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Riverside County 







The Leading Men and Women of the Covnty Who Have Been 

Identified With Its Growth and Development From 

the Early Days to the Present 








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18108, LBNOX AND 
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Introduction 5 

Prehistoric California — The Spanish Explorers — Spanish Colonization — 
Colonel de Anza's Expedition — The Indian People, Their Characteristics 
and Habits— The Myths of the Cahuilla Indians — ^The Riverside Indians 
and Their Relation to the Missions — The Spanish Land Grants — Louis 
Rubidoux — Battle of San Pasqual — Old Fort of Jurupa — The Flood of 
1862— The Silk Culture Craze. 

Colony Days 24 

Location of the Colony — ^Judge North, the Promoter and Organizer — 
The Co-Operative Plan — The Committee's Search for a Home — Early 
Settlers — ^First Irrigating Canal — Hartshorn Tract — Consolidation of 
Water Interests — First Tree-planting and Irrigating — Water Wars — 
First Building Erected — Interesting Pioneer Experiences — ^First School — 
The Grasshopper Plague — Introduction of the Washington Navel 
Orange — Horse Thieves^ — Claim Jumping — Experiments in Horticulture 
— First Orange Trees Planted — Riverside in 1873. 


Dawning op a New Era 48 

Consolidation of the Colonies — Impetus to Growth — Settlers of 1875 
and 1876 — New Canals — Valley Transformed — Magnolia Avenue Laid 
Out — Thousands of Acres Planted — New Hotels — First Profits From 
Oranges and Raisins — First Bridge Across the Santa Ana River — Pio- 
neer Newspapers — Original Citrus Fairs — Valley Prospering — New 
Churches Built. 


\ Dawning of a New Era (Continued) : 64 

^ Citrus Fair Pavilion — Amateur Theatricals — Increased Orchard Values — 

A Real Snow-storm — Gage Water System Built — Birth of Highgrove — 

'^\ First Public Park — Coming of the Railroads — Heavy Shipment of 

Oranges — Early Subdivisions — Growth of Street-car Facilities — River- 

' " side Made a City— Drought of 1883 and Flood of 1884— Fruit Packing 

Houses Established — Honors Won at the New Orleans World's Fair — 

V Great Fruit Exhibits at Chicago and New York — State Citrus Fair. 


Dawning of a New Era (Concluded) 79 

Progress in the Early '80s — Newspaper History — Banking Institutions — 
Excitement Over the Disappearance of T. W. Cover — Temperance Move- 
ment Inaugurated — A Saloonless City — Growth of the City Due to 
Unnamed as Well as to the Conspicuous. 


Riverside Municipal Records 87 

Present Population and Assessed Valuation — Officials Who Have Served 
the City — Bonds Issued for Roads. 


Riverside's P.vrks 92 

Street Ornamentation — Albert S. White Park — Fairmount Park — Evans 
Athletic Park — Huntington Park — Chemawa Park. 

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Riverside Public Library 96 

Story of Its Making — Made a Public Library — The Carnegie Building — 
Library Serves County as Well as City. 


Riverside Schools 100 

Primitive District Schools — Growth of the District Schools— High 
School Created — Schools Under City Government. 


Churches op Riverside 107 

First Church Undenominational — ^Pirst Methodist — First Baptist — Mag- 
nolia Presbyterian — All Souls' Universalist — ^All Saints' Protestant Epis- 
copal — Swedenborgian — First Christian — Calvary Presbyterian — St. Fran- 
cis de Sales — Trinity Lutheran — Scandinavian Lutheran — Grace Metho- 
dist — ^First United Brethren — Christian Science — Arlington Methodist — 
Highgrove Methodist — African Methodist — Second Baptist, African- 
Arlington Christian — Free Methodist — United Presbyterian — Seventh 
Day Baptist — Other Religious Organiiations. 


Young Men's Christian Association 117 

Organized in 1884 — Has Generous Support — Provided With Magnificent 
Building — Young Women's Christian Association — Organization Splen- 
didly Managed. 


Sherman Institute 119 

. Indian School Named in Honor of Vice-President Sherman — Laying of 
Cornerstone — Contributing Causes to Success of the Institution — 
Courses of Study. 


Cvlipornia Fruit Exchange 121 

Inefficiency of Early Marketing Methods Leads to Inauguration of 
Exchange — Growers Previously at Mercy of Commission Men — Growth 
of the Exchange — The Test of Two Decades Proves It a Success — 


Fraternal Organizations 124 

Odd Fellows — Masonic Order — Eastern Star — Knights of Pythias. 


The Women's Clubs ^ 127 

Women to the Fore in All Movements for Improvement of City — River- 
side Woman's Club Takes Tangible Form — Founders and Charter Mem- 
bers — Growth of the Organization — Building of Club House — Wednesday 
Morning Club — Tuesday Musical Club. 


Riverside's ^Iilitary History 130 

Riverside Post, G. A. R. — List of Post Commanders — Union Veterans — 
Confederate Veterans — National Guard — Company Organized for Service 
in the Spanish War. 

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Organization of Riverside County 133 

Territory From Which Riverside County Was Made— Minerals and 
Horticultural Wealth of County Compared — Topography of the County — 
San Diego County Contributes Territory Willingly— San Bernardino 
County's Bitter Opposition— Reason Which Led to Separation of River- 
side From San Bernardino County — Bill for Division of Counties Passes 
Both Houses of Legislature — Assessed Valuation of New County — ^First 
Board of Supervisors — Officers Who Have Served the County Since 
Its Organization. 


The Perris Valley 139 

Romance Associated With the Valley — Location of the Valley — Mining 
and Dry Farming First Attractions — Experiences of Early Settlers — 
Postoffice and General Supply Store an Impetus to the Settlement — 
Other Indications of Growth— Population Doubles — First White Child 
Born in Perris — Prominent Pioneer Settlers — Introduction of Irrigation 
and the Controversies Which It Entailed — Perris Has Her Ups and 
Downs — ^Incorporated as a City. 


Moreno V.vlley 168 

The Transformation of the Valley From a Sterile Plain — The Bear 
Valley Reservoir Contributory to Development — Citrus Fruit Raising 
Begins — Town of Moreno — Prosperity of the Valley Has a Setback — 
Dry Farming Now Being Followed. 


San Gorgonio Pass 174 

Location of the Pass — Early Days in the Pass — Exploration and Survey 
Parties — San Gorgonio Rancho Grant — Coming of White Settlers — Days 
of the Stage Coach — Changes Wrought by Coming of Railroad — Indians 
of the Pass — Towns in the Pass — Banning — Beaumont — Cabazon — White- 
water—Palm Springs. 


San Jacinto Valley 218 

Early Records of the Valley — Early Settlers and Reminiscences of Their 
Journey Overland — Later Experiences — Hemet — Indians the First Inhabi- 
tants — Smallpox Among the Mission Indians — Indian Government — 
Legend of the San Jacinto Valley — Historical Sketch of the San Jacinto 
Indians — Legend of Tauquitz — Threatened Eviction — The Eviction Plot 
— Soboba Indian of Today — San Jacinto Valley of Today — Winchester — 
Lakeview — Valle Vista — Indian Village of Soboba. 


Corona 253 

Town First Known as South Riverside — Survives the Boom — Devel- 
opment of Water — First Building Erected — Early Settlers — First Hotel 
— Advent of Railroads — First Child Born in the Colony — Tin Mine — 
Schools — The Colony Grows — Dissatisfaction With Name of Settlement — 
— First Satisfactory Results to Orange Growers — Churches — Library — 
South Riverside Died and Corona Born — Board of Trade — Town Con- 
tinues to Grow. 


Ei^siNORE : 288 

Exceptional Location and Climatic Conditions — Resources of Elsinore 
Valley — Lake Elsinore — Clay a Resource of the Valley— Wildomar — 
Murrietta — Temecula. 

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Adair, A. Aird 480 

Agulrre, Miguel A 590 

Alderman, Alton L. 495 

Alexandrian, Nazareth, M. D 514 

Mien, John A 378 

Allen, John D 711 

Mlison, John L 572 

Amstutz, John W 722 

Arlington Supply Company 336 

. Ayers, Wilbur W 717 


Backstrand, John F 517 

Bain, HugK A 733 

Balrd, Fred M 651 

Baird, James G., M. D 623 

Baldwin, John H 644 

Ball, James H 667 

Bamett, Ell E 334 

Barnett, Thomas D 772 

Battles, Daniel 483 

Bertramson, Paul 678 

Bird, Stephen 731 

Bixler, Prank A 681 

Black, Samuel 504 

Blair, George M 686 

Blodgett, Fred P 716 

Bloom Brothers 634 

Bollinger, P. Jerome 579 

Bonfoey, Edward 626 

Bortz, August E 635 

Bowen, Archer 660 

Bowman, Menno S 704 

Bridson, Edward 457 

Brown, Ebenezer G 374 

Brown, George 444 

Browning, D. M 691 

Brunmier, Henry 666 

Brunson, Robert L 652 


Caznp, Mrs. Julia 348 

Campbell, Albert P 428 

Campbell, James L 693 

Carlton, Karl S 620 

Carnahan, Herschel L 588 

Carroll, James W 735 

Castleman, John S 630 

Cawthon, Charles R 771 

Chase, Ethan A 562 

Christern, Abraham C 522 

Clapp, James D 363 

Clark, Hugh A 730 

Clark, Lewis D 705 

Clarke, E. P 358 

Clatworthy, W. C 687 

Clayson, Walter S 721 

Clayton, John W 768 

Clements, George P., M. D 479 

Clements, W. D 553 

Clough, Emery A 671 

Cochrane. David 534 

Colburn, Jefferson M., M. D 583 

Coleman, M. L 763 

Collier, Emerson B 509 

Cook, Jamison E 571 

Coplen, John B 505 

Copley, Edwar4 592 

Corkhill, William 696 

Cornelius, Nels M 594 

Cornwell, Joseph W 625 

Craig, Hugh H 437 

Crane, Edmund D 543 

Crane, James A 392 

Crawford, Robert D 739 

Crimmins, John T 336 

Crosby, Chester A 339 

Crow, Ben H 697 

Cundiff. Robert P 709 

Cunningham, George D 542 

Cutter, John E 770 


Daniels, Henry 641 

Daniels, James G 762 

Darling, William V 700 

Davenport, Terry W 670 

Davis, Eli A 756 

Pawson, Daniel J 649 

Peputy H. E. and Anna W 637 

Plnsmore, Pembroke S 4B9 

DiBsmore, William T 340 

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Dole, George H 639 

Drinkwater, Thomas P 471 


Edmlston, Rev. Berry 738 

Estudillo, Miguel 345 

Evans, Samuel Gary 445 

Evans, Samuel G 449 

Eyer, Glarendon B 665 


Farmer, Thomas 747 

Farr, Frank J 701 

Ferguson, J. F .' 612 

Fink, George W 646 

Flaherty, Thomas F 601 

Fletcher, Thomas 1 661 

Ford, Rupert E 489 

Fountain, Joseph R 682 

Fraser, Mrs. Floretta ..._ 685 

Frazler, William H 630 

Freeman, Moses D 549 

French, George A 356 

French, Sanger E 482 


Gallwas, William E 513 

Gamble, Austin A 464 

Gantt, Abel T 650 

Garcelon, George W 400 

Gard, Howard E 657 

Gardner, Charles N 779 

Gamer, John T. 618 

Gibson, Carlisle 446 

Gill, Lafayette 529 

Gilman, James M 463 

Glenn, D. W 672 

Graham, Alexander 757 

Green, William H 673 

Grotzinger, Ferdinand 680 

Grout, Harry F 510 

Guffey, Daniel W 659 

Gulliver, Thomas C 741 

Gunsolus, Philip A 744 


Hall, John and Dorothea S 402 

Hall, Priestley 396 

Hamner, John T 555 

Hampton, Samuel B 568 

Hanna, John F 406 

Harford, Henry M 609 

Hargrave, Alia 616 

Hathaway, Walter S 679 

Hauverman, C. D 539 

Hazard, Margaret 319 

Hennessy, Thomas M 589 

Herbelin, Marcel N 753 

Herrick, George F 567 

Hewitt, John J 361 

Hewitt, Theodore D 674 

Hibbard, J. M 450 

Hill, Stetson L 367 

Hinde, Harry H 613 

Hoffman, A. Theodore 645 

Holmes, Elmer W 383 

Holmes, Henry H 475 

Hoover, Martin 742 

Howe, Stedman M 710 

Humbel, John W 648 

Irving, Robert M 608 


Jarvis, John T 405 

Jensen, Henry 523 

Jensen, John 578 

Jensen, Jose 485 

Jessup, Ray H 732 

Johnson, Frank S 394 


Keegan, Thomas E 714 

Keith, Walter E 576 

Kelly, James A 689 

King, Jesse A 675 

Kingman, Edward F 407 

Kingman, George A 636 

Kise, Thomas A 728 

Kishlar, John W 748 

Knight, Herbert D 355 

Kumler, Abram N 752 

Kyes, Henry P 557 


Ladd, Zaccheus E 490 

Laird, Henry K 676 

LaRue, Scott 421 

LaRue, Seneca 585 

Lewis, David W 478 

Lewis, Frank D 575 

Logsdon, Joseph M 537 

Lord, Daniel 699 


McCarty, Alva R 782 

McCarty, John E 417 

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McDonald, Charles 455 

Mackey, Alexander M 640 

Main, Charles W 617 

Martin. Achilles 434 

Martin, Frederick C 399 

Martin, Hugh R., M. D 416 

Martini, Otto 600 

Matthews. Abram L 440 

May, Harry M 777 

Meharg, John 698 

Meier, Martin 599 

Merriam. John L 713 

Miles, Eusebius M 758 

Millbank, Joseph 672 

MiUer, Capt. C. C. 332 

Miller, Frank A 389 

Miller, Harvey 663 

Miller, Henry L 526 

Milliken, Peter 368 

Mitchell, David G 718 

Moore. Isaac H 638 

Moore, William C 307 

Morris, William P 466 

Morse, Bradford 596 

Mueller, Fred J 300 

Murray, Isaac S 643 

Mylne, John M 496 


Nevins, George C 580 

North, John G 311 

North, J. W 305 

North, Richard L 342 

Ogden. Frank P 415 

Oldendorf, Joseph M 760 


Parker, Henry T 369 

Pattee. H. Gordon 499 

Patton, Archibald G 433 

Paulson, Hans H 774 

Pearson, Greorge M 533 

Peck, Leonard B 506 

Pedley, Francis X 598 

Penprase, Edward E 662 

Perley, John Q 715 

Pettes, Fred D 313 

Pew, Thomas H 603 

Phelps, William W 536 

Pilch, Arthur B 519 

Pillar, Seeley L 531 

Plaisted, Mark H 614 

Polkinghom, William H 622 

Poole. W. W 775 

Potter. Harvey 501 

Potter, Sidney E 734 

Powers. Pleasant A 637 

Prince. N. L 556 

Provensal. Peter 569 

Puffer. Clark 423 

Puis. Henry A 427 

Putnam. Nathan T 501 


Randall. Melvin M 766 

Rankin. David 560 

Record. Ellington H 765 

Rector. Jason L 497 

Reed, John H 411 

Reeve. Charter 764 

Reynolds. George N 726 

Reynolds, Thomas J 301 

Rich. Joseph J 632 

Rlcker, J. Wesley 559 

Ridden, William 694 

Robbins, Harwood 750 

Roberts, Fred H 544 

Roberts, George T 584 

Robertson, Oswald M 761 

Roe, James H 373 

Rogers. Roswell M 778 

Roulston, Robert J 552 

Rouse, Gaylor 512 

Rumsey. Cornelius E 351 

Russell, William P 683 

Russell, William R 754 

Ryan, James W 353 


Sallee, Frazier M 607 

Sanborn, Kingsbury 548 

Sanders, Frank A 708 

Sanders, Will H 422 

Sargent. William H 654 

Savery, Barnabas E 664 

Schaefer. Glenn A 602 

Schain, John H 749 

Schneider, Joseph 695 

Schoneman, August H 624 

Seares. Edwin C 611 

Sewell, William A 668 

Shaver, John 604 

Shaw. Martin R 418 

Shepherd. Benton L 595 

Shiels, John 476 

Shryock, B. Roscoe 541 

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Shugart, Kellta D., M. D 329 

Siinms, John A 781 

Simpson, Joseph 395 

Small, Charles L 725 

Small, Henry K 736 

Small, Warren D 574 

Smith, Sylvester K 653 

Smoot, Kenneth R 633 

Snidecor, George E 565 

Spelch, Fred H 605 

Spining, Joseph M 755 

Si>ooner, Lemuel 493 

Stanley. Will H 688 

Stephenson, Homer 723 

Stobbs, John, Jr 658 

Stone, Casper P 528 

Strain, Robert 767 

Streeter, Henry M 323 

Strelght, Charles P 469 

Strickler, Mark M. 692 


Tetley, Prank A 546 

Thayer, George R 376 

Thompson, Prank P 554 

Thompson, H. L 769 

Thresher, Albert E 610 

Thursby, Nathaniel M. M 619 

Tilden, Adelbert D., M. D 642 

Tilson, Walter N 647 

Tucker, George E., M. D 451 

Tuthill, Arthur B 581 

Twogood, Adoniram J 297 

Twogood, Daniel C 330 

Unholz, P. E 3S(( 

Vosburgh, Capt. C. H 655 


Waite, Charles E 391 

Waite, Lyman C 817 

Ward, George P 564 

Ware, Andrew J 5B0 

Webb, Holton 516 

Whiffln, M. R 746 

White, Albert S 299 

White. James R 524 

White, S. A. 487 

Wilkinson, Cicero P 587 

WUks, Richard 489 

Wilks, Thomas H 677 

Wilson, Charles 8 591 

Wilson. Prank P 520 

Wilson, Lycurgus S 466 

Wolever, E. P 885 

Woodford, Asa W 324 

Wright, Samuel L 708 


Yates. John 379 

Yong, George J 720 


Zlnn, Lloyd W 707 

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By E. W. Holmes 

Within the limits of what is now the county of Riverside there 
are few points definitely known to have been the scene of Mission 
activities or of other important action worthy of record; and yet 
across these broad valleys, these mountains and deserts, have toiled, 
in the long centuries before the American era, a people whose history 
belongs as much to this section as to the state as a whole. As an 
introduction to the more exact history of Riverside and the county 
of which it is the capital, it seems proper to dwell briefly upon the 
indefinite past and hint at causes which have made this region one 
of the most attractive which the world now knows. 

What this land is, with its beautiful valleys and magnificent 
mountains, its equable climate and fertile soil, is due to causes shap- 
ing it in ages so distant as to be almost incomprehensible to the 
human mind. Before man was, these grand mountains stood mas- 
sive and silent, guarding the valleys from the cold of a northern 
clime. For centuries innumerable the lofty summits have caught 
the moisture from the inflowing ocean winds, and sent in the down- 
flowing streams to the slowly forming valleys below the elements of 
fertility which the disintegrating rocks supplied. 

That animal life existed here long before the mountain's up- 
heaval the discoveries of the scientists is convincing proof, for the 
fossil remains so plentifully found indicate that even further back 
in the far distant past, when, perhaps, our mountains hardly showed 
above the level of the sea, the climate must have been humid and 
tropical in character, and many monstrous creatures, no longer liv- 
ing upon the earth, ranged amid a very jungle of vegetable growth, 
which, deeply buried for millions of years may have created the im- 
mense deposits of oil now being utilized by man as a source of wealth. 
Even within the limits of the city of Riverside the bones of some of 
these prehistoric animals have been discovered. 

When did man first appear upon these shores! And why did 

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he not — under climatic conditions * so nearly identical with those 
which made possible his advancement around the shores of the Med- 
iterranean, and the resultant civilizations of Egj^pt and Greece and 
Rome — reach a higher state of development! Was he indigenous, 
or did his ancestors drift across the sea from eastern Asia and down 
along this coast! The ruins found in the southwestern part of the 
continent seem to warrant the belief that a civilization might once 
have existed far superior to that found by Cortez and his followers. 
Those at Mitla and elsewhere, to the southward, prove some earlier 
race to have reached the stone age, and to have been fully equal in 
advancement to that stage of development in the old world. Aro 
our present Indians their decadent descendants, or are they of a 
later and more barbarous people who swept down upon and destroyed 
the more advanced race which preceded them! Since our govern- 
ment has reversed its former brutal treatment of the American In- 
dian, and provided training schools such as we now have in River- 
side, where the Indians are given education and a kindly environ- 
ment, we have reason to change our former belief in their mental 
inferiority. Who that has seen the self-respecting and well-dressed 
Indian student alongside a squad of Japanese youth has failed to 
notice the resemblance between them, and when he remembers that 
only half a century has enabled a nation of barbarians to acquire 
the wisdom of the ages, and use it successfully in war and commerce 
against the white race, his foolish prejudice must be greatly modi- 
fied and the conclusion reached that these dark-skinned people are 
not naturally so greatly inferior in intelligence as has been assumed, 
and may fairly claim to be of those whom God ** created in His own 

Into this long undeveloped land, which nature has so wonderfully 
fitted for the highest human use, has now come a new race, bringing 
energy and the most approved modern methods for its development. 
The olden days, veiled in mystery, when the unsophisticated savage 
roamed in happy freedom over its flower-bedecked valleys, are gone. 
The centuries of the Spanish era, with its records of cupidity and 
crime on the part of a brutal soldiery, of the generous hospitality of 
the better class among their leaders, and of the self-sacrificing devo- 
tion of the noble missionaries under Junipero Serra, leave a misty 
glamour of romance, which the entrance upon the scene of the gold- 
seeking and matter-of-fact American has not lessened. It is little 

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over half a century since the Mexican was dispossessed, and already 
the few rude pathways he had made over mountain and valley and 
desert have been transformed into many great railway and trolley 
lines, over which has swept a continually increasing tide of popula- 
tion, to utilize for business and home-making the wonderful natural 
resources of Southern California. Orchards and vineyards and 
fields of grain furnish immense quantities of freight for trans-conti- 
nental railways and create wealth for the people who possess them. 
The waters of the once idle mountain streams are no longer wasted 
in the desert sands, but are made to generate electric power for the 
manufacturer and the transportation lines and light for the cities, 
and finally supply, through innumerable canals, the irrigating water 
which makes possible the productiveness of the once barren mesas. 
It is the history of the steps by which this change has been wrought 
that is the purpose of this publication. 

The name of California was derived from a Spanish romance, 
published about 1510. In that work the ** Island of California" is 
described as **on the right of the Indies" and **very near the ter- 
restrial paradise. ' ' It was reputed to be settled by a * * race of Ama- 
zons, without any men among them." It is very evident that the 
first explorers of the Pacific coast were largely influenced by the 
same sort of mythical tales regarding the strange new land as were 
those who, under Coronado, braved the deserts of Arizona and New 
Mexico in search of the reputed wealth of the ** seven cities of 
Cibola," which proved to be but the adobe-built villages of the Pueblo 

£lt was only fifty years after Columbus discovered America, and 
seventy years before the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, that 
the Spaniards sent out from Acapulco, on the west coast of Mexico, 
their first exploring party along the coast of Alta California. This 
expedition was in charge of Juan Cabrillo, a Portuguese by birth, 
and he was given orders to explore the northwest coast of America. 
On the 28th of September, 1542, he found a **safe and land-locked 
harbor," which he named San Miguel — now San Diego. Sailing 
northward five days later he discovered the islands of Santa Catalina 
and San Clemente. It is quite certain that white men had set foot 
in what is now a part of Riverside county some two years earlier 
than thisjfor when Coronado started with his little army in search 
of Cibola he sent an auxiliary force by sea, under Hernando de 

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Alarcon, who was to co-operate with him on the line of the Colorado 
river, which he ascended for quite a distance, landing at several 
points and having intercourse with the Indians who lived upon its 

Cabrillo continued his explorations along the northern coast and 
returned to winter at the island of San Miguel, one of the Santa 
Barbara islands, where, as the result of an accident, he died and was 
buried in 1543. His successor in command, Bartolome Ferrolo, con- 
tinued the explorations, during the following season, as far north 
as the Oregon line, and as a result the Spaniards claimed all the ter- 
ritory up to the forty-second degree of north latitude, which claim 
they maintained for fully three hundred years, notwithstanding the 
fact that Sir Francis Drake landed upon the California coast in 
1579 and claimed sovereignty over it for Queen Elizabeth. The 
Spaniards attempted no further explorations until Viscayno led an 
expedition, some sixty years later, over virtually the same route as 
that followed by Cabrillo. It was he who gave most of the present 
names to our channel islands and the prominent points along the 
southern coast. 

It was Viscayno 's party which first came in close contact with 
the Southern California Indians, who appear to have been very 
numerous at that time. It is evident that at first these people looked 
with favor upon the strange white race, if we may judge by the offer 
of a chief of one of the large rancherias to give ten wives to each 
Spaniard of the party who would become a resident of his village. 
Viscayno seems to have been the original California ** boomer,'^ for 
he was so enthusiastic over the California climate and productions 
that in his oflBcial report to the Spanish king he commends every- 
thing most highly. The people were reported of a gentle disposition, 
of good stature and fair complexion, the women being of somewhat 
larger size than the men and of pleasing countenance. The object 
of Viscayno 's boom literature was to promote a scheme for the foimd- 
ing of a settlement at Monterey bay, but before the expedition was 
organized Viscayno died, and the scheme died with him. Had he 
lived, the settlement of California would undoubtedly have ante- 
dated the settlement of the English in Virginia. 

It is difficult to realize the long period of time elapsing between 
the first visit of the Spaniards and their first attempt to make a 
permanent settlement. Nothing more clearly indicates the deterior- 

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ating influence of the vast wealth so wrongfully acquired in their 
conquests, upon the character of the Spanish people. Corruption 
among the rulers demoralized her armies and prostrated her indus- 
tries. Religious bigotry had driven into exile the most intelligent 
and enterprising of her people, and palsied the bravery and spirit 
of adventure which had formerly characterized them. Other nations 
showed a desire to take advantage of the situation, and the only 
way in which to retain the grand territory of Alta California seemed 
to be by colonization; but her illiberal treatment of foreign emi- 
grants shut the door of progress. Her sparse settlements in Mexico 
could spare few colonists. The only way left was to convert the 
California Indians and make them citizens. 

The Jesuits had long held absolute control of affairs in Lower 
California — ^much more populous then than in recent years — but 
when, in 1767, the Spanish king ordered their expulsion from Spain 
and all her colonies, the decree of perpetual banishment compelled 
their immediate removal. Governor Portola, to whom was intrusted 
the enforcement of the decree, turned over all the missions in that 
colony to the Franciscans. At the head of the Franciscan contingent 
given charge of these missions was Father Junipero Serra, a man 
of indomitable will and great missionary zeal. He had had much 
successful experience in Mexico in teaching agriculture to the In- 
dians. Following his assumption of the care of the missions in a 
territory seven hundred miles in extent in Lower California, he 
undertook the occupation and colonization of Alta California, this 
work to be done by the joint effort of the church and state. It was 
decided to proceed to San Diego by land and sea. The vessels were 
to carry the heavier articles and the land party to take along the 
horses and stock required. The journey by land proved one of great 
hardship, and when Portola arrived at San Diego in July, 1769, only 
one hundred and twenty-six remained of the party of two hundred 
and nineteen who started. 

It is a matter of some interest to know that the first expedition 
sent overland from San Diego shortly after, under Portola, to estab- 
lish the northern missions, took a course very nearly that upon which 
the Santa Fe railroad is now located, and that it camped upon the 
banks of the Santa Ana river, which stream the commander named 

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the '*Rio JeBus de Los Temblores," because of the sharp earthquake 
exp^iended there. This party, however, did not touch this county. 
Ljhe first white people absolutely known to have crossed the ter- 
ritory which is now Riverside county were members of an exploring 
party which was sent out from Mexico under the command of Lieu- 
tenant Colonel de Anza, its destination being San Gabriel. It crossed 
the Colorado river in the latter part of December, 1775, and after 
a hard journey across the desert reached the San Gorgonio Pass, 
only to encounter there severe cold and a heavy fall of snow, accom- 
panied with several severe earthquakes. They forded the Santa 
Ana river not far from our present county line on the 4th of Janu- 
ary, 1776, and reached San Gabriel a day or two later, from which 
point, after a few days' rest, seventeen of their number were hur- 
ried to San Diego to assist in quelling a serious Indian outbreak that 
threatened the safety of that mission^ ' 

It seems proper to give at this point a brief outline of what is 
known concerning the Indian people who occupied this section before 
the coming of the whites. J. M. Guinn, in his valuable and very iji- 
teresting history of the Southerp California coast counties, says re 
garding them: ** Whether the primitive California Indian was the 
low, degraded being that some writers represent him to have been 
admits of doubt. A mission training, continued through three gen- 
erations, certainly did not elevate him in morals, and when, l^ter, he 
was freed from mission restraint and brought in contact with the 
white race he lapsed into a condition more degraded and more de- 
based than that in which the missionaries found him. Whether it 
was the inherent fault of the Indian or the fault of his training it is 
useless to discuss. If we are to believe the accounts given of him 
by Viscayno and others who saw him before he had come into con- 
tact with civilization he was not inferior in intelligence to the normal 
aborigines of the country east of the Rocky mountains. He wore 
clothing made of skins better tanned and made than those of Cas- 
tile, and made fishing lines and nets of excellent quality. The coast 
and island Indians constructed canoes larger and better than those 
of the eastern Indians, which they handled with wonderful dexterity 
and courage. They obtained shells and coral, from which they made 
beads for use as money. As hunters and fishers they seem to have 
been fully the equal of the Eastern tribes, but in the art of war 
they were inferior. It is believed that the Indians of the interior 

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galley and those of the coast belonged to the same general family." 
The most numerous of the tribes known to have lived in Riverside 
county were the Cahuillas and the Serranos, but these in recent years 
seem to have so intermingled as to be practically of one family,] It 
is unfortunate, remarks Mr. Guinn, that the old padres were too 
intent on driving out the old religious beliefs of the Indians and 
instilling new ones to care much for what the aborigines had for- 
merly believed or what traditions or myths they had inherited from 
their ancestors. 

There are in the possession of the Historical Society of Southern 
California a number of letters, published in 1851-2, which give quite 
elaborate information concerning these people. The writer was 
Hugo Reid, a Scotchman who came into this country in 1834 and 
married a neophyte of the San Gabriel Mission, the daughter of an 
Indian chief. It is claimed that Reid was the putative father of 
Helen Hunt Jackson's heroine, Ramona. He says that the Southern 
Jalifomia Indians were practically one great family, but imder many 
distinct chiefs, speaking nearly the same language. When war was 
waged against outside tribes of no affinity it was made a common 
cause, the hereditary captain of each commanding bis own lodge. 
Robbery was never known among these people. Murder was of rare 
occurrence, and punished with death. Marriage between kinsfolk 
was not allowed, and incest was punished with death. In quarrels 
between the Indian^ the chiefs acted as judges, and if they could 
not agree an impartial chief was called in. There was no appeal from 
his decision. Whipping was never resorted to as a punishment. The 
chiefs had one, two or three wives, as their inclinations dictated, the 
subjects only one. Of their religious notions, Mr. Reid says : 

'^They believed in one God, the Maker and Creator of all things, 
whose name was held so sacred as hardly ever to be used, and then 
in a low voice. They had no bad spirits connected with their creed, 
and never heard of a devil or hell until the coming of the Spaniards. 
They believed in no resurrection whatever. The world, they believed, 
was at one time in a state of chaos, until God gave it its present 
formation, fixing it on the shoulders of seven giants made expressly 
for this end. When they move themselves an earthquake is the 
consequence. Animals were then formed, and lastly men and women 
were made separately from earth, and ordered to live together." 

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The Cahuilla tribes, inhabiting the mountain districts in River- 
side county, had this tradition of their creation : The primeval Adam 
and Eve were created by the Supreme Being in the waters of a 
northern sea. They came up out of the water upon the land, which 
they found to be soft and miry. They travelled southward for many 
moons in search of land suitable for their residence, and where they 
could obtain sustenance from the earth. This they found at last 
upon the mountain sides in Southern California. Mr. Reid says that 
some of the Indian myths, divested of their crudities, and with the 
ideas clothed in fitting language, are as poetical as are those of Greece 
or Scandinavia. 

[ The common notion that peace and happiness were the uni- 
versal condition during the mission era seems hardly justified. Out- 
breaks were not uncommon, and were usually due to the lawless and 
brutal conduct of the worthless adventurers who gathered about the 
settlementsT^ The record of those turbulent years of the first half 
of the last century is an interesting one to the student, and we con- 
dense from Bancroft's, Guinn's and other histories a few points of 
local interest. 

Many a Riverside orchardist has turned up with his plough evi- 
dences that his orange grove was planted upon the site of an Indian 
village, of which there is no other record, and the rocks along the 
river banks bear unmistakable evidence that years ago the Indian 
women used them to grind the acorns and grain they had gathered. 
! Along the sides of ** Little Rubidoux," since the settlement of River- 
side, there existed an Indian rancher ia, and the bones of the dead 
buried there were recently uncovered in preparing that section for 
modern improvements. It is reasonable to conclude that it was from 
these people that recruits were gathered to make a settlement of 
Indian neophytes in the San Bernardino valley proper. It seems 
that the friars at San Gabriel decided that it was necessary to estab- 
lish a station on the direct line of travel between that mission and 
Mexico, through the San Gorgonio PassT] They accordingly selected 
an ideal spot for the purpose, near what has been known as Bunker 
Hill, between Colton and San Bernardino. The Indian name of the 
valley was Guachama, which is said to have signified **a place of 
plenty to eat." The station was called Pplitana, after a trusty In- 
dian who was placed in charge. All the Indians were friendly, and 

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everything seemed prosperous. But the year of the earthquakes — 
1812 — closed with the ruin of Politana.J The year had opened with 
many conversions, but the strange rumblings beneath the earth and 
the frequent severe earthquake shocks roused the superstitious fears 
of the Indians. And when, finally, a hot mud spring burst out at 
Politana (now the popular resort known as Urbita), and the tern 
perature of the waters greatly increased, the Indians believed these 
strange phenomena to be a manifestation of some powerful spirit dis- 
pleased at the presence of the Christians, and proceeded to appease 
this malevolent deity by killing the most of the converts and destroy- 
ing the buildings. It is said that for a time a few Indians lingered 
around the spot, but, excepting an occasional relic which the white 
man's plow turns up, no evidence of the former village exists. 

(It is probable that there was no mission of which so little is 
known as that organized later near the border of this county as a 
branch of the San Gabriel Mission, the ruins of which could very 
recently be seen near the old road between Riverside and Redlands. 
Almost nothing exists to commemorate the events of the brief period 
of Franciscan rule over, this region. It is said, as evidencing the 
considerable Indian population existing along the Santa Ana river 
at that time, that in 1830 no less than four thousand cattle were 
killed for their hides and tallow, which were conveyed to San Gabriel 
for purposes of trade. It is known that the native tribes grew rest- 
less under the control of the padres in 1832, and, revolting, destroyed 
the original mission buildings. Stronger and better ones were con- 
structed, and it is the ruins of these which existed near old San 
Bernardino in recent years. ] This mission was abandoned soon after 
in consequence of the edict of secularization. 

i The Indians seemed to have retained for a considerable period 
a partial control of their rich rancherias in the Temecula, San Jacinto 
and other valleys, and were very numerous even until the disastrous 
years of flood and drouth in the early sixties, when smallpox and 
other diseases sadly decimated the aborigines throughout the efltire 

The part which some of these Indians played in the destruction 
of a band of white desperadoes deserves mention here, since the 
bloody conflict probably took place within the limits of Riverside 
county. In 1851 the owners of the immense ranches, granted by the 

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Spanish government, employed a large number of Indians to care 
for the great herds of cattle and horses owned by them. Though 
dispossessed of their heritage and therefore justified in holding re- 
sentment, the Indians were not the only thieves who raided the 
ranches. Renegade white men stole cattle, and too often the red men 
got the punishment. In the instance referred to the Indians, unas- 
sisted, externainated the band of white thieves. The whole southern 
country had been long terrorized by a band of white men under the 
leadership of an old Texan ranger named John Irving. The authori- 
ties at Los Angeles had issued warrants for their arrest, and sent 
a posse out to capture them. The sheriff sought them at Temescal 
and at Rubidoux's ranch at Jurupa, and learning the gang had gone 
north followed in pursuit, only to find that the robbers had broken 
into and stolen from several ranch houses near San Bernardino. 
Irving had threatened to kill the owners, but failed to find them, and 
struck off in a road which was supposed to lead to San Jacinto. The 
Indians employed upon the ranches followed, and, harassing the 
gang, forced them into the San Timoteo canyon. Here, where the 
horses were useless because they could no longer charge the attack- 
ing force, the Indians shot them down with bows and arrows and then 
mutilated them with stones. Only one badly wounded member of 
Irving 's band escaped alive. One Indian chief was killed and two 
others of the attacking party were wounded during the fight. It is 
believed that the captors secured some thousands in gold, which 
they distributed among themselves. 

Few Americans can read without a feeling of shame the history 
of the treatment given the American Indians by the white races, and 
they are gratified that in these later years our government is giving 
to the surviving remnants of the aboriginal race the training and 
opportunity necessary to place them on an equality with the whites. 
It was inevitable that this half of the earth should not remain sparsely 
populated and undeveloped while the older continents were over- 
crowded; and though we may, in the light of present advancement, 
regret the brutality of our ancestors in the past, we know that the 
world is infinitely better for the Christian civilization which has 
developed here, and in the process made serviceable for man's use 
the wonderful natural resources of the continent — substituting for 
a wilderness, where warring savages kept the population at a stand- 
still the greatest and grandest democracy the world has ever known. 

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I There is still, in spite of the ravages of disease among them dur- 
ing many decades, a considerable Indian population in Riverside 
county. J Jt is probable that in the early times the Cahuillas were 
the most numerous. They made their home principally in the ele- 
vated valleys of the San Jacinto mountains, where the ren^nant of 
the tribe still occupy a government reservation. A branch known 
as the Saboba Indians occupy a reservation near the city of San 
Jacinto, and another, the Peehangos, who formerly occupied the fer- 
tile and well-watered section about Temecula, are located upon a 
two hundred-acre reservation near their old home. The Serrano 
tribe, which once lived in the San Bernardino mountains and along 
the Santa Ana river in this county, are now located in the San Gor- 
gonio Pass and along the base of the big mountains on the desert 
side. Away at the extreme eastern edge of the county, along the 
Colorado river, there are some seven hundred Yuma Indians, whose 
children to the number of p,bout one hupdred and forty are being 
taught in the government school near them. There is a Catholic 
school for Indians, maintained by that church, at Banning, and 
there are day schools for the young Ipdian children at Banning, 
Coachella, Thermal and at the various other reservations. With 
these schools and the great government training school — the Sher- 
man Institute — at Riverside, where the Indian youth are given prac- 
tical training in agriculture and the trades, to fit them for self-sup- 
port and qualify them for citizenship, these people are at last being 
given the chance for advancement which is their due. 

' While we deplore and seek to find justification for the course 
pursued by our ancestors, when taking possession of the continent, 
we may at least congratulate ourselves that they did not enslave the 
people they supplanted. But it was otherwise with the Spanish con- 
querors. They saved the souls of the natives by getting them to 
accept the dogmas of their church, but even the generally kindly 
disposed priests made them virtually slaves, teaching them to work, 
and allowing them only scant food and clothing in recompense for 
labor which enriched only their conquerors. Ignoring entirely the 
Indian's right, acquired by centuries of possession, the Spanish and 
Mexican authorities coolly gave to the prominent among their own 
people immense tracts of land, including always the choicest, best 
watered spots, upon which the Indian villages were located. yWithin 

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the comparatively small portion of the county, which lies upon the 
western slope of the mountain range, fifteen such large grants were 
made, the titles to which were subsequently confirmed by the United 
States, the aggregate area included amounting to over 333,546 acres. 
It is a fact worthy of note that most of those who obtained these 
grants were either of pure Spanish blood, or Americans who had 
married into their families, and that they were practically all friendly 
to the Americans and aided heartily in organizing California as an 
American state. In the convention held to organize the state gov- 
ernment there were many delegates from this class, headed by that 
splendid type of the Spanish gentleman. General Vallejo of Sonoma, 
whom many of us had the pleasure of meeting in the pioneer River- 
side days. Pedrorena, a son-in-law of the original Estudillo, and a 
large land owner in the San Jacinto valley, is said to have been the 
youngest delegate in the convention ; and Abel Stearns, whose name 
is so prominently associated with this section, was another promi- 
nent man among the Southern California representatives. 

QPew of the original grantees obtained possession of a larger 
territory than did Bernardo Yorba, although of his vast estate 
only the Rincon grant and the Sierra (Yorba) rancho, aggregating 
over 22,000 acres, were located within the borders of the countyJ He, 
however, owned the Rancho Canyon de Santa Ana, granted to him 
directly, and also a large interest in that magnificent tract of 62,000 
acres known as the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, which the Span- 
ish government had in 1810 given to his father and Juan Pablo 
Peralta. Thus did Don Bernardo Yorba 's acres extend from the 
Temescal, in this county, to the ocean near Newport Beach. His 
big adobe ranch house was located on the Canyon de Santa Ana 
rancho, and views of its ruins, together with the little old chapel and 
the family cemetery, can still be seen from the Santa Fe trains. 
Here he ruled a tract as large as some European states. His great 
flocks and herds and vast fields of grain brought him a most princely 
income, which enabled him to extend to all a liberal hospitality. Tra- 
dition says that he nailed gold coin as ornaments around the door- 
ways of his home. In 1849 he purchased the right to take brea from 
a thousand acres in the heart of the present FuUerton oil fields, which 
he used as fuel. He died in 1858, leaving a family of seventeen chil- 
dren, and a widow who died only a few years ago. 

Abel Stearns was confirmed in the ownership of the Jurupa and 

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La Lagima ranches, containing about 46,000 acres, and he at one 
time owned some 200,000 acres in what is now San Bernardino, Riv- 
erside, Orange and Los Angeles counties. His wife was Arcadia 
Bandini, whose father, Juan Bandini, was one of the first of the 
Spanish people to welcome the Americans, and Mrs. Stearns and 
her sister made the first American flag to be flung to the breeze in 
CalifomiaT] Mr. Stearns also purchased La Sierra grant of 17,774 
acres, which had been confirmed to Vicente Sepulveda. He also laid 
claim to a Mexican grant called Rancho Temescal, but this claim 
was not allowed. 

Another family which was given a large acreage in this county 
was that of Don Jose Antonio Estudillo — the grandfather of mtr 
present^tate senator^ Miguel Estudillo — whose duty it was, as pre- 
fect at the time of the formation of San Diego county in 1850, to 
divide the new county in election precincts. At the first election 
Mr. Estudillo was chosen county assessor ; Juan Bandini, treasurer, 
and John Brown of San Bernardino coroner. Mr. Estudillo died in 
1852, his will being the first one filed in the new county. The Rancho 
San Jacinto Viejo of 35,503 acres was granted to his widow and 
heirs in 1880. 

The Rancho San Jacinto Nuevo and the Rancho San Jacinto 
Nuevo y Protrero, containing together nearly 49,000 acres, were 
granted to Thomas W. Sutherland, guardian of the minor children 
of Miguel Pedrorena and his widow, Maria Antonia Estudillo de 
Pedrorena, the latter being the daughter of Senor Estudillo. 

The name of Louis Rubidoux appears as the grantee of the 
Rubidoux rancho and the San Gorgonio grant, with the total acreage 
of 11,189 acres. Luis Vignes, well known in the early history of Los 
Angeles, was grantee of the Temecula and Pauba ranchos, contain- 
ing some 53,000 acres, and the heirs of Pablo Apis became the 
owners of the Little Temecula rancho with its 2233 acres. 

The Santa Rosa rancho, containing about 47,000 acres, was con- 
firmed to Juan Moreno. Later this became the property of Parker 
Dear, who married the daughter of Mrs. Gouts, who was a grand- 
daughter of Juan Bandini. 

As in the case of the Bandini family, noted^above, most of the 
Spanish residents of Riverside county were friendly to the Amer- 
icans, as were some of Anglo-Saxon ancestry who had married into 

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Spanish familiesT) After Fremont and Stockton had taken posses- 
sion of Los Angeles they left that city with a garrison of only fifty 
men in charge of Captain Gillespie. His tactless and overbearing 
methods aroused anew the animosity of the native Californians, 
who revolted and compelled him to retire with his little force to 
the American man-of-war at San Pedro. When the attack was 
made the commander sent a message to Benito D. Wilson, who was 
at Jurupa — now West Riverside — ordering him to join the little squad 
of soldiers at a military station at Chino and come to the assistance 
of the Americans at Los Angeles. But the Mexicans met him in 
force at Chino, and after a sharp skirmish took the entire party 
prisoners and imprisoned them for a long time at Los Angeles, where 
they would all have been hanged but for the energetic efforts of 
humane leaders among the Mexicans. They remained in prison until 
the Americans again captured the city. 

1 Louis Rubidoux, whose name is so familiarly associated with 
the territory upon which, a quarter of a century later, the city of 
Riverside was located, and for whom Mt. Rubidoux and city streets 
and buildings are vej^y appropriately naiaed, bore quite a conspicuous 
part in the wart AVhen taptain Gillespie was driven out of Los 
Angeles he took his company to San Diego by water to reinforce 
the garrison there, and when General Kearney, with a battalion of 
American troops, was coming across New Mexico to assist in the 
conquest of California, he was ordered to take his company, and 
joining Kearney, guide the party to San Diego. Mr. Rubidoux was 
a member of Gillespie's company, and because of his knowledge of 
the country was selected to act as guide. Kearney was met near 
Warner's ranch, and the united forces, numbering about one hun- 
dred and sixty men, most of them poorly mounted and greatly worn 
by their long journey across the deserts of Arizona and California, 
were proceeding on their way in a rather straggling fashion, when, 
at San Pasqual, in San Diego county, they were met by a force of 
Mexicans under Andreas Pico. The latter were not superior in 
number, and were very deficient in firearms, but they were splen- 
did horsemen and expert with their lances, and they charged the 
Americans with such impetuous courage that Kearney's little force 
suffered severely, losing eighteen men killed, all but one of whom 
died of lance wounds, and as many more seriously wounded, among 

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, >^- J" !'-' 

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the latter being Mr. Rubidoux. This action was probably the blood- 
iest that California saw during the war. In spite of this success the 
Calif omians subsequently retired, and Kearney's little army was 
allowed to reach San Diego without further molestation. This action 
has a local interest because of the prominent part taken in it by one 
so long and intimately associated with the early history of this sec- 
tion — who was the owner of the tract upon which the business sec- 
tion of Riverside is located. [M^- Rubidoux was a native of France, 
and, evidently something more than the rough and courageous fron- 
tiersman he was admitted to have been, for he was able to converse 
in four languages and brought with him a good library in which he 
took much pride, and his Spanish wife was a member of one of the 
oldest and wealthiest of the Santa Fe familieX] His brother is said 
to have been the founder of the city of St. Joseph, Mo., and is said to 
have brought to this coast some $30,000 in gold, besides horses and 
cattle, with which to stock his ranch. Not many years ago there 
remained ruins of an old adobe structure on the edge of the High- 
grove mesa, overlooking the river bottom, which is said to have been 
constructed by him as a fort for defense against the Indians. [As an 
evidence of his standing among his contemporaries it should be men- 
tioned that when Los Angeles waB organized as a county in 1850, 
Louis Rubidoux of Jurupa was elected one of the three associate 
justices, whose duty it was, as a ''Court of Sessions," to set in 
operation the machinery of the new county government.; He built 
himself a home on what has been known in later years as the Daley 
ranch, and the conspicuous gioup of adobe ruins on the north side 
of the county road, a short distance west of the bridge, is all that 
remains of it. This neighborhood, known as Jurupa, was for many 
years the center of the military and social activities of a large ter- 
^itor}^ On the south side of the road, where Mr. Abies' seedling 
orange grove now stands, the government built a fort, covering two 
or three acres of ground. Within this enclosure adobe buildings 
were constructed and used for barracks by the force of some two 
hundred United States soldiers, quartered here for several years, 
to guard the settlers against the Indians who, at times, were very 
troublesome. Both the walls of the enclosure and the barracks were 
made of large adobe bricks, capable of withstanding bullets, and 
when torn down, twenty years later, to make way for orchard plant- 

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ing, it was with difficulty that they could be broken and leveled. 
Some of these were used in constructing the farm buildings erected 
on the premises. In preparing the tract for farm use the plows 
brought up evidence that here had existed the first mill for the grind- 
ing of grain in the interior of Southern California. A strongly- 
built cement ditch had brought water for power and irrigation, and 
one of the two mill-stones unearthed is now used as a corner founda- 
tion for one of Mr. Abies' ranch buildings. Mr. Rubidoux met with 
an accident which made him an invalid in the last decade of his life, 
and because of this he was unable to prevent the waste of the wealth 
he had acquired, and little remains in the possession of his descen- 
dants, many of whom still reside in the county. He died in 1869. 
His widow, still kindly remembered by a few of the older citizens, 
remained with one of her daughters in the old home for a while, but 
spent the last years of her life with a married daughter at San 

Near the river, some dozen miles or more below Riverside, there 
stood at one time the old ranch house of Don Juan Bandini, that 
worthy old Spaniard of San Diego, to whom Governor Alvarado 
gave, in 1840, the eleven leagues of land since known as the Jurupa 
rancho. This name, given the rancho and military station, was an 
Indian word, and is said to have been the first spoken by an old 
Indian chief, who greeted with it the Catholic priest who first vis- 
ited the spot — Jurupa meaning, so it is said, ''peace and friendship/' 
It is interesting, as illustrating the conditions existing in those early 
days, to quote a reference to Bandini found in Dana's work, **Two 
Years Before the Mast." There was a wedding in a prominent 
Spanish- American family at Santa Barbara, while the author was 
there, and he mentions the presence of Bandini as a guest, and the 
fact that he rode horseback from his home on the Santa Ana river 
to Santa Barbara to attend the festivities. The distance traveled 
over mountain and plain, to attend this important social function, 
must have been considerably more than a hundred and fifty miles. 

In those days there was quite a settlement of Spanish people at 
Agua Mansa, in the river bottom above Jurupa. But the great flood 
of 1862 nearly destroyed it, as it did many other places in Southern 
California. It was this long-continued storm which sent a flood of 
water four feet deep through the town of Anaheim, in Orange county, 

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although that settlement was several miles from the river chamiel. 
The rain commenced falling on the 24th of December, and for thirty 
days the sun showed itself but twice, and then very briefly. The 
resulting floods, sweeping down from the encircling mountains, drove 
the people of Agua Mansa from their homes, swept away many of 
the dwellings, destroyed the timber, and left the river bottom the 
widfi and sandy waste it is today. For half a century at least the 
river channel had been narrow and straight, held in place largely 
by the heavy growth of cottonwood and willows, but with the destruc- 
tion of this protective growth the channels have since changed with 
nearly every severe winter storm. 

James H. Roe, writing concerning the appearance of things 
along the riyer, when he came into the country in 1873, says : ** Among 
the old buildings, until recently standing. on the west side of the 
river, near Agua Mansa (gentle water), was the Mexican Roman 
CathoUc church — an adobe building — in front of which, on a rude 
tower, was one of the pld bells, made in Spain, so romantically asso- 
ciated with the old California missions. The Latin inscription on 
this bell was too much defaced to be deciphered in Riverside's time. 
In later years the bell had fallen from the tower, and was hung from 
the branch of a cottonwood tree close by. But, except in the river, 
which was often a roaring torrent in winter and absolutely dry in 
summer, the land all about was so destitute of water that it was a 
current joke in those days that the coyotes and jackrabbits had to 
carry canteens when they crossed the plains.'' 

Aside from the Spanish grantees and their families, whose large 
possessions have been described, there were very few white people in 
the county previous to 1870, the year in which was made the first 
serious attempt at colonization by Americans. Benjamin Abies, 
who located at first at San Jacinto (in which section at that time 
there were hardly a half dozen American families) and who finally 
purchased and built upon the site of the old fort at Jurupa, says 
that at the time of his coming to the latter place, there were only the 
families of the Widow Rubidoux, Cornelius Jensen, Judge Arthur 
Parks, and possibly one or two others. Mr. Jensen was evidently 
a man of good standing, for he represented his section as supervisor 
of the county for many terms, and is remembered as a man of good 
business ability. 

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/Few citizens realize that Eiverside came near being as famous 
in silk culture as it has finally become as the most successful and 
famous among the orange and lemon-growing sections of the world. 
Following the flood year of 1862 came the terrible drouth of '63 and 
'64, which practically destroyed the cattle industry of Southern Cali- 
fornia, and forced the great ranch owners to seek some other use for 
their land. Experiments were made in many directions, to find crops 
that it would pay to grow and therefore give value to the otherwise 
worthless property. Most of these resulted in failure, but one which 
seemed to have better chance of success than many (because the cli- 
matic and soil conditions were unquestionably favorable, and there 
was a force of Indian women who might furnish the cheap labor 
required) had a disastrous sequel on account of the death of the one 
man qualified to successfully inaugurate the business. It is because 
Riverside owes her location to the silk-culture craze that the story of 
California's experience in sericulture deserves space in this historyj 
To encourage the silk industry the legislature in 1866 passed an act 
authorizing the payment of a bounty of $250 for every plantation of 
5,000 mulberry trees two years old, and one of $300 for every 100,000 
merchantable cocoons produced. As a result it is said that three 
years later there were ten million mulberry trees in the state in vari- 
ous stages of growth. Demands for the bounty poured in upon the 
commissioners in such volume that the state treasury was threat- 
ened with bankruptcy. LAt the head of the industry in the state was 
Louis Prevost, an educated French gentleman, who was thoroughly 
conversant with the business in all its details. He believed that Cali- 
fornia would surpass his native country in the production of silk. 
He established at Los Angeles an extensive nursery of mulberry 
trees and a cocoonery for the rearing of silk worms, and an associa- 
tion of leading citizens was organized for the establishment of a 
colony of silk weaver sTJ Mr. Prevost and Thomas A. Garey (the 
latter gentleman well known afterward to Riverside orange growers 
as the nurseryman who introduced the Mediterranean Sweet variety 
of orange, and whose nursery furnished many of the trees planted 
here in the early years of the colony), were a committee to select a 
location for the proposed silk-growing colony, which was to consist 
of a hundred families, sixty of whom were ready to settle as soon as 
the location was decided upon. They decided that the soil and cli- 

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mate here were far better adapted to the culture of the mulberry 
than any other of the southern counties. They therefore purchased 
4,000 acres of the Rubidoux rancho and 1,460 acres of government 
land adjoining it to the eastward, and also arranged to purchase 
3,169 acres of the Jurupa rancho on the east side of the river. But 
before all the deals were perfected Mr. Prevost died, August 16, 1869, 
and as hi«^dea^ deprived the Association of its mainspring all 
work stopped. The sltk culture craze began to declined The immense 
profits of ten or twelve hundred dollars an acre that had been made 
in the beginning by selling silk-worm eggs to those who had been 
seized by the craze had fallen oflf from over-production; and a fin- 
ishing blow was given the business when the state repealed the law 
granting the bounty. I Without an experienced head to manage their 
business the Silk Center Association decided to give up its project 
and oflfer its lands for sale on most advantageous terms ; and, through 
the efforts of one of its members, Thomas W. Cover, who subse- 
quently located on government land at the junction of what is now 
Brockton and Jurupa avenues, and became a prominent Riverside 
orange grower, they soon found a buye^J 

And this brings us to the era when new men came with full 
appreciation of the county's possibilities, and the energy and taste 
to evolve here an ideal civilization. 

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By E. TF. Holmes 

There are few among the thousands now resident in Riverside 
who can fully realize the marvelous change which forty years have 
wrought. The treeless plain, with its frame of encircling hills, rocky 
and barren, and only briefly beautiful when the rains and sunshine 
of early springtime had awakened to life the dormant native flowers 
and grasses, is now perennially beautiful with its wealth of orchard 
and vineyard and clover fields, amid which hundreds of miles of 
fine shaded avenues, dustless and smooth, converge upon a business 
center, where tasteful public and private buildings serve all the 
needs of modern urban life and furnish in an exceptional degree the 
most desirable features of both town and country life, 

IWhen the little party of pioneers came to tHts* coast in 1870, for 
the purpose of selecting a site upon which to locate a colony, only a 
single railway line had been built across the continent, with its ter- 
minus at San Francisco. From that point the only easy means of 
reaching the southern part of the state was by the little coast steam- 
ers, and even these could not enter the shallow harbor at Wilmington, 
and passengers and freight were taken ashore in lighters. Los An- 
geles at that time was a half -Mexican pueblo of a few thousand in- 
habitants, and Santa Barbara and San Diego the only other towns 
worthy of notice. San Bernardino, originally settled by the Mor- 
mons, was an insignificant village, and the Germans had but just 
started a little vine-growing colony at Anaheim. 

The credit of organizing the idea, out of which grew the colony 
and city of Riverside, belongs to Hon. J. W. North. He was a man 
of restless energy and fine ability, who had previously founded the 
city of Northfield, MinnTj During the Civil war he served as associate 
justice of the territory of Nevada. The document appointing him 
to this position is signed '*A. Lincoln,'' in the great president's well- 
known handwriting, and this long adorned the walls of the law office 
of his son, the late John G. North, and is highly prized by the sur- 
viving grandchildren. 

While living in Knoxville, Tenn., Judge North conceived the 

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idea of getting up a colony of people of means and intelligencie to 
engage in semi-tropical fruit growing in Southern California. On 
the 17th day of March, 1870, he issued his first prospectus calling 
attention to his projectj In this circular he stated that in connection 
with personal friends he was engaged in organizing a colony for 
settlement in Southern California, on or near the line of the pro- 
jected Southern Pacific railroad. The following extracts will indi- 
cate the character of the original plan: '* Appreciating,^' it says, 
**the advantages of associated settlement, we aim to secure at least 
one hundred good families, who can invest $1,000 each in the pur- 
chase of land ; while at the same time we earnestly invite all good, 
industrious people to join us, who can, by investing a smaller amount, 
contribute in any degree to the general prosperity. We do not 
expect to buy as much land for the same money in Southern Cali- 
fornia as we could obtain in the remote parts of Colorado or Wyo- 
ming; but we expect it will be worth more in proportion to cost, than 
any other land we could purchase within the United States. It 
will cost something more to get to California than it would to reach 
the states this side of the mountains ; but we are very confident that 
the superior advantages of soil and climate will compensate us many 
times over for this increased expense. Experience has demonstrated 
that $100 invested in a colony is worth $1,000 invested in an iso- 
lated locality. 

**We wish to form a colony of intelligent, industrious, and en- 
terprising people, so that each one's industry will help to promote 
his neighbor's interests as well as his own. It is desirable, if pos- 
sible, that every one shall be consulted in regard to location and pur- 
chase ; but since those who will compose the colony are now scattered 
from Maine to Texas, and from Georgia to Minnesota and Nevada, 
this seems next to impossible. For this reason it is proposed that 
some men of large means, who are interested in the enterprise, shall, 
in connection with as many as can conveniently act with them, select 
and purchase land sufficient for a colony of 10,000 persons. Let this 
be subdivided and sold to the subscribers at the lowest figure prac- 
ticable, after paying the expenses of purchase and subdivision. We 
hope in this way to arrange it so that each individual shall receive 
his title when he pays his money and commences in good faith to 
improve his property. It is also proposed to lay out a town in a 
convenient locality, so that as many of the subscribers as possible 

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can reside in the town and enjoy all the advantages which a first- 
class town affords. We expect to have schools, churches, lyceum, 
public library, reading-room, etc., at a very early day, and we invite 
such people to join our colony as will esteem it a privilege to build 

**Many who wish to join the colony have not the money in 
hand to defray traveling expenses and pay the full price of the 
land at once. We hope to make arrangements for the accommoda- 
tion of all such, 80 that they can pay part down, and balance in yearly 
installments with interest. Each subscriber will be allowed to pur- 
chase 160 acres of farming land and two town lots— or a less amount 
if desired. It is expected that every subscriber will reside upon and 
improve his property within one year of the time of subscribing, 
otherwise he will lose his rights as a member of the colony. We 
hope to make up a party of subscribers to visit California in May 
next and determine on a location, and it is desirable that subscribers 
should be well represented in that party.'' 

<vl)r. James P. Greves, one of the most prominent among the 
pioneer colonists, and for many years the popular postmaster of the 
town he had done so much towards creating, published in 1883 the 
following story of the search for a location: **In April, 1870, J. W. 
North, E. G. Brown, A. J. Twogood, the late Dr. Eastman and my- 
self came from the east to Los Angeles for the purpose of securing 
a tract of land where a colony of eastern friends might find a home, 
— ^first, as a healthful resort, and second, for the raising of semi-trop- 
ical fruits. Some four months were expended in endeavoring to 
secure a suitable tract in Los Angeles county, but without success — 
mainly for the reason that an abundant supply of water could not 
be insured. Finally, Judge North was inclined to purchase the tract 
known as the San Pasqual ranch (now Pasadena), containing some 
1,700 acres. With this object in view, the Judge went to San Fran- 
cisco to make arrangements for the purchase of that tractj Soon 
after Thomas W. Cover called on Mr. Brown and myself and ex- 
pressed a wish that we would examine a tract of land in San Ber- 
nardino county, owned by himself and others, which had been pur- 
chased in 1869 for the purpose of establishing a silk culture colony. 
The death of the man selected as manager had compelled them to 
give up the project, and now they were desirous of selling the prop- 
erty. Mr. Cover urged us to examine the tract before we made a 

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final purchase. To us, at that time, it seemed located too far inland 
for our use, and we declined. Mr. Cover then offered to take us 
to the tract free of expense. As we were temporarily at leisure, and 
wished to see more of Southern California, we accepted his offer. 
As soon as we visited this spot we were convinced as to its great 
value for the purpose we had in view, and immediately addressed 
a note to Judge North at San Francisco requesting him to make 
no purchase until he could personally inspect this tract. He followed 
our request by viewing the property, and negotiations commenced 
for the purchase of the same, which was completed September 14, 
1870. A. J. Twogood and Dr. Eastman had in the meantime returned 
to their eastern homes, leaving only Judge North, Mr. Brown and 
myself. Dr. K. D. Shugart did not arrive until August, I think. 
Mr. Brown and myself visited the spot on the 24th of June, 1870. 
Judge North and myself first originate the idea of a colony in Knox- 
ville, Tenn., and the Judge issued a circular inviting others to join 
in the enterprise.'' 

^The land selected consisted of 8,735 acres, being the Rubidoux 
rancho, and the eastern end of the great Jurupa, or Stearns' ranchoT] 
The purchase price was about $3 per acre. The broad plains thus 
purchased for the use of the ** Southern California Colony Associa- 
tion," as the company was named, was entirely destitute of trees, 
houses or improvements of any kind, except on the bottom lands of 
the Santa Ana river, which ran through the Rubidoux rancho, and 
which was covered with willows, tules and occasional clumps of Cot- 
tonwood trees. But this bare plain was not a desert, as it has been 
so often called. The soil was rich and produced luxurious grasses 
whenever there was rainfall enough to bring them up. All the soil 
needed was water, and this it was now to have. 

Among those who came to Riverside as settlers in its colony 
rlays — between 1870 and 1875 — ^was James H. Roe, the full details 
of whose life will be found in the biographical department of this 
volume. He was a gentleman of versatile tastes, with a gift for lit- 
erary work which led him to start the first successful newspaper in 
the settlement. Being familiar with the men and the work of those 
early days, and feeling the importance of having a record kept of 
those times, he gathered considerable data with the intention of 
writing a history of Riverside. Ill health and finally death pre- 
vented the carrying out of his plans, but the writer has been allowed 

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the use of his record in preparing this chapter regarding the colony 

Mr. Roe says that almost immediately after Judge North com- 
pleted the purchase of the first 6,000 acres he moved upon the 
ground, accompanied or shortly followed by E. 6. Brown, Dr. Greves, 
Dr. Eastman, Thomas W. Cover, D. C. and A. J. Twogood, L. C. 
Waite, T. J. Wood, J. W. Linville, David Meacham, S. O. Lovell 
and **Dick'' Reeves. Many of these were accompanied by their 

LThe man who furnished the principal part of the money needed 
for the purchase of the colony lands and the construction of the first 
irrigating canal was Hon. C. N. Felton, a wealthy California gentle- 
man]? The company was organized in 1870, and its stockholders were: 
J.^. North, C. N. Felton, James P. Greves, Sanford Eastman, John 
C. Brodhurst, G. J. Clark, T. W. Cover, H. Hamilton, M. W. (or Bar- 
bara) Childs, J. H. Stewart, Dudley Pine, W. J. Linville and K. D. 
Shugart. The officers were: President, J. W. North; secretary, J. 
P. Greves ; treasurer, K. D. Shugart ; superintendent of canals, T. W. 

The land was surveyed by Goldsworthy and Higbie, including 
the government section east and south of the company lands. In 
April, 1871, the name *' Riverside" was selected by the association 
as the name for the new town. Hon. C. N. Felton, or his agent, 
selected this name. Dr. Shugart suggested *'Joppa," doubtless 
because fine oranges were grown there. It had already been dubbed 
*'New Colony" and '*Jurupa" — in fact, *'Jurupa" had been men- 
tioned by the company in its articles of incorporation, as its princi- 
pal place of business. **But," comments Mr. Roe, *' Riverside it was 
to be, and although a bit prosaic, it has answered very well up to 

|The land around Riverside was not all inhabited at that time. 
Along the borders of the Santa Ana settlers had lived for some 
years. Cornelius Jensen was one of these^' He was a man of intelli- 
gence and energy, who with his family lived in comfort and affluence 
within a mile of the new settlement for many years before it came 
into existence, serying several terms as a supervisor of San Ber- 
nardino county. lOld Louis Rubidoux was another conspicuous citi- 
zen whose descendants still live .amo»g-o^ in the county^ Moses 
Daley was another, who lived in the old adobe ranch house, the ruins 

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of which still exist on the north of the county road west of the river. 
Arthur Parks, William Bensted, Joshua and James Casteel and 
doubtless others had homes along the banks of the Santa Ana river. 

In an address delivered befone an ''Old Settlers' Meeting" on 
the 19th of April, 1897, the lat e/s. C . Evans gave some interesting 
facts regarding the steps by which the various tracts of ranch and 
government land in the valley came under the control of the River- 
side Land and Irrigating Company, of which he was the president, 
and which subsequently were incorporated as the city of Riverside. 
He says: ''About the year 1842 Bandini and B. D. Wilson, with 
about twenty families from New Mexico, settled upon the Jurupa 
grant, and Bandini through Wilson made a gift conveyance to the 
New Mexicans of all that part of the Jurupa rancho north of the 
Rubidoux rancho, in consideration of services to be rendered by said 
New Mexicans in protecting the rancho from the incursions of the 
Indians. Many of the descendants of these New Mexicans still oc- 
cupy the tract so set apart, which is known as " Agua Mansa'* settle- 
ment ; among them are the Bustamento, Trujillo, Moya, Garcia, Al- 
varado, Archuletta, Baca, Artensio and other families. 

"On the 6th of May, 1843, Juan Bandini conveyed to B. D. Wil- 
son for the sum of $1,000 about one and a half leagues of land, now 
known as the Rubidoux rancho. In 1844 Wilson cofiveyed this to 
Capt. James Johnson and Col. Isaac Williams, and in 1847 Johnson 
and Williams sold this to Louis Rubidoux. Mr. Rubidoux occupied 
and improved the ranch until his death in 1869, and many of his 
children and grandchildren still reside in and around Riverside. 

"At the close of the Mexican war, in 1848, the United States 
maintained a garrison of soldiers, two hundred in number, at Jurupa, 
for something like eight years, to protect the early settlers from the 
incursions of the Utah Indians. 

' ' In 1859 Bandini conveyed the remainder of the Jurupa rancho 
to Abel Stearns, and some ten years later the latter deeded his por- 
tion of the rancho to the Los Angeles Land Company, Alfred Robin- 
son, trustee. The California Silk Centre Association then came 
into possession of 3169 acres of this land, as well as the Rubidoux 
rancho and some 1500 acres of the Hartshorn tract adjoining it. All 
of this territory became the property of the Southern California 
Colony Association, organized by Judge North and his associates. 
The first irrigating canal was commenced October 1, 1870, and com- 

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pleted so far as to deliver water for domestic and irrigating pur- 
poses in July, 1871. It cost $60,000. It tapped the Santa Ana river 
near the Colton bridge, and is known as the upper canal of the River- 
side Water Company. In 1874 the Colony Association purchased 
the oldest water right in Warm creek ( a stream rising in the San 
Bernardino valley, and furnishing the principal supply of water 
for the Santa Ana river) to obtain water for a new canal to be con- 
structed through the government land situated east of the company's 

In June, 1874, S. C. Evans and Capt. W. T. Sayward became 
the owners, by purchase, of 8600 acres of land known as the Hart- 
shorn tract. This is the territory south of Arlington avenue, upon 
which the now famous Magnolia and Victoria avenues and the beau- 
tiful section known as Arlington are located. Soon afterwards they 
commenced the construction of what is now called the lower canal 
to supply the newly purchased territory with water. 

At this stage of development Mr. Evans organized the Riverside 
Land and Irrigating Company, and purchased the lands and water 
rights of the Southern California Colony Association. They also 
purchased the Hartshorn tract and the land belonging to the Tin 
Company, thus consolidating under one corporation the whole of the 
land and water interests of the Riverside valley. They then under- 
took the perfecting of the grand water system which has been the 
foundation of the valley's prosperity, and immediately put their 
lands on the market. 

The business portion of the settlement was originally laid out 
in a square, one mile across, and contained one hundred and sixty- 
nine blocks of two and one-half acres each. These blocks were 
divided into lots, and the whole blocks first put upon the market at 
$300 each, but owing to the slow sale were finally offered at $200 
each. Even in 1874, during a dull time, they were sold as low as 
$250. In the address from which we have quoted the above Mr. 
Evans says, in regard to the acreage property adjoining the vil- 
lage, that it was placed upon the market in 1871 at $20 and $25 an 
acre for the choicest locations, and that the same lands, with water 
facilities and improvements in the way of orchards and vineyards, 
were selling in 1897 at from $1,000 to $3,000 per acre; while the 
village blocks which sold in 1871 at from $200 to $400 each were being 
sold twenty-five years later at from $10,000 to $20,000, according to 

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location. To-day, it is proper to add, single lots in these city blocks 
are considered a good investment at prices equal to the average 
amount paid fifteen years ago for an entire city block. 

The prophecy of Judge North in his original circular that lands 
in his colony would sell for $1,000 an acre hrf^e thus been more 
than realizedybut not in five years, as he so confidently anticipated. 
It took fifteen to reach that figure, but in recent years the results 
have far exceeded his most sanguine hopes. JThe block bounded by 
Main and Market and Seventh and Eighth streets was originally laid 
out as a ** plaza" or park, after the Mexican fashion, but this was 
finally sold for business purposes and the land where White park 
is now located was given to the public in exchaAgeJ This change 
was made when B. D. Burt refused to locate and build the first brick 
store building unless he should be allowed to erect it upon the plaza, 
at the corner of Eighth and Main streets. 

L^It was in October, 1870, that Thomas W. Cover (whese-mysteri- 
ous disappearance fifteen years later, when in search of a reputed 
gold mine npoa the desert^ excited so nmch-^ pcculation and sympa- 
thy) began the construction of the first canals which were to provide 
water in generous quantity to insure the development of the great 
valley. After many vexatious delays this work was complete^] In 
the meantime Messrs. Shugart, Waite, North, D. C. and A. J. Two- 
good and others had planted orange and other trees in the spring, 
and had to haul water from the river, a mile away, for several 
months, to keep them alive. A. R. Smith divided his time during 
this season between furnishing the people with meat and hauling 
that still more necessary article, water, for which he received twenty- 
five cents a barrel. On the arrival of the water in the canal a little 
jubilee was held by the settlers. The first water used was upon the 
block where the Santa Fe station stands. It reached that point late 
in the afternoon, and two young men who later became prominent 
citizens, J. G. North and W. P. Russell, rolled up their trousers and 
spent^the entire night barefooted in fiooding the block. 

j The first canal ran along on about the easterly limit of the com- 
pany's land, where the Santa Fe railroad tracks were afterwards 
located. For years there were but three or four houses above or 
east of this canal. On the south the border of the colony was at 
Jurupa avenue. South of that were three sections of government 
land, one of which was within the lines of the Southern Pacific rail- 

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road grant. Palm aveime, one mile in length, marks the width of 
this government tract. Settlers soon settled upon this land, and, 
since it had not been surveyed, occupied it as ^'squatters.^^It was, 
however, carefully surveyed by the company's engineers, and the 
canal continued to its easterly border. Upon the construction of 
their own ditches by the government settlers, and connection being 
made with the main canal, the company furnished the settlers with 
water at first upon the same terms as were given those who pur- 
chased the company's lands. This liberality ultimately led to seri- 
ous contention and expensive litigation between the settlers and the 
Land and Irrigation Company, which, some five years later, pur- 
chased all the unsold lands and water rights^ of the original colony. 
It was natural that the men who had furnished the capital with which 
to build canals and maintain them should feel that they had a right 
to require higher rates for water delivered to those who had not 
purchased land nor water stock than of those who had. The fact, 
however, that the government settlers had been allowed to use the 
water for years, aided by legislation secured in their behalf, 
strengthened their position. But the bitter contest over this matter 
proved a serious bar to the valley's growth, and an amicable adjust- 
ment of the differences was finally reached. Many of the settlers 
ultimately purchased water stock, and from that time on the devel- 
opment and growth of the valley was assured. 

The plans of the original company included three main canals, 
of which the one actually built was to be the lowest. The second 
was completed for some miles by Mr. Cover, and the evidences of 
his work were visible for many years on the mesa where are now 
the groves and business centre of Highgrove. There was no need 
of this canal at that time, and in fact no water then available with 
which to fill it; and when the effort to obtain water was found to 
involve excessive cost the work was abandoned. 

A list of the pioneer settlers and a recital of their experiences 
in home building in a locality which has since become famous, 
although necessarily incomplete, seems a proper part of this his- 
tory, even thougli much of the matter is personal and comparatively 
unimportant. LThe first building erected in Riverside was the Com- 
pany's temporary office, built in September, 1870, a board and batten 
affair. |t stood within a few feet of where, in January, 1871, Judge 
North built himself what in time became a cosy, vine-covered home. 

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where the settlers often gathered for social enjoyment. These 
buildings occupied the land between the present Santa Fe and Salt 
Lake railroad stations. 

T. J. Wood's house, which is still to be seen on the north side 
of Seventh street, near the comer of Vine, was probably the second 
building erected in the colony. David Meacham immediately after 
built a dwelling on the spot where the Salt Lake grounds are now 
located. Rev. I. W. Atherton, the first minister who settled here, 
and who for some time had charge of the church which later organ- 
ized as the First Congregational, built himself a dwelling on Four- 
teenth street, at the end of Main. This building was burned in 
January, 1873. Mr. Roe is authority for the statement that the 
citizens generously contributed $800 to enable him to rebuild. Con- 
sidering the sm^U number of colonists at that time such liberal 
action was remarkable. Later he traded his new house for the one 
built by Mr. Meacham on Seventh street, and this was known as 
the *' Atherton house'' years after the pioneer clergyman had left 

During this first year A. R. Smith erected a meat market and 
restaurant, with living rooms adjoining, on or near the site of the 
Dickson Block on Main street, and his family occupied it in Decem- 
ber. On the 31st of March, 1871, there was born to this family a 
daughter, Jessie Riverside Smith, the first white child bom within 
the limits of the original colony. There was, however, a previous 
birth in the valley. Capt. John Brodhurst occupied a government 
claim on the dry land above the canal, which in recent years has 
been known as the Keyes tract, and on December 6, 1870, his wife 
gave birth to a daughter. The Brodhurst house and the D. C. 
Twogood house — also first located on the **dry side" — were among 
the earliest buildings constructed. In 1871, finding that there was 
no prospect of getting irrigating water from the second canal, the 
Brodhursts moved to town,. building upon the block where the Salt 
Lake freight depot now stands. For the same reason Mr. Twogood, 
in 1872, moved his house and nurseries to the corner of Prospect 
and Olivewood avenues. In recent years Mr. Twogood sold this 
place and built himself another house on the opposite corner, where 
he now resides. 

Dr. K. D. Shugart finished his house on the corner of Ninth 
and Mulberry streets in January, 1871. This is the property now 

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owned by Mrs. Maynard. When the new home was ready for ooon- 
pancy he brought his family down from San Bernardino, where 
they had been staying for a few months, L. C. Waite came with the 
Shugarts, taking up a government claim at the corner of Centre 
street and South Brockton avenue, which he subsequently sold to 
Edwin Hart. 

A little cabin was built by a man named Crow, who squatted 
upon the government land which later came into the possession of 
E. G. Brown. In this rough shelter Mr. and Mrs. D. C. Twogood 
lived while their own house was being built. Mrs. Twogood, the 
first woman resident of Riverside, in later times told many inter- 
esting stories of the hardships of those first years, but often 
declared that she was never happier than when pioneering in this 
makeshift hut, being full of hope and the inspiration of beginning a 
new enterprise under such strange surroundings. 

E. G. Brown built his first house on Colton avenue, on the site 
of the popular resort known as The Anchorage. Here, when time 
and labor had transformed the barren looking land into a very 
bower of flower and foliage the spot was made the center of attrac- 
tion for the increasing tide of winter visitors. Mr. Brown's family 
joined him in the summer of 1872. 

George Fish built a house on Vine street about this time, and 
a Mr. Ross built on Seventh street the little cottage which, later, 
when it had become so absolutely covered with a luxuriant growth 
of roses as to attract the admiring notice of the picture makers, 
became the property of Rev. Dr. George H. Deere, who made it 
his home in the first years of his life in Riverside. Dr. Sanford 
Eastman's family came in 1872, but he did not build his home on 
Dewey avenue until the beginning of 1873. 

A. J. Twogood, after helping to locate the colony, returned to 
Iowa and brought out his family in June, 1871, and resided with 
D. C. Twogood for a year or two. It was not until the spring of 
'73 that he built a house for himself, under the shadow of old 
Pachappa. He had bought the forty acres from M. F. Bixler for 
$400, and upon this erected one of the most comfortable homes on 
the ''lower plain." This place he made the first of the highly pro- 
ductive groves of the valley, ultimately selling at a handsome 
figure to James Hewitson, and afterward making his home in town, 

William P. Russell came up from San Diego in February, 1871, 

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''footing if with a companion all the way. His uncle, P. S. Rus- 
sell, who was ''Uncle Prior" to many of that name who were 
among the earlier settlers, did not come until the following year. 
It was the latter gentleman who started one of the first nurseries in 
the colony, the other being that of G. D. Carlton. These were 
located in the neighborhood of what is now Russell street, and it 
was from these that the larger part of the seedling orange trees 
were obtained in the boom years of 1876-7. Charles E. Packard 
built a house on Brockton avenue, about where Homewood place is 
now located. It was subsequently owned and occupied by Capt. 
B. B. Handy, and later still by C. A. Tinker. Early in 1871 the 
small dwelling long known as the Pink house was built by Mrs. 
Estudillo on the site of the present electric light plant. She was a 
daughter of Louis Rubidoux and mother of Senator Miguel Estu- 
dillo. She does not appear to have lived in the house herself, but 
stimulated by the company's offer of a free lot to any one building 
within a certain time, she built it as a speculation. Soon after Mrs. 
Rogers, a widow with two children, opened the first school in River- 
side in this house, and taught for three months. The building was 
afterwards temporarily occupied by G. W. Garcelon, Edwin Cald- 
weU^ohn Thomas and others. 

I In the summer of 1871 Riverside's first school-house was put up. 
It was located on the site of the present Sixth street school, and 
was about 16x24 feet in dimensional It was not lathed and plas« 
tered until the fall of 1874, and cost when completed about $1300 
The first school trustees were T. J. Wood, Dr. William Craig and 
Dr. Montgomery. The latter soon moved to San Bernardino and 
Dr. Shugart was appointed to fill the vacancy. A tax of $800 had 
been voted to pay for the building, but $200 had been spent in main- 
taining a three months' school and there were available only $600 
with which to make payment. Trustee Wood called a meeting to 
try to raise the balance required. There was strong opposition, but 
the company pledged $100 and those present $50 more, and a per- 
sonal appeal to every property owner in the valley resulted in 
obtaining a sum suflScient to clear off the debt. This precedent of a 
liberal provision for schools has always characterized the people of 
the valley. C. W. Brown, who afterwards went to San Bernar- 
dino and became a physician, was the first teacher employed. The 
attendance ranged from ten to twenty pupils during the first year 

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of Riverside's life. At the end of the first term L. C. Waite was 
engaged as teacher, which position he held until the close of 1873. 
Mr. Waite was at this time the only practicing lawyer in the place, 
and was for a time justice of the peace. He was succeeded in the 
management of the school by James H. Roe, the attendance having 
increased to upwards of forty. 

Some time in 1871 a store building was erected on or near the 
site where S. A. White's Central Block now stands. Here for a 
time Ben Burchard had a general store, and later Dr. Burke used 
it as a drug store. In 1875 R. F. Cunningham occupied the build- 
ing, he in turn giving place to Dr. S. S. Patton, who put in a stock 
of hardware. A year or two later a larger .store building was 
erected on the site of the Evans building by Charles F. Roe and 
I. R. Brunn of San Bernardino. It was merely a board and batten 
affair, but was for several years the most prominent building on 
Main street. In it was located the postoflSce, Dr. James T. Greves 
acting as postmaster on a salary of $5 per annum. Here Lyon & 
Rosenthal kept a large stock of merchandise until, in 1875, the 
growth of the business led them to build for their own use the brick 
building on the opposite corner which, after the death of these 
pioneer merchants, was long occupied by the Hardman Drug Co. 
and later by the Riverside National Bank. 

Gr. W. Dickson was among those who assisted in building the 
first canal, but remained but a short time. He, however, returned 
in 1876 and located permanently in 1877, marrying a Mrs. New- 
comb, widow of a pioneer of that name. He built a livery barn 
and corral on the east side of Main street, between Seventh and 
Eighth, and was conspicuous among those who, a few years later, 
organized a sort of vigilance committee to put a stop to the depre- 
dation of the Mexican horse thieves, whose activities made such 
effort necessary. He recently moved to Los Angeles, but retains 
property interests here. E. R. Pierce and John Tobias came in 71, 
the former building where the National Ice Company's plant now 
stands, and the latter on the corner of Eleventh and Almond streets 
now occupied by Dr. H. A. Atwood, Frank Petchner was the camp 
blacksmith when the canal was being built, and soon after its com- 
pletion put up a shop on Market street about where the Southern 
Pacific station stands. When Samuel Alder became his partner in 
1874 they moved to the present site of the Loring block. The fol- 

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lowing year they built a larger shop on the site of the present West- 
brook block, and it was in this building that the settlers held their 
first Christmas gathering in 1875, an affair long remembered with 
pleasure by the participants. The subsequent rapid growth of the 
settlement made a similar gathering of all the people of the valley 
for Christmas jollification impracticable. 

A. J. Myers, who came in 71, and was for many years the head 
zanjero of the water company, was a **gun man" from the mining 
regions, and ** toted" a gun regularly on his rounds, much to the 
annoyance of that numerous and lawless Mexican element having a 
penchant for horse-borrowing. John Meyer, a Civil war veteran 
from Indiana, who located in this first year, started a saloon where 
something stronger than ditch water was dispensed. Some years 
later he married a native Indian woman named Felicite who was 
much esteemed by those whom »he had faithfully served. From 
this marriage several children were born who have grown up 
respected citizens of their native city. One of these, ** Jack" Meyer, 
is the leading catcher of the champion New York National Baseball 
Club, and has won by his sobriety and ability as an athlete a promi- 
nence and an income greater than many of our alleged national 
statesmen have enjoyed, E. J. Southworth built a house in the 
river bottom north of town, where is now located the popular 
Elliotta Springs. J. W. Linville built upon a claim north of town, 
selling in 1872 to Dwight S. Strong, who has resided there ever 
since, Linville moving to San Bernardino. 

Among those who first settled on the mesa south of the arroyo 
were James D. Clapp, who bought and improved twenty acres 
between Brockton and Cypress avenues. He finally sold to Samuel 
A. Ames, who several years later sold and built the fine residence 
owned in recent* years by Dr. Wood. Mr. Clapp built a second resi- 
dence on the comer of Ninth and Mulberry streets, where he lived 
for the remainder of his life. The ranch long known as the Rice 
place, on the edge of the arroyo, was first built upon by a man 
named Kimball, who died suddenly of hemorrhage of the lungs in 
1874. A Mr. Cranz was the next owner, and there lived with him 
a popular young man named Sherrill, the pair being conspicuous in 
social circles. A Dr. Emmons built upon the site of the Koethan 
residence, and Dr. Emory located upon the twenty acres on Cypress 
(now Magnolia) avenue which has long been the property of J. S. 

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Castleman. Dr. Emory was one of the pioneers who experimented 
with poppy planting and opium making, as a source of income, but 
the dry atmosphere proved the unfitness of the climate for profit- 
able poppy growing. He also started one of the earliest seedling 
orange tree nurseries, and it was from this that the writer ob- 
tained, in 1875, some of the best trees planted in Brockton Square. 
Beside those already mentioned as having settled upon the 
'* lower plain," as the government tract was then called, were Oscar 
Traver (whose widow still resides upon the original claim), L. C. 
Tibbetts, M. F. Bixler, S. D. Stephenson, W. F. Pettit, Dr. Elihu H. 
Smith, John Thomas, Charles Rouse, Mr, Baker, William Morton, 
Mrs. Seibold, Dr. William Craig and his son Scipio, Prof. Charles 
R. Paine, Fred Rowe, J. H. Stewart, and Dudley Pine. Many of 
these were not permanent residents. Baker and Morton sold their 
claim to Tibbetts. Thomas soon came to the village. Mrs. Seibold, 
who was a sister of Professor Denton and Mrs. Cridge, sold to 

Dr. Craig came to town and built a little hotel on the site of the 
present Carnegie library. He afterwards moved to Crafton, as did 
ultimately Scipio and Professor Paine. Scipio Craig was for years 
the editor of the Colton Semi-Tropic, and finally established in the 
new town of Redlands the very successful newspaper known as the 
Citrograph. Professor Paine made a reputation as a successful 
educator, and finally located at Crafton, and is now one of the 
leading horticulturists of this section. It is interesting to note that 
these last named settlers were led to surrender the government 
claims and seek other means of livelihood because of a plague of 
grasshoppers that swept over the valley from the surrounding hills 
during several of the early years of the colony. In some seasons 
every green thing was destroyed excepting such few* plants as were 
carefully protected. Even the bark upon the orange trees was in 
many cases eaten clean. 

/In the first years of the colony there came to settle here a 
coterie of spiritualists and free thinkers, rather clannish in their 
ways, all of whom have long since passed away, leaving no de- 
scendants here to take pride in the beautiful city whose building 
they helped to initiate. Nothing remains to remind one of their 
presence except the names of a few of our public streets — Denton, 
Cridge, Tibbetts, etc.,— and the record of the efforts of Mrs. L. C. 

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Tibbetts to secure from the government the original navel orange 
trees from which have been propagated the millions of trees which 
have made Riverside and California famous and wealthjcJProf. 
William Denton, one of this party, was a state geologist, a volumin- 
ous writer upon psychological and scientific topics, and a lecturer of 
ability. He resided here for a short time only. His sisters were 
Mrs. Seibold and Mrs. Cridge. Mr. Cridge built the cottage on the 
edge of the great arroyo which was so long occupied by Dr. John 
Hall and family, and when the doctor's son, Priestley Hall, came 
into the management of his father's estate he subdivided the tract 
now known as Hall's Addition and named two of the streets after 
his father's old neighbors. L. C, Tibbetts was a farmer rather than 
a horticulturist, and devoted such time as he could spare from his 
numerous lawsuits in caring for his grain fields and his horses and 
cattle. He probably had less to do with the introduction of the 
beautiful navel orange which has made the country so famous than 
others whose work has never had recognition. It was his wife — a 
woman of strong personality and influence in the little neighborhood 
— through whose efforts the trees were obtained. The story as told 
the writer by two of those who shared in the work which resulted 
in so much good to the state is about as follows: One evening 
when Josiah Cover and Samuel McCoy were visiting with Mrs. Tib- 
betts, the subject of obtaining new varieties of fruit with which to 
experiment in the new country came up, when one of them told of 
his having read in the encyclopedia of a seedless variety of the 
orange grown at Bahia (or Bay-hay-eye as ''Si" called it) in 
Brazil, which was described as the finest orange in the world. *'Si" 
wondered if it wouldn't be possible to obtain a tree from that dis- 
tant country, when Mrs. Tibbetts answered that she believed it 
would. She had personally known Mr. Sanders of the Department 
of Agriculture while a resident of Washington, and knew that it was 
a part of his duty to secure desirable trees and plants from abroad. 
She would write at once to inquire. This she did, and as a result in 
due time there arrived from Washington two small specimens of the 
desired variety. The work of planting and caring for these trees 
was given to ''Si" and "Sam," who were engaged in the nursery 
business near by, and in order to facilitate the fruiting of the 
variety T. W. Cover got them to put buds into his vigorous seedling 
trees. A few years later the writer was one of a committee of eight 

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or ten citizens who gathered at the home of G. W. Garcelon to 
sample the first perfect specimen produced here of this wonderful 
orange. Its quality proved so greatly superior that its propagation 
by budding was immediately forced to the limit, and this so weak- 
ened the original trees that a healthy eight-year-old offspring aver- 
ages larger than either of the parent specimens do today, one of 
which was in recent years moved to the junction of Palm and Mag- 
nolia avenues and the other planted by President Roosevelt in the 
patio of the Glenwood Mission Inn. 

/ Perhaps there is no better way to convey a correct idea of the 
lawless conditions existing in those times than to relate some of the 
experiences of those who first located. The miserable half-breed 
race which had so long ranged without restraint over the entire 
section seemed to have no respect for the new settlers' rights, and 
not only allowed their own stock to bother the newcomers, but felt 
perfectly free to appropriate all the desirable animals of the others 
not properly protected. Among those conspicuous in organizing to 
protect private rights was Luther C. Tibbetts.J A strong corral was 
built upon his ranch where stray horses and cattle were impounded, 
and, cowardice not being one of his failings, he, as pound master, 
stood ever ready with his gun to defend the stock placed in his care. 
On the inside of the corral he built a bullet-proof fort, in which he 
spent his nights to be ready for marauding horse thieves, /jt was 
afterwards necessary to organize a sort of vigilance committee, 
composed of the young and vigorous citizens, to put a stop to the 
persistent thieving of the MexicanjJ Several affrays occurred in 
which shots were exchanged, with fatal results in some cases. Jack 
Myers being handy in the use of his rifle, but few of these shooting 
affairs seem to have resulted in bringing matters into court. One 
of these that did not result in bloodshed deserves record as illus- 
trating the conditions at that time. Horses had been stolen from 
D. S. Strong, and for many months no information was obtained as 
to their whereabouts. An itinerant Jewish peddler finally gave 
information concerning them, saying he had seen the animals in a 
distant neighborhood none too safe for honest citizens. Lots were 
drawn to select the man who should take charge of the effort for 
their recapture, and the duty fell upon Thomas Cundiff. He was a 
well-built man, with good nerve and an eye that meant business, 
and when, backed by Mr. Strong, he boldly rode into the thieves* 

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den with his gun ready for action before they had opportunity to 
get theirpwn weapons, they were forced to surrender the stolen 
animals\ It was only after the law-breakers were killed or impris- 
oned that an end was put to these lawless conditions.,/ 

Above and below the original colony there were considerable 
tracts of government land and many interesting tales are told of 
the claim- jumping indulged in. The ** Anchorage" resort, on the 
Colton road north of town, is located on a claim which the original 
squatter lost when he yielded to his perennial thirst and went away 
to indulge in a drunken spree. All the squatters in this earthly 
paradise were not saintly in their habits, and when they indulged 
in practices such as would horrify present-day W. C. T. U. mem- 
bers there was always someone more or less worthy ready to take 
advantage of their foolishness. Sometimes a title properly held led 
to a struggle rather serious in character, like that resulting from the 
efforts of the litigious Tibbetts to gain possession of the land of S. D. 
Stephenson, located at the corner of Palm avenue and Sierra street 
The former, who always believed himself a better lawyer than the 
judge, was of the opinion that a man could not hold two eighty-acre 
tracts which were not contiguous, and when the crop was ready to 
harvest on one of Mr. Stephenson's tracts he sent H. F. Cleine with 
a mower to cut it, and came on the ground himself armed with a 
scythe. At an old settlers' meeting in 1897, John G. North, a son 
of the founder of the colony, who later attained prominence among 
the attorneys of the state, told in a humorous way the result of the 
conflict. He said: ^Mt is the story of the jumping of a claim and a 
dispute over the possession of the grain crop. The two men con- 
cerned were Sandy and Luther. The grain was ready to harvest, 
and then came the jumping. As I remember it, Luther thought he 
had a right to harvest it, and Sandy objected, and a diflSculty came 
out of it, in the course of which it is said that Luther sang a hymn. 
Sandy protested. Luther insisted. Sandy went and got a double- 
barrelled gun and filled Luther reasonably full of number twelve 
shot. It was then that Luther sang the hymn : * A charge to keep I 
have.' Sandy was arrested, tried, and fined $250. Just what crime 
he was supposed to have committed I do not remember, but after a 
careful consideration of the act performed and the penalty imposed, 
I think it must have been for a violation of the game law." Mr. 
Stephenson, forty years later, is a peace-loving and respected 

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citizen living with his family at Highgrove; Mr. Cleine, the chief 
witness in the case, runs a grocery store on Park avenue, while Mr. 
Tibbetts, after wasting his means in years of needless and costly 
litigation, died in poverty at last, an object of the kindly pity of his 

It seems remarkable that so many of the original settlers 
should have left none of their names among the citizens of the 
Riverside of today. But there are some who are still with us, or 
have left children who take pride in the work of their parents in the 
making of the city. Among them are Rev. C. Day Noble, an invalid 
brother of Mrs. H. M. Streeter, whose children are still living here. 
His nearest neighbor was George Leach, a musician of ability, who 
gave his services freely for the entertainment of the people. His 
sister Sarah was an army nurse during the Civil war and spent her 
last years as an inmate of a home in this state, provided for those 
who had so served. Lucy G., another sister, recently ended a long 
and useful life at the county hospital. 

Among those who held a government claim on the east side was 
James Patton, who is spending his remaining years with his daugh- 
ter, Mrs. J. A. Simms. E. M. Sheldon and his son Fred took up 
eighty acres each, and the family have remained in Riverside ever 
since. John Wilbur, with his sons, took up 240 acres, and occupied 
the home upon it until his death. He was a school trustee for sev- 
eral years. Twelve of his thirteen children, and many grandchil- 
dren survive him. James Boyd, a native of Scotland, was one of 
the earlier settlers, and still remains a vigorous man at seventy- 
three. After trying Australia and different places in California he 
finally took up a claim of 160 acres in Riverside, upon which his 
wife and himself have ever since resided. It was he who took the 
contract for the original grading and planting of Magnolia avenue, 
and he also did the first work upon Main and other important 
streets of the city. But more than all, he takes pride in the large 
family of boys and girls, to whom he has been able to give the 
advantages of a college schooling. 

It is, of course, impossible to give a complete list of those who 
settled here in the colony days — or previous to the purchase of the 
unsold lands by S. C. Evans and his associates in 1875. But among 
those not heretofore mentioned whose families have remained in 
Riverside are George W. Garcelon, D. H. Burnham, Rev. M. V. 

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Wright, Capt. C. C. Miller, P. D. Cover, Dwight S^. Strong, Dr. 
Joseph Jarvis, David Battles, A. McCrary, Ezra and Otis Sheldon, 
J. R. Huberty, J. W. Van Kirke, E. J. Davis (who built the Reyn- 
olds hotel). Dr. Stephen Volk, Wilson B. Russell, Mrs. Rebecca 
Shaw, Dr. S. S. Patton and Walcot Burnham, the last-named being 
^he first to build a house on Magnolia avenue. 

What faith and hope these pioneers must have possessed who 
dared to undertake the establishment of their farms and orchards 
sixty miles from the only local market which the little village of 
Los Angeles then offered, and with only the promise of a railroad 
across the continent to carry their products to larger and more dis- 
tant ones. But the genial * and stimulating climate helped their 
optimism. Distance did indeed *4end enchantment to the view'' of 
the rugged encircling mountains, and the beauty of the flower- 
decked plains in springtime was a source of happiness to the men 
and women who undertook the hard and prosaic duties of home- 
making in a new land. The water was made to flow in the newly 
constructed ditch, and the plows turned up the virgin soil to fit it 
for cultivation. The list of things planted experimentally is a long 
one, including almost everything grown in the temperate and semi- 
tropic regions. Nobody knew what would prove the best adapted 
or most profitable. Besides the orange, lemon and lime, there were 
large plantings of apple, pears, apricots, almonds, walnuts, olives, 
figs and innumerable varieties of grapes. All did well, but the 
raisin grape and the apricot were the first crops to give a satis- 
factory profit. Riverside was the first community in the state io 
export raisins in large quantities, her shipments for one year 
amounting to over 200,000 boxes. Alfalfa growing was, of course, 
a source of quick and certain revenue, but it was not until the 
growth of the cities of the state in recent years provided a market 
for the stock grown upon it that it took the prominent place it now 
holds. But from the first it was the culture of the orange and lemon 
that held the interest of the people and led to the developments 
which have made Riverside the most conspicuous among the orange 
growing sections of the world. 

LThe first orange tree brought intq^ Riverside was hauled from 
a Los Angeles nursery by L. C. Waitej He got in too late on a 
Saturday night to allow of their being inmaediately planted, and 
Dr. Shugart, fearing that the tender roots would suffer from expos- 

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ure, got out early on Sunday morning, March 1, 1871, and promptly 
planted those brought for himself, and therefore has the credit of 
having planted the first orange trees in Riverside. Judge North 
and Mr. Waite planted their trees on the Monday following. As 
common seedling trees cost $2 apiece, it prompted the early starting 
of nurseries for their home propagation, and orange seeds were 
obtained from Tahiti for this purpose. The first nursery of this 
kind was established by D. C. Twogood on his dry claim, but 
owing to the failure of the plan to build a higher canal he was com- 
pelled in 1872 to move this to that portion of his land lying where 
irrigating water could be had. The wonderful stories told of the 
profits of orange growing helped greatly to encourage those pros- 
pective millionaires under the hardships they suffered during the 
eight years required to bring a seedling tree into profitable bearing. 
So they worked and waited. Some of them found great encourage- 
ment in visiting the bearing orchards of B. D. Wilson at San Gab- 
riel, where they saw seedling fruit selling to peddlers for cash at 
$60 a thousand. As this was equivalent to from $7 to $10 a box it is 
no wonder they dreamed confidently of the wealth to be theirs when 
their trees reached maturity. It is a fact that when the first few 
trees came into bearing in Riverside their product netted the owners 
from $50 to $100. 

The first three winters were excessively dry and the land had 
to be flooded to fit it for breaking, but the work was pushed dili- 
gently. A heavy frost, such as occasionally handicaps the Cali- 
fqrnia orange grower, came one winter, and had a deterrent effect 
upon the weak-hearted among intending settlers. But, in spite of 
discouragements, the growth was steady and the people hopeful and 

In April, 1872, the first wedding occurred, when Lillian, the 
sixteen-year-old daughter of Dr. K. D. Shugart, became the bride 
of L. C. Waite; and ** they lived happily ever after," and have riin 
no risk of Rooseveltian criticism because of failure to raise a good 
family to share the material blessings their industry has won. 

The Rev. I. W. Atherton, the Congregational clergyman who 
performed this first marriage ceremony, had just organized the first 
church in the settlement, calling it the ** Congregational Union" 
with a view to uniting in it Christians of all denominations. Its 
members were Mr. Atherton and wife, Mr. and Mrs. Charles B. 

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Comstock, W. J. Linville, William Sayre and Miss Nancy M. Burt, 
the latter being the only survivor of those pioneer members. A 
year later they built the little white church which stood for so 
many years on the corner of Sixth and Vine streets. When the 
Congregationalists, needing larger quarters, built on Seventh street, 
they sold this building to the Christian church, who finally moved it 
to Seventh street and incorporated it in the larger edifice which 
they now occupy. 

/ By 1873 the settlement became almost self-supporting. There 
were but a little more than sixty acres planted to the orange and 
lemon, but the grain and hay grown on the irrigated lands, and the 
alfalfa, fruits, cattle and hogs, were a sure source of revenue, since 
the increasing population created a home market. Of those who 
came in these years there was a large proportion who became per- 
manent residents. G. W. Garcelon built, on Seventh street, a resi- 
dence more modern and complete than were most of the makeshift 
shanties of the first settlers. James H. Roe, in telling of this 
period, says **the most luxurious vehicle in the valley — a two-horse 
lumber wagon — was sent to Los Angeles to meet Edwin Hart, 
myself and family, and in this we were driven across the country to 
Riverside, it taking two days for the trip." After crossing the 
desert, where thousands of acres of vineyards now cover the wide 
expanse, the party forded the river, and, passing through the hills 
over a shoulder of Rubidoux mountain, caught their first glimpse of 
their future home. **It must be confessed," he says, '*it was a deso- 
late prospect. A dozen or so of small houses scattered over the 
mile square; a few streets outlined by little pepper trees; the giant 
mountains and bare granite foothills all around, seeming, in our 
ignorance of distance, to take nearly all the room or view. It is no 
wonder that for the moment we felt that we had come to the ends of 
the earth and that a feeling of homesickness would creep in. But as 
we clasped hands with old friends and caught the infection of their 
hope we soon came to accept the golden visions of those who had 
come before." 

H. W. Robinson soon after put on stages to San Bernardino 
and Los Angeles, with a fare of ten cents a mile; but the public 
felt it was worth it. Expectations were held that the Texas Pacific 
would build to San Francisco within a year or two, and this hope 
of easier communication with the outside world, and a means pro- 

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vided for marketing the crops when they should mature, gave 
courage to push on in the work undertaken. 

The village at this time had some three hundred inhabitants, 
and there were 3000 acres under cultivation, one-third or more 
being set to fruit trees. Already some 10,000 shade trees had 
been planted along the streets, a feature which, continuing in later 
years, has given the city a reputation for beauty, of which it is 
justly proud. On Christmas day all the citizens assembled in the 
little school-house, where a banquet was provided and the people 
fraternized happily, regardless of political or religious differences, 
which so often divide older communities. The telegraph was ex- 
tended into town about this time, John U, North being the first 

Few of the pioneer families have had a larger share in the up- 
building of the city than has that of Capt. C. C. Miller, who first 
came to do a bit of engineering work for the Temescal Tin Mine 
Company, and, finding other work, brought his family here in the 
fall of 1874. His children are: Frank A., Edward E., Mrs. G. 0. 
Newman and Mrs. Alice Richardson. The family lived for a time 
in the tiny little Deere cottage, on Seventh street, which has in 
time sheltered under its rose-covered roof so many of the early 
families. In 1875 he purchased the block where the elegant Glen- 
• wood Mission Inn now stands, building the first little adobe ** Glen- 
wood'' from bricks made from a mound which stood in the center 
of the lot, and here the family ran a hotel so successfully as to 
compel its repeated enlargement. In 1881 he sold it to his son 
Frank, whose energy and taste have made of it, if not the largest 
and finest, at least one of the most unique and popular in the 
United States. 

Benjamin Hartshorn of San Francisco had become the pos- 
sessor of some 8,600 acres of government land lying south of Arling- 
ton avenue. In 1874, S. C. Evans, a banker from Fort Wayne, 
Ind., who was looking for an investment in California, joined 
with Capt. W. T. Sayward in the purchase of this property, at a 
cost of about $8 an acre. Later they acquired some 3,000 acres 
of land, joining it on the south, called the **Rancho Sobrante de 
San Jacinto." This purchase extended their holdings to the dry 
wash of the Temescal creek, north of Corona. This consolidated 
territory they first called the New England Colony, and the owners 

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^ . „ 1. 

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filed claims on the Santa Ana river for water with which to irrigate 
it. It was ultimately subdivided and put upon the market under 
the name of Arlington. In surveying for their irrigating canal 
they discovered that they could not deliver the water high enough 
to serve the larger and more desirable portion. They also found 
that the owners of the Southern California Colony Association 
lands objected to the building of a large canal through their prop- 
erty, and negotiations were finally entered into which led to the 
purchase of four-sevenths of the stock of the association, owned 
by Hon. Charles N. Felton of San Francisco, and the consolidation 
of nearly all the territory in the valley under the control of a cor- 
poration known as the Riverside Land and Irrigation Company. 

This change of ownership ended the colonial period of River- 
side history. Judge North ceased longer to shape the policy of 
the settlement, although a conspicuous and influential citizen until 
1880, when he left with his family to become the manager of the 
Washington Irrigated Colony near Fresno. In 1888 his advancing 
age caused him to give up active business, and he lived a retired 
life at Fresno with one of his daughters, Mrs. Shepard, until death 
claimed him on the 22nd of February, 1890. 

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By E. W. Holmes 

With the purchase by the Evans-Saj^ward syndicate of the 
Southern California Colony Association lands and water system, 
thus consolidating under a single management all the various tracts 
in the valley, and with ample means at their command to provide 
for the valley's development, there dawned a new era. So widely 
advertised had been the charms of climate and other attractions 
by the boomers of the various Southern California towns that a 
deep interest had developed all through the northern states, and 
stimulated a desire everywhere to undertake new ventures in a 
land where life could be spent so agreeably, and where so much 
was promised in a business way to the intelligent and industrious 
pioneer. A railroad had been completed in the fall of 1874 from 
Wilmington through Los Angeles to Spadra on the east and San 
Fernando on the north, and only a little over a hundred miles 
remained uncompleted over the lofty and rugged Tehachapi moun- 
tains to give the south railway connections with San Francisco and 
the East. The certainty that the easterly extension of the Southern 
Pacific would shortly be completed overland through the San Gor- 
gonio Pass removed forever the doubt which had delayed the ex- 
tensive orchard planting which the climatic conditions and the 
result of experimental work had so clearly demonstrated to be the 
true line of the section's growth. Excepting when the winter floods 
made the bridgeless Santa Ana unfordable Robinson's stage line 
afforded the only accommodations for public travel into Riverside, 
and the products of the valley were hauled by team to Spadra, or 
LosAngeles, sixty miles away. 

LPnring 1875 there was quite an influx of newcomers, enthu- 
siastic and energetic, followed in 1876 by a still larger immigration, 
made easier by the completion in the latter year of the railroad 
to Colton, on its way overland. So many of the men and women 
who came in these years were conspicuous in the work of creating 
the Riverside of today — with the planting of its orchards, the study 
of varieties and methods of cultivation, the inauguration of the 

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systematic street-tree planting, which has given the city its most 
attractive characteristic, and the cultivation of a generous senti- 
ment regarding church and school interests-/-that the more promi- 
nent among them, at least, deserve to be mentioned at this point 
in our record. Some are dead ; some have moved to other sections ; 
but many have left children and grandchildren who are proud of 
their city and as ready as were their parents to strive for its 

Among the fifty or more heads of families who came to River- 
side during the two years following 1874, were S. C. Evans, W. T. 
Sayward, D. W. McLeod, H. J. Rudisill, E. W. Holmes, Oscar 
Ford, M. B. Van Fleet, Dr. S. R. Magee, S. S. Patton, George 
Miller, B. D. Burt, Frank Burt, H. A. Westbrook, George Craw- 
ford, John B. Crawford, R. F. Cunningham, George D. Cunning- 
ham, Seneca La Rue, H. A. Puis, Ira C. Haight, A. D. Haight, 
R. P. Cundiff, T. R. Cundiff, James Publicover, J. A. Simms, E. F. 
Kingman, William Finch, Albert S. White, Dr. C. J. Gill, H. P. 
Keyes, Aberdien Keith, H. M. Streeter, Edwin Caldwell, A. B. 
Derby, Dr. C. W. Packard, A. McCrary, Dr. W. H. Ball, A. P. 
Combs, John Downs, J. W. Hamilton, W. R. Russell, P. M. Califf, 
W. 0. Price, J. M. Alkire, Mrs. G. M. Cunningham and family, 
L. Randall, and others. 

The new company, upon taking charge in the early part of 
1875, pushed canal construction vigorously, as well as all other 
departments of their work. Lands were rapidly disposed of at 
from $25 to $60 an acre, and the sanguine and energetic settlers, 
who this season located on what became known as Brockton Square 
(because many of them came from the Massachusetts city of that 
name), did not wait for the winter rains to fit their land for plough- 
ing, but flooded and leveled it, and by midsummer had many trees 
and annual crops planted and growing. 

The year 1876 saw a transformation in the valley's appear- 
ance, for it was in this year that Magnolia avenue was laid out 
and planted with the shade trees which have made it so attractive. 
The country between Indiana and California avenues was located 
upon and planted for miles, and cottages and -mansions appeared 
where a year before there was a bare expanse of uncultivated 
plain. The laying out and building of such a grand avenue by 
Mr. Evans and his associates was a stroke of good business, for 

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nothing so much attracted the attention of the homeseeker as this 
well-advertised feature of Riverside. It is undoubtedly a fact that 
this work had its inception in the minds of H. J. Rudisill, a 
brother-in-law of Mr. Evans, a gentleman of culture and taste, who 
was at the time secretary of the company, and of Albert S. White, 
who was intimately associated with him at the time, and who pur- 
chased forty acres on the avenue, and planted along its front that 
first long row of the native palms, never before so used in the 
state, and which use has since been so extensively imitated in the 
younger towns throughout Southern California. 

Not even in the prosperous years of our later history has 
there been a larger percentage of growth than in this, and the 
excellence of the work done was a factor of importance in attract- 
ing the wealthy and refined. They were an optimistic people, 
and if the years did not always bring the financial results of which 
they had dreamed, they lived most happy lives under the cloudless 
skies, and largely drew their inspiration and pleasure from ** joy's 
anticipated hour." 

In the succeeding winter there were found upon the orange 
trees first planted a half dozen or more of perfect seedling oranges. 
This was an event of inmiense importance to those who had waited 
for years for the maturing of their trees. It was a small begin- 
ning for a crop which now fills annually over 6,000 cars. The 
quality of these first specimens proved gratifyingly superior, even 
when sampled in comparison with the best grown elsewhere, and 
this first evidence of the fitness of both soil and climate gave great 
encouragement. The orange production of the entire state at that 
time did not amount to three hundred cars. It was estimated that 
there were then planted in Riverside some 400,000 grape vines, 
75,000 orange trees, 20,000 lemons, 5,000 each of the walnut, almond, 
apple and pear. This estimate suggests by the varieties planted 
how uncertain the settlers still were as to what crop would prove 
the most successful. It was anticipated that there would be five 
hundred orange trees in bearing the coming winter. It was en- 
couraging to find that the snow and the hail, which had covered 
the ground to the hilltops in the preceding January, had not done 
the harm that was feared at the time. If some of the winters 
were cooler than was anticipated, the summers were warm enough, 
and ice was a luxury, and cost three cents a pound. Hundreds of 

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tons were stored in the San Bernardino mountains and hauled 
down for use in the heated term. 

Up to this year the Riverside hotel, located about where the 
library building now stands on Seventh street, had been the only 
public house in the place. Built in 1871 by Dr.' William Craig and 
managed by him the first year, it was transferred first to the care 
of A. R. Smith, and in 1872 to T. J. Wood, and in 1873 Henry Fox 
became the landlord, resigning it, in 1877, into the hands of Dr. 
Craig, who kept it until destroyed by fire in 1888. But the needs 
of better hotel accommodations were evident, and the company 
erected a two-story brick hotel on Main street, extending the second 
story over the Burt Brothers' store, which it adjoined. The lower 
story was fitted for stores and the upper for the guests. R. F. 
Cunningham was the first landlord, and was succeeded by W. B. 
Wood. This building was sold, in 1888, to John Boyd, who called 
it the St. George hotel. It is still used as a rooming-house. 

Sunnyside school district was organized out of the territory 
south of Jurupa avenue in 1875. A. J. Twogood, T. W. Cover and 
M. F. Bixler were the first trustees. They erected a school build- 
ing at a cost of some $700 on Central avenue. Rev. M. V. Wright 
was the first teacher. A few years later the increase in population 
made larger quarters necessary, and this building was sold to the 
Swedenborgian denomination, who used it as a church for many 
years. The name of the district was changed to Arlington and 
a larger school building built, under the supervision of Trustee 
A. S. White, on the comer of Palm avenue and Sierra street. In 
recent years this property was disposed of, and, under George N. 
Reynolds' trusteeship, fine new buildings were located for the 
school's use on a site near the line of the new Magnolia avenue. 

Meanwhile, the growth of the original Riverside school had 
compelled, first, the building of a second house like the original 
building; and very soon both these were so overcrowded as to 
make necessary the construction of a four-room schoolhouse in their 
place on the Sixth street grounds, and this has since been enlarged 
to a modern eight-room building. One of the original buildings 
was moved to where the Southern Pacific station now stands on 
Market street, where for a time it was used as a church by the 
Universalist people, and the other was moved to- the southeast 
corner of Eighth and Orange streets and used for years as a black- 

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smith shop, until wrecked to give place to the beautiful business 
block which now occupies that corner. 

The conditions have indeed changed since 76, when the chron- 
icles mention the fact that a herd of antelope were one day seen 
from town upon the foothills near, and that on another occasion 
a band of some fifty mounted Indians had one day gone trooping 
through the village. In those days there were no cemented irri- 
gating canals, and often the irrigator found his water supply cut 
oflf because the gophers had undermined the main canal banks and 
let floods of water out upon the streets, instead of allowing it to 
flow for use in the orchard furrows provided. 

It was in this year that the second church was erected — a little 
brick chapel built on Sixth street for the use of the Methodists. 
Some of the labor upon it, as well as the funds, were contributed 
by citizens who were not members of that denomination. 

This being the Nation's centennial year, the citizens felt that 
patriotism demanded that they should have a Fourth of July cele- 
bration, and the desire resulted in quite a grand aflfair for those 
primitive times. Fifty carriages and wagons formed in proces- 
sion to take the company to the cottonwood grove in the river 
bottom, where H. J. Rudisill acted as president of the day, Rev. 
C. Day Noble delivered the oration, E. G. Brown read the Dec- 
laration of Independence and Judge North, R. W. Daniels, and 
others, responded to toasts. In the evening there were fireworks 
and a dance in town. 

\ The population of the village was now about 1,000, and that 
of the county (San Bernardino) about 16,000. Up to this time Riv- 
erside had had only a tri-weekly mail, but in response to a petition 
forwarded, the government gave the people a daily mail which was 
brought over from Colton each evening on the stage. 

An unsuccessful attempt was made by the San Bernardino 
people to get the Southern Pacific railroad to remove the line from 
Colton to the county seat, the expense to be met by taxation of the 
entire county, of which this section was then a part. A bill was 
introduced in the legislature to legalize such action. This attempt 
aroused the indignation of the Riverside people, and a large meet- 
ing was held and strong resolutions passed protesting against such 
a proposition, and the attempt failed. 

The year 1877 opened dry and dusty. The winds were espe- 

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cially trying, and only about three inches of rain fell during the 
entire season. It is usually the case in such a winter that frost is 
heavy, but no other winter in the history of Riverside has been so 
free from injurious frosts. The dry, warm air seemed to have a 
strange effect upon all the deciduous trees, for peaches, apples and 
apricots failed to leaf out, only starting a stunted foliage in many 
cases by July, and setting little or no fruit. The summer was 
extremely hot and dry, the mercury going to 112° at times, and 
many mountain streams dried up. Many citizens sunk wells to 
provide themselves with better domestic water, finding it at a depth 
of from fifty-five to eighty feet, and generally containing traces of 
alkali. Most of the water previously used had been taken from the 
canals, and after being purified of its most objectionable qualities 
by cutting into it cactus leaves, for the purpose of clearing it, it 
was kept in ollas after the Indian method, the process furnishing 
a cool, if not healthful drink. Another source of water was Spring 
brook, from which a citizen regularly supplied customers, until the 
time came when piped artesian water was introduced. Up to this 
time there had been many cases of fever prevalent, especially dur- 
ing the hot season, but since the introduction of pure artesian water 
these epidemics have ceased. 

The local merchants still found it difficult to compete against 
the larger stocks carried by the San Bernardino establishments, 
but trade was gradually improving as the population increased. 
Magnolia avenue was already a fine drive, and as far down as the 
Crawford's corner was practically all improved. The magnolias 
on the street corners were small, but the pepper and eucalyptus 
trees were growing fast, and the palms and grevilleas were orna- 
mental even then. 

The year 1878 opened with plenty of rain, and the hillsides 
were green and flower-decked, the great masses of the California 
poppy being especially beautiful. Orchards first planted were now 
coming into bearing, and the prices for oranges were as high as 
three or four cents apiece. George North, whose ten acres was 
planted to a variety of fruit, contracted to sell his crop for three 
years for $2,000, and everybody looked forward hopefully in con- 

It was during this season that the Odd Fellows' building was 
erected. It was originally a two-story brick building, and only 

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about one-half its present length. The lower floor was used as a 
public hall, and furnished a place for public fairs and gatherings 
until other and larger buildings were built exclusively for such use. 

Among the arrivals this season were many who became con- 
spicuous later. The Chaflfey Brothers, Dr. Joseph Jarvis, and 
others, from Canada, settled west of Arlington, between Magnolia 
and California avenues. The Chaffeys, after apprenticeship at 
orcharding in Riverside for several years, became convinced of the 
possibilities everywhere offered where a water supply could be 
developed, organized the successful fruit-growing colony of Eti- 
wanda, and the magnificent settlement, which has developed into 
the cities now known as Ontario and Uplands. Dr. Jarvis and 
brother, John T. Jarvis, have remained prominent citizens of 

Two wealthy New York families located soon after on **the 
avenue," J. H. Benedict building the first expensive residence in 
the city, the one now owned by Mrs. Gillilan, and Mrs. Le Grand 
Lockwood the fine ranch house known as Casa Blanca. It was 
the husband of Mrs. Lockwood who fitted out the Hall polar expe- 

The government surveyors this year finished the survey of the 
government lands around Riverside, and titles were at last obtained 
by those who had so long waited. Those who had occupied railroad 
lands were compelled to pay the Southern Pacific company for the 
increased value their own improvements had created. Mr. Roe 
made a list of the business and professional men in Riverside this 
year, who numbered thirty-five in all, including in this class nur- 
serymen and tree-budders. Of these there are now but three still 
living in Riverside, these being L. C. Waite, John A. Simms and 
W. W. Carr. 

It was during this season that an end was put to the long 
delay in providing a bridge across the Santa Ana river. The San 
Bernardino officials seemed to think that since there never had been 
a bridge across that uncertain stream there was no need for it, 
even though the population had grown so rapidly, and had repeat- 
edly refused to provide one. There were very heavy rains in April, 
and the water ran deep and swiftly. One day a party consisting 
of Mr. and Mrs. L. C. Tibbetts and Mrs. Tibbetts' little grand- 
daughter, Daisy Summons, were returning from Colton, when, in 

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attempting to ford the river, the heavy farm wagon in which they 
were riding began to sink in the quicksand, and, overturning, cov- 
ered the child under the wagon body. When the Mexican horse- 
men, who came to the rescue, succeeded in righting the vehicle 
the girl was dead. This sad accident furnished an argument which 
even conservative San Bernardino supervisors could not with- 
stand, and before another winter the first bridge across the Santa 
Ana was constructed. 

It is interesting to note that at this time there existed down 
the river a school district with over thirty children, where now 
there is none, and that its teacher, then gaining his first experience 
as a pedagogue, was Edward Hyatt, now filling his second four- 
year term as superintendent of public instruction for the state of 
California. In many of the intervening years he had successful 
charge of the San Jacinto schools in this county. 

Dovenook School was the name of a private academy estab- 
lished this season near the corner of Central and Streeter avenues 
by Rev. and Mrs. C. Day Noble, where for a few years the higher 
branches, as well as the lower grades, were taught. 

An effort was made in November, 1875, to establish a weekly 
newspaper in Riverside. It was called the Riverside News, and 
the proprietors were two young men from San Bernardino — Robert 
Davis and Jesse Buck. It was printed weekly until the following 
July, when it died for want of support. Another abortive news- 
paper effort was made in the fall, but Mr. Satterfield, the owner, 
unable to. meet his bills, attempted to commit suicide, and when 
he left town the printing material came into the hands of Henry 
Rudisill, son of the company's manager. A. S. White and J. H. 
Roe were contributors to this paper, which was printed in a little 
adobe, standing on the site of the First National Bank building. 

On the 28th of June, 1878, there was issued the first number 
of the Riverside Press. Its first editor and owner was James H. 
Roe, and it has continued its existence as a weekly and daily, under 
different owners, ever since, and steadily maintained a character 
which has given it an influence for good in public affairs. Telling 
of the starting of this first successful newspaper enterprise, Mr. 
Roe says: ** President Evans, who desired a newspaper established 
here, offered to subscribe one-third of any amount raised to start 
the undertaking. Without this help a successful beginning could 

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not have been made. To illustrate the interest generally felt in 
the undertaking I will mention that John Wilbur, Sr., moved the 
press and material from San Bernardino and would accept no 
payment for his service but a thank you. Robert Honbeck was the 
printer in charge, but Dr. John Hall and E. W. Holmes, two vet- 
eran printers, laid the cases and set type on the first number. 
We worked the paper off on an old Washington hand press, I ink- 
ing the forms with a roller. The building occupied was a 12x16 
board shanty, standing back from Main street about where Rouse's 
store now stands.'' 

In the fall of 1878 six thousand boxes of fine raisins were sold 
at $1.75 a box, and the results of grape growing were so satisfac- 
tory as to lead to more extensive planting of the raisin grape. 
This season H. M. Beers netted $350 an acre from his raisins, and 
Capt. B. B. Handy reported his net profits at $280 an acre, and 
many other citizens were nearly as successful. 

There was organized about this time a choral society, of which 
the officers were: E. W. Holmes, president; James H. Roe, vice- 
president; C. W. Packard, secretary; B. W. Handy, treasurer; 
George Leach, librarian; and Prof. J. F. Deitze, musical director. 
An orchestra was also formed as an auxiliary, composed of Dr. 
C. W. Packard, George Leach, John Bonham, Edward North, D. S. 
Strong, W. E. Keith, J. H. Roe and E. W. Holmes. In the fall, 
under the musical direction of Professor Deitze, a former member 
of the Germania Orchestra of Boston and of prominent German 
bands, these organizations gave concerts of a high character, the 
most prominent features of which were Mr. Deitze 's violin solos, 
with Miss Eastman as accompanist, and several fine choral numbers 
with orchestral accompaniment arranged by Mr. Leach. These or- 
ganizations assisted in many a public entertainment during several 
years, and went out of existence with the loss of Messrs. Deitze 
and Leach. 

The older citizens will remember when the back portion of the 
block, where the Reynolds department store now stands, was largely 
occupied by the Chinese, mostly used as grape pickers in those 
days, and how rough and filthy a quarter this shanty section was 
in consequence. This nuisance was only abated after considerable 
effort, and a Chinatown created in the Arroyo, where their habits 
would be less offensive. Owing to the substitution of the orange 

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and lemon for the apricot and grape as a principal crop, and the 
nse of a different class of laborers to handle it, the Chinese are 
no longer largely employed in Riverside, notwithstanding that they 
are preferred by many to those who have been substituted. 

The Citrus Fair had its origin in Riverside, where it was a 
popular and attractive feature long before its value was fully 
appreciated elsewhere. Originally instituted for the purpose of 
comparing and studying varieties and methods of cultivation, pack- 
ing and marketing, it had such attractions, from an esthetic stand- 
point, as to make these annual exhibits of fruit and flowers popu- 
lar with all classes, and the interest in them drew a large attend- 
ance from all portions of the state. The first of these fairs was 
held in the Odd Fellows' building, in February, 1879, the fruit 
exhibit being placed in the hall on the ground floor and the lodge- 
room above was used as a convention hall. The committee in 
charge consisted of S. C. Evans, G. D. Carlton, Albert S. White, 
H. J. RudisUl, L. C. Waite, P. S. Russell, E. J. Davis, D. C. Two- 
good, Thomas W. Cover, James Bettner and E. W. Holmes. Many 
men prominent in public affairs, as well as those personally inter- 
ested in the horticultural development of the state, were in attend- 
ance and participated in the discussions. Among these were Gen- 
eral Stoneman (afterwards governor), Hon. J. De Barth Shorb, 
Gen. J. H. Shields, General Vallejo, Hon. Elwood Cooper, Dr. 
Conger of Pasadena, Hon. J. F. Crank, L. M. Holt, Mr. Chapman, 
and others. The participation of so many distinguished citizens 
from distant portions of the state indicated appreciation of the 
work Riverside was doing even in these early days. The exhibit 
was a most beautiful and novel one. It included fruit from every 
southern county, and the affair proved so attractive and valuable 
that it insured the holding of these annual fairs through a long 
series of years, and the ultimate building of a large pavilion in 
Riverside better adapted for such exhibitions. 

Riverside was now becoming prosperous and attracting a 
larger proportion of the well-to-do, and it was laughingly said 
of her by envious neighbors that it was **a place where everybody 
had a piano and a top-buggy," which comment certainly could not 
have been suggested by the conditions existing a half dozen years 
previous. That there were some grounds for anticipating pros- 
perity is shown by the results chronicled regarding the returns 

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obtained this season from some of the first seedling trees planted. 
One orange tree, planted by Dr. Shugart in a sheltered position 
near the house on Ninth street, now owned by Mrs. Maynard, had, 
when nine years old, produced sixty oranges, the following year 
five hundred, and in 1879 it produced two thousand seedling 
oranges, which sold for $37 a thousand. This tree, therefore, 
brought the owner $74 from a single crop. Is it any wonder that 
the orchardist who thus saw common seedling oranges sell at $10 
net per box, and remembered that he had a hundred trees on each 
acre, got a little over-sanguine over the prospects, and for a time 
forgot the possibility of an over-supplied market? Raisin grapes 
were also paying splendidly. Shugart & Waite picked twelve tons 
of muscat grapes from an acre and a quarter vineyard, and A. P. 
Combs and R. H. Henderson netted a profit of over $350 an acre 
from their raisins, the twenty-pound boxes bringing $2 each. To 
insure the maintaining of a high-grade pack of raisins a Fruit 
Growers' Association was organized with G. W. Garcelon as presi- 
dent, and H. A. Westbrook was appointed inspector to see that all 
packers complied with the rules adopted. The production of raisins 
increased until the output exceeded 200,000 boxes annually, but 
when the industry developed in the Fresno section, over-produc- 
tion brought down prices, so that Riverside vineyards were nearly 
all transformed either into orange orchards or alfalfa fields. Apri- 
cots were paying handsomely at this time, but the extravagant 
expectations regarding the profits of citrus fruit-growing unfor- 
tunately led to the neglect of this fruit. 

On January 1, 1880, L. M. Holt of Los Angeles, who had had 
considerable successful experience as the publisher of a horticul- 
tural magazine, purchased the "Riverside Press" from Mr. Roe, 
enlarged the paper, and changed its name to the "Press and Hor- 
ticulturist." Mr. Holt was a boomer by temperament and training. 
He believed in the future of horticulture in Southern California, 
and gave effective and energetic work in advertising it, and the 
growing town in which for several years he made his home. He 
did not "hide his light under a bushel," but Riverside shared in 
the illumination, and gained recognition abroad largely through 
his efforts. This paper later became a semi-weekly, and finally a 
daily, and in 1888 was purchased by Messrs. E. W. Holmes, James 
H. Roe and Reverdy J. Pierson. Messrs. Roe & Pierson had pur- 

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chased a weekly paper known as the Valley Echo, of which J. A. 
Studebaker was the first owner, and this, with several other papers 
that had vainly tried to exist in the limited field, were merged 
in the Daily Press, with Mr. Holmes as managing editor. 

Among those who became residents of Riverside during this 
year, and have had a large part in the aflfairs of the valley, was 
Hon. B. F. White of Weymouth, Mass. He was a man of ability 
and public spirit, and served later as a school trustee and member 
of the city board. He was killed in a runaway accident while en- 
gaged in public business. The senior John Allen came this season 
from Presque Isle, Me., to visit his son, B. F. Allen, and later an- 
other son, John A. Allen, joined his relatives here and purchased 
a thirty-acre orange grove on Colton avenue, all becoming perma- 
nent residents. P. S. Dinsmore and family located here in June 
and Edward Treat and family later in the year. In July, O. T. 
Dyer, an Illinois banker, arrived and began the construction of a 
small bank building on the corner of Main and Ninth streets. This 
first Riverside bank was opened for business on the 6th of Decem- 
ber. The firm was composed of William H. Dyer of Troy, N. Y., 
Otis T. Dyer of Wyoming, 111., and Miss E. C. Dyer was cashier. 
About the same time there arrived many people from Galesburg, 
111., among whom were Orson Johnson and wife, parents of A. P. 
and O. T. Johnson; John Aberdeen and family. Rev. Charles But- 
ton and wife. Martin Hoover and wife (from Leavenworth, Kan.), 
Dr. C. W. Craven, and his parents, Mr. and Mrs. C. V. Craven, 
and S. H. Ferris and family, and others. C. W. Filkins, who later 
succeeded Dr. Greves as postmaster, located in November, and 
opened a store on Main street. George R. Thayer and wife, from 
Weymouth, Mass., arrived the same month, and in December, D. M. 
Bradford and family, from Cornell, Iowa, and Miss E. C. Dyer 
became residents. James Chalmers and family also came this sea- 
son, and built a home on the block where the courthouse now stands. 

On the 22nd of April a reception and banquet was given Hon. 
H. M. Streeter, who had been chosen the fall before to represent 
the county in the lower branch of the state legislature. It was 
given to testify the citizens* appreciation of his services as assem- 
blyman, especially with reference to his success in securing the 
adoption of a law by which a town council or board of county super- 
visors were empowered to fix water rates each year, instead of 

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allowing corporations to fix such rates arbitrarily, as they had pre- 
viously been free to do. 

A floral fair, successful artistically as well as financially, was 
held by the ladies. May 22, under the management of Mrs. James 
Bettner and others, and a handsome sum realized for the benefit 
of the library association, that institution not having become the 
property of the city. 

Evergreen Cemetery Association was incorporated this sea- 
son, with E. Conway, L. M. Holt, Capt. B. B. Handy, L. C. Waite 
and J. B. Camp as directors. 

During the summer the California Southern railroad was incor- 
porated, and a survey made by Fred T. Perris, from San Bernar- 
dino to San Diego, through the Box Springs and Temecula canyons 

All these matters we are recording indicate a rapid growth 
of the valley, but nothing shows this more clearly than the result 
of the presidential election, when the Democratic majority of the 
county seat was for the first time overcome by the majority which 
Riverside gave some of the Republican candidates. 

In November the supreme court handed down a decision in the 
long-fought water litigation between W. 0. Price vs. the River- 
side Land and Irrigation company. The result was a curious one, 
showing the absurdity of the law's delay. Mr. Price, who repre- 
sented the land owners, discouraged over the failure to get a de- 
cision, had sold his place on the corner of Arlington and Riverside 
avenues, to A. P. Johnson and returned east. Mr. Johnson had 
settled the contested point by purchasing water stock of the com- 
pany, as had most of the other parties who had undertaken the 
contest so many years before: 

The year 1881 brought an increasing number of those who 
were to be conspicuous in Riverside affairs. Among these were 
Matthew Gage, from Kingston, Canada ; H. B. Everest, from Den- 
ver; Rev. Dr. George H. Deere, from Minnesota; T. H. B. Chamb- 
lin, George Frost, Charles G. Hurd, Orin and W. H. Backus, 
A. M. Denig, Bradford Morse, George M. Skinner, George H. Ful- 
lerton, W. A. and C. P. Hayt, W. P. Lett, C. A. Crosby, Dr. 
Clark Whittier, W. H. Fessenden, Peter Klinefelter, George M. 
Morse, J. W. Bryant, Thomas and Kenneth Hendry, J. K. Wood- 
ward, J. H. Fountain, A. L. Whitney, B. F. Locke, Harry Keame 
J. E. Hill, H. D. Noland and H. Saunders. 

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Notwithstanding the fact that her orchards and vineyards have 
offered, when properly worked, reasonable assurance of wealth, the 
people of the valley have shared with other sections of the state 
an occasional mining epidemic, and these have usually resulted in 
financial loss to those who have yielded to temptation in this direc- 
tion and invested their hard-earned capital in mining ventures. 
In the early '80s the finding of gold indications near where now 
stands the Victoria club house, on the banks of the big arroyo, and 
elsewhere in the neighborhood, led to search being made every- 
where for the precious metal. Claims were staked out, and it was 
asserted that nobody dug a well who did not **pan out" the gravel 
found at the water level. But, while gold was found in many places 
about the valley, it was generally in too small a quantity to war- 
rant looking for. On the further side of the Temescal range silver 
was found and a mining town laid out. Tin for a time was mined 
by an English company, in the hills between Riverside and Corona. 
Abram Hoag successfully worked the Gavilan gold mine, and it was 
claimed took out $500 a week for a while. The Mexicans had found 
considerable gold in the hills between Perris and Elsinore, making 
wages with their crude methods, and here clearly defined veins 
have been quite extensively worked by Americans in recent years — 
the Good Hope, the Santa Rosa and other claims giving promise 
of rich returns. Of these the Good Hope has thus far alone justi- 
fied the expense incurred in developing it. 

It was during this season that the Arlington Presbyterian 
church edifice was completed. Its original cost was upwards of 
$3,500. It was dedicated on Sunday, April 24, 1881. The pastor 
was Rev. A. G. Lane, and he was assisted by Rev. J. W. Ellis of 
Los Angeles, who preached the dedicatory sermon, and by Rev. 
Charles Button of the local Baptist church, and Rev. W. H. Cross, 
Congregational ist. The music was furnished by C. W. Packard, or- 
ganist; Mrs. S. B. Bliss, soprano; Mrs. J. H. Benedict, contralto; 
J. H. Roe, tenor, and 0. T. Dyer, bass. 

In the winter of 1881 the first Universalist sermon was 
preached in Riverside by Rev. J. H. Tuttle, a distinguished clergy- 
man of that denomination. On the 20th of July following. Rev. 
George H. Deere and wife came from Minnesota to make this city 
their permanent home. Mr. Deere was not only a man of scholar- 
ship and ability, but was one who, by reason of his sincere and 

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kindly nature, won the respect and regard of all. Besides his 
faithful work as a pastor he gave a splendid service during many 
years as chairman of the school and library boards of the city. 
At the close of the first service, held on the Sabbath following his 
arrival, a meeting was held, over which William Finch presided, 
at which a committee was chosen, consisting of Dr. Deere, Dr. 
Shugart, L. M. Holt, P. S. Russell, Ira C. Haight, A. B. Derby 
and George M. Skinner, through whose efforts a church organiza- 
tion was effected. One of the original school buildings, for which 
a larger one was to be substituted, was purchased and moved to the 
spot now occupied by the Southern Pacific passenger station on 
Market street, where services were held until the growth of the 
society enabled it to build the beautiful stone church which this 
society now occupies on Lemon street. 

There appears, in the minutes of Mr. Roe regarding this sea- 
son, an item concerning an orchard product and the method of 
its shipment, which will have interest to those familiar with pres- 
ent Riverside products and prices. He reports that Dr. Jarvis 
and his brother John T., ran a steam fruit dryer near Arlington, 
where were then extensive apricot orchards, and that they cured, 
packed and shipped the most valuable load of apricots ever sent 
out of Riverside. There were over 4,800 pounds of first quality, 
which sold at 27 cents per pound, and 600 pounds at 22 cents. W. C. 
Johnson hauled them to Newport in a six-horse team, from which 
point they were shipped by water to San Francisco. 

It was the proud boast of the Riverside orchardist in the pio- 
neer days, as it is today in the newly-planted sections of California, 
that we had no insect pests to endanger the health and productive- 
ness of our trees. The red scale (aspidiotus aurantii) was, before 
any means had been discovered of effectively fighting this pest, 
ruining the San Gabriel groves, and when Dr. Whittier was found 
to have imported a lot of nursery trees from the infected section, 
in entire ignorance of the danger incurred, a mass meeting was 
called to prevent their planting. There being no law then in exis- 
tence preventing the spread of dangerous pests, the citizens raised 
the necessary fund and purchased and burned the entire shipment. 
A few years later a few specimens were found where the pest had 
evidently been introduced by visitors who had brought San Gabriel 
oranges along with their lunches, and had thrown the rind about 

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as they partook of them. In spite of the fact that such appropria- 
tion of public funds was not specifically permitted in the law under 
which the city was then organized, the city trustees paid the owners 
in certain blocks the sum of $1,800 to cut off the entire tops of 
their trees and give the stumps a thorough coat of whitewash. 
This served for a while, but ultimately infections appeared which 
made necessary the securing of legislation to enable the valley to 
organize protective action, but in spite of all the effort and ex- 
pense incurred it has not been possible to eradicate, but only meas- 
urably control the spread of such orchard pests. Such control, 
however, has prevented the ruin of our orchards. 

The published statements regarding affairs in Riverside, at the 
close of 1881, furnish a few items of interest. During the year 
land had been sold to the extent of $392,404, and over $140,000 
worth of new buildings had been erected. Miss M. C. Call and 
Lillian Putnam and Miss M. H. Harris were the only teachers in 
the city district schools. Congratulations were in order over the 
fact that money could now be borrowed on good security at from 
10 to 12, instead of 18 per cent, as had often heretofore been de- 
manded. Matthew Gage, whose grand work in developing the great 
system which bears his name, and has made possible the growth of 
an orange acreage larger than the original settlement, had but just 
arrived with his family, and was following his trade of jeweler in 
a portion of Roe's drug store. 

The fame of Riverside's beauty and success as a fruit-growing 
town was becoming national, and was already prompting the under- 
taking of similar ventures in other favored sections. Most con- 
spicuous among the successful imitators of Riverside was that un- 
dertaken by Judson & Brown, where what is now Redlands. The 
name of this new colony was suggested by the fact that it was in 
the red soil of Riverside that the finest oranges were grown — a 
quality of soil conspicuously found in Redlands. In the advertise- 
ments first printed by a local promoter this new tract to be put 
upon the market was advertised as **an extension of East River- 
side,'' in order to use the prestige of the older colony. Corona 
also utilized us in calling herself South Riverside, until the time 
came when she had demonstrated the possession of advantages of 
her own to excuse her preferring an independent and more euphoni- 
ous name. Even East Riverside finally dropped that name to call 

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herself Highgrove, because high groves are supposed to be less in- 
jured by frost — though the powers which control temperatures do 
not seem to be greatly influenced by the names which mortals attach 
to a section. 


By E. W. Holmes 

The town had now outgrown the little hall in the Odd Fellows* 
building. To supply the need for larger accommodations for en- 
tertainments and public meetings a little cheap *' opera house" 
was built on the south side of Eighth street, between Orange and 
Lemon. It was covered both on the roof and sides with corru- 
gated iron, and, though it had a stage with curtain and wings, could 
only serve as a makeshift. It was here that the first comic opera 
was performed and where traveling shows appeared. But some- 
thing better was greatly needed, and Albert S. White, with char- 
acteristic public spirit, undertook to incorporate a Citrus Fair As- 
sociation, the main purpose of which Was to build a pavilion with 
a large auditorium and committee rooms, required for fair pur- 
poses. His plan involved the raising of $5,000, and by fall the 
entire amount had been subscribed, in $25 shares. The building 
was completed the following season and served admirably for the 
purposes designed until destroyed by fire in 1886. The sum raised 
from the sale of stock was only sufficient to complete the building 
itself, and the stage, curtain and scenery required to equip it 
for general public use were not secured until a year or two later, 
when the writer organized an amateur dramatic cluby which gave 
a ** benefit for pavilion improvement," which provided the needed 
funds. The plays staged for this benefit were a dramatization of 
Dickens' **Our Mutual Friend'' and the popular old farce, **Box 
and Cox." All of those who took part, twenty-eight years ago, are 
living, and all but one are still residents of Riverside. 

The members of the club were: Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Backus, 

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E. W. Holmes, Charles F. Packard, Frank Patton, Miss Kate 
Overton, Mrs. W. P. Russell, Miss Jessie Gill (now Mrs. Frank 
Patton) and George Rotner. In this connection the fact is recalled 
that one of the first companies of professional players to make use 
of our pavilion stage was one managed by Kendall Holt and wife, 
who found Riverside so attractive that they gave up theatrical 
life and became permanent residents. He was, until his death a 
few years since, a city editor on one of our dailies, and his widow 
is still teaching elocution to our youth and giving her services as 
a reader when needed for benevolent objects. 

The increased values of orchard property ten years from the 
first planting is shown by the sale, in 1881, of fifteen acres belong- 
ing to Capt. B. B. Handy, located at the top of the hill on Brock- 
ton avenue, for $15,000. C. A. Tinker was the purchaser. Several 
years later an adjacent seedling grove is said to have sold for 
$3,000 an acre, a price never exceeded in these later years. But 
all this section now has a greater value for residence use than for 
orange growing. 

In January, 1882, Riverside had an unusual experience — her 
first and only real snow storm. The 11th had been a beautiful day, 
but the mercury dropped to 26 degrees during the night following. 
Toward morning it became overcast and the temperature moder- 
ated. Finally, at daybreak, the snow began falling, and increas- 
ing, fell steadily all day and into the night, and when morning 
came there was a layer of the white covering fully eight inches in 
depth. For a while during the storm the orchardists had vainly 
tried to shake off the snow from the trees, heavy already with fruit, 
but finally gave up the work as hopeless, and many trees split 
down with the burden. Strangely enough the presence of the body 
of damp snow held the temperature steadily at 32 degrees and little 
fruit was injured. Impromptu sleighs were rigged up, and a few 
took advantage of the rare conditions to enjoy a sleigh ride. The 
snow, when melted, showed an equivalent of 1.40 inches rainfall. 

The spring of 1882 saw the first steps made in an undertak- 
ing which had tremendous hifluence in shaping the valley's growth, 
since it doubled the irrigable acreage of the valley, induced large 
investments of foreign capital, and added immensely to the popu- 
lation of the city. Matthew Gage this season filed on section 30, 
located on the extension of East Eighth street. It was taken under 

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the desert land act, which enabled a person to take up 640 acres of 
dry land, with three years in which to redeem it, by bringing 
irrigating water npon it. It was the possession of this land which 
furnished the motive for Mr. Gage's persistent search for water, 
and prompted his successful effort to secure the large capital nec- 
essary to build the Gage canal across the rough intervening country 
to a point where it was possible to spread it over the many thou- 
sands of acres, where are now our finest orange and lemon groves. 
Although this great work was initiated at this time, the three 
years allowed the claimant in which to secure the title to his land 
had nearly expired before the water reached it. But we may as well 
give at this point a brief story of this great undertaking. With no 
capital excepting faith and an undaunted courage, Mr. Gage per- 
sistently pressed forward until the work was accomplished, and his 
name will be forever linked with a development ranked among the 
most important in the history of Southern California. In his 
search for a water supply, Mr. Gage found a tract of several hun- 
dred acres in the Santa Ana river bottom, several miles above 
Colton, owned by J. A. Carit. This land had a right to all the 
water flowing in the river, after previous claims had been supplied, 
and he was convinced that by sinking wells of moderate depth in 
the lands adjacent to the stream, he should find artesian water in 
abundance. He bonded this property for $75,000, for a limited 
time, not having the capital necessary to enable him to purchase 
it, and then went quietly at work obtaining rights of way for a 
canal from this land to the plain above Riverside, upon which 
his claim was located. His ambition had now risen far beyond 
the original scheme of supplying water for his own land. He now 
proposed to water the whole territory between Riverside and the 
foothills. The Iowa Land and Development Company, of which 
Governor Merrill was the president and S. H. Herrick and A. J. 
Twogood the local representatives, had purchased some 2,000 acres 
of land where Highgrove now stands, which amount was later 
increased to some 3,500 acres. As the owners of this tract would 
be Mr. Gage's largest customers he went to Iowa to confer with 
Governor Merrill. The Iowa company had received overtures from 
Carit in regard to selling them his water-bearing lands, but Mr. 
Gage had secured the only available right of way, and for this 
and other reasons they closed a contract with him, agreeing to 

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take 335 inches — an amount afterwards increased. Armed with 
this contract, Mr. Gage returned, closed his bargain with Carit, 
and conmaenced the work of canal building. Nearly all the owners 
of land under the flow of the proposed canal took water stock, and 
with this substantial collateral he obtained all the ready money re- 
quired. He guaranteed to purchasers a water right of an inch 
to five acres for $100 per acre, when his canal should be completed. 
The original Gage Canal terminated at section 30, the system 
serving the land owners under this canal in the Highgrove section 
having purchased a right from Mr. Gage to about 725 inches of 

The Riverside Trust Company, Mr. Gage's successor, after- 
wards extended the system across the big arroyo, and now sup- 
plies an immense area of the best mesa and hillside lands in the 
state, whose product in quantity and quality is unsurpassed. Con- 
siderably over a million dollars have been expended upon this water 
system, which in canal mileage and value is not inferior to that 
of the original Riverside Water Company plant. 

An irrigation district was later organized to furnished water 
for land above those just described, but purchasers of land found 
that the district, like many others organized at that time under 
the state law, had everything required excepting water. Among 
these land owners was Ethan A. Chase, and it was through his 
efforts mainly that the Riverside Highland Water Company was 
organized and made one of the best water systems in the valley. 
About a million dollars were required to purchase water-bearing 
lands at distant points in Lytle creek and in the Santa Ana river 
bottom, and to establish the pumping plants and pipe lines required. 
The company is now pumping nearly a thousand inches of water to 
a point in the hills 500 feet above the bottom, from where it flows 
in pipes to the various orchards. 

The oldest and best of the water rights along the river furnish 
a supply for the West Riverside section. And these are supple- 
mented by an immense quantity pumped from wells where no one 
dreamed in the early days that water could be obtained. Modern 
pumping machinery and the building of great electric power lines 
through what was literally desert lands only a few years sl^o are 
transforming the sandy wastes tributary to Riverside and Corona 
into broad green fields of profit-paying alfalfa, as well as into other 

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lines of development inviting settlement, and this diversifying of 
the resources of the county bids fair to maintain a prosperity which 
once depended upon practically a single branch of horticulture. 

The record of the sales of land in 1882 is a wonderful one for 
so young a town, footing up $522,338, and the changes which a' 
dozen years had brought is indicated by the fact that it was in 
this season that the venerable and popular postmaster, Dr. Greves, 
who first took charge of the office at a salary of $5 a year, was 
supplanted by C. W. Filkins, who was given a salary of $1,700. 

It was in this year that the first effective steps were taken 
in providing the city with a public park: the four blocks which 
Mr. Evans had given in exchange for the original plaza had become 
little better than a tule-grown frog pond — a public nuisance. Dr. 
Clark Whittier proposed to build a brick sanitarium, and desired 
to locate it upon the corner of the park at the junction of Eighth 
and Market streets. He offered to fill the pond and park, the cen- 
tral portion, if he should be given the north and south portions 
fronting on Eighth and Tenth streets. The consent of every prop- 
erty owner in town had to be obtained to legalize the trade. The 
building erected is now a part of the Holyrood hotel. The bargain 
was a fine one for the doctor, and hastened the building up of that 
section, but it has always been a source of regret that the action 
taken had forever restricted the area of our only centrally located 
park. A little later the citizens raised $2,000 to use in building a 
bandstand and beautifying the grounds, and in recognition of his 
interest in securing the improvement of the park it was finally 
named the Albert S. White park. In recent years, George N. Reyn- 
olds built the pretty fountain which occupies a central location. 

On the 1st of August, 1882, the California Southern railroad 
.v^as completed from San Diego, through Temecula canyon, to Point 
of Rocks, near where the Southern Pacific road now crosses it. 
Owing to the San Bernardino interests of Chief Engineer Perris, 
all efforts to locate the line by an easier grade directly through 
Riverside failed. The Riverside station was therefore located three 
miles from town. H. E. Allatt was the first station agent. 

Three years later the Santa Fe road completed the building of 
its line through the Cajon Pass and made connection with the Riv- 
erside-San Diego road, by which means the valley was brought into 
direct connection by rail with Chicago and the east. In Septem- 

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ber, 1885, the Santa Fe company asked for a right of way for a 
line from East Riverside to Los Angeles, through the valley, and 
the people of Riverside, led to suppose this was to be the main 
overland line of that system, generously raised the money neces- 
sary to give the company a right of way and depot grounds. On 
the 22nd of March, 1886, this line was opened to travel, amid gen- 
eral rejoicing, for it gave the city direct rail connection with Los 
Angeles and all points in the east, and led to a reduction of $60 a 
car on the rate for oranges. 

This was but the commencement of a great amount of railroad 
building, which has given the city the benefit of three great trans- 
continental lines,' and a local trolley system inferior to none in the 
state. A steam motor system was built, mostly by local capital, 
in 1888, connecting Riverside and San Bernardino. It did not 
prove a profitable investment to the stockholders, who lost prac- 
tically all they put into it, and was finally purchased by the South- 
ern Pacific company, by which that road obtained its present valu- 
able depot grounds on Market street, in the very heart of the city. 
But the result gave the valley connection with a second great rail- 
road system. 

The 6,000 carloads of oranges annually shipped from Riverside 
made it profitable for the Salt Lake line, when planning its over- 
land route, in 1893, to locate the road directly through Riverside, 
building a magnificent cement bridge across the Santa Ana to reach 
the city, and giving the citizens the best service yet secured. Thus, 
in spite of what in the early days seemed an unfortunate situa- 
tion, the valley has secured such railroad facilities as are enjoyed 
by few. And recent developments indicate that before this volume 
shall be on the library shelves, still further advantages in this direc- 
tion will have been secured. 

The growth of the place during these years had tempted the 
investment of capital in other lines than those above referred to. 
Tracts adjacent to the city were subdivided, and to make these 
accessible several street car lines were projected, most of which 
were so premature as to involve loss to the promoters. An improve- 
ment company was organized by local capitalists, which secured 
the site for a grand hotel to be erected on a spur of Rubidoux 
mountain, overlooking the entire valley. Some $80,000 was ex- 
pended upon this undertaking, the rocky summit being blasted out 

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for a foundation and the first story framed and boarded, when the 
financial storm which brought ruin to so many swept over the 
country and swamped the undertaking. The building was torn 
down, and the city reservoir now occupies the spot where sanguine 
citizens had hoped to see a million-dollar hotel located. 

An auxiliary undertaking connected with the above scheme 
was the securing of an artesian domestic water system, which was 
soon sold to the Riverside Water company for a nominal price, 
and has proved of incalculable value to the city from a health point 
of view. A. S. White, Dr. Joseph and J. T. Jar\ds, O. T. Dyer, 
J. G. North and E. Rosenthal were the prominent members of 
these improvement companies, and were heavy losers through their 
connection with them. 

These subdivision and hotel schemes tempted to other ven- 
tures called for as a result of their undertaking. The first street 
car line was built by W. A. Hayt, A. S. White, and others, to con- 
nect their east side lots with the business center, and the proposed 
hotel with the railroad station. It started from Fourth street and 
ran over Park avenue to Eighth, down Eighth to Main, along Main 
to Tenth, and down that street to a point near the proposed Rubi- 
doux hotel. J. A. Studebaker and his brother William secured a 
franchise for a car line to run up Eighth street, from Main to 
Grand View and Sedgwick streets. Thomas Bakewell was the first 
to undertake to build a car line down the valley, his road running 
down Main and Prospect streets and up a steep grade out of the 
arroyo, in front of where the Polytechnic High school now stands, 
by North street, Bandini and Brockton to Magnolia. Mules were 
the motive power for these lines, supplemented by human help in 
emergencies. A story is told that illustrates the accommodating 
spirit of the management at that time. It is alleged that a man 
who was in danger of missing a train prevailed upon the driver 
of the hourly car, as it jangled southerly on Main street without 
a passenger, to unhitch his mules, attach them to the other end 
of the car, and take him to the Santa Fe station. The historian 
doesn't vouch for the truth of the story, but he is tempted to accept 
it when he recalls having seen a Southern Pacific conductor stop 
and back up his train, after he had started from the Los Angeles 
statiojD on his four-hour trip to the terminus at Colton, to accom- 
modate a belated passenger whom he saw coming down Commer- 

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cial street. But that train was advertised as an *' accommodation 
train, *' while the passengers on the early Riverside cars had often 
patiently to acconmiodate themselves to the idiosjmcrasies of often 
overworked and balky mules, or mulish drivers. 

But all these various and unprofitable car lines were finally 
consolidated, when F. A. Miller and S. C. Evans took them in 
hand, and, eliminating the worthless, undertook to combine the 
remainder into a complete electric system. But for a long time 
the income did not meet the expenses of operation, and when the 
debt had grown to a dangerous sum, the system was practically 
given to H. E. Huntington, who gradually improved the service 
until he sold it to the Southern Pacific, who have made it a part 
of the great Pacific Electric system of Los Angeles, with which 
it will be shortly connected by way of Corona and the Santa Ana 
canyon. It is already one of the best local systems in the state, 
serving not only the business section of the city, but bringing into 
close relations Arlington, Highgrove, Victoria avenue, Fairmount 
Park and Bloomington, with a certainty of early extension to Col- 
ton, San Bernardino, Redlands and Rialto. The Bloomington and 
Rialto section is an independent line, owned by the stockholders of 
the Riverside Portland Cement company, whose works are at Crest- 
more, but is operated in connection with the Pacific Electric line. 
Few larger cities of the state have a more satisfactory service. 

* The first fruit cannery was built and put in operation in 1882, 
employing, according to Mr. Roe, some 200 hands. It is certain 
that there was much more deciduous fruit grown here then than 
there is at present, since shortly after commencing operations it 
handled over thirty tons of fresh fruit daily. The average pack 
for a time amounted to about 8,000 cans a day. The growing of 
peaches, apricots, etc., being largely given up for orange growing, 
and the consequent absence of a sufficient quantity to warrant the 
cannery's operations, it was subsequently moved where such fruit 
was more abundantly grown or was within easier reach by rail. 
Recent conditions have shown that it was a serious mistake to 
plant oranges where deciduous fruit would yield more certain, if 
not larger, returns. 

Riverside citizens were conspicuous among the political can- 
didates in the fall campaign. H. M. Streeter had served so accept- 
ably as assemblyman that the Republicans selected him as their 

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candidate for the state senate, but his Democratic opponent, Mr. 
Wolfskin of San Diego, defeated him at the November election. 
James Bettner was made the Democratic candidate for the assem- 
bly, but the Republicans succeeded in electing his opponent, Tru- 
man Reeves of San Bernardino. A. P. Johnson was chosen county 
supervisor over his Democratic neighbor, P. S. Riissell. M. V. 
Wright was complimented by being named as the Prohibition can- 
didate for congress, and Dr. John Hall as their candidate for the 

The population of the valley in January, 1883, had reached 
fully 3,000, and the need of a local government was generally 
felt. The strongest influence impelling action regarding incor- 
poration as a city was the desire to make use of the power recently 
given municipal authorities to fix water rates, and another object 
which appealed to many was the desire to regulate the liquor 
traffic, regarding which the San Bernardino county officials were 
too conservative. Besides these reasons there was the desire to 
make better streets and other improvements which could not be so 
successfully carried forward by private effort. Because it was 
necessary to control the water question the entire valley was in- 
cluded in the corporate limits, and this caused bitter opposition on 
the part of many citizens in the lower part of the valley. The 
first meeting to discuss the advisability of securing a city govern- 
ment was held on the 12th of May. B. D. Burt presided and L. M. 
Holt acted as secretary. Messrs. William Finch, B. F. White, 
A. P. Johnson, J. E. Cutter, James Bettner, E. Caldwell, H. B. 
Everest, H. M. Beers and others were participants in the discussion, 
which resulted in the selection of a committee to secure the neces- 
sary petition. The county supervisors ordered the election held on 
the 25th of September, and the result was favorable by a vote of 
228 to 147. At this election Hon. B. F. White, Capt. B. B. Handy, 
H. B. Haynes, A. J. Twogood and A. B. Derby were elected trus- 
tees; B. D. Burt, treasurer; and T. H. B. Chamberlin, city clerk. 
W. W. Noland was appointed city marshal; E. Conway, city re- 
corder; G. 0. Newman, engineer. On the 27th of October the cer- 
tificate of the secretary of state was received, and Riverside was a 
**city of the sixth class.'' The trustees held their first meeting in 
the building on Eighth street, next to the Evans block. 

No sooner had the organization of the city been effected than 

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Mr. Evans, president of the water company, instituted a suit against 
it, to determine the right to fix irrigating water rates. All of the 
400 water users were made defendants. The company demanded 
15 cents an inch, instead of the 7^2 cents previously charged, al- 
leging that that rate was required to cover running expenses and 
a fund to maintain the system. Mr. Evans refused to make neces- 
sary repairs; the orchardists were sometimes compelled to wait 
two months or more for water, to the detriment of their property; 
the system was endangered and prospective settlers were driven 
away in consequence. The citizens were disposed to buy the com- 
pany's property, but thought the price of $226,000 too high, and 
the suit dragged in the courts. 

The second matter which came up for consideration at this 
first meeting was presented by Mrs. N. P. J. Button, who appeared 
in behalf of the women of the city, to request that the liquor 
saloons be compelled to pay a license fee of $100 a month. It is 
a matter of interest to note in this connection that there were 
other radical temperance people here in those days, for at a meet- 
ing in the following year, F. A. Miller and L. M. Holt appeared as 
spokesmen for citizens who asked that saloons be compelled to 
pay a license which would amount to some $6,000 a year. 

For three years the rainfall had been extremely light, that of 
the last being less than three inches for the entire twelve months. 
But '84 was ''the year of the flood," twenty-four inches falling. 
Frequent heavy rains during the winter destroyed the county and 
railroad bridges, shutting off all communication for weeks with the 
outside world. The irrigating canals and bridges were everywhere 
badly damaged, and the then unpaved streets a sea of mud. The 
orange crop was exceptionally fine in quality, but it either rotted 
upon the trees or spoiled in the packing-houses, even when packed, 
for the Santa Ana bridges as well as the Temecula Canyon rail- 
road were destroyed. The long-continued storms caused Lake 
Elsinore to overflow through the Temescal canyon. The strange 
conditions did not end with the winter, for in August there came 
a terrific ''cloudburst" and hailstorm, during which four inches of 
rain fell in an hour or more. The water in the streets was so deep 
as to make them like rivers, the orchards everywhere badly washed, 
and probably fully 50 per cent of the next year's oranges so badly 

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cut and marked by the hail as to greatly reduce their quantity and 

The conditions in March made it necessary to give up all 
thought of holding the annual citrus fair, and this was given up. 
L. M. Holt of the Press had interested the people of the entire 
state in the first irrigation convention, which was called to meet 
at the time of the fair. This was postponed until May, when there 
were present most of the prominent men of the state who were 
interested in horticulture and irrigation. Hon. J. W. North pre- 
sided, and the affair proved of great value because of the discus- 
sions participated in by scientific and practical men, and which 
were afterwards extensively published. 

At the first regular city election, held April 14, 1884, Martin 
Hoover and A. J. Twogood were elected trustees for four years, 
and B. F. White, B. B. Handy and W. P. Russell for two years. 
On the opposing ticket were F. J. Hall, S. R. Magee, W. H. Ball, 
M. F. Bixler and H. A. Westbrook. In spite of the fact that the 
first city tax rate was only 50 cents on the $100, the opponents of 
the city incorporation immediately brought suit, in the name of 
James Bettner and F. J. Hall, to test the legality of the city organ- 
ization, but the court affirmed its legality. 

The death of Hon. B. F. White, as the result of an accident 
while engaged in his official duties, created a vacancy on the city 
board which was filled by the choice of 0. T. Johnson, who was 
also selected to fill Mr. White's position as acting mayor. Mr. 
White's standing in the community is shown by the fact that he 
was head of the city government, president of the Citrus Fair As- 
sociation, the Riverside Water Company, the school board, and trus- 
tee of the Riverside Fruit Company and of the Congregational 
church. His funeral was held in the fair pavilion. The resigna- 
tion of A. J. Twogood at this time led to the selection of E. W. 
Holmes as a city trustee. E. Conway was made recorder and 
Dr. E. H. Way selected as chairman of the board of health. 

It was in the fall of 1884 that the first regular packing-houses 
were established. Before that time the growers generally packed 
their own fruit, or the commission men bought and packed it. This 
season Griffin & Skelley started a packing establishment, and were 
the most prominent dealers for years. H. C. Hemenway & Co. 
also started in the business, George H. Fullerton being the local 

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member of the firm. A. J. and D. C. Twogood opened a packing 
house on Market street the following season, J. G. Kyle being their 
house manager, and the Riverside Fruit Co., of which B. D. Burt 
was president, also did some packing. 

Our annual citrus fair had already attracted an almost nation- 
wide interest, not only because of the beauty of the display and the 
quality of the fruit exhibited, but because of the practical study 
given to all questions of interest to the horticulturist, and espe- 
cially to the careful scientific study of the characteristics and qual- 
ity of the varieties shown, methods of cultivation, etc. This study 
was not confined to the citrus fruits, but to the raisin, olive and 
other products. The fair of 1885 was an unusually successful one 
in every respect, and attracted wide attention from fruit dealers 
everywhere, as well as of the general public. 

There had always prevailed in the eastern fruit trade, centered 
in the great cities, an opinion that only in Florida and the Mediter- 
ranean country could there be grown a perfect orange, and this 
prejudice had been strengthened by the few specimens of the thick- 
skinned seedling oranges and lemons which were first sent from 
California to the Atlantic coast. Indeed, there were many here 
who shared this notion, and questioned the wisdom of contesting 
with Florida the matter of superiority. With many, the tender, 
juicy, acid-free product of the Indian river section was near perfec- 
tion. But there were others who believed that the more beautiful, 
fragrant, firmer-textured Riverside orange had no superior as a 
marketing fruit, and took the first good opportunity to test the 

This was afforded at the World's Fair at New Orleans, where 
handsome prizes were offered for an exhibit of fruit from all the 
orange-growing sections of the world. The judges appointed were 
none of them Califomians, but they were expert and competent 
judges. H. J. Rudisill and James Bettner took the lead in secur- 
ing a suitable exhibit from Riverside, and went to New Orleans 
to arrange it. Some eighty Riverside growers contributed fruit 
and funds. The primitive railway accommodations of those times 
made it difficult to compete with Florida, so much nearer, but the 
result proved the exceptional keeping quality of our fruit. Flor- 
ida's proximity and larger variety enabled her to carry off the 
honor of the largest display, but where appearance and quality 

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counted she was, to her surprise, thoroughly outclassed. Riverside 
carried off the first prizes for appearance and quality, receiving 
a gold medal and $100 for best oranges against the world; a gold 
medal and $100 for best oranges grown in the United States; a 
gold medal and $100 for best oranges grown in California, and the 
first prize, a silver medal and $25, for best lemons grown in the 
world. The Riverside fruit covered sixteen tables and was con- 
tained in 2,500 plates, but so much was drawn from individual 
offerings to make up the main display that few personal prizes 
were won, those being awarded to James Bettner, H. J. Rudisill, 
W. N. Mann, P. D. Cover, Perley & Patee, G. W. Garcelon, D. H. 
Bumham, W. H. Backus and E. W. Holmes. This result was a 
surprise to the fruit dealers of the country and opened the way to 
enlarged markets. 

The honors so splendidly won at the New Orleans World's 
Fair would prove of little practical benefit if not used as a means 
of advertising the possibilities and attractiveness of Riverside. 
There was also need of obtaining a larger market for our rapidly 
increasing orange crop. Appreciating this, that energetic boomer, 
L. M. Holt, at that time editor of the Press, secured the co-opera- 
tion of the citizens of Riverside, Pasadena, Alhambra and Santa 
Ana, and organized an association for the purpose of holding a 
great citrus fair at Chicago in the following 'spring. Los Angeles, 
which city reaped the larger benefit from this exposition, contrib- 
uted little or nothing toward it, and Redlands, Ontario, Pomona 
and the other towns since famous, hardly had existence. The 
general committee in charge consisted of H. N. Rust of Pasadena, 
L. M. Holt of Riverside, C. Z. Culver of Santa Ana, and J. E. 
Clark of Los Angeles. Riverside contributed about $1,000 in cash 
and several carloads of oranges and other fruit, besides many 
growing orange trees. The largest department of the fair was occu- 
pied by Riverside, and was in charge of G. W. Garcelon, L. C. 
Waite and E. W. Holmes, assisted by W. H. Backus, A. J. Two- 
good, W. T. ^mms and T. E. Langley. Free transportation was 
given by the railroads, and the train arrived in Chicago on the 
17th of March, 1886, and was installed in the large Battery D ar- 
mory. Here, for three weeks, immense crowds of interested vis- 
itors rushed to examine the novel and beautiful display and listen 
to the lectures on Southern California, delivered almost continu- 

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ously by Messrs. Rust, Garcelon, Waite and Holmes. There is no 
donbt that this work had a remarkable result in awakening the 
interest in Southern California, which created the '*boom'' of the 
succeeding years, and started Los Angeles and the other towns of 
the south on their phenomenal growth in population and wealth. 
The people of San Diego refused to share in this undertaking, 
but took an exhibit of their own to Boston, where they showed it in 
the Old South churcL 

The result achieved by these fairs led the citizens of San Ber- 
nardino to attempt to duplicate the Chicago Fair in New York, a 
few years later. J. P. Climi was at the head of this exclusively 
San Bernardino county fair. While he hoped to make it a source 
of profit he depended upon contributions from Riverside, Redlands, 
Ontario and Colton to provide the bulk of the material required. 
Riverside made her contribution, the larger share, only upon the 
condition that one of her own citizens should have charge of the 
hall exhibit, and E. W. Holmes was selected for this duty. A 
feature of this fair was to be the use of many large potted orange 
and lemon trees, loaded with ripe fruit, and also rare desert plants, 
minerals, etc. A severe cold spell, while the trees were en route, 
so injured them as to lessen their beauty, and made this feature 
of the exhibition less effective than was anticipated. The fair, 
held on Broadway, continued for several weeks, and was the means 
of making the fruit dealers of this great center of distribution 
acquainted with the excellence of our oranges and lemons, and open 
a way for their introduction, when the great Florida breeze com- 
pelled the trade to seek other source of supply, but the affair was 
not a success financially. 

Our local citrus fairs continued to be held until the burning 
of our fair pavilion, after which similar fairs were held in the 
neighboring cities of Colton and San Bernardino, and finally in 
Los Angeles, in all of which Riverside took a prominent part. As 
the years passed appeared the temptation to use them more largely 
as a means of booming the real estate interests of the various dis- 
tricts, and to subordinate the horticultural objects which were the 
original purpose of these exhibitions. But the beauty and mag- 
nitude of the displays made them attractive to the tourists, now in- 
creasingly in evidence. 

In these great State Fairs, held for several years at Hazard's 

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pavilion in Los Angeles, where Riverside had few representatives 
upon the managing committee and therefore little to do with the 
selection of the judges, she was given the fairest opportunity to 
demonstrate her right to rank first among the fruit-growing sec- 
tions of the state. The list of Riverside citizens who contributed 
to the successes of those days is too long for use, and, indeed, only 
the prominent prizewinners can be mentioned here. These are: 
William H. Backus, J. S. Castleman, G. W. Garcelon, J. E. Cutter, 
D. W. McLeod, H. A. Puis, Seneca La Rue, M. B. Ogden and many 
others. Mr. Backus deserves to head the list for the reason that 
he alone never failed to represent Riverside, and invariably won 
the highest honors for the perfection of his fruit and the tasteful- 
ness of its arrangement. When the craze for immense decorative 
effects changed greatly the character of the fairs, he steadily 
depended for success upon a purely horticultural exhibit, and when 
in one season Riverside, Santa Ana and Orange declined to par- 
ticipate because of their dislike to' entering into contests where 
pagoda-like structures were substituted for legitimate fruit exhibi- 
tions, he took down fruit grown entirely upon his thirteen-acre 
ranch on Jurupa avenue, and won for the quality and appearance 
of his oranges and raisins six first, one second and two third 
prizes, aggregating $345 in money. This was a better showing 
than some entire counties were able to make. Considering his suc- 
cess during the entire period when these horticultural contests were 
in vogue, he seems to deserve being placed in the first rank among 
Riverside fruit-growers. 

The last year in which Riverside was a part of San Bernardino 
county, her Exhibit at the State Fair enabled that county to win the 
first prize of $400 for best county exhibit, and the locality and 
individual premiums of Riverside alone consisted of twenty-one first 
prizes, two second prizes and one third prize for superior quality 
and arrangement, which was three more than all the rest of the 
state obtained. Riverside received directly $865, while the county 
exhibits won $480. The entire county won $1,810 in prizes, while 
the total won by the rest of the state footed up but $1,120. Cer- 
tainly such a record justifies the claim that Riverside is the center 
of California's citrus industry. Many of her citizens hold among 
their treasures medals won later at the World's Fair at Chicago, 
and at the Mid-Winter Fair at San Francisco on the following year. 

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( Concluded) 
By E. W. Holmes 

/_The early '80s saw a wonderful advance in all business and i ' 

horticultural activities, Riverside sharing in the common growth 
of the country, though never experiencing a merely speculative ^ 
growth, such as led to a reaction in some sections. Her wealth 
was produced by her own orchards, and less than in most other 
towns were the improvements due to the use of outside capital. 
It was during these years that all the towns which are now in- 
cluded in Riverside county were laid out.J Elsinore, with which 
William Collier of this city had most to 3o at its inception ; San 
Jacinto, Perris, Beaumont and Banning, and lastly of those which 
were laid out at this stage of our growth. South Riverside, now 
known as Corona, which is rapidly becoming prominent among the 
best of the younger Southern California cities. In these times 
Riverside's thickly settled sections were enlarged by numerous 
subdivisions, among the first of these being that laid out on the 
East Side by White, Hayt and Sylvester. It was to make this 
and other tracts accessible that the various street car lines were 

Riverside has been a prolific field for newspaper enterprise. 
Though many have been deserving only two survive — the Press and 
the Enterprise. The first named has been successful throughout 
the thirty-seven years, both financially and in a journalistic way. 
The pioneer publisher was J. H. Roe, and the next owner was L. M. 
Holt, who made it conspicuous as an authority in horticulture as 
well as an excellent local weekly. Then M. V. Sweesey and Robert 
Hombeck, each had possession of the establishment for a short 
time. But it was not until 1888 that it came to have the character 
and influence it has ever since maintained among the prominent 
journals of the state. J. A. and William Studebaker had, in 1883, 
started a weekly paper which was called the Valley Echo. This 
was consolidated with the Riverside Independent in 1884, and pur- 

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chased in 1886 by J. H. Roe, who later associated with himself in 
its management R. H. Pierson, an excellent printer and business 
man. In 1888 these gentlemen invited E. W. Holmes to enter into 
a partnership with them in the purchase of the Daily Press and, 
after consolidating the papers, gave the editorial management to 
Mr. Holmes. Later they purchased the Globe and other temporary 
publications. The following year Mr. Roe sold his interest to his 
partners, who conducted the business most successfully for some 
seven years. Upon the death of Mr. Pierson, his interest was 
purchased by E. P. Clark of Ontario, who in the following year 
bought out Mr. Holmes and organized the Press Printing Com- 
pany, composed of himself, H. H. Monroe, J. P. Baumgartner, 
Arthur F. Clark and A. A. Piddington. The Reflex, a weekly 
society and local journal, published for two or three years by Mr. 
Baumgartner, was absorbed, and the new corporation has built 
up a business fully in keeping with the growth of the city and 
county. Later it acquired the Daily Enterprise establishment, which 
was finally sold to C. W. Barton and others. Messrs. Monroe and 
Baumgartner finally sold their interests, and their places were filled 
by H. A. Hammond and Mrs. E. P. Clark. The Daily Enterprise, 
now the property of J. R. Gabbert, has been both a morning and 
evening journal. It was started in 1885 by David Sarber, but sus- 
pended publication for several years with the collapse of the boom. 
In 1890, Mark R. Plaisted and Mrs. Sadie Plaisted revived it as 
a Democratic daily, and it has continued its existence ever since, 
with varied financial and political experience. Among its man- 
agers have been H. H. Monroe, C. W. Barton and others. A very 
creditable monthly magazine was published by David A. Correll 
for some three years, James H. Roe acting as editor. 

Riverside has reason for pride in the character and strength 
of her present banking institutions. But a true record of the 
financial history of the city must necessarily include reference to 
those which, by reason of the conduct of their incompetent or dis- 
honest officials, brought disgrace upon the managers and serious 
losses to the depositors and stockholders who trusted them. In 
the pioneer days, Burt Bros, did a successful banking business in 
connection with their store, as an accommodation to their patrons, 
and carried what for those times were considerable deposits. Ref- 
erence has elsewhere been made to the opening of the first regular 

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bank by the Dyers. At a time when interest rates ran from 10 to 18 
per cent, and gold was at a premium, there was profit in the busi- 
ness, which ultimately led to the reorganization of this bank as the 
Riverside Banking Company, with a paid up capital of $429,000. 
Aberdien Keith was made the president, but the management was 
in the hands of 0. T. Dyer, with Miss E. C. Dyer as cashier. It 
carried heavy deposits, and the temptation to assist risky specu- 
lative investments for the sake of the interest they were able to 
demand, resulted finally in a financial smash that brought ruin to 
the institution and to many of those who had trusted their funds 
to its keeping. This bank was closed in 1893. 

Four other banks were instituted as the city grew, which no 
longer have existence. Thomas Bakewell started a small bank, 
which was compelled to suspend as the result of a general panic and 
a frost which damaged the crop of the valley. It was an honest 
failure, and nobody lost excepting the man most prominent in the 
undertaking, and whose death was hastened by the disaster. Messrs. 
Klineschmidt, Klinefelter and Newberry organized a bank in 1883 
and did business for a short time at th^ southwest corner of 
Eighth and Orange streets. S. C. Evans, Jr., organized the River- 
side National bank, with a capital of $100,000, locating it in the 
Evans block, where he conducted it until he gave up the business 
in the early '90s. One of the most promising of the early ventures 
in banking, but which resulted unfortunately, was the organization, 
in 1891, of the Orange Growers' bank, by a large number of our 
own citizens. It was for years a popular and prosperous institu- 
tion. M. J. Daniels was made its president and H. T. Hays its 
cashier and manager. It finally became a National bank, with a 
capital and surplus of $120,000. Mr. Hays was a man of excep- 
tional ability, and by reason of the thorough confidence of the direc- 
tors was allowed almost unlimited charge of its affairs. Dissipa- 
tion and extravagance gradually imdermined the character of this 
unusually capable and popular man, and he was finally found to 
have misappropriated between $90,000 and $100,000 of the bank's 
funds. He escaped the penalty for his crime on technicalities in 
the court, but the disgrace he had brought upon himself was un- 
questionably the cause of his death only a few years later. The 
only loss by reason of the suspension of the bank, in 1904, fell 

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upon the stockholders, who promptly paid off every depositor in 
full, with interest. 

The first bank among those which now have existence was the 
First National Bank, which now occupies its own fine four-story 
** Class A'' building on the corner of Main and Eighth streets. It 
was organized June 3, 1885, and was first located north of Seventh 
on Main street. Its first officers were: I. V. Gilbert, president; 
A. H. Naftzger, cashier; and A. Haeberlin, assistant cashier. It 
started with a small capital, but by a steadily conservative manage- 
ment has grown until it ranks among the soundest of the banks of 
the state. Its present stock and surplus amounts to $375,000, and 
it carries deposits amounting to fully $1,500,000. Its present officers 
are : E. S. Moulton, president ; J. A. Simms, vice-president ; Stanley 
J. Castleman, cashier; and M. M. Milice, Theodore D. Hurd and 
D. F. Velsey, assistant cashiers. Besides the presidents above 
named, J. J. Hewitt, L. C. Waite and George Frost have served in 
that position. An auxiliary of this bank is the Riverside Savings 
Bank and Trust Company, having a capital and surplus of $130,000, 
and deposits amounting to over $1,250,000. Its president is J. A. 
Simms; vice-president, S. J. Castleman; cashier, C. 0. Evans, and 
assistant cashier, Charles E. Waite. 

The Citizens National Bank was organized in 1903, and has 
rapidly gained a high position. It was first located in the Reynolds 
Building, at the corner of Ninth and Main streets, but upon the 
closing of the Orange Growers' Bank in 1904 it not only acquired a 
large share of the business of that bank, but secured the rooms 
which that corporation occupied in the Evans block, which have 
since been enlarged and beautified to provide for its growing needs. 
Its present capital and surplus amounts to some $300,000, and its 
deposits to fully $1,500,000. Its officers are: S. H. Herrick, presi- 
dent; Charles H. Low, vice-president; W. B. Clancy, cashier; and 
C. W. Derby and M. J. Twogood, assistant cashiers. The Security 
Savings Bank, an auxiliary organization, organized June 5, 1907, is 
officered by directors of the Citizens' Bank, William T. Dinsmore 
being assistant cashier and secretary in charge. It is located on 
the corner of Main and Seventh streets. It has a capital and sur- 
plus of $72,000, and deposits of nearly $700,000. 

The youngest of Riverside's financial institutions is The Na- 
tional Bank of Riverside. It commenced business November 27, 

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1906, with a capital of $100,000, and now has a handsome surplus, 
and carries deposits of over $700,000. Its finely appointed quarters 
are at the comer of Eighth and Main streets. The officers are: 
A. Aird Adair, president; H. A. Westbrook, vice-president; W. W. 
Phelps, cashier ; and J. B. Neel and A. H. Brouse, assistant cashiers. 
From the foregoing it will be seen that the wealth of the city has 
grown immensely since the time when a little bank with $25,000 
capital stock served its needs, for the total capital and surplus of 
the banks foots up almost a million dollars, and the deposits in 1912 
amount to over $5,650,000. 

The strange disappearance of one of the most prominent of the 
original settlers, Thomas W. Cover, in October, 1884, stirred the 
people deeply. '*Tom," as he was familiarly called by everybody, 
had spent a large part of his life on the desert as a mining pros- 
pector, and he found irksome the prolonged quiet of a life upon the 
splendid grove he had grown on Jurupa avenue. Four times had 
he made a search for the lost *' Peg-leg mine," which was described 
as a wonderfully rich body of ore, and it was thought he at last had 
a clue to its location. He started on the 16th of September for a 
final hunt for the mine, accompanied by Wilson B. Russell. They 
left the railroad, going south through the Bresa creek canyon, and 
out upon the desert, where the drifting sands speedily obliterated 
all tracks of men or wagons. The men finally decided to separate, 
Russell to take the team and Cover taking a short cut on foot to the 
agreed place of meeting. Cover was never seen again. He was not 
at the rendezvous, and Russell, after leaving food, water and a note, 
pushed on to Indian Frank's twenty-five miles further, and started 
him in search of Cover, he being compelled to go sixteen miles 
further, to El Toro, for horse feed. He then hastened back, but no 
Cover appeared. Once he thought he heard a call across the soli- 
tudes and shouted many times in reply, but no answer came, and 
reluctantly he returned to Riverside to organize a search party. 
This party traced Cover's track to within half a mile of the wagon, 
and there lost it. Many stories, most of them very improbable, 
have been told, accounting for his disappearance, but the one that 
has some grounds of probability is that which suggested that he 
had been murdered by desperadoes in revenge for his conspicuous 
action years before in Nevada, when he was one of a company of 
''vigilantes" who captured and punished a gang of desperate crim- 

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inals who had infested that state. But no trace has ever been dis- 
covered that could give a hint as to the manner of his death. 

Before the organization of the city there was no legal method 
by which the settlers could shut out the liquor saloon, and one or 
more of these undesirable loafing places had existed from the start 
in spite of a public sentiment opposed to such resorts. A temper- 
ance organization, known as the Good Templars, was formed in the 
early days, of which Rev. W. H. Cross was the chief, which labored 
to stimulate and keep alive opposition to the liquor evil. Reference 
has been made to the fact that the first petition presented to the 
city trustees upon their organization as a board, was one offered by 
the women of the city asking that liquor saloons should be taxed, 
which request was promptly granted. On the 23rd of February, 
1883, a Woman's Christian Temperance Union was formed, of which 
Mrs. S. H. Ferris was made president. Each of the then existing 
churches furnished vice-presidents, as follows : Congregational, 
Mrs. M. Emery; Methodist, Mrs. Hattie E. Chamblin; Baptist, Mrs. 
N. P. J. Button; Episcopal, Mrs. P. M. Olney; Presbyterian, Mrs. 
W. W. Smith; Universalist, Mrs. Dr. John Hall. Mrs. David 
Meacham was made secretary and Mrs. W. B. Wood, treasurer. 
This organization has maintained a healthy existence ever since, 
and has persistently fought the saloon evil. A temperance agita- 
tion resulted, a year or two later, in the enactment by the city 
trustees of a very radical prohibition ordinance. Its enforcement 
met with much opposition, and few juries would convict under it. 
The saloon issue became the prominent one in municipal contests, 
and at the next election a majority of the trustees were chosen fav- 
orable to high license. An ordinance was enacted fixing the saloon 
license at $2000 a year, and two liquor saloons were opened. The 
authors of the measure were men who sincerely believed in this 
method of controlling the sale of liquor, and by a rigid enforcement 
of their statute endeavored to prove the correctness of their theory. 
But experience demonstrated the unwisdom of the open-saloon 
policy, and when the matter was again submitted to the voters it 
was overwhelmingly defeated. This fortunate result was secured 
by concessions made to the conservative element, which saw no 
serious evil in permitting, under proper restrictions, the use of 
wine by guests at the regular hotel tables, but were as strongly 
opposed to the open saloon as were the more radical temperance 

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people. The result has made Riverside a saloonless city, and a 
generation has grown up which finds no use for such demoralizing 
resorts. This policy has so demonstrated its wisdom as to insure 
its permanence, and has set an example which other communities 
are glad to follow. 

As the surviving pioneer recalls the days that are gone and 
remembers the men and women whose faith and hope and labor 
have helped so greatly in transforming the barren hills and plains 
of the valley into what they are today, but whose names do not 
appear on the list of those who have been conspicuous in official life, 
there comes to him the memory of many a generous action per- 
formed by those whose unselfishly given *'mite'' has been no small 
factor in making up the aggregate giving which made possible our 
material success. The names of many of these are forgotten, for 
some are dead and their offspring no longer make Riverside their 
home. Some have lost in the struggle for a competency and have 
sought other fields of labor. Some have carried away the wealth 
gained here to invest elsewhere. The children of all of these we 
have educated, and as the city of their nativity has furnished 
but a limited field for usefulness, through its lack of manufactur- 
ing and other industries, they are scattered everywhere, and the 
only reward we have is the just pride we take in those among them 
who have won deserved fame in the life work they have chosen else- 
where, and the further knowledge that wherever they go throughout 
the world they carry ever with them a sincere love for the place that 
gave them birth. 

No feature which the city possesses today more strongly 
attracts the stranger than the unique and attractive Glenwood Mis- 
sion Inn and the civic center of beautiful buildings of which it is a 
part. It is a sufficient monument to those who have established it. 
But few remember E. J. Davis, no member of whose family now 
resides here, who erected the first large hotel building on Main 
street, now a part of the Reynolds hotel. It was H. B. Everest, a 
prominent participant in public affairs for many years, whose 
family no longer have representatives here, who built the Arlington 
Block on Eighth street. And Hon. A. P. Johnson, former senator, 
supervisor and man of affairs who helped materially in our many 
'* water wars'' and in the Fruit Exchange struggle against evils 
which so seriously threatened our leading industry. He is at pres- 

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ent, with his brother, O. T. Johnson, at one time acting mayor of 
Riverside, a prominent capitalist of Los Angeles. And among those 
who have sought a larger field of usefulness is A. H. Naftzger and 
many others who were once among our most useful citizens. But 
there are those among our present residents whose services as 
citizens deserve more extended reference than the limits of these 
pages permit, such men for instance as George Frost, whose long 
experience as director and president of the Riverside Water Com- 
pany has qualified him in recent years to aid in the effort being 
made to combine all of the domestic water systems of the valley in 
a municipal system which shall transform the heights about the 
city into a larger and finer section. His usefulness as a city official 
and his methods as a banker and business man have earned him the 
respect and regard of his fellow-citizens. Joseph Jarvis, John G. 
North and Francis Cuttle each in turn held the position of president 
of the Riverside Water Company, as well as other public positions, 
and had an important part in the development of the city. 

Another citizen who has not sought notoriety but whose quiet, 
business-like methods have resulted in the development of new 
water systems and the planting of thousands of the finest of the 
orange and lemon groves of Riverside and Corona, is Ethan A. 
Chase. The properties which he and his sons have brought into 
existence rival even the larger area planted under the management 
of Matthew Gage, W. G. Eraser, James Mills and others. And we 
should not forget the debt we owe that public-spirited citizen, J. H. 
Reed, who gratuitously gave so many years of his life to the beau- 
tifying of our streets, the foresting of our hills, and in securing the 
locating in this city of the Citrus Experiment Station of the Univer- 
sity of California, where a scientific study of horticultural problems 
promises great good to the community. Of the class of citizens, 
none too large, who have reinvested at home the profits made in 
business here no one stands more conspicuous than the late George 
N. Reynolds, and for this reason his name is singled out for special 
mention. But with these few words of reference to the unnamed 
many and the conspicuous few our story of Riverside's past is 

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By E. W. Holmes 

' Riverside voted to incorporate as a city of the Sixth class Sep- 
tember 25, 1883, with a territory of over fifty-six square miles and 
an assessed valuation of $1,099,041. Although the area included has 
recently been reduced by the secession of the Alvord school district, 
the population of the city in 1912^iiP^Mtty 18,000 and the assessed 
valuation $10,394,355^ The following is a list of the officials who 
have served the city since its incorporation: The trustees chosen 
to organize the new city government were B. F. White, president; 
H. B. Haynes, A. J. Twogood, A. B. Derby and B. B. Handy. At 
the regular election, held in April, 1884, Messrs. White, Handy and 
Twogood were re-elected with two new members, Martin Hoover 
and W. P. Russell. President White died shortly after from the 
result of an accident which occurred while he was engaged on official 
business, and 0. T. Johnson was appointed in his place as president. 
Upon the resignation of A. J. Twogood, E. W. Holmes was ap- 
pointed as his successor. The membership of the board of trustees 
during the municipality's existence as a city of the sixth class has 
been as follows: From 1886 to '88 H. M. Streeter (president), E. 
W. Holmes, W. A. Hayt, William P. Russell and Martin Hoover. 
From 1888 to '90 E. W. Holmes (president), Martin Hoover, W. A. 
Hayt, WiUiam P. Russell and H. E. Allatt. From 1890 to '92 
Aberdien Keith (president), Albert S. White, Alfred A. Wood, 
Martin Hoover and H. E. Allatt. From 1892 to '94 Aberdien Keith 
(president), Albert S. White, Alfred A. Wood, George Frost and 
E. F. Kingman. From 1894 to '96 George Frost (president), E. F. 
Kingman, H. W. Bordwell, Bradford Morse and John A. Simms. 
From 1896 to '98 E. F. Kingman (president), Bradford Morse, 
Seneca LaRue, John A. Simms and H. W. Bordwell. From 1898 
to 1900 E. F. Kingman (president), Bradford Morse, Seneca La 
Rue, L. V. W. Brown and W. L. Peters. From 1900 to 1902 Brad- 
ford Morse (president), L. V. W. Brown, W. L. Peters, J. W. 
Covert and C. L. McFarland. From 1902 to 1904 C. L. McFarland 
(president), J. W. Covert, J. W. Chase, Oscar Ford and J. T. 

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Lawler. From 1904 to May 14, 1907, C. L. McFarland (president), 
Oscar Ford, J. T. Lawler, George F. Ward and J. W. Chase. 

Those who have filled the position of city clerk are T. H. B. 
Chamblin, three years; A. S. Alkire, six years; W. W. Phelps, six 
years; Charles R. Stibbens, nine years. City treasurer: B. D. 
Burt, three years; J. M. Drake, eight years; M. S. Bowman, four 
years; George F. Ward, four years; John C. Stebbens, two years; 
F. A. Witherspoon, two years; N. A. Jacobs, one year. City mar- 
shal: W. W. Noland, three years; J. D. Hughes, two years; Brad- 
ford Morse, four years; G. W. Dickson, two years; Frank P. Wil- 
son, twelve years; M. R. Shaw, one year. City recorder: W. W. 
Noland, nine years; J. C. Chambers, four years; T. B. Stephenson, 
eight years. City attorney: George W. Monteith, one year; H. C. 
Hibbard, two years; W. J. Mclntyre, four years; W. A. Purring- 
ton, fourteen years. City engineer : G. 0. Newman, J. W. Johnson 
and A. P. Campbell. Superintendent of streets : Charles W. Finch, 
T. K. Seburn, George F. Seger and J. T. Mclntyre. Health officers : 
Dr. E. H. Way, Dr. W. B. Sawyer, Dr. W. S. Ruby, Dr. C. J. Gill, 
Dr. J. G. Baird and Dr. W. W. Roblee. 

It was necessary to exercise most rigid economy in the early 
administration of city affairs. The trustees served without salary 
and the first city clerk, Mr. Chamblin, was allowed only $25 a 
month, and the other officers were given similarly modest remunera- 
tion. There was everything to do to transform the naturally dusty 
or muddy streets, and a fifty-cent tax rate left little for the perma- 
nent improvement of the roadway or sidewalk after the enforced 
temporary care was paid for. Private enterprise gave at first 
sporadic sidewalk improvement, and the city put in graveled cross 
walks in winter to make navigation across town in the rainy season 
possible. The first considerable undertaking in the way of perma- 
nent road-making was that which cut down the almost impassable 
walls of the great arroyo on Walnut and Brockton avenues. It 
cost some $6,000 and the plan had much opposition, because of the 
cost involved, until its completion so well demonstrated its value as 
to encourage the larger later improvement of like character. The 
Victoria bridge, built by the Arlington Heights Company, under 
the management of Matthew Gage, made easily accessible the Vic- 
toria avenue section and was later given to the city. And the de- 
mands for still better lines of travel have now compelled the build- 

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ing of an immense fill across the arroyo, at heavy expense, over 
which Magnolia avenue is to run directly into town and make possi- 
ble car-line connection directly into Los Angeles, 

The number of undertakings looking to the development and 
improvement of the city which were inaugurated during the year 
1887 has hardly been exceeded in any subsequent year of her his- 
tory. The introduction of a fine domestic water system with a good 
pressure not only led to the building of a thoroughly satisfactory 
sewer system by providing a way for the proper flushing of the 
sewers, but it also suggested the idea of putting in hydrants and 
thus securing some degree of protection against fires. When we 
consider the growth and efficiency of the fire department under the 
management of S. L. Wight, George F. Ward and the present- 
head of the department, Joseph Schneider, it is amazing to recall 
**the day of small things" when Capt. J. N. Keith was placed in 
charge. In that year Trustee W. A. Hayt pledged himself to raise 
$500 toward the purchase of fire hose provided the city board would 
appropriate an equal amount for the purpose. This they promptly 
did, and this was the beginning of the Riverside Fire Department, 
which has grown to be one of the best of its class. 

The most successful of the projects which have grown out of 
the needs of the community has been the establishment of a munici- 
pal electric lighting plant. Under the capable management of Fred 
T. Worthley, carefully watched over by other conscientious officials, 
the people have demonstrated the wisdom of the vote given in favor 
of this public utility. Altogether $80,000 was voted to install and 
improve the plant, but it has now reached a real value of over 
$325,000. This increase it has earned while giving the people the 
very best of service and providing for the lighting of the streets in 
a way to make it a model for other communities. 

Another line of development inaugurated soon after the incor- 
poration of the city and which has given Riverside a commendable 
prominence among the progressive cities of California, is that of 
good road making. After spending the annual income of the city in 
making conventional and superficial repairs for several years, the 
officers of the city decided to undertake road work of a permanent 
character. As a result the question of voting $90,000 in bonds to 
be used in macadamizing the principal thoroughfares was sub- 
mitted to the voters, which proposition carried by a vote of 943 to 

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156. This fund was judiciously expended under the administration 
of James W. Johnson, the city engineer, and Charles W. Finch, a 
practical road maker then serving as superintendent of streets, and 
it has been the basis of the exceptionally fine street system of which 
the citizens are so justly proud. This first permanent roadway was 
an ordinary macadam, and was for several years without the asphalt 
protection now used. In the course of years the heavy teaming had 
worn it badly, the winds sweeping the powdered rock away until 
little more than half remained. The problem of how to preserve 
this was one that demanded intelligent study, and the credit of suc- 
cessfully solving it is largely due to A. P. Campbell, the present city 
engineer, who, aided by the valuable experience of Thad. K. Sebum, 
*W. V. Darling and others who have served as street superintend- 
ents, devised a surfacing compound of the heaviest of asphalt oil 
filled with sharp rock screenings, which, combined in proper pro- 
portions has not only prevented further wear, but has in the course 
of years and at moderate expense, transformed these nearly out- 
worn roadways into perfect thoroughfares. This success has en- 
couraged a spirit of civic pride everywhere, which has led to most 
generous private as well as public outlay for street improvements, 
until Riverside can justly boast of a larger mileage of fine roads 
than any city of her class in the state. 

The simple form of government under which our affairs had 
been managed for twenty-three years had become so thoroughly 
outgrown in 1906 that steps were inaugurated looking to the adop- 
tion of a special charter. At an election held October 9, 1906, the 
following freeholders were chosen to formulate it: J. G. Baird, 
L. A. Brundige, S. J. Castleman, Ethan A. Chase, W. B. Clancy, 
James Mills, W. L. Peters, L. H. Edmiston, S. C. Evans, W. G. 
Eraser, Lafayette Gill, W. P. Gulick, C. L. McFarland, W. A. Pur- 
rington and John A. Simms. 

At the election of May 14, 1907, the following were elected: 
Mayor, S. C. Evans; city clerk, N. A. Jacobs; auditor, C. R. Stib- 
bens ; treasurer, P. A. Gunsolus. 

Board of education: Lyman Evans, Mrs. Stella M. Atwood, 
F. D. Ellis (resigned, and W. G. Irving appointed to fill vacancy), 
S. J. Castleman and E. S. Moulton. 

Councilmen: First ward, L. C. Waite; second, Oscar Ford, 
president; third, Silas Masters; fourth, H. 0. Reed; fifth, C. D. 

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Helmer (died, and M. M. Strickler appointed to fill vacancy) ; sixth, 
George H. Dole. 

The appointed oflBcers named by the mayor for the first term 
were: City attorney, W. A. Purrington, 1907; W. G. Irving, 1909. 
Police judge, George A. French; city engineer, A. P. Campbell; 
superintendent of streets, G. T. Mclntyre. Park commissioners: 
J. H. Reed, chairman and tree warden ; C. A. Franzen, R.. L. Bett- 
ner, A. S. White, James Mills, A. C. Lovekin. Library directors: 
H. L. Camahan, A. N. Wheelock, L. V. W. Brown, C. L. McFarland, 
L. A. Brundige and Mrs. Belle N. Patterson (1912). Board of health: 
W. B. Clancy, Dr. W. W. Roblee, Dr. J. G. Baird. Public utilities: 
W. L. Peters, E. 0. Rickard, F. F. Chase and H. K. Small. Chief 
of police, W. B. Johnson. 

At the city election of 1909 Mayor Evans was re-elected, his 
opponent being L. H. Edmiston. The appointed officers who served 
under him were : Superintendent of streets, G. T. Mclntyre, George 

F. Seger and W. V. Darling; health officer, Dr. T. R. Griffith; chief 
of police, D. G. Clayton (1909) and S. C. Harbison (1910) ; building 
inspector, C. F. Mathers; fire chief, Joseph Schneider. 

At the election of 1911 William L. Peters was chosen mayor, 
his opponents being K. D. Harger and L. H. Edmiston. C. R. Stib- 
bens was re-elected auditor, G. A. Gunsolus treasurer, and G. W. 
Prior city clerk. Upon the resignation of Auditor Stibbens in 1912 
Mr. Prior was appointed in his place ; Harry C. Cree was appointed 
city clerk. P. M. Cobum was appointed chief of police and Dr. T. 
R. Griffith re-appointed health officer. 

The members of the council in 1912, with the dates of their 
election were: First ward, Bradford Morse, 1911; second, A. J. 
Stalder, 1911; third, Silas Masters, 1907; fourth, J. F. Hanna, 1909; 
fifth, M. M. Strickler, 1908; sixth, J. W. Chase, 1911; and F. M. 
Brown, September, 1911. 

The board of education in 1912 is composed of E. S. Moulton, 
president; Mrs. Stella M. Atwood, D. D. Gage, H. H. Craig and 
Col. J. R. Strang. Park commissioners, 1912: Gaylor Rouse, J. C. 
Hardman, W. T. Henderson, S. C. Evans, Mrs. Emma P. Holland, 
H. B. Adsit and S. L. Wright. Board of public utilities, 1912 : H. F. 
Grout, A. J. Stalder, E. 0. Rickard, T. F. Flaherty, H. K. Small 
(resigned) and W. W. Phelps. Evans Athletic Park committee: 

G. E. Dole, H. H. Craig and D. D. Gage. Censorship board : George 

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L. Winterbotham, H. A. Plimpton and H. H. Monroe. Tree warden : 
J. H. Reed filled this position most efficiently for many years, or 
until resigning. His place was briefly held by H. B. Adsit in 1912 
and upon his retirement S. L. Wright was appointed to the posi- 


By E. W. Holmes 

The pioneers who laid out Riverside not only planted shade 
trees everywhere along the streets of the city, but set apart a tract 
of land in the center as a public park. When the street trees ma- 
tured it was found that some were undesirable as shade trees, and 
that many that were suitable had been so thickly planted as to make 
them injurious to the adjacent orchards. As the years passed those 
citizens who failed to appreciate the esthetic value of shade but 
were mindful of the value of wood for fuel in a naturally treeless 
land assumed the right to mutilate or destroy those whose presence 
they claimed to be a damage to their property. Some beautiful 
sidewalk trees were sacrificed in consequence, before the Riverside 
Horticultural Club undertook to put a stop to such proceedings by 
urging upon the city trustees the appointment of a ''street orna- 
mentation committee" to whom all requests for removal or pruning 
of street trees should be submitted. The trustees appointed as this 
committee E. W. Holmes (chairman), Albert S. White, J. H. Reed, 
S. H. Herrick, Robert Lee Bettner, Priestley Hall and William Irv- 
ing. For seven years this committee guarded the trees and sought 
to stimulate an interest in further planting, but because the first 
city charter provided no way by which funds could be appropriated 
for such work the committee finally resigned. Interest in the beau- 
tifying of the city had, however, grown by reason of their efforts. 
Hon. C. M. Loring, a gentleman who has made Riverside his winter 
residence for a quarter of a century, gave funds for the planting of 
pepper trees along both sides of Walnut street, and through the 
efforts of Frank A. Miller and other members of the chamber of 
commerce, money was raised to enable J. H. Reed to plant trees 

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and shrubs along the rocky sides of Mt. Rubidoux, and also to trans- 
plant many large native palms to some of the important business 
streets of the city. The adoption of a new city charter provided a 
way by which a paid official could be put in charge, and the authori- 
ties appointed J. H. Reed as a tree warden, with full power over the 
care and planting of street trees. This position he held for eleven 
years, during which time he added about fifteen thousand trees to 
those previously planted. The results of the work done under his 
administration and of the publicity given to his methods through 
the newspapers have led nine other California cities to adopt the 
plan of municipal control of its street trees. It is this treatment of 
the matter that has given Riverside streets a park-like character 
most gratifying to those who have labored so enthusiastically to this 


Reference has been elsewhere made to the early history of 
what, in compliment to another enthusiastic member of the first 
committee, has been named the Albert S. White Park. Mr. White 
took especial interest in this park during his term as trustee, and 
subsequently as a member of the board of park commissioners made 
it his particular care during the remainder of his life, gathering 
there one of the largest collections of cacti to be found in the state. 
The foimtain near the center of the park was the gift of George N. 
Reynolds. J. C. Hardman has been superintendent of this park 
since the death of Mr. White. 


When the city undertook the paving of its main thoroughfares 
in 1895 it purchased a tract of thirty acres for the sake of the rock 
contained in a hill which was a part of it. Ten thousand dollars 
was paid for the property and much criticism was indulged regard- 
ing the purchase, for the bottom land adjoining seemed practically 
worthless. But the rock obtained for paving purposes proved 
worth the sum paid, while the apparently worthless tract beyond 
has been transformed into Fairmount Park, and made one of the 
most attractive and popular resorts within the city limits. Its fit- 
ness for park purposes was suggested by the action of the Grand 
Army Post, who, having obtained the use of it for a picnic, found 
it so satisfactory that they sent a committee, consisting of W. B. 

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Johnson, A. S. Milice, C. M. Dexter and M. J. Daniels, to the city 
trustees asking that a portion of the tract be set apart as picnic 
grounds. They asked permission to plant shade trees and open up 
a spring and make other improvements. The city granted the 
request and by ordinance set apart the entire tract as a public park, 
Capt. C. M. Dexter was put in charge of the proposed improve- 
ments secured by the G. A. R., and during all the years since has 
devoted his time and energy to the work of making this present 
beautiful, enjoyable playground, and at first without remuneration. 
When he commenced there were no funds to work with. Through 
his enthusiasm he induced generous gifts of money, material and 
labor to carry on his plans for improvements. The trees now grow- 
ing were donated. An arbor day was appointed and many citizens 
brought and planted trees. But most of the improvements were 
made from money solicited and collected by Captain Dexter. The 
first boats used upon the lake were built on the grounds from such 

The success of the work inaugurated by Captain Dexter and 
other Grand Army men led Messrs. S. C. and P. T. Evans to give 
twelve and a half acres of additional land adjoining, with a five-inch 
water right, by means of which it was possible to add a lake to the 
charms of the spot, with a driveway around it. C. L. McFarland, 
when president of the board of trustees, acquired by condemnation 
an additional tract of three acres on the east side. During 1910 
the Messrs. Evans presented still another deed to the city, giving 
eighteen acres more to the park, making its area over sixty acres, 
including the quarry site. The city has since bonded itself to enlarge 
the lake, provide baths and playgrounds and other features to make 
the park more useful and attractive. The lake is a beautiful body 
of water, and when the entire park shall be improved, as planned, 
few cities will possess a more charming spot for the recreation and 
rest of the people. The late George N. Reynolds has left an evi- 
dence of his taste and public spirit in the pretty section of the lake, 
where aquatic plants and flower-bordered islands afford a pretty 
contrast to the open water, where boating affords a pleasurable 
entertainment for young and old. 


In June, 1906, S. C. Evans, who for years had served the city 
as a member of the school board, and had therefore taken a deep 

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interest in the sports of the school children, tendered to the city, 
as a gift, an eleven-acre tract, admirably located and adapted for 
the purpose, facing Fourteenth street and Brockton avenue, for an 
athletic park. The valuable donation was gratefully accepted. Later, 
in honor of the donor, the distinctive name of Evans Athletic 
Park was officially given by the city trustees, and funds were pro- 
vided for its improvement. The park was fenced, baseball grounds 
graded, a quarter-mile track made, grandstand erected, and other 
needed equipments provided. The improvements were made under 
the supervision of Dr. W. B. Sawyer. By provision of the donor 
all pupils of the public schools are admitted to all exhibitions and 
contests free of charge. 

Directly north of the Evans Park are the grounds upon which is 
located the Grant School building. Before the gift of the above- 
named park this was the only ample playground available for the 
school children's use, and it is still used by the occupants of this 
beautiful school building. It contains the first gift given by a River- 
side citizen to beautify the grounds around a public building. 
Stephen Brainard Robinson was a young builder who was given 
the contract for building the Grant school house — his first large 
contract. The work was done in a way creditable to him, as well 
as to the masons who did the brick work — Messrs. Alguire and 
Downs — and he was proud of it. And when he died a few years 
later his will contained a provision giving a sum of money to be 
expended for some permanent beautifying of the Grant school 
grounds. This money was therefore used to build the pretty foun- 
tain which has ever since stood in the lawn facing Walnut street. 


Huntington Park, composed of about 100 acres on Rubidoux 
Mountain, is owned and was improved by the Huntington Park Asso- 
ciation. The project of its acquirement and development was con- 
ceived and largely prosecuted by the enterprise of Frank A . Miller. 
A large area at the foot of the mountain is set to trees. The prin- 
cipal feature of the park is the substantial scenic drive, winding 
around the mountain and reaching the top, from which panoramic 
views in all directions are excelled by few spots in America. The 
roadway was built at a cost of $30,000, and is largely cut through 
rock. Going up, it has a grade of but four per cent. The separate 

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road down has an eight per cent grade. In all about $60,000 has 
been spent on developments of the park. It is open to the public 
and is much used, being especially enjoyed by visitors. 


This park, located on Magnolia avenue, near Arlington, was 
largely developed by Frank A. Miller when managing the Riverside 
and Arlington Railway. It contains twenty acres and is now owned 
by the Pacific Electric Railway Company. It is laid out to trees, 
shrubbery and drives. It includes a considerable collection of birds 
and wild animals. A portion of the park is devoted to well-made 
polo grounds, equipped with stables, grandstand, etc., managed by 
the Riverside Polo Association, and it was here that the first polo 
tournament in the state was held. 


By E. W. Holmes * 

It was natural that the early colonists, being of the stock which 
has impressed its characteristics most strongly upon the nation, 
should, at the very outset, as soon as schools and churches were 
organized, undertake to provide themselves with a public library. 
But the little company which located so hopefully upon the arid 
plain, found that the work of transforming it into the ideal spot 
it was their ambition to make it, left neither time nor money with 
which to acliieve success in library making, and that this most 
desirable feature must wait for more favorable conditions. These 
were afforded when the successful horticultural development of the 
valley induced a rapid increase in the population and wealth of the 

In the year 1879, through the efforts of A. S. White and E. W. 
Holmes, the settlers organized the Riverside Library Association, 
out of which has grown our present free public library. Any citi- 
zen was privileged to become a member by paying $3, and such dues 
or fines as should from time to time be ordered to provide for the 
library's maintenance. The fund raised in this way being insuf- 
ficient to provide such a library as was desired, Mr. Holmes organ- 

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v: • 

\ ' , 

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2 ■ 



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ized a dramatic club and gave the first drama ever presented to a 
Riverside audience. A stage and benches were improvised in the 
room on the first floor of the Odd Fellows' building, then near 
enough to completion to make its use possible. The play selected 
was ** Better Than Gold," and the two-night performance netted 
the (for those times) handsome sum of $150 to add to the library- 
fund. It seems proper, to record the names of those who took part 
in this affair. The cast included Mr. Holmes, Frank Emerson, 
Frank A. Patton, R. P. Waite, D. C. Ross, Miss Marion H. Har- 
ris, Mrs. G. M. Skinner and Mrs. W. P. Russell. The music was 
furnished by Dr. C. W. Packard, D. S. Strong, John Bonham and 
W. E. Keith. 

The first meeting of the association was held July 15, 1879, 
when the following officers were chosen : President, Dr. C. J. Gill ; 
vice-president, T. J. Wood; treasurer, Dr. J. P. Greves; secretary, 
Walter Lyon. The management of the library was placed in the 
hands of an executive committee composed of A. S. White, E. W. 
Holmes and A. J. Twogood. Later Mr. Twogood resigned and 
James Bettner was chosen in his place. About a thousand volumes 
wpre purchased and James H. Roe made librarian, and the books 
were kept in Mr. Roe's drug store until he sold out his business. 
Later another druggist, J. W. Hamilton, was elected librarian, and 
the institution prospered until a fire occurred, which resulted in the 
injury of many volumes, and the books were stored for a while. 

Meanwhile the steady growth of the settlement had made advis- 
able its incorporation as a city, which was effected in October, 1883. 
In April, 1888, Mr. Holmes, being at the time chairman of the city 
board of trustees, obtained the consent of the stockholders, and 
oflFered the books to the city upon the condition that the city should 
organize and maintain a free public library under a recent statute 
giving municipalities power to take such action. The city board 
promptly accepted the gift, and appointed E. W. Holmes, A. S. 
White, Dr. C. J. Gill, N. C. Twining and Rev. George H. Deere, 
trustees. D% Deere was chosen president of the library board, 
which position he held for fourteen years. 

The city used at that time the second story of a building located 
on the north side of Eighth street, between Main and Orange, as a 
**city hall," and two small rooms in the rear of the building were 
set apart for the use of the library. Mrs. Mary M. Smith was 

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placed in charge as librarian. The choice proved a fortunate one, 
for she brought to the work exceptional ability and enthusiasm, and 
to her conscientious efforts in organizing the institution is largely- 
due its success. Her assistant was Mrs. Frank T. Morrison. 

At the outset there was no reading-room provided, and the 
library was only open to the public upon three afternoons and one 
evening of each week. When the city leased rooms in the Loring 
building, a year or two later, ample quarters were assigned the 
library in the central portion of the second floor. From this time 
a generous annual appropriation made possible the steady enlarge- 
ment of the library, and, with the rooms open practically every day 
in the year, the institution became one of great value, the circula- 
tion being always exceptionally large. 

The steadily increasing use of the library and reading-room, 
during the first dozen years of its existence, demonstrated so thor- 
oughly its value to the community that the need of a building exclu- 
sively devoted to its use was fully realized. Dr. Deere, Lyman 
Evans and others sought, through friends, to secure aid from 
Andrew Carnegie toward the erection of a library building. It 
was the good fortune of Mr. Evans to be the one whose communi- 
cation first reached the noted philanthropist, and brought the grati- 
fying response that he would give $20,000 with which to erect such 
a building for Riverside — upon conditions regarding maintenance 
such as had already been met by the city. On September 3, 1901, 
the city trustees pledged the city to fulfill the conditions required, 
and formally accepted the gift. The library trustees selected as a 
site the quarter block on the corner of Seventh and Orange streets, 
accepted plans for a building in the Mission style, prepared by 
Burnham & Bliesner of Los Angeles, and gave the contract for 
its erection to J. W. Carroll of Riverside. 

The completed building proved exceptionally satisfactory exter- 
iorly, and the feature of the interior most pleasing was the spacious, 
well-lighted and artistically decorated reading room, 40x80 feet in 
area, while the excellent stack room and conveniences required for 
library work seemed more than ample; and yet in less than ten 
years more room was required, and a further gift of $7,500 was 
made by Mr. Carnegie — making the total of his contributions 
$27,500. This sum, however, does not cover the cost of the build- 
ing; since the enlargement, city funds were required in addition. 

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The city also erected the beautiful branch library building in the 
Arlington district, to provide special accommodations for'that grow- 
ing part of the city. The total amount invested in library buildings 
and grounds amounts to about $62,000, and the total value, includ- 
ing contents, considerably exceeds $100,000. 

The number of volumes now (1912) on the shelves amounts to 
about 45,000. There were circulated during 1911 over 93,000 vol- 
umes, of which fully 18,000 were classed as juvenile. With the 
enlargements made there is a possible shelf capacity for fully 
100,000 volumes, and recent changes have provided ample and mod- 
em conveniences for library work. The reading room for- chil- 
dren and the enlarged reference rooms are features most valuable. 
and have justified the liberal expenditures made to provide them. 

It seems proper to record the names of those who have faith- 
fully served in creating and maintaining this popular institution. 
Those who have acted as trustees are Rev. George H. Deere, Albert 
S. White, Elmer W. Holmes, Dr. C. J. Gill, Prof. N. C. Twining, 
J. L. Koethan, Lyman Evans, E. B. Stanton, George H. Dole, 
George E. Bittenger, William L. Peters, Rev. Dr. W. F. Taylor, 
H. L. Carnahan, Prof. A. N. Wheelock, L. V. W. Brown, L. A. 
Brundige, C. L. McFarland and Mrs. S. F. Patterson. 

Those who have served as librarians since it became a city 
institution are: Mrs. Mary M. Smith, Miss Grace Mansfield, Miss 
Margaret Kyle (now Mrs. F. C. Stone) and Joseph F. Daniels. 
The assistant librarians have been Miss Fannie M. Skinner (now 
Mrs. F. T. Morrison), Mrs. M. Stella Morrell and Miss Helen Evans. 

The growth of the library has fully kept pace with that of the 
city, and made necessary the securing of the services of a trained 
library expert to reorganize it on the most approved lines. The 
trustees were so fortunate as to engage for this work Joseph F. 
Daniels, the present librarian, whose efforts since taking charge 
seem to fully justify the excellent things said of him by those 
who had been his associates in important school and library work 
in many eastern states during the past twenty years. Under his 
supervision the library building has been enlarged and equipped 
with all the necessary appliances required in a modem library, an 
ample force of young ladies trained in the best methods, and the 
foundation laid to make our local library among the very largest 
and best maintained by cities of our class. Through an annual 



appropriation by the county supervisors the free use of the books 
is now offered the people of the county at large. 

The first money endowment to the library, known as the Ethan 
Allen Chase fund, was made in July, 1912. This endowment con- 
sisted of $5,000 in six per cent securities, four per cent to be used 
for books of science, biography and history, all above four per cent 
to be added to the fund each year. 

By E. W. Holmes 

Reference has been made in the story of the Colony Days to 
the first schools established, when a score or so of pupils represented 
the school population of all the territory between Colton and the 
Temescal wash. The next stage in the growth of the schools was 
when a second house was built alongside the first on the Sixth street 
grounds, and these put in charge of Miss Belle Hardenburg (Mrs. 
F. A. Miller) and Miss Lillian Putnam (Mrs. P. T. Binckley). But 
these were soon overflowing. The trustees then in charge — Dr. 
Jacob Allen, P. S. Russell and James H. Roe — called an election, 
asking the voting of bonds for an eight-room building to take the 
place of those in use. The proposition was voted down — the only 
case in the history of the valley when a liberal school policy was 
defeated — and Dr. Allen, indignant over the refusal to support 
a project he had much at heart, resigned his position, and E. W. 
Holmes was chosen in his place. The latter held the position of 
clerk or president of the board for the fifteen years ensuing. A 
four-room building was immediately erected, instead of the larger 
one first planned, this being the rear half of the present Lincoln 
school house. But as the board had foreseen, it was overflowing 
almost as soon as completed, and in spite of the building of a school 
for the lower grades on Bandini avenue, they were compelled for 
years to lease private rooms to care for the increase. In 1880 
some relief was gained by the organization of the Sunnyside dis- 

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trict out of all the territory south of Jurupa avenue, its first trus- 
tees being A. J. Twogood, M. F. Bixler and T. W. Cover. 

In 1883 the Sunnyside district was divided and its name changed 
to Arlington, while the new district was called Magnolia, and elected 
as its first trustees C. A. Crosby, D. H. Burnham and N. A. Stiffler. 
Several years later the growth of the Arlington Heights section 
compelled a further subdivision, and the building of the beauti- 
ful Victoria school house on the avenue of that name ; but when the 
new city charter was adopted and all these districts were united 
again under the control of the city board of education and new 
names given to the various schools, Magnolia very properly became 
Arlington in name as well as in fact. 

There was for a time a school district down the river called 
the Sierra, where Mrs. Jose Jensen taught, and where one who 
in 1912 is the state superintendent of schools, Edward Hyatt, ob- 
tained his first experience as a teacher. It was in these early years 
that many teachers came to become permanent citizens, the most 
prominent of whom were: Miss M. C. Call, Miss Kate Candee, 
Miss Lulu Chance, Mrs. 0. L. Mason, Mrs. J. E. Cutter and Miss 
M. H. Harris. The regular state and county apportionments were 
insufficient to antipicate the annual increase of scholars and teach- 
ers, and every spring the trustees were compelled to ask the voting 
of a special tax, which request was never denied. But a new prob- 
lem confronted the board when an increasing number of graduates 
from the grammar grades needed to be given a higher education 
at home than had been provided for. The constitution of the state 
established a state university and primary and grammar schools, 
but made no provision whatever for the preparatory schools in 
which to fit the youth for college. The only high schools in the 
state were those established under special city charters, or those 
supported by private effort in the populous centers. Only the 
children of the wealthy could afford to have the advantage of such 
schools. The only practical solution of the problem confronting 
the trustees was to add to the teaching force those qualified to 
teach the higher branches, and provide for the expense by asking 
the people to vote an annual levy **for additional school facilities," 
the only section of the school law which made such action legal. 
Prof. N. C. Twining and his assistants were employed to change 
the curriculum in this respect, and in 1890 the first high school 

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class was graduated. But the remarkable growth of the city embar- 
rassed the officials in charge, and forced them to advise the voting 
of $50,000 bonds to provide for the erection of a suitable building 
in which the high school, as well as the lower grades, could be 
accommodated. The people generously responded, and in 1887 six 
acres of land was purchased at the corner of Fourteenth and Wal- 
nut streets, at a cost of $7,500, and in 1889 what is now known as 
the Grant building was completed at a cost of $64,295. But this 
splendid building was hardly more than completed when additional 
buildings had to be built on Thirteenth and Seventh streets, and the 
old Sixth street house enlarged, to provide for the increased at- 

The first principal of the high school to give exclusive service 
to that work was Miss Henrietta Bancroft, who was succeeded by 
Prof. David A. Givens, and he by Miss Eugenie Fuller. The re- 
maining members of the faculty during these years were Miss 
M. H. J. Lampe, Miss Sara L. Dole and Mrs. F. G. N. Van Slyck, 
the latter being still in charge of the English department in 1912. 

The increase of the teaching force made necessary an acting 
superintendent of schools, although such an official had no legal 
existence in the organization of an ordinary school district. Prof. 
C. H. Keyes was given this position in 1891, and to his special 
gifts as an organizer are largely due the systematic methods which 
have resulted in the success of the school. 

But the awkward machinery which the district government 
afforded was felt to be a handicap not longer to be endured, since 
the support of such a high school could not safely be dependent upon 
the action of voters who might, through whim or prejudice, refuse 
the large necessary annual appropriation. Studying to provide a 
way of legalizing the action taken, the clerk prepared a bill to 
present to the legislature which he believed would remedy the 
conditions. This measure meeting the approval of his colleagues. 
Dr. Deere and D. L. Wilbur, the board instructed Professor Keyes 
to submit it to the next state convention of superintendents. It 
was not enthusiastically approved by that body, but our represen- 
tative succeeded in having it made the duty of the convention sec- 
retary to present the bill to the next legislature. Weeks after 
the session opened no notice of its introduction had been given, 
and Mr. Holmes went to Sacramento to hasten action. The docu- 

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ment was in the secretary's desk, and a vigorous effort of a promi- 
nent legislator ^n behalf of a law permitting a county to organize 
a single high school at the county seat had been given the right of 
way. The Riverside bill was promptly introduced by Assemblyman 
Barker and Senator Bowers, representing the district, and the bill 
so modified in committee as not to antagonize the other proposi- 
tion, became a law. By its provisions a single district, or any 
number of districts,. may now organize as a Union high school dis- 
trict, and as a result of the adoption of this law this county alone 
now has nine high schools, where formerly there were none, and 
hundreds of such preparatory schools now exist all over the thinly- 
settled sections of the state. Since this statute was peculiarly a 
Riverside-made law, and made to serve its own particular needs, 
this detailed reference in these pages seems justified. The River- 
side high school district was organized originally, out of the city 
district alone, in 1893, with Dr. George H. Deere, D. L. Wilbur and 
E. W. Holmes in charge. The high school grew under the more 
favoring conditions, and in spite of the use of the large assembly 
room the Grant building soon became too small and a new building, 
designed exclusively for high school use, was built for its accom- 
modation on Ninth street, which in turn is now outgrown. 

The other gentlemen who have served most acceptably upon 
the school board until the reorganization of the city government 
placed its school affairs in charge of a regular board of education 
have been A. H. Naftzger, W. A. Correll, Samuel C. Evans, Lyman 
Evans and W. A. Purrington. Their reward for the uniformly 
excellent service -they have rendered has been in seeing, year after 
year, the graduation of a class, from among whose ranks have 
come many whose success in life has brought honor to the city 
that educated them. They have had in their employ for years a 
most efficient superintendent of schools in the person of Prof. A. N. 
Wheelock, whose splendid service is continued under the new city 


When the charter was adopted by the city in 1907 the four 
school districts — Riverside, Palm avenue, Arlington and Victoria — 
were incorporated as the Riverside city school district, and the Riv- 
erside high school district was made identical with the Riverside 
city school district. The following table shows the school build- 

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ings, teaching force and enrollment of the schools at the close of 

the school year in 1907. 

Teaching EnroU- 

School — Force ment 

High 10 371 

Grant 11 450 

Lincoln „ 8 366 

Longfellow 9 382 

Irving 6 228 

Washington 2 91 

Brockton - 1 30 

Palm Avenue (two buildings) 6 218 

Arlington 4 166 

Alvord 1 22 

Victoria 1 30 

Kindergarten 2 76 

Special teachers 4 

65 2,430 

The need of additional schoolrooms and a suitable building 
for manual training and domestic science led the board of educa- 
tion early in 1908, to call a bond election for $40,000. The bonds 
were voted with practically no opposition, and with the funds 
obtained, extensive repairs were made and two rooms added to 
the Arlington school; four rooms added to the Longfellow school; 
a fine modern school building of four rooms and auditorium was 
erected on Fourth street, to be called the Bryant school. The city 
also built a large and commodious manual training building on 
Twelfth street. The latter building, with its complete equipment 
for wood-working, cooking and sewing, gave great impetus to the 
manual training idea in the schools. While primarily not a voca- 
tional school it does give a technical skill in the lines of work 
oflfered that make an excellent equipment for earning a livelihood. 
But there was another call for more room and a larger field 
of educational effort. The high school had quite outgrown its 
quarters. The numbers enrolled had steadily climbed up until 
in 1909 the enrollment was nearly 500, too many for effective work 
in the Ninth street building. The board of education met the prob- 
lem by calling a bond election for $250,000. The election was held 

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in July, 1910, and the bonds carried by a handsome majority. 
A site of sixteen acres of mesa and arroyo land on the south 
side of Turquisquite arroyo was purchased, and a group of build- 
ings erected in 1911 at a cost of site and buildings, aside from 
the furnishing and equipment, of $200,000. The buildings consist 
of the hall of classics, containing the offices, teachers' room, audi- 
torium, study rooms and fourteen classrooms; the science hall, 
containing laboratories for agriculture, botany, biology, chemistry, 
physics, with lecture rooms, offices and recitation rooms; the 
mechanics' building, containing shops for wood- working, forging, 
foundry, machine work and mechanical drawing. The school was 
planned and equipped as a boys' school, the board being of the 
opinion that better conditions for school work would obtain by 
the segregation of the boys and girls. As the buildings were 
not completed at the opening of the school year, ending in 1912, 
the boys were cared for in the Ninth street building in the morn- 
ings, while the girls had possession in the afternoons, this arrange- 
ment continuing through the year. 

J. E. McKown of the Lincoln high school of Seattle, Wash., 
was made principal of the boys' school, and Miss Eugenie Fuller 
the principal of the girls' school. Miss Fuller, however, closed 
her relations with the school at the end of the year, the nineteenth 
of her service as principal. Three hundred and twenty-one men 
and three hundred and fifty-three women had graduated from 
the school, up to and including the class of 1911, and the apprecia- 
tion which the body of the alumni has given Miss Fuller is the best 
evidence of the worth of her work and management. The courses 
of study and the instruction in these two high schools are designed 
to be practical enough to fit men and women to gain a livelihood 
and scholastic enough to prepare for the universities those to 
whom such a course is open. Courses are offered in agriculture, 
manual training, science, commerce, history, Latin, modern lan- 
guages, domestic science, art. 

Besides the boys' high school buildings above described, there 
was also built in the same year a substantial brick building on 
Victoria avenue, having four rooms and an auditorium, at a cost 
of $28,000, and also a three-room building on the Bryant school 

The following table shows the school system in October, 1912, 

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and a comparison with the preceding tahle will indicate the growth 
since 1907: 

School — 

Boys' High 

Girls' High 



Manual Training 


Bryant Kindergarten 

Lincoln „ 

Lincoln Kindergarten 

Longfellow „. 

Irving — 

Lowell ~ 


Palm Avenue 


Victoria — 

Special teachers 



















Furniture and equipment 















Bldgs. and 











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By E. W. Holmes 

An outline of the church history of Riverside demands record- 
ing, although those looking for details may need to seek them in the 
records of the different organizations. There were representa- 
tives of different denominations among the pioneers, but these 
subordinated their denominational prejudices to secure the build- 
ing of a place for worship, and the first religious body in the col- 
ony was organized as the First Church of Christ of Riverside. 
Its actual members were, however, of the Congregational faith. 
Recognizing the conunercial value of churches and schools as an 
inducement to the more desirable class who might be seeking a new 
home, the original colony managers gave the land at the comer 
of Sixth and Mulberry streets upon which to erect the first little 
white church, with its tiny spire, and also contributed toward the 
fund for its construction. For years this Union church provided 
for the religious needs of the settlers, and only when the growth 
of the settlement gave strength to the various denominations did 
the work of segregation commence, which in recent years has given 
the city thirty or forty branches of the Christian church. Of 
the seven original members of this first church, organized in 1872, 
only one, Miss Nancy M. Burt, has remained a permanent resident 
of Riverside. In 1886 the church was reorganized and incorporated 
as the First Congregational Church of Riverside. In the same year 
the original church building and lot were traded to the Christian 
Church people in exchange for the lots at the comer of Seventh and 
Lemon streets, where was built in 1887 the larger wooden Congre- 
gational church building which they occupied for twenty-five years. 
This contained the first pipe organ used in the city. This structure 
was torn down in 1912 to give place to a large and magnificent 
cathedral-like structure of the Spanish renaissance style of archi- 
tecture. This building, with its adjacent parsonage, grounds and 
equipment, will have a value of fully $125,000. 

The pastors who have had charge are: Rev. I. W. Atherton, 

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three years; Rev. F. H. Wales, one year; Rev. W. H. Cross, six 
years; Rev. George L. Smith, one year; Rev. T. C. Hunt, eleven 
years; Rev. Edward F. Goff, eleven years; Rev. J. H. McLaren, two 
years; Rev. Horace Porter, three years. Revs. Ralph B. Larkin, 
Z. B. Burr, C. J. Hutchins and George Lyman have supplied the 
pulpit in times of vacancy. 

First Methodist Episcopal Church. A small class of Method- 
ists was formed in Riverside as early as 1872, which held occasional 
services thereafter in the school house, Rev. W. A. Knighten preach- 
ing a monthly sermon before it during the summer. In 1873 the 
conference made Riverside a missionary station and appropriated 
$300 for its support. A regular church organization was effected 
January 10, 1874, largely through the efforts of Rev. M. M. Bovard. 
In 1875 lots were purchased on the comer of Sixth and Orange 
streets, where successive building operations have marked the 
steady growth of the church in numbers and wealth, from the time 
when seven members represented the entire strength of the denomi- 
nation to the present day, when the First church alone has a mem- 
bership of some 900, and sister churches are required to shelter 
those who cannot be accommodated here. The first building erected 
was a little 24x36 brick chapel, the material and labor required for 
its construction being practically all given by the enthusiastic mem- 
bers and friends. The large and beautiful church, with all its mod- 
ern conveniences, which by successive enlargements has become one 
of the most attractive in the city, has so incorporated this original 
building that its identity is almost lost. The pastors who have occu- 
pied the pulpit since the organization of the church by Dr. Bovard 
are: Rev. W. J. White, Rev. J. L. Mann, Rev. F. D. Bovard, Rev. 
William Dixon, Rev. C. H. Lawton, Rev. M. F. Colburn, Rev. A. W. 
Bunker, Rev. C. E. Shelling, Rev. Selah W. Brown, Rev. D. H. 
Gillan, Rev. William Sterling, Rev. Dr. W. A. Wright, Rev. Dr. A. 

C. Williams, Rev. B. C. Cory, Rev. B. S. Hajnvood, Rev. E. J. In- 
wood, Rev. Robert S. Fisher, Rev. Dr. A. W. Adkinson and Rev. L. 

D. Van Arnam. 

The First Baptist Church was organized in February, 1874, the 
charter members being Mr. and Mrs. D. C. Twogood, Mr. and Mrs. 
J. H. Roe, T. J. Wood, D. A. Coddington, and Rev. and Mrs. M. V. 
Wright. Messrs. Twogood and Roe were chosen the first deacons, 
and the former continued to hold the position continuously for some 

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thirty-eight years. Two of the charter members, Mrs. Eoe and Mrs. 
Wright, are still active members. For several years they had no 
minister, and united with the Congregationalists in the Sunday ser- 
vice. From an original membership of nine the church has grown 
until in 1912 it has 552 members. The church finally purchased de- 
sirable lots on the corner of Eighth and Lemon streets and in 1882 
built upon these a church of their own at a cost of $6000, in which 
they worshipped for some eighteen years. This property was finally 
sold for business purposes and the building moved to the corner of 
Ninth and Lemon streets, upon which corner in 1909 the old build- 
ing was replaced by a beautiful new church, equipped with every- 
thing required by a large and growing organization. The property 
is valued at about $50,000. The following is a list of the pastors, 
with date of installation : Rev. M. V. Wright, 1874 ; Rev. M. Fobes, 
1878; Rev. Charles Button, 1880; Rev. Charles Winbigler, 1889; 
Rev. George A. Cleveland, 1894; Rev. Dr. W. F. Taylor, 1899; Rev. 
W. L. Tucker, 1906; Rev. G. F. Holt, 1907. 

Magnolia Presbyterian Church. The first Presbyterian church 
was organized November 9, 1879, with the following charter mem- 
bers: Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Crosby, Mrs. James H. Benedict, Alice 
Benedict, Mrs. E. Rudisill, Mr. and Mrs. D. W. McLeod, Mrs. M. A. 
Evans and Mrs. M. C. Evans. The first trustees were : S. C. Evans, 
J. H. Benedict, A. S. White, C. A. Crosby and H. J. Rudisill. 

Land was purchased at the head of Magnolia avenue and a 
church erected upon it in 1880, at a cost of $6,000. The first minis- 
terial supplies were Rev. A. G. Lane, Rev. J. H. Clark, Rev. Ira M. 
Condit. Regular pastors: Rev. J. A. Merrill, Rev. H. B. Gage 
(1886-1900), and Rev. D. L. Macquarrie (incumbent). 

AH Souls' Universalist Church was founded by Rev. Dr. George 
H. Deere, in July, 1881. Its services were first held in the Citrus 
Fair pa\dlion, and afterward in a little church extemporized from a 
discarded school building located on Market street near Seventh. 
In 1891 land was bought at the corner of Seventh and Lemon 
streets, where the society built the elegant little stone church and 
parsonage which it has since occupied. The more conspicuous of 
the lay members who aided in the completion of these buildings 
were Albert S. White, William Finch, Seneca LaRue, Dr. John Hall, 
Aberdien Keith, K. D. Shugart and William P. Russell. There was 
an original membership of fifteen, which had grown to 162 in 1912. 

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The pastors who have served are: Rev. Dr. Deere (thirteen years), 
Rev. Charles A. Garst, Rev. Elmer C. Andrus, Rev. Andrew W. 
Cross, Rev. Herbert E. Benton and Rev. F. L. Carrier. 

All Saints' Protestant Episcopal Church. Among the earliest 
of the religious services held in Riverside was that at which Rev. 
Charles F. Loup officiated in June, 1871. In the fall of the year 
following Bishop Kip visited Riverside and held a service. From 
this time services were occasionally held by the Rev. Mr. Loup and 
Rev. Mr. Wilson. These meetings were sometimes held in the Con- 
gregational church and for a time in the Sixth street school house. 
During these years Riverside was a part of the San Bernardino 

In October, 1884, the mission was formally organized into a 
parish having the name of All Saints' Protestant Episcopal Church 
of Riverside. The first vestry elected included: Messrs. E. G. 
Brown, J. D. Brownlee, E. J. Davis, W. A. Hayt, John Jarvis, W. P. 
Lett and 0. Papineau. Other active members whose names appear 
at this period were Dr. A. H. Woodill, B. B. Wright, L. M. Holt 
and Dr. Jenkins. The services were evidently irregularly held 
owing to the difficulty of securing a permanent pastor. 

In January, 1887, the Rev. B. W. R. Taylor accepted the rector- 
ship and in the June following the cornerstone of a church was laid 
on the church lot at Tenth street, between Orange and Lemon. 
Soon afterward a rectory was built on the same property, and in 
recent years a parish house for the use of the Sunday-school and 
other parochial organizations has been added. The clergjmen who 
served the parish after Mr. Wilson were: Rev. S. Gregory Lines, 
Rev. C. S. Frankenthall and Rev. J. D. H. Brown. Rev. Mr. Taylor 
resigned charge of the parish in August, 1891, and in the following 
January was succeeded by the present rector, Rev. M. C. Dotten. 
The membership at the present time is 250. 

The New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) Church of Riverside was 
organized May 17, 1885, with thirty members. Rev. Berry Edmis- 
ton was its only pastor during the twenty-seven years of its history, 
resigning but a short time before his death, which occurred August 
6, 1912. He was a man respected and loved by all who knew him, 
and the record of a town for whose moral upbuilding he so faith- 
fully worked would be incomplete which did not refer to his char- 
acter as a citizen as well as to his service as a Christian minister. 

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This church first held its services in a building on Central avenue, 
which had formerly been used for school purposes by the Sunnyside 
school district. In 1903 a new church edifice was built for their use 
in a more convenient location, pn Locust street, between Sixth and 
Seventh. The present membership of the church is forty. 

The First Christian Church of Eiverside was organized Octo- 
ber 7, 1885, with thirty charter members. They first purchased land 
upon the southwest corner of Seventh and Lemon streets, but later 
traded this for the old Congregational building at Sixth and Vine 
streets, where they worshipped until 1904. They then secured land 
for a new church at the corner of Seventh and Lime streets, and 
moving their old building, incorporated it in the fine large edifice 
in which they now worship, having a capacity of nearly 800. The 
church membership has grown until it numbers 617, and the Sun- 
day school, of which M. D. Haskell is the superintendent, has an 
enrollment of 540. The pastors have been : Eev. Irwin West, Eev. 
Hiram Conwell, Eev. Cal. Ogborn, Eev. William Sumpter, Eev. 
M. J. Ferguson, Eev. A. B. House, Rev. George Eingo and Eev. 
G. M. Anderson. 

Calvary Presbyterian Church. The inconvenience of attending 
service at the Magnolia Avenue Church, three or four miles away, 
led the increasing number of Presbyterians located in the **mile 
square'* to organize in June, 1887, the Calvary Presbyterian 
Church. Its charter members were: Mrs. Gage (senior), Mr. and 
Mrs. Matthew Gage, Miss Margaret Gage, Mrs. Campbell, Mrs. 
Mary C. Mann, Mrs. I. S. Murray, Mr. and Mrs. H. J. Craft, 
Miss Margaret Spooner, Eobert Gage, Mrs. Mattie Sears, Mr. and 
Mrs. D. J. McLeod, Mrs. Kate Hunter, W. J. Wallace, Mr. and 
Mrs. Oscar Wilbur, Mrs, A. D. Place, John Shiels, Charles Shiels, 
Miss Isabelle Eoss, Miss Jennie Wright and Mr. and Mrs. W. E. 

The little congregation at first worshipped in what is now a 
storeroom in the Odd Fellows' Building; then for a time in a build- 
ing north of where the Loring Block now stands ; then In the Citrus 
Fair pavilion, and finally, while their church was being built, in the 
original Y. M. C. A. building in the Glenwood Block. Eev. Dr. J. B. 
Stewart supplied the pulpit at this time. The first elders were 
Eobert Gage and W. J. Wallace. 

Land had meanwhile been purchased at the corner of Ninth and 

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Lime streets, and here was at last erected the convenient and beau- 
tiful building in which they have since worshipped. The church 
has now a membership of 590 and is in a flourishing condition, 
but at the time when a church alone was being provided success 
would have been long deferred had not the effort had the most 
generous support of members and friends. Among those whose 
liberal assistance deserves especial remembrance are Matthew Gage 
and Mrs. Gage, the latter presenting the pipe organ as her share, 
while W. John Gage lent most valuable aid for years as leader 
in the department of music. 

Only five pastors have served during the twenty-five years of 
the life of the church, these being Eev. Dr. Stewart, Rev. R. H. 
Hartley, Rev. W. J. Arnold, Rev. Alex. Ekin and Rev. Dr. W. A. 

St, Francis de Sales Church was at first a mission of the San 
Bernardino church, started in 1888 by Rev. Father Stockman, a 
pioneer priest of California. The church is located on the city 
block bounded by Twelfth, Thirteenth, Lime and Mulberry streets. 
This block was donated for church, school, convent and hospital 
purposes by Mrs. Hattie Traver, a pioneer citizen of Riverside. 
The Catholics believe that there is **no true education without 
religion,'* and they are planning to erect first a parochial school 
on their property and next a church building which shall ** impos- 
ingly represent Catholic endeavor in Riverside." One hundred and 
seventy-five English and 450. Spanish-speaking families are repre- 
sented in the congregation. The Catholic Indians are cared for in 
a mission chapel near Sherman Institute, and the church itself 
maintains missions at Crestmore, Casa Blanca and Spanish Town. 
The resident pastors have been Rev. J. McCarthy, 1893; Rev. M. 
Conneally, 1898; Rev. S. F. Cain, 1905; and the present incumbent 
is Rev. Peter H. McNeills. 

Trinity English Lutheran Church was organized January 7, 
1894, with a membership of twenty-six, which number has since 
increased to eighty. It meets for worship in a pretty building at 
the corner of Walnut and Ninth streets, which was completed and 
dedicated September 5, 1901. The pastors who have had charge 
of the parish are : Rev. J. S. Moser, 1893 ; Rev. George H. Hiller- 
man, 1896; Rev. A. E. Dietz, 1904; and the present incumbent. Rev. 
R. W. Mottern, 1909. 

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Scandinavian Evangelical Lutheran Eden Church was organ- 
ized September 28, 1888. It has a present membership of 135. A 
church building was erected for its use on the comer of Tenth and 
Orange streets in 1891, and a parsonage built on the lot adjoining 
some years later. Among the more prominent of its earlier mem- 
bers were Ernest Carlson, Swan Johnson, Carl Carlson, N. P. Ben- 
son, Carl G. Engborg, William Johnson and Edwin Chelson. The 
first pastor was Rev. N. 6. Brandelle, and among his successors 
are Dr. Edward Nelander, Rev. 0. N. Glim, Rev. K. G. Peel, Rev. 
A. N. Le Veau, Rev. N. A. Nordstrom, and the present pastor. Rev. 
L. M. Dahlsten. 

There is also a mission church of the German Lutherans who 
meet in the Adventist church on Twelfth street on the second and 
fourth Sundays of each month. Rev. Louis Achenbach is the acting 

Grace Methodist Episcopal Church. The organization of the 
Grace Methodist Episcopal Church of Riverside had its inception 
at a meeting held October 15, 1907, and its legal incorporation was 
effected November 19 of the same year. At the outset it had 
189 members on its roll, and its present membership is 393. Its 
first Sunday service was held October 4, 1907, in a little mission 
chapel at the junction of East Eighth and High streets, owned at 
the time by the First Methodist Episcopal Church, and which it 
subsequently purchased. The lots upon which the chapel stood had 
been donated by C. F. Marcy, and another was subsequently ac- 
quired, giving a building site 180x185 feet in area. Plans for 
building were promptly arranged, and on December 6, 1908, the 
present church building was dedicated, practically free from debt. 
The church has prospered under the pastorate of Rev. W. C. Geyer, 
who has had charge during its entire history, but who now gives 
place to the new appointee of the conference. Rev. D. B. Loof- 

The First United Brethren Church of Riverside was among the 
earlier churches organized. It now has a membership of 216, and 
a church and parsonage located on East Eighth street, near Park. 
The church has a seating capacity of 500, and the whole property 
a value of about $20,000. Rev. W. H. Blackburn is the present 

The First Church of Christ, Scientist, was organized in July, 

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1889. It built upon the comer of Sixth and Lemon streets, in 1900, 
a beautiful church of the mission style of architecture, at a cost of 
over $15,000, which was furnished and dedicated free from debt. 
The members claim that here was the first place in Southern Cali- 
fornia where Christian Science was publicly introduced and classes 
instructed in the tenets of the denomination. 

The Second Church of Christ, Scientist, of Riverside, was 
regularly incorporated in April, 1893. The first public service was 
held May 10 in a dwelling house at No. 560 Seventh street, the 
reading room being located in the same building. In January, 
1904, Leighton Hall was secured for the services, and the reading 
room was removed to the Glenwood Block, corner of Sixth and 
Orange streets, in April of the same year. In October, 1905, the 
Universalist Church was secured for a place of meeting. In Decem- 
ber, 1907, plans were accepted for a church to be located at the 
corner of Eleventh and Lemon streets, and in May, 1908, the first 
services were held in the new church. Since January, 1912, the 
reading room has been located in the Glenwood Block on Main 
street. The church has had a steady growth from the time of its 

Arlington Methodist Episcopal Church was formed March 22, 
1893, by some thirteen citizens who found the distance to the First 
Church at Riverside a bar to regular attendance. A Sunday school 
had existed for some three years previous, with Rev. Alfred Ramey 
as superintendent, C. H. Ormsby, assistant, and Chester Crosby, 
secretary. A small church was built in 1907, but the rapid growth 
of the congregation made necessary a larger building, and in 1908 
land was purchased on the corner of Magnolia avenue and Castle- 
man street, upon which a more pretentious edifice was erected. The 
church now has a membership of 215, a large Sunday school, and 
a well-located property worth over $11,000. The pastors who have 
served are: Rev. A. Ramey, Rev. E. Hoskyn, Rev. L. D. Loyd, 
Rev. C. J. Miller, Rev. W. G. Cowan, Rev. T. D. Ashleigh, Rev. 
W. C. Dane, Rev. F. L. Buckwalter, Rev. George Baffin and Rev. 
A. J. McKenzie. 

Highgrove Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in Octo- 
ber, 1890. It had only six charter members, but now has a member- 
ship of 149. The society built a parsonage in 1891 and a church in 
1892, the latter being enlarged in 1904. The pastors have been 

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Rev. J. C. Gowan, Rev. E. Hoskyn, Rev. C. J. Miller, Rev. E. W. 
Pasco, Rev. L. D. Loyd, Rev. F. A. Leak, Rev. S. M. Chase, Rev. 
W. G. Cowan, Rev. H. H. Baker, Rev. F. P. Sigler and Rev. S. A. 

The African Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 
1893, with only three members, but it now has sixty. Its place of 
worship is at the corner of Tenth and Sedgwick streets. Its pastors 
have been Rev. D. R. Jones, Rev. Halford, Rev. Johnson, Rev. S. E. 
Arrington, Rev. Kennedy, Rev. J. Holmes, Rev. J. H. Wilson, Rev. 
G. W. Bussey, Rev. W. H. Williamson and Rev. S. E. Edwards. 

The Second Baptist Church (African) was organized in 1892, 
with thirteen members, and now, 1912, has 135. The ministers who 
have had charge are Rev. John Clisby, Rev. Whitlock, Rev. J. W. 
Newby, Rev. S. H. Smith, Rev. Terrill, Rev. J. D. Gordon and 
Rev. F. W. Cooper. Its church is at No. 1162 Howard street. 

The Arlington Christian Church was organized in January, 
1905. Previous to this date the Rev. E. H. Gurley preached 
many sermons in this section of the city, and for a time the con- 
gregation met in a small frame building. It had at the outset 
only twenty-five members, but now has 150 and is one of the 
most prosperous of Riverside's churches. In 1912 it completed 
a handsome church building, constructed of cement blocks, and 
its property has a present value of $13,000. The pastors have 
been Revs. Cal. Ogburn, W. T. Adams, W. J. Bottenfield, J. H. 
Hall, C. R. Moore, and the present incumbent. Rev. S. D. Perkin- 

The Free Methodist Church of Riverside was organized in 
1907 with twelve members. It is located at No. 189 East Sixth 
street. Rev. J. B. Freeland was the first pastor, and he has 
been succeeded by Revs. A. C. Brown, S. F. Heilman and S. 0. 
Yelvington, the last named having occupied the pulpit for three 

The United Presbyterian Church was organized on April 12, 
1905, and incorporated in the following November. It had an 
original membership of twenty-five, and its members in 1912 
number eighty-two. It has a church property valued at $12,000, 
located on the corner of Orange and Lemon streets, which was 
dedicated in October, 1906. The church has no permanent pas- 

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tor, but the pulpit has been supplied by Rev. John M. Boss, D. D., 
Rev. W. F. Johnson and Rev. J. S. Coie. 

The Riverside Seventh Day Baptist Church was organized 
October 3, 1893, with an original membership of forty. It now 
has 105 members. The church is located at the corner of Park 
avenue and Fifth street. Rev. J. T. Davis was the first pastor, 
he being succeeded by the present incumbent. Rev. E. F. Loofboro. 

In addition to the above, the religious needs of the city are 
cared for by the Seventh Day Adventists, who hold regular ses- 
sions in their church on Twelfth street, Elder Richardson being 
in charge in 1912. The Primitive Baptists, Elder A. V. Atkins, 
pastor, hold a monthly service in the same church. The Holi- 
ness Church meets at the corner of Ninth street and Park avenue. 
Rev. R. H. Amon, pastor. The Salvation Army has for years held 
services at various points in the city. Ensign Harris being in 
charge in 1912. 

The Congregationalists maintain a Japanese mission school 
on Fourteenth street; the Methodists a Japanese mission on Fifth 
street, and the Presbyterians two Spanish missions, one at Casa 
Blanca, and the other on Fourteenth street, Bev. Samuel Solomon 
having been in charge of both for years. 

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By E. W. Holmes 

It was on the 24th of November, 1884, that the first meeting 
was held in regard to the formation of a branch of the Young 
Men's Christian Association in Riverside. It was presided over 
by Dr. T. L. Magee, and J. H. Goodhue acted as secretary. 
Among those most prominent in effecting the organization were 
J. D. Chamberlain, E. C. Love, K. F. Hendry, 0. T. Dyer, Judson 
House, A. M. Mackey and H. N. Sanderson. The first officers 
were B. W. Handy, president; John Cook, vice-president; J. H. 
Goodhue, secretary, and Thomas B. Stephenson, treasurer. The 
association affiliated with the state organization September 4, 1885, 
and was incorporated December 6, 1886, the members of its first 
board of trustees being 0. T. Dyer, E. F. Kingman, H. P. Moore, 
B. W. Handy and Matthew Gage. The Association occupied rented 
quarters for several years, and when, in October, 1887, it became 
necessary that the organization should have a building of its own, 
Frank A. Miller, with his usual generosity when a worthy enter- 
prise has needed assistance in Riverside, gave a lot in the Glen- 
wood block, on Main street, for the association's use, and equally 
generous contributions from others made it possible to erect 
upon it a building which served them excellently until 1909. The 
association had by this time outgrown this first building, and the 
popularity of the institution, and its needs of larger and better 
equipped quarters, enabled its members to obtain generous finan- 
cial aid from the citizens generally, and build upon the corner 
of Eighth and Lemon streets the splendid block which they now 
occupy. It cost over $75,000, and is one of the best arranged 
Association buildings for a town of its size in the United States, 
having a lobby, reading room, assembly hall, gymnasium, baths, 
plunge, bowling alleys, handball and basket ball courts, and one 
story of dormitory rooms, which provide income to the Associa- 
tion and furnish rooms for young men who are away from home. 
The present membership is between five and six hundred, of 
which 200 are boys. The Association employs a general secre- 

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tary, an assistant secretary, a physical director and a ** boys' 
work" secretary, all of whom give their whole time to this most 
important work. The men who have served as president since 
its organization are as follows: B. W. Handy, John Cook, S. L. 
Alderman, J. H. Goodhue, M. S. Bowman, A. A. Adair, J. F. 
Crowe, E. P. Clarke, W. W. Roblee, C. E. Rumsey and J. M. 
Davison. The general secretaries have been few in number but 
earnest in labor. Those who have served in that capacity are: 
Rev. W. H. Robinson, Moore Hesketh, George F. Herrick, C. W. 
Janes, J. George Hunter and W. R. Hale. A lady's auxiliary 
was organized April 28, 1885, and has been a great help to the 
Association ever since. Mrs. M. E. Hewitt is now its president, 
and Mrs. Houston Harlan its secretary. 

It was twenty-one years later, November 5, 1895, when the 
first meeting was held to organize the Young Woman's Christian 
Association, **to assist the spiritual, intellectual, social and phys- 
ical development of the young women of the city." Two hundred 
members, and subscriptions to the amount of $500, were promptly 
secured, and on the 5th of December, 1905, the organization was 
completed and the following officers elected: President, Dr. Louise 
Harvey Clarke; first vice-president, Mrs. Homer A. Plimpton; 
second vice-president, Mrs. Cora Gyde; third vice-president, Mrs. 
0. L. Moorman; fourth vice-president, Mrs. J. F. Hanna; record- 
ing secretary, Mrs. J. R. Strang; corresponding secretary, Mrs. 
C. Goodrich; treasurer, Mrs. H. 0. Reed. 

Furniture was contributed by generous friends and the Asso- 
ciation was first located in the Pennsylvania Block. Larger quar- 
ters were soon needed for a well-equipped gymnasium and a lunch 
department, and in November, 1907, they moved into the Rey- 
nolds Block, on Ninth street, where rooms had been specially ar- 
ranged for their use. Within a few years the demands for larger 
accommodations have made necessary the enlargement of these 
quarters, and the cafeteria occupies a fine large room on the first 
floor, while the Association has besides rest room, parlors, phys- 
ical director's office and large gymnasium on the second floor, 
and above a fine roof garden for social as well as gjonnasium uses. 

The general secretaries have been Miss Maud Ewing Ross, 
1906 and 1907; Miss Lenoir McCoid, 1907 and 1909; Miss Emma 
J. Parsons, 1909 and 1912; Mrs. Olive H. Mulholland, 1912. 

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The membership has fluctuated in recent years, but averages 
about 875. The trustees, who are the legal representatives of the 
Association, are S. H. Herrick, Gaylor Rouse, C. L. McFarland, 
Dr. C. Van Zwalenburg, Mrs. Sarah J. Ford, Dr. Louise Harvey 
Clarke and Mrs. W. F. Taylor. C. E. Rumsey was chairman 
of the board from the time of its organization until his death, 
since which time S. H. Herrick has filled that position. 



By E, W. Holmes 

One of the conspicuous features of Riverside, of which her 
citizens are proud, is the great government Indian school located 
. on Magnolia avenue in the Arlington section. The name was given 
it as a tribute to the late Vice-President Sherman, a warm friend 
of the American Indian, who was at the time of its organization 
the chairman of the congressional committee on Indian aflfairs. 
There had been a school for Indian youth near Perris, which, under 
the management of Harwood Hall, had demonstrated the value 
of such a method of training the Indian for American citizen- 
ship, and when it became evident that larger accommodations and 
better surroundings were necessary to carry forward effectively 
this splendid philanthropic work, the effort to secure the pro- 
posed larger institution for Riverside had the support of men 
of national reputation, like Albert K. Smiley of Redlands, Collis 
P. Huntington, and others, and of the California representatives 
in both houses of congress. The cornerstone of the first building 
was laid June 18, 1901, by Hon. A. C. Tanner, assistant commis- 
sioner of Indian affairs. Senator Perkins and others taking part 
in the exercises, and in May of the following year nine of the 
buildings were completed, and the enrollment of pupils began. 
The school has an enrollment in 1912 of 631 pupils, who hail 
from twelve states and represent fifty-five tribes. The manage- 
ment of Harwood Hall, and of his successor, Frank M. Conser, 
has been admirable, and the character and acquirements of the 

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graduates who have gone out from Sherman Institute to take 
their places among other American citizens furnishes the strong- 
est possible evidence of the sensible and thoroughly practical 
training given them. That the climate and other advantages claimed 
for the location by those who urged it is evidenced by the report 
made by Superintendent Conser at the end of the tenth year of 
its existence, when he says: **The school is located in the midst 
of people of the highest culture and refinement, and the student 
of Sherman Institute is fortunate in his fight for character and 
education to be surrounded by such influences. There has not 
been a liquor saloon in the city for many years, and the sympathy 
of the entire community is with the Indian boy and girl. In 
fact, a more favorable environment could not be found for an 
educational institution than Riverside." The school grounds proper 
contain forty acres, beautiful with lawns and walks and orna- 
mental trees, amid which are located thirty-five buildings of the 
Mission style of architecture. Adjoining is Chemawa Park, fur- 
nishing ample space for field sports. Few colleges have build- , 
ings and surroundings more beautiful than those of Sherman 

The course of study provided carries the student through the 
eighth grade, and those who desire can enter the high school or 
business college of Riverside. But the industrial courses are 
placed upon an equal plane with the academic. The boys are 
taught carpentry, blacksmithing, printing and other trades, and 
the girls trained in sewing, general housekeeping, laundry work 
and nursing. The Indian children gathered here have shown a 
special aptitude for music, and the girls' mandolin club and the 
boys' brass band have always ranked high in a musical way. 

Four miles below the school proper the government has a 
hundred-acre farm, well equipped, where the students are given 
training as regular farmers, and in dairying and vegetable grow- 
ing. The vegetables, butter and milk produced supply the needs 
in this direction of the entire school. The farm has a value 
of some $75,000, and its products in 1912 amounted to $8,379. 
The total value of the land, buildings and equipment of the 
school and farm doubtless exceeds $450,000. 

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By E. W. Holmes 

Riverside has reason for pride over the many things which 
her people have successfully worked out that have been of im- 
mense value to the state at large. Among these not one has 
proven more beneficial than the formulation and adoption of the 
method of co-operative marketing of her fruit crop known as the 
California Fruit Exchange. Its success has been so marked 
and the results so beneficial to all connected with the citrus 
industry, as well as to all departments of horticulture through- 
out California, that the story of its inauguration and growth 
deserves detailed mention in the records of Riverside. 

With the rapid increase in the orange crop, due to the im- 
mense area planted to citrus fruits, the weakness of the early 
marketing methods was thoroughly demonstrated. The commis- 
sion men who at first handled practically the entire crop were 
more concerned about their fees than in developing larger mar- 
kets. Or if they sought these their experiments proved costly 
to the individual grower, whose fruit they sacrificed to that end. 
The tariff tinkering of the political theorists, throwing working- 
men out of employment everywhere in the populous manufac- 
turing centers and thus compelling them to retrench in such things 
as seemed in the nature of a luxury, lessened the demand for 
oranges, and for years a large proportion of the growers failed 
to receive for their product sufficient to pay for its packing and 
transportation. The large shipping concerns not only secured ille- 
gal rebates from the railroads, but owned or controlled all the 
refrigerator cars, so that they made a profit, not only from their 
cheaper railroad rates, but through their ownership of the cars 
were able to know of the markets into which their competitors 
were shipping, and thus be able to fill such markets with their 
own goods before the arrival of that of their competitors. It 
was, indeed, a grave situation which confronted the men who had 
invested their all in orange groves and had waited years for them 

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to mature, and it forced a study of the problem which resulted, 
after years of effort, in a method of marketing which has been 
of inestimable value, not only to the Riverside growers, but to the 
people of the entire state. 

While many others worked with him to secure the formula- 
tion of a marketing plan which should enable the grower to obtain 
a just return for his labors, no man so thoroughly deserves the 
credit for the perfection of the plan which has worked so bene- 
ficially to the state, as does T. H. B. Chamblin of Riverside. 
Being as modest as he is eflScient, he has not paraded his part 
in this splendid work, but the records show that his colleagues 
have fully recognized the value of his service, for before his 
retirement from active work they, by unanimous vote in conven- 
tion, thanked him as the formulator of the plan, and later he 
was given a beautiful loving cup, which the family will long prize 
as a material evidence of the appreciation shown him. 

The Pachappa Orange Growers' Association, of which Mr. 
Chamblin was manager, was the first organized effort at co- 
operative marketing. Its experience suggested the larger organi- 
zation, which was effected at an enthusiastic meeting held in 
April, 1893, known as the Riverside Fruit Exchange. At this 
meeting plans were made for the formation of eleven local asso- 
ciations, whose representatives should be the directors of the 
central exchange. The plan promised so certain a help that a 
large proportion of the growers promptly affiliated, and later 
the growers everywhere showed their faith in the plan, and an 
enthusiastic convention of growers was held in Los Angeles, where 
a third organization was effected, called the board of control, or 
marketing department, to be known as the Southern California 
Fruit P]xchange. After a few years of successful marketing of the 
products of the orchards the organization was enlarged to include 
the whole state and handle other than citrus fruits, and is now 
called the California Fruit Exchange. 

Just as Riverside had formed its district exchange from the 
numerous neighborhood associations, who packed their own fruit 
under brands of their own choosing, so it was with other fruit- 
growing centers, each having its central exchange and sending 
representatives to form the central body which attended to the 
marketing. TJie great central exchange employs a salaried man- 

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ager, a necessary oflBce force, and sales agents in all the great 
marketing centers. 

The foundation of the organization is the local association, 
a strictly neighborhood affair. Each member gets exact credit 
for the fruit he contributes, and the same price for his fruit as 
does his neighbor for the same grade. His fruit is packed at 
cost, sold at cost, and through the pooling system may obtain 
the average of the markets for the entire season. The associa- 
tions do not pool with each other, each locality being required 
to rely upon the merit of its own fruit and the honesty of its 
pack for its standing in the market. 

The results during nearly twenty years testify to the success 
and value of the organization. For ability and fidelity in man- 
agement, together with achievement of the end sought in mar- 
keting a perishable product, it stands without a parallel, and clearly 
demonstrates the fact that tillers of the soil are fully capable of 
** attending to their own business." Where formerly it was im- 
possible to market successfully five or six thousand carloads, some 
50,000 carloads are now marketed at a price sufficient to maintain 
the industry on a sound basis. * 

The first trustees of the Riverside Fruit Exchange were: T. 
H. B. Chamblin, D. W. McLeod, H. A. Westbrook, A. H. Naftz- 
ger, George Frost, J. B. Crawford, J. H. Wright, M. J. Daniels, 
A. Keith, S. C. Evans, Jr., and R. W. Meacham. A. H. Naftzger 
was made president of the organization; M. J. Daniels, vice-presi- 
dent; S. C. Evans, Jr., secretary; and since 1900, John Jahn, Jr., 
has been the Riverside manager. 

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By E. W. Holmes 

The Odd Fellows. The number of secret orders organized 
in Riverside is almost as great as the religious denominations rep- 
resented here. The first of these was the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, which organized a lodge in Riverside on April 26, 
1879. That the number thirteen carries no ill-luck to Odd Fel- 
lows is shown by the fact that there were thirteen charter mem- 
bers, and the lodge has prospered, so that its present member- 
ship of 701 makes it one of the very largest in the state. The 
elective officers first installed were: B. D. Burt, N. G.; E. W. 
Holmes, V. G.; E. Rosenthal, Sec; C. W. Packard, Treas. ; C. J. 
Gill, Conductor; R. Reeves, Warden;. E. R. Pierce, 0. G. ; J. R. 
Noland, I. G. The other charter members were: S. C. Evans, 
Hugo Goebel, T. J. Wood, E. J. Davis and N. A. Stiffler. Large 
auxiliary organizations are associated with the original lodge in 
the work of the order. It was this lodge that built the first edi- 
fice for fraternal use in the city, and it has since been enlarged 
and thoroughly equipped for the uses of the order and for busi- 
ness purposes. It is now one of the most valuable blocks in the 

The Masonic Ordek. Evergreen Lodge of Master Masons 
was instituted under a dispensation from the Grand Lodge of 
California on the 12th of November, 1879, with the following 
officers: William Craig, W. M.; Pryor S. Russell, S. W.; Wilson 
B. Russell, J. W. ; John Stone, Treasurer ; C. C. Miller, Secretary ; 
K. D. Shugart, S. D. ; George D. Cunningham, J. D. ; Charles E. 
Packard, Tyler. 

A year later the charter was issued, and Evergreen Lodge 
No. 259, F. & A. M., was legally constituted with the following char- 
ter members: B. F. Allen, David Battles, John Bonham, A. H. 
Ball, Daniel H. Burnham, William Craig, G. D. Cunningham, B. B. 
Chandler, Thomas W. Cover, John B. Camp, Edward J. Davis, 
Hugo Goebel, John W. Hamilton, Benjamin B. Handy, Alonzo 
D. Haight, Ira C. Haight, C. C. Miller, Isaac Marsh, Charles E. 

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Packard, W. 0. Price, P. S. Russell, W. B. Russell, John Stone 
and K. D. Shugart. 

The lodge now has a membership of 325. For many years 
it occupied the upper portion of the Castleman Block, which has 
recently been torn down, and the site occupied by the First 
National bank building. On the 8th of December, 1908, it dedi- 
cated the beautiful and commodious Masonic Temple it now occu- 
pies near the corner of Eleventh and Main streets. The building 
and its furnishings cost about $28,000. 

The present officers of the lodge are : John G. Bayley, W. M. ; 
James P. Robeson, S. W. ; Leonard A. Cowles, J. W.; Menno S. 
Bowman, Treasurer; Robert P. Cundiff, Secretary; William 0. 
Clatworthy, Chaplain; Frank Herkelrath, S. D.; Orville P. San- 
ders, J. D.; A. H. Winder, S. S.; Charles 0. Reid, J. S.; John T. 
Jarvis, Marshal; P. A. Gunsolus, Tyler; A. S. Walther, Chorister; 
F. K. JosljTi, Organist. George D. Cunningham, W. B. Clancy and 
S. J. Castleman, Trustees. 

The following is a list of those who have filled the Master's 
chair since the lodge was organized: William Craig, P. S. Rus- 
sell, W. B. Russell (three years), George M. Skinner, John W. 
Hamilton (two years), B. B. Chandler, S. B. Hinckley (two years), 
Walter E. Keith, C. W. Filkins (two years), James W. Johnson, 
Kingsbury Sanborn, William J. Lamrick, George D. Cunning- 
ham, B. M. Longfellow, William A. Anderson, John T. Jarvis, 
William B. Clancy (two years), Emerson H. Gruwell, Stanley 
J. Castleman (two years), Harry W. Hammond, Henry D. French 
(two years), Charles B. Bayley, James E. Drayton, J. Harvey 
Ellis, John G. Bayley. 

Riverside Commandery No. 67, R. A. M., which now has a 
membership of 132, was organized May 7, 1886, with the following 
officers: Menno S. Bowman, M. P.; Henry Ellsworth Way, K.; 
Charles Thomas Rice, Scribe; Samuel Bond Hinckley, C. H.; 
Wilson Byron Russell, P. S. ; Otis Theron Dyer, Treasurer; Emil 
Julius Rosenthal, Secretary; William McBain, R. A. C. ; Chris- 
topher Columbus Miller, M. 3. V. 1. ; Eugene Hornbeck, Guard. 

Riverside Commandery. The first meeting of Riverside Com- 
mandery was held Dec. 14, 1886. Its first officers were: S. B. 
Hinckley, Com.; M. S. Bowman, Gen.; C. T. Rit^e, C. G.; J. H. 
Fawcett, Prel.; E. H. Way, S. W.; C. C. Miller, J. W.; O. T. 

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Dyer, Treasurer; F. K. Ainsworth, Rec; P. K. Kleinfelter, St. Br.; 
J. W. Sayward, Sw. Br.; E. Y. Chevalier, Sent. The Comman-- 
dery has at this time just an even 100 members. 

Ungava Chapter No. 106, O. E. S., completed its organiza- 
tion in November, 1890, with forty-four members. The first officers 
of the chapter were : Lida Lair Martin, A. Matron ; Charles W. 
Filkins, W. Patron; Louise E. Allen, Asso. Matron; Ella M. Fil- 
kins, Sec'y; Alyszan Rouse, Treas.; Clara Keith, Cond.; Mary 
Papineau, Asst. Cond.; Bertha Haight, Adah; Harriet Fountain, 
Ruth; Mary E. Cover, Esther; Jessie Haight, Martha; Eliza Rob- 
inson, Electa. 

The chapter now has a membership of 325. The following 
sisters have served as presiding officers of the chapter since 
its organization: Louise E. Allen, Susan E. Cunningham, Emma 
Gray, Leila B. (Jarvis) Pann, Mary A. Papineau, Lillian S. Allen, 
Nellie Anderson, Anna (Rice) Boardyrell, Etta A. Cundiff, Henri- 
etta Anderson, Jennie Gould Way, Lillian (Battles) Warren, Ada 
Mae Tucker, Inez Robeson, Elizabeth Drayton, Louise Mills. 

Knights of Pythias. On the 17th day of January, 1885, there 
was organized a lodge of the Knights of Pythias. The pioneer 
officers were Guy G. Majors, P. C. ; James M. Drake, V. C. ; 
VV. A. Hayt, Prelate; W. A. Correll, K. of P. and S.; M. A. Hib- 
bard, M. F. ; J. R. Newberry, Mast. Ex. ; F. C. Sweetser, Mast. A. ; 
C. D. Jones, I. G.; S. B. Robinson, 0. G. Among its most promi- 
nent members, who were devoted to making it a center of social 
as well as fraternal life, was Albert S. White. Its Uniform Rank 
was for years one of the best drilled organizations in the state. 

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By E. W. Holmes 

In every effort made to build up and beautify the city the 
women of Riverside have ever given a most generous and loyal 
support. As always in school and church affairs their influence 
for good has been conspicuous. But when, with the growth of 
the city, there came the inevitable segregation which multiplied 
the church organizations, and there was a tendency because of this 
for them to lose touch with each other in the broader field needing 
unity of effort, they came together in organizations which have 
strengthened them in aiding the educational, social and material 
improvement of the conmaunity. 

Out of this need grew a sentiment which led to the forma- 
tion of the Riverside Woman's Club, which it was designed to 
make an organization ** where character, not social position or 
wealth, should be the basis of club aristocracy.'' Started with 
such a spirit it is no wonder that the club has grown in numbers 
and influence, until it is one of the permanent and most valued 
institutions of the city. Mrs. Martha E. Hewitt, Dr. Sarah E. 
Maloy, and others, after consultation regarding the forming of a 
club, sent out invitations for a meeting to be held in Dr. Maloy 's 
oflBce, and on January 7, 1896, the ladies who responded joined 
with them in organizing the Woman's Club of Riverside. The fol- 
lowing sixteen were the charter members : Mrs. Martha E. Hewitt, 
Dr. Sarah E. Maloy, Mrs. P]lla J. Collier, Mrs. Mary E. Boggs, 
Mrs. Laura T. Reynolds, Mrs. Mary E. Darling, Mrs. Martha P]. 
Ames, Mrs. Cora Van Aemam Peters, Mrs. Alice E. Holmes, Mrs. 
Sarah J. Ford, Mrs. Josephine Wheeler, Mrs. Mary L. Trowbridge, 
Mrs. N. P. J. Button, Mrs. Jean Koethen, Mrs. P]lla Filkins, 
Mrs. Hulda Van Aernam. 

Dr. Sarah E. Maloy was elected first president; Mrs. VAla. J. 
Collier, vice-president; Mrs. Mary E. Bog«:s, corresponding secre- 
tary, and Mrs. Laura T. RejTiolds, treasurer. 

The general assembly of the club, and each of the classes, 
have monthly meetings. These were held at first in the homes 

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of the members, later in leased public halls, but finally in the 
splendid Women's Club house erected for their use. The club 
has some 200 members, who assign themselves as taste dictates, 
in classes devoted to Art, Home and Philanthropy, Review, Music 
and Shakespeare. While the educational and social features have 
been its leading characteristics the club has given its influence and 
material assistance in behalf of other organizations and for the 
beautifying of the city. 

The following is a list of those who have filled the president's 
chair: Dr. Sarah E. Maloy (president emeritus)), Mrs. N. P. J. 
Button, Mrs. L. F. Darling, Mrs. Fanny G. Kishler, Mrs. E. W. 
Holmes, Mrs. John Meliarg, Mrs. Henrietta Grout, Mrs. J. S. 
Noyes, Mrs. 0. E. Rickard, Mrs. Carrie Taylor, Mrs. G. D. Cun- 
ningham, Mrs. G. W. Dennis, Mrs. J. H. Holland, Mrs. Ida 
Spooner Smith and Mrs. J. H. D. Cox. 

Having accumulated quite a fund with the building of a club 
house in view, the matter took definite shape in 1901, when an 
auxiliary organization was incorporated as the Woman's Club 
House Association, with a board of directors consisting of Mrs. 
Lizzie A. Low, Mrs. Fannie Noyes, Isabella Gill, Mary E. Darling, 
Alice E. Holmes, Mary E. Boggs, Mrs. Helena Leighton, Sarah J. 
Ford, Louise Harvey Clarke, Susan B. Cunningham. Mrs. Button 
was chosen president of the board, and Mrs. Cunningham, secre- 
tary. Stock was generously subscribed by the club members and 
citizens generally, and a lot finally purchased at the corner of 
Main and Eleventh streets. Plans were made for the new build- 
ing by F. P. Burnham of Los Angeles, a contract let for its 
construction to Durfey Brothers, and in 1908 the club took pos- 
session of the beautiful building which is its permanent home. 
The property as it stands represents an investment of about $25,000. 

Another prominent organization of Riverside women is the 
Wednesday Morning Club. It was originally known as the Extem- 
poraneous Drill Club, under which name it effected its organiza- 
tion in the Universalist church parlors in February, 1902. It 
had a charter membership of sixty-five, and has an average mem- 
bership of 100. Its object was primarily to study parliamentary 
usage and train its members in presenting orally their views on 
important current events, and also to stimulate a public spirit 
which should induce improved sanitary conditions and the further 

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beautifying of the city. This club was formed through the efforts 
of Mrs. Lorenzo Franklin Darling, at the time a member of the 
executive board of the State Federation of Clubs. Among its 
other valued members were its two honorary vice-presidents, the 
late Mrs. George H. Deere, and Mrs. Mary Sammet, the latter 
still useful in spite of her seventy-nine years. Like the older 
woman's club it has given generously in aid of many beneficent 
objects. Its presidents have been Mrs. L. F. Darling, Mrs. C. R. 
Stibbens, Mrs. I. W. Gleason, Mrs. P. T. Carter, Mrs. Frank E. 
Densmore and Mrs. M. Estudillo. 

The Tuesday Musical Club is the name of a woman's organiza- 
tion whose efforts have stimulated and helped to maintain a love 
of all that is best in music. It had a modest beginning in 1890, 
when the club held its sessions in the homes of its members, but 
its growth soon compelled the use of the Y. M. C. A. Hall, where 
it met until the completion of the Woman's Club house provided 
it with superior accommodations. Its concerts, given from time 
to time, have not only afforded the people of the city opportunity 
to enjoy the work of our local musicians, but have also been the 
means of giving to Riverside audiences opportunity to hear at 
home many of the best of the world's artists and musical organiza- 
tions. Its presidents have been Mrs. Dudley Duyckinck, Mrs. Edgar 
R. Skelley, Mrs. Hubert Hamilton, Mrs. John Macrae, Miss Mar- 
garet Gage, Mrs. G. E. Tucker, Mrs. James Orrick and Mrs. 
Arthur Brown. 

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By E. W. Holmes 

Although Riverside was settled some five years after the close 
of the Civil war, and therefore contributed no organization of her 
own to the great army that fought for the preservation of the 
Union, so many of those who became residents of the city bore 
an honorable part in that conflict as to make it proper to place 
their names on record here. So many of the old soldiers came 
to make Riverside their home, that it is said that for years prob- 
ably ten per cent of her voters were veterans. No complete list of 
these is available, but from a history of the local Post, prepared 
by Capt. Harvey Potter, we gather the following: 

Riverside Post No. 118, 6. A. R. — This Post was organized 
May 1, 1886, with thirty-one charter members, who were: Chris- 
topher C. Miller, James H. Roe, George M. Skinner, Elmer W. 
Holmes, Samuel B. Hinckley, Cary" J. Gill, Otis T. Dyer, Charles 
T. Rice, Henry W. Robinson, John Aberdeen, Adair S. Alkire, 
J. P. Mitchell, David Frost, Francis Coolidge, William Carr, John 
O. Cottrell, Nelson Rustin, Lycurgus Grice, John K. Woodward, 
John E. Cutter, Winfield S. Wilson, Charles L. Cady, W. G. Wall, 
Edwin Hart, Frank Petchner, Joseph M. Edmiston, Albert H. 
Sprague, Veranus S. Runnels, Marcus M. Davis, Robert Johnston 
and David Frost. 

The following is a list of the Post commanders: Cary J. 
Gill, 1886; Marcus M. Davis, 1887; Hiram C. Hibbard, 1888; Chris- 
topher C. Miller, 1889; Charles T. Rice, 1890-91; Charles H. Vos- 
burg, 1892; Francis Coolidge, 1893; William W. Campbell, 1894; 
Gaylor Rouse, 1895; Oliver Burrell, 1896; Charles M. Dexter, 
1897-98; David G. Mitchell, 1899-1900; Harvey Potter, 1901; 
William B. Johnson, 1902; Jacob J. Yeakle, 1903; Charles Leech, 
1904; Arlington C. Lewis, 1905; Andrew S. Milice, 1906; Dwight 
B. Mason, 1907 ; Homer A. Plimpton, 1908 ; George D. Jones, 1909 ; 
Elmer W. Holmes, 1910; Robert Henderson, 1911; Jeffrey 0. 
Cutts, 1912; Edwin H. Gamble, 1913. 

The following have been commanders in other Posts, and later 

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became members of Riverside Post by transfer: Peter W. Stocks- 
ledger, Albert Laughridge, Henry S. Clark, Jonathan W. McKen- 
ney, John S. Strong, Madison Noland, Henry R. Vandebogart, 
David N. Alexander, Augustus Hulsiger, Oscar Pixley, Lyman 
Gregory, David Herrod, George N. Mason, Hiram I. Gruwell, 
William M. Pilgrim, John A. Willard, Mortimer P. Main. 

Charles T. Rice was commander of the Department of Cali- 
fornia and Nevada for one term; Harvey Potter, judge advocate 
for two terms, and D. G. Mitchell served as commander of the 
Southern California Veteran Association. Many Union veterans, 
not members of the Grand Army, have lived and died in River- 
side, but no accurate list of these is available. One of the first 
to be buried in Evergreen Cemetery was Henry 0. Stanley, the 
first secretary of the Land and Irrigation Company, who was dur- 
ing the war an aid of General Howard. 

Riverside has also had among her most loyal and respected 
citizens a number of Confederate veterans, several of whom have 
been so prominently identified with her progress as to entitle them 
to special mention in this record. J. T. Lawler, who was a captain 
through the war under General Forrest, was for years a valued 
member of our city council, and served conspicuously and well as 
a church official. James M. Drake, an Alabamian soldier, was 
for years our city treasurer, and a man universally loved for his 
sterling qualities. George Miller, badly maimed in one of the 
terrible Virginia battles and a long-time prisoner, and S. W. 
Culpepper, were both in Louisiana regiments, and were among the 
pioneers who shared the hardships of the colony days. James 
H. Blue of Mississippi was on the stafif of Gen. Albert Sydney 
Johnstone and was with him at his death at Shiloh. And Elijah 
Hawkins, who of those here mentioned alone survives, has won 
the hearts of his Union comrades by the personal qualities which 
belong to a soldier and gentleman. Sincerity, tested on many a 
bloody battlefield, has melted the prejudices of the past and fused 
the men of that era into the truest of Americans. 

Company M, 7th Regiment, N. G. C. — A company of the 
National Guard of California was organized in Riverside in Decem- 
ber, 1888, and was for a time known as the Riverside Rifles. A 
reorganization of the militia a year later made it Company M of 
the Seventh Regiment, the first officers being: James N. Keith, 

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captain; H. La V. Twining, first lieutenant, and S. R. Long- 
worthy, second lieutenant. During its existence the following have 
been its commanders: James N. Keith, January 3, 1890; J. A. 
Eason, September 30, 1897; Charles F. Pann, March 31, 1899; 
Curtis F. lluse, May 14, 1900; Harry E. Mitchell, January 7, 
1901; Frederick M. Heath, January 30, 1905; Peter J. Bollinger, 
May 4, 1908, and Miguel Estudillo, January 2, 1912. 

Upon the outbreak of the Spanish war the company enlisted 
for a two-year term in the United States service, and, under 
command of Capt. C. F. Pann, arrived at San Francisco with 
three commissioned officers and 100 enlisted men. May 7, 1898. 

The following is the roster of the company: Captain, Charles 
F. Pann; first lieutenant, H. J. Bedwell: second lieutenant, Charles 
B. Bayley; first sergeant, Harry E. Mitchell; quartermaster ser- 
geant, John T. Short; sergeants, Foye D. Battles, John W. Horton, 
AVilliam Vj. Thompson and Edward R. Nicholson; corporals, Carl- 
ton J. Baldwin, Frederick J. Cox, D. Frank Bell, George B. Cox, 
f]rnest A. Meacham, Eugene C. Johnson, Philip N. Van Slyck, 
William P. Pann, Clarence J. Jarvis, Albert D. Gage, Edwin A. 
Merwin, Peter J. Bollinger and John D. Boyd; privates, Bernard 
Goss, Charles P. Chamberlain, Edward H. Mercer, Fred E. Bar- 
ney, Samuel M. Bloom, William T. Babcock, Lewis J. Burnham, 
AVilliam H. Brimacomb, Dennis A. Ball, Charles B. Belden, Hunter 
Bowen, Arthur D. Bell, John G. Bryan, Frank Bridenstein, Charles 
A. Cover, George H. Campbell, Herbert S. Cunningham, William 

D. Craig, Lewis Craig, Judd C. Cleveland, Forrest R. Cleveland,' 
Harry S. Chandler, Daniel Cameron, Thomas H. Dix, Robert L. 
Ditto, Cornelius Donaghue, Wallace Evans, Lloyd E. Elwell, Burt 
f^'airchild, Cecil N. Funk, Edgar Gardner, Herman Gessler, Edward 
Grant, Clarence Goforth, Eddie A. Hart, Joseph R. Hamar, Henry 
Haskell, Myler L. Hains, Harry L. Hanson, Robert L. Henderson, 
AVilliam Hoogendyke, Jacob Jacobson, Fred C. Jonas, Frederick 
Kniss, Nicholas Kung, Gustav Krass, Scott LaRue, Roger T. 
Labadie, Alexander Law, Harry L. Lewis, Frank Loer, David A. 
Moriarty, AVarren J. Marsh, Robert V. Meyer, Otis H. Mort, Eddy 
W. Mort, Clyde O. Mack, Henry F. Nelson, D. Adelbert Newcombe, 
Daniel V. Noland, Thomas M.Nicol, George E. Pomeroy, Floyd 

E. Pomeroy, John P. Peterson, William H. Painter, Lawrence 
Preston, Mack A. Patton, Edward H. Parsons, Clelland W. Rohrer, 

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John W. Peck, Samuel H. Ralph, Guy B. Russell, Herbert Robuck, 
Walter R. Strong, George Scott, James J, Shultz, George D. Tay- 
lor, Joseph N. Thornton, Joseph H. Timmons, Jesse Van Meter, 
Andrew G. Williams, John M. Young, Francis M, Horton, Harry 
E. Tobias, D, G. Fairchild. Fenn D. Twogood was transferred 
to the United States Hospital Corps, and went to the Philippines. 
Dr. W. W. Roblee was a member of the regimental staff, being 
assistant surgeon, with the rank of captain. 


By E. W. Holmes 

The county of Riverside was formed in 1893 from a compara- 
tively small but populous and wealthy section of San Bernardino 
county (590 square miles) and a large but more thinly settled 
portion of San Diego county. The territory included is about 
equal in extent to the state of Massachusetts, there being an area 
of 7,031 square miles within its borders, of which far the larger 
portion is mountain and desert. But while the fertile portion is 
much less in area than that which is classed as desert there are 
but few portions of the earth where profits better repay intelli- 
gent investment and labor, or where the advantages of climate 
render life more enjoyable. And the rocky ranges which occupy 
so large a portion of the county contain, at present practically 
undeveloped, mineral wealth which will ultimately make the county 
as conspicuous as a mining section as it already is in a horticul- 
tural way. Indeed, the variety and quantity of the finest clays and 
stone for building and street purposes, already being shipped 
from the territory between Corona and Elsinore, furnish an 
important item in the list of products of the county, while immense 
bodies of the finest iron and copper ores in the desert section 
are now attracting the attention of capitalists, and their utiliza- 
tion will make possible great manufacturing developments in 
Southern California. The precious metals also abound, but may 
not prove of the real value of the baser metals through the wider 
uses to be made of them. 

The topography of the county is varied and remarkable. At 

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the eastern base of the San eTacinto range, whose beautiful sum- 
mits are lifted some 11,000 feet into the clear blue sky, lies the 
Coachella valley, containing the Salton sea and several young 
towns lying hundreds of feet below the sea level. Here, in what 
was once deemed a hopeless desert, around the towns of Coachella, 
Indio, Mecca and Thermal, the people are demonstrating the pecu- 
liar fitness of the soil and climate, not only for the production of 
early fruits and for general farming, but for the growing of the 
finest varieties of dates, which industry is very sure to become 
here the source of large and certain profits. Twenty-five hundred 
feet above the sea, in the San Gorgonio pass, lie Banning and 
Beaumont, whose prosperity comes from climatic and soil condi- 
tions which enable its citizens to produce a quality of deciduous 
fruits unexcelled anywhere. Westward, between the great moun- 
tains and the coast range, lie the great fertile valleys containing 
the bulk of the county's population and wealth; Riverside, Corona 
and Wineville, in the valley of the Santa Ana river; Perris, in the 
heart of an immense plain, where water at last is found to trans- 
form it into an almost boundless area of alfalfa; Elsinore, nestled 
beside its mountain-bordered lake, and tempting invalid and tourist 
with its hot-spring resorts and pretty surroundings; San Jacinto 
and Hemet, sister cities lying in the sheltered corner of the great 
valley, growing rapidly because of the wealth of the fertile soil 
and ample water in all the section around them. And away off, 
on the banks of the Colorado, 200 miles from the county seat, are 
the Palo Verde and Chuckawalla valleys, with hundreds of thou- 
sands of fertile acres, waiting only for the application of the water 
which the great river can supply, to duplicate the experience of 
the Imperial valley and make of the country tributary to Blythe 
another rich county for California. 

This was the territory taken to form the county of Riverside. 
San Diego county made no serious objection to the loss of her 
territory, recognizing the hardship to the residents who were 
compelled to go hundreds of miles and pass through the territory 
of two other counties to reach their county seat. But it was quite 
otherwise with the San Bernardino oflBcials, who made a bitter 
and expensive fight to retain a section which had been most heavily 
taxed to maintain the county government. The Riverside section 
had but one representative on the board of supervisors, the first 

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being Capt. B. B. Handy, the next A. P. Johnson, then 6. W. 
Garcelon. The latter, disgusted at the over-bearing attitude of 
his colleagues, resigned, and A. S. White was selected for the 

Unable to prevent the arbitrary action proposed by his col- 
leagues. Supervisor White called a meeting of the people of Riv- 
erside, to take action looking to a division of the county. Although 
committees were appointed and funds raised, nothing was accom- 
plished in the legislative session of 1891. In anticipation of the 
session of 1893 a committee was chosen, composed of Frank A. 
Miller, S. C. Evans, Sr., George Frost, Bradford Morse, John G. 
North, J. R. Newberry, W. J. Mclntyre, 0. T. Dyer and E. W. 
Holmes of Riverside, D. G. Mitchell of Perris, F. W. Swope and 
John McLaren of San Jacinto, and George M. Pearson of Muri- 
etta, to go to Sacramento to aid our legislative representatives in 
making the division fight. 

The reasons given by the committee for the division of Riv- 
erside county from San Bernardino county were as follows: In 
June, 1891, the board of supervisors of San Bernardino county 
called an election to vote $350,000 in bonds for a new court- 
house. Although this proposition was voted down, the supervisors 
defied public sentiment and expended nearly $100,000 for a new 
courthouse, increasing the annual rate of taxation to obtain this 
sum from $1.60 to $2 on the $100. This so incensed the voters 
outside of San Bernardino's influence that the board of supervisors 
again called an election in June, 1892, to vote $250,000 in twenty- 
year bonds for the completion of the courthouse, which was also 
defeated by an immense majority. But the supervisors (three of 
the five) continued their defiance of public sentiment by pushing 
forward the work on the courthouse. Not only so, but they further- 
more reduced the assessed valuation of the county seat from 
$4,487,585 in 1889 to $4,008,453 in 1892, while increasing the valu- 
ation of the rest of the county $3,500,000. An increase was made 
in the assessment of nearly every section of the county that had 
voted against the bonds. Riverside being marked for especial retali- 
ation in an increased assessment of fifty per cent. This discrimina- 
tion was so apparent and marked that it could only have hap- 
pened by premeditated design. 

The assembly defeated Riverside's ambition in 1891, but many 

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who were its opponents then became its advocates in 1893. Its 
obvious justice won friends, not only at Sacramento, but also in 
the section of San Diego county which it was proposed to incor- 
porate in the new county, and the eflScient aid rendered by the 
people of this section overcame previous local indifference and 
opposition, and materially aided the final success. 

The bill forming Riverside county was introduced in the 
senate by Senator Streeter of Riverside, and in the assembly by 
Assemblyman Barker of Banning, on the 9th of January, and on 
February 8th the bill passed the . senate, twenty-seven to twelve, 
and on the 25th of the same month it passed the assembly by a 
vote of sixty-two to fourteen. Governor Markham attached his 
signature to the bill on Saturday, March 11, 1893. 

In accordance with its provisions. Governor Markham ap- 
pointed a commission of five to organize the new county. These 
were Bradford Morse of Riverside, D. G. Mitchell of Ferris, 
John McLaren of San Jacinto, 0. A. Smith of South Riverside 
(Corona), and Frank A. Miller of Riverside. The act required 
the approval of the people and the selection of a county seat, and 
at the election called by the commission the vote stood 2,277 in 
favor of a new county and 681 against, and the selection of a county 
seat was made by a vote of 2,140 for Riverside, 459 for Menifee 
and 70 scattering. 

The new county started out with an assessed valuation of 
$12,309,250 and a tax rate of $1.85. The total valuation in 1912 
is $31,532,687, and the rate $2.20. 

The following named citizens have represented the territory 
now included in Riverside county in the state legislature and in 
the national congress: In the assembly, Henry M. Streeter of 
Riverside, Elmer W. Holmes of Riverside, C. 0. Barker of Ban- 
ning, E. W. Freeman of Corona, F. T. Lindenberger of Win- 
chester, A. S. Milice of Riverside (two terms), Frank D. Lewis 
of Riverside, Miguel Estudillo of Riverside, E. B. Collier of 
Corona, George W. Freeman of Corona and W. H. Ellis of River- 
side. In the senate, A. P. Johnson, Henry M. Streeter, A. A. 
Caldwell and Miguel Estudillo, all of Riverside. In the national 
congress, Capt. M. J. Daniels of Riverside. How differently pro- 
gressive action appears today from what it did twenty years ago 
is shown by the fact that the first necessary expenditure of some 

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$12,000 to build a decent graded road through the Box Springs 
pass, to make communication easy between the county seat and the 
territory to the southward, was subsequently made the basis of a 
bitter campaign against the authorities on the ground of extrava- 
gance, while the expenditure of some $40,000 to improve this very 
strip of road has recently been the most effective argument in 
behalf of the candidate conspicuous in securing this generous 
appropriation. Now, aside from the district levy for road build- 
ing, the county appropriates some $80,000 annually from its gen- 
eral fund in aid of permanent road and bridge building. 

Important duties fell upon this first board of supervisors in 
starting the machinery of the new county. John G. North and 
W. S. Wise were appointed to arrange a financial settlement with 
San Bernardino county, and A. H. Naftzger and Horace McPhee 
to perform the same duty with San Diego county. The Arlington 
Hotel was leased for a courthouse, which was used some ten years, 
imtil the acquirement of the block on Main street made possible 
the locating of a beautiful and convenient courthouse and the 
county jail upon it. 

The county hospital for a time occupied a building near the 
Santa Fe station, and the first to have charge of it were Dr. E. H. 
Way, as county physician, and Z. T. Brown, as superintendent. 
Dr. R. D. Barber of Corona was made the first county health 
oflBcer. The second board of supervisors moved the county, hos- 
pital to San Jacinto, where it was located until the building occu- 
pied was wrecked by an earthquake, when the county purchased 
a large tract of land on Magnolia avenue, below Arlington, and 
erected a group of buildings especially fitted for hospital use 
and the care of the indigent. In 1910, to comply with the require 
ments of a recent law, the county has located upon these grounds, 
facing on Garfield street, suitable buildings where, in a '* deten- 
tion home," neglected children are suitably cared for. 

Among the first of the appointments made was a board of 
horticultural commissioners to care for our important fruit inter- 
ests, Messrs. Judson House, George W. Van Kirk and Charles W. 
Godfrey being named for this duty. R. P. Cundiff has for years 
had the entire charge of this department. 

The records of the meetings of the supervisors, held June 27, 
1893, show that on that day an ordinance was adopted prohibiting 

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the liquor traffic within the limits of the county of Riverside, a 
policy which has been permanently maintained. 

The following is a list of the elective officers who have served 
the county since its organization, with the dates of their assump- 
tion of their duties: Superior judge, J. S. Noyes, 1893; F. E. 
Densmore, 1906. County clerk, A. J. Condee, 1893; W. W. Phelps, 
1899; A. B. Pilch, 1907. County treasurer, D. G. Mitchell, 1893. 
County sheriff, Fred W. Swope, 1893; W. B. Johnson, 1895; P. M. 
Coburn, 1899; Frank P. Wilson, 1907. District attorney. John M. 
Anderson, 1893; Lafayette Gill, 1895; Lyman Evans, 1898. County 
auditor, George W. Fox, 1893; William B. Clancy, 1895; George 
H. Brown, 1905. County tax collector, A. B. McCormick, 1893 ; J. C. 
Woodard, 1895; Oscar J. Palmer, 1896; E. D. Crane, 1910; Charles 
R. Stibbens, July 24, 1912. County surveyor, George M. Pearson, 
1893. County assessor, Bradford Morse, 1893; John T. Jarvis, 
1895; W. F. Montague, 1899. County coroner. Dr. W. S. Ruby, 
1893; Dr. C. C. Sherman, 1895; Dr. C. S. Dickson, 1899. Public 
administrator, George M. Frink, 1893; H. W. Bordwell, 1895 
Warren Taylor, 1896; L. C. Russell, 1896; M. S. Bowman, 1900 
W. H. Polkinghom, 1911. County recorder, E. H. Gruwell, 1893 
I. S. Logan, January 5, 1905. Superintendent of schools, Lyman 
Gregory, 1893 ; Edward Hyatt, 1895 ; Raymond Cree, 1907. County 
supervisors: First district, W. G. McVicar, 1893; Ambrose Comp- 
ton, 1895; Elwood Lilly, 1899; Thomas P. Drinkwater, 1902; J. T. 
Hamner, 1903. Second district: Martin Hoover, 1893; J. M. 
Edmiston, 1895; Dr. C. W. Craven, 1899; Elmer W. Holmes, June 
6, 1904. Third district: Albert S. White, 1893; Fred M. Dunbar, 
1897; Harry Bantz, 1905; Karl S. Carlton, 1909. Fourth district: 
S. A. Stewart, 1893; H. C. Thompson, 1895; A. T. Kimbell, 1899; 
James A. Crane, 19n. Fifth district: F.T. Loveland, 1893; John 
Shaver, 1895. 

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By Mrs. W. H. Ellis 

To study the history of Southern California, so full of legend 
and romance, one naturally asks the question, when he pauses 
to look into the history of Ferris valley, does it have any legends; 
could a web of romance be woven into its early history? The writer 
of this article has been led to believe by some that it was here 
that Helen Hunt Jackson laid the scenes portrayed in the closing 
chapters of her famous book **Ramona." One good pioneer assured 
the writer he personally knew every character introduced intol;he 
story. Then there are the '* doubting Thomases" who urge that 
no mention of the people or places described in the story are 
entwined in a true historical sketch of the Ferris valley. But 
Helen Hunt Jackson was not alone among the literary lights who 
saw and appreciated the beauties of the hill-encircled Ferris val- 
ley, for it was the gifted Mrs. Churchill who portrayed its sublime 
beauty in '*Furple Hills" that brought her fame and fortune; 
and Joaquin Miller has told in dreamy poetic fashion the story 
of the days of outlaw chivalry. 

It is not the intention of the writer to enter into minute details, 
or paint a creation of fancy that would lead to erroneous ideas, 
but to record in a plain practical manner the story of ** Brave 
Little Ferris." 

The Ferris valley is actable land ranging from 1,300 to 1,500 
feet above the level of the sea, while the city of Ferris has an 
altitude of about 1,440 feet. 

The valley is located in latitude thirty-four, being on the iden- 
tical parallel that passes through the sunny hills of Southern 
Spain. It is in the heart of that portion of Southern California 
called the ** citrus belt," in Riverside county. It was in San Diego 
and San Bernardino counties until 1893, when Riverside county 
was formed, the dividing line being a little north of the Schneider 
school house. Ferris is seventy-five miles southeast of Los Ange- 
les, one hundred miles north of San Diego, twenty-five miles south 

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of San Bernardino, and seventeen miles from the orange groves 
of Riverside. 

This valley was included in the San Jacinto Subranta grant, or 
was generally known in the early days as the San Jacinto plains, 
which term included all that level body of mesa or table land lying 
between Box Springs canyon and the Temecula valley, a territory 
about thirty miles square, which has since been given different 
names by settlers, such as Perris, Diamond, San Jacinto, Meni- 
fee, Pleasant, La Belle, Paloma and Los Alomas valleys, although 
properly speaking, the entire area of tillable land spreads out in 
a broad, level belt from the foot of Box Springs mountains, stretch- 
ing away to the southeast around the mountain spurs and ridges 
that form but slight geographical divisions. Many of the boun- 
daries are purely imaginary. The San Jacinto river runs in a 
southwesterly direction through the southern portion of the ter- 
ritory known as the Perris valley, which is from six to ten miles 
in width from foothill to foothill, and eighteen miles in length. 

Commencing at the northwest corner of the valley, near Box 
Springs, the boundary between the Perris and the San Bernar- 
dino valleys is marked by a range of low, broken granite hills 
extending eastward until merged into the plateau known as Cajon 
pass, a natural gateway into this region lying between the snow- 
covered peaks of San Jacinto and Grayback. These peaks stand 
like Titanic sentinels guarding the less romantic and sublime works 
below. The valley proper extends for a distance of ten miles 
along the range of low hills, that portion lying farther to the 
east being called the San Jacinto valley. Another range of higher 
hills forms a natural di\ision of these valleys and terminates in 
a lofty, rugged granite pile known as Twin mountain. To the 
southward it extends, together with the Menifee country and plains 
of Leon, to the crest of hills forming the walls of Temecula valley. 
On the west a low line of hills first breaks the level expanse, and 
after an abrupt rise of one hundred feet or thereabouts there is a 
mesa two miles or more in width, known as the Mountain Glen 
country, beyond which rise in rugged outline the picturesque 
Temescal mountains and gold-bearing hills of Gabilan. 

Prior to the year 1880 the Perris valley, or San Jacinto plains, 
as it was then called, was a treeless desert; great bands of sheep 
roamed at will over the level country, and Mexican miners worked 

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the rich gold deposits in surrounding hills. Before the plowshare 
had broken a foot of soil on the San Jacinto plains it was known 
as a mining country. Prospectors tramped over ridge and ravine 
and staked off claims in every direction. Fifty years ago a flour- 
ishing camp existed in the Gabilan country, and the Mexicans 
for many years made a living by mining, although their methods 
were primitive, and fully one-half of the precious metal was lost 
in its journey from the shining quartz bed to the sheepskin dust- 
bag of the miner. 

Evidences of a prehistoric people exist, and Indian relics are 
numerous. Among the latter may be mentioned stone mills, almost 
identical with those described in the Bible, used by the Indians to 
pulverize maize. These are quite numerous and consist of shallow 
bowl-shaped depressions in the face of flat boulders, and smooth 
oblong rocks which were held in the hand; the mode of operation 
being similar to that now employed by apothecaries in compound- 
ing drugs with mortar and pestle. 

In the year 1880 a pioneer named Copeland located a claim 
about three miles north of where the city of Ferris is now located. 
About the same time the Frazees located on land near Twin moun- 
tain. These were the first families who made permanent settlements 
in the valley. A few settlers came the following year, J. H. Banks 
being among them. 

Mining and '*dry farming" now began to attract the outside 
world to this section, and people began to come in and settle on 
claims. In 1882 came Mr. and Mrs. Henry W. Aikin and settled 
on a 160-acre tract in Menifee. Mr. Aikin is a native of Wisconsin 
and Mrs. Aikin is a native daughter. They are the oldest pioneers 
living in the valley. When they staked their claim not a tree was 
to be seen growing in the valley. In November, 1882, they left their 
home in Los Angeles county for Menifee, the party consisting of 
Mr. and Mrs. Aikin, a year old babe, Mrs. Aikin 's sister. Miss Mary 
Lee, and a young man by the name of Shoemaker. They traveled 
with a canvas-covered wagon, bringing what farming implements 
they could. They were two days making the trip, camping over 
night on the plains between Pomona and Riverside. 

The next morning they drove a few miles to the river, where 
the horses were watered and the party breakfasted. While prepar- 
ing breakfast, Mrs. Aikin climbed up to get something out of the 

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wagon, and in stepping backward to the ground she took hold of 
an iron rod and in some way her wedding ring was broken. No 
doubt this was taken by the young wife as a peculiar omen. 

When they started on again, a hard north wind was blowing, so 
Mr. Aikin fastened the canvas curtain down in front of the wagon, 
and they saw nothing of the country through which they were passing 
until they reached the top of the Box Springs grade. The wind had 
cleased blowing, so the curtain was raised, and the San Jacinto 
plains stretched away before them, a barren plain with rocky hills. 
You can imagine the disappointment of the young wife, who had 
pictured a valley, surrounded by rolling hills, covered with live-oak 
trees. To her it seemed hardly fit for a sheep pasture. 

When the party neared the Copeland ranch, a man came run- 
ning toward them beckoning. When they had driven near enough, 
he told them an old man had been killed in a well they had been dig- 
ging, a large bucket of rock and dirt having fallen on the old man 
while working down in the well. Mr. Aikin and Mr. Shoemaker 
went at once to his assistance. Mr. Aikin took half of the windlass 
rope and by means of it climbed down into the well, which was about 
forty feet deep. The old man, whose name was Abe Reed, was not 
killed, but very badly hurt. They brought him out of the well and 
put him on a mo\dng machine, which Mr. Aikin was trailing behind 
his wagon, and after making him as comfortable as possible they 
took him to his own cabin a few miles farther on. He asked them 
to drive to Pinacate station and tell his sister-in-law, a Mrs. Reed, 
about his accident. 

When they reached Pinacate they found the Hickey and Reynolds 
families celebrating the wedding of Prico Hickey and Miss Mattie 
Reynolds. Miss Mattie RejTiolds was the sister of A. W. Reynolds, 
who still lives in the Perris valley. Leaving Pinacate they drove on 
a few miles farther south, and on the close of Thanksgiving Day 
reached the i)lace that for many years was to be their home. 

The writer can well imagine the loneliness of the days and nights 
that followed their coming into this seemingly desert land. No 
doubt the young wife bore it bravely, all for love's sweet sake — love 
for her husband and the baby boy. That baby now is a successful 
business man in Los Angeles — the city of his mother's birth. 

In 1882 also came Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Nance, with their baby 
daughter Evelyn, natives of Tennessee. No history of Perris or 

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Perris valley could well be written without frequent mention of J. W. 
Nance. Having lost his health in the Mississippi valley on account 
of malaria, he went to the mountains of his own state, but receiving 
no benefit, he came to San Diego, Cal., in June, 1882, and stayed there 
for three months without any improvement. He then went to Los 
Angeles and there found himself much worse. Then he traveled all 
over California, seeking a place that would benefit his health, when 
his physician, a Dr. Worthington of Los Angeles, suggested that he 
needed a dry climate and high altitude. Acting on this advice he 
came to Riverside, and in talking with a merchant there, J. R. New- 
berry, he was told that the place he was looking for was the San 
Jacinto plains, but that he didn't suppose he could live there, as 
nothing but a jackrabbit could. He came to this desert plain, where 
nothing but a jackrabbit could live, and when he saw the fair moun- 
tain valley he bought 200 acres of land, paying $1 and giving a 
mortgage back for $1,999 and went to farming. Was it not a brave 
and courageous wife who could come with a sick husband and a 
baby daughter of but a few months, into a treeless mountain valley, 
with a capital of $1 down? They went to farming, sowed the ranch 
to barley and harvested two and one-fourth tons of hay to the acre 
and sold it for $22.50 per ton, making $4,000 from the first crop. 
Their place was paid for, and in the years following they increased 
their holdings, and for many years they continued to live in Perris 
and were associated in nearly every enterprise for the upbuilding of 
the place. 

In 1882 the California Southern Railway was built from San 
Diego to Colton, and it was then that the settlers began to dot the 
plains with cabins. The hopeful expectations from this road, how- 
ever, were doomed to disappointment. It had no direct eastern 
connection, and there was much opposition from other sections, so 
that travel over it was practically nil. As a climax, the winter of 
1882 and '83 was a very dry one, and the crops failed on all unirri- 
gated lowlands. Finally, early in 1884, most of the railroad in Teme- 
cula canyon and Santa Margarita was washed out by a flood, having 
been built too low by eastern engineers who did not understand the 
requirements of the Pacific coast climate. It took something like nine 
months to replace the road and restore traffic, and even then very 
dull times continued. But even though the railroad was not a paying 

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investment at that time, its coming through the Perris valley meant 
the beginning of permanent settlements there. 

It was not long before the demand for a postoflSce and general 
supply store became urgent, and in the winter of 1882 L. D. Reynolds, 
father of A. W. Re>Tiolds of Perris, located a claim. He built a 
house 10x12 and bored a well 119 feet deep, hoping to secure artesian 
water, but bedrock was encountered at that depth and work ceased. 
He was appointed postmaster, and the new settlement was named 
Pinacate (Pin-a-car-tee), taking the name of the gold mines near 
by, which were then running night and day, and employing a force 
of twenty men. The California Southern railway had a box car on 
a side track, and dignified it by calling it the * * station. ' ' The trade 
of the miners and increasing settlement led to the establishment of a 
store by Albion Smith, and a saloon was the next enterprise to be 
launched. Pinacate was now dignified by the title of *Hown," and 
bade fair to become a busy little city. A Texas surveyor, A. Jul. 
Mauermann, arrived about this time, and after securing land near the 
** station," laid out the town site. 

The railroad company had put down a switch, a commodious 
hotel had been erected by Mr. Mauermann, trade was on the increase, 
and Pinacate was catching the first pulse-waves of the great South- 
ern California boom, when trouble arose over the title to the land 
upon which it was located. Albion Smith, the storekeeper, filed a 
contest on the land held by Postmaster Reynolds, which affected all 
property in the townsite except that owned by Mr. Mauermann. At 
this juncture several settlers in the central and northern part of the 
valley conceived the idea of starting a new town. Among these 
settlers were J. H. McCanna and F. H. Carpenter, and after some 
agitation, they succeeded in interesting a number of San Bernardino 
business men in the project. So it came about that Dr. I. W. Hazlett, 
Dr. S. G. Huff, W. R. Porter, J. P. Hight, James E. Mack, Frank 
Volk, T. J. Forthing and W. J. Guthrie, all of that city, made a 
proposition to the railroad company to donate a large number of 
lots, build a depot, and sink a well, if the railroad company would 
remove the sidetrack to a point two miles north of Pinacate. Fred 
T. Perris of San Bernardino, chief engineer of the railroad company, 
favored the proposition, which was soon accepted, and the new town 
was named in his honor. In the month of April, 1885, the switch 
was taken up and moved from Pinacate, and the new station was 

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declared by the general manager of the California Southern Railroad 
to be the stopping place for all trains, and the history of Perris 
dates from that period. 

The new town was mapped and platted by E. Dexter and sur- 
veyed into lots and blocks by George A. Doyle, in December, 1885, 
and January, 1886. J. H. McCanna, in 1886, built the first store, 
now owned and occupied by M. L. Mapes with his general merchan- 
dise stock. The Town Company gave Mrs. Albion Smith, a former 
resident of Pinacate, two lots, on which she built, in 1886, the Hotel 
Perris. The Perris Pharmacy, in the Sharpless Block, is now located 
on these lots. Mrs. Smith was appointed postmistress, with Frank 
H. Carpenter, deputy. Mr. Carpenter owned a general merchandise 
store; L. D. Reynolds moved from Pinacate to the new town, and 
James E. Mack and John H. Banks opened a real estate office. About 
this time J. W. Nance and George B. Knight opened a land office, 
and Charles E. Gyger, now of Los Angeles, E. E. Waters and 0. G. 
McEuen embarked in the same business. Mrs. B. Bernasconi built 
the Southern Hotel in 1886, and has continued to run it ever since. 
J. A. Peron opened a hardware store, and for many years was 
engaged in that business. C. E. Gyger was the first telegraph oper- 
ator at the new station. Mr. McCanna opened his grocery store and 
business became lively. In November, 1886, H. Stephens Ehrman 
issued the first number of the Perris Valley Leader. One year later 
the paper was sold to Julius C. Rieger and p]dmund L. Peebles. 
Mr. Rieger came to Perris in 1884 and took up 160 acres of govern- 
ment land, on which he built a house and barn and planted trees and 
shrubs and made other improvements. He stayed on the ranch a 
year, when he formed a partnership with Mr. Peebles and purchased 
the Perris Valley Leader. He published the paper for one year, when 
he sold out and afterward purchased an interest in the firm of Mapes 
& Coppel, which firm was then running a fine grocery and provision 
store, giving up one front corner to the postoffice. 

During the fall and winter of 1887 and 1888 the town doubled 
in population. Drs. Perry and Sherwood opened a first-class drug 
store. Dr. Perry, now of Los Angeles, who was a descendant of 
Commodore Perry, came to Perris in 1887. He was a practicing 
physician in Chicago, but having serious throat trouble, came to 
California in December of 1887. He improved greatly in health and 
heartily recommends Perris valley as a very healthful place to live. 

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F. M. Coppel, now a practicing physician in Illinois, and M. L. 
Mapes, in 1887, bought the store of F. H. Carpenter, Mr. Carpenter 
entering the real estate firm of C. E. Gyger & Company. Mr. Coppel 
was the second postmaster to be appointed in Perris, with Mr. Mapes 
as deputy. Mr. Mapes and Judge Vermason afterwards owned this 
postoflBce store, while now Mr. Mapes is sole proprietor. 

This same winter Hook Bros. & Oak built a large two-story 
brick and iron building and put in a complete line of general mer- 
chandise. In the fall of '87 Ora Oak was looking over Southern Cali- 
fornia for a place to engage in business. After considering the 
merits of the many new places that were starting in California at that 
time, he returned to Oakland most favorably impressed with San 
Jacinto. In San Francisco he met Joseph F. Hook, an old acquaint- 
ance, who was also desirous of exchanging city for country business, 
so they went to San Jacinto with the intention of going into business 
there, but real estate values were so high they came to Perris in- 
stead. Here they bought property in January, 1888. In February 
and March they built their store, and in April the Perris Valley 
Supply Company's general merchandise store was opened for busi- 
ness. In May, A. W. Hook came up from his ranch in Sierra Madre, 
and J. F. Hook returned from San Francisco, where he had gone to 
dispose of his business. In August of the same year they bought lot 
2, block 3, which made them owners of all available land in the rail- 
road Y, thus securing valuable warehouse property. From the start 
they grasped the idea of what Perris needed in the way of a general 
supply store, and they were successful beyond their highest expec- 
tations. The men who made up the firm were hard working, pushing 
men, who do business on the live-and-let-live basis, and not only have 
their eyes open to their own interests, but also to the interests of 
the community in which they live. Ora Oak is now located in Col- 
ton, while J. F. and A. W. Hook still continue in the business, which 
has grown to such proportions that they now have a large department 
store besides the store in block 3. 

C. D. Bevier bought a lot on Main street and the land com- 
pany gave him another. He moved his stables from Pinacate and 
started the first livery in Perris. He also built the brick building 
now owned and occupied by the Hook Bros, department store. 

In time all the business places in Pinacate were moved to Perris 
and other lines of business were started. The Perris Vallev Bank 

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opened August 11, 1890, with James Patterson, Jr., as cashier. A 
meat market opened in 1888. Mesdames Banks & Norton supplied 
the needs of the gentle sex in the millinery line, as also did Mrs. 
J. C. Reynolds. There were blacksmith shops, one saloon, a boot and 
shoe shop, and the only Chinese resident was Gee Lee, the laundry- 
man. There were several contractors and builders in Perris, among 
them T. M. Mott, A. L. Broch, F. T. Merritt, J. R. Moore, Harry 
McCanna, M. A. Penny, Charles S. Hoag, B. Gardener and B. M. 
Velzy. Mr. Schmutzler was 'a first-class painter who lived in the 
north end of the valley on a fine ranch, but was always on hand 
when his services were needed. 

This Perris valley was an exception to the general rule in 
Southern California, inasmuch as it always kept ahead of the town 
in matters of development. The few scattering claims of 1884 soon 
grew to hundreds, and every section of level government land in the 
valley was located. Alternate sections belonged to the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company, under the terms of the land grant, and 
these were eagerly purchased by homeseekers. A majority of the 
settlers came into the valley because they were poor and could not 
afford to pay the speculative prices asked for land in better known 
localities, and it was only the wonderful fertility of the soil and its 
adaptability to grain culture that enabled the settlers to make a liv- 
ing and improve their homes. Every rancher who had the will to 
work and manage gained ground year by year, and each season was 
marked by some improvements. The board shanties gave place to 
substantial frame houses, trees were planted and the ranches gradu- 
ally assumed a homelike appearance. Little orchards and vineyards 
were set out and industriously cultivated by the thrifty settlers, 
wells were bored and windmills set up, and thus water was secured 
for irrigation in a small way. During this period the business of 
the valley had enormously increased. A branch line of the Santa 
Fe Railroad was built through the valley, from Perris to San Jacinto, 
a distance of twenty miles, and great quantities of barley, wheat and 
rye were marketed yearly. Large shipments of gold ore from the 
adjacent mining country, and wool from the sheep ranches added 
to the volume. 

The first white child born in Perris was Lucy Renuia Kingston, 
now Mrs. Ray Small of Riverside. Mr. and Mrs. John Kingston, 
with their little daughter, Grace, came from Illinois to Perris, Febru- 

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ary 28, 1886. Mr. Kingston had come to find a place where he might 
regain his health, but within six weeks from the arrival of the family 
in Perris, on the 9th of April, a few hours after the birth of the baby 
girl, Mr. Kingston died. A few months later Mrs. Kingston, with 
her two little girls, went to her Eastern home, but was soon obliged 
to return on account of her own health. She reached Perris the 
second time May 8, 1888, her father and mother returning with her. 
Miss Grace Kingston is now a most eflicient bookkeeper in the George 
N. Reynolds Department store in Riterside, and Mrs. Kingston is 
now Mrs. M. L. Mapes of Perris. 

It must be admitted here that Mathew Lutz was the pioneer 
settler near the townsite. He came here to work on the railroad, 
and liked the country so well that he took up a claim and became a 
resident. When the Kingston family arrived the first time the only 
trees in or around Perris were to be found at the Lutz home about 
a mile north of town on the Riverside road. 

Another pioneer to be mentioned in the history of the valley is 
JVilliam Newport, a rancher in Menifee. Mr. Newport was born in 
England in 1856. He came to this country in 1876, and came to 
Perris valley in 1885 and purchased 2,000 acres of land. When he 
moved to Menifee, although a young man, he resembled the patri 
archs, as there were twelve wagons in his train, loaded with imple- 
ments, provisions, lumber, and his cook-house on wheels was a 
building 9x18 feet. He found the valley very dry, and inhabited 
only by a few poor people; but poor as they were they pitied the 
young man who, as they thought, was to .make a failure of farming. 
After unloading. the carav^an he built a good ranch house and two 
large barns, and began farming his 2,000 acres, nearly every foot of 
which was tillable. Could you see this same ranch today you would 
find a beautiful home presided over by a dignified, queenly wife, who 
was Miss Katherine Lloyd, also a native of England. There are four 
fine, manly boys, sons of Mr. and Mrs. Newport, and one daughter, 
Katherine. The house is filled with many luxuries and interesting 
curios, and the grounds about the place are large and beautiful. Mr. 
Newport has been a most valuable factor in showing what can be 
done with land in that section when properly handled. 

For years it was believed that irrigation was unnecessary upon 
the greater portion of Perris valley lands. Trees and vines made a 
good growth without water, save that which fell during the rainy 

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season, but when the trees and vines reached a bearing age they 
produced little or no fruit. It became apparent that luck of water 
was the cause of barrenness, for the average trees picked out in an 
orchard and plentifully watered made a bounteous yield, while those 
on dry land, a few rods distant, would be barren. One by one the 
advocates of **dry farming" began to discover they were mistaken. 
About that time the sentiment in favor of irrigation became so strong 
that public meetings were held, and it was decided to form an irriga- 
tion district under the Wright act. Many obstacles were encountered, 
however, and it was not until about a year and a half that the boun- 
dary lines were definitely established and the work of organization 
was begun in earnest. And this brings us to perhaps the most im- 
portant period in the history of Perris and the valley, the bringing 
in of the Bear Valley water and the results following its being taken 

The Perris Irrigation District comprised 13,000 acres of land, 
and was organized by order of the board of supervisors of San 
Bernardino county, on May 20, 1890, under the provisions of an act 
of the legislature of this state, entitled, **An Act to provide for the 
organization and government of irrigation districts, and to provide 
for the acquisition of water and other property, and for the distribu- 
tion of water thereby for irrigation purposes, approved March 7, 
1887." This act is familiarly known as the Wright act. By an order 
of the board of supervisors the district was divided into five di- 
\isions, numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. An election was held in the dis- 
trict May 20, 1890, to fill the various elective oflSces, namely: Five 
directors, one for each division or precinct of said district, and a 
treasurer, collector, and assessor. The following were elected to fill 
these oflSces. Directors — J. W. Nance, first division; Israel Metz, 
second division; George P. Oakes, third division; W. F. Warner, 
fourth division ; C. T. Gifford, fifth division. Officers — D. G. Mitchell, 
treasurer; H. N. Doyle, assessor; and Julius C. Rieger, collector. 

On June 13, 1890, the board of directors organized by electing 
J. W. Nance, president and Dr. W. F. Perry, secretary. The ques- 
tion of water supply was the question before the directors, and the 
entire board resolved itself into a committee of investigation to 
ascertain the most reliable, and at the same time the cheapest water 

To facilitate matters 0. G. Newman of Riverside and James 


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Taylor of Pomona were selected as advising engineers. On tbe 17th 
day of June fhey left Perris to examine all available and known water 
sites of the San Jacinto mountains, such as Lake Hemet and the 
proposed works of the Soboba Water company, on Indian creek. 
On July 3rd they left Perris for Redlands, from which point they 
proceeded up the Santa Ana canyon to the summit and to Bear 
valley to examine the Bear Valley dam and reservoir. It was while 
standing on that magnificent piece of masonry and looking over the 
vast expanse of water that they mutually agreed that it was the 
safest, best and most feasible system of water supply yet examined, 
and further agreed that if it could be had at a satisfactory^ cost 
the Perris valley lands should have no other. The Bear Valley reser- 
voir at that time was the largest irrigation reservoir in the United 
States, and plans were then on foot to enlarge it, which would so 
increase its capacity that it would be the largest of any kind in the 

0. G. Newman of Riverside, in his report, said: *'0n July 3, 
1890, we examined the Bear Valley and its water supply, visiting the 
dam and the lake. The lake is now about five and a half miles in 
length, with an average width of two-thirds of a mile, having a depth 
of water at the dam of fifty-three feet, which is equal to a supply 
of about 3,334 inches under a four-inch pressure, for a six and two- 
thirds month irrigating season, or about 5,560 inches for a period 
of four months, according to an official map of Bear Valley reser- 
voir, in addition to the waters wasting into Bear creek during the 
winter season. The present dam is sixty feet in height. The contour 
of Bear valley and of the narrow canyon leading to Bear creek is 
such that a dam of considerable additional height can be constructed 
at a minimum cost, to store almost an unlimited amount of water. 
The valley above the dam is large and nearly level ; the slopes of the 
entire valley, especially to the south, are heavily timbered, prevent- 
ing the melting of the snow, which falls in abundance during the 
winter months. The gaugings of the rainfall of Bear valley, taken 
during a period of six years prior to November, 1890, show an aver- 
age of about fifty-two inches, with a maximum annual rainfall of 
94.6 inches. The average rainfall for the year 1889 was 42.8 inches. 
The drainage area, or the water shed of the valley, is estimated at 
about seventy-five square miles, and the present dam is located at 
an elevation of 6,450 feet above sea level. The cool atmosphere and 

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the frequent summer rains compensate to a larger degree for the 
natural loss by evaporation, and the water supply is also largely 
augmented by the numerous living streams continually pouring into 
the lake from the mountain's side, whose crest reaches an elevation 
of 7,500 feet above sea level. 

**The water from the Bear valley would be conducted to the 
Perris Irrigation district by means chiefly of an open canal, piping 
and fluming possibly a small portion of the distance. The entire 
distance to be overcome and the grade of the canal necessary for 
the most feasible route, render the expenditure heavy in the con- 
struction of the required conduit. However, it is our opinion that 
the most permanent supply of water, and by far the largest supply, 
can be delivered to the Perris Irrigation District at a minimum cost 
from the Bear valley when a new dam is constructed 

**The present water suf>ply of the reservoir reaches only the 
fifty- three foot contour, representing the depth of water at the dam. 
The eighty-foot contour shows a capacity about four times present 
capacity, and the higher contour shows a proportionately larger 
capacity for storage. Much more might be said, in a general way, 
and estimates of cost of delivering the water at the district from 
the different sources referred to can only be obtained by a more 
extended and careful research and surveys." 

A preliminary survey was at once ordered, and the same made 
by A. H. Koebig, showing cost from San Mateo tunnel to the end 
of the district, and in his report of same he says : 

**A canal with the capacity of 5,000 inches over the line described 
in my report would cost $344,752, to which I have added twenty per 
cent for incidentals and general superintendency, which amounts to 
$68,950. Adding this to the first amount the entire cost will be 
$413,700. This would cover the cost of construction of a canal of 
the capacity of 5,000 inches from the entrance of the same into San 
Jacinto valley, to the south boundary line of Perris Irrigation Dis- 
trict, covering the entire district. The cost of a canal over the same 
line, with a capacity of 15,000 inches, would be $774,427. One-third 
of that, which is the pro rata of 5,000 needed by the Perris Irriga- 
tion District, would be $258,142, so that 5,000 inches, delivered 
through a canal of 15,000 inches capacity would cost $86,610.80 less 
delivered through a canal of only 5,000 inches' capacity." James 
T. Taylor, engineer for the Perris Irrigation District, in his report 

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on estimated cost of canal, etc., for the delivery of 2,000 inches of 
water, says: **Upon examination of maps, profiles and estimates 
of preliminary surveys, I am of the opinion that $175,000 is suffi- 
cient to conduct the entire amount of 2,000 inches of water from the 
point of delivery from the Bear Valley company to the district, and 
also to the south end of the same and across the valley to tlje east 
side. The total distance, estimated to be about nine miles to the 
district, six or seven miles along the western boundary, and about 
five miles across the valley. The water to be conducted by means 
of canals and pipes, either of wood or iron." 

On August 5, 1890, Dr. W. F. Perry handed in his resignation 
as secretary, and Col. H. A. Plimpton was appointed in his place. 
Owing to circumstances beyond the control of the board matters 
progressed slowly, and no definite arrangements were entered into 
with the Bear Valley Water Company until the 7th of October. In 
the meantime, the Bear Valley and Alessandro Company, asked 
through petition presented by various petitioners, to have all lands 
north of the county line, except a portion of section 36, township 3, 
south, four west, excluded from the district. At the same time a 
petition was presented by various owners to have 4,150 acres east of 
the San Jacinto river annexed to the district. Both being duly adver- 
tised and no objections having been filed the said petitions were 
granted, leaving the district's present area about 17,680 acres. 

Several propositions were made to the board. by the Bear Val- 
ley Water Company, and it was only on October 7th that finally a 
proposition was presented which, in the judgment of the board, 
is the best, surest and cheapest proposition of any colony in this, 
the orange belt of the state. The following is the proposition in full, 
and the same was duly accepted by the board. 

Perris, Cal., Oct. 6, 1890. 
To the Board of Directors of the Perris Irrigation District : 

The Bear Valley Land and Water Company hereby offers to 
the Perris Irrigation District sixteen thousand (16,000) of its class 
^*B" acre water right certificates (a copy of the resolution of the 
Bear Valley Land and Water Company providing for the issuance 
of said certificates hereto and made a part hereof), with the option 
unto the Perris Irrigation District of increasing the number of said 
certificates to twenty thousand (20,000) certificates; provided the 

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said Perris Irrigation District shall exercise said option on or before 
July 1st, A. D. 1891. 

The water represented by the before mentioned certificates will 
be delivered by the Bear Valley Land and Water Company, at its 
own expense and free of all expense to the Perris Irrigation District, 
at the southeast corner of section 2, township 3 south, range 3 west, 
S. B. M., in the county of San Bernardino, State of California. 

The water, represented by eight hundred (800) certificates, will 
be delivered, as above set forth, by the.Bear Valley Land and Water 
Company, on or before April 1st, A. D. 1891. 

The water, represented by twenty-two hundred (2,200) more cer- 
tificates, will be delivered, as above, on or before April 1st, A. D. 1892. 

The water, represented by two thousand (2,000) more certifi- 
cates, will be delivered, as above, on or before April 1st, A. D. 1893. 

The water, represented by two thousand (2,000) more certifi- 
cates, will be delivered, as above, on or before April 1st, A. D. 1894. 

The water, represented by two thousand (2,000) more certifi- 
cates, will be delivered, as above, on or before April 1st, A. D. 1895. 

The water, represented by the remainder of said sixteen thou- 
sand (16,000) certificates, and also of the additional four thousand 
(4,000) certificates, if the Perris Irrigation District shall have, as 
hereinafter set forth, exercised its option to take twenty thousand 
(20,000) certificates, shall be delivered, as above set forth, in such 
quantities and at such times after April 1st, 1895, as the Perris Ir- 
rigation District shall direct ; provided, however, that the Perris Ir- 
rigation District shall take all of the water represented by the re- 
mainder of said sixteen thousand (16,000) certificates, or by the re- 
mainder of said twenty thousand (20,000) certificates, as before set 
forth, on or before the first day of April, 1890; and provided that 
the Perris Irrigation District shall never cumulate a demand for 
the water represented by the remainder of the sixteen thousand 
(16,000) or twenty thousand (20,000) certificates during any one 
year, and shall never demand more than the water represented by 
three thousand (3,000) certificates during each year of said remain- 
ing period. 

Said certificates shall be paid for by the Perris Irrigation Dis- 
trict, as follows, to-wit: Fifty thousand ($50,000) dollars in cash 
January 1st, 1891, and the balance of payment shall be made by the 
delivery, upon said last named date, of bonds of the Perris Irriga- 

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tion District, at par, bearing interest at the rate of six per cent 
per annum, the issuance and validity of which bonds shall have been 
passed upon and approved by a court having jurisdiction in such 
cases, said bonds to be issued on a basis not exceeding twenty-five 
dollars ($25.00) per acre. 

It is further made a part of this offer that said certificates here- 
inbefore mentioned, and the whole thereof, shall be collateral security 
for the performance by said district of its obligations and the pay- 
ment of said bonds, and shall be held by the Board of Directors of 
Perris Irrigation District, with such charge imposed thereon, until 
said obligations shall have been fulfilled and discharged by said 

Ammon p. Kitchino, 
Vice-President Bear Valley Land and Water Co. 

F. E. Brown, 
Chief Engineer of Bear Valley Land and Water Co. 

The following resolution of the Bear Valley Land and Water 
Company, referred to in the foregoing proposition, is a part thereof: 

RESOLVED: That this company authorize the issue of one 
himdred thousand (100,000) certficates, to be called '* Class B, Acre 
Water Right Certificates," which shall be sold to such parties as 
the Board of Directors shall hereafter determine, for the price of 
$15 each, and the payment of an annual sum of $2.78 on each cer- 
tificate, payable equally April 1st and October 1st of each year. 
Said certificates to be subject to and subordinate to the rights, 
under contracts of the company with the North and South Fork 
Ditch Company's class '*A" certificates, contract for 200 1-7 inches 
of water, held by Domestic Co., and contract for 57 1-7 inches of 
water held by Crafton Co. 

Said certificate shall express on the face thereof from what 
canal, ditch, pipe line or other source of supply other than that 
expressed on the face thereof. 

Each certificate of said ** Class B, Acre Water Right Certifi- 
cates" shall entitle the holder to one acre foot, or 43,560 cubic 
feet, of water per year, to be called for at such times and in such 
amounts as the owner thereof shall desire; provided, however, that 
this company shall not be compelled to furnish more than one- 
eighth of an inch per day to each of such certificates, an inch 
being equal to a flow of one-fiftieth of a cubic foot per second. 

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These certificates shall always be personal property. All of 
said above conditions to be expressed on the face of said certificate. 

The amount realized from the sale of said certificates to go 
into the construction fund of the company, and to be used in the 
construction of dams, ditches, canals, pipe lines, reservoirs and 
the purchase of such property as may be necessary or useful in 
the carrying on of the business of this company, or in the pay- 
ment of such indebtedness as has or may be incurred in the con- 
struction of dams, ditches, pipe lines or reservoirs, or reservoir 
sites, or the purchase of the same or rights of way. 

The total cost per acre, counting interest on amount invested, 
water and maintenance of canals included, will be $4.28 per acre, 
or $2.78 per acre amount actually paid for water. Immediately 
after accepting the foregoing proposition the board passed a reso- 
lution ordering a special election to be held on the 1st day of 
November, 1890, for the purpose of determining the question 
whether or not bonds to the amount of $442,000 shall be issued for 
construction of the necessary canals, works, etc., amounting to a 
bonded indebtedness of $25 per acre — of these bonds $240,000 to 
be used to pay for the water certificates, and $202,000 will be used, 
or as much as will be required in distributing it on the land ; and in 
accordance with notice duly published and posted a special election 
was held Saturday, November 1st, in the five precincts of the Per r is 
Irrigation District. The whole number of votes cast were seventy 
— sixty-nine votes in favor of the issuance of bonds and one vote 
against bonds. 

At a special meeting of the board of directors immediately 
thereafter it was resolved that in pursuance of said election, and 
by yirtue and in pursuance of the authority vested by law in said 
board, bonds of said district to the amount of $442,000 be issued; 
that said bonds shall be payable in gold coin of the United States, 
in installments as follows, to-wit: 

At the expiration of eleven years, five per cent of said bonds ; 
at the expiration of twelve years, six per cent; at the expiration 
of thirteen years, seven per cent; at the expiration of fourteen 
years, eight per cent; at the expiration of fifteen years, nine per 
cent ; at the expiration of sixteen years, ten per cent ; at the expira- 
tion of seventeen years, eleven per cent; at the expiration of eigh- 
teen years, thirteen per cent; at the expiration of nineteen years. 

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fifteen per cent; and for the twentieth year, a percentage sufficient 
to pay off said bonds, and that said bonds shall bear interest at 
the rate of six per cent per annum, payable semi-annually, on the 
first day of January and July of each year. The principal interest 
of said bonds shall be payable at the office of the treasurer of the 
district; said bonds shall be each of the denomination of $500, 
signed by the president and secretary, and the seal of the board of 
directors shall be affixed thereto; and it was also resolved by the 
board of directors at same meeting to sell $227,000 of the bonds, 
and notice of the sale of said amount of bonds was sent by the sec- 
retary to a daily paper in each of the cities of San Francisco, 
Sacramento and Los Angeles, as well as our own paper, the New 
Era, to the effect that sealed proposals will be received by the 
board at the office in Perris, up to 10 a. m., January 2, 1891. 

In accordance with the provisions of the Wright act, under 
which this district is organized, the matter was at once taken 
into the courts for a review of the proceedings of the board of 
directors, and to test validity, etc., of the bonds; and on the 13th 
of December the court decreed that all the proceedings of said 
board, from the organization of the district up to and including 
the order for the issuance and sale of its bonds, be and the same 
are hereby approved, confirmed, and declared legal and valid. 

The following report made by the assessor of the Perris 
Irrigation District to the board of directors at a special meeting 
called to receive the same, will give something of an idea as to 
the real value of property within said district, a most gratifying 
showing for the growth and development of the valley in a less 
period than half a decade. 

Perris, Cal., Dec. 9th, 1890. 
To the Honorable Board of Directors, Perris Irrigation District: 

Gentlemen — In accordance with your request I made a care- 
ful assessment of all real property in the Perris Irrigation Dis- 
trict. I have taken cash values for my guide, and have made the 
same equitable, and herewith report: 

Total acreage and improvements thereon, $979,052.55. 


Horatio N. Doyle, 

The board of directors unanimously passed a resolution en- 

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dorsing and accepting said report and ordered same spread on the 
minutes of the board. 

They said further: **No question can now be raised against 
the work done in the past, and we need fear nothing as to the final 
outcome of the water question, for the bonds will be sold, and 
work will then begin, and in the not very distant future Bear 
Valley water will come rippling down our avenues, and flowing 
through our orange groves, and Perris valley, from Moreno to 
our own thriving town, will be dotted with groves and beautiful 
homes, for all the fruits and flowers for which Riverside and 
Redlands are celebrated can be raised here to perfection. For 
natural beauty there is not a valley in all Southern California 
which excels, if it equals the Perris valley. Our climate is truly 
an anomaly. In all the seasons, including the rainy days of the 
winter months, sunshine is the rule; and we only know it is the 
time of winter by seeing his white mantle glistening in the bright 
sunlight on the distant mountain peaks. We close this report with 
an invitation to our eastern friends to come and be one of us, 
*for the Lord hath spoken good concerning this fair land, and his 
smile is upon us, for it is in very truth God's country.' " 

J. W. Nance, President, 
Geo. p. Oakes, 
W. F. Perry, 
Arnold E. Colby; 
Israel Metz, 
H. A. Plimpton, Secretary. 

Isn't this glorious prophecy a bit pathetic to those who know 
the trouble the Bear Valley water transactions brought to this fair 
land? In this instance, as is always true where the interests of 
the people are concerned, sides were taken for and against the 
Eiear Valley water proposition. The people were united on the 
fact that Perris valley must have water, but there were those, shall 
we not say, who were a little the wiser, who believed a subter- 
ranean body of water could be found at an average depth of about 
forty feet, which would be inexhaustible, since a flow of about 
twenty miners' inches was being drawn from two seven-inch wells 
by a steam engine, continuously for twenty-four hours, without 
lowering the water in the wells. 

Such decided positions were taken by either side that the bit- 

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terest of feeling existed between the two factions. It went to such 
an extent that incendiary fires occurred. At one time the ware- 
house of Hook Brothers & Oak was burned to the ground; at 
another time the store was found in a blaze, but this was quickly 
extinguished before any real damage was done. Many pages could 
be written on the period of Perris history, but suffice to say in 
spite of all these ups and downs the district was bonded and the 
water came ** rippling down their avenues," and when it reached 
the town a great day of feasting and joy and gladness was ob- 
served. A fountain of water played in the streets and the ** Water 
Festival" went down in history. Perris valley took on new life, 
orchards of all kinds of fruit trees were to be seen growing in 
any direction; gardens flourished; flowers bloomed, and it seemed 
indeed it was '* God's country." 

Following is a clipping from the Riverside Reflex, April 14, 
1894: *^ Perris is a young city of the plains. It is on the South- 
ern California Railway. It is in the midst of the great grain-grow- 
ing part of the county, but has recently gone extensively into decid- 
uous fruits, alfalfa and general farming. What is called Perris 
valley embraces about 80,000 acres of land, 13,000 acres of which 
comprise the Perris Irrigation District, watered from the great 
Bear Valley dam, in the San Bernardino mountains. The water 
is distributed in steel pipes under pressure, and the system, when 
completed, at the cost of $300,000, will be one of the finest in the 
world. All kinds of deciduous fruits, cereals and vegetables grow 
in abundance and perfection, and lemons thrive. The population 
of town and settlement is about 1,200, and the town is quite a trad- 
ing center. There are stores of all kinds, a bank, a good news- 
paper, opera house, schools, churches, etc. In the foothills, a few 
miles west of Perris, gold mining is profitably prosecuted." 

Right here it might be said the hills west of Perris are rich 
in deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, asbes- 
tos, plumbago and gjT^sum. At this time the principal gold 
mines worked near Perris were the Good Hope Consolidated, Meni- 
fee, Plomo, Virginia, Northern Belle, Colorado, and the placers 
in Gabilan. Specimens of gold quartz assaying over $60 per ton 
had been taken out, though the average was from $20 to $45 per 
ton. A five-stamp mill had been in operation at the Good Hope 

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mine for ten years, but was replaced by improved machinery 
having greater capacity. 

A stamp mill was also in operation at the Menifee mines, 
eight miles from Perris. The property was owned by the Allen 
syndicate of St Louis. Menifee Wilson, who first located the 
mines, and for whom that portion of the valley was named, took 
out over $18,000 worth of gold dust before disposing of the 

The famous Temecula tin mines, fifteen miles west of Perris, 
were owned by an English company who employed a force of 
a hundred men improving the mines, erecting buildings and con- 
structing a large dam. 

Perris valley, through the labor of J. H. Banks, had a mineral 
exhibit which took first premium at the Sixth District Fair, held 
in Los Angeles in the fall of 1889. 

Thus in nearly all lines of activity Perris was prosperous. 
But this prosperity, so eagerly looked forward to, continued for 
only a few short years. The Bear Valley Water Company soon 
was unable to furnish the water agreed upon, as their supply low- 
ered, and other places having prior rights must be supplied, so 
the Perris valley supply dwindled and finally was shut off entirely, 
and the services of Lou liowery, as zanjero, were no longer needed. 
Then dark and troublous days followed. The gardens and flowers 
no longer flourished; the fruit trees were unable to withstand the 
long, dry summers, and alfalfa fields became brown and gray. 

Naturally censure fell upon those public-spirited citizens who 
had worked so zealously to bring the water into the valley, which 
through no fault of theirs had been taken away. Many small for- 
tunes were wrecked, and many good families were lost to Perris. 
Houses were picked up and moved out of the valley, making the 
place look the more desolate. 

Finally in 1895, Dr. W. B. Payton, now of Riverside, began 
to make arrangements to bore a well and grade forty acres for 
alfalfa on his ranch east of town. People generally discouraged 
him, saying he would be foolish to even try to keep ten acres alive 
from the little water he would get from a well. But he bored his 
well, and installed a gasoline engine and successfully irrigated 
his forty-acre field of alfalfa. About this time William Edgar, 

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now of Imperial, bored a well and had water for irrigation pur- 

Ranchers throughout the valley began to put down wells, but 
it was not until 1905 that things really began to pick up. 

In December, 1888, the Temescal Water Co. was organized in 
Corona. One hundred and sixty acres of land were bought in the 
Perris valley and wells put down and pumping plants erected. A 
pipe line was built from these wells in Perris valley to the wells 
in Temescal canyon, and ever since August 11, 1901, water has 
been pumped from these wells, through the pipe line to Temescal, 
then on to Corona, to increase the insuflBcient water supply from 
the Temescal artesian wells. 

Why couldn't Perris valley at this time have had the benefit 
of this water supply? 

The Temescal Water Co. has its station at Ethanac, on the 
Santa Fe, a few miles southeast of Perris. Ethanac was named in 
honor of Ethan Allen Chase of Riverside; and is a pretty little 
town, the inhabitants being chiefly the employes of the Temescal 
Water Co. 

In 1904 William Newport brought action against the Temes- 
cal Water Co. to prevent them pumping water from the Perris 
valley into the Corona valley, for he believed the water level in the 
Perris valley was being lowered. He was defeated in the courts, 
however, and the Temescal Water Co. still operates at Ethanac. 

Water supply or non-supply makes history in Southern Cali- 
fornia, so it has been the peg around which all events in Perris 
and Perris valley rotate. But the supply in this valley that has 
already been developed has far exceeded the wildest dream of any 
promoter or real estate dealer. Wells and pumping plants can be 
found on every ranch, and thousands of acres of alfalfa are watered 
and harvested, while oranges and lemons grow in abundance along 
the foothills. 

One of the finest ranches in the valley is Poorman Dairy Ranch. 
Much could be said about the development of this ranch, which has 
been an interesting agricultural study. The ranch, consisting of 
3,600 acres, is the property of Samuel Poorman of Alameda. His 
son Edward is sole manager, a young man just from college, who 
came to the ranch some six or seven years ago, and who with 
the experience of his father has made the ranch what it is, a 

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splendid Southern California dairy ranch. He manufactures the 
Mission creamery butter, a well-known product in this part of the 

One of the prettiest home places in the valley is La Hacienda, 
the bungalow home of Mr. and Mrs. John Dunlap, on the Dunlap 
ranch, northeast of town. It is built of gray granite and is the 
quaintest, most artistic place one could imagine, with its roof in a 
dull gray tone and the seven gables green. It is a low rambling 
house, with large porches, surrounded by flowers and a spacious 
lawn in front. A large number of ornamental and fruit trees are 
growing round about the place, while broad alfalfa fields are on 
three sides cooling the heated winds of afternoons in summer. 
To sit on the veranda here at twilight and see the different ranges 
of mountains and foothills on the south, the east, and the west, 
hazily outlined in a soft blue-gray light, with the great valley 
stretching away in all directions, one can fully appreciate the won- 
drous beauty of the ** hill-encircled Perris valley." 

About a half-mile distant to the east is the cozy brown bunga- 
low home of Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Dunlap, Jr., nestling in a pretty 

The Dunlap Brothers have 160 acres in alfalfa, while the re- 
mainder of the ranch is devoted to dry farming. The Dunlap 
ranch was originally a part of the Newport North ranch. The 
foothill portion was sold by A. H. Dunlap, Sr., to Emil Firth, who 
has had it surveyed into ten-acre tracts for orange culture. He has 
named the place Orange Vista, and already a beautiful home on 
Foothill and Citrus avenues has been built by Mrs. Anderson, who 
came but recently from Davenport, Iowa, with her husband, who 
suddenly died while the new home was being made ready for them. 

A beautiful home among the foothills, about two miles north 
of town, is that of Mr. and Mrs. George C. Conklin. The house, 
with its pretty green lawn and multitude of beautiful flowers, sur- 
rounded by a grove of orange and lemon trees, is one of the show 
places of the valley. Go up the tree-lined drive in April, when 
orange and lemon trees and roses are in bloom, and see this beau- 
tiful country home in all its glory, with a view from the house 
across the orange grove and the valley to snow-crowned San 
Jacinto mountain in the distance, and you will wonder if any spot 
in the world could be more beautiful. 

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As before stated, Perns Valley is unusual in that it has 
always kept ahead of the town in matters of development, but 
Perris is again coming into its own, and this time is building on a 
sure and safe foundation. 

In April, 1911, an election for incorporation was held and car- 
ried by a vote of more than two to one and Perris became a city 
of the sixth class. At this same time officers were elected as fol- 
lows: Clerk, Charles H. Cowles; treasurer, W. W. Stewart; mar- 
shal, Harry Truax; trustees, J. W. Lowery, C. W. Woodward, 
S. V. Gates, George Marshall and Dr. J. W. Reese. Dr. Reese 
was elected chairman of the board of trustees. 

Since incorporation much progress has been made. The first 
and most important step perhaps was the purchase of a pumping 
plant and water system, which it is expected soon will be in such 
state of perfection, with large storage tank, that water may be had 
in abundance at all times, as well as on pumping days. 

The Southern Sierras Power Company has a sub-station here, 
the only one in the county, and Perris, its homes, and the homes 
in the valley, are being lighted liy electricity; besides many pump- 
ping plants are now being run by electric motors rather than 

A saloon is an enterprise that was launched after incorpora- 
tion, but at the very first election to be held in the city, ** Brave 
Little Perris" arose to the situation and the saloon was voted out. 
A clean town was more desirable to them tjian the large revenue 
poured into its treasury by a saloon. 

Perris has a bank and a banker, and is justly proud of both 
W. W. Stewart came to Perris in the fall of 1908 and opened the 
Bank of Perris. He bought property and began at once to build 
his home, which is one of the most beautiful and modern houses in 
the valley. It is in the foothill portion of the city, commanding a 
view of the whole valley. This was in readiness for the arrival of 
his wife, two sons and daughter, Genevieve, who came the follow- 
ing spring. The two sons, W. G. and Clifford, are associated with 
him in his banking business. 

T. H. Sharpless is a public-spirited citizen who has recently 
built two large brick buildings on Main street, in the Sharpless 
block. The Perris pharmacy, the Ming Shoe store, the postoffice 
and the Poinsetta furnished rooms are all housed in one, while in 

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the other will be found the Lanier & Kirkpatrick store, Dr. Woods' 
jewelry store, and a fine meat market. Many fine business houses, 
a credit to a city of any size, and many beautiful houses and cozy 
bungalows are making Perris a substantial little city. 

Early in the history of Perris schools and churches were estab- 
lished. The first school was opened about a mile south of town and 
was taught by a Miss Potts, afterwards Mrs. Eli E. Waters. 
In 1888, through the efforts of J. W. Nance, a fine $6,000 brick 
building was erected in the west part of town. This building is 
still in very good condition and is the home of the grades in Per- 
ris, with Miss Prudence Faddis as principal. 

Another school about four miles north of town is the Schneider 
school, a neat attractive two-story building. Here for a time they 
employed two teachers, but during the decline of the valley it was 
closed, as there were not enough children in the north end to per- 
mit of a teacher being hired. Now again *' school keeps'' and it is 
necessary to employ two teachers. 

For some time the Perris Union High School held forth in the 
brick building with the grades, then for a few months in the fall of 
1910 they occupied Evelyn Hall, while waiting for the completion of 
the beautiful new, commodious building erected on a ten-acre tract 
at the corner of Perris boulevard and San Jacinto avenue. The 
structure is wonderfully beautiful ; it is in the early Spanish Mission 
architecture, built around a court, so that it is necessary for pupils 
in going from the auditorium to their class rooms, to come out into 
the open corridor surrounding the court. A tennis court, basket- 
ball court, baseball diamond and equipment for various athletic 
stunts are to be found here. In July, 1910, the laying of the corner 
stone was appropriately celebrated by the Masonic Grand Lodge of 
California, concluding with an eloquent and fitting address by a 
fellow townsman and member of the Masonic order, W. H. Ellis, 
A high school principal, H. W. Hawkins, and two assistants. Miss 
Lily Thompson and Miss Sadie Paul, are the very efficient instruc- 
tors. In any mention of the Perris Union High School too much 
credit cannot be given to Professor Hawkins and Miss Thompson 
for their untiring work in bringing the school up to such a standard 
that it is second to none in the state. 

In January, 1893, a government school for Indians was located 
about four miles north of Perris, on Perris boulevard, on an eighty 

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acre tract of land in what was known as the Riverside tract. The 
school was a great asset to the valley, and it has always been de- 
plored by the Perris valley people that it was deemed necessary 
to move it away. But during the years of discouragement brought 
about by shortage of water supply, so much pressure was brought 
to bear that the school was moved to Riverside and made the 
beginning of the famous Sherman Institute of that place. 

The eighty acre tract, with its beautiful grounds, and most 
of its buildings, was sold by the government for $1500. Today 
it is owned by J. S. Lowery and C. L. Smith, natives of Texas, and 
has reached a valuation of $25,000. There are two wells on the 
ranch, one two hundred feet deep and the other three hundred and 
thirty-five feet deep, pumping about ninety-five inches of water, 
using a forty-horse power gasoline engine, watering fifty-two acres 
of alfalfa, besides a family orchard of walnuts, apricots, peaches, 
plums and pears. This orchard is two years old and growing 
nicely. Potatoes, onions, corn and other vegetables are raised 
very successfully on this land once supposed to be of little value. 
Mr. Lowery and Mr. Smith with their families came from Gonzales, 
Texas, in the fall of 1910, purchasing this land and making all 
the improvements now to be found on the place. With their com- 
ing the Indian school took on a new life, for one of the remaining 
buildings has been converted into a home by the '*Lowery- 
Smiths," as they are familiarly called, and many a happy and 
pleasant evening has been enjoyed by them with their many friends 
about them in the spacious old rooms. 

In 1886 . a Congregational church was built and Rev. C. H. 
Davis installed as pastor. 

The Town Company offered the Methodist denomination a lot 
and $200 in money if they would come in and establish and build a 
church, but they considered the field hardly worth their efforts. 

So it came to pass in the spring of 1886 that Mrs. J. W. Nance, 
now of Los Angeles, and Mrs. H. N. Doyle, now of San Diego, 
assisted by Mrs. D. G. Mitchell, now of Riverside, organized a 
Ladies' Aid Society and began at once to raise money towards a 
new church building. They arranged for a bazaar, which was held 
April 9, 1886, in the L. D. Reynolds store. In preparing for this 
bazaar Mrs. Nance and Mrs. Doyle drove over the valley in every 
direction and interested every person in their project. The bazaar 

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HlSTbfeY bt^ RlVERStbte CbUNd^Y i65 

was successful beyond their fondest expectatidiis and a fiind fot 
the church was started. That same J^ear the t'irst Congregational 
Church of Perris was built, with the ^ev, C II. Davis, now de- 
ceasefd, as pastor During the pastoratte of Rev. and Mrs. Davis 
tlie parsonage was also built in the Carpenter addition. 

On September i7, 1888, a very unusual thing happened in Per- 
ris. A terrific wind, tain and hail storm occurred, razihg the church 
to the ground, leaving the little organ faithfully holding the fort 
all tiilhurt. The old pulpit still carries the marks and scars of the 
hail. Operations began at once to rebuild the church, and during 
the time of its reconstruction, services were held in the rear of a 
furniture arid carjienter shop, now remodeled, and is the home of 
Judge and Mrs. Vermason. 

About the year 1905, through thfe untiring efforts of Mrs. H. S. 
Woltdtt, the church tvas improved by the addition of a Sunday 
school room; later during the summer of 1911 it was further im- 
proved by dn entire new roof and a roomy, comfortable parlor in 
the rear, changing the appearance of the whole church, making it 
very attractive and a credit to its fair city. 

During the twenty-six years of its existence ttiis Congrega- 
tional church hds had six pastors: Rev. C. H. Davis, the first 
pastor, followed by Rev. Burr; Rev. Emerson, Rev. Mathes, Rev. 
Coi-bin and Rev. J. B. Long, thle pi-eserit iiicutnbent. Rev. Long, 
with his wife, son, Sheldon, and daughter, Esther, came to Perris 
some five or six years ago from Nogales, Ariz., and are very impor- 
tant factors in the church, school and social life of the place. 

Other churches have beten established in Perris, opening and 
closing with the ebb and flow of the prosperity of the place, btit the 
faithful old Congregational chUrth has never been closed, and per- 
haps one of the happiest periods in the church history of Perris was 
when all the denominations were united under the one roof. 

The next church to be built was the Gerthan Methodist Episco- 
pal, in the year 188S, through the efforts of Rev. W. F. Meyer, 
Later the Methodists established a church and held their services 
iti this same building. At different times and places the Episco- 
palians, Baptists and Lutherans have held services in the town. 
About 1891 the Methodists build a pretty, up-to-date building, but 
during tile years wheii conditions in the town and valley were on 
the decline the church was closed as were all others except the 


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Congregational. In 1909 they reopened their church, which is now 
in a very flourishing condition, with plans on foot to enlarge the 
building. Rev. Twombley is the pastor. 

The old German Methodist Episcopal Church was bought by 
the Catholics in 1909, renovated and restored with a wonderfully 
attractive interior, and in May, 1910, was appropriately dedicated 
to their services by the Right Rev. Bishop Conaty of Los Angeles, 
assisted by a retinue of celebrated priests. This was brought about 
by the labors of Father William Hughes, who has gone on to a 
greater field of action. Perris is very proud to record his labors 
among them, for he was loved by Catholic and Protestant, and all 
alike watch with interest his career, which is bound to be one of 

The Apostolic Faith Mission has an organization here of but 
a few months, but the members are already in their own church 

Besides the church and school organizations are the lodges and 
clubs. The Knights of Pythias, Pythian Sisters, Masonic Lodge, 
Order of the Eastern Star, Independent Order of Foresters and 
Fraternal Brotherhood all have organizations here. The Pythian 
lodges are among the older organizations, while the Masons insti- 
tuted a lodge in 1910 with George W. Cummins as the first Wor- 
shipful Master, and in 1911 an Eastern Star chapter was organized 
with Mr. and Mrs. P. A. Handley as Worthy Patron and Worthy 

An organization that plays no small part in the social and 
literary life of Perris is the Perris Woman's Club, of which Mrs. 
W. W. Stewart is the newly-elected president. 

No history of Perris or its valley should be written without 
mention of the good people, who, though the days were dark or 
bright, clung to the place, and by their loyalty are helping to make 
it the fine city it is sure to be. The only firms doing business in 
the town now, who were there before the *' water famine," are 
Hook Bros, and M. L. Mapes. Many people have come, only to stay 
a few years and go ; but to such people as Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Wol- 
cott with their son, Myron S., Hook brothers with their families, 
Mr. and Mrs. M. L. Mapes, Judge and Mrs. Vermason (who have been 
there since 1888), Mr. and Mrs. Aiken, A. T. Kimball, Mrs. Mary 
Harrington, Mrs. Bentley, Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Nance, Mr. and Mrs. 

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Preston, Dr. and Mrs. Reese, Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Cowles, James E. 
and C. E. Gyger, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Tigner, H. M. Harford, Mr. 
and Mrs. George Brum, Mrs. Bernasconi, S. V. Gates, and others — 
to these people we must give the credit that a city is to be found 
here. This little city **of the plains" may not be all its residents 
would have it be, but 

^*If you don't like the kind of town 

That this town seems to be. 
If buildings here are gray and brown 

A way you hate to see. 
If something isn't up-to-date. 

As good as things of old. 
While other towns are simply great 

Or so you have been told ; 
If you would like to see a place 
That 's full of push and snap, 
A town that stands for better things 

A town that's on the map; 
Yes, if a way you'd like to know 

To find it in a jerk, 
I'll tell you where you ought to go — 

You ought to go to work. 
You needn't pack a trunk or grip 

And leave the folks behind. 
You needn't go and take a trip. 

Some other place to find. 
You needn't go and settle down 

Where friends of old you'll miss — 
For, if you want that kind of town, 
Just make it out of this.'' 
When the city has improved its water system, and more houses 
are surrounded by lawns and flowers; when the city has electric 
lights, paved streets, when there is a little better house-keeping on 
the part of the city, when the water bonds are paid and the beauti- 
ful foot-hill section is dotted with homes; we can well say that the 
prophecy of the board of directors of the Perris Irrigation District 
uttered in such good faith so many years ago has really come to 
pass and that Perris, the foot-hill city, is ''a town that's on the 

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i68 fliSTO^T OF iitVEIiSlDE COUNTt 

Chapter xix. 

By Mrs. W. H. Ellis 

The unsuspecting traveler who has crossed the Colorado river 
and entered Southern California, naturally looks around him for 
the orange groves of which he has so often heard and is astonished 
not to find himself surrounded by them; but, gradually, the truth 
is forced upon his mind that, in this section of our country, he must 
not base his calculations upon eastern distances or eastern areas. 
For, even after he has passed the wilderness of Arizona and the 
California frontier, he discovers that the Eldorado of his dreams 
lies on the other side of the desert, two hundred miles in breadth, 
beyond whose desolatfe expanse the siren of the Sunset Sea still 
beckons him and whispers: ^'This is the final barrier; cross it and 
I am yours." 

But when this ** filial barrier" is crossed there is much room 
for disappointment if one expects to find the country an unbroken 
paradise of orange trees and roses. Thousands of oranges and 
lemons, it is true, suspend their miniature globes of gold against 
the sky; but interspersed between their groves are wastes of sand, 
reminding one that all the fertile portion of this region has been 
truly wrested from the wilderness, as tlolland from the sea. Ac- 
cordingly, since San Bernardino county alone is twice as large 
as Massachusetts, it is not difficiilt to understand why a con- 
tinuous expanse of verdure is not seen. The truth is. Southern 
California, with a few exceptions, is cultivaied only where man has 
brought to it vivifying water. Whfeh that apipears, life springs up 
from sterility, ds water gushed forth fi'oin the rock in the Arabian 
desert when the great leader oi the Israelites smote it in bbediehce 
to Divine command. Hence there is always present herie the fasci- 
nation of the unattained, which yet is readily attainable, patifently 
waiting for the mastet-hahd that shall imlock the saiid-rdo^ed 
treasure-houses of fertility with a crystal key. Of the three things 
essential to vegetation — soil, sun, and water — man must here con- 
tribute the water. 

Once let the tourist appreciate the fact that almost all the ver- 

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dure which delights the eye is the gift of water at the hand of man, 
and any disappointment he may have at first experience will be 
changed to admiration. Moreover, with the least encouragement 
this country bursts forth into verdure, crowns its responsive soil 
with fertility and smiles with bloom. Even the slightest tract of 
herbage, however brown it may be in the dry season, will in the 
springtime clothe itself with green and decorate its emerald robe 
with spangled flowers. In fact, the wonderful profusion of wild 
flowers, which, when the winter rains have saturated the ground, 
transform hillsides into floral terraces, can never be too highly 

Is it strange, then, that sudden transformations of sterile plains 
and mountains into bits of paradise make tourists in Southern 
California wildly enthusiastic? They actually see fulfilled before 
their eyes the prophecy of Isaiah, *'The desert shall rejoice, and 
blossom as the rose." The explanation is, however, simple. The 
land is really rich. The ingredients are already here. Instead of 
being worthless, as was once supposed, this is a precious soil. The 
Aladdin's wand that unlocks all its treasures is the irrigating ditch; 
its **open sesame" is water; and the divinity who, at the call of 
man, bestows the priceless gift, is the Madre of the Sierras. A 
Boman conqueror once said that he had but to stamp upon the earth 
and legions would spring to do his bidding. So capital has stamped 
upon this sandy wilderness, and in a single generation a civilized 
conununity has leaped into astonished life. Yet do we realize the 
immense amount of labor necessitated by such irrigation! Every 
few rods a pipe rises from the ground. It can with difficulty then 
be imagined how many of these pipes have been laid, and how in- 
numerable are the ditches through which the water is made to flow. 
Should man relax his diligence for a single year, the region would 
relapse into sterility ; but on the other hand, what a land is this for 
those who have the skill and industry to call forth all its capa- 
bilities! What powers of productiveness mj^y still be sleeping 
underneath its soil, awaiting but the ^iss of water and the touch of 
man to waken them to life! Thps one tourist expressed himself 
and this is in very truth what might be sai^ on a visit to the broad 
fields of the Moreno country. 

The beautiful Moreno valley not more than twenty-five years 
ago was *^a sterile plain" dotted here and there with Mexican 

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camps. Among the earliest settlers to venture here were T. K. 
Lyman, Mr. Leonard and Mr. Freefield. 

About 1881-82 E. G. Judson and F. E. Brown secured fifteen 
hundred acres of land in San Bernardino county, on the sloping 
hillsides south of the Mill Creek zanja, surveyed and platted the 
same into five, ten and twenty-acre lots, with wide avenues, cross- 
ing the whole plat. This enterprise was regarded as an experiment 
from the fact that the red soil of the slope had never been tested 
as to its adaptability to horticultural pursuits. With plenty of 
water and good cultivation the doubt as to the value of the land 
was soon removed and the success of the colony enterprise was as- 
sured. Thus encouraged the projectors enlarged their possessions 
by additional purchases, until they had between three and four 
thousand acres in their colony, which, on account of the soil, they 
named Redlands. Thus these two men are responsible for the 
existence of the beautiful city of Redlands. Mr. Judson organized 
the water companies of that place, while Mr. Brown was the water 
engineer. It was Mr. Brown who discovered the great Bear valley 
as a reservoir and built the great Bear valley dam. With the suc- 
cess of the Redlands '* experiment" and the vast amount of water 
stored in the Bear valley reservoir Mr. Brown began to cast about 
for more worlds to conquer. He came into what is now the Moreno 
country, a beautiful mountain valley lying to the northeast of the 
Perris valley. Here he secured a large acreage, surveyed and 
platted it into ten-acre tracts with wide avenues running one-half 
mile apart east and west, and one-quarter mile apart running north 
and south. Settlers began to come, a town was established and 
business places opened. 

People of the valley wanted to name the town in honor of Mr. 
Brown, but he declined, so the name ** Moreno," a Spanish word 
meaning brown, was agreed upon. 

Water scarcity was a great problem to these courageous people. 
The only well in the valley was one on the Sorbee ranch on Perris 
boulevard. A spring on the Condee ranch supplied ten barrels a 
day, and here people would stand in line and wait their turn to 
carry away a small supply of water. Finally George H. Kelsey, who 
had come into the valley on November 29, 1890, and settled with 
his family near the townsite, thought he saw indications of a spring 
of water on a nearby hill. Upon investigation he found this to be 

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true, and from these three sources came the water supply of Moreno 
valley. The early settlers were engaged in dry farming, though 
Mr. Condee, who was afterwards the first county clerk of River- 
side county, had a few oranges. 

Through the efforts of Mr. Brown other settlers were brought 
into the valley and in 1890 operations were begun toward the form- 
ing of an irrigation district. The Alessandro Irrigation district, 
consisting of 25,500 acres of land, was organized, and the district 
bonded for $765,000. On April 18, 1891, the water from the great 
Bear valley reservoir reached Moreno. 

With the prospect of having plenty of water, the people went 
extensively into the raising of citrus fruit. In the spring of 1891 
fifty-five hundred acres were set out to trees, but by fall every 
vestige was gone, having been eaten by grasshoppers. For that 
one season the grasshoppers were so large in size and so great in 
numbers that they destroyed everything, even ate the telephone 
poles. Nothing could be found to extinguish them; they ate the 
poisons spread for them as readily as the vegetation. People were 
constantly on guard to protect themselves, for fear of being bitten 
whenever they had occasion to go outside their houses. However, 
this pest lasted only one season and the next spring this large 
acreage of fruit trees was entirely replanted. 

An P]nglish company with large holdings in the valley put in 
eight hundred and eighty acres to deciduous fruits and some four 
hundred and forty acres to olives and other fruits. The streets run- 
ning through this tract were lined on either side with eucalyptus 
trees. This enterprise, however, was short lived. A heavy frost 
in 1891, with the season of grasshoppers and finally the failure of 
the Bear valley water, forced the company to abandon their project. 

For a few short years conditions were most prosperous. The 
little town of Moreno grew to be possessed of four brick blocks, 
a fine two-story brick school building and two churches. There 
were two general merchandise stores, a hardware store, a harness 
store, drug store, real estate and insurance office, and the Bear 
Valley Water Company office, besides the offices of Dr. H. A. At- 
wood, now of Riverside, and Dr. France, now of San Jacinto. 

There were five schools in the valley: one at Moreno; one at 
Armada, about tliree and a half miles distant; one at Cloverdale, 

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another at Alessandro and still another at Rampna, employing a|l 
tpgether five teachers. 

Of the two churches, the Congregational and the Methodist 
Episcopal, the Congregational was the first to lie established. Rev. 
Mr. Wolcott was the first pastor, preaching at Moreno Sunday 
mornings and at Alessandro Sunday afternoons. The Moreno 
church was built in the spring of 1891. George H. Kelsey, now of 
Riverside, was the first church clerk as well as one of the first 
school trustees of the town. The Methodist Episcopal church has 
long since abandoned the field. 

An enterprise that played no small part in the life of the town 
and valley was the weekly newspaper known as the '* Moreno Indi- 
cator." It was published by Franklin and Mary Austin. Mrs. 
Austin is now a popular contributor to many of our well-known 
coast magazines. 

It ought to be mentioned here that on March 12, 1891, a son 
was born to Mr. and Mrs. George H. Kelsey. This son, Kenneth^ 
was the first white. child born in Moreno valley. The Kelsey family 
now live in Riverside, moving to that city from Moreno in 1900, 
and are well known in business and social circles of that city. 

When Ramona and Alessandro were journeying from San 
Pasquale to Soboba, they crossed this Moreno valley. The author 
tells us — **It was in the early afternoon that they entered the broad 
valley. They entered it from the west. As they came in, though the 
sky over their heads was overcast and gray, the eastern and north- 
eastern part of the valley was flooded with a strange light, at once 
ruddy and golden. It was a glorious sight. The jagged top a^(} 
spurs of San Jacinto mountain shone like the turrets and posterns 
of a citadel built of rubies. The glow seemed preternatural. 

** * Behold San Jacinto,' cried Alessandro. Ramona exclaimed in 
delight. *It is an omen,' sh^ said. *We are going into the sunlight 
out of the shadow,' and she glanced back at the west, ^hich was 
of ^ slaty l)lacknes§. *I like it not,' said Alessandro. ^The shadow 
fpllow§ too fast.' " 

An(} so it might seem tq those who enjoyed the short-lived prpsr 
perity of this valley. **The shadow followed too fast." At the end 
of about the fourth year of the Bear valley water supply, came a 
cycle of dry years. This played havoc with the supply of the Bear 
Valley Company, and this vast reservoir of water, once thought to 

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be inexhaustible, lowered to such an extent that all water for the 
Moreno and Ferris valleys had to be cut oflf entirely. 

This disaster coupled with the drought, was destined to de- 
populate this beautiful valley. Coming up tp this time with its five 
hundred inhabitants, schools, churches and a fine literary society, 
composed of both men and women, it was an attractive spot for the 
making of homes. 

The history of the Ferris valley was repeated in the Moreno 
valley, and having attracted such wide attention in its palmy days, 
naturally the decline attracted also a widespread attention. In an 
English newspaper of this period, when people were obliged to 
make new homes in other communities more endowed with this one 
of nature's best gifts — water — occurred an article regarding this 
valley in Southern California. It was called '*The valley on 
wheels,'' and the article described how houses could be seen on 
trucks being moved in to a nearby city called Riverside. 

In this valley, as in the Ferris valley, the Bear valley water 
bonds have never been paid. Fage after page could be written on 
the litigation in courts over these bonds. 

About 1890 the few remaining ranchers in the valley contrib- 
uted toward a fund to be used in boring a well. This was to de- 
termine whether or not water was to be found underneath the sur- 
face. Fermission was granted them to bore this well in the center 
of the intersection of two streets. The well was bored and produces 
a flow of twenty inches. It has since become the property of Mr. 
Nelson on Redlands boulevard. 

The Moreno Water Company has since this time developed 
wells that produce a flow of about one hundred and four inches. 
This with a few private wells furnishes the valley's water supply. 

The valley, consisting of about 35,500 acres, now is devoted to 
dry farming and the raising of citrus fruits, there being five hun- 
dred acres planted and producing the finest citrus fruits to be found 
in Southern California. Grapefruit grown here this year brought 
the highest price at the San Bernardino Orange Show. 

The most fertile soil in Riverside county is fo^nd here, and 
may the Aladdin's \7^nd that can unlock all its treasures — the irri- 
gating ditch — soon wander Jiere and there t}irpughout the length 
an4 breadth of this beautiful valley and call forth the powers of 
productiveness still sleeping. 

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By Jessica Bird 

1 ! ' 

The San Gorgonio Pass, gateway from the lowlands of the 
Colorado desert through the magnificent mountains of the coast 
range to the valleys of the Pacific slope, is perhaps the only moun- 
tain valley of any importance included within the boundaries of 
Riverside county. 

The geographical situation of the pass is peculiar and inter- 
esting in several ways. A fertile valley running east and west, it 
lies at an average elevation of 2,000 feet, is from three to fifteen 
miles in width and completely separates two ranges of towering 
mountains. On the north of the pass lies the San Bernardino range, 
with Mt. San Gorgonio (Old Grayback), 11,485 feet high and the 
loftiest peak in Southern California, looking down over the numer- 
ous lines of foothills which reach the valley below. To the south 
lie the other foothills reaching upwards into the mountains which 
form the San Jacinto range and are topped by a peak bearing that 
name, and having an elevation of 10,805 feet. 

Cradled between the sheltering mountains the San Gorgonio 
Pass is favored in many ways. The chemistry of pure mountain 
air tempered to a most healthful dryness by the proximity of the 
desert, the water which comes from the canyons and brings with it 
the crystal clearness of the snows which lie practically all the year 
round on the tops of the mountain peaks, and soil, which is fer- 
tility itself, have been summed up into a total of prosperity and con- 
tentment which marks the valley as a whole and makes for the con- 
tinued growth of the three towns of Beaumont, Banning and 
Cabazon, which lie at intervals of six miles along the pass. 


The history of the pass undoubtedly dates far, far back to the 
times when the Indians wandered at will over the country, choosing 
the choicest spots and most favored localities for their camping 
grounds. This was even before the Spaniards brought their civil- 
ization into California and penetrated the valleys and mountains of 
the southern part of the state. There are evidences that the Span- 

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ish people had an outpost of some sort in San Gorgonio Pass, 
which was probably located about the spot where the Highland 
Home ranch is now. In 1853-4 and somewhat later there were ruins 
of several adobe buildings at this point, indicating the previous 
occupation of the land. It is known that a wagon road or trail 
through the pass was in very early use, and even when the first 
white settlers arrived, there were Spaniards living at various 
ranchos between this valley and the San Bernardino valley, some 
of these people being located in San Timeteo canyon west of Beau- 
mont. These people traveled about the pass in primitive ox-carts, 
visiting sometimes at the homes of the white people. It is practi- 
cally impossible to find anything definite regarding the days of the 
Spanish padres and the earliest ranchos, concerning the history of 
the San Gorgonio Pass. 

The present-day searcher finds that the light of real and con- 
crete facts began to illuminate the darkness of the past of this valley 
only about the middle of the last century, when as a direct route for 
the emigrants on their way to the Pacific slope from Arizona and the 
east and middle west, it became well known. Emigrants at that 
time knew the trail through this pass as the Santa Fe trail. After 
the wearisome trip over the desert, the mountain valley must have 
appeared a veritable paradise to the tired travelers, for in those 
days, before cultivation of the soil had been thought of in the pass, 
it was covered with an abundance of fine green grass. Ft is little 
wonder that the valley was looked upon as a suitable place for 
stock-raising, and that later the grassy plain with its streams of 
water furnished from the nearby canyons should have been chosen 
as a grazing country where cattle ranchos were established. 

Although the white emigrants passed through this valley in 
the early days the inhabitants were chiefly Spanish and Indian 
peoples. A few white men may have drifted into the favored region 
about this time, but few if any definite dates regarding them are to 
be found. Daniel Sexton was the name of a man who claimed to 
have lived in this valley in 1842, when, he said, he made his home 
among the Indians who worked with him at wood cutting up in the 
Edgar canyon. 


In 1853 a party of topographical engineers, under the direc- 
tion of Lieut. R. S. Williamson, was sent to California by Congress,* 

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uppn the recommendation of Jefferson Davis, then secretary of war, 
tq explore tjie coast r^mge mountains, **in order to ascertain the 
n^ost practicable and economical route from the Mississippi river tq 
the Pacific ocean." This party, which sailed from New York in 
May, 1853, arrived in San Francispo a month later, and repaired 
to Benicia, frpm which point after preparations, the journey was 
commenced. The party made extensive trips into the mountains 
both of the northern and the southern portions of the state, an^ 
arrived in San Gorgonio Pass in November, 1853. For several 
reasons the party had separated before reaching this point, so 
that only the wagon train, under the leadership of Lieutenant 
Parke, went through the San Gorgonio Pass and traveled onward 
to the desert. 

Perhaps the most interesting report concerning this pass and 
included in the full report of the explorations presented to Con- 
gress in 1856, was that of the geologist and mineralogist of the 
party, William P. Blake, who appears to have been much impressed 
with several features of San Gorgonio Pass, which was subse- 
quently chosen by the party as the most desirable route for a rail- 
road through the mountains in California. One of the chief fea- 
tures appealing forcibly to Geologist Blake was that this pass was 
not a mere break in the mountains, but **an absolute branch or dis- 
location of the entire chain.'' This coupled with Lieutenant Parke's 
statement in his report that *^this pass is so uniform and open 
that it may be considered the best pass in the Coast range," shows 
plainly the impression its natural advantages made upon the prac- 
tical men and experts of those days. It is interesting to note that 
it was subsequently made a railroad gate through the mountains 
and is now traversed by the main line of the Southern Pacific 

One peculiarity discovered in the reports of these early ex- 
plorers is that the name of the mountain now called San Jacinto 
was then San Gorgonio, while the peak now bearing the latter name 
was known simply as Grayback, or sometimes confused with its 
close neighbor Mt. San Bernardino, and called by that name. In 
all the early reports and histories Mt. San Jacinto is spoken of as 
Mt. San Gorgonio. 

Geologist Blake plainly showed in his repprt of San Gqrgonio 
Pass that he was very favorably impressed with the quality of the 

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Misi^bRY OF tilVEfiSIDE COUNTY 177 

soil, for he said concerning this; '* there are no rock fdrmdtibns that 
crop out along the trail; the whole substratum df the soil is Idosfe 
drift, or sedimentary materials derived from the Vearihg down 
tod disintegration of grailite. ***** xhe soil fotmed of the 
minerals constituting the slope and surface of the pass is fertilfe 
and valuable for agriculture.^' There was very little to prbve his 
assertion at that titne, for there were few trees and grape vines 
planted in the pass then, arid even the Indians who had lived here- 
abouts for years raised only very meager crops of barley, com, 
melons and various vegetables. It remained for the later years to 
bring positive proof of the geologist's wisdom. 

A party of government surveyors under the direction of Colo- 
nel Washington made a survey of the lands in this portion of the 
state about thfe early '50s, completing the work in the San Gorgonio 
Pass in the year 1855. They ran the San Bernardino base line, 
which runs through the mountains north of the pass, and surveyed 
also the meridian which crosses the pass at a point between the 
present towns df Banning and Beaumont. 

Fremont, whose name is so closely connected with the early 
history of California^ is said to have spent some time in the pass, 
about 1846-7 or perhaps prior to the time of the Mexican war. 


I^io Pico, the last of the Spanish governors of California, 
granted a large portion of the Valley to three men, Powell Weaver, 
Cblonel Williams and Wallace Woodruff, probably about 1845. 
This gi-ant was known as the Rancho de San Gorgonio, and coil- 
taihed eleven leagues of land, including territory now occupied by 
Banning and Beaumont. One corner of the grant approached the 
place at present known as the Wolf skill ranch which lies in the hills 
south of Beaumont. 

The papers concerning the granting of this land to the pioneers 
were lost ill ttarisit by Inail to Washington, D. C, where they were 
being gent to be recorded about the time the railroad was obtaining 
right df way through this pass; so that it was impossible ever to 
substantiate the claims held by the original grantees or their 


The Weavers lived at a rancho ill the valley after they had 
been granted a share in the land, with headcjuarters and an adobe 

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house near the place now known as the old P]dgar vineyard, which 
is located north of Beaumont. 

In 1853 Dr. Isaac W. Smith and family came from Iowa, via 
Utah to California, arriving through the Cajon Pass and reaching 
San Bernardino, then a Mormon settlement, that year. The same 
year they came to the San Gorgonio Pass and lived there for some 
time at the Weaver ranch, later moving to the Highland home (then 
called the Smith ranch) northeast of Beaumont, where they made 
their home. Dr. Smith bought Powell (called '* Pauline" by the 
Indians) Weaver's share of the grant lands. Ollie Smith, who was 
bom there in 1860, was the first white child born in the pass. 

In 1853 there were very few white people living in the pass, "but 
at the site now known as the Gilman Home ranch, which lies in the 
northern part of Banning at the mouth of a small canyon from 
which it obtains a private water supply, Colonel Williams main- 
tained headquarters for his vaqueros, who took care of his numer- 
ous cattle in the pass. In 1854 Joe Pope, or Jose Pope as he was 
called, an American closely allied with the Spanish on account of 
his marriage with one of their race, built an adobe house at this 
point, and lived there for some time taking charge of Colonel 
Williams' interests. 

The early ranchos were all located near the north hills of the 
pass, this being the natural place for settlers to make their homes, 
on account of the natural flow of water from the various canyons. 
Water was then, as it is now, a priceless possession, so precious 
that the tale of early days in nearly any part of Southern Cali- 
fornia is made thrilling with the tragedies of men who fought over 

Although the Indians were friendly, the early settlers had their 
share of troubles. The bears, both of the grizzly and brown varie- 
ties, were very numerous and often attacked and killed ihe cattle. 
Wildcats were also numerous, and caused much annoyance. Many 
a hair-raising tale is related of the settlers and the wild animals 
which menaced them in the otherwise peaceful days. Even the 
cattle, although they were the source of income for the ranchers, 
were very annojnng, for they roamed an unfenced country, and it 
was nearly impossible to keep them out of the small garden plots 
and orchards which the frontiersmen attempted to raise. 

When the Smiths were settled on their ranch they planted 

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several varieties of fruit trees, including figs, pears, apples, and a 
few other deciduous fruits, as well as a vineyard. The vines in 
this small plot, planted in 1854 or 1855, made good growth and were 
fruitful for years, remaining until this year, when they were 
grubbed out. The earliest known vines in the pass were planted 
even before 1850 and are located near Beaumont avenue, on the 
site of the old Edgar rancho, and are growing to this day. 


In 1860 the San Gorgonio Pass became more than ever im- 
portant, for the stage line began operations that year, and passen- 
gers were conveyed from Los Angeles to Ft. Yuma, through this 
valley. Yuma was at that time the headquarters of a considerable 
mining district, but later the Colorado river stage station was 
changed to Ahrenburg, farther up the river. 

The stations in the San Gorgonio Pass were at Smith's ranch 
and Whitewater, which is about fifteen miles from the present loca- 
tion of Banning. Whitewater was established in 1860 by Frank 
Smith, one of the sons of Dr. Smith. lie built the ditch which is 
still in use to convey water from the Whitewater river to the ranch, 
where he planted cottonwood trees, and built a small shack. Later 
an adobe was built at the ranch. There was a group of mesquite 
trees at the location chosen by Smith, but otherwise there was no 
vegetation to amount to anything. From this station the stage road 
led on through what is now known as Palm Springs, where the 
Indians maintained a camp, to Torres, thence to Dos Palmos and 
on to the river. There were other stopping places where the 
horses were watered, but those were the main stations. 

Although it would seem that the San Gorgonio Pass was too 
far isolated from the seat of the Civil war to feel the disturbance, 
old settlers can remember how, in those days, bands of guerrillas 
came through the pass. They helped themselves to horses or any 
other property of the ranchers that seemed useful to their needs, 
taking advantage of the fact that there was a war in the country to 
commit plain robbery. 

After 1863 Newt. Noble had possession of the ranch house 
which was built by Jose Pope, and after a few years, probably in 
1867 or 1868, the stage station was removed from the Smith ranch 
to this point. A few years later the stage again made the Smith 
ranch its stopping point, but in 1871, after the marriage of Miss 

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Martha B. Smith, daughter of t)r. Stnith, and J. M. Gilitian, a 
ybiing man who had cdiiie ft*om Oregon and obtained possessibn of 
the Newt. Ndble rancho in 1869, the stage station returned to the 
Oilihan ranch, where it was maintained until the coming of the tail- 
road put an end to travel by road. A portion of the old adobe, 
built so long ago by Pope and serving as ranch headquarters, home 
and stage ** hotel'' is still standing, back of the present residence 
at the Oilman ranch, and forms an interesting historical landmark 
in this valley. 

The mode of travel was wearisome to a degree for the travelers 
in those days, but in spite of this there were a good many people 
making the journey. It took from eighteen to twenty hours tb 
reach the Smitli ranch station from the starting point in Los 
Angeles, and the length of time it took to reach the Colorado river 
station varied with the state of weather, the number of passengers, 
and the condition of the horses. Sometimes the passengers were 
obliged to get out of the conveyance, which was at times a coach of 
the regulation old **wild west'' style, and again a buckbbard, and 
walk for miles on the sandy desert roads, to enable the weary horsed 
to reach the next station. The stage served also as means of trans- 
portation for mail and express. 

The first owners bf the stage line were Henry Wilkinson and 
Warren Hall, both of whom were murdered in a bloody tragedy 
which occurred near the Smith ranch statibn, when trouble arosb 
over some bullion which had been stolen from the stage. The two 
inen were murdered by a man named Gordon, whom they accused 
of the theft, the circumstances being most tragic. Their slayer 
gave himself up to the officers at San Bernardino, was tried and 
acquitted. He later left the country tinder the susi)icibn that he 
was the thief of the bullion, which was never found. 

During the stage coach era there wbre a few more settlers who 
claimed lands and made their homes in the valley, and during the 
Vear of 1869 tlife following ranches were scattered about the pass 
and adjacent canyons and comprised practically all the ranches at 
that time. The Edgar ranch, the Smith ranch and Oilman's ranch, 
have already been mentioned, and besides these there were Bans 
Moore's place, at the mouth of the canyon which is now called 
Water canyon and furnishes the water supply for Banning, and 
which was then known as Moore canyon; the Cooper t-anch, at thb 

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site now called the Barker ranch, located at the foot of a road 
leading from Water canyon to the mesa which overlooks it; and 
George Munnon's ranch, which was very near the site of the lower 
wells of the Banning Water Company in the canyon. There was 
but one settler to the south of the pass, and this was Jack Summers, 
who had a place in the San Jacinto mountains which was later 
known as the **Hack" Hurley ranch and is now called the Browii 
ranch. He reached his home from the pass by means of a steep 
trail up the side of the hills, very near the site of Hall's grade, 
which is one of the present means of reaching the place. 

At this time the chief industry of the pass was the raising of 
cattle, although a few small patches of barley and other grain were 
raised, and the settlers attempted to grow a little fruit and a few 
vegetables. When the cattle were fat they were rounded up and 
were driven to the markets of San Bernardino and Los Angeles, 
where they were sold. 

The days of the stage coaches were numbered, for in 1875 the 
Southern Pacific railroad reached the valley and the trains began 
coming through in that year. Many changes took place at the 
time of the railroad's coming, and many landmarks received new 
names, the most notable change being that of the mountain south of 
the pass, which was called San Jacinto in the place of its old name 
of San Gorgonio, while this name was transferred to its loftier 
brother across the valley. 


The first railroad stations in the pass were located at Cabazon, 
whose history begins only with the coming of the iron road, and at 
San Gorgonio, near the present location of Beaumont. At these 
two depots there were telegraph stations, and San Gorgonio being 
at the summit of the pass was made an important station and a 
small round-house was erected there. The company obtained water 
from a well at this point, and at Cabazon they received a supply of 
water from one of the canyons to the north of the pass. For some 
time there was no station at the site of Banning. 

When the railroad came it offered chances for the easier trans- 
portation of hay and grain to the markets, and the industry of 
raising these products began at once a flourishing period of impor- 
tance. For a long time the lands of the valley, more and more of 
which were now put under cultivation, were productive of fine crops 


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of oats, barley and wheat. The grain ranching and cattle and 
horse raising could not go on side by side in an unfenced country, 
for in those days even the railroad land was unfenced, and the 
herds began gradually to be done away with. What had been for 
so many years a very important cattle country (so much so that in 
the dry season of 1863 cattle were brought in by the thousands from 
less favored localities to be fed on the natural pasturage of the 
pass) gradually became known as a grain and hay producing dis- 
trict. For a long time the hay and grain were hauled to the rail- 
road and loaded directly into freight cars to be shipped, until better 
facilities were finally provided. 

About 1876-7 lumber companies were formed, and timber was 
cut both in the San Jacinto range of mountains and at the head of 
the canyon now called the Water canyon, north of Banning in the 
San Bernardino range. In order to bring the cut logs from the 
sawmill in the San Jacinto mountains to the railroad at Cabazon 
for shipment, a road was constructed in 1877, called HalPs grade. 
At the foot of this road, southwest from Cabazon a few miles, a 
town was started called Hall City, both the settlement and the road 
taking their names from Colonel Hall, who engineered the moun- 
tain road, which was, and is, exceedingly steep and difficult of 

The Hall City project, and that of the lumber company was 
backed by the Temple Bank of Los Angeles, but proved disastrous 
financially, the cost of the road being very great in the first place 
and later the cost of bringing the logs out of the mountains prov- 
ing more than the worth of the lumber even before shipment. 
When the Temple Bank failed the project was abandoned. Hall 
City itself never amounted to very much, but there were a few 
people living there for a time, and two saloons, a store and a board- 
ing house were located there. The embankment of a railroad grade 
for a spur from Cabazon to Hall City is still to be seen across the 
valley, but the rails have long since been removed. The town 
ended in gloom and disaster, for about the time the Los Angeles 
bank broke a murder was committed in the little settlement, and 
the residents soon left the spot. Hall still claimed the land 
for many years, although he paid no particular attention to his 
property. A man named Terwilliger had a homestead at this point, 
after Hall City days, with orchard and such improvements as a 

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fish pond, but Hall disputed his right to the land and forced him to 
vacate the place. It was left to go to ruin. Now and then a rancher 
located there during the years from that time to the present; 
and now the water rights have been claimed by several different 
men, who have planned to pipe the water from the fine stream 
flowing out of a precipitous canyon nearby to an adjacent acreage. 

The other lumber project in 1877 which was in charge of a 
company headed by Winfield Scott, and of which Dr. Wellwood 
Murray was the manager, also had a disastrous financial ending. 
This company proposed cutting timber up the Water (or Moore) 
canyon, but found that the supply of trees suitable for lumbering 
purposes would not last very long. A sawmill was established 
and a large V-flume was built so that the cut timber could be taken 
down the canyon by water power and deposited at a point near 
the present railroad station at Banning. When the company aban- 
doned the project, with a loss of many thousands of dollars to the 
directors of the company, the flume was used for a time to float 
down cord-wood and was then removed. Hundreds of cords of 
wood were often stacked up at Banning, but were at that time 
hardly worth the price of bringing them down the flume. It is 
said that a large portion of the timber cut in the canyon was used 
in the construction of this flume which contained about a million 
feet of lumber. It was built by James M. Forquer, one of the early 
settlers, a carpenter who later had a hand in the construction of 
several of the largest buildings in the pass. 

At about this time a skidway was also built in Snow creek in 
the San Jacinto range opposite Whitewater, but this was a **wild 
cat'' scheme and was abandoned almost before it came into use. 

With the coming of the railroad it was natural that the num- 
ber of settlers should be augmented, and with the arrival of addi- 
tional settlers life in the valley became more complicated. Troubles 
over land and water holdings were not infrequent, and isolated as 
the pass was from the county seat at San Bernardino, the courts 
and justices had little chance to act in criminal cases. Several mur- 
ders were committed, and very often the murderers escaped pun- 
ishment or were brought to summary justice at the hands of in- 
jured persons. 

In 1879 a man named Pete Peterson who lived at a place on 
the north mesa between Potrero and Hathaway canyons, as they 

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are now called, murdered one Barrett, who also made his home up 
the same canyon, living there with his mother and sister. The 
brutality of the murder and the brazenness of the murderer, who 
after hiding the body of his victim had the effrontery to assist in 
the search for the missing man, aroused the residents of the vi- 
cinity and when his guilt was discovered they brought him before 
Justice of the Peace Wellwood Murray, and he was sentenced to be 
hung. This sentence was carried out in San Bernardino and for 
many years this brought the murders to an end. The present ceme- 
tery at Banning, located on a small mesa near the mouth of Water 
canyon at the head of San Gorgonio avenue, was established when 
the body of the unfortunate Barrett was buried there. The body 
lay hidden for two days, and when found was at once coffined and 
buried. The cemetery is known as the Sunnyslope cemetery and is 
the only one now in use at Banning. 


Reference has previously been made in this article to the fact 
that there were numerous Indians residing in and about the valley, 
but a history of the pass would be incomplete without more especial 
mention of them. 

In the days of the earliest settlers the Indians, who were of 
the Serrano and Coahuilla tribes, made their chief abode at points 
along the San Timeteo canyon. The Indians were much more 
numerous at that time, but a smallpox epidemic which took place 
after the Smith family had arrived in the valley, some time in the 
early '50s, swept away great numbers of them. 

About 1859 the Indians made their headquarters in the San 
Gorgonio Pass at the site now occupied by their village, near the . 
mouth of the Potrero (formerly called Jost) canyon which lies 
about four miles northeast of Banning against the foothills of the 
San Bernardino range. They cultivated some of the lands both in 
the valley and on the mesas above the canyon, and pastured their 
horses and other live stock in the canyon. The place was then 
known as the Ajerio Potrero, from the name of the Indian, Antonio 
Ajerio, who claimed the land before the other people of his tribe 
came to live there. Later the village was simply called the Potrero. 

In 1878 Col. S. S. Lawson was established as the head of an 
agency which had charge of the Mission Indians in San Bernardino 
county, and maintained headquarters at Colton. As these Indians 

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were then living in the northern part of the pass, and thus in San 
Bernardino county, they came under his jurisdiction. In 1879 there 
was much distress among the Indians, when crop failures and the 
scarcity of employment brought them near starvation. It was 
necessary for the government to furnish aid to them in that year. 

In 1878 President Hayes withdrew from public entry four 
townships, setting them aside for Indian purposes. This land in- 
cluded the lands in and about Banning and Cabazon, together with 
the watersheds of these places. The rights of any settlers on the 
lands previous to the act of the president were not affected, how- 
ever, at that time. 

About 1886 trouble for the white settlers on government land 
commenced, and about this time several families of them were 
evicted from their holdings. Gird and North, who claimed rights 
to a large mesa above the Potrero canyon, brought suit to prove 
title, and after the suit had been carried" on for some time it was 
proved that their land was on one of the sections previously given 
by the government to the railroad. It was also discovered that the 
Indian village was not on government land at all, but was located 
on a school section, which belonged to the state. In order that the 
question of titles might be straightened out a commission of three 
men was formed known as the Smiley Mission Indian Commission, 
and consisting of Albert K. Smiley, Judge Moore and C. C. Painter. 
These men made a thorough investigation of the title tangle and 
reported to Congress, their report being approved by the president 
and passed by Congress in July, 1892. The tangle was finally settled 
with the issuing of patents to those settlers who had been forced to 
give up their lands for Indian purposes, in October, 1892. The 
patents were issued to lands which the settlers were willing to 
take in place of their former claims. The Gird and North land was 
purchased by Hon. C. 0. Barker, who earned this title when serv- 
ing in the legislature in 1893 and who was one of the early settlers 
of Banning, arriving in 1884. He afterwards took in exchange for 
this land the mesa above Water canyon known as Barker's bench 
besides land in the valley. At present the Gird and North ranch is 
in use by the Indians, who pasture their cattle and horses there, 
using it as community property. 

The report of the Smiley commission considerably cut down the 
extent of the lands set aside for the Indians but allowed the vil- 

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lage to remain where it was. It was estimated that there were 
nearly 80,000 acres of land first set aside, and at the time when the 
trouble over the white settlers arose there were only about two 
hundred and nineteen Indians in the village. In 1911 additional 
land was set aside for Indian purposes, so that at the present time 
there are about 2,600 acres in the entire tract. There are about 
two hundred and sixty Indians now living on these lands, and it is 
proposed to allot the land to them. Some trouble is being experi- 
enced by those in charge of the allotment from the fact that the 
Indians themselves cannot agree as to the method of the procedure. 
One faction insists that the land be allotted per capita, and the 
other that only the heads of families shall receive acreage under 
the allotment. When the question is settled the land will be di- 
vided. The land has never been set aside as a legal reservation, 
so that when the Indians are given their shares they will receive 
it much as any white settler would. 

The village is now called the Malki Indian reservation, this 
name having been given it in 1908 when Miss Clara D. True was 
agent. The Indians still make their homes at the mouth of Potrero 
canyon, from whence they obtain a supply of water. Water is also 
obtained from the Hathaway canyon. During 1909-10 the water 
system was greatly improved, and a tunnel was built in the mouth 
of Potrero canyon which augments the natural flow of the stream. 
The method of distributing the water to the different Indians was 
also improved at that time. Residents of that village have thrifty 
orchards, of apples, apricots, peaches and other fruits, besides vine- 
yards and patches of vegetables. Grain and hay are also grown, 
though not extensively. 

The homes of the Indians, although crude in appearance, are 
much improved over those which formerly satisfied them. In the 
early days a rude brush hut, insufficiently roofed against the 
weather, was satisfactory to most of them, but now most of the 
houses are of wood or adobe, although some of the older or poorer 
Indians still build the brush houses. Nearly every Indian owns at 
least one horse, and the quality of these animals has improved 
since the early times. The cattle, which as has been mentioned 
are run in one large herd, are rounded up in the spring, and at 
this rodeo each Indian brands the calves running with the cows he 
owns. Besides these possessions which go to make them independ- 

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ent, the Indians find much employment on the fruit ranches at Ban- 
ning, especially in the summertime, when whole families are em- 
ployed in the harvests. The women manufacture beautiful baskets 
which for years have been a source of income to them, as they 
bring good prices from collectors or stores. No blankets are 
woven, and no pottery, except crude oUas, is made at the village. 

The government maintains at the village a resident agent and 
a school teacher, besides two Indian policemen. Affairs of the vil- 
lage of importance to all the residents are decided by them in ad- 
visory meetings, this being a relic of the days of councils in the 
tribes. For many years the Indians chose a man who was called 
captain, but in 1910 this system was done away with, the last cap- 
tain being Mauricio Laws, whose wife is Annie Morongo, one of 
the daughters of Capt. John Morongo, who held that position for 
many years. Capt. John Morongo was one of the cleverest Indians 
of the tribe, and was well known both locally and in Washington, 
D. C, where he went to confer with ofiBcials on matters pertaining 
to the village interests. Another Indian of this village who has 
become well known is Will Pablo, who is now a special agent in 
government service. 

The present agent at the Malki reservation is William T. Sul- 
livan, who succeeded Miss Clara D. True in 1910. Miss True held 
the post for three years prior to that date, being sent there pri- 
marily to do away with the liquor traffic, which was gaining a 
deplorable hold among the wards of the government. She suc- 
ceeded in stopping the pernicious traffic to a great extent, and also 
improved agricultural conditions for the Indians during her term. 
It was at her instigation that improvements in the water system 
were installed, and she sought to better sanitary conditions in the 
village. A model schoolhouse, providing for special fresh air fea- 
tures was built while she was at the agency. In her zeal, how- 
ever, she unfortunately stirred up trouble at both the Malki and 
Palm Springs reservations between the whites and Indians over 
land and water rights, having a mistaken idea of improving condi- 
tions, so that in 1910 she was removed from the position. Other 
agents who have been in charge of affairs at the village are L. A. 
Wright and Miss Anna C. Egan. 

The young Indians at the village receive their education from 
three sources, the first being the primary school maintained by the 

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government at the reservation, the second the industrial school 
conducted by the Catholics at Banning, and the third the Sherman 
Institute at Riverside. The teacher of the reservation school for 
the last term was Miss Jennie Hood, who took charge of the school 
in September, 1911. For a short time Mrs. Annie Laws was a sub- 
stitute teacher of the school, she being the only Indian who has 
ever been in charge of the school since its establishment. The 
school was commenced in 1888, the first teacher being Miss Sarah 
Morris (Mrs. M. F. Oilman) who during the several years of her 
labor among the Indians did much good. The first sessions of the 
school were held in a small frame building in the heart of the vil- 
lage overlooking the arroyo which runs through the center of the 
place. Later a new government building at a different location was 
erected, containing school room as well as quarters for the teacher. 
This was in use until 1910. 

There are two churches, one of them being a Moravian mission 
church, built in 1890, and since its establishment in charge of Rev. 
W. H. Weinland who resides with his family near the church. The 
other is a Catholic church, having been in use since its erection in 
1891, and in charge of Rev. Father B. Florian Hahn, who also has 
charge of the industrial school for Indians. There is one very 
small grocery store in the village, this having been started in 1910 
by Joe Miguel, who maintains it at his home. 


Prior to 1875, or the year the railroad came through the pass, 
there were no towns in the fertile valley, ranchers forming the only 
lesidents. With the increase in population which naturally fol- 
lowed the easier means of access to this part of the state, towns 
sprang up along the railroad. At that time the pass lay in two 
counties, the northern portion being in San Bernardino county, 
while the southern part of the valley lay on the extreme northern- 
most boundary of San Diego county. This was later found to be 
rather embarrassing for property holders, especially in Banning, 
where the line between the two counties practically bisected the 
town, passing through the center of the pass near the railroad 
track. In this town there were two sets of county officials and two 
school districts. In Beaumont the line passed farther south, nearer 
the foothills, and did not cause so much inconvenience. 

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Banning, which lies midway between its western neighbor Beau- 
mont, and the town of Cabazon to the east, is situated at the nar- 
rowest point in the pas§, at an elevation of 2,317 feet. The place 
was named for Gen. Phineas Banning, who in the early days pas- 
tured sheep in the pass. 

Although the railroad did not establish a depot at Banning 
when, in 1875 it marked the sites of San Gorgonio (Beaumont) and 
•Cabazon with small stations and telegraph offices, it was really the 
first town of any importance in the San Gorgonio Pass. When the 
industries of the little frontier town warranted it, the railroad built 
a station and installed an agent and telegraph operator, whose 
name was Burke. This occurred in 1878. Later, however, it be- 
came a flag station and no agent was maintained until about 1885. 

In 1878 Banning consisted of a few small buildings clustered in 
a haphazard fashion near the railroad track, at about the place now 
occupied by the business section of the town. There were, besides 
a few tents and other places of habitation, three saloons, a boarding 
house, the depot, and a store, which was owned by the San Gor- 
gonio Fluming Company and was in charge of C. F. Jost. This 
company was the one which was carrying on lumber operations in 
Water canyon, and the lumber flume, after leaving the canyon came 
across the pass and ended at a point nearby the railroad, about the 
site now occupied by the lumber yard. To maintain the level of 
the flume, it was built up on trestles, and in the town was high 
enough above the ground so that wagons drove under it easily. The 
people of the town got their supply of water from this flume, al- 
though they did not use a very great amount, there being at that 
time no irrigated lands. 

It is related that on one occasion, in an exceptionally cold 
winter, the water in the flume froze after a heavy snow storm, so 
that the trestle and flume were solid with ice: For several days, at 
that time, the people had to cut the ice and melt it for water. The 
town depended upon this flume for its water supply until 1884, when 
it was torn down. In 1884 severe rainstorms so washed out the 
railroad track that the train service was demoralized. No trains 
came through the town for two weeks, and certain food supplies 
became so scarce that it was necessary to send a wagon to Colton 
to obtain them. In 1895, when a big railroad strike effectually iso- 

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lated the towns of the pass, a similar experience was gone through. 

During the few years that the lumber company was in opera- 
tion it furnished occupation for quite a number of men. In those 
days there was a saloon conveniently placed in the canyon, nearby 
the point now called Camp Comfort. As has been seen, the com- 
pany failed, and when it ceased operations some of the men who 
had been interested in its management took up land here. George 
W. Scott, uncle of Winfield Scott, a Baptist minister of Los An- 
geles, who was in charge of the lumber company, furnished most 
of the money for the running expenses of the company, and lost 
many thousands of dollars in the project. Winfield Scott took up 
land on Section 4, which is m the northern part of Banning, and 
Wellwood Murray took up land which he afterwards sold to the 
Catholic Missions, and where the industrial school for Indians is 
now located. 

In 1883 C. W. Filkins of Riverside came to Banning and bought 
some land, and in 1884 the Banning Land Company and the Ban- 
ning Water Company were formed. The other men who were inter- 
ested in the companies with Filkins were George W. Bryant, also 
of Riverside, and Jacob Kline and T. F. Hofer of Carson City, Nev. 
Later, Wilson Hays of San Jose was interested in the company. 
Bryant was elected the first president of the two companies. 

When the capitalists invested here a flume was built up the 
Water canyon (which at that time was still called the Johnny Moore 
canyon), and water was brought down eight miles and pipes laid 
in the valley to convey it to users. The first reservoir was the 
lower reservoir, which was enlarged at a comparatively recent 
date; the upper reservoir was not built until a few years later. 
There were no wells put down in the canyon by the company until 
1899, when one was sunk in a cienega about five or six miles up the 
canyon. About a year later another one was dug, at some distance 
below the first. The increasing acreage and thus the need for more 
and more water to irrigate the orchards and vineyards was the 
cause of the wells being sunk, and not the fact that the water sup- 
ply was decreasing. In old histories the water supply at Banning 
was mentioned as *' probably the best between Colton and Yuma," 
and tliis fact seems to have been proven with the succeeding years. 
During the past three years a tunnel and well in the lower cienega, 
at the mouth of the Water canyon, has been installed, and a well 

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and sixty horsepower pump have been put in at Camp Comfort, 
eight miles up the canyon. The company owns the canyon lands, 
the watershed and the water, and as the company is composed of 
the property owners and users of irrigating water, the Banning 
people are possessors of a precious piece of property. Since the 
first land was sold by the company in the early years of the town, 
the purchasers have bought with it water shares. Banning is one 
of the few places in the state where this condition exists, for in 
the majority of communities a limited company owns the water, 
selling it, not outright, but by measurement, to consumers. Stock- 
holders in the Banning Water Company elect five directors an- 
nually. Very little trouble has ever arisen over the water rights, 
although at one time a company called the Mountain Spring Water 
Company attempted to prove prior rights to the water, but was not 

The Consolidated Reservoir and Power Company is at present 
undertaking a large project in the transporting westward across the 
mountains by ditch line, a portion of the Whitewater river flow. 
The water will be brought from high up in the hills across the head 
of the Water canyon north of Banning, and will be used on the 
large mesa known as Barker's bench, of which the company now 
has control. Work was begun three years ago on the ditch, the alti- 
tude making labor in the winter time impossible, and it is expected 
that it will be completed to the bench land by the end of the present 
summer. The mesa has been surveyed preparatory to subdivision 
and when the water is brought to it will no doubt be sold as ranch- 
ing land, thus adding a valuable **back country" section to the San 
Gorgonio Pass. 

The Banning company did not purchase at once all the land 
which they subsequently owned, but bought it in several different 
parcels and at different times. They first obtained from Rans 
Moore his rights to land and water claimed by him. The land 
lay near the mouth of the canyon, and reached down to a point 
just above the lower reservoir. The Moores had one house near 
the lower reservoir, which in a remodeled form is still in use, and 
an adobe farther north on the land. In 1884 the company bought 
from old Johnny Moore (who had a place in the canyon near 
the spot now called Camp Comfort, where the most recent of the 
wells of the water company is located) his possessory rights to 

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both land and water. The same year they obtained like rights 
from Sam Black, who then claimed the land and cienegas about 
the place formerly occupied by **French George" Munnon, where 
the two lower wells of the company are now situated. It was 
not until 1885 or 1886 that the land now included in that portion 
of Banning lying west of San Gorgonio avenue and north of the 
railroad was purchased from Gideon Scott, where the main resi- 
dence district of the town is now built up. 

In 1883 Filkins sold tc the San Jose Fruit Packing and Can- 
ning Company, which had plants at San Jose and also at Colton, 
land lying south of the railroad. With the land they acquired right 
to twenty-four inches continuous flow of water. This company 
planted many acres of deciduous fruit trees, and built a house 
where their manager resided. J. H. Barbour was secretary of the 
company, and Wellwood Murray was for a time the manager. 
After a few years the company found that their project was not 
much of a financial success, so the land was subdivided. It is still 
known as the San Jose tract, and water rights in that portion of the 
town differ from those in other parts of the community. 

When water had been piped to the land bought by the com- 
pany in charge of the Banning project, a town was platted and 
acreage was also arranged for. The first three lots sold by the 
company were purchased by W. S. Hathaway, who came to the pass 
in 1883. He erected a small residence on his property, which was 
located facing the railroad track near the present lumber yard. 

In 1884 a hotel, called the Bryant house, was built at Banning. 
At this time there was a store (owned by Dr. John C. King and 
F. A. Barr, who purchased it in 1883 from George C. Egan, who 
had it from the first owner, Jack Worsham), a postoffice, a saloon, 
the depot, with telegraph station, and a schoolhouse. The store 
did a very extensive business, acting also in the capacity of bank. 
There were a few more and better residences than had existed a 
short time before that, and the tearing down of the lumber flume 
changed the appearance of the frontier town greatly. 

When the San Jose company began developing orchard lands 
there were some other orchards planted, and fine fruit was raised. 
But although it was the intention of the corporation owning the 
land to make Banning an agricultural center, its superior climate 
soon made it more of a health resort than a farming district. 

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The cultivation of the soil grew steadily as an important indus- 
try, however, and every year saw the increase in acreage of decidu- 
ous fruits. Almonds began to be planted, also, and proved profit- 
able. It has recently been estimated that the total acreage of decid- 
uous fruits, including peaches, apricots, prunes, plums, pears, 
grapes, olives, etc., planted prior to 1911 totaled about 1400 acres, 
while the acreage of almonds up to that date had reached nearly 
five hundred acres, bringing Banning to the head of communities in 
the southern part of the state engaged in the almond raising indus- 
try. In 1911 about seven hundred and twenty acres of fruit and 
nuts were planted, while during the present year nearly three hun- 
dred and fifty acres have been planted. This brings the present 
total acreage very near to three thousand. In the early days Ban- 
ning fruit was considered of excellent quality, and still bears that 
reputation. In 1911 nearly twenty-five hundred and fifty tons of 
green and dried fruit and nuts were shipped out of Banning. The 
fruit was dried at small establishments in the early days, or shipped 
fresh, but with the growth of the output larger establishments 
sprang up, and at present there are several large driers doing busi- 
ness, and two fresh fruit packing houses. Fruit is also shipped in 
quantities to canneries, and the almonds, for the most part, are 
handled in a special hulling establishment. A two-hundred-acre 
grove of eucaljT^tus trees, owned by the American Eucalyptus Com- 
pany, is located in the western part of town. The first trees were 
set out in 1909, and already have made excellent growth. Vege- 
tables are also successfully grown, and in the early days fine berries 
were produced, but proved less profitable than orchard fruits. 

As more of the company lands were disposed of the population 
of the town gradually increased. There has never been a *'boom" 
at Banning, and the growth has been steady. In 1888 the popula- 
tion was estimated at about three hundred, while at present it is 
about one thousand. 

The first school in Banning was conducted in a small frame 
buildini? located in the northern part of the town, the first sessions 
being held in 1877 or 78. The first teacher was a Mrs. Sanderson. 
This old building, a small, one-roomed affair, is still in existence, 
being now located back of C. S. Holcomb's blacksmith shop, where 
it does humble duty as a paint shop. In 1884 a new schoolhouse 
was erected on Murray street, and this with several subsequent 

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additions needed to accommodate the ever-growing community (as 
well as a kindergarten, which existed from 1892 to 1895), was in use 
until 1903, when a new frame building was put up, this time on 
Williams street between First and Second. The new building was 
only in use a few years and was destroyed by fire early in 1908. 
The remainder of the term then in progress was finished under 
great difficulties, the primary grades being taught in the old For- 
esters' hall on Livingstone avenue, the intermediate grades in the 
old Baptist church and the high school in the Methodist church. 
The high school was established in the late '90s, the first class 
graduating in 1899. Paul 6. Ward was the first principal of the 
high school. Until this year the high school was under the direction 
of the grammar school trustees, but at present it includes the Caba- 
zon district, is known as the Banning Union High school district, 
and has a special board of trustees. 

When the school house was burned, bonds were at once voted 
for a new structure, which was immediately erected. This building 
is still in use, with an additional room which was later found neces- 
sary; this is a plaster structure, with tile roof, and is of Mission 
style. During the term closed last May there were one hundred 
and eighty-one children enrolled in the school, and six teachers 
were employed. The number of teachers has been increased to 
seven for the coming term. 

Although there were two school districts in Banning before the 
establishment of the present county, no school was ever held in the 
San Diego district of Banning, for oddly enough that part of the 
town belonged in a district which maintained a school in the San 
Jacinto valley, the other side of the mountain. So the children 
living in the southern portion of the town attended the San Ber- 
nardino county school, north of the railroad track, it being ob- 
viously impossible for them to attend the other school. 

No history of the educational institutions of Banning would be 
complete without mention of the St. Boniface Industrial School for 
Indians, which was erected in 1890. This school is situated in the 
northern part of Banning near the foothills at the mouth of Priest 
canyon. This canyon was formerly known as Murray canyon, when 
the land there was owned by Wellwood Murray, who sold his water 
rights and sixty acres of land to the Bureau of Catholic Indian 
Missions of Washington, D. C, in 1889. The first building, a large 

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two-story brick structure, was erected in that year at a cost of 
approximately $40,000, the money being furnished by Miss Drexel 
of New York. Father Stephan was the director of the work, and 
the first priest placed in charge was Father Willard, but he was 
taken ill and died at Beaumont in 1890. Father B. Florian Hahn 
was at once placed in charge, and under his direction the school 
began its first active work. Father Hahn is still in charge of the 
work begun by him so long ago, and under his capable management 
the school has grown and prospered. The school obtains water 
from the canyon and also owns five inches of water from the Water 
canyon. The lands have been cultivated profitably and improved. 
To the original building have been added two more. A frame two- 
story building was erected in 1894 for use as a boy's dormitory and 
school rooms. This was in use until July of this year, when it was 
unfortunately destroyed by fire. It will be replaced in the near 
future. A chapel of attractive appearance was built by the boys of 
the school under the direction of Father Hahn in 1899. Indian chil- 
dren of both sexes from the reservation of Southern California re- 
ceive industrial training and educational advantages at the school, 
a number of Sisters of St. Joseph acting as teachers. Over eight 
hundred young Indians have passed through this institution since 
its first year. Until 1899 government aid was given the school, but 
since that year it has been entirely supported by the mission bureau. 
On the grounds there is a small cemetery, but this has not been in 
use for a number of years. 

For a good many years the chapel at St. Boniface was the only 
available place of worship for white people of the Catholic religion 
in the pass, but Banning people of that faith were provided with a 
church when a small building was erected in 1911. This church is 
on San Gorgonio avenue, and was dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Thomas J. Conaty on Easter morning of that year, and is called the 
Church of the Most Precious Blood. 

The Baptist congregation also built a fine new church the same 
year, at the site of their old building, which was erected in 1884, on 
the corner of Murray and Ramsey streets. The corner stone of the 
new building was laid in 1910 and in December, 1911, the church 
was dedicated. The old building was used for a time as a union 
church, and in 1885 Rev. Sibley conducted services for the inter- 
denominational congregation. Prior to the building of the church, 

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occasional services were held in the schoolhouse. In January, 1889, 
a formal organization of the union church was attempted, which 
was called the Church Aid Society. OflBcers of the society were: 
Dr. J. C. King, president; Mrs. Lulu Carpenter, vice-president; 
Prof. E. D. Roberts, secretary; Charles D. Hamilton, treasurer; 
and Alex. Mackey, W. S. Hathaway, T. E. Eraser, W. H. Ingelow, 
and C. H. Ingelow. This organization lasted only until November, 
when the Baptists organized their church and took possession of 
the building, Rev. Sibley being their first pastor. 

About a year later, in October of 1890, the Methodists organ- 
ized, holding their services in the Fraser-Kelley hall, then a new 
two-story brick building. The brick for this building was manu- 
factered in Banning, at a kiln in the southwestern part of town, 
which was owned by T. E. Eraser. At this kiln the brick for the 
first building at the Catholic school was also made. A few years 
later operations at the kiln were discontinued and the place is now 
marked by a small heap of crumbled brick. The first pastor of the 
new congregation was Rev. A. H. Holden. In 1892 a small church 
was built on San Gorgonio avenue, near the corner of Ramsey 
street, and this structure later received an additional wing. This 
building was moved, in 1907, to a site on the corner of Ramsey and 
Second streets, where it was remodeled and substantially enlarged, 
and forms the building in use at the present time. The original 
church organization was under the direction of the mission, and the 
local minister frequently exchanged pulpits with one of the Beau- 
mont pastors. 

In the earliest days of the town there was no postoffice, but the 
mail was thrown off passing trains for those living at the small 
towns in the pass. In 1880 J. S. Moore was appointed postmaster 
at Banning. The postoffice was for a good many years maintained 
at different store buildings, and very often the storekeeper acted 
as postmaster. About 1894 the postoffice attained the dignity of a 
separate establishment, and at present is located in a small frame 
building which was built in 1910 in the center of town. 

The first hotel, which has already been mentioned, was the 
Bryant house, and in 1888 was known as The Banning. The name 
was changed when Capt. and Mrs. T. E. Eraser became owners and 
managers in December of that year. This hotel is still in use as a 
rooming house. Eor a good many years this house was the social 

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center of the little community. The Spokane hotel, on the corner of 
San Gorgonio avenue and Ramsey streets, was formerly known as 
the Coplin house, when it was owned and managed by Mrs. Mary 
Coplin, one of the pioneer residents of this vicinity. The Alta Vista 
hotel, which occupies tho second story of the Dudley block, was 
opened in 1905, when the building was erected, and is at present in 

With the growth of the number of residents coming to Ban- 
ning to obtain the benefit of the curative powers of the climate came 
the need for a local hospital, and at present there are two small 
sanitoriums in the town. Although in the early '90s it seemed for a 
time that Banning would become more important as a health resort 
than as a fruit producing district, this has not proven to be the 
case, and while a great many sufferers find relief here now, the 
chief income of the prosperous community is derived from the 

It has been seen that Banning about 1884 was a tiny frontier 
town, very crude in appearance. A grain field produced a yield 
about that time on land which is now occupied by some of the main 
business houses of the place, and rabbits and quail were shot within 
a block of the center of town. As the years went by and the popula- 
tion increased many changes in the business section took place, and 
gradually the town took on a somewhat more thrifty appearance. 
Not only was the business section improved, but the residences by 
degrees became of a better class. In 1890 there were two grocery 
stores, a meat market, blacksmith shop, livery stable, postoffice, 
depot, hotel, church, schoolhouse, a large hay warehouse, and one 
saloon, besides other buildings and residences. The saloon was 
maintained until about two years later. Trees both in the orchards 
and along the streets had attained such a growth that they added 
materially to the beauty of the place, taking away from the raw, 
'^frontier" look of the town. About this time the railroad com- 
menced running a local train between Los Angeles and Banning, 
called the '* Banning Flyer,'' and built a small engine shed and turn- 
table at the town, although these were later removed and the local 
done away with. 

In 1888 the people of the town were a good deal stirred up 
over the action of the government in evicting white settlers from 
land set apart for the use of the Indians, which has already been 


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mentioned, and many editions of the first newspaper ever pub- 
lished in Banning were filled with articles concerning it. This 
paper was The Herald of Banning, and the first issue was in August 
of '88. Louis Munson, a young Chicago lawyer who came to Cali- 
fornia in search of lost health, was the editor. He was a remark- 
ably clever man, and under his hands the Herald took on much 
more importance than a weekly published in a small town usually 
assumes and did much to favorably advertise Banning. In 1891 
Mr. Munson was unfortunately stricken and died at Arlington, 
April 23rd, having gone there upon the occasion of a visit from 
President Benjamin Harrison, who had passed through Banning 
the day before and had been greeted upon the brief stop of his 
train by practically the whole population of the town and nearby 
ranches. For the occasion of the short visit of the distinguished 
man the little depot at Banning was elaborately decorated with 
yuccas and poppies (which in those days before the extensive culti- 
vation of the soil were much more plentiful than they are at pres- 
ent) and fruit and flowers were presented to the presidential party. 
It is related that the fruit was necessarily canned because the fresh 
fruit season had not yet coromenced, but that it was no less grac- 
iously received on that account. On the day previous to his death 
Mr. Munson did his last duty to the place of his adoption when he 
voiced the sentiments of Banningites in an address of welcome to 
the president. He was most sincerely mourned not only by the 
residents of Banning, but by newspapermen all over the state, who 
recognized him as a fearless and brilliant journalist. An unusual 
act on the part of several citizens of Banning, which plainly showed 
their sentiments towards the little weekly which had become one of 
the livest features of the town, as well as toward the departed 
editor, was the forming of a committee which edited the paper until 
a legal successor could be secured. The committee was made up of 
the following people: Mrs. James F. Bird, Dr. J. C. King, M. 
French Oilman, W. H. Ingelow and W. S. Hathaway. After a short 
time Harry Patton, a newspaper man from San Francisco, under-* 
took the work, and later the paper passed into several hands. It 
gradually dwindled, however, and never reached the importance 
it had enjoyed during the first years of its existence. The last 
issues were published about 1895, and it was not until 1908 that 
Banning had another newspaper. In that year Harvey Johnson, 

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editor and owner of the Record, began printing locally the weekly, 
which is still published here. 

The lodges organized in the town have been few in number. 
About 1897 a chapter of the Foresters' lodge was established, but 
was not active for many years, although during its flourishing period 
it owned a building. A branch of the Benights of Maccabees was 
established in 1905, but is not now in active existence. In 1907 the 
Odd Fellows installed a lodge, which is at present the only active 
lodge for men in Banning. The auxiliary lodge of the Rebekahs 
was brought into the town in 1908. Among the business men there 
are now two organizations, and an Almond Growers' Association 
aflSliated with the state organization was formed in 1910. The first 
women's club in Banning was the Saturday Afternoon Club, which 
was founded in 1904, affiliated with the C. F. W. C. in 1905, and in 

1909, in order to better control property consisting of real estate, 
was incorporated under the laws of the state. 

For a good many years there was no telephone system to con- 
nect the town with the outside world, but in 1905 the Southwestern 
Telephone Company of Redlands extended its lines from that city. 
Since that date Banning has had the central office for the whole 
pass. Before the installation of the present system a locally owned 
telephone was in use for several years, but did not extend its lines 
beyond Banning. In 1890 a number of people living in the town 
had a private telegraph line with instruments in their homes, but 
this was not a money making project. In 1909 a company of local 
capitalists installed a gas plant, and are still supplying the town 
with this fuel. 

The people of Banning have always taken advantage of the 
fact that they live within traveling distance of the beauty spots in 
the mountains, but until the Banning-Idyllwild road was con- 
structed in. the San Jacinto mountains and opened up travel in 

1910, no very easy means of access into those mountains was avail- 
able, and the journey by trail or by the almost perpendicular Hall 
grade was difficult. This road opens up the mountains to the people 
of the pass, and is now a favorite automobile trip. In the moun- 
tains are several ranches, some of them dating back in occupancy 
to the very early days of the valley, but the sawmills which were 
in operation as late as the early '90s, are now not in use. In the 
mountain places cattle, hogs and fruit are raised. Mines have been 

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located in the foothills to either side of the town, but no valuable 
ledges were ever found. 

It is said that in the early '80s the mountains were more pop- 
ulous than the valley towns, and the lumbermen, together with the 
cowboys from places near Banning, and the miners going to and 
from the gold mines on the Colorado desert, made Banning their 
headquarters for both wet and dry goods. In 1884 the one store 
and the lone saloon did a rushing business, satisfying the needs of 
these rough customers. Sunday, far from being the day of peace 
and quiet, was the chief day for rowdyism and unrest, and hardly a 
week ended without a shooting scrap. Dr. J. C. King, who did not 
begin practice regularly in the town until 1885, was nevertheless 
called upon very frequently in surgical cases, as he was the only 
physician within a radius of a great many miles for years. He is 
still practicing in Banning. The gradual discontinuance of the 
lumber industry lessened the number of mountain residents as the 
years went by, and the dwindling of the cattle ranges cut down the 
number of happy-go-lucky followers of the herds. Banning contin- 
ued as the shopping center for the desert miners, however, until 
a comparatively recent date, when towns nearer the desert sprang 
up. To this day, however, the merchants of the town do a consid- 
erable business with the miners, who convey the supplies obtained 
here to their mines by means of wagon freight. These freight teams 
in the '90s were numerous and very picturesque.* A wagon and a 
trail wagon attached would be loaded with merchandise and start 
desertward, drawn by twelve or more mules and horses. The driver 
often rode one of the beasts, and instead of managing his team with 
reins, used one long **jerk line" which was fastened to the bridle 
of one of the clever lead animals, and a long whip. Bells were 
attached to the collars of a few of the animals, so that the team 
could be heard long before anything but the cloud of dust which 
usually surrounded it could be seen. The freight wagons today are 
of a less picturesque type. 

The citizens of Banning make up today a peaceful community, 
but as late as 1895 or thereabouts there were shooting scraps on the 
main street, and in 1890 the place earned the right to be called a 
typical **wild West" town when a horse thief was taken from the 
custody of the law and hanged to a telegraph pole east of town. It 
must be borne in mind that, as in the case of any other community, 

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it was not the highest-minded men of the place who disgraced 
the town by such actions, and that there were always good and law- 
abiding citizens who deplored such affairs. The jail from which 
the half-breed horse thief was taken to be hung was simply a make- 
shift, prisoners at that time being chained in an empty stall of the 
livery stable. A good many years later a tiny wooden ** calaboose" 
was built, and when this was destroyed by fire about 1908 the town 
again lacked a place of detention for the offenders against law and 
order. A small jail, built in 1911, of concrete blocks, now serves as 
temporary place of incarceration for those falling into the hands of 
the constable, this being located near the gas plant east of the town. 

The history of the San Gorgonio Pass or of any part of it is 
not one of startlingly sudden growth, but of the steady and gradual 
development of the resources with which Nature has endowed it. 
And very often years passed before residents realized the value of 
certain resources. One concrete instance of this concerns a point of 
hills south of Banning, which was called Rocky Point because it was 
a mass of huge boulders, and was considered valueless. Within 
the past four years experts in search of granite for paving blocks 
discovered this point within easy hauling distance of the railroad, 
and since then a quarry has been established there. When lumber 
cutting or cattle herding was being exploited, the soil and water 
which since then have combined to produce such valuable crops, 
were thought worthless except as they could be utilized in the in- 
dustries which were then considered profitable. Historical facts 
concerning people are always more interesting than those relating 
to mere things, and are correspondingly difficult to obtain. A full 
account of the multitude of incidents, tragic, humorous or ordinary, 
which made up the lives of the pioneers would possess a great deal 
more fascination than can possibly be obtained in the enumeration 
of the stages of development of the country where they lived, and 
which their efforts made more and more habitable as the years 
went by. 

Nothing has been said of the work of the pioneer women, but 
they, although few in number, did their part in the upbuilding of 
Banning as surely as did the men who developed the soil and water 
of the place and brought it to its present sound basis. In 1884 
there were just four white women in the town and about five more 
living in the nearby canyons and ranches. The women of Banning 

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have always been interested in the growth of the place and have 
aided materially its institutions, especially its schools and churches. 
Mrs. James F. Bird was the first and only woman on the school 
board of trustees in the town, serving in all twelve years; and rt 
was a small group of women who last year organized the Parent- 
Teacher Association with the idea of bringing the school and home 
closer together. The women of the churches through their aid 
societies have always been particularly helpful to those institutions. 
Banning housekeepers who today think they have few advantages 
would not complain if they had lived here in the early days and kept 
house under such conditions as those with which the pioneers had 
to contend. One of the most annoying features to which the first 
housekeepers in Banning had to become accustomed was the extreme 
interest with which the Indians, both men and women, viewed their 
simple housekeeping arrangements. Although the Indians were 
friendly, it was rather disconcerting for a woman, engaged in cook- 
ing or washing, to suddenly find herself the observed of several 
dusky observers whose faces were pressed against the windows of 
her little home, and this was by no means an unconmion occurrence. 
Although the early housekeepers of Banning did not have to con- 
tend with bears and wildcats, the coyotes were much more numerous 
and bolder in the days when the settlement was small, and the 
thrifty housewife who had a flock of chickens knew the annoyance 
the beasts could cause. Pioneer women who are still residents of 
Banning include Mrs. J. M. Oilman, Mrs. C. F. Jost, Mrs. J. M. 
Forquer, Mrs. J. C. King, Mrs. Charles Ingelow, Mrs. H. M. Rod- 
way, and Mrs. 0. Hamilton. 

Banning at present is a well laid out community, and a bird's- 
eye view from the nearby foothills today shows streets bordened 
with magnificent pepper trees, planted by the water company many 
years ago, the main business section of the town clustered in a neat 
and orderly fashion near the railroad track in the center of the resi- 
dence portions and the orchards, which reach from mountain to 
mountain and give the town the appearance of a huge checker 
board, with the orchards as the squares. The homes of the Banning 
people today, while they are none of them palatial, are for the most 
part attractive and comfortable with flowers and lawns surrounding 
them, and are in marked contrast to the shacks with which the first 
residents of the place had to content themselves. The business sec- 

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tion now contains three general merchandise stores, a meat market, 
ice plant, garage, jewelry store, drug store, furniture store, two 
pool rooms, a bakery, two barber shops, two confectioneries, two 
hardware stores, a livery stable, a hay and grain establishment, a 
mill where grain is crushed, a lumber yard, a dry goods store, and 
various other places of business and amusement. New business 
buildings of a modern type are even now in the course of construc- 
tion and in 1911 five business blocks were erected. The same year 
thirty-one residences were built. The place has a First National 
bank, which occupies a building in the center of town, and which 
was first organized in 1904 as a state bank, and was nationalized in 
1909. Property both in town lots and acreage has greatly in- 
creased in value and the property owners of Banning are prosper- 
ous and contented in the assurance that their holdings are of sound 
value. It might also be noted that the matter of incorporating 
Banning into a city of the sixth class is to come before the citizens 
of that place in January, 1913, a special election having been 
ordered by the county supervisors for that purpose. 


The town of Beaumont is located at the summit of the San 
Gorgonio Pass at a point where the valley widens considerably so 
that the distance is five to six miles between the foothills of the San 
Bernardino range on the north and the San Jacinto mountain© to 
the south. The elevation of the town is estimated at 2,600 feet, 
Beaumont being the highest point on the Southern Pacific line be- 
tween Los Angeles and Yuma. A most magnificent \dew of the 
mountains is afforded the residents of the place. 

It has been seen that the very earliest known settlements of 
Spanish and later of whites in the pass were located in the no'rthern 
part of what is now Beaumont, although there was no town at all 
at that place until about 1884, and then it was known as San Gor- 
gonio. Its present name was received about 1887, when a company 
of capitalists purchased the lands in the townsite. Notwithstanding 
the fact that there was no town, a railroad depot and telegraph 
office were established there in 1875, and for many years this marked 
the summit of the pass. 

In June of 1884 George C. Egan built his first store at San 
Gorgonio, near what is now the center of the town, on California 
avenue. Previous to that date Egan, who then had a store at Ban- 

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ning, had bought land from the railroad company and he sold his 
Banning property in order to make the last payment on this land, 
which comprised the odd sections in and about the present town 
of Beaumont. Egan also procured the other lands there, so that 
he owned practically the whole townsite. As soon as he had made 
his last payment and owned the property clear, he borrowed money 
on it and built the store, thus starting the town. 

In 1884 also a man named Parrish built a tiny place south of 
the railroad track near the present location of the roundhouse, and 
kept a little store there. Egan had a postoffice in his store and was 
the first postmaster, although a man called **01d Man" Lamb 
handled the mail that was thrown off the trains for the residents for 
a short time, unofficially. Both stores, in common with many of the 
frontier stores of those days, kept liquor, though at that date there 
was no regular saloon in the town. The railroad station, a small 
red building, which housed the telegraph office as well, a turn-table 
and water tank, which was then supplied from a well sunk by the 
railroad company, and a very few other buildings made up the 
town . The Summit house, the first hotel in Beaumont, which in a 
remodeled and enlarged form is in use today, was erected in 1884, 
also. There were no trees anywhere about the town, which pre- 
sented a cheerless appearance. The water supply in early days 
was all obtained from Noble canyon, from which flowed a small 
stream, which was piped to the town. A few years later Egan built 
another store building, moving his business to a comer opposite the 
Summit house and across from the depot, on Egan avenue, which 
was named for the pioneer. Grace street in Beaumont was named 
for his daughter. 

People began coming into the town in 1884, and that year R. P. 
Stewart and Dan Scott commenced raising grain. Both these 
ranches are still known, and Stewart is still a resident of Beaumont, 
having his home on a grain and hay ranch. Dr. McCoy came to 
San Gorgonio in 1884, and located on a ranch near the northern 
foothills. Horace Roberts was living in what was later known as 
Cherry valley that year, and in 1884 J. J. McCoy built a house for 
his uncle. Judge McCoy, near the other McCoy ranch. The Arm- 
strong, McMillan, and R. T. Jenkins families were pioneers of 1884 
in the town. Thomas E. Mellen was at the old Edgar ranch for some 
time, later moving to his place in the hills overlooking the pass. 

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Mrs. Barrett, who had formerly lived near Banning and whose 
son's tragic death has already received mention, moved with her 
family to San Gorgonio about that time. 

In the fall of 1886 a company called the Southern California 
Investment Company purchased from Egan all his holdings at San 
Gorgonio, and somewhat to the chagrin of the old settlers, changed 
the name to Beaumont, though there was some talk of naming it 
Summit. This was necessarily given up when it was found that 
another postoffice of the same name existed already in California, 
and Beaumont was adopted as the new name in 1887. The com- 
pany proceeded to '*boom'' the town. They planted eucalyptus, 
pepper and other shade trees along about twenty miles of streets 
which they laid out. They purchased with the other lands the 
Cherry Valley tract and the Noble canyon land where a reservoir 
had previously been built, and the old Edgar ranch and the canyon 
with the water. They did not develop the water, however, and the 
town was still supplied from Noble canyon. 

At this time the chief industry of the town was the raising of 
grain and hay, and very little fruit had been planted. Beaumont 
had grown somewhat, and the place was prospering, while new 
activities had sprung up. But in 1888, the year when so many 
rising towns of Southern California fell victims to the too great and 
too sudden inflation of property values which had taken place, the 
boom in Beaumont burst, and the ambitious plans of the company 
went flat. H. C. Sigler, one of the directors of the investment com- 
pany, who had great faith in the possibilities of the place in which 
his company had already sunk thousands of dollars, made des- 
perate attempts to procure additional capital with which to con- 
tinue the work, but was unsuccessful. The German Savings and 
Loan Society of San Francisco had already loaned money to the 
company and held a mortgage on the townsite. For a good many 
years after the misfortune of 1888 the investment company clung 
desperately to their property, the bank pursuing a liberal policy 
with them, but finally being forced to take over the land and water 
at Beaumont. When the townsite passed into the hands of the bank 
the new owners never attempted anything in the way of develop- 
ment work, and the condition of the town was not improved. The 
bank refused to sell the lands except as a whole, and no ready 
buyer was at hand. 

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In 1888 some trouble arose over the Edgar canyon water, where 
the Little San Gorgonio creek flows down from its origin higher in 
the hills, and the investment company brought suit against George 
Wilshire, James W. England et al. to quiet title to the creek and 
prevent them from diverting the water to the Redlands watershed, 
as had been done for several years prior to that date. Wilshire 
was a rancher who owned a place in the hills north of Beaimaont, 
and England was one of a company which made arrangements to 
obtain water for the valley the other side of the hills. They 
claimed rights to the water under dispute and fought the case, 
which dragged for years and years. When the bank took over the 
property from the first company they also assumed position as 
plaintiff in the suit, and it was finally carried to the supreme court, 
where the court gave a decision for the bank, and issued a per- 
petual injunction which effectually restrains anyone from diverting 
water to the Redlands watershed. The stream, which is used both 
on the hills and farther down for irrigating purposes, now empties 
into the Edgar canyon, where water for the town of Beaumont is 
at present developed. 

In 1890 Beaumont, though crushed under the weight of the 
failure of two years before, had grown somewhat. The railroad 
had quite materially enlarged its interests at the summit town, 
having built a large depot about 1887, and added a small engine 
stall to the turntable and water tank which it already had in use 
there. This little roundhouse was later removed to Banning, when 
the local train which has already been spoken of in connection with 
that town was added to the schedule, and a second and larger round- 
house built at Beaumont. In the year of which we are speaking the 
business portion of Beaumont included two stores, one saloon, post- 
office, livery stable, three hotels, a grain warehouse, built in 1885 
and enlarged later, a schoolhouse, and two churches, besides other 
buildings. The residences were of m^ch better class and a good 
deal more numerous than they had been six years before. There 
was not a very sufficient water supply, however, arid as the suit 
over the Edgar canyon water dragged on, and no water other than 
that in Noble canyon was developed or used, the place was very 
much at a disadvantage. No orchards or crops requiring irrigation 
were planted, and for years the dry farming, which resulted in fine 
crops of grain and hay, and the fact that the railroad company 

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steadily increased its activities at Beaumont kept the place alive. 
Ranchers raising the mill staples about Beaumont for the most part 
leased the lands from the company, and later from the bank, and 
the fact that year after year the same acreage produced heavy crops 
of barley, oats or wheat, proved the excellent quality of the soil. 

One of the most expensive improvements which the first com- 
pany installed was a large hotel, which was erected in 1887 at a 
cost of about $40,000. This was always a financial failure, espe- 
cially after the end of the boom, and although several attempts 
were made to keep it open it was found unprofitable, and the 
house was finally closed and placed under the care of a watch- 
man. This hotel, first called the Beaumont hotel, was one of a 
chain of expensive buildings of the sort which were erected about 
the same time in many Southern California towns which were in 
the booming process. In some places these buildings were never 
even occupied, but stood unused until destroyed in one way or 
another. In 1907 the Beaumont hotel was renovated and reopened, 
under the name of the Edinburgh hotel, but its history came to an 
abrupt close in August of 1909, when it was destroyed by fire. 
The Summit house has already been mentioned as the first hotel 
in the town, and in 1886 the second hotel, called the Del Paso, 
and owned by Mrs. M. M. Fisher, one of the old residents of the 
place, was built. It still occupies its original site south of the 
railroad track, and is in operation. In 1884 the Smith ranch, 
mentioned heretofore, was bought by a company of capitalists. 
They built a large three-story house and improved the grounds 
about it. One of the owners, a man named Veile, opened it as 
the Highland Home hotel. It was used for this purpose for sev- 
eral years. In 1887 or 1888 Palmer & Halliday of Santa Ana 
bought the place and proceeded to set out quite an acreage of 
fruit trees, including olives, cherries, peaches and grapes, which 
have since proven very profitable. For a good many years olives 
from the trees then planted have been pressed at the ranch and 
made into oil, and the cherries particularly have been known for 
their excellence. The company nearly completed a huge reservoir 
on the lower end of their territory, which stands unfinished today. 
The water for the irrigation of the ranch then, as now, was obtained 
from a canyon in the hills close by, called at present Black's 
canyon, from the fact that Sam Black once made his home there. 

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The Palmer-Halliday Company held the ranch to within a year 
ago, when it was bought by Riverside capitalists. 

After the first postoffice was established in San Gorgonio, and 
later when the old Spanish name was changed, the various post- 
masters who succeeded Egan maintained the office in some corner 
of different store buildings. In 1908 Postmaster James Kelly, 
who is one of the old residents of the place, moved the office to a 
separate building on Egan avenue, where it is now conducted. A 
rural delivery route was established in April of the present year, 
to accommodate the many residents living on the outskirts of the 
town. This is an eighteen-mile route, and serves over 100 families. 

In 1887 a weekly newspaper called the Sentinel was published by 
a man named McDill, who edited the paper for a time and then 
sold it. It subsequently passed into one or two other hands and 
soon went out of existence. For many years Beaumont, like its 
neighbor Banning, had no newspaper, but in 1907 The Independent 
was started there. It had a very brief existence, and it was not 
until 1908 that the Gateway Gazette, with Arthur J. Burdick as 
editor, was established. In 1909 another paper, the Beaumont 
Leader, was first published, and the two latter weeklies are at 
present being issued, both of them being printed in Beaumont. 

In the fall of 1884 the people of San Gorgonio saw the neces- 
sity of establishing a school, and when the first church building was 
erected that year, school was begun there. In 1885 a school build- 
ing was erected, only one room being completed at that date, and 
Miss Foy, the first teacher, commenced her work there. This 
building, somewhat enlarged, is still in use and is now called the 
Olivewood school, serving as the grammar school for the town. 
In 1909 a school was constructed in Cherry Valley and is used 
as a primary school to accommodate the residents of that part of 
Beaumont. The same year a high school was commenced, the 
sessions during the terms, of 1909 and 1910 being held in store 
buildings, and later in a big tent. These makeshifts were in use 
while a fine high school building was in the course of erection, 
and in 1911 the school began its occupancy of the new structure. 
A private kindergarten was opened in 1910, and continued for part 
of a year, but no such institution has ever been run in connection 
with the public schools. In the days of the first school a mere 
handful of children made up the attendance, but during the last 

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term there were nearly 200 in the schools, and eight teachers were 
employed. It is a little known fact that in 1887 a site was laid 
out on Cherry Valley for the Presbyterian college, Occidental, but 
for some reason the plans which had provided for the establishment 
of the institution at Beaumont were never carried any farther. 

The first religious service ever held in the town was in a little 
house which stood south of the track. This was conducted in 1884 
by a Congregational minister, although no church of that denom- 
ination was ever established at Beaumont. In October, 1884, a few 
Presbyterians met together at the home of R. T. Jenkins and orga- 
nized the first church. Their building, which they erected in 1884, 
is still in use. Their first pastor was a Rev. Bransby. In 1887 the 
Methodists formed a church, erecting their building in that year. 
Rev. Hilbish was the first minister to serve this church. For a 
good many years the preachers of the Beaumont and Banning 
Methodist churches exchanged pulpits, although the latter church 
was not organized as soon as the former. In 1901 the United 
Presbyterians of the town, who had organized a few years pre- 
vious, obtained possession of the Methodist church building, and 
are at present using it. Their first pastor, who still occupies the 
pulpit of the church, was Rev. H. P. Espy. In 1909 the Catholics 
of Beaumont built a substantial church on Palm avenue, under the 
direction of Father Hahn of Banning, and Father Golden was the 
first priest put in charge of the new organization. A small group 
of members of the Christian church held meetings for a time in 
1911, but never organized a church or had a regular pastor. 

There are at present two cemeteries in Beaumont, although for 
a good many years the old Beaumont Cemetery, which is situated 
south of the town, near the foothills, was the only one. In 1900 
the Mountain View Cemetery was started, this being located in the 
northern part of the town. 

During the '90s the population of Beaumont remained between 
three and four hundred, the fact that the townsite was not avail- 
able for subdivision holding back the community. Water was still 
scarce, and an idea which caused much injury to the place 
became prevalent about this time that no sufficient supply of water 
could be obtained, and possible investors, who came to investigate, 
were frightened from the prospect of buying a town without 
enough water. The trees which the first company had planted along 

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the streets had made excellent growth, although they had received 
practically no attention, and the majority of the streets were not 
in use. 

Into this ** sleepy JioUow" in 1907, just twenty years after the 
Southern California Investment Company had commenced opera- 
tions, came C. B. Ever, a capitalist who had purchased the town- 
site from the bank, and who was not dismayed by the bugaboo 
of **no water," which had prevented other capitalists from invest- 
ing in Beaumont. The town yawned, stretched, and woke up. The 
Beaumont Land and Water Company, which was formed in Octo- 
ber, 1907, bought from the first purchaser his new property, and 
at once began the process of rejuvenating the town. The same 
year the domestic water company, the San Gorgonio Water Com- 
pany, of which K. R. Smoot is president, was formed. The first 
directors of the land company were Messrs. Stephens and Gates. 

Going at once to the root of the matter the new owners began 
the work of developing water. At the same time they replatted 
the townsite and began the sale of the land in subdivisions, both 
town lots and acreage. The two companies own and control the 
water rights. The irrigating water is sold under a system which 
provides that purchasers of company lands can procure also cer- 
tificates which give them the privilege of buying water for those 
lands. The first attempt of the new water companies to obtain 
water was by sinking wells in the valley, but the location chosen 
proved barren of water and was immediately abandoned. A well 
was sunk in Edgar canyon and proved much more productive than 
was hoped, even by the sanguine directors of the company. A fine 
flow of water was obtained, but work did not stop with the first 
well, and at present the companies have six wells in the canyon. 
The theory which had prevailed for years that water could not be 
developed was done away with, and the town began a new lease 
of life, working on the more encouraging theory that water would 
be assured. The Edgar canyon water was at once piped in a new 
distributing system to the town, the Noble canyon stream also 
being used. The old reservoir in the latter canyon was used by 
the new company, and a small reservoir was built in Cherry valley. 
In 1911 a reservoir up in Edgar canyon was built, and the com- 
pany also uses power pumps in the canyon. With the new water 
supply, piped not only to the town, but to the valley where the 

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subdivisions were laid out, the growth of the place commenced. 
The new water distributing system added about forty miles of steel 
and concrete pipe to the meager number which then existed. 

In 1910, just three years after the company took charge, the 
population had reached over 1,100. Although a great many changes 
have occurred within the town, as it was formerly laid out, the 
most noticeable growth and development have been in the valley 
to the north. Here the lands, which were for many years occupied 
by grain fields, were subdivided, and investors built houses where 
there had never been a building before. Orchards of apples, cher- 
ries, pears and peaches were planted, and are at present making 
good growth. The fine fruits obtained from the orchards at 
Highland home, and at the Mellen ranch, where fruit so choice 
that it was awarded a prize in the World's Fair at Chicago in 
1893, was raised, were examples to newcomers. It is estimated that 
there are now over a thousand acres of fruit trees planted in Beau- 
mont, exclusive of the old orchards, a great many of the new trees 
being varieties of apples. The greater part of this new acreage 
lies in the valley north of Beaumont, toward the foothills, in 
Cherry and Apple valleys, and in the neighborhood of the old 
Edgar rancho, where pioneers planted grapes. Although irrigating 
water is available, the majority of the ranchers do not often take 
advantage of this fact, preferring to depend upon the rainfall, to 
a great extent, and to the quality of the soil which holds the 
moisture. Some of the recent purchasers have sunk wells success- 
fully in the valley. Besides the orchards, a great many vegetables 
have recently been produced, and fine berries are raised. Hay and 
grain are still raised in quantities. 

The residences in the town increased rapidly in numbers to ac- 
commodate the sudden growth of the population after 1907, and at 
present there are many comfortable homes in Beaumont of neat 
and attractive appearance. A special subdivision, which the pres 
^nt company exploited, is on the hills overlooking the whole valley, 
north of the town, and is called La Mesa Miravilla. Here there 
are several residences of unusual beauty and value. It is inter- 
esting to note that this choice district was in the early days con- 
sidered of no value, and thirty years ago a man declaring that it 
would some day be a site for country homes would have been con- 
sidered insane. This is simply one instance of the present devel- 

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opments in the pass which the earliest settlers never imagined in 
their highest dreams. 

In the business section of Beaumont, which at present, as always, 
has been located for the most part north of the railroad track, very 
marked changes took place after the arrival of the new company. 
Before that date the railroad company had again built a round- 
house, this third building being a place of some pretensions. 
Whereas the company formerly obtained water for the tank which 
supplies engines, from a well, it is now connected with the water 
company's system. The business section gradually grew eastward, 
from the original center, and is much more extended than for- 
merly. There are four groceries, two hardware stores, two fur- 
niture stores, a dry goods store, bakery, two clothing stores, a drug 
store, two confectioneries, a meat market, a fruit and vegetable 
market, a livery stable, two garages, and a rolling mill for grain, 
besides other places of business and amusement. 

The matter of incorporation of Beaumont was placed before 
the voters for the third time November 6, 1912, when the vote 
carried and Beaumont became a city of the sixth class. J. J. 
McCoy was chosen president of the first board of trustees of the 
city. Many years ago the last saloon went out of existence in 
Beaumont, as in the remainder of the San Gorgonio Pass, for 
when the valley became a part of Riverside county in 1893 it also 
became a prohibition section. A small ** calaboose," built in 1909, 
is located south of the railroad track. 

Among the important enterprises in Beaumont is the state bank, 
which was founded in 1910. A gas plant was also installed that 
year. In 1911 the present public library, which occupies a room 
in the Beaumont bank building, was established. There are few 
lodges in the place, the most active being the Odd Fellows, orga- 
nized in 1909, and the Rebekahs, which came into existence early 
in 1912. A Fraternal Brotherhood chapter also holds a charter in 
the town. The Odd Fellows own a fine building, in the second story 
of which they maintain their headquarters. 

The business men of the town have a board of trade, and main- 
tain rooms on one of the main streets. The women of Beaumont 
have among other organizations a club called the San Gorgonio 
club, and a branch of the W. C. T, U. The latter recently installed 
a drinking fountain of good design on the corner by the postoflSce 

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for the benefit of Beaumont citizens. The importance of the place 
as a railroad town is shown from the fact that there is a branch 
of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen there. 

Beaumont shares with the rest of the pass the advantage of its 
proximity to the mountains and desert, both from a standpoint of 
climate, and from the fact that the mountain resorts are easy of 
access. In the hills to the south is the Wolf skill ranch,, which in 
the early days was a part of a Spanish land grant, besides other 
ranches which have been maintained for many years. Recently a 
few homesteads have been taken up in the lower foothills south of 
Beaumont, where land has been cleared. The road to San Jacinto, 
now used as an automobile road, has been in existence since the 
early days of the town, and formerly a stage line between San 
Jacinto and San Gorgonio was run. A road was built this year to 
connect the town with the Yucaipe valley, and Beaumont avenue, 
which runs northward from the center of the town to the foothills, 
is extended into an automobile road into the hills. This road leads 
to Redlands, via a mountain resort known as Oak Glen, which al- 
though it is in San Bernardino county territory, has Beaumont as 
its postoflSce. The road to Idyllwild, in the San Jacinto mountains, 
is also easily reached. 

Beaumont is not quite old enough to have felt the effects of the 
lumbermen's desire to enjoy their *'high jinks" in the valley, as 
did Banning in the old days, but, nevertheless, life in old San 
Gorgonio, and later in Beaumont, was not without its hardships 
and excitements. One story is told by an old settler, concerning a 
Mexican who was found one morning apparently **dead drunk." 
He lay for some time in the road where he had fallen, and then a 
party of his countrymen took him up, and without very much inves- 
tigation, assumed that he was really dead, and buried him. The 
people of Beaumont are today, in common with their neighbors 
in the pass, a sober, industrious people — good citizens in every 


The fact that the railroad, when it pushed its first track through 
the uplands of the San Gorgonio Pass, established at Cabazon a 
small depot, has already been noted. Cabazon received its name 
from old Chief Cabazon, who was one of the well-known Indians in 
the early days. 


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The town is located about six miles east of Banning, and is 1,776 
feet in elevation. The railroad, which between Cabazon and Ban- 
ning climbs a steep grade, drops from Cabazon to Whitewater, 
where there is a small depot and section house, to an elevation of 
about 1,100 feet in less than ten miles. 

When Hall City was in existence Cabazon also assumed some 
importance, but later, until 1884, there was not much of moment in 
the place. In that year a company headed by Balfour-Guthrie, a 
Scotch firm, and known as the Cabazon Land and Water Company, 
bought the land from the railroad and state. They commenced to 
colonize the place, and sold some of the land, but later bought this 
in again and managed the property, as a whole, through a resident 
manager. They built a two-story house for the manager, probably 
about 1884 or 1885. A moderate acreage of grapes, apricots and 
almonds was set out, and these proved fruitful. Some of the earliest 
fruit in the San Gorgonio Pass is raised at Cabazon, and the quality 
is good. Water for the irrigation of the lands, and for domestic use, 
was brought in a five-mile stone ditch from the Millard canyon, 
north of the town. The railroad company then, as now, obtained 
a supply for the water tank from a tributary canyon, and at present 
maintains a caretaker in the canyon who has charge of the com- 
pany water system. 

For many years the Scotch company carried on the fruit farm- 
ing through a manager, but in 1910 the townsite was bought by 
R. F. Garner of San Bernardino. He soon sold it to the Malone 
Water and Land Company of Los Angeles, and last year they 
commenced the subdivision and improvement of their property. 
About 2,400 acres, lying for the most part south of the railroad, 
were platted by this company, and in the neighborhood of 1,000 
acres were soon sold. One of the largest purchasers was the Ange- 
lus Fruit Company, which bought the land with the idea of rais- 
ing olives, figs, peaches and apricots, with a preponderance of the 

To date there has never been any town in a business sense at 
Cabazon. A number of the recent purchasers of land there have 
built homes for themselves, and the company in charge installed 
a distributing system for the water, laying about thirteen miles of 
pipe. The first postoflSce was installed there early in the present 
year, with B. H. Votaw as postmaster, and bonds for a small 

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schoolhouse have been voted. The residents have always been few 
in number, and at present the total is not large, in comparison with 
the other towns of the valley. 


Whitewater, which is near the center of the valley, where the 
mountain ranges begin their gradual divergence, one from another, 
and the San Gorgonio Pass is lost in the Colorado desert, is only 
about 1,100 feet in elevation. The place takes its name from the 
river which flows across the valley from the San Bernardino moun- 
tains at a point east of the Whitewater ranch, and the river orig- 
inally received the appellation from the fact that the water carries 
with it an immense quantity of fine sand, causing it to have almost 
a milky appearance. Previous to 1860, when the Smiths located a 
station for the stage line, there was nothing whatever to mark the 
site of the present ranch. With the discontinuance of the stage 
traffic, Whitewater was the headquarters for a cattle ranch, and 
at present is used in that capacity, serving as central point for a 
winter cattle range. Although the present adobe house at the 
ranch is not the original one, some of the bricks which form its 
thick walls were used in the first adobe, built about 1862. The 
first residents of the place diverted water from the river by means 
of a ditch to the ranch, and this method is still in use. The huge 
Cottonwood trees, which were planted by the Smiths to furnish 
shade to the barren spot, are still standing, and these, with the 
green alfalfa patches near the house make a welcome oasis for 
desert travelers. About a mile southeast from the ranch the rail- 
road maintains a small depot, water tank (which is supplied from 
the Snow creek, flowing down the steeps of San Jacinto) and a 
section house. 


The little settlement of Palm Springs is not located in the San 
Qorgonio Pass, but is nestled close to the San Jacinto mountains, 
about five miles distant from the Palm Springs railroad station. 
Isolated as it is from the rest of the world, the town is in the midst 
of a region rich in historic lore and possessing unique features. 
The town obviously takes its name from the warm spring which 
bubbles from the sand in the center of the village, and is sur- 
rounded by palm trees. 

The old stage road passed through the place, which was then 

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used only by the Indians as a village or camping site, and undoubt- 
edly the earlier emigrants pursued a similar route, to take advan- 
tage of the water in the canyons and springs thereabout. The 
wagon train of the party of topographical engineers who came 
through the San Gorgonio Pass in 1853 rested over night at the 
springs, and mention is made in the report of the trip of the fact 
that the Indians made the place **a favorite camping ground,'' and 
also of a young palm tree near the springs, the presence of which 
in the desert spot amazed the travelers. It is a fact not generally 
known that giant palms exist at many points on the desert, and 
nowhere do they grow in more stately or picturesque profusion 
than in Palm canyon, which lies seven miles from the town of Palm 
Springs. Although in former days many Indians made the place 
their home, at present there are about sixty-six of the race who 
live on the reservation which the government maintains for them. 
The famous springs are on reservation land, and the Indians call 
the place Agua Caliente. 

About the middle of the '80s white people began to take interest 
in the possibilities of raising early fruits at the oasis, and about 
1887 there were two places flourishing as rivals in the vicinity 
of Palm Springs. The present town was one, and the loser in the 
race was Palm Dale. This was about three miles east of Palm 
Springs, a company of Riverside capitalists gaining control of 160 
acres and attempting to build there a town. They planted about 
100 acres to oranges, obtaining water from the Whitewater river by 
means of an open stone ditch, but the trees died, and later grapes 
were planted. The company built a narrow-gauge railroad from 
the line of the Southern Pacific and erected a fine ranch house. 
The project gradually dwindled in importance, however, and the 
company eventually lost about $100,000 in the failure of their 
plans. At present there is very little at the spot to show that 
the place existed, as the trees and vines are dead, the house is gone, 
and nothing is left of the railroad but a faint line to mark its 
former course, a few ties, and two desolate old cars. 

B. B. Barney of Riverside started a ranching project near 
Palm Springs about the same time, naming his place the Garden 
of Eden. The water for this ranch was from the Andreas canyon, 
but was finally adjudged as the property of the Indians, and was 
taken from the ranch, which was unsuccessful, and diverted to the 

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Indian reservation, where it is now used. A few old trees mark 
the site of this ranch. 

Palm Springs was for a time a place of some note because of 
its ability to produce the earliest grapes in the country for the 
Chicago markets, and other early fruits were also raised there. 
The water for the irrigation of the lands was brought to the town, 
until a few years ago, in an open ditch, which carried it fifteen 
miles from its intake at the Whitewater river, near a spur of the 
hills called Indian Point to Palm Springs. The cost of maintenance 
of this ditch proved more and more burdensome to the land owners, 
as the sand which was washed into it from the river was a con- 
stant source of trouble, and this made the fruit-raising project un- 
profitable. It gradually lost its importance, and although in the 
'90s about 350 acres of grapes, figs, apricots and oranges were in 
existence, most of the orchards and vineyards are now deserted, 
although a small quantity of fruit is yet raised. The abandonment 
of the fruit industry did not mean the entire abandonment of the 
town, for as the years went by the fame of the springs, and of the 
Palm Springs climate, for persons suffering from throat or lung 
diseases became wider, and at present the town is known widely as 
a health resort. 

About 1893 the little oasis had, besides the homes of the ranch- 
ers, two stores, a postoffice, and a hotel, the Palm Springs Hotel, 
which had been owned and managed for several years prior to that 
date by Dr. Wellwood Murray. A few years later a small church 
was built in the town, but was never supplied with a pastor regu- 
larly. About 1895 a school house was built, and is still maintained. 
Until the present year the hotel has been in operation, and it still 
forms one of the most picturesque spots in the town. Dr. Murray 
is the only one of the early-day residents to remain in Palm 
Springs. The town today has the postoflBce, a telephone line to Palm 
Springs station, one store, two hotels, the Desert Inn and Blan- 
chard's hotel, besides a number of small homes. The water supply 
no longer comes from the river, but is furnished the white residents 
of the town from Chino and Tauquitz canyons. Although the hot 
springs are on government land, access to them is granted the 
residents of the town. Many large palms, peppers and cottonwoods, 
planted years ago, now beautify the place and add to the comfort 
of the inhabitants. 

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By Mrs. Frank H. Fowler 

That portion of Eiverside county, extending west from Mount 
San Jacinto, is replete with historic interest. There is peculiar 
fascination about the section that holds *' old-timers" in a firm 
grip, while it charms the later arrivals until they, too, are ready 
to worship at the shrine of the old patron — Saint Hyacinth — San 
Jacinto. That vast scope of land, stretching away to the south 
and west from the foot of the old peak, that also bears the name 
of the saint, is known as the great San Jacinto valley; and of this 
valley, rich in Indian lore, Spanish legends, stirring deeds of the 
early pioneers, and the later achievements of a more modern civ- 
ilization, the following pages will treat. The people of a locality 
cannot get too much of its history. Its first days; its early steps 
toward settlement, should be the first lessons taught the youth of 
succeeding generations. As in the erection of a great building, 
the most interesting event is the laying of the cornerstone, so in the 
history of a community the most interesting chapter is that one 
which deals with the time when the hardy pioneers hewed their 
way into the newly-discovered region to carve out for themselves 
and their posterity pleasant homes, where before was wilderness 
and waste. Mount San Jacinto, that rears its snow-crowned head 
high on the eastern edge of the valley, is also rich in legendary 
lore. That rock-ribbed battlement that seems to guard the peaceful 
valley of the San Jacinto from the blistering heat and withering 
winds of a great desert, has stirred many a poet's pen to action, 
and its ever-changing face, leadened by drifting cloud, emblaz- 
oned by the sun's declining rays, has challenged, unconquered, the 
artist's skillful brush. Therefore it is mete and fitting that this 
great valley and the mighty mountain and peak should have a 
liberal chapter in a volume that deals with the history of River- 
side county. 

Before the cession of California to the United States in 1848, 
by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the Mexican government was 

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very liberal in giving away large grants of land. For about fifty- 
five years— from 1767 to 1822— California was under Spanish rule. 
In 1822 Mexico gained her independence from Spain, and Califor- 
nia passed to Mexican control. As late as 1846 the white population 
of California represented chiefly descendants of Spanish lineage. 
Many California families were of pure Castilian blood. Land was 
held in immense tracts called ranchos, not definitely located, but 
distinguished by name and bounded by natural landmarks. 

The original San Jacinto rancho was a great Spanish grant, 
extending from a point near the foot of San Jacinto mountain on 
the east to Corona on the west. This immense Spanish grant was 
later di\dded — El Sobrante, the overplus — being granted to the wife 
of Don Jose Antonio Aguirre in May, 1846. The remainder of the 
grant is known as the San Jacinto Rancho Nuevo and San Jacinto 
Rancho Viejo. It is to these two ranches, embracing an Old World 
principality in extent, that this portion of our county's history is 
devoted. The great western half of the original grant contains 
nearly 50,000 acres, and was purchased a quarter of a century ago 
by an English syndicate for a million dollars. The Englishmen 
planned to develop the Temescal tin mines, that had been worked 
in a crude way by Mexicans for many years. The eastern portion 
of the grant, on which are now situated the towns of San Jacinto, 
Hemet, Valle Vista and Winchester, was granted Signor Estudillo, 
grandfather of Senator Miguel Estudillo, just before the territory 
was gained to Mexico. The original grant or rancho was an im 
mense body of land, consisting of twenty-four leagues. Signor 
Estudillo was of pure Castilian blood. He was the father of Jose 
Estudillo, who met a tragic death as a forest ranger twelve years 
ago in the mountains he had known so long and loved so well; 
also of Francisco Estudillo, now a resident of Los Angeles. This 
large tract of land included the whole of the valley, except nooks 
and corners at the mouths of canyons, as Webster canyon, Indian 
canyon, near Soboba, and others. 

Leading an easy, unprogressive life, giving much time to fes 
tivities and to gay and tasteful dress, the Estudillo fortunes de- 
clined during the days of the old grandees, and it became quite 
convenient to replenish the depleted family ** strong-box" by selling 
undivided interests in the great grant to hardy, venturesome pio- 
neers. Thus it came about in the '60s and 70s that Benson, Collins, 

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Bevington, Tyler, Kennedy, Wakefield, Van Leuven, Worthington, 
Tripp, Logsdon, Webster, Procco Akimo, Gen. Boughton, Abies, 
Hewitt and others obtained possession of lands here, and the 
great Spanish grant began gradually to crumble and give way to 
the energy, push and enterprise of Americans. The territory that 
had been given over exclusively to cattle-raising began to take on 
new life, and new industries, feeble in their beginning, marked the 
opening of a changed civilization. The plains that had known 
only the tramp of wild animals, and the half -tamed hoofs of Mexi- 
can cattle, were destined to give way to the ploughshare. Where 
fortunes had been calculated by herds, and hides were the medium 
of exchange, with the uniform valuation of two pesos, came pioneers, 
the forerunners of a changed condition that was destined to leave 
the life of the Spanish grandees a fast receding memory. 

Of this life no one thing did as much toward its fruition as did 
the use of water for irrigation purposes. This is a broad statement 
— as broad as the Great West — and as true of other portions as it is 
of the great San Jacinto valley. The first irrigation ditch in the 
San Jacinto valley was constructed in 1871 by Samuel V. Tripp, 
who obtained water from the San Jacinto river in the canyon 
above the Webster ranch, and with an irrigation ditch of crude 
construction irrigated a small garden patch on lands now occupied 
by D. G. Webster. This feeble attempt at irrigation might be said 
to be the beginning of the splendid irrigation systems that today 
cover thousands of acres of the valley's fertile lands and produce 
fortunes of wealth annually to owners of irrigated orchards and 

As new families came into the valley the sheep industry re- 
ceived considerable attention and became of much importance. 
Grain raising was first experimented with in the section about Little 
Lake, where a community field of wheat was planted and cared for 
by the white families of the valley. To protect this field from the 
herds of cattle roaming at large it was necessary that men should 
camp there night and day. One pioneer of an inventive turn of 
mind constructed a wooden ratchet, or sound-producing instrument, 
that was used to good effect during the long night watches before 
harvest. Grain was tramped out with horses and hauled to San 
Bernardino, to be ground into flour. In those days the barb-wire 
fence was unknown here, and the rude log fence was the only pro- 

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tection early settlers had against the half-wild herds of the ranges. 
But gradually and firmly the settlers asserted their rights and 
demanded protection for their smaller holdings against the depre- 
dations of the stock of the cattle kings. Surveys were made, and 
those who had bought undivided rights were allotted particular 
portions, and the barb wire fence, the true friend of the small 
farmer of the West, came to put an end to stock quarrels and cattle 

Among the early settlers of the valley, some had crossed the 
plains with ox teams, and the story of their travels should never 
be forgotten. J. M. Logsdon, who settled in San Jacinto with his 
family in 1877, passed through the lower portion of the great San 
Jacinto grant in 1861, he and his wife and children being members 
of a party of 300 souls who came by the southern overland route, 
following the old Butter field stage line much of the way. Before^ 
the war, previous to this date, this old stage route maintained a 
daily mail and passenger service of an actual schedule time of but 
fifteen days from Visalia, Cal., to St. Louis, Mo. This service had 
been abandoned, however, with the opening of the Civil war, and 
to make it more difficult for travelers the governor of Texas issued 
military orders that any one attempting to pass out of the state 
should be arrested and his property confiscated. The party, of 
which Mr. Logsdon and family were members, was under strict 
surveillance by both state troops in the rear, and Confederate forces 
at Fort Bliss, now El Paso. By strategy the party were enabled 
to make a sudden and successful dash across the Rio Grande and 
into Mexican territory. There they were safe from Confederate 
molestation, but they had before them 300 miles of rugged moun- 
tains and desolate plains, where roads were unknown, from Fort 
Bliss, Texas, to Tucson, Arizona, where they again took up the 
old stage line route. A treacherous French guide led the party 
astray, and connived with thieving Mexicans to rob the Ameri- 
cans of their mules and oxen. Thus the trials and hardships of an 
arduous journey were made doubly trying and severe. The wagon- 
master had befriended a Mexican, who had been with the party for 
many days, but who was looked upon with suspicion by the majority 
of the Americans. On one stormy night the Mexican disappeared, 
and in the morning it was found that several animals were also 
missing, among them a splendid mule belonging to the wagon- 

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master. When the loss was discovered the owner of the stolen 
mule secured a mount and started on the trail of the fugitive 
Mexican. The thief had depended on the heavy rainfall to obliterate 
his trail, but unfortunately for him the precipitation ceased soon 
after his departure and the tell-tale tracks of the stolen animals 
made an easy trail for the pursuing wagonmaster, who came within 
sight of the Mexican after a ten-mile ride. There was little parley- 
ing, but one word was spoken, and that word came from the long 
barrel of an old Kentucky flintlock. The wagonmaster secured the 
stolen animals and regained his party, and no more stock was lost 
on Mexican soil. 

After leaving Tucson the great Colorado Desert proper was 
reached, and from that point it was necessary that the party should 
divide into small companies, traveling a half day's time apart. 
This was made necessary in order that the springs and water holes 
along the way might be replenished for each succeeding company. 
Thus the main party of 300 people, with horses, mules and oxen, 
was scattered along the desert route from the Colorado Eiver 
valley in Arizona to Vallecitos, Cal., a distance of 300 miles. 
When a day's journey into the desert, on the California side of the 
Colorado, a number of animals belonging to Mr. Logsdon's small 
company broke loose and started back. It was late in the after- 
noon; the company had halted at a dry camp for only a few mom- 
ents before beginning the all-night trip to the next desert water 
hole. Thinking to overtake the animals in a few minutes, Mr. Logs- 
don took the backward trail, without coat or hat. The only other 
man in the party also joined in the search. Through the soft desert 
sand tracks of the missing animals were easily followed. A long 
rope hanging from the neck of a broncho mule made a mark which 
particularly distinguished the trail. On the back trail, a distance of 
several miles, a deserted camp of a number of Mexicans, whom 
they had passed earlier in the day, was found, and here the prints 
of many trampling hoofs, and the ending of the mark made by the 
dragging roi)e, were proof positive that the Mexicans had captured 
the animals and were making way with them. Here Mr. Logs- 
don met the other searcher returning from the hunt discouraged. 

With the remark that '*he would get his animals if he had to 
follow the greasers to the City of Mexico," Logsdon resumed the 
trail with increased haste. But first he instructed his fellow trav- 

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eler to resume the journey as soon as he had reached the dry 
camp, and not to wait for him until the company was beyond the 
desert, at some point where water and grass were plentiful. With 
a burning fever Logsdon struggled on, hatless and coatless, sinking 
many times into the soft sand, but rising with a grim determina- 
tion such as only the rugged pioneers seemed to possess. Late in 
the night Logsdon passed the Cummings' camp, members of the 
original Texas party. Here he was told the Mexicans had been 
heard to pass, riding rapidly towards the Colorado. He was given 
a horse, and saddle, bridle and stirrups were improvised from bal- 
ing rope and sacks. Thus equipped the nearly exhausted man took 
up the trail with renewed determination, and at another camp a 
few miles farther on learned with satisfaction that the Mexicans 
had passed a quarter of an hour before. Here Logsdon was given 
a hat and coat, and a double-barreled shotgun was pressed upon 
him. Two young Texans, thirsting for adventure and bloodshed, 
insisted on joining in the chase. Before the young man-eaters had 
their well-equipped arsenals ready for action much time was lost, 
but after hours of hard riding the familiar bray of Logsdon 's 
broncho mule was carried to him across the desert waste, and, leav- 
ing the well-beaten path, the Mexicans were found fast asleep in 
a grassy nook near the banks of the Colorado. Thoroughly ex- 
hausted from their fifty miles of hard riding across the desert, and 
thinking themselves well out of danger, they had tied their saddle 
horses to their belts with their long riattas and had given them- 
selves up to sleep. 

The white men easily became masters of the situation, but the 
bravado that was so apparent in the Texans at their camp a few 
hours before, suddenly disappeared, and one of the poor fellows' 
hands trembled so that he could not untie the buckskin saddle 
strings with which Logsdon had instructed him to bind the Mexi- 
cans, while Logsdon kept them covered with his double-barreled 
shotgun. The other young fellow was finally told to secure the 
thongs, and the Mexicans were fast bound with their hands behind 
their backs. With the Mexicans in this condition self-possession 
quickly returned to the trembling young Texan, and the scoundrel 
did his utmost in his endeavors to shoot the helpless prisoners, and 
it was only by turning his shotgun upon the coward and threaten- 
ing his life that Logsdon saved the lives of his prisoners. The 

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stolen animals were recovered and the Mexicans taken before an 
Indian judge. At this preliminary hearing they were remanded to 
the governor of Baja California, for sentence. It was reported 
both were shot. 

After a delay of two days, caused by the trial, Logsdon resumed 
his westward journey alone across the desert — a journey where 
death from thirst and hunger stalked close by his side. There were 
many days of suffering and exhaustion before he overtook his wife 
and small children, who were waiting for him in the green, well- 
watered Vallecitos, and during all those anxious days and nights 
neither husband nor family knew the welfare of the other. 

At Vallecitos two brothers-in-law, brave young men of the emi- 
grant party who had shared the trials, hardships and dangers of 
the months of travel across mountain ridges and desert plains, 
killed each other in a drunken quarrel, and left the sisters to build 
their dreamed-of California homes in widowhood. Of the party of 
300 that left Texas, three are at this writing living in this portion 
of Riverside county, viz., J. M. Logsdon of San Jacinto, James 
Humphreys of Winchester, and George Cummings of Perris. 

Of a number of the early pioneers of the valley a few words 
should be of interest. Mrs. William Webster was a distant relative 
of the noted English navigator. Sir Francis Drake, whose ship 
visited the shores of California in 1580. Procco Akimo, who for 
years kept a store here, was a Russian exile. He came to Cali- 
fornia from the Aleutian Islands, whence he had fled from Siberia. 
Many years ago he was janitor in Louie Jacobs' bank in San Ber- 
nardino, at a time when it was feared that the town would be 
raided by a gang of outlaws. So great was the banker's confidence 
in Akimo 's honesty that he was given possession of the entire de- 
posits of the bank. Akimo buried the funds, and for days he was 
the only person who knew their whereabouts. After the danger 
of raid was past, and quiet was again restored in the little Mor- 
mon city, the trusted janitor returned the money to the bank's tills. 
This is Louie Jacobs' own story. Mrs. Procco Akimo was a step- 
mother of two nephews of the celebrated South Carolina states- 
man, John C. Calhoun. 

Frank Roberts, who owned the ** Frenchman's Garden," now 
a portion of the Nat Goodwin ranch, was another interesting char- 
acter. A sailor in early life, he was a world-wide traveler. His 

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knowledge of diflferent countries and peoples was inexhaustible. 
He was also a great reader and knew the works of Victor Hugo 
almost by rote. A great lover of flowers, he never tired of telling 
of the beauties of the famous gardens and parks of Paris. Cour- 
tesy and honesty were his religion, and it was impossible for any- 
one to leave his little mountain home without receiving some flower, 
fruit or vegetable at the hands of the kind-hearted hermit. Roberts 
died at the Sisters' Hospital in Los Angeles about fourteen years 
ago. H. T. Hewitt was with Walker's filibustering expedition to 
Mexico. A small company, of which Hewitt was a member, was 
captured by the Mexican authorities. All were tried, condemned 
and shot except Hewitt, who was pardoned because of his youth, 
being a lad still in his teens. Mrs. J. C. Jordan, whose death oc- 
curred at her San Jacinto home two years ago, was the '*Aunt Ri" 
of Helen Hunt Jackson's ''Ramona," the book that has made the 
San Jacinto valley known to the reading public throughout the 
world. During Mrs. Jackson's visit to the valley she was a guest 
of Mrs. W. P. Fowler, then Miss Mary Sheriff, at the Webster 
ranch. The Hawthornes, who settled in the mountainous Aguanga 
country in the early '70s, came of New England stock. The hus- 
band was a first cousin of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Husband and 
wife were possessed with the wanderlust throughout their lives; 
married before they were twenty, they went from Maine to New 
York, then the western frontier; then into the Ohio Reserve, and 
from there to the new lands of Illinois. Fast-growing settlements 
drove them onward and westward, and a desire for the frontier 
led them into the Dakotas, then Montana, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, 
and at last into their mountain retreat at Aguanga, where the old 
lady remarked with a smile that another westward move would 
take them into the Pacific Ocean. The couple had twelve children, 
all of whom were born in prairie schooners. But hardships en- 
dured by the parents were too great for the little ones, and the 
children all died in babyhood. 

As late as 1880 big game abounded in the mountains on all 
sides. Above Strawberry valley deer ran in herds, and men now 
living here tell of deer coming to their camps in Round valley, 
above Tauquitz, so tame that six were shot before the herd took 
fright. Bears were also plentiful and made great ravages on the 
sheep and hogs of early settlers. The old bear, Clubfoot, who 

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traveled up and down the state, and was known to the sorrow of 
ranchers, from Siskiyou to Mexico, met his fate on the Charles 
Thomas ranch, in Hemet valley, late in the 70s. For years this 
wise old Bruin had baffled all attempts of settlers to end his career. 
Traps were set, pitfalls were constructed, poisoned meats were 
temptingly placed in his path, hunters lay for him in mountain 
fastnesses — but all in vain. When he caught his foot in the trap 
that mis-shaped it, and gave him his name, he learned his lesson 
well. It was a passing prospector who earned the reward offered 
by the ranchers of the state for his death. The old miner would 
not tell the secret of the concoction that proved Old Clubfoot's un- 
doing. The poisonous preparation was put on pieces of meat and 
the meat placed on sharpened sticks, which were stuck into the 
ground along the brute's runway. The following day Old Club- 
foot was found in the dark recesses of a nearby canyon, his days 
of depredation ended forever. The story of his life and death 
was published in all the San Francisco dailies and other papers 
throughout the state. Mountain lions played havoc with young 
calves and frequently raided hog pens. When wounded or when 
cornered in the hunt they were fierce and dangerous, but if let 
alone there was never much danger to. human life from them. Ante- 
lope roamed at will over the valley, and in passing through what is 
now the Moreno section, on their way to San Bernardino for sup- 
plies, old settlers saw many herds of this now practically extinct 
wild game. 

As has before been stated, cattle, horse and sheep raising were 
the principal industries of the valley up to 1880. Before that 
date one could not walk about in safety because of the great herds 
of wild Mexican cattle that roamed in thousands over the level 
plains. All this old life was soon to change, for in 1882 a corpora- 
tion known as the San Jacinto Land Association bought a large 
body of land, consisting of more than 10,000 acres in the north- 
central part of the valley. This tract was purchased partly from 
Francisco Estudillo direct and partly from parties who had pre- 
viously bought of the Estudillos. The uniform price paid was 
$2.50 an acre. The tract was subdivided and a townsite platted. A . 
brick building quickly followed, and thus the town of New San 
Jacinto was born in the summer and fall of 1883, and the original 
San Jacinto became known as South San Jacinto, Old Town, Hewitt 

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Town, and, finally, Bowers. Following the operations of the San 
Jacinto Land Association other large tracts were subdivided and 
placed on the market in rapid succession, including the Fairview 
tract at Valle Vista, Winchester and the Hemet tract. It was in 
the spring of 1884, however, that the greatest boom was experienced 
in the settlement of the valley. Let us go back, if we may, to that 
date, and view the valley in the late spring, after the bountiful 
rains of that memorable season. There was no railroad, so the 
homeseekers must stage in, either from San Gorgonio, on the 
Southern Pacific, or from Pinacarte, a small station on the 
Southern California Railway near the present town of Perris. 
Let us choose the San Gorgonio route over the Beaumont grade. 
As the stage rounds the last spur of the mountain on the down 
grade into the valley, a scene of enchantment bursts upon the view. 
Spread out before us, broad, level and beautifully grand, is the 
great San Jacinto valley. On its expansive bosom thousands of 
head of fatted cattle graze, belly-deep in waving fields of alfilaria, 
bunch grass and clover. Almost at one's feet, and running close 
to the skirts of the mountain, a silver ribbon of placid water shim- 
mers in the morning sunshine, stretching westward for miles, and 
finally broadening into a lake, at the western extremity of which a 
narrow outlet through the hills allows the overflow to pass on 
twenty miles farther to Lake Elsinore. As the stage crosses the 
river the water is bed-deep. Leaving the river behind our party 
passes through a timbered belt, thick with cottonwoods, dense 
with luxuriant undergrowth of green, and noisy with the notes of 
myriads of sweet-throated birds. Emerging from this wonderland 
of music, the stage rolls along over miles of rich, virgin, valley 
land, carpeted with flowers that rival the rainbow's hues. Water 
is but a few feet below the surface, and artesian water, pure, clear 
and cold is obtainable at a depth of fifty feet. Everywhere vegeta- 
tion and animal life abound! The magic touch of God's bounteous 
rains has transformed the sterile cattle ranges into a veritable 
Paradise! Where on earth could man wish for better environ- 
ments in which to build a home and fortune? Where a more 
desirable place to rear a family! A virgin soil of unsurpassed 
fertility; a climate without equal for healthfulness — perfect in 
winter, unexcelled in summer ; a scenery unknown except in favored 
California; a valley made famous by rare old, fair old Indian 

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legends; a valley whose sands had been crimsoned cycles agone 
by the blood of its own children fighting for their rights ; a valley in 
which faithful Ramona and brave Alessandro sought refuge from 
their persecutors; a valley whose grand old mountain wins the 
hearts of all who gaze upon its majestic grandeur — 
**Our Mount is the monarch of mountains; 

TheyVe crowned him long ago, 
On a throne of rocks, in a robe of clouds, 
With a diadem of snow/' 
Such was the environment, such the scene that charmed the 
homeseekers and caused them here to cast their lot. Years of pros- 
perity and gradual growth followed, but the time of most rapid 
advancement was the boom period that swept over the whole of 
California from 1884 to 1888. 


It was in the year 1886 that a party of California capitalists, 
consisting of E. L. Mayberry, W. F. Whittier, Handcock Johnson, 
Mr. Judson and others became interested here and purchased 3,000 
acres of land from Francisco Estudillo, about the same amount 
from H. T. Hewitt, also 1,000 acres in the Hemet valley, in the 
San Jacinto mountains, from Charles Thomas, paying Mr. Thomas 
$15,000 for the property, which later became the site of the great 
Hemet Dam and Lake Hemet. In 1890 operations were begun which 
brought about the building of that dam, one of the largest pieces 
of stone masonry in the world, aud placed 7,000 acres of valuable 
land under an excellent water system. But to gain this consum- 
mation, years of unrelenting energy have been devoted; thousands 
upon thousands of dollars have poured a steady, golden stream 
into the valley; the best brains of past masters in constructive 
work have been called into use — all, that the people of this portion 
of the San Jacinto valley might enjoy life more abundantly. The 
original Hemet water system has gradually spread east and west, 
until practically the entire Fairview tract at the head of the valley 
and hundreds of acres west of Hemet are irrigated from that 


During the very early settlement of the valley by Americans 
many startling and tragic events occurred to lend excitement to 
the otherwise calm and monotonous life of sheep and cattle-raising. 

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Numerous raids were made upon the large bands of fine horses 
on the Estudillo ranch by the notorious Joaquin Murietta and his 
followers, but never were the settlers able to get within rifle shot 
of the thieves. Probably it is as well for the growth of population 
that they were not, for it is said those Mexican dare-devils seldom 
missed their mark. In those days justice was of the proverbial Wild 
West type, and once the transgressor fell into the hands of the 
rough-natured pioneers, whose motto was, ** Justice before law," he 
was quite likely to be summarily dealt with. In the year 1878 there 
lived an old soldier named Adam Neese, with his wife, near Tres 
Sierretes. One evening at dusk a Mexican appeared at the cabin 
and asked for food, and to remain for the night. The old soldier 
was in the yard, and as the wife was preparing food, she heard a 
^ sound as of a falling body. Alarmed, she stepped to the door, to 
be met by the bloodthirsty Mexican, who forced her back into the 
room, where she battled with him desperately, finally succeeding in 
breaking away and reaching the corral in safety. An alarm was 
raised, and grim-visaged men gathered and returned with the brave 
woman, to find evidence too true of a most dastardly murder. 
News of the atrocious crime spread throughout the valley, and a 
systematic man-hunt was organized. After days of search the 
fugitive was found in a deserted sheep camp at San Ignacio. He 
was brought to San Jacinto, which then consisted of Kennedy's 
store and mail station, and chained to the floor of an adobe build- 
ing to await trial. Soon after sundown of the day the prisoner 
was brought in, someone, on pretense of wanting to shoot a wild- 
cat, borrowed Constable Ortega's pistol. In a few minutes a 
party of armed men entered the little adobe room, where Ortega 
was guarding his prisoner, and informing him that his services 
were no longer necessary proceeded forthwith with the captive to 
the nearest cottonwood tree. Here, as the pioneer would jestingly 
remark, a small '^ necktie" party was indulged in. Such was the 
swift work of crude justice in the early days of the great San 
Jacinto valley. 

About two years after this lynching, a hold-up and fatal shoot- 
ing occurred on the San Gorgonio grade. Among early purchasers 
of unsurveyed interests in the great San Jacinto Viejo grant were 
General Boughton and Mrs. Wakefield. Soon after locating here 
with her young son of about sixteen years of age, Mrs. Wakefield 


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sold $3,000 worth of land to General Boughton. A dispute arose 
over the settlement, in which the Wakefields claimed that they had 
been grossly defrauded. Prompted by the thought of securing the 
sum of money in dispute, young Wakefield persuaded two other 
boys of about his age to join him in what proved to be a fatal 
undertaking. Knowing that General Boughton would leave the val- 
ley in the middle of the night, in order to take a 3 o'clock train at 
San Gorgonio, young Wakefield planned with his companions to 
hold up the general at some lonely spot on the mountain grade and 
there force him to deliver the sum of money in dispute. The boys 
waited at the place selected, and when Boughton 's rig approached 
they proceeded to hold it up in the regulation bandit style. At the 
pistol point Boughton and Collins, his driver, were compelled to 
alight. The team was unhitched and turned loose, and Collins ^ 
was tied to a wheel of the wagon. General Boughton 's hands were 
tied behind his back, and he was led away across the rough foot- 
hills. They boys had taken Boughton 's word that he was unarmed* 
and the general afterward declared that he believed he was so, 
and that it was only when in endeavoring to loosen his hands he 
accidently touched the butt of his revolver, that he remembered 
that his wife had insisted on putting the weapon in his pocket 
before he left Los Angeles. As the captors and the prisoner passed 
along in the inky darkness the general succeeded in twisting his 
hands out of the bands that bound them. Quickly grasping his 
pistol he fired rapidly about him in the darkness. He heard one 
person fall and others running. Boughton returned to the wagon 
loosed Collins, and together they secured the team and returned 
to San Jacinto, where the general gave himself up, admitting that 
he had killed one man and perhaps wounded others. He had no 
idea as to the identity of the hold-ups. A number of men gathered 
and return was quickly made to the scene of the midnight hold-up. 
A short distance from the grade, where the team was stopped, 
the searchers were horror-struck to see by the first beams of day- 
break the prostrate form of 16-year-old Clarence Wakefield. His 
fair, wavy, brown locks were wet with morning dew, and on his 
face Death's pallor had long since chilled Life's ruddy current. 
Slowly and sadly the body was carried to the wagon and taken 
to the home of the widowed mother. The other boys who partici- 
pated in this daring, reckless outlawry remained hidden in the hills 

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for weeks, and one of them made his way into Arizona. But as 
General Boughton gave out that he would not appear against them, 
they finally returned to their homes. This is one of the saddest 
chapters of the valley's history. The boys really had no intention 
of harming anyone. They wished only to compel Boughton to 
restore to the widow the money they thought was rightfully hers. 
Unfortunately, their course of procedure was most unwise and 

The early settlers lived in peace with the Indians, and it was 
only when ** firewater'' had kindled to life the latent savagery in 
the breasts of the peaceful Sobobas that white people had cause 
for apprehension. A night of terror, spent by Mrs. J. M. Logsdon 
and children in the late 70s, forms a thrilling story. Mr. Logsdon 
and the eldest son, Ed, had gone to San Bernardino for house- 
hold supplies, leaving Mrs. Logsdon and the smaller children on 
the ranch. The road from San Bernardino to Soboba ran near 
the house, and Indians passing to and from were a common sight. 
On this eventful evening wild whoops from the west, and clattering 
pony hoofs told of a party of Indians returning from San Bernar- 
dino much the worse for whiskey. Warning the children to pay 
no heed to the Indians, the mother went about her household duties, 
and the younger boys, Joe and Jim, were told to continue with the 
milking in the cow corral near by, hoping by this display of appar- 
ent indifference that the Indians would pass by, as they had many 
times before, without giving any trouble. However, this time they 
were looking for trouble, and after parleying with the boys for a 
time at the corral, they rode up to the garden gate, muttering and 
angry. Falling off their ponies in confusion they began battering 
at the gate lock with their heavy six-shooters. Finally an entrance 
was effected, and the drunken Indians, seven of them, crowded into 
the yard, demanding whiskey and flour. The boys had come from 
the corral, and Joe secured the shotgun, but his mother had him 
put it away, determined that only in the gravest necessity would 
they resort to such measures for protection. One of the Indians 
gave Mrs. Logsdon to understand that he was a friend who had 
worked for her husband, and that he would, if possible, save them 
from harm. This Indian, Frank Silvas, finally did succeed, by 
coaxing and crowding, to get them out of the house, through the 
gate, and onto their ponies, and by riding behind, actually herded 

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the desperate characters away from the house, but only for a short 
distance, when they dismounted, built a fire and declared that they 
would wait there until the white family slept, when they would 
return to murder and plunder. Mrs. Logsdon fully realized the 
desperate straits she and her children were in and prepared for 
the worst. Directing one of the children to write a note giving the 
details of the attack, and placing the friendly Indian, Frank Silvas, 
free from blame, the mother pinned the note to her bonnet and 
threw the bonnet over the fence at the rear of the yard, among 
the bushes on the hillside. Hours of terror followed. Late in the 
iiight the mother, listening at a partly-raised window, heard nothing 
of the mutterings, punctuated with blood-curdling yells, and realized 
that their enemies had fallen into the heavy stupor of drunken- 
ness. But the mother allowed herself no sleep that night. As the 
day was dawning gray above Mount San Jacinto she saw through 
the darkness shadowy forms silently mount horses and ride away 
to the eastward — she and her children were saved! The brave 
pioneer mother acknowledged that a kind Heavenly Father had 
once more kept her and hers from the perils that lurked in the new 
born West. Upon Mr. Logsdon 's return the matter was reported 
to the captain of Soboba. Arrests followed, and at the trial Frank 
Silvas' testimony, corroborated by that of the Logsdons, resulted 
in the conviction of Silvas' companions. A few weeks later Frank 
Silvas' body was found lying in the water motes with a bullet hole 
through the head, presumably the result of the hatred of the con- 
victed tribesmen. Thus brave Frank Silvas paid the cost of be- 
friending a white mother and her children, and saving them from 
the passions of his whiskey-inflamed companions. 


The very first inhabitants of the valley lived in caves in the 
mountain sides during the cold months and in summer moved out 
into shacks built of tule, willow and water mote. The warm, adobe 
house was unknown until after the advent of the Franciscan Fath- 
ers. A few of the old winter homes are still to be found about the 
foothills. One in a good state of preservation is north of Valle 
Vista, on a high cliff near the north bank of the San Jacinto river. 
Their dress was of the skins of wild animals — wildcats, deer, ante- 
lope, goats, mountain lions, etc. The fibre of different plants was 
used for thread. The weapons of war and for providing food were 

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the bow and arrow, the tomahawk and the machete, a smooth, 
straight stick about one and one-half feet in length and two inches 
in diameter. This latter is still used by the Sobobans with great 
skill. Living so far from the ocean, and there being no fish in the 
mountain streams, the Indians of this valley never acquired a taste 
for fish. Deer, antelope and rabbits furnished the principal meat 
jiiet Acorns and chia were ground into meal, taking the place of 
flour. This chia grows wild today on nearly all parts of the mesa 
land, and it is a common sight to see an old Indian woman gathering 
the grain in her fibre-woven basket. Many years ago the only 
battle ever fought in this section was waged because of a dispute 
over this self-same chia — the destruction of Ivah, or the battle of 
Massacre canyon. 

It was a fight to the death — a fight in which the victor gave no 
mercy, the vanquished sought none. The old people of Soboba all 
know the story well. Their dull blood rushes through their veins 
with all the warmth and vigor of youth as they tell of their sister 
village's massacre. Old Victoriana, who died in 1890 at the age of 
one hundred and thirty-six years, used to tell the story of the battle, 
giving its date as '* maybe three hundred and fifty years ago.'* 
There had been a series of years of drought in all parts of the land. 
In the Temecula valley chia was a complete failure, and the Temec- 
ulas, who were of another tribe distinctly separate from the seven 
villages of this valley, came here in search of grain. On the broad, 
sandy plain at the lower end of the valley they found quantities of 
chia, which they proceeded to gather, ignoring the fact that it be- 
longed to the village of Ivah, situated near the present Relief Hot 
Springs. The chief of Ivah and a few advisors went out to remon- 
strate with the intruders, but the fierce Temeculas were sulky, de- 
termined and desperate. While the chiefs of the two tribes were 
parleying, a treacherous Temecula shot an arrow at the Chieftian 
Ivah, grazing so close to him as to cut away a feather in his head 
dress. To talk of peaceful measures was no longer possible. The 
gauntlet was now down, the die was cast; blood was the only thing 
that could wash away the insult! Hurriedly returning to Ivah, a 
council of war was held and preparations were at once begun to go 
against these stranger foes the following day. Long before the 
first beams of daylight shone above old San Jacinto, the whole of 
the fighting population was in battle array and moving toward the 

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enemy. The old men say that the sun rose that morning a ball of 
blood, and all that day it traveled through the heavens a disc of 
brightest red, looking down upon the surging mass, struggling 
below. All day long the battle raged; all day long the whistle of 
the arrow and the sickening thud of the deadly tomahawk were 
heard. The wild war whoop that startled the hillsides in early 
morning was not hushed till the last red gleam of the bleeding sun 
faded into darkness. Across the level stretches of the mesa, then 
down to the tableland and on to the timbered lowlands, the brave 
but outnumbered Ivahs were forced steadily, stubbornly northward. 
Finally, a large re-enforcement coming to aid the foes, the Ivahs 
turned and fled into a narrow canyon with precipitous walls. Some 
distance from the mouth of this canyon is a perpendicular wall 
directly across its bed and completely shutting off further advance. 
With their backs against this wall of rock the small handful of 
braves left to defend the honor of Ivah there sold their lives as 
dearly as they could, only ** stopping the fight to die,'' as Victoriana 
put it. Thus Massacre canyon received its name, given it many 
years after by early white settlers, who heard from the old Indians 
how the best of fair Ivah went down to their death. 

Early in the nineteenth century smallpox was introduced among 
the Mission Indians of Southern California by a sailor who landed 
at San Diego. The disease was unknown to California Indians and 
they used the same remedy as in other fevers, that is, the sweat and 
cold plunge. It proved to be the most fatal treatment they could 
have hit upon. Their people died like sheep — whole villages being 
depopulated. In their terror the stricken ones fled from the village, 
spreading certain death as they went. Thus the dread disease swept 
and spread for weeks and months, and when it had run its course 
village upon village was wiped out of existence, and in this great 
valley, where before there were seven happy villages, the smallpox 
scourge left but one remaining — Soboba. It is said on authority 
that at the beginning of the nineteenth century the Indian popula- 
tion of the San Jacinto and Santa Ana valleys was 6,000. At the 
present time the Indians of this entire part of the state, extending 
to Fresno, is about 3,000. The terrible smallpox plague is directly 
responsible for this fearful loss. 

The government maintained by the villages or colonies was pa- 
triarchal. An ambitious brave would gather up his family and 

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property and choose some fertile spot near a natural spring or run- 
ning stream. Though other families in time gathered about, he still 
remained the chief of the village, the power passing from father to 
eldest son. This right of leadership was never disputed, and appar- 
ently the only way for one to get into politics in those days was to 
go and found a village of his own ! Old Victoriana was the last of 
the heriditary chiefs of Soboba. When he became too old to act 
in that capacity (about 1875) the people of the village elected their 
captain, for the term of one year, the election to be approved by 
the Indian department at Washington. This form of local govern- 
ment is the one now in use. 

According to Indian legendary lore this valley was at one time 
a great inland lake. The devil, in the shape of a sea serpent, used 
to inhabit this lake. Algoot was the Indian hero that battled with 
this monster. Algoot took great masses of rock from Mount San 
Jacinto, which he hurled at the devil. The serpent threshed about 
and with his tail knocked a passage through the western hills 
through which the waters rushed and drained the valley dry. T|;ie 
small hills that lie about the south and west side of the valley were 
thrown there by Algoot in his fight with this monster. 

There is also an Indian legend to the effect that Hemet valley 
in the San Jacinto mountains was at one time a lake with an outlet 
on the eastern side into the desert. A great earthquake opened a 
passage on the west through which the water now passes, and at 
the head of which the Hemet dam is built. 


[For this brief sketch of local Indian history the writer is 
indebted to Mrs. W. P. Fowler, who taught the Soboba school for 
twelve years and was the first teacher employed by the government 
among the Mission Indians of California.] 

Many years ago, about the time of Montezuma, a band of south- 
em Indians, footsore and weary with the tiresome journey across 
the hot desert sands came into San Jacinto valley. They passed the 
night in rest around the hot springs, which the Spanish, long years 
after named Agua Caliente, and that are now known as the Soboba 
Lithia Springs. In the morning they ascended the hill above the 
springs, and their priest, who was also their patriarch, smoked the 
sunrise pipe, blowing the smoke north, south, east and west; thus 
taking possession of this great valley in the name of the only god 

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they knew — the glorious sun. As the sun rose in his matin beauty 
they worshiped him in song and dance and prayer. 

The tradition has it that they found in the valley a few inferior 
people, who knew nothing of any industries, except the chase for 
food and what grew out of the necessity of securing clothing for the 
cold weather. It seems that these early inhabitants were also sun 
worshipers, but less intelligent than those who came from the south. 
It may safely be said that sun-worship was the earliest religion in 
the San Jacinto valley, and that the believers in the sun god had 
lived and died in that faith for at least 1,000 years. 

They called their first village Ivah, and it was built at the Relief 
Hot Springs. As the years passed the families had multiplied until 
there were six villages, all wisely placed near springs of water. 
Soboba, extending along the bench at the foot of San Jacinto moun- 
tain, owned not only the never-failing artesian spring that is still 
the property of the village, but also the sulphur springs on the north, 
now the health resort, Soboba Lithia Springs. Near the center of the 
valley, where the town of San Jacinto is now, was Ju-sis-pah, some- 
times called Hua-chip-pah. In Webster's canyon, on the road to 
Idyllwild, was built A-ra-rah. Big Springs ranch, where there were 
three large springs, had the village of Pah-sit-nah, one of the larg- 
est villages of the valley. Corova, the most northern village, was 
in Castillo canyon. Three of these names contain the syllable **pah,*' 
which in the Indian language means water. So-bo-ba means a warm 
place and Co-ro-va a cool place. 

Their houses in an early day were made for summer of tule 
and the branches of trees, much like the ramadas of the present 
day — ^just a shelter from the heat. Their winter homes we^e built 
of the branches of water mote fastened to poles that were tied to 
four posts, with rawhide thongs. The roof was of tule and the 
interstices were filled with adobe mud. These were warm enough 
for the southern climate, but not very sanitary. 

No great variety was found in their food, for it was mostly 
meat — bear, deer, wild goat and wild sheep,- which were abundant 
in the mountains, also the gray and black squirrels. Antelope and 
rabbits in the canyons and valley gave them opportunity for one of 
the delights of their life, the chase. Wild birds were plentiful, too; 
ducks, geese, swans and eagles or condors for the large birds, and 
mountain and valley quail in great quantities for the smaller varie- 

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ties. Nothing that we could call bread was found in the daily menu 
of these Indians before the time of the Missions. They ate mush, 
called biote, made of acorn meal; pinole, which was made of wild 
grains, parched and broken in a mortar, such as chia, a gray seed 
about the size and shape of our flax seed, that grows on one of the 
button plants of this valley; wild buckwheat, and others. Vege- 
tables were used. Comote, one variety of >^cca, was cooked and 
eaten like cabbage. As only the petals of the flower were used, it 
was a very delicate dish. They also baked the flower stem of tlie 
comote, which is very much like the tender stock of sugar cane. 
Many roots were eaten, which were baked in ashes; some water 
plants, such as water cress and pepper grass, they were very fond 
of, too. 

Naturally, as the Indians lived mostly on the results of the 
chase, it was one of their most enjoyable experiences. The hunt 
and the feasts that followed were their main recreations. The 
weapons for the hunt were very primitive, bows and arrows and 
clubs, and for the larger game, rough traps. At their feasts, many 
of them religious, they danced, men and women separately, and 
played games of chance, as they still do. Their government was 
patriarchal, the head of the family deciding all important questions, 
and each village was really one great family. As to religion they 
were like the Mexican Indians, sun worshippers. A great rock was 
used as a sacrificial altar, very much as in the temples in Mexico. 
They had their matins, or sunrise prayers and songs, and believed 
that the sun was the great god who controlled all things. They 
also believed in spirits that manifested themselves to the people, 
that were evil and good influences in Nature and also in human 
beings. Their music was the sonaja or rattle, whistles made of 
bone, and a few other primitive instruments. They told their folk- 
lore stories, of which the women have always been the custodians, 
and sang to the sun in low, chanting voices at their feasts. This is 
one of their interesting stories : 

In the beginning the great god Cocomot made images of mud, 
in each locality where the different tribes were to be located, and 
then he breathed into them life ; so the Indians are part of the great 
god Cocomot. After long, long years, Comustomho, the son of 
Cocomot, came to the earth from the sky, and many of the old Indians 

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saw him. So they know the story is true, but the white people do 
not know this story, for there were no white men then. 

Comustomho appeared at first on the coast of Lower Califor- 
nia, then he came up the Gulf of California, and up the Colorado 
river to where the Cocopahs lived, for his father, Cocomot, had sent 
him to see all the different tribes. While with the Cocopahs he died. 
Then the Cocopahs put the body in their best and swiftest canoe 
and came quickly up the Colorado river to the Yumas. All the 
Yumas and the tribes of the desert and the mountains gathered 
to see this wonderful body, that was so white and not like an Indian. 
As they watched and wondered, fire came from the sky and burned 
the body of this son of their god. 

On this story is based the old Indians' only strong belief in a 
resurrection. They believed, and the Cocopahs and the Yumas still 
believe, they must burn the body of their dead, so that the spirit 
may be released to go to live with Cocomot and his son, Comus- 
tomho. This is only one of their many stories of the creation of man. 

Capt. Roques Jauro, to whom I am indebted for nearly all of 
this historia de Soboba, as he called it, and who was a remarkably 
intelligent man, always insisted that before the time of the padres, 
his people'had traditions of the coming of a god that in his essence 
and mission was the counterpart of the Christ. 

The Indians of the San Jacinto valley have never been very 
warlike ; not so much so as the Cahuillas. During the Mission days, 
it is said, the Piutes, who were great horse and cattle thieves, swept 
into the San Jacinto valley to drive off stock, but the local Indians 
routed them, after a lively skirmish, near the west mountain. I 
have been told, too, that Victoriana, the last chief of Soboba, was 
wounded in the battle, and that he was a captain of the valley In- 
dians. He was at that time cfnly about nineteen years old. 

The coming of the Franciscans and the establishment of the Mis- 
sions brought a change to the people of this valley, religiously and 
materially. Soon after the establishment of missionary stations, 
and before the building of San Diego and San Luis Rey Missions, 
priests, soldiers and a retinue of Indians came into the beautiful 
valley of San Jacinto, one hot day in August, and gave the valley 
and the highest mountain peak the ** Saint'' name whose day it was. 
August 16th was San Jacinto, or Saint Hyacinth Day, and the priests 
set up an altar where tlie town of San Jacinto now stands, called by 

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the Indians Hua-chip-pah, and celebrated mass, in this way giving 
the Indians their first knowledge of the true God; telling them of 
a living Father who wants the love of our hearts rather than the 
sacrifice of human lives — that was the central doctrine of their old 
priests' teaching. 

The loving way of their first teachers of Christianity, as well 
as the pageantry and pomp of the celebration of the first altar 
service, appealed to the Indians, and resulted in some of the young 
men joining the expedition and going to San Luis Rey and San 
Gabriel for training in this new religion. They made very good 
proselytes, many of them, although some of the old people, nominal 
Christians, never gave up the worship of the sun. 

Besides the religious training the padres gave them, they taught 
the men different trades, so that they could do all the necessary 
work of their villages, and the brighter ones were taught instru- 
mental music, singing, and to read and write Spanish. Some even 
learned the church ritual in Latin. The women learned the domes- 
tic arts, and are still fine needle workers and basket makers. It 
seems strange that women who had used only a clumsy bone needle 
and the rough, coarse thread, made from the fibre of plants, should 
so quickly gain the power of expressing their love of beauty by 
the most exquisite needle work. 


Every village in Southern California has its own version of 
this, the most weird and oftenest-told legend of all their folklore. 
A young boy of Soboba told it to me early in the '80s, and I shall 
give it very nearly in his own words, as follows : 

A great many years ago, maybe a thousand, there was a young 
Indian named Tauquitz, who was anxious to carry off a beautiful 
girl who lived in the San Jacinto valley; her name was Amutat, 
and she was so beautiful that all the young men were quarrelling 
about her. One bright night the Indian people made a feast around 
a great fire, where the town of San Jacinto is now built. When the 
women were singing and dancing, Tauquitz slipped in where there 
were many trees, and in the shadows caught the girl and ran with 
her. He was a large, strong man and could run very fast, and he 
started to take her up to what the Americans call Strawberry valley, 
for that was his home. 

As soon as the young men of the village found that she was 

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gone they started after him to take her from him. He had to carry 
the girl, and so could not travel as fast as the other men, and they 
found him in the canyon leading up to his valley. When he was 
sure he could not get away with Amutat he killed her, and then 
tried to get away himself, but the men of Soboba surrounded him 
and killed him with their clubs. As he lay upon the ground they 
danced around him, singing their songs of gladness that he was 
dead. Then, suddenly, a strange thing happened; his body began 
to glow like fire, his hair was all separate little flames, his eyes were 
balls of fire, and fire was dripping from his fingers. Then he slowly 
rose up in the air, going higher and higher, until he was as high as 
the great rock that is now called Tauquitz rock. On that rock he 
sat for a little time, and as they watched him he disappeared with a 
loud noise that shook the mountain. Ever since he has lived be- 
neath that rock and has been the Bad Spirit of the San Jacinto 
mountains. ^ 

When the Indian people, even now, hear that noise they listen 
for a cry, and when it comes they know that Tauquitz has torn the 
heart from some poor girl that he has caught, and that her spirit 
has made the cry. The spirit, you know, leaves the body just the 
moment the heart is out, but in other death it takes a long time. 
That is the reason the Indian people of long ago burned their 
dead. Tauquitz always takes girls on a bright night, so the spirit 
can find its own place in the happy hunting grounds. Sometimes 
he looks like a great fiery man; sometimes like a bird, and some- 
times he comes down like a ball of fire or like the wind. He has a 
large condor and a rattlesnake to keep his house. The condor is 
too keen of sight for anyone to get very near. When any person 
does get near a great wind blows and shakes the whole land, and 
we call it a temblor, but the Americans call it an earthquake. Once 
in awhile he sits back of Soboba, and then he looks like a man of 
fire. If you tell the girls of Soboba that Tauquitz is around, they 
will all run and hide, for each one thinks she is the most beautiful 
girl in the village, and Tauquitz wants the heart of the most beau- 
tiful girl. 

A happier closing for the legend of Tauquitz is sometimes given, 
that runs as follows: After Tauquitz disappeared, the young men 
that had followed him went to their homes without the girl, for he 
had hidden her. Then in the night, when he came to find Amutat, 

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she was dying in great suffering. As he loved her he felt so sorry 
in his heart that he killed a mountain goat and put its warm, live 
heart in the place of her heart, and she lived many years with Tau- 
quitz in the mountain. 

The Soboba Indians, like the Indians of the other villages, be- 
lieve that Tauquitz manifests himself sometimes in a ball of fire. 
On Christmas eve, 1899, a vivid meteor passed directly over the 
\illage. This made some of the old people anxious, but not enough 
so to keep them from attending the Bueno Noche, or Christmas night 
dance. They danced all night, and about 4 o'clock Cliristmas morn- 
ing all the young people started home, leaving the very old and the 
children asleep near the southern wall of the adobe house. Sud- 
denly a tremendous roar came from the southeast, and the earth 
rocked so that several who were in the village street were thrown 
to the ground. There was the crash of falling walls, and as the 
heavy adobe wall fell inward the life was crushed out of six of the 
Indians, one a little child. Five others were maimed for life in 
the little house where all had been so happy and light-hearted just 
a few minutes before. That day Philipa, the old captain's widow, 
came over to warn me. She said Tauquitz had destroyed their 
village and killed many of their people, and now he had passed over 
our town and was going to destroy some, it might be many, of the 

These Indians, under the training of the padres, became suc- 
cessful raisers of stock, and until the Americans came into the val- 
ley, they had bands of sheep, goats, horses and cattle that gave 
them a good income. They were the best sheep shearers in South- 
ern California, and some years the shearing bands earned $2,000 in 
the spring and autumn shearing. They raised great fields of beans 
and peas, and every family had a garden. Some had vineyards and 
orchards, and many of them raised wheat and barley. 

The settling of the valley by a horticultural community wrought 
great hardship to the Indians, for their cattle were driven back on 
the mountains, and little by little their source of income slipped 
away from them. The sheep could not be tolerated in the valley 
and were taken to Lower California and Arizona, so they lost the 
sheep shearing. Altogether, the transition time was a hard one for 
them, as it is for all people. But if it had not been for the danger of 

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eviction, which came about that time, they would have borne it 


Early in the spring of 1882 I found that the Indians were in 
danger of losing their land. Mrs. Jackson, who afterwards wrote 
**Ramona,^* was visiting me, and the Indians of Soboba. As we 
went from house to house I told her of the impending misfortune 
and we discussed various ways of trying to help them keep their 
homes. At last I asked her what the result would be if I had one 
of the boys in my school write a letter of appeal for his people to 
Mr. Teller, Secretary of the Department of the Interior. ** Nothing 
would be gained,'' she said, **for an under secretary would open it 
first, find it a letter from an Indian boy, and throw it in the waste 
basket; Mr. Teller would never see if I was greatly depressed, 
for I could see no way to help the Indians. It seemed that they had 
nothing to look forward to but eviction and a vagrant life. 

Soon, however, there was a rift in the cloud of discouragement, 
for I received a letter from Mrs. Jackson, in which she wrote: **I 
think your suggestion to have Jesus write a letter to Secretary Teller 
a capital one. Gather all the facts in the case yourself, and write 
him, and I will forward both letters to him, with a personal one of 
my own. In this way they will reach him." As quickly as possible 
the letters were written and sent on their mission. Very promptly 
Mr. Teller responded, promising that he would do all he could to 
secure the lands for the Soboba people. Then we both thanked God 
and took courage. 

As neither agent nor lawyers appeared in the lower court for 
the Indians when the Soboba case was called, the land went by 
default to the white claimant. But when the Indian Rights Asso- 
ciation took the matter up at the request of Mrs. Jackson, on her 
deathbed, their agent, Prof. C. C. Painter, got the case re-opened. 
It was given a careful hearing by Judge Patterson of the supreme 
court, whose decision was in the Indians' favor. The judge then 
called for a hearing before a full bench, all the supreme judges of 
the state being present, and after going carefully over the points 
of law, by which the rights of the Indians to the Soboba lands had 
been completely established, the five other judges concurred in Judge 
Patterson's decision, thus making it impossible to reopen the case. 

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These judges were McFarland, Searls, Sharpstein, McKin and 


In 1882, Theodore Van Dyke, John McCoy and Surveyor Willy, 
who was afterwards surveyor general of California, were made com- 
missioners by the San Diego court of survey to divide the Rancho 
de San Jacinto Viejo. This was a grant that had been given by the 
Mexican government to Senor Estudillo, a native of Spain, and the 
father of Francisco, Antonio and Salvador Estudillo, who were born 
and lived much of their lives in the San Jacinto valley. As the years 
passed many unlocated claims in the great grant were sold to dif- 
ferent parties, and in order to locate the different tracts of land the 
appeal was made to the San Diego court for a new survey and a 
division of the grant. 

So far as I know, these gentlemen did their work conscientiously 
and satisfactorily to the people concerned, except to the Indians of 
Soboba. Seven hundred acres belonging to them were assigned to a 
white man living in San Bernardino. The Indians claimed that this 
land, on which were their homes, gardens, fields and never-failing 
spring, from which irrigating water was obtained for their gardens, 
orchards and vineyards, had been fraudulently taken into the grant 
by an earlier survey. They said that the original eastern boundary 
of the grant only came to the middle of the river. The man to whom 
the land was given told the commissioners that he only wanted a 
water right for his sheep and would not disturb the Indians ; so they 
thought this the best they could do under the circumstances. 

If the gentleman made such a promise he forgot it very quickly, 
for some time in 1883 he applied to the San Diego court for an order 
to evict the Soboba people. I think the order was granted in Decem- 
ber, 1883, but the eviction papers were not served until sheep-shear- 
ing time, when the most of the men were away, in the spring of 1884. 
One beautiful Sunday in April, after this winter of anxiety in Soboba, 
three men crossed the swollen river and visited every home in the 
village. They were not welcome visitors, for they brought to each 
family the order of the court that they must gather up their goods 
and chattels and leave their pleasant village that they loved more 
than any other spot on earth, and find rest and new homes some- 
where else ; back on the mountains, out on the desert — anywhere that 
grasping American greed had not put down its stakes, chiefly because 

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there seemed to be nothing of value to grasp. There was mourning 
in Soboba that day; the beauty of the sky; the glowing sunset; the 
soft evening lights on the green fields and vineyards; the nmsical 
sound of the fast-flowing river, as it lapped its daisy-strewn banks, 
even the strength of the magnificent mountain, gave no comfort to 
the hearts of the stricken Indians, for the edict of banishment had 
come to them with paralyzing effect. And they must leave it all ! 

But the captain, as he and I went from house to house, gather- 
ing the papers to take to the lawj^ers, tried to reassure them in his 
kindly, brave voice. lie said, ** Don't grieve so, my people, we have 
friends among the Americans that are going to help us. Have you 
forgotten the 'good woman' who is doing so much to save our 
homes? You must not be sad, but have courage. Do not give up, 
but trust the good God still, for I am sure He will see that our vil- 
lage and gardens are not taken from us. Do you know that our 
friends are going to try to get justice for us in the courts? I will 
take these papers to the lawj^ers in Los Angeles, and they will know 
what to do with them. We must alF be brave and go on with our 
work, as if these papers meant nothing, and, by and by, the man 
who wants this land will find that the law says it is not his." 


A visit to Soboba in this year 1912 would convince any unbiased 
man or woman that the work of the government and the churches 
among these people is worth while. Their beautiful Mission chapel, 
built by the men of the village, assisted by the Reverend Father 
Hughes, who did work among them for two years, is in the center 
of the village, with the little cemetery near. The neat, wooden 
houses cluster about it, and on the long stretch of heights along 
the one street. The agency and school buildings, tasteful, neat and 
attractive, surrounded by good fences, lawns, flowers, gardens and 
orchards, all are a wonderful object lesson. These people are quick 
to see and imitate the beautiful in such a home, and, as fast as 
they are able, their own homes and gardens show it. The women 
have, with infinite patience, carried water up the steep bench, upon 
which the most of their houses are built, to make the flowers and 
trees grow that cluster around their doors. The men, with the 
help of their wives, have fine gardens, fields of corn, beans, squashes 
and melons, as well as orchards, on the lower lands, while on the 
table land back of the village they raise much grain. 

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In the summer of 1880 the Indians, through their captain, Roques 
Jauro, asked the government to give them a school for their chil- 
dren. The agent urged the organization of one at Soboba as a 
test, not quite sure it would be a success. In November of that year 
an old adobe house, 11x18 feet, was prepared by putting desks 
around the walls. A few benches, and a blackboard at. one end of 
the room, completed the meager equipment. Not much like the 
Sherman Institute of today was this mother of schools for the Mis- 
sion Indians ! But it was the beginning of great things for the 
twentieth century Indians of this coast. 

The school has had five teachers in the thirty years since it was 
opened — Miss Mary E. Sheriff, afterwards Mrs. W. P. Fowler of 
San Jacinto; Dr. Mary Noble, now a physician in Los Angeles; 
Superintendent Burton of New Mexico ; Edwin Minor, now superin- 
tendent of Indian schools in Colorado; and Superintendent and 
Mrs. W. H. Stanley — the present eflScient incumbents. If time 
and space were mine I could give the evolution of this school 
and village, but it is enough to say that the Soboba school has been 
active in training pupils for Sherman Institute, the Industrial School 
at Phoenix, Arizona, and Father Hahn's school at Banning, as well 
as other parochial schools in Southern California. And every year, 
under Mr. Stanley's leadership, the homes are becoming more com- 
fortable and the labor of the Indians more efficient, and the desire 
of the parents for the best things in life for their children, stronger. 

Much of the gain in sobriety, industry and morality, which the 
Soboba Indians are now exhibiting, is due to the competent and ener- 
getic work of Mr. Stanley, who was for years an efficient teacher 
in the day school, and has been their most capable superintendent 
or agent for the past three years. He has secured the agency build- 
ing for the little town, persuaded the government to develop more 
water for irrigation and better water for domestic use, and to put 
in pumping plants. He has also been the most active force of all 
the agents in crushing out the illicit sale* of liquor to the Indians 
in the villages under his care. 

The children of Soboba are all in school. The day school for 
the smaller ones is at the agency. Many of the older boys and girls 
are being trained in the Sherman Institute, Phoenix Industrial School, 
Haskel Institute, and other institutions. In all of these schools both 
boys and girls learn not only the subjects taught in our public 


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schools, but some trade or occupation that will enable them to be 
independent, useful citizens. And they are taught the duties of good 
citizenship and the helpful truths of Christianity. 

Do not all these things answer in the affirmative the question 
asked so many times, **Is the Indian worth while!" 


Present day achievements are all-important in the develop- 
ment of this great principality, and while the work of the early 
pioneers has its peculiar fascination that holds the reader with an 
interest most keen, still it is the accomplishments of today that spell 
present worth and future possibilities in this rich and fertile portion 
of Riverside county. For this reason a brief resume of conditions 
in the different communities, as we find them in 1912, should have 
space in this article. 

At San Jacinto, the oldest town in the valley, the past few years 
have witnessed remarkable progress along all lines. Land values 
have increased rapidly and steadily, but, as the actual value is in 
the soil, the investor finds that here prices are such as to make real 
estate investments most attractive. The development of an increased 
water supply; the installation of gasoline pumping plants, and the 
influx of new settlers have caused to be cultivated many tracts of 
land, that until the present time were used as natural pasturage. 
In this work of later development the achievements of the San 
Jacinto Land Company and the Citizens' Water Company take first 
place. These two corporations have expended close to a million 
dollars in and about San Jacinto during the past three years, in land 
purchases, water development, distributing systems, surveys, etc., 
and their pay rolls continue to be of great importance to the busi- 
ness interests of the town. During the past six months the Southern 
Sierras Power Company has built a high-power line to San Jacinto 
and has secured a franchise from the city to furnish electricity for 
light and power purposes within the corporate limits. The advent 
of this power system into San Jacinto and the San Jacinto valley 
should mark an epoch in the history of progress. Not only will 
the different towns be supplied with electricity for light and power, 
but hundreds of private pumping plants on the surrounding ranches 
will be put in operation by this power, and thousands of inches of 
additional water will be furnished for increased acreages of orchards 
and alfalfa. The Ramona Power and Irrigation Company, that has 

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been operating in the San Jacinto mountains for the past three years, 
seems destined to play an important part in the further development 
of all this part of Riverside county. It is announced that capitalists 
identified with this company have recently sold bonds in England to 
the amount of $10,000,000, and that this vast sum of money will be 
used in the purchase of different land and water corporations in 
this valley, the purchase of a large body of land, and the develop- 
ment of the different properties. The Cawston Ostrich Farm, located 
two miles west of town, ranks among the important enterprises of 
the valley. The farm was established in San Jacinto three years 
ago. Several hundred acres of land are devoted to the use of the 
farm, and employment is furnished for a large force of men in the 
care of the herd of 750 ostriches. The birds are plucked four times 
a year, and the plumes are shipped to the company's factory at 
South Pasadena, where they are prepared for market. The San 
Jacinto Commercial Company, which began business in July, 1910, 
has become the most important business concern in this part of the 
county. The stock of the company is owned by local land owners 
and business men, and the firm enjoys a patronage of from $10,000 
to $12,000 a month from a territory within a radius of from ten 
to twenty-five miles. Within the past year Nat C. Goodwin, the 
actor, has purchased a 1,000-acre ranch, on which he is expending 
large sums of money in water development, grading, terracing, and 
the erection of a costly home. 

In and about Hemet substantial growth and prosperity are evi- 
dent on every hand. The growth of the town during the past ten 
years has been such as to cause wide comment, even in Southern 
California, where cities are born in a night. Located in the center 
of the valley, the town is the natural trading and business point for 
a wide scope of rich country. But recently incorporated, Hemet 
has sprung full-fledged into the rank of progressive and wideawake 
municipalities. Street and sidewalk improvement on a large scale 
and a sewer system are among the important undertakings now in 
progress. The business blocks of the town are substantial and 
modern, while in the residence section the houses are such as would 
grace the streets of any city of wealth and refinement. Within the 
past year a $40,000 union high school building has been completed, 
where pupils from Hemet and six surrounding school districts are 
prepared to enter the great universities of the state. The Hemet 

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stock farm is a recent enterprise that is doing much to bring Hem^ 
before the eyes of the outside world. Here have been trained sonae 
of the fastest horses on the continent, while on the local track a 
number of excellent records have been made. It is the intention to 
make the Hemet track second to none. The splendid water system 
of the town, the Hemet tract, the Fairview tract, and much adjoin- 
ing property, is largely responsible for the growth and prosperity 
of the community. From that source comes the marked success 
attained in the hundreds of acres of deciduous and citrus orchards 
that contribute their wealth to the business worth of Hemet. With 
the water problem so effectively cared for it would seem that Hemet 
and the Hemet tract have before them only years' of unbroken pros- 
perity in assured annual crop yields from lands whose fertility and 
productiveness are seldom equaled. 

At Winchester there is every reason to believe that an era of 
greater prosperity is dawning, caused by the development of an 
underground water supply that apparently is inexhaustible. In the 
boom that swept over Southern California years ago, Winchester 
took its place upon the map, and with the formation of the San Jacinto 
and Pleasant Valley Irrigation District it appeared that the town's 
future was assured, with the irrigation of the thousands of fertile 
acres of contiguous territory. But with the collapse of the irriga- 
tion district desolation threatened the town. Business dwindled until 
it was represented by a single crossroads store. That concern finally 
snuffed out, and for years a whistling post and postoffice were only 
left to remind the passing public of the town's past glories. Now 
things have changed, because some one had the temerity to dig for 
the one element which the place lacked — water. Within a few feet 
of the surface an underground reservoir of inexhaustible capacity 
has been discovered, from which great quantities of water are now 
being pumped to supply a surface no longer thirsty, but which is 
heavj^ with luxuriant crops of alfalfa, corn, grain and fruit. 

Lakeview also has a chapter of gloom, prefaced by a brief 
page of mirage-like joy. There, also, the lack of water was the 
town's undoing. Although its recovery is apparently being effected 
more slowly, it is none the less certain. Here, too, private indi- 
viduals are sinking wells and obtaining abundant water supplies. 
Of most importance to the place, however, is the newly inaugurated 
sugar beet industry in the low lands of the San Jacinto lake. Arte- 

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sian water has been obtained in abundance, and the several hundred 
acres of sugar beets, planted this year as an experiment, have dem- 
onstrated the peculiar adaptability of that section for the successful 
cultivation of the sugar beet. In this new industry Lakeview^s pros- 
perity will be shared by the entire lower portion of the San Jacinto 
valley, and land values should be increased from 200 to 400 per cent 

Valle Vista, situated at the head of the San Jacinto valley, is 
one of the prettiest villages in all California. The tree-bordered 
streets of the place form many delightfully shady drives that give 
Valle Vista a distinctiveness peculiar to itself. The place is the 
center of the valley's orange belt, and miles of groves stretch away 
from the town to the east and southwest. Among the landowners 
who have lived there since the early settlement of the colony are 
D. G. Webster, H. O. Morris, W. G. Phillips, J. C. Huntoon, M. G. 
Stone and G. H. Johnson. 

The Indian village of Soboba, lying two miles east of San Jacinto, 
is always an attractive point to tourists and sightseers. In Soboba, 
Helen Hunt Jackson obtained much of the material for her famous 
novel, Ramona, and the village is rich in Indian legends and romance. 
The Indians are expert basket makers and do exquisite needlework. 
Plans now under way by the government contemplate electricity for 
lighting the village and for power purposes. Eventually the frost- 
less plateau back of the village will probably be set to orange and 
lemon groves. 

In the mountains surrounding the San Jacinto valley on the 
east and south are the settlements of Idyllwild, Keen Camp, Ken- 
worthy, Cahuilla, Aguanga and Sage. It is a peculiar fact that in 
the settlement of a new country the most remote and inaccessible 
mountain nooks are the first to be located. Such mountainous spots 
are usually occupied long before the broad, level, fertile lands of the 
plain are taken. The reason for the mountain choice with the first 
pioneers is the abundance of water and pasture the year around, and 
the supply of timber for building purposes and firewood. Thus it 
was that the mountainous sections referred to were settled by white 
people long before the great valley became populated. Among 
the hardy mountaineers were the Bergmans, Hamiltons, Tripps, 
Parks, Reeds, Clogstons, Ticknors, Rawsons, Thomases and Thomp- 
sons. The cattle business is the leading industry of this mountain- 
ous territory and plays no small part in the wealth of the county. 

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The honey industry is also important, the numerous apiaries pro- 
ducing many trainloads of the world's sweetness. White sage, wild 
buckwheat, chemise, wild alfalfa and the smaller mountain flowers 
constitute the principal pasturage for bees. 

The mountains surrounding the San Jacinto valley, aside from 
being natural storage reservoirs for impounding the winter's rain 
for use of the irrigationists during the dry summer season, furnish 
great quantities of native lumber. Forests of pine and cedar supply 
two large mills that saw millions of feet of lumber during the sum- 
mer months. This mountain range is a most valuable asset to the 
great valley plains stretching away from its western base. Not only 
does it furnish the valley's water supply, support thousands of head 
of cattle; form a sportsman's paradise, abounding in all kinds of 
game ; produce millions of feet of lumber and hundreds of cords of 
firewood ; but it is also becoming known as an important apple-grow- 
ing section. For years apples have been successfully grown at 
Cahuilla and in other parts of the mountains. Of late years the 
industry is receiving more attention, and dozens of settlers on lands 
recently opened in the forest reserve are turning their attention to 
apple growing. The mountain grown fruit compares most favorably 
with that produced in the famed apple sections of the east. 

In the breaking up, crumbling and subdividing of the great 
bodies of land that came down from the Spanish and Mexican gov- 
ernments, the work of the small land owner and subdivider has been 
most thorough. Only in a few instances are the large tracts of 
land left intact. In this valley the one rancho that remains with 
boundaries practically unchanged since the days of the early mis- 
sionaries is that npw owned and occupied by Mrs. Dolores A. de 
Pico. This ranch, known as the Casa Loma rancho, belonged to 
the San Luis Rey Mission, more than a hundred years ago. Here 
was where the mission kept its herds of horses and cattle, the income 
from the ranch being no small part of the support of the mission 
of San Luis Rey. Mrs. Pico's grandfather was the overseer of the 
ranch and other lands, amounting in all to eight leagues. Part of 
the Casa Loma, now occupied by Mrs. Pico and family, was built by 
the missionaries a century ago, but the thick adobe walls are as 
firm as they were a hundred years ago. In making some changes 
in the house a few years ago, Mr. Pico found in one of the adobe 
blocks a head of wheat containing several kernels. Mr. Pico planted 

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the wheat, and to his surprise and delight it grew, after lying for a 
century in the dry dirt of the adobe wall. This ranch, as owned 
today by Mrs. Pico, consists of 4,500 acres, most of which is rich, 
moist valley land of splendid value. Mrs. Pico's father, Jose A. 
Aguirre, was one of the first incorporators of San Diego and built 
the first wharf at that seaport. He was an extensive shipowner, 
trading between California and China and Japan, exchanging tallow 
and hides for silks, ivory, laces, etc. Governor Pico was an uncle 
of her husband, the late Francisco Pico. 

Angelo Domenigoni is another early settler in this section who 
still owns large bodies of land, both in the valley and mountains. 
Mr. Domenigoni 's ranch home is four miles southeast of Winches- 
ter, where he has several thousand acres of grain and pasture land. 
Coming to this section about thirty years ago, Mr. Domenigoni has 
been adding to his holdings steadily until he is now rated as one of 
the biggest landowners in Riverside county. His cattle and lumber- 
ing interests are also large. In the march of development the large 
Domenigoni holdings must eventually give way to the subdivider 
and the small landowner, but until that day comes Mr. Domenigoni 
is governor of a principality of no mean dimensions, all his own, 
every rod of which he earned by personal effort and splendid busi- 
ness acumen. 

Another great body of land that has remained intact, despite 
the present-day land hunger, is the Rawson ranch in Crown valley. 
This beautiful foothill, valley and mountain property lies some twelve 
miles southwest of Hemet. It is largely devoted to cattle and bees, 
the place supporting some 500 head of cattle the year around, be- 
sides many horses, mules and hogs. On the great ranch the dif- 
ferent apiaries contain 3,000 stands of bees that produce honey by 
the trainload. The Rawson holdings represent a total of some 15,000 
acres. This vast acreage represents the estate of the late James 
Rawson, after thirty years of endeavor in the early days. Mr. and 
Mrs. Rawson located near the present home in 1872, coming by team 
from Los Angeles, and passing through Riverside when a single 
sheep camp was the only habitation where the proud city of River- 
side now stands. They witnessed the eviction of the Indians at 
Temecula by the whites, and suffered with others from the depreda- 
tions of the lawless followers of Vasquez and other thieving desper- 

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adoes. The estate is now owned by the widow, Mrs. Mary Rawson, 
and the children, Mary, James, Will, John, Tommy and Louis. 

In the San Jacinto mountains the famous Charlie Thomas ranch 
is known to old Californians throughout the state. On that moun- 
tain ranch Charlie Thomas raised a number of the fastest horses 
known to the racing world of a quarter of a century ago. Imported 
thoroughbred cattle from England were also raised, and these prize 
cattle made the Thomas ranch known far beyond the limits of this 
state. Although a portion of the ranch was bought for the site of 
the Hemet Dam and Lake Hemet, the greater part of the ranch 
remains as it was thirty years ago. It is now owned by R, F. 
Garner of San Bernardino. 

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By William Corkhill 

But a few years ago, comparatively speaking, California was a 
mysterious stretch of country in the far, far west — ^the population 
Mexicans and adventurous white men — the Mexicans living their 
usual life of ease, the white men seeking gold — hardy, determined 
men, who faced all kinds of danger in search of the yellow metal. They 
could not see any possibilities in the arid wastes in which they dug, 
only that it might yield the valuable metal. This was mostly in the 
northern part of the state, and those who had to travel in the south- 
ern part could only see dry and drear wastes of mesa, with here and 
there an oasis. Charles A. Dana, in his **Two Years Before the 
Mast," remarking on this part of the state, said: ''Many times I 
took rides horseback into the interior, where there were great reaches 
of level country, that no doubt would be valuable for grazing." Lit- 
tle did Mr. Dana think, when he rode over those reaches of mesas, 
that the time would soon come when they would blossom like the 
rose — be the wonder of the world in products. Little did he think 
that in a few years the ports in which he helped to cure and pack 
hides would teem with mighty commerce; that the mesas would be 
redolent with the perfume of orange blossoms, and that its golden 
fruit would fill the markets of the country; that great cities would 
spring up as if by magic, and that it would be considered the favored 
corner of the world in all that goes to make life worth living. 

South Riverside was born in the time of the great boom; the 
time when it was supposed that every piece of land would grow 
oranges successfully ; the time when men lost their heads, when for- 
tunes were lost in wild speculation ; when two real estate offices and a 
hotel and the promise of water would set men wild to buy. Many towns 
were born at this time, and many died in the horning, as it was soon 
discovered that not all lands were capable of raising the golden 
fruit. The orange was all that was thought of, the thousand and 
one things that since have made fortunes were not then thought of. 
And so the towns born at that time, and that survived, were the 
favored spots on which citrus fruits could be raised successfully. 

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This was the reason that South Riverside survived. And though the 
transforming of a desert into a garden had many 'serious draw- 
backs, yet success came, and the Queen Colony of 1887 is today a 
large factor in Southern California. 

In February, 1886, R. B. Taylor of Sioux City, Iowa, conceived 
the idea of planting a colony in Southern California. He succeeded 
in organizing a company composed of the following gentlemen : R. B. 
Taylor, Adolph Rimpau, George L. Joy, S. Merrill, ex-governor of 
Iowa, and A. S. Garretson. They succeeded in buying from the 
heirs of B. Y'orba nearly 12,000 acres of land, and at once began the 
transformation. The name chosen for the new townsite was South 
Riverside, and they christened it the Queen Colony. Why the name 
South Riverside was chosen is not known ; but Riverside, even at that 
time, had a wide reputation, and no doubt the promoters of the new 
town thought the name chosen would give it prestige. The lands 
were situated in the southwest corner of the great county of San 
Bernardino, on an inclined plain, or mesa, sloping to the north from 
the Temescal mountains. To the east the Temescal canyon, to the 
west the Santa Ana canyon. It was said later by Prof. Hilgard of 
the State University that the upper mesa would no doubt always be 
comparatively frostless by reason of air currents caused by the 
peculiar situation of the two canyons, and time has demonstrated 
that the professor was correct. It would be hard to find a more 
glorious prospect that the one from the upper mesa. Looking over 
miles of valley, to the west the towns of Pomona and Chino ; to the 
north the towns of Ontario and Uplands ; to the northeast beautiful 
Riverside, and in the far distance old San Bernardino, while stretch- 
ing almost east and west are the great Sierras. Directly north stands 
Old Baldy, grim old sentinel, keeping guard, as it were, of the beau- 
tiful towns at his feet. As a background to Old San Bernardino 
stands grand Mount San Bernardino, his hoary head seeming to 
touch the sky. To the east, beyond the Gavilan hills, can be seen the 
crest of stately Mount San Jacinto. 'Tis truly a sight once seen 
never forgotten. 

Here then was where the townsite of South Riverside was located. 
A perfect desert in summer; a perfect garden in winter, when the 
rains brought forth the alfilaree and flowers in the greatest profu- 
sion. Great patches of cactus were here and there, and the coyote 
and rabbit were lords of it all. There were a few trails or roads, 

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and over one of these, it is said, General Fremont led his troops to 
Monterey in the long ago. We must understand that the lands were 
sixteen miles away from the nearest railroad, it reaching only to 
Riverside, but plans had been laid to continue the railroad through 
to Los Angeles in the near future. Everything needed in starting 
the new town had to be hauled by teams this sixteen miles, as River- 
side was the nearest point. 

R. B. Taylor may well be called the father of South Riverside, 
for he not only saw the possibilities of the venture, but he threw into 
it his great executive ability, and as the first superintendent forced 
the work along with tireless energy. To transform a desert into 
a habitable place was the task. The land was there ; the marvelous 
climate was there, and that was all. Water, the king of the far west, 
must be developed, for without water the whole scheme would come 
to naught. The town must be platted, streets and roads marked 
out and graded, and a great pipe line laid to deliver the water to 
the lands. Immediately after the lands were acquired development 
was started. Lands in the Temescal canyon, some twelve miles east 
of the townsite, had been acquired, where water was to be developed, 
and operations were commenced at once. H. C. Kellogg of Ana- 
heim, a civil engineer of excellent ability, was engaged to survey 
and plat the town and outside acre property. On June 6, 1886, he 
drove the first stake in what is now the intersection of Main and 
Sixth streets. From thence he ran a line to what is now the inter- 
section of the Boulevard and Main street, south. He then ran a line 
in a grand circle, one mile in diameter. This was the Grand Boule- 
vard surrounding the town, a feature possessed, perhaps, by no 
other town. Inside the circle the streets were laid out at right angles, 
outside the roads were laid out radiating from the circle, like spokes 
from a hub. Magnolia avenue, the pride of Riverside at that time, 
was only laid out to the arroyo, or wash northeast of town, but 
this avenue was continued through the colony lands clear to the 
foothills, and in time it will be the marvel of this part of the south. 

The development of water went merrily on, and sufficient hav- 
ing been developed to warrant a pipe line, the construction of a 
thirty-six-inch line was commenced. This pipe line was commenced 
about August, 1886, and was completed in the spring of 1887 at a 
cost of $45,000. 

The first building erected was an office for the use of R. B. 

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Taylor, in the rear of the present First National Bank. Its size 
was 16x24. In the rear of this bnilding a well had been sunk which 
supplied the wants in that line until water conld be delivered from 
the main pipe line. The first house built was on Sixth street, between 
Ramona and Victoria streets, on the south side of the street. This 
was for the use of H. C Kellogg, engineer, as a residence. In Octo- 
ber, 1887, the house was bought by J. L. Taber and used by the 
Taber family until it was moved in 1910 to make room for the con- 
crete garage built by A. L. Taber. 

Tlie real settlement of South Riverside began in 1887, and this 
year was a very busy one for the new colony. Early in the year set- 
tlers began to arrive. Most of the newcomers were from the state 
of Iowa, though several other states were represented, as also was 
Canada. Among them were William Dyer and family, F. H. Robin- 
son and family, Andrew Wheaten, B. C. Turner, Harry Woodhall, 
John, Allan and Ted Eraser, I. A. Newton and family and William 
Wall and family. Charles Wall and R. B. Taylor have the honor of 
being the first to sleep in the new town, having the whole townsite as 
their bedstead and the sky as the coverlet Charles Wall also had 
the privilege of being the first zanjero. These were among some 
of the first comers to South Riverside, and the desert began to 
resound with the hum of hammer and saw. The mere fact that all 
material had to be hauled sixteen miles was no deterrent, for the 
ones who came from their homes in the east meant business — ^they 
had come here to make homes, and no little thing could stop them. 

The first building of magnitude was the Hotel Temescal. This 
was built by A. S. Garretson, and. he tried to make it the equal of 
any hostelry in the southern country. The grounds comprised a 
whole block of ground in the center of town, bounded by Main, Sixth, 
Washburn and Seventh streets. The building was a five-story struc- 
ture and was up to date in every appointment. 0. A. Smith was 
made manager, and it must be said that no hotel ever had a more 
genial host. Mr. Smith took delight in making the grounds beauti- 
ful, and it was not long until they were the most beautiful of any 
hotel grounds in the south, and for many years were the beauty 
spot of the town. 

The hotel was commenced in the spring of 1887, and here, in 
the midst of the lumber in front of the unfinished building, was held 
the first church service in the new colony — ^the pulpit a pile of boards 

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— the pews whatever there might to be to sit upon. The Rev. Mr. 
Houlding of the Congregational Society was the preacher, he having 
since become a missionary to China. This same year the Congre- 
gational Society built a church on the comer of Eamona and Eighth 
streets. The Bev. Houlding was installed as pastor, but held the 
position but a few months. Here worshipped all denominations for 
many months, or until they severally organized. In May the Citi- 
zens Bank was organized and commenced business August 1, with 
B. B. Taylor as president and H. Woodhall, cashier. The bank had 
its home in the small office of Mr. Taylor, before mentioned, for 
several months, or until the present bank building was finished. This 
building was commenced in June of this year on the northeast cor- 
ner of Sixth and Main streets. The corner room was for the home 
of the Citizens Bank, besides which there were two large storerooms, 
and in the upper story were offices. 

At this time the building operations in Southern California were 
so great that much difficulty was experienced in getting materials, 
and with South Eiverside so far from supplies, made it so much 
worse, so the Taylor or Bank Block was not finished until the fol- 
lowing April. 

The first orange grove in the new colony was set by Patrick 
Harrington, an old resident of Temescal. They were old trees taken 
up in the Temescal and transplanted in the southwest of town, on 
the grove now owned by Leo Kroonan. Mr. Harrington also started 
a brick yard north of town and supplied bricks for the town in its 
building operations. 

On Thursday, June 2nd, the first newspaper was issued under 
the name of the South Eiverside Bee, by F. T. Sheppard. The 
office was located on the west side of Main street, below Fifth. 
Shortly after the first issue Frank Dyer bought one-half interest, 
and still later H. C. Foster bought the interest of Mr. Sheppard. 
E. B. Taylor had built a fine residence on the corner of Eighth and 
Victoria streets, which furnished the first fire in the new colony, 
as it burned before it was quite finished. 

The great need was the railroad; the roadbed was made; the 
rails were laid, and longing eyes were looking for the cars. All mail 
was directed to Eiverside, from whence it was carried by stage, 
and although P. M. Coburn carried it gratis, yet the people wanted 
the railroad and a postoffice. At last, on June 30, the first train 

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pulled into South Riverside, whereat there was much rejoicing. On 
the 12th of July an excursion was run to South Riverside from the 
surrounding towns. An auction sale of lots and acre property had 
been advertised, and on the day appointed the crowds were there 
and much property was sold and many decided to locate. 

No postoffice had yet been located by the government, but very 
shortly after the railroad was an established fact, 0. A. Smith was 
appointed postmaster. He appointed J. H. Taylor of the Taylor & 
Lawrence hardware firm, his deputy, and the postoffice was opened 
in the hardware store, on the site of the present Corona Lumber 

It is a commendable fact that every new American community 
must have schools, and South Riverside was no exception to the 
rule. Settlers were coming in, and the necessity of schools very 
soon began to be felt. The matter was agitated, and the first school 
meeting was held in the drug store of B. C. Turner, on the 12th of 
October. B. W. Sloan was chairman and John Priest, secretary. 
There being no provision as yet for schools by the county, it was 
ordered that every male resident should pay the sum of $2 per month 
aj]^ y^*^^- three months in advance, and that the school should com- 
mence November 5th. Miss Gertie McEwen was appointed teacher. 
A schoolhouse was built on the corner of P]ighth and Howard streets, 
largely by the Land and Water Company. The building was bought 
later by the Christian Church organization, and later still by the 
Christian Scientists. Here school was kept for over one year, or 
until the schoolhouse was built in the next block. Shortly after the 
school was started the Yorba School District was formed and funds 
were provided in the usual manner. 

Some time after the advent of the railroad a new enterprise was 
started. This was to build a railroad from Pomona to Elsinore. A 
company was formed, consisting of Ex-Governor Merrill, George L. 
Joy, R. Gird of Chino, F. H. Heald of Elsinore, H. A. Palmer of 
Berkeley, A. F. Naftzger and G. H. Fullerton of Riverside. At once 
work was commenced ; following the surveyors the road was graded 
to or near the Hoags canyon, wl;en work ceased. Had the road been 
carried through it would no doubt have opened up a large area of 
country, but whatever the reason was the work ceased, and the 
Pomona and Elsinore passed into history as a joke. 

The first child born in the new colony was the daughter of Mr. 

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and Mrs. F. H. Robinson, in September of '87; and the first death 
was the infant daughter of H. E. Taylor, who at that time held the 
position of station agent. 

The South Riverside Land and Water Company was putting 
forth every effort to make the settlement a success. They had donated 
one-quarter block each to the Methodist, Episcopal, Baptist, Congre- 
gational and Catholic denominations. As I have noted, the Congre- 
gationalists were the first to use their land, but the Methodists in the 
fall of this year laid plans for meetings and organization. The 
Rev. Mr. Sowden was stationed here, and a small parsonage was 
built on their lot on Ramona and Tenth streets. The company also 
offered prizes for those who beautified their lots, and a prize to the 
one who would build the first brick dwelling. This prize went to 
Col. Allan Eraser, who built the two-story brick house now standing 
on the corner of Howard and Seventh streets. Settlers were coming 
in fast and dwellings going up in all parts of the colony. George L. 
Joy was laying plans for a fine residence. W. H. Jameson, son-in-law 
of Mr. Joy, had plans for a modern dwelling, which was erected the 
following spring. N. C. Hudson also planned to build a fine resi- 
dence. These gentlemen, all interested in the company, were men 
of energy, and evidenced their faith in the new colony by making it 
their home. It is hard to think of Mr. Joy and Mr. Hudson without 
feeling that it was something to have known them. Mr. Joy was a 
man of magnificent physique, always kindly and courteous, willing 
to lend a helping hand to the one in distress; Mr. Hudson, than 
whom a more lovable character never lived, was always ready to 
give a gentle and kind word, and when these gentlemen died the 
town suffered a grfeat loss. 

Everyone had faith in the new colony. Those who had bought 
acre property were preparing to set out trees. It must be under- 
stood that though oranges had been grown successfully for some 
years, yet the raising of oranges was but in its infancy. Much had 
to be learned; to the man from the east everything was different 
from the old home, yet men came across the continent and invested 
their money in an enterprise wholly new to them, with the usual 
American courage, willing to take whatever might come, but always 
hoping for success. And so the year 1887 closed with everyone 
hopeful and every prospect pointing to a great future for South 
Riverside. The winter of 1887 and '88 was blessed with abundant 

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rains, so necessary to this country, and the mesas were a sea of 
white and gold; the flowers were perhaps more abundant than at 
any time since. Soon the young orange trees began to come in, 
and the different acre pieces were soon dotted with the young buds. 
0. A. Smith had the honor of raising the first orange in the new 
colony. It has been stated that Mr. Smith very early planted dif- 
ferent kinds of trees, and this orange grew on a young bud in the 
rear of the hotel. It is useless to say that Mr. Smith was proud of 
his early success, or that the orange was of much interest to the 
colonists. This was what so many had located here for, to raise 
oranges, and to see the first successful result only spurred them on. 

Early in April the Taylor, or Bank block, was finished and the 
Citizens Bank took possession of its new home, where it has been 
for many years. The Land and Water Company had their quarters 
in the rear of the Citizens Bank, or in the room now used as the 
Citizens Bank. 

The year '88 was a busy year in every way. Dr. R. D. Barber 
of Worthington, Minn., erected the building bearing his name, on 
the west side of Main street, below the Bank Building, and later 
located here and built a fine residence on Victoria street near the 
Boulevard. Messrs. Nowlin and Burton built the brick building on 
the east side of Main, below Fifth, both of these gentlemen locating 
here and purchasing acre property. The building of dwelling houses 
continued, and the new town began to assume a most prosperous 

It must be understood that no revenue was being derived from 
the new lands, this was all in the future. Young trees were costly, 
ranging from $1.50 to $2.00 per tree for good stock. The country 
was new to nearly all who located here. Little or nothing was known 
as to what would or would not grow to advantage and find a market. 
Experience has taught that certain localities are right for certain 
products, and the same would be a failure in other localities. But 
this had to be learned, and to some it proved somewhat costly. Again, 
the caring for citrus orchards had to be learned, for even in the 
older communities, where citrus fruits had been raised for some 
years, the growers had not arrived at near the perfection since 
acquired. Many mistakes were made, but on the whole South 
Riverside measured up with other communities in this respect, and 

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time has demonstrated that advantage has been taken of the early 

It was early discovered that there was a great deposit of por- 
phyry rock to the east of the colony, and this year a company was 
formed, crushers installed, and the quarry opened. The railroad 
company ran a spur to the quarry and crushed rock was shipped 
to different towns to be used in road and street work, thus opening 
the first industry of the new town and giving work to many. It was 
also known that the hills to the south abounded in clays of different 
kinds for use in making pottery. This year C. B. Hewit, later 
superintendent of the Southern California Sewer Pipe Company, 
investigated and found that the deposit of clay was of the best. 
The above company secured a tract of land about one and a half 
miles from town, a building 80x160 feet was erected, kilns were 
built, and soon an excellent quality of clay goods was being turned 
out, thus giving to the new town another industry that gave em- 
ployment to many men. This, now known as the Pacific Clay Com- 
pany, has established a reputation for clay goods second to none on 
the Pacific coast and is still turning out great quantities of its 

In 1857 there was discovered what was supposed to be the 
richest tin mine in the world. The location of the mine was in the 
San Jacinto hills, commonly known as the Gavilan hills. For a 
great many years these mines had been in litigation, but in 1888 
the litigation was brought to a close. With the settlement of a 
doubtful title, an English syndicate obtained control of not only 
the mines, but a vast territory surrounding them, styling them- 
selves The San Jacinto Co., Limited, of England. Many Califor- 
nians are familiar with the history of the legal proceedings involv- 
ing the title of the property, but few know the story of their dis- 
covery. Near the close of 1857 an old Indian chief of the Cahuilla 
tribe, residing with Mr. Sexton, of San Gabriel, Los Angeles 
county, became sick and felt himself dying. There was a secret on 
his mind which he wished to reveal to the man who had shown him 
so much kindness. He feared to do so, however, as it had been 
trusted to his faithful guardianship, and yet he felt that it would 
eventually become known through the prying curiosity of the white 
man who was penetrating every portion of the country, and from 
whom no secret could be much longer kept. Arguing thus within 


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himself, and being anxious to benefit his friend by imparting to him 
the secret, he consulted his medicine man, who was in attendance 
upon him, but whose simples were now unavailing. Meeting at first 
with opposition from his counsellor, he had to overcome his scruples 
and finally obtained his consent to obey his orders when he should 
pass away to the land of spirits. Having thus conciliated his coun- 
sellor, he called to his side his generous friend Sexton and informed 
him that he was about to die and before dying he wished to impart 
to him a secret which would be the means of making him a rich 
man. He then informed him that he had given orders to his medi- 
cine man to conduct Sexton to the place where they obtained their 
medicine. He knew that the rock contained precious metal, and 
that he wished him to have the benefit of the knowledge of its exist- 
ence, satisfied that the Americans would soon find out what it was 
and its value. He was the last of his name and his family, and 
there were none to whom his obligations bound him to transmit his 
cherished secret. Accordingly, after the death of the old chief, Mr. 
Sexton, taking with him F. M. Slaughter, set out with his Indian 
guide to find the place where the medicine was obtained. The In- 
dian made his way to Temescal, then bore off to the mountains and 
finally came to the base of the Cajalco hill. On reaching this place the 
Indian seemed to be terribly exercised. Standing apart from his 
companions he commenced uttering strange sounds; shortly he 
broke into a sort of a chant or lamentation ; his cries became louder 
and louder, his body became distorted, and swaying to and fro, he 
fell to the earth. This he repeated; then he spread out his hands 
to the east, then to the west, and in a moment started off on a run 
up the hill in a straight line to a hole which was in the ground. Ar- 
riving at this he went through much the same gyrations and con- 
tortions. He then beckoned to his white companions to come up, 
pointing to the hole as the medicine hole. On being opened it was 
found to be a mineral vein and on being tested it was found to be tin. 
That lead is called the medicine lead on Cajalco hill and that is the 
manner in which its existence became known. The medicine was 
oxide of copper. Whether this story be true or not, the fact remains 
that the English company obtained control of the mines and a vast 
territory surrounding them. This year the English company sent 
an expert, a Mr. Crase, to examine the mines and report on what he 
found. The report he took back to England was most flattering, 

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and the people of South Riverside had reason to believe that a vast 
industry would be opened right at their door. South Riverside 
was the nearest point to the mines. All supplies, and in fact every- 
thing that must go to the mines, would go frojoa or through the new 
town. Therefore it was only reasonable that the people should expect 
great things from the tin mines and patiently awaited results. * 

The school facilities were of the most meager sort, with no 
margin for the growth of the district, and soon the matter began to 
be agitated. All was of the belief that a schoolhouse should be built, 
the only question was, how much of a schoolhouse should be built. 
The result of the agitation was a bond election and the voters, by 
a fair majority, voted to bond the district for $20,000. Twenty 
thousand dollars seemed something immense to those who voted 
against the measure, but the bonds were voted and sold at a small 
premium. A whole block of land was secured, after much debate, 
bounded by Ninth, Tenth, Victoria and Howard streets. The con- 
tract was let to A. W. Boggs, of Riverside, and work was commenced 
late in the winter. 

It must be stated that the trustees, R. B. Taylor, F. H. Robinson 
and P. M. Coburn, set aside from the $20,000, $1,500 for the purpose 
of building a schoolhouse in the new town of Auburndale, then in 
the Yorba school district. The trustees experienced much troubled 
with the contractor and finally took the work from him and finished 
it themselves. 

On Sunday, July 8th, occurred the first church dedication in the 
new town. The Congregational church, though built in 1887, was 
not finished ; the walls were unfinished, the seats were boards laid on 
boxes and the early worshippers felt that they really were at the 
ragged edge of civilization when they entered the edifice. But now 
the building was finished and well seated, and the walls tastefully 
decorated. The Rev. C. B. Sumer, of Pomona, preached the dedica- 
tory sermon and the event marked an epoch in the history of the 
new town, this being the only place of worship. The building at that 
time faced the west and later was moved to the position it now 

Late in the fall George L. Joy began the erection of a magnificent 
residence on the corner of Garretson avenue and the Boulevard, the 
present residence of the Piatt sisters. Mr. Joy intended this for his 
residence, but before it was finished a Mr. McCarty, who had fallen 

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in love with South Riverside, persuaded Mr. Joy to sell him the 
house. Mr. Joy did so and at once began plans for a still larger 

And so the colony, grew. Every prospect was bright and 1889 
opened auspiciously. The groves that had been set out were thriving 
wonderfully, and many new ones were being set. The growers were 
looking forward to golden profits. But now the colonists were to be 
tested by adversity, for as the weather began to grow warm came 
that scourge of new California towns, the grasshopper. In millions 
they came and soon the bright prospects were turned to gloom. The 
fight with the hopper was on in earnest. It was a condition that must 
be met and conquered or lose the valuable trees. One grower had a 
drove of turkeys which he drove up and down the rows of trees de- 
vouring hoppers as they walked. Another had ducks for the same 
purpose. Many pounds of strychnine were placed at the base of 
young trees and thousands of hoppers were thus killed, but all to no 
purpose. The scheme of enclosing the trees in cheesecloth sacks was 
tried, but the hoppers ate their way into the sacks and made the 
matter worse, and as a last resort gunny bags were tried and they 
were a success, keeping the hoppers out, or away from the trees. 
But this was not resorted to until the trees had suffered consid- 
erable damage, and it was long before many of the trees overcame 
the damage done, and perhaps some were injured permanently. The 
hoppers were present for two seasons, but the second season little 
damage was done. Although the hopper created so much trouble and 
damage, yet new settlers came and new groves were set out, and 
though building was not as brisk as the year previous, still new houses 
continued to be erected. 

About this time considerable dissatisfaction began to be manifest 
in regard to the name of the town. It was said that people in the 
east carried the idea that South Riverside was a suburb of Riverside 
and that through this misconception South Riverside lost many who 
would otherwise have settled here, and it was said that many River- 
siders encouraged this misconception. However that may have been, 
the dissatisfaction existed and intensified as time passed, culminating 
in the final changing of the name. 

The pipe line that was first laid irrigated land only below Ontario 
avenue ; above this point was perhaps the best land in the colony and 
this year the Land and Water Company laid plans to add another 

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pipe line, the same to be about on a line with Lemon street. This 
would give water to about two thousand acres of fine mesa land, 
on which are raised the finest lemons in the world. The year 1889 
was somewhat of a blue year for the orchardist and the year 1890 
was a year of anxiety, but though the hopper was very much in evi- 
dence, yet constant watchfulness prevented the damage that might 
otherwise have been doiie. It is said by old Californians that every 
new conmaunity must have the fight with hoppers until the land, or 
the most of it, has been cultivated. In the early part of 1891 a com- 
pany was formed in St. Louis, Mo., styled the Boston and South 
Riverside Fruit Company. This company bought many acres of land 
which was set with trees under the able management of T. P. Drink- 
water, who held the position for many years. 

In the early part of 1891 the tin mines opened in earnest. A 
Colonel Robinson was placed in charge by the company and he 
proceeded to make the mountains ring with the hum of labor. A 
large number of skilled and unskilled workmen were employed, 
vast quantities of material of all kinds were ordered, all of which 
was brought from or through South Riverside; many teams were 
needed, as the road to the mines was but a trail after leaving the 
county road, and before Cajalco hill was reached much hard 
hill and treacherous grade had to be passed, thus making it neces- 
sary to load as light as possible. Soon great pigs of pure tin 
began to come over the trail and down to the South Riverside 
railroad depot for shipment and it was published to the world that 
the only tin mine in the United States, near South Riverside, was 
proving an immense success, and the settlers of the colony felt sure 
that this great industry had come to stay. Everyone had a small 
piece of tin which he showed with pride to those who visited the 
town. Through the tin mines the town was the recipient of an 
honor not usually accorded to small towns. President Harrison 
and the governor of the state, Markham, honored the town by 
stopping here a short time. Near the railroad depot was erected a 
great pyramid of tin. Surmounting it was an inscription telling 
that this was the first tin produced in the United States. The presi- 
dent stood near the pyramid and was photographed, as also was the 
governor, after which the president spoke briefly and congratulated 
South Riverside and California on having such a magnificent indus- 
try. Thus the fact that an actual tin mine was in operation and 

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turning out tons of tin was spread broadcast over the country. 
Everything pertaining to the tin mines was done on a magnificent 
scale, the buildings were of the best, the machinery of the finest; 
the superintendent and his staff lived like princes; money was 
poured out lavishly, and the amount of tin produced began to grow 
less. But great plans were made; in the Hoags canyon they began 
the construction of a dam, and lower down the canyon vast masonry 
work was done with the intention of tunneling the hill to the base of 
the shaft and reducing the ore in the canyon instead of doing so 
at the hill top. This was no doubt good, had the amount of tin that 
was being produced warranted such procedure. But Mr. Robinson 
was called to London by the directors and roundly censured for the 
reckless manner in which he had spent the money meant to operate 
the mines, and he was dismissed. In his place was sent a Mr. 
Harris to look over the situation and report to the directors. But 
the shipment of tin gradually fell off, work gradually ceased, until, 
about July of 1892, work ceased entirely and the following winter 
all of the buildings, machinery, and whatever could be moved was 
sold at auction to satisfy claims. Thus died the great tin mines; 
many claims were not satisfied and the loss to some was great. 
Although the mines were a seeming failure, and though many were 
financial losers thereby, yet the mines were a boon to South River- 
side. Much of the money spent so lavishly found its way to the 
town, and many settled here on account of the mines. The money 
so spent came at a time when there was no income from the lands 
planted and perhaps the gain to the people, indirectly, was greater 
than the loss. It is not now known how great or how small the deposit 
of tin is in the lands worked thus far. It may be that in the future 
the belief of the dying Indian may prove true and vast deposits 
of tin be found. Today the masonry in the Hoags canyon is over- 
grown with weeds and trees. The site of the dam may be found 
by the evidences of past labor and Cajalco hill and the trail leading 
thereto has gone back to the primitive; where once was the hurry 
and bustle of labor is given over to the jack rabbit and coyote. 
While the tin was being smelted on Cajalco South Riverside was 
growing ; acre after acre was being planted, a solid foundation being 
laid which would yield future wealth. In January, 1892, the Land 
and Water Co. let the contract to construct the upper pipe line. As 
before noted this would irrigate about two thousand acres of the 

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finest land. Work was pushed along rapidly and in May of the 
same year the opening of the pipe line was celebrated. The whole 
population took part and made it a time of great jollification. Many 
acres were sold on that day and very soon the tract began to fill 
up with oranges and lemons. 

The St. Louis Fruit Co. bought largely of the orange heights 
tract. This company was formed in 1892 and has been a factor in 
town ever since. At present the company owns one hundred and 
eighty acres of lemons, employs seventy-five men and this year 
shipped two hundred and twenty carloads of lemons. It was or- 
ganized under the name of the St. Louis Fruit Co., but several 
years ago the name was changed to the Corona Lemon Co. and 
since the change has been under the very able management of 
S. B. Hampton. 

The social side of the young community also began to take 
form. In June of this year the Independent Order of Foresters 
organized with a large membership, the first organization of the 
kind in the new town. Later the Odd Fellows and Masons organ- 
ized, and so the town began to take on an air of a really settled 
community and the little fruit thus far grown was an encouraging 
sample of what the future would bring. 

In the beginning the Land and Water Co. set aside, for ceme- 
tery purposes, land beyond the wash, north of town. This was used 
for burial purposes until 1892. The winter of 1891-2 brought 
copious rains, so much that the low ground north of the depot 
was full of water and it was impossible to get to the cemetery. This 
was an unfortunate condition, as there was no place to bury the 
dead and those who died during the flood period had to be buried 
in the most convenient place. This caused an agitation for a 
different place for a cemetery. A few citizens met and proposed to 
secure a cemetery site and form an association. The first trustees 
elected were R. D. Barber, William Corkhill, N. C. Hudson, P. M. 
Coburn, T. P. Drinkwater and 0. A. Smith. After looking at several 
proposed sites the spot now used as a cemetery was chosen and 
bought from the Land and Water Co. The land is beautifully located 
on the bluff near Commercial street on the northeast and on Rimpau 
street on the southeast. The bodies that were in the older ceme- 
tery were removed to the new site and the change was very accept- 
able to everyone. It was incorporated under the name of the South 

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Riverside Cemetery Association, and though the corporate name has 
not been changed, the name it is known by is Sunny Slope Ceme- 
tery, a name selected by Mrs. E. L. S. Joy. 

The building operations this year were considerable. Many 
new houses were built, and Main street was improved by the build- 
ing of the one-story brick building next to the Bank Building on 
west side of Main, also J. C. Stege, a pioneer merchant, built the 
two-story brick building on the east side of Main street below Sixth 
street. This was a very fine building and added much to the ap- 
pearance of the town. 

The first gratifying results to the orange growers came in Jan- 
uary, 1893, when the first carload of oranges was shipped; the 
fruit was grown by George L. Joy, A. S. Eraser and N. C. Hudson. 
There being no packing house built as yet the fruit was packed in 
the groves. /The fruit proved to be of the finest quality and an ex- 
cellent advertisement for the new colony. 

In April of this year the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union was reorganized ; in the first year of the colony this organiza- 
tion started, but soon died out. A number of ladies felt that there 
was much need of a reading room in the town for the use of 
many men who had no means of obtaining good literature, and that 
the organization could take this matter up along with the other 
work of their society. In fact this work was a part of their duty. 
Hence they reorganized and at once started a movement for the 
establishment of a reading room. The churches co-operated with 
them and the latter part of this year a reading room was opened in 
the store room now occupied by George AUensworth as a grocery. 
It was very successful and was kept open for a number of years. 

The movement that interested the citizens of the town and 
county this year was the division of the county or the formation of 
the new county of Riverside. The county bill was passed by the 
legislature in February and signed by the governor on March 11. 
An election was held on the 2nd of May to ratify and elect county 
officers. South Riverside voted almost solid for the new county. 
There was much disappointment that one or more of the offices did 
not come to South Riverside. Perhaps Riverside thought that we 
asked for too much at the convention. Be that as it may. South 
Riverside felt sorely disappointed not to have one representative 
in the county government. The change meant but little for the 

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town of South Riverside, yet everyone felt satisfied. This year the 
Episcopalians organized with ten members. The Rev. Alfred 
Fletcher was pastor ; for several years, or until they built the pres- 
ent church building, the members met in the schoolhouse. In June 
of this year a Grand Army Post was organized by the veterans of 
the town, naming it Carleton Post. At the time there were but few 
veterans in the town, but as time passed their numbers were in- 
creased by new arrivals. The Post is still flourishing. 

George L. Joy perfected plans for a new residence and the 
beautiful residence on the Grand Boulevard was the result. Mr. 
Porter of Riverside was the contractor and it was finished in the 
year 1893. This is perhaps one of the finest residences, if not the 
finest, in the town and is located in the finest resident portion of 
the town. 

There was no cessation of tree planting, new groves springing 
up all through the colony. The experiment had proven that there 
was no better land or location for citrus fruits and it soon got 
abroad that South Riverside was a very favored corner of the 
world. But one thing marred the prospect, and that was the fear 
of shortage of water. The lands purchased by the Land and Water 
Co. in the Temescal canyon were no doubt expected to furnish 
enough water for the colony for many years. The years from the 
beginning had been favored in winter with a good supply of rain, 
but in 1893 began a series of dry years, and while new wells were 
sunk in the water bearing lands, yet it did not materially increase 
the total water supply. The fast increase of acreage set to fruit 
soon made it apparent that the water supply was not sufficient. 
This was a most serious condition, as water being king, a possible 
shortage was not comforting to think of, in fact not enough water 
meant ruin to many who had put their all in citrus fruit. The mat- 
ter began to be agitated and meetings were held to devise ways 
and means of increasing the supply. At this time the water was 
under the supervision of the Land and Water Co., each buyer of 
land with water on it being a stockholder. The company made every 
effort to increase the supply, but in vain, and it was evident that 
some other location than the Temescal must be found for the devel- 
opment of water. 

The cry, not enough water, has been the cry of very many Cal- 
ifornia towns, and when all is considered it is not strange that such 

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should be the case. The people of the east knew little or nothing of 
irrigation, and thousands who came here knew as much of the value 
of water as the natives of the Peruvian mountains. Hence it is not 
strange that the promoters of the colony believed that they had 
plenty of water. However this may have been, the shortage existed 
and after much discussion it was decided to buy the Lake Elsinore. 
This lake, about twenty miles from the town, contained a large 
volume of water and bad it been pure would have been a veritable 
Godsend to the people of South Riverside. The lake was tapped 
in 1895 and the water conducted to the lands and used in the 
orchards. The difficulty seemed to be overcome and the land 
owners were satisfied that the water question was permanently 
settled. But their hopes were soon shattered, as the water began 
to have a damaging effect on the trees and it was found by analysis 
that continued use of the water would eventually destroy the 
trees. This was sad for the orchardists and it began to look as 
though fate was certainly against them. First the grasshopper, 
then shortage of water and then water that was killing the trees. 
Irrigation with it was discontinued and the growers had to be put 
on short allowance of water until something could be done. One ray 
of light to the grower was the quick recovery of the trees as soon 
as the water from the lake was stopped. There may have been some 
groves that took years to recover, but the majority were soon 

In this same year of 1893 Oscar Theime, a native of Holland, 
bought the piece of land on the corner of Lester and Lemon streets 
and began to improve it. It was Mr. Theime 's intention to make it 
very beautiful and he succeeded in so doing. A part of the land 
was set to citrus fruit and the balance of it was laid out in an 
artistic manner. Costly and rare trees of many species were set 
out, many rare and beautiful shrubs and plants, and today Lemonia 
Grove is the show place of the town. Mr. Theime made this his 
home for a number of years, and finally, on leaving the town, the 
place was purchased by W. H. Jameson, who takes pride in 
keeping it beautiful. 

At this time R. B. Taylor purchased the property which he 
named Cerrito Rancho, on the edge of the colony lands southeast of 
town. This property Mr. Taylor improved by setting it out to 
citrus fruits, mostly lemons. Near the center of the property is 

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an elevation or hill, rising in a gradual slope to a height of about 
one hundred feet and from which a grand view of the country 
around may be had. Later Mr. Taylor sold the property to the 
Baroness Hickey, daughter of the oil magnate, Henry M. Flagler. 
Later it passed into the hands of Mr. Flagler, who still owns it. 

The Temescal Water Co. was formed this year, in April, 1893. 
Up to this time the Land and Water Co. had charge of all the water, 
each buyer of land becoming a stockholder, and now the Land and 
Water Co. turned the system over to the stockholders and the 
present company was formed. The Temescal Water Co. have suc- 
ceeded in building up a water plant second to none in the state. 

This year Daniel Lord built a magnificent residence on Mag- 
nolia avenue, the building, two-story and of splendid proportions, 
has a fine location, on the southwest side of the avenue, and a clear 
view from Riverside to the town of Pomona is afforded. Frank 
Scoville also started the erection of a fine residence on the corner 
of Ontario avenue and Main street which was completed early the 
following year. 

In May, 1894, the Baptist Association, which had been holding 
services in the schoolhouse for some time, decided to erect a church 
building on their property, corner of Main and Eighth streets, at a 
cost of $5000 and on October 11 of the same year the cornerstone 
was laid with fitting ceremonies. The pastor, assisted by the pas- 
tors of other local churches, conducted the service, which was very 
impressive and attended by a large and appreciative audience. 
The building was completed early the following year. It was much 
appreciated by the people of the town, as its ornate exterior vastly 
improved Main street and its beautiful interior was a pleasure to 
the worshippers. This building in a few years proved to be inade- 
quate and a handsome Sunday school room was added and within 
the last year a magnificent banquet hall in the basement. This 
makes the Baptist Church one of the finest in the southland. 

The Episcopal Society also commenced the construction of their 
church building in December of 1893, on the corner of Washburn 
and Eighth streets, which was also finished early in 1894 under the 
pastorate of the Rev. Mr. Fletcher. Within the last year they have 
also added to the building a handsome guild room through the 
efforts of the Rev. Mr. Scott. 

The town had now reached considerable proportions and it was 

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felt that improvements were in order so that we might keep up 
with the outside world. To this end there was formed a Board of 
Trade in April, 1894. E. E. Hamilton was elected the first presi- 
dent and S. W. Lockett secretary. Improvements were undertaken 
by the board and carried through, such as planting trees along both 
sides of Main street from Sixth to the depot and caring for them. 
They also urged that a volunteer fire department be formed. This 
met with instant response and a fire department was formed with 
E. M. Sheffield as chief, C. S. McMillen as first foreman, 0. A. 
Arborn as second foreman, and D. F. Connell as secretary. Other 
members were J. F. Edwards, J. R. Riddell, A. N. Schoneman, John 
Schleishmann, J. H. Brumbaugh, C. C. Wall and Charles Schmeiser, 
Jr. Hose and cart were secured and thus the first fire company 

In 1894 the St. John the Baptist Church, Catholic, was erected 
on their property on West Sixth street. It was not dedicated until 
October, 1898. The services were conducted by the Rev. Montgom- 
ery. In 1909 there was added to the property a fine parsonage. 
The Rev. Father Corcoran is now the pastor in charge. 

In another part of this history it was mentioned that the name 
of the town was a matter of discontent with almost every citizen 
and the matter was taken up by the Board of Trade. It was decided 
that the town must be incorporated with change of name, but the 
question was, what should the name be? Everyone had a different 
name. A trial election was had and the following were some of 
the names voted: Rochelle, Magnolia, Regina, Bernice, Grevilla, 
City of the Hesperides, Southside, Southland, Superior, Montello, 
and Circle City. Obviously all these names could not be used, but 
the battle raged, meetings were held, elections were had, but no con- 
clusion could be reached. For months the agitation went on, but 
finally quieted down and the matter dropped for the time. 

Hundreds of acres were being set to the orange and lemon ; the 
product of the groves growing larger, packing was done in the 
depot or in the groves and it was obvious that proper places must 
be prepared to handle the fast increasing crop. It was also evi- 
dent that some method should be adopted to not only protect the 
grower, but to properly market the fruit. The matter was taken up 
and a temporary fruit exchange formed with Dr. R. D. Barber as 
manager. The name adopted was The Queen Colony Fruit Ex- 

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change, which name it has held until today, and the exchange is 
well and favorably known throughout the country. The need of a 
packing house was great and in December of 1894 the following 
named gentlemen commenced the construction of the Sunset pack- 
ing house: Frank Scoville, George Brown, and T. P. Drinkwater. 
The building was of concrete and was supplied with the then mod- 
ern equipment for the packing of fruit. The first year, 1895, there 
was packed in this house 13,062 boxes of fruit or forty-four cars ; the 
output increased to 430 cars in 1898, when other houses were erected. 
The area soon proved too small and great improvements were made, 
giving them vast area and the house is still doing a great business. 
From the beginning Frank Scoville has been manager of the Sunset 
packing house and is well known in the fruit world and held in the 
highest estimation by the people of his home town. About this time 
occurred a serious drouth which lasted for three or more years. At 
the time it was felt as a misfortune, but in the end it proved a 
blessing. At that time there were few or no wells from which water 
was used for the irrigating of crops. Almost all the farming done 
was dry farming, so called, the sole dependence being on the winter 
rains, but the dry years made the farmers think of something more 
dependable than rain and they began to dig for water. The result 
was surprising; many hundreds of acres of alfalfa were started, 
and the chug of the gasoline engine was heard on every hand, thus 
bringing to the town, as it has brought to other towns, a magnificent 
addition to the wealth of the people, and instead of barren ground 
there is a carpet of living green. Land that at one time was 
thought al^iost worthless is now worth large sums. 

In February of 1895 a meeting was held in the Congregational 
Church by a number of men for the purpose of forming a 
Y. M. C. A. A board of directors was chosen, and from this number 
the writer was selected as corresponding member. It was found 
that the town was much too small for a regular Y. M. C. A., so the 
organization was called a provisional Y. M. C. A. This spasm 
was not of long duration, but it was the means of bringing into 
being an institution of which we are proud. It has been stated 
that the W. C. T. U. inaugurated the reading room and maintained 
it. The so-called Y. M. C. A. was desirous of doing something 
and concluded that' they would take over t^ie reading room and care 
for it in the future. With the consent of the ladies this was done, 

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the room was enlarged and Sabbath meetings were held in the room 
A committee was selected consisting of the writer, W. C. Barth. 
C. II. Cornell and J. N. Anderson to see to raising funds and to 
keeping the room supplied with literature, etc. The writer had direct 
charge of the reading room and while caring for it conceived the 
idea of creating a public library. Some two years previous to this 
time a number of citizens had bought a Parmelee Library, con- 
sisting of perhaps one hundred and fifty volumes, using it as a 
circulating library among the members. But at this time it was 
little used and the writer solicited the members to turn over the 
books to him as the neuclus of a permanent library to be free to 
the people of the town and with the promise that as many other 
books should be added. From this source the writer secured about 
one hundred volumes. He then started on a crusade to secure books 
and by the early summer of 1896 had about two hundred and fifty 
volumes. Charles McMillan donated his services in building space 
in the reading room for the library and on the 1st of June, 1896, 
the library was thrown open to the public. At once it was appre- 
ciated and the first year there were loaned twelve hundred books, 
showing that it was really appreciated. The writer was librarian 
and general manager, having the library open three nights each 
week; Wilbur Furrier assisted the writer. The men having 
taken over the reading room the ladies ceased supplying the liter- 
ature, the committee soliciting contributions for that purpose. The 
library was not a charge on the reading room other than occupying 
the shelving. Thus it will be seen that the library was dependent 
on the perpetuation of the reading room for quarters and the clos- 
ing of the reading room meant the closing of the library. Sub- 
scriptions fell off and soon it was a hard matter to keep the room 
open. Mr. Barth, an earnest worker for all that is good for the 
town, worked earnestly to keep the work going and took from his 
private funds from time to time, but towards the summer of 1897 
the outlook was very gloomy. C. B. Webster, A. L. Taber and 
W. A. Wheeler were added to the committee and a great effort was 
made and for a time it was thought that the future of the reading 
room was secure. But soon it fell off; the room occupied was 
demanded for other purposes and the quarters were removed to the 
building now occupied by Mr. Gilmore near the Baptist Church. 
Here it was kept open for a time, but finally closed with the hope 

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of soon reopening. George Cook, assisted by others, reopened the 
reading room in the store now occupied by Newton and Warner. It 
was open but a short time, however. 

In February, 1899, was formed the Woman's Improvement 
Club with twenty-five charter members. This club from its be- 
ginning has been a power in the town, taking the initiative or co- 
operating with others along the line of progress. In April of 1899 
they reopened the reading room and library in the building formerly 
used, the Gilmore Building, and again the good work was carried 
on. More books were added by the ladies and the best literature 
supplied the tables. Mrs. Stanley Peach and Mrs. S. E. French had 
charge and most faithfully did they discharge their duty. In the 
early part of 1900 a petition was presented to the city trustees 
asking them to place upon the ballot at the April election the ques- 
tion of instituting a public library. This they acceded to and the 
question carried. S. S. Willard, T. C. Jameson^ G. R. Freeman, 
F. M. Baldwin and F. F. Thompson were elected as library truvstees. 
On April 23, 1900, the trustees met and organized, naming S. S. 
Willard president and F. M. Baldwin secretary. At last the library 
was an established fact with no fear of closing. The trustees at 
once rented the two upper rooms over the Geith grocery store, in 
the bank building and fitted them up for reading and library pur- 
poses. The books which the Improvement Club had taken charge 
of, together with what they had added, were turned over to the city, 
a number of new books were added and an excellent selection of 
magazines and other literature was placed in the reading room and 
opened to the public. Miss Grace Taber was selected as librarian, 
which position she has held until the present. 

Some time after the institution of the library it was removed to 
the rooms directly over the First National Bank. Subsequently it 
became evident that more commodious quarters must be had, as 
the library was growing, as also was the attendance of the reading 
room. Application was made by the trustees to Andrew Carnegie, 
soliciting funds for a library building. Such application had been 
made by the Improvement Club previously, but no answer had been 
received. W. H. Jameson having business relations with Henry 
Flagler, and knowing Mr. Flagler to be an intimate acquaintance 
of Mr. Carnegie, urged Mr. Flagler to present the matter to Mr. 
Carnegie. Mr. Flagler presented the matter to the steel magnate 

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and shortly after the library trustees received a letter from Mr. 
Carnegie's agent stating that a donation of $10,000 would be made 
if the usual terms were agreed to by the city board. The terms 
were acceded to and in July of 1895 the library trustees were noti- 
fied that the money was available. At once the trustees proceeded 
to secure plans for the new building. The plans drawn by F. Burn- 
ham, of Los Angeles, were accepted; the contract was let to S. L. 
Bloom, the amount of the bid being $9,897. This sum would eat up 
nearly all of the donation, and to cut the plans would be to spoil the 
building. A subscription was started and the business men and 
others subscribed about $600. On the strength of this the building 
was started and ground was broken on the 10th of August, 1905. 
But still the sum available was insufficient to properly finish and 
furnish the building and in November the trustees made application 
for a further donation of $1,500. The further donation was promptly 
granted and the trustees were enabled to properly complete the 
work. The result 'was a most beautiful building, well equipped and 
of which all are justly proud. While changes have been made in 
some of the trustees S. S. Willard and T. C. Jameson have held 
their positions since the beginning of their work; they may be 
justly proud, as their management has been of the highest and our 
library ranks with the best in the state. The number of volumes 
at present is 6,400. The circulation of books the first year of the 
little library in the room 10x10 was 1,200; the present circulation 
is 2,300 per month. Thus from the smallest beginning has grown 
an institution that has been a pleasure and profit to many and that 
will be a permanent source of education to coming generations. 

The sad event of 1896 was the death of George L. Joy on April 
18th. His sudden demise shocked the entire community. Mr. Joy 
was one of the founders of South Riverside and was president of 
the Land and Water Co. for several years. A gentleman in every 
sense of the term, always helpful and kind, he possessed to an 
unusual degree a high sense of manly honor and gentleness. He 
was a man of magnificent physique that would compel attention and 
admiration anywhere. All old residents look back and feel that it 
was a privilege to have known George L. Joy. 

In tlie early spring of 1896 the question of changing the name 
and incorporating again began to be agitated and on the 23rd of 
April a meeting was held and steps taken to incorporate as a city 

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of the sixth class. The f olloirilig were nominated for city trustees : 
R. B. Taylor, T. P. Drinktvater, EUwood Lilly, William Corkhill, 
F. Scoville^ H. F. Sykes, G. H. Freeman, W. C. Barth, J. T. Burton 
and P.M. Coburn, clerk D. F. Connell, H. A. Wood, J. L. Merriam; 
treasurer N. C. Hudson, O. A. Smith, V. 0. Harter; marshal F. H. 
Robinson, William Baker and W. B. Roberds. A petition was pre- 
sented to the supervisors, who passed on it favorably and June 26th 
was named as election day, and the name to be voted for was Corona. 
It may be readily understood that the 26th of June was an exciting 
day for the town, and when the votes were counted there were, for 
incorporation 157, against 97. The following were elected as the 
first officers: Trustees, W. C. Barth, P. M. Coburn, P]llwood Lilly, 
H. F. Sykes and J. T. Burton; clerk, J. L. Merriam; marshal, 
F. H. Robinson; treasurer, V. O. Harter. Thus South Riverside 
died and Corona was bom. The men elected were well qualified to 
fill the several positions, each having an earnest desire for the wel- 
fare of the city. 

While the name Corona had been endorsed as the name of the 
new city, few knew, and few still know, how the name came to be 
presented. Some few months prior to the election the writer hap- 
pened into the office of the South Riverside Bee. At that time all 
that could be talked of was a name for the town; the writer and 
H. C. Foster began to talk of how to get a name that would settle 
the matter and later R. B. Taylor coming into the office also joined 
in the conversation. He stated that he had received a letter from 
Baron Hickey, then in Tucson, Arizona, and in the letter the Baron 
suggested the name Corona. Mr. Taylor thought the name would 
perhaps be a compromise and stop the struggle. His view was con- 
curred in by both the writer and Mr. Foster. The writer suggested 
that if Mr. Foster got out a petition that he, the writer, would see 
that it was circulated. This was done, the writer passed the peti- 
tion to Justice Phillips, who circulated it and the name was adopted. 
Some time after election the Baron Hickey died. R. B. Taylor re- 
moved to South America. Justice Phillips removed to Kentucky 
and there died. H. C. Foster removed to Los Angeles and the 
writer is left to shoulder the blame for the name. 

It was agreed, by the ones who favored incorporating the town 
that the city tax should not be more than ten cents per $100 for the 
first year, this because it was said that taxes would be a burden 


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in the event of city government. Thus it may be understood that 
the trustees had no enviable job to steer the municipal craft with 
so little income, and much credit is due the first trustees for the 
excellent manner in which they managed the finances of the city 
the first year. 

On Monday, July 20th, the newly elected officers took the oath 
of office and organized. J. T. Burton had the honor to be selected 
as the first chairman of the board of trustees of the new city. The 
writer was appointed the city recorder and Marshal Robinson the 
street superintendent. Perhaps the first important measure of the 
city board was the granting of a franchise to the Sunset Telephone 
Co., after which the company installed their system in the city and 
Corona was really in touch with the outside world by telephone. 
It may be said that there had been a long distance office in the 
Hotel Temescal for some years, but now every business house and 
many private dwellings were connected. 

On May 9, 1897, occurred the death of N. C. Hudson and again 
the town was bereaved, for it would be hard to find a more gentle 
and kind friend, a more consistent Christian and a more zealous 
worker for the town than was Mr. Hudson. Esteemed by all who 
knew him and lamented by all when he departed this life, Mr. Hud- 
son had been identified with South Riverside since its inception and 
had been secretary of the Land and Water Co. for many years. 

On August 5, 1897, was celebrated the tenth anniversary of 
the town. Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Taylor gave a banquet in the Hotel 
Temescal to a large number of the old settlers. Memories of times 
gone by were recalled and it was unanimously felt that the town 
was a decided success. With the renaming of the town the name of 
the South Riverside Bee was changed to the Corona Courier, which 
name it carries today. Subsequently the Corona Courier was pur- 
chased by C. B. Webster and W. N. Bowen. H. C. Foster had been 
identified with the publication almost since its inception. 

It has been pointed out that the Temescal Water Co. had been 
organized and the domestic water was sold directly to the user by 
that company, but in October of 1897 there was formed the Corona 
City Water Co., incorporated under that name, Frank Scoville 
president, S. W. Lockett secretary, and the Citizens' Bank treas- 
urer. Though it was still a part of the Temescal Water Co., yet 
this course was taken to simplify the handling of the town system. 

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Through all these changes the town was expanding, new or- 
chards were being set, and from different parts of the country 
came people to swell the population, and best of all the products of 
the Queen Colony carried through the country the assurance that 
the desert had been conquered and Corona was on a solid founda- 
tion. One of the changes which was much regretted by the whole 
community was the death of O. A. Smith, of the Hotel Temescal 
on October 23, 1897. This was the means of the utter despoiling 
of the fine hotel grounds, which had long been the pride of Corona. 
Mr. Smith was, perhaps, the best known hotel man in the south 
country; he was justly proud of what he had done, and was at all 
times on the alert for the betterment of the town. Shortly after 
the death of Mr. Smith the property was purchased by J. T. Burton, 
who moved the hotel to the west side of the block with the idea 
of making room for building lots on Main street. 

In April, 1898, came the declaration of war with Spain, and, 
with every other town from Maine to California Corona was in- 
tensely stirred. Enthusiastic meetings were held, Charles Corkhill 
called for recruits to form a company of volunteers, but before 
the company could be formed the following named joined Company 
K of San Bernardino: Charles Corkhill, Leroy Coburn, J. McDon- 
ald, R. Nicholson, C. Gully, R. Nelson and Fred Hazard. These 
enlisted and were sent to San Francisco where they were kept for 
months, every day expecting to go to the Philippines, but suffered 
disappointment and were mustered out in the fall. Their home- 
coming was made a festival, as the people were as proud of them as 
though they had been at the front. Nearly a year after the open- 
ing of the war Vern Gleason and Arthur Austin enlisted and were 
sent to the Islands, where they saw much service and at the end of 
their term were honorably discharged, both as sergeants. 

Up to this time there had been only one packing house, the 
Sunset. In August, 1898, W. H. Jameson erected a large packing 
house near the Sunset house and installed modern machinery. At 
the same time Oscar Theime began the erection of what is now known 
as the Orange Heights house on Main street near the depot. This 
Mr. Theime intended to be the finest house for the purpose in the 
southern country and succeeded in making it such. Both of these 
houses have been much enlarged since they were first built. Some- 
what later Henry Flagler erected a large house east of the Theime 

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holise, 8o that the following season Corona had four gteat packing 
houses to pack the golden ftuit raised Within th^ limits of the 

In December, 1898, M. M. Randall and A. M. Phillips purchased 
seventy-five feet of the old hotel grounds fronting on Main street 
and commenced the building of a three-story structure with ati 
opera house in the basement. Later Mr. Randall retired, leaving 
Mr. Phillips to complete the building, which was completed in the 
spring of 1900. 

The year 1899 saw many buildings erected, notably the resi- 
dence of Mason Terpening, now owned by C. B. McConnell, the two 
buildings on Main street, one occupied by the Corona Hardware 
and implement Co. and the other building afterward occupied by the 
Corona National Bank, also the residence of G. F. Dean, on upper 
Howard street. On November 23 opened the last chapter of the Hotel 
Temescal, for on that day it was totally destroyed by fire with much 
of the contents; thus was finished the destruction of Corona's 
beauty spot. Nothing that has happened since the foundation of the 
town has been more regretted. by those who were living in the town 
at the time. In 1898 a Mr. Remsburg started a publication called the 
Corona Review; in the early part of 1899 Charles Corkhill and 
Leroy Coburn purchased the plant. The Review was published by 
these gentlemen for some months, when it consolidated with the 
Corona Courier, which was later owned by H. C. Foster. 

At the time of incorporation of the city the territory embraced 
reached from the Cerreto Rancho on the east to the Colony line on 
the west, and from the hills south to the Santa Ana river north. 
The territory on the north, from the Santa Fe tracks, was almost a 
barren plain. In the early day it had been platted and was known 
as Auburndale. Some time after election the few people residing 
in the above mentioned district and many in town proper wished 
to disincorporate the Auburndale tract. Petitions were presented 
to the city trustees to that effect with the result that at the regular 
election in April, 1900, a large vote was in favor of disincorpor- 
ating the said territory, which was done, thus narrowing the terri- 
tory embraced in the city, which seemed satisfactory to all. 

It has been noted in this history that the water from the Elsi- 
nore lake had a killing effect on the trees. After discontinuing the 

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use of the water the growers were supplied with water from Temes- 
eal, but there not being suficient for the regular runs they were 
pro rated and received just enougji water to keep their trees alive. 
Early in 1901 A. P. Call, a noted lawyer of Iowa, advised the 
purchasing of one hundred and sixty acres of water-bearing land 
in the town of Ethanao, in the Perris valley. The water must be 
carried in cement ditches for a distance of eighteen miles to con- 
nect with the pipe lines, which was a great undertaking. In order 
to put through the deal the Corona Power and Water Co. was 
formed with a capital stock of $250,000, the directors being W. C. 
Barth, M. Terpening, L. R. Curtis, E. N. Currier and T. P. Drink- 
water. The deal was consummated and sixteen wells put down, 
from which water was pumped into the open ditch and so to the 
lands of Coron^. Thus the danger from the shortage of water was 
permanently overcome and today the town of Corona possesses 
perhaps the best water system in the south. 

In 1893 the Chase Bros., of Riverside, exchanged nearly four 
thousand acres of water-bearing and grain land in the Perris valley 
for fifteen hundred shares of the stock of the Temescal Water Co, 
They at once purchased twelve hundred acres of land above the 
upper pipe line from the Pacific Mutual Insurance Co. and began 
to improve the same by setting to oranges. Today the people of 
Corona are proud of the beautiful Chase tract with its handsome 
drives and well cared for groves; every effort is being made to 
make it a beauty spot second to none in the Southland. 

On April 13, 1901, there was formed a pioneer society by a 
number of the old settlers. The writer was elected president and 
Dr. J. C. Gleason secretary. For several years the society held 
annual reunions, but latterly it seems to have been forgotten. In 
May, 1901, E. A. McGillivray and G. F. Dean, together with the 
Masonic Ijodge, commenced the erection of the Masonic Building 
on the west side of Main near Seventh. The above named gentle- 
men built the lower story and the Masons the upper story, which 
was to be used for lodge purposes. This was another fine addition 
to Main street, as the building was on modern lines and presented 
a beautiful appearance. 

About this time another Board of Trade was formed, the old 
organization having died. The oflScers were W. C. Barth, president ; 
A. L. Walton, secretary; executive board, W. Corkhill, 0. Theime 

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and W. 11. Hiveley. This organization commenced work in earnest 
and accomplished considerable, but soon went the way of the other 
board of trade. This year the Iowa and California Land Co. built 
a large packing house on the south side of the railroad, now the 
Call packing house. The Corona Fruit Co. bought the brick ware- 
house west of the Santa Fe depot which they enlarged and used 
as a packing house. 

In the beginning the land of South Riverside was tolerably 
level, with a good grade from the hills south. As the different 
parcels of land were set to fruit and the streets were graded the 
waste water, together with the storm water, began to have a bad 
effect in washing out the roads and streets. These cuts grew 
deeper with each succeeding year until, in some places, they became 
veritable chasms, which threatened not only the roads, but in many 
places the groves. In the winter of 1900 the citizens petitioned 
the city trustees to look into the matter, find out the cost of storm 
water ditches and call an election to bond the city for the sum 
needed to do the work. The trustees being anxious to see said work 
done, carefully considered the matter, engaged engineers, who gave 
estimates of the cost as $125,000. This sum was larger than the 
city could bond for under the state law, but it was thought that 
the work could be done by leaving out certain parts for the sum of 
$95,000. Hence an election was called to be held on December 23, 
1901, to vote on the last-named sum. The bonds were badly de- 
feated at the polls; many who were anxious for the election voted 
against the bonds, so the cutting of the roads continued. 

Early in 1902 was formed the Odd Fellows Hall Association for 
the purpose of building a home for the lodge. Ground was secured 
on the east side of Main street, near Seventh ; work was commenced 
in April, 1902, and the building was dedicated January 30, 1903. 
One incident in the building of this structure was the tragic death of 
Vern Gleason, son of Dr. J. C. Gleason, who fell from the roof 
line to the lower floor. Mr.Gleason had not been long home from 
the Philippine Islands, where he had served for two years, enlisting 
in September, 1899, and seeing much active service. 

The town was now assuming considerable importance, the ship- 
ments of fruits, clay goods, clay and rock, showing the world that 
Corona was a place of busy people and people of progress. In 
October, 1902, the matter of municipal electric lighting was urged 

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upon the city trustees. This resulted in a bond election; April 3, 
1903, bonds in the sum of $60,000 were voted upon and defeated 
by one vote. But Corona was not destined to be long without 
such light, for in July, 1903, a company was formed organizing the 
Corona Gas and Electric Co., with the following officers: M. W. • 
Findley, president; F. C. Cooper, vice-president; A. F. Legay, 
secretary ; M. Terpening, treasurer ; directors : George Brown, E. A. 
McGillivray, M. B. Huff, M. W. Findley and F. C. Cooper. Said 
company bought the franchise on July 28, and Corona was assured 
of gas and electric light. Work was commenced at once, the plant 
being located on Railroad street west of the depot ; pipes were laid, 
poles erected and wires strung and on Christmas, 1903, Corona had 
electric light; sometime later gas was turned on. Thus Corona had 
made another stride in the path of progress. In the same month in 
which the electric company was formed the Corona Pressed Brick 
and Terra Cotta Co. was organized, directors C. E. Kennedy and 
A. A. Caldwell of Riverside and M. W. Findley, E. A. McGillivray 
and A. F. Legay of Corona. A large plat of ground was secured 
west of the electric plant, great sheds were built, kilns and modern 
machinery installed and soon the best quality of clay goods were 
being turned out, giving employment to many men. 

The schoolhouse, which many thought would be sufficient for 
many years, was now too small to accommodate the scholars, hence 
on January 19, 1904, the school directors were authorized to get 
option on the land now occupied by the high school. An election 
was called to vote on the formation of a high school district, which 
carried. A district had been formed some years before but it had 
not been legally complete, }\ence the election. An election was called 
for April 6, 1904, to determine whether the district should be 
bonded in the sum of $20,000 for the purpose of buying land and 
erecting a high school building. The bonds were defeated by one 
vote. On Friday, June 4th, the school board was again instructed 
to call another election to bond the district for the sum of $25,000 
for a high school. On July 5th the election was held and again the 
bonds were lost. This was a disappointment to many, as the 
building was sorely needed. 

The most notable building operations this year were the resi- 
dences of W. J. Pentelow, J. M. Gaylord, Frank Geith, all on the 
Boulevard south, also the Del Rey Hotel, built by Henry Frazier, 

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erected on the corner of Sixth and Victoria street. The hotel was 
a welcome addition, as there had not beei^ a hotel since the de- 
struction of the Hotel Temescal. The first of the year 1905 saw the 
transfer of the Corona Courier fpom Foster apd Corkhill to the 
Hildreth Bros., who at once began to prepare for a new building 
for their publication. The formation of boards of trade has been 
mentioned at different times, all of which died a natural death, but 
on February 25 a brand new board of trade was organized with 
W. J. Pentelow as president. This time the board of trade lived 
and has been productive of the greatest good; the great part of the 
improvements since the formation of the organization has no 
doubt been due to their efforts. Much of the success attending the 
efforts of the board was no doubt due to the president, Mr. Pen- 
telow, who was so well fitted for the position in every respect that 
he has held it until the present time. 

With steady progress the town forged ahead. Heretofore the 
streets and roads had received but nominal care; this year, 1905, 
Main street, from the depot to the Boulevard, was improved with 
sidewalks, curb and gutter, and the roadway oiled. Tenth street 
and the south Boulevard were also improved in like fashion. The 
membership of the Methocjist Episcopal Church had now grown 
so large that the old building was much too small and this year 
an addition was made to the old building at a cost of $2,500. This 
was but temporary, as it was patent that at an early date more 
room would be needed. In July was organized the Home Telephone 
Co. This was organized by local men and to co-operate with the 
Los Angeles Home Co. in the long distance business. The directors 
were A. C. Wood, F. H. Roberts, H. A. Prizer, F. A. Perkins and 
J. Triola. 

The First National Bank of Corona was organized August 
11, 1905, with the following named officers and directors: Ernest 
H. May, president; W. Edward Hubbard, vice-president; John P. 
Key, cashier; W. C. Patterson and A. J. Ware. The bank was 
opened for business in the Phillips Block, and in the spring of 
1906 was moved to its present location and the Citizens' Bank was 
converted into a savings bank. 

In the early part ot' 1906 the matter of a high school began to 
be again agitated, whicth resulted in the call for another election, 
held on March 26. This time the sum called for was $35,000, and 

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the bonds carried with a fair majority. The land was bought and 
the building erected, which for a time overcame the difficulty of 
room for the scholars. While all these improvements were going 
forward the banking business was not forgotten, for in October, 
1906, the Corona National Bank was organized, with its place 
of business on the southwest corner of Main street. W. J. Pentelow 
was president, Jacob Stoner, vice-president ; M. Terpening, cashier ; 
directors: M. W. Findley, A. W. Veach, W. N. Tilson, F. F. Thomp- 
son, J. T. Hamner, C. D. McNeil and W. A. Bounge. 

In the winter of 1906 and 7 the Hildreth Bros, erected the hand- 
some building on the corner of Sixth and Ramona streets and 
installed therein the finest publishing plant in the Southland out- 
side of Los Angeles. 

For some years the Christian Church had used the first school- 
house of the town, but in the spring of 1908 they built a new home, 
where they at present worship. Since then the building has been 
improved with a handsome Sunday school room. In March, 1909, the 
Home Telephone Co. bought the interest of the Sunset Co., thus 
giving the town but one telephone company, which was much appre- 
ciated. The year of 1909 saw great strides in building, the Glass 
building, Todd building, Huff building, Newton and Warner building, 
Lillibridge and Lyon building. Dean building and the Taber garage, 
all fine business buildings. The Methodist Episcopal Church, in July, 
let the contract for a Sunday school building to cost $14,000, and 
the building was dedicatt'd the following spring. 

The storm water cuttings had now reached such proportion 
that steps were deemed necessary to remedy the trouble, hence 
an election was called for May 17 to vote on the question of bond- 
ing the city for the sum of $135,000 for sewer, drainage and street 
improvement. The bonds carried and the work successfully carried 
out, thus putting the town in an excellent condition in the way of 
sewer privileges and forever doing away with the unsightly cuts 
in the roads and streets 

The time had again arrived when school facilities were insuf- 
ficient and in order to meet the condition another schoolbouse was 
needed. The people of the west side naturally felt that they should 
have the building on their side. Several meetings were held and 
some confusion as to the site, but it was finally decided to purchase, 
if the bonds carried, the land on which the west side school now 

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stands. In February, 1910, an election was held and bonds to the 
amount of $30,000 voted. The ground was secured and a hand- 
some one-story building erected which, for a time, will suffice. 

The Congregational Society had for some time been con- 
templating the erection of a new church building. In the fall of 
1910 contracts were let for a fine brick and stone building, which 
was commenced in November of the same year, the cornerstone laid 
on January 25, 1911, and the building dedicated October 15 of the 
same year. This gave them one of the finest church buildings in 
Riverside county. 

In March, 1911, was formed the Country Club. This was 
formerly the Corona l^ennis Club, but after purchasing the fine 
property on West Olive street the name was changed. The property 
consists of several acres of land with a fine club house well ap- 
pointed^ In June, 1911, the Knights of Pjrthias organized a large 
lodge and later organized a uniform rank. This order many years 
ago organized a lodge in the town which lasted but a short time, when 
the charter was surrendered. 

The town was growing rapidly and progress seemed to animate 
every citizen. A new city hall, park, street work, and the extension 
of Sixth street east, were the improvements that were urged. The 
city trustees took the matter up and an election was ordered for 
October 3, 1911, at which the sum of $137,000 was voted, fire 
apparatus $6,000, streets $86,000, park site $13,500, and extension 
of Sixth f^treet $6,500. The bonds were sold and at once the work 
of improvement commenced and is still in progress. The question 
of park site was referre*! to a committee appointed by the board 
for the purpose. Several sites were considered and the majority 
of the committee ad\"ise<l the purchasing of the tract of nineteen 
acres known as the San Jacinto tract. Many were not in favor of 
the said tract. The trustees were asked to place the question of 
park site on the ticket at the city election in April, 1912. This was 
done and resulted in a large majority in favor of the San Jacinto 
tract. The ground was purchased for the sum of $9,000. A park 
commission was appointed by the city trustees, namely: W. J. 
Pentelow, Mrs. C. Case. Miss Stella Piatt, William Corkhill, Dr. 
E. H. Smith and L. R. Nichols. This committee at once took steps 
to clear the land, which is now in progress. 

In 1911 the Corona National Bank purchased the building they 

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occupied, on the corner of Main and Sixth streets, and in the fall 
of the same year the building was remodeled and made two story, 
the upper story in fine office rooms and the lower floor for banking 
purposes. This is the handsomest building the town possesses at 
the present time. 

In the spring of the present year the St. John's Church, 
Episcopal, added to their property a handsome parish house which 
is much appreciated by the membership. At the present writing 
Mrs. W. H. Jameson is remodeling the beautiful family residence, 
on the south Boulevard, which when completed will compare favor- 
ably with the finest residences in the county. W. H. Jameson is 
contemplating the erection of a magnificent tourist hotel on West 
Sixth street in the near future. It is also anticipated that the 
Pacific Electric Co. will in the near future connect with Riverside 
and Los Angeles. 

The shipments of fruits, clay goods, clay, rock, alfalfa and 
other products are growing rapidly. Today Corona ships more 
freight than any town in Southern California outside of Los 
Angeles. The future is bright, all that there is to Corona has been 
created in twenty-five years, then a desert, today a city of beautiful 

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By L. B. Peck 

Elsinore was evidently designed by nature as a health and 
pleasure resort. Here we have a natural sanitarium for the sick, 
a romantic resort for the pleasure seeker and tourist, and a 
paradise for the sportsman. The city is situated on the northern 
shore of Lake Elsinore; it contains five hundred or more inhab- 
itants, which number is increased by the residents of the surround- 
ing valley to fifteen or eighteen hundred. During the summer 
season Elsinore is daily favored by ocean breezes, and owing some- 
what, perhaps, to the elevation and the intervening mountain 
ranges, the humidity of the ocean air is greatly modified, being 
rendered much dryer than it is in places on a lower altitude 
although equidistant from the ocean. For the health-seeker this 
locality combines the many virtues of its hot mineral waters, to 
the rare medicinal properties of which hundreds can testify; many 
who came here on cots, or hobbling along on crutches, after having 
drunk and bathed in them a few days or weeks, were enabled to 
return to their homes in the enjoyment of health and consequent 
happiness. With the advantages of an elevation above miasmatic 
influences, is a climate that is unsurpassed on this mundane sphere, 
a dry, pure and invigorating atmosphere, with comparatively few 
fogs, and where malaria is unknown. All these climatic properties 
are united to form one of nature's greatest tonics, which can always 
be relied on to assist in restoring lost vitality. Owing to a knowl- 
edge of these facts it has been stated by residents, and reiterated 
by visiting physicians, that Elsinore possesses the essential con- 
ditions to constitute it one of the most healthful localities in the 
world. But the charms of its climate, the beauty and grandeur of 
its environs, and the invaluable boon of its healing waters, are not 
the only advantages of this part of our wonderfully favored county 
of Riverside, whose natural resources are not excelled by any county 
in the state. 

Elsinore valley, including the lake, was formerly a part of San 
Diego county and was purchased by William Collier, D. M. Graham 

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and F. H. Heald in November, 1883. This tract was transferred to 
Riverside county at the time of the organization of said county, 
May 11, 1893. The town of Elsinore was incorporated as a city of 
the sixth class in April, 1888. It has three churches : the Methodist 
Episcopal, Presbyterian and Catholic. It has two schools, one high 
school, the building of which has just been completed at a cost of 
$15,000, and one grammar school, with the prospect of a primary 
school building being erected in the near future, at a cost of $2,500* 
There are two bath-houses in Elsinore where hot water baths are 
given, and one where mud baths are given. All water is heated by 
a natural process. 

A point of the greatest interest to the late arrival, or would-be 
settler in a locality with which he is not familiar is, what are its 
natural, most valuable atid productive resources ? What will render 
the greatest reward for the time, labor and money expended in 
producing a fair income from the soil and otherwise? The valley 
lands surrounding the city extend for several miles in some direc- 
tions, the soil is rich and is capable of producing abundantly as is 
shown and fully demonstrated. This soil grows almost all kinds 
of grain as well as nearly every kind of fruit, both citrus and 
deciduous, and nuts of many kinds, including the English walnut. 
Grapes of all kinds are raised here, also peaches, apples, pears, 
prunes, plums, apricots, quinces, cherries, olives and figs. Berries 
are also successfully raised here, raspberries, blackberries, straw- 
berries, and in fact the Elsinore valley land will come as near 
starting sprouts on a broomstick as any soil beneath the sun, **if 
you give it water." 

The first bank in Elsinore was organized in 1887, and was 
known as the Exchange Bank. Later the Bank of Elsinore was 
organized and on June 5, 1890, the F]xchange Bank and the Bank 
of Elsinore consolidated, assuming the name of the Consolidated 
Bank of Elsinore, of which J. A. Crane has been the cashier for 
six years and R. H. Kirkpatrick is his present effiicient assistant. 

The Lakeland Olive Grove, which is on the south side of the 
lake, contains one hundred and thirty-five acres in olives and is 
owned by C. H. Albers of St. Louis, Mo., together with the 
machinery, which is used in manufacturing the oil, this being under 
the successful management of J. C. Ranisdale. (This grove pro- 
duces an annual average crop of two hundred and fifty tons of 

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olives, which are all manufactured into oil or canned on the 
premises, besides many more tons that are raised in the Elsinore 
valley.) At the present time there is an addition being made to 
the factory which will enlarge its capacity fully one-half, making 
it equal to any factory in the state, if not the largest. 

There are three hotels in Elsinore: the Bundy, owned by Mrs. 
Fannie A. Amsbury and her son Homer Wassner; the Lakeview, 
owned by Mrs. Gardner ; and the Elsinore, owned by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Ellis, besides a number of restaurants and rooming houses. 

A company has been recently organized to be known as the 
Laguna Gas and Oil company, with Mrs. Mary A. Gardner as its 
president, for the purpose of prospecting for and the development 
of these products in Warmspring valley, just north of the city, 
where the indications seem favorable and encouraging. 

About eighteen miles from the eastern shore of the father of 
waters nestles the beautiful lake of Elsinore; it is the largest and 
most durable lake in Southern California, two miles wide and five 
miles long, with an average depth of twenty feet. It is surrounded 
by picturesque hills and lofty mountains, whose rock-ribbed sides 
and tree-capped domes are frequently photographed on the surface 
of its pellucid waters. Here, too, the vale of Elsinore which sur- 
rounds this lake has been by nature carved out of this mountainous 
region as an oasis possessing great fertility, susceptible of the 
highest cultivation. Three hundred and twenty days in the year, 
the golden sun with undimmed and genial rays, tempers the ocean 
breeze and northern blast, robs old winter of its dread tempests, 
and substitutes for slefghbell chimes the melody of birds. 

The city owns and fully controls its own domestic water system. 
The hot sulphur water is pumped into a reservoir and thence dis- 
tributed over the city. 

The eucalyptus tree seems peculiarly adapted to this soil and 
climate and has been tested by many. The Eucalyptus syndicate, 
of which E. J. McCully is president, is thoroughly testing it, havini? 
already planted some five hundred acres, and purposes planting 
three hundred acres more next season. Mr. Stiles has set out forty- 
five acres in the same locality known as Warmspring valley, just 
north of the city of Elsinore, and all of the trees are in splendid 
condition. There is in the entire valley at present not less than 
seven hundred acres of this kind of valuable timber, and more to 

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follow as fast as water can be developed with which to give the 
trees a start. Walnut trees grow here to perfection, abundantly 
large, being healthy and produce good crops each year. The 
acreage in walnuts is not very large, but will doubtless be largely 
increased in the very near future, according to the demand now 
being made. 

One of the greatest sources of revenue in this locality is clay, 
owned by the Alberhill Coal & Clay Company, of which J. H. Hill 
is president. There are six*distinct qualities or varieties and the 
average daily shipment is two hundred and seventy tons. There is 
also a strata of coal thirteen feet in thickness in close proximity 
to the clay. Neither the coal nor clay is a new find, both having 
been under successful mining operation for a number of years. As 
a test, the clay and coal were compared to the Akron (Ohio) and 
Newbrighton (Pa.) products some twenty-five years ago and pro- 
nounced equal to either. It is generally believed that near this 
extensive clay bed an abundance of crude oil awaits development, 
which will no doubt be undertaken in the near future. 

A weekly paper is published here by W. H. Green, the title of 
which is the Lake Elsinore Valley Press. The local news is well 
and extensively handled. 

A scene of beauty is a joy or pleasure unsurpassed, and what 
can be more beautiful or enchanting than the grand and diversified 
scenes of nature! Running through the city of Elsinore, near its 
center on a line north and south, is a range of hills commencing 
near the bed of the lake and thence running north until it reaches 
an altitude three hundred feet or more at a point known as 
Hamptons Height, at which altitude it is the design of Mr. Hampton 
to construct an observatory to be known as the scenic observatory. 
A road has been constructed from the base of the hill to the 
observatory which is so constructed or graded that carriages and 
automobiles can ascend to the full height. From this standpoint 
looking to the northwest we see the snow-crested summit of Old 
Baldy ; northeast of the observatory the snow-capped heights of the 
San Bernardino mountains shows very distinctly and to the east 
are seen the San Jacinto snow covered mountains. 


In this semi-tropic, pleasant clime. 
Where breezes from the ocean's shore, 

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Though they do not waft the sleigh-bells chime, 
Temper Sol's rays, at Elsinore. 

Romantic scenes, and lofty mountains! 
Rich mines of precious golden ore, 
Life giving springs and healing fountains, 
All bless the vale of Elsinore. 

Here sunny springtime lingers ever, 
Around the lakelet's sylvan shore; 
And blossoms lose their fragrance never. 
On hill and dale, at Elsinore. 

Mystic mirror! Thy limpid waters. 
With fairy scenes are penciled o'er; 
Thou fairest of Pacific's daughters. 
We hail thee, Queen of Elsinore! 

In winter, fields are robed with flowers. 
And song-birds tune their grand encore. 
In orange grove and olive bowers, 
Throughout the vale of Elsinore. 

Plenty of the finest fruits **and to spare" 
Are raised where sage-brush grew before; 
The apricot, prune, peach, plum and pear. 
Adorn the vale of Elsinore. 

Here, too, lemons, figs and walnuts grow 
And all vegetables galore; 
As choice grain as the earth can bestow. 
Is harvested at Elsinore. 

A more healthful place cannot be found. 
Though we may earth's domains explore, 
Or search the whole world through and around. 
Than Elsinore! Fair Elsinore! 

Including the lake there are thirteen thousand acres in what is 
known as the Elsinore Colony; from its northern boundary it 

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extends southward about nine miles to where the southern boundary 
line crosses the Elsinore valley. Following this valley southward 
from the city of p]lsinore the first town we arrive at is Wildomar, 
seven miles distant, situated on the Santa Pe Railroad. It contains 
one hundred inhabitants, has one church, the Methodist Episcopal, 
and one school. The character of the soil surrounding it is a sandy 
loam and is especially adapted to raising grain, alfalfa and 
deciduous fruits. It will be interesting to some to know why so 
peculiar a name as Wildomar was adopted and what gave rise to it. 
In explanation I will state that William Collier and Donald Graham 
were two of the original purchasers of the Laguna grant. Mrs. 
Margaret Graham, the wife of Mr. Graham, also being interested 
in the enterprise, was given the honor of manufacturing a name for 
the new town, which she did by using the first syllable or part of 
eacli of the three given names mentioned, thus Wil-Do-Mar. 

Proceeding southward the next town arrived at is Murrietta, 
about ten miles from Elsinore. It contains one hundred and fifty 
inhabitants, has three churches (Methodist Episcopal, Holiness and 
p]piscopal) one hotel and one school. The surrounding soil is good 
and well adapted to raising grain, alfalfa and deciduous fruits. The 
indications are favorable for the development of a sufficient amount 
of water for all practical purposes. The hot springs are about 
three and one-half miles east of the town and are quite extensively 
patronized, especially for remedial purposes. The tilable soil in 
that vicinity yields good grain and would doubtless grow fine- 
eucalyptus timber. 

Six miles from Murrietta southward, at the terminus of the 
valley, the town of Temecula is reached ; it is four miles north of the 
San Diego county boundary line. It contains two hundred and 
ninety inhabitants, has one school and one hotel. The soil in this 
part of the valley is quite productive and yields grain and alfalfa 
in abundance. Water seems plentiful and is flowing on the surface 
in a number of places. Lake Elsinore is the basin for the surface 
flow from a water-shed extending east one hundred miles or more; 
sooner or later, however, it sinks below the surface but continues 
to flow underground. About one and a half miles south of the lake 
on the east side of the valley a syndicate recently purchased a tract 
of two thousand acres. This company, known as the Superior Land 
and Water Company, made a test to learn what the prospect was 


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for obtaining water in ttiat locality and were highly pleased with 
the result; at a depth of from one hundred and thirty-five to four 
hundred and fifty feet they tapped a vein which yields six hundred 
inches of pure water from five wells. This certainly looks favor- 
able for there being an undercurrent flowing throughout the entire 
valley which will doubtless be tested at no distant time, and if 
found in sufficient quantity will be utilized throughout this pic- 
turesque and fertile valley. 

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('•niUiir a^ inv \k*'-A a< lona, in the year ISaf), Mr. Twotrood 
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An association with the development of Riverside covering a 
period of more than forty years entitles Mr. Twogood to a rank 
among our early settlers. In the early era of his residence here, he 
accomplished much pioneer work and labored with such incessant 
activity and such intelligent application that financial independence 
rewarded his exertions. The comforts that are Ms, the friends that 
surround the afternoon of his existence and the high standing he 
has attained in social and commercial circles, cause him to experi- 
ence a profound satisfaction in the impulse that led him to the west 
and especially that brought him to Riverside as a permanent citi- 
zen. Upon the occasion of the eightieth anniversary of his birth, 
February 17, 1911, he was treated to a surprise party by a number 
of other pioneers and a delightful time was experienced by the 
entire group in relating anecdotes concerning early days and in 
renewing associations that always had been congenial and uplifting. 

The Twogood family traces its genealogy to the colonial history 
of the new world, its first settlers having become identified with 
the north. Simeon Twogood, a native of New York state, was 
born near the city of Albany December 17, 1792, and throughout 
his entire active life he engaged in farm pursuits. In young man- 
hood he took up a raw tract of land in Onondaga county, N. Y., and 
the development of the same into a productive farm occupied his 
industrious attention for many years. Agriculture continued to be 
his sole occupation until he died in the year 1870. Among the chil- 
dren born to his union with Harriet Hoag there was a* son, Adoni- 
ram J., whose birth occurred in Onondaga county, N. Y, February 
17, 1831. From childhood he displayed mental alertness, which led 
to advantages being given to him superior to those enjoyed by 
most farmer boys of the period. After he had completed the studies 
of the common schools in. 1849 he was sent to an academy and there 
diligently prosecuted the regular course of study for three years. 
His excellent education enabled him to teach school with consider- 
able success and for a few years he followed that profession in 
the winter months, while the intervening summers were devoted to 
work on the home farm. 

Coming as far west as Iowa, in the year 1855, Mr. Twogood 
took up an undeveloped tract of land in Benton county and bes:an 
the difficult pioneer task of transforming the area into a productive 

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farm capable of profitable cultivation. The months passed rapidly 
as he followed his chosen work and nothing was allowed to inter- 
rupt his agricultural activities until the Civil war brought its storm 
of anxiety and concern to the people of the entire country. Offer- 
ing his services to the Union cause in 1862, he was accepted and be- 
came a private soldier in Company I, Sixth Iowa Calvary. During 
the three years he was in the service he acted as commissary ser- 
geant and at different times commanded his company. With his 
regiment he went to the front and took part in various engagements 
decisive in character and perilous to the participants. It was 
during his enlistment that he went home on a furlough and while 
there he sold his farm and engaged in the grain business with his 
brothers and after he had received his discharge he returned to 
Benton county, Iowa, and took up the business with his brothers 
and continued there until he came to California. 

It was as a tourist that he first came to California in 1870 with 
Judge North and Dr. (ireves. They were looking for a location 
for homes and townsite and their choice fell on Riverside. Return- 
ing to his home Mr. Twogood disposed of his holdings and in the 
spring of the next year, 1871, we find him a pioneer in the new col- 
ony and engaged in farming. With others he raised the first crop 
of wheat in this district; he then engaged in horticulture, although 
the first steps were purely of an experimental character. In 1873 
he set out almonds, walnuts, limes and oranges, but the latter were 
the only fruitful trees and the others were dug up as unprofitable. 
They would grow to be fine trees, but were not producers. He met 
with success in the orange business and owned one of the finest 
groves in this section. He was interested in the first packing house 
that was operated for the public and connected with the pioneer 
orange growers' associations. AVith others who had the good of 
the locality at heart he experimented with various kinds of oranges 
to see what- would be the most profitable to raise and those best 
suited to the local conditions. AVith his brother-in-law, D. C. Two- 
good, he made a specialty of packing oranges for market in San 
Francisco and their fruit always brought the best prices in that 
market, from $1 to $1.50 more than many others. 

During the year 1886 with former Governor Merrill of Iowa 
and S. II. Herrick, Mr. Twogood founded the East Riverside Land 
Comi)any and became one of its directors and he is still connected 
with the enterprise as vice-president and general manager. This 
is one of the leading concerns of its kind in the vicinity. Mr. Two- 
good has always been ready to foster any movement that has had 
for its ultimate object the development of the interests that advance 
Riverside with its sister cities of the state. Realizing the devel- 
opment of water has ever meant prosperity he has aided those who 

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have devoted time and labor to that end and feels well repaid for 
his efforts thus expended. 

While a resident of Benton county, Iowa, in October of 1866, 
Mr. Twogood was united in marriage with Miss Alice Coddington. 
They are the parents of an only son, Fred, now engaged in the 
kodak and curio business in Riverside. Their only daughter, Louie 
M., died in 1908, aged thirty-nine years. The Baptist Church re- 
ceives the generous support of the family and its doctrines have 
their warm allegiance. By no means a politician and never dis- 
placing partisanship in his opinions, Mr. Twogood yet has positive 
convictions concerning public questions and is an earnest supporter 
of the Republican party. The Grand Army of the Republic has in 
him an interested worker in the local post and its philanthropies 
receive his liberal contributions, his interest never waning in those 
veterans who, like himself, served faithfully in the great war, but 
who, imlike himself, have been defeated in the stern battle of life. 


A native of New England, Albert S. White was born in Belfast, 
Me., in 1840, was reared and educated there, after which he located 
in New York and there engaged in mercantile pursuits. Some years 
later he was associated with Capt. George W. Gilchrist in the ship 
chandlery business and his keen business tact and energetic man- 
agement rendered him valuable, and under the firm name of Gil- 
christ, White & Co. it became one of the best known establishments 
of their line in the city. In the spring of 1875 Mr. White had a 
severe attack of pneumonia, and, failing to rally from its effects, 
was ad\4sed to seek a milder climate and a trip to Europe was 
recommended by his physician, but Mr. White preferred California. 
In January, 1886, he crossed the continent and visited many well- 
known resorts of the Pacific coast in a vain search for health. 
Finding no relief on the coast he decided to try the interior with 
higher altitudes and dry climate. With this view he visited River- 
side and found the long-looked-for relief, passing the winter here 
and rapidly regaining his health. In the spring of 1886, before 
going back east, he bought forty acres four miles south of the city, 
then nothing but a bare plain covered with sage brush and cactus. 

Closing out his business in New York that summer Mr. White 
returned to Riverside in the fall, bringing with him some of the 
choicest varieties of trees and vines, and with his customary zeal 
began the improvement of his ranch. He soon became an expert 

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in horticulture and built up a productive industry in the colony, 
having his tract set out to oranges. He entered into every enter- 
prise that tended to advance and build up the interests of Riverside, 
his new home. He was one of those who organized the first citrus 
fair ever held in the United States, the Citrus Fair Association, 
and the erection of a pavilion was the result of their labors. 

Mr. White was connected with the erection of the Presby- 
terian Church and the Arlington school house; with the founding 
of the Library Association; the Citizens Water Company and its 
successor, the Riverside Water Company, serving as a director ; and 
was vice-president of the Riverside Land Company. Upon the 
organization of the state board of horticulture he was appointed 
by Governor Perkins to represent Southern California on the 
board. He was one of the original incorporators and a director of 
the Riverside and Arlington Railroad Company, also of the River- 
side Railroad Company. In 1887 he was one of the promoters of the 
Riverside Improvement Company and also was president and prin- 
cipal owner of the Arlington Heights Water Company, and a director 
in the Loring Opera House Company. He was a member of the 
Library Association and of the Board of Trade and served as a 
member of the board of trustees. Politically he was an earnest Re- 
publican and always allied himself with the best element of his party. 
He was a member of the board of supervisors four years, from 1884 
to 1888; was a member of the county central committee for some 
years, and was a member and trustee of the Universalist Church. 
Among other things which Mr. White accomplished was the laying 
out and piping of White's addition to Riverside, and for some time 
he was also engaged in the real estate business with Frank Miller. 
He was counted one of Riverside's most public spirited citizens and 
his name is perpetuated in White's Park, which he donated to 
the city. 

Mr. Wliite passed away June 21, 1909, at the age of sixty-nine 
years, the victim of chronic bronchitis. 


The value of a good education as a means of forwarding the 
ambitions and raising above mediocrity the man with exceptional 
abilities can scarcely be over-appraised even in this progressive 
age, when the systematic training of both the moral and the intel- 
lectual faculties is receiving wider attention than ever before. By 
means of exceptional educational opportunities, united with innate 
perseverance and ambition, Mr. Mueller has thus far made the 

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most of his life, ranking today among Riverside county's most 
able and successful young business men. 

A son of Jacob and Frances (Warner) Mueller, whose births 
occurred in Germany, Fred Mueller was born December 28, 1882, 
in New Ulra, Minn., where his parents located in the early '60s. 
Upon his graduation from public school in 1896 he entered the Shat- 
tuck Military School at Faribault, Minn., completing his studies in 
1901. He thereupon matriculated in Cornell University, graduating 
in the civil engineering class of 1905, and shortly thereafter located 
in Indianapolis, Ind., where he engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession in the engineering department of the Big Four Railway 
Company. Two years later he resigned his position with the in- 
tention of seeking a location in the west, and to that end visited 
various sections of California and neighboring states, subsequently 
settling in Corona, Riverside county, his choice of the many beauti- 
ful valleys he had surveyed and where he is engaged in fruit 
raising. Later he became cashier of the First National Bank and 
a director of the Citizens' Bank of Corona, the able discharge of 
his duties having amply proven his efficiency for the work. 

Mr. Mueller married, in Indianapolis, Ind., December 9, 1908, 
Miss Flora Keely, a native of that state, the young people residing 
in a charming home at No. 124 Kendall street. Corona. 

Fraternally Mr. Mueller is affiliated with Temescal Lodge No. 
314, F. & A. M., and also holds membership in the Phi Gamma 
Delta Society. He is a stanch Republican, maintaining a keen 
interest in political issues, as well as in national developments in 


Adversity furnishes the final test of character. With discour- 
agements on every hand to retard progress, only the man of deter- 
mination rises supreme over every obstacle and achieves success 
in the face of seeming defeat. It was the fate of Mr. Reynolds to 
meet discouragement in youth and whatever of success he has 
achieved, whatever of prominence he has gained, may be attributed 
to his own indomitable perseverance. Destiny gave him to an old 
southern home, impoverished by the Civil war, sunken in fortune, 
but retaining in the midst of poverty the refined tastes of the aris- 
tocratic class. In a brave struggle to attain independence he had 
many obstacles and more than once lost his little all, which forced 
him to start anew in the world. It was as a day laborer that he 
earned his first monev after he came to California and even after 

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he had risen to a more responsible position he still found the path- 
way of progress strewn with dilFiculties. Eventually he became one 
of the leading business men of Arlington and here he still remains, 
honored and esteemed for the persevering industry with which he 
has labored. 

Born in Dooly county, Ga., June 8, 1861, Thomas J. Reynolds 
is a son of Fielding and Mary P. Reynolds, members of old south- 
ern families. On account of the impoverishment of the community 
by the Civil war he had meager educational advantages and he left 
school in order to help his father on the home farm. In 1884 he 
started out to make his own way in the world, his first location 
being Eustis, I^ake county, Fla., where he bought an orange grove. 
Untimely frosts, however, made the venture an unprofitable one 
and in 1889 he dis{)osed of the property, after which he came to 
California to start again in the world. For two years he was em- 
ployed as a laborer with Frost & Burgess and for three succeeding 
years he had charge of a large ranch at Palm Springs, Cal., from 
which ])lace he returned to Riverside and assumed the manage- 
ment of the Home Nursery Company's property at Highgrove, a 
suburb of Riverside. After resigning that position in 1893 he se- 
cured emj>lo>Tiient with other parties and for a time was employed 
by the late Hon. J. J. Hewitt. Going next to Redlands, he had 
charge of a ranch owned by George Frost of Riverside and for two 
years continued in that capacity. 

Upon his arrival in Arlington, Riverside county, Mr. Reynolds 
secured employment as a clerk -in the Ormsby retail grocery and 
continued in that position until 1900, when he bought out his em- 
ployer. From that time he was prospered until, through no fault 
of his own, he suffered a heavy loss. On the 12th of July, 1910, 
the explosion of a lamp in a neighboring shoe-shop burned down that 
building and his own as well, leaving him a heavy loser by the 
catastrophe. Since then he has engaged in the hardware business at 
Arlington. A large circle of friends bears testimony as to his hon- 
orable dealings in business, his courtesy as a neighbor, his accom- 
modating sj)irit as a friend and his enterprise as a citizen, while in 
the Methodist Episco])al Church, to which he belongs, he is regarded 
as a conscientious Christian and a generous helper in all religious 
measures. The cause of prohibition has appealed to him with 
especial force and has induced him to give support to the party 
pledged to its enforcement, for he believes the indiscriminate sale 
of liquors to be one of the greatest detriments to national advance- 
ment. His family consists of wife and daughter, the latter, Blanche, 
now a student in the Riverside high school. His wife, Ella (Tis- 
dale) Reynolds, a lady of genial manner and unfailing tact, is a na- 
tive of Ware, Mass. She came to Riverside prior to her marriage, 
which occurred on June 1, 1892. 

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The real founder of Riverside, the man who conceived the idea 
of biiildinsi: a city out of the desert lands and who became known 
as the leader in all public affairs of this locality, was Juda:e North. 
He was born in Sand Lake, Rensselaer county, N. Y., January 4, 
1815, a son of Jonathan North, a man of clear mind, equable temper 
and great firmness and a local Methodist preacher. His mother was 
of French descent and an emotional warm-hearted woman, and both 
were affectionate, upright and conscientious. 

The Norths originated in England, where several of the name 
were distinguished statesmen and law\'ers. In America they were 
usually found in the middle class, although there were several 
who became very i)rominent in educational circles and the law. The 
progenitor of the family in the United States settled in Hartford, 
Conn. After the Revolution the grandfather of J. W. North re- 
moved from Litchfield county. Conn., and settled in Rensselaer 
county, N. Y. 

At the age of two years J. W. North was taken by his parents 
to a farm near Sand Lake and here he was sent to the common 
school and later, upon the removal of the family back to the 
village, attended the s(*hool there and still later was privileged 
to attend a select school in that town. He was of a very studious 
nature and anxious to improve every opportunity offered him for 
an education and when but sixteen years of age he was selected to 
teach the school in the district where he had first attended. He 
received the ])rincely sum of $10 per month and ** boarded round." 
Later he taught near Albany for a time. He entered Cazenovia 
Seminary for a course of study and in 1841 he was graduated from 
the Middletown (^ollege, where he had paid his way through a three 
years course by working and teaching. Thus equipped he was en- 
abled to enter upon the duties of manhood and make his own way 
through life and that he succeeded later events show for them- 

Judge North was a strong abolitionist and the last two years in 
college developed that belief so strongly in him that he attracted 
the attention of the leaders of the party and was engaged for the 
two years following his graduation in lecturing throughout the 
state of Connecticut. In 1843 he located in New York City, having 
determined to study law, and entered the offices of John Jay and 
later those of Benedict and Boardman. Ill health comi)elled him to 
relinquish his studies and he joined his father on the farm in 
Preble, Cortland county, where he remained imtil he had regained 

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to some degree his normal condition, after which he went to Syra- 
cuse and entered upon the study of his chosen profession in the 
offices of Forbes and Sheldon. He was admitted to the bar of the 
Supreme Court of the state of New York and at once opened an 
office for practice, forming a partnership with Hon. Israel S. Spen- 
cer, of Syracuse, and they continued successfully until 1849, when 
Mr. North withdrew and disposing of his holdings went to Minne- 

Locating in the village of St. Anthony Falls (now Minneapolis) 
Judge North established an office and from the start took a lead 
ing and prominent part in affairs political and legislative in the 
territory. In 1850 he was elected to the legislature and during 
the session introduced and managed the bill founding the University 
of Minnesota. Six years later he located in Faribault, purchased an 
interest in the town site and conducted the business of the pro- 
jectors with eminent satisfaction. Selling his interests he estab- 
lished the town of Northfield, Minn., and erected many of the first 
buildings there. In 1857 he was elected a member of the constitu- 
tional convention that framed the state constitution. He became an 
acknowledged leader of the Republican party and took a very 
prominent part in the convention. The following year he was 
elected president of the Minneapolis and Cedar Valley Railway, of 
which he was one of the incorporators. In 1860 he was chosen 
chairman of the Minnesota delegation in the Republican national 
convention that was held in Chicago and that nominated A. 
Lincoln for president, was chosen one of the committee that conveyed 
the news to Lincoln and was present at the inauguration in 186L 
In May of that year he received the appointment of United States 
surveyor general of Nevada and held the office until it was discon- 
tinued. While in Nevada he became a leader in politics and ad- 
vancement and formed a partnership with J. F. Lewis in the prac- 
tice of law, which continued until President Lincoln appointed him 
one of the judges of the Supreme Court, holding this important 
position until the state was organized. While on the bench he was 
elected a member of the constitutional convention of Nevada and 
was made president of the body. In 1865 he closed out his interests 
in Nevada and spent one year in the east, after which he went to 
Knoxville, Tenn., and engaged in the foundry and machine busi- 
ness. Being a pronounced Republican he was not received in that 
section with cordiality and he soon sold out. 

After selling out his business Judge North conceived the idea 
of forming a colony in Southern California and entered upon the 
fulfillment of his plans with energy. In March, 1870, he sent out 
his first circulars from Knoxville and soon had many interested 
in the project and within a very short time he, with others, made a 
trip of inspection for the purpose of deciding upon a suitable site 

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for the new colony. Riverside was finally decided upon as best 
suited for the proposed town and the deal was negotiated at once 
and soon the settlers began coming in and he began to see the 
fruition of his plans. Later he interested C. N. Felton of San 
Francisco in the matter and for several years he was the financial 
backer of the colony, although Judge North was the life and brains 
that put the plan on a sound basis. In 1875 he established an office 
in Riverside, San Bernardino and San Francisco for the practice of 
law. In the meantime he had purchased property in Fresno county 
and finally became a resident of that city and there he passed away, 
February 22, 1890. In Ms passing the state lost a valued citizen, 
the legal profession a profound exponent of the law, and those that 
knew him best, a stanch friend. He was a man of large ideas and 
one who was always able to carry those ideas to a successful cul- 

Judge North was twice married, first in 1845 to Emma Bacon, 
who died without issue in 1847. The second marriage took place in 
1848 and united him with Ann H. Loomis, a native of New York 
state, and of this union there were born six children who grew to 
maturity, viz: Emma B., George L., John G., Charles L., Edward 
and MarA\ 


Long identification with the commercial activities of Riverside 
has brought to Mr. Moore a position of considerable prominence 
in the city and the confidence of business associates as well as the 
esteem of people with whom the regular routine of daily affairs has 
brought him into contact. While, like all residents of this famous 
citrus-growing district, he is intelligently posted concerning horti- 
culture, he has not made the occupation his life work, but has 
directed his efforts toward supplying the food necessities of the 
people and has specialized in the meat business, owning and con- 
ducting a market that at all times is well stocked with meats of all 
varieties. As he has made it his principle to buy only the very 
choicest of stock, he caters to a trade exclusive and select and 
numbers among his customers some of the most prominent citizens 
of the community. 

Whatever measure of success has come to Mr. Moore may be 
attributed to his industry and perseverance, for from boyhood he 
has worked constantly and untiringly. He belonged to a family 

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of modest means and remembers vividly the privations of youth 
and the discouragements of adversity. Born in Battle Creek, 
Mich., June 27, 1868, he was sent to the common schools of that 
city at the age of six years and remained a pupil there until his 
father, J. H. Moore, in 18S0 took the family to South Dakota, hop- 
ing to gain independence in a new country. Land was pre-empted 
near Aberdeen and the boy was put to work in improving the place, 
where he remained until 1888. Being then twenty years of age, he 
decided to start out to earn his own way in the world. Ilis first 
location was at Tuscarora, Elko county, Nev., where he engaged in 
mining and also worked on a cattle ranch. At the expiration of 
three years he came to Southern California and bought a tract of 
unimproved land near San Bernardino. After having put the land 
under cultivation to lemon trees and remained there for a year 
he sold out and came to Riverside in 1893, since which time he has 
engaged in the meat business, first as an employe in the Boston 
meat market for two years, then as a clerk in the Pioneer market 
for a year and since that time as the proprietor of an up-to-date 
market of his own. 

In the midst of the urgent responsibilities connected with the* 
maintenance of a progressive business and the earning of a liveli- 
hood for his family, Mr. Moore has found leisure for participation 
in fraternal organizations and has been a leading local worker in 
the Knights of Pythias and the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 
Nor has he been negligent of his duties in religion. As a member 
of the Christian Church he has been a contributor to world-wide 
missionary efforts and has maintained a warm interest in the local 
organization. Politics has not interested him in any special degree 
and aside from voting the Republican ticket in national elections 
he has taken no part in ])ublic affairs, yet he may be depended 
upon to contribute his quota to movements for the upbuilding of his 
town and from the outset of his residence in Riverside he has been 
interested in civic activities. He assisted in organizing the Business 
Men's Association and with the exception of one year has been 
a member of the board of directors, is a member of the Chamber 
of Commerce, vice president of the Cresmer Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and one of the charter members of the National Bank of 
Riverside and of the City Hospital Association. Some years after 
coming to this city he established domestic ties, being united in 
marriage October 28, 1896, with Miss Mary Gerard, a native of 
Goderich, Canada. They are the parents of two daughters, Ethel 
Norene and Gladys Naomi, both of whom are students in local 

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In the death of John G. North in London,, England, January 
9, 1910, Riverside lost a worthy pioneer. He was born in St. An- 
thony (now Minneapolis), Minn., September 16, 1855, a son of Judge 
J. W. North, founder of Riverside (a sketch of whom is found else- 
where in this volume). The first six years of John G. North's life 
were spent in his birthplace and the next year in central New York. 
Then, in 1861, he joined his father in Nevada, where he received his 
preliminary education and later attended the University of the 
Pacific at Santa Clara, Cal. In 1865 the family returned east and 
the following year Judge North located in Knoxville, Tenn. There 
the son continued his studies until 1870, when he joined his father, 
who had just organized the Southern California Colony Association 
and concluded the purchase of the tract of land upon which River- 
side is now situated, and the following four years he served as as- 
sistant secretary of the association of which his father was presi- 

In the meantime, in 1872, Mr. North became telegraph operator 
for the Western Union in Riverside, being the first to send and 
receive messages in the new colony. Resigning liis position in 1874 
with the association, he went to San Francisco, where he had 
secured a position in the sub-treasury and mint and for the fol- 
lowing two years was in the employ of the United States govern- 
ment, after which he became cashier and manager of a leading 
business house in that city. In 1881 he returned to Riverside and 
located on twenty acres of land on Cypress avenue and North street 
and for a time devoted himself to horticultural pursuits. He was 
called upon to aid in many enterprises for the development of 
Riverside and gave freely of his time and means in those interests. 
He was one of the incorporators, in 1888, of the Citizens' Water 
Company and for years was a director. He was also a director and 
one of the organizers, in 1884, of the Riverside Water Company 
and from August 11, 1885, to June, 1887, was superintendent. In 
the latter year he resigned his position to become land agent for 
Richard Gird's Chino ranch and spent several months in Pomona. 
Returning to Riverside in September, 1887, he again became identi- 
fied with this city and in March of the following year was elected 
president of the Riverside Water Company. He also served as 
president of the Riverside Improvement Company, both of which 
offices he resigned in 1890 to become the general manager of the 
Bear Valley Land and Water Company, making his home in Red- 
lands for a short time. Soon afterward business reverses over- 
whelmed him in serious financial losses and the climax was the 

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destruction of about fifty thousand dollars worth of nursery stock 
by frost and the panic of 1893 left him without a dollar. He was 
a great student of Napoleonic history and through the inspiration 
of Napoleon's career decided to take up the study of law in his 
fortieth year. He was admitted to the bar April 10, 1894, and began 
practice in Riverside. He soon built up a large clientele and over- 
came the handicap of his late start in life and scored success in 
his profession. In 1900 he was a candidate for superior judge 
against J. S. Noyes and his defeat was a bitter disappointment but 
proved a most fortunate happening, as during the latter years of 
his life he had one of tlie best paying practices in the state and 
built up a comfortable fortune. 

Mr. North carried the struggle of the Home Telephone Com- 
pany for a franchise in Riverside to a successful ending and was 
then called into counsel in a similar fight for the company in San 
Francisco and Oakland and carried it through. He was attorney 
for the Riverside Trust Company and its allied corporations and 
for the Bank of California in their suit against Matthew Gage and 
it was on a trip in the interests of this case that he died, in London. 
He was a stockholder and director in the Citizens' National Bank 
and the Security Savin.2:s Bank of Riverside, and was a member of 
the National Geographical Society; the National Forestry Associa- 
tion; the California Water and Forest Association, which he served 
as president two years ; the Los Angeles Bar Association ; the South- 
ern Archaelogical Institute; the Sequoia League; Sierra Club; the 
Commonwealth and Olympic Clubs of San Francisco, and the Auto 
Club of Southern California. He was a Knight Templar Mason 
and a member of the Knights of Pythias. 

In 1876 Mr. North was united in marriage with Miss Augusta 
C. Nourse, who died in 1891, leaving four sons, who now survive 
their father : John C, Maurice E., Alfred C, and Richard L. 

Mr. North was a courageous man, who, when once he had made 
up his mind he was right, never deviated from his course an iota to 
appease any opposition that was brought against him. From tributes 
of friends at the time of his death we quote as follows : 

'*If John North had a fault it was extreme loyalty to liis 
friends and a determination to do what he believed to be right, re- 
gardless of consequences. He cared little for idle gossip or opposi- 
tion, or, if he cared, never allowed it to ruffle his composure for an 
instant. His recreation was hard work. . . . Mr. North was a 
man of wonderful versatility. His knowledge of literature was 
amazing, when it is considered how busy was the man. He could 
quote pages from the masterpieces of the great writers. . . . 
His memory was extraordinary, it was a treasurehouse of valuable 
information and this was always available to its possessor. He had 
a wide acquaintance through the entire state and was known and 

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respected by all classes of people. His loss will be felt keenly by 
many people outside of Riverside who are not known in the city 
where he made his home." — Francis Cuttle. 

*'John North is dead. I am shocked beyond all measure. . . . 
I had the pleasure of being one of his close friends. ... I 
learned to respect his ability as a lawyer and his worth as a 
man. . . . He was an indefatigable worker, with a clear insight 
and grasp of the law. He had a forceful and assertive temperament 
and was never without an opinion and, while this made some 
enemies, it drew to him hosts of friends. ... It is late but it 
is eminently proper to eulogize and while so doing let the mantle of 
charity fall over whatever of fault he may have committed. He was 
my friend and I lay this tribute on his grave. He was an honest 
and upright man, a loyal friend and an exponent of the law whose 
death is a distinct loss to the bar of California. ' ' — Judge Densmore. 

**He was a man who impressed everybody with his energy and 
business sagacity in employing that energy. Through all his work, 
his endeavor in this section, he became endeared to everyone who 
came in contact with him by his warm-hearted manner of meeting 
and treating all his friends. He was a man who felt a great sense 
of obligation to his friends, so much so that he sacrificed his own 
business often for the sake of going to the assistance of a friend. 
He raised himself out of obscurity by his own sheer ability and 
made a place for himself which was an enviable one. A sympathetic 
man of warm impulses, a man who made hosts of friends and de- 
served everyone he had. We shall miss him sadly in Riverside, and 
the whole state has lost a valued business man, a talented attorney 
and an unswerWng friend." — E. W. Holmes. 


There are few positions demanding a greater degree of tact and 
none calling for more steadfast qualities of mind and heart than 
the important post of superintendent of county hospitals, and this 
institution at Arlington has had the benefit of the experienced and 
capable labors of Mr. Pettes at its head. Only those who have 
officiated in similar capacities can realize the mental and nervous 
strain incident to the efficient discharge of its duties, but universal 
testimony as to Mr. Pettes bears tribute to his resourcefulness and 
energy as superintendent. Since he entered upon the duties inci- 

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(lent to the office lie has pushed forward noteworthy reforms and 
has aided all projects ealcailated to increase the helpfulness of the 
hospital, thereby emphasizing the need of its continued and in- 
creased activities in the field of humanitarian service. 

Descended from honored eastern ancestors, Fred D. Pettes was 
born at AVindsor, Vt., August 17, 1867, being a member of the fam- 
ily of F. D. and Catherine (Conley) Pettes. It was his privilege 
to receive excellent advantages in the schools of Windsor, attending 
both the grammar and high schools. Upon leaving school he began 
to assist his father in the dairy business and specialized in that 
occupation until he was twenty-eight years of age, when he turned 
his attention to other lines of work. Entering the A. E. Mann 
shoe factory, he worked first as a packer and later as an inspector, 
continuing for four years with the company, but eventually leaving 
in the hope of improving his circumstances. For six months he 
acted as agent for the Metroi)olitan Life Insurance Company at 
Claremont, N. H., and meanwhile built up a local reputation for 
skill and success in the insurance business. 

A practical experience of five years as superintendent in 
charge of the Claremont Cottage Hospital qualified Mr. Pettes for 
the position he now holds. When he resigned the position he re- 
ceived many tributes of praise regarding his efficiency in the office 
and the care with which he discharged all duties devolving upon 
him. After he gave uj) the work he came to California and in 1905 
settled in Riverside county. I^ater he bought twenty-four acres at 
Ferris and turned his attention to the cultivation of the land, but 
in about two years a favorable opportunity came to sell at an 
advance on the purchase price and he then gave up his holdings. 
During March of 1907 the coimty supervisors appointed him super- 
intendent of the Riverside county hospital and he still fills that 
I)osition with recognized efficiency and devoted, painstaking care. 
At no time has he participated in politics from the standpoint of 
])artisanship, but he is loyal to Republican principles and faithful 
in his sui)port of the men and measures of that party. When a 
boy he united with the Congregational Church and ever since he 
has been staunch in his allegiance to the doctrines of that denomi- 
nation. Fraternally he holds membership with the Improved 
Order of Red Men. By his first marriage he has a daughter, Elna, 
born in 189(5 and now a student in the Riverside high school. His 
l)resent wife, formerly Miss Addie A. Ingalls, was united with him 
June 27, 1906, in Riverside. She is a native of Canada and was 
engaged in hospital work in Claremont, N. II., prior to coming to 
Riverside. The family has a high standing in Arlington and num- 
bers many well-wishers among those with whom they have business 
or social relations. 

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Associated with the history of Riverside from its beginning is 
tlie life history of ('apt. L. C. Waite, who has always been counted 
one of the most progressive and public spirited citizens of the 
(»ounty and city of that name. He was born in Walworth county, 
AYis., September 12, 1842. His parents, Sidney and Parmelia 
(Barker) Waite, were both natives of western New York, where 
his father followed farming and assisted very materially in open- 
ing up that section of the coimtry. It was in 1836 that the scene 
of activity was transferred to Wisconsin and there the pioneering 
continued under more trying conditions. In the vicinity of Sheboy- 
gan Falls, Fond du Lac and Appleton tliis son grew to boyhood 
and young manhood amid the environments of frontier life. His 
early education was obtained in the schools of the neighborhood 
and being of a studious nature he was given the best advantages 
that conditions and surroundings would permit. He worked with 
his father on the farm during his school days and thus laid the 
foundation for a sturdy constitution. After he had completed the 
common school courses he was permitted to enter Lawrence Uni- 
versity at Appleton in 18fi(). 

Soon after this eventful i)eriod in his career the Civil war 
with its call of patriotism absorbed his attention and he could not 
resist the desire to rally to the support of the flag and give what 
assistance he could to j)reserve the Union. His course of study 
was brought to an abrupt ending by his enlisting as a volunteer in 
18()2 and he was assigned to r()mj)any 1), Twenty-first Regiment, 
Wisconsin X'ohmteer Infantry, Col. B. J. Sweet conunanding. 
He entered upon his new life with a zeal and energy characteristic 
of him and tliough but twenty years of age, his soldierly bearing 
and bravery on the field of battle so attracted his superiors that he 
rose rai)idly through the ranks of the non-commissioned officers to 
a lieutenancy and was later made captain of (^ompany C and served 
with distinction and bravery throughout the conflict. After its 
reorganization at Chattanooga his regiment was attached to the 
First Brigade, P^irst Division, P^ourteenth Army Corps, and with 
it he took part in some of the hardest fought battles and campaigns 
of the war, serving imder some of the most noted men in our his- 
tory, Sherman, Grant, Rosecrans and Buell, and during his term of 
service participated in forty-two battles and skirmishes and was 
with Sherman in his March to the Sea, also j)articipated in the 
Grand Review at Washington, D. C. The history of his regiment 
forms one of the bloody chapters in the annals of the war. One 
year and eight days after its organization there were but forty-two 


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men able to report for duty and it was commanded by a captain; 
his own company could muster only five enlisted men* and two 
officers; the latter were on detached duty or it is doubtful if they 
would have been numbered among the living. 

The war over, Captain Waite received an honorable discharge 
and returned to civil life at his old home in Wisconsin. He re- 
entered the university and completed his course of study and was 
graduated three years later and at once began teaching school. In 
1869 he located in Belle Plaine, Iowa, and became principal of the 
graded schools. In 1870 he entered the law offices of Clark & 
Tewksberry and in October of that same year was admitted to prac- 
tice at Toledo, Iowa. It was but a few weeks later that he decided 
to come to California and on December 8 we find him in Riverside. 
His capital amounted to $100, but he had experience, a personality 
and unbounded energj^ and perseverance and he entered upon a 
career here that soon won praise and confidence in his ever widen- 
ing circle of friends. 

In January, 1871, he was admitted to the bar in San Ber- 
nardino county and at once opened an office in Riverside. He was 
the first justice of the peace elected in the new colony and was the 
first notary appointed here, holding these offices four years. In 

1872 and 73 he taught school in Riverside and during these years 
was also engaged in horticultural pursuits, although at that time the 
work was purely experimental. In this way he laid the foundation 
for his later success. He first purchased ten acres of land and to 
this he added fifteen more and after he had developed it and car- 
ried on a nursery business for some time he sold both tracts and 
again made other purchases until he had quite a large acreage. In 

1873 he started a nursery in Riverside and in 1886 took as a part- 
ner J. A. Simms, the firm being known as Waite & Simms. In the 
nursery business he became well known and the business grew from 
a small beginning to one of large proportions. He also started two 
nurseries in Redlands and two in Highland. As an orange grower 
he met with good success and by years of constant research and ap- 
plication he produced some of the finest trees in the world and also 
owned a model grove, which had been one of his aims in life. Sell- 
ing his original purchases he again bought property in the growing 
city and set out a grove of oranges and erected a comfortable 
home for his family. 

The first marriage ever celebrated in the new colony was that 
of Captain Waite and Miss Lillian M. Shugart, the only daughter of 
Dr. and Mrs. Shugart, pioneers of this section. The ceremony was 
performed by Rev. I. W. Atherton on April 5, 1872. There have 
been six children born to this worthy couple, the eldest of whom, 
a son, was accidentally drowned when two years and eight months 
old. The others are : Marion P., a graduate of Stanford University 

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and now a broker in Los Angeles ; Charles E., also graduated from 
Stanford and now connected with the Riverside Savings and Trust 
Co. ; Lillian Martha, a graduate of Marlborough Institute ; and Leilia 
M. and Mildred M., both attending the Immaculate Heart College in 

Mr. Waite is connected with twenty-two corporations, among 
which we name the following: President of the La Mesa Packing 
Co. since 1894; oldest living director and one of the organizers, in 
1885, of the First National Bank of Riverside, of which he was 
vice-president from 1885 to 1900 and then president until 1905; 
president of the East Riverside Water Co. for sixteen years; is 
director of the Artesia Water Co.; of the Pacific Lumber Co.; of 
the Loring Opera House Co.; president and largest stockholder in 
the Highland Domestic Water Co. of San Bernardino; director and 
stockholder in the coast line of the Santa Fe Railroad; assisted in 
organizing and for five years was president and is still a director, 
of the Riverside Savings and Trust Co. He has been identified 
with the orange growers' associations and other enterprises that 
have had for their object the advancement of the city's welfare and 
growth and never has been called upon in vain to aid all such 
movements. He has always been mindful of his duties as a citizen 
while advancing his own interests and has given of his time and 
means to beautify the city to make it the attractive place it is today 
for tourist and settler. In the early days of the colony's struggles 
he exerted an influence for good and was the means of bringing 
many settlers to Southern California. He has served in the city 
council five years, being elected from the first ward in 1906 and 
retired in January, 1912. During these years he was instrumental 
in building streets and otherwise beautifying the city. 

Captain Waite is a member of Riverside Post, No. 118, G. A. R. ; 
is a member of the Loyal Legion and vice-president of the San 
Bernardino Valley Division; he is a charter member of the Cham- 
ber of. Commerce of Riverside and a loyal supporter and advocate 
of all of the progressive movements of that body. In their home 
on Mulberry street they are surrounded by comforts and luxuries 
that have been made possible by Mr. Waite 's success in business 
affairs. As a man and citizen the captain is always the genial, 
refined gentleman, and now in the evening- of his days he can look 
back upon a life well spent and with no regrets. 


An interesting talker and one of the pioneer ladies of the town 
of Elsinore is Mrs. Hazard, a native of England, born in Sussex 
county on February 3, 1829. She came to the United States with 
her parents in 1840, remaining in New York state four years, then 

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reiDovin^ to Rock county, AVis., and settling near Janesville. It was 
in that locality that Margaret Daws was united in marriage with 
Ezra Hazard in 1844. He was a fanner in that county and re- 
mained there engaged in his chosen occupation until his death, at 
which time his widow assumed the care of the place and carried it 
on until she decided to come to California in 1885. In company 
with Samuel Stewart she got together a car load of colonists from 
that vicinity and came to the Elsinore district, then a part of San 
Diego county. Here they found homes suitahle and a climate very 
agreeable. So successful was her first venture along this line that 
Mrs, Hazard returned to AVisconsin the following year and made 
arrangements with another car load of people. She was enthusiastic 
over the conditions found in this section and, having sold out her 
belongings in AVisconsin, invested her money in property in this 
section and in Oceanside. In Elsinore she bought seven blocks of 
land and laid out town lots and was for a time engaged in the real 
estate business. She sold from time to time and now retains one 
block of her land ui)on which it is hoped some one will erect a 
sanitarium, which is badly needed in the little city. 

Mrs. Hazard entered into the life of the i)lace and was fore- 
most in the organization of the ladies' auxiliary of the San Diego 
Chamber of Commerce, known as the Annex, and this body of 
women in conjunction with the board of trustees of Elsinore, laid 
out the plaza and planted trees and shrubbery to beautify the park. 
AA'ith her own hands she cared for the trees planted there -and took 
a pride in aiding every movement for the upbuilding of the town. 
In 1891 she was ai)pointed by the board of supervisors of San Diego 
coimty a member of the AVorld's Fair Executive Committee to so- 
licit exhibits for the county exhibit at the AVorld's Fair in Chicago, 
her district comprising the northern part of the county. She also 
attended the fair and settled some of her own personal affairs in 
AVisconsin on the same trip. 

Mrs. Hazard was a charter member and served as president 
of the AVomen's Relief Corps in Elsinore. She became the mother 
of two children by her marriage in Milton Junction, AA'is., with 
Ezra Hazard. The only one living is a son, Stewart B. Hazard, 
engaged in the stock business in Luverne, Minn. Since coming to 
Elsinore and taking up -her residence here Mrs. Hazard has been 
an interested sj^ectator of the develoi)ment of this section, has seen 
the rise and fall of property j)rices, and like many others, suffered 
financially when the *M)Oom" burst; however she has not allowed 
that disaster to dismay her, but retains that optimism peculiar to 
the pioneer and hopes to see the place again become one of the 
leaders in this section of the county. In the evening of her days 
she can look back ui)on a life well spent and forward without fear, 
for her life has been guided by the tenets of the ** Golden Rule." 

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No more worthy citizen has ever made his home in Riverside 
than the Hon. H. M. Streeter, who came to the colony in November, 
1875, and who has been very closely identified with its numerous 
interests ever since. He was born in Heath, Mass., March 18, 1829, 
into the family of Charles and Rhoda (Rice) Streeter, both natives 
of that state, where they spent their entire lives, dying at North 
Adams. When their son was an infant of one year the family 
removed to North Adams and here the lad grew to maturity and 
received his schooling in the common schools until the age of 
eighteen years. Leaving school he learned the trade of tailor and 
worked at it for about ten years, when he decided to make a change. 
Securing a position as express messenger and mail clerk with the 
Boston and Albany Railroad he gave his entire time and attention 
to the duties of that ])osition for the next ten years of his life. 
AVith money which he had saved during this time he concluded to 
embark in business on his own account and accordingly he returned 
to North Adams and purchased a hotel business which he conducted 
with moderate success until he came to California. His decision to 
locate in Riverside was made to avoid the rigorous climate of New 
England, influenced by reading the glowing accounts given by Nord- 
hoff in his description of the country, also by the fact that Mrs. 
Streeter had an invalid brother who had settled here the previous 
year, having come from Chicago on the advice of physicians and 
being very well satisfied with local conditions. Upon locating here 
Mr. Streeter bought forty acres of land, part of which he put in 
alfalfa and the rest in oranges. With all of the early settlers the 
fruit business was purely experimental and likewise problemental 
and he met with the usual successes and failures that the others had 
to contend with. However, he developed a valuable property, upon 
which he has since made his home. To perpetuate his identity a 
street was named in his honor. 

In Cairo, 111., March 11, 1868, occurred the marriage of H. M. 
Streeter and Miss Amelia S. Noble, a native of Springfield, Vt. No 
children have been born to them. In jiolitics Mr. Streeter has 
always been a Republican and soon after he settled in the new 
colony, in 1879, he was persuaded to become a candidate for the 
state assembly, and although the county was then strongly Dem- 
ocratic he was elected by a close vote. He served in the session of 
1879 and again he was a candidate for re-election for the full term 
in 1880; was elected and was very active in the session of 1880-81. 
In 1890 he was elected to the state senate from this district and 
served until January, 1895. He did valiant service in the interests 

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of his constituents in the creation of Riverside county. In 1886 
he was elected a member of the board of city trustees and was made 
chairman of that body, serving with P]. W. Holmes, M. Hoover, 
W. H. Haight and AV. P. Russell. He was elected one of the presi- 
dential electors from this congressional district in 1888. In August, 
1898, he was appointed postmaster of Riverside under the McKinley 
administration and served until April 1, 1903. In all his public 
life he has ever been considerate of the interests intrusted to his 
care and his actions have always been open to investigation. 

Mr. Streeter and his wife have been members of the Con- 
gregational Church for many years. He has seen the city and 
county of Riverside deA^elop to its present prosperous condition, 
and in all uplifting measures he has been a participant. Now in 
the evening of his days Mr. Streeter can look back upon a life well 
spent, and forward to the future without fear, for he has lived 
his life according to the teachings of the ** Golden Rule." 


None of the prominent pioneer families of Virginia displayed 
to a greater degree the qualities of thrift, courtesy, honor and 
stability of character than that represented by Colonel Woodford. 
The attributes noticeable in his own career came to him as a 
heritage from a long line of patriotic ancestors. With just pride he 
claims kinship with two of the most illustrious generals, Howe and 
Woodford, of the Revolutionary war. The history of these men is 
in part a record of the conflict in which they bore so illustrious a 
part. For a considerable portion of the struggle General Woodford 
commanded one of the ten brigades of the army south of the 
Hudson and his keen ability as commander won the highest praise 
of the commander-in-chief of the army. Several generations later 
another prominent representative of the family. Gen. Stuart S. 
Woodford, held the post of ambassador to Spain. 

Notwithstanding the prominence of the family its members 
were not seekers of wealth nor financiers, and the earliest recollec- 
tions of Asa Wesley Woodford are associated with scenes of 
poverty and self-denial. In a humble home two miles west of 
Philippi, Barbour county, Va. (now W. Va.) he was born May 
20, 1838, being a son of John Howe and Nancy (Minear) Woodford, 

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the latter a native of the Old Dominion. The Minear family came 
from France to America during the colonial era and some of its 
members served gallantly in the struggle for independence. The 
only school which Colonel Woodford ever attended was held in a 
log cabin on Pleasant creek. Through habits of close observation 
and thorough self-culture in later years he has acquired a fund of 
information not always possessed by graduates of leading educa- 
tional institutions. AVhen seventeen years of age he was employed 
by a cattle drover and felt very appreciative of his wages, which 
(to revert to an idiom of that period) consisted of *' thirty-five 
cents a day and no dinner." 

When the young cattle-herder had proved his trustworthiness 
he was selected for the important task of assisting to take a drove 
of stock to Philadelphia, a distance of four hundred and fifty miles. 
The trip was made during the winter of 1849 and he walked both 
ways, the return journey being made in elcA^en days notwithstand- 
ing the handicap of snow and mud. Twelve years later he traveled 
over the same road to Philadelphia and drove six hundred head of 
his own cattle, which he had sold to the government for the com- 
missariat department of the Union army. Not only was he the first 
man to attempt to drive stock from his part of West Virginia to the 
eastern markets during the Civil war, but he also continued to be 
one of the large dealers in stock and frequently supplied the gOA'- 
ernment with beef cattle. In his dealings with the north he was 
successful, but a different condition of affairs met him in 1863, 
when the Confederate generals, Jones and Imboden, swept across 
West Virginia in their disastrous raids. General Jones took from 
the James Pickens farm in Barbour county a herd of two himdred 
and fifty fat cattle belonging to Colonel Woodford and these were 
slaughtered for the sustenance of the Confederate soldiers during 
the march to Gettysburg, but the owner of the cattle received no 
pay except the Confederate money that proved absolutely worthless. 

At the opening of the war Colonel Woodford favored the Union 
cause with all the ardor of his nature and he voted against the 
ordinance of secession. With customary enthusiasm he quickly 
raised a regiment of soldiers in Ritchie county, W. Va., all pledged 
to fight for the government. It was the understanding that he was 
to act as colonel of the regiment, but he was superseded by Col. 
Moses S. Hall, whereupon he gave up all thought of active service 
and resumed the cattle business. After the war he voted the Demo- 
cratic ticket. During 1868 he was elected to represent Lewis county 
in the West Virginia lesrislature and in the session of 1869 he 
assisted in formulating the first code of the new state. Twice he 
was elected sheriff of Lewis county, W. Va., and in 1882 he received 
the Democratic nomination for senator in the tenth district, but at 

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tlie polls he was defeated by Captain Coburn of Barbour county. 
In 1892 he was a candidate before the Democratic convention for 
governor of West Virginia. During Aj)ril of that year he made a 
speecli at Grafton before the Democratic mass convention and re- 
ceived tlie higliest praise of William J. Bryan, then a member of 
congress, wlio commended tlie address as that of a statesman in 
advance of his party on financial questions. The views he then held 
became the leading plank in the national Democratic platform 
ado])ted four years later. 

Although a resident of Elsinore since 1904 and owning one of 
the most beautiful places in the locality, C-olonel Woodford retains 
extensive interests in West Virginia and still has a part of the 
old Barbour county homestead where he was reared. His princi))al 
holdings are in Lewis county, where he owns a valuable estate of 
more than one thousand acres on the Westfork river near Weston. 
One peculiarity of the farm is the presence of a natural gas fire 
in the fields and it is a common sight to see his splendid herd of 
Hereford cattle gathered around the fire to enjoy its warmth. Now, 
as always, the cattle represent the finest specimens of their breed. 
The farm has been a center for the upbuilding of Ilerefords and 
its influence has been felt for good throughout the country. On 
several occasions shipments were made from the farm to the 
markets of London and Liverpool, but the Colonel found the busi- 
ness unprofitable owing to the sharp com])etition abroad and of 
recent years he has limited his sales to the United States. In addi- 
tion to other enterprises he erected a large flour mill at Weston 
several years ago and thus founded an industry of great value 
to the subsequent progress of the comnmnity. 

The marriage of Colonel Woodford took place in 1854 near Flem- 
ington, Taylor county, W. Va., and united him with Miss Rebecca 
Cather, daughter of Rev. Jasper Cather, a pioneer minister of the 
Baptist denomination. Three children were born of the union who 
still survive and there are also three deceased. Flora S., (^larkson J. 
and Bruce S. Iris CV)lumbia, who was born in 1855, resides in the 
city of Baltimore. Phoebe Jane, born in 1856, is living in Warsaw. 
Ind. John Howe Woodford, born in 1864, is now located* near Elsi- 
nore, where he owns a fine ranch of sixty acres under cultivation to 
fruit and grain. The wife and mother ])assed away in 1885, firm in 
the faith of the Baptist Church, of which she and the Colonel had 
been communicants from early life. Since 1864 the Colonel has been 
actively identified with the Masonic Order. During later years he 
has traveled extensively and has visited the principal cities of the 
United States as well as the old world, but he finds no climate more 
agreeable and no environment more beautiful than that of Elsinore, 
the chosen home of the twilight of his successful career. 

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Among those men to wliom Riverside owes a debt of gratitude, 
and one who was considered one of her most public spirited citizens 
was Dr. Shugart, wlio was a C^alifornia enthusiast in every sense 
of the word. He was true to his friends and of these he had many 
and they were numbered among all classes. He was born in Ran- 
dolph county, Ind., April 13, 1829, and died in Riverside, CaL, May 
10, 1897. Between these dates was spent a life that was devoted to 
the uplifting and healing of his fellow men. 

As a boy he was reared in Randolph county and attended the 
public schools of his locality until he was twelve years of age. 
Accompanying his parents to (^ass county, Mich., he continued his 
schooling in the select schools of that place. It was his desii-e to 
become a physician and he became a student with Dr. Bonine of 
Niles, Mich., who afterwards became a noted army surgeon. He 
tinished his medical studies in the Keokuk (Iowa) Medical College 
in 1858, continuing practice in Iowa, in Tama county, in the vicinity 
of Belle Plaine, from 1858 until 1860. He then moved to that city 
and opened a drug store, which he conducted imtil he came to 
California in 1870. In the meantime he made two trips to the 
mines at Gold Hill, Colo., on account of his wife's health, who was 
greatly benefited thereby. While in the mining region he carried 
on his practice with the success that his wide experience justified. 
On account of Mrs. Shugart 's delicate health he decided to seek 
a milder climate and accordingly joined the North party, who were 
looking for a site to found a colony in Southern California, arriv- 
ing in August and immediately took stock in the original associa- 
tion. Having accomplished the desired end he returned to Iowa 
and disposed of his interests and started with his family for their 
new home, arriving at San Bernardino on December 7, 1870. He 
was the first treasurer of the Southern California Colony Associa- 
tion and later was vice-president. He was a man of considerable 
means for that day and his financial support to all measures for 
the upbuilding of the new country was considered a bulwark to the 
company. He entered into the spirit of the times and the life of 
the community and it was but a short time ere he had built up a 
large practice in this locality. Although he had made up his mind 
he would give u[) his calling upon settling in a new location, never- 
theless persistent calls upon him again drew him into service and he 
met with financial success. He bought the second lot sold in the 
colony and his was the fifth family to locate here. His original 
place was bounded by Ninth and Tenth and Mulberry and Lime 
streets and here it was that the first orange trees of this section 

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were planted March 1, 1871. In 1875 he traded this place to H. M. 
Beers for the forty acres where the Sherman Institute now stands 
and $4,000 cash and the water right. He partially improved this 
place, Imt finally sold it and purchased ten acres from L. C. Waite 
at the head of Mulberry street and here he erected a comfortable 
home, which remained his residence until his death. He was al- 
ways interested in educational matters and was a member of the 
second board of school trustees in the colony. In politics he never 
was an as[)irant for official honors, but he served as a delegate 
to many Republican conventions and was chairman of the county 
convention of 1876. He was the first to urge the organization of the 
Universalist society here, that being his religious belief. 

Dr. Shugart was united in marriage in Michigan on July 25, 
1852, to Miss Martha T. Reams, who was a native of that state and 
was the youngest of a family of fourteen children born to her 
parents. Her father was of French, and her mother of English 
extraction. She took an active interest in her new found home and 
was greatly benefited by the change from her former place of resi- 
dence in Iowa. She survived her husband until November, 1903, 
when she passed away, mourned by her large circle of friends and 
relatives. To this worthy couple two daughters were born, Lillian, 
Mrs. L. C. Waite and Leilia R., who died in 1872. 

Dr. Shugart was a prominent Mason, holding membership in 
Evergreen Lodge, No. 259, F. & A. M.; Riverside Chapter, No. 
67, R. A. M., and Riverside Commandery, No. 28, K. T. He was a 
member of the American Medical Association, the California State 
Medical and the Southern California Medical societies and of the San 
Bernardino Medical Society, of which he was one of the principal or- 
ganizers. The doctor was a conspicuous figure in Riverside, was 
always well groomed, wore a silk hat, and was always the genteel 
and refined gentleman wherever he was seen. His death was a 
seA^ere loss to the city he had seen grow from barren wastes to a 
world-renowned city. He could truly say *'A11 of which I saw and 
part of which I was.'' 


As a ])ioneer of Riverside, Mr. Twogood has lent invaluable 
aid towards its development, his well directed enter])rises and 
unwavering faith in the future of the community having encouraged 
his fellow citizens to confine their efforts to the opportunities pre- 
sented in that field. He was born Deceml)er 14, 1835, in New 
Orleans, La., where his father, Donald H., a native of New York 
state, was engaged in contracting. His mother, Eliza (Edwards) 

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Twogood, also a native of New York state, died in Upper Alton, 
111., in 1839, while the family were en route to the north. Daniel 
was then but four years of age. The father continued to New York 
state, where he placed his children in the care of a relative and 
he then returned to New Orleans to continue his business and while 
there met his death a few years later. This son was reared to young 
manhood and obtained a common school education at Lansingburg, 
near Troy, N. Y. In 1856 he went to Marion, Iowa, where he 
secured employment as a clerk in the mercantile store of Parkhurst 
& Marion, resigning one year later to engage in farming near 
Belle Plaine, Iowa, where he had previously bought a quarter 
section of land. He continued on this [)lace until 1864, when he sold 
the farm and moved into Belle Plaine, and with his l)rother estab- 
lished a grain elevator business which was successfully carried on 
until 1870, when it was sold and he started for California. 

After arrangements had been made Mr. Twogood started by rail 
for the coast, traveling to San Francisco, then a ^xe days' trip. 
B^om there he went to San Pedro by boat, thence to Los Angeles 
by rail and finally by stage to San Bernardino, where he was 
obliged to \7ait three days ere an opportunity, in the form of a 
loaded lumber wagon, enabled him to proceed to Riverside, his 
destination. While he stopped in San Bernardino the people there 
tried to discourage him in coming to the new colony, saying there 
would never be any water in that part of the country, as it was 
never known to run up hill, for this section of the county was 
higher than the then countyseat. However, he had determined to 
locate in Riverside and their pleadings were of no avail. Arriving 
here he was informed that he had only to pay the government price 
for a parcel of land that had been reserved for him by the founders 
of the colony. This consisted of eighty acres of land located in the 
southeast part of the colony. 

As a shelter for his family he found a crude shack on the 
present site of the ** Anchorage'' that was occupied by the sur- 
veyors who were laying out the site of the colony. This answered 
the purpose until he could build. Lumber had to be hauled from 
San Bernardino, as it was a number of years before a railroad 
was projected here. Subsequently, in partnership with A. J. 
Twogood, he acquired an additional twenty acres which they sold 
in residence lots, retiring from active business in 1888, though 
retaining an interest in the previously established nursery in River- 
side. Together they built a crude packinghouse for oranges. All of 
the sorting and packing was done by hand and they originated a 
style of packing that commanded attention by the dealers in San 
Francisco. One hundred cars were sent out, all of the fruit having 
to be hauled to Colton for shipment. This was the first shipment 
of oranges sent to the bay city. With the other pioneer settlers he 

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bou^lit up a water ri^lit and assisted in organizing the Riverside 
Water Company to get water for irrigation. Two shares of stock 
for each acre of land was sold to the owners of the various tracts. 

In all progressive movements for the development of Riverside 
Mr. Twogood has taken an active interest. lie has never cared for 
office of any kind, but has devoted his time to farming and nursery 
interests. In the early days horticultural work was experimental 
and with others of ])ublic spirit, he devoted much time and research 
in selecting the best kinds of stock for this locality. In the spring 
of 1887 Mr. Twogood went to Florida and l)ought forty thousand 
trees of wild stock and shipped them to Riverside. Being inex- 
})erienced in })a(*king for transportation, about one third of these 
were lost. This was the first shipment of Florida trees into this 

January 1, 1859, in Marion, Iowa, D. C Twogood was united 
in marriage with a cousin, Miss Lydia Adeline Twogood, who was 
a daughter of Simeon Twogood. She passed away in Riverside 
January :28, 1910. Two children were born of this union: Mrs. 
Carrie Belle Edwards, who was l)orn near Belle Plaine, Iowa, and 
died in Riverside in 1880; and Jessie Nettie, who was born in 
Belle Plaine, and died in Riverside in 1885. 

A charter member of the Riverside Baptist Church, Mr. Two- 
good's life, though bereft of those whom he loved best, is that of 
a consistent Christian, whose faith in the wisdom of the Divine 
Plan enables him to bravely continue his earthly activities until 
the end. 


The late C. C. Miller was one of the pioneers of Riverside, 
whither he brought his family in 1873, and from that time until his 
death he was closely identified with its growth and development. He 
was born in Oneida county, K. Y., in 1824, into the family home of 
Chauncey and Alice (Reney) Miller, both natives of that same 
county, where his grandfather. Grant Miller, settled in the early 
days of the colonies and built the first house in that vicinity. He 
died when his son, (\ (\, was but four years of age; the widow 
afterwards became the wife of Judge Aaron Burley. 

(\ i\ Miller received a good education in the public schools of 
New York state until about twenty-one, when he joined the family 
in Ohio, where he entered Oberlin College. Two years later he 
entered Cleveland University and was graduated therefrom in 

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1852 in civil engineering, which profession he made his specialty. 
Subsequently he was employed in the construction department 
of the Illinois Central and Atlantic and Ohio Railroads for two 
years. He then moved to Tomah, AVis., and for the next ten 
years was engaged in building many railroads in Wisconsin and 
Minnesota, and also in land surveying, and was })rominently identi- 
fied with the building up of Monroe county. He enlisted for service 
in the Civil war and was commissioned captain of Company M, 
Forty-ninth Volunteer Infantry, and was assigned to duty in 
Missouri under General Dodge. His engineering skill soon became 
known and he was called into service as chief engineer of that dis- 
trict. He served until the close of the war and was honorably dis- 
charged in 1865, after which he returned to civil pursuits. He was 
employed as assistant chief engineer in the building of the West 
Wisconsin and St. Paul Railway, and later as chief engineer of 
the Wabasha & Lake Superior Railroad. 

The ill health of his wife made is necessary to seek a milder 
climate and in 1873 he located in Los Angeles. In June of that 
year he came to Riverside as chief engineer and superintendent 
of El Sobrante de San Jacinto rancho, later engaged in the con- 
struction of the canals of the Riverside Water Company's system. 
In October he brought his family here and the next year bought 
the block of land lying between Sixth and Seventh and Main and 
Orange streets and established their home, entering enthusiastically 
in the upbuilding of the town. The desiral)le location of his home 
and the lack of accommodation for the traveling public induced him 
to open his house for their comfort and convenience, naming in 
the ''Glenwood Cottage,'' which soon became well and favorably 
known and the patronage grew until it became necessary to enlarge 
the quarters and year after year he added to his cottage home, from 
which has developed the Glenwood Mission Inn of Riverside, famed 
throughout the world for its model appointments and entertain- 
ment. During all these years Captain Miller continued his duties 
as civil engineer, engaged in enterprises in California and Arizona. 
He was chief engineer in the construction of the Gage canal system 
that has meant so much to the welfare of this city. In 1881 he 
retired, selling out the Glenwood Hotel to his son, Frank A., the 
present owner. 

In 1852 Captain Miller was united in marriage with Miss Mary 
Clark, a daughter of Dr. Clark, a physician of Lorain county, Ohio. 
Mrs. Miller, who came from good old Quaker stock, was a lady of 
culture and refinement and the marriage proved most fortunate, 
as she was above all else a real home maker — than which there can 
be no task nobler, higher or worthier for any woman. As her 
children look back into those vanished years they remember her 
as one in whose gentle nature were found mingled the elements of 

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sweetness and light in union with a deep, quiet firmness, that could 
not be moved — for it was based upon an unfaltering trust in the 
eternal goodness of God. The Mission Inn of today, conducted by 
her son and daughter, has been in part the result of the inspiration 
flowing from her life in the pioneer days of Riverside. 

To Captain and Mrs. Miller four children were born: Emma 
who became the wife of G. 0. Newman; Frank A., who married 
Miss Isabella Demorest Hardenberg; Alice, who married F. W. 
Richardson; and Edward E., who married Miss Emma C. 


Abundant evidence of the opportunities afforded by California 
to young men of energy and ambition is demonstrated by the suc- 
cessful but unostentatious career of E. E. Barnett, who for years 
has ranked among the leading ranchers and stockmen of Riverside 
county. When he came west he had no capital except the rugged 
constitution and willing industry of youth. The family had been in 
humble circumstances and the unremitting toil of the farm was 
void of a mother's presence, she having died when this son was a 
small child. She was a woman of self-sacrificing devotion and a 
native of Pennsylvania, while the father, Adrian D. Barnett, was 
born in Kentucky, and the paternal grandparent was a native of 
Virginia. For a considerable period the father remained in Illinois 
and developed a farm in Hancock county, where his son, E. E., 
was born on June 14, 1852, and where he received a common school 
education. In the hope of improving their financial condition father 
and son came west during 1869 and settled in California, where the 
former died in 1884. 

E. E. Barnett early located in Sutter county, near Yuba City, 
where he worked out for $1 per day and by frugal hoarding of his 
small wages he accumulated a working capital for future use. His 
next location was in Ventura county, where he remained for four- 
teen years, meeting with some discouragements but still forged 
his way ahead in a gratif jang degree. In 1884 he removed to Los 
Angeles county, bought property and made that the family home 
for about seven years. He had become interested in investments in 
Riverside county, which impressed him by reason of the climate and 
soil advantages, and having purchased forty acres near Temecula 
he removed hither in November, 1894, and since then has increased 
his holdings until at this writing his estate aggregates thirteen 
hundred acres of grain land, and now he is also developing water 

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by sinking wells for irrigation purposes preparatory to going into 
the alfalfa industry. The raising of cattle and horses has been one 
of his specialties and during 1910 and '11 he sold over $10,000 
worth, netting him a fair profit. To this stock industry he has 
added the raising of hogs and is meeting with good success. When 
Mr. Barnett located upon his property it was devoid of any im- 
provements whatever and now several substantial outbuildings 
and a thirteen room house with fences, trees and water developed 
make it one of the best in this part of Riverside county from a pro- 
ductive standpoint. 

The marriage of Mr. Barnett, solemnized May 13, 1875, united 
him with Miss Alica A. Stevens, a native of Iowa. Her parents, 
Anson and Ann Rebecca (Betz) Stevens, natives of New York and 
Ohio respectively, came to California during 1869 and settled in 
Ventura county, removing to Los Angeles county in 1875, where 
the mother died in 1885. The father, .who is a veteran of the 
Civil war, is still living at his home in Garden Grove at the age of 
eighty-four. At the outbreak of the war the father left home to 
enlist in his country's cause, leaving his wife and four small 
children, and during his absence she endeavored to make a living 
for them. Hearing that her husband was very ill at a hospital in 
Memphis, Tenn., Mrs. Stevens left her children with her mother 
and departed for the front to nurse her husband back to health if 
possible, spending three months there and returning with him to 
Iowa. Two years later, upon the advice of physicians, who said he 
could not stand another winter in that climate, Mr. Stevens dis- 
posed of all his belongings and with his family came to California. 
Arriving in San Francisco, from there they took a boat to Santa 
Barbara, landing in lighters and were rowed to shore, and from 
there went to Ventura county, arriving with no money and Mr. 
Stevens in ill health. Almost immediately upon starting for the 
west his health gradually came back to him and he is now hale and 
hearty. His good wife, who had nursed him back to health and who 
had been untiring in her devotion to him and her children, gradu- 
ally failed in health and passed away in Tustin, aged but fifty-one 
years. Unremitting toil and hardships endured through many tr>dng 
years shortened her life. She was a woman of sterling qualities 
and these were imbued in her children, of whom four daughters 
and two sons are still living, three having passed away in this 
state. Wherever Mrs. Stevens made her home she endeared herself 
to a wide circle of friends, who respected her for her many good 
qualities and kindnesses shown others less fortunate than herself. 

In fraternal relations Mr. Barnett has been connected with 
the blue lodge of Masonry and at one time held membership in the 
Odd Fellows. Mrs. Barnett, who has been a decided factor in her 
husband's success, has been a leading local worker in the Rebekahs 

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and the Eastern Star, while tlie latter organization also has had 
the benefit of the membership of one of her daughters, Mrs. Lena 
Crouch. The three eldest sons are all members of the blue lodge of 

Of the children comi)rising the family we mention the follow- 
ing: Marcus E., who married Julia Ganahl, has one son; Ceplies L. 
married Jennie Thomi)son and with their three sons they reside 
at Uplands; Adrian H. was united in marriage with Ysabel Oon- 
zalez, a native of California, and with their son are residents of 
this county; Sarah A. is the wife of C. H. Clogston of Murrietta and 
tJiey liave three sons and three daughters; Myrtle married R. S. 
Roribaugh, and is the mother of one son and two daughters; Pearl 
is the wife of J. E. Roribaugh and the mother of two sons; Lena 
n>arried R. S. Crouch, and with her daughter makes her home with 
her i)arents, as do the two youngest children, Anson A. and Ruth 
F. The sons and daughters inherit much of the energy and perse- 
verance which have brought success to their i)arents and the entire 
family has a high social standing in the county as well as a de- 
served agricultural prominence throughout this section of the state. 


The Arlington Supply Company Department Store of Arling- 
ton was established in 1901 by John T. Crimmins, the present head 
of the business, conunencing with a small capital as successor to 
tlie oldest business establishment in Arlington. In 1904 the business 
was moved to the present location. The commodious brick building 
owned by the company has been enlarged from time to time until 
at the ])resent time the floor space used has increased to 15,840 square 

The officers of the coiupany are John T. Crimmins, president, 
and V. E. Unholz, vice-president. Mr. Crimmins, the founder of 
the business, came to Arlington from Iowa in 1901. Since twenty- 
one years of age he has been engaged in the retail business, except 
al)out six years which were occupied in the wholesale business as a 
traveling salesman. Pie is at this writing on the sunny side of forty 
and exi)ects by close application to his business and liberal treat- 
ment of the patrons of his store to achieve greater success in the 
future than has been attained in the past. 

F. E. Unholz joined the business early in 1912. He is also a 
young man, who has thoroughly learned the retail business through 
having operated stores in eastern states before coming to California. 
AVith the addition of the energy and capital of Mr. Unholz to the 
business, this popular store will be better equipped than ever before 
to give to their patrons the most satisfactory service. 

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T.'.rt a\*'-rme, in a 10(*ation tliat seeme<l to ;. '■ . . 

rtfii an<l ]>rodurtive, and he impr««>«"i ■ 
I'.j . iirjj_',s and eiijtivatinjx th(» land, |ji>* • 
an<i oran^es---and lor a time it i)ro-p .•* 
:. J '.•> of l\iN'erside. About tlie yeiir .^ ' 
-t: William Thaw, the eonsidcM'atio-. •• : 

:'. ••;* reased vahiation. In 1S99 thf i-r> . ' • 

\- i- lound that the entire prop-'rty w-^^ u\: • " 

( . paiT*^ water, dama^^-ing: \\\ui to »!'.• .\ • ' ? *. 

I : • - \* a^ all ho])e of an indeperi* r-t mi •■■•." • . ; . .• :..» al 

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A pioneer citizen of Riverside, and a man who is highly 
esteemed for his good qualities and public spirit, is Chester A. 
Crosby, who was born July 11, 1845, in Putnam county, N. Y., a 
son of David and Elira (Marvin) Crosby, both natives and life- 
long residents of that county. David Crosby engaged in the shoe 
business at No. 40 East Broadway, New York City, for several 
years. He died at the age of about thirty. 

C. A. Crosby was left fatherless at a tender age and was taken 
into the home of a relative who reared him to young manhood. 
Upon completing his public school studies at the age of sixteen, he 
entered Claverack College on the Hudson and took a two-year 
course, later taking a commercial course to better fit himself for 
life's duties in the commercial world. At the age of twenty-one he 
engaged in the shoe business, in partnership with an uncle, F. G. 
Crosby, in Ottawa, Canada, under the firm name of F. G. & C. A. 
Crosby. This concern grew gradually until it was the largest of its 
kind in that city. In 1879, on account of the ill health of his wife, 
Mr. Crosby decided to seek a milder climate, and, selling out his 
interest in the business, came to California and located in River- 
side. At that time there was but little to attract the settler ; no busi- 
ness center to show that there was a rich country surrounding; no 
streets improved as seen today ; the fruit industry was in its infancy 
and experimental stages; but water was being developed and there 
was a class of people already located here who had come to open 
up the way for better things. They had come from the various 
parts of the country, from trades, professions, and other occupa- 
tions, all with one end in view — that of making a home in the won- 
derful health-giving climate of the Southland — all willing to endure 
privations and hardships to attain the object of their migration 
hither. All this was brought to the eye of Mr. Crosby, and like 
them, he decided to cast in his lot with these pioneers and assist in 
building up a city and county, and that he has done his share, all 
with whom he has been brought in contact willingly concede. 

Mr. Crosby made a purchase of thirty acres of land on Arling- 
ton avenue, in a location that seemed to be favored. The soil was 
rich and productive, and he improved his property by erecting 
buildings and cultivating the land, putting out a vineyard, apricots 
and oranges — and for a time it prospered and was one of the show 
places of Riverside. About the year 1891 he sold twelve acres to 
Mrs. William Thaw, the consideration being $16,000, which shows 
the increased valuation. In 1899 the crops began to decrease, and it 
was found that the entire property was almost a total loss, caused 
by seepage water, damaging him to the extent of over $30,000. 
Thus was all hope of an independent income destroyed, but he at 


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once sought another location. In 1900 he accepted a position with 
the late C. E. Rumsey, becoming the manager of a ranch purchased 
by him at that date. This consisted of eighteen acres of oranges 
in bearing and was the nucleus of the now famous Alta Cresta 
groves owned by the estate of C. E. Rumsey, consisting of one hun- 
dred and seventy-five acres. Since 1900 he has occupied the posi- 
tion of general manager of this property, and the one hundred and 
fifty-seven acres that have been added to the first purchase have all 
developed under his careful personal supervision. The land was 
originally covered with greasewood and sage brush — this giving 
way to oranges and beautiful drives, where tourist and citizen may 
enjoy all that nature and taste can offer in the making of a city 
beautiful. The drive through these grounds has been one of the 
show places of Riverside for years. 

Mr. Crosby is a Republican in political belief and a most prog- 
ressive citizen. He was united in marriage at Carmel, Putnam 
county, N. Y., May 18, 1868, with Miss Emma E. Fowler, a native 
of that county, and a woman of culture and refinement. Three chil- 
dren have been born to them, \dz: Chester E., a resident of San 
Diego ; Harold D., of Pasadena ; and Ruth, at home with her par- 
ents. The daughter received her schooling in Mills College, at Oak- 
land, Cal. Mr. Crosby and his family are members of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Riverside, in which church he is a charter 
member, and for the past twenty years has efficiently served as 
elder. He assisted in the organization of the Magnolia school dis- 
trict and for about fifteen years served as clerk of the board. The 
warm, practical interest Mr. Crosby has ever shown in the wel- 
fare of his fellow-men is worth v of emulation. 


Important as were the labors of the pioneers of Riverside and 
comprehensive as were their utilitarian projects, in many instances 
these have been equaled or surpassed by the achievements of 
their descendants. The city maintains a just pride in the talents of 
the youns: men who, reared within her borders and content to devote 
their abilities to her material development, are adding honor to 
family names and prestige to civic ideals. None perhaps is accom- 
plishing more in the short span of a business career than William 
Treat Dinsmore, who is well versed in the law, in finance and in realty, 
and in any department of commercial progress or professional im- 

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portance proves himself the possessor of extended information and 
sagacious judgment. 

The genealogy of the Dinsmore family shows their early 
identification with the development of Maine, where William T. 
Dinsmore was born March 17, 1876. His father, P. S. Dinsmore, was 
born and reared in Maine and there married Miss Anna M. Treat, 
likewise a native of that state. Descended from a pioneer family, 
she numbered among her family relations Hon. Charles H. Treat, one 
of the most influential men of his day and a statesman whose worth 
was so universally recognized that he was called to Washington, 
D. C, to aid the national administration in an oflBcial and executive 
capacity, and served for many years as treasurer of the United 
States. In the service of the nation, as in his own private business 
and professional affairs, he proved himself conspicuously able. The 
heritage of his fame has descended to his posterity. 

For some years P. S. Dinsmore conducted business affairs in 
the state of Maine with more or less success. During 1880 he came 
to California and settled at Riverside. From the outset he was 
pleased with the country. As a permanent location he believed no 
place could offer superior advantages. The real estate business 
and orange growing have kept him busily occupied throughout the 
thirty-two years he has made this his home, and he still takes an 
active interest in his business affairs. William T. Dinsmore entered 
the public schools at the age of about six years and continued with 
successive promotions until he had finished the school course. Later 
he received business training in commercial and business colleges 
in this city and a course with the American School of Law of 
Chicago. One of the first enterprises in which he engaged was the 
promotion and organization of the People's Abstract & Trust Com- 
pany, of which he acted as secretary and manager for over ten 
years. During his leisure hours, while in charge of the abstract 
office, he devoted his time to the study of the law and prepared for 
an examination that would give him admission to the bar. This 
knowledge of the law has been most helpful to him in his varied 
activities, although he has never entered upon active professional 

The name of William Treat Dinsmore is connected especially 
with the Security Savings Bank of Riverside, which was organized 
by the stockholders of the Citizens National Bank and commenced 
business on July 1, 1907. Ever since the bank was opened for busi- 
ness he has served as secretary and assistant cashier and his 
efforts have been helpful in the increasing of the bank's business. 
A steady growth has been enjoyed from the first. The institution 
has proved conservative and cautious in investments and loans, but 
accommodating to customers and helpful to the general interests 

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of the city. A reputation has been established for safe and cour- 
teous dealings and depositors repose the utmost confidence in the 
resources of this banking institution. 

In addition to his business interests Mr. Dinsmore has partici- 
pated in horticultural enterprises, having owned three different 
groves of oranges, and now owns a thrifty bearing grove of navel 
oranges, comprising nine acres on Lincoln Heights, known as 
** Vista Hermosa Grove." Some years ago he purchased a lot in 
Riverside on Rubidoux Drive, now known as *' Bankers' Row," and 
there he erected a commodious residence, now occupied by his 
family, the home place being known as *' Sierra Vista," meaning 
Mountain View. June 8, 1898, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Charlotte Nelson, daughter of Austin Nelson, and a native of 
Nebraska, where she was reared and educated. Three children 
bless the union, Julia, Helen and William Treat, Jr. The family 
are prominently identified with the First Baptist Church of 
Riverside and greatly interested in its work and maintenance, Mr. 
Dinsmore being the treasurer of the church. Fraternally Mr. Dins- 
more holds membership with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
at Riverside. A progressive Republican in political views, he served 
as vice-president of the Governor Johnson and Wallace Club, has 
acted as treasurer of the Riverside County Republican Central Com- 
mittee and maintains a warm interest in campaign work, local elec- 
tions and civic matters. 


Representing the third generation of the North family in 
Riverside, Richard L. North was born in this city January 30, 
1886, a son of John G. and grandson of J. W. North, the latter 
the founder of Riverside. He attended the public school of his 
native city, graduating from the high school at an early age. In 
1904 he entered the University of California at Berkeley. During 
the summer months he was employed at civil engineering in con- 
nection with irrigation projects in Arizona, Oregon and California. 
He discontinued his college course in 1905, but still followed civil 
engineering until 1907, when he matriculated as a student in the 
law department of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, from 
which he graduated in 1911. Returning to his native city he at 
once opened offices for the practice of his profession and through 
the inheritance of characteristics of his father and his own per- 
sonality, ability and natural qualifications is building up a practice 
that affords a solid foundation for success. 

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insToKY (»i' Ri\'h:'- 

JioX. MKJniL :>: 

A uativr soil t'f ('r'ir.Mni;! ai' i <■ ■ ■ 
intfr(*^ts at lirnrt is M. JIm .^m./c. .*■ t 
^i<l** and now xM-^inu* {l*- pfo} ',- ;i^ ^ ■... 
lit^ was lH*ni i)i San 1*<'iiki, din. , r.i , '•. . 
i'\ J. A. and Adelaide' 1-Mii.n:i-, 1^-^ > >• 
iiiont families in tin* c'itIn h'sfoix ,.r ♦ 
tn<li]lo attt^Hled tlh* pni'li.* s.-i.ouN- ■•! -^ ,, 
1r' irraduatod in 1S>^. ii*- t]'<*n «• 
Santa (dara and *rradaat»'d tlnM-fli-.- 
San I)io;4(), rluMi tlu^ I'annlx' 1i(»mu^ i,i 
tlu* connty clerk and hold t'h' ]nr iti- . 
Iiis advent into Hi\rr>idt\ wi *>t<' i. - 
elcrk of the h'ard of sup(M*\ Isors and . - 
Durini*- this tiin(* he was pr*<'| arin^ b: 
above named y^ar he was adn.itted to ) . 
<'onrt in the state of (^alifonii<t. H(» i ? 
in Los Anii:eles and for tlje follow in.'^ t^^ 
eessfnl practice. C\>niin<^ a^^ain to 1^.- 
here and maintained it nntil ISIM^ wli-t. 
Mexico to fi<^ht a case in the courts ., * 
three years, when lie a^ain came U \ - 
f'\<si()nal labors. 

On November H, 1904, Mr. 1^^ 
sembly of the state from tin* Se\en*v 
elected two years later an<l durinir . •• 
t'i})le oJ'.cc* ]h» rendennl \aliant servi-t- to 
to tbe whoh^ state. In 1905 he s.^.-iu-od n', ^ 
f(»r the establishment of an A.i*:ri<'uhi:ral I. ■■ 
foot of Mt. Hnbidoux. It was aK<» at t' t- ^"--;. 
that the 1>ill transreirinir Yoscinite pa''- !•• i ■'• 
(MiHitent wn^ pa^siHl. It was f()>tt'r*'d h\ M . 1 
stormy series of ai^trnmcnt^ was pa^-ci It -.v 
talked oi' bills of that session. \\y hi- u ' 
a"ti\(* p'lrt he took in its [)as>ai::o ho m'- . * 
tion b> iiis far-sitchtiMJ policies and i--. 
\ 'i)]n John Mnir, the ]»oet, who \\r.)it' ■ 
^entcd him t^^o of Ins r-lioice wn!-. 
of California" and 'M>ar Natiimal I'-,.'." 
Fiian of the Wa.vs and Afeaiis <'o]!iM /.-o .•■ • 
e a<le chairman of the California do'. ,at ■ a . ' 
Irriiration Congress, held in Saci';»;!'eii^' jm » •' 
d<'h':^ate for the state of Calilorni i to th, >, , ^;. 

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A native son of California and one who has ever had her best 
interests at heart is M. Estudillo, a prominent attorney of River- 
side and now serving the people as state senator from his district. 
He was born in San Bernardino, Cal., September 20, 1870, a son 
of J. A. and Adelaide Estudillo, both of whom represented prom- 
inent families in the early history of the state. As a youth M. Es- 
tudillo attended the public schools of San Diego county, from which 
he graduated in 1888. He then entered Santa Clara College in 
Santa Clara and graduated therefrom in 1890. Returning then to 
San Diego, then the family home, he was appointed court clerk by 
the county clerk and held the position until 1893, which year marked 
his advent into Riverside, where he received the appointment as 
clerk of the board of supervisors and held the position until 1895. 
During this time he was preparing himself for the law and in the 
above-named year he was admitted to practice before the Supreme 
Court in the state of California. He immediately opened an office 
in Los Angeles and for the following two years carried on a suc- 
cessful practice. Coming again to Riverside he opened an office 
here and maintained it until 1899, when he went to the City of 
Mexico to fight a case in the courts and remained there nearly 
three years, when he again came to this city and resumed his pro- 
fessional labors. 

On November 8, 1904, Mr. Estudillo was elected to the as- 
sembly of the state from the Seventy-eighth district and was re- 
elected two years later and during his incumbency of that respon- 
sible office he rendered valiant service to his constituents as well as 
to the whole state. In 1905 he secured an appropriation of $35,000 
for the establishment of an Agricultural Experiment station at the 
foot of Mt. Rubidoux. It was also at this session of the legislature 
that the bill transferring Yosemite park to the United States gov- 
ernment was passed. It was fostered by Mr. Estudillo and after a 
stormy series of arguments was passed. It was. one of the most 
talked of bills of that session. By his advocacy of the bill and the 
active part he took in its passage he attracted considerable atten- 
tion by his far-sighted policies and received personal recognition 
from John Muir, the poet, who wrote him several letters and pre- 
sented him two of his choice works, autographed, ** Mountains 
of California" and '*Our National Park." In 1907 he was chair- 
man of the Ways and Means committee of the Assembly and also 
made chairman of the California delegation at the Fifteenth National 
Irrigation Congress, held in Sacramento in 1907. He was sent as 
delegate for the state of California to the National Irrigation Con- 

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gress at Boise, Idaho, and was an advocate of the Pinchot-Roose- 
velt conservation policies and won out in a fight with Hon. W. R. 
King of Oregon, in presenting the resolution endorsing these poli- 
cies. November 3, 1908, he was elected state senator, and in 1909 
he made a fight for the local option bill but was defeated. In 1911 
he made the fight in the senate for the Wyllie local option measure 
and carried it through successfully. Here it is but proper to quote 
from the '* Searchlight, " the official organ of the Anti-Saloon 
league: **It would be impossible in any newspaper article to pay 
fitting and full tribute of praise to the members of the California 
legislature, by whose action the people were given the Wyllie local 
option law. We may, however, without making invidious distinc- 
tion, mention the name of Senator Miguel Estudillo of Riverside 
county, who had charge of the measure in the upper house, and of 
Assemblyman G. W. Wyllie, who introduced and championed in the 
lower house the measure, which for all time will bear his honored 
name. Senator Estudillo introduced the local option measure in the 
senate two years ago and did yoeman's work in behalf of the meas- 
ure, which, however, failed to secure approval of the majority of 
his senatorial associates. At this session of the legislature it was 
not only fitting but fortunate that the Wyllie bill, after its ap- 
proval by the assembly, was in charge of the Riverside Senator. 
. . . Without giving offense to those who opposed the measure. 
Senator Estudillo met and answered every argument against it, 
and with unyielding tenacity refused to accept amendments which 
were intended to impair its efficiency. When at the first hearing in 
the senate the bill was loaded with objectionable amendments there 
was pallor in the face of the Riverside senator and a tearful glit- 
ter in his eye which indicated how profoimd and sincere was his 
interest in the matter. ... It was well that he did not falter, 
for the fate of the measure at that time seemed so uncertain that 
any show of despondency by its champion might have led to its 
defeat. The subsequent career of the bill was thick-set with peril 
and it required skillful management, unfaltering fidelity, courage 
and determination to carry the measure safely through and win for 
it success." In 1909 Mr. Estudillo was chairman of the committee 
on election laws of the senate which recommended by minority re- 
port, the passage of the direct primary law, creating a revolution 
in state politics and forever destroying machine rule. This amend- 
ment passed the legislature in 1911. He was appointed a member 
of the hold-over committee which investigated the school book trust 
of the state and through their findings justice was meted to the 
guilty ones. It was during this same session that Senator Estu- 
dillo secured an appropriation for a laboratory and improvements 
for the Rubidoux experiment station at Riverside. 

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Senator Estudillo is a member of the Elks and the Knights of 
Pythias; the Victoria and Country clubs of Riverside, and of the 
Jonathan and Union League clubs of Los Angeles. On February 
22, 1903, in Los Angeles occurred the marriage of M. Estudillo and 
Miss Minerva Cook, and of this union there was born one son, 
Reginald, who is attending the Riverside public schools. Mrs. 
Estudillo is a direct descendant of James Cook, who came in the 
Mayflower and whose offspring settled in Winchester, N. H., where 
Mrs. Estudillo was born. Since becoming a resident of this beauti- 
ful city there has been no movement advanced for the general well 
being of either city or county but what has received his stanch sup- 
port and he has been foremost in social matters of his adopted city. 
As a public man he has a host of warm admirers and as a speaker 
he has a manner of at once commanding the respect and hearing 
of all within reach of his voice. He has taken a stand for all prog- 
ressive movements in political circles and is a stanch Republican. 

Senator Estudillo received a letter which contains some bits of 
» history, from Charles Hardy, an Englishman now a resident of 
Mt. Albert, Auckland, New Zealand, which says: 

*'I lived with your grandfather (Don Louis Rubidoux) at 
Jurupa Rancho, but time plays havoc with rich and poor alike. I 
am eighty years old on the 21st of March, proximo. I have a da- 
guerreotype of myself taken in San Francisco in 1855, but I, of 
course, do not care to part with it. I lived off and on with Louis 
Robidoux from 1856 to 1862, was always welcomed by him to his 
house and treated with great respect. ... I forget exactly how 
long I taught there, but think it must have been for about two or 
three years altogether. I received $50 per month from the state 
and $15 per month from Don Louis, together with board and lodg- 

''The letter to myself from Don Louis, which my daughter 
told you of, was written in 1862, when I was in San Francisco. It 
was to thank me for some business which I had transacted for him 
in regard to the Rancho San Jacinto/' 

The letter further states that Mr. Hardy asked Don Louis for 
the hand in marriage of one of his daughters. Don Louis was will- 
ing, but the young lady's mother refused because Mr. Hardy in- 
tended to take her away to England. The lady married a rancher. 
Hardy came to California in 1855, from Victoria, Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia; he owned thirty-seven acres of land close to the city of San 
Bernardino; later lost money in gold mining in Bear Lake valley. 
He further states that Don liouis never went abroad, either on 
horseback or in his buggy without taking Hardy with him. '*I was 
his constant companion and slept in the same room that he did, the 
large room in the middle of the house. The room in which the 
boys slept was on one end of it, and the room in which the senora and 

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her daughters slept, on the other end. A young Indian, I think 
from Sonora, was the family cook.'' 

Of the ancestry of Hon. Miguel Estudillo we mention his grand- 
father, Don Jose A. Estudillo, who was revenue collector and treas- 
urer of San Diego from 1828 to 1830. In 1835 he was a member of 
the territorial deputation — the law-making body of California. 
While a member of the territorial legislature he was offered the 
governorship of California, but refused the honor. From 1840 
to '42 he was justice of the supreme tribunal, and in the last-named 
year he received the grant of the San Jacinto rancho from the 
Mexican government. In 1843 he was administrator of the Mission 
San Luis Rey, and in 1845, judge. In September, 1849, Brigadier 
General Riley of the U. S. army, appointed him judge of the first 
instance for the district of San Diego. January 5, 1852, he was 
elected city treasurer of San Diego, and later elected assessor of 
that county, being the first to hold that office under the American 
regime. His ancestors were military men, his father having been 
captain in the Spanish army. He died in 1853. His son, the father 
of our present senator, also named Jose A. Estudillo, was a land 
owner. His wife was a daughter of Don Louis Robidoux, of whom 
extended mention is made in this history by Hon. E. W. Holmes. 

Jose G. Estudillo, an uncle, still living, was state treasurer of 
California, 1876 to '80, prior to which he was treasurer of San 
Diego for twelve years. 


A capable business woman as well as a consistent and prac- 
tical Christian, Mrs. Camp enjoys the highest regard of her many 
friends in Wildomar, where she has made lier home for the past 
nine years, her beautiful ranch of nine acres ranking among the 
most valuable in that section. A native of Indiana, her birth hav- 
ing occurred in Decatur county, at the age of four years she moved 
to Richland county, 111., with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Lytle, 
natives of Ohio and Indiana, respectively. 

An active member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Mrs. 
Cam{) maintains a deep interest in both religious and educational 
enterprises, her work in behalf of the Christian Orphans' Home 
being worthy, of special mention. 

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i»'-**'^t ill it^ inal-'r; i' „ ;.'!./! i]i':<' : 

lii.U^i '-ItaL-M'ti'i' of its < 'I'p, hnt l**•^^ .■ * • 

'.t ill'' 1 i'-i(l*-!irt' i{[ \\*\ r A'n\ not *-\r(". : ' 

yt'.'w •., tiu' A i^'ihlf .-"I. I '•'- of Ills .'.\" f , 

l«'hL' reu'i,.!!, iH'caii-.' !i. tl .'• the estiu't*" .* i - 
;n!; l)it|..|('.l. It i- I' .' ' t: • tl-at we i]r^\ .' • - - 

-Ill '♦' h*' l^ irone ^ve I' ;, \ of hi HI \vi :.! • - ■ - 

wt'i" ;t.;ve, (it^iiy u- t' < • ■-■."»' ot -;i\^' ;. '. ' 

tw vlu Mtis ill all tic * '; - .if life. : ' * 

^<fii'<*tiini- i'lrcMl ill ;i . ' •<■ le woul^l. v, *■ <■ 

in. i-t, iMt I tleiniir ^*'fi ^ our eiilo.u} ; »■ • • 

ot ill- {<uial> and v ' ■->ociates, l>n» • 

nunii't'* vvlio wore :i. ' ,•!<•>• dnrin^ th*- ' ' 

lU'vs Iilf. 'mH <muI- j ' ords in piai-*' . . • 

they n ;:l . \ ' ..•• * 'j; th(^ iM-^t .,>t ' ' 

Iie-spirit« -; ■' city It;'- ^ • < ■ 

()^^ n, Jn-ti' ■ < tion <l*'r-> , - : • ' 
Mr. Iiuni-i . 

X. v., June J., - . ■ ' •' ' 

(Marie) Hiirn.-'" . * • .- •■ . 

eliiMhood in In- - -*.'.■■ 

York, \vii<M*e Ih- i • •• • '■ ^ ^ <. , 

taine<l. His tii'.-* ■ • ''■»■: •■• } :o\ ^ 

in a New Voi'k ;. ; • . i..\^ !• u.-.' of 

niethotl.s wliicli ^• •" W'i "i u-. iit 

t\veniy-f(Uir y<*ar- ■ i •. .'. i.'." t-.*- 

en*^a.ii-e<l in the ]>./: • ., • . . . i,.}-! ol' : ■ ' 

city for thirty \vr . < - 'm1 (»! i; - ■ . • ^ 

so many of tin* l»« ' * * - Mr., .I'nl civi* 

ani})h» evidence th.;; ■ ..liities >(» >tronirA " 

residence in Kixei--. ■ .' e characteri /.eil !.,•■ * 

not often that a c.i • -<> iMi^y in l)nildiiii' 

(enterprise i^ d"Ls|»(*-« < . v( ^i; nm.'!, of h'.^ 1 1 

and i^diicioiis dnlic- • • i appears that w'.n •. •' 

lon^ the chair-man ' "' • Ne(*utive l)()ard> oi ? .c I-- 

for the Insane an 1 > ' • \\'(*-tern l\'nn>> t- ... • i " 

al^o a member of t' •- ; itri«'if)al rjea<i:ui' and o' *' •' '■ 

besides takin<i: an a- i interest in rna7i>- *!|l'i ; ' • • ' 

wlii(di the people t'l' i • 'ty were carrying- t .' \ ••: ^ .. 

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There have been many citizens of Riverside whose vital in- 
terest in its material growth and adornment has won for them the 
regard of all, and many who have sought to aid in maintaining the 
high character of its citizenship, but few indeed have there been 
who have helped more than has C. E. Rumsey. Although the period 
of his residence in Riverside did not extend over a long series of 
years, the visible monuments of his love for the beautiful will 
long remain, because in them the esthetic and practical are so hap- 
pily blended. It is too rarely that we find in the successful business 
world men who win by following implicitly the golden rule, and 
since he is gone we may say of him what his modesty would, if he 
were alive, deny us the pleasure of saying, that he sincerely strove 
to do this in all the affairs of life. That he made mistakes and 
sometimes erred in judgment he would, with characteristic candor, 
insist, and demur strongly at our eulogy ; but not only the members 
of his family and nearest associates, but every one of the vast 
number who were in his employ during the long years of his busi- 
ness life, will endorse our words in praise of a citizen whose loss 
they mutually mourn. Among the best of the many loyal and pub- 
lic-spirited citizens which our city has been proud to claim as her 
own, justice as well as affection demands that we should rank 
Mr. Rumsey. 

Mr. Rumsey was born at Eastchester, Westchester county, 
N. Y., June 22, 1844. His parents were Thomas 0. and Matilda 
(Earle) Rumsey, both being natives of that state. He spent his 
childhood in his native town, going in his youth to the city of New 
York, where his education and first business experience were ob- 
tained. His first training in business was gained as an employe 
in a New York packing house, where he was given a knowledge of 
methods which were of value to him in his later life. When about 
twenty-four years of age he went to Pittsburg, Pa., where he 
engaged in the manufacture of biscuits. He was a resident of that 
city for thirty years, and the record of his connection there with 
so many of the benevolent, church and civic organizations furnish 
ample evidence that the qualities so strongly manifested during bis 
residence in Riverside have characterized him through life. It is 
not often that a citizen so busy in building up a great business 
enterprise is disposed to give so much of his time and energy to civic 
and religious duties, but it appears that while in Pittsburg he was 
long the chairman of the executive boards of the Dixmont Hospital 
for the Insane and of the Western Pennsylvania Hospital, and was 
also a member of the Municipal League and of the Duquesne Club, 
besides taking an active interest in many other public enterprises 
which the people of the city were carrying forward, in some cases 

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liimself taking the initiative in such work. He also served as an 
elder in the First Presbyterian Church of Pittsburg. In 1898 he 
j'esided in Cliicago, where he remained until his removal to River- 
'side in 1900. 

The many years of his strenuous business life had at last made 
it necessary for him to surrender active participation in the affairs 
of the National Biscuit Company he had done so much to establish, 
and finally to seek recreation and rest in the genial climate of 
Southern California. But with improved health, and the oppor- 
tunity for undertaking a new line of work exceedingly attractive 
to one of his temperament, it was natural that he should shortly 
decide to purchase property here and proceed to improve it on lines 
of beauty and profit. The writer was struck with the explanation 
he once gave for selecting Riverside rather than some other attrac- 
tive spot for the scene of his new home-making, saying that it 
combined not only the common advantages of beautiful surround- 
ings and climate possessed by its neighbors, but it was not yet the 
resort of the merely idle rich, and possessed a class of every-day 
American citizens, intelligent and moral, who were engaged in pro- 
viding themselves with conditions to make it an ideal home city. 
To desire to help in such a work was natural to him. He purchased 
first a ten-acre orange grove on Victoria avenue, and proceeded to 
study the best means by which it could be made one of the most 
attractive as well as one of the most profitable in the entire city. 
That he succeeded is indicated by the fact that it has long been one 
of the show places in the valley, and that his honest business 
methods have given the fruit he shipped under the '*Alta Cresta" 
brand a standing inferior to none in the great markets of the 

Regaining his health in the stimulating out-of-door life he 
came to love, he could not rest content with the limited task which 
he had at first set himself and appreciating the opportunity which 
the undeveloped slopes of the hills presented, acquired many tracts 
which he soon transformed from brush and boulder-strewn spots 
into rose-bordered orange groves. Amid these, on the elevated 
l^ortions, building sites were set apart, with graded approaches, 
and along the roadways were tastefully planted rare shrubs and 
flowers to make delightful the home that ultimately should find an 
occupant. Altogether almost two hundred acres were reclaimed by 
him from their wild condition, and this self-assumed task was 
always a most congenial one to him, and gave him a reward in the 
beauty developed far greater than the pleasure of the material suc- 
cess won. To feel that he had transformed the desert and helped to 
make California more beautiful was to him a continual source of 
pleasure. This work indicates the union of the artistic and the 
practical in his nature, and suggests the means by which the 

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**Alta Cresta" groves, and the brands which bear that name in 
the markets, have won the reputation they hold. . Honesty, thor- 
oughness and good taste ever marked his efforts. 

To a man of Mr. Rumsey's temperament and training it was 
impossible, when he felt the renewing of health and strength due 
to his enjoyable out-of-door life, to abstain from participation in 
the public work in which his neighbors desired him to share. He 
associated himself with the Riverside Chamber of Commerce and 
ultimately became a director and president, in which position he 
aided in many efforts to make the city more beautiful and attrac- 
tive. He was early a member of the Y. M. C. A. and aided with 
his advice and means in enlarging its usefulness, filling for a 
considerable period the position of president. He associated early 
with the Calvary Presbyterian Church and served it faithfully as 
an elder. Proud of the services of his ancestors in the Revolution- 
ary war, he held a membership in the American Sons of the Revolu- 
tion. Naturally he was a Republican in his political affiliations and 
loyal to the principles of that party, but showed a liberal disposi- 
tion upon local issues. 

While in Riverside Mr. Rumsey took a deep interest in the in- 
digenous race whose remnants still occupy the reservations in 
this section, and finally came to join with his wife in the study of 
their handiwork, the result of which has been the amassing of one 
of the finest selections of basket work to be found in Southern 
California. His interest in this department, and indeed in all lines 
connected with the history and beautifying of the section, made 
the last years of his life here enjoyable and helpful to all who 
were associated with him. 

Mr. Rumsey was married on April 15, 1874, at No. 4 East 
Forty-first street. New York City, to Miss Mary Elizabeth, daughter 
of Walter Kellogg and Martha Louisa Marvin, all life-long residents 
of that city. The union proved a most happy one; the wife ever 
interested and helpful in his work, and sjonpathizing fully in those 
generous actions which helped to make their home the center of a 
happy circle of friends and neighbors. Mrs. Rumsey survives her 
husband, who passed away February 25, 1911, and is carrying for- 
ward the splendid work he inaugurated here. 


One of the best known and most successful business men of San 
Jacinto was the late J. W. Ryan, who served for over twelve year? 
as city treasurer and who also served as a notary public and carried 

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on a thriving business in furniture, his executive ability enabling 
him to manage with ease the many duties that constituted his daily 
labors. He was born in Ireland, October 31, 1843, and was brought 
to the United States by his parents (both natives of that country) 
in 1851, settling in Warren, Ohio, where they died and where he 
attended the common schools and grew to manhood. 

In July, 1861, Mr. Ryan enlisted in Company K, Sixty-eighth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and .with his regiment was assigned to the 
Seventeenth Army Corps. He participated in many engagements 
and skirmishes, among them the siege of Vicksburg, when the fort 
surrendered; the battles of the Atlanta campaign, Jonesboro, and 
was with Sherman in his march to the sea, through Richmond, Va., 
and, May 24, 1865, participated in the grand review at Washington, 
D. C. He was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 10, 1865, and 
honorably discharged at Cleveland, Ohio. 

Upon returning to his home, Mr. Ryan took a business course 
and later opened a grocery store at Cardington, Ohio, successfully 
conducting the business for twenty years, and was united in mar- 
riage with Electa White, who died in California; they reared two 
adopted children. Upon disposing of his business in 1887, Mr. Ryan 
removed to San Jacinto, Cal., and, purchasing a furniture business 
from his brother, was engaged in that line and built up a very suc- 
cessful trade, until his sudden death from heart failure, April 17, 
1912, since which time the business has been carried on by his widow 
and his son. As he prospered he erected a brick business block and 
later a frame building adjoining, now occupied as a telephone ex- 
change, as well as two substantial residences, and materially aided 
in the general development of the community. 

In 1892 occurred the marriage of J. W. Ryan and Miss Libbie 
Ackerman, a native of Pike, Wyoming county, N. Y., and who 
shared with him the esteem and good will of the community. Their 
only son, Walter J., is a graduate of the San Jacinto high school, 
class of 1912, and is early adapting himself to a business career. 

A Republican in politics, Mr. Ryan was a delegate to several 
county conventions, and for four years held the office of justice of 
the peace. He served continuously as city treasurer after the in- 
corporation of San Jacinto, with the exception of the first six 
months. He was a member of the G. A. R. until the post disbanded, 
after which it devolved upon him to take charge of Memorial Day 
exercises. He was a member and past grand of San Jacinto Lodge 
No. 383, I. 0. 0. F., of which he was treasurer from its organization 
until his death, and was a member of the Rebekahs, of which lodge 
Mrs. Ryan is a member and has filled several offices in the order 
and is past noble grand. As a man and citizen Mr. Ryan was pub- 

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lie spirited, eager and willing to aid all movements for the building 
up of the town and county and by his sterling qualities endeared 
himself to all with whom he had social or business relations, and 
at his passing San Jacinto lost one of her most energetic supporters 
and business men and his family a loving husband and father. 


A short distance from the shores of Lake Ontario and in close 
proximity also to the islands whose picturesque scenery have given 
fame to the St. Lawrence river, the Knight family lived and labored 
for several generations and earned their livelihoods mainly through 
the tilling of the soil near Kingston in Frontenac county on the 
Canadian side of the water. A soil none too fertile and a climate 
none too genial developed within them powers of courage, perse- 
verance and endurance, but proved obstacles of such power that 
attainment of worldly wealth was impossible and a continuous 
struggle was necessary in order to provide the necessities of 
existence. Into such surroundings Stephen Knight was born in 
1853 and such also were the early associations of his wife, Mar- 
garet; nor did their circumstances change with their marriage. 
The most indefatigable exertion was necessary in order to provide 
for their family. It was finally decided to remove to Southern Cal- 
ifornia and in 1888 the family settled in Riverside. Besides the 
subject of this sketch the children in the parental family were 
James S., rancher; Bessie, Annie and John F., all residents of 
Riverside, and the youngest a native of this city. The mother of 
these children died at the family home in Riverside in November, 

The first business in which Stephen Knight became interested 
was the management of a livery barn, which he bought and con- 
ducted at Riverside. After conducting the business with fair success 
he disposed of it and from that time until 1901 he carried on a 
hardware store in this city. Upon selling out his stock of goods he 
turned his attention to the feed and fuel business and remained so 
engaged until November, 1907, the date of his death. During the 
years of his residence in this city he won many warm friends and 
recognition as a business man of high character and upright prin- 
ciples. Movements for local advancement met his ardent support 

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and he proved himself to be progressive and public-spirited in civic 

Herbert D. Knight was bom in Kingston, Canada, in August, 
1882, and therefore was just ready to enter public school when the 
family settled in Riverside. After his school days were over he 
began to serve an apprenticeship to the plumber's trade, at the 
age of eighteen years, and continued at the same until he had 
acquired a thorough mastery of all details, when he began to work 
for wages. Continued experience increased his skill in the occu- 
pation and now he ranks as one of the most capable plumbers in 
the county. During August of 1907 he became a member of the firm 
of Potter & Knight and has since built up a large business in 
apparatus for plumbing, heating and ventilating, besides taking 
contracts for such work. Various substantial and elegant residences 
have been piped under his supervision and in every instance the 
owners have expressed satisfaction with the character of the work, 
whether in the line of plumbing or in the equipment for heating. 
Ever since he started out to learn the trade he has been so deeply 
engrossed with his chosen occupation that he has had no leisure 
for participation in public affairs nor has he taken part in any 
fraternal activities, aside from those connected with the local lodge, 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. In the 
circle of young people he enjoys enviable popularity and among all 
ages and every class he has a large number of well-wishers who 
have witnessed with interest his energetic and capable application 
to business. 


It is scarcely possible to overestimate the value of thorough 
preparation for life's activities and particularly is this true when 
the ambitions turn toward one of the professions. In these special- 
ties, whose representatives almost invariably are men of profound 
thought and trained reasoning faculties, the untrained and unpre- 
pared find no opportunity for advancement in a struggle that calls 
for the greatest skill of the educated. It was the good fortune of 
Mr. French to secure thorough preparatory training in his youth. 
His own diligence in study and the interest in his progress mani- 
fested by his father were the principal factors in his intellectual 
growth. The years of study qualified him for the responsibilities of 
the world and since he embarked in law practice he has enjoyed 
a gratifying degree of success in the profession. 

The French family is of eastern colonial extraction. Charles 0., 

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father of George A., was born at Williston, Chittenden county, Vt., 
February 24, 1839, and in early years became a resident of Burling- 
ton, Vt., where he enjoyed excellent advantages. After his graduation 
from the University of Vermont he embarked in business for 
himself and for some time he was proprietor of a book and sta- 
tionery store, but this he sold in 1876 in order to enter upon larger 
activities. With his removal to New York City began his entrance 
into a general publishing business, and for some years he met with 
a slow but steady growth in commercial success and built up a plant 
of considerable importance in the metropolis. Meanwhile from 1882 
until 1887 he served as president of the Dolores Valley Mining 
Company. Upon his retirement in 1910 from the publishing business 
he came to California and since then has resided with his son in 

Among the children of Charles 0. and Mary H. French there 
was a son, George A., whose birth occurred at Burlington, Chitten- 
den county, Vt., July 5, 1868, and whose primary education was 
obtained in the city schools. During the year 1880 he was sent to 
the St. Paul's private school in Concord, N. H., and there he 
remained until his graduation in 1886. Next he entered Trinity 
College at Hartford, Conn., from which he was graduated in 
1889 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Three years later his 
alma mater conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts. 
Entering the law department of Columbia University in New York 
City during the fall of 1890, he remained in that institution dur- 
ing the winter term and took the preparatory course of lectures. In 
1891 he matriculated in the New York Law School, from which he 
received the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1892. The superior 
court granted him the right to practice before the bar of that 
state and with this groundwork of preparation he entered upon 
professional activities. 

The need existing for a more healthful climatic environment 
brought Mr. French to California in 1896 and led him to relinquish 
his professional work temporarily for outdoor life, his first home 
in the west being upon a farm of about two hundred acres in 
Riverside county. The entire tract was under cultivation to grain 
with the exception of twenty acres in olives. After three years on 
the ranch in 1899 he moved into Riverside and resumed the practice 
of law, which he still continues. In addition he serves as judge of 
the police court, having been first appointed to the office in 1907 
under the administration of Mayor S. C. Evans. In January, 1910, he 
was again chosen to fill the position and on January 1, 1912, received 
the re-appointment by Mayor W. L. Peters. At the time of coming 
west he was unmarried, July 25, 1899, he married Miss Alice Lin- 
denberger of Winchester, daug:hter of Hon. F. T. Lindenberger, who 
represented this district in the state legislature during the season 

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of 1897. The family of Mr. and Mrs. French comprises three 
children: Dorothy E., Mary H., and Charles Oliver, pupils in the 
])ublic school. The family are Episcopalians in religious faith. 
In politics Mr. French sui)ports Republican principles. Numerous 
organizations, social and fraternal, number him among their prom- 
inent members, this list including the New England College Club, 
the College Men's Association of Southern California, the National 
Geographic Society, Psi Upsilon Fraternity, Royal Arcanum and 
Independent Order of Foresters. 


The managing editor of the Riverside Daily Press since 1894 
has been E. P. Clarke, who was born in Maine and educated 
at the Maine Wesleyan Seminary, Kent's Hill, Me., and at the 
Wesleyan Univ^ersity, Middletown, Conn., graduating from college 
in 1885. For several months following his graduation Mr. Clarke 
was on the United States Geological Survey in Maine and New 
Hampshire. Coming to California just before the end of the year, 
he joined his brother, A. F. Clarke, in starting the Ontario Record, 
now the Ontario Daily Report, continuing to edit this paper until 
his removal to Riverside. 

Outside of his heavy editorial duties Mr. Clarke has found 
time to contribute occasionally to the Sunset Magazine, Pacific 
Monthly and the Overland. He has also done considerable work as 
a lecturer to teachers' institutes and before women's clubs. Since 
1900 he has been a member of the board of managers of the South- 
ern California State Hospital for the Insane at Patton and for 
the most part of that time served as chairman of the board. Mr. 
Clarke has been prominent in the progressive political movement 
in California, and is a member of the Republican state committee. 
He was prominently discussed as a candidate for congress in 1912, 
but declined to allow his name to be used. Some years ago he spent 
one session of congress in Washington as private secretary to 
Congressman S. C. Smith, in order to familiarize himself with the 
work of that congress and the departments in Washington. 

Mr. Clarke is one of the directors of the Riverside Y. M. C. A. 
and served for ten years as president of the organization. He is an 
active member of the Methodist Church and was a delegate to the 
General Conference at Minneapolis, Minn., in 1912. 

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i>\ ls.")4, John J. Hewitt h<M*anM^ '..i •• • 
i.f Ojrle eonnty. He w^a> the lir.^t 
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baikel in a (Hmnnert»ial eiiteri>ri ** h . 
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nit died before he had eomf>ht»Ml t'.** -. ■ < * 
the -vork and used it for hotel j»im*|m*m'. . In i^ ■ : 
!:otei. wiiich is still in operatitin. In the fall of ! - '■ 
and in Montg(Hii(M'y, Ala., in\'este<i -ibont $50,1**1' 
tions, hiring n*»groes to do the work and payi..^ » . 
^a^'-o. The business was not \*-!y -..j*-,' - >• . ': ■■ 
tained his interest tluM'e until 1"^7*J, v. i.. r ■ 
ruary of \Hi\H he opened tht^ I'apK of For* 
until 1S7'J, when he dispos^^d of ins stoeK in * 
l^Si he fstnbli-^hed the Fanner^' and Tra«- 
an<l wa- chtj^^en pre^ident of the sain*'. Owr..^ i 
came t<» California in the fall of 18^1 and trju* n . . 
until eai'lv in 1S82, wdien he arrived at Piv fr-'ic . . 
the town suited him and at once he ]>urcl:;iMd | -op^-rt; 
the homestead owned by him until his denoM . 

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From an early period in the commercial development of River- 
side np to the present time the name of Hewitt has been intimately 
identified with horticultural, business and financial undertakings, 
and it would be a diflScult task to find any family more worthy than 
they of representation in the annals of the county. The founder of 
the family in the west was the late John J. Hewitt, bom in Franklin 
county, Pa., February 15, 1828, and educated in the public schools 
of that county. Ill health prevented him from completing the reg- 
ular course of study. During 1848 he went to Chicago and secured 
employment as clerk in the National hotel. Removing to Ogle 
county. 111., in the sunamer of 1849, he bought one-half interest in 
a yoke of oxen and began to break prairie. Before the close of the 
first season he had purchased the claim of his partner and also 
had bought another team. In the fall he sold both teams and went 
to Kentucky, where he bought tobacco, shipping it by river to 
Pittsburg, where he sold the entire shipment at a fair profit. After 
six months spent in the business he returned to Franklin county 
and from there went to Washington county, Md., where he engaged 
in teaching school, and remained there until he relinquished teach- 
ing for mercantile affairs. 

Joining a brother and his father at Forreston, 111., in the fall 
of 1854, John J. Hewitt became identified with the business growth 
of Ogle county. He was the first buyer and shipper of grain in 
Porreston, beginning in the winter of 1854- '55, after which he em- 
barked in a commercial enterprise which was sold the next year. 
In 1855 his brother, Theodore, began to build the Central hotel, 
but died before he had completed the structure. John J. finished 
the work and used it for hotel purposes. In 1858 he built another 
hotel, which is still in operation. In the fall of 1865 he went south 
and in Montgomery, Ala., invested about $50,000 in cotton planta- 
tions, hiring negroes to do the work and paying them regular day's 
wages. The business was not very successful but Mr. Hewitt re- 
tained his interest there until 1872, when he sold out. During Feb- 
ruary of 1868 he opened the Bank of Forreston, and this he operated 
until 1872, when he disposed of his stock in the concern. In June of 
1880 he established the Farmers' and Traders' Bank of Forreston 
and was chosen president of the same. Owing to impaired health he 
came to California in the fall of 1881 and traveled through the state 
until early in 1882, when he arrived at Riverside. The location and 
the town suited him and at once he purchased property, establishing 
the homestead owned by him until his demise. 

From the first John J. Hewitt was prominent in affairs tending 


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to promote civic progress. When the First National Bank was or- 
ganized he became a director and continued in that position for 
years. In 1890 he was chosen to succeed Mr. Naftzger as president 
of the bank and that position he filled with marked success, until 
his death. With other progressive citizens he founded the Southern 
California Fruit Exchange and his helpfulness to the city was 
further enhanced by his association with the syndicate that built the 
first railroad into Riverside. As a financier he possessed remark- 
able capabilities. On the organization of the Riverside Savings 
Bank he aided in placing the concern upon a solid basis and in 
establishing it in the confidence of the people. Besides all of his 
other enterprises he was president of the Keeley Institute, and was 
the founder of the branches in Southern California and managed all 
of the branches on the coast. After a period of activity with the 
Arlington Presbyterian Church he and his wife became connected 
with the Calvary congregation, and in his death, which occurred 
September 11, 1900, that religious organization lost one of its most 
generous members and sagacious leaders. For years he also con- 
tributed generously to the Young Men's Christian Association of 
Riverside. He was a hard worker for the temperance cause and 
before the county was organized lent valuable aid to the leader to 
have Riverside created as a temperance county. While he did not 
take any part in politics he was stanch in his allegiance to the Re- 
publican party. In Illinois he became the first clerk of Forreston 
township upon its organization. 

The first marriage of John J. Hewitt took place in Ogle county, 
111., January 15, 1857, and united him with Miss Susan Emerick, by 
whom he had four children: ^merick B., who died aged twenty-one 
years ; Grace, Mrs. O. E. Rosenstiel, of Freeport, 111. ; Theodore D., 
of Riverside, and Philo, who died in infancy. Mrs. Hewitt died 
while yet in the prime of life. The second marriage of Mr. Hewitt 
took place in Freeport, 111., December 3, 1872, and united him 
with Miss Martha E. Hutchison. The eldest of the two children of 
this marriage is Buelah Woods, wife of Dr. William Wallace Rob- 
lee of Riverside ; they are the parents of three sons and two daugh- 
ters, Milo Hewitt, William Wallace, Jr., Abigail, Ralph Woods and 
Frances. Ethel Milroy married G. C. Dennis, and they with their 
four sons, Guy Hewitt, Charles Milroy, George Theodore and Rob- 
ert Eugene, are residents of Los Angeles. 

Mrs. Hewitt, who is a descendant of ancestors of Revolutionary 
fame, is a native of Center county. Pa. She was educated at Olome 
Institute at Canonsburg, that state. Her father, George W. Hutch- 
ison, died when she was a small child and her mother, Nancy M., 
became the wife of W. W. Smythe and the family removed to Illi- 
nois in 1864 and settled in Freeport, in which city she was mar- 
ried to Mr. Hewitt. For two years thereafter they lived in For- 

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reston, after which they returned to Freeport and made their home 
until coming to California. Mrs. Hewitt has been very active in the 
civic development of Riverside and was the founder and is still a 
member of the Woman's club. For years she was active in W. C. 
T. U. circles and it was mainly through her energies that when the 
county was created it came in as a prohibition county. For twelve 
years she has been president and an energetic worker in the 
woman's auxiliary of the Y. M. C. A. Ever since becoming a 
resident of Riverside she has been a prominent worker in the 
Presbyterian church and its societies. No woman has been a more 
interested observer or more zealous worker in the general devel- 
opment and moral uplift of the citizens of the county than has Mrs. 


Years have come and gone since the death of James D. Clapp, 
but so well had he lived and so thoroughly had he iuipressed his 
personality upon various lines of activity that his accomplishments 
have not been forgotten. He became identified with Riverside at 
an early day, when its present prosperity was undreamed of and 
when settlers were few and improvements lacking. Under these 
conditions he identified himself with fruit-growing interests, and 
at no time did he become discouraged with his undertaking, con- 
tinuing to develop and improve his property from that time until 
Death stilled his hand. 

The ancestry of the Clapp family can be traced to ^^arly New 
England history. Nathan Clapp, the father of James D., was a 
native of Connecticut, where he grew to manhood and later estab- 
lished a home of bis own. When his son J. D. was a child of two 
years the family home was transferred to York, Livingston county, 
N. Y., where his boyhood was passed. The time and place were 
conductive to obtaining only the most meager opportunities for 
an education, but notwithstanding this, by diligence and deter- 
mination he acquired an excellent education. Several institutions 
contributed to this end, but none more than the Wyoming (N. Y.) 
Academy, an institution well known in that day. For a time after 
leaving the academy he taught penmanship in Temple Hill Acad- 
emy, at Genesee, N. Y., but after giving up this position he turned 
his attention to mercantile pursuits. The breaking out of the 
Civil war about this time made him ambitious to join the ranks and 
assist in maintaining his coimtry's honor, but ill-health prevented 
this. During the period of the war he was making his home in 
Hazel Green, Delaware county, Iowa, but subsequently he returned 

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to New York, settling on a farm in Livingston county. Deriving 
no benefit from the change of location, he determined to come to 
California in the hope that the balmy air and sunshine would 
restore his health. Coming to Riverside in the year 1871, he 
soon began to see a change for the better, a circumstance that 
naturally attracted him to the place, and he determined to make 
it his permanent home. His foresight as to the future of the 
locality proved well founded, for he lived to see it grow from an 
undeveloped country to be one of the best-known fruit sections of 
America, and he also had the personal satisfaction of knowing 
that he had taken an active part in bringing about these conditions. 
Upon coming to Riverside he bought twenty acres of land on 
Brockton avenue, which he set out to oranges and other fruits. 
Later, in 1880, he purchased two and a half acres on Ninth street 
that was sold by his daughter to the city a year ago. Here his last 
days were spent and here he passed away March 23, 1896, when in 
his seventy-ninth year. Conservatism and good judgment may be 
given as the keynotes to the success that came to him in his various 
enterprises. During his entire business career he never showed 
the recklessness of investment so common in this day and genera- 
tion. On the other hand he was very conservative, and so accurate 
was his judgment that he rarely had cause to deviate from his 
decision. Public life had no attractions for him, but he was a 
stanch Republican and always supported party men and meas- 
ures. The Congregational Church of Riverside benefited by his 
membership and support, and many charities and private individ- 
uals were recipients of his benefactions. 

Mr. Clapp's marriage, in Livingston county, N. Y., united him 
with Miss Mary Jane Dodge, who was born in that county the 
daughter of John Dodge, a volunteer in the war of 1812 who had 
moved there from New England and settled on a farm. Mr. Dodge 
was one of three county school visitors (a position corresponding to 
that of county school superintendent of the present day) and filled 
the office without remuneration, considering it a privilege to thus 
help this community. He was born in Wardsborough, Windham 
county, Vt., October 24, 1784, and died in York, N. Y., April 30, 
1853, when sixty-eight years old. Mrs. Clapp was educated in 
the public schools of her home county and in Rochester Female 
Seminary, after which for a time she taught school in New York. 
After the death of her husband she continue to reside in the old 
homestead, until her death, which occurred November 9, 1902. 
This was also the home of her only daughter, Helen E., until her 
marriage to S. G. Ames, of San Diego. A niece of Mrs. Clapp, Miss 
Nancy M. Burt, has been a member of the household ever since she 
accompanied the family to California. She is at present residing 
at No. 992 Mulberry street. Riverside. 

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Frnid 1<>7 to IS'iu Ml. Hill vw- . 

dent HiH-'KUian, and ul'^'i \]->iA .•• 

l(\i.^al affair-. He wa< ari «\: :.> - 

and intei'o^ted in mam \»'nr ;r*-. 

nH'tliods an<l the mpdjlr moj i "<■' .... 

i»pnu'rits that havf t'» d- "^m*- iI- ".'ii..-t r ]'■ ' 

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of his e<)?nniun;t y. lU* ^. i - cd iii.«. .-.w.^titueney in f- ' 

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in niarriau:e \^ith M'-s Addit- Myri<n. > - '• 

litt.'e more than fil'> \«'ar> «d' wed<K^-i 
to rhvrn, Mareia Hva, who dif^l in <..• 
pa-Ntd away in liiv(*rside, Cal.. i^i : 
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in Mair}t\ crossing: the contiiUMd *''''j:^ '• 
of t!>'' Knights Ten!]>lar degree and a •■ < 
(MuimIi, and in poIiti<»s a Demoerat. 

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In the death of S. L. Hill, who passed away December 18, 1909, 
Riverside lost a man of worth and ability, who, although never ac- 
tively identified with business affairs in his adopted city, was ever 
loyal to her and aided all movements for her advancement. He 
began spending his winters here in 1888, returning to Maine for 
the rest of the season until 1900, and thereafter lived retired in 
Riverside, enjoying the fruits of his former labors in his native 
state, Maine, where, in Minot, Androscoggin county, he was born 
August 31, 1820. His father was Jacob Hill, one of the active at- 
torneys and business men of Portland, Me., where he was editor of 
the Portland Advertiser for some time. His mother was Marcia 
Lobdell in maidenhood. The family were lineal descendants from 
Governor Bradford of the Pilgrim forefathers. 

After his earlier boyhood Mr. Hill took the preparatory course 
of the old Portland (Me.) Academy and then, in 1840, entered Bow- 
doin College, where he pursued his studies sufficiently for the re- 
quirements of his chosen profession. He then read law in the 
office of his father and was admitted to the bar in Lincoln county, 
later segregated as Androscoggin county, of which he was appointed 
the first register of probate in 1854 and where he was a man of 
prominence for many years. In 1841 he removed to Webster, the 
same county, and resided there until his removal to California. 
From 1857 to 1860 Mr. Hill was postmaster of Webster under Presi- 
dent Buchanan, and after that devoted his time to his business and 
legal affairs. He was an extensive owner of real estate in Webster 
and interested in many ventures. He was a man of exact business 
methods and the capable proprietor of water power and mill devel- 
opments that have to do with the industries of a New England 
village. He was public spirited, planning and laboring for the good 
of his community. He served his constituency in the Maine legisla- 
ture and was a steady supporter of Lincoln's Union policies. 

In Providence, R. I., February 8, 1859, Mr. Hill was united 
in marriage with Miss Addie Myrick, with whom he passed just a 
little more than fifty years of wedded life. Two children were born 
to them, Marcia Eva, who died in early life, and Mary A. M., who 
passed away in Riverside, Cal., in 1891. After first coming to 
Riverside he and his wife made many trips back to their old home 
in Maine, crossing the continent eighteen times. He was a Mason 
of the Knights Templar degree and a member of the Congregational 
Church, and in politics a Democrat. 

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Few citizens of Riverside county have taken a more active 
part in the development of the San Jacinto and Perris valleys than 
has Mr. Mil liken, a man of exceptional attainments and conserva- 
tive business judgment, well known throughout the county as the 
former efficient editor and proprietor of the Hemet News, and now 
a resident of Perris, where he is editor and proprietor of the 
Perris Progress. 

Mr. Milliken's birth occurred February 8, 1849, in New York 
City. His parents, who were natives of Scotland, moved to New 
York state about sixty-five years ago. Upon completion of his 
public school studies and his graduation from the grammar school in 
New York, the son took a course in Nugent 's College, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., and later he entered the College of the City of New York 
in 1863, graduating five years later in the class of 1868 with the 
degree of A. B., and receiving also the second prize in mathematics, 
as well as being chosen to deliver the third honorary oration. The 
graduating exercises were held in the Academy of Music, New York 
City. In October, 1868, Mr. Milliken came to San Francisco and 
shortly thereafter was appointed tutor in mathematics in Union 
College, an Episcopal school. He gave private instruction also and 
for several years served as principal teacher in the Presbyterian 
Mission school. After continuing his professional duties for several 
years he became an accountant in the employ of the L. P. Fisher 
advertising agency. In 1878 he accepted a position in the business 
department of the San Francisco Bulletin, a service which he con- 
tinued for many years. Subsequently he became business manager 
of the San Francisco Evening Post, later returning to the employ 
of the San Francisco Bulletin and continuing with that paper until 
his removal to Winchester, Cal., in 1889. Previous to his removal 
he had purchased land there, and for the following ten years he 
devoted it to grain raising. In 1893 he assisted in the organization 
of Riverside county and contributed in many ways to the progress 
of this section, serving also from 1894 to 1898 as deputy county 
assessor. In 1893 he was chosen director of the San Jacinto and 
Pleasant Valley Irrigation district and for a term held the 
position of secretary and superintendent of that corporation, 
besides serving as secretary and director of the Florida Water 
Company, with offices at Valle Vista. In 1896 he was elected justice 
of the peace of Diamond township, Riverside county, and resigned 
in 1899 to enter newspaper work. In March of that year he leased 
the Hemet News, which he subsequently purchased, acquiring the 

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site also, and later he erected an additional building in which he 
installed new machinery. 

Mr. Milliken is a member of several fraternal lodges, belonging 
to the Masons, Elks, Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. He is 
also a member of the Riverside Commandery, K. T., and is a 
Shriner, belonging to Al Malaikah Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S. 
Politically he is a staunch Republican, and besides taking an active 
part in local affairs in his party, has also served as delegate to 
various county conventions, as well as to state, congressional and 
senatorial conventions. To the Episcopal Church of Ilemet, in 
which he holds membership, he lends material aid, maintaining at 
all times a deep interest in the welfare of his fellow men, and 
through the medium of his paper contributes prompt assistance to 
all worthy ci\ic movements, his courage and progressive spirit 
having won the commendation of the entire community. 


That energy of character and force of will usually bring to 
their fortunate possessor a fair degree of financial success finds 
illustration in the life and activities of Henry T. Parker, president 
of the Newberry-Parker Company and one of the leading business 
men of Riverside. It is not too much to say that the present com- 
mercial standing of the city and its popularity as a trading center 
are due in no small degree to his wise efforts to enlarge the local 
business interests. Side by side with the progress of the company 
has been the development of the civic commercial possibilities until 
now there is a common sentiment of pride concerning the local 
advancement. The leaders of thought and men of sagacity to whose 
united efforts may be attributed the present gratifying condition 
are reaping the reward of their concentrated labors, while in addi- 
tion the entire population enjoys the results of their progressive 

The well-known business man whose name introduces this 
article came to Southern California from Illinois, where he was born 
at Pecatonica, Winnebago county, October 17, 1858, a son of 
George S. Parker. During boyhood he was a pupil in the public 
schools of Rockford, 111., but at the age of eighteen years he relin- 
quished his studies in order to move to the west and enter upon 

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the task of earning his own way in the world. First settling in the 
vicinity of Los Angeles, he assisted an uncle on a ranch. Two years 
later he gave up farm pursuits and entered upon railroading, after 
which for seven years he worked as an engineer with the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company. Desiring an occupation less hazardous, 
he resigned as engineer and settled in Los Angeles, where he 
engaged in general merchandising for nine years. On selling out 
the business he became connected with the Newberry Company, 
wholesale and retail grocers, for whom he acted as manager with 
such sagacity, energy and versatility that he won substantial recog- 
nition. During 1900 he was admitted into partnership with Mr. 
Newberry and four years later he came to Riverside to take charge 
of the branch store at this place. 

Upon the incorporation of the company Mr. Parker was chosen 
to occupy the president's office, which responsible position he has 
filled with conspicuous efficiency. At the time of inaugurating the 
business in Riverside the company occupied one store and employed 
only three men, transacting in the first month business aggregating 
about $1800. At this writing they have three stores and furnish 
steady employment to forty-four persons, carrying on successfully 
a business approximating ten times the* amount of its original 
volume and including a general line of wholesale and retail trade. 
With justice it may be stated that the fine financial standing of 
the company and the large volume of its trade are due in large 
part to its president, who has displayed unusual ability in the 
handling of large enterprises. To him business stagnation is not 
permissable. Progressive policies are pursued in every department 
and his keen vision neglects no detail that will contribute to 

With his mind and energies concentrated upon business affairs, 
Mr. Parker has yet found leisure for participation in the activities 
of various prominent societies, including the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, the Independent Order of Foresters, the Woodmen of 
the World and the Bankers' Association. Although not aggressive 
in political views, he is stanchly Republican in principle and at all 
national elections casts his ballot for the party policies and candi- 
dates. While making his home in Los Angeles he met and married 
Miss Emma Robinson of that city, their union being solemnized in 
1888. They are the parents of three sons. The eldest, Ernest, a 
capable young man of twenty-one years, acts as manager of the 
Newberry-Parker Company. The second son, Irving La Rue, is a 
student in the high school, while the youngest boy, Gail DeWitt, 
now twelve years of age, is a pupil in the grammar schools of 

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u'li m iiiriiiiMirnam, l']n:,'lan*l, Xf) 

. ill- h'i'v. riiarlt^v Hill, a !■ if ♦- '-t' 

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firs 4)1* a^t^ )'apM-i* caiiit- * 
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f tiie Civil war. Tlio father - .- 

:it» of tli(^ Illiaoi- r^i^'niitaits, ai ♦ 
rliarj:(* of lla* Soiitliw(*>t l>»j- 
■ ofiii]U>sion. 

J. II. Hoe was r*^uv««l and > ii* * • i-»nij{^ until !>•'.*»'», 

^ lion lie entored tlie rniversity o»' * , wn- (ii'it;(Mit!y I'ur 

iin<r liis >tiuli(^s in t.-iat instilut'' • -. ^ ■■ ik'wh *uit of t!u* 

' ar induced him to ahandon hi^ ''t*' ■_ * i»d»'i his serv 

1 es ;{N a soldier. In 1>^«^J he ae<'or' . \ ^ . '.r-- 

f iin of th(» Fifty sixth f^e^inient *•*' ' " • f- 't.*. 

. r:d participated in tlie eanipaiuN ' ■!' 

<> 'ueral Hanks, and h'iter was at • • • ■ - 

1 '^rry. In 1H*)4 he was eon.M 
I', One HiHKlred and Tliirty f**..-- 
V rh his eonnnand in Kentiuk\ :» 
- ;u';rc<l at the end of his ten,; ... • • 
\ diversity of Cliieairo, i!;radria'':... ■ 
P'or a time Mr. H(»e served , ■ 

I ')() (^stahliNhed a dru^ store in \' .. i 
<i '**ted until 1H()S, when he movrt! 

ir ired in tlie dru<r hnsin(»ss undtM* \\\ 

e al of his nei^*hhor< were anion:* t!" -.■ •- ■ 

t' rminii' tlie colony at Riverside, I'aL, and he f.i..f. . !- * . -■ 

f *m, comin<^ to i\iO staff* in l-'^?*!. fie purcjia^ed In- '.» \ -.*«■- -. 

f e corner of Riverside an<l C'Mitrad a\'enues. It* I'^Vi ii- .■•."' 

tt ichin.^- in the pnhli<' sc]i(K)]>, and the year f.»' *. . ■ - ' 

t' " Spanisjitown school, north of Riv(M'sl'i*- I . ' • . 

a IniLT store and sueces.-.fnll> condu<ti'd t'* 

y* irs. Mr. Kot* had a love for literatui* 

it , as many of his })oetical elToii^- t- ')• • 

h-al journals and the scrap l)o(»k^ 1* 

w tnesN, and this led him, in 1S7S, t*^ > • 

p: ner in Riverside- -the AVei^klv i'"*- 

tl. • l>ress to L. M. Holt. In l>^sn },, .. 

II nlnian, and forminii: a partnei.-' . ' ',. ••. . 

tl' al j)rinter, purchased the \^alh» I... « I'-le I i.i.r;. 

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One of the earlier settlers in Eiverside, James H. Eoe was 
born in Birmingham, England, November 18, 1843, his parents 
being Eev. Charles Hill, a native of the north of Ireland, and Mary 
(Steadman) Eoe, a native of England. When he was only eight 
years of age his father came to this country, locating in Boone 
county, 111., where he had charge of a church until the breaking out 
of the Ci\dl war. The father was commissioned as a chaplain of 
one of the Illinois regiments, and at the close of the war was put 
in charge of the Southwest Department of the Freedman's Aid 

J. H. Eoe was reared and schooled in Boone county until 1859, 
when he entered the University of Chicago, and was diligently pur- 
suing his studies in that institution when the breaking out of the 
war induced him to abandon his college studies and tender his serv- 
ices as a soldier. In 1862 he accompanied his father, who was chap- 
lain of the Fifty-sixth Eegiment of Illinois Infantry, to the front, 
and participated in the campaign in the Shenandoah valley under 
General Banks, and later was at the siege and surrender of Harper's 
Ferry. In 1864 he was conamissioned a lieutenant in Company 
D, One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Illinois Volunteers, and served 
with his command in Kentucky and Missouri, being honorably dis- 
charged at the end of his term of service. He then re-entered the 
University of Chicago, graduating in 1865. 

For a time Mr. Eoe served as a clerk in a drug store, and in 
1866 established a drug store in Marshalltown, Iowa, which he con- 
ducted until 1868, when he moved to Belle Plaine, Iowa, and en- 
gaged in the drug business under the firm name of Eoe & Co. Sev- 
eral of his neighbors were among those who were interested in 
forming the colony at Eiverside, Cal., and he finally decided to join 
them, coming to the state in 1873. He purchased twenty acres at 
the corner of Eiverside and Central avenues. In 1874 he engaged in 
teaching in the public schools, and the year following had charge of 
the Spanishtown school, north of Eiverside. In 1876 he established 
a drug store and successfully conducted the business for about ten 
years. Mr. Eoe had a love for literature and was a writer of abil- 
ity, as many of his poetical efforts to be found in the files of the 
local journals and the scrap books of his surviving friends bear 
witness, and this led him, in 1878, to start the first successful news- 
paper in Eiverside — the Weekly Press. Two years later he sold 
the Press to L. M. Holt. In 1886 he sold his drug business to J. C. 
Hardman, and forming a partnership with E. J. Pierson, a prac- 
tical printer, purchased the Valley Echo, which he conducted until 

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1888, when a consolidation of all the daily and weekly papers was 
effected, under the firm name of Holmes, Roe & Pierson, and the 
Daily Press and a weekly edition known as the Press and Horticul- 
turist were published, Mr. Roe acting for a time as city editor. 
He finally sold his interest in the newspapers to his partners and 
engaged in the paint and wallpaper business until his death. 

Mr. Roe was conspicuous in school and church work. He was 
a school official and deacon and treasurer of the Baptist church. 
A lover of music, he gave his services in the choirs of the Congre- 
gational and Baptist churches, and was a valued member of the 
pioneer orchestra and choral society. Many of the records of the 
early days were preserved by him, with a view to using them in 
writing a history of the valley, which his death prevented, but many 
of these are being used by E. W. Holmes in his historical narrative 
of Riverside, in this county history. 

Mr. Roe was married in 1870 at Marshalltown, Iowa, to Miss 
Lovina Price, daughter of Owen Price, a well-known Iowa pioneer. 
J. H. Roe died at Riverside August 16, 1900, leaving a wife and 
two children. His daughter, Mary Edna, became the wife of Fred- 
erick Johnson, and ended her earthly pilgrimage March 21, 1907. 
His son, Robert P., is now manager for a transfer company in 
Los Angeles, 


A member of the original Southern California Colony Associa- 
tion the late E. G. Brown, more familiarly known among his friends 
as ** Judge Brown," was born in Franklin county. Me., in 1821. He 
was reared on a farm and educated in the Wesleyan Seminary at 
Readfield, Me., from which he was graduated in 1842, after which he 
went to New York state and was employed as a clerk in the mercan- 
tile business at Palmira and Rochester. Later he established a 
general merchandise business in Elmira, which he conducted suc- 
cessfully for several years. Selling out, he removed to Iowa and in 
Cedar Rapids he engaged in the warehouse and grain business 
under the firm name of S. C. Bearer & Co. In the fall of 1863 Mr. 
Brown sold out and went to Belle Plaine, Iowa, and started up in 
the general merchandise business and remained there until coming 
to California in 1870. 

As one of the original promoters of the Riverside Colony Asso- 
ciation, with the late Dr. Greves, he visited the site where now 
stands the beautiful city of Riverside. This was in June, 1870, 
and they were the first members of the association on the grounds. 

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From the first Mr. Brown was insistent in demanding the pur- 
chase of the land by the association. His persistency was of little 
avail at first, but he was in earnest, and when Judge North, presi- 
dent of the company, refused to act in accordance with his wishes 
in the matter. Judge Brown returned to his home in Iowa and set 
about forming another company with the express purpose of pur- 
chasing the Riverside land. This move hastened the actions of the 
old company and in September of that year the deal was con- 
summated and the colony established. That being the result desired 
Mr. Brown abandoned all further proceedings, never intending or 
desiring a rival to Riverside. He settled his affairs in Iowa and in 
May, 1871, established himself and familj^ in the new colony. He 
located upon government land in sections 13 and 24, securing one 
hundred and four acres Ijdng half a mile north and east of the town 
site of Colton avenue. His means were limited, but he had that 
indomitable courage and energy of the hardy pioneer so character- 
istic of him that the fifty years of his former struggles could not 
abate and he set about improving his new property and making a 
home for his family. His first move was to build a small cabin, 
12x16 feet, then he began clearing the ground and planting trees, 
vines and seeds and entered upon horticultural pursuits early in 
1872. In those days the work was purely experimental, as no one 
knew what kinds of fruits would produce the best results and many 
were the discouragements of the men in their efforts to make a liv- 
ing. He started a small nursery for citrus tree planting. In his 
efforts he was successful and his enterprise gradually increased as 
did his share of this *^ world's goods.'' His orange grove soon 
covered the acreage intended for it and his cabin gave way to a 
more modern structure and that to the home known as the ** Anchor- 
age," where he spent many happy years of his life. His twenty 
acres of oranges was a model grove and there were other varieties 
of fruits on the place besides, the balance being used for general 
farming purposes. 

Judge Brown was always a stanch supporter of all enterprises 
for the building up of Riverside. His time and means were used 
unsparingly to advance interests that made the city what it is today 
and he was permitted to enjoy the fruits of his labors for many 
years. He was highly esteemed by all who knew him. For many 
years he was connected with the Episcopal church and was senior 
warden. He was a Republican and in 1874 was appointed justice of 
the peace and twice re-elected, holding the office until 1880. 

In 1850 occurred the marriage of E. G. Brown and Miss Sarah 
Van Wickle, a native of New York state and descended from Hol- 
land-Dutch ancestors. Though highly connected socially and drawing 
about her the choicest people, yet she shared bravely in the trials 
of pioneer life and was a true helpmate in every sense of the word. 

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They had three children: Settle C, Lyman V. W., and Catherine 
L., who married S. S. Sweet and died in Belle Plaine, Iowa, in 1872. 
During the long years of his residence in Riverside Judge Brown 
endeared himself to his friends by his genial manner and lovable 
disposition. Since his passing yet another of the pioneer spirits 
of the county and state has been missed, for it was to the hardy 
pioneers that California and her present inhabitants are indebted 
for the congenial home we all are permitted to enjoy, made so by 
the courage of the **men who dared. ^^ 


Possessing the qualities of perseverance and manliness charac- 
teristic of the New Englander, Mr. Thayer has made an unqualified 
success of the battle of life. A veteran of the Civil war, he is one 
of the oldest members of Riverside Post No. 118, G. A. R. His 
birth occurred March 14, 1840, in Weymouth, Mass., his father, 
Nicholas Thayer, who was a native of Braintree, Mass., being a 
descendant of John Alden, famed in the Courtship of Miles 
Standish, and who, as we all know, honored the Mayflqwer with his 
presence. Mrs. Nicholas Thayer was prior to her marriage Thais 
Shaw and was born in Abington, Mass. 

George R. Thayer received a common school education in Way- 
mouth and upon the declaration of war between the north and south 
attempted to enlist in the first company to leave his native town. 
Failing in this, owing to the large number of applications on file, 
he became a member of Company H, Thirty-fifth Massachusetts 
Infantry, August 8, 1862. His regiment went first to Readville, 
Mass., where the recruits were drilled, going thence to Washington, 
where they joined General Reno's brigade of the Ninth Army 
Corps, later commanded by General Burnside. After taking part in 
various engagements, including the battle at South Mountain, where 
General Reno lost his life on the 14th of September, 1862, and the 
conflict at Antietam on September 17, in which Mr. Thayer was 
wounded, his company journeyed lo Washington, having been in 
service from Arlington Heights to Manassas. In the senate 
chamber, which had been converted into a temporary hospital, they 
slept three nights, Mr. Thayer later being conveyed to David's 
Island, New York Harbor, on the steamer Spaulding. Ill with 
fever, he remained on the island until his discharge in December, 

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1862, when he returned to his home, where, during a long, weary 
year, he slowly regained his health. 

In 1865, in partnership with his brother, N. B. Thayer, Mr. 
Thayer engaged in the wholesale manufacture of boots and shoes 
in his home town. Disposing of his interest in that industry in 1875 
he became part owner of the Gaff-Fleischmann Compressed Yeast 
Company, selling out four years later to his nephew. In November, 

1879, he came to California, boarding at San Francisco the steamer 
Orozoba en route for San Pedro, whence the passengers, discouraged 
with the prospect set forth at that point, took a tug for Wilming- 
ton. Mr. Thayer traveled from that point to Los Angeles by 
freight, and a week later a stage coach landed him at the old St. 
George Hotel in Riverside. Having two years previous to this 
period purchased through a friend, Alvin B. Derby, ten acres on 
Magnolia avenue, Mr. Thayer proceeded at once to set the property 
to oranges boarding in the interim with the Derby's. In March, 

1880, he bought twenty acres, half of which he planted to orange 
trees which he had secured in San Gabriel. He then returned east 
with the intention of remaining two years, but on the approach of 
winter he relinquished his plans and in November again came west, 
his wife joining him a year later. Erecting a residence on his 
ranch, he purchased a team and cared for his trees until 1887, when 
he sold for $13,500 his original ten-acre tract, for which he had 
paid $400, a like amount having been expended for trees. In 1889 
he sold his twenty-acre section for $11,500, after which, having dis- 
posed of his interests in that vicinity, he purchased near Cuca- 
monga, San Bernardino county, twenty acres which he planted to 
oranges and lemons. 

In the fall of 1887 Mr. Thayer purchased the carriage business 
of Clarence Stewart, Riverside, and one month later sold a half 
interest to William L. Peters, the two continuing together until 
1891, when Mr. Peters became sole owner. Since that period Mr. 
Thayer has devoted his energies to his other interests, having also 
bought and sold several residence properties in Riverside. His own 
home, which he purchased in 1887, is situated at No. 234 East 
Eighth street, besides which he owns a cottage at No. 224 East 

In March, 1863, Mr. Thayer was united in marriage to Miss 
Sarah E. Spear, who died in April, 1898. Two years later, Novem- 
ber 29, 1900, he wedded Miss Grace MacNab, a native of Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, who has been a resident of Riverside since 1888. Mr. 
Thayer is one of the oldest members of Riverside Lodge No. 282, 
I. 0. 0. F., having served in every local oflScial position offered by 
that organization. He is also a member of Evergreeii Lodge, No. 
259, F. & A. M., Riverside. 

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Notwithstanding a long absence from Maine and a prolonged 
association with the genial environment of Southern California, 
memories of the busy and eventful years spent in the rigorous cli- 
mate of the northeast linger pleasantly in the mind of Mr. Allen, 
without, however, arousing any desire to return to that region for 
permanent residence. Intimate as were the friendships there, use- 
ful as were the years and fruitful as was the work, the stern winds 
of winter sweeping through the dense pine forests and dashing 
along the rock-bound coast; the storms that endangered human 
lives and imperiled the stock; the isolation of the winter months 
when deep snows rendered travel unsafe; all these formed in- 
fluences that attracted him to the land of sunshine and have made of 
him a devoted admirer of the western country. Prosperity has 
been the reward of his intelligent efforts and he is now living re- 
tired from business cares, enjoying in the afternoon of existence 
the comforts that so greatly enhance the joys of life. 

The first representative of the family in the west was Benja- 
min F. Allen, brother of John A., and a native of Maine. The 
father, John Allen, was born in Franklin county. Me., December 
10, 1800. During the early prime of manhood he engaged in the 
mercantile business in his native county, but in 1841 he removed 
to Aroostook county. Me., where he became interested in farming 
and lumbering. When eighty years of age he sold out his interests 
m Maine and came to Southern California, settling at Riverside, 
where he bought forty acres on Colton avenue. Later he retired 
and his death occurred in 1886. The large tract which he pur- 
chased was originally an orange grove, but more recently part of it 
has been subdivided into town lots, representing an enormous in- 
crease in value over the amount paid for it by the early owner. 

In Franklin county. Me., near the Canadian boundary, John A. 
Allen was born November 19, 1836. From there at the age of 
four years he was taken to Aroostook county in the upper end of 
Maine. Schools were few in that isolated, sparsely-settled region, 
but he was ambitious and made the most of every opportunity. 
Whenever possible he attended the schools of the county. At the 
age of eighteen years he went to Foxcroft and became a student 
in the academy, later attending the Bloomfield academy, from which 
he was graduated in 1857. Entering upon the work of a teacher, 
he had charge of a school at East Corinth, Penobscot county. Next 
he was elected to take charge of the school at Norridgewock, Sumer- 
set county, thence returning to teach in Aroostook county. On 
discontinuing the work of a teacher in 1862 he turned his attention 

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to agriculture and devoted himself with such energy and application 
to the calling that a fair measure of success came to him, notwith- 
standing the obstacles caused by unfruitful soil and rigorous cli- 
mate. While living on the farm he served for fifteen years* as a 
member of the school board in Aroostook county. On disposing of 
his interests in Maine he came to Riverside in 1883 and took up 
the management of his father's property, at the same time studying 
orange culture. Eventually he became one of the most extensive 
growers and shippers of oranges in the district, but in 1910 he 
sold his business interests and retired to an enjoyment of a leisure 
abundantly merited by years of laborious application. 

During the period of his residence in Somerset county, Me., Mr. 
Allen met Miss Eliza A. Heald, a native of that part of the state. 
They were united in marriage November 17, 1860, and for years 
lived on their farm in Aroostook county, but now own and occupy 
a beautiful residence in Riverside. They are the parents of four 
children, namely: Mrs. W. A. Purington, wife of one of the lead- 
ing attorneys oif Riverside; Mrs. Vida A. Bixby, of Pasadena; Mrs. 
J. E. White, of San Francisco ; and John W., who is engaged in the 
growing of oranges at Loma Linda, this state. The family holds 
membership with the Congregational Church. At no time in his life 
has Mr. Allen been a leader in politics, his only part in public 
affairs being the casting of a Republican ticket at all elections. For 
years he hus been a stockholder in the Citizens National Bank, of 
Riverside, of which he was one of the organizers, and of the Se- 
curity Bank, also of Riverside, and in both of these well-known 
financial institutions he now serves as a director. Throughout 
all of his life he has been interested in education. Its importance, 
in his opinion, cannot be overestimated. In addition to his service 
in promoting the free schools of Maine, he served as a member of 
the Riverside school board from 1885 to 1888 and still retains a 
warm interest in every movement for the advancement of the 


A resident of San Jacinto valley since January, 1891, Mr. Yates 
has aided materially in the development of San Jacinto and vicinity, 
where he has held many positions of trust and honor, his good 
judgment and progressive methods having been of incalculable bene- 
fit to the community. 

A native of Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, near Strat- 
ford-on-Avon, England, Mr. Yates was born September 11, 1857, and 
until the age of thirteen years remained with his parents, Robert 

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and Lucy (Smith) Yates, who were born in England. Courageously 
determined to make his way in the world, the son took passage for 
Quebec, Canada, going thence to Flint, Mich., where for a time he 
work^ on the Flint and Pierre Marquette Railroad. Later he 
journeyed to Toledo, Ohio, where he engaged in railroad bridge 
work, going thence to Poplar Bluff, Mo., in the service of the Iron 
Mountain Railroad Company as a switch and sidetrack builder. In 
1873 he located in Chicago where for four years he followed team- 
ing, going thence to York county. Neb., where he bought eighty 
acres of railroad land which he improved and later sold. He then 
moved to Holt county, that state, where he had a timber culture of 
one hundred and sixty and a homestead of one hundred and sixty 
acres. He resided upon this for seven years or until selling the 
property, when he came to California, subsequently settling in San 
Jacinto valley. In addition to fifteen acres of alfalfa land he owns 
ten acres which he devotes to fruit and eucalyptus trees, and upon 
which tract is located his comfortable home, surrounded by many 
ornamental trees, shrubs and plants. 

Mr. Yates was united in marriage in San Jacinto October 3, 
1894, with Miss Ophelia Kaley, a native of Lucas county, Ohio, 
where for some years she taught in the public schools prior to join- 
ing friends in San Jacinto in 1892. Mr. and Mrs. Yates were 
blessed with two children, Lucy Elizabeth, who passed away in in- 
fancy, and Margaret Lenore, who is a student in the Hemet high 

A lifelong Republican, Mr. Yates has ever maintained a deep 
interest in both civic and national political issues and as a stanch 
friend of education, served four years on the school board, and was 
also president of the high school board one year. Since 1904 he 
has acted as treasurer of the San Jacinto Cemetery Association, of 
which he has been a trustee for about fifteen years, and has been 
connected with the San Jacinto Valley Water Company since be- 
coming a resident of this place. This was the first institution of 
this character to be formed in the locality, and he served in some 
capacity in the organization through subsequent changes of owner- 
ship, its various appellations having be^n the San Jacinto & Pleas- 
ant Valley Irrigation District, the San Jacinto Valley Water Com- 
pany and, finally, the Citizens' Water Company of San Jacinto. 

An active member of Hemet Lodge No. 190, I. 0. 0. F., having 
passed through the chairs of the San Jacinto Lodge, Mr. Yates like- 
wise holds membership in San Jacinto Camp, W. 0. W., the local 
chairs of which he has filled at various times. Mrs. Yates is also 
identified with Pine Cone Circle No. 486, W. 0. W., and Comfort 
Lodge, Daughters of Rebekahs, in both of which societies Mr. Yates 
holds membership. 

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Riverside has reason for pride in the many citizens who have 
given long years of gratuitous public service in her behalf. To the 
faith and enthusiastic devotion of her pioneers is due the trans- 
formation of an unattractive colony into one of the most beautiful 
and progressive of California cities. There are few among these 
whose record is more creditable than is that of E. W. Holmes. 
He was born at Brockton, Mass., December 8, 1841, of Pilgrim 
ancestry. His father, who attained a creditable standing as 
a professional musician and band master, died suddenly in 1851, 
leaving his mother with small means and five children dependent 
upon her, Elmer being the oldest. The mother's struggles to main- 
tain the family finally resulted in her loss of health and compelled 
her oldest son to leave school at thirteen and apprentice himself 
to a printer. While yet a boy the entire support of the family 
came upon him. Graduating as a journeyman printer at eighteen, 
he was given a foreman's position. The outbreak of the Civil war 
at this time tempted him to join the first volunteers who went for- 
ward, but the increased wages he was earning enabled him to save 
enough to purchase the time of his younger brother, who had been 
^* bound out" to the shoemakers' trade, and when he had turned 
over the support of his mother to this younger brother he promptly 
enlisted in the Thirty-fifth Massachusetts Infantry. He shared the 
hardships and dangers of its campaigns with Reno's brigade of 
the Ninth Corps until after Fredericksburg. The organization 
was ordered west, when he was sent to the hospital near Fortress 
Monroe and in the fall of 1863 given his discharge. A year at home 
so restored his health that he again entered the army as a recruit 
for the Second Massachusetts Battery, from which, after a few 
weeks he was transferred to the Sixth Battery, located at New 
Orleans. Up>on its reorganization he was appointed first sergeant, 
and just before the close of the war received a lieutenant's com- 

Returning to civil life he obtained a foreman's position on the 
Randolph Register, which paper he subsequently purchased, and 
successfully managed. Being offered a partnership in the larger 
establishment where he had learned his trade — the Brockton Gazette 
— he returned in 1869 to his native city, where the business proved 
both profitable and agreeable. But the death of all the rest of 
his mother's family from consumption during these few years and 
the declaration of the physicians that only an out-of-door life could 
save him from the dread disease, compelled him to sell out in 1874 
and move to Southern California. 

For a few months he held a foreman's position in the Los Ang- 


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eles Herald oflSce, but a severe illness compelled him to surrender 
this and seek a less humid climate. Coming to Riverside in April, 
1875, he purchased a considerable tract of land on Brockton avenue, 
near which so many of his fellow townsmen settled that the street 
was later given its name out of compliment to them. 

Everything was experimental in those days, and, like others, 
Mr. Holmes planted many varieties of trees and vines for himself 
and non-resident owners. Many of these proved unprofitable, and 
were in after years dug up to give place to those which promised 
better. Raisins were among the first to prove successful, and were 
for years the main source of income. But when the young orange 
trees began to fruit, it was Mr. Holmes' privilege to be one of the 
little committee of horticultural students who gathered to pass upon 
the qualities of the first Riverside oranges in comparison with 
specimens from Europe and Florida. The result of these tests 
proved to all that the Riverside grown navel orange was the 
best in the world, and that the soil and climate were unequalled 
anywhere for producing citrus fruits. Out of this grew the citrus 
fair associations which did so much to aid in the horticultural devel- 
opment of the state. 

In 1886 he was selected with Messrs. Garcelon and Waite to 
represent Riverside at the great citrus fair held in Chicago, which 
more than any other influence started the great immigration move- 
ment into Southern California. Two years later he was sent to 
take charge of a similar exhibit held in New York as a means of 
introducing our fruit into that great distributing market. 

Elected a school oflScial when the city had but a single school 
building, he was successively chosen by an almost unanimous vote, 
and held the position of executive oflScer of the school board for 
some fifteen years. He organized the Riverside high school, and 
was the author of the Union District High School law by which a 
single district or a combination of small country districts may pro 
vide preparatory schools, and thus enable the children to be edu- 
cated at home. 

He was chosen to fill a vacancy on the board of city trustees 
in 1884, and unanimously re-elected in 1886, serving altogether 
over six years, during the last two of which he was chairman. Sub- 
sequently he was chairman of the city's ** street ornamentation 
conunittee" for seven years. He was the principal organizer of 
the Riverside Library Association in 1879, and it was through his 
efforts while acting mayor that the library was presented to the 
city and made a free public library. He was later one of the library 
board which selected the plans for and located our beautiful Car- 
negie library building. 

In 1887 Mr. Holmes became managing editor of the San Ber- 
nardino Index, a morning daily owned by a syndicate of county 

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Republicans, but after a year's experience he found the work upon 
a morning daily too severe and resigned. The following year he 
associated himself with R. J. Pierson and James H. Roe and pur- 
chased the two daily and two weekly papers of the city. These were 
consolidated and published as the Daily Press and Horticulturist, 
Mr. Holmes being in editorial charge. Seven years later he sold 
out to the Press Publishing Company, of which E. P. Clark is 

In 1888 San Bernardino county elected Mr. Holmes as assembly- 
man, and his services in that position won him high commendation. 
The present horticultural law and the Union District High School 
law, both of his writing, have proved of great practical value to 
the state. In 1893 a vacancy occurred on the board of county 
supervisors, and Governor Pardee appointed him to the position 
His fellow citizens of the Second district have three times re-elected 
him to that ofiBce, which he still holds. 

At the age of twenty-two Mr. Holmes was married to Miss 
Ruth C. Nickerson of Harwich, Mass. She died in giving birth 
to a son, Elmer Elwood, who grew up in Riverside, and was for 
years head mailing clerk in the Los Angeles postoflBce, and died in 
1903 leaving four children. In 1871 occurred the marriage of E. W. 
Holmes and Miss Alice E. Odell of Randolph, Mass., who came 
with him to share the pioneer work in Riverside. Two daughters 
were the result of this union, both of whom graduated from the 
Riverside high school and the State University. Anne Lucia mar- 
ried Loye Holmes Miller of Riverside and is the mother of two 
sons; and Alice Bertha became the wife of Otis D. Baldwin of 
Riverside and has given her parents a grand-daughter. 


Among Riverside county's successful business men is E. F. 
Wolever, manager of the Sugar Loaf Orange Growers Association 
with offices at Highgrove. Since 1882 Mr. Wolever has been a 
resident of this section, his judicious and honorable business 
methods having secured him his present position of trust and re- 
sponsibility. He was born August 26, 1863, near Lafayette, Tippe- 
canoe county, Ind., where his parents, Elias and Esther (Brown- 
miller) Wolever, natives of Pennsylvania, located in 1855. In 
company with other brave pioneers of that period they worked 
with a will to bring into a more habitable state the wild country 

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in which they had chosen to build their home. To that end they 
cleared away the heavy^ timber which was an original characteristic 
of that section of Indiana, and erected a modest little house in 
which they passed the remainder of their lives, the father passing 
away in 1902 and the mother in 1905. The following children, all of 
whom attained maturity, were born to Mr. and Mrs. Wolever : E. F., 
Aaron P., a physician of St. Louis, Mo. ; Joseph T., a business man 
of Monticello, Ind. ; Rev. John E., who now has charge of the 
Medicine Lodge (Kans.) Presbyterian Church; and five daughters, 
all of whom are married. 

After receiving an elementary course in the district school 
E. F. Wolever entered the high school of his native state, from 
which he graduated with class honors. He remained in the parental 
home until 1882, when he joined friends in Riverside, Cal., where 
he engaged in ranching for a few years, then entered a commercial 
college in San Francisco. Upon the completion of his course he 
became agent and operator for the Southern Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, serving in various towns, including cities in Nevada. In 1904 
he returned to California, where he became agent and operator for 
the Santa Fe Railroad Company, but after two years located on 
a ranch near Highgrove which he had purchased while in the 
service of the Southern Pacific. Upon the sale of this property he 
bought a highly improved orange tract of ten acres upon which his 
present artistic and modern home is situated. 

Mr. Wolever was the chief promoter of the Sugar Loaf Orange 
Growers Association, which was incorporated in October, 1908, and 
of which he was chosen manager. This association controls approx- 
imately seven hundred acres of oranges and lemons, the packing 
and shipping of which are under Mr. Wolever 's jurisdiction. The 
association is made up of selected foot-hill orchards and has an 
annual output of about two hundred cars of the finest quality of 
oranges, lemons and grape fruit. 

The marriage of Mr. Wolever and Miss Hattie L. Newlen 
occurred in Riverside September 10, 1894, and they have one 
daughter, Anita Blanche. Mrs. Wolever is a daughter of August 
Newlen, a prominent business man of Des Moines, Iowa. Mr. 
Wolever was one of the organizers and also a member of the 
board of directors of the Highgrove Bank, in which he is still 
interested. Politically he disregards partisanships and lends his 
support to the candidates whom he believes best fitted for the 
duties in question. Though many times urged to accept public 
office he has steadfastly refused, wisely choosing to devote his 
best energies to his business interests and to his home. Both him- 
self and his wife are active and consistent members of the High- 
grove Methodist Episcopal Church and are held in high esteem 
throughout the community. 

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It was the hope of the pioneers to make here an ideal com- 
munity, where all that Nature and intelligent human effort could 
contribute should unite to draw together the cultured and refined. 
Many there are who have contributed by their services or their 
wealth to aid in the furthering of this purpose. Some were ideal- 
ists, and some have been practical business men who realized that 
dreams alone could never bring about the end desired. The subject 
of this sketch seems to have possessed a combination of these quali- 
ties, and behind these an indomitable will and a capacity for win- 
ning the aid of others in pushing to success undertakings which to 
those not largely influenced by sentiment seemed almost chimerical. 
The success which has attended the many undertakings with which 
Mr. Miller has been identified was not due to himself alone. Indeed, 
in behalf of many of these he had, especially at the outset, little 
money of his own to contribute, and without the generous aid of 
others failure would have resulted, and he therefore shares with 
many other public spirited citizens the credit for the splendid re- 
sults obtained. And yet without his absolute faith in the future of 
the valley and the value of the various plans he advocated to further 
its advancement, and the possession of a never failing ** nerve '^ 
to push forward his progressive plans, he never could have inspired 
others with the courage to risk their capital in undertakings that to 
the timid promised only failure. It is true that many of the projects 
his brain was so fertile in suggesting involved either directly or 
indirectly a probable benefit to himself, but there was not one of 
these that did not also bring a very certain benefit to every other 
citizen. To further the ends he sought he became active in political 
matters, and thereby often invited criticism; but a study of the 
larger projects he undertook in behalf of Riverside will show that 
it was through his political affiliations alone that some of the best 
things were secured for Riverside. The first of these was the vic- 
tory in the fight for county division, where the political influence 
he secured was the factor which gave ultimate success, and made 
Riverside the county seat of a splendid county. The same influence 
was powerful in securing the location in this city of the fine govern- 
ment Indian school — the Sherman Institute — with the expenditure of 
large government funds here, the beautifying of the Arlington sec- 
tion and a large increase in the city's population. So it was in 
obtaining the large appropriation for the government building now 
in process of erection on Orange street Riverside citizens must 
in simple justice admit that political influences have been excel- 
lently used to her advantage. 

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But there are other accomplishments to his credit. When the 
original street car system to Arlington had proven a failure it was 
he who undertook the reorganization of the company, to make it an 
electric line, with Chemawa Park as an adjunct. Finding the load 
too heavy for him to carry and the line unproductive, he prevailed 
upon H. E. Huntington to assume the debt of over $50,000 and 
take the property. As a result Riverside has now a local electric 
trolley system superior to that of any city of her size in the state, 
and one which is a part of the great Pacific Electric system of 
Southern California and shortly to connect her with Los Angeles 
and all the other cities of this section of the state. 

It was Mr. Miller who took the initiative and secured the finan- 
cial help required to build our two first business blocks, the Loring 
Opera House and the Rubidoux, and later devised the scheme and 
secured the assistance of H. E. Huntington and several of our own 
citizens in transforming Mount Rubidoux and its vicinity into Hunt- 
ington Park, with its wonderful drive to where at the summit stands 
a cross in honor of Father Serra, and where the beauty of the entire 
valley is shown from a single standpoint. 

He is today deeply interested in having completed the group 
of fine buildings which shall give the city a civic center of excep- 
tional beauty, and to this end is aiding in the construction of what 
he likes to characterize as the ** Riverside Church, '^ to be built on 
the corner of Seventh and Lemon streets, and which he hopes shall 
be conspicuous both for its architectural beauty and for the work 
its occupants shall be able to accomplish for the public good. 

But the crowning work of his life is the Glenwood Mission Inn, 
the central attraction which Riverside offers the tourist. In this 
undertaking he first sought and obtained the liberal financial aid 
of his fellow citizens and of outside capitalists whom he had con- 
vinced of the practicability of the undertaking. In this undertak- 
ing, too, H. E. Huntington evidenced his friendship by generous 
backing; and such men as Dr. David Starr Jordan gave their advice 
and support. Dr. Jordan says of the Glenwood Mission Inn, **It 
has been left for you, Frank Miller, a genuine Califomian, to dream 
of the hotel that ought to be, to turn your ideal into plaster and 
stone, and to give us in mountain-belted Riverside the one hotel 
which a Calif ornian can recognize as his own." Into it he put the 
unique features which he believed would enable him to secure pat- 
ronage which would never be given a conventional hotel located in 
a small city. In the forming of the plans so splendidly carried out 
he always had the loyal backing of his family as a whole, but the 
perfection of the plan in its details was made possible only by the 
aid of a gifted wife, whose good sense, thorough scholarship and 
love of the artistic furnished the particular influence needed to 
create the homelike resort which Baedeker stars as among the 

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best in the world. He has here shown, with the help of his capable 
sister, Mrs. Alice Richardson, who has the management, what is a 
conviction with him, that people are governed largely by sentiment, 
and that a community which manifests its love for the beautiful by 
a systematic utilization of its natural advantages and a unity of 
action in regard to architecture, street and park making, etc., is 
sure to create an atmosphere peculiar to itself and attract to its 
citizenship the intelligent and moral. In other words, a city which 
Aristotle defines as **a place where men live a conunon life for a 
noble end.'^ It is a credit to Riverside that Mr. Miller has won 
for himself a place in Who Is Who. 

Mr. Miller is the son of Capt. Christopher C. and Mary (Clark) 
Miller. He was born at Tomah, Wis., June 30, 1859, and passed his 
early years amid the forests of that state, many of his playmates in 
childhood being the Indian children of the neighborhood. Of course 
only a few years of public school life were possible, but his mother 
was a well educated woman and gave her children instruction in 
their home. At fifteen the growing boy was strengthened physically 
by being permitted to accompany his father on surveying expedi- 
tions into the wilderness. He came to Riverside with the family, in 
1873, his father having been employed in making surveys during 
the previous year. Frank was compelled to work at any honorable 
labor to assist the family, and had a varied experience in herding 
sheep, driving mules, budding trees, clerking and acting as zanjero. 

His father was induced to accept the block of land where the 
Glenwood now stands in payment of a bill of $275 for surveying, 
and when it was decided to build the original little adobe hotel, now 
the tea room of the great Mission Inn, he undertook, with an Indian 
as a helper, to make the adobe bricks of which it was to be con- 
structed, working bare-footed in the wet clay. His first business 
venture was the purchase of a grocery store, which he ran suc- 
cessfully under 'the name of the **Blue Front.'' 

In 1880 he was married to Miss Isabella Demarest Hardenburg, 
who was one of the first school principals of Riverside. She died 
in July, 1908, leaving one daughter, Allis Hardenburg Miller, who 
is now the wife of Dewitt V. Hutchings. Mr. Miller was again 
married on the 8th of December, 1911, to Miss Marian C. Clark of 
Riverside. E. W. H. 


Among Riverside's most enterprising young business men is 
C. E. Waite, who is peculiarly fitted for his responsible duties as 
assistant cashier of the Riverside Savings & Trust Company. His 
father is L. C. Waite, who is well known as one of the founders 

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of Riverside, and of whom an extended mention is given on another 
page of this volume. 

The birth of Charles E. Waite occurred January 14, 1878, in 
Riverside, where he received a thorough public school education, 
graduating from high school in 1897 and immediately matriculating 
in Stanford University, taking an economic course. Upon com- 
pletion of his studies in 1901 he returned to Riverside, being 
electe<l in February, 1903, to his present office, which he has since 
filled with an ease and ability which have gained him the entire con- 
fidence of his associates. 

Mr. Waite was united in marriage October 19, 1905, with Miss 
Gertrude Ferris, native of Illinois, the ceremony taking place in 
Galesburg, and since then their artistic home at No. 640 Second 
street 'has been open to their many friends. 

Active in Evergreen Lodge No. 259, F. & A. M., Mr. Waite 
is also a Shriner and is affiliated with Riverside Lodge No. 643, 
B. P. 0. E., (which he serves as treasurer) Riverside Parlor, 
N. S. G. W., and the Loyal Legion. He is a stanch Republican, 
well versed in affairs political, and is an active member of the 
Riverside Congregational Church, endeavoring at all times to ex- 
press in his daily life the principles of true fellowship. 


Among the leading citizens of Riverside county, none enjoys 
wider esteem than does J. A. Crane of Elsinore, whose untiring 
labors in behalf of that section have won full recognition in the 
field of his endeavors. He was born in Stanford, Monroe county, 
Ind., December 25, 1872, a son of John Crane, also a native of that 
state and who for many years was a prosperous farmer there. He 
and his wife, formerly Susan Fultz, born in Marysville, Ohio, have 
been residents of California since January, 1896, and are now 
living in San Dimas, where Mr. Crane is interested in orange grow- 
ing, banking and in the packing house business. 

One of a family of seventeen children, James A. Crane received 
a common school education in the vicinity of his birthplace and in 
1883 accompanied his parents to Nebraska, where, upon completing 
his high school course, he became a teacher in the public schools in 
that state, continuing for three years during the winter months, 
while during the summers he worked on the farm. Deciding to come 
to California to see if he could not better his condition he located 

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in Glendora and found employment with the Santa Fe Railroad 
Company at section work and two years later he was given station 
work at Azusa. From there he was transferred to North Pomona 
in 1900, and the following year to Oro Grande, where he remained 
about eighteen months and in March, 1903, he was sent to take 
charge of the station at Elsinore. After three years of faithful 
service at this point, during which time he became closely con- 
nected with the interests of that locality, he resigned and accepted 
a position as cashier of the Consolidated Bank of Elsinore, of whicli 
he is also a large stockholder. During the time he was agent at 
Elsinore he also was engaged in the drug business, having pur- 
chased a store and continued the business for three years with suc- 
cess and until his many other duties made it necessary for him to 
sell out. 

In March, 1910, at the earnest solicitation of his many friends 
and fellow citizens of the fourth district, Mr. Crane became a 
candidate for the office of supervisor and was elected by a large 
majority at the general election November 8, 1910. As a member 
of the board his duties are arduous and he resigned his position 
as cashier of the bank to devote his entire time and attention to the 
duties of his office. The territory included in his jurisdiction has 
three times as much road work to supervise as districts one, two 
and three combined, and more money is expended annually, and 
therefore the greater portion of his time is occupied in repairing 
and building permanent roads. He is also on the committee of the 
county hospital. Always active in politics, he has ever been a sup- 
porter of Republican principles. He has served as a delegate to 
county, congressional and state conventions, is a member of the 
Republican county central committee and served on the executive 
board of same for a number of years. He is the representative from 
Riverside county to the Southern California Panama Pacific Expo- 
sition Commission to arrange for displays at different expositions 
and fairs; is also one of the committee of seven on the Ocean to 
Ocean Highway Commission, and a delegate to the meeting held 
in Riverside May 10, 1912, of the trustees from different school 
districts throughout the county, consisting of all grammar and high 
schools, for concerted action on various phases of educational work. 
During the building of the Elsinore Union high school building, 
after the contractor had failed in carrying out the contract, Mr. 
Crane completed the job by day labor, spending about one hundred 
days without compensation. He is secretary and treasurer of the 
Elsinore Electric Light Company, in which he owns the controlling 
interest, clerk of the Elsinore Union high school board and secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Elsinore Land and Water Company. 

On February 16, 1900, Mr. Crane was united in marriage with 
Miss Evangeline WjTnan Tooker, a native of Dodge City, Iowa, 

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who came to California with her parents, John F. and Eugenia 
Tooker, in 1890. They are natives of Nova Scotia and are now 
living in Santa Monica, Cal. Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. 
Crane two children have been born, Laura Eleanor, born in August, 
1905, and Susan Patricia, born in 1909. Fraternally Mr. Crane is a 
member of Elsinore Lodge No. 289, F. & A. M., Elsinore Lodge No. 
140, K. of P., and Riverside Lodge No. 643, B. P. 0. E. In all 
progressive movements for the general upbuilding of the county 
he is always found ready to lend his aid and in many movements he 
has taken the initiative. As a public spirited citizen he is held in 
the highest esteem. 


A prosrroHsive and prosperous rancher and stockman of the 
section in the vicinity of Arlington, where he is the owner of sixty- 
two acres of valuable land, is Frank S. Johnson, who has been a 
resident of Riverside county since 1902. He was born March 7, 
1881, in Butler county, Iowa, where he grew to manhood on his 
father's farm. He received his preliminary education in the public 
schools of that locality, this later being supplemented by a year at 
Armour Institute, Chicago. He followed the occupation of station- 
ary engineer in that city and later in California, spending about 
five years in that calling. While a resident of Los Angeles he 
bought property and made many improvements upon it, later sell- 
ing out and coming to Riverside county in 1906. He then bought 
the property he now owns and occupies, erected suitable buildings 
for his needs at that time and placed most of his land under alfalfa, 
securing water from the Riverside Water Company for irrigation. 
He also set out some fruit for family use. 

After he had located on his property Mr. Johnson returned 
east to attend school and while there was taken sick and confined 
in a hospital for some time. During this time he became acquainted 
with his nurse, Miss Mabel Hayward, who was bom and reared in 
Michigan, where she also received good educational advantages. 
On April 24, 1906, they were married and soon after left for Cali- 
fornia, where Mr. Johnson's interests were located, and since that 
time have been residents of this county. Two children have been 
born to them, Franklin H. and Marian M. 

In all matters of importance for the advancement of the inter- 
ests of the county and its citizens, Mr. Johnson has been a liberal 
supporter. In national politics a Republican, in his district he has 

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served as a member and clerk of the school board and been inter- 
ested in matters pertaining to the education of the young. In Au- 
gust, 1911, he engaged in the dairy business, making a specialty of a 
first-class product, which he wholesales and retails at Corona. He 
erected a modern and perfectly sanitary dairy barn at a cost of over 
$1,000, with all of its appurtenances of a most up-to-date character. 
He also has branched out in raising Berkshire hogs for breeding 
purposes and it is his intention to gradually work into the high- 
grade stock business in the near future. In all of his dealings he 
endeavors to abide bv the *' Golden Rule." 


• Well known as a successful business man and rancher of the 
Hemet section Mr. Simpson has been a resident of the San Jacinto 
valley since 1893. After coming to this locality he made other in- 
vestments, but it was not until after disposing of his interests in 
Seattle about 1906 that he was able to give his entire time to his 
San Jacinto valley property. Here he owns twenty-five acres, of 
which, during the year of purchase, he planted thirteen acres to 

Mr. Simpson was bom June 18, 1846, in Vaduriel county, Que- 
bec, where he spent his youth. In 1867 he located in Nevada, where 
he engaged in lumbering and mining for about fifteen years. He 
removed to Seattle, Wash., in 1882 and was employed on a railroad 
and also worked in the timber until . 1893, when he came to San 
Jacinto valley and purchased the property upon which he now 
resides. In 1905 he erected a comfortable home and other buildings 
and continued to develop his tract, planting ten acres to apricots, 
one to oranges and a portion to peaches and other fruits, his 
orchard now ranking among the finest in the valley. 

March 4, 1890, Mr. Simpson was united in marriage in Seattle 
with Miss Gertrude Marsh, a native of Wisconsin, whose parents 
came to California (where she was reared) and later located in 

Mr. Simpson was one of the promoters and is a director of 
the Farmers' and Merchants' Bank of Hemet. He is conceded to 
be a man of conservative business methods and unquestioned honor. 
A Democrat, maintaining an active interest in political movements, 
he has never cared for public office, preferring to devote his at- 
tention to his home and his business. Fraternally he is allied with 
San Jacinto Lodge, No. 338, F. & A. M., and Hemet Lodge K. of P. 

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A resident of Riverside from his fourteenth year until his 
death, July 27, 1911, Priestley Hall, the only son of Dr. John Hall, 
a pioneer of Riverside, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, May 15, 1859. 
One year later his parents located in New York City, where he was 
educated until fourteen years of age and in 1873 accompanied them 
to Riverside, Cal., where he completed his schooling in 1877, after 
which he engaged in horticultural pursuits with his father. 

In 1880 Mr. Hall bought one hundred and sixty acres of un- 
improved land of Mrs. Annie Denton Cridge located east of his 
father's place. He later added another eighty acres to this and 
together with forty acres left him by his father made him owner 
of two hundred and eighty acres within the city limits of Riverside. 
The first twenty acres were subdivided in 1886, when some people 
were looking for property in his direction. This found ready sale 
and the following spring he placed forty acres more on the market. 
He then planted his whole tract and a part of his father's home- 
stead and formed Hall's Addition to Riverside. With characteris- 
tic energy he graded avenues and street, laid out parks and planted 
and cared for thousands of ornamental trees to enhance its value. 
Subsequently this was all sold off with the exception of twenty 
acres in his home place and yielded him a handsome profit. 

The Gage canal system (of which for years he was assistant 
engineer under C. C. Miller) being completed and able to supply 
water, Mr. Hall, in 1887, incorporated Hall's Addition Water Com- 
pany and was made its president. Pipe lines were laid from their 
reservoir two and one-half miles to the addition and branch lines 
laid through the principal avenues, forming a complete supply for 
domestic and irrigation purposes. Sixty thousand dollars were 
expended in perfecting this system, which was later sold to the 
Artesia Water Company. In June, 1887, he incorporated Hall's 
Addition Railroad Company, was made president and general man- 
ager and built and equipped one and one-half miles of street railway, 
upon which were operated mule-cars, from Main and Tenth streets to 
a central part of the tract, thus placing the addition within easy 
access of the city and making this section unequalled for residence 
and horticultural purposes, and for scenic beauty it was unsur- 
passed. This car line was afterwards consolidated with the River- 
side-Arlington Railway, in which Mr. Hall became a director. He 
also organized and became sole proprietor of Hall's Addition 
Nursery Company, supplying stock of all kinds to Riverside and 
surrounding country. Other development enterprises in which he 
was intensely interested were the placing of many acres of thor- 

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oughly developed alfalfa land on the market in the vicinity of 
Corona, this being one of the factors in the present prosperity of 
that section. He was also interested in land in the vicinity of Arch 
Beach extending as far as San Juan Point. In his home place he 
was engaged in growing oranges with considerable success. 

July 29, 1890, in Riverside, occurred the marriage of Priestley 
Hall and Miss Agnes Overton, who was born in Avoca, Wis. At 
the time of their marriage Mr. Hall gave his wife a '*deed of gift" 
to ' * Rockledge, " which has been her home ever since. The death 
of Mr. Hall was a shock to his many friends in Riverside, where 
he was regarded as one of her most public spirited and enterpris- 
ing citizens. He was a straightforward, energetic business man, 
honest and liberal in all his transactions and justly merited the suc- 
cess he acquired in life. In politics he supported Republican men 
and measures at all times, although avowedly at heart a Prohibi- 
tionist and working wherever practicable for the success of prohi- 
bition principles. He was a member of Second Church of Christ 
Scientist of Riverside and his life was expressive of the true be- 
lievers in that doctrine. In fraternal relations he was a Mason, 
being a member of Evergreen Lodge, No. 259, F. & A. M., River- 
side Chapter, No. 67, R. A. M,, and Riverside Commandery, No. 
28, K. T. At the occasion of his death these lodges sent resolutions 
to Mrs. Hall that were very appreciative of his life and character. 


One of Beaumont's best known citizens is Mr. Martin, who, for 
the past twenty-two years has been in the service of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company, having been employed as fireman the 
first five years, when he was promoted to the responsible position 
of engineer. His father, Russell C. Martin, who is also an engineer 
on the Southern Pacific line, is a son of Dr. Norman R. Martin, and 
was born in Vermont in 1848. At the age of but fourteen years 
his physique enabled him to enlist in the United States Cavalry, 
serving in the field until the close of the war. Later he went to 
New York, where he married Miss Sarah A. Gibson, a native of 
that state. For a time Mr. Martin manufactured lumber, but left 
this industry upon purchasing his father's drug store, which he 
ably conducted prior to his removal in 1881 to Los Angeles, where 
he has since resided. 

Frederick C. Martin, who was born in Franklin county, N. 
Y., August 26, 1870, was eleven years of age when his parents 

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located in Los Angeles, where he received his education. Upon 
completion of his studies he engaged in the grocery business, but 
after iSve years entered railroad work and has been thus engaged 
ever since. Throughout his career he met with but one accident on 
the road, in which he received not the slightest personal injury. He 
is regarded as one of the most trusted engineers on the road, and 
for the past seven years he has been in charge of an engine used 
on steep grades. 

For a time Mr. Martin owned property in Glendale, but later 
purchased in Beaumont lots upon which he erected a comfortable 
home, and he also owns several vacant lots in Beaumont. He was 
one of the promoters, as well as a stockholder and director, of the 
Beaumont Bank, and also assisted in organizing the Beaumont Gas 
Company, which he served as president and of which he is a 
stockholder. He has always been deeply interested in educational 
progress and for a time acted as chairman of the board of educa- 
tion, assisting materially in securing new school buildings and other 

Mr. Martin married April 19, 1901, Miss Harriet M. White, 
who was born in San Francisco, her father having been a native 
of Massachusetts. After finishing her studies in the schools in the 
city of her birth she completed her education in Los Angeles, where 
she taught in the public schools until her marriage. She is chairman 
of Civics for the Southern District Federation and is a prominent 
and popular society and club woman of Beaumont. 

A progressive Republican, Mr. Martin has never sought office, 
though he has always been closely identified with municipal de- 
velopments. For some years he enjoyed associate membership in 
the Young Men's Christian Association of Los Angeles and active 
membership in the Jonathan Club. He is well known as a musician 
and formerly was a member of the Philharmonic Society, as well 
as of other similar organizations. He is active in the Masonic 
fraternity, holding membership in San Jacinto Lodge No. 338, F. 
& A. M. ; Chapter No. 83, R. A. M., and St. Bernard Commandery 
No. 23, San Bernardino, Cal., and with his wife is a member of 
La Victoria Chapter No. 241, 0. E. S., San Jacinto. 


George W. Garcelon was one of Riverside's pioneer settlers 
and ranked among the leading practical horticulturists of the 
county. He was born in New Brunswick in 1832, and was reared 

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and schooled in his native place until twenty years of age. In 
starting life on his own account he decided to establish himself in 
the United States, and in 1852 located in Lewiston, Me., and was 
there employed as a clerk in the drug business. In 1856 he estab- 
lished himself in business as a druggist in that city. He married, 
in Lewiston, Me., in 1858, Miss Mary F. Tobie, daughter of Edward 
P. Tobie. 

Mr. Garcelon conducted his business until 1872, when he sought 
a home in California and located at Riverside. Soon after his 
arrival he purchased a two and one-half acre block between Vine 
and Mulberry and Sixth and Seventh streets and entered upon 
horticultural pursuits, and the following spring erected the first 
plastered house in the colony. He also purchased a twenty-acre tract 
on Brockton avenue, at the corner of Bandini avenue. He entered 
heartily into his new calling, growing his own nursery stock and 
planting citrus and deciduous trees. He had unbounded faith in 
citrus fruit growing in Riverside and spent time and money in 
advancing the industry. 

The history of the citrus fairs of the world dates its first 
effort to the spring of 1877, when the orange groves of Riverside 
submitted their products to the inspection of the horticultural world 
in the parlor of Mr. Garcelon 's modest home. It was the birth of 
the Citrus Fair Association. 

Mr. Garcelon early saw the possibilities of the lemon growing 
industry in this section, but the great problem to be solved was the 
proper curing and preserving to enable the producers to successfully 
compete with the foreign lemons imported into the country. He 
spent years in study and experimental research and after ten years 
of time and labor his efforts were rewarded by success and he had 
added another source of untold wealth to the citrus fruit growers 
of Southern California. He erected a storage warehouse and lemon- 
curing establishment on the corner of Brockton and Bandini ave- 
nues, but his process and means of curing are not known to the 
public. Mr. Garcelon did not allow his horticultural pursuits to 
lessen his interest in other industries that have built up the city 
and county and meritorious enterprises found a liberal supporter 
in him. In political matters he was a stanch Republican. In 1888 he 
was prevailed upon to become a candidate for supervisor from his 
district and was elected for a four-year term. He was a member of 
the board of trade and in 1886 was one of Riverside's representa- 
tives to the Chicago fair and had charge of the exhibit. He was 
for many years a member and trustee of the Congregational church 
here; also a member of Riverside Chapter No. 68, R. A. M., and 
Riverside Commandery No. 28, K. T. Mr. Garcelon passed away 
on March 9, 1905. 

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The worthy couple whose names head this article will ever be 
remembered in Riverside for the good they accomplished to hu- 
manity by ministering to their well being, and by their many acts 
of philanthropy and kindness. 

Dr. John Hall was born May 13, 1819, in Leeds, Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, and was there reared and educated, after which he learned the 
trade of printer. In 1885 he decided to immigrate to the United 
States, having in mind the better opportunities for advancement 
and money making than his native country afforded. He located 
in Wisconsin for a time, following his trade, and in 1848 went to 
Canada and found emplojonent in Toronto. Working at the prin- 
ter's trade and studying medicine in the Toronto School of Medicine 
until 1857, he again came to the United States and entered the 
Western Homeopathic College in Cleveland, Ohio, from which he was 
graduated in 1858. That same year he was united in marriage 
with Miss Dorothea Stahl, a native of Darke county, Ohio, born May 
14, 1824, and who had completed her medical course in the same 
class as Dr. Hall. The young couple located in Cincinnati and 
began the practice of their profession, later, in 1860, removing to 
New York City, where they continued successfully until 1873. 

In that year, with their son, the late Priestley Hall, and a 
daughter. Miss Jennie, who passed away May 9, 1882, they came to 
California by way of the Isthmus of Panama and located in River- 
side, then but a new and undeveloped colony. Here the doctor pur- 
chased forty-one acres of land and began its development, aided by 
his son after he had completed his schooling. Mrs. Hall practiced 
medicine in the new colony for a time and ministered otherwise to 
the needs of the families of the pioneers. Dr. John Hall eventually 
gave up his practice and engaged in horticultural pursuits. He 
first planted two acres of raisin grapes, being one of the pioneers in 
that industry that grew to such large proportions a few years later. 
He experimented a great deal to secure the best results from decid- 
uous and citrus fruits, and gave much attention to nursery stock 
adapted to this soil and climate. After many years of useful activ- 
ity he and his wife retired to quiet home life, the business being 
carried on by their son. Dr. John Hall died April 1, 1896, his 
widow surviving him until August 27, 1909. They were both 
members of the Universalist Church and the doctor was a strong 
Prohibitionist. They were liberal in their support of all movements 
for the upbuilding of Riverside, and their acts of charity, which 
were numerous and kindly, were performed without ostentation. 
No worthy and well-considered project was presented to Dr. Hall 

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without receiving his sanction and assistance, and he not infre- 
quently took the initiative in such movements. He was a noble, 
high-minded, useful citizen and friend, who deserves a place of 
prominence in the history of the county. 


There are probably few men more familiar with the values of 
city real estate and horticultural property than John T. Jarvis, who 
has been engaged for many years in the buying and selling of lots 
and acreage tracts and who in the course of a long business career 
has handled many of the highest-priced properties in Riverside 
county. The extension of towns, the subdivision of groves into 
lots and the enormous increase in valuations of all lands, all these 
things he has witnessed with the eager interest of a participant. 
Coincident with the increased prosperity of the locality has been 
his own personal advancement from poverty to a competence. 
Neither luck nor fortuitous circumstances are responsible for his 
success, which is to be attributed to his own integrity in all deal- 
ings, energy in business and sagacity in investments. 

A son of Jonathan and Eliza Jarvis and a descendant of an old 
Canadian family of local prominence, John T. Jarvis was born in 
Ontario, Canada, March 10, 1847, and attended the public schools 
between the ages of six and thirteen, lea\dng school in order to 
take up the struggle for self-support. Beginning as an errand boy 
in a grocery, he soon was able to wait upon customers and while 
still a mere lad he was made manager of the business, a fact testify- 
ing to his honesty and intelligence. In 1869 he resigned from the 
store in order to join his father in business, the two carrying on 
a dairy and engaging in the manufacture of cheese. That section of 
the country was famous for the fine quality of its cheese and the 
industry was fairly profitable, but entailed upon its participants an 
enormous amount of hard labor. The wearisome round of constant 
work and the discomfort of a rigorous climate caused him to re- 
linquish his business interests to others and in 1880 he came to 
California, settling in Riverside county and embarking in business 
as a horticulturist. 

The raising of oranges and the carrying on of a nursery en- 
gaged the attention of Mr. Jarvis until 1887, since which time he 
has carried on a real-estate business, at the same time acting as 
agent for various fire, life and accident insurance companies. All 


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movements for the permanent well-being of Riverside liave his sup- 
port and he is pre-eminently progressive in spirit. Politically he 
gives his allegiance to the men and measures of the Republican 
party. Various social and fraternal organizations receive his whole- 
hearted support and warm co-operation, notably the Masonic Order, 
in which he has risen to the Commandery degree; also the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, with which he became connected 
during the year 1884 and to which he has since rendered loyal 
support. While still living in Canada he established a home of his 
own, his marriage to Miss Dundas being solemnized in Ontario in 
May of 1869. Of this union eight children were born, four of whom 
are living. The eldest, John, follows the occupation of a gold 
miner. The older daughter, Lelia, is the wife of M. 0. Pann, of 
Riverside. The youngest children, Constance and William M., are 
graduates of the high school and reside with their parents, brisrhten- 
ing the pleasant home with the sunshine of their presence. William 
M. is giving his attention to surveying and intends to make a 
specialty of that line of work. In religious connections the family 
hold membership with the Episcopal Church. 


A representative citizen of Riverside who has won for himself 
a name for honest effort in promoting the welfare of his adopted 
city is J. F. Hanna. He was born in Crawford county, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 18, 1847, into the home of his parents, Samuel and Catherine 
A. Hanna. The father was born September 22, 1820, and died Janu- 
ary 3, 1868, while yet in the prime of life, leaving an inheritance 
of a good name to his son. John F. attended the public schools of 
Crawford, Ohio, until he was seventeen years of age, at which time 
he entered the Academy in Savannah, Ohio, taking a two-year course. 
In 1868, upon the death of his father, he took charge of the home 
farm and remained there until 1876, when he removed to Biggs- 
ville. 111., and superintended one of the farms owned by his father- 
in-law, David Rankin, and four years later he went to Tarkio, Mo., 
and engaged in the general merchandise business, also carrying on 
farming with good success until 1903. The above date marks his 
removal to Riverside, Cal., although he did not relinquish his home 
in Tarkio for some years. In the new home he had selected he 
bought a ten-acre tract which is planted in oranges and by care- 
ful and painstaking effort he realized a neat profit from them. He 

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still owns twelve hundred acres of land near Tarkio, Mo., which 
is improved with a modern house and the land is under a high 
state of cultivation. This farm is under the direct supervision of 
his son, John Winfield. 

On June 22, 1876, occurred the marriage of John P. Hanna and 
Annette V. Rankin, the eldest daughter of the late David Rankin, 
who gained world-wide fame for his success as a farmer and of 
whom a short sketch follows. Of this union two sons were born, 
Charles R., a graduate of Princeton University, owns an alfalfa 
ranch of sixty acres near Riverside, and John Winfield, also a 
graduate of Princeton, is engaged in the banking business at Tar- 
kio, Mo., and is secretary of the D. Rankin Corporation and looks 
after his father's interests at Tarkio. 

In politics Mr. Hanna is a Republican. He was elected by his 
townsmen as councilman from the fourth ward, serving with 
eflficiency in that capacity. With his family he is associated with 
the United Presbyterian Church. 


For the period of little more than a quarter of a century the 
late Edward F. Kingman labored for the development of the 
many resources and for the general moral advancement of the 
citizens of Riverside and at his passing the city lost another of 
those pioneers who seldom thought of self when the welfare of 
their home city and county was in question. Mr. Kingman was born 
in Brockton, Mass., August 23, 1851, and received a fairly good 
academic education at his home city and at Bridgewater and later 
took a business course in Boston. Thus equipped for supporting 
himself he secured a position as a clerk in a store in Boston, where 
he remained until ill health necessitated a removal to a milder 
climate and in 1876 he made a trip to Southern California in search 
of a location where he could have employment out of doors and in 
this way regain his health and strength. Never robust, he, however, 
recovered from his ailment and was spared for many years. 

When Mr. Kingman first arrived in Riverside he went to the 
home of an old-time acquaintance, E. W. Holmes, where he re- 
mained until he could make a decision as to location. This was soon 
done and resulted in the purchase of sixteen and two-thirds acres 
of land on Rubidoux avenue; this tract he set to oranges and 
erected a home for his family, which was his residence at the 
time of his death on December 15, 1902. He had married while 
a resident of Massachusetts, Miss Laura Howe Pickens, who was 

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born December 3, 1853, in Middleboro, in which city she was 
married June 16, 1875. She joined her husband in California in 
October of 1877 and has since been a resident of Riverside, remain- 
ing at the original home place until 1911, when she disposed of 
the orange grove and is now located nearer the central part of the 
city. There were four children born to this worthy couple. Louise 
P. is the wife of Rev, John McL. Gardner and is living in River- 
side; George A. is engaged in the real estate and insurance busi- 
ness; Lucy H. is living with her mother; and Alice Frances died 
when four years of age. 

Always ready to serve his adopted city in any capacity that he 
thought would advance her interests Mr. Kingman was persuaded 
to become a candidate for trustee and in 1892 was elected for a 
term of four years, after which, in 1896, he was re-elected and was 
made president of that body, which he served for the following 
terms in the council that much street work was done ; bonds for 
four years, his term expiring April 16, 1900. It was during his 
the electric light plant were voted and expended; the electric street 
railroad franchise was granted and the road built and put in oper- 
ation; the first public drinking fountains for horses were erected, 
and many of the progressive movements put on foot to advance the 
interests of the city and establish a moral uplift for the citizens. He 
always stood for the keeping of the Sabbath and for the closing of 
all places of questionable character and for promoting everji;hing 
that was calculated to promote the moral betterment of the place. 
His career was always open to the scrutiny of all, but his integrity 
was never questioned. By his gentleness of manner, his quiet per- 
sistence, his self forgetfulness and tact he avoided enmities and 
accomplished many worthy ends. After he retired from office he 
embarked in the insurance business, continuing this until his death. 

Mr. Kingman was always active in church work and was the 
first superintendent of the first Sunday school established south of 
the city, in the valley, and when the first Congregational church 
was erected in the city he was the first Sunday school superintend- 
ent. For many years he was a trustee and a deacon in the church 
and supported the charities of that denomination liberally. In sum- 
ming up the career of Edward F. Kingman it may be said he was 
in every sense a good citizen, firm in his opinions once formed, and 
never allowed himself to be swerved from the path of duty as he 
saw it, by friendship, clamor or partisan bias. He was always alert 
in the discharge of his responsibilities and his endorsement of 
things he believed to be intended to promote the public good was 
always intelligent and convincing. The social and domestic side 
of his life was pleasing and affectionate and he enjoyed the con- 
fidence and respect of his friends. His passing was sincerely 
mourned bv all classes of citizens. 

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Very early in the colonization of the new world the Reed family 
became identified with the agricultural development of New Eng- 
land, whence succeeding generations followed the tide of migration 
towards the setting sun. Abraham Reed, a native of Massachusetts, 
became one of the earliest settlers of Ohio and his son Horace was 
the first white child born within the limits of the township in 
which they lived in Portage county, that state. When the family 
left the Atlantic coast they took with them a package of apple seeds 
and these were planted in Portage county, later developing into an 
orchard of fine apples, the first orchard of that region. Some of 
the original trees are still standing and are bearing fruit, although 
now more than one hundred and ten years old. In many other ways 
this fine old pioneer aided in the material upbuilding of Portage 
county. The farm that he evolved out of a forest proved to be a 
productive and valuable estate and for many years returned a liveli- 
hood to the family, besides enabling them to save for further in- 
vestments. The entire life of Horace Reed was spent on the old 
homestead, where he died in 1888, and where in 1898, his wife also 
passed away. 

At the old homestead in Rootstown township. Portage county, 
Ohio, John H. Reed was born in June, 1832, being a son of Horace 
and Lois E. Reed. After he had completed the studies of the com- 
mon schools he entered Holbrook Normal School at Lebanon, Ohio, 
the first institution of its kind in the entire state, and it was his 
privilege to graduate with the first class that left that historic 
school. As a student he had displayed such marked ability that he 
was retained as a teacher of mathematics and languages after his 
graduation. At Lebanon in 1858 he married Miss Catherine S. 
Morris, daughter of a prominent citizen of Stark county. She 
received superior advantages in the Holbrook schools at Marlbor- 
ough and Salem, that state, and after graduation she engaged as 
an assistant teacher, going with Mr. Holbrook to Lebanon and as- 
sisting to establish the Normal school there and for the following 
four years was a teacher. Possessing a brilliant mind, she rose to 
prominence in every community where she resided. Her interest in 
temperance work was particularly great and for a number of years 
she aided the prohibition movement through her services as a public 
lecturer. The First Congregational church of Mansfield, Ohio, num- 
bered her for years among its principal members and most talented 
workers. After coming to Riverside she entered into many of its 
most important enterprises. At her death, November 17, 1908, her 

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home suffered a deep bereavement and her friends felt the loss of a 
gracious, gentle associate, while movements for the moral and 
religious upbuilding of the community were deprived of her helpful 
co-operation. Her two children survive her, the daughter, Lois, 
being the wife of A. C. Pickett, while the son, Fred M., assists his 
father in the management of their orange groves at Riverside and 
at the same time maintains a prominent association with various 
botanical societies. 

A satisfactory and useful period of service as superintendent of 
the schools of Mansfield, Ohio, where he was assisted by Mrs. Reed, 
who was principal of the high school, was brought to a close after 
seven years, Mr. Reed's resignation being tendered through his 
recognition of a growing deafness that incapacitated him for educa- 
tional work. From the schoolroom he transferred his attention to 
the counting house and for a time he engaged in merchandising at 
Mansfield, where he removed to Nebraska and settled on a large 
stock farm. The failure of his health led him to dispose of his 
Nebraska property and come to California in 1890. He traveled 
over the central and southern parts of the state for fourteen weeks, 
riding in a buckboard and sleeping in the open air, which course 
he found to be beneficial. Eventually he made his way to this 
county and established a permanent location at Riverside, regaining 
his health in the genial climate. His first purchase was ten acres, 
the nucleus of his present holdings. This he and his son cleared 
and later set to oranges, and they eventually acquired sixty acres, 
of which fifty acres are in oranges and lemons and ten acres are 
deciduous fruits. 

From the outset of his identification with Riverside and the 
orange industry Mr. Reed found himself deeply interested in hor- 
ticulture. The growing of oranges and lemons proved very con- 
genial. Their very difficulties interested him and he found himself 
eager to combat obstacles and secure success. The care of an 
orchard was no less interesting than his former efforts in educa- 
tional capacities, nor was he less successful therein. After a time 
other orchardists asked him to care for their groves and he gained 
a reputation as a specialist in citrus culture. Along with his inter- 
est in the industry was his realization of the need of co-operation 
on the part of horticulturists. He organized the first horticultural 
club in the state and later assisted in organizing horticultural 
clubs and farmers' institutes, which formed the basis of the many 
associations of orange growers common to the present day. 

The loss through the decay of oranges in storage and long 
transit to markets having become a severe burden to the industry 
and no help in sight to find the cause or a cure, Mr. Reed determined 
to appeal to the Department of Agriculture at Washington. By 
growers this decay was generally considered unavoidable and few 

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had any faith in the efforts to get relief, but Mr. Reed was confi- 
dent something could be done for it and persisted in his cor- 
respondence with the department for two or three years, urging 
investigation. It finally sent Dr. William A. Taylor, of the Bureau 
of Plant Industry, to look into the merits of the request. Dr. 
Taylor soon decided that the seriousness of the annual loss to the 
growing industry demanded the attention of the department. On 
his return and report it promptly sent G. Harold Powell, who had 
already acquired a national reputation from results of his investi- 
gations of similar problems of the apple industry in the east, to take 
charge of the investigations, which he carried on for about six 

The result of this work of Mr. Powell's is now known through- 
out the country. Of its effects on the industry, Mr. Woodward, 
manager of the Southern California Fruit Exchange, who was in 
a position to know, at a State Citrus Fruit Growers' convention held 
in Riverside three years after Mr. Powell's work commenced, made 
the statement that the saving to growers was already more than 
three quarters of a million of dollars annually. E. A. Chase, 
who gave most efficient aid to Mr. Powell's work, added, **Yes, and 
we owe this to J. H. Reed," and proposed a rising vote of thanks 
to him, to which the large assembly unanimously responded. 

Indicating how the department regarded the investigation, 
in an interview with Secretary Wilson at Washington about that 
time, he said to Mr. Reed, **We consider Mr. Powell's work with 
your fruit decay matter, the most successful investigation of the 
kind yet undertaken by the department," adding, **but had it not 
been for your persistent petitioning you would not have had him 
over there." This was the commencement of the extended expert 
investigation work the Washington department has carried on in 
the interest of California fruit industries from that time. 

For five years Mr. Reed, at horticultural clubs, farmers' insti- 
tutes and through the press, had urged help from the state depart- 
ment to solve other citrus problems. Finally the request, effi- 
ciently seconded by E. W. Holmes, E. L. Koethen of Riverside, and 
others, was granted by the department establishing a citrus experi- 
ment station at Riverside for which it asked a special appropria- 
tion from the legislature of $20,000. This was secured largely 
through the influence of C. E. Rumsey, a prominent grower, and 
M. Estudillo, then a member of the legislature. Experimental work 
was promptly commenced and has been carried on continuously ever 
since. The last legislature granted an appropriation of $30,000 
for additional buildings and equipment. 

The fact that even in the better orange orchards, a considerable 
percentage of the trees persistently produce inferior fruit, early 
attracted Mr. Reed's attention and for many years he urged inves- 

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tigation. Finally the Washington department, largely through the 
influence of Mr. Powell, was persuaded to send A. D. Shamel, one 
of the most successful investigators in plant breeding problems, 
connected with the department. Already, after three years work, 
he has demonstrated that through bud selection, fixed strains of 
oranges and lemons may be secured. In other words, that we may 
have pedigreed citrus fruit as well as pedigreed stock. It is bf^ 
lieved that through this investigation alone it will be made possible 
to increase the value of all citrus groves by at least one fourth. 

Mr. Reed was the first to urge investigation into the practicabil- 
ity of protecting citrus groves from frost damage, and was chair- 
man of the committee imdertaking the first experiments which at- 
tracted nation-wide interest at the time. For over twenty years 
Mr. Reed has been in close touch with all the important forward 
movements in the interest of the citrus industry, and has seen it 
grow from a small beginning to one of the leading industries in 
the state. 

During this time he became much interested in the beautifica- 
tion of the streets of Riverside, and for many years worked almost 
single-handed in promoting it. He finally interested the Chamber 
of Commerce, which took the matter up in good earnest, making 
him chairman of a tree-planting committee, to which work he gave 
much time without remuneration, the Chamber providing the money 
for trees and other expenses. During the last year of its work it 
raised $1,000 for the purpose. In the meantime Mr. Reed peti- 
tioned the city council for the city to take over all the city tree 
planting and care, and put the supervision in the care of a tree 
warden. This it decided to do providing he would agree to accept 
the newly-created office, which he did and retained it for seven 
years, resigning in 1911. During this time he planted about fifteen 
thousand trees on the streets of the city. Riverside was the first 
city in the west, and one of the very few in the entire country at 
that time, to adopt municipal control of its street trees. Since then, 
largely through the influence of the Riverside work, nine Southern 
California cities have adopted the plan and others have it under 
consideration. In recognition of the remarkably efficient service 
rendered the city of Riverside by its retiring tree warden, J. H. 
Reed, the Chamber of Commerce passed these resolutions: **Be it 
resolved, therefore, that the Riverside Chamber of Commerce record 
upon its minutes a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Reed for his faith- 
ful performance of every duty, congratulating him, as well, upon 
the fame that he has won for Riverside, and pledging the Chamber's 
continued support to the work to which Mr. Reed has given so 
unreservedly of his thought and energy during the past seven 

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**By order of the executive committee, September 14, 1911. 

''H. F. Grout, President. 
'^H. M. May, Secretary." 
Mr. Reed probably has more pride in and takes greater satis- 
faction from the influence he has been permitted to exert in favor 
of intelligent, systematic beautifying of our California cities, espe- 
cially the parts where the masses of the people live, than in any 
other of his efforts during his extended life. 


One of the well known citizens of this county is Frank P. 
Ogden, now a resident of the Highgrove district. He was born in 
Knox county. III, December 18, 1871, and was adopted by M. B. 
Ogden, who was a native of Pennsylvania and a carpenter by trade, 
prominent in politics and who served four terms on the board of 
supervisors of Knox county. On November 22, 1880, Mr. Ogden and 
family arrived in Riverside county, Cal. Soon afterwards he 
bought a tract of land at the corner of Bandini and Olivewood ave- 
nues, began its development and made it his home until his death 
February 15, 1910. His wife was in maidenhood Sophia Ijundquest. 

Frank Ogden received his education in the public schools of this 
county, graduating from the high school of Riverside. He made his 
home with his parents until the age of twenty, when he started 
out for himself. In 1891 he bought five acres on Streeter avenue, 
which he set to oranges and where he resided eight years. Findins: 
he was in a frost belt, he sold out and purchased twelve and one- 
half acres upon which he now lives, located near the foot-hills in 
the Highgrove district, and upon which he has made all the im- 
provements. He also owns another grove of oranges of ten acres 
near the town of Highgrove. In connection with his orange indus- 
try he is engaged in selling fertilizer and handles about four hun- 
dred cars annually. 

On December 23, 1891, occurred the marriage of F. P. Ogden 
and Miss Clara R. Douglas, a native of Vermilion county. 111. She 
came to Southern California with her father, Bruce Douglas. They 
have two children, Edna M. and Elta D., both born in Riverside 

In politics Mr. Ogden has always been a Republican and has 
taken an active interest in political matters, serving as a delegat? 
to various county conventions and has served as one of the exeou 

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tive members of the county central committee. He was elected and 
served as constable of Highgrove precinct for one term, and has 
served as one of the outside deputy sheriffs for some time. He is a 
member of Riverside Lodge No. 282, I. 0. 0. F., and of Star En 
campment. Mrs. Ogden is an active member of the Highgrove 
Methodist Episcopal church, in which field her womanly sympat^»y 
finds adequate and practical expression. Mr. Ogden is well and 
favorably known through the community. 


A man of high ethical principles and worthy ambitions, 
re(*ognized among his colleagues as a physician of skill, is Dr. H. R. 
Martin, who was born in Bement, 111., July 17, 1875. He received a 
common school education in his home district and later entered the 
medical department of the University of Illinois, from which he 
was graduated with honors in the class of 1901. The following June 
he opened offices in Riverside and has since built up a lucrative 
practice, specializing in surgery, to which he expects to devote 
liis entire attention. 

Dr. Martin first came to Riverside as a tourist, and it was while 
he was visiting here in 1898 that he enlisted for service in the 
Spanish-American war. He became a member of Company M, 
Seventh Regiment, National Guard of California; the company 
went to San Francisco and here Dr. Martin was transferred to 
the regular army and assigned to the hospital department, journeying 
at once to Honolulu, where he served for three months and after 
another three months service he continued on duty in the Philip- 
pines for nine months longer, being mustered out of service in 
Manila July 21, 1899. He then returned to his native state and 
completed his medical studies, after which he came direct to this 
city and opened an office for the practice of his profession. 

In 1905 Dr. Martin was united in marriage with Miss Annetta 
Miller, who was born in Winnepeg, Manitoba, and they have two 
children, Hudson and Ralph. The doctor is a member of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, the State Medical Society and the River- 
side (^oiinty Medical Society. Fraternally he is popular and is a 
member of Evergreen Lodge No. 259, F. & A. M. ; Riverside Lodge 
No. 282, I. 0. (). F.; Riverside Lodge No. 643, B. P. 0. E.; and 
Riverside Aerie No. 997, F. O. E. In addition to his many other pro- 
fessional duties he is medical examiner of the recruits for Companv 
M, N. G. C. 

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A prosperous and up-to-date rancher of Riverside county, 
Mr. McCarty's sterling qualities and progressive spirit have 
established him as a citizen of the highest worth, widely respected 
throughout the community with which, since 1877, he has been 
closely associated. His father, Cornelius McCarty, who was born 
in Clark county, Ohio, June 12, 1834, removed with his family to 
Texas in 1870, remaining there fi\;e years and journeying thence to 
Los Angeles, Cal. Later he bought near Compton a tract of one 
hundred acres, seventy-five acres of which forms a portion of his 
estate today and which he farmed for a year subsequent to his 
purchase of a grain farm of eighty acres near Corona, which at 
that period had not yet been selected as a townsite. He continued 
his farming activities until his death, December 11, 1878. His son, 
John, later became manager of the property, which he continued