohio, or Hog Creek 
band, of the Shawnees to their new home in Kansas. He performed the 
work in a very satisfactory manner. During the Seminole war in 
Florida the government recruited two or more companies of Shawnees. 
Of one company Parks was made captain, and after serving through the 
campaign with distinction, he returned to his home with all of his men, 
only one of which was slightly wounded. 

Captain Parks was a man of culture and of general information 
He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and had 
been for a number of years. He died April 3, 1859, at the age of sixty- 
six years, and was buried in the Shawnee Indian cemetery near the old 
log church in Johnson county. A fine monument bearing Masonic em- 
blems marks his last resting place. At the time of his death he was a 
member of the Westport Masonic lodge. Captain Parks once told 
Joab Spencer, a Methodist missionai-y, that there was among the Indians 
an order almost similar to the Masonic order, with grips, signs and pass- 
word. But among the Indians the lodge selected its own members from 
the worthy young men of the tribe. Captain Parks had been thus 
selected for the order. He had no knowledge that he was to be a mem- 
ber until notified of his election. 

Captain Parks owned a fine body of land .just inside the Kansas 
line west of Westport,, on which he erected a spacious and attractive 
home. He was both wealthy and hospitable, and he freely entertained 
those who came that way. 

Among others of the Shawnees who won distinction for meritorious 
work in aid of civilizing and educating the tribe was Paschal Fish. He 
was a local preacher and his brother Charles was an interpreter. They 
would listen to sermons preached by the white men in the missions and 
translate them for those of the Indians who could not understand 

Clung to Old Customs. 

Although noted for courage and prowess and distinguished as war- 
riors the Shawnees did not follow the warpath so persistently as did the 
Delawares after they came to Kansas. Yet they pushed their forays 
out across the plains to the wast and the southwest more than a thousand 
miles. They were reluctant to give up their ancient customs, perhaps 
more so than any other tribe. Even in their semi-civilized state, with 
the Christian teachings of the early missionaries, they clung to many 
ideas of their primitive religion which originally was a form of sun- 
worship, and, like the Prophet, many of them even despised civilization. 

During the time of the occupancy of their Kansas lands only a few 
white men, aside from the missionary workers, came to live among the 
Shawnees, and they only because of some connection with the Indians; 


so they were practically left to enjoy their freedom. The earliest of 
these corners were the Chouteau brothers, three Frenchmen, who estab- 
lished trading posts among the Shawnees and Delawares in 1828 and 
1829. Samuel Conatzer came in 1844 and a nephew of Davy Crockett 
in 1847. At different times a few other white men drifted into their 
country, but it was not until the fifties that the tide of white emigration 
from the east began to flow in. 

Farewell to Kansas. 

But the reign of the Shawnees was soon to end. The emigration 
from the east and south in 1854 and the beginning of the struggle be- 
tween the Free State and Pro-slavery forces caused the Indians to dis- 
pose of their Kansas lands, except 200,000 acres divided among the indi- 
viduals of the tribe who desired to remain and who were so far advanced 
in civilization as to engage in the white man's method of farming. In 
1869 the remnant of the tribe moved to the Cherokee country in the 
Indian Territory. The old missions, famous as the first Christian edu- 
cational institutions in Kansas, were closed or converted into houses of 
worship for the white people. The Indiaus were gone, never to return. 



Their Wars on the Pawnees — As Irving Saw Them — Civiliza- 
tion's Advance Agents — Visited by Parkman — Not Given Alone to 
Fighting — The Delaware Chiefs — The Death op Chief Ketchum — 
The Last of a Noble Race — The Treaty of 1866. 

"William Penn found the Delaware Indians dwelling peacefully in 
the valley of the Delaware river, and their eoimeil fires blazed on the site 
of Philadelphia. He cultivated their acquaintance and purchased much 
of their lands. They called themselves Lenni Lenape (Original Men, 
of Pre-eminent Men.) The French called them Loups (wolves). 

In 1726 the Delawares refused to join the Iroquois in a war against 
the English. Finally they were driven west of the Allegheny moun- 
tains. That was the beginning of their migrations. Near the close 
of the Revolution a large number of the Delawares were massacred by 
Americans. The remnant of the tribe dwelt temporarily in Ohio, and 
in 1818 migrated to southwest Missouri, for twelve years occupying 
lands near Springfield and along the James Fork of White river. 

The coming of the Delawaras to Kansas was in 1829. Their new 
reservation, which they occupied for thirty-eight years, not only included 
nearly all of Wyandotte county but stretched beyond into Kansas with 
an outlet to the Rocky mountains. This was their dwelling place until 
1867 when they gave up their lands and went to the Indian Territory 
to live among the Cherokees. 

Their Wars on the Pawnees. 

At one time, when the Delawares refused to .join the Iroquois in a 
war against the English, they were stigmatized as "women," the infer- 
ence being; that they were too cowardly to fight. But that is not their 
record in Kansas. They indeed were quite warlike and it is wTitten 
that there was not one coward among them. From their reservation 
here at the mouth of the Kansas river they went out to war against all 
the tribes on the plains and even beyond the Rocky mountains. An 



instaiu-e which serves to illustrate their figrhting qualities is disclosed 
in the burning, in 1832, of the Great Pawnee village on the Republican 
river and of the exodus shortly after, of the remnant of the Pawnees 
to another reservation. Commenting on the Delawares William Elsey 
Connelley, the Kansas writer of history, says : ' ' Think of the audacity of 
this little nation of Delawares ! There could not have been then more 
than five hundred warriors in all the tribe — perhaps not so many. 
When Pike visited this Pawnee village and made the inhabitants haul 
down the Spanish flag and put the American flag in its place, he esti- 
mated tliat there were more than six thousand Pawnees living there, 
having more than two thousand warriors engaged with other tribe-s in 
fierce wars; and larger villages were not far away. But their famous 
village was burned. Pike or no Pike, flag or no flag, by these fierce child- 
ren of the Turtle, a portion of whom were living then in what is now 
Wyandotte county. The secretary of the State Historical Society has 
celebrated, on the site, the raising of the American flag on Kansas soil. 
He should inscribe on his monument, there erected, that the great vil- 
lage was destroyed by a little band of warriors living at the moutli of 
the Kansas river. Indian annals do not record the account of a more 
daring deed. ' ' 

As Irving Saw Them. 
Washington Irving gives an interesting account of the Delawares 
in writings of hi.s tour of the prairies in 1832. They were then widely 
scattered over the plains. Irving says : 

"The conversation this evening, among the old huntsmen, turned upon the 
Delaware tribe, one of whose encampments we had passed in the course of the 
day; and anecdotes were given of their prowess in war and dexterity in hunting. 
They used to be deadly foes of the Osages, who stood in great awe of their desperate 
valor, though they were apt to attribute it to a whimsical cause. 'Look at the 
Delawares,' would they say, 'dey got short leg — no can run — must stand and 
fight a great heap. ' In fact, the Delawares are rather short-legged, while the 
Osages are remarkable for length of limb. 

"The expeditions of the Delawares, whether war or hunting, are wide and 
fearless; a small band of them will penetrate far into these dangerous and hostile 
wilds, and will push their encampments even to the Rocky mountains. This daring 
temper may be in some measure encouraged by one of the superstitions of their 
creed. They believe that a guardian spirit, in the form of a great eagle, watches 
over them, hovering in the sky, far out of sight. Sometimes, when well pleased 
with them, he wheels down into the lower regions, and may be seen circling with 
widespread wings against the white clouds; at such times the seasons are propi- 
tious, the corn grows finely, and they have great success in hunting. Sometimes, 
however, he is angry, and then he vents his rage in the thunder, which is his 
voice, and the lightning, which is the flashing of his eye, and strikes dead the object 
of his displeasure. 

"The Delawares make sacrifices to this spirit, who occasionally lets drop a 


feather from his wing in token of satisfaction. These feathers render the wearer 
invisible, and invulnerable. Indeed, tlie Indians generally consider the feathers 
of the eagle possessed of occult and sovereign virtues. 

"At one time a party of Delawares, in the course of a bold excursion into 
the Pawnee hunting-grounds, were surrounded on one of the great plains, and nearly 
destroyed. The remnant took refuge on the summit of one of those isolated and 
conical hills which rise almost like artificial mounds, from the midst of the prairies. 
Here tlie chief warrior, driven almost to despair, sacrificed his horse to the tutelar 
spirit. Suddenly an enormous eagle, ru.shing down from the sky, bore off the 
victim in his talons, and mounting into the air, dropped a quill-feather from his 
wing. The chief caught it up with joy, bound it to his forehead, and, leading his 
followers down the hill, cut his way through the enemy with great slaughter, and 
without any one of his party receiving a wound. ' ' 

Civilization's Advance Agents. 

First among the advance agents of civilization to come into "Wyan 
dotte connty were the Chouteau brothers. Frenchmen, who bnilt trading 
honses in 1828 and 1829 among the Shawnees and Delawares. They 
were licensed traders. One of tlie agencies was on the south side of the 
Kansas river opposite the Indian village of Secondine, afterwards Mun- 
cie. It was conveniently located for handling the Indian trade from 
the trails that led out into Kansas territory, and later at the ferry where 
a military road crossed the Kansas river and led to Fort Leavenworth. 
It was at Seeondine, across the river from the Chouteau trading house, 
that IToses Grinter, the first white settler, establi.shed his residence. 
The Reverend Thomas Johnson, a Methodist missionary who established 
a mission school among the Shawnees in 1829, in May, 1832, crossed the 
Kansas river and established a j\Iethodist mission .school among the Dela- 
wares near the present village of White Church. He was followed, in 
1837, by the Reverend John G. Pratt, who established a Baptist mission 
among the Delawares which he conducted for many years. He printed 
hymn books in the language of the Indians and, like Mr. Johnson, was 
a powerfitl factor in the education and civilization of the Delawares. 

Visited By Parkman. 

Parkman, in his "Oregon Trail," gives us a glimpse of the Dela- 
wares, their Wyandotte county reservation and the military road as he 
saw them in 1846. He writes: "A military road led from this point 
(the Lower Delaware Crossing, at the lower end on Muncie bottom) 
to Port Leavenworth, and for many miles the farms and cabins of the 
Delawares were scattered at short intervals on either hand. The little 
rude structures of logs, erected iLsually on the borders of a tract of 
woods, made a picturesque feature in the landscape. But the scenery 
needed no foreign aid. Nature had done enough for it; and the alter- 
nation of rich green prairies and groves that stood in clusters, or lined 


the banks of the niimerous little streams, had all the softened and pol- 
ished beauty of a region that had been for centuries under the hand of 
man. At that early season, too, it was in the height of its freshness. 
The woods were flushed with the red buds of the maple; there were 
frequent flowering shrubs unknown in the east; and the green swells 
of the prairies were thickly studded with blossoms. 

"Encamping near a spring, by the side of a hill, we resumed our 
.iourney in the morning, and early in the afternoon were within a few 
miles of Port Leavenworth. The road crossed a stream densely bor- 
dered with trees, and running in the bottom of a deep woody hollow. 
We were about to descend into it when a wild and confused procession 
appeared, passing through the water below, and coming up the steep 
ascent towards us. We stopped to let them pass. They were Dela- 
wares, just returned from a hunting expedition. All, both men and 
women, were mounted on horseback, and drove along with them a con- 
siderable number of pack mules, laden with the furs they had taken, 
together with the buffalo robes, kettles, and other articles of their travel- 
ing equipment, which, as well as their clothing and weapons, had a worn 
and dingy look, as if they had seen hard service of late. At the rear 
of the party was an old man, who, as he came up, stopped his horse to 
speak to us. He rode a tough, shaggy pon.y, with mane and tail well 
knotted with burrs, and a rusty Spanish bit in its mouth, to which, by 
way of reins, was attached a string of rawhide. His saddle, robbed 
probably from a Mexican, had no covering, being merely a tree of the 
Spanish form, with a piece of grizzly-bear's skin laid over it, a pair of 
rude wooden stirrups attached, and, in the absence of girth, a thong of 
hide passing around the horse's belly. The rider's dark features and 
keen snaky eye were unequivocally Indian. He wore a buckskin frock, 
which, like his fringed leggings, was well polished and blackened by 
grease and long service, and an old handkerchief was tied around his 
head. Resting on the saddle before him lay his rifle, a weapon in the 
use of which the Delawares are skillful, though, from its weight, the 
distant prairie Indians are too lazy to carry it. 

" 'Who's your chief?' he immediately inquired. 

"Henry Chatillon pointed to us. The old Delaware fixed his 
eyes intently upon us for a moment, and then sententiously remarked, 
'No good! Too young!' With this flattering comment he left us and 
rode after his people. 

"This tribe, the Delawares, once the peaceful allies of William 
Penn, the tributaries of the conquering Iroquois, are now the most ad- 
venturous and dreaded warriors upon the prairies. They make war 
upon remote tribes, the very names of which were unknown to their 
fathers in their ancient seats in Pennsylvania, and they push these 
new quarrels with true Indian rancor, sending out their war parties as 
far as the Rocky mountains, and into the Mexican territories. Their 


neighbors and former confederates, the Shawuees, who are tolerable 
farmers, are in a prosperous condition ; but the Delawares dwindle every 
year, from the number of men lost in their warlike expeditions." 

Were Not Given Alone to Fighting. 

The Delawares, however, were not given alone to tightiug and hunt- 
ing, as after events disclosed. They were an intelligent people, and 
their dealings and associations with the whites during the years of their 
migrations enabled them to acquire ideas of civilization. Like others 
of the emigrant tribes from the east a large number had embraced the 
Christian religion. Not a few of the men were Free Masons. If they 
were brave warriors and good hunters when first they came to Kansas, 
they were industrious. Through the influence of the early Christian 
missionaries, the traders and the white settlers they, in time, became good 
farmers, and they had much to do with the development of agriculture 
and fruit culture in Wyandotte county. 

Major John G. Pratt, the Baptist missionary, was appointed by 
President Lincoln as agent for the Delawares. He was their trusted 
friend and counselor. One of his sons married a daughter of Charles 
Johnnyeake, one of the Delaware chiefs. Writing for Andreas' His- 
tory of Kansas, Major Pratt presents the following interesting account 
of the Delawares' sojourn of thirty-eight years in Kansas: "That part 
of Wyandotte county on the north side of the Kansas river was fii-st 
settled by the Delawares in 1829. They came from Ohio and brought 
with them a knowledge of agriculture, and many of them habits of indus- 
try. They opened farms, built houses and cut roads along the ridges 
and divides ; erected a frame church at what is now the village of White 
Church. The population of the Delaware tribe when it first settled in 
Kansas was about 1,000. It was afterwards reduced to 800. This 
was in conseciuence of contact with the wilder tribes, who were as hos- 
tile to the short-haired Indians as they were to the whites. Still the 
Delawares would venture out hunting buffalo and beaver, to be inevi- 
tably overcome and destroyed. Government finally forbade them leav- 
ing the reservation. The effect of this order was soon apparent in the 
steady increase of the tribe, so that when they removed, in 1867, they 
numbered 1,160." 

The Delaware Chiefs. 

Among the ruling chiefs of the Delawares while they were in Wyan- 
dotte county, were Captain John Ketchum, Captain Anderson, Charles 
Johnnyeake, James Secondine, James Connor and Captain John Con- 


Isaac Johnnycake (sometimes M'ritten Jour- 
neycake) was a brother of Chief Charles Johnny- 
eake. Isaac lived ten miles west of Wyandotte 
until the Delawares went to the Indian Territory 
in 1867. He, with twelve others, was employed in 
the forties by General John C. Fremont, the ' ' Path- 
finder," to pilot a party of explorers over the 
Rocky mountains. They became great friends and 
later when the war broke out Johnnycake organized 
CHIEF CHARLES a company of Delaware braves and joined General 
JOURNEYCAKE. Fremont. But when General Fremont was re- 
INDIAN PREACHER moved Johnnycake refused to tight under his suc- 
AND INTERPRETER cessor and disbanded his company and they went 
home. Isaac Johnnycake was assassinated in Indian Territory in 1885. 
Chief Charles Johnnycake lived at the edge of the timber where the 
prairie begins about fifteen miles west of Wyandotte. His place was 
a station on the stage line between Wyandotte and Leavenworth in 1858. 
Lewis Ketchum, brother to Chief Ketchum, lived in Wyandotte county 
several years after the Delawares went to the Indian Territory. 

The Death of Chief Ketchum. 

A pathetic incident of the Indian history of Wyandotte county was 
the death in August, 1857, of Captain John Ketchum, one of the most 
noted and best loved chiefs of the Delawares. It occurred only a few 
years before the departure of the Delawares from Kansas to the Indian 
Territory. The funeral was held at White Church, Wyandotte county, 
and the old settlers speak of it with reverence. A great sorrow befell 
the Indians and the whites as well, for not only was Captain Ketchum a 
good and kind chief, but he was also a preacher and spiritual adviser, 
a wise counsellor. The Indians came in their colored blankets, with 
painted faces, carrying their guns and mounted on their horses and 
ponies. As the procession slowly followed the body of the dead chief 
over the winding forest road to the burial place they seemed truly sor- 
rowful survivors of a once mighty tribe. 

The Last of a Noble Race. 

In singular contrast from the spectacular funeral in July, 1857, of 
the great Delaware chief, was a simple service at White Church in Jan- 
uary, 1911, for Mrs. Melinda Wilcoxen. Though of royal blood, a 
grandniece of Chief Ketchum, no brave warriors were there in paint and 
feathers and colored blankets to follow on their ponies the body as it 
was borne along the same road to the same old Indian burial ground not 
far from the site of the now vanished village of Secondine. Fifty-four 
years had wrought many changes, but not changed sorrow. 


Mrs. Wik'oxen was born on the Wyandotte county reservation in 
1830, the year after the Delawares came to Kansas, and was nearly 
eighty -one years old. When the Delawares departed from Kansas in 
1867 she was left behind. She was the wife of Rezin Wilcoxen, a white 
man, and clearly she saw that her duty was to remain with her husband. 
A few persons of Delaware Indian blood are yet living in Wyandotte 
county, but in the death of Mrs. Wilcoxen the last full blood is gone. 
Hers was one of the beautiful love n)mances of her people and her 
presence in White Church through all these year.s, kept alive the tales 
of folklore of the Delawares. And this is the story slie told a little 
more than one year before she died ; while she sat in her substantial old 
fashioned home on the Parallel road at White Church : 

' ' I was bom a few miles south of White Church, some time in 1830. I never 
knew the montli or the day. My mother's name was Aquam-dage-ocl<we. My 
father was killed during a hunt two months before my birth. When I was 
about ten years old the government agents started me in a school near where Stony 
Point now is. Father Stateler was the teacher, but I did not leani much English. 
In 1851 I was married to Rezin Wilcoxsen, a West Virginian, who ran a store 
for the American Fur Company at Secondine, now called Muncie, Kansas. The 
Delawares were very much opposed to intermarrying with the whites, but my 
aunt and two of my cousins had married white men and my mother eouldn 't ob- 
ject much. The chief of the tribe, Captain Ketchum, was a brother of my grand- 
mother, Eche-lango-na-ockwe. His Indian name was Tah-lee-a-ockwe, and sig- 
nified to 'grab them' or 'catch them' and the whites called him 'Ketchum.' I 
had no brothers or sisters, but had six half brothers, and three half sisters. 

' ' I was happy with my white husband until a year or two after we were mar- 
ried, when the government moved the Delawares to the Indian Territory. All of 
my friends and loved ones went away then, and I was sad and cried many days. 
I wanted to go too, but I had to stay with my husband. Finally, however, I 
became contented and my husband used to send me on frequent visits to my people 
in tlie territory. We owned a farm near Secondine, but when the survey of lands 
of the Wyandot Indians was made, in 1866, it was found that we were on their 
land, and we moved north and settled in our present home in 1867. 

"We built our home in the early '80s, and here we raised our children. We 
had five children. My laisband died in 1890, and now all of my children are 
married, or dead, and I am left alone." 

While Mrs. Wilcoxen spoke English fluently, she constantly de- 
plored the fact that no one is left who speaks her language. She did 
not teach her children Delaware, because she said she thought as all 
her people had moved away, they would have no use for it. For almost 
all of their lives Mrs. Wilcoxen and her cousin, Kate Grinter, a quarter- 
blood Delaware Indian who died three years ago, attended the South 
Methodist church at White Church. The Sunday school children used 
to stand around in interested groups and listen to them converse in their 
beautiful Delaware tongue. But after Kate was gone Mrs. Wilcoxen 
had to croon to herself the accents of her 'dead' language. She used to 
go too into Kansas City, Kansas, to the home of Mrs. William Honeywell, 


a widow living at 1925 Hallofk street, and talk with her iu the Delaware 
tongue. But Mrs. Honeywell became deaf and could no longer converse. 
"They are all gone," Mrs. Wilcoxen said, as she looked longingly 
at the setting sun. "I am sorry. I can say my thoughts so much 
better in my own Delaware, but maybe some da.y I '11 see my baby again, 
and then we'll talk together of sunsets and rivers in our own language." 

The Treaty op 1866. 

By a treaty with the Delawares, dated June 4, 1866, the secretary 
of the interior was authorized to sell what then remained imsold of the 
Delaware lands in Wyandotte county to the Missouri Railroad Company, 
at not less than two dollars and fifty cents per acre. Accordingly, by 
the terms of the treaty, in order to vest every holder of the real estate 
vpith a title from the government, all the lands were deeded in trust to 
Alexander Colwell, and he gave a deed to each Indian holding an allot- 
ment under the treaty of 1860. The lands then remaining unsold and 
unoccupied were sold at two and one-half dollars per acre to the railroad 
syndicate, consisting of Tom Scott, of Pennsylvania ; Thomas Price, Len 
T. Smith, Alex Colwell, Oliver A. Hart and others, to the number of 
thirteen. These lands then came into the market, and the settlement of 
that part of the county really began. 



The Shawnee Methodist Mission — Where the Legislature Met 
— The Mission Graveyard — The Shawnee Baptist Mission — A News- 
paper FOR the Indians — A Visit to the Missions — The Shawnee 
Quaker Mission — Social Life About the Missions — Delaware Metho- 
dist Mission — Delaware Baptist Mission. 

The greatest forces for the civilization of the Indians in Kansas 
were those Christian missionaries who. forsaking homes and friends and 
social ties, came out into the Indian country to live among the red men 
and to labor for their spiritual and temporal welfare. In this great work 
Protestants and Catholics were engaged. The story of their hardships, 
privations and sacrifices forms one of the most fascinating chapters of 
the annals of Kansas. It has been eighty-two yearsl since the first 
of these missionaries came. There are to be seen, even to this day, many 
of the old landmarks and relics left behind to tell of these devout men 
and women who worked so well and faithfully, and the missions they es- 
tabli.shed, but the monuments they builded were the imperishable records 
of their achievements in the cause of religion and civilization. There 
were three of these old missions located among the Shawnees on the 
south side of the Kansas river almost on the line between Wyandotte 
and Jolmson counties — Methodist, Baptist and Quaker — and until the 
time when the Indians left Kansas they had an important part in the 
early history of Kansas. 

The Shawnee Methodist Mission. 

The Shawnee Indian mission was the most ambitious attempt of any 
Protestant church in the early times to care for the Indians of Kansas. 
In 1828 what was called the Pish band of Shawnee Indians was moved 
by the government from Ohio to Wyandotte county, Kansas. They were 
under the leadership of the Prophet, the brother of the great Tecumseh, 
who made his home near the spot where the town of Turner now 
stands. The following year the Reverend Thomas Johnson, a member 
of the Missouri conference of the Methodist church, followed the In- 
dians to Turner, built a log house on the hill south of the Kansas river 



and began working- among the red men as a missionary. In 1832 the 
rest of the Shawnee Indians from Ohio rejoined their tribe in Kansas. 
The government allotted them a large reservation of the best land in 
eastern Kansas. 

The Reverend Thomas Johnson, in 1836, induced the general con- 
ference of his church to vote seventy-five thousand dollars to establish 
an Indian Manual Labor School, and the government at Washington 
granted 2,240 acre.s of the finest land for hLs Indian mission. The mis- 
sionary set to work at once to put up his buildings. There were no 
brick kilns and no saw mills near at hand. All the lumber had to be 
shipped from Cincinnati, and all the bricks came from St. Louis. Four 
brick buildings were finished in 1839. The main building was thirty 
by one hundred and ten feet and was used as a chapel and school house. 
The second building contained more school rooms and some dormitories. 
In the third building lived the superintendent of the mission and the 
teachers of the school. The fourth building was used as a school. 

The nii.ssion grew rapidly, for Mr. Johnson was a great manager. 
Log houses and shops went vip all over the place. Blacksmith shops, 
a brick yard and a saw mill, a grist mill and trade shops were added to 
the mission. The Indian girls were taught trades. Indians crowded 
the school rooms and traders for California passed along the road. The 
mission was a busy and thriving place. 

Thomas Johnson was a member of the Missouri Methodist confer- 
ence; he sympathized with the south when the troubles over slavery 
arose, and gradually the mission became a gathering place for southern 
sympathizers. When the territorial legislature met at Pawnee on 
July 2, 1855, at the order of Governor Reeder in a stone building erected 
for its use, it unseated the free state members, seated the pro-slavery men 
instead, and then passed a bill "to remove the capital temporarily to 
Shawnee Manual Labor School." It did this because the Shawnee mis- 
sion was well known as a center of pro-slavery sympathy. 

Where the Legislature Met. 

The legislature met in the principal one of the Shawnee school build- 
ings. In this building the legislature passed laws so stringent that they 
called forth the hot indigTiation of the free state men. Governor 
Reeder informed the body that it had no right to be in session where it 
was, and that its acts were all illegal. The legislature paid little atten- 
tion to him, but continued to pass bills. It copied the laws of Missouri, 
except those that referred to slavery. One of the laws it passed was 
that a man who kidnapped a negro and sold him into slavery should 
be imprisoned for two years. On the other hand, it passed a law that 
a man who helped a negro escaped fi'om slavery should be hanged. ,\ 
man who refused to comply with the fugitive slave law should be dis- 


franehised. The newspaper that spoke against slavery should be sup- 
pressed and its editor punished. Of course, these laws were not legally 
enforced. The questionable procedure of the legislature gave it the nick- 
name of the "bogus" legislature, and it is still known under that title. 
The Reverend Thomas Johnson was an advocate of the passage of these 
laws. He was president of the council, which was the upper house of 
the legislature. 

The old building with the white posts on the north side of the road 
has been entirely remodeled inside, and the room where the "bogus" 
legislature met no longer exists. But the outward appearance of the 
place remains the same. In front of it is one of the most picturesque, 
old fashioned yards to be found in the state. The trees, the shnibbery 
and the shape of the yard are all old fashioned. It is not well kept, 
but there is something about it very quaint and sweet. Up from the 
gate to the wide porch that runs along the entire side of the building 
is a walk made of stone slabs. It is there still, though the thousands of 
feet that have trod its stones have worn down the sharp points. It was 
laid when the house was built. Many moceasined feet, and many feet 
shod with boots and shoes, and some unshod, have passed over it in the 
seventy-five years of its existence. 

When the war troubles made a visitation in the Methodist church 
and the Missouri conference was compelled to abandon the Shawnee mis- 
sion, it found that, although the government had granted the land to the 
church, the title had somehow been made out in the Reverend Mr. John- 
son's name. So Mr. Johnson possessed himself of all the mission 
grounds and divided it among his children before his death. He was 
shot in 1865 by bushwhackers — wantonly shot down at his front dooi. 
His body was buried in the old mission cemetery at the top of the hill 
southeast of the mission building. You may find the place by the 
clump of evergreens and other trees that mark it. 

The Mission Graveyard. 

It stands on the top of the hill. Inclosed in a stone wall which 
Joseph Wornall and Alexander Johnson put up about eighteen years 
ago are the graves of the Reverend Thomas Johnson, his wife, brother 
and seven children, and members of the Wornall family. Outside the 
wall are other graves, some marked and some unmarked. Many of the 
stone and marble slabs that once marked the graves have toppled over 
and are being fast buried beneath the soil. Among the graves outside 
the wall is that of Mrs. J. C. Berryman, whose husband was superin- 
tendent of the mission in 184.3. 

Among the graves the one of Thomas Johnson is the most conspic- 
uous. It is marked b,v a marble shaft which was put up by the family 
shortly after the war and which boars this inscription : 

Vol. 1—4 


Reverend Thomas Johnson. 

The Devoted Indian Missionary, 

Born, July 11, 1802. 

Died, .January 2, 1865. 

He built his own monument, which shall 

stand in peerless beauty long after 

this marble has crumbled 

into dust, 

a monument of good works. 

The Shawnee Baptist Mission. 

The Reverend Jotham Meeker. desigTiated by the Indian.s as "He 
that Speaketh Good Words,' after working among the Ottawas and 
Chippewa.s in Michigan, came out in 1833 and founded the first Baptist 
mission among the Shawnees. He brought with him a printing outfit 
for the printing of hymns in the language of the Indians. The old 
"Baptist Mission Press" became famous, a.s from it was issued the first 
newspaper in Kansas. Mr. Meeker, having started the mission work, 
was relieved in 1837 by the Reverend John G. Pratt, who was sent by 
the American Foreign Missionary Society. IMr. Meeker tlien piLshed 
his way farther out into the wilderness and established a Baptist mission 
near Ottawa. There he spent the remainder of his life in this noble 
cause, dying in 1854. 

Associated with Mr. Pratt in the mis.sion was Dr. Johnston Lyldns, 
who was superintendent of the mi.ssion. The two labored together for 
the religious and spiritual uplift of the Indians. The mission was lo- 
cated a few miles south of the Kansas river from the Missouri line. 
An alphabet was invented, and a number of elementary books were writ- 
ten and published for the Shawnee and other tribes. Mr. Pratt had 
charge of the printing press, and not only published books of his own, 
but also for other missions. 

A Newspaper for the Indians. 

It wa,s during the administration of Mr. Pratt that the Siwinowe 
Krsibwi, or Shawnre Light or Hvn, made its first appearance. Un- 
doubtedly it was the first newspaper to be printed in Kansas. A copy 
of the paper is in the possession of E. P. Heisler, editor of the Weekly 
Siin of Kansas City, Kansas. It was given him by Chief Blue Jacket, 
who found it between the leaves of a Bible in the hut of an Indian who 
died in 1897 in Oklahoma. The title page reads as follows : 

Siwinowe Kesibwi. 

Palako Wahostata Nakote Kesibo — Wiselibi — 1841. 

J. Lykins, editor, November, 1841. 

Baptist Mission Press. 


On one side of this old paper is the autograph of Charles Blue 
Jacket in pencil. On the other side is that of Electa Abrims, onee a 
servant girl for Major John G. Pratt. The paper is about eight by ten 
inches, printed on both sides. A paragraph reads: " Siewinoweakwa 
Nekiuat a Sa kimekipahe eawibokeace kekesibomwi owanoke neketasbi- 
tolapso kwakwekeophe Keakowaselapwopwi nawakwa uoke wibanawakwa 
Skite ketalatimo lapwi howase lisimimowa cheno manwe laniwawewa 

Mr. Pratt was called to other missionary work in 1844 and was 
succeeded by Dr. Francis Barker, a missionary who, with his wife, came 
out from the east. The Barkers were in charge of the mission for many 
years and their teacliing iniule deep impressions on the minds of the 

A Visit to the Missions. 

In her book, "Kansas Interior and Exterior Life," Sarah T. D. 
Robinson tells of a visit, in 1855, to the Shawnee Baptist Mission while 
Dr. Francis Barker and his wife were conducting it. She says: "The 
mission is situated about a quarter of a mile from the great California 
road, four miles west from Westport, and about two from Reverend 
Thomas Johnson's Methodist Mission. After the road turns from the 
California road, it descends slightly, and for an eighth of a mile is 
skirted with timber upon either side. 

"We found Dr. Barker's family most hospitable and pleasant, and 
appreciated thankfully the prospect of a quiet resting place for a few 
weeks after this long, wearisome journey. How cheerful the fire beamed 
a welcome, and how genial its heat after such a chilly ride ! The great 
logs were rolled into the huge fireplace, and burned and crackled until 
every corner of the room was as light as day. Supper being over, we 
were soon in dreamland; friends we had left were around us; the 'loved 
and lost' were near. 

' ' One glance at the room was sufficient to show that our host was not 
born in this western land. Books, pamphlets, pictures, vases, etc., were 
on all the tables, walls, and everywhere. Sixteen years ago they came 
to the west ; and Dr. Barker has worked indefatigably for the best good 
of the Shawnees. As minister, teacher and physician, he has labored for 
them; physical as well as spiritual good, through summer's heat and 
winter's cold, by day and night with unceasing effort." 

Of Dr. Barker and his work James Little, in a little volume, "What 
I Saw on the Old Santa Fe Trail," wrote: "Dr. Barker, the superin- 
tendent of the Baptist mission, was perhaps the first or earliest mission- 
ary in Kansas. He told me he had been there nearly forty years. The 
Jlission house .stood in a dense forest of timber. When it was built 
the Doctor said it stood on the open prairie. The timber had grown 


up after that. The Doctor took a great interest in teaching the Indians 
music. He said all Indians had a talent for music. I attended preach- 
ing several times there. An Indian interpreter stood by the Doctor's 
side. He was Cor-mop-pee. Barker would speak a sentence in English 
and Cor-mop-pee would repeat the same in Shawnee for the benefit of 
the old Indians who could not understand English. Doctor Barker 
translated a collection of old familiar hymns such as 'When I Can Read 
My Title Clear' and 'Amazing Grace.' They were arranged so the 
hymn on the left was in English and on the opposite page the h>Tnn was 
in Shawnee Indian." 

The Shawnee Quaker Mission. 

The friends, or Quakers, were the friends of the Indians. When the 
Ohio branch of Shawnees came to Kansas in 1832 the Quakers obtained 
permission from the government and sent a deputation to visit them at 
their new homes. By the report of that deputation it appears the Shaw- 
nees were located in a rich and healthy country, and well pleased with 
their change. The Indians received the deputation with gladness, man- 
ifesting gratitude for former labors to ameliorate their condition. 

In 1834 a donation of three hundred pounds was received from 
Friends of London yearly meeting, for the Christian instruction and 
civilization of the Shawnee Indians. The donation was accompanied 
by a communication expressing much sympathy with Friends in their 
good work, and a desire that a "meeting for worship might be estab- 

In 1835 the committees of the Maryland, Ohio and Indiana yearly 
meetings, met at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, and revised the "plan of opera- 
tions for the Christian institution and civilization of the Shawnee In- 
dians," which, being submitted to the secretary of war, was approved. 
A deputation was then sent to visit the Indians, to submit the plan to 
them, for approval. During the year 1836 the committees were engaged 
in erecting the necessary buildings and opening a farm. In 1837 
superintendents were employed, a school was opened and a meeting for 
worship was established. The superintendents were directed to have 
portions of the Holy Scripture read daily in the school and in the family, 
and to take particular care to instruct the Indian children in the doc- 
trines and precepts of the Gospel. 

A report of the work of the mission says: "From this time the com- 
mittee continued to labor among them with pretty good success for 
several years, the school numbering from fifteen to forty scholars, who 
were boarded, lodged and clothed at the expense of Friends. During 
this period many of the Indians built comfortable houses, opened farms 
and prepared to enjoy the comforts of civilized life. A considerable 
number of the Indians were brought under conviction, and embraced the 


doctrines of the Gospel, but no provision liavins: been made by our 
yearly meeting for their reception into membership with Friends they 
united themselves with the Baptist and Methodist churches. Some of 
the Shawnees, however, continued to attend Friend's meeting, and in 
1852 an Indian by the name of Kako ("a" as in "far"), not feeling at 
liberty to join either of these societies, made application to the committee 
and was finally received into membei-ship by Friends of Miami monthly 
meeting (Ohio), and during the remainder of his life his conduct and 
conversation were circumspect and exemplary. The closing scene of his 
life was rather remarkable. He had a large number of Indians col- 
lected, and was enabled to address them in a very feeling and impressive 
manner. His death was triumphant, exhibiting in a striking manner 
the power of faith." 

Social Life About the Missions. 

Eli Thayer was superintendent of the Quaker Mission in the early 
fifties. He had come out from Miami county, Ohio, bringing his wdfe 
and two children, a son and a daughter. Eli was an invalid and was 
seldom out of the house. Mrs. Thayer was an excellent Quaker woman 
and she was a mother to the Indian children. Elizabeth, the daughter, 
a lumdsome young woman, reflected much sunshine about the Mis.sion 
and the Indian girls all loved her for her kindness and goodness of 
heart. The boy, James, twelve years old, was a favorite with the Indians. 
The teacher was Richard Mendenhall, who had come from Plainfield, 
Indiana, with his wife, Sarah Ann, a plain, motherly Quaker woman, and 
their son Charles, who was ten years old and said "thee" and "thou." 
Cyrus Rogers, also from Plainfield, was the Mission farmer. 

One fine Sunday afternoon while James Little of Indiana was visit- 
ing at the mission after his trip across the plains, a party was made 
up for a vi.sit to the Chouteaus. The party included Rogers, Little, 
Elizabeth Thayer and four of the Indian girls. This stoi-y of the trip 
is told by Little: "The Chouteaus lived about two miles to the west. 
There were three brothers, all married to squaws. They were intelli- 
gent Frenchmen and owned slaves when Kansas was a territory. The 
girls were walking in a group a little ahead of us. CyiiLS said: 'Jim, 
I will walk with Elizabeth and you walk with one of the Indian girls.' 

"So I sprang forward and overtook them and offered my services 
to Mahala, as she was the most civilized one of them. It was a great 
surprise to her. She suddenly bucked, then I halted ; then she pitched 
forward, and I ran and caught up ; then she would dodge back and 
forth, and finally retreated back to the mission. I discovered I was 
not popular with the Indian girls. They never seemed to like me. The 
meanest thing they could say was to call me a white man. They thought 
the Quakers were a different tribe. I did not use the plain language. 


I told C>Tns that I would walk with Elizabeth and for him to walk 
with one of the girls. So he said he would make the attempt, but he did 
not have any better success than I. He had a terrible chase after one, 
and she got away and went back to the niission. So that only left 
us tM'o. Matters were not right. We did not know how to proceed 
but we held a council and it was decided that I should make another ad- 
vance. It was a forlorn hope, but I had orders and must not show 
cowardice; so I made another efiPort and completely failed. She would 
pitch out ahead of me and then .jump back behind me. and I woidd 
charge up to her side. She called me all sorts of names, some ,in 
Indian and some in English. One I remember was 'Skunk.' She 
went back to the mission, so that only left us one and we did not want 
to lose her, so concluded not to try to go witli her until we returned. 
We thought that certainly by the time we got liack we would have her 
civilized so we could go with her. 

"We fijially arrived at the Chouteau house and entered. We found 
two old s<|uaws sitting in the room and neither could speak a word of 
English, but they soon brought the two daughters in and they invited 
us into the Indian parlor. The house was a large, dtmble-room log house 
with a kitchen shedded to one side. The parlor was neatly furnished. 
The young ladies were educated at the Methodist Episcopal Mission, 
Sontli. They were rather good looking and reasonably intelligent, but 
i.duptcd the custom of white people and made themselves agreeable. 
We had a pleasant evening and remained (|uite a while. 

"When we started to return the Chouteau girls went a short distance 
with us. They then bade us good-bye and started to return to the 
house. By that time we reached the timber which extended to the 
Quaker Mission. So the time had now fully arrived to make an effort t(i 
break in on our only remaining wild Indian girl. We felt sure we 
had the cinch on her; she was a long distance from the mission. It 
was dark and the road was quite lonely and certainly she would accept 
an escort and be delighted with the opportunity. Taking all into 
consideration it gave me great confidence; so I approached her in as 
gentle a manner as possible and she started to run as fast as she could 
go, so I could not do anything but imn after her. When I would over- 
take her she would dodge to one side and run hack. I gave her several 
chances and she took to the brush, so she escaped from me and tlie last 
I heard of her she was making the brush crack so I gave up the chase. 
We never saw her any more and were afraid she would not be able to 
make her way back to the mission. We apjiroached, with fear and 
trembling. But when we got to the house Richard ^Mendenhall came out 
meeting us and said with great earnestness: 'Cyrus, what have you and 
James been doing to the Indian girls?' 

"We answered by saying that the ob.iect at the mission was to 
civilize them and teach them the customs of white ])co]de and we had 


only been giving them a lesson. He said they had been coming in one 
at a time ever since we started, and every one had told a bad story about 
how they had been treated. The one that got away and made her 
escape, had got in a long time before our arrival. 

"I found out later where we had made a mistake. We trespassea 
on Indian customs. The saying is, 'when you are in Rome do as Rome 
does. ' When a young buck Indian goes with a young squaw he either 
goes in front of her or behind her. It is bad manners to walk at her 
side. Indians while traveling on ponies always go single. It shows a 
lack of sociability, which Indians are much noted for." 

The Delaware Methodist Mission. 

The mission among the Delaware Indians was opened in 1832 by 
the Reverend William Johnson and the Reverend Thomas Markham, 
appointed by the Missouri Conference of the Methodist Episcopal church 
to take charge. Though the Delawares were advancing in agriculture 
and their fine prairie lands interspersed with timber were improved, 
they had but little culture. Many of the elder members of the tribe 
retained their ancient prejudices against Christianity and, in conse- 
quence, the membership of the Mission church was never large. But 
among them were some notable exceptions, such as Moses Grinter and 
family and the Ketchums who were as "the salt of the earth." 

The Mission was erected in 1832 near a spring in a beautiful grove, 
some of the trees of which are still standing. The church was about 
forty by sixty feet and the frame was black walnut. It stood on the 
high divide on the site of the present town of White Church, facing east. 
The church was painted white, thus giving the name to the old town, 
which is about in the center of Wyandotte county. It was destroyed 
by a tornado on May 11, 1886. A stone memorial church recently was 
erected on the site of the one destroyed, in which are memorial windows 
for those pioneer missionaries who gave their lives to this great work, 
and the list includes the names of many of these workers. After the 
inauguration of the mission and school by the Reverend William John- 
son and the Reverend Thomas B. Markham, E. T. Peery was in charge 
from 1833 to 1836 inclusive and afterwards at different times served 
five years. The Reverend Leamer B. Stateler, who came in 1837, served 
five consecutive years. M. J. Talbot and John Peery each remained one 
year. N. F. Shaler was sent to the mission eight years. Others who 
were connected ^^^th it were W. D. Collins, J. A. Cummings, J. Barker, 
N. M. Talbot, D. D. Doffelmeyer, B. H. Russell, the Reverend Nathan 
Scarrett for whom the Scarrett Bible Training School is named, and 
the Reverend Paschal Fish. 

In the early days a log parsonage was erected and a camp ground 
was laid out in which great camp meetings for the Indians were held. 


These camp meetings were ofteu visited by the bishop and presiding 
elders of the ehureh. The present Bishop, E. R. Ilendrix, who was at 
the head of the academic department of the Shawnee Manual Labor 
School, was one of the visiting preachers at the Delaware camp meetings. 
They were attended by Indians of various tribes, many coming in their 
blankets. Each tribe had its interpreters to follow the words of the 
preacher, or exhorter, and translate them into English. The two 
Ketchums, James and Charles, full-blood Delawares, were interpreters. 
Joab Spencer, one of the most powerfvil preachers of the period, once 
wrote: "Charles and James Ketchum have both interpreted for me. 
Charles interpreted a sermon for me at a Delaware camp meeting that 
resulted in from fifteen to twenty conversions. He was a notable Chris- 
tian character, such as Blue Jacket." 

Prominent among the Delawares was Charles Ketchum, for many 
years a preacher in th-e Methodist church. He was large and portly 
and of manly appearance. He was illiterate, but a man of good intellect 
and a fluent talker. In the separation troubles, in 1845, the Delawares 
went with their church to the southern branch. But Charles Ketchum 
adhered to the northern branch, built a chiirch himself and kept the 
little remnant of the flock together. He had a good form, yet he ac- 
cepted appointment regularly from the Kansas conference. 

James Ketchum, a brother of Charles, i-emained with the southern 
branch. He was born in 1819 and early became a Christian. He be- 
gan preaching in the Indian language at White Chui-ch. He also 
preached at Wyandotte, on occasion, to a portion of the Delawares after 
their removal to the Indian Territory. He was considered one of the 
most eloquent orators of the tribe. 

Lewis Ketchum, a brother of Charles and James, was still li\ing 
in 1903, ten miles south of Vinita, Indian Territory, nearly ninety 
years old and the oldest member of the tribe. 

The interpreters for the northern branch were Charles Ketchum, 
Paschal Fish and Isaac Johnnycake. Those for the southei-n branch 
were James Ketchum, Jacob Ketchum and Ben Love. Henry Tiblow 
was the United States interpreter. 

In 1844 the Delaware Indians made an agreement with J. C. Berry- 
man the superintendent, by which they devoted all of their school fund 
for the education of their children to the Shawnee Manual Labor School 
for a term of ten years. The indifference of the Delawares in the 
matter of sending their children to the school was later a great disap- 
pointment to the founder of that school, the Rev. Thomas Johnson. 

Tlu' Delawares were indifferent also about manual lal)or education. 
To encourage them the Methodist Missionary board erected a grist mill 
as a means of industrial education, but they allowed it to become a 
complete wreck ; and it was the only mill in the Indian country near. 


The Delaware Baptist Mission. 

After the Rev. John G. Pratt had labored among 

the Shawnees seven years he moved, in 1844, to a 

^ V^^^B -^ point four miles south of Fort Leavenworth where a 
^„ar ^ssa, band of Green Bay Indians had settled for a time. 
Mr. Pratt was waiting for the United States govern- 
ment to set apart some promised lands for their 
THE EEV. occupancy further south. He here preached to the 

JOHN G. PRATT. Indians, conducted a school, and continued the pub- 
PiONEER lishiug business. The Green Bays were cjuite intelli- 

MissiONAEY. gent, having originated near Stockbridge, Massachu- 
setts, and having come direct from Green Bay, Wisconsin, where they 
had already been partly civilized. The governor failed to make the 
promised allotment of land to them, they became discouraged ajid nearly 
all moved back to Wisconsin. Tlie mission work among the Green Bays 
was at an end. 

Mr. Pratt chose a location near White Church in Wyandotte county 
for his mission work among the Delawares. He here took charge of a 
boarding school for the Indians, built, furnished and sustained by the 
American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. The Delawares showed 
that much appreciation of educational advantages, that they requested 
the governor to set aside a certain part of their annuities for educational 
purposes, to the amount of twenty-five dollars per year for each pupil 
in school. This was to clothe, feed and furnish the pupil and sustain 
the teacher, leaving the deficiency, of course, to be furnished by the 
mission board. In this school was taught all the elementary branches 
of an English education, together with algebra, natural philosophy and 
some of the academic branches. 

The result of Mr. Pratt's large experience in teaching and preach- 
ing among the Indians is the opinion that if taken when young they are 
susceptible of a high degree of mental and moral culture. The small 
children were about as apt as white children of the same age, but after 
they become older, while not wanting in mental capacity, they have not 
the application necessary to insure rapid progress. Prom 1864 until 
1867, Mr. Pratt acted as United States Indian Agent for both the Dela- 
wares and Wyandots. He paid the Delawares for their land in Kan- 
sas, and removed them to the Cherokee Nation in 1867. Mr. Pratt 
devoted the remaining years of his life to farming and stock raising on 
his farm not I'ar from the old mission and school which, for so many 
years, he conducted. But even up to a few months before he died — in 
1895 — he preached occasionally and conducted a kind of home mis.sionary 
work on his own account. 

Mr. Pratt was born in Hingham, Massachusetts, September 9, 181^, 
a son of Ebenezer and Elizabeth Pratt. His father died when he was 
quite young and, when four years old, he went to live with his grand- 


father, Aaron Pratt, a sea captain living at Cohassett. At the age of 
fourteen, he entered an academy at South Reading, now called Wake- 
field, and attended there two years; then matriculated in Andover 
Seminary, entering the classical department. lie finished the entire 
course, theological included, and graduated in the fall of 1836. He was 
licensed, at Andover, to preach the gospel, and was immediately em- 
ployed by the Baptist Society, and sent to the Indian country. Mr. 
Pratt was widely known and universally esteemed for his many excellent 
qualities of mind and heart. He was a man of fine culture, and his 
wife was in every way fitted to be a companion of such a man. Their 
home in Delaware township near White Church was a model of neatness, 
taste and refinement. It was always open to the Indians. 



The Wyandots — Early History op the Nation — Romances and 
Folk Loee — Wyandots' Version op the Creation — Their Allegiance 
TO THE French — Their Wars at an End — Became a Civilized Nation. 

The Indian word was "Wyandot." The English added another 
"t" to the end and it became "Wyandott." Then the French tacked 
on a letter "e" and so it became " Wj'andotte." 

Three ways there are of spelling the name of the ancient Indian 
nation that gave its name to our county and to the village of the early 
days that grew into a city which afterwards lost its identity by merging 
itself into the metropolis of Kansas, known to the world as Kansas City, 
Kansas. It is the French version that generally is accepted by people 
of the twentieth century. Nobody ever thinks of writing it after the 
English fashion. But there are a few conscientious writers of history, 
quite a number of the old pioneei-s and many descendants of the Indians 
who cling to the simple old Indian way of spelling the name, because 
of its significance in the history of America, because of old associations, 
because of memories that make it dear. Are these not reasons, good 
and sufficient, for perpetuating forever the Indian name, "Wyandot?" 

The Wyandots. 

The Frenchmen in Canada preferred to call them Hurons and they 
were on earth when the shores of New England and Canada were first 
sighted by white men. They were a powerful nation more than two 
centuries before Kansas was on the map as a territory or state. They 
were a dominant factor in the wars along the shores of the Great Lakes 
for nearly one hundred years before the Declaration of Independence 
was framed. They were leaders in the great confederation of Indians 
that tried in vain to turn back the tide of immigration to their hunting 
grounds, and for many years they waged war against the Americans to 
make the Ohio river the boundary between the United States and 

The Wyandots were good warriors, and when they lost they knew 
how to be good quitters. They accepted the white man's civilization, 


discarded ancient customs, and embraced the teachings of the Christian 
missionaries. They became first and foremost among the civilized 
Indians of America. 

The coming of the Wyandots to tliis Kansas country, in 1843, 
brought an end to centuries of Indian savagery. Out of the chaotic 
conditions of the past came a new order of things. They built houses, 
erected churches and established schools. They welcomed the white 
settler, took him into partnership and founded an organized state of 

The Wyandots brought with them from Ohio a constitution and a 
stock of ideals of self-government founded on ideas of justice and equity. 
Here in Wyandotte coinity they set up the first territorial government 
Kansas and Nebraska ever had, and they picked a man from their coun- 
cil to act as governor. They were here at the framing of the Wyandotte 
constitution, and after they saw the job was finished they helped to adopt 
it and to bring Kansas into the Union as a state. 

As the Wyandots were leaders among the Indians of the east, so 
they became leaders of the people of the west when Kansas was in the 
making. Through all of the sixty-eight years that have passed since 
first they came, they, or their descendants, have helped in every stage of 
the development of Kansas, of Wyandotte county, of its cities and towns 
and of its people's interests. 

Truly the Wyandots, by their conduct and their achievements, 
present an example of a nation of Indians repaying, with interest many 
times compounded, every care bestowed on them, everj' effort made for 
their uplifting, by their pale face brothers and sisters. 

Now, only a little more than fifty years after this great and glorious 
Indian nation dissolved its tribal relations, the original name has come 
into disuse. Our county is called "Wyandotte"' the French way of 
spelling. The Indian name has been stricken from the charter of the 
city that grew up from the old Wyandot village. And with ruthless 
hand and an absence of feeling it is proposed to destroy the historic 
old Huron cemetery in the heart of Kansas City, Kansas, where are 
buried many of the greatest Indian statesmen' and civilians America 
has ever known. 

Early History op the Nation. 

The Wyandot Indians have a remarkable history. They were of 
northern origin, descended from a branch of the Iroquois. When 
fii-st discovered tlicir villages were along the St. Lawrence river in 
Ontario. Near them were the villages of the Senecas, with whom for 
many years they were closely allied and on terms of peace. Such 
relations, however, could not always exist among Indians. There was 
a falling out and the Senecas waged war against the Wyandots, and in 


this tlu'v were joined by others of the Five Tribes, as the Iroquois were 
known. The country formerly occupied by the Wyandots' ancestors 
was the north side of the St. Lawrence river down to Coon lake, and 
thence up the Utiwas. Their name for it was Cu-none-tot-tia. The 
Senecas occupied the opposite side of the river and the island on which 
Montreal now stands. The.v were both lar^e tribes, consisting of many 
thousands. They were blood i-elations, claiming each other as cousins. 

Joseph Badger, one of the early missionaries in Ohio, who won the 
confidence of the chiefs and influential men of the nation, relates this 
story of the falling out of the Wyandots and the Senecas, which led to 
an almost interminable war between the two tribes. A man of the 
Wyandots wanted a certain woman for his wife ; but she ob.jected, and 
said he was no warrior, he had never taken any scalps. To accomplish 
his ob.ject, he raised a small war party and in their scout fell upon a 
part.v of Seneca hiinters, killing and scalping a number of them. This 
procedure began a war between the two nations, which lasted more than 
a century, which they supposed was full.v a hundred winters before the 
French came to Quebec. They (the Wyandots) owned the.v were the 
first instigators in the war, and were generally beaten in the contest. 
Both tribes were greatly wasted in the war. They often made peace, 
but the first opportunity the Senecas could get an advantage against 
them they would destroy all they could — men, women and children. 
The Wyandots, finding they were in danger of becoming exterminated 
concluded to leave their country and go far to the west. With their 
canoes, the whole nation made their escape to the upper lakes and 
settled in the vicinity of Green Bay, in several villages; but, after a few 
years, the Senecas made up a war party and followed them to their 
new settlements; fell on one of their villages, killed a number, and 
retiirned. Through this long period they had no instruments but bows. 
arrows and the war-club. 

Soon after this the French came to Quebec, began trading with 
the Indians, and supplied them with firearms and utensils of various 
kinds. The Senecas, having been supplied with guns and learned the 
use of them, made out a second war party against the Wyandots; came 
upon them in the night, fired into their huts, and scared them exceed- 
ingly; they thought at first their enemies were armed with thunder and 
lightning. But the Senecas did not succeed as' well as the.v intended. 
After a few years they made out a third part.y, fell upon the W.yandot 
villages, and took them nearly all ; but it so happened at this time that 
nearly all the .young men of the village had gone to war with the Fox 
tribe, living on the Mississippi. 

Those few that escaped the massacre by the Senecas agreed to give 
up and go back with them and become one people, but requested of the 
Senecas to have two da.vs to collect what they had and make ready their 
canoes and .join them on the morning of the third day at a certain 


point, where they had gone to wait for them. ;iik1 hold a great dance 
tliroiigh the night. The Wyandots sent directly to the other villages 
which the Senecas had not disturbed and got all their old men and 
women, and such as could fight, to consult on what measures to take. 
They came to the conclusion to equip themselves in the best manner 
they could, and go down in perfect stillness so near the enemy as to 
hear them. They found them engaged in a dance and feasting on 
two Wyandot men they had killed and roasted, and as they danced they 
shouted their victory and told how good their "Wyandot beef" was. 
They continued their dance until the latter part of the night, and, being 
tired, they all laid down and soon fell into a sound sleep. 

A little before day the Wyandot party fell on them and cut them 
all off ; not one was left to carry back the tidings. This ended the war 
for a great number of years. Soon after this the Wyandots got guns 
from the French and began to grow formidable. The Indians who 
owned the country where they resided for a long time proposed to them 
to go back to their own country. They agreed to return, and, having 
prepared themselves as a war party, they returned — came back to where 
Detroit now stands, and agreed to settle in two villages — one at the 
place above mentioned, and the other where the British fort. Maiden, 
now .stands. 

But previous to making any .settlement tliey sent out in canoes 
the best war party they could, to go down the lake some distance, to 
see if there was an enemy on that side of the water. They went down 
to Long Point, landed, and sent three men across to see if they could 
make any discovery. They found a party of Senecas bending their around the point, and returned with the intelligence to their 
party. The head chief ordered his men in each canoe to strike fire, 
offer some of their tobacco to the Great Spirit, and prepare for action. 
The chief had his son, a small boy, with him. He covered the boy in 
the bottom of the canoe. He determined to fight his enemy on the water. 
They put out into the open lake; the Senecas came on. Both parties 
took the best advantage they could, and fought with the determination 
to conquer or sink in the lake. At length the Wyandots saw the last 
man fall in the Seneca party ; but they had lost a great number of their 
own men, and were so woiinded and cut to pieces that they could take 
no advantage of the victory, but were only able to gain the shore as 
soon as po.ssible and leave the enemy's canoes to float or sink among the 
waves. This ended forever the long war between the two tribes. 

The Romances and Folk Lore op the Wyandots. 

This story of their origin and the folk lore of the Wyandots, was 
once told to the writer by William ELsey Connelley. The tribe of the 
Wyandots was divided into twelve great clans, each of which bore the 


name of some animal or bird, by which it was always known. These 
clans were called the Snake, the Deer, the Bear, the Porcupine, the Wolf, 
the Beaver, the Hawk, the Big Turtle, the Little Turtle, the Prairie 
Turtle, the JInd Turtle and the Striped Turtle. Of these, however, now 
remain only the Snake, Deer, Bear, Porcupine, Wolf, Big Turtle and 
Little Turtle. The others have become extinct. The clan was a great 
family, and a woman stood at the head of it. Men and women of a certain 
clan were considered brothers and sisters and marriage was prohibited 
within the clan. When a warrior took unto himself a spouse he retained 
his clanship, but the pappooses Ijecame members of the mother's clan. 
The head chieftain of the whole tribe was inherent with the Deer clan 
until the death of Long Bark, sometimes called Half King, in 1788. He 
was succeeded by Tarhee of the Porcupine clan, knowi also as the Crane, 
and a celebrated Indian of his time. The chieftainship of the tribe 
continued with the Porcupines until it became elective. The Wolf 
clan was the mediator and counselor of the tribe. It was a supreme 
court of the nation and from its decisions in clan counsel there was no 
appeal. When two clans got into a difficulty which the.y could not 
settle between themselves, the Wolf clan was called upon to decide, and 
all the other clans were sworn to support the decision. 

The language of the Wyandots is rich in folk lore, which was 
handed down from father to son. They had no written language and 
all records extant are in the English language. In language and folk 
lore the decadence has been more marked during that time than before. 
Information on these sul).iects easily obtainable ten years ago cannot 
be secured from any of the Wyandots. Connelley said that he had 
been actuated in his work solely by a desire to preserve the beautiful 
language and folk lore of tliis interesting people, now so rapidly passing 
away. "My work has been in the interest of science," he said, "and 
from a desire to preserve the true history of a brave and one of the 
most intelligent of the American races." Mr. Connelly has done some 
work for the bureau of ethnology at Washington on the language of the 
Wyandots and Shawnees. Among the folk lore stories he has written, 
as told him by old Wyandots, is that of the creation, or the genesis 
of the world, as the Wyandots believed it in the earliest times. Like 
all primitive people they tried to account for everything. The story 
is substantially as follows. 

The Wyandots' Version op the Creation. 

"In the beginning, the people were all Wyandots. They lived in 
Heaven. Hoo-wah-yooh-wah-neh, the Great Spirit or mighty chief, led 
them. His daughter, Yah-weh-noh, was a beautiful virgin. She be- 
came very ill and could not be cured. At last the chief medicine men 
of the tribe held a council. They said : 'Dig up the big apple tree that 


stands by the lodire of Ilooh-wah-yooli-wah-neh. Have the beautiful 
virgin laid on a bed of boughs near it, so that she can watch the work. 
She will then be cured.' 

"The strongest warriors of the tribe dug all around the roots of 
the tree, when lo ! it fell through. The spreading branches caught 
Yah-Weh-noh and carried her with the tree down through the hole it 
left. Below all was water. Two swans saw the beautiful maiden fall- 
ing. One of them said : ' I will catch her. ' The two swans then called 
a council of all the swammers and water tribes to decide what to do 
with the beautiful young woman. The turtle finally agreed that if 
some of the others would bring up from the bottom some earth and put 
it on his back he would carry the young woman. The earth was 
brought \ip and put on the turtle's back. Immediately a large island 
formed and became what is known as North America, which was to the 
Wyandots all the earth. The great turtle carried the island on his 
back. Occasionally lie became tired and tried to shift his great load, 
which caused the island to shake and vibrate. Yah-weh-noh, in wander- 
ing about the island, found an old woman in a hut. She stopped with 
her and twins were born to Yah-weh-noh. They were boys. One was 
good and the other was all that was bad. The good one was called 
Made-of-Fii-e. The bad one was known as Made-of-Flint. 

"When the boys grew to manhood they enlarged the island and 
agreed to people it with the things of the earth. They separated each 
to do half, according to his ideas of the fitness of things. Made-of-Fire 
made everything just as the Indians desired, for his heart was full of 
love. All the animals were Idnd and gentle and did not fear the 
Indians. Made-of-Flint, however, made the rough mountains and 
monster animals, and everything he made was abhorrent to the Indians' 
mind. When they had done, each, by agreement, inspected the other's 
work to modify it. Neither could completely destroy the other's 
creations. Each was dissatisfied with the other's work. ]Made-of-Firc 
because his brother's was all bad, and Made-of-Flint, because the other's 
was all good. Each changed the other's work as much as possible, 
which made all things have drawbacks as well as advantages. 

"Made-of-Flint put the evil spirit into the water so that it would 
drown the Indians. Made-of-Fire had made the water so that it was 
harmless. In all the rivers and creeks the current ran up-stream on 
one bank, and on the other side it ran in the opposite direction, so that 
the Indian would never have to paddle his canoe except from one side 
to the other. He would go one way as far as he desired, then paddle 
to the other side and float back. This arrangement appeared to be 
particularly distasteful to Made-of-Flint. It aroused him to great 
anger. He dashed his mighty hand into the water and rolled it, and 
mixed the currents, so that they ran with double swiftness and strength 
all one way, thereby making it great labor to paddle the canoe against 


the stream. Made-of-Fire also made the Indian corn-plant grow with- 
out cultivation, but his evil-minded brother changed this also and made 
it hard to cultivate and uncertain in coming to a head, thus entailing 
much work on the squaws. 

"After changing each other's works the brothers again met and 
agreed to people the world, each creating half of the people. Made- 
of-Fire, the good brother, created all Wyandots and no others, while he 
of the evil mind, created all other persons. 

"Made-of-Flint's people were so bad and overbearing, repeatedly 
breaking their agreements, that a great war broke out between them and 
the Wyandots. All the works created by the brothers were destroyed 
so that I\Iade-of-Fire was compelled to put all his people into a great 
cavern in Canada, while he re-created the works destroyed. He had to 
make them just as they were before the destruction. When he was 
through he returned to the cavern, but his people had to wait there a 
long time, until the sun had ripened the new world, and made it 
habitable. When it had ripened he went out through an opening, but 
the people had to burrow through the earth to get out, like the seven- 
teen-year locusts. After much trouble the Wyandots came out of the 
ground north of Quebec. They found Made-of-Pire there and some 
of the other people were there also." 

This story suggests many of the incidents of the Book of Genesis 
in the creation and destruction of the world. In it the Indian's love 
of idleness and his accounting for the cause of hard work are brought 
out plainly. 

Their Allegiance to the French. 

The Wyandots sided with the French until the close of Pontiac's 
unsuccessful war for the extermination of the English. When the 
territory so long occupied by France passed into the control of the 
English they were divided into elans, mere fragments of their once 
great and powerful nation, and were settled along the lakes in Ohio 
and Michigan and across the Detroit river in Canada. Their last head 
chief, Tooh-dah-reh-zook, who gave the confederacy of Indians its 
greatest power and influence in the War of the Revoh;tion, died in 
Detroit in 1788. No longer were the tribes of the Wyandots united 
as a nation. 

In the War of 1812 a few of the Wyandots in Michigan and on the 
Canadian side of the Detroit river supported the, but the Ohio 
clan refused to have a part in it. They maintained a strict neutrality, 
although their sympathies were with the Americans. That was a for- 
ward step for the Ohio Wyandots. 

Vol. 1—5 


Their Wars at an End. 

Weary and worn with the ware of more than two centuries, first 
with their brother red men. and later against tlie whites, they were 
ready to discard their weapons and devote themselves to the arts of 
peace. And ardently did the Wyandots apply themselves to this hig^h 
and noble purpose. At the close of the War of 1812 the majority of 
the Wyandots who had remained faithful to the United States moved 
to a reservation which was granted them on the waters of the upper 
Sandusky river in Wyandot (it is still spelled the old way) county, 
Ohio. This reservation soon became the center of Indian ci-\ilization, 
the influence of which was to extend to all the other Algonciuin and 
Iroquois tribes. 

The teachings of the early Jesuit missionaries had made lasting 
impressions on the Wyandots and many primitive religious ideas had 
been east aside. They were believers in a Great Spirit, a God of tht 
Forests, that ruled supreme. 

Then coumienced the labors of the missionaries of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. It is recorded that at Upper Sandusky, among the 
Wyandots, was established in 1817 the first Methodist mission in the 
world. Among the Indians at that time were some sincere Catholics 
who would not accept the Protestant version until William Walker had 
compared the two and pronounced them the same in effect. In 1819 
Dr. Charles Elliott was appointed by the Ohio conference as the first 
regular missionary of the Wyandots. He commenced reducing their 
language to writing. From that time, and as long as the Wyandots 
remained in Ohio, the conference sent men, many of them afterwards 
distinguished, to preach and to teach. In the long list appear the 
names of John C. Brooks, James Gilruth, Russell Biglow, Thomas 
Thompson, S. P. Shaw, S. M. Allen and James Wheeler, the latter 
assuming charge shortly before the Wyandots were to come to Kansas. 
Russell Biglow also was a presiding elder of the conference several years. 
Adam Poe, related to the poet, was a presiding elder in the time of the 

Became a Civilized Nation. 

The wives of the missionaries were good housekeepers and were 
motherly, refined women. Their influence had much weight in smooth- 
ing to a civilized plane the wild habits of the Indians. At first the 
women of the Wyandots rode their steeds in manly fashion, and the 
nation decked itself in all the flaming colors of semicivilized fashion. 
But in a few years feminine influence changed all. The Wyandot 
women were transformed into neat, intelligent and often well educated 
members of society. The men, with only a few exceptions, became 
industrious workmen, most of them farmers. 


Some of the Wyandots were noted for their refinement and elo- 
quence, especially in their chosen field of religion. Particularly was 
this true of ilanoncue, an hereditary chief. One writer says that Henry 
Clay, in attendance on the general Methodist conference, at Baltimore 
in 1824, after listening to Manoncue and observing his gestures and 
general bearing upon the platform, pronounced the Wyandot Indian 
the greatest orator in the United States His personal appearance was 
magnificent, and it is said those who were able to imderstand him, pro- 
nounced his eloquence of language equal to his impressive bearing. 

The Ohio reservation of the Wyandots, which was ten by twelve 
miles, was highly improved. It was estimated that previous to their 
departure for their lands, at the junction of the Missouri and Kansas 
rivers, over one hundred and twenty thousand dollars had been expended 
on the Upper Sandusky reservation. Colonel Kirby was appointed a 
eommis-sioner to appraise the value of the improvements on the part of 
the United States and Jolm Walker on the part of the Wyandot nation. 



Wyandots Purchase a Home from the Delaw^vres — Founded the 
Village of Wyandotte — Romances of Old Wyandot Families — The 
Heroism op Elizabeth Zane — Captain Pipe. 

The Wyandots b.v a treaty of 1842, sold their Ohio reservation to 
the United States and a few months later they sent forth emissaries to 
locate them on a new reservation in the promised land, on the banks of 
the Missouri river. Silas Armstrong and George I. Clark, with their fami- 
lies, and Jane Tillies, who had been reared in the Armstrong household, 
were the advance agents for the Wyandots. On his arrival Mr. Arm- 
strong established a trading store for the tribe at Westport. The 
young men of the tribe, led by Matthew Walker, bought horses and came 
overland. The rest of the tribe went to Cincinnati and engaged two 
steam-boats, one of which was the "Nodaway," and set out on the long 
journey down the Ohio river to Cairo, up the Mississippi to St. LouLs 
and thence up the Missouri river to Westport Landing. The long 
journey ended July 22, 1843. 

The Wyandot nation was originally divided into ten tribes, but soon 
after their migration to the west two of these tribes became extinct. 
Those who emigrated from LTpper Sandusky, about seven hundred in 
all, were governed by a council consisting of one head chief and six 
councilmen. At the time of their coming west, Francis A. Hicks was 
the head chief. 

Great disappointment spread among the Wyandots. No lands 
were open to them here, although by the terms of their Ohio treaty 
they had been promised one hundred and forty-eight thousand acres 
west of the Mississippi river. The Delawares were occupying the good 
lands on the north side of the Kansas river at its mouth, and the 
Shawnees were located on the south side of the river. So the Wyandots 
camped on a narrow strip of river bottom lying between the Missouri 
state line and the Kansas river, which now is a part of Kansas city, 
Kansas, and covered by a net work of railroad tracks and yards, packing 
houses, stock yards and manufactories. Tiiis strip of land had been 
reserved for a fort by the United States after the expedition of John T. 
Long. But when Colonel Henry Leavenworth came there in 1827 he 



found the land was too low for a fort. He passed on up the Missouri 
river and Cantonment Leavenworth — now known as Port Leavenworth — 
was established on the hill overlooking the Missouri valley above the 
site of the present city of that name. 

The Wyandots then realized that they must purchase lands from 
some of the tribes that had already mig'rated to the west. Wliile in 
Ohio they had made a treaty with the Shawnees, whose reservation was 
then a strip adjoining the state of Missouri along the south side of the 
Kansas river, a portion of which should have been given to the Wyandots. 
But the Shawnees repudiated their treaty. The Wyandots complained 
that when the Shawnees were homeless they, the Wyandots, had spread 
the deerskin for them to sit upon, and had given them a large tract of 
land ; and now, when the Wyandots were without a home, the Shawnees 
would not even sell them one. The Wyandots complained that it was 
base ingratitude. 

Purchase a Home From the Delavfares. 

The Wyandots at once tui-ned to the Delawares. The negotiations 
with them resulted in the immediate purchase of thirty-six sections of 
land, with three sections as a gift, all lying in the fork of the Missouri 
and Kansas rivers and extending west to a line that runs from near 
Muncie on the Kansas river due north to the Missouri river. For this 
land, a little less than twenty-tive thousand acres, the Wyandots paid 
approximately forty-eight thousand dollars. The agreement in writing 
between the Wyandots and Delawares, was dated December 14, 1843. 
It follows: 

"Whereas, from a long and intimate acquaintance and the ardent friend- 
ship which has for a great many years existed between the Delawares and the 
Wyandots, and from a mutual desire that the same feeling shall contiiuie and be 
more strengthened by becoming near neighbors to each other: Therefore, the said 
parties, the Delawares on one side, the Wyandots on the other, in full council 
assembled, have agreed, to the following stipulations, to- wit: 

"Article 1. The Delaware nation of Indians, residing between the Missouri 
and Kansas rivers, being very anxious to have their uncles, the Wyandots, to 
settle and reside near them, do hereby donate, grant, and quit-claim forever, to 
the Wyandot nation, three sections of land, containing six hundred and forty acres 
each, lying and being situated on the point of the junction of the Missouri and 
Kansas rivers. 

"Article 3. The Delaware chiefs, for themselves and by the unanimous con- 
sent of their people, do hereby cede, grant, quit-claim, to the Wyandot nation, and 
their heirs forever, thirty-six sections of land, each containing six hundred and 
forty acres, situated between the aforesaid Missouri and Kansas rivers and ad- 
joining on the west the aforesaid three donated sections, making in all thirty- 
nine sections of land, bounded as follows, viz: Commencing at the point at the 
junction of the aforesaid Missouri and Kansas rivers, running west along the 
Kansas river sufficiently far to include the aforesaid thirty-nine sections; thence 


ruMiiing iKiitli to the Missouri river; tlience down the said river witli tlie meanders 
to the place of beginning; to be surveyed in as near a square form as the rivers 
and territory ceded will admit of. 

"Article 3. In consideration of the foregoing donation and cession of land, 
the Wyandot chiefs bind themselves, successors in office and their people, to pay 
the Delaware nation of Indians forty-six thousand and eighty dollars as follows, 
viz: Six thousand and eighty dollars to be paid the year 1844, and four thousand 
dollars annually thereafter for ten years. 

"Article 4. It is hereby understood between the contracting parties that 
the aforesaid agreement shall not be binding or obligatory until the President of 
the United States shall have approved the same, and causes it to be recorded in 
the War Department. ' ' 

This treaty was not confirmed by the senate until 1848, and in a 
treaty of the same year (18-18) the Wyandots relinquished all claim to 
the one hundred and forty-eight thousand acres which was to have been 
given to them by the United States, according to the provisions of the 
treaty of 1842 ; and in consideration of this the government agreed to 
pay them the sum of one hundred and eighty-five thousand dollars. How- 
ever, the delay at Washington did not deter the Wyandots in their efforts 
to locate in their new home. In the month of October of that eventful 
year, 1843, the Wyandots abandoned the camp below the Kansas river 
and crossed over into their new lands. A feeling of sadness prevailed 
among them, for their stay of little more than two months had caused 
the deaths of sixty of their members by sickness. 

Pounded the Village of Wyandotte. 

The Wyandots, having at last reached the land of promise, at once 
began to provide themselves with comfortable homes and to improve 
their lands. Soon a village of cabins built of hewn logs, cut from the 
forest that covered these hills and valleys, sprang up here on the site 
of Kansas City, Kansas. The hitherto rude wilderness over which the 
Indians had roamed and perhaps fought many battles in the centuries 
gone by, soon was transformed into a community which bore evidence 
of civilization and refinement. A house was erected in which the 
Wyandots held their councils and in which John Mclntyre Armstrong 
began teaching the first school July 1, 1844, less than one year after 
their arrival from Ohio. And the Wyandots did not let a year pass 
before they had provided themselves with a house of worship, for they 
had brought with them from Ohio the organization of their Methodist 
mission, and out of it grew the Washington Boulevard ]\Iethodist Episco- 
pal church. 

John Mclntyre Armstrong is said to have been the first of the 
Wyandots to erect a dwelling, although he was only a few days in ad- 
vance of others in completing it. It was built of logs and stood about 
fifty yards northeast of what is now the intersection of Fifth street 


and Freeman avem;e. It was oeeupied by the Armstrong family imtil 
1847. A more imposing residence was built among forest trees on the 
sloping hillside about one hundred and fifty yards to the southwest 
of the Fifth street freight depot of the Kansas City-Northwestern Rail- 
road, and for many years it was the center of culture and religious 
influence. While John Mclntyre Armstrong was a man of education, 
his wife, Lucy B. Armstrong — the daughter of the Rev. Russell Biglow, 
one of the early Methodist missionary preachers in Ohio — was a Chris- 
tian woman of refinement and influence. 

Governor William Walker erected a dwelling on the north bank of 
Jersey creek about one hundred feet north of Sixth street and Virginia 
avenue. Adjoining it was a log building that was erected by the 
Delawares when they owned the lands and it had been used as a pay 
house in which the Delawares received their annuities from the agent 
of the United States. The two were joined together and afterwards 
improved by the man who was to become the provisional governor of 
the Nebraska territory. Writing of this historic old building and the 
great man who occupied it, William Elsey Connelly says: "From the 
beginning it was the center of culture and of the 'Indian Country.' 
Every traveler and scientific explorer made it a point to visit 'West 
Jersey,' as Governor Walker called his homestead, and enjoy the 
bounteous hospitality of its owner and sage. Here he gathered his 
books about him and led the ideal life of a gentleman of ample means 
and refined tastes, for twenty years. Such happiness and peace came 
to him here that when death invaded this delightful home and left him 
alone, he welcomed death for himself, and died of a broken heart. Of 
these sad days he wrote: 'Now I stand like a blasted oak in a desert, 
its top shivered by a bolt hurled from the armory of Jove, and I will say 

" 'Sweet vale of Wyandotte, how calm could I rest 
In thy bosom of shade with the friends I love best; 
When the storms which we feel in this cold world shall cease, 
Our hearts like thy waters shall mingle in peace. ' ' ' 

No greater man has ever lived in Kansas. He was the first man 
here who devoted himself to literary pursuits. No man can read the 
delightful journals left by him without being filled with aspirations for 
higher and nobler things — without being filled with a longing for the 
simple, beautiful life with books and singing birds and rolling woods. 

Governor Walker, among strangers, would be taken for a full white 
man. He was educated, had been a postmaster in Ohio, and wrote 
interestingly for newspapers. He frequently delivered lectures of 
much interest. He was provisional governor of the territory and was 
a member of the territorial legislature after Kansas was organized. 
Not only did he speak the Indian language, but conversed in English 
and French. A perfect gentleman in bearing, he lived here until 1875, 


when he died at the home of a friend in Kansas City. He was buried 
in Oak Grove cemetery, that city, and no monument of any kind has 
been erected over his grave. 

Matthew Walker, a brother of the governor, lived on a farm in the 
northeast part of the village. His brick residence stood on an eminence 
north of Jersey creek, corresponding to Splitlog's hill south of Jersey 
creek. He died in 1860. Joel Walker, another brother, died in the 
fall of 1857. 

The Wya'ndot.s cultivated farms, builded houses and barns, planted 
orchards and opened roads. They were seemingly intent on establish- 
ing those thing-s that are for the convenience of their neighbors, as well 
as for their own use. They owned and worked a ferry over the Kansas 
river near its mouth. Several of the more advanced in civilization and 
learning engaged in mercantile pursuits in Kansas City and Wyandotte. 
Among these were Joel Walker, Isaiah Walker and Henry Garrett. 
John M. Armstrong, the school teacher, was a lawyer, having studied 
and practiced in Ohio before coming to Kansas. Silas Armstrong, his 
brother, was well educated, intelligent, and had made a goodly fortune. 
George I. Clark lived on the north side in what afterwards was Quindaro 
township. He died in 1857. Francis Hicks, who was head chief, 
lived about one mile northwest of the mouth of the Kansas river. He 
died in 1855. His father, John Hicks, lived a mile further west, and 
he also died in 1855. Half a mile to the west was the home of Jacob 
Whitcrow who migrated to the Indian territory in 1871. A little south 
of Whitcrow lived Robert Robetaille, who also went to the territory 
with the tribe. He was at one time treasurer of Wyandotte county. 
Noah E. Zane resided about seven miles west of the mouth of the Kansas 
river and was chiefly noted for the excellent fruit he grew on his trees. 
He died in 1887. Charles B. Garrett, a white man who was adopted by 
the tribe, lived .iust north of Jersey creek and one half mile west of the 
Missouri river. He died in 1868. Esquire Gray Eyes, the unschooled 
but eloquent exhorter of the Wyandots, lived between the homes of 
George I. Clark and Francis Hicks. His son John was well educated 
and often acted as interpreter, going to the territory with the tribe. 
Abelard Guthrie, the delegate to the Thirty-second congress, was a 
white man, but married Quindaro Brown and was adopted into the tribe. 
He died in 1873. Matthew iludeatcr lived two miles west of the mouth 
of the Kansas river and had a fine orchard. 

Mathias Splitlog, an Indian of large business operations, lived on 
what then was known as "Splitlog's Hill," the house standing near the 
site of the great St. Mary 's stone Catholic church of this day, one of the 
most magnificent religious edifices in the west. Splitlog was a Mohawk 
Indian born in Canada, but his wife was a Wyandot, a daughter of Jlrs. 
Hannah Armstrong, who lived on the hill on the north sidci of the 
Kansas river valley near the present city park. 


Splitlog was a mechanical genius. He had a mill near his house, in 
which he ground corn by horse power, built by himself. He afterwards 
erected a saw mill near where the Union Pacific Arm.strong shops were 
built. He constructed the mill and installed the engine himself, and 
he was his own engineer. During the Civil war Splitlog built a small 
steamboat for George P. Nelson to ply the upper waters of the Missouri. 
It carried supplies to the Kansas svifferers while running between Wyan- 
dotte and Atchison, Nelson serving as captain and Splitlog as engineer. 
In 1861 the steamboat was pressed into .service to carry Colonel Mulli- 
gan's soldiers down the Missouri river to Lexington. Splitlog and 
George Shreiner were in the boat — Splitlog as engineer and Shreiner 
as pilot. The boat landed in Lexington in time to be surrounded by 
General Price, and Shreiner lost an arm before Colonel Mulligan 

JIany stories are told of the remarkable shrewdness of this Indian 
in driving a bargain. When the Wyandot lands were divided, Splitlog 
took his share in the bottoms along the Kansas river. He sold his 
bottom lands to the railroads and they made him the wealthiest Indian 
in the tribe. With the Wyandots he moved to the Indian Territory, 
in 187-t. and built a fine saw mill and grist mill. He later made invest- 
ments in southwestern Jlissouri, platting a town there and calling it 
Splitlog. He also built a railroad fifty miles long running from Neo.sho 
south. Splitlog was known as the Iiulian millionaire and lived to be 
nearly ninety years old. 

Few of the leaders among the Wyandots reached an advanced age. 
Silas Armstrong was not quite fifty-six when he died; George I. Clark 
was fifty-six : IMatthew Walker, only about fifty, and William Walker, 
his brother was not over sixty-five at liis death. John Sarahass and 
Matthew Mudeater were not over seventy. Next to Splitlog in age was 
Tauroomee, or John Hat, who was between seventy and eighty. 

The leading chiefs of the Wyandots, from the time they settled in 

1843, until they became citizens in 1855, were Frances A. Hicks and Tau- 
roomee, James Bigtree, James Washington, Sarahass, George Arm- 
strong, John Gibson, John W. Gray-Eyes, Henry Jacques, William 
Walker. Silas Armstrong, George I. Clark, Matthew Mudeater and 
George I. Clark. The first United States agent to the Wyandots, in 
Kansas, was Ma.jor Phillips, of Columbas, Ohio ; interpreters, John M. 
Armstrong and George I. Clark. The- second United States agent was 
Dr. Richard M. Hewitt ; the third and last, exclusively for the Wyandots 
Ma.jor Moseley. William Walker and Silas Armstrong were interpre- 
ters from 1849 to the close of the agency. 

The first wedding in Kansas was that of Abelard Guthrie and 
Quindaro Nancy Brown. It took place in the cabin of George I. Clark, 
near what is now Third street and Armstrong avenue, early in the year 

1844. Abelard Guthrie was a white man of education and refinement 


who liad i-oiiie west from Ohio with the Wyandots. He was one of the 
fo\iiiders of the town of Quindaro, which was named for his wife. She 
was a Wyandot of the Big Turtle elan, her Indian name beinfj "Seh 
(Quindaro." wliieh has been translated to mean "Daughter of the Snu." 
She had an infusion of white blood, and the story of her ancestry Ls one 
of the most romantic in the history of the North American Indians. 

The marriage of Hiram M. Nortlirup to Miss Margaret Clark was 
celebrated at the Methodist Episcopal parsonage November 27, 1845, by 
the Rev. James Wheeler, missionary to the Wyandots. The bride was 
a daughter of Thomas Clark, and, by marriage, ilr. Northrup became an 
adopted member of the Wyandots. He had come out from Ohio and had 
been living on the Missouri side, engaged in banking and merchandising 
with Joseph S. Chick. After the marriage he erected a log cabin near 
the present intersection of Eighth street and Minnesota avenue. It was 
there the young couple went to housekeeping, and it was there they lived 
during the remainder of their lives, though the old log house soon gave 
place to a more substantial residence. Mr. Noi-thrup was a trusted 
friend and counselor of the Wyandots and made frequent trips to Wash- 
ington in their interests. He was a banker in Kansas Cit.y, Kansas, up 
to the time of his death in the spring of 1893. 

The certificate of the Northrup-Clark marriage was recorded at 
Leavenworth. The first marriage certificate entered on the record after 
Wyandotte county was organized was that of John Thra.sher and Anna 
Berering. The ceremony wa.s preformed by Byron Judd, justice of the 

Romances of Old Wyandot Families. 

Into the history of some of the old families of the Wyandots is 
woven many strange Indian romances of the early settlement of 
America, and the pages are filled with tales of deeds of daring. 

When a young man Robert Armstrong, father of Chief Silas Arm- 
strong, and the cultured educator, John Armstrong, was taken tempo- 
rarily into the family of a man who had no children of his own. One 
day he was captured by the Indians.. He is said to have been a hand- 
some youth and, although he was made to run the gauntlet, his captors 
applied the lashes very lightly. He was adopted into> the tribe in full 
fellowship and married Sallie Zane, whose father was English and whose 
mother was French ; and from this union descended the Armstrongs. 

Quindaro Nancy Brown, who married Abelard Guthrie and for 
w^hom the old town of Quindai-o was named, was born of parents whose 
history was filled with romance. William Elsey Connelley, the histor- 
ian, in an address on "The Emigrant Indian Tribes of Wyandotte 
County," before the high school pupils in Kansas City, Kansas, in 
November, 1901, thus told the story of the Brown family, and also gave 
an insight into other old Wyandot families. 


' ' Adam Brown was captured in Virginia by tlie Wyandots when a child ; he . 
was adopted and brouglit up l\v them. When grown, lie married a Wyandot 
woman, by whom lie had a large family, became a chief of the tribe and was a man 
of great influence with his people. His son, Mrs. Guthrie 's father, married a 
Shawnee girl, who had a romantic ancestry. About 1760, a Jewish lad was 
arrested in London charged with clipping coins. It is certain that he was not 
guilty of the charge, for he was taken before one of those courts in the interest 
of those engaged in stealing and kidnapping British subjects and selling them into 
slavery in the American colonies. Samuel Sanders (that was the lad's name) 
was convicted and sent to Virginia and sold into slavery. He broke away from 
his bondage and fled to North Carolina; there he became acquainted with Daniel 
Boone and accompanied him on a journey to Kentucky. Here he was captured 
by the Shawnee Indians, carried to the Scioto towns and adopted by the captors. 
He married a Shawnee woman; their daughter married the younger Adam Brown, 
and became the mother of Mrs. Guthrie. 

' ' Among the most romantic incidents in all America we can class the ancestry 
of the Walker family, perhaps the most honored in all the modern history of the 
Wyandots. William Walker, Sr., was captured in Virginia when a child by the 
Delawares, sometime about the period of Dunmore 's war. He was carried to the 
Delaware towns on Mad river, in Ohio, and adopted into the tribe. He chanced 
to go with some members of the tribe to Detroit, to visit the British commander 
of that post. Here he met Adam Brown, who had known his family in Virginia. 
Brown desired to get possession of him to bring him up in his own home, for their 
families had been friends. But young Walker was now a member of the Dela- 
ware tribe, and there was no law b_y which he could be changed from one tribe 
to another. The Wyandot chiefs proposed that their nephews, the Delawares, let 
the young man come and live with his uncles, the Wyandots, and the commander 
of the post would give the Delawares presents from the king's stoi'ehouse. This 
arrangement was agi'eed to, and young Walker became an adopted Wyandot. He 
lived in the house of Adam Brown until his marriage. His wife was a young 
Wyandot girl of great ability and of fair education. And her ancestry was as 
romantic and strange as any ever described in tale or story. At the massacre 
of Wyoming, in the War of the Revolution, Queen Esther, an Indian woman 
descended from Madam Montour, took some twenty of the captured soldiers and 
settlers to a point some distance from the battle field. There she placed them 
around a large boulder, now known as ' bloody rock. ' She then took a tomahawk 
and began to chant a death-song as she passed slowly around the helpless prisoners; 
when she had completed the circle, she slew a captive. This was repeated until 
every prisoner, except one who escaped, was slain by her hand. She had lost a 
son in a battle with the Americans the day before, and this was her revenge. Her 
daughter was then married to a young Irishman, James Rankin, who was born 
in Tyrone. Her name was Mary, and she was a devout Catholic and a woman of 
remarkable intellectual powers, in whose nature and characteristics the traits of 
her French ancestors predominated, in this respect being very different from her 
mother. She retained the name of her French family, and was married as Mary 
Montour. James Rankin was long in the service of the Hudson Bay Company, 
and amassed a considerable fortune. 

"The young man, William Walker, who grew up in the house of Adam 
Brown, took to wife Catherine Rankin, the daughter of James and Mary Montour 
Rankin. Miss Rankin had been carefully educated in the best schools to be 
found in Pennsylvania, and she taught her husband to read both French and 
English. He pursued these studies until he obtained a fair education. He 
became a partisan of the Americans in the War of 1812, and about half the 
Wyandot nation followed him and Brown. The other half fought for the British. 


Among the children of William Walker by this marriage were Governor William 
Walker, Matthew R. Walker, Joel Walker and the wife of Charles B. Garrett. 

"James Rankin, the brother of Catherine Rankin Walker, was in the service 
of Aaron Burr and Blennerhasset for years. He was sent to the Chickasaws and 
Choetaws to enlist them in ambitious schemes for a Western Empire; he labored 
among them six years, and was completely successful. He often said that if 
Burr had done his part, the whole scheme would have succeeded. 

"And while I am speaking of romantic things connected with the Wyandots, 
[ will mention the Zane family. The founder of this family came to America 
with William Penn, was one of the founders of Philadelphia, and one of the streets 
of the town still bears his name. One of his sons settled on the south branch of 
the Potomac, and had a large family. The Wyandots pushed even to these parts 
in their predatory forays, in one of which they carried away young Isaac Zani', 
took him to their towns and adopted him, and when grown gave him a Wyandot 
woman to wife. The Zanes of Wyandotte county are descended from him. His 
brothers founded Wheeling, West Virginia, and Zanesville, Ohio. His sister, 
iliss Elizabeth Zane, immortalized herself in the seige of \ATieeling, in the old 
Indian wars." 

The Heroism of Elizabeth Zane. 

The incident that placed the name of Elizabeth Zane among those 
of the world's heroines occurred in 1774, two years before the Declara- 
tion of Independence was sig:ned. A company of immigrants located 
on the Ohio river near the site of the present city of Wlieeling, West 
Virginia. They built their log houses around a block house which 
served as a fort in which to take refuge when attacked by the Indians. 
It was called Fort Henry. Three years later they fled to the block 
house for safety, being attacked by a band of Indians. The siege lasted 
for several days, the settlers making a brave stand against a foe far 
superior in numbers. Finally the settlers' firing grew less. The 
Indians divined the cause, for they had been waiting for the settlers' 
supply of powder to give out. They became bolder and crept closer 
and closer towards the block house. 

Suddenly Colonel Zane remembered that in his log house, two hun- 
dred yards distance, was a keg of powder. But who should go and 
fetch it? Volunteers were called for. The response was like that at 
Santiago, more than one hundred years afterwards, when every man in 
Sampson's fleet volunteered to ride the Merrimac into the harbor to 
block it. Every settler in the block house volunteered. While thev 
were parleying, Elizabeth Zane slipped out froTn among the women and 
girls who had been casting bullets and loading guns for their husbands 
and fathers, and said: "No, you .shall not go. Everj' man here has 
a wife and family dependent on him. I will fetch the powder. If I 
fail, your defense will not be weakened as it would be if you lost a man." 

The men protested, but the young girl only became more determined 
ill her resolve to brave the fire and the tomahawks of the Indians. She 


bounded out of the block house and ran swiftly to her brother's house, 
while the settlers imprisoned in the fort prayed for her safe return. 
Soon they saw her leave the hut, carrying the can of precious powder. 
It was heavy, but her strong arms bore it up and she made all possible 
speed back to the fort. The Indians did not realize the meaning of her 
mission until she had almost reached the fort. Then with a wild yell 
they sent a volley of bullets after her. They whizzed past her head and 
some of them touched her clothing, but she pressed into the fort without 
receiving a single wound. And thus it was Elizabeth Zane who saved 
the day for the fort. 

Now, one hundred and thirty-seven years after, the great-great- 
granddaughters of Colonel Isaac Zane — the three Conley sisters of 
Kansas City, Kansas — are .showing the same characteristics found then 
in Elizabeth Zane, by guarding the graves of their Indian ancestors in 
Huron Place Cemetery to prevent the despoliation of that sacred spot. 

Captain Pipe. 

Another romantic incident in relation to a Wyandot family is re 
lated l\v Mr. Connelley. "During the Revolution, Hopoea, or Captain 
Pipe, was chief of the Delawares. He was a brave and warlike man, 
and endowed with a fine mind. The histories of Ohio and the works of 
Heckewelder arc full of references to him. He lived with his people, 
the Wyandots, on the plains of Sandusky. The Delawares here con- 
ceded the leadership and management of Indian affairs to the Wyandots, 
then under the nile of the great Sar-star-ra-tse, known in history as 
the Half King. 

"The Christian Indians at Gnadenhutten were all Delaware.s, and 
were murdered in cold blood, men, women and children, b.y a band of 
Pennsylvanians under command of one Williamson. The government 
of the United States desired to drive the Wyandots from Upper San- 
dusky, for they were strongly in sympathy with the British, and an 
expedition, under command of Colonel Crawford, was sent against the 
Wyandot towns. Now the Delawares believed that Crawford had 
commanded the expedition that murdered the Moravians at Gnadenhut- 
ten, which was wholly wrong, as he had had nothing whatever to do with 
that horrible deed of blood. The campaign against Sandusky was a 
complete failure, and ended in disaster and rout. Colonel Crawford 
was captured, and Captain Pipe burned him at the stake in revenge for 
the murder of his Moravian brethren. 

"Captain Pipe had a son who was also called Captain Pipe, and 
who married a Wyandot woman. Prom this union resulted the Pipe 
family in the Wyandot tribe. A little bo.y was captured by the Wyan- 
dots in one of their expeditions against the Cherokees, and, from the cir- 
cumstances of his capture, named Mudeater. When he grew up, he 


married a Wyandot woman and founded the Mudeater family of the 
W\andots. One of the oldest and most honored families in Wyandotte 
county, that of the late Frank H. Betton, eomes from the union of the 
Pipe and iMudeater families of the Wyandots. " 

All of the incidents relating to these old Wyandot families written 
by Mr. Connelley are found in liis "Provisional Government of Nebraska 
Territory. ' ' 



Burial Pl.\ce op the Wyandots — Reminiscences of the Early 
Days — (Mrs. Lucy' B. Armstrong). 

The Wyandots at last came to the parting- of tlie ways. They had 
improved their hinds, established themselves in permanent honses, 
erected a chnrch and a school, organized societies, instituted trade rela- 
tions with their neighbors and had established a system of civil govern- 
ment. Now they were ready to discard the ancient forms and customs 
of their forefathers and become lo.val citizens of the United States. 
On January 31, 1855, a treaty was concluded in Washingion under the 
administration of President Franklin Pierce by which the W.yandots 
relincjuished to the United States the lands the.y had purchased, in 
1843, from the Delawares, the ob.ject of the treaty being to enable the 
government to subdivide the lands and conve,v them to the individual 
members of the Wyandot nation in severalty. The treaty was signed 
by George W. Ma.ypennv, as commissioner for the United States, and 
by the following chiefs and delegates of the "Wyandots: Tau-roo-mee, 
Matthew Mudeater, John Hicks, Silas Armstrong, George I. Clark and 
Joel Walker. The treat.y is a model document reflecting a high order 
of statesmanship on tlie part of the Indians who framed it, right con- 
ceptions of .justice, clearness of business .judgment, as well as I'evelating 
their patriotic desires, their hopes and their ambitions. The first 
article of the treaty reads: "The W.yandot Indians, having become 
sufficiently advanced in civilization and being desirous of becoming 
citizens, it is hereby agreed and stipulated that their organization and 
their relations with the TTnited States as an Indian tribe, shall be dis- 
solved and terminated ; except so far as the further and temporary con- 
tinuance of the same may be necessary in the execution of some of the 
stipulations herein, and from and after the date of such ratification, tht 
said Wyandot Indians, and each and every one of them, except as herein- 
after provided, shall be deemed, and are hereby declared to be citizens 
of the United States, to all intents and purposes; and shall be entitled to 
all the rights, privileges and immunities of such citizens ; and shall, in 
all respects, be subject to the laws of the United States, and of the Terri- 
tory of Kansas, in the same manner as other citizens of said Territory ; 



and the jurisdiction of the United States, and of said Territory, shall 
be extended over the Wyandot country, in the same manner as over 
other parts of said territory. But such of the said Indians as may so 
desire and make application accordingly, to the commissioners herein- 
after provided for, shall be exempt from the immediate operations of 
the preceding provisions, extending citizenship to the Wyandot Indians, 
and shall have continued to them the assistance and protection of the 
United States, and an Indian agent in their vicinity, for such a limited 
period, or periods of time, according to the circumstances of the ease, as 
shall be determined b.y the commissioner of Indian affairs; and on the 
expiration of such period, or periods, the said exemption, protection and 
assistance shall cease, and said persons shall then, also, become citizens 
"of the United States; with all the rights and privileges, and subject 
to the obligations, above stated and defined." 

The treaty expressly pro\dded that the public huryiny ground of tlie 
Wyandots should be "permanently reserved and appropriated for that 
piirpose. " It also conveyed two acres to the Methodist Episcopal 
church and two acres to the Methodist Episcopal church South. Four 
acres at and adjoining the Wyandotte ferry, across, and near the mouth 
of the Kansas river, were together with the rights of the Wyandots 
in the ferry, sold to the highest bidder and the proceeds of the sale 
given to the Wyandots. It provided for a survey of lauds by the 
government and the listing of members and families who were to share 
in the distribution in the three classes: 

"First, those families the heads of which the commissioners after 
due inquiry and consideration, shall be satisfied are sufificiently intelli- 
gent, competent and prudent to contrive and manage their affairs and 
interests, and also all persons without families. 

' ' Secondl.v, those families, the heads of which are not competent and 
proper persons to be entrusted with their shares of money payable under 
this agreement. 

"Thirdly, those who are orphans, idiots or insane." 

Under the treat.v, the council of the Wyandots were to appoint 
proper persons to represent those of the second class in recei\nng money 
due and payable to them, and also to be entrusted with the guardian- 
ship of those of the third class and the custody and management of their 
rights and interests. Provision also was made for those Wyandots who 
desired to be exempted from citizenship and for continued protection 
and assistance of the United States, through the appointment of nn 
Indian agent expressly for that purpose. 

Soon after the signing of the treaty and its ratification by congress 
the surveyor general of the United States, John Calhoun, establislied 
an officer in the Indian village and proceeded to make a survey of the 
lands. The surveyor general's ofiiee was in a double log house at what 
is now the northeast corner of Fourth street and State avenue. After 



the surveys were completed nnd tlie Indians received titles to the lands 
allotted them they began, in the winter of 1856-7, to dispose of their 
lands to white settlers. Some of them, however, did not desire to leave 
the homes they had builded in Kansas and remained here as long as 
they lived to become a part of the citizenhip of the territory — afterwards 
the state — of Kansas. Bnt the majority of the Wyandots sold their 
lands and went to the Indian Territory to take up new lands subject 
to pre-emption and settlement under the treaty. 

The Burial Place op the Wyandots. 

In the heart of the city, now occupying the place where the Wyan- 
dots erected their village nearly seventy years ago, is another city. 
It is a city of the dead wherein lie buried man.y members of the tribe 
or nation of Indians whose history is the most pathetic and poetic 


of all the North American Indians. The burial ground, known as 
Huron Cemetery, comprises about two acres, rising to a height of about 
twelve feet above the level of the streets. It is almost surrounded by 
long rows of business houses and public buildings. Ever and always 
is the rush and roar of traffic around and about, but they who sleep 
under the grass-covered mounds are undisturbed. The stranger often 
Vol. 1—6 


pauses in his travel, sui-prised at the incongruity of the view with its 
surronndinsrs. But to the resident and daily passer-by, to whom it is 
a familiar sight, it is an interesting thought that in that place are buried 
the people who made the first history of Kansas and of their own coun- 
ty and city. It is pleasantly shaded with natural forast trees, such as 
black walnut, elm and oak. Some of the smaller trees are covered with 
wild grape vines, and the place, in its neglected condition, has the ap- 
pearance of a primeval forest. It is picturesque, and, on account of its 
elevation, commands a good view of the surrounding city. 

Many of the marble tombstones are crumbling and decaying, partly 
from neglect, partly from the effect of the gases and smoke from the 
neighboring buildings and industrial plants. Only a few of them are 
sufficiently preser\'ed to enable one to read the inscriptions; so, with no 
records preserved, it becomes impossible to tell who are buried there. 
There are four family lots, however, in which there are beautiful monu- 
ments. Over the grave of the great and cultured leader, Silas Arm- 
strong, a costly and handsome monument bears this inscription : 

Silas Armstrong, 

Died December 14, 1865, 

Aged 55 years, 11 months, 11 days. 

The pioneer of the Wyandot Indians to the Kansas 

in 1843. The leading man and constant friend of the 

Indians. A devoted Christian and a good Mason. He 

leaves the craft on earth and goes with joy to the 

Great Architect. 

On another face of the monument are the following words : 

Zelinda Armstrong, 

Born December 3, 1820. Died February 10, 1883. 

Over the grave of George I. Clark, the last head chief of the Wyan- 
dots, is a tombstone with the inscription : 

Geo. I. Clark, 

Head Chief of the Wyandot Nation. 

Born June 10, 1802. Died January 25, 1858. 


Wife of Geo. I. Clark, died January, 1858. 

A beautiful shaft of granite above the graves of Hiram M. 
Northrup, adopted member and trusted friend and counselor of the 
Wyandots, and his wife, Margaret. Under her name is 1his .simple 
tribute: "A true and faithful Christian and a noble wife." 

Among others of the Wyandots buried there appear the names 
of Matthew R. Walker, Joel Walker, Charles B. Garrett, James Rankin, 


George Armstrong, the chief Francis A. Hicks, John Hicks, John W. 
Ladd. wife and daughter. Swan Peacock, James Washington and wife. 

In the treaty of 1855, by which the Wyandots ceded their lands 
to the United States to be subdi\'ided and deeded back to the members 
in severalty, it was the intent of the framers of that treaty to preserve 
forever the historic old burial ground. Article 2 of the treaty con- 
tains this provision: "The portion now enclosed and used as a public 
burying ground shall be permanently reserved and appropriated for 
that purpose." 

Notwithstanding this clear and positive declaration, however, fre- 
quent attempts have been made in the last twenty years to sell this 
sacred plat of ground, and remove the bodies of the Wyandot.s buried 
there to the old Quindaro cemetery, which was given to the Methodist 
Episcopal church, now the Washington Boulevard Methodist Episcopal 
church, at the beginning of the Civil war when the denomination was 
divided. Senator Preston B. Plumb, in 1890, introduced a joint reso- 
lution in the United States Senate looking forward to the sale of the 
cemetery. In that resolution it was set forth that the cemetery was a 
nuisance and a ma.jority of the Wyandots then living desired that their 
ancestors be removed to a more secluded place. The proposition was 
to improve the Quindaro cemetery, and it was estimated that the old 
Huron Place ground would bring $100,000. The resolution raised such 
a storm of protest from old citizens, members of the Wyandots and the 
descendants of Wyandots, that it was defeated. 

The same proposition later was revived at different times until 
finally congress passed an act and a commission was named to sell 
Huron Place cemetery. After paying the expenses of removing the 
bodies and building a monument, the remainder of the proceeds were 
to be divided among the Wyandots. Ob.jeetion to the sale again 
was manifested in the form of in.iunction proceedings instituted by Miss 
Lyda Conley, an Indian lawyer and one of the three sisters whose 
ancestors are among those who lie buried in this cemetery. With a 
devotion that was commended by many persons other than the descend- 
ants of the Indians, Miss Conley and her two sisters took possession of 
the cemetery, erected a little house in the center of the plot, guarded 
the graves by day and night and defied the officers of the courts to eject 

The suit to stop the sale of the cemetery and the removal of the 
bodies of the Indians to Quindaro cemetery went through the state and 
federal courts, even to the court of last resort, the supreme court. 
Invariably, the courts sustained congress in authorizing the secretary 
of the interior department to appoint a commission to make the sale. 
Again and again another \'ictory for the white man over the red man 
was recorded. Seemingly these old treaties were made to be binding 
on the Indians onlv ; always it is the white man who breaks them. 


The cemetery property has been appraised at $75,000, but at the 
beginning of 1911 the commission had found no buyer. 

The square or block contained a small tract adjoining the cemetery, 
which was given to the Methodist Episcopal church to be held forever 
for religious purposes. At the time of the separation before the war 
the northern branch of the chvirch was given a cemetery at Quindaro, 
the .southern branch retaining the property adjoining the cemetery. To 
prevent encroachments, the other three corners of the square were given 
to the First African Methodist Episcopal, St. Paul's Episcopal and the 
First Presbyterian churches. It evidently was the intention to place 
such safeguards around the burial ground as to forever protect the re- 
mains of their dead from disturbance. How far their wishes have been 
observed may be seen from the fact that the ground which was given to 
the Presbyterians at the northeast corner of Huron Place square was 
sold and the Portsmouth office building and auditorium are now occu- 
pying it. The Methodist Episcopal Church. South sold its corner (the 
northwest), and office buildings were erected thereon. The G-rund 
hotel was built on the corner once occupied by the Episcopal church ; 
the Masonic temple occupies the old African Methodist Episcopal church 
corner, and Huron Place has been converted within recent years, into 
a beautiful park with broad granitoid walks, flower gardens and grassy 
plots surrounding the handsome public library building. The square, 
or block containing these several groimds lies between Minnesota avenue 
on the north, Ann avenue on the south. Sixth street on the east and 
Seventh street on the west. 

Reminiscences op the Early Days. 

Mrs. Li;cy B. Armstrong, writing from the Neosho Station five 
miles south of Humbolt, Kansas, December 10, 1870, on the twenty- 
seventh anniversary of her coming to Kansas with the Wyandots, tells 
of scenes, incidents and people of the early days. Her letter was 
printed December 29, 1870, in the Wyandotte Gazette (now tlie Gazette- 
Globe of Kansas City, Kansas). It follows: 

"NEOSHO STATION, five miles south of Humbolt, Kansas, December 10, 
1870. — This tenth day of December is the twenty-seventh anniversary of the day 
when my husband first brought his family into the first house occupied in Wyan- 
dot City. For three months and one week, we had been in Westport, Missouri, 
sojourning there until our chiefs and counselors could select and negotiate for a 
new home in place of the loved one on the Sandusky in Ohio, out of which the 
United States government had teased our people, after sending commissioners 
for that purpose, sixteen times, as I have been informed. 

"Husband stowed his family, with all the baggage he could get in, into a 
double-seated buggy, which he had had made in Ohio and which, on account of its 
convenience and beauty, was a marvel to many of the old citizens of western Mis- 
souri, and drove down to the Kansas river. There being no bridge or even 


ferry-boat so that we could drive over, lie unhitched his horses, took them to a 
farm half a mile back, to be kept there a day or two until he could return and 
take them on that side of the river, three or four miles, to a place where it might 
be forded. 

"Tlie weather was pleasant, and the children and I enjoyed our stay on 
the bank of the river and our first view of the new home, for, though wild, it 
was lovely. 

" ' So to the Jews old Canaan stood. 
While Jordan rolled between.' 

"When my husband returned he called for the skiflf on the opposite side of 
the river, unloaded the buggy, took it to pieces, and, by making several trips 
across the river, transported buggy, baggage, wife and three children into the 
Indian Territory, and, borrowing horses from Wyandots encamped there, we were 
soon 'home again,' in the cabin he had constructed for us, about half a mile from 
the mouth of Jersey creek and within two hundred feet, east, northeast of the 
northeast corner of what are known now as Wawas and Fifth streets. When my 
husband sought for a suitable building site for our new home, he followed the 
Kansas river to its junction with the Missouri, then went up the Missouri to the 
mouth of Jersey creek, and thence up the creek until he saw what he thought, 
from the view he could get of it through the rank growth of vegetation, a handsome 
elevation; there he built our cabin, without clearing more ground than was 
sufficient for the building to stand on. When I have heard ladies in our city 
complaining of want of room, I have looked back with gratitude to think how 
happy my husband's wife was that memorable tenth of December afternoon, in 
that sixteen feet square log cabin. 

"The logs were scotched off in the inside of the building, and the chincking was 
put in neatly and closely to exclude dust; the puncheons in the floor, the clapboards 
in the ceiling and the poles on which the latter were laid, were all white and 
clean, and inside there was no mortar to clear away, or scrubbing to be done, 
and we soon had the furniture, which had been brought over from Westport, the 
day before we came, arranged in order. For a cupboard Mr. A. took the boxes 
in which we had brought our things from Ohio, knocked them to pieces, sawed 
them to fit a corner of the cabin and fastened them up for shelves; and thus we 
had a corner cupboard, which we shielded from dust and Hies by a furniture chintz 
curtain. Then we had a toilet shelf, and a board stool under it for folding 
bedding, curtained with the same chintz, as well as was a high-post bedstead. 
In another corner of the cabin was another bedstead around which were hung 
curtains every other Tuesday night and each alternate Saturday night, to enclose 
a spare room for the United States agent to the Wyandots, who came over from 
his office at Westport and lodged with us, on the first named night, to attend 
council, and for the missionary who was to preach to us on the succeeding day, on 
the other. Space was left within the curtains for toilet conveniences. We had 
a tnmdle-bed for the children, a rocking settee for a cradle, six large chairs and 
one little one, a bureau, table, and cooking stove, and occasionally we put down 
a carpet. It was not convenient to keep it down constantly, for our potato hole 
was under the center of the floor, and we had to lift a puncheon to get the 
potatoes. Jersey creek was then a stream of nice, clear water, uncontaminated 
l)y slaughter houses or offal, and there were numerous springs in the neighborhood. 
Having good water; excellent bread made from flour and meal manufactured at 
the Shawnee Mission mill; plenty of meat purchased by the late Silas Armstrong, 
Sr. contractor for the Wyandot nation, with the addition of the first venison 
my husband ever killed, and therefore, the more delicious; hominy brought by the 
Delawares, as a present to their uncles, the Wyandots; the potatoes; some fruit 
dried and preserved the preceeding fall ; a small quantity of butter, and groceries we 


obtained at Westport — we were comfortably fed, and, before tlie close of the 
winter, we had eggs and milk. In April, another room was added to our cabin. 

' ' One week after the arrival at our cabin my husband 's aunt, Mrs. Long, 
with the family, moved into a cabin on the opposite side of the creek, and by 
spring there were houses completed and occupied in the different parts of the 
city, but they were comparatively 'few and far between.' Previous to the emi- 
gration of the Wyandots from Ohio, a number had formed themselves into a 
company store, and it was established in Westport soon after the arrival in 
Missouri. As soon as a house was ready at Wyandot, a branch of the firm 
commenced selling goods in it. Our friend, Mr. Splitlog, put up and carried on a 
carpenter shop; we had a blacksmith shop furnished by the United States govern- 
ment, and by the first of the ensuing July a frame school house was built and 
occupied, my husband being the first teacher. The building is the old frame on 
I'ourth street, between Nebraska and Kansas avenues, occupied later as a car- 
penter shop. 

' ' Once a week we received our newspapers and other periodicals through the 
post office at Westport. Kansas City was not in existence then; its place on the 
river was known as 'Westport Landing.' 

' ' With the exception of a few days we had very pleasant weather through 
the winter and on Sabbaths we all got into our buggy and drove to different 
places in the new settlement to attend religious meetings held in camps until 
the people got into houses. During all the time we were at Westport there was 
but one sermon preached in the town, though it had been settled si.xteen years 
and contained more than six hundred inhabitants. Here among Indians, with 
about the same population, were nearly two hundred members of the Methodist 
church, holding five class meetings, and two public services on each Sabbath, a 
prayer meeting on Wednesday evening, and preaching on Friday evening of every 
week, without any aid, outside of their own people, except that a missionary from 
one of the other missions in the territory preached to them once on each alter- 
nate Sabbath during the winter and until our own missionary, Reverend James 
Wheeler, came out with his family in May, 1844. 

' ' Esquire Gray Eyes, an ordained local preacher, a good speaker, was the most 
active and zealous of their preachers and exhorters, and, though not at all edu- 
cated, was very useful and influential. At the close of one of the meetings in 
January, 1844, he said to some of the brethren. ' I want to build a meeting house. ' 
Said one 'You have no house for yourself yet;' for he was living in a camp. 'I 
want a house for my soul first,' he replied, and he persuaded the men of iilie 
nation, whether church or not, to meet together in the woods, cut down trees, 
hew logs and haul them to a place near Mr. Kerr's present residence. The United 
States government had not paid the Wyandots for their homes in Ohio, and they 
had no money to pay for lumber or work; so they made clapboards for the roof, 
and puncheons for the floor and seats. In the latter part of April we worshipped 
in the house, the minister standing on a strip of floor laid at the opposite end 
of the building from the door, and the people sitting on sleepers not yet covered. 
On the first Sabbath in June, the first quarterly meeting in the territory, for the 
Wyandots, was held in the house, it being finished. The missionary was present, 
having arrived a few days previous. 

"Those were halcyon days that I have thus hastily and imperfectly reviewed. 
Though we heard not 'the sound of the church-going bell,' our ears were not 
pained, nor our hearts grieved by the sound of the ax or gun on the Sabbath. 
Though our church was rude and the seats uncomfortable, yet they were always 
well filled with worshippers, and God was there." 




When the White Settlers Came — The Catfish Hotel — Resi- 
dents IN 1855-6 — Isaac Zane's Perpetual Motion Machine — When 
the Townsite Boomers Came — The Town Organization — The Big 
Town Lot Sale — A Rush op Population — Pour Broad Avenues — A 
Famous Old Hall — When Wyandotte Became a City — A Forbidding 
Looking Place — Those Ready-Made Houses — The Blue Goose Saloon 
— Officers for Twenty-Eight Years. 

Among the nearly one hundred thousand of our population there 
linger a few men and women who, through the long years, have wit-' 
nessed every stage of development: First, from an Indian village, of a 
few log cabins, to a frontier river town ; then, to an incorporated city of 
small proportions but of great aspirations ; then, to a bustling emporium, 
that, in after years with its neighboring small cities and towns, was 
merged into Kansas City, Kaasas, grown now to a metropolis of mag- 
nificent proportions. . 

Some of these pioneers were here before Minnesota avenue was 
marked out, when the slope from Fifth street down to the river was oc- 
cupied with meadows and cornfields, and beyond Fifth street were the 
woodlands. And the tales these pioneers tell of the early days pos- 
sess a charm that makes them delightful to hear. 

From 1845 to the beginning of the year 1857 Wyandotte was 
simply a rallying point. Here the individual members of the Wyan- 
dot nation, whose farms were scattered over the reservation of thirty- 
nine square miles, gathered for consultation. Their council house stood 
on Fourth street near State avenue for many years, a small, one-story 
frame building devoid of architectural pretensions. A road starting 
or ending near the only store — a two-story frame that is still standing 
on the north side of Nebra.ska avenue between Third and Fourth streets 
— wound its way around the council-house, on past the Silas Armstrong 
homestead near the corner of Fifth and Minnesota, along the ridge to 
near the southern boundary of Huron Place ; thence bending northward 
and passing to the north of the little frame church and parsonage of the 
South Methodist, located at the corner of Seventh and Minnesota, it 
passed out through the reserve to the government road leading to Fort 
Leavenworth. The line of Minne.sota avenue from Fifth to Seventh 
street was across a deep hollow, and was not opened for some years after 




the town was settled. The fill for these two blocks was a heavy one, 
as can be seen by examining the extensive basements on the north side 
of the street. 

There were many fairly extensive farms .scattered through the 
reserve. The illideater place, now within the city limits, was in an ad- 
vanced state of cultivation, probably, as are the best-managed farms in 
the county today, and there were a number of others nearly as good. 

When the White Settlers Came. 

Moses Grinter was the first permanent white settler in Wyandotte 
county. He was sent from his home in Beardstown, Kentucky, by 


the United States government to locate a ferry across the Kansas river 
for a military road between Fort Leavenworth and Fort Scott. He 
arrived at Seeondine on the Kansas river, about nine miles west of the 
Missouri line, in January. 1831. He established the ferry, married 
Anna Marshall, a Delaware Indian, builded a home, reared a family of 
ten children, and when he died, in 1878, his grandchildren numbered 
twenty-one and his great-grandchildren thirty-six. French traders, 
explorers and missionaries came and went, but for many years Moses 
Grinter was the only white man to dwell in the wilderness. Hiram M. 
Northnip and Charles B. Garrett, white men, came out from Ohio with 
the Wyandottes in 1843, and by marrying Wyandot women they were 


adopted into the tribe and were associated with the Indians in the 
early years of Kansas and of Wyandotte county. Mr. Northrup was 
a resident of Kansas City at the time the 1855 treaty was made, and 
was required to select his wife 's allotment and to live on it. Naturally 
anxious to g;et as close to the ferry as possible, he made his selection for 
a building site not far from where the court house now stands, and 
brought men from Kansas City to clear away the brush. While thus 
engaged, Ike Brown rode up and told him that it was his aunt's claim, 
taking him to where four saplings had been cut and placed on the ground 
forming a square ; and this way of appropriating claims was the rule in 
the early days in Kansas. Mr. Northrup said he did not know of the 
prior claim, and would look elsewhere, but this was just what Ike did not 
want and he agreed to make it all right with his "aunt" for twenty dol- 
lars. Mr. Northrup said he knew it was a clear ease of "hold-up" 
but he gave Ike the twenty dollars as the quickest way out of it, and this 
was what his part of the future metropolis cost him. 

It was not until the Wyandots' reservation became subject to 
settlement, through the treaty of 1855, that the tide of emigration of 
white men set in. And then began the rush. 

Thomas J. Barker, a native of Virginia, came up the Missouri river 
on a steamboat in April, 1855, joined Colonel Charles Manners' engi- 
neering corps as a cook and helped survey the line between Kansas 
and Nebraska sixty miles west from the Missouri river. When the 
work was finished he returned to Wyandotte, on December 27th of that 
year, and since that eventful day more than fifty-five years ago he has 
resided there. 

The Catfish Hotel,. 

j\Ir. Barker began his long career as a citizen of Wyandotte as a 
cook for the Indian, Ike Brown, whose log house had been converted into 
a boarding house. He was assisted by two Indian women, Mary Spy- 
buck and Susan Nofat. The regular boarders at that time — January, 
1856— were Henry McMullen, Emmet McMullen, Edwin T. Vedder, 
George Horworth, L. A. McLane, Elisha Diefendorf and several others, 
who worked in the surveyor general's office. Numerous transients, most 
of whom were Indians who had received annuities and had plenty of 
money, stopped at the hotel. It was a four room log cabin, located where 
A. R. James and Son now have a coal and feed establishment at the 
southwest corner of State avenue and Fourth street. The ice in the 
Kansas river broke up early that spring (1856) and shoved out on the 
shore numerous catfish which were cooked for the boardere. From that 
the boarding house took the name of the " Hotel." 

The surveyor general's office was a log house in Fourth street just 
north of where it is crossed by State avenue, and was owned by J. 
D. Brown. 


The Residents in 1855-6. 

Mr. Barker gives the follo^^^ng as those who were here in 1855 
and 1856. 

Surveyor General Calhoun was away much of the time — when offi- 
cially at Wyandotte he stopped at the Gillis House in Kansas City, 

Robert L. Ream, chief clerk, with his family, lived with Silas 

George C. Van Zandt and family lived in Lsaac Zane's ("Blind 
Isaac") one story brick house, near the intersection of Seventeenth 
street and Haskell avenue. 

Oliver Diefendorf and wife stopped with D. V. Clement in a two 
story frame house located about four hundred feet north of Virginia 
avenue and Sixth street. 

Colonel William Wear lived in a tent near Jersey creek between 
Fourth and Fifth streets. 

Samuel Parsons boarded with Joel Walker on the northwest corner 
of Third street and Washington avenue. 

Governor William Walker lived in a one story frame and log house 
on the west side of Hallock avenue about four hundred feet north of 
Virginia aveniie. 

Joel Walker lived on the northwest corner of Third street and 
Washington avenue and there was a cabin about two hundred feet 
southeast of his residence where his negro man and wife stayed. 

Matthew R. Walker lived in a one story brick liouse wliere the 
Baptist Theological Seminary now stands. 

Isaiah Walker lived between Ninth and Tenth streets near Free- 
man avenue. 

Silas Armstrong lived in an eight room, two story brick house on 
the northwest corner of Fifth street and Minnesota avenue. 

Lucy B. Armstrong lived near Sixth street, extended, between 
Walker and New Jersey avenue. 

Hannah Armstrong lived near Eighth street about where St. 
Margaret's hospital now stands. 

Mathias Splitlog lived near Barnett avenue and Dugarro avenue. 

Clay Long lived between Thirteenth and Fourteenth on the south 
side of Tauromee avenue. 

Isaac Brown's home was on the southeast corner of Fourth street 
and State avenue. 

]\Iatilda ITick's was on the north side of the Quindaro Boulevard 
between Eighth and Ninth street. 

George I. Clark's home was three hundred feet north of tbt^ Quin- 
daro boulevard between Seventeenth and Eighteenth streets. 


Isaac Zane ("Blind Isaac") lived near where Seventeenth street 
and Haskell avenue cross. 

Jared S. Dawson on the southeast corner of Cleveland and Tenth 

Charles B. Garrett on the east side of Seventh street, one hundred 
and twenty feet nortli of Chelsea Park "L" road. 

D. V. Clement on the west side of Sixth street four hundred feet 
north of Virginia avenue. 

"Irish" Mary near Third street and State avenue. 

H. I\I. Northrup lived in Minnesota avenue, near the south side, 
between Seventh and Eighth streets. 

Lucy Charloe lived about Fifteenth street and Parallel avenue. 

John Barnett lived near Seventeenth street and Reynolds avenue. 

There was a blacksmith shop near Third and Nebraska avenue. 
The Wyandot Indian council house was on the side of Fourth 
street, between State and Nebraska avenues. There was a small cabin 
on bank of the river at the foot of Ann avenue where ferrymen stopped. houses with the surveyor general's office and "Catfish Hotel" 
were all the houses and the families of those mentioned as occupying 
them, were all the inhabitants, that were at Wyandotte in the winter 
of 18.55-6. The surveyor general's office was moved to Wyandotte in 
August, 1855, and from there to Lecompton, in 1857. 

Isaac Zane's Perpetual Motion Machine. 

Isaac Zane, whom the people of that day knew as "Blind Isaac," 
was a character of Wyandotte. He was a brother of Mrs. Brown, wife 
of the proprietor of a hotel. He was an inventive genius and before he 
became blind had accumulated a fortune in lands and other property. 
He had been working a perpetual motion machine for seven years when 
Thomas J. Barker was employed at one dollar a day to cut patterns for 
the mechanism. Mr. Barker's principal duty was to direct Mr. Zane's 
hands in making the patterns. He worked with patience for several 
days, and Mr. Zane was so well pleased that he wanted Mr. Barker to 
go to Washington with him to assist in getting a patent. He promised 
Mr. Barker a present of a quarter of a million dollars. Mr. Barker, 
however, induced the inventor to wait until the next fall, and he sug- 
gested that if the inventor took care of the property he then had he 
would have a fortune without the peipetual motion machine. Mr. 
Zane took the advice. Then he had Mr. Barker at work assisting him to 
tind a vein of coal in Wyandotte which he said he discovered before he 
lost his eyesight. After that Mr. Barker went to work chopping wood 
for Isaac Brown on the present site of the Kansas City, Kansas, High 

Good old father Barnett lived in the South Methodist parsonage. 


near Seventh street and Minnesota avenue, and for some time had served 
the Wyandots as the representative of his branch of the church. After 
the town started, as it was the only place of worship, the new comers 
and the Wyandots united, and on Sundays the little church was 
thronged. To most of the congregation English was the native tongue, 
but not to all. Silas Armstrong would usually ascend the pulpit and 
act as interpreter for the few Wyandots present who were unable to 

When the Townsite Boomers Came. 

In the spring of 1857 a steamboat that ploughed its way up the 
Mi.ssouri river from St. Louis, deposited a lot of Yankees and eastern 
men on the levee at Kansas City. Easily they might have been taken for 
tenderfeet, but they were plucky. They had gold in their pockets, 
and then they were looking for a place to build a town. But choosing 
a site for a town was not an easy matter. Dr. J. P. Root and Thomas 
P. Eldridge were sent out as scouts for the Yankees. They traveled 
the north side of the Kaw river from its mouth to Lawrence searching 
for a site for the "future great" city. Finally they chose the rolling 
hills back from the Missouri river as the ideal place. 

"The great cities on the American continent grow westward from 
the water courses," they rea,soned. They crossed the Kansas river by 
ferry and hurried through the thick growth of timber in the bottoms to 
Kansas City to tell their friends. That night — it was late in March — 
a meeting was held in the Gillis hotel on the levee near the foot of Main 

"It's just the thing," exclaimed the late Thomas H. Swope. 

Besides Mr. Swope and two pro.spectors. Dr. Root and Mr. Eldridge, 
there were in the party S. W. Eldridge, W. Y. Roberts, Robert Morrow, 
Gains Jenkins, Daniel Killen, John McAlpine and John M. Winehell. 
They proceeded at once to arrange for the organization of a town com- 
pany. It was to be called Wyandotte. But first the land for the site 
must be bought. A committee was appointed. It was composed of 
Roberts, Swope, McAlpine and Jenkins. 

The Town Organization. 

The next morning the committee went to dicker with the Wyandots 
for some of their lands. The committee visited the Wyandots and the 
rest of the company that was to be waited in Kansas City for several 
days. At last, having had no tidings of the expedition, they became 
uneasy and sent over a scouting party to find out what had happened. 
Something had really happened. The scouting party found that the 
conimittee had taken in three intiiiciitial men of the Wvandots — Isaiah 


Walker. Joel Walker and Silas Araistrono;— and a town company had al- 
ready been formed. Armstrong was president, Roberts secretary, Isaiah 
Walker treasurer, and McAlpine trnstee. to receive conveyances of lands 
purchased from the Indians. Of course the members of the company who 
were left out of the deal made a fuss about it, and the four members of 
the committee patched thiiig-s up so they would receive a share of the 
profits. They hired John II. Miller, a surveyor, to lay out the town, 
and this is the way the description read : 

"Commencing on the eastern boundary of the territory of Kansas, 
where the same is intersected by the second standard parallel; thence 
west along said parallel line to the northeast corner of section four, 
township eleven, range twenty-five; thence south to the southwest 
corner of section nine, township and range afore.said ; thence east to the 
middle of the Kansas river; thence by the middle of the Kansas and 
Missouri rivers to the place of beginning. ' ' 

According to the plat there were four thousand lots in the town 
site. The company is.sued four hundred shares, each share calling for 
ten lots, and each share having a value of five hundred dollars. An 
irregular strip along the Missouri river w-as reserved for a public levee. 
Prom this four avenues, each one hundred feet wide, were laid out — 
Minnesota, Kansas, Nebras^ka and Washington. At the west end of 
the town, between Tenth and Eleventh streets and extending from Wash- 
ington avenue south of Kansas avenue, w-as Oakland Park. The 
avenues were to be the great thoroughfares, as they are today, although 
Oakland Park is a dream of the past. 

The allotments of Isaiah and Joel Walker and Silas Armstrong, of 
the town company, partially covered the pro.spective site, and they cast 
in their lot and incidentally their land. Ike Brown's farm was bought, 
probabl.y with money furnished either by Swope or McAlpine. At any 
rate, rumor had it that he could show a pouch containing an even 
thousand of twenty dollar gold pieces. The map of Wyandotte also 
included the lands of Mrs. Lucy B. Armstrong, Matthias Splitlog and 
II. M. Northrup. These lands were all platted into streets and blocks 
along with the rest, and formed part of the city, on paper, but a close 
inspection of the original city map shows a series of dotted lines marking 
the boundaries of these tracts, although as a matter of fact the town had 
no control over them. 

The Big Town Lot Sale. 

The members of the town company proved to be real boomers, and 
they had plenty of backing from the settlers who were coming in. The 
new town was duly advertised and subscription books were opened. 
Finally the 8th day of March, 1857, was fixed as the date of the first 
sale of shares. 


The Armstrong residenoe had been converted into a hotel, kept by 
Robert L. Ream, and on the morninj? of the sale they organized a pro- 
cession some fifty strong, and, headed by fife and drum and the Stars 
and Stripes, marched from the hotel around by the council house to 
the store, whose proprietor was Isaiah Walker, the treasurer of the 

This building is still standing on the north side of Nebraska aveniie 
just below Fourth street. The store was for years used as our only 
court room, and the late David J. Brewer before he was a justice of the 
United States supreme court, was one of the judges who held his court 
therein. There was an outside stairway leading to the second story, and 
this was utilized on more than one occasion as an impromptu gallows. 
There are many thrilling incidents connected with this old biiilding — 
but this, in the words of Mr. Kipling, is another story. 

The upper story of the building was one large room, and the gather- 
ing crowd became so great that there was fear of a collapse, but no acci- 
dent happened, and each eager luiit of the crowd pushed anxiously for- 
ward, impatient to exchange the twenty-five double eagles (for these 
were the principal "currency" during the few months of 1857, 
but they all disappeared long before the first frost) for a paper calling 
for ten lots in the embryo city. These lots were supposed to be located 
somewhere out on the brush-covered site, but few of the eager buyers 
ever knew just where the lots they bought were located. 

A Rush op Popul.vtion. 

There was a great rush of people to Wyandotte. The price of town 
lots and sharas popped up to twice their original value. Houses went 
up as fast as men and materials could be produced. The carpenters 
received five dollars a day, and new saw mills had to be built to supply 
the lumber. It was a great boom for Wyandotte, and its boomers were 
chuckling over their success against the feeble efforts of Governor 
Charles Robison and his crowd of Free State men who were starting a 
port of entry at Quindaro, four miles up the Missouri river. But it was 
a great race. Wyandotte held the lead for a time and then lost it be- 
cause of the rush of the Yankees to Quindaro to help make Kansas a 
free state. But Quindaro 's glory did not last long. The Free State 
men had all they could attend to at the outbreak of the war, while 
Wyandotte was able to hold its own, although with only a corporal's 
guard of men at home to protect the women. 

At this time Wyandotte had several big stores along the levee, be- 
sides a hotel or two. Its population had increased to four hundred. 
People were coming in from all directions, one company coming from 
Pennsylvania and another from Ohio. Jlark W. Delahay, a relative 
of Lincoln and for years judge of our United States district court, had 


started a paper, and F. A. Hunt had picked up an old steamboat, the 
"St. Paul," and had converted it into a wharf -boat and hotel. Mrs. 
Garno had moved from Leavenworth and built the Garno House, on the 
corner of Third and Minnesota. There were four physicians. Dr. J. P. 
R«ot, Dr. J. C. Bennett, Dr. Fred Speck and Dr. John Speck. There 
were lawyers there too — Bartlett & Glick, Davis & Post, J. W. Johnson, 
B. Gray and D. B. Hadley. Byron Judd was in the real estate busi- 
ness, and Thomas J. Barker was postmaster. 

By June 8, 1858, the town had 1,259 inhabitants. Then the town 
petitioned for incorporation with Daniel Killen, William McKay, George 
Russell, Charles W. Glick and William F. Simpson as trustees. It was 
incorporated under the title "The Inhabitants of the town of 

Four Broad Avenues. 

The four avenues, each one hundred feet wide, and named, respec- 
tively, Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska and Washington, after the four 
territories, had been brushed out, a lot of one story houses, framed at 
Cincinnati, had been set up, and altogether things looked booming. It 
was a problem which of the four avenues was to become the principal 
street, and trade was much scattered. Schriner, Garlick & Co., had set 
up one of the Cincinnati houses at the northeast corner of Fourth and 
Minnesota, and were doing a rushing hardware business. The building 
still stands at the old corner, and Dr. S. F. Mather occupied it for many 
years as a drug store. Parr, Boyd & Company located somewhere near 
Third and Washington and had started in groceries and dry goods. 
Govei-nor James McGrew established himself in groceries nearby, while 
Zeitz & Buesche held forth on the north side of Kansas (now State) 
avenue between Third and Fourth streets. 

A Famous Old Hall. 

John McAlpine put up a two story warehouse on the levee between 
Nebraska and Washington, and the top story, known as McAlpine 's hah, 
served for years as a gathering place for parties, balls and political 
conventions. It was in this hall that George Francis Train and Susan 
B. Anthony wound up their brilliant tour of Kansas in the interests of 
woman suffrage, and Train complained that he had been forced to take 
his dail.y bath in a pint tin cup ; bath tubs were, as yet, an unknown 
article on our Kansas prairies. It was also in this hall that Jim Lane 
made his celebrated speech after the killing of Gains Jenkins in a quarrel 
over a claim. Captain George P. Nelson had built his residence on the 
south side of Armstrong street, between Fourth and Fifth, and F. A. 
Hunt had put up an imposing mansion nearly south of it, on Ann ; the 


latter buildins; is still standino;. A. B. Bartlett had built a small, one 
story residence away back in the brush, on the corner of Fifth and 
Nebraska, and the old buildinp: is yet standinsr, over a stone basement, 
pvit in when Fifth street was graded, back of the large brick residence 
which he subsequently erected in front of it. And this practice of 
bnildinir the top storv' tirst was a common occurrence in those days. 

During the winter of 1857-8 Third street was graded through, leav- 
ing the Garno House two stories above the ground. Tom Merry had 
the contract for putting in the. underpinning, and some of the big 
timbers that supported the lower stories, and which Frank H. Betton 
assisted in raising, are still standing. Third street was subsequently 
filled up again about ten feet, at the corner; the scoop-out was too deep, 
as some one had blundered. Doctor Root had established himself at 
the corner of Fourth and Nebraska, building a rather ornamental one 
story cottage, which came to be known as the "pillbox." 

William Cook may properly be considered as the chief factor in 
our early commercial development. Mr. Cook was an Englishman who 
had achieved a reasonable competency as a dyer in St. Louis. He had 
faith in the new city, and it wa.s said invested sixty thousand dollars in 
developing the town. He built a number of small dwellings and a large 
storehouse near the site of the Wyandotte hotel on Minnesota avenue 
between Fourth and Fifth. For years he was our principal merchant, 
and was foremost in nearly all of our public enterprises. He built the 
large brick building at the southwest corner of Third and Minnesota, 
and subsequently the larger part of what is known as the Wyandotte 

When Wyandotte Became a City. 

The next year, on January 29, 1859, the legislature passed an act 
permitting the creation of a city out of Wyandotte. James R. Parr 
was the firet mayor. The first board of aldermen consisted of William 
P. Overton, J. N. W^hite, Byron Judd, Daniel Killen. Isaiah Walker and 
II. INfcDowell. Under this incorporation the town weathered the stormy 
times of the Civil war and maintained a respectable growth. In 1886 
it was con.solidated with the old city of Kansas Cit.v, Kansas, Armour- 
dale and Armstrong, and became a part of the municipality under the 
first name. 

A Forbidding Looking Place. 

"I remember the first time I saw these bluffs," Mrs. Mary H. S. 
Wolcott, one of the suiwivors of the early da.vs of Wyandotte, said 
recently. "My husband, Albert Wolcott, and I were coming up the 
Missouri river on one of those steamboats in 1857 to make our home in 


Kansas. I tlioiisrht it tlie most forbiddinof looking plaee that I had ever 
seen. We landed at the foot of Minnesota avemie in old Wyandotte. 
There was no regular landing place. The deck hands threw out a plank 
and we walked down it, and up to the old Garno House, the only hotel 
in the city. We were there for some time before we built a house of 
our own. 

"We did not go out calling in those days as women do now," Mrs. 
Wolcott said. "It was too far from house to house to make calls. I 
remember one day when a very distinguished personage was stopping 
at the old American House at the foot of Main street, on the levee. 
Three other Wyandotte women and myself decided to \nsit her. Our 
only means of travel was by horseback. We crossed the Kansas river 
on the ferry, at the foot of what is now Barnett avenue, and followed the 
wagon road which ran through the woods over the ground now occupied 
by the Armour Packing Company. After a pleasant visit we started 
for home. On reaching the ferry we found that the ferryman had 
locked up his ferrv^ boat and he refused to take us over. After much 
pleading and some tears, he consented to carry us over in his little skiff, 
but made us leave our ponies on the other side. We found our hus- 
bands waiting for us at the landing, very much worried over the late- 
ness of our return. The next morning our husbands went over and 
brought the ponies back." 

Mrs. Wolcott walked across the first bridge built over the Kaw 
river on the day it was opened. That bridge known as the old Southern 
bridge was built in 1859, and connected what is now Argentine with old 
Wyandotte. It was used b.y many of the freighters who were going over 
the Santa Pe trail. Forty-eight years later Mrs. Wolcott walked across 
the inter-city viaduct on the day it was opened to the public. 

Those Ready-Made Houses. 

Albert Wolcott brought six frame houses with him from St. Louis. 
They were among the first frame houses to be built in old Wyandotte. 
At that time there were quite a number of log hous&s. Mr. Wolcott 's 
"ready-to-use" dwellings were quite an innovation. The lumber had 
all been cut and matched and needed only the carpenter's hammer to 
put them up. The new houses caused quite a stir. All of the new 
arrivals who intended to locate and had been dependent upon the Garno 
House for food and shelter, were anxious to occupy one of the new hous- 
es. The Indians came from miles around to look upon the wonderful wig- 
wam of the white brother, which needed but a few strokes of the hammer 
to make of it a tepee far beyond their wildest dreams of splendor. As a 
consequence of the feverish anxiety of the white settlers to live in one 
of the "modem structures," Mr. Wolcott disposed of five of his dwell- 
ings at a big price. The sixth one, he finished in what was then the 
Vol. 1—7 


finest style, for his own home. His success in disposing of his ready- 
to-nail-together houses may have somewhat influenced his career, as he 
afterward became a lumber merchant. 

The "Blue Goose" Saloon. 

There were saloons in old Wyandotte in the early days — but that 
was before Kansas had "prohibition." One of these was the Blue 
Goose saloon. It stood somewhere on the hillside near what is now 
Third street and Nebraska avenue. The front part of the building 
rested on the ground and the back part was on stilts. And there is a 
story connected with the Blue Goose saloon that savors of the "good old 
tim&s. " One day word came to the village that Buckskin Joe and a 
band had been committing depredations in the country surrounding 
Wyandotte. A posse of citizens was formed to go out and search for 
them. The citizens went out on horse back, armed with rifles, but re- 
turned at night without seeing the desperadoes. At the outskirts of 
the village it was decided that they would race to the Blue Goose saloon 
and would ride into it and up to the bar on their horses, the last man in 
to pay for the drinks. Well, the big race came off, the citizens in the 
posse riding through the town with the speed of the wind. They rode 
right into the saloon and their horses were standing with their heads 
over the bar. while the drinks were being mixed by the bartender. 
Suddenly there was a crash and down went the floors, carrying with it 
horses, riders, bar, bartender and liquors, and dumping them together in 
a heap. And the most remarkable thing about it was that not a man 
or horse was seriously hurt. Then the Blue Goose saloon was built 
on level ground and the floor was made strong enough to bear the weight 
of horses and riders. 

Officers for Tw^enty-Eight Years. 

The men who filled the public offices in Wyandotte from the time 
it was incorporated as a city to the date of the consolidation of the 
cities that entered into the making of Kansas City, Kansas, were as 
follows : 

1858— The inhabitants of the Town of Wyandotte: Trustees, Wil- 
liam McKay, George Russell, Daniel Killen, Charles S. Glick and Wil- 
liam P. Simpson. 

1859 — City of Wyandotte: Mayor, James R. Parr; aldermen, W. 
P. Overton, I. N. White, Byron Judd, Daniel Killen, Isaiah Walker and 
H. McDowell; clerk, E. T. Vedder; assessor, David Kirkbride; treasurer, 
J. H. Harris; attorney, W. L. McMath ; marshal, N. A. Kirk; engineer, 
William Miller ; street commissioner, H. Burgard. 

1860 — Mayor, George Russell; aldermen, Joseph Speck, Philip 


Hescher, A. D. Downs, B. Washin^on, S. A. Bartlett, C. R. Stuck- 
slager; clerk, T. J. Darling; assessor, J. W. Dyer; treasurer, C. H. 
Van Fossen ; attorney, S. A. Cobb ; marshal, H. H. Sawyer ; street com- 
missioner, David Levitt ; engineer, William Miller. 

1861 — Mayor, George Russell ; aldermen, Jacob Kerstetter, E. L. 
Biische, James Sommerville, C. R. Stiickslager, 0. S. Bartlett, Chris 
Si'hneider ; clerk, Francis House ; assessor, W. Hood ; treasurer, I. D. 
Heath; attorney, S. A. Cobb; marshal, P. S. Ferguson; street commis- 
sioner, W. Curran ; engineer, Gustavus Zeitz. 

1862 — Mayor, S. A. Cobb ; aldermen, Jacob Kerstetter, Robert Hal- 
ford, J. P. Hanrion, N. A. Reichuecker, W. H. Scofield, J. M. Funk; 
clerk, W. B. Bowman; marshal, P. S. Ferguson; assessor, W. Hood; 
attorney, J. S. Stockton ; treasurer, I. D. Heath ; street commissioner, 
Gottlieb Knipfer; engineer, Horatio Waldo. 

1863— Mayor, J. M. Funk; aldermen, Mathias Splitlog, W. P. Hol- 
comb, J. P. Hanrion, B. Washington, J. Grindle, R. Chalk ; clerk, W. 
B. Bowman ; treasurer, I. D. Heath ; attorney, J. S. Stockton ; assessor, 
P. Hanee; street commissioner, Gottlieb Knipfer; marshal, P. S. Fergu- 

1864 — Mayor, J. M. Funk; aldermen, W. Cook, E. L. Busche, Fred 
Weber, R. Chalk, I. Moore, A. S. Cobb ; clerk, W. B. Bowman ; treasurer, 
W. P. Holcomb ; attorne.y, W. B. Bowman ; assessor, Joseph HaJiford ; 
marshal, Matthew Clary ; engineer, W. Miller. 

1865— Mayor, I. B. Sharp; aldermen, W. Cook, J. R. Parr, J. M. 
Chrysler, E. T. Hovey, Daniel Cable, J. J. Hughes; clerk, W. B. Bow- 
man; marshal, John Bolton; attorney, C. S. Glick; treasurer, W. P. 
Holcomb ; assessor, Joseph Hanford ; street commissioner, W. Bucher ; 
engineer, J. A. J. Chapman. 

1866 — Mayor, I. B. Sharp ; aldermen, W. Cook, R. Anderson, C. 
Hains, D. Cable, B. Washington, N. A. Kirk ; clerk, A. J. Cruise ; 
attorne.v, C. S. Glick; marshal, M. Clary; assessor, Joseph Hanford; 
engineer, J. A. J. Chapman ; street commissioner, G. A. Sehreiner. 

1867^Mayor, James McGrew; aldermen, G. P. Nelson, H. West, 
J. H. Harris, B. Washington, Joab Toney, P. Lugibihl ; clerk, J. A. 
Cruise; attorney, J. B. Scrogg; engineer, S. Parsons; treasurer, N. Mc- 
Alpine; marshal, J. Lecompt; street commissioner, G. A. Sehreiner; 
assessor, E. F. Heisler. 

1868 — Mayor, S. A. Cobb; councilmen, J. Hennessy, A. Jost, H. 
Grautman, R. B. Cable, J. Townsend ; police judge, J. M. Punk ; marshal, 
Thomas Redfield ; attorne.v, F. B. Anderson ; treasurer, Byron Judd ; 
clerk, A. J. Cruise ; engineer, C. Pine.y ; assessor, E. P. Heisler ; street 
commissioner, John Hosp. 

1869 — Mayor, Byron Judd ; aldermen, P. Castring, 0. K. Serviss, 
J. Ilenness.y, R. E. Cable, N. Kearney, P. Knoblock; police judge, W. 
B. Bowman ; marshal, H. C. Johnson ; assessor, E. P. Heisler ; clerk, 



J. A. Cruise; attorney, P. B. Anderson; street commissioner, T. Pur- 
till; engineer, J. MeGee; treasurer, J. C. Welsh. 

1870— Mayor, J. S. Stockton; councilmen, P. Bell, J. Bolton, R. 

E. Cable, F. Casting, P. Kjioblock, 0. K. Serviss; police judge, W. B. 
Bowman ; marshal, H. C. Johnson ; assessor, E. P. Heisler ; clerk, H. L. 
Alden; engineer, S. Parsons; street commissioner, John Hosp; attorney, 
H. W. Cook. 

1871 — Mayor, J. S. Stockton ; councilmen, Prank Bell, John Bolton, 
Peter Connelly, H. C. Johnson, N. Kearney, P. Knoblock; treasurer, 0. 
K. Serviss ; police judge, W. B. Bowman ; marshal, H. T. Harris ; attor- 
ney, E. L. Bartlett ; clerk, H. L. Alden ; engineer, Francis House ; as- 
sessor, G. P. Nelson; street commissioner, S. Balmer. 

1872— Mayor, J. S. Stockton; councilmen, D. W. Batchekler, P. 
Connelly, E. M. Dyer, C. C. Gerhardt, A. Jost, D. W. McCabe, Jacob 
Meunzenmayer, M. W. Phillips ; police judge, W. B. Bowman ; marshal, 
H. T. Harris; treasurer, 0. K. Serviss; clerk, William Albright; attor- 
ney, W. J. Buchan ; engineer, Francis House ; a&sessor, G. P. Nelson 

1873 — Mayor, James McGrew; councilmen, D. W. Batchelder, W. 
Cook, B. Grafton, James Hennessy, E. T. Hove.v, J. C. Ives, A. Jost, L. 
Schleifer; police judge M. B. Newman; treasurer, 0. K. Serviss; clerk, 
William Albright; marshal, H. T. Harris; engineer, Francis House; as- 
sessor; J. J. Keplinger; street commissioner, W. B. Garlick; attorney, 
W. J. Buchan. 

1874— Mayor, G. B. Wood; councilmen, R. E. Cable, W. Cook, N. 
McAlpine, P. W. Meyer, J. Reid, W. H. Ryus, Louis Schleifer, F. Speck ; 
police judge, M. B. Newman ; treasurer, 0. K. Serviss ; clerk, W. Al- 
bright; engineer, P. House; street commissioner, J. P. Paber; assessor, 
J. J. Keplinger; marshal, H. T. Harris; attorney, W. J. Buchan. 

1875 — Mayor, Charles Hains; councilmen, Russell Burdette, R. E. 
Cable, George Grubel, P. W. Meyer, J. Reid, T. B. Roberts, L. Schleifer, 

F. Speck ; police judge M. B. Newman ; marshal, H. T. Harris ; attorney, 
W. J. Biichan ; treasurer, J. C. Stout ; clerk, W. Albright ; assessor, G. 
W. Bishop ; engineer, P. House ; street commissioner, J. P. Taber. 

1876 — Mayor, Charles Hains ; councilmen, C. Anderson, Russell 
Burdette, H. E. Chadborn, J. L. Conklin, George Greubel, J. Hanford, 
H. C. Long, M. M. Stover ; police judge, M. B. Newman ; marshal, M. 
Collins ; clerk, W. Albright ; treasurer, J. W. Wahlemaier ; assessor, 

G. W. Bishop ; engineer, P. House ; street commissioner, P. Kramer ; 
attorney, P. B. Anderson. 

1877 — Mayor, Fred Speck; marshal, Mike Collins; police judge, 
R. E. Cable ; treasurer ; J. W. Wahlemaier ; treasurer board of education, 
Perley Pike ; attorney, P. B. Anderson ; councilmen. L. Cook, Dan Wil- 
liams, R. Burdette, J. C. Welsh; board of education, R. Ilalford, J. P. 
Dennison, J. H. Gadd, A. N. Moyer. 

1878 — Mayor, Fred Speck; marshal, Michael Collins; treasurer, 


K. Serviss ; treasurer board of edueation, Perley Pike ; attorney, F. B. 
Andei-son ; councilmen, John E. Zeitz, M. M. Stover, J. Lecompt, James 
S. Bell; board of education, Caleb Crothers, W. R. Chapman, James 
Furgason, H. C. Darby. 

1879 — Mayor, J. S. Stockton ; treasurer, Chris. Bemhard ; police 
judge, R. E. Cable ; attorney, J. A. Hale ; treasurer board of education, 
Chris Bernhard ; councilmen, Lawson Cook, J. W. Wahlenmaier, Dan 
Williams, V. S. Lucas, John Burk; board of education, J. L. Conklin, 
P. H. Knobloek, James S. Gibson, G. W. Bishop. 

1880 — Mayor, J. S. Stockton; marshal, H. T. Harris; councilmen, 
Louis Burnett, Daniel Williams, D. E. Cornell, James S. Bell ; board of 
education, H. C. Darby, W. R. Chapman, James Furgason, C. Anderson ; 
attorney, J. A. Hale; police judge, R. E. Cable; treasurer, Chris Bern- 

1881 — Mayor, R. E. Cable ; marshal, V. S. Lucas ; police judge, F. 

B. Anderson ; treasurer, Chris Bernhard ; attorne,y, Henry McGrew ; 
councilmen, Louis Burnett, Peter Lugibihle, T. B. Roberts, D. E. Cor- 
nell, James S. Bell, Daniel Williams, J. C. Stout, George A. Dudley; 
board of education, Emile Kreiser, H. C. Darby, P. H. Knobloek, W. R. 
Chapman, C. D. Schrader, W. C. Lyman, C. Anderson. 

1882-3— Mayor, R. E. Cable; clerk, Ed. H. Sager; treasurer, C. 
Bernhard ; police judge, T. B. Anderson ; attorney, Henry McGrew ; 
engineer, Walter Hale ; street commissioner, Thomas McCauley ; marshal, 
H. T. Harris; councilmen, John B. Scroggs, E. A. Webster, D. E. Cor- 
nell, Charles Hains, George A. Dudley, Thomas H. Roberts, Charles 
Wilson, J. C. Boddington, James Brennan, D. Albert, Peter Lugi- 
bihle and J. C. Stout. 

1883-5— Mayor, D. E. Cornell; clerk, H. E. Chadborn ; attorney, 
Henry McGrew ; treasurer, Louis Burnett; engineer, R. E. Ela; street 
commissioner, W. H. Brown ; police judge, George W. Betts ; marshal, 0. 
K. Serviss. 

1883-4 — Councilmen, John E. Zeitz, Thomas Schultz, James Bren- 
nan, Henry Horstman, J. C. Boddington, Charles Hains, George A. 
Dudley, T. C. Foster, J. B. Scoggs, E. A. Webster, Charles Wilson, W. 
A. Eldridge. 

1884-5— Councilmen, W. P. Overton, J. J. Hannan, M. B. Haskell, 
Frank Jfapes, C. D. Montayue, William Clow, J. C. Boddington, Charles 
Dudley, Thomas C. Poster, Henry Horstman, Joseph Leaf, Theodore 

1885-6 — Mayor, J. C. Martin ; clerk, John Warren ; treasurer, F. 
S. Merstetter; attorney, R. P. Clark; engineer, Everett Walker; street 
commissioner, N. J. Abbott ; police judge, J. D. Green ; marshal 0. K. 

Councilmen, W. P. Overton, Joseph Leaf, James Wheeler, E. A. 
Webster, M. B. Haskell, H. F. Johnson, Frank Mapes, G. W. Bishop, 

C. D. Montanye, R. F. Robison, William Clow and Charles Hilton. 



Free State Boomers Started Quind.vko — Other River Ports Out- 
distanced — Kansas Merchandise Landed There — A Town of Real 
Live Men — What Killed Old Quindaro — Early Kansas Politics — 
How Quindaro Lost Out. 

Almost hid beneath a mass of creeping, thick-leaved vines, inhabited 
by owls and bats and infested with snakes and insects, their gray stone 
walls cmnibling and falling down from age and decay, are the ruins of 
old Quindaro, thi-ee miles above the mouth of the Kansas. Like some 
flitting mirage of a stormy, almost forgotten period, these old ruins are 
a grim reminder of a "future great" metropolis that, for the brief 
period of its life, was the most pi-omising town on the Jlissouri river 
above St. Louis. 

The history of Kansas contains no chapter more pathetic than that 
which telLs of the rise and fall of .some of the early towns. They exist 
today only in memory, or as ruins that stand as monuments to the mis- 
placed judgment of brave and loval men. Their aim was to lay the 
foundation, on Kansas soil, for the gateway through which the tide of 
humanity and commerce was to forever flow from the east to west and 
from west to east. And there were nine of these "gateways" scattered 
like beacon lights along the Missouri shore in Kansas. They all flourished 
for a time in the territorial days of the fifties. Then in the early days 
of statehood in the sixties they fell one by one, as victims in the tragic 
conquest of development before those rival towns with which chance and 
fate seemed to deal more kindly. Atchison, Leavenworth and Wyan- 
dotte .survived. The latter, becoming a part of Kansas City, Kansas, 
shared the good fortune which the railroads brought and the "gateway" 
was builded at the place where the Kansas river, flowing through Kan- 
sas, joins the Missouri river. An old steamboat captain once said of 
old Quindaro : ' ' She was the rippinest, snortinest thing that ever 
happened while her paddles were workin', an' they wa'n't no bloomin' 
.side-wheeler agoin' to catch her when she was a-throwin' soap suds. 
But she struck a snag an ' that was the end of her. ' ' 

Free State Boomers Started Quindaro. 

The to\\-ns of Kansas City, Leavenworth and Atchison were con- 



sidered pro-slavery ports. The Free State people wanted a "port of 
entry" of their own, for the emigrants from the east who were flocking 
to Kansas ; so they started Qi;indaro. The land was pui*ehased from 
some Wyandot Indians and in December, 1856, 0. II. Bassett, a surveyor, 
staked out the townsite. It had a long frontage on the river where the 
rocky shore afforded a permanent harbor which would not be affected 
by the shifting sands that so often changed the cliannel. It ran back 
across the stretch of bottom land and up the jagged bluffs for an average 
distance of three-quarters of a mile. 

Three months after the townsite was laid out a big four story stone 
hotel, the largest in the country, was opened. It had forty-five rooms, 
it was full all the time and guests were sleeping on the ofiRee floor and in 
the halls. The boom was on. Free State people were coming with a 
rush. They were men of means. They put money into the town. 
Big stone business blocks and warehouses went up on the levee and 
frame dwellings were builded on the hills, many of them with the 
front ends standing on stilts. Great stocks of merchandise were brought 
to the place and a large trade was established with the interior. Churches 
were erected by the Methodists and Congregationalists. A stone school 
house was also erected, and the largest saw mill in Kansas was started 
up. It had a daily capacity for making sixteen thousand feet of lum- 
ber. There was a big wood-yard along the levee, and the enterprising 
town company threw in an extra cord with every cord bought for a 
steamboat. Along with the advancing civilization came a newspaper, 
the CJrin-ckj-ican. The name signified "Leader," and it was well 
named. It was run by John M. Walden, now a bishop of the Methodist 
Episcopal church at Cincinnati. When he got tired he turned it over 
to the Quindaro Town Company and it was run by Colonel George W. 
Veale, M. B. Newman and Vincent J. Lane. 

Other Rivee Ports Out-Distanced. 

By midsummer of 1857 Quindaro had every other city on the river 
well-nigh off the map. Shares of the town company's stock were 
popping out of sight. Speculative values in real estate were corre- 
spondingly high. They had auction sales of lots, and the lots brought 
one hundred and fifty to one thou.sand five hundred dollars, according to 

The town was named for Mrs. Quindaro Guthrie, wife of Abelard 
Guthrie, vice president of the town company. He was a white man, 
native of Ohio and an ardent Free State advocate. He was the in- 
stigator and prime mover of the scheme and the town was laid out on 
Mrs. Guthrie's land. She was a Wyandot Indian. Her namt, 
Quindaro, has been interpreted to mean "in union there Ls strength." 
It was a good name, for every man, woman and child who landed there 
went into the business of pulling for the town. 


When the demand uame for a feri-y, a ferry boat was put into service 
between Quindaro and Parkville on the Missouri side. Captain Otis 
Webb was in command and it was one of the finest ferryboats on the 
river. A stage line was opened to Lawrence. Then the Quindaro Town 
Company sent an agent to Cincinnati. He bought the "Lightfoot, " 
a light draft steamer, and brought it up the river, and the company 
established a regidar packet service between Quindaro and Lawrence 
up the Kansas river. The time came when railroads were needed, and 
the Quindaro Town Company was into the game at the start. The 
Quindaro, I'arkville & Burlington Railroad Company was organized to 
build a line to Cameron to connect with the Hannibal & St. Joseph. 
It was never built — but that is another story. 

Kansas Merchandise Landed There. 

Nearly all of the merchandise for southern Kansas was landed at 
Quindaro. The outfit for the Emporia News, Senator Preston B. 
Plumb's paper, was taken off a steamboat at Quindaro. It was a great 
river port, often as many as six steamboats being tied up there at one 

There were shrewd Yankees among those men of old Quindaro. The 
company comprised many of the most prominent men of the territory. 
They were men of large resources, infinite energy and wide acquaintance 
and influence. They had thrown themselves into the enterprise with a 
vigor, determination and shrewdness which in anything attainable would 
have insured success. They left no stone unturned to compass their 
end. and were so confident of the outcome that most of them ventured 
their all in the undertaking. The members of the company gave the 
enterprise their personal attention and their personal influence, taking 
their own chances with the town to which they invited their friends and 
for which thej^ solicited capital. And they knew something about the 
value of printer's ink. For instance, James Redpath ("J. R. ") an- 
nounced in the Ncii^ Yorlx Trihunc, Horace Greeley's paper, that: "Gov- 
ernor Robinson is in Boston on business for Quiudaro. As an example of 
'great expectations' it was announced that one half million dollars had 
already been subscribed for investment in the town ; that a hotel, a saw 
mill, a grist mill aud a machine shop would be erected before spring, 
and a paper mill worth ten thousand dollars would be put up in May or 

A Town of Real Live Men. 

The late Richard Cordley of Lawrence, who landed there in the 
palmy days, wrote of old Quindaro and its boomers : 


' ' Many and various were the ways which these managers devised to brine, 
the attractions of their city before the public. Correspondents of eastern papers, 
who were continually traveling over the territory at the time, were all sure to be 
taken to Quindaro. While there they were treated like princes, were shown all 
the fine points of the town and the brilliant plans concerning it. They naturally 
filled their letters with Quindaro. Versatile and many-sided were these men of 
Quindaro. They had a political side and appealed effectively to the rising anti- 
slavery sentiment of the country. Were not Kansas City, Leavenworth and 
Atchison pro-slavery towns, controlled by border ruffian minions? Were not the 
Free State men entitled to a port of entry of their own, where their friends 
could land without being insulted, and where they could depend upon fair dealing, 
and not be at the mercy of pro-slavery land sharks and speculators? 

' ' Then the members of the town company had a religious side. They were 
concerned for the welfare of Zion. Like David, they wanted to provide a place 
for the ark. The Independent, The Congregationalist and other great religious 
papers contained frequent correspondence, and long and well written articles, show- 
ing how all the great trade lines from the west converged at this point. What 
a center of religious influence it would be! How it might be made the very 
Fulcrum on which the moral lever must be set to lift the west; the very 'Pou 
Sto, ' so to speak, of western evangelism! The first Minutes of the Congregational 
Association contained the following statement in its Narrative of the State of 
Religion: 'There is a vigorous colony of Congregationalists at Quindaro, possessed 
of ample means to put in operation the oridinances of the Gospel. They have appro- 
priated $10,000 to build a church, and offer a liberal support to a minister. ' 

"All this and much more we had read before coming. The first feeling 
on landing was one of disappointment. But the people soon brushed this feeling 
away. They were all so enthusiastic and so confident that one soon began to 
feel ashamed of any such a thing as doubt. Everybody knew so well the ground 
on which the future of the town rested that all your questions were quieted 
and all your objections dissipated. They would point confidently to what had 
already been done. 'Here are stone warehouses, graded streets, dwelling houses 
scattered over the bluffs, and hundreds of people. All this has been done in six 
months. Now take your pencil and figure up what six years will do. Multiply 
the present by six, and then multiply that by two. Besides that we are 
accumulating resources all the while, and to-morrow will not only be as to-day, 
but more abundant. ' 

' ' At first the stranger was inclined to smile at their enthusiasm, but after 
a little he caught the contagion and was very likely to be the wildest man in 
the lot. In a few weeks he would be writing to his friends to ask them to lend 
him money to invest in Quindaro. So it happened that many a man, accounted 
a safe and careful business man at home, invested all the money he could raise or 
borrow in Quindaro real estate and felt himself rich in the purchase. In five years 
from that time he could not have sold his lots for the taxes assessed against them. 
These were not unseasoned ' tender feet ' that were thus deceived, but men of 
business sagacity and large experience. 

' ' There is nothing in human ex-perience like this town-building madness. It 
is more contagious than yellow fever and more fatal than the Asiatic cholera. 
It attacks all sorts and conditions of men, and is no respector of persons. Good 
sense and simplicity are alike before it, business shrewdness and rural innocence are 
equally exposed to it. In this case of Quindaro, shrewd and cautious men caught 
the contagious madness, 'the delicious delirium,' and rushed wildly into what 
seems now to have been the most patent folly." 


What Killed Old Quindaeo? 

It was argiied by some that the location was nnin\'iting, that it 
should have been built further down the river near the mouth of the 
Kaw. But whatever the cause, the war had something to do with its 
failure. The frequent raids of guerrillas and border ruffians in Kansas 
made property inseeure. The lives of the Free Staters were imperiled. 
Many left for other parts, others joined the army, and only a few re- 
mained. Then when troops of the Second Cavalry were stationed there 
and the horses were stabled in the warehouses, there was little left to 
protect. The town went down. Steamboat traffic ceased; the rail- 
roads were built to Kansas City and Wyandotte ; and that was the last 
of Quindaro. 

There are only a few of the men of old Quindaro now living to tell 
the story. They are scattered here and there about the country. Joel 
Walker was president of the town comi^any and Abelard Guthrie, who 
ran an underground railroad during the war, was vice president, while 
Charles Robinson, who was to be the first governor of Kansas after it 
became a free state, was treasurer. All tliree are dead. Samuel N. 
Simpson, secretary of the company, is the only survivor of the original 
officers. He is engaged in the real estate business in Kansas City, 
Kansas. George W. Veale, who was a big merchant in Quindaro and 
who was for many years tax commissioner for the Union Pacific in 
Kansas, is a resident of Topeka. V. J. Lane, who recently suspended 
the publication of the Wyandotte Herald rather than let it fall into new 
hands, was one of those old boomers. Sam Smith, who was Governor 
Robinson's private secretary, lives somewhere in New England. R. M. 
Gray of Kansas City, Kansas, was one of the early comers. Samuel C. 
Pomeroy, afterward United States senator; Sylvester Dana Storrs, a 
member of the famous Andover band, which landed at Quindaro, and 
many others who had to do with the old town, have pa&sed away. 

But now — more than fifty years after — it appears that the logic of 
these men was not far astray after all. Thej^ lived and wrought before 
their time. Today the once rival village of Wyandotte, three miles 
down the river is a part of the great city of Kansas City, Kansas. It 
has reached out to the north and west and the little village of Quindan 
in the hills, back of where the original town stood, has been swallowea 
up. It is now a part of the Port of Entry, Kansas City, Kansas. 

Eaely Kansas Politics. 

There was plenty of politics in Quindaro in the territorial days. 
Leavenworth county extended all the way down to the state line and 
embraced all of the present county of Wyandotte. Naturally the politi- 
cians up there tried to run everything politically. One day in 1859 a 
crowd came down to Quindaro from Leavenworth to hold a Democratic 


rally. Charles Click, a brother of George W. Click, who was afterwards 
governor, was a favorite son of old Wyandotte. The Leavenworth 
fellows were jealous of Click and planned to keep him from spealdng, 
but Click fooled them. He slipped out into the crowd and asked an 
Irishman to call for him to speak. 

"The meeting was going along smoothly," said V. J. Lane, who tells 
the story. "The Leavenworth speakers were coming on and off the 
platform when that Irishman began to call out, 'Gleek, Gleek!' The 
chairman of the meeting would hold up his hands to silence the Irish- 
man, but as one speaker would leave and another would take his place 
the Irishman kept up such a racket that the chairman finally motioned 
for Click to take a seat on the platform. When the speaker finished 
Wyandotte's favorite son arose to deliver an address on the Democratic 
issues. He had uttered only four or five sentences when that Irishman 
again howled, ' Cleek, Cleek ! ' The chairman arose and said : 
" 'My friend, Mr. Click is now addressing this meeting.' 
" 'That's a dom lie ! He is the man who asked me to call for Gleek.' 
"And Charley Click ran his hands through his hair and went on 
with his speech." 

How QuiNDABO Lost Out. 

Ceorge W. Veale, in an address before the Kansas Historical 
Society on his retirement from the presidency of the society, December 1, 
1908, told how Quindaro lost out. Mr. Veale said : "When the new coun- 
ty of Wyandotte was organized and Wyandotte made the county seat, 
Quindaro began to wane. The powerful influences from the county seat 
began to be felt. Another sun had risen, the beams of which did not 
reach Quindaro. However, the prophecies of its free state friends failed 
to hold up the load of public opinion in favor of the new county seat, and 
in spite of its commercial advantages Wyandotte grew but little during 
the war. 

"Quindaro died easily; no more struggles after the war. She has 
now however, an endearing monument upon her site, The Freedmen's 
ITniversity of Kansas (under the patronage of the state, and known as 
'Western University'). It was at Quindaro that I raised my company 
of men for the war under the first call of the president for volunteers. 
I have my commission yet, dated April 29, 1861, signed by Charles 
Robinson, governor. 

"The year 1859 was rather a quiet one, and 1860 was the dry year— 
so dry that in our part of Wyandotte county we did not get a mess of 
beans or roasting ears to eat ; it was all dried fruit from the state. The 
lower jaw of many of our citizens fell, and their faces became as long as 
the moral law. Many families left the territory, and most of those who 
stayed had to have help. The undaunted courage and staying quali- 
ties of those earlier settlers who remained and fought it out proved them 
the backbone of our future state." 



Families There Ninety Yeaks Ago — Westport a Great Trade 
Center — When the Town Was Born — A Real Estate Boom — An 
Unpromising Town — When Cholera Struck the Place — The First 
Mayoralty Election — Benton's Famous Prophecy — A Traveling 
Post Office — Steamboat and Trail Trade — First Public Improve- 
ments — The Civil War Brought Ruin — Return to Peace — Hotels on 
THE Levee — The Hannibal Bridge Helped — Benton's Prophecy 

It would be difficult to write of the early history of Wyandotte 
county and of its cities and towns, without dealing with topics connected 
with the early times of the whole community comprising those settle- 
ments round about the junction of the Missouri and Kansas rivers on 
both sides of the line which separates the two cities that bear the same 
name. Hence this chapter shall have reference particularly to those 
things that have to do with Kansas City, Missouri, which is intimately 
associated in its early history with Kansas City. Kansas. 

Daniel Morgan Boone, third son of the great pioneer, was probably 
the first white man to really appreciate the advantages of this neighbor- 
hood as a good place in which to live. He pushed his way out here in 
the early part of 1790. Though but eighteen years old, he left his 
home in Fort Hamilton, just west of Cincinnati, and after a thirty days' 
trip reached what was then the trading post of St. Louis. There he 
stayed a month or so, and then set out westward again, proceeding all 
the way to the "great American desert." He liked the looks of the 
western land.s and it was because of his glowing descriptions of them that 
his father afterward emigrated to Boone county, Missouri. As for 
young Boone, he cleared a home place for himself near where Westport 
is now. And there he lived. And there he died full of years. And 
his body rests in an unmarked grave in the old Westport burying ground. 

About the time the Boones were setting out for Boone county, a 
Frenchman, Louis Grandlouis, with his family, left the French village 
of St. Charles and came to what was one day to be Kansas City. His 
wife was the first white woman of the new settlement at the mouth of 
the Kansas river. As late as 1845 she lived in a log cabin in the bot- 



toms, about where the Loose- Wiles factory is today. The Grandlonis 
family arrived here about the year 1800. 

There was another woman, however, to question priority with Mme. 
Grandlouis. This was Mme. Berenice Chouteau. Whereas the Grand- 
louises lived for three or four years after their first arrival at the 
present site of the Randolph bridge — and so scarcely in "Kansas City" 
— the Chouteaus lived in a cabin on the Missouri river front in Kansas 
City, Missouri. The honors of being the first white woman are there- 
fore somewhat divided. 

Families There Ninety Years Ago. 

In 1820 there was a strong tide of emigration from Kentucky, 
Virginia and North Carolina to Missouri, but up to this time the settling 
had mostly been done by the French. For example, in 1820 most of 
the people at what was to be Kansas City were of five families, the 
Grandlouis, the Prudhommes, the Chouteaus, the Sublettes, and the 
Guinottes. But now came the Chicks, the Campbells, the Smarts and 
McDaniels, the Jenkins, the Lykins, the Rice.s, the Scarritts, the McGees, 
the Gillises, the Mulkeys, the Gregorys, the Troosts and the Hopkins. 

In 1823 there were two settlements — one in the West bottoms, called 
"Kan.sasmouth," the other at about what is now Second and Guinotte 
streets. In these days Independence was growing and flourishing. It 
had a thriving trade and everything seemed coming its way. Its 
enterprising merchants established the first railroad in Missouri in the 
thirties, from their town to the river. For some reason this railroad 
did not pay and now even the route it took has been forgotten. 

Westport a Great Trade Center. 

It was about the time its railroad was fizzling that Independence 
began to realize it had a rival. Westport had been established in 1833, 
by John C. McCoy, four miles south of the river. And Westport grew 
at a famous rate. Trade ran to it as water runs down hill. And 
embryo Kansas City grew and flourished, too, as Westport Landing. 
It was a trading point in the state for the various Indian tribes west of 
the border, consisting of the Shawnees, Delawares, Kickapoos, Ottawas, 
Chippewas, Peorias, Kaskaskias, Piankashaws, Weas (pronounced 
Weaws), Kansas and Osages, and the various wild tribes of the plains. 
A few years later came the Pottawotomies, Wyandots, Sac and Foxes 
and smaller bands. The western border of Missouri was now being 
rapidly settled and the trade of the new comers and the Indian tribes . 
made Westport a prosperous town. All articles of merchandise came 
into the country by steamboats on the Missouri river, and landed at 
Chouteau's warehouse about two miles east to the north end of Grand 
avenue, near where Cleveland avenue intersects the river. 


When the Town Was Born. 

In 1838 Kansas City, which was then known as Westport Landing, 
was located on the Missouri river one mile east of the state line. West- 
port Landing was, in 1838, a queer little hamlet, altogether on the 
levee — mostly between what is now Main street and Grand avenue. W. 
B. Evans had kept the first warehouse, in 1834-5. He had been suc- 
ceeded by P. M. Chouteau. In 1838 Gabriel Pnidhomme died, and in 
settling his estate, in November of that year, the first steps toward the 
Kansas City of to-day were taken. Prudhomme had owned 256 acres, 
which would today be described as bounded by the river on the north. 
Cherry street on the east, Missouri avenue on the south and Broadway 
on the west. This land was sold at auction to a company, which bought 
it as a site for a town, paying for it the handsome sum of $1,220. Notice 
of this sale, and a tempting advertisement of the beauties of the land for 
home and business purposes, was published in the Liberty Far West 
and the Missouri Bepuhlican of St. Louis. The first town company 
was comprised of W. L. Sublette, Moses G. Wilson, John C. McCoy, 
William Gilliss, Fry P. McGee, Abraham Fonda, W. ]M. Chick, Oliver 
Caldwell, G. W. Tate, Jacob Ragan, William Collins, James Smart, 
Sam C. Owens and Russell Hicks. The "town of Kansas" was incor- 
porated, and on May 1, 1839, the first sale of real estate was held. The 
"town of Kansas," that was in due time to be the "City of Kansas," 
was thus put on the map. 

A Real Estate Boom. 

At this first sale but few lots were disposed of. There were 
knockers even then. They declared that it was preposterous to 
that there would ever be a town built on such a corrugated piece of 
landscape as Kansas City's site presented. Resides, they urged, that 
the town had been irregularly incorporated ; that certain very essential 
matters of legal detail had been overlooked ; that a luimber of things 
had l)een done which really should have been left undone, and so on, 
and so on, at such length that the sale stopped. The courts upheld the 
knockers, and it was eight years before the next sale of realty in the 
' ' town of Kansas ' ' came off. 

At the first sale, however, when, whether regularly or irregularly 
the "town of Kansas" got its definite location and its name, the first 
lot was l)Ought by W. B. Evans for .$155. Lot No. 3 went to J. H. 
McGee for $70 ; lot No. 5, to F. Kleber, for $52. These lands were sold 
on six years' time, interest at 10 per cent. As has been said, this sale 
of 1839 was interrupted by the knockers. Nothing more was done until 
April 30, 1846, when another .sale was held and 124 lots were sold at 
prices ranging from $25 to $341 per hit. The average was $55 the 


lot. These lots were 60 feet front with a depth of 142 feet. The sale 
brought $6,820, and was considered a big thing. During 1899, sixty 
years after the town was started, Kansas City's realty transfers totaled 

On May 3, 1847, the town of Kansas held its first election and Pry 
P. McGee was chosen "collector." 

At a town meeting held May 8, this same year, is the first mention 
of a newspaper. The Wcsterv Expositor was voted twenty dollars for 

On July 19, 1847, the shareholders in the townsite drew lots for 
the lauds left unsold and the new town was fairly under way. 

An Unpromising Town. 

The new town was unpromising enough at first sight. It was al- 
most entii-ely confined to the levee — off the levee there was no business 
at all until 1851. Prom the farms of Westport and the region about 
it, the landing was reached by way of a lane that utilized the cut made 
by a small stream to get through the bluffs at about where Grand avenue 
now is. This lane was known then as Market street. The first step 
in public improvements by the new town was the cutting of a wagon road 
through the bluff at Main street. Then, as the levee became rather 
crowded in a year or so, the smaller stores began to climb over into the 
present north side district. 

It was a decidly rugged site for a town ; Kansas City is as level as 
a floor to-day. by comparison. There were practically no flat places 
then. The whole town at the outset wa.s made vip of steep, muddy, 
rocky hills, covered with towering timber, and slashed with deep ravines, 
plowed out by rushing streams. One of these gorge-like ravines began 
about where Twelfth and Broadway now is and extended in a north- 
westerly direction, cutting deep thro\igh clay and rock to the river, at 
a point just west of the present foot of Broadway. 

Another similar ravine was the course of a stream that started at 
Twelfth and Walnut, flowed northwesterly to about Ninth and Delaware, 
thence northeasterly the public square to Pourth and Grand, 
where it united with a spring branch from the south and ran to the 
river. This stream has been utilized by the builders of the city. It 
is now the main sewer. At the public square it is one hundred and 
eighty feet beneath the surface. This same gully was responsible for 
]\Iain street's crookedness. It followed the old valley to avoid, as far 
as possible, cuts and hills. 

Some idea of the landscape in Kansas town may be gathered from 

an excerpt from the Reverend Pather Bernard Donnelly's reminiscences. 

He was Kansas City's first priest. In 1839 he was established in a 

« little log church and parsonage in a clearing at what has become 


Eleventh and Penn. He wrote : " I strolled through the tall forest of 
the ten acres. The site was romantic, retired and solitary. The man- 
ners and habits of the woodpeckers, paroqviets, jaybirds, black and rattle- 
snakes, coons and squirrels were a soiirce of amusing study to me." 

When Cholera Struck the Place. 

In 1849 tlie town of Kansas met with its first serious setback. It 
was a terrible one. The cholera came. The first day it is said to 
have taken off thirty of the three hundred* population. A Mormon 
colony on "0. K. " creek was completely wiped out. In those 
days it was McGee creek, by the way, getting the name of 0. K. from the 
"0. K. House" saloon that was established about this time just where 
the Westport road, now Grand avenue, crosses the creek. The cholera 
drove everybody who could get away out of the town. Scarcely enough 
people were left to bury the dead. Nearly thirty per cent of the people 
of the town died. But after the dread scourge had passed on the people 
began to come in great numbers. By IMarch, 1853, less than three years 
after the plague, the trees about the town were one morning found 
placarded with notices to the effect that John M. Richardson had granted 
a charter to the "City of Kansas," and that an election for mayor and 
members of the council would be held on the first Monday in April. 

Of course the knockers knocked. "Old inhabitants," we are told, 
could see no reason why their property should be saddled with the ex- 
pense of a city government. They submitted that the nature of its 
environments was such that the town of Kansas could never in the world 
become a real city. They were for continuing the economical town 
government as all that was either necessary or reasonable. 

The First Mayoralty Election. 

But notwithstanding the knocks the progressive citizens went ahead 
and held an election. Sixty-five votes were cast. William Gregory, 
the Whig candidate for mayor got thirty-six votes, against his Demo- 
cratic opponent's, D. Benoist Troost, twent.y-seven. Gregory was de- 
clared elected, but after he had been duly inaugurated it was found he 
had not lived in town long enough to be eligible and so the president of 
the council. Dr. Johnston Lykins, who had been connected with the 
ShawTiee Baptist mission, was called on to take his place and served out 
the term. 

The first council was Democratic. Its members were Johnston 
Lykins, T. 11. West. W. G. Barkley, Thompson McDaniels and M. J. 

To the new city treasurer, a ]\Ir. Chouteau, who was appointed by 
Mayor Lykins, Samuel Geir, who Iiad been treasurer of the "Town of 


Kansas," turned over a full accounting of the town's affairs and its cash, 
$7.22! Kansas City's total revenue for the first year was estimated 
at i|!5,000 ; and during the year just closing the city has been cramped 
with $790,000. 

Benton's Famous Prophecy. 

One of the very first things the new council did was to invite Thomas 
IT. Benton to visit the "City of Kansas." And "Old Bullion" ac- 
cepted and soon after came up the river on a packet, was met at Ran- 
dolph with much ceremony by Mayor Lykins and Couneilmen M. J. 
Payne and W. G. Barkley. It was during this visit that Benton made 
his prophecy as to Kansas City's future which has been pointed to with 
pride by every Kansas City boomer. It follows : 

"There, gentlemen, where that rooky bluft' meets and turns aside the sweep- 
ing the current of this mighty river there, where the Missouri, after running its 
southward course for nearly two thousand miles, turns eastward to the Mississippi, 
a large commercial and manufacturing community will congregate, and less than 
a generation will see a great city on those hills." 

Colonel M. J. Payne was elected mayor in 1855 and re-elected for 
the years 1856, 1857, 1858, 1859 and 1862. There is no telling how 
many more times he might have been mayor, had he kept on running. 

A Traveling Post Office. 

Business in the new city was good from the first. Even while it 
was only "Westport Landing" the town had been a lively little place, 
rather like one of the far western mining camps of later times. There 
was business from the start. The pioneer white man was a trader. 
The first "general store" in the modern sense was started about 1846 
by A. B. Canville. This was on the levee, of course. Canville ran 
it about a year and then sold out to W. J. Jarboe. 

The post office was first established in 1845 — and never to this day 
has there been a defalcation or a robbery in connection with it. W. M. 
Chick was the first postmaster. The mail used to arrive and depart 
weekly, via Westport. Up to 1860 the office was on the levee. Francis 
Foster was the "war postmaster." He was appointed by President 
Lincoln. The first thing he did was to remove the office to a building 
specially fitted for it on Main street, just south of Third. This office 
had boxes and other regular postal fixtures — the first the city had had. 
In 1869 the post office was removed to Main, near Missouri avenue. 
In 1872 John S. Harris, appointed postmaster by President Grant, re- 
moved the office to the northwestern corner of Seventh and Main. 

It was here that Colonel T. S. Case found the office when he was ap- 
Vol. 1—8 


pointed postmaster in 1873. He broke all olficial records, for he, 
after his first appointment by President Grant, was re-appointed by 
Presidents Hayes and Garfield and ser^'ed for twelve years, nntil Presi- 
dent Cleveland was elected and superseded him with George M. Shelley. 
Postmaster Case removed the office, during his third term, to the 
northwest coraer of Sixth and Walnut, and then in 1884 to Ninth and 
Walnut, in what was then the "new" Federal building. Now it occu- 
pies three floors of the great Federal building on Grand avenue from 
Eighth to Ninth street, and back to McGee .street. 

Steamboat and Trail Trade. 

The first general store, started bv Mr. Canville in 1846, did not long 
hold a monopoly. Other stores soon followed. The Mexican trade 
over the Santa Fe trail was growing fast, and already amounted to about 
$5,000,000 a year in the early forties. The wagon trains naturally 
started from here, as the farthest west reached by the Missoiiri river 
boats. While at first Independence and Westport were the recognized 
towns and Kansas City was a mere landing, the superior advantages 
of the landing steadily asserted themselves. 

In 1850 the record shows that 600 wagons started from Kansas City. 
Ten years later, in 1860, the trade had become enormous, and amounted 
to 16,439,134 pounds of merchandise. To handle this there were re- 
quired 7,084 men, 6,147 mules, 27,920 yoke of oxen and 3,033 wagons. 

The levee was a lively place, five or six big river steamers l.^dng 
there loading or unloading every day. During the nine months' navi- 
gation of 1859 there landed at the Kansas City 1,500 steamboats. 

The railroads made short work of this river trade, though the.y made 
ample return for it. The first railroad to reach Kansas City from the 
east was the line that is now the Missouri Pacific. Its first train came 
in September 21, 1865. Other roads followed fast. 

And in 1873 the annual steamboat arrivals had fallen off from 1,500 
to 130. Since then there have been attempts to restore the boat service. 
In 1890 there was a general popular uprising against raih'oad rates. 
A steamboat line, the Kansas City and Missouri River Navigation Com- 
pany, was established, and three first-class packets ordered. The first 
of these, the "A. L. Mason," arrived at the Kansas City levee in the fall 
of 1890. This craft worked a revolution. As The Times of those 
days put it: "Evejw turn of her wheel cut freight rates in two." The 
rates came down and stayed down, and the boats were sent to other 
more promising territory, where the water was deeper and the railroad 
competition less vigorous. 

Now there is another great movement for the restoration of river 
traffic to which a million dollars has been subscribed; boats are being 
built and the river is being improved. 


First Public Improvements. 

Things were booming in Kansas City in the later fifties. A tidy 
part of the millions involved in the Santa Fe trade stuck in town. In 
1855 the little eity began to feel ashamed of its unkempt appearance, and 
besides the mud streets — hub-deep a good part of the time — were hin- 
drances to trade. The council decided on a grand spurt of public im- 
provement. That first year Market street — now Grand avenue — was 
graded. And Contractor Michael Smith got $1,200 for the job. 

Then the knockers took a hand and it was nearly two years before 
they were quieted. But in 1857 the wheels of progress began to move 
again. The eity spent $26,229 in street improvements, as follows: On 
the levee, $10,387; Broadway, $4,771; Wyandotte street, $5,539; Dela 
ware street, $715; Connnercial street, $2,918; Main .street, $893; Third 
street, $285; Second street, $721. Besides all this the city invested 
$4,637 more in a new city hall and court hoiLse building on the public 

In this same year (1857) the old town grave yard, in front of the 
present Jackson county court house, and of late years known as "Shel- 
ley park," was seen to be altogether too small and too near the center 
of population. Westport had been making a similar discovery. A 
committee of representative men of both places met and discussed the 
problem. A company had just finished grading and macadamizing 
the Westport turnpike between Westport and Kansas City, along what 
is now Grand avenue. It was decided to establish a cemetery on this 
pike, midway between the two cities, for the use of both. This was 
done, and from the idea that both cities were to use it the new burying 
ground was called the "Union cemetery." This cemetery was in those 
days thought to be far beyond the reach of either city — and it is now 
only about ten minutes from Kansas City's busiest center, considerably 
further inside than it used to be outside the city limits. 

The Civil War Brought Ruin. 

When the war began, according to the census, Kansas City had a 
population of 4,418. It had three banks and an insurance company, 
all sorts of stores and warehouses, one daily and three weekly news- 
papers (one German) — all was bright and promising. But the war 
paralyzed everything. The city was almost ruined. The bitterest 
sectional feeling divided the people. At the spring election the issue 
was ' ' north or south ? ' ' The northern element won by 109 vote.s, elect- 
ing Colonel Van Horn mayor. But from the narrow margin it can be 
appreciated that Kansas City was not then the pleasantest place in the 
world to live in. Business stopped. The Sante Fe trade was closed 
All the newspapers in town went broke and shut down. All school 
children were dismissed on holiday — no money for teachers. 


A military post. Fort Union, was established at the southwest r-orner 
of Tenth and Central streets and about all the northern sympathizers 
in the city used to assemble there and drill. One or two companies of 
them went out to battle — at Lexington and other nearby points. 

The population dropped about 25 per cent, to 3,000 or so. City 
warrants tumbled to 50 cents on the dollar ; and at that figure there were 
almost no buyers. The city trea.surer published a statement showing 
that the municipal assets were $16,120.20 and its liabilities, $13,090.84; 
balance in favor of assets, $3,029.26; cash actually on hand, $87.73. 

The Return to Peace. 

Things reached the lowest ebb in the winter of 1862. After that 
they began to pick up. In 1863 the government sent troops to pro- 
tect the Santa Fe traders and that business began to thrive once more; 
in six months it amounted to $1,000,000. The chamber of commerce was 
organized. Real estate became salable once more. A vacant lot on 
Sixth near Main brought $500; another on Walnut near Fifth sold for 

But at the close of the war the city was in deplorable shape, after 
four years or more of aksolute neglect. The streets were perfect quag- 
mires, hub-deep with mud even weeks after a rain, and on all the hills 
there were washouts and gullies that made traffic almost impossible. 
Peace came none too soon. But in the spring of 1865 the city negoti- 
ated a loan of $60,000 for public improvements; the money was spent 
in opening and grading Third, Fourth, Fifth and Ottawa (Twelfth) 
streets, and leveling the other thoroughfaras, and once more things be- 
gan to hum. 

In the spring of 1865 the city's first local bank was established by 
the Kansas City Savings Association, with a capital of $10,000. There 
had been two banking houses before ; founded since 184:9, but both were 
mere branches of two St. Louis institutions — the Mechanics' and Union 
banks. Kansas City's new bank flourished finely from the start. In 
five years it doubled its capital and shortly after raised it again to 
$50,000. In 1881 it had become too big for its savings-bank charter, 
which limited it to a capital of $100,000, and it took up a state charter 
and later still became a national concern. Kansas City's banking in- 
stitutions to-day have a combined capital of more than $20,000,000. 

Hotels on the Levee. 

Kansas City's firet hotel was established in 1846 by Thompson Mc- 
Daniel. It was a two-story frame at JIain and the levee. This was 
followed by a second hovise which Dr. Troost opened in 1849 on the 
levee, between Wyandotte and Delaware. This last was kno\vn at first 


as the Western hotel. Later on it became the American House, and still 
later the Gillis. In the season of 1856-7 this house registered 27,000 

In 1853 Mine Host McDaniel opened a new hotel, known as the 
Union house, at Missouri avenue and Main — "away out of town," on 
the site the Nelson building now occupies. This hotel was considered 
A No. 1, but was closed by the war and never recovered.. 

Since the war, Kansas City has held its head up proudly in the mat- 
ter of hotel accommodations. It has always been far and away super- 
ior to other cities of its class. 

The Hannibal Bridge Helped. 

In those days Leavenworth was a lusty rival of Kansas City and 
Wyandotte and it was a serious ciuestion which would eventually be the 
great center. The matter was settled in 1866 and 1867. The Hannibal 
and St. Joseph bridge was projected. The railroad people had little 
choice between Leavenworth and Kansas City. It became largely a 
question of inducements, which town would make the best bid. Of 
course the Kansas City knockers got up and knocked. They were op- 
posed to giving any bonus whatever for anytliing. If the railroad 
people really intended to build a bridge, they would build it, bonus or 
no bonus, and if they didn't — why, Kansas City had worried along very 
well all these years without any bridge, and it could probably do so in 
years to come — and all that sort of thing. But, fortunately, the knock- 
ers knocked in vain. A few live men pulled together and brought the 
new bridge to their town, and on August 21, 1867, the cornerstone of the 
new structure was laid. On the eve of the Fourth of July, two years 
later, the bridge was opened, amid great re,joicing. 

After the bridge matter was decided, new railroads came to Kansas 
City from all directions, until the present great aggregation of railroad 
systems was built up and Kansas City's future was assured. 

Benton's Prophecy Verified. 

Surely the events of a little more than seventy years have vindicated 
the judgment of Senator Benton, in the building of the great city at 
the state line on the Missouri side. Of the rest of the history of 
Kansas City, Missouri, it is scarcely necessary to touch here, save to 
observe that that city owes much of its greatness to the loyal support 
of the people of Kansas, and to the many strong men of that state who 
have given the best of their lives to help make it the great metropolis 
it now is. The knockers of Kansas City, Missouri, were not Kansans. 
It was the progressive men of the city that years ago sought to have the 
state line twisted so their city would be in Kansas — and failed of course. 
But that is another story, to he told by Hon. George W. Martin in hit> 
article in this work in the boundary line fights. 



First Glimpse op Kansas — When the Yankee Free State Men 
Came — Delights op Pioneer Travel by Steamboat — When Governor 
Reedeb Came and Went — First Steamboats to Navigate the Kansas 
River — The "Emma Harmons" Famous Trip — The "Lightpoot" 
Built in Kansas — A Not.vble Voyage up the Kansas River — Quin- 
daro's Famous Side- Wheeler — Kansas River Steamboats — Steam- 
boats That Went Down — When Boats Were Operated for the Rail- 
roads — An End to Steamboating. 

The steamboats that plied the Missouri and Kansas rivers in the 
fifties and si.xties, before the railroads were builded, had an important 
part in the making of Kansas and Wyandotte county. The hulks of 
steamboats of those early days that lie buried in the shifting sands of 
the Missouri round about the Wyandotte levee above the mouth of the 
Kansas river, or a few miles up stream or down stream, if only they 
might speak, could tell many delightful tales of that most charming, 
most picturesque and most potential epoch which our state, our county 
and our city has ever known. They were the common carriers of the 
commerce of the new west. More than that, they were freighted down 
with the ideals, the hopes and the ambitions of the Kansas emigrants, 
men and women, makers of Kansas. 

The wooden canoes of the Indians, the flotillas of pirogues of the 
French voyagers and traders, and their suecessoi-s, the keel boats, had 
disappeared from the western rivers and in their place had come steam- 
boats, some of them of splendid construction and magnificent in appoint- 
ments. It was said that in 1856 upwards of sixty steamboats were 
running on the Missouri from St. Louis up to Kansas City, Wyandotte, 
Quindaro and Leavenworth, and some of them to St. Josej)!!. The 
Kansas river also was traversed by steamboats of lighter draught, its 
navigability recognized, and the ports along the river as far up as 
Junction City felt the life-giving throb of their commerce until a legis- 
lature was hoodwinked by the railroad interests into a declaration of its 



First Glimpses of Kansas. 

Nearly all of those pioneers who figured in onr early history caught 
a first glimpse of Kansas from the deck of a steamboat in the Missouri 
river at the mouth of the Kansas river, and many are the delightful 
stories of the impressions of that first glimpse and of the emotions that 
were awakened. Hon. Albert R. Greene, one of those early day pio- 
neers, writing for the Kansas State Historical Society from Portland, 
Oregon, recently, gives the following first glimpse in 1855 of Wyandotte : 

"The first glimpse of the territory, obtained from the declv of a steamer 
ascending the Missouri, was at Wyandotte, where the Kansas river emerges froii 
the blufts and mingles its clear waters with the turbid and tawny flood of the 
greater stream. That was Kansas, the New England of the west, and the immi- 
grant in his enthusiasm as gladly gave up the Missouri for the Kansas as he 
exchanged the land of sloth, superstition and slavery for the heritage of freedom 
and honest labor. The writer speaks from experience. My father's family had 
been nearly ten days in coming from Peoria, Illinois, the most of the time on ar. 
over-crowded boat on the Missouri river, and when the clerk of the boat, the "A. 
B. Chambers," Mr. J. S. Chick, since prominent in the history of. Kansas City, 
pointed out a yellow hillside with a few uupainted shanties scattered along 
a winding road that led from the river to the dense oak woods at the top, and 
said, 'That's Kansas,' it seemed good to us. We were dumped out on the sandy 
shore of the river at the mouth of the Kansas, and pitched our tent among a com- 
munity of immigrants similarly situated, and waited for the promised boat to 
carry us and our effects up the river. A number of boats came down the river 
during the two weeks that we waited, but none ascended the river while we stayed 
there. Our experiences in this camp dispelled, in a large measure, the romantic 
illusions, received through the magnifying lenses of immigration literature. The 
gales which kept the sand in constant motion and deposited a portion of it regu- 
larh' in the cooking utensils around the camp fire ; the numerous muscular mosquitos 
that paid us nightly visits; the carousals of grog-soaked Indians, who made in- 
formal calls on us daily; the betrayal of confidence in a fellow immigrant, by which 
we suffered the loss of the family pictures, a wooden-wheel clock, a gi-indstone and 
Butterworth 's Concordance of the Holy Scriptures, etc., all tended to the conclusion 
that life in Kansas was not all an elysian dream. My pleasantest recollection 
of that camp is a wonderful spring that issued from the base of the cliff and 
poured its clear, cold waters into a basin in the yellow clay, and, brimming over 
which, it trickled down the bank into the Kansas river. Many a time I went 
there, a disappointed, half sick, lonesome boy, and played that this was the same 
old spring that had bathed the butter crocks in the milkhouse at our Illinois honie, 
and the fancy brought a pleasure that warms my heart to-day. ' ' 

John J. Ingalls never tired of telling of his first view of Kansas 
from the deck of the "Duncan S. Carter," which bore him up the Mis- 
souri river in 1858. The impression on the then young man made him 
a loyal and true Kansan, heart and soul, the evidence of which was 
observed iu his public acts and his private life from the time he sat in 
the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, all through the years of his 
splendid service in the United States Senate and on to the close of his 
long and useful career. 


It was the "Nodaway," an early side-wheel boat, that brought a 
part of the Wyandots to this section in 1843. Other steamboats were 
on tlie rivers before and after that, carrying emigrant Indians, mis- 
sionaries, explores, adventurere and soldiers, and quite a few of these 
had thrilling adventures. One of these was of a boat that did not 
come into port at Wyandotte. That was the "Haidee." It started 
up the Missouri river from St. Louis in December, 1849, and was caught 
in an ice jam at Portland, Missouri. Percival G. Lowe, of Leavenworth, 
author of "Five Years a Dragoon," once president of the Kansa.s His- 
torical Society, was caught on the boat. He and a detachment of sol- 
diers, made the march of three hundred miles to Fort Leavenworth 
tlirough ice and snow. 

When the Yankee Free State Men Came. 

The New Englanders, most of them Free Soil men, began to come in 
1854. In a letter dated "Boston, September 18, 1854," Thomas H. 
Webb, the secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, wrote: 
"It is a singular coincidence that our pioneer party of New Englanders 
crossed Lake Erie on the ' ]\Iaytlower ' and went up the Mis.souri river 
on the 'Polar Star.' " 

And it was an eventful trip that of the "Polar Star." August 
Bondi, of Salina, a revolutionist of Aiistria, came to Kansas and sol- 
diered with John Brown. With him was Dr. Rufus Gillpatrirk, also 
a noted Free Soil advocate and tighter, who located near Ossawatomie. 
Pardee Biitler and .John Martin, of Topeka, who was afterwards sena- 
tor, made their way to Kansas on the "Polar Star." H. D. McMeekin, 
a member of the Pawnee legislature of 1855, was a passenger on the 
"Excel," on its first trip in 1854. 

James H. Carrutli and wife, of LawTence, were passengers on the 
"J. M. Converse" in 1856. Mrs. Miriam Davis Colt, author of "Went 
to Kansas," was a pa.ssenger on the "Cataract" in 1856. 

Notable among the men and women who came out from New Eng- 
land on steamboats to help make Kansas were the members of the "Kan- 
sas Andover Band." Grosvenor C. Morse was a teacher and preacher, 
and he it was who founded the Kansas State Normal School at Emporia. 
Sylvester Dana Stoi'r.s stopped at Quindaro and founded a Congrega- 
tional church. Roswell Davenport Parker started a Congregational 
church at Leavenworth, going from Quindaro to that place by stage after 
his arrival. Richard Cordley, the last of the band to reach Kansas, 
went overland by stage with his wife to Lawrence and for more than 
fifty years was pastor of Plymouth Congregational churdi, the first 
church of that denomination to be started in Kansas. 


The Delights of Pioneee Travel by Steamboat. 

Many of the pioneers of Kansas, outbound from the states east oi 
the Mississippi river, told and retold their delightful experiences of 
travel bj^ steamboat. Among the emigrants of '57 from New England to 
Wyandotte was Don A. Bartlett, a lawyer, and his wife, IMai-y Louise 
Bartlett. She afterwards became the wife of Byron Judd and among 
the charming stories she told a few years before her death, which occur- 
red in 1908, was of her trip to Kansas City by water. ' ' The war spirit 
was running high," she said. "There was a strong feeling of partisan- 
ship. There were heated wrangles and heated arguments. We did 
not conceal the fact that we were Free State people, but were treated 
with the greatest respect and consideration even by the most ardent 
pro-slavery sympathizers. 

"When we reached Kansas City, or what was then called Westport 
Landing, the crew of the steamer tried to hold our goods, refusing to 
unload them, although we had paid the freight in advance. Mr. Bart- 
lett was a lawyer and he remained at the landing till late into the night, 
and it was only by threatening to tie up the steamer by litigation that 
the crew was finally induced to release them. In the meantime I had 
gone to the old Gillis hotel and was resting there till Mr. Bartlett came. 
I never shall forget that wildly excited throng of men and how they 
stared when I, the only woman there, entered the dining room. But," 
Mrs. Judd added, "while they were all wrought up to a high tension 
by the war spirit, every man behaved in my presence like a true gentle- 
man. " 

When Governor Reeder Came and Went. 

Governor Andrew Reeder came up on the "David Tatum," and 
arrived May 5, 1856, making the journey in four days from St. Louis; 
but when he left Kansas May 24th, of the same year, disguised as a wood- 
chopper, he rode on the "J. M. Converse." 

John W. Geary, the third territorial governor of Kansas, came on 
the "Keystone" in September, 1856. The boat touched at Quindaro 
and then went on to Port Leavenworth, where Governor Geary disem- 

The Ashland Colony from Ohio came to Kansas on the "Express," 
in 1856. The boat took them up the Kansas river to Junction City 
where they were located. In the party of sixty were Henry J. Adams, 
Franklin G. Adams, Matthew Weightman, William Mackey and wife, 
of Junction City. 

Senator Henry Wilson, of Massachusetts, was a passenger on the 
"New Lucy" and landed at Quindaro May 24, 1857. From the steps 
of the hotel he made his first speech in Kansas. 


George W. Veale and wife left Evansville, Indiana, March 29, 1857, 
on the steamer ' ' White Cloud, ' ' in company with the family of the late 
Judge Crozier, of Leavenwortli. They arrived at Quindaro April 7th 
and there began the responsibilities of married life. 

Ex-Governor George W. Gliek and wife came to Kansas in March, 
1859, on the steamer "Alonzo Child." This famous boat afterwards 
was captured and burned with twenty others in the Yazoo river by the 
Confederates, to prevent them falling into the hands of Union forces. 

Lewis Hanbaek went up the river to Lawrence in 1866 on the 
steamer "Alexander Majors," and he became celebrated as an eloquent 
public speaker by telling of his first impressions of Kansas obtained from 
the deck of that steamer. 

First Steamboats to Navigate the Kansas River. 

The Chouteaus had flotillas of keel boats which were used to carry 
freight to the trading posts on the Kansas river. During the spring 
rise in the river Secondine, now Muncie in Wyandotte county, became a 
rival of Westport, now Kansas City, as a depot of supplies, the cargoes 
coming direct from St. Louis and New Orleans These were the first 
attempts at navigation. The Chouteaus also had pirogues on the Mis- 
souri and Kansas rivers. Lewis and Clark tell of the use of rafts on 
the Kansas river by the Prenelimen who ascended as far as eighty 
leagues. But the steamboats finally displaced the crude craft of the 
early days. 

The first steamboat to ascend the Kansas river was "Excel" in the 
spring of 1854. It was bought for a packet in the Kansas river trade 
to ply between Kansas City and Wyandotte at the mouth and "as high 
as she can get." The boat did a large freight and passenger business 
and was of great service to the early emigrants. On one trip it carried 
1.100 barrels of flour to Fort Riley. Once, on returning, the distance 
fj'om Fort Riley to Kansas City was covered in twenty-four hours and 
thirty landings were made. Captain Charles K. Baker, who died a few 
years ago at Rosedale, was the pilot of the "Excel," and was regarded 
as the most skillful man that ever turned a wheel on the Kansas river. 

The "Hartford" and the "Emma Harmon" were the first boats 
to ascend the Kansas river after the emigration of the white settlers 
set in. The "Hartford" was built in Cincinnati at a cost of $7,000 
It was a flat-bottomed, stern-wheel steamboat. On April 5, 1855, it 
started from Cincinnati bound for the .iunction of the Smokj' Hill and 
Republican rivers in Kansas, having a cargo of one hundred tons and 
a large pa.ssenger list. It was an ill-fated trip. The cholera broke out 
among the passengers and crew after leaving St. Louis on Ma.y 3rd. 
It caused the deaths of man.y of the passengers and they were buried in 
the sand. The boat reached Wyandotte on May 12th and left May 


20th. It arrived at Lawrence May 21st, ran to the mouth of the Big 
Blue and there had to wait a month for the river to rise. The members 
of the Cincinnati and Kansas Land Company, who were passengers, in- 
tended going further up stream, but in the delay they decided to locate 
at Manhattan and there they set up their ready-made, "knock-down" 
houses they had brought from Cincinnati. The ill-fated "Hartford" 
was set on fire by two drunken Pottawatomie Indians who were kicked 
off the boat by the clerk. It was totally destroyed. 

The "Emma Harmon" and "Financier No. 2" preceded the "Hart- 
ford" on the upriver trip. 

The "Emma Harmon's" Famous First Trip. 

On the afternoon of May 19, 1855, "Emma Harmon," a small stern- 
wheeler, left Kansas City "for Topeka and way landings." There were 
twenty or thirty passengers aboard, among the number George W. Deitz- 
ler, Gaius Jenkins, John Speer and family; Mr. Gleason, wife, son, and 
daughter, the latter afterwards being Jlrs. Hubbell, of Lawrence ; Brin- 
ton W. Woodward, Philip Woodward, Mr. DeLand and family, L. P. 
Lincoln, and John W. Stevens, the latter with a printing-office to start 
a paper in I\Ianhattan. The entire party was supplied with firearms, 
and Deitzler had one hundred Sharp's rifles. The river was high and 
the boat made good headway, but, as a precaution, the pilot ordered her 
tied up for the night when they reached Chouteau's Landing, a distance 
of ten miles from the mouth. 

The next day the boat was off with the first gleam of light, and as 
the sun rose ^rith a perfect day, the passengers thronged the upper deck, 
eager to enjoy the beauty of the scene ; the ever-changing panorama of 
the winding river, dotted with islands, among which the boat turned this 
way and that in its course against the current ; the stately cottonwoods 
shining in the glory of their new foliage ; the rock-bound bluffs ; glimpses 
of emerald prairies in the distance, and over all, the soft skies of early 
summer. Occa.sionally an Indian cabin was to be seen, with its occu- 
pants ranged in silent wondennent near it, but these were the only 
signs of civilization, and the forests were as silent and pathless as the 
river. About noon the boat went to the bank to get a supply of wood, 
and the passengers gathered their firet wild strawberries of the season. 
Shortly after starting again they were hailed by an Indian, who made 
them understand that he wanted a flatboat towed up the river. The 
steamer was accordingly brought alongside and made fast to the flat- 
boat, and then proceeded on its journey. This Indian proved to be an 
intelligent Shawnee named Tooley, who had built the craft for a ferry- 
boat for Blue Jacket's crossing of the Wakarusa, in anticipation of the 
immigration to the territory. It being Sunday, the passengers engaged 
in religious worship, and Tooley joined them, offering a fervent prayer 


ill his own tongue. At the mouth of the Wakarusa the tow-lines were 
east off and the passengers waved a parting salute to the red man, who 
proceeded to "pole" his ungainly eraft up the smaller stream. 

Just before sunset of IMay 20th the "Harmon" reached Lawrence 
and landed at the foot of New Hampshire street. It was a great day 
in the history of the town, and everybody hurried to the river bank to 
greet the unexpected but welcome visitor. The passengers and officers 
of the boat were given an ovation, and every available vehicle was used 
to convey them to the city, chief among the number being a spring wagon 
belonging to Mrs. Samuel N. Wood. 

The steamer "New Lucy" was a large sidewheeler of four hundred 
and seventeen tons. The "A. B. Chambers" was one of the best boats 
on the Missouri river and carried much of the traffic to Kansas. It 
was owned by Captain Alexander Gilham, of Kansas City. Finally it 
sank at the mouth of the Missouri above St. Louis. 

The "Lightfoot" Built for Kansas. 

The steamer "Lightfoot" was the first boat built for Kansas, and 
bore across the stern, this legend, "Lightfoot, of Quindaro." W. F. 
M. Arny and Matt Morrison commanded in the order named. 

It wa.s a stern-wheeler of one hundred feet in length and twentj'- 
four feet beam, with a hold of three or four feet and had no texas; the 
pilot-house being the only structure above the hurricane deck, and this 
extending but a few feet above; the remainder being below and the floor 
of it being but a few feet above that of the cabin. There were a few 
staterooms and the freight capacity of the boat was probably seventy-five 
tons, on a draft of eighteen inches. It was built by Thaddeus Hyatt, 
of New York City, who was an enthusiastic friend of Kansas and always 
ready to spend his great wealth in any way for her advancement. 

The first and only trip of this boat on the Kansas river began at 
Wyandotte April 14, 1857, and ended May 9th of the same year. The 
run to Lawrence, a distance of sixty miles by river, occupied three 
days, owing to a low stage of water and high winds. At De Soto the 
smoke stacks ran afoul of the ferry rope, and this and the gale of wind 
wrenched them down to the deck, a further occasion for the delay. 

John Speer was a passenger on his way home to Lawrence from an 
eastern trip in the interest of free Kansas. The following facts are 
gleaned from an account of the trip published in the Lairroic" Triiiune, 
of which he was the editor : 

A Notable Voyage Up the Kansas River. 

"On April 7, 18.57, the steamboat 'Lightfoot,' built expressly for the Kaw river 
trade, arrived at Lawrence landing, at the foot of New Hampshire street, loaded 


down with freight and passengers. It was considered at the time a great event 
in the history of Lawrence, and Captain Bickerton was on hand with his favorite 
cannon, 'Old Sacramento,' to fire a national salute in honor of the formal opening 
of steamboat navigation on the Kaw. Several steamboats larger than the 'Light- 
foot' had made trips up the river at different times before this, but it was given 
out that the ' Lightfoot ' had been built expressly to run on the river from Kansas 
City, Wyandotte and Quindaro to Lawrence, and the people flattered themselves- 
that Lawrence was about to become almost a seaport, or at least a port of entry 
for cheaply freighted goods. We are truly sorry that we have not preserved a 
full list of the passengers who came up on that historic steamboat, but we do 
recollect a goodly number of them, some of whom were coming as fresh immi- 
grants to the territory, and others returning to it from a visit to the east. Among 
the latter we remember General C. Babcock, then postmaster at Lawrence; General 
S. C. Pomeroy, then an agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Society . Paul R. 
Brooks, then a prominent merchant; Mrs. C. I. H. Nichols, then and since well 
known as a writer and lecturer, accompanied by her two sons and a daughter; 
Miss Bernecia Carpenter, a highly educated and accomplished young lady who 
strongly attracted the attention of the enthusiastic young poet. Richard Realf; 
Horace A. W. Tabor, his brother John F. Tabor, and sister, Mrs. Moye, the brothers 
bringing each a young wife fresh from the hills of Vermont. W. F. JL Arny was 
the chief manager of the 'Lightfoot;' in fact, he seemed to have full charge of the 
boat in every department. He was supercargo and bottle-washer, everywhere 
present, and bound to shine. 

"The voyage from Wyandotte to Lawrence lasted three days, partly in con- 
sequence of a strong head-wind which blew down the steamer's smoke stacks and 
forced her to remain tied up to a big walnut tree, not far from Desoto, all day 
Sunday, giving Mr. Arny a good opportunity to display his talents as chaplain, 
which he improved to the utmost. 

"The boat remained at Lawrence a few days and then undertook the return 
trip to Wyandotte, which, owing to low water and ignorance of the channel, con- 
sumed the time until May 9th. as has been stated, the greater part of the time 
being spent on sand-bars. Upon reaching Wyandotte the boat abandoned the 
Kansas and entered the Missouri river trade, but of her ultimate fate I am not 
advised. ' ' 

QuiND.vRo's Famous Side-Wheeler. 

The "Otis Webb," Captain Church. 1857-8, was a side-wheeler of 
one hundred tons burden, and was built at Wellsville, Ohio, in the sum- 
mer of 1857, by Governor Charles Robinson, Otis Webb, Fielding John- 
son and Colonel George W. Veale. She was brought to the mouth of the 
Kansas in the fall of that year, and entered service in the following 
spring, making regular trips from Leavenworth to Topeka. John.son 
and Veale had a store at the site of the present government building in 
Topeka, and all the goods for this store were brought up the river on 
the "Webb." She drew twenty-six inches of water, and cost seven 
thousand dollars. One of her cargoes was said to have been a saw mill 
outfit for the Emigrant Aid Company. This boat finally found it more 
profitable to run in the ^Missouri trade, and had a route from Quindaro 
and Parkville to Fort Leavenworth. It once essayed a trip on the Little 
Platte on Missouri, and struck a snag. Its bones are there yet. 


The "Bee" was another popular boat on the Kansas river in the 
early days. It ran lietween Wyandotte and Fort Riley. 

The Kansas River Steamboats. 

The followintr is believed to be a eorreet list of the steamboats whieh 
first and last, in greater or less degree, participated in the era of 
Kansas river navigation: 

"Excel," Captain Charles K. Baker, Sr., 1854. 

"Bee," 1855. 

"New Lucy," 1855. 

"Hartford," Captain Millard, 1855. 

"Lizzie," 1855-64. 

"Emma Harmon," Captain J. M. Wing, 1855. 

"Financier No. 2," Captain Matt Morrison, 1855. 

"Saranak," Captain Swift, 1855. 

"Perry," Captain Perry, 1855-6. 

"Lewis Burns," 1856. 

"Far West," 1856. 

"Brazil," Captain Reed, 1856. 

"Lightfoot," Captains W. F. Arny and Matt Morrison, 1857. 

"Violet," 1857. 

"Lacon," Captain Marshall, 1857. 

"Otis Webb," Captain Church, 1857-8. 

"Minnie Belle," Captain Frank Hunt, 1858. 

"Kate Swinney," Captain A. C. Goddin, 1858. 

"Silver Lake," Captain Willoughby, 1859. 

"Morning Star," Captain Thomas F. Brierly, 1859. 

"Gus Linn," Captain B. P. Beasley, 1859. 

"Adelia," 1859. 

"Colona, " Captain Hendershott, 1859. 

"Star of the West," Captain G. P. Nelson, 1859-60. 

"Eureka," 1860. 

"Izetta," 1860. 

"Mansfield," 1860. 

"Tom Morgan," Captain Tom Morgan, 1864. 

"Emma," 1864. 

"Iliram Wood, 1865. 

"Jacob Sass," 1865. 

"E. Hensley," Captain Burke, 1865. 

"Alexander Majors," 1866. 

Steamboats that Went Down. 

At the mouth of the Kansas river and along the eastern shore of 
Kansas many steamboats went down in the early days. "First Canoe " 


as the Indians t-alled the steamboat, was a stern-wheel boat that sank in 
the mouth of the Kansas river in 1858. The "Cumberland Valley," 
one of the early boats of which little is known, went down opposite the 
Wyandotte levee in 18-10. The "A. B. Chambers," one of the boats 
that brought emigrants to Kansas, sank at Atchison in 1856. The wreck 
of the "A. C. Bird," lies buried near Liberty Landing, below the mouth 
of the Kansas river. "Admiral No. 1 " went down at Weston, Missouri, 
where the "Anthony Wayne" sank in 1851, three years after. The 
"Bennett," a government wrecking boat, was herself wrecked in 1852 
at the mouth of the Kansas river while making a run to the assistance 
of the "Decotah" at Peru, Nebraska. The "Boonville" was wrecked 
in the bend above the mouth of the Kansas river as far back as 1837, 
and the bones of the "Aggie" are somewhere in the river near the Hanni- 
bal bridge at Kansas City. The "Arabian" and the "Delaware" 
found their last resting place at the bottom of the river near Atchison. 
The "Hesperian" also was nearing the same port when she struck a 
snag and went to the bottom. In 1855 the "Express" found a watery 
grave near Leavenworth. 

When Boats Were Oper.vted for the Railroads. 

The building across the state of Misisoiu-i of the Haunibal & St. 
Joseph Railroad, the first to reach the Missouri river, called for a steam- 
boat pas.senger service from Kansas City. Wyandotte and Quindaro to 
St. Joseph until the Missouri Pacific reached Kansas City from the 
east. The "Delaware" was a splendidly eciuipped steamboat that 
brought from St. Louis in 1857 two locomotives for service on the Han- 
nibal & St. Joseph at the western terminus, before the gaps in Missouri 
were completed. The boat passed Quindaro June 9th of that year and 
the entire population of the town turned out to welcome it. The loco- 
motives were named "Buchanan" and "St. Joe." The "Hesperian," 
a large side-wheel packet that had been operated on the lower Mississippi 
river, was brought up and pressed into service for the Hannibal & St. 
Joseph, and it did a rushing business until 1859, when it burned oppo- 
site Atchison. The first locomotives for the Missouri Pacific were 
brought to Wyandotte by the "T. L. McGill." Meanwhile the "New 
Lucy" carried passengers from this point down to the end of that rail- 
road at Jefferson City, in 1857. The "Platte Valley" was also one of 
the boats used to carry passengers for the railroads. The "Sallie 
West," a freight boat for the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, sank at 
Kickapoo in 1859. The "Bee" was a favorite passenger boat between 
Wyandotte and Port Riley on the Kansas river. 


An End to Steamboating. 

The steamboats liad hauled the locomotives up the Missouri river 
and helped the railroads get a start. Then the railroads returned the 
favor by putting the steamboats out of business. The floods carried 
away the Union Paeifie bridge at Wyandotte, in the spring of 1866, and 
the big side-wheel steamer, the "Alexander Majors," was chartered by 
the railroad company to carry freight to Lawrence until the bridge could 
be rebuilt. But that was the last of the steamboating on the Kansas 
river. The railroads slipped a bill through the Kansas legislature in 
1864, entitled, "An act declaring the Kansas, Republican, Smoky Hill, 
Solomon, and Big Blue rivers not navigable, and authorizing the bridg- 
ing of the .same." The bill gave the railroads "the same right to bridge 
or dam said rivers as the.y would have, if they never had been declared 
navigable streams." 



Wyandot Indians Pioneers in the Movement — The First Elec- 
tion — A "Bolting" Convention — Kansas-Nebraska Bill Passed — ■ 
Welcome to Governor Reeder — Orders an Election — Candidates for 
Territorial Delegates — The First Invasion — Eyes op a Nation on 
Shavfnee Mission — The Bogus Laws — Three Makers of Kansas His- 
tory — Governor Shannon to the Frontier — The Topeka Constitu- 
tion — The Wakarusa War — Emigrant Aid Societies — The Capital 
at Lecompton — Governor Geary on the Scene — Governor Robert J. 
Walker — The Lecompton Constitution — Leavenworth Convention 
— Governor Medary — Elections Before Statehood. 

The Indians of the northwestern confederacy, with the Wyandots at 
the head, were first to make a move to establish government for their 
hunting grounds. The Wyandots had brought with them then from 
Ohio a constitution and a form of civil government under which the 
tribes of that nation had been ruled wisely and well. Soon after they 
came to Kansas, efforts were made in congress to organize the Nebraska 
territory, which embraced in its limits the present state of Kansas and 
Nebraska. Stephen A. Douglas introduced bills for this purpose at 
different times; but they were referred to the committee on territories, 
without further action being taken. These different movements aroused 
great interest among the Indian tribas whose lands were within the boun- 
daries of the proposed territory. It was evident to them that they must 
surrender their lands very soon if the territory was established, although 
the government in the treaties with them had promised that the land 
should be theirs as long as grass grew and water ran, and should never 
be a part of any territory or state. So, realizing the great importance 
of such an organization, these Indians desired to become citizens and 
to have a share in the shaping of affairs, that just and equitable laws 
might be made for the government of their beloved territory. The 
leading men of the different tribes called a convention for the purpose 
of discussing the matter. This congress met at or near Fort Leaven- 
worth in October, 1848, with the following tribes represented, which had 
belonged to the ancient northwestern confederacy of Indian tribes: 
Wyandot, Delaware, Chippewa, Ottawa, Pottawatomie, Shawnee and 


Vol. 1—9 


Miami. Two other tribes were admitted to the confederacy at this 
time — the Kickapoo and the Kansas. The Sac and Fox were repre- 
sented, bnt, as they were ancient enemies of the Wyandots and peace 
had not been declared between them, they were frightened by a speech 
made by one of the "Wyandot representatives and fled from the conven- 
tion. This convention continued in session for several days, and the old 
confederacy was organized, and the Wyandots were reappointed as its 
head and made keepers of the council-fire. But the Indians reckoned 
not on the slavery troubles. Evidently they did not see looming up in 
the distance that dark cloud which was soon to bring on a storm of such 
violence as to shake the nation from center to circumference. 

Wyandot Indians Pioneers in the Movement. 

But before the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act (at first the act 
was in common talk called the "Nebraska bill," although Kansas was 
the real issue) there had been "movements" for a territorial organiza- 
tion. While the Wyandots were pioneers in demanding a form of 
government for the Indian country, there were those who desired to win 
Kansas for the south. In accordance with this purpose of a political 
nature, in the spring of 1852. a public meeting was held at Uniontowi^, 
an Indian trading post, on the Kansas river in what is now Shawnet, 
county, and at this gathering were read and adopted resolutions em- 
bracing a memorial to congress praying for the organization of a terri- 
torial government. It is said by the most reliable authorities that 
there were only five or six of these resolutioners and memorialists; but 
they were enough. All of the members, it was reported, were residents 
of Missouri. The convention met under a shed, the resolutions were 
brought on the ground ready made, and were carried. The small but 
select number of represent<itive statesmen present did not prevent the 
recital, in the memorial, that there were hundreds of families in the 
vicinity who were bona fide settlers and were in suffering need of civil 
government, and that the meeting was attended by a large number of 
these citizens. The memorial was widely published and the attention 
of congress was earnestly called to the needs of the citizens of Kansas. 

The saddest feature of these proceedings was that this movement to 
deprive the Indian of his happy hunting ground was inaugurated in his 
own village. Uniontown has long passed away ; not one clapboard is 
left upon another; the Indians are all gone. There are only a farm 
house and a few graves of emigrants to California who were overtaken 
far out on the prairies by the cholera where once was Uniontown. 

The First Election. 

In the fall of 1852 — it was October 12th — an election was held in 
Wyandotte and thirty-seven votes were cast for Abelard Guthrie for 


delegate to the Thirty-second congress. The men who cast their votes 
at that first election were: Charles B. Garrett, Jose Antonio Pieto, 
Abelard Guthrie. Cyrus Garrett, Edward B. Hand, Russell Garrett, 
Nicholas Cotter, Isaac Long, James Garlow, George I. Clark, Matthew 
R. Walker, Henry Garrett, Presley Muir, Isaac Brown, John Lynch, 
John W. Ladd, Edward Fifer, Henry Porter, Isaac Barker, Henry C. 
Norton, Henry C. Long, Francis Cotter, Francis A. Hicks, Sanniel Ran- 
kin, Joel W. Garrett, Thomas Coon Hawk, William Walker, Benjamin 
N. C. Anderson, Samuel Prestly, William Gibson, Joel Walker, James 
Long. William Trowbridge, Daniel McNeal, and Peter D. Clark. Guth- 
rie went to Congress, but was refused admission principally for the 
reason that at the date of the election there wasn't any Kansas to be 
a delegate from. 

A "Bolting" Convention. 

But the Wyandot Indians were not to be defeated in their 
purpose of obtaining territorial government. In July, 1853, a conven- 
tion was held at Wyandotte, and a territorial government was organized. 
The resolutions adopted in that convention served as a constitution and 
William Walker, a Wyandot Indian, was elected provisional governor. 
Abelard Guthrie was nominated for delegate to congress over the Rever- 
end Thomas Johnson, head of the Shawnee mission. The Reverend Mr. 
John.son, however, was not satisfied with the decision of the delegates 
in that convention. He went to Kickapoo village up the Missouri river, 
and was nominated in September. The issue in the campaign was 
"Benton" and "anti-Benton, " Mr. Guthrie being the Benton candi- 
date and Mr. Johnson favoring General Atchison. Mr. Benton and 
Mr. Atchison, it may be proper to explain, were running for office in 
Missouri. Mr. Johnson was not admitted as a delegate for the same 
reason that prevailed in the case of Mr. Guthrie. 

The Kans.\s-Nebraska Bill Passed. 

These movements had the effect of advancing the cause of terri- 
torial government for Kansas and on May 26, 1854, ten months aft^r 
the convention in Wyandotte, came the announcement that the United 
States senate at Washington had passed the Kansa.s-Nebraska bill at 1 :15 
in the morning. The date is usually given as May 25th, because the 
pas,sage took pla<'e during the extension of the session of that day. On 
the 30th of May, 1854, President Pierce signed the bill, and after that 
it made no difference to the Indians whether in Kansas the grass grew 
or the water ran or not. 

On Saturday, October 7, 1854, Governor Andrew H. Reeder arrived 
at Fort Leavenworth, which had been made, by the Kansas-Nebraska act. 


the temporary seat of government. Tie came up on the "Polar Star," 
and was the first of the long and unhappy procession of Kansas terri- 
torial governors — Reeder, Shannon, Geary, Walker, Denver and ]Medary. 
In the intervals of their unhappy reigns, when they were absent from 
the territory from choice of necessity. Secretaries and Acting Governors 
Stanton, Woodson, Walsh and Beebe reigned in their stead. None of 
them died in office; several resigned and some ran. All lived happy 
and respected after they got through with Kansas. But one — Governor 
Shannon — remained steadfastly by Kansas to the end and was buried 
in her soil. But nobody was predicting these woes when Governor 
Reeder came up on the "Polar Star." 

Welcome to Governor Reedeb. 

"At 3 o'clock in the 'evening,' " according to the editor of the 
Kansas Weekly Herald, which had got started under a tree a month 
before the governor's arrival, "the citizens of Kansas, from Leaven- 
worth, Salt Creek and the coimtrj^ for miles around, gathered at the fort 
to pay their respects to Governor Reeder. The concourse was large 
and highly respectable and most enthusiastii> in their gratification of 
his arrival. Our citizens in a body called upon the governor at the 
quarters of Captain Hunt and a general introduction took place, during 
which many kindly expressions of welcome were indulged on the part 
of the people and reciprocated by the governor with the republican 
frankness and honest, cordiality so agreeable to western men." 

This was the way Governor Reeder came up on the "Polar Star" 
and entered Kansas. How he went out later may be seen portrayed 
in a great painting displayed in the Coates house in Kansas City, dis- 
guised as a laboring man with an ax on his shoidder. a pipe in his mouth 
and supposed to represent an Irishman. 

With Governor Reeder the following officers made the full terri- 
torial administration: secretary, Daniel Woodson of Virginia; United 
States marshal, Israel B. Donaldson, of Illinois ; United States attorney, 
Andrew J. Isacks of Louisiana; surveyor general. John Calhoun, of 
Illinois; territorial treasurer, Thomas ,1. B. Cramer, of Illinois, chief 
justice, Madison Brown, of Maryland, who, not accepting the appoint- 
ment, was succeeded by Samuel D. Lecompto, of Maryland ; associate 
justices, Saunders N. Johnston, of Ohio, and Rush Elmore, of Alabama. 

The Governor Orders an Election. 

Kansas was now equipped with a full set of officers and was ready 
to do business as a territory, and Governor Reeder ordered the first 
election in Kansas — and elections have been a favorite pastime of the 
people ever since — to be held on the 29th of November for a delegate to 
congress to serve until the following 4th of March. He divided the 
territory into seventeen election districts. 


The whole country had been in a state of intense excitement evei 
since the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act, which it was announced 
woukl quiet the "slavery agitation." The excitement reached its 
highest point when Kansas was fairly enrolled as a territory and ready 
to participate in the fray. The Emigrant Aid Societies were organized 
in New England and the east, and sent out their parties to locate town 
sites and occupy the country. Lawrence was founded by a party from 
New England, which, by the way, came up like Govei'nor Reeder on the 
"Polar Star," arriving August 1, 1854. This was the foundation 
of what was called afterwards the "citadel of freedom." Atchison 
was established by a town company organized in Missouri, on the 20th 
of July, 1854. So both parties went into the citadel business. Every 
town started was either Free-State or Pro-Slavery. Societies were 
organized in ilissouri to "down" the Abolitionists and make Kansas a 
slave state. The doctrine was proclaimed from the first that "slavery 
existed already in the territory" and was insisted on with great zeal 
until some years later slavery, on one fine day, ceased to exist anywhere 
The Free-State emigrants brought sawmills and as soon as possible after 
their arrival they started school houses. The New England Emigrant 
Aid Society made a specialty of school houses. It is a pity that this 
point was not absolutely settled and given up during the "Kansas 
troubles;'" but it was not, and the "tie" had to be "shot off" from 
1861 to 1865. 

Candidates for Territorial Delegate. 

The bad blood which had been growing culminated at the first 
election. Three candidates appeared before the people for territorial 
delegate — General John W. Whitfield, Robert P. Flenneken and John 
A. Wakefield. General Whitfield was the straight Pro-Slavery candi- 
date; Robert P. Flenneken was announced as a friend of Governor 
Reeder 's, an administration Democrat with Free State leanings, and 
John A. Wakefield proclaimed himself the only bona fide resident of the 
territory running, and a straight Free State man. The day before the 
election, the "Blue Lodge" voters began crossing the border; on elec- 
tion day they voted and Whitfield was elected. The vote as returned 
was: Whitfield, 2,258; Flenneken, 305; Wakefield, 248; scattering, 22. 
General Whitfield was admitted to his seat on the certificate of Governor 
Reeder, there being no protest. This was first blood for the Pro- 
Slavery part.y, but in December, the month after, the first Free State 
meeting was held in Lawrence ; in Jamiary the first school was opened, 
and early in 1855 there were three Free State newspapers published 
in that town. 


The First Invasion. 

In January and February, 1855, Governor Reeder caused an 
enumeration of the inhabitants to be taken. The total population was 
found to be 8,601, of whom 2,905 were legal voters. On the 8th of 
March an election was called, to be held March 30th, to choose thirteen 
members of the council and twenty-six members of the house. The 
election was the scene of invasion and %dolence on a scale unknowai at the 
November contest. A thousand Missourians drove away the judges 
and voted at Lawrence; at Bloomington five hundred voted; at 
Tecumseh, sixty miles from the border, a great crowd appeared and took 
possession of the polls. General Atchison led a party of sixty armed 
men to the Nemaha district. The whole country rang with the story. 

Governor Reeder threw out the returns from Lawrence and five 
other precincts and ordered a new election for May 22, 1855. He went 
to Washington to tell his story, and the road to Washington has ever 
since been kept hot by Kansas. The adjourned May election was held 
without interference or molestation, the Pro-Slavery people taking no 
part in it. The legislature met at Pawnee near Fort Riley, July 2, 
1855. It contained eighteen Pro-Slavery and eight Free State mem- 
bers of the house, and ten Pro-Slavery and three Free State members 
of the council. On the 6th of July it adjourned to Shawnee Mission, 
two miles and a half from Westport, Missiouri. This ended Pawnee 
as a capital. An old ruined rough stone house, with a large hole in it, 
marks the spot. 

The Eyes of a Nation on Shawnee Mission. 

The first legislature of Kansas re-assembled at Shawnee IMission on 
the 16th of July, 1855, in spite of the veto of Governor Reeder, and was 
officered as follows : 

House — Speaker, John H. Stringfellow ; speaker pro tem, Joseph 
C. Anderson ; chief clerk, James M. Lyle ; assistant clerk, John Martin, 
later United States senator from Kansas; sergeant-at-arms. T. J. B. 

Council — President, the Rev. Thomas Jolinson ; president pro tem, 
R. R. Hess ; chief clerk, John A. Halderman ; assistant clerk, Charles H. 
Grover ; sergeant-at-arms, C. B. Whitehead ; doorkeeper, W. J. Godefroy. 

Before adjourning from Pawnee the house unseated all the Free 
State members except Cyrus K. Holliday absent, and S. D. Houston, 
protested and resigned, and of the council, all save JIartin F. Conway, 
who resigned. The places of these members were filled with pro-slavery 
candidates at the election of March 30th. This legislature received from 
the Free State party the appellation of "Bogus," a name originally 
applied to counterfeit money from an eminent dealer in that article • it 


was posted and placarded all over the world as the "Bogus Legislature." 
It was held in old Shawnee Methodist Mission in what is now the county 
of Johnson, named in honor of the Rev. Thomas Johnson, the original 

The "Bogus" Laws. 

The Shawnee Mission legislature was an industrious body. The 
volume of its laws when published made 1,058 pages. Although con- 
sidered by a large portion of the people of Kansas as "bogus" legisla- 
tion the acts of this legislature constitute the beginning of law in Kansas 
and still form a portion of its statutes; it gave the older counties of 
Kansas the names which, with few exceptions, they still bear, and in- 
corporated the cities of Lawrence and Leavenworth,, the town company 
of Atchison and many more besides. The most remarkable legislative 


achievement of the body was the passage of an act "to prevent offences 
against slave property." This was pronounced more "efficient" than 
anything existing in any slave state in the Union. This act, which was 
afterward discussed in congress, created indignation against the Pro- 
Slavery cause in Kansas, and tended to bring about its final defeat. The 
legislature took upon itself to appoint all the officers, executive and 
.judical, in the territory to hold over until after the election of 1857, 
and thus counties found themselves supplied with officers whom the 
people had nothing to do ^vith electing. 


The year 1855 was full of noise and violeuee, and fraught with 
disaster to the Free State party. But the territory kept filling up and 
before the end of the year three men had arrived whose names were 
destined to fill many pages in the history of Kansas. 

Three Makers op Kansas History. 

Dr. Charles Robinson, a practicing physician, came to Kansas in 
1854 and located at Lawrence. He wa.s a native of Massachusetts, 
born in 1818 in the town of Hardwick. He was a fine specimen of the 
New Englanders descended from the stock that landed at Plymouth 
Rock. Appearing in Kansas as a promoter of the plan to fill Kansas with 
Free State settlers, through the troublesome years he was leader of the 
Free State party — a statesman, a diplomat and an organizer. He origi- 
nated the "Topeka movement" that consolidated the Free State .senti- 
ment and held it together, and when the fight was over was made gover- 
nor of the Free State of Kansas. 

James H. Lane came to Kansas in 1855. He had been a lieutenant 


governo)', member of congress and colonel of an Indiana regiment in the 
Mexican war. General Lane, who bore the military title and even 
exercised its functions in war times without a commission, was not likt. 
Governor Robinson, from or of New England. Pie was born in Southeru 
Indiana, and at the time of his coming to Kansas was in his forty-fii*st 
year. As a member of congress he had voted for the Kansas-Nebraska 


bill and his mission in Kansas was to set up a Free State government. 
His faults were many, but he was a leader and rallied about him a fol- 
lowing that displayed for him a devotion inspired by no Kansas "chief- 
tain" since. He wa.s a "roarer," a magnetizer. and a "natural" orator 
— meaning thereby one who, rising up and addressing his fellow 
creatures, moves them by voice and gesture, glance and glare of his 
eye, so that they cheer, hurrah, yell, even though opposed to him, for 
him and his side of the question. His "animating powers" were given 
as a rule to the Free State party. He went after some preliminary 
"moves" for Freedom, and took his clarion with him. His most 
active and eventful years were after the admission, when he achieved 
the object of his life-long ambition, the United States .senate. It all 
ended in his dying by his own hand. 

And then in the month of August, 1855, came to Kansas, John 
Brown, whose name soon was to fill the world. The first mention made 
of him in Kansas annals, he appeared in Lawrence with his sons on 
the night of the excitement following the killing of Thomas W. Barber. 
They were all armed. John Brown had studied and pondered, and 
talked and written and prayed about slavery all his life. John Brown 
joined the Free State party, not as a leader or counselor, but as a terror 
to its foes. He loved not conventions, or compromises, or constitutions. 
He and his son.s and followers abode in the wilderness and came forth at 
the notes of the confiiet, as the eagles to the slaughter, and then went 
away. When the fighting and killing in Kansas seemed over, he dis- 
appeared, to appear again upon the height of a scaffold, where all the 
world could see him to curse or His name came to be sung by 
thousands of armed and marching men and his rude farmer's features 
to be made familiar to all the world in painting and sculpture. It is 
true, though, that all might have been different had there been less of 
brutal intolerance in Missouri and Kansas in 1855. 

Governor Shannon to the Frontier. 

Governor Reeder did not recognize the validity of the Shawnee 
Mis.sion legislature, claiming that it was in session where it had no legal 
right to be, and in the summer he was removed from office by the presi- 
dent of the United States. After an interval by Secretary and Acting 
Governor Daniel Woodson, Wilson Shannon of Ohio came in the fall 
of 1855, to take charge of the affairs of the then turbiilent territory. 
Governor Shannon was said to have delivered his inaugural address at 
Westport, ilissouri. but when he reached Shawnee Mission, the then 
"capital" of Kansa.s territory, he was welcomed by Hon. 0. H. Brown 
with the following address that was remarkable for its eloquence : 


"Governor Shannon: In the name of the people of Kansas, I am proud to 
welcome you to our prairie home. Coming from every state in the Union — from 
almost every civilized country on the globe — the people of Kansas have mingled 
their sympathies and combined their energies to protect our infant republic. 
Kansas, the offspring of Missouri, the hope and pride of America, will ever imitate 
the excellence and rival the beauty of her illustrious parent. MHien you grasp 
the hands of the pioneers you may trust your honor in their custody. With 
them the gentle pressure of the hand attests the cordial welcome of the heart. 
We have no Catalines here, no lank and hungry Italians with their treacherous 
smiles — no cowards with their stilettoes — no assassins of reputation. Here man 
walks abroad in the majesty of his Maker. He breathes the pure air, surveys the 
beauty, and reaps the products of nature. His heart expands with gratitude 
and devotion. The morning prayer is heard on every hill; the evening orison is 
chanted by the glad tenants of every valley and glen. What earthly power can 
retard the progi-ess of such a people? They must be great — gi-eat in all the attri- 
butes of sovereign power. In the name of such people, welcome, Governor 
Shannon. ' ' 

Governor Shannon began his administration by committing himself 
to the cause of shivery for the new teri'itory. 

Jfeanwhile the Free State people were not idle. Numerous public 
meetings and conventions were held. All of these culminated in the 
Big Springs convention in September, 1855, at which James H. Lane 
reported a platform in wliich the exclusion of all negroes, bond and 
free, from the territory was recommended. Governor Reeder was nomi- 
nated for delegate to congress and the convention resolved in favor of 
holding another convention which should provide for a constitutional 

The Topek.v Constitution. 

The convention that framed the Topeka constitution met in Topeka 
October 22, 1855, and it was in session sixteen days. Of the men in 
that convention Governor Robinson, in an address twenty years after, 
said: "Eighteen of the members gave their politics as Democrats, six as 
Whigs, four as Republicans, two as Free Soilers, one Free State and one 
Independent. The Democratic party being in power at that time, the 
lines were distinctly drawn between the conservative and the radical 
members from the first. The radicals wasted no thought on the offices, 
as they accepted the conclusion that no radical could be made available 
for office. None but Democrats, Wliigs of the old school, or blaekmen 
could be fellowshipped. Men who had anti-slavery convictions, who 
would tolerate free negroes in the state, and especially such as would 
vote to enfranchise them were regarded as abolitionists of the darkest 
dye and likely to be fit subjects for an insane asylum before one could 
be provided for their accommodation. Evening ses.sions were held for 
the purpose of discussing a resolution or approving of the principles of 
the Kansas-Nebraska bill. The Democrats and Conservatives were 
desirous of being loyal to their party and insisted that the troubles in 


Kansas were not the leg:itimate fruits of the bill, but in consequence of 
the violation of its spirit. The Radicals denounced the repeal of the 
Missouri Compromise and declared the pretense of squatter sovereignty 
was a sham and a mockery and was so intended to be by its authoi-s. 
The convention was nearly equally divided on this question, there being 
seventeen ayes to tifteen noes." 

Out of the Topeka constitutional convention came the Topeka state 
government and the Topeka legislature. The officers elected under the 
Topeka constitution were : Governor, Charles Robinson ; lieutenant- 
governor, W. Y. Roberts; secretary of state, P. C. Schuyler; auditor, 
G. A. Cutler; treasurer, J. A. Wakefield; attorney general, II. Miles 
Moore; supreme judges, M. Hunt, S. N. Latta, M. T. Conway; supreme 
coTirt reporter, E. M. Thurston ; clerk of the supreme court, S. B. Floyd ; 
state printer, John Speer; representative in congress, M. W. Delahay. 

The Wakarusa War. 

There was an abundance of noise and bluster in the territory, but 
the killing near Doniphan of Collins, a Free State man, by Laughlan, 
a Pro-Slavery man, October 20, 1855, started things. This had been 
preceded by the lynching of William Phillips and Pardee Butler. 
Under title of the "Law and Order" party the Pro-Slavery forces at- 
tempted to govern the territory. The killing of Dow by Coleman, a 
Pro-Slavery man, led to the arrest of Branson, a Free State man. The 
arrest was made by Samuel Jones, sheriff of Douglas county, Kansas, by 
appointment of the Shawnee Mission legislature. Jones was also post- 
master of Westport, Missouri. A party of Free State men, led by Sam 
Wood, famous in Kansas for many years, rescued Branison from the 
sheriff. Branson took refuge in Lawrence. The sheriff, "in the name 
of law and order," called on the governor to call out the militia. About 
fifteen hundred Missourians answered the call and moved to the mouth 
of the Wakarusa river near Lawrence. Something like eight hundred 
Free State men assembled at Lawrence called on the president, congress 
and Charles Sumner to protect the right. Governor Shannon appeared 
in Lawrence and tried to (juell the storm. He visited the armies and 
finally ordered the "law and order" militia to disperse. At this stage 
appeared in Lawrence old John Brown and his four sons, disgusted 
with Governor Shannon's efforts to restore peace and crying out for 

So the close of the year 1855 found not only Kansas, but the Unitea 
States, in an upheaval. The Republican party, organized the year 
before in Michigan, rose rapidly to power in the north and it championed 
the cause of Free Kansas. 

The year 1856 was only fifteen days old when the election of state 
officers under the Topeka constitution was held. This brought face to 


face in Kansas the two governments, the Free State government and the 
Territorial government. President Pierce in a special message to con- 
gress, in January, recognized the Pro-Slavery legislature and declared 
the Topeka government treasonable and rebellious. In February 
Nathaniel P. Banks was elected speaker of the house of representatives, 
and that body afterwards voted to admit Kansas under the Topeka 

The Topeka legislature, after meeting on the -iih of July, dispersed 
on the order of Colonel E. V. Sumner, afterwards a distinguished gen- 
eral in the Union army, backed by a strong force of cavalry and artil- 
lery. The federal authorities affected to regard the Topeka movement 
as treasonable, and many men engaged in it were arrested and confined 
in a stockade at Lecompton. "Law and order" produced its custo- 
mary results and the United States marshal and his deputies made ar- 
rests right and left. 

The Emigrant Aid Societies. 

As the north had organized Emigrant Aid Societies and sent emi- 
grants to, so parties were sent from Alabama, South Carolina 
and Georgia. As the northern states had made appropriations, so Ala- 
bama appropriated $25,000 to aid her "Kansas emigrants." These new 
settlers were active in the affairs of the territory. In May, 1856, Law- 
rence was invaded by a large force, commanded by General Atchison, 
and the Eldridge House and the Herald of Freedom and the Kansas Free 
State newspaper offices were destroyed under the direction of the sheriff 
and by tlie finding of the grand jury. It was all in conformity with the 
law — .such as it was. The United States marshal was in general 
charge of operations. 

After this, old John Brown was heard from on the other side. 
James P. Doyle, his two sons, William Sherman and Allen Wilkinson, 
Pro-Slavery settlers on Pottawatomie creek, were called to their doors at 
night and hacked to death. The next month Brown and his party met 
H. Clay Pate at Black Jack. Captain Pate told the story very neatly 

"I went to take old Brown and Brown took me." 

The regular army troops in the territory were kept moving about, 
first to "enforce the law" and later to keep the hostile parties from get- 
ting together. Among the officers were several who rose to high rank 
during the Civil war. Among these were Colonel Joseph E. Johnston. 
With rare exceptions the officei-s executed their ordeiis with discretion 
and humanity and received the final respect of all parties. 

The fighting Free State men att<ieked the southern camps and gar- 
risons at "Fort Titus." harrassed them, and, with the "armies of in- 
vasion," like that which attacked and burned Ossawatomie, and with the 
movements of the regidar troops, Kansas, in the summer of 1856, pre- 


sented a truly martial appearance. The Free State people began to 
get discouraged in August, when the militia were again ordered out 
against them, and many left the territory. In September, Jefferson 
Davis, secretary of war, made a requisition on the governors of Illinois 
and Kentucky for two regiments of infantry to "crush the insurrection 
in Kansas," on the order of General Persifor F. Smith in command at 

The capital of the territory was removed early in the action to 
Lecompton, and there Governor Shannon lived during his rule, which 
was broken by absences, during which Acting Governor Woodson exer- 
cised authority. Lecompton was favored by the federal government 
and was fertilized by a moderate stream from the national treasury. 

Governor Geary on the Scene. 

In September, 1856, Governor John W. Geary, coming up the river, 
passed Governor Shannon going down. Governor Geary arrived in 
Leavenworth. He was a rather fine writer and described Kansas in 
his earliest dispatches as the "fittest earthly type of hell." He seems 
to have sympathized with the Free State people and ordered the militia 
to disband. The Free State men captured the Pro-Slavery forces at 
Slough creek and Hickory Point. The victors were arrested by the 
United States troops, kept prisoners at Lecompton and twenty of them 
afterward sentenced by Judge Cato to the penitentiary. Governor 
Geary was determined on peace. He went to the Wakarusa and ordered 
the Pro-Slavery army under Governor John W. Reid to disperse. He 
held a conference \rith the leaders which he declared the "most impor- 
tant since the days of the American revolution." This was the last of 
the great invasions. 

General Lane appeared with a proposition for a duel between one 
hundred Free State men, including himself, and one hundred slave- 
holders, including General Atchison, to settle the question by "wager of 
battle," with twelve ITnited States senators and twelve members of the 
house for referees ; but nobody yearned for the trial. 

In October there was an election for members of the territorial 
legislature, — the next in order after the Shawnee Mission legislature, a 
delegate to congress, and on the question of calling a constitutional con- 
vention, which afterwards met as the Lecompton convention. The Free 
State men did not vote. Governor Geary made a tour of the territory. 
He was greatly pleased with the "pacification" of the territory, which 
he believed he had effected, and called for a day of thanksgiving. With 
the end of 1856 the "treason trials" had fizzled out; the Free State 
prisoners at Lecompton escaped whenever they wished ; the immigratioii 
by the way of Iowa was no longer obstructed, and the people generally 
began to talk about town sites. It was announced that half a million 
dollars had been invested in Quindaro. 


With the beginning of 1857 came the legislature to Leconipton. 
Governor Geary vetoed many bills and they were passed by a two-thirds 
vote over his head. The governor, so happy a few months before, found 
that a chief executive of Kansas is of few days and full of trouble. He 
was literally spit upon by a man who was killed, however, a few minutes 
later by the governor's brother-in-law. A few days later he quietly 
resigned his office. He was afterward a major general in the Union 
army and governor of Pennsylvania. 

Governor Robert J. Walker. 

Appointed to succeed Governor Geary, Robert J. Walker had been a 
distinguished man, having been secretary of the treasury under Presi- 
dent Polk. Secretary Stanton preceded him and made the customary 
number of speeches. Governor Walker arrived in May. At Leaven- 
worth he met the customary enthusiastic reception. The Free State 
people did not vote for delegates to the Leeompton constitutional con- 
vention and it got only about two thousand votes. Governor Robinson 
was tried for "usurpation of office" and aecpntted; and the "law and 
order" arrangements broke down. 

The Lecompton Constitution. 

The Lecompton constitutional convention met at Lecompton in 
September, and a large Free State meeting at that place passed resolu- 
tions and ordered it off the premises. For want of a quorum, it ad- 
journed to October 19t.h, and again to November 3rd. Before this last 
meeting an election was held for delegates to the territorial legislature. 
Violence was not attempted at this election, fraud being considered pref- 
erable. Oxford, in Johnson county, with perhaps forty votes, polled 
1,628 Pro-Slavery votes; McGee county, the present Cherokee and Craw- 
ford, polled 1,200, and Kickapoo was neao-ly as expert. Groveruor Walker 
set the election returns aside for "informality." By this charge the 
legislature was made Free State. The papers began to .speak of other 
things than politics. It is announced that "5,000 gallons of sorghum 
have been made in Kansas this year;" "a meeting of the corporators of 
the Jefferson City & Neosho Valley Railroad is held;" and "Sam Wood, 
as justice of the peace, opens the first court in Lawrence." 

The Lecompton constitutional convention assembled under the presi- 
dency of John Calhoun and the jirotcction of Sherman's battery, which 
afterwards distinguishel itself at the first battle of Bull Run, and other 
United States forces. It adopted a constitution virtually establishing 
slavery in Kansas and providing for a fraudulent submission of itself, 
"The con.stitution with slavery," or the "Constitution without slavery." 
By the end of the month of November, Stephen A. Douglas was de- 


noiineing the Lecompton eonstitutioE, and when the people voted on it in 
Ano^nst, 1858. there were 1,788 for and 11,300 against it. In 1858 the 
Topeka government was kept up ; state officers and a state legislature 
were also elected under the Lecompton constitution ; the territorial legis- 
lature continued in business and Governor Denver reigned in Governor 
Walker's stead. 

The Leavenworth Convention. 

In this year the Leavenworth constitutional convention was held. 
It went farther than the Topeka constitution had gone, and the word 
"white" was left out of it. T. Dwight Thacher, who was laid to rest 
in Kansas soil a few years ago, was a member of this convention and has 
left behind the best history of it. State officers were elected under it, 
but not one of all these various sets was to hold office. The time was 
not yet. 

The war drifted away to the southward, to Linn and Bourbon coun- 
ties. The Free State leader was James Montgomery, a religious man of 
a type of piety singularly like that of John Brown. In the course of 
these "troublas" occurred the Marais des C.ygnes massacre by a party 
from Missouri under Captain Hamilton, which was commemorated in a 
poem by Whittier, perhaps the most remarkable called forth in the great 
mass of verses inspired by the Kansas struggle. In this affair five men 
were killed and four severely wounded. Great efforts were made to 
suppress these disturbances, but the struggle had become a war for re- 
prisal and revenge and kept on during 1858. 

Governor Medary. 

In December, Samuel Medary, destined to be the last territorial 
governor of Kansas, took the oath of office. His attention was first 
directed to the fact that John Brown was carrying off negroes from 
Jlissouri, and that Montgomery was still finding texts in the Old Testa- 
ment to .justify the slaying of his enemies. Governor Medary was lonely 
as far as the co-ordinate branches of the government were concerned, 
since the legislature had become Free State — in fact. Republican — and 
had a habit of meeting at Lecompton and adjourning to Lawrence. The 
Topeka government finally gave up, merging in the regular territorial 
legislature. Governor Jledary's time was largely taken up suppressing 
Brown and Montgomery. The legislature of 1859 abolished the "bogus 
laws," and passed a law aboli.shing slavery which Governor Medary did 
not sign. On April 19, 1859. Governor Medary called an election for 
delegates to one more constitutional convention (the fourth), to meet 
at Wyandotte. The election was held June 7th. It was a great elec- 
tion and 14,000 votes were cast; the Republicans elected thirty-five, the 
Democrats seventeen delegates. 


The Elections Before Statehood Came. 

During the territorial days of Kansas twenty-five general elections 
were held. The list follows: 

(1) 1854, November 29. — Election of J. W. Whitfield, pro.slavery, delegate to 

(2) 1855, March 30 — Election of members of the territorial legislature by fraudu- 
lent voters from Missouri. 

(3) 1855, May 22. — Election to fill vacancies in the legislature caused by Governor 
Reader throwing out illegal votes. 

(4) 1855, October 1. — Election of delegate to congress, provided for by the terri- 
torial legislature. No free state men vote. J. W. Whitfield reelected. 

(5) 1855, October 9. — Election of delegate to congress, as provided for by the 
free state convention at Big Springs. Total vote cast for A. H. Reeder; 
free state men only voting. 

(6) 1855, October 9. — Election of delegates to the Topeka constitutional con- 
vention; only free state men participate. 

(7) 1855, December 15. — Election on the adoption or rejection of the Topeka con- 
stitution. Free state men only vote. 

(8) 1856, January 15. — Election of state oflicers, delegate to congress, and mem- 
bers of the legislature, under the Topeka constitution; free state men only vote. 

(9) 1856, October 6. — Territorial election for delegate to congress, for members 
of the legislature, and on the question of calling a convention to form a state 
constitution. Free state men do not vote. 

(10) 1857, Jime 15. — Election of delegates to the Lecompton constitutional con- 
vention. Free state men do not vote. 

(11) 1857, August 9. — Election of officers under the Topeka constitution, member 
of congress, and members of the legislature, and the resubmission of the con- 
stitution itself; free state men only vote. 

(12) 1857. October 5, 6. — Election of territorial legislature and delegate to con- 
gress. All parties vote. The vote, as ordered by the legislature of 1855, 
was viva voce. Section 9, chapter 66, of the statutes of 1855, provided that 
if all the votes offered could not be taken before the hour appointed for clos- 
ing, the judges should, by proclamation, adjourn to the following day, and 
the election to be continued as before. The bogus vote at Oxford was polled 
on October 6th, and was thrown out, because it was physically impossible to 
register so many in one day. There seems to have been no other election at 
which the voting was extended into the second day. On the first day at 
Oxford 91 votes were polled, and on the second day 1538. 

(13) 1857, December 31. — Election on the Lecompton constitution, with or with- 
out slavery, as provided by the convention. Free state men abstain from 

(14) 1858, January 4. — Election of state officers, members of the legislature, and 
delegate to congress, as provided for by the Lecompton constitution. Both 
participate. The free state vote for governor, compared with the vote cast 
against the constitution, made it apparent that 3351 free state men who visited 
the polls took no part in the election for state officers. The free state candi- 
dates, however, prevailed by majorities ranging from 311 to 696; but this was 
rendered nugatory by the ultimate defeat of the constitution. 

(15) 1858, January 4. — Election on the adoption or rejection of the Lecompton 
constitution, ordered by the territorial legislature, special session, now free 
state, called for the purpose by Secretary Frederick P. Stanton. Only free 
state men vote. 


(16) 1858, March 9. — Election of delegates to Leavenworth constitutional con- 
vention, as pro\-ided for by the territorial legislature. Only free state men vote. 

(17) 1858, May 18. — Election on the Leavenworth constitution and state officers 
under it. Only free state men vote. 

(18) 1858, August 2. — Election on the Lecompton constitution as submitted by the 
English bill. Both parties participate. 

(19) 1858, October 4. — Election of members of the territorial house of represen- 
tatives and superintendent of schools. 

(20) 1859, March 28. — Election for or against a constitutional convention. 

(21) 1859, June 7. — Election of delegates to the Wyandotte constitutional con- 

(22) 1859, October 4. — Election on the adoption or rejection of the Wyandotte 

(23) 1859, November 8. — Election of delegate to congress and territorial 

(24) 1859, December 6. — Election of state officers, members of the legislature, 
and representative to congress under the Wyandotte constitution. 

(25) 1860, November 6. — Election of territorial legislature. 

The state was admitted January 29, 1861, and began business with 
the officers and legislature elected December 6, 1859, the latter assem- 
bling for the first time March 26, 1861. 

Vol. I— 10 



The Roll op the Convention — A Convention op Young Men — 
Republican "Whips/' Ingalls and Simpson — The Organization — 
Ohio Constitution Followed — Resolutions to Congress — Closed the 
Door to Slavery — Refused to Include Part op Nebraska — Woman's 
Influence in the Convention — Democratic Members Refused to 
Sign — Constitution Approved by the People — Congress Slow to Act 
— When the News Reached Kansas — Thirty-Five Ye.vrs of State- 

In the five years of territorial Kansas three constitutions had been 
framed. The Topeka constitution prohibited slavery. The Leeompton 
constitution sanctioned slavery. The Leavenworth went even farther 
than the Topeka constitution by leaving out the word "white." Three 
constitutions ! And no statehood for Kansas in sight. 

And then it came to pass that the constitution which was forever to 
banish slavery from Kansas soil, the constitution that was to endure, 
and the one under which Kansas was to rise to the stars, through diffi- 
culties, was to be framed. 

The convention met in Wyandotte July 5, 1859. It was in se.ssion 
twenty-one days. At the close, it gave to Kansas a constitution which 
reflected the pluck and progressiveness of her citizens. It was ap- 
proved by the votes of the people October 4. 1859, and on January 29, 
1861, Kansas became a state. 

And thus the Wyandot Indians, who had started the movement for 
territorial government for Kansas, had a share in the glory of estab- 
lishing statehood for Kansas. 

The convention was held in Lipman M.yer's hall. The building 
stood back of the old Wyandotte levee at First street and Nebraska 
avenue. Its walls were constructed of brick, its area was two hundred 
and thirty-nine feet by one hundred feet, and it rose to a height of 
four stories. It was, at the time of the convention, the largest building 
in the territory of Kansas, and Wyandotte, then emerging from an 
Indian village to an incorporated town, aspired to be the greatest city 
on the Missouri river above St. Louis. The lower floors were used as 
a warehouse and old citizens who were in Wyandotte fifty years or 




more as'o tell of great cargoes of merchandise brovight up the Missouri 
river on steamboats for distribution in the Kansas territor\'. The 
upper tloors of the building in which was the "hall" had been used 
for public gatherings and for meetings of secret societies. It was the 
regular meeting place of the "Whangdoodles," a celebrated fraternal 
association of the early days. The lodge was organized by Jean Chaf- 
fee, a Wyandot Indian, who got the idea in California. It is said that 
the "Whangdoodles" had a large tin bathtub, in which new members 
were initiated. The bathtub was drawn over the floor with a long 
rope until the tin in the bottom became heated from the friction on the 
floor; and that is when the victim began to sufifer. 


At the beginning of the Civil war, when men were rallying to the 
call for troops, a company of freshly organized volunteers was drilling 
in the hall, and a part of the building tumbled down. A few years 
later, when the Kansas division of the ITnion Pacific Railway was builded 
west from Wyandotte, the part of the building then standing became the 
headquarters and terminal station of the railroad. It was decorated 
•with large signs that read "Union Pacific Railway Company, E. D.," 
the two last letters signifying "Eastern Divi.sion." 

In later years what was left of the building was burned. A grain 
elevator, one of the largest in Kansas, operated in connection -with the 


Chicago-Great Western Railway, now oocupies the site. The old levee, 
once washed away, has been rest< red, but the river traffic, which was the 
pride of the people of old Wyandotte in the fifties and sixties, is gone. 

The Roll op the Convention. 

The convention was composed itf thirty-five Republicans and seven- 
teen Democrats. The delegates and the counties represented were as 
follows : 

Republicans: J. M. Winchell, Osage, president; J. M. Arthur, Linn; 
James Blood and N. C. Blood, Douglas ; J. G. Blunt, Anderson ; J. C. 
Burnett, Bourbon ; J. T. Burris, Johason ; Allen Crocker, Coffee ; W. P. 
Dutton, Lykins ; Robert Graham, Atchison ; J. P. Greer, Shawnee ; W. 
R. Griffith, Bourbon; James Hanway, Franklin; S. E. Hoffman, Wood- 
son; S. D. Houston, Riley; William Hutchinson, Douglas; J. J. Ingalls, 
Atcliison ; S. A. Kingman, Brown ; Josiah Lamb, Linn ; G. H. Lillie, 
Madison; Caileb May, Atchison; William MeCullough, Morris; J. A. 
INKddleton, Marshall; L. R. Palmer, Pottawatomie; R, J. Porter, Doni- 
phan; H. D. Preston and John Richie, Shawnee; E. G. Ros.s, Wabaun- 
see ; J. A. Signer, Allen ; B. P. Simpson, Lykins : Edwin Stokes, S. 0. 
Thacher, P. H. Townsend and R. L. Williams, Douglas, and T. S. Wright, 

Democrats : J. T. Barton, John.son ; Fred Brown, Leavenworth ; J. 
W. Forman, Doniphan ; R. C. Poster and Sam Hippie, Leavenworth ; E. 
M. Hvibbard, Doniphan; C. B. McClellan, Jefferson; W. C. McDowell, 
and A. D. McCune, Leavenworth; E. Moore, Jackson; J. S. Parks, and 
William Perry and J. P. Slough, Leavenworth ; J. Stairwalt, Doniphan ; 
S. A. Stinson, Leavenworth; B. Wrigley, Doniphan, and John Wright, 

A Convention of Young Men. 

It was a notable convention that framed the constitution under 
which Kansas was admitted. ]\Iost of the members were not known in 
Kansas politics. Such leaders as Charles Robinson and Jim Lane did 
not figure at Wyandotte. But the young men there present were the 
future leaders of Kansas. Out of the convention came two United 
States senators, John J. Ingalls and Edmund G. Ross, and a chief 
justice of the supreme court of Kansas, Samuel A. Kingman. B. F. 
Simpson was the first attorney general under statehood and later was 
speaker of the Kansas house, a member of the senate, a supreme court 
commissioner and United States marshal. Solon 0. Thacher. of Law- 
rence, became a district judge. William C. McDowell was also a dis- 
trict judge, while John T. Burris became United States district attor- 
ney, lieutenant colonel and has had a long career as a district and pro- 


bate judge in Johnson county. Samuel A. Stinson was attorney general 
of Kansas. John A. Martin, the youthful .secretary of the convention, 
was twice chosen governor. W. R. Griffith was once superintendent of 
public instruction. John P. Slough was a brigadier general and James 
Blunt was a major general in the United States army in the Civil war 
and later a district judge of Wyandotte county. W. R. Davis, the 
chaplain, became a colonel in the war and other members served in the 
Kansas house and senate. 

Lawyers usually are much in the majority in a constitutional con- 
vention ; but it was not so in the convention that framed the Wyandotte 
constitution for Kansas. Only eighteen of the fifty-two delegates were 
lawyers. Sixteen were farmers, and they had something to say, too. 

The oldest man in the convention was Robert Graham, of Atchison 
county, who was fifty-five. The youngest was B. F. Simpson, who was 
twenty-three. Only fifteen of the fifty-two were over forty years of 
age ; more than one-third were under thirty, and nearly two-thirds under 
thirty-five. One-half of the members had been in the territory less 
than two years. Forty-one were from northern states, seven from the 
south and four were foreign born. 

Wyandotte county had not been formed when the act was passed 
by the territorial legislature, February 11, 1859, providing for the con- 
stitutional convention. One week later the legislature created Wyan- 
dotte county out of parts of Leavenworth and Johnson counties. In 
Wyandotte county the citizens went ahead and elected two delegates to 
the convention. Dr. J. E. Bennett and Dr. J. B. Welbom, but that was 
as far as it went. When the convention met it refused to recognize the 
two physicians as delegates, on the ground that Wyandotte county was 
represented by two delegates from Leavenworth county. But there 
was another reason. It was a Republican convention and the two 
Wyandotte doctors were Democrats. A duel almost resulted from the 
refusal of the convention to recognize the Wyandotte county delegates. 
Samuel S. Kingman was one of the men who openly opposed the seating 
of the delegates. In his speech he said something that offended Doc- 
tor Bennett, and the doctor promptly challenged him to a duel. But 
Kingman refused to accept the challenge. 

Republican "Whips," Ingalls and Simpson. 

Politically the convention contained thirty-five Republicans and 
seventeen Democrats. John J. Ingalls and Benjanun F. Simpson were 
the Republican whips, and the minority leaders were Samuel Stinson 
and John P. Slough, both lawyers. Judge John T. Burns, listed as a 
Republican in the convention, became a Democrat in the revolt of 1872. 
Stin.son was one of the brightest men in the convention. He was a 
little, wiry, black-headed man who had come west from Maine, and, with 


his oratory, keen wit and a loiowledge of parliamentary law, he made 
himself felt in the deliberations. As for Ingalis, it seemed that he sat 
up at night to look iip new adjectives to vtse in his sai-eastic speeches. 
He was about twenty-six. He studied Webster's dictionary more than 
any other man in this part of the country. It is recalled that Ingalis, 
as he appeared at that time, was about six feet tall. 

The Wyandotte convention was the firet constitutional convention 
in Kansas in which all factions participated, and it was organized on 
party lines. An informal Republican caucus was held to decide as to 
who should be secretary. There were a number of applicants, but when 
somebody suggested John A. Martin, of Atchison, there was general 
acquiescence. Martin was little more than a boy, but he had bought 
out the Pro-Slavery paper at Atchison and had turned it into a Free 
State journal, so he was favorably known. lie was discreet and sen- 
sible and very attentive to his work — as, indeed, he was to everything 
he undertook. 

The most striking thing about Ingalis at that time, was his hat. 
It was a broad-brimmed straw with every other .straw removed and the 
crown punched up to a point. There was a tow string attached to it. 
Altogether it was about the most curious hat the natives ever saw. In- 
galis did not take much part in the general debate. But he was a Wil- 
liams man and was looked on as the scholar of the convention. So he 
was made chairman of the committee on phraseology. 

Ross, who also in later years became a United States senator, was 
editor of a weekly paper in Topeka at that time. He had no ability 
as a speaker, but he had extraordinary good judgment ; was earnest in 
his convictions and broad-minded. 

The most intluential Republicans were Kingman and Thacher. Of 
the Democrats, Stinson and McDowell were especially able men. Stin- 
son was the most intluential man of the convention on every matter in 
which party lines were not drawn. 

The most effective speech in the convention, Ben F. Simp.son once 
remarked, was Thacher 's protest against the exclusion of negroes from 
Kansas. All the Democrats and several of the Republicans favored 
the exclusion, but the motion to that effect was defeated. In general, 
the discussions were amicable. 

The Organization. 

The convention organized by electing the following officers: presi- 
dent, J. M. Winchell ; president pro tem, S. O. Thacher ; secretary, John 
A. Martin; assistant secretary, J. L. Blanehard; sergeant-at-arms, G. 
F. Warren ; chaplain, W. R. Davis. 

It was remarked that President Winchell showed excellent judg- 
ment ill the men whom he appointed chairmen of the committees. He 


chose an obscure country doctor, J. M. Blunt, chairman of the military 
committee, and Blunt became the only major general from Kansas in the 
Civil war. The chairman of the judiciary, S. A. Kingman, while not 
widely known then as a lawyer, later served fifteen years on the Kansas 
supreme bench. The ehaimian of the education committee, W. R. 
Griffith, became the first superintendent of public instruction. The 
brilliant Ingalls was put in charge of phraseology and arrangement. 
S. 0. Thacher was chairman of the legislative work. B. P. Simpson, of 
Paola, as chairman of finance and taxation, introduced the provisions 
limiting the state's public debt, which proved a most wholesome pro- 
vision later. J. T. Burris was chairman of the committee on schedule, 
and S. D. Houston of amendments and miscellaneous. 

The convention adopted the plan and oath of Ohio, and Mr. Wil- 
liam L. McMath, a notary public of Wyandotte, was selected to adminis- 
ter it. The members rising in their places, received the following: 
"You and each of you will support the constitution of the United States, 
and faithfuly discharge your duties as members of this convention." 
The officers then stood up and a similar oath was administered. This 
early adoption of the example of Ohio foreshadowed a later adoption 
of the constitution of that state as a model by which the constitution of 
Kansas should be drawn. 

The members of the convention were organized into fifteen commit- 
tees, each of which was to prepare a draft of provisions appropriate for 
a particular article of the constitution. In order that the drafts pre- 
pared by the committees might be harmonious, it was necessary to de- 
cide iipon a eonunon basis for action. This was difficult to do, on ac- 
count of the varying nativity and experience of the delegates. The 
largest representation from any one state was the thirteen from Ohio. 
Seven were natives of Indiana and five each of Kentucky and Penn.syl- 
vania. Pour were from New York, three each were from New Jersey 
and Vermont, and two each from Massachusetts and Maine. Four mem- 
bers were foreigners, representing England, Ireland, Scotland, and Ger- 
many. Pive delegates had helped to form the Leavenworth constitu- 
tion, and three had been members of the Topeka convention. Each 
group knowdng the provisions of its own constitution best, was in favor 
of adopting it as a model. During the debate, John 0. Slough ad- 
vocated the Leavenworth constitution, and William R. Griffith, being a 
native of Indiana, thought the con.stitution of that state would be the 
proper model. 

The Ohio Constitution Followed. 

Solon 0. Thacher suggested the plan which was adopted. It pro- 
vided that the roll of the convention be called, and that each member 
name the constitution which he preferred as a basis for the convention 


to act upon, and that if on this vote no one constitution received a major- 
ity the roll be called again, and that the members confine their responses 
to one of the three constitutions having the highest number of votes. 
Upon the first ballot Ohio received thirteen votes, Indiana twelve and 
Kentucky six. Five votes were cast for the Leavenworth and three for 
the Topeka constitution. Pennsylvania and Iowa each received two 
votes, and Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota and Oregon one 
each. The number of votes for Ohio corresponds to the number of 
delegates native to that state. The number of votes for the Topeka and 
Leavenworth constitutions corresponds, respectively, to the number of 
members who helped to form these constitutions. The seven members 
from Indiana and five from Kentucky were doubtless state loyal, and 
must have received votes from states having smaller delegations. The 
other votes bear no apparent relation to the membere present from the 
respective states. On the second ballot, Ohio received twenty-five votes, 
Indiana twenty-three, and Kentucky one. The Ohio constitution, hav- 
ing received the majority of the votes cast, was made the basis for action, 
and copies of that constitution were printed and distributed to the 
members of the various committees. 

Many other constitutions were in the hands of the delegates, and 
sections peculiarly adopted to conditions in Kansas were appropriated 
from them. Among the constitutions mostly drawn from were the 
Michigan constitution of 1850, the Iowa constitution of 1857, Wisconsin 
of 1848, Illinois of 1848, Indiana of 1851, Minnesota of 1857, New York 
of 1846, Pennsylvania of 1838, Kentucky of 1850, and the earlier Kan- 
sas constitutions, framed at Topeka, Lecompton and Leavenworth. 

Mr. Hutchinson said, in explanation of the report of his committee, 
that the preamble was copied almost word for word from the preamble 
of the Massachusetts constitution, which had been composed by John 
Adams. This would have been of historic interest, at least, but the 
members of the Kansas convention discarded it in favor of a short enact- 
ing clause prepared by Samuel A. Stinson. In introducing this clause, 
he stated that it was the usual form of the constitutions which he had 
examined. He appears to have taken Minnesota for a model, and added 
a few words from Wisconsin and Iowa. 

The preamble is followed by the bill of rights. With the exception 
of an additional provision to section 6, a few transpositions and changes 
in phraseology, the last nineteen provisions of the bill of rights are, sec- 
tion for section, modeled upon the Ohio precedent. 

Resolutions to Congress. 

Members of the convention had several different measures which 
they had been unable to incorporate in the ordinance, but yet wi.shed 
to present to congress in connection with the constitution. A series 


of seven resolutions were adopted. Five of them asked for grants of 
land, the proceeds of which were to be used for internal improvement, 
construction of railroads, development of the Kansas river, support of 
public schools and pa.yment of claims awarded by the claims commission. 
The seventh resolution a.sked congress to assume the debt of the terri- 
tory. The first and third resolutions had been a part of the report of 
the committee on ordinance, and the fifth had precedent in the seventh 
resolution of the Wisconsin constitution. The precedent followed in 
adopting the series of resolutions in the Wisconsin constitution. 

Upon the last day of the convention. Judge Burris had the honor 
of adding the finishing touch to the constitution by proposing the at- 
testing clause, "Done in convention at Wyandotte, this 29th day of 
July, A. D. 1859." Even the clause followed in form the model of the 
Ohio and Iowa constitutions. 

It is evident that the Ohio constitution of 1851, adopted as a com- 
mon basis for action, was closely adhered to in all cases where its pro- 
visions were adapted to conditions in Kansas. The Ohio constitution 
of 1851, being entirely without ordinance and memorial, and deficient 
in its provisions for an educational system, for the establishment and 
control of banks and currency and for the organization and discipline 
of the militia, the constitutions of Indiana, Wisconsin, Michigan and 
Iowa were largely drawn upon to make up the deficiene.y. In other 
instances where the constitution of Ohio did not apply to conditions 
in Kansas, or could be improved upon, provisions were adopted from 
the constitutions of Indiana, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, New York, 
Ma.ssaehusetts, Illinois. ^Missouri. Kentucky, California, Maine, Minne- 
sota, Vermont, Pennsylvania, Oregon, and from earlier constitutions and 
the territorial government of Kansas. A careful comparison shows that 
nearly every section of the Wyandotte constitution was either copied 
from or based upon some section to be discovered in some preceding 
constitution. The provisions not drawn from or based upon the con- 
stitution of some other state are : First, the provision for equal educa- 
tion for the sexes, and for the election by the bar of a judge pro tem. 
of the district court, which were supposed to be based upon sections in 
the Kentucky constitution, but were really legislative enactments; sec- 
ondly, the provision that all bills shoiild originate in the house of rep- 
resentatives, which is an extension of the theory in practice concerning 
revenue bills ; and thirdly, the provision in the educational system for a 
county superintendent of public instruction, and an outline of the 
method of distributing the public school fund to the districts, and of a 
revaluation and sale of school lands, all of which were legislative enact- 
ments of neighboring states. Five or six provisions in advance of any 
other state constitution had been thoroughly tested as laws of other states 
before their adoption by Kansas. The provision that all bills should 
originate in the house of representatives, the only real experiment in 
the constitution, was repealed November 8, 1864. 


Closed the Door to Slavery. 

The Wyandotte eonstitutidii made Kansas a free state. But the 
curioiLS tiling about the convention is that slavery was not an issue 
there. By 1858 the influx of Free State men had made it certain that 
Kansas would never be a slave state. The overwhelming defeat of the 
Lecompton constitution had closed the door to slavery. So this pro- 
vision was adopted without trouble : ' ' There shall be no slavery in this 
state and no involuntary sei-vitude except for crime whereof the party 
shall have been duly convicted." The only fight on this question came 
over a motion to suspend this section for one year after the admission 
of Kansas to the Union, but this was voted down, 28 to 11. Four years 
previously the people had voted in connection with the Free State Topeka 
constitution to exclude negroes from Kansas. So there was much senti- 
ment in favor of this. But the proposal was defeated. Negroes how- 
ever, were not granted the suffrage. 

The chief struggle in the convention was over the amount of the 
homestead exemption. It was finally decided to exempt from seizure 
for a debt a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres of farming land, 
or of one acre within the limits of an incorporated town, occupied as a 
residence by the family of the owner, with all the improvements. It 
was thought that this liberal provision would attract immigration. 

If the national congress had accepted the recommendations of the 
Wyandotte constitutional convention there might be no need for such an 
effort as is now making to have the Missouri river improved for naviga- 
tion. River trafific in those days was the life of western commerce, and 
while the railroads were expected to enter the field the delegates in the 
convention could look forward to the time when the abandonment of 
river trafific would prove to be a great mistake. The Missouri river 
(|uestion arose in the convention in the shape of a resolution asking con- 
gress to set aside -45,000 acres of public domain to create a fund for im- 
proving the Missouri river "for navigation." Congress, however, did 
not act on the .suggestion. 

Refused to Include a Part op Nebraska. 

The convention made the mistake, as its members later generally 
agreed, of refusing to include that part of Nebraska lying south of the 
Platte. The counties in that district had elected delegates to the con- 
vention and they were admitted as honorary members, with the privilege 
of taking part in the discussions regarding annexation. The cjuestion 
was debated for several days. In a conunemorative address Governor 
JIartin ascribed the defeat of the big state project to two causes. The 
report was circulated that the southern Nebraska counties would be 
Democratic, and Topeka and Lawrence, both of which desired to become 


the state capital, feared that so much territory to the north would throw 
the center of gravity of the state north of the Kansas river and so would 
lessen their chances. So their delegates used their influence against 
including the Platte country. 

Another provision that failed of adoption was one offered by Pres- 
ton, of Shawnee, giving the legislature power to forbid the sale of liquor. 
This was discussed at length, but was rejected on the ground that it 
might jeopardize the ratifying of the constitution. 

The capital of Kansas territory had been Lecompton. At the 
Wyandotte convention Topeka was chosen by a vote of twenty-nine to 
fourteen for Lawrence, and six for Atchison. 

A novel provision of the constitution was adopted at the solicita- 
tion of Winchell, chairman of the convention. This provided that all 
laws must originate in the house of representatives. Solon 0. Thacher 
opposed this vigorously and it lasted only three years after the admis- 
sion of the state into the Union. 

A W(3m.\n's Influence in the Convention. 

Old citizens of Wyandotte and Quindaro recall 
the fact that at each session of the convention in the 
twenty-one days it was at work on the constitution a 
woman watched the proceedings. She -was Mrs. 
Clarinda I. Howard Nichols, of Quindaro, and to her 
counsel, in a measure, is due some of those fine pro- 
visions in the con.stitution that protect the rights of 
the wife, the mother and the woman citizen. Mrs. 
MRS. c. I. H. D. E. Cornell is authority for the statement 
NICHOLS. that Mrs. Nichols always took her knitting mth 

her to the convention. 

Mrs. NichoLs had been an editor of a paper at Battleboro, Ver- 
mont, and had come to Kansas with the New England Free State boom- 
ers. She strove to have the convention extend the elective franchise 
to woman, especially in municipal and educational affairs. While many 
members were willing to adopt her views, a majority could not be se- 
cured. She died in California in 1885, two years before the Kansas 
legislature passed the bill that conferred on the women of Kansas the 
right of municipal suffrage. A large portrait, in oil, of Mrs. Nichols 
hangs in the public library in Kansas City, Kansas, placed there by the 
women of the Columbian Club as a memorial. 

Democratic Members Refuse to Sign. 

The work of the convention was completed on its twenty-first day, 
and at 5 o'clock in the afternoon the motion was made that "we do now 


adopt and proceed to sign the constitution." The Democratic members, 
however, refused. They had several grievances, but the most important 
was the apportionment of members for the legislature. This, they 
contended, was grossly unfair. 

"I suppose the apportionment was unfair," Judge Simpson said in 
explaining it not long ago. "But political conditions demanded the 
apportionment. The legislature to be chosen under this constitution 
was to select two United States senators, and we regarded it as essential 
at that time tliat both of these should be Republicans. "We couldn't 
take the chances of electing Democrats at such a time." 

One Republican, Wright, of Nemaha, was absent. Thirty-four 
other.s signed it. 

The Constitution Approved by the People. 

The constitution was ratified by a vote of the people at an election 
held October 4, 1859. The ma.iority for the constitution, out of 16,000 
votes cast, was more than two to one. Both parties made nominations 
and this is the ticket that was selected on December 6, 1859, to comprise 
the officers of the first government of the "free and accepted" state of 

Governor, Charles Robinson; lieutenant governor, Joseph P. Root; 
secretary of state, John W. Robinson ; treasurer, William Nolen ; auditor, 
George S. Hill.vre ; superintendent of instruction, William R. Griffith; 
chief justice, Thomas Ewing, Jr.; associate .justice (four years), Samuel 
A. Kingman; associate justice (two years), Lawrence D. Bailey; attor- 
ney general, Benjamin F. Simpson ; member of congress, Martin P. Con- 

But statehood for KaJisas was not yet in sight. There was more 
than a year to come. Governor Ifedary, in his message to the terri- 
torial legislature the following January, observed that "the utmost peace 
and quietness has pervaded the territory," but before the year was out 
the governor was marching to the southward to suppress the rising tide 
of war. 

In the meantime the country was shaken by the great political cam- 
paign of 1860. Kansas was all eagerness; Lincoln visited the terri- 
tory in 1859; Seward in 1860. The Democratic party broke in two over 
a Kansas matter. Civil war wa.s threatened as something possible and 
near. Men heard the sound of the looms of the Pates weaving the 
shrouds of the dead. The long struggle in Kansas seemed but the pre- 
lude, the overture. 

Congress Slow to Act. 

Meanwhile the slow congress l)andied the (|nestion from one house 
to the other. Early in the spring of 1860 Galusha A. Grow, of Penn- 


sylvania, presented a bill for the admission of Kansas under the "Wyan- 
dotte constitution. On the 29th of March Mr. Grow favorably reported 
the bill from the committee on territories. On the 11th of April the 
house passed the bill 134 to 73. On the 7th of May the senate voted 
not to take up the Kansas bill and on the 4th of June repeated this 
action. It was a deadlock and so remained till the fated year 1860 
had run on to the more fatefvil year of 1861. Then the lock was broken ; 
the thinned ranks of the senate on the 21st of January voted for the ad- 
mission of Kansas; and on the 28th the house once more rallied for ad- 
mission, 117 to 42, and on the next day, being the 29th day of January, 
1861, the aged president, James Buchanan, affixed his signature. The 
wondrous wire which had, year by year, been drawing near the Missouri, 
\\'as ready now to speed the words of fire to the border. 

When the News Reached Kansas. 

On January 29, 1861, the day President Buchanan signed the bill 
admitting Kansas to statehood under the Wyandotte constitution, D. R. 
Anthony and D. W. Wilder were publishing a paper at Leavenworth 
called the Conservative. The news from Washington reached Leaven- 
worth by telegram and an extra edition of that publication with glaring 
headlines was issued late in the afternoon. With a bundle of "extras" 
Colonel Anthony rode to Lawrence, where the last territorial legislature 
was in session. He arrived about 9 o'clock at night and rushed into 
the Eldridge House shouting the news.. It set that Free State tovm 
\\'ild with jo.v. 

"It was a great stroke of newspaper enterprise," an old Kansan 
said recently. "But think of two radicals like Dan Anthony and Web 
Wilder publishing a paper called the Conservative?" 

Twenty-Five Years of Statehood. 

An able address on the Wyandotte convention and one which re- 
flected the spirit of that famous gathering, was delivered by Ben.iamin 
F. Simp.son, at the quarter-centennial celebration of the admission of 
Kansas into the I^nion, held at Topeka, Januar>' 29, 1886. In the course 
of that address Mr. Simpson said : 

"When we come to review the history and proceedings of the Wyandotte 
Constitutional Convention, after it has been the subject of legal interpretation 
and supplementary legislation for twenty-five years, two important considerations 
first claim notice and comment, and these are the circumstances of its origin and 
the class of men that composed it. How can I describe the five years of organ 
ized usurpation in the interests of slavery that hung over the territory like a 
funeral pall V Organized bands from neighboring slave states raided through the 
territory'; they shot down unarmed men in cold blood; they burned and sacked 
towns ; they burned cabins of the first settlers ; they committed the most out- 


rageoiis and iiiililusliiug frauds on the ballot box; they intimidated voters and drove 
them from the polls; they hunted Free State leaders like bloodhounds; they 
imprisoned men for opinion's sake; they filled both branches of the territorial 
legislature with ruffians, who were residents of Missouri; and in all this were 
protected and encouraged by a national administration as devoted to the propa- 
gation of slavery as were the instriunents tliej- employed to drive the Free State 
settlers from the territory. During these cruel years several attempts were made 
by the Free State men to relieve their condition, and relief could only come by 
admission as a state, or change of national administration. The Topeka and 
Leavenworth constitutional conventions were attempts in that direction, but the 
time for deliverance was not ripe; yet all through these cruel years, angels of hope 
sat upon the hearthstones of the Kansas cabins, singing: 
' For Freedom 'a battle once begim, 
Bequeathed by bleeding sire to son, 
Though baffled oft, is ever won. ' 
"Time aided the persistance and patience of the Free State settlers; immigra- 
tion was coming in from the north; the legislature and local offices were now con- 
trolled by the bona fide residents, and the friends of Kansas were about to control 
the lower house of congress, and were gaining in the senate. Encouraged by these 
good indications, the legislature of 1859, on the 11th day of February, passed an 
act authorizing a vote of the people to be taken on the question of the forma- 
tion of a constitution and state government. The vote was taken on the 28th day 
of March, and resulted four to one in its favor. An election for delegates was 
then ordered on the fourth day of June. At that election there were more than 
14,000 votes cast. The convention met on the 5th day of July. It was right 
that it should meet at Wyandotte, within sight and hearing of slave soil. The 
personal composition of this body of men was peculiar, and it may be that it 
was this peculiarity that made their work a success. For causes that are un- 
necessary and unprofitable here to discuss, not a single one of those numerous 
and worthy men, who were, by common consent, regarded as leaders in the Free 
State movement, had a seat in the convention. It was composed of that great 
middle class, who are the strength and wisdom of a political organization. It 
was a class of men who acted from conviction with a sense of their responsibilities, 
and not from any hope of their personal advancement. These members had more 
or less local prominence, or they could not have been selected as delegates, but 
none of them, with the possible exception of Winchell, was possessed of that in- 
fluence, standing and general acquaintance through the territory that would en- 
title them to be considered in any sense as leaders. They were strangers to each 
other, and when they assembled in Wyandotte, on the 5th day of July, I personally 
knew but four of them, and many members were more unfortunate in that respect 
than I was. They had no personal ambition to gratify, no animosities to resent, 
no friends to favor. Their sole aim and object seemed to be (and in this con- 
nection I speak of them as individuals and as an organized body), to frame a fun- 
damental law that embodied every safeguard to the citizen, that was abreast with 
the progressive sentiment of the nation, in favor of human freedom and human 
rights, and was adapted to the wants and conditions of the people of Kansas. 
They worked conscientiously and with great industry, and completed their labors 
in twenty -one working days. Of course there were schemes, and old claims, and 
spent provisions that were sought to be engi-afted on that instrument, but there 
is not a paragraph or section of that constitution within which lurked any sus- 
picion of a scheme or job. That conventitm was singularly free from political 
manipulation and figuring i\s to state officers and other positions that were so soon 
to follow if the work was ratified by the people. There were about 16,000 votes 
polled at tlie election, and more than two-thirds of them were for the constitution. 


On the 6th day of December the election for state officers, a member of congress, and 
memliers of the legislature was held. On the 14th day of February. 1860, it was 
presented to the senate of the United States. On the 29th day of February, 
Senator W. H. Seward made a strong speech in favor of the admission of the state. 
On the 29th day of March, Mr. Grow, of Pennsylvania, from the committee of 
territories in the house of representatives, made a report recommending admis- 
sion on flie 11th day of April. The house voted to admit Kansas — 134 for and 
73 against. On the 7th day of Maj', Senator Wade, of Ohio, moved to take up 
the house bill admitting Kansas, but was beaten by vote of 26 for and 32 against. 
On the 4th day of .Tune. Cliarles Sumner made a speech in favor of admission, but 
Hunter of Virginia, moved a postponement of the Kansas bill, and it carried by 
a vote of 33 for and 27 against. On the 21st day of January, 1861, the bill for 
the admission of Kansas passed the senate by a vote of 36 for and 16 against. On 
the 29th day President Buchanan signed the bill, Kansas became a state, the 
struggle was over, the battle was won : and the good people of Kansas are to-day 
enjoying the fruits of the victory. 

"I claim for the members of that body, who framed a fundamental law which 
has governed a state twenty-five years — years of marvelous growth and unex- 
ampled development — that time has demonstrated that they had a verj' fair con- 
ception of the wants, conditions and necessities of the people for whom they acted, 
and, notwithstanding the wonderful increase in population and production, that 
instrument has accelerated rather than retarded the growth that has never been 
equaled on the American continent. 

"I doubt whether the men of to-day, any more tlian those of twenty-five 
years ago, have given a thought or entertained a conception of what a grand, 
glorious and prosperous commonwealth is building up among them, how this influx 
of people, how this everyday intercourse l^tween people of different sections of our 
own widespread domain, how this exchange of ideas and methods, how all these 
things, animated and dominated by the Anglo-Saxon blood, are producing on the 
prairies of Kansas a race of people and a condition of government and society that 
will make the state the ' chosen land ' of the best type of American civilization : 
and will ever keep green and fresh the memory of the noble pioneers whose blood 
will bring 'God-like' fruition to the hopes, aspiration and ultimate destiny of the 
glorious young commonwealth." 



Sen.vtor Bristow's Address — Governor STtmBS on "Kansas" — 
Henry J. Allen's Eloquence — Congressman Madison's Tribute — 
William Allen White on "The Old Insurgents" — John H. At- 
wood's Speech. 

A semi-centennial celebration of the adoption of the Wyandotte con- 
stitution by the people of Kansas was held in October, 1909, and, as was 
befitting: an occasion of such historic importance, it was ordained that 
the i-elebration be held in Kansas City, Kansas, the metropolis of Kan- 
sas that grew from the little village of Wyandotte of 1859. It was held 
in the banquet hall of the great Scottish Rite temple adjoining the his- 
toric old burial ground of the Wyandot Indians, and under the aus- 
pices of the Mercantile Club. Many men of distinction in Kansas were 
guests and the glories of the commonwealth, and its triumphs under the 
Wyandotte constitution, were sung. At that time only five men who 
sat as delegates in the convention of fifty years before were living: 

John T. Burris, delegate from Johnson county, residing at Olathe. 

C. B. McClelland, delegate from Jeffer.son county, residing at 
Oskaloosa, Kansas. 

R. C. Foster, delegate from Leavenworth county, residing at Den- 
nison, Texas. 

B. F. Simpson, delegate from Lykins county, residing at Paola. 

Sannu'l D. Houston, delegate from Riley count.v, residing at Salina. 
Mr. Houston, who died a few months after that celebration, was the 
only one of the five survivors that did not attend. 

]\[ayor U. S. Gu.yer was the presiding officer and the speakers were 
Governor W. R. Stubbs, United States Senator J. L. Bristow, Congress- 
men E. H. Madison, William Allen White, Henry J. Allen and John H. 

Senator Bristow's Address. 

"The City's Place in National Life," was the subject on which 
Senator Bristow spoke. "There is no state like Kansas," he said. "I 
ought to be permitted to talk a little about Kansas, although that sub- 



ject was assiofned to someone. They may jest about Kansas. They 
may say that we are erratic, that we are impulsive, that we are even in- 
sane in Kansas. But I would rather be insane in Kansas than sane in 
New York. There are things that they can't and don't say about Kan- 
sas. They can 't say that we have not convictions ; they never say that 
we don't say what we think and act likewise. Kansas is not afraid of any 
set of men. Kansas is the product of the day on which she was born. 
In the early day we fought for human liberty and to-day we are fight- 
ing for political and commercial liberty. Why should not Kansas lead 
in renovating the morals of men and politics of the nation? In my 
heai't I love Kansas and my ambition in public life is to do something 
that will add to the prosperity of the state and welfare of its people. 

"This hearty reception, I think, is not so much for me personally as 
it is for some of the tilings I have been trying to stand for. In the 
olden days, in other countries, the nations began with the cities and their 
stone walls. The nation was not builded until the cities were erected. 
The history of the nations was the history of its cities. 

"In our country it is different. The nation up to this day has been 
ruled by a rural people, not an urban people. In the past the cities 
have not been potent in the making of our laws. The legislation has 
lieen molded by tlie people from the farms and the villages. But the 
people are drifting rapidly to the city. The urban population is to 
play a great part in the future of this country. Mimicipal government 
is to be potent in the government of the nation. We are to rest our 
destiny on the patriotism of the city voters. In time they will control. 
The city governments must be clean if the national government is to be 

"There is danger ahead. I know of the governments of two cities 
controlled b,y political machines that are outrageously corrupt. I know 
of only one political organization that is more wickedly and criminally 
corrupt than the Democrats in Tammany Hall in New York City and 
that is the Republican machine in the city of Philadelphia. 

"I had thought tliat such rural influences in our politics as come 
from Kansas, Iowa and Nebraska and other agricultural states of few 
larger cities would keep our national government clean, but in the last 
session of congress there was a signal of danger that is vital to our 
nation. ' ' 

Governor Stubbs on "Kansas." 

The governor said that the citizens of Kansas should take an interest 
in the development of the Missouri river. ' ' The Lord has done wonder- 
ful things for Kansas," he continued. "He has not done any greater 
thing for this state than to place a great canal over there on the eastern 
border. Don't you know that seagoing vessels ought to be able to come 
up the river and touch on Kansas soil? 

Vol. I— 11 


"Kansas people slionld take an interest in this river improvement. 
The river should be nsed to distribute the products of this state to the 
world. By improving the Missouri river you can make Kansas a greater 
state and make Kansas City, Kansas, a greater eity. The river should 
be improved on a large scale, not a few miles a year. A river should 
be improved as a railroad is built. You do not build four or five miles of 
railroad a year. You survey the whole route and then strike out and 
build it for the whole distance as fast as you can. 

"Let us make Kansas as sound as a bullet in its moral and business 
life. We have some great institutions in Kansas. We have the great- 
est imiversity and the greatest agricultural eollege in the country. 

' ' It appears that the United States is to have the model government 
of the world. If this is true Kansas should be the model state in this 
model nation. All over the state the cities are adopting the commission 
form of government. This is an encouraging sign. It means that the 
cities will not be a corrupting influence in the state as they are in so 
many other states. 

"I am glad to see the citizens of the state talcing a greater interest 
in Kansas City, Kansas. If you follow out your progressive plans this 
city will have a population of 400,000 or 500,000 before many years are 
gone. ' ' 

Henry J. Allen's Eloquence. 

To the enthusiasm of youth that painted the prairies of Kansas with 
their wealth of green and purple and gold, Henry J. Allen, a favorite of 
all Kansas word painters, added the philosophical reflections of middle 
age in his address on "Sunny Kansas." "I am happy to be here in this 
city to-night," he .said at the beginning, "because it gives me an oppor- 
tunity to congratulate the people of Kansas City, Kansas, on the splen- 
did progress they are making. And I want to congratulate you upon 
the fact that you have proved that a great city can l^e both prosperous 
and respectable at the same time. Here I find you are now, at this late 
season of the year, biiilding three hundred and fifty new homes, and 
every hammer, in the hand of a workman on those homes, drives another 
nail into the lie that a town can't be built witliout saloons. We all 
love Kansas City, Kansas, and with every forward stride of the city 
our love increases. It's because it is our Kansas City, and in touch with 
everything that makes our state so dear to us." Mr. Allen talked of 
"dimpling valleys where rest the peaceful cities of Kansas; of broad 
acres that yield abundantly ; of aiitumnal landscapes where the great 
artists of nature paints with deeper colors because of the prosperity 
of Kansas." "But," he added with a glow of enthu.siasm. "the great- 
est of all the manifestations of sunshine in Kansas is in the character 
and the quality of our civilization. True, we are laughed at and are 


made the subject of jest, but when it comes to acute thinking we are 
not as dull as Rhode Island. We are alive and thinking — every man, 
woman, boy and girl in the state is thinking, and acquiring a wealth of 
ideas. We may not have the highest degree of sanity, but we have a 
high degree of mental activity. We take leadership. 

"My friends," Mr. Allen said in closing his address, "the germ of 
our Kansas citizenship is the love we have for our state, for the town 
he helps to make, for the home he helps to bnild, for the trees and grass 
and flowers he plants. Teach the boys and girls to love their homes, 
their city, their state and their nation, and Kansas will have the best 
civilization of earth." 

Congressman Madison 's Tribute. 

The subject of Congressman Edward H. Madison's address was 
"Kansas Under the Wyandotte Constitution." "There are some men 
here to-night," Mr. IMadison said, "who ought to receive the homage of 
every man and woman in Kansas — venerable men who helped write the 
constitution of Kansas liberty. It is a great thing to participate in 
the building of a constitution for a great commonwealth. This Kan- 
sas constitution exists to-day practically as it was written in the old 
warehou.«e at the side of the river in old Wyandotte. They had the 
United States constitution for a model, and when the.y selected a consti- 
tution they selected one which ever since has stood for freedom and 

"The constitution that these men framed had nothing of retro- 
gression. There was nothing in it that would have to be eradicated in 
the future in order that the state might exist. Like the United States 
constitution it dealt with ))road principles and was a constitution that 
will endure. These men who assembled at Wyandotte formulated a 
magnificent charter of liberties. That constitution and the laws that 
were framed under it were an invitation to every God-fearing citizen, 
wherever he might be, to come to Kansas and make his home. 

' ' The Kansas constitution and Kansas laws have made it a great 
state. A few years ago they were denouncing us all over the country 
as a set of cranks because we had adopted a proliiliitory law. Now 
every state in the Union is following our example. Kansas essentially 
is, and always will be, a state of farmers. The great problems of this 
state are not settled in the cities but by the farmers in the country!. 
These men have declared against the saloon just as the men who assem- 
bled here fifty years ago declared against human slavery. And one 
will not return to Kansas any sooner than the other. There is another 
reform that lias come to Kansas that is going to stay. That is the pri- 
mary election law. The reason that its going to stay is because its 
fundamentally and absf)lutelv right." 


Mr. Madison closed his address with a plea for fairness to the rail- 
roads which pushed out into Kansas in advance of civilization, and 
asked that they be shown appreciation for their help in opening up the 

William Allen White on "The Old Insurgents." 

"We have met to-night to celebrate the semi-centennial anniversary 
of the adoption of the Wyandotte constitution of the state of Kansas," 
William Allen White said. "That constitution is the fundamental law 
of our state. It is not a sacred document. It is human and faulty, 
now more or less out of date, and it has been considerably amended for 
its betterment. But when it was adopted that constitution stood for one 
big thing — the overthrow of slavery in the west. . It was a Free State 
constitution. It marked the close of fifty years of compromise on the 
question of slavery and brought on the 'irresponsible conflict.' And 
we are gathered here to honor the memory of the men who, through the 
long dark years of the contest, struggled to make Kansas a free state. 
They did not believe in freedom as a political precept. They fought 
slavery as a great moral \vTong, with no thought of party solidarity. 
They battled for the eternal right as their conscience saw the right. 
They left party; left friends, left home and ties of blood; they risked 
their personal liberties and disdained to .save their own lives, for the 
blessed privilege of fighting in the great combat. They were the old 
Kansas insurgents. It is difficult for us to realize to-day what odds 
they fought For the forces of conservatism were entrenched. 
Those who stood pat on slavery, and who believed in the sacred rights 
of property in human beings, had with them the constitution of the 
United States, the armies of the United States, the courts of the United 
States. They had with them the respectable majority of the people 
of the United States — the upper classes of our socieety. The old in- 
surgents were unconstitutional. They were in rebellion against the 
arms of their country. They were disturbers of the public peace. They 
were disreputable, law-breaking fanatics, who had only God's sheer 
justice on their side in that great struggle. They were denounced as 
visionaries. They were abused as enemies to the flag they loved. They 
were outcasts from the parties. They were hanged as traitors. Presi- 
dents sneered at them, courts banned them, and the smug forces they 
were fighting laughed the old insurgents to scorn ; but they fought on. 
They were told that government is compromise, but they refused to 
compromise. They were told that the con.stitution of the United States 
was against them, and it was; but they did not yield or falter. They 
were defeated at the polls ; they were whipped in many a border battle. 
They saw their caiLse go down to defeat time and time again, but they did 
not desert it ; for their faith in the ultimate triumph of justice was 


supreme. And so they won by tlieir faith — won for Kansas and 

"Now these things are recited here to point a moral and adorn a 
narrative. It seemed in the fifties, in Kansas, as if the established order 
had the world by the tail with a down-hill pull. But there Ls just one 
trouble with tail holds — the tail sometimes pulls out. The thing which 
latter-day scientists designate as an immortal cinch may lose its innnor- 
tality as easily as a sixteen-year-old loses her hairpins. The cinch of 
today is liable to become the thing we try to explain tomorrow. For 
is it not written — that nothing fails like success. Fifty years ago the 
sacred institution of private property in human beings was prancing 
down the corridors of time as closely as a traction engine. Then the 
corridors of time came up kerflop, and sent the sacred institution of 
private property in human beings scooting through oblivion like a buek- 
.shot out of a bean shooter. Today the sacred institution of private 
property in the vested right to gouge the American people in triLsts and 
rebates and extortionate tariffs may do well to pick a convenient star to 
grab as it passes into the dazzling perihelion. For the sidewalk is going 
to begin to flop during the next ten years. There is something dynamic 
in faith. The old insurgents had faith ; the others had the works ; 
and the faith of those ol(1 boys blew up the whole works. That is what 
you might call faith without works. 

' ' This is a queer world ; man comes forth to battle declaring that 
God is on the side of the heaviest artillery, and lo ! there is a sunken 
road that swallows the artillery. The unflinching heroes behind the 
brick wall at Hugemount, and the day is lost ; a sacred institution elects 
senators, controls presidents, writes laws, dominates constitutions, and 
behold a half crazed fanatic appears at Harper's Ferry, and 'his soul 
goes marching on.' And so today — the great financial forces that 
dominate our American politics should profit by these examples. If 
this be treason — don't shoot the pianist — he's doing his best. And in 
closing these remarks let me leave this parting thought : As our fathers 
won their fight by faith, so shall our faith today be justified. And in 
looking back to honor them, let us honor them by consecrating ourselves 
in the contest now before us, that we may become worthy bearers of a 
great heritage." 

John H. Atwood's Speech. 

A humorous description of the present political situation in ' ' This Kansas now is a veritable Republican paradise, ' ' he 
said. "The Republicans have always fought and flourished in Kansas. 
Glick and Leedy put them out a couple of vears, but that did not stop 
the Republicans from fighting. Why look at 'Joe' Bristow, 
who has shied his castor even at the president ! It is not right that I, 


a poor, beaten, whipped Democrat should be here in company with these 
Republieaus tiushed with victory. 

"Daniel Boone wasn't in it as an Indian fighter, compared with 
Stubbs. Stubbs goes around burning the villages of good RepublicaTi 
Indians and he does it cheerfully, too. There is considerable turmoil, 
even in the ranks of the Republicans, in Kansas. That is pleasing to 
observe, but then comes the realization that it don 't do the Democrats 
any good. They're getting more and more Republicans all the time. 

"There was a machine onee here in Kansas. But these insurgents 
poured water in the machine's gasoline and poured .sand in the bearings. 
Now the machine exists no more." 



The East Boundary op Kansas — The North Boundary — South- 
ern Boundary — When Colorado Was a Part op Kansas — Wyandotte 
Convention Cut Opp Colorado — Debate on the Western Boundaky' 
— To Cut Off "Short Grass" Country — Objected to the Mining 
Regions — A Pathway to the Mountains — Part of Nebraska Wanted 
TO BE IN Kansas — Nebraska's Many Capitals — Would M^vke the 
Platte the Bound/vry — Nebraska's Delegates to Wyandotte — 
Defeat of the Plan — Kansas Papers Indifferent — A Missouri 
Opinion op Kansas — Stephen A. Douglas' Speech — Ben Simpson's 
Defense of the Boundaries — The Convention Did Right — Kansas 
City Lost Its Opportunity^ — Kansas the "Middle Spot" of North 

When the constitutional convention met in Wyandotte in July, 
1859, one of the great questions before it for consideration was that of 
deciding how much of the area then embraced in the territory of Kansas 
should be included in the state that wa.s soon to be admitted into the 
Union. The territory of Kansas at that time, as established by the act 
of congress of May 30, 1854, extended west from the western boundary 
line of the state of Missouri to the summit of the Rocky mountains, or 
the Continental Di\ide, a little west of Leadville and nearly to the east 
line of Utah, embracing the larger portion of the present state of Colo- 
rado; while the northern and southern boundaries were respectively the 
fortieth and thirty-seventh parallels of north latitude, the same as now. 
Technically, according to the congressional act, the boundaries of the 
territory of Kansas were: "Beginning at a point on the western 
boundary of the state of ]\Iissouri, where the thirty-seventh parallel of 
north latitude crosses the same (about thirty miles north of the southwest 
corner of Missouri, or 36« 30' parallel of north latitude) ; thence west 
on said parallel to the eastern boundary of New Mexico; thence north on 
said boundary to latitude thirty-eight ; thence following said boundary 
westward to the east boundary of the territory of Utah, on the summit of 
the Rocky mountains; thence northward on said summit to the fortieth 
parallel of latitude ; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary 



of tlie state of Missouri ; thence soutli with the western boundary of said 
state (being a meridian line passing through the middle of the mouth of 
the Kansas river) to the place of beginning." 

And in the solution of this great problem the delegates in the con- 
vention met with many difficulties, chiefly growing out of the slavery 
(juestion. In a very ably written article prepared with e.special care 
and with reference to accuracy of statements Hon. George W. Martin, 
secretary of the Kansas Historical Society, gives us some interesting 
information. Mr. Martin's article is here utilized, almost in its entirety. 

The east boundary of Utah, "the summit of the Rocky mountains" 
according to what was known at that time, is a very vague and indefinite 
expression. Another statement of the we.stern line says: "Westward 
to the summit of highlands dividing the waters flowing into the Colorado 
of the west or Green river, from the waters flowing into the great basin. ' ' 
It is usually understood that the teiTitorv of Kansas extended nearly 
to the present eastern line of Utah. At that time probably no one knew, 
A topographical map of the United States, issued in 1807, shows the 
summit of the Rocky mountains, called the "Continental Divide," to be 
a trifle west of Leadville. West of this point the waters now flow into 
the Gulf of California, and east the waters flow into the Gulf of Mexico. 
The east line of Utah is very near the one hundred and ninth meridian 
west, but the summit of the moimtains is shown to be so irregular as not 
to be stated by lines. Several of the old maps show the west line of 
Kansas territory following the continental divide. Undoubtedly, 
therefore the territory of Kansas did not include the whole of Colorado, 
hut say about two-thirds of it, or a few miles west of Leadville. 

The East Boundary of Kansas. 

Tlie western line of Missouri, "a meridian line passing through the 
middle of the mouth of the Kansas river," is the eastei-n line of Kansas. 
Thus is designated one of the most conspicuous points on the continent. 
Here the line is a street cutting in almost equal parts the most interest- 
ing and promising city in the land. This street is lined with untold 
millions of wealth in railroads, packing houses, stockyards and general 
manufactures. The mouth of the Kansas river was accurately deter- 
minated by astronomical observation, in 180-1, by Lewis and Clark, the 
explorers, to be latitude 38° 31' 13." There has always been some 
controversy as to whether or not the mouth of the Kansas has changed. 
There seems to be no way of determining whether it clianged between 
the date of the location given by Lewis' and Clark, in 1804, and the date 
of the settlement of the boundary line in 1821. The report of the 
Geodetic Survey, in 1902, gives the latitude and longitude of the Second 
Presbyterian church spire (northwest corner of Thirteenth and Central 
Kansas City, Missouri,) to be latitude 39o 05' 55.813" and lonoitude 


94° 35' 13.448". In 1889 IMr. W. E. Coiinelley made a careful study 
of this matter, and concluded that the line is where it always was. Mr. 
C. I. Mc-Clung, who has had much experience in the engineering depart- 
ment of Kansas City, Kansa.s, tells me that the distance between the 
mouth of the Kansas river and Thirteenth and Central, Kansas City, 
Missoxiri, is 7.392 feet, or one and four-tenths miles. 

The North Boundary. 

The fortieth parallel of north latitude was made the boundary line 
between the territories of Nebraska and Kansas by congress in the act of 
May 30, 1854. It seems that in the beginning the Missourians wanted 
the Platte river, but Hadley D. Johnson, representing more northerly 
interests, insisted upon the fortieth parallel. There were no surveys 
then, and there was no controversy in congress about any portion of the 
lines. Neither was there any hundred-dollar-an-acre land, and so con- 
gress acted like the fellow who sold a quarter section, and vs^hile the 
buyer was not looking, slipped in the deed another quarter to get rid 
of it. Nebraska was extended north to the British line, and Kansas 
extended to the summit of the Rocky mountains, a few miles beyond the 
present city of Leadville. Immediately upon the passage of the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska act John Calhoun was made surveyor general of Nebraska 
and Kansas. A contract was made with John P. Johnson to establish 
the northern boundary line. It was concluded to make it the principal 
base line whereupon to start the survey, both on the north in Nebraska 
and on the south in Kansas. The fortieth parallel was astronomically 
established in 1854 by Capt. T. J. Lee, topographical engineer, U. S. A. 
The survey was started on the 18th of November, 1854. The party were 
eighteen days running west one hundred and eight miles. When the 
Missouri river was closed to northern immigration in 1856, Nebraska 
City was a port of entry for Kansas. 

The Southern Boundary Line op Kansas. 

The thirty-seventh parallel, was declared the southern boundary, 
and was surveyed by Lieutenant-Colonel J. E. Johnston, Cavalry, 
and finished September 10, 1857. The astronomical determinations 
were by J. II. Clark and H. Campbell ; the siirvey by J. E. Weyss. The 
southern boundary of the Osage Nation formed the northern boundary 
of the Cherokee Nation, by treaties with the United States of 1828 and 
1833. A map of Kansas and Nebraska, indorsed August 5, 1854, by 
George W. Manypenny, commissioner of Indian affairs, shows the thirty- 
seventh parallel as the boundary line between the Osage and Cherokee 
reservations, and it is possible that in outlining the bounds of the new 
territory the line between these two tribes was adopted as least liable 
to arouse controversy. 


It is an interesting studj' to follow the organization and develop- 
ment of these plains. At the time of the creation of the territory there 
had been no survejang other than for Indian reservations. Instead of 
distinct lines being given in the creation of counties a stated territory 
was described as so many miles west, so many miles south, etc., the 
point of beginning being the main channel of the Kansas or Kaw river 
at the point where the main channel crosses the Missouri line. 

When Colorado Was a Part op Kansas. 

The pro-slavery legislature of 1855 created thirty-five counties in 
what is now Kansas, and the county of Arapahoe in what is now 
Colorado. The act said that when the surveys were completed the 
nearest towaiship, section or subdividing line should be the boundary. 
The counties established by the first act extended only to the west line 
of Marshall, Riley and Geary. In a separate act the counties of Marion 
and Washington were established. Marion was a narrow strip extend- 
ing from about the south line of the present Dickinson county to the 
south line of the .state. Washington extended from about the middle 
of Sumner to the east line of Las Animas county, Colorado. Arapahoe 
county covered the Rocky Mountains region, and extended east to the 
one hundred and third meridian, or a few miles east of the west line 
of Kit Carson county, Colorado, or to the east line of New Mexico ex- 
tended north. This left all the region west of Marshall county and 
north of the south line of the present Wallace and Logan counties under 
the vague description "all the territory west of Marshall and east of 
Arapahoe." The county lines were made regardless of routes of travel, 
and .subsequently development made lots of trouble readjusting counties 
to suit ambitious cities. The channel of the Kansas river would not 
answer, so we had Wyandotte taken from Leavenworth and Johnson, 
Douglas and Shawnee pieced out from Jefferson and Jackson, and Riley 
had to be shifted greatly to suit ]\Ianhattan. 

In 1859 the legislature established the counties of IMontana, El- 
Paso, Oro, Broderick and Fremont out of the west end of Arapahoe, 
leaving this last named county on the great plains. The names Brode- 
rick and Fremont indicated that a different sentiment was in charge 
of aifairs. Of the coimties thus established but three remain in the 
state of Colorado — Fremont, El Paso and Arapahoe. 

After the creation of the territory and prior to statehood, Kansas 
had four constitutional conventions. The Topeka convention of Octo- 
ber, 1855, the Lecompton convention of September, 1857, and the 
Leavenworth convention of March, 1858, each accepted the boundaries 
established in the organic act of May 30, 1854, extending the proposed 
state westward to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. 


The WyiVNdotte Convention Cut Off Colorado. 

The "Wyandotte convention, the fourth and last before the admis- 
sion of the state, fixed the present boundary of Kansas at 102 degrees 
west longritiide from Greenwich, or, as stated in our constitution, the 
twenty-fifth meridian west from Washington. The west boundarj 
runs three miles west of the twenty-fifth meridian, or 102 degrees, which 
is explained by the fact that after the adoption of the constitution the 
surveyors in running the eastern line of the Indian reservation in Colo- 
rado established the west line of Kansas, and made an error of three 
miles beyond the meridian named as our western boundary, so that it 
is really 102" 2' west from Greenwich. 

William Hutchinson, chairman of the committee on preamble and 
bill of rights, reported, on July 15th, the present boundaries for Kansas 
as adopted by the committee. A prolonged discussion was closed the 
next afternoon by a vote in committee of the whole, placing the western 
boundary at the one hundredth meridian, a line about six miles west of 
Hill City, in Graham county. On July 28th, the day before the final 
adjournment, Caleb May, of Atchison, proposed to amend the clause by 
making the twenty-sixth meridian, or 103 degrees west longitude, the 
line, which would be a northern extension of the east line of New Mexico, 
or about the west line of Kit Carson count}', Colorado. After some 
discussion May was prevailed upon to change his motion to the original 
recommendation of the committee, and our present western boundary 
was fixed by a unanimous vote. The discussion on this point during 
the sultry days of July 15 and 16, 1859, are interesting, and a few 
extracts are made to show in what estimation western Kansas was then 

The Debate on the Western Boundary. 

William C. McDowell, of Leavenworth, who seenLs to have fathered 
the South Platte annexation, says: "I would inciuire whether the boun- 
daries given here are the same as those In the organic act?" 

Mr. Hutchinson: "They are the same, except the western; after 
diligent inquiry it was ascertained that the one hundredth meridian 
west, (Hill City and Fort Dodge) would be in a country which is at 
present being settled; the one hundredth and first (at Atwood, Colby, 
Scott, Garden City and Liberal) will probably be settled, but at the one 
hundredth and second degree, or twenty-five degrees west from the 
boundary, it was believed was placed upon a natural sandy divide, 
where no part of the population would be cut off that wanted to be 
with us." 

James Blood objected to an amendment making the twenty-fourth 
meridian west from Washington, corresponding to the one hundred and 
first west from Greenwich, the western boundarv (the longitude of 


Colby, Scott and Garden City), saying: "I would prefer the twenty- 
fifth (our present boundary), and if gentlemen will make a calculation 
they \\-ill find that it is not extending our state unreasonably in that 
direction— al)out 400 miles. The country out there will not be settled 
for a long time, and is not of much particular value. I think the pro- 
position is a fair one as submitted by the committee." 

Solon 0. Thacher understood "that a large portion of this western 
region from the twenty-third (Hill City) or twenty-fourth (Colby and 
Garden City) is a miserable, uninhabited region. The only question 
is whether we .shall include within our boundaries a tract of country 
that is not valuable to us, and confer upon it the benefits of government 
at our expense. Those of us who have read Horace Greeley's letters 
from that region, and conversed with gentlemen who have been there, 
are of the opinion that that portion of the territory is not at all 

To Cut Off The "Short Grass" Country. 

Mr. Hutchinson remarked that "it is simply a question of fact as to 
how far west this section of country can be inhabited — how far there is 
timlier, water and It is evident that if we place it at the twenty- 
third (Hill City) or twenty-fourth meridian (three miles west of 
Colby), that we shall mt off a population that will be greatly discom- 
moded at some future day to travel to meet settlements near the Rocky 
mountain.s. That should be the governing influence in giving the 
direction of our vote. We are expected a grant of land from congress. 
That will call for alternate sections, in all probably; so the further 
westward our boundary shall go the greater the number of acres of land 
we shall get. If it is uninhabited entirely it will never be worth a 
dollar; we have nothing to pay on it — we have neither to pay taxes on 
it nor build feucas around it. There is no lo.s.s, and I think there is no 

Samuel D. Houston, of Riley county, who favored the summit of 
the Rocky mountains and also the Platte river, said: "There are argu- 
ments in favor of extending our boundary westward; and I should be 
recreant to my duty were I not to present these arguments. I have 
learned for the first time, and with astonishment, of a move by the 
people in defining their boundaries (in which) they were benevolent 
enough to give away one-half their territory. Were we to do it as 
individuals we would be charged with insanity. If we can get the 
boundary designated by congress in the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and get a 
road to the mountains, I ask if it is not a question of some magnitude 
whether Kansas shall not have the grand Pacific railroad of the coun- 
try. You must go to the mountains and get pine with which to fence 
and build on your beautiful prairies; Init if you give awav vour 


pineries and give those thoroughfares into the control of other people, 
how are you going to accomplish this? I believe vs^hat I propose is for 
the best interests of the whole territory of Kansas. ' ' 

Objectb:d to the Mining Regions. 

Mr. McDowell objected to incorporating the mining regions, "their 
difference of pursuits presenting a people not homogeneous, whose wants 
will be different and very little in common with ours." 

James G. Blunt proposed again the twenty-third meridian, the Hill 
City line, and said : ' ' We would then embrace all of the desirable terri- 
tory upon this side of that large, sterile plain situated on our west, that 
would add neither wealth nor importance to our state, but over which to 
extend our laws and protection would be an onerous burden." 

B. Wrigley, of Doniphan county, said: "You put the western 
boundary upon the twenty-third meridian (Hill City and Fort Dodge) 
and you have on the west an expanse of territory of equal width and of 
equal extent, barren, sterile and unfit for agricultural purposes." 

A Pathway to the Mountains. 

Mr. Houston: "Why gentlemen, we want a connection of this sort 
that we might get the highest possible price for our products. One 
would suppose from what gentlemen say of the country that it was a 
God-forsaken desert; that the lightnings of heaven had poured their 
streams of death upon it for centuries. But what are the facts? Al- 
most everyone that goes out there tells us that it is covered with im- 
mense herds of buffalo as far as the eye can reach, over a vast extent — 
north, south, east and west. I believe I have as much respect for the 
buffaloes' opinion as I have for the gentlemen's here in regard to that 
country. Who ever heard of wild animals seeking a home that is per- 
fectly barren? Why, the grass must be extremely nutritious there. 
I believe that cotton can be raised on these plains that will supply the 
demand of the whole country. When we get a railroad out there, can't 
you tax these herds? Wlien you run a railroad out there, let men 
make a business of herding. You know very little about that country. 
One gentleman remarked to me a short time since that he had written 
hundreds of letters to the east, telling them to come on here ; that we 
wanted to make a pathway to the Rocky mountains over this very 
country we are now proposing to give away. I would keep it till we 
found out all about it. Who ever heard of a man cutting off part of his 
farm before he had examined it? Now, gentlemen, this territory ma.y 
be too large for certain schemes of partisanship, but it is not too large to 
make a grand and a glorious state for the people, and for the interests 
of the people." 


Part of Nebraska Wanted to be in Kansas. 

There is an incident relating to the north boundary line of the 
state of Kansas scarcely known in her history, but in the history of the 
twin state of Xebra.ska it constitutes a very important chapter. On 
January 17, 1856, J. Sterling Morton introduced into the lower house of 
the territorial legislature of Nebraska a resolution memorializing con- 
gress to annex to Kansas all that portion of Nebraska soiitli of the Platte 
river, because it would be "to the interests of this territory and to the 
general good of the entire Union." It was stated that the Platte river 
was a natural boundary mark — that it was impossible to either ford, 
ferry or bridge it; it was further thought that such a move would 
effectually prevent the establishment of slaveiy in either of the terri- 
tories. Tliis was postponed by a vote of twenty to five. The project 
slumbered until 1858. There was great bitterness betw-een north and 
south Nebraska at the time, and the annexation sentiment .seemed to 

Nebraska's Many Capitals. 

In those days Nebraska had other troubles than the unreliability of 
the Platte river. Kansas was torn in pieces by a great national issue, 
and our Republican-Populist war of 1893 had a precedent for ridicu- 
lousness in the controversy which divided the pioneers of Nebraska from 
1855 to 1858. Florence, Omaha, Plattsmouth, Bellevue and Nebraska 
City were contestants for the territorial capital. The story reads like 
a southwest Kansas county-seat fight. The legislature was called at 
Omaha, January 16, 1855. Omaha was full of people interested in rival 
towns, who made threats that the session should not be held. In Jan- 
nary, 1857. the antagonism to Omaha assumed an aggressive character. 
A bill passed botli liouses of the legislature, moving the .session to a 
place called Douglas, in Lanca.ster county. This bill was vetoed by the 
governor. In 1858 a portion of the legislature seceded in a small riot 
but no bloodshed, and attempted to do business at a town called Florence. 
On September 21, 1858, the fifth se.ssion met in peace at Omaha, and be- 
gan to talk about bridging the Platte. 

Restlessness was common then, for the Kansas territorial legislature 
was also hard to please. The Pro-Slavery people left Pawnee to sit in 
Shawnee Missicm, and the Free Soilers would not remain at Lecompton, 
lint in 1859, 1860 and 1861 moved to Lawrence. 

Would Make the Platte the Boundary. 

About the beginning of the year 1859 several mass meetings were 
held, and congress was memorialized to incor]iorate the South Platte 
counlry in the proposed state of Kansas. There was some dissent, of 


course, but the annexationists seem to have been qviite lively. On the 
2nd of May, a mass meeting was held at Nebraska City, which invited 
the people to participate in the formation of a constitution at Wyandotte 
July 5th, reciting "that the pestiferous Platte should be the northern 
boundary of a great agricultural and commercial state." They or- 
dained that an election should be held in the several South Platte coun- 
ties on June 7th. There are no results of the election given, but 
Morton's "History of Nebraska," (Vol. I, Page 401), says, that in the 
county of Otoe, of 1,078 ballots at a previous election, 900 electors 
signed a petition for annexation, and that this sentiment was repre- 
sentative of the whole South Platte district. Governor Medary's son 
and private secretary, on the 16th of May, 1859, had written a letter 
to the Nebraska people, urging them to elect delegates to the Wyandotte 
convention, and to proceed quickly, "as it would only create an un- 
necessary issue in southern Kansas at the time, were it freel.v talked 

Nebraska's Delegates to Wyandotte. 

On the 12th day of July, 1859, the following Nebraska men were 
admitted to seats on the floor of the Wyandotte constitutional conven- 
tion then in session, as honorary members, with the privilege of partici- 
pating in the discussion of the northern boundary of the state of Kansas, 
but not to vote : Stephen F. MuckolLs, Mills S. Reeves, Robert W. Furnas, 
Obadiah B. Hewett, Wm. W. Keeling, Samuel A. Chambers, Wm. H. 
Taylor, Stephen B. Miles, (George 11. Nixonj, John 11. Croxton, John H. 
Cheever, John B. Bennet, Jacob Dawson and William P. Loan. In the 
archives of the State Historical Society we find the original application 
of the Nebraska people signed by Mills S. Reeves, John B. Bennet, 
William H. Taylor, Samuel A. Chambers and Stephen B. Miles. On 
the 15th the Nebraska delegates were heard, and on the 16th, during 
the consideration of the west bovmdary line of the state of Kansas, 
William C. McDowell, of Leavenworth, a Democratic member, moved 
the following amendment: 

"Provided, however, that if the people of southern Nebraska, embraced be- 
tween Platte river and the northern boundary of Kansas as established by congress, 
agree to the same, a vote is to be taken b,v them, both upon the question of boun- 
dary and upon this constitution, at the time this constitution is submitted to the 
people of Kansas, and provided congress agree to the same the boundaries of the 
state of Kansas shall be as follows: 'Beginning at a point on the western 
boundary of the state of Missouri where the thirty-seventh parallel of north 
latitude crosses the same; thence west with said parallel to the twenty-fourth 
meridian of longitude west from Washington; thence north with said meridian to 
the middle of the south fork of the Platte river; thence following the main channel 
of said river to the middle of the Missouri river; thence with the middle of the 
Missouri river to the mouth of the Kansas river; thence south on the western 
boundary line of the state of Missouri to the place of beginning.' " 


The Defeat op the Plan. 

After a short parliamentar\- wrangle about separating the north 
and west lines, Mr. McDowell withdrew the amendment, and the conven- 
tion voted that the northern boundary remain unchanged. 

The Nebraska City News, the organ of the South Platte sentiment, 
was furious over the result. We quote : ' ' The curious may wish to 
know why this rich boon was refused by the Black Republican constitu- 
tional convention of Kansas. It was for this reason : Its acquisition, it 
was believed by those worthies, would operate against their party. They 
said South Platte, Nebraska, was Democratic, and that, being added to 
northern Kansas, which is largely Democratic, would make Kansas a 
Democratic .state ; would deprive the Black Republican party of two 
United States senators, a congressman and other offices. They were 
dragooned into this position, too, by the Republican party outside of 
Kansas. Kaasas, they are determined at all hazards, shall be an 
abolition .state." 

It was a great deal, amid the sentiment and passion of that hour, 
to ask the Free Soilers in the Wyandotte convention, following the strug- 
gles of the border as far south as Fort Scott from 1855 to 1860, to go 
back on the people south of the Kaw for an unknown quantity in south- 
ern Nebraska. The delegates from Nebraska offered great things in a 
material way, but politics cropped out everywhere, principally from out- 
side of Kansas. There was no polities then but the slavery i.ssue. 
Solon O. Thacher said: "Chief among their arguments was one meeting 
an objection which they supposed would be raised in consequence of the 
political character of the country proposed to be annexed; and we have 
been invoked by all the powers of logic and rhetoric to ignore the politi- 
cal aspect of this case — to lay aside whatever feelings might arise poli- 
tically, and look at the question dispassionately. Now, sir, I say they 
urge an impossibility. Had these gentlemen from .southei'n Nebraska 
seen the sky lurid with the tiames of their burning homes, the soil of 
these beautiful prairies crimson with the blood of their brothers and 
fathers, or their wives and children flying over the land for a place of 
refuge from crime and outrage, they would not think of making such an 
appeal to u.s. Gentlemen must remember that this is the fii-st time in 
the history of Kansas that southern Kansas has been represented in any 
deliberate body. Think you, sir, that the people who have just escaped 
from a pri.son-house that has kept tliem so long can desire to reenter the 
clammy dungeon ? ' ' 

Kansas Papers Indifferent. 

"I have carefully looked througli the files of several of the Kansas 
newspapers of that period, and I find a singidar indifference to the ques- 


tioii of annexation," says Secretary Martin, of the Kansas Historical 
Society. The Topeka Tribune and the Leavenworth Herald very freely 
supported it. The Lawrence Republican, T. D wight Thacher's paper, 
was strongly opposed to it. There was little else considered then aside 
from slavery. The Lecompion Democrat favored the dismemberment of 
both Kansas and Nebraska and the formation of a new state lying be- 
tween and the Platte rivers. The Bepublican of July 21, 1859, 
said this scheme was hatched in Washington and nursed in the Blue 
Lodges of IMissouri. Annexation would make southern Kansas a mere 
appendage to the northern part of the state and completely at its mercy. 
The editor of the Republican made a \'isit to southeastern Kansas, and in 
his issue of July 14th reported unanimous opposition to the movement; 
that the people there neither cared to be annexed nor knew the politics 
of the Nebraska men. A portion of the Nebraska movement was to 
make another state south of Kansas river to be called Neosho. In a 
speech before the convention, on July 22nd, Solon 0. Thacher said that 
three-fifths of the population of Kansas was south of the Kansas river. 
The Platte gave no river frontage, and would need an appropriation 
every year to make it navigable by catfish and polly^vogs, and a move- 
ment would give Kansas three additional Missouri river counties north 
of the Kansas river, which would not be desirable. A singular feature 
is that the Free Soil legislature of 1859 petitioned for annexation, while 
Free Soilers in the constitution bitterly opposed it. The Lawrence 
Republican is the only paper that handled the subject with vigor, as 
is evident from the following quotation, taken from its issue of June 
16, 1859: "The proposed measure, if accomplished, would destroy the 
community of interests which now exists between the various portions 
of Kansas. Our people are bound together as the people of no other 
new state ever were. Together they have gone through one of the dark- 
est and bloodiest struggles for freedom that any people ever encount- 
ered ; together the.y have achieved the most significant and far-reaching 
victory since the Revolution; together they have suffered — together 
triumphed ! At this late day, after the battle has been fought and won, 
and we are about to enter upon the enjoyment of the fruits of our peri- 
lous labors, we do not care to have introduced into our household a set 
of strangers who have had no community of interests with us in the 
past, who have hardly granted us the poor boon of their sympathy, and 
who even now speak of the thrice-honored and loved name of Kansas as 
a 'name which is but the sraonym of crime and blood!' (extract from a 
Nebraska City paper. ) ' ' 

On tlie 23rd of July. McDowell renewed the subject in the Wyan- 
dotte convention by the following resolution: "Resolved, that congress 
be memorialized to include within the limits of the state of Kan,sas that 
part of southern Nebraska lying between the noi-thern boundary of the 
territory of Kansas and the Platte river." This was defeated, on the 

Vol. 1—12 


same day, by a vote of nineteen for and twenty-nine against. The 
Democrats refused to sign the constitution, and of those who did 
sign, four— S. D. Houston, J. A. Middleton, L. R. Palmer and R. J. 
Porter — voted to annex the South Platte country. 

A Missouri Opinion of Kansas. 

Senator Green, of Missouri, in opposing the admission of Kansas 
under the Wyandotte constitution, said that not over three-eighths of 
Kansas could be cultivated; that "without this addition (South Ne- 
braska) Kansas must be weak, puerile, sickly, in debt, and at no time 
capable of sustaining herself." In the United States senate on Janu- 
ary 18, 1861, he moved to strike out the proposed boundaries of Kansas 
and insert the following: "Beginning in the main channel of the North 
fork of the Platte river, at a point where the twenty-fifth meridian of 
longitude west from Washington crosses the same; thence down and 
along said channel to its junction with the main stream of the Platte, 
thence down and along the main channel of the Platte to the Missouri 
river; thence south along said river and the western boundary of the 
state of Missouri to the northern boundary of the Cherokee neutral 
land : thence west along said northern boundary, the northern boundary 
of the Osage lands and the prolongation of the same, to the twenty-fifth 
meridian of longitude west from Washington; thence north on said 
meridian to the place of beginning." 

This was defeated by a vote of twenty-three yeas to thirty-one nays, 
a greater number of the yeas being those who opposed the admission of 
Kansas under any circumstances. In support of this proposition Sena- 
tor Green said: "It will be obsen^ed by an examination of the constitu- 
tion adopted at Wyandotte, now pending before the .senate, that about 
one-third of the territory of Kansas is cut off from the west. That in- 
cludes the Pike's Peak region, where the gold discovery was made, 
including the Gregory mines, and so on, cutting off that space of terri- 
tory, which none of the other constitutions ever did. O'n-ing to the 
character of the country, that is too small a compass to constitute a good 
state. The area is about eighty thousand square miles; but the 
portion susceptible of settlement and of habitation will not exceed forty 
thou.sand; and the best authority I have reduces it to thirty thousand 
out of eighty thousand square miles. After we pass west of the Mis- 
souri river, except upon a few streams, there is no territory fit for 
settlement or habitation. It is unproductive. It is like a barren waste. 
It will not even support cattle, or sheep, or anything pertaining to the 
grazing There are no mineral resources in the state to sup- 
ply any want of agricultural resources. Hence, I propose to enlarge the 
boundary, not upon the west, but to take the present western boundary 
and prolong it northerly up to the Platte river, and then follow the 


line of the river to its junction with the Missouri line, and follow the 
Missouri line down. It will add to the territory about thirty thoiLsand 
square miles, about two-thirds of which will be susceptible of settlement. 
It will then make a good, strong, substantial state. I have the privi- 
lege to state, in thLs connection, that nine-tenths of the people south of 
the Platte, in what is now called Nebraska, desire this annexation to 

Stephen A. Dot tolas' Speech. 

In the further discussion of the bill for admission, Stephen A. 
Douglas, January 19th, summed up the trouble as follows: "There is no 
necessity for delaying this bill, as it would be delayed by the adoption 
of the amendment. The senator from Missouri well knows that this 
Kansas question has been here for years, and no consideration on earth 
coidd suffice to stop it in this body three years ago, when it came under 
the Lecompton constitution. It was not stopped then to be amended for 
the want of .iudieiary or any other clauses ; but it was forced through. 
We are told, first, that Kansas must be kept out because her northern 
boundary is not right, when it is the same now as it was then ; next, that 
she must be kept out because the southern boundary is not right, though 
it is the same now as it was then ; again, she miLst be kept out because 
of the Indian treaties, though the same ob.jection existed then as now; 
again she must be kept out because she has not population enough, 
though she has three times a.s many people as were there then ; and, 
finally, this bill must be dela.ved now because it does not contain a 
.iudieiary clause. I do not understand why these constant ob.iections 
are being interposed to the admission of Kansas now, when none of them 
were presented in regard to the Lecompton constitution, three years ago, 
nor in regard to the admission of Oregon, which has since taken place. 
It seems to me that the fate of Kansas is a hard one ; and it is necessary 
for these senators to explain why they make the distinction in their 
action between Kansas and Oregon, instead of my explaining why I do 
not make the distinction between them." 

Ben Simpson's Defense op the Boundaries. 

On July 22, 1882, a reunion of the members of the constitutional 
convention was held at Wyandotte. Ben.jamin F. Simpson and John 
A. Martin made speeches. Martin was secretary of the convention, 
and afterwards served as colonel of the Eighth Kansas and two terms 
as governor. He said in his address that two influences induced the 
decision against the South Platte, "one political and the other local and 
material. Many Republicans feared that the South Platte country was, 
or would be likely to become. Democratic. La^vrence and Topeka both 
aspired to be the state capital, and their influence was against annexa- 


tion, because they feared it would throw the center of population far 
north of the Kaw." We quote: "Each party, I think, was guilty of 
one blunder it afterwards seriously regretted — the Republicans in re- 
fusing to include the South Platte couutry within the boundaries of 
Kansas; the Democrats in refusing to sign the constitution they had 
labored diligently to perfect. I speak of what I consider the great mis- 
take of the Republicans wdth all the more frankness, because I was at 
the time in hearty sympathy with their action ; but I feel confident that 
no Republican member is living to-day who does not deplore that de- 
cision. And I am equally confident that within a brief time after the 
convention ad.iouraed there were few Democratic members who did not 
seriously regret their refusal to sign the constitution." 

The Convention Did Right. 

"I think the judgment of the people today would be that the con- 
vention did very well ; that for homogeneousness of people and interests, 
the boundary lines of Kansas encompass, encircle, surround and hold 
more contentment and happiness than any other equal extent of terri- 
tory. Imagine a northern boundary line as crooked as the Platte river, 
and a southern boundary as crooked as the Kansas and Smoky Hill. 
Imagine what an unwieldly and incongruous lot of people and territory 
there would be from the Platte to the south line of Kansas, and from the 
Missouri river to the summit of the Rocky mountains. Fifty years of 
development and history show that the convention made the state just 
right. Furthermore, we have never heard of any unsatisfactory results 
from the shape of Nebraska, nor of any failure on the part of Nebraska 
people to manage the Platte river. I think that the Wyandotte conven- 
tion, after fifty years, is entitled to the plaudit. 'Well done, good and 
faithful servants.' When we recall that Kansas is one of but twelve 
states in the Union that has lived under one constitution fifty years, 
the Wyandotte convention surely has this approbation." 

Kansas City Lost Its Opportunity. 

In 1855 the territorial legi.slature of Kansas was in session at Shaw- 
nee Mission, only six miles from the now center of Kansas City, Ms- 
souri, and the Missouri legislature was in session at Jefferson City. In 
a sketch of Kansas City, Missouri, published by Judge IT. C. McDougall 
in 1898, he says: "As one of the many evidences of the fatherly interest 
which the citizens of Missouri then had in the young territory'- of Kansas, 
it may be noted in passing that Hon. IMnbillion W. McGee, a citizen of 
this st-ate, who then resided where Dr. J. Feld now lives, out at Westport, 
was a distinguished and no doubt useful member of that territorial 
legislature at Shawnee Mission. It would have been greatly to the in- 


terest of the Pro-Slavery party in Kansas to get Kansas City into that 
territory. The ]\Iissouri statesmen were then anxious to further the 
ends of their Pro-Slavery brethren in Kansas, and Colonel Robert T. Van 
Horn, and a then distinguished citizen of the territory of Kansas (whose 
name I cannot mention because for thirty years he and his family have 
been warm personal friends of mine), agreed that it would be a good 
thing all around to detach Kansas City from Missouri and attach it to 
Kansas territory. Hence, after visiting and conferring with the legis- 
latures of Jlissouri and Kansas territory, and being thoroughly satis- 
fied that the Kansas territorial legislature would ask and the Missouri 
legislature grant a cession upon the part of the latter to the former of 
all that territory lying west and north of the Big Blue river from the 
point at which it crosses the Kansas line out near Old Santa Pe to its 
mouth Colonel Van Horn was left to look after the legislatures and my 
other venerable friend was posted off to Washington to get the consent 
of congress to the cession. Congress was also at that time intensely 
pro-slaverv, and through Senator Duvid R. Atchison, General B. P. 
Stringfellow and others, the congressional consent to the desired changt 
could easily have been obtained. While agreeing upon everything else 
as to the rise and fall of this scheme, yet Colonel Van Horn says, thai, 
upon arriving at Washington, our Kansas friend met and fell in love 
with a lady with whom he took a trip to Europe, and was not heard 
from in these parts for over two years." And that is how Kansas 
missed having one of the greatest cities to be on the continent. But 
there was then no ten-thousand dollar front-foot land in those hills of 

In 1879 there was again great interest in a movement on the part 
of Kansas City, Missoiiri, for annexation. The Kansas legislature 
passed a concurrent resolution declaring that the citizens of Kansas were 
not opposed to such a movement, and authorized the appointment of a 
conunittee of eight, three from the senate and five from the house, to 
invastigate the subject. Senate concurrent resolution No. 6, introduced 
by T. B. Murdock, passed the senate January 21st, and was concurred 
in by the house the next day, and the original manuscript is now in the 
files of the secretary of state. 

Newspapers Pavored Annexation. 

The Kansas City Times suggested the annexation movement in its 
issue of December 14, 1878, and January 1, 1879, gave a full front page 
to the sub.ject, with a map of the territory proposed to be annexed and 
interviews with prominent citizens; on January 5th the Times printed 
Kansas and Missouri newspaper comments, and the issues of March 6th, 
7th and 8th devoted considerable space to the visit of the Kansas City 
delegation to Topeka, and the reception and proceedings of the legis- 


A memorial was presented to the legislature, signed by George M. 
Shelley, mayor of Kansas City, and three eouneilmen, and a committee 
of five citizens, in which it was said ; 

"We assure your honorable body that our people are earnest and 
sincere in their desire for annexation, and should the question be sub- 
mitted to the electors of the territory proposed to be annexed, it would 
be ratified by a virtually unanimous vote. Already a memorial to the 
Missouri legislature praying for such a submission of the question has 
been circulated and largely signed by our people, and will be duly pre- 
sented by our representatives for the action of that honorable body." 

On the 7th of March a delegation of 125 representatives of the busi- 
ness and commercial interests of Kansas City visited Topeka. A great 
reception was held and speeches were made by Governor St. John, 
Speaker Sidney Clark, Lieutenant Governor L. U. Humphry and Colonel 
D. S. Twitchell. The Kansas City guests further resolved: "That we 
are more than ever convinced of the great and mutual advantages that 
would accrue to Kansas City and Kansas from a more intimate union 
with the young Empire state." The Kansas City Times of March 7th 
published a map showing the change in the line desired by the people 
of that city. The proposed line followed the course of the Big Blue 
from a point on the state line near the soiitheast corner of Johnson 
county, i-unuing slightly east of north to the ]\Iissouri river, at this last 
point being about six miles east, comprising about sixty square miles of 
territory. It is highly probable the movement never reached Jeffei-son 
City. The Kansas legislature asked congress to order a resurvey of 
this east line, and John R. Goodin introduced a bill, bxit nothing ever 
came of it. 

Kansas the "Middle Spot of North America." 

Verily "There's a divinity that shapes our ends, rough-hew them 
how we will," as Mr. Shakespeare said. Charles Sumner thus described 
our situation: "The middle spot of North America, calculated to nurtiare 
a powerful and generous people, worthy to be a central pivot of Ameri- 
can institutions." William H. Seward said: "Kansas is the Cinderella 
of the American family." Surely we were cuffed about like a house- 
hold drudge, and now we are feeding and leading the world. Again, 
Seward said in Lawrence, September 26, 1860: "Men will come up to 
Kansas as the.v go up to Jerusalem. This shall be a sacred city." 
Henry Ward Beecher, whose Bibles and rifles are a part of our history, 
said: "There is no monument under heaven on which I would rather 
have my name inscribed than on this goodly state of Kansas." Abra- 
ham Lincoln, at Springfield, Illinois, June 27, 1857, said: "Look, Doug- 
las, and see yonder people fleeing — see the full columns of brave men 
stopped — see the press and the type flying into the river — and tell me 


what does this ! It is your squatter sovereignty ! Let slavery spread 
over the teiTitories and Ciod will sweep us with a bush of fire from this 
solid globe." At our quarter centennial celebration, held in 1879, John 
Forney said : " If I had been commanded to choose one spot on the globe 
upon wliich to illustrate human development under the influence of abso- 
lute liberty, I could have chosen no part of God 's footstool so interesting 
as Kansas. Yesterday an infant, to-day a giant, to-morrow — who can 

These excerpts will show the inspiration under which Kansas was 
born. The character of the proposed state, her institutions, a high idea 
of public policy and morality, gave tone to all the discussion, marred 
only by a suspicion on the part of some, whether she could, in a material 
sense, maintain it all. 

And so the only trouble we have ever had about the boundary lines 
of Kansas has been from the people on the outside endeavoring to get in. 



Ran Out of Provisions — Threatened by Pawnee Indians — A 
Long Tramp — Working in a Blizzard — The Journey to Wyandotte — 
Border Ruffians at Work. 

Hardships and dangers were encountered by the men who went out 
for the United States government to survey the boundary line of the 
territories in the Indian country. But there was an odd fascination 
about it all. The story of how the line between Kansas and Nebraska 
\vas surveyed is told by Thomas J. Barker, who is still a resident of Kan- 
sa.s City, Kansas, to which he came in the winter of 1855 after the survey 
was finished. 

"I was employed as a cook by Colonel Charles Manners at Leaven- 
worth City, April 29, 1855, and continued with him until December 
27th of that year. He had the contract to establish the line between 
Kansas and Nebraska territories at forty degrees north latitude from 
the Mississippi river to a point sixty miles west, from which point he 
was to run a giiide meridian line to where it would intersect with the 
Missouri river, above and near Sioux City, and from this meridian line 
he was to run parallel lines east to the Missouri river every twenty-four 
miles. He was camped on Three-Mile creek in Leavenworth City when 
I engaged myself to him and, with a party composed of John Stout, Wm. 
Manners, his brother, R. L. Ream, Jr., Norman Diefendorf, Wiley, Gar- 
land, Hoyt, Cunningham, Ed. Keller and myself, left Leavenworth about 
the 4th of May. 

"Colonel Manners had two mule teams and wagons, in one of which 
there was a cast-iron monument to be placed at the point which had been 
located by the government at the fortieth degree near the west bank of 
the Missouri river, some parties claiming that Robert E. Lee had located 
the place. We crossed the Missouri river at Weston on May 10th, 
passed through St. Joseph and Oregon and recrossed the river in a 
flat boat near where White Cloud now is and two miles above where we 
placed the monument. Colonel Manners spent two days and nights 
taking the sun and the north star, and adjusting his instruments so as 
to be sure that he had the right course. He had been a sea captain, took 
great pains and wanted to know that he was right. 



Ran Out op Provisions. 

"We made about three miles a day and reached the sixty mile point 
on the 2nd of June. Having run out of provisions we went to Mar- 
shall's ferry across the Blue river about fifteen miles southwest. Not 
finding the necessary supplies we took the military road to Leavenworth. 
When we arrived there several of the crew quit and the Colonel filled 
their places with Samuel Forsythe, J. W. Wright and others. After 
getting supplies we started back and arrived at the point where we left 
off on the 17th of June, when the Colonel commenced his work running 
twenty-four miles north, then east to the river, then going back to the 
guide meridian, again north twenty-four miles, then east reaching the 
river at a point one and a half miles north of Nebraska City, where 
Forsythe and others quit, and their places were filled with new men. 

"My health was so poor I laid ofE and took Osgood's 'Collagogue' 
for malaria fever. I was, if able, to join the party where the next 
parallel came in near the mouth of the Platte river. After I had re- 
cuperated I went up to Plattsmouth on the stage and, while waiting 
there, heard that the Indians had killed about half of the party and that 
the others had gone back to Nebraska City. I immediately returned to 
that place where I met several of the party, who stated that when some 
of the men were on the line surveying they were surrounded by the Paw- 
nee Indians and were supposed to have been killed. We organized a 
party at once and went ovit to where they had last seen their friends and 
Indians, and happily found them unharmed. This was about the 10th 
of September. The Colonel then finished the third parallel, which 
reached the river at the expected point right at the mouth of Platte 
river. We then returned to and ran the meridian line twenty-four 
miles north, crossing the Platte river at a point only a few hundred feet 
before we reached where the fourth parallel line was started. 

Threatened By Pawnee Indians. 

"While in camp there, in the morning, just before the Colonel sent 
out a flaginan east, we were visited by twenty-seven Pawnee Indians, 
ten of whom were chiefs, who ordered that the Colonel stop surveying, 
saying that it was their land and that they would not allow him to steal 
it. The Colonel palavered with them, thought he would go ahead with 
the work. So he set his compass and started out a flagman when, to 
our surprise, about five hundred Pawnees came up like magic out of the 
willows; the chiefs said, through their interpreter, that if we did not 
leave at once they could not prevent their young men from killing us. 
The young Indians showed .such insolence and, to us, apparent desire to 
shoot, that we were more than glad to get away. We arrived at Omaha 
that evening, the 3rd of October ; it had snowed nearly all day. 


"When we arrived at Omaha, Colonel Manners called on the agent 
of the Pawnees. The agent loaded two wagons with provisions, lead 
and powder, and with his missionary, the Colonel and his men, hurried 
out to the Pawnee village ; the ehiefs received the two wagon loads and 
held a council with the agent. The agent said to them that the Great 
Father had been talking about buying their land and had sent Colonel 
Manners to measure and look it over and see what it was worth, etc. 
They then promised not to further disturb us. 

"The Colonel then run the fourth parallel which reached the river 
about eight miles above Omaha, where more men quit and he was delayed 
a day or two filling their places. As to myself I was so ill I could not 
go out, but had an understanding that I was to join the party as soon as 
I was able. I was suffering so .severely I had to have a physician, but 
in about two weeks my health was much improved and I engaged dig- 
ging potatoes for a Mr. Byers, whose place was about a half a mile 
northwest of tlie Douglas House, Omaha. Mr. Byers was a surveyor 
and expected to sub-divide for the government. I was treated with 
great kindness by him. 

A Long Teamp. 

"Thinking it was time to start to meet Colonel Mannei-s at the east 
end of the sixth parallel I left Mr. Byers late in the day. I only 
traveled five or six miles and, night was coming on, I stayed with a man 
from Berea, Ohio. I started before breakfast next morning and in 
six, seven or eight miles I reached a place called Calhoun. I went into 
the only building of any size to learn if I could get breakfast. They 
had just got through eating, but there was sufficient left on the table 
for two or three hungry persons as myself. I asked the lady, Mrs. 
Moore, if I could have breakfast and .she said I could. I said before I 
sat down to the table I wanted her to know that the least money I had 
was a two and a half dollar gold piece. She seemed to be a little slow 
in saying anything. I asked her how far it was to Tekama. She then 
said she could not change the two and a half dollar piece and that she 
had been imposed on so often by the Tekama people that she hardly 
knew what to do. I said all right, that I did not live at Tekama, but 
belonged to the United States surveying party. She then said : ' If you 
belong to the United States sit down and eat all you want' I asked 
the lady what she charged for breakfast, and she said twenty-five cents, 
but to never mind that ; I bade her good-bye and hurried on. I soon 
passed through Tekama, a village of five small cabins, intending to reach 
Cummings City that day. Seeing no habitations or wayfarers, I began 
to feel lonesome. Finally about 1 P. M. I saw a man on horseback 
coming. He seemed pleased and I know I was, for I wanted to make 
some inquiries. I learned the man's name was Cooper and he was 


formerly of Montgomery county, Virginia, which joined Giles county 
where I was from. He was now living in Gumming 's City and as soon 
as he learned who I was and where I was going, informed me that he was 
a candidate for the territorial council and wanted me, if I was any place 
where they were voting on election day, to do him a favor, etc. I asked 
him about a place to stay all night and learned there wasn't any hotel 
at Cumniiugs City, but he wanted me to say to his wife to take care of 
me for the night. 

"I continued on my way and reached Cummings City at 6 o'clock — 
it was a place of four small houses, ilr. Cooper's being the largest. I 
was kindly greeted by what appeared to be all the inhabitants — three 
or four women and a few children. The men, except Mr. Cooper, had 
crossed the river to Iowa and the wind was so strong that they were 
unable to return. The Omaha Indians were camped near there and the 
bucks were galloping around on their ponies in their red blankets, which 
caused the ladies to be a little nervoiLS — so they were glad to have one 
white man with them, though he was a stranger. 

"The next morning I ate breakfast, got my gold piece changed, 
made the children each a present and, to the seeming regret of the ladies, 
bid them good-bye. I continued on my journey to Decatur, not meet- 
ing or seeing any one till I reached that place. 

Working in a Blizzaed. 

"When I arrived at Decatur, to my great joy Colonel Manners and 
all his party were in camp. It was in November and freezing weather, 
and the Colonel had yet between thirty and forty miles of line to run 
before completing his job. All hands were anxious to get through with 
the work. The ground was frozen and the flagman had trouble in 
placing hLs rod. The men building the mounds to mark the corners had 
to use picks and axes to cut the sod. The north and south meridian 
line soon reached the Missouri river bottom. We were short of rations 
and the Colonel sent two men to Sioux City for supplies; the river was 
so full of running ice that they were delayed two days, during which 
time we lived on rice and dried apples. When the men returned we 
had a good, square meal of corn bread, bacon and coffee. In four days, 
on the 30th of November, the Colonel had set the last corner where he 
placed a United States flag. 

"Early the next morning we started south, hurrying along until 
we reached Council Bluffs. As we passed by Calhoun I called on Mrs. 
Moore, the lady I had breakfasted with, and paid her the twenty-five 
cents. She seemed pleased — said she did not care for the monev and, 
as for herself, was not surprised at getting it ; but her husband would be, 
for when she was telling him about letting me have breakfast he said 
she would never hear from me again. I thanked her and went on. 


"All the Colonel's men, except J. W. Wright, Edward Keller and 
myself, were to be paid off at Council Bluffs, but we were detained there 
some eight or ten days waiting for the money which was finally received 
by express. After paving the men, we continued on our journey and 
on the second day we reached a point opposite Nebraska City, where we 
struck camp. 

The Journey to Wyandotte. 

"The Colonel, with Wright, crossed to Nebraska City, where they 
met with some politicians. One of whom was J. Sterling Morton, who 
was afterwards secretary of agriculture under President Cleveland. 
They did not return until late in the afternoon, so we did not break 
camp until early the next morning. The next night we stayed with 
a Mr. Walkup on the Nischabottamy. Walkup was from Howard 
county, Missouri. It rained and sleeted that night so that the earth 
was covered with ice and this detained us another day. The following 
morning we started, although it was dangerous for the mules and the 
next night camped near South Point, Holt county, Missouri. The next 
da.y we pas.sed through Savanna and reached St. Joseph. The following 
night, after traveling that day thirty-seven miles, we camped opposite 
Port Leavenworth, and there Colonel and Mr. Wright left Keller and 
myself in charge of the teams with instructions to remain there until 
their return. 

Border Ruffians at Work. 

"While we were there the Law and Order Party (border ruffians) 
threw Mark Delahay's press into the Missouri river. This took plaoe, 
if I am not mistaken, on December 22nd. After several days Keller 
and myself received ordere to go to Wyandotte. In passing through 
Leavenworth we bought a bottle of whiskey, thinking if we, had to stay 
all night with an Indian it might modify our hotel bill. We did stop 
with an Indian by the name of Joe Armsti'ong who kept the stage stand. 
After Keller and myself had fed the mules we placed the whiskey on 
the mantel. Keller started to hand me the whiskey, and I said to him 
to pass it to the landlord first. When he offered it to Armstrong, he 
motioned it away and said he did not drink the stuff. We paid a reason- 
able bill the next morning and headed for Wyandotte. As we passed 
along, I threw the bottle of whiskey against a tree. Keller said the 
whiskey cost ten cents and what did I want to do that for. I said the 
price of the whiskey was not lost ; that the Indian had taught us a good 

"When we arrived at Wyandotte, December 27th, it was midwinter, 
the snow being two feet deep. Colonel Manners paid Keller and my- 
self and discharged us. We were the only ones that had started out in 
the party that were in at the finish." 



The First Infantry Regiment — At the Battle op Wilson's 
Creek — A Famous Cavalry Regiment — The Fifth Kansas Cavalry — 
The Eighth Infantry — Ninth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry — A Con- 
solidation OF Kansas Regiments — Young Tom Ewing's Regiment — 
The Twelfth Infantry — Fourteenth Infantry — One Hundred Day' 
Men — The Negro Regiments — The Third Battery — The Record of 


Kansas as a state was not three months old when Fort Sumter was 
fired upon. In the .seven years of territorial existence the eonfliet be- 
tween the Free State forces and the adherents of the slave power had 
been waging. Kansas had been won for freedom, but the end was not 
yet. The eonflict on Kansas soil was only the prelude to the mighty 
military eonflict in which for four years the fate of the republic was in 
abeyance, the United States government and the states adhering to it 
on the one side and the Confederate States government on the other. 
Kansas, infant state that it was, entered the renewed contest as with the 
strength of years. The military organizations that existed in the pre- 
ceding years for the protection of the people during the turbulent times 
had been broken up. There was no state militia, no arms or supplies. 
Yet, with no bounties offered, no hope of reward other than that which 
come.s to the citizen through the discharge of patriotic service, the Kan- 
sans rallied to the support of the Union and fought with unswerving 
fidelity and a bravery that is not excelled in the annals of war. The 
first call of the president for 75,000 volunteers, issued April 15, 1861, 
was answered by 650 Kansas men. Then in April the state legislature 
took steps for the organization of the militia and, under the administra- 
tion of Governor Charles Robinson, an army of 180 companies was 
formed in two divisions, four brigades and eleven regiments. Under 
the second call, issued in May for 400,000 volunteers, the First and Sec- 
ond Regiments of Volunteer Infantry were recruited for the service. 
At each succeeding demand Kansas responded with regiments of volim- 
teers. The quota assigned to the entire state was 16,654 men, yet Kan- 
sas did even better than that. It gave to the Union 20,097 volunteer 



The First Infantry Regiment. 

The First Regiment, Kansas Volunteer Infantry, was organized 
May 8, 1861, rendezvoused at Camp Lincoln, near Fort Leavenworth, 
and was mustered into the United States service June 3rd, under the 
followinof offieei-s : George W. Deitzler, of Lawrence, colonel ; Oscar E. 
Learnard, of Burlinarton, lieutenant colonel ; John A. Halderman, of 
Leavenworth, major; Edwin S. Nash, of Olathe. adjutant; George H. 
Chapin, of Quindaro, quartermaster; George E. Buddingtoii, of Quin- 
daro, surgeon; Ephraim Nute, of Lawrence, chaplain. The regiment 
served in Missouri, at Wilson's creek, having seventy-seven men killed 
and three hundred and thirty-three wounded. After further brave 
service in the south and southwest, it was mustered out at Fort Leaven- 
worth June 17, 186-1, except two veteran companies which continued in 
the service until 30, 1865, after the close of the war. 

The Second Regiment, Kansas Volunteer Infantry, was reci-uited in 
May and June, 1861, rendezvoused at Lawrence and mustered in June, 
30, under the following officers : Robert B. ^Mitchell, of Mansfield, colonel ; 
William F. Cloud, of Emporia, major; Edward Thompson, of Lawrence, 
adjutant ; Shaler W. Eldridge, of Lawrence, quartermaster ; Aquilla B. 
JIa.ssey, of Lawrence, surgeon ; Randolph C. Brant, of Lawrence, chap- 

At the Battle op Wilson's Creek. 

This regiment also participated in the battle of Wilson's creek, and 
its connection with that engagement is peculiarly interesting, historically. 
Colonel Mitchell, at a most critical juncture, was about to move his regi- 
ment forward to the aid of the hard-pressed regiments in front. As 
the regiment wa.s moving to its position, General Lyon, already bleeding 
from two wounds, joined Colonel Mitchell at the head of the column, and, 
swinging his hat in the air, called upon the soldiers to prepare for a 
bayonet charge on the enemy. The Second had scarcely time to rally 
around him, when their own brave leader. Colonel Mitchell, fell severely 
wounded, exclaiming as he was borne from the field: "For God's sake, 
support my regiment." 

His soldiers, deprived of their commander, cried out: "We are 
ready to follow — who will lead us?" 

"I will lead ,vou," answered General Lyon. "Come on, brave 
meiL " 

The words were hardly uttered before he fell, mortally wounded by 
a bullet which struck him in the breast. 

The command of the Second now devolved upon Lieutenant Colonel 
Blair. The men sprang forward, the charge was made, the enemy 
driven quite over the hill, and the command brought back to the brow 


of the hill and reformed. For a time Lieutenant Colonel Blair held his 
position, with only eiffht companies of his regiment, and with no field 
or staff officer to assist him. Afterward, a section of a batteiy and fonr 
companies of the First Kansas were sent to his aid. Three of these 
companies were soon ordered to another position, and the battery with- 
drawn, but Colonel Blair, having been rejoined by his own Company, 
B, and the other regimental officers, held his ground, though totally 
unsupported and with anununition nearly spent. Before the rebels 
had been fairly repulsed, after their last and deadliest as.sault on the 
whole line. Major Sturgis, believing the ammunition of the Second 
exhausted, ordered its withdrawal, but it remained in its old position 
an hour and a half with unbroken lini>, and withdrew only after the de- 
parture of the enem>', being the last regiment to leave the field. It saw 
other creditable service in Mis.souri and elsewhere, and was discharged 
at Leavenworth, with in.struetions to reorganize, Colonel Mitchell, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Blaii-, Major Cloud and Captain Crawford being re- 
tained in service. 

A Famous Cavalry Regiment. 

Wyandotte county had a big share in the organization which proved 
to be the germ of the Second Kansas Cavalry, destined to become famous 
in the Civil war. It was effected through the labors of Alson C. Davis, 
of Wyandotte county, who, in October, 1861, obtained authority from 
Major General Fremont, then commander of the Western department, to 
raise a regiment of cavalry in the state of Kansas, such regiment to be 
designated the Twelfth Kansas Volunteers, with place of rendezvous at 
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The organization, as commenced, consisted 
of the following officers: C. L. Gorton, adjutant; Julius G. Fisk, quar- 
termaster; Dr. J. B. Welborne, si^rgeon. The dates of the organiza- 
tion of the several companies were as follows: Company A, November 
22, 1861; Company B, December 9, 1861; Company C, December 11, 
1861; Companv D, December 11. 1861, Company E, December 15, 1861. 
On December 26th, by order of the governor. Companies P, G, H and I, 
of Nugent 's regiment of Missouri Home Guards, were attached to the 
organization, and its designation was changed to "Ninth Kansas Volun- 
teers." On December 31, 1861, Dr. Joseph P. Root was mustered in as 
surgeon, vice Dr. J. B. Welborne; Januars^ 4, 1862, Owen A. Bassett 
was mustered in as lieutenant colonel. Julius G. Fisk as mayor, and 
Luther H. Wood as quartermaster; January 7th, Thomas B. Eldridge 
was mustered in as major and Rev. Charles Reynolds as chaplain on 
the same day. Company K was organized. January 9th, Alson C. 
Davis was mustered in as colonel, and Dr. George B. Wood as assistant 
surgeon, completing the organization of the Ninth Kansas Volunteers 
as follows: Colonel, Alson C. Davis, of Wyandotte county; lieutenant- 


colonel, Owen A. Bassett, Douglas county; major, Julius G. Fisk, Wyan- 
dotte county; major, Thomas B. Eldridge, Douglas county; adjutant, 
C. L. Gorton, Leavenworth county ; quarterma-ster, Luther H. Wood, 
Wyandotte county ; surgeon. Dr. Joseph P. Root, Wyandotte county ; 
chaplain. Rev. Charles Reynolds, Douglas county. 

The regiment left Fort Leavenworth on Janviary 20, 1862, with 
orders to establish winter quarters at Quindaro. On the 4th of Feb- 
ruary, the four companies formerly attached to Nugent 's regiment were 
mustered out, their enlistment being for home service. Below regiila- 
tion size, Colonel Davis resigned, and Major Eldridge was, at his owa 
request, mustered out. Company K, from this time, was designated as 
Company F. On February 28, 1862, Major General Hunter, command- 
ing the department of Kansas, assigned to the Ninth Kansas Volunteers 
the following officers and companies, formerlv belonging to the Second Volunteer Infantry : Colonel, Robert B. Mitchell ; majors, 
Charles W. Blair and William F. Cloud. John Pratt was appointed 
adjutant ; Cyriis L. Gorton, quartermaster ; Luther H. Wood, first battal- 
ion quartermaster. David Mitchell assumed command of the Ninth 
Kansas, and on the 12th the regiment left winter quarters at Quindaro, 
and pursuant to orders, moved to Shawneetown. On March 15th the 
name of the regiment was changed to Second Kansa.s Volunteer, and 
again changed on the 27th of the same month to the name by which it 
was thereafter known — Second Kansas Cavalry. The officers of the 
regiment were the following: Robert B. Mitchell, colonel, 5Iansfield; 
Owen A. Bassett, lieutenant colonel, Lawrence; Charles W. Blair, major, 
Fort Scott : John Pratt, adjutant, Lawrence ; David R. Coleman, battal- 
ion adjutant, Paris; C.vrus L. Gorton, quartermaster, Leavenworth; 
Dr. Joseph P. Root, surgeon, Wyandotte ; Charles Reynolds, chaplain. 
Fort Riley. Colonel Mitchell, having been promoted to brigadier 
general, April 8, 1862, with command of the proposed New Mexico 
expedition on June 1st, Colonel William F. Cloud, of the Tenth, 
was assigned to the command of the Second Cavalry. On May 16th, 
Captain Henry Hopkins, first lieutenant, Robert H. Hunt, second 
lieutenant, John K. Rankin and Second Lieutenant Jo.seph Crocklin, 
with a detail of privates, were assigned to Hopkins' (formerly Hollis- 
ter's) Battery, and were ordered, with the brigade of General Mitchell, 
to Tennessee. Major Julius G. Pisk, with squadrons A and D, was 
ordered to New Mexico. The regiment served in the southwest prin- 
cipally, going by way of Fort Riley. In March, 1864, the Second was 
a.ssigned to Lieutenant Colonel Bassett 's Cavalry Brigade, under JIajor 
Fisk. In September, 1864, Colonel Cloud was assigned to the staff of 
Major General Curtis. The different companies were mustered out 
between March 18 and June 22, 1865, at Little Rock, Fort Leavenworth 
and Fort Gibson, and the men were paid and discharged at Lawrence, 
August 17th. 


The Fifth Kansas Cavalry. 

It was oro-anized in July, 18(51, under the following officers: Colonel 
Hampton P. Johnson, Leavenworth; lieutenant colonel, John Ritchie, 
Topeka; major, James H. Summers; adjutant, Stephen R. Harrington, 
Washing-ton, D. C. ; quartermaster, James Davis, Leavenworth ; surgeon, 
E. B. Johnson, Leavenworth; chaplain, Hugh D. Fisher, Lawrence. 
Colonel Johnson assumed command of the Fifth at Port Scott in August, 
1861, and the regiment served principally in Arkansas. In September, 
1864, several companies were mustered out at Leavenworth, Pine Bluff 
and Little Rock. On June 22, 1862, the re-enlisted veterans of the 
Fifth were mustered out at Duvall's Bluff, Arkansas. 

The Sixth Regiment of Volunteer Cavalry was organized in the 
spring of 1862, by the reorganization of several "Home Guard" com- 
panies, then lately mustered out of the service, and officered thus: 
Colonel, William R. Judson ; lieutenant colonel, Lewis R. Jewell ; major, 
William T. Campbell ; adjutant, Isaac Atatten ; quartermaster, Simeon 
B. Gordon; surgeon, John S. Redfield; chaplain, Richard Duvall — all 
of Fort Scott. The duties required of the Sixth were not such as to 
call forth the impetuous daring that marks men in desperate engage- 
ments, but rather such as test a soldier's endurance and strength of 
nerve — long and weary pursuits of an enemy over his native country, 
scouting through the forests and passes of Missouri, and Kan- 
sas — but, such as they were, tliey had their peculiar perils, and they 
were bravely met. The regiment was mustered out late in 1864 and 
early in 1865. 

The Seventh Kansas Cavalry was organized October 28, 1861, and 
mustered into the service of the United States under the following 
officers: Colonel, Charles R. Jennison. Leavenworth; lieutenant colonel, 
Daniel R. Anthony, Leavenworth ; major, Thomas P. Herrick, High- 
land; adjutant, John T. Snoddy, Mound City; quartermaster, Robert 
W. Hamer, Leavenworth ; surgeon, Joseph L. Weaver, Leavenworth ; 
chaplain, Samuel Ayers, Leavenworth. The regiment served in 
Missouri, Mississippi and Tennessee, and was mustered out at Port 
Leavenworth in September, 1865. Lieutenant Colonel Anthony was 
deprived of his command in Tennessee, June 18, 1862, for issuing an 
offensive order. On July 17th Major Albert T. Lee was promoted to 
colonel, and assumed command of the regiment. Colonel Lee having 
been promoted to brigadier general November 29, 1862, the command 
devolved upon Lieutenant Colonel Herrick. During the Missouri cam- 
paign of 1864 the regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel P. 
M. Malone. 

The Eighth Infantry. 

This regiment was originally recruited and intended for home and 
frontier .service. Hostile Indians on the west and armed rebels on the 
Vol. 1—13 


east, rendering Kansas at any moment liable to invasion, a double duty 
devolved on the young state, and at that period of the war, while fur- 
nishing liberally of her "bone and sinew" to repel the enemy abroad, 
her own homes and families had also to be considered and protected. 
As organized in November, 1861, the regiment of six infantry and two 
cavalry companies, with the following regimental officers: Colonel, 
Henry W. Wessels, United States army ; lieutenant colonel, John A. 
Martin ; major, Edward F. Schneider ; adjutant, S. C. Russell ; quarter- 
master, E. P. Bancroft. During the three months following this organi- 
zation various changes were made in the regiment. Some companies 
were added, some were transferred to other regiments, and some were 
consolidated. On February 7, 1862, Colonel Wessels was ordered to 
Washington to assume command of his regiment in the regular army, 
and Lieutenant Colonel Martin succeeded to his place. Later in the 
month, the Eighth was consolidated with a battalion raised for New 
Mexico service; the cavalry companies, D and H, were transferred to 
the Ninth Kansas, and the Eighth, now an entire infantry regiment, was 
placed under command of Col. R. H. Graham. The organization of 
the regiment after these changes was as follows : Colonel, Robert H. 
Graham, Leavenworth ; lieutenant colonel, John A. Martin, Atchi-son ; 
major, Edward F. Schneider, Leavenworth ; adjutant, Sheldon C. Rus- 
sell, Lawrence ; cjuartermaster, E. P. Bancroft. Emporia ; siu'geon, J. B. 
Woodward, Riley county; chaplain, John Paulson, Topeka. 

On May 28th five companies of the regiment — B, E, H, I and K — 
after being reviewed at Fort Leavenworth, embarked on a Missouri 
steamer, under orders from General Blunt, then commander of western 
department, to report at Corinth, ]\Iississippi. At St. Louis, Colonel 
Graham was obliged to resign his command, in consequence of sickness, 
and it again devolved upon Lieutenant Colonel Martin. In December, 
1862, Colonel Martin was assigned to the conmiand of the brigade, and 
Major Schneider to that of the regiment. In February, 1863, Com- 
panies A, C, D, F, and in March, Company G, rejoined the regiment. 
These companies had been stationed at different posts in Kansas, chiefly 
emplo.ved in repelling the incursions of rebel bands from Missouri and 
guarding the frontier of their own state. On January 4, 1864, four- 
fifths of all the members of the Eighth, then present in camp, re-en- 
listed as veteran volunteers. On the 9th, General Willieh assumed com- 
mand of the Third division, the command of the First brigade de- 
volving upon Colonel Martin, and that of the regiment \ipon Major 
James M. Graham. Colonel Martin was mustered out at Pulaski on 
the 17th of November, his term of service having expired. The follow- 
ing day Lieutenant Colonel Conover took command of the regiment. 
The Eighth saw service in east Tennessee, and especially recommended 
itself to the admiration of the nation by the part it took at Mission 
Ridge. At the close of the war it went to Texas, and did not return 


until January, 1866, when it was mustered out at Leavenworth. It was 
one of the earliest regriments in the field, and its term of service did not 
close until the echo of the last Confederate gun had died away. 

The Ninth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry. 

Organized March 27, 1862, the Ninth Cavalry, which did effective 
work in the west, was under the following officers : Colonel, Edward 
Lynde, Grasshopper Palis; lieutenant colonel, Charles S. Clark, lola; 
major, James M. Pomeroy; adjutant, Luin K. Thacher, Kansas City; 
quartermaster, William Rosenthal, Lawrence; surgeon, Henry C. 
Bostick, lola; chaplain, Gilbert S. Northrup. The final organization 
of the Ninth was effected by consolidating and organizing the lola 
battalion (raised in southern Kansas) with detachments of the First 
Battalion Kansas Cavalry, the Third Kansas, and the Eighth Kansas 
Volunteers. The place of rendezvous for these companies was Port 
Leavenworth, where also the regiment was organized, and whence the 
companies were detached to various posts of duty — A, on escort duty to 
Port Union, New Mexico; B, into the mountains of Colorado, to build 
Port Halleck; C, to Port Riley; G, to Port Lyon, Colorado, and I, to 
Port Laramie. The detachments on the plains were long in defense of 
overland mail routes, and the protection of inunigrants, one detachment 
proceeding northwest to Montana, the other having its station along the 
Santa Pe route. The four companies, D, E, P and H, under Major 
Bancroft, formed a part of the expedition into the Indian coimtry, and, 
under Colonel Lynde, were engaged during a part of August, 1862, in 
pursuing the force of General Coffey through western Missouri. The 
regiment took part in the desultory warfare which was waged in Kan- 
sas, Missouri and Arkansas, remaining on duty at Little Rock and 
Duvall's Bluff until its term of service expired, some of the companies 
returning to Leavenworth in the fall of 1864, to be mustered out of ser- 
vice, and some remaining until mustered out in the summer of 1865. 

A Consolidation op Kansas Regiments. 

On April 3, 1862, the Third and Pourth Kansas regiments, together 
with a small portion of the Pifth, were, by order of the war depart- 
ment, consolidated at Paola, Kansas. The regiment formed by such 
consolidation was designated the Tenth Kansas Infantry, and was at 
that time organized under the following officers : Colonel, William P. 
Cloud, Emporia ; lieutenant colonel, Henry H. Williams, Osawatomie ; 
major, Otis B. Gunn ; adjutant, Casimio B. Zulaoski, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts ; surgeon, Mahlon Bailey ; chaplain, John H. Drummond, Mary- 
ville. The regiment .saw service on the border, and at the expiration of 
its term was mustered out at Port Leavenworth. 


The Tenth Kansas Veteran Regiment was composed of fonr com- 
panies, the Veterans, with the recruits of Companies F and I, forming 
the new companies, A and B. The re.sriment was commanded by Major 
Henry H. Williams from its organization until the last of August, 1864, 
when he was placed in charge of Schofield Barracks, St. Louis. The 
Tenth left St. Louis for Pilot Knoh, Missouri, under command of 
Lieutenant F. A. Smiley, Company D, and on its arrival the command 
was transferred to Captain George D. Brooke, Company C. On 
November 7th, the regiment embarked at St. Louis for Padueah, Ken- 
tucky, and on its arrival at that place Captain William C. Jones, of 
Company B, took command. November 28th, it arrived at Nashville, 
and the next day at Columbia, Tennesse, being at ihe latter place 
assigned to the Fourth Army Corps, General Stanley commanding. 
The regiment fell back with the army of General Schofield after the 
battle of Franklin, and on reaching Nashville was employed on the 
defense of the city until December 16th, having been in the meantime 
transferred to the Seventeenth, afterward Sixteenth Army Corps, Sec- 
ond Brigade, Second Division. Later it was commanded by Captain 
(afterward Lieutenant Colonel) Charles S. Hills. It took part in sub- 
sequent warfare in that field, and acquitted itself heroically on more 
than one occasion. It was mustered out in Alabama, and, September 20, 
1865, received pa.yment and final discharge at Fort Leavenworth. 

Young Tom E wing's Regiment. 

The Eleventh Kansas Infantry (afterward Calvary) was the result 
of the energetic and patriot Honorable Thomas Ewing, Jr., at a time 
when the state felt hardly able to spare even the men it had already in 
the field. The first recruit enlisted August 8, 1862, and on the 14th 
of September the last company was mustered in, the line officers as 
follows : Field and Staff — Colonel, Thomas Ewing, Jr., Leavenworth ; 
lieutenant colonel, Thomas Moonlight, Leavenworth ; major, Preston B. 
Plumb, Emporia ; adjutant, John Williams, Leavenworth ; quartermas- 
ter, James R. McClure, Junction City; surgeon, George W. Hogeboom, 
Leavenworth; chaplain, James S. Cline, Tecumseh. On the promotion 
of Colonel Ewing to be brigadier general, Lieiitenant Colonel Moonlight 
was promoted to colonel. Major Plumb to lieutenant colonel, and Cap- 
tain Anderson to major; but the regiment having lost over three 
hundred men, its number was below the minimum, and they could not 
muster at that time. On changing the regiment to eavalrs^ it was 
again below regulation size, and Major Anderson was the only field 
officer mustered in until the following spring, when two additional 
companies having been recruited and mustered in, the organization of 
the Eleventh Kansas Cavalry was completed b,v the commission of 
Lieutenant Colonel Moonlight as colonel. Major Plumb as lieutenant 


colonel, and Captains Ross and Adams as majors. Early in the war 
the regiment was in JMissouri and Arkansas. Later it served under 
General Ewing in southwest Missouri and Kansas. In 1864 it took 
part in the campaign against Price ; after that in the movements against 
the Indians. Lieutenant Colonel Plumb succeeded Colonel Moonlight 
in command. The regiment was mustered out at Fort Leavenworth 
in the early fall of 1865. 

The Twelfth Infantry. 

This regiment of Kansas men was recruited by C. W. Adanis, of 
Lawrence, in the counties of "Wyandotte, Johnson, Douglas, IMiami, 
Franklin, Coffey, Allen, Linn and Bourbon. It was mustered into 
the service at Paola, September 25, 1862, under the following officei-s: 
Field and Staff — Colonel, Charles W. Adams, Lawrence ; lieutenant col- 
onel, Jonas E. Hayes, Olathe; ma.ior, Thomas H. Kennedy, Lawrence; 
ad.jutant, Charles J. Love,ioy, Baldwin City; quartermaster, Andrew J. 
Shannon, Paola; surgeon, Thomas Lindsay, Garnett ; chaplain, Werter 
R. Davis, Baldwin City. This regiment served on the frontier, and 
was mustered out at Little Rock, June 3, 1865. 

The Thirteenth Kansas Infantry was raised in conformity to the 
quota assigned Kansas, under President Lincoln's call of July, 1862, 
and was recruited by Cyrus Leland, Sr., in the counties of Atchison, 
Brown, Doniphan, Marshall and Nemaha. The rendezvous was es- 
tablished at Camp Stanton, oity of Atchison, the regiment organized 
September 10, 1862, and mustered into the service of the United States 
on September 20th of the same year, under the following officers: 
Colonel, Thomas M. Bowen, Marysville; lieutenant colonel, John B. 
Wheeler, Troy; ma.ior, Caleb A. Woodworth, Atchison; ad.iutant, Wil- 
liam P. Badger; quartermaster, Cyrus Leland; surgeon, William M. 
Grimes, Atchison; chaplain, Daniel A. Murdock. The Thirteenth was 
in the engagement at Prairie Grove, and saw considerable guerrilla 
warfare. It was mustered out at Little Rock, Arkansas, June 26, 1865. 

The Fourteenth Infantry. 

The nucleus of the Fourteenth Kansas Volunteer Infantry con- 
sisted of four companies of eavalrv, which were recruited as personal 
escort of Major General Blunt, in the spring of 1863. The necessity 
of raising an additional force for frontier service was so imperative 
that the recruiting of a whole regiment was authorized, and the work 
performed diiring the summer and fall, Major T. J. Anderson serving 
as recruiting officer. The organization of the regiment was partially 
completed in November as follows : Field and Staff — Colonel, Charles W. 
Blair, Fort Scott; majors, Daniel II. David, Charles Willetts and John 


G. Bro\v7i, Leavenworth; adjutant, William 0. Gould, Leavenworth; 
assistant surgeon, Albert W. Chenowith, Leeompton. The Fourteenth 
took part in the peculiarly dangerous and wearing service on the border 
and in the campaign against Price. It was mustered out at Lawrence, 
August 20, 1865. After the numerous guerrilla raids of 1863, under 
Coffey, Rains and Quantrell, had culminated in the terrible massacre 
at Lawrence, Governor Carney immediately commissioned Colonel C. R. 
Jennison to recruit a regiment of cavalry for the express purpose of 
protecting the eastern border of Kansas. Rendezvous was established 
at Leavenworth, and in a month the required companies were raised, 
and the Fifteenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry was organized under the 
following officers: Colonel, Charles R. Jennison, Leavenworth; lieu- 
tenant colonel, George H. Hoyt, Boston, Massachusetts; major, Robert 
H. Hunt, Leavenworth ; adjutant, Joseph Mackle ; quartermaster, George 
W. Carpenter; surgeon, Augustus E. Denning, Topeka ; chaplain, Benja- 
min L. Read, Leavenworth. The regiment served in Missouri and 
Kansas, taking part in repelling the Price raid. 

The Sixteenth Volunteer Cavalry was organized during the latter 
period of the war, and was officered as follows: Colonel, Werter R. 
Davis, Baldwin City; lieutenant colonel, Samuel Walker, Lawrence; 
major, James A. Price, and adjutant, Philip Doppler, both of Weston, 
Missouri; quartermaster, William B. Halyard; surgeon, James P. 
Erickson; chaplain, Thomas J. Perril, Baldwin City. This regiment 
was out against Price, and participated in guerrilla and Indian warfare 
in Missouri. 

One Hundred Day Men. 

In response to the president's call of April 23, 1864, for troops to 
serve one hundred days, five companies were recruited in Kansas and 
organized into a battalion, which, July 28th, was mustered into the 
Seventeenth Kansas, at Fort Leavenworth, under the following officers : 
Lieutenant colonel, Samuel A. Drake; adjutant, D. C. Strandbridge ; 
quartermaster, D. B. Evans; assistant surgeon, George E. Buddington, 
all of Leavenworth. This regiment, the last raised in the state, served 
vidth credit to the end of the struggle. 

The Negro Regiments. 

Six companies of the First Kansas Colored Volunteer Infantry were 
mustered in January 13, 1863. The organization was completed with 
four additional companies. May 2nd, under these officers: Colonel, 
Jam&s M. Williams ; lieutenant colonel, John Bowles ; major, Richard J. 
Ward ; adjutant, Richard J. Hinton ; quartermaster, Elijah Hughes ; 
surgeon, Samuel C. Harington. It performed good service in the 
southwest, and was mustered out at Pine Bluff, Arkansas, October 
1, 1865. 


The Second Kansas Colored Volunteer Infantry also served on the 
border. It was organized in the summer of 1863, at Fort Smith, 
Arkansas, under the following field and staff officers : Colonel, Samuel 
J. Crawford, Garnett; lieutenant colonel, Horatio Knowles; major, 
James H. Gillpatrick, Junction City; adjutant, John R. Montgomery, 
Little Rock, Arkansas; quartermaster, Edwin Stokes, Clinton; surgeon, 
George W. Walgamott, Lawrence ; chaplain, Josiah B. McAffee, Topeka. 
It was discharged from the service at Leavenworth, November 27, 1865, 
having, as did also the First Colored Infantry, nobly performed its 
duty, and by its faithful service proved the bravery and efficiency of 
colored soldiers. 

The First Kansas Volunteer Battery has left meager records. Its 
first officers were mustered in July 24, 1861, about fifty artillery men 
enlisting that month. The organization was as follows: Captain, 
Thomas Bickerton ; first lieutenant, Norman Allen, both of Lawrence ; 
second lieutenant, Hartson R, Brown; first sergeant, John B. Cook, 
Auburn ; second sergeant, Shelby Sprague, Prairie City ; corporal, John 
S. Gray, Mound City. Many recruits were added to the battery during 
the early part of 1862, and it participated in the battle of Prairie Grove. 
It left Rolla, Missouri, July 9, 1863, for St. Louis. In consequence of 
the death of Captain Norman Allen, who was promoted February 25, 
1862, and who died at St. Louis July 10, 1863, the command devolved 
on Lieutenant Thomas Taylor, Lieutenant H. R. Brown having been 
mustered out February 15, 1862. Directly succeeding the death of 
Captain Allen the battery was ordered to Indiana, and took an active 
part in capturing Morgan 's guerrilla band, then on its raid through that 
state. After this it was ordered to St. Louis, and subsequently to 
Columbus, Kentucky. It served with distinction in all the principal 
actions in which the armies of the Tennessee and Mississippi were en- 
gaged, and its numbers were greatly reduced by the casualties of war 
and by di.sease. It was mustered out of service at Leavenworth, Kansas, 
July 17, 1865. 

The work of organizing the Second Kansas Volunteer Battery was 
commenced in August, 1862, under the supervision of Major C. W. 
Blair, of the Second Kansas Cavalry. Its organization was completed 
on September 19th follo^nng. its officers being as follows : Charles W. 
Blair, Fort Scott, commanding; first lieutenant, Edward A. Smith; first 
lieutenant, David C. Knowles, second lieutenant, Andrew G. Clark, all 
of Fort Scott ; second lieutenant, Aristarchus "Wilson, Mapleton ; first 
sergeant, "William Requa, Mount Gilead ; quartermaster-sergeant, "Wil- 
liam H. Boyd, Mansfield. At the time the battery was mustered in at 
Fort Scott, its entire force was one hundred and twenty-three officers 
and men, two twelve-pounder field howitzer.s, and four six-pounder guns. 
The battery was assigned to First Brigade, General Soloman, First 
Division, General Blunt, of the Army of the Frontier, then consolidated 


under General Sohofield at Pea Ridge, and participated gallantly in the 
warfare in the southwest. It was mustered out of service in August, 

The Third Battery. 

The military organization afterward known as the Third Kansas 
Battery was originally recruited as a cavalry- eompanj', by Henry 
Hopkins and John F. Aduddell, in the latter part of 1861, and on the 
formation of the Second Kansas Cavalry, February 28, 1862, was 
assigned to that regiment as Company B, its officers being as follows : 
Captain, Henry Hopkins, and first lieutenant, John F. Aduddell, both 
of Albion, Illinois ; second lieutenant, Oscar F. Dunlap, Topeka ; on 
May 15, 1862, the latter was succeeded by Bradford S. Bassett. Captain 
Hopkins having been ordered to the command of Hollister's battery, 
Lieutenant Aduddell succeeded to the command. This organization 
served in the southwest, principally in Arkansas, latterly under the 
command of Lieutenant Bassett. and was mustered out in January, 1865, 
except about fifty men who were attached to the Second Battery. 

Three Indian regiments were actively engaged in the United States 
service during the War of the Rebellion, which were officered and entire- 
ly reciiiited in Kansas. The recruits were chiefly from the loyal 
Seminole and Creek Indians, who had taken refuge from the encroach- 
ments of hostile Indians under Stand-Waitie, in the southern border of 
the state. A few were resident Indians, having homes and families in 

The Record op K.\nsas. 

A sjTiopsis of the reports of the adjutant general's department 
gives the following as the record of the seventeen regiments of cavalry 
and infantry and the four batteries : 

Killed in battle 

Died of wounds 

Died of disease 


Discharged for disability 

Discharged dishonorably 




Missing 35 

The heaviest losses of life in battle were sustained by the First 
Colored Infantry which lost four officers and one hundred and fifty-six 
enlisted men. The First Infantry, which was next in order, lost eleven 
officers and eighty-six enlisted men. 




















The County's Record — First Regiment Kansas Volunteer In- 
fantry — Our Boys in the Second — Indians in the Fifth Cavalry — 
Those Who Joined the Sixth — Colonel Weir's Men — The Ill-Fated 
Twelfth — A Fighting Cavalry — The Sixteenth's Roll op Honor — 
The Kansas Colored Regiments — The Battles They Fought — 
Fighting in the Ozarks — Powell Cl.\yton's Command — Protectors 
op the Southern Border — When Colonel Clarkson was Captured — 
The Twelfth Cavalry's Many Battles. 

Wyandotte county and Wyandotte city had weathered the storm 
and stress of the Border warfare and the long .struggle for .statehood. 
But the end was not in sight. Peace did not come with the admission of 
Kansas into the Union as a Free State under the Wyandotte constitu- 
tion. There were battles to be fought and won or lost before the 
slavery question was settled. The census of 1860 had given Wyandotte 
county a white population of 2,420. A few hundred more had been 
added — perhaps 3,500 were here — when the Civil war broke forth with 
all its fury. And the citizens of Wyandotte were ready. Many 
stanch pro-slavery men hurried across to Missouri to join the Confeder- 
ate forces, but the citizens generally arrayed themselves on the side of 
the Union. When the call for volunteers came, sixty-seven men of 
Wyandotte county marched to Camp Lincoln near Leavenworth to join 
the Regiment of Kansas Volunteer Infantry. From that time 
on men were going to war from Wyandotte and Quindaro and from 
every section of the county. 

The County's Record. 

The records of the adjutant general's office at Topeka give Wyan- 
dotte county credit for volunteers in the Kansas regiments as follows : 

First Infantry 67 

Second Infantry 22 

Fifth Cavalry 21 

Sixth Cavalry 64 

Tenth Cavalry 23 



Twelfth Cavalry 88 

Fifteenth Cavalry 73 

Sixteenth Cavalry 119 

Total white volunteers including a few Indians 477 
In the Colored Regiments 483 

Total volunteers for AVyandotte county 960 

Practically an entire regiment of soldiers from the smallest county 

in the then newest state in the Union ! A proportion such as no other 

county of a corresponding population ever gave to war. 

But this was not all. There were the Home Guards — a little band 

of brave and loyal men who stayed to guard the homes and families of 

the soldiers who went to the front. 

First Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry. 

Sixty-seven men from Wyandotte county were nuLstered into this, 
the first Kansas regiment. William Y. Roberts was tirst captain, then 
a major, then a colonel. George H. Chapin and Avery G. Norman 
served as regimental quartermasters, and Dr. George E. Boddington 
and Dr. Joseph Speck were regimental surgeons. S.ylvester T. Smith 
was promoted from lieutenant to captain. Lieutenants in the different 
companies from Wyandotte county were John P. Alden and John W. 
Dyer. The latter was killed in the battle at Wilson Creek. Hubbard 
H. Sawyer was first a sergeant, afterwards a lieutenant. Aaron W. 
Merrill also was promoted while in service from sergeant to lieutenant. 
Others serving as sergeants were Jason Morse, Philip H. Knobloek, 
Theodore Bartles, Thomas Grady, Orson Bartlett. George C. Brown 
and Velmoor C. Clemmons were promoted from corporals to sergeants. 
The corporals were George Ingersoll, John Warren, George W. Garno, 
Dennis Costello, William Lloyd, John O'Donnell, Patrick Collins, John 
O 'Flaherty, John Johnson, Richard Burland, and Henry J. Fairbanks. 
John Farrall, a corporal, died at Vicksburg of wounds received in 
battle. Valentine Reichneeker and John Moody were musicians. The 
privates from Wyandotte county were Jacob Arnold, Joel Armes, Henry 
Boyle, Cyrus Bowman, William S. Camps, William J. Carlisle, Daniel 
Collins, Henry Cooper, Joy Casey, Dewitt C. Dennison, Daniel Donahue, 
Daniel Emmons, David Flemming, Hugh Gibbons, Robert Good, Joseph 
Guilford, Jacob Heiter, Brian Henry, Leopald Hipp, John Killen, 
August Kreiger, Martin Lawler, William II. Nichols, Joseph Muenzen- 
mayer, William Ridler, John Reheis, Adam Reinochle, John Roeser, 
Gustav Sells, Fred W. Smith, Francis Tracy, John Van Possen, John 
Wilson, Charles Wilstoff and Ely L. Zane. 

Lieutenant John W. Dyer was killed in battle at Wilson creek. 


John Farrall died at Vicksburg of wounds received in action. Daniel 
Donahue died at Trenton, Tennessee. Martin Lawler, Joel Armes and 
Adam Reinoehle either were killed outright, or died of wounds in the 
battle at Wilson Creek. Francis Tracy died at Natchez, Missis.sippi 
and John Roeser was drowned in the Missouri river. Eleven of the 
soldiers from Wyandotte in this regiment were discharged from the 
service on account of wounds and disabilities. 

OuB Boys in the Second. 

The Second Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry contained twenty- 
two men from Wyandotte county. Dr. Joseph P. Root, Dr. George B. 
Wood and Dr. Ivan D. Heath were regimental surgeons ; Joseph Sanger 
and John Burke, sergeants ; Theodore Praun, a corporal. The privates 
in the regiment from Wyandotte were: William T. Ainsworth, Wesley 
Boyles, Squire Boyles, Elias Boyles, James Boyles, Pembrook Harris, 
Dionysius Harris, Wendelin Krumm, Jacob Hammelman, Augustus 
Luke, John Myers, Michael McLain, Engelhardt Noll, Joseph Praun 
and John Rusk. 

William T. Ainsworth was a prisoner of war, captured near Port 
Gibson. Dr. George B. Wood resigned because his health failed him. 
Joseph Praun was mustered out from the general hospital in Little 
Rock, while ill, and four others were discharged for disability. Two 
were deserters. 

Indians in the Fifth Cavalry. 

W.yandotte county had twenty-one representatives in the Fifth 
Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry. Alfred Gray was quartermaster. 
The privates were as follows : Riley Alley, Linneus T. Bancroft, Rusha 
Chaplog, Tally Beverly, Moses Denna, Richardson Hill, Simon Hill, 
William H. Jones, Zacharai Longhouse, Harrison Love, Pour Miles, 
John Moonshine, Philip Mature, Little Shanghai, Thomas Punch, 
Thompson Smith, Christian Snake, James Thomas, George Williams and 
James Wilson. 

Of these twenty-one Wyandotte soldiers, most of whom were In- 
dians, eleven were transferred to other regiments and eight deserted, 
one was dishonorably discharged, and of one there is no record when 
he was discharged, transferred or mustered out. 

Those Who Joined the Sixth. 

The Sixth Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry was a popular 
regiment for Wyandotte county men. Many of the sixty-four volun- 
teers from this county were Wyandotte and Delaware Indians. John 


A. Johnsou, first a licn^tenant, won promotiou to the rank of major. 
Jacob H. Bartles wa.s quartermaster sergeant. Victor Leivaux was 
veterinary surgeon for the regiment. Thomas Crooks rose from ser- 
geant to lieutenant and then became a captain. Nathaniel B. Lucas 
was a captain; Matthew Cleary, Thomas Darling, Daniel Brayman, 
Ebenezer W. Lucas, Samuel J. Martin and John F. Smith were lieu- 
tenants; Lemuel P. Ketchum served as commissary sergeant, and the 
sergeants were William H. Wren, Samuel J. Martin, Joseph E. Powell, 
Granville Freeman, George A. Carleton. James H. Cadell and Benjamin 
F. Reck. The coi'porals were Benjamin T. J. Bennett, Robert W. 
Robetaille, Henry W. Freeman, Benjamin W. Hurd, Jacob J. Klein- 
kncht, and John Cotter ; Wallace Higgins was a bugler, and the follow- 
ing were the privates who enlisted from Wyandotte county : Thomas 
Alsup, James E. Bishop, Jackson Bullet, George A. Coray, George Cum- 
mings, Frederick Dodd, Joseph R. Donnelly, Jacob Dick, James W. 
Duncan, George Evans, John Duncan, Theodore Grindel, John File, 
James Hicks, Silas Greyeyes, Emmanuel F. Heisler, Jacob High, Joseph 
Hanford, Charles R. Hanford, Southerland Ingersoll, Isaac Johnnycake. 
Benjamin Johnnycake, Thomas S. Karnes, Lemuel P. Ketchum, William 
R. Ketchum, Beverly Lancaster, Timoth.v S. Lucas, Jacob Linneas, 
Solomon Love. Yellow Leaf, James Peacock, Benjamin F. Russell, Wil- 
liam P. Pedigo, William X. Pedigo, David N. Rogers, Raif Steele, Joseph 
Thorp, Peter White, John W. Whitman, Allen T. Wright, Josiah Won- 
setter and Alvatus Williams. 

Granville P. Freeman died May 11, 1864, at Dardanelle. Arkansas, 
of wounds. Corporal John H. Cotter was killed bv guerrillas near 
Fort Smith. George Evans died of consumption. James Hicks was 
a prisoner of war. Captain Nathaniel B. Lucas was transferred to 
command a company of the Eighteenth United States Colored Volun- 
teers. Two Wyandotte soldiers deserted the regiment. 

Colonel Weir's Men. 

Wyandotte county sent twenty-three men to the front with the 
Tenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, headed by Colonel William Weir. 
John J. Lannon was sergeant major ; James H. Harris, captain ; Wil- 
liam C. Harris, first lieutenant; Anderson W. Nicholas and Mortimer 
C. Harris, corporals, and George B. Reiehnecker, mu.sieian. The 
privates: Charles E. Armour, David Ernhout, Andrew Franz, John 
Galvin, Charles C. Johnson, Charles Klinefogel, Thomas Lannan, Wil- 
liam Molton, Richard C. Powell, Samuel P. Parsons, James A. Rich, 
Thomas H. Tracy, John Tracy, George Tremblett, Benjamin P. Saylor, 
and George C. Waddle. 

Six of the twent.v-three Wyandotte volunteers died of disease while 
in service. They were Charles Klinefogle, William Molton, Samuel 


P. Parsons, David Ernhont, Charles E. Armour and Richard P. Powell. 
Three men deserted and Colonel Weir was dismissed from service by 
General Order No. 123, dated at St. Louis August 20, 1864. 

The Ill-Fated Twelfth. 

Wyandotte county gave to the Twelfth Regiment Volunteer Caval- 
ry many of the bravest and best men who fought with the command in 
Arkansas. Among these were many Wyandot and Delaware Indians. 
Of the regimental officers, William Sellers was for a time chaplain. 
The roster of Wyandotte men who served as officers in this regiment 
follows : Orlando S. Bartlett and James D. Chestnut, captains ; Fletch- 
er Hedding and Samuel M. Stephens, sergeants ; Gustav Tauber, com- 
missary sergeant; Thomas H. Gahagan, William Hazlett and George W. 
Newell, musicians; James Sunimerwell, Rufus W. Poster, William 
Selers, James P. Killen, Silas Adams, John S. Heald and John E. 
Marutzky, corporals. The privates were William Armstrong, Orrin 
Baldwin, Isaac Bigtree, Christian F. Bowen, William C. Blue, Chad. 
Brostwick, Louis Bigknife, Frederick Britton. Jacob Carhead, Joseph 
Charloe, Cornelius H. Creeden, Edward Clinton, David Charloe, Henry 
Chrysler, Sebastian 0. Downey, Peter Donnika, Peter Dailey, William 
Day, Moses Dougherty, Abraham Demerest, Charles Edwards, William 
Ellis, Conrad Grespacher, Jessie Giaury, Jeremiah Harrison, Edward 
Hollevet, George A. Horning, William Hazlett, George Hanford, Wil- 
liam Johnson, Thoma.s Johnson, Austin Kroop, William Johnson. Thom- 
as Jaeklin, Thomas A. Kirk, Henry Kerse.y, William Lewis, Seth A. 
Leavitt, Isaac Littlechief, William H. Lindsey, Samuel McCowan, Elias 
B. Myers, James Mature, John McCain, John Murphy, David Matthews, 
Henry W. Miller, John P. Niekell, Almond Noble, Smith Nicholas, Wil- 
liam Nicholas, Edward O'Hare, John N. Poe, Gideon B. Parsons, Henry 
Puckett, John Porcupine, Josiah Puckett, Thomas Payne, Joseph Pea- 
cock, William Parker, John A. Randall, John Rodgers, James Smith, 
Joseph Streatmater, Christian Santer, Rudolph Wiltz, William White- 
feather, Jacob Whitewing, Sebastian Waller, Lewis Wengartner, Frank 
Whitewing, William Walker, Patrick Whalen, and Michael Youngman. 

This was a regiment that suffered by exposure in the Ozarks and by 
hard fighting. Of the eighty-eight men from Wyandotte sixteen died 
of disease, three were killed, fourteen were discharged for disability and 
twelve deserted. Those who died from disease were George W. Newell, 
Fletcher Hedding, Silas Adams, Elias A. Myers, Gideon B. Par.sons, 
Henry Puckett, John A. Randall, Joseph Steatmater, James Whitewing, 
Edward Clinton, Isaac Littlechief, James Peacock, Henry W. Miller, 
William Parker and Jame.s Smith. An accident caused the death of 
George Hanford, musician, at Fort Smith, guerrillas killed William 
Whitefeather, and William Johnson died of wounds. 


A Fighting Cavalry. 

The call for volunteers for the Fifteenth Regiment Kansas Cavalry 
was responded to by a body of seventy-three Wyandotte county patriots. 
The list follows: John T. Smith and William H. H. Grinter, first 
lieutenants; John W. R. Lucas, quartermaster sergeant; Alexander 
Zane, William H. Worrell, John Jordan, Erasmus Riley, Dennis F. 
Lucas and William A. Long, sergeants ; John Kanally, James M. Thorp, 
Adam Wilson, Carroll S. Evans, Timothy H. Carlton, Eldridge H. 
Brown and Josiah Thorp, corporals; David Thomas, Henry Runne, 
John Hohenstenner and Richard L. Warrell, buglers ; Gilbert Lewis, 
wagoner; James M. Long, saddler; David N. Baker, farrier. The 
privates: Henry J. Armstrong, Edward M. Alexander, Peter Broham, 
William B. Bushman, Doctor Block, Rusha Chaploy, John Coon, Moses 
Denna, William Cheeley, William Driver, John Freeman, Byron Gan- 
nett, Henry Groh, Henry Gibson, John Gillis, Samuel Glass, Andrew 
B. Hovey, Sylvanus Harless, Jacob Higgins, William H. Jones, Charles 
W. Ketchum, Charles E. Learned, Daniel Long, Abraham Lincoln, 
Thomas Lewis, John Longboue, Zachariah Longhouse, James Logan, 
Philip Mature, Big Moccasin, John Martin, James H. Murray, James 
Moody, Elijah Owens, George Pemsey, Winfield Pipe, Thomas Punch, 
James Rowe, James Roberts, James Shanghai, Wilson Sarcoxie, Thomp- 
son Smith, Lamon Scott, Thomas Shields, Joseph Shorter, Beverly Tally, 
Frederick Vickers, James Wilson, Hiram Young and Ethan L. Zane. 

Although the Fifteenth did some hard fighting at the Battle of the 
Blue, only three of the seventy-three officers and privates from Wyan- 
dotte county were fatally wounded. These were John Kannall>', John 
Longbone and Joseph Shorter. Two were discharged for disabilities 
and six deserted. Those who died of disease were William Driver, 
Henry Gibson, James Logan, John Martin. 

The Sixteenth's Roia op Honor. 

In the Sixteenth Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, organized 
in the winter of 1863-4, Colonel Werter R. Davis of Baldwin City en- 
rolled many volunteers from Wyandotte county. The list of officers 
follows: Sergeants, William Sweeney, William McDonald. William 
McDowell, Morton Wallace, David B. Johason, Charles S. Williamson, 
William Brown, James Breunner, Morgan Mclntyre, Samuel T. Han- 
nan, Henry Gray, Charles B. Morgan, William Moore, Isaac G. McGib- 
bon, James W. Powell, John E. Renfro, Thomas Maloney, Franklin W. 
Patterson ; corporals, John Ilogan, James C. Barnett, Robert Bayles, 
Thomas Brereton, John S. Waddel, Francis N. Kennedy, Newton J. 
Myers, Frederick Oltens, Duncan Kieth, John Kyle and John W. 
Woodman. The privates : James Abbot, John B. Akers, George Alii- 


son, Abraham Amis, William Anderson, James B. Barnett, John F. 
Beavers, Reuben Brown, Dennis Buckley, John D. Brown, Jr., Newton 
Butler, John D. Brown, Sr., William Beamish, Samuel S. Beebe, James 
M. Barnes, Jeremiah Burrus, Ransom Beach, Alfred Briggs, William 
Bryson, John Coyle, Peter Cunningham, James Cregg, James Cobine, 
Joseph C. Coakley, Benjamin Crim, John Carr, M. D. S. Collins, Wil- 
liam Clary, Oliver Dorris, Archelaus Doxsee, William B. Duncan, 
Nicholas Dedier, Richard Frost, Michael J. Fox, Daniel Fitzgerald, 
Michael Fitzpatrick, John L. Green, Jacob Hayden, Elias J. Hampton, 
Eli Hargis, John W. Hampton, William Hunter, John Harris, Henry 
Jarvis, John M. Kennedy, Benjamin Keen, James H. Knuckols, James 
Lewis, Daniel P. Lucas, Milton L. McAlexander, Dennis Murphy, 
Bernard McDermott, Ruben Mapes, John Mitchell, William A. Mc- 
Laughlin, James McTour, Charles H. McLaughlin, Michael McCarthy, 
John W. Maine, James Noble, Goodlip Oleman, Peter Onnerson, Frank- 
lin W. Patterson, John Punch, Geoi-ge W. Patton, Andrew Priddy, 
Jerome PajTie, Henry Perry, Paschal Pockett, John W. Pearson, Wil- 
liam Reed, James R. M. Renfro, George W. Ratliff, Jefferson C. Saylor, 
George W. Spicer, William M. Sears, William J. Sears, Luther Shork- 
man, Thomas Sullivan, John R. Smith, John Thayer, Herman Thayer, 
Edwin E. Willis, Joseph Whitecrow, Jackson Wiletrout, Alphonse B. 
Wolf, James C. Wilkinson, Ephraim B. Warren, John Wahlenmeyer 
and John S. Waddel. 

Of the one hundred and nineteen officers and men from Wyandotte 
county who served in the Sixteenth in the two years of its existence nine 
died from disease, six were discharged for disability, eleven deserted 
and the remainder were mustered out on December 6, 1865. Those 
who died from disease were Edwin E. Willis, George Allison, Henry 
Gray, James McTour, Luther Shorkman, Jeremiah Burrus, Richard 
Frost, Elias J. Hampton and John W. Maine. 

The Kansas Colored Regiments. 

The number of volunteer soldiers from Wyandotte county that 
served in the colored regiments was : 206 in the First Colored Regiment, 
102 in the Second. 35 in the Independent Colored Kansas Battery, and 
80 in the Eighteenth LTnited States Colored Infantry. The total was 

The Battles They Fought. 

The soldiers that went from Wyandotte eoimty with the First Regi- 
ment Kansas Volunteer Infantry saw hard service from the start. While 
the regiment was Ijdng in its original camp, a rebel flag was displayed 
at the village of latan, across the river in Missouri, about eight miles 


above Leavenworth. Sergeant Denning:, with a squad of six men, pro- 
ceeded, without orders, on June 5th, to haul down the insolent flag. 
Three of these men were wounded, but they brought the flag to camp as 
a trophy and evidence of their success. In due time the regiment 
broke camp, and moved toward the field of war, and on July 7th it 
effected a .junction with the army of General Lyon. Afterward, on 
August 10th, it participated in the battle of Wilson's Creek, Missouri, 
where it suffered considerable loss in killed and wounded. It then fell 
back with the army to Rolla, that state. . Soon after Beauregard evacu- 
ated Corinth, Mississippi, the First Kansas arrived at Pittsburg Land- 
ing, where the great battle of Shiloh had been fought on the 6th and 7th 
of the previous April. Reinforcements not being necessary there. 
General Ilalleek sent the i-egiment to Columbus, Kentucky. The regi- 
ment led the pursuit of the rebels, as part of General MePherson's 
brigade, after the battles of October 3 and 4, 1862, at Corinth, and 
participated in the campaigns against Vicksburg, in Mississippi. After 
February 1. 1863, the First Kansas was mounted, and for the next 
eighteen months it served as mounted infantry, being a very effective 
branch of the army. After the fall of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863, it was 
ordered to Natchez, Mississippi, to hold that post. In October follow- 
ing it was returned to Vicksburg, and stationed on an outpost on Black 
River bridge, with picket posts on both sides of the river. It also ac- 
companied General McArthvir's expedition up the Yazoo river. 

Upon the expiration of its term of service (June 3, 1864), all of 
the men, except recruits whose terms of enlistment had not expired and 
two companies of re-enlisted veterans, embarked on board the transport 
"Arthur," and moved to Leavenworth, where they were mustered out, 
June 16, 1864. The veterans of the regiment continued in the service 
in the states of Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas, until after 
the close of the war, and were mustered out at Little Rock, Arkansas, 
August 30, 1865. 

Fighting in the Ozarks. 

The Second Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry as originally 
formed participated in the battle at Wilson Creek. After it was re- 
organized as cavalry, the regiment chased and routed several southern 
raiding parties, and on October 4th, it was sent to Newtonia to re- 
enforce Brigadier General Solomon. Afterward, on October 20, 1862, 
it did good service at Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn, in Arkansas. A Con- 
federate battery, consisting of four guns, was captured by this regiment. 
It was manned and was thereafter known as Hopkin's Battery, and 
continued to act with the regiment. In November following, the Sec- 
ond Kansas moved with the army of General Curtis toward Fort Smith, 
Arkansas, and participated in the action near Rhea's Mills on the 7th, 


and in the action near Boonesboro on the 28th of November. Again, on 
the 6th and 7th of December following, it was engaged in the action on 
Cove Creek, near Payetteville, Arkansas; in all of which engagements 
the Union forces were successful. 

It also bore a prominent part in the expedition which, on Avigust 
23, 1863, crossed the Arkansas river to Holly Springs, in the Indian 
Territory, afterward captured Port Smith, Arkansas, and drove the 
enemy from the northwestern part of that state. During the winter 
of 1863-4 this regiment did effective service in Arkansas, capturing a 
goodly number of prisoners. During the spring and summer of 1864 
it served under General Steele in the southern Arkansas, and did much 
effective work. It continued to operate in that state and the Indian 
Territory until its final muster out. It received many recruits in after helping to drive the armed enemy out. It did very 
effective service, and its history in detail would make a very readable 
book. Some of its men having served their full time, were mustered 
out in April, 1865, at Little Rock ; others, June 22, 1865, at Fort Gibson, 
Indian Territory; others, at Leavenworth, Kansas, at different times; 
and still others were mustered out on different dates at several other 
places. The greater number of the regiment, however, were mustered 
out at Leavenworth. 

Powell Clayton's Command. 

Two companies of the Fifth Kansas Cavalry left Leavenworth in 
July, 1861, coming to Kansas City. Their first engagement was at 
Harrisonville, Missouri, where the enemy was driven from the town. 
The regiment participated in the fight at Drywood September 2nd, and 
in the action at Morristown on the 17th, where Colonel Johnson was 
killed. It went into winter quarters at Camp Denver, and in Febniary, 

1862, Lieutenant Colonel Powell Clayton became its colonel and assumed 
command. The regiment was then thoroughly drilled and made useful. 
On March 19th following, it made valuable captures at Carthage, 
Missouri, making prisoners a company of guerrillas then and there 
forming. Afterward the regiment entered Arkansas, and in the sum- 
mer following it routed an Arkansas regiment of cavalry from the town 
of Salem, in that .state, and a large force of Texas rangers on Black 
river, near Jacksonport. The detachment winning thase victories was 
under command of Captain Criets. Afterward, at the battle of Helena, 
the regiment won distinction and rendered valuable service under Gen- 
eral Steele in the capture of Little Rock, Arkansas. On October 25, 

1863, the Fifth Kansas had a hard fight with a Confederate force much 
superior in numbers and lost thirty-seven men, but held its position, the 
loss of the enemy being greater. Following this, the regiment did much 
service in southern Arkansas and elsewhere in the state. It was with 

Vol. 1—14 


General Steele at Mark's Mills, when the enemy captured his baggage 
train and a few of his men. On September 17th there was a hard fight 
at Warren Cross Roads and part of the Union forces were scattered, but 
the Fifth Kansas, First Indiana and Seventh Missouri repelled the 
enemy and saved the artillery from capture. The remainder of the 
service of the regiment was of less note. The men of the regiment were 
mustered out at various times and places, when they had finished their 
term of service, and the re-enlisted veterans were mustered out June 
22, 1865, at Devall's Bluff, Arkansas. 

Protectors op the Southern Border. 

Garrison duty and scouting constituted the first work of the Sixth 
Cavalry, which was organized for the defense of the southern frontier 
of the state. The battle of Drywood was commenced by a company of 
this conunand. In the spring of 1862 the regiment was re-organized 
and made more effective. It then gave attention to gueri'iHas and 
bushwhackers, and succeeded in breaking up some small companies of 
guerrillas under the notorious Quantrell and others; it also broke up 
not less than eight companies of bushwhackers, killing and wounding a 
large number, without suffering much loss. In June, 1862, the Sixth 
won distinction in the fight of Cowskin Prairie, and, on July 4th follow- 
ing, it chased the retreating forces of Confederates, when Colonel 
Clarkson and a number of his men were captured. On that day two 
companies of the regiment routed the enemy at Stanwattie's IMills and 
captured a large amount of provisions. The same month a detachment 
of the regiment captured the Cherokee chief, John Ross, who was fight- 
ing for the south. In August the Sixth accompanied a command 
toward the Missouri river in pursuit of the noted General Cooper and 
his command. The latter was overtaken and defeated at the Osage 
river. Scouting and skirmishing were successfully continued by the 
Sixth until September 30th when it participated in the battle of New- 
tonia and covered the retirement of the united forces. It then assisted 
in the several actions which resulted in dri\'ing the enemy across the 
Boston mountains. 

The Sixth was at the battle of Prairie Grove, in Washington county, 
Arkansas, which took place on December 7, 1862, and afterward assisted 
in capturing Van Buren, Fort Gibson and Fort Davis, and then returned 
to Missouri for winter quarters. Recniiting was carried on to some 
extent during the early winter and the spring of 1863. The Sixth 
took part in the fight and capture of Holly Springs, July 18, 1863, and 
then performed scouting senace until it .joined Steele's army and toolc 
part in the Camden expedition, being in the skirmish at Prairie de Anne 
on April 10th following, and the fight at Acbin Creek on September 19, 
1864. It participated in many small engagements and continued active 


until hostilities ceased. The men were mustered out at various places 
and dates, the last of the veterans being honorably discharged July 18, 
1865, at Devall's Blufif, Arkansas. 

When Colonel Clarkson Was Captured. 

After performing many minor services the Tenth Infantry took 
part in the expedition against Colonel Clarkson, on July 3, 1862, which 
resulted in the capture of this officer and 155 of his men, besides the 
killing and wounding of about seventy of the enemy. The Tenth was 
repeatedly opposed to the officers, CoSey and Cockrell, and it assisted in 
the pursuit of the Confederates in their retreat from Newtonia. In 
the fall of 1882 the regiment participated in the campaign in northwest, and was lightly engaged in action at Cane Hill and Prairie 
Grove, losing in the latter engagement twenty-three per cent of its men. 

The Tenth moved out of camp on December 27, 1862, to strike 
Hindman at Van B\iren, and put an end to his army. Marraaduke 
next invited the attention of the Tenth, with a force of 6,000 cavalry 
advancing to Springfield, ^Missouri. The regiment made a forced march 
to that place in conjiuietion with a brigade of cavalry in very severe 
weather, making thirty-five miles a day, and by their advance forced 
Marmaduke to retreat. The brigade followed the Confederate and 
routed him at Sand Spring, thirty miles beyond Springfield, and that 
general in his hurried retreat fell into the hands of General Warren, 
who completed his discomfiture. The campaign of 1862 was concluded 
in a manner very honorable for the Tenth. The regiment was mustered 
out of service in August, 1864, but immediately re-organized as veterans. 
It then served against Hood in Tennessee (at Columbia, Franklin, 
Nashville), and in pursuit of the routed foe winning distinction, al- 
ways being assigned to the skirmish line on every important occasion ; 
and their losses abundantly testify to their courage and endurance. 
The regiment was dispatched to Fort Gaines, Alabama, on March 7, 
1865, and operated in that line of country until a junction was effected 
with General Steele, and the works of the enemy at Fort Blakely 
captured. The Tenth was named in the reports officially made in a 
manner exceedingly gratifying to the state. The final muster out 
occurred on September 20, 1865, at Fort Leavenworth. 

The Twelfth Cavalry's Many Battles. 

In the spring of 1863 the Twelfth Cavalry, in which Wyandotte 
county had many brave fighters, was moved to Fort Leavenworth, 
Kansas, and the following fall it went to Fort Smith, Arkansas, and 
thence, in the spring of 1864, it participated in the Camden expedition, 
remaining at Camden about ten days and then falling back to Little 


Rock, Arkansas, with Steele's army. It was in the fight at Prairie de 
Anne, and on April .30th it bravely repulsed the enemy's advance at 
Jenkins' Ferry, which enabled the Union troops safely to cross the 
Saline river and make a safe retreat to Little Rock. After staying a 
few days at Little Rock, the regiment went back to Fort Smith, where it 
remained until fall ; then retTirned to Little Rock, where it .spent the 
winter. It was mustered out June 30, 1865. 

The services of the Fifteenth regiment of Kansa.s Cavalry were 
confined largely to expeditions against bushwhackers and marauders. 
This service was well performed, although no brilliant fighting is re- 
corded for the cavalry. 

The Sixteenth Kansas Cavalry came into .service too late to share 
in the fighting with the regiments formed earlier. Its service at home 
in protecting the people from the Indians and guerrillas, however, was 
well performed. 



General Price's Bold Plan — The Fight on the Little Blue — 
Situation Before the Big Battle — The Dash fob Kansas — The 
Crossing at Byrom's Ford — Colonel Ve^vle's Heroic Stand — As a 
Participant Saw It — The Rebel Yell — Fighting to the Death — The 
Topeka Battery's Loss — As General Deitzler Told It. 

It seems fitting; that the region about Kansas City and Westport, 
Wyandotte, Shawnee Mission and Independence, wherein were enacted 
those scene.s of border strife that finally precipitated the Civil war, 
should, in the fall of 186-4, furnish the setting for the great contest be- 
tween the Federal and Confederate armies that had much to do with 
hastening the final victory for the cause of the Union. The Battle of 
the Blue, as it is known in liistory, is overshadowed by many of those 
great battles that distingiiished the Civil war of the United States as 
the bloodiest conflict that ever was known among civilized men in the 
annals of war. Yet the Battle of the Blue was a momentous struggle 
that is well worth telling in detail, since it is a part of the history of 
Kansas and Jlissouri and of the region about the great city that has 
been builded on a part of the battlefield. 

The preparation, the march, the disastrous victory so dearly bought, 
the capture, the captivity that was filled with experiences made gro- 
tescjue by useless cruelty, the escape of a few, the final parole of others, 
the hardships that resulted in a lingering death to many; — all this may 
be included in the history of about eleven days ; from October 14 to 
25, 1864. 

By the time the great war had reached the year in which the Battle 
of the Blue occurred we were a nation of soldiers ; trained and 
hardy veterans whose serried blue lines had been thinned a hundred 
times, who had won or lost innumerable fields historic as the bloodiest 
in modern history. These men were extraordinary in being merely 
citizens. They were called out in a sudden emergency. They were 
untrained, not uniformed ; had with them none of the vast and compli- 
cated machinery which clothes, feeds and nurses a modern army in the 
field. They were fresh from home. Wives and children and peaceful 
occupations were vivid in their minds. They did not know how to 



eami) and march and fight. They knew that they were unlcnown ; a 
straggling band of citizens to whom was lacking even the corps-badge 
they might make renowned. They saw no regimental colors flaunting 
from the midst of a stalwart line, a rallNang-point and leader above the 
purple smoke. They were woefully unequal even in numbers to the 
foe they went to meet ; and they knew that too. 

So it occurs that those who went out at last to meet the host under 
General Price were as a renuiant. The call to arms included every 
able-bodied man. The intention was that a defenseless people in 
Kansas City and Wyandotte, who lay between the Confederate army and 
the stores at Fort Leavenworth, should be easily overrun. Resistance 
would be impossible. 

General Price's Bold Plan. 

The history preceding the raid of the rebel lieutenant general, 
Sterling Price, is embodied in official reports and numerous books. It 
was a bold conception, made possible by a series of reverses to our arms 
in the southwest. Bank's Red River expedition had failed. Two 
months later' a con.joint movement under General Steele was ended with 
equal disaster. Then the Price raid was planned, and finally lacked 
little of successful execution. The high-water mark of this great raid 
was reached on October 22, 1864. on the banks of the Big Blue, in 
western Missouri, about eight miles east of the Kansas line. Up to this 
date the direction of the raiding column, an army of at least thirty 
thousand men of all arms, and all grades from the veteran Confederate 
to the homesick country conscript and the border bushwhacker, had 
been northward. From that date it was turned south, waging that 
running fight with pursuing enemies down the state line which is so 
well remombered by surviving prisoners. Around this little point, 
diminutive on the map of Missouri, the interest of this present narra- 
tive centers. 

The movements of the strong rebel force near the town of Westport, 
Missouri, and near the eastern line of Kansas, were, on October 20 and 
21, 1864, very extensive. Many pages of tersely written descriptions 
fail to convey to any biit the closest student more than a confused idea 
of them. Let us attempt to condense, in plain terms, the storv of the 
events that led to this final check by a handful of men. 

The famous battle, or defence, of Lexington was fought by Colonel 
Mulligan, of Illinoi.s. in 1861. The last battle, the battle of Lexington 
of the camijaign of the Price raid, was fought by Blunt. So far as 
known it was also the last personal fight of the celebrated James II. 
Lane, who here took a carbine and stood in the skirmish-line with the 
Jayhawkers of the Second Brigade. It was a fight only to check and 
hinder, without hope of a decisive victory, and represented the hardest 


possible militaiy service. Backward along the Independence road 
successive lines of battle were formed, and the retreating fight continued 
briskly for more than six miles. Some characteristic Jayhawkers were 
there. One of them, Jack Curtis, distinguished himself by cutting his 
company out and re.ioining his command after having been completely 
outflanked and cut oft" in the retreat. No one had known until now 
precisely where or how strong Price's army was, or which way he was 
marching. An army of twenty-eight thousand men was held in check 
for twenty-four hours by a cavalry force of two thousand. It was this 
cheek that reunited the militia on the Kansas line and the banks of 
the Blue by giving them facts, and letting that army of independent 
citizens know what they were there for, to a certainty. Nevertheless 
the militia declined to be moved too far forward, the line of the Little 
Blue was not occupied by them in force, and the larger stream to the 
west of it known as the Big Blue was chosen instead. Military men 
long discussed this choice and its consequences, to no avail. 

The Fight on the Little Blue. 

Blunt 's retreat from Lexington to Independence was accomplished 
on the 20th of October. On the way Moonlight was left at the Little 
Blue with about six hundred men and four light howitzers. There is 
not space to enter now into the details of his battle. The fight of the 
Little Blue was known to be a certainty and accordingly began early on 
the morning of October 21st. As soon as it opened, troops began to be 
forwarded to the west bank of the Big Blue, and General Deitzler was 
placed in command there. It will thus be seen how operations came to 
be transferred to this stream. It was a good line of defense. The 
stream was larger and deeper than the other, with wooded banks and 
steep slopes on the western side. The Judg-ment of the militia ap- 
proved it. and under the circumstances they were right. It is dififieult 
to get artillery across a sizable stream under fire, and Price was known 
to have some guns that had once been ours. 

But after the battle of the Little Blue began, Colonel Moonlight 
was re-inforced until the command, now in the hands of General Curtis, 
with Blunt in immediate command, numbered about two thoasand five 
hundred men, mostly veterans. While the battle was progressing, the 
enemy being in heavy force. General Curtis superintended the evacua- 
tion of Independence and the transfer of the militia force, supplies, 
etc., to the line of defense on the Big Blue. 

It will not answer to underrate the magnitude and importance of 
Moonlight's engagement. It lasted eight hours. For three of these 
the confederates were held back by six hundred men. It was most 
skillfully fought, and employed before it was over three divisions of 
Price's army, outnumbering the Union forces ten to one. The last 


liue of battle was formed in the outskirts of Independence. The loss 
of the Confederates was about two to one of the Union soldiers. Night 
came and the battle ended, and meantime, in the delay caused by it, 
Pleasanton's forces were coming nearer and nearer, his cavalry was al- 
most within striking distance, and the militia were being rapidly 
organized. This was the situation on the evening of October 21st. 
Meantime it must be remembered that Rosecrans was in the rear of 
Price 's army. On the night after the morning that the retreat of Blunt 
from Lexington was begun General McNeil, with a cavalry column of 
Rosecrans' army, was vdthin ten miles of that place. On the morning 
of the 22nd this same force was at the crossing of the Little Blue, where 
Moonlight '.s battle in retreat began the day before. They built a bridge 
to cross the artillery, the same having been burned the previous day, and 
were soon after engaged wdth the enemy in the streets of Independence 
and driving him southwest toward the eastern banks of the Big Blue, 
on the western side of which the Kansas men and some volunteers were 
posted, covering a distance of about tifteen miles. They had camped in 
position there on the night of Friday, October 21, 1864. 

Situation Before the Big Battle. 

There has so far been an attempt to place before the reader, with- 
cut elaborate details or a prolonged history of complicated military 
movements, the situation that led to that battle of the Blue, with which 
this story has to do. The heads of this situation may be now stated, 
thus : The Price raid was a military movement of magnitude, with a 
purpose almost as ambitious as Sherman's march to the sea. There 
were included in its divisions about thirty thousand men. 

These men were mainly trained and hardened veterans. No mor*' 
formidable body of cavalry, perhaps, ever existed than Shelby's divi- 
sion, and their commander was a splendid soldier, entitled to rank as 
such regardless of his uniform. This formidable body of men, known 
to us as Price's army, was burdened, not helped, by a horde of con- 
scripts gathered on the march. The regiments of guerrillas, "Border 
Ruffians," are not t6 be classed among these, but they were hard riders 
and keen fighters. 

The course of the great raid through Missouri was, as directly as 
circumstances would permit, toward Leavenworth, and the immense 
accumulations of war material in the fort immediately above the city. 

Major General Rosecrans, commanding the Department of Missouri, 
did not know as definitely as he should have known about Price, his 
course, his force, his intentions or his destination. These were not dis- 
covered until Blunt 's demonstration at Lexington, and the masterly 
retreat therefrom. This want of information, the indefiniteness of 
nimors and the conflict of news, disheartened the militia upon whom 


the chief defense of Kansas was finally to devolve. The essential dif- 
ference between the citizen soldier and the veteran is that the former 
insists upon thinking for himself, and arrives at conclusions on his own 
account. When he has done so, he will act independently. It is a 
habit of his entire previous life. 

The Dash for Kansas. 

The first turning point in Price 's raid was at Independence, on the 
night of October 21st. Thence he turned nearly south to the east bank 
of the Big Blue. The enemy, once there, and now pressed behind, 
tried to still turn westward and get into Kansas. He did not know, 
could not have known, what was in front of him beyond what he had 
fought between Lexington and Independence. The rest was guess- 
work and He had an immense wagon train — his burden and his 
pride. No one will ever know precisely what he intended to do after 
the check at Independence, but he did not then know the a<'tual 
situation of the Confederacy, and may have intended to establish the 
Confederate supremacy over an immense area in the west, including 
at least iVIissouri and all Kansas and the southwest. There was 
undoubtedly a vague idea, in the beginning, of diverting forces from 
the east and weakening the armies there engaged. The situation 
of Kansas, had he succeeded in the attempt of the afternoon of the 22nd, 
may be left to the imagination. 

The second check, that turned him southward definitely and for- 
ever, was given him near Byrom's Ford, on the Big Blue, late in the 
afternoon of October 22, 1864. This cheek was given by a handful of 
men from Shawnee county; the Topeka Battery of Captain Ross Burns, 
one gun, and the mounted portion of the Second Regiment, Kansas 
State Militia, all under command of Colonel George W. Veale. The 
detachment, or battalion, numbered possibly three hundred men. The 
rebels were not routed ; on the contrary, they were seemingly victorious ; 
but their little victory was most dearly bought, and they were decidedly 
checked. They were given the idea that there was a company of fight- 
ing men ahead of them even, of whose existence and quality they had 
not been definitely informed. They paused. It was late in the day. 
Night fell and they went into bivouac. All day they had been trying 
to cross the Blue. They had flanked the left of the line, up toward the 
Missouri river, and had again fallen back under the fire of the Kansas 
Sixteenth Cavalry and of a battalion of militia cavalry under Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Murdock, and the small command of Colonel Ford. 

The Crossing at Byrom 's Ford. 

Colonel Jennison's command held Byrom's Ford. They commenced 
the attack on this point in the forenoon and did not succeed in crossing 


until 3 oV-louk p. m. Jennison's force then fell back toward Westport, 
fighting. During the day the head of Shelby's division came near en- 
tering Kansas just south of Westport, and there occurred a hot little 
battle in which the enemy again retired behind the Blue. It must be 
understood that during the day of the 22nd there were a series of com- 
plicated movements by different columns of the enemy, each one result- 
ing in a sharp fight. The enemy tried the main fords, such as the one 
between Independence and Kansas City, and Byrom's, defended by 
Jennison's little brigade, several miles below. Whenever they suc- 
ceeded in crossing they met with strong resistance and again retired. 
They crossed at cattle-fords, on no road, unknown to the militia and un- 
guarded. There were not half men enough to cover affectively that long 
fifteen miles of the broken banks of the Big Blue. These repeated 
skirmishes, grouped into a single event, would properly be called the 
Battle of the Big Blue. 

Colonel Ve.vle's Heroic St.\nd. 

On the general desultory engagement of that day the heroic strug- 
gle of the detachment under Colonel Veale was the most conspicuous 
event. It occurred suddenly, on the outskirts of the then extreme right, 
almost alone, late in the afternoon. It came about through a final 
strong effort of the Confederates to cross the stream that day. The 
incentive to this effort was not a caprice or a mere angry determination 
not to be beaten. There was no extra time then in the possession of 
General Price. Pleasanton, McNeil and Sanborn were close behind 
him ; Rosecrans and A. J. Smith were at Lexington. Already, on that 
same day, though the enemy did not know it, a man named Daniel W. 
Boutwell, a resident of Topeka and a Volunteer soldier, had crept down 
the Missouri in a skiff, waded and floundered in the night across the 
Blue, circumvented the rebel pickets in the woods, and carried the 
message which was meant to hasten his movements from Deitzler, com- 
manding the militia, to Pleasanton in the rear. A way must immediate- 
ly be made to the westward or the raid must turn and with hastened 
steps go back almost the way it came, a failure. 

As A Participant Saw It. 

The story of that famous stand is told by Mr. G. G. Gage, a mem- 
ber of the Topeka battery, from his own experiences. Mr. Gage sa.vs: 
"The land on the west side of the Big Blue is rolling. The enemy 
had succeeded in crossing at Byrom's Ford. Jennison's, Moonlight's, 
and other commands fell back toward the Kansas line, thus giving them 
a clear road. We of the battery were guarding RiLssell's Ford, on 
the Hickman Mills road. A messenger came to this point and ordered 


us to go to Westport. Colonel Veale was at this time st-outing with the 
remainder of the Shawnee county mounted men to the south and east, 
on the other side of the Blue. The messenger gave us orders to get to 
Westport as fast as possible, as the enemy was crossing the Blvie behind 
our retiring forces. We instantly obeyed these orders, starting on the 
i-etreat with the battery and men only; our regiment not being at hand, 
as stated. 

"We had gone about a mile, and were passing through a lane at 
what was called Mockabee farm. On the left hand of this lane there 
was a locust grove and an orchard. We had so far seen no enemy, but 
suddenly out of this grove they opened fire on us. Captain Burns in- 
stantly turned back to the gnu and ordered us to unlimber and double- 
canister, which was done very quickly. He sighted the gun himself 
and we gave them this, and repeated the same dose without losing a 
moment. Both charges were sent into the grove at short range. 
By this time the enemy had all fallen back over the rise, or knoll, on 
which the grove stood, out of sight. We loaded again and by this time 
Colonel Veale had come up with his men and formed on our right, in the 
field outside of the lane, the companies of Captains Huntoon and Bush 
crossing over and occupying the grove. Everything was still for a few 
moments, and we waited. 

The Rebel Yell. 

"Then we heard the peculiar yell, or scream, of the rebels when 
they begin a charge. They came over the knoll and about six abreast 
down the lane upon the gun, closely massed; a cavalry charge by the 
men of Jackman's brigade, of Shelby's division, as we knew afterwards; 
veterans who had done the same thing many times before. Our sup- 
port. Colonel Veale 's men, began firing as soon as they came in range. 
We waited with the gun until they came within a hundred yards and 
then opened on them. When the smoke cleared away they had again 
fallen back over the knoll, and the lane in front of ils was strewed 
thick with dead and wounded men and horses. 

"We then began shelling them on the other side of the hill where 
the.v were, and kept this up for .several minutes. I think there is a 
ravine there, and finally Captain Burns ordered us to double-canister 
again and wait for them to come and see us. It was not long. The yell 
was heard again, and I think when they came the second time they were 
wdthin a hundred yards of us before the captain gave the order to fire. 
They went back again over the hill, this time also. Two charges had 
been repulsed and the lane looked worse than it did before. I remem- 
ber the scene vividly and distinctly, and I think that I have never read 
or heard of a greater slaughter of men in battle than I saw before me in 
that narrow lane. Our chances were desperate, but I believe that I 



would rather have been with that gun in the lane than a cavalryman on 
the charging side. 

Fighting to the Death. 

"After this second charge and repulse we began shelling them 
again, and kept it up until the final charge which closed in on our front 
and tianks. We could not get out, and could do nothing more. Many 
had by this time been killed or wounded. The remainder tried to 
escape, but could not get through and were taken prisoners. It is 

-fe^ ;>-■■" 


(From a painting by S. J. Reader.) 

now known that Captain Burns stayed with his gun as the last man, 
using his revolver when he could do nothing more, and that he was 
beaten over the head with a carbine and captured where he stood. Some 
say that he was not shot because the balls seemed to miss him, as has 
often been the case with men in battle where the firing was heavy; 
others that the rebels did not want to kill him, and finally beat him, as 
stated, for the purpose of disabling him. At any rate, he kept his 
head until this occurred, for it has since transpired that he carried away 
the sight of the gun to keep them from using it after its capture, and 
that through all his adventures in their hands he somehow kept it, and 
his familv have it now. 


The Topeka Battery's Loss. 

"The following; are the names of the persons belongjing to the 
battery who were in the fight ; twenty-two in all. 

"The killed: George Ginnold, Daniel Handley, Nicholas Brown, 
M. D. Rare, McClure :Martin, Ben Hughes, Lear Selkin, C. H. Budd. 

' ' The wounded : Captain Ross Burns, John Branner, William P. 
Thompson and John Ward. 

"Remaining men engaged: G. G. Gage, R. Fitzgerald, J. E. Pollans- 
bee, John Links, Fred IMaekey, James Anderson, A. H. Holman, Ed 
Pape, Jacob Kline and John Armstrong. 

t,<SjU»*»'>'"*'>>>"«^'--.' •-■,•- 


"Fourteen widows and thirty-seven orphans were made by these 
casualties. The men of the battery all lived in Topeka, near neighbors to 
each other. The ten who were unhurt were all taken prisoners. John 
Armstrong escaped the first night. The remainder shared the march 
to the southward with Price's retreating army, having experiences which 
I have been asked to relate. In doing so I can speak positively only 
of m.yself and my immediate companions. 

"After the battle they gathered us prisoners together, and about 
that time General Shelby himself appeared in great haste, and ordered a 
guard from his veterans to take us to a little hill near by. The act was 
very significant of the danger we were in. Soon after that they marched 
us about two miles down the Blue to Price's headciuarters ; a place they 


called Boston Adam's. They had established their hospital there, and 
were brinsrincr in the wounded from the battlefield we had just left. 
There was a yard with a high stone wall around it — a stone corral — and 
there the prisoners were guarded. Through this yard they had to pass 
to carry in their wounded and take out their dead. Our wounded they 
left in the yard. In the course of the evening Captain Burns was 
brought in. There was no comfort there and I held him on my knees 
until about two o'clock the following morning, when some one came out 
of the hospital and wanted to know where the captain of that gun was, 
and when Burns liad been found they took him in. I did not see him 
again until I met him in Topeka, as one might say, 'after the war.' " 

As Gener^vl Deitzler Told It. 

The rest of the story of the battle of the Blue is told in the official 
report of General Deitzler. 

He.\dqu.\rters Kansas State Militia. 
TOPEKA, December ir,. 1864. 

Major: — In compliance with general field orders from your headquarters, 
dated Camp Arkansas, November 8, 1864, I have the honor to report the part 
taken by the troops under my command in the recent campaign against the rebel 
army under Major General Price. 

On the 9th day of October, 1864, in pursuance of instructions from His 
K.xcellency the Governor of Kansas, I issued orders to the militia to prepare them- 
selves for active service for thirty days, and to concentrate immediately at the 
points indicated in said order, a copy of which is herewith enclosed. 

So prompt were the militia in responding to this call, and such was the alac- 
rity and enthusiam manifested in concentrating at the points indicated, that upon 
my arrival at Olathe on the evening of the 12th, I found several regiments in 
camp there. 

On the morning of the 13th, having received verbal instructions from Major 
General Curtis to order all troops to concentrate at Olathe to move to Shawnei'- 
town, I proceeded to that point, formed an encampment, and gave directions to 
thoroughlj' arm and equip the troops. During the three succeeding days, the 
First, Second, Third, Fourth. Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Twentieth Regiments 
of militia arrived in camp at Shawneetown. The regiments of Kansas State 
Militia, which had been ordered to rendezvous at the city of Wyandotte and 
Kansas City. 

Orders from your headquarters, designating the troops in the field as the 
' ' Army of the Border ' ' and dividing it into two wings, the right under Major 
General Blunt, and assigning me to the command of the left, required several 
regiments of the militia of southern Kansas to report to General Blunt, who will 
doubtless include their action in his report. 

The fact that the citizen soldiery of Kansas, who responded as promptly to 
the call of the governor, were compelled to leave their homes and business to the 
care of women, the old and the decrepit, thereby incurring heavy losses and great 
inconvenience, caused much anxiety and great uneasiness, and a strong desire to 
end the campaign as soon as possible. This feeling was largely increased by the 


mystery surrounding tlie movements of the enemy, and the uncertain and con- 
flicting information furnished by the officers belonging to the army of General 
Rosecrans in search of Price. 

The impression became general that the rebel forces had moved south through 
General Rosecrans 's lines, and we were puzzled prodigiously to account for, or 
to understand how, a hostile army of twenty thousand could remain in Boonville 
and the vicinity "foraging wide" for some two weeks, "pursued by General 
Sanborn's Cavalry with all possible dispatch," without molestation. 

No satisfactory explanation has yet been given of this singular effort to find 
Price and to "draw him into a trap." 

In my Judgment it was one of the most extraordinary circumstances in the 
history of campaigning, and it created so great a distrust among the militia 
that many became discouraged and returned to their homes. 

The first development of the rebel army was made by Major General Blunt, 
who discovered them at Lexington, Missouri, on the 19th of October, and being 
overpowered by superior numbers was obliged to retreat to Independence. Several 
days prior to this I had, by direction of Major General Curtis, sent to Independence 
two regiments of the Kansas State Militia — the Twelfth and Nineteenth — and on 
the 19th repaired thither in person. 

On tlie morning of the 21st, in oliedience to orders, I moved with the Nine- 
teenth Regiment to the Big Blue, and began to fortify the several crossings of 
that stream. 

At this place I found Colonel Blair in command of the Fifth, Sixth and Tenth 
Regiments, K. S. M., and Captain McClain 's Colorado Battery. I immediately 
gave the necessary orders to erect fortifications and place the troops in position, 
and also ordered Brigadier General M. S. Grant, who was left in charge ot the 
troops at Shawneetown, to proceed with two regiments of cavalry and two pieces 
of artillery to Hickman Mills, with instructions to fortify and defend the cross- 
ings of the Blue at that point, and to open communication with our forces on the 

The remainder of the cavalry and infantry were ordered from Shawneetown 
to the crossing of the Big Blue on the Independence road, to which place the 
troops under General Blunt also retreated during the night of the 21st. 

The entire Army of the Border was now in position on and along the west 
side of the Big Blue, occupying every possible crossing of that stream from its 
mouth to Hickman Mills, a distance of about fifteen miles, and presenting a 
formidable appearance. 

Price's army entered Independence on the 20th, and on the morning of the 
21st his cavalry made demonstration at several points in front of my position 
(the left wing), in several instances driving the pickets in under cover of our 

About noon, having received reliable information that a heavy column of the 
enemy was moving against the right of our line, I ordered Lieutenant Colonel 
Walker, commanding the Sixteenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, with two pieces of 
artillery, to re-enforce that position. Subsequently the Twelfth K. S. M. and 
Captain McClain 's Battery were also withdrawn from my line to re-enforce the 
right and General Blunt. 

The enemy having forced a passage of the Blue at Byrom 's Ford about 3 
o'clock P. M., and my position being threatened from the rear, I quietly withdrew 
my command in perfect order and retreated to Kansas City, in obedience to in- 
structions from Major General Curtis. 

Just as the troops commenced moving from our works on the Blue a detach- 
ment of rebel cavalry made a furious dash upon the left center to my line, occupied 
by the Nineteenth Regiment, K. S. M., under Colonel Hogan, who received the 


charge vitli the greatest coolness and gallantry, completely routing the enemy, 
killing twelve and capturing ten, without loss to our side. 

If my information is correct, Price commenced moving his train south from 
Independence about ten o'clock on the iiiglit of the 21st, under a strong escort, 
and on tlie morning of the 22nd he moved with his cavalry and some artillery 
towards Westport, crossing the Blue at Byrom 's Ford, with the avowed intention 
of going into Kansas. He drove Colonel Jennison's command to the edge of the 
timber about two miles from Westport, when he (.lennison) was re-enforced by a 
portion of the militia which had become detached from General Grant 's command 
at Hickman Mills. 

A strong detachment of the enemy moved up the Blue under cover of the 
timber and attacked General Grant, throwing his command into some confusion, 
killing thirty-six. wounding forty-three, taking about one hundred prisoners, 
capturing one piece of artillery, and compelling General Grant to retire to Olathe. 
The loss of the enemy in this engagement is not known, but it must have been 

General Grant speaks in the highest terms of the militia under his command, 
and expresses the opinion that he could have succeeded in repulsing the enemy had * 
it not been for the disgraceful conduct of Major Laing. 

In the report of the affair near Hickman IMills, General Grant says: "Major 
Laing, Fifteenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, with four squadrons of his regiment, 
was but a short distance in my rear when the fight commenced. I expected he 
would support me, and sent him word to do so, but he would not, and did not, al- 
though urged to do so by every officer in his command. He withdrew his command 
from the field, which had the effect of destroying the courage of the men under 
Colonel Lowe (Twenty-first K. S. M.), who also failed to support me. Major 
Laing is responsible for most of my loss, and showed cowardice in the face of 
the enemy. ' ' 

The enemy having forced Brigadier General Grant to retire during the night 
to Olathe, and tlie commands of Colonels Moonliglit and .lennison, with several 
detachments of militia, to AVestport. encamped on the night of the 22nd on the 
south side of Brush creek, about two miles from Westport; his line extending into 
Kansas near the Shawnee Mission. 

On the morning of the 23rd I received instructions from the Commanding 
General to remain in Kansas City, and to place the artillery and infantry in proper 
position in the entrenchments, and to hurry to the front all the mounted men. 

About nine o'clock A. M. I directed Brigadier General Sherry, K. S. M., to 
assume command of the works in Kansas City, and proceeded to Westport. There 
had been severe fighting all morning in the vicinity of Westport, and some brilliant 
charges of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Regiments of Kansas Volunteer Cavalry 
which were resisted with great stubbornness and resulted in heavy loss to the 
, enemy, but no ground was gained by our side. 

The enemy's left, in attempting to advance into Kansas, had been successfully 
turned and driven back by the brigades under the gallant Colonels Moonlight and 
.lennison, who occupied a position near the Shawnee Mission. \A'lien I arrived at 
the front the firing had ceased. I found the forces forming on the bluffs on the 
north side of Brush creek, the left resting on the road leading from Westport to 
Hickman Mills, and the enemy on the south side of said creek beyond the woods. 
The Kansas Militia were dismounted and the horses sent to the rear, and as soon 
as the formation was complete, our forces were ordered by JIajor General Curtis 
to advance, with General Blunt on the left and myself on the right. 

The personal presence of Major General Curtis inspired the men with confi- 
dence, and the whole command moved forward in perfect order through the 
densest underbrush, and, as they emerged from the woods, on the south side of 


Brush creek, tliey encountered the enemy in strong force, and after a severe 
struggle, in whicli our troops showed the greatest bravery, drove him from hia 
chosen position. Taking advantage of the confusion which occurred in the 
enemy's ranks at this time, our victorious forces advanced rapidly into the open 
field, firing volley after volley into the flying rebels, killing and wounding large 
numbers, who were left in our hands. 

Both armies were now in full view of each other on the open prairie, present- 
ing one of the most magnificent spectacles in nature. 

The enemy made several attempts to stand, but such was the dashing bravery 
of our troops that they never succeeded in rallying and forming their men to 
offer any considerable resistance. 

A running fight was then kept up for about four miles, the enemy slowly re- 
treating in a southerly direction parallel with and about a mile from the state line, 
in Missouri, when General Rosecrans's advance, under Major General Pleasanton, 
made its appearance some distance from the right of the enemy, and opened upon 
them with artillery. At this point the retreat became a perfect rout, and the 
enemy running in great confusion southward were soon out of sight. Their 
course was indicated by dense volumes of smoke from burning prairie, hay and 
grain stacks, etc. 

I accompanied the pursuit a short distance beyond the Blue, where we were 
joined by Major General Pleasanton and staff. After consultation with that officer 
it was decided that the United States forces under Generals Curtis and Pleasan- 
ton were sufficient to follow the rebel horde and drive them beyond the state of 
Missouri and Kansas, whereupon I requested and obtained leave from the General 
Commanding to order the militia to their several counties, except the Fifth, Sixth 
and Tenth Regiments, all from southern Kansas, who continued the pursuit to 
Fort Scott, whence they were sent to their homes. 

Not having received reports from the several brigade commanders, I am not 
prepared to make accurate statements respecting the number of the militia in the 
field, of men killed, wounded and taken prisoners, nor of the particular acts of 
gallantry and daring of the members, of the militia which deserve honorable 
mention. In my report to the governor of Kansas I will endeavor to do full 
justice to all. Suffice it to say here that our casualties were comparatively slight, 
and that the conduct and bravery of both officers and men were highly satisfactory, 
reflecting great credit and honor upon themselves and the state, and entitling 
them to the thanks of the whole country. 

I cannot close my report without expressing in behalf of the people of Kansas 
my grateful acknowledgments for the distinguished services rendered in the cam- 
paign against Price 's plundering and murdering army by that noble patriot and 
gallant chieftain. Major General S. R. Curtis. Always at his post and ever 
watchful of the interests entrusted to his care, he saw the threatened danger even 
before the invaders appeared at Pilot Knob, and was the first to sound the tocsin 
of alarm. With characteristic energy he made every possible preparation to meet 
the enemy, and entered the field in person at an early day, he remained, scarcely 
leaving his saddle until he saw the rebel horde driven beyond the limits of the 
department, and only gave up the chase when both his men and horses were com- 
pletely exhausted. Turning a deaf ear to the schemes of politicians and office 
seekers who followed the army, he manifested a singleness of purpose and a de- 
votion to duty rarely witnessed. 

To the knowledge and ripe experience in military affairs, the vigilance and 
energy, of Major General Curtis and his kind co-operation in furnishing arms and 
ammunition and the necessary supplies to the militia, Kansas owes in a great 

Vol. 1—15 


measure her preservation from the devastating hands of a ruthless foe, and to him 
we tender our sincere thanks. 

I have the honor to be, Major, 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 


Major General, K. S. M. 


Assistant Adjutant General Department of Kansas. 

The eight soldiers of the celebrated Topeka battery who were killed 
were buried in a trench near Westport. Their bodies, however, were 
taken up and buried in Huron Cemetery in Wyandotte, and later they 
were again disinterred and buried in the Topeka cemetery. So it came 
about that these eight brave Kansas soldiers had three graves. A beau- 
tiful monument to them now stands in Topeka cemetery. 



"Silence and No Questions Asked" — Some Valuable Freight — 
The Kidnappers op Lawrence — Stories op War-Time Days — A Night 
op Terror — The Negro Exodus — When Colonel Moonlight Guarded 
THE Town — Soldiers Guarded a Steamboat Captain. 

The "underground railroad" in Kansas was not exactly a subway. 
It did not acquire its name by reason of a subterranean right-of-way, 
but by virtue of the secretive character of its operations. It had no 
charter. It was not a ' ' common carrier. ' ' The ' ' right of eminent do- 
main" did not attach to it, nor would it have been amenable to the 
rulings of the Interstate Commerce Commission. It was not even a 
"paper" railroad. The "underground" wa.s put into being without 
pro.jection or profile. It was a philanthropic sectional movement, 
unaffected by discriminating rate wars or disastrous "differentials." 
Despite its large patronage, it not only paid no dividends, but even 
continued to operate at a pecuniary loss. The officials of the "under- 
ground" bore no insignia of office to distinguish them from the laity. 
The "rolling stock" of this peculiar organization consisted often of a 
rickety covered wagon that crept cautiously along some dark unfre- 
quented highway. Its " pa.ssengers " were always a shivering party of 
wretched refugees, cpiaking at every unexpected sound, trembling at 
every ominous halt which seemed, in their benighted fright, to presage 
recapture, " chains and slavery." The "crew" was composed of two 
or three outriders who piloted the party and busied themselves in 
directing the course, eluding pursuit, repelling assault and reassuring 
the wild fears of their dusky dependents. 

The Quakers of the central states were the first successful pro- 
moters of this unique form of transportation. There were several 
stations on the various "branches" of the underground railroad in 
Wyandotte county and eastern Kansas. A deserted log cabin, twelve 
feet by fourteen feet in dimensions, situated in Pardee, Atchison county, 
became famous as a division headquarters. Consequently the first divi- 
sion superintendent in Kansas was Ransom L. Harris, who was left in 
charge of the cabin. Some of the general officers of the system resided in 
Wyandotte and Quindaro. Around Pardee was a Quaker colony, many 



members of which had emigrated from Springdale, Iowa — an important 
rendezvous of John Brown in his various forays. The operations of the 
Pardee party came to an untimel.y end. An early trip had netted a 
rescue of twelve slaves. Elated with this success, a more ambitious 
delivery was planned. Situated six miles southeast of Independence, 
Missouri, was the 1,900-acre plantation of Morgan Walker cultivated 
by twenty-six slaves. In December of 1860 the Pardee party of four 
members, under the guidance of Quantrell, alias Hart, whom they had 
met in Lawrence and who had instigated them to this raid of liberation, 
were lured into ambush by their perfidious leader and three of their 
party were killed. 

"Silence and No Questions Asked." 

The holding of slaves in Kansas was not permitted with the consent 
of the Free State men of the territory, and by common consent the 
latter freed all slaves who escaped from Missouri or elsewhere and sent 
them away for protection. This attitude in a measure explains the 
successful operation of such an amorphous and unofficial organization 
as the underground railroad. Federal legislation made public organi- 
zation impossible. But the passions of the times made men of strong 
sympathies, and everybody avowing Free State principles became, ipso 
facto, a stockholder in the "underground." Social or political promi- 
nence offered no disqualification in this respect. In so marked a 
degree is this said to be true that when General Lyon, who was sent by 
General Harney into Kansas to capture Colonel James Montgomery, 
reached Mound City, Jlontgomery 's home, he used his o^^m horses to fugitives on their way to Canada. Those prominentl.v identified 
with the operation of the "underground" tacitly presumed upon this 
enthusiasm. The stringency of the fugitive slave law made secrecy 
absolutely imperative. The working orders of the "underground" 
were: "Silence and no questions asked." To a few in each locality 
on the line of underground operation was committed the direction of 
affairs. Nobody else knew an^'lhing. Liability to federal prosecution 
quenched curiosity. Prudence developed among the "employees" a 
laconic form of significant speech that could hardly be tortiired into 
incriminating information. 

The "underground" in Kansas followed no definitely detailed 
route of travel. Since the northern people were bound by honor to 
shelter and assist the parties en route, those highways were selected 
that best suited the exigency of the time. Slaves reached the "under- 
ground" either by forcible delivery or individual escape. After they 
had reached some station on the "railroad" it was customary to place 
them out among reliable farmers to await the collection of a sufficient 
number to justify the hazard of a trip. The size of the parties to be 


transported naturally depended upon eircumstanees. ■ Meanwhile the 
slaves by their labor were self supporting. Preparatory to the de- 
parture, the "conductor" assigned to the "run" would solicit contribu- 
tions for some vague purpose apparently of little interest to his com- 
pliant friends. 

Some Valuable Freight. 

Slaves in western Missouri living north of the Missouri river gener- 
ally escaped to Iowa ; those south of the river to points in Kansas. The 
two great termini of the "underground" in Kansas were Lawrence for 
the Northern division and Mound City for the Southern division. The 
"general traffic manager" of the Lawrence station was the "Rev." 
John E. Stewart; the "general manager," Dr. John Doy, who has 
attained considerable celebrity. It is estimated that at least .$100,000 
worth of property "cleared" from this .station alone. Escape to 
Lawrence was considered as good as freedom. The prominent officials 
of the Southern division were : Colonel James Montgomery, well known 
for his liberating excursions; Colonel C. R. Jennison, the "Red Leg" 
chieftain, and Captain John Brown, of Harper's Perry renown. 

The "Rev." John E. Stewart, who seems to have acquired little 
publicity for his services to freedom, had pre-empted a claim near the 
old poor farm of Douglas county and was engaged in cattle raising. 
He was an extremely shrewd and adroit man, and his frequent trips into 
Missouri for young cattle aroused no suspicion to his energetic spying 
for likely "passengers." A Lawrence man identified with the John 
Brown cause, in a letter written in 1860 and preserved by the State 
Historical Society, speaks of the effectual work of this liberating propa- 
gandist. He had "brought up three head the other night, making 
sixty-eight since he commenced. He met with a mishap yesterday," 
the letter continues. "I went to Lawrence with him in the morning 
and we had not been there more than an hour before a runner came in 
with word that his place had been attacked and one man taken and one 
wounded. We started off as quick as possible, but could only raise 
four horsemen, and by the time we got our arms they were off a good 
way. We followed them about six miles, but found that they all had 
good horses and were so far ahead that we could not overtake them. 
When last seen they were going it, with the boy on behind one of them. 
He was calling for assistance and one of them beating him with a club 
to keep him ciuiet. He was a free boy that had been here for two years. 
They were plowing in the field and had revolvers but there were five 
of the kidnappers. Things look kind of blue and someone will be shot 
before long. I have posted S — (tewart) — and if they get ahead of him 
they will have to get up early; he is going to make a haul of about 
fifteen next week." 


The Kidnappers op Lawrence. 

Many other Kausans would go down to Missouri for "apples" in 
the fall, always with the resulting revival of activity in the traffic de- 
partment of the "underground." 

The Lawrence division of the railroad crossed the Kansas river at 
that ptoint and continued north and west via Oskaloosa to Holton, 
Kansas, the end of the "first run." The Mound City route went north 
through Topeka to Holton. This had been selected as the junction 
point because it was settled by northern ' ' '56-ers, ' ' who were enthusi- 
astic friends of the "underground," Between Lawrence and Mound 
City there was a pro-slavery settlement at Franklin. This fact, to- 
gether with the constant danger of interception by Missourians along 
the border, accounts for the wide detour of the route from Mound City 
and for the complete independence of the two branches. The strategic 
interposition of Lecompton likewise prevented an underground com- 
munication between Lawrence and Topeka. From Holton the "line" 
followed the route of the Iowa immigration established by General Lane 
and others to circumvent the blockade of the Missouri river. It led 
north to Nebraska City and, crossing the river at that point, proceeded 
to Tabor — the Iowa headcjuarters for Old John Brown and "Jim" 
Lane in their various activities. 

The value of the average fugitive was probably .$1,000, since only 
the ablest slaves had the hardihood to escape. To counteract the labors 
of the liberating propaganda of Kansas, western Missourians had author- 
ized a standing reward of $200 for every fugitive returned. This 
lucrative opportunity gave rise to bands of kidnappers that flourished 
especially in the vicinity of Lawrence, under the leadership of one Jake 
Hurd, who rallied around him a number of abandoned miscreants 
leagued together for a rather reprehensible work. There still live in 
the en\arons of Lawrence several people who engaged in this remuner- 
ative occupation, and so bitterly were they despised at the time that 
years of later respectability have hardly effaced the odium of their 
earlier lives. 

Stories op War-Time Days. 

There were stirring times in old Wyandotte in the border-days 
immediately preceding and during the Civil war. The population of 
the village, numbering some one hundred and fifty or two hundred 
families, was composed, for the most part, of Free State people. They 
were in constant peril — harassed by day and by night by fears of the 
visitation of the guerrillas or "border rufifians. " And was there not 
cause for this wrought up condition? The little village, nestling on 
the rugged hills, with the broad sweep of the Missouri river on the east 


and the sluggish Kaw flowing on the south, Kansas City, a straggling 
town, supposedly neutral, but filled Avith pro-slavery s3Tnpathizers, less 
than three miles away. Beyond were the thickets and ravines, the 
lair of the bushwhackers and the rendezvous of the raider, within an 
hour's ride. All these formed an environment such as to produce in 
the Wyandotte hari-owing fears tinctured with the liveliest imagination. 
Lest these foes swoop down on them without warning, and cause death 
and destruction, the men of the village stood guard constantly with 
muskets and rifles and blunderbusses of every make and kind, while the 
women watched and waited and prayed. 

"But there was an odd fascination about it all," said Mrs. Byron 
Judd, one of the women of Wyandotte who passed through those perilous 
times. "We were kept in constant terror. There was no settled state. 
We just lived. But," she added with a sigh, "we had good times. 
While the men were down town, or out on guard duty watching the 
ferries and the roads that led to the village, the women would get to- 
gether in little groups to talk over the situation and indulge in specula- 
tions as to what was likely to happen. We had our aid societies — there 
were no woman's clubs in those days — and in the meetings of those 
societies the war situation always took precedence over all other ques- 
tions up for diseiLssion. Ever^' few days or nights there would be an 
alarm. The old Congregational bell would ring out clear and strong as 
a signal of danger, calling the people from their beds to the church, 
which was the appointed assembling place in time of danger, as it was 
also the hospital for wounded soldiers brought in from the fields of 
battle where the conquest raged fierce and bloody." 

A Night of Terror. 

Mrs. Judd described a night of terror in the old village of Wyan- 
dotte. It was in 1862, at the time Quantrell and his band were raiding, 
sacking and burning towns in Kansas. The late Francis House, then 
a citizen of the place, brought in the news that Quantrell and his men 
had crossed the Kansas river near the site of the city of Argentine, and 
were moving up through the woods to the village. Mrs. Judd was then 
the widow of Don A. Bartlett, a lawyer, and was living with her parents. 
Judge and Mrs. Jesse Cooper, at what is now Fourth street and Barnett 

"When the word came the people were panic stricken," she said. 
"We knew what Quantrell was doing and we knew no mercy would be 
shown the people of Wyandotte, who were Free State men and women. 
It was night, and pitch dark. I remember we sent father out into the 
willows near the river, and mother and sister (Mrs. Bodwell) and I 
watched with fear and trembling the long night through. We packed 
nearly everything of value we had into pillow slips, and we did it all 


in the dark. We were afraid to light a lamp. Once in a while it was 
necessary to strike a match to find something and then my sister would 
puff it out. We finally succeeded in getting the pillow slips filled and 
we hid them in the corn field near where St. Mary's Catholic church now 
stands. But day dawned and Quantrell did not come. It was a false 
alarm. We were tired and worn out from the long vigil, and then you 
should have seen how things looked in the house! And those pillow 
slips filled wath our valuables out in the corn ! I really don 't know 
whether we ever found them all or not. But it was a night of terror 
for the people of old Wyandotte." 

The Negro Exodus. 

There was an exodus of negroes from Missouri and Kaasas at one 
time during the war. The negroes came across the Missouri river on 
the ferry and were landed at the foot of Minnesota avenue in Wyandotte, 
which to them proved a haven of refuge in that stormy time. 

"It was a sight to make one weep, those poor, frightened, half- 
starved negroes, coming over on the ferry and the people of the village 
down at the levee to receive them," Mrs. Judd said. "I know of but 
one othei- picture more distressing. That was when the people were 
fleeing from their homes in the Kaw valley before the rush of the great 
flood a few years ago. But those negro refugees — men and women, 
with little children clinging to them, and carrying all of their earthly 
possessions in little bags or bundles, sometimes in red bandana handker- 
chiefs ! I recall how they were housed and fed and made comfortable 
by the good people, and then how they sang and crooned their old songs, 
forgetful of their misery and their wretchedness of a few hours before. 
The pa.stor of the Congregational church, the Rev. R. D. Parker, one of 
the Andover band that came out to help make Kansas free, was a good 
man. He held religious services for the negro refugees and organizea 
a Sunday school for them. I was one of the teachers. Only recentlv 
a negro woman stopped me on the street and remarked: 'Why, Mis' 
Judd, I used to be in yo' class in Sunday school.' Then it all came back 
to me, those days of the war times in Wyandotte. ' ' 

When Colonel Moonlight Guarded the Town. 

The finding a few years ago of two cannon balls, in excavating for 
a new building at Fifth street and Minnesota avenue, where the old 
Eldridge house stood, called to mind the presence of soldiers in old 
Wyandotte in war times. 

"I have no doubt but that those shells were some that were stored 
in the basement of the Eldridge house when Colonel Tom Moonlight was 
in Wyandotte with a company of artillery," said an old citizen. "I 


think it was in the year of 1864 that Colonel Moonlight was in command 
of troops that were camped on the hill overlooking the mouth of the 
Kansas river. You see they were there to head off Price and his 
raiders who were expected to cross the Kansas and pass through Wyan- 
dotte on the way to Fort Leavenworth, which they intended to capture. 
Price and his raiders, however, took a back track after the battle of the 
Blue below Westport. But the presence of the soldiers in old Wyan- 
dotte, with the cannons ranged along the hills ready to send down a 
terrific shower of shot and shell on the enemy, was an awe-inspiring 
sight to the people, and those of us who were boys recall how the blood 
in our veins tingled with patriotic pride. I remember that after the 
soldiers left the village several of those cannon balls turned up as 
souvenirs. I understand the boys w^ho boarded at the old Eldridge 
house, which was the headquarters for the Leavenworth and Lawrence 
stage coaches, stored some of them in the hotel cellar." 

Soldiers Guarded a Steamboat Captain. 

Steamboating in war-time days had an odd fascination to the ofScers 
and crews whose boats carried both Free State and Pro-Slavery men, and 
it was attended by no little danger. George R. Nelson, who had been 
captain of steamboats on the Missouri river for several years previous, 
was at the outbreak of the Civil war in charge on the "Henry Lass." 
It was his custom to stop over night at his home in Wyandotte, which 
stood on Armstrong avenue between Fifth and Sixth streets, east of the 
old city hall. At such times his house was guarded by friendly Union 
.soldiers for his protection. But Mr. Nelson was not aware of this fact 
until several years after the war ended. Mrs. Nelson, who survived her 
husband many year.s, said that at all times the family had a feeling of 
great insecurity but were never molested by the soldiers. Her husband 
and son belonged to the state militia and the Union soldiers threw every 
protection about her family. She remembered distinctly the pontoon 
bridges across the Missouri river, so arranged that should the enemy ap- 
proach, the boats could be cut loose from their mooring on the Missouri 
side and all means of reaching the Kansas side would be cut off. 

Mr. Nelson continued to ply his boats on the Missouri river until a 
few years previous to his death, which occurred in 1884. 



The Approach op War — Peace Relations End — The Call for 
Volunteers — Kansas to the Front — The Camp in San Francisco — 
First Smell op Powder — The Day on the Firing Lines — Where 
Their Spirit Originated — The Night Attack — The First Real Bat- 
tle — A Skirmish March — Malolos Is T.\ken — Calumpit, Next Stop 
— Trembly and White in Swimming — The Campaign Continues — 
Outposts Are Annoyed — Back to Manila — The Boys Who Gave Up 
Their Lives — The Muster Into Service — The Boys From Kansas 
City, Kansas. 

Away back in 1868 the people of the little island of Cuba began a 
war for freedom from the thraldom in which they were held by the 
Kingdom of Spain. It was an unequal war, and yet the Cubans, by 
bush-fighting methods, managed to continue it for many years. When, 
in recent years, the excitement of the war ran high, the government of 
the United States noticed it. To protect the American interests on the 
island the battleship "Maine" was sent to Havana. While lying there 
at night, on what was supposed to be peaceful waters, the immense ship 
was sunk — supposedly by a mine placed under its keel by the hand of 
some dastard. The grand ship was destroyed and with it departed 
the lives of two hundred and six brave American sailors. This deed was 
perpetrated on the night of February 15, 1898. 

The news flashed across the wres and the people of this country 
were aroused. The more hot-headed ones demanded that war be de- 
clared on Spain at once. Others did not favor a resort to arms. But 
as the facts of the cowardly night attack developed, the people were 
almost unanimous in their demands that Spain be made to pay the 
penalty of the supposed misdeeds of her sons. Much sympathy was mani- 
fested by the American people for the Cubans, and press and pulpit 
cried down the cruelties and atrocities of the Spaniard. 

The Approach op War. 

Blacker and nearer approached the cloud of war and the navy 
yards and arsenals became beehives of industry. The regular army 



was recruited from a peace footing until it became the finest body of 
disciplined men in the world and one capable of meeting and success- 
fully coping with any foe. The young men of the nation, inspired with 
that spirit which actuated their forefathers at Bunker Hill and Gettys- 
burg, burned to do something, and even the children gave up playing 
hide and seek and their games were in imitation of the acts of Mars. 

As time went on the Spanish diplomats and statesmen began to 
feel their extreme danger and Madrid was the scene of turmoil. The 
"honor" of the nation was at stake and the "pigs of America" were 
making things warm for the practitioners of the inciuisitions of the 
Middle Ages. 

February drifted by and early in March President McKinley asked 
congress for an appropriation of $50,000,000 to man the coast defenses 
of the United States. In the house Speaker Reed called for the vote 
and a glorious record of three hundred and fifty-two ayes and no nays 
went down as a mark of the confidence men of all political beliefs and 
creeds liad in the wisdom of the chief executive. 

Pe.^ce Relations End. 

Events followed each other with kalaidoscopic rapiditj' and congress 
passed resolutions recommending armed intervention in Ciiba. The 
president gave Spain three days to evacuate the island. The Spanish 
minister, Poloy Barnabe, and the American minister to Spain, General 
Woodford, received their passports and diplomatic relations between 
the countries ended. This was held to be a declaration of war and the 
North Atlantic squadron under Sampson, then a captain, sailed to 
blockade the port of Havana. 

The spirit of war and conquest tingled through American veins and 
when, on April 22nd the bulletins announced that the "Nashville" had 
fired upon and captured the "Buena Ventura," Young America felt 
that indescribable something arouse him that had nerved the loyal heart 
of the Ci\il war volunteer when he heard that Fort Sumter had been 

The Call for Volunteers. 

The next day President McKinley said to those young men : "I 
want 125,000 of you! I want you to volunteer your very lives, if need 
be, to crush the men who destroyed our brothers and our noble ship." 
The apportionment gave to Kansas three regiments of infantry. No 
Kansan can forget the enthusiasm which filled the most remote coimty. 
Five companies of men were organized in Topeka almost as soon as the 
call had been published and all had more men in them than could have 
been accepted. 


Governor Leedy, then the chief executive of the state, annovinced 
that the colonel of the first regiment to be organized would be Fred 
Punston, whose record in Cuba was fresh in the memory of the whole 
state. The appointment met with general approval and the gallantry 
displayed by the little general in Cuban campaigning has only been sur- 
passed by his heroic, almost foolhardy, bravery about Manila. 

Kansas to the Pront, 

Leaden, gloomy skies greeted the first volunteers who went into 
camp in Topeka on Sunday, May 1st. Camp Leedy was christened and 
the first men to occupy the ground were those of company A of Topeka 
and Company B of Kansas City, Kansas, both of which were later as- 
signed to the Twentieth regiment. Not a murmur could be heard among 
the men that would indicate that they were sorry they had left home and 
friends to face the dangers of war. 

On May 11th the war department issued an order that one of the 
three Kansas regiments would be sent to San Prancisco and thence 
would probably go to Manila. The report reached Camp Leedy and 
every company on the grounds claimed that it was in the Twentieth 
regiment and every soldier wanted to go. When the personnel of tbv. 
regiment was made up, the men gave up their time to rumors that the 
next day would be the day of departure. Those sturdy Kansas boys 
wanted to go. They felt that the Spaniards had given each of them a 
personal affront, and perhaps there was some spirit of revenge — but 
there was more of intense patriotic love for the Stars and Stripes in 
their desire. 

On May 14th the now famous regiment lined up on the fair grounds 
before Lieutenant W. P. Clark, of the United States army, for muster-in. 
Everyone who braved the rain on that disagreeable evening remembers 
the fine looking body of men. Even though they were not uniformed, 
the splendid physique and robust Kansas health were apparent. As 
they returned to the camp after the ceremony, every soldier wondered 
just how long it would be before he left his state for the front. 

Two days later, the Twentieth boys boarded the train on the Union 
Pacific and started on their long journey for San Prancisco. They 
didn't know how much further they would go, but the.y had great hopes 
and were full of joy. Could they have foreseen the hardships they were 
to encounter ; could they have guessed the dreary existence at camp in 
San Prancisco ; could they have known of the deaths by privation, ex- 
posure, disease and rebel bullets, they might have been less gay, but the 
way they encountered and overcame these difficulties brings conviction 
that their course would have been unchanged even under a knowledge 
of those circumstances. 


Crowded into ordiuaiy day coaches, the men made the trip across 
the continent and arrived in San Francisco on May 20th. They went 
into camp at Camp Merritt and, although there were but four companies 
in the regiment that could show a semblance of the army blue, the 
sturdy marching of the Kansas boys attracted the Californians. 

The Camp in San Francisco. 

As they marched through the streets of San Francisco an ovation, 
equalled only by the one the.y had received at their departure, greeted 
them. The boys were weary and grimy from their long ride, but the 
people appreciated the fact that they were looking at men, and the tirst 
men who had responded to the call of their country. 

Their colonel was away. He had been detailed on the staff of 
Major General Miles. In far-away Tampa he was doing service that 
would aid in the Cuban campaign, but he knew that his boys would need 
him soon, and he was anxious to leave that duty and join his regiment. 
On June 6th Colonel Funston received the orders for which he longed, 
and the next day he set out for San Francisco. 

In the meantime his men were faring badly. Camped upon a tield 
which was a veritable hotbed of disease, they worked and drilled and 
ate and slept. The sand that covered the ground and on which the men 
had to drill by day and sleep at night, was about a foot deep. Under 
it were the dumpings of San Francisco, and many a Kansas boy fell 
victim to the foulness before he had had an opportunity to leave his 
country. Upon enlistment, the Kansans had been told that there 
would be no need of bringing along clothing that was protective and 
wearable. The men had been promised new government clothes as soon 
as they reached Topeka, but the clothing had failed to come and the men 
were in rags. 

After the bo.ys had gone into quarters at Camp Merritt the people 
of San Francisco and the press of that city saw the regiment in the light 
of the ludicrous. The uniforms failed to come and the men came to 
look more and more like .scarecrows of the Kansas fields. The regiment 
was made the butt of all the ridicule that was lying around loose, and 
until two or three of the members of other regiments were soundly 
thrashed they, too, took a turn at the Kansans. 

The regiment was never called the Twentieth Kansas. Cowboys, 
Coxey's army, and almost everv other appellation that carried with it 
the idea of .satire and ridicule, were used in referring to the boys. This 
continued until the uniforms came. Then the talk changed, and if 
the boys had come back in overalls and carrying picks and shovels, San 
Francisco would have been only too glad to claim them. 


First Smell of Powder. 

The fighting qualities of the Twentieth Kansas are Imown all over 
America and the followers of Aguinaldo are not unacquainted with its 
methods of fierce attack and its cool nerve. 

The first time the Kansans smelled powder was at night. Out in 
the edge of the city, Captain Clark had been posted with sixty men to 
do outpost duty. At about 9 :.30 o 'clock the Kansans were fired upon 
by the insurgents. The darkness of the night was lit with spouts of 
flame and the sharp, double cracks of the Mausers and Winchesters in 
the hands of the Filipinos were soon drowned in the muffled roar of the 
Kansans' Springfields. Captain Clark, cool and collected, gave his 
orders in such tones that the men never thought of fear. They did not 
think of danger. Their minds were devoted to the receipt and execu- 
tion of their superior's commands, and the red, jagged tongues of flame 
leapt from the muzzles of their rifles as they sent volley after volley 
toward the unseen foe. 

Word was dispatched to the field officers, and at 10 o'clock Colonel 
Punston was awakened by Colonel Metcalf, who was eager to reach the 
scene of action. Out into the night rashed the two officers and, reach- 
ing the buildings in which the regiment was ciuartered, they found the 
hoys up and anxious for the fray. Up and down the deserted streets 
of Manila sounded the heavy tramp of marching men; from the out- 
skirts of the city came the rattle and roar of musketry. Laughing and 
jesting, the command hurried toward the scene of action. Coming up to 
the outpost, the jesting ceased, and, with eye and ear alert, each soldier 
waited with eagerness for the commands. 

The Day on the Firing Lines. 

Daylight found the regiment ready for an attack, and it was soon 
made. For the first time the Kansas Twentieth was about to be given a 
chance to show its merit, and, with almost breathless impatience, the 
man waited to hear the longed for orders. When it came the line 
moved forward in that grand unwavering way which had won the 
plaudits of their countrymen when on review in San Francisco. 

On went the line of brown ; back, giving ground, grudgingly at 
first, then more rapidly, went the Filipinos. One entrenchment was 
won, then another, and the insurgents were forced to seek the protection 
of a block house. It was \\'ith difficulty that the victorious Kansans could 
be restrained from galloping on through the whole of the Tagalos. As 
a member of another regiment expressed it: "One of their officers went 
around the earth when he couldn't catch them and met them coming, 
giving them orders to come back." 

This is a sample of the bravery displayed in every fight. Trembley 


and White of Company B of Kansas City, Kansas, gave evidence of what 
would have been done by any member of the regiment in their swim 
across the Bagbag. One Topeka man, Ted Montgomery, almost forgot 
his teachings of discipline in his eagerness to accompany the swimmers. 

Where Their Spirit Originated. 

Is it surprising that the Filipinos were unable to withstand attacks 
made by men whose bravery equalled that of the fabled Gods of Greece 
and Rome? These men were reared on the plains and in the towns and 
hamlets of Kansas. Imbued from the time of their earliest under- 
standing with lessons of patriotism and veneration for the flag, they 
were ready to sacrifice themselves that the Stars and Stripes should not 
be polluted by the desecrating hand of an enemy. 

That regiment did more than its duty. Every regiment in Cuba 
and the Philippines did its noble duty, but the Twentieth Kansas, with 
indefatigable courage and patriotic spirit, fought with a heroism that 
has become a standard in the country for which the service was 

The Night Attack. 

About 10 P. M. on February 4th, orders were received for the 
regiment to take the field, in accordance with a previously arranged 
plan. The Second and Third battalions, under Colonel Funston, went 
at once to the scene of the firing, which was the Kansas outpost at the 
extreme left of the line. 

The attacking Filipinos were being held at bay by the outpost 
guard of two officers and sixty men. The Second and Third battalions 
quickly formed and the fire of the insurgents was returned. The Kan- 
sans and the enemy kept up this exchange all night and in the morning 
the First battalion joined the command. At noon an advance was 
ordered and the enemy was driven back past two lines of intrenchments 
to a block house about two miles north of Manila. 

The First Real Battle. 

The next morning the Kansans occupied the ground they had won 
the day before. On February 7th, Colonel Funston secured permis- 
sion — for he had to ask it — to attack the insurgents directly in front of 
his command. With four companies, B, C, E and I, he drove them from 
their position after about forty-five minutes of sharp fighting. The 
Filipino loss was heavy. 

At 3 P. M., on February 10th, the regimental commander received 
orders to take the town of Caloocan. The other regiments which took 
part in the attack were the First Montana Volunteers and the Third 


United States Artillery. The left flank was protected by two com- 
panies of the First Idaho Volunteers and the line was re-inforced by the 
Utah Light Artillery with two guns and the Sixth United States Artil- 
lery with two guns. 

Before the line moved upon the town, the American fleet bom- 
barded it for half an hour. Round toward the right they swung and 
then began to pour a hot fire into the Filipino lines. Back through the 
town hurried the routed insurgents and on came the unswerving line 
of Kansans. The Kansans were the first to reach Caloocan, but evident- 
ly remembering the orders read, to take the whole country instead of the 
town, they pressed on and drove the Filipinos out on the other side. It 
was difficult to get the Kansans to halt; it was impossible to stop the 

The insurgents kept up a continuous fire from the towTi of Malabon 
and the country surrounding the American intrenchments at Caloocan. 
The Kansas boys, few of whom had ever been under fire, behaved ad- 
mirably making steady advances in the face of heavy fire and never 
flinching in a degree. The Twentieth held its position in Caloocan 
until March 24th. 

A Skirmish March. 

After leaving Caloocan, the Twentieth was moved to La Luna 
church about a mile southeast of Caloocan. The Filipinos were strong- 
ly entrenched on the north bank of the Tuluahau river. The advance 
on the enemy was begun at 6 :30 A. M., of March 25th, and the whole 
line moved up to the south bank of the river. Here was the first place 
that the swimming abilities of the Kansas boys came into play. Com- 
pany E, led b.v Captain William J. Watson, succeeded in crossing the 
river under fire and driving the insurgents from their position. The 
entire line then crossed and the position was occupied for the night. 

The next day the continued to advance, meeting with little 
resistance and finally crossed the Manila at Dagiipon railway, near 
Polo Station. The night was passed near the station. 

Early on the morning of March 27th, the march was resumed and at 
7 o'clock the command passed through the town of Meycanagau. Just 
beyond the town the regiment halted for dinner, and the meal had 
scarcely been fini.shed when companies H and I were called into action 
on the left of the road, the enemy occupA^ing a position across the 
Marilao river. After the attempt to dislodge them had failed, plans 
were made for crossing the river. Colonel Funston and a platoon of 
Company C crossed on a hastily constructed raft and made a vigorous 
onslaught on the rear of the Filipino intrenchments. Twenty-eight 
prisoners, with their rifles and ammunition, were captured. 

The platoon re-crossed the river and the command marched down 


to the town of Marilao, crossing the river there. At that point the 
regiment was met by a body of insurgents, who attempted to advance. 
The Filipinos were driven hack with loss and the Kansans oeenpied their 
former position for the night, holding it during the next day. 

At six o'clock on the morning of February 29th, the brigade again 
moved forward, the Twentieth occupying a position on the right of the 
line and left of the railroad track. Within a mile from the town the 
enemy was met and driven back across the Santa Maria Bigaa and 
Gniguinta rivers, halting for about two hours at a point south of the 
town of Bigaa. Just north of the Guiguinta river, a body of insur- 
gents met the Americans lines with a galling tire and the march was 
checked. The line was quickly formed and for twenty minutes the 
battle raged. The Filipino's tire was then silenced. 

The march was not continued until March 30th at 2:30 P. M., the 
line proceeding to the main road to Malolos, where a .slight resistance 
was met. In this campaign, as in the fighting at Caloocan, the mem- 
bers of the Twentieth showed the soldierly qualities in the men of 
Kansas. Fortitude and endurance were displayed in a manner that 
may well make this state proud of her sons. 

Malolos is Taken. 

On the morning of March 31st, the gallant regiment advanced 
toward Malolos and soon entered the town. Colonel Funston and a 
part of Company E moved ahead of the regiment and were the first 
to enter the streets of the rebel city, charging forward with cheers and 
sending the insurgents flying before their furious fire. They pushed 
forward to the public square, meeting with biit little re.sistance on ac- 
count of the great re.spect of the Filipinos for their intrepidity. The 
insurgents raced out of the opposite side of the city and the American 
line took a position a mile north of town. This camp was maintained 
until April 25th. 

Calumpit, Next Stop. 

On that day active operations were again resumed and the Twen- 
tieth, in conjunction with the First Montana, moved against the insur- 
gent's intrenchments, which had been thrown up on the north bank of 
the Bagbag river. About half a mile from the river, the command was 
halted and an armored train shelled the intrenchment briskly for a 
short time. Company K then moved up to the river and secured a 
position, whereby the intrenchments of the rebels were enfiladed. The 
fire against the enemy's lines was kept up for a short time and the 
rebels were driven from their position. 

The brigade then encamped for the night and on the next day the 
Vol. 1—16 


march toward Caliimpit was resumed. The Americans were fired upon 
frecjuently as they pushed forward and a strong force was encountered 
at that town. The fire from the insurgents was continued on April 27th. 

A railroad bridge spanned the Bagbag river at Calumpit and be- 
fore the American troops were sighted the insurgents sawed part way 
thi'ough the girders of the bridge, hoping to precipitate the armored 
train, which had been playing so much havoc with their prospects, to the 
bottom of the river when it attempted to cross. The incision had been 
made too deep, however, and when the command came to the bridge, it 
had fallen through on account of its own weight. 

The river was before the boys, with the enemy on the other side. 
The problem to be solved was how to get across in the safest and most 
expeditious way. Colonel Funston ordered Company K, under Captain 
Boltwood, to a position where it would attract the fire of the enemy. 
He then sent Lieutenant Collin H. Ball with a scouting party for a 
reconnoissance of the country toward the bridge. 

Lieutenant Ball took with him four men from his own company on 
whom he knew he could rely. They were Corporal Arthur Ferguson 
and Privates Norman Ramsey, Albert Cornett and Abraham C. Wood- 
ruff. After they had reached the south end of the bridge, they were 
joined by Colonel Fiinston and Company K. 

"How are we to cross the river?" shouted the Colonel above the 
rattle of the firing. 

"Swim," replied the equally little and equally brave lieutenant, 
also shouting to make himself heard. 

Followed by the four men and the first sciuad of Company A the 
two officers ran out on the bridge to the place where the girders had 
been severed. One by one the men dropped into the water and were 
soon swimming toward the enemy, the bullets raising little fountains of 
water about their heads as they moved forward. 

Up the bank they charged. Bugler Charles P. Barshfield, of Com- 
pany B nerving them to deeds of bravery by the clear inspiriting notes 
of his bugle. The Filipinos were routed almost before they had realized 
the wonderful bravery and audacity of the handful of men. 

Thinking only of the success of the American arms and the glory 
of the American flag, the members of that little party, barely more than 
a corporal 's guard, did not think that they were performing an act that 
would earn for them an eternal place in the memory of their country- 
men. It was not rashness that caused them to make that swim, nor 
was it an outcome of the implicit obedience to orders which they had 
learned at San Francisco; it but illustrated the highest type of heroism 
and patriotism, which had been instilled into them by the freedom they 
knew in far-away Kansas. 


Trembly and Wpiite in Swimming. 

Cahimpit was captured, but the Kansas soldiers were not satLstied, 
and the retreating- Filipinos were pushed on back through the country 
toward Apalit. ' ' One more river to cross, ' ' sang out one of the men as 
the Rio Grande was sighted. As the line approached Apalit it was 
evident that this river would prove more of an obstruction than the 
others. The Filipinos had erected breastworks and had secured some 
artillery which they trained on the advancing column. 

Colonel Fuuston sent Corporal Ferguson, of Company E, out on 
the bridge to see whether or not it could be crossed in the night. He 
returned and reported that it w^ould be a dangerous and probably 
fruitless undertaking. Colonel Funston, with 120 men, then went 
down the river and attempted to cross, but some barking dogs spoiled 
the plan. 

The next day a raft, capable of bearing fifty men, was constructed 
and two volunteers were called for to swim the river with ropes, by 
wliich means the raft should be guided. It was found impossible to 
find men by means of volunteering; the whole regiment wanted the 
chance. Privates Edward White and William B. Trembly of Company 
B, both Kansas City, Kansas, boys, were finally chosen. 

As they stood ready for the undertaking their muscles, made more 
prominent by the exercise of many months, worked under their clear 
skins, and they were impatient to plunge into the broad waters of the 
river. Each looped a rope over his bare shoulders, and with the know- 
ledge that the success of their plan depended on swift, strong strokes, 
they struck out for the opposite shore. It was soon reached and the 
raft made the trip in safety. The little body of men charged on the 
insurgent line furiously, but were obliged to give way on account of the 
hot fire from the enemy's Mausers and Maxim gun. Then Colonel 
Funston, Captain Orwig and eight men cro.ssed in a boat, and the boys 
drove the Filipinos out of their position and allowed the rest of the 
regiment and the First Montana to cross the bridge. 

The Campaign Continues. 

The Twentieth, with the First Montana, left Apalit on the morning 
of May 4th, and, after crossing several streams on railroad bridges, 
encountered the insurgents, who were entrenched on the north bank of 
the Santa Tomas river. Companies H and C were first engaged and 
they supported a battery composed of a Hotchkiss and a Gatling gun. 
After considerable firing. Company F relieved Company H, whose 
ammunition was running short. Company D was also engaged, and 
the enemy retreated to his trenches north of Santo Tomas, and there 
made a stronger stand. 


One span of the bridge aeross the river had been ent, but Companies 
C, D and F effected a crossing and were soon re-inforced by Companies 
G and E. The insurgents were driven back and the Kansas boys 
occupied the field until May 6th, when they entered San Fernando. 

On the evening of May 24th the regiment, imder command of 
Major Whitman, left San Fernando, going into the country immediately 
west of the city to engage the enem.y. The Third battalion was left 
in the reserve, and the First and Second made a detour to the right, 
moving imder the cover of the woods to a point one hundred and fifty 
yards from the rebel entrenchments before being discovered. The 
First battalion attacked the enemy from the front, the Second deploy- 
ing at nearly right angles to the entrenchments. The First battalion 
swung to the left and the Tagals were routed and compelled to retreat 
in disorder, the First battalion following them through and beyond 

Outposts Are Annoyed. 

On the morning of the next day General Funston took a scouting 
party, composed of Companies D and H, a platoon of Company I and 
two companies of the First Montana, to make a reconnoissance toward 
Santa Rica. The party engaged the enemy for about an hour at Santa 
Rica and returned to San Fernando at about 4 P. M. At that hour 
the Filipinos threatened the outposts. Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, 
G, I and L repulsed the attacking party and drove it north beyond 

The next day the insurgents returned to the attack and again fired 
on the outpost. Company L was on duty and Companies B and F 
were sent as a reinforcement. The engagement lasted but half an 

The regiment was allowed to have some rest from that time until 
June 16th, except that occasionally a portion of the regiment would be 
sent out at night to reinforce the companies on duty at the front. 
This was on account of rumors to the effect that the insurgents were 
planning an attack on the city of San Fernando. 

On the morning of June 16th, a large body of rebels attacked the 
Kansas and Montana line, the firing being kept up all around the city. 
Companies D and G were on outpost duty and Companies C and H, 
soon followed by the entire regiment, reinforced them. Companies C 
and E, under ^Tajor, went north under cover of the woods and 
surprised a body of insurgents, driving them back with a heavy loss, 
while the Kansans had but one man wounded. The Filipinos were 
soon repulsed and they retreated. 

On June 22nd another attack was made ami, while the firing opened 
very heavily on the east of the city, it was weak when it reached th« 
Kansas line, and the insurgents were cpiickly and easily repulsed. 


Back to Manila. 

Two days later, after one hundred and forty days of active service, 
the First and Third battalions returned to Manila, and went into 
quarters, the Second following on June 25th. The regiment was given 
provost guard duty in that city and remained there until sailing for 
home, except that on July 12th the Third battalion went to Paranaque 
to join General Lawton's division and relieve a detachment of the 
Fourteenth United States Infantry. 

When our boys left sunny Kansas to go to the front to serve their 
country, they were raw recruits. When they returned, and were wel- 
comed home with great orations and rejoicings at Kansas City, Kansas, 
and nearly every city and town in the state, they were experienced 
soldiers who had shared the hardships, the dangers, the triumphs and 
the glories of war. 

But all of those who went away did not come back, and many hearts 
were sad, for the dead were many. 

The Boys Who Gave Up Their Lives. 

The following is the long list of heroes of the Twentieth who gave up 
their lives on the field of battle: 

Commissioned Officers : — Alfred C. Alford, of Lawrence, first 
lieutenant of Company B. Shot in the head and killed instantly on 
February 7th, in an engagement three miles north of Manila. 

David S. Elliott, of Independence, captain of Company G. Shot 
through the body and killed on Februan' 28th, at Caloocan. 

William A. McTaggart, of Independence, second lieutenazit of 
Company G. Shot in the head and killed on May 4th, at Santo 

Non-commissioned Officers: — Oscar Mallicoat, of Virgil, corporal of 
Company K. Shot in the head at Caloocan on February 23rd, and 
died in the hospital in Manila on February 24th. 

A. Jay Sheldon, of Osawatomie, quartermaster sergeant of Com- 
pany I. Wounded in an action a mile and a half north of Manila on 
Febi-uary 7th, and died in the hospital at that city on February 9th. 

Morris J. Cohen, of San Francisco, sergeant of Company B. Shot 
in the head and killed at Caloocan on March 23rd. 

Robert M. Lee, of Manhattaii, corporal of Company P. Died of 
disease on the way home on transport "Tartar." 

Musicians : — Oscar G. Thorp, of La C.vgne, bugler of Company F. 
Shot in the head and killed at Caloocan on March 11th. 

Orlin L. Birlew, of Independence, member of the regimental band. 
Shot in the head and killed at Guiguinta river on March 29th. 

Privates: — Charles E. Pratt, of Salina, Company M. Shot in 


the head and killed in an engagement one and a half miles north of 
Manila, on February 5th. 

Ivers J. Howard, of Kansas City, Kansas, Company B. Shot 
in the stomach and killed at Calooean on February 10th. 

Alonzo V. Ricketts, of Stanton, Company I. Shot in the breast 
and killed at Calooean on February 10th. 

George H. Monroe, of Marinette, Wisconsin, Company F. Shot 
in the head and killed at Calooean on February 23rd. 

Larry Jones, of Pittsburg, Company D. Wounded in the head at 
Calooean on February 25th, and died at Manila on the same day. 

Howard A. Olds, of Fort Scott, Company F. Wounded in the 
abdomen at Calooean on February 26th, and died at Manila on Feb- 
ruary 27th. 

James W. Kline, of Kansas City, Kansas, Company L. Shot in 
the head and killed at Calooean on March 13th. 

John C. IMuhr, of Westphalia, Company E. Shot through the left 
lung on March 23rd at Calooean and died there on March 24th. 

Hiram L. Plummer, of Garnett, Company E. Shot in the head 
and killed near Calooean on March 25th. 

Albert S. Auibal, of Independence, Company G. Shot below the 
heart in an action near Calooean and killed on March 25th. 

Curran C. Craig, of Garnett, Company E. Wounded in the 
abdomen in an engagement near Calooean on March 25th, and died at 
Manila on March 26th. 

Troy E. Fairchild, of McCune, Company D. Shot in the head and 
killed in an action near Polo on March 26th. 

William Keeney, of Topeka, Company I. Shot in the head and 
killed at Marilao river on March 27th. 

John Scherer, of Los Angeles, California, Company G. Shot in 
the heart and killed at Marilao river on I\Iareh 27th. 

William Carroll, of Frontenac, Company D. Shot in the head 
and killed at Marilao river on March 27th. 

Alvah L. Dix of Independence, Company D. Shot in the head 
and killed at Guiguinta river on March 29th. 

Samuel M. Wilson, of Salina, Company M. Shot in the head and 
killed at Guiguinta river on March 29th. 

Adrian A. Hatfield of Topeka, Company I. Wounded in the neek 
at Marilao river on March 27th, and died in the hospital at Manila on 
March 31st. 

Joseph A. Wahl, of Lawrence, Company H. Wounded in the neek 
at Marilao river on March 27th, and died in the hospital at Manila on 
March 31st. 

Resil Manahan, of Topeka, Company A. Shot and killed at 
Calumpit on April 26th. 


Henry H. Morrison, of Salina, Company M. Shot in the chest at 
Apalit on April 27th, and died in the hospital at Manila on April 29th. 

Merton A. Wilcox, of Lawrence, Company H. Shot in the 
stomach and killed at Santo Tomas on May 4th. 

William Sullivan, of Topeka, Company A. Shot in the groin and 
killed at San Fernando on May 24th. 

Ernest Ryan, of Abilene, Company L. Wounded in the abdomen 
at San Fernando on May 24th, and died in the hospital at Manila on 
May 25th. 

Albert Fenigs, of Yates Center, Company E. Died in San Fran- 
cisco on June 17th. 

Orville R. Knight, of Fort Scott, Company F. Died in San Fran- 
cisco on June 24th, 

Louis Moon, of Kansas City, Kansas, Company B. Died at San 
Francisco on June 24th. 

Harry Pepper of Topeka, Company L. Died in San Francisco on 
June 26th. 

Clifford K. Greenough, of Bennington, Company L. Died in 
San Francisco on June 24th. 

Cecil Flowers, of Kansas City, Company L. Died in San Fran- 
cisco on July 22nd. and buried at the Presidio on July 23rd. 

Wilson H. JfcAUister, of Salina. Company M. Died in San Fran- 
cisco on July 10th, and remains shipped to Miltonvale on July 12th. 

John H. Bartlett, of Watson, Company F. Died at San Francisco 
on July 14th. 

Elmer Mclntyre of Neosho Falls, Company E. Died in San Fran- 
cisco on August 24th, and interred in Presidio cemetery on August 28th. 

Louis Ferguson, of Kansas City, Kansas, Company B. Died at 
Manila on December 24th. 

Dalias Day, Paola, Company I. Died at his home in Paola, Kan- 
sas on November 2nd. 

William Vancil, of Fort Scott, Company I. Died on board trans- 
port "Indiana" on December 7th. 

Raymond B. Dawes, of Leavenworth, Company C. Died at 
Honolulu on November 22nd. 

Edward A. Rethemeyer, of Topeka, Company A. Died of small 
pox at Manila on January 8, 1899. 

Eteyl P. Blair, of Topeka, Company A. Died of smallpox at 
Manila on January 11, 1899. 

John D. Young, of Wamego, Company A. Died of smallpox at 
Manila on January 15, 1899. 

Charles Graves, of Centralia, Company C. Died in hospital at 
Honolulu on November 25, 1898. 

Bert Cornett, of Torento, Company E. Died of smallpox at 
Manila on January 3, 1899. 


William B. Bash, of Fort Scott, Company F. Died of smallpox 
at Manila on January 6, 1899. 

Powhattan T. Hackett, of Fort Scott, Company P. Died of small- 
pox at Manila on January 9, 1899. 

Louis R. Badger, of Kansas City, Kansas, Company F. Died of 
smallpox at Manila, January 10, 1899. 

Benjamin W. Squires, of Junction City, Company L. Died of 
smallpox at Manila on January 1-1, 1899. 

Norman E. Hand, of Abilene, Company L. Died of smallpox at 
Manila on January 18, 1899. 

David L. Campbell, of Junction City, Company L. Died of small- 
pox at Manila on January 19, 1899. 

Charles B. Snodgrass, of Minneapolis, Company B. Died of small- 
pox at Manila on February 2, 1899. 

Fred Maxwell, of Richmond, Company K. Died of smallpox at 
Manila on February 23, 1899. 

Sim P. Barber, of Abilene, Company L. Died of smallpox at 
Manila on March 27, 1899. 

Fred Maxfield, of Kansas City, Kansas, Company B. Died at 
Manila on June 12, 1899. 

Guy Nebergall, of Newton, Company I. Died of disease at Manila 
on May 5, 1899. 

Isaac C. Cooper, of Kansas City, Kansas, corporal of Company B. 
Died of smallpox at Manila on February 1, 1899. 

John M. Ingenthron, of Westphalia, Company L. Died of disease 
on way home on the "Tartar." 

George W. Mills, of Silver Lake, Company I. Died of disease in 
the general hospital at San Francisco after the return of the regiment. 

The Mustee Into Service. 

When the Twentieth Kansas Volunteers were mustered into service 
at the fair grounds in Topeka on May 13, 1898, the following men were 
put in charge of it. with the rank, name, age, occupation, date of muster 
and residence given : 

Colonel — Frederick Funston; 33; newspaper man; May 11th; lola. 

Lieutenant Colonel — Edward C. Little; 39; lawyer; May 10th; 

Major — Frank H. Whitman ; 27 ; second lieutenant U. S. A. ; May 
10th, U. S. A. 

Major— Wilder S. Metealf; 42; broker; May 11th; Lawrence. 

Adjutant — William A. DeFord; 26; lawyer; May 9th; Ottawa. 

Quartermaster — Lafayette C. Smith ; 50 ; lawyer ; May 10th ; 

Surgeon — Jolin A. Rafter; 41; surgeon; May 13th; Holton. 


Assistant surgeon — Charles S. Hoffman ; 32 ; physician ; May 13th ; 

Assistant surgeon — Henry D. Smith; 23; physician; May 13th; 

Chaplain — John G. Shileman ; 40 ; minister ; May 12th ; 

Sergeant Ma.jor — Frederick R. Dodge ; 35 ; bookkeeper ; May 13th ; 

Quartermaster sergeant — James A. Young ; 26 ; manager ; May 12th ; 

Chief miLsician — Charles E. Gormley; 26; musician; May 12th; 

Principal musician — Earl H. Dryer; 24; musician; May 12th; 

Principal musician — Arthur E. Ellison; 21; musician; May 12th; 

Hospital steward — Coryell Faulkner ; 25 ; physician ; May 13 ; 

Hospital steward — William E. Hungerford; 36; pharmacist; May 
13th; Meriden. 

Hospital steward — Seth A. Hammel; 19; pharmacist; May 13th; 

Company A, Topeka, mustered in as company on May 9th — Cap- 
tain, John E. Towers, Topeka; first lieutenant, Prank J. Frank, Topeka; 
second lieutenant, Everett E. Huddleston, Topeka. 

Company B, Kansas City, Kansas, mustered in as company on May 
9th — Captain Fred E. Buchan, Kansas City; first lieutenant, Charles 
B. Walker, Kansas City; second lieutenant, Ervin B. Showalter, Kan- 
sas City. 

Company C, Leavenworth, mustered in as a company on May 13th 
— Captain, William S. Albright, Leavenworth ; first lieutenant, Harry 
H. Seckler, Leavenworth ; second lieutenant, John Haussermann, 

Company D, Pittsburg and Girard, mustered in as a company on 
May 11th — Captain, Henry B. Orwig; first lieutenant, Williams J. 
Watson, Pittsburg; second lieutenant, Thomas K. Ritchie, Pittsburg. 

Company E. Garnett, mastered in as a company on May 10th — 
Captain, Charles M. Christy, Waverly; first lieutenant, Daniel P. 
Craig, Garnett ; second lieutenant, Philip S. Ray, Yates Center. 

Company P, Fort Scott, mustered in as a company on May 12th — ■ 
Captain, Charles S. Martin, Fort Scott; first lieutenant, William A. 
Green, Fort Scott; second lieutenant, Harry W. Shideler, Fort Scott. 

Company G, Independence, mustered in as a company on May 12th 
—Captain, David S. Elliott, Independence; first lieutenant, Howard A. 


Scott, Independence ; second lieutenant, William A. McTaggart, 

Company H, Lawrence, mustered in as a company on May 9th — 
Captain, Adna G. Clarke, Lawrence; first lieutenant, Albert H. Krause, 
Lawrence; second lieutenant, Alfred C. Alford, Lawrence. 

Company I, Osawatomie, mustered in as a company on May 12th — 
Captain, Charles S. Flanders, Osawatomie; first lieutenant, Walber P. 
Hull, Topeka; second lieutenant, Arden W. Flanders, Osawatomie. 

Company K, Ottawa, mustered in as a company on May 10th — 
Captain, Edmund Boltwood, Ottawa; first lieutenant, John F. Hall, 
Pleasanton; second lieutenant, Robert J. Parker, Ottawa. 

Company L, Abilene; finst lieutenant, Edgar A. Fry, Abilene; 
second lieutenant, William A. Callahan, Junction City. 

Company M, Salina, mustered in as a company on May 10th — 
Captain, William H. Bishop, Salina ; first lieutenant, Edward L. Glas- 
gow, Salina; second lieutenant, Ernest H. Agnew, Minneapolis. 

The Boys From Kansas City, Kansas. 

Company B, First Battalion — Charles R. Walker, captain, com- 
manding company. 

Jacob R. Whisner, first lieutenant, with company. 

Benjamin E. Northrup, second lieutenant, with company. 

Alfred C. Alford, first lieutenant, killed in action. 

Fred E. Buchan, captain, discharged to re-enlist. 

Fred D. Heisler, first sergeant. 

Harry G. Smith, quartermaster sergeant. 

Sergeants — Judd N. Bridgman, Claud Spurlock, Arthur Page 
Jackson and Lemuel D. Cummins. 

Corporals — Fred A. Hecker, Bain Dennis, James H. Cook, Peter J. 
Nugent, Jacob Hammer, Robert T. Boyd, Peter M. Sorenson, Orno E. 
Tylor, William B. Trembley, Dana C. Pease, Charles T. Baker, Charles 
I. Lowry and George W. Orr. 

John A. Johnson, artificer. 

Musicians — Otis W. Groff and George Bethemeyer. 

Privates— Frederick A. Cook, Clarence Chase, Richard Mapes, 
Jesse Helm, Harvey S. Harris, William R. Hinkle, Charles R. ITolman, 
William H. Hoffman, Daniel S. Hewitt, William L. Johnson, Robert S. 
Johnson, Michael Upetich, Spudgeon G. Matson, Alexander M. Mitchell, 
Charles M. Pease, Harlie Pearson, Thomas E. Ridenour, Wilson B. 
Smith, William J. Saunders, Charles Wingert, James E. Williamson 
and John Woodward. 

Wounded and sent home — Edward D. Walling, corporal; Charles 
A. Kelson, artificer; John W. Gillilan, Edward Crane, Marvin J. 
Powell and Charles D. Wait, privates. 


Discharged at San Fraucisco on account of disability — Eugene 
Davies, sergeant; Frank E. Van Fossen and Charles K. Wood, corporals; 
William A. Crowell, George McMeachin, Edward B. Hoppin, Manty 
Yeaky, Frank A. C. Shellhardt, Frank L. Heyler, John M. Boyle, Dow 
6. Burroughs, Charles Debeque, Edward W. Ellis, John N. Benson, 
Francis MeCrea, George E. Voss, Harry Lancaster, George M. Davison, 
Elmer D. Mabry, Hugh H. Smart and Burt J. Stuart, privates. 

Discharged by favor — Jesse F. Fairleigh, private. 

Discharged to re-enlist — Frank Auswald, sergeant; Edward Barret, 
Charles Dingle, Bert K. Donohue, William P. Duensing, John H. Gallag- 
her, Hugh McMeachling, Stephen Munich, Claud S. Phillips, Sylvester 
F. Bothwell, Lewis J. Rouse and Elmer Urie, privates. 

Discharged, remaining in Manila — Frank Freeman, Persy Gibson 
and Michael J. Lambert, privates. 

Discharged, returning with the regiment — Edward White, private. 

Died of disease — Isaac Cooper, artificer; Frederick Sharland, cook; 
Louis Moon, Louis Wren Ferguson, Charles B. Snodgrass and Leroy 
Maxfield, privates. 

■Killed in action — Mon-is J. Cohen, sergeant; Ivers J. Howard, 

Wounded in action — Claud Spurlock, sergeant; Daniel S. Hewitt, 
Elmer Urie, Harvey S. Harris, Charles Pease, Peter M. Sorenson, 
Alexander M. Mitchell and Wilson R. Smith, privates. 

Wounded but not reported — John H. Gallagher, private. 

Deserted — Louis Arwood and Jackson C. Copeland, privates. 

On the sick list — Charles W. Forlyle, Lewis H. Youser, George C. 
Robinson, Ben.jamin F. Zimmerman, Jacob Guffy, John W. Prine and 
William Litchfield, privates. 



The "Pill Box" and Dr. Root — Alfred Gray — Governor Robin- 
son — State Geologist Mudge — Byron Judd — The Doctors Speck — 
Mrs. C. I. H. Nichols — Governor McGrew — Otis B. Gunn — Colonel 
A. C. Davis — Judge Isaac B. Sharp— Colonel G. W. Veale — Last to 
Desert Quindaro — Mary Tenney Gray — Judge Jesse Cooper — Cap- 
tain Thomas Crook— Samuel W. Day — Prank H. Betton — Tabitha 
N. Thomas — James G. Dougherty — A Kansas Artist — Literary and 
Artistic Women — Rev. Alexander Sterrett — "Mother" Sturges — 
Three Wyandotte Pounders — James R. P.vrr and Others. 

Adjoining the factory of the Viking Refrigerator Company at the 
northeast corner of Oakland avenue and Fourth street, there stood many 
years a small, square cottage, that was conspicuous only for its flaming 
bright red color. This little house had a history. In 1857 it was 
landed at the levee in the shape of a readymade house from a steamboat, 
only requiring a few nails to be driven in to make it a model western 
mansion. The house was imported by Dr. Joseph P. Root, Sr., from 
the east, and was used as a dwelling for himself and family. It was 
first erected in the center of a big cornfield, now the southeast corner 
of Pourth street and Nebraska avenue, and was occupied by Doctor 
Root until 1870. When the Doctor was appointed minister to Chili 
the house was moved to its later location. 

The "Pill Box" and Dr. Root. 

It was the first house erected in old Wyandotte by a white man who 
had not married into an Indian family, and for years social and politi- 
cal meetings were held in it. It was kno-sra as the "Pill Box", on 
account of its size, and further because it contained many pills that were 
dispensed among the early inhabitants by Doctor Root. Its cellar was 
a way station on the celebrated underground railway, which many a 
fugitive traveled, and almost daily it harbored one or more of those 
poor unfortunates. 

It was the custom of Doctor Root to call in all of his old friends on 
Christmas and give a fine dinner. At that time it was considered a 



luxury to be able to serve cove oysters as the first course. Thus it was 
that this little house became famous in the territory for the splendid 
hospitality dispensed therein. The stories of the social and political 
gatherings that were held in it would make an interesting volume des- 
scriptive of the social life of that charming period, and of the circle of 
men and women of old Wyandotte, of whom there are but a few with us 
now to recall the days of the "Pill Box." And it is to these men and 
women of old Wyandotte that this chapter is devoted. 

Dr. Joseph Pomeroy Root, who was one of the early physicians of 
Wyandotte, then a part of Leavenworth county, was born at Greenwich, 
Massachusetts, April 23, 1826, and died at Kansas City, Kansas, July 
20, 1885. He was a member of the Connecticut-Kansas colony, better 
known as the Beecher Bible and Rifle Company, which settled at 
Wabaunsee. He organized Free State forces and in every way identi- 
fied himself with the early history of the territory. As chairman of 
the Free State executive committee, he located the road from Topeka 
to Nebraska City, thereby securing a safer route of travel for Free 
State immigrants. He was sent east as agent to obtain arms and other 
assistance and was very successful. On his return he located at Wyan- 
dotte and was there elected a member of the council. He was lieutenant 
governor of the state in 1861 ; served in the Second Kansas as surgeon, 
and was medical director of the Army of the Frontier. At the close 
of the war he returned to Wyandotte and resumed the practice of his 
profession, but was appointed minister to Chili in 1870. At the close 
of his term of office he returned again to Wyandotte, and continued 
there until his death, July 20, 1885. 

Alfred Gray. 

Mr. Gray was one of the pioneers of Quindaro and a man of great 
force in the early days of Kansas. He was born in Evans, Erie county. 
New York, December 5, 1830, and was a son of Isaiah and May (Mor- 
gan) Gray. He worked on the farm in summer and went to school in 
winter until 1847, when he embarked as a .sailor before the mast on 
Lake Erie. At the age of nineteen he returned to school, and by teach- 
ing and other labor maintained himself at Westfield Academy, New 
York, and Girard Academy, Pennsylvania. In 1853 and 1854 he read 
law, graduating at Albany, and started into practice at Buffalo. In 
March, 1857, he came to Kansas, settling at Quindaro ; engaged in fann- 
ing from 1858 until 1873 ; served as a director of the State Agricultural 
Society from 1866 until 1870; in 1872 was elected first secretary of the 
present State Board of Agriculture, in which position he remained until 
his death, January 23, 1880, earning a wide reputation by the style of 
published reports which he originated and the success of the display 
Kansas made at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. 


At York, New York, Mr. Gray married Miss Sarah C. Bryee, May 
1, 1855. On April 19, 1862, he was mustered into the army as a regi- 
mental quartermaster with the Fourth Kansas and shortly after was 
transferred to the Tenth, and later to the Fifth. He was detailed by 
General Grant, June 30, 1863, for service at Vicksburg, remainini; until 
March 24, 1864, when he resigned on account of ill health. He held 
various positions in the Free State party and was elected to the first 
state legislature, December 6, 1859. The state erected a monument to 
his memory in the Topeka cemetery. 

Governor Robinson. 

Charles Robinson, the most distinguished citizen of the territory 
in 1857, afterwards governor of the commonwealth and for many years 
foremost in Kansas, was a resident of Wyandotte county and a citizen 
of Quindaro. He was born at Hardwick, Worchester count.v, Massa- 
chusetts, Jul.v 21, 1818; became a physician and at one time had for a 
partner Dr. John G. Holland ("Timothy Titcomb"). In 1849, soon 
after the gold discoveries in California, he set out for the newly dis- 
covered El Dorado, being surgeon of one of the early pioneer parties of 
California emigrants. On his arrival in California, after a short time 
spent in prospecting and mining, he settled, as near as the times and the 
surroundings would pennit, at Sacramento, and there opened an eating 
house. Trouble soon broke out between the squatters and a set of later 
speculators who coveted their claims. The former held their claims 
under tlie T/nited States pre-emption laws then in force, and else- 
where in the country universally observed ; the speculators claimed title 
to the entire site of the embryo city by virtue of purchase from Captain 
Sutter, who held a IMexican-Spanish title to 99,000 square miles of Cali- 
fornia land, the boundaries or location of which had never been sur- 
veyed or defined. The contest for possession, after vain endeavors on 
the part of the .squatters to await the decision of the courts, culminated 
in an open war for possession on the one side and e.jectment on the 
other. Doctor Robinson became the adviser and acknowledged leader 
of the squatters in their ecmtest for their rights. 

The "squatter riots," as they were termed, resulted in several 
serioiLs encounters, in which many were wounded and a few lost their 
lives. The most serious conflict resulted in the death of the mayor of 
Sacramento, on the one side, and the dangerous wounding of Doctor 
Robinson, on the other. Robinson, while still suffering from his 
wound.s, was indicted for murder, a.ssault with intent to kill and con- 
spiracy; held a prisoner, pending his trial, for ten weeks aboard a prison 
ship ; was tried before the district court at Sacremento and acquitted. 
During his imprisonment he was nominated and elected to the Cali- 
fornia legislature from the Sacramento district. He took a leading 


part in the legrislative proceedings of the succeeding session, and was one 
of the prominent supporters of John C. Fremont, who was elected as 
United States senator during the session. On his return to 
Sacramento, he published a daily Free Soil paper a short time. On 
July 1, 1851, he left California and set sail for "the states," reaching 
his home in Fitchburg in the fall of 1851, and there resuming the 
practice of medicine, which he continued until 1854 with great success. 
About the time of the organization of the Emigrant Aid Society Dr. 
Robinson published a series of letters concerning the Kansas country 
through which he had passed in 1849, which awakened a widespread 
interest in the unknown land, and drew the attention of the managers 
of the organization to the writer as an indispensable agent for the prac- 
tical execution of the proposed work of selecting homes for Free State 
emigrants, and otherwise carrying out the openly-avowed object of the 
society, to make Kansas a Free State under the conditions which the 
Kansas-Nebraska bill had prescribed. He thus became one of the first 
heralds of Free State emigration to Kansas, and designated to the 
society as the best objective point for a Free state settlement in the 
territory the land that lay along the bottoms of the Kansas river near 
Lawrence. There the first party pitched their tents, and there Doctor 
Robinson made his own home September 6, 1854, at which time he 
arrived with his family. With Samuel C. Pomeroy, he was the con- 
diictor of the second party of New England emigrants — it being the 
first made up of families who came for bona fide settlement. He 
chose his home on Mount Oread. He was the first governor chosen 
under the Topeka Constitution, and the first commander-in-chief of the 
Free State militia. Governor Robinson held the organization with a 
skill and wisdom peculiarly his own, as a final place of refuge for the 
Free State men of Kansas, until, with growing strength, they could 
transform it into a valid form of government under the forms of law. 
The Wyandotte constitution, under the forced recognition of congress, 
having been adopted, he was, under its provisions, chosen the first gover- 
nor of the Free State of Kansas, and in that position organized under the 
laws the military forces upon a war basis for the final struggle, in which 
Kansas troops won fresh laureLs and imperishable renown. For the 
cause of freedom in Kansas he suffered imprisonment, destruction of 
property, defamation of character, and all the minor annoyances which 
hatred of merit, political ambition, or internecine party strife could 

State Geologist Mudge. 

Benjamin Franklin Mudge, distinguished as a geologist, was first 
a resident of Wyandotte county on his coming to Kansas. He was 
bom in Orriton, Maine, August 11, 1817. In 1818 his parents removed 


to Lynn, Massachusetts, and in the common schools of that city Benja- 
min received his earl.v education. From the age of fourteen until he 
was twenty he followed the trade of shoe-making ; taught school to pro 
cure the means of acquiring a collegiate education and was graduated 
from the Wesleyan University at Middletown, Connecticut, first in the 
scientifie and afterward in the classical course, in 1840. Afterward 
he returned to Lynn and began the study of law, being admitted to the 
bar two years later and immediately entering upon the practice of his 
profession. He remained a resident of Lynn until 1859, becoming dur- 
ing those .vears thoroughly identified with all the reform movements 
in that cit.y. He was especially active and earnest in the anti-slavery 
and temperance movements, and was elected mayor of the city on the 
latter issue in 1852. In 1859, having spent eighteen ,vears of his active 
business life in L.ynn, he accepted the office of chemist for the Brecken- 
ridge Coal & Oil Compan,v in Kentucky. On the breaking out of the 
War of the Rebellion he removed to Kansas and settled at Quindaro, 
where he remained until he received an appointment as state geologist 
for Kansas in 1863, from which time until his death, sixteen .years later, 
his whole time and strength were given to scientific researches and in- 
vestigations in the west, principally in Kansas and Nebraska. 

Byron Judd. 

Among those citizens who contributed to the upbuilding of this 
community was B.vron Judd, the first land agent, a banker for man.y 
,vears, and a faithful public official. He was bom in August, 1824. 
The town of Otis, Berkshire count.y, Massachusetts, suggests a lineage 
looking back towards the Mayflower and the earliest records of the old 
Bay state, and that town is the localit.v of Senator Judd's nativit.y. 
His father was a farmer, and the boy divided his attention between 
industrial training at home and scholastic labors in the admirable institu- 
tions proper to jMassachusetts. At the age of twent.v he attended the 
academy at Southwick for one term, and afterwards the State Normal 
School at Westfield, working on the farm during the summer and teach- 
ing school every winter, so that his body and mind were alike developed 
by practical work. By his friends in Otis, in spite of the too true 
aphorism that "a prophet is not without honor, save in his own coun- 
try," he was made selectman, township assessor, and a member of the 
school conmiittee for several years, until, in 1855. he removed to Des 
Moines, Iowa. There he was deputy recorder for one .vear. In 1857 
he came to Kansas, lauding in Wyandotte in the beginning of Novem- 
ber. The city was then a part of the county of Leavenworth and a 
place of much l)usiness. well suited for the operations of men of the 
caliber of Mr. Judd. Land agency and banking were the specialties of 
the comer, and he was soon as busily engaged as could be desired, but 


had sufficient leisure, as will always happen with the most successful 
men of business, to attend to many public appointments. He served 
in many responsible offices with honor to himself and with advantage to 
the community, as president of the city council and as mayor of the city 
of Wyandotte. For five years in succession he was chosen justice of 
the peace, and for a similar term he was a trustee of Wyandotte town- 
ship, besides being the Wyandotte county treasurer for four years. 
Successive marks of honor and triLst, reposed in him by his fellow- 
citizens, indicated Mr. Judd as an eligible man for an appointment as 
United States commissioner for the district of Kansas, a position filled 
with conspicuous advantage. In 1871, when the old First National 
Bank was organized in the city of Wyandotte, Mr. Judd was elected 
president, and in that capacity, or as cashier, he was connected with the 
institution for several years. In the year 1872, the people of Wyan- 
dotte county elected their successful fellow citizen, Mr. Judd, to repre- 
sent them in the state senate, and so favorably were they impressed with 
his services during the first term, that, before its expiration, he was re- 
elected, in 1874, for a second term of two years. He was a Democrat of 
the Thomas Jefferson school, quite content to allow to others the free- 
dom of opinion that he claimed for himself, having no sympathy with 
the "border ruffian" stripe of political experience, and he was conse- 
cjuently able to run ahead of his own ticket in every contest, a recom- 
mendation of great value to any party in any state in the Union. He 
was not a chiirch member, but a regular attendant at the Congregational 
church, having been reared within its discipline. He was not connected 
with any secret organization, and, indeed, had too little time at his dis- 
posal to add anything to his multifarious diities. In the year 1865, 
when he had arrived at the mature age of forty-one, Mr. Judd was 
married to Mrs. Mary Louise Bartlett, the widow of Don A. Bartlett. 
She was a daughter of Judge Jesse Cooper, who had come out from 
Irasburg, Vermont, to become a resident of Wyandotte. His public 
labors won honor from all classes and every party ; his name was without 
reproach. iVlr. and Mrs. Judd both lived to a ripe old age, and with 
much pride and satisfaction, witnessed the growth and development of 
the community from an Indian village to a large city. Mrs. Judd died 
in 1908 and Mr. Judd's death occurred the next year. A daughter, 
Mrs. Sara Judd Greenman, the public librarian in Kansas Cit.v, Kan- 
sas, survives them; another daughter. Miss Emily, died in 1890. 

The Doctors Speck. 

Among those frecjuent callers at Doctor Root's little "Pill Box" 

were the Specks, father and son, and their wives, whose names, when 

mentioned, awaken pleasant memories of those charming days to the 

survivors of that period. Dr. Joseph Speck, the father, was bom near the 

Vol. 1—17 


close of the eighteenth century and was well along in years when, in 
1857, the family came out to Kansas from Carlisle, Pennsylvania. The 
son, Dr. Frederick Speck, who was born in 1818, was then nearly 

Both were medical practitioners in Wyandotte before the Civil 
war, and at the call for volunteers both shouldered their muskets 
and marched off to fight in a Kansas volunteer regiment. The father, 
who had been graduated from the medical schools at Carlisle and Balti- 
more, was well fitted for service as a regimental surgeon, while the son 
also had qualified himself for the duties of an army physician and 
surgeon. Dr. Joseph Speck died in Kansas City, Kansas, in 1875, 
after he had practiced more than forty years. 

Dr. Frederick Speck continued in the practice of medicine and 
surgery in Wyandotte and the honor of being the pioneer phy.sician of 
the place fell on him. The Doctor had spent his early life in his native 
town and received his literary education at Dickinson College. His knowledge of medicine was acquired under his father, and in early 
manhood he completed a coiirse at the Franklin Medical College of Phil- 
adelphia, graduating in 1847. He began practicing in Fremont, 
Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, but, after spending five years there and 
a similar length of time in Selin's Grove, Snyder county, Pennsylvania, 
he came west and took up his location in Kansas City, Kansas, where 
he remained in the active practice of his profession. For more than 
forty-five years he was a practitioner of the "healing art," and during 
thirty-three years of that period he was located at Kansas City, being 
the pioneer physician of that place, until he died, and during the long 
term of years spent there he became well known, both professionally and 
socially. He was married on June 8, 1848, to Miss Adelaide M. 
Dennis, who accompanied him to the west and died in Kansas City, 
March 8, 1882, leaving, besides her husband, four children to mourn 
her death. They are Annie M., who became Mrs. Dudley B. Cornell; 
Mary C. ; Joseph B. and Richard D. On December 31, 1885, the 
Doctor was married to Mrs. Frances L. Battles, a daughter of Hon. 
Marsh Giddings, late governor of New Mexico, and the ^\'idow of 
Agustus S. Battles, of Philadelphia, Penn.sylvania. Doctor Speck and 
his wife were members of the Episcopal church, and he was a prominent 
Odd Fellow, being honored with the position of grand master and grand 
chief patriarch of the state, and grand representative to the Grand 
Lodge of the United States, which met at Baltimore in 1873 and at 
Atlanta in 1874. He was one of the oldest Odd Fellows in the state, 
as well as a member of the ]\Iasonic fraternity and of the Knights of 
Pythias. Doctor Speck was a devoted member of the Republieai. 
part.v, and served two terms as mayor of the city and several terms as a 
member of the city council ; held the position of pension examiner for 
a period of ten years, and was then a member of the board ; was also a 


member of the board that built the Kansas School for the Blind, and 
served as a physician of that institution as long as he lived. He was a 
member of the Kansas State Medical Society and the American Medical 
Association. Professionally, as in every other respect. Doctor Speck 
stood very high and possessed the universal respect and esteem of his 
medical brethern in this section. He had an extensive acquaintance 
and a large circle of friends, and was a man who would command respect 
in whatever locality he might settle. 

Mrs. C. I. H. Nichols. 

On a wall in the Carnegie library building in Kansas City, Kan- 
.sas, is a portrait in oil of a pioneer Kansas woman, whose sweet in- 
fluence, exerted in the territorial days when the makers of the Kansas 
constitution were assembled in Wyandotte, brought high recognition 
to womanhood and obtained for the women of this day many of those 
rights they enjoy. It is a portrait of ilrs. Clarinda I. Howard Nichols, 
one of the ablest and most gifted women with tongue and pen that ever 
championed the rights of her sex. Mrs. Nichols was born in Trowshead, 
Windham county, Vermont, January 25, 1810. Early in life she re- 
ceived an education that, witli her brilliancy of intellect and her woman- 
ly sympathies, made her one of the first women in the nation. No 
woman in so many varied fields of action more steadily and faithfully 
labored than Mrs. Nichols, as editor, speaker and teacher in Vermont, 
New Jersey, Wisconsin, Iowa, Ohio. Kansas and California. In 1859 
she attended the Wyandotte constitutional convention and sat through- 
out the session — the only woman present — watching every step of the 
proceedings, and laboring with the members to so frame the constitu- 
tion as to make all inen and women equal before the law. The women 
of Kansas owe largely to her influence the rights they enjoy today. 
Prom Vermont to California she sowed the seed of liberty and equality, 
and nowhere did they take deeper root than in Kansas. 

The Wyandotte County Women's Columbian Club wa.s organized 
for the purpose of gathering together some exhibits from this county 
for display in the Kansas building at the Columbian exposition. It 
was finally decided to have a portrait painted of a pioneer Kansas 
woman, and Mrs. Nichols was selected as deserving of the honor. 
At the close of the exposition the portrait was returned to the Colum- 
bian Club, and it was afterwards presented to the public library. 

Mrs. Nichols died in Pomo, Mendicino county, California, January 
11. 1885, just lacking fourteen days of celebrating her seventy-fifth 
birthday. In grateful remembrance of her the portrait has been given 
by the Wyandotte County Women's Club, March, 1893. 


Governor McGbew. 

James McGrew, who was a citizen of Wyandotte fifty-four years, 
was born at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, January 28, 1832. His family 
emigrated to Ohio, thence respectively to Indiana, Hlinois and Wapello 
county, Iowa, finally locating in Keokuk county in 1844. In 1857 he 
came to Kansas, arriving in September and settling in Wyandotte cowa- 
ty. He engaged in merchandising, conducting a wholesale and retail 
grocery business in Kansas City, Kansas, from 1860 to 1870; also built 
and operated the first packing house at the moTith of the Kaw. The 
building still stands on Fourth street near Freeman avenue. Mr. Mc- 
Grew served as mayor of the city for two terms ; was a member of the 
house of representatives, 1861-2; and of the senate, 1863-4; and was 
lieutenant governor of the state one term — January, 1865 to January, 
1867 — after which he retired from politics, devoting himself to his busi- 
ness interests. Governor IMcGrew was twice married — first to Marj' 
Doggett, at Lancaster, Iowa, in 1848, who died in 1863 ; and second to 
Lida Slaven, of Alliance, Ohio, in April, 1870. He had five children, 
and his beautiful residence, built in the early days, was on Quindaro 
boulevard, Kansas City, Kansas. His death occurred in February, 

Otis B. Gunn. 

Otis B. Gunn, a member of the first state senate from Wyandotte 
county, was born October 27, 1828, at IMontague, Massachusetts, the 
son of Otis and Lucy Fisk Gunn. He had a thorough New England 
common school education, and began work as a rodman on the con- 
stnTction of the Hoosae Tunnel Railroad ; was engineer in charge of the 
railroad between Rochester and Niagara Falls; taught school for two 
years near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and in 1853 was division engineer 
in the construction of the Toledo, Wabash & Western, following railroad 
construction westward until he located in Kansas in 1857, settling at 
Wyandotte. In 1859 he was elected to the first state senate, which met 
in 1861 ; in 1861 he wa.s appointed nia.ior of the Fourth Kansas regiment, 
later the Tenth Kansas Infantry, but in May, 1862, resigned to resume 
railroad work, being connected at variovis times thereafter vnth the 
Kansas City & Cameron, the Leavenworth, Pawnee & Western, the 
Central Branch Union Pacific and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas. Of 
this last-named road he built six hundred miles. He also built the 
bridge across the Missouri river at Atehison, and in 1876 superintended 
the construction of the present \inion depot in Kansas City, finally 
earning the name of a great engineer. In 1896 he wrote a financial 
article entitled "Bullion versus Coin," which the Republican national 
committee circulated broadcast over the country. He died in Kansas 
City February 18, 1901, and was buried in Oak Grove, Lawrence. His 
widow resides in Kansas City, Missouri. 


Colonel A. C. Davis. 

Alson C. Davis, a member of the Free State legislature of 1857-8, 
settled in "Wyandotte county, then a part of Leavenworth county, com- 
ing there from New York about 1857. He lost his seat in the territorial 
council through the contest of Crozier, Root and Wright for the seats of 
Halderman, Davis and Martin, but sat in the extra session of 1857 
from its convening, December 7th, until December 11th. In 1858 he 
was appointed United States district attorney for Kansas territory, 
holding the office until 1861. He was among the active members of the 
railroad convention of 1860. In October, 1861, he obtained permission 
from Major General Fremont to raise a regiment to be known as the 
Twelfth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry; December 26th four companies of 
Nugent 's regiment of Mi.ssouri Home Guards were attached to the 
organization and the name changed to the Ninth Kansas Volunteers. 
On .Taniiary 9, 1862, Davis was made colonel of this regiment, but 
resigned in February. He died in 1881, in New York. 

Judge Isaac B. Sharp. 

Isaac B. Sharp who was distinguished as a lawyer, was born in 
Ohio, in January, 1836. He was a graduate of Oberlin University 
and of the Ohio State Union Law College, at Cleveland. He came from 
Fremont, Ohio, in January, 1859, located at Wyandotte, where he began 
the practice of his profession with Charles W. Glick; in 1860 was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney, holding the office until 1862, when he 
was elected probate judge and re-elected in 1864. He served as mayor 
of the city two years and in 1866 was elected to the senate. Upon the 
expiration of his term as senator he was again elected probate judge of 
Wyandotte county, and re-elected for the third term. In 1860 Judge 
Sharp married Marie A. Bennett, a native of Baltimore, Maryland. He 
died of a cerebral affection June 22, 1884, having been in poor health 
for some time. 

Colonel G. W. Veale. 

George Wa.shington Veale was born in Daviess county, Indiana, 
May 20, 1833. He was educated in the country schools, s\ipplemented 
by two years at Wabash College, when he began a business career. In 
the spring of 1857 he came to Kansas, locating first at Quindaro and in 
a short time coming to Topeka, where he started a dry goods business. 
He was part owner of the "Otis Webb," a Kansas river boat that plied 
for a short time between Leavenworth and Topeka during the year 
1858. Colonel Veale was one of the .signers of the call for the railroad 
convention of 1860, and an incorporator of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Railroad. He raised a company for the Fourth Kansas 


Cavalry in 1861, and in 1862 was made major of the Sixth Kansas, serv- 
ing until 1864 ; during the Price invasion he was colonel of the Second 
Kansas Militia. In 1866 he was appointed commissioner for the sale 
of state lands, which position he held some years, and was a member of 
the state senate in 1867-8 and of the house of representatives in 1871, 
1873, 1883, 1887, 1889 and 1895, serving as speaker pro tem of the house 
in 1873. Colonel Veale was married, JanuarA' 20, 1857, to Nanny John- 
son, of Evansville, Indiana. He was president of the State Historical 
Society in 1898, and has resided in Topeka many years. 

Last to Desert Quindako. 

Rassellas M. Gray was a pioneer of 1858 of the old Quindaro that 
aspired to be the leading city on the Missouri river and the Free State 
"port of entry." He was a native of Erie county, New York; came 
west with the tide of Free State men of the territorial days and settled 
in Quindaro, which had been founded a few months before by Governor 
Charles Robinson, George W. Veale, Vincent J. Lane and others. Mr. 
Gray was one of the few survivors of those days and the last of the crowd 
to desert Quindaro. He resided there until the death of his wife in 
1899, being engaged in farming and merchandising. Then he became 
a resident of Kansas City, Kansas, making his home with his daughter, 
Mrs. R. E. Ela. He died March 11, 1911, at the age of eighty-eight, 
leaving two sons and one daughter — Dr. George M. Gray of Kansas 
City, Kansas ; E. M. Gray, of Quindaro ; and Mr.s. Ela ; fourteen grand- 
children and nine great-grandchildren. 

Maby Tenney Gray. 

As a leader in the women's clubs for art, education, literary and 
philanthropic purposes, Mrs. IMary Tenney Gra.y, the wife of Barzillai 
Gray, wielded an influence for culture that was felt not only in her home 
city but throughout the entire state. In the year 1881 a potential 
effort was made toward a union of the clubs of the state. Up to this 
time the club life of the women of the state had been purely local and 
confined to a few cities. At a meeting of prominent western women, 
many of whom were members of Kansas and Missouri clubs, held at 
Leavenworth, Thursday, May 19, 1881, the Social Science Club of Kan- 
sas and Missouri was organized. This first association of women's 
clubs in the west, with Mrs. Gray as its first president, was organized 
by representative women from Atchison, Lansing, Leavenworth, Olathe, 
Topeka and Wyandotte in Kansas, Kansas City and St. Joseph in 
Missouri, and Chicago in Illinois. 

The preamble to its constitution and by-laws reads thus: "The 
object of this society shall be to promote a better acquaintance among 


thoughtful women of this section who are most desirous and best able to 
raise the standard of women's education and attainments, to enlarge 
their opportunities, and by frequent meeting bring the highest knowl- 
edge of each for the benefit of all." The meetings of this association 
were held in various cities in Kansas, also in Kansas City, Missouri, 
two meetings being held each year. The programs at these conventions 
were comprehensive, embracing the departments of art, archeology, 
domestic economy, education, history and civil government, literature, 
natural and sanitary science, philanthropy and reform. Thus Mrs. 
Gray may with propriety be referred to as the "mother of the woman's 
culture club movement in Kansas." 

Mrs. Gray was a writer of vigor and a clear reasoner. She had 
read papers before many state gatherings, as well as clubs of the two 
Kansas Citys. She had lived in Kansas City, Kansas, more than twenty 
years and during that time was identified with almost every woman's 
movement. She was born in 1833 ; when twenty years old she graduated 
from a womans' seminary and in 1859 was married to Mr. Gray. A 
son, Lawrence T. Gray, lives at Colorado Springs, Colorado. Mrs. 
Theo Harriman of Los Angeles, wife of Joseph Harriman, the candidate 
for vice president at the 1904 election on the Social Democratic ticket, 
and Mrs. Jessie M. Caswell, are daughters. 

In the spring of 1901 Mrs. Gray's paper on "Women and Kansas 
City's Development" was awarded the first prize in the competition held 
by the Women's Auxiliary to the Manufacturers' Association of Kan- 
sas Citj^, Missiouri. 

Mrs. Gray's death occurred October 11, 1904, at her home on the 
beautiful Missouri river bluffs north of Kansas City, Kansas, and at 
the funeral service the Rev. D. S. Stephens, chancellor of the Kansas 
City University, paid this tribute to her memory. " It is the lot of very 
few to reach the degi-ee of helpfulness to their own generation that was 
attained by her whose departure we mourn. Perhaps no woman in the 
state of Kansas has exercised so important an influence on the intellec- 
tual life of her sex in this commonwealth as our deceased friend. Her 
life has been intimately associated with every good and uplifting in- 
fluence among the women of this state. She was one of the originators 
of the Social Science organization among the women of the state. She 
has been one of the molding influences in shaping club-life among 
woinen. She has been a leader in everything that has touched on the 
improvement of the intellectiial conditions of women. No worthy 
philanthropic purpose escaped her helpful assistance. While thus 
active in matters of public welfare, she was equally attentive to the 
domestic duties of the home." 

On May 9, 1909, the Kansas Federation of Women's Clubs dedi- 
cated a monument in Oak Grove cemetery, Kansas City, Kansas, to the 
memory of Mrs. Gray, as one of the founders of that organization. The 


monument is of Vermont granite and overlooks the Missouri valley, 
which Mrs. Gray onc-e declared was "the most beautiful and romantic 
view in America." 

Judge Jesse Cooper. 

Judge Jesse Cooper, a native of Vermont was among the early day 
citizens of Wyandotte. He was a law>'er and a citizen of high esteem. 
He was a stanch Free State man, and his advice and counsel was sought 
by the little band of Congregationalists who came out from New Eng- 
land. One of his daughters married the Rev. Louis Bodwell who 
founded the Congregational church at Topeka, and she is still living 
at Clifton Springs, New York. The late Jlrs. Byron Judd was also a 
daughter of Judge Cooper. 

Captain Thomas Crooks. 

Captain Thomas Crooks, one of the first hortieulturalists in Kan- 
sas, settled at Quindaro in 1857. He was one of the men of Quindaro 
who enlisted in the First Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry with 
Colonel William Wear and George W. Veale. 

Lyman M. Culver, a merchant of the early days of Wyandotte, 
came out from Pennsylvania in 1860. During the war he was engaged 
in freighting for the government. 

Samuel W. Day, a banker and manufacturer of old Kansas City, 
Kansas, for many years, was with Kit Carson in Mexico in the early 
sixties. He assisted in building Fort Union. He came to Kansas 
City, Kansas, in 1867 and lived there until his death a few years ago. 

Prank H. Betton. 

Frank Holyoke Betton was born in Derry, Rockingham county, New 
Hampshire, August 1, 1835. His father's maternal grandfather, 
Matthew Thornton, was president of the colonial convention which met 
at Exeter in May, 1775, to organize a provisional government; sei-ved 
the following year as a member of the Continental congress, and was 
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. At the age of 
fourteen Mr. Benton went to Boston, and, after some years spent as a 
clerk in stores there and at Petersburg, Virginia, he came to Kansas in 
1856. He lived for a time in Pottawatomie, Jefferson and Leaven- 
worth counties, and finally located in Wyandotte. He engaged in the 
lumber business, and for several years owned and operated saw mills. 
In 1885 he was appointed state labor commissioner. In 1874 he was 
elected grand master of the Odd Fellows of Kansas; was also grand 
chancellor of the Knights of P.ythias. His home was on a farm near 
Pomeroy, in Wyandotte county, until a few years before his death, 
which occurred in 1906. 


Tabitha N. Thomas. 

In a cottage at No. 527 Central avenue, .Kansas City, Kansas, 
resides one of the oldest living descendants of the Wyandot Indians. 
She is Mr,s. Tabitha N. Thomas, a widow and a daughter of Silas Arm- 
strong, the Wyandot Indian chief. Silas Armstrong came west from 
Ohio in 1843. Mrs. Thomas was then ten years old. Her father built 
a log cabin on the north bank of Jersey creek, now Seventh street and 
Virginia avenue. At the celebration of her seventy-sixth birthday Mrs. 
Thomas gathered around her a circle of eleven friends who heard her 
tell of the early days in old Wyandotte. They were greatly intere.sted 
as they listened to her remarkable narrative of the Wyandot Indians' 
invasion of Kansas. 

"What is now Kansas City, Kansas, in those days was a solid 
wilderness, ' ' she said. ' ' We crossed the Kaw river at the mouth, which 
was then near the Armour packing plant. It took us more than an 
hour to paddle across the .stream. The current was swift and the river 
was much wider than it is now. Then we climbed the hill on the crest 
of which Minnesota avenue now lies. It was a long and hard climb, 
but when we reached the summit we could get a fine view of the valley 
beneath us. M.y father was so impressed with the sight that he imme- 
diately decided to settle there." 

James G. Dougherty. 

Almost forty years of patient self-sacrificing labor for the cause 
of civic betterment and for the moral, intellectual and spiritual uplift, 
has been the gift of the Rev. James G. Dougherty to Kansas and particu- 
larly to Kansas City, Kansas, where he now resides. Doctor Dougherty 
was born in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1837. He was graduated from 
Andover Theological Seminary in 1870, and for two years thereafter 
was pastor of the Congregational church at Lawrence, Massachusetts. 
He came out into the west in 1872 and found here a wide field of use- 
fulness. He soon became known throughout the state and beyond its 
borders as an able minister who dared to stand always for that which he 
believed to be right. During the sixteen years he was pastor of the 
First Congregational church in Kansas City, Kansas, his influence was 
felt in the affairs of the city and its people. 

One great service he rendered was in his leadership in a fight that 
led to the extinction of the numerous gigantic swnndling lottery con- 
cerns that infested the city. Streams of mone.y were coming in from all 
parts of the continent to pay for lottery tickets issued for "drawings" 
that were never held, and, even if held, few important prizes were given. 
Our legislatures had not thought it necessary to enact laws for the sup- 
pression of an evil which they did not dream would ever infest the state. 


Doctor Dougherty went into the fight single handed. He encountered 
opposition from the start but he aroused the people and, backed by 
fearless newspapers, brought about the enactment of a measure so 
stringent that it had scarcely reached the governor for his signature 
before the lotteries were gone. Doctor Dougherty made the same kind 
of fight to stop gambling and race betting and it also was largely through 
his efforts that anti-gambling laws were enacted and the big gambling 
houses at the state line were closed. Doctor Dougherty helped to 
organize a Good Citizenship society, and through that medium was 
enabled to strike a first blow against the open violation of the prohibi- 
tory liquor law which for years had received ofScial sanction by reason 
of the monthly fines paid by the dealers into the city treasurv in lieu of 
license. These and other great reform movements have been led to a 
successful conclusion by Doctor Dougherty, prompted only by a desire 
for the welfare of his fellow men and with no thought of glory or re- 
ward other than that which comes to the good and faithful servant who 
performs a duty. 

Doctor Dougherty has long been associated with the educational 
interests of the state and has been officially connected with Washburn 
College and other institutions in the state. Miss Lucy Dougherty, 
eldest of his daughters, is a teacher of English in the high school. Miss 
Mary Dougherty, the other daughter, also is a teacher and is the library 
story teller for children. Bradford Dougherty, the son, is engaged 
in business in Kansas City, Kansas. Doctor Dougherty and his wife 
have reached a ripe old age, full of experiences and faithful service 
and they bear the esteem of a wide circle of friends and of many 
thousands who have been witnesses to their good works in Kansas. 

A Kansas Artist, 

The work of Kansas artists has made its way into other states, 
while some of it has found recognition and fame in the art centers 
abroad. One whose place is in the front rank is John Douglass Patrick, 
at this time residing in Rosedale. His work was admitted to the Paris 
salon, and at the Universal Exposition, in Paris, in 1889, he was awarded 
a medal for a canvas, about nine feet wide by eleven in height, the 
subject being "Brutality." This painting was displayed in the Ameri- 
can section at the exposition. When it is considered that it was one of 
the thirteen among the large number there shown by American artists 
that earned such recognition by the jury of awards, its arti.stic worth is 
beyond question. The noted art critic, Mr. Theodore Child, placed Mr. 
Patrick among the best of American oil-painters. The press compli- 
mented him highly. His picture in the salon attracted much attention 
because of the simplicity of the subject, the dramatic grouping, and the 


forceful yet artistic handling. " Brutality " represents a French dray- 
man beating his horse because hi its inability to draw a heavy load. 
This class of subjects was not the natural selection of the young Ameri- 
can, who was rather given to painting sweet faces and delicate draperies, 
but his sensitive nature, which found delight in the purely beautiful, 
was deeply touched by the cruelty seen on the streets of Paris. Mr. 
Patrick is a Kansan, his early education being in the public schools of 
the state; an ardent student of nature, with a love for the beautiful, a 
tone of realism and an effort toward originality, which, coupled with 
his power of execution, place him among the strongest of western artists. 
He is a devotee of art for its own sake. 

Literary and Artistic Women. 

Mrs. Cora M. Stockton, of Kansas City, Kansas, widow of Judge 
John S. Stockton, was one of the women of Wyandotte whose literary 
and artistic talents were helpful to women and, as such, were recognized. 
Mrs. Stockton was one of Mrs. Potter Palmer's aides on the women's 
board of the World's Columbia Exposition at Chicago, in 1893, and in 
that capacity she contributed something of her own talents to the cause 
of woman's advancement in the arts and sciences. Mrs. Stockton 
wrote many poems of worth. In 1894 she published a collection of her 
best writings in a little volume which was dedicated to her friend, Mrs. 
Palmer. One of these, a description of a night scene at the Exposition 
grounds, while the great searchlight was thrown on the White City, 
presents this view of Columbia: 

"And Columbia stands with welcoming hands 
MHien nations their treasures are bringing; 
A song of the free by the inland sea 
Wakes the bells of Time to heavenly chime, 
A song of the centuries singing!" 

Mrs. Mary H. S. Wolcott, who came to Wyandotte from Ohio in 
1857 with her husband, Albert Wolcott, is the only surviving charter 
member of the old Congregational church of war-time days. Mrs. 
Wolcott and her husband brought with them six of those Cincinnati 
"ready-to-set-up-houses" like Doctor Root's "Pill Box," and her stories 
of the social side of old Wyandotte are delightful to hear. 

The chief clerk in the surveyor general's office when it was located 
in Wyandotte in 1855-6, was Robert L. Ream, the father of Mrs. Vinnie 
Ream Hoxie, the noted sculptress. He was born in Center county, 
Pennsylvania, in October, 1809, and died in Washington, November 21, 
1885. Another of his daughters married Perry Fuller, a noted Indian 
contractor in the early days of Kansas. The daughter Vinnie was 
born in Madison, Wisconsin. In 1863 she began to develop great talent 


as an artist. In 1866 congress commissioned her to execute a marble 
statue of the martyred President Lincoln, over eight competitors. In 
1874 she was awarded a contract by the government for a statue of 
Admiral Farragut, over twenty-one competitors. She became a very 
famous woman, .spending much of her time in Rome, engaged in this 
class of art. 

Rev. Alexander Sterrett. 

The Rev. Alexander Sterrett came to Kansas in 1866, when he first 
preached in Junction City. He located at IManhattan. He organized 
the Presbyterian churches of Junction City, Manhattan, Womego and 
Kansas City, Kansas, and died in the latter city in 1884. His widow, 
Mrs. Anna Sterrett, was a student at the Anderson Collegiate Institute 
at New Albany, Indiana. Mrs. George W. Veale, of Topeka, was also 
a student in the Anderson Institute. 

"Mother" Sturges. 

In Oak Grove Cemetery a beautiful monument marks the grave of 
Mrs. Mary A. Sturges, who was a noted army nurse. She died in 
Kansas City. Kansas, December 29, 1892. The monument was erected 
by tlie Grand Army of the Republic and "Woman's Relief Corps. It 
is a massive, but plain granite slab, resting on a base of the same ma- 
terial. Mrs. Sturges was one of the army nurses of the Civil war. 
She was intimately associated through the war with "Mother" Bicker- 
dyke, "Aunt Lizzie" Aiken, and other noted nurses. She entered the 
service in October, 1861, being at that time a ^^^dow living at Peoria, 
Illinois. She continued as a nurse till the close of the war, was after- 
ward pensioned and for many years lived with her daughter in Kansas 
City, Kansas. She often spoke of a monument she wanted erected over 
her grave, and in her declining years saved every cent she could for 
that purpose. 

Three Wyandotte Founders. 

William Y. Roberts, one of the founders of Wyandotte, located with 
a colony at Big Springs, Douglas county, in the summer of 1855, from 
Fayette county, Pennsylvania. He was a native of that state, and had 
served several terms as a member of its legislature. On October 5 
1855, he participated in the Big Springs Free State convention, and 
sei-ved as a member of the constitutional convention which met at 
Topeka the 23d of the same month. The schedule of members gives 


his age at forty-one, farming as his occupation, and his politics as 
Democratic. He was elected lieutenant governor under the Topeka 
constitution. His practical judgment prevented an open conflict with 
the border ruffians at the time of the Dow murder, though his party of 
Free State men first gave the ruffians a realizing sense that Yanlvees 
would fight. His company was the second to be mustered into the War 
of the Rebellion from Kansas — Company B, First Kansas — and was 
led by him in the battle of Wilson Creek, Missouri, August 10, 1861. 
He was soon promoted to the position of major, and then to the rank of 
colonel, in which capacity he served during the war. After the war he 
resumed the occupation of farming, doing some editorial work on the 
Lawrence Tribune during the summer of 1868. He died on his farm 
near La\NTence, February 9, 1869, after a lingering illness. 

Caius Jenkins, another of the incorporators of Wyandotte, settled 
on his claim adjoining Lawrence in the fall of 1855, having located it 
the previous autumn. During the preceding year he had been pro- 
prietor of the American House, at Kansas City. He at once identified 
him.«elf \nth the Free State cause. On May 10, 1856, he assisted 
Governor Reeder in his escape from Lawrence to Kansas. The same 
month he was indicted by the grand juiy of Douglas county for treason ; 
arrested at Lawrence May 21st by Deputy United States Marshal Fain, 
and confined with Governor Robinson and other Free State men at 
Leeompton. May 25, 1857, with other Free State men, he signed an 
open letter addressed to Secretary Stanton, offering to overlook the past 
and participate in the election of delegates to the Leeompton constitu- 
tional convention, provided a correct census was secured. On June 3, 
1858, Mr. Jenkins was killed in a dispute over the title to his land claim 
by James H. Lane. 

Thomas Hunton Swope was the last of the survivors of the first 
Wyandotte towii company. He was a native of Kentucky, graduating 
from the Central College, at Danville, in that state, in 1848. The 
following year he became an alumnus of Yale. Some years later he 
removed to Kansas City, Missouri, and November 9, 1857, his name is 
found among the charter members of the Chamber of Commerce. In 
1895 he gave to that city Swope Park, a tract of 1,400 acres. He pre- 
sented, in March, 1902, the sum of $25,000 to Central University, Dan- 
ville, Kentucky, for the purpose of erecting a library building. The 
death from poisoning of Thomas H. Swope in Kansas City, Missouri, 
in 1908, and the trial for murder and conviction of his physician. Dr. 
B. Clark Hyde, who had married a niece of Mr. Swope, was one of the 
most celebrated cases in the criminal annals of the United States. The 
verdict of the trial court was reversed by the Missouri Supreme Court 
in April, 1911, and a second trial was ordered. 


James R. Parr and Others. 

It is a difficult task at this time — more than fifty years after the 
fonndin^ of Wyandotte and Quindaro, to write of all of the pioneers who 
riglitfully sliould be mentioned as among those who were here when the 
state, county and city were in the making. Any historical work, how- 
ever, would be incomplete without tlie mention of such stanch citizens 
as James R. Parr, the first mayor of Wyandotte ; Nicholas McAlpin, one 
of the city's founders; William P. Overton, a veteran of the Mexican 
war; David J. Greist, who opened a lumber yard in the fifties; Judge 
Barzillai Gray, 0. S. Bartlett, John S. Stockton, Martin Stewart, George 
B. Reichneeker and Arthur D. Downs. Then there were lawyers like 
David E. James, Governor George Glick and his brother Charles, Charles 
Chadwick who was secretary to Governor Robinson and afterwards 
adjutant general. Some of the early German citizens were Charles 
Ilains, Philip Knoblock, Fred Drees, George Grubel, Charles and J. W. 
Wahlenmaier, G. W. Robaugh, who built mills and machinery for the 
Indians, and August Jost. Also well worthy of mention are the Woods 
brothers. Dr. George B. and Luther IL, builders of our first street rail- 
way line ; R. E. Ela, George S. Kroh, W. B. Garlick, 0. K. Serviss, John 
B. Scroggs, Dr. P. A. Eager and his son Dr. J. L. B. Eager; Captain 
George P. Nelson and George Schreiner, of steamboat fame ; R. G. Dun- 
ning, who built the Grand Opera House, known later as Dunning Opera 
House ; Prof. Porter Sherman, Dr. John Wherrell, and Prof. 0. C. 
Palmer, of early day school teaching experience ; Henry L. Alden, a 
school principal until he entered the law office of Stephen A. Cobb, and 
John A. Hale, who was an employee of the Kansas Pacific railroad be- 
fore he became a criminal lawyer, and one of the ablest before the bar. 



Creative Act — First Election of County Officers — Machinery 
IN Motion — Beginning op Road Building — The Old Southern Bridge 
— Law Enforcement in 1859 — The First JifRORS Drawn — Senators 
and Representatives — County Officers in Fifty-two Years — The 
County Seat — First Taxes Levied — Commissioner Districts Est.\b- 
lished — Township Organization — Wyandotte County Statistics. 

In the territorial period of Kansa.s, previous to 1859, the area that 
is embraced in Wyandotte county was a part of Leavenworth and 
Johnson counties. Thus, with the domination of the "Leavenworth 
crowd," or of the Missourians who came over into Kansas territory, the 
citizens here at the mouth of the Kansas river had little share in the af- 
fairs of government and of politics. In consequence thereof some things 
happened. The first election in the county, aside from the elections 
held by the Indians themselves before the organization of the territory, 
was in June, 1857, to select a delegate to the Lecompton constitutional 
convention. The polls were guarded by soldiers and the votes were 
deposited in a candle box, which was afterward found buried in a wood- 
pile at Lecompton and made infamous in history. In October of the 
same year the county came into notice again, politically, by the stuffing 
of a ballot box and other frauds, perpetrated at the Delaware crossing, 
eight miles west of Wyandotte. It is said that many of the names found 
on the poll list could also be found in a New York City directory, which 
some enterprising pro-slavery man happened to have in his posse-ssion at 
that time. 

The political history of Wyandotte county, however, began with its 
organization under an act passed by the legislature of January, 1859, 
the same legislature that authorized the Wyandotte constitutional con- 
vention. The act, signed by Governor Medeary January 29, 1859, cut 
off one hundred and fifty-three square miles from the southeast corner 
of Leavenworth county and the north side of Johnson county. Since 
that time Wyandotte county, thus created,. has been a free and inde- 
pendent political entity, capable of managing its own elections and 
governmental affairs without the aid or interference of its neighbors, 
and an important factor in the affairs of Kansas. ^ 



Creative Act. 

The legislative measure, "An Act Creating and organizing the 
County of Wyandotte, ' ' follows : 

Be it enacted by the Governor and Legislative Assembly of the Territory of 
Kansas : 

Section 1. That a county to be called Wyandotte be hereby erected, including 
that portion of Leavenworth and Johnson counties within the following limits: 
Commencing at a point in the middle of the channel of the Missouri river, where 
the north line of the Delaware reserve intersects the same; running thence west 
on said reserve line to the line between ranges twenty-two (22) and twenty-three 
(23); thence south of said range line to the south boundary of Leavenworth 
county; thence eastwardly on said boundary to the main channel of the Missouri 
river; thence northwardly with the said main channel to the place of beginning. 
Also that portion of Johnson county lying north of the townsliip line between 
townships eleven (11) and twelve (12) east of range twenty-three (23). 

Section 2. That an election shall be held in the various precincts in said 
county of Wyandotte, on the fourth Tuesday of February, 1859, for election of 
county officers, who shall hold their offices, respectively, until the next general 
election of county officers, as prescribed by law. 

Section 3. That it shall be the duty of the present supervisors of each town- 
ship in said county of Wyandotte to appoint two clerks and provide places to hold 
said special election and to act as judge of the same, observing the general election 
laws except as herein otherwise provided, and on the first Friday of the election, 
the chairman of all the boards of judges shall meet in Wyandotte City, at the 
Eldridge House, and canvass the votes and issue certificates to the persons duly 
elected, and transmit to the secretary of the territory a true copy of the canvass 
showing who were elected to the various offices of said county. 

Section 4. That the tenure of all other than county officers within said 
county shall in nowise be affected by the provisions of this act. 

Section 5. That it shall be the duty of the clerk of Leavenworth county, as 
soon as practicable after the organization of Wyandotte county, to transmit to 
the clerk of said county the papers in all suits which may be pending in the pro- 
bate court of Leavenworth county wherein both parties reside in Wyandotte county, 
together with a certified transcript of all the entries on record in each case, which 
causes, when so certified, shall be tried and disposed of in the same manner as 
though they had been commenced in the county of Wyandotte. It shall further 
be the duty of the clerk of Leavenworth county in like manner to transmit to the 
clerk of Wyandotte county the papers and documents, together with a certified 
transcript of all entries in said cause pertaining to probate business, in all cases 
wlierein the decedent's last place of residence was within the limits of said count}' 
of W.vandotte, there to be disposed of according to law. 

Section 6. That it shall be the duty of the clerk of the district court of the 
United States in and for Leavenworth county, as soon as practicable after the 
organization of the county of Wyandotte, to transmit to the clerk of the district 
court in and for said county of Wyandotte a certified transcript of the record and 
of all the papers in each and every case pending in said court wherein the parties 
thereto reside in said count}' of Wyandotte, to be disposed of in the same manner 
as though the same had originally been commenced in the county of Wyandotte. 

Section 7. Tliat is hereby made the duty of the recorders in the counties of 
Leavenworth and .Johnson to make out and transmit to the recorder of Wyandotte 
county as soon as practicable a true copy of the records of all deeds, mortgages. 


deeds of trust, bonds and other writings in relation to real estate or any interest 
therein being within the limits of Wyandotte county as above described, and the 
said recorders are authorized to procure suitable books for that purpose, and such 
clerks and recorders shall be entitled to compensation for said service from the 
coimty of Wyandotte at the usual legal rates. 

Section 8. The citj' of Wyandotte shall be the temporary county seat until 
a permanent county seat shall be established. 

Section 9. That at the next election for members of the territorial legis- 
lature, the people of said county shall vote for permanent county seats, and the 
place receiving the highest number of all the votes cast shall be the permanent 
county seat of Wyandotte county. 

Section 10. That portion of any precinct divided by the county lines, and 
being within Wyandotte county, shall be attached to the precinct adjoining in 
said county of Wyandotte for election and other purposes until otherwise ordered. 

Section 11. That the county of Wyandotte shall be liable for all the money 
appropriated by the county of Leavenworth to be expended within the limits of 
said county of Wyandotte, and that all taxes now assessed within said county of 
Wj'andotte shall be paid into the treasury of said county. 

Section 12. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its 

The First Election op County Officers. 

Under the provisions of this act the first election oj county officers 
was held, as directed, on February 22, 1859. Three days later, Febru- 
ary 25th, the board of supervisors to canvass the votes cast at the election 
met at the Eldridge House in the city of Wyandotte. On the board 
were George Russell and George W. Veale, the latter acting for Alfred 
Gray. Myron J. Pratt was acting secretary. The board declared the 
following county officers elected : 

Probate Judge, Jacques W. Johnson; sheriff, Samuel B. Forsythe; 
clerk of the Board of Supervisors, Marshall A. Garrett ; register of deeds, 
Vincent J. Lane; county attorney, William L. McMath; treasurer, 
Robert Robitaille ; surve.yor, Cyrus L. Gorton ; coroner, Dr. George B. 
Wood ; and superintendent of common schools, Jacob B. Welborn. 

Jacques W. Johnson, the probate .judge, died in the summer of 1859 
and at a meeting of the supervisors, on September 2nd, Barzillai Gray 
was elected to the vacancy. 

The County Machinery in Motion. 

The new officers duly elected and installed, the supervisors lost no 
time in setting up their organization and within a month the machinery 
of the cotmty government was in motion. The supervisors, on March 
5th, resolved to lease "the room on the corner of Nebraska avenue and 
Third street," from S. D. McDonald for the county officers. The coun- 
ty attorney was then established in a room over the postoffice. The 
salary of the clerk was fixed at $400, of the probate judge at $800, and 
the county attorney at $600. An appropriation of $200, "or so much 

Vol. 1-^18 


thereof as ma.y be required," was made "out of the first moneys re- 
ceived in the county treasury" to pay Samuel Doddsworth of Leaven- 
worth for county books. Alfred Gray was delegated "to correspond 
with some pei-son competent to build an iron jail." A license of $50 
was fixed for each dramshop. 

The Beginning op Road Building. 

As soon as the white settlers in considerable numbers began to come 
into the county outside of Wyandotte and Quindaro the supervisors be- 
gan to lay out roads, establish ferries and build bridges. Among the 
earliest and best thoroughfares that had been built previous to this time 
were the military roads from Leavenworth south through Wyandotte 
county to the Delaware ferry near Muncie, and a road that was opened 
in 18.57 from Quindaro to Lawrence. Early in the summer of 1859 the 
supervisors appointed Delos N. Barnes, Monroe Salisbury and Francis 
Ke.ssler as commissioners to .survey and locate a county road from some 
point on a line dividing sections 31 and 32, township 10 south, range 
25 east, extending in a southerly direction to the bridge across the 
Kansas river. 

The bridge across the Kansas river to which this road ran was the 
first bridge in the county. It was built in 1858 by private subscription. 
It cost $15,000 and was located three miles above Wyandotte. In 1860 
a tornado took out one span and the balance of the structure soon 

Law Enforcement in 1859. 

In the record of the proceedings of the first board of supervisors?, 
September, 1859, is the following: "The county attorney is hereby in- 
structed to .strictly enforce the requirements of the act to restrain dram- 
shops and taverns and regulate the sale of intoxicating liquors, approved 
Februai-y 11, 1859, and he is hereby directed to indict, at the next term 
of the district court, those persons who fail to take out license and in 
other reispects neglect to comply with the provisions of said law." 

The First Jurors Dravtn. 

The board of supervisors organized Monday, April 2, 1860, with 
William McKa.y as chairman. On Tuesday the matter of the selection 
of grand and petit jurors was taken up, and the followang names from 
the assessment rolls of the county, for the year 1859, were cho.sen : For 
grand jurors, Charles H. Chapin, Francis Ke.ssler, Landon Lydon, 
Albert S. Corey, Thomas Mclntyre, Fielding Johnson, Charles E. Sawyer, 
Abelard Guthrie, Arad Tuttle, James C. Zane, Silas Armstrong, S. P. 
Bartlett, 0. S. Bartlett, Chester Colbum, P. Clingaman, William Curns, 


Louis M. Cox, John M. Chrysler, Emmanuel Dyer, A. P. Day, A. D. 
Downs, James H. Hassis, Joseph Hanford, Ed. Hovey, A. Huntington, 
William Hood, Sterling Hance, Leonard Leake, Valentine Lucas, John 
McAlpin, Thomas Merry, W. C. McHenry, James McGrew, William 
Millar, James R. Parr, W. Y. Roberts, George Russell, Samuel Stover, 
Berry Swander, Martin Stewart. Milton Sabers, Hiram Wright, A. G. 
Walcott, Gustavus Leitz, Samuel M. Stephens, Charles H. Suydam, G. 
B. Terrill, E. T. Vedder, C. H. Van Possen and Isaiah Walker; for 
petit jurors, Eli McKee, Joseph II. Bartles, Jacob Kyle, John H. Mat- 
toon, Charles Morasch, C. II. Carpenter, Isaac R. Zane, Samuel Merchant, 
John Stewart, Robert Anderson, Fred Blum, Stephen S. Bradley, E. S. 
Barche, John M. Blockly. Frank H. Betton, James Clifford, James D. 
Chestnut, R. Chalk, J. A. J. Chapman, R. G. Dunning, Thomas Downs, 
Michael Gorman, G. K. Grinrod, Bat. Griffin, Joseph Greible, Malcolm 
Gregory, Theodore Garrett, M. A. Garrett, James Hennepey, Robert 
Halford, William D. Jones, N. A. Kirk, Daniel Killen, Claudius Kiefer, 
Henry Kirby, H. C. Long, William Lovey, Charles Lovelace, Anthony 
McMahon, Joseph McDowell, J. M. Mather, H. W. McNay, David 
Powell. E. J. Pedigo, Ed. Purdam, George Roof, J. D. Simpson, Ebenez- 
er Smith, C. Stapleton and Fred Schoup. 

Senators and Representatives. 

In her fifty years of statehood Wyandotte county has had twelve 
state senators. The first election for state senator was in 1862 and 
James McGrew, afterwards lieutenant governor, was chosen. He had 
previously served Wyandotte county as a representative, under election 
in 1861. William Wear was chosen senator in 1864, Isaac B. Sharp in 
1866, Charles S. Click in 1868, George P. Nelson in 1870 and Byron 
Judd in 1872. Mr. Judd was re-elected in 1874 and in 1876. He was 
succeeded by William J. Buchan, who was state .senator fourteen years 
and was defeated in 1892 by Edwin Taylor, who served one term of four 
years. Following Senator Taylor came Henry T. Zimmer, James K. 
Cubbison, James F. Getty and T. A. Milton, each for a term of four 

The first representative chosen from Wyandotte county after its 
organization was William L. McMath, in 1859. The next year, 1860, 
W. Y. Roberts was chosen. They served in the territorial legislatiires. 
Since Kansas has been a state the following have been chosen as repre- 
sentatives at the elections in the years indicated: 

1861— W. W. Dickinson and James McGrew. 

1863— W. W. Bottum. 

1864^Charles S. Click. 

1865— Isaiah Walker. 

1866— Thomas J. Barker and Daniel Killen. 


1867— Richard Hewitt and Vincent J. Lane. 

1868— H. W. Cook and Thomas Feeney. 

1869— Vincent J. Lane and John T. McKay. 

1870— Rufus E. Cable and .Joseph K. TTiulson. 

1871— Stephen A. Cobb and Hiram Malotte. 

1872— William J. Buchan and W. S. Tough. 

1873— Richard B. Taylor and Sanford Haff. 

1874— William J. Buchan and Sanford Haff. 

1875— Henry W. Cook and Sanford Haflf. 

1876— Henry W. Cook and Sanford Haff. 

1877 — Henry L. Alden, L. E. James and G. W. Greever. 

1879 — Russell B. Armstrong, L. E. James and G. W. Greever. 

1881— E. S. W. Drovight. Thomas J. Barker, and B. L. Stine. 

1882— E. S. W. Drought and James F. Timmons. 

1884— E. S. W. Drought and B. L. Stine. 

1886 — Porter Sherman and James F. Timmons. 

1888— G. L. Coates and W. H. H. Young. 

1890— J. 0. Milner and A. A. Burgard. 

1892— J. K. Cubbison and A. A. Burgard. 

1894— J. K. Cubbison, C. H. Allen and D. S. Hains. 

1896 — J. K. Cubbison, Frank J. Armstrong and Edw-in Taylor. 

1898— David D. Hoag, J. S. Edwards and IT. A. Bailey. 

1900— David D. Hoag, J. A. Butler and J. L. Landrey. 

1902— E. A. Enright, H. W. Broadbent and J. L. Landrey. 

1904— S. S. Glasscock. E. K. Robinet and C. D. Dail. 

1906— E. A. Enright, W. H. Martin and W. W. Gordon. 

1908 — George R. Allen, John B. Hutchinson and J. L. Landrey. 

1910_George R. Allen, W. B. Thomas and J. 0. Emerson. 

County Officers in Fifty-two Years. 

In the fifty-two years since Wyandotte county was organized under 
the act of the territorial legislature the following have held county offices, 
many of them sei-ving several terms : 

County Attorneys— W. L. McMath, S. M. Emerson, Thomas P. 
Penlon (District Attorney), Moses B. Newman, Charles S. Glick, Johti 
B. Scroggs, Henry W. Cook, Henry L. Alden, James S. Gibson, Nathan 
Cree, Winfield Freeman, Alfred H. Cobb, Henry McGrew, Samuel C. 
Miller, Thomas A. Pollock, E. A. Enright, James Meek and Joseph 

Sheriffs — Samuel E. Por.sythe, Luther H. Wood, Silas Armstrong, 
Edward Riter, Harvey Horstman, E. S. W. Drought, William H. Ryns, 
Thomas B. Bowling, James Ferguson, Samuel S. Peter.son, A. W. Peck, 
Jacob W. Longfellow, Harry A. Mendenhall, Alexander Gunning, James 
E. Porter and Albert Becker. 


County Treasurers — Robert Robetaille, Byron Judd, John M. Punk, 
Joseph C. Welsh, Nicholas McAlpine, E. S. W. Drought, William Al- 
bright, Benjamin Schnierle, Martin Stewart, M. George McLean, Wil- 
liam H. Bridgens, D. E. Cornell, John Spaeth and Samuel Stewart. 

Registers of Deeds — Vincent J. Lane, Jame.s A. Cruise, Allison 
Crockett, J. S. Clark, William H. Bridgens, Almus A. Lovelace, C. S. 
McGonigal, O. W. Shepherd, Albert C. Cooke, Ed. F. Blum, Thomas 
Southerland and William Beggs. 

County Clerks — ^M. A. Garrett, Moses B. Newman, James A. Cruise, 
Jesse J. Keplinger, Patrick KeUy, Andrew B. Hovey, David R. Emmons, 
William E. Conuelle.y, Frank Mapes, Charles E. Bruce, Leonard Daniels 
and Frank M. Holcomb. 

Probate Judges — Jaecpies M. Johnson, Barzillai Gray, Isaac B. 
Sharp, William B. Bowman, David R. Churchill, R. E. Cable, R. P. 
Clark, George Monahan, H. M. Herr, J. P. Angle, K. P. Snyder, Winfield 
Freeman, Van B. Prather and John T. Sims. 

Judges District Court — 0. L. Miller, H. L. Alden, E. L. Fischer and 
McCabe Moore. 

Judges Common Pleas Court — T. P. Anderson, W. G. Holt, L. C. 
True, Richard Higgins and H. J. Smith. 

Judges Circuit Court— F. D. Hutchings (1908) and W. M. 

Judges Second Division District Court — L. C. True, F. D. Hutch- 

Clerks District Court — James A. Cruise, (1862) and George W. 
Betts, L. C. Trickey, John Warren, B. W. ToAvner, William Needles, 
Alexander Gunning, August Anderson, F. T. Hoffman, J. Will Thomas 
and Robert McFarland. 

Clerks Common Pleas Court — C. S. McGonigal, J. W. Howlett, C. 
W. Litchfield, George H. Jenkins, James Begg.s, Frank L. Kenney and 
E. P. Blum. 

Clerks Circuit Court — E. R. Callender (1908) and Roman Kramer. 

Coroners — Dr. G. B. Wood, Peter Julian, Charles Morasch, Charles 
H. N. Moore, Thomas W. Noland, Bryant Grafton, David R. McCable, 
William G. Scott, L. T. Holland, G. W. Neville, T. C. Baird, A. H. Vail, 
George M. Gray, H. M. Bovms, Russell Hill, J. 0. Millner, V. S. Todd, 
D. M. Shively, A. H. Stephens, Frank M. Tracy, J. A. Davis and E. R. 

County Surveyors — Cyrus L. Gorton, D. C. Boggs, John A. J. Chap- 
man, Rynear Morgan, Samuel Parsons, Samuel F. Bigham, Robert A. 
Ela, Francis House, Walter Hale, J. H. Lasley, Park Williamson, 
William Barclay and J. Milton Lindsay. 

County Superintendents of Piiblic Instruction — J. B. Welborn, 
Fred Speck, Michael Hummer, Benjamin F. Mudge, Emanuel P. Heisler, 
William W. Dickinson, L. C. Trickey, H. C. Whitlock, D. B. Hiatt, C. J. 



Smith, Prank M. Slosson, E. F. Taylor, Mrs. Fannie Reid Slusser, Miss 
Melinda Clark, Henry Mead, Charles E. Thompson, H. G. Randall and 
George W. Phillips. 

The County Seat at Wyandotte. 

By vote of the people at the November election in 1859 Wyandotte 
was made the permanent county seat. On July 11, 1860, a proposition 


was submitted by Isaiah Walker to sell to the county lot 46, in block 93, 
on Nebraska avenue, in the city of Wyandotte, "with the frame building 
thereon" for a court house site. For this the county paid $50 in scrip 


and $1,750 in bonds to run ten years at ten per cent interest. The 
proposition was accepted and the land then purchased was used for the 
first Wyandotte county court house and jail. 

At the meeting of July 11, 1860, it was ordered that the register of 
deeds be authorized to record the plat of the Wyandotte lands, and the 
description of the allotment of the same, from the copies thereof in the 
office of the county clerk and $25 was appropriated for such use. The 
demand of William McKay for the use of the court room for the May 
(1860) term of the district court was allowed. The amount was $20. 
The matter of a new county jail was considered, and, there being neither 
plans nor propositions on hand satisfactory to the board, it was ordered 
that the clerk post up notices in not less than three conspicuous places 
in the county, calling for further plarus and proposals for a county jail 
to be presented to the board May 30, 1860, at which time it was decided 
to further consider the matter. 

The First Court House. 

It was further ordered that the notices above referred to should also 
invite proposals for removing the court house to the front part of the 
court house lot. At the appointed time, a plan proposed by J. R. Parr, 
to build the jail of planks laid and spiked together, was adopted by the 
board. The structure was to be twenty feet scpiare, each story to be 
eight feet in the clear. The first story was to be divided centrally by a 
four-foot passage, and into five cells — three on one side of the passage, 
two on the other. The upper story was to be divided into three rooms, 
approached by an outside stairway. The bid of J. L. Hall, being the 
best and lowest, to complete the jail for $2,000, was accepted, and the 
chairman of the board was authorized to enter into a contract with him 
on that basis, and also to contract for the removal of the court house. 

On January 8, 1861, in the matter of the report of the grand jury, 
made to the last October term of the district court, recommending 
certain improvements in the county jail, it was ordered by the board that 
the county clerk advertise proposals to be received, for considera- 
tion at the April term of the board, to erect a plank fence around the 
jail, to underpin the jail with stone, and fill underneath its floors with 
broken stone. 

First Taxes Levied. 

The first levy of taxes in Wyandotte county was ordered by the 
board of supervisors September 2, 1859. The rate thus fixed was one 
and one-fourth per cent of the assessed value of taxable property, real 
and personal. The board at the same meeting appropriated $1,500 for 
roads and bridges from Quindaro to the Wyandotte bridge. 


At a meeting of the board, October 2, 1860, the amount of taxes to 
be levied for county and other purposes for the current fiscal year was 
considered. It was detennined that, for the purpose of redeeming the 
outstanding orders on the treasurer of the county and to meet the ordi- 
nary current county expenses, $15,000 would be required. The county 
clerk was authorized to make a levy of taxes on the total amount of tax- 
able property on the assessment roll of that year, at such a rate, in 
mills on the dollar, as would produce most nearly such an amount. The 
further amount of $2,500 was required to pay the interest on bonds 
issued by the county and to redeem such bonds as would become due 
within the coming year, and an additional levy was ordered to meet this 

It may also be recorded here that the taxes levied in Wyandotte 
county were contested. At a meeting of the first board the county at- 
torney was authorized to draw up papers stating an agreement of facts 
and enter into the same, on behalf of the county with the Wyandotte 
Indians, for the purpose of testing the legality of taxes assessed on the 
lands in the county allotted to that tribe. 

Commissioner Districts Established. 

A board of county commissioners composed of William McKay, J. 
E. Bennett and Samuel Forsythe was elected on the first Monday in 
March, 1860. At the same election Benjamin W. Hartley was chosen 
assessor. The new board organized Monday, April 2, 1860. 

The division of the county into three commissioner districts, on 
which the first board of supervisors failed to agree, was accomplished 
by the new board. It was ordered that all that part of the city of 
Wyandotte south of the center of Kansas avenue and all that portion of 
Wyandotte township south of the section line dividing sections 5 and 6 
from 7 and 8, in township 11 south, range 25 east, and east of the town- 
ship line dividing ranges 24 and 25 east, be erected into district No. 1. 
All of the remainder of Wyandotte township and Wyandotte city was 
erected into district No. 2, and all of Quindaro township formed dis- 
trict No. 3. 

Byron Judd was the first trustee of Wyandotte township and V. J. 
Lane was the first trustee of Quindaro township. The follo\\'ing town- 
ship officers were chosen by election in March, 1862: Wyandotte town- 
ship — Byron Judd, trustee ; H. W. McKay, P. S. Ferguson, John Kane, 
constables; Gottleib Kjieipfer and J. M. Barber, overseers of highways. 
Quindaro township — E. L. Brown, trustee; Arad Tuttle, justice of the 
peace ; E. 0. Zane and J. Leonard, constables ; Charles Morash, J. Leon- 
ard and John Freeman, overeeers. 


Township Oeganization. 

Previous to 1869 all of Wyandotte county was embraced in two 
townships, Wyandotte and Quindaro. The settlement of the outlying 
districts had been so rapid that it became necessary to organize smaller 
townships, which the county board proceeded to do. 

On January -t, 1869, J. M. Michael appeared before the board and 
presented a petition signed by himself and fifty-two other persons, pray- 
ing that the board set off and organize a new township to be composed 
of the following described territory: "Commencing at the Kansas 
river at a point where the east line of towmship 11, range 23 east of the 
sixth principal meridian in Kansas, intersects the same ; thence north on 
said line to the second standard parallel ; thence west on the said stan- 
dard parallel to the northwest corner of said township 11, range 23 ; 
thence south to the Kansas river; thence along said river to the point 
of beginning." After due consideration thereof the board found that 
said petition was signed by fifty electors, resident therein, and that the 
territory proposed by said petition to be organized into a township was 
a part of the territory embraced in the township of Wyandotte ; that 
said proposed township contained an area of at least thirty square 
miles of territory and that the territory so proposed to be organized into 
a township contained the number of electors and inhabitants reqiiired 
by law. It was therefore ordered by the board, that the territory as 
above described ' ' be and is hereby organized into a township to be known 
and designated by the name of Delaware township, and that the first 
election for town officers in said Delaware township be held at the 
Peter Barnett store-room, in Edwardsville, so called, on the first Tuesday 
in April, 1869. It is further ordered by the board, that J. J. Keplinger, 
the county clerk of the county, make out a plat of said Delaware town- 
ship and place the same on sale in his office, and that he deliver to the 
proper township officers a certified copy of said plat and record. It 
is further ordered by the board, that the county clerk make out and 
transmit to the secretary of state the name and boundary of Delaware 
township, and the boundary of Wyandotte township, as it now remains 
except for portions on the east annexed to Kansas City, Kansas." 

Prairie township was organized March 8, 1869, upon the following 
petition describing its boundaries: "We, the undersigned petitioners, 
would respectfully pray your honorable body to establish a new town- 
ship out of the following territory, towit: All that portion of township 
N. 10, range 23, in said county, said township to be known as Prairie 
township. We would further represent that the territory described 
contains an area of at least thirty square miles and has a popidation of 
two hundred inhabitants, and would further ask that the first election 
for township officers be held on the first Tuesdy in April, at the Prairie 
and Connor precinct." 


The petition was signed by S. S. Kessler, Henry H. Evart.s and 
sixty-two others. The territory described was formerly embraced in 
the township of Quiudaro. It was ordered that "the first election be 
held at Connor's station and at the school house near the John Connor 
place, the place where the fall elections were held in Prairie precinct, 
on the first Tuesday in April, A. D., 1869." 

Quindaro township was re-established April 5, 1869, upon a peti- 
tion then pre.sented to the board praying that the boundary of Quindaro 
township be established as follows: "All that portion of township 
No. 10, ranges 24 and 25, in Wyandotte county." This petition was 
signed by fifty residents of the proposed township. After due considera- 
tion the board found that the petition was signed by the number of 
electors and residents required by law ; that the territory proposed to 
be erected into a township comprised in part the territory then embraced 
in the township of Wyandotte and all the territory therefore contained 
in Quindaro township after Prairie township had been organized from 
its territory; and that the proposed township would contain the area 
required by law and the requisite population and number of voters; 
and it was ordered by the board, that the territory, as above described, 
be organized into a township to be known and designated by the name 
of Quindaro township, and that the first election for township officers 
be held at the usual place of holding elections in Quindaro precinct and 
Six-mile precinct on the first Tuesday in April, 1869. 

The record of the establishment of Shawnee township, also on April 
5, 1869, is as follows: "And now, on this day, a petition was presented 
to the board, signed by John M. Ainsworth and seventy other persons 
residents of Wyandotte township and county, south of the Kansas river, 
praying that all that portion of Wyandotte county lying south of the 
Kansas river, and not included in the corporate limits of Wyandotte 
City, be set off and organized into a new township, to be known and 
designated as Sha^niee to\vnship. After due consideration thereof, the 
board do find that said petition is .signed by the number of electors and 
residents therein required by law; that the territory proposed by said 
petition to be erected into a new township is a part of the territory now 
embraced in the township of Wyandotte ; that said proposed township 
contains the territory requisite to form a township, according to an 
act of the legislature of the state of Kansas, approved 1869, and the 
territory- so proposed to be organized into a new township contains the 
number of electors and inhabitants required by law. It is, therefore, 
ordered by the board that the territory above desci-ibed be and is hereby 
organized into a township, to be known and designated by the name of 
Shawnee township, and that the first election of township officers in said 
Sha^vnee to\niship be held at the junction of the Wyandotte and Shaw- 
nee road with the Shawnee and Kansas City road, on the first Tuesday 
in April, 1869." 


Wyandotte County Statistics. 

Since the organization of Wyandotte county there has been a growth 
of population, slow at times, rapid at others, but always a growth. The 
United States census bureau's figures for the six decades follow: In 
1860, 2,607 ; in 1870, 10,015 ; in 1880, 21,342 ; in 1890, 54,407 ; in 1900, 
73,237 ; and in 1910, 100,068. 

The assessed value of all property subject to taxation in Wyandotte 
county for 1910, based on what is supposed to be its full cash value, was 
$100,848,560. The total assessed value of the railroad properties, fixed 
by the state board, was $10,876,482, and of other public utility corpora- 
tions $5,027,035. 

Wyandotte county now has fifty-six miles of macadam roads out of 
a total mileage of one hundred and sixty-five miles of all roads. Under 
a law enacted fifteen years ago, permitting a tax levy of two mills on 
the dollar under the old plan of assessment on all taxable property in 
the county, this system of roads has been built. The main roads lead- 
ing out from the cities through the county which, in recent years, have 
been macadamized are : Leavenworth, Pai-allel, Reidy, Kansas avenue and 
Turner boulevard, out of Kansas City, Kansas, and the Shawnee road 
and Southwest boulevard, from Rosedale. Under the system, from five 
to ten miles of macadamized road are added each year. 

Spanning the Kansas river, in Wyandotte county, are twenty 
bridges, costing from $40,000 to $500,000 each. Of these, nine are 
county bridges erected at a cost of $900,000, a portion of which was paid 
by the street railway companies for joint use of four of them. The 
other bridges are owned by the railway companies, except the Inter- 
city viaduct bridge which is owned by the viaduct corporation. In the 
flood in the Kansas river, in 1903 every bridge over the river in Wyan- 
dotte county except the Missouri Pacific railway bridge was wrecked. 
They have all since been rebuilt. 



An Execution in Wyandotte — Three Judicial Districts — Colo- 
rado IN the Wyandotte Districts — Second and Third Districts — 
Courts Under Statehood — The First Term — An Early' Day Court 
Scene — Dramshop Cases — Early' Members of the Bar — A Judge Who 
Played Poker — The Court House Blown Down — The Judges Who 
Followed — The Growth of Litigation — The District Court Judges 
— Lawyers op the Early Days. 

The first territorial courts of Kansas were organized in June, 
1854, when Franklin Pierce, then president of the LTnited States, ap- 
pointed Samuel D. Lecompte, of Maryland and John Pettit, of Indiana, 
as chief justices. Saunders W. Johnston of Ohio, Rush Elmore of Ala- 
bama, Jeremiah M. Burrill of Pennsylvania, Sterling G. Cato of Ala- 
bama, Thomas Cunningham of Pennsylvania, and Joseph Williams of 
Iowa, were as.sociate justices. When Kansas became a state, the court 
consisted of Judges Pettit, Elmore and Williams. Israel B. Donalson 
of Illinois was the first United States marshal ; Andrew Jackson Isacks 
of Louisiana was the first LTnited States district attorney, and James 
Findlay of Pennsylvania was appointed clerk. 

Previous to that time justice was administered by the Wyandot 
Indians as leaders of the Confederacy. They had brought with them 
fi'om Ohio, in 1843, a constitution and a code of civil and criminal laws 
that was put into operation and under it the Wyandots ruled the ' ' In- 
dian country, " as it was known, wisely and well. 

An Execution in Wyandotte. 

It was under this form of government that all differences between 
the Indians, or matters of dispute, were adjusted according to civil 
laws ; and it was under this government and its code of criminal laws 
that offenses were punished. 

The first and one of the very few executions in Kansas was in the 
village of Wyandotte. The victim was a young Indian, John Coon, 
who had killed Curtis Punch in a drunken brawl. Governor Walker 
was prosecuting attorney for the Wyandot Nation, and the defendant 



had for his counsel, Silas Armstrong. Governor Walker insisted that 
the defendant should only have been convicted of manslaughter, but 
the Head Chief let the verdict of murder stand. The defendant was 
taken to the Missouri river bottoms a short distance above where Jersey 
creek enters the valley and was shot on January 18, 1853. 

Three Judicial Districts. 

On February 26, 1855, Governor Reeder divided the territory into 
three .judicial districts. The first was assigned to Chief Justice Le- 
compte, the court to be held at Leavenworth; the second, to Judge 
Elmore, with court at Tecumseh ; the third, to Judge Johnston, ^\^th 
court at Pawnee. On August 31, 1855, Charles II. Grover, H. A. 
Hutchinson and John T. Brady were commissioned as district attorneys, 
respectively, for the First, Second and Third districts. In 1858 Alson 
C. Davis of Wyandotte, became United States district attorney; E. S. 
Dennis, Isaac Winston, Philip T. Colby and William P. Fain were 
United States marshals. Andrew J. Rodigue, E. Noel Eccleston. James 
R. Whitehead and Laomi McArthur were among the last of the clerks of 
the territorial courts. Marcus J. Parrott, Thomas B. Sykes and John 
JIartin held the position of reporters of the court. The first attorneys 
admitted to practice in the territorial court were Edmund Byerly, James 
Christian, Marcus J. Parritt and Richard R. Rees. P. Sidney Post of 
Wyandotte and Richard Henry Weightman of Atchison were appointed 
United States commissioners under the provisions of the fugitive slave 
act of 1850. 

Colorado in the Wyandotte District. 

By an act of the territorial legislature, approved February 27, 1860, 
there were three .judicial districts defined, with the times and places 
for holding therein the several courts. The division of the territory 
into districts and the judges for the courts are presented in the follow- 
ing: The counties of Doniphan, Atchison, Jefferson, Leavenworth, 
Wyandotte and Arapahoe constituted the First district, to which Chief 
Justice John Pettit was assigned. Section 10 of said act reads as 
follows: "The whole of the Delaware Indian reservation is hereby 
attached to the First judicial district for judicial purposes, as well as 
all the Indian territorv lying and being within the border of Arapahoe 
county. ' ' 

The county of Arapahoe was attached to the county of Leavenworth 
for judicial purposes, except that in the county of Arapahoe the process 
of subprena issuing from Leavenworth county, should have no force or 
effect if served in said Arapahoe county. This county embraced the 
Pike's Peak region, which became the prominent portion of Colorado, 
with Denver as an objective point. 


Second and Third Districts. 

Excepting nine counties in the eastern tiers, the remaining portion 
of the territory was in the Second district, to which Rush Elmore, asso- 
ciate jiLstice of the supreme court, was assigned. Provisions were made 
for holding courts at Burlington, Emporia, Council Grove, Junction 
City, Marysville, Hiawatha, Holton, Topeka and Lawrence. The coun- 
ties of Osage, Woodson, Wilson, Greenwood, Godfrey (now Elk and 
Chautauqua), Butler, Hunter (now Cowley), Chase, Marion, Saline, 
Dickinson, Clay, Washington, Riley, Wabaunsee, Pottawatomie and 
Nemaha were attached to their adjoining most contiguous counties for 
judicial purposes. The Pottawatomie, Kaw, Otoe, Chippewa and 
Ottawa, and Sac and Fox and Kickapoo Indian reservations were at- 
tached to this judicial district. 

The counties of Johnson, Miami, Linn, Bourbon, Cherokee, Neosho, 
Allen, Anderson and Franklin constituted the Third district, and Asso- 
ciate Justice, Joseph Williams, was assigned to it. For judicial purposes 
Cherokee county was attached to Bourbon; Dorn to Allen, and the New 
Fork Indian reservation was attached to this district for judicial pur- 
poses. In section 9 of this act, it was provided "Where a county is 
attached to another for judicial purposes, the jurisdiction of the county 
to which it is attached shall be as if it formed a part thereof, unless the 
county attached has its own organization and officers." 

Courts Under Statehood. 

When donned the robes of statehood, its constitution or- 
dained, as now, that the judicial power should be vested in the supreme 
court, district courts, probate courts, justice's courts, and such other 
courts inferior to the supreme court as might be provided by law. The 
supreme court consisted then, as now, of one chief justice and two 
associate justices, whose term of office after the first was six years. 

At the election of the state officers, held December 6, 1859, under 
the Wyandotte Constitution, the supreme judges chosen were as follows : 
Thomas Ewing, Jr., chief justice, term six years; Samuel A. Kingman, 
associate justice, four years ; Lawrence D. Bailey, associate justice, two 

Under the Wyandotte constitution, five judicial districts were 
formed, and at the first election under it, December 6, 1859, judges were 
chosen. Wyandotte, Leavenworth, Jefferson and .Jackson counties con- 
stituted the First district, and William C. McDowell was elected judge. 
The counties of the Second judicial district were Atchison, Doniphan, 
Brown, Nemaha, ^Marshall and Washington. The counties of Washing- 
ton, Republic and Shirley (now Cloud) were attached to Marshall for 
judicial purposes. Albert J. Lee was the first judge. The counties of 


Shawnee, Waubaunsee, Pottawatomie, Riley, Davis, Dickinson and Clay 
constituted the Third district. Clay, Dickinson, Ottawa and Saline 
were attached to Davis for judicial purposes. Jacob Satford was the 
tirst .jiidse. Douglas, Johngon, Lykins (now Miami), Franklin, Ander- 
son, Linn, Bourbon, and Allen counties made the original territory of 
the Fourth district. Solon 0. Thacher was the first .judge of the dis- 
trict. The original territory of the Fifth district comprised the coun- 
ties of Osage, Breckenridge, Morris, Chase, Madison, Coifey, "Woodson, 
Greenwood, Butler and Hunter, and the unorganized counties in the 
"southwest." E. 0. Leonard was the first judge. 

The act of congress admitting Kansas into the Union as a state was 
approved by the president, January 29, 1861, and from that time for- 
ward the First judicial district remained the same until an act of the 
state legislature, approved Febraary 25, 1869, changed Wyandotte coun- 
ty to the Tenth judicial district, and made the latter consist of the coim- 
ties of Wyandotte, Johnson and Miami. This district continued to be 
composed of the same counties, until an act of the general assembly, 
approved ]\Iarch 5, 1874, detached Linn county from the Sixth judicial 
district and attached it to tlie Tenth judicial district. In 1876 an act 
was passed and approved, which changed Linn county back to the Sixth 
judicial district, thus leaving the Tenth to consist, as before, of the 
counties of Wyandotte, Johnson and Miami ; and so it continued until 
an act, approved March 5, 1887, created the Twenty-ninth judicial dis- 
trict, consisting of Wyandotte county only, as it now exi.sts. The act 
creating this district set the time for the commencement of the several 
sessions of each year on the first Monday of March, the first Monday of 
June, the third Monday of September and the first Monday of December. 

The First Term. 

The first session of the Wyandotte district court was held in Con- 
stitution Hall, Wyandotte, the record of which read as follows: 

' ' The Territory of Kansas 
"County of Wyandotte. 
"Be it remembered that at a district court for the Third .Judicial District of 
said Territory, sitting within and for the county of Wyandotte, begun and held at 
the court house in the city of Wyandotte, in said county, on and from the sixth 
Monday after the Fourth Monday in April, A. D., 1859, towit: On the sixth day 
of .Tune, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine. 

"Present, Hon. .Joseph Williams, presiding judge." 

The first action of the court was to approve of the appointment of 
William Roy as deputy clerk of the court. N. C. Claiborn, D. E. James 
and E. W. 0. Clough then severally applied to the court for admission 
to the bar as practicing attorneys and solicitors in chancery, and having 
produced to the court satisfactory evidence of their qualifications as 


such, they were admitted, and each took the oath required by law. The 
first civil ease on the docket, Gottlieb Kneipfer vs. George Lehman, was 
then dismissed, on motion of the plaintiff and at his cost. 

The first grand .jury was then empaneled, consisting of "William 
Walker, foreman, R. M. Gray, Christopher Snyder, John Collins, R. L. 
Vedder, George W. Veal, J. N. Cook, Valorious Rice, James McGrew, 
Frank Betton, Charles E. Sawyer. S. S. Bradey, Alfred Robinson, Geo. 
Parker, Joseph W. N. Watson. Chester Coburn, David H. Toomb, Darius 
Crouch and James W. Craft. Upon being duly sworn and charged by 
the .judge as to their duties, they retired to their chamber to consider 
such matters as might be brought before them. 

Among other civil actions the ease of Lois Kinney vs. Charles Robin- 
son, Abelard Guthrie. Samuel N. Simpson, doing business under the 
style and description of the Quindaro Town Company, and Charles H. 
Chapin. Otis Webb and Samuel N. Simpson, was called, and, the defend- 
ants defaulting, judgment was rendered against them in favor of the 
plaintiff in the sum of $393.25 and the costs in the matter expended. 
This was the first .judgment of money rendered by the court. After 
transacting some other business, the court adjoiirned until Wednesday, 
June 8th, when, after convening, Charles S. Glick and Daniel B. Hadley 
were appointed master commis.sioners for the county. Both of these 
gentlemen then filed their boiids in the sum of $1,000 each, and other\\ase 
became cjualified for the duties of their offices. On this day S. A. Cobb, 
Jacob S. Boreman, Thomas J. Williams and M. D. Trefren severally 
applied to the court for admission to the bar as practicing attorneys and 
solicitors in chancery, and upon the production of the proper evidence 
were admitted and qualified accordingly. Also on this day the grand 
jury, by their foreman, presented in open court the following : 

' ' To the Hon. .Joseph Williams, Associate Judge of the Territory of Kansas 
and Judge of the Third Judicial District: The grand jury for the county of Wyan- 
dotte and territory aforesaid beg leave to make the following report: That there 
is no jail in said county or place for the confinement of prisoners, and would recom- 
mend that the county commissioners procure a suitable place for the confinement 
of pri.soners. 

(Signed) WILLIAM WALKER, Foreman." 

Whereupon the coitrt ordered the report to be spread upon the 
record of proceedings, and also ordered the clerk to transmit a certified- 
copy of the same to the board of supervisors doing county business. 

On the third day of the term, cases were docketed against C. N. H. 
]\Ioor and John D. Bro^^•n for the offense of "selling licjuor. " 

An Early Day Court Scene. 

D. B. Hadley and "Billy" McDowell were earnestly engaged in ar- 
guing an important case in the district court, when Judge Johnson called 


the case of Lewis i\r. Cox as administrator vs. Margaret Getsler, in the 
probate court. This case elicited great interest, as two women appeared 
in court, each claiming to be the lawful vdie of the deceased, Andrew 
Getsler. The assets of the estate consisted of one small house, several 
barrels of ilouongahela whisky, besides numerous jugs, bottles and demi- 
johns of liquor. The little house just west of the old Brevator building 
was the one owned by the deceased, but possession of that portion of the 
estate had but little attraction in comparison -with the desire to secure 
control of the liquid portion of it. The attorneys were General A. C. 
David and Colonel G. W. Glick. These gentlemen entered into the eon- 
test with spirit, and the case was conducted in such a manner as to 
create a feeling of bitterness in the minds of the counsel toward each 
other; the result was that the trial partook more of the nature of a 
personal quarrel between attorneys than of a case in a court of justice. 
General David was probably one of the finest orators that ever addressed 
a court in Kansas, and as he warmed up with his ease he became very- 
eloquent. Glick, fearing the impression David would make on the jury, 
if permitted to proceed with his argiuueut, attempted to badger him. 
As counsel grew excited it wa.s impossible to proceed with business in 
the district court on account of the noise. Judge "Williams ordered the 
sheriff to notify the probate judge if he did not keep better order he 
would arrest him for contempt. Judge Johnson, on being so informed 
by the sheriff, sent back word to Judge "Williams that he did not recog- 
nize his authority to interfere in affairs of his court, and that he had 
better not, if he did not want to be sent to jail for thirty days. Just 
at this junction of affairs Vol Rheincher and John INIoody, at that time 
boys about .seventeen years of age. passed by the hall pla>ing Yankee 
Doodle on a drum and fife; Judge "Williams being passionately fond of 
music sang out, "IMr. Sheriff adjourn court until 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning," and, making a dive for his hat, at the same time disappeared 
down the stairs and followed the boys around in the hot sun until he was 
literally exhausted, thus happily preventing a conflict of authority be- 
tween the district and probate courts. 

Dramshop Cases. 

On the fourth day of the session Philip B. Hathaway, upon applica- 
tion, was admitted to practice as an attorney at law and solicitor in 
chancery in the several counties of the territory. The same day a case 
was docketed, upon an indictment, against John F. "Wise for the offense 
of "keeping a dram-shop." Thus it appears that the conflict between 
temperance and intemperance began in the first term of the "Wyandotte 
district court. The conflict still goes on, but the heavy fines now as- 
sessed for the violation of the liquor laws show that the cause of tem- 
perance generally wins. At this first term of court John Burk, Thomas 
Vol. 1—19 


Purtie and Francis Ti-acy, natives of Ireland, and John Link, a native 
of Prussia, were, upon application naturalized as citizens of the United 

Eably Members op the Bar. 

The first term of the "Wyandotte district court continued in session 
seven days. Many civil and a few criminal cases were docketed, nearly 
all of which were continued. The attorneys admitted and composing 
the bar were Daniel B. Hadley, D. A. Bartlett, Glick, Bartlet & Glick, 
W. L. McMath, J. W. Wright & Son, William Roy, D. E. James and B. 
0. Demming. 

The original official seal of the Wyandotte district court consisted 
of a green wafer seal, with the picture of some species of plant thereon, 
but without any letters or figures whatever. Afterward, in February, 
1860, a new seal, containing the picture of a balance and the words 
" District Court, Territory of Kansas," was adopted. 

The first petit jury empaneled in the county was composed as 
follows: V. J. Lane, foreman; Matthew Mudeater, Hugh Gibbons, 
Perley Pike, Elisha Sorter, Elias S. Busick, Leonard Lake, David Pear- 
son, W. D. Ferguson, Daniel Croyle, Thomas Sherman and C. H. 

The probate records of the county show that some probate business 
for persons living within the Wyandotte purchase was transacted while 
it belonged to Leavenworth county; the first letters of administration 
having been issued May 11, 1857, to Charles B. Garrett, upon the estate 
of Henry Garrett, deceased. The first probate business transacted in 
Wyandotte county was the granting of letters of administration, on 
April 5, 1859, to Mrs. Josephine S. Cann, on the estate of her deceased 
husband, William B. Cann. Catherine Warpole was the first guardian 
appointed in the county, she being appointed April 22, 1859, as guardian 
of James, Daniel and Lydia Warpole, minor heirs of Catharine M. 
Warpole, deceased. These minor heirs were the first wards in the 
county. On April 28, 1859, John II. Miller was appointed curator of 
the estate of John Warpole, deceased. Jacques W. Johnson was the 
first probate judge of the county. A list of all his successors appears 
elsewhere in this work under the head of ' ' county officers. ' ' 

The first session of the Wyandotte district court, which convened 
June 6, 1859, was presided over by Hon. Joseph Williams, associate 
justice of the territory of Kansas. He also presided at the fall term 
of the court in the same year. The next year, Wyandotte county hav- 
ing been transferred from the Fort Scott to the Leavenworth district, 
the Hon. John Pettit, judge of that district, presided over the Wyan- 
dotte distinct court, holding two terms, the last one being the term held 
under the territorial organization. 


A Judge Who Played Poker. 

A history of Wyandotte, in speaking of Judge John Pettit, the 
second judge of the Wyandotte district court, says: "Pettit was ill- 
natured, petulant, high-tempered, profane, tyrannical and abusive, but 
withal as clear-headed and able a jurist as ever donned the judicial 
ermine of Kansas. It was nothing unusiial for him to go to Kansas 
City and play poker and drink whisky all night. The bar generally 
had to suffer for it the next day. In this connection we cannot refrain 
from giving an incident that occurred at the Gamo House during one of 
his term.s of court. S. L. Norris, a young man from Vermont, who 
lived by his wits, brought out a carpet sack of bank notes on the St. 
Albans Bank, which had burst in the crash of 1857. Judge James, 
Colonel Weir, Norris and one or two other parties, set up a job on 
Pettit and got him to playing poker. The old man was permitted to 
win nearly every game, and every time he won the boys put out a $20 bill 
on the broken bank of St. Albans, Pettit making the change in good 
money. At the close of the term the old judge was in high glee, as his 
capacious wallet was filled with $20 bills. But when he came to pay 
Mrs. Halford his hotel bill and presented one of his $20 notes, he learned 
the bank was broken ; a second and third tender meeting a refusal on 
the same grounds, he saw that he had been sold. He returned to Leaven- 
worth minus about $300 in cash, with about $1,000 in worthless money, 
a sadder but wiser man." 

The Court House Blown Down. 

One of those delightful zephyrs peculiar to Kansas was making 
everything hum the morning .Judge Pettit first opened court in Wyan- 
dotte and after climbing up to the court room, which was on the fourth 
floor, he was nearly out of breath, being a very fat man. Just as he 
began to call the docket, an unusually stiff breeze sprang up, which 
made the structure tremble from foundation to turret. When the 
building began to vibrate he said : 

"Mr. Sheriff, can't you get some room on the ground in which to 
hold court?" 

That official replied that there was no room large enough unless he 
took one of the churches. 

Just then a little stiffer breeze came, and the Judge fairly roared, 
"Mr. Sheriff, adjourn court until 2 o'clock and get a church — take a 
church." And he started for the street. He had scarcely gotten 
half way down when some one cried out, "the building is falling!" The 
crowd made a rush for the stairway, and soon the old Judge found him- 
self crowded and pushed to the door, where he barely escaped injury 
from the brick and debris of the falling building. 


The Judges Who Followed. 

Judge Pettit was succeeded by Hon. William C. McDowell, judge 
of the First judicial district of the state. He served until the dose of 
1864, and was succeeded by Judge David J. Brewer, who served for the 
next four years until 1869, or until Wyandotte county became a part of 
the Tenth judicial district. The court was then presided over for the 
year 1869 by Judge John T. Burris, of the Tentli district. In 1870 Hiram 
Stevens became judge of the Tenth district and served as such until 
1882. He was succeeded by W. R. WagstaflP, who served until 1886, 
when James C. Hindman became the judge, serving until old Wyandotte 
county was made the twenty-ninth judicial district, in 1887. 

When this district was formed the Hon. 0. L. Miller was appointed 
judge thereof, and in the fall of 1887, was elected to the office. Before 
the expiration of the term for which he was elected Judge Miller re- 
signed to engage in the practice of law with a large corporation clien- 
tage. The Hon. Henry L. Alden was appointed by the governor to fill 
the vacancy. He was chosen at subsequent elections and held the office 
until 1903, when the Hon. E. L. Fisher, who had been elected in the pre- 
ceding November, came to fill the position of honor. The Hon. Mc- 
Cabe Moore was elected in the fall of 1904 and at the expiration of his 
term was succeeded by Judge Fisher, the present encumbent. 

The Growth of Litigation. 

The growth of the city and its large interests at the mouth 
of the Karusas river brought with it a large increase of litigation, 
and it became necessary for the legislature to provide additional courts. 
The court of common pleas was created in 1891, by act of the legisla- 
ture, and the Hon. Thomas P. Anderson was the first judge. He served 
the first term under appointment and one term by election, and was 
succeeded by the Hon. William G. Holt who served two full terms, b\:t 
resigned during his third term. The Hon. L. C. True was appointed 
to the vacancy. He was succeeded at the election of 1908 by the Hon. 
Richard Higgins for the short term and the Hon. II. J. Smith for the 
full term. 

A circuit court was organized in 1907, by special act of the Kansas 
legislature, and the Hon. F. D. Ilutchings was appointed as the first 
judge. He was succeeded in 1908 by W. M. Whitelaw, who had been 
chosen at the election in November, 1907, but the court was abolished 
during his term. 

The next effort to relieve the courts of a part of the burden of litiga- 
tion resulted in the organization of the Second division of the district 
court under act of the legislature. The Hon. L. C. True, was the first 
judge by appointment. In the election of 1910 the Hon. F. D. Huteh- 
ings was elected judge, succeeding Judge True, and is now on the bench. 


The District Court Judges. 

Judge "William C. McDowell, the first one that served under the 
state organization, lived at Leavenworth. In politics he was a Democrat 
and a man of fine legal attainments. Soon after the close of the Civil 
war, about 1866, he visited St. Louis on business, and there fell from the 
driver's seat of an omnibus and was killed. Judge David J. Brewer 
also lived at Leavenworth. Some time after serving as district judge, 
he was elected to the supreme bench of the state of Kansas. Subse- 
quently he was appointed and served as a LTnited States circuit judge, 
and closed his long career as a jurist, and a member of the supreme court 
of the United States ; his death occurred in 1909. Judge John T. Burris 
lived at Olathe, Johnson county, when he served as judge of the Wyan- 
dotte district court. He was a man of soimd ability and was accredited 
by some as being the best judge who ever sat on the bench at Wyandotte. 
The home of Judge Hiram Stevens was at Paola, Miami county, but his 
law office was in Kansas City, Kansas. He served as judge of the court 
for twelve years. In politics he was a Republican. Judge WagstafS 
also lived at Paola and was a Democrat. Judge Hindman resided at 
Olathe, and was a Republican. Judge 0. L. Miller, living in Kansas 
City, Kansas, is a Republican. After his retirement from the bench 
Judge Miller served a term in congress as a representative from the 
Second district. He was for several years associated with W. J. 
Buchan and his brother, Charles A. Miller, in the law firm of Miller, 
Buchan and Miller, which was dissolved not long ago by the retirement 
of Mr. Buchan. Judge Henry L. Alden, now one of the oldest members 
of the Wyandotte county bar, is still engaged in the practice of his 
profession. He has held many offices of public trust, his last public 
service being as city counsellor during the administration of Mayor 
Dudley E. Cornell. Judge McCabe Moore, who made an enviable record 
on the bench, is now assistant United States district attorney, having 
succeeded Judge J. S. West who was elected associate justice of the state 
supreme court in 1910. 

Of the former judges of the common pleas court since it was organ- 
ized, Judge Andereon, Judge Holt and Judge Higgins, all are practic- 
ing law in Kansas City, Kansas. Judge Higgins Ls the present city 

Lawyers op the Early Days. 

Among the 135 attorneys residing in Wyandotte county and prac- 
ticing in the courts, there are not to exceed a dozen who were there thirty 
years ago. Among those who have been there twenty-five years and longer 
may be mentioned a few. Judge Henry L. Alden, John A. Hale and 
Nathan Cree are perhaps the oldest members of the bar. Following 


them were Henry McGrew, L. W. Keplinger, J. 0. Fife, W. J. Biiehan, 
D. J. Maher, Judge T. P. Anderson, Thomas J. White, J. E. McFadden, 
James S. Gibson, James F. Getty, Junius W. Jenkins, A. L. Berger, L. 
C. True, F. D. Hutehings, James M. Mason, Winfield Freeman, Judge 
0. L. Miller, W. A, Snook, K. P. Snyder, the Littiok Brothers, Judge 
McCabe Moore, I. F. Bradley and T. A. Pollock. 

Among the lawyers of the old days, fondly remembered by the older 
citizens, were such men as Stephen A. Cobb, who represented the dis- 
trict in congress when Kansas was young, Jiidge Jesse Cooper, Judge 
Isaac B. Shai-pe. Daniel B. Hadley, William S. Carroll, John B. Scroggs, 
Judge Hiram Stephens, Fred D. Mills, S. M. Garrett, Judge R. t. 
Clark, Alson C. Davis and Silas Armstrong. 



The First Movements — Kansas City Town Company — City In- 
corporated — When Armourdale Got a St.\bt — Platting op Argen- 
tine — Public Improvements — Kansas Patriotism Aroused — Call for 
A State Mass Meeting — A Great Civic Demonstration — Colonel 
Cobb's Logical Address — Governor's Consolidation Proclamation — 
First City Officers — Est.vblished Ward Boundaries — First Regular 
Municipal Election — The Metropolitan Police — Officials of the 
City — Government by Commission. 

The border strife and the Civil war that followed brought paralysis 
to Wyandotte and Qiiindaro, as it did to the rival cities of Kansas City 
and Westport in Missouri. The rush of white settlers to the land that 
formerly was occupied by the Indians that commenced in 1854 suddenly 
ceased. Everything was at a standstill. Those who came this way 
came to fight on one side or the other — not to build cities or till the soil. 
But after it was over and peace was restored, there came another rush 
of settlers to the new state, and then followed an era of development such 
as was never witnessed before in the history of the world. And in the 
next ten years, before the- ambitious cities of Leavenworth and Atchison 
were aware of it, those things occurred that laid the foundation for the 
great city that has been builded here at the junction of these two rivers 
as the permanent gateway whose doors swing both ways, from east to 
west and from west to east. 

While Wyandotte was taking on a new growth and gave promise of 
fulfilling the expectations of its founders, it was also observed that new 
cities and towns were starting up in the Kansas river valley as rivals to 
Wyandotte and right under the eyes of her citizens. But instead of 
extending the limits the men of Wyandotte merely let them grow and 
in later yeai-s when they were big enough and strong enough, they were 
all gathered into one great big city. 

The First Movements. 

It was fitting, also, that the new impetus to the building of a great 
city came through the utilization of the lands along the Kansas river 



valley whieh now is the greatest center of industrial, commercial and 
railroad activity on the Missouri river. David E. James, one of the 
early pioneers, had erected a two story house in 1857 on the strip of land 
lying between the state line and the Kansas river near its mouth, and 
thus a settlement had been started. This was United States land at 
that time, being claimed by Silas Arm.strong under the treaty between 
the Wyandots and the United States, as his "float." Certain leading 
Wyandots had been granted a section of land, each to be located in any 
spot they might choose; hence the term "float." The float comprised 
a narrow strip of land lying between the state line and the Kansas river, 
running south from the Missouri river about oue mile. Many acres of 
it were washed away by the shifting channels of the rivers, but in after 
years most of this land was reclaimed. 

Much might be written of the early history of the Armstrong float. 
Several families resided on the point from 1856 to 1860, wdio were re- 
garded onlj' as squattei-s. They obtained a living by various means. 
There was a family named Johnson there then, having a habitation 
where for many years the Missouri river ran, a few hundred yards north- 
east of the Anglo-American packing (Fowler's) hoiLse. This family 
was known to the early settlers as fishermen. The family of Edward 
Olivet was recognized by Armstrong as having a st^uatter's interest in 
the land, and while the towns of Kansas City, Kansa.s, and Wyandotte 
were being built, Mr. Olivet was the agent of Armstrong for the sale 
of sand and wood to the people of either town. Mr. Henry Williams 
also resided out in land now claimed by the ' ' Big ;\Iuddy. ' ' There was 
also a house full of negro people in that now an imaginary place on the 
point. The house heretofore mentioned as the "land office" building 
was a structure of twelve rooms, and had its history. Settlers of early 
date now reside in Kansas City who remember this old house as having 
had the reputation of being haunted. It was said that the ghost of a 
Willis Wills would, on certain occasions, appear in the house and make 
claims to the ground on which the building in which he once resided 
stood, as the property of his heirs. The claims of the Missouri river 
were pressed with such irresistible force that when the land became 
water, the ghost departed. Business is now too lively in this neighbor- 
hood to permit the existence of ghosts, and that old idea is rapidly fad- 
ing away. Near the state line on Central avenue, the widow of Edward 
Olivet — Mrs. Sophia Olivet — lived for many year.s, the only one of the 
original squatters on the Armstrong "float" claiming a home on this 

Kansas City Town Company. 

The Kansas City, Kansas, Town Company was formed in 1868, by 
Silas Armstrong, David E. James, Dr. George B. Wood, Luther H. 
Wood, William Weir, Thomas Ewing Jr., T. H. Swope and N. Me- 


Alpine. The town site was situated upon parts of fractional sections 
Nos. 10, 11 and 1-1, town 11, south of range 25 east, lying north of the 
old bed of Turkey creek, east of the Kansas river, south of the Missouri 
river, and bounded on the east by the state line between IMLssouri and 
Kansas, and comprised the followng named tracts, viz: Two tracts of 
land belonging to George B. Wood ; two tracts of land belonging to D. 
E. James; one tract belonging jointly to George B. Wood and N. Mc- 
Alpine, and one piece of land lying between the lands of Thomas Ewiug 
on the south and lands of D. E. James on the north, between Armstrong 
street and Kansas river. The site was surveyed by John McGee, civil 
engineer, April 24, 1869, and recorded with the register of deeds of 
Wyandotte county May 3, 1869. 

The streets were named after the original proprietors of the town. 
Mr. James erected the first dwelling house of any prominence in 1870, 
at the south end of James street near the railroad tracks. Soon followed 
the establishment of the large packing houses and stock yards, whose 
business forms the bulk of the city's trade. Some of the streets were 
made eighty and some sixty feet wide. James street, and all thorough- 
fares running parallel with it, have a direction bearing north 28" and 10 ' 
west — the variation of the needle being 11° east when the survey was 
made. The streets, excepting the one under a portion of the elevated 
railroad, cross at right angles. The original plat of the city was 
acknowledged by the proprietors, George B. Wood, Anna B. Wood, D. 
E. James, Nicholas McAlpine and Maria McAlpine. 

In the fall of 1869 the estate of Silas Armstrong, lying wdthin the 
corporate limits of the former Kansas City, Kansas, was surveyed, and 
laid out into blocks, lots, streets and alleys, so as to conform to the 
survey of the former city, by A. B. Bartlett and Silas Armstrong, Jr., 
administrators of the estate of the decedent. Some other additions 
have also been made to the former city of Kansas City. 

The City Incorporated. 

In October. 1872, the city of Kansas City, Kansas, was incorporated, 
and the first city election was held October 22, 1872. by order of Judge 
Hiram Stevens of the Tenth judicial district, and resulted in the elec- 
tion of the following city officers : 

Mayor, James Boyle; councilmen, S. W. Day, Charles H. Jones, 
John McKnight, George Forschler and James Lundell; police judge, 
James Kennedy; city clerk, Cornelius Cushin; treasurer, Samuel Me- 
Connell ; city attorney, H. L. Alden. The ma.vors of the city from its 
incorporation up to April, 1881, were James Boyle, C. A. Eidemillei, 
A. S. Orbison and Eli Teed. 

In June, 1881, the governor of Kansas proclaimed the City of Kan- 
sas a municipality of the second class. The mayors serving were: 


Samuel MeConnell, from April, 1881, to April, 1883; R. W. Hilliker, 
from April, 1883, to April, 1885; James Phillips, from April, 1885, to 
April, 1886. 

When Armourdale Got a Start. 

Armourdale, embracing a part of the southwest quarter of the 
southeast quarter of section 15, and part of the northwest quarter of 
the southeast quarter of section 22, all in township 11 south, range 25 
east, and being on the north bank of Kansas river about one and a half 
miles above its mouth, was laid out in June, 1880, by the Kaw Valley 
Town Site and Bridge Company. The company was composed of 
Boston capitalists, and of which Charles Francis Adams, Jr., was presi- 
dent, and John Quincy Adams, Charles Merriam, Nathaniel Thayer, H. 
H. Hunnewell and John A. Burnham were members. At this time the 
company owned a large amount of land adjoining the original town site, 
some of whi(ih has since been laid out in additions and some occupied 
for manufacturing purposes. The first addition to Armourdale, ex- 
tending from Fourth to Tenth streets, was platted in June, 1881, by 
the same town company. 

The city was incoi-porated in the spring of 1882, and the first elec- 
tion was held on May 5th. The officers were : Mayor, Frank W. Patter- 
son ; councilmen, Nehemiah Sherrick, Daniel Herbert, E. W. Anderson, 
S. Snyder and Joseph Bradley; police .judge, John C. Foore; marshal, 
William Ross; city clerk, Granville Patterson. The list of mayors of 
Armourdale were Frank W. Patterson, from May, 1882, to April, 1884; 
George W. Parson, from April, 1884, to April, 1885 ; and Jacob Barney, 
from April, 1885, to April, 1886. 

Early in the spring of 1882 the old school district, in which a school 
had been maintained for over twenty years, was divided, and that por- 
tion of the district containing the school house was set over to South 
Wyandotte. In May the Armourdale District No. 9 voted bonds for a 
$9,000 school house, which was completed on October 5th. The officers 
of the school board were N. Sherrick, president; E. Sheldon, secretary, 
and F. W. Dryer, treasm-er. A colored school was opened in the old 
wooden school Iniilding in the west end of the town. In the six years 
of the existence of Armourdale, it had acquired a population of 1,582. 

Meanwhile Armstrong had been platted. It was a small com- 
munity resting on the hill above the Union Pacific Railway shops that 
had been builded south of Wyandotte in the sixties and seventies, before 
Armourdale had been thought of. In later years, as will be seen, 
Armstrong formed a connecting link between Wyandotte and Armour- 
dale by growing in between the two. 


The Platting op Argentine. 

Argentine, on the south side of the Kansas river, was platted in 
November, 1880, and originally contained sixty acres. James M. Coburn 
was the proprietor of the first, town site. The location of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe transfer depot there was rendered necessary, in 
order to find room for side tracks, ronnd-house, coal chute and sheds. 
A town sprung up at once, and, as the different business interests con- 
tinued to select this as a location for manufacturing, the town grew 

In the original plat, the city extended from the Santa Fe railroad 
near a line parallel with Wyandotte street and from First to Fifth 
street. Attached to the original map of the city is the following: 

"I hereby dedicate for public use the following described streets and alleys, as 
marked and described on the plat of the town of Argentine, Wyandotte county, 
Kansas, herewith attached, to- wit: Sterling avenue (60 feet wide), running east 
and west between blocks 5 and 6; also Euclid avenue (60 feet wide), running east 
and west between blocks 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9; also Bullion avenue (60 feet wide), 
running east and west between blocks 7, 8, 15 and 16 — 60 feet along the south side 
of block 9, being 30 feet off the north side of the Smelting company's land; also 
Metropolitan avenue (60 feet wide), being 30 feet off the south side of southeast 
quarter of section 20, township 11, range 25, and 30 feet off the north side of 
northeast quarter of section 29, township 11, range 25; also Silver avenue (60 feet 
wide), running east and west between blocks 18, 19, 21, 22, 13 and 23; also Ruby 
avenue (60 feet wide), running east and west between blocks 21, 22, 23, 25, 26 and 
27; also First street (60 feet wide), riuining north and south between blocks 11, 
12, 13, 23, 24 and 26; also Second street (60 feet wide), running north and south 
between blocks 9, 13, 19, 20, 22, 23, 26 and 27, except all of said street south of 
lot 46, block 27; also Third street (60 feet wide), running north and south between 
blocks 3, 4, 8, 9, 18, 19, 21 and 22; also a street (50 feet wide), running south 
between blocks 25 and 27; also Fourth street, running north and south between 
blocks 4, 6, 7, 8, 15, 16, 18 and 28; also Fifth street (30 feet wide), on the west 
side of blocks 5, 6, 7, 16 and 28, and also all the alleys marked on the plat of 
Argentine of the width shown. 

JAMES M. COBURN, Trustee." 

A Great Smeltek There. 

The growth of the city was gradual. As the working capacity of 
the Consolidated Kansas City and Refining company, which was the 
first great industrial plant erected there, and that of the Santa Fe Rail- 
road increased, the city grew. It suffered a slight setback a few years 
ago when the smelter closed. But this was offset by the Kansas City 
Structural Steel Company, which purchased the abandoned smelter 
plant in the spring of 1908 and installed the largest structural steel 
plant west of Pittsburg. 

Argentine became the home of an industrious prosperous people. 
Its streets, both in the valley and on the hill, were lined with neat cot- 
tages and well kept homes, and many substantial business buildings were 


Public Improvements. 

The principal streets of the city were paved, and through the entire 
limits, from west to east, runs the Turner boulevard, one of the most 
beautiful drives in and around Kansas City. Metropolitan avenue, 
over which is operated the Metropolitan street railway line, was paved 
recently and new rails laid. The sewer system had been greatly en- 
larged in recent years and the lower portion of the city was protected 
from overflow of the Kansas river by a great levee faced with concrete 
and stone. This enabled the authorities to install a system of sanitary 
drainage such as few cities have. 

Nearly all of the religious denominations were represented in Argen- 
tine. The churches were well organized and well attended. A whole- 
some religious spirit prevailed in the city. The citizens early pro- 
vided those facilities for the education of the children. Three grade 
schools and a large high school, all well equipped and employing capable 
teachers, supplied the means of education. 

The following served as mayors of Argentine : G. W. Gulley, 1882-3 ; 
E. G. Bliss, 1883-4 ; J. A. Healy 1884 ; W. F. Noyes 1884-5 ; G. W. Gulley 
1885-6 ; T. J. Enright, 1886-8 ; G. W. Gulley, 1888-9 ; Steve March, 1889 ; 
Wm. McGeorge, 1889-91 ; J. 0. Gaskill, 1891-3 ; F. 0. Willard, 1893-7 ; 
C. W. Marston. 1897-9; C. W. Green, 1899-1903; Dr. D. E. Clopper, 
1903-5; A. P. Jasper, 1905-6; H. R. Rossetter, 1906-7; C. W. Green, 

Kansas Patriotism Aroused. 

A movement of the citizens of Kansas for the building in their own 
state of a great city, or an "emporium of commerce and industry," was 
inaugurated in the year 1875, eleven years before the present municipal 
corporation known to the world as Kansas City, Kansas, was formed by 
the consolidation of the cities, towns and villages that had been builded 
at and along the state line on the Kansas side. In pursuance of a 
notice published in the newspapers, a mass meeting of the citizens of 
Wyandotte county was held at Dunning 's Hall, in Wyandotte City, on 
September 4, 1875, for the purpose of discussing the subject and devis- 
ing ways and means to assist in building up the commercial metropolis 
of the state of Kansas at the mouth of Kansas river. V. J. Lane was 
appointed chairman, and Nicholas McAlpine secretary. 

After the chairman had stated the object of the meeting, Colonel 
Stephen A. Cobb introduced the following resolution, which passed 
unanimoiLsly : "Resolved, That a meeting of citizens of the state of 
Kansas be held at Dunning 's Hall on Thursday, the 23rd of September, 
in the afternoon and evening, and that prominent citizens of the state 
be invited to address the meeting and become our guests." 

On motion the following five persons were appointed as an invitation 


committee : H. W. Cook, John B. Scroggs, R. B. Taylor, V. J. Lane and 
Sanford Haff. 

On motion a committee on arrangements and finance was appointed, 
oonsLsting of S. A. Cobb ; Mayor Charles Hains of Wyandotte ; Mayor 
Eli Teed of Kansas City, Kansas; E. L. Bartlett, Dr. Thorne, Thomas 
Vickroy, L. H. Wood, J. S. Stockton and W. J. Biichan. A committee 
of five on assessment and taxation was then appointed as follows: L. H. 
Wood, Mayor Ilains, 11. M. Northrnp, J. J. Keplinger and N. McAlpine. 

Call foe A State Mass Meeting. 

The following is a copy of the call published in the papers for a 
meeting to be held September 23, 1875. 

"To the People of Kansas: The citizens of Wyandotte county, mindful of 
the fact that the increasing commerce of the Missouri valley must concentrate 
somewhere on the bank of our river for general exchange, and build up a great 
emporium at the point where such general exchange shall be made, believe that the 
necessities of trade and the laws of nature, facts not to be denied, have fixed that 
point at the mouth of the Kansas river. This commerce, for the most part, is the 
product of the industry, the intelligence and the resources of Kansas; the city 
which is its ofTspring, they believe should be on Kansas soil, subject to her laws 
and tributary to her wealth. They believe that city may be planted by wise and 
judicious action on the part of the people within the borders of their state. They 
believe a generous intercliange of sentiment on the spot by citizens of Kansas, with 
their fellow-citizens who reside at the mouth of the Kansas river, will convince 
the most skeptical and win him to their belief as to where that great mart shall 
be seated. Therefore, in no spirit of rivalry, as citizens of Kansas, solicitous of 
her welfare, they cordially invite as many of the people of their state as can 
attend a public meeting, to be held at Wyandotte on Thursday, September 23, 1875, 
in the evening, to consider the subject. To such as come they pledge a hearty 
welcome to their homes." 

A Great Civic Demonstration. 

This invitation met with a very liberal, there being 300 
of the representative men of the state in attendance at the meeting on 
September 23rd. These guests were met at the depot by the citizens 
and escorted through the principal streets of the city in carriages. The 
following counties were represented by delegates in person : Douglas, 
Riley and Davis on the west ; Leavenworth on the north ; Johnson, Miami 
and Bourbon on the south : Franklin, Anderson and Allen on the south- 
west ; and Jefferson on the northwest. The following counties sent 
words of encouragement by letter: Shawnee, Crawford, Coffey, Linn, 
Osage, Pottawatomie, Saline, Ellis, Republic, Ellsworth and Atchi.son. 
The press was represented by W. H. Miller, of the Kansas City Journal; 
S. M. Ford, of the Kansas City Times; H. Wilcox, of the Kansas City 
News and Chronicle; R. B. Taylor, of the Wyandotte Gazette, and V. J. 
Lane, of the Wyandotte Herald. 


The ladies had decorated Dunning's Hall where the meetings were 
held. Colonel S. A. Cobb was elected president, and the following 
gentlemen vice presidents: General W. H. M. Fishback, of Johnson 
county; Theodore C. Bow'les, of Franklin county; Hon. John T. Lanter, 
of Anderson county; Hon. L. J. Worden, of Douglas county; Dr. George 
B. "Wood, of Wyandotte county; Judge Williams, of Jefferson county; 
' Gen. John A. Halderman, of Leavenworth ; Hon. George A. Crawford, 
of Bourbon county; Judge Hiram Stevens, of Miami county; Judge N. 
F. Acres, of Allen county; and Hon. John K. Wright, of Davis county. 
Speeches were made by Colonel Cobb, Senator Hai-vey, Gov. J. P. St. 
John, Gov. George A. Ci'awford, Gen. J. A. Halderman, Hon. T. C. 
Bowles, Hon. John K. Wright, Hon. L. J. Worden, Judge Williams, Hon. 
W. J. Buchan and others. Letters and telegrams, all giving encourage- 
ment to the movement, were read from other parties, among whom were 
Hon. J. J. Ingalls, J. R. Goodin, Byron Sherry, Gov. Osborn, George W. 
Veale, Chancellor Marvin, John Frazer, P. L B. Ping and H. P. Dow. 

Colonel Cobb 's Logical Address. 

The following is an extract from the speech of Colonel Cobb, which 
vividly portrays the natural advantages of the location at the mouth of 
Kansas river for the commercial metropolis of the state : "The terminus 
of one great line of railroad, the Kansas Pacific, whose trade extends 
westward beyond our limits to the mining camps of Colorado, and the 
grazing fields of New Mexico — on the north of this line of railroad, her 
supplies and goods minister to the wants of the settlei-s in the counties 
of our state, lying west of the district drained by the Central Branch 
Union Pacific and the St. Joseph & Denver Railroads, until she reaches 
the neighborhood of the Burlington & Mi.ssouri River Railroad of 
Nebraska. Then extending westward, under the advantage of the pro 
rata bill pa.ssed at a recent session of congress, by way of Denver and 
Cheyenne, her influences are felt, as the competitor of Omaha, on the 
plains of Wyoming and in the valle.ys of Utah. On the south side of 
the Kansas Pacific Railroad .she has practically no competitor in the 
field of trade, and her business men solicit exchange over the whole 
expanse of countrv southward to the northern boundary of Texas, and 
westward to the limits of settlement this side of the Rocky mountains. 
Confining the cjuestion to our own state, the railroads which extend west- 
wardly from the mouth of the Kansas river drain every section of 
Kansas, except the counties of Leavenworth, Atchison, Doniphan, Nema- 
ha, Brown. Marshall, Jackson and portions of Jeffei-son, Pottawatomie 
and Washington. The Republican branch of the Kansas Pacific, which 
extends northward up the valley of the Republican river to Clay Center, 
Clay county, take.s the trade of the northwestern counties, which would 
otherwise go to the Central Branch or St. Joseph & Denver roads to the 


line of the Kansas Pacific. The Kansas Midland road between this 
point and Topeka, and the line between here and Ottawa, are lines over 
which the trade of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the Leaven- 
worth, Lawrence & Galveston roads will respectively pass mth the same 
facility with which it will to Atchison or Leavenworth. 

"The people of Wyandotte county contend that the mass of trade 
carried on by these roads will follow the valley of the Kansas river to its 
junction with the Missouri. They contend, other things being equal, 
that the companies owning these roads can afford to deliver freights 
cheaper at the mouth of the Kansas river than at any other point on the 
Missoiiri, because the grades of the roads are uniform and descending 
after they touch the valley of that river, while, to carry their freight to 
the original terminus, requires them to pass over elevated tracts of coun- 
try with heavy gradients. But things are not ecjual. Any great city 
in the Missouri valley will be tributary either to the greater cities of St. 
Louis or Chicago. The state of Kansas is by nature, tributary to St. 
Louis. To re-distribute passengers and freight bound to St. Louis from 
the principal portion of Kansas northward of this point, is to take them 
out of a direct line for re-distribution. But the mass of the producers 
of Kansas will not engage in the business of re-distribution. They will 
dispose of their products where they can find the buyers and seldom go 
farther from home in quest of them than to the Missouri valley. The 
people of this county contend that they will go there where the greatest 
competition may be had, and that today no man can question that the 
grain elevators, the packing-houses and the stock-yards at this point all 
demonstrate that the buyers of the staple products — grain and cattle — 
are far more numerous than anywhere else on the I\Iissouri river. They 
contend that the mouth of the Kansas river is the natural site for the 
metropolis of the Missouri valley, and that all efforts to build it else- 
where will be futile. They believe that the failure of other places to 
become the metropolis is owing to no mistake on the part of the citizens 
of those places, but they simply lacked the thousand and one natural 
advantages that this spot so happily possesses. It is said 'facts are 
born, not made.' So of those great marts that spring up in the march 
of civilization across the continent. The people of Kansas would gladly 
have made their metropolis elsewhere, but this spot was born to be it, 
and they must accept the fact. 

"In all I have said I have not spoken of the eastern connections of 
railroads with this point. To name them is sufficient. The Missouri 
Pacific and St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern furnish rival lines and 
some competition to St. Louis. The Hannibal & St. Joseph, and the 
Kansas City & Northern to IMoberly, and then the Missouri, Kansas and 
Texas supply like facilities to Chicago. Keeping in \'iew these compet- 
ative lines alone, no other place in the valley of the Missouri approaches 
this advantage." 


This agitation was continued persistently tliroiighout Kansas for 
eleven years before the agitators could begin to see that their hopes 
were to be realized. 

The Governor's Consolidation Proclamation. 

In the year 1886 Governor John A. Martin, by virtue of an act of 
the Kansas legislature, issued a proclamation that consolidated all of 
these cities and towTis into one city to be known as Kansas City, Kansas. 
The proclamation follows : 


Declaring Kansas City, Armourdale and Wyandotte a city of the first class, under 

the name of Kansas City, 

"State of Kansas, Executive Department, 
"Topelca, March 6, 1886. 

'M^liereas, it appears by certificate of the county clerk of Wyandotte county, 
Kansas, bearing date of February 16. 1886. and filed in this department on the 
19th day of February, 1886, that the following cities, to-wit: Armourdale, Kansas 
City and Wyandotte, neither of which is a city of the first class, lying adjacent to 
each otlier, and not more than three-fourths of one mile apart, have attained, and 
that the aggregate population of said adjacent cities, as shown by the last census, 
taken under the laws of this state, now is fifteen thousand and upwards; and 

"Whereas, it further appears by said certificate of the county clerk of Wyan- 
dotte county, Kansas, that the boundaries of said city of Armourdale are as follows: 
'Commencing at the center of section twenty-two (22), township eleven (11) 
south, range twenty-five (25) east; thence west twenty-six hundred and forty 
(2,640) feet; thence north twenty-six hundred and forty (2,640) feet; thence east 
tliirteen hundred and twenty (1,320) feet; thence north eight hundred and fifty-four 
(854) feet; thence east three hundred and thirty (330) feet; thence south six 
hundred and sixty-one (661) feet; thence east to the quarter section line running 
north and south through the center of section (15) in said township and range; 
thence north eight hundred and forty (840) feet; thence east one hundred and 
seventy-five (175) feet; thence north four hundred and fifty-five (455) feet; 
thence east three hundred and five (305) feet; thence north one hundred and sixty 
(160) feet; thence east five hundred and eighty (580) feet; thence south ten 
hundred and thirty-one (1,031) feet; thence south twenty-two degrees (22) and 
fifty minutes (50) east, three hundred and twenty-five (325) feet; thence south 
eight hundred and ninety (890) feet; thence south thirty-two degrees (32) west, 
twenty-two hundred and twenty-one (2,221) feet to the place of beginning, having 
a population of fifteen hundred and eighty-two (1,582), as shown by the last 
census taken under the laws of this State; that the boundaries of said city of 
Kansas City are as follows: 'Commencing in the middle of the Kansas river, at 
a point where the same is intersected by the dividing line between sections four- 
teen (14) and twenty-three (23), in township eleven (11) south, range twenty-five 
(25) east; thence east to the line dividing the states of Kansas and Missouri; 
thence north along said state line to the middle of the Missouri river; thence up 
said Missouri river northwesterly to a point where the middle of the Kansas river 
intersects the same; thence up the middle of the Kansas river to the place of 
lieginning, ' and that said city has a population of thirty-eight hundred and two 


(3,802), as shown by the last census, taken under the laws of this state; that the 
houndaries of said city of Wyandotte are as follows: 'Commencing on the eastern 
boundary of the state of Kansas where the same is intersected by the Second 
Standard Parallel; thence west along said Standard Parallel to the northwest 
corner of section four (4), in township eleven (11) south, and range twenty five 
(25) east; thence south to the southwest corner of section nine (9), in said town- 
ship and range; thence east to the southeast corner of said section nine (9); 
thence south to the north line of the right-of-way of the Union Pacific Railway 
Company (Kansas Division) ; thence easterly along the north line of said right-of- 
way fourteen hundred and fifty (1,450) feet; thence north thirty degrees (30) 
east, nine hundred and forty-five (945) feet; thence south eighty-one degrees (81) 
and forty-five minutes (45) west, one hundred and fifty (150) feet, thence north 
fifteen hundred (1,500) feet; thence east to the east line of the right-of-way of 
the Union Pacific Company (Kansas division) ; thence south along the east line of 
the said right-of-way to the quarter section line running east and west through 
the center of said section fifteen (15), township eleven (11), range twenty-five 
(25) east: thence east to the center of the Kansas river; thence to the middle of 
the Kansas and Missouri rivers to the point of beginning, ' and that said city has a 
population of twelve thousand and eighty-six (13,086), as shown by the last 
census, taken under the laws of this state. 

"Now, therefore, I, John A. Martin, governor of the state of Kansas, do hereby 
declare and proclaim, under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by 
an act of the legislature of the state of Kansas, entitled 'An act to provide for the 
consolidation of cities,' approved February 11, 1886, and an act supplemental and 
amendatory thereof, approved February 18, 1886, the said citizens of Armourdale, 
Kansas City and Wyandotte, to be consolidated, and to be one city, and a city of 
the first class, under the name of Kansas City, subject to the provisions of an act 
entitled 'An act to incorporate and regulate cities of the first class, and to repeal 
all prior acts relating thereto,' approved March 4, 1881, and amendments thereto, 
and that the boundaries of the said consolidated city are and shall be the boundary 
line around the outside of the said several cities so consolidated, as follows: 
'Commencing on the eastern boundary of the state of Kansas where the same is 
intersected by the Second Standard Parallel; thence west along the said Standard 
Parallel to the northwest corner of section four (4), in township eleven (11) 
south, of range twenty-five (25) east; thence south to the southeast corner of 
section nine (9) in said to^vTlship and range; thence east to the southeast corner 
of said section nine (9) ; thence south to the southwest comer of the northwest 
quarter of section twent,y-two (22), said township and range; thence east to the 
center of said section twenty-two (22) ; thence north thirty-two degrees (32) and 
thirty-six minutes (36) east, twenty-two hundred and twenty-one (2,221) feet; 
thence north eight hundred and ninety (890) feet; thence north twenty-two de- 
grees (22) and forty-five minutes (45) west, three hundred and twenty-five (325) 
feet; thence north to the quarter section line running east and west through the 
center of section fifteen (15), township eleven (11) south, range twenty-five (25) 
east; thence east to the center of the Kansas river; thence up along the center of 
said river to the section line between sections fourteen (14) and twenty-three 
(23), in said township and range; thence to the state line between the states of 
Kansas and Missouri ; thence north along said state line to the center of the 
Missouri river; thence up said Missouri river to the place of beginning.' 

"And I further declare and proclaim that the first election of officers of said 
consolidated city shall be held on Tuesday, the 6th day of April, A. D., 1886, in 
the manner provided by the acts authorizing such consolidation. 

"In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name and caused to be 

Vol. 1—20 


affixed the Great Seal of the State. Done at the city of Topeka on the day and 
year first above written. 

"By the Governor: JNO. A. MARTIN. 
"E. B. ALLEN, Secretary of State. 

"By W. T. CAVANAUGH, Assistant Secretary of State." 

The ori^nal proclamation, as executed by the governor and duly 
certified by the secretary of state, on March 6, 1886, is on file in the 
office of the clerk of Wyandotte county. 

The First City Officers Chosen. 

At the election held Tuesday April 6. 1886, under the proclamation 
of Governor Martin the first officers to serve the new city were chosen : 

Mayor — Thomas F. Hannan. 

Clerk— John J. Moffitt. 

Treasurer — Frank S. Merstetter. 

Attorney — William S. Carroll. 

Eng:ineer — John H. Lasley. 

Street Commissioner — John Wren. 

Fire Marshal — J. K. Paul. 

City Marshal — John Sheehan. 

Police Judge — M. J. ]\Ianning. 

Councilmen — Charles Bohl, W. T. Brown, William Clow, Edward 
Daniels, Thomas Flemming, Charles Hains, Samuel McConnell, James 
Phillips, Cornelius Butler and Dr. J. C. Martin. 

These officers were chosen to serve until a regular city election in 
April, 1897, and they were duly installed by Dr. J. C. Martin, who was 
mayor of Wyandotte at the time of its consolidation and therefore the 
provisional mayor of the new city. 

Established W.\rd Boundaries. 

One of the acts of the first administration was the division of the 
city into six wards, as provided by laws governing cities of the first 
class in Kansas. The wards as then formed are described as below: 

The First ward comprised all that portion of the city of Kansas 
City, Kansas, lying east of the Kansas river. First precinct : All that 
portion of the First ward lying south of the center line of the extension 
of Kansas avenue east of the Kansas river, including the localities known 
as Toad-a-Lo)ip and Greystone Heights. Second precinct: All that 
portion of the First ward lying between the center of Lyon avenue 
(formerly Fifth street) on the north and the extension of Kansas 
avenue on the south. Third precinct : All that portion of the First 
ward lying north of the center of Lyon avenue, extending from the 
Kansas to the Missouri river. 


The Second ward c-omprised all that portion of the city lying north 
of the center of old Ohio avenue extended, and east of the center line of 
Fifth street prolonged to the city limits on the north. Fourth precinct: 
All that portion of the Second ward hing south of the center line of 
Minnesota avenue and east of the center line on Fifth street. Fifth 
precinct : All that portion of the Second ward l.ving south of the center 
of Viro-inia avenue, east of the center line of Fifth street, and north of 
the center line of Minnesota avenue. Sixth precinct : All that portion 
of the Second ward lying north of the center of Virginia avenue, and 
east of the center line of Fifth street, prolonged to the northern city 

The Third ward comprised all that portion of the city lying west 
of the center line of Fifth street, prolonged to the northern city limits, 
and north to the center of State avenue. Seventh Precinct : All that 
portion of the Third ward north of the tracks of the Chelsea Park branch 
of the elevated railway. Eighth precinct : All that portion of the 
Third ward lying south of the tracks of the Chelsea Park branch of the 
elevated railway, and east to the center line of Ninth street. Ninth 
precinct : All that portion of the Third ward lying south of the tracks 
of the Chelsea Park branch of the elevated railway, and west of the 
center line of Ninth street. 

The Fourth compri.sed all that portion of said city lying be- 
tween the center line of State avenue on the north, the center line of 
Fifth street on the east, the center line of old Ohio avenue on the south 
and the city limits on the west. Tenth precinct: All that portion of 
the Fourth ward hnng west of the center line of Ninth street. Eleventh 
precinct : All that portion of the Fourth ward lying east of the center 
line of Ninth street, and north of the center line of Tauromee avenue. 
Twelfth precinct: All that portion of the Fourth ward lying east of 
the center of Ninth street and south of the center of Tauromee avenue. 

The Fifth ward comprised all that portion of the said city lying 
between the center line of the old Ohio avenue, and the old Ohio avenue 
extended on the north, the Kansas river on the east, the main line tracks 
of the Union Pacific railway on the south, and the city limits on the 
west. Thirteenth precinct : All that portion of the Fifth ward lying 
east of the center line of Mill street, and north of the tracks of the 
Riverview branch of the elevated railway. Fourteenth precinct : All 
that portion of the Fifth ward lying east of the center of Mill street, 
and south of the tracks of the Riverview branch of the elevated railway. 
Fifteenth precinct: All that portion of the Fifth ward lying west of 
the center line of Mill street. 

The Sixth ward comprised all that portion of said city l.ving soiith 
of the main line tracks of the Union Pacific Railway and west of the 
Kansas river. Sixteenth precinct: All that portion of the Sixth ward 
lying west of the center line of Coy street (formerly Fourteenth street. 


Armourdale). Seventeenth precinct: All that portion of the Sixth 
ward lying between the center line of Coy street on the west, and the 
center line of Fourth street (formerly Seventh street, "Armourdale) on 
the east. Eighteenth precinct: All that portion of the Sixth ward 
lying east of the center of Fourth street. 

The First Regular Municipal Election. 

At the first regular election held in Kansas City, Kansas, in April, 
1887, Mayor Thomas F. Hannan, Clerk John J. IMoffitt, Treasurer Frank 
S. Merstetter, Attorney W. S. Carroll, Fire Marshal J. K. Paul and 
Street Commissioner M. J. IManning were elected for a term of two 
years. A. W. Boeke was chosen city engineer at that election to suc- 
ceed J. H. Lasley. The councilmen chosen at this election were: 
First ward, James Sullivan and James Phillips; Second ward, Charles 
Bohl and Charles Scheller; Third ward, Dr. J. C. Martin and James 
Varner; Fourth ward, Joseph Peavey and Joseph C. Welsh; Fifth Ward, 
L. F. Martin and William Miller, and Sixth ward, Thomas D. Kelley 
and M. G. McLean. 

The Metropolitan Police. 

The police department on April 15, 1887, was placed under control 
of a board of police commissioners appointed by the governor, under 
what was known as the Metropolitan police law enacted by the legisla- 
ture of 1887. The first commissioners were William A. Simpson, J. 
W. Longfellow, and George W. Bishop. The commissioners appointed 
P. K. Leland police .judge and 0. K. Serviss chief of police, and organ- 
ized a Metropolitan police force. This same police administration was 
continued with few changes of commissioners and heads of the depart- 
ments until the Metropolitan police act was repealed in 1899 and the 
police department was placed in control of the mayor and council. 

The system of municipal government provided by the charter laws 
underwent few changes for twenty-four years, public improvements 
were made, and the fire and police forces, as well as those of other 
departments, were enlarged as the growth of the city demanded. 

The Annexation of Argentine. 

The area of Kansas City, Kansas, was increased by the extension of 
the limits at different times to take in ad.joining additions until, in 1909, 
the territory embraced in the city extended west from the Missouri 
river to Eighteenth street which was the western boundary. 

In 1909 there was another notable movement for enlarging the 
city. It was then that the citizens of Argentine decided to annex their 


city to Kansas City, Kansas. This declaration was followed by the 
necessary ordinances and on January 1, 1910, Argentine became a part 
of Kansas City, Kansas, and was designated as the Seventh ward. 

About this time, Quindaro, Midland Park, Chelsea Place and 
several additions on the north, west and south, increased the area of 
the city to seventeen and one-half square miles, with a west boundary at 
Thirty-third street. 

Officials of the City. 

Since the organization of Kansas City, Kansas, in 1886, the follow- 
ing have served as mayors : 

Thomas F. Hannan, 1886-9. 

William A. Coy, 1889-91. 

Thomas P. Hannan, 1891-3. 

Nathaniel Barnes, 1893-5. 

George J. Twiss, 1895-7. 

Robert L. Marshman, 1897-1901. 

William H. Craddock, 1901-3. 

Thomas B. Gilbert, 1903-5. 

William W. Rose, Edward E. Venard and Dr. George M. Gray, 

Dudley E. Cornell, 1907-9. 

Ulyssus S. Guyer, 1909-10. 

James E. Porter, 1910-13. 

Those who have served the city in other offices since the date of 
organization are : 

City Attorney— W. S. Carroll, H. L. Aldeu, A. H. Cobb, L. C. True, 
K. P. Snyder, T. A. Pollock, P. D. Hutchings, Marvin J. Reitz, S. R. 
Nelson and W. L. Winship. 

City Counsellor — H. L. Alden, L. W. Keplinger, Winfield Freeman, 
James N. Rees, K. P. Snyder, George B. Watson, T. A. Pollock, J. W. 
Dana, E. S. McAnany, H. L. Alden, L. W. Keplinger and Richard 

City Clerk — J. J. Moffitt, Benjamin Schnierle, William Albright, 
B. L. Short, George E. Yeager, E. R. Ireland, William B. Trembley, P. 
J. Nugent, George Eoerschler, Jr., J. E. Smyth and Girard Little. 

City Treasurer — F. S. Merstetter, Chas. P. Dennison, John W. 
Ferguson, John A. Adams, Lillian J. Adams, Tiera Farrow and Kate 

City Engineer — J. H. Lasley, A. W. Boeke, Charles A. Ellis, 
Francis House, S. G. McLoon, Robert L. McAlpine, S. G. McLoon, R. 
L. McAlpine and William Barclay. 

Chief of Fire Department— J. K. Paul, W. J. Hill, J. K. Paul, C. 
E. Staub, Larkin Norman, Jerry Grindrod, Larkin Norman, T. B. Bowl- 
ling and John McNarry. 


Chief of Police— John Sheehan, 0. K. Serviss, S. S. Peterson, C. 
P. Dennison, W. T. Quarles, 0. K. Serviss, W. T. Quarles, Robert J. 
McFarland, Henry T. Zimmer, A. J. Murray, Vernon J. Rose, D. E. 
Bowden, W. W. Cooke and H. T. Zimmer. 

Police Judge— M. J. Manning, P. K. Leland, S. S. King, P. K. 
Leland, M. J. Manning, W. H. McCammish, T. B. Bowling, W. B. 
Tremble.v, John T. Sims and J. L. Carlisle. 

City Assessor — J. C. Bailey, Frank Mapes, W. H. Bridgens, Harry 
Darlington, William Pray, D. W. Troup, H. T. Zimmer and George 

Street Commissioner — John Wren, M. J. Planning, C. Patterson, 
H. P. Johnson, W. N. Woodward, W. B. Garlick, William Rodekopf, 
James A. Young, James E. Porter, A. R. IfcClaskey, H. S. Swingley 
and C. Patterson. 

Commissioner of Election — W. B. Taylor, Robert C. Foster, S. S. 
King, R. J. McFarland and W. W. Cooke. 

Police Commissioners — R. W. Hilliker, W. A. Simpson, J. W. 
Longfellow, George W. Bishop, Hinton Gordon, A. W. Cunningham, 
William Pray, George W. Mitchell, John Caskey, Leonard Daniels, Wil- 
liam S. Gress, 0. Q. Clafflin, J. L. Sterrett, 0. J. Peterson and H. S. 

Government by Commission. 

A notable event in the history of the progress of Kansas City, 
Kansas, was the adoption by the voters of the city at a special election 
early in 1910 of the Commission form of municipal government. The 
act of the Kansas legislature, which was the charter under which cities 
adopting the system are operated, provided for a mayor commissioner 
and four other commissioners, each to have charge of a particular 
department of municipal affairs and to be held responsible for their 
management. At the election held in April, 1910, these commissioners 
were elected : James E. Porter, mayor commissioner ; James A. Cable, 
commissioner of water works and public lighting; Charles W. Green, 
commissioner of finance and revenue; Henry E. Dean, commissioner of 
parks, health and public property; and Otto Anderson, commissioner of 
streets and public improvements. 

Three days after the election Mayor U. S. Guyer and the twelve 
members of the council gave over the management of the city to the 
commissioners and retired. The water board gave over control of the 
water works and the park board afterwards surrendered control over 
the parks and boulevards to the eonunissioners. 

The inauguration of the new rule brought many radical changes 
from the former council system. By a division of the responsibility 
of management and the close application of each commissioner to his 


duty the city's affairs were placed on a business basis, its floating debt 
paid and its expenses kept within its revenues. 

At the end of the first year of the new rule Mayor Commissioner 
Porter and Commissioners Cable, Dean and Anderson were re-elected 
for terms of two years. Mr. Green, who had made a splendid record 
as commissioner of finance, retired with honor to devote himself to his 
business interests. James E. Caton was chosen as his successor. 



— A Picturesque Little City' — Rosedale Schools — Church History 
— A City of Homes — A Great Medical School and Hospital — Rail- 
road Terminals — The Old Rolling Mill — Other Industries — A 
Pioneer for Kansas Good Roads — Bonner Springs, the Ancient 
Quivira — The First Commercial Center — The Famous Four Houses 
— The Tiblow Ferry — The Celebrated Springs — Town Organized — 
City Organized — Discovery of Natural Gas — Lakes and Parks — 
Churches and Schools — First Rural Mail Delivery There — Other 
Towns in Wyandotte County. 

Rosedale, with a population of 5,960 by the 1910 United States 
census, is the only Kansas municipality at the state line in "Wyandotte 
county that has failed to give up its identity and be annexed or merged 
into the larger city, Kansas City, Kansas, which now covers the eastern 
part of Wyandotte county in the fork of the Missouri and Kansas rivers. 
Wyandotte, the old City of Kansas City, Kansas, and the ambitious city 
of Annourdale, all gave up their individuality in 1886 and were merged 
into Kansas City, Kansas. Argentine, the busy city on the south of 
the Kansas river, gave up on January 1, 1910, and came into the same 
municipal fold. Then historic old Quindaro, Chelsea Place, Midland 
Park and other ad.joining communities were absorbed. 

Rosedale, an Independent City. 

But Rosedale, at this writing, is a separate city, and, although some 
of its citizens favor annexation, there is little likelihood that such a 
thing will soon come to pass. The high bluffs on the south side of the 
Kansas river have been a barrier to intercommunication, by direct high- 
way or street railway, between the peoples of the two cities, and al- 
though the limits adjoin there never has been that community of in- 
terest that would make one city and one people of the two corporations. 

Rosedale proper covers a small area, so far as its corporate limits 
extend, but in reality it is one city from the southern boundary line of 



Kansas City, Kansas, to the northern line of Johnson county, extending 
from Kansas City, Missouri, on the east more than two miles west. 
It is a part of the territory that was occupied by the Shawnee Indians 
and the half -century before Rosedale was builded was rich with historic 

The Town's First Start. 

Rosedale was platted, in 1872, by James G. Brown and A. Grand- 
staff, then owners of the town site. The description of the area was : 
"South half of the southwest quarter of section 27, northwest quarter 
of the northwest quarter of section 34, township 11, range 25 east; 
also a strip of land on the south part of the north half of southwest 
quarter of section 27, township 11, range 25 east." 

A boom of the town was commenced in 1875, as the Kansas City 
Rolling Mills were located there in that year. It was not until the year 
1877, however, that the city contained the necessary population of six 
hundred to demand a government under the act authorizing the crea- 
tion of cities of the third class. On August 3rd, of that year, Judge 
Hiram Stevens ordered an election for the 28th of that month, which 
resulted in the selection of the following city officers for the ensuing 
year: Mayor, D. S. Mathias; councilmen, John Hutchison, Sr., Henry 
Juergens, William Bowen, John Haddock and Benjamin Bousman; 
police judge, Edward Blanford ; city clerk, William Dauks. 

Mayors fob Thirty-Poue Years. 

Since that time Rosedale has continued to maintain a municipal 
government under which it has grown to its present proportions, and 
the men who have served as mayor, with the dates of their election, are 
named herewith: 

D. S. Mathias, 1877. W. B. Mathias, 1894. 

D. E. Jones, 1882. John Robinson, 1896. 

W. C. Boyer, 1883. J. M. Kilmer, 1899. 

D. E. Jones, 1884. Newell E. Smith, 1901. 

W. H. Spencer, 1885. B. M. Barnett, 1903. 

D. E. Jones, 1886. H. E. Kiefer, 1905. 

B. M. Barnett, 1889. E. P. Bryant. 1907. 

J. M. Kilmer, 1890. E. J. Eicholtz, 1909. 

D. E. Jones, 1892. Samuel Clas.sen, 1911. 

A Picturesque Little City. 

The original town was located entirely within the then quiet peace- 
ful valley that was almost entirely surrounded by high bluffs whose 


summits and slopes were covered with forest trees, while from the val- 
ley to hilltojis, in every ravine and crevice and covering every rock, 
banked high, was a perfect bower of wild roses. From this Rosedale 
derives its name. 

When first laid out Rosedale was small and between it and Kansas 
City were miles of farms, and it was a busy, bustling town, everybody 
made money and everybody spent it, and there was a rollicking, jolly 
appearance of prosperity evident upon every hand. But the rolling 
mill failed in basiness, moved away and Rosedale discarded her appear- 
ance of prosperity and gradually lapsed into a state of decay. But 
this was not to last. The phenomenal growth of Kansas City in the 
eighties began to be felt in Rosedale, and new people moved in, taking 
the place of those who left with the mill, until, in 1897, Rosedale 's 
population reached 2,200. About this time the city was changed from 
third class to second class and then the real and substantial prosperity 
began. Newell E. Smith was elected mayor and served four years, and in 
rapid succession followed a water worlds system, owned by the city. A 
telephone exchange was established, and instead of seven telephones 
there are now over two himdred and fifty. The old gasoline street 
lamps gave way for arc lights, and the old fourth class post office has 
been abandoned and a strictly modern and first class office established in 
its .stead, with carrier service, both city and rural. The principal 
streets have been paved with modern pavement and a sewer system is 
being built. Besides all these there have been builded mills, elevators, 
railroad yards and railroad shops, factories and biisiness houses, and 
the state of Kansas is now erecting a medical college to be surrounded by 
a group of hospitals and a training school for nurses. In time this will 
be the greatest medical institution of the west. 

RosED.vLE Schools. 

The board of education in Rosedale is composed of ten members. 
Two are selected from each of the four city wards and two are selected 
from the outlaying districts. In 1907 the city possessed a high school 
building, erected the year before at a cost of $25,000, and three ward 
schools. Twenty-five teachers were employed in these schools and the en- 
rollment was about 1,230 for the opening day. In 1906 twenty-two teach- 
ers were employed, with 1,220 enrollment. There are four teachers em- 
ployed in the high school. George E. Rose was superintendent of 

Church History. 

The First Methodist Epicopal church of Rosedale, Kansas, was 
organized in the winter of 1879, with a membership of thirty, and the 
first pastor in charge was C. W. Shaw, formerly of Sabetha, Kansas, 


who, being a carpenter by trade, built the old chureh located on Hen- 
ning avenue, which was dedicated July 5, 1880. Services have been 
held continuously in the church from that time until the present. 
Realizing that the old chureh had outlived its usefulness, being too 
small to accommodate the Sunday school and seeing the need of a larger 
and more commodious building, steps were taken to build a new stone 
church on Kansas City avenue, and on the 6th of October, 1907, the 
corner stone, was laid by the "Old Men's Association." On March 
29, 1908, the new First Methodist Episcopal church was dedicated, with 
a membership of three hundred. 

The Walnut Street Methodist Episcopal Church South is one of the 
oldest and most prosperous religious organizations in Rosedale. The 
church is at Walnut street and Florence avenue. It has a membership 
of about 400 and the pastor, in 1911, was the Rev. John K. Beery. 

Other Methodist churches are the African Zion, at Bluff street and 
Lafayette avenue, the Bethel chureh at 245 Valley street, and the 
Wesley Chapel, colored, at Shawnee avenue and Summit street. 

The Baptists have five churches: The Rosedale Baptist at South- 
west boulevard and Wyandotte street; the Pleasant Valley Baptist, at 
No. 1013 Bluff street ; the Baptist Mission, at No. 346 South Row ; the 
Colored Baptist, at No. 537 Tangent avenue. 

Other religious denominations I'epresented are : The Congregational 
church, in Maple Leaf addition ; Malvern Hill Latter Day Saints 
church, at Forty-second street and Hudson avenue ; Bethsada chapel, 
at Forty-second and Fisher avenue; the Christian Alliance Mission, at 
Thirty-fifth street and Southwest boulevard. 

The Holy Name Catholic church, at Kansas City avenue and Shaw- 
nee boulevard, is the oldest chui-ch in Rosedale. It has a beautiful 
stone edifice and a good parochial school. The Rev. Father Dornseifer 
is the parish priest. 

A City of Homes. 

Rosedale is now a city of pretty homes, neat business houses, banks 
and offices, well paved streets, sewers, sidewalks, churches, schools, rail- 
roads and industries that combine in the making of a busy little city. 
The Southwest boulevard built as a great highwa.y from Main street in 
Kansas City, Missouri, to the southwest, runs through Rosedale. It 
was given to the city in the early days by Dr. Simeon B. Bell, pioneer 
advocate of good roads and Rosedale 's wealthiest citizen and benefactor. 
It is traversed by a Metropolitan street railway line to the heart of 
Kansas City, Missouri, and also by the Interurban railway to Merriam, 
ShawTiee and the southwest. 

The secret societies of Rosedale are represented by the following: 
Interstate Lodge, I. 0. 0. F. ; Council No. 647, Knights and Ladies of 
Security ; Modern Woodmen of America, No. 6062 ; the Fraternal Order 
of Eagles, and the Nu Sigma Nu medical fraternity. 


A Great Medical School and Hospital. 

The Eleanor Bell Memorial Hospital and the Medical School of the 
University of Kansas, built in the last five years, have brought recogni- 
tion to Rosedale throughout the United States as a seat of learning in 
medicine and surgery. These institutions were made possible by the 


benefactions of Dr. Simeon B. Bell, and, although only a part of the 
great plan has been worked out, the buildings already erected and 
equipped have cost more than .$100,000. It is in the hospital, the lab- 
oratory and the clinical school that many noted eases are treated, and 
many of the celebrated discoveries beneficial to science are made. 

Railroad Terminals. 

Rosedale ha.s many things that distinguish it as being something 
more than a mere place in which to reside, or as a suburb of Kansas 
City, Missouri. The Saint Louis & San Francisco and the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas railroad systems have their extensive terminals along 
the valley through Rosedale, with their yards, shop.s, roundhouses and 
terminals conti'ibuting to the emplo.\Tnent of labor, as well as to the 
industrial and eonmiercial life of the city. 

The Old Rolling Mill. 

The buildings of the Kansas Rolling Mill Company, which once 
occupied all the Turkey Creek valley near where Kansas City avenue 


now turns to the west, have disappeared one by one. The old mill once 
employed 1,500 men. It was built in 1875 for the purpose of working 
over old railroad iron. The village grew up around it. There were no 
street-car lines then to hurry the people of Rosedale to the business 
section of a big city nearby, and it was an up-hill drive to We-stport, 
the closest place. So the rolling mill company had its store. The mill 
used to be one of the sights, and parties would drive out to see the red- 
hot rails re-rolled. The railroads used iron rails in those days, and as 
they were worn down new ones were made by working old ones over. 
The mill also made stoves and other articles of iron in common use. 

The mill proper closed in 1883, as a result of legal disputes among 
the members of the company. The old buildings stood idle for some 
time. Then part of them were torn down and others were moved across 
the tracks of the railway yards, and re-opened by the Kansas City Wire 
and Iron Works. The property has now been taken over by the Illinois 
Steel Company, which held a mortgage on the wire and iron works. The 
machinery has been sent to St. Louis. The old building is to be torn 
down and the ground fenced up. 

Other Industries. 

Rosedale has three elevators which handle a large portion of the 
grain shipped to Kansas City over the railroads. They are known as 
the ]\lemphis, Fi-isco and Rosedale elevators. The Arms & Kidder 
flour mill and the Kimball Cereal mill are two important industries. 
The Auto Fedan Hay Press Company has a factory in Rosedale. 

The Indiana Silo Company has a manufacturing plant near the 
Southwest boulevard and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railroad yards, 
and is one of the newest of the city's industries. 

Rosedale has four post office sub-stations, five parks, two banks, 
six halls, one hotel, one newspaper, two lawyers, ten physicians, four 
artists, two architects, forty-one contractors, a volunteer fire depart- 
ment, and a live Commercial Club. It is an ideal place for suburban 
residences, with good street railway and interurban service. 

A Pioneer for Kansas Good Roads. 

When Dr. Simeon B. Bell of Rosedale was practicing medicine, 
he endured liardships and suffered aches and pains while going to see 
his patients over roads that were rough, frequently muddy and often 
impassable. He became an advocate of good roads, and he has been 
hammering away at the subject for fifty years. He may properly be 
called the pioneer of the good roads movement in eastern Kansas. 
Years ago he helped to locate a road from the old Johnson Methodist 
Mission at Shawnee north to Argentine. Then he located a road along 


the Kansas river to the west. Biit the greatest undertaking with which 
he was eonnerted was the building of the Southwest boulevard that now 
runs from Nineteenth and Main streets in Kansas City, Missouri, 
through Kosedale and on to Shawnee, nine miles below. But that was 
a long, hard fight. 

Bonner Springs, The Ancient Qhivira. 

Somewhere there is a half legendary story to the effect that the 
beautiful Quivira for which Coronodo, the Spanish explorer, searched 
in 1541 was found on the north bank of the Kansas river at the site of 
the present city of Bonner Springs, near the western line of Wyandotte 
county. An analysis of the circiimstantial evidence leads to the con- 
elusion that Coronodo and the forces under his command, entering 
Kansas at the southwest made their way in a northeasterly direction 
to the ^Missouri river to where Atchison now stands. Disappointed in 
their search up to that time for the fair Quivira, they passed down 
the Missouri river to the mouth of the Kansas to where the Indian vil- 
lage of Wyandotte was started a little over three hundred years after- 
wards. Thence Coronodo and his followers, charmed by the beautiful 
Kansas river valley, ascended that river sixteen miles. There they 
found the real Quivira and its famous springs, which they called 
Coronodo Springs and which in our time are known as Bonner Springs. 
It follows that Coronodo and his cavaliers spent the winter of 1541-2 
at that place. They lived on the fish they caught in the river and the 
lakes bv cutting holes in the ice, on buffalo their hunters killed on the 
high prairie to the north of the place, on deer they found in the woods, 
and on the abundant crop of fruits and nuts with which they were sup- 
plied by the Indians. Proof that the Coronodo band passed down the 
Missouri river to the site of Wyandotte is found in the historic fact that 
the cavaliers, among their weapons, carried and used as an implement 
of war halberds similar to the metallic Roman halberds. One of these, in 
excellent state of preservation, was unearthed by a Catholic priest near 
Leavenworth and another on the site of Kansas City, Missouri, by John 
Wilson, an archaeologist. These discoveries undoubtedly point to the 
conclusion that Coronodo and his men once wandered through Wyan- 
dotte count.v, and that two of their braves lost their lives — or their 
halberd.s — in combatting the savage foes. 

The First Commercial Center. 

But if the Coronodo story, plausable as it is and supported by much 
hi.storic proof, is not sufficient to establish the claims of Bonner Springs 
as the oldest city in Kansas, there is still the proof positive that it was 
the first commercial center in Kansas. In the early fur trade, the 


means of transportation was along the water courses, in Indian canoes 
or other small water craft. Trading posts were erected throughout the 
country, and as the only means of transportation were as above stated, 
these posts must be on navigable streams. So it happened that Bonner 
Springs came into prominence about one hundred years ago as the 
headquarters for extensive operations in the commerce then carried on 
between the French traders and the Indians that peopled Kansas. 

The Famous Four Houses. 

In 1764:. August and Pierre Chouteau located in St. Louis and were 
the pioneers in this trade in the country west of the Mississippi river. 
They were soon in competition with the large companies operating from 
Canada. The skins of the beaver were the most sought for. They 
were found in great abundance along the streams, from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. Their habits made them an easy prey for the trappers. 
They were hunted from one stream to another, and so rapidly were 
they destroyed that in the short space of thirty years the trappers 
of these animals met on the headwaters of streams flowing into the 
Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 

The Chouteaus rapidly explored the country and established their 
trading posts along the Missouri and Kansas rivers about the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, and the principal trading post for Kansas 
was the famous "Four Houses," located on the site of Bonner Springs. 
In 1808 they crossed the Rocky mountains and built a fort and trading 
post on the head waters of the Columbia. 

The "Four Houses" .stood on the high ground between the present 
Union Pacific and Santa Fe railway stations, commanding a fine view of 
the river. They were built of logs on the fovir sides of a square, so 
they might provide the protection of a fort in case of an attack by the 
Indians. Here the Chouteaus did an extensive business which was con- 
tinued to the time of the coming of the Delaware and Shawnee Indians 
and the establishment of a trading post at Secondine, now Muncie. 

The Celebrated Springs. 

Tradition has it that long before the first white man set foot on this 
soil the various tribes of Indians who inhabited the Kansas plains were 
in the habit of living at least a part of the year around these springs, 
which thereby gained the name of Indian Springs. There are several 
of the springs, each bearing a different name and each having a differ- 
ent water, but the name of Indian Springs applies to them generally. 
The medicine men of the Indian tribes usually brought all of their 
patients to these springs when the ordinary medicines failed to work, 
and the early settlers have heard many stories told of the great healing 
power of these waters for the red men. 



The Tiblow Ferry. 

For many years a ferry was operated by Henry Tiblow, a club- 
footed Delaware Indian, and an official interpreter for the Ignited States 
government. He lived in a log cabin which still stands on the west 
side of the city and is prized by the citizens for its historic interest. 
In November, 1870, the town was platted, John McDanield and his wife, 
Ellen, being proprietors of the townsite. With the Union Pacific rail- 
road built along the north side of the river and the Santa Fe's line to 
Leavenworth crossing at that point, Tiblow soon grew to be a busy 
little town, \dth a brick school house, several flourishing business hous&s 
and dwellings. The site originally contained blocks, each sub-divided 


into lots. The numerous fine springs of medicinal waters in and 
around the place suggested that it be made a health resort and a place 
for suburban residences for persons engaged in business in Kansas City. 

The Town Organized. 

Accordingly the town of Bonner Springs, ad.joining Tiblow on the 
east was laid out in November, 1855, by a company which included 
David R. Emmons, president, and James D. Husted, secretary. Philo 
M. Clark, then, as now a resident, was one of the principal promoters 
and members of the company and by him it was named for Robert Bon'- 
ner, the New York editor and publisher of that day. The town com- 
pany built the Coronodo hotel for the use of those who came to partake 
of the waters of the springs. 


Shortly afterwards the town was platted into nineteen blocks of 
various sizes, and a large body of land was thrown into the beautiful 
Saratoga Park, which is so pleasing to the sight of passengers on the 
trains passing by. The company also purchased lands adjoining the 
town and from time to time new additions were laid out. 

A City Organized. 

The growth of the town at first was slow, although the hotel was, 
in the summer season, crowded with guests. It was not until 1898 that 
Bonner Springs became a city of the third class, and Philo M. Clark 
became its first mayor; and for several terms he was chosen by the 
people as the official head of the city. Bonner Springs was peculiarly 
favored by geographical situation in many ways, but it was several 
years before the general public, and even the residents of Bonner 
Springs, were able to determine what the future might be. 

Discovery of Natural Gas. 

Practically the beginning of the reconstruction and development of 
Bonner Springs was the discovery of natural gas some few years ago, 
and after the gas was discovered and brought into use things began to 
change rapidly. First a large brick plant was est:ablished directly 
east of the city limits for the manufacture of sand brick. Next the 
attention of capitalists and manufacturers was attracted by the large 
deposits of shale that could be used for the manufacture of cement, and 
the plentifulness of natural gas that was available for fuel. This 
marked another advance, and possibly the greatest of Bonner Springs, 
for it meant the building, in a very short time, of the Bonner Portland 
Cement Company's plant, a mile east of the city, which is one of the 
largest manufactories of its kind in the world, with a capacity for mak- 
ing 2,500 barrels of cement each day, emplo.ving several hundred hands. 

The company owns several hundred acres of lands along the rugged 
hills on the north side of the Kansas river in which there are deposits of 
shale and rock sufficient to keep the great mill going more than one 
hundred years. 

At the present time the Bonner Portland Cement plant supplies 
the town of Bonner Springs, the Gray Brick manufacturing plant, and 
a large sanitarium, with natural gas for lighting and heating purposes. 
Their welLs are of great depth and flow strong and steady, the company 
has sufficient acreage that they are reasonably assured of having suffi- 
cient gas to last them for vears innumerable. 

Vol. 1—21 


The Lakes and Parks. 

The surrounding country of Bonner Springs is one of a very rich 
agricultural nature, and since the advent of the promoters of indus- 
tries, the town bids fair to become one of the most busy of the Kansas 
City suburbs. It is spoken of as a sulnirb because that is what it 
really will be upon the completion of the new electric line which is being 
built especially for the transportation of people to and from the health 
and pleasure resorts which will be completed soon. The possibility of 
Bonner Springs becoming the pleasure-seeking ground of Kansas 
Cityans is without a doubt probable, for it has two large lakes — Lake 
of the Forest and Lake of the Woods — which will furnish boating and 
fishing grounds, as well as the fine hotels and the numerous pleasures 
and the healing waters of the springs as attractions. 

The town itself is well situated on a gently sloping hillside and is 
immediately backed by a beautiful forest which surrounds the lakes and 
valleys in which the springs are, and when the work is completed and the 
plans carried out that are now being put in force it will afi'ord the best 
pleasure ground within any reasonable distance of Kansas City. 

One other important feature of Bonner Springs is the large .sani- 
tarium just north of the city limits. This accommodates a great num- 
ber of patients and is usually filled by health-seeking people who come 
there to rest and iise the mineral waters which come from the several 
springs nearby. 

Churches and Schools. 

Bonner Springs now is a busy little city with many thriving busi- 
ness houses, factories and beautiful homes. It has a magnificent high 
school and graded schools and three handsome churches — Methodist, 
Baptist and Christian. Episcopal services also are held there. It has 
a system of water works and. as before stated, natural gas supplied to 
its business houses and residents. A sewer system has recently been 
established, and the streets, once trod by the feet of many thousands 
of Indians who went there in the early days to trade at the "Four 
Houses," are now being paved. The city, by the census of 1910, had a 
population of 1,600. 

First Rural Mail Deli\'ery There. 

Bonner Springs is the central point for the delivery of mail by the 
rural free delivery system for a large section of W.yandotte, Leaven- 
worth and Johnson counties. It was there, sixteen years ago, that the 
first free deliver^' route in the ITnited States was established by the post 
ofRce department. At first it was merely an experiment, but it proved 
so successful that hundreds of rural mail routes were established in 
many states. 


Other Towns in Wyandotte County. 

A busy little town aloiiji the line of the Union Pacific railway eleven 
miles, west of the mouth of Kansas river is Edwardsville. It was a 
station on the Union Pacific Railroad, in the sixties, and was named for 
Hon. John H. Edwards, who was then general passenger and ticket 
agent for that railroad and served as a state senator from Ellis county, 
Kansas. The land where this town now stands was once the farm of 
Half-Moon, a chief of some degree among the Delawares. He sold the 
land to General T. Smith, of Leavenworth and others, who in turn 
sold it to William Kouns. A post office was established there in 1867. 
The Methodist Episcopal church effected an organization in 1868, and 
had quite a large membership. In 1868, through the personal in- 
tluenee and direct labors of William Kouns, the county commissioners 
created the town of Delaware, in which Edwardsville is located. It 
was platted in 1869— the proprietor being Mr. Kouns. Some time in 
1870 the Christian church was organized. Composite Lodge No. 152, 
A. P. & A. M., was organized in 1872, but in 1877 surrendered its 
charter. The town now has a population of about seven hundred, a 
fine brick school house, a bank, several general stores, a blacksmith and 
wagon .shop, a good depot, a telegraph office and a telephone exchange. 
It is in the center of the great potato and fruit-growing industry of 
Wyandotte county. Hundreds of cars of these and other products 
are shipped annually from this station. 

The town of Muncie, on the Union Pacific railroad six miles west 
of Kansas City, Kansas, was formerly the old Indian town of Secon- 
dine, when Moses Grinter, the first white settler in the county, conducted 
a ferry for many .years for the United States government military road 
from Port Leavenworth to Port Scott. The Delaware Indians once 
had a grist mill there, but it afterwards was abandoned. The story 
of this mill and the old ferry and Chouteau trading post, which are a 
part of the early history of the place, appears in other chapters of this 
work. ]\Iuncie is a mere village with a general store, but it is an im- 
portant shipping point for the rich agricultural, gardening and fruit 
growing section. The Union Pacific recently acquired a large body of 
land at that place for outside freight yards. 

Another station on the Union Pacific is Loring in Wyandotte 
county, at the west county line. 

The town of Turner on the Santa Pe railroad nine miles from the 
mouth of the Kansas river, is so close to Kansas City, Kansas, as to be 
almost included within its limits. It is at the west end of the great 
yards of the Santa Pe and is surrounded by many small farms, gardens 
and orchards. It has a school and several stores. 

Three miles .southwest of Turner on the Santa Pe, in Wyandotte 
county, is the town of Morris, established in the eighties. It is the 


feeding station on the railroad for live stock entering the Kansas City 
stock yards and has pens and trackage sufficient for handling several 
trainloads of stock at one time. 

On the Kansas City Northwestern division of the Missouri Pacific 
Railway is the quiet little village of White Church, historic because of its 
founding in the thirties by the Delaware Indians, told in the chapters 
relating to those Indians and the old missions. The towoi itself has 
grown little since first it became a rallying point for the Delawares, 
but around its cluster of dwellings and stores, the old M. E. Church 
South, and the Presbyterian church that was established in 1869, the 
post office and Masonic hall, are finely improved farms which make 
it a community of wealth and culture. 

On the Kansas City-Northwestern Railroad, nine miles west from 
the mouth of Jersey creek at Kansas City, Kansas, and three hundred 
feet higher than that point, the town of Bethel was laid out in 1887 by 
the White Church Townsite and Improvement Company, David D. 
Hoag, president. It is about three quarters of a mile northeast of 
the town of White Church and one-half mile southwest of Bethel station 
on the Kansas City Western Interurban Electric Railway. It now 
contains a large general store, brick and terra cotta works, a railroad 
depot, telegraph and express office, a town hall, blacksmith and wagon 
shop, etc. It is very pleasantly situated, and, l.\'ing on the ridge, as 
it does, above the mosquito line, it is never infested with these trouble- 
some insects. From this point can be seen Kansas City, Leavenworth, 
Parkville and other points in the distance. Bethel is designed as a 
suburban residence town for the two Kansas Cities. Many lots have 
been sold to parties in the cities, who contemplate building residences 

Piper also situated on the Kansas City, Wyandotte & Northwestern 
Railroad, on the southwest corner of section 28 and the northwest corner 
of section 33, township 10 north, range 23 east, was laid out in Septem- 
ber, 1888, by L. E. Scott, Margaret Scott, John Waldron, Ella L. Wald- 
ron, W. S. Brown and S. A. Brown, the proprietors of the town site 
which embraced forty acres. The village contains two general stores, 
a blacksmith and wagon shop, railroad depot, telegraph and express 
offiee, etc., and a population of between two hundred and three hundred. 

Other hamlets and stations along the Kansas City-Northwestern 
Railroad in Wyandotte county are : Vance, which also is on the Kansas 
City Western Electric ; Menager Junction, at the west line of the county 
where the Leavenworth branch leaves the main line; Wallula. in the 
northwest part of the county; Maywood, two miles southeast of Piper. 
Each situated in a rich agricultural community, is supplied vnth general 
stores, schools, churches, telephone, telegraph and rural delivery .service. 

The principal town on the Missouri Pacific Railway, main line 
between City and Leavenworth, is the town of Wolcott, twelve 


miles above the mouth of the Kansas river in the northeast corner of 
Wyandotte county. It was platted as Conner in February, 1868, the 
owners of the townsite being Alfred and William Hughes. The town 
has been an important shipping point and it is well supplied with stores, 
hotels, schools and churches. When the Kansas City Western Electric 
Railway was constructed in 1902 the name of the town wa.s changed to 
Wolcott, in honor of the first general manager of the line, Herbert Wol- 
eott. The railway company constructed a great electrical power plant 
at the place which was used t£) supply the power for its line between 
Kansas City and Leavenworth. The power house was destroyed by fire 
four years ago. The company has its operating headquarters at Wolcott. 
The population is about four hundred. 

The town of Pomeroy on the Missouri Pacific nine and one-half 
miles from Kansas City, Kansas, also on the Missouri river, was platted 
in 1871 by William P. Overton and Frank H. Betton, who were operat- 
ing a steam flour and saw mill there. It contains several stores and a 
small cluster of houses. It is an important shipping point for dairy- 
men who supply large quantities of milk for the city. The town has 
grown very little since it was founded forty years ago. 



Figures Show Substantial Growth — An Era op Improvement — 
The Flood op 1903 — The New City Hall — Municipal Water Works 
— A Municipal Electrical Plant — Parks and Boulevards — Kansas 
City Post Office — New Post Office Building — Street Railway 
Facilities — First Interurban Railway — Financial Strength — Ho- 
tels of Old Wyandotte — The Mercantile Club — Other Civic Organ- 
izations — Chakit.vble and Christian Organizations. 

The Kansas City, Kansas, of today is a city of homes; of schools, 
libraries, churches, clubs, societies, places of entertainment. It is a 
city without an open saloon or a gambling joint; a city of street rail- 
way facilities, rapid transit interurban lines, bridges, viaducts, paved 
streets, macadamized driveways, parks and play-grounds ; a city of 
public buildings, business houses, commercial enterprises; of banks, 
loan and trust companies, financial institutions and insurance com- 
panies; a city of mills and elevators, foundries, machine shops, steel 
works, cotton mills, soap works, brick yards, lumber yards and factories 
of many kinds ; a city of stock yards, packing houses, oil refineries, power 
plants, water works and electrical works ; a city of transportation lines, 
car building and repair shops, round houses and terminal yards. In fact, 
it is a city in which is combined those things that are essential to a 
vigorous, healthy, progressive municipal life. 

Good material was welded together in the making of the city, in 
the year 1886. The old city of Wyandotte, organized in the territorial 
days of 1857 and rich in historic Indian romance, rested on the pictur- 
esque hills overlooking the valleys of the Kansas and Missouri rivers. 
The former city of Kansas City, Kansas, incorporated in 1868, occupied 
a narrow strip of Kansa.s soil lying between the state line and the Kan- 
sas river. The ambitious little city of Armourdale, chartered in 1882, 
was building up the valley on the north side of the Kansas river. 

These three combined gave Kansas City, Kansa.s, 21,299 inhabi- 
tants to start with. It was a good start, for they were people pos- 
sessed of the Kansas spirit. From the year of that consolidation the 
city has never ceased to grow. At times it was by slow degrees, and at 
other times it was by leaps and bounds. In the first ten years the city 
doubled its population. In the second ten years it doubled its popula- 



tion again. In 1910 it had a total of 82,331 inhabitants, and this is 
almost four times the number of people it had to start with, twenty- 
five years ago. 

Figures Show Substantial Growth. 

The ofiScial census figures for Kansas City, Kansas, since the act 
of consolidation became effective, in 1886, form the best evidence of the 
steady growth of the city. These figures follow: 

1886, state census at consolidation 21,299 

1890, United States census 38,316 

1900, United States census 51,418 

1910, United States census 82,331 

An Era op Improvement. 

A serious problem confronted the first administration of the new 
city. It was the linking together of the cities and towns that had been 
built, each independent of the other. But the problem was solved 
through the inauguration of an era of public improvements. Streets 
were graded and paved and viaducts were built over which main 
thoroughfares were opened between the Wyandotte, Armourdale and old 
Kansas City divisions, that their people and their interests might be 
brought together as one. And well did the "city fathers" do their 
work. The new civic spirit thiLs awakened found expression in many 
ways for the betterment of conditions. In the first five years of the 
new city's life more than $2,000,000 was expended on the grading, 
paving and curbing of streets, and the building of sidewalks, sewers 
and bridges. And in the years that have followed, although periods 
of depression came, this same spirit has been undaunted. Today the 
city, covering an area of nineteen miles, has ninety-seven miles of well 
paved streets, with many miles of granitoid and brick sidewalks, and 
also a great system of drainage and sanitary sewers, such as can be found 
only in the most progressive cities. 

The Flood op 1903. 

One of the greatest disasters that ever befell an American city was 
that which came to Kansas City by the flood of 1903 in the Kansas 
river valley. In the extent of damage, though there was no loss of life, 
it is exceeded only by the San Francisco earthquake disaster, the Galves- 
ton flood and, perhaps, the Johnstown flood. During the entire month 
of May of that year it rained almost incessantly throughout the entire 
Kansas river water-shed. The consequence was that every branch, 
every creek and every stream of any kind poured great volumes of water 


into the Kansas river, which already was swollen, to such an extent as 
to flood the valley from bluff to bluff, from Junction City to the river's 
mouth at Kansas City. The June rise in the Missouri river coming at 
the same time had swollen that stream, and with the addition of these 
rains the Missouri and the Kansas waters meeting here inundated the 
entire valey from Turner to the Hannibal bridge to a depth of six to 
ten feet, and in some lower places to an even gi-eater depth. Every 
bridge that spanned the Kansas river from Topeka to the mouth of tne 
Kaw, except the Missouri Pacific Railroad bridge, which was weighted 
down by forty locomotives, was wrecked. Hundreds of homes were 
destroyed, business houses and factories wrecked, and other property 
damaged to an amount estimated at thirty-four million dollars in Kan- 
sas City, Kansas, and Kansas City, Missouri. Business was almost 
entirely suspended for a period of three months, while the thousands of 
people who had been driven from their homes, and the railroads, the 
manufactories and the great business concerns were righting things 
as best they could. 

The flood had the effect of checking for a time the growth of the 
city, but it did not check that undaunted spirit of our people. Before 
the end of the year plans were set afoot for the improvement of the 
Kansas river's banks to protect the property from future overflow. 
It took seven years, pending which there were overflows in 1904 and 
1908, to set things in motion for the carrying out of these plans. The 
Kaw Valley Drainage law had been passed by the legislature, a board 
had been organized, engineering plans had been outlined, and almost 
endless litigation by opposing interests had been fought to a .successful 
conclusion before the Drainage Board was able to start its improve- 
ments. With bonds voted by the people to the amount of ."fil, 750,000, 
contracts were let, in 1910, for the widening of the channel of the river 
and the building of dikes on both banks from Turner to the mouth of 
the Missoui'i river, a distance of eleven miles. This has been an under- 
taking of .such magnitude as scarcely to be comprehended by those who 
are unfamiliar with the conditions and circumstances. These im- 
provements at this writing are nearing completion. The property in- 
terests along the river through the drainage district, representing a 
value of more than $40,000,000 in Kansas City, Kansas, and as great a 
value in Kansas City, Missouri, are now assured of protection from the 
overflow of the river even at a depth almost as great as that of 1903. 
The railroad companies, in conformity to the plans, are expending 
three million dollars to improve their property. Every bridge along 
the river in the district, nineteen in number, has been rebuilt. All 
along this gi-eat valley there is now a feeling of absolute security and 
millions of dollars anually are invested in the building of new industrial 
plants, new business enterprises, new and better homes, and in all 
those things that are essential to the life of the city. To the unswerv- 


ing loyalty of the members of the Drainage Board to the people and 
their interests is due credit for this grand achievement. The board 
has for its members William H. Daniels, president, Fred Meyn, Bernard 
Pollman, T. E. Myers and C. C. Craft. 

Municipal Water Works. 

Important in the direction of progress for the city was the voting 
by the people, in 1909, of bonds for the purchase of the system of the 
Metropolitan Water Company, for its improvement and for extension 
of mains. The city took control of the plant in the autumn of 1909 
and, under the management of a Water Board composed of P. W. 
Goebel, George Stumpf and J. E. Barker, it paid operating expenses and 
interest on bonds from the start, even while the improvements were 
under way. Under the control of the commissioner of water works, 
James A. Cable, who succeeded the Water Board, the plant has been 
thoroughly overhauled and many miles of new mains and many new 
hj'drants have been installed, thus increasing the facilities for fire pro- 
tection and the distribution of water for domestic consumption. The 
total of bonds issued by authority of the people was $2,000,000, and the 
plant that has been builded is of sufficient capacity to supply water to 
all the city for present needs and for several years to come. 

A Municipal Electrical Plant. 

On the expiration of the twenty-year franchise of the Consolidated 
Electric Light and Power Company the citizens of Kansas City, Kan- 
sas, realizing that cheaper electric lighting could not be obtained by a 
renewal of the franchise, voted $350,000 of bonds, February 14, 1911, 
for the construction of an electrical plant to be operated in connection 
with the municipal water plant, and for a distributing system sufficient 
for the entire city. The plans have been prepared and the electrical 
plant is at the date of this publication under construction. On the 
completion of the plant it is estimated that the city can supply elec- 
tricity to the consumers at five cents a kilowat and to small manufac- 
urers at a rate of not to exceed three cents a kilowat, while arc electric 
lighting for streets may be supplied at about one-half of the old rate 
of sixty-five dollars a year for each light paid by the city to the old 

Parks and Boulevards. 

For many .years the parks were neglected, because so many other 
things were needed, and it was not until a few years ago that agitation 
for the beautification of the city by the laying out of parks and boule- 
vards was considered seriously. 


In March, 1907, the Kansas legislature passed a law giving the city 
authority to organize a park board, and gave this board the power to 
levy special taxes for a park and boulevard system. The law was de- 
clared valid by the supreme court, the way made clear for work, and the 
citj' began preparations to lay out a system equal to an3' in the country 
for a municipality of its size. George E. Kessler, a park engineer who is 
conducting the work of beautifj'ing eight important cities — among them 
St. Louis, Denver, Indianapolis and Kansas City, Missouri — was engaged 
to make plans for parks and boulevards in Kansas City, Kansas, that 
it will take fifteen to eighteen years to complete the pre.jeeted system. 
The work was started, in 1909, when the park board began making 
Washington avenue a boulevard, one hundred feet wide, from Fourth to 
Eighth with a connection on Fourth .street to the west end of the Inter- 
city viaduct. This boulevard was first extended to Eleventh street, 
from which point parkways and boulevards were built southwest to the 
City Park and northwest to Klamm Park, in conformity with the system 
that eventually is to embrace some twenty-five miles of boulevards and 

The park system now has reached a stage in its development where 
the people of the city can point to it with pride. In the many parks, 
playgrounds and athletic fields that have been and are now building 
are embraced two hundred and thirty-two acres, while upwards of 
twelve miles of boulevards have been and are now building. The park 
and boulevard system was under the control of the commissioners pro- 
vided for by the act of 1907, until the commi-ssion government law went 
into effect. Then the park board was retired and the commissioners of 
parks and boulevards assumed entire jurisdiction over it. The men who 
served on the park board during its lu'ief existence were Dr. S. S. 
Glasscock, James Sullivan and J. P. Angle; Dr. George M. Gray, who 
was mayor at the time the board was created, succeeded Dr. Glasscock. 
The system is now under control of the city commissioner of parks and 
public property, Henry E. Dean. 

It should be knowTi that the father of the park and boulevard 
system in Kansas City, Kansas, is Doctor Gray. The writer, in the 
ten yeai-s that elapsed before the law was passed, accompanied Doctor 
Gray in many drives through the city and almost the identical plan of 
boulevards that was adopted was mapped out by the eminent physician 
and surgeon. 

The New City Halu 

The new civic awakening, resulting from the commercial and indus- 
trial activity and the general growth of interests, has called for public 
buildings in keeping with the dignity of the metropolis of Kansas. The 
old city hall, a two story building erected the year of the consolidation, 
had outgrown its usefulness when, in the spring of 1910, bonds were 




voted at a special election for the ereetion of a new city hall. The 
plans were at once prepared by Rose & Peterson for such a building as 
would meet the requirements of the city for years to come. The plans 
provided for a building reaching along Sixth street from Armstrong 
avenue to Ann avenue, covering a half block. The property adjoining 
the old city hall on the south was acquired and contracts were let for 
the south half of the building, which is now being erected, the proposi- 
tion being, after its completion, to raze the old cit^^ hall and extend the 
new building to Armstrong avenue as orginally planned. The corner 
stone of the city hall was laid April 25, 1911, and the work of construct- 
ing the south half of the building is to be finished by the end of the 
year. The building is to be fire-proof, containing splendidly arranged 
offices for all departments of the city government and, in addition, 
eventually' it will contain a great public auditorium sufficient in size to 
seat four thousand persons. 

The city now has eight splendidly equipped fire stations and two 
others are being erected. These stations are so situated as to facilitate 
the fighting of fires in all portions of the city. There are four police 
stations in the city, other than the headquarters, situated with reference 
to the conveniences of this public service. The city workhouse in the 
Argentine district had in the twelve months of its existence proved to be 
one of the most effective remedies in solving the problem of what to do 
with the petit criminals, the idlers and the "hobo" class. 

The city maintains an effective health department under the juris- 
diction of the commissioner of public health. Through this department 
the sanitation, the pure food and the health laws are effectively 

The Kansas City, (Kansas) Post Office. 

The first post office in "Wyandotte was opened by Thomas J. Barker 
in the spring of 1857. He held forth in the old court house building 
on Nebraska avenue, where he and Isaiah Walker were keeping store. 
The postmaster brought the mail from Kansas City, ^Missouri, on horse- 
back. William Chick, of the banking firm of Northrup and Chick, 
maintained the service in that village for the first year out of his own 
pocket. The Wyandot Indians were great readers as a rule and it was 
chieflj- to accommodate them that the post office in Kansas City, 
Missouri, was established. In 1863 Mr. Barker was succeeded as post> 
master by Richard B. Taylor who held the office three years. Mr. 
Taylor was succeeded by Elihu T. Vedder, who served until 1866. He 
was succeeded by Arthur D. Downs, who held the office until 1881. 
George B. Reichnecker was appointed under the Garfield Arthur admin- 
istration and held the office until 1885, when Vincent J. Lane came in 
under the first Grover Cleveland administration. 












"%t#*''^— %j^' 





In 1886. when the cities aJid towns were merged into Kansas City, 
Kansas, many of the old citizens were disinclined to give up the name 
Wyandotte, and it was three or four years before the citizens of Wyan- 
dotte and Armourdale acquiesced and accepted the name of Kansas City, 
Kansas. Mr. Lane was the last postmaster of Wyandotte, sei"ving under 
the first administration of President Grover Cleveland, in 1884-8. 

It was under the administration of Mr. Lane that the first letter 
carrier service was inaugurated in the summer of 1887. Of the four 
first carriere then in the service, 0. B. Johnson is now in this branch of 
government employ. 

Mr. Lane was suceeded by O. K. Serviss. who served under the 
administration of President Ben.jamin Harrison. Under the second 
administration of President Cleveland, Frank Mapes was appointed 
postmaster and at hi.s death was succeeded by Dr. Thaddeus Fitzhugh. 
Under the administration of Pre.sident William McKinley, Nathaniel 
Barnes came into office, and he was succeeded by Ulyssus S. Sartin, 
under President Theodore Roosevelt, and the present postmaster, Wesley 
R. Childs was appointed under the last administration of President, 
Roosevelt, was re-appointed by President William H. Taft, and has 
served to date. 

The New Post Office Building. 

It was under the administration of President McKinley that the 
appropriation of $250,000 was made and the present post office building 
at Seventh street and Minnesota avenue was erected, in 1900. In 
1909, the post office building having become too small for the increasing 
postal business of the city, another appropriation of .$150,000 was ob- 
tained and in the fall of 1910 the contract was let for an addition on 
the south and for raising the height to three stories. While this was 
being done a three story building on the north side of Minnesota avenue 
between Seventh and Eighth streets was used for the post office and 
the United States court. 

Tlie postal facilities have been enlarged from time to time until 
now the mail is delivered for all of the cities on the Kansas side of the 
state line at this point through the Kansas City, Kansas, post office. 
There are now six branch post offices and nineteen stamp and money 
order substations under the .iurisdiction of the Kansas Cit.y, Kansas, 
postmaster. They are as follows: 

Branch Offices: Argentine, No. 14 S. Spear avenue; Armour, No. 
27 Central avenue ; Armourdale. No. 604 Kansas avenue ; Quindaro, 
13th and Quindaro boulevard ; Rosedale, No. 1002 Kansas City avenue ; 
and Stock Yards, Basement Stock Yards Exchange. 

Sub-stations: No. 1. Thirteenth street and L. Road; No. 2, 823 
Osage ; No. 3, 704 Central avenue ; No. 4, Fifth and Virginia ; No. 5, 


Second and Metropolitan avenue; No. 6, Twelfth and Central avenue; 
No. 7, Tenth and Ohio; No. 8, 1741 Quindaro boulevard; No. 9, Eigh- 
teenth and Central avenue; No. 10, Twelfth and Osage; No. 11, 1324 
Kansas City avenue, Rosedale ; No. 12, 1803 Parallel avenue ; No. 13, 658 
Quindaro iDoulevard ; No. 14, 1968 North Third; No. 15, 1900 West 
Thirty-ninth street, Rosedale; No. 16, 520 Southwest boulevard, Rose- 
dale; No. 17, Tenth and Minnesota avenue; No. 18, 339 North Tenth; 
and No. 19, Thirteenth and Wood. 

At the beginning of the year 1911 there were twenty-four clerks in 
the main office and twenty-two clerks in the outside stations. Fifty- 
four regular carriers and seven substitute carriers are needed to handle 
the mail for the city under the free delivery system. Practically all 
of Wyandotte county outside of the city is served by rural delivery 
carriers. The receipts of the post office for the last year from the sale 
of stamps and money orders was $245,000. 

Street Railway Facilities. 

The present system of street railway lines, embracing about thirty 
miles of double track operated by electricity of an assessed value of 
about $4,000,000, had its beginning with the old mule car lines in the 
seventies that were built by Dr. George B. Wood, Luther Wood, Byron 
Judd and a few other citizens. The Wyandotte line started at Nugent 
alley near Sixth street and pursued its way along Minnesota avenue to 
Third street, thence around the bend over Ferry street to the Kansas 
river, and down James street to Sixth street, now Central avenue. At 
the state line it connected with the Corrigan line to the ITnion Depot and 
to Market Square, over what is now the Fifth street division of the 
Metropolitan system. Another mule car line was Iniilt from Union 
avenue along Mulberry, Twelfth and Bell streets to the stock yards and 
on to Armourdale. Later this was extended to Argentine and formed 
the basis for the present electric railway to that part of Kansas City, 
Kansas. A third line ran from Nineteenth and Main streets along the 
Southwest boulevard to Rosedale. These three mule car lines, each 
having one terminal in Missouri and one terminal in Kansas, conistituted 
the street railway .system until eastern capital began to invest in public 
utilities in the busy western cities. 

The first of these companies to be formed was the Inter-State Rapid 
Transit Railway Company, organized in December, 1883, and chartered 
to build a line or lines of railway between Kansas City, Missouri, and 
Wyandotte and other points in Kansas. Prominent among the incor- 
porators were D. M. Edgerton and Carlos B. Greeley then of St.' Louis, 
David G. Hoag of Wyandotte and S. T. Smith, Robert Gillham and 
James Nave of Kansas City, Missouri. The first election of officers was 
held on December 15, 1883, when D. M. Edgerton was chosen president. 


S. T. Smith vice president, and David D. Hoag secretary. The original 
capital stock was $600,000. It was afterwards greatly increased. The 
work of construction began in May, 1886, and in the following October 
trains, each consisting of a "dummy" engine and two small coaches, 
were operated from the Union Depot over an elevated structure to 
Riverview and thence on the surface to Edgerton Place at Fourth street 
and Lafayette avenue. 

This road, promoted by its president, D. M. Edgerton, who had been 
receiver for the Kansas Pacific Railroad, was the first Kansas Cit.y 
enterprise of magnitude and it attracted world-wide attention. On 
March 22, 1887, the tracks of the Inter-State Rapid Transit Company 
were consolidated with various other lines which the company was then 
constructing, and a new organization was affected under the name of the 
Inter-State Consolidated Rapid Transit Railway Company. Work on 
the tunnel division of the line from the Union Depot to Eighth and 
Delaware streets in Kansas City, Missouri, was begun in Ma.v, 1887, 
and the trains began running in April, 1888. This was a gigantic 
undertaking, the tunnel having been cut through solid limestone. It 
was first operated by cable. 

Meanwliile the company was busy on the Kansas side. The 
branch from Fifth street and Virginia avenue to Chelsea Park was 
opened for traffic on July 4, 1887. A cable line on Central avenue from 
Riverview west to Eighteenth street, was constructed and placed in 
operation in May, 1888. This is now the Central avenue-Sheffield line, 
one of the best in all Kansas City. These lines of the Elevated system 
operated by cable and dunmiy power for a few years, were equipped with 
electrical power in the nineties and then began a realization of the bene- 
fits of modern street railway service. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Company was organized and in- 
corporated in July, 1886, by C. F. Morse, president ; W. J. Ferry, 
secretary; A. W. Armour, treasurer. Its capital was $1,230,000, for 
which sum it purcha.sed Thomas Corrigan's entire system of horse rail- 
ways in Kansas City, Missouri, and its first operation consisted in the 
conversion of these railways into cable lines. The line, from the 
Union Depot to the ]\Iarket Square, Kansas City, Missouri, was opened 
to the public May 1, 1887 ; the second, from the state line to Wyan- 
dotte, ran its first through train November 1st, following over what 
now is the Fifth street line. The power house, at the corner of Ninth 
and Wyoming streets, was built in the winter of 1887. The Fifth 
street line of this company ran from Tenth street and i\linnesota avenue 
to Market Square in Kansas City, ^lissouri, over the old mule ear route. 
Another cable line was biiilt by the company on Twelfth street down an 
incline and one to the stock yards around a loop, where it connected 
with the Armourdale line, operated by mule cars from the stock yards. 

In 1892-3 the West Side Railway Company was founded and the 


West Side — now the "Wyandotte" — was constructed from Seventh 
street and Haskell avenue, in the north part of the city, to Third street, 
and thence, by way of Third street. Minnesota avenue and Fifth street, 
across the Seventh street viaduct, and down Kansas avenue to the 
stock yards. 

By 1895, when it was apparent that street railway building had 
about reached tlie limit, a movement was started which ultimately re- 
sulted in the Metropolitan Street Railway Compan.y absorbing or tak- 
ing control of every street railwa.v line in the two Kansas Cit.vs. Then 
began a period of renewed activity. All the lines were equipped for 
operation by electricity and several important extensions were made. 

Under a renewal of its franchise-, in 1902, the Metropolitan Com- 
pany constructed the line from James street over the James street 
viaduct to the stock .yards. The line on Kansas avenue from Tenth 
street west to Eighteenth street was built and placed in operation. The 
Quindaro boulevard line of the Elevated s.ystem was extended from 
Edgerton Place to Nineteenth street, and, in 1911, to Quindaro. The 
Grandview line, now Central avenue, was extended to the City Park, 
and the Tenth street line, running from Minnesota avenue south to 
Kansas avenue and to the stock .yards, was constructed. The company 
at the beginning of 1911 was preparing the construction of several im- 
portant extensions and new lines. 

The First Interukban Railway. 

In 1902 the Kansas Cit.v-Leavenworth Railway Company was 
organized bv a company of Cleveland capitalists to construct an interur- 
ban railwa.y between Kansas Cit.v, Kansas, and Leavenworth. The 
right-of-way had previously been obtained and while the railway was 
building a franchise was granted bv the ma.vor and council for an en- 
trance to the cit.y from Chelsea Park to Fourth street and state avenue. 
The line was completed and put in operation in the following .year. For 
a time it used a tracl? built over the old Kensington route, on the west 
side of the cit.y, to Grandview, entering Kansas City, Missouri, over the 
Grandview line. With the building of the great Inter-city viaduct in 
1907. however, the entrance to Kansas Cit.v, Missouri, was made over 
the viaduct at Fourth street and Minnesota avenue. The company — 
now the Kansas City Western — has fifteen miles of track in Wvandotte 
count.v. It is operated through to Port Leavenworth, and owns and 
controls the street railwa.y s.ystem of the city of Leavenworth. 

Financial Strength. 

The banking interests of Kansas City, Kansas, and W.yandotte 
county, now represented by two national and sixteen state banks and 
Vol. 1—23 


two tnist r-oinpanie,s begran with a little banking business established in 
old Wyandotte in the territorial days by A. B. Judd, while Northriip & 
Chick were conducting a banking business in Kansas City Missouri. 
Mr. Judd early disposed of his interest to his brother, Byron who con- 
ducted the business for a few years. After the Civil war Hiram M. 
Northrup started the bank in Wyandotte which afterwards became the 
house of the Northrup Banking Company and for many years the city's 
leading financial institution. It went down in the crash of 1893, a 
few weeks after the death of Mr. Northrup. Another bank of the early 
days was the First National, organized in 1871, with Byron Judd as its 
president. Others connected with the bank at the time were D. R. 
Emmons, who succeeded Mr. Judd as president, and I. D. Wilson. 

The banks of Kansas City and Wyandotte county have suffered 
along with like institutions throughout the nation. The list, \vith 
capital stock and deposits, on January 1, 1911, follows : 

Name of Bank Capital Deposits 

Commercial National 

Peoples National 

Kansas Trust 

Exchange State 

Banking Trust 

Home State 

Citizens State Sa-vings 

Fidelity State 

First National, Bonner Springs 

Farmers State, Bonner Springs 

Rosedale State 

Armourdale State 

Commercial State, Rosedale 

First State, Argentine 

Kansas State 

Riverview State 

Argentine State 

Night & Day State 

Edwardsville State 

Central Avenue State 


The list does not include the Interstate National Bank at the Kan- 
sas City Stock Yards, formerly a Kansas bank but now occupying 
quarters in the new Exchange Building in Kansas City, Missouri. 

Our institutions have kept pace with the progress of these eommer- 












































eial and industrial interests and the outlook for the future is most 
promising. Bankers, business men and those in touch with the finan- 
cial situation all agree that the city's future is bright. 

William T. Atkinson, president of the Armourdale State Bank, is 
manager of the Kansas City, Kansas, Clearing House. 

Hotels of Old Wyandotte. 

There were hotels in old Wyandotte wherein the guests were com- 
fortably housed and well fed. There was the Catfish hotel, a log 
building, conducted by Isaac W. Brown, an Indian, in 1856-7. Among 
the guests there, were members of the government surveying corps under 
Mr. Calhoun, the surveyor general, who stayed at the Gillis hotel on the 
levee at the foot of Main street. There were many traasients — people 
were coming and going all the time. A great many Indians used to 
patronize the house. 

There was the Eldridge House, near what is now Fifth street and 
Minnesota avenue, conducted by Mrs. Arms, who was related to the 
Eldridges at Lawrence. It was headcjuarters for Free State people 
on the way from New England to Kansas. They took the stage there 
and many of the men noted in Kansas history stopped at the hotel. 
The old Augusta House was on the south side of Minnesota avenue, near 
Third street. It was run by A. C. A. Jost. There was a Wyandotte 
hotel on Nebraska avenue, near Third street, where many Kansas nota- 
bles stayed while the constitutional convention was in session. The 
old Garno House, at the northwest corner of Third street and Minne- 
.sota avenue, for many years was a famous hostelry. There was another 
hotel in the early days which a few persons remember. It was the 
St. Paul. There was such a rush of immigration in the later fifties 
that many people had to live in tents and there were not enough hotels 
to accommodate them. Colonel R. II. Hunt bought the steamboat 
"St. Paul," which was anchored at the foot of Washington avenue, 
and fitted it up as a hotel. The St. Paul was crowded all the time and 
the service was fine. 

The principal hotel in Kansas City, Kansas, at this day, is the 
Grund, a three-story fire proof building erected by George A. Grund, a 
pioneer citizen. It is the finest built and ecjuipped hotel in Kansas, 
although perhaps not the largest. Also in the list may be included the 
Kelcluier House, the Wyandotte hotel, Pennington hotel, Metropolitan, 
and the New Home. 

The Mercantile Clxjb. 

Kansas City, Kansas, is fortunate in having among her numerous 
civic societies a live commercial organization, and it may be said that 


in the remarkable development of the Kansas metropolis in recent years 
the Mercantile Club has been a leading factor. 

The Mercantile Ckib was organized in December, 1898, as the re- 
sult of the efforts of Evan H. Browne, a progressive citizen of Kansas 
City, Kansas. Its announced purpose was to promote the commercial 
and industrial advancement of the city. W. A. Simpson was its first 
president, and succeeding presidents have been W. T. Atkinson, Edwin 
S. McAnany, Northrup Moore, Evan II. Browne, George Stumpf, J. 
W. Breidenthal, Ben.jamin Schnierle, W. T. Maunder, Dr. George M. 
Gray, C. L. Brokaw, Willard ^Merriam, G. C. Smith and P. W. Goebel. 
During its life of a little over twelve years its secretaries have been 
W. E. Griffith, James S. Silvey, Carl Dehoney, Donald Greenman, A. H. 
Skinner and P. W. Morgan, the present secretary'. 

Among the earlier activities of the club was its aid to our educa- 
tional authorities in building up its splendid system of schools. It was 
instrumental in obtaining an appropriation by congress for the erection 
of a post ofRce building after many years of delay, and of securing 
from Andrew Carnegie a gift of $75,000 for a library building. 

The annual "Sunshine" trade-extension ti-ip of its members for a 
series of yeai"s covered nearly every mile of railroad in the state, and 
in nearly every city and town the name and fame of Kansas City, Kan- 
sas, was made known. 

The Mercantile Club was first and foremost in the agitation that led 
to the erection of a system of parks and boulevards, and has backed 
every movement looking to civic betterment. It supported the Kaw 
Valley Drainage Board in its fight to obtain those improvements of the 
river to protect the property in the valley from damage by overflow. 
It has stood for the enforcement of law, and when the city was defamed 
by misrepresentations as to the effect of the closing of the saloons, 
through the enforcement of the prohibitory law, its members were cjuick 
to set the American people right by a presentation of the facts. 

It was the Mercantile Club that advocated the purchase of the 
Metropolitan water plant by the city, by which our people were enabled 
to obtain an abundant supply of pure water at reasonable rates ; and it 
is able to point with pride to the successful operation of the municipal 
water plant and the earning of a profit, above operating expenses and 
interest charges, each and every month. It was the Mercantile Club also 
that advocated the accjuisition of a municipal electrical plant, for which 
an issue of $350,000 of bonds was voted and which now is building, and 
it wa.s that organization which got behind the movement for the new city 
hall now building in Kansas City, 

And it was the Mercantile Club, ever and always advocating effi- 
cient government, that led the successful fight for the inauguration of 
the system of municipal government by commi.s,sion whic'h, in one year of 
operation, has demonstrated that a city can l)e run on a safe and sane 
business basis. 


The IMercantile Club has comfortable quarters in the Commercial 
National Bank building at Sixth street and Minnesota avenue, and its 
meetings, held twice each month, are open to all members and to the 

Other Civic Organizations. 

Many other organizations have to do with the civic development. 
Among these are the Grandview Improvement Association, Central 
Avenue Improvement Association, and the Northwest, West Side and the 
Seventh Street and Ohio Avenue Improvement associations. These, 
while laboring each for the betterment of things in its own community, 
also work together and with other civic bodies for the general welfare of 
the city. 

The Merchants Mutual Association, representing more than tive 
hundred merchants, and the Trades Assembly, representing the many 
affiliated labor unions are exerting a strong influence for civic better- 

Charitable and Christian Organizations. 

The most potent agency in the city for the relief, care and better- 
ment of the poor from a comprehensive point of view is the Associated 
Charities, which is a federation of practically all the charities of the 
city. The scope of work being conducted by this association is very 
broad, the three most essential features being relief, cooperation and pre- 
vention. It also maintains departments of investigation, registration, 
visitation and education. The most modern, up-to-date methods of 
rendering relief, both temporary and permanent, have been adopted in 
Kansas City; the measure of success to be attained will depend largely 
upon the degree of co-operation between the Associated Charities and 
the people of the city, and it Ls the duty of every loyal citizen to give 
this charity clearing house a trial. P. W. Goebel, president of the 
Commercial National Bank, is president of the Associated Charities, 
and G. M. Pfeiffer is its .secretary. 

The Children's Home, under control of a woman's board of man- 
agers, in doing so much for homeless little ones, appeals to the highest 
instincts of the women of the city, and all are loyal in their support 
of it. It has been conducted in the city fifteen years and has accom- 
plished great good. A similar home for colored children is conducted 
by a board of women of that race. 

Among other organizations that are doing good is the International 
Sunshine Society, which has recently taken over the Carrie Nation Home 
for Drunkard's Wives, established in 1902 and which failed for want of 
dninkard's wives to share its benefits. The building now is used as 
a Home for Girls. 


Notable among the organizations in Kansas City, Kansas, having 
to do with the spiritual, as well as the intellectual and social, is the 
Young Women's Christian Association, which has a magnificent home 
at Sixth street and State avenue. Its beautiful work touches the lives 
of nearly one thousand young women who are its members. The 
Association conducts night schools for young women. It also has an 
extension department by which its work is carried on in many of the 
large industries. A strong movement also has been started for the 
organization of a Young lien's Christian Association in Kansas City, 
Kansas. A building to cost $100,000 is planned. An organization 
for negroes on similar lines has been effected and a building to cost 
$30,000 soon is to be erected. 

The story of the history of other great institutions of Kansas City, 
Kansas, and W.yandotte county — the churches, schools, societie-s, hospi- 
tals and the professions — is told in succeeding chapters of this work. 



Wyandots, the First Methodists — When the Methodists Were 
Divided — Expelled the Rev. Mr. Gurley — Returning to the Old 
Church — The Methodist Churches Burned — The Old Church Re- 
Organized — The Methodist Episcopal Church South — Other 
Methodist Churches — A Church op War Time Days — The Organiza- 
tion OP THE Church — Soldiers Attended Prayer Meeting— ^As a 
Pastor's Wipe Told It — The Drought op 1860 — When the Old 
Church Bell Rang — The Burning op Lawrence — The Old Church 
on Fipth Street — Episcopal Churches — The Presbyterians — The 
Baptist Churches — The Methodists Protestant — Christian 
Churches — Christian Science Organizations — Other Religious 
Organizations — Sunday Schools. 

A writer liath said "the groves were God's first temples," and it 
might be .suggested that tlie missionaries who came among the Indians 
were our first Kansas preachers. SiLstained by a fervid religious en- 
thusiasm, they were to endure exile, privation and, if need be, martyr- 
dom in order to .spread the Light as they saw it, and carry to the be- 
nighted savage the bles.sed precepts taught by the Peasant of Galilee. 
Carrying with them the Bible and the implements of agriculture, they 
taught the rudiments of productive and civilized industry to the red 
men, at the same time that the.y were unfolding the plan of salvation 
and proclaiming the present advantages and future glories that waited 
the true followers of the Prince of Peace. But, with the passing of 
years, the teepee of the red men gave place to the habitation of the 
Anglo-Saxon, and the old Indian mission gave place to the church which 
became the houses of worship for the white people. 

White men who came from the east established missions among the 
Shawnee and Delawares in Wyandotte county, but, by a reversal of the 
usual order of things, the Wyandot Indians brought their mission with 
them when they came west from Ohio. So it turns out that the 
Washington Boulevard IMethodist Episcopal church in Kansas City, Kan- 
sas, grew out of the Methodist mission that was organized in Ohio in 
1819, and that was the first mission ever organized in the world by that 
denomination. It had been regularly supplied by the Ohio Methodist 



conference. In 1843, when the Rev. James Wheeler was the missionary, 
the Wyandots came to Kaasas and he accompanied them. The church 
organization, for such it was, remained intact. The Rev. Mr. Wheeler, on 
his arrival, at once became a member of the Missouri Methodist confer- 
ence and the bishop continued him in the work among the Wyandots, 
where he remained until 1846. 

Wyandots, the First Methodists. 

Even before they were located on the lands they jnircliased from 
the Delawares, the Wyandots held regular services on the strip of low 
land at the state line, with a little band of two hundred souls, nine 
class leaders and three local preachers. In April, 1844, after they had 
established themselves and were erecting their homes a log church was 
built and ready for use. It stood about one-half mile west of Chelsea 
Park. It was there the whole community worshipped until 1847, when 
a brick church was erected on the Mary A. Grindrod tract near Tenth 
street and Walker avenue, one-half mile west of the Kansas City-North- 
western freight depot at Fifth street. Occasionally public services 
were conducted in the English and Indian languages, in the school 
house on the east side of Fourth street between Kansas and Nebraska 
avenues. The English speaking class met there and the first Sabbath 
school was organized in June, 1847. The Rev. Mr. Wheeler was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. E. T. Perry. He had been sent by the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, but he kept the records in the name of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

When the Methodists Were Divided. 

In July, 1848, the official board petitioned the Ohio conference for 
a missionary, and the Rev. James Gurley volunteered to come in that 
capacity. He arrived in November. Previous to his arrival, the 
Rev. Abram Still, M. D., presiding elder of the Platte district (which 
included the Indian missions in this region), came to hold his first quar- 
terly meeting, in October, 1848. Dr. Still preached Sabbath morning 
on the text, "My peace I give unto you," after which Mr. Perry organ- 
ized the Methodist Episcopal Church South, with forty-one members. 
There were in the house one hundred and ten members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and sixty-nine refused to go into the new organiza- 
tion. Many of the old membei-s of the church had died since they came 
to the west, and, at this time, there were but one hundred and sixty re- 
maining. Renewed efforts were made to induce the members of the 
old church to unite with the new, but the highest number ever obtained 
was sixty-five, and soon after Mr. Gurley 's arrival some of these re- 
turned to the old church. But, notwithstanding that there was a large 


majority in the Methodist Episcopal church, the building was stoned, 
so as to endanger the house and disturb the services, when Mr. Gurley 
preached in it, and the official board decided to withdraw from it, for a 
time, to a vacant dwelling house. 

Expelled The Rev. Mb. Gukley. 

The last week in February, 1849, the United States Indian agent, 
at Wyandotte, expelled Mr. Gurley, at the instance of some membei-s 
and adherents of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, though it was 
avowed he had committed no offense against the law, nor caused any of 
the disturbances. They existed before he came, and continued until 
1857. The next Saturday after Mr. Gurley 's expulsion, the presiding 
elder. Doctor Still, crossed the Missouri river in a skiff, swimming his 
horse amidst great blocks of ice, to hold his second quarterly meeting 
in the old dwelling house. Thirty persons united with the church upon 
this occasion. As soon as the spring rains were over, the services were 
held in a grove, and before winter another log church was built near the 
present Quindaro cemetery. The Rev. Squire Gray-Eyes and John 
M. Armstrong were sent to the Missouri conference at St. Louis (August, 
1849), to petition for a missionary. The Rev. G. B. Markham was 
appointed, and arrived in a few weeks, remaining two years and being 
followed by the Rev. James Witten in October, 1851. Mr. Witten's 
wife was in failing health, died January 1, 1852, and she was buried 
near the log church, hers being the first interment in the Quindaro 
cemetery. The Rev. George W. Robbins was appointed presiding elder 
in October, 1850, and was continued three years. Following Father 
Witten as missionary were the Rev. M. G. Klepper, M. D., October, 
1852; the Rev. J. M. Chivington, autumn of 1853; the Rev. J. T. 
Hopkins, presiding elder; the Rev. J. H. Dennis, fall of 1854; the Rev. 
W. W. Goode, D. D., presiding elder, and superintendent of the work in 
Kansas and Nebraska territories. He moved his large family from 
Richmond, Indiana, to a small brick house, about two miles from the con- 
fluence of the Missouri and Kansas rivers. 

Returning to the Old Church. 

Soon after thase preachers came, twelve persons returned from the 
Southern Church to the old church. One of them was Matthew Mud- 
eater, the Wyandot chief, and the other Mrs. Hannah Walker, the wife 
of William Walker, the provisional governor of Kansas. She was a 
white woman. - All the white women in the church and Wyandot Nation 
had united with the South Church, except one Mrs. Lucy B. Armstrong, 
and she was rejoiced when an English speaking class was reorganized, 
after a lapse of seven years, at Doctor Good's house. There were pre- 


sent Doctor Goode and family ; the Rev. J. H. Dennis, wife and daugh- 
ter; Mrs. Hannah Walker; Mi-s. Lucy B. Armstrong and two of her 
family, who were then members of the church; and the former mis- 
sionary. Father Witten — more than the recjuisite number for a primi- 
tive class. The class was continued until Doctor Goode moved into 
Iowa in October, 1855, to take charge of the work in Nebraska. The 
Rev. L. B. Dennis succeeded him as presiding elder of all Kansas north 
of the Kansas river. 

The Methodist Churches Burned. 

In the winter of 1855-6 the health of the Rev. J. H. Dennis, who 
was continued missionar.y, rapidly failed, and near the 1st of May, 
1856, he left Wyandotte for his mother's house in Indiana, where he 
died the following August. His memory is blessed. Before he left, 


on the night of April 8, 1856, both churches were burned by incen- 
diaries. The Rev. William Butt, who had been appointed to the Leaven- 
worth, Delaware and Wyandotte mis.sion, moved here in November, 
and preached in a school house near Quindaro. In April, 1857, he was 
appointed presiding elder, and the Rev. R. P. Duval succeeded him as 
missionary. Services were held in Mrs. Lucy B. Armstrong's house 
from April to the last of December, 1857, when the old frame church, 
comer of Washington avenue and Fifth street, was completed. The 
same year a brick church was built at Quindaro. 


The Old Church Re-Oeganized. 

The first quarterly meeting of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
after Wyandotte City was settled by white people and the church was 
re-org-anized, was held on Mrs. Armstrong's premises, September 1, 
1857. The public services of the Sabbath were held on her lawn, under 
the shade of the trees. There was gathered a vast concourse of people 
from Wyandotte and Quindaro and the country around. Presiding 
Elder Butt preached the morning sermon, and the Rev. J. M. Walden, 
local preacher, politician and editor of the Quindaro Chindowan, de- 
livered the afternoon sermon. After Mr. Duval, came as missionaries 
(April, 1858) the Rev. H. H. Moore, who remained one year; the Rev. 
G. W. Paddock, two years; the Rev. Strange Brooks, March, 1861 (the 
Rev. N. Gaylor, presiding elder), one year and the Rev. M. D. Genney, 
March, 1862 (the Rev. W. R. Davis, presiding elder), one year. The 
annual conference was held at Wyandotte, Bishop Simpson presiding. 
Mr. Genney was first lieutenant in the United States volunteer service. 
He attended conference and resigned his lieutenancy, but it was not 

With the exception of about four months, during which time the 
Rev. C. H. had charge, the Wyandotte and Quindaro mission 
was without a pastor this year. At the conference held in Lawrence, 
in March, 1863, the Rev. Strange Brooks was appointed presiding elder 
of the district, and the Rev. M. M. Haun, missionary. In 186-4 the 
Rev. A. N. Marlatt was appointed missionary, remaining about ten 
months, when a man was appointed who had been transferred to another 
conference, and therefore did not fill the appointment at Wyandotte. 
The Rev. D. G. Griffith, a young local preacher, did not complete the 
conference year. 

In March, 1866, Wyandotte was made a station, the Rev. D. D. 
Dickinson was appointed pastor, and the Rev. J. E. Bryan sent to the 
Wyandotte and Quindaro mission, the Rev. H. D. Fisher, presiding 
elder. In March, 1867, came the Rev. H. G. Murch, and in March, 
1870, the Rev. S. G. Frampton. The latter remained one year, but 
failed to keep up the Quindaro and Wyandotte mission appointments, 
partly because most of the Indians were about moving to the Indian 
territory. These appointments were therefore dropped. The Rev. 
S. P. Jacobs remained two years from March, 1871, during which time a 
neat parsonage was built. The Rev. H. K. Muth was appointed in 
March, 1873, the Rev. William Smith, who succeeded him, remaining 
two years. 

The corner-stone of a new church, the foundation of which had been 
laid on the corner of Kansas (now State) avenue and Fifth street, was 
laid by the Rev. William K. Marshall, and the basement was dedicated 
by the planting of Christianity in Wyandotte county. The church 


thus established, prospered and grew in numbers, and is one of the most 
popular in Kansas City today having upwards of one thousand members. 
Among its pastors in recent years, as well as in the early days, were 
many of the men who have been noted for their work in the church. 
The pastor at the pre.sent time is the Rev. Clyde Clay Cissell. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

Of the one hundred and ten members of the original Methodist 
Episcopal church, organized in Wyandotte in 1843, fort.v-one joined 
the Southern branch when it formally was organized by the Rev. E. T. 
Peery in October, 1848. The church was given a lot by the Wyandotte 
City Company in 18.59, at the northwest corner of the old Huron Ceme- 
tery. A brick church and a parsonage were built there in 1873-81 
The church was occupied by the congregation until in 1889, when the 
property became of great value for business purposes and was sold. 
The next year the organization erected the present brick church, at the 
northeast corner of Seventh street and State avenue, and the name was 
changed to the Seventh Street M. E. Church, South. Some of the 
earlier pastors were the Revs. B. F. Russell, Daniel Dofflemayer, J. T. 
Peery, Nathan Scarrett, William Barnett, H. H. Craig, D. C. 'Howell, 
Joseph King, D. S. Heron, E. G. Frazier, 6. J. Warren, T. H. Swearen- 
gen, J. W. Payne and W. H. Comer. The Rev. John Score was pastor 
in 1910-11. 

Other Methodist Churches. 

The First German M. E. church was organized in 1859, with Frank 
Weber, Maria Weber, Louis Feisel, Marie Feisel, Abelhard Holzbeier- 
lein, Catharine Schatz, Margaret Ortman, Henry Helm, August Gab- 
riel, Carl Gabriel, Henrietta Gabriel, Gottleib Kneipfer and Jlargaret 
Kneipfer, as members. In 1866 a church edifice was erected at the 
northeast corner of Fifth street and Ann avenue and was dedicated in 
September of that year by the Rev. M. Schnierle. The congregation 
worshipped there until in the nineties, when the present church at 
Eighth street and State avenue was erected. Another German M. E. 
church is located at No. 320 South Tenth street. 

The Central Avenue M. E. church, at No. 950 Central avenue, and 
the Central M. E. church, at No. 724 South Mill street, of recent forma- 
tion, are separate organizations. Both, however, have large member- 
ship and handsome churches. The other churches of the denomination 
are the London Heights, at Fifteenth street and Garfield avenue; the 
Highland Park, at No. 42 South Seventh street; the Mt. Pleasant, at 
Fifth street and Waverly avenue ; and the old Quindaro church, at No. 
3023 North Twenty-third street. The Argentine M. E. church is at 


Twenty-sixth street and Metropolitan avenue, and the Quayle M. E. 
mission, at No. 210 South Fourteenth street. The Methodist churches 
at Rosedale, Bonner Springs and elsewhere in the county are men- 
tioned in connection witli those places. 

The Wesleyan Methodists have an organization in the Tidings of 
Joy mission, at No. 445 Virginia avenue, conducted by the Rev. E. W. 

The Free Methodists have also the Glendale church at No. 2717 
North Tremont street; the Life Line mission, at No. 711 Osage avenue; 
and the Second church, at No. 738 South Fifth street. 

The colored M. E. churches are: The African, at Mill and Valley 
streets; the Bethel mission, at No. 2141 North Water street; the Ninth 
Street, at No. 1417 North Ninth street; St. Peters African, at No. 409 
Oakland avenue. The African M. E. church is at No. 2323 Ruby 
avenue, in the Argentine district. 

A Church of War Time Days. 

The old First Congregational church in Kansas City, Kansas, was 
organized in the territorial days before the Civil war and around it 
is woven nmch of the thrilling history of the "border times" when the 
struggle to make Kansas a free state was waging. The Congrega- 
tionalists, who came out from New England, were Free State people, 
and the organizer of the First church — the Rev. S.vlvester Dana Storrs 
— was a leader among them. He was a member of the "Kansas 
Andover band, ' ' which included, beside Mr. Storrs, the late Rev. Richard 
Cordle.v, for nearly fifty years pastor of Plymouth Congregational 
church at Lawrence ; the Rev. Roswell Davenport Parker, who planted 
Congregationalism at Leavenv^orth ; and the Rev. Grosvenor C. Morse, 
who went to Emporia and started a church, taught school, and after- 
wards founded the Kansas State Normal School in that city. 

The Organization of the Church. 

Mr. Storrs, the first of the "Kansas Andover band" to come to 
Kansas, landed from a Missouri river steamboat at Quindaro in May, 

1857. Mr. Storrs organized a church at Quindaro. He aLso organized 
a sub-station in the village of W.vandotte (now Kansas City, Kansas,) 
using Kirk's hall on Nebraska avenue, and later the old Methodist 
church at Fifth street and Washington avenue, where, on August 17, 

1858, the organization which is now known as the First Congregational 
church of Kansas City, Kansas, was formed. 

Wlien Quindaro was abandoned as a town Mr. Storrs devoted his 
entire attention to the church in Wyandotte, preaching in store rooms 
until 1859, when a little building was leased on Nebraska avenue between 


Third and Fourth streets for services. There were then fewer than 
two thousand persons in Wyandotte. In 1859 the Rev. Roswell Daven- 
port Parker succeeded Mr. Storrs as pastor. He remained eight years, 
wliich constituted the most stormy period of Kansas history. The Rev. 
IMr. Parker often shouldered a musket and stood guard with the men. 

Soldiers Attended Prayer Meeting. 

In the fall of 1861 a national fast was held in the church, and on 
that day the Twenty-third Iowa Regiment marched into the town after 
the battle at Blue Mills. On the following day two hundred and fifty 
officers and soldiers attended a prayer meeting in the church. The 
women of the church administered to the sick and wounded of the regi- 
ment. They also cared for scores of negro refugees who tied across the 
Mi-ssouri river to find refuge on Kansas soil. 

From the pastor's annual report, given at the seventh annual 
meeting January 9, 1865: "We have great reason for thankfulness be- 
cause of our protection from the invader. Price's destroying army 
came near to our doors, and for a short time it seemed impossible that 
our town could escape, but, by the blessing of God upon the efforts and 
bravery of our friends, the storm was turned away. We strove to 
commemorate this great deliverance by a suitable Thanksgiving on the 
2-lth of November. To this your pastor was carried, and it was the 
first service he was able to attend for six weeks on account of severe 
sickness. However, through the kindness of Brothers Bodwell and E. 
Harlow, services were regularly sustained except upon the 'Battle 
Sabbath.' " 

As A Pastor's Wife Told It. 

The early history of the First Congregational church is related by 
Mrs. Parker, wife of the war-time pastor, in a letter which was read at 
the fiftieth anniversary celebration in 1908, and which Ls as follows: 
"On a November evening of 1859 a Missouri river steam boat landed 
on your levee the first pastor of your church, with a young wife and a 
few boxes of books and household goods. I remember the newness of 
everything, and the desolate feeling that was creeping over us. But 
then we saw a man with a lantern making his way toward us through 
the medley of goods and chattels. And we heard a cheery ' Good even- 
ing, Brother Parker, we are looking for you,' as Arthur Downs grasped 
the hand of one and then the other. And he continued, 'Just wait a lit- 
tle till I see that your boxes are stored in the warehouse, and I'll take 
.you to my house.' The cordiality of that greeting has lingered like a 
pleasant perfume in my memory during all the years since. 

"Within a few days we found there were others as cordial and 
warm-hearted to welcome us to the little church that had been organized 


the winter before by S. D. Storrs, as an out-station to Qiiindaro ; a 
group of friends such as few pastors in the new west are blessed with. 
No need to make a list of names. Old members will recall them, and 
to new people they woiild be only names, without a personality. 

' ' There wa.s no church buildino;. We worshipped in a vacant store 
fitted up with chaii-s. At one end of the room, a drawer was set on 
end and another laid across it. Over these the ladies had draped 
some dark red curtains to make it seem like a pulpit. Our good Deacon 
Crosby, the only white haired man amniic u!=, was away in New England 
trying to raise funds to add to the little the people could give to build 
a church. A corner lot was secured and plans discussed. In the 
summer of 1860 the church was built. Mr. Cordley drove dowTi from 
Lawrence across the Delaware Reserve to assist in the dedication, stop- 
ping at night with a civilized Indian. A year or two later we went to 
Lawrence the same way to help dedicate the first church there. 

The Drought op 1860. 

"In the midst of the drought of 1860 we felt that we had much to 
be thankful for. In the fall and winter of that year, there were 
many steamboat loads of p^o^^sinns landed on the levee, for the hungry 
people in the interior. Men came with wagons to take the food to their 
homes. Several times Mr. Parker preached on the levee to as many as 
three hundred men who were here waiting for the steamboat. Some 
of these men had not heard a sermon since coming to Kansas. They 
had harrowing stories to tell of the needs in the new settlements, where 
they had been thirteen months without a drop of rain, and raised noth- 
ing. Often their families were left with only enough cornmeal to last 
while the trip was made to the river. They came not once, but several 
times. One man from Emporia told of the scarcity of supplies, when 
one day a herd of buffalo were seen coming toward the little village. 
Thev were in search of food themselves, for the plains were barren. 
The men turned out and killed a number of the herd, thus furnishing 
their families with meat for a long time. 

"During the war, we were on the border between slave and free 
states, and in danger of attacks from wandering bands of desperate 
men. No one was safe in an open boat on the Missouri river. Several 
were shot at from the woods on the other side. 

When The Old Church Bell Rang. 

"Our church bell was used as a warning call, three strokes meaning 
'danger.' I remember one night in 1863 we heard the signal, and one 
of Deacon Winner's boys ran to oiir house with the news that the rebels 
had crossed the Kansas river at the bridge, about three miles from its 


mouth, and were coming toward town. All able bodied men rallied at 
the church and sent out scouts. Later we found that when they learned 
we were ready for them, they returned the way they came. 

"During that year, while the rebel flag was still floating in Kansas 
City, Missouri, our Kansas ministers thought it time to begin work over 
there. Mr. Bodwell and IMr. Parker hired a hall at their own risk and 
began holding services, beginning with an audience of twelve people. 
A toll bridge over the Kansas river was owned by rough men, but when 
they learned that the preachers were trying to do good without cost to 
the people, they gave them free tickets. 

"The other pastors in the state came to help the enterprise, each 
one taking a hand in it. So we held open house all summer. Mr. 
Cordley had just returned to Lawrence after a three weeks' stay in 
this work, while Mr. Bodwell supplied for him, when Quantrell's raid 
occurred. In this he lost his home and all its contents, the family 
barely escaping with their lives. 

The Burning of Lawrence. 

"When the news reached us, Mr. Parker gathered a wagon load of 
supplies and taking a boy with him drove across to Lawrence, not know- 
ing whether he should find his friends alive, or not. As he drove into 
the town he could still smell the burning human flesh where men had 
been killed and burned in their homes. He found his friends, Cordle.y 
and Bodwell, safe at the home of Deacon Savage, a few mil&s out of town. 
Not long after a letter was sent from one of Quantrell 's men, saying the 
date was fixed to do to Wyandotte as they had done to Lawrence. The 
Loyal League sent Mr. Parker and the German minister to the military 
headquarters in Kansas Cit.v, Missouri. As a result, a squad of sol- 
diers were sent, who found the boats to be used in crossing concealed at 
the mouth of a creek. These were chopped to pieces and sent down 
stream. Thus we escaped the raid. 

"Our loyal men were organized into a militia who took turns in 
standing guard. Sometimes Mr. Parker's turn would come, after 
having preached twice in Wyandotte and once in Quindaro. I still 
have the musket he used when on guard. 

"But memories of those times come crowding thick and fast. It 
is not best to write more lest I become wearisome. Wishing you a 
most delightful Jubilee, I remain, etc." 

The Old Church on Fifth Street. 

During Mr. Parker's pastorate a church building was erected at 
Nebraska avenue and Fifth street. It was sold in 1892, when the 
church at Sixth street and Everett avenue was begun, and for a while 


it was known as the Fifth street opera house. It was destroyed by 
fire a few years ago. 

During the life of the Firet Congregational church, covering a 
period of more than fifty years, the ministers who have served as 
pastors of the church were the Rev. Sylvester D. Storrs, the Rev. Ros- 
well D. Parker, the Rev. Edwin A. Harlow, the Rev. James G. Dougher- 
ty, the Rev. R. M. Tunnell, the Rev. Samuel Shepherd, the Rev. John B. 
Lawrence, and the Rev. James G. Dougherty (second pastorate), the 
R€V. Frank Fox, the Rev. J. Addison Seibert and the Rev. Frank G. 

The twelve charter members were Don A. Bartlett, Mary Louise 
Bartlett (later Mrs. Byron Judd), William P. Dowtis, Louisa Downs, 
D. C. Collier, Mrs. Amelia Collier, Dr. Crosby, Mehetable Crosby, John 
Furbish and Jlrs. Mary Wolcott. All of these except Mrs. Wolcott have 
gone to their reward. The names are inscribed in a memorial window 
above the pulpit. Other memorial windows perpetuate the memory 
of the following: Mrs. Lois Hefferlin, Mre. Martha Stout, Mrs. Mary 
Dennison, Mrs. Fannie L. Cable, Mrs. Lucy R. Perry and daughter, 
Mrs. Mary Ford, Anna Daugherty, Annie Wooster, Emily Judd, Nellie 
Daish, Edith Elliott, W. H. Bridgens and Walter Latimer and the 
family of P. K. Leland. 

Pilgrim Congregational chur